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A Series of Passages and Extracts adapted for Translation 
into Hindustani. 

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Translated from the Hindustani. 

"It has been the translator's object to adhere as closely as possible to 
the original text while rendering the English smooth and intelligible to 
the reader, and in this design he has been throughout successful." 
Saturday Review. 







Cfjtrfl (SBitton. 



[All riijhts reserved.] 

Printed by BALLANTYNK, HANSOM &* Co. 
At the Ballantyne Press, Edinburgh 



PREFACE . . . . . . . . . ix 


Pronunciation . . . . .5,217 
Alphabetical Notation or Abjad . 1 7 

Exercise in Reading . . . . 18 


THE Nora- 20 

Gender 21 

Declension. ...... 24 

Izafat 31 


Declension ...... 32 

Comparison ... 33 


Personal. ...... 37 

Demonstrative ...... 39 

Respectful 40 

Reflexive 41 

Possessive 41 

Relative and Correlative . . . .42 

Interrogative . . . . . . 42 

Indefinite ....... 42 

Partitive . . . . . . 43 

Compound. . . . . . .43 

VERB 45 

Substantive and Auxiliary 46 

Formation of . . . . . . 46 

Conjugation of Neuter Verbs . . . .49 

Active Verbs . . . . 54 

Irregulars . . . . .57 

Hona 58 

Additional Tenses . 60 



VERB (continued) 

Passive Verb ....... 62 

Formation of Actives and Causals ... 65 

Nominals 69 

Intensives ..... 70 


Completives . . . . .72 
Continuatives .... 

Desideratives ..... 73 

Frequentatives .... 74 

Inceptives . . . . . 75 


Acquisitives . . . . .76 

Reiteratives ..... 76 

ADVKRBS ......... 77 




NUMERALS ......... 91 

Cardinal 92 

Ordinal 96 

Aggregate 97 

Fractional 97 

Ralcam 98 

Arabic 99 

Persian 100 


Nouns of Agency . . . . . 101 

Locality, etc 103 

Abstract . . . . 104 
Diminutives . . . .104 

Feminine . . . . 105 

Adjectives 105 

Negative Prefixes 106 


Order of Words 107 

Article 108 


Nominative 109 

Agent 113 

Genitive . 116 


CASES OF THE Norx (continued} 

Accusative 123 

Dative 124 

Ablative 127 

Locative . . . . . 135 

Vocative 139 



PRONOUNS . . 147 

Personal ....... 147 

Respectful 156 

Reflexive 156 

Possessive ...... 157 

Relative and Correlative . . . .159 

Interrogative . . . . . . 162 

Indefinite . . . . . . .164 


Substantive 167 

Active 169 

Neuter 169,217 

Infinitive and Verbal Noun . . . .170 

Aorist 175 

Future 177 

Imperative 178 

Respectful Forms 179 

Indefinite 182 

Present Tense 184 

Imperfect Tense 185 

Past, Perfect and Pluperfect . . . .185 
Additional Tenses . . , . . . 187 
Present and Past Participles . . . 188,193 

Conjunctive Participle 190 

Adverbial Participle 194 

Noun of Agency 194 

Passive . 195 

Causal ........ 196 

Compounds ... . . . . .196 

Nominals ....... 196 

Potentials and Completives .... 200 

Continuatives 200 

Frequentatives and Desideratives . . . 200 
Inceptives, Permissives, etc. . . . . 201 


c as TEXTS. 


ADVERBS ...... 



Relative and Correlative 
The Negative .... 
Repetition of Words 
Verbs khdnd, uthdnd and khainchnfi 
lagna .... 
milnu .... 
chuhna .... 
rahnu . . . . 
murna .... 

bannd .... 
baithnu .... 
parnu. and letna . 









Plate 1 to face 

Pag3 99 


I OFFER no apology for adding one more to 
the list of Urdu Grammars, for, if the book itself 
does not justify its publication, no excuse will 
avail me. 

Urdu or Hindustani Grammar has been de- 
veloped and reduced to a system by Englishmen, 
or under their supervision. From Gilchrist to 
Shakespear, and from Shakespear to Yates, Ar- 
not, and Forbes, each new Grammar has thrown 
new light upon the language, and has lightened 
the labour of learning it. Excellent as is the 
Grammar of Forbes, both teachers and learners 
have long since discovered its deficiencies. The 
Grammar of Professor Monier Williams made a 
great step in advance ; and the author of this 
book fully admits his obligations to it, for the 
help it has given him as a teacher, and for the 
assistance it has afforded in the preparation of 
this work. But Professor Williams's Grammar 
is printed entirely in the Roman character, and 
so is unfitted for the use of young officials who 


have to read and write the language In the 
character which the natives themselves employ. 

In this work I have availed myself of the 
labours of my predecessors, and I fully re- 
cognize my obligations; but with their rules I 
have embodied the results of my own study and 
observation. In a few instances I have ventured 
to differ from those who have gone before me, 
but more has been done in the way of addition 
and classification, and in the drawing of distinc- 
tions. Many things have been noticed which 
hitherto have been passed over unperceived, or 
as being, perhaps, as Forbes says, " plain and 
self-evident." I have not allowed this last con- 
sideration to weigh with me ; what is " plain 
and self-evident " to one student may not be so to 
another; and it is hardly competent for one who 
knows the language to determine what points 
are so clear and manifest that no student will 
ever require to be told them. It may be im- 
possible to produce a perfect Grammar ; but the 
smallest matters should be included in it, as well 
as the greatest. 

In dealing with the alphabet, Forbes's plan 
of showing every letter in its separate, initial, 
medial, and final forms has been set aside, and 
the old plan has been reverted to of giving only 


the separate letters. Forbes's plan had its advan- 
tages, but it is really unnecessary, and it gives 
the alphabet a very formidable appearance, which 
has often exercised a very discouraging influence 
upon beginners, " There are thirty -five letters, 
and each letter has four distinct forms. Pour 
times thirty-five are a hundred and forty ! what 
work!" etc., etc. I have often had to combat 
this view, and to show that the difficulty was 
far less than it seemed. Still it has damped 
the ardour of many a willing youth. I have 
endeavoured to obviate this by a brief explana- 
tion of the ways in which letters are contracted 
and modified for combination. A careful study 
of the alphabet and of the observations in para- 
graph 6, followed by a diligent and repeated 
perusal of the " Reading Exercise " in paragraph 
22, ought to give the learner an adequate know- 
ledge of the character. 

The Accidence differs but little from that of 
former grammars ; still it contains some additions 
and changes which have recommended themselves 
for adoption. It is in the Syntax that the greatest 
differences will be found. This part of the sub- 
ject has been dealt with more systematically, and 
has been reduced to short distinct rules fully il- 
lustrated by various examples. It may be thought 


that the examples are more numerous than neces- 
sary; and to some minds they may he so. But the 
perusal of these different illustrations will help 
to fix the rule upon the memory, and it will pro- 
bably happen that now one, and now another, will 
address itself to the apprehension, and lay hold 
of the memory. 

The work being intended for practical purposes, 
I have endeavoured to make the rules applicable 
to each part of speech complete in themselves, so 
that the student may readily find whatever he 
may seek. This has involved some repetition. 
For instance, the suffixes of the Genitive case 
are in reality Adjectives, and have the same con- 
cord as Adjectives : the rules applicable to the 
Genitive of the Noun apply also in the main to 
the Genitive of the Pronouns ; they might there- 
fore have been dealt with together. But instead 
of generalizing and proceeding upon a theory 
acceptable to a philologian, but unintelligible to a 
learner, I have preferred the more simple course, 
and have constantly kept in view the wants of 
the learner. The cross-references from one Rule 
to another will enable the intelligent student to 
make his own comparisons, and he will profit by 
the labour. 

In laying down the rules of Syntax it has been 


the primary object to ascertain and follow the 
general practice of the best writers. But Urdu is 
a new language; its grammatical canons cannot 
be said to have been definitively laid down or 
generally understood. Writers have been guided 
by the usage of the language rather than by rule, 
and even now a native will test the accuracy of a 
passage by his ear rather than by any recognized 
law. Such being the case, novelties are continu- 
ally creeping in, and solecisms are of constant 
occurrence. The many alternative methods which 
are noticed in the Syntax show how unsettled 
have been the laws of composition, and it is not 
too much to say that breaches of the simplest and 
clearest principles of grammar may be found in 
all writers. Therefore, without insisting upon the 
strict accuracy of every axiom laid down in the 
Syntax, the student must not infer that any given 
rule is not generally correct because he has met 
with one or even several passages with which it 
is inconsistent. In page 113 I have taken the 
opportunity of citing some transgressions of the 
most important and peculiar rule of the language, 
that of the use of the Agent instead of the 
Nominative Case. This construction has been 
inherited from the Sanskrit, which evinces a 
decided partiality for the Instrumental case and 


the Passive voice, but it has hecome and con- 
tinues the most remarkable characteristic of the 
Urdu. 1 

A short chapter on the Deva-nagaii alphabet 
gives all that is necessary for enabling a student 
to master it, and to read such books as the BaitTil 
Pachlsi and Singhasan Battlsi, which, so far at 
least as relates to grammar and construction, are 
Urdu rather than Hindi, 

Urdu abounds with Arabic derivatives which 
have brought with them the grammatical powers 
of their original language. To fully comprehend 
the meanings of such words, and to understand 
how their various forms are developed, some 
little insight into Arabic Grammar is necessary. 
The brief chapter on this subject will, it is 
hoped, afford the requisite assistance to the 
learner, and enable him to acquire an intelligent 

1 I speak only of the true Urdu, not of the Dakhm or Hindustani 
of the South. This, which can hardly be considered a real vernacular, 
has heen exposed to a variety of influences not affecting the Urdu. It is 
the language of isolated Musulmans, so it has adopted some Persian 
terminations, which the Urdu does not recognize ; and, on the other hand, 
jt has heen affected by the idioms and phraseology of those vernacular 
languages in the midst of which it is used. This dialect does not admit 
the peculiar construction of the Agent with the Verb. Jn one or two 
points perhaps this dialect has improved upon Urdu, though it must be 
acknowledged that it is generally inferior. Still, those who know it 
best are generally ready to do battle in its favour, and to show cause for 
their partiality. 


apprehension of the relations and powers of a 
large and important class of words. 

In another chapter an endeavour has been 
made to smooth the way to an acquaintance with 
the Shikasta or "broken hand" used in ordinary 
correspondence. This free running hand differs 
no more from the printed characters than our 
English running hand differs from its exemplar. 
But, as in England, so in India, there are writers 
whose negligent and crabbed scrawls tax the 
patience and often baffle the ingenuity of the 
ill-used beings who have to read them. It is 
obvious that little can be done to remove such 
difficulties ; but the leading peculiarities of the 
" broken hand " have been pointed out, and 
the various examples and transcriptions will aid 
the advanced student in understanding its intri- 
cacies so far as to become master of any tolerably 
written document. 

Some few errors have crept into the print, 
partly from oversight, partly from accidents in 
printing. They have been noticed in the Errata, 
and the student is requested to correct them. 
Other trivial errors, such as the dropping out of a 
vowel point, may be met with, but these are 
unavoidable, and ought not to cause any em- 


1. The Urdu language, commonly called Hindustani, 
is a language formed by an admixture of the Arabic and 
Persian of the Muhammadan conquerors with the Hindi 
or vernacular language of the conquered Hindus. It is 
everywhere the language of the Musulmans, and in Dehli, 
Lucknow, and other places, where the Muhammadan 
power has made the deepest impression, it is the com- 
mon, language of the people. This language is written 
in the Arabic alphabet. But vast numbers of Hindus 
are more or less ignorant of the Arabic and Persian 
of the Urdu, and employ native Hindi and Sanskrit 
words instead ; these people use the Deva-nagarl alpha- 
bet. The Arabic being the alphabet of the Urdu is the, 
one used in this Grammar, but the Deva-nagarl alpha- 
bet is given and explained in an Appendix. 

2. The Arabic alphabet consists of twenty-eight let- 
ters ; to these the Persians added four, to satisfy the re- 
quirements of their language; and three more have been 
added in India to represent sounds unknown to Arabic 
or Persian. So the alphabet of the Urdu consists of 
thirty-five letters. It is read from right to left. 








<*Jb\ alif 


a, &c. 







jL> sad 






jU z,ad 






L}*> toe 



<C! ta 



j_^jl? zde 






^^c. am 


a, &c. 

\ " > 



(ij f ghain 



c >- che 











L C 


J^J dal 



i_Jl^ gaf 



*5 rfa 



*& lam 



JU zal 



*-^ mlm 



^S} re 



^y nun 



i>j ra 



\j n'do 


n, &c. 




^ A* 


^jj zhe 



^ JG 


y, Ac. 

^t^-s sin 




4. Iii transcribing the above letters in Roman charac- 
ters some diacritical marks are required to distinguish 
the various forms of the z, t, s, etc. Those employed in 
the foregoing table are those used in Shakespear's Dic- 
tionary. They are not perhaps the best that could be 
devised, but for a learner they are preferable to any 
system which would establish a difference between 
Grammar and Dictionary. 

5. The letters introduced into the alphabet by the 
Persians are <__> p, -. ch, j zh, and ^f g. These are 
modifications of the Arabic <-_? b, _ j, j z, and C/ h, 
and they are called respectively ba, Jim, ze, and 
haf-i ajaml. The Hindi letters are those bearing 
four dots, <JL ta, 3 da, and j ra. These represent 
the strong or "cerebral" sounds found in the Indian 

6. The forms used in the above table are those which 
the letters have in their separate state. When they are used 
in combination, many of them are liable to considerable 
modification. As finals, there is no difficulty in recog- 
nizing them; for, with two exceptions (c c ), they 
then appear in their full form, with the addition only 
of a ligature connecting them with the preceding 
letter. Modifications of form are occasioned by the 
necessity of joining letters together. When they are 
joined, they retain their distinctive dots, but are de- 
prived of their final flourishes. The letters \ j 3 J j 


j j and } never join the following letter, so they remain 
unaltered; \s -]a do join, but in such a way as to make 
no change in their shape. The five letters of the <-_> 
shape and the letters ^ and ^j are all written j as initials 
and * as medials; thus, * +. b, j i. n; ^ ban, i^-J nit, 

c^wj bipat. In combination with letters of the _ form 
.... / ^ c 

they are written as ^ ny, and as initials followed 

^- f 

by A m they may be written r as ^ taw. Letters of 

the _ form are contracted into &~, as ^U- jan,js? fa- 
jar, -J^- chakh. In writing and in lithographs J assumes 
a shape resembling mao, thus >. (jw becomes -j and ^ 
becomes *>, as i^^H sat,.~> sabr. In writing and in some 
printed books the forms j~^ and ^ p >^ x/ , contracted 
to _^x^and ^'^Xin combination, are very commonly 
used instead of and . c and i as initials are written 

r, as medials *, and as finals *. ; thus jls a/d/, Ju 
i_.J tegh. i_J and j as initials are written a, and as 
medials A, thus u-o kof, ^Lo sofar. u/ and v^f as 
initials and medials are reduced to $ % t as \^ kab, JS 
y?<^, j*^>- chakr. J becomes 1 and is distinguishable 
from alif by always joining the next letter. Mlm as 
an initial is ^ or ^ , as a medial * or + . The letter A 
as an initial is Jb , but in MS. more commonly ^ ; as 
a medial it is g or ^ ; as a final it is A when it is joined 
and a when it is separate. The letter o, when it ia 
final and has the sound of e, is commonly written ^_ . 


7. Pronunciation. 

c__> and c-> b and p are pronounced as in English. 

eu <JL- t t ; 4 3 d d. Of these, t and d are pronounced 
by placing the tongue between the teeth, and are softer 
than in English ; t is an intermediate sound between 
the English t and tk. <JL> t and 5 d are the same as the 
English t and d, and these letters are used as the repre- 
sentatives of the English t and d when it is necessary 
to write an English word containing those letters in 
Hindustani ; thus captain is written ^^-^ '. 

( ^- ? > c/** s > an d u ?> though differing in sound in 
Arabic, are all alike pronounced s in Hindustani. 

, and _ j and ch have the English sounds as in jar 
and church; they are never pronounced like the French 
j and ch. 

'- h is a very strong aspirate. 

_:. M is the ch of the German nacht or Scotch loch. 

j \ ^a lr z, z, z, z, have distinct sounds in Arabic, 
but only one, that of a simple z, in Hindustani. 

is r pronounced very distinctly. 

J r is a stronger sound of this letter obtained by 
placing the tongue fur back on the roof of the mouth. 
There is no word that begins with this letter. 
j zh is the French^' as in jour. 

i (jh is pronounced like the Northumbrian r, a sound 


similar to that which is in some parts given to the r by 
the French and to the g by the Germans. 

i^S k is the ordinary sound ; j k is more guttural, 
coming from the throat rather than the mouth. 

<^S g is always hard as in gift. 

^ n, the t_jU> ^ nun-i so/* or pure n has the ordi- 
nary sound of n ; but when followed by a b or p it is 
pronounced as m, thus UJ lamba, U-^> saumpna. 1 At 
the end of a native Hindi word it frequently has the 
nasal sound of the French n as in bon. This is called 
the <u ^,.3 nun-i ghunna or tJjJ^ maghnuna. It is 
often written ^ without the dot, and is rendered by n. 

2 w as a consonant is w t but in some parts it is pro- 
nounced v. See further, Rule 15. 

A & h is the simple aspirate. When it comes at the 
end of a word and is preceded by the vowel zalar (a) 
it has no perceptible sound ; this silent &> is called 
^eilsr* ,-U ha-e mukhtafi, the obscure or imperceptible 
It. The forms g and ^ are medial varieties of the k, 
which are used indiscriminately by natives ; but the fol- 
lowing distinction made by Dr. Gilchrist is generally used 
in printed books, and is so useful as to merit universal 
acceptance. In Nagarl every consonant that is capable 
of being aspirated has a distinct aspirated form ; thus 
k and M are represented by distinct letters. These 

1 So in English we write and say consign but combine, intact but 
impact, the con and in having been converted into com and im. 


aspirated letters are represented in the Persian character 
by the addition of the g or " butterfly form " to the 
simple consonant ; thus > is ph and g is th. This is 
called the J^ ^ ha-e murakkab or compounded h. 
This h must be pronounced as a distinct aspirate, and 
should not be allowed to merge into a modified sound ; 
thus ph should be pronounced as in up-hill, though it is 
often heard pronounced as in phase ; th sounds as in 
the words at home, never as in then. According to this 
rule the 4 can never be preceded by a vowel. When 
the letter h is preceded by a vowel sound or by a con- 
sonant incapable of aspiration (as ri) the ^ is employed. 
Thus *\# is lhal, but ^^ is bahin, \$ is ftha, but l^S 
is kaha, and munh is written ^. This h is called 
ijA \\s. ,_U ha-e kfialis, the pure h. After letters (such as 
j j) which never join the following letter the initial form 
& must be used, so that dhan and da/tan are alike written 
i^b^. A final s with two dots over it is found in Arabic 
words and is pronounced t, but in Persian and Hindu- 
stani it is frequently converted into c^? t. Sometimes 
the dots are omitted, and then the letter is sounded as h. 

8. Vowel Points and Diacritical Points. 

Li fatha or^jj zabar written above has the sound 
of a as in servant. 

*j* kasra or ^j zer written beneath is sounded 
like i in pin. 


J zamma or ^JL?} pesh written above is sounded 
like u in put. 

*y>- jazm. This is placed over a consonant to 
show that it is what the grammarians call ^U sd/an, 
'stationary,' 1 meaning that it is not followed by a vowel 
sound. In other words, jazm (which means amputation) 
cuts away the vowel sound, and the consonant combines 
with the one following it ; thus ^ mard and ^ jj ddmi, 

O "' 

and as in the word +j>- jazm itself. Final consonants 
being always sd/fin do not require jazm. 

" JuJkjJJ tashdld. This word signifies corroboration, 
and the sign strengthens or corroborates a consonant by 
doubling it. It is written above the letter. Thus <UJ 
is zamma. and t j^>- is hakk. 

jc* madd or *Jv madda means prolongation, and 
placed over an initial alif gives it a long sound ; thus, 
t_JT db. 

J-<^ wasl or <uL^j wasla, conjunction. This mark, 
though of frequent occurrence, is found only in Arabic 
phrases consisting of two words with the article J^ between 
them. When the first of the two words ends with a vowel, 
that vowel excludes the initial a of the al, and this con- 

1 The learner is requested to understand this technical term sakin, as 
it will be used in preference to any English word. It has heen rendered 
into English by the word quiescent, but Forbes has shown that this term is 
not an exact equivalent. He uses the word inert as a better though 
insufficient representative. The word stationary is a literal rendering of 
the original word. But no one of these words conveys a precise idea 
of the term. So the word saktH will be employed whenever it is necessary. 


junction of the two words is marked by the sign was I 

^ p ~= , , 
placed over the alif, thus, \j*\ J\ j~*\ amiru-l umara. 

In other words, nasl is an apostrophe marking the elision 
of the initial \ of the article when it is preceded by a 
vowel, as the apostrophe in French marks the elision of 
the e of le when followed by a vowel. The words in such 
phrases stand in grammatical relation to each other; thus, 
^j-i^y*! \ j**\ amlru-l mummm, ' Commander of the 
Faithful;' ^/f ^J ft I wak* , 'in fact;' jHb bi'l kull, 
'entirely* (bi, in; al, the; hill, whole). 

[In these phrases another change frequently occurs, 
by which the I of the article al is converted into another 
letter. The / is what the Arabs call a lunar or weak 
letter, and when al is followed by a solar or strony 
letter the / assumes the sound of that strong letter. 
The solar or strong letters are t-l> c_? J J j j (j* ^ 
^js ijo \s \i> u . Followed by one of these the / of al 
assumes ite sound, and this change is noted by marking 
the / withjazm and the initial strong letter with tashdld, 

^ -SiG-o y i, y 

thus, dj jJ \ ^j Ruhnu-d Daulah, ' Pillar of the State ;* 

&>-~a ? 9 

Harunu-r Rashld (the celebrated khalif ).] 
tannin. This is another Arabic contrivance. 
It means the addition of ^ n and has been called 'nuna- 
tion' or fl-ing. This is effected by doubling a vowel 
point at the end of a word, thus * an, # in, s vn. 
These mark the cases of the noun in Arabic. The 


tannin of the first vowel is the only one used in Hindu- 
stani, and this, excepting in words ending with hamza 
or 'i, has an alif \ written under it, but that alif is not 

# - !* O 4-S^ 

pronounced; thus, \S\AJ\. ittifakan, UL>^ ahyanan, <u*- 
hikmatan. This n is represented by n. 

ij*j& hamza is the sign of an initial vowel, and is 
either written or understood when a word or syllable be- 
gins with a vowel. It is found used in Hindustani in three 
ways. When two vowels are in contact it is written 
over the latter, as ^j^ jaun, J^ or ^(g bhal, s joli 
fd'ida. Secondly, when an apparently medial alif is 
to be treated as initial and to be pronounced short as in 
j\*~> suar, OJl^j- jurat. Thirdly, it is used to form 
the Persian izafat with words ending in 4, or ^_$ (see 
Rule 60). 

9. Vowels and Diphthongs. 
The letters \, ., and ^ are liable to modifications of 


sound, they are therefore called c^ix uJ->- harf-i *llat, 

defective or changeable letters, as distinguished from 

the ^^ ^j*~ k ar f-i sahlh, the integral letters or 


The short vowel a is represented by zabar as i^> sat. 

i ,, zer ^ as eu~~s sit. 

,, u pesh as u^~-j sut. 

The long vowel a alif\ as c^?Lj sat, 

as c^-~s sit. 


The vowel e is represented by ^ as ^-^ scf > 

The diphthong ai ,, ^ as c^--: sait. 

The long vowel u j as c^?-s s?7^. 

The vowel o j as cjyj &tf. 

The diphthong M '* as ^^ sw. 

The letter ye, as a final, undergoes some changes in 
writing so as to mark its different sounds without using 
the vowel points. The e sound is generally written ___ 
and I as ^$ ; ai is often represented by a modified form, 
but in this work , is used. The ^is called the ^-^U^ 
muhiisl or reverted ye. 

The zabar (') or short a is pronounced like the a in 
adore and America; a is the long sound of ihe same 
vowel as in the word last and sometimes as in all. Zer G) 
is the short i of the word pin ; I is the long sound as in 
machine ; the first is the i of ft, the second is like the 
ee of feet. Pesk (') is pronounced as in put; u as in rule, 
or as oo in rood ; e has the French sound as in fete, or 
the English sound of a in fate ; ai is sounded as in 
aisle ; o as in note, and au like ou in house. 

10. Initial Vowels. 

All words beginning with a vowel must commence 
with either \ alif or & ain, accompanied by the tiamza, 
but practically the hamza is suppressed. Both these 
letters are considered consonants, and in fact they are 


mere breathings without sound. Alifis a slight aspira- 
tion or movement of the breath effected by the muscles 
of the throat; am is a deeper or more guttural aspira- 
tion. These letters being consonants, the vowel sound 
is communicated to them by the vowel point or long 
vowel appended to them, as L^-O is lit, and ciJjj is lot, 
so cy). is it, and cj>j! ot. The initial c-> in the one 
case and the \ in the other are the letters which give the 
motion while the x and the j impart the sound. 

an in un an un on aun In en ain 

an n un an iin on aun In en an 

11. In MSS. and in lithographed works the vowel 
points are very sparingly used, the reader being sup- 
posed to be acquainted with the proper sounds of the 
words. But in printed books, especially in such as are 
intended for the use of students, the necessary points 
are supplied ; zer and pesh are invariably inserted, and 
jazm is given whenever its absence would mislead the 
reader. Zalar, the most common of the vowels, is 
generally omitted, but this need not embarrass the 
learner, for as the zer, pesh, and jazm are supplied 
wherever they are required, the vowel zalar (a) must 
be added to every consonant unmarked by one of those 
points. Thus, (JJX* is mulk, and clL is milk, because 


cadi consonant bears either a vowel point or i\\ejazm ; 
but ilL is maJ'ik, and dL is malak, because the 
vnm in malik and both the mim and the lam in malak 
being without points have the zabar understood. 

12. Of the Letters ^ and ^j. 

The letters rcao and ye are used both as vowels and 
consonants. They have vowel sounds when they are 
followed by a consonant, but they are consonants when 
they are followed by a vowel ; thus, 4j~> is sud, hut 
j^-s is sarvad; ^ is sair, but^-..? is siyar. As initial 
letters they are consonants, and so at the beginning of 
words they invariably have the consonantal sounds. 

13. Technical Grammatical Terms. 

Several Oriental grammatical terms have incidentally 
appeared in the foregoing pages, but there are some 
others relating to the alphabet which it will be well to 
notice before passing to another subject. 

14. When the letter alif bears the mark madd it is 
called i j.j^ c_jjH alif 4 mamduda, the prolonged alif. 
Alif is found at the end of some Arabic words written 
in the letter ye, thus J^ or J>. This is called the 
&jf4A* u_c3\ alrf-i ma/esura, the abbreviated alif ; it is 
sometimes pronounced a as in jJU3 taald, sometimes a 
as in Ai ala. In Roman letters it is written a or a. 


15. In some Persian words the letter ^ ndo, coming 
after the letter kh t is slurred or passed over in pro- 
nunciation; such a wdo is called Jjjuc* ^ ndo-i madala, 
1 passed over redo! Thus &y>. and \J*y>~ are pronounced 
Miud and kkusk ; <_. Af*. kkndb and \J*f>~ Ithmesh are 
pronounced with a slurred and very indistinct sound of 
the tvdo. Such a ndo is represented in Roman characters 
by u or w. 

16. The word sdkin has been explained as applied to 
a consonant which is ' stationary/ not being followed 
by a vowel. Consonants which are followed by a vowel 
are said to be cl^sa^ mutaharrik, moving or movable by 
means of that vowel. Thus in the word *Jcj banda, the 
b and the d are mutaharrik ; they mom by means of the 
vowel, but n is sdkin or stationary, not being followed 
by any vowel. 

17. Maruf t_J.yc* and majhul J_jfs", known and un- 
known. These Arabic terms are applied to the letters 
^ ndo and ^_$ ye. In Arabic the simple vowel sounds of 
these two letters are u and I, the sounds o and e are 
unknown in that language; so u and I are said to be 
maruf, but and e are majhul. The majhul sounds are 
sometimes called j>i^ ^joml or Persian. 

18. The letter _ $ is called ,Ja>. ^U #a-0 $MiV, to 
distinguish it from A which is called the J^i ,-U /^a-0 
haw-wax or iiT-v* ,-U /*<z-e mudawnara, ' rounded ' /< / 


is also called <OJ1^ ^U*. hd-e mukmala, 'the undotted' 


_ , to distinguish it from ^. , which is called 

hd-e mujama or 'dotted' /id. The final <$, being silent is 

called the .^sz* <^> hd-e mukhtafi, the ' concealed' or 

'obscure' hd, and ^y^* <^J hd-e maktiibi, the 'written' 

M. The * which is pronounced, as in x\j rdh and Vjb 

bddshdh, is called ^yiL* malfuzl, ' pronounced '; 

zdhir, 'manifest'; ^^-jall, 'apparent.' 

19. Of the letters of the alphabet eight are peculiar 
to the Arabic, and any word which contains one of 
them may be considered as belonging to that language. 
These letters arecL?-^ ^Jskcj. The letter J 
is found only in Persian words. Words containing one 
of the letters >ij i may be Arabic, Persian, or Turkl, 
but cannot be Indian. Words in which the letters c-> 

or <^f occur, may be Persian or Indian, but cannot 
be Arabic ; and words containing one of the four-dotted 
letters <JL? 5 J are of Indian origin. 

20. Different Kinds of Writing. 

There are several different modes or styles of hand- 
writing employed by Orientals in producing their manu- 
scripts. The plainest and most simple is the Nashkl, 
in which the Kuran and Arabic MSS. in general are 
written. It is the character which type-founders have 
endeavoured to imitate, and so it is the one almost ex- 


clusively used for printed book?. It stands in much 
the same relation to the other styles as our printed cha- 
racters do to our written ones. The Tallk or 'hang-ing' 
style is an elegant hand employed by the Persians for 
ornamental purposes and for choice copies of the works 
of their most favourite authors. It is very graceful in 
appearance, and the art of writing it is frequently prac- 
tised with the greatest assiduity. Choice specimens are 
highly prized, and a Jchushnavls or fine writer obtains 
liberal rewards for specimens of his skill. The Naskh- 
tallk or Nastallk is a medium between the Naskh and 
the Tallk, in which the bold slopes and graceful curves 
of the latter are restrained and assimilated to the more 
rigid forms of the NaslJu. This character is commonly 
used in good MSS. The Shikasta or 'broken' hand 
might with equal or greater propriety be called the 
' connected' or running hand, for although the forms of 
its letters often vary from the normal forms, and may 
thus be said to be broken, the leading characteristic 
is the running of one letter into another, so as to avoid 
the necessity of raising the pen from the paper. The 
dots distinguishing the letters are neglected more or 
less, and several of the characters are made to vary in 
shape according to the exigencies of those to which they 
are joined. Many of these varieties are general in all 
Shikasta writing; but it often happens, as in our own 
language, that a writer has peculiarities of his own. 


The leading characteristics and varieties of this writing 
may soon be learned, but a full and familiar knowledge 
of the language is necessary to read it with anything 
like facility. Another kind of writing is called Shikasta- 
amez, 'mixed with Shikasta, in which some of the 
more convenient modifications of the Shihasta are 
adopted for the sake of facility in writing. A chapter 
in the Appendix is devoted to the peculiarities of 
Shikasta, and to that the student is referred for ex- 
planations and specimens. 

21. Alphabetical Notation or Abjad. 

The Arabs make use of their letters as numerals : but 
this use of them is almost exclusively confined to 
chronograms, in which the dates of important events are 
expressed by the letters of a pithy sentence or a line 
of verse. Each letter has an unvarying numerical 
value. The letters are arranged according to their 
values in a sentence of eight meaningless words, which 
sentence, or Memoria tec/mica, is called Abjad, from 
the first of the eight words. It runs as follows, the 
numerical value of each letter being placed over it. 


-< C33CI-tO 5 rf ro tM < C5 DO * CO 

Allf has the value of 1, ye of 10, ke of 100, and so 
on. The values of the various letters in a chronogram 



being added together the sum gives the date, as in the 
following : 

The title of a well-known work, which represents the 
date of its composition, 1217 A.H. or 1802 A.D. 

22. Exercise in Reading, 

Having learned the letters in their separate forms, 
and carefully read all that has been said about the 
alphabet, the learner should exercise himself in spelling 
out carefully the following passage, of which an exact 
transliteration is given below. 

_ 1)1 

\ ^ 


' C ? 

K Jll _ lUy / jL>- <J_ ^15 c-~3' - U Jjy < ^ 

1^1 ^ ^ I \t 1 1 ** * 1 ^ t \ * 

_.j l.ui ( gjs> ,_~ s cub _^ ^ *jLe _ Jo c^^ ,. Jjlj - 
.jljj - Ifej hui ^ c^ 

* j J ]j~: ji ,* 

lWU li (j\ j.^.3 U ^ j 

Ek gliulam apne inalik ke yalulh se bliaga. Ittilakau 
clmnd roz ke bad us ka sahib kisi dusre sliabr men 
g-aya. Wabah apne ghulam ko dekba aur use pakar- 
kar kaba til kis waste bbaga ? Ghulain ne sabib ka 
daman pakar-kar kaba, tu mera gbulam bai, tu ne 
bahut sa mera paisa churaya aur bbag-aya. Akhir we 
donori kazl ke pas ga'e, aur apna abwal bay an kiya, aur 
insaf cbaba. KazT ne uii donori ko ek kliirki ke pas 
khara kar-ke farmaya, turn donon apne sir ek-bargl 
kbirkl ke bahir rakbo. Unbon ne liukm ke mu'afik 
kiya. Tab kazi jallad ko farmaya, Ghulam ka sir talwar 
se kat-dal. Ghulam ne yih bat sunte hi apna sir andar 
rakh-liya ; lekin us ka malik waise hi khara ralm. Kazi 
ne farmaya ki, ghulam ko saza do. 

23. Parts of Speech. 

The Arabs, and Hindustani grammarians in imitation 
of the Arab system, classify all words under three parts 
of speech. 1. +~:\ ism, the name or noun. 2. JLtJ^t/, 
the verb. 3. c_ i,*~ harf, the particles, including adverbs 
and prepositions. 


24. The Article. 

Hindustani has no regular article corresponding to 
our a and the. The article is inherent in the noun, and 
the context determines whether it is indefinite or definite. 
But in default of articles the numeral LLSol ek. 'one/ and 

* 7 

the pronoun ^^ ko'l, 'a certain/ are used instead of the 
indefinite article ; and the demonstrative pronouns ^yih, 
1 this/ and *j wu/i, ' that/ are employed when it is re- 
quired to indicate anything with great precision. Thus, 
s^T uX^ ek adrni, 'a man/ ciJ^c ^jj* ko'l aurat > 
' a certain woman / ljf*p -*J yih ghora, ' this or the horso / 

-' 9 '/ 

\& s muli kutta, ' that or the dog.' The pronoun ^s? 


kuchh is used as a partitive article ' some ;' as c5/^ -fp 1 
kuchh misrl, ' some sugar/ 

25. The Noun ^\. 

Under the term Ism or Noun the grammarians include: 

1 . The Noun or Substantive ^^y *} Ism-i mausuf. 


2. The Adjective <^La ~4 Ism-i sifat. 

3. Pronoun J+A* +-\ Ism-i zamlr. 

4. The Infinitive or Verbal Noun jju^* Masdar. 

5. The Participle Present &3l. *-.). /sz-e haliya. 

C. The Participle Past Jyti* *~sl /sz-z maful. 

J \s ' ? 

7. The Participle Conjunctive .^fc*-* ^^* ,*^i /5?-z 
ma%i matflfi, 


Gender of Nouns \j+& fins, 

26. In Hindustani there are only two genders : the 


masculine (^JJ tazklr), and the feminine (ui^-JLi 
tarns). Some few rules can be given for ascertaining 
the gender of a noun, but they are very inadequate, 
and the subject will require the learner's constant atten- 
tion. There is a considerable number of nouns of 
which the gender is unsettled, being by some deemed 
masculine and by others feminine, and besides this the 
natives themselves frequently make mistakes of gender, 
even in respect of words whose gender is settled. 

27. Where the name of an animate being indicates 
its sex the gender follows the sex ; or, in short, names 
of males are masculine, and of females feminine. The 
only exception to this is, when men, out of delicacy in 
speaking of their wives, use a covert term, such as 
<A~j kablla, tribe, or ^jjU*. kkanddn, family. 

28. Nouns of common gender like ^-M ddnil, 'a 
person,' are treated as masculine, excepting only wheii 
they are distinctly used for females. 

29. In compound words the gender generally follows 
that of the last word ; thus, alf.lLi shikar-yak, ' a 
hunting ground/ is feminine, because gah is feminine. 
The expression ilfaiJ kibla-gah, 'father, 1 is masculine 
and an exception. 

