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GRAMMATICAL FUNDAMENTALS 



• * * • 

OF THE 



INNUIT LANGUAGE 



AS SPOKEN BY THE 



ESKIMO OF THE WESTERN COAST 

OF ALASKA 



BY THE 

REVEREND FRANCIS BARNUM, SJ. 

OF GEORGETOWN UNIVERSITY, WASHINGTON, D.C. 



Boston, U.S.A., and London 
GINN & COMPANY, PUBLISHERS 
Cte 9[t(nutitm prtM 
1 901 







Entered at Stationers' Hall 



Copyright, 1901, 
By GINN & COMPANY 



ALL RIGHTS RESERVED 




TO HIS DEAR FRIEND 



PATRICK H. O'DONNELL, A.M., Georgiop. 



PUBLIC ADMINISTRATOR 



CHICAGO 



WHO BY HIS ENCOURAGEMENT AND LIBERALITY 



HAS MADE THE PUBLICATION POSSIBLE 



THE AUTHOR 



IN TOKEN OF AFFECTION AND GRATITUDE 



DEDICATES HIS WORK 



PREFACE 



This work treats only of the Western dialect of the widespread 
Innuit language. By this is meant the dialect spoken by the Eskimo, 
who dwell along the coast of Alaska, from Nushagak up by the 
mouth of the Kuskokwim River, and through the great interfluvial 
tract between that river and the Yukon ; also throughout the Yukon 
delta, and finally around the coast to St. Michael's Island in Norton 
Sound. 

During my sojourn in Alaska I was obliged to traverse this extent 
of country many times, and I noticed that throughout the whole of 
it the dialect with a few trifling exceptions was uniform. 

When travelling along the coast of the Arctic Ocean, the 
region extending northward from St. Michael's Island, including 
Unalaklik, Golovine Bay, Port Clarence, Cape Prince of Wales, 
the Kotzebue Sound district. Point Hope, Point Lay, and on up 
to Point Barrow, I observed a variation in the language sufficient 
to constitute another dialect. Hence the region extending from 
Unalaklik to Point Barrow may be termed the range of the Northern 
dialect of Innuit. 

In presenting this contribution to our stock of researches on the 
American aborigines I desire to explain the circumstances under 
which its compilation was effected, in order that the reader may 
judge of the difficulties which confronted me. 

In 1 89 1 I received my appointment to serve on the Alaskan mis- 
sion, and in the early part of June I left San Francisco for the North 
on a steamer belonging to the Alaska Commercial Company. After 
a journey of eleven days we reached Unalaska, and then our vessel 
proceeded through the lonely expanse of Bering Sea to St. Michael's 
Island, which was at that time the chief trading post of the Alaska 
Commercial Company for the Yukon district. Soon after my arrival 
at this remote little settlement I was sent together with another Jesuit 
father, to establish a mission station at Tununa, a small Eskimo 
village situated on the western extremity of Nelson Island, directly 
opposite Nunivak. 



vi ESSENTIALS OF INNUIT 

On reaching Tununa our first work after erecting a little hut 
was to acquire some knowledge of the language, and this proved to 
be a slow and laborious occupation. Until we had become familiar 
with the proper terms for making inquiries, our method was simply 
to point to some object and to write down as well as we could 
whatever would be said to us in reply. In order to be sure of our 
work we usually asked the name of the same object several times 
and from different persons. On comparing notes many diversities 
would be found, which caused us much perplexity. Afterwards, 
when we had madie some little progress, we discovered that very 
frequently in place of the real name we had taken down such 
expressions as, **I do not know," "Do you want it.^'* "It belongs 
to my father," etc. Amid many difficulties I succeeded slowly 
in accumulating words and short sentences which I felt sure were 
fairly correct, until I had a sufficiently large number to enable me 
to begin the work of searching out the grammatical structure of 
the language. 

After we had become acquainted with the villagers I was accustomed 
to invite some of the old people to the mission, and would encourage 
them in relating stories. At the outset it was very difficult to 
prevail upon them to speak slowly enough to take down their words. 
Some of them displayed a childish dread of being near me while I 
was writing, for it seemed to them a mysterious and uncanny per- 
formance that savored of sorcery. After much patient management 
two or three were trained to dictate properly, and thus dozens of 
native stories were written out. The analysis of these stories afforded 
material for study. Various classifications were made of all of the 
words thus collected; paradigm after paradigm was devised and 
worked on until the discovery of some new inflection would show 
it to be erroneous and a fresh start would have to be made. More 
than once all the work of months had to be cast aside. Much of 
this work has been done in the gloomy underground abodes of the 
Innuit. Many words were taken down while travelling by dog sled 
over the ice fields, when the very act of making a hurried note in the 
intense cold meant a degree of misery which the written account but 
feebly expresses. Frequently have I risked having my hand frozen 
by removing the mitten in order to make a memorandum of a chance 
expression which would help to elucidate some point which till then 
had seemed hopelessly obscure. 



PREFACE . Vll 

We were destitute of means for consulting any standard works, 
and without the assistance of an interpreter. We were in a miser- 
able little hut with barely the necessaries of life and entirely 
dependent on our own resources, alone among the natives in a 
remote and frozen wilderness. At that time the standard alphabet 
issued by the United States Bureau of Ethnology for writing aborig- 
inal languages had not reached us, so in transcribing Eskimo words 
I made use of our English alphabet, which I found to answer very 
well for the purpose. The collection and many revisions of this 
work occupied most of the time not taken up by professional duties 
during the eight years of my sojourn among the Eskimo. 

In conclusion I must state in justice to myself that this book was 
never undertaken with a view to publication, for it was composed 
solely for our personal use on the Innuit missions. Since my return 
a number of persons who have examined the manuscript have stren- 
uously urged me to have it printed. As my present occupations 
prevent me from bestowing more time upon it, I submit it to philolo- 
gists in its actual state, no one knowing its many deficiencies better 
than myself. The Eskimo matter herein contained may be relied 
upon as being correct ; regarding the form, however, in which it is 
presented, I leave that to the improvement of those more profoundly 
versed in the science of linguistics. 

^^ Feci quod potuiy faciant ntajora potentesy 

FRANCIS BARNUM, S.J. 



CONTENTS 

PAGE 
Jl RlSl' A\^ti) •••••••••••¥ 

Introduction xi 

Essentials of Innuit i 

Native Stories 271 

Ethnographical Remarks and Definitions of Certain Innuit 

1 ERMS . . . . . • •'. • 3^4 

Vocabulary 319 

Index ........... 377 



IX 



INTRODUCTION 



Our earliest information concerning the Innuit race dates from 
the voyages of discovery made during the sixteenth century by Sir 
Martin Frobisher and other navigators, who, in their search for the 
*« Northwest Passage," boldly extended their explorations far into 
the Arctic region of America. It is from the records of these 
adventurous journeys that we first learn of the strange and secluded 
people who were found dwelling along these inhospitable shores. 

The next reference to the Innuit appears in the famous Lettres 
Edifiantes, This valuable work consists of a number of volumes, 
which were published annually in Paris, and which were composed 
of letters, reports, etc., sent home from various remote regions by 
the French missionaries of the Society of Jesus. 

Among these letters is one written by Fr. Charlevoix, S.J., a 
missionary in Canada, or, as it was then called, La Nouvelle France, 

This letter contains an account of the Labrador Innuit, which the 
writer compiled from information imparted by the Abnaki Indians, 
whose territory then extended to the Gulf of St. Lawrence. 

It is to Fr. Charlevoix that we owe the appellation Esquimaux^ 
which he first made use of to designate these strangers. The word 
is a corrupted Abnaki term, meaning those who eat their food raw. 

For a long time the French mode of spelling this word held 
the supremacy, until supplanted by the more simple Danish form, 
Eskimo, 

At present, owing to the advance of ethnological research, and 
a closer acquaintanceship with the Eskimo, their own native term, 
Innuit^ signifying the people^ has become the usual distinctive title 
of this race and language. 

The Innuit constitute a most homogeneous people; they never 
venture beyond their own borders, and they have no near neigh- 
bors ; moreover, they are strictly American, being entirely unknown 
in Europe. 

They enjoy the distinction of being one of the most widely spread 
aboriginal races in the world. 

xi 



xii ESSENTIALS OF INNUIT 



Their territory comprises the whole of Greenland, and the entire 
northern coast line of the American continent, extending from the 
Straits of Belle Isle on the Atlantic side up to and along the Arctic 
Ocean, and down the coast of Bering Sea to the Pacific. 

Hardly another race of men lives in a more rigorous climate, or 

in a more dreary and inhospitable region. While their extent of 

> territory is so enormous, still the greater part of it is but a desolate, 

uninhabited waste. 

The Innuit are coast dwellers, in the strictest sense of the 
term ; the earth is a cruel parent to her polar children and yields 
nothing whatsoever for their support, while the sea supplies all 
their needs; hence their faithfulness in remaining always in its 
immediate vicinity. 

Their residences are invariably built by the shore, or else along 
. the lower stretches of the more important rivers, so that there does 

, not exist a single inland Innuit village, that is, one not accessible 

by water. 

Rarely, if ever, do the Innuit penetrate into the vast interior of 
I their country, or explore its tablelands and mountain ranges. The 

! latter they consider to be the abode of evil spirits, a notion which 

' is fostered by a certain popular superstition, which may be styled 

? a variant of the Rip Van Winkle legend. See 838. 

\ On account of the difficulty in obtaining food, the Innuit are 

forced to travel about a great deal ; yet they are not a nomadic race. 
Every year when the salmon arrive, all the inhabitants migrate to 
their regular fishing stations, but they return to their respective 
villages after the winter's supply of salmon has been obtained. 

The Innuit have no chiefs, either civil or military ; neither have 
they any tribal organization. There appears to be a perfect social 
equality among them. 

They are very fond of visiting ; so that there is a constant 
\ interchange of hospitality carried on all along the coast. The 

I months of November and December constitute their season for 

j feasts. All the inhabitants of a village will set out together to 

I spend four or five days at some other village to which they have 

. been invited. These invitations are given with great ceremony, 

and often a month before the feast is to be held. 
; The amount of food consumed during the feasts would sound like 

{ an exaggeration, were a full statement given here of the number 



INTRODUCTION xiii 

of bags of frozen fish, skins of oil, as well as the quantity of blubber, 
seal-meat, dried salmon, and other dainties which go to make up an 
Innuit banquet. 

The worst effect of these feasts is that as so much food is 
consumed in the early part of the winter, there is always a shortage 
around March ; in fact, many villages are reduced to starvation 
every year simply on this account. 

Most of the writers who have treated of the subject of the Innuit 
race either quietly accept or strongly support the theory that they 
came over from the Asiatic coast. 

According to one author, the Innuit are supposed to have started 
forth from the vicinity of China, coasting along until they arrived 
at the extremity of the Aleutian chain, which they followed to the 
mainland. From here they moved steadily on around the entire 
northern coast until they reached the district known at present as 
Labrador. This theory is supported by arguments based upon the 
resemblance of a few customs, such as women wearing false hair, 
the so-called Tartar tonsure of the men, the custom of eating raw 
food, etc., all of which customs may be noticed any day in New 
York, London, Paris, and Vienna. 

Any one who has travelled through Egypt and Mexico will admit 
that there exists a greater and far more wonderful resemblance in 
the habitation, dress, diet, and general customs of these two nations 
than can ever be found between the Innuit and any other people. 

Those who are familiar with the rigors of the Arctic regions 
will require far stronger arguments to convince them that a great 
migratory horde from the Asiatic side, having reached the American 
mainland, instead of proceeding at once in a southerly direction, 
after the experience of their first winter, would continue obstinately 
to push their way northwards. The leaders of the party would 
surely have remarked that the myriads of swans, geese, ducks, and 
cranes, as well as the whales and innumerable swarms of seals, 
herring, salmon, etc., came up annually from the south ; and hence 
it appears incredible that a vast concourse of people searching for 
a new home would deliberately turn their backs upon the direction 
from whence came their sole supply of food. Furthermore, if these 
most hardy pioneers went entirely around that desolate, storm- 
tortured coast to the Gulf of St. Lawrence, it is strange that enough 



XIV ESSENTIALS OF INNUIT 

remained all along the road to people the entire five thousand miles 
of shore line, without ever attempting to follow the leading party. 

The strongest argument against the migration theory, and one 
which will appeal most conclusively to any person who has ever 
had the slightest experience in winter travel in the Arctic regions, 
consists in the difficulty of transporting sufficient food to last a 
large multitude during a winter. 

It can hardly be supposed that these wanderers travelled during 
the short open season, styled by courtesy Summer ; this is the 
harvest time, during which they have to employ themselves in 
catching and drying fish, as well as hunting seals, deer, wild fowl, 
etc., and preserving these for use. The short summer season barely 
affords even the most industrious Eskimo sufficient time to collect 
and prepare food enough to last his family through the long Arctic 
winter. Moreover, food such as the country affords is particularly 
hard to transport, as it is either very heavy or very bulky. Dried 
fish take up much room, while blubber, oil, and frozen fish make a 
very weighty load. The best-equipped dog sled will hardly convey 
food enough for two men and the team for a week. 

The presence of one homogeneous race around our entire northern 
coast may be accounted for in another way. Supposing that the 
Innuit were once the occupants of the upper portion of the vast 
central region of the American continent, and that, being driven 
from thence upwards and outwards by some superior invading force 
bent upon their utter expulsion, they would have been scattered all 
around the coast line about the same time, by means of the numerous 
great rivers flowing to the north. A tradition among the Innuit of 
the Yukon delta tells that their ancestors at first endured great 
privation because they were ignorant of the proper mode of catching 
fish. This would imply that they came from the interior, where frsh 
was not one of the staple articles of food. A single local tradition 
is of itself insufficient to base a theory upon, but a closer knowledge 
of this interesting race may produce more light upon their past. 

It is difficult to give any precise statement concerning the number 
of this race, on account of the many and great obstacles in the way 
of procuring the necessary information. 

In the United States census of 1890 the number of Innuit 
inhabiting Alaska is set down as twelve thousand. It may be safely 



INTRODUCTION XV 

asserted that this is a rather liberal estimate. The Danish census 
of 1870 gives ten thousand for all Greenland. 

Regarding the number of Innuit who dwell along the Arctic 
Ocean and throughout the Hudson Bay region, as well as along 
the Labrador coast, there is probably no satisfactory account. 

At present the Alaska Innuit are rapidly decreasing in number, 
owing to the contaminating influences exercised over them by the 
whites. Unless immediate and stringent measures be taken for 
their preservation, this gentle, inoffensive race is doomed to speedy 
extinction. 

There is abundant evidence to show that up to a comparatively 
recent date they were exceedingly numerous. Prior to the advent 
of white men, villages, having from five hundred to a thousand 
inhabitants, were thickly dotted along the entire coast line. 

Certain districts, which possessed special advantages in regard to 
abundance of food, such as around Point Barrow and Point Hope, 
as well as a few stretches along Kotzebue Sound, Norton Bay, and 
around Eskinok, present even yet ancient vestiges sufficiently exten- 
sive to warrant the opinion that these particular settlements must 
have numbered as high as five thousand inhabitants. 

The first and greatest misfortune which the Innuit suffered from 
contact with the whites was the smallpox epidemic which broke out 
in 1837. This terrible disease, which raged for four years, spread 
all along the coast, and thousands upon thousands of these poor 
people were numbered among its victims. Many villages were 
almost entirely depopulated, and old persons still relate how the 
survivors, not being sufficiently numerous to dispose of the dead 
according to the usual custom, were obliged to deposit them in 
caches.^ The saddest feature connected with this visitation of the 
smallpox is that it is said to have been deliberately and maliciously 
introduced in order to thin out the population. 

Hardly had the Innuit begun to recuperate from the ravages 
wrought by the smallpox when fresh misfortunes fell upon them. 
In 1848 an American whaling vessel commanded by Captain Roy 

^ The native cache, or storehouse, consists of a small, square building, which for 
the sake of security from dogs, etc., is erected upon four high posts. Near Tununa 
(Cape Vancouver) in 1891 I visited the ruins of three large caches which were filled 
with human bones. An aged native woman who remembered the epidemic told me that 
these were the remains of the * pupilraet ' or smallpox victims. 



XVI ESSENTIALS OF INNUIT 

first passed through Bering Strait and penetrated into the icy fast- 
ness of the Arctic Ocean. The results of this bold venture proved 
so very rich that in a few years this remote region became the 
regular cruising ground of the whaling fleet. 

The inroad made by the whalers upon the food supply of the 
Innuit in their slaughter of the walrus, and the dreadful effects 
produced upon the natives by the introduction of liquor and disease 
can only be fully understood by those who are familiar with these 
people. Nothing but the utmost vigilance and care can avert the 
total extermination of the native inhabitants of our Arctic coast. 

In respect to the Innuit language, as yet philologists have too 
meagre an amount of matter to admit of a full and satisfactory 
investigation and comparison of all its local variations. 

In the absence of anything better, a convenient classification of 
the dialects might be as follows : 

I. The Eastern — comprising two sections, viz., Greenland 
and Labrador. 

II. The Central — i.e., the Churchill River district and the 
Mackenzie delta. 

III. The Northern — from Point Barrow down to Norton Bay. 

IV. The Western — from Norton Bay down to Bristol Bay. 

The dialect of the Eastern Innuit has received by far the most 
attention. A large number of works relating to this subject has 
been published, as will be seen by consulting Filling's Bibliography 
of the Eskimo Language^ edited by the Smithsonian Institution, 
Washington, D.C. 

The earliest writer mentioned is Hans Egede, a native of Norway, 
who went to Greenland in 1721. Egede spent fifteen years there, 
engaged in missionary labor, during which time he composed a 
grammar and began the translation of the New Testament, which 
was completed by his son. 

Among more modem works the most important and exhaustive 
has been written by Dr. Rink of Copenhagen. This work, published 
in Danish, consists of several volumes, comprising a vast amount of 
Innuit folklore, together with ethnographic and linguistic studies, 
collected by the author during his long sojourn in Greenland in the 
service of the Crown. 



INTRODUCTION - xvil 

This dialect has been carefully investigated by the Moravian mis- 
sionaries who have been long laboring in those parts, and to them is 
due the credit of the following works : Grammatik der Gronlandischen 
Sprache. Samuel Kleinschmidt, Berlin, 1857; and Grammatik der 
Eskimo-Sprache wie sie an der Labradorkuste gesprochen wird, 
Theodor Bourquin, London, 1891. 

The Customs of the Central Innuit^ together with a very brief 
sketch of their dialect, has been published in French by the Rev. 
F. Petitot, O.M.I. 

The dialect of the Northern Innuit has the smallest represen- 
tation. The principal information on this is to be found in the 
United States government publication entitled Report of the Inter- 
national Polar Expedition to Point Barrow in 1885, By Lieut. 
P. H. Ray, U.S.A. This contains a vocabulary of 711 words and 
307 phrases, collected by Lieutenant Ray around Point Barrow and 
Cape Smythe. 

The dialect of the Western Innuit has been the latest to be inves- 
tigated. Dr. W. H. Dall in his work on Alaska and its Resources^ 
1870, gives some vocabularies collected around the Yukon delta ; 
however, the honor of publishing the pioneer work on Western Innuit 
is due to the Rev. Augustus Schultze, D.D., President of the Mora- 
vian College at Bethlehem, Penn. Dr. Schultze's work appeared in 
1891, and is based chiefly upon notes furnished him by the Rev. 
John Kilbuck, Director of the Moravian Mission at the mouth of 
the Kuskokwim River. 

Mention should also be made of a small pamphlet by the Rev. 
Zachary Belkoff, of the Russian Mission at Ikogmute on the Yukon. 
This is entitled Prayers and Hymns in the Yukon-Kuskokwim 
Language f and was printed in New York in 1896. It is printed 
entirely in Russian characters, but its value is much impaired on 
account of abounding in typographical errors. 

A comparison of the grammars and vocabularies just mentioned 
will show very clearly that they all apply to one and the same lan- 
guage. When the enormous extent of country embraced by these 
four groups is considered, as well as the fact that there has been 
no mutual intercourse among them since their original separation, 
it is truly wonderful that the lapse of ages should have produced 
so slight a variation. One cause of this is probably due to the 
fact that throughout this whole area the conditions of life are 



xvm 



ESSENTIALS OF INNUIT 



ever the same ; still this extraordinary uniformity in so widespread 
a language deserves to rank as an interesting fact in comparative 
philology. 

A few lists of words are presented here, in order to afford those 
who may not have convenient access to the works referred to a 
slight opportunity for comparison. 

I. Words exactly Alike 



STERN InNUIT. 




Western Innuit 


{Labrador.) 




{Alaska,) 


nuna 


land 


nun^ 


kilak 


heaven 


k^mk 


inuit 


men 


innuit 


auk 


blood 


auq 


tingmiak 


bird 


t!ngmeik 


mannik 


^gg 


minik 


nutarak 


fresh 


nut^ik 


kajak 


canoe 


kiyik 


umiak 


open skin boat 


ami^k 


una 


this one 


On^ 


imnd 


that one 


!mYni 


kina 


who 


ken& 


kia 


who 


ke^ 


mane 


here 


m^ne 


nane 


where 


n&ne 



Many other adverbs of place are also alike. 



II. Words nearly Alike 



{Labrador.) 

tukto 

tulugak 

torngak 

tikkek 

igalak 

pannik 

kivgak 

ovane 

imek 

imarbik 





{Alaska.) 


deer 


tiintu 


raven 


tOlukik 


evil spirit 


tiingr5k 


forefinger 


tlikki 


smoke hole 


ghildk 


daughter 


p^nnlk^ 


fox 


kivwe^k 


here 


hw^ne 


water 


mtik 


sea 


emiqplk 



INTRODUCTION 



XIX 



Eastern Innuit. 
{Labrador,) 

mikkijok 

mikkivok 

tokovok 

naglikpok 

naglikpanga 

unnukpok 



child 

it is small 
he is dead 
he loves 
he loves me 
it is night 



Western Innuit. 
(Alaska.) 

mikklll!gn5k 

mikkdk 

tokok 

nikkllkk5k 

nikklikk^"n& 

UQuqtok 



There is also the word tafiqpSk, meaning all night ; see 6i6. 



uvanga 



hwe-hw^ng 



None of the other personal pronouns have much resemblance. 



sikko 



ice 



chikku 



The use of a for ch appears to be one of the chief characteristics 
of the Eastern Innuit. 



The Variation in the Numerals 





Labrador, 


Greenland. 


Western Alaska. 


I 


attausek 


atausek 


itauch^k 


2 


magguk 


mardluk 


m^lrtik 


3 


pingasut 


pingasut 


plnggTiiyun 


4 


sittamat 


sisamat 


st^m^n 


S 


tellimat 


tatdlimat 


t^tlim^n 


6 


arvingat 


arfinigdlit 


ihvinliggin 


lO 


kolit 


kulit 


k5ln 




sivorlek 


first 


cha5kl$k 




aipanga 


second 


iep^ 




pingajuak 


third 


pin'gghiyuik 




sittamangat 


fourth 


stimek 




tellimangat 


fifth 


titlimek 



The following words are taken from a volume entitled Vocabutaire 
Franqais Esquimaude : Dialect dcs Tchiglit, Par le R. P. Petitot, 
Paris, 1876. 

There are also a few words from the Churchill River district, 
Hudson Bay, which are given in the same work. 



ESSENTIALS OF INNUIT 



These will afford a slight comparison between the Central and 
Western Innuit. 



Mackentie Delta, 



sang 

glace 

fum^e 

peau 

phoque 

homme {tnr) 

homme mari^ 

femme 

coq de bruyfere 

corbeau 

embouchure 

Pautre 

fleuve 

eau 

voleur 

mai 



awk 
t^iko 

ame^k 

nat^e^k 

afihon 

wi 

a^na^k 

a^k^edjige^k 

tulu^a^k 

paiia 

aypa 

ku^vik 

imme^k 



tigmiye^vik 



Western, 

auq 

chlkku 

pQyok 

&m6k 

niy&k =5 harbor seal 

&gntin 

(iw6 = her husband 

it'nik 

ikldzhzhigik =» ptarmigan 

tuluklik = raven 

pighi = its mouth 

i€pa = its other 

kwlq 

muk 

tiguliqtok = he steals 

tingmir'vik = March 



Churchill R, 



ikku 
puyok 
amek 
nadjek 



afi^enak 
akadjiek 



immek 
tigiliktok 



The following words are taken from the vocabulary collected by 
Lieutenant Ray, U.S.A., and will show the variation existing between 
the Northern and Western dialects. 





Words Alike 




* 


Northern. 


Western, 


man 


afiun 


^ntin 


husband (my ?) 


uina 


Qek^ 


name (my ?) 


atka 


itki 


blood 


au 


auk 


here 


mani 


m^ne 


sky 


sila 


sVk 


land 


nuna 


nuni 


who 


kina 


ken& 


and 


lu 


hi 


kiyak 


kaiak 


kly^k 


brother 


anina 


H n!ng a 


index finger 


tika 


tKkk^ 


akutok 


akutok 


ikutik (852) 


sinew thread 


ivalu 


{ililu 



INTRODUCTION 



XXI 



Words nearly Alike 





Northern, 


Western, 


youth 

girl 

ear 


nukutpia 
niviuksia 
siu 


nayilthpe^ 
nuva^qchi 
cheu 


ice 


siko 


chiku 


tattoo marks 


tablurutin 


timlurQtJt 


water 


imuk 


muk 


woman's knife 


ulura 


tilla5k 


mast 
deer 


napaksa 
tuktu 


n^p^t^k 
tiintu 


raven 


tulua 


tulukak 


bad 


asiruk 


^shet5k 


down 


summuiia 


chamina 


ptarmigan 
walrus 


akudagin 
aibwuk 


&kkizhzh!gik 
^zhvdk 


body (breast ?) 
rain 


katigai 
silalu 


katganka (19) 
sl^thlak 


flood tide 


uliktua 


(ill5k 


wind 


anoe 


^noki 


smoke hole 


igala 


thai6k 


small 


mikilyera 


mikknmi 


bladder 


nakasun 


n^k&chuk 


pipe 

I 

killer shark 


kuinya 

uvana 

axlo 


kwinrik 

hwe and hwang 

aqhlu (835) 



The next list presents some common words which have no 
resemblance whatever. 



house 
river 



Northern, 

iglu 
ku 



Western, 

iini 
kw!q 



The Kowak River, which empties into Kotzebue Sound, is 
evidently Kuwak = great river ; just as Kwlqpak (224). 



snow 


apun 


kinlksh^k 


trail 


apkotin 


tuma 


to-morrow 


ublaxo 


dnw^kQ 



XXll 



ESSENTIALS OF INNUIT 



bow 
fur coat 



skin boat 



Northern, 

piziksi 
atige 

(See attegay in the Frobisher list.) 
umiak 



Western. 

6r'lQv0k 
itkOk 

&nggiik 



There is also the word umialik given as captain of a boat; this 
corresponds exactly with the suffix in lik (124). 



sled 



kamotin 



€kimrik 



At St. Michael's the word for sled is kimaut, and my sled^ kiminlri. 



dog 



kgmtiqt^ 



kimmer 

(which means a pulUr) 

summer upinaksa ka&k 

(This may have been meant for spring and so agrees with fip'nlqklk.) 



when (in the past) 
when (in the future) 


kuna 
kakogo 


Idlnv&k 
k^ka (624) 


Northern, 


Numerals 


Western, 


atauzik 

madro 

pinasun 

sessaman 

tudlima 

kodlin 


I 
2 

3 
4 

S 
10 


italich^k 

m^lr5k 

pIngguiyQn 

st^m^n 

t^tlem^n 

koln 


3th dialects express 


100 in the same 


manner; see 586. 


tudlimub ipia 


100 


tatlemSn epeit 



A very interesting example, illustrating how slightly this language 
has been affected by the flight of time, is shown by the following 
extract from The First Voyage of Master Martin Frobisher, The 
journey was made in 1576, and the account contains a list of words, 
collected along the north shore of the strait leading into Hudson 
Bay, and it is entitled 



INTRODUCTION 



xxui 



The Language of the People of Meta Incognita 



argotteyt 


a hand 


callagay 


breeches 


cangnawe 


a nose 


attegay 


coat 


arered 


an eye 


polleuetagay 


a knife 


keiotot 


a tooth 


accaskay 


a ship 


mutchatet 


the head 


coblone 


a thumb 


chewat 


an ear 


teckkere 


the forefinger 


comagaye 


a leg 


ketteckle 


the middle finger 


atoniagay 


a foot 


mekellacane 


the little finger 



In the account of The Second Voyage of Master John Davis in 
1586 a longer list is given. 



a knife 

will you have this ? 

my son 

a seal 



awennye 


yonder 


icune 


come hither 


sambah 


below 


panygmah 


a needle 



sawygmeg 
maconmeg 
ugnera 
ataneg 

Some of these words are interesting from the fact that they show 
the diflficulty of the first attempt at obtaining a vocabulary, owing to 
not knowing the grammatical structure of the language, and to the 
mistakes arising from mutual miscomprehension. 

For example, the word panygmah, which is given as the equivalent 
of needle^ is evidently a mistake. The word pftnniin& means of my 
daughter or my daughter s^ and refers probably to the owner of the 
needle. 

It frequently happens, in asking a native the name of an object, 
that unless the questioner is able to express himself clearly, he will 
be told who is the owner. 

This applies also to the word given for seal, as ftt&nOk means the 
principal man of the village. 

Ugnera, for my son, is a similar error ; it is evidently tiginft = that 
one over there^ and was the word used by the parent in pointing out 
his son. 

Icune, for come hither^ is probably meant for iUdnA = that one comings 
the one approaching, 

Maconmeg, for will you have this? resembles more the query 
m&kQchSk or m&kQchSmilk, meaning this sort, some of this kind. 

In the first list the words for nose, ear, coat, thumb, forefinger, and 
little finger digr^Q fairly well with the modern terms. 



XXIV ESSENTIALS OF INNUIT 

These earliest Eskimo vocabularies are exceedingly interesting, 
for when due allowance is made for hasty transliteration of unfamiliar 
sounds, as well as for typographical errors through the various 
reprints of the original report, the remarkable fact remains that a 
list of words collected three hundred years ago, among the Eastern 
Innuit of Labrador, should vary so slightly from those in use at the 
present day among the Western Innuit of Alaska. 

The Russian occupation of Alaska very naturally left a certain 
impress upon the native languages, particularly in the vicinity of the 
more important trading posts, as Sitka, Kodiak, and Unalaska. 

The Russian half-breeds and their descendants residing in these 
settlements continue to make use of that language, but throughout 
the rest of the Territory it has been supplanted by English. 

In the Northern district, from the Arctic Ocean down to the region 
around Kotzebue Sound, the Russians had no permanent stations. 
Along the Yukon and Kuskokwim Rivers there were several trading 
posts, but the only impress left on the Innuit language there consists 
of a few words designating imported articles of trade or foreign 
objects. 

Although adopted into the language, ^most of these words have 
been so transformed as to be almost newly coined terms ; thus in the 
Russian word ' parahot ' = steamboat^ the r is changed to 1, and with 
the Innuit case terminations added, it becomes pSHUiutak, etc. 

The following list presents the most of the Russian words which 
remain in use throughout the Yukon district. 

Many of the words in this list are used only by the whites, to 
designate native objects, and have never been adopted by the natives. 
No Innuit will ever make u^e of the word * bidarka ' in speaking of 
his kiyak, nor will he ever term his house a * bairabora.' Dr. W. Dall, 
in his pioneer work on Alaska, which he composed while the Territory 
was yet under the dominion of the Czar, very naturally introduced 
the Russian names of the various objects which he describes ; thus 
the words 'Bi'darka,' 'Bidarra',' 'Shaman,' 'Tundra,' 'Parka,' etc., 
having been made familiar to English readers, his example has been 
followed by subsequent writers on Alaska. 



INTRODUCTION 



XXV 



AHrKTL 


angel 


agiyutGm kuviig^ 


BAHMPA 


native open skin boat 


&ngg6^k, umi&k 


BAHAAPRA 


native skin canoe 


kiyak 


BAPABOPA 


native hut 


iini 


BAPRA 


foreign boat 


b&lkis^k 


ByjABRA 


pin 




BMVrA 


white whale 


shtok 


HrpyiiiKA 


native feast 


kisheyur'nak, etc. 


KAHKAH'h 


steel trap 


kipk&ndk 


KAnyffL 


adz, imported 


kpun 


KAMHJTAERA 


native waterproof coat 


k^sprtik 


KAPABHffL 


musket 


k^ldpenilk 


KAPMAH'L 


pouch 


kirm&n^k 


KOJIOKOJB 


bell 


k^thlakutak, etc. 


KOHBKH 


skates, imported 


kinkak 


KHYTL 


whip 


knutik 


KPECTB 


crucifix 


krist^k 


JOKKA 


spoon 


!pp(in — wel5k 


MKUIO 


soap 


melomiik 


MVKA 


flour 


muklimuk 


HEPHA 


seal 


niyik, etc. 


HOWHKT> 


foreign knife 


nQsek, ch^wtk, etc. 


O^KH 


goggles 


egauk — atskek 


IIAUyib 


a bunch of tobacco 
leaves 


kilththlttqtat 


IIA-IATKA 


tent 


p^litkdk 


HAPKA 


native fur coat 


itkuk 


nAPOxo;i;i> 


steamer 


piUhutik 


nJATOKt 


handkerchief 


pl&t5k 


nopoxt 


gunpowder 


puyoqkak 


PEMEHB 


native skin rope 


t^phr^k 


CAXAPA 


sugar 


s^klir 


CHHIKA 


matches 


kinner^t, etc., spltsk^k 


TyH;tPA 


Arctic moorlands 


^kulii 


THCflHA 


thousand 


titlem^n epa&t kdldq- 
konuk 


XJIM 


bread 


hl^b^k 


HAH 


tea 


chi 


^HHHKt 


teakettle 


chinek 


HP'-PTB 


devil 


ttingr^niy&k 


niAMAFB 


sorcerer 


ttingrai!k 


K)KA.1A 


dried fish 


tmithltik 



ESSENTIALS OF INNUIT 



1. The Innuit language is rich in vowels. 







English. 


German, 


I 


A 


ale 


Rehe 


2 


A 


at 


Stadt 


3 


•• 
A 


ah 


Rath 


4 


A 


air 


Meer 


S 


£ 


he 


Dieb 


6 


E 


net 


Retter 


7 


I 


ice 


Ei 


8 


I 


in 


Ritt 


9 





no 


Roth 


lO 


6 


not 


Rotte 


II 


u 


rule 


Ruthe 


12 


tJ 


pull 


Hund 


13 


• 

u 


but 




14 


u 


pew 


kuhl 


15 


u» 






16 


AU 


how 


Thau 


17 


YA 




ja 


18 


OtJ 







French, 


Italian. 


aimer 


deh 


ma 


amore 


armoire 


Amo 


cher 


clero 


si 


io 


cet 


senza 


mais 


ai 


minime 


sicuro 


mot 


come 


loi 


onda 


vodte 


uno 


botte 
tu 




piu 


i'ya 


aura 
Baia 



^ Neutral vowel. See 7. 



ESSENTIALS OF INNUIT 



On the Consonants 

2. The following table will present the consonants which occur 
in Innuit, and also most of the usual combinations : 



ch 



3 


d 


4 


f 


5 


8: 


6 


ghw 


7 


h 


8 


hi 


9 


hr 


lO 


hw 


II 


J 


12 


k 


13 
14 



k 

V 

k 


15 


kl 


16 


kn 


17 


kr 


18^ 


k8 


19 

20 


1^ 
kuk 


21 


kw 


22 


kz 


23 


k 


24 


tt 


25 


48m 



occurs only in the Kuskokwim River region, where it 

replaces p. 
has always the sound of ch, as in ' chapter/ — like the 

Russian t{. C is the next most common letter after k ; 

Italian 'cielo.' 
like b, occurs only along the Kuskokwim, where it replaces t. 
exactly as in English : mS-luf-kak, small bell ; skaftoa, / 

scatter, 
always pronounced hard, as in * get ' ; French ' gant ' ; German 

* Geld/ 
a common ending in verbs is ghwu ; it is a subtle sound, 

which should be heard from a native. It occurs much 

in the dual (see 519), where it sounds as gunneyghwo. 
as in English. 

a common combination in verbs : kini-u-hlo-nA. 
used in third dual of verbs : hrftCk, also pis-kai-hrftt-nilk. 
as *wh' in English: hw6, // Idt-tu-hwl ; Spanish *huerta.' 
as in 'jam'; Italian 'giorno/ 
as in English. This is the most-used letter in the language ; 

French * quart' 
a strong rasping guttural. 
k sounded alone (see 8). This k * solus ' is very common : 

tumktok, sounded just as tumknrtok with the kur short 

and obscure, 
as in * sprinkle,' * tinkle,' etc. 
almost the same as k : knOrOk. 
as in English. 

ftkfiksitoa. Sometimes it is aspirated ksh : kshar-kfttA-mun. 
strongly hissed : tolth-ks-sag-m&ut. 
an explosive of frequent occurrence : unA-kik-kC. 
used as q : kwechoa = German * Quelle' ; French * quoi.' 
kzjSflnuk as IdzhzhCftnuk. 
one of the most difficult sounds, resembling the Polish *• 1,' 

which is used to represent it : Hn, 4mSg&ka. 
'this and the next are combinations of the preceding and 

have to be learned from a native. They prevail in the 

dual of pronouns : ieldnka, iemug'nuk. 



27 
28 


1 
IP 


29 

so 


m 


31 
32 


n 
n 


33 


ng 


34 


gu 


35 
36 


mw 
P 



OJV THE CONSONANTS 3 

26 11 exactly as in Spanish. This frequently occurs with u: 

pil-Uu-gha. 
as in English. 
Ipunguuk, Ipu-gC-tut. 
as in English. 

or m alone as in Irish and Scotch patronymics : &chiknauqtoa. 
as in English. 

alone as IlvA,^ house ; sounded SnnA. 
very common and just as in English : ekamrangkatoa, I have 

a sled, 
the same sound only used as initial : Ignu, man, 
mwCrtok, // is full, 
as in English. Very often some will pronounce it much 

like b ; however, the majority give its clear, true sound. 
37 $ common among the duals of the participial forms of the 

verb ^hun. 
as in * preparatory.* 

has the sound usually given to the Greek ^ : tup-psftq-kok. 
nippt&. 
this letter is used to represent the common guttural ; ^ Iq is to 

be sounded exactly as the German < ich/ oq as the Scotch 

Moch' or Irish * lough ': chukftnrftqtoa = chukanrachtoa. 
as in English, 
the most difficult and subtle sound in the language, and 

also of very frequent occurrence. Somewhat like * hgr ' 

strongly aspirated, 
as in English : sCvIqchftmft. 
alone and hissed is very common : tA-Uu-S-ugna. 
nlqsfutak, the toggle on dog harness = nach sfew tak ; Italian 

* sfumata.' 
as in English : nish-kg ; French < chasse.' 
as in English : 9-ki-yfi-8k&-nA ; Italian ' schiavo.' 
as in English : sldq-tok. 
as in English : sid-ru-tok, snC. 
as in English : stuk, pik-ste-ghwu. 
the Russian m,: nuq-atchC. 
as in English. 

alone very frequent : t-hAlth-ko-nuk, tketoa. 
as in English : Idthl&n. 
thlmft. 

^ 3. Q was selected to avoid the awkward combinations arising from having two distinct 
sounds for ch. Thus, chaq instead of chach, and chaqchaq instead of chachchach, etc. 



38 


?r 


39 


ps 


40 


Pt 


41 


q 


42 


r 


43 


f 


44 


8 


45 


\ 


46 


8f 


47 


8h 


48 


8k 


49 


8l 


SO 


an 


51 


8t 


52 


8tch 


53 


t 


54 


t 


55 


thl 


56 


thlm 



ESSENTIALS OF INNUIT 

agiya-yas-thlrttt 

aq-thr-hir'lOkQ. 

tlis-tfik-kft-nilk. 

as in English ' battle,' ' cattle/ etc. : tuU-hiil. 

same aspirated : cbl-ti-tlth-h&-&giii. 

IttrSlnOkft = my ring finger, Tr initial is very rare ; one 

of the few words beginning thus is tr^ldLn-ny&k, 

wolverine, 
alone and hissed : pAk-U-klin-ntt, Iq-ts-thlin-nea. 
is t alone, but very guttural : tqhSus^iiA, / am stiff; German 

* doch.' 
tvSthienilrfta, triqtok. 

as in English : pivn&k, tttwdft, Iv-ySu-rft-kft. 
as in English : wCksklfine ; French * oui.' 
as in English : i-yOx-ku-mftn-rit-ta, IwalSxkluka. 
as in English: yIntOk ; Spanish 'ya'; German 'ja/ 
as in English : Pizi ; German * Hase * ; French * zHe.* 
ta-zh^tOk = Idlh&zhghwa : as in * azure '; French * jour.' 



On the Diacritic Points 

4. In addition to the ordinary long and short marks, it is necessary, 
in order to convey some semblance of certain sounds peculiar to the 
Innuit language, to adopt a few extra signs, which may greatly assist 
the student in acquiring a good pronunciation. 



57 


thlr 


58 


thr 


59 


tl 


60 




61 


Uth 


62 


tr 


63 


ts 


64 


tq 


65 


tv 


66 


V 


67 


w 


68 


X 


69 


y 


70 


z 


71 


zh 



I 


+ 


Prolongation 


^ 


2 


> 


Voice glide 


yag' 


3 


■■ut 


Brevissime 


ki^ik 


4 


-^ 


Brace 


pr 


5 


V 


Solus 


t 


6 


2 


Trill 


a» 



5. Prolongation, — Dwelling long on one sound. This is shown 
in the word for yes, which is ah. In narratives toi is often toi. 

6. Voice Glide, — This is very common : for example, iyag'yuqtoa 
is sounded iy&g g6r yuq toa. In the duals of verbs it is constantly 
met with : mug'nuk, nim'nC, pilig'mft sound as muggSmuk, idmmSme, 
pniggSrmft. 

7. Brevissime, — This is to render the vowel extremely short, and 
occurs chiefly over u in the duals : kSputAtuk. The vowel is slurred 



ON THE DIACRITIC POINTS 5 

SO that it sounds as ik or Sk: izhl ^yolk of eggy pronounced almost 
as if one syllable — ^zhe. 

8. Solus, — This means that the consonant under it is to be pro- 

V 

nounced or hissed by itself : tkfitnrfttok is to be pronounced t-kfit-n-rft-tok. 
Turn k tok, travelling is good^ the k sounds like * cur ' but very short 
and obscure. This solus sign occurs over many letters. 

9. Brace. — This signifies that the letters under it are to be 
sounded, as just explained in the solus paragraph. 

10. Trill, — This occurs over the short a ; the vowel is duplicated 
or pronounced twice : tftgomSa^une = tft-gu-mft-ah-ahlune. There is 
always a long a before it. This differs entirely from simple pro- 
longation ; here the same note is struck twice. 

11. On Nunivak Island, and in the villages around Cape Van- 
couver, the first personal pronoun hw6 is pronounced wft. 

12. From the northern shore of Norton Sound, and up along the 
Arctic Ocean, hwC is replaced by uyftngnX. 

13. Throughout the villages of the Yukon delta, St. Michael's 
Island, and parts of the Norton Sound region, z is a much favored 
letter, as 

niy^5l0k girl n&zauhol5k 

tungr&niy&k devil tungr^LgnS^&k 

kithlun peet how are you ? kithlun pizet 

Oyok you there ! uzok 

The Kuskokwim Innuit term these folks in derision pizzUdlrSet 

14. Among the Innuit around the mouth of the Kuskokwim River 
there is a tendency to sound t as d. 

tinggauh5l5k boy d&ngauholok 

15. There are but few words beginning with a. 

s^kisek a grade of sorcerer next to tuyuk 

s&liy3.k a summer cache for fish 

seyuk a little bird like a thrush 

16. It will be noticed that a short vowel very frequently becomes 
lengthened in certain cases. 

On account of this peculiarity of the language, an Innuit vocabu- 
lary cannot present all the words belonging to one group in regular 

order. 

slln a hone slegoa I hone 



ESSENTIALS OF INNUIT 

Dual Nouns 

17. Certain nouns are naturally always used in the dual. 

ptipshuk scissors 

p^nruk socks of native work 

chukek imported socks 

t&nglQk snowshoes 

Extra examples will be found in 66. 

18. Many others are used idiomatically in the dual. 

hw3.nkiik you and I = we both 

y^lla^gne day before yesterday = two days ago 

t&pt&lraek pocket knife = which folds over twice 

ek&mr^k sled = pair of runners 

^kuyutuk snuff mortar 

chKvoa.qka my upper front teeth 

kognuk grave 

The verb must agree in number when the subject is dual, 
kognuk Imkuk uthl^g^qta I approach that grave 





Plural Nouns 


19. Certain nouns are 


generally 


used in the plural. 


tumtit 




track, trail 


tumilthhrit 




an old trail 


likaat 




herring roe on sea grass 


puUiyirit 




a path through bushes 


Examples in the possessive form 


• 
• 


kitgSnka 




my breast 


kikevenki 




my needle case 


tailuyinka 




my fish trap 


uy&kunk^ 




my neck 



20. Some nouns have a different signification in the plural. 

nun^, sing. the earth, land 

nun^t, plur. village 

kSiak, sing. roof, sky 

kSlet, plur. heaven 

ughet beard 



AO(/AS — GENDER 7 

21. The verb, the demonstratives, etc., must be in the plural. 

m^kut pulliy^r^t n^nv&mun kannaumaut 
this path leads to (ends at) a lake (858) 

nun&t uetilraet em^qpem snene 

there is a village on the seashore 

kSlet klegh^tne 

in heaven = of the heavens in their uponess 

Collective Nouns 

22. Distinct collective nouns appear to be very scarce in the 
Innuit language, the only example met with thus far being 

k^tgh^t a herd 

kitgnit ttintut tingh&nki I see a herd of deer 

This want is supplied by the suffix mentioned in 221. 

Gender 

23. In Innuit there is no grammatical distinction made regarding 
gender. 

It is only from the context that the gender is known, hence the 
third personal pronoun is used indifferently for ///;;/, her^ or //. 

24. Great care is always shown in expressing the sex, and this 
sometimes makes the sentence appear overloaded. 

Toine Agiyuttim Katunra yorqtok thlenuk tiingauhau'lune 
then the son of God was born of her, a boy 



EXTRA EXAMPLES 



matft angta ^ 



ii-rerthlenilraa 



tSngauh6r6muk 

n^zauh5l6romuk 
when it comes forth, that which is bom [is] a boy (girl) 

3.1thk3.nkatoa ai'r^rnS.muk I have an older sister, a woman 

,,,+.. r n^zauholoromuk I have a younger sister, a girl 
kinggnoklingkatoa \ ^ - .^^. . ti t, 1 

°° L tilngauloromuk I have a younger brother, a boy 

!min& nukilthpe^r&t^k k^tunr^ngkilthlune tangaliholor'muk 
that chief = best hunter having a son, a boy 



8 



ESSENTIALS OF INNUIT 



On Words having a Resemblance 

25. The Innuit language presents a number of words which at 
first appear to sound alike, but on closer examination these will be 
found to differ sufficiently either in accent or quantity to preclude 
any ambiguity. 

The following are a few of the most common examples. 



List of Words sounding much Alike 



26. 



iln^ki 


my mother 


ntiki 


it is his house 


&nm 


faeces meae 


nQqtoa 


I grin 


illleghoa 


I fear 


ntiqtoa 


I get up 


^lleghoa 


I have sleeves 


mtik 


water 


ilmek 


skin 


muk 


milk 


ilmek 


door 


pimyok 


tail 


chi 


tea 


p^myok 


you up there ! 


chi 


his things 


p&nghun 


double blade paddle 


chinggnauqka I combine 


p^nghtin 


fin 


chinggn^qka 


I kiss 


peviit 


up 


ikkCrtok 


it is too small 


peviit 


ours 


Ikkitok 


it is clean 


pHilra^Lgn^ 


I am making 


lilulSkkoa 


I have colic 


pithlilra^gna 


maybe I did 


niuthlSkkoa 


I am sorry 


p(]igwo& 


I am 


Iqtoa 


I fall 


pugwo& 


I bob up 


eqtoa 


I am snow blind 


sTqtoa 


I prepare fish to dry 


Iggoa 


I swallow 


stiqtoa 


I sweat 


irqtoa 


I hide 


stuk 


finger nail 


iyautuk 


mud poles for kiyak 


stiik 


both drift down 


iyauqtuk 


they both went 


tim^kinki 


all the things I have lost 


k^ntiqtoa 


I am angry 


t^m^qkinldL 


all of both 


k^nntiqtoa 


I speak 


tangle5qtoa 


I repair my snowshoes 


ke^ 


who 


t^nglo&qtoa 


I walk in snowshoes 


keya 


why 


uet^lgn5qtoa 


I am tired of staying 


kistik 


tassel 


uet^lgnauqtoa I am still staying 


kist6k 


convulsion 


uni 


this 


ninggnoa 


I reach for 


un^ 


down 


ningghoa 


I have a new house 


tiqt2.ka 


I pick it up 


na'uhwS 


where 


tiqt^ka 


I cast it away 


naliw^ 


its fruit 


yuet6k 


no one is there 


n6k& 


my house 


yuet6k 


it is nobody's 



WORDS HAVING A RESEMBLANCE 9 

27. Among these words there will be found some which are per- 
fect homonyms ; still all ambiguity is avoided by the fact that these 
homonyms differ in their increments. 



^mek = entrance 


or door 


= ^megiim 


^mek = a skin or 


pelt 


= ^mem 


miik = water 




= mrhiim 


muk = milk 




= mugiim 


un^ = this 




= urn 


lina = down 




= unum 



28. The Innuit language presents one general form or declension, 
according to which not only all the nouns, but also the whole of 
the pronouns, and the various possessive and participial forms, are 
declined. 

It often happens that in the course of declension a short vowel 
will become lengthened. 

There are six cases in Innuit, the first of which is double : these 
are explained in 36. 



29. 



2 

3 
4 

5 
6 



,. ,. {Intransitive 

Localis 
Modaiis 
Terminalis 
yialis 
j£qualis 



Agiyun 


God 


Agiyuttim 


God 


Agiyutme 


in God 


Agiyutmtik 


about God 


Agiyutmiin 


to God 


Agiyiitktin 


through God 


Agiyiitttin 


as God 



NoTS. — The names of the second, third, fourth, and fifth cases are the same as used 
by Dr. Bourquin in his Grammatik der Eskimo Sprtuhe, 



30. 



Cases. 



Land. 



Creek, 



Moon. 



Intrans, 


ntm& 


kwecho^ 


6rral6k 


Trans. 


nun&m 


kwecho^r^m 


^rraltim 


Loc, 


nun&me 


kwecho^r^me 


^rraltime 


Mod. 


nun^m&k 


kwecho2.r^mtik 


^rralumtik 


Term. 


nun^mun 


kwecho^r^mtin 


^rralumQn 


Vial. 


nun&ktin 


kwecho^rqkiin 


^rraluktin 


j£^qual. 


nun^tiin 


kwechoirqtiln 


^rraluttin 



lO 



ESSENTIALS OF INNUIT 



Cases. 

Intratis, 

Trans, 

Loc, 

Mod, 

Temi, 

ViaL 

yEguaL 



Water. 

mtik 

mrhtim 

mtirh'mg 

iniirh'mtik 

mtirh'mtin 

mtiqkiin 

mtiqtiin 



Smoke. 

puyok 

puytlm 

puyQm6 

puyumtik 

puyumtin 

puyukiin 

puyuttin 



Ice. 

chiku 

chikum 

chikama 

chlkumtik 

chikum tin 

chlkukiin 

chikutiin 



31. The following examples show the three numbers. 



Cases. 

Intrans, 
Trans. 
Loc. 
Mod. 
Term. 
Vial, 
^qual. 



Cases. 

Intrans. 

Trans. 

Loc. 

Mod. 

Term. 

Vial. 

^qual. 



Sing. 

kw!q 

kwlgiim 

kwlg^me 

kwlg^mtik 

kwlg^miin 

kwlqktin 

kwlqtiin 



Sing. 

ingrik 

ingrim 

ingrime 

ingrimtik 

ingrimtin 

ingriktin 

ingritiin 



River 

Dual. 
kwlguk 



Ingrig'ne 

ingrig'ntik 

ingr][g*ntin 

ingrigin'ghtin 

ingriqtiin 



Plur. 
kwegtit 



kwigiig'ne 


kwegne 


kwfgiig'ntik 


kwegniik 


kwigtig'ntin 


kwegniin 


kwigtiqkttn 


kweqktin 


kwlgiiqtiin 


kweqtiin 


Mauniain 


y 


Dual. 


Plur. 


ingrlk 


Ingrift 



ingrine 

ingriniik 

fngriniin 

ingritthiin 

ingr!tttin 



On the Terminations 



32. Class I ending with a vowel : 



I 


& 


&m 


sVk 


sl^m 


weather 


2 


& 


Cim 


kemtiqt^ 


kemiiqtHm 


dog 


3 


& 


em 


^tulra^ 


^tulraem 


singer 


4 


oa 


Olr&m 


kwecho^ 


kwecho&r&m 


creek 


S 


s 


Im 


sne 


sn^m 


shore 


6 


s 


em 


k^zhge 


k^zhgdm 


house 



ON THE TERMINATIONS 



1 1 



7 


e 


im 


^tuyule 


^tuyulim 


singer 


8 


i 


fm 


pi 


pirn 


outlet 


9 


u 


&m 


chikku 


chlkkum 


ice 


lO 


8t2 


stiim 


pelista 


pellsttim 


doer 


II 


8te 


8ten 


iikfukste 


likftiksten 


believer 



33. Class II ending with a consonant: 



I 


ftk 


&m 


kantak 


k^ntim 


wooden bowl 


2 


ftk 


em 


k^imk 


keilem 


sky 


3 


Sn 


&tfim 


ghan 


gh&tQm 


native bucket 


4 


thIXk 


thlriim 


klingthiak 


klingthlrtim 


scar 


5 


ek 


egtim 


^mek 


^megum 


entrance 


6 


ek 


em 


^mek 


Smem 


hide 


7 


ik 


em 


Sgiyuvik 


igiyuvem 


church 


8 


ik 


im 


Ingrik 


ingrim 


mountain 


9 


ilk 


Igum 


tungraiik 


ttingrSlgum 


sorcerer 


lO 


5k 


um 


ok6k 


okum 


blubber 


II 


60k 


oftm 


tiinttighook 


ttintiighoSm 


picture of a deer 


12 


fik 


•fim 


yuk 


yum 


man 


13 


iq 


igilm 


kwKq 


kwigtim 


river 


14 


en 


etiim 


Sken 


aketQm 


bed place 


15 


aun 


autum 


nufkalin 


niifkaiittim 


native tool 


16 


iln 


iltum 


sl^shun 


sl^shutiim 


thermometer 



34. It is a very remarkable feature of Innuit that the character- 
istic of number always precedes the case termination. 



Loc, 



' Sing. 


kw!giime 


in a river 


Dual 


kw!gtig'ne 


in both rivers 


Plur, 


kwegne 


in rivers 



It is very usual for a short vowel in the singular to become 
lengthened in the plural. 

35. The vialis and aequalis cases generally revert to the form of 
the intransitive, as : 

Intrans, kw!q 

ViaL kwiqkiin 

^quaL kwlqttin 

while the other cases follow the theme of the transitive. 



12 



ESSENTIALS OF INNUIT 



On the Agentialls Case 

36. This case has two forms in the singular, both of which have 
the force of the nominative : one form has an accidental force of the 
accusative, and the other an accidental force of the genitive. 

The first of these forms is the intransitive and the second is the 
transitive, and they are used as follows : 

37. The intransitive of the agentialis with a verb 
in first aspect intransitive is equal to the nominative, 
and answers the question who. 



Intrans, 



Trans, 



V 

Agiyun &tinr5k nun^me 
AgiyQn €t6k 



God is Master in the world 
God is 



38. The intransitive of the a^^entialis with a verb 
in first aspect transitive is equal to the accusative, and 
answers the question wfiom or what, 

tdkklor^piit Agiyun tim^lthko^n pen&roOk 
we term him Almighty God 

39. The transitive of the agentialis with a verb in 
first aspect transitive is also equal to the nominative. 



AgiyutHm p!lle^knthh5&ktit 
AgiyatQm plsk^ktit netsklune 
ch^rov&nrhtim ^tr^qt^ 



God made us 

God orders us to obey him 

the current carries it down 



40. The transitive of the agentialis with a subordinate 
substantive is equal to the genitive, and answers the 
question whose. 

AgiyutQm k^nniirqy^ri of God his message = the Gospel 

tim^tft yOt n6tnaur^tgh^: AgiyutQm kinrair^ntik k&thl^thlo^ 
let the people hear me : I speak the words of God 

Note. — See 397, how this case supplies the want of a or an and the. 

41. The transitive is to be used in all expressions of place. 

tiinuerutHm o^tmiin plgh^ y^kshlnratdk 

the upper mouth of the slough is not far off 

m^riyir^m kien^nne enungkalik it is Ipng on the mud 



AGENTIALIS CASE 1 3 

In most of the inflected languages, particularly the Classical and 
Sclavonic groups, all expressions relating to location are very much 
complicated, as the various prepositions, etc., require different cases. 
Innuit differs from these languages, by presenting a wonderful 
instance of uniformity in this respect. 

nQm ^cha^ne beneath the house 

nUm ^m^tene beyond the house 

nQm ch&nni^ne close to the house 

nQm nio&ne in the house 

nliin killo&ne back of the house 

These are all possessives and are treated in 386. 

nQm ^cha^ne of the house in its undemess (lit.) 

chiktim nid^n6 of the ice in its inn ess 

^megtim kull€ne above the door, of the door in its 

aboveness 

These may all be used in the personal form (371). 

nQm Hia&ntoa I am in the house 

42. If the idea of motion toward is to be combined, the only 
change necessary is to give the governing word its appropriate 
case, as : 

n^vSMm k5kine in the centre of the lake 

iy^'yuqtoa n^nv^h^m k5ktoiin I want to go to the centre of 

the lake 

43. The transitive of the agentialis is always to be used when- 
ever possession is to be expressed. 

ntimti puyo& of our house, its smoke 

kw!qpem chlkkue of the great river, its ice 

emiLqpepem tqhiL of the ocean, its bottom 

kw6ch5ar^m pign^ of the streamlet, its mouth 

chUsklUn em& of the cup, its contents 

Note. — As this idiom is clear, all similar expressions will appear in their usual 
English form, as, the middle of the rsver^ etc. 



14 



ESSENTIALS OF INNUIT 



On the Localis Case 

44. The characteristic of this case is C. 

The localis answers the question where^ and expresses in. 



kw!g^me kwematok 

At^mti finena uet&chShkokQt 



he swims in the river 

we will be in our Father's house 



Note. — All expressions of location, position, etc., are rendered by the localis. 
A reference to 41 will show the importance of this case. 



45. In expressing comparison the localis is always used. (See 
572.) 



ume t^k!nr55k 

Qn& kemtiqt^ peningro5k tsiume 



it is longer than this 

this dog is stronger than that one 



46. Time when is always expressed by the localis. (See 616.) 



tikshOme 
m&tume 



in winter time 
in this time 



47. A distinctive feature of the Innuit langu^e is the idiomatic 
use of the localis case : 

In all indefinite terms, such as are shown in 619. 
Also in general expressions, as in jj^. 



On the Modalis Case 

48. The characteristic of this case is muk, gnuk, nuk. 
The modalis answers the questions ivliaty about w/iat. 
The modalis expresses any, some^ part of. 



ch^miik peyuqchet 
chuy^mtik peyuqtoa 
^tiilra^muk nechtiqtoa 
Agiyutmtik k&thlauchuw&mk!n 
chlker&nki chiyumiik 
ch&miik ki peyuqtutft 



what do you want ? 

I want some tobacco 

I want to hear some music 

I want to speak to you about God 

I gave them some tea 

do you want anything ? 



TERMINALIS CASE 



IS 



49. The modalis case is used also instead of the indefinite article, 
which is lacking in Innuit. (See 689.) 

50. Sometimes in conversation certain words in the modalis are 
abbreviated, as : 

ftmthlSkyfth ? in place of the full &mtiaSkyfth'milk ? more still, eh ? 



On the Terminalis Case 

51. The characteristic is un. 
This case occurs with verbs of motion. 

It answers the questions to whom, to w/iat, in or on what, 
whither, etc. 



kwKg'mtin ly^k^ltht^ 

iySg'yuqtoa taukuntin Ingrintin 

iy^g'yuge^koa ninv^h^m ikko&ntin 

unS. ka kwiq ^numaiik em&qpig'miin 

kinn^ 3.numauk n3.nv&h3.p3.g'miin 

tleu kiner^mtin 

k^tglntin thle^k 

n&tmtin iyikchet 

p^l^hwut&miin tikkdi 

mtiq'mun Iqtok 

ttingle^niin nummiin iy3.qtoa 

kw!q ero&qpKg'mtin ^num^lune 



let us go to the river 

I want to go to those mountains 

I would like to go to the end of the lake 

does this river flow to the sea ? 

no, it flows into a large lake 

put it in the comer 

they both laid it on his breast 

where are you going ? 

I embark on the steamer 

it fell into the water 

I go to the next house 

the river flows to the sea 



52. Certain idiomatic expressions require this case. 

itg&tft slSkluke yuku'timtin keep your feet dry = 

thy feet, take care of them to the dampness 

In like manner : 



eqktn sl3.kluke puyumtin 
{ngrimtin k^sketoa 



keep your eyes from the smoke 
I scale the mountain 



53. Verbs of exchanging require this case. 

n&vrotaka okoh^k ^ts&r^ntin I swap a chunk of blubber for some 

berries 
n^vrot^nka ^ts^tkwenr^t dkoh^g'mtin I exchange a few berries for some oil 
n^vrot&ki eldLmr&k kiy^tin I barter a sled for a canoe 



1 6 ESSENTIALS OF INNUIT 

On the Vialis Case 

54. The characteristic of this case is kan. In possessive nouns 
this ending varies according to euphonic changes. 

The vialis answers the questions by wliat means^ in what fnann€r, 
by what way^ etc. 

iy^qtoa ^tim^ kiyakiin I go in my father's kiyak 

fhaloqkiin uy^ngtdk he looks down through the smoke hole 

ek^mr^mkiin iye go on my sled 

^tauchekiin k^ iy^qt&k did they both go together ? (i.e., as one) 

tumllthhrSkiin lye go by his trail 

stok ^chemekiin it drifts down 

ch^mekiin ^pkuchi^qta 

what does he complain of ? (i.e., a sick person) 

chelign^kiin k^ t^m^ntlhtinratutft 
have you been there before ? 

V 

ch6(itnciin taguluku niyagn^ti tupaqts^'luku 

taking her by the ear, he shook her to try to awaken her 

n^nt& imln^ yuntlkhr^ {ggyarS.mekiin naiithlulrlUl .^ 

where is that young man who is suffering from his throat ? 

iimyu^mekiin tokutnrachuy^kluku 

in his mind he did not want to kill him 

sn&kiin iy^qtoa 

I go by the bank = along the shore 

kwiqpem snekiin iyiqtoa 

I go by the bank of the Yukon (i.e., its bank ; see 43) 

55. Verbs of following take the vialis. 

toitlu klnggho^kiin m^Uqk^gh^ then he followed behind him 

iy^g'3^qtoa ^pprukiqkiin I want to go by the Apruka 

tunuerutkiin uktin iyelthta let us go by this slough 

tifngluwSki tikso^kiin 

I hit him on the head = I fist him by his head 

tingluw3gn^ kitg^nkiln 

he hits me on the breast 

ptnggniyQthtin k^nra^thtin kithlitliqtdk 

he speaks three languages = by three languages 



jequaus case— time forms — past form 17 

On the iBqualis Case 

56. The characteristic of this case is tttn. 

The aequalis answers the questions like what or as what^ according 
to what, 

pivstiln iyokklereluku make it like yours 

yuplqstiin nechukum^ when I hear as a native = when 1 41 speak Innuit 

irkthlutiin pe^kon^ku do not do it wrong 

V 

pechlr'y^r^mthiin peukQt we act according to our custom 

mlkklUigndktiin lydkutft you are like a baby 

hwegnS. iydkuchak^ lyokinratok ip^tsttin 
my way is not like yours 

nun^ uet&lthluqput ^ngk^tsttin lyokdk taugw^m ^ngghdk 
the earth we inhabit is like a ball only it is large 

mumlqtaugw5k yiiqstiin 

it is translated into Innuit 

n&kllkk^mkin kitiinr^mttin 

I love you as my son (i.e., as I love him) 

In the opposite sense the sentence would be as follows : 
nS.klikk^mk!n kS.tilnr^kilra^tiin I love you as my son (i.e., as he loves me) 

On the Time Forms 

57. Innuit nouns possess the property of combining with the 
characteristics of tense, and thus adding to each word a present, past, 
or future signification. 

The tense characteristic precedes the case ending. 

Pres, kepQtndk trading 

Past keputhiak trading 

Fut, keputik^k trading 

On the Past Form 

58. These words are much used where in English the relative is 
employed. 

^kkw^w^k ImlnS. yuk ly^thlflk tokok the man who went yesterday is dead 

Here iyathluk means the person who went. 



1 8 ESSENTIALS OF INN (/IT 

59. This form is declined as follows : 

iy&thmk iy^lthhrQk lyilthhri^t 

iydlthriini 

iyathlQr'me iyilthhrtig'ne iyithllir'ne 

nauthluthlCik an invalid = a person who was sick 

iy^'yOthlCik one who wanted to go 

yundlththlCik a deceased person 

dngthlQmdkshithKik one not yet baptized 

The negatives are formed in the usual way. 

kik{fk^thl(ik a rheumatic kilklfkiinrithKik a non-rheumatic 

a'uqkut yunrflthhrilit k^n'y^r^k^t 

those ceased to be folks, it is their language 



On the Future Form 
60. 

lethl^qk&k the learning thloldthl^qldik the curing 

iydthl^qk&k the going t^kuthldqkdk the finishing 

pillethl^qkdk the making tithl^qk&k the coming 

p!llethlSqka.k chiprniqkok it is difficult to make = the making (future) 

61. The use of this future form constitutes an idiom which at 
times is very difficult to translate. 

V 

ningllkiqtirutilkan taugw&m kuttrit tketldqtut 

This is a saying connected with the weather. In April the 
myriads of geese, ducks, cranes, and other migratory birds begin to 
arrive around the shores of Norton Sound. The cranes are the 
latest to come, and their presence marks the final close of the long 
Arctic winter. This gives rise to the saying that *' There is no 
more cold after the coming of the cranes." 

Pres, ningli cold 

Past ninglithliik cold 

Fut, ninglikak cold 



NingUk&qtirut&kftn, when (future) cold is lacking (i.e., when there is 
no more cold weather). This is derived from ningUkftqtirQtok (see 
Mode IX), and is the third singular of a form explained in 522. 



THE POSSESSIVES I9 

Tketllqtfit, they habitually come^ third plural of tketl&qtoa. Mode CLIV, 

V 

of the verb tketoa, / come, * 

The above saying is : 

The cranes regularly come only when there will be no more cold. 

62. Sometimes the future form of a word will have a secondary 
meaning of its own, as : 

Pres, puyok smoke 

Past puyQthltik what was smoke 

Fut, puyoqkak what will be smoke (term for gunpowder) 

The Possessives 

63. Possession is always expressed by means of suffixes, which 
convey also the idea of person and number. 

64. The following is a partial paradigm showing the intransitive 
form of the possessive suffix. 

65. It will be noticed that the endings presented in the following 
paradigm correspond with those of the verb. (See 467.) 



ist 



' Sing, my kS we both, our hpuk our hput 

Dual both my qka. we both, both our qpuk both our qput 
Plur, my nka, we both, our puk our put 



' Sing, thy fi you both, your zuk your ze 

2d - Dual both thy qkfi you both, both your qtuk both your qche 
Plur, thy tn you both, your tuk your che 



3d 



' Sing, his & they both, their ak their ^t 

Dual both his ak they both, both their qkSk both their rqkSt 
Plur, his i they both, their k5k their it 



EXAMPLES OF POSSESSIVES 

66. The following list will serve as examples for forming the 
possessive. 

Note. — These examples are all in the intransitive. 

my paddle ^no&rutka ^gno^ruthft ^gno^rute 

my dear mother an^chugn^k^ ^.n^chugn^n ^n^chugne 

my aunt ^n^nn^ka ^n^nn^n ^n^nne 



20 



ESSENTIALS OF INNUIT 



my beloved mother 

my brother 

my elder brother 

my father 

my fur blouse 

my mother 

my stone axe 

my big knife 

my future 

my knee 

my knees 

my eye 

my eyes 

my members 

my little finger 

my little fingers 

my neighbor 

my water boots 

my elbow 

my heart 

my leg 

my legs 

my custom 

my breast 

crown of my head 

my body 

the small of my back 

my grandmother 

my head 

my little house 

my wife 

my village 

my gun 

my bow 

my workman 

my toe 

my lungs 

my intelligence 

my arm 

my shoulder 

my toes 

my mind 



^nikswalatikH 


^n^kswalatin 


in^kswalet& 


inlnggn^kH 


^nlnggn^n 


^ninggni 


^mdkklir'holuk^ 


S.m5kklirhulun 


im5kklirhuloa 


^tllk^ 


^tlln 


^ta 


^tkuka 


^tkiin 


^tko^ 


ch&kutik^ 


ch&katii 


ch^kute 


ch&kyutlk^ 


ch^kyutii 


ch&kyute 


ch^wiqp&ldl 


ch^wiqpen 


ch^wiqpa 


cheuniiqkaka 


chaonuqldln 


cheunuqldl 


chlskdki 


cheskiin 


chasko& 


chlskiikkH 


cheskukkiin 


chaskuk 


ak^ 


en 


agni 


aqka 


eqkOn 


ak 


epink^ 


apiqtft 


apa 


Ikkllthkoki 


!kkilthkiin 


ikknthkoa 


ikkllthkukkil 


Hckilthkiiqkiin 


!kknthkuk 


!liar'16ka 


lliar'mn 


iliar'loa 


iwruchilthk^ 


Iwruchllthktln 


Iwrtichak 


ikkuyeki 


Ikktizhghiin 


Ikkiizhghi 


irqch^kok^ 


Irqch^kiin 


irqch^qkoa 


Irruki 


Irrtin 


!rrho^ 


Irruqka 


irrtiqkQn 


!rruk 


iyokuchaki 


lydkuchin 


iyokucha^ 


k&tg^nki 


kiitg^n 


k^tgi 


kdkkiki 


kikh^n 


k^khi 


kiki 


kin 


k!n^ 


kiik^kii 


kukin 


kuk^ 


mauqholuk^ 


mauqholun 


mauqholo^ 


nS.shkok^ 


n^shkiin 


nishko^ 


nltchoika 


n!tcho^rS.n 


nltchoire 


nulek^ 


nula^n 


nulah^ 


nun^ka 


nunin 


nuna 


nuttki 


nutthft 


nut hi 


dr'luvuki 


dr'luvhrttn 


dr'luvhra 


pishtkika 


p!shtkin 


pishte 


pokutokii 


pokuttin 


pokutoa 


ptiktautiika 


ptiktauttatii 


puktautti 


sl^k^ 


slin 


sl&ne 


t&thlirka 


tathUn 


t&thiaa 


tuzhika 


tuzh!ghiin 


tuzhgi 


ughar^nki 


ugh^ritft 


ughlri 


timyuilk^ 


limyMn 


timyug^ 



EXAMPLES OF POSSESSIVES 



21 



my heart 
my head 
my neck 
my life 
my song 
my man 
my folks 



ilnggnuvatka 


dnggnuvitft 


ttnggnuvite 


iikshuka 


tikshtin 


tikshaa 


uyakiinka 


uyakutft 


uyakue 


yuchaka 


yuchin 


yuchaa 


yuSrutka 


jruirtin 


yu^rute 


yuka 


yun 


yune 


yunka 


yutft 


yue 



67. Possessive endings, present ; 



-ki 

-qka 

-nka 



Sing, 



Dual * 



r 



Plur, ^ 



« " 



f r 



— fi 

— qkfi 
— tn 

— e 
— Qk 
— i 

— hpuk 
— qpuk 
— puk 

— sQk 
— qttlk 
— tGk 

— ek 
— qk6k 
— kSk 

— hput 
— qput 
— put 

— se 

— qche 
— che 

— et 
— qkSt 
—it 



— ma 

— ^gma 

— mi 


> my 


< 


' object 
two objects 
objects 


hfdt 1 
— qpttt 
fttt 

4 


► thy 


< 


Sing. 

Dual 

Plur. 


— en 
— qkn 
— in 


• his 


4 


' Sing. 
Dual 
Plur. 


— mug'nuk 
— gmug*nuk 
— mug'nuk 


' we both, ( 


our 


' Sing. 
Dual 
Plur. 


ftQk ] 
— qf)tQk 
ftQk 


► you both. 


your * 


' Sing, 
Dual 
Plur, 


— eg'nuk 
— qkgnki 
k^nka 


► they both, 


f their - 


' Sing, 
Dual 
Plur, 


— mta 

— gmta 

— mta 


► our 


^ 


' Sing, 
Dual 
Plur. 


— fche 
— qjiche 
— fche 


► your 


4 


' Sing. 
Dual 
Plur. 


—eta 

— qketa 

ita 


► their 


4 


' Sing. 
Dual 
Plur. 



22 



ESSENTIALS OF INNUIT 



My Stm 



68. 



my 



our 



our 



thy 



your* 



your 



his 



their 



their 





Sing, 


Dual, 


Plur, 


Intrans, 


kitiinr^ldl 


kUttinr&qkJl 


kitiinr&nka 


Trans. 


Idltiinr&mil 


kUtiinrag'mi 


kUtiinrimi 


Intrans, 


Idltiinrihpuk 


kitiinriqpuk 


k^tiinrapuk 


Trans, 


k^ttinramug'nuk 


k^tiinrag'mugnuk 


kUttinramug'nuk 


Intrans, 


Idltiinr&hput 


k&tiinraqput 


kUtiinraput 


Trans, 


Idltiinr^mt^ 


k&tiinrag&ta 


k^tiinramta 


Intrans, 


kitiinr^n 


k&tilnraqkn 


k&tiinratii 


Trans, 


k^tiinrahpQt 


kUttinraqplit 


kitiinrapQt 


Intrans, 


k^tiinrahtlik 


k&tiinraqtuk 


k^tiinratlik 


Trans, 


k^tiinrah|^tuk 


kUtiinraqptuk 


k&tiinraptuk 


Intrans, 


k^ttinr^ze 


k&tiinr^qche 


kitiinrachS 


Trans, 


k^tiinrahpch6 


k&tiinraqpche 


k&tiinraf>che 


Intrans, 


kattinri 


k^tiinriek 


k^tiinrie 


Trans, 


k&tiinrin 


kUtiinraqkn 


k^tiinri6n 


Intrans, 


k^ttinrak 


k^tiinraqkSk 


kitiinrakSk 


Trans, 


kittinrag'nuk 


kitiinraqk^nka 


kittinrakSnka 


Intrans, 


katiinrit 


kUtiinrarqk^t 


k^tiinriet 


Trans, 


kitiinr^ti 


k^tiinrarqk^ti 


k^tiinraeti 



On the Double Thirds 

69. In the Innuit language there are two distinct endings for the 
third persons of the possessive. The first of these signifies his own 
or he himself^ and the other one, his^ another* s. 

These double thirds extend through : 



pechShkok iy^qpillg'ma 
pechShkok iy^qpilgan 

k^nrut^Lgha .chilththl^r'menuk 
k^nrut^gha chilththlSrhr^nuk 



he will do it before he goes (i.e., he himself) 
he will do it before he goes (i.e., he, another) 

he tells me about his doings (suus) 
he tells me about l^is doings (ejus) 



70. This system of double thirds forms an interesting feature of 
the language, as by its means Innuit is entirely free from the 
ambiguity in such English sentences as : 

Basil met John and gave him his hat 



DOUBLE THIRDS 



23 



If by this the speaker means to say that Basil brought John's own 
hat to him, it is at once clearly expressed by : 

V^sldlm V&nk& p^^thluku iikkdrsu^nuk chikkarh^ 

But, on the other hand, if Basil gave away his hat, it runs thus : 

V^kim V^k& p^^thluku iikkdrsumenuk chlkk&rh^ 



kiylLm6ne uetalik 
kiyine uetaiik 

kiy&miigng uetalik 
kiy^qk^tne uetaiik 

kiy^mtigne uetaiit 
kiyitne uetalit 

71. 

his own coat 
his own two coats 
his own coats 



he is in his own canoe 
he is in his canoe 

they both are in their own canoes 
they both are in their canoes 

they are in their own canoes 
they are in their canoes 



5. 



' S. ^tkung ^tkurne 
D, ^tkQgne ^tkugme 
P, ^tkune ^tkume 



^tkumene 

^tkQg'mene 

^tkumen6 



they both, their own coat 

they both, their own two coats Z>. 

they both, their own coats 



their own coat 
their own two coats 
their own coats 



P. 



' S, itkuztlk ^tkumiigniik ^tkumtig'ne 
Z>. ^tkuqtlik ^tkQg'miigniik ^tkugmiigne 
P, ^tkQttlk ^tkumtigntik ^tkumiigne 

' S. ^tkQztlng ^tkumiing ^tkQmtiqne 
D. ^tkQqtling ^tkug'miing ^tkugmiiqn6 
P, ^tkOtUng ^tkumting itkumiiqne 



72. The following paradigm of kfttttnriUci, my son^ presents an 
example of an Innuit noun complete in all its persons and 
cases. 

It will be noticed that down each column the declension is 
according to person, while outwards it is according to case. This 
paradigm will serve as a general model, as all words follow the 
same form. 

For the past and future consult 90 and 97. 

It is unnecessary to present complete paradigms of these, as the 
endings are uniform throughout. 



ESSE.Vr/ALS OF tXXUIT 



Sing. ^ 







JnlraMi. 


Trans, 


Log. 




5. 


katanrika 


katQnr&ma 


kiitflnrftntDe 


my 


D. 
P. 


katOnriqka 
kltanrinki 


katanrlgma 
katdnrama 


kitanrilg'inn« 
kAtiinramne 


thy 


S. 

■ D. 

P. 


kitiinran 

katQnraqkA 

kltOnratA 


katOnrahpnt 
katOnraqpDt 
kat&nrap&t 


katOnrAh^nc 
katOoraqfine 
katOoraj)nc 




S. 


katOnra 


katOnran 


katJlnrine 


his 


■ D. 
P. 


k;ltanrak 
katQnri 


katQnraqkn 
katOnrin 


katJlnriqkne 

katanriD« 




S. 


katilnrana 


kdtitnrami 


katfinrimenc 


his on-n 


■ D. 
P. 


katOnragne 
katflnrSne 


katOnragme 
katflnrame 


katdnrag'menc 
katflDr&m«ne 


we,* our 


S. 
D. 

r. 


tltQnravQk 
katanraqpQk 
katQnrapuk 


katflnramQg'nilk 

katOnrag'mOg'nak 

katQnramOg'nOk 


kAliinramflg'ne 

kaianrag'mQg'ne 

katftnrim&g'ne 


you.' your 


s. 

■ D. 
P. 


katCnrazQk 
kdtQnraqtuk 
katflnratuk 


katiln^ah^tuk 
kati)nraq{)tuk 
katQnra^tuk 


katanrahfjtug'ne 
katOnraq^tug'ne 
kaiQnra^tug'DC 


they,* their 


S. 
1). 
P. 


kattinrak 

katdnraqkCk 

kitQnrakt^k 


katOnragnuk 
k^t&nraqkenkS 

katonrakanka 


katianrag'ne 

katiinraqkfg'ne 

kaiunrikeg'ac 


they,' their 
own 


s. 

■ D. 
P. 


katiinrazQk 
kat&nraqt&k 

katfinraiak 


katQnTamdg'nfik 

katftnrag'miig'nak 

katdnTamOg'nuk 


kaiimramiig'ne 

katflnrag'mdg'ne 

katdnramOg'oe 




S. 


katOnravilt 


katilnramta 


katOnramtne 


our 


D. 

r. 


katOnraqpilt 
katflnrapat 


katdnragmta 
katdnramta 


kfltflnrigmtne 
katiinraratne 


your 


s. 

D. 

p. 


katanraze 

katiinraqche 

kattinrache 


katanraht>che 

katdnraqt>che 
kaifinra^hS 


kaiQnriihtichne 
katdnrlq^hne 
katdnrafichn^ 




s. 


kittinrat 


kSttlnrata 


katdnrfttaS 


their 


■ D. 
P. 


katflnraqkCt 
kattlnr[t 


katflnraqketa 
katflnriia 


kat&nriqkStnC 
kXtilnritne 


their own 


(5. 


katflnrazting 
katflnraqtilng 
katQnratiing 


katflnrahmting 
kai&nragmang 
katilnramtlng 


katfinrahmfiqnC 
katQnrag'mnqne 
katfinramOqne 



DOUBLE THIRDS 



25 



Mod, 

k^ttinr^mniik 

kiltiinrig'mnuk 

k^tiinr^mniik 

k^ttinr^hpniik 
kltiinr^qj^ntik 
k^tiinr^pniik 

k^tiinr^niik 

k^ttinr^qkniik 

k^tiinnniik 

kS,tiinr^meniik 

k^ttinrig'mentik 

kitiinrimentik 



Term, 

kitiinr^mniin 

kitiinrig'mntin 

k^tiinr^mniin 

k^tiinr^hpniin 
kiltiinr^qpntin 
kiltiinr^pniin 

k^ttinr^ntin 

kittinriqkniin 

k^tiinrintin 

k^ttinr^meniin 

k&tiinr^g'meniin 

k&tiinr^mentin 



Vial, 

kitiinriinkiin 

kitiinr^g&gmiiqktin 

kitiinrlmkiin 

k^ttinr^hpghiin 
k^ttinriqpghiin 
k^tiinr^i^ghiin 

k^ttinr^ktin 

k^tiinrlqktin 

kiltiinriktin 

k^ttinr&mekun 

k^ttinrag'mekun 

k^tiinrlmektin 



jEqual. 

k^tiinr^mstiin 

kitiinr^g'miigsttin 

kiltiinr^msttin 

kitiinr^hp^tsttin 
kitiinr^qpetstiin 
k^ttinr^p^tstiin 

k^tiinr^hsttin 
kitiinr^qstiin 
kilttinrlstiin 

k^tunr^m^tiin 

k^ttinrig'metiin 

k^tunr^metiin 



kitiinr^miig'niik 
kattinrig'mtig* ntik 
k^ttinr^mug'ntik 

k^ttinrahptug'nttk 
kdttinr^qptug'niik 
k^ttinrlptug'ntik 

k^tiinrig'ntik 

k^tunriqkeg'ntik 

k^tunr^k^g'ne 

k^tiinr^mtigniik 

kittinrag*mug*niik 

k&ttinr^mug'niik 

k&ttinr^mtntik 

k^tiinr&gmtniik 

k^tiinr^mtniik 

k^tiinr^hjSchniik 
k^ttinr^qpchniik 
k^tiinr^pchnuk 

k^tiinr^tntik 

k^ttinr^qk^tniik 

kltiinritniik 



k^tiinr^mtig'ntin 

kittinrSg'mug'ntin 

k^ttinr^mug'nun 

k^tiinr&hj^tug'niin 
kittinr&qptug'ntin 
k^tunr^ptug'niin 

k&tiinr&g'ntin 

kilttinr^qk^g*ntin 

k^ttinr^keg'ntin 

k^ttinr^mug'nun 

kitiinr^g*mug*niin 

k^tiinr^mug'ntin 

k^ttinr^mtntin 

k^tiinr^gmtniin 

k^tiinr^mtniin 

k^tiinr^h^hnun 
k^ttinriqpchntin 
k^ttinr^pchnun 

k^tdnrltniin 

k^ttinr^qk^tniin 

k^tunrltntin 



k&tiinr^hmug'niik k&ttinr&hmug'ntin 
k&ttinrag'mug'niik kittinrig'mug'ntin 
k^tiinr^mug'ntik k&tiinrimug'niin 



kitQnr^hmug^nSrghiin 

k3.ttinra.g'mug*nSrghtin 

k^ttinr^mug'n^rghiin 

k^tiinr&hptug'nSrghun 
k^ttinriqptug'nSrghiin 
katiinrlptug'nSrghtin 

k^tiinr&g'nSrghtin 

k&ttinraqkSg'nSrghtin 

k^tiinr^k§g*nSrghtin 

klttinrahmug'nSrghtin 
kittinr3,ginug*nSrghtin 
k^ttinramug'nSrghtin 

k^tiinrlmthun 

k^ttinrigmthiin 

k^ttinrlmthiin 

k3.ttinrih p§ tshtin 

k^tiinr^qp^chthiin 

k^tiinrap^tshun 

V 

kiltunr^thiin 

kltQnraqkeg'nSrghtin 

k^ttinrlthtin 

kitiin ra.hmug'n6rghtin 

k^tunriig'mug'nSrghtin 

kittinramug'nSrghtin 



kittinrihmiiqsttin 

kiittinriig'muqsttin 

k^ttinrlmtiqstun 

k^tunr^hj^ttiqsttin 
k^ttinr^qj^tuqsttin 
k^ttinr^ptiiqstiin 

kS,tiinr&qsttin 

k^tiinr^qk^qsttin 

k^tiinr^k^qstiin 

k^tiinr^hmtiqsti^n 

k^tunrSg'mOqsttin 

k^tiinr^mtiqstiin 

k^ttinr&mstiin 

k^ttinr^gmtstiin 

k^ttinr^msttin 

kitiinr^hp^tsttin 
k^tiinr^qp^tstiin 
kittinrap^tstun 

k&tiinratstiin 

k^tiinr^qk^tstiin 

kittinritstun 

k^tiinr^hmiiqstiin 

k^tttnrilg'mtiqstiin 

k^ttinr&miiqstiin 



26 ESSENTIALS OF INNUIT 

On the Time Forms of Possesdyes 

74. These words take the characteristics of tense, and thus a 
present, past, or future signification is added to the original meaning. 



75. 







My Saying 






Example of 


a Possessive in 


the Present 


kinrutM 




Idlnratlmi 


k^nrutimng 


Unrutft 




k^nrutfiit 


kinrtitivng 


Idlnrute 




kinrut^n 


k&nraten^ 



The condensed paradigm is given in 78. 
See also 73. 

76. The Past Form of the Possessive 

k^nrutlki kilnruthllm^ ldlnriithl!mne 

kinrutlhft k&nriitthlirpit kinrQthlirqpne 

k^nratlhr^ k^nrutlhr^n ldlnrtitlhr^n6 

Additional examples and paradigms are given further on. 



77. The Future Forpn of the Possessive 

k^nratk^k^ k^nrutkim^ k^nrutkimne 

k^nrutkiln kdnrutk^qplt k^nrutkaqpne 

k^nrutk^ . k&nrutkiin k^nrutkane 

Note i. — Klnrfitk&ldl is the same as I tell about it to some one (see Mode CLIII). 
Note 2. — In kftnratildl the final A is longer than in k&nrfitlki = my saying. 



TIME FORMS OF POSSESSIVES 



27 



N. 



5o 



A fft C M 
H •"! *^ 



S 



9 



9 


9 





a 


M 


►i 


5i* 


f^ 


Ok 




■^ 
^ 










1 





9 








1 




1 


1 








1 





B 





B 


E2< 


»i 


•■-< 


»^ 


5 


PC 

9 


•3 


s 

B 




rti 


% 


s 




a 




a* 




at 





ic ff rtc § 

S^ §c S^ 9L 
-- 5^ B- ?r 



i ^ ^ B 

& H, 25 ff 

a cc 

'^ B 






» (» s 

•1 "I "I 



o 



I I I I 

B B B B 

5* K< ^ 5S< 

J* " s ^ 



(1^ 

B 






OH. 

B 








1 


B 


B 


B 


B 


s 

f 

at 




5 
1 

at 


fie 

B 








1 


B 


S 


B 


B 


-1 

3 

f 


1 


•3< 

B 


5 


& 




^ 


?r 


K 




?r 












a 


B 


B 


B 


3 


! 

B 


t 


B 


'9 


B 


•9 


0^ 

B 




B 


B 



B* B* ft g 

pm» tirf. 3^ £3 

CO CO v< v^ 

o 



I I I I I: 

B B B B ^ 

s S' I ?r I 

I I 'I I ^ 

*•**■ *^ f^ *^< ^ 

B § ^ B I 



ai 



B B B B 



^ 3 ^ 



'I. pc 

g. «>' g, rti 

ai 



2, 3 

^ 3^ •a 3 ^ 

3 2. 3 3 r 



B ^ g. ^ 



i I I I 

S3 3 S, 3 so 

a" 3 "S 3 ^ 



g' 3 

3 



3 3 



3 



3- S^ 'S 3 

3 & 25 3. 

B- 5i 

'^ 3 



3- ^ 'S 3 

3 S 2< 5^ 
fie s^ rv ?t 



CO ^ 

3 



pc 



^ >? 



*TD< 



*^- pc A 3 

3 ««l ^ cc 

Cc B C Orq 

<W «< <^. 3 

B oIq 3 (V 

^ S ^ Q'*' 

&* B ST Cc 

Cc gc 3 

ill! 



3 



3 

fie 

S dc 3 

3 3 



S ^ ^ 

B ^ 



3 



SI * S a 



3 
•1 

pc 

3 



I I 

B dc 
B 






a >J 



28 ESSENTIALS OF INNUIT 

79. Examples of the localis : 

ilULqtoa kilnrutlmne I err in my saying 

key^tlmne nunurlghi he scolded me in my crying 

80-81. Examples of the terminalis : 

yurqthr^nlmntik tdkulthk^mniin from my birth till my death 

td^tlu nunlkimeniin iy^qtdk then he goes to his dwelling 

82. Examples of the modalis : 

V V 

m^ntiiqtok tkethrinlmntik he has stayed here since my coming 

V V 

m&nt&qtoa tkethr^nr&niik I have stayed here since his coming 

tkeflh^nimntik nauthlumaligh^ 

from my coming I have been sick = since my coming 

mivut thlirhinlmniik netukshitikl 

I have not yet heard it since my being here 

83. Examples of the vialis : 

In these examples the vialis is to be rendered as at the time or 
just as or as soon as^ etc. 

nechug'neklnr^kiin p&mikiin klllointik llrauraiqtimtik netdk 

just at his listening from down there behind him some (one) walking 

he hears = 
at the time he was listening, he heard some one approaching behind 

him from down there 

to^tlu uySngtuk, uyingtkilnlr'mug'nSrghiin netuk klmmiktin ntlm flloliniik 
kiinilrodmiik 
then they both looked down (i.e., by the smoke hole) just as they both 
look down, they both heard some talking below in the house 

kepuchemiranlmktin tinghikl iemchemathlenilra^ 

just after my having bought it, I see what proves to be a broken 
thing = that it is broken (Mode LXXII) 

netnimkiin toSvut iyig'laa as soon as I heard it I went there 

tamant&r&kanraktin just at the time he was there 

84. Example of the aequalis : 



Sing, 



' pet3.chah&mtun peiiko^ 
pet^chah^ptiin pe^kutn 
petichahimetun peikok 



TIME FORMS OF POSSESSIVES 



29 



Dual 



Plur. 



' petllchah^mtiqtiin pe^kokuk 
' petllchah^ptiiqttin pe^kotuk 
[ petllchah^miiqtiin pe^kuk 



' pet^chah^msttin pe^kokut 
petS.chah^p$tsttin pe^koche 
petllchah&miiqsttin pe^kut 



This means I do as much as I am able^ I do my best^ according to 
my ability. 

It is the aequalis of pSt&ch&hlkft, pgtachghgmg, petfichfihamne, etc. 
The future is petftchfihkSkft kSmft, etc. 



^ 

Note. — PStXchlmSton — as he can or as he does. 



85. The past form of the possessive : 



Sing. 



Dual 



Flur, 



Sing, 

' peyulthka 
peyulthhrin 
peyulthhri 

peyulththlerpuk 

peyulththlertuk 

peyulthhrik 

peyulththl^rput 
peyulththlerche 
peyulthhrit 



My Wanting 



Plur. 

peyulthhinkii 

peyulththn 

peyulthhre 

peyulthpuk 
pey tilth tuk 
peyulthkuk 

peyulthput 
peyulthche 
peyulthhret 



^mthl^rp^k^qt^ peyulthhr^n 

your wanting is too great = you want too much 

V V 

^mthl^rp^klqt^t pe3rulththn 

your wantings are too great = you want too many 

y^kshikp^kaqta iy^g'yulthhr^n 

your wanting to go is too far = you want to go too far 



86. 








iyilthka 


my going 


kauw^lthk^ 


my sleeping 


m5qsiilthka 


my thirsting 


tilthka 


my coming 


nauthlulthk^ 


my illness 


piiktilthki 


my doing 


pllthka 


my deed 


pttqtlilthhank^ 


my no more 


plulthki 


my passage 


used things (derelicta) 



30 ESSENTIALS OF INNUIT 

AkUtlttSk s seldom may be used with this form. 

iy&lthldl ^kOlthtdk my going is seldom 

^Lkw&w^lfr itulthkA my yesterday used one = the one I 

used yesterday 
mithinthkH my moving towards 

mithlllthk^ millqthlakQ ^nglaran^r'lane 

it appears larger the more I approach 
itlki my going in place 

87. By reason of^ on account of^ because can also be expressed with 
this form and petiOddfUcli (745). 

^rruliyQqtoa m5qstilthkip€ti[kklaka I want to stop because I am thirsty 

88. Many peculiar idiomatic expressions are due to this form. 

n^thluy^LgQch&kdn&ke netltlm 

your hearings (the by you heard things), do not forget them 

nithlo^ka k^nthl^rhr^ 

I ignore his saying = I do not know what he says 

^tauhwaimratdk pech^gVekllthhr^ tungr^gh!y6m 
it is not good to invoke the devil 

89. This form takes the place of the relative pronoun, and in 
English these must be added. 

tingv^lthk^ an I saw thing = that which I have seen 

umyu5rtkilthh^nk& the things of which I am thinking 

m^lthhllthk^ that which I am getting near to 

pech^lthki what I ask for 

lUekiin ^rr^l5k thllrqk^ma ^kullg'ntin nundrnt^ ^k5qtlimthlu, toanS 
tingn^rqlir^ ^k5qti thlma'muk, hwlnkut^ itiqp&qtl^put plulthhr^ 
^kkul!g'n^rghiin. 'LpSche tauqktin ^k5qt^ n^llagna^qklukQ, kithlame 
ik5qt^ nlll^chShk^ ktinr^rlunel 

Sometimes the moon comes between our earth and the sun, then but 
little of the sun appears. We call it the passing through, but you 
[call it] the sun is nearly dying. How can the sun die, being 
a fire! 



TIME FORMS OF POSSESSIVES 



31 



t* 



8- 

O 






— \ 

o 

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pi* r* 

cr cr 

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CO 
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P 

CO 



32 ESSENTIALS OF INNUIT 

9L 

nauthliilthm^ n^thl6n6 in the time of my sickness 

taguthllm^ ch!mme& in exchange for the one I took 

hw&nehw^ ^no^rutii t^m^thllm^ chlmm^l 

here it is, your paddle, of my lost one its exchange = 
here is a paddle for you in exchange for the one I lost 

92. Examples of the localis : 

keputoS, plskllthllmne I buy at the place I am ordered 

n^ntlhr^ne uetilyiiqtoa I want to be where he is = in his whereness 

tqkuthlimne nintlhuyet where were you when I fell = in my falling 

penilrakiplktlhrilne just exactly at the right time 

nangtauliqtut i:etathlir*miiqne they suffer during their stay 
peyulththlirpne tikenl come at your pleasure = in your wishing 

kaunkilthho^ mekllgno^raiilthhriine 

he took care of him in his childhood 

iy^k^t^thllmne kemiiqtimtik t^mHraughl 

I lost a dog at my start = in my starting to go. (See Mode XXI and 
also 688.) 

V 

lllekiin puktthlimne ttimthltiqkl&qtoa 

sometimes in my travelling I get a bad trail 

Itgilnkd n3.ngk5rtut tiingllurdrathlimne 

my feet are blistered from snowshoeing 

niyorha, emtime a.m3.ne tangthlir'mene 

he watched out for it over there (where he had seen it) in his own 
having seen it place 

to^thlii h6k a.ngn6S.roathlir*mugne jlma^kklad !min& iydg'yuqtok kauwivtit 
so once while they both were paddling around that elder brother 
wanted to go up stream 

93. Examples of the modalis : 

kinruchehk^mche cha^lththlimnuk 
I will tell you about my doing 

kinrutign^ chalththlir'menuk 

he tells me about his own doing 

kilnruskechekuk chaiththlirptug'nuk 

you both tell us about the doing of you both 

kinrutfiratapchekut chdlththlirp^tchniik 
you did not tell me about your doing 



TIME FORMS OF POSSESSIVES 33 

kdnratk^tgn^ chalththllrhr^tntik 

they tell me about their (others*) doing 

keput5k piskilthlimntik 

he buys what I ordered him 

keputo^ pIskHthlirpntik 

I buy what you order = your ordering 

kUnrutlho^kH t^ngingrathHmniik 

I told him what I have not seen = my not seen thing 

^psghwu peyulthhr^ntik 

ask him what he wants = about his wanting 

&pskeke n^ktin tketlhr^tntik 

ask them from whence their coming 

k^nrutlho^k^ k^nthUrj^ntik 

I told him what you said = your saying 

peugh^ p!sktinr!tlhr&tniik 

I do what they tell me not to do = their telling me not to do 

tkech^kHqtoa pthl^m^thl!mntik 

I arrive at last from my being lost = my straying 

ntikk^kghitoa ut^kHthlimntik 

I have no idea that any one is expecting me 

td^tlu kauw^thlir'menilk tup^qt5k, putdkuk kllthhut^ngk^thlutuk 
as he rose from his sleeping his (two) toes were tied together 

94. Examples of the terminalis : 

n^thluy^gut^k^ thlethlimntin 

I forget where I put it = my putting to 

iy^qtoa pKskllhr^tntin 

I go whither they tell me = to my their ordered 

iy^qt5k entiqkutlhr^niin 

he goes whither he is forbidden = to his forbidden place 

iy^g'yuqtoa Oetilthhr^ntin 

I wish to go where he is = to his place of being 

sl^m n^nnllthhr^ntin until the end of the world 

uet&kSr'le unw^kulthhr^ntin I will stay till to-morrow 

95. Examples of the vialis : 

tukoqtoa keputhllmkiin I get rich by my trading 

unwiku iy&qchShkoi iyilthhr^ktin to-morrow I will go by the way he went 



34 



ESSENTIALS OF INNUIT 



to&tlQ iy&qtok taum tlngm^^chOgh&m tilngnllthhiiLkiin 

then he went (of that little bird by its flight) in the direction the 
little bird flew 



96t 



hwe peyuqtoa Hn p!lthhr&tiin 



I want to do like he has done 



97. The future form : 



iy&thlSqkiki 
tithl^qk^lki 



my going 
my coming 



pathlSqkiki 
uet&lthlSqkiki 



my work 
my lifetime 



The form in 223 combines with this. 

n{ngthl{6qp^kim^ ^rr^nloUitok hw^ iy^thlSqldlkll 

my going is impeded because of the great cold = it is too cold for 
me to go 

n&thlo^k^ ch^la k^ku tithl^qkik^ 

I do not know when my coming (will be) again 

pethl^qkik^ n5qch6k^k& 
I fail in what I am to do 

n^thluy^guthUnn^^ plllethl^qkHne 

he forgot to make it = his having to make it 



98. This is declined just as in 73. 



f . 



Sing. 



iy^thl^qkUki 
ly^thl^qkHn 
iy^thl^qk^ 
iy^thl^qkine 



Dual 



' ly^thlSqkUhpuk 
iy^thl^qk^htiik 
ly^thl^qk^k 
iy^thl^qkigniik 



Plur, 



' iy^thl^qk&hput 
iy^thlgqkihche 
iy&thlCqkat 
iyathieqkatnng 



99. Modalis: 

^pt^mldn k^ku ly^thl^qk^mntik 

I ask you when I am to go = about my going to go 

^IgghoS. uet^lthlSqk&mntik ^w^vtit 
I dread living over there 

n^thluy^guch^kon^ka tokuthlSqkipntik 

do not forget you are to die = about your having to die 

tigo^ ^pch^qtdg'lQtii pethlSqk^qpntik 

I come to ask you to do it = about your doing it 



Sl/FFIXES 35 

100. Terminalis : 

ytirqthr^nr^ntik tdkQlthkHmentin from his birth till his death 

m&nt&qken^ tkethl^qk^mntin stay here till my coming 



On the Suffixes 

101. As adjectives strictly speaking have no place in Innuit, their 
place is supplied either by the verbs or by certain particles suffixed 
to the nouns. 

These suffixes are very- numerous; many of them are derived 
from the modes of verbs. In this manner one verb may produce 
a number of suffixes, each affording a distinct variation in meaning, 
according to the mode from which it is derived. 

The following are a few of the most common suffixes : 

102. MSat, meaning the residents of^ those living there^ they live at. 
The endings are : singular, msd ; dual, mCuk ; plural, mSat. 

The names of most Innuit villages terminate in this manner. 

The village on the KXnSlik slough in the Yukon delta is called 
K&nfilig'mSat, and its inhabitants are known as KXnOig'mSat 7^1 = 
the Kanelik folks, A person from that village would speak of 
himself as : 

hwegna K^n^llgmedighugh^ I am a resident of Kanelik (571) 

These village names are declined according to the regular plural 
form. 

K^nSUg'mgQntin ly^qtoa I am going to Kanelik 

103. Frequently villages are named from some prominent natural 
object near by. The village at St. Michael's, Norton Sound, is 
situated on a fine bay, and is known as TXchSk, and its inhabitants 
as TXcher'meat. 

T^chimiin iy^qtoa I go to the bay (i.e., St. Michael's) 

Near Andreievsky, at the head of the Yukon delta, is IngrechOft'me&t, 
from ingT6ch0X, hill. (See 230.) 

Again, names of villages may often end in vDc (see 117): Niikklfir- 
chOr'vik, Niikkierch»rvig'me&t. 



36 ESSENTIALS OF INNUIT 

104. 

kdzhgemeut the young men of a village 

Old men who have no families, orphans, visitors, etc., are all 
classed thus, meaning those who occupy the Uzhgi or communal 
house, 

k^zhgemeugnutii k& ? do you reside in the kazhga ? 

is equivalent to asking whether one is married. 

m^kumeut residents of this place 

snafmeut coast folks 

MS&t may be added to all the locatives. (See 380.) 

105. meatlk. This termination signifies a trait or quality, belong- 
ing tOf etc. 

Sing. Dual. Plur. 

Intrans. — meut^k — meut^k — meut&t 

Trans. — meut^m 

Loc. — meut^r'me — meut&g'ne — meut&r'ne 

etc. etc. etc. etc. 

kwiqp^g'meutik a thing or person belonging to the Yukon (KwiqpS.k) 

2,kumkunieut&k a thing belonging to the other side (379) 

Note i. — This is the name given to any foreign or imported object. 

k&qkumeutik a thing belonging to the far north 

k&nggnemeut&t belonging to the head or upper portion 

Note 2. — KaiQ;^imiutftt is the term used to designate the last of the running ice 
at the annual break-up of the Yukon and other rivers. It is composed of the words 
kwigfim kligiifnift, the river's source or head waters. 

kSlag'meutat belonging to the sky 

Note 3. — This is the name given to white mice or lemming, which are occasionally 
found and are supposed to have dropped from the sky. 

106. The verb form is mefitaugwOk (Mode LXVIII). Generally 
it is used in Mode LXXII. 

t^n'glu un^ kwiqp&g'meutauthlinnedk 

this snowshoe is evidently from the Yukon region 

6r'l6vuk un^ k^qkumeutalithlinneok 

this bow is clearly from the far north 



Sl/FF/XES 37 

ukut &kumkuineQtaugwQt 

these are foreign articles (said of things brought up from San Francisco, 
Seattle, etc.) 

107. Pres. Past. Fut. 

Intrans, yuqt&k yuqt&thluk yuqt&k^k 

Trans. yuqt&m yuqt^thlOm yuqt^k^m 

Loc, yuqt&me ytiqt&thl^rme yuqt^k^me 
etc, etc. etc. etc 

tdkom^lra^qt^k belonging or appertaining to death 

&thUintiqt&k belonging or appertaining to another = a stranger 

tiingr^gnly&qt^k belonging to the devil (i.e., the paraphernalia of 

sorcery) 

108. Sun or shun signifies the means or instrument. 

By means of these suffixes the Innuit readily coin new terms to 
designate the various foreign objects which the whites have intro- 
duced into this region. For example: The verb guenaqtoa in its 
primary sense means / mark or impress a sign^ figure^ etc., upon 
anything ; from this is derived the word SlUlnSqshun, meaning an 
instrument for markings which term is now applied to lead pencils, 
pens, etc., while the verb itself has as a secondary signification, 
/ write^ draw^ etc. 

109. The school children during their drawing lessons were 
supplied with a number of pieces of india rubber; as soon as they 
understood their use they were immediately termed ftwaresdtit, from 
the verb ftwaretaka, / obliterate it, 

110. After the introduction of flour " slapjacks " became known, 
and were termed minnj^t ; hence a frying-pan is called mannerqshun 
or slapjacker. 

Thermometers^ etc., are known as sULshiLn or weat/ier instruments. 

V 

From ndngkoa, / sew^ comes ndnkshiLn, term for sewing machine, 

111. All the words of this group have their transitive in sfitum or 
shutilm, according to the following paradigm. 

Dual, Plur, 

^giyushtitCik ^giyushutit 





Sing. 


Intrans, 


^.giyushiin 


Trans, 


^giyushtitllm 


Loc, 


^giytishutme 


etc. 


etc. 



&giyushuti!ig*n€ ^giyushutne 

etc. etc. 



