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Grammar and Vocabulary 


Samoan Language 

Together with Remarks on some of the Points of 

Similarity between the Samoan and the Tahitlan 

and Maori Languages 

H. NEFFGEN ' %^., 

Translated from the German hy 

London : 

Broadway House, 68-74, Carter Lane, E.C, 



6 oaoj Mr 

Bwocroh Ubnwy 




Article . - . . . 5 

Noun --..__ 5 

Declension - - - - 5 

Adjective - .... 7 

Comparative - . . - 8 

Superlative - - - . 9 

Pronouns, Personal - - - - 11 

Possessive - - - - 14 

Relative . - - . 16 

Interrogative - . .-20 

Indefinite - . - - 20 

Reflexive - - - - 21 

The Verb - - - . - 21 

The Optative Mood - - - 27 

The Subjunctive Mood - - 28 

The Infinitive Mood - - - 28 

The Participle - - - - 29 

The Medium Form - - - 32 

Irregular Verbs - - . 32 

The Auxiliary Verbs - - - 33 

The Compound Verbs - - - 34 

IV. Contents 


The Cardinal Numerals - - - 37 

The Ordinal Numerals - - - 38 

Fractions - - - - 39 

Multiplication Numerals - - - 39 

The Prepositions - - - - 39 

Adverbs of Place - - - - 41 

Adverbs of Time - - - 42 

Other Adverbs - - - - 42 

Conjunctions - - - - - 42 

Words only Used with Keference to Chiefs 43 

Syntax, and Eules applying to it - - 44 

The Adjective - - - - 49 

Interrogative Sentences - - * - 52 





Tahitian - - - - - 82 

Maori - - - - - 92 
Selections for Reading 

Tahitian - - - - 98 

Maori - - - - - 99 

English-Samoan - - - - 100 

Samoan-English - . - - 124 
Words in General Use Systematically 

Arranged - - - - - 146 




The Samoan is a branch of the Malay-Polynesian language, 
which is spread over the whole island world of the Pacific 
Ocean from Madagascar to South America, and is to be 
found (with its various dialects) in the Melanesian, Malayan, 
and Polynesian groups of islands. It is one of the numerous 
Polynesian tongues which are in use over the eastern and 
south-eastern area of Malay-Polynesia, extending, roughly, 
from New Zealand to the Hawaiian Islands. 

From the standpoint of grammar the Polynesian 
languages cannot be regarded as strong, and few letters of 
the alphabet are utilized. D and B are never used ; 
H, R, and K are of rare occurrence, and then only in 
words that have been introduced. All words have a vowel 
termination, and their etymological forms are constructed 
by the employment of particles attached to the roots, 
thereby forming agglutinative or polysynthetic words, the 
particles being sometimes strung one after the other 
throughout an entire sentence. For example : fa'a, 
to cause, and 'i^ma, quite, all \fa^a'uma, to finish, terminate ; 
fia, to be willing ; inUy to drink ; fiainu, to be thirsty ; 
fa'a, to induce ; o'o, to go ; fa'ao'o, to lead, and 
so on. 


The Samoan alphabet is comprised of only fourteen 
letters — five vowels, a, e, i, o, u, and nine consonants, 
f , g, 1, m, n, p, s, t, V, — h, k, and r only occurring in words 
of foreign origin, as aurOy gold ; areto, bread ; hi, key. 
The language now contains many introduced words, more 
or less distorted by added vowels and substituted con- 
sonants, in order to enable the native to articulate them. 


A is pronounced like a in father 
tj ,, „ ,, a ,, late 

I „ „ „ i „ machine 

O „ „ „ o „ note 

U „ „ ,, u „ flute 

Diphthongs are a little more strongly accentuated than 
in English, and each vowel is pronounced separately. 
When written, however, the diacritical sign — ' — is used, 
etymological considerations making this necessary. In 
place of the (') there was formerly a consonant, which now 
has gone out of use. Ex, : puafa, pig (pud-a) ; i'o, 
there (i-o) ; uu, fist {u-u), 


F is pronounced the same as in English. 

G has the sound of ng in singer, and is never strongly 
enunciated like the Tig in younger. Ex, : tagi, weep, cry 
— tangi ; geno, beckon — ngeno. 

L, m, n, p, s, and v all have the same pronunciation as 
in English. 

jT is always sounded as in English, except in a few 
places in Samoa, where it resembles k, due, presumably, 
to the influence of a foreign tongue at some remote period. 
This is not to be regarded as a rule, but merely a pro- 

There are no double consonants in Samoan, but every 



consonant is followed by a vowel, even in foreign proper 
names. Ex, : Peteru, Peter. 

Every word terminates with a vowel, thereby con- 
tributing greatly to the softness and beauty of the language. 

Proper names are the only words written with a capital 

The penultimate syllable is the one on which the 
accent most usually falls, but sometimes it may be placed 
on the last or second from last, in which cases it is shown 
by a stroke over the vowel to be accented. Ex. : tama, 
boy ; tamd, father ; tamdloa, fellow ; iiidnaia, pretty. 

Most words begin with f, 1, m, p, or t. 

So far as the grammar and syntax of the language are 
concerned they are reflected in the character of the Samoan, 
who is amiable, honest, and friendly. He is lazy, though, 
and will make a promise readily enough, but the fulfilment 
of it is another matter. He is of a forgiving nature. His 
flighty and pleasure-loving disposition is the most notice- 
able of his characteristics, and this shows itself particularly 
in his language. Instead of confining himself to any 
particular rules in the matter of speech, it seems to be the 
custom to babble on regardless of sense, according to our 
notions, and it often occurs that in one sentence a word 
may be repeated which has quite another meaning when 
employed a second time. All peculiarities which appear 
in his language are attributable to the Samoan's sunny, 
happy-go-lucky disposition, together with an inborn 
remissness and unreHability. In many cases there are no 
means of distinguishing between Active and Passive : 
nine particles go to the formation of the latter, but no 
special rules can be laid down for their use. This renders 
it a little perplexing for the student at first, but in general 
the language cannot be said to present many difficulties. 



The definite article is expressed by 'o le (pronounced 
oh lay) and the indefinite by se. Ex, : 'oh fale, the 
house ; 'o le i'e, the cloth ; se teine, a girl. When it is 
wished to emphasize the indefinite article, tasi, one, is often 
placed before the noun, but in this case the definite article 
is used with it. Ex. : 'o le tasi tangata, a man. Frequently 
le is used alone instead of 'o le when speaking of a thing 
in a general way, but when the definite article appears as 
the first word in, or at the very beginning of, a sentence, 
'o le should always be employed. 


There is only one gender, properly speaking, in Samoan, 
and no grammatical distinction between man and woman, 
but in referring to animals, which are considered inferior 
beings, the sex, where it is necessary, is distinguished by 
the words j)oa, male, and fdfine, female. 

The definite article, 'o le, precedes all nouns in the 
singular number, and 'o those in the plural, but when a 
thing is referred to in a general way this is also dispensed 
with. Ex. : 'o le mdile, the dog ; 'o mdile, the dogs ; 
mdile, dogs. The dual number is rendered by 'o la mdile, 
the two dogs, or both the dogs. 


As is the case in English, there is no proper declension 
of the noun in the Samoan language, but it is formed by 
the use of prepositions. 




Ex, : No7n. 'o lefale, the house. 

Gen. o le, or a lefale, of the house. 

Bat. mo, or 7na lefale, to the house, for, or, 

with the house. 
Ace. i lefale, the house, in the house. 
Voc. lefale e I , house ! 

The phiral is formed in exactly the same manner, but 
that le is dropped out. Either form of the genitive 
singular can be used — o le or a le. The mo and ma of the 
dative are also interchangeable, and the use of either can 
be left to the pleasure of the speakei-, but should a particle 
precede the preposition, mo follows and not ma. 

In the accusative the preposition i appears before the 
noun. This has the meaning of iv. The accusative often 
appears in Samoan where in a European language another 
case would be used, but this will be dealt with later. 
The i is chaiiged into m before proper names and personal 
pronouns. Ex. : in fe 'oe, thee : ia Tui (name). 

If a word in the accusative should directly follow a 
verb the i is dropped and le only remains. Ex. : ina 
tuU'ese le tamaloa \, drive the fellow away ! It is seldom, 
however, that the Samoan will be found to use the full 
accusative case. 

In the vocative the 'o is not used, but an e follows the 
word. Ex. : le alii e\. Sir ! Often the entire article, 
'o le, is abandoned. Ex. : sole e !, friend ! ; tamd e !, 
father ! This is very general. The above rules also 
apply to the plural. 

In regard to persons and things alluded to in a collective 
sense the w^ord 'au is often employed. It is always used 


in the plural, and is best translated by folk, people. Ex. : 
'o le 'au uso, brethren, community (brother-folk) ; va'a, 
ship ; 'auva'a, sailors (ship-folk) ; 'o le 'auupega, warriors 
(people of the arms). 


The Samoan adjective is always placed after the noun 
it qualifies, either directly following, or in combination 
with an e, and, like the noun, is invariable, except when it 
is used — which often happens — as a verb. In this case, 
now and then, a change takes place in the plural. Ex, : 
'o le 'ie mumu, the red cloth ; 'o le mauga maualitga, the 
high mountain ; 'o le tama itiiti, the little child ; 'o tagata 
leaga, the wicked men. 

There are adjectives of root origin, such as fou, new, 
lelei, beautiful, and those that are derived and originate 
from other parts of speech, either by the addition of 
particles or the amalgamation of several words. Ex, : 
'o le ma' a, the stone ; ma' a' a, stony ; 'o le 'ele 'ele, the dirt ; 
'ele 'ele 'a, dirty ; m^tapua'a, ugly (derived from mata, 
face, and pua'a, pig) ; mata'u, avaricious (derived from 
mata and 'u, angry, peevish appearance). As already 
mentioned, verbs can take the place of adjectives and are 
treated as such, these words having a plural formation. 
Ex. : vai, water ; tafe, flow ; vaitafe, the river, flowing 
water ; fetu, star ; lele, to fly ; fetulele, the shooting-star. 

A substantive can also take the place of an adjective. 
Ex. : 'ie, cloth ; mdmoe, sheep ; 'ie mdmoe, blanket, 
coverlet ; fale 'ie, house of cloth, tent. 

Adjectives which denote colour are reduplicated. 
Ex. : mumu, red (from mil, to burn) ; sinasina, white 
(from sina, to be white) ; samasama, yellow (from samxi, 


to dye). When these adjectives stand alone the redupli- 
cated form is used, but if dii^ectly qualifying a noun, they 
lose it. Ex, : 'o le 'ofii sina, the white dress. But, e 
samasama lefuga lea, this flower is yellow (it is yellow the 
flower this). 

In the case of several adjectives being used with a 
noun, the first one follows it directly and the others are 
connected by means of the conjunction ma (and), and the 
article le. Ex. : 'o le tasi tagata mdnaia ma le aulelei, a 
distinguished and handsome man ; 'o le papa mafolafola 
ma le m^lemole, a level and smooth rock ; 'o fdnau e leaga 
ma lefa' atitipa, the children are wicked and dirty. 


The Samoan has no method of comparing the adjective 
such as we have in English. He often employs tvfo 
adjectives, one of which may have a contrary meaning to 
the other. The following examples will best explain. 
Ex. : e matalelei le mea hnei 'a e matapua^a le m£a lea, 
this is more beautiful than . . . matalelei, beautiful ; 
le mea lenei, this ; 'a, but ; matapud'a, ugly ; le mea lea, 
that. This is beautiful, but that is ugly. E lelei ona 5 i 
mdtou 'a e leaga ona nonofo, it is better to go than remain. 
Really, it is good for us to go (o), but it is bad for us to 

There is also another means of denoting comparison 
when dealing with persons or things. Sili, silisili, very ; 
matud, sure ; atili, enormous ; lava (placed after), very ; 
aupito, excessively. When these are placed in apodosis 
(the consequent clause of a sentence) the compared noun 
takes the accusative form (denoted by the loss of the 'o 


in the article, 'o le), Ex. : e sili tele le mauga i lefale, the 
mountain is bigger than the house. Tele, big \ 'ole niauga, 
the mountain. 

Note. — In Samoan the subject usually takes second 
place, in which case the article 'o is almost always omitted. 
Ex, : ^ua e sili matua le tama lenei i lend, this boy is older 
than that one. But you can also say : e matua le tama 
lenei ''a e itiiti lend, this boy is old, but that one is young 
(itiiti). The latter turn of phrase can, however, only be 
used to express contrast : good-bad ; polite-bad-mannered. 
The Samoan would mostly use the former method of 
expressing himself in the above examples, especially as it 
sounds better and fewer words are necessary. 


The superlative is formed by the aid of adverbs, which 
are placed sometimes before and sometimes after. Matud, 
sili, silisili appear before, and lava, tasi, na^ud after the 
accompanying adjective. Ex, : matud tele, or tele lava, 
very large ; 'o le jilisili tele, the very highest ; 'o le aupito 
itiiti ifdnau, the smallest of the children. For very big, 
the Samoan simply uses the word sili, which is then placed 
after the noun and serves as an adjective. If a superlative 
is employed in a comparative sense the object may be 
either in the genitive or — more often — in the accusative. 
Ex. : 'o le sili iate 'outou, the greatest amongst you. 
la te ^outou is the accusative of 'o 'outou, you. '0 le 
aupito itiiti o ^ou uso, the smallest of my brothers. du 
is the genitive plural of lo^u, my. 

Should the superlative form of the adjective be used 
with a noun the particle e is inserted. 


Very often the Samoan will not employ the com- 
parative, particularly if no confusion or mistake as to 
meaning is likely to arise. 








hair, feathers 




, horse 


gentleman, chief 








boy, child 


, honest, just 





tin a, 









to die, dead 



Note. — The auxiliary verb to be is generally not 
expressed in Samoan, except when it is used in conjunction 
with personal pronouns, but this will be discussed in its 
proper place. 

Verbs do not vary from their root-formation in the 

'Uais the word used to distinguish transitive verbs in 
both their present and past tenses. Ex. : ^ua moe le 
Una, the mother sleeps ; ^ua td le tamdloa ia te a'u, the 
fellow struck me. 


Translate into English : 'o le tamd o le tama. — 'ua 
amiotonu le alii. — \m oti le solofanua. — e matua 7na le 
mataivi le teine. — 'ua e uliuli 'ofulu a le teine. — hiafiligd le 
tama lenei 'a e fai'e 'o lea. — 'o le mamu o le alii. — 'o le 
solofanua o le tupu. — 'ua itiiti le tama lea. 

Into Samoan : The men are lazy. — The father of the 
king is dead. — The coat of the boy is white. — The horse is 
very big {tele lava). — The man is bigger than the boy. — 


The mother of the children. — The just king. — The horse of 
the man is small and black. — The boy of the king is 



The use of these is very simple, and they are declined in 
the same way as substantives. It is only to be noted 
that in the accusative ia is used instead of i, and that 
between ia and the pronoun, te is inserted for the sake of 

The first and third persons have a euphonic i before the 
pronoun in dual and plural. 

Besides the singular and plural numbers there is also a 
dual, which is only employed when speaking of two persons. 
Ex. : 'o 'oe, thou ; 'o oulua, you two, both of you ; 'o 
'oittou, you (several). 

There are two forms of the first persons in both dual and 
plural, the use of which is determined by whether the 
person addressed is excluded or not. Ex, : 'o a'u, I ; 
'o i tdua, we two (you and I ; dual), inclusive oi the person 
addressed ; and 'o i mdua, we two (not you ; dual), ex- 
clusive of the person addressed ; 'o i tdtou, we all (plural), 
inclusive ; 'o i mdtou, we (not including you I am now talk- 
ing to ; plural), exclusive. 

The personal pronouns are : 


'o a'w, or ^ou, or ia, I 

'o 'oe, thou 

'o ia, he, she, it 




'o i tdua^ or id, 
'o i mduay or md, 
'o Umlua, 
'o i /awa, or Id, 

we two (inclusive) 
we two (exclusive) 
you two 
they two 

'o i tdUm, 
U) i nidtoUy 
'o ^outoit, 
'o i Idiou, 


wc (inclusive) 
we (exclusive) 

Declension of Pronouns 

It might be mentioned that an ablative case can be 
formed by the use of the preposition e, by, through. 



'o a'u. 

'ow, ta. 



'« 'au, 

or a cCu, 

of me, mine 


mo a'u 

, ma d'u (nio^u 

, or ma'u), 

to me 


ia te a'u» 



e d'u. 

by me, through 




\) i tdua. 

we two 



i tdua. 

of us two 

» ) 


mo i tdua, 

to us two 

>, ) 


ia te i tdua, 

us two 

» ) 


e i tdua. 

by us two 

» ) 


\) i mdua, 

we two 



i mdua. 

of us two 

.. ) 


nu) i mdua, 

to us two 

., ) 


ia te i mdua 

us two 

.> ) 


e i mdua. 

by us two ( 

» ) 



'o i tdiou. 

we (inclusive) 


i tdiou. 

of us ( 

, ) 


mi) i tdiou. 

to us ( 

» ) 


ia te i tdtou. 

us ( 

, ) 


e i tdiou ^ 

by us ( 


, ) 




'o i mdUm, we (exclusive) 


i mdtoii, of us ( „ ) 


7n() i mdtou, to us ( „ ) 


ia te i mdtou, us ( „ ) 


e i mdtou, by us ( ,, ) 


Nom. 'o U}e, thou 

Gen. o Uye, of thee 

Dat. nw \)e, to thee 

Ace. iateoe, thee 

Abl. 'e ^oe, by thee 




'o ^oulua. 

you two Nom. 'o ^ouiou. 



o ^oiilua^ 

of you two Gen. o ^outou. 

of you 


rrm 'ouluOi 

to you two Dat. mo 'outou, 

to you 


ia te ^oulua 

, you two Ace. ia te ''outou 



c 'oulua, 

by you two Abl. e ^ outou. 

by you 

Often tou is substituted for 'outou and lita for ^oulua at 
the pleasure of the speaker, presumably for euphonic 


'o ia\ he she, it. 


o' i Idua, they two. 

'o t Idtou, they. 

The declension is exactly similar to that of the first 
person. In regard to the second person, the singular, ^o 'oe, 
is used v/hen speaking to a single individual, and not the 
second person plural, as in English. 

If so or sa is placed before a personal pronoun in the 
dual and plural it signifies one of , . , Ex, : so tdtou, 
one of us ; so Idtou, one of them. 

The Samoan has a peculiar mode of expression which 
is foreign to all other kindred languages, and consists in 
conveying the thoughts or acts of two different persons by 


the dual, and, should more than two people be alluded to, 
by the plural. This idiosyncrasy is best illustrated by one 
or two examples. Ex. : I and the father is not rendered 
by 'o a^u ma le tamd, but by 'o i mdua ma le tamd, which 
means, we two and the father. I stay with you (two), 
'ua tdtou te nonofo ma i mdua ; literally, we stay with us 
together. Will you go with the chief ? lua te 6 ea ma le 
alii nei ? The answer would be. Yes, I am going with 
him ; ona tali ai lea 'o ia : ma te 5. Will you go with me ? 
pe e te fia sau td te 6 ? Yes, I am going with eJoe, td te 6. 

Curious modes of expression such as the above often 
occur and add somewhat to the difl&culty of the language, 
but reading will soon accustom one to them. 'Ua 'ou te 
(nofo) ia te 'oulua can be rendered, I stay with you (two) ; 
but this way of using it is not very often heard. 

The formation of the possessive pronoun is much the 
same. If it is desired to convey the idea of being with 
anyone, as, for example, " The child is with me," the 
pronoun is placed between 'o and le of the article. It would 
not be correct to say, 'o le tama e ia te a'u, but, e 'o ia te 
a!u le tama. Ex, : pe e 'o ia te 'outou le tagata ? e leai, e 
le 'i 'inei 'o ia /, is the man with you ? no, he is not here. 


The possessive pronouns are formed from the corre- 
sponding personal pronouns by placing them before the 
respective definite articles and omitting the e of the article 
and the 'o of the pronouns. Ex. : 'o o'u, or 'o d'u, I. 

Le 'o o'u = lo'u : Wo du — la'u, my 

Se o'u = so'u ; se cCu — sa'u, my (one of mine) 

Lota, or lata, my, is seldom come across. 
The rest of the possessive pronouns are : 



Lou, Idu, thine (seldom, lo o'e, la'ae) 
Lona, lana, his 

Lo tdua, our (two) (inclusive ; dual). Lo 7ndua, la mdua (ex- 
clusive ; dual) 

Lo tdtou, our (inclusive ; plural) 
Lo mdtou, our (exclusive : plural) 
Lo ''oulutty la 'oulua, your (two) (dual) 
Lo ''outou, la ^outou, your (plural) 
Lo Idua, la Idua, their (two) (dual) 
Lo IdtoUf la IdtoUy their (plural) 


O'w, au, my 

Ow, au, thy 

07ia, ana, his 

O, or a mdua, our (dual) 

O, or a tdtou, our (inclusive ; plural) 

O, or a mdtou, our (exclusive ; plural) 

O, or a 'oulua, your (dual) 

O, or a 'outou, your (plural) 

O, or <2 Zawa, their (dual) 

O, or a Za^ow, their (plural) 

The forms so\c and sa'u are very rarely used. But of 
those given above with an optional o or a sound, such as 
lo'u, lou, lo 'oe, it will be found that the use of the o is 
more customary. Ex. : o'u mata, my eyes. 

The forms lo tdua, lo tdtou are only used when the 
person addressed is included. Ex. : In spealdng to several 
people who are in the same house with me, I might say : 
'ita lelei lo tdtou fale, our house is beautiful ; but if I used 
the same phrase to a person in the opposite house, I should 
say : 'u^ lelei lo mdtou fale. If the same remark were 
made to only one person, who was with me in my house, it 
would be : ^ua lelei lo tdua fale, our (both) house is 

Possessive pronouns always precede the words they 
accompany. Ex. : lo mdtou tama ; lona avd (wife) ; 
ona uso (brothers), etc. 




'o lenei, this 
'o lea, lend, that 
'o lea lava, that (of), the one 


ia, nei, these 
na, those 
na lava, those (of) 

'0 Zea lava does duty as an answer : Yes ; all right ; 
very good. 

The demonstrative pronouns can be employed sub- 
stantively and adjectively. In the first case they stand 
alone, and in the latter before the word with which they 
are used. Ex. : 'o Vou atalii lend, that is my son ; ^ou te 
le iloa lava lea tagata, I do not know this man ; i lenei iUi, 
on this side ; i lea aso ma lea aso, on this day and that 
day (every day, daily). 

The word nei, this, is often strengthened by the addition 
of 'o i Idtou nei, but this is only used substantively. All this 
is translated by nei 7nea 'uma, Hterally, these things all. 


These are : 

'O le, who, which 
'O e, which (plural) 

Their use is a little complicated, and best demonstrated 
by a few examples. 

In many cases the relative pronoun is not employed, 
the reason being that the Samoan is averse to the dependent 
sentence. If he wished to say : '* The man whom I have 
seen," he would put it thus : 'o le tamdloa na iloa .'o au, 
which is, literally, the man have seen I [na denotes the 
perfect tense ; iloa, seen). 


'0 le tama sa nofo i lefale, the child stayed in the house ; 
meaning, the child who stayed in the house. 

'Ua sau mai le tasi tagata ia te a'u 'vxifa'a'pea mai ia te 
a^u, there came a man to me, has so (said) to me, which 
to me said. (Sau, come ; fa'apea, thus, so) ; fa'apea 
mai, spoke thus.) 

This mode of expression, however, only applies : 

(a) If the relative pronoun, in the cases cited, is used as 

an adjective dependent upon a noun ; 

(b) And if the dependent sentence is in the nominative, or 

accusative, case in English. In the latter instance 
the passive form of the verb would be used, but this 
will be dealt with in its proper place. 
Should the relative pronoun be used substantively, the 
following is the usual form adopted : 

Ex. : hca aumai 'o i latou ia te ia 'o e 'ua mama'i, they 
brought to him those who were sick ('o e, those who). 

If the demonstrative pronoun, that, in English, should 
be placed in the nominative, the same rule will apply in 
Samoan. Ex. : ia e avatu i le 'ua 'ole ia te o'e, give to 
him that has asked of you {i le, to him that). 

When the relative pronoun is in the genitive, of that, 
the possessive pronoun is used in the apodosis, and that 
of the corresponding person to the subject in the principal 
sentence. Ex. : 'o le alii ^ua tele lona fale, literally is, 
the chief, (it) is big his house, whose house big is. 

If the relative pronoun, which, in an English sentence 
takes the position of a nominative or genitive, or, in 
conjunction with a preposition, forms a direct sentence, at 
its close i ^ai, or ai, to which, whom, to whom, is used. Ex. : 
'o le tama na 'ou avatu le pule i 'ai, the boy to whom I gave 
the shell ; 'o le 'ai 'ua nofo ai le tupu, the town in which the 



king lives ; 'o le fagu 'wa iai le vlu, the bottle in which 
oil (is) ; 'o le tagata 'ua e avatua iai le tupe e le twpu, the 
man to whom money has been given by the king. 

Note that no comma is used between the principal and 
subordinate sentence. 

It would be well to remember these two rules in regard 
to the treatment of relative sentences : 

(a) In Samoan when they are employed adjectivally a 
direct sentence results ; 

(6) When employed substantively, 'o le, who, is the 
usual form. 


Nom. 'o le, he who, she who 

Gen. 1^ ^i^ I of him who, of her who 

Dat. i le, to him who, to her who 
Ace. i le, him who, her who 


Nom. 'o e, those who, those which 

Gen. I'^jl of those who 

Dat. and Ace. i e, to those who (dat.), those who (ace.) 


Nom. 'o le — lona, he whose 

Gen. \aie\ — ^^^^^' ^^ ^^"^ (^^ ^^^) whose 
Dat. i le — lona, to him whose 

Ace. i le — hma, him whose 


Nom. 'o e — ona, those whose 
Gen. yi,^-] — ona, of those whose 
Dat. i e — ona, to those whose 
Ace. i t — ona, those whose 



Nom. 'o le — iai, or ai, he (or she) to whom 

Gen. Yah\ — * ^*» ^^ "^' ^^ ^^^"^ ^^^ ^^^^ *^ whom 
Dat. i le — i ai, or ai, to him (or her) to whom 
Ace. i le — i ai, or ai, him (or her) to whom 


Nom. 'o e — i ai, or at, those to whom 

Gen . \ a '\ — ^^*' ^^ ^^' ^^ those to whom 
Dat. i e — iai, or ai, to those to whom 

Ace. i c — iai, or ai, those to whom 

In the foregoing all the possible variations of the 
relative pronoun that can occur are given, but to gain 
facility in their use the reading of native newspapers and 
books is recommended. 

In the event of the relative pronoun, he who, in English, 
being wished to convey the meaning of if anyoiie, or every- 
one who, it is not correct to use 'o le, but ai se, or 'o se, 
everyone who. To illustrate this a quotation from the 
Bible will serve. Ex, : ai se fai atu foi i lona uso Raka 
e nofo sola 'o ia i le fono, anyone who says to his brother, 
Raka, shall be guilty at the Judgment (fai atu, say ; e, a 
particle used in the coniugation of the verb ; nofo sala, 
be guilty, in danger of ; fono, judicial sitting, council). 
The pronoun, 'o ia, in the relative sentence, is only made 
use of to emphasize, or strengthen, the relative pronoun, 
ai se. This. is one of the features of the language and often 
done, but there is no special rule that can be applied in all 
cases. Ex, : 'o h tagata na td 'o ia ia te 'au, the man who 
struck me, can also be expressed by : 'o le tagata na td ia 
te ^au. Everyone who, 'o tagata 'uma . . . 'o e . . . , the 
actual meaning being, all (men) who , . . 



'O at, who ? 

Ex. : 'o ai ea 'oe ?, who art thou ? (ea, perhaps ; 
literally, who, perhaps, art thou ?) 

O ai, whose 

Ex. : ai e ona tama ?, whose is the child ? 
la te ai, to whom ? 

Ex. : 'ua e avatu 'o 'oe le tusi ia te ai ?, to whom have 
you given the book ? 

'O ia na (the na being a particle), whom ? 

Ex. : 'o ai tou te saili na ?, whom are you looking for ? 

Mai ia te ai, from whom ? 

E ai, through whom ? 

Ia te ai, by which ? by what means ? 

Jni a^ with which ? with what ? 

''O le a, what ? 


Ex. : 'o led lea mea, what is that ? 'o led ea lou ma^i, 
what is your (singular) illness ? 

There is a plural to 'o le a, viz., ni a, which is used to 
express what {sort of) things ? Ex. : ni a ea ni mai i lo 
^outou nu'u ?, what is there in your country ? — ^literall}^, 
what sort of things are in your country ? (ni, some, any, 
is used here as a noun denoting an indefinite quantity) ; 
'o ai se tagata ?, which man ? 


Le tasi, each other, one another (before accompanying word) 

is?*, nisi, nai, ni, some, or a few (before) 

Se tasi, le tasi, se ina, anyone (before) 

To* itasi, each, everyone (before) 

Ai se tasi, le tasi, se tasi, someone, anybody (before) 

E leai se, e Uai se tasi, nobody (not anybody) (before) 


' r/ma, taitctsi ''uma, all (plural) (after the accompanying word) 
Le leai se tasi^ not a single one (before) 
Toatele, many (after) 
Toaitiitly few (after) 

'O isi e sili, several 

'O isi, the rest, remainder (before) 

These pronouns are capable of becoming nouns as well 
as adjectives. Ex. : nai i'a, a few fish ; nu'u 'wna, all 
people ; tagata 'uma, all men ; 'o tagaia e toatele, many 
men ; 'o mea e tele, much ; 'o 7iiea itiiti, little ; 'o isi 'au 
^auna e sili, several men-servants ; 'o isi tagata, the rest of 
the men. 

It will be seen by these examples that the indefinite 
pronoun is mostly to be found directly following the 

attendant word, and but seldom preceding it. '0 isi 

e sili has the word it accompanies between isi and e as 


The Samoan has no actual word for self. He almost 
always translates it by employing the accusative case of the 
subject with the corresponding personal pronoun, followed 
by the word lava. Ex. : inafaa'ola ia o'e iate ^oe lava, help 
thyself ; hiafasiote 'o ia ia te ia lava, he has killed himself. 
But the latter can equally mean, he has killed him. 

By one's self (of one's own accord) is rendered by fua 
in the following manner : 'o le mea 'ua titpufua, the matter 
that originates from itself. 

There is also a reflexive form of the verb, which will be 
considered later. 


The Samoan verb differs considerably in its conjugation 
from that of any European language ; in fact, it cannot be 


said to have a conjugation at all. It always remains 
unvaried in the singular, and only in the plural is there 
any alteration of form, introduced purely for purposes of 
embellishment, for which no hard and fast rules can be laid 
down. No terminations to denote person or tense are used. 
The moods are formed by adverbs, which precede the root- 
word when necessary. 

The plural formation of the verb is not easy to acquire, 
but the close study of Samoan reading matter will greatly 
help in this respect. The following hints may be of some 
little assistance to this end. 

Most verbs of one or two syllables reduplicate the first 
one, such as, fefe (frighten)— /e/e/e ; nofo (sit, stay) — 
nonofo, etc. 

Others do not vary in the plural, but the accent falls on 
the syllable preceding that of the singular form. Ex. : 
manatu (think, resolve upon) — mdnatu (plural). 

A great number place fe before the verb and affix the 
particles H, fi, ni, si, fa'i, ma'i, naH, vaH, tani. These 
represent the remains of words, the meanings of which 
have been lost to the language. Those in most use are, 

fe si, fe i, and fe ni ; such are : tautala 

{s]peak)—fetautala'i ; tagi (weep ior)—fetagisi ; soli 
(trample on)— fesoli'ai ; iloa {see)—feiloa'i, etc. 

Others, too — ^but almost invariably those that carry the 
accent on the antepenultimate — ^reduplicate the last 
syllable but one, as : yndlosi — malolosi ; fdnau (give 
hiit'h.)—f andnaii ; gdlue (w^ork) — galulue. 

The penultimate syllable can also be reduplicated in 
composite verbs, as, for instance, tdumafa (feed) — 

A few lose a syllable in the plural, but these are 
mostly verbs that have already been reduplicated. 



Ex.: lagilagi (sing.) — lalagi ; talatala — tatala ; tatala — 

Some are irregular : alu (go) — o (plural) ; momo^e 
{run)— femo'ei (seldom used), or taufetuli ; nono (bind) — 
— noati, also noatia ; sau (come) — o. 

As already pointed out, the methods adopted to form 
the plural of a verb are mostly attributable to the native 
desire to beautify the language by embellishments, and 
mistakes are bound to be made by the beginner when first 
attempting to converse in Samoan. 

The principal neuter verbs, with their plurals, are : 

aga, do, act, fe'aga'i 

alaga, cry, call out, alalaga 

alofa, love, alolofa 

auina, send, feauina 

^au, swim, fe'ausi 

anapogiy fast, abstain from, 

^ata, laughf fe^ atani 
atamaH, be prudent, wise, 

fagu, wake, fafagu 
fdnaUf bring forth, bear, 

fdsiy strike, kill, fafdsi 
fefe, be frightened, /^/e/e 
filemUy be silent, quiet, fifileniu 
fold, spread, extend, fofola 
Jul, immerse, dip, fufui 
gdlue, work, galultie 
goto, sink, go down, gogoto 
Hli, blow, Hli 
iloa, see, understand, feiloai, or 

inu, drink, feinu 
ita, be angry, ita 
laga, weave, lalaga 
lagilagi, warm, lalagi 
lata, be near, felataH 
lele, fly, feleWi 
leo, call out, watch, kleo 
liu, accost, apply to, feliiCi 
md, be ashamed, mama 

maliu, come, go, kill, m,aliliu 
mdlosi, be strong, malolosi 
maH, be ill, mamaH 
manao, wish, m,ananao 
m,anatu, think, mdnatu 
matua, be old, matutua 
matd'u, be afraid, matata'u 
mate, die, pass away, mamate 
meme, be anxious, puzzled, 

misa, fight, quarrel, femisaH 
moe, sleep, femoeH, or momoe 
moli, accuse, testify, momoli 
musu, have no inclination, 

nofo, sit, remain, stay, nonofo 
^ofu, dress, clothe, 'o 'ofu 
'o'o, reach to, continue, feo^oi 
oso, spring, feosofi 

oti, die, ooti 

pa' a, fall, pa'iVu 

pese, sing, pepese 

poto, be wise, popoto 

pu'e, seize, pupu'e 

punou, bend, punonou 

saga, turn aside, fesagaH 

saili, look for, sailili 

sauni, prepare, sauniuni 

savali, travel, savdvali 

soli, tread, step, fesoloH 

sui, take someone's place, 
deputise, fesui 


tagi^ weep, fetagisi tu'i, sting, prick, tutu't 

tagOy lay hold, fetagosi tuli, hunt, chase, iutuli 

tanu, bury, taianu tumu, fill, tutumu 

taoU), lie down, lay, put, taooto tupu, arise, grow, increase, tutupu 

td'u, relate, tell, ta'u tusa, equal, tuiusa 

tautala, relate, fetautalaH tu'u^ let, permit, grant, iutu'u 

tOf build, plant, toto w, bite, feutia 

toe, be left, remaining, iotoe ^uma, end, terminate, fe'uniai 

tofi, divide, share, totofi umi, be long, tall, immi 

U)gi, throw, fetos,i vale, be dull, stupid, vavale 

tola, slink, steal away, fctolofi vaai, see, vavai 

tu, stand, tutu vi, praise, vivii 

In those verbs compounded oifa'a the plural formation 

is found in the verb-root and does not afiect fa'a. Ex, : 

fa'atumu {&\)—fa'atutumu (plural) ; fa' a' ofu (clothe) — 

fa' a' 'ofu (plural). 

Active Form 

In forming the present tense it must be borne in mind 
that, if the personal pronoun stands before the verb, the 
euphonic particle, te, is inserted between them. The 
third person singular is the only one in which it is omitted. 

Nofo (to sit, stay) will serve as a pattern by which to 
conjugate it. 



\)U te nofo, I sit 

e ie nofo, or e nofo 'oe, thou sittest 

e nofo 'o ia, he sits 


md te nonofo, or e nonofo i mdua, we both sit 
lua te nonofo, or e nonofo i Umlua, you both sit 
Id te nonofo, or e noriofo i laua, they both sit 


mdtou] , J. j> .mdtou] ^ .. 

talou I te nonofo, ove nonofo I «ai„„|wesit 

tou te nonofo, or e nonofo Umtou, you sit 

Idtou te nonofo, or e nonofo i Idtou, they sit 



1. The pronouns can be placed either before or after the 

verb, with the exception of the first person singular, 
which always precedes it. 

2. If the pronoun stands after the verb, in all persons an e 

is placed before the verb. 

3. The shortened form of the pronouns is mostly made 

use of before the verb : 'oUy instead of 'o a'Uy may 
lua, Id, tou. 

4. In place of the third person singular — e nofo 'o ia — it is 

quite correct to say 'o loo nofo, particularly if it is 

wished to indicate a condition existing at the time 

of speaking. 

The present tense is used a great deal in Samoan, more 

especially in narration. The particle ^ua will constantly be 

found in attendance upon the intransitive verb at the 

beginning of a sentence, although it is devoid of any real 

meaning. When accompanying transitive verbs it denotes 

the perfect tense. Ex, : 'ua e nofo 'o ia, he sits ; 'ua td 

'o ia ia te ia, he has struck him. 


This is formed by placing the particle sa, or na, before 
the pronoun and verb. Ex. : sa 'au alaga, I cried. The 
euphonic te and e of the present tense are omitted, how- 
ever, othery/ise the conjugation is nearly the same. 


Na, or sa 'om nofo, I sat 

Na, or sa e nofo, thou sattest 

Na, or sa ia nofo, he sat 


Na, or 5a md nonofo, or nonofo i mdua, we both sat 

The other persons are as those in the present tense, but 
without te and e. 

Nttf or sa mdlou alalaga, or alalaga i mdtou, we cried, etc. 

The imperfect is not employed to the extent the present 
tense is. 


This is quite simply constructed. Except for ther 
particle ^^la, it is indistinguishable from the imperfect 
Ex, : 'ua ^ou saili, I have looked for. If detached from 
the context, or used as another part of speech in the same 
sentence, the particle 'ita does not go to form the perfect 
tense, and must, in these circumstances, be left out. 

^Ua 'ou nofo, I have sat, etc. 

' Ua md nonofo, we have both sat, etc. 

' Ua mdtou nonofo, we have sat, etc. 


The future is almost identical with the present tense, 
both as applied to form and meaning. In some parts of 
the Samoan group an e is placed before the pronoun in the 
plural. Ex, : e matou te 6, we will go ; or, e 6 i mdtou, 
which is exactly similar to the present tense. 

This form of the future, though, is only used when it is 
understood that a future action is intended. Should the 
action be a definitely future one, there is another way of 


expressing it by introducing 'ole a (not to be confounded 
with 'o le a, what ?). Ex. : 'o le a 'ou sau, I will (cer- 
tainly) come ; or, I shall come. 

The conjugation is a double one, and we will use the 
word sau (come) as a model, since this can readily lead to 
confusion in its plural construction, and the learner will be 
able to accustom himself more easily to the mode of con- 
jugation by taking this verb as a pattern. 


^ 'o le d^au sau^ or a ^au sau, I will come 

U) le de saUy or 'o le d sau 'oe, thou wilt come 
'o le d sau 'o ia, he will come 


'o le d md o, or 'o le d o i mdua, we will both come 
^o le d lua o, or 'o le d 6 i ^oulua, you will both come 
'o le d Id 0, or 'o le d 6 i Idua, they will both come 


'o le d mdtou o, or 'o led o i mdtou (exclusive) ) .,, 

'o le d tdtou o, or 'o led o i tdUm (inclusive) j ^^^ "^"^ ^^"^^ 
'o le d ^outou o, or 'o led 6 i ''outou, you will come 
'o le d tdtou 0, or 'o led 6 i tdtou they will come 

This form of the future tense is often in use, particularly 
in writing the language, but the Samoan, as a rule, prefers 
the one first given, because it involves less trouble. 