30. The gender of many nouns may be known by 


their terminations ; the leading principle being that 
final \ a is distinctive of the masculine gender, and 
^ I of the feminine. But this must not be considered 
decisive, for under Rule 27 L&Jj burldyd, ' an old 
woman,' is feminine, and ^y^ d/tobl, ' a washerman,' 
is masculine. 

31. Sanskrit and Arabic scholars should bear in mind 
that words borrowed from those languages retain their 
original gender ; masculines and neuters being mascu- 
line, and feminines remain feminine in Hindustani. 

Masculine Nouns. 

32. Nouns ending in a are generally masculine, except 
l> 5*~ chiriyd, ' a bird ;' Ll^S tldliyd, ' a water pot ;' L.O 

"^ * " s ' ' '" s 

dibiyd, ' a little box,' and a few other Hindi words. 
Also the Persian words \^ parted, 'care;' U- cha, 'tea;' 
lij dagha, ' deceit.' The Sanskrit words U-^ pftjci, 
' worship ;' U^ Jdrpa, ' favour.' And a longer list of 
Arabic words, \zj\ ibtida, 'beginning;' LsJJ, intiha 
'end;' \\ add, 'payment:' ib bald, 'evil;' b-*j ta- 
mannd, ' a request ;' Uj sand, ' praise ;' L- Itaya, 
'shame;' Ua^. Mata, 'fault;' LJJ dunya, 'the world;' 
Uj dud, 'prayer;' \3 dared, 'medicine;' \'&i~ ghizd, 
'food;' Uij kaza, 'fate.' 

33. Nouns ending in * 07^ (a), as <x^. bacha; 
banda, ' slave,' are masculine. 


34. Arabic nouns of three syllables of the same 
measure as i_Jj^3J tasarruf, 'possession' (except <<^f-y 
tatvqyuk, 'favour'), and ej.lftj tafamut, 'difference;' 
and words of two syllables like i_JL=4 insaf, 'justice;' 
and ^^\ ikklds, ' sincerity ;' are generally masculine. 

Feminine Nouns. 

35. Nouns ending with the letter ^j i are feminine. 
There are but few exceptions to this rule ; the most 
common exceptions are Jb pdm, 'water;' \Jjy* motl t 
' a pearl ;' ^- jl, ' life ;' ^^ ghl, ' clarified butter ;' 

and Jt>J dahl, ' curds.' 

36. Most nouns ending in d? t and ^ sh are femi- 
nine, especially those in ish; but there are many ex- 
ceptions, like ts-jlj ddnt, 'a tooth;' c: ^. ; g> khet, 'a 
field;' -^J c?^s/e, 'a fault;' and (JL+s- aish, 'pleasure.' 

37. The Arabic infinitive or verbal noun which enters 
largely into Hindustani is feminine. It is a word of 
two syllables, the first beginning with 3' to, and the 
second having the vowel I for its middle letter, as j~a.*i 

takslr, 'fault;' -jjJ tadblr, 'counsel;' ^*uiu takslm, 

/"x I " 

' division.' There is one word of this measure which 
is masculine, &j*Z tawlz, ' a charm.' 

38. Other rules have been given, but they are bur- 
dened with so many exceptions as to be practically 


useless. In conclusion, when the means of ascertaining 
the gender of a noun are not at hand, it is better to 
use the masculine; for nouns of the masculine gender 
are far more numerous than those of the feminine. 


39. The masculine gender is called ^JJ tazklr, and 
the feminine ui-^jfc tanls. The adjectives of these 


words are, J>'* muzakkar, r>asculine ; and 
mu annas, feminine. 

Declension (^\/> gar dan). 1 

40. Nouns have two numbers JJLC adad; the singular 
joJj mdkid, and the plural ^^s^jama. 

41. The various cases (c^-lU- hdlat) are made by 
particles corresponding to the English prepositions; but 
as they follow the noun they qualify, they are more 
properly postpositions. 


Accusative Either the nominative or the dative. 

Genitive ^J> ^ l ka, ke, Id, of. 

Dative ho, to. 

Ablative ,,-j se, from, with, than. 

Locative ^i men, in ; ^ par, on ; uJo tak, up to. 

Agent ci ne, by. 

Vocative ^) ai, placed before the noun. 

1 The vowel point zabar will hereafter be only occasionally used. See 
Hole 11. 


In native grammars the nominative and the agent, 
the accusative and the dative, and the ablative and 
the locative, are considered to be the same and bear the 
same names. The nominative and the agent are called 
J^li fail ; the accusative and dative J^*L maf'ul; 
and the ablative and locative f>- jarr. The genitive 
is called e^iU]. izafat ; and the vocative \ jj nidd. 

42. There is no distinct form for the accusative ; itg 
place being supplied either by the nominative or the 
dative. Which of these two forms should be used is 
a question of Syntax; but we may here briefly anticipate, 
and state that when the accusative is required to be 
definite or specific the dative form should be used. 

43. Genitive. The particle ka, ke, hi partakes of the 
nature of an adjective. The connexion of the genitive 
case with the adjective may be seen in such phrases as 
'a chain of iron/ and 'an iron chain;' 'a crown of 
gold/ and ' a golden crown / * the king's palace/ and 
'the royal palace/ This particle ka, ke, kl, being 
identical with or similar to an adjective, it agrees with 
its object, i.e. with the noun which it possesses. 

Ka and ke are masculine, and ki is feminine. "When 
the object of the genitive is masculine and in the nomi- 
native case singular number, ka must be used. When 
the object of the genitive is masculine and not in the 


nominative singular, he must be used. When the 
object is feminine, kl is invariably used. 1 Examples : 

ddml /(a ghora, the man's horse. 
aurat ka beta, the woman's son. 
o?m /ft? /^fe, the man's dogs. 
<=- ^# <=. L/jP for/ /;d Ma'z s<?, from the girl's brother. 
^.5* *& ^J> < ^ bap kl ff/ton, the father's mare. 
Obs. When the object of the genitive case is a 
nominative used as an accusative, ha must be used, 
as jj^i W^ ~J'^> ^ LS*^\ itt"* ma ih adml ka hath 
dekhta huh, ' I see a man's hand.' See Rule 42. 

44. Dative. Instead of ko, .^-Jj ^ ke ta'in is 
sometimes used. 

45. Ablative. l j^> sen, ^^i son, and ,z~ sitl, are 
sometimes used instead of ,_..: . 

46. Locative. <0 pa is used for y . d& tak, tl^lj 
f<7 //<;, and t ^ &*y, all meaning ' till,' ' up to,' ' as far 
as,' are other particles of the locative. 

47. Vocative. ^ kai and l> ya are used instead of 
^1 ai. There are other vocative particles, some of 
which have a derisive or contemptuous signification. 
These may be learned from the Dictionary. 

48. Inflection.- Besides the addition of the particles 
distinguishing the cases, all nouns undergo a slight 
modification in the plural, and some few in the singular 

1 Compare the possessive pronouns in Latin and French. 


also ; the modified form is called the oblique form or 
the inflection. 

The oblique plural form of all nouns, without any ex- 
ception, is made with the syllable ^ on. The oblique 
form is that to which the various particles are added, 
as ji ^j^?^T ddmion ko, 'to men.' 1 The vocative plural 
rejects the w, as j~*S\ ^$\ ai admio, ' men.' 

Nouns consisting of two short syllables, the latter of 
which encloses the zabar or short vowel a, reject that 
vowel when on is added ; thus, (jj) baras makes ^jj-y 
barson, and *>-jagah, makes ^j^s>- jaghon. 

49. This addition in the oblique form plural is the 
only one to which masculine nouns are subject, with 
the exception of those ending in \ a or A a, and a few 
in ^\ an; as lij beta, 'a son;' ajuj banda, 'a slave;' 
and u l~J banyan, ' a shopkeeper.' Nouns of these 
terminations change them and make the oblique form 
singular and the nominative plural in ,.__ e. In the 
oblique form plural the termination on is substituted. 
Thus these nouns have three forms l!Lj beta, ..JLj bete, 

o o o 

^^LJ betoii ; *jcj banda, ^j^j bande, uj&j bandon. 

50. Feminine nouns never alter in the singular. 
Those ending with a vowel make the nominative plural 
in u \ an; those ending with a consonant make it in 

ui en - 

1 So in English, * and them are the oblique forms of tee and they. 


51. So the declension of nouns may be divided into 
four classes, for the differences between them are not 
sufficient to make them distinct declensions. 

52. Class I. Regular Masculine Nouns. 


N. dj+ mard, a man. 

G. / ,_ li j* mard ka, he, Id, of a man. 
D. j^ mard ko, to a man. 

Ab. c -j &.* mard se, from a man. 

Loc. ( j^ j-* mard men, in a man. 


Ag d. ^ mard ne, by a man. 

Voc. j^ ^ ai mard, man. 


N. L^ mard, men. 

G. ^ . l^ L j;^ / '* mardoh ha, lie, Id, of men. 

D. ^ o)^S* mardoh ko, to men. 

Ab. ,_-: ujjO/* mardoh se, from men. 

Loc. ^.^ u^ 1 ^* maraoril me > m men 

^S* ci. uJ^j* mardoh ne, by men. 

Voc. jj.^ ^1 <zz mardo, men. 

53. Ilaving thus fully given one noun, it will be un- 
necessary to do more for the other classes than to show 
the nominative and oblique forms. The various cases 
may then be made by adding the appropriate particles 
to the oblique forms, remembering always to drop the h 
of oh in the vocative plural. 


54. Class II. Masculine Nouns ending in \ d, & a, 
and .j\ an. 


N. liLj beta, a son. 
Ob. __Lj bete. 

S-j bete, sons. 

A few masculine nouns ending in \ a, derived from 
Arabic, Persian, and Sanskrit, not having become as it 
were naturalized, do not allow the final to be changed ; 
as \jksi- tikuda, 'god;' bb ddna, 'a sage;' b^j darya, 
'a river;' \^ gadd, 'a beggar;' \^*\ umard, 'nobles;' 
1* mulfa, 'a teacher;' ^ /a/a, 'master;' bb 
' father.' 


N. lib dana. 
Ob. lib 

bb ddna. 
^bb ddna on. 

The word yb pdhw, ' a foot,' sometimes makes the 
oblique singular u yb pdnoh, and the nominative and 
oblique plural ^b pa on. ylf gdiiw, ' a village,' and 
Jb ndnw, ' a name,' are similarly declined. But there 
is some uncertainty in the use of these forms. 

55. Class III. Feminine Nouns ending in ^ ?. 
LJ betl, a daughter. 



Feminine Hindi nouns in \ d make the nominative 

N. J^LJ betl, a daughter. 
Ob. JL> betl. 


plural by adding u n, as l>^ chiriya, ' a bird,' U V- 

chirlyah, ' birds ;' LL& tidily a, ' a water pot,' plural 
^jLJ^j tldliyan ; but those that are of foreign origin 
make the plural in ^ eh, as ib bala, ' an evil,' plural 
^L balaeii. 

\ yae, ' a cow,' makes ^^ gaeh in the nominative 
plural, and ^^ yaoh in the oblique form. 

, 'a wife,' makes ^j\j*&-joruah, 'wives.' 

50. Class IV. Feminine Nouns ending in Consonants. 
CLJ\J rat, night. 


N. <^\j rat, night. 
Ob. c^V, m*. 

raten, nights. 

Arabic and Persian Forms. 

57. The Arabic form of the dual is occasionally used 
in Hindustani, as C ^\j nalidain, ' parents,' from x!\j 
iralid, ' a father.' 

58. The regular Arabic plural of the masculine in ^ 
un, as j^Lo sarik, 'a thief/ plural ^j\^> sarikun, is 
rarely met with. The feminine plural in ci*M at 
is common, as c^U-lii> tUismat, 'charms;' tulji^ 
uaridat, ' events.' The Arabic ' broken plurals ' are of 
very frequent occurrence. These appear in a great 
variety of forms, as ^s kism, 'a sort;' \~j\ aksani, 


'sorts;' JU- lidl, 'state;' J\p^ dhnal, 'states/ 'cir- 
cumstances ;' *Ls *lm, 'science;' ,*jlc ulum, 'sciences.' 
These are given more in detail in the Appendix. 

59. The Persian plural is frequently employed. It 
is made by adding ^\ an to the names of animate 
beings, and U> ha to the names of inanimate objects ; 
as ^^j* mar dan, ' men,' from j^* ward, 'a man ;' 
\Jbj\ barha, ' times,' ' occasions,' from j\> bar, ' a time,' 
and l^JLo salha, 'years,' from JU sal, 'a year.' The 
distinction is sometimes disregarded, as we find l^-l-l 
aspha, 'horses,' and ^^/^ c/tiragkan, 'lamps.' Nouns 
ending in s make the animate plural in ^ gan, and 
the inanimate in trjU- jat ; as *,xj banda, 'a slave,' 
^(lilxL bandagan, ' slaves ;' aj^ suba, ' a province/ 
i^j\ss?ye subajat, 'provinces.' Nouns ending with \ a 
generally insert . y for euphony before ^ an ; thus, 
\S* gada, 'a beggar/ makes ^>\^ gadayan, ' beggars/ 

60. The Persian u^U4 izafat, or genitive case, 
is of very frequent occurrence. It is generally made 
by placing the vowel zer L), equivalent to of, between 
two nouns ; but if the first of the two nouns ends with 
\ a or j u the vowel ,._ e is used, and if it ends with 
& h or ^ i, the hamza is used, which is then pronounced 
as zer and sometimes has the zer written under it; 


ola> tlL* malik-i Hind, The King of India. 

*ii ^\ij rvqfd-e ghulam, The fidelity of the slave. 
xj> ^_j-j su-e kok, The direction of the mountain (to- 

wards the hill). 
J J f *&3 dlda-i dil, The eye of the heart. 

f^^i s t ^x.-: slnl-i slm, A salver of silver : a silver waiter. 

~ " 

The izafat is also used for connecting a substantive 
with its adjective. See Rule 71. 

The Adjective (uuJU *^| Ism-i Sifaf). 

61. The adjective precedes its noun. It is generally 
unchangeable, being subject to no alteration whether for 
gender, number, or comparison. The exceptions are 
Hindi words ending with \ a. These are declinable, 
and, as already observed, they resemble the particle 
kd, he, hi of the genitive case. The final \ a is the 
masculine nominative singular, but in every other case, 
singular and plural, of the masculine, the termination ia 
changed to <-_, and throughout the feminine to ^j I. 
Thus, \j gora, white. 

Masculine Nominative Singular \j gora. 
Every other case ^^ gore. 
Feminine Singular and Plural ^jj gori. 

62. Adjectives from the Persian in a are unchange- 
able, as \>- judil, ' separate ;' Ulj dana, 'wise;' \^ 


paldd, 'bora/ A few ending in A a are declined like 
gord, such as sjj\j rdnda, 'rejected;' *jL, sdda, 'plain/ 
&A. timda, 'exalted/ tjl ganda, 'fetid/ ijjl* mdnda, 

O? 7 < 1 1 CO 

tired; s^>j^>- Klwranda, gluttonous; ij^i^-i shar- 
manda, 'ashamed/ fc*~+' kamlna, 'mean/ ailsx.' bc- 
ckdra, ' helpless / xj\j na~kara, ' useless / s-V.<Aj na- 
dida, ' unseen/ *j\j.^. haram-zada, 'bastard / <dL tl>j 
ya/' sa/a, ' annual / <dL.- ^j do sdla, ' biennial/ 

63. Adjectives when they are used as substantives 
are declined as substantives. Thus, clXy nc/t, 4 good/ 
as an adjective is indeclinable, ._y ulXJ nek mard, 
' a good man/ trj^y: tl^y ^^ aurat, ' a good woman / 
but when used for ' the good/ it is declined ; as ^_ ^j^J 
nckoii ne, ' by the good/ 

64. Sometimes, especially in poetry, the. a Ijective is 
placed after ita noun, and the feminine may then take 
a plural termination ; as ^Jj\# U^b r ^ en bharlaii, 
' tedious nights/ 

65. The comparison of the adjective is made in a very 
simple manner, by merely placing the word with which 
the comparison is made in the ablative case; and in- 
stead of saying ' the girl is better than the boy/ saying 
'the girl is good than the boy / thus, 

.Jt> .,g>-\ <~s <=v-J i<v^ larki lar/te se achchhl hal. 
" . " , ^ 

$ ghar darakkt se undid, kai, the 

bouse is higher than the tree. 


The Superlative is expressed by using the word t_^ m . 
sab, 'all/ or some equivalent word; thus, 

^Jt> \*i ^ C-^N-) ^Ifc *j nub hdthl sab se bard hai, that 
is the largest elephant; or, that elephant is larger 
than all. 

6G. The words *jl>j ziydda, and ^.1 aur, in the sense 
of ' more/ are sometimes used to form the comparative ; 
as < '*j=>- *^J ziydda khub, ' more fair/ or ' fairer / 
Ulj ^ awr rfarca, ' more wise/ or ' wiser.' This form 
has been fostered by English influence. 

67. The Persian degrees of comparison are occasion- 
ally used: t^v. khub, ' t&ir,' -jsjf>- khubtar, 'fairer/ 
ijljUjS* JJiubtarin, 'fairest;' <0 bih, ' good,' j^j bihtar, 
'better/ ^jCfi bihtann, 'best/ J* ham, ' little/ 
kamtar, ' less/ ^ % j^> kamtann, ' least.' 

68. The power of the adjective is increased or in- 
tensified by doubling it, as V^ \^i bard bard, ' very 
large / ^Jc^j \3& thandd thandd, ' very cold.' So in 
English we have ' the deep deep sea/ ' the red red rose/ 
etc. The same effect is produced by putting the word 
c^^j bahut, 'much/ before the adjective ; as uJU> e^-> 
bahut sdf, ' very clean.' The word \*> bard, ' great/ is 
used in a similar sense; as L-J\J>* \Jj bard kharab, 'very 
wicked/ So also ci-jl^J nihdyat, ' exceeding/ 


C9. The particle LJ sd has the same power as the English 
termination ish. It converts nouns into adjectives, as 


L lijJ larkd sd, ' boyish ;' and when added to an ad- 
jective it qualifies it ; thus, 3\i kdld, ' black,' L ^ kala 
sd, ' blackish ;' ^ b&Xy* bahut se, l a great many/ or 
rather 'a goodish many.' This particle is declinable 
like adjectives in \ d, and so changes into ^ se and 
^ si. Sometimes it is connected with a genitive case, 
and then it signifies 'like as ;' ci^i^> ^ \^ j~* s/ter hi 
s't surat, ' a figure like as of a tiger.' AVhen added 
to a pronoun it requires the oblique form L: ^s^ 


mujh sd, U .$sr tujh sd, ' like me,' ' like thee/ With 
nouns it commonly takes the nominative, but sometimes 
the oblique form. 

70. This particle Ls sd, combined with pronouns, 
forms a useful series of adjectives of similarity. \**j\ aisd 
(for yih sd\ 'such/ 'like this/ Uujj waisa (tvuk-sa), 
' such,' ' like that.' Another particle, I) nd, combined in 
like manner with the pronouns, forms adjectives of 
quantity or number ; as Ljl itnd, 'this much/ 'as much 
as this / plural ,-] itne, ' this many.' These adjectives 
are declined like other adjectives in \ d. There is a series 
of adverbs formed in a similar way. The whole of these 
very useful words are given together in a tabular form 
under the Adverbs. 

71. The Persian construction of the adjective is fre- 


quently used, in which the adjective follows the sub- 
stantive and is connected with it by the izafat ; Ub J.^ 

mard-i dana, 'a wise man ;' JjU alijb badshah-i adil, 

1 a just king.' The izafat for the adjective is formed 
according to Rule 60 ; in fact, the adjective is treated 
like a noun in the genitive case. 

Pronouns (j~**a *~s\ Ism-i zamlr) 

72. Pronouns admit of no distinction of gender ; the 
same words being used for he, she, and it. 

73. Pronouns are for the most part declined like 
nouns, but there are some special differences. 

The first and second personal pronouns make the 
genitive case in \j ra, ^_j re, ^jj ri, instead of l ka, 
<-_/<?, ^J> kl, and they form the agent case by adding 
the particle ,J_ ne to the nominative case and not as 
usual to the oblique. 

All pronouns have two forms of the dative ; one takes 
the particle lio like nouns, the other, instead of ko, 
adds <-_<? in the singular, and ^ en in the plural to the 
short oblique form. 

All pronouns may reject the ^ on of the oblique 
form plural ; this shortened form we may call the 
short oblique. In setting out the declensions, we shall, 


for the sake of brevity and clearness, use only this 
form, but the learner must remember that the longer 
form may be used. 

74. First Person. 

Nom. Sing. (J ^ main. PI. *j& ham. 

Oblique ^s* mujh. *A ham; 



N. ( j^ main, I. 

G. ^j#+ <=-j?* W* mera > mere, men, of me, my. 

f ^ mujh ko, \ 

D. J - , > to me. 

efsr muj/ie, ) 

Ab. e-s ^s^ mujh se, from me. 

L. ,j~ ^sr* m^Vi mew, in me. 

' f? > ^ me * 


N. * Aam, we. 

G.^.U> e_A** ^ J^*A hamdra, hamdre, haman, of us, our. 

D. ( to us. 

hameh, ) 

Ab. e-: ,jb Aaw se, from us. 

L. jj-,* (>> ham men, in us. 

Ag. <J_ *Jfc Aawz we, by us. 

or ^j^ hamoh ko, etc., etc. 


7o. Second Person, 
y fu or ^yJ tain, thou. 

A' C1 * T>1 ? 

ISom. b. J w. 11. v taw. 
^. * 

.. 9 9 9 

Obi. 2sr taJA. Jj tawz, ^-*J tumh, ^^ turn/ton. 


N. . y ^M, thou. 

G. t^-J .-.J Lj ^m, #ere, ten, thine. 


/ ^=T tuj/i ho, 
D. J to thee. 

Ab. ,,-j ^isr ^'A s^, from thee. 


L. jj-.^ ^sr ^7i w<?^, in thee. 

s y 

Ag. ,-j. ^j-J, ,jy ^M we, #<2w we, by thco, 
V. 1 ? #, tliou. 


N. ^ ^w, you. 

' y 

G. o; _..; \,<V* > -' tumhara, -re, -ri, your. 

i ^ turn ho, ) 

D. T ~ to you. 

jj*fJ tumhen, ) 

Ab. ^ v turn se, from you. 

L. Jtt-* (** ^ MW wew, in you. 

AO d. y ^ w w<? > by you. 

V. . ^J\ ai turn, ye. 

or^^^J turn/ton ko, etc., etc. 
When a noun or adjective intervenes between these 


pronouns and the sign of the case, the genitive case and 

the agent are formed regularly ; thus, 

mujh bad bakht ha, of me ill-fated. 

mujh fakir ne, by me thejfaklr. 

76. The Pronoun for the Third Person is supplied by 
the following : 

Demonstrative Pronouns. 
^ yih, ' this ;' * with, ' that.' 

It will be well to observe that in those words and in 
their derivatives the letters i or y denote the proximate, 
u or m the remote. Wuh is the word commonly used 
for the personal pronoun he, she, and it ; but yih is 
sometimes employed. The distinction between them 
may be understood by noting that rcuh, signifies ' that 
person,' andy^, ' this person.' When both are used in one 
sentence, rcuh denotes ' the former,' and yt'A,'the latter.' 

77. * yih, ' this ;' he. she, it. 

K; n j yih. ,__.> ye. 

Ob. IJM\ is. u: p\ *,{ ,.,\ in, 

N. n j yz7<. 

G. ) ^ l^ jjwl, is ha, lie, Id. 

Dt X I 7 

. ,MJI i/ >wi zs A"o, ise. 



ho, inhen. 



zw men. 
in ne. 


78. s* nuh, ' that ; he, she, it. 1 


N. * nuh. g. KB. 

j *~-j 

Ob. ^\ us. u?^ "*^ ^ un> un ^> 

Declined exactly like yih 

Following the analogy of the relative and other pro- 
nouns of the third person, yih and wuh in the singular 
are frequently used instead of the plurals ye and we. 
The older and regular oblique forms ^ nis and ^ mti, 
are occasionally met with. 


79. The pronoun sj nuh is sometimes written more 
exactly as it is pronounced ^ no, and in the inflection 
^y\ us ; this usage seems to be gaining ground. 

80. The pronouns for the three persons are rendered 
emphatic by adding to them the particles ^ I, ^ Jit, 
and in the plural ^fc lilii ; ^t> ..~i main hi, ' I verily,' 

f " S^ ^ 

4 1 only.' ^i\ itsl ho, ' to that same person, '^i ^iJ\ 
unluii ko, ' to those same persons.' See Syntax. 

81. Respectful Pronoun. 
LJ! dp, ' your honour.' 

This is declined regularly by adding the particles to 
the word as Gen. l <__jT Up l<a, Dat. c_T ap ho, etc. 


82. Reflexive Pronoun. 

c->T dp, ' self.' 

Noin. c-M dp. 

Gen. ^A ^A \u\ apna, apne, apni. 

Dat. and Ace. ^^ /<-_>! ap ko, apne ho. 


ta In. 

The plural is the same as the singular, excepting the 
locative ^j~* (JM J\ dpas men, * among- themselves.' 

The word <_JT ap is used alone for ' self/ but it is more 
commonly joined to a personal pronoun, as c_JT ,j-** main 
ap, ' I myself;' c-T ^ ww^ /?, 'he himself.' The form 
'i/i is generally used for the accusative. 

83. Possessive Pronouns. 

The genitive cases of the personal pronouns are used 
for possessives ; L,^ mera, ' my ;' ^.J tera, ' thy ;' l ^\ 
its hd, * his ;' ^l^ tumhara, ' your,' etc. 

The genitive of the reflexive pronoun U^ apna is com- 
mon to all three persons and both numbers. It is used 
to represent the same person as the nominative or agent 
of the sentence : thus, 
Ui' \^t : j ( _ ;li , ^j\ , *~+ main apni kitdb par hi a tha, I 

* _> ' O w- 

was reading my book. 
LJ l^i ,l^ Ujl *j wz^ apna kam kartd tltd, He 

was doing his business. 
This will be explained more fully in the Syntax, 


84. Relative. 

j>-jo, ' who.' 

Nom. Sing, and PI. fr jo, ^j=*-jaun, who. 
Obi. Sing, ij^jis. PI. ^^>- .&>- ^jin 

85. Correlative. 
j~i so, ' that same.' 

Nom. Sing, and Pl.^so, ^y taun, that same, those same. 
Obi. Sing. jj*j tis. PL jjf^ ^J ^ $w, tinh, tinhoii. 
Jaun and toww are the old forms ; jo and so have 
been imported from Sanskrit. The -oblique form of the 
correlative is formed from ^y. 

86. Personal or Individual. 

g kaun, 'who?' 

Nom. Sing, and PI. ^ kaun, who ? which ? 
Obi. Sing. ^S kis. PI. jj$i ^ ^ kin, kink, Idnhoh. 

87. Impersonal and Partitive. 

\ kya, 'what?' 
Nom. L /t-ya, what ? Obi. 

88. Indefinite. 

'f, ' a certain/ 

ft, a certain (one) ; somebody ; any one. 
Obi. ^ khi ; ^S kisu. 

Nom. PI. ^j hoi, some, , J kal, several. 


jiifulana, l so and so.' 

Nom. tjijfulana, so and so, such and such 


^^ Kol is used for any person or thing intended to 
be left vague ; <L-ls fulana implies a person or thing 
which could be specified. 

89. Partitive. 


^ kuchh, ' some,' ' any.' 
This has no inflection and no plural. 

90. There are many compound pronouns and adjective 

jojo, (jisjis,) \ 

, . whoever, whoso- 

\ (jis km,} > 
. , .... ) ever. 
so, (jis tis,) J 

f^jo kuchh, whatever. 
^ hoi aur, some one else. 

kol na hoi, some one or other. 

; hoi nahln, nobody. 
'' kai eh, several. 

z kitne ek, several. 

I . Jli kai ek, several, a few. 

^ ^ 

) -fs? kuchh kuchh, \ some little, some- 

'' ' i 

\\ ^ kuchh ek, ) what. 

jl *^ /'z^/^/i ^^^r, 

some more. 

na kuchh, something or 



s-> kuchh ha kuchh, something else. 
.fs.- kuchh nahiii, nothing, nothing at all. 
L&i ek aur, 
aur ek, 
jt\ aur ko'l, f another. 

O 9 

y-^J dusra ek, 


dusra hoi, 
ek Mi, some one. 

ek na ek, one or other, some one or other. 
\ aur sab, the rest, all the rest. 
baze aur, some others. 
baze ko'i, several, some. 
bahut ek, many a one. 
bahut kuchk, much, a good deal. 
bahut aur, many more. 
sab ktfi, 

har ko'l, 
sab ek, 

"every one. 

har ek, 
har has, -' 
sab kuchh, every thing. 

e-^j sa^, ' all,' when used alone without a noun, is 
treated as a pronominal, and makes the oblique plural 
<*~> sab/ton. 

VERBS. 45 

91. There are many adjectives which are used with a 
pronominal force, such as 

jj\ a^(r, other. jc>- chand, some, several. 

i tL~,certain, several. *. ghair, other, different. - 

baltnt, many, much. Ujrt itna, this much, 

har, every, each. Uj\ wtaa,that much, ) 70. 

Also numerals, as 
, one. 

^ dusra, anotlier, the next. 
donoh, both. See the Numerals. 

92. The Hindustani verb is exceedingly simple and 
regular. There is but one conjugation, and only one 
simple tense which has distinct personal terminations. 

93. Many parts of the verb end in \ a, and these are 
all declinable, being made to agree in gender and 
number with their substantive, just as in the com- 
pound tenses of the Latin passive the participle agrees 
with the nominative case. 

94 Before proceeding to conjugate a verb it is neces^ 
sary to learn the following two tenses, which spring 
from the verb Uy& hond, ' to be,' though they form no 
part of its regular conjugation. They have a simple sub- 
stantive meaning, as ' I am,' ' I was,' etc. They are 
also used as auxiliaries. 



95. Substantive and Auxiliary Verb 

mu aicin. 


main huh, I am. 
y tu hai, thou art. 
gj nuh hai, he is. 

haiyci for ^a hai, and 
are found in verse. 



ham haih, we are. 

you are. 
in, they are. 

halnge for 

' I was,' ' thou wast/ etc. 




s nuh 


r 3 ' 

the, thin.. 

are the masculine singular and plural; 
are the feminine. 

l^j' and 
^f and 

96. The Infinitive (jjua^ masdar) of the verb is the 
part which is given in the Dictionaries. From this are 
derived the Koot, the Present Participle, and the Past 
Participle. These are the principal parts of the verb. 
Three tenses are formed from each of these, making in 
all nine principal tenses of the verb. 

97. The Root is the second person singular of the 
Imperative, arid is derived from the Infinitive by cutting 
off the termination U na ; as from eta bolna, J^j bol. 
The Present Participle (<UU- +J[ ism-i liallya) is made 

"' * ' ' o 

by changing U nd of the Infinitive to lj ta; as U^.- lolim 


boltlh, ^J^~ boltiyaii. 

makes IJjj bolta. The Past Participle JjyuU *-4 ism-i 
ma/'ul) is formed by leaving out the n of the Infinitive ; 
so Ujj fofoa makes ^ bold. When the root of a verb 
ends with a vowel, the letter y is inserted in the past 
participle singular masculine for euphony; as U3 land 
10! Idyd, but it is not used in the feminine or in the 

93. The Participles are declined thus : 


Mas. $jj boltd. 
Fern, ^jj io//z. 

Mas. ^j fo/a. 

Fein. ^!j fo/Z. 

In the compound tenses the feminine singular is 
generally used with the plural auxiliary {J ^i ^^ not 
( j^i ,j~^ boltlh tliiii ; the plurality being sufficiently 
shown by the auxiliary. The plural form is only 
occasionally met with. 

99. The AORIST is formed from the root by adding the 
personal terminations 

] . jj. iiii. ^ eft. 

1?. <-_ e. * o. 

3. - e. , < efi. 


If the root ends with a vowel, as l> pa, the root of 
Lb pdnd, ' to get/ and ^ so, the root of \Jj~ sond, ' to 

bolln, ^Uy boUydh. 


' sleep,' ^ vo may be prefixed to the terminations be- 
ginning with e, thus : 


1. J, uli. 

2. -__, we. 

3. <._ rue. 

The IMPERATIVE is identical with the Aorist, except- 
ing only that the second person singular is the mere 
root. The Respectful form is. made by adding c= j iye 

or *) iyo to the root, and when the root ends with .$ I or 
/ ? ~ 

2 u, _. (J) is inserted for euphony. L-J ^?^a, 'to 
drink,' root ^j pi, makes ,_ ^cu ^y(y, jrr^J />!^'#> and 
sometimes this is contracted, as c^^nj ^y^, ^sTJ dijo, 

The FUTDRE adds the termination if ya to the Aorist. 

Singular \ ga. Plural ,__} 'yc. 

Sinular J*. Plural ~&* 

Tenses of the Present Participle. 

The INDEFINITE is the Present Participle declined. 

The PRESENT is the Present Participle with the 
Present Auxiliary. 

The IMPERFECT is the Present Participle with the 
Past Auxiliary. 


Tenses of the Past Participle. 

The PAST TENSE is the Past Participle. 

The PERFECT is the Past Participle with the Present 

The PLUPERFECT is the Past Participle with the Past 

The Tenses of the Present and Past Participle differ 
only as regards the Participle. 

100. Neuter or Intransitive verb , ^ ;3 Idziml. 



Pres. Participle. 


y y 



1. Aorist jj^jj 


4. Indefinite uJjj 

bolun, etc. 


2. Imperat. ^o 

5. Present ^j^ W^ 

bolun, etc. 

o/^a /m. 

3. Future \>j>*> 


6. Imperf. \ W^ 


^6//a Ma. 

Past Participle. 


7. Past Tense X^ 


8. Perfect u ^^ 

9. Pluperf. l X^ 
6o/a Ma. 

Tenses of the Root, Jy Bol. 
Aorist c^Li- muzdrf, ' I may speak,' etc. 



mam bolun. 

wuh bole. 


^ /cam ^/iew. 

r t 

M r* 


QJ*\ amr. 
' Let me speak;' ' Speak thou,' etc. 


9 *' 

1. ^v? ,*?* main boluh, 



tu bol. 


1 . l& 



Jy *Jb fl 

* 2 

> J r' 

^ we bolen. 

Future JJc**,* mustakbil. 
' I shall speak ;' ' I will speak,' etc. 

zw bolunga. ^JoJy *A /*a?w bolenge, 

bolega. %* (^ ^ ww ^% e - 

bolegd. <J^y <=_,; w6 bolenge. 


-J v boleng'ih, etc. 

Fern. ,J^^ bolungl, etc. 

Tenses of the Present Participle \y bolta, 

i ^oU mazi-shart~t, Past Conditional ; or 

^U mazl-mutamanni, Past Optative. 
' If I spoke ; ' ' If I had spoken ; ' ' I used to speak.' 

^ C^* * Ci-^T (* 

* ^ 

rC. llXJ *-' *J tw OOltCL. _*i) ^ > ^j 

j: v^ =->. i 

3. U> *j 7j?w/i bolta. ,_2Jj ^_j w; 

Fein. , eJj bold. . ~A^ boltlfi. 


Present JU- hal. 
' I speak ;' ' I am speaking/ etc. 


2* 'a!*.- ( j~* main boltahuii. 

Jt> VJy jj tu bolta hat. 
. gjfe li! j ii rouh bolta hai. 

T" }'. \jf^ 

2. U Uj.' y tu bolta tha. 


Fern. , ^ , ^^ boltl thl. 

) +j mm bolte ho. 
Jj - . we bolte haiii. 

Imperfect ij\j*~*\ istimrarl. 
1 1 was speaking/ etc. 

j *A kam bolte the. 


^o^I thin. 


IV 4^ ;//< 
Fern. Jj 


Tenses of the Past Participle. 

The Past or Preterite. 

U mazl-mutlak, Past Absolute. 
f I spoke/ etc. ; ' I did speak/ etc. 

J *J& /^ 

j *J 



^U mazl-karib, Past Proximate. 

' I liave spoken,' etc. 


-.A ,_Jy *A 
y *j' 

boh hain. 

j' turn bole ho. 

1. ,>l'.j -- waz'tt 0/0" /$M. 
- "2 

^v Jv * 4J *.' 'W OOiCL IkCLIr* 

* s 9 f 

3. ^ 1'^ jj WM^ ^>o/a Aa?. 1 j ( j^jt> ^y e __j we ^o/e haiti. 

"9 *r 

Fein. ^,yj> ^y fa hun, etc. { ..J& ^!^j ^<?/i /^a?/?, etc. 


^U wcT2i ^a'^a 7 , Past remote. 
' I had spoken,' etc. 

1. Uj' 1'y jj-^ main bold thd. g ' <== .!^j *Jfe /mm ^o/e Me. 

2. l$j' Sy J ^M bold thd. gjj' ^^ *!f turn bole the. 

\ * - I 

3. Iff ^ j* WM^ bola thd. ,.-.$) ,-Jy <= _^ we bole the. 

Fern. , ^ , J.j boll ttd. . ^j , j*> fo& Mm. 