38 ESSENTIALS OF INNUIT 

112. The time forms of these words in un are as follows : 

NoTK. — Bglqtoa is the equivalent of / wriU^ so a pen, pencil, etc., is expressed by : 

Pres, eg^qchOn pencil 

Past gg^qchuthluk what was a pencil 

FuL eg^qchQtk&k what is to he a pencil 

113. The possessive form : 

Sing, eg^qchutlki my pencil 

Dual eg^qchutlqklL my two pencils 

Plur, eg^qchutiikH my pencils 

114. The full personal form, intransitive and transitive : 

my eg^qchutildl eg^qchutm^ 

Sing. \ thy egSqchutft egiqchutflXt 

his eg^qchute eg^qchuten 

our eg^qchutftik egiqchumug'ntik 

Dual \ your egilqchutsiik eg^qchuttifttik 

their egiqchutek egiqchutegntik 

our eg^qchutftit eg^qchutumt^ 

Plur, \ your eg^qchutse eg&qchutiifche 

their egiqchutet egiqchuteti 

This has the other cases also, just as in 73. 

The dual and plural with all their cases occur just as in 73. 

115. 

tisfin from tig^oa, I come^ expresses any conveyance. 

tQntQyftqchfin a dog trained to hunt moose; from tftntQvak, a moose, the 

augmentative of tQnt&, a deer, 

ftnOksfin from ftnOkft, wind, expresses wind vane, the little strip of calico 

at the masthead of the large skin sailboat or angiak. This 
word is now generally used to designate yfd'^. 

chftkyiin the native stone axe of Jade, etc, ; from ch&ketoa, / chop, 

pikkSyHn a gift; from plkkeiit&kil, I make him a present 

chikkSyHn a small gift ; from chikkeiit&k&, /give him a little gift. 

ipplin a thing to ladle with, a dipper ; from ipptLqtoa, / ladle out. 

This word designates only the native dipper. These 
wooden ladles are very large and handsomely carved. 

ftng^ghoShto the single-blade kiyak pcuidle ; from ftngghoatoa, I paddle. 

Ulilfin a mark. 

mOqriln . the triangular wooden cup belonging to a kiyak outfit. 



SUFFIXES 



39 



n&thllin&qktin an emblem^ that which makes something known. 
kfipftsAghiLn an object presented for sale ; kSplisftqtoa = / come to trade ^ to 

sell, etc. 

Note. — KipflsAgatkftnkft, I sell them, and kSpflsAgatflksar&nkft (Mode XXIX). 

fQeHn i.e., covering, term for the broad muscle from which the sinew 

thread is made, from filSgftkft, I cover it. 

116. aim. In some districts this broader sound is used (319). 



niifkaun a native tool of horn tip 
pltlqchaun arrow 
yumchaun medicine 



ptiqtaun lung 

tupkSrchalin perfume 
miydrqhraun native pole ladder 



117. vik. This suffix signifies the place where an act is accom- 
plished. Words with this ending are derived from verbs, as follows : 



iy&qto^ 


I go 


iySg'vflc 


destination 


tigoi 


I come 


tivik 


place of coming from = source 


keputd^ 


I trade 


kepuzvik 


store 


^giyughi 


I pray 


igiyuvik 


church 


uetaugh^ 


I am 


uetivflc 


place of being 


^llughok 


he laps 


allungvKk 


feed trough for sled dogs 


puydqtok 


it smokes 


puydqchivflc 


smoke house for fish, etc. 


118. The endings : 








Sing. 


Dual. 


Plur. 


Intrans. 


vik 


— vek 


— vet 


Trans, 


— vem 






Loc. 


— vigine 


— vegne 


— vigne 


etc. 


etc. 


etc. 


etc. 



iikshev!k wintering place (i.e., a winter village) 

iikshuwevflc a fall village 

tippenaqkevflc a spring village 

Note i. — Compare with Upemayik, on the coast of Greenland, 

The augment atives (223) combine as follows : 

ktivy&qplr'vlk •a place to set big nets = kuvyiqpik (i.e., net for salmon) 
t^lluyaqplr'vik a place for a large fish trap 

Note 2. — In some districts there is a tendency to sound iVt as wlk. 
Note 3. — Euphony often requires the y to be sounded f : mlngkoa, / sew ; mlnkflt, 
sewing place. 



40 



ESSENTIALS OF INNUIT 



119. The term used to express a blacksmith's shop is an interesting 
example of the power of Innuit to coin words. The word for iron com- 
bined with the verb expressing to work^ together with this suffix, gives : 

ch^wMl66r'-vlk iron-working place 

120. The declension of this gn'oup in the possessive present : 



my place of staying 

Intrans. uet&vik^ 

Trans. Oet^v^m^ 

Loc. u€tivimne 
etc, etc. 



thyy etc. 

u€t&v€n 
uet&viqput 
uetiviqfne 
etc. 



hisy etc. 

Q€t^v€i 
uet&ven 
uet&ve&ne 
etc. 



iyag'vik^ y^kshlqtok 
kwlqpem tlve^ 

nauhw& en^qven 



my destination is far away 

the source of the Yukon = of the great river, its 

place of coming from 
where is your bunk ? (i.e., sleeping place) 



121. 

Intrans. 
Trans, 
Loc. 
etc. 



The time forms in the past and future : 

my^ etc. thy^ etc. 

. uet^vilthka uetavilthft 

uetivllthma Qetiv!lthl!rpet 

uet^vithllmne uet^vilthlirpne 
etc. etc. 



hisy etc. 

Getavilthhri 
aetavilthhr&n 
Qet&vilthhr&ne 
etc. 



utr^qchuge&kd^ uet^v!lthl!mntin 

I would like to return to my old (former) home 



122. 


my^ etc. 


thy^ etc. 




hisy etc. 


Intrans. 


u6t^viqk^ka 


uet&viqkin 




u€t^viqka 


Trans. 


uetilvlqk^m^ 


uet&viqk^put 




uet^viqkHn 


Loc. 


uetaviqkimne 


Qet&viqk&pne 




uet^viqk&ne 


etc. 


etc. 


etc. 




etc. 




yi iyiig'viqkak& 


yonder is 


my 


destination 


123. 


Mode variations : 









I. net&vfldAlthkft = where I used to be, generally was, etc., nni, house, 
being understood. 

nun^t uet^vlkl^lthh&nk^ the village I used to live in (19) 

uet^vfkliilthh^nki 3rut folks I used to live with 

II. netiviksiUthkft = where I desire to be (Mode LXII). 

III. tiet&vOdUdUcft = which had been my residence. 

IV. fiet&vfldnkiqtaqkftkft = where I am to dwell again (Mode XLI). 



SUFFIXES 



41 



124. lik. This suffix denotes owner^ ofie possessed of. The end- 
ings are : 



Intrans, 
Trans. 
Loc, 
etc. 



Sing. 

—lik 
— ^llgum 
— ligume 
etc. 



Dual, 
— llguk 



Plur, 
— llgut 



-Hgtig'ne 
etc. 



-ligune 
etc. 



^ngy^Uk 

!g*yarai!k 

pupsullk 

ugn^llk 

p^myiiqp^Uk 

ttingrilik 



the owner of an angiak = native skin sailboat 

a clam 

a crab = possessor of cutters 

a bearded man = possessor of a beard 

a comet = one possessing a long tail 

a sorcerer = one having a familiar spirit = tiingrdk 



125. In most accounts of Alaska, the Siberian term < shamdn ' is 
used for sorcerer. This word was introduced by the Russians, but 
it has never been adopted by the Innuit. 

!nglupe^l!k having one of a pair = a one-eyed person 

peiig^Uk used to express a bear with her cubs 

nur^lik used to express a doe with a fawn 

126. Words in lik may be combined with other suffixes : 
Withvik (117): 



nalitst&rVik 
nalitstirVillik 

With chOft (230) : 

^ngy^chd^r'lik 

With pSk (223) : 

^ngy&ltiqp&l!k 

With vaatlk (208) : 

^ngy^ve^lulthh&lik 

With kSrtah (200) : 

^ngy^kSrt^r^lIk 



a garden 

a person having a garden 

an owner of a small boat 

an owner of a large boat 

an owner of an old boat 

an owner of a new boat 



Note. — These words use for their negatives or privatives the form in 131. 

127. tilik. This suffix denotes the place where the object abounds. 

Sing, Dual, Plur, 

Intrans. — t^llk — t^lguk — t^lgtit 

Trans, — tilgtim 

Loc, — taHgtime — t^ligtig'ng — t^ligune 

etc, etc etc. etc. 



42 ESSENTIALS OF INNUIT 

128. The time forms : 

Pres, awiy^talik 
Past iwiy^lethluk 
Fut, ^wiy^t^Uqkik 

129. «wiy«k = btish (Mode XVII). 

2,w!y^t^l!k a place with many bushes, bushy 

iy^qtok ^wiy^t^Ug'intin he goes to a thicket 

Note. — These words use the form in 131 for their negative. 

mdqt^llk a place abounding in water 

moqtilgn5k a region without water 

130. 

ingriqt^llk a mountainous district t5kom&lra^t&l!k burial place 
yiiqtillk an inhabited place ch&rriy^t^lik place of devils, hell 

n&nv^h^t&lik a place full of lakes ttinttitilik deer hunting ground 

pit&Uk a kiyak for three persons ; the circular hatch of a kiyak is 

termed pi 

131. UghOk. This is one of the important endings and means 
one who is. 

Sing. Dual. Plur. 

Intrans. — Ughdk — Hghuk — lignut 

Trans. — ^Wgnum 

Loc. — ligh6r*ne — llghiig'ne — lighor'ne 
etc, etc. etc. etc. 

m!kk!ingh5k one who is small = baby 

peyunrilghdk one who is unwilling 

132. This ending forms a numerous group in the locatives. (See 

385.) 

Note. — The time forms occur as usual. 

Past mlkkJlUgnothmk Fut. mflckmigho^qk^k 

133. The various modes also present their representatives. 
OghSk = one who is without. (See Mode VII.) 

ch&qthluelgn5k one being without sin = a virtuous person 

tukwelgndk one being without wealth = a pauper 



Sl/FFIXES 43 

nigiiSk. From Mode VI. 

^wiy^tlllghok a place without any bushes 

&ngyill!gh6k one who has not an angiak 

sl!l!gh5k an idiot 

stkflgnSk. From Mode XIV. (See 145.) 

Example : SkiyOrqstke, his /telper, with this suffix becomes eidyOiq- 
stkflgnSk = one witfiout his helper = a helpless person. 

V 

ekiy5rqstkilgn5k one lacking an assistant 

V 

klinntikstkilgndk one without a lover = with no one to love him 

V 

2,ngthl5rstkllgn5k one who has no one to baptize him 

mdqt^ngkr^qkaunrHgndk a place where there will be no water 

134. ntbkOk. These are derivatives from Mode VI. 

Sing. Dual, Plur, 

Intrans. ch^tifthk6k chitilthkuk chatilthkut 

Trans, ch^tllthkum 

Loc, chitilthkume chitilthktig'ne chitilthkune 
etc, etc. etc. etc. 

ch&tilthk6k where there is nothing m6qtilthk6k a place with no water 
ntikkllthkdk a stream with no fish iiwiy^tilthkok a spot without bushes 
n^nvilthkdk a place without lakes 

iy&loyilthkuttik (dual) 

the stays on the mast of a sailboat (i.e., preventers from leaning over) 
n&nggn ug*y ilthktin 

native oarlock (i.e., preventer from wearing the gunwale) 

135. QthkOk. A companion form to the above, from Mode VII. 

ch!kkwelthk6k an air hole in the ice = where there is no ice 

yuelthkdk a desolate place iikfelthk5k a treeless place 

136. sti, stfi. These endings belong to a large group of words, 
which are formed in the following manner. 

I. Sta signifies one who acts. These are all derived from intransi- 
tive verbs. 

pilleugha I do, I act pillisti an actor 

II. St6 signifies one who makes, etc. These are derived from the 
transitive verbs. 

pHle&k^ I make it pille^kste the maker of it 

Note. — This g^oup consists simply of the third persons of the possessive form. 
For the paradigm see 144. 



44 ESSENTIALS OF INNUIT 

137. Both of these groups present the usual time forms as follows : 

Intrans, Trans, 

Pres, pllllsta pflle&kste 

Past pillethmk pllleaksthliik 



Put. pmistk&k 



pllle^kstkik 



138. Both assume the regular set of cases. For the transitive 



sec 147. 








Cases. 


Sing. 


Dual. 


Plur. 


Agen, Intrans, 


pllllst^ 


pimstiik 


pHHstat 


Agen, Trans. 


pflHsdlm 






Loc, 


pfllistme 


pilHstug'ne 


pilllstne 


etc. 


etc. 


etc. 


etc. 


cheulista 


leader 


rhaiista 


worker 


yumcharista 


healer 


chaugnoildst^ 


squanderer 



139. Cheaiistft, from the verb to be t/ie first, is the term used to 
designate the dog which is harnessed at the head of the team. 

140. The cases in the past form : 



Cases. 


Sing. 


Dual. 


Plur. 


Agen. Intrans. 
Agen. Trans. 
Loc, 


pillethmk 

pKllelthhriim 

pHlethlur'me 


pnielthhriik 
pHlelthhrOg^ne 


pillelthhriit 
pillethlur'ne 


141. The cases in the future form : 




Cases. 


Sing. 


Dual. 


Plur. 


Agen. Intrans. 
Agen. Trans. 
Loc. 


pUUstkik 
pTllIstk&m 
pllllstk^me 


pUlIstkik 
pni!stk&g*ne 


pmistk&t 

pUHstk^ne 



Note. — Tftgnstk&k, one who will take or arrest^ tenn used to express soldier. 



142. The cases in the future perfect : 

Cases. Sing. Dual. 

Agen. Intrans. pniistkathliik pttHstkaithhriik 

Agen. Trans. pfllistk^lthhriim 

Loc. piinstkaiththlur'me pnUstkHlthhriig'ne plllistkalththlur'ne 



Plur. 
pniistkaithhriit 



143. To all these primary forms of 6t& and ste many mode char- 
acteristics may be combined, as, the one who helps often or helps 



SUFFIXES 



45 



again^ etc. These with their negatives produce a vast number of 
new groups, having, however, always the same terminations. 



144. 

Cases. the maker of it 

Agen, Intrans, pille^kste 



Sing. 
both makers of it 
pHle^kstek 



the makers of it 
pflle^kstet 



Agen, Trans, 
Loc, 



pllle^ksten 
pllle&kstene 



pflle^ksteg'ne 



pHle^kstetne 



Cases. the maker of both 

Agen, Intrans, pilleikstuk 



Dual. 

the two makers of both the makers of both 
pnieSkstkak pille&kstkCt 



Agen, Trans, 
Loc, 



pHle^kstqkii 
pillaakstiig'ne 



pHle^kstkug'ne 



pllleilkstkutne 



Cases. the maker of them 

Agen, Intrans, pllle&ksti 
Agen, Trans, pflleikstin 
Loc. pllle^kstine 



Plur. 
the two makers of them the makers of them 
pflle^kstik pniedkstit 



pille^kstig'ne 



pille^kstitne 



The negative is formed in the usual manner, 
ukfiikste a believer ukftikftritste an unbeliever 

Note. — TOmfim nlthlflnrlBti = a guide — of the trail its non-ignorer. 

145. The possessive form : 

The possessive forms have the tenses and cases as usual. 

V 

ch&ll!stk& my workman 

m^lleg&stklL my companion 

k6i k&nrut&tii taumuk ? who told you that } 

yinrtltstik^ ch^titdk my informer = the one who told me 

is not here 

146. This form serves also to supply for the relative pronoun, 
which is lacking in Innuit. 

V 

kauqtor^k^ im!n^ kiihrstiqtkli I hit the dog which bit at me (lit, I club him 

that one my wisher to bite me) 

Note i. — For the full paradigm of the possessive see 147. For examples in the 
possessive modes see XII and XIII. 

Note 2. — Words in stft merge into verbs, as, I am a worker y etc. (See Mode XV.) 
From these a fresh group arises ending in uchikS. (See 1 53.) 



46 



ESSENTIALS OF INNUIT 



147. Paradigm of the possessive form : 



Sing, 



my 



thy 



= 



-stU 
-St qk^ 
-St nk^ 

-St ft 
St qkft 
St tn 



his 



his own 



Dual 



we both, our 



you both, your 



they both, their 



they both, their 
own 



our 



your 



Plur, ^ 



their 



their own 



-St e 
-stCk 
-St i 

-St ne 
-St gne 
-St ne 

-St f uk 
-St qpuk 
-St puk 

-St sQk 
-St qtCk 
-st tuk 

-St ek 
-st qk^k 
-St k$k 

-St slik 
-St qtuk 
-St tCk 

-St fut 
-St qput 
-St put 

-St che 
-St qche 
-St che 

-St et 
-St qk^t 
-St it 

-St zQng 
-St qtCng 
-St tQng 



— St mi 
— St gmi 
— St mi 

— St fGt 
— St qpQt 
—St fCt 

— St en 
— St qkn 
— St in 

— St me 
— St gme 
— St me 

— St mug'nuk 
— St gmug*nuk 
— St mug*nuk 

— St ftuk 
— St qptuk 
— St ftuk 

— St eg*nuk 
— St qk^nki 
— St k^nki 

— St mug'nuk 
— St gmug'nuk 
— St mug'nuk 

— St mti 
— St gmti 
— St mti 

— St fche 
— St q^he 
— St fche 

— St eta 
—St qkStti 
— St ita 

— St mung 
— St gmung 
— St mung 



-St tone 
-St Igumine 
-St imne 

-St irpne 
-St iguvine 
-St Irpne 

-St ene 
-St qkene 
-St ene 

-St mene 
-St igumene 
-St mene 

-St mugne 
-St gmugne 
-St mugne 

-St !ftugne 
-St qptugne 
-St iftugne 

-St egne 
-St qkugne 
-St kugne 

-St mugne 
-St gmugne 
-St mugne 

-St imtne 
-St gumtne 
-St imtne 

-St ifsne 
-St qpetchne 
-St ifsne 

-St etne 
-St qk^tne 
-St itne 

-St muqne 
-St gmuqne 
-St muqne 



SUFFIXES 



47 



148. The verb form, third person, i.e., chUliatkUcX = A€ is my workman. 









Sing. 


— stkaka 


— st ki m& 




my 


« 


Dual 


— st ka qka 


— st ki gmi 








Piur. 

* 


— st ki nka 


— st ka mi 








' Sing. 


— st k^n 


— st ka hpGt 


Sing, ^ 


thy 


4 


Dual 


— st ka qkn 


— st ka qpQt 








Piur. 


— stk&tn 


st k^ hpQt 








' Sing. 


— st ki . . . 


— st ka n 




his 


* 


Dual 


stk&k 


— st ki qkn 




b 




Piur. 


— stkae 


st k^ dn 


• 


p 




' Sing. 


— st ka hpuk 


— st kil mugnuk 




we both, our 


Dual 


— st ka qpuk 


— st k& gmugnuk 








Piur. 


— st k^ puk 


— st kil mugnuk 








' Sing. 


— st ka htOk 


— st ka hptOk 


Dual * 


you both, your < 


Dual 


— st ka qtttk 


— st ka qptQk 








Piur. 


— st ka tQk 


— st kil ptQk 








' Sing. 


— st ka k 


— st ka gnGk 




they both, their - 


Dual 


— st k& qk$k 


— st kil qk$nka 




h 




Piur. 


— st kil k$k 


— st kil kgnka 




w 




' Sing. 


— st k& hput 


— st kil mta 




our 


4 


Dual 


— st ka qput 


— st kil gmti 








Piur. 


— st kd put 


— st kil mta 








' Sing. 


— st k^ hche 


— st kil hpche 


Piur. ' 


your 


* 


Dual 


— st k^ qche 


— st kil qpche 








Piur. 


— st k^ che 


— st kil pche 








' Sing. 


— st ka t 


— stkilta 




their 


« 


Dual 


— st ka qkgt 


— st kil qketa 




te 




Piur. 


— st kil $t 


— st ka gtil 


149. uek. 












Sing, 




Dual. 


Piur, 


Intrans. 


chaokl^k 




chaoklek 


chaoklet 


Tram, 


chadklim 








Loc, 


chaoklir'm 


e 


chaoklegne 


chadklir'ne 


eU. 


etc. 




etc. 


etc. 


IdnggnoklSk 


the back c 


>ne 


ch&miiklgk 


the lower one 


Idtkl^k 




the front ( 


>ne 


yikl^k 


the last one over there 



ntimtin y^kllrmiin itr&qt5k 



he goes to the last house over there 



48 



ESSENTIALS OF INNUIT 



150. The usual time forms : 



Pres, 


chadklSk 


the first 


Past 


chaokllthluk 


the once first 


Put 


chaokl^rk^k 


the to be first 



151. The possessive forms : 





Intrans, 


Trans. 


Loc. 


my 


chaokl^kll 


ch^okllm^ 


chadklimne 


thy 


ch^aklln 


cha5kl!rput 


chaoklirpne 


his 


ch^okle^ 


chadkle^n 


chaoklelne 


etc. 


etc. 


etc. 


eta 


KIngghokieka is used to 


express my younger brother. 




152. 


Pres. 


Past. 


Put. 


Intrans, 


yuchSk 


yuchethluk 


yuch^hk&k 


Trans, 


yuchim 


yuchelthrum 


yuch^hk^m 


Loc, 


yuchimg 


yuchethlSr'me 


yuchShkame 


etc. 


etc. 


etc. 


etc. 



This is derived from yuk, man. TuchSk means the state of being a 
man^ manhood. 



iyaiich^k 
miyuch^k 
^trauch^k 
illauch^k 



a start 
an ascent 
a descent 
companionship 



153. The possessive forms are as follows : 



Pres, 



Past. 



Intrans, 


yuchak^ 


Trans. 


yuchlmi 


Loc, 


yucMmne 


etc. 


etc. 



yuchilthka 

yuchilthm^ 

yuchithHmn^ 



etc. 



Put. 

yuch^hkakd 
yuch^hk^md 
yuch^hkamne 
etc. 



These all follow the same paradigm (154) as yuchAkft, 3nichiii, 
yucheft, etc. 

The locatives (408) and demonstratives (282) also assume this 
form. 



SUFFIXES 49 

^3 b ?o 

uTT nTT uTI 1^ 

2*K12*2S <5<rt»<^(5< rtirtiS*<^ 5 






OQ 



p 






p 



0c 

P 



^ 



0i TT ^ Vr B % ^ O 



P P cc O 

crc p 

p 



^ P 5 »Q 

3 c/) 

Cc 

P 



*o P« 



UU AUi i-^-^-^ 

5«Sfc p-p-p-p- p-p-p-p- 

»2 S 25 S. ^^ 5, S og S rt. ^ rt. 

p* «' 5. 



EP^STsT P'P'p'P' P^p* p" p 

S?P**S*t3* S3*s:555*S* ovirt.i^-<»- 

I 1 1: 1 I "2- •? I 



§.§'?§' sg't^lg: &=&=' 



Al 


ai 


•— < 


3 


P 
P 


P- 


rti 

p 

PC 


P 


p 




p 



a 



AAoA oaAo Aortrt > 

STp-p-p- pfp-crp* p-p-p-p-g 

B ^ % B B i %B i"i3l38 

" g* f' g s I 



p* 


P* 

P 

P 


hirhp 


p- 

B 

p 


1 


p 


C^ 


3 


c< 




PC 


W 


pc 


?r 




TT 




>r 







crpfpfp* P'p-p-p' p-p'pfp-^ 

B^3^3 ^ B S B i'S'gls^ 



B^p-STp* trp-p-p* p-p-p-p- 

e^ fill »^ •■«c ^^< i-^i »-€ »«< /«ti Ai *'^ "^ 

Ss.g pp<x)p aSxS.P 

P* ^ 5" #« i-i '^ #K rt« Sc ^3* C ?** 

S flK S. Q'Q S O CFQ X- S^ OQ C< • 



pep- OcaqpCc P g« 

p c« 

p 

S-S-S-8- B.g-8-g. S-S-S-S-!^ 

se^s 3|£:3 e"S!3^3 

^gls ^^s<^' li-s^s 

SsS-a SS-fa ^'^^'^ 



^ 

K 



50 ESSENTIALS OF INNUIT 

155. 

nauthlQch&k^ my illness 

mikkuch&ki my smallness 

pekuchakS, my ownership 

tuyuchaki my arrival (present) = my being come 

tutlhuchak^ my arrival = my having come (past) 

hwlngnuchaki myself 

hwegn^ iyokuchaki iy5klnrat5k taiitsttin I do not act like that one 

= I (my way, my state of sameness) is not the same as that one. 

156. There are also the mode variations. 

V 

ekiimdstgnuchaki my being a sled maker 

chdllistgnuchak^ n&thlo^ he does not know that I am a workman 

ukfuk&kl Agiyutst^ngkruch€^ I believe in the existence of God 

" kithlun t&ktalraimiik Cit^llni ay5k I chakSrchuSluchaki n&spay&qcheu " 
"quousque tandem abutere Catilina patientia nostra'' 



157. 



illuthliqkd^ iyauchimntik 

I regret the start made by me = that I started 

kS,nruchemS,rachimugntik kinggnoiktin 
after we both have been told 



158. 



peyuchimttin as I like 

pechlmttin as I do 

kepQcWmtiin kepututft ki did you buy just as I ? = as my buying 

k^nntiqtutii k^ kinruchimttin did you say like I say ? 

k^nruchlmttin iyokok it is just as I said 

k&thl^tlauchirptiin ip^niik as you talk of yourself 

tanghtichlmttin kiy^gdqch^hkimkln as soon as I see I will shout to you 

V 

nauthlun^qt5k tkeyuchimetiin he fell sick just as soon as he came 

k^nruche^ttinthluh5k t^ngkfg'gelune and as soon as he spoke, light was 
k^nruchem^rach!mtiin pelkll I did it at once after being told 

kiinnuellucWrptiin through thy generosity 

iiqthlenilrai toi m&kttik, m&kyQchimiiqsttin niiPlutuk 

dawn coming, both got up; as soon as both got up they both 
breakfasted 

t&m&tii t^knauqt5k hw&tii AgiyQtiim p!sk(iche^tiin 
may it be done according to the will of God 



SUFFIXES 5 1 

159. A large group of abstract nouns terminate in vUSk, These 
are declined as follows : 

trading 



Agen, Intrans. 


keputn5k 


Agen. Trans, 


keputnSrhiim 


Loc. 


keputnSr'me 


Mod. 


keputnSr'muk 


etc. 


etc. 



keputn5k kil chuchukin do you like trading ? 

160. These nouns take the characteristics of the modes. 

kwegn€n5k smoking kwegn$qplkiin5k too much smoking 

meluskiln5k snuffing melusk^qp^kiindk over snuffing 

kwegn^p^kin5k atauhwaunrat5k too much smoking is not good 

Note. — These may usually be rendered by the infinitive, as, it is not good to smoke 
toe much. 

161. The negative of these nouns is very frequently used, where 
in the English the positive would appear. 

tuzh6tiir£tn5k atauhwaug5k unlameness is good 

162. klik. Represents something that is ready, easy, fitting, proper 
to be done : 

— kllguk — kligut 



Intrans. 


—klik 


Trans. 


— Idem 


Loc. 


— klig'me 


etc. 


etc. 



— kligug'ne — klig*ne 

etc. etc. 

163. The time forms : 

Pres. — kl!k Past — klithluk Put. — kligo^qkak 

V 

mingsSkllk a thing fit to sew tkeuch^kllk a thing fit to be brought 
kepuch&kllk a thing fit to buy peikllk a thing fit to do 

164. raft. This ending is the third singular of rSftgnft. (See 462.) 
It is to be rendered as he or the one wlio is acting. 

165. The three tense forms together with their negatives are as 
follows : example, iySlrfift, he who goes, the one who is going. 



Pres. iyilrai 

Past iyilthhtilrai Neg. 

Put, iy&qch^hkllrai 



' iyinrilra^ 
iy^nritlrai 
lyag'gnitlrai 



52 



ESSENTIALS OF INNUIT 



166. As usual, each one of these has its full set of cases. 



Cases. 


Sing. 


Intrans, 


^ttilrai 


Trans. 


^ttilraem 


Loc. 


^tiilra&me 


Mod. 


^tmra&miik 


Term. 


^ttilraiimiin 


ViaL 


^tiilrsULkiin 


y£quai. 


atiilraattin 



Dual, 

itiilriak 



Plur. 
^tiilraet 



^ttilraeg'ne 

atiilragg'niik 

^ttilraeg'ntin 

^ttilraeg'n^rghiin 

^ttilraeqttin 



itiilraine 

^tiilraintik 

^.tiilraintin 

atiilrMthiin 

^tiilra^tsttin 



167. As there is no gender in Innuit, it is only from the context that 
it can be known whether these words are to be taken as masculine 
or feminine. Thus, itfilrii may mean he who sings or she who sings. 

Many words in raft are also impersonal. 

168. As most of the modes possess a form in riftgnft, and as these 
may often combine, there is an endless variety of these derivatives 
in raft. 

169. This form is without the possessive. 

170. Ulrftft. The words with this ending are derived from Mode 
XVII. 

Note. — These words- form a kindred group to those in tlOk. (See 127.) 

^wly^lilra^ a place which is bushy mlUilra^ a place which is watery 

jrulilrai a place which is populous nul&lilra^ one who is polygamous 

171. tUS. This is the termination of a very numerous group of 
words, having the force of nouns, but at the same time expressing 
some accompanying attribute. 

It is by means of these derivatives from the modes that this 
language compensates for its lack of adjectives. 

172. These words have the usual time forms, as follows : 





Pres. pHleyule 


a fine worker 




Fast pilleyuthltik 


a once fine worker 




Fut. pilleynaqkik 


a coming fine worker 


mumyule 


a good dancer 


k^nytile 


a nice speaker 


&tuyul6 


a fine singer 


&t6qstiyule 


a good musician 


iyiyGle 


a good traveller 


Iqyiyule 


a fine seer (i.e., an owl) 


piikchQle 


a good walker 


kgpuchule 


a good trader 



These are all derived from Mode CXLVI. 



SUFFIXES 



S3 



a sinner 
a voyager 



173. From Mode CXLVII a similar group is derived with the 
signification of habitual or regular performance. 

kol^r&tule a relator of stories ch^qthliiqtule 

uqchS,rltule a mourner iy^tule 

yug'y&tule a place frequented by people 

tiintutule a district frequented by deer 

ttintutulem tikkite on this side of the deer hunting ground 

174. The declension of these words is as follows : 



Cases. 


Sing. 


Dual. 


Plur. 


Intrans, 


a^tuyule 


atuyulak 


^tuyulet 


Trans. 


a^tuyulem 






Loc, 


ituyuleme 


dtuyuHg'ne 


ituyulene 


Mod. 


&tuyulemtik 


ituyulig'ntik 


^tuyuleniik 


Term. 


ituyulemtin 


ituyulig'ntin 


ituyuleniin 


Vial. 


^tuyulektin 


^tuyuliqkiin 


atuyulethiin 


jSquai. 


atuyulettin 


3.tuyuliqtun 


ituyuletsttin 



175. The declension of the past and future being perfectly regular, 
it is not necessary to give them in full. 

Intrans. ituyuthltlk ituyulthhriik ituyulthhrtit 

Trans. ituyulthhriim 

Loc. atuyuthlSr'me ituyulthhrtig'ne ituyulthhrine 
etc. etc. etc. etc. 



176. The future : 

Intrans. ^.tuyu^qk^k 

Trans. ^tuyuaqkim 

Loc. ^tuyudqklme 

etc. etc.* 

177. 16. The time forms : 

Pres. ailingt^Lr'le 

Past 

Put. 



S,tuyu^qktik 



^tuyulqk^t 



ailingtar'lethltik 
aiUngtir'liqkak 



etc. 



etc. 



ituyoaqktig'ne 
etc. 



&llingt&r'lek 
aillngtar'lelthhrGk 
alKngtarUiqkik 
etc. 



178. They are declined as follows : 

Intrans. aiHngt^Lr'le &llingUlr'lek 

Trans. aillngt&r'lem 

Loc. mngtar'leme aiUngtir'llg'ne 
etc. etc. etc. 



ituyu^qkdne 
etc. 



dlllngtar'let 
&llingtiirlelthhrtit 
aiHngtar'Hqkat 
etc. 



aiUngt&r'lat 



^llingt^r'lene 
etc. 



54 



ESSENTIALS OF INNUIT 



179. The possessive form : 








Sing. 

Dual 

Plur. 


aiUngtir'Uka 

ailingtar'Kqka 

^lUngtlLr'Unk^ 






180. The personal and case 


forms: 






my allingt^Lr'lika 
thy aiUngtdr'lin 
his ^lllngtllr'lea 


aillngtarltaia 

ailingt&r'HqpIt 

aiHngtar'lean 




aillngt^Lr'Umne 

ail!ngtar1iqpne 

aiHngtirleane 


ailingtir'le a coward tokon^rle 
ch&g'nele a champion wrestler 


a murderer 


181. Ptt signifies belonging 


to^ one's own, real, 


true, 


etc. 


Intrans. — pei 
Trans. — pe^m 
Loc. — pe^me 

• 

etc. etc. 


—peak 

— pe&gng 
etc. 




— peat 

— peine 
etc. 



ani kattinripeikaka 

kdllik klnggnunup^ikiput 

Qtriqtdk emumtin mauqholup€imgntin 



this one is my own son 
heaven is our real home 
he went back to his own 
grandmother 



182. There are many variations, each with a slight difference. 



pei nukaithpei 

peik nukdlthpeik 

peirik nukilthp^irik 

peiritik n ukdlt hpeirit&k 

p6iqpithliik nukilthpeiqpithltUk 

p6ip!k nukilthpeiplk 



a man in the prime of life 

a youth 

a young man 

a first-class hunter = a prominent man 

a great big fellow 

truly the proper person 



Note. — NflkUthpC&iftt&k is only used in native stories. 

liiqpeik nOniliiqpeik this word can be used to express a 

continent 
pepeik emiqp6p€ik the high sea 

peliipeik emiqpeli&peik the ocean 

183. K&ssftt = wAite men, so kissUfipeit means the real, the true 
whites. This is the modest term adopted by the few dozen half 
and quarter breed descendants of the Russian traders yet existing 
along the Yukon delta, to distinguish themselves from Americans 

= kftS8&t. 



SUFFIXES 



55 



184. 10k and IBq'lSk. These suffixes are used to express poor^ poor 
old, etc., in a compassionate sense. 

They are generally added to words expressing kindred and occur 
continually in the native stories. 

Occasionally these suffixes are added to words for animals and 
sometimes even to those for inanimate objects. 

The following are the endings of the possessive in the three first 
persons, singular : 





my grandmother 


thy grandmother 


his grandmother 


Intrans. 
Trans. 


mauqhuldki 
mauqhul5m^ 


maliqhuld&n 
mauqhul5qp{t 


mauqhuld^ 
mauqhulo&n 


Intrans. 
Trans. 


mauqhal5q'lok^ 
mauqhul5q'lom^ 


mauqhal5q'ltin 
mauqhul5q'lup{t 


mauqhtil5q'lo^ 
mauqhul5q'ldin 




my father 
my mother 


^taug'lak^ 
^naug'l5ki 


my old father 
my old mother 



185. raii'lBq. This conveys the idea of being poor, destitute, aged. 

Note. — This suffix occurs continually in native stories. The endings are : singular, 
16q ; dual, Ifik; plural, Iflt ; transitive, lOm. 



thlerirauUSq 
^fr^m^kk^rau'ldq 



an orphan boy 
an old woman 



186. Combinations with the augmentative are frequent, 
^h-^m&kkau'ldqp^k a big old woman 



187. Combinations with the diminutive : 

a little old man 
two little old women 



^ghOk^raulQchd^ 
^fr£m^kldlrauluch5S,r&k 



188. Ia6nit. This suffix signifies deceased. 

NOTK. — It is used generally in the possessive form, loimtka. (See 75.) 

iy&qto^ &tim^ kiy^ktin I go in my father's canoe 

This shows that the parent referred to is still living, but when this 
suffix is added the meaning changes. 

iy&qto^ &tS,lu€rutmi kly^kiin I go in my deceased father's 

canoe 



56 



ESSENTIALS OF INNUIT 



189. IrQtkft means the same and is more commonly used. 

^tirutkil my late father ^n^irutki my late mother 

^nggnirutkd my late brother ^Ithkirutki my late sister 

These are both from Modes VI and VII. 

190. kukkft. The time forms are : 



Pres. kepuskOkka. 
Past keputlhukUkk^ 
Fut. kepuch^hkkfikki 

nokkiikkil 

V 

umyu6rkktikk^ 
umyti6rkiinrilthk(ikkS, 
n^kkllkktikk^ 
yOSr'yalckCkka 



that which is my thing bought = my purchase 
th*at which was my thing bought 
that which will be my thing bought 

that which is needed by me = a necessity to me 

what I mean 

what I do not mean 

my loved one 

my sought for one 



191. Examples of combinations with other modes : 

kepuch^&ktikk^ taligw&m ^metol 

it should be my purchase only I lack skins (i.e., pelts used in pa3rment) 

kepuch&kkQkkil ^thUm yum keputhline^ 

it should be my purchase, but it appears another man bought it 

Pimilnen^nimne peyuge&kClkki taugwS,m t^kkiloS, 

during my being at Pimute, it was my wished thing to do, but I 
changed my mind 

&t5q'y&qick!ikki taugw&m thlo^thld^ ^tiinr^to^ 

it is what I should have sung only I did not sing it well 

The following paradigm presents the entire set of the personal 
possessive endings. 

Note. — In some cases euphony may require kSkldl, klkkX, IdBkkS, etc. 

192. 



Sing. - 



my 



thy 



his 



fSing, 
Dual 
Plur. 

fSing. 
Dual 
Plur, 

' Sing, 
Dual 
Plur. 



— kOkka 
— kqki 
— knka 

— kn 
— ^kqkn 
— ktn 

— ke 
— kttk 
— ki 



— ^kma, 
— ^kgm^ 
— km& 

— kfttt 
— kqpOt 
— kfCt 

— ken 
— kqkn 
— kin 



SUFFIXES 



57 



Dual < 



Flur. 



we both, i 


5ur 


' Sing. 
Dual 
Flur, 


kfuk 
— kqpuk 
— kpuk 


— kmug'nuk 
— kgmug'nuk 
— kmug'nuk 


you both, 


your - 


\ Sing. 
Dual 
Flur. 


ksClk 
— kqtuk 
—ktuk 


kftttk 

— kqftOk 

kftfik 


they both 


, their ^ 


Sing. 

Dual 

Flur. 


kek 

kqk^k 

kk!lk 


— keg'nuk 
— kqkSnki 
kkdnkd 


our 


4 


' Sing. 
Dual 
Flur. 


kfut 
— kqput 
— kput 


kmt^ 
— kgmt& 
— kmti 


your 


4 


Sing. 

Dual 

Flur. 


kse 
— kqche 
— kch€ 


— kfchg 
— kqpch€ 
— kfche 


their 


4 


Dual 
Flur. 


— ket 

kqkSt 
—kit 


keti 

kqk^t^ 

kit^ 



193. khgniilrii. These words are derived from Mode LXXXIX. 
As they all follow the regular forms, it is only necessary to present 

the beginnings. 

my purchase kepukngn&ki my purchase kepulcngn^ki 

my two purchases kepukngn&qk^ thy purchase kepukngn^n 

V V 

my purchases k€pukngn&nldL his purchase kepukngn^ 

194. Case endings : 

V V V V 

kSpukngn&ki kSpukngn&m^ kepukngn^mn§ kepukngn^mnuk, etc. 

V 

kinrutlho&ka peyukngn^pnuk 

I told him what you want = about your wauted thing 
ch!kftrch£hldLgn^ peyukngn^mnuk 

he will give me what I want = my wanted thing 



195. The time forms with their cases : 



Fast 



kSpulTngn^lthki 
kSpukngn^lthm^ 
kgpulcngnithlimn6 
etc. 



' kepukngn^qk^ki 

V 

Fut. < kepukngnS,qkllmS, 
kepukngn^qk^mn6 
etc 



NOTK. — For paradigm of the past form see 90. 



5 8 ESSENTIALS OF INNUIT 

196. ghoik. This suffix signifies a resemblance ^ image, picture, 
representation^ etc. (From Mode LXXXIV.) 

The transitive, ghoftm ; singular, giiOik ; dual, ^Oik ; plural, ^Oftt 

tuntughoS,k picture of a deer 

chezsirghd^k picture of a serpent 

^ngghing'roik^ my male cousin = my like as a brother 

n^rhuy^no^k net float of wood carved like a goose = n&rhuy^k 

The mud nests made by the swallows are termed : 
kugnm!lgh5^rS,t i.e., like graves 

197. ThlinXk signifies entirely^ always^ only, etc. (See Mode 
XXXI.) 

The transitive is thliniim ; dual, thlinlk ; plural, thHn&t. 

£rr^l5k k$llS,qthlinur'me QStalik the moon is in the heavens 

tikfeg^qthlln&r^t t^ngvig^nkil I see only the forest 

itr^lma pe6k yug'y&g'lune yunkhrithlin&r'nuk 

having entered, he sees it (the house) crowded with all young men 

6m&qp!gmUt^k^mt^ m5qthlintik t^ngv^g'l^rihput 
when we are on the ocean we see only water 

th^lthkothllnur'me ntime uetauk 
he lives in a house all of stone 

198. ThlinXk combines also with hw&tn. (See 358.) 

199. Ithkttk. This suffix conveys the idea of dislike, repug- 
nance, etc. 

Transitive, Ithkttm ; singular, Ithkttk ; dual, Ithkttk ; plural, Ithkat. 



Sing, 


t&ngauhululthktik 


a boy I dislike 


Dual 


ek^mr^lthkuk 


a sled I dislike 


Plur, 


nun&lthkut 


a village I dislike 



For the use of this suffix with the pronouns see 284. 

200. kSrtlih. This implies agreeable, pretty, etc. 

Transitive, kirt&rftm ; singular, l£rtah ; dual, Id&tirSk ; plural, 
kgrtXrftt. 

201. KSrtah is a difficult sound to express. The first syllable is 
like cur pronounced quickly and low in the throat, while the second 
is soft and prolonged, as tiX. It is from Mode LXXXI. 



Sl/FFIXES 59 

202. This suffix and the preceding are given together. 

kSmuqtikSrtih a fine dog kemuqtiflthktik a bad dog 

ekimr&kkSrt^Lr&k a nice sled ek^mr^lthktik a poor sled 

^gnutkSrtih a good man ^gnutilthktik a mean man 

For the use of this suffix in cha see 315. 

For the use of this suffix in verbs see Mode LXXXI. 

203. iqkik. This ending comes from Mode XXIX and it signifies 
// or him to whom the act should be applied, 

^ngthlur^qk^k one who is to be baptized 

^ngthlunrat^qkik one not to be baptized 

k^ssutiqkdk one who is to be married 

kdssutunratiqkiUc one not to be married 

pr&r^qk^k a thing which should b^ wiped 

pe&qk^k an act which should be done 

ly&g&qk^t those who should go 

kuvl^rh^ moq'muk ^ngthlur^qkdm uksho&kun 

he pours some water on the head of the person who is to be baptized 

The possessive form follows the usual endings. (See 78.) 

thl6u un& t&nghiim^qk^tne put this where they can see it = 

in where it is to be seen by them 
The plural is : 

t^ghtim^qkitn§ where they can see them 

Note. — Tinghflmlqkfttiii is the localis case, third plural, of tAnghOmftqUmiii, from 
tAnghttmiqkftkft, my should be seen thing, 

204. thltLq. Signifies old^ worn out, etc. 

The endings are : transitive, thlSrilm ; singular, thliiq ; dual, thlhrOk; 
plural, thlhrtlt. 

Note. — Most of the examples are in the possessive. 

k^mmiiks&lththltikldL my old shoe 

k&mmtiks&lthh^qki my old pair of shoes 

^tkiilththliikki my old ^tktik (native coat = parka) 

205. Examples in combination with the diminutive : 

5f'lQvch5&thlhr^ne his little old bow 

nQcho^thliiqtuk their (dual) little old hut 

k^k6v6ch5^thltiqr^nk^ my little old needle-case (19) 



6o 



ESSEXTIALS OF INNUIT 



206. veUfilththltLq. A variation of the above ; signifies oldy large, 
and repulsive, 

^^r^rn^qvell(ilththliiq a big old woman 

^ntituwe&lulththliiq a big old man 

kemiiqtuvve^lulththltiq a big old dog 

207. tuweftliik. A variation, meaning bad. 

kemiiqtuwe^ltik a bad dog 

^n'ggnuttiwelltik a bad man 

208. veutik. A variation, meaning bad, worthless, etc. 

yuve&ltik a bad man, big, clumsy 

kiy^ve&liik a poor canoe 



209. iietUc, tXm. Dual, Xk ; 

aknir'nilet&k 

ktimkiletlk 

auwS,regiiilet&k 



210. 



211. 



^t^lkswel^t^kd = t&mi 
^n&kswel^t^ki 
^nikswelet&qput 
illlkswelet^kll 

piksiiqpllet&ldi 

ntittikstiqpilet^ldL 

kemtiqttikstipiletS,ldL 



plural, &t. 

thimble (i.e., a thing to prevent pain) 
toothpick 

a weight (i.e., a thing to prevent it being 
moved) 

my dear father 
my dear mother 
our dear mother 
my dear friend 

a thing I want by all means 
a gun I am most desirous for 
a dog I want particularly 



212. niiqhXk. This conveys the idea of newness : just made, lately 
acquired, etc. (See Mode IV.) 



Intrans. — niiqh^k 


— ntiqh^k 


— niiqhat 


Trans. — ntiqhriim 






Loc. — niiqhramg 


— ni&qhr^gne 


— niiqhrane 


etc. etc. 


etc. 


etc. 


kem tiqttingni&qh^k 


a new dog 




^gho&rutungntiqh^k 


a new paddle 




yuntiqh&k 


a young man (i.e., 
manhood) 


one just arrived at 



SUFFIXES 6 1 

213. 

the new trail over the mountains which we use now is very hard, but it is 
much shorter than (the trail) along the river (Yukon) 

tumiii%niiqhrat ingrirqkwir'ya.rat hw^to^ mi it6q'lilthput ningtukn^qkut 
taligw^m ukk^kshlnrout kwiqp^qkwir'y^r^me tumume 

all right I if it is shorter, I do not care how difficult it is, I will take it 

ch^nr^rtokl n^ngtukn^qkiinggniir'm£ ukk^kshlnrukune illingchifk^ne 
^t5qchghk^k^ 

Lit, there is nothing ! although it causes suffering, if it is shorter, I with- 
out caring, I will use it 

214. jjSk. This suffix implies real^ tnUy etc. 

Sing, 

Inirans, — ^pik 

Tram, — pem 

Loc, — pigmg 
etc, etc. 

yuplk the race 

em&qpik the sea 

215. Another group, declined in the same way, ends in pCpik. 
^m^qpeplk the ocean 

216. A third group ends in pCftpik. 

nuk^lthpe^pik a strong young man 

217. yXrXk. This adds the idea of way^ mode^ meanSj course^ etc. 
The endings are : transitive, yftrim ; dual, y&rik ; plural, jixlt. 



Dual. 




Plur. 


— ^pek 




—pet 


—pegne 
etc. 




— pIgne 
etc. 


nun^plk solid ground (i.e., 
peplk real act 


, not marsh) 



&kkumgiy^r&k 


seat 


ikkumgauqtoS 


, I sit down 


iyUg'y&r&k 


starting point 


iy^qto^ 


I go 


k&lv&qy^r&k 


outer entrance to native 
house 


kilv^qt^k^ 


I lower it down 


ka!lw&qt&r!y^r&k 


bed place 


kaiiw^qto^ 


I sleep 


Idlw&ntituy^r^k 


dream 


k&w^nuttiqto^ 


I dream 


k&nniiq'y&r^k 


word 


k^nntiqto^ 


I talk 


mitst&r!y&r&k 


warming place 


m&tstlLto^ 


I warm myself 


p€chig'y^r&k 


petition 


pech^qtoi 


I beg = request 


ptlg'y^r&k 


inner entrance to house 


pugwo^ 


I enter = bob up 


piilliy&r&t 


trail through bushes 


piillaughi 


I penetrate 



62 



ESSENTIALS OF INNUIT 



puyiriy&r&k smoke hole = stove pipe 
t^guy^r^k handle 

t^ptilriy^r^k pocket knife 



puy!rqt5k it smokes 
taguy^r^k^ I take hold of it 
t^pt^k^ I fold it over 



218. litik. 








p^l&hwutik 




steamer 




chiinn&hwutilk 




yard of an angiak = skin sailing boat 


piikt&kutak 




wooden float for fish nets 




kech^kut^k 




a bone sinker used on nets 




Oliig'yarut&k 




native wooden maul 




t^r^nradrut^k 




a mirror 




kauqtut^k 




short heavy club for killing 


salmon 


pikketutdk 




native axe of jade, etc. 




ptiydqtiitak 




tobacco pipe 




219. n«k. These are 


derived from nSqkok. (Mode XXVI.) 


^ngl^n^k pleasantness 


illlngn^k 


fear 


t^kur'nik honor 




pullug'n^k 


mire 


tokdn&k death 




chiipm^k 


difficulty 


220. These words are 


: declined as follows : 




Sing, 




Dual. 


Plur. 


Inirans, ^ngl^nik 




&ngl^n^ 


^ngl^n^t 


Trans. ^ngliin^m 








Loc, ^ngl^n^me 




^ngl^n^g'ne 


^ngl^n^ne 


etc. etc. 




etc. 


etc. 



221. Ohw&t. This may be termed the collective suffix and corre- 
sponds to a second plural or plural of multitude, as in English : 



brother 

yiit men 

ttintat deer 

tlngma^t geese 



brothers 

yugtihw&t 

tiinturuhw^t 

tlngma^rtlhw^t 



yuguhw^t t^kd&tne 



brethren 

a crowd of men = a multitude 
a herd of deer 
a flock of geese 

in the presence of a crowd 



222. The declension follows the usual plural form, as : 

yuguhw^t 
yugGwir'ne 



etc. 



A UGMENTA TIVE 63 

The Augmentative 

223. Largeness^ etc., is denoted by pftk. 

Sing. Dual. Plur. 

Inirans. — pXk — pek — pet 

Trans, — pem 

Loc. — p^g'me — pegne — p&g'ne 
etc, etc. etc. etc. 

k^nniiqp^k a big snowfall ingy^qp^k ship or steamer 

n^nv^h^qp^k a great lake thilthkop^k a large rock 

ingriqp^k a great mountain unggnungslqp^k a great animal 

224. With pftk some words assume a secondary meaning. 

kwiq a river kwiqp^k the Yukon 

ytik a man yiiqp^k a giant 

tiintu a deer tiintuytiqp^k the constellation Ursa 

Major 
&gglak a star &gg!y^qpik the morning star 

ntilarh^ his wife nul^rqp^k the first wife (i.e., in 

a polygamous household) 

225. Pik influences verbs also. (See Mode LXXVI.) 
k&nniqt5k it snows k^nniiqp^qtdk it snows heavily 

226. Pik combines with locatives. 

n^giik north n^giikf^k the extreme north 

227. Euphony will sometimes demand f or v in place of p. 

^gnQtf^k a fine buck kemulv^k ^ a large dog 

ninggnilv^k intense cold inggnulv^k ^ a large man 

228. ChesirpSk signifies the great serpent^ the sea serpent^ from 
chSzik, the term for snake. Although this word is known, yet 
there are no snakes in Arctic Alaska. That the Innuit possess 
some traditional knowledge of these animals is proved by the 
frequent representation of the sea serpent on their ivory pipes, etc. 

229. rilk. This suffix also implies large, 

^nggiirtik a large canoe 

kwegiik a large river 

n^nv^riik a large lake 

kikQqtlLriik a large island 

^ These two are rarely used. 



64 



ESSENTIALS OF INN (/IT 



The Diminutive Suffixes 
230. The idea of smallness is added by the suffix chtt. 



Intrans. 
Trans, 
Loc, 
etc, 

Ingrik 

ek&mr^k 

k^nt&k 



Sing. 

— choi 
— cho^r^m 
— chd^rim^ 
etc. 

a house 

a mountain 

a sled (used in dual) 

a wooden bowl 



Dual. 
-cho&r^k 



Plur. 
■cho&rat 



— cho^rdgne 
etc. 

ntichod 
ingdchoi 
^kilmr^choir^k 
kilntHcho^ 



:ho^r^ne 
etc. 



a little house 
a hill 

a small sled 
a little bowl 



231. With chOtt some words assume a secondary meaning. 



yuk 
chupplu 



a man 
a tube 



232. Ch0ft influences the verbs, 
k^nniqtok it snows 



yucho^ 
chupplutcho^r^t 

(See SSI.) 
kiinnkho^tok 



a dwarf 

the lungs (i.e., the 
little tubes) 

it snows a little 



233. ChO& also combines with the locatives, 
y^kfik yonder y^kfdcho^ 



yonder a bit 



234. ch&gnUc. This suffix signifies small and nice. 



Intrans, 
Trans, 
Loc, 
etc. 



Sing, 

— chugnik 
— chugnim 
— chugn^rame 
etc. 



Dual, 
-chugn^ 



Plur. 
chugn^t 



:hugnigne 
etc. 



:hugn^ne 
etc. 



a nice little boy 

a little lake 

a fine young fellow 

Note. — For the use of chflgnlk in the verbs see Mode CXLVI. 



t&ngauhuluchugn^ 
n^n v^h^ch ugn^k 
nuk^lthpe^chugn^k 



235. The possessive form : 

^n^chunik^ 

p^nnichun^n 

ntitchune 

chlkme^ chUcme^ ^gg^^chugn^k 



my dear little mother 
thy dear little daughter 
his cozy little house 
twinkle, twinkle, little star 



DIMINUTIVE SUFFIXES 



65 



236. tlrichfighXk. This is a variation with about the same meaning. 

V 

kemiiqtktiktdr^chtigh^ a very nice little dog 

237. chOftyik. This is a variation of the diminutive : 





Sing, 


Dual, 


Plur.n^ 


Intrans, 


— choiy^k 


— chd^y^g^k 


— chodyigiit 


Trans, 


— chd&y^r^m 






Loc, 


— cho^y^r^me 


— chaiy^g^gne 


— choilyarane 


etc. 


etc. 


etc. 


etc. 




n^nviichoiy^k 


a nice pond 




kemtiqt&cha^y^g^t 


fine puppies 


238. 


The following diminutives express the young of animals, etc. 




Sing, 


Dual, 


Piur, 


Intrans, 


— ^yigik 


— y^ilk 


— yigat 


Trans, 


— y^g^m 






Loc, 


— ySgdme 


— yigagne 


— y3,g&ne 


etc. 


etc. 


etc. 


etc. 


ttintu 


a deer 


ttintuyigik 


a fawn 


kemuqtil 


a dog 


kemiiqtyagS.k 


a pup 


kiklcqti 


an island 


kTkkqtyag&k 


an islet 




^nketiy^g^k 


a new-bom 


baby 



239. These may also have the time forms : 

Fast ttintuy^gathliik 
Fut, ttintuy^g^qkak 

240. A variation of this appears, as follows : 





Sing, 


Dual, 




Plur, 


Intrans, 


— iy^k 


— iyS-g^k 




— iyig^t 


Trans. 


— iyirim 








etc. 


etc. 


etc. 




etc. 




k^vwaiy^ 


a 


fox cub 






tlngni&Iy^k 


a 


gosling 




241. 


Another variation is : 









kSmiiqkauy^ = kaiiy^r^m, kemiiqkauy^r^k, kemiiqkauy^r^t 

242. k&chigik. This suffix adds the idea of worthlessness. 

tutgh^r^lumkach^g^ a good-for-nothing little fellow 

kSmiiqtingktich^g&k a worthless dog 

yOngktlch^g&k a man (abusive) 



66 



ESSENTIALS OF INNUIT 



The Partitive Suffixes 

243. Such expressions as a little^ some, a morsel, a few, a piece of, 
some few, etc., are to be rendered into Innuit by means of the 
following suffixes : hXk, kwCnttq, and •knl. 

244. Hik is used as follows : t&nSk means the back fat of deer, so 
tonlUiXk would signify a little bit of this much-prized delicacy. These 
words follov^ the regular form. The singular is the most used. 



Intrdns, chiih&k 


ch^k^k ch^hdt 


Trans, ch^hr&m 




Loc, ch^hlLr'inS 


ch^hig'ng chahir'ne 


etc, etc. 


etc. etc. 


okoh^k 


a bit of blubber 


chuy^h&k 


a chew of tobacco 


nOn^p^h&k 


a little area of solid ground 


k^fchehr^t yOt JUd^S 


call a few men 



Note. — This coincides with the augmentative suffix. (See 48.) 



tunub^g'miik k^ptlcbiiqt5& 
tunuqpig'mtik k€pachtiqt5& 



I want to buy a little tunok 
I want to buy a lot of tunok 



245. 

^thULt^h^ anything belonging to another (279) 

&thl^t^^r*miik t£gach^k5n&kG another's property ; steal it not 
lU^h^ a bit of it = a portion (639) 

For the possessive form see 321. 

ch^h^nki my little things 

246. kwSnliq. There is little or no difference in meaning between 
this and hXk. The transitive ends in rhttm. 



Intrans, 


kwentiq 


kwenrik 


kwenrit 


Loc. 


kw^niir'me 


kwfeniig'ne 


kwenr^ne 


etc. 


etc. 


etc. 


etc. 



^taug'15qp6t tiintakwSntiq chikHr^tii 

your old father gives you a bit of venison 

^taug'lun ttintfikwenr^k chlkar&n 

you give your old father two bits of venison 



PARTITIVE SUFFIXES^ THE COMPARATIVE 67 

&taug'l5^n 2,ts^tkwenr^t chlkarh^ 

his old father gives him a few berries 

It is also used to express time, as : 

ch^ kweniir'me uet&ch^hk5& I will stay a little while 

ch^ kweniiq petfldduku for the sake of a trifle 

247. imi. This can be used alone or in connection with kwCniiq; 
the meaning is about the same, and the form is as follows : 

Intrans, Im^ hn^r^k hn^r&t 

Trans. hn^r^m 

Loc. hn^r'mg im^r^g'nS hn^r&nS 

etc. etc. etc. etc. 

Note. — The dual and plural of these are given, but they are seldom used. 

hn^r'mtik nauthliigw5& I am somewhat unwell 

hn^ pikke^ give me a little 



The Comparative 

248. These are derived from the comparative mode in rOtLgnl 
(LXXXIV). 

The following examples are in the third person possessive 
singular : 



m!k!nr^ its smaller one 
iy^'n!nr& its older one 


penlnr^ 
^gnlngr^ 


its stronger one 
its larger one 


249. The possessive form : 




Sing. penlnki 
Duai p^ninr^qki 
Plur. penlnr^nka 


* my stronger one 


250. The personal and case forms : 




my pSnink^ penenlm^ 
thine p6ninrii penenuqplt 
his peninr& peninr^n 
etc. etc. etc. 


p6n6n!mne 
pendnuqpne 
p€n!nr^D6 
etc. 


pdnenine tiski 


he called his 


stronger one 



68 



ESSENTIALS OF INNUIT 



The Pronouns 



251. The Innuit language presents many interesting features in its 
pronouns, which comprise the three following groups : the personal, 
the interrogative, the demonstrative. 

252. There are no distinct possessive pronouns, neither are there 
any indefinite or relative pronouns. These two latter groups are 
idiomatically supplied. (See $8 and 7^2^ 

253. The Innuit pronouns are all inflected, and follow the one 
general form of declension. 

254. Regarding the use of the personal pronouns in connection 
with verbs, Innuit follows the same custom as Latin. Hence, unless 
the speaker wishes to be emphatic, it is indifferent whether he says 
hw6 iyfiqtOft, I go, or simply iySqtOft. 

255. In regard to the reflexive verbs, the Innuit pronouns are 
used as in English or German : 



hwe n5.kklikko^ hwingntik 
hwdnktik n^kkllkkukuk hw^nkug'ntik 
hw^nkutH n^kkllkkukut hwdnkutntik 



I love myself 

we both love ourselves 

we love ourselves 



256. In addressing one, the second person singular is invariably 
made use of. 



Note. — Throughout this volume our ordinary form you is always used, as it can 
be readily seen from the examples when either thmt ox ye is meant. 



Second Pers. Sing. 
Second Pers. Plur. 



kittuyet 
kinkutstche 



who are you ? (Le., who art thou ?) 
who are you ? 



The Personal Pronouns 



257. 


Sing. 




Cases. 


/ 


thou 


he 


Agen, Inirans, 


hwe 


ipit 


le 


Agen, Trans, 


hwegn^ 


ipit ' 


Hn 


Loc. 


hw^ng'ne 


iplne 


lene 


Mod. 


hwing'niik 


iplntik 


lenttk 


Term. 


hwang'niin 


iplniin 


leniin 


Vial. 


hw^ngktin 


Iplghtin 


iekdn 


jEqual. 


hwingsttin 


(p!sttin 


iettin 



PERSONAL PRONOUNS 



69 



Dual 



Cases. 


we both 


you both 


they both 


Agen, Intrans. 


hw^nktik 


ipetnk 


ikink^ 


Agm. Trans, 


hw^nkiik 


ipetnk 


Iktik 


Loc,^ 


hw^nktig'ne 


ipStOg'ne 


ikiig'ne 


Mod, 


hw^nktig'niik 


ipSrtlg'niik 


ikiig'niik 


Term, 


hw^nktig'niin 


ip^tdg'niin 


Iktig'ntin 


Vial 


hw^nktig'nSrghiin 


ip$tQg'n$rghiin 


Iktig'n^rghtin 


ASquaL 


hw&nkiiqstiin 


ipStnkstiin 
Plur. 


Ikiiqstiin 


Cases. 


we 


you 


they 


Agm, Intrans, 


hw2,nk{iti 


ip^che 


Mt 


Agen, Trans, 


hw^nkuti 


ip^che 


ttata 


Loc, 


hw^nkQtne 


ip^tzne 


Matne 


Mod, 


hw^nkutntik 


ip^tzntik 


tiatntik 


Term, 


hw&nkutntin 


ipStzniin 


ttatntin 


Vial, 


hw^nkuthiin 


ip^tzhiin 


likiin 


jEqual, 


hw^nkuchetstiin 


ip^tchestiin 


Htiin 


258. 


Sing, 


Dual, 


Plur, 


and I 


hwehi 


hw^nkuklu 


hwankut&Hi 


and thou 


iplu 


^ttikHi 


ipSche 



IktikHi 



hhi 



In answer to the salutation ch&nt^thkeiia, be kealtky, tOfttn Iplli is 
said, meaning and you likewise. 



iplG hwitii p6 

hw^gn^thlG hw^ kwdyaumeyugn^ 



and you ! do like this = 

you now do this way ! 
and I indeed am also glad 



This is the answer to such expressions of welcome, etc., as, for 
example : 

kweyaiigni t2,nghuyuchemug'nuk ch^la I am glad to see you again 

259. In response to questions like who is there? the answer in 
the first person can be : 

hwegn^ peugn^ it is I 

280. Another form is : 

hw^ngugh^ it is I 



70 



ESSENTIALS OF INNUIT 



261. (See also 733.) 

ip^nutii k^ 
i€n6k ki 



is it you ? 
is it he? 



262. Tftnum is used with the personal pronouns and has very much 
the same sense as *vere' in Latin. 



Sing, 


Dual. 




Plur, 


hwet5k t^ndm 


hw^nktiktdk tilnQm 


\ hw^nktitat5k tdnlim 


}p!tt5k tdndm 
Knt5k t^ndm 


ip^tiktdk t&ndm 
lkink^t5k t&nOm 


ip^chet5k t^nOm 
iiatat6k t&ndm 


hwet5k t^nQm 


iy^g'ie 


indeed, I would like to be going too 


hwegn^ ^tldL 




my name 


263. 


hw^ng'n£t5k 

iplngt6k 

ientok 


or 


uetauk 
uetauk 
uetauk 




ikugne^tuk 
HatneStut 




uetauk 
uetaut 



uni tinggdh^k hw^ng'net5k 
un^ ip^nch^hk5k 



this boy is in my care 
I leave this in your care 



264. 



Sing, 



myself 

' hw^nggnuchak^ 
ip^nuchin 
lenuche^ 



fhw^nkuch&rpuk 
ip^nuch&rtuk 
ikinuchaik 

' hw^nkQch^rput 
Flur, \ ip^nuch&rche 
li^tnuchait 



hw^nggnuchak^ n^thlo^ 

265. 

chauhw^ngn^ 

chauhw^tii 
chsLuhw^ 
etc. 



he does not know me (154) 

towards me 
towards thee 
towards him 
etc. 



kinkuqchima tilkuk^m chauhw2,ngn^ 

the bear being very ferocious (* turned ' understood) towards me 



PERSONAL PRONOUNS 



71 



866. The following form is used occasionally and is equivalent to 
aht poor me! (See 185.) 



Sing, 




Dual. 


Plur, 


hwenau'l5k 

ipdr'ldk 

ie6r'16k 


h w&nk5r'lumn fik 

ip6r'16qptuk 

&er'mnk& 


hwank6r'lumta 

ip6r'16qpche 

ie6r'lueUt 


267. 


/ love myself 




Sing. - 


^hwe 
ip5t 
1 «n 


n^kllkkM 

nakl!kkutft 

n^kUkok 


hwing'ntLk 

ipiniik 

khlim'niik 


Dual - 


' hw2,nkuk 
ipgtik 
Iskink^ 


n&kliqtukuk 
n^kllqtutuk 
n^kliqtuk 


hw^nktig*niik 

ipgdg'niik 

ismug'ntik 


Plur. * 


' hw2,nkutl 
ip^che 
Mata 


n^klfqtukut 
n^Uqtuche 
ndkliqtut 


hw^nkutniik 

ip^tzniik 

ismtiq'niik 


Neg. 


hwe n^kllkkinratoi hw^ng'ntik, 


etc. 


268. 


we love each other 




Dual ^ 


kw^nkuk 

ipgtik 

hkinki 


^tunQm 
^tunQm 
^tuntim 


chuchuktOkilk 
chuchuktutuk 
chuchuktuk 



Note. — The reciprocal form is expressed by XtfinlbiL 



we love one another 





' hw^nkut^ 


^tunQm 


chuchuktukut 


Plur < 


ip^che 


^tundm 


chuchuktuchS 






^tundm 


chuchuktut 


269. himself 


themselves 


themselves 


Lac. thllm'ne 


ismug'ne 


hmtiqne 


Mod. thUm'ntik 


ismug'niik 


hmtiqntik 


Term, thllm'niin 


ismug'ntin 


hmtiqniin 


Vud. thlimkiin 


hmektin 


hmuqtghtin 


jEqual 


. thltotiin 


ismetiin 


ismiiqttin 



72 ESSENTIALS OF INNUIT 

the man did it himself without any one helping him 

Sing, thlfm'niik ytik pllleikkilthho^ ithlUmtik ekiyurqtaundna 
Dual ismugntik yuk plllelkkilthho^k ^thlimuk ekiyurqtaundtuk 
Plur, hmtiqntik yut pille&kkflthho^t ^thldmuk ekiyurqtaun^tting 

thlimntik tokdut5k plks^kufk^n^n^ he killed himself accidentally 

kemtiqt^ i!ifch6&t6k thlimntik the dog shakes himself 

thlimektin uetauk he is doing nothing 

thlimeniik tinggnuvlrqtok he took his life = killed himself 

thlimeniik yiik tokoch^konlne plkllle a man may not kill himself 

270. 

^liiqkor^k ikinkH naunrdt lllet nufruskufk^n^ku 

he commanded them both not to eat one (certain) fruit 

entiqkutlhd^k }k!nk^ n^thlunretsklune iktigniin dt^nruch^ne 
he forbade theip, that they might know he was their master 

^t^nro5k hwinkutntin he governs us 

V 

unii pishtgn5k hw^ng'ne this one works for me = is a worker to me 

V 

hwdngne umytiortko^ to^tiS I do as I please 

kend k^nntiqtH hw^ngttin who is talking like me = who mimics me 

271. Sing, Dual. Plur. 

slllthk^ne hw^ng'ne slilthkine hwinktig'ne slilthkine hw^nkutne 

slilthk^ne Iplne slilthk^ne ip^ttig'ne slilthk^ne (p^tzne 

slilthk2,ne iene slilthk^ne iktig'ne slilthkHne Hatne 

272. In some districts, as around Cape Vancouver, another form 
is used. In the following examples both are presented : 



slilthk^ne 


or 


slip^ 


how silly I am 


or 


in me 


uzvelthkane 


a 


uzvepS 


how crazy I am 


a 


in me 


^sh^rkiine 


ii 


ilsh^rqp^ 


how good I am 


ii 


in me 


^shelk^ne 


t( 


^shepl 


how bad I am 


(( 


in me 


kiizhgnuelthkdne 


(< 


k^zhgnuep^ 


how shameful I am 


(t 


in me 



These may also appear in various modes : 

kazhgniieniqkdk hwSngne, iplne, iene, etc. 
it ought to be a shame to me, etc. 

There is no change for past or future ; 

k^zhgnuep^ thlu ^ine ^kkelgnorqtum^lrailme ^kkeletiksaun^ke 

how shameless in you so long in debt without paying (them) (756) 



PERSONAL PRONOUNS 



87S. 




this 




Intrans. 


Old 


QkOk 


flkat 


Tram. 


um 








Lot.' 


ume 


Qkag'ng 


' ukunS 


Mod. 


um&k 


aktig'nak 


ukuhtik 


Term, 


umQn 


ukOg'nilii 


ukunQn 


r,a!. 


Ok&D 


uktlg'nerghiln 


ukuthQn 


yEgual. 


uttin 


Qknqtbiiii 


ukutstQi) 


271. 




that 




Intrans. 


taiin^ 


taUkflk 


ta"ukat 


Trans. 


taiim 








Loe. 


talime 


taukOg'nS 


taukunfi 


Med. 


taiimOk 


taukag'ntkk 


ta'ukunfik 


Tirm. 


ttTumttn 


taiikag'nQn 


ta-ukuniin 


Vial. 


taiiktin 


taukitg'nSrghtSn 


taukuthfln 


^pusi. 


ta'utfin 


tauktiqthiiD 


ta-ukutstOn 


275. 




this one here 




Intrans. 


m&na 


makuk 


makflt 


Trans. 


mitOtn 








Lot. 


matume 


makfigne 


makune 


Mod. 


matumOk 


makflgnOk 


makunfik 


Ttrm. 


matflmfin 


mikflgiiiln 


makunQn 


Via!. 


matQqk&n 


makQqktin 


makuthQti 


jEqual. 


m&tat&n 


makaqtfin 


iDakutstfin 


276. 




that one there 




Intrans. 


tamaia 


tamakfik 


tatnakm 


7>ans. 


tamatum 








Lot. 


tamatume 


tamllcQg'ne 


tamikune 


Mod. 


tamitumiik 


tamakug'niik 


tamakuQtik 


Term. 


tamatumQn 


taraakug'nun 


tamakunQn 


Via/. 


tamatflqkfin 


t5milkQqkun 


tamakuthfin 


j£quai. 


tamattjtQn 


tamakiiqtan 


tamakutsttln 


vrt. 




the one over there 




Intrant. 


Ing'na 


Ingkiik 


Ingkut 


Trans. 


In^^nOm 








Loe. 


Inggnume 


Ingkflg'nS 


Ingkune 


Mod. 


InggnQmiik 


{ngkQg'DOk 


ingkonttk 



74 



ESSENTIALS OF INNUIT 







the one over there 




Term, 


Inggnumtin 


Ingktig'ntin 


Ingkundn 


Vial 


inggnuktin 


ingkQg'nSrghun 


Ingkuthiin 


yEquai. 


Inggnuttin 


Ingk&qthtin 


ingkutstiin 


278. 




the one passing there 




Inirans. 


auguni 


auqkuk 


auqkut 


Trans. 


augum 






Loc, 


a"ugume 


auqktig*ne 


auqkune 


Mod, 


augumtik 


auqkQg'niik 


auqkuniik 


Term. 


aligumiin 


auqkQg'nun 


auqkuntin 


Vial. 


augfikiln 


auqkug*ngrghiin 


auqkuthto 


jEqual. 


auguttin 


auqkdqthttn 


aiiqkutsttin 


279. 




another 




Intrans. 


^thm 


athiak 


^thl^t 


Trans. 


athiam 






Loc. 


^thl^me 


athl&gne 


^thline 


Mod. 


^thldmiik 


^thl^gniik 


athliniik 


Term. 


^thldmiin 


ithl^gniin 


athliiniin 


Vial. 


athiakiin 


athmg'nSrghtin 


athiathiin 


jEqual. 


athiatttn 


^thl^qsttin 


^thl^tsttin 


280. 




that one down there 




Intrans. 


un^ 


tinkuk 


iinkut 


Trans. 


unum 






Loc. 


unume 


iinktig'ne 


iinkune 


Mod 


unumiik 


iinkiig'ntlk 


tinkuniik 


Term. 


unumtin 


tinkijg'niin 


iinkuniin 


Vial. 


unuktin 


tinktig'n^rghiin 


tinkuthtin 


yEqual. 


unuttin 


tinktiqsttin 


tinkutsttin 


281. 




that one 




Inirans. 


IminS. 


imkuk 


imkut 


Trans. 


emuin 






Loc, 


emume 


Imktigne 


imkune 


Mod 


emumiik 


Kmkiig'niik 


Imkuntik 


Term, 


emumiin 


Imktig'niin 


Imkuntin 


Vial. 


emukiin 


Imkiig'nSrghiin 


imkuthdn 


yEqual. 


emutiin 


Imktiqsttin 


imkutsttin 



PERSONAL PRONOUNS 



75 



282. This group is declined as follows : m&k&ch^ = this kind (152) 



\ 



Intrans. 


mdkuch^k 


Trans. 


m&kuchim 


Loc, 


mikuchime 


Mod. 


makuchimuk 


Ttrtn. 


m^kuchlmtin 


Vial. 


m^kuchikun 


jEqual. 


makuchitiin 



m^kuchek 



mUkuchet 



m^kuchegne 

m^kucheg'niik 

miikucheg*ntin 

makuchiqkiin 

m3,kuchiqtttn 



m^uchine 

m^kuchlntik 

m^kuchlniin 

V 

m^kuchlthiin 
m^kuchltsttin 



The correlative of this is t&mlkQch^ = that kind. 

283. These are all derived from the personal demonstratives : 



auqkuchSk from 


augund 




that kind over there 


^qkuch^k 


a 


igina 




that kind on the other side 


p^qkuch^k 


(t 


p^ktimln^ 




that kind up there 


IngkuchSk 


(( 


!ng*na. 




that kind over there 


unkuch^k 


(( 


un^ 




that kind down there 


284. 










• 
Intrans. Imln&lthktik 


Imtnaithkuk iminilthkut 


Trans. emtilthkum 






Loc. emulthkume 


emulthkiig'ne emulthkune 


etc. 


etc. 




etc. 


etc. 



The above means the one I dislike or that one whom I hate. 
All these locatives may assume this-suffix: 



chaminalthkiik 
pilktimndlthktik 


the one down there whom I dislike 
the one up there whom I dislike 


285. 








Intrans. 
Trans. 
Loc. 
etc. 


^mthl6k 
^mthlerhdm 
imthler*me 
etc. 


dmthlerruk 

a.mthlerrug*me 
etc. 


iimthlerrut 

imthler'ne 
etc. 



This means much^ many. The verb is ftmthlSrtOk. 



^mthl^r'muk tlgut5k 
^mthl^r'nuk tagtitiiratut 
^mthl^rhtim yut tSkoatne 
ftiothl^kf^r^nuk 



he takes much 

they do not take many 

in the presence of many people 

a little more (from Mode CLXXIX) 



7(> ESSENTIALS OF INNUIT 

286. A peculiar characteristic of Innuit consists in doubling these 
demonstratives apparently for the sake of emphasis. 

This occurs constantly in the native stories which are related 
nearly every evening in the various kazhgas, after the inmates have 
settled down for the night. 

The following are extracts from native stories, showing a few of 
these combinations. 

287. Oni-iminX, flkOk-ImkU. 

m&tii Ktr^tdk, ch&k ukuk fmkuk af-r^mUk. Td&tlu !mk(ik af-r^mik peiik, 

"Ikkivtit akoma'* 
as he enters here were these very two women. Then both these women 

said, ** Sit down there " 

288. taunA indni. 

to&tlu h5k taiin^ lm!n& ah'^mik utitmtin ^V5k 
then * that there ' woman ran back home 

289. These may even be reversed, and this may occur in a sentence 
just following : iminX taiiiiA. 

to&tlu Kmin^ taun& ah'^m&k Qnnw&me kinggnuntig'mSntin iy^g'lune, 

emumiinthlu nQn&menun tkech&ma 
then that selfsame woman, going in the morning back again, and having 

come to that house 

290. taum Cmfim. 

to&tlu taum emum af-r^mlim pd&, "keyugtim t&ng ai'r^rn&m ch!gveqk& 

tagukuk " 
then that there woman said, " See that woman there in the rear ; she 

stole my pair of nose beads '' 

291. Imin& iminft occurs also, and cbXm Cmdm. 

292. taiimiik. Very frequently this is to be rendered into English 
by that is why. 



INTERROGATIVE PRONOUNS 



77 



The Interrogative Pronouns 



293. 


• 


Who 




Cases. 


Sing. 


Dual. 


Plur. 


Agen, Intrans. 


ken& 


k!nkuk 


kinkut 


Agen. Trans. 


ke^ 






Loc, 


kittume 


kinktig'ne 


k!nkune 


Mod. 


klttumtik 


Wnktig'niik 


klnkuntik 


Term. 


k!ttumiin 


klnktig'ndn 


kinkuntin 


Vial. 


k!ttfiki1n 


k!nktig'n^rghtin 


V 

k!nkuthtin 


j^qual. 


kittutiin 


kfnktiqtiin 


kinkutsttin 



In asking a question the verb is always to be used in the inter- 
rogative aspect (461). 

If the verb be used intransitively, it is to be accompanied by kCnA, 
but if transitively by kfift. 

V 

ken& tket^ who is coming ? ke& keputau who buys it ? 

ken^ kent^ who is outside ? ke& pe&ghwu who does it ? 

294. Ken& used with hwfttkftplk means no one at all, no one soever (726). 

k6n& hw^tk^p!k chlnggnekkllhra^miin Kngrimiin miy5rqrauqka~unr^t5k 
no one at all is able to ascend to the summit of the mountain 

295. K6ft Cmfim = kCnA indnl expresses whoever. 

296. The questions whose is this? to whom does it belong? who owns 
it ? are expressed by kfift with the object in the interrogative aspect. 



ke^ pekau un^ 
k6^ pek&kuk ukuk 
ke^ pekike ukpt 
ke^ pek!lthho^ghwu un^ 



whose is this? 
whose are these two? 
whose are these? 
whose was this? 



297. If the owners are two or more, the question is : 

k!nkuk pek^nke ukuk who (dual) own these two ? 

kinkut pekitke ukut who (plural) own these ? 



298. Whatever may be the object concerned, it takes the same 
terminations. (See 460 on the interrogative aspect.) 

whose canoe is this? 
whose sled is this? 



k6i kiy^au m^n& 

ke^ gk&mr&k^kuk m&kuk 



kel kemiiqtikau un& 
ke^ dtkukkali un^ 



whose dog is this? 
whose coat is this? 



78 



ESSENTIALS OF INN (/IT 



299. Kik is often added for emphasis or to express surprise. 



ke5k!k Ihneiikau un& 
ke^kik mtiqt^r&vlkau 



ah ! whose baby is this ? 

oh I whose water hole is this ? 



The verbal forms of all these pronouns naturally assume the 
endings of the interrogative aspect. 





300. 


301. 




302. 


who am If how many have If 


who do you think I amf 


Sing, * 


' kittuyei 

kittuyet Sing, - 
kittuhw^ 


' kafchechei 
kUfchechet 
kilfchetd 


Sing, - 


' klttuyuksei 
kittuyukchet 
kittuyuka 


Dual - 


' kinkutsniik 
kinkutsttik Dual < 
kinkugak 


' kMchetsntik 
kafchetsttik 
k&fchetilk 


Dual < 


' kinkuyuksnuk 
kinkuyukstuk 
kinkuyukuk 


Flur, ^ 


' kinkutst^ 

kinkutstche Flur, - 
kinkuhwSt 


' kafchetsti 
kdfchetstche 
kilfchetat 


Flur, ^ 


' kinkuyuksta 
kinkuyukstche 
kinkuyukat 


303. 


304. 




305. 


how many am If h 


ow many are we T 




my whoness 


Sing, - 


kiyutuche^ 

kiyutuchet Pres, < 
kiyututii 


V 

kUfcheuchstS 

kafcheuchche 

k&fchelihwSt 


' kittuchaka 
Sing, ' klttuchin 
kittuchaa 

V 


Dual - 


' kiyututsntik 
kiyututstuk Fast . 
kiyututak 


' k&fche'utltsti 
kdfche"utlhtistche 
k^fcheutlhoiit 

V 


Dual ^ 


' klnkucharpuk 
klnkuchartuk 
kinkuchaak 


Flur, ^ 


kiyututsti 

kiyututstche Eut, ^ 
kiyutuhw&t 


kiifchelichlksti 

k&fche"uchikstache 

kafche"uchlkit 


Flur, * 


kinkucharput 
kinkucharche 
kinkuchaat 



klf chin tkSt&t, how many came / = kSf cheuhwXt tketlhrftSt, how many are 

they who have come ? 
kiyutiin tkgtit, how many came f = kiyttiUiwXt tketlhrftet, how many are 

they who have come ? 
kittlichin nAthlOftkS, I do not know who you are (i.e., your whoness) 



306. Which, interrogative, is expressed by nllUSft. 



INTERROGATIVE PRONOUNS 



79 



EXAMPLES 

which of my brothers is over there ? 

which two do you want ? 

which (singular) of my dogs is missing ? 

which one of you will go ? 

which two of these are alike ? 
naileilt ukut pinggniyuit peyiiqcheu which three do you want ? 
n^lle^tne n(it uet^ in which house is he ? 

niiUeilg'niin iikshiiqchet on which (boat) do you wish to embark ? 

n&llimt^ pech^hk^ which one of us will do it ? 

307. 



n&lle&t ^nglegutm^ ^rn^nt^ 
n^lHqkQt peytiqchekuk 
n^lle&t kemiiq'm^ tiyemaiiw^ 
nallSrqche iy&qch€kki 
n^lle^k kniikstcheii 



Sing. 



Dual 



Plur. 





Sing. 


n^lllrk^ 


' Sing. 


n^llem^ 


my 


Dual 


niilllqki 


Dual 


nailigmS 




Piur. 


n^llenkH 


Plur. 


nailemS 




Sing. 


nillen 


' Sing. 


n^llgrqpit 


thy . 


Dual 


n&lllqkn 


Dual 


nailiqpit 




Plur. 


n^lletn 


Plur. 


nSll^rqpit 




' Sing. 


n^lia 


' Sing. 


naileiln 


his 


Dual 


n^llek 


Dual 


V 

n^lleqkn 


Plur. 


n^lle 


, Plur. 


niillen 




' Sing. 


niill^rqpuk 


' Sing. 


n^llimnuk 


our* < 


Dual 


nalllqpuk 


Dual 


n^llimugnuk 




Plur. 


n^U^rqpuk 


Plur. 


n^llimniik 




' Sing. 


niillgrqtiik 


' Sing. 


nailiftuk 


your* « 


Dual 


n&lliqttik 


Dual 


n^llirqiittik 




Plur. 


n^llgrqttik 


Plur. 


naillftiik 




' Sing. 


n&liak 


' Sing. 


n^lle^gniik 


their * ^ 


Dual 


n^lliqkgk 


Dual 


naiHqk^nka 




Plur. 


n^llek^k 


Plur. 


ndllekdnk^ 




' Sing. 


nallSrqput 


' Sing. 


n^llimta 


our 


Dual 


n&lliqput 


Dual 


n^llignita 




Plur. 


nill^rqput 


Plur. 


nailimta 




' Sing. 


nillSrqche 


' Sing. 


nailifche 


your - 


Dual 


n&lltqche 


Dual 


nSUirq^che 




Plur. 


niilleche 


Plur. 


nailifche 




' Sing. 


naile^t 


' Sing. 


n^lleltd 


their - 


Dual 


naillqkgt 


Dual 


n^lllqkgtta 




Plur. 


n^llet 


Plur. 


n^lleta 



8o 



ESSENTIALS OF INNUIT 



308. ChA = what things things somethings anything. 
It is used generally with some suffix, as, ch&hw&, etc. 

It accompanies all the locatives, as, for example, something behind. 

Sing, chi ping'nd Dual chik pingkuk Flur, chit pingkut (380) 
chi imind tinghi he sees something over there 

309. chime. The localis case is often used to express when. 



chime iyiqti 
chime yurqdhdi 

chimiik peyukch§t 
chimtik ki peytiqtutii 
chimiik chSla 



when did he go ? 
when was he born 1 

what do you want ? 
do you want anything ? 
what else 1 



310. 


Sing. 




Dual. 




Flur. 


Intrans, chi 




chik 




chit 


Trans. 


chim 










Lac, 


chime 




chig'ne 


chine 


Mod. 


chimtik 




chig'ntik 


chinilk 


Teftn, 


chimtin 




chig'r 


itin 


chiniin 


Vial. 


chimktin 




chig'nSrghtin 


chithtin 


^qual 


chimttin 




chiqstiin 


chitstiin 


311. 












Sing. Intrans. 


Trans. 


Trans, Reflex. 


Flur. 




r chiki 


chimi 




chimi 


chinki 


Sing. ^ 


chin 


chivtit 




chiviit 


chitft 




chi 


chin 




chimi 


chi 




chiviik 


chimntik 




chimug*nt!ik 


chipuk 


Dual - 


chiziik 


chifttik 




chifptug*niik 


chitiik 




chakrtk 


chimtik 


• 


chig'ntik 


chittik 




' chivtit 


chimti 




chimti 


chiput 


Flur. < 


chiche 


chifche 




chifche 


chiche 




chit 


chiti 




chimting 


chit 


312. 




something 






Intram 


chikik 




chikSk 


chikit 


Trans. 


chikim 










Loc. 


chikimS 




chikigne 


chikine 


etc. 


etc. 




etc. 




etc. 



INTERROGATIVE PRONOUNS 



8l 



Although the following variations are not the next in order in 
the general paradigm, yet they are itffeerted here, as they belong 
directly to ch&. 

313. The diminutive : 







a 


little thing 




Intrans, 


ch&cho^ 




chicho^rik 


chachaarat 


Trans. 


ch&cho^r&m 








Loc. 


ch^cho^r&me 




chicho^ragne 


chachaarane 


etc. 


etc. 


my 

Sing. 

Dual 

Plur. 


etc. 

little thing 

ch&ch6rqldl 
chichoaraqka 


etc. 


314. 


The augmentat 


ive: 

a 


big thing 




Intrans. 


ch&qp^k 




ch^qpek 


chaqpet 


Trans. 


ch^qpem 








Loc. 


ch^qp^gme 




ch^qpegne 


chaqpagne 


etc. 


^tc. 




etc. 


etc. 






my big thing 








Sing. 


chaqpakS 








Dual 


chaqpeqka 








Plur. 


chaqpenka 




Ch&hSk and chihUdL. 


(See 320.) 




315. 




a pretfy or nice thing 




Intrans. 


chakgrt^h 




chak^rtarak . 


chakertarat 


Trans. 


chakertSram 








Loc. 


chakgrtirame 




chak^rtaragne 


chakSrtarane 


etc. 


etc. 




etc. 


etc. 



my pretty thing 
Sing. chakSrtahka 



Dual 
Plur. 



chakdrtahraqka 
chak^rtahranka 



82 



ESSENTIALS OF INNUIT 



316. 




an 


ugly thing 




Intrans. 
Trans. 
Loc. 
etc. 


ch&lthktik 
chdlthkum 
chdlthkume 
etc. 

Sing. 
Dual 
Plur. 


my 


chdithkuk 

chilUhktigne 
etc. 

ugly thing 

ch^lthkukil 

ch^lthktiqkH 

cMlthkiinkii 


cMlthkut 

ch^lthkune 
etc. 


317. 




something nice 




Intrans. 
Trans. 
Loc. 
etc. 


ch^chugn^k 
ch^chugn^m 
cMchugnar'me 
etc. 


• 
my 


chilchugn^k 

chichugnigne 
etc. 

nice thing 


ch^chugnilt 

chachugnir'ne 
etc. 


Sing. 

Dual 

Plur. 


chlchugn^kH 

ch^chugndqki 

chUchugn^nk^ 




ch^chugn^n 

chdchugritlqkii 

chachugndtA 


chdchugne 
ch&chukik 
chichugni 


318. 




a i 


Uttle thing 




Intrans. 
Trans. 
Loc. 
etc. 


ch^y^g^k 
chayig^m 
chaydgar'me 
etc. 


my 


chAyig^ 

chdyigig^ne 
etc. 

little thing 


chay^git 

chiyigir'ne 
etc. 


Sing. 

Dual 

Plur. 


chily^g^k^ 

chayag&qkH 

ch^y^g^nk^ 




ch&y^g&n 

chly^g^qkii 

ch^y&g&tii 


chiyige 

chiy^gdk 

chiySgi 


319. 










Intrans. 
Trans. 
Loc. 
etc. 


chaun 
chautQm 
chautme 
etc. 




chautuk 

chaiitiig'ne 
etc. 


chautQt 

chalitne 
etc. 


Sing. 

Dual 

Plur. 


chautkS 

chauttiqki 

chautnki 




chautii 

chautiiqkii 

chautiitfi 


chaute 

chautuk 

chaliti 



INTERROGA TIVE PRONOUNS 



83 



This is used as a suffix to a great number of words (116). 

1 . Nearly all remedieSi as : 

Ikchaun eye water 

kozh^rr^chalin cough mixture 

kikifchalin any liniment 

2. In some districts, in place of chaiin, chun is said. 



ktiqchfin 


a wedge of fossil 


ivory or bone 


chakyftn 


native axe of obsidian 

• 


320. 


Sing. 


Dual. 


Plur. 

• 


Intrans, 


chahik 


chahak 


chahat 


Trans. 


ch&hr&m 






Loc, 


chahir*me 


chahag'ne 


chahar'ne 


Mod. 


ch^h&r'mtik 


chahag'niik 


chahar'niik 


Term. 


chihiir'miin 


chahag'niin 


chahar'nun 


Vial. 


chilh^qktin 


chahag'n^rghtin 


chahaqtghiin 


^qual. 


ch&h&qtiin 


chahaktun 


chahaqthtin 



These are used continually and signify a trifle, a small object, 
something, etc. 

athianegna chahar'mtik give me some little thing to eat 

chahar'mtik kanra nechdgniiqkllraamiik tell something interesting 



321. 



Sing. 



Dual 



Plur. < 



Sing. 

chahaka 

chahan 
chahra 

chahapuk 
chahattik 
chahakuk 

chahaput 

chahache 
chahrit 



Plur. 
chahanka 

chahatft 

chahi 

chahapuk 
chahatiik 
chahatiik 

chahaput 

chahache 
chahit 



iiptuk chatuk, chahatiik tamalthkweta takuchlmaraamiik nutan 

both packed their things, all their little belongings, after being in 
readiness 



chen a'uluktnrachekg chahatft why do you not look out for your things .> 



84 



ESSENTIALS OF INNUIT 



322. Chlpik signifies really something. 

Dual. 
ch^pek 





Sing. 


Intrans, 


chiplk 


Trans. 


ch^pem 


Loc, 


ch^plgme 


etc. 


etc. 



Plur. 
ch&pet 



chS.pegne 
etc. 



ch^plgne 
etc. 



This is used also with hwft. 
ch&p!ugw& un^ 



this is really something 

that is really something down there 



323. 

chikik 



ch^lkik^ 



ch^lqk^ 



ch^!g'm^ 



ch^gtim'ne 



This is used to express relationship. 



^Ithk^^ ch^Ik^ 
^nagu^k^ ch^kik^ 



my wife's sister = my sister-in-law 
my brother-in-law 



The dual, chUdqkft, is used to express the parents of a wife or of a 
husband, as, my parents-in-law. 

324. To express would it were mine. (See 498.) 

if it were mine 

if they were my things 



ch^l^ut5k, etc. 


ch^ut&kl&k^tdk 


325. 


Sing. 


Intrans. 


chak^ka 


Trans. 


chik^m^ 


Loc. 


chakimne 


Mod. 


ch^k^mntik 


Term. 


ch^k^mntin 


Vial. 


chiik^mktin 


^qual. 


ch&kimtiin 



Dual. 
ch^kiqk^ 



Plur. 
ch&k^nk^ 



ch^k^g'ng 

ch^k^g'niik 

ch^k^g'ntin 

ch^k^g'nSrghtin 

ch^k^ktiin 



chiik&ne 

ch^k^niik 

ch^klndn 

chdkathtin 

ch&k^tstiin 



This represents the verb / do it (i.e., it is my doing). It follows 
the regular form, as in paradigm, 458. The future is ch&chirkSkft; 
past, ch£lthhO&k&. 

k^nra^r^ ^ttinrllthkumtghwu ch^chirk^kut 

if we do not observe his words, what will he do to us ? 



INTERROGATIVE PRONOUNS 



85 



326. The past tense affords also its special forms, as follows 



ch&lthk^ 
chaithk^ka 



that which I was doing 

it is that which I was doing 



The cases of chaithka (i.e., chaithmg, chAthlimne, chAthlimnilk, etc.) are 
in constant use among all verbs. (See 90.) 



327. 

ch^kik^k^ 

ch^lthk^k^ 



this is the prospective : it is to me for something 

= it is a thing I can make use of 
is the past : it is something that was to be of use to me 



328. Sing, 

Intrans, chikuchSk 

Trans, chikuchfim 

Loc, ch^kuchSme 

Mod. ch^kuch^mtik 
etc, etc. 



Dual, 
ch^kuchek 



Plur, 
ch^kuchet 



chikucheg*ne 
ch&kucheg'niik 
etc. 



ch^kuchene 
ch^kucheniik 
etc. 



This means what kind (152). 



ch^kuch^mtik peytiqtutn what kind do you want "> 

^psskeke chS.kuchentik peyulthhr&tnuk ask them which styles they want 



329. 


Pres. 


Past, 


Put. 


Sing, 


ch&kuchehw^ 


ch^kucheulthho^ 


chiikucheuch^hki 


Dual 


ch^kuchehw^k 


ch^kucheulthh5^k 


ch&kucheuch^hk^k 


Plur, 


ch&kuchehwit 


ch^kucheulthho^t 


ch&kucheuch^hk&t 



These mean what kind is it ? what kind was it ? what kind will 
it be f 



330. 


Pres, 


Past. 


Put, 


Sing. 


ch^hw^ 


chaulthho^ 


chauch^hki 


Dual 


ch^hw^k 


chaulthho^k 


chauch^hk^k 


Plur, 


ch^w&t 


chSulthho^t 


chauch^hk^t 



These mean wliat is it ? wliat was it ? what will it be f 



Note. — KIk is often added for emphasis. In the plural present sometimes it is 
sounded as cUhwftsklk. 



86 



ESSENTIALS OF INNUIT 



331. 

Intrans, 

Trans, 

Loc, 

Mod. 

etc. 



Sing. 

chiyikllk 
chiy&klem 
chiyikllgmS 
chiyikllg'miik 
etc. 



Dual. 
chiylLkllguk 



chiy^kkllgtigng 
chlyikkltggiigntik 



etc. 



Plur. 
chiydkligut 



chiy&kllgne 
chiy^kl!gniik 



etc. 



This conveys the idea of a thing long in being done. 



chiyikUgut ch^nk& 



I have done the things which were to be done 



332. Examples of this form in other verbs : 



p€&kl!gut pe&nldl 

inlngs9.kkl{gQt m!ngki 

333. 

chiy^kkl^r'luke t&k&nki 
chiyikkl^r'lune tket5k 
chiy^kklSr'lune in5k 



I have done the things (i.e., acts) which 

were to be done 
they sewed whatever was to be sewed 

I finish the things so long in being done 
he comes, being long in coming 
he goes out (being long in going) ; said 
of one who stays too long 



334. Pres. 

ch&weyugw^ 
ch^wegwoik 
chiwew3,t 

chiw^yfigwi piglna 



Past. 

chiw6yulthho& 

ch^weyulthhd&k 

chUweyiilthho&t 



Fut. 



chiweyuch^hk^ 

ch^w€yuch^hkik 

ch^weyQch^hkit 



what lies up there ? 



This expression means what month or moon is it ? 



335. Intrans. 

chiy^kklfggo^lk^ 

chiy^kkHggd^n 

chly&kkUggo^ 

chiy^kl!ggd^qpuk 

chiy^kkllggo^qttik 

chiy&kkllggd^ 

chiy^kkliggd^qput 

chiy^kknggo^qchS 

chiy^kkHggd^t 



Trans. 

chiyikkl!ggdto& 
ch !yikkl!ggd&vtit 
chiy^Uckllggoin 
chiy^kkliggd^mntik 
ch!y^Uckl!ggd^fttik 
chiy^Ucknggo^mtik 
ch !y ikkl!gg5&mt^ 
ch ly^kkllggo&f che 
chiy&kkliggo&t^ 



INTERROGA TIVE PRONOUNS 



87 



Intrans, 

chiy^kl!ggoto& 

chiy^kkliggo^vtit 

chiyikkliggo^ma 

chiyikkllggo^mugntik 

chiy^kkliggdMttik 

chiy^kkl!gg5g*niik 

chly^Uddlggototi 

chiy&kkliggdMche 

chiy^kkliggoimting 

336. 

'ch^LgnilgnOhw^ 

Pres,* ch^lgn^]gnuw^ Past 

ch^ign^lgnuwit 



Trans. 

chiy^Ucknggo^nk^ 

chiyikkHggo^tn 

chly^kkHggwe 

chiy^kkllggo^puk 

chiy^kkllggo^tiik 

chly^kkliggo^uk 

chiy^kkHggo&put 

chiy^kkUggo^che 

chiy^kkllggwet 



what sort? 

ch^n^lgnOlthhoi 
ch^gn&lgnalthho^k Fut, 
ch^lgn&lgnulthhd^t 



ch^gn&lgnuchShk^ 

ch^gn^lgnuch^hk^k 

ch&gn^lgnuch^hk^t 



Pres, 



337. 

ch^ign^t^ 

cMgn^t&k 

ch^gn^tut 



fch^n^ch^hki 
FutA ch^gn&ch^hkik 
ch&gn^ch^hk^t 



what way is itt 

ch^&tllthho^ 
Past ^ chagn&tiflthhoik 
ch&gnatilthhoit 

This is the same as kithian iyOkOk. 

To an inquiry about a sick person, ch&giiltnr6tfik may be answered, 
meaning he is just the same^ no change, 

338. 

ch^ut^ a container, a holder, that which envelopes 

ch^uULk^ I wrap it up = my wrapping 

ch^ut^ik^ it is for my wrapping 

This occurs in many idiomatic expressions and is much used. 



ch^utiki 
okum chikute 
ithler&m^ ch^uti 

339. 

ch&ntik, ch^r^tniik 
ch^nr£t5k 

340. 

way of doing 

ch&Ueyirik 
ch^ll^y^im 
ch&lley^&me 



my mother 

a bag of oil 

my bedding (i.e., the fur wraps, etc.) 

something, nothing 

it is nothing, I do not care, all right, etc. 



my way of doing 

ch^lley^r^^ 

ch&lley^r^m^ 

ch&lley^r&mne 



thy way of doing 

ch&ll§y&r^n 

chailayariqpit 

chUlley^r&qpne 



his way of doing 

ch&lley^^ 

ch^lley^rin 

ch^ll6y^r^ne 



etc. 



etc. 



etc. 



etc. 



88 



ESSENTIALS OF INNUIT 



it is my way of doing 

Intrans. ch^lley^r^^lki 

Trans. chilleyarakimi 

Loc. chillley^r^^mne 
etc. etc. 



it is thy way of doing 

ch&lley^r^^put 
ch&Uey^r^&qj^ne 



etc. 



// is kis way of doing 

ch^lley^r&k^ 
ch^lley^r^Qe^n 
ch^lley^rik^ne 
etc. 



341. All these primary forms are capable of being varied and 
multiplied indefinitely by the addition of modal characteristics. The 
following are a few examples : 



Mode VI 

ch^titniik 

chatitok 

ch^tilgn5k 

ch^tlrutlhrt^ 

ch^taline 

Mode kaugwM. 

ch^aiihw^ un^ 

ch^aunrat5k 

chS.ll^w!gkaTigw& 



Mode VI 

ch^itntik 

ch^it5k 

ch^ilgn5k 

ch^kirutlhrai 

ch^kaune 



Mode XVIII 

ch^sitniik 

ch^sitdk 

ch^silgn5k 

ch^sirutlhra^ 

ch^ksaune 



what is this for } (example of chlhwX) 
it cannot do for anything (i.e., no use) 
what is it to be for } 



Mode I. Ch&ngkfttOft and ch&t&ngkfttOft mean the same thing. 



chitingkatdk ch&m!n^ 
ch^gn^lthklnrat^yi 



there is something under there 
I do not care ; I do not mind it 



342. 



ch^niikk^nrat5k 
ch^nlll5nrat5k 
ch^n tiqpik&nrat5k 
ch^n^v^!nrat5k 



- these all mean : it is not much 



343. 

ch^lleniik 

chilleak 

chaileaka 

ch^lle^k^k^ 

ch^llfst^ 

ch^mst!k^ 

chiilHstik^k^ 

chailSyiirak 

chillfiyar&ka 



ch&vlzhr^ntik 

ch&v!zhrik 

chd^vizhr^k^ 

ch^vlzhr^k^ki 

ch&v!zh'rist& 

chivizhVastlk^ 

ch^v!zh'r^tMk^ 

ch&vlzhriy&r^k 

ch&vlzhrfy&r^k^ 



the act of working 

work 

my work = what I do 

it is my work 

worker 

my worker 

it is my worker 

method, way of work 

my way of working 



INTERROGA TIVE PRONOUNS — LOCA TIVES 



89 



ch^l^^kste 

chiU^^kstkH 

ch^U^^kstegnugni 

ch^llSgno^ 

ch^lleugn^ 

ch&llech^hkoi 

ch^lHlthhougn^ 

ch&lra&gn^ 

ch&llezhe^ 

ch&llelo^ 

ch^lla 

ch^lleyuchak^ 

cMlleytiqtd^ 

ch^llewiliiqtd& 

cMllem^railm^ 



ch^v!zhr!y^r^k^^ 

ch^vizh'rikste 

ch&vizh'r^stki 

cMvlzh'rikstegnugnd, 

ch^vlzhr&gnd^ 

chS.v!zhraugn4 

chivlzhrich^hkoi 

ch&v!zhr^lthhc5ugni 

ch^vizh r^lra^gn^ 

ch^v!zhr^zhe& 

chivIzhr^Uo^ 

chS.vizhVa 

ch^vlzhriyuchaki 

ch^vizhriytiqtoi 

chilvizhr^wiltiqto^ 

ch^vizhr^m^ra^m^ 



it is my style of doing 

doer of it 

my doer of it 

I am the doer of it 

I am working 

I do = work 

future 

past 

present 

interrogative present 

I working 

imperative 

my doing cleverly 

I want to do 

before I do 

after my doing 



Note. — The difference between these is that cUUiQgnA means I do a light work, 
and cUyixhxftflgnA implies a^evercy laborious work. 



The Locatives 

344. One of the characteristics of the Innuit language is displayed 
in the remarkable care exercised in designating the exact location of 
the person addressed, or the precise position of the object spoken of. 

The language surpasses many others in the richness and abun- 
dance of words descriptive of position. These words possess the 
faculty of merging into personal forms, so that they require a 
special category for themselves, and for this the term "locatives" 
has been selected. 

345. As a general rule, the Innuit rarely make use of their names 
in conversing ; furthermore, there is no vocative in their language, 
nor have they our custom of using any equivalent in addressing 
each other, as, " oh " or " my." 

346. The universal custom among them is to use the term appro- 
priate to the position of the person whom they wish to address, and 
to this they suffix the word yOk. 

For example : a man's wife may be inside the house, and if he 
wishes her to come out he will call : kftmyOk ftnkft I you in there, come 
out ! or, again, he may ask : chAllA&t kftmkfit? what are they doing, 
those inside there f 




\ 



90 ESSENTIALS OF INNUIT 

347. TOk then may be considered the universal vocative, and can 
be suffixed to every term expressing place. 

348. The most common form, and which is in continual use, is 
dyOk. This is from ftnl, ftkOk, fUc&t, the one lure = this, 

349. Among the natives of Nunivak Island and among the villages 
situated around Tununa and Eskinok the favorite pronunciation of 
this is fix5k. 

350. Sometimes, for reproach, for instance, 'l^t dyOk is said. Again, 
dyOk Xgnii may occur; this equals you man you! and resembles the 
custom in English where the pronoun is reduplicated in token of 
excitement, as, you rascal you! 

351. The following are a few examples : 

ch&myok you down there I Inyok you over there I 

kimyok you inside there I p&mydk you back there I 

kikiimydk you outside there ! p&kumyok you up above there ! 

hw& k& nQk^lthpeau'15k uyok ch&lr^yuy§t 
well, you young man, what do you mean ? 

352. These three locatives are very important, and as they enter into 
so many purely idiomatic expressions, they require special mention. 

The corresponding verbs are hwftntOk, mIntOk, and tfiintOk (371). 

hw^ TcAxA. X.ok 

hw^ne m&ne to&ne 

hw^vtit mivtit to^vtit 

hwiin m&htin to^htin 

hw^kiin m^iin to&ktin 

hw&tii m&tii to^tii 

The impersonal forms are hwi, n^ and tOi. 

353. HwX and mAnft both mean here^ and the difference is that hwft 
represents here in particular^ and mAnft here in general, 

hwSviit thleu put it here (i.e., just where I indicate) 

mivut thleu put it here (i.e., anywhere here) 

354. HwX-hwi, tO&-t0i, and mi combine with a number of particles, as, 
hSk, kft, thlQ, etc., and thus branch off into a group having the force 
of interjections. (See 626.) 