The optative is a variation of the imperative mood, 
which has the effect of giving the latter a more agreeable 
and gentle form, and is best rendered into English by I beg, 
I pray, please. In Samoan it is expressed by se'i, with the 
verbal form concerned, which denotes the person, omitted. 
Ex. : se'i e malolo ai !, rest, I beg ! ; se'i 'ou alu, please let 
me go ; se'i 'ou taofi ia te 'oe, I beg that I may restrain you 
(hold you back). 


The Imperative Negative 

This is efiected by the use of 'ana (lest), which can be 
reinforced by ne'i. The euphonic particles, e te, are also 
introduced between the auxiliary and the verb, if it is 
wished to convey the idea of forbiddance to a single person. 
Should several be referred to, the bare verb is employed. 
Ex, : ^aua e te pisa tele, do not make a noise ! nofo pea 
^aua e te alu, stay (there), and do not go away ! 'aua nei 
fasioti, you (plural) shall not kill ! 

Although the command in the Bible is, 'aua gaoi, thou 
shalt not steal — using the second person singular of the 
pronoun — ^it is intended to apply to all people. Here is an 
example : 'ua fa'alogo foi 'outou, na fai mai i e anamua, 
'aua e te tauto pepelo ; a 'ou te fai atu a\i ia te 'outou, 'aua 
lava ne% tauto ; you have heard what was said to the 
forefathers ; thou shalt not swear (tauto, swear) (pepelo, 
lie), but I say to you, swear not at all (lava, at all). 

Leave off !, Stop !, is translated by soia, with the same 
construction as ^aua, Ex. : soia e te id /, stop fighting ! 


The subjunctive mood, as w^e know it, is rare in Samoan. 
It is represented by the particle ana, and the verb following 
it corresponds exactly to the form of the mood and tense 
required. Ex. : ana e i Hnei, were thou here, then . . . 
The sentence following — the apodosis — will be accom- 
panied by po. Ana iloa e 'outou 'oa'^u /, if you know me 
. . . (iloa is here passive and the sentence literally reads : 
if known by you, I), 


The infinitive is composed of the bare verb with e 
placed in front of it. Ex. : e alu, go : in order to go. 


'Va alii 'o ia e vaai le va'a, he came in order to see the ship. 
A can also be substituted for e : a alu, go. 


Participles in the Samoan language are rather rare. 
One form has already been discussed when dealing with 
the present tense : 'o loo nofo, 'o loo taoto, etc., where their 
use is explained. In cases where in English one would say 
while and when, the Samoan simply uses the particle, o. 
Ex. : 'o i Idtou o fesili le aWi, ona 6 ai lea 'o savali, while 

they questioned the chiefs, the messengers came {ona 

ai lea, then, in the latter part of the sentence). 

The negative of a verb is effected by the word le, which 
is always placed immediately before it. Ex. : 'ou te le 
iloa, I do not know. 

The Passive Form 

The term " Passive " is really not an appropriate one, 
for there is actually no distinction in Samoan between the 
active and passive verb. Both forms are used in- 

The construction of the passive form is a very variable 
one, and nine different particles play their part in it. 
They are : a, ia, ina, fia, gia, lia, mia, sia, and tia. These 
are survivals of words whose meaning has long been lost. 
The use of these particles is partly attributable to a desire 
for euphony and partly depends upon their etymological 
foundation, which it is not necessary to go into here. The 
Samoan mostly uses the termination ina. (Termination is 
hardly the right description. Pratt, in his Samoan Gram- 
mar — now out of print — calls them '' Deponent Verbs.") 


He will not be guilty of any gross error if the learner 
employs ina in the great majority of cases. The following 
is a list of verbs with their passive forms, and it will be seen 
that : 

(1) All compound verbs, almost without exception, have 

their termination in ina ; such as faitauina (also 
faitauUa), fa'a7nagaloina, etc. 

(2) The verbs ending in i almost throughout take a in the 

passive : tulia, fusia, fasiotia. 

(3) Those ending in a, o, u have mostly mia, sia, tia in 

their passive form : inumia, fonotia, tanumia. 
It is advisable for the student to learn the formation of 

the passive verbs through the medium of Samoan writings 

or a native newspaper. 

The various tenses of the passive are formed in precisely 

the same way as those of the active verb. 


e alofaina 'o a'u, I am loved 
e alofaina 'o 'oe, thou art loved 
e alofaina U) ia, he is loved, etc. 

na alofaina U) a'u, I was loved, etc. 


'wa alofaina 'o 'aw, I have been loved, etc. 


a ^au alofaina, or 'o led alofaina 'o 'aw, I shall be loved 
'o led alofaina 'o 'oe, thou shalt be loved, etc. 

The pronoun can also be placed, of course, before the 
verb. There is no participle. 

The use of the passive verb will be referred to sub- 
sequently, when dealing with the construction of sentences. 



aJjoJa, love, — gia, — ina 

^amatai begin, — ina 

aoai, command, — ina 

d^ocCo^ teach, — ina 

atiy build, — ina 

au, send, — ina 

aumai, bring, — a 

avaiu, give, — a 

ave, take, — a (when standing 

alone ; following mai, or atii, 

— ina) 
ave'ese, take away, — a 
^eli, dig, — a 

fd'aee, lay, put, place, — tia 
fa'afetaH, thank, — a 
fa^afoi, send back, — sia 
fa'ainU) to make drunk, — a 
fa'aitiiti, draw off, — a 
fd'amdlosi, strengthen, — a 
fa^asala, punish, — ina 
fafaga^ nourish, support, — ina 
fai, do, happen, — a 
faitau, count, read, — lia 
fdnau, bear, give birth, — a, 

— ina 
fdsi, strike, hit, fight, — a 
fasiotiy kill, — a 
fetalaHf speak, — a 
fetuu, curse, swear, — ina 
filiflliy choose, elect, — a 
foai, deliver up, hand over, 

— ina 
fold, spread, extend, — ina 
folo, gulp down, swallow, — iiia 
fono, judge, sit in judgment, 

— tia 
fua, measure, weigh, — tia 
fusi, bind, — a 

gaUy break to pieces, — a, — sia 
Hliy blow, — a 
^ino, hate, — sia 
inUy drink, — mia 
isilua, divide, share, — ina 
lafOy throw, or cast away, — «, 

— ina 
lafotUy throw, throw to and fro, 

— ina 
laga, weave, — ina 
laveaiy help, save, rescue, — ina 

laulau, put before, prepare (of 
food), — a, — ina 

lilo, conceal, hide — ia, 

liu, turn (about), — a, — ina 
(see ave) 

maligiy spill, shed, pour, — ina 

maUy win, gain, — a, — ina 

mitiy suck, — ia 

moli, accuse, testify, — a 

mu, bum, — ina 

nana, bury, — tia 

nonoa, tie, — tia 

nutipala, bruise, squash, — ina 

'ofu, dress, clothe, — ina 

''ole, cheat, deceive, — ''olegia 

osi, conclude an alliance, sacri- 
fice, — a 

pu'e, seize, grasp, — a, — ina 

puni, shut, close, — tia 

sae, tear, rend, — ia 

saili, seek, look for, — a 

sasa, beat, whip, — ina 

sasa'a, pour out, — ina 

saud, oppress, harass, — i7ia 

sauni, cook, prepare, — a 

sese, lead astray, — ina 

sii, raise, lift, — tia 

sila, see, — fia 

sio, surround, — mia, — ina 

sopo, transgress, exceed, — ia 

sua, thrust, push, — tia 

su'i, sew, stitch, — a 

siLSunu, burn down, — ina 

tafuna, devastate, lay waste, 
— ina 

tagi, weep (for, over), — sia 

tago, touch, handle, — fla 

taHtaH, lead, guide, — ina 

talaH, tell, relate, narrate, — ina 

tali, receive, accept, — a 

tanu, bury, — mia 

taofi, trust, give employment 
(to), — ina 

tatala, open, — ina 

taui, pay, — a 

tausi, nurse, take care of, — a 

teu, adorn, — a 

tigd, hurt, grieve, — ina 

to, plant, — ina 


to/o, prove, test, — ina iu'upo, appoint a time, — ina 

togiola, pledge, mortgage, — ina u, bite, — tia 

togitogi, chisel, carve, etc., — a, 'uma, finish, — Ha 

ina ufi, cover, — tia 

tufatufa, distribute, — ina utu, fetch water, —fia 

tuHf sting, prick, — a vaelua, halve, bisect, — ina 

tuHmomo, cut in pieces, — ia vaefa, quarter, — ina 

iuli, hunt, chase, — a valaau, cry out, — ina 

tumUy fill, — ina vavae, command, order, — ina 

iumau, hold out, endure, — ina vcte, take away violently, kid- 

tunu, bake, — a nap, vetea 

tusi, write, — a vili, bore, drill, vilia 

tu'tt, let, allow, etc., — a, — ina vivii, praise, commend, — a 

(see ave) 

The Medium Form 

By medium is meant a third form of the verb, which is 
not so often met with in other Polynesian languages as in 
Samoan, where it forms quite a feature. The syllable fe 
is placed in front of the verb, and, for euphonic purposes, 
the following particles are employed after it : a'i, fa'i, ni, 
saH, taH, ma^i, naH, It will be seen that these impart a 
reciprocal, intensive, or retrospective meaning to the action 
of the verb. Ex, : fesoasoani, help one another ; fela- 
folafoaH, turn over in one's mind, rack one's brains ; 
fetautalatala a'i, converse one with another ; fealofani, love 
one another, mutually love ; 'o 'outou fealofani, love one 

The medium mood also occasionally expresses a repeti- 
tion or continuity of action. Ex, : femaliua'i, dwell 
upon, reflect upon (from maliu, go) ; fealua'i, turn about 
{horn alu y go; plural, /eoa'^). 


There are only two of these, viz., fa, to think errone- 
ously, be mistaken, and gah, to have forgotten. These 


two words enter largely into the life of the Samoan, and 
invariably serve as an excuse when he makes a promise to 
do a thing and promptly forgets all about it afterwards. 
The conjugation, which is simple, is : 

fa i ta (faita), or fa ^au mai, I thought v/rongly, or mistakenly 
fa 'oe, ov fa te 'oe, thou thoughtest, etc. 
fa te ia, he thought, etc. 

The rest of it is regular — efd i mdtou, we thought, etc. 

'ua galo ia te ^au, I forgot (Uterally — it was juissing (lost) to me) 
''ua galo ia te 'oe, thou forgottest 
'wa galo ia te ia, he forgot, etc. 


There are no actual verbs in Samoan that correspond 
to be and have in European languages. They are rendered 
by the aid of verbal particles. 

If the verb to be is employed alone between the subject 
and object of a sentence it is not expressed. Ex. : vHa 
tele lefale, the house is big ; 'o Mataafa 'o le alii sili o Samoa 
'o ia, Mataafa is the paramount chief of Samoa. Should 
the verb to be, on the other hand, be used in an impersonal 
way in the sense of there is, there are, then it would be 
expressed by the adverb i ai (there), with the suitable 
verbal particle. 

e i ai, there is 

sa, or na i ai, there was (once there was) 

'wa leai se . . , , or e leai se, there is not 

With regard to the verb to have, the Samoan expresses 
it as follows : 

(1) He puts the subject in the accusative and the 
object in the nominative. This is the nearest approach he 


can attain to it. Ex. : 'ua ia te ia le auauna, he has a 
man-servant (literally, to Jmn {is) a manservant) ; 
'uaia te a'u le a'u uso e toalua, I have two brothers 
(for 'o le 'au, see The Noun). This turn of speech 
is very much used when it can be done suitably. In 
Malayan the same form of sentence is met with in : ada 
satu kuda sama sahaja, I have a horse. 

(2) The verb to have is represented by i ai, e i ai, or 
simply 6. If the subject is a pronoun it is not expressed, 
otherwise it remains in the nominative. The main point 
is that the appropriate possessive pronoun must be placed 
before the object. Ex. : 'o le tagata lenei e toalua ona 
atalii, this man has two sons (literally, this inan {are) two 
his sons) ; e iai sau totogi, thou hast money ; ^ua ia te ia 
lonafale, he has a. house. 

(3) If the negative form of be and have is desired, the 
adverb i ai is left out and leai substituted. Ex. : \a leai 
ni a tdtou areto, we have no bread (literally, there is nothing 
of our bread) ; 'ua leai se a (sd) latou dva, they have no 
" kava " (a cooling drink). 

To be obliged (must), to have to (shall), to be allowed, etc., 
will be referred to when considering the formation of 


The Samoan is fond of employing bombastic expressions, 
which are, at the same time, simple, and it often happens 
that out of several words he devises a single one, or seeks to 
strengthen the meaning of a word by reduplication of certain 
syllables. Especially is this the case with verbs. 


(1) Reduplication, such as that found in silasila, 
tofotofo, sii'esu'e, implies a reinforcing, or emphasising, of 
the action concerned. Su^e, ask, question ; su'esu'e, 
make enquiries, investigate, examine ; tola, speak ; 
talatala, relate, chatter. 

(2) Taufai . . . indicates the longer continuity of an 
action. Ex. : tagi, weep ; taiifaitagi, lament, mourn, 
long for. 

(3) Md, before a verb, signifies can, able to : mdga- 
gana, able to speak, talk ; mdfai, able to make, do. If le 
precedes md we get the negative form. Ex. : le mdfai, 
unable to make, do. 

(4) Ta'a is used when passing judgment upon a person 
or thing. Ex. : td'ufa 'atauva'a, to esteem one little ; 
ta'uamiatonu, to defend, vindicate someone. 

(5) The verbs formed with fai indicate activity. Ex. : 
faimasae, patch, repair ; fai mai, fai atu, order something 
to be done. 

(6) Those verbs compounded of fa'a occur most 
frequently. This word evidently must in earlier times 
have conveyed the meaning of have, cause, but it is never 
now used independently. In the formation of these words 
the speaker expresses action, and it will therefore be seen 
that an intransitive verb is transformed into a transitive 
by the use of this prefix. Ex. : moe, sleep ; fa'amoe, 
lull one to sleep ; tiisa, resemble ; fa'atusa, compare ; 
and so on. In a great many cases these words formed with 
fa^a have lost their original signification, and in others they 
have come to bear quite a different one. By prefixing 
fa^a, the Samoan also often evolves verbs from nouns and 
adjectives, and this sometimes entirely alters the meaning 
of the original word. Ex. : siisu, wet ; fa' asusu, to 


make wet ; ta'ita'i, guide ; fa' ata'ita'i, convey, try ; 
iau, wages, price ; fa'atau, trade, buy, sell, etc. This 
species is of frequent occurrence, and now mostly bears 
the interpretation of the simple verb. 

(7) By joining the adverb loa, immediately, at once, to 
a verb it implies an instant action. Ex. : 'ua avatxiloa 'o 
ia le tusi ia te ia, he brought him the book at once. 

(8) Tino, body, if postfixed to a verb appertaining to 
the senses, such as see, hear,- etc., has the effect of intensify- 
ing the action in question. Ex, : iloatino, know pre- 
cisely, see clearly. 

(9) The same word before the verb means very ; 
matud (very) only being used before adjectives and adverbs. 

(10) The following six adverbs of direction, which 
have the effect of somewhat modifying the meaning, are 
often attached to the verb : atu, ane, cCe, mai, ifo, and 

atu, off, away, out (from the person speaking) 

ane, along 

a'c, up, up to 

mai, to, at (towards the person speaking) 

ifo, down, downwards 

'ese, away, forth 

Ex, : 'ou te alu atu, I go (out, off) ; 'ua alu ane i le 
vaitafe, he went along the river ; 'ita alu a'e i le mauga, 
he went up the mountain ; 'ua fai mai 'o ia ia te a'u, he 
said to me ; 'ua alu ifo 'o ia mai le mauga, he came down 
the mountain ; alu 'ese .^ go away ! ; fa'atau atu, to sell ; 
fa'atau mai, to buy. 

(11) Fua, following a verb, would be translated self, 
of itself, from itself, etc. Ex. : 'o le mxa 'ua tupu fua, 
the thing which originates from itself. 

The use of the verbs will be gone into later. 



The following verbs might be conjugated by way of 
practice to the student : 

tagi, weep, fetagi si (plural) 
iloa, know, iloa (plural) 
maUiu, fear, matdtahi (plural) 

gallic, work, galulue (plural) 
pcCu, fall, pa'u'ii. (plural) 
iiimu, fill, iuiumii (plural) 


Some of the Polynesian peoples, including the ilustralian 
negro, are, generally speaking, only capable of counting up 
to four. Anything after this number the Australian 
usually terms yniribiri (many), but this does not apply to 
the Samoan, who is highly cultured, and able to reckon 
up to ten thousand, having even several forms for the 
single number. 


e iasi, one 

e lua, two 

e tolu, three 

efd, four 

e lima, five 

€ ono, six 

e fiiu, seven 

e valu, eight 

e iva, nine 

e sefulii, ten 

e sefulu ma le tasi, eleven ; and 

so on. 
e lunsefulu, or luafulu, twenty 
e toluscjnlu, or folufuhi, thirty 
e fasefulu, or fagafuhi, forty 
e limasefulu, or limagafidu, fifty 
e ivasefulu, or ivagajulu, ninety 
e selau, one hundred 
e luaselau ma le iasi, two hundred 

and one 

e ioluselau, or lolulau, three 

e fdselau, or falau, four hundred 
c ivaselau, or ivalau, nine 

e afe, one thousand 
c lua afe, two thousand 
e tolu afe, or toluga afe, three 

efd afe, or faga afe, four thousand 
e lima afe, or limaga afe, five 

e mam), ten thousand 

Over ten thousand is ex- 
pressed by manomam). 

1918 would be tasi le afe 
ivagalau ma le sefulu ma le 


The Samoan has a great predilection for those numbers 
formed of ga. 

In addition to the ones given above — ^all adjectivally 
used — there is a second numeral, used substantively, 
employing the prefixes to' a and to'atino. Ex, : to'alua, 
to'atinogafulu, to'ali^na. In bygone days these had the 
meaning of ever, which, however, no longer applies to-day. 
Both forms are now used indiscriminately. 

The cardinal numbers almost always follow the words 
they apply to. Ex. : au mai ia ia te '-au pelu e li'nm (or 
to'alima), bring me five swords. 

The cardinal numbers are invariable. 


These are formed by placing the definite article before 
the cardinal numbers. The first one alone is an exception 
to this rule : 'o le muamua, or 'o le ulua'i, the first ; 'o le 
lua, the second ; 'o le folu, the third, etc. 

The last, is 'o le mulimuli. As far as the position of 
the ordinals is concerned, it is as correct to say, 'o le lua 
fale, as 'o lefale lua ; the latter being more generally used 
if the accompanying word is in another case than the 

An exception should be noted in the enumeration of the 
months : 'o le uhiaH mdsina, the first month ; 'o le lua 
mdsina, the second month ; 'o le toluga mdsina, the third 
month ; 'o le fdga masina, the fourth month, and so on, 
until, 'o le ivaga mdsina, the ninth month, after which 
gd is omitted ; 'o le sefulu ^iidsina, the tenth month, etc. 



The word vaega (part) is the means by which these are 
distinguished, and it precedes the numeral. Ex. : 'o le 
vaega e fa, a quarter ; 'o le vaega e toht, a third ; lua vaega 
e fitu, two-sevenths ; afa, half (derived from the English 
word) ; vaelua, to halve ; vaefd, to quarter ; 'o le " insi " 
e lua ma le afa, or ma lona afa, two and a half inches. 


These are formed by prefixing 'o le atu, or/a'a, to the 
cardinal number. Ex. : 'o le atufitii, the seventh time ; 
/a' aono, six times ; inafai iafa' atolic 'a i le atufitufoi . . . 
do this three times, at the fourth time, though . . . The 
difference in the use of the two prefixes will easily be noted 
in the above examples. By placing tai, or sdutua, before 
the cardinal numeral it conveys the meaning of ''fold." 
Ex. : taiono, sixfold ; taiselau, a hundredfold ; sautuatolu, 
threefold, triple. The last form does not often occur. 


The most important of these are : 

ai, from, away e ui ina mea, notwithstanding 

a o, during e ui ina, in spite of 

ane, along fa'atasi, ma, with 

''atoa ma, with, together with i, in, at, to 

e aunoa ma, without i fafo, outside, out of 

e by, through i lalo, under, below 

e lata ane, near, beside i le va, between 

€ leai ma, without, except i loto, in 

e le aofia, without, out of i luga, over, above 

e fesagaH ma, opposite, against i luma, before, in front of 

felataH mai, among i tala atu, beyond, on the other 

e o'o i, to, as far as (local word) side of 

c sui aH, instead of, for i tala mai, on this side 

e tusa ma, according to i iotonu, in, within 


i tua, behind, outside nai, from, out of 

Hna o, during ona 'o, on account of, for the 

i vagavagaH, around, round sake of 

about 'wa o'o, to (referring to time) 

ma, mo, for tafatafa, near, beside 

mai, from, out of ialu, since 

mulimuH i, behind, after e afua mat — e do i — , from — 

wa, 'wa na, -without, except to — 

The prepositions are always to be found in their com- 
plete form, are placed before the word they govern, and 
are invariable, but in conjunction with personal pronouns 
those compound prepositions formed with i constitute an 
exception, in that they take the suitable possessive pronoun 
between them. Ex. : i luma, before, in front of ; i luma 
le fate, in front of the house ; i Id'u luma, before me ; 
i ona tua, behind him. The reason for this is that these 
prepositions are composed of i, in, and either a noun or an 
adverb. Ex. : tua, the behind part, back ; i tua, behind ; 
i lona tua, in his back, behind him. 

The compound prepositions raise the question of 
where ? where to ?, and in both instances these take the 
genitive case after them. Ex. : i totonu o le ana, in the 
cave, into the cave. 

Ane and lata ane govern the accusative with i; ma 
and mo the dative, and the remainder the genitive. 


ai le lalolagi, from the earth felataH mat i mdtou, beneath us 

ane i le vai, along the river e lata ane ia te i IdUm, near them 

atoa ma lona uso, with his e o'o i le lagi, to Heaven 

brother 'uajaia ina tupu o ia e sui a'i, he 
'wa iloa e ia 'o a'u, I have been became king in his place 

seen by him (instead of him) 

e leai ma lona avd, without his e tusa m,a le poloaiga, according 

wife to law 

e fesagaH ma le'ai, opposite the fa'aiasi ma ia, with him 

town i le vd'a, in, or into, the ship 



ijafo o IcMi, Irom tlie to-\vn 

i lalo o le fale, under the house 

i lo tdlou va, between us 

i le va o Apia ma Mulinu'u, 

between Apia and Mulinuu ; 

it would also be correct to say : 

i la Id va o Apia ma Mulinuu. 
i laid = i la Idua (Dual) 
i luga o le la'au, up the tree 
I ona uga, over him 
i ^ou luma, before nie 
i luwa o le fale, in front of the 

i tala atu o le vaitafe, on the other 

side of the river 
i tala mai o le vao, on this side of 

the wood (bush) 

i lotonu le fale, in the house 
i tua o le pa, behind the wall 
i ona tua, behind him 
Hna le iau, during the war 
7no le tamd, with the father 
7)101 ia te a'u, from me 
mai le fale, from the house 
ona o le ma'i, on account of 

'ma o\) i le lua tausaga, until the 

second year 
talu ona po o Malietoa, since the 

time of Malietoa 
e afua tnai Apia e o^o ia Loto- 

fagd, from Apia to Lotofaga 
'o mulimuli ia te a'u, behind me 


Adjectives can be used as adverbs without undergoing 
any change, and other parts of speech are also brought into 
requisition in forming them. 


i lalo, under, below 

ifo, down, downwards 

i le itu taumatau, to the right, 

right (hand) side 
i le itu tauagavale, to the left, 

left (hand) side 
'o fea, i fea, where, where to, 

where from ? 
iHnei 'o le mea nei, here 
leld \ 

^,i^ I there, yonder 

'o le mea lea 

latalata, near, close to 

maTnao, off, at a distance 

i tua, backwards 

i mea ^uma, everywhere, through- 

i leai se mea, nowhere 

i lea mea ma lea mea, here and 

i totonu, within 

i fafo, out of doors, outside 

I luga, above, aloft 




afea, when ? 

nei, aso net, now 

loa, immediately 

anamua, sooner, before 

amuliy later 

atali, in future 

analeild, just, a short time ago 

ananafl, yesterday 

taeao, to-morrow 

luUy the day after to-morrow 

i le taeao, in the morning 

vavecu), in the early morning 

tuai, late 

leva, long, long ago 

fa' afuase'i, suddenly, all of a 

so^o, often, frequently 
i le afiafi po, in the evening 

?*, or o le po, by night 

i, or o le aso, ao, morning (as 

opposed to night) 
nanei, soon, shortly 
soona, at haphazard 
pea, still, continually 
leH, not yet 

i lea aJso ma lea aso, daily 
i aso ^uma, always, ever 
vave, quickly, swiftly 
talu, since 
seHa afea, until when ? ; how 

''ua mdvae nisi aso ona . . . 

after some time . . . 
seasea foi, when there is an 

opportunity, on occasion 


loe, e, et at, yes 
e leai, no 
le, not 

toatele, much 
itiiti, little 
fa^apea, so, thus 
c pei, how so ?, how do 
mean ? 


pefa'apefea, how ? 

ai se a, why ? 

se a le mea, wherefore ?, for 

e moni, tc be sure, of course 
fua, in vain, without foundation 
peefia, how much ? 


^ina ^ua, after 
i le, and then 

i le ma lea foi, besides, moreover 
ma, and 

e, to, in order to (infinitive) 
e afua — e o'o atu, from — to — 
'a lei, before 

e aogd ina, e ao ina, it is neces- 
sary that . . . 
c ui lava, yet, nevertheless 
€ le gata — po, neither — nor 

e le gata ina — a, not only — 
but also — ^ 

'aua lava, na — a, not only — 
but also 

^ua iufoi ina, after 

'o le mea lea, therefore 

ea, well ? (question-particle) 

ana, that though, that how- 
ever (optative) 

'o lenei, now though 

e id ine mea, however 



t ui ina, although 

'a, but when 

'a e peitai, but 

Hna ia, with that, in order that 

e le na — a, not alone — but 

also — 
peiseai, as if, as when 
ana le se aunoa, except 
pe, po, or 
'm na, but, only 
ne'i, lest 

e ui lava, though, although 
^aua, unless 

aud, because 

atonu, perhaps 

^afai, ana, '«, when, if 

toe, for the rest 

lava, indeed, as a matter of fact 

^ua o'o ina o, to . . . (speaking 

of time) 
e o'o i, to . . . (speaking of 

ona — at lea, then 
mulimuli ane, consequently, 


As will be shown later, the construction of sentences in 
Samoan does not present any difficulty, and few dependent 
sentences ever occur in the language ; for this reason the 
conjunctions are not used to any great extent. 


The Polynesians have a number of words in their 
language which must only be made use of when addressing, 
or referring to, a chief, a divinity, or a person in an exalted 
position. These words, applied to ordinary mortals, are 
forbidden ; their use would be considered a great breach 
of decorum, and the culprit guilty of it would be severely 

The following are those most generally employed : 


aao, hand, instead of lima 
afio, come, instead of sau 
afioga, speech, instead of upu 
aisi, beg, pray, instead of ole 
alo, child, instead of tama 
ao, head, instead of ^ulu 
fa'afofoga, hear, instead of 

fa'amalu, bathe, instead of 



jcCapcCu, tatoo, instead of 

fa^atafd, illness, instead of maH 
faletUa, wife, instead of avd 
finagalo, will, mind, instead of 

fofoga, face, eyes, instead of 

fotu, transmit, instead of fdnau 
gafa, sex, instead of tupulaga 


Cliiei-word . Chief- word . 

gasegasc, to be ill, instead of soa, deputy suitor (for a girl's 

niaH hand) 

maliu, die, instead of oti suafa, name, instead of igoa 

mdnaia, youth, instead of susu, go, come, instead of alu 

taulclea taumafa, feed, give to eat, 
maota, house, instead of f ale instead of \ii 

nofo, settle down, marry taumafaga, meal, repast 

poloaiy order, command tofd, sleep, instead of moe 

saualii, aitu, ghost, apparition <w/ei, speak, instead of /fti a/w 

suifofoga, voice, instead of leo tu'ufau, motionless 

usuia, marry 

These '' Chief -words " are also used when speaking of. 
or addressing, God, spirits, officials, and missionaries. 


Almost all are direct and principal sentences in Samoan, 
subordinate and relative clauses being little met with. 
The construction of the sentence is simple, and consists of 
Subject, Predicate, and Object. 

The subject almost invariably stands in the second 
place, after the predicate. Ex, : 'ua oti i Idtou, they die. 
This comes about because very nearly every sentence 
commences with a particle, which is directly attached to 
the verb and cannot be separated from it. The first person 
singular of the personal pronoun 'ou almost always takes its 
place before the verb. Ex, : 'o a'li 'o Vila, a 'ou ita i le 
nu'u ... I am Uila ; if I be wrath with a country . . . 
If the subject is a substantive, or a word employing the 
article 'o le, and itself stands before the predicate, it always 
has the complete article 'o le, which is not invariably the 
case when it appears after it. In both cases the article 'o 
is employed in the plural. Should an adjective accompany 
the subject, it is placed after it. 

Numerals take their place before the subject. 


The predicate does not always strictly conform to the 
subject in tense and mood. For instance, if the subject 
is in the singular the predicate following is also in the 
singular. Only after words which have a collective meaning 
is the plural used, such as : 'o le nu'u, the people ; 'o le 
lafuy the flock, herd ; 'o le fono, the council-meeting ; 
'o le ulugalii, the married couple ; etc. Ex. : 'o le ulugalii 
sa no'ifiofo i Falealupo, the married couple lived in Falealupo. 
The dual number only represents tv/o persons or things, 
and the plural form of the verb is the one that is most often 
used, but not always. 

When the subject is in the plural the predicate follows 
also in the plural, but now and then it will be found in the 
singular. AVhether this is only attributable to negligence, 
or is admissible, cannot be definitely ascertained, but it 
would certainly be best always to use the plural. 

With regard to the position of the predicate in a 
sentence, this will readily be seen by reference to the 
remarks on the Verb. 

The learner will find that his chief difl&culty lies in the 
proper use of the mood, for the Samoan is not very par- 
ticular in discriminating betv/een the active and passive 
form of the verb : both are promiscuously and arbitrarily 
used by him. Passive forms with an active sense are 
frequently met with, and the reverse. It is, therefore, 
impossible to difierentiate, from a grammatical point of 
view, between an active and passive verb. In the Selec- 
tions FOR Reading at the end of the grammar both moods 
will be found, used in quite a promiscuous fashion. Ex. : 
na tusiafoi e Malietoa 'o ia 'uma, na ia avatuafoi tusi i alii 
^uma, Malietoa wrote down all this, and then sent letters 
to all the Chiefs. Tusia and avatua are both passive 
forms : in the case of tusia it correctly applies, but in that 


of avatua this verb has an active tendency. The subject, 
ia, is in the nominative, and the object, tusi, in the accusa- 
tive : but it could also be rendered na ia avatu tusi, or na 
avatu foi e ia tusi. In this last instance it will be seen 
that tusi is nominative. 'Ua ia avatua tusi i Kovano, he 
sent letters to the Governor. Ia is the subject, and in the 
nominative ; avatua, the predicate, is passive, but employed 
actively ; tusi is the accusative plural. 

The manner in which they are used is quite irregular, 
and proves to be a stumbling-block to the learner when 
first he attempts the translation of Samoan into English 
and uses the corresponding forms of the verb. It is as well 
first to find the object in a sentence, then its case, after 
which it will be the more easily seen which mood of the 
verb is intended. 

These double readings not only occur in the transitive 
verbs, such as strike, hill, etc., but, curiously enough, in the 
intransitive ones as well, which is worthy of note. Ex. : 
^ua talia fo>i 'o ia, he answered. The motive for this 
peculiar construction is, it is thought, to be found less in the 
etymology of the language than in the nature of the 
Samoan. A European who has, in the course of time, 
associated a good deal with a cultured Samoan, was told 
by the latter, with reference to this peculiarity of word- 
construction, that no rule existed to account for it, but that 
it was purely the result of individual inclination on the 
part of native speakers. 

Where an active form of the verb would be used in an 
English sentence the Samoan would rather employ the 
passive one in his speech, particularly if the active were 
likely to give rise to any misconception. In general the 
passive plays a great part in Malayan-Polynesian languages. 
The subject takes the preposition e before it, the verb is in 


its passive or active form, and the object in the nominative. 
Ex, : 'ua ^ai e Tapuitea 'o lona uso e itiiti, Tapuitea ate his 
little brother ; 'ua fasia e i Idtou 'o auauna i pelu, they 
struck the men-servants dead with swords. In the first 
example, 'ai is active, and in the second, fasia is passive. 

If a present action is intended, the present tense with its 
appropriate participle must be used ; and, for an action 
that is past, the imperfect and perfect. Besides these, the 
Samoan has a third form of denoting past action, which 
corresponds to our pluperfect tense, and signiiSLes that an 
action was accomplished at the time that another began. 

The following phrases will serve as an illustration : 
a 'ua mdvae ona . . . ona . . . ; a 'ua 'uma ona . . . 
ona. . . . 

Ex, : a ^ua mdvae ona oti 'o ia, ona . . . , as he was 
dead though, then . . . ; or, a 'ua 'uma ono fai . . . ona 
. . . , as that has been done, then . . . 

Ona, in both sentences, is the adverb which occurs 
most frquently, but there is no word that will exactly 
convey its meaning. It is included once in almost every 
sentence, frequently at the beginning of it (as is the case 
also with the Malayan maha). This word must not be 
confounded with ona, his (see Pronouns). In place of the 
simple perfect, these forms can also be employed : \a 
'uma ona alofa, I have loved ; sa 'on alofa ina 'na, I had 
loved. With regard to the use of the future tense, see 
The Verb. 

The future formed by 'o fe a has also occasionally the 
meaning of shall; otherwise, shall and must should be 
translated by tatau with the following construction : 'o le 
mea lea e le tatau ona fai, this must, or shall, not (be allowed 
to) happen. The actual meaning of tatau is, worthy, 
befitting, therefore the above sentence would properly 


read : to do this is not befitting. Shall can further be 
expressed by matud, very, which should precede the verb 
concerned. Ex. : e te matud avatua lava le tusi ia te ia, 
you shall (are to) give him the book. Must is most easily 
rendered by e ao ina . . . : e ao ina 'ou, I must. 

Similarly, mdfai is construed can, and one could either 
say mdfai ona, or le mdfai ona le. Ex, : 'o ia mdfai ona 
sau, he can come ; or, 'o ia le mdfai ona le sau, he can 
come ; but the latter example obviously could not be used 
in a negative form. Ex. : 'o ia le mdfai ona sau, he cannot 
come. In a similar way, adnata and afua denote begin : 
afua ona, begin from . . . 

Let, leave, allow, leave ofT, etc., are rendered in two 
ways : soia, leave that !,' let that alone ! ; soia e te td, 
leave off fighting ! stop fighting ! Let (viz., allow) would 
be translated tu'u. Let, meaning let someone do a thing, 
is expressed by fai atu. Ex. : 'ua fai atu 'o ia ona Idtou 
ta' ita'i le tagata ia te ia, he let the man be brought to him. 

To send for, summon : ami. 

A few additional peculiarities \vith regard to the verb 
might be mentioned here : 

Fai se tasi ma . . . , somebody to make a thing ; 
valaau ona fesili, loudly demand. Ex. : 'ua tutu i Idtou 
i lefaitotoa 'o valaau ona fesili, they stood at the door and 
loudly demanded . . . 

Liu has the meaning of become, grow, turn (into), 
etc. Ex. : 'ua lui ma' a 'o ia, he was turned into stone. 

Ele aogd ona, it is of no use, it is not necessary. 

Verbs that indicate the " making " of a thing (in the 
event of the object being mentioned) are placed next to the 
object, and, instead of the article, the suitable possessive 
pronoun to indicate the subject is used. Ex. : 'ua faia 
lonafale, he built himself a house. 


The object stands in a dependent case to the predicate, 
and, for the genitive, dative, and accusative, reference 
should be made to the declension of the noun. In Samoan 
the accusative case is in very frequent use, and often does 
service where it would be utterly unsuitable in English. 
The preposition i in reality has a variety of meanings, viz., 
to, towards, on, up, etc., and its use arises out of the 
question ivhere ?, where to ? Ex. : ^ua fai atu 'o ia i 
tufuga, he said to the labourers ; or, \ia o ifo 'o toficga i 
galuega, the labourers came down to work. A further 
example of the frequent use of the accusative in the written 
language is : 'o le tola i le tupuga o Samoa, the history of 
the origin of Samoa ; or, 'o le tola i ali'i ma i o latou nu'u. 

With relation to the question, where, where to, by which, 
through what, with what, when, and such like, the accusative 
is also used. 

If the predicate have a double object, both accusative 
and dative, should the dative be a pronoun it takes its 
place before the accusative ; if not, it comes after. Ex. : 
'ua ^ou aumai ia te 'oe lo\i atalii, I have brought my son 
to you. But : ina aumai ia 'o ia i lefale, brings him into 
the house. This rule, however, is not always strictly 


If there be a suitable noun in Samoan which may be 
used as a substitute for an adjective, this is often done, and 
that mostly when the adjective concerned is in the super- 
lative. Ex. : the man was very just, can be rendered, 
'o le tagata nasili amiotonu ; or by, na sili le amiotonu a le 
tagata, which is, great was the justice of the man. 'J7a 



sill le lalelei ma le matagofie a Sina, the beauty and splendour 
of Sina was great ; i.e., Sina v^as very beautiful and 
splendid. But the beginner would not be likely to use 
such a phrase as this, as it is more appropriate to literature 
than colloquial speech. 

The formation of the adjective was discussed on 
page 6. 

Adjectives can be formed by affixing gofie and gata to a 
word (generally a verb), by which an action that is easy or 
difficult to accomplish is indicated. Ex. : faigata, difficult 
to do ; faigofie, easy to do ; 'o la'au e mauagofie at le afi 'o 
le fuafua ma le fan, the trees, out of those is easy to get 
fire, the " fuafua "-tree and the '' fau." E faigata 'o 
tufuga, the boatmen are difficult to handle (manage). 

For the use of the Pronouns, see page 11. 

The application of the numerals is simple, and has 
already been considered under The Numerals. It would 
be as well to remark, with regard to the '' Multiplication 
Numerals," that those embodying /a'a generally have the 
meaning of "' times." Ex. : fa'atolu, three times ; 
fa'aono, six times. Those with atu, on the other hand, 

signify '' the th time." Ex. : 'o le atu fiiu, the 

seventh time. These distinctions between fa' a and atu are 
not always strictly adhered to, though. 

More than, is rendered by ona tupu. Ex. : to'afagafulu 
ma ona twpu, more than forty. 

The Samoan determination of time is somewhat 
different to that customary in Europe. Ex. : 'o le tausaga, 
the year. But for the four seasons into which it is divided 
the Samoan ha^ no fixed designations. Vaitoelau, summer ; 
vaipalolo, winter (the " palolo-worm " time). Spring and 
autumn he has no knowledge of, most likely for the reason 
that in the equable climate of Samoa the change from one 


season to another is not so apparent as in extreme northern 
and southern latitudes. 