Eespectful Forms. 

Imperative or Precative e^-J^ boliye, ^Jy boliyo. 
Future . . . \LJjj boliyega. 

Verbal Noun or Gerund. 
The Infinitive declined 

o o 

U j bolnd, <_:.] 

1 As anomalous third person singular is occasionally found both of 
neuter and active verbs pakre hai,jale hat, kare hai, See Syntax. 


Noun of Agency. 

i\, -Jv bolnendld, ) . 
, , f , , , - a speaker.' 

\t\Jb c2j) boltie hara, 1 

Adverbial Participle (indeclinable). 
^jb c-Jyj bolte hi, ' on speaking.' 

Adjective Participles, declinable as adjectives. 
Present uljj bolta, \)& cfjj bolta, hud, ' speaking.' 
Past 3_jj bold, \j* If bold hua, ' spoken.' 

Conjunctive Participle (indeclinable). 

o o o o 

J^j ioi?, ,-J^j ^<?/e, ^^J ^/^, ^3y bol/ear, ^J^^ 


bolkarke, J>^$ bolkarhar, 'having spoken.' 

The form in^ls kar is the one most commonly used. 

101. Example of a verbal root ending with a long 
vowel, admitting ^ w for euphony in the root tenses, 
and requiring a euphonical y in the past participle 
masculine singular. 

\jl land, ' to bring.' 

y *& ham law eh, laeii. 
*.. > 

2 . ,J3 _ ^^ J tu Idwe or Jae. 

3 . _ il j / uh Idwe or /aV. 



So also in the Imperative and Future. 

J turn lao. 

e Idiveh, Id'e/i. 


Past Tense. 


(j) i^y ( j~* main, tu, nuh 

lay a. 
Feminine L \3 lal. 

\] <-_j *jf ^ft Aa?w, turn, we 

Feminine A lain. 

So also in the Perfect and Pluperfect. 

102. Verbs of three syllables, inclosing a short a in 
the second syllable, drop that vowel in the tenses of the 


root and past participle ; as UKj nikafaa, ' to issue ; ' 


\jjfj pakarna, ' to seize,' etc. 

f o o ^ 

Aor. u : ^J mklun. Pres. Part. \z\j nikalta. P.p. iO nikla. 

o <- < 

.jf'L) pahruh. b' ! :C pakarta. ]''&) pakm 

103. The following useful verbs which are active in. 
English are neuter in Hindustani. 

, ' to speak.' Ii3 fewa, ' to bring.' 

UJ^j bhulna, ' to forget.' Ij^snj le-jdna, 'to take away.' 

Ul. chitkna, ' to finish.' bjJ //, ' to fight.' 
L^o darna, ' to fear.' 

104. Active or Transitive Verbs ^ItL^ mutciaddl. 

These differ in conjugation from the neuter verb in the 
tenses of the past participle, which take the case of the 
agent instead of the nominative. 


mama, ' to beat.' 
RootjU mar. Pres.Part. l^U marta. Past Part.^U mam. 

Aorist u^j^* iff"* fl^'ft martin, etc. 
Imperative ^jt* ^^ main martin, etc. 
Future l&jjl* ^* mam mdrunga, etc. 
Indefinite bjU ^^ maeVt marta, etc. 
Present ^y* UjU jj*^ mam marta huh, etc. 
Imperfect l$jf bjU ^-^ aeVi marta t/ta, etc. 

' I did beat, etc. 


~* main ne mara. 


tune mara. 


\is ne mara. 

e mara. 

~? .' 

-j *J turn ne mara. 
~ C 
J ,..\ un ne mara. 

Literally, * By me beaten,' etc. 


j& , -_ ^ 

2. ^ \j\s d tu m 

mara hai. 

3. . <&> -\j\,* e J_( J w\ us ne 

mara kai. 



ne mara 

turn ne mara 

ne ward 







main ne 

mara tha. 
ij \j\* ,J y 
mara tha. 


us ne 


<J *& ham ne mara 


i t 

V [/* ci. 


ne mara 

105. The proper use of the past tenses of transitive 
verbs is properly a matter of syntax, but we must here 

It must be remembered that there is no distinct accu- 
sative in. Hindustani, and that the object is represented 
sometimes by the nominative, sometimes by the dative. 
So, when the agent is used, the verb will agree with the 
object if it be represented by the nominative, but there 
will be no concord if the dative form is used ; thus, 

,.,1* ^^ J_ \j\ us ne gal man, lie struck a cow. 
\\* ^^ ^(j^usnegalko mara, lie struck the cow. 
^jU ^ 5-3. ^j*\ us ne larke mare, He beat boys. 

ei-L/*^ us neMtabenparftm,ILere&& books. 
^ \J"\ us ne chithiy 011 ' k likha, He wrote 

the letters. 

Or to lay down an arbitrary rule, when the object of 
the verb has ho after it the verb is impersonal and has 
no concord ; but when the object is without ho, the verb 
agrees with it in gender and number. 


106. There are six verbs which present a few anomalies. 
These form their past participles irregularly. 

Infinitive. Singular. Plural. 

1. \j karnd, to do. L kii/a ^J Id. ikie ^ km. 

2. lyjcfe/2a,togive. l> A diya ^J d~t. ^.lA die ^^dv'i. 

3. LJ lend, to take. U. liya, J ll. g-J, lie ^ tin, 

4. \j^st> hona, to be. ^ hua ^A /m'L ,-Jyfc hue ^^t, hu'm 

5. \jj*marna,todie. \j-* mud ^^ mw'Z. ^Ji^mue ^^ mu'ln 

6.\j\>-jdna, to go. Ui gaya ^ gal . ^ gae ^f gam 

They also make an irregular form of the conjunctive 
participle by adding ,___ e, to the past participle femi- 
nine ; thus ,-_. kie, 'having done/ .--JL! li'e, 'having 
taken/ etc. 

The Respectful Imperative of the first five is also 
irregular, being formed from the past participle feminine 
instead of the root, by adding <___. s>- jlye or y^ jiyo. 

< _-,>j<\$' Injiye, Please to do. 
,_ .~f>> dljiye, Please to give. 
..-..jcil lijiye, Please to take. 

These forms are sometimes contracted into <=.:&& ftlje, 
^srj dyo, etc. The regular forms c-jjZ kariye and 
j liariyo are also occasionally met with. 


._*s>-A huih/e, Please to become. 
(= _/ ./ >/ & * 

et^-y* mujiye, Oh that he might die. 

And from these are formed the Kespectful Future. 

liU- jawa makes the respectful regularly 
jaiye or j-SU- j&iyo. 

107. The verbs UjJ dend, UJ lend and Uy& /fowa have 
some optional variations in the root tenses. Dend and 
lend may be contracted so that the root is represented 
simply by d and I instead of de and le ; thus 



j '- 
ztt deun 



j_- ijJ x?vu/ideweorde. . ^J-, ,-v 

- C-Jt J7 f U* U7.JT. 



deo or </o. 
we dcneh 


So also in the Imperative and Future. 

108. ljy> &?M, ' To be or become.' 

This being a most useful verb, the whole of the Aorist, 
and the 3rd person singular of every other tense is given. 


The root may optionally prefix ^ w to those ter- 
minations which begin with e ; or it may reject all the 
vowels of the terminations, leaving only the letter 


n in the first person singular arid in the first and 
third plural. 


u ,ys _ ,jy& ( j^t main /to'un, 

t. r , 

4> _ t-_jb c_^> jj til none, 
hoe, ho. 

horceh, ho'en, hon. 

hoe, ho. honeh, lioeh, hon. 1 

Jb-^^-^jyb ij 7?;zJi hone, hoe, ho. 


li^_lx-^_Uj^ DJ nuh horceya, ho eg a, /toga. 



*j muh hota haL 
j wz<A 70^ tha. 


rouh hiia 

A form '%' *^ homi'i n is also found. 



' /- ' 1-" 

^..+2*-^ hujiye, y^r^ hujiyo. 

Adjective Past Participle. 
\j& kua, b'y& \j*> hud hotd. 

109. Additional Tenses. 

Six additional tenses are formed by placing the Present 
and Past Participles of any verb before tbe Aorist, the 
Future and the Present Participle of hona. 

Aorist Present. 

Formed by placing the present participle before the 
aorist of hona. This is given in full as a pattern, but 
the first person will be sufficient for the other tenses. 

' I may be speaking.' 

main boltakd'uh\ ^^ c^y /*& ham bolte 


tu bolta howe. \^ ^jj *j turn bolte ko'o. 
Sj wuh bolta hone. \ ^jfi cr^^ c_^ we bolte 


Future Present. 

Formed by placing the present participle before the 
future of hona. 

1 1 shall be speaking,' etc. 
Uoj^b IJjj ( j~* main bolta ho'unga. 
Native grammarians call both these tenses JjfjL-^ JU- 
hdl-i mutashakkl, 'Present dubious,' for although they 


are formed with different tenses of hona, the difference of 
signification is not distinctly observed. 

Aorist Past. 

A past participle before the aorist of hona. 
^jjjfc $j) ( j~* main bold houh, I may have spoken. 

Future Past. 

A past participle before the future of hona. 
uj^yb LJ if-** main bold ho'unga, I shall have spoken, 

I must have spoken. 

These two are called ^Cil* , ^U mazi-mutashakkl 
or d/j.CA, mashhuk, ' Past dubious.' 

Imperfect Conditional. 

A present participle before the present participle offiona. 

* * 
J>\ agar main boltd hold, Had I been 

speaking, etc. 
Perfect Conditional. 
ayar main bold hold, Had I spoken. 
These are called <uly2> ^^ mdzl shartiya, 'Con- 
ditional past/ or ,^*i^ ,e^t w2l mutamanm, ' Opta- 
tive past.' 

When the verb is transitive and the past participle is 
used, the agent must be substituted for the nominative as 
explained in respect of the principal tenses. 

us ne sund hogd, He will have heard, 
He must have heard. 
? ^ w ^ dekhd hotd, Had they seen. 


110. Passive Voice J_jf?r* u l*j fxl-i majkul. 

The passive verb is of rare occurrence in Hindu- 
stani, and its existence has been entirely denied. The 
necessity for it is obviated in a great degree by the great 
prevalence of intransitive verbs, for when, for instance, 
it is possible by the use of the intransitive verb banna, 
to say a thing ' is making? or in old parlance ' a-making' 
a passive form to say it 'is being made' is not required. 
The passive is however found in all writers, and owing 
perhaps to English influence it seems to be gaining 
ground. It is formed upon the same principle as the 
English passive, by means of the past participle arid an 
auxiliary verb. In Hindustani the verb liU- -jand, 
1 to go,' is used as the auxiliary, and the participle is 
made to agree in gender and number with the nominative. 

marajdnd, To be beaten. 
' Aorist. 

i^U (j-^t main mdrd <jJj^- <-_;U *& 


tu mdrdjdrve. 
wuh marajane. 

Fern. U marl. 

/*? warg 


/J turn mdrejao. 

jaw en. 
j,L. mdrln. 

we mare 

Imperative. , 

2nd pers. sing. U- ^U mdrdjd, ' Be thou beaten.' 
The rest as the Aorist. 




l&.U- ! .U , ,J 

.> . > t^" 

l}ojls-^Uy tumarajdrvega. 





Had I been beaten.' 


. p 


=r e^ <=. 


,t *j.J_ 
, tu, mill mdrdjdtd. 
>Fem. j'U- ^TiU mdrljdtl. 

- \ \ ' 

<=L ^T c_J^* c_^ - ** - (** 

we ware ;'a7e. 
?,U mdrljdtln. 

' I am being beaten.' 


mdrdjdld hufi. 

mdrljdtl /tun, etc,, etc. 


. mdrljdtl hain, etc., etc. 

mdrejdte hain. 

' I was beinff beaten.' 

M. b 

M. wza?Vt, tu,ivuhmdrdjdtdthd. 


mdrljdtl thl. 

ham, turn, rce marejdte the. 
mdrljdtl thlii. 


' I was beaten.' 

Fern. ^ 

M..main, tu, Kuhmaragaya. 


ham, turn, we mare gae. 

man ya Hi. 

' I have been beaten.' 



mara gaya huh. 
F. , ,*Jb ^xT ^U marl gal 
huh, etc., etc. 

gal /tain, etc., etc. 

' I had been beaten. 

, ww/e maragaya tha. 
marl gal thl. 

ham, turn, me mare gae the, 
marl gal thin. 

Conjunctive Participle. 
M. J*\s>- IjU marajahar. 
F. ^U- t/;U marljdkar, etc., etc. 

Adverbial Participle. 
M. ^j& <J\y>- l^U marajatc hi. 
l ;'a^ /a, 


Formation of Active and Causal Verbs. 

111. The primitive verb in Hindustani is generally 
neuter, but there are many verbs which are primarily 
active, as \jj* karnd ' to make,' L^3 likhnd, ' to write/ etc. 

112. The normal method of converting the neuter 
verb into the active is by adding \ d to the root ; the 
causal is formed by adding \j nd to the root thus, 

n' a' < -ts' 

U>\ ut/tnd, Lil^j\ uthdnd, u'^>\ uthndnd, 

to rise. to raise. to cause to raise. 

lixj paknd, liLG pakdnd, U'^o paktvdnd, 

to be cooked. to cook. to cause to cook. 

The letter ^ o is sometimes optionally used instead of \ d. 

113. There are neuter verbs which can have no active 
signification, and so have no active form, like li^ sond, 
f to sleep ;' U.j rond, ' to weep.' There are also active 


verbs which have no neuter form, like ujfc'it parhnd, 
' to read ;' L^3 likhnd, ' to write/ etc. Such neuter 
verbs form the causal with \ d and sometimes with ^ nd. 
The actives make their causals in both ways with d or nd. 
Examples of neuter verbs will be found under Rule 110. 
The following are examples of active verbs : 
Active. Causal. 

,, LUo par hand, ) to cause to 

L&'-j parhna, to read. , , -<* ' (. 

\j\Mt par/itvdnd,) read. 

Uy3 likhdnd, to cause to 
likhnd t to write. J ' 

U'^J likhndnd, write. 

sunnd, to hear. (j L-; sundnd,io cause to hear. 





114. Monosyllabic roots having a medial vowel 
between two consonants generally substitute a short 
vowel : 

a is substituted for a. 

i for l, e. 

u for it, o. 

~ jagna, 
to be awake. 

# bhlgnd, 
to be wet. 

>- jagana, 
to awaken. 

>- jagwdnd, 
to cause to awaken. 

j bhigndnd, 
to cause to wet. 

to lie down. 

U^ litwand, 
to cause to lay. 

j bhigdnd, 

j bhigond, 
to wet. 
^ litdnd, 

to lay. 

\ a 

^j.3 dubnd, ( Ubj dubdnd, \ ^V'3 dubndnd, 

j 1*6* } 

to drown (w.). ( Vi^o dubond, ) to cau se to drown. 

to drown (active). 

\Jjj bolnd, \jL buldnd, \j\^j bultvdnd, 

to speak. to call. to cause to call. 

The diphthongs ai and aw undergo no change. 

j^J pairnd, to swim. ULj pairdnd, to cause to swim. 
i?P daurnd. to run. UU^J daurand, to cause to run. 

. 115. Roots having a medial short vowel in their only 



or final syllable 
Active; as 


bL palnd, 
to be nourished 

Uoi katna, 

to be cut. 
bi^> khuhid, 

to open (neut.) 


xJ nikalna, 
to come out. 

generally lengthen that vowel in the 


U!b pdlnd, 
to nourish. 

$l katna, 

to cut. 

?i kholna, 

to open (c^. 
j nikalna, 
to take out. 


to cause to nourish. 


\j\j katwdnd, 

to cause to cut. 

llsi khulwand, 

to cause to open. 


\j&>, nikahvdnd, 
to cause to take out. 

116. Roots ending in vowels shorten the vowel and 
add to it the letter J /. These are generally verbs 
of only two forms as explained in Rule 113. The Neuters 
make their Causals by adding \ a ; the Actives by both 
\ d and \. wd. 

Neuter. Active. 

a, to live. 

rond, to weep. 

, to sleep. 

\jk>-jildnd, to animate. 

rulrcdnd, to cause 
to weep. 

suldnd, } to lull' ; - - 1 i 
also buLj suln 'ana, ) asleep. 

p nakdnd, 
to bathe. 

J nahldnd, ^'J* 
to cause to bathe, cause to be bathed. 


.Neuter. Active. Causal 

Wj dildnd, } to cause 
dcna, to give. ,,,/,.,, 

U'jJJ dilnaim, ) to give. 

l)i!j pilana, ) to cause 
a, to drink. o" 

\j\jjpiltvdna, ) to drink. 

U^ khilana, } 

hhdnd, to eat. o.- J feed. 

\)\y khihvana, ) 


UJ fewd, to take. l3\^ tin ana, to cause to 
So also some ending in consonants ; as 

bithana, | to cause 
to sit - \tf bithlana? } to sit. 

dekhna, UUi^ dikhana, 


/to show. 
to see. Ul^pO dikhlana, ) 

slkhna, \j\jL> slkhdnd, 

' to teach. 

to teach. U1^> sikklana, ) 

kahna, \^\^> kahana, ) to cause to 

to say. Ij^i kahlana, j say or call 2 

1 This is a multiform verb. It makes also ul^lLj baithuna^ \ji$Ls 

laithlana, UjUlLj baithfiliu^ and Vj AgtW baitharna. 

*~ " ' * *" I u x ' 

8 This is frequently read and translated as a passive ; thus J& \J))^ j. 

>/* Jcahlata hat, 'he is called,' but the true literal meaning"is 'he causes 
himself to be called,' or 'he gives himself the name.' So ,^* t-^J 

o^ ^ 

Ju,i ^ wM' kahltt'Of 'then call yourself generous.' "When a person 
causes another to be called, the form is '\j\y Jcahu-anu, so ^ ^; \ 
U ij,3 ,cjr, iLiJu ,t) **^* unh'in ne mujhe Ihi pudshahzudi 

XV *> J v L.* " ^^ * 

];ahii-aya, he (the king) "caused me also to be called princess. Biigh-o 
liahar, pp. 76, 92, 



117. There are a few words which form their Actives 
and Causals quite irregularly. 






iJo bikna, 

L=U bechna, 

L^yj bikndnd, to 

to be sold. 

to sell. 

cause to be sold. 

\^u phatna, 

U' ! lf> phdrnd, 

to tear. 

to be torn. 

\j\ji* pharana, 


loj&> phiitnd, 

lj?i> phorna, 
jj* r 

to be split. 

to split. 

o ^ 


wkjkj lUiYM, 

Ujy torwfi,' turrvdnd, to 

to be broken 

to break. 

cause to break. 




J?A=>- chhorna, 

lil.^^ c/t/iurwana, to 

to go off. 

to let go. 

cause to let go. 


IUM rahna, 

U^ rahhnd, 

\j\)&j ra/thndnd, to 

to remain. 

to place. 

cause to keep or place. 



J-LJ nibarna, 

b?Lj nibdrnd, 

to make an end, finish 

^* ^ 

J * *^ 

to end. 

IA.J nibernd, 

(see Rule 115). 

Compound Verbs. 

118. There is a great variety of Compound Verbs in 
Hindustani, and although some of them which have 
been so classified are phrases rather than compounds, 
it will be convenient to give them all together. 

/. Nominal*. 

119. These are very common. They are formed by 
adding a verb to an uninflected noun or adjective. The 


verb U^fc hona is used to make neuter verbs, and \jj* 
harna to make actives, as \Jj& %-*&- jama hona, ' to meet 
together,' \jj *-*>- jama karnd, ' to bring together.' 
But although hona and harna are the verbs most com- 
monly used, other verbs are idiomatically employed ; as 
ana, rahna, dena, lagna, lend, mdrnd, rakhna, etc. : 

liJ J^ mol-lena, to purchase. 
UT ,li ham-ana, to be of use (also, to be used up, or, 

be killed). 

LJ J ^jlf gdll-dcna, to abuse. 
UjU <&j ghota-marna, to dive, 
l^^, jb ydd-rahhnd, to remember. 
U^ Ij^j paida-karna, to create, to produce. 

//. Compounds formed with the Root. 
These are Intensives, Potentials, and Completives. 

120. Intensive. A root with some other verb idiom- 
atically joined to it. The root expresses the idea, the 
second or servile verb generally merges its own meaning 
in that of the root, giving force and emphasis to it. The 
root never alters, but the servile verb is conjugated, and 
hence the compound follows the construction of the 
servile. If that is neuter the compound is neuter, if it 
is active the compound is active. There is no rule as to 
the proper servile verb to be used, idiom alone determines 
this. Some roots have two or three intensive forms. 


\jT ^ ban-ana, to be effected, to succeed ; from li bannd, 
to be made, and \f\ ana, to come. 

lii lie-ana (by contraction \^lana\ to bring, / f ro , m 

\ UJ /,?, 

UU- J le-jand, to take away, ) to take. 

i khd-jdnd, to eat up, from Ul^ khdna, to eat. 
so-jdnd, to go to sleep, from \J^> sond, to sleep. 

The above are all neuter because liT ana and UU- 
jdnd are neuter. 

Uj j ^ rakh-dend, to put down,from U^ rakhnd, to place. 
UJ ^-j pi-lend, to drink off, from Lo /?!, to drink. 
IJ^J^U mdr-ddlnd, to kill outright, from bjU mdrnd, 
to strike, kill. 

These are all active. 

Active roots may take neuter serviles and so become 
neuter ; but neuter roots do not take active serviles, so 
they remain neuter. 

Some verbs have two intensive forms, the distinctive 
meaning of which is not always nicely discriminated ; 
thus liU- ys> ho-jdnd and ti>j y& ho-rahnd, are both 
explained as ' to be, to become,' but l)lsy yb ho-jdnd 
signifies ' to become,' and LJSM y& ho rahnd, ' to be, to 
remain.' The first implies a change of state, the second 
a continuance of state. So also UU>- ^ so-jdnd means 
' to go to sleep,' \^^> so-rahnd, ' to continue asleep.' 

There are a few Intensives formed with the Past 
Participle instead of the Root. See Rule 139. 


121. Potentials. These are formed by adding the 
neuter verb UL* saknd, ' to be able,' to the root. 


UL^ kar-sakna, to be able to do. 
UL \sr-ja-sakna,, to be able to go. 
In the Present and Past Tense the defective verb can, 
could, is the equivalent of L-J saknd ; and the construction 
of this verb in English is identical with that of bJLs saknd, 
in Hindustani. 

jj^jfc l^Cj ,__J ,.-^ TwazVi rf<? saktd kiln, I can give. 
ULs .^o j j WM^ cfeM sakd, he could see. 

122. Completives. These are made by adding the 
neuter verb UX- chuknd, ' to finish/ to the root of a verb. 


tihh-chukna, to finish writing. 
khd-chuknd, to have done eating. 
.A ^^-^ *j ^'^^ ro-chukta hai, he leaves off weeping. 
^o- \ *j wuh ga-chukl, she finished singing. 

III. From Ike Present Participle. 

123. Continuatives. Formed by placing a Present 
Participle before the verbs UW jdnd or Lfcj raknd, to 
express a continuous action. The participle and the 

verb must both agree with the nominative. 

, - 

^jb \S\9f l^J sj wuh baktajdtd hai, he keeps talking. 

Xj wuk rotl rahtl kai, she goes on crying. 

U. IjU- ij nuh jdtd rahd, he continued going, 
he went right away, departed, died. 


124. Statistical. These are formed with the inflected 
present participle followed by a verb of motion. 

jjb /F ,-j.lf j rouh gate dtl hai, she comes singing. 

1$; Ij'U- ...jjy ( j^ main rotejdtd thd, I was going along 

125. Neither of these can be considered true com- 
pounds. In thefirst the participle is used as an adjective; 
in the second it is used adverbially, the participle having 
, ^^ men understood after it : ' She comes (in the state 


of) singing.' 

1 V.From the Past Participle. 

126. Desideratives or Optatives. Formed by adding 
LfeU- chahna, ' to wish,' to an uninflected past participle 
as La>U- 1>7 dyd-chdhnd, ' to wish to come.' 

Chahna, like the equivalent verb in other languages, 
often implies the immediate intention of doing some- 
thing, so that U&1>- 3jj bold chahna, may mean ' to wish 
to speak,' or ' to be about to speak.' 

^ li*l- l^i Sj ivuh tiltha, chdhtd hai, ' he wishes to 

write,' or ' he is about to write.' 
, -& , jul>. V s null bold chahtl hai, ' she wishes to 

^f ^!? -/-' 

speak,' or ' she is about to speak.' 
\-^^_) we mard chdhte the, ' they were about 

to die.' 

chdhiye, the respectful imperative of chahna 
is also similarly used with the past participle ; as 


sikhd-chciJnye, ' one ought to learn,' or 
literally ' one should wish to learn.' See Syntax. 


127. These are formed in the same way by adding 
\ij> karnd, to an unin fleeted past participle ; thus 

b\j>- Xj rcuhjdya kartd hai, he goes frequently. 

^_) me par/td karte /tain, they read con- 

128. Observe. 1. In these two compounds the parti- 
ciple always remains in the masc. sing, although the 
nominative be feminine or plural. 2. l&JtU* chakna and 
\jj$ karna,, being active verbs, require the case of the 
agent when their past participles are used : the agree- 
ment of the verb then accords with the rule given in 
Rule 105. 

129. l-U- jaya, and L* mard, the regular past parti- 
ciples of l)U- jana and U.^ mama, are used in these 
compounds, not the irregular forms lo' gaya and \y* 
mud. \Jj* marnd, however, can never be required as a 

130. There are some Intensive verbs formed with the 
past participle instead of the root, as liU- 5U- ckala 

jana, ' to go along ;' UA^ \ laga rahnd, ' to be engaged.' 


The Participle generally agrees with the nominative in 
gender and number ; as 

.j e chale jate the, they were 
going along. 

0/wn pan-phirti thi, the fox 
was prowling about. 

^ b'U U* <_ c^JLs.^ khijalat se mua-jdta hai, he 

is dying with shame. 

But sometimes the participle is used in the inflected 

^ v f 

form : as . J& Uj>- < i>- ** ww/i chale-chalta hai. ' it is 

V.^ v - v J 

moving along.' 

V.From the Inflected Infinitive. 

131. There are three common kinds of combinations 
with the Inflected Infinitive, but they are phrases rather 
than compounds, the infinitive being governed by the 
annexed verb. 

132. Inceptivcs. Formed with the Inflected Infinitive 
and the verb U! lagna, when the verb lagna signifies 
' to begin,' a sense which it rarely or never bears when 
used alone. 

US ^y *j muli bolne laga, he began to speak. 
,& cs^CiJ *j ivuh dekhne lagl, she began to look. 

133. Fermissives. The Inflected Infinitive with the 
verb Uj ;J dena, ' to give,' as 


^w\ 2 we bolnediya, he allowed (him) to speak. 


sakna and lU- chdkna are found exceptionally 
combined with the Inflected Infinitive ; as 


<J\pf-jdne saknci, to be able to go. 
_;.$.; j dekhne chdhna, to wish to see. 

134. Acquisitives. These are the opposites of the 
last ; they are formed with the Inflected Infinitive and 
the verb lib pana, ' to get;' Ul> <JU- jane pana, ' to get 
(leave) to go.' 

VI. Belter atlves. 

135. The Reiterative is a compound of two verbs of 
similar sense or sound, partly for emphasis of expression, 
partly for euphony or mere jingle. The parts of the 
verb so joined are the present and the conjunctive 

^. *- o 

jj-jfe ^>- ...Jy ,__. tve bolte chaUehain, they are conversing. 
^ \2Jtjj k-fCj w_?Lua- Ujl *j nuh apna hisab dekhta 
parhta hai, he is examining his accounts. 

-i^y. cJ^T J n bujk kar, having known, wilfully, 


In the above examples the second verb has a distinct 
meaning and its effect is apparent. But in phrases like 
the following the second verb has lost its separate mean- 
ing, if it ever had any. 

N^ dekhta bhalta, looking at. 
sl-sa-kar, having sewed up. 


d/iO-cUtd bar, having washed. liUj <//<awa has 
a meaning, but it is incongruous. 


136. Adverbs and the remaining parts of speech fall 
under the classification of < J^>- harf, indeclinable words 
or particles. These words are most useful and play 
a very important part in the language. 

137. Adjectives are frequently used as adverbs, but 
when so employed they are undeclined and remain in 
their primary form, i.e. the masculine singular. 

^ 1^3 \^-\ <^-~-tf *j nuh lahut achchlta likhta hai, 
he writes very well. 

138. There is a quintuple series of adverbs and 
adjectives all formed upon the same principle from the 
Pronouns of the third person. These words are formed 
so similarly and harmoniously that the adjectives have 
been reserved to this place in order that the whole may 
be exhibited together in a tabular form. Dr. Gilchrist 
used to call this series, somewhat fancifully, the 'philo- 
logical harp.' These words, which are six in number, 
have five different forms, viz., Demonstrative proximate, 
Demonstrative remote, Interrogative, Relative, and Cor- 
relative. The first four words in the following table are 
adverbs and are indeclinable, the last two are adjectives 
and are declinable like other adjectives in \ a. 




^ 62 


o 2 02-5 _ 



t-> ^5 ,r ri 
H - S 3 S a 

rC rfl . g ^ 2 


C -J3 ., 



*^ o <s ^3 oo a 

05 u 



*3 - iT m O 3 . -i_-_r- , 

" '1 " 




r<T "^ "^ ^ '* -2 l:T 

52 -S '-S * S J** ^ 

^S (8 



:- J-jV i-j M *** 




] ^ ~^>\ D J : "JJ J' 

J I 

C o .a 

t* CO 

i i > 


O GJ C3 " 

o .2 

fj o 73 oT o 

O r-C "* C3 Z3 

rn > ^ QJ CO r^ 

* 2 ".- 



^ ^ 1^ cj ^~ _ _, 



x ~"" 7 

' '! ^ . s" T~ i ~ 

*g * 



"* *^T "^ tS 'S . H ^s 

^ S .2 


** 1^ 

.^j ^ .^ ^ .5^ *?j *s -is 

S *& 


T* ^ 

? T- ? P N ? T : ^ ^ 


V \ t^' 

\ ** -j ^^ * t\ }= j If i A x 

IQ pr t r^ 


j' o *^j i -^ ~~* 



e" " . o 

/x. ,x. 

S r-.^3 Q 

- S o .. 

* ** S 



n-. O S ^d 

i lii in 

s > * 

^. . 

o " 






-r ^ ^| ^ *'S '" '^ -s" 

fcC '^S to ^3 


i<s- ^ ^ ^ <i JS V^ -*^ 

. -^ ^ o 


\y% \s\ \ \ xi \ -\ **^ ^"^ *"^ 

'c "-^ ^ 



\ *"^ 

I ^? J O ^ Jc i ; V/i 4 ^O ^ 

& >> =3 ^ 

>-. o *" 


" H B 

.%&.<**& "a _a 

c -2 o >-. 





M S 



S ^ '? ."^ '^ J 7^ ^^ 

5 ^ a> S 
c B 

H g 

( a 

!?; a 


|| o | | '1 1 | 1 .3 

o -.. '^ .To 






IH"^ ^"? "T^'S" 

- v * -J ~S J J-3- 3 

1 I j i 

ifl -S h 

~ K ^ ^ 

"o <S is" ^ 


03 fc< fl pZ, to ,JS 




U *^ ^H "^ *"" 5S 

^ - CS ^ 

5 w 


" "^ .2 ^ , ~T-' -- ^ 

^ ^ < 2 

M -< 


O *'3 b" *t -5 ^ "^ 

f g.!/s 



5 1 1. 1 1 1 1 

5 o ~ 
^ 3 g -g 

^, p " 

s ^ 




3 -^'V^s 'j^f 

~ r 5 


C^l IO ^t* *O CD 


139. Some of the above are rendered more emphatic 
by the introduction of the particles I, la, /tin, meaning 
' very,' ' indeed,' etc. By adding hi to the first class we 
get ^j\ abhl, 'just now,' 'at this very time;' ^^ 
kabhl (or ^ kabhu), 'ever;' ^J tab/il, 'at that 
very time.' 

140. By changing the final U U hah of the second 
class to ( j.js> hin, the following are formed. 

^j yahlh, just here, in this place, in this way. 
-wuliln, just there, in that place, in that way. 
hahlh, anywhere, somewhere (with a negative 

141. From the fourth the following are formed by 
adding { j^> /tin. 

,j-^5 yunhih, in this very way, time or place. 

rvunhlti (or rconhln), in that very way, time or 
place, thereupon. 
^jf>- jonhm, as soon as. 

142. The fifth add the particle ^ hi, separately. 
js L*jl aisa /, just like this. 

* \^>-jaisd hi, just such as. 

a L*-i /eaisa hi, how very (large, small, etc.), ever so. 

143. Some of the sixth may add the particle 
men, 'in.' 


ij\ itne men, in this much, meanwhile. 
men, in as much. 

144. The addition of the word d> takor<*Lj talak, 
' to,' ' till/ makes another series. 

(^i u- 1\ ab tali, till now. 

-^ hob tak, till when ? how long ? 

^sr ,/ a ^ ta^ as l n g as > whilst. 

-^j ta& ^, till then. 

,l^ yahah tak, to this degree, to such an extent. 

145. Eepetition of the adverbs or the coupling of them 
forms some more useful expressions : 

c& ^ kabhi kabld, sometimes. 
^ j .g kabhl not kabfil, some time or other. 
^ i_-^- Jab kabJd, whenever. 

^cr~ . . / 

kablti nahlh, never. 
kahlii na kahlii, somewhere or other. 
*rJ^** kahah, here and there. 
fr J a hu* 1 kuhlii, wherever. 
j\ our kahlh, somewhere else, anywhere else. 
.tT jaise ka taisa, such as before, self same. 
-J ^*>*^" jaisd taisa, so so, as well as. 
>- jaisd hi, as though, just as if. 

146. There are three negative particles or adverbs 
na, ^J nahlh, and c^. mat. The first is the 


simple negative 'not,' used with any of the tenses. 
^t-^J naklh is more emphatic, and may be used with any 
part of the verb with the exception of the Imperative. 
It is offcf n used as if it included in itself the substantive 
verb ^^j j*~>. ^s? huchh kkabar nahln, ' there is no 
news.' ei~ mat is the prohibitive particle 'don't,' 
and is used with the second person of the Imperative 
and with the Respectful. U- e^^ mat jd, ' don't go ;' 

*~* j2j# bhuliyo mat, 'don't forget;' tr-Jj ,_ < == r'5- s 

* i^ ' * 

&> <^~ crfT* sone ' e waft mujhe mat jag aw, ' at 

the time of (my) sleeping do not wake me/ 

147. The following adverbs of time are peculiar: 
_T aj, ' to-day ;' Ji kal, ' to-morrow or yesterday ; ' 
^j*--^ parson, ' the day after to-morrow, or the day 

o c 

before yesterday ;' ,jj~y (arson, 'three days,' and jj^-y 
narsoh, ' four days ago or hence.' The use of the past 
or future tense of the verb determines their by-gone or 
future signification. 

148. There are many other adverbs, of which the 
following are some of the most useful : 

^ jo, if, when, and its correlative^ to ory ta,then. 
(j*,l> ^wT as pas, around, on all sides. 
-# jj] aur bhi, still more. 

^j bin, also, even. 
l j~* (j*\ is men, hereupon. 




is liye, 

on this account, therefore. 

Ids waste, on what account, wherefore, why ? 
t-^J nahm to, otherwise. 

^ ^a>, again. 

,__ j /??*, over, beyond, on that side. 
.-I. ware, on this side. 

!?V, always. 

149. The Conjunctive Participle is also used adverbially. 
>- chup-ke, silently. 
--o soch-kar, deliberately. 
kans-kar, laughingly. 

150. Many are borrowed from Persian and Arabic. 

<z,j\i bare, at last. 


\Aj\i bar ha, (times) of ten. 
^^ pas, therefore. 
teg L> chunanchi, so, thus, 

A^-^jb hamesha, always. 


Juli shayad, perhaps. 
^^- 1 aK/itr, i> M f^~ 
ask, at last. 

Also some Arabic phrases, as 


\^fi-lhal ) at present. 

/aw, immediately. 

albatta, certainly. 
gharaz, ^^\ al- 

gkaraz, in short. 
faJkatfOnly merely, 


al-Jdssa, in short. 
t^Lai kazara, 

. by chance, 
j u wis kaza/tar, ) ' 

.ix) yane, that is to say, viz. 


e *ft-l hakikat, in truth. 

j bi-l kidl, entirely. 


u bi-l f* I, in fact. 

151. The Arabic accusative case, marked by the 


tannin offat/td \ (an), is used adverbially. 

\J\AJ\ ittifakan, by chance, it happened. 
* r'f 
Us^ari- khususan, especially. 


ULs-1 ahyanan, sometimes, from time to time. 

\j*j>- jabran, perforce. 
5lL mislan, for example. 

Many other adverbs might be added, but their place 
is the Dictionary rather than the Grammar. 