Hw&tn, m&tn, and tO&tn might be written hwXtun, but in conversation 
the last vowel is not heard at all : hwXt'n. 



LOCA TIVES 



91 



355. Hwft as an expletive may follow almost any word, as, indeed. 



hw^ Idl 

hw^thluthlu 

hw^thloki 

hw^tdk 

hw^ikhwi hw&n€hw& 

hw^hdk 

hw&niih 

p€thl!lrai hw& 

hw€gn&thluhw& 

ch&kimniik hw& 



this is used as an exclamation, like 

hellOy etc. 
or 
or 
now 
now 

why, here it is ! 
corresponds to * id est ' 
an abbreviation of hwftn6hwft 
it may be 
and I, indeed ! 
for my things, of course ! 



hw^t5k hw&tft iy5klin^niirathl€ 

I hope it will not be always this way 

hw^t5k ch^nggnaune t^ng^rqchek^mche 
if nothing happens, I will see you 

hw^kik kem& pech^hkd^ 

I wonder if I will be alone (do alone) 

HwinS means here^ in here^ in particular, (See 353.) 



hw^n€ hw^ 


behold ! see, here it is (this is in con- 




stant use) 


hw^n£ hw^ hw& 


here it is here (used in responses) 


»6. T5& also enters into 


many combinations : 


toSk^ 


(see 737) 


to^thlu 


then (this and the two next occur con- 




stantly in native stories) 


ta^thlohdk 


so then 


to^thluhdk &m 


again, then again 


ta^thluhdkhwi 


and so then it was 


to^lth 


an abbreviation of tOftthlQ 


td^mthlti 


then 


td^mt^tthlQ 


and (this also takes hwft, hwIhOk, and 




hOk after it) 


to^thlatoi 


so I continue 



td^ik& uktit ^tkalutting n^nrunauqtut 
td3,lth &ngr^ 



are these enough for a coat ? 
then he said yes 



92 ESSEA'TIALS OF INNUIT 

357. tOi. This expresses enough^ all rights and so^ etc. It is used 
constantly, and is a common ending of a sentence. 

toik^ is it all right ? 

toiek€k^ I suppose so 

toihw^ of course 

toiyuhwS. certainly 

358. All these may be combined with thlinXk, signifying always. 

V 

hw^trthlin^ all the time in this manner 

to^trthlin^k always in that way 

V 

tauqkunn^r'niik AgiyutQm ^iyuve^ letnaiir^l^qtdk hw^trthlin^ 
since that time the church of God teaches always this way 

to^vtiqthlin^k thl§u put it in the right place = always in that place 

td^niiqthin^k uet^l^qtut they stay always there 

td^trthlin&k toi {m!n^ uen^ pech^rr!y^rS.ngk^thlune 

and so this was the way her husband had the habit of doing 

359. 

m^tii k^ klutmtin t^Lkkuy^tdk nuvMqch^ iikn^ kdnt&ntik tagumailune 
when he looks back there is a handsome girl coming carrying some 
wooden bowls 

to^tlu hw^to^ hw^nehwS. ^mS.l{r'nimtne t^llur^ne ^k^qtQm untiqt5k 

now then, see here, on the other side of us (the world), in the shade 
of the sun, it is night 

titi mivtit ; ikoma td^vtit come here ; sit there 

mahtin ki iyaqt6k did he go by here } (i.e., by this route) 

kr^ t^m^htin cross over by that way 

m^ne nun^m kien^ne uetalikut we dwell here on earth 

nSJciin tkechet whence comest thou ? 

hw^kiin n^thluy^ut^^ from hence I forget (the rest) 

m^tii pedk all at once 

m^tii h5k pugwdk as he enters 

t5^tii iy5kmeut that is the way they are 

toiitii thlu ch^la and so on 

hw^tii ka. this way, eh ? 

hw^tii peu do it this way 

hw^tii lyokmeok nun^viit this is how our residence is 

kw^tfi iyokme5k ktin^r'nilune he is like this in a rage 

hw^tii illegnaumauk thus it is written 

t5i to^tii uetaut and so this is the way they lived 



LOCA TIVES 



93 



EXAMPLES 

hw^iin nun^nuk iy^dvCt tunuthlut^ n&t!tintin ch^trqt^^ksaun^k 

V V 

cheunurqj^ghtin ^t^m tunumtthiin tkech^hkutii 
if you go from hence, this village, your back being to us, to anywhere, you 
without turning off, on your forwardness, again by our backs you 
will come 

yut niet uevethleneS. nuniyut, st^m^n epeS.tntik uf'ntiqthlune taTiqkiin 
kinggnuntir'mentik it^m to^viit, Hn S.ngg!^p&mektin chuk^lra^ktin 

a certain man went around it, our world, in eighty days, from thence his 
behindness again thither, he by his big canoe, by his quick one (i.e., 
swift steamer) 



360. 

t^m^tii m^nnaut6k 

t^m^tii miliqna'ur^n^ 

t^m^tii nikkliknaiir^gn^ 

t^m^tii yut netnaurS.gn^ 

t^m&tii t^nsLutok utr^pilig'm^ 

t^m^tii Aglytin n&kkUknaliqkil 

t^m^tii AgiyutHm ^zr5kt5r'naur&tii 



let it be here 

let him accompany me 

let him love me 

let the people listen to me 

let it be ready before my return 

may I love God 

may God bless you 



The first commandment : 

hwegna Agiyiin Ipit Aglyutii, ^thl^miik t^miitii petnaututii ^w^timne 
hwegn^ 

36L In addition to the ordinary verb form, all the locatives possess 
a distinct form ending in L 



EXAMPLES 



JLw! from 


^w^ntdk 


peki 


from 


pek^ntdk 


ch^ml " 


ch^m^ntdk 


timi 


(( 


timSntSk 


mi " 


m^nt5k 


toi 


(i 


tointdk 


pikmi *' 


p^km^nt5k 


yi 


« 


yintSk 


etc. 






etc. 





This form is strictly impersonal. 

It is used always in an exclamatory sense. 

It is used only when the object referred to is in sight. (See 525.) 



94 ESSENTIALS OF INNUIT 

362. This form occurs very often coupled with its own verb. 
This pleonastic use of these forms is usually for the sake of 

emphasis. 

mi m^ntdk here it is here 

p^kmi p^km&ntdk there it is up there 

These are fresh examples of the remarkable coincidence existing 
between many Innuit and English idioms. 

k&ni k^n^ Imin^ t&ng2Ltih515k there is that boy below down there 
p£k! ^Lggaut they are hanging up up there 

to^tlu ^wi pitmdqt5k and then there he was over there going 

to the mouth of the river 

These latter examples show how this form is used with other verbs. 

363. Another variation often occurring in native stories is as 
follows : 

tdi t&ng pei t&ng chimi t3,ng, etc. 

toatlu pea, " nauhwimg ammikMrtfi ? " to&tlu p6&, " pel ting " 

then he said, '* And where are your brothers ? " and then she said, 
" Look I there they are " 



The Simple or Primary Locatives 

364. Locatives in their simple or primary form are used mostly 
in the terminalis and vialis. 

kUmiin chaut^i I turn it to the front 

klutmiin chingkiriki I push it back 

365. The primary locatives possess the usual time forms. 

Pres. y^ 

Past yathltik 

Fut. y&tkak 

366. They follow the usual form of declension. 

Intrans. y2ln 

Trans. yittim 

Term. yitmiin 
etc. etc. 



L 



SIMPLE OR PRIMARY LOCATIVES 



95 



367. The following are a few examples : 



kit^ 


kit&m 


kitmiin 


front = forward, towards 
middle of river, etc. 


klu 


klutum 


klutmiin 


back =from middle of 
river towards shore 


ka^n 


kMtum 


ka&tmiin 


back = up stream 


o^n 


o^tucn 


o^tmiin 


down = down stream 


kOl^ 


kulum 


kulmiin 


up 


^che 


^chem 


&ch6tmiin 


down 


ch&m^n 


ch^m^um 


ch^m^tmiin 


down 


y^n 


y^tiim 


y^tmiin 


yonder 


koka 


kok^m 


kdk^miin 


middle 



368. The augmentative form signifies way up^ very, etc. 





Intrans, 


yakfak 






Trans, 


yakfSm 






Loc. 


yikfine 






etc. 


etc. 




^ch^kf&k 


way below 


kiilluf^ 


above 


ch^nn^kfik 


near 


n^tiikf^k 


whereabout 


Wilvak 


high 


uk^kf^k 


close 



^ch^kf^ne Qet^n^qs^kd^ 
n^ttikfine t^m^qcheu.^ 
yakf&qktin iyag'l« 



I ought to be below 
whereabouts did you lose it } 
I '11 go way off 



Note. — The verb form is yftkfftntSk, kfilyintSk, etc. (See 371.) 

369. The diminutive form is ySkfSchOft. (See 230.) 

370. The comparative locative mode fftrftntOft gives a form much ^ 
resembling the above (418). 



Intrans. 


yikfar'ntik 


Trans. 


yikf^rSm 


Loc. 


y^Lkfirine 


etc. 


etc. 



y^kf^r^niin lyeltht^ 



let us go a little further off 



96 



ESSENTIALS OF INNUIT 



List of Locative Verbs 



371. The following list comprises the most common of these verbs 
in the third singular. 



it is under it = underneath it 

it is on the other side 

it is over there (but there must be a hill or 

stream, etc., between) 
it is near by 
it is over there 
it is down there (this applies also to rivers, 

as it is down stream) 
it is down 
it is on the opposite side (i.e., of a house or 

room, etc.) 
it is on the other side 
it is here 
it is inside of it 

it is outside = out of doors, etc. 
it is in it 

it is a little way down 
it is outside 
it is somewhat up 

it is in the rear (i.e., of a house, etc.) 
it is outside 
it is back of it 
it is on the side of the house (i.e., on the 

kukaklim) 
it is on top of it 
it is on top (but very high) 
it is here 

where (used in the interrogative) 
it is behind (meaning down stream) 
it is in the front part of a house 
it is up on top of it = up there 
it is on top (but back a little) 
it is up (but over somewhat) 
it is back there 
it is up there 
it is there 
it is right there 



I 


^cheSntok 


2 


^^nt6k 


3 


^m^nt5k 


4 


^m^nt5k 


S 


^w^ntok 


6 


ch^km^^nt5k 


7 


ch^m^nt5k 


8 


ek^nt5k 


9 


ent6k 


ID 


hw^ntdk 


II 


!llont5k 


12 


k^m^ntdk 


13 


k^m^nt5k 


14 


k^n^ntdk 


15 


kant6k 


16 


kauw^nt5k 


17 


ke^nt5k 


18 


kent6k 


19 


klllo^ntdk 


20 


kuk&ntok 


21 


kuWntdk 


22 


kulviint6k 


23 


mSntdk 


24 


n^nt6k 


25 


odntok 


26 


ok^kHmt5k 


27 


pikmint5k 


28 


p^m^ntok 


29 


pauw^ntdk 


30 


peintdk 


31 


pekant6k 


32 


tSmantSk 


33 


toant6k 







LOCA TIVES 


34 


uk&kf^r^nt5k 


it is closer 


35 


Ok&ntdk 


it is there (i.e., coming from behind) 


36 


iing^ntdk 


it is down 


37 


yakfant6k 


it is far off 


38 


yakf^rant5k. 


it is further off 


39 


yintdk 


it is yonder = away beyond 



97 



Each of these verbs presents its distinct personal demonstrative 
form, which is treated in 379. 

372. These verbs occur m<jstly in the third person. They follow 
the regular endings in 0&, 457, and present all the adjutants and 
participial forms, etc. • 

Pres, Past, Fut, 

pS.km^nt5& pS,km^ntlhough^ pS,km2.nchdhko^ 

p^km^ntutii p^m^ntihdutii pikm^nch^hkutii 

p^kmintdk pS,km&ntlhddk p2.km&nch^hk5k 
etc. etc. etc. 

p^km^npiUg'm^ (526) p^km^ntilk^m^ (522) 

p^km^n!lthkum& (519) p^km^nch^m^ (53^) 

p^m&nchem&rakum^ (519) 
p^kminchem^ra^m^ (53^) 

These show two adjutants of pgkmant(M in Mode XLVI. 

373. These verbs assume any compatible mode. 

Example: mXnl, here; mXntGft, / am here, combines with the 
following : 

m&nchiiqtd^ I want to'be here (Mode LXII) 

m&nt&qto^ I continue here (Mode XXI II) 

minstika I keep him here (Mode XXX IV) 

m&ntiifkir&ka I force him to be here (Mode XXXVII) 

374. Besides these modes just presented, the locative verbs possess 
a number of modes peculiar to themselves, of which mention will be 
made later on. 

375. Amt& hwX may be used with any of the locative verbs. 

&mtll hw& ^m&nt5k maybe he is over there 

For the comparative with these verbs see 418. 



98 



ESSENTIALS OF INNUIT 



376. The following paradigm presents the adverbial form of the 
personal locative : 

up there 

pikm^ne 

p^km^viit 

pikm^htin 

p^km^kiin 

pikm^tiin 



k^ntUt talikm pikm&vtit thlake 

p&km^iin iye 

kiy^k ch&km&ktin tket5k 



puf^ those bowls up there 

go by up there = go along up by there 

the canoe is coming from down there 



377. These locatives are very frequently doubled. 



p^km&n6 knid&n€ 
chlvoan^ ch6ugn^n£ 
ch^m^ng chadkhr^e 
un^ne ^w&t€n€ 



up there back of it 
long before 

down there in front of it 
over there beside it 



378. To express distance, etc., in a very great degree, such as in 
descriptions of the planets, etc., or in speaking of remote regions of 
the world, such combinations as follow are used. 



y^kf^^ne p^km&nt5k 



it IS immensely high up (370) 



The Demonstrative Locatives 

379. The personal form of this locative is as follows : piikflniTni, 
that one above (from pXkmXntfik). 



Cases. 


Sing, 


Dual. 


Plur, 


Intrans, 


p^kiimln^ 


p^kiimkuk 


p&kiimkut 


Trans. 


p^kmum 






Loc, 


p^kmume 


p^kiimkiig'ne 


p^kiimkune 


Mod, 


p^kmumiik 


p^kiimkiig'niik 


plktimkuniik 


Term. 


p^kmumtin 


p&kiimktig'ntin 


p^kiimkQniin 


Vial. 


pikmukiin 


piktimktig'nfirghtin 


p^kiimkuthiin 


yEqual. 


p^kmuttin 


p^kiimktiqtiin 


p^ktimkuttin 



DEMONSTRA TIVE LOCA TIVES 



99 



380. 








Sing. 


Dual. 


Plur, 




ch^minS, 
ch^Unum 


ch^mkuk 
ch^kiig'n€ 


chimkut 
ch^mkune 


that one down there 
(straight down) 


Umlxi^k 


^inkuk 


^mkut 




^um 






► that one over there 


^Unumg 


^mktig'ng 


tokune 

4 




k^kiimlnS, 


k^kOmkuk 


k^kumkut ; 


■ 


k&kmum 






► that one outside 


k^kmume 


k^mug'ne 


k^mune 




t1klcn?( 


tlkl^kuk 


ilktkut 1 




tikum 






* that one approaching 


tikume 


iik&kiig'ne 


tik&kune 




k^nnll 


k&nkfik 


k&nkut 




kUtQm 






► that one down there 


k^tum€ 


k^nkug'n€ 


k^nkune 

4 




keyug¥nll 


keytiqkOk 


keytiqkut 




k€ytigum 






> that one in the rear 


keyugumS 


k€ytiqktig'ne 


keyiiqktine J 




pIknS, 


pikikuk 


pikkkut ] 




plkum 






' that one up there 


plkumS 


pTklkiig'n€ 


pikl^une 




plngn^ 


pingktik 


pingkut 




pinggnum 






- that one back there 


p!nggnum€ 


plngktig'nS 


pingkune 




p^n^ 


p^qkuk 


p^qkut 




p^Qm 






> that one straight up 


plgtimg 


p&qkiig'ng 


p&qkune 




unigin^ 


un^qkuk 


un^qkut 




angtim 






> that one down belo^ 


ungumS 


un^qktigne 


un^qkiine 





(See also 576 c) 

These are frequently combined with chl. (See 308.) 



lOO 



ESSENTIALS OF INNUIT 



381. The locatives assume a demonstrative form, as follows : 



Sing. 



I emugwo^ 

thou emugwutft 
he emugw5k, etc. 



The above signifies I am the one, (See Mode LXVIII.) 
p^kmugwd^ I am that one above ch&mugwo^ I am that one below 



382. Another form witfi the same meaning is : 



Sing. 



I taugniign^ 

thou taugnQtii 

he talign5k, etc. (Mode XV) 



I am that one 



The Indefinite Locatives 

383. The locative verbs possess a second form, ending in n^ttfii, 
the sense of which is indefinite : >chgfat(Mi, / am under it — Schfimittfii, 
I am below. 



^ch€m!ttd^ 

^w^tmittd^ 

ch^nnimltto^ 

cheumlttdS, 

killumltta^ 



I am below 
I am around 
I am near 
I am ahead 
I am back 



kltmlttaa 

klnggnumitto^ 

klmittd^ 

kdk^mltto^ 

kulmittd^ 



I am in front 
I am behind 
I am on top 
I am in the middle 
I am above 



Note i. — These verbs all follow the regular form. (See 457.) 



Sing, ch^nnlmittd^ 
Dual channiigntttoi 
Plur, chinniatnlttda 



I am near = one object 
I am near = both objects 
I am near = many objects 



Note 2. — The tenses, etc., foUow the usual forms. 



^chemUlhougn^ 
ichemlch^kkoi 
&ch6m{tlralgn& 



^chemllthkiim^ 

^chemlt^k^m^ 

S,chem!l^m^ 



384. These verbs also afford a form in li^Ok (131): 



chS^nnimUgndk 
y^tlmUgndk 



he who is near by s the near one 
he who is yonder = the yonder one 



* * ! 



• ••••• • • 



RELATIVE LOCATIVES — POSSESSIVE LOCATIVES 



lOI 



The Relative Locatives 



385. Sing. 

Intrans, p^m^nl!gn5k 

Trans. p^km&nl!gnum 

Loc. p&km^nl!gn5r'm€ 
etc. etc 

p^km^nUgndk ktinn{g'n&t5k 
p^km^nHgnOm t^ngv^g^ut 



Dual. 
pS,km^nlIgnuk 



Plur. 
p&km^Hgnut 



p^km^nHgntig'ne 
etc. 



pikminligndr'ne 
etc. 



He who is on high is good 
He who is on high beholds us 



thleu un^ 



' pik^nllghum kien&ntin put this on the one which is up there 

p!k^nl{gnuk klen^'ntin put this on the two which are up there 

^ plk&nlignut klen^niin put this on those which are up there 

iy^'ytiqtoi plk&nUgndr'mtin 

I want to go to the one which is up there 

n^nr^k p^km^nlignor'miin Agiyutmiin 
gloria in excelsis Deo ! 

Past pakm&nthltik (58) 
Fut, p^km^nt^qk^k (60) 



The Personal Possessive Locatives 

386. The following paradigm presents the present, past, and future 
forms of 3ritiQdl = my beyondness. 

All the locatives follow this same model in their tenses and cases. 
A full paradigm of the present tense is given in 399. 

387. It is unnecessary to add full paradigms of the past and future 
tenses, as the various case endings of the former may be seen in 90, 
while those belonging to the latter are shown in 98. 



Pres. 
Sing. 

Past 
Sing. 





Intrans, 


Trans. 


Loc. 


my 
thy 
his 


yStika 

y&tft 

y&te 


y&t!ma 
yat!ptit 
y&tft 


y&timne 

yitlvne 

yitene 


my 

thy 
his 


yitnthka 

yatllthhrSn 

yitflthhra 


yatnthma 

y^tllthlrptit 
yatilthhrSn 


yatthltmne 

yatthllrqpne 

yatnthhrine 



I02 



ESSENTIALS OF INNUIT 



Fut 
Sing, 



my 
thy 
his 



Intrans. 

y&tk&k^ 

y^tk^n 

yitki 



Trans, 

y&tk&m^ 
yatkivtit 
y^tk^n 



Loc, 

y&tk^mne 

yitk^pne 

y&tktoene 



388. It must be remembered that while these forms may be greatly 
varied by the modes, still the endings are always the same. 

389. These words are simply positional nouns, just as our tieamessy 
closeness^ etc. This is another example of the remarkable resem- 
blance between English and Innuit idioms, already referred to, only 
here Innuit, as usual, carries the practice much farther than English. 



Intrans. 


Trans, 


Loc, 




&w&t!k& 


^w^tlm^ 


^wltimn€ 




iw&tfi 


&w&tivtit 


^w^tlvne 


► around me, etc. 


awite 


^w^ten 


^w^tene 




chllm^tYk^ 


ch^m^tlm^ 


ch&m^tlmne ^ 




ch^mltii 


ch^m&tivtit 


ch^m^tlvne 


' below me, etc. 


ch^m^t^ 


ch^m^ten 


ch^m^tene 




kiilk^ 


kiilmi 


ktil!mn€ 




ktilii 


kiilvHt 


ktinvne 


> above me, etc. 


kiile 


ktil€n 


kiilene 




kltk^ 


kltm^ 


kttilmng 




kUft 


kitfOt 


kituvne 


* in front of me. 


Idte 


kltSn 


kitene 


* 


kllluk^ 


klllum^ 


klllumne 




klllun 


kiUuviit 


kniuvne 


► behind me, etc. 


killo^ 


klllo^n 


k!ll6^n€ 




lichek^ 


^ch!m& 


&ch!mn€ 




achtn 


ach!v«t 


achivne 


- underneath me, 


iichei 


^che^n 


^che^ne 




kika 


kim^ 


kimne 




kin 


kivlit 


kivne 


> on me, etc. 


kign^ 


kign^n 


kign^ne 




k!nggndldl 


klnggnumi 


klnggnumn€ ' 




kinggnun 


kinggnuvtit 


Mnggnuvne 


► behind me, etc. 


k!nggn5^ 


kinggnd^n 


k!nggn5^ng 





PERSONAL POSSESSIVE LOCATIVES 



103 



391. All these possess their dual and plural forms, as follows : 



my 
tljy 
his 



Sing. 

kinggndk^ 

kinggniin 

k!nggn5^ 



Dual, 

k!nggniiqk& 
kinggniiqkii 
kinggnuk 



Plur. 

kinggnungk^ 

kinggnutii 

kinggnue 



392. KinggnOftnS, the localis case of kinggii(U[, is used very much in 
expressions of time. (See 619.) 

Note. — The following is an example of the entire vialis case : by or in my rear. 



Sing, 



' mS,l!qk^r^gn^ klnggnunimktin 
m^lqk^r&tii klnggnuntiqpghiin 
m^liqk^rh^ k!nggnunr^kiin 



he follows 
behind 



' m&l!qk^r3,kuk kinggnunmug'nerghun 
Dual* m^llqk&r^tuk klnggnunniiqptiig'n^rghtin 
m^Hqk^r^k Idnggnur^'n^rghiin 



he follows 
behind 



Plur, 



' m^Hqk^r&kut 
m^llqk^r^che 
m^Hqk^rit 



kinggnunlmthiin 

klnggnuniiqp^tcheuhiin 

klnggnunr^thiin 



1 



he follows 
behind 



me 

thee 

him 

' us both 
you both 
them both 

us 

you 

them 






393. From the future form of kinggnOkS is derived Idnggnulfiiqkftp&t, 
used to express our successors = our will be after us ones, 

394. Che&nttqktkft, the future form of chfifiniUL, is used to express 
my future. 

395. The past form of chcanikft gives ch&ueflp&t, meaning our 
ancestors. 



396. 



Sing, 
Dual 
Plur, 



chaokikS, 

chaok2.qk^ 

chaok^nk^ 



chUgmw, the one before me = my before me one 



Inirans, 

my chlok&kil 
thy ch^ok^n 
his chadkhr^ 



Trans, 

chaok^m^ 
chaok^plt 
chaokhr^n 



Loc, 

chd,okimn6 

chaok2.pne 

chaokhr^ne 



Term, 

chaok^mntin 

chaok^^niin 

chaokhr^nun 



I04 



ESSENTIALS OF INNUIT 



^0^0 • 


Intrans. 


Trans. 


Loc, 


Term. 


my 


^klkklM 


^klkkllm^ 


^kikkllmne 


^klkklimnan 


thy 


^ktkklln 


akikkUrqpit 


^kikkllrqpne 


&k!kkl!rqpniin 


his 


&k(kkl(^ 


^Mkkl!&n 


^klkkli^ne 


^klkkllintin- 


398 


. tikOkft, the 


one before me. 








Intrans, 


Trans, 


Loc. 


Term, 


my 


t&kOk^ 


t&kum& 


tllkumne 


tikumntin 


thy 


t^kun 


tllk6rqp!t 


t^k5rqpne 


tllk5rqpniin 


his 


t^ko^ 


tikd^n 


t^kd^n€ 


t^kd^niin 



t&nUft, tQn&ml, t&nftmnS, the one behind me = my rear one, 
Nftthiak&, nXthiamI, nXthiamne = my not knowings is used generally 
in the sense of my abseme. 



399. 




Sing. 




Cases. 


my 


thy 


his 


Intrans, 


ch^nntk^ 


ch^nntn 


ch^nne^ 


Trans. 


ch^nnlm^ 


chinnlvtit 


ch^nne^n 


Loc, 


ch&nn!m'ne 


ch^nnivne 


ch^nne&ne 


Mod, 


ch^nnim'niik 


ch^nnlvniik 


ch&nne^niik 


Term. 


ch^nntm'ntin 


ch^nnivniin 


channeXntin 


Vial, 


ch^nnlmktin 


chinnlvghtin 


ch^nneliktin 


jEquaL 


ch^nnimtiin 


chinnlfttin 


ch^nne^tiin 


Cases. 




Dual 




Intrans, 


ch^nnlpuk 


ch^nnituk 


ch^nne^k 


Trans. 


ch^nnlmugniik 


ch&nnlMk 


ch^nne^gniik 


Loc, 


ch^nnlmug'ne 


ch^nnlfttig'ne 


chinne^gne 


Mod, 


ch^nnimOg'niik 


chlinniftOg'ntik 


ch^nne^g'niik 


Term, 


ch^nnimtig'niin 


ch^nnlftOg'ntin 


ch^nne^g'ntin 


Vial, 


ch^nnlmug'n^rghtiD 


ch&nntftug'n^rghtin 


chin nelg'nfirghtin 


Alqual, 


ch^nnlmtiqtiin 


ch^nnlftiiqttin 


chlnnelqtiin 


Cases. 




Plur. 




Intrans, 


ch^nnlput 


ch^nneche 


chlnnelt 


Trans, 


ch^nntmt^ 


chinnlfch^ 


chlnneltl 


Loc, 


chinnimtne 


ch^nnlfschne 


chlnneltne 


Mod 


ch^nnlmtniik 


ch^nnifschniik 


chlnneltniik 


Term* 


ch^nnlmtniin 


ch&nnlfschniin 


chlnn^ltniin 


Vial, 


ch^nntmthiin 


channlfchguhtin 


V 

chlnnelthtin 


/Equal, 


ch^nnlmttin 


ch^nn!fstiin 


chlnnaitiin 



EXAMPLES OF THE POSSESSIVE LOCATIVES 10$ 

EXAinPLES OF THE POSSESSIVE LOCATIVES 

400. 

klkktiqt^qpem ch^^tekun uevukut (third singular of vialis of ch&mAtikft) 
we went around the large island by its lower side 

toatlu ch^t-Illetng yut illet kwiqktin acherutmtiqthtin ^zgulraem tketfirat6k 
then one time a certain man having gone up by a slough (at that 
village) did not return 

kinggndkthlug'lo&n keyOhw^ "Ikkekeki toi uetalifkgnantik Hcherut- 

mug'nerghiin sttiluk " 

his younger brother answered him, "See here, without us both staying 

here (let us not remain here), let us drift down our slough " 

Note. — These two examples are given to show the slight difference between forms 
derived from the same verb. When it happens that there is a slough just below a village, it 
is termed ftchi'riln (io8). This term equals our stream below us ; if there is no village, the 
slough will have some other name. The possessive of ftche'riln is flchSratIk&, and resembles 
the possessive locative ftchiUL, both being from the same verb, flchSftnto&, / am below it. 

X\%ok em&qpem y^tenuk (third singular modalis of yftdkft) 
I come from beyond the sea 

{m!n^ ^gnuk^rauhdltim ukktshk^ !ll5^nun, tikn^nthluhok kKnggno^ 

p^tOluku (third singular of IdnggnOkS) 
the old man bids him embark in it ; he having embarked, he closed it 

behind him 

401. The simple augmentative is pSk, as, ch&Oqpftk, kinggnOqpftk. 

402. In the possessive, my long beforeness. 





Intrans, 


Trans, 


Loc. 


my 


cha5qp^k^ 


cha5qpSjn^ 


chadqp^mne 


thy 


chadqpen 


chadqp^viit 


cha5qp^vne 


his 


chadqpe 


cha5qpen 


chaoqpene 




V 

tketd^ k!nggn5qpekiin 


I come 


long after him 




unet&k^ kinggndqp^mntin 


I left him long behind me 



403. The simple diminutive is kinggnOftq. 

The possessive, a little after me z=fny little aftemess. 

Note. — The vialb case is given instead of the usual localis, as it is more used. 

Intrans. Trans, Vial, 

my kinggno^qldl ktnggno^r^m^ klnggno^Sinktin 

thy kinggnd^r^n kinggno^put k!nggnoS,r&qpghiin 

his kinggno&re kinggno^r^n k!nggn5^r^k{in 

tketoi cheugn^rakiin I come a little before him 

k!nggn5^r^mhe O^tauk he is a little behind me 



io6 



ESSENTIALS OF INNUIT 



Locatives in Shiqtdd 

404. As these verbs are seldom used in the first person, the 
examples are given in the third: yikBhiqtdk, it is far. 



Pres, 
Past 
Fut, 

cha5kshiqt6k 
Qkk^kshiqt6k 



y^ksh!qt5k 

y^ks!lthhd5k 

y^ksiqchShkdk 

it is before 
it is close by 



y^kshilrai (462) 
y^kshikin (514) 
yiksiin (530) 

kinggn5kshiqt5k it is behind 
kill6ksh!qt6k it is away up 



405. The augmentative mode is as follows : 
chadksh!qpikt6k it is long before y^ksh!qp^kt5k 

406. The diminutive mode is as follows : 



it is very far 



cha5ksh!qt5qt5k 
kinggndksh!qt5qtdk 



it is a little before 
it is a little behind 



407. All the locatives present a form in chSk, declined as in 1 54. 



^km^nluch^k 
^cheinluch^k 
^g^nluch^k 



ch^kminluch^k 

hw^nluch^k 

pek^nluch^k 



408. The personal possessive and the time forms of locatives 



in chfik: 



mz. * 



Sing, 



m^nluchak^ 

m^nluch!n 

m^nluchaiL 



Sing, 



r m^nluchllthk^ 
m^nluchilthhCln 
m^nluchllthh^ 



1 



Sing, 



' m^nluchirk^k^ 

m^nluchlrk^n 

m^nluchlrk^ 



1 



Pres, 

m^nlucMmi 

m^nlucheviit 

m^nlQcha^n 

Past 

m^nluchilthm^ 

m^nluchethl^rpat 

minluchilthhUn 

Put, 

m^nluchirkto^ 
m^nluchlrkiivtit 
m^nluchlrk^n 



m^nluchlmne 
m^nltichirpne 
mSjilucha^ne 



m^nluchethllmne 
m^nluchethlirpne 
m^nluchllthhr^ne 



m^nlQch!rk^mn€ 

m^nluchlrk^pne 

m^nluchirk^ne 



LOCATIVES IN SH/QTOA 



107 



409. The personal form (154) : 



S. 



' n&nluchak^ n^thlo^ 
n^nluchin nilthlo^k^ 
n^nluchad n^thlo^n 



he does not know where I am 
I do not know where thou art 
thou dost not know where he is 



D. 



P. 



' n^nlucharhpuk n^thloak they both do not know where we both are 

n^nlucharhtiik n^thlo^qpuk we both do not know where you both are 

n&nlucha^k n^thlo^qtuk you both do not know where they both are 

" n&nlucharhput n^thlo&t they do not know where we are 

n^nlucharhche n&thlo^qptit we do not know where you are 

n&nluchailt n^thloiqche you do not know where they are 



Literally, the above is my whereness he igfiores it^ etc. 

n^t5kf^nlucha^ n^thluy^gut^k^ I forget its direction 
punggh^to^ n^nluchaintik I worry about his whereabouts 

410. 

pS,ma.lir*niir*mittoi 

Smilir'niir^mittod 
yalir'niir'nitttoi 

These verbs are derived from the simple abstract, as, pftmftUr'niik, 
pftmftlir'niirrhiim, yftlir'nilk, yftlir'niirrhiim, etc. 

PftsiftUr'niir'mittOft is equal to pftmftlir'niir'me uStaugnA. 
The possessive form is the same as in 399. 



' pamaiir'nOka 
Sing, " pamallr'niiran 
[ piinaiir*nuri 



Dua/ 



' p&m^Hr'niiqpuk 
p^m^llr'ndqttik 
p^malir'niirik 



' pamal!r*niiqput 
Plur, < pimaUr'nuqchg 
pimaiir'ntir^t 



p^m^lir'nimi 

pamailr'nuqpTt 

p^milir'nijr^n 

pa,mai!r*nGr*nittgniik 
pamiHr'niiqjitugnQk 
p^mil!r*niir^g'niik 

pimiUr'nlmt^ 
pamallr'nifche 
pamalir'nGrata 



p&m&nr*nlmne 

p^m^lir'nuqpne 

p^m^llr'niir^ne 

pa,ma.lir'nur*miigne 
piina.Ur*niiqjitugne 
pam^lir'niira.gne 

pam^lir'nimtne 

p^m^lir'niiq 

p^m^lir'ntir^tne 



m^tfi n^tstdk p^m^lir'niir^nun 

as he gazed on the side down there from him 

chakirqnen&qtukuk tSthlgrpem tungUr'nOrintin 
we both diverge too much towards the right 



I08 ESSENTIALS OF INN (/IT 

chdrumelir'nimktin ketur^gn^ 

he passed on along by my left 

^m^Hr'nlmtne t&llinr&ne ^kilqttim 

on the other side from us in the shade of the sun 
= in the opposite hemisphere 

411. The locatives assume a great variety of modes. 
A few examples are given below. 

412. I. ae&tOft. This is the reciprocal. 

yikseutol tikkilkseuto^ 

y^ksetituk ukuk these two are far apart from each other 

413. II. GnOftrOOk signifies similar to^ like, 

pdmtin'ggn6ilro6k it is like the upper one 

ch^mtinggh6drtinrat5k it is not like the lower one 

■ 

414. III. K&rft'ndttSk signifies a slight increase, 

nunSt kaik^r^tnet5k it is a little above the village (i.e., up stream) 
nundt o&k^r^tnetok it is a little below the village (i.e., down stream) 

415. IV. fftkto&qtM. (See Mode LXXXVI.) 

416. V. segeangS. 

y^ksegeung^ I am getting away from 

kuyegeung^ I am getting higher 

Note. — These are derived from the simple form. Example : fiknX, the one nearing : 
flUksUqtSk. // is near ; flUkadgSfliQ^ft, I am getting near. 

The possessive form is as follows : 

Intrans, Trans, Loc, 

my getting near u1dLkseg!lthk^ QkiksegHthmlL Ok^ksegethlimne 

my getting away y^ksegllthki y^ksegilthm^ y^ksegethlimne 

These are declined as in 90. 

417. From segSnflqtOft : 



Pres, ch^nniks€gen^qk& 
Past ch^nniksegen^lthki 
Fut, ch^nniksegen^qch^hk^ki 



my getting aside 



NOTES ON THE LOCATIVES -^ VERB 109 

418. VI. FSrftntOft is a comparative mode. 

Example : yikfSntSk, in this mode, is ySkfibrftntOk. The various 
parts are all formed regularly, as : 

yikfirinKlthkune 

y^kfUr^nthlune 
etc. 
yikfirint6k it is further off 

uk^kf^r^nt5k it is nearer by 

kulvirint6k it is higher up (370) 

Other variations may be found among the modes. 

Miscellaneous Notes on the Locatives 
419. 

ug'ni the one in front 

keyug'ni the one behind 

Note. — These words also mean down stream ^ up stream ^ and in boats, forward^ aft. 

uet^thltiqk^put AgiyutQm t^ko&ne we are in the presence of God 
^mthliirrhtim yut t^ko^tne in the presence of many people 

um chYvd^ne mS,ntlho6k it was here before him 

420. The form in riA is also used by the locatives. There is, 
however, no need of inserting any paradigms, as they all follow the 
model given in 166. 

iy^qto^ ukk^kshilr^kiin tiimktin I go by the trail which is shorter 

The Verb 

421. The Innuit verb possesses an extraordinary wealth of forms, 
and at first sight the various details of its structure appear to be 
complicated beyond measure ; nevertheless, a closer examination will 
show that a most remarkable regularity pervades all its manifold 
ramifications. 

In addition to its vast following of quasi-participials, it possesses 
a peculiar means of multiplying and diversifying itself, almost indefi- 
nitely, by the assimilation of various particles, each one of which, 
when in combination with the original stem, produces an entirely 
new and complete verb. 



no 



ESSENTIALS OF INNUIT 



This feature of the Innuit verb may be said to constitute the chief 
difficulty in the acquirement of the language, the mastery of which 
consists in the ready manipulation of these modal characteristics. 
(See 547.) 

422. There are no conjugations, strictly speaking, in Innuit, as all 
verbs terminate in the same manner ; however, as these terminations 
vary according to the sense in which the verb is used, they admit of 
being classified into distinct groups, which are termed aspects. 

423. All verbs in the first person singular of their primary form 
end in Oft. As a general rule, this ending is preceded by t. 

Other consonants may also appear, excepting L (See 438.) 



I come 
I am rich 
I sing 
I eat 



tigoi 
tuktigwd^ 
munggho^ 
ntiqrhd^ 

Note. — The ending 15i is referred to in 470. 



mikkoS, 
t^t^mo^ 
^no^ 
pinvdi 



I am small 
I am startled 
I go out 
I make rope 



The Tenses 

424. The tenses are always readily recognized in whatsoever 
aspect or mode they may occur, as they preserve their special 
characteristics throughout. 

425. The Present 

This is the universal tense, being used just as in English, to 
express the present, past, and future. 

Its characteristics, already alluded to, are : Oft, ftkft, eft, fignft, and 
rftftgnft. 

Note. — Regarding flgiift see 439. 

426. The Past 

The characteristic of this tense consists of the insertion of fl 
between the stem and the ending. 



keputo^ 


I trade 


kepatlhotignft 


I traded 


keput^ki 


I buy it 


keputlho^k^ 


I bought it 


iyiqchei 


do I go ? 


iySlthhuyei 


did I go ? 


kepuche^ 


do I buy it ? 


keputlhuyei 


did I buy it } 


iyairaagha 


I go 


fy^lthhulra^gh^ 


I went 



TENSES 1 1 1 

427. The Future 

The characteristic of this tense consists of the insertion of chSh 
between the stem and the personal ending. 



keputoi 


I trade 


kepuchShkoil 


I will trade 


keputikil 


I buy it 


kepuch^hk^k^ 


I will buy it 


kepuche^ 


do I trade it ? 


kepuch^kse^ 


will I trade it ? 


ly^lraighd 


I go 


iy&qch^hkllra^gli^ 


I will go 



Note. — Very often the future characteristic sounds almost as chlr. 

428. The present tense of most active verbs possesses a double 
form. 

S,kumgauqto^ I sit pe^ko^ I do 

SlcumgaugnS, I am sitting peughS, I am doing 

Note. — It frequently happens that in certain verbs the form in flgn& is used gener- 
ally in preference to that in 5i, and rnce versa. 

429. Where the verb admits of a transitive sense, as p^ftkOft, then 
the first of these forms is double. 

pe^ko^ I do pedk^ I do it 

keputo^ I trade keput^k^ I buy it 

430. The First Aspect 

The ending in 01 is always that of the intransitive sense, while 
the ending in Skft is always transitive, and so the union of these two 
constitutes what is styled the first aspect of the verb. 

431. The Second Aspect 

Among the idiomatic features of the Innuit verb is one which con- 
sists in the possession of a special form used only in asking questions. 

As this form has its own transitive , and intransitive endings, it 
ranks as the second or the interrogative aspect. 

Note. — As the first person singular is the same in both the transitive and intransi- 
tive of this aspect, the example is given in the second person singular. 

Intrans. nitmun ly&qchet where are you going ? 

Trans, n&nne kepucheu where do you buy it ? 

432. The Third Aspect 

Another idiomatic feature of an Innuit verb consists in possessing 
a special form which is used in replying to questions, or in alluding 



1 1 2 ESSENTIALS OF INNUIT 

to a topic already introduced. This form constitutes the third or 
responsive aspect, and is of very great importance. 

From the third persons of this aspect are derived a vast number 
of verbal nouns, of which a paradigm is given in i66. 

For the paradigm of this aspect see 462. 

The Persons 

433. In the transitive forms each of the three persons possesses 
its own set of terminations wherewith it expresses its relations to 
each of the rest. 

Thus, the first person singular has six distinct endings which serve 
to show whether I refer to "thee" or to "him," to "you both" or 
to "them both," to "you" or to "them." 

The second person singular has likewise its special six, while the 
third person has nine. 

As the same occurs in the dual and in the plural, it gives a total 
of sixty-three terminations to each tense. 

434. It will be noticed on looking over the paradigm in 467 that 
some of the persons end alike. This is probably owing to the fact 
that certain forms having been lost, their place is supplied by some 
of the remaining ones. In some cases one has to do duty for 
several, as : 



he loves you both 
you both love him 
you both love them 



are all expressed by n&kklikkftttk 



435. As there is no grammatical distinction of gender, the context 
shows whether "he," "she," or "it" is meant. 

436. Regarding the use of the personal pronouns in connection 
with the verb, Innuit follows' the same custom as Latin. 

437. The third person singular in some verbs has often a sec- 
ondary or distinct meaning of its own, differing somewhat from the 
original ; for example : 

m^mch^k5k it will heal, it will flatten down (i.e., scabs, ulcers, etc.) 

pliiqtok it calms (from // passes) 

utum^qtdk it quiets down (said of a stream after a freshet, from 

fitfimaqtW, /get better) 
let6k he is tame (from letOft, I learn) 



PERSONS — VERBS IN UGNA 



113 



438. The personal endings are always uniform, although the stem 
may terminate in a great variety of ways. 



% 


gn 


gw 


m 


tigoi 


munggn5i 


tukug'woi 


^komo^ 


(I come) 


(I sing) 


. (I am rich) 


(I sit) 


tigo^ 


munggho^ 


tukug^woa 


akomoi 


tigutfi 


munggnutii 


tukugwutn 


^komuth 


tigdk 


munggh5k 


tukug'wdk 


^kom5k 


etc. 


etc. 


etc. 


etc. 


n 


P 


r 


y 


^noi 


klppo^ 


ntiqrhoi 


ikvo^ 


(I go out) 


(I curve) 


(I eat) 


(I run) 


^nd& 


kippoi 


niiqrhoa 


akvoi 


^nutii 


kipputfi 


niiqrutft 


akvutft 


^n5k 


kTpp5k 


niiqr6k 


akvok 


etc. 


etc. 


etc. 


etc. 



The Verbs in ligka 
439. Verbs ending in fighA may be divided into five groups. 

Note. — At first it was thought that each of these groups could be characterized by 
some special trait, but a comparison of several hundred failed to afford any grounds for 
classification other than what is given below. (See also 543.) 



440. I. fignA. 

n^skulgnugh^ I have headache 
Al^ngrugha I am haunted 

441. II. ifighS. 
ch^vizhraugh^ I labor 

442. III. augnA. 

chuksTugh^ I hasten 

pOv^laugh^ I cook 

443. IV. eaghA. 
kiinlmcheugn^ I chat 

444. V. OfighA. 
Iqkdugh^ I fall 



stQgh^ 

V 

agnutgnugna 



uetaugh^ 
oraiigTi^ 



I drift down 
I am a man 



^qch^raughi I am getting worse 



I am 
I whoop 



k&zhgeugh^ I enter the kazhga 



tokougn^ 



I die 



114 ESSENTIALS OF INNUIT 



The Formation of the Negative 

445. The formation of the negative in the majority of languages 
presents little or no difficulty, but in this respect Innuit is a con- 
spicuous exception. 

As the formations are so varied, no general rule can be given; 
therefore each will be treated separately. 

446. I. In the first aspect^ intransitive^ present tense, negation is 
expressed as follows : 

keputo^ I buy keputftrStoi I do not buy 

Note i . — A great variety of euphonic change in the stem of the verb appears in the 
negatives. 



tigoil 


I come 


tinretaa 


I do not come 


ch&vol 


I row 


chilvtinr^toa 


I do not row 


t^t^mo^ 


I am startled 


tatSmtinrctoil 


I do not get scared 



These suffice to show that although the positive may have any 
consonant before Oft, the negative invariably ends in tOft. 

Note 2. — Verbs ending in qtdft appear more regular. 



mqtaa 


I dig 


lanrStoi 


I do not dig 


peyiiqtoJl 


I desire 


peytinrStoi 


I do not desire 


iySqtoi 


I go 


iyanr$to2l 


I do not go 



447. II. In the first aspect, intransitive, past tense, the negative 
is formed just as in the present, but it appears more regular. 

keputlhughd I traded keputlhiinr^toil I did not trade 

iyalthhdughcl I went iyiilthhiinrStoii I did not go 

netlhugni I heard netlhiinr^toi I did not hear 

The negative of the future tense will be described later. 

448. III. In the transitive of the first aspect Xht negative in the 
present and past tenses is the same as in the intransitive, excepting 
that it is placed a little differently. 



I St 



' Pres, Trans. keput^kS, keputftrit^k^ 

Past Trans, keputlho^k^ keputlhonrat^kd 



FORMA TION OF THE NEC A TIVE I 1 5 

449. IV. In the entire second aspect the negative of the present 
and past is similar to the above. 

Note i. — As the first persons singular are alike, the example is given in the second 
singular. 



2d 



Intrans, 



Trans. 



' Fres, kepuchet keputfirachet 

Fast keputlhuyet keputlhtinrachet 

' Fres. kepucheyu keputftracheu 

Fast keputlhuyeyu keputlh6nracheu 



Note 2. — The numerous adjuncts of the verb form their negatives like this. 

450. V. The negative of the future tense is by far the most 
remarkable, as it amounts to a complete transformation. 

It is the same throughout the forms of both aspects and con- 
sists in: 

{a) a peculiar euphonic change in the stem ; 

(b) the insertion of ghx ; 

{c) a reversion to the endings of the present. 

Note. — The example is given as usual in the second person singular for second 
aspect. 



I St 



2d 



' Intrans, kepuchShkoi kepuzglilto^ 

Trans, kepuch^hkik^ kepuzgnit^k^ 

' Intrans. kepuchlrkset kepuzghichet 

Trans. kepuchirkseu kepuzghicheu 



451. Some verbs, to avoid assuming their regular negative form, 
transpose themselves into certain modes through which they are 
enabled to express negation by affirming the contrary. Thus, 
** He is not here " is a rare answer, for either exact informa- 
tion will be given, if known, or else the answer will be, ** He is 
absent." 

This trait is especially noticeable in verbs of possessing, which 
generally express their negative by using the privative mode : 

ekimr^ngic^td^ I have a sled ek^mrletod I lack a sled 

Also, to express it is stilly silent^ quiet = nfipiStOk, // lacks noise, 
(See 780.) 



Il6 ESSENTIALS OF INNUIT 

452. Certain verbs which with us are generally used in the affirm- 
ative sense are asserted negatively in Innuit. (See 781.) 

"I know" is always rendered by "I do not ignore"; "I remem- 
ber it *' by ** I have not yet forgotten it." 

453. Innuit possesses the same faculty as English of turning a 
noun into a verb ; as, for example, from the words * room ' and 
'winter,* we may say, "I room here," "I will winter there." 
Nevertheless, it will be seen that in Innuit this is carried to a far 
greater extent than in English. 

EXAMPLE 

KwigXmiln iyttqtOft means I go to the river ^ but exactly the same idea 
may be conveyed by the shorter and more common form, which 
consists in adding the verb endings directly to the noun, as: 

kwiq river 

kwfqtoi I go to the river 

454. In order to show how far this may be carried, it may be 
said that all the degrees of relationship or proprietorship, etc., may 
be thus tersely expressed by the personal endings. 

For example : from kfttftnrlkft, my sotiy in the verb form we have : 

k^ttinr^k^ki he is my son (lit., I son him) 

k^ttinr^kilmkin you are my son (lit, I son thee) 

k^ttinr^k^pugh^ I am your son (lit, you son me) 

k^ttinr^k^gb^ I am his son (lit, he sons me) 

k^ttinr^k^tfi you are his son (lit., he sons thee) 

and so on through all the forms of the entire verb, as : 

k^ttinrikdmkln if you were my son 

k^ttinr^kuvughS. if I were your son, etc 

Note. — This is again referred to in Mode XCVII. 

455. In the following paradigms of the verb to buy^ the transitives 
represent this verb with an object in the third singular, as, / buy 
kinij her, or it. These are, therefore, only condensed paradigms 
presenting an Innuit verb, according to the traditional arrange- 
ment, merely as a preliminary study. 



FORMATION OF THE NEGATIVE 



117 



456. The complete form of the verb in the transitive, containing 
its sixty-three objective endings, is given in 468. 



457. 



Pres. 



mz. ^ tl 



Sing. 



Dual 



Plur. 



thou 
he 

we* 

you* 

^ they * 

we 

you 

[they 



/ trade 

keputo^ 

keputfi 

keputdk 

keputukuk 
kepututtik 
keputuk 

keputukut 
keputuche 
keputut 



/ do not trade 

keputfiratoi 

keputfiratutii 

keputfiratdk 

keputiiratukuk 
keputi^ratut&k 
keputfiratuk 

keputnratukut 
keputftratuche 
keputfiratut 



Past 



\nz. . tl 



Sing. 



thou 
he 



^ we* 



Dual * 



you* 
they * 



Plur. 



\ 



we 

you 

they 



kgpatlhugn^ 

keputlhutfi 

keputlh5k 

keputlhokuk 

keputlhdt&k 

^\ 

kepOtlhuk 

keputlh5kut 
keputlhoche 
keputlhut 



keputlhtinrato^ 

keputlhtinratutii 

keputlhtinrat5k 

keputl htinratukuk 
keputlhiinratuttik 
keputlhtinratuk 

keputlhiinratukQt 
keputlhtinratuche 
keputl hiinratut 



FUT. 



Sing. 



Dual 



Plur. 



f I 
thou 
he 

^we* 
you* 
they * 

we 

you 
[they 



kepOchSko^ 

kepuch^kutfi 

kepuch^kdk 

kepuchekukuk 

kepuchekutnk 

kepuchekuk 

kepuchekukut 
kepuchekuche 
kepuchekut 



kepuzghito^ 

kepuzghitutfi 

kepuzghit5k 

kgpuzghltukuk 
kepuzghituttik 
kepuzghituk 

kepuzghitukut 
kepazghituch€ 
kepuzgbitut 



ESSENTIALS OF INNUIT 







/ buy it 


/ do not buy it 


Sing. 


thou 
he 


kepQtaki 
kepfitSn 
kepQta 


keputfirataka 
keputfiratan 
keputftraa 


Dual 


you' 
they' 


k£put&puk 
keputatDk 
keputilk 


kepDtfiritap&k 
keputfiratatDk 
kepQtftritak 


Plur. 


you 
they 


keputaput 
keputiche 
keput&t 

Past 


kspQtfiratapflt 

kepQtfirat&che 
keputfiiit&t 


Sing. 


I 

thou 

he 


kepfltlhoika 
kepQtlhoin 
kfipuUhoi 


k«pflah6nrataka 

kftpurihenratan 
k£put1hdDrata 


Dual 


we' 

you* 
they' 


kepufihMpak 

k«putlhoatDk 
kcpuflhoik 


keputlhdnrSt&p&k 
kepat\hdnrat&tDk 
kepOahSnrStak 


Plur. 


we 
you 
they 


kfiputihoapOt 

keputlheache 

kepQtlhoit 

FUT. 


kepflahSnratapat 
kapQtlh6nrit&che 
kepofthftoritSt 


Sing. 


I 

thou 

he 


kepach«hkaka 

kepflchSbkiln 
kepflch«hkJl 


kepuzghltaka 
kepuzghit&n 

kepuzgfaita 


Dual 


we' 
you' 
they* 


kepuchehkapflk 
keptichehkatOk 
kepuchehkak 


kcp&z^Itapuk 
kepnzgnitatak 
kepQzgnltak 


Plur. 


you 

[they 


kepuchehkiput 
kepuch&hkache 
kepuchehk^Lt 


kepuzgnitiipat 
kepuzg'hitache 
kepQzgnitat 



SECOND ASPECT (INTRANSITIVE) 







Second Aspect (IntranBltive) 


499. 




PRES. 








do I got 


dolHotgoT 


Sing. 


I 

thou 


iySqchei 
iy&qchet 
iyaqta 


iyinrachea 
iyinrachet 

iyftnrata 


Dual 


we' 
you- 
they- 


iyaqsnfik 
iy&qstllk 
iyiqtak 


lyanratsniik 
ly&nritstfik 
ly&nruilk 


Plur. 


we 
you 
they 


lyiqsti 

iyiq^che 

ly&qt&t 


lyixaixsa. 

ly&nritstche 

iyanratftt 






Past 


_ 


Sirg. 


■ I 
thou 
he 


ly^lthhQyii 
iyilthhQya 
iy&ltbhoil 


lyilthhUnrlchea 
iy&lthhiinr3ch«t 
iyilthhtinrata 


Dual 


wc* 
you' 
they' 


iyilthhOsnflk 
iy&lthhustOk 

iyilthhoik 


iyaithhflnratsnQk 
lydlthhQnratstQk 

lyaithhQnratak 


Plur. 


we 

. you 

they 


iyiithhfista 

iy&Ithhtistche 
iySlthhoilt 

FUT. 


iyilthhOtiratsta 

lyilthhOnrStstche 

iySlthhflnrSt&t 


Siug. 


I 

thou 

he 


iyiqchehsfiS 
iyiqch6hs£t 
ly&qchehkA 


iyaggnlcba 

iyagghichet 

lyiggiiita 


Dual 


■ we' 

you' 
they* 


iyaqchShsnOk 
iyaqchehstak 

iyrtqchfhkSk 


iyagghitsn&k 
lyagghftstiik 
lyaggnit&k 


Plur. 


we 
you 
they 


lyaqchfihsta 

iyiqchehstche 

iyiqchfihtat 


iyagghlsta 

iyigghische 

iyigghitit 



ESSEJ\/T/ALS OF INNUIT 



Sing. 





Second Aspect (Transitive) 




Pres. 






de I buy at 


do I not buy itt 


I 

thou 
he 


kSpuch«i 
kepucheu 
keputiii 


kepuifirachea 

keptiti^racheu 
kcpfltnrata^u 


we* 
you* 
they* 


keputsnOk 

kepQstghwQ 

kepQstlnghwIl 


keputi^ratsnfik 

keputiiritstghwu 
kCpulfiratanghwu 


we 
you 
they 


kapQtsta 

kepustcheQ 

kepflstatghwQ 

Past 


keputfiratsta 

kepQtArttstch£u 

kepQtftr&Utghwfi 


I 

thou 

he 


keporihayea 
keputlhflyeu 
keputlhoaghwu 


k€puflh6nrichei 
keputlh6nr&chea 
keputlhdnratau 


you' 
they* 


kepatlhutsn&k 

keptnlhiittghwu 
keputlhoinghwu 


keputlhfinratsnQk 
keput"lh6nraltghwa 
kepiitlhdurat&n^hwli 


we 
you 
they 


kepljilhiitsta 

keputlhatstcheo 
keputlhoai|;hwQ 

FUT. 


kapQtlhfinrStsta 

kepfltlh6nratstchefl 

kepQtihdnratattghwu 


r 

thou 
he 


kepucheksei 
kepuchekseo 
kepuchekkau 


kepflzghicha 
kiptagTiicheo 
kepuzghltau 


you" 
they* 


kepucheksnllk 

kcpCicheksIghwQ 

kepuchekilnghwfi 


kepOzgnitsnQk 
kepfiz^ItghwH 
kepuzgnltilngghwa 


we 
you 
they 


kepocheksta 

kepuchekstchSu 

kepuchekatghwa 


kepoighista 
kepozghistchea 

kSpdzghltatghwa 



INTERROGATIVE ASPECT— THIRD ASPECT 



121 



Interrogative Aspect 



461. 

niinche^ 

klthlun keyuch^hsel 

ch^yet 

dien ut&kiyet 

nilla^k t^nghicheu 

n^ne kepucheu 

chen peu 

kltttiyet 

n^tmiin Iy^qch€t 

n^lleitnilk peyiikchet 

chen peyet k^nruchemifkonik 

chdmiik pingk^chet 

klnvdk iy^kti 

ken^ m^ntS, 

fini kwechoS, nauhwiln 3,numi 

kei pe^ghwu 

ke^ keputau 

chen aulukinr^tcheu 

kiyutCin uetltauch^kset 

nltdtmoqt^ 

chiyuqchet 

chimtik pech^qset 

klthlun peS,qkauyikii 

ch^lintik em^ngktlL 

ke& tauni iyalitau 

chimtik ch!kk!skset hw^ngntin 

n^tmtin thUskluku k^nrut^tii 

ch^le^t ingkut 



EXAMPLES 

where am I ? 

how shall I answer ? 

what is the matter with you ? 

why do you wait ? 

which of the two do you see ? 

where did you buy it ? 

why do you do it ? 

who are you ? 

whither do you go ? 

which is the one you want ? 

why do you act without being told ? 

what have you ? 

when did he go ? 

who is here ? 

where does this creek flow ? 

who did it ? 

who buys it ? 

why do you not take care of it ? 

how long will you stay ? 

where did it go ? 

what do you want ? 

what thing do you ask for ? 

what must I do for you ? 

what is in it ? 

who took that away ? 

what do you want me to give you ? 

where did he tell you to put it ? 

what are those who are over there doing ? 



Endings of the Third Aspect 

462. The following are the endings of this aspect, and, as usual, 
they are the same for each tense. 



Sing, 



' I — rainghi 
thou — ra^tii Dual 

he — ra& 



we' — 



you' 
they' 



ra&kuk f we — raikut 

radtiik Plur, - you — raHche 
rack [ they — riet 



122 



ESSKXTIALS OF INNUIT 



Pres, 
Past 
Put, 

ri 



5. < 



iydlraangh^ 

iydlthhulrlL&gii^ 

iy&qch£hkllrtingn& 



lyilr^&ngh^ 



thou ly&lraltft 
he lyillrti 



f we* 
D,* vou' 



' iy&nr!lthra&ngh& 
^^. ^ iy^nritlhulralnghi 
iySgghitlrainghi 



i; 



. iyilr^kuk 
you ' iyillrMttik 
they ' iyilraek 



P, 



we 

you 
[they 



The declension of the third persons is shown in 164. 



iy&lrtikut 
iy^lrlL&che 
iyilraet 



463. 

nOllllra^ni 

€k&mr!lrailgh^ 

n^kklikkum^lrailgh^ 

t&nghumillradghl 

tinghumiyCilralLghi 

iyinkiqtlra^gh^ 

tkethlenilrlULghi 



EXAKPLBS IN VARIOUS MODES 



I who am building a house (Mode LV) 
I who am making a sled (Mode LV) 
I who am loved (Mode LXXIII) 
I who am seen (Mode LXXIII) 
I who wish to be seen (Mode LXXIII) 
I who am going again (Mode XLI) 
I who am coming (Mode LXXII) 



464. As the personal endings of the verbs remain always the 
same throughout the entire series of tenses, modes, etc., it is suffi- 
cient, therefore, to present one paradigm of the intransitive and 
one of the transitive. 

The reader will readily prefix the proper tense stem together with 
whatever mode characteristic necessary for the expression he may 
wish to use. 

465. The various paradigms which appear under the imperatives, 
kQmft, kftm&, pOig'mft, etc., are given merely for the sake of convenient 
reference, as the endings are all uniform. 

466. The personal endings of the verb are presented under two 
distinct arrangements. 

For a long time it was a great problem how to present a satis- 
factory paradigm of the Innuit transitive verb. After many trials, 
I found that the one given in 468 served the purpose very well. 
Later on this paradigm was changed into the more compact form 
shown in 469. As each paradigm possessed certain advantages, 
both are presented. 

Only the present is given, as the endings are the same in all the 
tenses. 

Compare this paradigm of the personal endings with 73. 



PERSONAL ENDINGS OF THE TRANSITIVE 



123 



ar 

A 


a- 

A 


a* 

A 




^ 


j^ 


^ 




f '■» 


»■' > 


r > 




r^ r* ^T 




ssg 




m 

em bot 

em 


c c H 

cr 


a* 


a- 




a- 






1 


1 


Al ^ 


1 1 






SI'S' 





o 

c 



o 

c 



!g 



him 

them 

them 


c c a 
«• «. g 


him 

them 

them 


8" 

a* 


1 


I 

a* 


"1: 


— qpugni 
— qpukuk 
— qpukut 





CCS 



% 



45 




A 

•0 



a* 

A 

•0 



A 



«-4 

O 

c 

•0 



o 

c 

10 



A 



A 



r* r* ^ 

A A a 
3 3=* 



o o ST 
c c 8 



? 



? 




r 






p<r_ 
CI p<r 

WCc 



H 

X 

mm 

o 

M 

99 

UI 

O 




C C 3 
» » A 



? 



ST (A 

r* r* ^' 






ci*^ ;; 

^Cl CI 

Kwr 



I ! 



I 1 

r» r» r* 
CtficCf 



C/3 

M 

n 
o 

o 

*ia 

w 

90 

UI 

O 

a: 




c c g 



? 



I 

OQ 

CD 



•2.ui> a* 
^ di ci 



3 3 3 

C< C(C( 

»o kO »o 
a* c» a* 

Al ^ 



Id 

t4 
UI 

O 
2 






A 



a* 



A 



«-4 

O 

e 



O 

c 



I 



I 



a- a- 

A A 

3 3 

? 

a* 







^r ^r »tf> 

A A a 
3 3^ 



? 



c c a 

(0 w g 



cr 
o 



1: 



cr sr »-. o o sr 
c c « 



A A a 

3 3 '^ 



r 



1: 



Ml III III 



7^ 
at 



•^ •>♦ a* 

Al 



?r?e^) 

CI CI u< 



LL»fi cr 
a* o o 
Al a* a* 

Al Al 




I I I 

•o^ a- 

Ci "O-O 
** CI CI 



I I I 

S 3 3, 

Al ^ 






ESSENTIALS OF INNUIT 

§il MM^ 'Iff ;"^- ill -!^- 

MesHi Siucf u, us u &uw eaboMi mi «) u 

III III III lis ^^%. Ill 



S S S _ S B « b'S S ..f *1 , 

-8" III *JJ Ji*-* HI HS 



3)U^ u;a|. |,;a;a. »;a|) «>;a;| 






'Ei'So'Si Mi'&'Si 'Ss'Si'a U'&'a m'Si'Si 'Sj'Si'Si 'Sj'S'Si 'Si'&'Si Mu'Q! 



ijllas .Jllillll .18. all 111 

III W-t\\ '<n lYi III tn \\\ SH 



INNUIT VERB 






B|g eil 



E E E ^ 5= c. ■§=•? oi . 

Ill III 1 ill ! 









>*■ «n,« =E 






ill III 



IS I 3-S--S S'S^S'.i'W 

111 %%•% %%■% •SI? 



»-.. «Si sSg 
ESS -2 £.£,3-25 



126 



ESSENTIALS OF INNUIT 



470. The following form corresponds in some degree to our 
infinitive and to the participles. 

It is conjugated in all the persons and possesses the three tenses. 
The characteristic of this form is 1. 



471. 



Pres. iyig'nelo^ 
Past iyilthhiineloi 
Fut Iy^qch€hneld& 



Neg. 



' iySnritneloS 
iy^lthhiinrltnelo^ 
iya.g'ghitneloa 



S. 



472. 

fl 
thou 
he 






iy&g'l6& 

iyftg'lutft 

iya.g'lune 



D. 



' we both 
you both 
they both 



iyilg'lQnuk 
iyag'lutuk 
iyag'lut&k 



P^ 



we 

you 

.they 



iyig'luti 

iy&g'luche 

iy^'lut&ng 



In all transitive verbs the form is as follows : 
Sing, luku Dual lukuk 



Plur, lake 



t^nghum^lo^ 
n&kklikskumilo^ 



that I am being seen 
that I may be loved 



The Transitive of Lod 

473. I. When the action of the verb refers to the subject of the 
proposition ItoS is to be used. 

AgiyutQm pille&kilthhoilkut nilkkHksklune God made us to love Him (ipsum) 
kinniiqtok tket^qkalinelune he says he (himself) will come 

kinnQqt6k dr'luvuramentik nathluy&guchenelune 
he says he forgot to bring his (own) bow 

kinruflhoagha kanrutsklutft tketlchegitnelune kittinrSne taugwilm tkeche- 

m^rakdn 
he told me to tell you that he (himself) cannot come until his son comes 

home = only when after his son's coming 

474. II. When the action of the verb does not refer to the 
subject, Iftka is to be used for the singular, and llUc&k, luke for the 
dual and plural. 

k^nnilqtdk tket^qkauneluku 

he says he (another) will come 

k^nntiqt5k t^m^lthkwetl nun^ne nalithluneluke 
he says that they are all sick in the village 



TRANSITIVE OF LOA — EXAMPLES 1 27 

k&nntiqt5k ek&mrig'ne tlgunelukuk kittumiin 
he says that some one has taken his sled 

V 

tketdk ^pch&qt5g'luku ekiyuthliiqkllmentik 

he comes to ask him for help (see kimnU) 

k&nrutlh5imk!n talingnugheluku 
I have told you in vain 



475. 



sl^k^r'luke pechShk^nki I will keep them carefully 

hwei6k t&nQm pedr'luku indeed, I am the one to do it 

mly5rkeni Ingrlk miy5r'luku go up the mountain 

iy^knie ingrlk wevtiluku let him go around the mountain 

keputhluku ch^h&k peu buy something = take something, buying it 

peluku peu do it 

In'grik ttiviiluku = liigrit ttivOluke I cross the mountain (mountains) 

hwegn^ t&ngv^g'lakO ket5qto& I see it = I seeing it, turned aside 

hwegh^ miiq'luku I drink it 

n&thluluku withbut knowing or I do not know 

(a common idiomatic expression) 



EXAMPLES OP THE USE OP LOA 
476. 

k^nntiqto^ pene t&nggh!lthhuneluku I say that I saw it up there 

k&nniiqtutii pene t^ngghilthhuneluku you say that you saw it up there 
k&nniiqtok pene t&ngghnthhuneluku he says that he saw it up there 

kinntiqtoi pene t^ngghllthhuneluku ienCin 
I say that he saw it up there 

kinntiqt5k pene t^ngghllthhuneluku hw^ng'nun 
he says that I saw it up there 

k^nntiqtutft pene t^nggnllthhuneluku hw&nkug'nun 
you say that we both saw it up there 

477. 

k^nrut^k^ titakiskloi I tell him to wait for me 

kanruskeu unwaku iy&k&t&r'neloi tell him that I will go to-morrow 

kSnruskeu augume 6rr&lume toivSrqtlhiineloa 
tell him that I went there last moon 

V 

k^nruskeke tketchunnitnel5d tuzhechlm^ 

tell them that I cannot come because I am lame 



128 ESSEA'T/ALS OF INi\UIT 

k&nruskeu kemltnelo^ tell him that I am alone 

challeukut k6yQrqthlut& we work together, being together 

kinruskeke ekdmr^g'ntik tuyursklutd nalithlCilraem utrCilstkiniik 

tell them to send us a sled to bring back this sick person = for the 
bringing back o£^ 

AgiyutQm kiivvugi k&nntiqt6k tilutft tingdrqsiqthwu ttingmigeghillthhri 
the angel messenger of God said, Come, behold it, the place where 
he was laid 

V 

klnyuelghut lucherd'lutilng k^thl^tUlqtut 
the dumb generally converse by signs 

toatlu chiydkkler'lune unuqt6k 
then at length night came 

emum kdtiinr^ chiydkkl^r'lune &ngle5k 
the son of that one finally grew up 

478. It is very common in native stories for two words in IftnS to 
come in succession. Sometimes several will occur. 

toi ^trdlune itr'lune nutin so he going down, going in 

toi nut^n itr'lune, iipthlune k^mmiiks^g'lune iydg'lune tumikiin yum 

m&lliqthluku 
so going in, packing up, putting on boots, going, following by the trail of 

the man 

479. 

lydg'lunuk thlu iep5.k^ k^mmutilr'lune, hwegliii k^zhmoh^r'lune 
and we both went, my comrade pulling and I pushing (the sled) 

toilth dmmilrriqk^ S.kf$lukuk, dmm^rrdg'lol thlu 

so I brought them (both), my salmon-skin boots, and put them on 
(i.e., I salmon-skin boot me) 

umyu6rtkuq'lo& chimiikWk chiUeneAqchcil iiif-'niiqpak 

so I (am) wondering at what I should work during the day 

kiyit ftnilthhret Skithlit drrolutCng tSmine tupumUlutQng kwegum snSne 
old kiyak frames rotting there, drifting on the shore of the river 

ndkklikskumdlo^ umuk chikkerdmkin 

I give you this in order that I may be loved by you = that you may 
love me 

kdnrut^mkin Agiyutmiik n^kklikskumdluku 

I tell you about God so that you may love Him 



\ 



EXAMPLES OF LOA — lAfPERA TIVE 



129 



480. As this form is so productive of idiomatic expressions, a few 
of the most usual are presented. 



chiy^kkr'ldne 

pikkr'lune 

hw&tii thlu pelune 

ikm^cheluku 

imittiqthluku 

iqchik^r'luku 

chaufk^nrStn^luka 

chtikkluku 

!kk6kkluku 

petlkkluka 

tumtikluka 

limeksklQku 

QmekSr'luku 



finally, at length 

suddenly, all at once 

and so in this way 

right through 

just over it 

especially, particularly 

amounting to nothing, making void 

concerning, in reference to 

about 

on account of, for the sake of 

by way of 

directly 

immediately upon 



The Imperative 

481. The imperatives present distinct forms according to the 
modes from which they are derived. 

In 482 may be seen the complete paradigm of the ordinary simple 
form in OlS. 

This is arranged so as to show the procession of the transitive 
from the intransitive, and also shows the sequences, as, &-kiik-k6, 
all dowftf the third persons, n-tttk-chS in the second, and &-kiik-k&t 
in the first. For example : 



pe 
pile 



do 

let him act 



peyu 
pHeu 



doit 

let him do it 



This form represents acquiescence, permission, etc. ; tOfttn, ftm, etc., 
generally accompany this form. 

In 483 there is a condensed paradigm of the form in Die, showing 
also the negatives. 

484 shows the form in kfllS. This is the real form for command- 
ing; kekS, kettte, and other interjections often accompany it. 

485 shows another very common imperative derived from Mode 
CLIX. 



I30 



ESSENTIALS OF INNUIT 



I 

5 



IS 19 

P« Su Cu o< 0« Ou 






( 



CM «^ 



{SRC 



«« «rf ♦^ s I 



iS IS 
IV IV 



fC IS IS 

^^ ♦^ 4i« 
IV IV IV 



ess 



« - « 
6 S 3 



s 
o 



aSS 



s 



V 



ESS 



V 



V 

8 0) tf) 
s s 



s 
o 



V 



s s 



V 



II 



8" 



I 



IV 

u 

s a a 

itt 



S s s 
.a o o 

N y / 



e^ IV 

«S-8 



.MiV 

€5-8 

IV IV IV 



g*crcr 


>a>a>s 


6 S 6 


ssa 


aaa 



S iv 



Ou o. o< 



>6 




8 



V 







M 
V 



» s s 
S o o 



V 



^.M^n CO 

E a 8 

X8 H» KV 

{S {3 C3 
O* O* o« 



S"9 9 

•sg^g. 



IV 



>M 09 CO 
«rf '*i« ♦rf 
IV IV IV 

{3 R CS 



s 



S s s 
^ o o 



V 




■JL'SL'S. 



)d IV 

ISU4U4 
IV IV IV 

O. O. Ou 



^3 J< 

•M ais 



s o»a 



o« o« p« 



a* 



IS 

JC IS IV 



JS P IV 

«k •» » 

e 6 e 

IV IV IV 

o« p« o« 



IS 



iS o' Q« 



IS 

^ ^ IV 



OU O. D« 



IV IV IV 

KJ iJ ^ 

IV IV IV 



JC IS IV 
IV IV IV 




c a a 

B V V 





o 



6§| 



flS a 

B *> *> 

•a ,a ^ 'S •£ •£ 

,Q «« «4 ,Q 4rf 4rf 



fl a a 

B V V 



« 



V 



V 



s 
o 




cs S S 

g 0) V 



V 



e< 



fl a a 

B V V 

«C 4-1 4-1 



s 
o 




V 

U3 






ci 

9 



>v 



'8. 

■"V 

IT 



IV 



.M 

IS 



IS 

'S. 

-V- 

I 



IV 



>C8 



IV 

JS 

u 

IV 

o. 



51 



IV 

a 



IMPERATIVE PRESENT 



131 



483. 



Intrans. 



Trans. 



Sing. 



Pos. 

' I pins 

2 pe 
. 3 P^le 



Dual < 



1 pHlik 

2 patQk 
. 3 P^lek 



P/ur. 



' I pilthta 
2 pech^ 
.3 Pflet 



Neg. 

p!nr!ll$ 
pinrftft 
p!nr!le 

plnraluk 
plnratuk 
plnril€k 

p!nrilthUl 

plnriche 

plnrilat 



Pos. 

pll^ku 

peyu 

plleu 

pllauk 

p^tghwu 

pllenghwa 

pllaut 

p^cheghwQ 

plletghwti 



Neg. 

plnrilikQ 

plnrilghwfl 

plnrileu 

pinrllauk 

plnrittghwu 

p!nr!l€nghwi& 

plnralaiit 

plnrflthcheu 

plnHletghwu 






Sing. 



Dual 



' I peklUS 

2 pek€ni 

3 p€kn€ 

' I p€k!l(ik 

2 p€ketQk 

3 pekn€k 



p!nrilthkni$ 
p!nr!lthkeni 
plnrilthkHe 

plnr!lthk!luk 

pinrflthketuk 

plnrilthkllek 



Plur. 



' I pek!ltht& p!nrathk!lt& 

2 p€keche p!nrilthkech€ 

3 peknat plnrllthknet 



peklllikQ 

pekeyu 

pekileyu 

pekllauk 

peketghwu 

pekningghwu 

pekHaut 

p€kecheyu 

p^kiletghwu 



plnritkilliku 
pinrilthkeya 
p!nritk!leyu 

plnrilthknauk 

plnrilthk€tghwu 

pinrflthkinngghwa 

p!nr!lthkllaut 

pinrilthkecheyu 

p!nr!lthkiletghwu 



485. 



Sing. 



' I plkk6r'll6 

2 plkkS. 

3 plkk^r'le 



Dual 



plnritk^r'lie 

pinritka 

pinritker'le 



Plur. 



' I plkk^r'luk plnritker'luk 

2 pikk&httik p!nr!tkahtilk 

3 plkker'lek p!nritk6r'lek 

' I pikk&lthUl plndtkilthta 

2 plkkihch€ plnritk^hche 

3 p!kk6r'let plnrUker'let 



plkk^r'liku 

pikkrhwu 

pikk^r'leyu 



p!nritk6r'iaku 

plnritkrhwu 

pinritker'leyu 



pikk6r'la"uk p!nrUk6r'lauk 

pikkatghwu p!nritk&tghwu 
pikker'Hngghwu pinritk^r'lingghwu 

plkker'laut pinritker*la"ut 

pikkrcheyu pinritkihcheQ 

plkk^r'letghwu p!nritk6r*letghwu 



»32 



ESSENTIALS OF INNUIT 



486. 



The Future Imperative Negative 



Intrans, 



Trans, 



I 


iyag'yikone 


I 


pe^koneQ 


thou 


iy^'y&konak 


thou 


pe&kon&ku 


he 


iyig'ylkoning 


he 


^^ikonineu 



Sing, 



we both iyig'y^koninuk 

Dual \ you both iy^'yikonituk 

they both iyig'y&koniinQk 



we both peikonii%hwu 
you both pe^konitghwu 
they both pe^kon^nghwu 



Plur, 



1 



we 

you 

they 



!y&g'yikon^tlL 

iy^g'yiikdn^che 

iy&g'yikon^tiing 



we 

you 
they 



pe&kon^nghwu 

pe^kon^cheu 

peikon^tghwu 



These forms exhibit the most emphatic prohibition, as : 



iyUg'y^onik 
pe^konikQ 



thou shalt not go 
thou shalt not do it 



487. This form implies a lasting prohibition. The command, do 
not do ity meaning now or on this occasion, is to be rendered by the 
form in 489. 

tlngluy^kon&kQ thou shalt not strike him 

ikdmy^kon&k thou shalt not sit down 

488. The verb, I go^ iyXqtOX, has the following forms : 

No. I. 1&. 

iy&g'l« 

iye 

iyig'le 



Sing. 



Dual < 



Plur, 



No. 2. knu. 


No. 3. k«r»lW(ModeCLIX) 


iyiklllg 
iyikeni 
ly^klle 


iyaker'116 

iy&ki 

iy&k6r'l€ 


iyiWluk 
iyikltQk 
iy&kllek 


iyik^r'luk 
iy^k^qtuk 
iy^k^r'lek 


iyiWlta 

iyakSche 

iyiWlet 


ly^k&lt^ 

iy&k&qch€ 

iyaker'let 



iySLg'lak 
iy^qtuk 
iyag'lek 

iyelthta 
iyiqche 
iyig'let 



it&ke hwinkuk iyikSr'luk cWngghek Wppluku kaliwivtit 
here, now, let us both go up stream, around the point 

Qet&k€r*I€ unwiktilthhrantin 1 11 stay till to-morrow 



FUTURE IMPERATIVE NEGATIVE 



133 





EXTRA EXAMPLES 




489. 


490. 


491. 


492. 


kum^qthlikQ 

kiimirzhghwu 

kum^qthleu 


k&thlichem^Ud 

k^thl^chemiken^ 

k&thlichem^lle 


taanthlg 

to&ntft 

to^nthle 


kaliqtdhplrkne 

kauqtdhplrknik 

ka"uqt6hplrknaku 


kum^qthlalik 
kum^qtghwti 
kum^qthlenghwu 


kJSthmchemikniOk 
k&thlichemikUtuk 
k&thlichem^kgUek 


t5inthluk 

to&ntuk 

to^nthluk 


kauqt6h plrkniinuk 

kauqt6hplrknatuk 

kaliqtdhpfrknikuk 


kum^qthlaut 

kumiqcheu 

kum^qthletghwQ 


k&thlichem&lthta 

k^thl^chem^che 

k^thUchemilet 


toiniltta 

toanche 

toanthlit 


kaliqtdhpirkn^kOt 
kauqtdhplrkniche 
kauqt5hplrkn^ke 



K&mXqthUkQ, kindle it^ make a fire y forms its negative in the regular 

way: 

kumiqftdthUka, kum^qiirillu, kum&qftrithleu, etc. 

do not sit down 
do not be alone 



itrautiirflgu do not bring it down 
tlngltinrilgu do not strike him 



ikomlnrillu 
kemltfirillu 



493. 



chOldlv!rkn^ 

chuklplrknik 

k^nniiqp!rknik 

kauw^pirknik 

kauqt5hp!rkniku 

kwegn^rqp!rkn&k • 

minp^nlkpe 

n&kklikfirkne 

pegh itthltiq virkn^k 

tkech^r&qplrknik 



do not go so fast 

do not go so slowly 

do not talk so much 

do not sleep so much 

do not strike him so much 

do not smoke so much 

do not stay so long 

do not love me so much 

do not be so weak 

do not come so soon 



These imperatives from Mode XCIX follow the model in 492. 



EXAMPLES OF THE IMPERATIVES 



494. 

til£ k&? 

pllet ch^ghilthkinratS,ldl 
it^ke im iyeltht^ 
keke k^thl^chem^lle 
k£thUlch€m^eni t^ktiksaun^k 
^t^ke talm^ tingSrqk^r'l^u 
hwetdk t&nQm p€5r'i^ku 
chQkafkgne tket!ngse6r'l« 



I will come, eh ? 

let them do ; I do not care 

once more off we go ! 

oh, well ! let him scold away 

keep on with your scolding 

hello ! let me see that 

be sure I am the one to do it 

I will come along leisurely 



134 



ESSENTIALS OF INNUIT 



niikk^k€^ 

ukut ^ggutk^r'Ulka 

lyig^qkUt iipskelet 

sTuluktikkeyu uni 

m^tnCikh^r'mku 

thlo^thluku peu 

utiki pivuskumku taugw&m 

iUnyuin ilt6qhwu 

Agiyun k^nniiqt6k t^ngkiqUlngl6 

AgiyutCim il^qkwuti nikeke 

n&nvik uthlinr^tcheu 



remember me 

let me carry these over 

those who are to go, let them be 

ready (203) 
take care of this 
warm it first 
fix it well 

just wait till I get it ready 
do as you please 
God said, Let there be light 
recite the commandments of God 
do not go near the lake 



^ghMti hwinehwi pinklqchikonikQ now, see here, do not do it again 



&thlitaugw5k taguy&kon^ku 

pukchikon&k 

ket^ke ch^la unwiku niy5rk6a 

t&kumchukekut hw^nkutS, 
yiik t^ng &m!n^ 
hw^lth hwe pektllS 
iigg^rmeuskeu im!n^ pHlaucMn 
sl^miln iniifkir^y^kluku 

495. 

'mine p!kkldkut5k 
S,* thine pikkeut6k D,* 
his pikkleutdk 



do not take it ; it belongs to some one 

keep still (i.e., do not move) 

so now, to-morrow you must watch 

out for it 
have mercy on us 1 
see that man over there 
you or I '11 do (734) 
keep right on as you have been doing 
do not let him go outside 



ours plkklaust5k 
yours p!kkecheut5k 
theirs p!kkletghwut6k 



ours pikklauqtdk 
yours p!kketgut6k P, 
theirs pikklingutdk ' 

This expresses would it were mine! etc. 

The complete paradigm is given in 498, as this is an important form. 

k^ttinr^kklik!nt5k would that you were my son 1 

ifr^rna^kklekiistdk would we were his children 1 

496. Whenever time is mentioned in connection with the wish, 
t5k follows the word expressing it. 

« 

hw^todtok pikkliku would it were mine now 1 

2,1th thrdg'netdk pikkl^ku would it had been mine last year ! 

S,lththr^kut5k pikkl^ku may it be mine next year 1 

497. Any object may be thus mentioned: 

hwit5dt6k kiyikklikO would it were my canoe now I 

hwdto2t5k ekimr^kkl^kOq would it were my sled now ! (dual noun) 

hwatoit6k kemiiqtukkl&ke would they were now my dogs ! 



PARADIGM OF PIkKLAkUTOK 



I3S 






Co 



CD 



srarp* 

AAA 



A A a 
3 B ^ 



«-4 »-<»-< 

o o o 

c c e 



A A B 

SB** 



i» i» i» 



A A B 
B B ^ 



cr cr ar 

AAA 

« « «• 

M ta to 
3^ ^^ »*• 

A A a 
B 3 ^ 



o o o 

c c a 

« « » ,♦ ^ 



^ < < 

(P ct ct 

•• ^* ^« 

ft» ta to 



5-tr2t 
A A a 

3 3^ 



ar S. 
- A a 

3 3^ 



A 



=ra-sr 

AAA 
r* r* ^ 

A A a' 
3 3^ 



a* a* a* 
o o o 

a c a 

«• « ^ 

3 3 



A A " 

3 3 



?r ?r TT 




*T3 "O "O *0 "O *T3 

a* a- a* ^ ^ 6 
Al Al Al g< g< 2. 




•O TS "O 

5? 5? 5? 

Al Al Al 

Al Al CI 
^ r* r» 

o<o< o< 
TTTrvr 



CI C(>0 

r* r* w* 

o<o<?<r 



Al <tl Al 



AKrti ft, 

5*^ CI 

Al c< »♦ 



p< p< p< 
Al a< CI 



AAA 

« « ^ 

o o ST 



< ^ 3i 

» i» A 

= 1.8 



a* a* a* 

AAA 

« ^ V 
M to ft» 



JV A A 
'•0*10 *» 

c a 2 



AAA 



O O 

a a 



a* 

A 
A 



O O sf 
C C 2 



?. 


T3T3 




P?Ki 


^TK-W- 




^H« 


m^ 


Al 


Al 


Al 


r» 


r* 


«i» 


(0 


Cft 


a* 


O 




3< 


2f ^ 

Al «^ 




o< 


^ 





EfEE 

Al r* 0< 

s: o< i? 



55 S« »-< 

o 2^ a< 
a* c< r* 

Ai^Si 



•OTS TS 


*0'0 TS 


P?^^ 


??5??? 


EEE 


EEE 






p( p< p< 


Al S* Al 


Ml 


a-a'a< 


c< :? c< 


?4f '^ *"* 
2:o<o< 


JO g<U3 


SL*£ 3* 


OiW^ 


S|s< 


>r 


s,^^ 




>r 





•a«o»o 


^^^ 


^^?r 




»>« »x p< 


§3 5^ 


&is 


Al ?:'0< 


t^ r* ^ 


^^ 



r* r* r* ^ ^ 

a* a* a* o o 

AAA e d 



1 



a c 3 
* "a 



6S§ 



2*2*2' ^^ o 

-lo-^^o « * « 

a e g 



a*a*a* 

AAA 



f» 1^ r* 

o o o 
c ^ c 






to (0 



B c a 

C0 w g 

m'* C C g 



(A OS 



A 



•O "O "O 

Al Al Al 
*♦ r* r» 

gca<a^ 
^.a »»< 

o<o<o< 



Al Al Al 

a* a* a* 
»♦ *♦ ^ 

o< o< 



•O "O "O "O *0 *T3 



Al Al Al 



Al Al Al 
O ^'^ 

=^^£' 
Al C<<W^ 

?<r^ a-* 
o» ^ 

7!" 



•O TS "O "O 73 •Q, 

J?5?5? Rip??? 



Al Al TtT 

pr pr P< 



Al AKAi 

pr ?r>»< 



If I III 






o<o< 

^pr 



H. 



t». •• 



136 



ESSENTIALS OF INNUIT 



Sing. 



Dual 



Plur. 



489. 

tkethl£t5k 

tketfttdk 

tk^thletdk 

tkethltiqtdk 

tkettikt6k 

tkethliiqtdk 

tketlt&tdk 
tkechet6k 
tkethlestdk 



500. 



r — 



Sing, 



r „ 



Dual - 



r „ 



Plur, 



umyuarqtkleket&k 

V 

umyuarqtkeket^k 
umyuarqtkleket^k 

umyuarqtklukketik 

umyuarqtketukket&k 

umyuarqtklekkeULk 

V 

umyuarqtkllt&ket&k 

umyuarqtkecheket&k 

umyuarqtkletket^k 



kinntir*l^t5k ytiqstiin 

would that I spoke Innuit ! (i.e., as the people) 

tim^nthl$t5k t&ngvig'l5i ttolLkunuk 

would that I had been there to see them ! 

501. When kStXk is used before the word, and if the word begins 
with a vowel, kStXk sounds as kfitig and merges into one word, as, 

V 

ketlgiimyQIrqtke, let me think. 



502. 



Modal Imperatives 



Sing. 



' ksfuw&ptiknS 
kauwipiiknILk 
kauwILptiknILnS 



Dual 



' kauwILpiikn&nuk 
kauwILptikn&tuk 
kauwILpiiknILnuk 



Plur, 



' kauw&ptikn^ti 
kauw&piikn&che 
kauw&piikn^tting 



503. All verbs ending in qtOtt have their imperative in pfiknS. 
Those ending in other ways have fkenS (505 and 543). 



IdLnkipiikn^ 
kauwILptikn^ 
iikf5kpiikng 



without speaking 
without sleeping 
without believing 



lylLg'yiiqptiknS without wanting to go 
kepCislLqptiknS without trading 
SJceletst&piiknS freely, without pay 



mdq'ndqpiikn^ without fatigue 
504. 



td&tlu h5k uno^n kizhgelune en^qtdk, eniqniir'inethlu kauwILpiiknILne 
then at night, entering the kazhga, he lies down ; having laid down, 
he (remains) without sleeping 

chahw^ tauna yut peyiinrilthket, chSla ytit peyug'luku t&m^ytikptiknlLku .^ 

iiksti nuyilghdk 
what is it that no man wants and no one wants to lose ? a bald head 



icsauk ly^g'yiiqptiknlLne 



he being loth to go 



MODAL IMPERATIVES 



505. 



Sing, 



plnrSttifkSnS 
plnr$tufk€n2lk Dual 
pinrSttifk$n&ne 

kitttimlifk^n^ 

kaunkiifkSn^ 

pifkgng 

tuzhetiifkSnS 

plts&ktifk€n$ ' 

pinrSttifkSnfi 

kanruchemlLfk^n^ 

ILkelettifk^ng 

aulukiifk^n^ 

3.giytifk$nS 

ill^qtiifk^ng 

uege^ktifkSn^ 



' plnrSttifkSnlLntik 
plnr€tiifk€nlltuk Plur, 
pinrStiifkSnantik 



137 

' plnrgtiifkgn^lta 
pinr6ttifkSn&che 
plnr^tiifk^nlLnting 



I w 
I w 
I w 
I w 
I w 
I w 
I w 
I w 
I w 
I w 
I w 
I w 



thout ease 
thout caring at all 
thout doing 
thout lameness 
thout intending to do 
thout failing to do 
thout being told 
thout pay 
thout minding 
thout praying 
thout mistaking 
thout striving 



Some of these may be rendered into English as adjectives, as, 
uncaring^ untold^ unpaid^ unmindful^ etc. 

506. 

chiqthletklLklLmi k^ ptts^kiifk^nS ch^qthllr^l^qta^ 
do I sin if I do wrong unintentionally ? 

iptl^qput Aglyun !rkklumiin iyausktifk^n^t^ tughentin thlen 
we ask God that we be not brought to evil 

k&nrM5kthl^qtliput ^shelgnuput hwinkut^ dgiyul^rtmiin hw^tk^p!k !11^- 
kwefkSn^tS. 
we tell our sins to the priest without (our) keeping back any whatsoever 

V 

pinrettifk^n^ tkechShkolL I will come without fail 

tuzhetlhrS^ !m!nlL peyiibrg5k tQzhetiifk^n^ne 

that cripple walked without lameness (i.e., unlamely) 

kathlitaiL chukafkSn^ nettifkir^luchg 

I speak slowly to make you understand 

Note. — ChaUfkBnS (le., without speed) \ nStfifUxtkft (Mode XXXVII). 
lye kaunkiifk^nS go without minding me = go ahead ; never mind me 

kaunkiifkSn^ku lye 

go on ; never mind him (or * it ') (from kaunkftkX, / mind it) 

kaunkiifk^n^ iy^'y^konlLk 

do not go without me (but if < without' is use'd in its strict sense 
another form occurs) 



138 



ESSENTIALS OF INNUIT 



tinrilthk&n iy^qch^hko^ unethluku 

if he does not come I '11 go without him 



Illingchifk^ne iye 



go anyhow (from Ulangchingritlkl) 



it&ke cheumi^qtQngnilkiifk^n^ti utriiqtilt^ 

here ! we without trying any longer to go ahead, let us go back 
(Mode XIX) 



ikn^rt&pugn^ pits&ktifkSn^ 

ikn^rtilk^ pltslkOfk^n^ku 
ikn^rt^qk^ pitslktifk^n^kuk 
ikn^rtdnkil pits^ktifk^ndke 



he, without intending, hurts me 

' him unintentionally 
I hurt \ both without intending to 
them accidentally 



yut tlm^r'm&ng ^talich^k taugw^m pifkSn^ne 
all men excepting one only 



iye plfkSne 
iye plnrdttifk^nS 
Irkklunuk kdthl&tiifkgn&k 
pILlUqtufk^ndk tagusken^ 



go without me 

go not without me = by all means take me along 
(be thou) without talking nonsense 
take as much as ever you can = without taking 
little 



507. Our English expressions, instead of, in place of etc., may be 
translated by this form. 

mintufk^nlt^ n^nvilmiin iyelthti 

instead of our staying here let us go to the lake 

utlk&lglrqptikndti iy^gnauqtokut 
in place of waiting let us go on 

mauq'loq'lodgnuk entiqkod.lSgne y^kflLniin Iyisktifk$nd,kuk 
their grandmother often forbade them both to go far off 

to^thl0h6k dk&niin p!fk$n&n$ ^t^m ingk^t5k 
then in a few moments he again came out 



508. 



f piksaun^ 



Sing, \ ptksaunILk 
plksaun^ne 

iyilksaunS 

kinnuqsaun^ 

keputtiksaun^ 



Dual 



I not yet doing 

ptksaun&niik 
plksaiinitiik 
piksaun^nuk 



Plur. 



' pYksaiinS^t^ 
plksaun^che 
p!ksauniltung 



I without yet going 
I without yet speaking 
I without yet trading 



V 



MODAL IMPERATIVES— EXAMPLES 



139 



509. 



Sing. 






ch&taun^ 

ch&taun&k Dual 

chlLtsTun^ne 

eklyurqtaun^ 
netalin^ 
t^ngg&qnaun^ 
ekiyurqkalin^ 

This form ends in various 

1. ChfttaunS 

2. ChXkaiinS 

3. Ch&ngnaunS 

4. ChSksattiiS 



/ not being 

chlLtaun&niik [ ch^taiin^ti 

chlLtaunatiik Fiur. - chlLtaunache 

chlLtalinlLnuk [ ch^tauniltiing 

without help and not wanting any 
I without yet hearing 
I without yet seeing 
without help and wanting it 

ways owing to the modes. 

= cMtitOk (Mode VI). 

= chiUdtOfi. 

= ch&ngit$ft. 

= cMksitM (Mode XVIII). 



510. 



EXAMPLES 



uetaughIL ch^ksaun^ 
tket6k chitalmS 



hwlLnkuti Vj6l thlo^tuw^qkaiiwikut kemtil ekiyorqkaunlt^ } 
can we alone and unaided do good ? 

ch^ngghaune t^nggbSrqch^hs&q'nilt^mche 

without anything happening to me, I will see you (an expression for 
taking leave of one) 

I am without anything to do yet 
he came in my absence = without my 
being (see Mode VI, chfttitOft) 
keydlune todtft t&koksaun^ne he weeping unceasingly 

ekiyurqsaune hw^tkdpik pinggnito^ without help I can do nothing at all 

hw&kiin nun^niik lylkoviit tunuthlutd, n^tQtmun chdklrqtilk^ksa'un^k 

V V 

cheCiniirqp^gtin ita.m tiintimthun tkech^hkutft 
from hence, this village, if you go, your back to us, to nowhere, thee without 
turning aside during your forwardness, again by our rear you will come 
(if you go straight ahead from here you will return here again) 

timlqsaun^ne !qt5k it fell, unlost, yet without being lost 

tamiqpiiknane iqtok it fell, unlost 

To express that it fell and was lost is rendered by 

Iqtdk timar'lune it fell, being lost 

hw&tii ithl&mtik thlu yugmtik Hlaun^tuk 

and so they both were without any one else with them (i.e., they were 
both alone) 



I40 



ESSENTIALS OF INNUIT 



511. 



Sing, 



Imperative of Mode VII 



ILnyunfi 

inyund,k 

ILnyQn^ne 



Dual < 



' ILnyunlLnuk 
^nyunitiik 
inyunlLnuk 



Plur. < 



' &nyunlLt& 
inyun&che 
^nytinitiing 



ir'neyunfi 
^nyunS 



childless 
never going out 



ik6yun$ chlLlleughi I work unpaid 



512. These are used mostly in the third person. 



Oen^ne uninhabited 

^shen^ne bad 

miyuyun&ne inaccessible 



pikthllnfyunlLne 

ktrsnILne 

iepaunine 



unfrequented 



warm 



companionless 



513. The term "adjutant" has been adopted to designate the 
following forms which are peculiar to the Innuit verb. 

I. Adjutant Kuma 

514. When this is coupled to a verb it gives the force of the adverb 
* when/ used not interrogatively but relatively, as, at that time, 

NoTB. — The use of ' when/ interrogative, is explained in 624. 

Kami is used as follows : 



keputo^ 
keput&ki 



kepuskum^ 
kepusktimku 



I trade 
I buy it 

In the past tense it appears as follows : 

keputlh5ugn^ I traded keputlhokumi 

keputlho^ki I bought it kepQtlhoktimku 



when I trade 
when I buy it 

when I traded 
when I bought it 



515. The negatives are easily recognized : 



Pres, 



Intrans, keputiirilthkum^ 
Trans, keputiir!lthkiimkQ 



Past 



r kgputlhtinrnthkuma 
1 kepatihiinrllthkiimku 



The following paradigm presents this adjutant in full. 

516. Often the characteristic vowel is the only difference, as : 

n^kkllkklLmkln I love thee 

n^kkUkk5mkin when I love thee 



k 



INTRANSITIVE ENDINGS -- EXAMPLES 



141 



517. It must be noted that the distinction between * if ' and 
when ' is rather loosely observed in Innuit. 

uzvenrilthkune hw^tfi iyok5ch!nks&nratdk 
if he were not crazy he would not act so 

to&thlu kinrutik &thlinr5kuftuk miy5rqtuk 

then he said to them (both), " If you (two) are strangers, 
come up" 



Paradigm of the Intransitive Endings 



518. 



Sing. 



Dual 



Plur, 





' when I 




— kumi 


Sing, ^ 


when thou 




— ^kuvut 


when he 




— kune 




when he 




—kin 




' when we both 




— k6mniik 


Dual - 


when you both 




k6fttik 


when they both 




— kigniik 




when they both 




— kunuk 




' when we 




k5mti 


Plur, < 


when you 




— k6fche 


when they 




— konung 




when they 




— k&ta 


EXi 


LMPLES OP THE DOUBLE THIRBS 


he 


r tkJshkSn 
when 

1 


t^ng^rqch^hkik^ 


he 


comes I will see him 


he himself 


tklshkune t^kchShk^ 

• 

when he comes he will fix it 



they both 

they both themselves 



they 

they themselves 



J tklshkig'nuk ting^rqch^hkiqki 

1 when they two come I will see them two 

tk!shktinuk t^ch^hkik 

when they two come they two will fix it 



I 
{ 

f tk!s 



tktshkiti tingSrqch^hkinki 

when they come I will see them 

tk!shkonung tikch^hkit 

when they come they will fix it 



142 



ESSENTIALS OF INNUIT 



SEE 
>o>o>o 



.fi O iV 



•^ *- S'S 






I I 



E E 8 
>o >o >o 

I I 



19 a 

IV Ni Ni 
u u u 



IV 



IV IV 



#■ ^i' ^ 

«c «« .*« 
T5 "S 'tS **j «•* »»< 

>o>o >o >o >o >o 

I I I I I 



ill 

HI HI Mi 

MM 



IV 

« S ^ 19 3 IV 

U3 « « MMM 

^s a a «« «« «rf 

Hi Hi Hi H| HlHl 




III III II 



M 

I 



\M 
I 



Jl3 IS JC 3 U JC 13 IV 
>9^-^ -^ -C ^ <^ ^ tA^ Jl« 

o«cro» o'o'o' o'o'o' 

>3 >9 >9 >9 >9 >9 >9 >3 O 

ccc ccc cec 

lO lO lO lO lO lO lO lO lO 

1111-111"" 



S 3 9 S S V 
«rf >« >« pC «rf «rf 



d 8 8 
v** - B V V 



%\o 



o 8 a 

gov 



e« 



a s 3 -s ^g.s-S'S 



is" 



8"=. _ « - - 

P 4-» >* >% JC ♦- ♦- 



a S 6 
B V V 



^ V- 



^ V- 



I 



% 



9 
O 



9 
O 



V 

U3 



V 



V 



V 

us 



V 



V 



1 



IV 

MA 

- '9 w 

^ CO « 
>9 >9 >9 

6 6 6 

lO lO lO 
MMM 

I I 



.fi 19 IV 
^-^-^ 

U U Im 
>V >V >V 

19 19 19 

s i § 

lO lO lO 
MMM 

\ I 



*. 



®^ •«* J3 I§ IV 

«4M 1^ Hi* 'Hi«'l4^'Hi« 

>o >o >o >o >o >o 

MMM MMM 

I I II 



*<* Jrf 4rf 

(£.19 19 

Kl Ml Ml 

I I I 



^ IV •^ 

•se-s "asa 

Hi Ml Ml Ml Ml Ml 

I I I I 



^i9 19 

•efi>9>9 
>v c c 
ccc 

lO lO iO 
MMM 

I I I 



j^iV 
19 -'^ 

>e -M o 

o*o*0* 
>9>9>9 
CCC 

ccc 

lO IO to 
MMM 

l1 I 



19 

>S'l3 I4> 

>v o* cr 

60>9>9 

c c d 

•O lO lO 
MMM 



S'g ^ 6 § § 

-c 5 5 -S X X 



c S fi 

B 9 9 ad 4-* 4-* 



V 



C« 



>« S 9 9 g § i 

9 9 «rf>\>«.C4^4^ 



6 



o« 4) 9 9 E o 4> 

«co.cOO-»-jbjc 
9 9 *i >s>^jC'Z'ti 



^ V. 



^ V. 



J V- 



SI 



V 



9 



9 
O 



V 



V 



V 



V 



V 

U3 



V 



c.^ iv 

E E 6 
>o>o >o 

MMM 



M 
19 i9 IV 

MMM 

E 6 6 
>o>o>o 

MMM 

I I I 



Hi 



19 

f^M^ ^M 
^G0l9 19 






^PMM 

> > > 



JC 19 IV 
tl^MM 
> > > 
19 19 i9 19 19 i9 
MMM MMM 

III III 



i^ M *± jrf IV ^ 
^ 19 19 >e 3 .d i9 >^ •«> 

XlxIXl HlHlXl XlXiMl 

111111111 



19 19 
Hiu«.ai 

IV Id Id 
ccc 

IO lO IO 

ir 



4>l «rf 



— o 
Id Id Id 
CCC 
lO IO lO 

MM 



I I 



M 

i9 IV 
\9MM 
IV Id Id 
CCC 
lO lO IO 
MMM 

1 I I 







a 



01 « 
9 9 



9 
O 



c! a a 

B V V 
*2XX 

•C 4^ 4-> 



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O 






S99 4^>\>«.C4rf^ 



^ ^ 



-• V. 



V 

us 



V 

us 



V 






V 

us 



V 

U3 



\ 



PARADIGM OF K UM A -- ADJUTANT AkAmA 



143 



520. 



hweghIL IpiinggnukumIL 

hwegn^ thlenukumlL 

hwdnkut^ thlitnukumt^ 

hwegh^ Ipiingghukumi plnrachiqki 

hwe ILthlaukum^ 



if I were you 

if I were he 

if we were they 

if I were you I would not do it 

if I were another 



521. All the verbs of place derived from the various locatives 
mentioned in 371 occur in this form. 



y&nllthkum^ 

timlLtik&n 

tolLntlLkin 



when I am yonder 
when he is there 
when he is about there 



slikHhokumi nauthluy^nr^to^ hwiltoil 

if I had been careful I would not be sick now 



nalithluthlenekumi 



if I should get sick (Mode LXXII) 



II. Adjutant Akama 



522. This signifies whenever, 

keputlLkim^ 
Neg, kepatfirat&'kimIL 



S, 



The intransitive 

I — 2lkamlL 
thou — ^kivut 
he — ik^ma 
he — iikin 



Z>. 



' we both 
you both 
they both 
they both 



whenever I trade 
whenever I do not trade 



-^k^mniik 
-ILkifttik 
-2lkig'ntik 
-ILklLmtik 



P. 



we 
you 
they 
they 



— akamta 

— Hkdfche 
— ^k^mung 

— akata 



523. 



EXAMPLES OP THE DOUBLE THIRDS 



S. 



tket^k&n tlLng^rqthliiqk& 
tketlLkama 2lrrul!r'mqt6k 



I always see him whenever he comes 
he always stops whenever he comes 



D, 



^1 -.VI « I XI .y - X .uiy X 1 y f ^ always see them two whenever they 
tket&kig'ntik tingSrqthlir&qka \ ^ ^ 



P, 



tket&kimniik irrulirliiqtttk 

f tketakati t&rigerqthiar^lnki 
tket^k^mung ^rrulir'llqtut 



f they two always stop whenever they 
\ two come 

I always see them whenever they come 
they always stop whenever they come 



144 



ESSENTIALS OF INNUIT 






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GENERAL EXAMPLES -- ADJUTANT PILfC'M A 145 

GENERAL EXAMPLES 

535. 

kithlun ytik kKttlLkima peliiqt^ ? m5qr5qtll&qt6k 

what does a man do when he falls into the water ? he gets wet 

ch&muk peyuglLk^mlL k&chut&qthlin^pugh^ 

whenever I want anything you always refuse me 

kauqtolighwu iy&nrat&kin whenever he does not go, beat him 

pulingt^k keputlLkimi as often as ever I buy 

iy^g^k^mlL hw&ngniik whenever I go myself 

The following example consists of an explanation of the difference 
between pOd and pSkftntSk. 

hweghi t^ng!ngratd.kilmku kinniiqto^ ** pek^ntok '' to^mthlu t^nghdkilmku 

kinntiqto^ " peki " 
whenever I do not see it I say pSk&ntok, // is up there; but having it in 

sight I say p6ki, // is up there (361) 

III. Adjutant Pitt^ma 

526. When this adjutant combines with a verb it conveys the 
idea of prior to or before the act. 

It possesses both the intransitive and transitive forms and like- 
wise the double thirds. 

While the general form is in p, still euphony causes some variations. 