Mdsina, month. The names for each month of the 
year are EngUsh, or rather, as near to the correct pro- 
nunciation of the words as the native tongue is capable of. 
They are : Jamiali, Fepuali, Mali, Ajpelila, Me, Jum\ 
Julai, Aohuso, Setema, Oketopa, Novema, Tesema, 

Aso, day — as distinguished from night — ao. The 
individual days of the week, beginning with Sunday, are : 
asosd, asogafua, asolua, asolulu, asotofi, asofalaile, asoto'onai. 
The last word has the meaning of '* a day on which food is 
prepared beforehand," and originated on account of the 
introduction of this custom among the natives by the 
Wesleyan missionaries, who compelled the Samoans, in 
the early days, to cook all food for consumption on Sunday, 
on the previous day. 

Apia, 'o le aso sefulu ma le fa o Novema, i le tausaga e 
tasi le afe ivagalau ma le lua, Apia, the 14th of November, 
1902. Or, in abbreviated form : Ajpia, le aso 14 Novema 

Ituld or itu aso, hour. These are only used in referring 
to the hours of the day : itujpo, hour of the night. Native 
opinion varies somewhat as to the exact hours that com- 
prise the day and night to which these words individually 
apply, but it may generally be taken that the day com- 
mences at six o'clock in the morning, and night at seven 
in the evening. Ex, : ituld e tasi, one o'clock midday ; 
ituld e ono, six p.m. ; itwpo e fitu, seven p.m., etc. '0 le 
ituld ^ua tau gagaifo le Id, between three and four p.m. — 
literally, when the sun stands low. '0 le va o le lima ma 
le ono, between five and six p.m. ; 'o led au sau va o le i le 
valu ma le iva. I le ituaso (itiild) e sefulu, or, i le itwpo e 
sefulu, at ten o'clock. 


What time is it ? can be rendered in several ways ; 
viz., j)e efia le ituld ? or, pe efia le vainso ? , or, po 'ua la lefia ? 
The first example is the one most generally in use. E vain, 
it is eight o'clock. 

Uati (the native notion of the pronunciation of the 
English word), a watch. '0 le taeao, the morning ; i le 
taeao, in the morning ; 'o le aoaidi, midday, noon ; i le 
aoauli, at noon ; 'o le afiafi, the evening ; i le afiafi, in the 
evening ; 'o le fulua o le ao ma le po, midnight ; 7ianei 2)6, 
this evening ; asonei, to-day : ananafi, yesterday ; vaveao, 
early morning ; anapo, last night ; anapo fa, four days 
ago ; c lud, the day after to-morrow ; 'ua mdvae nisi aso 
ona . . . , after some time. 

Throughout the night would l)e translated in the following 
way : 'ua lagd i Idtou 'ua aoina le p6, they waked the whole 
night through — literally, " it has been the night-day." 

The answer to the interrogation ivhen ? is in the accusa- 
tive case. Ex. : i le fitu o tausaga o le nofoaiga o Malietoa, 
in the seventh year of Malietoa's reign. Now and then, 
however, if a longer duration of time be referred to, the 
genitive is employed. 


Only direct ones are to be found in Samoan, and the 
position of the words does not vary from that of the 
principal sentence. Often the particle ])e (which before o 
becomes po) is introduced into a sentence in which a 
question occurs, and the particle ea, possibly, is never 
omitted. Ex. : 'o ai ea 'oe ?, where art thou ? Otherwise 
no further remarks under this head are needed. 


These are the principal rules applied to Syntax which 
are of any consequence to the student of Samoan, but a 
good deal can be learned by going carefully through the 
Selections for Reading, together with the explanatory 
notes at the foot of each which follow, and will serve to 
facilitate the study of the language. 


'Ua latou fa'amatalaina atu mea 'uma na faia e le 
tamaloa. — 'ua latou nonofo ai i po e tele i Mulinu'u. — 
'ua 5 ifo tagata e toatele mai le manga. — 'ua fa'apotopoto 
'o faipule ma toeaina o le nu'u e filifili ai. — 'ua 'uma 'o le 
upu o le ali'i ona tu mai ai lea le tasi tagata Savaii 'ua fa' 
apea mai : Sena e ! ina fa'alogo ia ia te 'au. — 'ou te lo 
poloai atu ia te 'oe. — 'ua iu ane le tupu i 'ai 'uma. — 'o a'u 
te toe fo'i mai ia te 'outou, pe a 'ou te malolo. — na fetagisi 
tele 'o fanau. — 'ua fai atu le manaia i le alii : " pe e tusa 
ona 'ou te fai atu se upu ia te 'oe ? " — '* 'o lea lava, le alii 
e ! " — na le alu atu le alii i Apia vagana ona fia fa'atau iai 
ni mea. 


In Samoan, punctuation is limited to the comma and 
full-stop, but in these selections additional stops are 
introduced with a view to maldng the text clearer. — 't^a, 
a particle : latou = 'oi latou— fa'amatalaina is passive, with 
an active meaning, iToia fa'amatala, to explain, enlighten, 
make known. — atu (see Compound Verbs, Sec. 5 p. 35) — 
mea hima, all things, all. — na, imperfect particle--/am = 
fai, to make. — e, by, through. — tamaloa, fellow. They 
told him all that the fellow had done. — nonofo, plural of 
nofo. — ai, this is a much used euphonic particle, without 



meaning. — i po e tele, long time. — Mulinu'u, the residence 
of Mataafa, near Apia. — J, plural of alu. — mauga, moun- 
tain.— /a'a^o^o^oto, assemble, collect,— faipule, member of 
the council. — toeaina, the eldest. — nu'u, ^^eo-ple, —filifili, 
to give counsel, advice. — \ta hmia, etc. (see Syntax, 
p. 45). — upu, speech, oration. — tu, stand, rise. — mai, 
euphonic particle. — Savaii, from Savaii.— /a'a^ea, so : . 
foUapea mai, freely translated, is, he said, — Sena e f, my 
friends \—fa'alogo, hear. — poloai, command (by the 
chief). — iu, to go, finish. — iu ane, to go through, pass by. — 
'a^, town. — toe, again, afresh.— /o'^ mai, to return. — pe a, 
when, if. — mdldlo, well, healthy.— /e^a^isi, plural of tagi, 
to weep. — tele, yeTj.—fdnaii, children.— /ai atu, fai mai, 
to say, tell. — mdnaia, the son of a chief : it also means 
beautiful, handsome. — pe e tusa ona, is it allowed . . . ? — 
se, a, an (indefinite article). — 'o lea lava, certain, sure. — alu, 
to go. — vagana ona, except when, unless when.— ^a, to 
wish, to be willing.— /a' a^at^, to buy, sell. — 7ii, some, 


'0 le tagata 'ua ivagafulu ma le iva ona tausaga. — 'ua 
5 a'e i laua i le a'ega o le 'ai 'ua latou fetaiai ma teine, o 
loo o i latou e utu vai. — se a lau mea 'ua faia na ? — 'ua 
fa'alogo le tagata 'ua ma'i lona atalii, ona alu atu ai lea 
'o ia ia te ia. — 'ua tula'i le tama' ita'i, 'ua alu i lona fale. — 
'ua fia'ai le fanau. — 'ua tautala 'o ia i le tagata, 'ua sau 
mai lona tina ma lona uso ia te ia. — 'ua 'outou lagona ea 
nei mea 'uma ? ioe, le alii e ! — 'o mea 'uma 'ua e faimai ia 
te a'u, 'ou te faia lava. — 'o ai ea 'oe ? 'o a'u 'o le foma'i. — 
ta e, se a le mea e te tagi ai ? — se a le mea e te le 'ai ai ? 



'0 le tagata (8ee remarks on verb ''to be " p. 33). — ona, 
plural of the possessive pronoun. — a'ega, rising ground, 
hillock.— fetaiai ma, to meet with, happen. — Idtoit ap- 
pears in the subordinate sentence because more than two 
persons are included in the action. — utii vai, draw water. 
— Se a, w^hat kind of a : lau (possessive pronoun, second 
person). — na (terminal particle in the interrogatory 
sentence). — the e is omitted before /a zV/, the reason for which 
is self-evident.— /r/V/?o/70, to hear. — tulai, rise, get up. — 
iama' itxii, lady. — \La taufala . . . 'ua alu . . . , as he 
spoke . . . then . . . ; the SanK)an has no Uking for 
subordinate sentences. — lagona, understand, conceive. — 
td e !, child ! (vocative). 


Talofa le alii e ! ]>(' e te nialolo ^— 'ou malolo lava, fa'- 
afeta'i lava. — pe e iai ni talo fa'atau ? — 'o le a le tau o le ato 
talo c tasi ? — e lua sefulu ma lima talo lua seleni. — e fia le 
tau o le ili lea l — fa'amolemol(\ se'i au mai tasi le tala ia te 
a'u ! — 'ua 'ou fai atu i le tama : le atalii ea 'oe o ai, se I ona 
tali ai lea 'o ia : 'o 'au 'o le atalii o N.-— 'ua e iloa ea i la'u 
uso ? e leai, sole e ! — e le aoga ona matou tali ia te 'oe i lea 
mea. — 'o le la'au na 'ou vaai, sa tupu tele ma le malosi, 'o 
ona lau 'ua matagofie ma ona fua 'ua tele. — 'ua fai atu le 
alii ona latou ta'ita'i mai ai lea le tagata. — 'ua tulai le 
fafine i le vavea(\ 'ua fa'ataalise atu i le 'auva'a. 


Talofa ^ /(/ aloja, the usual salutation on meeting. — 
faafcia'i, to thank. — talo, " taro " (an edible tuber). — 
faatau, literally, cfaalau, to trade, buy, sell. — tau, price. — 


ato, basket. — seleni, shilling. — Hi, m£it.— fa' amolemole, 
please, if you please. — told, dollar. — o ai (genitive of 'o ai). 
— se, my child ! — sole e !, friend ! — e le aogd ona, it is not 
necessary. — Id'au, tree. — lau, leaves.-— /t^a, a fruit.— /at 
atu ona, order a thing to be done.— fa' ataalise, go quickly. 
— ^auva'a, beach. 


Lo matou tama e ! 'o i le lagi ; ia pai'a lou suafa. ia 
o'o mai lou malo. ia faia lou finagalo i le lalolagi e pei 
ona faia i le lagi. ia e foai mai ia te i matou i le asonei a 
matou mea e 'ai e tatau ma le aso. ia e fa'amagalo ia te 
i matoui a matou agasala, e pei 'o i matou fo'i ona matou 
fa' amagaloina atu i e 'ua agasala mai ia te i matou. 
'aua fo'i e ta'ita'iina i matou i le tofotofoga ; a ia e 
laveai ia te i matou ai le leaga. amene. 


E tatau ma le aso, necessary for the day, daily. — e pei 
'o i matou foi, is a twofold speech and redundant. — 
tofotofoga, trial : the meaning here is temptation.— foH, 
but now ... 


" LE fa'ataoto o le Samarla.." — LuJca x. 30. 

'0 le tasi tagata na alu ifo mai Jerusalema i Jeriko, 
'ua maua 'o ia e tagata fao mea ; 'ua latou to'eseina ona 
'ofu ma fasi ia te ia, 'ua latou 5, 'ua tu'ua ia, 'ua tali oti. 
'ua soona alu ifo le tasi faitaulaga i le ala ; 'ua iloa atu ia 
te ia, ona ui ane ai lea i le tasi itu ala ; 'ua fa'apea fo'i le 
sa Levi, 'ua o'o i lea mea, 'ua alu ane, ma matamata ai ; 


ona ui ane fo'i lea 'o ia i le tavsi itu ala. a 'o le tasi Samaria 
'ua alu lana malaga, 'ua o'o atu i le mea 'o i ai 'o ia, 'ua 
iloa 'o ia, ona mutimuti vale lea 'o lona alofa ; 'ua alu atu 
ma nonoa i ona mami'a, 'ua liligi fo'i i ai le suau'u ma le 
uaina ; ua fa'ati'eti'e ia te ia i lana lava manu, ma ta'ita'i 
ia te ia i le fale talimalo ma tausi ia te ia. 'o le taeao 'o 
lea alu ia, ona to ai lea 'o tenari e lua ma avatu i le matai 
i le fale, 'ua fai atu ia te ia : '' ai se mea e te toe fa'atau ai, 
'ou te taui atu ia te 'oe, pea 'ou te toe sau." 


Fa'ataoto, example, parable. — man, find, meet with. — 
tagata fao mea, robber. — to 'ese, draw, pull out. — tali, to 
be near by : literally, nurse : "he nursed the dying ; he 
v/as near by the dying." — soona, casual, accidental. — ui 
ane, pass by. — itu, side. — 'o le sd, member of a family. — 
'o le sd Levi, one of the family of Levi. — mea, place. — iloa, 
see. — mutimuti vale, to be angry, grieved : then his pity 
was aroused. — alofa, besides *' love," also means *' pity," 
" mercy," " to save," *' spare." — lana lava, his own. — 
'o le a alu ia, he will (wishes to) go. — to, draw, pull. — 
matai, director, manager.— /aZe talimalo, guest-house. — 
toe, the remaining, to a greater distance. — taui atu, com- 
pensate, make amends for. — These selections would give 
the learner more practice with the language if he were to 
retranslate them. 



le tane ma le fafine ; 'o le igoa o le tane, 'o Afimaisa 
'esa'e ; 'o le igoa o le fafine 'o Mutalali ; 'ua f anau la la 
tama 'o Papa'ele. 'o Papa'ele, na ia usu ia ia Papasosolo ; 


f anau le tama 'o Papanofo ; usu Papanofo ia Papatii ; 
fanau le tama 'o Fa tutu. Fatutu, na ia usu ia Ma'at5anoa, 
fanau le tama 'o Tupufiti ; Tupufiti na ia usu ia Mutia, 
fanau le tama Mauutoga ; Mauutoga, na usu ia Sefa ; 
Sefa na usu ia Vaofali ; Vaofali na usu ia Taata, fanau le 
tama 'o Mautofu ; Mautofu, na ia usu ia Tavai, fanau 'o 
Toi ; Toi, na ia usu ia Tuafua, fanau 'o Masame ; Masame, 
na ia usu ia Ma mala, fanau 'o Mamalava ; Mamalava na 
ia usii ia Malilii ; Malilii na ia usu ia Tapuna, fanau 'o 

Ona silasila ifo ai lea 'o Tagaloa a lagi, 'o lea uumi lava 
la' au, ona auina ifo ai lea 'o lana 'au 'auna, e igoa 'o Fue ; 
ona sosolo ai lea 'o le Fue i luga o le la'au, ona toe malou 
ifo ai lea 'o tumutumu o la'au. ona toe auina ifo ai lea 'o 
le tasi 'au 'auna a Tagaloa a lagi, e igoa 'o le Tuli, e asiasi 
ifo. ona alu ai lea 'o le Tuli ia Tagaloaalagi, fai i ai : 
" 'ua lelei le nu'u, a e tasi le pona, a nei e leai ni la'au e 
'aina e tutupu, 'ua mal5 le Fue i lalo." ona fai mai ai 
lea 'o Tagaloa a lagi ; *' sau, ina alu ma le la'au lea e sasa'a 
ai." 'ua alu ifo le Tuli ma le la'au 'ua sasa le Fue ; ona 
pa'u ai lea i le Ele'ele 'ua faupu'e ai. ona alu lea le Tuli 
ia Tagaloa ; 'ua fai atu : " 'ua 'uma ona sasa." ona fai 
atu lea 'o Tagaloa a lagi i le Tuli : '' 'ua lelei, a e alu ia i 
lalo ina toe asiasi." ona alu ifo lea 'o le Tuli 'ua vaavaai 
'ua pala le Fue ; 'ua tutupu ai Ho tetele lava ; 'ua alu a'e 
le Tuli ia Tagaloa 'ua fai atu : '' Alii e ! 'ua pala le Fue, 
'ua tutupu ai mea tetele e gaoioi," ona fai atu lea 'o Tagaloa 
i le Tuli : " ia la o ifo ma le Tiapolo, e igoa 'o Gaio." ona 
fai ai lea e le Tiapolo 'o le Tagata i le Ilo ; 'ua nauamua le 
Ulu ; 'ua fai atu le Tiapolo : *' 'o le Ulu lenei " ; 'ua fai 
mai le Tuli : '' ia ta'u ai lo'u igoa." 'o le mea lea 'ua ta'ua 
ai : 'o le tuli Ulu, le isi fasi Ulu. 'ua fai atu le Tiapolo : 
'' 'o le manava lenei " : 'ua fai atu le Tuli : " ia ta'u ai 


lo'u igoa." 'o lea 'ua ta'u ai itu manava : 'o tuli manava. 
'ua fai lima ; 'ua fai atu le TulI : '' ia ta'u lo'u igoa." 'o le 
a na igoa ai gauga lima : 'o tulilima. 'ua fai vac ; 'ua fai 
atu le Tuli : " ia ta'u lo'u igoa." 'o lea 'ua ta'u ai ai gauga 
vae : 'o tulivae. 


iupuga, origin, um.—Jdnau, to be born. — la Id ^ la 
Idua. — ia =^ 'o ia. — usa, join, unite oneself with. — 
Tagaloaalagi, creator, author. — umi, be \oi\g.—fue, a 
creeper. — sosolo, climb, creep. — malou, bow down, bend 
down.— /ai, say. — 'pond, mistake, fault. — maid, rule, govern. 
— la'au, (here) log, trunk. — -sasaa, stiikc—faupu'e, make 
a heap, pile. — telcle (see The Adjective). — gaoioi, (here) 
move to and fro. — Tiapolo, devil. — i le Ilo, from the Ilo. — 
'o le mca . . . therefore . . . — le isi jdsi, a piece. — itu, 
side. — gauga, ]omt.— tulilima, elbow. 


The Eire-rubbing 

le niasani o Samoa mai le vavau e leai ni a latou 
afitusi po'o ni afi til e tusa ma afi 'aa masani ai alii 
papalagi. a 'o afi e masani Samoa e si'aina i 'o latou lima ; 
'o le tasi la'au e pito i lalo i le 'ele 'ele e ta'ua ia : 'o le si'aga, 
a 'o le la'au pu'upu'u e u'u i lima e lua o le tagata e ta'ua 
'o le gatu. 'a si'aina le si'aga i le gatu, ona ola mai ai lea 
'o le afi i le penu o le la'au, aua e malulu le penu. 'o le 
la'au, pe a si'aina i le gatu, e tusa i le malu o le falaoa ; 
'o le mea lea 'ua olagofie ai le afi. 'afai 'ua vaai ifo le 
tagata 'ua te si'aina le afi, 'ua uliuli le si'aga ma 'ua pusa 


tele mai, 'ua mu le penu o le afi, ona fai atu ai lea 'o le 
tasi : *' s5ia, 'ua tu le afi." e faia lava 'o le si'aga ma le 
gatu i le la'au lava e tasi. 'a e le avanea se gatu o se isi 
la'au e si'a ai le si'aga o le isi la'au, e le maua ai se afi. 'ua 
iai ni isi la'au seiloga e mago i le la. ona fa'atoa maua ai 
lea 'o le afi, pea si'a. 'a 'ua i ai ni isi la'au i le mauga e 
mafai lava ona maua ai 'o le afi, 'a 'o mata e le fa'alaina ; 
'ua iai ni isi la'au e le aoga e le maua ai se afi. 'o la'au e 
mauagofie ai le afi 'o le fuafua ma le fau. 'o la'au ia e 
malu o laua aano e mafai lava e teine ma fafine ona si'a 
ai 'o a latou afi. 'a 'ua i ai fo'i ni isi la'au e si'agata seiloga 
'o ni tane ona maua lea 'o le afi pea si'a ; e ma'a'a 'o latou 


Mai le vavau, from the remotest times. — afitd, stone-fire 
appliance. — si'a, to rub. — ^ito, put, lie. — ^penic, dry wood- 
dust. — malulu, loose, spongy. — malu, loose, spongy. — tu 
means here, burn (it is there !). — lava e tasi, a single. — 
avane, take. — seiloga, so much as only.—mago, dry. — 
fa'ato'a, first. — 'o mata e le, it need not, it does not.— /a' 
aldina, shone upon by the sun. — aogd, -pTofit.—fuafua 
and fau are trees. 


The Aitu (Spirit) Moaula in Matautu sa 

le aitu sa tapua'i i ai Apia ma Matautu. 'o lona igoa 
'o Moaula ; 'o le mea sa tu ai le la'au 'o le pu'a na i ai nei 
le fale o le fa' amasino peletania. 'o le mea 'ua ala ai 'o 
le fa'aigoaina 'o Matautu sa : 'afai e alu atu se tagata 
Apia e alu i Lelepa ona togi atu lea 'o se niu po 'o se isi mea 
i gauta i lalo o le pu'a ma fai atu lana upu e fa'apea : " se'i 


inuamua atu le mea lea i Matautu sa." 'a fa'apea e alu 
atu se malaga e sopoia atu Matautu ona muamua lea ona 
momoli a'e 'o le oso ia Moaula. ona ava'e lea i le aitu, o 
ta'ua lea ato 'o le oso sa. 'a e 'afai e le ai se oso e muamua 
a'e ia Moaula, e fasia lea tagata ia oti e le Saualii/a le 'o lea, 
e mulimuli pea 'o le saualii i la latou malaga ma fetogi ia 
te i latou i ma'a, se'ia tu'uina mai lava e i latou 'o se mea. 
ona fa'ato'a te'a lea ma i latou 'o le sauali'i. Sa tu le 
la'au i lumafale o le fale o le isi tulafale Matautu e igoa 'o 
Feagaimaalii. 'a 'ua le maua i ona po nei se tala, pe sa 'ai 
e Feagaimaalii ni mea o taulaga, sa ave ia Moaula. sa 
ta'ua lava Matautu sa 'o le malumalu o Moaula. 


'0 le mea 'ua ala here means : v/hat grounds, etc., for 
what cause ? — ala, originate, result. — pu'a, a tree. — 7^e^, 
now. — i gauta = i uta, inland. — se'i (optative). — moli, 
here : render, offer up. — Saualii, God : respectful expres- 
sion used to the " Aitu." — te'a ma, leave, abandon. — i 
lumafale, before, in front of. — 'o le isi, a certain. 



le tala i tapui. sa masani Samoa i le faasaina 'o mea 
e loto i ai tagata i tapui. e fai lava le tapui a le aiga i lo 
latou lava aitu. e fai foi le tapui a le taulasea i ana lava 
vai e uiga i ma'i e mafai e ia ona f5f o. e masani le nu'u 
'o Aana i le tapui faititili, aua sa tapua'i i latou i le 
faititili. 'afai 'o se tagata 'ua ia ave se mea i le fanua 'ua 


'uma ona tapuia i le tapui faititili, 'o le a malaia lava 'o ia 
pe tola i se faititili pe toia 'o latou fanua po 'o latou fale 
i se faititili. 'afai e toia se tagata i se faititili po 'o so latou 
fanua, ona iloa ai lea 'o le tagata lava lea, 'ua ana 'ai le 
tapui pe ave se mea i le fanua 'ua tapui i le tapui faititili. 
'o le tasi tapui e ta'ua ia 'o le tapui a'u, 'ua fili le launiu ma 
'ua fa'aumiumi le isi pito e tusa ma le gutu o le a'u. 'afai 
e ave 'o se tasi se mea i lena fanua pe na te 'ai se niu, ona 
alu ai lea 'o ia e fagota, ona oso mai lea 'o le a'u ma tu'i 
ia te ia. 'a le 'o lea, 'afai fai galuega 'o ia i le vao pe ta 
la'au po 'o isi lava mea e mafai lava, ona fiti mai 'o se fasi 
la'au i lona mata. ona iloa ai lea 'o le tagata lea 'ua ana 
ave ni mea mai le fanua, 'ua i ai le tapui a'u. 'ua masani 
foi 'o tagata taulasea e masani i latou ma ma'i 'ese'ese e 
aoga ia latou vai, ona latou fai ai lea 'o se tasi afifi laitiiti 
i se fasi siapo. ona fa'atautauina lea ona afifi i le fanua 'o 
le a fa'asaina. ma 'ua ta'u atu fo'i i le tapui le igoa o le 
mai po o le puga (tute) po o le lasomimi po o se isi lava ma'i. 
'a e 'afai e alu ane se tagata ma ia ave se mea o lena fanua 
'ua fa'asaina, e tupu lava ia te ia le ma'i e tusa ma le upu 
'ua ta'uina e le taulasea i le tapui. 


Fa'asd, sanctify, hallow.—/, i. tapui, the tabu covered 
with hangings. — loto, wish, desire. — taulasea, medicine- 
man. — e uiga, with respect to. — toia, met with. — 'ua ana 
'ai , . . , that his food . . . : that he has eaten. — 
Tapui a'u, the a'utabu : a'u is a fish.— j^K, twist, plait. — 
launiu, cocoanut leaf.— e mafai lava, it is possible.— ^^i, 
to spring. — afifi, bundle, package. — pupa, tute, lasomimi are 



How Truth will out 

le tasi tu sa masani ai Samoa i aso o le vavau 'Afai 
'o se mea 'ua saili, 'a 'ua tupu ai se fefinauaiga a se toalua, 
ona au mai ai lea 'o le popo 'ua fa'atu i luga o le fala e u i 
lalo le muli, 'a e u i luga le mata. ona fa'apea lea 'o le 
upu. 'o le a vili nei le popo ; 'afai e u atu ia te oe le 
mata ia, e te fa'afiti fua/ a e te pepelo 'o 'oe lava, 'afai 
fo'i e u mai ia te 'au le mata, 'ou te fa'afiti fua fo'i au, 'a 
e 'ou te pepelo. o le tasi fo'i lea mea sa fa'aiu ai finauga 
a Samoa. 

le tasi fo'i mea e fa'aiu ai finauga mafa'amaoni ai 
tala, e masani ai fo'i Samoa, 'afai e finau, pea 'ua le iloa 
se fa'amaoni, ona fesili atu lea 'o le tasi i le tasi : " pe 
'aina 'oe e ai e te fa'amaoni i fea ? " ona ta'u atu lava lea 
e ia 'o le aitu sili lona mana na te 'aina ma ta'u atu fo'i le 
aitu o lo latou aiga e fa'amaoni i ai. Ona iu ai lea 'o lea 
finauga. 'A 'o ona po nei 'afai e fai atu se tasi : *' e 'aina 
'oe e ai ? " — '' e 'aina 'au e Siova." — '' e te fa'amaoni i 
fea ? " — " 'ou te fa'amaoni ia Jesu." 


Fefinauaiga, fight, contest.— fa'atu, put down, put 
straight.— /afo, mat. — u, point out, indicate. — muli, end. — 
mata, eyes of the cocoanut. — vili, bore, dTilh— fa'afiti, 
deny, disown.— fa'amaoni, prove, verify. — e ai, by whom. — 
mana, strength, might. — Siova = Jehova. 



Ua masani Samoa i po o le vavau i le tauto. 'afai 'o 
se mea 'ua gaoiia, ona fa' apotopoto lea 'o alii ma faipule 
o lea nu'u e fai la latou fono tauto, 'o po o le vavau e tofu 


lava le aiga ma lo latou aitu e atua i ai. 'o isi 'ua fai mo 
latou atua 'o i'a i le sami, 'o isi aiga e fai mo latou atua 'o 
manu felelei. 'ua potopoto alii ma tulafale, ona au mai 
ai lea 'o le tanoa e fai ai 'ava. 'ua tu'u i luma o le fono, 
ona tofu ai lea 'o le tagata ma lana fa'apona e ave atu i le 
tanoa. ona mama ai lea 'o le 'ava 'ua palu fa'atasi fo'i 
le 'ava ma le fa'apona. ona tufa ai lea 'o le 'ava 'a au mai 
le 'ava a le tagata ; ona 'uma lea 'o lana tapuaiga e fa'apea 
lana upu : ** 'o le ava taumafa lea ia e mana fa'aali le 'ua 
gaoi le mea." 

Ona tu'ua ai lea 'o le aai i o latou aiga ma 'ua fa'ala- 
gologo i lo latou nu'u, po 'o ai e oti. 'afai 'o se tasi o lo 
latou nu'u 'ua 'ai e se i'a o le sami pe oti i le sami, ona iloa 
lea 'ua mana le atua o lea aiga. 'afai 'o se tasi e utia i se 
manu i le vao pe pa'u pe manu'a pe oti pe toia i se la'au, 
ona iloa lea 'ua mana le atua o ia aiga. 


Fa'asamoa, Samoan : all proper names of countries 
and peoples use fa' a in their adjectival form. — afai 'o se 
mea 'uaga'oiia ; this is wrongly constructed, and should be 
afai 'ua gadiia se mea. — 'o le tagata here means each, every 
—fa'apona is a piece of string, or thin cord, in which a knot 
is made. — mua, previously. — tapuaiga, prayer, oath. — 
'ava taumafa, ceremonial kava-drinking. — mana, strength, 
to have strength. — utia (see Passive Verbs), u, to bite, 
sting. — pe, or. — to, slay. 


Some Crimes and their Punishments 


Sa le masani tele Samoa i po o le vavau i le gaoi, aua 'o 
se upu e masiasi ai e fai fo'i mo ona luma e o'o fo'i lea luma 


i lana fanau. sa le masani Samoa i le gaoi o mea i totonu 
o fale ; a 'o mea e tau gaoia ai tagata : 'o 'ulu ma fa'i ma 
talo ma pua'a. sa fa'asalaina lava tagata gaoi i sala e 
masani ai Samoa : 'o talo ma afi ; 'o isi sala e selau afi ma 
talo e lua selau ; 'o isi sala e selau talo ma se pua'a ; 'o 
isi sala e noanoa vae ma lima (o le tagata gaoi) pei 'o le 
pua'a ma fa'ataatia i le la i lumafale ; 'o isi sala 'o le vele 
ala pe 'eli ala ; 'a e matua fa' alumaina ma le 'inosia le 
tagata gaoi. 


E taui le oti i le oti, e le fa'atali sei maua le na ia fasioti 
le tagata. 'a e tau lava 'o se vave maua e le aiga e o 'latou 
le tagata ua oti, po 'o le uso po 'o le matai o le aiga po 'o 
so ona atalii e sui a'i le 'ua oti. 'a 'ua i ai se togafiti e 
mafai ai ona ola 'o le sala : 'o le ifoga e alu i le aiga po 'o 
le itu malo e o latou le tagata 'ua oti, e ave le pagota ma 
fa'apulou i le 'ie toga ; e ta'ua lea ie " 'o le 'ie o le malo." 
e mafai lava ona ola le pagota e sa'oloto fo'i 'o ia i mea 
'uma e fealua'i ai 'o ia. 

'Ua i ai ni isi sala e fa'asalaina ai pagota, e ta'ua lea 
sala. " 'o le sala mamafa 'o le u teve." 'o le teve 'o le 
la'au e tupu i le vao e malulu lona tino e tele lona fe'u 'afai 
e u i nifo 'o le tagata e matua tigaina tele 'o ia i le masina 
'atoa, aua 'ua fulafula ona tainifo ma le laulaufaiva ma 
ona laugutu, e le mafai ona 'ai 'o ia pe inu i vaiasosa e 
tele, 'o isi e ola, 'o isi e tupu ai 'o latou ma'i ma oti ai, 
aua 'o le sala lea e mamafa lava. 


le tu ma le masani i Samoa i po o le vavau 'ua matua 
sa lava 'o le pisa o tagata po 'o le pa'o o se mea i le afiafi ina 


'ua latalata i le faofaie 'o tagafei e o'o lava i le faia 'o 
taligasua. 'afai 'o se aiga 'ua 'uma ona faia a latou 
taligasua ma 'ua inu a latou niu ma ta'e a latou aano, 'a 'o 
le'i ta'e mai se niu mai i le sua a le alii, e fa'asalaina lava 
i latou i le fasia e le aiga o le alii ma veteina fo'i a latou 
mea ma fasi foi a latou pua'a, aua 'o le amio fa'alemigao 
'ua faia e i latou 'o le fa 'a iloga lea o lo latou fiasili. 

Afai fo'i 'o se tagata 'ua alu i le malae ma fa'amalu ni 
ta'ulu la'au po 'o se launiu, 'a le tu'ua i lalo e ta'ita'i, 'o 
le fa'alemigao lea e fasia foi 'o ia. 

Afai fo'i 'o se tagata 'ua alu ma sana avega po 'o se 
to'i e amo i lona ua i le malae po 'o lumafale o le aai po 'o 
lumafale o se alii, e fai atu lava 'o le alii o lea nu'u i o latou 
taulelea : ia o atu e fasi ia te ia ia foafoa ma gaugau. 

Afai 'o se tagata e tautala tu i luma o alii ma tulafale 
i totonu o se fale, 'o le fa'alemigao lea, e tosoina 'o ia i 
lafo e ni taulelea ma fasi ia te ia ma tuli 'ese, 'aua le toe nofo 
mai i le mea o potopoto ai le nu'u. 

Afai fo'i 'o se tagata e inu tu i totonu o se fale, 'o le 
fa'alemigao lea e faia lava e pei 'o le upu i luga. 


Aua se upu e mdsiasi, one would have been ashamed 
to utter the word. — luma, shame, disgrace. — tau, only. — 
afi, bunch of dried Ush.—fa'ataaiia, is spread ; here means, 
put down. — vele ala, clear a path of weeds (considered hard 
]ahoui).—fa'aluma, to bring disgrace upon : make con- 

Le na ia . , . which . . . a e tau lava, but . . . — le 
aiga e o latou le tagata ^ua oti . . . , " the family of yours 
of the dead " ; meaning, those to whom the dead belong. 
— ifoga, intercession. — itumalo, district, region. — pagota, 


criminal, guilty one.— fa' apulou, adorn the head. — saoloto, 
unmolested. — u, to sting. — teve, teve-plant. — 'o le u 
teve, the sting, prick of the teve-root. — malulu = malu. — 
tainifo, the gums. — laugutu, the lip. 

Fa'alemigao, disregard, offence, blow to one's self- 
esteem.— /a' ami^ao, reverence, veneration. — fisd, to make 
a noise by shouting, screaming, etc. ; pa'o, to make a noise 
by beating, knocking, etc.—faofale, to call the time when 
all people shall go to their houses to sleep. — taligasua, 
evening meal. — ta'e, break open cocoa nuts. — aano, meat. — 
sua, evening meal (Chief - word). —j^a5i7i, pride, haughtiness. 

Ta'ulula'au, a hewn-ofi branch of the bread-fruit tree. — 
Iduniu, leaf of the cocoa-palm. — tu'u, take down. 

Toi, axe. — ua, neck, throat ; also the part of the 
shoulder on which a load rests when carried.— /oq/ba, beat 
holes in the head. — gaugau, beat, break to pieces ; here 
means, to cripple by blows. 

Tu, to stand ; here, standing. — toso, draw out, turn 


SiNA, THE Name of the Moon 

le tama'ita'i 'o Sina ; 'o le tama'ita'i Falealupo ; 
na nof otane ia le Tuiouea ; ona maua ai lea 'o le auamanu ; 
'o le auamanu 'o le igoa o le pa ; ona toe f o'i mai lea i 
Samoa 'o Sina ma ona tuagane e to'atolu 'o Faumea ma 
La'ulu ma Aaufa'ae'e ; 'ua latou fe'ausi mai. 'ua latou 
5 mai, ona oti ai lea 'o Faumea e lata i Uea, " 'o le mea lea 
'ua igoa ai le aau e lata i Uea," 'o Faumea." 'ua fe'ausi 
mai pea le malaga ma agi la latou pese e fa'apea : 

Sina e, tagi, 'au'au mai, 
'o Puava ia, 'ua tii'u mai 
a mea taunuu i ai. 


'Ua oti La'ulu ; 'o le mea lea 'ua igoa ai le aau e lata 
mai i Falealupo, " 'o La'ulu." 'Ua fe'ausi mai pea le 
malaga ; ona taunuu mai lea 'o Sina ; a 'o Aaufa 'ae'e 'ua 
oti i gatai i le matafaga ; 'o le mea lea 'ua igoa ai le aau e 
lata i le fafa " 'o Aaufa 'ae'e." 'Ua o'o mai Sina i uta ; 
ona fanau ai lea 'o le tama 'o Tautunu. 'Ua faiava 
Tautunu ; ona 5 ai lea 'o Sina ma Tautunu i Palauli. 'a 
'ua fai atu Sina i atu e sola ia i tai ; ona maliu ai lea 'o 
Sina i Palauli, 'ua alu i le masina. 'a 'o le tufaaga o lana 
tama 'o le potopoto atu, 'ua momoli a'e lava i le tu'u i luga 
o le ma'a o le vai i Vailoa ; 'a e alu le atu ia ; 'ua alu Sina 
i le masina, 'ua nofo ai ma Faga ma Leu ; 'o le mea lea 
'ua ta'ua ai le masina, pea 'atoa, '' 'o le punifaga." 'Ua 
sau Leu, sa tafao. ('ua ta'ua le masina o le punifaga) ona 
fai atu lea 'o Leu ia Sina, se'i ta'u lona igoa. Ona fa'aigoa 
ai lea 'o le masina, pea vaea se itu laitiiti. " 'Ua tafaleu 
le masina." 'Ua iu le tala. 


Nofotane, marry (of a woman ) ; faiava, marry (of a 
man). — Tuioueva, king of Ueva. — auamanu, lucky fish- 
hook, mascot. — "pa'h.ook.—fe^usi (plural of 'au), 
swim. — aau, reef, clifE. — lagi = pese, — 'au 'an = 'au, — 
taunuu, fill, attain. — The verse, literally translated, reads : 
** Sina, weep, swim, there is Puava (a point of land near 
Falealugo), which (before us) lies, the place to come to." — 
* gatai, seawards, out to sea. — atu, bonito (fish). — tufaaga, 
share, portion. — 'o le potopoto atu, a piece of bonito. — 
i le, and then. 


Vave, the War-Spirit 
le tasi aitu, sa taofi Matautu, 'ia na te iloa lelei mea 
'uma e aoga e manuia ai ma malolosi ai i taua. E ta'ua 


ia 'o le aitu tau ; 'o Vave 'o le igoa lea o le aitu. 'a 'o 
lona tino mai 'o le manuali'i, e pei 'o le leo fo'i o le manualii 
pea tagi mai 'o ia. 

E fa'apea : 'afai 'ua alu Matauto i le taua, 'afai e lele 
atu le manualii i luma o 'au ma tagi ma toe fo'i mai ma toe 
fo'i atu, ona fiafia ai lea 'o 'au a le Matautu, aua 'o le a 
manumalo ; 'a e 'afai e lele atu le manu i tua 'o 'au ma 'ua 
le toe fo'i mai, ona tupu ai lea 'o le fefe o 'au ma leatuatuvale 
e vaivai fo'i i latou, aua e iloa 'uma e tagata lona tino ma 
lona tagi mai. 


Iloa lelei — Tnatud iloa. — manuaWi is the name of the 
Aitu who takes the form of a bird. 

It is advised that the words appearing in these notes 
should be learned by heart, after which it would be good 
practice for the student to translate back again into Samoan 
the pieces he has already put into English. 

These selections from No. VI. onwards are taken from 
'' A Collection of Samoan Texts," which was translated 
into German, with native Samoan assistance, and published 
in Berlin. 



le tasi aso 'ua afio atu se tupu ma lona alo i le 
tuligamanu. 'Ua tele le vevela, 'o le mea lea sa tu'u ai e 
i laua 'o laua 'ofu i luga o le tua o le tagata fa'aaluma. 
" 'ua fetalai atu le tupu ia te ia : 'ua ia te 'oe le avega e 
tatau mo le asini i ou luga." Ona tali ai lea le tagata 
fa'aaluma : '' La'u afioga e ! e leai, 'a 'ua ia te a'u le avega 
o asini e lua ! " 



Vevela, heat. — tu'u, lay, put. — tua, back. — tagata, 
fa'aaluma, fool, buffoon. — avega e tatau, load, burden for 
. . . — afioga, grandeur. 