152. In Hindustani there are no Prepositions properly 
so called, the only words approaching them are the Post- 
positions used in the declension of the noun. The want 
of such words has been supplied by a number of nouns 
used clliptically with the genitive case. The nouns so 
employed are all in an oblique case, the particles ,*, 
men, ^i se, etc., being understood ; so, such as them as 
are of the masculine gender require the genitive in < he, 

and such as are feminine take . $ Id. 


153. Thus the word (->-- sabab is a noun meaning 
' cause,' ' reason/ and the phrase k_--~-j l> ^~\ is ha 


salab, means ' the cause of this ;' but the words <_ ^] 
<*~~~i is ke sabab, have the particle ,--; se (from) im- 
plied, and so they signify ' because of this.' So also 
l^srj pichhd, means 'the rear/ but gasy pichhe is 
equivalent to ( j^ crf^Ii pwhhe men, and means * in 
the rear.' 

104. The following are masculine and take ,_ ke, but 
some of the more common occasionally reject the ,_ /r, 
as (j\j (JM\ is pas, 'near this;' <-kA ^^ /(is waste, 'on 
what account;' <s= ^ UM\ is liye, 'on this account,' 
' therefore.' \ 

loo. Masculine words requiring the genitive in ke. 
e_^jl irade, with the design. 
c __y j\ az-rue, with the look, in the way. 
(JM\) (JM\ as pas, around. 

,-fT age, 1 before, in front. 


jjj\ andar, within. 
j\ upar, above, on the top. 
U ba*s, by reason. 
b bd-n'iijiid, notwithstanding. 
b ba-rcasf, notwithstanding. 

_a>l> bahir, outside. 


_Uc; ba-jd'e, instead, in place. 
\ss^ ba-juz, except. 

j badal, \ . 

/ } instead, m exchange. 

tf sometimes takes the ablative, thus, it if aye, previous to this, 


jj bidun, without. 
ji^ji barabar, equal to. 
^_\j) barae, for the sake, for. 
lr^j bar-khilaf, in opposition, contrary. 
ji!aj ba-taur, in the way, like. 

oju 6a6?, after (as to time). 

.-jo baghair, without, except. 

- ba-mujarrad, at the instant. 

* ba-manzila, in the position. 

MT? ^'w, 7 

> without 

jbj binabar, on account of, because. 
^j^ bharose, in reliance, 
^.j blch, in, among. 

o , v x 

Jo- .--j be hukm, without orders. 

j\j par, over, on the other side, 
(JM\> pas, near. 
e _^saj plchhe, behind. 

_jlj M^*, obedient, submissive. 
,Jj tale, under. 
j>-juz, except. 

hasbu-l Inikm, according to the order. 
huzur, in the presence. 
hatvale, in charge. 
kharij, without, excluded. 
khilaf, contrary, opposed. 


dar-pai, in pursuit. 
* jJ dar miyan, between, among. 
j j zarie, by means, through. 

^* J zimme, in trust. 

' _ ; 

^ ru-oa-ru, in presence. 

j sa^/^, with, along with. 
.- samhne, before, in front. 
' sabab, because. 
supurd, in charge. 

*~t sirva, \ 

. _, ( except, besides, instead. 

shamil, along with, inclusive. 
fawr, in the way, like. 
arse, for the period. 
aldwa, moreover, besides. 
*?vaz, instead. 
J-s kabl, before. 
, near. 
7, capable. 
^ kanare, on the bank or margin. 

Itane, near. 
> gird, around. 
%g, for, on account. 
'?^:/ worthy. 

'A sometimes takes the Dative ko, thus Jb 


la'ik hai, is worthy of him. Khirad Afroz, p. 54. 



by means. 

mare, by reason of, through. 
muttasil, near. 

muta'allik, dependent, connected. 
mutabik, conformable, corresponding. 
mukabil, facing, encountering. 
munafik, fit, suitable, according. 
a mujib, 
ndzdik, near. 
. !c^^, beneath. 
waste, for, on account. 
war-par, right through on both sides. 
waslle, by means. 
tvakt, at the time. 
MM, by the hand, by means. 
ham-rah, along with. 
u \^j yahan, at the abode. 

156 The following are feminine and take hi : 

b babat t concerning. 
ba-daulat, by means. 
janib, on the side, 


jagah, in the place. 
jihat, on account. 
khatlr, for the sake. 

_cjbj zabaril, from tlie 


simt, towards. 
-Jo tarah, like, after 

the manner. 
jjx** man/at, through. 

o > 

-.wuJ nlsbat, \ relative, 
*~*~i ba-nisbat, j in reference 


157. There are a few words which take their proper 
genitive form in ^ kl, when they follow the noun, but 
take c he when they precede it ; thus <-J>Ja i ara f> 
' towards,' is feminine, and the phrase runs u_ ijo ^^-1 
shahr kl taraf, but <^.j^> ^*) taraf shahr ke, ' towards 
the city.' See Syntax. 

J ba-madad, with the aid. 
>;j ba-nisbat, with respect to. 
t-j be-marzl, without the consent. 

taraf, towards. 

manind, like. 


JL misl, like, such as. 

158. Persian and Arabic Prepositions are occasionally 
used. These do not require the genitive 

Persian. Arabic. 

j\ az, from, by. }\ ilia, except, besides. 
b ba, with, possessed of. L bila, without. 

<0 bah, \ by, J^lc aid, upon 

or when connected, / with, ^ an, from. 

j ba-, bi-, j in. 4.vxc *nd, near, with. 

iar, on, at fit in, per. 

along with. 

pesh, } J la, li, for. 


ut*, _^ 

.J c?r, in. jt* 

jjj ^er, under. jt*j ba-mah. 

^t min, from. 


159. The words in paras. 155 and 156 are chiefly of 
Arabic and Persian extraction, but some of them, as 
*>\ age, ^b pas, cr-f^ij plchhe, <G'La sdth, etc., are of 
Indian origin. As the language departs from the 
Musulman standard and assumes a Hindi character, 
Hindi terms take the place of these foreign words. 
One very common word c^-~*~j samet, ' along with/ is 
used with the oblique form without 
hathiyoh samet, 'along with the elephants ;' 
us samet, 'along with him/ There are many similar 
words which must be sought for in Hindi grammars and 
dictionaries, but the following are some of the most 
common, used in such books as the Baital Pachisl and 
Sinhasan Battisl. 

arth, for the sake. samdn, like, equal to. 

bkltar, within. samai, \ 

-. / at the time. 

jog, fat. samain, ) 

haran, because. sarnlp, near. 

nikat, near. sammukh, ) in presence, 

nimltt, because. sohhm, j before. 


lhanti, in the manner. 
biriyan, at the time. 
or, towards. 



j>\ agar,^ gar, if. 
&>~j*\ agarchi, although. 

\ az bas ki, since, inasmuch as. 
amma, but, moreover, nevertheless. 
aur, and, also, other. 
bal/ti, but, rather. 
bhl, also, indeed. 
par, but, still. 
pas, therefore, thence. 
'J ta-ki, in order that. 
to, then. 
o, if, when. 

hal-an Id, whereas, notwithstanding. 
A^>. khipah, either, whether. 
<^ /', that, because, saying. 
L^ /eya kya, whether or. 
&>) kyunki, because^ 
Ijjf goya, as if. 
&^ go-Id, although. 
^/w, but, yet. 
magar, except, unless. 
^> nahln to, otherwise, if not. 
j-j nlz, also. 

o or wa, and. 
j. war and^ vca-gar (for iva-cigar}, and if. 


Ajjy nar-na (for wa agar no), and if not. 
*& ham, also, likewise, con, 
har-chand, although. 
hanoz, yet. 
> ya, or, either. 

161. Interjections. 
3\ of sos, } 

i -s I a ^ S ' 11 

haif, ) excellent! 

afrin, bravo ! lo, see ! lo ! 

\ * /"\IT. i * t * t .**""* & 1 9.^ 

-*' 'V?-^ ' alas'l 

U aya, how ? what ? l>j ^Jj no, e -naila,, , 

^1 are, ho ! holla ! <-_l.& ,-Afc /^ae 7<ae, dear ! 
9\i bap-re (father) my \j \j nah nah, good! 
goodness ! bravo ! 

Widbar-dar, beware, jLj ; zinhar, } 

** > beware ! 

take care. J VO z ^ n ^ ar > } 

shabash, capital ! 
<__j r^, n, oh ! agrees in gender, as /s _j <Jty 
re, you boy ! ^ <!y larkl rl, you girl. 


162. The Numerals are properly adjectives, but the 
Hindustani numerals present such peculiarities and re- 
quire so much explanation, that the usual practice of 
dealing with them separately has been followed. The 
numerals up to one hundred are seemingly irregular, the 


tens and units being apparently joined upon no certain 
principle. The explanation of this is easy. Most nations 
having settled a series of units and tens connect them 
according to the principles of their own language ; but 
the speakers of Hindustani borrowed the whole hundred 
ready formed from the Sanskrit, shortening and corrupt- 
ing each word to suit their vernacular pronunciation. 
So that although each compound is plainly traceable to 
its appropriate ten and unit, the actual forms of the 
words vary considerably. This fact presents a curious 
philological problem : Were the original speakers of 
Hindustani ignorant of numbers, or did they discard 
a defective arrangement for the more scientific system of 
the Sanskrit? 


oj eh. 


*jlj barah. 

jj do. 


XjJ terah. 

f J tin. 


*y>~ chaudah. 

.=>- char. 


i^Jcj pandrak. 

l> panch. 


<&j~> solah. 

>- chha. 


ijx-j sat rah. 



Ls sat. 

i r> 

is,\\ athdrah. 


pi ath. 

k jV|^1 at hard. 


( ij~j \ uriis. 

y na^. 


yuJ rf^5. 

[ ^jju-J \ unrils. 

il^. igarah. 


IIM.*) OlS. 

Lf gyarah. 


u~ ^*- 






' teis. 

- chaubis. 

J^ at ha Is t 


~J\ untis. 

sJ\ untalls. 


be alls. 

y* tetalis. 
( ^-JliLj taint alls. 

44 jj*J,L>. chau'ahs. 

45 ^j*J luLj paintalls. 









^f, pachas. 
^^' ihdrvan. 
b barcan. 


[ ^ 

\ unsath, 




64 4&4P* chausatk. 

( -'^r<; pachdsl. 

J* x OO 

*sr w * 

65 .^A-^-J painsath. 

I ^Ucy panchdsl. 

66 .fL:L$>- chhiydsath. 

!, e -jLA>- chhiydsi. 
^ v w 

67 ^Iwl-Ll satsath. 

^U=- chhdsl. 

\ ~M*Z.<\ atliSath. 87 

. ^l^c satdsl. 

68 ^^ 


( ^1^1 arsath. 83 

^-jUj^ athdsi. 

69 ^V^ unhattar. 89 

^-j^J nau'dsl. 

70 yL */. 90 

c _j naurce. 

71 ji$ ikhattar. 91 

C J li], iltdnarce. 

72 ^jj bahattar. 

( c_y^ bdnawe. 

( Ll tihattar. 


,__ylj bdnauwe. 

73 ^T x 
( j^>jj tirhattar. 

\ c_y]/ birdnauive. 

74 ^>^=- chauhattar. OQ 

> v v yt) 

( c_y^-i tirdnarce. 

75 j^^pachhattar. 

( c_j>\jj tirdnauroe. 

( j^>- chhihattar. 9* 

^_y\jf>- chaurdnane. 

I *4>* chhahattar. n - 

* V v Vf ) 

{^yl^r pachdnane. 


77 /-f^ sathattar. 

.-^.yls^j panchdnawe. 

78 pu^i athattar. 
> T ^, 9o 

^yL^ chhiydnane. 

79 _ .-Ij \ undsl. 

,-__jjl^- chhdnawe. 

80 "^ assL 97 

e^yl^-j satdnawe. 

81 .^lil z/tosL 98 

^yl^jl athdnane. 

82 , ^Lj bedsl. 

|,-_^lij nindnane. 

" 99 
83 15-^ tirasi. 

<__y^ naudnarce. 

84 ^-^'jf- ckaurasl. 100 


All the <w0s may be optionally written tlCj ^ instead 

of u/1 2/i as ^uu^r^ ^Ai5, 21 ; ( - 

^\ ekdsi, 81. 


163. After 100 the series is carried on in the same 
way as in English, but without any conjunction, as 


d&J j~> CJoJ ek sait ek, 101 ; ^[^ j* *^b panch sau 
tirdsi, 583 ; JLfcb ^ ^T ^^fc cl>\ ^ hazar ath sau 
bdhattar, 1872 ; or .-Lab j~> Sj\\ athdrah sau bdhattar, 
eighteen hundred and seventy-two. 

164. Expedients are resorted to in the South and by 
the illiterate in other parts to obviate the use of this 
somewhat complex series. After twenty,y par is placed 
after the decimal and the unit is added ; thus 


bis par pdnck, 25, or ' five over twenty.' 
challs par sat, 47, or ' seven over forty.' 

The score ^"^ kon, is also used as with us ; so 

o "'' 

^\^ O j^i j3 do kon panch, ' two score and five.' 
lj* j t^fj< ij~l ti n kofi aas > ' three score and ten.' 
These modes of counting should be known, but they 

do not obviate the necessity of learning the century of 


165. The numerical figures are the Arabic, from 
which our own are derived, and they are combined in 
the same way. 

\ r r f i v A ^ 


n rv * n vwr 

21 37 50 101 1872 


166. The word <JX\ ek added to any aggregate 
number has the sense of about, as tlXjl u* V^ v P ac ^ s e ^'> 
1 about fifty ;' CXI ^J etas ek, ' about ten.' The words 
\lguna and .il&- chand, have the sense of fold; as b^jJ 
do puna, j^^-^j c/0 chand, ' two-fold;' LS > chau guna, 
jc*>-jl>- char chand, 'four-fold, quadruple:' Ji^> chand 
is more commonly joined to the Persian forms of the 
numerals as Jki>- euJb> haft chand, ' sevenfold.' ^b bar 
means 'times,' as jb ^ tin bar, 'three times;' the 
word <Utij cfo/5 is also used in the same way. Nume- 
rals are coupled together without any conjunction, as 

c. o 

c^'Ls ^b panch sat, *^\j ^jygj </s panch, meaning 
indefinitely ' five or seven,' ' from five to ten.' ->'Ls ^/J-s^ 
pachas sath, ' fifty or sixty.' Distributives are formed by 


doubling the numbers, as ^J .> ofo e?0, ' two apiece ; ' ^b 
^rb panch panch, ' five apiece,' ' by fives.' 

167. Ordinals are formed from the cardinals by the 
addition of u \j wait. But a few of the earlier numbers 
are formed like ordinary adjectives. 

LJ pahla or pahila, first. , ,^<w chhatrcan, \ . 

* ^^ > * ' oivfn 

I ' t 1 77/1 ***V** 

Luij J dusrd, second. ^-i^- clihatiia, 

C- ^ 

Lwu-J if?5m, third. iiV^ satnan, seventh. 

l^j_p- chautha, fourtli. <j\jf^ &thn:aii, eighth. 
^l^srlj panchrcah, fifth. u ^ wa/rart,?mw/^a,ninth. 

u ^j dasrcan, tenth. 

And so on regularly. ^ Jl*<l i/tlswan, twenty-first ; 
uSJ batfiswah, thirty-second. 


The terminations \ a and ^ wan are changeable to 
e and ^ wen for the inflection masculine, and to 
and wm for the feminine ender 

168. Aggregate Numbers. 

\3^ ganda, a quater- hCls saikra, a hundred. 

,' nion, a four. J\j^ hazar, a thousand. 

Jt>\ gahl, a five, .g}/a/iA,ahundred thousand 

i_?J/ kon t a score. \* karor, one hundred 

- chdllsa, a forty. /a/^s, or ten millions. 

These aggregate terms take the termination on for 
the plural when they are used indefinitely as c _J x) ^^ 
lakhoh ritpae, ' lacs of rupees ; ' ^i jrtjC- saikron 
shahr, ' hundreds of cities : ' the full construction seems 
to be 'rupees by lacs,' 'cities by hundreds/ This same 
termination ^ oh, added to ordinary numerals, makes 
them specific, as ^^ donoh, ' the two, both ; ' jjyj^V 
bdration, ' the twelve.' The use of this termination on 
in connexion with numerals is explained more fully in 
the Syntax. 

169. Fractional Numbers. 

) A Vi/^V \ 3 

ckauthal, j U J paund, j v 

^a'!, 3. ^ sw, 1 j (with a quarter). 


adhd, 2- *"jj ^r^> ^1- 

i'z, 2^. 



The word ^J^ paune added to a number signifies 
minus, \^> sarva, j plus, and ^.jbjL sarhe, plus ; thus 
3^ eJjj paune do, (2 j) 1| ; _jj ^ s<m-a cfo, 
(2 + I) 2|. 3 is the first numeral to which 


sar/ta can be added, so we have ^J ^jf 

o o *"^" 

(3 + |) 3| ; ^lj ^jsjL sar/^ panch, (5 + ^) 5|. 

Some of these are used to reduce fractions still lower, 


as jb *jj derh pao, (1| of 1 =) f ; ^\j ^Ujl arha'l 

pao, (2| of ^ =) |. These fractions are also employed 
with aggregate numbers ; as 

^> (JjJ paune sau, (100 i of 100) 75. 
J ^ sawa SM, (100 + i of 100) 125. 
^ ajj J rf<?M sa, (1J of 100) 150. 

paune do sau, (200 of 100) 175. 
>1 sana do sau, (200 + of 100) 225. 
*j\ arha'l sau, (2% of 100) 250. 
\r sand hazar, (1000 + 1 of 1000) 1250. 
j ; j rfeM Itazar, CH of 1000) 1500. 

kazar, (2000 - 1 of 1000) 1750. 
sana do hazar, (2000 + of 1000) 2250. 
(2J of 1000) 2500. 

170. Besides the ordinary series of numerals there 
is another called ^j Rakam, used in commercial and 
monetary transactions (see Plate 1). The figure used for 
1 is an abridgment of the word J.xe adad, ' a unit;' that 

/ 2 


30 40 ffo 


soo zoo zoo boo too 6>oo joo 800 

2000 3000 4600 5000 000 f000 S6ffO 



/ n^t^t- 

e,</t>v wa ioooteoo 3Stoooo 40000000 


r / 


for 2 is an abridgment of ^J^xc adad&n, ' two units ;' the 
other figures are initials or abbreviations of the Arabic 
numerals, but some of them have been so altered as to 
retain but little resemblance to their prototypes. The 
Arabic numerals are very little used in Hindustani, but 
they are employed in numbering the years of the Shuhur- 
gau era in Western India. They are as follows : 

1 j&*.\ ahadun, 6 Hz~> sittatun. 

2 ,.,UJ1 isndni. 7 <ix~> sabatun. 

3 <L$J salasatun. 8 *J.Uj samamyatun. 

Ss,<Jl 5^0 

4 &MJ\ arba'atwi. 9 ^J tisatun. 

5 <XM*^>- Jchamsatun. 10 IjLs. 'asharatun. 
From 10 to 19 they are formed by adding the unit to 

10 as li*Jk>-\ ahad as/iara, 11, etc. The word for 20 
is J;jj A^ ishruna. From thirty to ninety the tens are 
made by adding the plural termination una to the unit 
as ,r,y^J salasund 30, ,..5*->^ arba'una 40, etc. One 

^-^ " S-i " 1 

hundred is iJl* miatun (100); 200 ,.,1^1* ml'atani; 300 

m % * " ~* ? O " ' 

iUcL?lj salasu mi'atin; 500 ^>U />**4ci. Ithamsu mi'atin, 

#" ' s^ " " (7j. 

etc. One thousand is id\ alfun, two thousand ^UU 
alfani. The others up to ten thousand are formed by 
placing the numeral before the word cJST aldfn, 

9 ' '^ - ~ 

' thousands,' as <_JlT 515 saldsatu alafin : after 10,000 

*~ ^ 

the word used is \M\ alfan. One hundred thousand is 
^ .** , o * 

^l,< mi'atu aljin; one million t-a!^ kil' //^ a//?/i. 



In compound numbers the smaller numbers are generally 
placed first, and so on in regular succession to the 

*4 " 4 * " - 

highest, as ^L&\ j <LL .yUjj ^jx+~i ^ (j^\ 1872; but 

^ / s 

the order is sometimes reversed. 

171. The Persian numerals are not much used in 
Hindustani, but they are occasionally found in various 
phrases and expressions. They are.very simple, so they 
are subjoined : 


iJJo yak. 


*jk.% hafdah. 


^ da, 

&~ sih. 


SjjulA hashdak. 
aJifc Jiazlidah. 


j^->- chahar. 


''. / 
j^y nuzaalt. 


c ' 

^u pawj. 




(JL> skash. 

01 ( * ( 

oj k^-*~j blstoyak,e\.c. 


e^-iLfc haft. 




u^~.j& hasht. 


J- v ->- chikaL 



<G WMrt. 


s\saj panjdh. 

. v r J 


^J dak. 


c^i sAa,?. 


iJjb yazdah. 


J\2A* haftdd. 


iJj^j dnazdah. 


j\i*La> hashtdd. 


ajj-^j slzdah. 


jy nunad. 

.14 * Jjl^- chahdrdah. 


Jue .SflC/. 


*Jpb panzdah. 


juj jJ C?M ,sac?. 


>JjJli shanzdah. 


,UA hazdr. 


Derivation of Words. 

1 72. The subject of derivation is a very wide one, for 
Hindustani is a very composite language, and borrows 
from its tributary languages not words alone but many 
of their methods of forming derivative words. It has 
a few rules peculiar to itself, then it has Sanskrit forms, 
Arabic forms and Persian forms, and these as a general 
rule should be used only with words found in the 
language from which they are respectively derived. 
Thus a Sanskrit affix should not be attached to an 
Arabic word nor vice versa. Sanskrit affixes are joined 
to Hindustani words, and Persian affixes are found so 
applied to Hindustani words, but this latter is inelegant 
and should not be imitated. The following explanations 
are given to enable the learner to acquire and more 
readily understand some of the common derivative 
forms: he must be content so to know them and not 
attempt to make compounds for himself. When he has 
acquired the amount of knowledge necessary for the 
proper formation of derivatives and compounds he will 
not require to consult the rules here given. 

Nouns of Agency. 

173. The formation of the verbal agent by the addi- 
tion of the native words 3^ mala and ^la> hara to the in- 
flected infinitive has been already shown in Rule 100, page 
53. Thus we get ^ crr^J dekhne nata, a ' spectator/ 


and \j\Jt ci^3. likhne-hdra, 'a writer.' But these affixes 
are not confined to verbs, they may be joined .to nouns, 
and are continually met with, mala especially; thus ^^ 
yhar-wala, ' house-man/ ' the master of the house ; ' 
l"_t ^J^ gadke-nala, ' donkey -man ;' KU r :! lakar-hara, 
' wood-man.' Wdla is universally used, and a tyro may 
freely employ it to help himself out of a difficulty. If 
he does not know the proper forms for such words as 
villager, horseman, etc., redid added to the word for 
village and horse will answer the purpose. It has been 
pressed into Anglo-Indian use, and we have box-redid 
for a pedler, and many other such forms : competition- 
ndJd has now almost become English. 

174. The following suffixes with the exceptions noted 
are Persian. 

^Jj ban. i^V^V bdgh-bdn, a gardener, 

^bjj dar-bdn, a door-keeper. 

;b baz (player). jLuT dtash-baz,'& firework man. 
^jfj barddr (bearer). ^ J^ <UU~ /tukka-bardar, pipe 


1 * 
^ chl. . <r s. ljcu *' 1 * mashal-chl, torch-bearer. 

t -' v Sfx O 

,<^jj' topchiy gunner. 

j\j ddr (holder). j\~>*j zamln-ddr, landholder. 
J^ gar (doer). jUl^-Jk>> khidmat-gar, servant. 
j> gar (worker). fjj zar-gar, goldsmith. 
** sltam-gar y tyrant. 


j\i guzdr (passer).^ Jo3l mdl-guzdr, payer of revenue. 
jgir (taker). ~* *\j rdh-glr, traveller. 

j*Z*y* mush-glr, sparrow-hawk. 

( (like), jl. all shdh-ndr, like a king, royally. 
y. nar \ . .* 

( (possessing). j\j~* \ummed -mar, &n expectant. 

^ tvdn (possessing ; a Sanskrit particle). ^^x&J 
dhan-ndn, wealthy. Also used like ^b ban. 
^\jjA dar-man, a door-keeper. 

^j l. ^L-j sipahl, a soldier. 5-*;^ /am, a Persian. 

17o. 7V<?MW5 of Locality, Similarity, etc. 
r. jl/F a^6? (city). jbUjuj*. Haidar-abad, the city 

of Haidar, or ' the lion.' 
n. ^Jb ban, (a garden). See ^.jfy tvdn. 

a _j w?y?* 

(city). } *i\ste Bijd-pur, city of victory. 1 

-0 * * "> 


(place). j\^ gul-zar, a garden. 

j\j&yf~> sabza-zar, a meadow. 
r. *i>Vj ^ac? (son). aJ^jjli shdh-zada, prince. 

e. / 

1'Ls sa/a | 

p. ^li-s stdn or eVaw (place). ^^-s^ bo-stan ; 

iJ&J^ yul-istan, a rose garden. 
p. ^ gdh (place). *lf,lCi shikdr-gdh, hunting ground. 

s\*\,s>- chard-gdk, pasturage. 

i. ' v \ ^ 

H. ajf^r/<(fort). ^ti^^Partdb-garh. ^A* 'All-garh. 1 
1 These words combine freely with Musulmuii names. 

(house). SL-jS gau-sdld, a cow-house. 


nagar (city). Jj l=su Bija-nagar, city of 

victory. 1 
nan (inclosure). $j\& phul-warl, a flower 


176. Abstract Nouns. 

X O 9 * 9 

A. o? at L^-V*^ hikmat, knowledge u^~*r*- 

hukumat, sovereignty, 
j! insaniyat, humanity. 

O L. 

H. jjj pw c^~? larak-pan, childhood, from lij! 

larka, child, 
p. ^t ish ( JLJ\^ danish, wisdom, from ^J dan, 

j^io^j parastish, worship, from u^-wj 

parast, worshipping. 

p. ^j 1. This common Persian affix forms abstract 
nouns from nouns and adjectives ^/-^ 
dosti, friendship from L^-J. J dost, a friend ; 
^jU> shadi, pleasure, from jll s/cac?, pleased. 
Words ending in i h change that letter into 
% g before this affix, as from ajjj bandah, a 
servant, comes ,/J^ bandagi, service. 

177. Diminutives. 

P. tl/' ak. C/-y mar dak, a manikin ; vlSoy topak, 
a musket, from c->y top, a cannon. 

* These words combine freely with Musulman names. 


p. 4s- clia } rftf^b bagk-cha, ) a little garden, from 

a^sr r tcha ) <!^ub baghlcha, j ib bagh. 

H. b iya us-j betiya, little daughter; L.<5 dibiyti, a 
little box. 

178. Feminine Nouns. 

The usual Hindustani feminine termination is ^ I 
which is occasionally changed to ^ nl or ^ in. Thus 
1^1 /ar/'a, a boy, ^J& larkl, a girl ; ^^jfc^j brahmanl, a 
female brahman ; .J^-- sker-nl, tigress ; .jj\i~> sundrnl 
or ^U-j sunarin, a goldsmith's wife ; ^'^^ dhobin, a 
washerwoman, from .^ dhobl* 

179. Adjectives. 

The most common and useful termination is ^ f, as 
Hindustani , (^)jb bazari, ,/Jji Firangi. 

H. ^ a l^i^i bhukha, hungry, from ^^ bhukh. 
r. <U\ awa (like, -ly). ^J^* mardana, manly. 

H. ^ Ma/* (full). .$HJH kos-bhar, a full kos; 

& j*z umr-bkar, all one's life. 

p. jlj i/ar (possessing). j^^j mafa-dar, faithful. 
p. ^L sar (like, full). ^L-idi shah-sar, king-like; 

p. Jo* wawc? (possessing). jo^iJlj danish-mand, wise. 
p. ^U wa (possessing). ^Ujli shad-man, joyful. 


jj rvar \ (possessing). j^l) awz-w<zr,renowned, 
jj\ arvar j ^1..: zor-anar, strong. 


,.,^ an 

180. Negative Prefixes. 

Same as the English prefix un. 

a-c/ial, immovable, ^\=*r\ an-jan, 

^(without). (ij~j be-wafa, faithless; the 
reverse of lijb ba-mafa, faithful. 

' y 

p. Jo bad (bad) t&Ui4j bad-suliik, ill-mannered. 
^ ^fw (without). jJW ^ bin-jane, without 

A. .-i ghalr (other). j^\*- j^- ghair-kazir, not 

present, absent. 

p. ^ ham (little, -less), ^..j ^ kam-zor, weak, powerless. 
A. iJ la (without). j\s-^ la-char, helpless. 
A. ' U no, (not, un-). ^J^U na-hakk, unjust; 

^^U na-khush, unpleasant. 

8. 5 m" Hwithout, -less), ^^sfni-chint, though t- 

} less; c^AJu ni-dharalt, fearless; 
j2>-a5, hopeless. 

SYNTAX. 107 

Order of Words. 

181. The Subject, i.e. the Nominative or the Agent 
case, generally comes first ; then follows the Object or 
Accusative; after this come the subordinate members 
of the sentence, such as the Dative or Ablative cases ; 
lastly comes the Verb, preceded by its Adverb. Such 
is the natural order, both for affirmative and interroga- 
tive sentences ; but it is varied, according to necessity 
or taste, to bring particular members of a sentence into 
prominence. In verse, all order gives way to the 
exigencies of metre and rhyme. 

the hare took him to a 
where have you brought it 


thou those images hast 

JU CjbvJ* <*-*&> J-&^- ' the fool seeks for wealth.' 
^r-^ L-J J_ y L ^L) -ff^j- ' whatever has been related 
,J_ by thee has been heard by me.' 

182. Two or more words coining together may 
stand in apposition, and a particle placed after the last 


will govern the whole, just as if they were connected by 

^^^j ^\ jJu ' without eatingand drinking.' 
j^, ^j-j ^yV. u*^ 'mines of diamonds, rubies, 

^^* ^r O ^ ~* O 

~J> Sj~-j <-r^r> <=y c=-r^ gold, silver, copper, iron, 

jj-jl^ lead, etc.' 

So also, if the nouns are in an oblique case plural, it 
is necessary only to add the oblique sign u} on to the 

_ . c oJ & can one % lve a 

description of the elks and the deer?' 

The Article. ' 

183. As already explained, there is no article in 
Hindustani, but there are certain words which are used 
as substitutes for it. The noun itself usually lias the 
force of the article inherent, and the context determines 
whether it is indefinite or definite. Thus the words 
^ Uy ,f'tf may be read, ' the man speaks,' or ' a 
man speaks.' The words dX>J ' one ' and ^j ' a certain,' 
are used for the indefinite article, especially at the 
beginning of a narrative or tale, ^s- ' some,' is used 
as a partitive article with a noun in the singular number, 
as Jb ^s.- 'bring some water.' The pronouns ^j 
'this' and jj 'that' are occasionally employed for the 
definite article, with the power of ' the,' rather than of 
'this' and 'that.' 


Lf j~* *l2J^ tl^ ' a king went on a journey.' 
' a fox was prowling about.' 

^ ' *' ie ^ man was * n no wav 

fi 'it is no failure of the science, 
it is a want of understanding.' 

184. Nominative Case. 

The verb agrees with the Nominative Case in number 
and person. It also agrees in gender, excepting only in 
the Present of the Auxiliary, and the Aorist and Impera- 
tive of all verbs. 

llf jj-^ J\j\3 u ^ ' I went into the bazar/ 
&j\*j ^ &\j ^ bjj^>-\J 8j 'that merchant proceeded 

*" p 

]jt> by way of the sea.' 
L5^ ** c^* O'-V t ^-^^' ' strength remained not in 

(my) body.' 

But a singular nominative may have out of respect a 
plural verb. 

,JM\ fftSbJli ^- ' who was king of that 

jUJj. *li Jbjfl 'if the king will show kind- 


o ** 

J\j j\ L-^>- ' when King Akbar sat on 
the throne.' 


' tlie queen was seated.' 
' (the queen, my mother,) 
was in search of me.' 

185. As the Nominative case of nouns is frequently 
the same in the plural as in the singular, the verb shows 
which is meant; it also determines the gender of the 

\i\ j\y* ' a horseman came.' 
' horsemen came.' 
he said.' 
she said.' 
^ c^-is'* -* -M ' men should labour.' 

w > x ***^ 

186. The masculine gender is more worthy than the 
feminine : so when a verb has two or more nominatives 
it is generally put in the masculine. But it sometimes 
agrees with the nearest nominative. 

JlfjJ/(_JU LZJ\J ^ ^.j-J 'three days and nights 

passed clean away.' 
\ji 'the male and female are 

not both partners.' 
J ' (my) nurse and tutor be- 
came aware.' 
' tne y nac ^ some rps and 

J L j5-j l2-j ^ ^w^ 'he had no son or daughter.' 


'men and women (were) buy- 
ing and selling together.' 
'girls and boys were stand- 

[In the first three examples a decided preference is 
shown for the masculine gender, and in the next two for 
the nearest nominative. In the others the preference 
may be for the masculine per se, or on account of its 
being the gender of the nearest noun.] Compare the 
rules for the agreement of the Genitive and the Adjective. 

187. The names of two or more things of similar 
nature or character are often taken as an aggregate and 
have a singular verb. 

' a storm arid typhoon came.' 
'companionship and con- 
verse have been obtained.' 
' ever y moment there is 
lamentation and groaning.' 

188. An Arabic plural is often, but not always, joined 
to a verb in the singular number : having no Hindustani 
mark of plurality about it, the sense conveyed by it is 
singular or of an aggregate character. 

^ Lo! (_JlLn \ c__j| 'your majesty's favours are 


c-?jU~s /L,Jil ' (many) kinds of good for- 
tune will accrue to him/ 


189. A Nominative case is sometimes put indepen- 
dently at the beginning of a sentence without any verb ; 
but it is followed by a relative connected with a verb. 
In this construction the words " this is" or "there is " 
(the French "void, voild"), seem to be understood. 

'(This is) Malik-i Sadik 

your father had formed a 
friendship with him.' 

190. Articles of which any quantity, weight or 
measure is specified are put in the Nominative, 1 the 
two words being in apposition. 

Lj (^Ji\ ' a Inglicb of land.' 
jJ \j* ?* <a hundred maunds of iron.' 
,<- ^ ' h've hundred ashrafis reward.' 
J^ ulX>^ ' a hole one yard deep.' 

191. Sometimes a sentence serves as the Nominative 

' taking refuge in the tent even cannot dispel the heat.' 

192. The Oblique plural is occasionally used instead 
of the Nominative to express the idea of "many" or 

1 As in German, Ein Qlat Wein. 

SYNTAX. 113 

* ' months and years passed.' 
>- 'what the ears were hearing.' 
For the use of the Nominative as the Accusative, see 217. 

193. The Agent Case. 

The case of the Agent frequently supplants the 
Nominative case: 1 it is therefore taken next in suc- 
cession, and as it is a very remarkahle and important 
feature in the language, every variety of illustration ia 

194. The Agent is used instead of the Nominative 
with all the tenses of the Active Verb in which the past 
participle is employed, viz., the Past, Perfect, Pluperfect, 
and Future Perfect. 1 

1 This case is sometimes called the Instrumental, but Agent is more 
correct; for it represents the worker by whom or which something is 
done, not the instrument with which it is effected. 

2 There is perhaps no rule more definite and stringent than this, which 
requires the Agent with the past tenses of Active Verbs ; still even this 
rule is infringed, and by the best writers, thus 

C kw.. . a U C y" ^\ __Q^- x, 'she, seated silent as an 
to ' - C_> ^ . 

image, kept listening.' Sayb-o-Eah&r, 205. 

-V ,Jl& -*j -^j i jj \ ^ tf-i I) &- ' who had put their heads out 

of their holes.' Khirad Afros. 
(Here the nikalc is probably a slip for nikaltej. 

er?C \i5J (J** f* U\ ^-^ l *^< <^-^ ' for a Ion 5 P eriod the 7 
kept weeping in that sorrow.' iMtiwiuf-Safa. 

There is an examplo of the improper use of tie in Forbes" Bagb-o-Eahar, 
page loi, lino 1, where ne is used with the verb le-gae, and makes the 
whole sentence ungrammatical. It is not so in native editions. Forbes 
Beems to have at one time been under an hallucination as to the verbs lana 
and le-jana, for in his Manual he classifies them as Transitive verbs, which 


195. When the Agent is used the Verb seeks for some 
word with which to agree. It is attracted to the Object 
or Accusative if there be one ; and if the Accusative is in 
the Nominative form, the verb will agree with it in 
gender and number ; but if the Accusative is in the 
Dative form, the verb cannot agree with that, so it 
remains in its normal form, viz., the masculine singular. 
l^ c_t^ <^> ' the old man said.' 

Here there is no object, and consequently the verb 
remains in its normal form. 

UjJ jjfrj*\f>- L^<J ij~+ 'I na d never seen such a 

l^j jewel.' 