1 keputdd. kepupiUg'md 

2 ikomoi akomvilig'mi and verbs in -go&, -gnoi, -noi, -rhoi (543) 

3 kippo^ Wpfillg'm^ and verbs in -voi 

4 oraiign^ onfuwillg'mi 

The transitive ending is limkQ. The full paradigm is given in 528. 
The impersonal verbs in this form appear as follows : 

tiqpilgan before it dawns uniiqpilgan before it nights 

Okshtiqpilgiln before it winters ka&qpilgSn before it summers 

NoTR. — Vox the other meanings of before see 736. 

527. Care must be taken to distinguish between words in pilig'ml 
and those in pniiqtOtt (Mode XLV). 

kuk^qpillg'mi m5q'n5qk^tdtod 

before being half-way I began to get tired (Mode XXI) 



ESSEJVr/ALS OF INNUIT 









o.^^ %%^ 



I I I I If I I I I I I I I I I I M I I fl I I { I I I I 



fllill Ssslll Sssllllll SssllUl 



sill .. Ill -slis 

i tfiWi III is.. SsIssIbIs •lllllllll 

S IVIIII fll'fl'i iiJiifJIs I'll III S|J 

•g ^tttfrf ffffft ffrfftTfT tftttti'i'f 

B ^ 



III III fSi|S| wussaws ^ssgggsgg 

a.'B.'a. St.'a.B. 'S.'S.'E. d-'S-cl 'a.B.'a. 'a.'5.'a a.5.'&. a.'a.'B. 'o.'H,'a, 'a.H.'S. 

,111111 I I I I I I M I I I I I I I I I I I 1 I I I I 



EXAMPLES — ADJUTANT AM A 



147 



EXAMPLES OF THE DOUBLE THIRDS 

529. 

iy&qpiHg'ma ldlnniiqt5k before his going he said 

iyd.qpil!g'ma pIlle^Klthho^ before his going he did it 

iyiqpillg'ma tikille before his going let him come here 



lylLqpillg'mQng k^nniiqtut 
iyiqpil!g*mQng tikillet 

lydqpilg^n tketok 
lylLqpilg&n umuk p!lthh5ILk 

iy^qpilgita tketok 
tanghupilg^ti ^tuntim 



before their going they said 

before their going let them come here 

before his going he came 
before his going he did this 

before their going he came 
before they saw one another 



EXTRA EXAMPLES 



t&nghupillmntik ^tOnQm 
t&nghupillgug'nuk ^tun&m 



before we two saw each other 
before they both saw each other 



ly&qpilimtig'ntik umuk chlk^rchdhkdpuk 

before the going of us both we (both) will give you this 



IV. Adjutant Anta 



530. 



Pos. 



Pres, kepuchilm^ 
Past keputlhoSmi 
Fut, kepuch^kn&mlL 



Neg, 

keputiiralilmd 

keputlhtinral^m^ 

kepuzgnil^mlL 



The complete paradigm is given in 532. 

531. Euphonic changes and mode forms produce a variety of 
endings, but they are all readily distinguished. 



inz. < 



I kepucho^m^ 

Sing. \ thou kepuchoavtit 
he kepuchoin 



iyemd 


m^nlUm^ 


t^ngvem^ 


iyevdt 


miniavtit 


t&ngveviit 


iyen 


m^nl&n 


t&ngven 



Kepach&mft is from the simple verb kSpatOft, / trade, 
Kep&chOftml is from kSpQchaqtSft, / want to trade. 



148 ESSEJi/TJALS OF lA'XUIT 



Ea= ^ee see 



a 



1 . f f III! ililll tli'Mrsi liiffflil 



Ililll Isslll Is 5 Ililll Is; Ililll 



ill III >ga ?aa §31 L. 



PARADIGM OF TANGVEMA 

ass «J«- ^'1'% S'a,? 

U I4t itj IV>U IV IC iv lU IV ll/ lU 

Ml u M EsuiEa Gi) M M uumi 



■s-sg fill 

& bS M bs &Gii 



z'ix III 



!i Hi 



SEE E E e 
"I'll 1&& 



.■£3 2 

111 



III I'll ^1^ |EE '^^-l ^,V;-j III ^^^ »;i^ 

aouui u & u umoHi ne^ec tic u u u ^ u Dctaec uuu oabsGa 

EBB eCC EEC '^Ja [^ = B -C= CCC CCB BBC 

,isili jii iiiil|?li III ill ill 



3 & & HI 

I = ■! I 



e, e, £ 



g s. I i 



ISO ESSENTIALS OF INNUIT 

534. This form is constantly used in narratives for reduplication, and 
immediately follows its dominant (which it agrees with in number and 
person). It follows its dominant without employing a conjunction. 

NoTK. — As the present tense is very commonly used instead of the past, in translating 
Innuit into English AmA is to be rendered by our perfect participle with * and * inserted. 

yuk kugtind mILktok m^kch&mS Qg'mlUln dtr^qt6k 

a man who is in the kiln (rear part of house [3ii]) arises; rising 
right through he goes out (i.e., a man in the rear arose and 
having arisen passed direcdy out) 

535. The following extracts from native stories will show the use 
of Ami. 

tsuim IL^r$rnilk uy^ngt5k uy^ngch&ma kinrut^ 

that woman looked down, and having looked down she said 

to^tluh5k Imini mauqhulolL tiqt6k tiqchlLma kilmmiiks&lthhr^gne yuw^k^ 
then his old grandmother got on the bed platform, and having gotten 
•up took off her old boots (812) 

iy&g'ytiqt6k iyig'yo&n mauqhul6q*lun€ ^pt^ iyigyug*nelune 

he wanted to go, and because he is wanting to go he tells his grand- 
mother he is desirous of going 

nOn^thliir'miik tketok tkechlLm^ k&zhgemtin !trtdk 

he comes to an old deserted village, and having come he enters the kazhga 

sniqshtqp^k^ma Tktk^t&t5k 

because it is so close to the bank it is about to fall (see 223 and Mode 
XXI) 

k^nrutuktldriy^kon^ke ch^t-t&m&lthkwet^ n&thlunrilthkutft, toiyuhwi n&th- 
lunrllthkne yum tilm&lthkwet^ Idinrutk^k&meke ill^l^r^l&meke 

never tell all that you know, for he that tells all he knows often tells more 
than he knows 

NftthianrUthkatn = second person of nathlttnrflthkttnka, the plural of 
n&thlunrnthkakft. 

kdnrutkik^mekS whenever he tells all about them 

!ll^l^r^lilmek$ because he always adds to them (plural of the 

third singular) 
ni^liir^l&meu (from HUUftrftUlrftnkA) = I always add to them (639) 

peyu^m^ pelki I do it because I wish to 

^ yuwiiki I pull off one boot yuw^qki I pull off both boots 

yuwin thou pullest off one boot yuw^qkh thou puUest off both boots 

yuw& he pulls off one boot yuwik he pulls off both boots 



PARA DIG A\f OF TANGVEMA — ADJUTANT 



151 



535 a. Impersonal verbs used in this form are to be rendered by 
on account ofy because of, etc. 

^nokkla^n iy&k^t^nr^to^ I do not start on account of the wind 

ningthla^n ly^gy^inreto^ I do not want to go because of the cold 

k&nikcha^n tiyughiir'ma ch^prt5k his wanting to come is prevented on 

account of the snow 
kn&rukpeviik^n because of a big snowdrift 

y^kshig'luku t^ngshunitikii t&kfeil^m^ 

I cannot see that far, being of weak sight 

ch^la sl5qnen^ntir'mgne t&raydkf^g'muk tilnghdma chikum illdlne 
and during his sliding along having seen a king salmon in the ice 

^giyugnl thle petikkluka ch^qthldqtoln 

I pray for him on account of his being a sinner 

To the question chSnhwS miillfiy&kOqchSt, why did you delay so? the 
answer may be t&ngvSmft or t&ngsO&mi or t&ngsilqp&kftmS, because I was 
looking at something. 



miknlma y&kflHrrtisskaunratdk 
plkniyulm^ 

(See also Mode CLVI.) 



he is too small to go so far 
I through curiosity = because of 
wanting to see 



V. Adjutant 

536. This expresses alt/tough^ even, nevertluless, etc. 

Personal Form, 



Time Forms, 

Pres, peyugntir'ma. 
Past peyulthhoghtir'ml 
Fut, peyugw&qkaughtir'mi 

^eg, peyunrilgntir'ma 

tlyuglitir'mi 

tiyunrilghtir'ma. 

iyig'yughiir*mi 

iy^g'yunrilghtir'mi 

iy&ghtir*m& 

plngkingghtir'm^ 

pgyOgntir'm^ pinr^tiki 

peyunrilghtir'mi peugh^ 

ingk^piktingr^n 



mz, \ tl 



Sing, 



peyOghtir'mi 
thou peyughiiqp!t 
he peyughtir'ma 

I although unwilling 



although I wish to come 

although I do not wish to come 

I though desirous of going 

I though not desirous of going 

although I go 

although I have 

although willing, I did not do it 

I act unwillingly (530) 

no matter how big = even being very big 



ESSENTIALS OF INNUIT 



.Ss|_l|i^ IIIJIl 2gs«,|||i3« 11-5 '!ll -111 

^ 'ill'\~i "?tTt ttttitttt nlnltTT 



8 = 3 e S V 



I 



i? S! 






e e E E E E 



fss ffs-'li? 



^ I '|i||||. Ifllif lllll'lll'l flllfllll 

^ "fn^ T"Ttt TTTTTTftT "ttTTlt'i 



mill Iflfll lllsllas 



'I 'Is EE E e'e S 



g° £ £ £ £ S £ S £S SSS S££ SSS £S£ SB 3 £B S 2SS 

^TItTTT TTTTTT TiTTTTnT TnT'TnTT 



J==sE| . 



PARADIGM OF THE TRANSITIVE 1 53 

538. Peg^ilr'mA (from pSikGft) can be used to express at least, 

itauch^hkdmiik pegntir'nia llthhrdkume at least once a year 

yut timar'miing p!ngr!lgh6r'mtik niaunltfing all men, without exception 

!m!n^ h5k k!ngg1i5kla^ keyilune utr^qchug'lune plngrln h5k td^tfi 

^milklain iya'uthluku 
this one, his younger brother, he crying, he wanting to go back, his elder 

brother bringing him (the elder brother made the younger go although 

he was crying and wanting to go home) 

V V 

toithluhbk imin^ tutg^rau'loi kSnntiqtdk, " Hweghl iy&niir'ma utr^qtliq- 

chehkoi tokongr'let takotinka " 
then that one, her grandson, said, "Although I go I will return again, (for) 

I have slain the assassins '' 

• 

n&thloS.k^ k^ntautlngkruchei taugw^m plngkingghtir'ma kepus&guttik- 

s^nrStti 
I do not know if he has any kantaks, but even if he had he would not sell 

any (his state of having kantaks) 

539. 

I — gheninlm'ne 

thou — gneninirpne 

he — ghena.nir*mene 

he — gheninrine 

' we both — ^gnen&nlmmug'ne 

you both — gTieniniiqptug'ne 

they both — gheninlr'mug'ne 

they both — gnendnrag'ne 

we — ghen&n!mtne 

you — glien^ntiqpchne 

they — ghen^nir'mtiqne 

they — ghenS.nr&tne 



Sing, < 



Dual 



Plur, 



When this is added to a verb stem it conveys the idea of duration, 
in the time of, whilst, etc. 

tim^nHngghena.nim'ne during my being there 

540. This form is of frequent occurrence, and seems to be derived 
from some mode expressing coincidetue. While it is evidently a 
localis possessive, and agrees with the form in nim& (78), neverthe- 
less it seems to be alone, for none of the other cases have yet been 
met with. 



154 ESSE AT/A LS OF INiXUlT 



541. 

iy^qt6k, iyag*ghenlnrdne iyokuch^ne n&thluyiguti 
he goes away ; during his going he becomes crazy 

k&nrusk^ke milthlutnllol * sto&mtik iikkiltm6q*ghen&nim'n6 

tell them I saw a dead beluga while I was coming here = during my 
hithering 

chltilglien&nlm*ne tiy&kon&che do not come during my absence 

keyauloqghendnrinfi while he was crying 

peghendnr&tne while they were doing 

This form is easily distinguished from that in 75. 

kdnratgnenAn!m'n£ during my talk = while talking 

k&nrutimne in my saying (i.e., in the words) 

todtlu hok m!nkghen&niir*mine mlngkuttlm enum thlechel ndthlQyilguti, 

yulr'yikii nilt&kinrdtil ndtdkinral&meu tutghdrl'loii IminIL m^nusdqtdk 

minus ugheniinr^ne ma'uqhuldq'lod Itrat6k 
so then while he was sewing he forgot where he laid the needle ; he looked 

for it and could not find it; not finding it, the grandchild grieved; 

while he was grieving his grandmother enters 

tinvdgS. tingv&g'nendnrlne emum k^nrut^ hw^k^ nuk^lthpeik uyok 

chalraiyuyet 
he gazed at her and while he was gazing she said, '* Well, young man, what 

do you mean ? " 

542. In the following section fifty-four groups of verbs are pre- 
sented, together with their various adjutants, imperatives, ^tc. 

NoTK. — In this list it will be noticed that some verbs are shown with nine forms 
and some with less. This does not imply that these latter verbs lack the other forms. 
The reader can readily supply them from the models given. 

These verbs have been selected from a large collection made 
for the purpose of finding some clue towards a classification. To 
avoid enlarging this work too much, these few only are presented 
here. 

The last six verbs in &qtOft and HqtOft have been placed together in 
order that the slight difference between them may be made more 
apparent. 

^ BUthlfitdA = / discover a dead animal. 



TRANSITIVE VERBS 



•55 



543. 






I. st&&. 


2. fitJUl. 


3. ttqtM. 


peto& 


perutoi 


peyiiqtoa 


(I lack) 


(I have no more) 


(I desire) 


pelthkumi 


peruskumii 


peyukumi 


petik&m^ 


perut^kiml 


peyug^kimi 


pel&m^ 


peruchimi 


peyua.mi 


pepilig'm^ 


periipiUg'ma 


peyuqpilig'mi 


pettifkgng 


peruttifkSnS 


peyuqptiknS 


pel!ngghtir'm& 


perutgntir'mi 


peyugniir'mi 


4. gw&&. 


5. Su^. 


6. au^. 


tukugwol 


k^zhgeugni 


uetalighS. 


(I am rich) 


(I am in the kazhga) 


(I am) 


tukukumi 


k^zhgekum^ 


uet^kum^ 


tukuglk&mi 


k^zhgeiik^m^ 


uet^k^m^ 


tfikfign&ml 


k^zhgelm^ 


uetema 


Hlkfivil!g'in& 


k&zhgevilig'mi 


uetivil!g'm& 


tukiifkgne 


kazhgifkSng 


uetafkSng 


tukuglitir'ma 


kazhgegTitii'ma 


uetigntir'ma 


tukuyakon&k 


k^zhgeySkonik 


uet^y^kon^k 


tukalralgli^ 


k&zhgllralgh^ 


uetilraigba 


7. kAqtfii. 


8. mfi&. 


9. r5u^. 


^tr^chuk^qtoi 


^komo^ 


nauthliinroughi 


(I want to go down a bit) 


(I sit) 


(I am sicker) 


^tr^chuk^kOm^ 


^komkum^ 


nauthltinroukum^ 


itrlchukilqk^in& 


^kdmdk^ml 


naiithltinro^k^m^ 


^tr^chok^m^ 


^kom^m^ 


nauthliinr5^mi 


^tr^chuk^qpilig'm^ 


&k6mviHg'm& 


nauthlfinrovilig'mi 


&tr&chuk^qpiikn$ 


^komtifk^n^ 


nauthliinroufkSnS 


&tr&chakdngghtir'm^ 


akomungg'htir'ma 


nauthlanrdugntir'mi 


&tr&chiMr'y^k5n^k 


^komy&konrlk 


nauthltinrouy&kon^k 


10. ylrqUUl. 


II. chlqt5&. 


12. rautfii. 


kauw^vlrqtoi 


k!nchiqtoi 


kinggnurautoa. 


(I go up stream) 


(I keep myself neat) 


(I am late) 


kauw^virtiskum^ 


kinchikumi 


kinggnursfuskumi 


kauw^virqtikimi 


klnchfgakimi 


kingghurautlkdml 


kaiiw^virqch^ml 


klnchiilm^ 


kinggnurauchlmH 


ksiuw&virqtiifkenS 


klnchlqpfikn^ 


kinggnursTuttifkSnS 


kauwav!rqtingghtir'mi 


kinch!nggn&r'ma 


kinggli ursTu tinggntir *ma 


kauw^virqch&kon^k 


kinchig'yiikonak 


kingghurauchikonlk 


kauwivirqtftrillu 


kinchlnrillu 


kinggn uralitfi rillu 



156 



ESSEATIALS OF INNUIT 



13. ig&&. 

Akneiigdi 
(I suffer) 

&kned.kum^ 

^kneiigilkilmil 

iknelnlm^ 

&kneaghtir'mii 

akneafkdnC 

&knedyd.k6niik 

^knednrlllu 

^kneillraiighii 

16. tu^nl. 

kututOghl 

(I snore) 
kututukum^ 
kutug^k^mil 
kututudml 
kututiinggniir'm& 
kututiifk^ng 
kututuy^koniik 
kututtinrillu 
kututi^lraiighi 
kututule 

19. ItoX. 

atauchitoS 

(I have one) 
iitauchiskuml 
Itauchit^klm^ 
iltauchichiiml 
^ tauch itghtir 'mi 
atauchitiifkgne 
(Itauchitsdkonik 

22. egfii. 

thluegoi 

(I am comfortable) 

thluekuma, 

thluegikimi 

thlueghiiml 

thluegiiQr'ma, 

thluefkgnS 



• 14. tOI. 

ikvoi 

(I run) 
iikvokumd 
ikv2Lklmi 
ikvugnimi 
ikvughtir'mii 
ikvtifk^nc^ 
ikviiyikdn&k 
ikv!nr!llu 
ikvUralghi 

17. tSqt&L 

itdqtoi 

(I sing, etc.) 
it5rkumd 
itdrikimi 
itoimi 
itugntir'mi 
&t6qpukne 
it5r'yikonik 
ittinrillu 
Ittilrailghii 
ituyule 

20. kuqt&L 

itkuqtoii 

(I dress) 
dtkukuma 
iltkuwiikiim& 
itkuimii 
itkughtir'ml 
itkiiqptikne 
itkug'yik5nilk 

23. fnM. 

tiregnoi 

(I comprehend) 
tir^n'gkumii 
tiiregndkAmi 
tireghdmA 
tiirSngglitir'ma, 
tdr^niifk^ni^ 



15. qtfii. 

eqtoi 

(I am snow blind) 
egiskumd 
eqtilklmi 
eqchlmi 
eqtinggliCir'mi 
eqtiifkdn^ 
eqchikonik 
eqtinrillu 
eqtilrailghA 

18. mSuf^. 

Omeugni 

(I am long away) 
umekuml 
umedkilmi 
umeimd 
umeghtir'mA 
umlfken^ 
umeyikon&k 
umlnrillu 
umilraiighi 
umetule 

21. mSqtOI. 

kulmoqtoi 

( I go to the summit) 
kulmortiskumil 
kulmbqtikiiml 
kulmdqchdmi 
kulm5qttinggntir'mA 
kulni5qttifkdn£ 
kulm5qchikondk 

24. augnl. 

pthlaughi 

(I go astray) 
pthlaukumil 
pthlikimi 
pthlemi 
pthlaugntir'mi 
f)thla"ufkgne 



/ 



2$. gW&&. 

— kaugwoi 

(See Mode LXVIII) 
— kaukum^ 
— kaugwikim^ 
— ka'ugh^m^ 
— kaligntir'm^ 
— kaufk^n^ 
— kauy^kon&k 
— ^kaunrillu 

28. raugii&. 

^qch^ratighi 

(I become worse) 
iqchiirakumi 
&qch&ra^kS.ml 

iqch&rlnggntir'm& 
^qch^rlfkSnS 
&qch^ray&k5n^k 
&qch^r!nrillu 

31. alij^. 

IcsaTignS, 

(I am lazy) 
icsaukOmi 

V 

ks^k^m^ 

tsaugndr'mi 

tsimS, 

icsifkSnS 

Ics&y^oniik 

ksinrillu 

34. intdft. 

&cheinto^ 

(I am under) 
^cheinntlthkumi 
^cheintik^m^ 
Scheinlim^ 
^che^nlightir'mi 
^che&nttifk^nS 
^che^nch^koniik 
&cheint!nr!llu « 



TRANSITIVE VERBS 

26. rntfiS. 

^laurtito^ 

(I appear) 
ilauruskum^ 
^laiirutik^m^ 
^lauruch^m^ 
illaurutungghur'm& 
ilaurutiifk^n^ 
illauruch^konik 
^laiirudnrillu 

29. skfii. 

ueksko^ 

(I propose marriage) 
uekslckum^ 
ueksk^k^m^ 
uekskghdmi 
ueksk!nggntir'mi 
ueksktifk^n^ 
ueksk^kon^k 
ueksktnrillu 

32. tkfii. 

iimyu5rqtko^ 
(I reflect) 
umyu6rqtkuma 
umyu6rqlkiikam& 
umyu6rqtukghur*mi 
umyu6rqtukgnima 
umyu6rqtktifkSn5 
umyu5rqtuksdkoniik 
umyu5rqtiikinr!llu 

35- g54. 

ikkwegol 

(I play) 

^kkwekum^ 

ikkweg^k^m^ 

^kkwegh^mS. 

ikkwegntir'mi 

ikkwefk^nS 

^kkwey^kon^k 

^kkwenrillu 



157 

27. itfii. 

^ngge^to^ 
(I sail) 
^nggelkum^ 
^ngge^qk^mi 
inggeimi 
angyanggnur mil 
^ngy&qpukn^ 
ingyar'yakonak 
aiigy^nrlllu 

30. yM. 

uevda, 

(I circle around) 
uefkumd 
uevilk^ml 
uevgh&mil 
uevgnur'ma. 
uevQfkfinS 
uevyikondk 
uevlnrillu 

33. IrqtM. 

igglrqtoa 

(I arrive) 
^ggirtiskumii 
Iggirqt^kilmd 
dggirqch^m^ 
&ggirqtti nggntir'mi 
iggirqtufkSnS 
^gglrqchdkon^ 
agglrqtinrillu 

36. 154 

netod 

(I hear, I obey) 
n!shkum& 
net^kim^ 
nech^m^ 
netlnggnur'ma 
netiifkSnS 
nech^kon^k 
netlnrillu 



1 58 



ESSENTIALS OF INNUIT 



37. ^|!M. 


38. Bum^. 


39. pXqtfiX. 


n&sktilgnugh& 


ULngh&maugn& 


&t6qp&qto& 


(I have headache) 


(I am seen) 


(I sing loud) 


n&sktilghukum& 


tinghtim^kQm& 


&tdqp^umi 


n&sktilgh6&kilm& 


t&n"ghumiik&m& 


&t5qp&glkiLm& 


nlsktilgho^m^ 


tiiighum^mi 


&t6qpemil 


n^skiilghuv!lig'm& 


tin'ghum&ghtir^mi 


^tdqp&qpilig'ml 


naskttlgh ugh tir'mi 


tinghum&fk^nS 


at6qp&qptikn$ 


n^sktilgliufk^ng 


tin'ghum&yikdn^ 


&t6qp^'yilkonik 


n^skiilghuy&konilk 


t&nghum&nilllu 


atoqpingn'gttr'ma 


nisktilgniilra^gliS, 


t&nghum&lra^gn^ 


&t6qpinr!llu 


40. gfi&. 


41. tJUl. 


42. gIrqtOI. 


tiggoa 


sev&qtol 


6r'luvvilgIrqtoi 


(I come) 


(I emerge upon) 


(I bring along my bow) 


tigkuml 


sevSkumi 


6r*luvvilgirkuma, 


tiggik&iiii 


sevlqklml 


6r'luvvilgirakami 


t^gli&mil 


seviLiii^ 


6r'luvvllgiama 


t&gvilig*mii 


sevAqpilig'mi 


6r'luvvilgirqpilig*m& 


taggtifkgng 


sefiqpiikn^ 


6r*luvvilgirqptiknS 


tigylkondk 


sevangghiir'ma 


6r'luw!lgingghiir'ra& 


tagghtir'ma 


sefir'yakonak 


6r'luvvilgir'y&kon^ 


tigg!nr!llu 


sef^nrlllu 


6r'luw!lginrillQ 


43. ouqtfi&. 


44. itdft. 


45. cheutfii. 


kduqto^ 


plksito^ 


kinntiqcheutoH 


(I am pigeon toed) 


(I have not yet) 


(I interpret) 


kdugiskum^ 


p!ksilthkumiL 


k^nntiqcheuskum^ 


kouqtakama 


piksit^Lk^m^ 


kilnntiqcheut^k^mi 


kduqch&ml 


plksil^m^ 


kilnntiqcheuch^m^ 


kouqtlngghiir'm^ 


piksillnggniir'mil 


kanntiqcheutlnggntir'mi 


ko'uqttifk^nS 


plksittifk^ng 


k^nniiqcheutdfkSn^ 


kouqchdkon^k 


p!ksich^konik 


k^nntiqcheuchikdn^k 


kouqlinrillu 


plksittnrillu 


k^nntiqcheutlnrHlu 


46. \^Vk\Xk, 


47. yfl^. 


48. IttOI. 


ekimrangkatoH 


iyiyugnl 


okittaa 


(I have a sled) 


(I go nicely) 


(I burn myself) 


ekMmr^ngkdkumi 


iyiyukumi 


oklshkOml 


ek&mrangkakam& 


lyiyudkimi 


okitak^ma 


ekXmrJlnkam^ 


iyiyuilma 


okkhilm^ 


ek&mranglcpukne 


iyiyiifkene 


okittifkenS 


ekamrinkgniir'ma 


iyiyughtir'm^ 


okitlngghtir'mi 



TRANSITIVE VERBS — IMPERSONAL VERBS 



159 



49. iqtOI. 

kin^qto^ 

(I end up at) 
kiinlkumi 

kilnS.ghtir'm^ 

52. ilqtOI. 

k&'niiqto^ 

(I speak) 
k&nkum^ 
k&nr&k^mi 
kinrim^ 
k&nghtir'm^ 



50. iqtdft. 

k^nnS.q't5& 

(I slumber) 
k^nn^qkum^ 
k&nn3.qk&m^ 
klnn^rem^ 
klnn^hghtir'm^ 

53. ttqtM. 

keniiqto^ 
(I am dry) 

kenriiskumS. 
kentiqUikim^ 
keniiqch&m^ 
kentiqtingghiir'ma 



51. iqtd&. 

k!ngnilqto& 

(I conceive) 
kinggh^kum^ 
kinggn^kimi 
kinggnlmi 
kinggnightir'mi 

54. iiqtO&. 

ktinniiqtdS. 
(I am angry) 

ktinrtiskumi 
ktinntiqt^klm& 
ktlnniiqch^mS. 
ktlnntiqtinggniir'm^ 



The Impersonal Verbs 



544. These verbs assume any 
XXI, LXXVI, etc. 



suitable mode, particularly Modes 



it snows 


it rains 


// hails 


it blows 


k&nnlqtdk 


siathlirtSk 


kafchirt6k 


inoklgrtok 


k^nniqch^hkdk 


slithl!rchghk5k 


k&fchirchghk6k 


inoklSrch^hkok 


kinnilthhok 


sl^thlilthhok 


kMcWlthhok 


^noklllthhok 


klnnirkdn 


smthllrk^n 


kafch!rkan 


inokl^rk^n 


kiln nirk^ tin 


sl&thlirkatin 


kafch!rkatin 


^nokl^rk^tiln 


k^nnlqcha&n 


sl^thliin 


kafchian 


^noklaiin 


k&nnir'lune 


smthlirlune 


kiifchlr'lune 


inoklirMune 


snow 


rain = bad weather 


hail 


wind 


k^nntqch^k 


sl^thliik (204) 


kaftak 


&n6kii 


// shines 


// thunders 


// is warm 


// is calm 


ak^qchlrtok 


kathlirqt6k 


ningliatok 


k6n$rqt6k 


^k&qchlrch^hkok 


kathllrqchShkbk 


ninglichShkok 


k6nSrqchghk6k 


^kilqchllthhok 


kilthlilthhok 


ninglitnthhok 


k6nilthh6k 


^kilqchlrkln 


kathllrkiin 


ninglilthkan 


k6n!rk^n 


^Udlqchlrk^t^n 


kithlirk&tan 


nlnglilthk^tan 


kOnirkatan 


^k&qchiiin 


kilthlian 


nlnglilin 


kSnldn 


ik^qchlr'lune 


kithlir'lune 


ninglithlune 


konfer'lune 


sun 


thunder it lacks cold (45 1 , Mode 


VI) calm 


ik^qt^ 


klthluk 


ningia (cold) 


konuk 



i6o 



ESSENTIALS OF lAAUIT 



The Impersonal Verbs 

545. Strictly speaking, there are no impersonal verbs in Innuit. 
These all have the personal endings. Example : tattqtOk, // is night, 
becomes personal, as : 



Sing. - 


I 

thou 

he 


unuwignl 

unuwltii 

unuwi 


' we both 
Dual < you both 
they both 


unuwikuk 
unuwit^ 
unuwik 


Piur. * 


we 

you 

.they 


unuwikut 
unuwiche 
unuwi 



meaning // nights me, it nights thee, it nights him, etc. 

Fut, unuqchdhkighl, etc. Past unulthhdighi, etc. 

and also through all the adjutants : 



kumi = unukig^ni 
kimi = unugikdghS. 
pilig'ma = unuqpTlgHghS. 
&ml = unoiglia 
gntir'mi = uniingragni 
mira = unumirak^ghi 

546. 

iydkllld uniiqpilgighJl 
unuina tketnrat5k 



if it nights me = if I am benighted 

whenever it nights me 

before it nights me 

because it nights me 

although it nights me 

after it nights me 

I '11 go before I am benighted 

because he is benighted he does not come 



V 

unulthhodglii tketnimktin 

I arrived just at night = it nigh ted me just at my coming 

unOqchShkAghi tkepilig'm^i 

it will be night before I come = it will night me 



The Modes 

547. The Innuit language does not make use of adverbs as a 
distinct part of speech, to vary or qualify the sense of a verb. All 
diversities in the manner of action and being are expressed by 
incorporating certain characteristics with the verb. 



MODES l6l 

In a word, it may be said that the adverb is combined with the 
verb. For example : iy&qtOS, / go, and iySnkiqtOft, / go again, or 
iyS3r&etGfty I never go. Each of these new forms of iy&qtOft is a com- 
plete verb in itself, having all the tenses, aspects, adjutant forms, 
verbal nouns, etc., of the original. 

These modal characteristics are inserted immediately after the 
stem of the verb, generally with some slight euphonic change, as, 
tinglfiwftkft, / ///■/ him {Jier or //). This verb always implies to hit 
with t lie fist, being derived from tinglfikft, my fist. 

If it should be desired to express that a severe blow was dealt, 
then the characteristic pftk is to be inserted, as, tinglilqpSgftkft, / hit 
him violently. Furthermore, if the blow was repeated, kiq is to be 
added : tinglfikiqpftgftkft, / ///'/ him again violently. 

Several characteristics may be added at once to the same verb 
stem. Numerous examples are given of these combinations. 

Innuit, moreover, does not admit of coupling a verb to an infini- 
tive, as, / want to go. These combinations are expressed by 
inserting particles, just as described above : iy&qtoft, I go; iyftg'3r&qtOft, 
/ want to go. 

The order, therefore, is : 

1 The stem. 

2 Characteristic of mode (one or more). 

3 Characteristic of adjutant (if needed). 

4 Characteristic of negation (if needed). 

5 Characteristic of object and number. 

6 Characteristic of tense. 

7 Characteristic of person. 

In the following series of modes the characteristics are given 
in both the intransitive and transitive forms as well as in their 
negatives. 

Frequently examples are also given of the tenses and other parts 
of the verb, which may assist the reader in translating the native 
stories. 

The study of the modes will render clearer the chapter on 
suffixes. (See loi.) 

This series is not to be considered complete, for the number of 
Innuit modes and their combinations is apparently unlimited. 



l62 



ESSENTIALS OF INNUIT 



Index of Modes 

548. This presents the characteristics of the various modes and 
also the intransitive and transitive forms. 





Intrans, 


I 


&nto& 


2 


Iqtoi 


3 


ch^kol 


4 


chakd^ 


5 


ch^p&kiqto^ 


6 


ch^qplqto^ 


7 


ch^qtd^ 


8 


ch^rdl^qta^ 


9 


chiraqthlini'iaqtaa 


lO 


ch^radqto^ 


II 


chir^qtoi 


12 


chir^wok^qtd^ 


13 


ch^kgh^ttoS, 


14 


chlmdkdl 


»5 


chugh^ 


i6 


chtig'n^qkol 


17 


chtig'nirutda. 


18 


chukiqtol 


19 


etoi 


20 


f^k^nSrqtoi 


21 


fSk.><qt6a 


22 


f^llrqchiiqtoi 


23 


faiirqtiikiqtoa 


24 


fai!rqt5& 


25 


filrSntoi 


26 


fkato^ 


27 


gnilqtoi 


28 


ghoi 


29 


gnolqto^ 


30 


ghoilr^qtdi 


31 


g6r'16qtoi 


3« 


gwoi 


3J 


!lthhougn& 


34 


!ngn&ks^ko& 


35 




36 


it5& 



Trans, 



^qt^kii 



ch^qplqtiikil 
ch^qk^ 



ch&rll5qkl 



ch^kgh^ttlkd 
chim&k^k^ 



chug'n^hk^i 
chtig'nirutikil 
chuk^qkil 



fk^r^ki 
gh^qt^ki 



fngn&ks^^Lki 
Ir&k^ 



Mode, 

CLXXX 

LIII 

CXIX 

XC 

CXXVIII 

XXX 

XXIX 

cxxxv 

CXXXIV 
CXXXI 

cxxx 

CXXXII 

LI 

LXX 

CXLVI 

CXIII 

CIX 

CXVIII 

VII 

LXXXVI 

CLVI 

CI 

CII 

c 

CLXXIX 
XXXV 

CLVIII 

II 

CX 

CXI 

CLVI I 

LXVIII 

LXXXV 

XXVIII 

CVII 

VI 



INDEX OF MODES 



163 





Intrans, 


37 




38 


kikko5rqt6i 


39 


k^pikto^ 


40 




41 


kar&mittaa 


42 


k&riytiqtaa 


43 


k&t&to& 


44 


kaugwoi 


45 


kSrqtoii 


46 


kSrt5k 


47 




48 




49 


k!qchgkgh^tto& 


50 


klqchtiqt5& 


51 


k!qn^qkoi 


52 


klqniruto^ 


53 


kiqto^ 


54 




55 


kllnir'liqto^ 


56 


kKrqto^ 


57 


knghd& 


58 


ko& 


59 


kdqtd^ 


60 


ks!td& 


61 




62 


kiinly&kd^ 


63 


kwlrqto^ 


64 


rnqto^ 


65 




66 


l&riyiko^ 


67 


Igirqtol 


68 


Ighugh^ 


69 


Ighdqtoi 


70 


llfk&toa 


71 


llqtol 


72 


Hr'ntir'mittaa 


73 


Ueingk^tiqta^ 


74 


Ueughi 


75 


m&l^qtoi 


76 


m^r^Qghil 


77 


m^tOydkod 



Trans. 

k^k^kd 
kikko&ki 
k&piktiki 
k&r&k& « 



k^t^r^^ 
kaugw&k^ 



ket^Udl 

knghut^i 

klqchgkgn&ttaka 



klqn^qk^ki 



kiqtiki 
kfqttikt&r^qk^ 
klin&rUlqki 
kllrika 



k^kl 

k5qk^ 

ksitilk^ 

kumUki 

ktinly^kiki 



mqk^ 

l&r^ki 

l&riy&klk^ 



Ignu&kl 



lle&k& 

m^l^rdk^ 

mdraiikil 



Mode, 

CLXII 

LXXI 

LXXX 

CXXXVI 

CXLIV 

CLXV 

XXI 

LXVII 

CLIX 

LXXXI 

CVI 

CLV 

LI I 

XLI 

XLII 

XLIV 

XLI 

XLII I 

XLIX 

LXI 

LXXXIX 

CLIII 

CXLIX 

XVIII 

LXVI 

CVIII 

XCVIII 

CLIV 

LX 

XL 

CIV 

XCIII 

XCIV 

LVIII 

XVII 

cm 

LIX 

LV 

LXIX 

XLVI 

CLXI 



164 



ESSENTIALS OF INNUIT 





Intrans. 


78 


maugha 


79 


meugnd 


80 




81 


mUtoi 


82 


mdqto^ 


^l 


nadrangghoi 


84 


nairilqtoi 


85 


n^chadpdkiiqtoil 


86 


ndchaiiqtdii 


87 


n&ksikoi 


88 


ninriqtoi 


89 


nilqkol 


90 


n^raksito^ 


91 


nSraughl 


92 


n^renadrlqtoS. 


93 


nilrinklqkshitoi 


94 


nauqtdi 


95 


n€ughii 


96 


ngkfito^ 


97 


ngnuqhrdgndl 


98 


ngnGqhrig'ytiqtoi 


99 


ngntiqhr^ngkito^ 


100 




lOI 


nirqtoS 


102 


nratssndqto^ 


103 


6rqtOil 


104 


pdkdqto^ 


105 


p^qtod 


106 


piktaa 


107 


piltiqtoa 


108 


raliqtoi 


109 


rek&nSrqtdi 


1 10 


roiliqtoi 


III 


roughs 


112 


riitna^riqt5& 


1^3 


rutoa 


114 


sdqto^ 


"5 


s^to^ 


116 


segekilqtoi 


117 


segev^thl^qto^ 


118 


segeugn^ 



Trans, 

melk^ 
meuw^kl 



nailr&ka 



nUchalrlkii 

nlks^kilk^ 

nlnrdriikd 

n&qk^kl 

nilraksit&k^ 

n^ralk^ 



nlnnk!qkshitik& 

naur^ki 

nelk& 



nille&k^ 

niraka 

nratssn^qka 

orqtilka 

pikar^ki 

pdgaka 

piktaka 
pilugwika 



roaka 



s^qkl 
siir^riika 



Mode. 

LXXIII 

CLII 

CV 

CLXXVI 

XCVI 

CXXIII 

CXXXVIII 

CXXIX 

CXXXIII 

XXVII 

XXXIX 

XXVI 

CXXXIX 

CXXXVII 

CXXVI 

CXL 

XL VI I 

CLI 

I 
III 

V 

IV 

LVI 

cxx 
cxv 

CXVI 

CXXVII 

LXXVI 

LXXIX 

XLV 

LXXXIII 

LXXXVII 

CXLV 

LXXXIV 

XVI 

IX 

XXIX 

XCI 

CXLI 

CXLIII 

CXLIl 



INDEX OF MODES 



I6S 



Intrans, 



119 


segew^k^qtoi 


120 


sedrqtdi 


121 


seuto^ 


122 


shlqto^ 


123 


shtqtdqto^ 


124 


s!pik&qto& 


125 




126 


skoi 


127 


skOmaugh^ 


128 




129 




130 


stitoi 


131 


stkito^ 


132 


stungghugh^ 


133 


stiingk&td^ 


134 


stungytiqtd^ 


135 


t^qtoi 


136 


tir&qt5& 


137 


thatoi 


138 


thleneugh^ 


'39 


thlin^qtoi 


140 


thltirqt6k 


141 


tifnggno^ 


142 


tlngn^ko^ 


143 




144 




H5 


tdi 


146 


t5g'n&rqtd& 


147 


t6qto^ 


148 


t6qto& 


149 


tdrin^kk^t&qtd^ 


150 


torin^qtoi 


'51 


tugn^ 


152 


tuy^koS. 


»53 


uethllkkoi 


»54 


ug^ikoi 


155 


iim6t5i 


156 


unitoi 


157 


iinrftch^di 


158 


tinrapiik&td^ 


159 


iiqtoi 



Trans, 



seor&k& 



sk&ki 
skoriki 



stilleik^ 



th^rika 



thlin^qk^ 



tlngn^ki 
tingn^kkik^ 

tittaaka 

tktifk^rlUqk^ 



t6g*narqt&ka 



uethlikk^ki 
uge^kilki 
umet^kii 
unitik^ 



tinraplk^rik^ 
ug^kii 



Mode. 

CXXXVIII 

CXVII 

XCV 

CLXXVII 

CLXXVIII 

CLXIV 

XXXIII 

XXXVI 

LXXIV 

XXXIV 

LVII 

XII 

XIV 

XV 

XII 

XIII 

XXIII 

XXIV 

CXLVIII 

LXXII 

XXXI 

LXXXII 

XXII 

XIX 

XLVIII 

XXXVIII 

XCVII 

LIV 

CL 

CLXIII 

CXXII 

CXXI 

CXLVII 

CLX 

LXXVIII 

LXIII 

LXV 

XXXII 

LXIV 

XCII 

LXII 



i66 



ESSENTIALS OF INNUIT 





Jntrans, 


1 60 




161 




162 


vathieqtod 


163 


vetod 


164 


vingkdtdd 


165 


virqtod 


166 


ylko^ 


167 


ydqpadqto^ 


168 


yaqtoa 


169 


y&raOktoi 


170 


yiraoyiiqtoi 


^71 


yitoqtod 


172 


yuetod 


173 


yugha 


»74 


yug'n^qko^ 


175 


yukoi 


176 


zhe&qtod 



Trans, 

utiikii 

titstafk&riik& 
v&thUg^kd 
vetdkii 



yikiik^ 
yiqpa&r&k^ 



y&t6qki 
yuetilkd 



yug'ndqk&k^ 

yukilkd 

zhe&r&kii 



Mode. 

LXXV 

XXXVII 

LXXVII 

XI 

X 

XCIX 

CXIX 

L 

XXIX 

CXXIV 

cxxv 

XX 

VIII 

CXLVI 

CXII 

CXIV 

XXV 



Mode I 
This mode denotes possession. Its characteristic is : 

— iig^t5X 



plngk&to^ 



chlLmuk pingkdchet 



ch^muk pingkllthhuyet what 



ch^muk ptngk^ch^kset 



have you ? 



had you ? 



will you have ? 



I have = possess 

' ek^mrdngk^to^ 

I have a sled 

' ek^mr^ngkilthhdugn^ 
I had a sled 

ekdmrdngkich^kd^ 
I will have a sled 



With a dual or plural object the following forms may be used : 



Sinj;. mingkutingkatoi 

Dual mingkutug'nuk pYngk&to^L 

Plur, mlngkutntik pingkiltoil 



I have a needle 
I have two needles 
I have needles 



]l81r0g*ntik n^gkadngldLtOft may also be used to express / Jiazfe two 



needles (581). 

To express I have oncy I have two, etc., see 589. 



MODE I 167 

I have y in the sense of to keep, etc., see 846. 
This mode employs for its negative Mode II. (See 451 also.) 
The sound of i in tingkfttOft is sometimes like a very short u. 
Some is expressed by the modalis case. 

chtomuk kdnnYmchek^ngk^chet 

have you something to tell t = what news have you ? 

kinra&r&qt^ngk^td^ ip^ntin I have a word to say to you 

549. This mode has also the force of the substantive verb. 

nalithluha^t^ngk&tdk k& m^ne is there a sick person here ? 

nauthlugwo^ I am sick, I am an invalid (Mode LXVIII) 

nauthlulri^ one who is sick (166); k& (interrogative) (718) 

icn^rukt^gk^tdk there is a snowdrift 

killuput !ngr!ktS.'6gk^t5k there is a mountain back of us (i.e., our house) 

killo^k ninvihdcho^qtdngk^t6k there is a small lake back of them 

kittet kwlqt^ngk&t5k there is a river in front of them 

These examples show also the use of the possessive locatives (390). 
AgiyQn k^nniiqt5k t^ngkiqt^ngle God said. Let there be light 

This is an example of the imperative (494). 

550. Particular attention is drawn to combinations with other 
modes, which convey distinct difference in the meaning. 

kemuqtit^ngkKlthhuy&kdk m&ne 

there was a dog here (but he is not here now) 

kemiiqt!t&ngks^k6k m^ne 

there was a dog here (and he is here yet) 

&kkd t&m^ne yukt^ngkllthhuy^kYlra^ m^ne 

in the old times there were inhabitants here (but there are 
none now) (for ikkft t&m&n6 see 623) 

yukt&ngks&kok m&ne 

there was a man here (and he is here yet) 

551. Combinations with the augmentative and diminutive : 

kw!q char6van!ngkat6k the river has a current = there is a 

current in the river 
Oni kw!q char6vantiqpangkat6k this river has a strong current = great 



1 68 ESSEATTIALS OF JNNUIT 

taun& kwiq ch&rovinchodr^ngk&tdk that river has a slow current = little 
kinIkch2Lp^ngk&t5k there is much snow 

kinikch&chd&ringk&t5k there is little snow 

552. 

i€p& ^tkuchodringk^thlune ill^k hw^tii ULkt&lutuk, mine ch^la kokine 

gnllthkithluku ikdqtat&lOne 
the other one having a little coat with sleeves short as this, and its length 

reaching to his middle here 

Note i. — In this description the narrator touches his arm above the wrist when 
sajring hwAtfi, to show how short the sleeves were, and at mAnS chill he shows how far 
the coat reached. 

yuk !m{ni kizhgemQk &ni!inS,ne, itkwel&ma, kimmCiksil&mathlu kwu- 
tlingkithlunehdk ch!skii^'ne gnllthkithlukuk, 5k5qsiin^thlunethlu 
kikkdm^ktin, ill6mit!ngkithlunethlu un^tme nugethtin 

this man never goes outside of the kazhga, having no coat and no boots ; 
he has breeches reaching to his knees, and he has an old cap just 
covering the crown of his head, and worn-out mittens (i.e., his 
fingers protrude) 

Note 2. — This last expression is a peculiar idiom ; nfigA = the tip^ and ** hand ** is 
expressed by fingers (749). 

1st 2Lllemit!ngkitd& un&tmi nugethtin 
2d illemitingkitutfi unitvtit nugethtin 
J// illemitlngkitdk un^tme nugethtin 

yiik ink&t5k plkin6 cheutiig'ne gnllthkithlukuk kinningkithlung 

a man came out up there (i.e., on the bank) having a mouth reaching 
to his ears 

553. The various modifications concerning possession constitute 
distinct modes. 

I have muchy many^ is expressed by using plngkfttOft with the modalis 
of ftmthltlq, ftmthlilniik, ftmthliirrilt. 

^mthltir'mtik p!ngkit5^ I have much 

^mthltir'ntik p!ngk^t5^ I have many 

/ have a part (244). 

ill&hrentik p!ngk^t5& I have a part 

To have plenty^ none, etc. (See following modes.) 
To have^ in sense of keepings etc., see 846. 



MODES II, III, IV, AND V 1 69 

Mode II 

Signifies to tuzve^ to get, to acquire^ to become possessed of. 

This differs from Mode I, which means to liave (i.e., to possess), 

— ^6ft 
kiyighd^ kiy&ngnlngghtir'in^ 

kiyingkum^ kly^ngkr^m^ 

kiy&gh^lkim^ 

mlngkutghod I get a needle ekimr&nggho^ I get a sled 

itkugho^L I get a coat kiy^gho^ I get a canoe 

554. 

keto^ne h5k !mln& ^m^Lkkl^ k!y^ghdk, niit^n &gno^ro5kklutuk unine 

kitmiiqne 
then that one, his elder brother, got a kiyak, so they both would paddle 

about down there in front of their home 

KiyingnSrUne, when /le got a kiyak. This conveys the idea of 
becoming old enough to be able to manage a kiyak. Among the 
Eskimo this corresponds to the assumption of the * toga virilis ' 
among the Roman youth. 

Mode III 

Signifies to acquire a newy fresh object, 

— if^iiqhr&^Oft 

^ggho^rutttngntiqhr^gho^ I get a new paddle 

kemtiqti&ngniiqhr^lid& I get a fresh dog 

Mode IV 

This is a compound and signifies possessing a ftew object, 

iQ;niiq]ir&ii^tO& 
kemiiqttin'gntiqhr&i{^k&to& I have a new dog 

Mode V 

A compound signifying the desire to obtain a new object, 

il^iiq]ir&g'yttqtO& 
^nggho2biittii%niiqhr^'ytiqto& I wish to get a new paddle 



I/O 



ESSENTIALS OF JNNUIT 



Mode VI 
Denotes not havings deprived of. 



nuyitoil 

ndchito^ 

siito^ 

illitoa 

ntippitok 

chatitdk 

yuqtit6k 

peitiqklto^ 

ek^mrito^ 



-ltd* 

I am bald = I have no hair 

I am bareheaded = I have no cap 

I am crazy 

I am alone 

it is still 

there is nothing 



= I have no sense 
= I have no others 
= it has no sound 



it is deserted 
I have no boots 
I have no sled 



= it has no man 



The various forms are easily recognized. 



6k&mrltd^ 

ek^mrithlo^ 

ek^mrilthkum^ 

k&nntiqtok ilt^ne ilngyltnelukQ 
k^nntlmchekito^ ^qch^k^lra^miik 



ek^mril^m^ 

eklmritilthrailgn& 

ekimraune 

he says his father has no canoe 
I have nothing to tell of interest 



From the verbs in ^Oft, in this mode, come such derivatives as : 



slillgliok 



one with no sense = an idiot 



Also signifies not having. 



Mode VII 



— et6ft 



nechueto^ 


I do not hear 


petaa 


I have not = I lack 


pelugwetdi 


I have no boots 


yuet6k 


there is nobody 


uzvetol 


I have no sense 


^shetok 


it lacks goodness 
= it is bad 



555. HwS hwfttkftpik p6t0ft is a stronger expression than p6t0ft, / liave 
nothing at all (726). 

556. PetOk is commonly used to express he is not here^ when a 
person calls another. 

grr.ll5k t&ngketok, t^ngk!ngkthl&t5k ^kdqtCim ^k!nk^lthhr&ntik 
the moon has no light ; it reflects light from the sun 



MODES VII, VIII, AND IX 171 

iy5kochet5k he lacks judgment 

akulthketdk it is very frequent (i.e., has no intervals) 

From verbs in ^Oft : 

ch^qthuelgh5k a virtuous person = one without sin 

It'neyuelgnok a childless person 

From this mode are derived the forms given in 133. 

Mode VIII 
This closely resembles the preceding and signifies never. 

— yuetsa, — yuStaka 

miyuyuetoi I never go up iyiyuetoi I never go 

^nyueto^ I never go out 

Other forms : ftnyaithktimi, ftnyuSl&mi, ftny^nS. 

Mode IX 

Denotes no more, no longer any, 

— -uto4 
This mode is closely identified with the preceding one, as : 

petoi I have not perutod I have no more 

peluguerutod I have no more boots 

ilkkelgnuerutod I have no more debt 

iyutol I go no more, I am impeded 

perdskum^ when I have no more 

Ingr!rut5k there are no more mountains 

yuerut6k there are no more people 

chdtirut5k there is nothing more 

tumirutok there is no more trail 

peurutka mine which are no more (i.e., my deceased parents) (796) 

naenlrututn you have no longer any voice (said when one is hoarse) 

557. P6ratQtn k£, have yon no moref This is an idiom which 
corresponds to the English question, liave you any vtoref 

iepirute an idiomatic term for a deceased wife 

peruthlo^ peruskum^ 

perutlhra&gnii perutiiksaune 



1/2 ESSENTIALS OF INNUJT 

Mode X 
Signifies having a place to act in. 

This is composed of yQc and iriUigk£t(ML 

iydg'vlngk^to^ I have a place to go to 

dn^g'vlngkiltod I have a shelter to go tc 

5kizhvlngk&t5& I have a refuge to go to 



MopE XI 
The privative mode is most common, as : 

iyigVetd^ I have no place to go to 

^6mveto& I have no place to sit 

thlevet^^ I have no place to put it 

mlnkf6t5^ I have no place to sew in 

t&ngfetikIL I have no place to look at it 

Mode XII 

— ttitSil, — atilngktO& 

eklydrqstitoll I have no one to aid me 

n^svitstitd^ I have no one to show me 

kQnntikstito^ I have no one to love me 

The negative, being the most used, is presented first. The posi- 
tive examples are: 

ekiy5rqsttingk^to3, I have a helper 

k!lnniikstiingldlt5k he has one to love him 

Mode XIII 
A combination meaning t/ie desire to have some one, 

— stilngTiiqtM 

ekiy5rqsttingytiqt5& I wish to have an assistant 

ekiydrqsttingyunrSto^ I do not want any helper 



MODES XIV, XV, XVI, AND XVII 1/3 

Mode XIV 

This is a stronger expression than the preceding. 

— 8tkitS& 
ekiy5rqstkltd& I have absolutely no one to help me 

Mode XV 

— Btilng^anft, — stniinrttM 

tghukumS, tghulod 

tghd^m^ 

^giyul^rtdngghun^ I am a priest 

n&rklstiinggnun^L I am a teacher 

kSpQtstiingghunS, I am a trader 

pllle^kstiingghun^ I am a worker 

plll6llkstnulthh5ugni I was a worker 

pIlle^Lkstting^un^ I am the maker of it 

pHIe^stk^g'n^ I am the maker of both 

V 

pllleikstk^tn^ I am the maker of them 

From this mode are derived the forms given in 144. 

p!ll€^ste the maker 

ch&lllstghuch3k& my being a workman 

ek&mristghuchakii my being a sled maker 

Mode XVI 
Signifies ftearfy no more, 

-rfit]iUr&qtO& 

yu€rutn£ir^qt5k there are nearly no more people 

ntiy!rutna^r^qt5k he has nearly no hair 

ytierutnair^in when there are nearly no more people 

ytierutna^r&ngr3,n although there are nearly no more people 

Mode XVII 
Signifies to aboundy have plenty, etc. 

— Uqt(Ul, — UnrttM 

peUqto^ I have plenty 

p^Ulthhough^ I had plenty 

p€lSrqch$hkd& I will have plenty 



174 ESSENTIALS OF IXNUIT 

peUr'lo^ pel!1radgh& 

pele&md pele^ 

pellrkumd 

yilne KngilHqtdk k& is it very mountainous there ? 

ilwdne kwellqtdk the country over there abounds 

in rivers 
yuliqtok it is populous 

kdnnuqtok {ssor!Hr*neluku kwfgum pignd 

he says that there are plenty of seals at the mouth of the river 

From this mode are derived the forms given in 130. 



Mode XVIII 

Denotes that the act is not yet petfomied, 

— kshitSi, — kshitlkl 
Very often the characteristic is not aspirated, as : 

chilnrlksYtod ndskulgnu thlimntik I have not yet recovered from my 

headache 
netukksiiafcheu have you not heard it yet ? 

As a general rule, the kahi is very strongly emphasized. 

kuk^shitdk he is not yet half-way 

iyikshitok ki has he not gone yet ? 

tketukshitdk he has not come yet 

stukshlt5k k^ has it not yet passed down ? 

(i.e., a boat) 

This verb is applied only to vessels, either steamers or sail- 
boats. 

K&nntlqsitOft, / do not talk yet. From this is derived a term 
used to express baby; kftnntiqsilgiiOk, one ivho does not yet talk, as, 
* infans.* 

Awauksit&kS expresses / remember it (i.e., / have not yet forgotten 

it) (780). 

plkshitoi I have not yet 

Examples of other forms : 

plksilthkuml pYkslthl5^ 

piksiUm^ p!ksa~un$ 



MODES XIX AND XX 1 75 

Mode XIX 
Denotes an effort or attempt to act, 

— Ingn&kkdi, — Ingn&klnritdl 
— Ingn&kkSki, — IngniklnrSUkft 

iy^ngn^kko^ I endeavor to go 
k^thlitifngn&kkd^ « I try to speak 

cheumiiqtingn^kkd& I try to go ahead 

keput{ngn&kinr6t^& I do not try to buy it 

pingnikk^k^ I attempt to do it 

letifngn^kk^lki I strive to learn it 

&shingn&kkd& I try to be good 

p!ngn^kkilra& (from pingnftkkftk&, one 7vho 

tries) 
^hYngn&kk!lraet yut men who try to be good 

There is another mode resembling this, which conveys the idea of 
attempting the act in a delicate manner (Mode XCI). 

tup^qtingnilkk&kil I try to wake him 

tup^qshigilk^ I try gently to wake him 

Other forms : — ingnftkklOft, — Ingn&ktLfkenS, — IngnAkkilm&, etc. 
This mode combines with Mode XIV and forms a new one, as : 

— ]dqtlngxi&kk0&, — Idqtlngn&kk&kft 

lyingnakko^ I try to go 

iy^ngklqtingn^ko^ I try again to go 

Mode XX 
Denotes setting out to put the act into execution, 

— yat5qt6ft, — yitdqka 

agiyuyitdqtoa I go to pray 

t^ng*nSrs&qt6qka I go to see it 

^kizhgerhau'luk nuHqklutuk uet&lraek. Atsfuchimehok ^fr^rnug'me uen^ 

sl6qt&rriy^t6qt6k 
there were two old ptarmigan who were married. Then one day her 

husband (i.e., the husband) went out to slide on the ice. 

td&thlu ch^t!lletne Imin^ uenil em^qp!lle5y^qt5g'lune 

so, then, one time her husband went out to hunt on the sea 



\ 



176 ESSENTIALS OF INNUJT 

Mode XXI 

Shows the act is about to begin, 

k€patlk&Ut5&. k^putk&tfttiiraM 
kepufik&tlriki, keputkXUtiiraak& 

This mode is frequently combined with others. 

558. AtiXt& is the expression for by and by^ presently^ etc. 

^ndkkla&n iy&kdtiltfir$t5& I will not start to go because of the wind 

{rkukkletkdtilqto^ I am about to die 

irkukkletk^tithlimtn^ (76) just as we are at the point of death 

V 

m&tii h5k tkek^tiqtuk nun&m&g*niin 

when they both were just coming to their house 

iy^k^t^lthhoungh^ iy^kdt&mil 

iy^k&t^chghkd^ iy&k&t^k^md 

iy^kilt^kum^ ly&k^tiir'ldd 

Ninglirqk£t&yiig'nXk0k, it looks as if the cold weather is about to 
moderate. This is an example of a combination of this mode with 
CXII and XVII. The root is ningUl, cold weather. 

Mode XXII 
Signifies the start to do, 

k6put{nggho& I start in to trade keputingr^td^ I do not start in to trade 
keputingrilmi keputfngkumil 

keputingnlmkiin keputfnggnlnggntir'm^ 

k^thl&tlngghoS, I start to speak 

pinggno^ I start to do 

ly^g'nKngglidd I have something to start with 

Note. — iy&g'ntrqtiUl, lyftgnlrUcft also means to begin. 

Mode XXIII 
Denotes duration of the action.. 

Note. — This mode is generally used in the verbs of place. 

m&ntd^ I am here m&nt&qto^ I continue to stay here 

numitta^ I am in the house nOmttt^qto^ I continue in the house 

n^llahdqto^ I am doubtful n&llah6qt^qto^ I remain undecided 

559. 'J'y suis j'y reste' is exactly rendered by hwtotoft hwSntiqtOI. 



MODES XXIV, XXV, AND XXVI 1 77 

Mode XXIV 

Signifies petforp^iing the action at inter-oals, with weakness^ etc. 

-tItUrftrqtO&, — tilr&nr«t5& 
— tittlrlr&kft, — tlr&nrlUUdi 

kinniiqt^r&rqtdi I speak in a weak voice, mutter 

iy^Lqt&r^qto^ I go slowly, weakly 

iyikt^r&r&lra^ one who takes his time 

Mode XXV 

Denotes the completion^ ending up, finishing the act, 

— zhSllqtM, — zhe&r&ki 

chill^vizhzhe^qtdd I accomplish (my) work 

m!ngkuvzhe&riki I finish my sewing 

560. This may be expressed also by 
mingkik^ pivzh6&r&k& my sewing, I finish doing it 

Mode XXVI 

Denotes a moral freedom or ability to perforin the act. 

p€iUiqkO&, penftqkliiritdi 
penftqk&k&i pCniqklnrltlkl 

pen&qk!nr&t&ki I cannot do it (i.e., I am not allowed, it is illicit) 

pen^qlckum^ 

when I am able (sometimes pSy^nftqkktim& is said, with same meaning, 
or, when it is convenient for me) 

iyag'niqkoa I can go (i.e., I am free to go) 

Many combinations may be made. 

plnkiqn^qldLk^ I am able to do it again 

pen^qknksltfirataki I am not yet able to do it 

561. 

pen^qkdk it is possible 

tokondqkdk it is deadly = fatal 

tokonek^n third singular of kfim& 

^ngl^n^qkdk it is pleasant = agreeable 

^llingndqk6k it is fearful 

n^thluniqkdk it is unknown ^ 

chdpm^qkdk it is difficult 

These and many others in this mode are used impersonally as 
adjectives. 



178 



ESSENTIALS OF INNUIT 



Mode XXVII 

pCniksikiU, pCnikstiiritikA 

pendksiiko^ I ought 

pen^ks^kiiki I ought to do it 

p6n^ks^Ickuin& p^nlks^ndmi 

pendks^k^^m^ pendksdk&ngghtir'm& 

netniksilk&kii I ought to hear (obey) him 

tilringn&ks^k^ki I ought to understand it 

iy^g'niks&kod I ought to go 

ydvut iy^g'n^ks&kutfi you ought to go there 

Note. — Frequently shlkU is said in place of sIk5A. 



Mode XXVIII 

Signifies to endeavor to perform the action, 

plngiiik8lkO&, plngn&ksinritM 
plngnAksIkUdl, plngniksinritikA 



/ try to do 



netlngn^ksdk^k^ 

tilreghlngn^ksilk^kii 

^ngingn^ks^koS, 



I endeavor to obey him 
I try to understand it 
I attempt to get out 



Mode XXIX 



kepucliXqtO&, 
kepuchXqki, 

kepuch&lthhougnd 

kepuch&lthho^kl 

kepuch^qche^ 

kepuchillthhuyed 

kepuchlq'loi 

kepuch^lradgnd 

nSthliinrilthkuraku tiyiqtdi 
n^thlundlthkumku tlnrach^qtod 
kepuchukumku kepuch^qk^ 
iyag'yiqtod ekararinglckuma 
ekiyuryiqkd taugw^m utlkiyikigha 

kithlun pe^qsntik 
pelqto^ 



kepucliXiiritO& 
kepuchinritiki 



Neg. 



kepuch^lthhiinrStd^ 

kepuch^lthhonrat^kS, 

kepuchdnr^che^ 

kepuch^Ithhiinr^ched 

kepuchilq'nelo^ 



if I had known it I would have come 
if I had known it I would not have come 
if I wanted to buy it I would buy it 
I would go if I had a sled 
I would have helped him, but he did 

not wait for me 
how would we both act ? 
I would do 



MODES XXIX, XXX, AND XXXI 1/9 

nsfuthluthlenekumil numecMqtod 

if I should get sick I would stay in the house 

n&thld&ki kemiiqtlngkruche^ taugwim pingkingghtir'ina kepusilgutlik- 

s^nrStti 
I do not know whether he has dogs, but even if he has he would not sell them 

kithlun mumlqch&qcheu Qn2L how would you translate this ? 

A second group in this mode takes y before the characteristic. 

— y&qtO&, — y&iir«tO& 
iyig'yiqtoi I would go tly^qto^ I would come 

kithlun iya,g*y2.qchet ? how would you go ? 

A third group takes 8. 

— aHqtM, — 8lnr«tdl 
— slqki, — sinratiki 

kithlun k&nrutiiksiqcheu ? how would you tell it ? 

Mode XXX 

Signifies that without doubt or question the act will occur, A 
variation of the preceding mode. 

— chiqplqt5&, — cliXqpIqtik& 

Iqch^qpKqto^ I would certainly fall 

kepuchiqpiqt^ki I would surely buy it 

taguydqpiqt&k^ I would surely take it 

iy6mch^qp!qt^ki I would surely break it 

Mode XXXI 

p€rthlinSqt5&, pirthliiiinrMd& 
pirthliniqki, pirthlinSnraUUdI 

ilnokl^rthlin^tdk it always blows = continually 

kauw^qthlin&to^ I always sleep 

p^rthlinatoa, — thliniki I do always 

Note i. — This mode combines with many others. 

Ikkitstdthlin^qkd I always keep it clean 

ikldr&kX, / clean it This in Mode IX is ikkitst&kft, I cause it to 
be clean. 

Note 2. — This mode gives the group of nouns in thlinfik. (See 197.) 

nunaki ka^kklinSraligwdk ray country, it is continual summer 

nalithluthlin^qto^ I am always sick 



l8o ESSENTIALS OF INNUIT 

Mode XXXII 

Declares the actor unable to perfonn the act, 

— finnitOft, — anniOki 

This generally implies physical inability. For example, if one 
is told to do something which he considers beyond his strength to 
accomplish, he will answer as follows : 

m!kk!li!gnugndin^ p^Onit^ki I cannot do it because I am small 

peunitdi I am unable 

peunit^Lki I cannot do it 

peunilthkum^ if I could not 

MTkfikima ikfXkkOyQiiItfik, he is too small to rtm {because of his 
smallness he is unable to run). 

Mode XXXIII 

Signifies to command the act, 

-4kUc&. -^Idnritlki 

keputsk^kH I tell him to buy it lyilskeke tell them to go 

pisk&ki I tell him to do it iydskik^ I tell him to go 

tisk&k^ I tell him to come akf&tsk&ki I tell him to bring it 

iy&skeu tell him to go away uet^shk6u tell him to stay 

kinruzhghwu y&ne ut&k^kld^ tell him to wait for me over there 

562. Many verbs in this mode may be translated simply as 
/ want it so ; as, minskSkft, / want it here. 

k^trusk&k^ I want it white tunuskiikil I want it black 

ingghlsk&k^ I want it big mikkiskik^ I want it small 

Mode XXXIV 

Expresses the authority to enforce the performance of the act, 

— stlkH, — stnritlki 

keputst^k^ I make him buy it ghKU^qst^kd I cause him to laugh 

pltst&k^ I make him do it iy^qst^ki I make him go 

nlnglKm utr^qst^kut the cold made us return 

^ngle^n thlem5qtor^ki emum &ten nuHqtuskluku 

having grown up, his father used to urge him to marry 



MODES XXXV AND XXXVI l8l 





Mode 


XXXV 




— fkitU, 


— fk&nrMU 




— fkirUdl, 


fk&nrat&k& 


plfk^r^k^ 




I make him do it 


iy&fkilrak^ 




I make him go 


n^ngttifk^r^k^ 




I make him suffer (i.e., endure) it 


• 

mples of other forms in this mode : 


pifk&kumi 




pits^ki^fkikum^ 


pifk&m^ 




pitsikiifk&k&ma 


pifkSne 




pitsakiifkSne 


tuktifk&raka 




I enrich him 


chSg'nWkaraka 




I strengthen him 


nauthltifk^r&ki 




I make him ill 


tirlniifklLta^ 




I inform, explain (i.e., make to 
understand) 



Combinations are frequent. 

krlst5k thle^kimthwu kimtntin ch^muk umyu&tktifk^r^l^qtikut 

when we make the sign of the cross, what does it always remind us of t 

V 

umyuS.tktifk^r^l^r^k^ I always make him remember 

V 

umyu^tkiifk^r^l^qt&gni it always reminds me 



Mode XXXVI 

This mode has about the same meaning as the preceding one, 
but it is stronger. 

— skM, — 8k5r&k& 

iy^kor&ki I force him to go ly^skiinrat^k^ I do not force him to go 

keputskor^k^ I force him to buy it 

umyu&kskdr^k^ I make him remember it 

ly^skokumku when I force him to go 

The transitive is more difficult to render, as naklTkBkWJ signifies 
/ demattd love or / must be loved^ I want to be loved, 

Agiy&n hwXnlr&tniln nikUkskPk, God demands our love^ God wants to 
be loved by us. 

The passive is nUdikskQmaugiiX (Mode LXXIII). 



1 82 ESSENTIALS OF INNUIT 

Mode XXXVII 

Signifies to oblige some one to perform the act. 

-atttttfUrikft 

Mode XXXVIII 
Signifies to always oblige one to act, 

— &ctt£kii«Uqki 

Mode XXXIX 

Denotes a cessation of the act for a time, 

— nlnrlqtSlit — nlnririki 

k^putn&nilqto^ I cease trading for a while 

n&kkllkn^nrarigh^ he loves me no longer . 

Note. — Generally Imthltr'mftk, etc^ is used with this mode. 

^mthlSr'miik nQn&tninriqtdi 

I cease (desist) visiting the village so much 

Mode XL 

Signifies that the effort was in vain^ proved abortive^ unsuccessful^ 
etc., although attempted often, 

— UriylkU, — UriyUcUcft 

iy^'l^riy&kd^ I frequently go in vain 

keputl&riy^kiki I often am unsuccessful in trade 

tiingriliriyikllraigha I frequently practise sorcery ineffectually 

Mode XLI 

Denotes a repetition of the act, 

— Uqt&&, — Idqtiir^tU 
— Uqtikft, — ]dqtftrit&k& 

keput&ki I buy it k6putiikiqt&k^ I buy it again 

pinkiqt&ki I do it again 

p!nk!qthlo^ p!nk!giskum& 

plnklqch^m^ pinkigsghwti 




MODES XLI, XLII, XLIJI, XLIV, AND XLV 1 83 

k&nniiqt5k tketiikiqnitnelune up'n&qklLk&n taugw^m 

he says that he will not come again till spring = only when it is spring (604) 

iy^nkiglskumi when I go again 

Again is also expressed by ftm with the simple verb. 
Several examples of this may be seen in the stories (799). 
This mode combines with several others. 

iyinkiqchiiqtd& I want to go again 

pinkiqchunrSt^ki I do not want to do it again 

Mode XLII 

Denotes ability to repeat the act, 

— klqnlqkM, — klqnlqklnritU 
— klqnlqkUci, — klqiilqklnrat&k& 

This is a compound of Modes XLI and XXVI. 

plnkiqn&qkUki I am able to do it again 

Mode XLIII 

— klqtttktirSqki 
p!nklqttikt^r&ghwu do it over and over 

Mode XLIV 

Signifies never again, 

— klqniratM 
iy^nkiqnirutd^ I never go again 

Mode XLV 
Signifies performing the act for the first time, 

— pDiiqtU, — pDugwUdi 

ly&piltiqto^ I go for the first time 

^nlqplliiqtoi I retire for the first time 

m^plluqtd^ I arise for the first time 

kepupllugw&ldl I buy it for the first time 

kiinrupllugw^Udi I say it for the first time 

tisktiffiliigw^^ I call him for the first time 

Examples of the various forms of this mode : 

kepupiltig'ld^ kepupiluthl^rkiki 

kepupiltiqchei kepupiluntik 



1 84 ESSENTIALS OF INNUIT 

563. The form in pmg'ml closely resembles this (526); however, 
the difference will be seen by comparing : 

kepupilig*md before I buy 

kepupiluqpilig'mil before I buy for the first time 

Imin^ kilzhge t&ngSrqpillg'm^u before he sees that kazhga 

imin^ k^zhge tilngSrqpiliig'liiku he seeing that kazhga for the first time 

iyiqpiliiqpiHg'mi before I go for the first time 



Mode XLVI 

« 

Expresses after, 

— mliifilfiil, — mlrilkft 

As this is one of the most frequently used, and as it enters into 
so many combinations of the verb, various examples of it are g^ven. 

kepuchemlLraugh^ after I trade kepuchem^raiki after I buy it 

kepuchem^rilo^ kepuchem^rakum^ 

k^puchem^ra^mi kepuch&n&rilthki 

iy^g'yS.kon^k lya'um&rakumi taugwS.m 

do not go until after I have gone = go not only when after I go 

V 

tkechShkok iy&m^rakdmug'niik he will come after we both go 

tinghum^rachimi after my seeing 

t&nghum^rachilthm& after my having seen 

Mode XLVII 

This expresses being in constant use, habitual. 

— ^naliqtSli, — ^naniXkl 

t^m^tn AgiyutCUn n^kkliknaur^ighi may God love me 

6mum maliqhi^ldg'lo&n kinrutnauri yugeilthhiiniluti&ng 

his old grandmother was accustomed to relate that many people lived 
there 

tin^nehok kitmuqne ikkwenaiiqtiik, y&kf&ntin ly^saun&tOk 

so down there in front (of their abode) they both used to play, without 
ever going far away 

keputnauqtdi I am in the habit of trading 

k6putnauqche& 

k6putnilr&JLgh& 



MODES XLVIII, XLIX, Z, AND LI 185 

Mode XLVIII 
Signifies to Itave the habit of perfomting the act, to be accustomed to, 

f keputlttoika I buy it 

* \ kinrutlttoika. I say it 

Past kSurutlttuySLklLki I used to tell him 

Mode XLIX 
This is very similar to the preceding. 

— klinni'UqtU, — klinnlL'Ulqki 

nikkllkklinn^'l&qk^ I love him constantly 

l€tnauqthlinn&'liqtd& I study continually 

Mode L 

Signifies being on the point of acting, 

— ySqpaAqtM. — ySqpa&nr^tU 
— y&qpallrUdU — ^y&qpaAiirat&k& 

iy^'y^qpailh^r'lo^ t^keugn^ 

I was about to go and changed my mind 

tSguy^qpalh^rluku tiiket^^ 

I was just about to take it and drew back 

keputk^tly^qkluku t^etilkii 

I was starting to trade and gave it up 

Note. — TftkSfl^iii means / change my mind; chSn tAkkiySt, why do you change your 
mind? 

^qt5r'y^qpailr^k^ I almost touch it 

taguy^qpa^nrat&k^ I did not quite grab it 

iyig'yiq'pailqtoi I am almost going 

Mode LI 

This expresses that the act may in all likelifiood be perfortnedf but 
it will be at some indefinite time, 

kepuch^^ttU, kSp&ch^^tXk& 

p!ll6ch$qgh^t^kil probably I will make it 

iyaqchgqghittoi I reckon that I will go 

Note. — This is a futare, defective mode. 



1 86 ESSE ATI A LS OF INNUIT 

Mode LI I 
This is a combination of the preceding and Mode XLI. 

— Uqcliftq^ttM 

iy^nklqchSqgh^tto^ perhaps I will go again 

pillingklqch^gn^tik^ maybe I will make it again 

Mode LIII 

Signifies to act promptly, 

— &qtU, -nftqt&rltM 
-^qUkft, — ftqthrit&k& 

iy^^qto^ I go immediately 

kepuchlmtiin kemiiqt^ iy^^qt5k the dog as soon as bought went 

off at once 

564. When a block of wood, etc., splits at a blow of the axe, they 
say XvgSqtOk, it halves at oftce. 

Mode LIV 
Signifies performing the act with energy and speed, 

— tOg'narqtU, — t0g'iiiirqt&k& 

iy^qt5g'n^rqto^ I go fast 

pet5g'n^rqt&k^ I do it rapidly 

kemtiqt5g'n^rqt5k he is a good strong puller 

(i.e., dog) 





Mode LV 


Signifies to make. 


- 




— USu^, — lleXkX 


pilleugha 


pHle^m^ 


pilleika 


plllilthhough^ 


plllea 


ptlllchghkaa 


pillekum^ 


pllle 


The object made is 


combined with this ending. 


ek&mr^lleugh^ 


I make a sled 


ek^mdlthhougn^ 


I made a sled 


ek&mdch^hko^ 


I '11 make a sled 



MODES LV, LVI, AND LVII 1 8/ 

t&nglull6ugn^ I make snowshoes 

nllleugh^ I make a house 

chUll^ugn^ I make something 

This mode combines with many others. 

pllleyug^&kd^ I would like to make 

p!innklqt5& I make again 

p!lletugn& I know how to do 

plUelo&qto^ I make it well 

565. There are many other ways of expressing to make^ to do^ etc. 
PeagiiX (686) is frequently used, as : 

ek&mr^qpeughi I make a large sled 

gklLmraughlL I make a sled 

n^nne t^kk!lth5i where was it made t 

pniechghkutii ki lydkeniik will you make one like it ? 

ipit k^ pllle&k&n ' did you make it ? 

pllle^k^nrat5k k6ni iyokeniik nobody can make one like it 

566. The place where work is done is expressed by the suffix vik 
in composition with the characteristic of this mode. (See 117.) 

p!lle6r'vik work place (term for workshop, etc.) 

Mode LVI 

The following are a few examples of the many variations of the 

mode of making. 

— nnie&kft 

S.kngr'nill€^ki I make something to prevent hurt 

hence ikn^r'nillet^k a thimble 

Another variation is 

kltschilthkuchar^k^ I make a preventer from drowning 

hence kltschilthktin a life preserver 



Mode LVII 

— stiUSUci, — stninrat&ki 

^knSrqstille^ldl I make something to hurt him 

tokdstille^ldl I make something to kill him 



1 88 ESSENTIALS OF IXNUJT 

Mode LVIII 

Signifies having an object made for oneself. 

— llfUtSi 

ekiLmrilifkitoi I am having a sled made 

nillifk^to^ I am hav-ing a house built 

tILnglulifkdtoS. I am ha\4ng snowshoes made 

^tkulifkitod I am having a coat made 

Past ekimr^llfkilthhoughi 
Ftit, ek^mr^lifkdch^kko^ 

EWmrJlHflriirhMriimlrfn, / 7/ have a sled made for you. Combined 
with Mode LXIII, miiiiTiHfW3rflgC<lriHL, / want to have a sled made. 

Mode LIX 

Signifies to start to have an object made, a combination with Mode 

XXI. 

— UangkftUqtM 

ek^mr^lle^ngkit^qtoi I am on the point of having a sled made 

Mode LX 

Signifies habitual action, and generally refers to some instrument. 

— Urikft 
peutukllr&k^ I used to do with it 

i^n^ the house I used to live in 

uetlvikl&r^ki \ yiik I used to live with the man 

Hn I used to live with him 

Mode LXI 

— kllrqtM, — klirftU 

pe^kklirqto^ pe&kkllrr^k^ I do like 

kepuch^klirqtol, kepuchlklirr^ki I buy like 

kepuch^klinratiLki I do not buy like (example of negative) 

This mode governs the aequalis case, as : 
ch^Ueydkklirr^i ^Ststtin I work it just as you = like you 



MODE LXH 189 

Mode LXII 

Denoting a desire to act, 

— tiqtM, — QnratM 
~ug&k&, — unratiUcX 

This is one of the important modes, and it combines with several 
others ; ilq is the characteristic. 

peyiiqtoi I want m6qshiiqto^ I want water 

lyig'ytiqtoi I want to go &pchiig'yakanik!n I want to ask you 

m^nchiiqto^ I want to be here m&Uqchuw&mkin I want to go with you 

iy^*yunral!ngram^ I although unwilling to go 

talim hok tugneghun pey(inrilghiir'ma ikf&kortok 

towards that (he), although unwilling, he runs = nolens volens 

unly^ldlldl ^nthliir'chiigyug'luttik 

I call him, wanting him to go with me to get roots 

kissuchtig'y^ukuk we two wish to marry 

hw^ne utikiyunratd^ I do not want to wait here 

uetilthrine uetlytiqto^ I want to be where he is 

n^vrachunrat^mkln I do not want to lend you 

In combination with Mode CLII : 
m6qstiq'meyughi I also want to drink 

In combination with Mode XLI : 
k^putiiktqchiiqtd^ I want to buy again 

In combination with Mode XIII : 
ekiy6rqstungyiiqtoa I want to have a helper 

In combination with Mode XCII: 
chen kdnntiqyunrapS.k^chet why are you not inclined to talk ? 

The various expressions of location frequently assume this mode : 

amdnchtiqtoi I want to be over there 

ch^m&nchdqtoi I wish to be down there 

kannfiqtok m^nchunrStnelune he says he does not want to remain here 

^psghwu ly^'yukin ask him if he wants to go 



igO ESSENTIALS OF INNUIT 

kAnn&qtdk kikifchautryOg'nalune itine p^tikklQkQ 
he says he wants some liniment for his father 

niklflcskOmaligh^ I want to be loved by him 

p€3rukumi when I want 

p6yuim^ for I want 

kn&rfhn p&ttfiy!iqcli£hk& the drift will cover it = will want to cover it 

NoTK. — Most verbs in this mode have o in the foarth adjutant forms (531). 
kepuch(iqt6& kepucho&m^ 



Mode LXIII 

Signifies the wish to do or the wish to /tave. It expresses will 
under a condition or supposition. 

ly^'yuge^koi I would like to go 

peyOge&ko^ I would like 

kepuchtige^k^kii I would like to buy it 

/ would like to go may also be expressed by iyig'nIlOft pCy fl gMriHL 
HwSgnl pSyfig*mttkI is an emphatic way of expressing / would like 
it myself. 

k&nntiqt6k mlLllIqchuge^kneluti^ 

he says that he would like to accompany you 

The following is generally used as the negative for this mode. 

Mode LXIV 

— unrichlkM, — ftnridULk&ki 

Mode LXV 
Signifies fiot inclined to act. 

— umet&ft, — umStXki 

iy^ig'yumetoa I do not care to go 

kepuchumet^k^ I do not care about buying it 

klinr^umetoi I am not inclined to talk 

This mode affords a more gentle way of saying no. 



MODES LXVI AND LXVII 191 

Mode LXVJ 
Signifies the wish or desire that the act be fetfomied, 

— kumiki 

ptskiimik^ I want him to do it 

p!sktim&kumku if I want him to do it 

k&truskum^k^ I want it white 

t6k6skumaka I want him to die 

nullqtuskum^iki I desire him to marry 

plskumalthho^iki I wanted him to do it 

plskum&k^mku when 1 want him to do it 



Mode LXVII 

— kaiigwM, — kaiinritM 
— kaugw&k&, — kaiinratikft 

ly^kaunr^to^ I cannot go 

tikfiikk^qkaunrat^ki I cannot believe it 

ughuvaqkaunratdk he cannot live 

iyS.g^qkaugw6^ I am to go 

kemugh^r^kaugwkk^ I can injure him 

itr^r^qkaulthhougn^ I had to go down 

itr^r^qkauchShko^ I will have to go down 

hw&nehwd taugw^im hwitft pe^raugw6k 
here ! it must be done this way only 

ke^ kltst^qkauw^ke ^ggy^t who can count the stars ? 

un^ ch^kaunrat5k this cannot do for anything (i.e., is of no use) 

Agiyut&m kdyQrqtlhrak yum aftakaunrgtik 

whom God hath joined man cannot put asunder 

ukut n^thlunrataqk^wit ingthlumilraet tilm^r'mtlng 
all who are baptized must know these things 

ttingrS.gniyem k& Ikklutmiin kemughar^kauw^kut 
can the devil injure us ? 

aieghaqkaunratakut ttingragniyag'muk 
we must not be afraid of the devil 

tket^qkalikune hw^td^ tkech^qtok 

he would be here now if he had started 



192 



ESSENTIALS OF lAAUIT 



k^nrut&qkauw&qpugn^ k& chen mllthklLr^dmtii, &t^m th&lthkam tutlau- 

chel nunlLmiin, chenme ug'ma&nQn miydksitll^qtd 
can you tell me why whenever we throw a stone up in the air it falls back 

to the ground ? why does it not keep right on up ? 



Mode LXVIII 

— gwM r — giUrikk 

Sifig, < — gwutii Dual \ — gut&k 
[ — gw5k [ — gwiik 

yugwoi I am a man Neg, 

yuch^hkoA 

yulthhdugh^ 

yulra^gh^ 



Plur, 



— gukut 
— gucM 
— gwnt 



yunr^toi 
yuloi 
yukumi 
yughim^ 



I am not a man 



Note. — It will be noticed that in the tenses and various parts gw5X disappears, and 
it is the same in the various modes which these verbs assume, as, tfikflgwoA = tukwetoft 
(Mode VII), takflqchagS&kU (Mode LXIII), tflkflfULriLkft (Mode CXXXVI). 



kem^ yugwoi 

peugwoi 

tukugwoS. 

ituleyugwoi 

ndza'uhulugwoS. 

n^skwaugwo^ 

^Udc^lththlaugwo^ 

mikkilligh ug woi 

yukkSrtiraugwo^ 

naiuthlugwd^ 

t^milthkugw6k 

t&ngalihulugwo^ 

thlerdrauqhulugwoi 

thlSriraugwoi 

chirrila'ugwoi 

mlkkiUlgho^raligwoi 

y uch oiraligwo^L 

yfiqpsfugwoi 

!qpa~ugw6i 

iqpaydgaugA^'od 

kalkklinira~ugw5k 

tikshtikklindraugh^n m^ne 

nut^raligwdk 



I am alone 

I am 

I am rich 

I am a singer 

I am a girl 

I am a young girl 

I am old 

I am a child 

I am a good man (200) 

I am sick 

it is complete = all 

I am a boy 

I am an orphan boy 

I am poor 

I am feeble 

I am a baby 

I am a dwarf (230) 

I am a giant (223) 

I am a big-eyed (monster) 

I am a large-eyed little fellow 

it is always summer 

because it is always winter here 

it is fresh (said of fish or game) 



MODES LXIX, LXX, LXXI, AND LXXII 1 93 

Mode LXIX 

Signifies being always long engaged at it; this differs very little 
from Mode LXX. 

tkechemil^qto^ tkechemil^kumi 

V V 

tkechem^lo^ tkechem^lim^ 

tkechemil^qchet tkechem^l^kend 

uetim^lS.qtd& I always stay long 

kepuchemdl^r^k^ I am always long at buying it 

piikchem^l^qtd^ I am always long at moving 

kaliw^m^ULqto^ I always sleep long 

Mode LXX 

Signifies long in performing the act, 

— chlmftkM, — chImXiirit&& 
— chlmIMM, — €hIiiiixiratXk& 

kepuchim^l5^ kepuchlm^kum^ 

kepuchlm^lr^nghi kepuchlmemi 

Mode LXXI 

Signifies performing the act little by little (620). 

— UkkdOrqtM, — kXkkWdl 
ch^ngldLkkd5rqtd^ I gradually get = I get little by little 

Mode LXXII 

This mode expresses that the act is performed in a manner 
unnoticed or unknown. It conveys the idea of a judgment or a 
realization of the occurrence of any event. 

— ^thlenSu^hi 
tkethleneut 

they have come (by this the speaker shows that the arrival took place 
without his knowing it just at the time) 

kcho^thl€n6iigh& 

I am frozen (here the speaker implies that he is only just now aware 
of it, as, I find out I am frozen) 



194 



ESSENTIALS OF llTNUIT 



^shethlenedk it is bad (i.e., after it has been seen and examined, etc.) 

p^l^qthleneutn you are sunburned (i.e., I have just observed it) 

&mch6 k!nn!r*nauqtukut dthl&nruk kithleuk 

come ahead, let us cook ; the strangers (two) must be hungry 



The passive : 

/ am lavid 

' n^kllkkamaughi 
Sing, \ n^klikkumautii 
n^kklikkumauk 

n&kkHkkumaukuk 
Dual \ n^kkllkkumauttik 
n&kkllkkumaukiik 

ndkklikkumaukut 
Piur, \ n&kkltkkumauche 
n^ikkllkkumaut 



Mode LXXIII 



I 

A 



Past n&kkllkkum^lthhaagh^ 
Fiit. n^kkHkkumich^kko^ 

tiinghwumaugn^ 
kllhuch^umaugn^ 



^^^. 



/ am not loved 

n^]TkkumS.nr£t6^ 

nikllkkum^nratutii 

n^kl!kkum^nrat5k 

n^klikkQm&nr^tukuk 

n^likkuminratuttik 

n^kllkkum^nrattik 

n^kllkkum^nr^tukut 
n&klikkum^nratuche 
n^kllkkum^nratut 

r n^klikkum&lthhiinrllto^ 
I n^kkllkkum^ngghito^ 

I am seen 
I am tied 



567. It must be remembered that many expressions are rendered 
in Innuit by the active which in English would require the use of the 
passive, and vice versa. The passive uses all the adjutants, as follows : 



k^nruchem&railm^ 

kinruchem^viUg'mi 

kS.nruchem^rS,ch!mttin 

k^nruchem^rakum^ 

k^nruchem^yunral^m^ 

k^nruchemem^ 

k^n r uchem^y u^m^ 

IdLnruchemifk^nS 

n^kllkkum^n^l 5S. 
n^Lkklikkum&kum^ 
nikkllkkum^kim^ 
tinghumUloS 



after being told 
before being told 
as soon as told 
when told 

unwilling to be told 
because I am told 
because I want to be told 
untold = without being told 

n^kklikkumem^ 
niikklikkum^fkSng 
n^kklikkumal] willg'm^ 
t^nghum£glitir*m^ 



MODES LXXJII, LXXIV, LXXV, AND LXXVl 



195 



568. The following six words all mean // is broken. 



iemumauk from 


iemt^ka 


generally implies intention, etc 


nivvroumauk " 


n^vvror^ki 


breaking (in general) 


chlkumumauk *' 


chiktimt^k^ 


breaking up a thing entirely 


nullugumauk " 


ntilg&k^ 


for tools nicked, etc. 


iistch^malik *' 


iist&k^ 


cracked, split, etc. 


ch^kchlmmalik '* 


ch^ktik^ 


a little broken off, chipped 



Mode LXXIV 
Signifies wishing to be, 

n^klikskumaugh^ 

n^klikskum&chShkdi 
n^ikskum&lthh oughS. 

Agiyum n^ikskumauk hw^nkutnim 



I want to be loved 

nikllkskum^l5& 
n^klikskum&kum^ 

God wishes to be loved by us 





Mode LXXV 


lyautiik^ 


— uUkft 

I take it away 


lyautlho^lki 
iyausktimkQ 
iyauch^mku 
iyaushwu 


iyauch^hk^k^ 
iyalit^^mku 
iyalithluku 
iyafucheu 


^trautlLk^ I take it down ^nnQt^i I take it out (of a house) 


miyut^k^ I take it up 
Itrutaki I take it in 


tkefitaka I bring it 

^nllrautiikii I take it down stream (sled or boat) 


iyautste 

iyautstk^thliik 

iyautstldlk 


the taker away of it 

he who took it away - (144) 

he who will take it away 


iyautst^kii 
lyalitstiifk^rlLk^ 


I get him to take it away (with Mode XXXIV) 
I force him to take it away (with Mode XXXVII) 




Mode LXXVI 



Signifies much force used in the action. 

The augmentative mode : 

— pftqtM, — pftg&ki 

^llenthl^qt5& I am greatly alarmed kdnni!iqplqt5k it snows hard 
kiy£qp^qt5k he calls very loud tlngltiqp^g^k^ I hit him violently 

at6rpangkuma when I sing loud kozhSrqpSqtdk he coughs very hard 



196 ESSENTIALS OF INNUIT 

Mode LXXVII 
Signifies an overdoing^ an excess, 

chinndvithidg^k^ I cut it too much 

emevdthliigcln you fill it too full 

k^chuv^thi^qtol I am disappointed 

plnvSvvathligaka I do it too much 

chikkdv^thl^^k^ I give him abundantly 

m^ne nunlm kien&ne k&chuv&thldgillilqtokot 
here on earth we are often disappointed 

Mode LXXVIII 
Signifies a misadventure or failure, 

— flSthllkkU — &ethlIkliirMdft 
— ttgthHkkiJM, — uSthlUdnr&tikft 

peyOethllkko^ I fail in doing 

kepuchuethlikk^^ I missed buying it 

Mode LXXIX 
Signifies to act tnilyy really^ indeed. 

—piktai, — piktikft 

pepikto^ . I do indeed 

pepikt&ldL I really do it 

iy&qpncchShkd^ I will truly go 

yupiktdk he is truly man 

Note. — Often nfimfin, indeed^ is added to this, as, Uflmfin pipIktSA, indeed^ I really do. 

Mode LXXX 

This mode expresses a much greater emphasis than the preceding 

one. (See 726.) 

— UpIktOI, — Uplkt&kft 

t^LngvipIktoi I see perfectly well 

nauthluk&pikto^ I am very sick indeed 

t^retkipikt&k^ I mind it most carefully 

sl&k^kiplkt^k^ I am very careful of it 

p!nritkip!kt&k& I do not do it at all 



MODES LXXX, LXXXI AND LXXXII 1 97 

sl^Lk^kipigiskeu be very careful of it 

lyok^kiplktdk it is absolutely the same 

niir'n&k£p!kt5k hw&ng'ne it is essentially necessary for me 

This combines with other modes ; for example, with the negative 
of Mode LXII. 

iy&g'yanr$tkllpiktd& I do not want to go at all 



Modes LXXXI and LXXXII 
These signify good and bad. 

— kBrtOk, — thlfirqtOk 

sl&kSrt5k the weather is good 

sl&thliirqt5k the weather is bad = it rains 

Fut sl&kSrch$hk5k smthlirchShkdk 

Past sl^lthodk slithlilthhodk 

sl&kSrk^n when the weather is good 

sl&thliirqk^n when it rains 

1 tumkSrt5k the trail is good 

tuvylr&kSrt5k the portage is good 

pet&lthkSrt5k it is just right 

kn&kSrt5k he is good on the scent (a dog) 

tumthliirqt5k the trail is bad 

ttipkSrt5k it smells nicely 

tketo^ chtikilld^ tumkSrqchiln 

I came fast because the trail is good 

tk6td^ chQkaime tumthliirqn^n 

I came slowly because the trail is bad 

ttimkSrch^hklln iyilchShkd^ 

I will go when the trail will be good 

tuvy&rilthltirqt5k k&nikcha^me 

the portage is bad on account of deep snow 

^ngtilthkSrtdk it is just the bigness = big enough 

mlkt&lthkSrtdk it is just the smallness = small enough 

uchet&lthkSrtdk it is just the load = loaded enough 

td&k& ^ngt&lthkSmaliqtdk tin& ^ngno^rutghuktine 

is this big enough to make a paddle ? (is it that this may be just the 
bigness when it is a paddle ?) 



' — roiighd 




' — roukiik 




' — roukut . 


— routft 


Dual < 


— routuk 


Plur. < 


— rouche 


— ro5k 




— rouk 




— r5ut 



198 ESSENTIALS OF lANUIT 

Mode LXXXIII 
Signifies to become, 

— rauqtftft 

yukkSrt&rsfuqto^ I become a good man 

nQkkSrtiira'uqt6k it becomes a good house 

netok cheva~unllra^mtik k^to&n^ &ttKlr2irauqtdk 

he heard a humming sound ; afterwards it proved to be singing 

t^nghdk^ dmir'lu ^mlnl ukdksheg!lthne miliiqthluku tingmalrauqthlutiing 
I saw a cloud over there ; on its coming closer, it turned out to be geese 

Mode LXXXIV 
Comparison is expressed by means of this mode. 

--rOuglii, — rdftkft 
The characteristic is rO inserted before the usual endings. 



Sing, 



569. The localis case is always to be used with this mode. 

hwe mikWnrougha lp6ne I am smaller than you 

nalithlunroughl I am sicker kQnklinro^k^ I like it better 

^mtlilinrougli^ I have more luchingningro^k^ I understand it 

chukinrougni I go faster better 

570. The third person is the one most frequently used. 

ningthllngro6k it is colder t^k!nro5k it is longer 

yikshinrook it is further pen!ngro5k it is stronger 

571. The third person of a&ghfl is equally common. 

ningthlingriilraii akkw^-wimme it is colder than yesterday 

ukk^kshilradrook tuml it is the shorter trail 

pilraiiroug'ha KiiskofSg'mtik 

I am from (i.e., a resident of) the Kuskokwim region 

572. Sing, 

ume t^kinrodk it is longer than this 

ume tSkinrouk it is longer than these two 

ume tikinrout it is longer than these 



MODES LXXXIV AND LXXXV 1 99 

Dual 

unil t^k{nro6k uktig'ne this is longer than these two 

ukuk t^klnrouk ukiig'ne these two are longer than these two 

ukut t&kinrout uktig'ne these are longer than these two 

Plur. 

un& tikinrodk ukune this is longer than these 

ukuk t&klnrouk ukune these two are longer than these 

ukut tllklnrout ukune these are longer than these 

Note. — Um t&Unkli is equivalent to fimfi t&klnrd5k, etc., as it means this is the longer, 

573. In questions the interrogative aspect is always to be used. 

kithlun t^kt^ kiy^n how long is your kiyak ? 

um IdL t^klnkil is it longer than this ? 

um ki tdklnkilk is it longer than these two ? 

um k^ tilklnkl is it longer than these ? 

574. Comparison is expressed also idiomatically by the use of the 



verb Xn&qt&k& = / exceed^ surpass, etc 



EXAMPLES 

ukune nunilne nauthlulraet mlkkiUigliut iin^qthluke ill&che ch^nrllgnut 
in this village there are more sick children than healthy ones (the 
children who are sick ones exceed, etc.) 

^Ithr^ko&k^n miln& nun^m kienine yurqtlhraet mlkklllignut ^n^qthluke 

tokdul^rtut 
here every year more children die than are born 

tuktiqchugedkd^ }p!t ilniqthlutii 

I would like to be richer than you 

tukiiqchugeilkoS yut tim^lthkweti ^n^qthluke 
I would like to be the richest of all 

Mode LXXXV 

This implies a somewhat lower degree than the preceding. 

— nthhOu^ 
un^ n&nnilthh55k ume this is smaller than that 

ukut nQn^t tingn^rqnetlhriit Ingkune this village is not as pretty as 

that one 
Note. — UmS, etc., must always be expressed. 



200 



ESSENTIALS OF INNUIT 



Pres. mlkkllthhough^ 


I am smaller 


Past mlkkllthhulthhough^ 


I was smaller 


Fut m!kk!lthhuch$hko& 


I shall be smaller 


Pres. n&nnllth houghs 


I am shorter 


Past nlnnllthhulthhoQgh^ 


I was shorter 


Fut, n^nnllthhuchehkoi 


I shall be shorter 


&ngn!ithhoughi I am larger 


chtikilthhougn^ I go slower 



— f^kaner'loa 
— f^Lkin^rpiikne 

tikkikf^k&n^rqtdk 
^chekfdk^n^rqtdk 
kUltikf^k^n$rqt5k 
y^kf&k^nSrqtd^ 



Mode LXXXVI 

— fi]ciii«rqtM 



— f&klln£rkum& 
— f^k^n^r&k&mi 

it comes nearer 
it is further under 
he nears the shore 
I go further 



Mode LXXXVII 
Signifies in a higher degree tfian before. 



• f; 



—rSkftnftrqtOk 



&sherekiln£rqt6k 
^nglerek^n^rqtdk 



it is better than before 
it is larger than it was 



Mode LXXXVIII 



The locatives generally use this mode, implying too much. 



— 8€gSwUdlqt5& 



ukk^ksegewikiqto^ 

kusegew^kdqto^ 

yilksegew^kilqto^ 



as I am too near 
as I am too high 
as I am too far off 



Note i . — These are not used alone ; they require such expressions as : yikfiqkttii 
iy&g'16 akkAksSgfiwikXqtSI, let me get off some, for I am too near ; akkAkfiqkfin tili, 
come closer, as I am too far off. 

Note 2. — In some districts the wi is sounded vi, as« sigeyikXqtoi. 



MODES LXXXIX, XC, XCI, XCII, AND XCIIl 201 

Mode LXXXIX 

To express / buy from him takes the modalis and means just now^ 
a moment ago, etc. 

V 

Pres. kepukngno^ 
Past kepuknilth houghs 
Put. kepulcnch^kko^ 

chnckekngno^ I give 

V 

kepuknk&ltht^ leniik let us buy from him 

Mode XC 
To express / buy for. 

taliktintik taugw&m kepuyuch^rk&mkln these are all I will buy for you 

ip!t kluch^kimkin I will look out for you 

tuktifchakoil hw^ngntik I enrich myself 

k6puyuch!mktin tukugwo^ I am rich through my trading 

Mode XCI 
Implies an easy manner of acting, 

ly&ngs&to^ I go along easily = I stroll 

ch^ling9&td& I work gently 

Mode XCII 

Implies that one is loth to act, 

— anripUc&tO&, — finripJJMrXkX 

chen k&nniiqyunr^p&kichet why do you not feel like talking ? 

!yig'yunrap&k&td& I do not care much to go 

Mode XCIII 

ly&lghOghil iy^ghulraigh& 

iy&lgh5&mll ly&lghukum^ 

Q6t&lghugh& I am tired waiting 

t&ngv&lghMkH I am tired seeing it 

n6tlghti&mk!n I am tired hearing you 



202 ESSENTIALS OF INNUIT 

finh. Another way to express / am tired of is by mOq'nSqtdft. 
MOq*nOqtOft chUlfin€r*iniik, / am tired of worky or ctaXlieghftghi mOq'nOqtOX 
MtiniiSr*in1ik, / am tired waitings or tietilgn&^il. 

Note. — I am tired of is also expressed by Mode XCIV. 
5kshtilghugh& I have headache (i.e., I am head tired) 

5kshtilghtilld& 5kshtilghukum& 

5kshtllgho^Lm& 5kshtilghuvil!g'in& 

Mode XCIV 

Note. — There is no difference in meaning between this mode and the preceding. 
However, this one is used much more than the other. 

— I^qt5& 
ptiktngh5kto& I am tired walking 

&nggho&ghulgh5kto& I tire of paddling 

ch&v!zhr!lgli5kto& I am fatigued with work 

Mode XCV 
This is the reciprocal. (See 412.) 

— 8€dt5& 

Mode XCVI 

Signifies proceeding to the object specified in the stem. 

-~m0qtO& 
— m5qtlhdugh& — mortiskum^ 

— ^m5qch$hkd& — mdqchim^ 

ktilmdqto^ I go to the top 

k^nggnemoqtaa I go to the summit 

achetmoqtoa I go to the bottom 

pitmoqto^ I go to the river mouth = pi 

Example in the interrogative aspect : 
natCltmoqtlL where did he go ? 

Mode XCVII 
Signifies ^^/«^ to the place named in the stem. 

— tM 
kwiq = river kwlqtoi I go to the river = I river 

The full form would be kwig'imiln iySqtGS (453). 



MODES XCVII, XCVIII, XCIX, AND C 



203 



nun&toii 

nun&thlo^ 
nun&skum^ 

igiyuvlqtoa 
okizhvlqtol 
tum&qtol 
Tachgqtoi 



I go to the village 
nunilt&kiml 

I go to the church (117) 

I go to a shelter 

I follow the track (i.e., of some animal) 

I go to St. Michael (103) 



Mode XCVIII 

This signifies to travel ox journey aA?«^ whatever is indicated by 

the stem. 

— ^kwlrqt5il 

— kwlrqchShkoi — kwlr^mi 

— kwilthhough^ — kw!ghtir'm^ 

— kwirkum^ — kwirqpiikn^ 

— kwlrikimil — kwllrai 



kw!q p^qkwirqto^ 
Ingrekwlrqtoi 
pull iylriqkwTrqtoi 



I travel along the Yukon 
I go along the mountains 
I travel on the path 



The nouns belonging to this mode end in yftrflk (217) : 
kwiqpiiqkw!r'yiriik the Yukon trail 



Mode XCIX 



kaliw^virqlo^ 
kau wil vIriiskumS. 
kauw&vlrqt^kim^ (522) 

unga,virqtoa, 
to&v!rqto3l 
hwivlrqtoi 
p^km^vlrqto^ 



— vlrqtM 



I ascend the stream 
if I ascend the stream 
whenever I ascend the stream 

I go down stream 
I go thither = I thither 
I come hither = I hither 
I go upwards 



Note. — There is also llrqtoi, as, tfintfltflUrqtSfl, I go to the dttr-hunting district^ or, 
rather, the deer-abounding district (124). 

Mode C 

This is a slight variation from the preceding mode. 

— £&llrqt5ft 
yakfaUrqtoi I go very far ukakfaiirqtoi I go much closer 

n^gtikf^lYrqtol I go far north ugn^ldllrqto^ I go far south 



204 ESSENTIA/^ OF INNUIT 

Mode CI 
This is a compound with Mode LXII. 

— fftllrqchttqtdft 

y^kf^lirqchunrSto^ I do not want to go a great distance 

y^kf^i!rqchtiqto& I wish to go to a great distance 

Mode CII 

This is a compound with Mode XLI. 

— flUrqt&klqtdft 
nSgtikf&Krqtiiklqto^ I go away up north again 

Mode CIII 

— llr'iittr'mtttM 
This is treated in 410. 

Mode CIV 
Signifies to bring along the object mentioned in the stem. 

— IglrqtU 

kemtiqt^ a dog kemiiqtihirqt5& I bring a dog along 

&nggn6^rutigirqt5i I bring along a paddle 

dr'luvvHglrqtoa I bring a bow with me 

6r1uvv!lgir' loi drltivvllgiama 

5r'ltivvllg!kumi 5r'ltivv!lg!lra&gna 

dr'ltivvllgeil . 5r'ltivv!lgirptikne 

kea em urn m^ll!qchQktine& k^miiqtlhlr'lune miUl6g!skTl€& 

if any one wants to go with me, he will have to bring his own dogs 

nithluy^guchlkdn&ku kemtiqtlgir&qk^n 
do not forget to bring a dog with you 

kemtlqtilglr^kik& it is my brought dog (it is the dog which I brought) 

Mode CV 

Signifies placing or depositing anything in the place named in the 

stem. 

— mSfiwWl, Neg. — me&iitftt&k& 

anggyam€Qwaidl I put it into the anggiak (i.e., native open skin boat) 

kiyimeuwaka I put it into the kiyak 



MODES CVI, CVII, CVIII, AND CIX 205 

Mode CVI 
Signifies giving the object, 

— kStiUcft, — ket&riUUdi 

ekilmr^kketilki I give him a sled 

ekllinr&kketlho^ki I gave him a sled 

ekilmr&kkech$hk^k& I will give him a sled 

ek&mr&kklshkumku when I give him a sled 

k$miiqtket^k& I give him a dog (kSmiiqUl, dog ; i.e., puller) 

5Fluviiqket&k^ I give him a bow (ttf'lflvttk, bout) 

piket&ki I make him a present (pikyUn, gift^ (115) 

p!k!shkumku when I make him a present 

pTkech^mku because I make him a present 

Mode CVI I 

Signifies taking the object named, 

— irtki 

nunir&ki I take his place 

nunirr^nrat&ki I do not take his place 

nunirqch^hkiki I shall take his place 

nunilthho&kl I did not take his place 

ek&mrlr&ki I take his sled 

ek^mny^kon^ku don't take his sled 

Note. — Willing^ etc., can be added (538). 