'0 le tasi aso 'ua fetaia'i a'oa' o e toatolu ma se tagata 
Jutaia e fia ula i ai. 'Ua alu ane le tasi i ona luma ma fai 
atu ia te ia : " Talofa, lo'u tama Aperaamo ! " Ona alu ai 
lea 'o ia. Ona alu ai lea le isi i ona luma ma 'ua fa'apea : 
" Talofa, lo'u tama Isaako ! " Mulimuli ane 'ua alu ane 
i ona luma 'o lona to 'atolu ma ia upu : " Talofa, lo'u 
tama Jakopo ! " 'Ua 'uma ona 5 ane 'o i latou 'uma le 
to 'atolu, ona liliu lea le tagata Jutaia ma fai atu ia te i 
latou : " '0 a'u e le 'o Aperamo po 'o Isaako po 'o Jakopo, 
'a 'o a'u Saulo le atalii o Kiso sa alu e saili ai asini a lona 
tama ; fa'auta 'ua 'ou maua i latou." 


A!od!o liere means student. — 'ula, make a joke. — % ai, 
with him. — i ona luma (see Prepositions). — 'o lona to 
'atolu, the third from him. — ma ia upu, with these words. — 
Kiso, Kish (Biblical name) : Saul's father. — asini, ass. 




Na fepauti fa'atasi le luko ma le tama'i mamo'e i le 
vaitafe la te fia inu. E i gauta le luko, e i gatai le tama'i 


mamo'e. 'Ua fai atu le luko i le tama'i mamo'e : ** 'Ua 
e fa'agaepu ea le vai 'ou te le mafai ona inu ai ? " 'Ua 
tali atu le tama'i mamo'e ma le fefe ma le tetemu : " Le 
alii e, e leai lava ; silasila ia 'ua sau le tafe mai ia te 'oe ; 
pe alu atu fa'apef ea le palapala mai lenei mea aua e tafea 
i tai ? " 'Ua tali mai le luko : *' e ui ina mea e leaga 'oe, 
'ua e tuaupua a'u i lela tausaga." Ona tali atu lea le 
tama'i mamo'e : " le alii e, 'ua fa'atoa fanaua a'u i le 
tausaga nei." Ona ita ai lea 'o le luko 'ua lilivau ona nifo 
'ua fai mai : '' a le 'o 'oe. 'A'o lou tama ! " Ona oso lea 
'o ia i le tama'i mamo'e 'ua na saeia. 


Luko, wolf. — tama'i mamo'e, lamh.— fejpauti fa' atasi, to 
meet with someone. — i gauta, inland. — i gatai, down- 
stream.— /a'a^ae^w, to make muddy, thick. — ea (see 
last paragraph but one in Syntax). — tetemu, tremble, 
shiver. — e leai lava, by no means. — palapala, mud. — e ui 
ina . . . , for all that . . . — tuaupu, to s\a.ndei,— fa'atoa, 
first. — oso, attack. — saeia, to tear. 



Sa fai le finauga a le la ma le matagi po 'o ai so laua 
e sili ona malosi. 'Ua alu ane le tasi tamaloa 'ua pulupulu 
'o ia i le 'ofu fa 'aua. Ona fa'apea ai lea i laua : '' 'o le 
tamaloa lena e iloa ai so laua e sili ; ai mafai ona ia to 'ese 
lona ofu fa'aua e so laua, 'ua malo ia." Ona agi lea le 
matagi tetele, 'ua to mai fo'i timuga, 'ua atili ai ona fa- 
'amau lona 'ofu. 'Ua tu'u faiaina le matagi. Ona matafi 
ai lea 'o le ao uliuli 'ua mugala. 'Ua fa'alogo le tamaloa 
'ua vevela ona to lea e ia lona ofu fa'aua. 'Ua malo le la. 



/ Finauga, fight, contest. — pulupulu, wrap up. — 'o/u 
fa'aua, waterproof coat. — to 'ese, to draw, pull out. — maid, 
to remain victor. — tetele implies here, tele lava : this form 
of wording often occurs. — to mai, fall down. — timitga, 
shower of isim.— fa' amau, hold on,-— faiaina, conquered. — 
matafi, seek diversion, go separately. — mitgdld, sunshine 
(translated freely, " burn of the sun '').—fa'alogo, perceive, 



'0 le tama sa leoleo mamo'e. 'ua alaga 'o ia : ** 'Ua sau 
le luko ! " Ona taufetuli atu lea 'o tagata e fasi le manu 
fe'ai. 'Ua o'o i ai ona 'ata'ata ai lea 'o le tama 'ua fai 
mai : " 'Ua leai se luko, 'o la'u mea ula." 'Ua fa'apea 
soo 'o ia : ona iu lea ina latou le toe usiusita'i i lona valaau 
ia i latou. 'Ua o'o i le tasi aso ona sau moni lea le luko. 
'Ua uio le tama 'a e leai se tasi na alu i ai, aua 'ua fa'apea 
'o tagata : " 'o lana mea ula, 'a e leai se luko. Ona 'aiina 
lea 'o mamoe e le luko." 


Leoleo, guard, watch over. — taufetuli (see Irregular 
Verbs). — 'ata'ata, laugh at. — mea ula, joke. — so'o, often. — 
ona iu lea ina, so it came about that . . . , at last . . . 
— ia i ldtou=ia te i latou. — uio, cry, call out. — 'ai, devour. 




'0 le aeto 'o se manu poto lea. '0 lona poto 'ua ia lele 
ai i mea maualuluga e i ai papa ma mauga ma mea e lata 
i le tofe e fai ai lona ofaga e tu'u ai ona fua ma tausi ai 
lana toloai ina ia sa'o. A e ui ina poto le aeto i le tausiga 
o ana tama, 'ua poto foi le gata 'ua ia saili lava seia maua 
le mea e moe ai le aeto ma lana toloai. I le 'ua maua i le 
gata le ofaga o le aeto 'ua ia taumafai ina ia maua 'o tama'i 
manu, 'a e le mafai ona totolo i le papa e tu sa'o. '0 lea 
'ua fai ai e le gata se isi o ana togafiti. 'Ua saili i le mea e 
agi mai le matagi ona alu lea i ai ma nofo ai, 'ua ia ma 
nava atu ai le savili leaga e o'o ai i le ofaga 'o i ai tama'i 
manu, ona mamate ai lea. '0 le tu o le aeto, a mate se 
tama'i manu, ona tu'u 'ese lea i tua e pa'u ai i le tofe. 
'0 le gata 'o le a 'aina lea tama'i manu 'ua mate. Mulimuli 
ane 'ua iloa e le aeto 'ua leaga le ofaga ona 'o le savili leaga 
na manava mai e le gata, e mata 'o le a mamate ai lana 
toloai. Ona ia alu lea ma aumaia le tasi ma'a vaivai, 'ua 
ta'ua 'o se ma'a vaila 'au, 'ua tu'u i le ofaga, ina ia manava 
ai ia tama'i manu. 'Ua aoga lea ma'a vaila 'au 'ua malolosi 
ai pea ia tama'i manu, e le afaina ai i togafiti a le gata. 


Aeto, eagle. — 'o lona poto, on account of his prudence ; 
similar to 'o le mea, because of these things, therefore 
'o lona ma'i, because of his sickness, etc. These turns of 
speech should be noted. — papa, rock, crog. — tofe, precipice. 
— ofaga, nest.— fua, egg. — toloai, brood, batch. — sa'o, 
healthy, sound. — tausiga, care, fostering. — seia, until, to. — 
totolo, creep, crawl. — savili, breeze, air. — mate, to die 


(in referring to animals). — tu, custom, habit. — jna'a, 
stone. — ma^a vaila'au, medicine-stone. 



Sa i ai i le tasi fafine Initia ni ana tama to 'alua, sa tauaso 
le to 'atasi. '0 le fafine fa'apaupau lava 'o ia, 'ua na le 
iloa le tala i le alofa o le Atua. 'Ua tupu le puapuaga i 
lona aiga, ona fa'apea lea 'o ia : e lelei ina fa'alaulelei le 
finagalo o lona atua i se taulaga e avatu ia te ia. I le 'ua 
o le fafine ma ana tama i le vaitafe 'ua fa'apai'aina mo 
atua, 'ua ia tago i lana tama 'ua le pona ma ua lafo ia te 
ia i le vai, 'ua 'aina le tama e Korokotaila sa i ai. Ona 
manatu ifo lea 'o le fafine 'ua talia e lona atua lana taulaga. 
'Ua fesili atu le tasi ia te ia : po 'o lea le mea 'ua ala ai ina 
avatua lana tama 'ua le pona ? Ana fia fai taulaga i lona 
atua, po'ua lelei ina tu'u atu pea le tama tauaso, aua 
e fa'aleaoga lea tama, 'a e fa'asa'o pea le isi tama. Ona 
tali mai lea le fafine 'ua fa'apea : " e leai, a 'ou fai taulaga 
i I'ou atua, 'ou te avatu pea ia te ia le mea 'ua sili ona lelei 
ia te a'u, e le aoga ona ave se mea 'ua pona. 


Fiafia, rejoice, cheer. — Initia, IndisLU,— -fa'apaupau, 
hes>then.— fa' alauklei, soothe (with kind words), get on 
well together, reconcile.— /a'apai'a, consecrate. — mo atua 
(dative ; which is seldom used in Samoan, most verbs 
governing the accusative case). — 'ua lepond, without fault. 
— Jcorokotaila, crocodile. — manatu ifo, think about oneself. 
— po'o . . . ala ai ina . . . , how is it that ? . . . — 
ana . . . (see Ovtatiye),— fa'aleaoga, bring no profit, 




sina tala i la matou malaga ma lo'u matai 'o Misi 
Seneka. '0 le malaga e alu i le tuasivi o lenei atu mauga, 
ma le fia iloa 'o nu'u i ai i lenei atu mauga ma le uiga o 
tagata ; 'o le aso 3 Julai na amata ai le malaga, 'ua amata 
le malaga i le mea e igoa ia Kalaikoro i luga o le mauga i 
gauta o Kapakapa. E tusa ma maila e 26 le va ma le 
aami. 'Ua amata ona savali la matou malaga i le itula e 
6 i le taeao, 'ua matou sopoia le atu mauga ; 'ua o'o i le 
afiafi, 'ua lata ona goto le la, 'ua matou maua nu'u e 2, 
'o Kaikeve le tasi, 'o Ukakolo e pito i uta ; i le 'ua moe ai 
la matou malaga ; 'ua fiafia tele i latou, 'ua la'u mai mea 
taumafa e tele, 'ua la'u mai ma fafie ma vai ; 'ua 'ofu 'o 
latou 'ofu ma fai 'o latou lavalava, 'ua pei se lotu a fai ; 
'ua mata alolofa.i latou. 'Ua goto le la 'ua matou fa'apoto- 
potoina i latou 'o lea fai le lotu. 'Ua vave ona oso mai i 
latou 'ua fiafia i lotu, 'ua taitasi ma fa'alologo 'ua pei lava 
ni tagata malamalama. 'Ua malama le taeao ua alu pea 
le malaga, 'ua alu tonu lava i le tuasivi pito maualuga e 
mama'o i uta ; 'ua matua faigata ala ; 'ua sopo i luga i 
tumutumu o mauga ma toe fa'aifo i lalo i vanu, 'ua na 'o 
le a'e mauga ma ifo vanu. 'Ua lata ona goto le la, 'ua 
matou le mapu, 'ua leai sina mal5lo ; 'ua savali lava seia 
taigoto le la, 'ua maua le tasi nu'u e fa fai 'aai, 'ua igoa ia 
Tulumu. 'Ua moe ai le malaga, 'ua fiafia tele ai i latou 
e pei ona faia e le nu'u 'ua matou lua'i moe ai ananafi. 
'Ua lata i le po 'ua maliu mai alii taitasi ma 'o latou nu'u 
taitasi ; 'o nu'u ia na le ui ai la matou malaga. Na maliu 
mai alii, 'ua 'o 'ofu i latou i 'ofu tofia o le mal5 5 Peretania, 
'a 'o taulelea 'ua lavalava i 'ie fou. '0 nu'u nei na latou 
osofia le malaga a le Alii ma leoleo i aso 'ua mavae ; sa 


tau le taua, ona faiaina lea 'o i latou ; ona fai lea e le 
Kovano le leleiga ma ia atumu'u, 'ua fa'a 'ofu alii i ofn 
tofia ma fa'alavalava i tagata. Ua o'o mai i latou ma mea 
taumafa e tele. Ua fesili Misi, po 'o le a le ala na latou 
o'o mai ai. 'Ua tali mai i latou : 'ua matou o'o mai e 
leoleo i lau malaga i le tuasivi ina nei osofia la 'outou malaga 
e nu'u e tele i le tuasivi ; aua 'afai e o'o se faigata ia te 'oe, 
'o lea lafo mai le sala e le malo i luga ia te i matou, ina 'ua 
matou le tausia 'oe. 'Ua fa'afetai Misi ia te i latou, 'ua 
fai atu Misi : e tasi le mea 'ua faigata ai 'o mea taumafa e 
le lava i luga o le mauga, ma le tasi o isi tagata e leai ni 
'ofu, anei e oti i le maltilu i luga o mauga. Ona tu'ua lea 
'o le toatele, 'ua na o alii 'uma ma tagata malolosi e fai 
nai 'ofu, 'ua matou malaga fa'atasi. 'Ua malama le taeao, 
'ua U8U le malaga, 'ua matou sopoia le tumutumu o le 
tasi mauga e igoa ia Ekonakolo, e 2500 ft. le maualuga ; 
'ua matou toe fa'aifo i le tasi itu 'ua alu pea ; 'ua lata i 
le po 'ua maua atu le tasi nu'u e igoa ia Koliko ; 'o le 
aso 5 lea o Julai, 'o le aso toona'i foi lea ; i le ua aso sa ai 
la matou malaga. 'Ua o'o i le asogafua 'ua fa'alavelaveina 
la matou malaga i timuga. 'Ua o'o i le aso lua 'o le aso 8 
lea o Julai ; 'ua laofie le aso 'ua matou sopoia le mauga 
maualuga i le taeao lava 'ua o'o i le afiafi. 'Ua lata ona 
goto le la 'ua matou maua le vaeluaga o le mauga ; 'o le 
mauga 'ua moe ai la matou malaga. 'Ua malama le taeao 
'ua matou taumafai i le tumutumu o le mauga, 'ua tusa ma 
futu e 8300 le maualuga, 'o le mauga lenei e fai ai le tala 
fa'avavau a Niu Kini. Fai mai 'a oti i latou, 'o le mauga 
lena e potopoto i ai 'o latou agaga mai fai ai a latou siva. 
I le 'ua matou fesili : 'o fea ea 'o fai ai siva a o 'outou tupuga 
na oti ? 'Ua latou tali miai : 'o i ai i se isi mauga. 'Ua 
matou ta'u atu i ai : e sese lo 'outou taofi ; 'o tatou agaga 
e tasi lava le mea e taunu'u 'uma i ai, 'ua matou tusi i ai 


le lagi. 'Ua tali i latou : e 'ese le mea e o'o i ai 'o 'outou 
agaga, 'o le lagi lea, 'a 'o matou e ta'a lava 'o matou agaga 
i luga i mauga. 'Ua matou matua fa'aali atu le tonu i le 
mea e taunu'u i ai 'o tatou agaga. 'Ua fai mai i latou : e 
moni lava, ai lava 'o le tonu 'atoatoa lea. 

'0 le aso 9 'ua liliu mai ai la matou malaga i le tuasivi. 
'0 le malaga 'atoa e amata mai i Kalaikoro e o'o i le tumu- 
tumu o le mauga lena e 70 ma ona tupu maila ; ae 'a 
faitaulia o'o i le matafaga e 100 ma ona tupu maila, 'o le 
mea lea na fai ai le malaga. 

'Ua tumu lenei atumauga i tagata fa'apaupau, 'ua 
leaga 'o latou fale. 'Ua momoe fa'atasi ma pua'a, 'ua vali 
malala 'o latou tino, ta te fefe fua lava pea vaai i 'o latou 
mata. 'Ua fo'i le malaga, 'ua matou toe sopoia nu'u ia : 
'o Elena Kolo, Ulona Kolo, Polavale, Mataka, Mitiko, 
Elima Kolo. Sa matou aso sa i lea nu'u, 'ua matou usu 
i le asogafu 'ua matou sopoia nisi nu'u, 'a 'ua toe taunu'u 
atu lava i Kalaikoro. 


A'ega, ascent. — Niu Kini, New Guinea. — mata'i 'o 
M.S, ; this refers to the head of a Mission Station in Samoa, 
who made this journey with some natives. — ma le fia, 
that ... be willing. — atu mauga, mountainous country. — 
sopo, exceed, thwart.— 't^a lata ona . . . , near to . . . — 
e pito i uta, more, the farthest inland. — la^u mai, bring near. 
— ma fdfie ma vai, both wood and water. — lotu, public 
worship, to perform religious service, go to church. — 
mata alofa, friendly. — taitasi, one each. — tagata mala- 
malama, cultivated, civilised people. — 'ua malama le taeao ; 
this is a stock phrase, meaning, " as the day breaks." — 
'ua na 'ole a'e . , , it went always uphill and downhill. — 


nu'u fai'aai, small, scattered villages. — 'of it tofia, official 
uniform.— /amma, conquered.— /ai le leleiga ma, reconcile 
oneself with somebody. — sola, punishment. — aneieoti . . . , 
it could kill anyone. — 'o le to'atele (plural). — usu, rise early. 
— ^ft. = futu — foot, feet. — aso sd, Sunday ; it is here used 
as a verb, Sunday rest. — timuga, rain-shower. — Idofie (see 
The Adjective : derived from Id, sun, sunny.— /ai mai 
. . . , it is said . . . — agaga, soul. — tusi here means, to 
name. — 'ese, high, far. — ta'a, to guide. — ai lava (see 
Vocabulary), it must be . . . indeed. — jpua'a, pig. — 
td = tdtou.—fo'i, return. 



Oamaru, Niu Silani, Fep, 18, 1902. 
Le 'aU USD E ! 

Si 'o ma alofa atu ! 'ua ma saunia lenei tusi e fai 
mai mea tatou te feiloa'i ai. . . . 

'0 le tasi mea 'ou te fia ta'u atu ia te 'outou. '0 sina 
tala i la ma malaga i Rotorua, 'o le nu'u lea 'ua ta'ua ona 
'o vaituloto vevela 'ua i ai, ma le tasi mea, 'o tagata e 
to'atele 'ua asiasi i ai e sailiili matagi. Sa ma malaga atu 
i Rotorua mai Aukilani 'o lo la va pe 80 maila, 'ua 'atoa 
itula e 9 sa ma 5 i ai i le nofoa afi ona fa 'atoa taunu'u 
ai lea. 

E i ai le fale ma'i i Rotorua 'ua saunia mo tagata mama'i 
ina ia latou ta'e'ele ai i le vai. 'Ua siomia le fale i le 
fanua 'ua teuteu lelei, 'ua matagofie lava la'au 'ese'ese 'ua 
i ai. Sa ma savavali i le fanua, ona ma vaaia lea 'o puna vai 
e lua. Sa ofo le loto aua 'ua 'ese ia punavai i punavai 'uma 
aua 'ua vevela lava le vai, peiseai 'ua i luga o se aj& tele ; 


'ua 080 le ansa i luga e pei 'o se umu tele 'ua pusa. E 
lemafai ona ta'ele se tasi i le punavai 'ua fanua aua ua 
vevela tele lava le vai ; 'ua siomia f oi le punavai i le puipui 
ina ne'i pa'u'u i ai tagata ma oti ai. Sa ma tete'i ina 'ua 
ma matamata i ai ; 'a 'ua taitaiina le vai vevela i paipa 
e o'o ta'elega 'ese'ese i totonu o le fale ma'i, i le 'ua fa'ao- 
poopoina i ai sina vai malulu, ona fa'atoa mafai lea ona 
ta'ele ai. 

'Ua 'atoa aso e lua sa ma i ai i lena nu'u. Sa ma 
matamata i mea 'ese'ese e ofo ai i maua i itula 'uma. Sa 
ma tafafao i le auvai o le vaituloto o Rotorua ona iloa ai 
lea 'o le ausa 'ua oso i luga ai le 'ele'ele. Sa ma asiasi i le 
Maori Pa ('o le 'aai lea) 'o Ohinemutu ; e le fa'aaogaina se 
afi e tagata o lena nu'u aua 'ua faigofie ona tao 'o a latou 
mea e 'ai i omo laiti 'ua elia i le foga'ele'ele. 

Sa ma 5 atu f oi i se isi Maori Pa o Whakare-warewa lea ; 
'ua faigata 'ona fa'amalamalama atu mea e ofo ai sa ma 
matamata ai. E sa i tagata ona soona savali ne'i pa'u'u 
i latou i se pu 'ua i ai le vai vevela. '0 lea aso ma lea aso 
foi 'ua oso iluga le vai ai pu 'ese'ese pe tusa ma le umi o 
se niu 'o le maualuga o le vai 'ua oso a'e. 

Paga lava ! o le mea lea e ofo tele ai tagata ; sa ma 
fa'alogoina le vevela i o ma seevae, ona ma punonou ai lea 
'ua iloa 'ua vevela le foga'ele'ele ma ma 'a 'o i ai. Sa ma 
vaaia foi le vaitafe 'ua oso mai i lalo o le palapala e o'o i 
le fogatai. Ona pa ai lea 'o le palapala 'ua pa'o e pei 'o 
se fana pe a pa. 

A 'o le mea sa ma fefefe ai 'o Tikitere lea, 'o le nu'u lea 
e pei 'o Sotoma ma Komora, e iai se vaitafe vevela ma le 
afi. 'Ua leaga le manogi i lena nu'u aua 'ua tele le teio 
'ua fefiloa'i ma le vai i punavai vevela. E i ai foi pu 
tetele 'ua tutumu i le palapala 'ua fefiloi ma le suafi'u. 
Sa taitaiina i matou ma nisi tagata sa matamata ai e le 


tasi alii aua 'ua faigata i tagata ne'i soona savavali, ona pa 
lea 'o le foga 'ele'ele i tafatafa o punavai vevela, aua 
pa'u'u i ai 'ua oti. 'Ua o'o i matou i le tasi itu o le puna 
palapala tele, ona lele a'e lea 'o le ausa i le 'ua susu i matou 
i le ausa tele 'ua oso mai. 'Ua to'a foi le palapala 'ua filogia 
ma le suau'u, 'a 'ua puna pea, 'ua sili ona vevela i le suavai 
'ua puna ; 'o le fua o le vevela o le palapala 'ua 232° 

'0 sina tala pu'upu'u lenei i mea sa ma matamata ai ma 
'ua ofo tele ai i maua, 'a 'ou te lemafai ona fa'aali atu lelei 
le uiga moni o mea fa'apena. 

Sa ma foi atu i Okilani ma nonofo ai ni nai aso ; ona 
toe malaga atu lea i Maungaturoto, Raglun, Napier, 
Wellington, Lyttleton, Christchurch ma Oamaru, 'ua 
matou fa'atasi ai ma le tama'itai 'o Makerita 'ua 'outou 

le a toe malaga atu i matou ma Makerita i le aso nei 
e taunu' u lava i Dunedin. 

la fa'amanuia 'outou e lo tatou Alii. la tausia pea i 
tatou 'uma seia o'o i le aso tatou te toe fa'atasi ai. 

Feleni ma Olive. 


Niu Silani, New Zealand. — Si 'o md . . . (stock phrase) 
are greeted. — tatou (see third person plural of the Per- 
sonal Pronouns). — vaituloto, sea. — saili matagi, have a 
change of air, take a bath.— /afe ma'i, hospital. — oso a'e, 
rise, get up. — ^uipui, trellis. — paipa, tube, pipe. — malulu, 
cold. — omo, pit, ditch.— fa^amalamalama, explain, inter- 
pret. — Pagd lava !, exclamation.— /o^a'efe'efe, ground, 
earth. — pu, cave. — ai jpu, from the cave. — pa, explode, 
shoot fire, detonate.— ^Zo, mix, mingle. — puna, cook, boil. 



As already mentioned in the Introduction, Samoan has its 
root in the Malayan-Polynesian languages, which are 
spoken, with many varying dialects, from Madagascar, 
throughout the South Seas, to Hawaii. These root-tongues 
are divided into the Malayan, Melanesian, and Polynesian. 
The two latter, being of very low origin, have few con- 
sonants, and the word-construction is primitive. The 
grammatical forms are mostly joined to the root by means 
of particles, and usually no distinction is made in the form 
of a word between the singular and plural number, the same 
applying to the difference between active and passive 
verbs, and between their moods and tenses. 

The Polynesian languages have a strong relationship to 
one another, very much in the same way that certain 
European ones have, and present no difficulties to the 
learner when he has a fair grasp of one of them. 

There is a great resemblance, and much in common 
between the Samoan, Tahitian, and Maori languages. 


This language has an alphabet of thirteen letters : 
five vowels, a, e, i, o, u, and eight consonants, f , h, m, n, 
p, r, t, and v. Introduced words occasionally contain 
1, k, and z. 



The vowels are all pronounced as those in Samoan and 
are short. If it is desired to lengthen a vowel it is indicated 
thus, ^ . Ex, : hoe, one. This long vowel also takes the 
accent, which otherwise is borne by the last syllable 
but one. 

F is pronounced as in Samoan, but often has the sound 
of V or A. Ex, : vahine = fafine ; haaputu = fa'apoto, 

H, which is absent in Samoan, frequently occurs in 
Tahitian and corresponds to the /and s in Samoan. Ex. : 
tahi = tasi ; hara — sala ; anahi — afi. In w^ords where 
the Samoan s has been introduced it has a pronunciation 
faintly resembling cA. 

M and n are sounded as in Samoan, the n having a 
slightly nasal {ng) twang, especially where it takes the 
place of the Samoan g, which, however, does not often 

P has the same sound as in Samoan. 

R is much in use, and mostly appears in place of the 
Samoan I and g, Ex. : faaroo = fa'alogo ; ratou = 
latou ; huruhuru = fulufulu ; raau = la'au, etc. 

T is the Samoan t and replaces I. Ex, : e teie = lenei. 

F, pronounced as in Samoan, is a substitute for the 
Samoan v, /, and '. Ex, : rave = ave ; vahine = 
fafine ; vau = 'au ; avae — vae. 

Either an n, r , or, more generally, ', is used instead of 
the Samoan g. Ex. : i'oa = igoa ; fanauraa = fanauga ; 
ra'i = lagi ; mou'a == mauga, etc. 

There are no double consonants in Tahitian, and all 
words end with a vowel. 

The Tahitian is quite as punctilious in his speech as the 


Samoan, but often employs a variety of forms promiscu- 
ously ; especially is this so with, the verb. 

Te is the article, which corresponds to the Samoan le. 
Ex, : tefare — 'o le f ale. Its declension in the singular is : 

Nom. tejarera 

Gen. otefarera\ Ra is a particle 

Dat. / tefare ra\ which almost always 

Ace. itefareraf follows the substan- 

Voc. e tejarera] tive. 

With proper names the article o is used. Declension : 
o, a, ia, ia, e. 

The plural is a little involved. Either the singular 
number only is used in its place, in such cases where no 
confusion of meaning is likely to arise, or, in order especially 
to emphasise the plural, particles are placed before the 
noun concerned. Ex, : na, 7nau, pue. 

Na is employed when dealing with numbers, and 
corresponds to the Samoan ni, Ex. : na fare e hitu, 
seven houses. 

Mau is used in ordinary speech and has no reference to 
any particular number ; it corresponds to the Samoan 
'o le 'au. Ex. : te mau Tahiti, the Tahitians. 

Pice is made use of : (1) Almost exclusively in relation 
to persons. (2) A?VTien a large definite number is referred 
to. Ex. : e pice ravaai hoi raua ? What are those two 
people doing there ? The declension of the plural is 
identical with that of the singular. 

Abstract nouns are only used in the singular. 

Occasionally, when a word stands at the beginning of a 
sentence, o te is employed, not te, as is the case with the 
Samoan 'o le. 

The substantive has only one gender. 


The dual number is expressed by toopiti, both, the two. 
Ex. : na vahine e toopiti, the two women. 

The adjective follows the noun to which it belongs. 
Ex. : te fare api, the new house ; te hoe raau tnaitai, a 
good tree. It is invariable in the singular, but now and 
then an added syllable is introduced to denote a plural 
meaning. Ex. : maitai ; maitatai (plural). This is, how- 
ever, not a general rule. 

With regard to comparison, the method is similar to 
that of the Samoan adjective. Ex. : te moiCa rahi i te 
fare, the mountain is bigger than the house ; literally, the 
mountain big to the house. If the adjective stands alone, 
without a noun, the comparative is expressed by pu, puai. 
Ex. : puai rahi, much bigger. 

There is no way of indicating the superlative degree : 
the plain adjective has to do duty for this as a rule, but 
sometimes the word rave is placed before it by way of 
giving emphasis to it. 

The personal pronouns are very similar to the Samoan 
ones and • are given here briefly : o vau, I ; o oe, thou ; 
o ia, he ; to tatou, we ; to outou, you ; o ratou, they. 
Dual : maua (exclusive), we two ; to taua (inclusive), we 
tw^o ; to orua, you two ; o raua, they two. When these 
are placed after the verb the o is omitted. Instead of o vau, 
I, \m is often used when following a verb. 
» Declension 

ia, he, as follows : 




no 'w 


ia 'i* 





in the same way. 




no 71 a 


ia 'na 


ia 'na 


The rest of the personal pronouns are declined in 
precisely the same manner. 

The possessive pronouns are also quite simple and 
formed as in Samoan. 


Nom. tau, or a'«, my 

Gen. no tau 

Dat. i tau 

Ace. i tau 

to, or to oe, thy 

tana. Gen., no td'na, etc., his 

to matou (excl.), to iatou (incl.), our 

to outoUf your 

to raiou, their 


to maua^ to oruo, to raua, our two, both our 


ta^Uf my 
to oe, thy 
ia na, his 

The remainder are declined in the same way as the 
singular numbers. 

The suitable personal pronoun is preferably used in 
place of the possessive, as a rule. Ex. : te fare na oe, 
thy house, the house of thee ; instead of, to fare. 

The demonstrative pronouns are : 


o teie, tliis 
o tera, that 

The plural forms of the above run in a like manner to 
the singular, especially where the nouns are formed of 
plural words, and are treated like the singular 'o le ^au in 


For the purpose of emphasising o teie the word net 
(here) is often added to it. Ex. : o teie nei taata, this man 
here. tera is not used very much. The demonstrative 
pronouns partake more of the nature of substantives 
and adjectives. Ex. : teie nei mau mea atoa, all these. 

The relative pronouns correspond to the Samoan ones : 
te, he who = 'o le. The declension is like that of the 
substantive. Ex. : ehoroa Hu i te ani ia oe ra, give to 
him who asks of thee. tei, or to tei (those who), is the 

The use of these is quite as involved, and yet, at the 
same time, as simple as in Samoan. Ex. : e faaore mai i 
ta matou Kara, mai ia matou atoa a faaore i tei hara ia matou 
nei. Samoan : ia e fa^amagalo i a te i matou i a matou 
agasala e pei 'o i matou foH ona matou fa' amagaloina atu i 
e 'ua agasala ma ia te i matou. (See 'o le talo a le Alii, in 
the Reading Selections.) 

tei, or o te taata, is everyone who . . . (see Example 
in last paragraph on the Relative Pronoun in the 
Grammar). This in Tahitian is : ote taata i riri noa i tona 
taeae e Raka, e au ia ia 'na te sunederi. 

The interrogative pronouns are : o vai, who ? Ex. : 
vai oe ? who art thou ? eaha, what ? Ex. : eaha to 
oe hinaara ? what is your wish ? 

The declension is : 

Nom. o vai 
Gen. no vai 
Dat. ia vai 

The accusative, whom, is expressed thus : o vai ta 
outou e imi na ? whom are you looking for ? — literally, 
who is, you look for something ? 

The indefinite pronouns : tahi, another ; tahi taata, 
some, several : every, each, is translated by the plural, 


te mau atoa. Ex. : te man taata atoa . . . every 

man . . . ; te taata, somebody, anyone ; te taata, with the 
negative, e ore — e ore te taata. nobody ; te mau atoa, atoa, 
all ; rave rahi, many ; iti, few ; te taata, or te mau taata, 
one, people, they (French, on) ; na, several. 

The reflexive pronoun is atoa. Ex. : o vau atoa nei, 
I myself. This latter is not very much used. 

The verb, in many respects, is not so complicated as 
the Samoan, it being invariable in all moods and tenses, 
both in the singular and plural ; only a few allowing of 
reduplication in the plural. Ex. : hoo atura, to sell. 
Plural, hohoo atura. 

There is an active and passive form, and the tenses are : 
Present, First Past, Second Past, Future, and the Im- 
perative and Infinitive Moods. 

The present tense is formed by prefixing the particle e 
or te to the verb. Haere, to go. 


e haere au, or te haere au, I go 

€ haere oe, or te haere oe, thou goest 

c haere oia, or te haere oia, he goes, etc. 


e haere maua, we two (both) go 
e haere orua, you two go 
e haere raua, they two go 

e haere matou, we go 
e haere outou, you go 
e haere ratou, they go 

The personal pronouns can also be placed before the 

E is generally employed in the narrative form of 
speech, and te to denote a definite action in the present. 
Ex. : te parau atu nei vau ia oe, I tell you. 


The first past tense takes the particle ua in front of the 
verb. Taparahi, to kill. 

ua taparahi vau, I killed 

ua taparahi, oe thou killedst 

ua taparahi oia, he killed, etc. 

The second past tense is distinguished by the particle 
i before the verb. Faaroo, to hear, perceive. 

i faaroo vau, I have heard 
i faaroo oe, thou hast heard 
i faaroo oia, he has heard, etc. 

The two forms of past tense just given are not used in 
continuous narrative, the bare verb being sufficient, in the 
native mind, to convey the idea of an action already 

The future is indicated in exactly the same way as the 
present tense and formed by the particle e. Ex, : e tae 
vau, I will come ; e tae oe, thou wilt come, etc. 

The imperative mood takes the particle e or a before 
the verb. Ex, : a haere I, go !, or, a haere oe I ; a rare 
i te pane, take the bread. E is used when it is wished to 
express a gentler form of command. 

The infinitive mood is a double one, according to 
whether " to " or "in order to " is the intended meaning. 
la is used before the verb in the first instance, and e in the 
latter. Ex, : mata^u oia ia haere, he was afraid to come. 
This rule is not invariably observed, though. 

The negative of the imperative is eiaha, followed by the 
present tense. Ex, : eiaha oe efaahajpa, do not lie ! 

The negative particle in general use is, aore, or eore, 
which always commences a sentence. Ex, : aore au i 
haere mai, I have not come. 


There is no participle knov/n to the Tahitian, but a 
peculiar verb-substantive takes its place. This is the 
particle raa, which is subjoined to the verb. Ex. : ua 
Mo atura te taata atoa ia 'na i te haereraa, the people saw 
him coming ; literally, in the coming. Raa corresponds 
to the Samoan ga {fanauraa == fanauga). 

The passive is formed similarly to the Samoan, by 
affixing various particles to the verb ; the most commonly 
used being Ma. Ex. : taparahihia, to be killed ; hi'ohia, 
to be seen, etc. The conjugation is exactly the same as in 
the active form of the verb. 

te hi'ohia vau, I am seen. (Present.) 

ua hi'ohia oe, thou wast seen. (First Past.) 

i hi'ohia oia, he has been seen. (Second Past.) 

e hi'ohia maUm, we shall be seen. (Future.) 

The last example quoted can also be used in place of 
the present tense. To indicate a future action, atoa, 
together with a curious word-formation, is employed, viz., 
hi^o — atoa — hia. Ex. : e faaino — atoa — hia oia, he 
will be condemned. If, however, the verb should be a 
compound one, such as hopoi-S, to take away, this form 
does not apply ; the simple one, hopoi-S-hia, being used 

The auxiliary verb to be is usually not expressed. 
Ex. : ovau teie, it is I, or o vau nei ia. The negative is 
aita or acre. 

The verb to have is also, as in Samoan, formed by using 
the dative. Ex. : e tau fare na'u, I have a house ; liter- 
ally, to me is my house. Aita = not. Ex. : aita a 
ratou pane, they have no bread. 

There are many compound verbs which are, in some 
cases, preceded by faa or haa, with the same meaning as 


in Samoan ; and in others the words atura, maira, iho, 
noa, roa, etc., are postfixed. 

The numerals are very like the Samoan cardinal 
numbers : hoe, or tahi, one ; fiti, two ; toTU, three ; 
maha, four ; pae, five ; ono, six ; hitu, seven ; varu, 
eight ; iva, nine ; ahuru, ten ; tino ahuru ma hoe, eleven ; 
tino ahuru ma piti, twelve ; piti ahuru, twenty, etc. ; 
maha ahuru, forty ; hanere, a hundred ; tino hanere ma 
hoe, a hundred and one ; tausani, a thousand. 

Originally the Tahitians could only count up to ten ; 
the necessary numbers after this are derived partly from 
the Samoan and partly from English. The numerals are 
placed before the word to which they belong, the latter 
taking the genitive case. Ex, : e varu o te rui, eight days. 

The ordinals have the article added, as, o te hitu, the 
seventh. They take their place either before, governing 
the genitive, like the cardinals, or after the word they 
accompany. te fare piti, the second house. The first 
would be, te matahiapa, 

la is a numeral adverb, which, when placed before a 
. number, denotes ** times." Ex, : ia toru, three times, 
thrice ; but the fourth time would be, te maharaa. 

All prepositions govern the accusative. Ex. i rota 
i te fare, in the house. Also the answer to the question, 
where ? where to ? is in the accusative. 

Mai, from ; i tae, to, towards ; i nia i, on, upon ; 
i nia i ropu, in the middle of it, amidst it ; no nia mai, 
down ; mai, since ; i raro, outside ; i roto, inside, etc. 

To give a complete list here of all adverbs and con- 
junctions would not be possible within the limits of these 
Remarks, as they do not constitute a complete grammar of 
the languages concerned, but merely a means by which 
the principal features of Samoan and Tahitian may be 


compared. From the foregoing the close relationship which 
exists between them will easily be seen, and we will now 
draw a brief comparison between Samoan and the native 
language of New Zealand. 


The Maori tongue is also euphonically poor, there being 
five vowels, a, e, i, o, u, and ten consonants, h, k, m, n, 
ng, p, r, t, w, and wh. 

The vowels all have the sound of the Samoan ones. 

H corresponds to the Samoan s and /. Ex. : wahina 
= fafine, 

K replaces the Samoan '. Ex. : hua = 'ua ; katoatoa 

— atoatoa, 

M and n are as in Samoan. 

Ng takes the place of the Samoan g. Ex. : rangi 

— lagi. 

P is pronounced as in Samoan. 

R is the substitute for the Samoan I, as, ratou = Idtou. 

T is the Samoan one, and sometimes corresponds to the 
I in that language. Ex. : ho te tama = 'o le tama. 

W resembles the Samoan v. 

Wh replaces the Samoan /, but it is pronounced more 
softly than /. 

For accentuation of syllables, see the Grammar. 

The article is ko te — 'o le. Ex. : ho te tangata — 'o 
le tagata. The noun, which can only boast one gender, 
takes the article ko te in the singular and nga in the plural. 

The declension is : 

Nom. hyieiangaia, the man 
Gen. o te tangata, of the man 
Dat. ki te tangata^ to the man 
Ace. ki te tangata^ the man 


Nom . o nga ariki^ the chiefs 
Gen. o nga ariJd, of the chiefs 
Dat. ki nga ariki, to the chiefs 
Ace. ki nga ariki, the chiefs 

The article ko always precedes proper names. The 
vocative takes e, as, e te ariki, chief ! 