Here the accusative, 'jawakir,' is in the nominative 
form of the accusative, so the verb agrees with it. 

J \Jsz? a\j ,J ^jJ^s*.') ' the beasts took the road 

to the forest.' 

Here the accusative a\ ( ' rail ' is also in the nominative 


form, but as it is feminine the verb is made feminine 
to agree with it. 

,__ f.-f-i' (j-J e^J e-^Us 'the gentleman bought three 

..-J^ J^ horses.' 
Here the verb is in the plural masculine to agree with 

most certainly they are not. This little Manual has rendered, and will 
probably yet render, such good service, that the error deserves to be 
pointed out and corrected. Many a time the Manual has been appealed 
to when I have rejected tie as an error with lay a and le-yaya. 


7 ' i T T <n it i L f 

ij>)j* <r->vl ->_ ^-M^l. this man has brought for- 
( jsAj* ward verses of the Kur'dn.' 
Here the verb agrees with the feminine plural ayat. 

In the following examples the Object is in the Dative 
form, so the verb remains in its normal state. 

g j *3T QJ. Jfl*? *U1 'God Almighty created 


man or te 
blu J...-J purpose of labour.' 

' I remembered the power 
U Jlj of God.' 

196. As according to rules 187 and 188, an aggregate 
nomijiative, or an Arabic plural nominative, may take 
a singular verb, so when they are the object of an active 
verb, the verb may be in the singular and may agree 
with the nearest. 

'He confiscated all the goods 

and effects of Hatim.' 
'he has constructed a temple 
of Siva, a place of meeting, 
and a garden of great beauty.' 
'(I) had garments and 
clothes made.' 

197. When two past tenses occur in the same sentence, 


one being neuter and the other active, the first verb will 
have its appropriate nominative or agent; and the second 
will not require its agent or nominative to be expressed. 

Ijfjjjl ^ jQ ^2~*4=r *j ' 8ne came k ac k quickly and 


(us ne being understood before kaha). 
LLj jji Ui j~~> ^jr*j\)\j ' he went for a stroll in the 

market and saw.' 
(us ne being understood). 


<=^^ J^ U?- 1 * U~J^ ' ^ ie y ma( ^ e their offerings 

and said.' 
(here both agent and nominative are understood). 

198. Genitive. 

The sign of this case li <-. ^ is in the nature of an 
Adjective, and agrees with its object as already explained 
in paragraph 43. 

,\ S~t l jj^f ij*i\ ' chief of that band.' 

^.^ ' ^e travels of the darnesh? 
,*LJ1 *\~*s\ 'jewels of various kinds.' 

199. The close connexion of the Genitive case and 
the Adjective is apparent in such phrases as the following : 


& crJ^-s ' achain of gold,' or, 'a golden chain.' 
J c fU 'a chair of ivory' (lit. elephant- 
>- tooth), or, ' an ivory cbair.' 
JSJ '^ e w01 '^ f t Qe day, daily labour.' 


s^Jji ^IC* uJol ' a bouse of comfort, a comfortable 
house.' , 

JL l <--j\ ('theyearof now), the present year. 
,.* J\ li -j J^>- ' a man of (with) a small head, a 

_J >' t -y^ 

small-headed man.' 
' a matter of wonder, a strange 

J^L- 'screens of splendour, splendid 


200. The Izafat or Persian Genitive is much used in 
books instead of the Hindustani Genitive. 

^\3 j ^j'U ( j^ JU jJ?^ 'one should not touch the 

capital of one's property.' 
And the two are often joined in the same sentence. 

JLi ^>\ li <-'jJ ' The showing of gratitude 

for kindness.' 

(the ka form of the genitive being required by the 
nominative add, payment). 

ul^U* ( e-4 j*. ^jj\~> ^r^* ' a ^ m y ^^ e ^ ias P asse( l " l 
Jij ( j^j^ j A ^j$, this same headache of 

acquiring dominion.' 

ci-'j^ c.V.;- 5 <=!u^ ^+~> \ ' the sky is (but) a bubble of 
jj> LL CX>1 li the ocean of His unity.' 

In the last two examples ke is used because dard and 
darya are oblique. 


201. The li ^ of the genitive is both subjective 
and objective, it stands both for the English genitive in 
's and for that in of; for woman's love, and love of woman. 
\i j J lili li ^yb J c^-^- 'like the washerman's dog, 

l<JL?l^f J neither of the house nor 

of the ghat' 
>\3 '(I) could not bring (find) 

endurance of hunger.' 
jy 'the friends of money are many.' 
'the satisfying one's father is 
^A ^ lx=i. the gratification of God.' 

See Rule 211 : also the Rule for the Pronouns. 

202. The Genitive generally precedes its object, but 
examples to the contrary are of constant occurrence. 

l liLi JMM ' the bath of convalescence.' 
L/ cA; L/-?^^ ( ^^%^ <tne bistory of the Urdu lan- 
guage ; ' or, literally, ' the history of the tongue of 
the camp ( Urdu).' 

203. The singular l may be used when the Genitive 
has for its object two or more nouns closely connected 
with each other, or taken together in an aggregate sense. 

\~>\ cr sr s ^yti 'his poetry and eloquence.' 
^.liJ j ,*lj lit/^J al^Jb 'name and trace of the princess.' 
,.1 (JJlX^ tlL li *J'U- 'Hatim's country and posses- 
L_jLljl j JU sions, and wealth and effects.' 
Compare Rule 187. 


204. clmay be used respectfully with a singular noun. 

tj*\ *Ll jl> f>- 'who was kingof that country.' 
Compare Rule 184. 

205. An Arabic masculine plural may take either li or . 

_ }\f>- 'the particulars of the dream.' 
->L-:\ 'provisions for hospitality.' 
<jCH cyi-> 'provisions for travel.' 
,_ 1*^5^ ^^s^t ' persons of every tribe.' 
Compare Rule 188. 

206. Several nouns may be dependent upon each 
other in the Genitive case. Such complications, when 
they present any difficulty, may be unravelled by read- 
ing them backwards. 

^Uis. ^L^-Ji) J;j ^ J 'a daughter of a family of the 
learned men of the religion 
of Zoroaster/ 

the desire of seeing [of] the 
country of Europe/ 
ne i s wasting with sorrow 
^ Idf .--j *i ,_. for the absence of his 
friends and relations/ 

207. When the genitive has more than one object, it 
is elegant to have them all of the same gender ; as 

.J . j* ' the life and prosperity and 

J ^ ^ ne dignity and majesty 

of the prince/ 


But when the genitive has for its object nouns of different 
genders, it generally agrees with the nearest, though 
occasionally the masculine form is preferred. 


JL& * on the result and effect of 

the science of medicine.' 
the tongue is deficient in 

h ls gl r y an d praise.' 
' our talons and beak.' 
a crown and robe of pearls.' 
all his effects and cash and 
Compare Rule 186. 

208. The Genitive is used idiomatically, as in English, 
to express a superlative idea ; as ' king of kings/ ' light 
of lights,' ' bravest of the brave.' 

c r ^-j li v^-j ' all of all, i.e. one and all.' 
c^-wj , J* k^-wo ' love of love, true affection.' 

-v L^ / 

^^ \Z c^ ' field of field, the whole field.' 
^ e ^ ie > an arrant falsehood.' 
driest of the dry.' 

209. The Genitive is frequently used for other cases 
after the Infinitive (Verbal Noun) and Nominal Verbs. 

\j\ er^J <=1 uy^* (^ '^ ie came to see those places.' 

\jj> jj-y uJ^- li ^jw\ 'art thou not afraid of him.' 
See the Rules for the Infinitive and for Nominal Verbs. 


210. The measurement of anything is expressed by 
the Genitive. 

a. Age or time of life. 

lj! l UMJJ *^j>- ' a boy of fourteen years.' 

^ry) u--H>- j*^- ^ *l&*>b ' the king's age reached forty 

**? / > 

i^B> v/ years. 

U^* J^* 8 .? er? <^U^ *^f?~ <a ^ ^ ne a o e ^ fifteen years.' 

b. Period of time. 

\^j ^ tttc* ^ ' three months' leave.' 
^.s. ^ ^J ^j-J ' in the course of three days.' 

c. Distance. 

j ,-LjU -^ (jw^ u*^ ' a ^ ^ e distance of fifty kos.' 
~jZ l^ *j> Xj&u f a distance of fifteen parasangs* 

d. Weight. 

li JUL Lr-'Lj (j*^ ^^ 'of seven miskals in weight.' 
tjp ]& ^^ j~> ^~ % y^ ' (my) feet became hundreds of 

mans (in weight).' 

e. Value. 

^> J, Li l^ ^y ^u;\ ' what is the price of this parrot?' 
JjU- li cr^*; <-^^ 'rice of one rupee, i.e. a rupee's 

worth of rice.' 

211. The Genitive is used idiomatically for 'to,' 'for/ 
and sometimes even for ' on ' or ' upon.' In oaths it 
takes the place of ' by.' 


' the answer to the question.' 
tf fo ' thanks to God.' 
<" <__>lj G _ ; lfJ ' friendship for your father.' 
Jlz. jgjl li ^n\ ' there is no remedy for it.' 
' separation from, him.' 

J ^ ' t ^ iere * s no dependence on life/ 
U^- ' I swear by God.' 
**J ' I have sworn by myself,' lit. 
' there is an oath of mine own to me.' 

212. With the verb ' to be ' it expresses possession. 

sons - 

, -w' 1^ uJo! , ,/ illJl) - , ,U. 'the king of that 

^* * W^ " * ** L^ *^ ^ 

country had a daughter/ 

213. The word ]a& "word" used as a grammatical 
term takes the Genitive. 

lajjS ^ *x>JuU 'words with task-did. 
lo ^ JL ' words with madd.' 

214. A list of the words serving as Prepositions has 
been given in Rules 152 et seq., and their government 
of the Genitive either in ^ or in ^ has been sufficiently 


215. The sign of the Genitive is sometimes omitted 
with these words so we find. 

^Ja (j\ ' in this way ' ; <^l> ^ ' near that.' 

<-, x tli Vj; J ' on the r i ver bank ' ; ,.&->- jj ' under the 


216. The sign of the Genitive is sometimes retained 
while the governing word is omitted. 

V J 1^5 ^ J\ 'they had no child.' 
Jlr.- jj^iJ <^j\$*i <=__;^*"k ' between me and you a dear 
LJy* friendship has sprung up.' 

In the first of these sentences pas or yahah seems to 
be understood, in the second Inch or darmlyan. 


217. There is no distinct form for the Accusative case, 
but its place is supplied by the Nominative or Dative. 
Which of these two forms should be used is a nicety of 
the language which can be acquired only by practice, for 
no precise rule can be laid down ; but the general prin- 
ciple is, that when the object of the verb is definite, 
specific, or emphatic, the Dative form is used ; when 
otherwise, the Nominative. 

' be can gnaw iron with his 


'(I) had placed your iron 
l^' \j in a corner of the house.' 

In the first sentence there is nothing precise about the 
word loha, in the second it is specific. 


218. The Dative form is generally used with proper 
names and titles. 

Jb'/ d&U ' call Manik.' 

l$J \zj v^^LjJ <-^-^> j* j$ ^/laL* ' the Sultan was 

holding Ayyaz as a great friend ' 

(i.e. was very friendly to him). 

21 9. Causal Verbs frequently govern two Accusatives ; 
that of the person in the Dative form, and that of the 
thing in the Nominative. 

jb^j \* -^ e= e\ ' put this dress on him.' 

W^ \jj=>- l ^ U} ^J ' he made the slaves eat the 

dog's leavings.' 

220. Dative. 

The Dative case is equivalent to a noun with the pre- 
positions " to," " for," and " at; " and may generally he 
so translated. (The learner when he meets a word with 
ko should always take the verb before translating that 
word, because the verb will show whether the word with 
ho is a Dative or a definite Accusative.) 

pdfA ( ^_ { j^ '(I) gave to the merchant 
b J *\J\ j *\*j\ much reward and honour.' 
llf & *j <ne went home ( the house).' 

Lf J*- ' he went on a journey.' 
J^ .-.Jjli^-^j 'I will sell his jewelry for 
a great price.' 

SYNTAX. 125 

221. It is particularly used for 'at* or 'by,' with 
nouns of time. 

f (^ 'by day';^d^j 'at night'; f *\& 'at eve'; 
'at last.' 

J b'l^i ^ ^J J 'I ate not by day, I slept 
not by night.' 

222. The / is often omitted. 

.j (JM\ 'on that day '; ^ ^^ 'on what day ' ; ^j$^*\ 

' at that very hour.' 

j^s UM\ ' to this extent ' ; ^ ,_ T ' to day.' 
1&^L>. .^ivJi ' I shall go home.' 
CfT ^gf ^\ ' (be) came to that place/ 
> ' having gone to Basra.' 

^ e wan( ^ ers over the forests.' 
Observe that although^ is not expressed, the inflected 
Genitive is required. See Kales 152 and 153. 

223. The word JLj governing (-ke ta'in) is some- 
times used instead of . 

jj.jr./jb lyj dJjU-). ' the giving of permission 

. to the hawk.' 
-^ ^fjij (j& <=jd j *^'^ 'they subdue a demon.' 

224. In the sense of ' to,' ' for,' or ' with the object of,' 
the Dative is especially used with the Infinitive or Verbal 


<J_\$i ' for eating ' ; c^o J ' for seeing/ 
These may be translated simply ' to eat ' and ' to see/ 
for there is a close affinity between the Infinitive and the 
Dative cases. 

In such sentences the is frequently omitte'd. 

Iff <= ~^p J^3 ij ' he came to say his prayers/ 
See the Kules for the Infinitive. 

225. The Dative is employed with words implying 
necessity, fitness. 

^i '^ * 3 necessar .V f r kings/ 
'it behoves the wise/ 

226. The Dative case with the substantive verb, or 
with the verb L&j, denotes possession', with ljyj> 'to 
become/ and \j \ 'to come/ it denotes acquisition. 

^p j ( JLj \2*j j* (JM\ 'he had neither son nor 

' ne na( ^ no other shelter 

or defence. 
' I have a doubt upon this 

what has foresight to do 

with it ? ' 
Khiradmand had no power 


4** ' some consolation arose to 
me; I received a little comfort/ 


1y> c7 JL> ^s* 'to me certainty has come; 

I am sure/ 
\& J ,.'b aliJlj 'to the king there was no 

J^ JJ J v 

belief (he did not believe).' 
1>T ...Jb ^s* ' I became certain.' 

w^" S** j ^ 

UT * ~\ ' ne f^t ^ f r them.' 

i>T j f *& <^.^4 'ft was no lise ^ an y ont! -' 

227. "When a verb governs both an Accusative and a 
Dative, the former is generally represented by the Nomi- 
native ; but there are instances in which it is put in the 
Dative form, so that ko comes twice over, as an Accusa- 
tive and as a Dative. 

=-ff* ''consider me your foe.' 

' I sen ^ *- ne other to call him.' 



9\j j> ^j^U. jb ' they took the prince for a 
,JuJ stroll in the garden.' 


228. This case is formed with the particle ,_-. which 
has the meaning of 'from, 'with,' 'through/ and 'than/ 
but other prepositions occasionally render its meaning 
more exactly. 

.>(jJ 'from this good fortune 
J-*U- exceeding great joy was 



'when I ceased from pray ing.' 

' refrain from this design.' 

\jt> sjjj\ <^-~j ez> e^ ' he was very vexed with the 



' look with your eyes.' 
'he became enamoured with 

heart and soul.' 
' with (on) some pretence.' 
' I> through tny fault, having 

become ashamed, (i.e. a- 

shamed of it).' 
^ .s? c=7f*~ u**^ ' what thing do they boast 

' there is a great difference 

between say inganddoing.' 

.^. u'J^ i M J ' ^ UG an ^ belongs to the 
insect class.' 

** ?/ 

*J cs > i^f^^UA 'you do not belong to our 

829. The Ablative is frequently employed, instead of 
the Genitive, with,-!^ and^f 'before,' and^ab ' beyond,' 
' outside : ' j^jo ' distant,' requires the Ablative. 

m\f$ I Uj II O 

f 'before this.' ^-Lj <-.> ,*l.i ' before evening.' 

,l\z~j ' he cannot go further 
than forty-five /tos.' 


^Lj ' be} r ond description,' 
,jjo yfcb <--j .-xlJ ' having gone out of the fort/ 
ju^j ,...; JSc ' far from sense.' 

230. The Ablative is used for the period from which 
time is measured. 

<= ^ \jtl ' s ^ nce three days.' 
< .-^ i^j>x* s^ ^j ' for a long time past.' 

^ jjjJJT ' for years.' 
,-. ^2j\3 <> _.T ' from this day's date.' 

231. It is used to denote ' by nay of' 

<~> x\j ' by way.' 
.-..j G-}*J<* ' by the door/ 

232. The sign of the Ablative is idiomatically omitted 
in many familiar phrases. 

' from hand to hand/ 

' ^ v wav ^ ^ ie mountains.* 

233. The case of the Agent is used with the Past tenses 
of Active verbs, when the person or actor is the leading 
idea. But it is sometimes required to bring the deed 
into prominence, by giving the sentence a neuter con- 
struction. This is done by putting the deed in the 
Nominative case, the doer in the Ablative, and finishing 
with a neuter verb, especially \Jyj> or LLjy&. 

j <j_ ,*ld ' the slave committed a great offence/ 




JU ' a great offence was com- 
mitted by the slave (lit. 
became from the slave).' 
\j 'at night no plan could be 

devised by me/ 

^, yi> ^ IJM\ *j^\ ' if that from him can come 
to pass, i.e. if that can be 
done by him.' 
j ' this fault was committed 

by me.' 

'it will not be possible for 
me to do this.' 

234. The same construction is found with causal 
verbs. The prime agent is put in the Agent case, and 
the secondary agent, upon which the causal verb acts, 
is put in the Ablative. 

My&j <ul ,-.# u\ ^ jjJ* ' I caused the creed to be 

repeated by her.' 

235. Verbs of Sfl^'fly or addressing , of asking, of fear- 
ing, quarreling, fighting, treating, or concealing, require 
an Ablative of the person. 

a. Saying or addressing, 
l^ ^ *5U ( j f i\ <J.,j~ ' I said to that slave.* 
* ' he addressed me.' 


i jJii ' (he) began to talk with thefafar.' 

- o c . 

^.i-S ^p^. es s *U*JU having made representation to the 

But the verb lJ>j takes the Dative. Still L.^ is 
exceptionally found with a Dative and U*.' with an 

Ablative of the person : thus 


l^S ^"4 <=i- U"\ Be Sa *d ^ some one '* 

L V ,^ tlXil two cooks.' 

(4^ is here used because ,_-! is otherwise required). 

do not speak to any one.' 
the priest said to the king.' 

b. Asking and seeking. 
o ,J_cLX^ 'one asked the other.' 

.^ \~>- ' what I was desiring fromGod.' 

c. Fearing, 
j .--a \&~>~ ' fear God.' 
3 ef (JM\ 'do not be afraid of him.' 
Jp- Lw.l 5-..: <. ^_ (JM\ 'he was so fearing his 
\g \j\ anger.' 

.. ^jU ' he is not even afraid of 
the elephant.' 

d. Quarreling. 

e d^ ' each began to quarrel with 
the other/ 



e. Fighting. 

^jT^l ' I can fight a hundred men.' 
'where has be such strength 
that he can contend with me.' 
' an( i that girl's eye also 
encountered that brah- 

man's eye.' 

f. Treating or acting towards. 

^ ^J J ' I showed no kindness to my 

sister.' 1 
<> Ijj .J^ (<J_ , r \) ' to whom has it been faithful.' 

g. Concealing. 

^^ ' when they disappeared 

from his sight.' 

^ Jt? ' ^ is not right to conceal 
*S the secret of (our) hearts 

from (our) friends.' 

236. Verbs of informing, or being informed, take an 
Ablative of the thing, and a Nominative or Accusative 
of the person. A nominative when the verb is neuter, 
an accusative when it is active. 

l^j' j u-u^ $ c^s c^b \j*\ ' no one was acquainted 

with this matter.' 

1 The literal meaning of suluk is ' treatment,' but it generally means 
' kind treatment ' unless otherwise specified. 


*** 9 9 

J> citj. cr-fF 1 * e^ u*^ 'make me acquainted with that.' 
alTF <-~j *lj e jji c^fT* ' inform rne of your name.' 

237. Verbs of filling take either an Ablative or a 

\J$,# e-j c^-^)^^ *-^-V <=^i^ <ne filled his belly with 

See Eule 249. 

238. Words expressive of separation and union, of 
departure, of taking care, of comparison, and necessity, 
require an Ablative. 

a. Separation. 
<-~> ^sr* 'you have separated (her) 

from me.' 
8 u^l ' ^ continue debarred from 

b. Union. 


(j+>\ 'I will have an interview 

with him.' 

' (he) had married her to a 
young merchant.' 

c. Departure. 

^ ^\ 'I took leave from that 
young man.' 

the sea.' 


\j~j , .~ u-i ^ ^> --: ...Jb ' having turned from cer- 

./ v W" > > ^"- W " 

taint} 7 to fall into doubt.' 
c?. -Taking care and the reverse. 

^Vjy^ <=^ ' k attentive to your busi- 
*Jt^ ness and transactions.' 

^^-* u^^ y * d ^ iou * a ^ e care f ^ iat 

& | ul>L^ 'he will become inattentive 

l^.U- to the affairs of the State.' 


e. Comparison. 

s^jliJ* Li 5... ^-^ -.. (j^i ' what analog} 7 is there be- 
^A tween this and that.' 

^ u>^ ^ ' w ^^ wnom sna ^ ^ compare 
^J these people ? (wherennto 

shall I liken this generation) ? ' 

y. Necessity. 
i^l -^jl *A ' we have no need of them.' 


See Rule 23G. 

239. The Ablative particle . is added to . ^.t and j 

o- > 

the signs of the Locative; ^-j L ,-^ signifies 'from among,' 
or in our idiom ' of,' 'out of ; ^~>ji means ' from upon/ 
or, as we have it, ' off.' 

uX-1 -~j , .~ ,<\ ' one of them.' 


^\ e-JOj 'having deducted the money 

out of their pay.' 
\*j ^ e= ^ j <- K <J* ' he fell off his horse.' 

>v J' ^~~ ** ^~*/-s* 

240. Locative. 

The signs of the Locative case are ^^ 'in,' 'into,' 
or with plurals, 'between,' ' among ' ; ^ 'on,' and d& 
or cL$3j 'up to.' These particles are used very similarly 
to their English equivalents. 

L3 <S ' in the world.' 


in length.' 

whatever there is in earth 

or in heaven.' 

\j\ ( j~* (ys> * ' he came into his senses.' 
llf -^ Jji ^u*^ ' he went into a certain city.' 

/ >^~* J^J r^ ,*l ,- T ^* ' don't interfere in rny 

j~ u <jrr p c_/.. j 


' he was engaged in business.' 
' having embarked on board 

ship he departed.' 
?.^f' he rode on a horse.' 
jb ^ !j^ 'remembrance and worship 

'?* ji A-i ^ G& * s li0 ^' dependent 

on woods and hills.' 

and LlJ^J are used for intervals of place and time. 
' as far as my shop, to rny shop.' 


J_& \^\ e-j \ *+j\ ' from the beginning to the end.' 
'for five years ? ' 
'for how long?' 

241. ^-.*, when it governs two words, signifies 'be- 
tween;' when it governs a plural, it signifies ' among.' 

fc) ^\ ' between these two.' 
Ji>b ^ J^>- ' between right and wrong.' 

=r* . c^lsr* ' there is a difference of 

-^ * 

Jb only one dot between 

affection and affliction.' 
JAJB j^l ^**^ ' there is opposition between 

love and sense.' 

^5 j (j-^* ^ <tiX ' the princess was not 
among them.' 

242. l j~* is used with words expressing an interval 
of time,.} for measure of distance. 

J^S ' in a few days.' 
jjw\ 'at about a kos outside 
that city.' 

_> -L?\3 -J" -J ujOl ' at the distance of an arrow 
__/ ^ v ^/_, 

(bow-shot distance).' 

243. ^ is often used when in English ' to ' or ' at ' is 

\&> Ulo j - i^.p x 'he was seated at the door.' 

* * j ^~r> */ 


y ' a darwesh went to a 
LSy e/^j j chandler's shop.' 

244. ^ is used with Lift and similar words in the 
sense of ' in spite of,' * for all.' 

' f r a ^ tm ' s wi 

245. In the headings of chapters or other divisions of 
books and papers, ( j+* is used in the sense of our ' upon,' 

'on," in.' 

-. G_j)2* c uy^- ' u P n ^ ne consultation of 

the men.' 

norse -' 

246. The Particle ^i is frequently omitted, ^j 
sometimes, but less often. 

jjb ,-^r ' he is (in) anger.' 
I^D \_~~'" ' he is (in) a rage.' 

(These phrases are equivalent to he is angry, lie is 

' m ^ ne l as t watch.' 

' in that year.' 
'at that place.' 
' for long periods.' 
' every month.' 


S *\3 c_^U> Jti -^ 'tins victory is to my name' 
(is to be ascribed to me). 

UxJ Jj e .-^ (-J^tkfi l (jJ 'the punishment of this will 
iCjU- be written against my name.' 

247. Words expressive of any emotion, as of loce, 
friendship, anger, etc., take the Locative with ^j. 

$^+3 'lie is in love with your 


\A>- 'having placed my trust in 

reliance on God.' 


. -> ^rsr ' this is the reason of (my) 


anger against thee.' 
-ijl 'he is not contented with 

his lot.' 
'I also in that reed of mine.' 

' for what offence did you 
^ ea ^ those poor people, 
and for what fault did you 
break the heads of these poor wretches.' 

248. Verbs of tying and fastening require 

JjfcAjlj ( j^ ^>j J^3 ' having fastened the bucket 

to the rope.' 
] , ,~* - ,i5 i>*>\ * ^L^\ '(she) made another knot 

^^ ^~"*sJ ^* ^ f 

,s-j in the string.' 


< y 

t -^. ,.-rsr: /-..J4-S. H^>- 'jars fastened to golden 

'-- <Jjj- s Ls * J w~ 


249. Verbs tf filling govern the Locative in ( _^. 

t. o 

^,-, ^j^lsL ^jG .J^? having filled a canteen 
<j$ with sweetmeats.' 

^j LJ^ ^ j ^ajo jj-^ Jj '(their) hearts are so filled 
j& with malice and hatred.' 

250. Vocative. 

The Vocative particle is ^\, but it is frequently omitted. 
\ ' son.' 
1 ' servants of God.' 

'0 friends.' 

l ' Rustam (hero) of the time/ 
Tiie Persian form is sometimes used. 
Uli 'Oking.' 
UL: ' cupbearer.' 

251. Adjectives. 

Declinable Adjectives agree with their substantives in 
gender and number. 

M. F. 

lILj Vb ' elder son.' ^Ji+j <-?}: ' elder daughter.' 

..JLj ^Jj ' elder sons.' u^ 5 ^ ^j 3 . ' e ^ er daughters.' 
^Jr?" ' a ^^'^ e moutn (but) big words.' 
^^ojjl ' he worships an invisible God.' 


252. But an Arabic plural noun is treated as a 
singular : see Rules 188 and 204. 

t }\~t\ \jL> ' all the goods.' 

253. If an Adjective qualifies two or more nouns 
of different genders, it generally agrees with the one 
nearest to it. 

tty} ^1 ' 80 lim ch silver and akrafi 

and clothes.' 
L u^j ' great armies and forces.' 

as many lakes, tanks, 
d^-* < s^^ e_j reservoirs, wells of the 

environs of the city.' 

[This last example is curious. The close connexion 
of the Genitive case and the Adjective has been shown, 
Rule 198. Here the adjective e ^>- is feminine, in concord 
with the nearest substantive ^jJ-gs*- ; and the genitive ,- 
is masculine, in concord with e__j, which is its nearest 
noun.] Compare Rules 186 and 206. 

254. Adjectives are frequently employed as Nouns, 
and are then declined as Nouns. 

' like old (people)/ 
H^ 'many said.' 

' communicate this joyful 
news to the small and 
great of the city.' 


,_JJ ^ L/^- ,/ {jy* ' on account of the friend- 
ship of such as these.' 

- ' ^ av ^ n o ne ^ ou t t some 
the invitation of Islam. 

255. Adjectives are often combined with verbs ; if the 
verb is neuter they agree with the nominative : but if 
active, they remain in the masculine singular. 

J> ,5^-^ . ^jl^j (j^rJj ' the land of that place is good.' 
.. .. 

' a t rue statement comes bitter.' 
J 'he will make the wall black.' 
U M.|. ' he can cure this woman.' 


256. Adjectives combined with verbs govern their 
appropriate cases. These are much the same as they 
are in English ; some exceptions have been noted in 
treating of the various cases of the noun, and further 
examples are here added. 

_l^sr* li JU *in want of wealth.' 

' this house is necessary to us.' 


\ 'thirsting for his blood.' 
J-Jj j\j~*\ ' one should remain in hope of 
the divine mercy.' 

o 9 

u Uai ^ Ijo- 'through God's mercy I am 
^fc hopeful.' 


^J ' careful in business.' 
_ij' 'parted from my country.' 
J ' that he may not be de- 
prived of the distinction 
of activity.' 

c>- <ac( iuainted with these matters.' 
'devoid of wisdom.' 
<unseem ^y in kings.' 
' far from manliness.' 
' satiated with (tired of) life.' 
'excluded from the mercy of 

[It should be borne in mind that many Arabic words 
classed in Hindustani as Adjectives are in reality Par- 
ticiples, like waldf, mahrum and muhtaj.] 

257. The adjective ^ ' full,' does not generally take 
any particle ; but the participle \^j ' filled,' takes either 
the Ablative ...-j or Locative 

J-J \J& j ' full of pungent oil. 5 
' all one's life.' 


' with all one's might.' 
' in all his dominion.' 

' a house filled with jewels.' 


' the world from beginning 
to end is filled with evil 
and trouble.' 

5 ' filled with rage.' 

' (her) eyes filled with tears.' 

The same construction obtains with participles borrowed 
from the Arabic. 
jptAA e-i U ^J^ j^fT ' m l e d witn J ewe l s an( l ashrafis.' 

258. The mode in which the degrees of comparison 
are expressed has been already explained (Rule C5). The 
following are examples : 

^ 2 j -- (LQ ' two (are) better than one.' 
{J ^ LJJ }/*?* <== LS*\ 'there is no other greater 
jj-^j ^bli fool in the world than he.' 

' zz? +. ^ UM\ ^jll 'its joy is less than (its) sor- 
*?Uj>ji ^ row, and its grief greater 

than (its) pleasure.' 
' life is dearer than all.' 

^ \j> ,_.. I_^N-S (j--^ cr-sfv^ 'inrankheis greater than all/ 

.,.. u-^v-) i^>.s ,- .A-3 ^l^-il ' the sky, in consequence of 

i\j its moving, is above all.' 

259. The repetition of an Adjective gives force or 
emphasis to it, as in our expressions ' the deep deep 
sea,' ' the red red rose/ etc. 

JI ^jj ' very large eyes.' 

jj ' a very little (or, just a little) water/ 


2GO. The particle L Mike,' is equivalent to the 
English terminations -ish and -ly. It converts Nouns 
into Adjectives, as LJ J^ ' manly ; ' and it qualifies an 
Adjective to which it is joined, as LJ JcL ' highish.' It 
agrees with the noun it qualifies like other adjectives in \. 

^ b L> \jg ' bring just a little water.' 

LJ cUi^jri. ' a fairish looking stag.' 

' a fail T like 

<- \2jj> Jb ' hair* black as clouds.' 

It is generally added to the Nominative case of the 
Noun, as in the above examples, but it is sometimes 
found with the Oblique. With pronouns the Oblique 
form is used. 

L ^sr ' like thee.' 
L-i LJ ^sr ' poor like me.' 

201. This particle Ls is used for making a comparison 
direct with some object, or with some possession or 
attribute of that object. In the former it is added 
immediately to the Noun, as in the examples above ; 
in the latter, to the Genitive case of the Noun. 

' a form like a tiger's.' 

' mv language was not like 

^ m ^ ^ ^ ie inhabitants of 

that city.' 
'..-j L '-^ ' distress like mine.* 


In the following passage from the Nasr-i Be-nazir 
the particle is used in both ways. 


il^ltjJj^'.$flcr JU.j5 'then the position of a 
fa Li l> charmer like thee will be 

like that of a criminal.' 

262. Numerals are generally and properly joined to 
plural nouns; but as the plurality is shown by the 
numeral, there is a tendency to omit the sign of plurality 
in the Noun and the Verb, as is the practice in Persian. 1 

' f r ty doors.' 
' a lac of horses.' 
' forty ashrafis' 
' a hundred horse. 
fifteen hundred chain.' 
four or five handful.' 
nine hundred^e.' 
the adventures of two 

i (jw J 'for ten year. 

,Jj ^ (j*>\ cJfjpjljb 'a thousand horses might 
- .l find comfort under it.' 

* J v 

' fi% bags of ashrajis.' 
' there nas 250 ashrafis.' 

1 The same tendency is observable in English. "We all say five hundred 
and five thousand, six foot high, etc., and among the uneducated the 
practice extends much farther. 



263. Collective numbers are often put in the Oblique 
plural, instead of the Nominative. 


hundreds of battles.' 
thousands of slaves.' 
nun dreds, thousands, lacs 
of cities and towns have 
been and are bein built.' 

264. When numerals are intended to be definite or 
collective they take the oblique form ^ oh with the 
Nominative plural ; but the Nouns to which they are 
joined are placed in the Nominative plural, not in the 


those four persons.' 
these seven daughters.' 

- jj the eight watches (all day 
and night).' 


'the five times (of prayer).' 
'hundreds of thousands will 

^ *!. 

~Sj+ die from his tyranny and 


265. In the oblique cases plural, when the numerals 
are specific, the numeral or the Noun, or both the 
numeral and the Noun, are put in the oblique form. 

. . 

^ v j 'through the forty doors.' 

si t S" / 


? U ' among the seven planets.' 

' between the two tribes.' 
^ ' ^ ie as ^ e( i those two persons.' 

Ir u'J V" ' on ^ i 


. But when the sense is not specific, the Noun is 
put in the Nominative plural. 

ye days.' 

267. So ^je cu>^ c^ means ' ^ or the space of three 
days; ' but ^jS. d^ jj^t or e-^ <=i u^^ c^ means 
' for the space of the three days ' (before mentioned or 
referred to). 


268. The Nominative cases of the personal pronouns 
are frequently suppressed, and are left to be inferred 
from the context. 

^-jfe z^f ^.j ' thus they say, on dit.' 

\*^j <~>\ ^T ,j-^ ^r '^ came into my mind (that) 

I must bury him.' 

269. When two or more personal pronouns are used 
in succession, the first precedes the second, and the 
second the third ; the verb also agrees with the first in 


preference to the second, and with the second in prefer- 
ence to the third. 

c_j^ <J ij~\ c(j\ ei (jr* 'I wiped her tears, she 

wiped mine.' 

' we d) an d you will go.' 
of me and thee.' 

'the meeting together of me 
and you has coine to pass.' 

270. In English we politely use the second person 
plural, ' you ' instead of ' thou ; ' they do the same in 
Hindustani, but they employ y in addresses to the deity, 
to children and other objects of affection, and also in 
speaking to persons of very inferior grade. 

In Hindustani, and particularly among English 
speakers of Hindustani, they not only concede the 
respectful plural to others, but assert it for themselves, 
and say *a> ' we' instead of ^^ ' I.' This, however, is a 
colloquial rather than a literary usage ; good writers 
rarely employ it, except for persons of very high rank. 

When the plurals are thus used for the singular, and 
a real plural is needed, the word <^J^1 ' people ' is added 
to the pronoun, thus &?}+& ' we.' 

In addressing a person of great distinction the honorific 
pronoun < j-T or the titles i^^., jjjj^, jj^^-j, and 


the like are used with the third person plural of the verb 
and with the respectful imperative. 

In speaking of a third person, the third person singular 
is generally employed ; but for a person of eminence 
the third person plural is used, and if the agent is re- 

9 9 

quired, ^_ ( j^\ is deemed more respectful than ^^V 

When an inferior addresses a superior by these re- 
spectful terms he uses some humble term for himself as 
ajcj ' your bondsman;' JU 'your slave;' ^j*<^i 'your 

devoted servant ; ' ^4*" ' v ^ e one ' L/4^ 1 * ' sincere 
friend ; ' >-\& ' humble one.' 

*J' ' what do you say about this.' 
_j~+ ' teach me also and make 
l*^ <uli me [i.e. enable me to] 

repeat the creed.' 

^sj* i\ J\ ' God! thou of thy bounty 
-j c^>jLc hast bestowed every thing 

on poor me.' 

y>- ^V s^^ '^ son ' whatsoever thou 
-j ^ jj-^ sayest I understand it all.' 
U v ,i ,J ^--i ' the lion said, thou art 

speaking the truth.' 
having left me in the 
charge of God.' 