Mode CVIII 

Signifies being desirous^ attracted by, inclined to, disposed to. 

— kuniyUcU, — kani7Udlk& 

ekimr^'niik k^putkuniy^kld^ Ikkeyaiigut^k^ 

I am not suited with the sled I was attracted to buy 

iy&ktiniy&k5& I am inclined to go 

Mode CIX 

— €]ifig'iiirQt&&, — chfig'iiir&t&k& 

nUt&kdchiig'niriitdil it seems like I never find 

tk€chtig*nirutoa it seems like I never will come 

tkechtig'nlrtisktim& when it seems as if I never come 



2o6 ESSENTIALS OF INNUIT 

Mode CX 
Signifies fcigtiing to perform the act, 

(See 196.) 

Mode CXI 
Compound, — feigning to petfonn the act in general, 

— ghfi&rftqt&a or — |()i5i7ftqtM 

kauwilro&r&qtd^ I feign sleep 

2ikn£rqgno^v^'ldi I making out that I am hurt 

Mode CXII 

This means it resembles^ it is like, 

— yug'nUqkSi, — yug'nUqkftkft 

t^kukaliyug'ndqkok it resembles a bear 

yuyug'Hilqkok it is like a man 

hwdngghiiyug'n^qkdd it seems it is I 

sl^kSrhekilt^'yug'n^qkok it begins to look like being good weather 

nlnglirqkatilqyug'nilqkok it begins to look like moderating 

tuntuyug'n^qkdk it seems to be a deer 

hw^toil tirSnyug'ghdqkikd now I seem to understand it 

t^r$nyuechug'n^qk6k k&nrutlngrdmne 

he never seems to understand when I tell him (although I tell him) 

Mode CXIII 

This is an associate mode, meaning likely to do^ but at a definite 
time. It is a defective mode, possessing only the future sense. 

— ch&g'n&hkU, — chilg'ii&hk2k& 

iySqchShchug'nakoi 'rtinrtim kdk&ne I will likely go at midday 

pech^hchug'niko^ I will likely act 

pingghichug'nikoi I will not be likely to act 

Mode CXIV 

Signifies / think I am, I consider myself to be, etc. 

— yukO&, — 3ruk&ld[ 

tukuyuko^ I think I am rich tukuyukum^ when I think I am rich 

tukuyuklo^ tukuyulrHghi 



MODE CXIV 207 

576. (d) To express / thought it was you. In this and all similar 
sentences there is a peculiar idiom, as follows : 

1 . The use of klngt^thlfi or klng^thlOhwi. 

2. The combination yflk with the pronouns. 

tingnllthhougn^ tingali'ldrdmtik ch^m^na k^ngghilthlu Ip^nuyukklutfi 
I saw a boy down there I thought was you 

{b) The personal pronouns in this form are as follows : 



■ 


I 


hwilnggnuyukkluku 


Sing, ' 


thou 


^^nuyiikklutft 




he 


thlegnuyOkkluku 




we' 


hw&nkuyukklunuk 


Dual - 


you* 


ip^nuyukklut&k 




they« 


hk^nuyukklukuk 




we 


hw^nkuyukklut^ 


Piur, < 


you 


ip€tchegnuyukkluche 




they 


thlltgnuyukkluke 


) All the locative pronouns 


(380) may also assume this 


Inkuyukkltike 


those 


aukuyukkluke 


those over there 


ch^kmlnchtikklQke 


those below 


p^kmlnchiikkluke 


those above 


p&mlnchiikkluke 


those on top 


y^kf^nchiikkluke 




those far off 



In the following expressions the usual form is employed : 

k^nggh&thluhw^ mdqrhtim kien&kiin !lrauyukklo<l 
I thought I was walking on the water 

k^nggniithluhwi chlkk^k^tiyukklo^ chdh&g'miik 

I thought you were about to give me some little thing 

chlkka'ytikklune hwdngntin pe6k he thinks I gave it to him 

ghlll^ra'utttiksuklune hwingntin pe6k he thinks I ridicule him 

gnllldrsfuttfiksukldd thlenun peughi I think he mocks me 

m^lHqghiytikldd thleniin 

I thought he would accompany me (I to be a comrade to him) 

^pt^mkln kepus&guttikniytikkluku 

I ask you if you think he would sell it 



208 ESSENTIALS OF INNUIT 

Mode CXV 

— hiitBsnUqtftft, — hiitssnilqlcA 

k&nn^rr^nr&tssnUqtdi I cannot sleep at ail 

lyautAratssn^qk^ I cannot take it away at all 

pinratssn^qk^ I cannot do it at all 

Idlnnlngr^tsn^n ^n5k having said nothing at all, he went out 

Mode CXVI 

Signifies turning into, becoming. 

—^XJOi^ — OrqtUcft 

ungghungse6rqt5k it became an animal pe6rqt&k^ I make it become 

yurqt6k it became man yurqthlo^ I became a man 

yuruskum^ when becoming man yurqch^m^ I becoming man 

t&rily^kfauqtdk it became a salmon tunttirqtdk it became a deer 

tuntuva1iqt6k it became a moose aliwuqtdk it became blood 

Hnk& thlu h5k kinggho&ne ifr^rniilmtik u6t^yunral&miik iydg*lutuk ting- 

ghungsedrqthlutuk ; trslldlnna^rauqthlutuk hok toi taukuk iy^g'luttik 

nula^qkllr^ek 
and they both, after their child was gone, not wanting to remain, went 

off, becoming animals ; so then these parents went off, becoming 

wolverines. 

Mode CXVII 
Signifies surely, without fail, certainly, etc. 

Note. — This occurs most frequently in the imperative. 

— ««rqt(Ml, — ««rUdl 
tketingse6r'l£ tintim I '11 be back sure 

p1ngse6r^k^ I surely do it 

Mode CXVIII 
Signifies performing the act for a brief period. 

— chaUqt&a, — chfik&qk2 

^k5m5ch{ik&qtd^ I sit down for a few moments 

5iltmiiqchuk^qtd& I go down the shore for a little way 



MODES CXVIII, CXIX, CXX, CXXI, AND CXXII 209 

miyuchiik^qto^ I go up just for a minute 

^tr&chuk&qtd^ I just go down a little 

pechuk^qk^ I do it a little 

Note. — Sometimes kftxftkX can be used as well as kXqkX. 

tUngchukir^klL I examine it = look at it a moment 

Combination : 
pechukir^l&qki unw&kd&k^n I always do a little every day 

Mode CXIX 

Signifies petfonning the act in vain, without effect, etc. 

— yIkU, — y&kikft 

iy^'y&ko^ I go in vain 

pey^k&k^ I do it in vain 

wegey^ko^ I try in vain 

577. Sometimes euphony requires ch in place of y. 

k&thl^ch^ko^ I talk in vain 

k&thl^ch^kHmktn I tell you in vain 

k^qch^kd^ I look in vain 

Mode CXX 

Signifies to cofntnenee. 

— nlrqt&a, — nlrUcK 
ly&g'nirqto^ I begin 

Mode CXXI 

Signifies that the act is to be performed at last. 

— ^t6riiU[qt5& 

sl&kt5rinilqt5k it is good weather at last 

sl^thltikkit5r!n&qt5k the weather at last gets bad 

Mode CXXII 

Showing tliat the act is on the point of being performed at last, 

— tSrinlkitiqt&a 

Iy&qt5rin^k^t^qto& at length I am about to start 

pilledrin^k^t&qt5& I am about to act at last 



2IO 



ESSENTIALS OF L\\\l/IT 



MODK CXXIII 
Signifies to act soon. 

— DiirilngghSi 

V 

tketnadr&nggno^ I am coming soon 

iyitg'nailringghoa I am going soon 

Note. — This is only used in the present tense. 



iy^g'y&ra6ktod 



Mode CXXIV 

I go in good time (i.e., early enough) 



iy.lg'yara6ytiqt6& 
pe&ra6yug^ki 



iy^g'narenairiqtoa 
keputn^ renadr^r^ki 



Mode CXXV 

— yftradyfiqt&S 

I want to go early 
I want to do it early 

Mode CXXVI 

— nUfgna&rilqtdi 

it is nearly time for me to go 
it is about time for me to buy it 



peiqp.^k6qtutft 

&kfakk6hpakaqtoi 

kojarqpika'yilkonak 

ylkshiqpdkbqtok 

ilmthl$qp^k^qt6k 

n5kt^qplk^rdk& 

utr^chuqpdk&qto^ 



tketch dqp^kdqt utii 



Mode CXXVII 

-p&k&qt&a, — p&k&rUcK 

you are too quick (soon) 

I run too hard 

do not cough so violently 

it is too far olT 

it is too much 

I pull it too hard 

I want very much to go back 

Mode CXXVIII 

— chSqp&kiqt52 

you come much too early 

Mode CXXIX 



— n&chalplUdlqtfiS 

V 

tketn^cha^qpdk5qtutf^ you come too late 



MODES CXXX-CXXXVI 211 

Mode CXXX 

— ch&r&qtOH 

tkech&riqtdi I arrive early 

w&mv&k&m^ tkech&r&rinr£t5& because I delayed I do not arrive early 

Mode CXXXI 
— ch&ridqtOH, — ch&radqkft 

V 

tkech&radqt5& I come rather early 

nechdradqk^ I heard it rather early 

Mode CXXXII 

— c]iXr&wOk&qtO& 

V 

tkech^r^woklqtoi 1 arrive too soon 

V 

tkechdr&wok^qp^ oh, I am too soon ! 

V 

chen tkech&rdwok^chet why do you come too soon ? 

Mode CXXXIII 

— iiichii[qtG&, — nicha&r&kft 

tketn&cha^qto^ I come late 

plnn^chailr^ki I do it late 

plnn^ch^^qtutii you are late ! 

Mode CXXXIV 

— ch&r&qthliniraiqtOi 
tkech^riqthlin&r'ldqtoi I always come too soon 

Mode CXXXV 

— €hXr&Ulqtd& 
tkech&r&l^qto^ I generally come soon 

Mode CXXXVI 

Signifies just at the time, 

—k&r&kX 

Idlnrutkilrdld. I just tell him 

keputkir^k^ I just buy it 

keputk^kum^ just when I buy 

keputkilntmktin just as soon as my buying 



212 



ESSENTIALS OF INNUIT 



Mode CXXXVII 
Shows that the time to act has arrived. 







— DixUkft, 


nXrlnrttU 
— nirlnrfttXkX 


iyigniraugn^ 
kiw&n&radk 






it is time for me to go 
it is time to go to sleep 


&giytin&r&5k 
penirinrat5k 
penirinratdk 
ttip&g'n&ra5k 


hwitoi 


pechilthhii 


it is time for prayers 

it is not time to act 

it is not the time now for what you ask 

it is time to get up 



iy^lgniUlriqtd& 
kepUtnailr^k^ 



Mode CXXXVIII 

— iiiIrftqt2UL, — n&ar&kX 

I am pretty near going 
I am just about buying it 



Note. — NUiftqtU is equivalent to nlAiftng^Sft, / am going soon, USkft Ikft 
king^finltiiJUlrilqtSk, my husband by now is near reaching home. 



Mode CXXXIX 

Signifies that it is not time yet to act. 

This is a compound of Modes XVIII and CXXXVII. 

— nlrikshitU, — narftkshitlkX 

iy&g'n&rakshit5k it is not yet time to go 

pgn&r!kshiat5k hw&to^ pech&lthhr^ it is not the time yet for what he wants 

Mode CXL 

Signifies that it is not yet time to act again* 

— n&rlnklqkshitOft, — nirinkiqkshitlkX 
!y&g'n&rlnk!qkshit5k it is not yet time to go again 



Signifies too much. 



ch^nniksegeyugni 



Mode CXLI 

— «SgSkOqtO& 

Mode CXLII 

— 8egS3ru^b& 

I am getting nearer (416) 



MODES CXLIII, CXUV, CXLV, CXLVI, AND CXLVII 213 



Mode CXLIII 

Signifies entirely too much. 

Mode CXLIV 

— k&r&iiiittG& 
Signifies a little more, (See 414.) 



chuk&nro^l&qtoi 



Mode CXLV 

— r5U&qtQll 



Mode CXLVI 



I usually go faster 



This presents the diminutive characteristic and implies a little^ etc. 
This is a coaxing, flattering way of asserting or asking. 



kepuchugh^ 
kepuchulthhdik^ 

chlkkechugli^kut 
ngt^chugh^kut 
ekiyuchugh&kut 
inglechdchugiillkut 

ktitrauchugli^k ^ghettchugn&kut 
ktitrauk a crane 

Some verbs take : 



kepuchtiqch^hk^k^ 
kepuch ulralgli^ 

give us a little 
hear us awhile 
help us some 
guard us a bit 

pretty little crane, do please untie us 
^glieskut untie us (234) 



pllleyOghi 
chikkeyugh^ 



iylyughi I go nicely 

k&nyugh^ I talk pleasingly 
'(See 171.) 

Mode CXLVII 



I do delicately 

I give in a nice way 



Signifies knowing how to do the act^ being used to it. 



— tfl|fii« 



iyitugha 

ch^Uetugh^ 

ch^lletulthhoughi 

pStugh^ 

pllletughii 

pllletuchShkoJl 



I know how to go 
I know how to work 
I was used to work 
I know how to do 
I know how to make 
1 11 be used to make 



214 



ESSENTIALS OF INNUIT 



pilletok pilleu 
iyStiinroughi ^n$ 
pfllerunroughi i$ne 



let him do it ; he is used to it 

I am more used to going than you are 

I am more accustomed to doing it than he is 



Mode CXLVIII 
Signifies I first, 

— thltOH. — tli&r&k& 
keputhitoi first I trade 

V 

uy&ngthdto^ I first look down 

This is used principally in the imperative. 

m^tntikhi'luku warm it first 

keputh^'luku buy it first 

n&sp^h^'luku &t5qch^hkiki trying it first, I will use it 



I think slowly (i.e., ponder) 
I speak slowly 



Mode CXLIX 

— kdqtG&, — kOqkX 

V 

umyu5rtk5qto& 
kinniiqtoqto^ chukaunS 

Note. — ChflkatmS may be used or not. 

Mode CL 

This signifies eating the object named in the stem. 

— tdqtOll, — tfiiir«tG& 
tiraydkf^qt6qto^ 

I eat salmon (this means king salmon = tftr&ydkfSk ; each variety of 

this fish has its distinct name) 

tir§y5kf^qt5qt5& I eat salmon t^r2y5kf^qti!inrgto^ I do not eat salmon 
t^rayokf^qtokum^ t&ray5kfdqti!inr!lthkum& 

taray6kfiqt6g*loa tirayokfaqtulraiglii 

578. Children generally express themselves in very simple style. 
In place of using the condensed form a child will say tSrftyOkfftg'mtik 
ntiqrhOft, / eat salmon, 

I want to eat salmon (combined with Mode LXII) 



tiiray6kfaqt6riyiiqtoi 

chinggirqt6qt6& 
&k!zhget5qto^ 
ik6&t6qto& 
em^qpln riqt 5qt5i 
&kutat6qt6& 



I eat blackfish 
I eat ptarmigan 
I eat herring roe 
I eat grayling 
I eat akutak (852) 



MODES CLI AND CLII 21$ 

Mode CLI 
Expresses / say tfiat /, etc. 

nauthluna5k he says he is sick 

kuy&nntnadk he says he is not satisfied 

peyunitnadk he says he is not able 

This is a condensed form of the longer style, as : 

k&nntiqto^ na'uthluneloll I say I am sick 

k^nntiqtutii nauthlunelutii you say you are sick 

k^nntiqtdk nauthlunelune he says he is sick 

k^nniiqtok nauthlulthhunelune he says he was sick 

k^nntiqt5k naiithluchSknelune he says he will be sick 

pecheune^ki I say it is true 

^sh^me&kil I say it is good 

^shetne^ki I say it is bad 

In ordinary negation kftnntiqtdft &8hetnritiieiQka = / say it is not bad. 

Mode CLII 
Signifies also, 

kweyaumeugn^ I am also glad 

moq'ndq'meughd I am tired too 

iy^qch^kmeugn^ I will go also 

579. These when used in the first person singular always take 
hweghfi thlfi. 

hwegha thlu peyug'me&k& I want it too 

hwegha thlu iyiig'mechShk53. I will go too 

hwegh^ thlu iy&g'mtlra&gni I am also going 

Examples in the imperatives : 

iya.g'mekele 

iy&g'melle 

iy&g'mekSr'le 

From this mode are derived the forms in mDcki. 

nikllkmiing^ Hlilngchifk^ne he loves me too 

nikllkme^mkln Hl^ngchifk^n^k I love thee too 



2l6 



ESSENTIALS OF INNUIT 



The addition of Ullngchifkene is 'ad libitum'; it adds the sense of 
anyhow^ anyway, at all events^ etc. 

m6qstiqmeughi I want to drink too 

^rruliryug'meughH I also want to stop 

Note. — The last two are compounded with Mode LXII. 

Mode CLIII 

The only difference between this and the ordinary form of the 
verb (438) is that in this the k, which is the modal characteristic, is 
preserved throughout. 

The following will serve as an example. 



Intrans. 




Trans, 




I pe^ko^ 


kinrutk^ka 




r it to some one 


thou pe^kutii 


k^nrutklqk^ 




them two to some one 


he pe^5k 
we peikukQt 


k^nrutk&nldL 
k^nrlitk^mk!n 


>\ tell about ^ 


them to some one 
you to some one 


you pe&kuche 


k^nrutk^mttik 




you two to some one 


they pe&kut 


kilnrutkimche 




. you to some one 


k^nriitkkumku 




k^nrQtkik^mktl 


k&nriittikn^mkQ 


• 




pe&ko^ ntittdm 




it is my way 


k^nrutk^mkln yuganQn 


I tell folks about you 



Example in the interrogative aspect : 

chen klnruttiksai thleniin why do you talk about me to him ? 

k^nv&k kinrutkilthhuyekin when did I talk about you (thee) ? 

k^nv^k k^nrutk!lthhi2y6mch6 when did I talk about you t 

Mode CLIV 
Denotes regularity in the action, 

tiliqche ^yuvig'miin Gnwiko^k^n come regularly to church every day 
tilllqt5k unukdik^n he comes every night 

chmiel^qto^ I work regularly 

t5kthl5r^l^qk^ I honor regularly 

NoTB. — The forms in kSftkIa require this mode. (See 616.) 

n^lnne en&qtllllthhQy6t where have you been sleeping ? 




MODES CLK CLVI, CLVII, CLVIII, AND CLIX 



217 



Mode CLV 



y « 



kepukghutik^ 



— kgii&tik&, — ksfnuriUkX 



I buy for him 



Note. — Kipflk^flt&mldii, /^^/tt you^ can be expressed also as follows: kSpfltftkl 
chihAr'mfik Iplt ptttkklfitn. 



Mode CLVI 

— fiktqtOll 
n&kklig'n^kf^k^qtd^ 

m5qsiiqp^kdqto^ 

kauw^g'new&k^qto^ 

IllutGkf&kaqtoa 



I am so poor 
I am so thirsty 
I am so sleepy 
I am so sorry 
I want so much 



peytiqp&kiqto^ 

One of the most common forms in this mode is that in which it 
is used to express because or on account of. This is done by the 
adjutant ftmX. (See 535.) 



Mode CLVII 

Expresses commiseration^ pity^ etc. 

— gdr'WqtM 
tkett6ql6qtoa 

iyag6r'I6qtoi 
iyig6rMulrallgha. 
iyigorMulthhoughi 
iy&g6r'16qlo& 



poor me 1 I come 

iyigor'loimi 
!y&g5r'15kum^ 
ly^g5r'15qptikn£ 
iyagdr'Iuthltik 



Signifies beginning. 



Mode CLVIII 

— ^qt&S, — ^qtiir«tO& 
— ^qtlkX, — ^qtiiratUki 



ch^llegh^qtdi 
n&thlunragli^qt&k^ 



I begin work 

I begin to know it 



Mode CLIX 



Signifies doing the act this time and hurriedly, 

— kj^rqt0& 
Note. — This mode is used chiefly in ISft and in the imperative. 

iyakSrqtoi (imperative) 

iyak$r'le (488) 

^ngkSrqto^ 



I rush out 



2l8 ESSENTIALS OF INNUIT 

Mode CLX 

Expresses duration. 

— tuy&k&& 

uetituyakda I used to be 

Mode CLXI 

The same in a greater degree, 

— iiiitQyftkd& 
ueULmdtuy&kod I used to be for a long time 

Mode CLXII 

Signifies comtantly. 

— kiUkft 

plskdk^ I order him plsk^kilk^ I always order him 

nSkklikkdkd I love him nilkklikkdk^kd I always love him 

In verbs which end in kXkft, the introduction of the third kft gives 
an overloaded appearance. This is not so noticeable in the others, 
as, for example : 

net^k^ I obey him nec&kdk^ I always obey him 

Mode CLXIII 

Signifies somewhat^ a little^ etc. 

— tttqta* 

Mode CLXIV 

— 8ip&kftqt5X 
kauw^ksip^k^qtoH I do not sleep for ever so long 

Mode CLXV 

Denotes planning^ scheming^ designings etc. 

— k&ra3rtiqtG& 

iydkdrayuqt(3^ unuku I am thinking of running off in the night 

ly^k^rayug'lune uet^lththltir'meniik 

he concluded to run away from his home 

The five following modes have already been treated in the section 

on locatives. 

Mode CLXVI 

— mlttSi 



MODES CLXVII-CLXX — NUMERALS 219 



580. 





Mode CLXVII 




— ahlqtoi 




Mode CLXVIII 




— shlqtOqtQH 




Mode CLXIX 




— fiLrftntM 




Mode CLXX 




— IntU 




The Numerals 


I 


italichSk 


2 


milruk 


3 


ping^iyun 


4 


st&mSn 


5 


t^tlemSn 


6 


&hV!nl!ggin 


7 


m^lrunllggtn 


8 


pingghiyunUggtn 


9 


kdlnnunrat&r^ 


10 


k51n 


II 


k51n ^taiuchemtik chippluku 


12 


k51n mlllrontik chippluku 


13 


k51n pingghiyunuk chippluku 


14 


^k^me^runrat^ 


'5 


^keme^k 


16 


^emedk &ta~uchemuk chippluku 


17 


^keme^k mlllroniik chlpplQku 


18 


^kemelk plngghlyuniik chippluku 


19 


yueninrati 


20 


yuen6k 


21 


yuen5k &ta~uchemiik chippluku 


25 


yu€n6k tatlemSnuk chippluku 


26 


yuen5k ih'vlnllgniik chippluku 


27 


yuen5k mlllrunligntik chippluku 


28 


yuen6k pingghiyunllgniik chippluku 


29 


yuen5k k51ngnunrat^'miik chippluku 


30 


yuenok koli^n&k chippluku 



220 



ESSENTIALS OF INNUIT 



31 yuenok k51iiniik chlppluku ch^lS. ^tsfuchemtik chlppluku 

40 m^lruk epe^k 

50 m^lruk epe^k k51iintik chlpploku 

60 pingghiyun epeit 

70 pingghiyun epedt k61fintik chlppluku 

80 st&m^n epe^t 

90 st^m^n epeit k61iintik chippluku 

100 t^tlemSn epe^t 

1 01 t^tlemSn epelt ^tsuich^miik chlppluku 

109 t^tlemSn epe^t kdlngnunrat&'mtik chlppluku 

114 tdtlemSn epe&t ^k^me^runrat^r'mtik cMppluka 

119 Ultlem^n epe&t yuen&nrat&r'miik chlppluku 

200 k61n epedt 

300 ^keme^k epe^t 

400 yuenuk epe&t 

500 yuenum t&tlem&ntik chlppluku epeit 

1000 t&tlem^n epe^t kol5qkontik 

581. The numerals are declined according to the usual form. 





one 


two 


three 


four 


Intrans, 


^tauch^k 


m^lrdk 


pingghiyun 


st&m^n 


Trans, 


^taucMm 








Loc, 


atauchlme 


m&lr6g*ne 


plnggTiiyune st^mine 


Mod. 


dtauchlmtik 


malr6g'niik 


pinggniyuni 


:ik st^m&ntik 


Term. 


^tauchimtin 


m&lr6g*ntin 


pingghiyunQn stiminan 


Vial. 


dtauchtkiin 


malr5g'ngrghtin 


pfngg'hiyuthiin st&mithiin 


j^qual. 


^tauchitiin 


m&lr5qttin 


pinggniyutiin st&m^ttin 


582. 




583. 




584. 


firsty second^ etc. 


once^ twice^ etc. 




one pair ^ etc. 


chaokl^k 




^talich^qk^mtik 




^tauchek 


lep^ 




milr6qkiig*ntik 




milruen 


plnggliiyuik 


pinggh iy 6qk6ntik 




plnggh^jwen 


st&mek 




st^m&k5niik 




stIUnin 


t^tlemek 




t&tlem^kontik 




t^tlemin 


ahMnrik 




ah*v!nl6qkoniik 




&h*v!nlin 


inilrQnrllk 


9 
b 


m^lH!inl5qkoniik 




m&lriinlin 


p!nggh i3ri!inl!g&k 


pingghiytnl5qkont&k 


p!ngghi)ri!inlin 


k51ngn unrat^r^k 


k51nghunr£t&ntik 




k51ngnunrat^rin 


k51nghurutek 


kdldqkontik 




k51nnin 


: • : ! •»• 


• • 

• • 

• • • 









NUMERALS 221 

585. The ordinals are declined as usual. The localis case is given 
here, as it is the one most used. In or on the firsts etc. 

cha5kl$r'me (149) &hVinr&tne 

lepane m^lrunllg^tne 

pingghiyu&tne ptngghiyunllgStne 

st&metne kdlnghunrat^rdtne 

titlSmetne k51ngnurutetne 

586. Epttt, which is used to express the twenties^ means members, 
that is to say, the ten fingers and the ten* toes. It comes from 
Cplnkft, my members, 6piqtn, CpS. The third singular possessive is 

epe&, epeftk, speftt. 

587. Sometimes in place of expressing one thausand by t&tlSmSn 
epeftt kOlOqkOnilk, or ten times five twenties, the word tSsitsSq may 
occur, which is a corruption of THCflHA, the Russian word for 
thousand, 

588. / have one, etc., is expressed by hwG pingkfttdft fttaiichimilk, etc. 

589. Another way to express / fiave one, two, three, etc., is as 

follows : 

hwe ^taucheugw6k peki 

hwe milrugwuk ptqk^ 

hwe pingghiyugwut pink^ 

590. // is in one, both fonn one, they are one, is expressed by : 

Sing, ita~uch!mt5k 
Dual ^tauchimtuk 
Plur, atalicMmtQt 

591. Place them one by one, two by two, three by three, is expressed : 

^talicheghollkkluke 

m^lruengho^kkluke 

p!nggh&zhwegliodkkluke 

(See 196 and Mode CX.) 

592. One by one, etc., varies according to the sense in which 
it is used. 

iy^lqtut ataucheuk2lkklQt!ng they go one by one 

iy&qtut m^lrokikkluting they go two by two 

iyiqtut pingghiyukakkluting they go three by three 



222 ESSENTIALS OF INN (/IT 

593. With a verb in the imperative, one by one, etc., appears as 
follows : 

iy&qche ^taucheukikklQch€ go one by one 

iy^che m^lroldlkkluche go two by two 

iy&qche pingghlyuluche go three by three 



594. / have one, two, etc., is expressed also as follows : 

itauche6qtaka ^hMnligSqUlnka 

inilr5qtiqk& m^lrunl!g5qt&nk^ 

pinggh!y5rqt&nk^ pingghiyunllgdqt^nki 

stimaliqt^nk^ k51ngnunraUr^qt&nldl 

t&tlemauqt^nk^ kolnghttrqtink^ 

On 583. These are easily understood. For example : 

m&lr5qkug'niik mlllr5k st&m&wdk twice two is four 

titlemSn epe^t k5l5qkontik ten times five twenties 

On 582. The ordinals are used as follows : 

iy&qchSkko& chaokleul5& I will go first 

iy&qchSkkoutfi kfnggnokleulutii thou wilt go second 

iy&qch£kk5k pingghiyulune he will go third 

ken^ iy&qti chaokleulune who goes first ? 

On 584. The following examples show the use of these : 

^m&rrh^leke^ ^taucheg'niik make me one pair of salmon skin boots 

^lltim&chekei m&lrueniik make me two pairs of mittens 

izgheleke^ p!ngghijweniik make me three pairs of gloves 

tingluleke^ st^mintik make me four pairs of snowshoes 

IdLmiiksh&leke^ titleminiik make me five pairs of boots 

!wrhucheleke& ^h'vinliniik make me six pairs of sealskin water- 
proof boots 

595. (400) fien&k epe&t. In ordinary conversation an elision is 
made, so that it sounds as fienXrepttt; (3CX)) Skgmeftrepeftt. 

596. 

&t2LUcheugw5k it is one = there is one 

m&lrugwuk there are two 

pjngghiyugwtit there are three 

stimaligwut there are four 

t&tlemziugwut there are five 



NUMERALS 



223 



ah'vinligut 

m&lr5nllgut 

pingghiyunligut 

kdlftnunrat&rsLugut 

k51nghut 



there are six 
there are seven 
there are eight 
there are nine 
there are ten 



597. 

^ttalichitto^ 

m^lruto^ 

pingghiyuto^ 

stimdto^ 

t&tlQnatod 

Imktit chaoklet 



I got one 
I got two 
I got three 
I got four 
I got five 

plngghlyun 



^ttauchiintod 

m^lriig'nittod 

plngghiyuntdi 

st^m^ntod 

tdtlem^nto^ 



I am in one place 
I am in two places 
I am in three places 
I am in four places 
I am in five places 

those three first 



598. The numerals appear in the following forms also. 



dtauchelit^kil 

un& ^talicheut&k^k^ 

^talicheugwo^ 

&tauch!tto& 

^taugnd 

dtaucMmt5k 



I one him = I match myself to him in wrestling 

this is my one 

I am one 

I get one = I kill or catch it 

I make it one ; I join = I unite 

it is one place 

tikftik&kd ^taucheuluku AgiyutQm Atte ch&mt&m^lthko&n tagumeikste 
I believe in one God, the Father Almighty 

599. 



ilvviik 




a half 


^vguttingkito& 




I have half 


Sv'gum iv'gi 




a quarter = half of a half 


600. 






ata'uchehdk 


one = just one 


st^mdh^n four 


mSlroqhak 


two 


tatlemahdn five 


ptngghiyohin 


three 





These five are used generally as emphatic (244). The first follows 
the model in 320. 

tltsTucheh&r'miik chikek^r^gh^ he gave me just one 



601. 

keni cheumtik ^ghutnuqtlhod 

hwinkuta it^qpaktldraput chaoklegnGk yumtniik 
we call them our first parents 



who was the first man ? 



224 



ESSENTIALS OF INNUIT 



taugwim ^talicheugwut 

t^tlim^n epeit epeiltntik ^Ithhrikone 



they are only one 

two thousand years ago 



Okfukilk^ ^ta~uch£uchSil Agiyutum, emum ^tt&m ch^prilgnum k^ilet chdl^ 
nunilm, t^nghum^lrHem ch^la tinghum^nrllghum tim&riima t^Qcsten 

credo in unum Deum Patrem Omnipotentem factorem coeli et terrae visi- 
bilium omnium et invisibilium 



^taucheucha^ 



his state of oneness (153) 



602. A few is expressed by kifchiriirftt. The verb form is : 



kMchirhaliqtut 

k^fchirhauqtlhut 

kifchtrhaliqch^hkut 

k&fchirhalirtiskon&ng 

k^fchirhalittingglitir'mting 



they become few 
they became few " 

they will become few " 
if or when they are few 
although they are few 



or are few 
" were few 
" will be few 



603. The Innuit distinguish the four seasons of the year by the 



following 


terms 


• 
• 

Intrans, 


Trans. 


Loc. 


spring 
summer 
autumn 
winter 




ap'niqk^k 
ka^ 
iikshoik 
iikshiik 


up*n^qk^m 
kaigtim 
tiksho&m 
tikshtim 


Qp'n&qk^me, etc 
kaigme, etc. 
tiksho&me, etc. 
iikshume, etc. 



604. The principal verb forms in which these words occur are the 
following : 





spring 


summer 


it is 


up'n^qkaliqtdk 


kaiqtdk 


when it is 


up'n&qk&k^n 


ka^k^n 


before 


up'n&qk^qpilg&n 


kaiiqpilg&n 


after 


up'n^qkaum&rak^n 


k^&giun&rakin 


about 


up'n^qkali'na^r&kin 


kaig'na&r&k^n 


every 


up'n&qk&qkoik^n 


kailko^kln 


during 


ap'n&qk^qpik 


ka^qp^k 


next 


Op'n^qk^ku 


kalku 




autumn 


winter 


it IS 


iiksho&qtdk 


likshtiqtdk 


when it is 


tiksho^kiln 


tikshuk^n 


before 


tikshaaqpilgin 


tikshtiqpilg&n 


after 


iiksho^rum&rak^n 


iikshiim^r§k^n 


about 


tiksho^nl^r^k^n 


iikshiinadr^k^n 



SEA SONS — MONTHS 22$ 

autumn winter 

every iiksho&qk5S.k^n tikshukoik^n 

during iiksho&p&k tikshiipik 

next iiksho^ku tikshiiku 

Note. — These verbs are used just as in English : mini fikshechShkSft, / will winter 
here. 

605. The Innuit names of the months, or moons, are as follows : 

Intrans, Loc, 

Jan. Srriluthldq SrrilQthltir'me, etc. the great moon 

Feb. kupnQqch^k kQpnQqcheme, etc. cutting doors 

March tinginarqthl6r6vflc tingmarqthl6rV!g'me, etc. coming of the hawks 

April tingmlrVlk tJngmir'vig'me, etc. coming of the geese 

May m^n€t ingutet m&net ingutetne, etc. eggs are laid 

June t&ray&kfevfk tiray&kfeg'me, etc. salmon season 

July tingma^t ingnQtet tlngma^t ingnutetne, etc. geese moult 

Aug. tlngm^t tingnutet tingma^t tingnutetne, etc. geese fly 

Sept. chtipfik iikshd^k chtipfik tikshd^me, etc. autumnal drift ice 

Oct. kirat&r'vfk k&ratllvlg'me, etc. masquerading time 

Nov. chsfuyir'vik chauy&rivlg'me, etc. drum-dance season 

Dec. uev!k uevlg'me, etc. making the round 

606. Along the seacoast, above the mouth of the Yukon, deer 
are abundant and geese are less numerous. Hence May has another 
name there : tantQt lr'n6vttt = deer breed ox fawn season. 

607. The difference between the names of July and August is 
very slight. These two names are rarely used. During this time 
the daylight is almost continuous. 

608. The question wfiat month is it? is rendered by a peculiar 

idiom : 

chUveyughw^ p&glni = what is it doing straight up there ? 

When asking this question the speaker always points up to the sky. 

609. The verb forms expressing it is such a moon are gfiven in full. 

it is January Srr&ltilthhaugw5k 

it is February ktipnQqch6flgw6k 

it is March t!ngm§lrqthl5rVeugw5k 

it is April t!ngm!r*veQgw5k 

it is May m^net ^ngutiikk&t i 

it is June t^lrayikfirveOgwdk 

it is July tingma^t Ingnutiikkdt 



226 



ESSENTIALS OF INNUIT 



it is August 
it is September 
it is October 
it is November 
it is December 



tingmailt tlngnutiikk^t 
chtipfeugwok iikshd^r'me 
kiratar'veugw6k 
chauyArdveugwdk 
ueveugwok 



It is not necessary to repeat all the forms, as they are easily 
recognized, as : 

uevlkiln when it is December 

uev!qpilgjin before December (604) 

610. The Innuit seem to have had no special names for the days 
of the week. Those, however, who have come in contact with the 
whites readily adopted the following terms, which were settled upon 
by the early Russian traders. 

These terms all follow the regular declension. The localis case 
is given, as it is the most used. Example : ftgiyilniir*m6, on Sunday, 





Intrans. 


Loc, 




Sunday 


^iyun5k 


^giyundr'me 


prayer day 


Monday 


piikyun 


piikyutme 


work day 


Tuesday 


iper!n 


iperetme 


second work day 


Wednesday p!ngghiyur!n 


plngghiySratme third work day 


Thursday 


st^m^rtn 


stiimiretme 


fourth work day 


Friday 


tatlemSrIn 


t&tlemSretme 


fifth work day 


Saturday 


m^kaen5k 


m^aeniir'me 


bath day 


611. The verb form : 








is Sunday 




Sgiyunrodk 




IS Monday 




piikyutgnodk 




is Tuesday 




ipSritgho6k 




IS Wednesday 




plngghiy!ritgho6k 




is Thursday 




st^m^rltghook 




is Friday 




t&tlemgritgnook 




IS Saturday 


Year 


maWnro6k 


612. 


Sing, 


Dual. 


Plur, 


Intrans, 


aithhrakdk 


aithhrakuk 


aithhrikut 


Trans, 


^Ithhr^kum 






Loc, 


Ulthhr^kume 


aithhrikiigne aithhrSkune 


etc. 


etc. 


etc. 


etc. 



NUMERALS — EXAMPLES 



227 



613. 


Sing. 


Intrans, 


Srraidk 


Trans, 


grrilum 


Loc 


Srraiume 


etc. 


etc. 


614. 


Sing, 


Intratis, 


ttr'niik 


Trans, 


tirriinrhtim 


Loc, 


iirrGnniir'me 


etc. 


etc. 



Month 

Dual. 
^rr^luk 



iirrtinriig'ne 
etc. 



Plur. 

Srraiut 



Srriliigne 


Srr^lune 


etc. 


etc. 


Day 




Dual. • 


Plur. 


iirrOnrQk 


iirriinrtit 



tirriinniir'ne 
etc. 



EXAMPLES 

615. On the use of UthhiIkOk : 

When this is used in the possessive it follows the regular 
declension (31). 

^Ithhr^ktink^ ^mthlSrtut m&ne I have been here many years 

^Ithhrdkiitii dmthldrtut m^ne thou hast been here many years 

^Ithhr^kwe ^mthldrtut m^ne he has been here many years 

This, literally, is my years lure are many. The negative is : 



illthhr^kiink^ ^mthllnratut m^ne 
cheugh^tne t^mdr'mung ^Ithhr&kut 



my years here are not many 
ante omnia saecula 



616. Time when is expressed by the localis case. 

^Ithhrlgne last year 

y^la^gne year before last 

illthhrilgnem &m^tegn6 three years ago (387) 

ukug'ne althhrdgne year after next (273) (dual) 

When pftk is added to time expressions it conveys the idea of duration, 
illthhr^kdqp&k the whole year, all the year, during the year 

KO&kftn, which appears to be the third singular of k&mA (514)1 when 
added to time expressions, conveys the idea of succession or consecution, 

dlthhr^ko^kiln every year 

Kfi is the characteristic of when in the future (624). 

^Ithhr^ku next year 



228 



ESSENTIALS OF INNUIT 



EXAMPLES 



617. On the use of SrrilSk, tpioon or month: 



suigumg ^rrilum^ 

Srr^lOg'ne aiiqktig'ne 

ukOme ^rrillume 

ukum ^rr&lum chS5kla^ne 

ukum ^rr^lum kingghukla&ng 

^rr^lunilk^n 

£rril5k k^shiikluku 

m^n& ^rr^ldk n^ngkin 

m^n^ drr^l5k ndngvilg^n 

uk&gne ^rr^ltigne 

618. Day, night, etc. : 

iir'ntiqp^k 

^kw^w&k 

y^la^gne 

y^lSilku 

taiikut lirrtinrtit ktnggho^thtin 

unw^u 

unw^ku ^t^kome 

drrtinrhiim kokilne 

linw^ko^kin 

uno^k = uno^m = Ond^me 

uno^y^k 

uniik = unum, uniiktdk, uniik^n 

unum kok&ne 

unuqp^k 

n^ththl5kfiqt5k ^kilqti 



last month 

two months ago 

next month 

before next month 

after next month 

every month 

the whole month through 

when this month ends 

before this month ends 

two months from now 



during the day, the whole day 
yesterday 

day before yesterday 
day after to-morrow 
after these days 
to-morrow 
to-morrow night 
at midday 
every morning 
early morning 
very early morning 
night, it is night, when it is night 
at midnight 
all night 

it is about noon (i.e., the sun 
nears the zenith) 



619. 



Promiscuous Time Expressions 



emume 

emumg unugumS 
emOm chdugh^ne 
emum k!nggn5^ne 
emukiinndr'ntik 
cheQgn^raktin 
taum cheugh^ne 
taum kinggnoSne 



at that time 
during that night 
some time before 
some time after 
from that time 
a little while before 
before that time 
after that time 



PROMISCUOUS TIME EXPRESSIONS 



229 



m^tume 




at this time 


m^tume 


unugume 


during this 


» night 


m^ttim cheugn^ne 


before this time 


m^tiim kinggnoine 


after this time 


hw^kiinn^r'niik 


from now 




klnggno&rakiin 


a little while after 


ketodne 




then after 




620. The following are idiomatic expressions derived from modes, 


etc. The use 


of these is shown 


in the various examples throughout 


the grammar. 








^t&^t^ 


by and by 


lllene 


another time 


^t^tiko^k^n 


every minute 


niltne 


sometimes 


^t^^t^ku 


in a moment 


illekun 


sometimes 


^kk^ t^m^n^ 


in old times 


pikshiat6k 


not yet 


^kkine tilm^ne 


in the remote past 


t^mm^ 


at once 


^kulaunilku 


frequently 


t^m^ktinn^r'niik 


since long ago 


ch^me 


when } 


t^miitum n^thlene 


in olden times 


ch^m niene 


one time, once 


taum kiegh^gne 


during this time 


chM lUetne 


sometime 


toiine 


then 


ch^t illitne 


sometimes 


uk^kfalihtin 


pretty soon 


echevaku 


later on 


ukiiniku 


in the future. 


hwSnekodrqku 


presently 


umeku 


next time 


hwin^rp^k 


now meanwhile 


umifk^niku 


after a while 


hw^tod p!nrat5k 


: it is not the time now &taatako6rqku 


by and by 


621. 


Sing. 


Dual. 


Plur. 


Intrans, ^kkw^w&thl^k 


^kkw^w^thlak 


^kkwjiwathlat 


Trans, . ikkwiw^thl^m 






Loc, ^Udcw^wdthl^me 


^kkw^w^thl^ne 


^kkw^w^thl^ne 


etc. 


etc. 


etc. 


etc. 



hw^tolthliik the now thing 
unnwilthldk the morning thing 



Cr'nur'mathlak the to-day thing 
^Ithhr^g'nathl^k the last year thing 

tuluk^ruk ^kw^wdthl^k 

the crow which was killed yesterday (i.e., the yesterday was crow, 
" killed " being understood) 

ttintu unnw^thl&k the deer killed this morning 

Some words expressing time end in t&k, as, Sltlihrftnet&k Uthhr&net&t 
chAngat, last year's grass. Fresh ox green grass is expressed by niit&rftt 
ch&ngat. 



230 



ESSENTIALS OF INNUIT 



622. 

tim^tft uet^nauqtutA unw^kulthhrilntin 

un w^kulthhr^ntin 
unulthhr^ndn 
^tikulthhr^niin 
^Ithhr^kulthhr^niin 

623. 

^kk^t^m^n^ 
^kk^tilm^ne 
^kk^t^m^n^n^r'ntik 
^kk^t^m^nen^qsttin 



may you live till to-morrow ! 

until to-morrow 
until to-night 
until evening 
until next year 

olden times 
in olden times 
from olden times 
as in olden times 



624. Whetiy meaning "at what future time?" is to be rendered 
by kftkQ. 

625. When, meaning "at what past time?'* is rendered by kinvSk. 

Note i. — M6 is frequently added for emphasis, and also tinOm. 
Note 2. — Both these words invariably require the interrogative aspect. 



k^ku tkecherkset 

kanvik tkechet 

kingvir^me t^nQm pllthhuyed! 



when will you come ? 
when did you come ? 
when in the world did I do it ! 



All expressions relating to future time terminate in fi. 
All expressions signifying duration terminate in pftk. 
There appears to be no word to express time. 



The Interjections 

626. The usual interjections or exclamatory words used in Innuit 
are very numerous. The following list comprises many words, some 
of which, strictly speaking, are not interjections, but as they are 
often used in an exclamatory sense they are included here for the 
sake of convenient reference. 



^gnu 


ang 


ch^ll 


chiyet 


igliMta 


iqcha 


ch^lacho^ 


elthli 


ah 


ataata 


ch^la k& 


hwi 


aka 


at^m 


chgl^kv^ 


hwiki 


akik^ka 


at^m Ikeka 


chen 


hwikik 


^k^keka 


authlu hwi 


chenhw^ 


hwiklkhwi hwin6hwi 


ikiyumean 


authlu thlQ 


chen me 


hwih5k 


^klcka 


chimi 


chen me h wine hwi 


hwine 



INTERJECTIONS 



231 



hw^nehw^ 


k^nn& 


nut^n 


ta^thlohdk ^m 


hw^nu 


kipik k^ 


nut^nthluhdk 


taithluhak hwi 


hwik 


kgke 


nauhw^ 


ta^tfi 


hw^thlu 


keta 


nalihwime 


tai 


hw^thluthlu 


ket^ke 


nauhw^naii 


tai ikek^ 


hwitfi 


ket&keme 


p^t^g^muk 


taihwi 


Tkkeke 


kithlun 


ting 


taihak 


ikkekeki 


kithlun me 


toika 


taika 


iyume^n 


kiyuhwi 


taaith 


taikwi 


lyumein h5k 


kiyume 


to^thle 


taime 


k^ 


k5k^h 


to^thletaa 


taiyuhwi 


k^ng 


kokok^ 


ta^thlu 


taiyunratak 


k^ngn^thlu hw^ 


ml (and the rest in 


361) toithluhdk 


tikkukuki 



627. Mm. This is a very common expletive, and is used as an 
enclitic after such words as are intended to be emphatic : ftmhiim, 
hwfttnhiim, etc. 



umhtim k^nrutl^r^kut 



how he often told us 



628. The following expressions are also exclamatory, and are 
mostly in the augmentative form. Thus they correspond to the 
superlative degree. 

Note. — TftnVm, indeed^ can be added to these. 



629. 



^Il!ngn6kfa 


oh, how terrible ! 


drr^nka^lpcl 


oh my 1 (irritation, impatience, etc.) 


^qch^k^qp^ 


now that is too much ! 


ics^n^kf^ 


what a pity ! 


IdizhgTiuep^ 


how shameless ! 


kemiiqttkiiqchevi 


what a fine dog ! 


nundnlrqp^ m^tume 


oh, how nice it is here I 


^thiantiksiqpa 


an unexpected guest ! 


mlklenevi 


well, so small ! 


^sh^rqp^ 


how fine ! 


^shep^ 


how bad ! 


&ll!ngn6kpetle 


it is most dreadful I 


tathmr'ndkpetle 


it is most welcome ! 


kweyin6kpetl6 


it is most gratifying ! 


hw^tlekek^petld 


many thanks ! 



232 



ESSEA'TIALS OF INNUIT 



630. Such words as one of a pair, one of a sety a matey a fellow y etc., 
arc expressed in Innuit by inglfi. As there is no one distinctive 
word in English which corresponds exactly to this, the translation is 
often somewhat awkward in appearance. 

unSttifche ingluet thleydrinki, Ingluetil at6q'yug'nilthketniin 

I place one of your hands where the other cannot touch it (lit, your 
fingers their set I put them, their mates to where they cannot 
touch) • 

The word "hand" is expressed hy fingers (749), hence the verb 
is plural. Ingiaet is the third plural intransitive, and ingiaetl the 

w 

third plural transitive of the possessive. At0q*yfig*niltliketniin is the 
third plural terminalis of fttflq'yflg'nnthkOmnto, from fttdq'yllg'iutUcI, 
I cannot reach it {77), 

631. 

Irrumi Inglo^ dkk^nimkiin 

just as I had one foot in the canoe 

Irruvut inglod (ikk^nOqpghiin 

just as thou hadst one foot in the canoe 

Irrume Ingloii dkkilnr^kdn 

just as he had one foot in the canoe 

Lit., of my leg its matCy my legs mate just embarked (canoe under- 
stood); ukkOft, I embark y enter a boaty etc. =ukkftkft. 

632. Ingliipe&nkfltdk is used to express a person who is one-eyed. 
This is in the possessive. Mode I. Lit., he has one of a pair. 

633. InglOftqtiikQt kft? are we more tlian halfway? = are we in its 
other (half part)? etc. (For halfway y see 638.) 

634. inglu$lghdk (133). In native stories this word expresses 
a certain monster resembling a many but divided at the median line; 
a half man (636). 



635. 


Sing. 


Dual. 


Plur. 


Intrans. 


inglu 


!ngluk 


inglut 


Trans. 


inglum 






Loc. 


inglume 


Inglug'ne 


inglune 


Mod. 


inglumQk 


!nglug*nuk 


Ingluntik 


lerm. 


ingliimtin 


inglugntin 


• ingluniin 


Vial. 


inglukun 


inglug'ndrghtin 


ingluthtin 


j^qual. 


inglutiin 


' ingluqtun 


tnglutstQn 



VARIA 233 

636. The possessive form : 

Intrans, Trans, 

Sing. ingluldi inglumd 

Dual ingluqk^ ingltigmd 

Piur, inglunk^ Inglum^ 

637. Each set is conjugated through all the persons, and each 
person has its full set of cases, as usual. 

Intrans, Trans. Loc, 

my mate Yngluk^ tnglum^ Inglumne, etc. 

thy mate Inglun ingluvOt Ingluvne, etc. 

his mate ingloi Inglo^n Inglo^ne, etc. 

638. The third persons are most frequently used. 

Sing, Dual, Plur, 

Intrans, inglo^ ingluk Ingluet 

Trans, ingl5^n ingluet^ 

Loc, Ingloine Ingltig'ne ingluetne 

639. The word ill&kft means my friend, associate^ relative, etc. 
The full paradigm is given in 644. To each person belongs, as 
usual, a full set of cases, as : 





my 


thy 


his 


Intrans. 


iimka 


man 


!lle 


Trans, 


mama 


mavut 


iHen 


Loc. 


llldmne 


mavne 


illenc 


Mod, 


Iliamniik 


illavnOk 


illentik 


dc. 


etc. 


etc. 


etc. 



640. The verbal form is illftkSkl 

makumku ka una pecherkan? 

if I add this (i.e., to what I have offered or paid you), will you do it ? 

641. The partitive form is niihSk (320). 

mahrentik pingkatoa I have a bit or portion of it 

642. Examples of Olftkftkft in various modes ; OlXngkfltOft, the pos- 
sessive. Mode I : 

klttumiik Illangkachet 

whom have you with you.? (this is an example in the interrogative 
aspect of the possessive mode) 

illakleutaka I join with him Iliaiaranka I often add to them 



234 



ESSENTIALS OF INNUIT 



643. illlr'lOki, flUr'ian, Olir'Uyft = my poor friend. This form occurs 
occasionally, and is declined as in 184. 

hw^tk&pfk ^shllriimiik Illithldunaut 

there is not a good one in the whole lot 



644. 



Sing, 



Dual < 



Plur, 



my 


Sing. 

Dual 

Plur. 


nuik^ 

Timqki 
ill^nk^ 


► thy 


Sing, 

Dual 

Plur. 


iimn 

lllaqkft 

niitft 


his 


Sing. 
Dual 
Plur. 

k. 


nie 

lll^k 

nil 


we both, our 


Sing. 

Dual 

Plur. 


lllihpuk 
ni&qpuk 
illapuk 


you both, your - 


' Sing. 
Dual 
Plur. 


ni^zdk 
ill^qtuk 

nmtuk 


they both, their « 


' Sing. 
Dual 
Plur. 


niek 

limqk^k 
ill^^k 


our 


' Sing. 
Dual 
Plur. 

* 


tll^hput 
ni^qput 
niiput 


your 


' Sing, 
Dual 
Plur. 


nmze 

nmqche 
ill^che 


their 


Sing. 

Dual 

Plur. 


lllet 

nmqk^t 

tllit 



Ill^Lgm^ 
Iimml 

nUviit 

ill^qpYt 

illiviit 

nien 

nUqkft 

lllin 

ni^miigntik 

tlligmiigniik 

lU^mtigntik 

niaftiik 

Ill^qptfik 

ill^fttik 

lUegntik 

ni^qk^nklL 

ni^k^nk^ 

niiimt^ 

ni^gmta 

!ll^mta 

nmfche 

{Mqpche 

lllifche 

llleti 

iirnqk^tti 

Yllit^ 



645. To express certain. Certain, a certain person, a certain time, 
etc., are expressed idiomatically by OlAkft. The peculiarity of the 
idiom consists in the use of the plural according to the following 
examples : 



VARIA 235 

a certain man two certain men certain men 

Intrans, yut illet yut IlliqkSt yut !Uit 

Trans. yut illeta yut lUaqk^tti yut tllita 

yut Illet tketok a certain man came yut illet^ pe^ a certain man did it 
yut niiti ukfQkk&ksitl^rit iin^ certain men do not believe this 

tifiinr^t niitne on certain days na'ut illetniik from a certain fruit 

646. Ofie time, on a certain occasion, sometime, etc., are expressed 
by a combination of this form and chi, as : 

Sing, chat llletne Plur, ch^t lllitne 

chat niitne pirqchirriUqtdk m^na sometimes it is stormy here 

Note. — Chim UlSnS, another time. 

647. This means my other one, my comrade, etc. 

Sing, iepaka Dual iepaqka Plur, iepanka 

648. The personal form, declined as in 73 : 

Intrans. Trans. Loc. 

my iepaka lepama lepamne 

thy iepan iepavtit iepavne 

his iepa iepan iepane 

649. Examples of some of the usual verb forms : 

ieplngkatoa (Mode I) I have another 

iepitoa (Mode VI) I have no other (no comrade) 

iepaunand (511) alone, without another 

iepakaka it is my other 

650. All is expressed as follows : 

Sing, Dual. Plur, 

Intrans. tamaithkdk tamalthkuk tamaithkut 

Trans. tamaithkum 

Loc. tamalthkume tamaithkQg'ne tamalthkune 
etc, etc. etc. etc. 

651. Various forms of t&m&lthkOk : 

tamalthktinratok tamaithkugw5k 

tamaithkiinrllgndk tamalthkugn5k 

tamaithktilraa 



236 



ESSENTIALS OF INNUIT 



652. 



653. 



Sing, 



Dual 



Plur, 



I 

thou 
he 
he 

we both 
you both 
they both 
they both 




t^m^lthk5r'm& 




I 


t^m&r^m^ 


t^m^lthk5rpTt 


Sing. " 


thou 


t^m^qpit 


t^m^lthko^n 


he 


t^men 


tim^lthk6r'ma 




he 


t^m^r^ma 



tdm^lthkdinniik 
t^m^lthkdrqpttik 
t^m^lthko^gniik 
t^maithkdr'mttk 

tim^lthkomt^ 
tamahhk6fche 
t^m^lthkwet^ 
t^milthk5r'm{ing 



Dual - 



/%/r. < 



we both 
you both 
they both 
they both 

we 
you 
they 
they 



t^m^mntik 
tam^qptfik 
t^miqk^nk^ 
t^m^r&mtik 

t^m^mt^ 
t^m^^he 
t^mit^ 
t^mirimiing 



MISCELLAlfSOUS 

654. 

t^milthkdk timirika 

t^m^lthko^n peyug^ki 

ukut t^mit or ukut tilm^r'mting 

nauthlulraet tim^r'mting m^vut tikllet 

ipske tdmiti 

taukuk aPn^k t^m^r'mtik tokok 

chdr5t dche^tniin thl6luku t^m^lthko^n 

ch^-tam^r'ma mdnt5k 
ch^t-t^miir'mting m^ntut 
t^m^lthkunratut !llit petut 
t^m^lthkunrilgndk peyunr^t^klL 

t^mimtS iy^qtukut 
chil-t^men t^ngh^ 
chat-t&mat peyug'iari 
t^in^lthk5r'md iy^qchShkdi 

timat atsat 

nun^ t&men 
tamaithkweta tifk^ke 



I lost the whole of it = it all 

I want it all 

all these 

let all the sick come here 

ask them all 

those two women, both dead 

he, putting the whole of it under 

the bed-mat 
everything is here 
all things are here 
some parts are wanting 
I do not want one which is not 

complete 
we all go 

he sees ever3rthing 
he wants all things 
I '11 go, having all my things 
all kinds of berries 
the whole world 
make them all come 



655. // is a/most all is expressed by tSm&klaugwOk ; the negative is 
tftm&klaunrfttdk. This has all the usual forms. 



VARIA 



237 



my 



The possessive : 

r S, timiikiaka 
t^m^kllqkd 



D, timakliqka thy 
r. timaklinka 



S, t^mdkltn 
D, tamakUrqkn 
T'. timaklitn 



656. The case forms 

Intrans, 

my t^m^klik^ 
thy tilm^klin 
his tilm^kle 

657. The transitive: 



Trans, 

my t^m^kllmi 
thy tam&klirp!t 
his tdmdklen 



my 
thy 
his 

658. 

t^m^klen peughw^ 
t&m^kllqk^nk^ peughwik 
t^mikliti peughwi 

t^m^kliig'ma hw^ntdk 
t^m^kl^g'mtik hw^ntuk 
t^m^kl^'mting hw^ntut 

A few of the adjutant forms: 

t^m^klauk^n 
t^m^klauwSMn 



t^m^kl^g'm^ 

tdm^klirpit 

t^milkl^gma 



etc. 



S, t^m^kle 
his \ D, t^m^klek 



Loc. 

in my t&m^kllmne 
in thy t^m^klirfne 
in his tim^klene 



he wants almost all of it 
he wants almost all of both 
he wants almost all of them 

it is almost all here 
both are almost all here 
all are almost all here 



tdm^klaugndn 
t^m^klaur^n 



659. 

Sing, 

Dual 

Plur, 



Intrans, 

tugnilthk6k 
tughllthkuk 
tugnilthkut 



Trans. 
tugnilthkum 



Loc. 

tugnilthkume, etc. 
tughilthkug'ne, etc. 
tugnilthkune, etc. 



The Possessive Intransitive (Singular) 
660. Sing. Dual. . Plur. 

my tughllthkoka we both, our tugnilthkorpuk our tugnilthkorput 
thy tugTiilthkoSn you both, your tugnilthkdrtiik your tug'h!lthk6rche 
his tugnllthkocl theyboth, their tugnilthkaSk their tugnflthkoiit 



238 ESSENTIALS OF INNUIT 

The Possessive Transitive 

Sing. DuaL Plur. 

my tughilthkom^ we both, our tughilthkdmniik our tughilthk5mt& 
thy tugnilthk6r*p!t you both, your tugntlthk6rqpttik your tughtlthkdrpche 
his tughilthkoan they both, their tughilthk5r'mtik their tughilthkoeti 

The Verb Form 
tughilthkdk&k^ tughllthkokimkin, etc. 



662. 

n^kkllkk^nki tOghTlthkOnk^ I love my relatives 

k^ssuchikonik tugnilthkdr'pit Illetniik do not marry any near relative 

tauni tugnllthkok^k^ this person is my relative 

tughllthkok^mkln you are my relative 

The Possessive Intransitive 



663. 








Sing, 


DuaL 


Plur. 


my ttingki 


we both, our t&ngvuk 


our 


tiingviit 


thy tiingft 


you both, your ttingztik 


your 


tiingze 


his ttinge 


they both, their tiingek 

The Possessive Transitive 


their 


tiinget 


Sing, 


Dual. 




Plur. 


my tiingm^ 


we both, our tungntimntik 


our 


tungiimt^ 


thy ttingvtit 


you both, your tungmtiftiik 


your 


tungiifche 


his ttingen 


they both, their tungmiik 


their 


tunget^ 



EXAMPLES 

664. 

tttngghutft chuchukeke love your relatives 

hwinehwi tungmi itri this is the name of my next (brother or sister) 

ttn tunge tketdk his next to him comes (i.e., a brother or sister) 

ch^gTiugn^ chirumgrn tunghentin I turn off towards the left 

ivvuskut hwinkuta frkklum tungTientik deliver us from evil 

plnggTiiyun ka"uw^ngkit6k tGngghe 

there are three sleeps to it (i.e., four days distant) 



VARIA 



239 



665. The possessive : 

Sing. 



Dual, 



my ttingHldi 
thy tunglen 
his tungle^ 



we bothy our tungllqk^ 

you both, your tungliqkfi 
they both, their tunglek 



Plur. 

our tunglinkl 
your tungletfi 
their tungle 



This also means adjoining or next to mcy and expresses a brother 
or sister next in age. 
The verb form is : 



ttinglelir^k^ 
^komo^ tiinglelir'lutfi 
tiingle^ nQm y^kshlqtdk 
tiingle^t nun^t yikshlqtut 
ttingletntin nun^ntin !yiqt5k 



I am next to him 

I sit next to you 

the next house is far off 

the next village is far off 

he went to the next village 



666. Tttngenlign5k, tilngSnlignU, tilng6nUgniit. 
tungenliglidk tket5k the next one comes 

667. TiinglS&nlighOk, tiingenlighfik, tOngenligniit, the one next to the 
second. 



tung]e^nl!gh5k peyug^k^ 



I want the third one from it 



668. KfimA signifies alone. It has the usual series of forms, the 
use of which will be understood by the references. 



Sing, 



r I kema 
thou kevtit Dual 
he keme 



we both kemntik 

you both kifttik Flur, 

they both kemtik 



'' we kimti 
you kifche 
they kemting 



KfimA may go with any suitable verb. 



kem^ m^ntod 
chen kevtit m^nchet 
kem& iyiqchShkoi 
kemd iy^g'lo^ 



I am here alone 

why do you stay here alone ? 

I will go alone 

I am going alone 



nun^vtit keme nundnrat5k, chdla !ll^ngkS.t5k m^lronllg'ndk 
our earth is not an earth alone, for it has seven comrades 

K6mA takes also the ending mittO& (383). 



yine kemltt6k 



he is off there alone 



240 ESSENTIALS OF INNUIT 

669. KSmft may assume any compatible mode. 

kem^chCiqto^ I wish to be alone (Mode LXII) 

kem^chCinkuqtoi I like to be alone 

kemthlirqtaa I am left alone (Mode XCIX; 

670. Each of the nine persons has its full set of cases, as, kemft, 
kemnS, kemniik, etc.; kevttt, keynS, kfiynuk, etc. 

671. For kem&liich&kft see paradigm (153). 

672. KfimA is also used to express only. The good only enter 
heaven = the good alone. Only, in the sense of simply y merely y is 
rendered by taligw&m. 

673. 

una keghin pek^ki this one alone I have = I have only this one 

ukuk keqkinki pek&qka these two alone I have = I have only these two 
ukut kegheti pek^nk^ these alone I have = I have only these 

674. 

' kah^r'm^ 
Sing, \ kah^qput Dual 

kah^r'ma 



f y — 



f kahdmta 
kahdfche 
kah^r'miing 

kah^rm^ unetitgli^ they deserted me = left me alone 



kah^mntik 

kah^fttik Plur, \ 

kah^r'mtik 



675. Kflharma appears to differ very little from kemft (668). 
The following examples present a few of the verb forms. 

kahannechtiqto& I want to be alone 

kahir'mechunrStoi I do not want to be alone 

kahar'mittoii m&ne I am here alone (383) 

chen kahar'mechet m^ne ? why do you stay alone here ? 

V 

kahar'mllgnen^nimne yum tket^ng^ 

in my being alone a man came to me 

nulaa.kilraek uet^lraek ' kwegum snene kahir'miik toi 

a married couple were living alone on the bank of a river 

hw^t^ athldmtik thlu yug'miik illaun^tuk 

they two being without any other person with them (510) 

676. 

Intrans, my pek^ pekika pek^^k^ 

Trans, my pemi pek^m^ pek^k^m^ 

Loc, in my pifmne pek^mne pekakdmne 



pekAka 



241 



Pekft = myy and is declined according to the paradigm {^J^). 



pek& mlntdk 

chlker^mkin pem^ !llitniik 
chiker^mkfn pem^ illetniik 
hwe peki peyug^ki 
pek^ n^nt^ 
chiker^mkin p!mntik 
plmniin thleu 
petfi yintut 
n&zvlg!zgfa^ pYvnCik 
kegh&n pek&puk 



mine is here 

I give you some of mine 

I give you any of mine 

I want mine 

where is mine ? 

I give you mine 

put it in mine 

yours are yonder 

show me yours 

it is the only one we (both) have 



p!mktin iye 

go by mine (when it is mutually understood what the speaker refers to, 
as, my sled^ my canoe, etc.) 



And in like manner may be said: 

kea peine 
hwe pimne 
pfmtiin lyoklaraluku 



in whose is it ? 
it is in mine 
make it like mine 



677. PSkSkft = // is mine. This is the verb form. (See paradigm, 

683.) 

ukut pekinki, md,kut Ithlim pekit these are mine ; those belong to another 

um peka this one owns it 

hwe pekiika it is mine = I own it 

kea. pika"u uni whose is this? = who owns this? 

nilUeiik piksei which one is mine ? 



Examples of pCkSmft : 

pllleiki hwc^nkuti pek^mtnCik 
kiyeyug'h*1 hwe pekimntik 
chlmuk chikk^rch^hsei pek&mniik 
taguche pekdp^tsniik 

Gqkaoqtok pimnuk 
Gqkaoqtok pekSmnuk 
uqka6qt6k pekimeniik 

kdthl&chunitoil peyukum'ntik 
kathlatnr^tod peyukumnuk 
peyukumnuk from peyuqtod 



he made them for us 
I make a canoe for myself 
what will you give me for mine ? 
take for yourselves 

he cuts my wood 
he cuts wood for me 
he cuts wood for himself 

I cannot say what I want 
I do not say what I want 
my wanted thing (Mode LXII) 



/ 



242 



ESSENTIALS OF INNl/IT 






c 
E S)8 



U^ C op B 



e 
o« o« o« 









MB 



>3 c >3 - *- 






.Sg 

0« M 



c2 



e 

>3 



fi &E C cr«S >«; o"^ 

tM>««>M ia>M>M IOJ>«mIU 



0« O, 0« Cl»Ci*Gu 



ad. 



eUe ^'gi^ 
a o« o« o« a o« 



e 

>§ S-s 

*i j< CO 

•U >= 'Si 
aaou 



3 



C 

C>3 S 

>3 J< >3 

B g)E 



c 



O. D. a D. D. CU 



Ou 0« Ou 



c 
e>;3 c 

>3 jC >3 

M box 

*V G*V 

c -bo c 

60>;3 60 

>9 a >9 



e 

^>«; bo 

k" e ^ 

>4; ,= K> 

C 60C 

•boS Sf 

>S »M >M 

aao. 



u c ^ 



e 

>9 jC >9 

»2>E*S 
E bcE 



c 
c >? c 

>3 jC >3 



>a 



•r* ♦* 



e 

** M JS 



0« D. D, 0« Qu a O. O. CL 



• 


e 
c:>:3 c 


! 


>3 C>3 


G a G 
B S)S 

>p« |«« tr^ 


e; 



ao.a 



e 
e >3 c 

C3>0. C 

> o* > 

>S >»• »!* 

aaa 



^ c 
>? c c 

i«» »^ ly 
aa.fi* 



e 
c •«) c 

60>3 bO 
8 S)E 



c 
c:>2 c 

>3 .C >3 

c bo c 

•bc'2'J« 

a o* o. 



c 

>3 C 

e c >3 

C >^b0 
bO Jj K> 

i«» >^ lU 

aa a 



G 

e>3 c 

E^a 

t«« >«« »>M 

a a a 



e 
= S c 

•5 *R »S 

aa a 



S G 



c 

C >** >3 

o. aa 



I 



>3 c >3 

E 1)1 
a*aa 



>3 c >3 

> o'> 

»mm tmm >m 

aaa 



^3 

i«» iH to 
aaa 



>3 B >3 

C M) c 
b0>3 60 
>3 B >3 

E^S 
*a*aa 



>3 .C ,3 

,C to B 

to>2'w) 

>3 jS,>3 

*!? »^ »tJ 

aaa 



^ C >3 

B >«> 60 
bC M >1» 

lO >^ IV 

a afi. 



J«>3.M 
>3 B >3 

*< >fl w 

eUe 

*a*H.U 



>3 

•^ E<^ 

>3 «>3 
»»; »5» >S 

aaa 



E H* >3 
*tJ4 B 

lU tH iv 

aaa 



.^ E &E 



G 

B 

^. 
aaa 



iv 

B 

E 



it> B IV 

B>a B 

> O" > 

»M »M »M 

aaa 



10) 



IV 

B 



IV 

E 



IV 



%»« c 



IV 



IV >X IV 

aaa 



CO-*- 

bo>3 bo 

>3 E >3 

E &E 
aaa 



IV 
IV JP IV 
B tO,C 

*bc'2 ^ 
>3 >a»5 

>M >«• tM 

aaa 



IV 

'bOB 



IV 
B 
IV 

B >v' CO 
tCj^ >V 

IV )^ IV 

aaa 



IV 
IV B IV 

e|dS 

»P« >M >«M 

aaa 



IV 

c 
IV S 'V 

B-g E 

IM >7 >M 

aaa 



IV 

B 

IV *^ 

B H) IV 

♦--ii{ E 

ly iH ly 
fi.afi. 



^ 



£ g,E 

IV >S'iv 
aaa 



>3 a>3 

> o" > 
*tm tm* *^ 

aaa 



IV >5 IV 

aaa 



•3 E >3 
CjC B 

E SdE 
aaa 



>M >M >^ 

aaa 



^ Jl( ><« 

>3 E-^ 

B>v C 

IV >^ IV 

aaa. 



e boE 
*^* >•" >»■ 

aaa 



IV 
IV -g IV 

>S >M >.i« 

aaa 



IV t^ ly 

aaa 



I 

■5 



>** ><^ **5 

■V >M >M 

aaa 



>B 
>M >«M ly 

aaa 



J4 

IV ly 
ao. 



'S,' 



•3 cl"3 

> o^a 
ly >^ ly 

Ou aa 



>2 »2^iv 
aaa 



■v >^ *y 
aaa 



>3 g.>3 

> cr a. 
IV w; IV 
aaa 



IV 

>M >«« IV 

aaa 



»v 

IV >^ IV 

aaa 



^ Q b 
Xs » 



>1i 



io^^ c;5c^«s; 




1:50^$; c^q5; c;5^^ 



N: 
? 



^|i ^ji ^1i 
4^5; 4'55; Bi^a; 



E 



00 

CO 






^ 
x 



.a 



3 
O 

V 



3 
O 



3 
O 



a 
^ 



V 



V 



3 

o 



3 
O 
>% 

"V- 

w 



pekAkA 



'^Atl 



679. Peklkftkft is the prospective form = // is for mine. As the 
endings are always the same, there is no need of a paradigm. 



ukuk pek^klqkll 
ukut pek^k^nki 



Neg, 



un^ peklklnrat^k^ 
ukuk pek^klnrat^qki 
ukut pek^kinrat^nkd 



The §ibove means thisy both tkescy these are for me^ to be mine, and 
the negatives. 

The interrogative would be as follows : 



un^ k^ pek^ldlk^ 

nun^k^kik^ 

chorok&klk^ 



is this for me.'* is this to be mine.^ etc. 
it is for my residence 
it is for my bed 



680. In the same manner, the past and future forms are to be 



used (90). 

Intrans. 

pilthka 

pilthk&ka 

pethlGk 

pethltiqk^k 

pethltiqk^kii 



Trans, 

pllthm^ 

pilthkima 

pethltirm 

pethliiqk^m 

pethliiqkiim& 



Loc. 

pSthlimne, etc. 
pilthk^mne, etc. 
pethlttrme, etc. 
pethliiqkame, etc. 
pethltiqk^mne, etc. 



681. The transitive of pSugh& (686) gives a corresponding set. 
Two examples are shown, meaning my doing and // is my doing. 



Intrans. 

pe^kl 
pedk^^ 



• Trans. 

pe^m^ 
pelk^m^ 



Loc. 

peimne, etc. 
pe^k^mne, etc. 



682. 



MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES 



1 pik, pem, plgme (214) 

2 pepik, pepem, peplg'me (215) 

3 penok, pinrhiim and the negative pinrStnok (159) 

the doing 

4 pech€k, pechem deed (152) 
pechak^, pechm3, my deed 

5 pechSrriy^r^k, pechSrriyirim way of doing (2 1 7) 
pechSrr!yarakl, pechgrriyirami my way 



244 ESSENTIALS OF INNUIT 

6 p6wik, pewem, pewig'me place of doing (117) 
pewek^ my place of doing 
pewekakil it is my place of doing 

7 pech^lthk^, pechllthm^ my game 

8 peiqk^k what ought to be done, duty (203) 

9 peiklik, pe^klem one big enough, fit to do (162) 
pe^kl!g6k, peikligfim, pedklTg'me big enough to work 
peakhgoika I am fit, etc., to work 

10 peyfln, peyut&m (108) 

peyun6k, peyunrhttm and its negative peyunrStn6k (161) 

this is used to express action, as, to walk, etc. 

11 pekalin, pekalittim a thing intended for something (116) 
pekauthliik, etc. a thing which was intended for something 
pekautkak, etc. . a thing to be intended for something 

V 

pekalitka a thing which is to be mine 

V 

pekalitn a thing which is to be thine 

pekalite a thing which is to be his (and so on, through 

all the persons and cases) (148) 

Note. — This ending can be added to any noun, as, nfilfiqklkll, it is my cord; 
nfllfiqkaiitki, cord intended for me^ which is to be mine when made. (See Mode LXXIII.) 

P6n5k (No. 3) ; p6chSk (No. 4). 

One of the most interestyjg. philosophical attributes of the Innuit 
language is displayed in these two endings. They merit particular 
attention from the fact that the suffix n5k expresses the substantive 
when viewed objectively, while that in chSk shows it as considered 
subjectively. 

Objective Subjective 

kemlutn6k kemluch^k loneliness 

keputndk kepuch^k purchase 

PSagnA, / do^ and its various inflections, afford a great number of 
idioms, many of which exactly resemble our own use of this verb, as, 
did you go ? I did. 

pilralrougha kiiskof^g^mtik I am from the Kuskokwim 

keycl pilra&tn now you have done it 

peok he is dead (a curious idiom) 

peok he saw, he said 

yut thlu peluke and he told the people 

Peugh&, in Mode LXVIII, becomes pSugwOft, I anty exist, etc., and 
from this form is derived pS&skiin, pSuskCttum, existence. 




PARADIGM OF PEKAkA 



245 



5t 
S' 


I' 


— J^^^ 


^j^_^ 


r ■» 


r •\ 


he is 
they * are 
they are 


thou art 
you * are 
you are 


peki 

pekik 

peki 


(it ni (tt 

VrTTTT 
P< PM P< 

p- C( 3< 

«i?r 



3! 
5' 



3 



3 



t 


< 


H^ 


n 


(V 


P 


P 


kS 


3 


S 


P 







3 



sr3*5 

rt » 1: 



(t 



M 



a 




fti r»i fti 


^I'Si'g. 


m ni (ti 


•O'O'O 
rti rti rti 


m m oi 


w >r 7<r 


TTtTTT 


TT^T" 


?r >r jr 


^TTTT 


px P< P< 


PM P( p< 


PM pxpc 


P( Pt pK 


PM PK pK 


CI CI 3^ 


^ 7<r px 


U3 >0 »Q 


3>0 ^ 

?r X- P< 


3 3 3 
S-55 


•* ?rP* 


PM3 


CI CI CI 


P< PM 




3 


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Si ?r3 



s 

CO 



3* 


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n 


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is 

ey * are 
ey are 


c c 2 

p »^ 

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n> c; -1 


•0*0 "O 


•o-o^o 


rti rti rti 


rti m rti 


TTTTTT 


?r ?r ?r 


^p< Pf 


px px px 


JOtXi^ 


pr 


n r* r* 


Cf 


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o 




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(fi (fi p 


n» rt ** 


p '*3 


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S p 


p »» 




a 


fti rti rti 


ni fti <ti 


>r7r ?r 


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s-e? 


C CI TO. 


'^gigi 


px 





o 

c 

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pOjD(n 


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P •* 


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p »a *- 

3 P (^ 
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ni m <Ti 


ftl fti rtl 


jr ?r TT 


?r pr >r 


p( P< pM 


PX PM p< 


ci-o-o 


muqt 
muqt 
muqc 




sr c( 3< 




rti ?<r 



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e: 



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7". 



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a 

■1 

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o 

c 

0> 



v; 

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c 

09 








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(ti ni fti 
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p;' pxpx 



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Ai 



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7r TT TT 
px px px 

O ^ 3* 
3*0 O 

rti sr 3* 
m Ai 



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rti n\ fti 
?r >r w 

px P( px 

•is .o lis 

3- 3* 3* 

rti rti rti 
?r ?r px 

Ci c 









c 


c 


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3 


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A 


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px px px 


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ci-o-o 


3 3 3^ 


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3* c* "^ 




rti ?r 



246 



ESSENTIALS OF INNUIT 



ill sis. 

iiiiii ASA 
o« p« o, c^ o« o« 



i3 a 



19 a 

IV IV IV 

AAA 

u u o 

0« D« 0« 



IV IV 
>«i« JQ U3 

D« 0« 0« 



Mi 3 19 

2P>v >v 



ci2^ 

C)9 U 

crcrcr 

Mt M« Hi 




>«t Mt it^ 



ese^es ese^es e^eses 

O. O. 0« D. D. CU D, Qu 0« 




8§g 



e 6 6 
B V V 



V 

6(0 CO 
9 9 



25a 63§ 5g.§. -255 



^ 



V 



V 



9 

o 



9 

o 



V 

U3 



V 



V 



^ 



IS '^ 



e« 



I 

CO 

< 

I 

o 

I 



25 



I 



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09 (O Mtf 

'a 's *R 

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CO 



9 § 



ic S j3 

>9 >9 >9 

s E a 




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O. 0« O. p, D. 0« 



»2 J« ♦* JK 

rRl9 19 >C i9 



J« IV 
>C 19 43 

O* O* O* 

IV >V >V x« Mt x« .. . __ 

^.M.a< ,:a^M JAi^t^ 

>2?3>»^ ^>MfS WaSStg 

O. Oi« D. O. 0« D. O, O. 0« 



i9 



I 






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V 5 S E V V 

«i« >\ >\ J3 4>> '*' 



V 



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« 1 •- s » § 
ess :c:S:S 


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a SS 5 §.§. 25:5 


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AAA 
** ■^ ■^ 



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ai-S 33 
>a >fi >a >i« 'S'>G 

p, p, o. p. p. p. 



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^19 t3 >c:>c 

^ ^ ^ ^ o*^ 

p« p« p« p« p« p« 



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IV IV IV 



J4 IV 

4>« '*' U 

IV IV IV 



19 

HtH* *^ 



^^^ ^^^ ^^^ 

P« P« P« P« P« 0. P. P, P« 






Si 

CO 



r thee 
you* 

.you 


rhim 

them* 
^ them 


v"* 

ass 


r him 

them* 
^ them 


«}0« S'9 9 6 § 1 
B99 «j>t>% A ** ■t^ 


Y 


V 


V 

9 


A 


Y 

9 


A 


V V V 

^ .a ^ 




PARADIGM OF PEAkA 



247 



a a a 

xo XV xtf 



13 13 ** 

o. 0.0 

.C 0*0. 

Xtf Mt M« 

IV iV IV 
0« 0« D« 



13 13 

Ml Ji^.a< 

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^ J3 43 

A 0«0" 
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IV IV IV 

aaa 



IV IV 

.2 JS IV 

JS o* u 

Xtf M4 K« 

IV IV IV 



^« *« «j 

Xtf >v >v 

IV IV IV 

0« D« O* 



■C *« «« 

>♦* Vi en 

4^ ♦rf «« 

>et >v >v 
IV IV IV 

aa.o. 



>ctf >V IV 

'S.'S.'S. 



' peukiit 
peGche 
[pcfit 




c 6 B 

B V V 
•g JC J3 


a S S 

3 


c a a 
a V V 

•2 jc ja 

J3 •*« «i« 


v" 

« tf) 
833 


' thee 
you* 
^you 


fiB «i« «4 


v: 


I 


? 


r 

3 



Y 
V 


Y 

V 


V 



I 



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0*0*0* 

13 13 13 

a a a 

Mtf Xtf Xtf 

•S.'g.'S. 



% 



« 



3 3 
JC O O 

•J: pn>* 





>gaS 










bco*o* 




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.:tf Jii( 


>3 >3 J4 

aio.>3 


«>• *« ♦i* 

O'O'O' 


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«^ ♦rf ja 
JC 0*2 


^ 0*0. 


X« >C« M« 


X» XB XO 


xtf x« x« 


IV IV IV 
aaou 


IV IV >v 

0.0. 0. 


IV IV IV 

aao. 



« 



B B a 

g V V 
•- JC JC 



e« 

M en 
3 3 



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g V V 
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lu IV >V 

0.0.0. 



IV 

X« >V >V _, 

IV IV IV IV IV IV 

o« o« o. o« o« o« 



M o*» 
x« IV J4 



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3 3 



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c a a 
a V V 

JS «i« «i« 



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3 



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O 



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V 



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1.33 

IS IS o 

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•V I 



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ao.o« 



> 



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00 

CO 



a S S 



3 

o 



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them 
^ them 


a 3 s 


thee 
you* 

.you 


him 

them 

them 


Y 

3 


A 


Y 

V 


V 


Y 

V 



248 ESSENTIALS OF INNUIT 

688. In Innuit, as in the majority of languages, the article is 
lacking. 

yum kemuqtA tAngha the man sees the dog 

kemuqt&m yuk t^nghl the dog sees the man 

Nevertheless, it may be expressed as follows. 
For the definite article : 

kemuqtl keput^l I buy the dog 

For the indefinite article : 
kemuqtimtik keputo^ I buy a dog 

689. The rule may be expressed thus : 

A verb in &kft, used with the agentialis intransitive, represents the 
definite article. 

kemuqta keputdki I buy the dog 

tdkuk^m iqte tlngh^k^ I see the bear's den 

A verb in Oft, used with the modalis case, represents the indefinite 
article. 

kemuqtimiik keputol I buy a dog 

t^kukilm Iqtenuk t^nghito^ I see a bear's den 



690. 

ka^qtdd m^lllmniik unw^koikftn ' 

ka^qtol ill^mniik Qnw^kolkin 

kaiiqtoil lep^mniik unw^ko^kin 



I am expecting a companion of 
mine daily 



kaiqto^ ekilmr^nttk Slr^rniiqpik I expect a sled to-day 

kalqch^hko^ pdl^hwut^miik unwlku I expect a steamer to-morrow 
ka^qtlhougn^ ^ngfy^mtik ^kkwlwlk I expected an angiak yesterday 

kaiqt&ka milleka Sfrgrntiqpik I expect my comrade during the day 

ka^qt^k.1 ek^mr^k hwiitd^ I expect the sled right away 

kalqch^hk^kil ekiimr^k ^ti ^t^ I expect the sled after a little while 

Qnwlko^k&n tketniyukkluku iimyu5rt5kk5^ I think he may come any day 
^f-r^rntiqp^k t5kiiyukkluku iimyii5rt5kko^ I think he may die to-day 

691. As the adjective does not appear as a distinct part of speech 
in Innuit, its place is supplied by various forms of the verb. 
As a general rule the following may ser\'e : 



yAn/A 249 

692. I. W/ien the adjective is used as a predicate^ it is to be 
rendered by a verb in the first aspect intransitive. 

^ Yngrik kiiqtdk the mountain is high 

kwlq Tt6k the river is deep 

Ikdqt^ tvirtdk the sun sets 

693. II. When the adjective is used as an attribute^ express it by 
the appropriate third person of the verb in rd&gii£. 

ktiqtulra^ Yngrik a high mountain 

Ttulrai kwlq a deep river 

V 

tvethlenllra^ ^5qti the setting sun 

694. III. When the adjective occurs as a questiony the interrogative 
aspect of the verb must be used. 

kithlOn t&kt^ how long is it ? 

kithlOn lngt& how big is it ? 

kithlun Ttut^ how deep is it ? 

kithlun y^kshYqt^ how far is it ? 

695. IV. When the adjective is qualified in any way^ then the 
form maiighX (Mode LXXIII) is to be used. 

hwltft t^talik it is so long = it is this long 

hw^tJi ^ngtalik it is so big 

hwd,tji Ttutaiik . it is this deep 

Note. — These may be made interrogative by adding kX : hwAtli kX tftktaak, is it 
this long? • 

696. The coordinate and is expressed by thlfi, which is always 
placed as a suffix. 

Ilnthlu and he ken^thlu and who 

Hnthluh5k and he to^mt^thlu and then 

697. And may also be expressed by chSl&. 

698. In interrogative sentences chfiUi is usually placed at the 
opening. 

699. And is expressed also by using both thlfi and ch£U, either 
separated or combined, as : 

kiy^qp^ktdk moqrh^g^miik ch^lathlu nimmtiqkSmtik ^kfltsklune 
he called out to bring him a splint and a bandage 



2 so ESSENTIALS OF INNUIT 

700. Tttmtithlli may be used for and so, 

tiskilgha toamt&thlu iyiglda he calls me, and so I am going 

701. And is expressed in a variety of other ways, such as by 
tauqkiin, tO&nS, tOXtlfi. 

702. As a general rule, and is not to be used with the frequency 
with which it is employed in English, etc. Innuit possesses the 
power of joining words and clauses by means of its numerous verb 
forms, which constitutes one of the distinctive features of this 
language. 

hw^nkutl k^ thloiltuw^qkauw^kut kimtl ekiyorqkaunlt^ 

can we alone, (and) without aid, do good ? (Mode LXVII and 668) 

yuk Sthlimiik tagut&qkaunrStdk Idlssuchem^vene iy&qtshSr'luku 

a man may not send away his wife (and) take another (Mode LXVII) 

703. Andf or chSU, sometimes can be rendered as still. 

m^nch^hkdk ch^la kingghumug'ne 

it will be here still after we are gone = dead 

704. On how to express why: 

1. The simple direct question is expressed by cMn, with the verb 
in the interrogative aspect. 

chen ^pchel why do you ask me ? 

chen tinrSchet t&mi why did you not come at once 1 

chen peyet k^nruchem^fkon^k why do you act without being told .^ 

chen tiikkayet why do you change your mind ? 

2. In complex sentences the form is chSnmS. 

705. 3. A person answering a question will say chenmC hw&nS hw4 
or ch6n hw&nC hw4. This corresponds to for this reason, because y this 
is whyy etc. 

706. 4. The expletive h5k is very often added : ch6n hOk and 
chSnmS hOk. 

707. Very frequently m6 is added for the sake of emphasis. This 
only occurs in continued narration 

chenme and why ! 

kithlunme yes ; how else could it be ! 

hwinkut^Hime and we 1 

kakume and when ! (in the future) 

kingvir^me and when ! (in the past) 



yAJ^/A 251 

708. The addition of this syllable, me, often causes some euphonic 
change, as : 

kittuyet becoffus klttuy^zme and who are you ! 

ukkut *' ukkuzhme and these ! 

709. These are followed by various expletives, as, hwi t&num. 
kingvSr'me tAntim pilthhuyei and when in the world did I do it ! 

710. Where, interrogative, is expressed. 
By nauhwft : 

nauhw^ nlngt^kilrai where is the sick person? 

nalihwl nin where is your house ? 

711. MS is often added for emphasis, and also hiim. 
nauhw^me Agiyun where is God ? 

712. When an active verb follows, nftnnS is to be used. 

ninne kepucheu where did you buy it ? 

nlnne ch^lHlthhuyet where have you been working ? 

n^nne yiirqtlhoS. where was he born ? 

Note. — The appropriate cases must be used. 

n^tmtin iylkchet where = whither are you going ? 

n^htin tiyet by where did you come.? 

n^kiin klulthhdl from whence did he ascend ? 

713. Where is also expressed by the interrogative verb. 

Viska n^nt^ where is Basil t = Basil, where is he } 

nintit ch5.ngerit where are the blackfish ? 

n^ntlho^ knorhlk neplnr&ne where was he when the lamp went out.? 

nlnchet where are you t 

714. Ntot&zmg, where are they? (708). 

Note. — NAtSkfAnS (368) is often used for nAnnS. 

715. NfttutmOqti, tvhitlur does he go? (i.e., whithers he?). This 
is a brief way of expressing : 

n^tmtin iyiqti where is he going? 

nSttit mdqtlho^ where has he gone ? 

n^ttit mdqch^hki where will he go } 



252 



ESSENTIALS OF INNUIT 



716. The possessive form is : 

my nltldL 

thy nStft 

his nlte 

This form is used as follows : 

n^tml p!nr!lthk&ghl chlll6yiqtd& 
n&tji pel <7xr^/ nltlekutJi k& 

717. For nXnlfich&kl see 408. 



nltml, etc. 
nitfiit, etc. 
nlten, etc. 



if I were not sick I would work 
are you sick ? 



K& Interrogatiye 
718. All unqualified interrogation is to be expressed by ki. 



klplk kd, is it so ? 

ilumiin kl is it really ? 

taligwlm kl only that ? 

mlhiin kl iyiqtok 
Italichekun kd, iylqttjlk 
luchenlng kl 
iylreklnratln kl unl 
unl kl peyunratln 



hwltft kl ? this way, eh ? 

unl kl ? this one, eh ? 

tpSnghutfi ka ? is it you ? 

was it this way he went ? 

did they both go together ? (i.e., as one) 

do you understand t 

does this not suit you? 

this don't do, eh ? 



719. All qualified interrogation, and all questions in which any 
interrogative particle is introduced, must be expressed in the 
interrogative aspect. (See 461.) 

720. The interrogative particles are : 

ke^ and kenl who 

kithlun how 

n^lle^k which 

and many others. 

721. r kithlun 

Sing, < kithlutft 

kithlQne 



kS,ku and k^nv^k 

chen 

ninnS 



when 

why 

where 



peyea 
peyet 
pei 

kithluniik petsniik 
Dual \ kithluttik petstOk 
kithlutuk pe^k 

f kithluta petsta 
Plur, \ kithluche petsche 
[ kithluturig peilt 



yA/^/A 253 

This equals wAai is the matter with me f with thee f etc. 
kithlutfi hwlnehw^ peyet here, now, what have you done ? 

722. Eithlltn . . . Idthlftn is used in the sense of as ., ,as or as ., .so, 
etc. 

kithlun peyukCifche^ tol kithlun pechM 

as you wish to do to me, so do to me 

EXAMPLES 

723. On the use of Idthlfin : 

kithlun tum^ !y5ki how is the trail ? = how is of the trail its condition ? 
kithlun iy5kset how are you ? = what condition are you in ? 

kithlun chSla what next ? 

kithlunthlu pechaene n^thluluku how it happened I do not know 

kithlun t^klklma talimiik pel^qtl having done that, what does he do ? 

talim kinggho^kiin kithlun peUqti after that how will he do ? 

kithlutuk pel&qt^k what happens to them both ? 

kithlmung pellqt^t t^m^kut Ingthlulthhriit 
what do those who are baptized become ? 

kithluku ch^-k&mlni tkecheu 

how did you bring that thing which is by the entrance ? 

kithlume ch^qthluelgnut ungghwerch^hkit 
how will the good (sinless) arise ? 

kithlume un& iyoka what does this mean ? 

talim klngg^olkiin kithlune pech^hk^ after that how will he do ? 

taukut Hinr^t klngglio^thtin kithlune pe^ 

after that time (those days) how did he do ? 

kithlukume pechSkse^ how shall I act ? 

724. In certain districts, as around St. Michael's Island, IdyOhwft 
is more frequent. 

kiyuhwlme pech^kse^ how shall I do? 

725. KiyfimS, which is equivalent to / do fiot know, is a very 
common expression around St. Michael. 

726. hwfttkftpik. The following examples will show the use of this term. 

Used alone: 
k&ptk ka is it, really ? 



2 54 ESSENTIALS OF INNUIT 

727. Used with verbs : 



hweghl hwltk&pYk peto& 
hweghi hw&tk^pik ULngingr^to^ 
hw^tk&pik keputAr^to^ 
hwltklpikthlu ch^titdk 



I have absolutely nothing 
I do not see anything at all 
I am not buying anything 
and there is nothing whatsoever 
there 



This is a much stronger expression than : 
hwiitplk ch^titdk there is nothing of it there 



728. Used with tumtMu: 
nauthlu hw^tk&plk kuvyuet&t 

nauthlu hw^tk^ptk t&ng'ghitlt 

729. Used with nouns: 

m6qk^pik 

yuk^pYk 

yuptk, (plural) yupet 

nun^pik 

nun^plgme nungrleyug'ya,koi 

730. Verbal form: 

mdqk^piktok 
mYkk^piktdk 



there was no one at all who could 

lift it 
no one will see it at all 



real water 

true man 

the race 

solid ground (not tundra) 

I want to build on solid ground 



it is water indeed 
it is indeed small 



731. Hwfttnkercli& = hwfttkftplk, as, nothing whatsoever, 
hwegha. hwiitftkSrch^ pet5^ I have nothing whatsoever 



732. To express or: 

V&nka hw^thloka Visk^ pech6hk6k 
taathlu pea hw^thlaka kazhgfllS* 



John or Basil will do it 
then he said, " All right ; I Ml go to 
the kazhga " 



733. This is often abbreviated to hwftthlOk. 



ipit hw&thlok hwe pekilauk 
ipit hw&thldk Hn m^lleglskllea 



either you or I must do it 

either you or he will accompany me 



734. This is again abbreviated to hwftlth. 
hwSlthhwe peklUS or I '11 do it {^you is understood) 



VARIA 255 

735. tOXtn. Very often, in narratives, a sentence will terminate 
in tOXtn. In this case it corresponds to away in English, as, and so 
there he sat singing away, 

toi to^tft uetaut and so they lived along this way 

736. To express before: « 

I. Before me^ etc., with motion, is expressed by cheamitt5k and its 
derivatives. 

cheumlne or cheum!kiin !lrauqt5k he walks before = ahead of me 

II. Before me (i.e., in front ofme)y etc., is expressed by chifik&m'nS, etc. 

III. Before me, etc., meaning "in my presence," is expressed by 
t&kiimnS. 

IV. Before, in the sense of "prior to an act," is expressed by 
pnig'mA. 

737. To express likely and unlikely : 
I. By tOft kS. 

td^ k^ thloilrenltdk it is not likely that he will get well 

tod kd iylg'ndtbk it is not likely that he goes 

tod kX tketnauqtut hwdtod it is not likely that they will come now 

738. 2. By means of Mode CXII. 

iydqchikshug'ndkoa I am likely to go 

tdmdnchikshug'ndkok he is likely to be there 

Note. — This mode expresses unlikely by its negative, without using toA kX. 

mdnchlkshug'ndkok he is likely to be here 

mdnlghishugndkok he is not likely to be here 

pech^kchug'ndkok he is likely to do it 

pinggliichug'ndkok he is not likely to do it 

thl6drechikchug*ndk6k he is likely to recover 

thlodrregnichug'n^kok he is not likely to recover 

739. TOftqpe&k, just as, like, as if 

toaqpeAk hok taTigwlm k^fchlrkontik ^mthllr'lune 
just as he had made a few steps 

Note. — KXnkfin has the same signification. 

740. TOftthlunS, therefore, tliat is why. 

todthlune unl iw^kshiUvglie ghilthkeuchunrat6k 

because you do not take off this, that is why it does not fit 



256 ESSENTIALS OF INNUIT 

741. From IdUigintSk, it is out of place. This expresses in vain. 

uetfuk killlg&ne it is in its nothingness = it is there out of place 

miydrqt&ki kllHglntik I picked it up from where it was 

unet^ki killlgintin I left it as useless 

tilm&tii klUtgiktin ^poralkoniku itr& Agiyutfutlplt 
thou shalt not take the name of the Lord in vain 

742. Chnthkftk, chilthkim, chilthklme, etc., has about the same force 
as the above chilthkiiinKHI. 

743. nXkmen. This expresses own. The use of this term presents 
no difficulty, as the following examples will show. 

n^kmethl^lklin k& is it your own ? 

n^kmethl^nktin pHthhaiki I did it with my own 

NXkmSn coalesces with a number of forms, as follows (676) : 

n^kmethl^ki my own 

n^kmethl&kik^ it is my own 

n^kmethl&nr^t&ki it is not my own 

n^kmen pekik^ it is my own 

n&kmen illlk^ldl it is of my own 

744. Nilttam has about the same sense as n&kmen. 
ntittdm ntikk^ his own house 



745. How to express on account of : 

' pettkkloA 
Sing. * petikklutft Dual * 

petikkluku 



' petlkklunuk 
petlkklutiik Plur. 



' petikkluti 
petlkkluche 
petlkkluke 



pelikklukuk 

PetikklOA, used in connection with the forms explained in 75, 
expresses on account of by reason of etc. 

^rruliytiqtol m6qsulthkl petikkluku 

I want to stop on account of my thirst (Mode LXII) 

^giyOgh^ hwlngniik pet!kklo& ch&qthliiqtd^m^ 

I pray for myself on account of my sins = on my account I having 
sinned (257, 439, and 530) 

hw^nkutl yugne petlkklutS, chdla hwlnkut^ in^rqtultiqk^put petikkluku 
propter nos homines et nostram salutem 

746. There are various other ways of expressing on account of 
such as by tOihOk tauni iyflgnOkklQkQ, also by tauni ^QthlilkklukQ, or by 
peilikQ. (See also 748.) 



VARIA 257 

747. To express for instance, etc. : 

k€pOtthl€nekum^ for instance, I buy 

k^nthlenekuml for instance, I say 

toitn pethlen6kum^ I do that way, for instance 

This may be abbreviated into tOfttn&thienekfiin&. 

748. To express throughy in the sense of **by means of" or "on 
account of," as 'propter' in LatiOj use Qgwftne with the transitive. 

^leghtim ugw^ne pHthhdiki I did it through fear 

n^kkllkktim ugw^ne pllthho^k^ I did it through love 

ningllm ugwine ulg^r&qtdi on account of the cold I shiver 

Skk&thlaliqttim ugwine uluqto^ I tremble from old age 

^IHngn^qktim ugw&ne ijluqstchekitii it will make you quake with terror 

749. Hand, This is expressed by "fingers." 

Finger 

Sing, unin, un&tllm Dual unStuk Plur, unitit 

un^tldi my finger 

unititfi thy finger 

unit! his finger 

unlttik^ my hands = my fingers 

uniltm^ {ngluSt my one hand = my fingers half 

un&tmii iepit my other hand = my fingers their others 

un^tMche Kngluet thleyir^nki inglueti ^qtoqyugnilthketniin 
I put one of your hands where the other cannot touch it 

750. The following is an idiomatic way of expressing day and 

night, 

k^nntiqtok piiknelune iir'niiqp^k untiqtumiin 

he says he travelled day and night 

tir'n5k thlu uniiqtumin ptiktlilqtoil 
I travel day and night 

^rr^lume piiktl^qto^ unuqtum^n 

I travelled the whole month day and night 

^t^tum^r&mi tigo^ I come, having my father with me 

atatumiqpit tikeni come with your father 

at&tumlrilma tikille let him come with his father 

ochSr'ndqtumirima tilune he coming with majesty 



258 



ESSENTIALS OF JNNUIT 



751. On the use of pOlingtlk: 

puHngtc^k keputdk^mi 
pullngt^k pew^koqtutii 
pullngt^k peyuetutA 
pullngt^k kii iy^lthhoutii 



as often as I bought 
you do too often 
you do not do often enough 
did you go often ? 



Note. — TflvYwtalk has the same meaning and takes the verb in lAqtSI. 



pullngt^k or tuvvwen&k m!ngkl^qto& 
pullngtar'laa 

752. On the use of hOria : 

un^ hdr^t^ tuntugwok 
ukuk hor^t^ tuntOgwuk 
ukut horiti tuntugut 



I sew often 
over and over 



suppose this is a deer 
suppose these are two deer 
suppose these are three deer 



753. On the use of chXknSk, very : 

mauqhuloq'lo^ taiin^ ^fr^rn^qkdq'loqthlune ch&knok 
that grandmother was a very old woman 

ch^knokk^nratdk it is not very much 

p^tssn^rtdk ch^knok it is excessively cold 

miln^ chilkn5k chilleuglil ie ta'uqkiin k^chdqlune 
here I am working very hard and he resting 

754. t&mft. This is used sometimes in the sense of at ofue. 



chen tinrachet tlLm^ 
k&nruzhkiitfi t^m& keuk^n^ 

755. To express payment: 
Sing, ikkei 



why do you not come at once ? 
when he addresses you answer at once 



his or its pay 



Dual 
Plur, 



^kkeik 
^kke^t 



These must agree in number with the object paid for. 



hwc^nehw^ ^kke^k kemtiqttik 
hw^nehw^ ^kkedt kemtiqt&t 

Examples of the verb : 
uni ^ket5k 

uni dket5vdkinrat5k 



here is the payment for the two dogs 
here is the payment for the three dogs 



this has no value, this is worthless, etc. 

(Mode VII) 
this is not worth so much 



VARIA 259 



756. Various expressions concerning debt: 

^kk€letik& ^kkelghoki I pay my debt 

^kkelet^nk^ ^kSlghunkA I pay my debts 

EXAMPLES OP THE VERB 

ikkelgh5qtumaligh& I am still in debt (Mode LXXIII) 

^kkelghu6rut5& I am out of debt (Mode IX) 

akkeln!r'yunr$t5a I do not want any debt (Mode LXII) 

&kkel!th^ke ^kkelgh6rtft first pay your debt 

illit ^kelghum^ ^kkel€t^nk& I pay some of my debt 

un^ ^kkelgh5qpntin ^kkekiifk&chek^Lk^ 
I take this for your debt 

k&zhghuep^thlu iplnne &kkelgh5rqtiimilr£Uime ^kintin ^kkelet&ksaun^ke 

(628) 
it is shameless in you, not to pay a debt you owe for so long 

757. Nikling hw6, nlkUng ipit, nXkling tf, etc. This expresses poor 
mff etc. 

nikling ipit n^kHng is also said 

A still more sympathetic expression is : 

n^kling ipit naklig'niqkutfi poor fellow ! you are poor 

n&klig'n^kltir'mi n^thlene in the time of my poverty 

758. Akling has the same meaning. 

^klingnikfi ip^ne how poor you are ! 

759. On the use of tiyCmA : 

kemuqtiml Hlet tiyem^ one of my dogs is missing 

yut tiyemi the folks are away 

nau tiyemi = nauhwime where is it ? 

tiyemdtQn k&nri say it by memory 

Nun^t uetiilraet, uetillutting ^k^ntin. Atauchime ^t^kome ni€t tiyem^ 
k^zhgemuk. Unw^ko&k^n Kllit tiyemglidqtilkklutCing nukilthpe^rit&k 
h5k klltht^kklune yuerutnailr^n, etc. 

There was a village which had been (inhabited) for a long time. One 
evening one of them was missing from the kazhga. Every day some 
disappeared ; thp chief was watching, for there was going to be no 
more p>eople left 



26o 



ESSENTIALS OF INNUIT 



i 

! 






yut imkut tiyemitut 

nillet kemtiq*ma tlyemauwit 

tiyemintok 

tiyemirdskan 

tiyem^nligh5k 

tiyeingh6qt6k 

tiyemintlhok 

tiy€m^ntlhtinr&ne 

tiyemSqtdk 

760. 

n^methien 

nimethliat^ 

nim!thp!t 

n^methlen 

n&methliat^ 

n&milthptuk 



n^thlo^Lgh& 

n^thlo&tgh^ 

n&thlo^mkin 

nithiaaka 

ndthluettkuk 
nithlo^mtiik 
nimilthikinkii nathloiqka 
nimethliat^ nithluetkut 
nimilthip^che n^thlo^mche 
n&methlit n^thloilnk^ 



those folks disappeared 

which (ones) of my dogs are missing ? 

it is away 

when it is away 

invisible away 

he is still absent 

it was away 

during its being away 

it is absent 

he knows nothing whatever of me 
they know nothing whatever of me 
I know nothing whatever of thee 
he knows nothing whatever of it 
they know nothing whatever of us both 
I know nothing whatever of you both 
I know nothing whatever of them both 
they know nothing whatever of us 
I know nothing whatever of you 
I know nothing whatever of them 



761. Nftmilth is the abbreviation ; it is used very much like ' jqui^n 
sabe ? ' in Spanish. 

perhaps I '11 do 



n^milth pech£kkleugn& 
n^mllth sl^ngthliiqch£kkle5k 
NAmilth ipit is a common expression equal to do as yoti like, I don't 



perhaps I '11 go 
perhaps it will rain 



know, 

762. Anybody or any one^ any person: 

tiingrStoi klttumtik 
yuktitok ki 
chikkarkeu yuguntin 
pen&qkllraii hw^ 

763. Everybody: 

yut tSmarSmung iyiqtut 

yut tilm^lthkwet^ k^thlauchuw^nki 

764. Nobody: 

yum nithld^ or ke^ nithl5^ 
yum pinrSti 



I do not see anybody 
is anybody there ? 
give it to anybody 
anybody can do it 



everybody has gone 

I want to address everybody 



nobody knows 
nobody did it 



VARIA 



261 



yum peyunrSti 

pilleilk^nratdk ken^ lyokentik 
yuktitdk 

765. Somebody: 

yut nietil pe^ 
yuk t&ng imin^ 
yut lUetntin ttinneu 
yiiqtiingk&tdk 
nauthlulraitingk&t5k ntim illo^ 

766. Anything: 

chimtik tingghlngratdk 
ch^mtin thlu ^ttifk^n&ne 
ch^mtik ki peyuqtutii 
hw&tkilplk keputiir$td& 

767. Everything: 

ch^ t^jn^r^ma m&nt6k 
ch^t t^m^r^mting y^ntut 

768. Nothing: 

chatit6k chgla 
kithlun pKnr^toi 
n^kiin pifk^n^k^ 
hweghi hwitkiplk pet5& 

769. Something: 

chih^r'mtik kinr^ 
chat lllit miktiaqtut 
chit^ngk&tok ch^mln^ 

770. A few (602) : 
kifchlrhrat yut ikfike 



nobody wants it 

nobody can make one like it 

there is nobody 



somebody did it 

somebody is over there 

hand it to somebody 

there is somebody 

there is somebody sick in the house 



he does not see anything 
without being fastened to anything 
do you want anything ? 
I do not buy anything whatever 



everything is here 
everything is yonder = all things 
are yonder 

there is nothing yet 
nothing is wrong with me 
from nothing 
I have nothing whatever 



say something 

some things are small 

there is something under there 



bring a few men 



771. One of these, met fUcQt ; some of these, illit tikat. 

772. Anywhere : 

pechedtiin thlekeu put it anywhere 

(See also 353.) 