The adjective comes after the word it qualifies and is 
invariable. Ex, : ko te maimga tiketike, the big mountain. 
Comparison is the same as in Tahitian. The comparative 
is not expressed, and the word compared takes the accusa- 
tive case : i te. The superlative is formed by rawa, 
Ex. : ko te iti rawa, the (very — rawa) little. 

Personal Pronouns 


ko taku, I : Samoan, 'o a'w 

ko koe, thou : „ 'o oe 

ko ia, he : „ 'o id 


to mdtou, we : ,, Un mdtou 

ko koutouy you : „ 'o ^outou 

to ratou, they : „ o i Idtou 


to nvauOf we two, both of us 
ko orua, you two, both of you 
to raua, they two, both of them 

The declension of the personal pronouns is the same as 

for nouns. 

ko taku, I 

a takUf or o au, of me 

ki a au, to me 

ki a aUy me 

The rest of the pronouns are declined in the same way. 

Should the personal pronoun follow the verb — as more 

often than not it does — instead of ko taku, ahau must be 

substituted in the first person singular. 


Possessive Peonouns 


ko tdkUy my 

k() iou, thy 

k() tona, his 

to mdUiU, our 

t() koutou, your 

to ratou, their 


to maua, our two (both our) 
io orua, your two 
lo raua, their two 

The article ko, or to, gives place to a in the plural, and 
the k of the pronoun is omitted. 


o oku, my 

o ou, thy 

o ona, or o ana, his 

o matou, our 

o outoUy your 

o ratou, their 

o mat/a, our two, both our 
o oruay your two 
o rawa, their 

The declension is exactly like that of the personal 

Demonstrative Pronouns 

tenei, this ; enei, these 
tefta, that ; era, those 

As in Tahitian, they are used adjectively and sub- 


Relative Pronouns 

The relative pronouns greatly resemble the Tahitian 
ones in construction, and in their application they are also 
alike throughout. (See the Samoan Relative Pronouns 
in the Grammar.) 

ki te telahi, he who 
ie kunga, those who, those which 
nga tangaia kaioa, everyone who 
nga mea katoGy that which 

(See example in last paragraph on Relative Pronouns 
in the Grammar.) 

A ki tea mea (speak, say) tetahi ki tona teina : Weirangi ! 
ka tika kia komititia. 

Interrogative Pronouns 

Nom. ko whai, who ? 
Gen. no what, of whom ? 
Dat. ia whai, to whom ? 
Ace. ko whaiy whom ? 

he aha, v/hat ? 

ma te aha, with which, with what ? 

Indefinite Pronouns 

Tokomdha, many ; ruarua, a few, some ; nga tangata, 
one, people, they ; nga tangata katoa, all ; etahi, some, 
several ; tetahi, somebody, anybody ; kahore tetahi, no one. 

The reflexive pronouns are hardly ever expressed in 
Maori, reliance having to be placed upon the context of a 
sentence to supply this deficiency. 

The Verb 

The verb is simple in construction and, in conjugation, 
very like the Tahitian. There is a distinction between the 
active and passive, and the tenses are the same as those in 


The active verb, present tense, is formed with te. 

te kite ahau, I see 

te kite koe, thou seest 

te kite kia, he sees 

te kite matouy we see 

te kite koutou, you see 

te kite ratou, they see, etc. 

Past Tense I. is distinguished by ka. 

ka haere ahau, I can 

ka haere koe, thou canst 

ka haere kia, he can, etc. 

Past Tense II. takes i. 

i whakamahara ahau, I have taught 

i whakamahara koe, thou hast taught 

i whakamahara kia, he has taught, etc. \ 

Past Tense III., which corresponds most nearly to the 
pluperfect, is formed by hua, 

kua kawe ahau, I had brought 
kua kawe mdUm, we had brought 
kua kawe ratou, they had brought 

The Future takes e. 

e ora ahau, I shall live 

e ora hoe, thou shalt live, etc. 

The meaning of the first past tense often applies to a 
future action already concluded when another begins, and 
resembles more nearly the second future in European 
verbs, such as, I shall have done. Ex. : When you 
(shall) see this and that, you (will) know . . . Otira ha kite 
Jcoutou . . . ho reia houtou mohia ai . . , : literally, when 
you (shall) have seen that . . . Such phrases are of 
constant occurrence. 

The imperative is introduced by the particle kia. 
Ex. : kia haere, go ! The particle is frequently omitted. 


The negative form of the imperative is efEected by the 
particle Icaua, kei. Ex, : kaua e tutaki, do not run. 

The infinitive is distinguished as follows : te = to . . .; 
ki te =^ in order to . . . 

The negative used with other moods of the verb is 
kahore or kihai, which stands at the beginning of the 
sentence. Ex, : kahore ahau e mohia ki tena pa, I do not 
know that place. 

The passive form is construed with the same particles 
as the active, and is only distinguished from the latter by 
affixing the syllables tia, a, or kina, Ex. : akiri, to 
throw ; akiritia, be thrown ; kitea, be seen. 

ie kitea ahau, I am seen 
ka kitea ahau, I was seen 
i kitea ahau, I have been seen 
kue kitea ahau, I had been seen 
e kitea ahau, I shall be seen 


Cardinals : kotahi, one ; rua, two ; torn, three ; 
wha, four ; rima, five ; ono, six ; whitu, seven ; waru, 
eight ; iwa, nine ; tekau, ten ; kotahi tekau ma tahi, 
eleven ; kotahi tekau ma rua, twelve ; rua tekau, twenty ; 
toru tekau, thirty ; kotahi rau, one hundred ; rua rau, two 
hundred ; mano, a thousand. 

The cardinal numbers take their place before the word 
to which they apply, the latter being in the plural, indicated 
by the article. Ex. : rima nga taro, five taros ; kotahi 
nga whare, ten houses. 

The ordinals consist of the cardinal numerals preceded 
by the article, and come before the word they accompany, 
governing the genitive. Ex. : o te rima o nga rakau, the 
fifth tree ; te tuatahi, the first ; te muri, the last. 



Numerals of multiplication are unknown to the Maori. 

The number of prepositions, adverbs, and conjunctions 
in the language is not considerable, and they bear a great 
resemblance to those in Samoan. 

For purposes of comparison the Selections for 
Reading, Nos. IV. and V., are here appended, rendered into 
Tahitian and Maori. 


Te pure ra a te Fatu 

E to matou Metua i te ao ra, ia raa te oe i'oa. la tae 
i to oe ra hau. Ia haapaohia to oe hinaaro i te fenua nei, 
mai tei te ao atoa na. Ho mai i te maa e au ia matou i 
teie nei mahana. E faaore mai i ta matou hara, mai ia 
matou atoa e faaore i tei hara ia matou nei. E eiaha e 
faarue ia matou ia roohia — noa — ^hia e te ati, e faaora ra ia 
matou i te ino. Amene. 


Te hoe taata no Jerusalema i te haereraa i Jeriko, 
roohia ihora i te nana eia haru, taratarahia ihora tana ahu 
e ratou, e paruparu ihora oia, haere atura, faarue ihora ia 
'na, ua fatata i te pohe. Ua haere noa maira te hoe 
tahu'a na taua e'a na, e ite atura oia ia 'na, faahahau e 
atura, na te tahi pae e'a 'tura i te haere. E te hoe ati Levi 
hoi e te haerea na taua e'a ra, e fatata maira taua vahi ra, 
e ite atura ia 'na, ohipa e atura na te tahi pae e'a. Te 
hoe taata ra no Samaria i haere noa i to 'na haerea, e tae 
atura oia ia 'na, aroha 'tura ; haere atura i pihai iho, ua 
nimi ihora i te hinu e te naina i roto i te mau puta no 'na 
ra ; vehi ihora, e haaparahi atura ia 'na i nia i tana iho 


puaa, aratai atura ia 'na i te fare tipaeraa, utuutu atura 
ia 'na. E ao a 'era, ia haere e oia ra, ua rave a'era oia i e 
piti moni veo, tuu atura i te taata fare ra, na 6 atura ia 
'na : E utuutu oe i teie nei taata, e ia riro atoa ta oe ra 
moni, na 'u ia e hopoi atu i te hoo ia oe ia ho'i mai au ra. 



E to matou Matua i te rangi, kia tapu tou ingoa ; kia 
tae mai tou rangatiratanga ; kia meatia tau e pai ai ki 
runga ki te whenua, kia rite ano ki to te rangi. Homai 
ki a matou aianei he taro ma matou ma tenei ra. Murua 
o matou hara, me matou hoki e muru nei i o te hunga e 
hara ani ki a matou. Aua hoki matou e kawea kia whaka- 
waia ; engari whakaorangia matou i te kino. Amine. 


I haere atu tetahi tangata i Hiruharama ki Heriko, a 
ka tutaki ki nga kai pahua, na, ka huia ona e ratou, ka 
tukitukia ia, a haere ana, whakarerea iho ia, me te mea kua 
mate. Na, ko tetehi tohunga e haere noa ana i taua ara : 
a, tona kitenga i a ia, ninihi ke atu ana na tahaki. I pena 
hoki tetahi Riwati, tae kau ki taua wahi, ka haere ka titiro, 
ninihi ke atu ana na tahaki. Na ko tetahi Hamari e haere 
ana ki nga whenua, te taenga ki a ia, ka kite i a ia, ka 
aroha, na, ka haere atu, ka takai i ona patunga, ringihia 
iho ki te hinu ki te waina, ka whakanoho i a ia ki tona ake 
kararehe a kawea ana ia ki te whare tira, atawhaitia ana 
ia. I te aonga ake, i tona haerenga, ka tongohia e ia e 
rua nga pene, e hoatu ana ki te tangata i te whare, ka mea 
ki a ia : mau ia e tiaki ; a ki te maha atu au mea e pau, 
maku koe e utu ina hoki mai ahau. 



Nearly all tlie words of everyday use in Samoa are to be 
found in this Vocabulary. The nouns appear, as a rule, in 
their simple form with the article omitted. When fda is 
found following a Samoan word it indicates that this par- 
ticular one is also formed with the prefix faJa, Ex. : 
Remembrance, inanatuga, oi fa' amanatuga ; to fill, tumu, 
or fa'atumu. 

Such words as those formed with fa' a, tau, ta'u (see 
Grammar) are not included under these prefixes, but must 
be sought under their root-word. Ex. : fa'a'ofu, to 
dress : see 'ofa, etc. 

The words appearing in the Grammar and Selections 
FOR Reading are not incorporated in this Vocabulary. 

In order to avoid any likelihood of doubt as to the part 
of speech of a word, it is indicated in abbreviated form 
where necessary. Noun (n.) ; adjective (adj.) ; adverb 
(adv.); conjunction (conj). ; etc. The verbs are dis- 
tinguished by the preposition to. 

For an explanation of Chief-word, see Grammar im- 
mediately preceding Syntax. 


able, to be, mdfai accuse, to, moli 

above, aloft, i luga accustomed to, to be, mdsani 

abundance, mdu acquainted with, to become, 

accept, to, masalOy tali maimoa 

accomplish, to, fa^aiu, fa* acquire, earn, to, mau 

auma act, perform an action, to, aga, 

account (n.), tusi o le aitalafu fai 




idd, subjoin, to, fd'a'opo'opo 
address, to, fai aiu, tautala i ai 
admonish, to, apoapoaH, fa'a — 
ii{iorn, to, feu 
adultery, to commit (see under 

advice, fono 

advise, to, filifiliy taupulepulc 
afraid, to be, fa'avaivai le iotu. 

afternoon, cjiiifc 
against, e laga mai 
agent, loia 
air, breeze, savili, ea 
all, ^uma 
allow, to, fd'amn 
almost, nearly, iai 
alone, itua, iu'ufua ioaiasi 
allowed, to be (see remarks on 

the future tense in Syntax) 
altar, fata faitaulaga 
alter, to, fa'aliu 
ancestor, ana^nua 
anchor (n.), taula 
anchor, to, tu'utaula 
angel, dgelu 
anger, toasa 
angry, itay nam, toasd 
animal (n.), manu 
announce, to, fai aiu 
anoint, to, fa'au'ii, tCu 
answer (n.), tali 
answer, to, tali 
anxious, vaivai le loto 
apart, goagoa 
apostle, aposetelo 
appear, to, fa'aali 
appearance, fa^aaliga 
applaud, to (with' the hands) 

applause, mdlie, malied ! 
apple, apo 

apply oneself to, to, lia aiu 
approach, draw near, laialaia 
April, Apelila 
ardent, jealous, /wa 
arm (left), lima tauagavale 
arm (right), lima taumatau 
arm, weapon, 'auupega 

armour, 'o/a tau 

around, solo 

arrange, to, pule 

arrest, to, pu^e 

arrival, 'o le iaunuu mai 

arrive, to, maliu mai, o^o i, 

iaunuu mai 
arrow, ii 
as if, peiseai 

ascend, to, aiu cCe oso, oCtGie 
ashamed, to be, md 
ashes, lefulefu 
ask, question, to, fesili 
associate with, to, feoai ma 
associated with, to be, mdsani 
astonish, to, ofo, fa' a — 
at, latalata, e lata ane 
at last, finally, muliai 
attain, reach to, iaunuu 
attend to, to, migao,fa'aqlo 
attire (u.), 'ofu 
attire, to, 'o/w 
August, Aokuso 
avarice, covetousness, mata- 

avaricious, greedy, mata^ii 
avenge, to, taui ma sui 
avoid, to, 'alo' ese 
awake, to, ala 
away, 'ese 
axe, hatchet, toH 


baby, suckling, tamafesui 
back (n.), tua (to turn the back, 

see under turn) 
bacon, ga'o 
bad, leaga, atili 
badly behaved, amioleaga 
bag (n,). taga,fagu pa'u (leather 

bake (by hot stones), to, tao 
baker, faifalaoa 
balance, scales, fua 
bald, tula 

ball, saasaa, siva, polo 
banana, fa'i 
bandage (n.),fusi 



banish, to, tdfc 

bank, shore (n.), ^auvai 

bark (of a tree), pd'u 

barren, arid, naumati, gase 

barrow, truck, fata 

basket, ato, ete 

bathe, to, ta^eUy fa'amalu (chief - 

bathing-place, td'elega 
bath room, potu ta'ele 
be before anyone, to, lumanai 
beach, shore (n.), ^auva^a 
beam (of wood), uUypoto 
beard (n.), ^ava 
beast of prey, maniifeai 
beat, strike, to, ta, po (with the 

beautiful, lelei^ matalelei^ md- 

beckon, to, tdlo 
bed (n.), moega 
bedroom, potu viae 
bee, logo meli 
beef, pulumataii 
beer, pia 
beetle, inogamoga 
before (conj.), a e lei^ a o lei, ina a 
before, a short time ago, ana- 

beforehand, previously, anamua, 

beg, request, to, aioi, ole, fa- 

begin, to, 7nata, afua 
beginning, amataga 
behave foolishly, to, fa^avalea 
behaviour, amio 
believe, to, masalOy fa'aiuatua, 

bell (hand), tagitagi 
beloved (adj.), pele 
below, at the bottom, i lalo 
bend, stoop, to, punou 
bent up, curved, fd'amo''um()'u 
besides, e le gata i lea 
besiege, to, siosio 
betray, to, fd'alata 
beware of, to, ^alo^ese 
Bible, tusi pafd 

bicvcle, uila 

bid farewell, to, fd'amdvae 

big, large, tele, sili 

big (in stature), ^ese 

bill, beak, gutu 

bind, to, fusif nonoa (see make 

bind up (wounds, etc.), to, 

bird, manu tele (plural, manu 

bishop, epikopo 
bite, to, u 
bitter, UyUma , 
black, uliuli 
blacken, to, fa' auliuli 
blacksmith, tu 'ifao 
blame, to, vavao 
blanket (woollen). He mdmoe 
bless, to, fa'amanuia 
blessing, manuia 
blind, to, fa'atauaso 
blind (adj.), mataivi, tauaso 
blind, to become, fa' atauasoina 
blood (n.), toto 
blood-vessel, ua 
blossom {n.),fuga 
blot out, efface, to, ferula 
blow (the trumpet, etc.), to, Hi, 

board, plank (n.), laupapa 
boast, to, mitamita 
boastful, mamapo 
boat (big one : whale-boat), 

boat (small one), pm^pao 
boat (general word), tulula 
boat (used for bonito-fishing), 

body, tino 
boil, ulcer, papula 
boil, to, puna : the water is 

boiled = 'ua puna le vai 
bold, daring, mdlosi 
bone (n.), ivi 
bonito (a fish), atu 
book (n.), tusi 
boom, to (surf on the reef, etc.), 

fa'asai, aoai 



boot (n.), se'evae 

bore, drill, to, vili 

borrow, to, aitalafu, no, nono 

bosom, fatafata 

bottle (n.)/fagu 

bough, laid. Id 

boundary, tuacn 

bouquet (of flowers), teu 

bow (of a ship), taumua 

bow (archery), aufana 

box (n.), ^apa, pusa 

boy, lad, tama 

bracelet, taulima 

brains, faVai 

branch (n.), la la'au 

brass, apa memea 

brave (adj.), fitafita, lotoa 

bravo ! mdlie ! 

bread, falaxm, masi (hard bread) 

breadfruit, ''ulu 

break, to, gau, momo, tofitofi 

(this last means to break in 

break in two, asunder, to, gau 
break open, to, puaH 
break through, to, vaelua, gau 
break up, to, gaugau 
breasts, susu 

breath, breathing, mdnavaga 
breeze, savili 
bride, fa' atoanofotanc 
bridegroom fa'atoa-fuaid hard 

ly ever used) 
bridge (n.), auala laupapa, alavai 
bridle {n.),fa'agutu 
bring, to, aumai, avatu 
bring away, to, au'ese 
bring back, to, fd'afoi mai 
brisk, nimble, vave 
broad (adj.), lau, lautele 
brood, hatch, to, f of oa 
brother (of a brother), uso 
brother (of a sister), tuagane 
brother, a younger, uii 
brown, e'ena 

bruise, crush, to, nutipala 
bud (of leaves), to, fofu 
build, to, ati, gaosi 
building (n.),/a/e 

bullet, pulu 

burial, tanuga 

burn, to, mu, susunii, fa* a — 

bury, to, tanu, nd 

bush, vao ; virgin bush, vat} 

bustle, turmoil (n.), lauaitu 
but, a, ae, a e peitai 
butt, to, sua 
butter, pata 
butterfly, lelefua 
button (n.), fd'amau 
buy, purchase, to, fd'atau 
by, latalata, e lata ane 

cable, rope, maea, tnafiafla 

cake (n.), potoH 

calf (young of cow), tamaH povi 

calf (of leg), ate vae 

call, cry out, to, leo, alaga, 

call, hail (n.), lea 

called, named, to be, igoa ; 
what is your name ^ = po ^o 
ai Uiu igoa ? My name is 
B = 'o o'm 'o B 

call to, to, vala'au 

camp (n.), lauapi 

camp, to pitch, tolaudpi 

camping-place, togalauapi 

candid, frank, fa'amalosi 

candlestick, tu'ugdlamepa 

cannon, big gun,fanafanua 

cap, bonnet, pulou 

capital (city), mataupu 

caress, fondle, to, ta^aU) 

carpenter, tufuga 

carpet, He afu 

carry, bear, to, amo, fata, tauave 

cart, waggon, fata ; or nofoa 

cartridge, utufaga 

carve, to, togitogi 

carve faces, figures, etc., to, 

case, box (n.), atola 'au 

cast (metal), to, iunu 



cat, pusi 

catch, to, pu'e 

caterpillar, anufe 

cave (n.), ana 

cease, to, mdvae 

centipede, atualo 

chain (n.), mea uamea 

change, alter, to, liu 

charcoal, mdlala 

charity, mea alofa 

charm, to, olioli 

cheap, reasonable, iaugofle 

cheat, to, 'ole^ole, JcCa — 

cheek (n.), alaju, alajau 

cheerful, fiafia 

chemise, 'o/m UHu 

chest, box, atola ^au 

chest-of-drawers, pusaioso 

chestnut, ifi 

chew, to, mdmd, lamu 

chief (n.), alii 

chieftainess, lady, tama'iiaH 

child, tama 

child (of a chief), alo 

childbirth, fdnau 

children, fdnau 

choose, elect, to, filifili 

chop up wood, to, tatd lefajVe 

churchyard, fanua oii 

cigar, utufaga 

class, rank (n.), vasega 

claw, paw (n.), atigivae 

clean, pure, mama 

clean, to, fufulu, fd'amamd 

clear, bright, malamalama 

clear (ly), evident(Iy), tino ; if 
used with a verb as an 
adverb, iloa ; tino — see 
clearly ; td'utino = speak 
clearly, etc. 

cleft, crevice, pu 

clerk, writer, tusitusi 

cliff, crag, a'au 

clip, to, tipi'ese, vae'ese 

clock, uati 

close (shut), to, idpuni, puni 

close to, near, t lata ana ; i tafa- 
tafa o — 

cloth, material, He 

cloth-clothing, lavalava 

clothe, to, \)futfd'a — 

clothing, 'ofu 

cloud (n.), ao 

club (weapon), uaiogi 

coal (n.), mdlala 

coat (n.), U)fu tele, peleue 

cock-bird, toa 

cocoanut, mw, popo 

cocoanut fibre, moid' a 

cocoanut oil, sudu'u 

cocoanut-palm, niu 

coin, medal, tupe 

cold (adj.), ma* aim, maiaiU 

collar (n.), ua , 

collect, assemble, to, fd'apoio- 

collect wood (for fire), to, seuseu 
colour, dye (n.), lanu 
colour, dye, to, fa'alanu 
comb (n.), selu 
combat (n.), fagatuaga 
come, to, maliu mai, sau : afio 

(chief- word) 
come after, follow, to, fdnau 
come down, to, ifoifo 
come out, to, alu ''ese, cCe mai 
come towards, approach, to, 

soso mai 
comet, pusaloa 

command, order (n.), poloaiga 
commander, aWi ave 'au 
commemoration, fdamanatuga 
commence, to, amata 
commit adultery, to, mulilua 
common, low, fa'atauvaa 
community, fa'apotopotoga 
compare, to, fa'atusa 
compel, to, tau'unau 
compensate, to, totogiaiu 
complain, to, feoaH 
compose (letter, poem, etc.) to, 

concealed, secret (adj.), lilo, 

condemn, sentence, to, fa^asala 
confirm by oath, to, tauto 
conformable, according to, iusa 




conquer, to, mau, malo 
conqueror, 'o le ^ua maid 
consider, to, vaai atu, matamata 
consider inferior, to, tuliloa 
console, comfort, to, fa'ania- 

constipated, to be, mamau 
consumption, mama pale, maH 

contagious, fd'amaH 
contemplate, to, manaiu 
contented, loto, malie 
continue, to, tumau 
continual, faiso'o 
continuous, fais'So 
convert, to, liu 

convey, cart, to, tieiiey fd'asese 
convince, satisfy, to, pulu- 

cook, to, tunu ; too (by means of 

hot stones) 
cool, fresh, malulu 
cool, to, fa'amalulil 
copper (n.), ^apa 
coral, ^amu : red coral, ^amu 

corkscrev/, vili momono 
corn, grain, sdito 
corner (n.), pito, pepe, tulimanu 
corpse, tino 
correct, right, lonu 
cost, to : what does that cost ? 

efia le Uxlogi o le mea ? or 'o 

lea le tau ? 
cotton. He vavae 
cough, to, tale 

council, member of the, faipule 
counsel, to, iite 
count, reckon, to, faitau 
countermand (an order), to, 

courageous, mdlosi fitafita 
court of justice, fale fa'amasina 
court-usher, constable, leoleo 
cover, lid, ufi 
cover, to, ufi 
coverlet, quilt, He mamoe 
cow (n.), povifdfine 
cowardly, maievale, pala'ai 

crab, pd*a 

cracked, gapepe 

cramp (n.), maH 7ndliu 

crash, to, pa 

crawfish, pa' a 

cream, sudsusu to' a 

creep, crawl, to, totolo, iolo, solo 

crime, offence, sala 

cripple (n.), pipili 

crooked, curved, pVo 

cross-road, fetaulaiga 

crow, to. vivini 

crowd (n.), motu tagaia 

crowd, to, omi, tad, tui*a 

cruel, saud 

cry, shriek (n.), leo, alaga 

cry out, cry aloud, to, alaga, leo 

cuffs, tapulima 
cunning, trick (n.), UAegia 
cup, ipu 
cure, heal, to, /o, fojo, faUivid 

curl, ringlet, sope 
curse, bewitch, to, augani 
curtain (n.). He puipui 
curved, fa'amo'umo'u 
cushion, pillow (n.), ali, aluga 
custom, habit (n.), mdsani, itu, 

custom-house, telo 
customs -officer, telona 
customs -taxes, eafoga 
cut, cut off, to, tipi, taJtjCe 
cut down, throw down, to, 

cut into, to, iaja 
cut in two, to, isilua 
cut hair, to, tipi le laa'ulu 
cut off, to, tutu 'ese 
cut up, dismember, to, momomo 
cuttlefish, fe'e 


daily, i lea aso ma lea aso 
dam, dike (n.), di 
damp, moist, maliHH 
dance (n.), siva 



dance, to, siva 

danger, peril, afaina 

dangerous, afaina 

dark, gloomy, uliuli, pouliuli 

darkness, pogisa, pouliuli 

daughter (of the father), afd- 

daughter (of the mother), ta- 

dawn of day, tafamaiaia 
day, m) ; aso, day as opposed 

to night 
day after to-morrow, i e lud 
dead, pa ; mate (of animals), oti 

deaf, tutuli 
deal, trade, to, aga 
debt, aitalafu 

debtor (see under owe) is ex- 
pressed : 'o iai ni a lo'u mea = 

my debtor 
decay, fall to pieces, to, pa'ii 
deceit, ^olegia 
deceive, to, ^ole 
December, Tesema 
decrepitude, mdlepalepa 
deep (adj.), maulalo 
defend, to, fa'atonu 
define, to, fa'atumau 
definite, matud (in conjunction 

with verbs and adjectives) ; 

to know definitely (adv.), 

matud iloa 
delay, hesitate, to, vavao, fa'a- 

deliver, hand over, to, foai mai, 

tu'u atu 
deliver a child, to, fdriau 
demand, claim, to, su'e 
deny, disown, to, pepelo, fa'afiii 
depart, to, maliu atu, alu 
depart by ship, folau, tu'uva^a 
departure, fa'amavaega 
depth, deepness, loU), modna 
derision, mockery, tauemuga 
descend, to, alu ifo, ifo 
desert, to, sola 
desire ; to have no desire to, to 

be unwilling, musu 

desire, to, mana'o 

desirous, to be, mana'o 

desolate, desert, gaogao, iiCvfua 

despair {n.),fememeaH 

despair, to, fa* avaivai le loto 

despise, to, Hmi 

destroy, break up, to, tine'i, 

lepeti, fa'am.alepe 
destruction , /a' atafun am a 
devour, eat, to, 'ai 
dew, sau 
diamond, ialoma 
diarrhoea, tatd 
die, cube (n.), vili 
difficult, faigatd 
dig, to, ^eli 
dig out, to, ^eli 'ese 
dip, immerse, to, fui, tofu 
direct, manage, to, taHtaH 
director, matai 
dirt, ^ele'ele 
dirty (adj.), ""eWelea 
disappear, to, mdvae 
disgrace (n.), luma 
dish, platter, tdnoa 
disinclined, to be, musu 
dismiss, to, tu'u atu 
disobedient, uluvale 
distant, remote, mama'o 
distinguished, mamalu 
divide, to, vae 
divide between, to, va 
division (of time), tulu^a 
do, make, to, fai 
do : how do you do ? pe e te 

malolo ? 
do wrong, to, sese, fa' aleaga 
do willingly, to, faitutU 
doctor (n.), fomaH 
dog (n.), mdile, uU 
dollar, tald 
door, faitotoa 
doubt, to, masalosalovale 
dove, Indian turtle-, manu tagi 
down, downwards, ifo 
draw, delineate, to, tusi 
draw, pull, to toso 
draw forth, to fa' ailoga 
draw lots, to, vili, fa' a — 



draw off, to, fa'aitiiti 

draw out, pull out, to, eu'ese, 

draw up (letter, document, etc.), 

to, tusi 
draw up, lift, to, sisi a'e, ioso a'e 
dream (n.), miti 
dream, to, miti 
dress, clothe, to, fa' a^ of u 
dried up, gase 
drink, to, inu 
drive away, to, tuli 'ese 
drive out, expel, to, tuli Vse, 

tuli i fafo 
drop, bead (of perspiration), 

^alu ^alu 
drop, to, fa^apa^U, fa'atito 
drown, to, malemo 
drum (n.), logo 
drunk, intoxicated, ''ond 
dry (adj.), matutu, mago 
dry, to, magomago, soloi 
dry up, to, fa' asolo'i, magomago 
duck (n.), pato 
dull, blunt, mataiupa 
during, m,anu 
dust, powder (n.), efuefu 
dutiful, obedient, vaogofie 
dysentery, sanatoto 


eagle, aeto 

ear, 'ausdito, taliga 

early, vaveao 

earn, merit, to, maua 

earth, lalolagi ; dirt, ''eWele ; 
soil, mould, fogd VZeV/e 

earthquake, mafui'e 

east, sasoe 

easy, avegofid 

eat, to, '«i ; taumafa (chief- 
word) ; taute (of a king) 

ebb-tide, tai ; it is ebb-tide, ua 
pe le tai 

eclipse of the moon, 'o le gase 

edge, brink, pale 

educate, bring up, to, tausi, aoai 

eel, tuna 

egg (n.), fudmoa 

eggs, to lay, tautu'ufud 

elder (of two), ulumatua 

elephantiasis, fe'efe'e 

empire, m^alo 

empty, to, scCai, sascCa 

encircle, to, siosio 

end (n.), iuga, iu, gataaga 

end, to, iu, fcCa — , fa'a'uma 

endeavour, take pains, to, 

endure, to, onosaH, tigd 
enemy, foe, fili, 'o le ita ; my 

enemy, 'o le ita ia ie a'u 
engineer, ta'avili afi 
enmity, hostility, feitagaH 
enquire about, to, su^esu^e, 

enter (a house, etc.), to, ulufale 
entire(ly), quite, 'uma, 'atoa 
entrust, confide, to, fa'aiuatua 
envious, fa^a^iCU 
envoy, sdvali 
envy (n.), maid'U 
epidemic, fd'amaH 
establish, to, fa'avae 
esteem (n.), migao 
esteemed, mamalu 
even, level, papa 
evening, afiafi 

evidence, testimony, molimau 
evil, bad (adj.), ita, leaga 
example (n.), fd'aa'oa'o 
Excellency, susuga 
excellent, silisili 
except, aua le se aunoa 
excite, to, fa'aonoono 
excretion, feanuga 
excuse, to, fd'amagalo 
exert oneself, to, finafinau, 

exile, to, tdfeaga 
exist, to, tumau 
existence, ola, olaga 
expect, to, fd'atali 
explain, to, fa'amaiala 
explore, reconnoitre, to, asiasi 
extend, to, fa'afold 



extinguish (a light), to, fcula, 

fa' ape, fd'amate 
eye (n.), mata 
eyebrows, fulufulumaia 
eyelid, laumata 

face (n.), 7nata ; fofoga (chief - 

faith, belief, fa*aiuaiua, talUonu 
faithfulness, moni 
fall, to, pa'u 
fall asleep, to, moe 
fall out, wrangle, to, fefinana'i 
fall prostrate, to, jia'u ifo 
family, diga 
fan (n.), ili 

ffir, remote, mamao, -ca tele 
farewell, t; bid (seo hid jareivzll) 
fashion, custom, ia 
fast, to, anapogi 
fat, grease (n.), ga'o 
fat, greasy (adj.), lafideniu 
father, iamd 
fatty (adj.), lolo 
fear, fright (n.),fefe 
feast (n.), tausamiga 
feather, fulu 
February, Fepuali 
feed, line, to, faga 
feel, to, tago 
feel cold, to, Ufa 
fellow (n.), iamdloa 
fence, hedge, 'at, ^aupd 
fetter, to, fa'amau 
fever, mat, vevela 
field, tosdiio 
field-path, alaiua 
fig, matt 

fight, contest (n.), misa^ finau 
fight, to, fefmaiia'i 
file, to, 'Hi 
fill, to, iumUyfa'a — 
fill a vessel, jug, etc., to, utti 
finally, muliai 
find, to, mau 
finger (n.), tama'iUvia 
finger-nail, atigi, maiu'u 

finish, to, fa^a-uma, fa'aiu 

fire (n.), afi 

fireplace, 'ogdumu 

firewood, faJVc 

first, the, uluai, muamua 

first-born, ulumatua 

fish (n.), Va 

fish, to, fagoia 

fisherman, iatitai 

fish-hook, nidiou 

fist, w'w, fusu 

fix, to, fd'atumau 

flag (n.), fu'a 

flame (n.), mumu o le afi 

flank (n.), galu 

flat, level, papa 

flatten, iron, to, dull 

flea, utufiii 

flee, run away, to, sosola 

flesh, muscle, 'anogasc 

flight, escape (n.), sosola 

flock, herd (n.), lafu 

flood, inundation, lolo, Jogdvai 

flood-tide, tai ; it is flood-tide, 

uafaiia'e le tai 
flow, to, iafe 
flower (n.), fuga, seie 
fluid, liquid (adj.), sua 
fly (n.), lago, garova (introduced 

fly, to, lele, sosola (flee from) 
foliage, leaves, lau 
follow, to, ^ana'ana, usiusitaH ; 
mult, mulimuli (the two first 
words also mean to obey ) 
follow, to (speaking of time), 

folly, valea 
food, niea e'ai, ''aiga 
fool, jester, valea 
foot (n.), vac 
footstool, iaiivae 
for, instead of, e sui 
for, then (conj)., aud > 

forbid, to, vavao 
forbidden, sd, tapu 
force, power (n.), mana 
forehead, mua'ulu 
foreign, strange, papalagi 



forest, vao ; virgin forest, vao 

forget, to, gaU) 
forgive, to, fa'amogalo 
fork (n.), tuH 

form, shape (n.), fcCaiusUf tino 
fowl, chicken, moa 
fragment, mea lepetia 
fragrant, manogi 
fraud, deceit, mailci 
free, sa'Oj sd^oloto 
freeze, to, <o'a 
fresh, new, fou 
Friday, Asofalaile 
friend, uo 
friend ! (in addressing a person), 

sole e / 
friendly, kind, mata alofa 
frighten, to, atuatuvale 
frightened, to be, teH 
frost, sau to' a 
fruit (n.), fua, fuala'au 
fruitful, productive, uluola 
fulfil, to, taunuu 
full, tumu 

full moon, masina 'atoa 
future (adj.), atali 


gain, profit (n.), maua 

gall, bile, au 

gargle, to, pupu 

garment (of a chief), 'ofualii 

gate, door, faitotoa 

gentleman, aliH 

genuine, mom, moi 

get up, rise, to, tulaH, tu ala 

giant (n.), tagata maualuga 

gift, present, mea alofa 

gifted, endowed, atamaH 

girl, teine ; funa e /, siula I (the 

two latter words are used 

when calling to one) 
give, to, avatu, foai, mat 
give back, return, to, toe iu'u 

glad of, to be, fiafia 
glance at, to, tepa 

glass, ipu malamalama, tioata 

glass, tumbler, ipu inu, ipu 

glide, to, se'e 

glitter, shine, to, pupula 

glow, make red-hot, to, pusa 

gnash one's teeth, to, lilivau 

gnat, midge, namu 

go, to, alu, savali 

go away, to, alu'ese 

go down, to, goto 

go in, enter, to, ulu aiu, tdufale 

go out, to, tafao, ulufafo 

go out, to (of a light), mate 

go through, across, to, u aiu 

go towards, approach, to, soso 

going out (n.), iu, maliuga 

goat, ^oti (introduced word) 

God, Atua 

gold, aura (introduced word) 

good, lelei 

good-bye !, farewell !, soifua, 

gospel, tala lelei 

gossip (n.), td'utu, talatalanoa 

gracious, merciful, alofa 

gradually ), io'aiaitiiii ma to- 

grandson, atalii a le atalii 

grass, mutia 

grave, tomb, iu'ugamau 

green, lanulau'ava 

greet, salute, to, alofa, fealofcC i ; 
sogi {alofa used to be the old 
Samoan greeting when " rub- 
bing noses"). See salutation 

grey, ulusina 

grief, sorrow, tiga 

grieve, vex, to, fa'aiigd 

grind, to, 'olo 

gristle, cartilage, pondivi 

groan, to, oi, uio 

grope about, to, tautago 

grow tall, t'o, 'ese 

grudge, to bear a, muimui 

grumble, growl, to, muimui 

guard, to, fa'aeteete 

guess, conjecture, to, tnasalo 

guest, maid 



guest-house, fale talimalo 
guide, leader, 'o le laHtaH, 

guide, lead, to, taHtai, fa'aoU) 
guilt, sin, agasala, sala 
guilty, to be, sala 
gulp, swallow, to, folo 
gun (small avm), f ana 
gush out, flow out, to, puna 


hail (precipitation) (n.), uaio'a 

hair, lau'ulu, fulufulu 

half (n.), vaeluagalemu 

half (adj.), afa 

hall , fa* apmyloga 

ham, alaga i vae 

hammer (n.), samala 

hand (n.), lima, ^ao ; aao (chief- 

hand (right), iaumatau 

hand (left), tauagavale 

handicraft, trade, faiva 

handle (of a tool, etc.), 'dii 

handle, to, oso atu 

hang, to, tautau 

hang up, to, fa'atautau 

happen, to, o^o 

happiness, manuia 

happy, manuia 

harbour, port (n.), 'aua, taulaga 

hard (in substance), ma' a* a 

harvest, crop (n.), sele o le saiU) 

harvest, to, sele 

hasten, to, fa'avave, fa'ataalise 

hat, pulou papalagi 

hate, to, HnoHno 

hatred, Hno, faitagaH 

head (n.), ulu 

heap, pile (n.), faupu'ega 

hear, to, fa'alogo, lagoua ; 
JcCafojoga (chief -word) 

heat, hot weather, vevela 

heaven, lagi 

heavy, mamafd 

heel (n.), mulivae 

heighten, to, fa' amaualuga 

heir, »uli 

hell, fata ; seoli (introduced 

helm (of a ship), foeuli 
help, to, laveai, fesoasoani 
hemorrhoids, faupu'e 
hen, moa, matua 
here HHnei 
here and there, i lea mea ma lea 

hesitate, linger, to, fa'atuai 
hide, conceal, to, fa'alilo, nana, 

high, lofty, maualuga 
high (when referring to God, or 

a chief), silisili 
highroad, ala 

hill, mound, a'ega, maupu ^epu'e 
hinder, to, vavao 
hindrance, fd'alavelave 
hip, haunch, suilapalapa 
hit, struck, to be, lavea 
hoarse, to be, husky, tau'o'olo 
hold aloof, to, taumamao 
hold fast, to, taofi 
hold on, to, taofi 
hole (n.), lua, utu 
hollow (adj.), pUtfa'aoo 
home, nu'u ; my home, 'o Vou 

nu'u / is Mr. A. at home ? 

po'o iai le alii A. ? 
honey, meli 
honour (n.), mamalu 
honour, to, ava 
honoured, respected, agafa 