271. The following rules respecting the etiquette of 
the pronouns, laid down by Muhammad Ibrahim of 
Bombay, are here given as quoted by Forbes: 

"1. When the speaker and the person whom he 
addresses are of the same rank, each should speak of 
himself in the singular number, and address the other 
in the second person plural. 2. A person of superior 
rank may speak of himself in the plural number, but 
this is not considered to be polite ; nor is it thought to 
be correct to address even the lowest rank in the singu- 
lar number. 3. The pronouns of the third person may 
be used in the singular when speaking of any person in 
their presence, unless they be of superior rank, when 
they ought to be spoken of in the plural. 4. When 
one person of rank addresses another of the same or 
superior rank, or speaks of him in his presence, it is 
most correct to make use of the respectful pronoun c_>T 
or the great man's title, or some respectful phrase, as 
oJj! JcS- ' your honour/ d^i>. ' your highness,' and the 
like, with the third person plural (of the pronouns and 
verbs) ; and when an inferior addresses a superior, he 
ought at all times to use similar expressions of respect, 
suitable to the rank of the person addressed." 

272. The pronouns ^ and *j are both personal and 
demonstrative. When they are personal, the particles 
for the cases are added immediately to them ; when 


they are demonstrative, the noun intervenes between 
the pronoun and the particle. 

' I saw his dog/ 
' I saw that dog.' 
As demonstratives they are used distinctively ; ^ for 
* the latter/ sj for ' the former.' 

^yi 'because there is no apparent 
* connexion between these 
and those (or, the latter and the former).' 
4 'because upon the former 

L Ike JiU *aj i \\ ^6 h^s bestowed a low 

intelligence, and upon the latter anintellectual spirit.' 

273. The pronouns of the third person ,^j and aj are 
often used in the nominative singular, though having a 
plural signification. This is ungrammatical; but as the 
plurality is sufficiently shown by the verb, no misunder- 
standing can arise, so the practice will probably prevail. 

^yjj *j ' those two.' 
-jfc ,_ +\ ( j^_ ^j ' of what use are these? 

' they also were all present.' 

A? (J^/ "^ V.i_tf/ ' (whether her highness) will 
do it or not do its^ knows (best).' 

9 ? 

ia ^ ^^ 5 ^ rats may not 
annoy me.' 


274. With Arabic plurals, the demonstrative pronouns 
are generally kept in the singular, even if the verb and 
other words are put in the plural to agree with the 
noun. See Rules 188 and 205. 

j^> J.1j1 ^> 'having heard these circumstances.' 
<__}! jg\ ^ ^-^r t when the king saw these ways 
.; o ^ of the children.' 

275. The Genitive of the personal pronouns is both 
subjective and objective; so \j+* signifies my and of me. 

JU j ^U- \.~* ' my life and wealth.' 

' my denial, or denial of me.' 
- ' separation from him.' 

a^ 'there may be derision of me 

no one was g vm g m e my 

' there is no cure for it.' 
'of me there is one daughter.' 
^vJ <a place has been seen of me.' 
(J^" ' there arose a certain power- 
!y> ful enemy against him'(lit. ( of him.') 

276. As in Rule 206 for Nouns, so also the Genitive 
of the Pronouns agrees with the nearest of two or more 


jjl U$ij jl> ' to keep in mind one's own 

^j* creation and death.' 

aJU jj\ ^jj[^ cJ>r* ' having seen my distress and 

J lamentation and weeping.' 

277. The Dative case of the first and second personal 
pronouns is always used for the Accusative. 

J> ?ji>- L\ jrff*J ' having left you alone.' 
J^fj/^j^e. j yj-J e_^rr 'having attentively looked 

at me.' 

278. The Nominatives -^ and sj are occasionally 
used for the personal accusative him and her, but the 
Dative is generally preferred. As demonstratives ^ 


and &j are frequently employed for the Accusative. 

' God has made this.' 

' I w iH gi ve it to thee.' 
' whoever does not heed 

these counsels.' 
' from hearing this account.' 

' having returned thanks to 

God I say this.' 
' I passed that day in rest- 
Ijli lessness.' 

279. The Pronouns have various forms in the oblique 
plural ; of these the form in ^ is the most respectful. 


u& \ '^fv* ' although she (the Queen) 
s>j L^c^-la^ <~>jb had kept the fact of my 
^i disappearance concealed.' 

jL^cs s J\p*^ <=L<j!>^ [^ ' vou are acquainted with 
y& his (the King's) affairs.' 

280. The Pronouns have two forms for the Dative, 
the usual and the pronominal ,-pr ^ ; the latter is the 
more decidedly Dative. Both are used as Accusatives ; 
y generally so, the other form more rarely. In 
sentences where both an Accusative and a Dative of a 
pronoun are required, the former generally has jZ, the 
latter _ or . 

Jj ci^-i . eg cr-rT* ' a feeing f pride came to 

me also.' 


when I see thee.' 

j I have entrusted you to God.' 

... \ ,-Jji ^^c\a ' the judge consigned the 
child to her.' 

281. When a personal pronoun is coupled with a 
noun or an adjective in an oblique case, the governing 
particle is sufficient for both, and the pronoun is put in 
its Oblique form, even though the case be the Genitive 
or the Agent. 

' of me the fakir.' 

* of unlucky me,' 

* by me 


This is carried so far that, as in 215, the sign of the 
Genitive is sometimes omitted, and we find ^U ^B* and 

282. The particle of similitude U is added to the 
inflected forms s^ and . 

c-^j \.s. Ls .^sr* ' a poor fellow like me.' 
&fi Ls -S J ' sensible as thee.' 

With the third person L makes Lgl and LJ^, see 
Rules 70 and 138 ; but when the pronoun is demon- 
strative, and a noun intervenes between it and the 
particle, the inflected form of the pronoun is used. 

.J& LJ^ Jj-j UM\ ' he is like that merchant.' 
It may also be used with the Genitive, as explained 
in Rule 261. 

' a book like mine.* 

283. The affixes ^ ^ ^-A added to the personal 
pronouns make them emphatic, giving to them the sense 
of ' same,' ' very/ ' only ; ' thus ^^ ' this same ; ' ^^ 
' that same, that very, that only.' 

^ ver ^y am Hatim.' 
' do you yourself tell (me).' 

sS ' by thee indeed.' 
(Observe that the form is not .J *y> See Rule 281). 


- ' whoever desires any boon 
take it from me.' 

284. Respectful Pronoun. 

The respectful personal pronoun t ?T has been in- 
cidentally explained in Rule 81. The genitive of this 
pronoun is l c->T, and must not be confounded with the 
reflexive UA 

te>~-y <, <__/F * by your highness's favour.' 

285. Reflexive Pronoun. 

The word cJT 'self is used alone, or it is added to 

i ' 

the Nominative case of the personal pronouns, <JT ,-.', 

* 9 ^^ 

<_->Uy 'I myself,' 'he himself,' etc. The Persian jp- 
is also used in the same way. 

T ^ \ft> [*^i^ ' it was discovered that it 
was they their very selves.' 
* cL$o t-^- ' until that mother of the 

b ,-^.Jc-j! brahmins herself comes 

. to you.' 

'she herself will cometo you.' 
!L ' clay is not itself made 

^ n ^ di snes a t the potter's 
>T < ;T a ' he himself came.' 


086. t ;T is also used with a personal pronoun in the 

Ls ^\j c_;T 'to make my self like a judge.' 
JLl^^ 'a darrcesh having rescued 

-vto-j himself from the troubles 

of the world.' 

But this is rare, and the form in common use is the 
inflected genitive ,__x>! with the affix jj--J'. 

l^ Ij -Ji ^t\ ' he said to himself.' 
U ^U JJ ^t\ ' he killed himself.' 
^^Aj-Vj JL. -.J' ,-^ijl 'he should adorn himself 

* t^s 

of mercy 

and forbearance.' 
' that I might throw my- 

self down.' 
' that matter which pleases 

not one's self.' 

Possessive Pronouns. 

287. These are supplied by the Genitive cases of the 
personal pronouns, \j~+, \^J, \~i\ t etc. See Rule 275. 


The Possessive UA 


288. This is a Possessive Pronoun which is used for 
all three persons and both numbers. It represents the 
subject in the objective part of the sentence, or, in other 


words, it is a pronoun used with the noun governed by 
the verb, as the representative of the Nominative or 
Agent; but it cannot be employed in conjunction with 
the Nominative or Agent as the subject of a verb : Thus, 
in such a sentence as the man saw his son, the his is 
ambiguous in English, it may mean the man's own son 
or another person's son ; but no such doubt can exist in 
Hindustani, because if the man's own son is intended, 
Uj\ will be used, if another person's son, li (j\ must be 
employed. Again, \\ is used because the words ' his 
son ' are the object of the sentence, and are governed by 
the verb ; but in the sentence ' a man and his son saw a 
tiger/ l (JM\ must be used, and not LJ^, because it here 
occurs with the subject of the verb. 

' the fir,3t darrcesh began to 
tell the story of his (own) 

' I was seated (in) my house.' 

a\j \J> j czty ' ta ^ e the road to your 

house (go home).' 
' a tiger and a man saw 
their picture.' 

289. But though L>\ cannot be used in conjunction 
with the Nominative, it is used at the beginning , of a 
sentence with the Nominative for its object. 


u>^ _ \^t -# Iw! ' my own mind also was 

my own servants and com- 
jj e^JJU -, panions when they saw 

this negligence.' 

i i c i < > > 

ji jj uji ones honour is in ones 

own hands.' 

290. Uj) is used substantively for ' one's friends.' 

See Rule 254. 

( , , . , 

XM he came to his own. 

291. The Persian pronoun jy> 'self is sometimes used 

instead of UX 

l^o J <jyk J^f, \tf~^* ~vi ' CD saw this circumstance 

with my own eyes.' 

Relative and Correlative. 

292. The Relative Pronoun is j=>-, and the Correla- 
tive is j~s. This Sanskrit word ^ displaced the old 
Hindi word ^ t and is itself disappearing before the 
growing use of the Demonstrative *.. 

293. The Relative is very similar to the Relative in 
Latin. It may stand at the beginning of a sentence 
and be followed by a correlative, expressed or under- 
stood, as ' qui capit ille facit; ' or it may be preceded by 
an antecedent with which it will agree. But the former 


is by far the most common, and most in harmony with 
the spirit of the language. 

ly*> j~> \j& js*- ' what has been has been.' 
j_.J j/ ujj ^|j ,X^- ' he who has the pot has 
the sword' (or as the French express it negatively, 
' Point (K argent point de Suisse '). 
u! j$ jjA&Ai ,~s j* 'Lz )>- 'whatever remedy may be 

possible I will to the best 
of my power employ.' 

^ (j\ ( j~ ,-_..> *>- 'what they say you must 

know to be right.' 

> 'the ambassadors of the 
,'- \ 

c=-f' el ^T isf^^ i/ kings of every country 

who had come.' 
<__> ,-fU- :> ^J*\ .-^^ 'the lords arid nobles who 

were present.' 

( j^ ji <s-j^ j^r <=-j 'those (flies) which were 
on the edge.' . 

294. The Relative Pronoun sometimes has for its 
correlative one of the words given in the ' Philological 

^- .0 , >~9- ' the tree under which thou 

S W* 

jjl^j art standing, here a pitcher 

is buried.' 


29o. The Relative seems to have a strong attraction 
for words of its own character ; and so, by assimilation, 
a relative is often repeated instead of introducing another 
pronoun. This idiom will be better learned by obser- 
vation than by rule. 

whatever fell into the 
hands of any one.' 

' whoever asked for any 
thing.' (Rule 334.) 

' whatever thing any one's 
heart is desiring.' 

296. The Persian 'that' often supersedes y>- in 
Hindustani, as the word 'that' often supersedes the 
relative in English. 

a mansion that was better 

than the former house.' 
what sort of a fakir art 
inou iiiciu tii t not GV(?I* 
even acquainted with the 
three letters (of the word) 
poverty (fakr). (Rule 309.) 

This /is sometimes combined with js>-. 

JU lx'1 'this much wealth that of 

which there is no account.' 


297. In imitation of the Persian idiom, ., at the be- 
ginning of a sentence with a personal pronoun coming 
in subsequently, represents the Eelative. 

(JM\ rfUA-^-s ^ 'the source of rchich is not 

r - -< x 

\ ^ Jb <5jlku <-lX>J ' there is an idol temple in 

s " * *s 

_ ^J.^ c^^-j .J* which there are several 

golden idols.' 

99 * 

U*\ 4**$>- ,$ ji cub ,e^\ ' about a statement like this 
l j^ J< j ci-oU \ the falsity of which is 

not proved.' 

^j++ \J$Z ijj\ JU ,*UJ ^ ' of which the whole world 
^ is in search.' 

Interrogative Pronouns. 

298. The Interrogatives are ^A and L$", roughly 
represented by ' who ' and ' what ; ' but ^ is used in 
all its cases, with or without a noun, for any individual 
person or thing, while L, meaning ' what,' is only 
coupled with a noun in the Nominative. The other cases 
of L are partitive, and are used separately. 

_& ^ ' who is it ? ' 
"^ Li ' what is it ? ' 

^j ' what is this thing ? ' 
i >J ' what is the reason of this?' 


j jj\ ^Jfc ^.o Li \jJ ' what is thy religion, and 
jj> ,.t-3T what ordinance is this?' 

O ( ~ J "^ 

c ' */ 

^ ^ Jo IJH U*!* ' in what various ways have 

Li Li ,.3. ^j^ (JJ S f (things) gone on, and what 
different things has each done (how have things 
on, and what has each person done)?' 

' w ^y d * ne y 8* ^ ^ iem ? ' 

^ A ^ ' wn 7 do they go and stay in 
the woods and moun tains 'C 

299. The sign of the case is sometimes omitted. 

^ J ^^ ' (on) what day ? when ? ' 
' on what account ? ' 

300. U often signifies 'what !' when doubled, 'how 
many!' and when repeated before different nouns, 
' whether.' 

ajlj I*!/*" ^ ' w ' iat a rasca ^ ' 
^ ci^b L^ ^j ' what a business this is ! ' 

u^olsr L^ L ' how many wonders ! ' 
^j-^ \^-~ Li ib L^ ' whether in the garden or 
in the field.' 

301. The Interrogative is used instead of the Relative 
in certain phrases. 

t* & LJ'U- !j~* ' I know who he is.' 

JJ { PT L^ 'how should I know who 
you are ? ' 


Indefinite Pronouns. 

302. The Indefinite Pronouns are <Uli ' so and so/ 
^j^ ' a certain/ and ^s? ' some.' 

303. jli is an importation from the Arabic, and may 
be briefly dismissed. It signifies ' so and so/ or ' such 
and such/ and it is employed, with or without a noun, 
to designate a person or thing which the speaker is able 
to name or specify distinctly. 

< J}Lj ,J_ ( j~* ' I asked so and so. 1 
ju^.Jli^^ 'I was standing in such 
and such a field.' 

304. ^cj^ ' a certain/ ' any one/ of which the inflec- 
tion is ^M* and yj. This pronoun marks individu- 
ality, and may be employed with any word denoting a 
distinct person or thing. Its plural is ^j ' some/ and 

Jli ' several.' 

a Cer ^ n hunter was passing 
through a certain wood/ 
'(the fox) did not get any- 
thing besides dry leather 
and hard wood/ 

' (I) had not heard from any 


'in the possession of any king/ 
,-jjri. w-^V.;-^ u- fc/^ ' g race for a y^w days (this) 
.Uj humble house/ 



, , &> ,..J J ' several days passed.' 

^ J ^/ s i^^ v A 

\&>j ^Uj er^-^ ,J& 'he stayed there some months.' 

305. ^s? 'some,' 'something;' 'any,' 'anything;' 
' somewhat,' is partitive, and relates to quantity, not to 
severalty. It has no inflection and no plural, so that 
it corresponds only to the some or any which takes a 
singular noun. 

$ ^Jl> .^s? 'bring some water.' 
.-$.'*" ' give me some bread.' 

IX ' '(. < 1 

,*li i_f x '^ 4fs he (is) gone there on some 

u^ pressing business.' 
\ J>\ 'if the crow found some- 
\j\> ^ thing good to eat.' 

'his horns (are) somewhat 

more than a gaz long.' 
'she is somewhat better 
than the dog.' 

306. The word .^ is sometimes found in connexion 
with a plural, but this use of it is rare and exceptional. 
In such phrases ^s? may be separated from the noun 
and translated by ' somewhat,' ' at all,' ' a little,' or 
similar expressions. In the Ikknanu-s Sofa we have 

<_, ,t-J'b ^s> y ^\ ' tell him to say something.' 


(Bdteh-karna is preferred to bdt-karna as a compound 
verb, and is so used here.) 

_/ c)W Jl*^ ^ * ' let hirn te]1 a little (of) llis 

his own affairs.' 

In the Bagh-o-Bahar we read : 

& *' 
d-J^*j*Vf* **j -r purchase articles of jewelry 


to some extent.' 

yLo cissr ^s) jt\ ^\g jJ^ ' having given several pieces 

of cloth and curiosities to 
some amount.' 
In the AJMdk-i Hindi : 

'things for eating and 
drinking are not to be 
found at all in these parts.' 

^ L_/ uff- ' ^ ie y un & one's bones 
were found, some under 
the tree, some in the 
vulture's hollow.' 
In the Gul-i Bakdrcall : 

<z_j ^ jjj ,^s? ' the days passed for awhile.' 

In these examples the idea conveyed is that of quantify, 
not number. Other examples might be given, but it may 
be doubted if ^s? ever really agrees with the plural. If 
such use of it is admissible, it is very -uncommon and 
certainly inelegant. 


307. -fs? is particularly used in negative sentences 
with the sense ' at all.' 

in this there is no fault at 

all of mine.' 

.fs? ' it is of no consequence.' 
IJM\ 'there is no doubt at all 
about this.' 

[The explanation here given of / and ^s? differs 
from that given in all preceding grammars: ^/^ has 
been said to relate to persons, and ^s* to things, and 

y $/ 

y^ is always given as the inflection of ^s- . Shakespear 
gives ^J 1 ! -fs? as one of his examples, but this is 
incomprehensible, except in the sense of Sydney Smith's 
'cold missionary.' The same view of the question 
has been adopted by even Muhammad Ibrahim of Boin- 
ba}\ All have felt the insufficiency of their explanations, 
Forbes especially ; but they failed to perceive that y 
and ^S are identical, and that ^se never varies. The 
common expression ^s? li ^s? is alone sufficient to 
prove that ^s> has no oblique form.] 


308. The word ' was ' is used more loosely in English 
than the equivalent l$J in Hindustani. When ' was ' 
relates to something definitely past, Iff is the right 
word ; when it refers to something which came to pass, 


!y& is its correct representative ; and when it relates to 
something that continued or went on, b&; is used. So 
whenever ' became ' can be substituted for ' was,' \j& 
must be used; when 'stayed' or 'remained' can be 
employed, \&j is the word; but when 'was' expresses 
the meaning more accurately than either of them, U> is 
correct; thus 

$7 ,<^^T uJol ' there was a man who was 

" i ' j 

z* jy J* m y coul P amon > an( l was 

Uj c=.~if* wifa me three months.' 1 

\j* L*J! ' it was so, it so happened.' 
' what was in (your) fate has 

come to pass.' 

y& ^u sj (g f>- ijiijb l the sense which there was, 

that also was lost.' 


JU 'I was ready also with my 

^ money, but such as this 

was her pleasure.' 

9 t* ^ s 

\jSt> *-jLs c^-JJj -i Ubjj ^;/>- he was annoyed that the 

time was lost.' 

\j&~ c . *A y ^=- ^ ^l ' these days that thou hast 
. Uj been separated from me, 

!y& during this (time) there 

has been only thine own loss.' 
l y*\ ' her going was deferred.' 

This is a made up sentence ; the others are quotations. 

THE VERB. 169 

The difference in the two languages in this respect 
comes out most conspicuously in the Past Tense, but 
the same difference is observable in the Present and 
Future tenses. 

309. The substantive verb is often understood, especi- 
ally with the negative ( j^, which seems to have the 
verb inherent in it. 

.!>. L _T 'what news is there to-day ? ' 

jXl ci_ W f ' a hundred wise heads (are 

of) one opinion.' 
> j \s \ .yjftJ 'the washerman's dog is 

l neither of the house nor 

of the ghat,' i.e. it belongs to neither. 
b ^j?* ' there is none with me,' i.e. 

I have nothing. 
'it is no fault of the science.' 

' if a man has no sympathy 
. he is not human.' 

. wJ \j +s> 'there is no fear (there is 


nothing to mind).' 

310. Active verbs govern an accusative case; as 

Iff l^fejj !a^ sj ' he was reading the letter.' 

Neuter verbs do not generally take an accusative; 


but some are found with an accusative of kindred mean- 
ing; as 

JJy cub ^j ' he said this word.' 

o > 

^Jt> Wy ^bj o^iUjb ' he speaks our language.' 

<=-$ jj.Mjl \J$?* v_5# f^ ' we a ^ so nave fought 

hundreds of battles.' 


311. The Infinitive is one of the most useful forms in 
the language. It is used in three ways, as an Infinitive, 
as a Verbal Noun, and as an Imperative : but it is often 
difficult to distinguish between its functions as the 
Infinitive and the Verbal Noun. 

312. As an Infinitive. 

If? by* 45? f>- ' whatever was to be, the 

same has been.' 

V u ? ^^A ' k 11 *' it was m deed to be so.' 
' there are many things for 
thee to do.' 

313. As an Infinitive it is frequently governed by 
another verb, and appears in its inflected form. 

'he began to speak.' 
-.) t they went to look.' 
*> ' it will be for yon to write' 
(you must write). 


^U- ^j \ u ^li ' how ! hast thou come to me 

* [ to offer th life ? ' 

Infinitive and Verbal Noun. 

314. In phrases like the following, the Infinitive may 
be read either as an Infinitive or Verbal Noun. 

l^y& U U- ^Ifc. ^ jj ' it will be for you to go there, 
or, the going there will be 
for you, i.e. you must go.' 

Ix'j-j lijj <Ul*j^- J 'you will have to pay a fine 

(the paying of a fine will 
fall upon you).' 
,.1 J& \j_* ;.. <jji<\ j^-T 'after all there is a day to 

^> l_T^ J > V^ 

sl u_^-j die and to leave every thing,' 


or/ thereis a day for dying 
and leaving everything.' 

jlj1 UU- ,.-4 -.Jff ^ ,jyili Jb ' to go out and move about 
l j^, < j c-^-^li^ \Jj$J in the style of kings is not 

suitable,' or, 'going out 
and moving about, etc.' 

l^i^UL c= j li tZJjttJiju ' one will have to make the 
l^js> journey to the next world 

without provision.' 

This has been likened to the Latin Gerund, but there 
seems no necessity for this refinement. 


315. As the Verbal Noun, it is declinable like an 
Adjective in \ ; for it has a feminine form, but no plural. 
Thus Masculine Nominative U_jj : Inflection ,_Jjj : Femi- 
nine ^J%}>. It has all the cases of the Noun, and is 
governed in the same way. 


^ i^j \j.,i <-.! UM\ ' dying (or, to die) is better 
than this/ 

9 * i-f 

y> ul/.L* UU- li < M may your departure be 
auspicious ! ' 

9 j- ^^y 

UA lil _-s ul&-* ^/*o from what country has 
(your) coming been ?' (i.e. 
have you come). 

ij ^ IrT ^/ (*^ *^V.^ j* ' ever y action has its recom- 
\ pense, which in its time 

will come to view/ 


Z uJol 'give me a morsel to eat 

(or, for eating)/ 
' the king has forbidden 
(any one) to come into 
his presence/ 
The sign is sometimes omitted. 

l/F ^S^> ^jOj ^& ' he has come to represent 



It is difficult to distinguish this from the simple In- 
finitive; in fact, the Dative form may always be rendered 
as an Infinitive. 


' neither will there remain 

in me the strength of 
telling nor in thee the 
power of hearing.' 
' f r the purpose of break- 

ing sticks/ 

The following are instances of a somewhat peculiar 
use of the Genitive, which has been likened to the Latin 
Participle in turns. 

li eJjJb jj*J n ..> ' this cannot be (lit. this is 

not for being).' 
li .Jin ^^i l j~* ' I will not heed, or, I am 

not for heeding.' 
li (JW jj-^J ^JST jjJ* <^?1 ' I will not go to Persia (lit. 

I am not for going).' 
^-J ,MJ ^ JU j ^U- ' I will spare neither life 

1$" .j-j^ nor wealth.' 

It should be observed that this form of expression is 
always negative. 


^ ^ ,-<). ' from the hearing of this.' 

'from meeting him.' 


<=L' co)^ 'from their coming and stay ing/ 


& ^\i ^\ 'in speaking of these matter?.' 

^a> j g-J \- *j ' he is upon (i.e. at the 
point of) dying.' 

a e 9 

JL- J d^b ^$ ctfx'.p- ^^~ ' on no * ; likening to the 

talk of slanderers.' 

316. As a verbal noun the Infinitive is frequently 
used to form compounds, like ' fox-hunting,' ' speech- 
making.' It then agrees with the noun to which it is 
joined in gender and number. 

j' 'annoyance-giving.' 

^ji -tfr- 5 cJ^ 1 ' except truth-speaking.' 

making up long speeches 
^ oes n t please me.' 

' ^ ^ was ^ or y u ^ snow 

L jf' sucn ""friendliness, then 
'*/ # why was friendship-making 
with such warmth first necessary ? ' 

317. Compounds are occasionally found in which the 
words do not agree. In these the Verb is a real Infini- 
tive, not a verbal noun. 

/ ' to be idle at work-time.' 
' J 'to labour much for this 

AOR1ST. 175 

\^>- \j ^Jt \JjjJ ijljj \j world is to rim after 

j nothing.' 

318. The Infinitive is used as an Imperative, and as 
such it generally takes the negative J, but L^V is 
sometimes found. 

\j^ jb ' remember.' 
LJM\ .j~\ ^^ f? ' what they say, know thou 

that to be true?' 
' don't stay in my country.' 
j ' don't go there.' 

319. This use of the Infinitive as an Imperative is 
especially found in recording a command or prohibition, 
much as it is in English. 

t'*- 1 (jr^ 'I say unto yon, never swear 
J **uj (swear not at all).' 

'(he)advised (his son) always 

to associate with the wise.' 
' but bear this in mind, not 
to feel a hankering after 
any thing there.' 


320. This tense is a Subjunctive or Conditional re- 
lating to present or future time ; the same office for past 
time is discharged by the Indefinite tense, see Eule 333. 


It is generally preceded by^T1,jSf, , (j, or some 
similar word, and may be translated by ' may,' 'might,' 
'would,' 'could/ Should.' 

^U- l&. ' please God !' 
<= j\p>- yjJij ' one should know for cer- 
tain, one should be sure.' 
G __^ ij-cte j* \ ' if the judge should say.' 
y> JLJJ U~* j js- 'if thouwiltbemy companion.' 

' if he be very hungry.' 
Juoi ' (I) formed the resolution that 

I would go by that road.' 
*Li Jlj <=_ .^ ^Jo- ' God grant it may come (into) 

-j' ^ e ^ n ^' s pleasure that he 

should call (you) to his 

'if * ne } T wowW leave it to 

<-_]*> Ui / ^U-J y nature the patient would 

get well.' (Rule 226.) 

321. The Aorist is often used in colloquial and pro- 
verbial expressions, as a vague sort of Present Tense. 

' I perceive.' 

' what does he see ? ' 

' then he sees.' 

' how should I know?' 

' God knows.' 

FUTURE. 177 

'one commits the crime, an- 
other gets the punishment.' 

' if one's head is cut off, then 
it is cut off.' 

' if the blind woman grinds, the 
dog will eat : the wealth of 
the wicked goes for nought.' 

322. The Aorist is sometimes found with the Present 
Auxiliary added to it. 

i am P emn g or > I am 

going to open.' 
i ' I am g m g ^ oi^ke manifest.' 

323. The Aorist is also used as a substitute for the 

^,^-j .jjj^ y f speak then I will listen/ 
^j J^a JU Lol ( j^ ' I will show such perfection 
^J^Uj-^lcJjT^lacUjjw!. that by (my) prayers I 

^ii^i will make this lifeless 

thing living.' 


324. This simple tense requires no explanation. It 
is used just as in English, even to being employed 
politely for the Imperative. 



' in the end I shall die, then 
what answer shall I give 
to God?' 

' you will give me a book, 


325. The Imperative and the Aorist are distinguish- 
able only in the second person singular; the context 
determines which is intended, and sometimes either is 

T <jwl> c_^ 'come to me.' 
jT Jb4 ' come hither.' 
<__.* LsLv ,_A..5- LT * let hope survive and 

despair die.' 

^^ ic^l ,j^* &j<3 'let me also hear a little ; * 
or, ' I also would hear a little.' 

326. The Negative ^^,3 is not used with the Impera- 
tive; J is used with any person; LT-V* 'don't,' which 
belongs especially to the second person singular, is often 
used with the second person plural, and even with the 
Kespectful form. 

'don't do so. 

p ci 


' don't speak.' 
' don't forget.' 


327. The Imperative and the Aorist are so intimately 
connected that where one clause of a sentence is Impera- 
tive, the other also may take the Imperative form 
instead of the Aorist. 

j* y^ ( j\>- c-^v-jL* f*- ' whatever you may think 

right so that do.' 
,l> J -J ^__^^- 'whilst thou formest some 

-i ~ U^ ' 

plan for crossing over.' 

Respectful Forms. 

328. The Respectful form of the Imperative is very 
commonly used ; it serves the purpose of our ' please/ 
' be so good,' etc. 

' please to sit down.' 
' pray forgive me.' 
*P ra y do not forget.' 
'never interfere in my 

' place no reliance on their 


329. The Respectful Future is not often used* 


an ^ tf y u w ^ please to 
pull so.' 

ij. ' will you then deliver these 
over to them ? 


330. The Eespectful Imperative is also used, like 
oportet or il faut, with a sense of obligation, and may 
be translated ought, should, or must, and in this sense 
it is not confined to the third person. 

^\ 'from this one ought to 

tw\ ' we must stay in this wood 

W * 

JL-Aj and keep watch/ 

' ^ m y) e y es were ^ xe ^ on 

the door (and I said = Id) 

I must see what is going 
to be revealed.' 
'some such plan must be 

331. It is also used as a Kespectful Aorist, and in 
this sense it has a Plural ^ 

' if you will please to make 
(me) acquainted with 
this fact.' 

'if one should ask a villager.' 
'whom one should send 


i i; jw ^.y^T ' whatever praise one may 
^ make (whatever praise 
we give it), it is appro- 


li Ja5 Jta* ' (it is unseemly that kings) 

should give the order for 
execution, and should 
forget the service of a whole life.' 
' what are the qualities which 
are required in an envoy ? ' 

332. cJlfcU- 'one should wish,' the respectful form 
of iJbU-, is in very common use. When it is used in 
reference to any particular person, it conies at the 
beginning of the sentence, and is followed at the end by 
a verb in the Aorist, the construction being similar to 
that of the French il faut. Or it may be preceded by 
a Dative of the person, and be followed by the Aorist. 

& JjU ^a\s e.^U- ' it is necessary that the mes- 
senger should be honest.' 
it behoves man that he 
should be patient under an 
unexpected calamity.' 
<_v 'it behoves a man to do 


cZ what he says.' 

lyl ^ftU- j* ^5*4^ 'it is right that every person 
e _^ should do his own work.' 

'the conditions which are 

'six things do not behove a 

' telling lies is improper.' 


333. When employed in a maxim or remark of general 
application. <-_.!& U~ comes at the end of the sentence, and 
is preceded by a Past Participle uninflected. (See Rule 

( one ought to learn good 

' one might call it a storm 

(or, it might be called).' 
'one should hearken to the 

words of friends.' 

p ^ f 

\}0> J >\~*\ \j ' one ought not to despair.' 
one ought to consider the 
preservation of life (as) 
paramount to every thing.' 

The Infinitive is sometimes used instead of the Past 


334. This consists of the Present Participle, but it is 
especially used in respect of time past. It is a Past 
Conditional, and as such is often preceded byjTli ^- or 
a similar word ; and it is also a Past Habitual, in which 
sense it has i ^>- or some equivalent adverb before it. 

b'yi> J ^^J -f^ ^'T *jj*\ ' if he had come, then there 

would have been no loss.' 

,_C:\ ^ y ^jl J ^y b *)J>\ 'if she did not bring water, 
IdG ^ ( j^j then he would break her pots.' 1 

1 In this example, as in many similar ones, the speaker carries herself 
hack to the time of which she is speaking, and so properly uses the Aorist 
for what was to follow. (See Rules 320 and 382.) 


' would that instead of thee 
God had given (me) a 
blind son.' 

j Mrrr -j (J"* ' ^ a ^ that time the earth 
^U- U-: (J L* had opened I would have 

gone into it.' 

\^J> CS^\ c-^Loji <=ip t -rT ' when they used to see the 
,-fT <= (JM-\ dog they used to throw 

down a loaf before him.' 
U- <>^Jj kj6iS*te *) 'that merchant used to attend 

liJM at the time of darbdr.' 

\ ~,j XJ bjU cs- <-^ ' one would hit him with a 

stone, but still he would 
not move from that place.' 

In the following passage we have both the Conditional 
and Habitual. 

S^^ ' when the gambler used to 
JjU win, then he used to be- 

come so heedless that if 
anyone took offhis clothes, 
even then it would not be known to him.' 

335. The Indefinite must not be regarded as a Present 
tense ; but still it is sometimes used for a vague sort of 
Present. When apparently used as a Present, the 
auxiliary may be regarded as understood. 


l/ L S) ' what is he doing ? ' 

\~$z>- ( ..,^J cXL*j <JA ' love and musk (are) not con- 

cealed (cannot be concealed).' 

Present Tense. 

336. This answers to all the forms of the English 
Present : ' I speak/ ' I am speaking/ and ' I do speak/ 
_> lJ^ ' what does he see ? ' 

d?$3> j$) J^ ' flowers and fruits are 
blooming and ripening.' 
showers keep falling/ 

cups all night long are 

hundreds of fairy-faced 

(girls) are swinging/ 

337. When two present tenses are connected by a 
Conjunction, it is unnecessary to repeat the auxiliary. 
^Jb lj\ej- JfcJu^jjjl Iff c~i ,jl^ ' from whence it comes and 

whither it goes.' 
?. ^ <- p 
^15 J ^> ,-jJ^ J *j 'sheneithermovesnor stirs/ 

338. The Present Tense is used like the Historical 
Present in English to give point and life to a narrative 
and make it more vivid. 

^ iL-j (jwU,\ i--.' \fy ' (I) saw that all their gar- 

ments are black, and that 
every moment there is 


339. The Present Tense is also used for an Immediate 
Future like the English, ' I am going into the country,' 
' he is coming to-morrow.' 

u y& tff^j jLf ' I am coming back soon.' 
i A-J Lj| ^jj.** c_/i 'now I will so imprison him.' 
. t~* i-i>. e-~.s* ^ 'if you will take me into 

^ ^* " > ^"* ^ J ** 

jz> the presence.' 

$>\ ^^J ^A l j~* y { j^> ' if not I will kill myself 



340. This corresponds exactly with the English Im- 

^-fclj ..-j ' they were not going out.' 

, Perfect, and Pluperfect Tenses. 

341. The use of the Agent case with Active Verbs has 
been explained (193). In other respects these tenses are 
used as in English, only that the Pluperfect is more 
consistently and regularly used for an anterior action 
than the same tense is in English. 

(j*^ <=i. \jr* Lsf* *J?\ ^ ' t ne ca t na ^ come in, I had 
^u ^-# If? ^ felt her, she was wet.' 

Here the two ' hads ' are superfluous in English. 

342. The Past Tense is sometimes used with j* \ 
instead of the Aorist. 


\ ' if the princess is displeased.' 


r ~ ^s. ,_ JL J\j>\ 'if in the course of one year 
^ his statement becomes true.' 

\jbji 'y> ,-Sjk.s du"^^ ' *f I become a sacrifice for 

him I am (sacrificed).' 

343. A Perfect is occasionally met with formed thus: 
J& c_J^i ' h e nas se i ze d ; ' ^ c_^ ' he has made.' This 
last example shows that it is not the Plural Past Parti- 
ciple that is used, but rather the Past Conjunctive, so 
that the full meaning of the above examples is ' having 
seized, he is,' and ' having done, he is.' This also 
explains why the Nominative is used with it, not the 
k_^jL -i il/-J-^ <-l^ ' the snake has caught a frog.' 

J j J* Jj*- ^ (JJLz ^IJ'T ' (my) heart is burnt with the 

fire of love.' 
^ e, A*wj ^A'* yr ^^ ' the dragon who has opened 

his mouth.' 
S^-r* <-^ < &\*J* > <=-J*-r 'now it has made the leaf of 

the rose its chariot.' 1 

1 The examples given are all of the third person singular, but there is 
nothing in the nature of this form to thus limit it. 1 believe I have seen 
-Jb v j * b u * I have not preserved the reference. 


The Additional Tenses. 