773. Noivhere: 

nikiin pikkrlune from nowhere 



262 ESSENTIALS OF INNUIT 

774. El 'cryivlicrc (352): 

tament6k it is everywhere 

775. Sometime (646), any time: 

t^mitne tketl^qtok he comes any time 

776. Now and then : 

peliirlkl Illekum taugw^m I do it now and then 

ch^klm^ Illekum peliqto^ I do it very seldom 

777. Here and there is expressed by nXnne m&nS. 

778. 

^giyuskut hw^nkutd ch^qthluqtulene pray for us sinners 

a.giyutfi ^pSniik chilqthluqtuleme pray for yourself, a sinner 

igiyutod hwingniik ch^qthluqtuleme I pray for myself, a sinner 

Qqcha.ratulene agiyukelet let the sorrowful ones pray 

toine letnaliri yugune hw&nkuti then he taught us men 

enuqkutlhocik isklnkd n^thlunretsklune hkiigniim it^nruchene 

he forbade them two that they might know he was their master 

hwankutd nunilm kienSnghnglior'ne we on earth, we mortals 

ekiyurskut hw^nkutd t^kfeiUgTior'ne help us blind ones 

pdkmum ochor'nd kiinrutiik kwetok hw^nkutne 
the glory of heaven is indescribable 

779. 

tamSntiiksilgnut hwingne I who have not yet been there 

tingniiksilgnut i^plne you who have not yet beheld 

netuksilgnut iene he who has not yet heard 

niirruksilgnut ^pStsne you who have not yet eaten 

780. The negative is employed very extensively in Innuit, as is 
shown in 451. Furthermore, it is used in many cases where in 
English the positive would be employed. 

781. Again, Innuit will use a positive where English ordinarily 
uses a negative. 

nithlo^kii I ignore it = I do not know 

n^thlunrat^kil I do not ignore it = I know 

kiiss^tsttin ki k^thliltniik n^thlunrat^n 

do you know English ? (lit., like white men, eh 1 their speaking, thou 
dost not ignore it?) (452) 



VARIA 263 

782. Many examples are derived from the privative Modes VI 
and VII. 

^shetdk it is bad (i.e., it lacks goodness) 

ningllatdk it is warm (i.e., it lacks cold) 

ktinnuelghdk a generous person (i.e., one without stinginess) 

avvaliksit^ki I remember it (i.e., I have not yet forgotten it) 

(Mode XVIII) 
a'uqtikinrat^mkin I trust you (i.e., I do not distrust you) 

783. The negatives of nOk (159) are often used idiomatically. 
tuzhetiirStnok ^tauhwaug6k un lameness is good . 

784. The negative occurs in many idiomatic expressions. 

The common term for good by^ farewell^ is tOigiilinrftttfk, au revoir 
(it is not the end), from tOighOk. 

785. Such expressions as // does not Jit me, it is too small, etc., 
are to be rendered by t&stOrftkft, / exceed it, and mfkflthkakH. 

iitkuk^ t&stor^i my coat is too small 

dllemdtiqkd tdstdr^qkii my mittens are too small 

unit dtkuk atim iinavntin a'ugiizghwii, kinruthlukuthlu tast6r'neluku 

take this parki back to your mother, and tell her I say it is too small 
for me 

chdla tistoqtorarakjl it is still too small 

un^ iitkuk mlkilthkiikl this parki is too small for me 

786. Too large: 

xmk ^tkuk nokkoutuk^k^ this parki is too big for me 

ukuk k^mmCikshek ^ngkdqk^ these boots are too large for me 

ting tangltiqkfi ghilthkakinratiqkfi 

hello ! your snowshoes are not large enough for you 

nokkletnrStod 

nothing is wanting to me = I do not need anything 

nokkletstnrat^gnilHn he saves me from wanting anything 

787. TOkOrftet signifies the whole family, and Ol&kilrftet, the entire 
gens ; however, this distinction is seldom observed in conversation. 

Illikilraine kifcheuche how many are you in your family ? 

niakilradne ir'vlnlirukut we are six 

kifcheuhwit ill^kilraetukane nunine how many families in this village? 



264 



ESSEXTIALS OF IXXUlT 



788. There is also tfighiltlikSldlriet, those who arc near to one 
another, which is often used to express family or relatives (660). 

789. 

yunk^ 

arigleghutftk^ 

lllankil and tugnilthktinki 



my parents 
my relatives 
my kindred 



All these words are given in the possessive, as above. 

^ppa~uh6lukd grandfather mauqholuki grandmother 

^tikd father ^nlk^ mother 

^t^kswelet^k^ dear father ^n^ksweletilkli dear mother 

U^neikiigh^ father chikoutk^ mother 

This is, literally, my begettor^ from if'nttk, child. The term chi- 
kOQtkft, my mother, signifies my container. Almost any receptacle can 
be expressed by chAkO&te. A bag of blubber is termed OkQm chlkoatS. 

^t&'t^k^ uncle ^n^n'nik^ aunt 

inglitn'giro^k^ cousin (male) niy^gilro&k^ cousin (female) 

This is, literally, as or like a brother, as a sister. (See Mode 
LXXXIV.) 

^m5kkl!rk^ brother (eldest) ilthk^lgk sister (eldest) 

kukakl^k brother (younger) niyigSkukiklSk sister (younger) 

klnggnokl^k brother (youngest) niyigaklSk sister (youngest) 



k^tiinr^k^ 

p^nneki 

if'neika 

k^tiinrdngldlto^ 

p^nn!ngk^to& 

if'niiretoa 

im5kkl!ngkito^ 
S-nggliUdd 

kingghoklingkitoi tangauhol6r'mtik 

klnggnoklingk^to^ n&zzaul5r'miik 

kuk^kllngk^tdi 

niySgangkiitoa. 

^Ithk^ng^^to^ 

aithi^itoi 



my son 

my daughter 

my child 

I have a son 

I have a daughter 

I have no children, I am childless 
(Mode VII) 

I have an elder brother 

I have no brother, I am brother- 
less (Mode VI) 

I have a youngest brother 

I have a youngest sister 

I have a younger brother 

I have a younger sister 

I have an elder sister 

I have no sister, I am sisterless 
(Mode VI) 



' yA/^/A 265 

790. 

ueki my husband 

ueltki my former husband 

uethliiq one who discards a wife 

nuledt5k he is a widower 

nulaiki my wife 

In cases where a man is a polygamist, the first wife is called 
naiSrqpftk, and the second is termed nOkftrftk. 

uelgik a widow 

uenetok she is a widow (Mode VII) 

nullqklikin I marry you (man speaking) 

nuliqtdqtoi I am married (man speaking) 

uekkl^!n I marry you (woman speaking) 

ueghdi I am married (woman speaking) 

nullqtumautii k& are you married ? (asking a man) 

uenkitutii ki are you married ? (asking a woman) 

nuUailqkllraek a married couple 

ueksko^ said by a man proposing marriage 

iyiikitule a runaway wife 

791. Among the Innuit who are Christians the term for marriage 
is kftssilchlrftk, a derivative of kftssilt&kft. The word for my wife is 
kftss&chSmAwSkft, kftsslichSmAwen, kftssQchSmAwSft. 

kassuchiig'ya.kukuk we two wish to marry (Mode LXII) 

792. From the verb AtSlirftkft, / act as a father (i.e., support and 
protect him), is derived the possessive, flt&liqtkft, flt&Hqt&n, At&liqtS, 
signifying my quasi father, which serves to express godfather, 

793. Ch&Mqkft expresses my parents-in4aw , 

althldika ch&kiki my sister-in-law 

794. 

^vvdchiki and also !11^^ my friend 

795. Aged is expressed by a suffix. (See 184.) 
^taug'l5k& my old father 

796. Deceased is also signified by a suffix. (See 188.) 

atirutka or dtllluerutkil my deceased father 

ilngnirutkil my deceased brother 

^Ithklrutk^ my deceased sister 



266 



ESSENTIALS OF INNUIT 



^n^rutkil 

uegnutk^ 

nulahutk^ 

peiirutka and Gnestki 



my deceased mother 
my deceased husband 
my deceased wife 
my deceased parents 



Pefir&tkft signifies my no longer ones; it is from pSrIitOft (Mode IX). 
UnSstkA from linetlki, / leave him. 



797. 



' I iigiiaa 

Sing, \ thou ligTiutft 
he lighdk 






m!kk!lligho^ 

mikkllralgh^ 

mikkllthhouglii 

mKkkilhulraighi 

mlkklech^hkoi 



' we both llgliukuk f we Hghukut 

Dual < you both Hghuttik Plur. < you llghuche 
[they both Ifgnuk [ they llghut 

JVeg, — nrilghoi 

mikkilligntighim& 
mikk!lltgniiwikAm& 
mikki 1 ligli tingghiir'm& 
m!kk!lhiin!lra&gn^ 
mikk!ll!ghukum& 



Note. — The third persons only are used. For the others, various forms, such as 
mlkkoA, etc., are employed. However, in the locative verbs the first person is used, as, 
pikftnU^M, etc. 



m!kk!ll!gli6k 

p!k^nligh5k 

tuktinrilgh5k 

t^maithkiinrilghdk 

peyunrilghoi 



baby, he who is small 

he who is up 

he who is not rich 

that which is incomplete 

I being unwilling 



Idioms 



798. 



2 

3 



hw^nkut^ nunim klen^nghll- 

gh6r'ne 
nithlun^kchar'loi ptiktoi 
ch^muk pel^qtilthft 



4 ch^mnie iy^kt^ 

5 ma.tft plkkrSlunS 

6 kwtqtod 

7 unestkS, unestmi 



we mortals, we on the earth 

I go secretly 

what is your name ? (what do they 

al)vays do to you ?) (one of the 

many idioms of the verb fo do) 
when did he go? (idiomatic use 

of chA for when) 
suddenly 

I go to the river = I river 
my dead parents (from QnSt&kft, 

/ have him) 



IDIOMS 



267 



8 m^mch6k5k 

9 peurutk^ 

10 td&tft pingrallngr&n 

1 1 i^r$^neakagni 

12 itg&tii sl&kkluke yukutlLmiin 

13 ^mt^thlu k^ uetau'luche 



14 t5i k^ 



15 hw^nehw^ taugw&m 

16 kithlun tum^ iyok^ 



»7 


kithlutft pet 


18 


nauhw^ n!n 


19 


kithlun p!nr€toi 


20 


kithlun iydk& 


21 


kithlun ch^la 


22 


chimuk ch^la 


23 


un^ iketok 



24 lll^kumku k^ pfnggliitin 

25 pinrStoa. 



it will heal up (lit., it will flatten) 
my departed ones (from per&StOA) 
it is of no use to do that 
he is my father (lit., he begot me) 
keep your feet dry (your feet, keep 

them carefully from dampness) 
is everything all right with you ? (the 

answer is, QStaukiikfit ch&fkSnitft, 

we are all rt'g/it) 
is it all right? (this is one of the 

many examples of the use of tOi) 
is this all } (i.e., is this all you are 

going to give or pay ?) 
how is the trail ? (i.e., how is the 

road, its state }) 
what is the matter with you ? 
where is your place ? (lit., where is 

thy house .^ but used to ask, 

where do you bunk } 
there is nothing the matter with me 
how is he ? 
what next } 
what next ? 
this is worth nothing (lit., this is 

without payment) (Mode VII) 
if I add this, will you accept } (639); 

ill&kumkin ki can be said also 
no (also, I did not) 



26 k^nktim^nr^to^ 

I am busy (an example where the Innuit uses the negative when 
in English the positive is used; this means, I am not thinking 
of anything but my own affairs) 



27 kithlunthlu pechene nilthluluku 

28 millUqgliiyiikloii thleniin 

29 fintiqkeor'rdka 

30 nuttiq emingkatok 

31 sl^mpdgum akklue 



how it happened I do not know 

I thought he would go with me, 1 
thought to be a comrade to him 

I make a frame (i.e., for canoe, etc. ; 
lit., I make bones) 

the gun is loaded (lit., it has filling; 
the negative is, it has no filling) 

the sun, moon, stars, etc. (the belong- 
ings of the universe) 



268 ESSENTIALS OF INNUIT 

32 nun^m ikklue all the things of earth 

II ^kdqt^ n&Ua'uk eclipse = the sun dies 

34 thllmekiin uetaTuk 

he is dying, he is by himself (this also means doing nothing). 
Nauhwfl Ylskl? kimlntSk thlimOdin actalik, where is Vaska i 
he is inside there doing nothing 

35 yuchsUi k^mm5k he is dead, his life is extinguished 

36 p65k he is dead (third singular of peOghA) (686) 

37 k^n&ngkatut 

they have one face (this is from kSiiikkl&, one face, i.e., one 
person ; for example, the above could be said of a number 
of posts in a straight line) 

38 hw^nehwi ^mark^k tagulththl!m&ch!m£& 

here is a skin in exchange for the one I got from you = here it is, 
the skin, my taken one, its exchange 

39 toithle ta'un^ let it be as it is 

40 keke k&thl^ichemllle let him scold ahead (490) 

41 ch^kydrchet what are you making for yourself ? 

42 n^ktin kinggliunSrlutfi tkechet where do you come from ? = from 

whence behind you comest thou ? 

43 n&thla5k^ n^nlucha^ 

I do not know where he is (lit., I ignore his whereness). This is 
another example, as in No. 26. (For the full form see 408.) 
There are many other similar expressions, as, I ignore your 
whoness = I don't know who you are, etc. 

44 Sriltim kemiiqte the star close to the moon = the 

moon's dog 

45 nitn ped where do you suffer .^ (7^6) 

46 y^kulgut tim^rimCing iyok!nrilgh6r'miik chuhwtink^tut 

every bird has a different beak = all birds are beaked with 
dissimilarity 

47 niiktin plkkr^lune from nowhere 

48 nikdn pifk^n^k^ from nothing 

49 nundyut kerne niin&nrat6k, illingkat6k milrSnlig'ntik inggntir'mentik 

our world is not a world alone ; it has companions, seven bigger 
than it 

50 letna"uk&t&rimche kithlun thlethliiqkanijk kristok kimtnttn 

I am going to teach you how to make the sign of the cross 
= putting the cross on your body 



IDIOMS 269 

51 tingmaim tievyi the source of the geese = where 

they come from 

52 irruml !ngl5& tikk&nlmktin just as I had one leg in (i.e., canoe) 

53 un& ch^kaunrlltdk ' this is no use 

54 ch&miik unlfkali has he news ? 

55 ^t^e cheumuttingnlktifk^n^t^ utr^qtlt^ 

well, let 's go back = without our trying any mor^ to go ahead, 
we will go back 

56 k&thl&tlngn^plit ch&tiikni6t&mkin I do not mind what you say 

57 n^p^chaoqttt sailors = mastmen 

58 k^nnllthhr^ pecheunrat5k what he says is not true = his say- 

ing it is not -<rue 

59 kemeluchin nithloilki 

I did not know that you were alone (this belongs to the same 
group as 43) = I ignore your loneness 

60 tuluk^ruk ^ikkwiwiithltik 

the crow which was killed yesterday (this is, the yesterday killed 
crow) (59) 

61 pet^chah^mttin pe&koi I did all that I could do 

62 milruk ^Ithrikuk plug^^g'ntik 

sl^thllrqthlinir'l^qtdk every second summer is wet 

63 tikshtim p^tr^ brain = of the head its marrow ; 

pStOk, marrow 

64 ^qch^ toi pllglio^imche I have done enough for you 

65 ch^kutk^, ch&kutft, ch&kute- 

my mother, thy mother, his mother (this is from the vialis of ch4, 
i.e., ch&kttn, that which holds, envelopes, etc.) ; a bag made of 
the skin of a seal, and filled with oil or blubber, is called 
Okiim chAkate. 

4- 

66 niikk&ngk^t5k k^ un^ is there room for this ? nilkki, his 

house 

67 ^k6m5k ^megtim kuleniin 

he sits above the door (i.e., he is poor) ; above the door, or 
entrance hole of the kazhga, is the least desirable part, as 
it is colder and darker; hence the place is allotted to the 
poorer members 

68 let6k it is tame, etc. (from IStOft, / learn) 

69 ema.qpem k^ppoil foam of the sea (term for pumice) 

70 sl&m n&ngnilthhrintim till the end of the world 

71 nettiksitild. k^ntiqsluku I never heard him say = I have not 

yet heard him saying 



270 



ESSENTIALS OF INNUIT 



72 



73 

74 

75 
76 



iyllraem ^m tiyem^ tk6tftrllt5k 

the man who went away did not come back ag^in = the went 
person, having gone, comes not again 



ilngr^k^ 

kinggli^rik^ 

^Iththr^ktink^ imthl^rtOt m&ng 

pinrat^qtukut 
tingluw^k^ 



77 ^tilne ktipk&p!kt& 

7S chlkmaomauk 

79 ^ggy^k ch¥kumy&qt6k 

80 klkkt^m n&sko^, p&myuS. 



I say yes to him = I yes him 

I say no to him = I no him 

I have been here many years = my 

years here are many 
we are pretty near there 
I hit him with the fist = I fist him ; 

tingiak, fist 
he is the very image of his father 

= he splits his father 
he is blind = he is shut 
the star twinkles = it winks 
the head of the island, the tail of 

the island 



NATIVE STORIES 

799. The Western Innuit, both old and young, are exceedingly 
fond of listening to stories. When all the inmates of a kazhga have 
settled themselves down for the night, usually some one will say, 
"Tell us a story." This request is immediately seconded by some 
one else, and some volunteer will begin a long narration, which 
is always listened to with great attention. Every village has some 
popular story-teller, whose thrilling tales serve to beguile the long 
winter evenings. 

As a rule, the Innuit have very soft, melodious voices, and while 
relating a story the speaker always talks in a very low tone. At 
the close of a sentence the narrator takes a deep breath and adds 
t6i, with a long-drawn falling inflection on the last vowel. The 
audience have a peculiar habit of frequently interrupting the 
speaker by repeating his last sentence in an interrogative form. 
This never appears to disturb the speaker in the least, who simply 
reaffirms his statement with an additional tOi, and keeps on with 
his subject. Generally the audience have all dropped off to sleep 
before the end of the story. As this seems to be the chief object 
the story-teller has in view, these interruptions are simply intended 
to encourage him to keep on, by letting him know that there 
is some one upon whom the desired soporific effect has not yet 
been produced. In many stories songs are introduced (see 841). 
These verses are without rhymes and, moreover, they often contain 
archaic words the meaning of which has been lost. Very seldom 
does a story contain any description of natural scenery. A rare 
example of this may be seen in the Story of an Old Village. 
It is also very unusual to find any reference to distant regions or 
to historical events. Many stories contain accounts of sorcerers, 
ogres, giants, dwarfs, and mermaids. There is frequent mention 
made of the sea serpent, and of a mysterious monster like a 
half man, a man divided down the median line. References to 

cannibalism are continually mentioned, and also the ghoulish trait 

271 



272 ESSENTIALS OF INNUIT 

of eating dead bodies. In one story there is an account of how the 
fox became red through shame at being overmatched in strategy by 
a ptarmigan. 

Some story-tellers make great use of abbreviations and are fond 
of expressing themselves in a very condensed style. The Story 
of the Invisible Daughter-in-Law is a good example of this class. 
Others, on the contrary, prefer the more expansive (see, for example, 
TGfttluhOkfawi, etc., in the Stickleback Story). 

In nearly all stories the orphan boy is the hero, who surmounts 
all obstacles and triumphs in the end. 

Generally all stories close with the word etaugweok. This is 
evidently an archaic term, the meaning of which I have never found 
any one who could explain. Many at the close of the story use 
n&ngnOk, meaning it is the end. 



The Story of an Old Village 

Tutghirauh5l6qk!l'raek uet&l'raek kwechu'gliam pi'ghane emiq'pig'miin 
^num^lu'ne. Tinga"uholu'ne tau'ni tutgha,ra"u'holol, enuqkunali'rhil eViit 
a.kka'emug'niin odtmiiqskiifk^n^'ku. Tod'thlu chlt-lllet'ne enuqkung'rina 
unwiTcorae ksTuwin'ne mauhul6q"lume Sn'ghdma iyag"lune emu'mtin 
eniiqku'tlhrAniin d^t'mOqtok 6r'luvchoi'thliiq*menuk tagumaii'lune o&t- 

V V 

mQq'stchiikSr'lune nuni'thliir'mGk tke't6k. Toi'thlu tke'chima kitte'ne 
th&lthkopJig"miik hwi'tfi ktutilu'ne tuzh'gha glillthkil'thlukO. Tau'n^ 
thilthk6'pa,k Uliingklene'lune. Taii'ni i'trauthluku ma'uqhulume'niin tke- 
chima araig^mtin piitu'luku ta'u'mtik I'trStok. Md'tfi chi-u'ni maliq- 
holod mdktlksa'u'nane kinniiksali'nane ueta~uq't5k kdnruchiiqpiik'kgn&ku 
iting'ran. Tod'thlu t6kklo'rh^ "maliq'hulu chen kSnniiqyunrap&ki'chet " .? 

V 

Toi'thlu mauqhulo'a,n ke'yughwil " tutghi'rauhulu nau'hwihtim eniiqku- 
la'ramkin ki'thluku chil-kamlna tke'cheu killo'intik ka chi'mfik tSnging- 
ratu'tfi"? Tutghirau'huloSn e'mum ke'yughwi "toi'yOhwd nuni'thliir'miik 
killo'dne tdngtlthra^'gha, mauq'hulu chaith'hoi ? " Toi'yuhwa kemltlhttn- 
rachilkilraa'kuk nuna'u'nur'miiqne yut peniqtdrutiiksii'kaklit nifu'thlu 
hwat'kipik kuvyue'tHt. Hwe'ghS tali'gw^ni ue'thlima nukalthpe^'lthhati 

V 

nunau'niir'muqne ke'me kuvchuka,q'ka tutgharau'hulii penethlineu'tft 
Sghud'td hwane'hwi entiqko'rimWn nuni'lthlrum tamd'hun killo'a,kiin 
snSqchiko'ndk." Ang'ri pegliitnelune ueta~uq'tuk taum-Wnggho'ilne. 
To&'thlu chiim-!lle'ne eniiqkiingr&'na im akdm' snSq'tok e'mum nunS'lth- 
thlriim ktllo'Sktin emu'htin entiqku'tlhraktin snSqtuk'kgrMune kdkd'ne 
piilliyaraqpag^'ntik tke'tSk at6q'1uke ti'gok suvaq'tok nan'vahag'mtin 



STORY OF AN OLD VILLAGE 273 

mlkkilra^'mun kintkch^cho^r^ng'kit5k, unuq'pik kiinlkchuk^thHnnel'me. 
Mii'tn imln^ n^nv^h^chughHk t^ng'hH miiqt^'r^vlk kok^'ne, ytig^'mtikthlu 
mauqhu'loin e'mum k&nruchu'naku, ke'ikik mtiqtHrivI'kaii ! uthli'gi 
mitn tke't6k, yuk ii'noik hw^ne'hwi cheu'gnine miiqtSthlenn'rai; tauq- 
kiin mi'thlu t^'thlenelune ing'rik uthlzig'luku iyu'mean milHq'thluku 
tumi'ktin ti'gok tuvV6k tau'hfin. M&'tfi nit'stok pamalir'ngr^'niin ch&-ka'na 
ftni puy!r"lune kenethlenei'me, krichughaqtSng'kathlunethlu. A'triqt6k 
uthUg'*luku, mitft tkg'ta cha6kTcakiin tikfe'git na'uthlenelu'tfing yiikpfik- 
tQksa"u'nanne !m1n^ thlu miiq't^thliik tumirhuthlu'ne faiVaniin miy6q't6k, 
mitft uying'ta, cha.'-k&nS. ma.lr6g"nuk morhag"nak kenethling'kithlune 
chingghaTimil'thlutuk ghikso'^y^q k&thltir'vag"lune unat'niik y!nrhig*'nuk 
iiqtfi'kathlune. KMq'tdk iHoa tima'na kadqchikn'raii chi'miik t^nglng'- 
ratok. Mi'tft iiqko'ine afTSrnikka"u'hol6qpik miti'rama paltig*naurailra& 
ka~uwa,g"lune, emu'miik miiqUl'thliir'muk ka^qchd'kdk tau'na, ka"uwal'rai 
miiqt&q'ghi'l^n. To&'thlu tSqklo'rhil "mauq'hulu kauw^qpirk'nak tke'to^ 
ithia'negha," tupa,n'rat6k kiyigiluTcu wegyi'ka, keto'ine morhag"ntik 
tima.'ktin iemklllu'ne kini'viit milqpilqtir'ya'ka tup^g'yunra'pik^n keto- 
ine atrig"lune it'rit6k it'r&ma uthlig^luku cheuti'kun taguluku niyi- 
gha't& tupilqts&g"luku. To&'thlu niydgha'ch^ne iche'^nuk chami'kiin 
iifrSrn^kkirali'holum uma't6k une'iqtA allenthlig'^lune to^m'tSthlu nupi'- 
rin uthl&g"luku chSla' tupiqttingni'ka nii'tin tupiq'tdk tupe'ma mik'tok 

V V 

**hwil'ka, tutghiraii'hulu ! tke'tutft ki?" Keyu'ghw^ e'mum t^ngalj'- 
holum " kaliw^qplrk'nik maliq'hulu ketS'ke dthUl'neghi." Td&'thlu Imlni 
&fTSrnakkira"u'h5luk k^n'ntiqtbk " tithlur'n^pe'tle ntirruksirgnut hwing"ne 
ntir'loqk^taq'pa " toqklo'rh& " mauq'hulu niik'mtik tkeutftra't&mkin " ke'yu- 
ghwi aJ-rdrnakkarauliolum "ip^niik' tangau'holuk ntikkiti'toa." "A'kli- 
ka'ka IpSne' arrgmakk&rali'hdluk toi'hum niir*gnitiq'pugha." " King ! 
niirchSh'kamkin." Kinghe'rimiin ifrSrnakkarau'hdluk ImlnS nlng'glidk 
ningghdk'chdqtok ^tr^h't^ tiloiq'p&k sle'lukuthlu. "Toi'me ke'nii sle'cheu 
ipSnGk'hwd toi' sle'utfi." Td&'thlu e'mum &frSrnakkara"u'holum imlnil 
tinga'u'holuk og'neu'ti emu'miik iilo'^muk, 6g'neu'cha,na ueta'uq'tok og'neu'- 
tkgr'luku ptikchtlth'thlen ISfkatdk m^'katok itiim' imtni ma"uq'huloa 
kin'nuqtok "ikkeke'ka nau'hiin pearaithhing'kita ? '* Toim'tithlu athia'- 
miik uloi'muk tagu'thlune ^kim' milthki'gha iafka't5k ilm nu'tin uthlil- 
g^q'ta imlnd afrSrnakklrau'l6qpa,k tagu'luku mStil'nen thlu tlnglu'w^ 
tikso'akun mauq'huloi imlnd toko'kdtok, Ittim'td imlni niiq*yug'ne, 
itum'ta fa'16qkun toi'tfi tiqkSk'kluku. Kinggno'dne uetSk'kltok, &'n5k 
t&ma'kGn num'miik imln^ ^rrSrnAkk&'ra'uloqp&k tokochemiirai'meu u'trSq- 
tok emu'mtin maliq'hulupei'meniin a'ki ktnggniin'ra nuptii'gnok tutghS- 
rali'huluthliiqka ungghuvalththiaqchSh'kutuk ma~uq'hulun thlu entiqkting- 
niksitii'tn kS mauq'hul6qpU. Ma'tn kingy^'ri ch^-Qklc'nii k$'n6k 
allsTuru'tlhrail imlni toku'tlhrS. Etaugweuk. 



274 



ESSENTIALS OF INiXUIT 



NOTES ON THE STORY OP AN OLD VILLAOE 



tUtghirauholdqUlriSk, a grandmother and 
grandchild. The two together are 
expressed by this word, just as nfll- 
lilqkllriSk means a man and wife. 
Agentialis dual. (i66.) TQtghArXk, 
tutghirAm = grandchild. 

aSULlriek. Third dual of fleairii^, were 
both livings from Q^taaghi. 

kwSchiigiiim, of a little stream. Agentialis 
transitive of kwSchfl^bik, diminutive 
of kwiq, rixter. 

plQiinS, at the mouth. Ix>calis of pigiil, 
its mouth, the possessive form of pi. 

Smilqpig'mfiii, to or into the sea. Terminalis 
of SmAqpIk, SmAqpSm. (29.) 

AnQmAlune, (//) flowing. Third singular of 
IdX. (473.) AnoA, / go out ; Antimatik 
(Mode LXXIII). 

tlngauhdlune, {he) being a boy. Third sin- 
gular 151, from tAngaahdlflgwdl, f am 
a boy {Mode LXVIII). 

taunfl, that one. Agentialis intransitive 
singular. (274.) 

tfitghArauholoA, (her) grandson. Third sin- 
gular possessive. (184.) 

SnfiqkunaurhA, {she) often warned him. 
Third singular of SnflqkfinauqkA (Mode 
XLVII). 

§yflt, to the other side. EnS, on the other 
side. (353.) 

ikk&dmiig'nQn, along their opposite shore. 
Third dual terminalis possessive. 
Akkdfl = Akk&Ak, bank; ikklmnun, 
Akklvniin, AkkemSndn, etc. (386.) 

dAtmiiqskfifkfinikfi, {she) telling him not to 
walk down the bank. Third singular 
of d&tmfiqsldifkSii£ (505), through oflt- 
mfiqskQnr&t&kft. Transitive of Mode 
XXXIII. The simple is dfttmfiqtSi 
= (future) 5AtmflqchShk5A, (past) 
5Atmfiqtlhdii^hfl, / walk down the 
bank. 

tdftthlu, sOf so then^ and so ^ etc. (701.) 

ch&t-Ill£tnS, one time. (646.) 

SnfiqkflngrXnA, although she forbid him, 

(538.) 

finwIkdmS, /// the morning. (618.) 



kabwinnS, in her sleeping. KaawiqtiUU / 
sleep; kauw&m*iii, kabwlq]^ii§, kali- 
wlnnS. (678.) 

mabhiil5qMiim{, of his grandmother^ from 
mabhaldq'luldi. (184.) 

InghAm&f he having gone out. Third sin- 
gular, from InJUL (534.) 

iylgMQiii, he going. Third singular IdJL, 
from lyAqtoA. (473-) 

Smfimfin, to that. Terminalis singular of 
ImlnA. (281.) 

SnfiqkiitUirSiifiii, {to the place to) him for- 
bidden. Third singular terminalis pos- 
sessive. Enfiqkuthlimnftii. (90.) 

oXtmfiqtSk. Third singular of ofltmflq- 
toA. 

5r*iavchdAthlfiq*m§iiak, his little old bow. 
Third singular modalis possessive, 
dr'lfivuk, a borv ; 5r'lfifch5A, a little 
bow. (230.) dr'iafch5ItlUak. (204.) 

tigiimiAlune, he taking. Third singular 
15A. T&gum&AkA. 

dAtmfiqstchukSr'IunS, he just war/ting to go 
a little down the bank. Third singu- 
lar I0&, of oAtmflqstchGkAqtdl (Mode 
CXVIII; see also 485). 

nunAthlfir'mfik, an old deserted village. 
Modalis singular of nunltlU&q. (204.) 

tkStSk, he comes. Third singular of tkStdA. 
(See also 842.) 

tkSch&mA, he having come. Third singular 
of ImA. (534) From tkStoA. (535.) 

kIttSnS, /;/ front of him = in his frontness. 
Locative third singular possessive. 

(390) 

thAIthkopAg'miik, a big stone. Modalis sin- 
gular of thAIthkdpAk, the augmentative 
of thAlthkSk, a stone. (223.) Use of 
modalis to express a. (689.) 

hwAtli, so or thus. (359.) 

V 

ktutAIiiii^, (/'/) being high. Third singular 
I5A, of ktataiik. (695.) 

tfizhghA, his shoulder. Third singular pos- 
sessive. TGzhkA, tQzhgan, ttizhghA. 
(66.) 

^thkAtlUakO, reaching {if) = to the end. 
Third singular 15A. (474) GnUlA = 
endi ghUIilk = the two ends rf a thing. 



NOTES ON THE STORY OF AN OLD VILLAGE 



275 



nifingkltaSlfliiS, // proves to be Jtollow. Third 
singular lofl, from Ul&ngUqtdA (Mode 
I) in the mode lUfingklSnSSk (Mode 
l.XXII). 

ItrautlUokd, he bringing it in. Third 
singular 15A, from Itrabt&ki (Mode 
LXXV). 

maaqhalumSnfin, to his grandmother. Third 
singular terminalis possessive. 

Imlg'mfin, to = over the entrance. Termi- 
nalis singular. Amek, ImSgflm, en- 
trance ^ doorway. (819.) 

piitulaku, he covering it. Third singular 
loA, from p&t5Akft, / caver it. 

tabmflk, that. Modalis singular tatml. 

(274.) 
ItrAtSk, he enters. Third singular Itrfltdft. 

miltn chi-Qnfl. (See 308 and 359.) 

milktlksatiiifliii, (she) not yet up. Third 
singular mlktlksaunS. (508.) Mflk- 
tiksltol (Mode XVIII); miktdl, / 
rise. 

k&nnfiksaiinflnS, (she) not speaking yet. 
Third singular kftnnfiksaan&nS. K&n- 
nfiksitdl, kAnnfiqtofl, / speak. 

oStaiiqtSk, she stayed. Third singular of 
ii§tauqtd&, same as uitaughil. 

kinruchfiqpfikenflkG, she without wanting to 
speak to him. Third singular pfiknfi. 
(503.) KSnruchannlt&k&(ModeLXII), 
from k&nruULk&, / talk to him. 

ItLngrfin, although he being in. Third sin- 
gular etingghfir'mi. (536.) ItriltdA, 
/ enter. 

tSkklSrhi, he called her. Third singular. 
T6kkl5rftkA, / call^ address him. 

chSn, why. (704.) 

k&nndqyiiiiiftpSk&chStf why dost thou not 
7uant to talk ? Second singular inter- 
rogative aspect (Mode XCII) of 
k&mifiqtdX. 

kSyfighwl. Third singular transitive. 
K§3rfigiki, / answer him. 

nauhwlhfim, where is it now ? (an expres- 
sion of scolding). 

SnfiqkQlIrftmklii, I have often forbidden you. 
EnfiqkO'UlrftUi (Mode LX). 

Idthiakfl, how. (721.) 

chA-kimlnlf the thing at the entrance. 

(308) 
tk«ch€a, did you bring it ? Interrogative 



aspect. Tk9t5X, tkitXki, present used 
for past. 

ch&mak t&nglngrfttfitii, did you not see any- 
thing ? Negative of t&ngSiqtdfl, / see 
= tlnglngiStoI. 

Smtim. Agentialis transitive of imlnl. 
(281.) 

tdiytihwA, of course^ certainly. (357.) 

tftngUthr&A^ = tftngghllthhda^. Past, 
I saw. 

chAlthhoA, what was it? Third singular 
past of ch&hwfl. (330.) 

kSmitlhunnlchAldlr&Ikuk. First person dual 
of kSmitlhfinrAchlkilrSI^hi, we two 
were not alone. KSmSchikoA. (668.) 

nunaaiifir'mfiqiid, /// the time of its being a 
village. Third singular. (78.) 

pSnlqt&rfitaksAkftkftt. Third plural of p€- 
niqt&rutiik8AkAk&, they were tucustomed 
to play often with it. P§iiIqtiirfitkAk&, 
I play with it^ testing my strength at 
lifting. 

nauthlfihwStkApik, alas^ not at all. (726.) 

kiivyuStAt, none ever lifted it. Third plural 
kuvyuStaka (Mode VII). 

GSthlimil. Agentialis transitive of iiSlthk&, 
my then husband. U§k2, my husband. 

(9'.) 
iiakftlthpeAlthhrllt&. liak&lthpSfllthhrAt, 

their chief past of niikAlthp^i. 
kSme, he alone. (668.) 
kuvchGkAqkft or kfifchukAqk&, / //// it just 

a little. 
pSnSthlSnSutfa. Second person singular of 

p€n§thlSn§agiifly I am strong. 
Ighiilt&, again. (626.) Term used in 

scolding, 
hwlnehwl, here now. (355.) 
tImilhQn, by down there. Vialis of tXmi. 
8ii€qchlk5nflk, go thou not by the shore 

= imperative negative of 8n(qt5I. 

(486.) 

Ingrl. Third singular of Ingrftkft = / say 

yes to him — I yes him. KAng^h&rXkA, 

I no him. 
pS^itnSlflnS. Third singular of ISA = 

plng^tdA. 
tabm Idng^SinS, after that time. (619.) 
chAm IllSnS, one time. (646.) 
Snfiqkflngrilni fim. (See same word above.) 

Am = again. 



276 



ESSENTIALS OF INNUIT 



ikini, reduplication — forbidden again ^ 
again he goes along the shore. 

Snfiqkfltlhrftkfin. Third singular vialis of 
SnflqkdthUmkflii (95), by the way for- 
bidden him. 

■ii(qtfikkSr'ltiii§. Third singular 151, of 
snSqtflkk&qtdA, I go a little along the 
bank. 

kdUnS, in its middle. Third singular localis 
of kdldikft, kok&mA. (396.) KOULmnS, 
kdk&qM* k5ULiiS. 

pfllliyirflqptgmfik, a large wood path. 
Augmentative pfllliylrXqpdt. (19 and 

223.) 

itfiq'lQW, following them = it. Third sin- 
gular 151, of &t6qt5A. (845.) 

tigOk. Third singular tig5i, / conte. 
(842.) 

•flyiqtSk, he emerges from. Third singular 
of sflv&qtdft (often pronounced soft, as 
8iif&qt5&). 

nXnvfihlg'inaii, to a lake. Terminalis of 
ninvflk, n&nyfih&m. 

mlkkUrilmfln, little (agrees with preced- 
ing). (166.) From mlkk5k, // is 
small. 

kftiilkchlch5&riliigkit5k, // has a little snow 
on it. (230 and Mode I.) 

taAq;pkk, during the night. (618.) 

kinlkchQk&thUnSImS, k&nlkchuk&thllnaOk,// 
snowed a little (Mode LXXII). 

nlnvfih&chughlk, little lake. (234.) Nin- 
▼2k, a lake. 

mfiqtirftvik, water hole. Mfiq, water ; yik. 

(ri7.) 

kftnrfichiiiiflku, and that one, his grand- 
mother^ had never spoken about people 
there. KInriichiletlldl, / never speak of 
it (Mode VII and 511). KInrfichQnS. 

kSIldk mfiqtXr&Tikaii, whose water hole is 
this ? (299.) 

flthl&gS, he drew near it. Third singular 
athUgSkA. 

yQk, ano&k, a man^ early that morning. 

chSfighflnS, before him. Third singular 
chSGdmS. (399) 

mttqtXthl5iiehr&I, who evidently came for 
water. Third singular. Mfiqt&thl5ii5<i- 
giiA, mfiqt&qt5&. 

taaqkfin, mithlQ, and by from here. (274, 
361, and 696.) 



tIg'thl5ii51Qii5, he has been going up. Third 
singular tftg*tlU5]i515X of ag'thlSnSfl- 
^. tlgg5«. (861.) 

ijrfimS&n, and so. 

mAllqtlUiikii, he follows him. Third singu- 
lar 15&. MflUqt&ki. 

tfimikaii. Vialis of tfimi, by the trail. 

tfiyydk. Third singular tfiyy5A, / make the 
crossings i.e., go up one side and down 
the other. 

nfttstfik. Third singular iiAt8t5I, / view^ 
meaning to look from a high position. 

p&miUr'nSrr&nfiii, to down that side of him. 
Third singular possessive terminalis 
p&mlUr'n&kA. (410.) • 

iini, nQm, house (this is always a winter 
house). (810.) 

payirUunS, smoking. Third singular lofl. 
Pil3r5k, smoke ; pii3rfiiqt5k, it smokes. 

k5n5thl5ii5ftm5, cooking. K5nethlliiii55k, he 
cooks. 

kztchQ^h&qtliigkfttliianS, having a little 
storehouse. Third singular 151. Kii- 
ch5X and kxtchfl^hak. (23a) KiichSftq- 
tXngkitok or kztchflgiiXqtXiigkitok 
(Mode I). 

mitfi tk5t&, as he comes to it. Tk5t5X. 

cliA5kkllkflii, by the front of it. Third sin- 
gular vialis of ch&5k&mkfiii, from ch&5- 
k&ldl, ch&5k&mi, ch&5kkftmii5. (399 
and 736.) 

fikfSglt, trees. Plural of fikfSglk. 

nautlilSnelliitflng, growing. Third plural 
15i. NautlUSiigat. 

3rfikpfiktiik8auii&ii5, no one moving about. 
Third singular jnikpfiktiiksaanS. (508.) 
TakpfiktaksitSk (Mode XVIII), from 
yfikpfiktSk. 

mfiqtXthluk, water carrier. Past form. 
(58.) Mfiqair&ft. (164.) Wl^, water. 
(26.) 

tflmirhfithliiiiS, there were no more tracks 
of the water carrier. Third singular 
15&, from tfimirutSk (Mode IX and 
19). 

IhAlSk, the smoke hole or ventilator. (See 
811.) 

mit& Qyflngtil, as he looks down. Third 
singular of ayiiigt5&, Qyftngt&ldl. 

mSrh&gnGk, two logs. Modalis dual of 
mSrhig&k. 



NOTES ON THE STORY OF AN OLD VILLAGE 



277 



kSnSthllngkithianS, in the cooking place (i.e., 

fireplace). KSnSthllngldltSk (Mode I). 
chlngghaiinULthliituk, embracing each other^ 

kissing. Figurative. Third dual loX, 

from chlnggf^aiimAthlSX. 
ghlkaUylq, a little pot. GhAkaU and 

ghAksdlylq are diminutive forms of 

ghftn, ghltSm, ghltmS, etc. (230.) 
kithlflr'vIg'ltlnS, boiling fiercely. Third 

singular 151, of k&thlfir>v&qt5k (Mode 

LXXVI). 
Qn&tnfik, some human hands. Un&tQt jrlnxfttf 

singular. (749-) 
ttqtiikftthKinS, having in it. Third singular 

15ft, of fiqtiikitSk. 
kUqt5k, he looks about. Third singular 

kUqtoX. 
11151, inside. (391-) 
kUqchAldli&I, he looks in vain. EJUlqchA- 

k5X (Mode CXIX), of kAftqtSX. 
chimttk tXnglngTitSk, he does not see any- 
thing. (766.) 
fiqkdftnS, in the back of the house. NSm 

fiqk5I. (41 and 3S6.) UqkOmtSk, it 

is in the rear. (37 1 .) 
IfiSniXkkaiih5I5qp&k, a big old woman. (2 23.) 
mitIrXm&, undressed. Third singular of 

Ami. (530.) Mfltftqtdfi, I undress. 
pftlfig'naurillrAfi, stretched out on the floor. 

Third singular pftiag*naiirUglifi, from 

pftlfig'nauqtol. 
kaawAg'lGnS, sleeping. Third singular I0&. 

Kaiiwftqtdfl, I sleep. 
mfiqtlq'^lftn. Third singular negative of 

mfiqt&q'^lftmft, because I would not 

be water carrier. He sought for that 

water carrier^ as that sleeper could not 

have been the one. (531.) 
tSqkldrhi, he hailed her^ called her. Third 

singular of t6kkl5rftk&. 
kauwftqplrknik. Imperative negative, do 

not sleep so much^ grandmother. (492.) 
&thU[n§^&, entertain me^ treat me to food. 

Athlft = another ; IthUnetSk, there is 

a guest, an arrival; ftthUnefikft, / 

entertain him. (Food is always offered 

when one arrives at a house.) 
tfipftnifttSk, she did not rise. Third singular 

negative of tiipftqt5fi. 
klylgfilfikfl, yelling at her. Kiy&gatiw&ldl, 

I yell at him. 



wSgylkl, he tries. 

ketoInS, then. 

iSmkUlflnS, breaking (a bit of wood). 

iSmkSafnfl. 
tXmikfin, by where he was. (276.) 
klniyfit, to down there. (352.) 
mllqpftqtXr'y&kS, he threw it hard torvards 

her. Third singular mllqpftqtXrXkl, 

augmentative of mllthkftiftkl, / throw 

at him. 
tfipftg'yfinripftkftn, as she did not seem 

inclined to get up. Third singular 

k4m«. (525.) 
chSutik&n, by the ear. Third singular pos- 
sessive vialis of chSGtikA, my ear; 

cheGn, ear. 
niyl^hflt&, he shook it. Third singular of 

niyaghfltAkft. 
tfip&qtsflgluku, trying to wake her. Third 

singular Idft. TupftqshAg&kft (Mode 

XXVIII). 
niy&ghftch&nS. Third singular ftmft. (534*) 

Niy&^hftch&mne, from nly&gn&t&kft. 
ftch5ftn&k, from down below, beneath her. 

(390) 
ilmAtSk, there is a groan. Umit5I, / 

grotjn. 

uneftqtft. Third singular, he darts back. 
Une2qtftk&, / move off quickly from it 
(Mode MIX of iineakA). 

ftll5nthlflg*ian5, greatly frightened. AllSn- 
thlftqtoft, I am much alarmed. 

nGpirftn, and then after she was quiet. 
Third singular Imi. NflpUtSk, it is 
still. 

tflp&qtfingnAkA, he tries gently to wake her. 
TupftqtfingnAklkl. 

nutUn, all right. 

tfip5mft. Third singular Ami, of tfipftqtSi 
= when she woke she got up: She 
said, *• Hello, little grandson ! you have 
come, eh ? " 

emum t&ngauholiim, that boy. Transitive 
form of Imln& tXiigauh515k. He an- 
swered, •' Do not sleep so much, grand- 
mother. Hurry up ! give me something 
to eat." Then that old woman said. 

tXthlfir'nflpStlS, same as kw5yaagiillp5tl5 = 
this is fine. (629.) 

nfirrfiksDghiit, / who have not yet eaten 
(Mode XVIII). 



278 



ESSEXTIALS OF INNUIT 



nfir'15qk&ULqp&, at last I am going to have 
something to eat. (628.) 

nQkmQk, any food. Modalis of nttU, nfi- 
k&m, nQkme. Ih cried to her^ " Grand- 
mother^ I have not brought you any 

foodr 

nfikULtAtdA, / am going to begin to eat (Mode 
XXI). lite old woman answered^ 
*' /»\>j', / am going to eat you.*^ 

AkAk&kft. Exclamation. There is a variety 
of these, as, Ikkekikft, 5kftk5k5, flkft- 
ktikS, etc. (See 626.) Ohy you old 
woman ! indeed^ you will not eat me. 

kAng, no (used interrogatively). Yes^ I 
will eat you. (780.) 

kAngherftmQii, up in the corner. Terminalis 
of k^ngherftk, corner. 

iilnggh5k, she reaches up in the corner^ she 
reaches right up and brings down. 

(ildAqpiik. a big knife. Augmentative of 
filudk = the semilune-shaped knife^used 
generally by the women. (865.) 

slSluktithlu, and she whets it. Third sin- 
gular ids, of sl^gdl, I whet ; slln, whet- 
stone. 

t5im§ k§n&, for whom now. (357.) Tah- 
hwfl kenil can be also said. (293.) 

8lSch§u, are you whetting it? Second per- 
son singular interrogative aspect tran- 
sitive of sl^goA. (461.) 

ipSnfikhwA, // is for yourself you are whet- 
ting. (257 and 359.) 

dg'nSutd, she threatens him. Third sin- 
gular of 5g'n§at&ki, he stood being 
threatened. 

5g'nSutk$r'Iukii, she making a rapid thrust, 
6gn5utchflkftr&kA. 

pakchilththl§n, from pfikchSthl&qtSI, I move 
quickly. 

U[fkat5k, he dodged down. Third singular 
12fk&t5&. 

mflkiltdk, he rose up. Third singular 
m&k&qtofl. 

naiihiin = how did he avoid the danger = 
in what way ? (710.) 

pe ArSlthhfingkAtdk, pe&rfilthhAngk&tdX, same 
as pSfirflngk&tdA. And then taking 
another knife ^ she threw it at him 
again ; he dodged again all right. He 
apprihjched that big old woman t grabbed 
her. 



mitXnSn, being naked. MXtlqnaiighly / am 

naked ; m&tlqtol, / strip. 
tinglfiwi, he hit her with his fist. Third 

singular tlnglGwikA. (468.) 
fiksdikfin, on the head. Vialis of fiksoS, by 

the head. (55.) 
t5k5kit5k, she dies at once. Third singular 

tokdk&t5A. 
itfimtii, he cut her up. Third singular of 

ItfimakA. 
nttq'yflgnS, his one wanting to eat him = 

idiom, the one who wants to eat him. 

(See Mrxle LXII and 146.) 
HUdqkfin, by the smoke hole. Vialis of 

fftl5k. 
fiqkftkkKikfi, pitching out. Third singular 

15&, of &qk&k&k&, / throw it. 
fl§tlkklt5k, he remained for a little while. 

USakklltdA. 
An5k, he goes out. Third singular InSA, by 

dozon there. 
tdkdchSmfirUmSttf after his having killed 

her (Mode XL VI). Third singular 

transitive of ftmi. (534.) TSkfiUkA, 

tSkdchSmir&ftmi. 
fitrftqtSk, he returns to. Utrflqtd&. 
mauhfilQpSImSnfin. Possessive third sin- 
gular localis = to his own grandmother. 

(181.) 

Iki, already. 

klngghfinrft, behind him. Third singular 

possessive plural of Idngghdldi, king- 

[Jnttnka. (391.) 
nflptfl^dk. Third singular, sounds. Ntippft, 

a noise^ sound. 
tfitghirauhfilfitlUaqkft, my bad grandson. 

(204.) 
ang^fiY&lththiaqchShkfitak, you both will 

have a bad end. Second person dual 

future of ang^avllththlfiqtdl. 
maiiqhiiltin, thy grandmother. 
SnfiqkfingnflksitXtii, did she not warn 

you ? 
klngy&ri. Third singular, he looks behind. 

KIngy&r&k&, / look back. 
chl-Qkknil, there behind. (3S0 and 308.) 
kSndk, fire. KSnSk, kSnihOm. 
&llaariitlhr&fi, appearing. Third singular 

rfifignfl, of ftllaurutd&. 
tokOtlhrft, his murdered one. Third singu- 
lar possessive of tdkfitlkfi. (T46 ) 



THE PTARMIGAN STORY — NOTES 



279 



The Ptarmigan Story 

Alcizhgerhau'luk nuliq'klutiik uetai'raek. Atau'ch!meh6k ti^'*nliFme 
ue'nii sloqt&riyi'toqtok, iik'Snun sloqt^rllune, k^kmi' kiyiiq'pikt6k m6q- 
rha'g&miik ch^la'thlu nimmiiq'kamiik &kfat'sklu'ne. M^'tnhok nula'h^ 
a'nok cha'hik u'ni ir'ghod azm^thlenU'raa. To^'tluhok ta"u'na nula'h& 
itkAn'rikiin, k&'kiim'nil Sm kiyiiq'paktok moqrha'g&miik ch^la'thlu nim- 
muqlcamuk &kfat'sklu'ne. M&'tiihok nula'hii in 'ok chd'hik u'ni tH'thlei 
azmathlenil'rad. Toi'tluhokim i'trilune, imlni nula'hi tamdn't&qtdk 
nii'me, ue'nethlu umyiiilkuksau'na.ku i'ka.ntin. Tod'tliihok punggh&q' 
thlune &n'tlraem, m&'tfth6k ue'ne tdn'gha, chaMk u'nd iikstiiqthlenil'rad. 
Toi'tluhok i'trilune, keyilunethlu, keyAkin'rilkiin se'yuk irha'liiqkun 
uy&ng'thlune ueksklu'ne, tod'tluhok talim' ^^'rhin^m pe'd " uekinritne - 
lukiL" ToS'thluhok ch^la' tiin'tu fhaliqktin tiying'thlune Ceksklu'ne, 
kin'riln ta~uni' ^'kizhgim pe'a. " kSnnighiltuviki'vtit peyunra'tdmkin." 
Toii'tluhok pa,16k'tak J-hmqkiin uydng'thlune chela' ueksklu'ne peyi- 
kil'raii chSla' peyuqkgn^'ku mdqrha'giniik kdngkthlii'ne'luku Talim'ti- 
tluhok kin'niiq klik uyang'ch^ma pe'ok ueksklu'ne, chSla' toil'tluhok 
tsTum' a.'kizhgim pe'& peyundtnelu'ku tupegaka'nuk niif'l3,gne'luku. 
Toi'tluhok iqhi'yule uying'thlune pe'6k chda' ueksklu'ne to^'tluhdk 
talim' a,'kizhg!m pe'i peyunritnelu'ku illdm'nuk tokocheliiq'nelu'ku 
Toa'tluhok a'klzhzhigik hhi'laqkiln uyang'chima kiln'nQqtok " Hwe 
ue'kapug'nl king'kiig'nuk nukkin'ka.tod." Toi'tluhok tau'nS i'kizhglm 
nula'hi rhi'l^qkiin tlngvithlaglutuk toi' nuliqkumzi'lutuk. 



NOTES ON THE PTARMIGAN STORY 



Ikldzhzhlglk, a ptarmigan, (See suffix, 1 84, 

dual.) 
nullqkldfi. (See 470.) 

itauchlmS. (See 581 and 619.) 

hSk. (354.) 

&f*iifir'm§. (618.) 

fi§ii&, her husband. (790.) 

8l5qaqt5fl, I sHdt. (See Mode XX.) 

Ik&nfin, for a long time. (620.) 

kftkmi. (361.) 

kiy&gauqtoS, klyfiglkft, / shout, (See 

Mode LXXVI.) 
mdrhilg&infik. Modalis of mdrhAg&k, wood 

splints. 
chSUlu, and. (701.) 
nlmmfiqkAk, bandage. 



IkffitaklGnS. (473.) Akfitak^kft (Mode 

XXXIII), asked her to bring to him, 
mftt&hdk. (359.) 
ii6IAh&, his wife, (66.) 
&n5k, finofl, I go out. (457.) 
ch&h&k unfl, what is this ? (320.) 
Iifhdfl, his leg. (66.) 
ftzn&qtftk&, / break it. (458.) 
tSItluhok, and so then, (356.) 
taun&, that. (274.) 

Itrtdl, I go in. (See Itk&nlmkfin, 78 and 83.) 
k&kflm'ni. (379.) 
ftm, again. 

t&thierk&, t&thlln, t&thiei. (66.) 
Imlnfi. (281.) 
tAmAnULqt5k (Mode XXIII), of tftmXntdA. 

(371.) 



28o 



ESSExVTIALS OF INNC/IT 



ntimme. I^ocative tini, nfim. (45.) 
flmyfidrkflktit&Ul (Mode XVIII), she re- 

mained in the house and thought no 

more of him. 
pflngg&qtdA, / iim anxious. 
iii5&, / f^o out. (457.) 
tXnghik&t t&nghin, ULnghl, / see it. (469.) 
fik8tiIqto&, I am headless (Mode VII). 
kSy&lun§. (473-) KSyau^hX, / mourn. 

(543-) 
kSyAk&nr&kaii.y»j/w^//^ she was mourning. 

(525.) 
88yi!k, sSyQn, a small bird. 

ihilSqkQn, fhA15q, smoke hole. (810.) 

flylngthlGnS. (473.) \5yka%^ok^/ look down. 

aSkskiane. (473.) Uekimklii and fiSldnri- 

t&mldn, to propose marriage. 

IFrtm&k, woman. 

p«&, said. PeOghl. (6S6.) 

tfintfl, deer. 

kftniftn, UlnrftmA. (532.) 

kftnnighAqtfiv&k&viit. (514) KJLnnftglk, 



long legs (Mode I), because you have 

long legs. 
pSyfinrAt&mkln, / do not want you (Mode 

LXII). 
pilSqtlk, a beaver. 
p«y&knrU. (166.) PSylkM. 
pSjniqpfikkSn&kfi, without wanting it. ( 502 . ) 
kingkthUlt5k, to gnaw. (474.) 
t5Xmt&tia. (356.) 
kinnfikkULk, k&nnfikklSm, muskrat. 
tfipSgAhklk, mat straw. 
nfiqrh5&, I eat (Mode CL). 
IqhiyfilS, owl. (174.) 
lilgmnfik. (639.) 
t5kiit&ki[, / kill. TdkQchSUqtdX, I usually 

kill. 
k&nkuk, willow catkins. (The ptarmigan 

feed on them.) 
nfikkingktd& (Mode I), I feed on. 
tlngyftthUtSk, it flies away. 
niillqkfimilk&. Third dual, they were long 

married (Mode LXVI). 



The Lost Needle 

Tutghar2ui*16kkil'raek uetilVaek. Tutgh^rau'liingTdlthlune t^nggaii'ho- 
lor'miik, mingkuting'k^thlutukh5k. Taliq'kiin itau'chlmiik mlngkutifngTci- 
thlutuk tamaka"ufkgni'kiL To&'thluh6k ch&Mllet'ne ma"uqhul6q"l6a 
slimka'che6k, t5&'thluh6k slimkachen&n'rina tutghirali'loi itkiilth- 
hrine althh6h'p&kin, ma"uqhul6q"lume kitke'we tagu'luke, atkiilthlirane 
ming'ka. Toa'thluh6k mlnknenil'niir'mne ming'kutHin e'mum thle'cheS 
n^thluy^gu'ta, yud^aTca nitakinrg't^ nitaklnrarn'meu tutghir^'^aa imlnH 
mSnusiiq'tok, m^nustig'nen^nV^na mauqhul5q"loa. Ttritdk toa.'thIu tut- 
gh&r2iu"lune pe'i m^nustiqp^k^'chet? Toil'thlu keyu'ghwS, "Tdiyu'hwi 
allineokp^ka'mi minustiqtlrai'gni." T5i'thluh6k uq't6k, uq'chUma 
kiimmiiksilth'hr^gne yu'w^, kSn'niiq'lune kimmtikslllth'thliiqk& ki'na 
aithh6hpa'kat6k mingktikkiir'y^'kak&. To&'thla kikeVene tig'goe, 
to^'thlu tiggo2,'meke ^ngglie'ti ingghekdr'yS'ki mIngkuttiiq"loa. !m1nS. 
tiye'ma! To^'thlu kin'ntiqtdk : " Tutghira^thluga mlngkutttiq'Uopuk 
imlnd na~uhwa? S-'ghu ! chilgmaqy3ic5'na,ku naii'hwi? keke' tizh'ghwul" 
To^'thlu keyu'ghwi ^tkulth'thliiqkil ^Ithhdh'p^in mtngTc^ka mink- 

V 

nena,'nim*ne thle'chea ndthluyigu't^ka. Tutghara'lihnkQti'gak I i'gnu 
ch&gm&ch$hkln'rat5k ke'gliin minkut'k^puk, niit'miin chigmSq'cheu? 
chigmaith'pne UckekeTdi yO^'ghwu ! To&'thlu yuil'r&k yoariyaklik'kek 




THE LOST NEEDLE — NOTES 



281 



niltikin'rat&k uegyi'kuk t5il hwa'nSrpak nat^kutin'ratuk. Tti^harali'- 
loqlune lining keto'^ne nunu'gni keke ! p^t^g'^miik ! n^t^ksklu'ku, 
uegy^^uk keto'^ne imln^ t^nggauhol5q"lune tlngla'rh^ n^t^ochii- 
gnird'chamtik. Tiitgharaidq'loi niM'yutdk keai6g"lune a'n6k. MH'tft 
^'n5k ^t^kulu'ng, mi'tii n6chiig'ne5k ^^Ictin k^zhge'mtik ^ttilra^'mtik 
ne't6k. Uthl&'gi mil'tft kazhge'mtin uying'tdk chat-kilmTcut atul'raet 
imKni mingkuttiiqioik ipp&thltiq'thluku. (Song.) M&'tfi uying'tok 
kizhgem' ni'trine yuchoi'yig&t iinTcut po&thli'raet, mingTcutniik 
iyi'rdlutting, iknir'nile'Ulniik n&ch&ngk&thlu'tiing am'thluqthlutting. 
To^'thluhSk rtrat6k &qpa"utiikTduku yucho^y^'gat im'kut klut'miin 
chukchsTu'tut imTcut iy^'rdtiing mlngTcutOt une^'thluke. Ming'kQtniik 
auq'tdk kne'ne mwer'thluku tim&lthkwe'ti toi' ningimeTce i'ndk, 
ma"uqhol6q"lune uthli'g^ Mi'tft ftr^t6k chSla' u'n^ mauqhol6q'*loi 
emu'miik mingTcutintik timilth'thliir'miik yua.l'rai. Toi'thlu pugu- 
chea.'tiin pe'^: tutgha,rauluchethliir'Vah ! mlngTcutpuk Im^nlL p2iti- 
g^mtik niti'kau ke^gli^n pek^'puk. Toi'thlu tutgh&r&'*loi ke&va,q't6k 
mauqhul5q'lo^'inethl(i kitte'niin ming'kutiit im'kut k^t^liiq'thluke. 
Mauqhul6q"l6^ imln^ irrgnka'ilthkille kweyi'lune im'kuntik ming'- 
kutnimak toi'. MinksiTclugiit mingTci tamaraiki'miik ^thl^'niik 
chimerakTcluke toi' mingkut'gnimiik to^ntSkTcleuk. Etali'gweuk. 



NOTES ON THE LOST NEEDLE STORY 



tfitghiraa'ldkkUriSk, tA^re lived a couple. 

Third dual. (166.) 
tXnggau'hdlSr'mfik. Modalis singular of 

t&ngauhdldk, boy. (184.) 
Itaiichlmfik, one. Modalis. (581.) 
mlngkfitlngUthlfltflk, they both had one 

needle. Third dual (Mode I). 
t&mftkaufkSn&kfi, without letting it get lost 

(i.e., carefully). Third singular. (505.) 

From tXmflrlldl, / lose it. 
chAt-niStnS, so then one day. (646.) 
inauqhuI5qM5&, his grandmother. Third 

singular. (184.) 
slftmUchSOk, she went out of doors. Pres- 
ent third singular. SU, the weather. 

(439) 
8UmkAch§iUlnrft]ii,z&^27^j^^waj<7f//. Third 

singular. (539.) 

tfitghiraii'15A, her grandson. Third sin- 
gular. (184.) 

}^t\A\\.\^}bArA, his old fur coat. Fromltkfik. 
(204.) 



Ilthhdhp&kin, because it was torn. (535.) 
kikSwS, her needle-case. (117.) Used in 

the plural. (19.) 
tigfiliikS, taking it^ he sewed his old coat. 

Plural of Ifikfi. (474.) 
mlnknSn&nfir'&nS, while he was sewing it. 

(537.) 
Smflm. From ImlnA. (281.) 

thlSchS&. Third singular of thlSchUcft. 
(153.) From tlUSIki, I put it. 

n&thlQy&gutl. Third singular nithlflylgu- 
ak&, / forget it (458.) He forgot 
where he put the needle = of that needle ^ 
its putting placet its position, he for- 
gets it. 

yQ&'y&k&y he seeks it. 

nAtXldnrStft, he does not find it. From nitX- 
k&ki. (780.) 

nlt&k!nril&m§fl, because he does not find it. 

(532.) 
mftnGsfiqtSk, he grieves. That one, her 

grandson, he grieves. 



282 



ESSE XT/ A LS OF INNUIT 



mAniisfig'nSii&nriiiA, while he is sad his 

grandmother enters. 
pSA, she says. (687.) Then she says to her 

grandchildy **Why are you so sadV^ 
kSyilghwA, he answers her. (468.) Because 

of my being so lonesome I was grieving. 

(462.) 

fiqt5k. (812.) Then she sat down^ and 

having seated herself. 
yQwIk, she drew off both her boots. (535.) 
kiimfiqluiiS, {she) saying. (480.) 
kimm&kslilththlfiqU, that old boot of mine 

down there. (58 and 204.) 
kini, down there. (362.) It is so torn that 

I must sew it up. 
kftkSyinS . (117.) Then she took her needle- 

case^ and having taken it {them, 19), she 

untied it. 
tiySml. (759.) She untied it slowly and that 

old needle of hers was not there. (184.) 
tatghlr&tlUagl. (710.) Then she said, 

^* Grandchild, that needle of ours, where 

is it ? " 
Ignfi. (626.) An exclamation used in scolding. 
chlgm&qy&k5nlkfi. (486.) 
k£kS. (626.) Hurry up! hand it over. 

(483.) Then he answered, ^''Because 

my old coat was torn I sewed it; 

while I was sewing I forgot where I 

put itr 
tfitghftr&'mmkutftg&k. (242.) You good- 
for-nothing fellow ! it will not be lost = 

/■/ must not be lost. 
kSghin. (673.) // is the only needle we 

have. Where did you lose it? 
chAgmAlth^ne. I/ere, quick now ! look for 

it in the place you lost it. (90.) 
hw&nSrpftk. (616.) They both looked and 

they looked carefully. They did not 

find it, so they both tried all day and 

they could not find it. 
kSt5&nS. (619.) Then she scolded the grand- 
son. '^ Hurry! make haste (626), find 

it! " 
tinglfirhl. (468.) Then she beat him because 

it seemed as if they never would find 



(that needle) again. (535.) (See Modes 
XLI and CXIII.) 

BfikijrfitSk, her grandchild got sulky and 
went out crying. (478.) 

mfttfi. (359-) As he went out night was 
coming on. 

imftkfiiL (352.) As he listened he heard 
music from the kazhga over there. 

fiyftngtSk. As he drew near to the kazhga 
he looked down (i.e., through the smoke 
hole). 

chAt-kimkfit (308 and 380.) Their ras- 
cally old needle was leading the chorus. 

nAtrflnS, on the floor of the kazhga. (238.) 

iyftrSlfltfing, they were using needles for 
canes (they caned with needles). lylrSk. 
a cane, walking-stick. 

mlngkfitnflk iyAr6qtJUl, / use a needle as a 
walking-stick = / cane with a needle, 
and they had thimbles for caps. (209.) 
Aknlr'nilStXnfik nicliAiigkAtdi, / cap 
with a thimble. 

ftmthlfiqthlfit&ng, they being very numerous. 
(285.) 

Iqpaiitfikkiaki, &qpftqt5I. / yell (Mode 
LXX VI). He went in yelling loudly. 

klfitmQn, they rushed to a corner dropping 
their needle canes. 

auqtSk. (652.) He gathers the needles, fill- 
ing his apron. When he had gotten the 
whole of them he went out. (It is a 
custom for the natives to gather up 
the front of the fur coat or blouse aAd 
use it to carry things in just as a 
woman uses an apron ; this is expressed 
by knSnS). 

chSU, as he enters again this, his grand- 
mother, was looking still for the lost 
needle. 

pflgflchS&t&n, pfigwdl, just at his entrance 
she said. (84.) 

kSIvIqtOk, he went around behind her. 

kIttSnfin, and scattered those needles out in 
front of her. (390.) 

td&ntXkklSak = t5&nt5&. (371.) And prob- 
ably they are both living there still. 




STORY OF THE KWAHUK — NOTES 



283 



The Story of the Kw&hiik 

Toa'thluh5khwi u'kuk ilf'naqkarauholSqkn'raek uet^chghka'alraek, 
toi'thlu uetingnenin'r^g'ne chak'maktin ching'ghem amate'ne uet^l- 
raek. To&'thlQh6k ne'tuk atulra^'mtik. {Song:) To&'thlu chlng'gnem 
^m^te'ne illingneolutuk, up'tuk chil'tiik, iikku'r^uk ^nggl^V^thltiq- 
miig'ntin toi' ch&t in&'hituk tiimyar&'hituk moriqch&ra'tuk m5qt^'- 
y^riha'tuk emtiqt5g'auke. Chiha'tiik t^m&lthkwe'ta takuchem^rai'miik 
nu'tiln, ^nggi^'thluqtuk ptiq'UlqUlk, ptiq't&qtiik nu't&n, tikku'r^kuk 
^kklulth'hr^tuk to^'tii ch^kiiWn^ uk&kse'gentir'lune ^rr^nka&'nituk 
alling'lutuk toi'; iy&'nlnran OkTcdk, OkTclune iepit'ne ugls'k^, toi'thlu 
irru'me in'glo& Okkit^'rh^, toi'thlu likk^tan&n'rana kan'niiqt6k : "Ah 
k^kevecho^thliir'^nk^ n^thluy^guthlene^nlc^ ^t^'ke ^^'n^qkifuholu'thlug^ 
akfigM&'kgr'luke ut^kaTce^ p^t^gachekTcoa, miillughi'to& I " Tak't5k 
ikf^okt&lu'ne af'nikkauh5l6q'chimathlu chlr'laliq'chima nQtchoi- 
thliiqtuk et'lct& itr^yakirrai ch&'mGk t^nglng'rStok, t^nglngraU'ma 
at^m' &tr&q't6k, to^'thla a!-'nakka"uholuthlo'ane kinru't^: "Ting'Qq- 
thluku kakevtlth'h&nka chatil'gTiut." Tod'thlu ugis'ka irrti'me im 
inglo^ Qkkat^k'ne, mil'tii muk u'n^ t^ng'h^ kwH'huk u'n^ ^zukt^r^- 
ral'ral toi a,t6r"lune. Pa-ugulthlirain chunau'hwii a,llingchirrira,lthhke- 
kuk, to^'thlu ighoilrut'menuk tiiqki'rha, u'thlurim chunaTu'hwi ^llings- 
st&keTcuk nuq'thluku &sepe'yuthluku chaketir^'r&rik ltumniiqchir'*luku 
nu'tin itumchem^radmug'g^nnlghwu mur^mtin dq't&k nu't^n pem^- 
raii'muk ^Utm' nunicho&'thluqtuk ime'gik, nQtcho^'thltir'mug'niin 
I'tr^tuk nu't^n, itr^m^ra^'muk toantiralcleOk. 



NOTES ON THE STORY OP THE KWAHUK 



kw&hflk, ' pygosteus pungitius/ stickleback, 
(The run of this fish occurs in March, 
and it ranks as one of the important 
food fishes of the coast region between 
the Yukon and Kuskokwim.) 

&r'n&q]dlrauhdl5qldlriLSk, these two poor old 
wonten. 

uSt&ngnSninr&g'nS. Localis third dual. 
(541.) While they were both living 
there. 

chlkmlkGii, by down there. Localis vialis. 

chlnggbem. Transitive of chlng^Sk, a 
sharp bend in a river. 

ImfitSnS, beyond. Localis. (41.) 

nStilk. Third dual of nStdft, / hear. 



Atfilriftinttk. Modalis singular AtfllxftA. 

(166.) They both heard some one 

singing. 
ftlUngn^diatflk. Third dual. Mode form 

of IllSng^iidfi, I fear. They were both 

terrified. 
uptuk. Third dual of Cptlkft, they both 

packed up. 
ch&tfik, their little effects. (See cM, 31 1.) 
fikkur&kiik, Qkk$&, / embark. 
&nggUr&thlfiqmfig*nfin, into their poor old 

w 

boat. Terminalis dual. (204.) Ang- 
gi&k is the open boat made of walrus 
skin over a frame. (The anggiak 
carries a small mast. In some works 



284 



ESSENTIALS OF INNUIT 



on Alaska it is always described as 

the woman's boat to distinguish it 

from the kiyak.) 
•mttqtSg'lQkS, emfiqtdriki, I efface it. They 

obliterated their tracks on the path 

lecuiing to the water hole and the path 

which they used in going for wood, 
chfthAtak, their household effects. Chlhlkft. 
tXmllthkwSa, all. (650.) 
tXkflchSmirftAmfik, after (their things) they 

were all ready. T&kkSX. (Mode 

XL VI.) 
nfltXn, all right. 
pfiqt&qtftk, they launched ; their old bocU^ 

they launched it all right and loaded it, 
Ikkiaithhrfttak, with their old clothes. Ak- 

kiaithh&nkli clothings beddings etc. 
chAkfimlni, the thing down below there. 

(308.) 

fiUUoiSgenar'lflnS, it was approaching nearer 

all this time. Ukftk8<gS3rfignll, / draw 

nearer. (3 1 6.) 
ftzTSnkiftnXtfik. Third dual ftirSiikUtSI, 

they were in a panic^ they were alarmed. 
lylnlnrftn, the elder one. 
SkkSk, Qkkiane. Third singular OkkSI, / 

embark i enter a boat. She embarked^ 

she embarking. (Note the omission of 

" and.") 
iSpInS. Possessive third singular of i§p&kS, 

her friendf i.e., her other one. (648.) 
ilglsU, she told her to embark. Ukkdl in 

the mode of commanding (Mode 

XXXIII). 
Irrfimi Ingldl llkkftt&rhl,y2^j/ as she had one 

leg in {the boat). LrflU = Irrfiqkfl, 

''^y ^^S* ^y ^^S^' (^O 
kftnnfiqtdk, she said. * 

kftkiTSchdIthlttr&nk&, my little old needle- 
case = k&k§y§nkl, my needle-case. 
(This word is used in the plural. 
Here it is combined with the suffix 
chd&, small (230), and thlfiq, old 
(204). 

]iitlUfiyfigiithl§nSfink&, / have forgotten 
where I put it. N&thlflylgatXki, / 
forget. Thiefikft, / place it. 

&tXkS. Exclamation, ^<^/</ i^/i .' wait! here! 
etc. Wait a minute^ old woman! let 
me run and get it (them). 

Ikffig*lftkSrl<ike, let me run and get them. 



(488, 3.) Imperative UdAkdrtSA, / 
run. 

fit&kikS&, wait for me. Imperative fitA- 
kftki, / wait for him. 

pItXgIchShk5&, / will hurry. Future of 
p&tAgaugn&, / hasten, 

mfilltigiiit5&, / will not delay. Future neg- 
ative of miilKigiil, / delay. 

chIr*lauqclUlm&, because she was weak^ on 
account of her weakness. (530.) From 
chlxUaugwSi, / am weak. (Mode 
LXVIII.) She wentt trying to run 
fcut, (but could not) because she was a 
very old woman and because she was 
weak. 

nStchdAthiaqtak, their little old house. Nn&, 
housCf combined with ch5& and thlfiq. 

chimfik tftnglngrCtdk, she did not see any- 
thing. She entered their little old 
house. Going in slowly^ she could 
not see it^ and because of not seeing it 
again she went down. Atriqt5k. (861.) 

chAtnghfit. Third plural chltilg1i5k, ex- 
presses a lost thing. Then she said to 
her old woman^ " See here ! my needle- 
case (past), the needle-case which I had^ 
is lost." (Mode VI.) 

kikSyUthh&nkl. Past form of kftkiy€nU. 

(85) 
Xm, once more^ again. So then she told 

her to embark, and just as she put 
her leg in the boat again she looked 
down at the water and saw a stickle- 
back. 

IxfiktftrftrUr&A, which was swimming along 
up and singing, 

paugfilthhrlm, ah^ you good-for-nothing one 
down there ! so it is you then who has 
been causing us terror, 

tfiqk&rhl, she jabbed at it with her oar, the 
thing which was scaring them. 

nflqthliikii, she got it up. 

IsSpSyiithlttku, from l8Sp£3rfitXki, meaning 
to place an object on some flat surface 
so that it can be readily chopped, 

chlkSUrlr&rfik. A mode of chikStXkft, 1 
chop. They two chopped it up, 

Itamnfiqcliflr'iaka nOtXn. Mode of Itfim- 
t«k4, / cut it. They cut it up fine. 

Itfimchemir&&miigg)(iuiighwfi, their two, 
after having been all chopped up 




CHlGVlG^'NUK KOLARA = THE NOSE-BEAD STORY 285 

things they threw it into the water. hnSglk, they both resumed. They both re- 
NutAn is used continually in these turned to their Itttle old house^ and they 
stories. entered their little old house all right, 
pSmAr&Imak, expresses and after that was and after their entrance they both re- 
done, (Mode XLVI.) mained there. 



Chlgvig^nOk KOiar& = The Nose-bead Story 

T5&'tluh5k nulle6qk!l'raek uet&l'raek. Nula'hi chlgving'kathlune. 
Kil'loik n^nv&hichdiUtng'kithlune, koTci n^nnilroaqpingTcathlune, toi'- 
vtithSk miikt&rinau'tuk chinni'iniik. KIttek' kwiqting'k&thlune toi', 
kuvyStttira.'klune niikTclune. Atau 'chime Sf-'rSrniir'me itlhrM'mtik 
ne'tuk, m&'tft h6k pu'g6k, chi-hok ug"nJi af'rSrnik ki'niiqtdk, k^m- 
mtikseg"nuk taguma&lune, kepuchtig"lukuk Im'kuk chlg'vek. Toa,'tlu 
e'mQm nulaTi&n pe'i : " Hwe'ghi ttinglii't^qki uTcuk chKgveq'ki," 
toi'tlu tau'nS. &r'rSm&k kinkipiik'nine in'nok. Toi'tlu taum' 
ilFrSmSm chigveq'ne chifcha.'kkuk, tiye'md ! toi'tlu kinggho&'kiin 
manqk&'ghi t&m&'htin kwiq'kiin kip'tik^in thUn'thlu kipt^Tclune, 
toi'tlu WpTcgr'lutGk nu'nat Ivgh^rh^'kuk, tau'na h6k chadklclei 
Ikkukkleat'niin i'trahdn niim'miin, thlhi'thlu i'tralune. Mi'tft h6k 
pu'g6k, cha'hok keiinklenil'raa kedt'me mi'-hok mi'kut aFrSrn^t 
mi'ne uetai'raet, umhok o^'klim ikumis'ka. chinnrmenun, toi'tluhdk 
chinni'&niin &ko'm6k. Toi'tluhdk ta"um' e'mum if'rSmam pe'i, "keyu'- 
giim ting a,f'r6rniin chlgveqlci taguTcuk/* " toi'yuhwil/' ta'u'ni 
a.r'rSrniin ke'yughwi, " hwa,n'kutniin pela,q't6k." Toi'hok tau'nd 
iPrSrna.k timin'tiqt6k, unwilcoan yuk J-iil'dktin uya.ng'cha,miik 
kan'niirqtuk "unwdTcuhSk nukitlthpea'rat&m akutJiq'ski." Taa'tluhdk 
tsTuni imlni if'rSrnak utit'mtin ak'vok, tke'chSnia thlu emu'miin 
nan'vihig*miin, tdk'kthlune Imlni nilnnilroiq'pik chiyuwHq'thluku, 
ma'tft h6k pe'6k imek', u'nil toa'tluhok i'tritdk, m&'tft hok pu'gok, 
chakh6k kiiq'kuk y6r'*luk, tdi'hok tau'ni aPrgrnak kSn'niirqtSk : 
" Ting'^thluku nukSlthpeaWtam unw^'ku akut^k'sski." To^'tluhSk 
ta~um' at2rug"loin tunu'mtik chikka'rhii. Toi'tluh6k ingithlune, imfna. 
nannilroa,q'pak ftne'ntin thleh^g"luku, kr^'niin miyok'kthlune St'sinuk 
tagutil£ig'*lune, emu'htin kwiqlciin ikkuv'lune nuni'ntin thlu tke'chdma, 
emu'mtin i'trilune nurn'mtin, emu'mGn thlu hok num'mentin ^k5inlune, 
t6i'h6k unwilcoan iku'tiit. Toil'tluh6k iku'tkgr'lutGng kizhget'stit, 
toi'tluhSk ata'ucheukilk'klutting kizhget'stit. ToS'tluhSk thlin tau'ni 
kanta' nukaithpea'ratim kweya'tOkkluku ik6qto'rh&. Toi'tluhok unw^'- 
koin nukaithpea'ratSm churisTci. Mi'tn ka'uwi'thliin'ntik tupe'ma, 



286 



ESSENTIALS OF INNUIT 



mi'tft iwa'tne kaAq'ti, ch&t'-hdk im'kut ikTci iyathlinnll'raet. TOa'- 
tluh6k thlin mikTclune, nin'vihig'mtin nu'nit knio'^tntin tig^lune 
kiyKkfiyik'tok. TM'tluhdk kethltiqt&q'chim^ u'tr^thlune chugn^'thun 
itrih't5k, emu'mum thlu num'miin i'trig'lune, tupegg'lune, il1ithltih6k 
imicut tke'chlinting ch^la' tupeg"lutting, t&ku'chimfing thlu ^t&lcoin 
ch^Ia' kdzhge'sluke, toi'tluhdk e'mum talim' Sf-'rSrnim nukdlthpei'- 
r^ULm tig'gue. To^'tluhok mum'mtig*ntin I'trSg'lutiing Stil'koan chdla' 
fil6'ktin yuk uyang'thlutuk kdn'ntirqtuk, " Nukilthpei'ratak at'klsk6k, 
^hllrail'miik ^f-'r^rn&k pelc&n nulliqnaune'Iuku/' 

Toi'tlu Im'ini ta"u'na af'rfirnSk unwi'me kingghu'ntig'inentin iydg"lune 

V 

€mu'mun thlu nun^'mentin tke'ch&ma tilqkd'thlune to^Viit ninV&hig'mtin, 
im1n& thla h6k n&nnKlro^q'p&k ^m chiyQw^q'thluku. To&'tluh6k tali 'h tin 
emu'hiin Sme'kiin i'trig^lQne, mi'tft h6k pu'gok, chak'h6k ImTcuk kiiqTcuk 
uetarraek. To^'tlu h5k kin'niirqtok, " Nukaithpe^'ritak atkiskll'rail 
unwi^ku." Toii'tlu h6k taiim' atalig'loan chigin'ramuk chikka'rhii 
tikum^Iral'muk. 

Tdd'tlu h6k ang'ghima, imKn^ thlehig^luku im'kuntin nuni'ntin 
I'trStok, tke'chdma thlu im'ina itTcuk itruthluTcu. 

Toi'h6k tau'kut af'rgrnat itkethlenllVaet, tiku'chamting thlu kizhge'- 
sluke. 

Toi'tlu h6k imKna chilg!n'ril taguthlfnei nakalthpea'r&tim. To^'- 
tlGh6k nukalthpea'ratam tau'nS iFr^rnak nulUqthleu'thluku. N&nn6k. 



NOTES ON THE NOSE-BEAD STORY 



chlgylngkXthlunS, his wife has a set of 
nose beads. (864.) (Mode I.) 

kI115Ak, in the rear of their house. Third 
dual possessive. (390 and 391.) 

nlnyXhXchdfltAngkXthlunS, there is a small 
pond. JXAnvAkt lahe. (230.) (Mode I.) 

k5k&, /// the centre (of this pond). (391.) 

iiIiiiiIlr5flqpflngkXthlfln5, there is a great 
lamp stick. (223.) (Mode I.) nAnnll- 
roflk, a support or block upon which 
the stone lamp rests. 

tMvtlt, thither. (352.) 

mflktftrflnautuk, they two were wont to go for 
water. Mflk, water. (See mfiktAri- 
vik.) (117.) (ModeXLVII.) 

chlnnl&nftk, nearby. (399.) 

IdttSk, before them. Third dual possessive. 

(39I-) 
kwiqt&ngkXthlunS, there was a river 



where he used to set nets and caught 

fish. 
itaiichime SirSinflr'mS, one day. (581.) 
Itlhr&Amftk nStfik, they two heard some one 

coming in. 
mltfi h5k pflgSk, then as (the person) entered. 

(820.) 
chA-hSk fig'nl. (308 and 419.) 
kSpfichfig'lukuk. Daal 15A. (474.) K6pu- 

tsa, Itradcy in Mode LXII. 
Imkfik chlgrSk. Dual. The pair of nose 

beads. She wanted to trade a pair of 

boots she had in her hand for the nose 

beads. 
p^i. Third singular. (686.) Used idio- 
matically for saying. Then that one^ 

his wifcy said. 
hw5^U, /. (254.) Used for emphasis. 

/ do not sell these two my nose beads. 



NOTES — HOW A VILLAGE WAS DEPOPULATED 



287 



Unklpftkn&ne = (she) without speaking 
went out. (502.) 

tijr^mA, then that woman felt for her nose 
beads {and) they were gone, (759.) 

Idnggndflkfin. Vialis third singular. (391 
and 392.) She followed behind her^ 
after her^ by down there along the river ; 
when the river curved she followed 
around the curve. Having rounded the 
curve^ they two were in sight of the 
village. That woman (the thief) went 
into the first house at the edge of the 
village and she also entered. 

flkumlskX, bade her sit down. Ak5m5i, in 
Mode XXXIII. 

chinnlmtoftn, near her. (399-) And so she 
sat near her. Then that woman said. 

taum 6mflm. (290.) 

pSUlqtdk, ^* Certainly t^* answered the woman; 
''^ she often does the same way to us.** 
(Mode CLIV.) 

timintAqtdk, she stayed there. (Mode 
XXIII.) 

unwflkii, to-morrow the chief orders them to 
make akutak. (625 and 852.) 

utitmfln, then that woman ran back (i.e., 
home). 

chiyflwflqthlflkii = she went to that lake 
and pulled up that big lamp sticky 
and when she did it there was a door. 
(819.) 

kfiqkuk. Dual, kSyug'nA. (419 and 811.) 
There were her old parents back there^ 
and that woman saidy **See / to-morrow 
they are ordered to make akutak.** 



&taug'loin, then her old father gave her 
some back fat. (184.) 

iinenftn, going out and putting that big lamp 
stick back in its place. (821.) 

fitsHnftk. Modalis plural. Some berries y 
taking them hurriedly. 

XtauchSQkXkklut&ng. (592.) So they passed 
them into the kazhga one by one. (809.) 

chiirlski, they were ordered to weave bed mats. 

flwfltnS, when she rose from sleep and looked 
around her the other (women) had 
already gone. (390.) 

kiylkfiyXktSk, going to the lake behind the 
village^ she gathered grass. 

kfitliluqt&qcliftiiiil, having made it into 
shecevesy she brought it back. She got 
back first and entered that house and 
set to weaving bed mats. When it was 
evening and they 7vere finished and 
sent into the kazhga ^ the chief took 
(selected) the one of that woman. 

fltldskSk, orders to make him a pi atkuk 
(i.e., the native fur blouse) and the 
chief will marry the woman who makes 
the best one. 

flmfikftn. Vialis of flmSk, going in by that 
entrance, 

chflginrftmflk, a summer deerskin already 
dressed. 

flnggh&nUL. Third singular of flndi, / go 
out, (530.) 

itifithlflldi, she brought in that atkuk — 
blouse (Mode LXX V). Then the chief 
selected that deerskin atkuk^ and the 
chief married that woman. (182.) 



How a Village was Depopulated by a Dwarf 

Tod'thlu-hok-hwi u'kut nu'nlt uetill'raet, tutgdraliholoqtjing'kilthlutiing 
dme'gum kule'ne uetaurau'ldqkU'rail ; nukalthpeiratiing'kiithlutling chSla', 
nukalthpeil'rilk ta"u'nS tuku'lune tiin'tunttk angnaqtakil'rad. Tod'thlii 
chit-illet'ne yut-illet' kwiq'kttn iicherut'muqtghiin iizgul'raem tketft'ratok. 
To^'thlu chda' ille'ta. kingghtinr^t6r"luku iyiU'raem a.m tiye'ma. 
Ceg^yaTcut hwdtTc^pik tkettingratdkTclutung tiye'md. 

Ketoa'ne yue'rutdk tiingriryakirraet thlu chd'muk tdnghutiiksi'tut. 
Ketai'ne nu'ridt Im^kut yuerutkapik'tut, tungrailkTclutiing ata'ati'kaa'kin. 
Unwd'kome ketoa.'ne kafchlrhauq'tut kazhgem' illoi ne tdmi'ne ketoi'ne 



288 ESSEuVr/ALS OF INNUIT 

nukdlthpel'r&tlk kem'thllrqtok thlerdrali'halok nlkllkkilctikke taum 
piyiiqtakatne' thlu ch][kkeJcthlinir"luku. 

Nukftllhpea'rat&k iyakatiq'tdk, thlerSrali'holdk iyil'katan ninnekoi'gok 
ketod'ne toi' iyaqtorinilq'tok thlerarali'holdk ninnekoaiaq'tdk iy^rraem 

V V 

ilm tiye'ma tketfi'ratok thlerirau'holdk umyoarq'tkok "hwe'tSk ta'nQm 
kingghu'muk pingke6g"loi tketingse5r"le tket!ng'ral&n Thler^rau'hdlok 
iySq'tdk ippaulue'riitme kiyaictin azgoq'tok, mi'tft azg6r"lune pe'ok 
kiy^lth'hr^t mdlcut tupumlklcluke. Ketol'ne cMnnfksegen^lth'hr^ 
millqluku nutarsTugheniq'tut. Mil'tft Szg6r"lune pe'6k pulliyirapillth- 
hrit pingTcut kiinnimilu'tiing kwlg'miin, nukilthpeii 'retain kiyi' m^'n^ 
raan'thlune, toi' yu'gwok, 5r*luvch6&'tlhrane tagu'k^r'luku yu'gw6k, piilli- 

V 

yirap^q'tghGn tdgg6q't6k, mi'tft killdksege'kSr'lune nukaithpe^'rat^m 
at'kol u'ni igong'kiliine, ket6g"luku kKllo^'nun t^g'gdk kwe'goik, mi'tn 
kwe'goara Ikkol'ktin kin'nltok, i'kinun-pifkc^ni'ne mi'tii k^nd'ma 
kit'miin snik tin'ghi yin'rit uTcut fir5t. NangingkSkiln'ratok toi'thlu 
kin'nd n^n'v^m kold, kil'gh5k, kilingkin'rakiin pugyethliiq'tok chd- 
kan'ni mi'tn pu'g6k yuchoa"yak kin'rii pu'gok iqplydgali'lune kdnntiq- 
pilySgali'lune uklt'mtin chaulune, chali'ttikkluku kin'nuqtok *kati'ke 
pingyu'rhil I ^ tutgSra~u'h6l6k ilt5q'kuma yudru'tki thloi'thluku nechtig'- 
ni'keii " — atoq'tok. {Song:) 

Taa'thloka thlaa'thluku neting'ratin, toi'thlu keyu'ghwi tutgira'u'holok. 
Ketalceme atoq'ghwu I Atoq'y^'kGkke thldi'thluku atiinrg'tl ATci ! 
letnritthlinne'kin. Atim' ket&'ke akkakfakdn^r^lutn ato'ki yuchoiVk 
klUuvikaner'tok keti'ke toa'ne tikkak'filrine i'taqhlutn iikit'mun cha'ulutft 

V 

itoq'pe ! Tutgdrau'holum piskuchei'tun i't^q'lune itoq'tok chikumpi- 
galu'ne, atoqgliendn'rine kStgiTcun pltpil'gh^ cheneluchoi'thlir'raentik, 
k^tgi'nun n&p^tsMqtok, imlni yuchoi^yik chiikchinna't6k Sngthloq'- 
'lune tiye'ma, pik'krlune pQgyethiaq'tok, ma'tft tin'ghi morh^'hik 
Innu'gwodk, pik'krlune ukit'mtin ntiqcheu hrd m^'tft t^q'ti Innugwoi'chdd 

V V 

u'na atra"u'thluku tagu'luku ^tr^q'tok kiylme'riun tke'tdk, tke'chlma 
stok ma~uqhul6q'lume'nun tiig'g6k ike'chima toi'thlu mauqhuloq*- 
lume'ntin ndzvii'gha " tutg^thltiq'wa innugwd'ilthkii niskwaululoA 
ting'uqthluku am'thlilthhQyakilraa'kut nuniqpauyilkirraet u'kut, toi'tfi 
nSn'gilraet kauw^'vut iy^gak^'miing uttiqtuksali'natiing. Ketl'ke k^zh- 
geme'uniin n&zv^'ghwu tokon$r"lik h5k tau'nll tke'utin." Kazhge'miin 
aq'katok it'krthlunethlu itkrchlme'ttin kin'ntiqtak : " utraqgnil'nok 
hw^ne'hw^ ! utriqgnilnok'chima uetaurali^loqkn'raek " — hw&kGn nSth- 
luyiguta.ka. 



NOTES ON THE DWARF STORY 



289 



NOTES ON THE DWARF STORY 



t5«thia-h5k-hwi, well, then, or so then. (The 
usual preface to all stories.) 

akfit nunlt. (20.) 

aStAlrifit Third plural of flStUrUghi, 
from flfitaugni, I am. 

tatgftraiihdlOqtftngkfttliliitflng, there u an 
orphan boy. Third plural (472) from 
Mode I. tfitgftrauh516q. (184.) Is 
about the same as thleitxauq'lSk, from 
thlerlUraugwdfl, / am destitute (Mode 
LXVIII). (In all native stories the 
orphan is the hero.) 

&m6gflm. Transitive of ftmSk, doorway, 
governed by kfiUSne, above. (810.) 

kttlenS, from kftlmlttdfl, / am above. (383.) 
Above the door means one is poor. The 
poor sit there, as it is the least desirable 
part of the kazhga. 

aStaiixaii'lOqkllrAft. (462.) From flfitiiirmu'- 
15qko&, I am {in a destitute condition). 

nflkUthp^I, a man of full strength, prime of 
life. (182.) (Such as these only are 
capable of enduring the hardships and 
risks which attend sealing and the 
procuring of food in the Arctic.) Yiik 
is man in general ; i^fln is man or 
male. 

tfikfilflnS, he being rich. TukfigwdA (Mode 
LXVIII). 

ftngnlqtAkllrAI, who surpasses the rest in 
skill in hunting deer. (574.) 

3^t4118t, a certain one. (645.) 

izgfilrAfim. (166.) From izg5qt5X, / go 
up stream. A certain man who had 
gone up the river below the village did 
not return. (400.) 

U16t&, and then one of them. (644.) 

IdngghfinrSqtSr'lflldi. From IdngghfinrSqtSr- 
flkX, I go after one who is missing. 

!y81r&5m. (166.) lylqtdA, / go (of the 
went person, of the one who had gone). 

uegyAkat, they try. U6g6Akoi. 

tkStftnr&tdkklQtftng, never succeeding in get- 
ting back. 

kStdftnfi, after a while there are no more 
men left in that village. 

y1i6rOt5k (Mode IX), there are no more 
men (i.e., able-bodied). 



tfingill'yflkllrAfit. From tfingzUUiIyAkoft 
(Mode XL), they practise sorcery, but 
they never discover anything. (308.) 

yu6rutk«plktflt (Mode LXXX), after a 
while the village is completely depopu- 
lated and they use incantations (sorcery) 
every little while. (616.) 

k&fchlrhauqtfit, one evening there were just 
a few there in the kazhgi. (602.) 

k6mthllrqt5k, the chief was left alofie. (668.) 

nlkllkkflklikkS, he always loved the orphan. 
(192.) 

piyflqt&kfttnS, whenever they brought him 
his meals. (867.) 

chlkkekthlin&r'iakO (Mode XXXI), he 
always gave him some bits. 

nlnnSkdftgSk, the chief was about to start ; 
the orphan grieved at his going. 

flmyli&iqtkSk, the orphan thinks to himself, 
"/ am the last one to go and I* II 
return.'' (486.) 

ippaulu6rutm6, the orphan goes in his late 
grandfather's canoe. ( 1 88.) 

kiyllthhrflt, old canoes. 
- tupiimlkkliikfi, drifted ashore. 

chUimlksSgdnllltlihrfl, his nearing on his 
approach. (416.) 

nQt&raughSnAqtut, they kept getting fresher. 
The higher he went up the stream the 
neiver the wrecked canoes appeared. 

k&nnAmAlQtftng, the old trail led to the river, 
or ended up at the edge of a stream, 
and here was the canoe of the chief 

(858.) 

5r'lfiych5fltlhrfln6, his little old bow. He 
landed and taking his little old bow 
he went up the trail. (204.) 

klllSksigekSr'lunS, after he had gone up 
some little distance. (417.) 

igSngkflliinS, there was the coat of the chief 
hanging. 

kwegdflk, a slough (i.e., like a river). 

ikftnftn-pIfkSnlnS, soon; having emerged, 
there on the shore were human bones. 

n&ngliigkXk&nrAtdk, he had hardly stood a 
moment gazing at the bones, when down 
there in the centre of the lake it grew 
rough. 



290 



ESSENTIALS OF INNUIT 



IdllngkSnr&kfin, just as it grew rough some- 
thing down there came up. 
yQchd&'yflk, a dwarf. (237.) Bobbed up 

down there. 
IqpIyflgauliinS, he has immense eyes. Iqpi- 

yagaugwSa. (223.) (Mode LXVIII.) 
kftnnaqpAyAgiuilunSf he has an immense 

mouth. 
iikXtmfin chauliinS, facing hint. (265.) 
plngyurhft, you fellow up there ! 
fltdqkiimil, when I sing my song, you listen 

to it well. (518.) 
it5qt6k, he sings. (S45.) Then follows 

the dwarf's song, 
tdflthlokfl, well^ now ! Did you hear it well f 

The boy said, " Yes.'* 
kSt&kSme, well, then, sing it. He sang, but 

he did not sing it well. 
ftkX. (626.) An exclamation of disgust 

and impatience. 
fikkflkfflkXnSr'lfltfi, here, draw nearer and 

sing again. (Mode LXXXVI.) 
IdlliiylkflnSrtdk, the dwarf came nearer to 

the shore. 
ftkkflkfflrftnfi. (370.) When near by, *'Open 

your mouth wide, face me, sing loud.** 
piskuchS&tfin. ( 1 58.) He did as the orphan 

told him : opening his mouth wide, he 

sang with his eyes shut tight. 
&t5qgiienflnTftnd, ze/^/7^ he was singing. (541.) 
k&tgikfiDt through the breast. (55.) 
pltpHghX, he shot him with his cute little arrow. 
chfikchlnnltSk, that dwarf splashed ; diving 

doivn, he was gone. 



pikkrlunS. (480.) Suddenly something bodbed 
up ; as he looked it was a wooden doll. 

nfiqchifihrfl, he drew it towards him. To 
draw a thing in the water by working 
a paddle or stick. 

InniigwdAchdft, doll. (196, 230, Mode 
LXVIII.) I/e got the little doll and 
picked it up ; taking it along, he went 
back and came to his canoe. 

Itdk, to drift, go down stream. Having 
come, he went down stream and came to 
his grandmother, and then he showed 
it to his grandmother. 

V 

tfitgflthlftqwftt grandson, little grandchild ! 

Innflgwdilthkft, my former doll, when I wcu 
a young girl. (89.) 

kXzhgfimeunfiiif hert\ show it to the ka%hga 
people. (102.) 

tdkdnSr'IIkf the thing having the power of 
death, the deadly thing. (124.) 

ftqkfttdk, he runs to the kazhga, enteri$ig 
quick. 

Itkrchlmfitfin. (84 and 532.) fust as soon 
as he rushed in he cries out^ "^Here is.** 

fltr&q^lndk, that which prevents a return 
= the thing which prevented our people 
from returning. (133) 

fltrflq^hilnSkchflmil, having captured the re- 
turn preventer. 

a6taurau'15qknr&Sk, they both lived along 
poorly. 

hwSkftn, from hence. (352.) 

nlthlQyXgiitAkft, I forget it (i.e., I have for- 
gotten the rest of it). 



The Stolen Wife 

Nulaiqkfl'raek uetil'ra€k kwe'gum sne'ne kah^q^muk toi', hwi'tft 
athlil'mtik thlu yug'mtik lUau'natuk. Em&qp!g''miin tsTuqlctin &num^- 
lu'ne tiima'n& kwiq toi. ImKnil ue'ni emiqplllaoraq'klune uni'viit, 
ungglittngse'ntik pesh6g"lune. Tket&ka'ma ta"uq'kiin 11111(111 p!t^'ne 
pika'htin tha'lokkiin kilvitaq'kluke, nula'hSn tauqlciin cheugn$r"luke 
chami'kfin nlim 1115'antik, nOra illd'ane thlu amardk'kluke. Toitrthlin'^ 
toi' imlnS ue'ni pechSr'yaringTdlthlune. Toim'tdthlu emdqplUeun- 
rat^'k^ma, pauw^Tctin thlu ungghungse'ntik tQn'tuntik petikTclune. 
Keto'ine h6k IraTcuk nflla^qkirraek iPna'intik. ImKna ue'ni 
am'thl$r*mtik piss6gnanr$r1une chi'mtik t5i', imini ntikkletsstttf- 



THE STOLEN WIFE 29 1 

kgnalcu anglecha'rak thloi'thluku. Toi' tdi'tft Qe'taut. Toi'thlu 
chit-illet'ne imlnil ue'ni emaqpilleoyaqt6g"lune iyiq't6k. Toi' chilm^'ne 
emiq'pig'me kiyi'ne ucheg'g'heghin u'tr^thlune toi' nuni'menun 
tketkiitir"lune, kiyu'hwihok im'ina nula'hi nQm'thlu chadkhr^'ne 
chatau'nine, t5i' chul6q'chilma nu'tdn yu'lune piti'meniik t5i' 
kug'lune tag"lune, thaadkktin thlu imlnS kaitif'thluku pit^'ne kiliif- 
cha'kQkke kiyu'hwi ki'mum taguyunrS't^. Toi' in'thluku, mi'tn h6k 
uy2ing't6k, nula'h^ chita'u'nine, iPnaa.'r3. ke'me imlnd toi'ne uetilu'ne. 
Toi' atr^lune It'rlune nO'tan. Mi'tft h6k U'rtok i'mini ake'te mo'rhak 
iemchemalune. Yum toi' hw&'nu eningk^lth'hrane chiyuthlene'ke 
dngliuthlenelukii thlumi'. Mi'tft h5k a'n6k mi iyauthlene'ke ekim- 
rig^ntin iik'thluku. Toi' nu't^n it'rliine, tkp'thlune kammukshag'*lune 
iyag"lunethlii tOmi'ktin yOm milHq'thluku, chisku'ne thlu dgh&k'thluke. 
Keto'ine h6k nralinena'ghfir'mne ukshd'^qtSk, m^'ni ptik'tlhra kaSg"me 
iyig'yi'klune h6k ^m^'kiin nuni'menuk. • Ingriqpa,'thliig'inun thlu hok 
mi miyuthlene'luku siiqtiilrai'miin. Mi'tfi h6k kdske't6k ing'ilmtin 
emiq'plk u'ni ch61a' i'thli. Nu'ri^thwi h6k k^n'kut emiq'pSm sne'ne. 
Mi im'kuk itrithlenelutuk. M&'tii hok toi'viit nun^'niin im'kuntin 
tke't6k aghuklrau'halok u'ni chiket'lhrai sli'me. Toi' Sp'thluku 
emu'muk nulai'meatik n2.t'miin iyauche'^niik. Ak'm^viit emdq'pem 
inglo'anun iyaii't^ h6k nu'tin, im'in& Sgliukarau'holok taray6kf2ig"mtik 
pille'lune ch^ke'thlukii, illoi thlu k&m'in^ krm^lune nu'tILn t^k'gh^n 
m6q"mtin atrSq'thluku nu't^n imlni igTiukirali'holum iikkish'ki 
Illo'^niin, ak'nin thlu h6k king'gTiod p&tu'lukii, nu'tin iyig"lune 
chdmi'hiin m6q"rhtim illo'ikiin, tu'chima taliqlctin nu'tin ptig"lune 
^k'm&hto. Nu'n&t kittet'hiin nu'tiin yu'gnima ^shlq'ne im'!n^ kit'miin 
chalithir'nuku tSg^lune. Mi'tft hok ti'gok yurai'raet k^m'kut 
kazhge'mtik. Nula'hi h6k taliq'ktin i'thli kahir"ma nu'me uetdlu'ne 
umgum^lu'ne &me'g^. Am'ek toi' nivgh6r"luku itr"lune nula'ane thlu 

V 

imlni tagu'Iuku, itrau'thluku emu'mtin thlu ^shiq'tmiig'ntin uk'kluku 
iya'u'thluku. Emu'mtin toi' ik'm^vtit tu'thlutuk ch^la' nu'tin yulutuk, 
yu'gnamtik thlu Kmlni ishiq'sek kU'miin ching'kreMuku toi' t^rayok- 
fa'u'klune iySg^lune. U'tr^qthlutuk thlu tumu'mektin. Mi'tii hok 
tkekatiq'tuk nuni'mug'niin ungg'hung'set chit-timit' inoral'raet 
ftne'ntik. Chunali'hwi h5k to'Ini iPna'Srak ungghung'set Snglechithle- 
ne'ket Wngghd'&ghe. Ungghungse6rqthlene'lune t5i' im'ini if'na'&r&k 
kinggnd'ighe. tWn'ki thlu h6k Wngghd'Sne iFna'^muk ue'tiyunra- 
Id'muk iyig'^lutuk ungghungseorq'thlutuk trakannairauq'thlGtiik h6k toi 
ta'u'kuk iydglutuk nulaiqkn'raek. Etaugweuk. 



;ii» 



292 



ESSENTIALS OF INNUIT 



NOTES ON THE 8T0RT OP THE STOLEN WIFE 



kAhftq'muk, a married couple were living 
alone on a river bank. (674.) 

Illaunfltiik, so this way {it was) another per- 
son not with them both. (5 10 and 639.) 

SmilqpnildrflqklQnfi, he works on the sea 
down there hunting animals. (214; 
combined with the verb " to work.") 

tkfitAkflmil, whenever he comes from thence. 