'atamaaWi, mamalu 
hoof (n.), atigivae 
hook (n.),fa'amau 
hope, expect, to, fa'amjoemjoe 
horizon, tafatafa i lagi 
horn, nifo 
horse, solofanua 
hospitable, talimalo 
hot, vevela 

hour of the day, ituld, or itu aso 
hour of the night, itupd ; four 

a.m., itupo e fa ; nine p.m., 

itupo e iva 
house (n.), fale 
house (of a chief), maota 



house (of a king), maota o le tupu 
house (for strangers), fale papa- 

house (built of wood), fale 

house (Samoan native), fale 

howl, to, uio, uo 
human being, tagata 
humble, lower, to , fa' amaulolo 
hump-backed, 'o le tua pi'o 
hungry (adj .), fia'ai 
hungry, to be, fa'alaina 
hunt, chase, to, tuli manu 
hunting, iuligamanu 
hurricane, afd 

hurry, to, fa'avave, fa'ataalise 
hurt oneself, to, gaugau 
husband (n.), tane 
hut, apitaga 

I, 'oM, ^o^aUf id 

idle, lazy, pai'e 

ill-bred, fouvale^ uluvale 

imbecile (adj.), valea 

imitate, to, fa'apei 

imitation (n.), fa'apei, fiiaa'oa'o 

immediately, U)a 

immodest, lematamuU 

impose, to, /a'aee 

in, i, i totonu 

include, to, iha 

indicate, to, ta'u atUy moli 

infirmity, maH 

inflammation of the eyes, ogo, 

inherit, to, suli 
ink (n.), vaitusi 
inland (adv.), i uta 
innocent, sa^o 
innumerable, lemafaitaulia 
in order that, ina sefa 
inquiry, su'ega 
inside, within, i totonu 
instruct, to, d'od'o 
instruction, mataupu 
insult (n.), upuleaga 

insult, to, fa'aleaga, fa* amasiasi, 

intend, mean, to, manatUy ma - 

intention, manatu 
interlace, twist, to, folo^atoa 
interpreter, /a' «ma^a?a upu 
interval, space, va 
intestines, ga'au^ iotoga 
invite, to, talaH 
iron, uamea 
island, nu'u motu 

yail, fale puHpuH 
January, Fanuali 
jealousy, fud 
jew, juta 

join (anyone), to, pii 
joiner, mataisau 
joint (of limb), pondivi 
journey (n.), malagay savali 
joy, pleasure, fiafia, olioli 
joyous, glad, fa'alotoiele 
judge (n.)y fa' amasino 
July, Julai 
June, Juni 

just, righteous, amioUmUy ionu 
just as, even as, tiisa, lava 
justice, amiotonu 
justify, vindicate, to, ta^uamio- 


kanaka (native of one or other 
of the South Sea groups of 
islands), tagata Sainoa^ tagata 
Fitly etc. 

kava (native drink), ^ava 

kava-bowl, tdnoa 

keep, retain, to, tausi 

keep for something, put by, to, 
ave ma 

kernel, seed (also internal organs 
of body),/a<w 

key, ki (introduced word) 

kidney, jfeiu^a'o 



kill, to, fasi, fasioti 

kind (adj .), agalelei 

kindle, to, fa'amu, tutu 

king, iupu ; regent, suitupu 

kingdom, malo 

kiss, to, sogi 

kitchen, tunoa, paito^ umu 

kitchen-range, 'ogdumu 

knead, to, palu 

knee, tulivae 

knife (n.), naHfi 

knock at, to, tuHtuH 

knot (n.), pona 

know, be acquainted with, to, 

know, be aware of, to, iloa 
Icnowledge, iloa lelei 

laborious, toaga 

ladder, alafa'apefea 

ladder-rope, apefdi 

lamb, tamaH mdmoe 

lame (adj.), supa, vaepVo 

lament, weep for, to, taufaitagi 

lamp, moli 

land (n.), nu'u ; 'ele'ele (com- 
munal land) ; fanua (piece of 

lane, aldtua 

language, tautala, gagana 

lantern, Idmepa 

late, tuai 

late in the day, 'wa po 

laugh, to, 'a^a, tapisa 

laugh at, to, tapisa, fa'aiauemu 

laughter, 'ataga 

law, tulafono 

lay down, put down, to, 

lay eggs, to, tautu'ufud 

lay waste, to, fa'atafuna 

lazy, fa' atitipa 

lead, conduct, to, pule, taHta H 

lead astray, to, fa'asese 

leaf. Id, Idu 

league (n.), feagaiga 

leap up, to, oso 

learn, to, a'o mai 

leather, pa'u 

leave, desert, to, tu'u, fa'ate'a 

tu'ulafoai, Hai 
leave, abandon, to, te*a 
leave that ! let that alone !, soia ! 
leech, tavaU 

left, on the, to the, tauagavale 
leg, vae 

legislative assembly, fono 
legitimate, moni, moi 
lemon, tipolo 
lend, to, nono. no 
length, umi (measurement) 
lengthen, to, fa'afualoa 
lest, 'aua 

let go, to, te'a, te'a ^ese 
letter, tu^si 

letter of the alphabet, mataHtusi 
liberate, free, to, fa'asa'oloto 
lick, lap, to, 'eto'eto 
lie, be situated, to, iaoto. id'atia 
lie, tell a lie, to, pepelo 
lie down, recline, to, taoto 
life, ola 

lifeless, inanimate, gase 
lifetime, olaga 
lift, to, sii, 'ope 'ope 
lift up, to, fa' aa'e 
light (to carry), mdmd 
light, to, fa'amu 
light a fire, to, tafu le aft 
light (n.), malamalama 
Hghtning, uila 
like, equal (adj.), tusa ma 
like, be fond of, to, manao 
lime, chalk (n.), namu, panisina 
limp, to, setusetu j 
line (rope), gafa 
linen-goods, 'ie 'lino 
lip, laugutu 

little, small, itiiti laitiiti 
little, few, toaitiiti 
live, reside, to, nofo, mau 
live, exist, to, ola 
liver (internal organ), ate 
living, alive, soifua 
lizard, mo'o, pili 
load, burden (n.), amo, avega 



loam, soil, om'ea 

lock (of hair), sope 

lock up, to, puni 

lonely, goagoa 

long (adj.), umi 

long (time), tuluH 

long ago, leva, ^ua leva 

long for, to, mand'o 

look after, gaze after, to, tuli- 

look at, to, matamata 
look closely at, to, pulatoa 
look for, to, saili 
looking-glass, tioata 
lose, to, le iloa 
lot, destiny (n.), vili 
louse, \itu 
love (n.), alofa 
love, to, alofa 
lovely, charming, sudmdlie 
lower, pull down, to, tu'utu^u 

lull to sleep, to, fa'amoe gase 
lunatic, moonstruck (adj.), maH 

lungs, mdmd 
lustre, gloss (n.), pupula 


machinist, ta'avili afi 

mad, insane, fasa, fa'avale- 

maggot, anufe 
magician, taulditu 
magnificent, splendid, matagofie 
magnify, enlarge, to, fa'atoatele 
maiden, teine, tdupou 
maid-servant, ^au'auna fdfine 
maize, Indian corn, sana 
make, to, fai 
make a noise, to, pisao 
make contemptible, to, fa- 

make drunk, to, fa'ainua 
make fast, tie up, to, nonoa 
make known, to, fa^asilasila 
make use of, to, fa'aaogd 
male (of animals), poa 

man, tagata, tamdloa 

man (old), toeaina 

manner, mode, uiga 

man-servant, ^au'auna, iavini 

manure, dung, otaota 

March, Mali 

mark, to, vali 

market (n.), raalae 

marriage, fa'aipoipoga 

marry, to, fa'aipoipo 

marsh, swamp, savaliga 

mast, fand 

mat, fala, toga 

match (lucifer), afitusi 

matter, pus, alou 

May, Me 

meal, repast, 'aiga ; to prepare 
a meal,/ai se Mmw 

meal (of a chief), taumafataga 

meal (of a king), tautega 

meal (ground cereal), falaomata 

mean, to, is rendered by V> 
lona uiga, meaning, " I do not 
know what it means " ; 'om 
te le iloa lona uiga 

measure (n.), fua 

measure, to, fua 

meat, beef, pulumata^u (derived 
from the English " bull and 
a cow ") 

meat (any kind but beef), aano, 

mechanic, tufuga 
medicine, vaila'au 
meeting (n.), fa' apotopotoga 
meet with, to, fetaiai, fa'a — 
melon, meleni ; water-melon, esi 
member (part of the body), tino 

mend, repair, to, fa' omasa' e,jono 
merchant, trader, tagata fa'atau 
message, fe'au 

messenger, sdvali, manu, tili 
midday, noon, aoauli 
middle (n.), tulu'a 
midnight, 'o le tulu'a o le ao ma 
i^le po 
mile, maila 
milk (n.), sudsusu 




mill, ^ol(),fale'olo 

millstone, ma'a ^olo 

mind, soul, loto 

minister of state, aliH pule 

mire, mud, palapala 

misery, puapuaga 

missionary, faife'au 

miss the mark, to, sese 

mist, fog, ausa, pute, puao 

mistake, fault, mea e pond 

mistaken, to be, err, fa (think) ; 

sese, feseaH 
mix, blend, to, palu 
mob, rabble, vao tagaia 
mock, deride, to, tauemu 
modest, matamuli 
molest, to, fa'aioesa 
moment, 'emo o le mata, 

Monday, Asogafua 
money, tupe 
month, mdsina 
moon (n.), mdsina 
moon, new, mdsina fou 
morning, taeai) 
morning-star, fetUao 
mosquito, namu 
mosquito-net, tdinamu 
mother, tind 
mountain : mountain range, 

mouse, Hmoa 

mouth, gutu ; fofoga (chief- 
move, stir, to, gaoioi 
moved, stirred, to be, dtu le 

mow, to, sele le sdito 
mud, dirt, Hnoa 
multitude (of people), motu 

murder (n.), fdsiga 
murder, to, fdsioii 
murderer, fdsioti 
muscle, anogase 
musical instrument, laupese 
must : see obliged, and in 

Syntax on the Future Tense 
mystery, tupua 


nail (n.),/ao 

naked, lelavalava, telefua, le 

name {Y\.),lgoa 
name, mention, to, igoa 
nape of the neck, ua 
narrative, story, tala, talanoaga 
narrow, slim, va apiapi 
nation, niCu 
native (of Samoa) (n.), tagata 

near, close, latalaia 
nearly, almost, tax 
necessitate, to, aogd 
neck, ua 
neck-chain, 'wZa 
need, necessity, puapuaga 
needle, aw, nila 
negligent, paVe, fd'atitipa 
neighbour, 'o le — tuaoi 

my neighbour, 'o le ma te 

thy neighbour, 'o le lua le 

his neighbour, 'o le la te tuaoi 

our neighbour, 'o le mdtou te 

your neighbour, 'o le ^ouiou 
te tuaoi 

their neighbour, 'o le Idtou te 
neighbourhood, lau'ele'ele 
nest, ofaga 
net (n.), upega 

network (adj.), fa' amataupega 
nevertheless, a e ui lava i lea 
new, fou 
next, aiali 
night, po 

nightshirt, 'o/u moe 
night-watch (n.), alalafaga 
nine, iva 

nobody, e leai se tasi 
nod, make a sign, to, genogeno 
noise (n.), pisao 
noose, snare, fd'amaufa^alave 
north, matu 



nose, isUy pogdisu 

notch, carve, to, iogitogi 

note, mark, to, iloa 

notify, announce, to, td'u aiu 

not yet, leH 

nourish, to, tausi, faga 

nourishment, food, mea e aH 

November, Novema 

now, at present, net 

number (n.), a' of at, faiiau 

number, count, to, faiiau 

nun, tdupoti sd 

nurse (n.), V> le tausi tama 

nurse, attend to, to, tausi 


oatii, iautoga 

oath, to confirm by, iaulo 

obedient, vaogofie 

obey, to, see follow, 

obliged, forced, to be (must), 

tatau ; (see Syntax on Future 

observe, watch, to, leoleo, lama- 

obstinate, stubborn, fouvale 
ocean, moana, sausau 
October, Oketopa 
off, away, 'ese 
offence, ti, tausuai 
offering (n.), taulaga 
official (n.), tofi, o le malo 
often, frequently, 5o'o 
oil (n.), sudu'u, u'u 
ointment, suau'u manogi 
old, raatua, tuai, leva 
onion, aniani 
open, to (book, hand, etc.), 

open, to (door, etc.), tatala, 

fd'aavaiwa aiu 
open (adj.), avaiioa 
opposite, e feagai mai 
oppression, persecution, saudga 
orange, moWaina 
order, command, to, pule, aoai ; 

to order something not to be 

done, to countermand, vavae 

originate, to, lupUy ola 

ornament, finery, ieu, tetiga 

orphan (n.), mdtuaoli 

orphan (adj.), mdtuaoii 

other, 'o le lasi 

out, ^ese 

out of doors, ifafo 

outside, i tua 

outside, on the, i fafo 

overcoat, 'r;/w tele 

overcome, to, manumalo 

overthrow, to, fa'atito, full 

owe, to ; this is expressed by 
'o lax 'o lo'^u seleni e sefulu, 
wliich hterally means : there 
are to him my shillings ten = 
he ov/es me ten shillings 

owl, hdu 

ox, pulumaiau (" bull and a 
cow ") 

packthread, manoa 

pain (n.), tigd ; to feel bodilv 

pain, tiga: to feel mental 

pain, dtu 
paint, to, vali 

palace (chief's house), maota 
palm of the hand, alofilima 
pants, drawers, 'ofu vae 
paper (n.), laupepa, pepa 
pardon, to, f a' amagalo, alofa 
parents (plural), mdtua 
part (n.), tofi, iofaaga 
pass away, vanish, to, mdvae 
pass by, to, aiu ane, maliu arte 
pass the night, to, api 
patch, to, fa'amasa'e 
Pater, patele 
path, ala 

path (over mountains), ala sopo 
patience, to have, fa'apalepale 
patient (adj.), ^onosa'i 
patron, utufaga 
pay, to, totogi, tau 
payment, tologi 
peace, filemu, so'otaga 
pearl, penina 



pen (n.), 2)eni 

pencil, penetala 

peninsular, mulinu'u (there is 

one so named close to Apia), 
people (n.), 'o iagata, 'o 'aw, nu'u 
perceive, to, iloa 
performer, tufuga poio 
perfume, (n.), sausau 
perhaps, aUmu 
permit, to, iu'u 
persevere, to, tumau 
persist, to, tumau, tauanau 
philosopher, sage, poto 
photograph, photography, pu- 

physician, fomaH 
pick, gather (fruit), to, tali 
pick a quarrel, to, fia misa 
pick up, to, /w'e, siiy ava'e 
picture, image, fa' atagata 
piece, morsel, tofi, fast 
pig, pua'a 
pigeon, lupe 

pillage, plunder, to, vete 
pillar, poutu 
pillow (n.), aluga 
pin (n.), pine 
pincers, Vofi 
pinch, to, Hni 
pine-apple, Jala 
pipe (n.), utujaga, paipa 
pious, agamalu 
pit, ditch, utu, lua 
place, put, to, fa'atUf tii'uai 
place (n.), rnea 
plague, vex, to, taufa'alili 
plain (n.), fanua laugatasi 
plant, to, to 
plate, dish, ipu'ai 
play to, ta'alo 
pleasant, malie, fiafia 
please : if you please, /a'a- 

molemole ; this pleases me, 

e lelei le mea lea i Ufu manatu ; 

this displeases me, e leaga le 

mea lea i lo'u manatu 
plough (n.), suotosina 
pocket (n.), taga 
pocket-handjcerchief, solosolo 

poem, upu, fa'ataoto 

poet, fatu pese 

point out, to, fa'ailoga 

poison (n.), 'ona 

poison, to, fd'a'ond 

poisoned (adj.), 'ona 

poisonous, ^ona 

police constable, leoleo 

polish shoes, to, fa'apupula 

polite, courteous, miga'o 
pond, vailepa 
pool (n.), palapala 
possess, to, tofi 
post (for fence, etc.), pou 
pot, pan, pani 
pound (n.), pauna 
pour out, to, sasa'a, liligi 
power, pule, mana, malosi 
praise (n.), viiga 
praise, to, vii 
pray, to, tatalo 
prayer, talosaga 
preach, to, talaH, folafola 
preacher, /ai/e' au 
precious stone, tu'ugama'a 
precipice, fafd, moana 
pregnant, to 

prepare (food, etc.), to, sauni 
prepared, sauni; usi (referring 

to kava) 
prepare for, to, sauni 
preserve, keep, to, tausi 
press, squeeze, to, lomi 
presume, surmise, to, masalo 
pretty, manaia, matalelei 
prevent, to, liu'ese, fdlui (to 

order a thing not to be done, 

fa' alavelave) 
previously, anamua, muai 
price, cost (n.), tau 
prick, to, tuH 
pride (n.), fa' amaualuga 
priest, faitaulaga 
print, to, lomi 
prison, f ale puHpuH 
prisoner, tagataotaua 
property, possession, tofi, 'oloa 

tdua ma . , , 



protect, defend, to, fd'amamalu 
protection, shelter, talita 
prove, test, to, su'esu'e 
provisions, stores, oso 
provoking, iia 
prudent, sensible, pofo, atama'i, 

public (aLdj.),fa'aaliali 
publication, silasilamaH 
publish by crier, to, uio 
pull off (clothes, etc.), to, to'ese, 

pull on (clothes, etc.), to, 'ofti 
pull out (teeth, etc.), to, toso 
pulpit, tuliga 
punish, to, fa' asala 
punishment, sala 
purse, iaga o le tupe 
pursue, to, tuliloa, fa'asaud 
push, thrust, to, tuHa, pesi 
put, place, to, fa'ataoto, iiCu 


quarrel (n.), misa, finauga 
quarrel, fall out, to, fevaevaea'i, 

queen, masiofo 
question, to, fesili 
quick, swift, vave 
quiet, calm (adj.), fiUmu, sao 

quiet, appease, to, fd'amafana- 

quiet, to be, nofosa'o, nofofilemu 


race (of people), iiudiga, uiga 

rack, trestle (n.), tulaga 

raging, mad, fa' avalemdlosi 

rail, bar (n.), fa alava 

railway, ala uamea 

rain (n.), ua, timu 

rain, to : it rains, 'ua ioto le ua ; 

it does not rain, e leai se ua 
raise, to, sii 

rampart, mound, 'aupd 
rash (on skin), pou 

rat (n.), isumu 

ravine, deep valley, vanu 

reach to, extend to, n'o 

read, to, faitau 

ready, 'uma, maea 

real, actual, moni 

rear (guard) (n.), mulVau 

reasonable, aiama'i 

rebellion, fouvale 

receive, accept, to, tali, talia 

reckoning, account, tusi o le 

recommend, to, ta'uleleia 
reconcile, to, fa'alelei 
red, mumu 
reed, cane, u 
reef (n.), a'au 
reflect upon, to, rnanatii, mana- 

refuge, sulufaiga 
refuse, decline, to, 7tiusu 
regent (vice-chief), suitupu 
region, country, nu''u, lau'ele^ele 
regret, to, salamo 
regulate, arrange, to, tcu 
religion, lotu 

remain, stay, to, tu'Uy nofo 
remainder, rest, U)e 
remedy, medicine, togafiti 
remembrance, manatuga, /a'a — 
remind, to, manatu, fa' amanatu 
remove (household), to, tu'ula- 

removed, 'uma, fa' a — 
repentance, salamo 
reply, to, tali 
representative, siii 
requite, to, tauii avatu se taui 
resemble, equal, to, iusa, foliga 
resemblance, foliga 
reside, to, femaliua'i 
residence, dwelling, fale 
respect, to, ava, fa' ainaluali'i 
rest, repose (n.), filcmil, ma- 

rest, to, mapu, maiolo 
restless, uneasy, atuatuvale 
return, give back, to, toe tu'u 




return, come back, to, foi mai 

reward, payment, iotogi, taui 

rice, laisa 

rich, wealthy, mau'oa 

riches, wealth, 'oZoa, 'oa 

riddle, mystery (n.), tupua 

ride, to, WeU'e i Ic solofojiua 

ridicule {n,),faiaga 

right, exact, saU), ionu 

right, just, tonit 

right, on the right hand, iiu 

ring a beil, to, iagltagi, Ja' a 
ring (finger), 7nama 
ring- worm, lafa 
ripe, mature, otd 
rise (of the sun), to, oso 
rise, to, iulaH, tu ala 
rise early, to, usu 
river, stream, vaitafe 
rivulet, brook, alia 
road, path, ala, auala 
roar, bellow, to (animals), lagi 
roast, to, falai 
rob, deprive, to, /ao, vete 
robber, 'o lefao mea 
rock, crag, papa 
rollup, to,/o/a 
roof, ufiy falealuga 
room (in a house), afeafe, 

room, space, mea 
root (n.), aa, pogai 
rot, putrefy, to, pala 
rotten, putrid, paVe 
row (a boat, etc.), to, dlo, taualo, 

rub, to, 'olo, villi 
rudder, foe 

ruddy, reddish-brown, ejuefu 
rude, ill-bred, uluvale 
ruin, depravation, malaia 
ruin, demolish, to, fa* alaf una 
rule, govern, to, pule, aWiiai 
run, to, momoe 
run away, desert, to, sola 
run out (of fluids), to, masa^a 
run to and fro, to, feoaH 
rush, reed, vao uluutu 

sacred, holy, paHa, sa 

sad, fd'anoanoa 

saddle (n.), 7iofoa 

sail (n.), Id 

sail, to, faild 

sailor, 'auva'a 

salmon, samani 

salt (n.), masima 

salutation, greeting : tdlofa ! = 

id alofa, and corresponds to 

our Good-day ! tofd, tofdina, 

soifua, good-bye I 'ua maliu 

mai I welcome ! 
sand, oneone 
satiated, ma'ona 
satisfied, md'ona 
Saturday, Asoio'onaH 
saucepan, cooking-pot, \do 
save, rescue, to, fa'aola, fa'^aso'o 
saw, to, Hli 
saw-fish, sa'old 
say, tell, to, upu, fetalai, faimai, 

scab, pa^upa^u 
scar (n.), iliganoa 
scatter, to, fa^ataapcapc, taula- 

scholar, soo 

school (n.), fale fd'aa'^oga 
scissors, sele^ulu 
scoff at, to, fa* atatiemu 
scold, to, 'o/e 
scout (n.), tagata agaga 
scratch, to, fela'u, valu 
screen, shade (n.), fa'ainalu 
sculptor, tufuga poio togiiogi 

scurf, scale, una 
sea, sami 
sea-gull, gogo 
seam (sewing), su'iga 
search for wood (for fire), to, 

seaward, i tai 
secret (adj.), liUy, lemu 
secret (n.), rnea lilo 
see !, oh, look !, fa' aula ! 



see, to, iloa, matcmiata, vaai 
see clearly, to, Ho, pulaioa 
seed, grain, sdito 
seek, to, saili 
seethe, boil, to, puna 
seize, to, pu'epu'e 
sell, to, fa'atau atu 
send, to, au, auina,fe'au 
send for, to, ami, feau 
separate, to, fa' ate' a' ese, alei fa- 

September, Setema 
sermcn, tala'iga, Iduga 
servant, tavini 

serve, attend, to, au^auna, tavini 
serviette, sologutu 
set, place, to, ti'eti'e, tu'u 
set up, to, fa' atu 
settle down, establish oneself, 

to, nofo 
sew, to, suH 
sex, tupulaga, itUdiga, gafa 

shade, shadow (n.), ata, paolo 
shade, to, fa'amalu 
shaft, 'au 

shake, jolt, to, lUlu 
shake, toss, to, luelue 
shame, disgrace (n.), luma 
shame !, what a, isa / 
shameless, mata'itu 
share, divide, to, tofiU)fi, tufa 
shark, malie 
sharp, keen, ma'ai 
shave, to, sele mama 
shear, mow, to, sele 
sheath, scabbard, fa'amoega 
shed, barn, fale saito 
sheep, mdmoe 
sheet, bed-, 'ie moe 
sheet-metal, apa memea 
shell (fish's), faisua, pule 
shepherd (n.), leoleo 
shield (n.), talita, talipupuni 
shilling, seleni 
shine, to, fa' amalamalama 
ship (n.), va'a 
ship's lantern, taetuli 
shirt, 'ofu tino 

shoe, se'evae 

shoot, fire, to, fana 

shoot off, to, fanafana 

shop (n.), fale 'oloa, fale' oa 

short, brief, pu'upu'u 

shorten, to, fa'apu'upu'u 

shoulder (n.), ua, tau'au 

shovel (n.),su() 

show, to, fa' aali, fa' aiha, fa' 031710 

shower (a sudden downpour), 

shriek, to, uio 

shut, to, manatu, pupuni 

sick, ill, to be, gasegase (chief- 
word ) 

sick, ill (adj.), ma'i 

sickness, m,aH 

side (n.), itu, asoaso 

silence, mala 

silent, to be, fa'alologo 

silly, simple, vale, valea 

silver (n.), ario 

similar to, like, tusa 

sin (n.), agasala 

since, talu 

sincere, moni 

sinew, tendon, ua 

sing, to, pese 

singing, song, pese 

sink, to, goto 

sister (of a brother), iuafafine 

sister (of a sister), two 

sit, to, nofo, ti'eii'e 

skim, to, fdnd 

skin, hide (n.), pa'u 

skin, outer, iliola 

slander, to, fa' aupuleaga, ia'ua 

slate (writing), ma' aiusi 

slate-pencil, pene ma' a 

slaughter, to, fdsi 

slave, pologa 

slay, to, fdsi 

sleep, to, m,oe 

sleep, to lull to, see lull 

sleepy, fiamoe 

slew about, waver, to, ta'amli 

slope, ifo'ai 

smell, scent (n.), manogi 



smell, to, sogisogi 

smell of, to, pipilo 

smell strongly, to, elo 

smelt (ore), to, tunu 

smoke, vapour, asu 

smooth, iron, to, duli 

smooth (adj.), lamolemole 

snake, gata 

sneeze, to, mdfatua 

snore, to, idgulu 

soft, agamalu, malu, vaivai 

soil, earth, ome'a 

soldier, fitafltay tagata tau 

soldiery, 'aw 

sole (of the foot), ahfivae 

some, a few, nai 

something, sina 

song, pese 

soon, nanei 

soon after, nanei 

sooner, anamua 

sorrow, care (n.), sopola 

soul, agaga, atamaH 

sound, healthy, mdlolo 

sound (n.), tagitagiy pao 

soimd the trumpet, to. Hi pu 

soup, supo, piasua 

sour, ^o'ona 

south, itu i toga, saute 

space, room (n.), mea 

spare, save, to, ahfa 

speak, talk, to, upu, fai atu, 

speak to anyone, to, fai mai, fai 

atu, fetalai, tola ; tulie (cliief- 

speak a language, to, tautala ; 

do you speak English ^ pe e te 

iloa tautala fa" apeletania ? 
spear (n.), tat) 
spectre, apparition, aitu 
speech, oration, upu, tola, feta- 

spider, apogaleveleve 
spill, to, fa' amaligi 
spin, to, mih 

spirit, ghost, agaga, atamaH 
spirituous liquor, 'ava papalagi 
spit, to, feanu 

spiteful, ulavale 

spit out, to, feanu 

spittle, feanuga 

splendour, pomp, matagofie 

spoil, to, Uaga 

spoiled, stained, pala 

sponge (n.), omomi 

spoon, punu 

spot, stain (n.), Ha 

spotted, stained, ilaila 

sprig, shoot, fatafata 

spring, to, oso, fiti 

spring of water, punavai 

spy (n.), tagata agaga 

squint, to, matasesepa 

squirt, to, sausau 

stable (n.), latod 

staff (n.), to'oto'o 

stag, aila 

stagger, to, lulu 

staircase, ala faapefai 

stammer, to, nanu 

stand, to, tU 

stand about, to, fa'ataamiU) 

stand by, to, fesoasoani 

star (n.), fetU 

starch-meal, masod 

starling, fuia 

starvation, 'oge 

statue, tupua 

stay, sojourn, to, fa^atuai 

stay, pay a visit, to, api 

steal, pilfer, to, gdoi 

steam (n.), asu 

steam-boat, setima (steamer 

steep, to, tofu 

stick (n.), to'oto'o 

still, silent, filemU 

stimulate, to, fa'aosooso 

sting, to, tuH 

stir, mix, to, palu 

stir up, incite, fa'anunununu 

stocking, totini 

stomach (n.), mdnava, pulu, 

puta : toga'ai (of animals) 
stomach-ache, 'o le tigd o le 

stone (n.), ma'a : fatu (fruit- 



stony, mcHoCa 

stoop, to, puntm 

stop, to, mavae 

store, shop (n.), fale'oa, fale 

storm (n.), «/«> matagi, agi 
straight, direct, sa'a 
straits (geographical), vasa 
strange, odd, 'ese 
strange, foreign, papalagi 
stranger, alien, tagaia papalagi 
strangle, to, titina 
strength, force, malosi 
strengthen, to, fa'amalosi 
stretch out, to, fa'aloaloa, 

strike, to, td 
strike off, to, tipi "ese 
strong, powerful, malosi 
struggle, to, fagatua 
stubborn, ua ma' a' a 
stuff, material. He 
stupid, dull, valea, matavole 
subdue, to, tu'uildU) 
suck, to, miii 
sudden, fa'afuasei 
suffer, to, onosaH 
sulphur, teio 
sum (n.), 'atoatoa 
summer, vaitoelau 
summon, to, aami 
sun (n.), Id 
Sunday, Asosd 
sunset, goto o le Id 

sutiset-glow, ataata 

superintend, to, pule 

sure, certain, moni 

surf, galu 

surprised, to be, ofo 

surround, to, siosio 

swallow, to, folo 

swamp (n.), palapala 

swear, to, tauto 

sweat, to, sudmalie 

swell up, to, fula 

swelling, /w/« 

swim, to, a'au, 'au 

swoon, fainting-fit, maiapogia 

sword, pelu 

table (dining-, etc.), laulau 

table-cloth. He laulau 

tail, iu, sVusVu 

tail (of a bird), 'o le fulu alo 

muli , . 

tailor, tufugafaVofu, 'o le sui 
take, to, ave, avaiie 
take down, to, ave ifo 
take up, to, pu'epu'c 
talk idly, to, ta'ufua 
tame, to, toilalo 

tanner of skins, fai pa'u manu 
taste, test, to, tofo 
taste (n.), manamu, manogi 
taste acid, to, feu 
tax (n.), taulaga 
teach, to, a'o, a'oao alu 
teacher, faid'oga 
tear (drop), loimata 
tear, rend, to, sac 
tear out, to, toso 'ese 
tease, chaff, to, taufa 'alili 
teeth (set of), 'o nifo 
tell, to, see say 
tell, relate, tala, ta'u 
tenacious, tough, fefeu, feu 
tepid, lukewarm, mdfanafana^ 
terror, fright, mata'uiia, fa'a- 

testify, to, moli 
thsLuk, to, fa' af eta i 
that, lend, lea 

the more — the — , atali — ai — 
then (adv.), 'ona — ai lea 
there, i ai, ia iHla, Ho, tela 
therefore, 'o le mea 
therein, i totonu 
there is : see Grammar under 

Irregular Verbs 
these, ia 

thick, lapoa, lapopoa 
thief, gafoi ; literally meaning, 
to keep something a secret. 
Samoans hold all possessions 
in common, and therefore 
actual theft is (or rather was, 
until the advent of the white 
man) unknown 



thigh, loin, auaga ; shank, oga- 

tliin, lean, lafud, pa'e'e 

thing, mea 

think, to, manatu ; fa (which 
has a like meaning in the 
native mind), to be mistaken 

thirsty, to be, fiainu 

this, lenei 

thistle, la'au talatala 

thorn, la'autu HtuH 

thought, idea, manatu 

thousand, afe 

thread (n.), filo 

threaten, to, fa' asai 

threshold, la'au fa'aleva 

throat, larynx, /a' ai 

throne, nofodlii 

through, by, e 

throw, cast, to, togi, lafo 

throw away, to, lafo 

throw down, to, tu'uilalo 

thumb, lima matua 

thunder, faititili 

Thursday, Asotofi 

tie, to, nonoa, fusi 

tight, tense, sa'o 

tile, brick (n.), ma' a ome'a 

time (n.), ituld 

time : what is the time ? pe c 
fia le vai aso ? or, pc e fia le 
itu Id ? or, po'ua td le fia ? 

time, to appoint a, iu'u po 

tired, languid, lailoa 

to, as far as, se'la, e o'o 

tobacco, tapa'a 

to-day, asonet, analeild 

toe (n.), tamaHvae 

together, fa'atasi ma 

to-morrow, i le taeao 

to-morrow morning, vaea/) 

tool (of trade), faiva 

tooth, 7iifo 

top, summit, iumutumu 

torch, sulu 

torment, to, fa'atigd 

tortoise-shell, 'o le uga le laumei 

touch, to, paH, papa atu, tago 

towards, against, e laga mai 

towel, 'ie solo 

tower (n.), ^olo 

town, aai, 'ai 

trade, barter, to, faiva, tofigay 

trade, calling (n.), faiva 
trader, dealer, fa'atauo'a 
trample down, to, soli 
transgress, to, sopo 
transparent, mdlamalama 
trap, snare (n.), mailei 
travel, to, savali, alu i le malaga 
tread, step, to, soli 
treasure, store (n.), 'oa, 'oloa 
tree, la'au 

tremble, shiver, to, gatete 
trespass (n,) solitulafono 
trial, examination, su'esu'ega 
tribute, lafoga 
trick, artifice, togafiti 
trimming, welt (of shoe), taai 
trinket, jewellery, teu 
trousers, 'o/u vae 
true, genuine, moni, moi 
trumpet, pu. See sound 
truth, fa' amoni, fa'amaoni 
try, exert, to, taumafai 
tub, water-, iuluga 
tube, pipe, maga 
Tuesday, Asolua 
tumour, swelling, patu 
turn (on a lathe), to, ta'avili 
turn about, to, liu 
turn aside, to, fa' asaga 
turn away, turn out, to, iuli 'ese 
turn the back, to, liutua 
turn oneself (in bed, etc.), to, 

fdliu . 
turn over, to, liu 
turn round, invert, to, toefoi atu 
turtle, laumei 
twine, thread, 'afa, manoa 
twins, masaga 
twist, plait, to, fili, fa'api*o 
typhus, ma'i vevela, toto vela 


udder, susu 
ugly, matapua'a 



unclean, leaga 
uncooked, fa'alevela 
underclothing, initiafu 
understand, to, iha, malamalama 
understanding, judgment, fa'au- 

tauia fdVai 
unfaithful, pepelo 
ungrateful, agavale 
unintentionally, faafuasei 
unite, to, faatasi 
unripe, moto 
untie, to, taiala 
up, upwards, «'c 
upright, erect, fa'atuiu 
uproar, fouvale, ta'alili vale 
upset, overthrow, to, taju'c 
use, to, tndsanijfa'a — 
useful, profitable, aogd 

vain, fruitless, fai fua 

valley, vanu ; alia (one through 
which a river flows) 

value little, to, ta'ufa'atauvaa 

vanguard, mud'au 

vapour, ausa 

variegated, tiisitusi 

veil (n.), ufiufimaia 

vein, ua 

veranda, poletilo 

very, greatly, siU, atili, maiudi 

vessel (for holding liquids), ipu 

village, ^ai 

visit, call upon, to, asiasi 

voice (n.), tea ; siufofoga (chief- 

volcano, mauga mil 

wade through, to, dsa 

wages, pay, tau 

waistcoat, tao ^ofu 

wait, to, fa'aiali 

wait (for anyone), to, lamalama 

wake, rouse, to, fafagii, fa'ala 

walk, to go for a, lafao, eva 

walk in the moonlight, to, 
evacvaga i le niasina 

wall, partition, pd. There are 
no permanent walls in Samoan 
native houses, mats ('o polo) 
being hung up where necessary 
to serve the purpose 

wall, hedge, ^aiipd, pd 

wander hither and thither, to, 
alualu, feoai 

wander about, lead a nomadic 
life, to, jnaumaiisoU) 

want, deficiency, aunoa 

want, lack, to, mativa, aunoa 

war (n.), taua, iau 

wfirm, to, lagilagi 

warm (adj.), vevela 

warmth, vevela 

warn, caution, to, apoapo 

warrior, fitafita^ tagata tau 

war-ship, manuao (" man-of- 
war ") 

w^art, sila Hlalo 

waste, squander, to, mdumdu, 
fa'a — 

watch (time-piece), uali (intro- 
duced word) 

watch, to, leo 

watch, to keep night-, aldla 

watchman, sentinel, leoleo 

watch over, to, fd'amau 

water (n.), vai 

water, to fetch, utu vai 

water-piosct,/6//e iu 

waterfall, afu 

water-hen, coot, ve^a 

wave, billow, galu, sou 

weak, feeble, vaivai 

weapon, fana, 'auupega 

weary, tired, lailoa^ Jiamoc 

weave, to, Idga 

wedding, fa'aipoipoga 

Wednesday, Asolulu 

v/eek, vaiaso sd 

weep, cry over, to, tagi 

weight, /wa 

weii (of water), vaVcli 

well-bred, vaogofie 

well up, erupt, to, puna 



west, sisifo 

wet, moist, susu 

wet, moisten, tdsfa'asusu 

wheel (n.), 7nea e taavalevale 

whip (n.), sasa 

whistle, to, fa'aili 

white, sinasina 

white-haired, 'ulusina 

whiten, to, jd'asina 

wicked, aiili 

widen, to, fa'alautele 

widow, fdflne 'ua ^oti le tane 

widower, tagata ^ua UM le avd 

wife, avd 

wife (of a chief), faleiua 

wife (of a king), masiofo 

wild, fierce, auvao, fe'ai 

wild-duck, taloa 

wilful, ua ma^a'a 

will, mind (n.), U)io ; finagolo 

will, to do one's, fd* alotomdlie 
willing, to be ; intend, to, fia, 

lotOf mdfai 
wind, breeze, matagi, agi 
window, fa^ amalama 
wine, uaina 

wing (n.), apa'au, aapau 
wink, to, 'emo 

winter, vaipahlo, iau maalili 
wish for, desire, to, mancu) 
wither, dry up, to, magomago 
without, na, e aunoa 
\vath that, and then, ina ia^ ia 
witness (n.), moli 
woman, wife, fdfme 
woman, old, lifomatua 
woman (wife of a chief), faleiua 
wonder, marvel (n.), vavega 

wonder, to, ofo 
wonderful, silisili Vse 
wood, bush, la^au, fafi'e 
word (n.), upu ; afloga (chief - 

work (n.), galuega 
work, to, galue 
workman, tufuga faifale 
world, lagi, lalolagi 
worm (n.), anufe, ilo, ipo 
worry, be anxious, to, tausi 
worship, ijo ; tapuai (worship 

v.ound (n.), manu'a 
wound, to, manu'a 
wrap up, to, aui 
wreath, garland, pale^ pou 
wrist, tapulima 
write, to, tiLsi 
writer, 'o le tusitusi 
writing-tablet, slate, ma^atusi 

yard, court, lotod 

yawn, to, mavava 

year, tausaga 

yellow, samasama 

yellowish-brown, ^ena^ena 

yes, e, ioe, 'c lea lava 

yesterday, ananafi 

yoke (n.), amo 

young (adj.), itiiti 

young (of animals) (adj.), taanoa 

young one (of animals), toloaH, 

youth, lad, taulealea, taulelea ; 

mdnaia (chief-word) 


'a, when, if 
aa, root (n.) 
a'a, to kick 
a'ai, to eat 
aai, town, village 

aami, to send for 

aano^ meat 

aaji)y hand (chief -word), limb (n.) 

aao taumatau, right hand 

aao tauagavale, left hand 



aapa, to stretch (out) ; some- 

aapau, wing (n.) 

aau, to send 

a' aw, diff, crag ; to swim 

aauloa, to send immediately 

0*6, up, upwards 

o'ea'Cf to ascend 

a'ega, hill, rising ground 

ae e ui lava i lea, nevertheless, 

fi^e mci, to come up 

a"e peitai, but (conj.) 

aeio, eagle 

afd, storm (n.) 

afa, half (adj.) 

afdflne^ daughter of a father 

'afai, when, if 

ajaina, danger 

afea, when 

afeafe, room (in a house) 

afi, fire (n.) 

afiafi, evening, afternoon 

afio, to come (chief- word) 

afioga, word, order, will (mind), 

afio ifo, to come down 

oflo mai ia /, welcome ! 

afitusi, match (lucifer) 

a/w, perspiration 

^afua ana, to begin from, 

aga, to act, do 

agaga, spirit, soul 

agaga paHa, Holy Ghost 

agaleaga, to act basely 

agalelei, to be kind, amiable 

agafa^atamaaUHy honoured 

agamalu, pious, meek 

agasala, sin (n.) ; to sin 

agavale, ungrateful 

dgelUf angel 

agif storm (n.) 

ai, ai lava, at the beginning of a 
sentence means indeed. Ex. : 
ai sa alofa tele lona uso, he 
loved his brother very much 
indeed ; he must indeed have 
loved him 

a'l, fence, hedge, village 

'at, to eat 

d'ga, family, kinship, tribe 

aila, stag 

aioi, to beg, request 

ai se d ?, why ? 

aitalafu, to borrow 

aitu, ghost, apparition 

ala, to get up, rise ; to scratch ; 
to originate, begin from 

ala, road, path 

aldfau, cheek 

aldfu, cheek 

ala fa'apefea, staircase, ladder 

alaga, to call, cry 

alaga i vae, ham, bacon 

alaia, to watch, guard 

alalafaga, night-watch (n.) 

ala sopo, ford (n.) ; mountain- 

aldtua, field-path 

ala u'amea, railway 

alei, to drive away, expel 

all, cushion, pillow 

alia, stream ; valley through 
which a stream flows 

alii, chief, gentleman 

alii ave 'au, captain 

aliiiai, to rule, govern 

alo'ese, to hold fast to ; to 

alofa, to love ; love (n.) ; 
favour (n.) ; greeting, to 
salute ; to spare, save 

alofilima, palm of the hand 

ahfivae, sole of the foot 

alu atu, to go 

alu mai, to come 

alu 'ese, to go away 

alu 'alu, drop (n.) 

aluga, pillow (n.) 

amaise, together with 

amata, to begin 

amataga, beginning 

amio, behaviour, conduct 

amiotonu, just, righteous 

amioletonu, unjust 

amo, beam (of wood); to carry, 



amoina, to take the burden upon 

^amu, coral 
'amw 'wZa, red coral 
amuia, happy, contented 
amulU the following (adj.) (re- 
ferring to time) 
ana^ cave (n.) 
^ ana* ana, to obey 
analeildy to-day ; a short time 

anamua, previously ; ancestors 
ananafi, yesterday 
anapo, the approaching night 
andpo iolu, three days ago 
anapogiy to abstain from, to fast 
anianiy onion 
anogase, muscle 
anufCy worm, caterpillar 
aOy as if 
ao, morning ; cloud (n.) ; day 

(as opposed to night) 
ojoai, to bring up, educate ; to 

command ; to threaten ; to 

throw to 
a'oa^o, to teach ; to learn 
aogd, use (n.), use/ul ; need (n.), 

a^)fai, number (n.), quantity 
a'aga, instruction, school 
a^) lei, before 

^apa, sheet-metal ; box (n.) 
apa'au, wing (n.) 
'apa memea, ore 
apefdi, ladder 
Apelila, April 
api, to be staying, to pass the 

apitaga, hut 
apo, quick 

apoapo, to warn, to admonish 
apoapoaH, to admonish 
apogaleveleve, spider 
ario, silver 
areio, bread 

asa, to wade through (water) 
asaga, ford (n.) 
asiasi, to visit ; to look after 
asOf day (see Grammar) 

asonei, to-day 

asu, smoke (n.) 