344. The following- examples of the ' Additional 
tenses ' show how they are used. 

*z> \3Jkj t-^jLs jjl^sj- * where the snake may be 

^L=^\ (J ^ UM ^ r ^ *^j*> ' although it may have an 

i> \zj identity in (of) kind.' 
UJ L ( j !f ^ ^ C= J^ *j ' what will he be saying in his 


j ' thousands of such poor people 
( j+ (j* w ^^ ^ e coming and going in 

your dominions.' 
' what may have been written 

in (one's) destiny.' 
'(if) any one may have seen- 

^j ' he must be seated somewhere 

<=!. < 'T ' YOU must have heard this 

" ^~* v 

news, sir.' 

j*>-lj y 'thou mightest have been 

wrongfully slain.' 
' would that I had seen him.' 


Present and Past Participles. 

345. The Present Participle is used as the Indefinite 
tense, and the Past Participle as the Preterite. They are 
also used as Participles connected with and qualifying 
the Nominative Case ; in this capacity they are generally 
but not invariably followed by \t> ' as ; ' |y& W^ 
' seeing ; ' \^ ^ ' spoken.' 

j *J 'hegivingblessingswentaway.' 

&j\) 'the hawk was flying about 

(ju^ ' before him grains were lying.' 

'sometimes laughing, some- 

times weeping, he (was) pass- 
ing away his days.' 
' gazing at them and surveying 
j*> \jj* them I went onward.' 

j l^JLj jijl ' and seated (sitting still) should 
keep looking on.' 

346. Instead of agreeing with the Nominative, as in 
the examples of the last Rule, they may be used in the 
inflected form masculine, some particle being understood. 
^/jjfc ^j>- ij+s s\j *j ' he going along the road.' 
L (jwU jjr* <=3j$ er-L'^ ' I fearing approached.' 

' (he) saw (someone) coming 
in front of him.' 


j '(girls) wearing garments 
,_Jyi ^^ of various colours.' 

This construction is used in many useful phrases. 
^JL; j ^ ' during the day.' 

.~> 'on its becoming morning,at day break.' 
) J ' at the time of giving.' 

' at the time of beginning.' 
+* ' pending my stay.' 
cr^-T ' limping (and) stumbling/ 
_;L-jl ' there being means.' 
^^> 'being (possessed) of hands and feet.' 

347. The Present Participle governs the same case as 
its verb. 

bJ&J / (j\ ' seeing him. 1 
* ' 

^ f cutting (through) the mountains.' 

348. The Past Participle is used participially in a 
neuter or passive sense. 

<._J> l^$j j l^lJ j^ ' and seated should look on.' 
, yi jj> bT \yt> Isn^j l i_^Jl_-j ' I am come being commis- 

sioned of the snake." 
\S> LCill ** c^J - ' u ^ in in ^ certain tree.' 

l 'if an elephant with his chain 
^ li'T -jyfc broken should be coming.' 
It is also used adjectively, as an Rule 350. 


The Conjunctive Participle serves as the Active Past 

349. When the participles are used with an accusative, 
they sometimes agree with it and sometimes are un- 

j \* <JL) ' having seen (his) son dead. 

^ ' if n t> consider me (as already) 
^U- arrived.' 

b < -j>jJbjLj^& <-~j\ ' having seen him armed and enter- 
)\ ing the palace (entering the 
* palace armed).' 

350. Both the Present and Past Participles are used 
adjectively ; \^t, is then generally combined with them, 
but it is sometimes omitted. 

pL> uJot ' a talking mama (bird).' 
r^-* u\ ' f ^ na * 1 sleeping young man.' 

JLcli 1 js> 1^3 Ll^jl ' a written paper.' 
f ", 

j~* eJ^a .-J^* ' the bones of a dead tiger.' 
ib ^ ^ u^jj ' a flowery and fruitful garden .' 

' ^ ^ ie y wou ^ reflect on those 
facts committed to memory.' 

Present and Past Participles. 
351. Both the Present and Past Participles are used 


occasionally as verbal nouns (but see Rules 311, 314, 

l j^ <= ii->- Jj^jl ' and the pen in moving.' 
\.J\ L .-&J cr^j-* ' to a drowning man the support of 
^ e^j a straw is a great deal.' 

' ne awoke me from sleeping.' 
' he does not heed my word.' 
' one should not be deluded by an 
,-jl^i J v-r^r^/ y opinion (formed) upon one 


352. The inflected past participles c^, crrf^V 

o ' 

< _ = -jsr*~ J and some others have a passive signification 
when preceded by ,__j , ^o , ^ and negative prefixes, 


' without being told.' 
' without being asked.' 
' without being understood.' 
without being stricken.' 
* without being called. 
' ^ ia ^ tnou shouldst go without 

being called, and talk without 

being asked.' 
'who without my permission art 

eating food with me.' 


Conjunctive Participle. 

353. This Participle obviates the necessity of em- 
ploying a conjunction ; for instead of saying, ' he came 
and said,' the Hindustani employs this Participle, and 
the construction is ' he having come, said.' 

j# c^ys *J*L^ txU/Ljb 'thelearnedmanhavingbecorne 
(j\ ashamed came back.' 

** $\J} , r~ J J ci;l v ' having settled this matter in 

,>* " > y* w" ^ -' * 'x 

Of O^ 

L^ Jl^ <\) d^,Ui his heart, having sent for 

the architect, he gave the 

^ -^ C JLJ ^J'U tjL> ' having taken the nurse with 
J,-! Lr ^ ^\* her she came to my room.' 

.-.L c^'U ^ * a watch of the night having 
gone.' (Rule 106.) 

354. When the Conjunctive Participle of a Neuter 
Verb is used, the sentence is generally governed by the 
Verb, not by the Conjunctive Participle. But if the 
Participle belongs to an Active Verb, the Participle is 
the governing word. 


J* &}j^j^&- c-j ^^jJ jyl ' having gone, buy it from 

some other shop.' 

-z>\i Jii \ e-xj c-jl^ ^s? ' having sat down together, 
tjjjCjQy let us engage in eating 

and drinking a little.' 


-.: !A> i^Z 1^0*^ CX-.l 'a person went to a wise 
U^.j /U- man and asked.' 

^v *vj 


s f ** 

.ft ^^S Jy ^ (jw\ -i>- y when thou didst come to 

\i\ ^U c-^^r* T^/ ^ <=J ' me > having made a 

promise of returning.' 

j j}j\j cr 1 uV. 1;^' D^''^ '^ having taken a little 

from hence, I sell it at 
the market.' 1 

' having put on another 
dress he came.' 

355. The Conjunctive Participle and the Verb may 
each have its respective object. 

<j\ c~> ij** j^ ' having sold this, bring from 

the city.' 

^ <f j&p (jw\ ' having sold the jewel, he 
VJ d. ^-"*~i, brought its price.' 

'deeming faithlessness in- 
famous, he chose death.' 

356. When the sentence is negative, the negative is 
generally prefixed to the Verb, not to the Participle. 

li^f i \j^~ 'havingput out the house-lamp, I have 
\j\ ^j^^j not come, i.e. I have come without 
putting it out.' 

1 Though le-jana is neuter, it governs an Accusative. 



J^j e^-* yO^ 'h av i n g called out do not speak, (i.e. do 
a_j ^ not speak loud) lest he, having heard 
J y&JJ. a voice, should come here.' 
.j\3j+=>- f beware! do not take your slave 

along with you.' 
..13 'so that no one might form a tunnel 

> o y "-' 

Gr?V "^ and get there.' 

Adverbial Participle. 

357. This is the Present Participle inflected, with the 
particle ^ added, which gives to it the sense of ' upon,' 
' immediately upon,' and sometimes ' whilst.' It 
answers the purpose of our phrase ' as soon as.' 

^^ ' on its becoming morning, as soon 


as it was day. 

,-*>] ' immediately on seeing him.' 
(j-l ' directly on the hearing of this story.' 

See Rule 355. 
^ ,-jU- ' upon going, whilst he was going.' 

Noun of Agency. 

358. This, in addition to being the verbal agent, as 

Wit -:jz> ! ;> ' a reader,' is also used as a substitute for an 
; c= > 

active future participle, as 3^ ,jj ' one who is about to 
come,' ^ eJjJfc or ^U ^^ ' one who is about to be ;' 
this latter is shortened i 


Passive Verbs. 

359. The Passive voice is of rare occurrence, and it 
has been argued that there is no real Passive in the 
language. But passages in which it occurs are to be 
found in all writers, and some few forms, such as iJf !jU 
' he was killed,' are of constant occurrence. Though the 
occasional use of it is undoubted, foreigners will do 
well to avoid it ; and it is easy to do so by using neuter 
or nominal verbs. Official documents written under 
English influence resort to the Passive form much more 
freely than writings of pure native origin. 

c=~=^ <~ J Jk ^" *^i<-^ ' kings will only be interrogated 
JLjU>- .__>j about justice/ 

^ - .1 * ^11 ... J <j V 

i^J^ . (JM\ J<r \rr* ' mv neai 't is being consumed 

jj> \j'W- iU- -- .- (*f\ J* with the fire of his absence.' 
s^ ' ' S^ 

(-l^ L^ ~.\& li ^\ f*- ' if their cure is effected.' 

/ -jjj Li i^^Ji. IM\ ' then what plan will be 

^f -^"s 

( X>jU- formed/ 

UU- t -^J UC; J --j ^sr* ' it is not seen by me (I do not 

like to see it)/ 
J? U- , ^4 ,--Jls J \'y ' thev are not recognized/ 

V W" *^ ' v w 

Li bl) i^-< s L*.1 tlX.'1 ' such a reason was found.' 

1 The seven examples are taken, in order, from the Bccjh-c-Bahur, 
Tota A'ff/(57, Khirad Afros, Jkh icaiiu-s, S.tfii, Akhlnk-i Hi/utl Ai-u ish-i 
M'ltifl and Gul-i Bukauafi. 


Causal Verbs. 

300. All Causal verbs are necessarily Active, and 
require the case of the Agent. They govern two 
Accusatives : that of the person is represented by the 
Dative; that of the thing by the Nominative. See 219. 

1'C.i Ixili ^\ ' lie made them take breakfast.' 

Compound Verbs. 

' 301. In all compound verbs, the second, or conjugated 
verb, determines the syntactical construction ; if that is 
neuter the whole compound is neuter ; if active the whole 
is active. Thus \j\ ' to eat,' is active, but \j\s>- Li ' to 
eat up,' is neuter ; bJ ' to take,' is active, but liT^or, 
as contracted, W ' to bring,' is neuter. 

But there is one remarkable exception to this rule in 
the compound L,o ijl/t? ' to appear.' 

L j jjl$>t> )=r <^V. ' ^ ll t &joy\ appeared.' 


362.' These Compounds may be either neuter or 
active, according as they are formed with verbs like l^a 
and l)T or \jj* and LJ . 

363. The bond of union sits very lightly on Nominal 
Verbs, Sometimes the whole compound is treated as a 


Verb; but as frequently the union is dissolved, and 
the noun and verb are dealt with as independent words. 

3G4. Neuter Nominals are dealt with as simple verbs. 
They agree with the Nominative case, and when formed 
with a declinable Adjective the Adjective also agrees. 
See Rule 255. 

\**> >*^*z.j &J ' he took leave.' 

^ \ ' if he shall not be educated in 

my presence. 
, ,.-_.) ' these words do not please.' 

<# G=-ff* ' I a ^ so remembered the rcazlrs 
L'T statement (lit. to me also the 


n'.azlrs statement came to 

Ux ^-r^r ' when the edifice was approved.' 
?^ '= 'these seven girls were standing.' 

365. But Nominals formed with the verbs UT, b^3, 
l3jj , etc., frequently disintegrate, and the verb agrees 
with its own noun. 

bT jl> ^\ ' they remembered (to them memory- 

LT j^-ij ^ ^ w ^ ' they were certain.' 

^^Jny^asTj^^*** ' I am sorry for you.' 



^t (JUo ' fire kindled in my stomach.' 



'jt \j\ *li j c^-Ji. ^ ' so that on occasion it becomes 

- ' >v f i > 


366. Active Nominate require the Agent with the 
Past Tenses like simple Active Verbs, and have the same 
regimen ; but when they have no Accusative the com- 
pound disintegrates and the verb agrees with its own 

< JstjC. <IJH\ 'he represented.' ! 

- o 

*> jjajj^ CJN^ 'he did not observe the villany.' 

367. Active Nominals may, like simple verbs, govern 
an Accusative case; but more frequently the compound 
is broken up, the verb takes its own noun for its object, 
and the latter governs the Genitive or other appropriate 

' he dismissed the demon.' 

' ^ or ^ s reason I have told the 

story of the pigeon.' 
' I brought you up for this 

& jJLJi> jU> <-_> ' no one taught us these arts/ 

^ ^ jj-^ ' (I was) remembering the coun- 
Ij^i tenance of that moon-faced one.' 

1 This rule is reasonable, but \^ A ^ is frequenUy met with. 


jU 'the king praised it 1 (lit. made 
the eulogy of it). 

' of whom art thou making 
mention ? ' 

Li K IjcL J& ' (I) gave thanks to God.' 

c^'b ^J ' what (will be) gained by investi- 
Li ^ gation of this matter ? ' 

' never interfere in my business.' 

fj *-^jJ ' (I) g ave the eunuch a valuable 
/ c^o Ui .i ...s*-^. (/^. heavy) robe.' 

' I introduced him into (my) 

368. Active Nominals formed with Adjectives remain 
intact: they generally govern the Dative form of the 
Accusative, and the Adjective is uninflected. See Eule 

Li J^J c^i ,-__jJ ' (I have) accepted your state- 


-j ^>- ' God softened the heart of that 
j ,-. stony-hearted one.' 
^*>- \ 'if they should understand the 

j- j 

* f ac ^ s an( i ^ ie uses f Ae animals.' 


Potentials and Compktivcs. 
(Formed of a Root with LL and \~. Rules 121, 122.) 

369. There is nothing peculiar in the use of these 
verbs ; both LLo and U>- are neuter, so the com- 
pounds follow the neuter construction. The perfect of 
the completive verb differs but little from an ordinary 

, ^ JL>- ,.r~j *J5> -is? .fs? ' I have heard a little.' 

l^ <^ v * ' i < v v 

The Future of this compound serves also as a Future 

>- ^3 ij ' he will finish writing,' or ' he will have 
finished writing'.' 

370. Continuatlves. 

(Formed of a Present Participle, followed by UU- or 
. Rule 123.) 

\J\s>- JU ^ -J'la> e_jlf*J 'your wealth was entirely 


J^r <^.(j^^=? J"-Vt? ' care w ^^ depart from his 

371. Frequentatives and Desiderativcs. 

(Formed of a Past Participle with \jj* and LU~. 
Rules 126, 127.) 


The Desiderative expresses the wish to do a thing, and 
also the intention of doing something immediately. 
03 bj*l>- L^ jL> .t-.* ' I am about to make a journey.' 

372. Inceptive, Permissive, and Acquisitive verbs 
formed from an inflected infinitive, followed by U3, 
LoandUlj. Rules 132, 133, 134. 

1+.* c\j (jj er-fT* j*\ '^ y u w *^ a H w ine ^ go for 
j^j 3 <JW- j~~i a walk in this garden then 

(it will be) better.' 
\g b'b cr^o^ ^^ <=r-f?-'* -' ' no one could get to see me.' 

Ufl is not unfrequently placed at the beginning of a 
sentence, and the Infinitive at the end. 
~L ;j ^G j ^lil^^jw^lSjjjl ' and having looked again and 

<=^*J 5* J\j* <=^ again at his face, being dis- 

turbed (in mind) he began 
to weep.' 


373. The words given in Rule 155, which are used 
as substitutes for prepositions, often dispense with the 
genitive sign, as : 

^wb (juJ f near this.' 

* ' for what reason, why?' 

374. They generally follow the genitive they govern, 
but they are frequently placed before it without affecting 


their meaning. There is one exception : ^j'Lc , when it 
precedes the Genitive, means 'for all,' 'besides;' and 
when it follows, signifies ' along with,' ' in company.' 

{JM \ ^j'L, 'besides that, life will pass 

l-j with labour.' 

<j*\ -f>L ' for all that he himself is 
f\J j)\ little and feeble.' 

U (jw\ ' (I) went along with him.' 

375. It has been stated in Rule 157 that some of the 
words used with the power of prepositions take ^when 
they precede the noun and ^ when they follow it. 
These words are all feminine, but throw off their proper 
gender when they are placed before the noun. Dr. 
Gilchrist attributed this to mistake, Forbes very pro- 
perly rejects such a supposition, but makes no attempt 
to account for this grammatical anomaly, resting satisfied 
with saying that it is the usage of the language. It may 
perhaps be explained by the fact that the words which 
are commonly placed before the Genitive (viz. mu'afik, 
siwae, sath, baghair, etc.) are all masculine ; and so ,_ 
being required by the great majority of the words in that 
position, it has arbitrarily or without consideration been 


extended to others. With the exceptions of .xJU and 
j* the words in the list are very rarely placed before 
the noun ; one or two instances of each are all that have 
been met with, and these are not sufficient to warrant 


the laying down of a precise rule for them. As regards 
ocw-U, there can be no doubt as to the general practice of 
making it govern ^when it comes before the noun and 
^ when it follows it. But there are exceptions to this. 
The author of the Gul-i Bakdrvall almost invariably l 
connects it with in both positions, thus < = -\j~ > xJl 
Mike a moth/ and juJU *> ^j^lijb 'like kings.' 

In the Araish-i Alahfil we find ^J> ^Ul, ocJU 'like 
man.' But the author of the Khirad Afroz takes the 
opposite course and prefers ,_ to ^ in both positions : 
In page 12 (Eastwick's ed.) j^U ^ is used no less 
than four times. Although the general practice is as 
above stated, and will probably prevail, it can hardly be 
looked upon as definitively settled. Jl* is feminine, 
but it generally precedes the noun and takes .: thus, 

^t 'like the deer, and hare, and 


.l^ ' (they) are like physicians and 


376. tlX? t_- -.>-, ul53j c_ 5^, meaning 'until,' gene- 
rally take the Aorist, which commonly has a negative 
with it, but sometimes not. 

^c>- ' until he becomes a young man.' 

1 I have noted only one exception. 


^~z~ ( j^i d& L--OJ- ' until I give you intelligence.' 


s>- ' until some loss happens to him 

he will not know my value.' 

^>- ' until his breath departs (he dies) 
they do not allow him to take 

~~s>- ' until you bring that young man 

with you.' 
' whilst thou art drawing.' 


377. y>-, which is a pronoun meaning ' who' or ' which,' 
is also an adverb signifying 'if/ 'when,' 'since,' and 
sometimes ' that.' When followed by the correlative ^ 

9 * 

or by a. it must be a pronoun; but when y is the cor- 
relative, it is an adverb. 

u>r y yt, ^Lj.9^ ^..^ J ^s- ' if you will be my com- 

panion then I will go.' 
'do thou bark a little that 
the master of the house 
may awake.' 

378. j*\, 'if,' is generally followed by the correlative 
y. It governs either the Aorist, the Indefinite, or one 
of the Past Conditionals, but it is occasionally found 
with the Past tense or Future tense. 


*J> Jo- j*\ ' if you give the order/ 
ilij^ -V. ^ 'if this secret is disclosed.' 

t come now.' 

379. ^Jfc is an emphatic particle, meaning ' very,' 
' even/ ' only/ etc. 

li J> LujJ 'so very expert/ 
M ' ever so great/ 

'this only wonder did (I) see/ 

tJJo^ ' in only one assault/ 

380. The interrogative ^l^ is used to mark an 
extreme degree of dissimilarity and incompatibility. 

fj^ U^U^* 'where am I and where art thou?' ('what is 

ij^ there in common between me and thee?') 

U L V ^ ^jji ij\j ' where is the fairy, and where is man ?' 



381. The word ^ as a Conjunction signifies ' that/ 
It is also used for ' or/ ' than/ and ' for/ 

c_^A-i^ 'it is probable that (your) health 
JUc will be restored/ 
Jj/C^IjTvliDj^l^ 'until that one day she said/ 

, _.j[ 'it is incumbent on man that 

_JLy). he fail not in justice/ 


_ pj ' have you studied the science 
J of logic at all or not ? ' 

^ ^ ^J ' thou mayest take either this or 


^t> *;U ' it is necessary that one should 
" 1 -vi learn to read, for this is better 

than every thing.' 

i*j3Ljj c_^r* L^* J ' ^^^ ' ^ ^ s better that one man should 
^-i flJ die than the whole city.' 

IDIOM, a^ls'* muhawara. 

382. The Hindustani, like other languages of the 
East, prefers the recta oratio to the obliqua, i.e. it em- 
]>loys the direct or dramatic form of narrative, such as we 
find in the Bible, not the indirect way in which Europeans 
report the words of others. Thus the phrase, ' He told 
me he had sent the letter,' would run in Hindustani, 
' He told me thus, Z have sent the letter.' The exact 
words of the speaker are always reported, and they are 
introduced by the conjunctions .1 or^=>- which may be 
translated ' thus ' or ' saying,' and are in fact equivalent 
to our inverted commas. The same mode of expression 
is used to express the thoughts passing through a person's 
mind. As the exact words or thoughts are expressed, it 
follows that the verb will be in the tense appropriate to 
the time when the words were used or the thoughts 

IDIOM. 207 

'he saw that "except this there 

* s no escape for me." ' 
Ji U *-la ' take an oath, saying,. " I 

J will never do such a 

wicked act again."' 
ll jb ' the king's brother wished to 
" I would go a hunting "). 
(*/*-* ^-r^ ' ^ ien one ma y know thus, 
" he has become kind to 

1x3 .1 Ji IfV l^/ =LSr*~ ' y ur honour said thus, " I 
l-.C;j <&~sj l -^-^ <=i (j-* will come to-morrow:" I 

<_jj J < ^y waited a long* time, but 

you did not come. 

Relative and Correlative. 

383. The Relatives and Correlatives of Pronouns, 
Adjectives, and Adverbs are extensively used in Hindus- 
tani, and are very congenial to the taste of the people 
and the character of the language. The use of them 
should be carefully studied. Some examples follow : 
\*x> *s>- ,j\\* ~} \* f>- ' what is done is done, and what 

Ls> *~i has been has been.' 
a' , a jl) ; uJ|j J[\ Ls^- ' the farther he goes onwards the 

**S *J* ^ 

lxJj more will he lose the way.' 

docs any one know how it ought 
to be done.' 


.j^^r <J_ ej^jali 'the prince exhibited just such 

" " * T 

j> .>**-; .--J&l*- courage as was necessary. 

jOj i_^:>- ' while there is life there is hope.' 

t lj>- ^jl^J Ji u ^^r ' where the rose, there the thorn.' 
.~# LJ (J*L? J l*^- ' as the country, so the custom.' 
,-L* L*-J j c^^T ' ^^e joins like.' ('Every Jack 

will find his Gill.') 
' she is not so good as she should 


' as long as a man takes no trouble, 
so long will he fail to obtain 
worldly prosperity, ' 

s>~ 'takcasmuchasmaybenecessary.' 

The Negative. 

384. The position of the Negative in Relative sentences, 
and in sentences comprising a Conjunctive Participle, has 
already been shown in Rules 376 and 354. Sentences 
like the following are of the same character. 

j (j*\ ' there is an order not to open 
the ate at this time.' 

s v) ' ' ( i 

^ .j> CL?->^ L^-W^J it is a Jong time since your 
LT , J hi- li honour's letter came.' 

IDIOM, 209 

IjjS ' I am afraid lest he should curse 
j (me).' 

*&L\ _ $ }j~i 'it is the order of government 
that no shopkeeper should buy 

anything of a soldier' (lit. it is 
not the order of government 
that any shopkeeper should 
take anything of a soldier). 

Repetition of Words. 

385. The repetition of words, or the coupling of 
words of similar sound, is a very favourite device ; for 
anything in the way of a rhyme or jingle is acceptable 
to Indian taste. Sometimes the repetition or coupling 
is made for the sake of the mere sound, but frequently 
it strengthens or modifies the sense. (See R. 135). 

Nouns and Pronouns and Numerals are often repeated 
to convey the idea of distribution, such as is expressed 
by our words ' each/ ' every,' ' one by one.' 

' having well warmed them' 
(sank having no distinct 

' weeping and wailing (lit. 
washing) is no good.' 

<as morning approaches.' 

wife and husband united 
began to dwell together.' 


*x* j- 'having ascertained the 

^j) amount of your property 

as well as the profit.' 

J> 4=rj> ^\s? ' having known and under- 
stood (i.e. designedly, of 
malice aforethought).' 
' they kept grinding some- 


' without being asked.' 

niy clothes.' 
' many people go on bab- 

bling falsehoods.' 
-> <b c^-viiJi>- 'relate in detail the account of 


every moment and every 
hour, of every watch and 
every day, month after 
montkand year after year.' 
* things of many kinds.' 
' *- ne sn ^P having received 
a blow from a rock 
(having struck on a rock), 
went to pieces.' 
'he gives to each one o or 
7 rupees apiece.' 

IDI01I. 211 


386. t'U, 'to cat;' \j\\, 'to raise;' UsrL?, to draw. 

These three verbs are used similarly but not inter- 
changeably, in the sense of 'to feel,' ' to experience,' ' to 
endure/ ' to suffer.' 

' to receive a wound.' 
' to feel compassion.' 
^y& ' to take an airing.' 
***j ' to take an oath.' 
' to backbite.' 
' I received a beating.' 

' I was suffering immersioa 
after immersion.' 

' to endure grief.' 
'to receive blows.' 
' to feel pleasure.' 

'enjoy the pleasures of 


.>i.O ' to suffer annoyance.' 


'A^2; ' to feel vexation.' 


X 1 

-,^ d^^ 'hesuffered many hardships/ 

ufi Jlj ^.j' .J -i ^t-^ ' I endured two or three 


> .-..* ij ' ho had been expecting me.' 


387. li. 

This Verb means ' to touch,' ' come in contact,' etc., 
etc., and it is used in a great variety of phrases, which 
should be examined and committed to memory whenever 
met with. 

Ux! .ifU 'to come to hand (to be obtained).' 

Ll 4^/T ' to catch fire,' thus ,^3 t^fl ( j^- J ^ 

' a fire broke out in the house.' 

j> ^x>3 ^ ^eg ,j^-i ^jU- * one's precious life even 

becomes bitter.' 

The Active form lj$ is also similarly used. 

l3\w fc^/T ' to set on fire.' 
,JU3 jUJj <J_ ^i 'I applied the sword (I 
struck with the sword).' 


388. UL * to meet, accrue.' 

This word is in common use. Being a neuter verb 
it does not exactly correspond with the word 'meet/ 
but generally takes a Dative case of the person, and 
a Nominative of the person or thing which is met or 

(js*. ( the right will come to the right- 
ful owner.' 

I/, J ' a river encountered (us) in the 
way (we came to a river).' 

IDIOM. 213 

^Cj J ' to you in return for kindness 
J^J kindness will accrue; (you will 

meet with kindness in return 
for kindness).' 

Sometimes, however, LL is connected with the 
Nominative, and the person or thing met or obtained 
is put in the Ablative. 
O t^* =_-> c^-^-j ' give me leave that I may meet 

..L* 'jV. cr^ m y friend.' 

.Ju^t*j.As*j.!f\*j ' she arose and met Mahmuda. 
_/J- d/ ' having embraced.' 

389. L*U- ' to wish.' 

The employment of this verb for the formation of 
Desiderative verbs, and the use of its respectful Impera- 
tive, ^.-jfcU- have been explained in Rules 126, 332, 
and 333. 

Used as a simple verb, it also signifies to be about to 
do a thing, and is generally followed by ^ with the 
^^U- ^ UU^ <J ^-.\ f he wished to go ; or, he was 

about to go.' 
^_ I*** ^ \ lii>U- ' he was about to attack (me).' 

390. LA, 'to remain.' 
Forms Continuative verbs. See Rule 123. 
It is added to a Root or a Participle, to convey 
the idea of continuation. 


'may the king's life and pros- 
perity continue increasing.' 

' S ^ ie remame d seated near her 
^j mother.' 

l^f Uj ^ .^j ' he kept saying this.' 
l^j U; ^.-\^i jUasj], 1^.,^ ' he kept waiting for me.' 

The compound U; ijU- signifies ' he went right 
away,' ' departed,' or ' died.' 

b>^ \3\s>- cs ^^ ' he departed from his senses (he was 
quite bereft of his senses).' 

391. UjU ' to strike.' 

This is used in forming nominal verbs, as UjU *T ' to 
sigh,' UjU A J * to speak, boast.' 

It is compounded with the name of an instrument or 
weapon without any particle, in the sense of ' to strike 
with ; ' and when more than one blow is given, the name 
of the instrument is put in the plural. 

UjU ^yj ' to strike (with) a sword.' 
lijt* \* ' to strike (with) a whip.' 
\j\* Ul'U CXI <J_ (j~\ ' he struck a blow (with his) fist.' 
' (he) kicked me.' 
' if any one beat a brahman with 

a stick' (fit. ' strike sticks'). 
'lie shot an arrow.' 

IDIOM. 215 

392. Ijl^i ' to command.' 

This word is used for ' to speak ' or ' to say,' when 
the speaker is a king or any other great personage, 
whose word is a command. 

bU^j ,J_ilijb ' the king commanded,' but often mean- 
ing simply ' the king said.' 

It is also used in the formation of nominal verbs, 
instead of U^, Ujj, etc., when applied to a king or 
eminent person. 

bUy ujLu\ ' (he) did justice.' 
t;U.j cuJiLi 'to show kindness.' 

393. U-o 'to be made.' 
This frequently signifies to assume the appearance. 

! ' having assumed the appearance of 
the brahmans' (having dressed like 
the brahmans). 
' having taken the shape of a ball.' 

The Intensive UU- ^j has a similar meaning. 

394. L-j ' to sit.' 

The Past Participle of this verb is used where we use 
the Present. ' Seated ' is preferred to our ' sitting,' 

[g ^^^ -jly J S J ' ^ e was sea ^ a ^ n ^ s door.' 
The phrase ^_lfb < ==r iLi ' seated and being made to sit,' 
signifies being inactive and involuntary. 



395. U> ' to fall.' 


The Past Participle of this verb is used for ' lying. 5 

\jj ij+* ^ <.__ t-^jL j^> ' the necklace is lying on the 
jt> snake's neck.' 

^}j tlX)1 c __ j> (^A ' (he) saw a crow lying in a 
l^ J Ijj ^^ nest.' 

U L^X ^ j> ^jJ> ^> ' thon also having got drunk 
! r y didst lie like a corpse.' 

396. 'JU 'to repose.' 

The Past Participle of this verb is used for ' lying,' 
in the sense of ' reposing.' 
V2J j&*r j> crrJ^j^T uw^ ' having gone, I reposed on that 


& lilJ <\ .^j& ' the stag was lying (lit. lain) 
before him.' 


To Paragraph 9, page 11. 

The short vowels zalar, zer, and pesh are generally 
modified in sound when they are followed by _ or ^ 
sdkin. The zabar approaches in sound to ai, the zer 
to e, and i\\Q pesh to o. Thus \^j pahla is pronounced, 
and indeed is sometimes written, paihla \ L^xsT* mihnat 
approaches in sound to mehnat; and c^-s-* suhbat and 
dis. J tultfa are pronounced sdhbat and tdhfa. So also 
the pronoun aj is sounded w6h and is now often written 

X n '' 

To Eule 310, page 169. 

The Verbs W and ULsa! are neuter, but they govern 
an Accusative. 

\ ' I have brouht that merchant 


^ ^=T ' vvhatever goods you have 


' m w '^t way shall I convey 
these rubies to the kin?' 




The Nagarl, or more properly the Deva-nagarl alphabet, 
is the character in which Sanskrit is written. It 
runs from left to right, like our own alphabet. This 
character is used by Hindus in their books, but a modi- 
fied form is employed in correspondence and ordinary 
writings. The intention of the present chapter is only 
to give the learner such a knowledge of the printed 
character as will enable him to read the Baital Pachlsl, 
Singhasan Battlsi, and similar books : all beyond this 
appertains to Hindi rather than to Hindustani, and must 
be sought for in Hindi Grammars. 

The Deva-nagarl alphabet has five simple vowels, each 
having a short and long sound. 

^ ^ T t ^ ^ ^5 ^| ^^ 

nd if u u ri ri Iri Irl. 

The last three never occur in Hindustani, so they may 
be passed over. 

It has also four diphthongs. 

Tl ^ % ^ 

e ai o au 

The first two are combinations of the first and second 


vowels, the other two are combinations of the first and 

The consonants are 















s - 







Cerebrals ....... 

















11 a 

























Sibilants and Aspirate . 









Besides these there is the anusnara ri, which is the 
proper nasal of the sibilants and of the aspirate ; and the 
sign : or visarga, which is a final h. 

[In the above table the consonants are divided into classes. 
The first two of each class are hard, and the next two are the 
corresponding soft letters. The last is the appropriate nasal. 
In Sanskrit a hard and a soft consonant can never combine; 
so when a hard consonant is followed by a soft, it is changed 
to its corresponding soft ; and a soft one followed by a hard one 
is changed to its own hard form. No consonant should be joined 
by any but its own nasal, though in common practice the 
amisu-ara is used, but it is then considered as the repre- 
sentative of the real nasal. The letters of the Dental class 
are weak ; and when they are followed by a Palatal or Cerebal 

220 APPENDIX 1. 

letter, they are changed into that letter (like as the sounds 
of t and d are merged in the English words pitch and hedge). 
The Hindustani student is not required to work these permuta- 
tions, but a knowledge of them will he of advantage in enabling 
him to recognize prefixes in different forms ; thus the initial 
syllable of the words ^Jc^fcf utsav, ^3^n? udyam, ^^f^f ujjal, 
and ^Tf^prfT uchalna, is the preposition ut, ' up ' ; and the pre- 
position sarn, ' with ' (con), appears in the words tl*Mft xawpat, 
sungat, ^TTT santaj) ^HfTT sanchar and ^ETJT safisargJ\ 

The forms of the vowels given above are the initial 
forms, as they stand at the beginning of words. When 
medial or final they have other shapes. 

ka ka Jci Jcl ku ku kri ke kai ko kail 

The short Ti, it should be observed, is written before the 
consonant, though it is pronounced after it. "^ ru 
^ or ^ ru and ^ hri are exceptional forms of com- 

When two vowels are in contact, the first is written in 
the medial form, and the following one has the initial 
form, thus jrm hua if^yae; or the letter ^ is inter- 
posed as *l% gayc. 

The first vowel, ^J a, is written only when it is initial 
It is inherent in every consonant, and should be pro- 
nounced along with it, unless some other vowel has taken 


its place, or there is an indication that the vowel sound 
is absent. When a consonant has no vowel sound, it 
should be either joined to the consonant with which it is 
combined in sound, thus, ?T nt, or it should have the 
mark virdma 'rest/ subjoined, as in ^^cf^ antar. The 
virdma is the equivalent of the Arabic jazm. In com- 
mon use, however, this is generally neglected, and the 
reader is supposed to know that ^t^T'TT is bolna, not 
boland. Still, compound letters are used, and the 
following are examples of some of the most usual forms. 
It will be seen that in the formation of the compounds 
the stem T of the first consonant is rejected, and that 
the distinctive portion of the letter is then joined to 
the one with which it combines in sound. Thus T n 
and ^ d coalesce, and form ^ nd. The letter r is so fre- 
quently joined to other letters that special forms have 
been devised to represent it. "When it precedes a con- 
sonant, it is written over it in this form % as 7? rt ; when 
it follows, it is subjoined in this form *, as ^ or ^ tr, 
H pr. There are two compounds in which the original 
elements are not discernible. These are 1*1 or ^ ksh, 
which in Sanskrit has the sound of x in the word fluxion ; 
and Tjjn, which has the sound of gn in bagnio and in 
the French dlgne. But in Hindi the former commonly 
has the sound of chh or kk, and the latter of gy, as 
panchha, ir^F pakh, 



^ kk, if kt, T& ky, If kl, 1^ gg, iq gd/i, ^ gn, 7=f gb, 
^ c/ic/i/i, ^r.;>*, 3iT.;i, Tf tt, per *M, (^ fri, <fl *z, <sj fy, 
t^ tv, ^ rf</, ^ rWA, ^ dm, ^f dy, ^ dv, ff nt, ^ ?/f/, 

^f //, "g shf, B -S//M, tjij 5//w, "j shch, T.T - 1 *'//"/, 
^T shr, ^ /<;, ^I 5^, ^f an, ^ sniy TQ sy, ff hy, ^ hm. 

Compounds of three letters are rare, and in such as 
do occur one of the semivowels ^T, X? ^> *(> is generally 
the last of the three, as ^ ?tfr, ^31 sty. 

There are Hindi and English Dictionaries in which 
the Hindi words are printed in Nagarl characters, and 
are arranged in the order of the Nagari alphabet ; but 
the Dictionaries generally used by Englishmen are 
arranged according to the Persian alphabet. This 
makes it necessary to show how Hindi words may be 
found in their Persian dress. 

Initial Vowels. 