(5=5) 
ImkQt pltAnSf M<7X^ ^/> ^am^. (281.) 

kftlvfltAqkliikS, lowering them down by the 

smoke hole up there. (810.) 
ch6ii^Sr*liike, his wife from thence receiving 

them by down there in the house. 
ftmarlkkliikS, and in the house she skins them. 
tdfltrthlinlq, thus that oncy her husband^ had 

the habit of doing. (197 and 358.) 
flch6ggh6gh&n, so down there on the sea^ his 

canoe being loaded. ($41.) 
kijrflhwfl. (724.) Hew is it this time his 

wife was not in front of the house ?= 

she was not watching out for his return t 

(736.) 

chfllOqchflmil. (532 and 848.) 

kftlfifchflkSkkS. (190.) 

kftmfim. (281.) K&mlnl, how is it that one 
inside {the wife) did not appear to take 
his lowered things ^ the game he lowered 
down into the house f 

ftnthlukfl, so taking it outy when he looked 
down his wife was absent and his child 
was in there alone. (510 and 668.) 

ftkfitS, the head-board was broken. (811.) 

iyaiithlenSke, here he seems to have taken 
her awayy putting her in his sled. 

ItrlunS, so going in^ getting ready, putting 
on his bootSy he followed the man's trail, 
carrying his weapons with him. (478.) 

IlraunSnS^Sr'mnfi, he travelled along till 
winter ; it wcu summer when he set 
out from his home back there. (539.) 

sftqtftlri&mfln, here he had taken her to a 
high mountaiuy a steep one. (691.) 

k&sk5t5k, when he scaled the mountain there 
was another sea down there. 

k&nkOt, and there was another village down 
there on the seashore. (19.) Those 
two had evidently passed this way. 



chlkStlhrU, there was an old man whit- 
tling (chopping) outside. chM!ky^JLy na- 
tii'e axe. 

ipthlflkii, so he inquired of him about 
thaty his wifcy whither she had been 
taken. 

IkmAvfit. (352.) AkmAnl, to over there, 
on the other shore of the sea, he took 
her. 

tIrftySkflg'mflk, a king salmon. Its inside 
was hollow ; when done he brought it 
down to the water. 

flkklshkX (Mode XXXIII), that old mam 
bid him enter into ity and having entered 
he shut it after him. 

ch&m&hftn, he going by below by in the water^ 
he landed from thence by the other side, 
having landed all right in front of a 
village. (380.) 

ishlqnS, his contaifter. He turned the 
wooden salmon around with its heeul 
to the sea after he landed. 

kAhflr'mft, his wtfe^ was in a house doton 
there by herself aloncy the door being 
fastened. (674.) 

im6k, he breaking ity the doory going in and 
taking his wife, bringing her down 
(seawards) y putting her into that, their 
container (vessel). (27.) 

Smflmfln, to that (place) over there they 
two reached again all right. They 
landedy and they having landed they 
turned their vessely and pushing it 
forwardy it went offy becoming a 
salmon. (281.) 

tfimfimSkfin, they both returned by his trail. 
When they began to get near their 
home all kinds of animals were com- 
ing out of their house. (54.) 

chunauhwX, and so it was the animals 
were rearing their child while they 
were away ; during their absence their 
child had become an animal. 

ildnkft, and they both in the absence of their 
child not wishing to remain there y they 
both go awayy becoming animals. Those 
two married ones go away, becoming 
wolverifies. (257.) 



STORY OF THE INVISIBLE DAUGHTER-IN-LAW 293 

The Story of the Invisible Daughter-in-law 

a, Nu'n&t ueUirraet, em&q'pem sne'ne, nukilthpe^riit^ngldlthlune thle- 
r&rauholiinglc^thluttingthlu, mauhdlungldlthlune thler^'rauhol5k, imln^ 
nuk^lthpei'r^tik k&ttknr^ng'kithlune t^ngauhol5r'muk. Klzhgemlc^thlu- 
tttng emiq'pem tughe'ktin. Yite'ne hwi k^zhge'ttin ingtai'ra^ ktiim'riyuk. 

b, Toi'thlu nukaithpe^'ratam imKni kUttinH chiyakier'^une ing'- 
le6k, inglein thlem6qt6r'yi'k& e'mum iten' nuHqtiisklu'ku, tau'gw^m 
peyun'rat6k. T5i'. 

c, UnuV^Lkin kaiiw^yue'ruthlune nuk&lthpe^'r&t^m k^ttin'r^ nClt ch&n- 
n$r"luke, Hia'ne kauwiq'kit^, inlune nlit channerq'thluke. 

d, Taa'thlu cham-llle'ne thler^'rauholura k^ru't^ t6kkl5r"luku : " !ll5'ra- 
chung unuq'p^ inTcdvut, yiklet' nlit plngghi'yun ch&nner'keke, plng- 
gni'yua.tntik inTcovut, nechiig'nake'ni util'k&lthhrin t&nggrqstchgh'kSk," 
Toi'thlu keyu'ghwi : "Hwe'gna utiTtathltaniik nukkakgni'toi." Toi'thlu 
pe'^ thlerlValiholum : " King ! illd'rdchugli ^t&meke'ka uti'k^lthrh&n 
nithluniiq'pghwu, t^ng^rqktiv'ghwu till5qg'hi't^n, ket^'ke niikk&k'ka^ 
tingSrqkuv'ghwu." Toilth' ing'ri. 

e, Toilth' en^q'tut, enilq'chat^ nukllthpe^'ritim kitun'ri kauwir'ne'tSk, 
to^'thlu kauwi't^ ^'n5k, imini thlu thler^'rauh5l5k kali'w&n tali'gw^m. 
Uk'shume $rrillr"luku, toi'thlu ig'g6k im'kuniin nUn'niin pingglii'yu3.t- 
niin, It'riqtSk to3.'thlu ^ng'nima tauq^ktin nechtignedriya-Tcok, ch^'muk 
net'ftrat6k. Toa.m'tathlu lepi'ntin chfila' it'ra'lune, toira'tiithlu ing'nima 
nechtig*neor!yak!l'rai ch&'muk net'ftrat6k. To^'thlu chSla' pingghi'yuig*- 
niin itVitdk it'rima charinSr'ri nu'tin, tauqlcun ang'nima nechug*neoq'- 
t6k, nechiig'nek^n'r^ktin p^m^lciin killo'lntik lllaurai'mtik ne't5k. 

/ Ma'tft ka klut'mtin takku'y^ltok, nuva^q'chi Qk'ni, k^n'tintik tagu- 
ma^^une ttintuyigig"ntik at6r''lune. ToS'thlu uthl^'gi unilitln, nu'nSt 
kittet'hun pitm6q'thlune k^n't^t im^kut taguma^'kluke. Toi'thlu tke'chimeu 
pe'i t^ng'h^ ch&viq'ti u'ni nuvaiiq'cha tingv^'ga tiingvig'nenan'rine 
e'mum kdnru'ta. " hwiTci nuk^lthpeil'rauholok u'yok ch^lrai'yuyet ? " 
Toi'thlu keyunrS't^ e'mum nukiilthpeil'rira. Toil 'thlu i'wi pitm6q't6k 
nu'tdn. Keto'ine umark^r'sluku kingglittn'rikiin pitmdq'tok, yMyi'kiikke 
tiye'mS, k^zhge'methlu yui'yi'kluku tiye'md, umyu6rk!n1uku keto'ine 
fine'thlu yu5r'ya'k& iw^!nra't&, iw^kinral^'meu ttqna'ar^n, kizh'ge6k 
kSzh'ge&n thler^'rauholum mdk'kor'lune t6kkl5'rd " nic'richting ke'yi im 
kSnrucha'kktimkln toi' uti'kilthhr&n tdng'hr&n n&thluyiguzhg'hi't^n." 

g, To^'thlu keyu'ghwi " ill5'rachting hwd'tfi tang^rqpiltiq'tai ni'tCt- 
m6qta tiye'mS?" Td^'thlu thler^'rauhalum keyu'ghwi *4p$ntik' Sw^ki- 



\ 



294 ESSENTIALS OF INNUIT 

chehlciln n-ithlinrachalcaka it'lhr^ keUllce chSla' unwiUcu niydrlceu 
ighii'dtd kdnruzh'katfi tirn'ma keyGlceni." 

//. Toa'thlu an'gri, toi' enaqlclung, mil'tft tupiq'tSk iklc^ tupiithllnil'- 
raet $t"niiqpik uinyu6rna6q't6k emu'muk. Toi'thlu chiyikkl$r"lune 
uniiq'tok, u'noiln nukaithpe^'raliholok nu'tiln ka'uwir'ne'tok, emu'muk 
umyu6rnao"rilma, toil'thlu elgdq'chdtii kaliwi'td taii'gwam, a'nok ing'- 
ndma channSrqpiik'nilne niyo'rhi emu'me dmd'ne ting'thliir'mene nDm 
chaokhrd'ne. 

/. Toa'thlu akTcaniin uetan'ratdk. Toaith' ne'ta. Mi'tfi Im tikku'- 
yaqt6k cha-Qk'na kan'taniik am taguma'alune. Toa'thlu uthldgaq'ta, 
toaith' tke'chameu tig'goi tathlea'ktin. Toa'thlu pe'a t6kklo'ra tiggoi'meu 
"nula'ats likkiizh'me kan'tat na'tatmorotiaq'chlke ? ^' Toa'thlu keyunr6'ta 
e'mum nuvaaq'cha'ram kathla~u'chaka keyuksi't6k. Imlna nuva&q- 
chara1j'hol6k chiyakkl^r'lune toaith' keyu'ghwa *' nukaithpea'h5l6k 
u'yok akkwa'wak kathla~uting'ramkin keyuksilgliu'tfi, athlalilcuma 
keyunracharam'kin, tagumaakijf'k^ne puh'guzh'glia/* 

j, Toaith' nukaithpea'holum keyu'ghwa, *• tafijumaq'raolutn ptihgiizh- 

V V 

glii'tamkin." ** Ikke'ka ptihtaqkanra'lingnaqpugha u'kut aggu'tkSr'lake 
amak'klinka niiqriiksi'tut." Toa'thlu kazh'gem kttte'ntin thilrq'tuk. 
Toa'thlu pe'a "nau'hwame amak'klirthft ? " Toa'thlu pe'a "pel' 
tang ! " 

k, Nukalthpea'hol6k klut'mun takku'yaqt6k, ma'tn takku'yaqtok !m'!na 
kttim'riyuk, kazhgem' yaten'l!g'h6k tankig'^une. Ma'tii ta'guk kazhgeu- 
thlenil'raa, nuvaaqcharau'holok it'katan, nukaithpea'holum piiq'thluku 
cheughane it'ratok. Ma'tfi ka it'rama pe'ok yug'yag"lune yunkhra- 
thli'nur'nuk. Keyug'ina hwa uq'koma nukalth'peak uetal'raa, iig'main 
kaavaq'tok channe'anOn thlu iiq'thlune liqtkan'rakiin imlna nuva'aqcha 
pu'gok kan'tat iin'kut tagumaa'kluke, toa'thlu kaavag"lune kana'vut thle 
thlea'meke arrOkiit'ki im'kunun kazhgeme'unun. 

/. Toa'thlu nang'ghok kan'tak iikkatmoro'ta u'mum thlu chann^k- 
klea'nun tiinkata'ghwu nukaithpea'holum e'mum taguthiag'luku imlna 
nukaithpeaqpa'thluq cheuthliig"luku cheuthlu'gane at'kut6k atko'ama k&t- 
kker"lune a'nok tiye'ma. Toa'thlu kinggno'ane a'glian nukalthpea- 
FiUi'holok niiqroq'tok nanggliu'chama thlu, Im'kut thlu kazhge'meut 
nanggiiu'chata kin'tat im'kut koyurq'thlOke an'lune im'ina nuvaaqchara~u'- 
holok an'gnan, niikalthpeara-u'holum mailiq'ta. 

w. Toa'thlu tQg'gOa, tQggoa'meu pe'a " ptiqgtizhgni'tamkln, kan'tat 
tali'kut tama'vut thle'ke, itrnauq'tukuk ta'u'gwam kak'maviit ftntim'- 
tnun." Toa'thlu nuvalqcharau'holum pe'a " nukaithpea'hol6k u'yok 



STORY OF THE INVISIBLE DAUGHTER-IN-LAW 295 

tielca au'g!na iy^q'stan ^'k& kingghunitnaaVaqtSk." "Toi' iyag'le" 
k€yu'ghw& nukaithpea'holum, " irkTcluntik k^thiatiif 'kSnilk, itrnauq'- 
tukiik tau'gwira irr^nki'ata. *' imln^ itru'Ul nuva^qcharau'h5l6k !tru- 
thar'luku i'ndk, hwine'hwi unu'gume, Sn'gliima kri'nun tiq'ch&ma 
athleraqka'ntik Itru't6k atkuki'nukthlu. 

n, Taa'thlu at'sti atstri'^uku pe'& "itaTce ik'kkuk tupdq'thlakuk 
yuor'luq'ka." T5i'thlu e'mum pe'i nuva^qchirau'hdlum "tup^qtiing- 
n^q'pakuk to^Iki tingSrqnauri'n^g'h& tdng^rqghita'negha ni^ngchif'kSne 

V 

t^ng^rqna^ra'negha tagum&raaq'puglia k^thla'utkiifk^n^'kuk, kizhge' 
taug'wam." To&'thlu pe'i "hwa'thlokd kazbgil'ld," tdilth' a'n6k 
^ng'niima k^zh'geok, toi'thlu kizhgei'ma e'niqtdk. tjqnaa.rau"lune 
thlu hw^ne'hwi entiq'chima kaliwSthlln'neok. M^'tfi tupSq'tok iklc^ 
tupiq'thleut, mlk'tok tupe'me uetiiyil'kok to^' it^'nethlu I'mlnil kizh'gein 
cM'muk thlu k3,nnur'ghiyuk'kluku im'ina nula'clne umyuoghi'meu 
kinningrgts'niln chi'miik &'n5k. 

0, Ma'tft it'rdqtok nulaM imlnS uetal'ra^. To^'thlu channe'dnGn 
ako'mdk, ak6m'nama chikut'ne pe'i "chen'me u'ni thlem6qt6g'lihar"loa 
niaiaoyunrgt'cheu.** ToS'thlu e'mum ^'nen pe'd " hwd'kd ! nau'hwime ? " 
" Hwdne'hwa. cha,nim"ne ue'tauk." Toi'thldm pe'^ " na'u'hwiime ? chen'me 
tiinglngriin'rSta ! " ** Tdngingrulu'rie hwdne'hw^ chSnim"ne ue'talik'* 
kaiiqchi'kok ImKn^ S'ne tdngnuqksi't^ ukko'Sne. To^'thlu e'mum 
kdtun'rin pe'd : " t6kklor''luku i'ti^ tangksillngntiqpghwu kSthlautli'- 
kSu." Toa'thlu pe'a a'nen " nettiaghithleke'gni na'u'hw^," "nettliq- 
chShk>l'tn toi'." 

/. U^e'ta"ut uet^lu'tiing, im'kuniin dmikkle'niin kiizhge^'klune Hn, im'kut 
tauq'kiin nu'nat tingtiqsau'niku ; Km'ina kizh'ge e'mum ta'u'gwSm thle- 
rarau'holum tinghilk'kluku ke'me. Tod 'thlu imlnd nukdlthped'rdtdm 
katttn'ra chdm-ille'ne pe'a thlerdra'u'holum, "!ll5'rachung utd'kdlthhan 
im'ind kiizhgesi'ldn, tdnguqksi'tdki tdnguqsit'neluku chake'Snun netliq'- 
tod, k^ta'ke hwdne'hwd klngglidkdtdq'tok ir'ne'kdn dche'me tingguq- 
stlraS'me ir^nifkik'keu nu'tdn In 'kin ir'^nadn d'ndvnun tagufkak'keu 
che'umiik, ipit che'umuk tagukuv'ghwu ipit ke'vut tdngvdqch^h'ka.n 
nula'dn/' Thlerd'raljholum kdnru'tji tod'tn. 

q, Tod'thlutod uetdlu'tttng toi'. Chdm-ille'ne nukdlthpea'riltiim kdtiin'- 
rdn a'nlne pe'd "nular'kd u'nd if'nekkatdriyug'nd'kok, ketd'ke uthla'ghwu." 
Tod'thlu a'nen uthld'gd, dche'mtin iltris'kil kattin'rin, taa'thlu utraq'tok 
dche'mun. Md'tn It'rdqtdk dk'kd u'nd an'thle6k tdngauholu'ne. 
Xuvadq'chiik u'nd kdttin'rdn e'mum nula'hd tanggiiqpilQg"luku ten. 
Nuvadqchaq'kertdh u'nii nu'tdn toi' tang'hdmeu iliaie'orha. Tod'thlu 



296 ESSENTIALS OF INNUIT 

ra^'tft i'n6k chit-inglcut e'mum k&zh'gem yikle'ine ktiiinriyu'gune 
mikkilllg'ha'lrat Skiizhrilq'tlraet. 

r. Im'in^ kizh'ge t^nggtiqpiliig''luku nu't&n lll&kkleulutiing Im'kut 
thlu nukilthpe&'r^Ulin nulaMn ^m^lcle t^m^ku'meunuk nul^rqt6g'- 
'lutting nu'tin toi' uetiUclthleut imlna thlerirau'holSk yiklet' imTcut 
niklik'kluka. 



Literal Translationi showing the Various Idioms 

a. There was a village on the seashore, having a chief and an orphan 
boy, he having a grandmother. That chief having a son, a boy (the 
village) having a kazhga facing the sea. Beyond was a hillock as large 
as a kazhga. 

b. So then that chief's son finally grew up ; having g^own up, his father 
used to urge him to marry, but he did not wish to. 

c. Whenever it was night, the son of the chief being sleepless, he 
cleaned the houses (his folks when they sleep, he going out, the houses he 
cleaning them). 

d. So one time the orphan said to him, addressing him : " Friend, when 
you go out to-night, the endmost three houses, clean them ; when you 
come out from the third one, you listen ; you will see your waited for 
one." Then he replied, " I do not know of any one I am waiting for." 
Then the orphan said : " No ? my friend, indeed (you will see) the one 
you await, even if you do not know of her ; when you see her you will not 
turn away. Here, now, you must think of me when you see her." So he 
assented. 

e. Then they went to bed; they having gone to bed, the son of the 
chief was sleepless. Then they having gone to sleep, he goes out, but 
only after that orphan was asleep. (It was) in winter, it being moonlight ; 
then he went to those three houses. He went in (the first) ; then having 
come out from that one, he listened carefully ; he heard nothing. Then 
again, he entering the second, then coming out, the careful listener heard 
nothing. Then he entered the third ; having entered, he cleaned it well ; 
having come out from there, he listened ; as soon as he listened from down 
there behind he heard walking. 

/. Then as he turned back (to look), a handsome girl (was) coming 
towards him, carrying some kantaks, she wearing a fawn skin (dress). 
Then he approached her, by down there, by the front of the village, she 
going to the pi (i.e., the mouth of the river), having in her hands those 
kantaks. Then having come to her, he thought, " See how fair this one 
is ! " He gazed at the beautiful girl ; during his looking this one said. 



LITERAL TRANSLATION 297 

** Well, you young man, what are you doing ? " Then that youth answered 
not. So over there she went to the mouth of the river. Then he, after a 
while, by behind her, went to the mouth ; he searched for one was not ; 
in the kazhga, too, he sought her — she was not ; and in the houses after 
that he searched he found her not. Not finding her, he goes to the 
kazhga, because it was dawn ; having entered the kazhga, the orphan, 
slowly getting up, addressed him : " Friend, you see now what I told you ; 
you saw the one you await ; you will not forget her." 

g. Then he answered : " Friend, I see for the first time (a person) like 
this. Whither has she gone? She is not." Then the orphan answers 
him : " You will find her yourself. Even I know her going to place ; here 
now again to-morrow you watch for her here again ; when she speaks to 
you, you answer her at once." 

h. Then he yessed him (said yes). So he went to bed. When he 
awoke, already the others were awake ; during the whole day he was 
thinking about that one. Then finally it nighted (night came); being 
night to him, the youth was not at all sleepy, because thinking about 
that one. Then, they having gone to bed, only when they were asleep, 
he goes out ; he having gone out, without cleaning (the houses), he 
watched for her over there, in his Ijjiving seen her place, in front of the 
house. 

/. And so he was not there long ; then he heard her. When he turned 
around to look, there she was coming towards him, again carrying kantaks. 
Then he approached her, and having come to her took her by the arm. 
Then he said, addressing her, having taken hold of her, " Young girl and 
these kantaks, whither are you always carrying them ? " Then that hand- 
some girl did not reply, although he addressed her (that handsome girl 
never answered). Finally, then, she answered : " You youth, although I 
spoke to you yesterday, you never answered ; if I was another I would 
not answer you, without holding me. Let me go ! " 

y. Then the youth answered, "After having taken hold of you I will 
not release you." "Well, even if you are not going to release me, let me 
carry over (these kantaks) ; these my brothers have not eaten yet." Then 
they both reached the front of the kazhga. Then he said, " And where 
are your brothers ? " Then she said, " There they are." 

k. The young man looked behind ; when he looked that hillock beyond 
the kazhga is shining. When they both went to it, it was a kazhga. 
When the girl was about to enter the youth released her ; he entered 
before her. Then he having entered, he beholds it crowded with young 
men. There was one tall young man upon the bench in the comer. 
He (the chief's son) passed right through and got up on the bench near 
him ; as soon as he had gotten up, that handsome girl entered carrying 



298 ESSEJVT/ALS OF INNUIT 

those bowls ; then she going up, she laid them down ; having laid them 
down, she distributed them around to those kazhga folks. 

/. Then the last dish, she brought it over, she about to pass it to that 
one near him. That youth grabbed it, taking it before the big fellow ; 
having taken it before him, he (the big one) put on his parka ; having put 
on his parka, jumping down he goes out. Then after that, his going 
out, the youth began to eat ; he having finished, and those folks having 
finished, (she) collecting those dishes, that handsome girl she went out ; 
that youth followed her. 

m. Then he took hold of her ; having taken hold of her, he said : " I 
will not release you ; put those dishes down there ; let us enter only the 
house out there." Then that handsome girl said : " You young man, my 
husband, the one going, whom you sent away by now, he is almost home." 
" All right ! let him go," answered the youth ; " you without talking non- 
sense, let us go in." Although she did not wish it, he brought that girl 
in ; having brought her in, he goes out ; here in the night, having gone 
out, having climbed up to the cache, he brings in some bedding and some 
clothes. 

n. Then he put them on her. Having put them on her, he said, 
"Well, those two opposite, my paren^, I will wake them up." Then the 
girl said : '* Even if you should wake them, it is not likely that they will see 
me. They will not see me — they will see me finally. You have taken 
me without consulting them ; however, go you to the kazhga." Then he 
said,- "Or I will go to the kazhga." So he went out, and having gone out 
he entered the kazhga ; having entered the kazhga, he went to sleep. It 
being now near dawn, having laid down, he went to sleep. When he 
awoke they were already awake ; he got up, having awaked. However, he 
remained awhile, for his father having come into the kazhga, he expected 
that he would likely allude to his wife, but he went out without referring 
to her. 

0, When he entered (his home) that his wife was there. Then he sat 
down near her ; having seated himself, he said to his mother, " Why is it, 
I being urged, you do not welcome this one?" (having urged me to marry, 
why is it you do not welcome my wife.^) Then that his mother said, 
" Well, where is she ? " " Here she is here near me I " Then she said : 
" Where is she ? W'hy is it I do not see her ? " " Here she is, visible 
here, near me." That one, his mother, peered around ; she could not see 
her daughter-in-law. Then her son said, addressing her, " Mother, even if 
you do not see her, speak to her." Then his mother said, "Maybe she 
will not hear me." " She will hear you all right ! " 

/. So things went on thus, he visiting the kazhga of those brothers 
without the villagers ever seeing it, the orphan boy alone ever seeing 



LITERAL TRANSLATION— NOTES 299 

it, that kaahga. Then some time after that orphan said to the chiefs 
son : " Friend, that your waited for one, I never see her, as she never 
comes to the kazhga. I hear her father-in-law has never yet seen her. 
Now, she is about to. become a mother. When she is about to bring 
forth, make her bring forth on the floor in the dark ; when the child is 
born let your mother touch it first ; if you touch it first, you alone will 
ever see your wife." Thus spoke the orphan boy. 

q. So it went on. Some time after the chief's son said to his mother, 
"That one, my wife, looks as if she is to be confined, so go to her." 
Then his mother went to her. The son said, ** Place her down on the 
floor"; so she placed her down on the floor. When he cam^ in already 
this one was delivered of a boy. (The old mother) she sees this girl, the 
wife of her son, for the first time. This one is a pretty girl. Having 
seen her all right, she is friendly to her. 

r. Then when she (the old mother) went out (she sees) those down 
there children of that yonder hillock kazhga playing. That kazhga 
she beholds for the first time ; then they associated together, and those 
brothers of the chief's wife they married with the people of there, and 
so things went on, the last ones, those over there, loving that orphan. 



800. The Eskimo are naturally the most energetic traders, and as 
furs constitute their most valuable property, the custom arose among 
them of using some particular skin as a common unit of value. 

In the district around the mouth of the Yukon the skin which 
served as the unit of value was that of the red fox (kftvwgak), which 
was estimated at one dollar by the white traders. The skin of a 
mink (emilr'mutik) was valued at twenty-five cents. 

All business transactions were estimated by foxes and minks until 
the coming of the vast number of gold seekers, from whom the 
natives learned the use of coined money. 

The introduction of bank notes among the Innuit was accomplished 
with much more difficulty. Even those who lived around trading 
ports, and who were therefore more familiar with the customs of 
white men, were not easily convinced that these particular pieces of 
paper possessed value. 

Their greatest difficulty was in learning to distinguish the various 
bills. 



300 ESSENTIALS OF INNUIT 

m 

Points of the Compass 

801. The Innuit recognize the four cardinal points, to which 
they give the following names : nSgfik, north; OcrnXUk, south; kuqkn^ 
east; kftimiikniik, west. In addition to these, they have names for 
two of the secondary set of points, viz.: nilqldk, northeast ; ySkn^ 
southwest. 

802. The following examples show how these words are declined : 

Loc, n^gtir'me n&t^kiki I found it in the north 

Mod, n^gtkr'mtkk tigo^ I come from the north 

Term. nSgtitmtin iy&qtoi I go to the north 

For the other points substitute as follows : 
south ughll^me Ugh^l^miik ughil^miin 

V V V 

east ki!iqkne kiiqkntik kiiqkntkn 

west k^nniikndg'me k&nniikniig'mtik k^nniikntkg'mtin 

803. For the north and south there are extra forms meaning the 
far or extreme. 

nSgtikfak the far north nSgtikfine in the far north 

ugnil^kfdk the far south ugn^l^kfilne in the far south 

ugTidllf^r^ne in the extreme south 

For the north and south there are also the following : 

nSgtiksKnrit the most northerly 

ugTilI&kslnrM the most southerly 

804. As west means " out to sea," and east, ** inlandwards," they 
have not extra terms, as the Innuit never venture any distance in 
these directions. 

805. The various winds receive their names from the quarter 
whence they blow. 

nSgiikfatok the wind is from the north 

ugh3.16rt6k the wind is from the south 

kiiqIcnSrqt6k the wind is from the east 

kannttkngrt6k the wind is from the west 

yiknSrtok the wind is from the southwest 

n§gukf&t5k kadkkUr^mtik northeast wind 

nSgiikfatok hw5kthlemuk northwest wind 



DESCRIPTION OF KAZHGA 301 

806. The inquiry, ** Which direction is the north ? " is expressed 
by the following idiom, which means, from whence does t/ie north 
wind come ? NSkun nSgiikfXUiqtl. 

Note. — NSgflkfUIqti is in the third singular of the interrogative aspect (459) and 
in the mode signifying the habitual performance (CLIV). The answer to the above is 
hwik&n nSgflkftUqtSk. 

807. Many variations will be encountered, which will be readily 
understood. Kaqknem tftgnCniik tigOS, / come from around the east 
(see 663 on t&gne). 

808. The accompanying diagram will assist in affording a clearer 
idea of the meaning of the many locative terms connected with the 
native dwellings. 

809. In every Innuit village there is a communal house, termed 
kizhgft, around which are grouped the private residences. 

In the olden times, when the population was numerous, there 
were many villages containing from five hundred to a thousand 
inhabitants, and even more. There are traditions of great settle- 
ments, one of which possessed thirty kazhgas. At present it is very 
rare to find a village in which the population is large enough to 
require two. 

On account of the intense cold, which does not permit of any 
outdoor work or assemblies, the kazhga serves as the workshop, 
meeting place, bath house, theatre, and general club house for the 
residents of the village. It may be described simply as a cellar 
with a roof over it. It consists of an excavation from twelve to 
twenty feet square, covered with a pyramidal roof of rough drift 
logs. The interstices are caulked with moss and the whole roof 
is then overlaid with a thick coating of sods and earth. In the 
centre of the roof a small square opening is left for light and 
ventilation. This is covered with a curtain made of the intes- 
tines of seal or walrus. These intestines are slit lengthwise and 
dried. When these thin strips of membrane are sewed together 
they form a covering which is translucent and impervious to cold. 
This opening is termed HillSk. The frost has a tendency to form 
thickly on the inside of the membrane, and thus dims the light ; 
hence frequently during the day the command i-h&lOk pfttigSlUa 
will be given. Thereupon one of the younger inmates will go out 
and knock the frost down by patting gently upon the membrane 



302 ESSENTIALS OF INNUIT 

covering. If the family happen to have no membrane wherewith 
to make a rhalok curtain, then a large block of the clearest ice is 
selected and set into the opening. Large objects which cannot be 
taken in through the usual entrance of the kazhga are lowered 
down through the rhalok. 

In the centre of the floor there is a deeper excavation, generally 
six or eight feet square, which serves as the fire pit ; when not in use 
this is covered with hewn logs. The fire pit is only used when the 
inmates of a kazhga are able to indulge in the luxury of a sweat 
bath. Owing to the extreme scarcity of wood throughout the 
greater portion of the Eskimo country, fires are never used to 
heat their residences. The presence of a number of people shut up 
in these air-tight abodes suflRces of itself to keep the temperature 
just above the freezing point, which is considered to be comfortable 
enough in a region where fuel is so precious. When it is desired to 
convert the kazhga into a bath house the logs covering the fire pit 
are rolled aside. 

The wood is most carefully split up into long slips, which are as 
thin as possible. This is done in order that it may produce much 
flame, and also that it may all consume without leaving any coals to 
smoulder and poison the air. 

From the level of the fire pit a narrow ditch is dug, extending 
sometimes twelve or fifteen feet. This ditch slants upwards to 
the surface of the ground, and is covered over so as to form a 
perfect tunnel. This is the ftgveftk. The outer opening of the 
agveak is enclosed in a small shelter, called l&tarftk, from l&n-lit&m, 
out of doors. Occasionally a laturak is constructed of slabs of hard 
snow. 

Between the fire pit and front wall of the kazhga there is a 
circular shaft through the floor connecting with the tunnel ; this 
opening is known as the pilg'ySrftk. 

To enter a kazhga, a person having passed into the outer vesti- 
bule, or laturak, creeps along through the dark little tunnel till he 
reaches the pugyarak; here he is able to stand erect, and by press- 
ing his hands on the sides of the hole can spring up to the floor. 
This act of emerging from the pugyarak is expressed by p&gOk (820), 
and it is a most abrupt and ungraceful mode of entrance. The 
exit is fully as ludicrous. The soft boots and fur clothing of the 
natives make no rustling, and one beholds the inmates of a kazhga 



NOTES 303 

disappear instantly and silently through the floor after the fashion 
of imps in a pantomime. 

Around the sides of the kazhga extends a broad shelf constructed 
of split logs, laid with the flat sides upwards. This shelf, which is 
about three feet high, forms the usual sleeping place. The interior 
of a kazhga is always dark and gloomy, the sides and roof are 
blackened with smoke and soot, and the floor is covered with grease 
and dirt. 

810. The term for a private house is nni, which always means a 
winter house ; the various styles of summer residences have each its 
distinct name. 

The well-known term iglfi refers only to a hut built entirely of 
blocks of hard snow, which are cut from the weather side of drifts. 
These are only erected for temporary shelters. 

The nna differs from the kazhga in the following respects. It is 
much smaller, and is erected upon the surface of the ground ; occar 
sionally some are to be found which are slightly excavated. 

Around three sides of the interior extends the bed platform, which 
is about five feet wide, and generally twelve inches above the level 
of the floor. This platform is called inglOk, and is covered with mats 
woven from dried grass. That portion of the inglok which extends 
along the rear wall is termed kSftn, and is considered to be the most 
comfortable and honorable part of the residence. If a married son 
resides with his father, the parents occupy the kaan, and the son's 
family occupy the kfi&klim. The other members and guests are 
allotted places in the kOkSkliln and Oftkltln. There is no fire pit in a 
nna, so the central space or floor, termed n&tiik, consists of the bare 
ground. This is usually occupied by the young puppies. 

Fires are never used except for cooking, and when a fire is needed 
it is kindled in the middle of the floor, the rhalok being removed to 
afford an exit for the smoke. The place where the fire is built is 
termed kSnethliik. 

The natives who reside near the various trading posts have made 
much progress in improving their residences, but as a general rule 
these Arctic abodes are cold, gloomy, and indescribably filthy. The 
air within them is utterly foul, as the ventilator is never opened 
except when there is a fire. The dirty habits of the natives, and 
the stench arising from stale blubber, semi-putrid fish, etc., render a 
sojourn in a native house almost insupportable to a stranger. 



304 



ESSENTIALS OF INNUIT 



Interior Arrangement of Eskimo Houses 



8U. 



L 


A 


L 


B 


E 


B 




I 




C 


G J G 


C 




F 




D 


H 


D 


L 


K M K 


L 




• 


N 


















A kaXn, the rear portion of the InglSk, the best part of the house. 

B k&Aklim, on the right and left sides, the second best portions. 

C kuk&kllm, the middle portion. 

D d&kllm, the forward portion and least desirable. 

E kabg'nX, term for the whole rear portion of the house. 

F ug'nft, term for the whole front portion of the house. 

G nAldrk&tSk, the whole side, right or left. 

V 

H ksh&rk&t&k, the space around the inner entrance. 

/ nXtfik, the floor. 

J kenSthlfik, the fireplace; just above this in the roof is the fAldk (smoke hole). 

K chAnnlrk&k, the space on either side of the entrance. 

L kInnSrXt, the comers where the house spirits are supposed to be. 

M pfig'yflFftk, shaft or hole connecting with the tunnel. 

N ftgrSXk, tunnel. 

O lAtdrXk, the outer vestibule covering entrance to tunnel. 



NOTES 30s 

812. The following extracts from native stories show the manner 
of using the various terms mentioned in the preceding diagram. 

to^tlu iiqtdk tiqchima k^mmtiksilthhr^gne yugw^k 

then she got up on the bed platform, and, having gotten up, took off 
her old boots 

UqtO& is used to express the act of placing oneself upon the inglok^ 
or bed platform ; it is also used in the sense to embark. 

813. 

umh5k o^kHm ^umKsk^ ch^nnementin td^tluhok chinnlintin ikom5k 
a person in the oaklim said to her to sit by her side, and so she sat 
down by her 

814. 

V 

vcAXh. ftriqtuk ksh^rk^t^mtin n^nntiktuk 

when they two entered they two stood near the door 

This is the usual custom till the chief of the house designates a 
place to sit. 

815. 

toitlu !min^ emum ^ghuk^raliUum k^nntiqtdk " hw^ki ! ithl^nukslqp^ 

ket^ke ninktifk^n^tuk ^givut ^ktimk^rllutuk '' 
then this same old man said, ^* Hello, unexpected guests ! well, well, do 

not remain standing. Let them sit there " (i.e., let them both sit 

there without standing) 

816. 

ydk kugun^ m&ktok, mikch^ma ugma^n itr^t5k ^ 

a man in the kaan rose up, and having risen, passed directly out 

817. 

yiik rh&lokun uyingt6k 

a man looked down through the rhalok (i.e., the smoke hole in 
the roof) 

This is a very common way of doing, particularly in summer, as it 
is much easier than entering the house. 

During the short Arctic summer these underground residences 
frequently become uninhabitable on account of dampness. 

Sometimes it happens that June freshets of the Yukon flood all 
the houses in the various villages along its banks ; hence the natives 
are careful to leave their winter abodes early and betake them- 
selves to their fishing camps, where they spend the summer. 



306 ESSENTIALS OF INNUIT 

818. 

T6dthluh6k im uen^ n&ng*iiqthlune o^vlqtok ^megum thlQ snene 

V 

chlUor'y^qp^k tagulukQ &mek !m!nd p^tuluku, pith^r'luku kinok 
kum^qthlukii, ghin thlu h6k milneluku, m&neh^r^lOku thlu ullo^q- 
pILg'muk slelune, slehdr'lune thlu tikuch^ma nulaine pei, na,llea.g- 
nuk pech^ksta ? 
Then that one, her husband, rising up, crossed over, and taking from the 
edge of the entrance a big, round, flat stone, he covered the entrance. 
Having first covered it, he lit a fire, and produced a kettle ; having 
produced it, he sharpens a big knife, and having finished sharpening 
it, he said to his wife, " Which of the two shall we kill ? " 

Im, abbreviation of iminft. 

Amegam 8n6n6, of tfie entratice by its edge. This word is used to 
express bank or shore, 

Chill5r'y&qpftk, a large y flat stone y generally round. ChillCr^yik = a 
flat stone. 

BfllnSluku, m&neftkft, / bring it out, I produce ^ etc. 

UllMqpig'miik, augment of illlOftk, the semi-lune-sfiaped knife (865). 

Psa, he did, for he said. 

PSchSkstft, first person plural of interrogative aspect. The verb to 
do used to express to kill. 

819. &mSk. This word is generally rendered door. Strictly speak- 
ing, it means enti-ance. In the original native house a little tunnel 
leads to the interior, and the residents enter or go out by means of a 
hole in the floor connecting with this tunnel. This hole is ftmSk. 
In the story from which the above extract is taken, two brothers are 
beguiled into the house of an ogre. When the monster lays the 
heavy stone over the hole, the house is effectually closed, and the 
boys cannot escape. 

820. pug5k. This expresses to enter a dwelling. The sense 
appears to be to bob up or emerge from. When a fish leaps out of 
the water it is described by ptigOk. The entrance to a native house 
is by a small, sloping tunnel, which ends at a circular shaft extending 
up to the floor. This opening, which is generally about three feet 
deep, is termed the piig*y&rftk. 

821. The word nni, house, has also a secondary meaning, which 
renders exactly such English expressions as the place one occupies, 
room for somethiftg, space for, mark of etc. 

In the kazhga it is customary for the inmates to retain the same 



NOTES 307 

places during their sojourn. Hence, to inquire of one where his 
location is the expression used is naiihwft nin, wlure is your place f 

Note. — The direct question, Where do you sleep ? is naahwft SnftqySn, where is it^ 
your sleeping place ? 

itgimi nne my footprint 

Itgdnka nnitut my feet, they have no room = I have no 

space for my feet 

In speaking of the marks of the crucifixion of Our Redeemer, the 
expression print of the nail is to be rendered by iisilkchftm nnilthrft. 
This is the past form, nnllthkA, my house (85). 

822. The Innuit equivalent for such expressions as remember me 
to, give my love to, etc., is niyiniik. 

niyinSmuk kinruskeu inik^ give my love to mother 

823. The Innuit are very gentle and affectionate, and always show 
great consideration for the feelings of others. If any one happens 
to pass where a party are eating he is always invited to share the 
meal. Even if it is known that the other is not hungry, some little 
morsel is always offered in order that the person may not feel 
slighted. The regular formula in presenting such a morsel is 
kftnniUdpiiqt&qt&k, taste it, 

824. When a man's wife dies his neighbors refrain from using the 
usual term, niilahrutg, his wife, and express it by iSpirutS. (Sec irutM, 
Mode IX and 647.) 

825. uqt2t. This is the term for the various articles belonging to 
a deceased person, which are strewn over and around the grave. 

826. When a person dies it is customary to express it by pCCk, 
which is equivalent to he is done, 

827. Among other euphemistic terms for the dead is t&nggninriln- 
rilrdet, those who are not to be seen any more, 

uetdvikliilthh^nkd yut tdnggninrunr^rqlut 

the folks I used to live with are not to be seen any more 

828. When speaking of a person who is dead the Innuit make 
use of the word peunrllrdA, he who exists not, is not. This is 
added after the name of the person, and is used as the word * feu * 
in French. 



308 ESSENTIALS OF INNUIT 

MumyuleiSnrllrai the late Mumyulee 

Ktilk&riinrilrai the late Nicholas 

Mumyuleunrllraem nulah^ the wife of the late Mumyulee 

829. UnifkAnOk, death tidings, UnCtlkA, / abandon^ leave^ withdraw 
frofHi etc. 

ch&miik unifkali or unlfk^tke has he {or they) tidings of any one's death ? 

chimQk unifk&chet who is dead ? (direct question) 

unifk^nr^to^ chimiik I have no death tidings 

unifklto^ illetntik I have news of some one's death 

830. The tonsure : Among the men very frequently all the hair is 
cut from the crown of the head, leaving only a circle of hair around. 
This in certain works is alluded to as the Tartar tonsure. The 
Innuit style this mode of hair cutting as ktiikniik. 

V 

kttikntig'lo^ ^zhmdqtoi hwe I cut my hair 

icttiknug'lune ^zhm(iqt5k he cuts his hair 

V 

izhmugishkenil kttiknGg'lutft cut your hair 

izhmugfshkllle ktiikntig'lune let his hair be cut 

831. The game of checkers, or draughts, is well known through- 
out all the Yukon district. The Innuit play it with great interest ; 
the moves are always made very rapidly. Pey&skSqtoa, I play checkers; 
peyftsk&'vik, checkerboard ; pGyftskSk, checker. 

The Innuit received the game from the Russian traders, and so 
one or two French idioms came also. When a player takes a piece 
he says nilqrftkft, I eat it (*je le mange*). When a piece has become 
a king it is called d&mSk, dame ; d&mftqpntlk niiq*rea, eat it, take it with 
yoiir king, 

832. The circular hatch of the native canoe, or kiyak, is termed pi. 

Sing, Dual. Plur. 

Intrans, pi pik pit 

Trans, pim 

Loc, pime plgne pine 

etc, etc. etc. etc. 

A modification of the kiyak, attributed to the Russians, is often 
seen around Unalaska and other islands. This consists in making 
the canoe large enough to accommodate three persons. A kiyak 
having two or three hatches is termed pitiHk (127). 



NOTES 309 

833. The word pi means also the mouth of a river or stream, 

kwegiim pign^ of the river, its mouth 

pitmdqtoi I go to the mouth of the river 

Pime&t is the name of several villages situated at the junctions of 
rivers. 

834. ChDdcftdede and ddkkftpepir are used by children to designate 
little birds, 

835. There is a widespread belief among the Innuit regarding 
an immense marine monster which devours whales. A little Innuit 
lad gave the following description of this animal, which is termed 

Aqhlu ingghXngrooqtok t^milthkwetne emaqpig'meutir'ne. Aqhluthwi 
The aqhlu is the largest of all sea dwellers. Aqhlus 

niiqtiilraet stointik iirhovdr'nukthlu. Imkut iqhlut emaqpigmeutaugwut, 
devour belugas and whales. These aqhlus live in the ocean, 

ch^la ^qhlut ^lllngn^qkut. Yum kinrutlhd^gli^ ^qhlug'muk t^ngnllth- 
and we are afraid of them. A man told me about an aqhlu he had 

hunelune sto^miik kQqmadlune, taum ^qhlum ktiqma^ri !kkouk taligwim 
seen holding in its mouth a beluga. Only the two extremities of that beluga 

itllaunituk kQqma&ra ta~un3. pQkklunc. Aw^ne ta~ugwim ya.l!r*n!mtne 
could be seen struggling. They only come ashore way off 

snimiin tkettlSqtut. Tunumtiqthun ptGngkithlutting. 
on the other side from us. They have a row of spines on their back. 

836. The robin is sometimes termed ivgftt IdllOftt. This refers 
to a popular story (which is told also among the Tinneh Indians) 
concerning a man who deserted his home and went off and married 
two women. His wife searched for him in vain, until one day when 
a robin flew by and told her where her miscreant husband was living. 
The song of the robin is imitated : 

iv'giit kil'loat 
mi'lukchlg'^niik 
nii'liqtdq'tdk 
p&'mak chir"liik 

Here the word chir*liik has no meaning and is used to represent the 
chirp of the robin. 



3IO ESSENTIALS OF INNUIT 

837. In Provencal there is a similar example. In the springtime 
a certain little bird frequents the vineyards and sings to the vine- 
dressers as follows : 

* akou'cceti, akou'cceti ! 
che lai boua son achi/ 

meaning make haste y make /taste ! the buds are coming forth, 

838. There is a common superstition, regarding certain malignant 
spirits who are supposed to frequent the mountains, and who will 
capture any one who invades their region. 

If a hunter ventures to camp for the night on the lofty peaks, 
he will be carried off by the irsninhrftt, or mountain spirits, to their 
abode. There are supposed to be three doors to the habitation of 
these spirits. The first affords an exit back to earth, the second 
leads to heaven, and the last to hell. 

The next morning the departing guest must make his own choice 
as to which door he will pass out by. Should he select the one 
which leads out to the world, he finds on his return home that 
he has been long counted among the dead, for a single night spent 
as a captive of the irsninhrat is supposed to equal a full year of 
time. 

839. There is frequent mention made in the native stories of a 
superstitious mode of drawing a person onwards against his will. 
The one possessed of this occult power can force another to come 
towards him by beckoning to him with both the little fingers, which 
have been moistened with saliva. 

This action of placing the tips of the little fingers in the mouth 
and wetting them with saliva is expressed by ikkflthkOflki n(Migigtftqkft. 
The following extract will serve as an example : 

ta~um fivingkroilhulum pel ; " tichughi," toithlu !kkilthkough€ noig&q- 

klukuk chiyugw^rh^, kshinilir'ma tughenun ikilthkotdk tunthiin 

iyalita. 
that ugly girl said, " Come along/' and wetting her little fingers (and 

beckoning), she drew him, he gliding towards her against his will, 

being taken backwards 

840. In another story there is a variation, as follows, describing 
two persons who were brought up a steep icy slope into the 
residence of an ogre : 



NOTES 311 

toi miyungn^ks&kuk w^sket^tuk to^tluhdk plktim emum k^nrutuk : 

V 

'^Ktg^kuk no^qthluke" pisklukuk t5i nutin noiqth^r'lukuk 
miyorqtuk 
so they both tried to go up, but slipped back ; then the one up there said 
to them to wet their feet ; so having first wet them as they were told 
to do, they went up all right 

In this instance the saliva was applied to the heels. 

841. Sorcery has a great hold upon the Eskimo, and in every 
village of any size there will always be found one or more sorcerers. 
These men are called in to perform incantations over the sick, and 
frequently there are solemn public seances held in the kazhga. 

Usually the sorcerers objected to the presence of a priest at their 
performances, and it was difficult to obtain any details about the 
various ceremonies. On one occasion I succeeded in procuring the 
following verse of one of their songs : 

tfingra^'hiyem yu&rute 
the devil's song 

tiingr^Hgum at6q'iara 

the sorcerer always sings it 

klk^ t&m^r'md egliulrai : 
t^nghikeu ! ^Uentifk^n^k ! 
kair^gliii. Ka^r&gha. Ka^rigni 

my whole body is covered with eyes : 
behold it ! be without fear ! 
I see all around (ter) 

842. Ttgoa and tketOft. Both these verbs mean to come. The 
difference between them is that tketO& implies coming from a greater 
distance. 

The imperative of tigOft, ti ti or tikSnft, is the proper equivalent of 
come here ! and tnskft, am I to come ? shall I come f is said when one 
has been called. The following are a few of the forms of each, 
although there is little danger of confounding them : 

tigoi tketoi 

tilaa tkethlaa 

tikum^ tklshkum^ 

tindm^ tkech^mi 

tiwilig'mi tkepilig'mIL 



312 



ESSENTIALS OF INNUIT 



843. Nftklikkftkft, kunnDdUci, and chflchfUcXkft. These three verbs are 
all used to express / love. The first is the strongest term. Chflchfi- 
ULkft expresses to like, and can be used just as 'like' in English. 

keputnok ki chuchukin do you like trading ? 

Where greater emphasis is desired the other words are to be used. 

n^klfkkHkalihw^ yum t^m^r'ma pet^chimetiin 
every man must love him as much as he can 

844. kftnn&rftt. The time spent in travelling is measured by the 
number of camps or sleeps. Distance is generally expressed in this 
manner. Thus in answer to the question, '* How far is it to such a 
place ? *' the reply will be, *' It is so many sleeps.*' 

Two sleeps represent a journey of three days, and so on. 

845. On fttOqtO& . . . fttO'iUdL. 

This verb is made use of idiomatically in a great variety of senses. 

1. Meaning /(? jm^.' 

When used in this sense ftt&lrS&miik means singing or music. 
At&y&ie = a singer, and fttSqst&k serves to express any musical instru- 
ment.. 

2. Meaning to dress, to wear, etc. : 

itkuki itorik^ 
tiintuyigag'nuk iitor'lune 

3. Meaning to use, to employ, etc.: 
umyuine itorh^ 



I put on my coat 
wearing a fawn-skin coat 



ingglin ^tor^k^ 
atdq'yuraka 

4. Meaning to follow : 

iyiqtok tumiit it5q'luke 
tumy^rit ^tor^nk^ 

5. Other meanings : 

atdr'yakonSku 

kithlun dtoqpdkilist^ un^ 

kaithk^pok akkwiw^ ^Ltulthki 

6. Meaning to obey : 
maiiq'loqloin k^nra^yirha 2Lt6r'luku 



he uses his mind (i.e., he does 

as he pleases) 
I use your canoe 
I want to use it 



he follows the trail 
I go along the road 

do not meddle with it 
how do we term this ? 
the axe I used yesterday 



he obeying his grandmother's 
word 



NOTES 



313 



846. To have^ in the sense of to own or to possess^ is expressed in 
composition with kfttOft, as, i^kfttOft (Mode I). 

Mode II, in the sense of to keep, care for, etc., is expressed by 
auiatkSkft. 



kemiiqtfi aulutk^k^ 

Hn k^maunki aulutki 

alilutkeu uni utriiskum^ tlgunair^k^ 



I have your dog 

he has my sled 

keep this for me till I come 



Mode III, in the sense of some attribute, etc., is expressed by 
particular verbs. 



kunnunet nuy^qpaul^qttit 
raenve6k 



mermaids always have long hair 
he has a loud voice 



7!:? want, in the sense of desiring one's presence : 

ativiit yMritft your father wants you 

k^nrutimne in my saying (i.e., in the words of) 

k&nrutghegh^nlm'ne in my saying (i.e., during the time pf) 



Aino Kamtchatka = Ainu Kurile Islands 



847. 



aino 




amu 




upasch 




upass 




api 




apeh 




pi 




peh 




kotan 




kudan 




pet 




peth 




stapu 




stahpu 
Numerals 




I 


sinep 


4 


inep 


2 


tuup 


S 


assik 


3 


rep 


6 


ivan 




Yakut 


(Siberia) Numerals 


I 


bir 


7 


setta 


2 


ikke 


8 


agus 


3 


us 


9 


taggu 


4 


tschort 


10 


onn 


5 


bes 


II 


onorc 



man 

snow 

fire 

water 

earth 

river 

dog 



alta 12 onordo ikke, etc* 



ETHNOGRAPHICAL REMARKS AND DEFINITIONS 

OF CERTAIN INNUIT TERMS 

• 

848. As there are many Innuit words which have no exact 
English equivalent, some special explanation is required in order 
that their full significance may appear. 

In the following list a few of these words taken from the stories 
just given are more fully explained. 

849. chfUdqtOft. The well-known Eskimo kiyak is a shuttle-shaped, 
skin-covered canoe, about twenty feet in length. As the occupant 
of this light and frail craft cannot move from his place amidship, it 
is impossible, therefore, to land bow on ; so, in order to effect a 
landing the kiyak must first be brought around broadside to the 
shore. Then by resting the paddle upon the edge of the bank and 
the edge of the hatch, sufficient stability is afforded to allow the 
occupant to draw his legs out and step ashore. This act of bringing 
the kiyak broadside to the shore preparatory to landing is expressed 
by the word chai5qt0ft. 

850. chikiUaOghiLn. This consists of a staff or pole shod with an 
iron or ivory spike, having a sharp cutting edge like a chisel. It is 
always carried by an Eskimo when he is out on the ice. It is used 
for many purposes, such as for cutting around the fish traps, also for 
trying whether the ice is safe to walk on, when the winter is about 
over. It is also used to drill through the ice to obtain drinking 
water when travelling. 

851. ftkeveg&kft. The Innuit make long journeys by sea in their 
anggiaks, or sailboats. These wonderful little vessels consist of a 
light framework held together by lashings solely, and covered 
with sealskins. An ordinary anggiak will accommodate fully thirty 
persons, together with their baggage and provisions for the trip. 
They always sail along close to the shore, and whenever the party 
wish to camp, they land, and having first unloaded their boat, they 
carry it up on the shore ; then they use it as a tent, by tilting it over 
on one gunwale, and support it in this position by a few props. 

3H 



ETHNOGRAPHICAL REMARKS 31$ 

The act of placing an anggiak in this position is expressed by 

852. ftk&t&k. This, meaning mixture^ is the name given to the 
most highly esteemed native dish, which is thus prepared. A quan- 
tity of seal blubber and a broad slice of tQnOk, the back fat of deer^ 
are boiled together until the whole has dissolved. A quantity of 
salmon berries is also added. When it has cooled a lot of hard dry 
snow is stirred in, and the whole is beaten up into a stiff cream. 

Along certain stretches of coast where deer are scarce, akutak is 
only made on rare occasions, such as a village feast, for it is an 
expensive luxury on account of the high price demanded for deer 
tallow. 

853. akklflMt. This word expresses ammunition^ literally, // is its 
belongings, gnn understood. 

854. ftiiegll3r8k. The primary meaning is a little hut or shelter , 
built of blocks of hard snow. As a secondary meaning, this word 
expresses a ptarmigans burrow. These birds are exceedingly 
abundant throughout Alaska, and during the winter season they 
make for themselves little burrows in the snow. 

855. ftgyftk, ftn&tfik. This is the usual expression for a meteor ox a 
falling star, but it is too coarse to be given literally. (See ftn&tOft in 
Vocabulary.) 

856. ftssut&tQt. The Innuit are fond of wrestling, leaping, and 
other athletic sports. Frequently they will indulge in tossing one 
of their companions in a walrus skin. A dozen strong fellows will 
hold the skin, which is very large and oval shaped ; then they start 
a song, and while keeping time with the music will toss their 
comrade high in the air. 

857. &vveiikftqke. This signifies the /// memoriam offerings for the 
dead. At every feast minute portions of food are taken from each 
dish and cast upon the ground, in remembrance of the departed. 

858. kftii&qtO&. This word signifies to end up at, emerge upon, etc. 
For example, as a long range of hills may end abruptly at the edge 
of the sea; again, just as a trail over the tundra may terminate at a 
lake. If a person is passing through a dense growth of the stunted 
willow, so common in the Yukon delta, and comes suddenly out upon 
the river, it is expressed by kftn&qtOft. 

m^ut ingrit emiqpig'mtin kinalimalit 
these mountains terminate at the sea 



3l6 ESSENTIALS OF INNUIT 

859. tQtOft. This expresses reaching tlu opposite side by crossing 
directly over^ not by going around. 

860. tatfit (third plural of tfltM). This is the name given to the 
great isolated blocks of ice which get lost from the pack and are 
stranded along the shore. 

861. tXggOft. This means I go up^ but always in the sense of going 
up from water = inlandwards. A man leaving his canoe and going 

w 

up the shore is described as tIggOk. Atriqtfift is its opposite, meaning 
I go down (i.e., towards water). 

862. AkmftchWcft, I pierce it completely. Strictly, it is I other side it^ 
from ftkm&nS, the other side. If an arrow or a bullet pierces anything, 
it is expressed by ftk]nlU:heiakQ. 

863. ch&ngut. Before winter sets in it is customary to lay up an 
abundant supply of dried grass for household use. The Eskimo 
women display remarkable skill in weaving this into a variety of 
useful objects. Many of these, especially the baskets and mats, 
which are woven from carefully selected grasses, are beautiful 
specimens of handiwork. The main use of changut, or the common 
dried grass, is for the native foot gear. Every morning a fresh wisp 
of it is neatly folded and inserted into the sealskin boot. Experience 
has proved that a pad of straw in the sole of the boot is the very best 
protection against the cold. 

864. chigy^. A favorite adornment among the Innuit women 
consists of two very large dark blue beads, which are worn suspended 
from the nose. The nasal septum is pierced while the girl is young, 
and until she reaches womanhood she wears a pair of very small 
beads. 

865. fillOAk. This is the term given a certain variety of native 
knife. It is made of flint obsidian jade or any other hard stone 
which will afford a cutting edge. At present metal is coming into 
general use. The uUoak is made in a semicircular form ; the straight 
edge is fitted into an ivory handle. This form of knife is used 
exclusively by women. The semicircular knife used by saddlers is 
an exact counterpart of an Eskimo ulloak. 

866. k5chech6rughft. This expresses one of the common modes of 
obtaining water when travelling. Sometimes it will happen that ice 
cannot be conveniently obtained ; then a block of snow is cut and 
impaled on a long stick, stuck up close to the camp fire. As the snow 
melts the water drips from the bottom of the block. K0ch6k = a drop. 



ETHNOGRAPHICAL REMARKS 317 

867. piyuqtikS. In the native villages the evening meal is eaten 
by all the men in the kazhga directly after their sweat bath. The 
women prepare the food in their various houses, and each one's 
portion is put into a wooden dish called a kantak. At mealtime 
the women enter the kazhga bringing these kantaks, which they 
distribute to their husbands and sons. If any stranger or visitor 
happens to be present he is always presented with a kantak of food. 
This act of bringing food into the kazhga and presenting it to one 
is expressed by piyaqtikS. 

868. tiqhrSfignl. In every village where driftwood is easily 
obtained the custom prevails of having a sweat bath every evening 
in the kazhga. During the time of the bath those who may wish 
to excite a more profuse perspiration flagellate themselves lightly 
with a bunch of willow switches. These little bunches of willow 
are termed t&qhrStuty and the act of using them is expressed by 
tiqhrSfigiil. 

869. iipnftt. From iippOft, / suffocate, term given to the lofty 
mountain peaks where respiration is difficult. This corresponds to 
the South American * veta.' 

870. Un&tliiUl, one who is poisoned by the bite of a salmon^ from 
an&ttOft. Frequently while engaged in catching salmon the fingers 
(fin&tnkft) become sore and inflamed from handling the fish. 

871. taunXk. Term for whiskey, a corruption of the English word 
' tonic ' ; taiini'vik, a place where whiskey is to be had, saloon, 

872. UchSkftgnfl means he has me as a load. The little Eskimo 
kiyak will carry a surprising amount. When two men go in one 
kiyak, the second one sits facing the stern, and this is expressed 
by GchSkftghft. 

873. t&tk&ik&. Everything made of sealskin, etc., has to be always 
kept out of reach of the native dogs. When a kiyak is not in use 
it is placed upon a simple support formed by four poles or oars. 
Each pair are tied together so as to form an X, and upon these the 
kiyak rests, hatch downwards. These cross-supports are termed tfttkik, 
and the act of placing a kiyak upon them is expressed by t&tk8Sk&. 

874. kimmegautit. Is the name of the small flat sled used in 
connection with the kiyak while seal hunting out on the sea ice. In 
crossing any open water this sled is lashed on the kiyak ; when the 
sealer reaches the ice again the kiyak is loaded on the sled. No 
dogs are used for the kimmegautit. From kimOr&kft, / drag it. 



\ 



VOCABULARY 



Note. — Tununa, Kuskokwim, St. Michael, etc. : when one of these names appears 
after a word it shows it to be restricted to that district. 

Frequently an Eskimo word will be rendered as " term for " or " expresses." Example : 

nunSlQqpSSk term for continent 

chSprll^dk expresses omnipotent 

These are applied significations. The Eskimo having learned new ideas from associa- 
tion with the whites, those words of their language which were formerly general in their 
meaning are now recognized as limited to a particular signification. 

The words are presented here in their simple or radical form only, as it would be a most 
arduous undertaking to attempt to display all the various forms of each Eskimo word. 

About seventy forms of kfipiitol are given, which may serve as a model for composing 
these forms for other verbs. 



& In^ Ih, yes 

& chfi^ I chfim^ below, straight down 

ft ch§' & ni, under it 

& chfi In' td I, I am below 

ft ch§^ kft, ft chln^ ft chfi^ ft, my belowness 

ft chSk fftr^ 'nfik, somewhat lower, a little 

more down 
ftche'mft, ftchlm'ne, etc, transitive of 

ftchSkft 
ft chS mit' td ft, I am under 
ft chSm' U ^5k, the one who is beneath 
ft chS' rfin, ft chS' ru tum, a slough 
ft ch£ rut' i kft, my slough 
ft chlltb' kd ft, its end, bottom 
ft chiltb' kSk, the under part 
ft chlm" ne, ft chlr' ne, etc., under me (see 

ftchSmft) 
ft e tftq" t5 ft, I open my mouth 
ftf ch§ ftm' chS, I distribute among you 
ftf kou' tft kft, I separate it 
ftf kdut' stft, term for one who separates 

two fighters 
ftf schi nftk, field mouse 
ftf tft kft, I divide it in two equal parts 
ft' gft 16k, a beam, long log used in building 
ft' gft 15 rft ftk, rainbow 
A gftng kft lu' nS, hanging up 



& gftng' kalik, it is suspended 

ft gftng rii y€t', a variety of native berry 

ft' gftn tOk, it is on the other side 

ft gftq' tft kft, I hang it 

ft gau' ch§ tftk, a hanging lamp 

ft' gh nft, the other side, rear of a house 

Ig gaii' tftt, a variety of berry 

ftg gS Irq' tlkft, my approach 

ftg ge Iiq' t5 ft, I draw near, come in view 

ftg glQ mft' kft, I desire eagerly, I covet 

ftg glQ mft' nftk, covetousness 

ftg gu' tft kft, I carry it over 

ftg' gyftk, star 

ftg' gyftk ft nft' tOk, a shooting star 

ftg' gyftk chl kum yftq' tOk, the star twinkles 
(i.e., winks) 

ftg' gyftk Iq' tOk, the star falls = meteor 

ftg gyftq' pftk, big star (i.e., the morning star) 

ft' gho ft, I proceed 

ft gf , there it is on the other side 

ft gi' yii chSk, prayer 

ft gi yu' ^hft, I pray 

ft gi yu' ISr tft, ft gi yu' ISr t3m, priest 

ft gi 3ni mftr rft ft, church member 

ft gi yti mftl' rft §t chft ti rati hrft et, the faith- 
ful departed 

A' gi yun,- A gi' yu t(im, God 



319 



320 



ESSENTIALS OF INNUIT 



I gi yQ lUl rft' 5k (third singular of Mode 
CXXXVII) it is prayer time 

I gi 3ni nii rft fl' ^I, it is time for me to 
pray 

A gi^ yd ndk, Sunday (i.e., prayer day) 

& g! 3nin' rd 5k, it is Sunday 

ft gi yfi' nfiq pftk, church festival (i.e., great 
prayer day) 

ftgi'srflshfin, ft gi ya' 8ha tfim, any devo- 
tional object (rosary, medal, etc.) 

ftglyOts'tskia^ ftpt'hwfl, ask him to 
pray for you 

ftgl'yatiim ftliata'ch5ft, God's provi- 
dence 

A gl' yO tttm A'n5, ' Mater Dei * 

Agl'jrfltiim ftt'tauk, one joined to God 
(priests, sisters, etc.) 

Agi'yfitSm lPii5'ftkit5, * Mater Salva- 
toris * 

ft gl' yfi t&m kftn rft ft rft' nflk, preaching, 
sermon 

ft gT yfi vik, ft gi' yfl ▼•m, church 

ft gl 3rfl vlq' pfit, our church 

ft gl yfi Ylq' thUk, hymn 

ft gi yii Ylq' t5 ft, I go to church 

ftgiyO-yft kftaq'tSft, I am about to go to 
church 

ft gl yfl yft' rftk, divine service 

ft gl yfi yfi sr ^5k, one who does not pray 

ft ^ftk, pitch (exudation from wood) 

ft ^ k5r' t5 ft, I betake myself 

ft ghfi k5 rft^ rft kft, I slowly unwrap it 

ft gh5t^ «tS, the untyer of it 

ft' ^I ra ft, great 

ft ^ y5' t5 ft 5 mftq' pig* mfi, I am seasick 

ft ^ yd kft' ch5 ft, little chief 

ft ^'ydkftk, chief 

ft gni yd kau' g5k, he rules 

ft gii5' ft hun, paddle of canoe 

ft ghd ftr' td ft, I paddle 

ft ^5 ft' rut kft, ft fn5 ft' nit mft, my paddle 

ft gnu', stop ! do not ! 

ft gnO' ft tft, here now I 

ft ^u' chft 15k, man, any male animal 

ft gnu chft lu' yftk, a little male, a pup dog 

ft ghfl kft rail' hii 15k, old man 

ft ^fl kft rau hii lu' ch5 ft, a little old man 

ft' ^iin, ft ^Q' tfim, man = male 

ft ghii' sftk, do not (baby-talk, used by 
mothers) 

ft ^Qf f ftk, stag, a big buck 



ft ghat ^nSxq' td ft, I grow old 

ft ^Q t ghd' gnft, I am a man «^ 

ft ^df tchd ft, a small man 

ft g5ng' kauk, it is hung up 

ft g5q' a kft, I hang it 

ftgfl'mftk, a round basket woven from 

grass 
ftg' 'yd ftk, the tunnel entrance to kazhga 
ftg' Td ft mit td ft, I am in the agveak 
ftg 3rfl d' td ft, I never go over 
ftg 3rfim' chft ftq, ftg 3rfim' chft ftm, a secret 
ftg 3rfim chd u' ^hft, I whisper 
ftg 3rfim md fir' td ft, I address in a low tone 
ftg yOm md fir yfiq rftm' kin, I want to whis- 
per to you 
fth' Yin' lig gin, six 
fth' Tin li g5q' tftn left, I make six 
fth' Tin' lin, six pairs 
fth* vin' 15q kd nftk, sixfold 
fth' Tin rftt' nd, on the sixth 
fth* Tin' rhftk, sixth 
ft kft kd' kft, oh ! 
ft' Icftq chdr tdk, the sun shines 
ft' Icftq tft, ft' kftq tSm, the sun 
ft' kftq tft nftl' lauk, eclipse 
ft' kftq tft pu' g5k, the sun rises 
ft' kftq tft tirlr' t5k, the sun sets 
ft' Icftq t&m tvir thlfiq kft' nfin, to the going 

down of the sun 
ft' kd ft, ft' kd ftk, ft' kdt, payment 
ft kd chftq' td ft, I come trading 
ft kd chftq ta' ^hft, I am trading 
ft' kd left, my pay 
ft kd kfif kftq chd kft' kft, I wUl take it for 

your debt 
A kd Idch' tim tft A' nd, * Mater Redemptoris ' 
ft kd' Id nftk, gambling 
ft kd Id tft' kft, I pay him 
ft kd Id' td ft, I pay 
ft kdl' gild kft, my debt 
ft kdl ghdrq tii mftl' rft ft, who is still in debt 
ft kdl ghdxq td mau' ghft, I am still in debt 
ft kd' lir' nftq kfin, by that side 
ft kd nt hftq' kd, ft kdl ^5r tii, pay first your 

debt 
A kd' ntst fflt. Our Redeemer 
ft kdl nir' yGn rd' td ft, I do not want to have 

any debt 
ft kd' md ftk, fifteen 
ftkd'mdftk fttaii'chdmfik chlp'plflkfi, 

sixteen 



VOCABULARY 



321 



X W m« Xk mSX rOf' 'nflk chip' plfl kfl, sev- 
enteen 
XkrmiXk ping^'yfinftk chlp'plfikfl, 

eighteen 
I kS mS I rhom S' p6 It, three hundred 
& ke mS ft run ra' tft, fourteen 
ftk§n^ IkS'tOm, the head rest in native 

house 
AkSnaiiq^tdl, AkSnaa'rftk&, I pay him 

back, I take revenge 
I kS' td ft, I have no money 
ftkiVSgft'kft, I turn it over (viz., the 

anggiak) 
ft kS' wik, ft kS' wim, the anggiak inverted 

and propped up 
ft kS' yu oS, unpaid 

ftk fft' kSr> 1ft kS, let me run and get them ! 
ftkfft'kSktftqtOk, he runs (with much 

effort), said of the old 
ftkfft'kSrtdft, I run 

ftk fft k5 yun ni' td ft, I can run no longer 
ftk fftta' kft kft, I order him to bring it 
ftk fft yu' gftm kin, I want to carry you ofif 
ftk fi kft tftq' to ft, I begin to bring 
ftk fi yu ge yft' kft kft, I am inclined to carry 

it off 
ft Idk' kle kftn kft, I put them by twos 
ft klk" kl§ kut, two by two 
ft Idk^ kllm' nS, in front of me 
ft' kllth ka to ft, I glide 
ft kin' kft' 1ft tOk, it reflects 
ft kin' kftlth hft nfik, reflection 
ft Idn' kft thlSk, reflection 
ft Id yfi' mfi ftn, over again 
ftk' kft, then 

ftk' kft a' 'mft nS, at that time 
ftk' kft ftk, the opposite shore 
ftk kft' chfth to ft, ftk kft' chft gft kft, I injure 

him 
ftk' kft kftk, exclamation of annoyance 
ftk' kft kft kft, oh! 
ftk kftk nS ftn' kft t5 ft, I owe 
ftk kftlth thlau' gw5 ft, I am old, decrepit 
ftk kftlth thlauq' t5k, it is old, stale 
ftk'kftm, again 
ftk' kftm kin, I promise you 
ftk' kft nfik, from long ago 
ftk kftq ch! tft' kft, I roU it 
ftk kftq' t5k, it rolls down 
ftk'kftthlftk,o1d age 
ftk kft thlft' rft miik, about old Umes 



ftk kftf hdh tOk, he is drowned 

ftk' kft t5q to ft, I am full-gorged 

ftk kail' t5k kft, is it long ago ? 

ftk' kft yOk, echo 

ftk k§ ft wif ang' kft tOk, a circular island 

ftk Idzh gS t5q' td ft, I eat pUrmigan 

ftk' Idzh zhi gik, ptarmigan 

ftk klftn' kfin, ermine 

ftk' klu, ftk' klQk, ftk' kiat, a thing, a belong- 
ing 

ftk' klu kftt, term for ammunition 

ftk klulth hftn' kft, my old clothes 

ftk klfi yftq tdq' kft, I go to dress him 

ftk' krfit, ladder 

ftk kum ka' mfi Q tftk, expresses any foreign 
object brought up by the ships 

ftk kam ka me Q tab' gw5k, it is something 
from away off over there 

ftk' kun, ftk' ka tQm, a promise 

ftk ka' 3rfln, native mortar for snuff-making 

ftk kwft' wftk, yesterday 

ftk kwft' wft thlftk, a thing of yesterday 

ftk kwe' go ft, I play 

ftk kwfi naiiq' to ft, I usually play 

ftk' kw5 ft, ftk kwa' tft kft, I promise 

ftk ling', poor ! (expletive) 

ftk mftl' Ifi ftq, term for raven = the other 
side one 

ftk mftn 11' ^k, the one over there 

ftk mftn' tSk, it is across there 

ftk mft tef , on their other side 

ftk mft' yflt, to over there 

ftk ne ft' go ft, I suffer 

ftk' nfi ftk, pain 

ftk' nfik, pain (lasting, chronic) 

ftk nfir' ni' 1ft ak, thimble 

ftk nfir' nil Ifi ft' kft, I make something to 
prevent him from injury- 

ftk nfirq ^5 ft yftg' '15 ft, I am feigning pain 

ftk nfirq stir Ifi ft kft, I save him from being 
hurt 

ftknfir'akft, I hurt him 

ft kd' mis kft kft, I bid him to sit 

ft kd' mo ft, I sit 

ft k5m yfi' to ft, I have no place to sit 

ft k5q t5q' kft, I accept it, receive it 

ft kSr' tft kft, I moisten it 

ft k5r td' rft kft, I receive it 

ft kStl' hrft ft, steersman 

ft ko' to ft, I steer 

ftk schnai' td ft, I sneeze 



322 



ESSENTIALS OF INNUIT 



Ik' 8h& k&, my belly 

&k shft u' ghl, I am gorged 

Ik td rl' kl, I prop it 

I kii chi skim' kin, I bid you make akutak 

I kd' U, Arctic moorlands, tundra 

I ka laii' nl kd, frequently 

I kfi l§n^ t6k, it is between 

Iku'l§t, interstices 

I kd MM nS, in between 

ft kil np' kl, my middle finger 

I ku' 11 pOk, middle finger 

A ka' n rik, bridge of the nose 

ft kQ li' rl kl, I pass between 

I kulth' k5 tSk, it is frequent = has no 

intervals 
I kulth' ku chfik, space between things, as 

between logs in a house 
I kfi' lu rdk, a stream connecting two lakes 
I kfim gll rl^ I gnl, I am sitting down 
I kfim gaii' ghl, I do sit 
I kfim gatiq' td I, I sit 
I kfim kft z\A' ak, I kfim' thUk, a seat 

V 

I kfim' k nik, a stepchild 

ft ku' tik, native dish (seal oil, deer tallow, 

berries, and snow) 
ft kfi a' U§ fi ^, I make akutak 
ft ku tftq' ko I, I distribute akutak 
A kfi aq t5q' t5 1, I eat akutak 
I ku' to ft, I mix up (hence akutak = 

mixture) 
ft kfi' yfin, rudder 

ft ku' yfi tuk, mortar for mixing snuff 
ft kfizh rhftq' t5 ft, I romp 
ft kfizh rhau' g5 ft, I am full of fun 
ftk' Yo ft, I run, scamper 
ftlftn'j^thu, phantom, ghost 
ft Iftn^' fhu u ^ift, I am haunted 
ft Iftq koh' t9 ft, ft Iftq koh' rft kft, I command 
ft Iftq' kfin, ft Iftq k5' tOt, commandment 
ft Iftq' tlhre tOk, accurate, without error 
ft lau ru' tlhrfi ft, one coming 
ft lau rfi' td ft, I approach 
ft' IS ghftk, mark, sign (term for letter) 
ft IS gnftq' shfin, a thing to mark with (term 

for pencil, pen, etc.) 
ft le ghft' to ft, I mark (term to express I 

write) 
ft IS giiau' matik, it is marked, it is written 
I IS^h' gno ft, ft IS' kft kl, I dread, I fear it 
ft IS^ thlftg' 'Ifi nS, I greatly scared 
I IS^ thlfiq' t5 I, I am much alarmed 



I IS' ghfim Q gwft' nS, through fear 
ftlSk'sftt, native socks, woven from dried 

grass 
ft ISk sft yfiq'td ft, I want some grass socks 
ft ISk SI chS' kftm Idn, I will make you some 

grass socks 
I IS ml chS' kS ft, make some mittens for 

me 
ft IS' mft kft, glove 

I IS ml ting yfiq' t5 1, I want gloves 
I Ung nlq pSt' IS, how dreadful 1 
I ling' sti kft, I scare him 
I Ung tftq' to ft, I am timid 

I Ung' tft rft IS, coward 

ftl Iftq kd' ft gft kft, I leave instructions with 

him 
ftl Uq' an kft tu' mfit. I miss the trail 
ftl Iftq' td ft, I miss, I err 
ftl IS', sleeve 
ir IS ^hft rftk, ornament 

II IS glift' rft kft, I adorn it 
ftl IS' ghd ft, I have sleeves 
II IS mft kft' rftt, gloves 
IllS'mfttfik, mittens 

II Uk kft' rft kft, I tickle him 

II liltb ku chS' rftn ka tu' mfit, I mark out, 

stake, blaze a trail 
II li' lun, II li' m tit, marks (posts, etc.) 
ftl li nft' 5q t5 ft, I am lonesome 
II ling', alas ! 
II Ung' nftk, fear, terror 
II Ung nlq' kSk, it is frightful 
II Ung' n5k fft, how terrible 1 
ftl Un' kin rut, floats on fish-nets 
Illirq'tOk, it appears, in sight 
U ISq'pftk, the placenta 
ftl Ifi' ghdk, he laps (i.e., a dog or animal) 
ftl Ifi' Iftr tft, steersman 
ftUfiUr'tdft, I steer 
ftl Ifi laii' tftk, steering paddle 
ftl Ifing kSs' sfin, feed-trough for dogs 
ftl Ifing' vlk, place where the dogs are fed 
ftl lu to kft' kft, I take charge of it 
ftl Ifi' tfiq tft, a provider 
ft 15' kftt kftk, beaver gland (used as a charm) 
ftlraiiq'toft, I walk 
nth' kft, an elder sister 
ftlth' kl kft, my elder sister 
ftltb' kl kft, I tear it 
ftlth' kftk Idlth hrl St, who were sisters (i.e., 

one of the constellations) 



VOCABULARY 



323 



Ilth' kl klSk, eldest sister 

Alth k& tA' kA, I am going to tear it 

Iltb ko ni^ kr to I, I suddenly 

nth rl k5' I kin, every year, yearly 

ir thr& k5k, year 

Ilth^ thrl ku, next year 

IltbthrftnS^t&k, a thing of last year, last 

year's 
I lu' go mauk, she has her menses 
X luf , feet 
ft lu' y&k, swing 
ft lu yftq^ td ft, I swing 
ftm, again 

ftm ft gQ su ft' mfik k nft' VSkj Roman nose 
ft mft Id' yftk, humpback salmon 
ft mftk' klSk, ft mftk klS' 5q' Ifi, eldest brother 
ft mftk' kle kft, my eldest brother 
ft mft' Ur' nim nfi, on this side of me 
ft mft' Ur' nimt nS, in the other hemisphere 

= on the other side of us 
ft mft' nft, over here 
ft mft' nftk, milk 
ft mftn' t5k, it is over here 
ft mftq' kwft yft grftk, back-strap of dog 

harness 
ft mftq' tft kft, I bend it 
ft mftq' tdk, it is crooked, bent 
ft ma' rft k&, I skin it 
ft ma' rft 15k, cloud 

ft mft' rek, boots made of salmon skin 
ft mftr' kftk, peltry, skin 
ft mft te' nS, beyond 
ft mft tSn' t5 ft, I am beyond 
ft mft tS' nftk, from beyond 
ft mauq' kft, my great grandfather 
ftm' ch§, hurry up ! . 
ft m§k', ft m§' gfim, entrance, doorway 
ft mgk', ft mSm', skin 
ft mkf 16k, air 
ft mi', it is over here 
ftm'Inft, ftm'kuk, ftm'kfit, the one over 

there 
ftm ku'm§ (it, the dwellers over there 
ftm mft kail' tft kft, I throw it down 
ftm mft klq' tft kft, I twist it 
ftm'rftk, sleeve 
ftm' tft, maybe 

ftm thlSk' yfth, a little more 1 
ftm this rS' kft t5 ft, I have too many 
ftm' this ii ko nfik, many times 
ftm thlSr pft kftq' tft, it is too much ! 



ftm' thlSr tut, they are many 

ftm thlin' rS tOt, they are few (i.e., not 
many) 

ftm thlir' to ft, I step 

ftm' thllr v§ kft kft, I step on it 

ft nft chu' ^ftq pfit, our dear mother 

ft nftg' 'vlk, a refuge, a shelter 

ft nftk', excrement 

ft' nft kft, my mother 

ft' nft kft ghft, I am his mother 

ft nft' kft nfik, nakedness 

ft nftk 8ti' n gn5k, as large as possible 

ft nftk 8wS le' tft kft, my dear mother 

ft nftlth' kOk, sorcerer 

ft nftn' nft kft, aunt 

ft nftq' stft mfik, term for any purgative 
medicine 

ft nftq'tft kft, I exceed him, surpass 

ft nftq' td ft, ft nft' gft kft, I save 

ft nft' t5 ft, I go to the privy 

ftn chS Q' ghft, I take out from 

ft n€ ch6' sun, term for screw-driver 

ft' n$ chS a giift, I use a screw-driver 

ft nS' gQ yftk, snow house ; also a ptarmi- 
gan's burrow 

ft nSk' klft gft kft, I curse him 

ft nSk' klftk, a curse 

ft ne' pft, ft nS' pftm, white owl 

ft nSrq t5 rft' kft, I rescue 

A nSrq td rish' tft, Saviour 

ftng' gl ftk, native skin sailboat 

ftng' gl ft kft, my sailboat, anggiak 

tn^ gl ft mg u' kft kft, I put it into the 
anggiak 

ftng gl ft pis' tft, boat-builder 

ftng gl ftq' pftk, big boat (term for ship) 

ftng' gl ft riik, a large anggiak 

ftng gl ft' to ft, I go in an anggiak 

ftng gl yft' lik, owner of an anggiak 

ftng ghftq' kft kft, I bring it along 

ftng ghftq tft Idl' rft ft, a successful person 

ftng ghftq' t5 ft, I surpass, I obtain (i.e., bring 
home much game, etc.) 

ftng i^e chQn ni' tft kft, I cannot untie it 

ftng gliSq'td ft, I am glad 

ftng gnh' a kft, I untie it 

ftng ghlng ft rd' ft kft, my cousin (male) 

ftng glii hi' tl kft, my uncle 

ftng ghi' yd kftk, chief 

ftng gni y5 kaii' chSk, dominion 

ftng gn5' ft hQn, paddle (single blade) 



324 



ESSENTIALS OF INNUIT 



ftng ghS' & rfl tflng nSq hik, a newly made 

paddle 
ftnggnd&'tdX, I paddle 
ing ghtir y&k, a big man 
«ng g'hfi' y«k, «ngfnry6k, ftng^kryit, 

inggnu'y&qUU term for soldier 
Xng' kAk, ball 
Ang'klqtdft, I play ball 
Ang'UL nflk, pleasantness 
Ang \k nflq' kSk, it is agreeable 
ing le chA chii' ghA kat, do guard us 
Ang IS chAq^ tA, guardian 
Ang IS chAq' tl kA, my guardian 
Ang IS chA^rA kA, I make him big (l.e., raise 

him, adopt him) 
Ang IS gQt^ & kA, my brothers or my sisters 
Ang IS rA A' kA, I enlarge it 
Ang IS re kA nSr^ k t5k, larger than before 
Ang IS re^ nA tOk, it enlarges 
Ang lie Q' ghA, I grow large 
Ang pA' tA kA, I open it 
Ang' rA kA, I say yes to him = I yes him 
Ang tAltb' kSr t5k, it is exactly big enough 
Ang tAltb Idn' rA tOk, it is not big enough 
Ang' tAt kuk, both are the same size 
Ang thl5q stir gn6k, one without any one to 

baptize him 
Ang thl5q' t5 A, I baptize 
Ang thl5q' tut stS, baptist 
Ang thlu' chSk, baptism 
Ang thlu mAk shl' thlfik, one not yet baptized 
Ang thlQ mAr rA A, one who is baptized 
Ang thlu mAn' rA tdk, he b not baptized 
Ang thlu mAn' ril ghdk, one unbaptized 
Ang thlu' mauk, he is baptized 
Ang' thlQ nAk, baptism 
Ang thlu rAq' kAk, a candidate for baptism 
Ang thlu rAq kail' ghA, I am to be baptized 
Ang thlu this' nS 5k, he is baptizing 
Ang thlu yu' thlfik, one desiring baptism 
Ang'vA, too big 
Ang yA kAq' tA, it is too big ! 
Ang' yA nfik, breast-bone 
Ang yA' nfiq' mfin, native measure, equal to 

thirty-six inches 
Ang yes' tA, an anggiak builder 
A liil rAq' t5 A, I go down stream 
A'ning A, brother 
A ning' gh5 Ak, boil 
A ning gho Am' kA t5 A, I have a boil 
An kA S' yA gAk, baby 



An kS tA' jA gAk, a new-bom baby 

An' 15 Ak, hole cut in the ice to lift out fish- 
trap 

An naug' '15 kA, my old mother 

An nau gfif & r5k, still worse 

An nail' gQ t5k, worse 

An ni' rSt, house-flies 

An' n5 A, I go out 

An' *iirhA nA kA, my soul 

An nfl' tA kA, I carry it out = I out it 

A n5' kA, wind 

A n5 Idlth' h5 5k, it is not so windy 

A n5 kilth' hrA nftn, to a place sheltered from 
the wind 

A n5 kilth hfil' rA A, not as windy as 

A n5k' klA An, because of, on account of the 
wind 

A n5 klAr thli' nAq t5k, it always blows 

A n5' klAr t5k, it blows (i.e., a gale) 

A n5k pS Q' g5k, a man (used in the stories) 

A nok' sAq, breeze, light wind 

An5k'8hun, AnSk'shatfim, little weather- 
vane on sailboat, flag 

An' rfl tAk, abdomen 

An'tA, born 

An' tA kA, I take it out from 

An tAt ti' II gn5k, big as possible 

An thlSr ch5q' td A, I collect anthlerrut 

An' thlSr' me nfik, from his birth 

An thlSr' riit, small round roots, eaten by 
the natives 

An' thlfik, the one bom 

An'tUqkA, I blurt out 

An tdk' kA rAk, fresh, newly laid (applied to 

eg^) 

An Q' mauk, it flows (i.e., river) 

A' nliq' \ rA TAn kU' rA A, the Holy Ghost 

A nfiq taf kA' t5 A, I breathe 

A n&q tfif kA yfi ni' t5 A, I cannot breathe 

A n(i rail' giiA, I go out 

AnyA'thiat,raft 

An 3ni S' t5 A, I never go out 

Ap chfig' yA' kA kA, I want to ask him 

Ap' kaiiq, confession (i.e., being interrogated) 

Ap kiHiq chl cha gS A' ko A, I would like to 
confess 

Ap kfi chS' gn5k, he starts to have a hemor- 
rhage 

Ap kfi ching' kA t5k, he has a hemorrhage 

Ap ktit chA Aq' td A, I complain of pain 

A p5r' vlk k5r' t5 A, I grumble 



VOCABULARY 



325 



Ap pA' m&k, the two long side poles, or gun- 
wale, of anggiak 

&p pA nftq' p&k, the great sire 

ftp pi thlQ k&' kl, I sing, compose a song 

&p pau' hQ IG kl, my grandfather 

ftp p€ I tftq' td ft, I dine 

ftp^ prft kft, I pronounce it 

ftp' prfin, question 

ft' prfl kft, ft' pra kft rftm, little trail 

ft'prfln, ft'prfltQm, main trail, regular 
passage 

ftp' tft kft, I ask him 

ft pfing nft kft' kft, I try to guess it 

ft pftn' tft kft, I turn down the little finger 

ft pfif snfik, adultery 

ftq chft', keep still I 

ftq chft kftl rft ft' mfik, something special 

ftq chft' kftq pft, oh, that is too much 1 

ftq chftk' kr6 10 n$, especially 

ftq chft rft Q' gnft, I get worse 

ftq' hlfl, ftq' hiam, a marine monster, an Orca 

ftq pftq' td ft, I yell 

ftq' t5 ft, ftq' tft kft, mode characteristic 

ftq tOg ytig nilth kSf nan, to where they can- 
not reach it 

ftq ta rft' kft, I touch it (le., handle, meddle 
with, etc.) 

ftq td rS yftk p6 ft' rft kft, I nearly touch it 

ftq ta' mft kfi, a syphilitic (i.e., one touched) 

ftq tfin rft tft' rftq kft, I did not quite touch it 

ft'rftk, ft' rftt, ashes 

ft rft ni' tdk, it is not dangerous 

ft rail' '15k, suffix meaning old 

ft rft' fiq td ft, I am in danger 

ft rh5' 5k, it rots 

ft rha' yftk, smoke 

ft rha v51 rft ft' r5q t5k, it proves to be smoke 

ft rha' vSr t5k, it is smoky 

ftrh' viq' to ft, ftrh* viq' tft kft, I cross over to, 
I move it over to 

ftri'dtoft, I have no ashes (for use with 
snuff) 

ft tit nfik, quarrel 

ft ilf tft kft, I quarrel with him 

ar kttog' kft t5k, it means 

ft ro' k5 ft, I pass a thing along 

ftr rSn kft' ft pft, well, now I 

ftr riSn kft' ft t5 ft, I am at the impossible 

ftr rSn Idl' gn5 ft hwft, I am utterly unable 

ftr riSr nft ftq' t5k, he is in danger 

ftK rSr nftk, woman 



ft^ rSr nftk' ghftn, because it is dangerous 

ftf rSr nft 5' ho' nftk, adultery, fornication 

ft^ rSr nftq chft' 15k, female 

ftf rSr nftq kft' rau' 15k, old woman 

SI rSr nftq kft rati la' cho ft, little old woman 

SI rSr nftq kau ho 15q' pftk, big old woman 

iA rSr nftq' k5k, it is dangerous 

ftl rSr nft' rft 5k, it is getting dangerous 

ftl rSr nail' ghftn, on account of being a 

woman 
ftr'rhoyak, sperm-whale 
ftr rhfim kft lln' rftt, rotten wood 
ftr ilv' & lit, knuckles 
ftr r5 kftt I^n' kft, I distribute them 
ftr rO li kftq' td ft, I am stopping 
ftrraiirq'tdft, I stop 
ftr ra lir 3niq' td ft, I want to stop 
ftr rO' li yan, pestle (used for making snuff) 
ft ra 1ft a' kft, I stir it up, I wave it 
ft 8d' pft, worst 

ft 8d p6 ft' rft kft, I think well of him 
ft 86 pd a' tft kft, I put it on a block (to 

chop) 
ft 8d' pftk, ft 8d' prfim, a block, rest, support, 

base, etc. 
ft 8d yftq' t5k, it is pretty 
ft 8har chft rft' kft, I improve it 
ft shftr gh5q' td ft, I become the best 
ft shftr re kft' nSq tdk, it is better than ever 
ft shftr' t5k, it is good 
ftshd'kftkft, I have a good opinion of 

him 
ft shel gh5q' ta Idt, the wicked 
S shSl nir' 'yft rftk, way of sinning 
ft shSr n5k, badness 
S she thUn' ne 5k, ft shd' t5k, it is bad 
ft 8hU' rft ft, ft shir rft dk, ft shil' rft dt, who is 

good 
ft shin' kft kft, it is nicer than 
ft shin rd 5q' td ft, I am better than 
ft shin rd' a goft, I feel better 
ft shiq' tl kft, my container 
fts sa' tft tat, native game (tossing one up 

in a sealskin) 
ft'tft, ft'tftm, father 
fttftfkftnft'nS, without attachment, not 

fastened to 
fttftfkftrft'kft, I fasten it 
ft'tftk, name 

ft a' kft, ft tft' mft, my father 
ft' tft kft ftm, well, now I 



326 



ESSENTIALS OF INNUIT 



ft M: kg, oh ! 

I tA' kd klSk, evening service 

1 12' kd m8, in the evening 

& ULk 8w§ 1$ a' k&, my dear father 

I tft Uq' tl k&, my benefactor = as a father 

& a Ur r&' kft, I act as a father to him 

& tA lu S' rut k&, my deceased father 

I tAm^ again 

& tAm' § k§' kfl, see here ! here, now 1 

& XH nftk, ruler, head man 

I tft' nA kft, my Lord 

A tAn' k& kA, I await him 

A tAn^ nfik p€ Ak, the chief ruler 

A tAn' ro ii chCk, government ^ 

A tAn rd u' gnA, I govern 

A tAq pAq' tA kA, I term it 

AtA'tA, by and by 

A tA' tA chd' 5rq ka, presently, in a moment 

A tA' tA kA, uncle 

A tA' tA kd A kAn, every now and then 

A tA' tAq ku, later on 

A tail' che hAk, unity, one (emphatic) 

A tab' chSk. A tali' chim, one 

A tail' che kfin, as one = all together 

A tail chSq' kA mfik, once 

A tau che u' gw5k, it is one 

A tab ch§ u' tA kA, my one 

A tab chS u' tA kA kA, it is my one 

A tab chg u' thlfi ku, by myself, I alone 

acting 
A tab chg u' wAk klu k§, one by one 
A tab' chIm tdk, it is all one, they are all one 
A tab chir kAk' ktu tQng, one after another 
A tab chit' to A, I have one 
A tabg' '15 kA, A tabg' *ian, A taug' Mo An, my 

old father 
A tab' gnA, I unite, join, make one 
A tab hwab' gSk, it is good, beneficial 
A'thlA, A' thlA Am, another 
A thlA kA hAr' 'mA, my lone self 
A thlA kA rA mit' to A, I am alone, separated 

from others 
A thlA' m§ ku, next year 
A thlA nAq' rA 5k, it changes 
A thlA nS' gnA, treat me as a guest 
A thlA' ne t5k, a stranger comes, there is an 

arrival 
A thlA' n5k, a guest, a stranger 
A thlAn r5 u' gnA, I am a guest 
A thlA nfik kll' lA fit, those who are guests 
A thlA'ta hAk, anything belonging to another 



thlA' tAk, another's property 
thlA tab' gw5k, it is another's 
thlfi' rAk, bedding (i.e., the fur robes, etc) 
this' rA kA, my bedding 
thir yug' nAq kA nfi, how strange it is ! 
thli' yOk, something strange, a cariosity 
thl5q'akA, I match it 
thia' vfi thlfik, a weeper 
thlu'vlk, tear 
thlfl vllth' yti ^, I weep 
thlfi vin' kA, my tears 
ti riif kA, my late father 
V kA, Af lAn, At' rA, my name 
t klulth hAn' kA, my clothing 
f k t5k, it sweeps off (i.e., the current) 
t ku cho A' thlfiq kA, my little old coat 
f kuk, native fur coat, parka 
t kulth' thlfiq kA, my old coat 
Af ku t5 A, I put on my coat 
t kwe' to A, I have no coat 
t mA gA' kA, I carry it on my back, I 

pack it 
t' mAq kAk, a pack ready to be put on one's 

back 
t me 5rq' td A, I am arranging my pack, 

getting it ready 
t5q chIr kill rA A' ^iiA, I may sing, etc. 
t5q' stAk, term for any musical instrument 
t5q stAl' rA A, one who b playing an 

instrument 
t5q' 8 tAq tA, a musician 
t5q' to A, A t5 zA' kA, I sing, use, wear, etc. 
t5q' yii gfi A kA' kA, I am inclined to, would 

like to use it 
t5r' gnfi thl hul' rA A, not as serviceable as 
t5r' kAn' rAr t5k, it cannot be used any 

more 
t5r' kaun' rA t5k, it can be used 
t5r' lAlth' kA, the thing I do 
t5r' *yA rAk, song 
t5r' ya' gA kA, I want to use it 
trAq pAq t lAq' kA, I term it, call, designate 
trAq r5q kau' gw5 A, I have to go down 
trAqstA'kA, I turn it adrift, I let it go 

down 
trAq' t5 A, I come down 
' trA tAk, driftwood, flotsam, etc. = what 

is brought down • 

trA' t5 A, I go down slowly 
trab' chSk, a descent 
traU' tA kA, I bring it down 



VOCABULARY 



327 



I trg tt* kl, I take away the name 

A' trS t5k, it has no name, nameless 

If sA kwen rftt, a quantity of berries 

tt sftm mlt' sd I, term for wine, berry juice 

At sA' p6 ftt, blueberry 

&t sAq^ to &, I go berrying 

&t sA^ ills kfi m&, when I go for berries 

It'sAt, it'sftm, berry, also term for all 

imported fruit 
It sit ch5q' td I, I hunt for berries 
It^ sti kl, I dress him 
Its' stOrrhan, the comer of a kazhga or 

house 
If td I, If tl kl, I dress, I put on 
It tril' ndk, ring-finger 
It tiir ii5k kl, my ring-finger 
I ta 11$ Q' ghl, I make a song 
I tfir rl I, singer 
I tul rfti' ^hl, I am singing 
I tul rl^ r6q tdk, it proves to be music 
I ta'nSm, between, mutual 
I tfl yfi' gnl, I sing well 
I tii' yQ IS, a good musician 
I tfl yfi le yfi* gw5 1, I am a fine singer 
ail' gi nl, ail' gum, that one going off there 
ail' hin kl, I pick them up 
ail kir rl St, all varieties of 
ail kii chim' maut, they are mixed, various 
ail kQl hwu' tin kl, I mix, tumble them 

together 
ail ku' to I, ail ku' tin kl, I mingle, mix 
au kwlq' pik, forever 
aiilth' kdk, cooked meat 
ail lii kl' kl, I mind it, take care of it 
ail lii' kfif kB nS, unmindful 
ail mail' glk, charred embers 
aim' rl t5k, it bleeds 
auq, ail' gOm, blood 

auq tl Idn rl tl' kl, I confide in him, I trust 
auq' t5 1, I creep up (in hunting) 
auf 'n5k, steam 
ati'tl kl, I jumble, mix 
au' thia hwi, look out I 
au' thlQ thia, it is too bad ! 
all wl' IS kl kl, I have it just at hand 
au wl rS ghi IS' tl kl, anythmg used as a 

weight 
au wS' Iq t5 1, I dodge 
ail wS' to I, I move aside 



I ying' tOk, a knot in wood 

Iy ghlq' tOk, it splits readily, it halves at once 

ly'gum ly'gl, a quarter (le., half of a 

half) 
Iy gfi tfing' kl td I, I have half 
I Yi' ^5k, it brightens, gets brilliant 
Iy' nil IQk, Cottonwood tree 
I Yfiq t(ik 8U' SI ^5k, shiftless 
Iy yI' chl kl, my friend, my intimate 
Iy vail ksi' tl kl, I remember it = have not 

yet forgotten it 
Iy Yaliq til' ghSk, he has good memory 
Iy Yau' rl kl, I forget it, overlook it 
Iy yS u' klq kS, offering for the dead 
Iy yu' gl kl, my half 
Iy' Yfig ving kl td I, I can spare, divide, 

share 
Iy Yii' gw6k, it is half 
Iy' Yfik, Iy' yu gl, half 
IwI'klQ, oh! 