'a/a, shade, shadow (n.) 

a' a, to laugh 

ataga, laughter 

ataata, sunset-glow 

atalave, scorpion 

atali, future, next (adj.) 

atalii, son 

atamaHy prudent, reasonable 

ate, liver (organ of the body) 

atevae, calf (of the leg) 

ati, to build 

atigi, finger-nail 

atigi vae, hoof, claw 

atigu, to carve faces (on rocks, 

atili, very ; bad, mischievous 
ato, basket ; to cover 
^atoa, quite 

'atoatoa, perfect ; sum (n.) 
aUmu, perhaps 
dtu le loto, to be pleased 
atu, rank, line (n.) 
atualo, centipede 
atuatuvale, uneasy, excited, 

atula'au, chest, case 
au, needle ; gall, bile 
'aw, people, soldiery. (Note 

that '' the people " is singular, 

'o le ""au.) 
'*du, shaft ; handle (of a tool) 
^aua, lest 

^audy because, as ; then 
auae, sea -fish 
auaga, loin, haunch 
aucUa, road 

auala laupapa, bridge (n.) 
^aua le se aunoa, except 
aualuma, the house used in 

common by girls of a village 
^au'auna, to serve ; servant 
au'ese, to send away 
dufana, bow (archery) 
augani, to curse, bewitch 
duli, to iron, smooth 
au mai, to give (when the 

person acting is the recipient) 



dumaUy to stay anyrvhere as a 

aumea, guest 

aumocy to arrange a marriage 
aumoega, matrimonial match- 

aunoa, defect, want, mistake 
auoliy midday 
^aupd, rampart, wall 
''aupd'aiy fence, hedge 
aupolapola, an improvised fan 
auro, gold 
ansa, fog ; steam 
'au saito, ear 

'aw upegUy arms, equipment 
^auva'a, sailor ; sea-beach 
''auvaiy bank, shore 
avtty to honour, respect 
'aua, beard (n.) ; harbour ; 

kava (a native drink) 
avae, to take away 
avagOy to live in concubinage 
^ava papalagiy spirituous liquor 
avane, to give 

avanotty to open ; open (adj.) 
avatUy to give ; to send (when 

the person acting gives, or 

sends something. See aumai) 
avatu se tauiy to repay 
avCy to take 
avea may to keep, put aside for a 

avegUy load, burden (n.) ; work 
avegofiey light (to carry) 
ave'esey to take away 
ave ifOy to take down, lift down 
ave ma, to keep, put aside 


e, through, by ; yes 

eay well ? indeed ? (used only 

e aunoa, without 
^e'enay brown 
e i aiy there is, there are 
efuefu, dust, powder (n.) ; red- 

e laga mai, against 

e lata ane, near, close by 

e leaiy no 

e leai se, nobody 

'ele'elCy mud, earth 

^ele'eleay dirty 

^eliy to dig ; ditch 

elOy to smell strongly 

'cmo, to wink 

e m/mi .', sure !, certain ! 

^emo o le viatay moment 

'ena'ena, yellowish-brown 

e per, such as 

'ese, away ; foreign, different ; 

esiy melon 

e sui 'm, instead of, for 
etCy purse ; sack 
^eto'etOy to lick, lap 
ei/'fl, to go for a walk 
evaevagtty to go for a walk by 

eu 'esCy to draw out, pull out 
e ui lava ina, even if, even when 


fa, four ; to be mistaken, err 

fa'aalay to awake, rouse 

fa'aaliy to show, to appear 

fa'aalialiy public (adj.) 

fa'aaliga, sign, signal (n.) ; ap- 
pearance ; shine (n.) 

fa'aapCy to extinguish, quench 

fd'aasUy to perfume, fumigate 

fa'a'atay mirror (n.) ; to glitter 

fa'aavanoay to open (door, etc. ) 

fa'aa'Cy to lift up 

fa'aeCy to stretch out an article 
on something 

fa'aeteetCy to guard, preserve 

fa'afetaHy to think 

fa'afeiaiaiy to meet with, happen 

fd'afiti, to deny 

fa'afoi atUy maiy to bring back 

Ja'afofogay to hear, perceive ; to 
perceive (chief-word) 

fa'afualoay to lengthen 

fa'afuaseiy sudden(ly), without 



fa'agoto, to sink 
fa'agutu, bridle (horse's) 
fa'ailoga, to draw forth ; to 

mark, to delineate 
fa'aili, to whistle, pipe 
fa'ainua, to make one drunk 
fa'aiteite, fright, terror 
fa'ailiitiy to shorten, diminish; 

to withdraw a few paces 
fa'aiu, to finish, conclude 
fa'aldina, to suffer hunger 
fa^alaleaga, to dissemble 
fa^alata^ to betray 
fa*alautele, to enlarge, extend 
fa'aleaoga, to despise, to fall in 

one's estimation 
fa'alelei ma, to reconcile, to be 

fa' aletumau, to be inconsistent 
fd'alevela, raw, uncooked 
fa'alilo, secret, concealed 
fa'aliu, to translate 
fa'alogo, to hear 
fd'alogologo, to be silent 
fa' alotomalie, to do one's will 
fa'alototelef joyful, contented 
fa'amafanafana, to comfort, 

fa'amafola atu, to open (the 

hand or a book) 
fa'amagalo, to pardon, forgive 
fcHancCi, epidemic 
fa" amalama, window 
fa*amalamalama, to shine 
fa*amaligi, to spill, shed 
fa'amdlolo, to cure, heal 
fa'amdlosi, fatigued 
fa'amalu, to bathe (chief-word) 
foUamalu, screen, shade (n.) 
fcC aTnalualii, to honour, respect 
fcCamalulu, to cool 
fcCamama, to clean 
fd'amdnaia, to make beautiful 
fa" amanatuga, memory, remem- 
fa'amanuia, to bless 
fa'ammmiy true, faithful 
fa'amasani, to exercise, practice 
fa'^amasiasii to insult 

fa'amasese, to separate 
fa'amatala, to explain, translate 
fa'amatala upu, interpreter 
fa'amau, to watch over ; to hold 
fast to ; to fasten, stitch on 
to ; hook (n.) ; nail (n.) 
fa' amaualuga, pride, haughtiness 
fa'amaufa'alave, noose, snare 
fa'amaulalo, to degrade oneself 
fa' amaurnau, to squander, waste 
fa'amavae, to bid farewell 
fa'amoega, cover, wrapper ; 

fa'amoegase, to lull to sleep 
fa'amolemole, please I (entreat- 
fa'amoemoe, to hope, expect 
fa'amu, to set fire to 
fa'anoanoa, sad, afflicted 
fa'anunununu, to inquire ; to 

incite, stir up 
fa' a' of u, to dress 
fa'aola, to save, rescue 
fa'a'ole'oky to cheat, deceive 
fa'aonoonOy to rouse, excite 
fa'ao'o, to convey, bring to 
fa'aopoopo, to increase 
fa'aosooso, to goad, entice 
fa'apai'a, to consecrate, dedicate 
fa' apalepale, patience : patient 

fa'apa^u, to fall prostrate 
fa'apea, so, thus 
fa'apea mai, to speak thus 
fa'apefea, how ? 
fa'apei, to initiate 
fa'apena, so big, as large as that 
fa'api'opi'o, to twist, disfigure 
fa'apogisa, to darken 
fa'apotopoto, to collect, assemble 
fa'apotopotoga, assembly, meet- 
fa'apupula, to polish, brighten 
fa'apu'upu'Uy to shorten 
fa'asaga, to turn aside 
fa'asai, to threaten 
fa'asala, to punish 
fa'asa'Oy rescue, save 
fa'asaudi to pursue, oppress 



fd'asese, to transport ; to lead 

fa' asilasila^ to make known 
fa'asilasila mat, publication 
fd*asinai to whiten 
fa'asino, to explain 
fa^asoo, to bind up, unite 
fa'ataalise, to hurry, go quickly 
fa'ataapeape, to scatter, disperse 
fa'atafafdf square (n.) ; square 

fa'atufuna, to destroy 
fd'atafunama, destruction 
fa'atagata, picture (n.) 
fii'atagataotaua, prisoner, pris- 
oner of war 
fa'atali, to wait, expect, hope 
fa'atamala, to defy, brave 
fa'ataoto, to set doTVTi, lay 
f(Catasi, to lay together ; to 

unite with someone 
fa^atasi ma, together with 
fa'atasi milomilo, to surround 
jd'atau, to buy ; sell, trade 
fa* atauanau, to compel ; to 
press a person to an action so 
that at last he does as he is 
fa'atauaso, to blind 
fa^atauasoina, to become blind 
fa'atauemu, to scoff at 
fa^aiumaoi, to spoil, mar (a 

fa^atautau, to hang up 
fa^atauva'a, common, customary 
fa^ate'a, to remove ; forsaken 

fa^ate^a'ese, to drive away, expel 
fa^atele, to enlarge, magnify 
fd'atitOf to overthrow, to let drop 
fd'atitipa, lazy, negligent 
fa'atifa, first, at first 
fd'atoafaiavdi bridegroom (ob- 
fd'atoaga, garden 
fa^aUianofotane, bride (obsolete) 
fd'atoatekf to increase, enlarge 
fa'atoesa, to molest 
fa'atoga^ to request, beg for alms 

fa'atoilalo, to subdue 

fa'aionu, copy, pattern ; to give 
someone a copy or pattern 
from which to work 

fa?ataoto, example, parable 

fa'otoidf to water, to rain 

fa'atu, to place, set up 

fa'aiuatua, to believe, confide 

fd'atuai, to hesitate, remain 

fa^atumau, to fix, settle 

fa'aiusa, to compare, to be 

fd'atutu, upright, erect 

fa'atumu, to fill 

fa'auliuli, to blacken 

fcCcCwma, to finish 

fa'auta /, look ! 

fd'autauta, understanding, in- 

fa'au^Uy to anoint 

fa'auu, to be envious 

fd'avae, to build, establish 

fa'avaivai le loto, to cause 
fright ; to lose courage 

fd'avalea, to behave foolishly 

fa'avalemdlosi, furious, insane 

fa'avavau, everlasting 

fa'avave, to hurry 

fafd, precipice ; nether regions 

fafi^e, firewood 

fdflnCf woman 

faga, to line ; feed 

fagatua, to fight, struggle 

fagaiuaga; fight, combat (n.) 

fagota, to fish 

fafagu, to wake, arouse 

fdgu, bottle (n.) 

fdgu pa^u, leather bag 

fai, to make, do 

faH, banana 

faiagttf to consider one a fool 

faiai, brains, intellect 

faia ''oga, teacher 

fai atu, to advise anyone ; to 
arrange (order) anything 

faifaiva, workman 

faife^au, preacher 

faifolaoa, baker 

faigd, to turn over and over 



faigaluega, work (n.) ; to work 

faigatd, difficult 

faigofie, easy 

faildj to sail 

Jailauga, orator of a village 

fai ma ... to make, or do, 

something for someone 
faimasae, to mend, patch 
fai pa'u o le manu, tanner ; to 

faipule, member of the council 
faiso'o, constant, continual 
faisua, shell (n.) 
faitaUy to count, reckon, read 
faitaulaga, priest 
faititili, thunder (n.) 
faitotoa, door, gate 
faiva^ trade, calling, employ- 
ment ; tool of trade 
fala, mat (n.) 
falaH, to bake 
falaoa, bread 

falaoamata, meal (ground corn) 
falCf house, building 
fale fa'amasiru), court of justice 
fale faia'oga, school (n.) 
faleHet tent 

fale laupapa, wooden house 
fale ^oloa, Uya, shop, store 
fale papalagiy a European's 

fale puipui, prison 

fale sd, church 

fale sdito, barn, shed 

fale talimo, talimalo, guest-house 
fale uif closet 

fale 'ulu, house built of bread- 
fruit tree timber 

faletua, wife of a chief 

fdliu, to turn oneself over 

fold, to stretch out, spread 

fanay gun ; to shoot 

fdnd, to skim 

fand, ship's mast 

fana^e, to rise (of water) 

fanafanua, cannon 

fdnau, to give birth to ; birth ; 
children (in general) 

fano, to perish 

fanutty land, piece of land 

fanua laugatasi, plain (n.) 

fanua oti, churchyard 

faOy nail (n.) 

fao, to rob ; tagata fao mea, 

fasa, insane 

fasiy to strike, to kill ; piece (n.) 
fdsiga, murder ; battle (n.) 
fasioti, to kill, strike dead 
fata, to bear, carry ; barrow 

(n.) ; rack, trestle 
fata fa'ataavalevale, waggon, 

fata faitaulaga, old age 
fatafata, breast (n.) ; sprig, 

faitaga, to hate 
fatitu, to stand upright (of 

fatUy heart (as organ) ; seed, 

kernel, stone (of fruit) 
fatufatuaH, to meditate 
faUy fau-tree 
faufauavd, engaged to be married 

(referring to a man) 
faufautancy engaged to be mar- 
ried (of a woman) 
faupu'e, to heap, pile up 
faupu'ega, heap, pile (n.) 
feagaHga, alliance, league 
fealuaHy to ramble about 

(plural, feoaH) 
feanuy to spit 
feanuga, spittle 
fe^aUy message, news ; to order 

something to be fetched ; to 

send for 
fed'u, to scratch, scrape 
/e'e, cuttlefish 
fefe, fright ; to frighten 
/e'e/e'e, elephantiasis 
fefete, to ferment ; to be puffed 

fefeuy tough, tenacious 
feitagaHy hatred, enmity 
felafolafoaHy to meditate 
femaliuaHy to go round about ; 

to reside 



fcmcmeaH, despair (n.) 

feoai, to associate with. (See 

also fealuaH) 
feoi, to complain 
fesea/i, to go astray, lose one's 

fesili, to ask ; question (n.) 
fesoasoanii to help, stand by 

fetaiaiy to happen 
fetalaH, to talk 
fetalaHga, speech, oration 
fetaulaHga ala, cross-road 
fetu, star 

fetu ao, morning-star 
fetu lele, shooting-star 
fetuUf to curse 

feula, to extinguish, blot out 
fevaevaeaH, to be at variance, 

fia, to be willing 
flafia, to be glad of ; enjoyment 
fiainUi to be thirsty 
fiamoCy weary, tired 
fiatutu, to do a thing willingly 
filifili, to advise ; thread (n.) 
fill, adversary 
filigdy industrious 
filOy thread (n.) 
finagalo, will, mind (n.) ; to be 

willing (chief -word) 
finafinau, to exert oneself ; to 

give trouble 
finau, contest (n.) ; to fight ; 

dispute (n.), discussion 
finaugay fight (n.), altercation 
fitafita, brave (adj .) ; soldier 
fo, to cure, heal 
foa, to wound 

foaiy to hand over, deliver up 
fodmoa, egg 
foe, rudder 
foeuliy helm 

fofoga, face ; voice (chief- word) 
fofotty to brood, hatch 
fogd ^eWeUy earth, soil ; in 

common, general (adj.) 
fogdvaiy waters, flood 
folUy to swell up ; to roll up 

folafola, to roll up ; to develop ; 
to carry forward ; to explain 

foligay likeness, resemblance 

fol(), to gulp, swallow 

folo ^atoUy to twist, interlace 

fomaHy physician 

fonOy council meeting 

foiUy to grow green, flourish ; to 
beat out ; to give birth to 
(chief -Avord) 

foUy new, fresh 

fouvale, disobedient 

futty measure (n.) ; to measure : 
fua-fruit ; in vain ; by one- 
self ; without motive ; naked 

fudy eager ; jealous ; zeal 

fu'tt, flag (n.) 

fuald'aUy blossom ; trees 

fu'ey to take up, pick up 

fiifulay to swell up 

fufulii, to clean, wash 

fuga, flower, bloom (n.) 

fuiy to dip ; to fill 

fuitty starling 

fuifuly vine, pigeon (introduced 

fula, swelling 

fuliy to upset ; to roll, turn 

fulUy feather 

fulufulUy hair 

funa e .', girl ! 

fusiy bandage ; to bind ; pool, 

fusUy fist ; to fight with the fists 

gaaUy entrails 

gafUy thread (n.); family; sex 

gaganUy speech, language 

gai), to forget 

galue, to work 

galuegtty work (n.) 

^a'o,fat (n.) ; bacon 

gaod, stony 

gaogaOy desert, waste, empty 

gadiy thief ; to steal ; theft 



gapepe, crooked ; to be bent, 

gase, to splash 

gase, languid : dry (adj.) ; lifeless 

gase'ele^ele. eclipse of the mooD 

gasegasCt to be unwell (chief- 

gasetoto, eclipse of the sun 

gata, snake 

gaiaaga^ end (n.) 

gatefp, to tremble, shiver 

gaUf to break to pieces 

gaugaiiy to hurt oneself ; to hang 
down (of leaves, etc.) 

genogeno, to beckon 

gogo, sea-gull 

goio> to sink, go under 

goto u le Id, sunset 

gu, to grumble, growl 

gugu, dumb 

gutu, mouth 

i, in ; on ; up ; against ; for 

ia, these 

Ha, fish 

7 ai, there ; whom ; to whom 

ialoma, diamond 

i aso fai so'o, daily 

He, cloth, material 

He afu, carpet 

He fa'amcdama, v*'indow-ci:rtain 

He laulau, table-cloth 

'le lino, linen 

'ie mamoe, blanket 

He puHpu'i, curtain 

He vavae, cotton 

i fafo, out of doors 

ifea, whence ?, where ?, whither ? 

ifi, a species of chestnut 

ifo, below, down, downvrards ; 

to submit ; to bow 
ifo atUy to adore, worship 
ifo ifo, to come down 
ifoaH, declivity, slope 
ifoto'ele, to bow down to the 

igoa, name (n.) 

iinei, here 

iile, to guess, prophesy 

ila, spot, stain (n.) 

i lah, below, at the bottom 

i le, and then 

i lea mea ma lea mea, here anti 

i le va, between 
Hi, fan (n.) 
Hli, to saw ; to file 
Hliganoa, scar (n.) 
iliola, outer skin 
Hi pit, to sound the trumpet 
iliiea, vdiite fan 
Ho, worm (n.) 
iloa, to see 

iloa lelei, knowledge 
iloga, preference, prerogative 
i luga, above, aloft 
i luma, before, opposite (place) 
Hjuoa, mouse 
ina a, before (conj .) 
ina ia, in order that 
ina sei'a, meanwhile 
ini a, with which, with vvhat 
i7ii, to pinch, nip 
^ino, to hate, despise ; hatred 
Hnoa, mud, dirt 
inu, to drink 
fo, there 
i'oe, yes 
ipo, worm (n.) 
ipu, vessel, cup, goblet 
ipii ^ai, plate 

ipu malamalama, drinking-giass 
isa !, what a shame I 
isilua, to cut in two 
isU, nose 
isumu, rat 
Ha, angry ; enemy 
i tafatafa o, near, beside 
i tala atu, on that side of 
i tala mai, on this side of 
itiiti, little, small 
i totonu, in it, therein 
iiU, custom, usage, party 
itua, outside, outwardly 
Huaiga, race (of people), sex, 




itu i luma, front, forepart 

itutdua war-party 

ituld, hour of the day 

itiipo, hour of the niglit 

ill, to finish ; to go out ; end 

iuga, end, termination 
iva, nine 
ivi, bone 
ivi aso, rib 


kariola, cart, waggon 

Ar, key 

kovanoy governor 

/a, sun ; sail (n.) ; leaf ; bough 

ld*au, tree, shrub ; wood 

la* au fa' alava^ thresliold 

Id'au ialatala, thistle 

la*au tuHtuHf thorn 

lafi, to hide, conceal 

lafo, to throw away 

lafoiUy to throw hither and 

lafu, flock, herd (n.) 
lafud, thin, lean 
lafulemii, fat, greasy 
lagd, to spin, weave 
lagiy heaven ; to shig 
lagOf fly (n,) 
lagomcli, bee 
lagomiimu, wasp 
lagolago. to support 
lagona, to hear, perceive 
lailoa, tired, feeble 
laisQf rice 
Idiiiitii little, small 
Id la'aUi branch, bough 
lalolagi, earth, world 
lamepa, lamp, candlestick 
larnolemole, smooth, sleek 
lanulau' ava, green 
laoai, table 

lapoa, lapopoa, thick ; corpulent 
lasi, often, frequently 
latalata, near ; to come close to 

latod, stable (u.) 

laio'a, brave (adj.) 

laUy broad ; leaf 

lauaita, bustle, turmoil 

lauapi, camp (n.) 

la'u atu, to bring a thing to some 

lau 'ele'ele, soil, earth 
laugUf speech, oration 
laugatasi, region, table-land 
lattgutu, lip 
laulau, table (n.) ; to set (put 

before, offer 
lauiaufaiva, tongue 
lawnata, eyelids 
laumei, turtle 

laumua, capital (city or town) 
laupapa, board, plank 
laiipesCi musical instrument 
lauicle, broad, wide 
lau'ulu, hair 

lava, very ; in fact, indeed 
Idvaldva, waist-cloth 
lavea, to be hit, struck 
laveai, to save, liberate 
lefulefu, ashes 
lele, to fly, soar 
lelefua, butterfly 
lemafailaulia, innumerable 
leo, voice ; cry (n.) ; to call, cry 
leolen, watchman, shepherd ; 

lepda^ leprous 
lepeii^ to spoil, destroy 
leva, long since, long ago 
liai, to root out, or up 
lialia, to shake, toss 
liligi, to pour out, let run 
liliu aiu, to apply oneself to 
liliu 'esc, to turn away, avert 
lilivau, to gnash the teeth 
lilo, homelike ; to cover ; to 

lima, hand (n.) ; arm (n.) ; five: 
lima matua, thumb 
lima tauagavale, left hand 
lima taumatati, right hand 
liu (see liliu), to change one's 




liutua, to turn one's back on 
loa, immediately ; long, tall 
lofi, to push, thrust 
logo, to hear ; cry (n.) ; report, 

news ; drum 
hlo, flood, high water ; greasv, 

loloU), depth 
loto, will (n.) ; heart (as seat of 

the passions) ; to be willing 
loU)di yard, compound 
loUy'a, brave (adj.) 
lotUy religion 

lud, the day after to-morrow 
lua, hole, pit, ditch 
luai (see uluai), the first 
lulu, to jolt, shake 
lulu, owl 

luma, shame (n.), disgrace (n.) 
lumanaH, to be before someone 
lupe^ pigeon, dove 


ma, whitish (colour) 

md, to be ashamed 

ma^a, stone 

ma' a' a, stony, hard, stiff 

ma'ai, sharp 

ma'aliliy cold (adj.) 

ma'a ^omea, brick (n.) 

md'a tu^U tablets, pocket-book 

7naea, chain (n.) ; cord, rope 

maea uamea, chain (n.) 

mdfai, to be able, willing 

mdfaufau, to look at ; prudent 

viafaiua, to sneeze 

mafufe, earthquake 

maga, tube, pipe 

magomago, dry (adj .) ; to dry up 

maH, sick ; illness 

maH aim, shivers, a cold 

TYiaH fa' aiiva, consumption 

viaifea, whence ? where from ? 

maila, mile 

mallei, fraud, deceit ; trap, 

snare (n.) 
maile, dog (n.) 
maHmdliu, cramp (n.) ; lunatic 


7naimA)a, to become acquainted 

maHiiga, ache, pain (n.) 

maiu'u, finger-nail 

ma'i vevela, fever 

mala, unhappiness 

malaga, journey ; travelling- 

malae, market (n.) 

tnalaia, ruin, depravation 

mdlala, coal 

malemo, drowned (adj .) 

malepalepa, decrepit 

mdlie, beautiful, splendid 

malie, shark 

malieo, bravo ! 

maliUy to die (chief-word) 

maliu, to go 

maliu mai, to come 

maliuga, going out (n.) ; death 

malo, empire, dominion ; con- 

mdlolo, healthy, sound 

mdlologa, rest ; health 

main, stillness ; soft, mellow 

malulu, cold (adj.) 

mdlumdlu, temple 

mamd, clean ; light 

mdmd, lungs ; ring (n.) 

mama, to chew 

mamafd, heavy 

mavialu, honoured ; honour ; 
splendour, pomp 

mamaOf far, remote 

mdmd pale, consumption 

mamau, stopped, constipated 

mdmoe, sheep 

mana, might (n.), power 

mdnaia, son of a chief ; pretty 

mana'o, to wish for, desire ; 
love ; wish (n.) ; to have a 

manatu, to think ; to shut ; to 
remind ; thought (n.) ; in- 

mdnava, belly ; to breathe 

mandva, breath ; ghost 

manifinifi, thin, slender 



manogi, smell (n.), scent (n.) ; 
to smell, scent 

manoa, twine, string 

manu, during 

manu, messenger ; a runner who 
carries messages for a village 

manu, animal, beast, bird 

manu fdfine, female 

manu fe^ai, beast of prey 

manu feleleH, bird 

manu poa, male 

manu tagi, Indian turtle-dove, 
wild pigeon 

manu vaefd, domestic animal, 
four-footed beast 

manu'a^ wound (n.) ; to wourd 

manuao, war-ship 

manuia, happiness ; happy, 
blessed, glad ; blessing (n.) ; 

manumalf), to overpower, sub- 
due ; preponderance 

mao'o, satisfied ; to satiate 

maota, palace, chiefs house 

mapu, to recover, rest 

mapusagaj rest (n.), recovery 

mapu^ela, breathing-trouble 

masa'a, to pour out, spill 

mdsae, to tear, rend 

masaga, twins 

masalo, to accept ; to believe ; 
to conjecture, surmise 

masalosalovale, to doubt 

mdsani, to be accustomed ; to 
use ; custom (n.) ; to as- 
sociate with 

masima, salt 

masina, moon 

mdsina, month 

masiofo, queen 

masod, starch-meal 

mata, face (n.). eye ; to see 

mataala, to wake 

matafaga, beach, shore, coast 

matagaluega, duty ; trade, call- 

matagi, wind 

matagofie, splendour ; magnifi- 

mataH, head of family or party 

mataHsau, joiner 

mataHtu, shameless, indecent 

mataHtusi, letter of alphabet 

mataHvi, blind 

matalelei, beautiful (of the face) 

matamata, to consider, look at 

matamuli, modest 

matapeapea, avarice 

matapogisa, swoon, fainting-fit 

matapud'a, ugly 

matasesepa, squint-eyed ; to 

matd'Uy to be afraid 
mata'y, avaricious ; avarice ; 

envy, grudge 
mdtau, fish-hook 
mdtaUf axe, hatchet 
mataupu, instruction 
mata'utia, fear, fright 
matavale, stupid, cowardly ; 

awkward fellow 
mate, dead (adj.) 
matelama, sober 
mati, fig 

mativa, poor, needy ; to need 
matu, north 

matud, very, definite, sure 
matud iloa, to be sure, to know 

mdtua, old ; parents 
mdtuaoti, orphan (n.) ; orphan 

matutu, dry 
matu'u, heron 
mau, to acquire, find, hit on, 

gain, deserve 
vidu, evidence ; to dwell 
m^aualuga, high 
mauga, mountain 
mauga ha, mountain in Samoa 
mauga mu, volcano 
maulaga, see maualuga 
maulaU), high and deep (the 

Samoan has but one word to 

express this) ; low, common, 

little, humble, meekness 
maumaga, planting 
mdumau, to waste 



maumausoh, to wander about, 

to lead a nomadic life {mau, 

live ; soZo, round about) 
maupu'epu'e, heap (n.) ; hill 
mausall, quiet (adj.) ; to be 

saved from 
mau'oay rich, wealthy 
mavae, to cease ; disappear, pass 

away ; to go away, take leave 
mea, thing ; place (n.) ; things 

in general 
mea aloftty gift, present 
mea e 'ai, article of food 
mea e pond, mistake, fault 
mea e taavale, wheel (n.) 
meli, honey 
melinif melon 
mili, to rub 
milOf to spin 

misa, fight (n.) ; to begin a fight 
mitamiia, to boast, glory in 
miti, dream (n.) ; to dream ; to 

moa, hen 

moana, sea ; deep blue 
m^anasdusaiiy the high seas 
mOe, to sleep 
moega, bed, couch 
mogamogay beetle, moth 
mo'iy true 

moia'a, cocoanut fibre 
Tnoli, soap 
moWaina, orange 
m^)limau, evidence ; witness 
momo'e, to run 
momoli, to accuse ; cut up, 

parcel out 
moni, true, faithful ; truth 
wo'o, lizard 
moto, unripe 
moiUy multitude ; heap ; to be 

separated. Ecc. : nu'u motu, 

muy to bum 
mucCaUy vanguard 
muaiy at first, previously 
muamua, previously 
mucCulu, forehead 
mui, angry, grumbling 

muimuiy to grumble ; be pro- 
muliy to end ; end (n,) 
muliai, at last 
muWau, rearguard 
muliluay to commit adultery 
mulimuli, to follow 
mulwae, heel (of foot) 
mulumulUy to wash, bathe 
mumuy red 
mumil o afi, flame 
mwnuluy to bask, warm oneself 
musuy to refuse, have no desire 
muiia, grass 


nay but, besides 

ndy to bury 

naiy a few, some 

naifiy knife 

namUy gnat, mosquito 

namuy lime (produced from 

nandy secret, concealed 

nanamUy taste (n.) 

naneiy soon, soon after 

nanUy to stammer, murder 
speech ; to speak a foreign 

na 'o lenei, rather 

naumatiy dry, arid ; dead, de- 

negonego, same as getwgeno (the 
n in Samoan is often pro- 
nounced ng) 

nei, now 

neHy lest 

m/o, tooth ; horn 

nilay needle 

niniy to besmear 

niuy cocoanut palm 

nuanua, rainbow 

nOy nono, to borrow ; to lend 

noOy to bind 

nofOy to sit ; to stay, remain 

nof<fa, seat, chair ; saddle 

nofo'a afiy railway-train 

nofoaiga, government 



nofo^ afa'ataavale^ waggon, cart 
noJodWi, throne 
nofofilemu, to be quiet, calm 
nofo stt'Of to be quiet 
nono, to hang 
Jiutipala, to bruise, crush 
nu'u, country, people ; region 
iiu'u motu, island (see inotu) 
niCu ^ese, foreign people ; 
heathen (in the Bible) 


'oa, riches, wealth 

o'a, brown colour, dye 

'o ai, who ? ; where ? 

ofaga, nest (n.) 

V;/ea, where, whither ? 

o/o, to be astonished, to wonder 

'o/w, clothing ; to clothe, to put 

on (clothes) 
'o/w loiOf chemise 
'o/w moe, nightshirt 
\)fu tail, armour, uniform 
'o/w tele, great-coat 
'o/w tino, shirt 
'o/te vae, trousers 
^ogdumu, fireplace 
ogavae, thigh, shank 
oge, famine 
ogOf ogotea, ogototo, disease of the 

o?*, to groan 

oi tdlofa /, oh dear !, alas I 
ola, life ; to live 
olaga, life 
olataga, rescue (n.) ; health ; 

ole, to beg, request 
'ofe, to cheat, outwit 
'o/ea, what ? 

\)legia, cunning (n.), fraud 
'o le mea, therefore 
'o le sui, instead of 
oHoli, to be glad of ; joy, 

olive, oil (introduced word) 
'oZo, growth, increase (n.) 
o^>, torub; to grind 

olo'a, treasure, store (n.) 

olo'a tdua ma . . . propert^^ 

ome^a, loam, earth, soil 

omi, to throng, press, push 

omomi, sponge (n.) 