1 T 1 dl ^ j\ 4 i't } b 
Appended Vowels. 

-i < _ 'i i } 

3 J 


/ / 

j or 

* A.\i_,C^ w ? SMI > v VM* i C 

~i .w 01 .a o J6 j or / <\ -j >* or & 

I ^ v 

The aspirated letters of the Nagari are invariably 
represented by the $ or butterfly form in the Arabic 
character, and the T| by ^ or A. Modifications of three 
Arabic letters, <JL>, 5, J, have been formed to represent 
the cerebral letters Z and ^ A dot placed tinder the 
letter ^? and its aspirate ^ shows that they have the 
sound of J r and j^J rh. 

In the Arabic alphabet, on the other side, there are 
several letters which have no equivalents in the Nagari, 
and so substitutes have to be found. This is done by 
placing a dot under the letter which most nearly 
approximates in sound ; thus 


This arrangement answers for all practical purposes, 
and marks the etymology of the Arabic words used in 
Hindi. The more, however, the language approaches 
pure Hindi, the fewer are the Arabic words employed, 
and such as are used colloquially are made to assimilate 
in sound to the nearest Hindi letter ; thus zaban and 
zin are pronounced^'a^aw smdjln. 


Arabic words enter largely into Hindustani, and some 
knowledge of Arabic grammatical forms is essential 
to the attainment of a thorough acquaintance with 
Hindustani. A perusal of the following observations 
will open the student's eyes as to the full force and 
intimate connexion of many words which to the ordinary 
reader seem, to have no relation to each other. 

The Verbal Root is the main source from which 
Arabic words are derived. This is generally triliteral, 
but there are roots consisting of more letters. The 
following observations are confined to such roots as are 
composed of three consonants. Roots consisting of 
more than three letters, and roots containing one of the 
weak letters \, j and ^j, present difficulties which place 
them beyond the scope of this very elementary notice. 


The Root of the Verb is the third person singular of 
the Preterit J^j 'he divided,' and the Verbal root is 
developed into an infinite variety of forms by altering 
the vowel points and the jazm, and by weaving into it 
one or more of the seven servile letters comprised in the 
word \jiAvvSj yatasamanu-a, ' they fatten,' which word 
is used as a memoria tec/mica. All other letters must 
be radical, but these seven may be either servile or 

The simple noun very frequently consists of the same 
letters as the root of the verb, but the points generally 


^ji ' separate.' ^j ' difference.' 
Jis ' kill.' jlji ' slaughter.' 

lie 'know.' *Li 'knowledge.' 

~lji ' divide.' ~J ' sort.' 
Ulr oppress.' ^'tyranny.' 
cL* ' rule.' dL ' dominion.' 
Other useful forms of the simple noun are : 

'go out.' JT*- ' & om out, rebellion.' 
' sit.' <j"=r ' the sitting.' 

Jp ' accept.' J^-J ' approval.' 
j* rejoice.' ^y 'joy.' 

' be ill.' u-tr* ' sickness.' 
From the simple or ground verb fifteen other forms 




are derived by weaving into it one or more of the servile 
letters. There is no verb which runs through the whole 
of these forms, nor is there any rule as to the number 
of forms in which a verb may appear. Some of the 
forms are of very rare occurrence even in Arabic, and 
those which are worthy of notice by the Hindustani 
student are still fewer. The chief parts of the Verb 
which are of use in Hindustani are the Infinitive or 
Verbal Noun and the Active and Passive Participles. 
The following table exhibits these parts of the simple or 
ground verb, and of eight derivative forms, using the 
word JJi ' accept ' as the model. 


,-.v > 





i *' 

i- i~ 

etc. J-3 J-i 


JU- J 


iUK-Ml i 











The Ninth Form, and all above the Tenth, are omitted 
as unnecessary. The Active and Passive Participles 
have been given throughout, to make the table perfect ; 
but the only difference between them in the derived 
Forms is that the Active has kasra, and the Passive 
fatha, in the last syllable. 

The Infinitive or Verbal Noun and the Active and 
Passive Participles are very common in Hindustani. 
The use of the Noun is sufficiently obvious. Active 
Participles are used with the powers of Participles, of 
Adjectives, and of Verbal Agents or Nouns ; some having 
all these powers, others only one of them. The Passive 
Participle is used principally as a Participle or Adjective ; 
but it is sometimes employed as a Noun, especially in 
its Feminine form. 

The following are examples of simple roots and of 
their various derivative Forms ; but such words and 
meanings only are given as are actually in use in 

Model. Act. Part. JjlS kabil. 

Pass. Part. *-* makbul. 

Form I. Simple Verbs. 


Jx knowledge. Jls knowing, fir*" known. 

a learned man. 




JJu intelligence. JSU intelligent. JJ&M intelligible, 


o /o 

JJtf tyranny. Jlk tyrannical, (*/^* oppressed, 
tyrant. mild. ' 

Jjj division. +J3 dividing, ,**JU divided, 
a divider. a portion. 


^j mention, J>\3 mentioning, } ,&,* mentioned, ) 
remembrance, remembering, j praised. ) 

praise. mention, ) 

discourse, j 

z* write. ^^ writing, S-y^* written, 

a scribe. a letter. 

Form II. 

Verbs in the second form have an intensive, causal, or 
factitive signification. The Infinitive or verbal noun of 
this form is extensively used. 


Inf. jj&t Act. P. Jp& Pass. P. jj 

takbil. mukabbil. mukabbal. 


know. teaching. a teacher. taught. 

r~ r!^ ^/^* 

to be great, magnifying, magnifier, 

the creed. one who magnifies (God). 



know, making known, one who makes made known. 
description, known, 

praise. a praiser. 

\\ritc. writing. a writer. written, 


This conveys a reciprocal meaning ; or it makes the 
meaning of a root to bear directly upon its object. 

Model. Inf. &\ Act. P. U UUU jJUU 

mukabalat. mukabil. mukabal. 


accept, confronting, confronting, 

front. opposition. opposite. 

be assiduous, assiduity, assiduous, 

necessary. service. a servant. 

sight. contemplation, contemplating, 

reading. looking at. 

XX f . f 

relation. fitness. fit. 



The fourth Form makes an Intransitive Verb Transi- 
tive, and gives to a Transitive a Causal or Factitive 

Model. Inf. JLaj. Act. P. jJU. Pass. P. Jpuj 

ikbal. mukbil. mukbal. 


collect. reckoning, abridged, 

an abstract. a compendium. 

half. equity. equitable, 

a judge. 

power. possibility. possible. 

X) i^Ji X^ 

Jr^ ' * J^ 

deny. denial. a denier. 


This has a Reflexive or Passive meaning. 

Model. Inf. JlaJ Act. P. JJb* Pass P. Jl^ 
takabbul. ' mutakabbil. mutakabbal. 


bear. forbearance, a bearer, 
patience. patient. 



face. looking at, turning towards, 

regard,favour. attentive. 

separation. separate, separated. 


prevail. subduing, victorious. conquered, 


This has a reflexive meaning, but it is not much used. 

Model. Inf. Jj'Utf Act. P. JjUa^ Pass. P. JjUi^. 

takabul mutakabil. mutakabal. 


neglect. negligence. 

coming after. succession. successive. 

'i. I.."' 

relation. proportion. proportionate. 

Reflexive or Passive in signification. 

Model. Inf. JUft. Act. P. J^ Pass. P. jX.'. 

inkibal. munkabil. munkabaL 



O. SL, 9 

. 1.^3 j jL^JUi .l^-jOt.^ 

cutting, separation, decision, separated. 

A**fc> ,* Uu.K-'l_ A*uAX- 

dividing. division. divided. 

enter. insertion. contained. inserted. 

cutting off. amputation, amputated. 

This is the Reflexive or Passive of the First Form. 

Model. Inf. JUii'l Act, P. JJJjU Pass. P. jpuU 
iktibal. mutabil. muktabal. 


trying. examination. trying, examined, 

examiner. proved. 

crossing. reliance. trustworthy. 

intention, hope, trust. trustworthy. 


plunder. plundering, one who prizes, prized. 

extract. selection. selected. 



Among other powers this expresses desire. 
Model. Inf. , jULJ Act. P. jJiL*-* Pass. P. AJh**,* 

istikbal. mustakbil. mustakbal. 


.00. ^' t, > 

JLZ lUAjlJ JiJG*H~* 

pardon, seeking pardon, a penitent 

before. meeting, future, 


right. seeking entitled to, deserved. 

a right. meritorious. 

aid. seeking aid. one who seeks aid. 

presence, summoning. summoned. 

The Abstract Noun is formed by means of the feminine 
termination ^ at, or e^-^ iyat. 

*Lt know. c^vULt learning. 

s O 

J allot. . w^~*wJ fate, 

possess. ^-4P^ property, 

known. c^v.*.!** a science. 


Another form interchangeable with the above is the 
Masculine termination ah ; as 

L> a picture, plan. 


J a point, dot. 

j a story. 
^jj a town. 
<JJJU- an event. 

There are also some feminines made with this termi- 
nation, instead of cu/ at. 




The Noun of Place is formed after the manner of the 
examples following. 


TL^* P Ce o m o out 

^ write. c-^cC* a school. 

j+c. cross. ^r*^ a ^ err j' 

Jjj descend. L]^* a res ting place 

sit. u**"^?^ an assembly, 

worship. ^?^* place of worship, a 

The Noun of Instrument. 

^j open. _lJU a key. 

^- "" ^ 



The Arabic Noun has three numbers, Singular, Dual, 

arid Plural, and three cases, Nominative, Genitive and 


Accusative. The Accusative singular in \ is the Adverb, 
and as such is much used. 

< x ~ f f 

s\fj\ perchance, ljuajj intentionally. La*^^ especially. 

** "* o _ # o - 

occasionally. UJbcr truly. U-^ar by estimate. 

The Dual oblique form is occasionally met with, as 
,jjJ^ 'parents,' from jJJ^ 'a parent.' 

The Oblique Plural is also met with. 

(j^-T j ^Jl ' of the first and the last.' 
x ' of the moderns.' 

The regular Feminine plural in c^>\ dt is of frequent 

c^X^. action. c^'li^ actions. 

oflfering. culJiJ^ ofierings. 

letter. c^Uij letters. 

annoyance. c^lLiSj annoyances, troubles.' 

i ^^ 

kindness. c^l^J kindnesses. 

difficulty. c^l^uMt difficulties. 

Besides the regular plural forms, there is a great 
variety of what are called * broken plurals.' Some of 
these are very common in Hindustani, and deserve par- 
ticular attention. 


1. The most common of these is made by inserting 
two alifs ; thus 

L property. ci goods and chattels. 

reason. u*Ll reasons. 

order. \aJ orders, 

i I 

_. jj army. T:^^ armies. 

time. c^lSl times. 

news. ,r newspaper. 

When the singular ends with ^j the plural is formed 
thus : 

_^> a thing. Lil things. 

i * ^ 
^efj a prophet. UJi prophets. 

2. When the singular has a medial alif, the plural is 
made by means of <z/j/ r and nao. 

JU. state. (J,p-^ circumstances. 

JU wealth. JV*^ possessions. 

8. The following form, made by means of zamma 
and nao, is of frequent occurrence. 

cl<X a king. cLL kings. 

o '^ 

J*t science. /y* sciences. 

a tower. ,,^ towers. 

^~ 99 

a heart. ^-'r* near tS' 

a right. Jj*^ rights. 

y ? 

a letter. ^4!^ letters. 



4. By insertion of alif before the final consonant. 
Jls-- a hill. JW hill* 

^\>J a man. iS^rj men. 

Some Nouns ending with the abstract at take this 
plural : 

i^. J..!k-C. a quality. JLaS* qualities, dispositions, 


a ruler. +\&>- rulers, 

a lover. Jj^ 1 lovers. 

The following have three syllables : 

a sae. 


JU a learned man. ULs the learned. 

i a poet, 
a noble. 

J+U a poor man. 

a king. 
a devil. 


^^ nobles. 
1^ the poor. 

^^.LLs kings, 


"** a mosque. 
jc* a college. 

jc*-L** mosques. 
(jMj\ colleges. 

jla a benefit. 
c.\i a rule. 

Jo^y benefits. 
<xcly rules (rules of 


+^\j a subject. *.j\ J subjects. 

' ' - 

curiosity. i^cjUr curiosities. 

c. a marvel. ^oLi marvels. 

- a wonder. u-^ls- wonders. 

a tribe. JSJ tribes. 

j! a beginning. JS^l beginnings. 

i near, relative. byl relations. 

^J!j friend, companion. UJ companions. 

The superlative form of the Adjective is worthy of 
notice. The power of it is sometimes intensive rather 
than superlative. 

l j**&- beautiful. ^^=^1 most beautiful, 

fc^b -i noble. ^jj^\ most noble. 

j-<?lj excellent. J-^ most excellent, 

great. 2\ greatest. 

The affixed pronouns * /,M, ' of him ; ' U ha, ' of her ; ' 
and * kum, 'of you,' are found in Arabic phrases in the 

* 99* s S 

addresses of letters as ^J *\3 dama daulatu-hu, may 
his prosperity endure' (dama, 'let continue;' daulatit, 
' the prosperity ; ' hu, ' of him '). *ilLj J j ?? luffu 

' s 9 9 ' "& s 

hum, 'may your kindness continue.' jJUj' <d!\ <uL 
sallama-ku-l lahu taala, 'may God Almighty protect 
We will now track a few words, not through all their 


possible forms, or even through all that are actually 
used in Arabic, but only through such forms as are found 
in Hindustani. 

The meaning of this root is ' order, rule/ 

an order. *l>-1 pi. orders. c^Ul&=^ pi. pi. 

an umpire. 
a ruler. *^~ ^ r "lers. 


wise, a sage. U>- pi. sages. 

strongest, wisest. 
rule, dominion. 

^-vtX^. wisdom. 

[ *js~ 1 ' subjected, subject. &*jLs* fern. 

(noun of place), place of orders, a court of 
justice. cuULsr* pi. courts. 

(iv.) strengthened, confirmed, strong. 

(v.) ruling, dominion. 

^ x ^ corroboration. 

(x.) established. 

\ " \ 

This conveys the idea of ' possession/ 

property. cJ^t*' possessions. 

dominion, kingdom. 

an angel. tlL angels, 



" " > 

a king. cJ^U kings. <)L queen. 

an owner. [cJji^ pi. proprietors.] 

e^-~JU proprietorship. 

property. c^l<iU properties, qualities. 

Lu-4^Lj property. 

empire, spirits, world of spirits. 

possessed, a slave, mameluke. 
u^Lv*dominion,sovereignty. tlXJU^ dominions, 
iJ (n.) conveyance of property. 

(iv.) causing to possess. 

-^ going out. 


rent, tribute. 

going forth. 

external, removed 

a catchword. 

dv.) extraction. c 

P^ ace of egress, utterance, 

(x.) expulsion. 


(x.) expelling. 

Jr>. J entering. 

entrance, income, interference. 
entering, income, 

^ ^^ 




-^-j admitted, familiar, 
entering, entrance. 

entered. <dp-.x fern, a concubine, 

place of entrance, income. 
-JJ. (iv.) insertion, introduction. 

* \* 9 

(iv.) introducing. U U-J^ introduced. 
UjJ (vi.) mutual entrance. 

jj^j separation. 
j;y difierence. 

t^-Jy distance. 

^l^j distinguishing (truth from error), the Koran 
j\j separation. 

tjjji a party. \&Pij* ^ )0 ^ 1 S ^ e3 

jjlj dividing, divider. 

o rA' separated. 

j^ place of parting the hair. 

ijljSj (i i.) separation. Jj&j' separation, dispersion. 

-^r ' / 

L^-^U^ (in.) separation. 

nn '^9 S^ 9 

^^^(v.) separate, distinct. culJL^t pi. sundries. 
^laj (vi.) separation. 


The primary idea is that of ' right.' It is an example 

of a swrc? verb, i.e. one having its 2nd and 3rd con- 
sonants alike. 




right, truth. jy^ rights. U*. truly. 

right, proprietorship. 

s * s s 

truth, reality. J^U*- truths, facts. \^^>- truly. 

< j^>^\ most deserving. 
(n.) investigation, verification. 

* ' ? 

(n.) verifying. ^^fLs* verified. 
(iv.) establishing. 
(iv.) acting properly. 
(v.) ascertainment. 

. s'9 

(v.) verifier. **^ verified. 

]. (x.) seeking justice. U** having a right, 



Before attempting to read a document written in 
<S7/:asta, the student should be thoroughly conversant 
with the plain written character used in lithographed 
books. The following pages will then smooth the way 
to a knowledge of the writing used in the ordinary 
affairs of life* But the ability to read sAz'/fcasto depends 
4ipon a good mastery of the language ; without this, the 
attempt to decipher manuscript documents will be lost 

ZA jU yj 



, &-0*S > /. 7? 
C SAsf../ ^ A ' ( t>SjL A J 






\ initial. 1 

t-y 26 

^~j 51 

I medial. 2 

J-^ui' 27 

c- 52 

J^\ 3 

Jl^ 28 

jLO 53 

jl/T 4 

< >Lu*. 29 

,.- 54 


sS\ 5 

IjJ. 30 

11 ', ^^ 

^J i OO 

J^ 6 

jJjj^ 31 

...i'wj 56 

] 7 



* *}O 
^ ^^- Ow 

j^o 57 

^jf 8 

vfr 33 

c-;bli 58 

" S*\ 9 

s-'^ 34 

^UjLi 59 

\\)\ 10 


^r^ 35 

^.-U 60 

fVt n 

<d^4r*- 36 

j Jw: 6 I. 

VJ 12 

o*^- 37 

uif 62 

Ji^l 13 


. ( 

<^^lx>- 38 

^jGjZ OO 

l&T 14 


'\& 39 

r ill 64 

JLJ.I 16 

Jj 40 
eU.j 41 

^ 65 
^l-/ 66 

t_b! 17 


Lo 42 

Ljj 18 

c^- *Jt/* 

ob 43 

" . ** /in 

J*ic*-j OO 

JXJU 19 

1j 44 

t_? 69 

joo 20 

LTJ ^^ 

*j^ 21 

*jbj 46 

Uls 71 


^Uj 47 

jl/ 72 

tf^i 23 

JL 48 

^ 73 

^l: 24 

JL..JL 49 

li 74 

- I O^C 

4^5 >V^4J it) 

X- 50 

d 75 


89 ^U\j 102 

90 ^ 103 

91 J~* 104 

92 b 105 

93 .f-U 106 

94 U 107 

96 V 1 9 

97 &* 110 

QQ -I.. /. ,. Til 

t/Q , -J \J^'tX.>o J.1J. 

99 " U C 112 

_ 100 ^il^fc.^rlj 113 

J>* S8 Sj+j 101 ^ 

The Plate comprises some of the most common and 
complex forms employed in Sltikasta writing. But 
it is impossible to give all the varieties that may be 
met with; for in India, as in England, each hand- 
writing has its own peculiarities and varieties. The 
following are some of the most marked peculiarities : 

The letter alif is liable to considerable modification ; 
as an initial, it may stand separate, or it may join the 
following letter, as in No. 4. It may also have the 
addition at the top shown in Nos. 1 and 7. As a 
medial, it assumes the form of an upright oblong loop 
as No. 2, and it is then identical with /; a medial d 
resembles it, but the loop of the d is round, not oblong. 


The letters of the c ? form are too simple to admit of 
any radical change, but as initials they have sometimes 
the addition seen in No. 20 (second example). The dots 
over the CL> are sometimes written as in No. 42. 

Letters of the _ form are generally easy to distinguish ; 
but in careless writing, >. and * are very similar. As 
medials, they are sometimes written as in Nos. 7, 13, 
and 35. 

The letter j is written }. When it follows alif it is 
written as Nos. 5 and 6; and when combined with a^ 
it assumes the peculiar form of No. 40. As a medial, 
it is a round loop, as in Nos. 8, 22 and 30. 

The j is often disguised by being joined to the 
following letter, as in Nos. 22, 45, and 50 ; and the 
combination \j is occasionally found, as in No. 44. 

The succeeding letters down to ^ call for no special 
remark ; the examples sufficiently show the peculiarities. 

The letters cJ and <^/are liable to material changes. 
The conjunction is written as in No. 73. The genitive 
particles l and are peculiar, as in Nos. 74 and 75 ; 
so also is the future termination if in Nos. 83 and 110. 

The letter J as a medial is written as a loop, and is 
then similar to the alif; as a final it is written as in 
Nos. 15 and 1G. The final ^ is often written as in 
Nos. 33 and 54; occasionally as in 80 and 87, where 
the end of the letter is curled round to represent the dot. 
j is very commonly joined to the letter which follows it, 


as in Nos. 13, 34, and 33. The combination la> should 
be noted in Nos. 105, 106, 107, as also the final forms 
of A exhibited in Nos. 21, 68, and 101. The tick placed 
under the letter h is a valuable indication. Final ^j is 
written as in Nos. 7 and 8 ; the form shown in Nos. 59, 
93, and 111 is sometimes met with, but it is not common. 
The plate and these explanations will enable the 
student to read the following letters with the help of 
the transcriptions. But the student is again warned 
not to waste his time over them until he can read off 
fluently similar documents written in a distinct hand, 
and can understand them as he reads them. 

LETTER No. 1 (PLATE 3). 

X>-Jb ^ .*& 5--.' t__) w 



" 1 








To the exalted gentleman, Daniel Sahib Bahadur, may 
your kindness increase. 

After many supplications, this is the communication : 
that to-day such a pressing affair has occurred to your 
humble servant that in consequence of it he has been 
debarred from waiting upon you. Although I wished 
that I might in some way attend, still I was not able. 
I am hopeful of your indulgence; pray pardon me. 
Please God, to-morrow at my appointed time I will 
attend. What more can I state ? The petition of your 
well-wisher, the sinner full of transgressions. 


[The writer jumps from the third person to the first 
and back again.] 

LETTER No. 2 (PLATE 4). 



Ju\j JLilj 



To the lord of lords, the bestower of bounty and the 
dispenser of favour to his slaves, may his prosperity 
endure ! 

[Persian]. To the source of bounty it is communicated. 

The master (you) inquired from your slave's agent, 
Nand Kishor, trooper, whether in the purchase of Ram 
Parshad Subadar-major's mares, the Government money 
had been spent or that of his own house. Conse- 
quently, your slave, with the greatest respect, represents 
to the presence of his master that in the purchase of 
those mares some Government money and some of the 
slave's (own) house has been expended. And these mares, 
with the approbation of his highness Captain Scott Sahib 
Bahadur, have become servants (have been admitted for 
service). This was (is) the statement of the case which 


has been written. Oh God, may the sun of your great- 
ness and prosperity continue to shine. 

The petition of the least of your slaves, Earn Parshild 
Subadar-major attached, to the second regiment of the 
Haidarabad Contingent. 

Written from the station of the Cantonment of Au- 
rangabad, 13th of the month of July, 1858 A.D. 

LETTER No. 3 (PLATE 5). 

Sir, generous to friends, hail ! 

After expressing my desire of seeing you, be it 
known, that I have learned from the letter of Shaikh 
Chand that your daughter was very ill ; at this my heart 


was very much grieved. I hope that immediately on 
seeing this letter you will speedily write to me news of 
(all) being well. Secondly, having bought five sacks of 
new wheat, send it to me quickly by cart, at a cheap fare, 
because wheat is very dear here. I will send the money 
for it in fifteen days ; if not, having reckoned the price, and 
half the fare of the cart, draw a bill at sight in my name, 
and I will accept it on its arrival. What more can I 
write ? All are well here. Salutation on the part of all. 

LETTER No. 4 (PLATE 6). 
(For the Numerals in this Letter see Plate 1, page 99). 

\^ & '}* uf*3 -z{)J L/**r v 5 




Cherisher of the poor, hail! 

My lord, in consequence of the order issued on 
the 13th July of the present year, I have entirely cut 
away the jungle of Bhath, and what remains is being' 
now cut down. And 560 rupees have been expended in 
clearing the jungle, of which 340 rupees have been col- 
lected and 220 rupees remain. I am hopeful that an 
order will be issued in the name of the tahslldar, so that 
I may receive the outstanding money. Afterwards I 
will send a statement of the account to the Huzur. Finis. 

May the sun of your prosperity continue resplendent. 

The Report of MOHAN LAL, thiinadar of Goshaban. 

Written on the 21st July, 1860. 

LETTER Xo. 5 (PLATE 7). 

S; * u - i> J i --> _C 


,J Jk S'* 

Jl I/ V; c^r 


Cherisher of the poor, peace! 

My lord ! a person named Kali Charan, banker, 
residing in Fath-ganj, took in pledge some pieces of 
jewelry worth four hundred rupees, in exchange for (a 
loan to me of) three hundred rupees, upon condition 
of (receiving) one rupee monthly per cent. So it is 
now ten days ago that your slave went to him, taking 
all the money, principal and interest. But the afore- 
said banker at first made excuses and evasions, and now 
he says that the articles have been stolen. In answer to 
this your devoted servant said, pay over to me as much 
as they cost in making. The banker says, I will pay 
you one ana per rupee less than the amount of money 
which shall appear due on the face of the account. So 


6 fetter 



V tfC 

-> V 


I am hopeful that I shall get my money from the above- 
named banker. Finis. It was proper (and so) I have 
made my statement. God, may the sun of your 
prosperity continue to shine. 

The petition of GULZAII KHAN, resident of the village 
of Bahroti. 

Written on the 3rd January, 1801. 

LETTER Ko. 6 (PLATE 8). 



.J& 4^ ^Jj ij ^ LS *y*st <.j ,*j>~\4f' 


ST Li 

Clierisher of the poor, salutation ! 

My lord! yesterday at ten o'clock an old man 
came into the bazar to the shop of Gulab Eal, banker, 
and said that he had a pair of gold bracelets which he 
wished to sell. The banker told him to show them to 
him. Then he took the pair of bracelets out of his 
waist(band) and gave them to the banker. The banker 
and two or three other shopkeepers well examined the 
gold, and found it very pure. In the end he sold them 
to the banker at seventeen rupees per tola. Then that 
old man, in an artful and tricky way, took another pair 
of bracelets, of base gold, from his waist, and having 
substituted these he handed them over. Then receiving 
the price he went away. When, subsequently, the 
banker discovered that they were of base metal, although 
he made a great noise and outcry, he got no remedy. 
Finis. It was needful, and so I have made this statement. 
May the sun of your prosperity continue shining. 

Report of ALI BAHADUR, thaniidar of Fath-ganj. 

Written on the 4th May, 1861 A.D. 



The Era used by Muhammadans is that of the a Js* 

J > . s 

Hijra, or Flight, which dates from the retreat of the 
Prophet from Mecca to Medina on the 16th July, 622 
A.D. The year is purely lunar, and consists of twelve 
lunar months, commencing with the new moon. The 
months consist of 30 days and 29 days alternately; 
and eleven times in every thirty years one day is added 
to the last month. This brings the average length of 
the year very close indeed to the true length, of the 
twelve lunations. So the year consists of 354 days, 
and in the leap years of 355 days. Being thus about 
eleven days shorter than the solar year, it gains upon 
the latter at the rate of about one year in thirty-three. 
Tables showing the concurrent Christian and Hijra 
years are easily procurable; but in their absence the 
concurrent years may be found by the following rule : 
" From, the given number of Musulman years deduct 
three per cent., and to the remainder add 621'54: the 
sum is the period of the Christian era at which the 
given Musulman year ends." " When greater accuracy 
is required, and when the year, month, and day of the 
Muhammadan era are given, the precise period of the 
Christian year may be found as follows : Rule. Express 
the Musulman date in years and decimals of a year; 


multiply by '970225; to the product add G21'54, and 
the sum will be the precise period of the Christian era." 

Muhammadan Months, 


Mukarram ...... - 30 

Safar 29 

Rabi-ul awwal 30 

, Jlill _j , Rabi-us $.anl 

S? *-/ 90 

f~. ~-*2 9 i^ v 

j$\^) Rabi-ul akhir 

Jumada-l awwal ------ 30 

Jumada-s dm i 
'5Us- Jumada-l akhir ) 


^LU; Ramazan --------30 

^j?^) ^^" 

> Zl-kada 

29 or 30 

There are two Rabis and two Jumads, which are dis- 
tinguished as awnal first, and sanl second, or aJJiir last. 
Zl-l kada signifies 'the month of rest;' and Zl-l hijja, 
' the month of the pilgrimage.' 

In India the Musulinans have adopted the Hindu 


names for the days of the week with the exception of the 
names for Thursday and Friday. They also use the 
Persian names. 


Sunday. j\$\ J Lo^ 4^i 

llndr. Itabl-bdr. Yak shamba. 

Monday. Somndr. / ^ 


Som-bdr. Do-shamba. 



. ^<-"* 

t . * it 

a ,.) <W) 





^ 9 


; UjJ 







X- O X- <J 


Juma-rdt. Brihaspatl-bdr. 










Jf 8 ^ 


c c. 

^i j VruJ Or i^sXS-i^ 


Sanl-bdr. Shamba or Hafta, 

The Calendar of the Hindus is peculiar, and has no 
parallel in any other part of the world. Hindu life is 
one perpetual round of festivals and ceremonies, and 
these, with one or two exceptions, are regulated by the 
motions of the moon. Their ceremonial year therefore 
is lunar ; but the great inconvenience of reckoning by: 
years differing from the natural solar year has led thein 



to invent and employ a complicated method of keeping 
the two concurrent, by establishing what is called 
the " Luni-Solar Year." The Hindu Solar year, which 
is about 23J minutes longer than the European reckon- 
ing, commences with the entrance of the sun into the 
sign Aries ; and the Luni-solar year begins immediately 
after the new moon which immediately precedes the 
commencement of the solar year. The beginning of the 
year being thus settled, the lunar months and days are 
kept concurrent with the solar months and days by 
intercalation and omission. This repetition and removal 
occurs very frequently in respect of days ; but it is un- 
necessary here to enter into the technicalities which 
regulate it. The rule as regards months is that when 
two new moons fall in the same solar month that month 
is repeated. This occurs in every third or second year. 
Once in 160 years there is no new moon in one of the 
solar months, and when this occurs that month is struck 
out ; but this involves the necessity of intercalating two 
other months in the same year. An intercalated day 
is called adkik, and an intercalated month ad/iik, laund, 
or malmds. The term nij, ' proper,' is used to distinguish 
the real from the intercalated day or month. An ex- 
punged day or month is called ksltay, ' perished.' The 
term adhik is also applied to the year in which a month 
has been intercalated, and the term kshay to one from 
which a month has been expunged. 


Hindu Solar Months. 

*) Baisakh, begins on llth April .... 31 

Jeth, May 31 

Asarh, June 32 

Sdnan, July ....... 31 

Bhadun, August 31 

Asm or Kuar, September ...... 31 

i Kartift, October 30 

Aghan, November 30 

j Pus, December 29 

Maghy January 29 

j Phagun, February 30 

Chait, March 30 

Total . . 365 

The Solar year begins with Baisakh, on the sun's 
entrance into Aries. This, according to Hindu reckon- 
ing, now occurs on the llth or 12th of April. As the 
beginning of the Luni-solar year depends upon the 
moon, it varies to the extent of 28 days from that time, 
in the same way as the time of our Easter varies. 

As stated above, the Luni-solar year begins at the 
new moon which precedes the sun's entrance into Aries ; 
but there is a difference as to the commencement of the 
months. In the Dekhin and in Guzerat the month 
begins at the new moon with the 1st of Chait ; but in 
Hindustan and in Telingana the months begin with the 


full moon, and so according to this reckoning the year 
begins in the middle of Chait. The former is called the 
Sukladi, and the latter the Krishnadi, reckoning. In 
the Dekhin, the former is known as the Marti or Milr- 
warl reckoning, from its being employed by the com- 
mercial people of Manvar. 

Jn the Luni-solar reckoning the month is divided 
into two pakshas, pakhs, or fortnights ; the one from 
the new to the full moon is called sud or sudi, bright or 
increasing half; and the other from the full to the new 
moon is called krishn, bahula, bad, or badi, dark or 
decreasing half. The last day of each fortnight bears a 
name which means respectively full and new moon ; 
the other days are simply numbered, but the Sanskrit 
numbers, or slight modifications of them, are used, not 
the ordinary Hindustani numerals. 


1 Prathama Wy. prathama. 

2 Dmtiya ^J duj. 

3 Tritiya ^-J tlsra. 

4 Chaturthl ^i f>- chauthl. 

" O 

. 5 Panchaml ^^^j panchmn. 

6 Shashthl 1.5*%*" chhathl. 

7 Saptaml \J$* 1 satmn. 

8 Ashtaml ^^^ ^htami. 

9 Navaml . ,~**j naumlfi. 

i^.. , f 

10 Dasaml ^J dasaml. 


1 1 Ekadasl ^^^ ehadasl. 

12 Dnadasl ^jl.j dwadasl. 

13 Trayodasi " ^^j teras. 

14 Chaturdasl L wJ ^ chaudas. 

15 Purmma ^ ] J purnima } 

" /v ' i? n 

Paurna-masl ^U ^J puran-masl. ) 

10 Amamsyd <j^^\ amawas. New moon, 

The fourth of the Hindu ywys, the Kali or Iron age, 
dates its epoch from the 18th February, 3102 B.C., so 
that the present year 1872 is 4973 of the Kali yug. It 
is a solar year, and begins on the llth April. This era 
is rarely if ever used for ordinary purposes. To convert 
it into Christian years deduct 3101 for the first nine 
months, and 3100 for the last three. 

Samvat or Era of Vikramuditya. 
The name Samvat or Sambat is a contraction of the 
Sanskrit Samvatsara, 'year/ This era is supposed to 
date its commencement from the accession of the renowned 
monarch Vikramaditya to the throne of Ujjain, 57 B.C. 
This is pre eminently the Luni-solar year, and in it the 
months are divided into pakhs, or fortnights, marking 
the increasing and decreasing moon. This era is used 
principally in the countries north of the Nerbadda, and 
commences at the new moon in the middle of the month 
of Chait, because, as already explained, the lunar months 


of Hindustan begin with the full moon. In the Mahratta 
country and other parts south of the Nerbadda the year 
commences on the same day ; but as the months are 
here reckoned from new moon to new moon, the first 
day of the year is also the first day of the month. To 
convert Samvat into Christian years deduct 57 for the 
first nine months and 56 for the last three. 

The Saka or Era of Salivdhana, 

This era takes its name from Salivahana, a great king 
who reigned in the Dekhin, and its epoch is 78 A.D. 
It is a solar year beginning on the llth April, and is 
used chiefly in the south. To convert it into Christian 
years, add 73 for the first nine months and 79, for the 
last three. 

Fastis or Revenue Eras. 

These eras owe their origin to the attempts of the 
Muhammadan Emperors to make the Hindu eras uniform 
and concurrent in number with the Musulman era of the 
Ilijra. The difference in length between the Solar year of 
the Hindus and the purely lunar year of the Ilijra seems 
to have been overlooked, and no provision was made to 
keep them concurrent ; so that although they started 
equal, the Ilijra soon outstripped them. Most of these 
eras date from Akbar's accession in Hijra 963, and the 
new eras were made to start equal in number with this 
year, which began in November, 1555 A.D. 


Bengal San. 

This solar year of Bengal commences on the 1st 
Baisakh. To convert it into Christian years add 593 
for the first nine months and 594 for the rest. 

Wilayatl or Amll of Orlssa. 

This is a Solar year, and commences on the first A sin. 
Add 592 for the first four months and 593 for the others. 

Fasll of the Upper Provinces. 

This is used in Bihar and in the Upper Provinces of 
Bengal. It is a luni-solar year, and begins with the 
month Asin at the full moon. The days of the month 
are numbered consecutively from the beginning to the 
end, and the division of the month into light and dark 
halves is not observed. Add 592 for the first four 
months and 593 for the remainder. 

Mulhl era of Purnea. 

This seems to be a solar year commencing with the 
month Sawan. It agrees numerically with the other 
revenue eras of Bengal. Add 592 for the first half and 
593 for the last. 

Madras Fasll or Fasll of the Dekhin, 
This is a solar year beginning at the summer solstice 
with the month Sawan, but the government of Madras 
has fixed its commencement on the 12th July. It is two 
years and two months behind the Faslis of Bengal, in 
consequence of its having been established later, in Ilijra 


1047, agreeing with 1637 A.D. Add 590 for the first 
half and 591 for the last half. 

The Shuhur-san or Sur-san of the Mahratta country. 

This ' year of months ' is the earliest of the Revenue 
Eras, and was probably established by the Sulta;i 
Muhammad Tughlik in the year 743 of the Ilijra, or 
1342 A.D. The year begins in June with the entrance of 
the Sun into the lunar asterism Mriga. The chief pecu- 
liarity of this Era is that its years are numbered with 
the Arabic numerals. Add 590 for the first half and 
COO for the last. 

There are some other Eras besides these, and also 
some Cj^cles, particularly the Vrihaspati cycle of sixty 
years, which is much used in the south. Full infor- 
mation upon the chronology of India will be found in 
Prinsep's Useful Tables, in Jervis's Reports on the 
Weights and Measures of the Konkan, and in that 
learned work the Kala Sankalita of Warren. The Tables 
of the Sudder Dcwanny Adawlut of Bengal afford the 
easiest means for ascertaining the exact corresponding 
Christian dates for the dates employed in Bengal. 



Edinburgh & Londou 


A 000107988 8