'ona, poisonous 

^ond, poisoned ; to drink to 

'owtt, that, his 
ona — ai lea, then 
'owa o, on account of 
one, powder (n.) 
oneone, sand 
ono, six 

\)nosaH, patient (adj.) 
o'o, to reach to, come to, arrive 
''o'olo, hoarse, husky 
UyUma, bitter 
^ope''ope, to have, possess 
\)si, to conclude an alliance : 

offer up 
oso, to spring, attack 
oso, stores, provisions ; a basket 

filled with certain articles of 

food, used as an offering to the 

" aitu " 
old, ripe, mature 
oiaota, manure, dung 
ote, to scold, rebuke 
oii, to die ; dead (adj.) 
\Hi, goat (from the English 

ou, to bark 

'OM, I 

pa, wall, partition 

pd^ to burst 

pd, dead, deceased ; unfruitful 

pa^a, craw-fish 

pcCe^e, lean, slender 

pcCepcCe, white 

paepae, plaster 

paH, to touch 

paHd, sacred, holy 

pai'e, putrid, rotten 

paito, kitchen 

pala, to rot, putrefy 



pala ^ai, cowardly 

palapala, mud, morass 

pale, ridge, ledge, brim 

palu, to mix, stir 

pani, pot, pan (introduced word) 

panisina, lime, mortar, cement 

papa, even, level, flat 

papa, rock (n.) 

pdpd, to crash, burst 

papa atu, to touch, handle 

papala, ulcer, abscess ; putrid 

papalagi, foreigner ; foreign, 

paseka, Easter 
patele. Pater 

pati-pati, to clap the hands 
patu, tumour, swelling 
pau, empty 
pauna, pound (n.) 
pa^u, hide, skin, leather 
pa^il, to fall, fall to pieces 
pa^upa'u, leprosy, scab 
pea, when, if 
peiseai, it is as if 
pele, choice, exquisite (adj.) ; 

pelu, sword 
pene, pen 

pene ma' a, slate-pencil 
penetala, pencil 
penina, pearl 

pepe, corner, nook ; butterfly 
pepelo, to lie ; lie (n.) ; untrue 
pese, to sing ; song 
pesi, to push, thrust 
piasua, soup of cocoahut-milk. 

starch, and water 
pili, lizard 

pit, to follow one, hang on to one 
pipili, lame (adj .) ; cripple 
pipilo, to smell offensively 
pisa, noise, din 
pisao, to make a noise 
pito, corner (n.) ; point (n.) 
po, night 

po, to strike one in the face 
pogaH, root (n.) 
pogaHsu, nos3 
poletito, veranda 

poloai, to order, command (chief - 

poloaiga, law, command, order 
pologa, slave ; one who does 

heavy work for another 
porta, knot (n.) 

ponaivi, joint (of limb) ; gristle 
popo, cocoanut 
poto, prudent, wise, intelligent 
potopoto, to gather, collect, 

potu, room (in a house) 
potu moe, bedroom 
potu nofo, sitting-room 
potu ta'ele, bath-room 
pou, rash, cutaneous eruption ; 

wreath, garland 
pou, post, pale, pillar 
poutu, pillar, column 
pouliuli, darkness ; gloomy 
povi, wether, sheep 
pu, hollow (adj.) ; crevice 

pua'a, pig 

puaH, to break open 
puapuaga, need, distress, misery 
pu^e, to seize, to lay hold of ; to 

take prisoner 
puipui, to shut, close. (See fale) 
pulatoa, to stare fixedly at 
pule, shell 
pule, authority; to rule, to 

pulou, any sort of head-covering 
pulu, pitch, tar 

pulu, bullet (introduced word) 
pulumatau, horned cattle ; meat 
puna, to flow, to well up, to boil, 

to seethe 
punavai, spring of water 
puni, to shut, close 
punou, to bend, to bow, stoop 
punou mata, to lower the eyes 
punu, spoon 
pupula, to glitter, shine 
pupu, to gargle 
pupu, opened cocoanut-shell 
pusa, to glow 
pusaloa, comet 



pusa, box, chest 

pitsatoso, chest of drawers ; 

pusi, cat 

puia, fat, corpulent 
puta, stomach, maw 
putCf mist, fog 
'pu'upv^u, short 

sd, forbidden, sacred 

sa'ai, to empty 

saasaa, small, tiny 

sae, to tear, rend 

saelua, divided into two pieces, 

saili, to look for 

saisaif to bind together 

saito, seed ; corn, grain 

sala, punishment 

salamo, repentance ; to repent 

sail 'ese, to tear out, pull out 

samala, hammer 

samani, salmon 

samasama, yellow 

samiy sea 

sanatotOy dysentery 

sa^yy to set right, free ; irre- 

sa'oldy saw-fish 

sa'oloto, free (adj.), to free, 

sasa, whip (n.) ; to whip 

sasa'ttf to pour out 

sasae, east 

saUi to come 

sau, dew 

sau io'a^ frost-rime 

saudy cruel 

saudga, cruelty ; pursuit, per- 

sauni, to prepare ; ready 

sausau, to spout, spring up 

saute, south 

savaliy to go, wander 

sdvalif messenger, envoy 

savaliga, journey ; journey on 

savili, breeze, breath of wind, 

se'e, to glide 
se'evae, shoe, boot 
seif flower ; ornament 
seHa, till, as far as 
seHa luai, previously, first, before 
sela, asthma 
sele, to cut, mow 
sele rnamd, to shave 
seleni, shilling 

selesele saito, to reap, harvest 
sele'ulu, scissors 
selu, comb 
sema e /, mode of address when 

haranguing several people 
seoli, hell (from the Hebrew 

sese, to be mistaken, to act 

wrongly, make an error 
setusetUf to limp 
seusfu, to collect wood 
SM, to raise, take up, lift up 
sii tau, to commence hostilities, 

silaHlalOf wart 
silasila, to see ; to know 
silasilamaH, publication, notice 
silisili, very large ; high, big 
silisili Vse, wonderful 
sina, some, something 
smo, limb 
siosio, to lock up ; to surround ; 

to besiege 
sisi ae, to draw up 
sisifo, west 

siufofoga, voice (chief-word) 
siula, girl 
si'usi'u, tail 
sivtty Samoan dance 
soa, deputy suitor for a girl's 

soaliH, helmsman, boat-steerer 
soatau, large boat 
sofaiy to break through : to 

break open 
sogi, to kiss, rub noses (the 

ancient Samoan greeting) 
sogisogi, to smell ; to smell at 



sola ! leave that ! let that 

alone ! 
soifua, farewell !, good-bye ! 
sole ! friend ! 

solo ''a'i'oa, to collect treasures 
soli, to trample down, crush 
solilulafonOy transgression 

against a law 
solo, a monotonous speech made 

on various occasions 
solo, to creep, crawl ; round 

soloi, to dry, dry up 
solosolo, pocket-handkerchief 
solo gutu, table napkin 
solofanua, horse 

solofanua aft, locomotive engine 
soo, scholar, pupil 
so'o, often 
so'otaga, peace 
soj)e, lock of hair 
sopo, to go over a mountain or 

across a river 
sopolo., sopole, care, sorrow (n.) ; 

to be concerned about 
soso alu, to go towards, approj^ch 
soso mai, to come towards, 

sola, sosola, to flee, avoid 
sou, wave, surf 
sua, liquid, fluid (n.) ; to pour 
sua, to thrust, push 
sua fa, name (chief -w^ord) 
sudmdlie, sweetness ; sweet 

(adj.) ; lovely, channing 
sudsiisu, milk 
sudsusu io^a, cream 
sud'ua, rain 
sudu'u, cocoanut-oil 
sudu'u manogi, pomatum 
sii'e, to demand ; to 'search ; 

to prove, try 
su^ega, trial, examination, en- 
su'^esu'e, to make enquiries 
suH, to sew, stitch 
sui, representative 
suHga, seam (n.) 
suitiipii, regent, viceroy 

suli, to inherit ; heir 

sulu, torch 

sulufaHga, place of refuge, 

sujo, shovel ' 

swMa le fanua, to plough 
smytosina, plough (n.) 
supa, lame 
supo, soup 
susii, wet (n.), moisture ; wet 

susu, breasts, bosom 
susunu, to burn (down) 

td, to strike, knock ; id ^ofii, to 
wash clothes by beating with 
a stick 

taai, welt (of a shoe), bordering 

ia'alo, to play, caress, fondle 

taalolo, the entertainment of a 
guest by the whole village 

fa' aim vale, uproar, confusion 

taanoa, young : a year old 
(mostly used of beasts) 

ta'ati, to lay down, put down 

ta'avili, to turn on a lathe 

td'avili aft, engineer, mechanic 

id'e, same as tamd e !, my 
child ! 

taeao, to-morrow ; on other 
days, in the morning ; morn- 
ing (n.) 

ta'ele, to bathe 

ta'elega, bathing-place 

taetuli, ship's lantern 

tafa, to cut open 

iafd, arena, sport enclosure 

iafamai'ata, dawn of day 

iafao, to go for a walk 

ta(c, to flow 

tafega, river 

tafi, to shear ; razor 

iafu'e, to upset ; to hew off 

tafu le afi, to light a fire 

taga, pocket 

iaga ^ai, stomach of an animal 

tagata, man 



tagaia ogaga, spy 

tagata amellLa, American (man) 

togaia falani, Frenchman 

tagaia maualuga, giant 

tagata peletania. Englishman 

tagata samoa, Samoan (man) 

tagata siamani, German (man) 

tagata tau, soldier 

tagi, to cry ; to roar (of 

tagitagi, bell, hand-bell ; to ring, 

sound ; sound (n.) 
iangituH, to complain ; to howl 
tagOf to take hold of, seize 
idgulu, to snore 
tagutuguiu, that which is left 

after a harvest (n.) ; to glean 
tai, nearly, almost 
tai, ebb and flow of the tide ; 

'wa pc le tai, the tide ebbs ; 

'wa fanae le tai, the tide is 

flowing ; 'wa sau le tai, the 

tide is rising 
iaigaafl, trellis, lattice- work 
tailua, double (adj.) 
taHmua, guide, leader 
idinamu, mosquito-net 
taHtaH, to guide, lead 
tala, narrative, story 
iald, dollar 

talaHy to narrate, preach 
tala'igay preacher ; sermon, 

tala lelci, gospel 

talanoa, to talk, converse, relate 
ialanoaga, fable, narration 
talatala, mourning, affliction 
tale, to cough 
tali, to answer ; to receive, 

accept ; ansv/er (n.) 
tali, to wait, stay, expect 
taliga, ear ; hearing 
talimalo, hospitable 
talisuga, banquet (n.) 
talita, protection, shelter 
talitonu, to believe, consider true 
tdlo, tatdlo, to pray 
tdlofa ! form of greeting cor- 
responding to good-day ! 

tolosaga, prayer 

idlu, since 

tama, child, little boy 

tamd, father 

tamafesui, baby 

tama''itaH, lady, single girl of 
good birth (is in frequent 

tamdloa, fellow (n.) 

tamaoaiga, rich, wealthy 

tamateine, daughter of the 

tamatamaHlima, finger 

tamatamaHvae, toe 

tane, husband 

tdnoa, dish, bowl 

tanu, to bury 

ianuga, burial 

too, to bake with hot §tones 

tad, to crowd, press 

too, spear 

taofi, belief ; to keep, hold fast 
to, persist ; opinion 

taoi, to wreathe a garland 

taoU)fu, waistcoat 

taoto, to lie down ; to lay down ; 
to sit down to eat 

tapa'a, tobacco 

tapisa, to laugh at 

tapu, sacred, forbidden : by 
tapu is meant certain things 
which are forbidden to the 
people but not to chiefs 

tapuaH, to consecrate, worship 

tapulima, wrist ; cuffs 

tatd, to have diarrhoea 

tatala, to open, loose, untie, 

tatalo, to pray 

tatau, worthy, valuable ; suit- 

iatupu, bough 

tau, price, pay, wages ; with 
reference to . , . 

ta'u, to tell, narrate 

id'ua, to be called, to signify ; 
to become known 

idu, tdua, war 

taualuga, roof 



ta'uamiotonu, to defend some- 
one ; to vindicate 

tduaso, blind 

ta'u atu, to indicate, announce, 

tau'au, shoulder (n.) 

tauave, to carry, bear 

tauemu, to mock, deride, scoff at 

tauemuga, derision 

taufaifeanUy to spit 

td'ufd'atauva'a, to esteem one 
little, despise, scorn 

taufaiojfo, to be surprised 

taufaitagif to howl 

taufutty to indulge in idle talk, 
waste words 

tauga, gift of food 

taugagaifOy to set (the sun ) 

taugata, dear, expensive 

taugofie, cheap 

taui, pay, wages ; to reward 

iaui ma sui, to repay, to take 
revenge ; revenge (n.) ; re- 

tauHsilua, to cut in two 

taula, anchor 

laulafoaH, to throw away 

taulaitu, magician 

taulaga, tax, duty (n.) 

taulc'ale'a, or taidele*a, youth, 

taulima, bracelet 

ta'ulogologOy to declaim, recite, 

taumafa, to eat, feed (chief- 

tdumafaif to try, take pains, 

taumuay fore-part, bow (of boat, 

taumuli, stern of a vessel 
taunuUy to fulfil ; to be realised ; 
to appear ; to attain ; to 

tau'D'olOf to be hoarse, husky 
taupa'Oy border, margin, rim 
tdupoUy virgin, village beauty. 
(The prettiest maid of a 
village is selected and adopted 

by the chief ; when grown up 
she is continually guarded by 
the young girls of the com- 
munity and is strictly tapu.) 
tdupou sd, nun 
taupulepule, to advise 
tausaga, year 
tausamigay holiday 
tausiy to bring up, educate ; to 
nurse ; to be anxious, worry ; 
to obey an order 
iausitama, nurse (n.) 
tausuaHy to vex, anger ; to stir 

up conflict 
tautaiy fisherman 
tautala, to speak, address 
tautago, to grope about 
tautauy to hang 
tautCy to eat (chief -word) 
td'utino, clear, distinct ; to 

speak openly 
tautOy to swear, vow ; to speak 

before someone 
tautogtty oath, testimony, solemn 

ta'utUy gossip (n.) 
tautuOy man-servant 
tautu'ufuay to lay eggs 
tauvacy foot-ornament of leaves 
tavmiy servant ; to serve 
te'a may to cease ; forsaken (adj.) 
teHy to be frightened, astonished 
teiney girl 
teio, sulphur 
teHsiy a little 

telCy large, great ; much 
telOy custom-house (introduced 

telontty customs officer 
teptty to glance, look 
tete'e atu, to send back ; to 

resist, oppose 
tetemUy dread (n.), fright 
ieUy to prepare ; to clean, 

polish ; to adorn 
teuga, ornament, finery 
tiaHy to push away, throw away 
WetVey to put ; to sit ; to ride 
tiga, pain (n.) ; to feel pain 



tiga le mdnava, stomach-ache 

tila, yard (rigging of ship) 

tili, messenger who swiftly con- 
veys messages, news, etc., to 
a person 

Hndf mother 

tino, body, corpse ; clearly, 
distinctly, definitely (when 
used with verbs, as : id'utino, 
iloatino, etc.) 

tineH, to extinguish ; to destroy 

Wo, to go to stool 

iio, to see clearly, have acute 

tio'^ata, mirror ; glass 

iipi, to cut 

tipolOf lemon 

tiputa, women's clothing 

iitania, weed (n.) 

titina, to strangle, throttle 

titiy a loin-cloth used when at 

to, to plant 

to, to open, draw, pull 

toa, brave (adj.) ; cock-bird 

Uy'a, to curdle, congeal, freeze 

ioasa, anger (n.) ; angry 

toatamaH, to be angered 

toatele, much, many 

toe, again ; remaining ; back- 

toe aiga, remainder, residue 

to^ese, to draw out 

toefoi mai, to return, come back 

toe tu'u mai, to give back, 

tofd, iofdina !, farewell 

tofaaga, piece, part (n.) 

tofi, tofitofi, to divide, possess, 
distribute ; part (n.) ; pro- 

tofu, to dip 

toga, better quality mat made of 
the finer fibres 

togafiii, trick, dodge, cunning 
(n.) ; medicine, remedy 

togdlauapi, camping-place 

togitogi, to notch, or carve in 

togi, to throw in much the same 
manner as a cricketer bowling 
togiola, pledge (n.), ransom (n.) 
toH, axe, hatchet 
to lauapi, to strike camp 
toli, to gather fruit from big 

toloa, wild-duck 
toloaH, young (n.) (of animals) 
tonu, true, just, right, straight, 

to\)nai, to lean upon, or against, 

an object 
io'oto'o, walking-stick 
to^otuli, to kneel 
tosdito, field, piece of land 
toso, to draw, pull out 
totini, stockings 
toto, blood 
totoga, entrails 

totogi, reward, wages, payment 
totogi atu, to pay, compensate 
tolo, to creep, crawl 
toto vela, typhus 
tovine, vineyard (introduced 

tu, to stand ; to get up, rise 
tu, custom, fashion 
tua, outer part ; back (human) 
tuafaflne, sister of a brother 
tuagane, brother of a sister 
tuai, to hesitate ; slow ; late 
tuaoi, boundary, limit ; neigh- 
tuasivi, mountain-range 
tufatufa, to distribute 
tufuga, workman, labourer 
tufuga fax fale, house-builders 
tufuga poto, performer, artist 
tufuga poto tiogitogi ma'a, sculp- 
tuH, to sting, prick ; fork (n.) 
tuH, to knock, tap ; sting, 

prickle (n.) 
tuHa, to push, crowd 
tu'ifao, smith (nail-maker) 
tuiga, head adornment of a 
yellow colour (a preparation 
of coral lime) worn only by 



chiefs ; a small looking-glass 

and some variegated leathers 

complete the decoration 
iuHpale, to bruise, squash 
iuHiu'i, to knock at 
tula, bald 

tula' if to rise, get up 
tulafono, law 
tuligamanu, hunting 
tuli, to drive away, hunt 
tuliloa, to pursue, persecute 
tulimaiaH, to follow with the 

tula' a, middle (n.), division ; 

midnight, 'o le tulu'a a h ao 

ma le po 
tuluH, long time, endless 
tulu'iga, servant ; end (n) 
tulula, boat 
tumau, to hold out, to persist, 

endure, last 
tumu, to fill ; full ; filled 
tumutumu, top, sinnmit 
tuna, eel 

tunoa, kitchen, cookery 
tunUy to cook, melt ; to cast 

tupe, money 
tupu, to originate, grow 
tupUi king 

tupua, statue ; mystery, enigma 
tupulaga, race (human), descen- 
tusa, to be worth, to be like, 

tusa lava, just as, even as 
tusa ma, equal, like ; according 

tusi, to write ; letter, book 
tusi o le aitalafu, reckoning, 

tusi paHa, Bible 
tusitusi, writer ; variegated 

tutu, to light (fire, lamp, etc.) 
tutu, to shake, toss 
tuttCese, to strike off, knock off 
tutupupu'u, white mat, the hairs 

of which are cut short 

tiiht, to allow, let, let go, 

tu'u aiu, to dismiss ; give up 
tu'u ai, to put, place 
iu'uaHfua, to slander 
iu'ufua, lonely, empty, forsaken 
tiCugdlamepa, candlestick 
tu'ugama'a, precious stone 
iu'ugamau, grave, tomb 
tiCulafod'i, forsaken 
tu'u mai, forsaken 
iu'umuli, to go back 
iu'ujmo, border, edge 
tu'u po, an appointed time 
tu'u totogi, to go bail for, 

iu'utu'u ifo, to let down, lower 


u, arrow 

u, to bite 

u, reed, rush 

'u, offence, scandal ; to look 

ua, neck, collar ; sinew ; blood- 
vessel ; rain (n.) 

ua ale, heavy shower of rain 

uaga, downpour of rain 

uaina, wine 

ua ma'a'a, wilful ; stiff neck 

'ua maid, conqueror 

uamea, iron 

'ua po, late 

uati, watch (timepiece) 

uato'a, hail (precipitation) 

Ufa, household vessel 

ufi, roof : cover, lid ; to cover 

ufiufimata, veil (n.) 

ui, to go 

ui atu, to go through, across 

ui ane, to pass by 

uiga, ways and fashions 

uii, younger brother 

uila, hghtning ; bicycle 

uio, to cry, call out 

ula, to smoke ; to joke 

'ula, neck-chain 

ulavak, spiteful ; rude, ill-bred 



ully dog (n.) 

uliuli, black 

'wfo, saucepan, cooking-pot 

'mZw, head ; hair 

'wZw, bread-fruit tree 

uluai, the first 

ulu atUy to go in, enter 

ulufafo, to go out 

ulufale, to enter a house ; to 

consecrate a house ; to appoint 

a chief to office 
ulugaliif married couple 
uluitinoina, possessed (adj.) 
ulumatua, the eldest 
uluola, fruitful, productive 
ulusina, grey ; white-haired 
'Mwa, all ; quite ; ready 
\(,mi, length ; long 
umUi kitchen, cookery 
una, scales, scurf 
MO, friend ; to howl 
upega, net (n.), tool, implement 
upu, oration, word ; to make a 

upufa'ataoto, poem, saying 
uputu'u, law 

usiicsitaH, to follow ; to obey 
USD, brother of a brother ; 

sister of a sister 
usu, to rise early ; to unite 

oneself with — viz., to marry 
uta, inland, up country 
utu, hole, ditch ; a vessel to hold 

^utu, louse 

utufaga, pipe, cigar ; cartridge 
utufltt, flea 
utupotOf beam, rafter 
m'm, fist ; to hold in the clenched 

hand ; to clench the hand 


ua, interval, intermediate space 

vd'a, ship (n.) 

vaafa'atau, fortune-teller 

vaai, to see, look at 

vaai atu, to look at 

va apiapi, narrow, slim 

vae, river ; to divide, share ; leg 

vaefd, to divide into four parts 

vaeloto, middle (n.) 

vaelua, to halve 

vaega, half (n.) ; part (n.) 

vaduagalemUy half (n.) 

vaepVOy lame 

vagavagaH, to surround ; to 

wander, rove 
vaiaso sd, week 
vai, water ; medicine 
vai ''ell, well (of water) 
vaild'au, medicine, physic 
vaimoe, chloroform 
vailepa, pond 
vaipalolo, winter 
vaitafe, running water 
vaiioelaUy summer 
vaiiusi, ink 
vaivai, weak, feeble 
vale, fortune-teller ; jester 
valea, stupid, bashful 
vail, colour, dye ; to strike out ; 

to paint 
valu, to scrape, scratch 
vanu, valley, ravine 
vao, field ; forest ; desert ; weed ; 

vaotagata, mob, rabble 
vaogofie, obedient, dutiful 
vaomu'a, grass 
vao utuuiu, clump of reeds 
vasa, straits, narrow waters ; 

vavae, to order, command 
vavao, to forbid, binder, hold 

one back 
vdvdo, outcry, clamour 
vave, quick, swift 
vaveax), to-morrow morning 
vavega, wonder, marvel 
ve'a, water-hen 
vete, to rob, plunder 
vevela, hot 

vii, vivii, to praise, glorify 
viiga, praise (n.) 
vili, to bore, drill 
vili momom), corkscrew 
vili, die, cube ; lot, destinj^ 
vivinif to crow 





God, Aiua 

Jesus Christ, Jesu Keriso 

Holy Ghost, AtamaH pai'd 

(Catholic) ; Agaga pafa 

Angel, dgelu 
Devil, tidpolo 
Heaven, lagi 
Hell, seoli ; ifelo 
Paradise, parataiso 
holy, pai'd; sd 
prophet, perofeta 
apostle, aposetelo 
Church (as a community), 

church (building), Jale sd 
pnestf faife' au 
Pater, Patele 
nun, iaupou sd 
religion, Mu 

Catholic religion, loiu Pope 
Protestant religion, lotu poro- 

Christian, Kerisiano 
heathen, tagata fa'apaupau 
Jew, iagata Jutaia 
gospel, tola lelei 
Testament, feagaiga 
Old Testament, feagaiga iusi 
New Testament, feagaiga f<m 
sermon, lauga 
prayer, tatalo 
faith, fd'atuaiua 
love, alofa 
hope, fa'amoemoe 
sin, agasala 
public worship ; divine service, 

prayer-book, iusi lotu 
holiday, feast, iausamiga 


world, lalolagi 

Heaven, lagi 

sun. Id 

moon, mdsina 

earth, lalolagi 

soil, ground, foga'ele'ele ; ^eWele, 

morning star, fetU ao 
sunrise, 'o le malama o le iaeae 
sunset, 'o le goto o le Id 
light, malamalama 
eclipse, obscurity, pouliuli 
shade, shadow, paolo 
eclipse of the sun, gasetoto 
new moon, mdsina fou 

full moon, mdsina 'atoatoa 

star, JetU 

fixed star, fetU tU 

shooting star, fetU lele (flying) 

eclipse of the moon, gase ^ele'ele 

sunset glow, ataata 

blush of dawn, tafamaiata 

comet, pusaha 

east, sosoe 

west, sisifo 

south, saute ; itu i Toga 

north, matU 

horizon, tafatafa i lagi 

cloud, ao 

nature, lagi 




air, ea ; savili 

fire, afi 

flame, mUmu o le 

smoke, asu 

steam, asu ; ansa 

ashe?, lefulefu 

thunderstorm, faititili 

thunder, faUitili 

lightning, uila 

rainbow, nuanua 

fog, mist, ansa 

water, sua (in general; ; vai 

drop, ^alu'alu 

ice, sudUy'a 

dew, sau 

heat, hot weather, vevela 

cold, frost, malulU : ma^alili 

summer, vaitoelau 

winter, vaipalolo 

earthquake, mafui'e 

rain, Hmu, ua, timuga 

snow, kiona, nive 

hail, uaUfa 

storm, hurricane, afd 

wind, matagi 

breeze, savili 

to light a fire, tafu le afi 

to bum, mu 

firewood, fafie 

coal, kaola 

charcoal, mdldld 


^sland, wm'w motu 

continent, konetinete 

land, nu'u ; atunu'u 

sea, samiy moana 

ocean, moanasdusau 

ford over river, asaga 

to wade through, or over, asa 

dam, pa 

well, vaVeli 

mountain, mauga 

volcano, mauga mil 

top, summit, tumutumu 

crest, ridge, tuasivi 

mountain range, atumauga 

mountain path, ala sopo 

hill, maupu ''epu'e 

valley, vanu 

straits, vasa 

the tide is falling, 'wa pe le tai 

the tide is rising, ^ua sua le tai 

wave, billow, galu, sou 

cliff, crag, a^au 

coast, beach, matafaga 

river, stream, vaitafe 

spring, well, pundvai 

waterfall, afu 

bank, shore, ^auvai 

seawards, i tai, i gatai 

landwards, i uta, i gauta 

deep, l()l()t() 

to swim, a'au 

cave, ana 

desert, wilderness, vao 

boundary, limit, tuaoi 

plain, table-land, laugatasi 

rock, papa 

slope, declivity, tofe 

sand, oneone 

harbour, avd, taulaga 

peninsula, m,ulinu'u 

lake, vaituhti) 

pond, vailepa 

pool, swamp, palapala, fusi 

forest, bush, vao 

bush, virgin forest, vao matua 

weed, titania, 'o vao 

tree, la'au 

bough, branch, la 

leaf, lau 

root, pogai 

stone, md'a 

dust, efuefu 



time, itu Id, taimi 

the present (time), 'o le taimi 

the past (time), 'o le taimi 

tuanaH ; 'o aso o le vavau 
the future, Vj le taimi lumand'i 
year, tausaga 
month, masina 
January, Januali 
February, Fepuali 
March, Mati 
April, Apelile 
May, Me 
June, Juni 
i July, Julai 
August, Aokuso 
September, Setema 
October, Oketopa 
November, Novema 
December, Tesema 
week, vaiaso sd 
Sunday, aso sd 
Monday, asogafua 
Tuesday, asolua 
Wednesday, asolulu 
Thursday, asotofi 
Friday, asojalaile 

Saturday, asoio'onaH 

day, 050 ; ao (as opposed to 

night, po 
midnight, 'o le tulua o le ax) ma 

le po 
morning, ta^ao 
midday, aoauli 
afternoon, evening, afiafi 
to-day, asonei 
yesterday, ananafi 
to-morrow, taeao 
the day after to-morrow, i e lua 
earlier, sooner, anamua 
late, iuai 
long (time), leva 
hour, ituld ; iiuaso (day) 
hour, itupo (night) 
watch (timepiece), uati 
What is the time ? pe efia le itu 

Id ? pe efia le vaiaso ? 
It is seven o'clock, e fiiu 
minute, minute 
moment, instant, ^emo o le 

mata ; m^ataeemo 
lifetime, old age, olaga^ ola 
death, oti 


people, nation, nu'u 

foreigner, papalagi 

native inhabitant, iagata moni 

o le nu'u 
slave, tagaia nofo pologa 
king, tupu 
queen, masiofo 
prince, alo o le tupu 
kingdom, malo 
capital city, or town, laumua 
crown, pale alii 
legislative assembly, fono 
justice, fa'amaoni 
injustice, fa'alemaoni 
law, tulafono 

proclamation, silasilamai 
session of the court, fa'amasinoga 
judge, justice of the peace, 

to accuse, moli aiu 
guilt, agasala 
lawyer, loia 
crime, offence, sala 
chief, noble, alii 
office, tofiga 
official, Uyfi o le malo 
government, malo 
minister, faipule 
governor, kovano 
viceroy, regent, suHtupu 



town, aaiy ^ai 

village, aai 

government official, leoleo o le 

to perjure, swear falsely, iauto 

witness, moli 
to swear (an oath), tauto 
tax, impost, lafoga 
charity, alms, mea ahfa 

murderer, tagata fasioti 

to murder, fasioti 

theft, gaoi 

thief, tagata gaoi 

robber, tagata fao mea 

punishment, sala 

pardon, mercy, alofa 

prison, fale puipui 

to take prisoner, pu'epu'e 

evidence, testimony, molimau 


soldier, fitaflta 

trooper, tagata ti^eti'e i le solo- 

army, 'o '«m 
captain, alii ave ^au 
envoy, sdvali 
war, tau 
peace, so\)taga 
battle, tau 

conflict, combat, fc^aivcga 
to pitch camp, to lauapi 
tent, fale He 
baggage, avega 
spy, tagata asiasi 
to besiege, siosio 
to conquer, mau 
to plunder, vete 
gun, rifle, fana 
cannon, fanafanua 
bullet, pulu 

battlefield, tafd 

victory, maid 

enemy, 'o le ita, fili 

prisoner, captive, tagataotaua 

to flee, so sola 

to pursue, tuliloa 

vanguard, mucCau 

rearguard, mulVau 

to march, savali 

camp (n.), lauapi 

gunpowder, one 

cartridge, utufaga 

to shoot, fana 

sword, pelu 

spear, tao 

shield, taliia 

bow, aufana 

arrow, u 

club, uatogi 



town, aai, ^ai 
street, path, ala 
plaster, pa^epa'e 
market-place, maloe 
bridge, alavai, ala laupapa 
house, fale 
chiefs house, maota 
guest-house, fale talimaW 
hospital, fale viaH 
school, fale fai ojoga 

church (building), fale sd 

watch-house, ^oli) 

post, poseta 

court of justice, fale fd'amasino 

drinking-saloon, faWava papa- 

store, shop, fale ^oloa, fale 'oa 
garden, toaga 
well, vaVeli 



house, fale 

root, f ale aluga 

door, faitotoa 

staircase, ala fa'apefaH 

compound, court, lotod 

wall, pa 

neighbour, tuaoi 

room, potu 

sitting-room, potu nonofo 

bedroom, potu momoe 

bath-room, potu ia^ele 

lock, bar (to doov), fa' amau 

key, ki 

floor, fogd ^eWele 

window, fa'amalama 

curtain, He fa'amalama 

board, plank, laupapa 

stove, oven, ogdumu 

firewood, fafie 

coal, kaola 

charcoal, mdldld 

candlestick, pelita 

lamp, lamepa, moll 

oil, sudu'u 

table, laulau 

chair, nofoa 

chest of drawers, pusetoso 

bed, moega 


cushion, pillow, ali, aluga 

box, chest, pusa 

mirror, tioata 

mosquito-net, tainamu 

kitchen, paito, umu 

veranda, poletito 

closet, fale ui 

pot, pan, pant, 'uh 

cover, lid, ufi 

to grind, 'olo 

basket, ato 

bottle, fagu 

cork, momono 

corkscrew, vili momono 

to offer, prepare (food), sauni 

dish, bowl, td7ioa 

table-napkin, soloigutu 

knife, naifi 

fork, tui 

spoon, punu 

blunt, dull, matatupa 

sharp, ma'ai 

plate, ipu'ai 

cup, ipu ti 

glass, ipu malamalama 

drinking-glass, tumbler, ipu inu 

glass (in general), tioata 

food, mea e ^ai 

to nourish, fafaga 

to eat, 'ai 

meal, repast, 'aiga 

evening meal, dinner, taligasua 

to be thirsty, fiainu 

to be hungry, fia 'ai 

to chew, mdmd, lamu 

soup, supOf piasua (consisting of 

cocoanut-milk, starch, and 

meat, pulumatau 
fat, bacon, ga'o 
fish, fa 
salmon, samani 

river-eel, tuna 

sea-eel, pusi 

turtle, laumei 

crab, uldvai 

rice, laisa 

bread, falaoa, areto 

piece of bread, se fast falaoa 

butter, pata 

cheese, sudsusU to' a 

milk, sudsusU 

fruit, /wa 

egg, fudmoa 

cake, potoH 

salt, masima 

oil, sudu'u 



vinegar, vineta 
sugar, suka 
honey, meli 
cocoanut, niu 
banana, fa'i 
taro, ialo 
orange, moWaina 
bread-fruit, ulu 
maize, sana 

sugar-cane, toh 

drink, beverage, inumaga 

water, vai 

wine, uaina 

spirituous liquor, 'ava papalagi 

beer, pia 

chocolate, siokolata 

coffee, kave 

tea, ti 


clothing, Uyfu 

to draw on (clothes), dress, 'o/w, 

to draw out, extract, latala'esc, 

coat, peleue 
great-coat, 'o/w tele 
collar, ua 
stuff, cloth. He 
pocket, taga 
button, fa'amau 
to button up, fa^amau 
waistcoat, tao U)fu 
trousers, 'ofuvae 
shirt, 'o/m tino 
stockings, totine 
shoe, boot, se^evae 
leather, pa'u 
hat, pulou 
glove, se^elima 
cuffs, tapulima 
pocket handkerchief, sohsolo 
watch, uati 
walking-stick, to^ytoU) 
shade, screen, fa^amalu 
pipe, utufaga, paipa 
cigar, paipa 
tobacco, tapa'a 
fan, Hi 

ring, mama 

bracelet, taulima 

loin-cloth, lavalava 

necklet, ula 

lock of hair, sope, foga 

ornament, finery, teu 

comb, selu 

fly-flap, fue 

woman's clothing, tiputa 

garland, pale 

veil, ufiufimata 

washing (just washed), ta 'ofu 

washing (soiled clothes), 'ofu 

to wash (clothes), id 
washer, tagata ta 'ofu 
dry, mago 
wet, sUsu 

to iron, smooth, duli 
to tear, rip, mdsae 
soap, moll 
starch, masod 
scissors, sele^ulu 
to sew, stitch, suH 
needle, nila 
pin, pine 
thread, filo 
sewing-machine, la'au suHsuH 

body, tirm 
head, ''ulu 
hair, lau'ulu 
brains, fdVai 
face, mata 


forehead, mua'ulu 
eye, mata 
eyelid, laumata 
eyebrows, fulufulumata 
tear (drop), loimata 



nose, ISM, pogdisu 

cheek, aldfau 

temple, ivi manifinifi 

ear, taliga 

mouth, gutu 

lip, laugutu 

tongue, laulaufaiva 

throat, larynx, fa'al 

tooth, nifo 

beard, ava 

neck, ua 

nape of the neck, ua 

shoulder, tau'au 

back, tua 

skin, pa'u 

arm, lima 

right arm, lima taumatau 

left arm, lima iauagavale 

joint of limb, gauga, ponaivi 

elbow, tulilima 

hand, lima 

palm of the hand, alofilima 

finger, iamaHlima 

thumb, lima matua 

finger-nail, aiigi, maiu'u 

fist, u'u 

wris*, tapulima 

hip, suilapalapa 

side, itU 

rib, iviaso 

muscle, anogase 

bosom, fatafata 

breasts, susu 

trunk, body, tino 

stomach, mdnava 

leg, vae 

thigh, ogavae 

knee, tulivae 

calf (of leg), atevae 

foot, vae 

toe, iamaHvae 

sole of the foot, alofivae 

sinew, tendon, ua 

nerve, neura 

blood, toU) 

heart, fatu ; loto (as seat of the 

vein, artery, ua 
lungs, mama 

breath, breathing, manava 
maw, stomach, puta 
liver, ate 
gall, bile, au 
kidney, fatugaU) 
intestines, ga'au 
saliva, feanuga 
strength, mdlosi 
weakness, vaivai 
sleep, moe 


life, ola 

death, oti 

health, malolo 

illness, mdH 

pain, tigd 

headache, tigd o le ^ulu 

cough (n.), tale 

fever, ma'i vevela 

shivers, cold fit, ma'i ma'alili 

smallpox, lupani papaiagi 

matter, pus, alou 

lameness, supa 

diarrhoea, tata 

dysentery, sanaioU) 

vomiting, puaH 

consumption, mdmd pale 

inflammation, mil o le m^drnd 

epidemic, pestilence, fa'amaH 

swoon, fainting-fit, matapogia 

cramp, convulsions, maH mdliu 

wound, manu'a 

ulcer, abscess, papula 

scar, iliganoa 

rheumatism, gugu 

blind, mataivi, tauaso 

dumb, gUgU 

to limp, setusetu 

cripple (n.), pipili 



deaf, lutuli 
to stutter, nanu 
hump-backed, 'o le tua pVo 
jjjiant (n.), tagata maualuga 
physician, doctor, fomaH 
to cure, heal, /o, fqfo 

chemist's shop, f ale vaiUCau 
operation ; trick, dodge, togafiti 
medicine, physic, vaila^au 
prescription, recipe, tusifo 
chemist , tagata fai vaila'au 
to beg for medicine, ialavai 


family, aiga 
kin, relationship, aiga 
parents, matua 
ancestor, anamua 
descendants, fdnau 
sex, tupulaga 
husband, tane 
wife; avd 

marriage, ipoipoga 
bride, fd*at()a7iofotane (obsolete) 
bridegroom, fa' atoafaiavd (ob- 
father, tamd 
mother, tind 
child, tama 

children (in general), fdnau 
girl, tama teine 
grandchild, 'o le tama o fdnau 
first-born, ulumatua 
younger brother, uii 
son, ataliH 

brother of a brother, uso 
sister of a sister, uso 

brother of a sister, tuagane 
sister of a brother, tuafdfine 
daughter (of the father), afa 

daughter (of the mother), tama- 

younger brother, taulelea ; md" 

naia (chief-word) 
lady, iamaHiaH 
uncle, 'o le uso o le tamd (paternal 

uncle, V> le tuagane o le tind 

(maternal side) 
aunt, 'o le tuafdfine o le tamd 

(paternal side) 
aunt, 'o le uso o le tind (maternal 

to inherit, sull 
widower, 'o le tagata ^ua e oii le 

widow, 'o le fdfine 'wa e oti le 

inheritance, loft 


to teach, aUya^o 

school-house, fale fcCaoHoga 

teacher, faiaCoga 

pupil, soo 

word, upu 

letter of the alphabet, maldHlusi 

gramiaaT, fd'amatalaga o le ga- 

book, letter, tusi 
slate, writing tablet, ma^atusi 
pencil, penetala 

vowel, vaueli 

consonant, konesane 

syllable, silapela 

to read, faitau 

to write, tusi 

to count, reckon, faitau 

paper, pepa, laupepa 

ink, vaitusi 

pen, pene 

slate-pencil, pene ma^a 




trade, handicraft, faiva 
workman, tufuga 
work (n.), galuega 
tool, faiva 
joiner, mataisau 
carpenter, tufuga fax fale 
smith, tuHfao (nail-maker) 
hammer, samala 
pincers, Vofi, 
saw. Hi 
screw, faovili 
nail, fao 

mechanic, tcCavili aft 
tanner, tagaia fax 'pcCu manu 
miller, tagata fa^a'ah) 
mill, 'ofo 

millstone, ma'a^olo 
meal, falaoamata 
tailor, tagata fai U)fu 
baker, faifalaoa 
butcher, fasi manu 
potter, tufuga fai ipu omea 
printer, lowHusi 
writer, clerk, tusitusi 


trader, merchant, tagata fa''atau 

to trade, fa'atau 

to buy, fa'atau max 

to sell, fa'atau atu 

cheap, taugofie 

dear, taugata 

store, shop, fale oha^ fale *oa 

merchandise, oloa 

market, malae 

price, tau 

payment, toti)gi 

account, bill, tusi o le 'aitalafu 

litre, lita 

metre, meta 

foot (measure), futu 

pound, pauna 

money, tupe 

gold coin, tupe auro 

silver coin, tupe ario 

shilling, seleni 

penny, peni 

dollar, tald 

cent, seneta, keneta 

to change, exchange, liu 

letter, tusi 

envelope, wrapper, teutusi 

measure (n.), weight, fua 

balance, pair of scales, fua 


farmer, 'o le toto fanua 

to farm, take on lease, mau 

planting, maumaga 
field, fanua 
manure, dung, otaota 
plough (n.), smnosina 
to plough, suotia le fanua 
seed, sdito 

harvest, crop, seleselesdito 
to harvest, selesele 
barn, shed, fale sdito 
straw, aputu sdito 
hay, mutia mago 

herd, flock, lafu 

shepherd, herdsman, leoleo 

stable, latod 

hunting, tuligamu 

to hunt, chase, tuli manu 

hunter, sportsman, tagata tuli 

forest, bush, vax) 
fisherman, tautai 
fish-hook, matau 
garden, toaga 

gardener, tagata teuteu toaga 
axe, toH 




animal, manu 

hide, skin, pa'u 

hair, fulufulu 

tail, iu, sVusVu 

four-footed animal, manu vaefd 

bear, urosa 

dog, mdile, ull 

cat, pusi 

lion, leona 

claw (n.), atigwae 

mouse, Hmoa 

rat, isumu 

rabbit, hare, rapili 

pig, pua^a 

horse, solofanua 

hoof, atigivae 

donkey, dsini 

stag, dila 

roe, deer, <ta 

ox, pulumakau 

bull, pom 7?o'a 

cow, povi fdfine 

calf, tamaHpovi 

goat, 'o<i 

sheep, mdmoe 

bird, mawt* /efc (plural, ma?m 

nest, ofaga 
wing, apa^au 
bill, beak, ^w^m 
feathers, ^ofulu 
Ggg> fua 

eagle, aeto 

pigeon, dove, lupe 

hen, mo a 

cock, ioa 

to crow, vivini 

duck, paU) 

wild-duck, t()l()a 

sea-gull, gogo 

heron, matu'ii 

starling, fuia 

parrot, segasamoa 

owl, lulu 

fish, fa 

eel, tuna 

shark, malie 

saw-fish, sa'ala 

cuttle-fish, /e'e 

snake, gala 

turtle, laumei 

lizard, j^iH 

beetle, mogamoga 

ant, loi 

bee, lagomeli 

honey, meli 

wasp, lagomumu 

butterfly, pepe, lelefua 

caterpillar, worm, anufe 

gnat, mosquito, namu 

fly, garova, lago 

spider, apogdkveleve 

scorpion, atalava 


plant (n.), la^au 
tree, la^au 
root, pogaH 
bark, pa^u 
bough, branch, la 
leaf, lau 

bud, fua e le matala 
blossom, fugat sei 
fruit, fua 
banana, faH 
melon, esi 
cocoanut-palm, niu 
cocoanut, popo 

lemon, iipoh 
orange, w^iliaHna 
bread-fruit tree, ''ulu 
taro, tah 
pineapple, fala 
sugar-cane, tolo 
rice, laisa 
maize, sana 
tobacco, tapa'a 
yam, ufi 
pea, pi 
onion, aniani 
grass, muiia