I wl' nS, over there somewhere 
I win' tdk, it is somewhere over there 
IwI'rIkI, I remove 

I wl rS' sfin, eraser (term for India rubber) 
I wl rS' tl kl, I erase, take ofE from, 

absolve 
I wl tSn' t5k, it is just around here 
Iwltl'kl, around me, my vicinity 
I wl tim' nS, in my vicinity 
I wl' Yiit, over there 
I wl zl' klu kS, being closely related 

(Tun una) 
I we' t5 1, I make room, move aside 
I wl yl lir rl I, a place grown up in bushes 
I wi yl' a Uk, a thicket 
Iz g&q chu' tfit, summer fish-traps 
Iz gSf td I, I ascend stream 
Izh rl ii' gha, ' peccare contra VI * 
I zim mlq' tl kl, I bend it 
Iz mfim'maiik, he is stubborn 
Iz mfiq' td I, I cut my hair 
Iz ra'chl rik, adultery 
IzrI'nIk, lust 
Iz rl' rl I rIk, fornication 
Iz rS uk tOk & nl' kl ^nl, he annoys me 
Iz Yil' I ^dk, the strong one 
Iz Yif ft rl tdk, it is not strong 
Iz' Ydk, Iz' Yd rflk, Iz' Yd rflt, walrus 
Iz zhS df td I, I go up stream, pole up 



328 



ESSENTIALS OF INN (/IT 



chA^ chim, ch&k', chit, what thing ? 

ch&' ch5 ft, a little thing 

chft chSrq' kft, my little thing 

chft chQ^ ^iiftk, something nice 

chft chu' ghft kft, something nice of mine 

chftf kftq ch§ kftm' Idn, I will do something 
to you (used as a threat) 

chftf aq' to ft, chftf tft' kft, I feel around for 

chft gin' rftk, summer deerskin (the best 
variety) 

chftg mftlth' thlim nfi, where I lost it 

chftg mft' zft kft, I lose it 

chftg mft rfi u' ghft, I lose in gambling 

chft fnft' gh5k, what kind 

chftg' 'nftk, strength 

chft ^1 ^fi' hwft, what sort is it ? 

chft ^Ith Idn rft tft' kft, I do not care 

chft ^hft' tft, what way 

chftg' 'nfi IS, a champion wrestler 

chftg' nS ii' ^hft, I am muscular, strong 

chftg' nif kft zft' kft, I strengthen him 

chft' hftk, chft' hftm, a bit of something 

chft hft' kft, my bit 

chft' hwft, what is it ? 

chft' hwft Idk, oh, what is it ? 

chft' kft, doing 

chft'kftk, what for? 

chft kft' kft, it is my doing, I do it 

chft kft' kft kft, it is something for me 

chft kftk' klu kO, why ? 

chftk chim' mauk, it is broken (i.e., a piece 
off) 

chft kSrk' sit, style of labret worn by women 

chft kSr nlq' td ft, I am quick tempered 

chft' k!fr tftk, something nice 

chft' k&r tft kft, something nice of mine 

chft' ktfr t5 ft, I fly into a passion 

chft k§' tft kft, I chop it up, hash it 

chft kg tft rft' rft kft, I mince it 

chft ke' f ft, I chop, use hatchet, axe, etc. 

chftk' tir tut, said of one whose toes turn 
out too much 

chft' kik, relationship 

chft' Idk, what, indeed! 

chft Idl nftq' to ft, I hop 

chft kilth nft' tftt, butterflies (the small yel- 
low variety) 

chft klq' to ft, chft kiq' tft kft, I turn it 

chft kJ rftq' kft, my parents-in-law 



chft klr" kft, chft' kin, chft' kS ft, my father-in- 
law or my mother-in-law 

chft kirq tft kftk sab' nftk, without turning 
aside = go straight on 

chftk kau' ghwft, what is it for ? 

chftkkiim'a kft, I neglect it 

chftk ka'mftk, neglect 

chftk kii mfi mftn' rft tdk, it is not neglected 

chft klft kii' tdk, would it were mine I 

chftk' mft nft, down there 

chftk mftn chftk' klfi kS (in composition), as, 
I thought those down there were you 

chftk mftn' II ^5k, he who is down there 

chftk mftn' td ft, I am down there 

chftk nft' thllmt n$, in our hard times 

chftk nft yft Idn' rft tOk, it is not very heavy 

chftk' nSk, very 

chftk n5k kin' rft tOk, there is not much the 
matter with him 

chftk nfiq' td ft, I groan 

chft k5' ft kft, I wrap it 

chft ko' hftk, the small-sized native pouch 

chftk' tft kft, I break it 

chft ku chg' hwft, what kind is it ? 

chft kft' chSk, what sort ? 

chft kii' mft, chft kft' yftt, chft'kftn, when- 
ever I 

chft kft' tftk, a container, holder, etc. 

chft kft' tft kft, my wrapper 

chft kft tft' kft kft, it is for my container 

chft kft a klft k6' tdk, if it were my thing 

chftk yS dr yhn' k thlS, industrious 

chftk' y ftn, chftk' yft tOm, native stone axe 

chftl'ldftk, work 

chftlld'ftkft, I work it 

chftl IS ft' kft kft, it is my work 

chftl IS ftk ne' thlftq tft kft, I do it badly, 
carelessly 

chftl IS ftk' stS, its maker, the maker of it 

chftl IS ftk stS ^ft' ^hft, I am the maker of it 

chftl IS ftk' st kft, my workman 

chftl IS' gild ft, I act 

chftl IS Iftq' td ft, I do habitually 

chftl IS mft rft ft' mft, after my doing 

chftl IS' nfik, the act of doing, working 

chftl IS tft' ghft, I know how to work 

chftl IS ft' ghft, I work 

chftl IS vft thlSq' td ft, I overwork 

chftl IS'vlk, workshop, place for working 



VOCABULARY 



329 



chil IS vlzh zh(' Aq td &, I end up work 
chll \h wi^ Ug' xaiky before my working, my 

doing 
chfll \h wi Ifiq'td I, I do for the first time 
ch&l !§' yl rftk, way to do, mode or method 

of doing 
chiil \h yfl' rft k&, chU 1$ y&' rft ml, my way 

of doing 
ch&l 1§ y& rft'kl k&, chil IS y& rr k& mi, it is 

my custom, my way of doing 
ch&l IS 3rfl' ch& kl, my doing cleverly 
chAl IS yiiq' td I, I want to do 
chil ling n&k' kd fl, I endeavor to do, I try 

to work 
ch&I ling sA' t5 &, I do light work 
ch&l Us' t&, worker 
ch&l Ha' ti kl, my workman 
chll Ha tl kfi' k&, it is my workman 
chil Hat t ^Q' cli& k&, my state of being a 

workman 
chAl rSt' nftk, peace 
ch&lth'kA, ch&lth'm&, ch&th'HmnS, that 

which I was doing = my was work 
ch&lth' k& kfi, it is what I was doing 
ch&lth' kfik, an ugly thing 
chAlth' kfi k&, my ugly thing 
chAlth' thlfir hr& nfik, about another*s doings 
ch&lth' tblfir' mS niik, about his own doings 
cli& m&n', chl mft" tilm, down 
ch& mi' ni, down here 
Chi mftn' U ^dk, the one who is down here 
cli& m&n' to ft, I am down here 
chft' mS, used to express when (localis case) 
chft me' kfin, used to express through what 

(vialis case) 
chft mi', down there 
chftm il IS' nS, one time, once 
chftm' i nft, the one straight down there 
chftm' i nftlth kfik, the one down there whom 

I dislike 
chft' muk chS' ift, what next, what else 
chft mjing ^5 ft' rd 5k, like the one below 
chftm' yok, you down there I 
chft nft krS' IS tftk, the lacing around the 

sides of a sled 
chft nft' afin, native knife with curved blade 
chft nft thlft gft' kft, I cut it (with a chanasun) 
chft nft' thl5k, chft nft' thlrhfit, shavings, 

chips, etc. 
chft nft vft thlft' gft kft, I cut it too much 
chft nS' rft kft, I clean it up, put in nice order 



chftn gft chftq' tft kft, I displease him 

chftn gft' 'Iftk, contagious disease 

chftng girq tdq' td ft, I eat changgimit = 

blackfish 
chftng gir' rfft, blackfish (i.e., grassfish) 
chftng gho' ft r5 ft u' nft, what is this like ? = 

what is this a representation of ? 
chftng' 'nftq kSk, it is displeasing 
chftng Or' 'Ifik, sickness 
chftn' gfit, dried grass (used in native foot- 
gear) 
chft nirq'nftk, expresses crossways 
chftn' kft, chfttfi, chl, my things 
chftn nft hwu' tftk, the yard of the native 

skin sailboat 
chftn nS' nS, near him 
chftn nS' rft kft, I go close by him 
chftnniftgniftdft, chftn nit h rS' td ft, I am 

near them both 
chftn nl ftt nif to ft, I am near them 
chftn ni' kft, my nearness, vicinity 
chftn ni mi chiiq' t5 ft, I want to be near 
chftn ni mi tftq' t5 ft, I stay near 
chftn nim' li gn6k, the near one 
chftn nim' 'nS, near me = in my nearness 
chftn nim' nfin, to near me, close to me 
chftn nir' kftk, portion of native house 

around the entrance hole 
chftn no' rft 5k, it becomes thick 
chftn nfik klS liq' td ft, I have many things 

near me 
chftn nfik aklu' tfi, I tell you to get some 

dried grass 
chftn nun' rft t5k, it is not thick 
chftn' 5k, a thing ; chftn rSt' n5k, nothing 
chftn rft rft nftq' td ft, I am getting better 
chftn' rft t5k, expresses all right = it is 

nothing 
chftn rSlth'ke nft, chftn rSlth'kS chS, be 

healthy 1 (salutation) 
chftn Ilk kai' td ft, I am not yet well 
chftn III' gh5k, a thing of no value 
chftn riq' td ft, I am well, cured, all right 
chft d kftl' gut, native boots which reach to 

the hips 
chft dk' kftm' nS, in my presence 
chft' d klSk, chft' d kllm, the first, foremost 
chft dk kr mit' td ft, I am before (i.e., in pres- 
ence of) 
chft d klS' G ghft, chft d klQ' gwd ft, I am first 
chft dk' pftm' nS, long before me ** 



1 



330 



ESSENTIALS OF INNUIT 



dUi' pik, chft' p£m, really something = an 
actual thing 

chA plng^ r& tSk, it is not an actual thing, it 
is nothing 

ch& pi Q' gw6k, it is really something 

dUi pr chft 5q' td ftt expresses I am impeded, 
something is hindering 

ch& prir gndk, expresses omnipotent = he 
to whom nothing is difficult 

dUi prlt^ td i, I am all-powerful 

di&'^rn&k, difficulty 

chi^ ^r tk kSk, it is impossible 

chijlrsAgoft chS'fignl, I am without 
power 

chX pQ' tit, the wings of a fish-trap 

chiq kA Idn rA tA^ kA, I do not care, I have 
nothing to do with it 

diAq kd rAr rA St, one of the constellations 

chAq^ pAk, a big thing 

chAq' pA kA, my big thing 

diAq thlfl t\' ^hdk, a sinless one 

diAqthlQ'SnAnS kS ghaii' hlhrA, the Im- 
maculate Conception 

chAq thlfiq' tu 18t, sinners 

chAq' y(r rAn' kA, I throw things around 

diA rA' i ySk, he gnaws (i.e., of a dog) 

diA' lA vA nSk, current 

chA ri^ yAk, chA ii' ySm, devil 

diA ri yA' tA Uk, place of devils = hell 

ChA ra' mfi kA, my left arm 

diA rfl m§ Ur' 'nim nS, on my left side 

diA rfl' mem lir' nSr rA nS, down my left side 

ChA' sAk, clock, watch (corrupt Russian) 

chAs'kAk, native cup / ^ n ) 

diAs'ku, weapon 

ChA tA mSn', everything 

ChA tAng' kA tdk, there is something (used 
in connection with a locative) 

ChA tAng' kA tOk chlm' In A, as there is some- 
thing down there 

ChA tail' n§, I absent 

chAt ch§ Q' ghAt n§, some time before 

chAthlA'ndk, hole 

ChA thlAq kll' hra St, which have holes, as 
ChA thlAq Idl' hrA St It gAn' kA, my boots 
have holes 

ChA thlAq' t5k, it has a hole 

chA'thlQk, mote, dirt, sin 

chA thlfiq' to A, I contend with, fight (along 
the Kuskokwim River this word im- 
plies, " I fight with my wife **) 



ChA tu ghS ghA' nlm nS, in my absence = I 

being absent 
chAt U ISt' nS, some time after 
ChA ti tik ksl' t5 A, I am not here yet 
chA ti' t5 A, I am absent 
chAfkAkA, I mind it; chAt kin rA tA' kA, 

I do not mind it 
chAt ping' kat, the things above 
ChAt 8td ka chlr' krSl lOk, let us (both) take 

refuge 
chAt' 8t5 kfin, refuge, place of safety 
ChAt 8td kfif f fit, Our Refuge (used in prayer) 
ChAt tA mAlth kwS' tA, all things 
chAt tA' mAt, everything 
ChA tfik gni' tA kA, I make no account of 
chau ghd A kS u' gnA, I waste 
chaii hwA' ghA, towards me 
chau' lAq tA, what does it mean ? 
chaii' 15 A, towards me 
chaiilth' h5 A, what was it ? 
chaiin, thing (a suffix) 
Chan' 'n5k, direction, course, aim 
chaun rA thlAq' td A, I am disappointed 
chaim' 111 ghSk, a worthless thing (local 

variation of chAnrIl^h5k) 
chaiit ^Ong ghi' tdk, it is useless 
chahf kA, possessive form of chaiu 
chaix' wA kA, I face it 
chaii' yAk, native style of drum 
dULu' yA rAk, rib of a canoe or boat 
chau yA' td A, I drum 
chau yA' *vik, November 
ChA vAq' tA, how beautiful I 
chA yAq' tOk, it is deanly 
chAy' hfin, oar 

chA vlzh rA' G ^hA, I work, labor 
chA'yo'A, I row 

chA yd yAng' nA, he divorces me 
ChA y&' chu tAk, native oarlocks 
ChA' yfik, native harpoon (large size) 
ChA yfi' t3t, oars 

ChA' wlk, term for iron in general ; also knife 
ChA wil IS' drq tA, an iron worker, blacksmith 
chA wil IS' 5r' ylk, blacksmith's shop 
chA wiq' pAk, large knife, sword, etc. 
ChA yA' gAk, a little thing 
ChA yA' gA kA, the possessive form of chAyi- 

gAk 
ChA yfl' gA kA, I draw it out 
ChA' zhi gftt, partitions, fence 
chS' gdk, the dried-up skin over frost bites 




VOCABULARY 



331 



chS U', and 

ch8' U chS'' U thlfl, again and again 

ChS la' cho &, and still = a little more 

ch8 Ifik^vih, a little more, eh? still more? 

ch6 liq'' la ng, slanting 

chSUq'akft, I slant it 

chSn, why 

chS ne lit chd' i thlQq, a little old arrow 

chS ne Ifiq tiz^ U, I extract the arrow (i.e., 

from the wound) 
chSn'hw&, why, now ! 
chS' nik, tip, point of any weapon 
ChS nil' gX, head of harpoon 
chS re' nflk, overeating, gluttony 
ChS rS' ni mfin, expresses to a place where 

food is plentiful 
chS rS n&q kil r& i' mfin, to a place which 

abounds in food 
chSrSfi'ghfl, I am abundantly supplied 

with food 
chS rfin' Ilk, a stag 
chS ru' nSk, antler 
chS' 8lk, snake 

chS' sir p&k, great snake, sea serpent 
chS a, front ; also bow of a boat 
chS a chSk" ko i, I have earache 
chS u' Idr' mX, I headlong, head foremost 
chS Q kllm' tA, our ancestors 
chS u ku' cho X, an ugly, badly formed bow 

(of canoe) 
chS &' Un tip rSk, the forestay on a native 

sailboat 
chS fi Hs' tA, foremost (term given to the 

leading dog in a team) 
chS Q Us' tl k2, my leading dog 
chS u' mi nS, before me (in time) 
chS am'ni tSk, it is before, prior to 
chS urn tfing nik ghi' t5 &, I do not try any 

more to go ahead 
Che fim tOng nft kflf kS nS, I without trying 

more to go ahead 
che a nS Orq' td X, I receive 
chS u'nfiq kft kft, my future 
chS Q thlu g&' k&, I do before he does 
chS u' tl kfl, my ear 
chS vail mAl r& i' muk, buzzing sound 
ChS' w&k, blowfly 

ChS' zlk, snake (local ; same as chSalk) 
chSz sS' rS Xk, representation of a snake 

(local) 
chi, tea (Russian) 



cUf tA kX, I reset it (speaking of traps) 
chig vSq' k2, my pair of nose beads 
chig vSt', beads worn in the nose by women 
chig vlng' k2 to i, I have nose beads (native 

ornament) 
chl ^Ith kail' tAk, native boots (the low 

variety) 
chlkkA'dSdS, little bird (child's word) 
chikkA pS plr^, little bird (local variation) 
chik kAv' ve Ak, owl 
chik ke' k& gho A, I just now give him 
chIk kS' rA kA, I give it to him 
chik kS rau' tl kA, a little gift of mine 
chik kS rS yA' kA kA, I offer to give it to him 
chik kSrq'ste, donor of a trifle 
chik ke' a ti kA, a little gift to me 
chik mA' nuiuk, he is blind (le., closed) 
chik me' rA kA, I close my eye 
chik miq' td A, I have my eyes closed 
chik nA kA' ghA, he envies me 
chik' nA nAk, envy 
chiknAa'nfik, ill will 
chlknA'tA tOk, he is envious 
chik tAq' to A, I bow down (habitual) 
chik' t5 A, I bow down 
chi'ku, chl'kut, ice; the plural expresses 

large masses broken up, but not* in 

motion 
chi kO e' rA kA, I clear away ice 
chi kfl IA'5 ghfln, bone or iron pointed staff 

used in travelling over ice 
chi ku' lirq tSk, there is much ice, drift ice 
chi kfil rS' go A, I slide on the ice (used by 

children at play) 
chi kum yAq' t3 A, I wink my eye 
chi kum' tA kA, I break it 
chi kwelth' kSk, air hole or open place in 

the ice 
chill5r"yAk, a flat stone 
chilth' kAk, chilth' kAm, nothing, no account, 

vain 
chilth kAm' t5 A, I am useless, in vain, naught 
chi mA' kA, my exchange 
chi' mik, liver 
chlm mS' rA kA, I change it 
chi'nSk, teakettle (Russian) 
chlng ^q' kA, I kiss him 
ching ^haii mA' thl5 A, I being embraced 
ching gnaiiq' kA, I combine it 
ching' ^Sk, a sharp bend in a stream 
ching ghSk^, latchets on native boots 



332 



ESSENTIALS OF INNUIT 



ching ^Sr' t5 X, I have a latchet off my boot 
chlng kft rft' kfl, I shove it down 
chlng'kdk, it crackles, makes a cracking 

sound 
ching^ krii p&k, short, sharp sound, as a 

stone hitting another 
chlng kiu thU'' gaiik, it is cracking (i.e., a 

beam, etc) 
chlng killth'' Uk tAt, a variety of berries 
chlng ku' thllq tdk, it snaps (Le., as a gun 

cap) 
chlng^ ni k2, I tuck it in 
chin' kflk, land otter 
chin 9k* glit, the spirits of lost things 
chin thia h5q' t5 i, I grieve 
chl nQg' *1Q nS, bruised 
chlnQk", bruise 
chin'' y&k, sled sheet 
chip' plfl kfl, plus (used in enumeration) 
chip' t& kX, I add it 
chip' tdk, it exceeds 
chlr' lali' gw5 &, I am weak 
chls' ko k&, my knee 
chls kO mig' gaiik, he is on his knees 
chls ku mlq' to A, I kneel 
chl'v§t, blowflies 

chl vo' Aq kA, my two upper front teeth 
chlv vo' A ne, before 
chl yAk kllr' *lu nS, finally 
chl yA' kllk, a thing long being done 
chl yAk' kia g&t chAn' kA, I do whatever is 

to be done 
chl yA rail' gwA, what does it mean ? 
chl'ygt, what is the matter with you ? 
chl'ydk, tea 
chiydq'tut, they represent by gesture 

(pantomime) = native dance 
chi yu' wA kA, I pull it up 
chl yu wAq' tA kA, I jerk it up 
cho'A, small (in composition) 
chdlt" t5 A = chdk' tA kA, I measure 
chd rA' ^hA Uk, a gray dog 
ch5 r5' kA tut, special variety of native feast 
chSr' thlut, a variety of berry 
chd ru' kAt, invited guests (to a feast) 
chd rAn' kA, my bedding 
chrGm' rSk, the small snipe 
chu chu' kA kA, I like it, am fond of, love 
chQ chfi yA' kA kA, I envy him 
chu §g' nl II ghOk, land otter 
chu ghAq' stOk, green 



chfl ^8r kn' ri A, one with the dysentery 

chfl' hwlk, beak of a bird 

chflk, genitalia (feminine) 

chfl kAf kfi nAk, do not hasten 

chQ' kA ISt, sea biscuit, crackers (Russian) 

chfl kAl'ld A, I hastening 

chfl kAn rAq' td A, I am quick, speedy 

chfl kAn rd A lAq' td A, I am generally quicker 

chfl kAn rd fl' ^hA, I go faster 

chfl kir" tdk, it bends 

chfl kail' ghA, I speed 

chfl kA yirk' nAk, do not go too fast 

chfl kA yflq' td A, I w^ant to go fast 

chflk chaii' td A, I rush 

chflk chl nAq stA' kA, I make it splash 

chfl'kdk, native socks 

chfl kdq' tA kA, I direct it, guide it 

chfl m' ^dk, one who is slow 

chfl mth chAq' td A, I go carefully, slowly 

chflmthchA'rAlQtfi pekd'nA, be careful 
and go slowly 

chfl kilth hd u' ghA, I go slower 

chfl' kdq k§, one afflicted with ulcers 

chfl kflt kd dq' td A, I make kindling, to start 
a fire 

chflk' yfln, model, pattern 

chfl Idq' td A, I come broadside on (native 
mode of landing) 

chfl lA gw§ yfl' fnA, I snuffle 

chfl Iflq chd u' ghA, I snivel, run at the nose 

chfll'yAt, ancestors 

chfl mlq' td A, I am intent 

chfl nA'pdt, labrcts (style worn by men) 

chfl nau' hwA, how is this, now ! (exclama- 
tion in scolding) 

chfing ek sflq' td A, I whimper 

chflng gd' td A, I sob 

chflng ^hd' kd A, 1 have diarrhoea 

chflng' ghdk, forehead 

chflng ^fl d le tA' ghwfl, muzzle him (i.e., a 
dog) 

chflng ghfl d' Id tAk, dog muzzle (native) 

chfl' pA (the plural, chfl' pflt, is most used) 
drifting ice, ice in motion 

chu pAq' td A, I am homesick 

chflp'plfi, tube 

chflq hfl chd' rA kA, I muzzle him 

chflq'hfln, muzzle 

chfl'rAt, blueberries 

chu tA rA rail' ghA, my ears are cold 

chu' yA, leaf (term for tobacco) 



VOCABl/LARy 



333 



S Chi'' hwftk, formerly 

5 ch6 vik k5' i Un, every now and then 

6 chS'' y&k kfi, presently (future) 

h ch§'' wiq pik, during a little while 

Mkflii'kfl, I let it drop 

S gXq' chfin, pen, pencil, etc. 

5 gXq' t5 X, I write, etc. 

6' gauk, shade to protect the eyes 

S gau wS' t5 fl, I have no goggles 

6' gg Uk, throat 

h' gwo X, I swallow 

S k2^ dirt, ordure 

i' Idl, my eye 

S kXm' rft ch5 &, little sled 

h k&m^ rXk pSk, a big, clumsy sled 

h kftm r&l W ^hfl, make me a sled 

S kXm ril le^ Q ^hft, I make a sled 

S kftm rftl llf k&' to X, I am having a sled made 

g kftm r&ng' kft td i, I have a sled 

g k&m' r&q kfl, g k&m' rftg* ml, my sled 

g kftm rXq kg tA^ k&, I give him a sled 

g kim rXq pg ^' ^I, g k&m r& fi'' ^hft, I make 

a sled 
g k&m rX y&'' chi kfl, I being a good sled 

maker 
g k&m ti' rX kft, I take his sled 
g k&m rist ^&^ chi kft, my being a sled 

maker 
e k2m iV to &, I have no sled 
g kfl' nH, on that side 
g kftn' t5 X, I am on that side 
Bk fXq' to i, I gather berries 
g Idiq' tA k&, I open it 
g Id ygrq stg kA'' kfl, my helper 
g Id ygrq sti' to X, I have no hel]>er 

V 

g Id ygrq at ^SV gndk, he who has no one to 

help him 
g Id ygrq at Id' t5 i, I have not one to 

help me 
g Id ygrq stfing' kA t5 X, I have a helper 
g Id ydrq stQng yflq' td X, I want some one 

to help me 
g Id yfing chlq' to X, I call for aid 
g Id yu rhl kaii'' wi kA, I have to help him 
gidya'tdi, laid 
gk k chaun^ term for all remedies for sore 

eyes 
ek k chg u' ghfl, I have good eyesight 
Sk' k5 tdk, it is narrow, small 



gk mg A' kX k2, I hold it in my mouth 

gk' mik, a chew (said of tobacco) 

gk mlq' t5 A, I chew 

g lAq' kA kfl, I tangle it 

g l&q ki'ri kfl, I untangle it 

g Uq' k6k, tangled 

81 ggq' to «, I retire to rest, sleep 

glth' thUl, exclamation of surprise 

glth thUl jriiq' td &, I am astonished 

glth thlA yd 8tA' kft, I amaze him 

g' mA Am mi X, eyelid 

g mA' A tdk, it is empty 

g'mAk, pus 

g mA' kA, my fulness 

g mAng' kA tdk, it contains 

g mA' ndk, blackfish 

g mAq pg' chd A, gulf = little sea 

g mAq' pgk, sea 

gmAq'pgm kA'pdA, sea foam (term for 

pumice stone) 
e mAq pg' pg Ak, g mAq pe Ifi' pg Ak, ocean 
g mAq' pg pik, the high sea 
g mAq pig' mg' Q tAk, sea dweller, any marine 

animal 
g mAq pig' mg ii tau' gwdk, it lives in the sea 
g mAq pig' mg u tail lAl' rA gt, the whole 

group of marine animals 
g mAq pU Ig 5rq' td A, I labor on the sea (i.e., 

fish, hunt seals, etc.) 
g mAq pin rAq tdq' td A, I eat grayling 
g mAq tii mAl' rA A, he who is full 
gmA'rAkA, I fill it 

g mAr''ngt tSik, native waterproof shirt 
g mAr' 'yAq tdk, it is flooded 
g mg' 6 td A, I aim (any weapon) 
g mg vA thlA' gA kA, I overfill it 
g mil' ghdk, which is not full 
g mQ' gwd A, I am that one 
g mu' kfin nflr' nflk, since that time 
g' mfim chg Q' ghA ng, before then 
g mQ' mg, at that time 
g mfiq td rA' rA kA, I roll it up, obliterate it 
g mflr' mji' tAk, mink 
g mfir' md tab ti lu' chA kA, my state of being 

in want of mink skins 
g mfir' mu tali t&ng krii' chA kA, having mink 

skins in my possession 
g nAq' td A, I lie down 
enA'rhiin, rib 



334 



ESSENTIALS OF INNUIT 



fo' rfl, a talisman, charm (i.e., help) 

ftn rfing^ kA to X, I have a charm 

Sn' td &, I am outside 

h nfing kail' ghA, I am lying down 

h nfiq ch6' g&l gh&t, the damned, the lost 

souls 
h nfiq ch§' gX t5 i, I am wicked 
6 nfiq chftr ri yir ri §t, the blessed 
h' nfiq kXk, frame 
h nfiq k5q' t5 i, I scold 
h nfiq kro' X kft, I warn him 
h nfiq krut^ kft, my warning 
S nfiq kfi Ul'' ri kft, I often warn him 
h* nfiq kfin, warning 
h nfiq ku' t gn5k, it is forbidden 
S nfiq kfl t kft'' kft, it is forbidden to me 

5 nfiq kfi yi' kft kt, I warn him 
ip'pSXt, members = twenties used in 

counting 
6p'p€t, legs 

^ kX, kQ[ Idn, Sk, my ejres 
6q' t5 i, I am snow blind 

6 rft Uq' tdk, it is moonlight 
S rft' 15k, moon 

V ri Ifim k$ mfiq' ti, name for star close to 
moon 



8 ri' Ifim yfi^ i, moon spirit 

8 ri Ifi ni' kin, every month 

9 ri'lfi thl5q, January 
Sr" Chi k5k, heart 

9r kfing^ ki tdk, it means 

h ti' 15k, porcupine 

h' shfin, medicine for the eyes 

^•'k$, goggles (Russian) 

i'tit, an edible plant 

h tahq' gwi fik, an unintelligible word used 

at the end of stories 
rthU, oh! 

r thU hik r mi, that is strange 
h thlfig' ni' ri 16, who inflicts sore eyes = 

sorcery 
St^hVk, the up curve (in sled runners and 

at the toe of boots) 
If't5k, is, it is deep 
5 tfl ch5 6' ghi, I form a catamaran, lash 

two canoes together 
6'tfik, serum 
%* tfl vi, very deep 
(Tflkchi'tdi, I wade 
eyfirqtf'giii, I am stiff 
e yflrq' td i, I stiffen 
V ihSt, yolk of egg 



g5'tlil5k, summer village 

ghin, ghi'' tttm, native bucket 

gle giq' ki, I scrape or scarf a skin 

gig' ghaiin, native tool for. scarfing skins 

^dH. g§' lik, neck loop of dog harness 

ghll'li, end, mark, tip 

^11 li raut ki^ ki, I mock him 



^b!B! 16, a beaver's house or nest 
^hll' Ifik, the two extremities 
^ lulth' thlfl Ir, ghn IQlth' thlfir lit, swal- 
low (Hiruudo erythrogastra) 
^Ith ki Un'ri t5k, it does not fit 
^hnth ki' thlQ kfi, reaching to the end or mark 
gfim' ti ki, I rip it 



hik, a little of (suffix) 

ho' ri ti, suppose (in composition) 

hfim, an expletive suffix like " eh I *' 

hwi, truly, indeed 

hwi' kik kwl, hwin fih', indeed 

hwi' kfin, from here 

hwilth, hwi' thl5k, abbreviated form of <' or" 

hwi'ne, here 

hwi ne' hwi, here ! 

hwi ne' hwi tail' gwim, only this 

hwi' ng ko' 5rq kfi, by and by 



hwi nBr' pik, meanwhile 

hwing, I 

hwing ghu Chi' ki, my existence, mjrself 

hwing gnu' ghi, it is I, I am 

hwing ghu yuk' klfi ku, you thought it was 

I (in composition) 
hwi nir' 'nfik, from now on 
hwin' kflk, we both 
hwan' kfi ti, we 
hwi' thlo ki, hwi' thlQ, or 
hwi'thlfithlQ, orelse 



VOCABULARY 



335 



hw&f U pik, truly 

hwatiek^kft, thanks 

hwit IS kg' kft pg' tie, thanks very much 

hwi'tfi, thus, this way, so 

hw&' to X, now 

hw&''t5 & ml thlfi, so here now 

hwS, I 



hw§n ail' 'Idk, poor me ! 

hwSn tAq' to i, I continue here 

hwSn tA rS yiin xii' t5 &, I do not want to be 

here 
hwSn' to &, I am here 
hwr t5k U: nCUn, I indeed 



1 §m chfl piq' tA k&, I nearly broke it 

i gm k§ fi' ghA, I am breaking it 

1 Sm stchg gi tA' kA, I have difficulty in 

breaking it 
i h mfi' malik, it is broken 

V e pA, the second, the other, the mate 
i g pA' kA, r e pAn, V h pA, my mate 

i g pA kA' kA, I join him, I am his comrade 
i g paV nA nB, I without a comrade, alone, 

unmarried 
i g pi rG' tg, his deceased wife 
TgAtttt, hand 
Ig vAq' td A, I round a bend or point (in a 

boat) 
Ig'yArA' Ilk, clam 
ihaVtfit, ice scratcher (an instrument to 

attract seals) 
i Im' a kA, I break it 

V kAk, dirt 

I kA' ng, I kA' vlit, etc., over there 

I kau' gnA, I am filthy 

Ik^ chaun, medicine for the eyes 

IkkA'thluk, dogfish (a variety of salmon 

dried for dog food) 
Ik kg kg' kA, exclamation of surprise and 

pleasure 
Ik kg yau gii tA' kA, I am not suited with it 
Ik' Idlth kSk, the little finger 
Ik Ulth ko' kA, IkkUth'kftn, Ik Idlth' k5 A, 

my little finger 
Ik Idlth kfln' kA n5 A gAq' tf kA, I wet with 

saliva my little fingers (sorcery) 
Ik Idlth rhd u' i(^A, I have less than you 
IkUq'tdA, I stoop 
Ik Id ting rgr gh&t, numerous 
Ik" Id tdk, it is little, not enough 
Ik kid' rA kA, I cheat him 
Ik kl5r' t5 A, I tell a lie 
Ik klfi' (^ I deceive 
Ik klfl klg ng Aq' pfi ghA, I find out that you 

cheat me 



Ik klu riif kA kA, I lie about him 

Ik'kgAqhan, native tool, like an awl but 
wider 

US' kSk, end, point 

Ik kd' tA kA, I unship it (the mast, in native 
sailboat) 

Ik kftg Uq' kA td A, I have too little 

Ik kfl' g5k, it is dirt = it is an abomination 

Ik ka'kA, Ik'kfln, Ik'kS A, my end 

Ik ka'kftn, chisel 

Ik ka kfiq' t5 A, I chisel 

Ik kil' rA kA, I raise it with a lever, I pry 

Ik kfl yAg' 'niik, a measure (eighteen inches) 

Ik kdzh' kA, my elbow 

Ik W Ilk, elbow 

Ik kftz ziing kauq' to A, I lean on my elbow 

\kf nA, that one coming = directly in front 
of me 

n' kg At, sea grass loaded with herring roe 
(used for food) 

IV lA, neighbor 

II lA chfi'kA kA, I dislike him, do not chum 
with him 

UlA'kA, UlAq'kA, UlAn'kA, my own, com- 
rade, friend 

II lA' kAt, one of them, belonging to that set 
or group 

II lA kU' r& gt, the whole gens, neighbor- 
hood 

n lAklg fi'tA kA, I join in with him, I unite 
with him 

n lA' k6 Ak, scrap, fragment 

IllA'kfimA, has the sense of if I add 
this, etc. 

UUUd'rAkA, I am friendly with him, 
intimate 

IllAlIq'tdA, I go in company, plenty of 
companions 

U lAlk' kA kA = kg fl giiA, I persecute him 

II lAlk' ktts t kA, my persecutor 

U lA nAq chg G' gliA, I take some 



\ 



336 



ESSENTIALS OF INNUIT 



U Ulng Chi fi raut' nfik, joke 

II ling chi & rau' t5 &. I joke 

II Ung chlf kA ni' nH, expresses anyhow 

U Ung ching il! t& k&, I disregard it (i.e., I 

make it not of mine) 
n Ung kftn r& tii' th kft, have you any one 

with you? 
U Un'' k&, my folks, family 
II Un^ nd k&, my kindred 
U Uq stA' cho fi, basket woven of grass 

(small variety) 
U Uq' stAkf same but large size 
UirrflUl, I patch it 
nUr^'ldUl, nUr^'lfin, nUr^'ldt. my 

neighbor 
II U to' maiik, it is patched 
U U tOg' 'yi rik, cannibalism 
II U t5q' to fi» I am a cannibal = I eat my 

own 
U lab' ch5k, companionship, union 
U laii' tAk, native pickaxe ; also one of the 

constellations 
niau'ak&, I bury it 
n U' zhik, the cross fox 
II W kfin, expresses sometimes 
n 16' ng, expresses some other time 
U llq' tut, expresses some persons are missing 
U li' to &, I have no companion 
II 11 yfi e' ru tut, no more of them were ever 

missing 
U 1! yiiq' t5 fi, I want a companion 
U 15' X ng, inside of it 
II Id' Idl, my entrails 
U Idn' t5k, it i^^side of it 
U Id rS chu' ^Ak, friend, lover 
U 15 rfi chu' ghS ki, my friend, dear 
n 15 rS chu gxU' ki kfl, I have him for a 

friend 
U la e chu'gn&, I am sick (St. Michael's) 
II 16 kil Chi u' gbfi, I am satisfied 
II lu Kk' k5 S, I have colic, pain in bowels 
U lu' l(r rSk, skin bag for holding tools 
II IG' ml n5, I within 
II lu mTt' t5 &, I am within 
U mng' kfl t5k, it is hollow 
II lu' piiq k&k, lining 
U IQ pQq k&' k&, I line it 
U Ifi' rX chu nail' 'lu, my dear friend 
II lu' rX chfing, friend 
Iimthllk'k5&, I am sorry 
II IQ thll kfl t kfi' kfl, I grieve over it 



II Ifl tfl ku' clU kft, my sadness 

n IQ w& thlln 5 u' giU, I approach them 

II raiiq' t5 i, I walk among 

II rau ri &q' tA mfik, sound of walking 

Il'rfin, birch bark canoe 

I Ifi' mfln hwfi, yes, truly 

Im, abbreviation for Im' I ni 

Im' ghfl k2, I roll it up 

Im' I lU, that one 

Im I nfllth' kfik, the one I do not like 

Im'laut, fish roe 

Im' nU, white of egg 

Im' r5 tAk, netting shuttle 

I mflq t5 rX' rXn kft, I cover up my tracks. 

efface my trail 
log ^filth' hr&m, an abusive term 
Ing k5' gft kA, I cut it into strips 
Ing'Uk, the bed platform in native houses 
Ing' 15 1, Ing' lak, Ing' la it, its other 
Ing 15 Xq' t5 X, I am over half-way 
Ing' IQ, half 
Ing IQ sr II gn5k, a monster (i.e., half man, 

in native stories) 
Ing' Ifl kA, Ing' Ifin, Ing' 15 i, my half body, 

my side 
Ing Ifi p5' & Ilk, a one-eyed person 
Ing lu pe in' ki t5k, he has one eye 
Ing'ni, Im'kuk, Im'kut, the one there 
Ing ni rail' ghi, I moan 
Ing'xik, mountain 
Ing rik ting' ki t5k, there is a mountain, it 

is a mountain 
Ing'tdk, it moults 
In' ki ki, I pet him 
ln'k§t, the gums 
In Idk, In' Idt, nits 
In nfl' gw5 i ch5 i, a small doll 
In nu' gw5 ik, doll 
In'y5k, you over there ! 
I'pgrln, u.'ied to express Tuesday 
Ip p5 i' t5k, it is dull, not sharp 
Ip' pSt, feet 

Ip pu ki chS' tik, a seesaw 
Ip'pun, native spoon or ladle 
Ippflq'tdi, I ladle out 
Ip pu' tik, native ladle, large size 
Ip pu' tlq ch5 i, little ladle 
I pfiq' t5k, it is sharp 
Iq' chi 5k, it burrows 
Iq chi 5rq' t5 i, I work at a bear's den (i.e., 

to capture the animal) 




VOCABULARY 



337 



Iq cUq pS iq' t5 i, I nearly fall 

Iq fik kft tft rail' ^hfl, it is about to fall on 

me 
Iqgi'yfllS, owl 
Iq' kft, my eye 

Iq Idl ttJk pXq' k&, I cover my eyes 
Iq ko fl'' ^h&, I fall (where I happen to be) 
Iq pau' gwo &, I am big eyed 
Iq pfi y& gXng' k& t5k, it has enormous eyes 

(monster in native stories) 
Iq pfi yi gaii'' gw5 &, I am a big-eyed dwarf 
Iq 8t&' U, 1 let it fall 
Iq'tfl, his den 

V 

Iq t ch§ fi' ghi, I discover a den (generally 

meaning a bear's den) 
Iq t Idl' tfl t5k, it is about to fall 
Iq' to &, I fall (but from a height) 
ir' hflk, game played with a string 
ir hiq' to &, !r hrSr' to X, I play cat's cradle 
Ir' hrfin nfik, finger play = cat's cradle 
Irk' klG, evil 

Irk klflf kS nfl nS, I, faultless 
IrkkirtQn U thUTi ti U' kX, I speak evil 

of him 
Irk klu tfi yulth' k&, my propensity to evil 
Ir kfik kl6t kX tflq' td X, I am about to expire 
Irq' chi kd kX» my heart 
\i rSr n& X' gho X, I have a child 
\\ rSr nS fig' 'lu kX, my dear child 
If rSr D§ fi' kft, my child 
If rfir D§ & k&' gn&, he is my father 
If rSr ne X kfi' t&q k&n, she, when about to 

bring forth a child 
If rSr ne X rfi' t5 i, I have no child = I lack 

a child 
If rSr ne yQ $1' ghdk, childless person 
If rSr ne' yO n§, I childless 
Ir rug' 'mX k& gnS' kilk, my hip, head of my 

leg 
Irru Irq'tdk, he has a broken leg 
Ir ru' ka, Ir' run, Ir' rho fl, my leg 
Ir ruq' kX, my legs 
Ir shnin' hrfit, mountain spirits 
Ir'toa, Ihide 
is'hr&n, fish baskets woven from dried 

grass 
is' 8& rft, a mother's word to soothe her 

baby 
Is sd' xlk, the spotted seal 
Is'zrXS, bridge of native style of violin 
i tX'toft, I yawn 



V gi ml &!§, my footprint 

tgXt' finit, footprints 

t'krii to i, I rush in, burst in hurriedly 

tl' k&, Itl' hrftn, Itl' hrX, my going in place, 

my entrance, where I enter 
trail' tfi kX, I bring it in with me 

V 

1 1 gi ml yti' ri, toes = fingers of the feet 

t' t gin ki, my feet 

1 1 gfit' stu' It, toe-nails 

V 

1 1 gl rXh' rail' gnA, I am cold footed = my 
feet are cold 

V 

1 1 gi' tdk, he is footless, he has no feet 

ttlgmSg&'kS, I kick it 

t' tr5k, a deerskin (taken in the autumn) 

t tu ch5 u' ghA, I put them alongside 

t tu' ghX, I am alongside 

t tu' kQk, alongside 

t'tu kOt, side by side 

tiim ch$ Qk chft g&' kfi, I mince it 

tfim'tX kX, I cut it up 

' vl ghfin, native wooden wedge 

v'gXk, a bend in a river 

v' gX t5 I, I am in sight of 

y rhu' chek, water boots, native waterproof 

boots 
y rhfi ch6 W kg X, make me some water 

boots 
y zarh' tdk, it rains (Tununa) 
v'zhQk, rain 

yi gl ru' tfi kX, I run off with it 

yXg' gfin ret, sources 

yXg' nar' td X, I begin 

yXg' nS' rX kX, I begin it 

yXg' nllth hrX, its beginning 

yXg' ndk' klQ kti tab' nX, on account of this 

yX kfl tX' rXk, profile, side of face 

yX Id' X go X, I stagger 

yX 15q t)i rX tX' t5k, it leans almost to falling 

yX Id jrilth' kO tuk, stays of mast (i.e., pre- 
venters of leaning) 

yX nX u' ghX, I endure 

yX nelth' hXn, the younger one 

yX nin' rX, the older one 

yX' ndk, the going 

yX r5 kX' kX tail' nX, I am suited with that 

yX re kXn' kX u' nX, does this suit you } 

yX rd kin ra' tXn kX G' nX, does this not 
suit you ? 

yX'rdk, staff, cane, walking stick 

yX rdrXq'tdX, I use, or walk, with a cane 
(i.e., I cane) 



338 



ESSENTIALS OF INNUIT 



i y& ru' ^f I grasp 
i yis' ku mAm Idn^ I want you to go 
! yi'thUlk, a woman's cutting board 
1 y& thlfiq' Idl kA, my (future) going 
i yl! to IS, a goer 
i yau^ chSk, a start 

1 yauq' t5 i, I pole along (a boat, etc.) 
iyaii'so &k, a child's sled (for play) 
i yaa thlln n§ X' kfl, I am bringing it 
i jri' yu 1S» a nice goer = good traveller 
i yd' k& gnA I am the same 
i yd kfl' pik tdk, it is exactly the same 
i yd kail" nA nS, strange 
i yo Idlth che' g&k, model 
i yd Idlth che' gfi kA, I imitate it 
i yd kin^ ri tdk, it is unlike 
i ydk me u' ghfl hwX^ tii, I am like that 
am that way 



= I 



1 yd kd chd' kA chi dk, he is intelligent 

i yd kd chd' tdk, he is a fool, he lacks sense 

i yd kd chlg' ni kfl, I comprehend it 

i yd kd ching k tin rd' to i hwi' tfi, I would 

not act in this way 
i yd kd chin' ghd &, I understand 
i yd'kdk, it is like, it is the same 
i ydka che' r& kl, I duplicate it 
i ydk shu kA' kA, I suppose it 
i ydka ku mAn ri M! kft hwl' tli, I do not 

want it like this = this way 
i yd ku Chi' ki, my state, condition 
i yd' ku chSk, state, condition 
i yd ku chd rut' ghdk, it represents 
i yd' kQt ndk, shape, model, pattern 
i yu' md in, then 
Ty^t, Labrador or Hudson Bay tea 



ki, what (interrogative) 

ki ig' ni i' pi, would it were summer ! 

ki ig* nilth' kin, if it is foggy 

ki ig' ni' tdk, it is foggy, there is a fog 

ki ik', summer 

ki i ki ri mit' td i I am a little above (i.e., 
up stream) 

kii ki ri'ne, a little above (stream under- 
stood) 

ki i ki rin' td i, I am higher up (stream 
understood) 

ki ik ko'i kin, every summer 

ki'in, implies up and back = up stream 

ki iq chi' kd i, I am looking around (i.e., 
watching out for) 

ki iq' td i, I look around 

ki iq' tdk, it is summer 

ki arq' stdk, it is warm 

ki chiq' ti ki, I slap him 

ki chd giq thllm' ne, while losing my time 

ki che giq' to i, I waste time 

ki chlg» ni' kdk, it is easy 

kichlq'thldi, I rest 

ki chlq' thlu n§, doing nothing, idle 

ki chu tiq' pfi gni, you refuse me 

ki chu thli niq' pQ giii, you always refuse 
me 

ki chQ vi thli gi liq' td kut, we are fre- 
quently disappointed 

ki ch& vi thlirq'td i, I am disappointed 



kif chd chdt, kif chu' chdt, how many have 

you "i 
kif chd' chd ik, marten or sable 
kif chd' ghd it, how many pairs t 
kirchertdk,-it haUs 
kif che' Q ch sti, how many are we t 
kif che u tl hu' chd, how many were you ? 
kif'chik, wolverine 
kif chin, how many.^ 
kif chlq' kd nGk, how many times.' 
kif chlf hrit, expresses a few 
kif chlrq haiiq'tut, they are few 
kif chu'hwit, how many are they? 
kifak, hail 

kif tik^ kd it, snowflakes 
kif tdt, hailstones 
ki gin', ki gi' tOm, source 
kig ge' tit, broom 
kig gd u' ghi, I sweep 
kigh, no 

ki ghi' nfik, squirrel 
kigh' ni ti' hu, no, indeed 
ki' ghik, corner, cove in a river, recess in 

side of hill, etc. 
kigh I rim' td i, I am in a corner 
kighlr'*imfin thld'u, put it in the 

corner 
ki ghi ring' ki tdk, it is square 
ki ghlf *ndm II Id' i nd, in a corner 
-ki hif 'mi, I being alone 



VOCABULARY 



339 



k&^ hXr' mlt to &, I am alone (i.e., entirely 
remote from any one) 

k2k, suffix (203) 

k2 kS U chfl gfiq' tflt If gAn kft, I have chil- 
blains, my feet 

k2 k§ li chfl' tdk, my foot is asleep 

ki kg^tfl kft, 1 am done with it 

kAkgySchdithlQqr&n'kl, my little old 
needle-case 

k& ke yen' kA, my needle-case 

kAk fi ri' kl, I win it (i.e., a game) 

V 

kA Idf chaa tr yiiq' to A, I want some liniment 
kA kif kA chauf muk, term for liniment, 

m 

rheumatism healer 
kAUf kAk, muscular pain, rheumatism 
kA kif kA thlfik, one with rheumatism 
kA Idf kA'' to A, I am rheumatic 
kAk kA Aq' tA kA, I stick the point in 
kAlf kA kA, crown of my head 
kAlf kdk, native term for bread 
kAk kr thli le' yA rAk, the valley on upper lip 

just beneath the nose 
kAIf k td A, I run at the nose = also nose- 
bleed 
kAk'mA na, out, in the open air 
kAk mAn' to A, I am out 
kAk' mi, out there 
kA kOq' nAk, a snow flurry 
kA kdq nA' tdk, expresses a heavy snowfall 

of short duration 
kA'krlOk, throat 
kAk' thluk, mucus of the nose 
kA'ku, when (only for future) 
kA' ku mi nA, the outside, a term for 

weather 
kA kflm' y5k, you outside there ! 
kAl chAg' 'nAk, hill (Yukon Delta) 
kAle'kAk, term to express paper, book, etc. 
kAl 15 ra u' ghA, kAl lOf to A, I dip up 
kAl lu' ge yAk, harpoon used for white 

whale (beluga) 
kAr lu tAk, shinny stick 
kAl lu' ve Ak, native bowl of wood (the deep' 

variety) 
kAl mA' nAk, pocket (Russian) 
kAlmArA'kA, I call him (refers to dogs 

only) 
kAl'ndk, native bags of woven grass for 

holding fish 
kAl rA A' gdk, it warbles (of birds) 
kAl ring tAq' to A, I blubber, cry noisily 



kAlth'kA, raven (Kuskokwim) 

kAlth' kA' mS fit, raven village (a settlement 

on the Kuskokwim River) 
kAlth'kAp5k,axe 
kAlth'tAk, native bucket 
kAlth thlaii' to A, I drum 
kAlu'kAk, halo around the sun or moon 
kAl vAg' yA rAk, the outer approach or 

entrance to a native house 
kAl vAq' tA kA, I lower it down 
kAl vAq' t5 A, expresses I enter a house 
kA mA' mOk, a native dish composed of fish 

roe, oil, etc. 
kA mA' nA, within 
kA mAn' kA, my sled (St. Michael) 
kA mAn' II ghdk, the one who is within there 
kAmAn'tdA, I am within there 
kA'malit, sled (St. Michael) 
kA me' kOk head 

kAm gwe' to A, I am without boots, bare- 
foot 
kAm'I nA, he within there 
kAm m§' gAk, seal hunter = one who goes 

out on the ice for seals 
kAm me gAm' kin, I make a sled for you, 

I sled you (St. Michael) 
kAm me gau' tit, small sled to fit on kiyak, 

used by seal hunters 
kAm m§ lAn kau' ^hA, I am barefooted 
kAm'mOk, extinguished, used as follows: 

yu' chA A kAm' mdk, he is dead = his 

manhood is extinct 
kAm muk ksAng' kA to A, I have boots 
kAm muk' sAk, a boot made of sealskin 
kAm miik sAlth' hAq kA, my pair of old boots 
kAm mQk sAlth' thlfiq kA, my old boot 
kAm muk seq' kA, my boots 
kA mo' rhA kA, I drag it 
kA mfiq' to A, I drag 
kA mu rAl' ra A, one who drags 
kAm' yok, you in there ! 
kA' nA, kA' tfim, the one down there 
kA nA' gAk; the entire leg 
kA nA gAq p€ u' ^hA, I am long legged 
kA nA gAq' tQ 1§, term for a deer (i.e., long 

legs) 
kAnAIfklAq, muskrat 
kA nAlf nAk, west 

kA nAn' II gh5k, he who is off down there 
kA nA' 5 ghfin, small coarse sieve with long 

handle used at fish traps 



340 



ESSENTIALS OF INNUIT 



kl niq'td I, I emerge from (Le., the woods, 

etc.) 
kl nA' riik pS vX kJLn, because of a big snow- 
drift 
kX nA' rflk ting kfl tdk, there is a great drift 
kl ni' rflt, a snowdrift 
kX n6 cha kA' t5k, it snows a little 
kA lak' kfin, spell, incantation 
kAng gnA' rA kA, I refuse him, I say no to 

him (i.e., I no him) 
kAng^ ^iiA this, I thought I was, etc. (in 

composition) 
kAng' ghe, its head (i.e., source of a river) 
kAng gh8' Uk, having sources 
kAng' kA, my mouth 
kAng' ktik, willow catkins 
kAng kO' rhA, he bites 
kAng' tOk, it is broad 

kAng vAg' 'nfik, how long since ? since when t 
kA ni chd' A tdk, it snows lightly 
kA nl chG kA kA tA' t5k, it is going to snow 

a little 
kA nik chA' An, on account of the snow 
kAnIkchAch5ArAng'kAt5k, it has a little 

snow on it 
kA nils' chAk, snow 
kA nIk chAq pAng' kA t5k, it has much snow 

on it 
kA nIk che vA thlA gA' kA, I put too much 

snow (i.e., in the dog food, etc.) 
kA' nil rA A mfik, talking, the sound of 

talking 
kA nim che u' ghA, I relate about 
kA nim chiz' ghA, tell me the news, what is 

going on 
kA niq chi Or' to A, I work the snow, clear 

away a place to camp 
kA niq' tOk, it snows 
kA nir' kAn, if it snows 
kA nil kA tA yug' nA' kOk, it looks as if it was 

about to snow 
kAn'kAk, imported skates (Russian) 
kAn kA pfik' ne, I without saying a word 
kAn kA tAq' td A, I begin to speak 
kAn kir' to A, I skate 
kAn' kiin, like as 
kAn' llrq t6k, it is very frosty 
kAn nA' kAq to A, I fall headlong 
kAn nA rAq ro Aq' td A, I feign sleep 
kAn nA' rAt, sleeps, mode of counting time 

while travelling 



kAn nft' k5 A, I utter incantations 

kAn nim ChA ki' to A Aq chA kAl rl A' mOk, I 

have no news to tell of interest 
kAn nim ch6 6' ^, I tell news = I chat 
kAn ning rSti snAq' t5 A, I do not allude to it 
kAn nip' plfik, a charred piece of wood 
kAn nfiq ch8' gAl ^ut, the cursed, lost souls, 

condemned 
kAn nfiq chSr x1 yAl' rA fit, kAn rii chO nAl'- 

rASt, the blessed 
kAn niiq' chSt chA' muk, what do you say .^ 
kAn niiq chS' fi t5 A, I interpret 
kAn nfiq chir chS' kAm kin, I will interpret 

for you 
kAn nfiq 'ny firk' to A, I excuse 
kAn' nfiq pirk nAk, do not talk so much 
kAn nfiq sab' nA nS, he without speaking 
kAn nflq sll' ghOk, expresses baby = a non- 
speaker 
kAn nflq stA' kA, I judge him 
kAn' nflq tA, speaker 
kAn nfiq tArq' to A, I talk to myself 
kAn nfiq' t kA, my interpreter 
kAn' nfiq t5 A, I talk 
kAn nfiq' *yA rAk, language 
kAn nfiq yun rA pA kA' t5 A, I do not wish to 

speak at all 
kA' nOk, kAn' rh&m, frost 
kAnrAArA'kA hwAnS'hwA, here is my 

word, my order, my decision 
kAn r A A r A' kAn kA = kAn rl A r A' kA tfi, kAn- 

rA A rA' ki, they are my words 
kAn rA A rA' nfik, conversation 
kAn rA yA kil' rA A, one who stutters 
kAn rfi ch§ mAf kS nS, I without being told 
kAn rfi ch§ mA rA A' mA, I after being told 
kAn rfi ch§ mA ra chim' tfin, just as soon as I 

was told 
kAn rfi che mA rA kfi' mA, when I am told 
kAn rfi chfi mA vi' lig' mA, before I am told 
kAn rfi chS mA yfi A' mA, because I want to 

be told 
kAn rfi che mA yun rA lA' mA, because I do 

not want to be told 
kAn rfi ch8 me' mA, because I am told 
kAn rfi chfi' 8 tA kA, I never speak of it 
kAn rfi chfi ^il' ^fit, the damned 
kAn rfi tA' kA, I say to him 
kAn rut' kA kA, I speak about him 
kAn ruti ho' Am kin tali ^fi ^S' IQ kfi, I 

have told you in vain 



•■ • 



VOCABULARY 



341 



ULn rfit nail'' r&, he is accustomed to say 

Un rfit' iti kft, my informer 

ULn rfi tttk kwft' tSk, unspeakable 

Un rfi tut ttt ya' kfl U, I have the habit of 

telling it 
Un' t&k, native wooden bowl 
Un tA k5' Ul, my corpse 
Un' tA thlQq, an old kantak 
Un thlln'' nA 5k, he said 
kX'' nfik, mouth 

kft niiq' pAk tOk, it snows heavily 
kX nfiq pfl yX^aii' gwd H, I am a big-mouthed 

person 
kAn' y&k, when (in the past) 
kAn'^vAqpSk, during, when 
kAn yfi hV gb5k, a dumb person 
kAny&'etSk, he is dumb, he cannot speak 
kA 5' rA y§t, Aurora Borealis 
kA 0' yArq' t5k, there is an aurora 
kA pS"' lAt, mussels (Tununa) 
kA'^pIk, an expletive suffix, really, truly, 

etc. 
kA'pIk kA? is it, indeed? 
kAp'' k tSk, it is narrow 
kAp^ pA kA, I pierce it 
kAp p§ lA sfiq' to A, I hunt or gather mussels 

(Tununa) 
kAp p6 a' ^hA, I pierce it well 
kAp pl§n n§' A kA, I bore it 
kAp pu' gnA, I lick 
kAp' piin, native awl 
kA pQk', foam 
kA pu' kA rAt, an edible plant (grows in 

swamps) 
kA pilq cho A' go A, I grieve 
kA pfiq'tdk, it foams 
kA pu' tA kA, I perforate it 
kA pu' t5k, native instrument for boring 
kA rA' Ilk, mark of any kind, also color 
kA rA ling' kA t5k, it has a mark 
kA rA tAr' 'vik, October 
kAxI'tAkA. I hinder it 
kA rii tA' rA kA, I console him 
kA 8h§' gS luk, forks of a river 
kA 8h§' yu ii5k, a native feast 
kAsh'prfik, native waterproof shirt made 

of intestines 
kAsh pru' kA, my waterproof shirt 
kAsh tu' ^A, I talk out loud and clearly 
kAsh iXW klu kfi, whole, entire (in composi- 
tion) 



kAsh fik" klQ nS, entirely 

kAs Ut' to A, I scale (i.e., a hill or mountain), 

go to the top 
kAs' kflk, the outside of a log 
kAs pnig yfi' S t5 A, I have no waterproof 

over shirt 
kAs'sAk, term for all white men 
kAs sA Ifiq' pS At, the true whites (the few 

remaining Russian half-breeds desig- 
nate themselves by this term) 
kAs sAq' t5 A (neg., kAs sAn rfi' to A), I eat 

raw food 
kAs sail' g5k, it is raw 
kAs s§ yur ra St, term for those natives who 

work for white men 
kAs 8u' chA rAk, matrimony 
kAs sQ ch8 mAl' rA A, a married person 
kAs su che mA' we kA, my married one, my 

spouse 
kAs su' chg nAk, kAs sfi' yfi chSk, marriage 
kAs sfi chug* yA' kfi kuk, we two wish to be 

married 
kA sfik chAm me' k§, he having gone all 

around them made the circuit of 
kA sfiq chim' maiik, it is round 
kAssu'tAkA, I unite 

kAs sti tAq kaii' gwd A, I am to be married 
kA tA Ifiq tAn' kA, I scatter them 
kAfchadk, wrinkled 
kAt chu' ghA, I am wrinkled 
kAf gftn kA, my breast 
kAf ghAt, herd (i.e., of deer) 
kAt g&k' ko A, I have pain in the chest 
kA thlA chAq' to A, I would speak 
kA thlA'chSk, unbilical cord 
kA thlA ch§ mAl' IS» let him scold away ! 
kA thlA Chun 1' to A, I cannot say 
kA thlA Chun nilth' kA kA« I mbpronounce it 
kA thlAg^ *vAq t5k, it boils fast 
kA thlA' kti tAk, term to express a bell 
kA thlA mAl' rA A, boiling 
kA thlA' mauk, it is boiled 
kA thlAm chSf kA fnA, tell (ye) me about it 
kA thlAt' nAk, speech, talk 
kAthlA'toA, I talk 

kA thlaii' chA rAk, address, speech, sermon 
kA thUTu' tA kA, I talk to him 
kA thlaii t kA tA' rA kA, I start to tell him, I 

am going to begin to tell him 
kAthllrq'tdk, it thunders 
kA'thluk, thunder 



342 



ESSENTIALS OF INNUIT 



kA ting v& gfl' kfl, I fillip him (to insult by 

the fingers) 
kflt kd p&k" U, white of egg 
kfl'Urii, white 

U tdq' td fi = Idl t5q' tin k&, I gather 
kfltrus'kAU, kfl trQs kO mr U, I want it 

white 
kit tl' gu tfik, small sieve used in making 

snuff 
kft tiin li cha' ^k, little son 
kft tfln rftg' 'IQ kX, my dear son 
kft tfin' rftk, son 
kft tfin rft kft' kft, he is my son 
kft tfln'' rft kft, kft tfin' rft mft, my son 
kft tfln rft kft' kfim Idn, if you were my son 
kft' tflq pftk, a white dog 
kau' chfik, a sore on the head accompanied 

with loss of hair 
kau chQk^kg, one having a scalp sore 
kau' gi nft, rear (i.e., up stream) 
kaim' kft kft, I take care of him 
kalin kin r6' to ft hwft' td ft, I cannot attend 

now 
kaun kflf ki nft' ku, without him 
kaun kfif k nS, without me, do not mind 

me 
kaun kfl mftn rS' t5 ft, I do not care for it, I 

do not mind it 
kaun rS' td ft, I do not mind = I am busy 
kaiiq to ft pirk' nft kfl, do not beat him too 

much 
kaiiq' tdk, it clucks = the noise the ptarmi- 
gan makes 
kauq tu rft' kft, I beat him (with a club, etc., 

understood) 
kauqtfi'tftk, short heavy club for killing 

salmon 
kail wft gho ft rftq' td ft, I make out I am 

asleep 
kau wft' gn5k, dream 

kau wft gh5q tdq' t5k, he talks in his sleep 
kau'wftk, tallow 

kaii'wSk, a sleep (i.e., a day's journey) 
kaii^ wft ne, a little distance up 
kaa wft nu tfiq' to ft, I dream 
kail wft pft kdq'' to ft, I sleep too much 
kau wft' piik nS, I not sleeping 
kaiiwftqseyftqpft kSq'toft, I sleep for a 

very long time 
kail wftr' chitl rft ft, red 
kau wftr' ng' to ft, I am not sleepy 



kail wft tft thltr kft w3b' nfik, for his sleeping 

place 
kail wft tft thlSr kftq ch5 ft' gd ft, I look around 

for a place to camp (i.e., to sleep) 
kail wft' td ft (neg., kaii wft yfi ni' to ft), I sleep 
kail wft Tirq' to ft, I ascend (river understood) 
kail wft' yfit, up stream 
kail w6gn ftq' t5 ft, I redden, blush 
kail wg' rhfin, red clay (used as a paint) 
kail' wg yftk, gravel, pebbles 
kail wg yft yft' gftk, sand 
kail wirq' Ig, a brown dog 
kfty^ liin kft, my eyebrows 
kfty Ifin nft' rftt, eyebrows 
kftv'lQt, brow 

kfty yft' ft rftt, Ursa Minor (constellation) 
kfty' ywg ftk, red fox 
kftzh'gft, the native communal house of 

each village 
kftzh gg chti' ghftk, a nice little kazhga 
kftzh gg kftl' tft, let us enter the kazhga 
kftzh gg mg u ghuf & kft, are you unmarried ? 

= are you of the kazhga } 
kftzh gg' mg Gt, the kazhga folks (i.e., the 

young unmarried men) 
kftzh gg' mit to ft, I am in the kazhga 
kftzh gg' 8tft kft, I have it taken into the 

kazhga 
kftzh gg u' gnft, I am going to the kazhga 
kftzh' ghwu, birch bark 
kftzh gir tft, let us go into the kazhga 
kftzh gnQ glth' kft ng, what a shame I (in 

composition) 
kftzh gnu g' pft hwftng' 'ng, it b a shame for 

me 
kftzh ^6 nftq' k6k hwftng^ 'ng, I ought to be 

ashamed 
kftzh ghu yfiq' td ft, I am ashamed 
kftzh' mft kft, I push it 
kftzh md hail' tiik, the handle bars on a sled 
kftzh zhftrq' stftk, the bell on the dog harness 
kftzhzhgft'tdft, I pull 
kftz zd' ft rdn, wolverine trimming on native 

dress 
kftz zQ ydq' thlG kii, seated around the four 

sides of the house 
k char^ kfi tit, floats used on fish-nets 
k chSr^ td ft, I spit 
k chfig mg gft' kft, I seize it 
k chfig miq' td ft, I snatch at 
kg' ft, who (interrogative) 



VOCABULARY 



343 



Wi. 6' mum, whosoever 

keridk,oh, who? 

\ih' An, the rear portion of native house 

kg in'' to X, I am in the kean 

kSXq'p&t5k, he cries, laments (said of 
adults) 

kS &t mflq^ t5 &, I walk up stream 

kg chfik^, anchor 

kg Chi' kfl t&k, sinkers on fish-net (generally 
pieces of fossil ivory) 

kg chi' rl kft, I anchor 

kgf chg u' gnfl, a term used during sorcery 

kg kg', hurry 

kg' ka, clay 

kg IXg' 'mg Q t&k, term for white mice (sup- 
posed to fall from the sky) 

kg'Uk, heaven 

kgl&q'thlinfik, the sky 

kg' Igk, kgr gfim, term for a wounded animal 

kg Ig rl' kfl, I wound him 

kg 111' r& X, one who is gray headed 

kgllq't5&, I cut 

kgl Ifig' 'vdk, term for the mammoth (around 
Ikogmute) 

kglth thlgr' t&t, grass put up in sheaves or 
bundles for winter 

kelth thlgr t5q' to X, I collect sheaves 

kg IQq" kUk, term for sewing thread (im- 
ported) 

kg Ifiq' tSk, he barks (dog) 

kg'mA, I alone 

kg mllq' to i, I run from (when chased) 

kg mA viq Id' t5 X, I have no way of escape 

kg mA' yfl gQt, expresses domestic animals 
(e.g., cows at trading posts) 

kg mg Chun r& chU' ko X, I do not like to be 
alone 

kg mg chfiq'tS X, I want to be alone 

kg mg tiq' t5 &, I withdraw 

kg'mltndk, loneliness 

kg' mit t5 &, I am by myself 

kgm' U ghgk, the one who is alone 

kgm' IQ chgk, the state of being alone 
(subjective) 

kgm luf nOk (neg., kgm IQt & rgf n5k), lone- 
ness (objective) 

kgm thllrq' td i, I am left alone 

ke mu ghH r&' k2, I entice him 

kg mu ghH rft kau' gwl kft, I am able to 
entice him 

kg mJir vik, a fine full-grown dog 



kg miiq' hlQ pftk, a big ugly dog 

kg mflq k£u' yi, a pup 

kg miiq Id y&' rftk, a pup when very young 

kg mfiq' tA, a dog (i.e., puller) 

kg miiq tAq' to X, I pull (from kgmiiqtg&, 

which is not used) 
kg mflq tik chg' y&, what a fine dog ! 
kg miiq' tilth kdk, an ill-natured or savage 

dog 
kg mflq ti yi' g&k, a pup 
kg mflq r Uk, the owner of a dog 
kg mfiq t mg' thlg mik f&, what a little dog 

it is! 
kg miiq t mg thlg mik klg ng' va, it is too 

small a dog 
kg miiq tii kfl chfl' g&k, a worthless little dog 
kg mflq' t p&k, a large dog 
kg miiq tiik 86 p! Ig' tA kX, a dog I want 

particularly 
kg mflq tflk tfl r& chii' gnik, a handsome 

young dog 
kg miiq tiing' ghfl ggk, a worthless dog, one 

unsatisfactory in harness 
kg mtlqtuv vg &'15k, an old dog, no longer 

useful 
kg miiq tuv yg i Ifilth' thlgq, a large old dog 
kg'nA, who 

kg' nA Im' i nl, whoever 
kg nfl' kA, my nose 

kg' ni kSk, wooden mask used at feasts 
kg nAng' kA tiit, they are in a line (i.e., they 

have one face) 
kg nAq' tii maiik, she is with child 
kg nA' thliik, sea parrot (i.e., ugly nose) 
kg' ng, out of doors 
kgng'UkA, I soak it 
kg ng' thliik, cooking place 
kg nir' rA kA, I cook it 
kgn' t5 A, I am outside 
kg nfiq chg' rg yik, place for smoking dried 

fish 
kg nfiq' td A, I am dry 
kg pii' chA mA, I having bought 
kg pu chA piq' tA kA, I would certainly buy 

it (Mode XXX) 
kg pfi chAq' to A, I would buy (Mode XXIX) 
kg pu' ChA rAk, sale 

kg pu chSk' nA mA, future of chAmA (530) 
kg pfi chg mA rA A' mA, I after buying 
kgpuchgmAr&'chlmA, I after having 

bought 



344 



ESSENTIALS OF INNUIT 



ki pa chS mA xH ka ml, when after buy- 
ing 
ki pQ chg m& rft u' goi, after I buy 
k$ pti chS mA ri vll^ gin, before it has been 

bought 
k$ pQ ch§ mA tu yl! k5 i, I used to trade for 

a while 
k§ pu chSq ghit' td &, I will probably trade 

(Mode LI) 
k6 pQ chug S A' ko A, I would like to trade 

(Mode LXIII) 
k$ pu' chQ 1§, a good trader 
k$ pii chQ TDk' t5 A, I do not care to trade 

(Mode LXV) 
ki pu chti ni' to S, I cannot trade (Mode 

XXXII) 
k$ pQ Chun r& p& kA' td X, I am not in the 

humor to trade (Mode XCII) 
k$ pfl chQq' to X, k§ pG chii' gX k2, I want to 

trade (Mode LXII) 
k$ pu' ghflk, a purchase 
kSpakgnu'tAkA, I buy for him (Mode 

CLV) 
k§ pQk' nik, trading 
k$ puk nflq' k&k, a thing for sale 
k$ pfik xO! thlfik, past form of kSpQkn&k 
kS puk' h ghd &, I buy from him (Mode 

LXXXIX) 
k§ puk" & nfl kfl, my purchase (objective) 
k$pfipnig*mA, kSpQprnmkG, I before 

buying 
ki pfi pi Ifiq' to fl, ke pfi pi la' gwi k&, I buy 

for the first time 
kg pfi sfi' ghtin, an object offered for sale 
kg pfi 8i gfit' k&n ki, I sell whatever is to 

be sold 
kg pfi sfiq' to &, I come to trade 
kg pfis' kuk kfl, my purchase (subjective) 
kg pfis' kfi mi, kg pfis' kfim kfl, when I buy 
ke pfi' sfin, scales, weights, measures, etc. 
kg pfi' t& kSk, sale 
k§ pfi tl kl' mA, kg pfi tA kflm' kfi, whenever 

I buy 
kg pfi t h&' to &, ke pfi t hl'ri kA, first I buy 

(Mode CXLVIII) 
kg pfi tl kl' ti t5 &, I am going to start 

trading (Mode XXI) 
kgpfitlkshl'tofi, kgpfitikshl'akft, I do 

not trade yet (Mode XVIII) 
kg pfi ting' ghd S, kg pfi ting' nl k2, I com- 
mence to trade (Mode XXII) 



kg pfi ting' ghfir' ml = kg pfl ting' rim kfi, al- 
though I trade 
kg pfl ting' nAk k6 &, I attempt to trade 

(Mode XIX) 
kgpfltittArlq'toi = kgpfltittf ri'r&ki, 

I buy at times (Mode XXIV) 
kgpfitrt'tdikft, I buy it generally (Mode 

XLVIII) 
kg pfi tlAq' td A, I buy regularly (Mode C LI V) 
kg pfitl ho' A kA mA, whenever I bought 
kg pfitl hd'A mA, I having bought 
kg pfitl hd' kfi mA, when I bought 
kg pfit' nAk, buying 
kg pfit nAn xlq' t5 A, I cease buying for a while 

(Mode XXXIX) 
kg pfit h Idq' chfiq to A, I want to buy again 
kg pfit ii klq' td A, I buy again (Mode XLI) 
kg pfit n rlq' to A, I stop trading 
kg pfi' to A, kg pfi' tA kA, I trade, I buy it 
kg pfit' 8kA kA, I order him to buy it (Mode 

XXXIII) 
kg pfit 8k5' rA kA, I force him to buy (Mode 

XXXVI) 
kgpfltstA'kA, I induce, make him buy 

(Mode XXXIV) 
kg pflt stflng' gnfi nA, I am a trader (Mode 

XV) 
kg pfi yfi chA' kd A, I buy for him 
kg pfi' yun, a thing to buy with, money 
kg pfiz ghg nA' nim' ng, in my trading, during 

the time of 
kgr chfi A' g5k, it is frost-bitten 
kSr'nA, weather 
kSr' tAh, nice, good (suffix) 
kgsh' tSk, he has rabies, he is mad (dog) 
kg tA', kg tA' kg, here ! 
kg' tAk, sod cut for roofing 
kg tA' kg mg, go on 1 
kg tAq' to A, I cut sods 
kg'thlgr*nflk,knot 
kg thlBrq' to A, I tie up into bundles, I make 

sheaves 
kg thlfiq' tAk, a sheaf of grass 
kg'tSk, it sinks 
kg t5q't5 A, kg tfl rA' kA, I avoid, I go around 

from it 
kg yA', why ? for what ? 
kg yA' pll rA A' tfi, I told you so 
kg yAf kAq' kA, I make him cry 
kg yA kfln' rl Ifi, do not cry (mother's word, 

baby-talk) 



VOCABULARY 



345 



kg y&n' xl IQ, do not cry 

kg yt* nfik, always 

kg yi^ pUth hGl rft & gnfl, now I have done 

it, my fault 
kg yit' kft kX, it is what I cry for = my cried 

for thing 
kg yi tdk" klfi kQ, crying 
kg yaii' goi, I weep, cry 
kg yau' 15q' stA kX, I make him cry 
kg y4' ygt» chgn, why do you cry? 
kg'' ylk, snowbird 
kg yl yl' gaiiq t5 X, I am all wet, I am a 

snowbird (idiom) 
kg yfi' g5 i = kg yfl'' w& k2, 1 reply, I answer 

him 
kg yu"^ gii ni, that one there 
kg ya U lif kft, I argue with him 
kg yii' rftk, blue clay 
kg yu tft'' gu tiik, they contend with each 

other 
kgz' yu tfik, bone sinkers for fish-nets 

(Tun una) 

V 

k ^liq^ tA rXk, one of the constellations 

V 

k £bMi' rflk, a deep and large drift 

k hior r& A, a waterfall (Kuskokwim) 

khu chgk^ kg A, I have toothache 

Id, body 

Id g'' ghfl ng, on top 

kig'ghflng, taiun Idg'fning, at that 

time 
Id g ghln' II gii5k, expresses mortal, one 

on earth 
Id g ghflt^ nit td i, I am on top of them 
Id' gl gn5k, it is rough (said of the 

sea) 
Id gall' ^hl, I beg 
Idg'gllOndk, wolf 
idg gwg chOq' t5 &, I hunt squirrels 
Idg' gwgrk, ground squirrel 
Id' kA, my body 
kir gA kA, I invoke him 
ur Ig gA n5k, in vain 
kU Ig gAn' td A, I am useless, of no worth 
m )g gA' td A = Idl Ig gA'rA kA, I scrape 
Idl Ig kail' chA rAt, term for matches 
Idl Ig' Dglth thlfik, old scar 
Idl IIG' tSk, native tool of horn for working 

pelts 
m 15 An' to fl, I am behind 
kn lu' kA, kn'lfin, kU'lo A, behind me, thee, 

him, or it 



Idl IQ' mA, Idl Ifi' ml ng, etc., my rear, in my 

rear, etc. 
kU liiq pA kAq' tAt, they howl much (dogs) 
Idliaq'tttt, the cry the dogs utter when 

the sled is ready to start 
kath' h& rA t5k, it is not tight 
kilth hfi Che mau' ^hA, I am tied 
IdlthhutA'kA, I tie it 

mth hQ tAng' kA thia tOk, both tied together 
Ulth pA gAn' kA, I tie them tight 
mth'akA, I tighten it 
Idlth ting gnu' thlfik, bark (of tree) 
Idlth'tit, bark (in strips) 
mth' to A, I watch closely 
knth'tdk, it is tight 
Idlth'tit, fish scales 
Id' IQk, imported thread 
Id liiq' kAk, native thread of sinew prepared 

for use 
Id'mA, kin, Id' ^hA, my top 
Id' mit t5 A, I am on top 
Idn Che Al'ghdk, one negligent of his clothing 
Idn chg A' to A, I am careless about my 

dress 
kinchlg"lg, one careful of his clothes, 

dandy 
kin chlq' to A, I am careful of my dress 
Idng'gfndA (third singular of the above), 

after part of anything, stem of a boat 
Idng' ghd kA, my rear 
king' ghd klgk, the last one, the hind one 
king ^5' kll kA, my younger brother 
king ghd kllng kA' td A, I have a younger 
Idng ^fik klfi' gwd A, I am last to go 
king ghfi Ig Aq' kA pfit, our successors 
Idng ghfi mif td A, I am behind 
king ghfi' mfin thlg' Ifi kfi, put it aft (i.e., to 

the rear) 
Idng ^fi nin raiiq' td A, I g^eve for 
Idng ghfi nif td A, I reach home 
Idng ghfin nfip pg A' kA kA, it is my true home 

(i.e., heaven) 
Idng ^fin rAq td lAn' kA, I go in search of 

those behind (i.e., lost ones) 
Idng ghfin rlq td rA' kA, I go after him 
king ghfi pg Aq' td A, I go backwards 
Idng ^fi rali'td A, I am late, behind time 
Idng ^Q' tA kfik, the two rear cross braces 

of a sled 
king ^fi' td A, I dislike to look back (Yukon 

Delta) 



346 



ESSENTIALS OF INNUIT 



king' vJk t6k, native cap 

king ylq' t5 1, I look back 

king yl'rl UL, I look behind it 

kin kflq' t5 1, I am inflamed, enraged 

kin vAx( td I, I am dry 

kln^ nS rftt, term for matches 

kln^'nSrULk, fungus (the ash of which is 

used in snuff) 
kin' nirq tX, term for a cook 
kin nflq' pA thl&k, lightning 
kin njiq' to I, I am angry 
kin' nflr* muk I gnl' k5r thlflk, old term for 

steamer, thing moved about by fire 
kl'ndk, fire 

Id' 5 kllk, the large Arctic hare 
kip UL' t5k, it curves sharply 
kip' ni yAk, curve 
kl' pdk, it curves 
Up' pfl UL, I chop it 
kip pflq' tX UL, I cleave it at one blow 
kip' shAk, term for a screw 
Idq' m& rhA, he gnaws 
Idq'td A, I hunger 
Id'rSt, waves 

kir ri yflq' to A, I am warm 
kIs'tAk, tassel 
kIs'tSk, a fit 
kl'tA, the front (i.e., towards the middle of 

river, etc.) 
kit fail rau' ghA, I gamble 
kit' giiSk, it capsizes 
klf ^0 rSk, native knife with small straight 

blade 
Idt gnu yA pg A' t5k, it almost capsizes 
ki thlu ko 5rq' to A, I try all in my power 
ki' thia mg, how now ? 
ki'thlun, how? 

Id' thlun i yo' kA, how is its condition? 
ki' thlu th um y5r' t5q chit, what is your 

opinion ? 
kif kA,ki't&, kit'tS; kit'mA, klf im n«, etc., 

my front (390) 
kit mif to A, I am in front of it 
kit m5q' to A, I am carried down 
kit' nSr* yfiq to A, I am dazzled 
kits' chet chA' muk, what have you in your 

fist? 
kits chS u' ghA, I count 
kits' gh5 A, I jump 
kits kA' t5 A, I leap 
kits sti \l A' kA, I save him from drowning 



kit tAn' kA, I close my hand 

kif t6 A, I fall in the water 

kit ta' hwA, kit tfl' hwAk, kit ta' hwAt, who 

is he? 
kit tfl' mS, with whom 
kIttfimUfkenS chAllSa'ghA, I work 

slowly 
klttfimUl'ldA chAllSa'gliA, I work rapidly 
kit tflm laii' gnA, I am lively 
kittfl'mtik, whom 
Utta'ySt = klttut'stchS, who art thou? 

who are you ? 
kit tfl' yhz mS, well, who are you ? (Tununa) 
Id yAq' tSk, it is rough (the sea) 
U yA galiq' t6 A = ki yA' gA kA, I shout 
kiyA'ghS A, I get a kiyak = fit for, right 

age 
ki yA' ghSk, egg (Tununa) 
Id' yAk, kiyak, Eskimo shuttle-shaped canoe 
Id yA' Id yAk, a badly shaped = poor canoe 
ki yA lis Am' kin, I make a kiyak for you 
Id yA mS fi' kA kA, I place it in the kiyak 
ki yAng' ^hA rdk, a bad kiyak 
IdyApAq'tdA, I yell 
ki yAq' stAk, term for buckle, button (i.e., a 

fastener) 
U ySm kA thlS nS A' kA, I push it a little 
Id ylk fi yAq' t5 A, I gather straw 
ki ylk' fi ySt, a variety of straight rush used 

to weave baskets, etc. 
ki yik' t5k, it is well grown = long (said of 

straw) 
IdySq'kAk, blood 

U y6q' kA mflk An' chA 5k, he has a hemor- 
rhage 
ki yu' gn5k, it is stormy (the sea) 
ki yii' hwA, how is it ? 
Idyfl'mS, I do not know (idiom) (St. 

Michael) 
Id' yu tA chA hA \ tfin, as hard as you can 
Id yfl t5q' ko nflk, how many times 
ki yfi tQ' chit, how many have you ? 
IdzhyA'nfik, always (Tununa) 
klzh yun', sinkers for fish-net 
klS gA lA' kA, I scrape it 
kl6r' *vlk, a round basket (native) 
kllm'myAt, eyelashes 
kling' thlAk, scar 
Idlrq' n6 rA' nS. in front of 
kllrq' nS lAn' t5k, it is in front of 
kl5q' to A, I ascend 



VOCABULARY 



347 



Uu, klu"^ tfim, shorewards, back 

kia chS a' g^, I am on the lookout 

klun, klu''t&, bowstring 

klfiq'' kit, variety of straw used in weaving 
socks 

kiat&'chd&, little creek 

kia't&k, stream, creek 

klQ thlfiq'' t2 UL, I watch, observe it 

kldt^mfin, to the shore 

kU^t5 &, I watch, look out 

k m&' k& k&, I cherish him, take the great- 
est care of 

k mA* kfls ti kS, my cherisher 

k mS tXq'' to i, I am in haste 

V 

kn&k', nose 

k rA' kA, my nose 

V 

k lAf kSr tdk, he is keen scented (Le., dog) 

V 

k n2' mi nfl to'' I, tip of my nose 

V 

k nS chir' k& k&, I will soak it 

k^ nSk, apron 

k nSk' ^ nfin, in your apron 

V 

k nd"* rOk, lamp (also term for candle) 

k nflk^ ti rik, one of the constellations 

k5 i' gH Ilk, term for glover's needle 

kd'ikin, every (in composition) (6i6) 

k5 Che chSr' Q^ ^i, I put snow to drip (866) 

kd'chSk, drop 

kd'^uk, native coffin 

kd"^ gil ydk, swan 

ko'ki, middle 

ko ki' ki, kd ki' mi, my middle 

ko ki mit ii ri' tdk, it is not in the middle 

ko ki^ mIt to i, I am in the middle 

ko ko^ ki, exclamation for surprise 

k5'U, k51n, ten 

kd U ri tu' IS, a relator of stories 

k5 IS r§ ki ti^ rim kin, I am going to tell 

you a story 
ko ISr' ri giii, tell me a story 
k51n i tall' ch§ mflk chip' pia kQ, eleven 
k5ln e' pS ik, two hundred 
k5ln ghfirq tin' ki, I make it ten 
k51n gha ru' tSk, tenth 
k5ln gnu rfi tSf ne, in or on the tenth 
k51n' ghut, there are ten 
k51n'nln, ten pairs 

k5ln mir r5 nuk chip' plii kd, twelve 
k51n nfln ri tiq' kd nflk, ninefold, nine times 
k51n nfln ri ti' ri, nine 
k5in n(in ri ti riq' tin ki, I make them nine, 

I have nine 



kOlB nfin ri ti' rhik, ninth 

k5lB nfin ri ti' rin, nine pairs 

k5lB ping ^' yu nflk chip' pin kfi, thirteen 

k5 16q' kd ntik, tenfold, ten times 

kd mi' rfi tit, a variety of moss dried and 

used as lampwick 
kd mi rfi' td i, I gather lampwick moss 
kdm id ki' ki, I mock him 
kdm'mfik, flesh 
kd mfiq' yit, eyelash 
kd' ni kin, when it is calm 
kd niq kll' ri i, sour 
kd' ndr tdk, it is calm 
kd' nflk, calm 
kd drq ting' gndk, kwi' thlfiq, disease of the 

eye, cataract 
kd dr' ti, pupil, apple of the eye 
kdrthldr'tdk, it flows 
kd Qh' tdk, he is pigeon-toed 
kd yfir' 'mi, my being together 
kd yfir' nd fi' ^hi, I smile 
kd yfirq' td i, I join 
kd yurq' tfi kfit, we assemble 
kdyfir'tin ki, I gather them, assemble 
kd zhdr rSq chaun', cough medicine 
kd zhdr' td i, I cough 
kdzhflr'chltlrii, blue 

V V 

k pii chim k tdk, term for dog that gnaws 

his harness and gets free 
k pfik 8d i, little adze 

V 

kpfin', adze (Russian) 

k pfi' tl ki, my adze 

kri'hfln, sail (Kuskokwim) 

krik, krim, native storehouse (i.e., elevated) 

kri' kfi tit, tall racks for drying fish 

kriq' td i, I cross over 

kriq' ye' tdk, there is no means of cross- 
ing 

kri tiq chfi ti' ti ki, I elevate it 

kii tiq' ti ki, I put it up high 

krit' ki, my upper extremities 

kri yfiq' td i, I want to cross over 

krhd'i, I urinate 

kr hd' i rfin, splinter 

kr ho i' td i, I have a splinter 

kris'tik, crucifix 

kr sfiq' tl ki, a dog trying to bite me 

kr'thlflk, lip 

krflm i Im nd' ri, a constellation (i.e., broken 
arrow) 

kru td' i, I am cold 



348 



ESSENTIALS OF INNUIT 



kan&k'fil, what a pity! 

ki& yu thlAq^ t5 H, I am exhausted, tired 

out 
k shir' kA tXk, space around entrance in 

native houses (8ii) 
k shaii^ ^ii2, I am loth to act, also lazy 

V 

k shau' n2k, sloth 

V 

k 8hi yA rfi' tX UL, I abandon my husband 
k' 8tl IS, term for a dog that bites 

V 

k tau'' gw5k, he is liberal 
Ic thldk", a brook 

V 

k tfik' nfik, native mode of cutting hair 

V 

k tfim'' ri yuk, hillock, any little moui\d 
k tu nir ri X, one having diarrhoea 
kta'tSk, it isbnttle 
kfi chS k& t&q' tSk, it is about to drop, it is 

going to drop 
kfi chSq' tdk, it drips 
kji chir hik, crane 

ku'' ch5k, pitch exuding from a pine tree 
kii ch5q'' vik, the valley of the upper lip = 

trickling place 
kfi chfik' nfik, icicle 
kfif Yi! tSk, it parts or breaks (said of ropes 

and lines) 
kii giq' pik, a great monster under the 

earth 
kfl g&q pin' rXt, term for fossil remains 
kugn mil ^5' A rit, swallows = like graves 

(i.e., the mud nests) 
ku' gn6k, grave 
kShl'ki, it bites 
klHi' thl5k, term for a saw 
kiHi thl5q' t5 1, I saw, use a saw 
kflh' yS &, genitalia 
kfi ki' ki, the small of my back 
kfi' ki klSk, part of the interior of native 

houses (8i i) ; younger brother, second 

of three 
kfi kfl klSr' mif t5 fi, I am in the kukaklek 
kfi kiq' t5 X, I am midway 
kfi kiq tSr'ti k&, I hit it in the middle 
kfi k& t&' t5 1, I shoulder it, balance it on 

my shoulder 
kfik fiq' td &, I go straight out to sea 
kfik'hl, arrowhead of ivory 
kfik' hfin, the point on the fire drill 
kfikkrghflqtdk, it creaks 
kfik'ktik, island 

k&k k t&' pftk, a large island (Yukon Delta) 
kSkkt&'rfik, a large island (St. Michael) 



kOk k ti yl' glk, a small island 

kfi' k p«t, fleas 

kfikshfiq'tSk, it is cranky (a canoe that 

overturns easily) 
kfik sfi §' t5k, gonorrhcea 
kfi kfim yl rlq' to i, I whistle 
kfi' U, kfi' Iflm, straight up above 
kfi IS' nS, up 
kfilSn'tSk, it is up 
kfiirtdi, I wet my head 
kfi Ur' r5 it, the upper tier in a kazhga 
kfil' ki, my being up 
kfil li' Ilk, a grade of sorcerer 
kfil 15^ i ki, I string it (i.e., my bow) 
kfil' 15k, it is cramped; Irifi'ki kfil' 15k, 

my leg is cramped = I have a cramp 

in my leg 
kfil' Ifik, the two upper side strips of sled 
kfil Ifi' tl ki, my finger ring 
kfil' mi, my elevation 
kfil mit' td i, I am up 
kfil rfi' t5 i, I miss the mark 
kfilth' kr ySt, the shelves in native houses 
kfil' Yi nS, high up 
kfil vi ri' ki, I put it up high 
kfi' mi, when = at that time (in composition) 
kfi mig' ni ki, I keep it, preserve it 
kfi mi kir' t5 i, I search for lice 
kfi mi kSr ri' ki, I take the lice o£F of him, 

I comb him 
kfi mi kS yfi' tit, comb = louse remover 
kfi mi kS yfitn' ki, my comb 
kfi miq'ti ki, I light a fire 
kfi mi' rhfin, wick 
kfi mS ^r ri i, one with a tumor 
kfim' g§ t5k, he is thin, lacks flesh 
kfim g5q' shfln, a round chisel, gouge 
kfim g5q' td i, I gouge 
kfim' ki, my flesh 
kfim ki' le tik, toothpick 
kfim Id 1§ ti' ki, I use a toothpick 
kfim' li t5k, it is frozen 
kfim IS niq' k5k, it is silly 
kfim' 15k, thumb 
kfim' Ifi ki, my thumb 
kfim miq piq' t5k, it bums fiercely 
kfim' mauk, it is lit, kindled 
kfim mi yfin' ri t5k, it bums badly (i.e^ it 

does not want to bum) 
kfim mlq' sti ki, I insert 
kfi ni' gi ki, I draw it back 



VOCABULARY 



349 



kflng Y&q Chi I rftq'U, I tickle him 

kQn' U U, I love him 

kSn kiq^ t5 1, I get angry 

kfin^ k5 1, I love 

k&n krfi'tflk, they both start a fight 

kun kSn ro' I ki, I like it better 

kfln nSr rft i, one who is with child 

kSn nu hV gli5k, he is generous 

kSn nSg' vJk' t5k, it is the best 

kflnnii'nSt, mermaids 

kfln nfl tfig' n&q^ t5k, he is stingy 

kfin' riit, beads (native ornaments) 

kii nu' t&q t5k, he is miserly 

kii nu ti' t6k, he is liberal 

kflp'nfiqchSk, February 

kfip nflq chS d' gw5k, it is February 

kflp' p& ki, I slit it, cut it down the 

middle 
kflp pr rl kl, I untwist it 
kfl pQ ri a' ghX, I split 
kflq"* chOta, native wedge made of ivory 
kfiq' knilk, east 
kfiq'ianflk, wolf 
kflq'mi&k, a mouthful not bitten off, but 

held by the teeth 
kflq m& if ki, my mouthful 
kflq mi iq'' to i, I have in my mouth, hold 

it by the teeth 
kflq t&q' t5 i, I go for wood (St. Michael) 
kfiq' t5k, it is high 
kfis' kfi tit, hailstones 
ku' ti, a drop 
kii tiq' td i, I am proud 
kttt ghiq^ td X, I spring to seize 
kfit' hfit, coal 
kfif hQt, small, round, edible roots collected 

by field mice 
kflt ki thliq' t5 i, I fall on my back 
kfit rir' t5k, hard snow, crust on the snow 
kSf tiki, I grasp it 
kfit'tim kin, I clasp your hand 
kflt trail chd' ^hik, nice little crane 
kfit' trauk, crane 

kfi tfiq' to i, ka ta ta' gni, I snore 
ku' yi ki, I pour it 
kfiy' gi ki, I lift it 
kuT' gS n5k, a native feast 
kfiy kii ri' ki, I spUl it 
kav' *lir 8t6k, it glitters 
kti' vu gik, messenger, envoy 



kfiy vS i kwS' nfiq, a variety of native skin 

rope 
kuy' yi ch5 i, small-sized net 
kfly' yi ki, my fish-net 
kfiyyiisrghi, kfiyyaV^hi, I make a 

net 
kfiy yiq pir' 'vlk, place suitable for setting 

large nets 
kfly yi tOq' t5 i, I go to set nets 
kfiy yi to ri' kl5 i, I set nets 
ka yi thliq' to i, I am glad 
kfi yi tflk kin ri tim' kin, I am not pleased 

i^Hth you 
kfi yin' ri t5k, it is not high enough 
kfiyiq'tdk, it is high 
kfi yfir nh* ti ki, I smile at him 
kfiz g5hq chiq' td i, I beg 
kfiz gfi niq' k5k, he is wretched 
kfiz gu niq kflr ri i, wretched 
kfizh'^it, mountain goats 
kwS' ch5 i, rivulet 
kwS' chfi ghik, stream 
kwS' ghe nik, smoking (i.e., tobacco) 
kwS ghSq pi ki' nik, excessive smoking 
kwS' g5 ik, a slough (196) 
kwS' gfik, a large river 
kwSr gik, a crooked stream 
kwe liq' tdk, abounding in rivers 
kwS' 15k, a winding creek 
kwe mi' t5 i, I swim 
kwS nS mit' tS i, I am in the channel 
kwSn' lit, few (suffix) (246) 
kwe'nfik, channel 
kwS' nfiq, a bit (suffix) (246) 
kwS'riki, I calk it 
kwS yau gS 15q' t5 i, I am gratified 
kwS yaii' ^hi, I am pleased = thank you 
kwS yau ki pik' t5 i, I am indeed glad, 

pleased 
kwlq, kwS' gfim, river 
kwlq' pik, great river (i.e., the Yukon) 
kwlq'thloi, stream just navigable for a 

kiyak 
kwlq'thlfiq, old stream, one obstructed by 

sandbars and drift logs 
kwlq' td i, I go to the river 
kwfi' gfit, they encircle 
kwfln, tooth 

kwfi' this it, they surround him 
kwfi'tlSk, trousers 



350 



ESSENTIALS OF INNUIT 



tt, Hn, he 

tt'ia, and he 

W nS, in him 

H' ft t«, they 

Un'tdk tft' nSm, he indeed 

Ik&q chS mail' gnft, I rest 

iko ft t5q' t5 ft, I partake of herring roe 

fanft, bit of it (suffix) 

imS gft' kft, I resume, take back 

Jp* chg", ye 

ipi tuk', you both 

}plt, thee 

Ipit t5k^ tft' nfim, you indeed 



l^s^ mft, and you (Yukon Delta) 

Ipia, and you too 

Ipii gS^ tut, they are numb 

Ipfik kfif kftq' td ft, I inform you 

Ipang' ^ho ft, I revive 

}pfing gnu'' kfi mft, if I were you 

Ipfiq chl 1ft' rft kft, I reveal it 

Ipfiq chl' IS On, revelation 

Ipa tftq' t5 ft, I feel 

iskln'kft, they both 

Itmug' 'nflk, both themselves 

Hh' kfik, bad, poor, mean (suffix) (284) 

ifi, and 



Uf kftq'td ft, I dodge down 

1ft' kftk, water hole cut in the ice 

1ft Urq' td ft, expresses I come to see a person 

Iftn, Ift'tflm, outside 

Iftq'tdft, Ift'gftkft, Iftl rft ft' gTift, I dig 

1ft rft' u ghft, I am dissatisfied 

1ft tS' n§, off outside 

Iftt mlt'to ft, I am outside 

Ift'turftk, the outer entrance to native 

houses (811) 
1ft' y5 ft, I crouch down so as not to be 

seen 
1ft yflf kft rft' kft, I make him crouch down 
1§' ch§ mftl rft ft, tame, taught 
\h ch$ mftn' iht ndk, it is wild 
1§ gflf kft rft' kft, I bum it 
le tftkft' kft, I recognize it 
IS tft kftq' pu ^ft kft ? do you recognize me ? 
IS ting nftk' ko ft, I try to study 
1st nail thlim' t hfln, by our learning 
IS' td ft, I learn 



IS'tSk, it is tame (437) 

IS zdn' chft rft kft, I teach him 

U gfl sftq' td ft, I gather lampwick moss 

U gfl' tit, moss used for lampwick 

Ug yftn kflt kft 6iq' td ft, I make shavings for 

kindling 
Uk, possessor (suffix) (124) 
ur rft ft, where a thing abounds (suffix) (170) 
Ur^ 'nfik, suffix of locatives (410) 
Ur' nflr' mlt' td ft, suffix in locative verbs 
Ur' nfir' rftk, suffix of locatives 
llv' rilk, grave 
15q''ldqrftt, a derisive term for the few 

Chinese in North Alaska 
IQ' chSk, signal 

Id chS' nftm kin, I understand you 
lil chS' nft nS, without form 
IQ chS rft' rft kft, I signal him 
IQ chS rft' td ft, I sign, signal 
IQ ching ning rd' ft kft, I understand it better 
IQ' S rfit, the late, deceased (suffix) 



M 



mft' hfln, hence, by this way 

mft kft' rd ftk, the common hare 

mft kft rd ftq' td ft, I hunt hares 

mftk kft' S ndk, term for Saturday = bath 

day 
mftk kft' vlk, bathing place, bath house 
mftk'kS, bath 
mftk kS u' glift, I bathe 



mftk kin' rftt Agl yfl ndq' pSm, expresses a 

vigil in church calendar 
mftk' Idq, a large variety of seal 
mftk Idq chdq' td ft, I hunt makloks 
mft'kdk, urine 
mft kdr' rS yftt, mosquitoes 
mft kdr yftq ta IS' yft rftt, midges 
mft ku' chSk, this sort 



VOCABULARY 



351 



in& kfi' mS ut, dwellers at this place, resi- 
dents here 

mi kfi y& t&q' t5 ft, I breakfast 

mAl W gH k&, I follow him 

mAl 16 gfts'' tl k&, my follower 

mil le guz fni kill ri r ^, maybe I will 
not accompany you 

mil IS' ki, my comrade 

mil IS k5^ r5 Id nak, we both go regularly 
together 

mil IS k5r thli nfir* Uq' tak, they two always 
go together 

mil 16r kri' td i, I chase 

mil ISrq k6 yi' gik, a little duck, duckling 
(Kuskokwim) 

mil IS"* t5 i, I have no comrade 

mil Ilk' klfi nuk, let us go together 

mil ling' ki t6k, mil' ri 6k, she has twins 

mil Ilq ch5 i' ri ki, I follow him closely 

mil Uq chd' 5rq tl ki, my immediate follower, 
intimate 

mil Uq chtig yi' kim kin, I would like to 
accompany you 

mil Uq chfl' wim kin, I desire to accompany 
you 

mil Uq ki rim' kin, I follow you 

mil Uq' ti ki, I accompany him 

mil Uq ti kO' liq ki, I always follow, or imi- 
tate, him 

mil Uq ti kii' st ki, my imitator 

mil' r5 nflk, an inch and a half 

mil r5q' kug' nflk, twice 

mil rOq' ti ki, I have two 

mil' ru Sn, two pairs 

mil ril' gwfit, there are two 

mil'nik, two 

mil' ruk S' pS ik, forty (i.e., two twenties) 

mil rfln' 11 git nS, on the seventh 

mil rtin' Ug gin, seven 

mil rtin U g5q' tin ki, I have seven 

mil din' lin, seven pairs 

mil rfln 15q' kd nuk, sevenfold 

mil rfln' rhik, seventh 

mil rii' to i, I get two (i.e., kill or capture) 

milth gnS ni ri' ki, I am getting near it 

milth hS'i ki, I get near it 

mim Chi' k ti ki, I smash it 

mim' chS k5k, it will heal (437) 

mim' m5k, it heals (i.e., it flattens) 

mim'trik, a summer house used in the 
fishing season 



mi ni' gi ki, I pinch him 

min chS mi yi kdq' td i, I stay here too 

long 
min chS yi pSk' nik pS, do not stay too long 
min chik shtig' niq' kfik, he is likely to be 

here 
mi'nS, here 

mi ne' i ki, I set it out, produce it 
mi' nSt in gd" tSt, May, eggs hatch 
mi n§' to i, mi nS' ti ki, I show 
min ghali' tuk, term for scissors 
mi nig nSr ri ik, codfish 
mi' nik, egg 

mi nlq' stdk, smooth, level 
min ni kiln' ghd i, I fish (with hook and 

line) 
min nSiq' shfin, term for a frying-pan 
min' n5k, fish-hook 
min' ny ik, term for slapjack 
min pSk' nIk pS, do not stay long 
min 8ti' ki, I let him stay here 
min' tl kd mi, if I were here 
mi chik nail' t5 i, I peer around 
mi chik ti riq' to i, I warm myself 
mi Chung chi k5' nik, do not get wet 
mi Chung' td i, I get wet 
min' t5k, it is here 

min tdf ki ri' ki, I make him stay here 
min u' ki, my anterior, my front 
mi nd sflq pi kiq' to i, I worry much 
mi nd sfiq' t5 i, I fret 
miq'ti ki, I turn it back 
miq' to i, I squeeze 
mi rS yiq ti' S to i, I have no runner 
mi rl' yik, mud 
mi' rSk, a plain, a level stretch 
mi tin kil' ri i, one who is naked 
mi tin kail' gni, I am naked 
mi tiq' to i, I undress 
mi tir' 'mit t5 i, I am undressed 
mi thliq' ti ki, I am near it 
mi thUq' tdk, it is too near 
mi' thld, dead (applied only to animals) 
mi thld' to i, said on discovering any dead 

animal 
mif nflk k5 i, I dry myself 
mit stir'i yi rik, a drying place 
mi' td mS, at this time 
maiiq'hu Id ki, grandmother 
mauq' Id UU' ri Sk, a grandmother and 

grandchild 



352 



ESSENTIALS OF LXNUIT 



mJL'yflt, hither 

mi I nlk" klfi kO, be careful 

mk I nlk'd ft, m« & nl kft' U, I am careful 

mi A' nl k5 U, be gentle 

mi & nl k5r tULm' Un, I tell you to be gentle, 

careful 
mSAnlkdryii'itdA, I am never gentle 
mi I nl kflg' Uq' t5 A, I am gentle 
mi chlq llk^ k2 tttk, snow falling in large 

wet flakes 
mi chlq^ tflk, pond 
mi chAq' thlflk, mud puddle 
mi kOr^ tfit, they are plentiful 
mi li Q' ^ I grind 
mi Id kd &^ U, I throw a stone 
mi Iflf ULk, small bell on dog harness 
mi Iflg' yfiq^ td &, I want to smoke 
mi Ifik' td I, I smoke 
mi Iflr^ 'rhfin, snuff tube, bone from wing 

of swan 
milfisUL'tai, I snuff 
mi Ifis kail' tflk, snuff-box 
mi Ifls UL yOq' ti I, I want to take snuff 
mi thlfig' 'Tlk, a basket 
mi thlQq chi Q' ^)ii, I lay it away (i.e., in a 

basket) 
mi' tik, it alights (viz., bird) 
mi a' UL kft, to place it in the object named 

(sufiix of mode) 
mi' fit, residents of (sufiix) (102) 
mi ylq' t5k, it perches (viz., bird) 
mlk^fft, very small 

mik fl kft' m&, because of my smallness 
mik fft kiq' t&, too small 
mIk' ghl m&, I being small 
mIk'UL, also (in composition) 
mik kir hauk, it is small 
mik Idl U ^5 ft rail' nlm ni, in the time of 

my babyhood 
mik kll 11' gliSk, small, baby, child 
mik kll II gnfi' gwd ft, I am a child 
mik kis' kft kft, I want it small 
mIk kli ni' yft, oh, how small ! 
mik kli rft' ft kft, I make it small 
mik kli rft fi' ghft, I become small 
mlkkfi'chft kft, my smallness 
ml k5q' tfit, said of mosquitoes, gnats, etc., 

= they are thick 
mik' a kft, mik tau' giift, mik' kd ft, mik kU'- 

II gnd ft. I am small 
mik tftlth' ktr t5k, it is just small enough 



mil Id koii yo' li, name of a certain ghost 

=: good thrower 
mil Id' kfta, missile, anything thrown 
mUth kft rft' kft, I throw it towards 
mllth kin' klq tttk, he sheds his coat, hair 

(of dogs) 
mllth' k5k, native knife with a short carled 

blade 
mllth' kiligfim ft'Tiigft, fifty cents (i.e^ 

half a skin) 
mllth' kilfik, a skin (unit of value, one 

dollar) 
milth'kfit, feathers 
mllth pan' tft kft, I throw him (term in 

nvTestling) 
mllfigft'tift, I kiss 
mi Ifl kft rft' kft, I embrace him 
ming' ^5 ft, color 

mlng ^fi' gi nik nab thlfil rft' ft mfio. Ex- 
treme Unction = anointing the sick 
mlng ^fl' rft kft, I color it, paint it = I 

anoint him 
mlng' k5 ft, I sew 
mlng' krfi pftk, noise, as when one stone hits 

another 
mlng kfik kftr' yft' kft kft, I want to sew it 
mink sftk' kllk, what is to be sewed 
mink' sfia, expresses a sewing machine 
min kfi chi' vlk, needle-case 
mln' kfin, needle 
mln nft yfi i' tft kft, I never leave any scraps 

for him 
mln nfik sfiq' td ft, I want to sew 
mlq' pftk, any great sudden noise 
mir' yft thlftq' td ft, I vomit 
mir' jrfiq^ td ft, I feel like vomiting, nausea 
mis'tdk, praise 

mis tdk klft rft' kft, I always praise him 
mis td rft' kft, I praise him 
ml thlftq' tdk, it gets stopped up 
mlt'su, juice 
mit zing ^hft tftng' kft tdk, shallow place 

where fish sun themselves 
mi ydr' hraim, native ladder or notched pole 
mi ydrq chfi tfing kft' td ft, I have a balloon, 

kite, etc. 
miydrq'stftk, term for balloon, kite, and 

yeast powder 
ml ydrq' sfin, ml yfig' *yft rftt, ladder 
mi ydrq sfl tftng kft'td ft, I have a ladder or 

anything for ascending 



yOCABULARV 



353 



mi y5iq^ td I, I go up, ascend 

nu yu^ chSk, an ascent 

mi yu' t& k2, I bring it up, raise it 

nu yfi' yu n& nS, inaccessible (as certain 

peaks) 
m5q^ k& pik, real water 
m5q' n5q' td I, I am tired 
m5q' nu e ghSq chSq'' to I, I rest a little 
m5q'pflk t5k, a freshet (Kuskokwim) 
m5q^rhGn, native drinking cup, triangular 

in shape 
m5q sflq' t5r' 1ft, may I drink ? The answer 

is p$ = do so 
m5q shfin ro &' giift, I am more thirsty 
m5q shflq' td X, I want water, I am thirsty 
m5q^ sQg' nftk, thirst 
m5q siilth^ kft, my thirst 
m5q' tft, bring water 
m5q tftg' yft' rftk, path to the water hole in 

the ice 
m5q tftg' yft rftn^ kft, my water path 
m5q tft' Ilk, a place where there is water 
m5q tftng krftq kaim' ill ghSk, a place where 

there can be no water 
mdq'tft rft vlk, water hole cut in the ice 
m5q tft'' tft, water carrier 
mSqtil^ghSk, a place where there is no 

water 
m5q tilth' k6k, arid, without water 
m5q' td ft, I drink 
m5 r&q' chft rftk, a wood path 
m5 rftq chft rftn' kft, my wood path 



m6 rftq' to ft, I bring wood (i.e., for fire) 

m5 rail' ti kft, wood belonging to me 

m5 rhftg' nfik, an old log 

m5 tilth k til' gnSk, a careless person 

m5 tilth kflk k ch«h' kd ft, I ^ill be careful 

mS riq' tSk, said when the river bank,under- 
mined by the current, crumbles in 

m5 fdq' td ft, I am damp 

mfi cha' gw5k, it is wet, damp (said of per- 
sons or things) 

mtik, mo' th&m, water 

mak, mu' gam, milk 

mfik'kdk, he has the mange (dog) 

mfi lia' ghft, I delay, tarry 

mfi llfi yft g5q' t5 ft, I tarry long 

mfi mlq' tft kft, I turn it end for end 

mfi mlq' thlfi kfi, reversed (used to express 
translated) 

mfim' mfik, drum wand (often of ivory) 

mfim'tft, slender wooden wand used with 
native drum 

mfi mfiq' to ft, I drum 

mfim yfi' ^ft, I dance, a special variety of 
dance 

mfim' yfi 16, an expert dancer 

mfim yfi 16 yfi' gw5 ft, I am an expert dancer 

mfi nftn i5 fi' ghft, I am more skilled 

mfing ghll yftq' tft kft, I move it out of the 
way 

mfing' ghd ft, I lead, or start, a song 

mfln' r6rq t5k, he is weaned 

mwSr'Ukft, I fill it 



N 



nft chft' e td ft, I am hatless, bareheaded 
nft chft' kft, my hat 

nft chd' tit, planks laid over fire hole in kazhga 
nft ^fiq' tdk, it chafes 
nft'hfin, whither, which way 
nft kft chS fi' ghft, I urinate 
nftkft'chfik, bladder 
nft kin kiq' tft kft, I redte 
nft Idt' kft tftk, the sides of native house 
nft kir' 'nfik, a long straight reach in a river 
nftk klig' nftq kll' rft ft, poor (said in a com- 
passionate sense) 
nftk klig' nftq' kd ft, I am poor 
nftk kllk' kft kft, I love him 
nftk kllk' kfik kft, my beloved 



nftk kfi chdl' ^fit, innumerable 

nftkUng' hwe, nftk ling' Ipit, nftk ling' 1«, 

poor me, you, etc. 
nftk mdn', own (in composition) 
nftk md' thlft kft, my own 
nftk md thlft kft' kft, it is my own 
nftk md thlftn rft' tft kft, it is not mine 
nft' krfi tdt, feathers on the heads of arrows 
nft kfi chd' tfit, they are innumerable 
nft kfi' ghfin, deer teeth 
nft kfi' gu tit, woman's belt composed of 

deer teeth 
nft kfi gfi tttng kft' td ft, I have a nakugutit 
nft kfiq' td ft, I belt myself 
nft 1ft' kft kft, I find it 



354 



ESSENTIALS OF INNUIT 



vA\' lA ftk p$ yiin ik' t&q k£, I do not want 

either one 
n&l lA ft' tft, which one of them 
nftl U h5q tftq' 15 ft, I am undecided 
nftlUhdq'tdft, I doubt 
nftl U hfig' nftq' k6k, it is doubtful 
nftl 1ft' maiik, he is paralytic 
nftl laiif kfif kt nft' kQ, without finding it 
nftr laiik, it is dead (said of animals) 
nftlia&t'nak piytik'chSt, which one of 

the two do you want ? 
nftlth klq chft r&' kft, I straighten it 
nftlth'kiq tdk, it is straight 
nft mh kS' kft, I do not know (St. Michael) 
nft' me thlSn nft' thlft 5 kft, I do not know 

him 
nftmSthU'fttft nft'thlftSnkft, I do not 

know them 
nft mllth p$ chSk klS W ^)ift, perhaps I may 

go, do, etc. 
nft mfi' tftk, pattern 
nftn' ghftr t5 ft, I stand 
nftng'ghdftt, toys 

nftng ghd ft' t5 ft, I play (i.e., with toys) 
nftng' gii5k, that is all, the end 
nftng ^u' htln, a whetstone 
nftng gnu' tftk, term for a file (i.e., a wearer 

down) 
nftng ^u' t5 ft, I end up 
nftng gnu' vik, place where whetstones are 

to be found 
nftng gnu yilth' kfln, native oarlock = pre- 
venter from wearing the gunwale 
nftng nSr' kut, expresses they are blistered 
nftng' nuk thlSk, the last one 
nftng tuk Ul' rft §t, sufferer 
nftng' tuk k5 ft, I suffer 
nftng ta kaf kft rft' kft, I make him suffer 
nftng y& kS' t5 ft, I become alarmed (said 

when at some dizzy height) 
nftng yft nftq' k5k, it is agonizing 
nftn lu chft' kft, my whereabouts, my where- 

ness 
nftn' nft kftn, every time it ends up, when it 

ends 
nftn'n§, where 

nftn'nSk, native Innuit stone lamp 
nftn ne ko' ft go ft, I am in danger 
nftn nh k5 1 yftq' to ft, I am bewildered 
nftn nh le chftq' kft, I shorten it 
nftn nSr^ yftk, native trap 



nan nh' to ft, I am short 

nftn nil' rftk, the wooden support of a native 
lamp, lamp stick 

nftn nil r5 ftq' pftk, a large lamp stick 

nftn' nd ftk, the white or polar bear 

nftn' nfiq pftk, a special harpoon 

nftn' rftk, glory 

nftn rft mftl' rft ft, glorious 

nftn rft mft' nftq kfik, worthy of praise 

nftn rft mft naiiq' tSk, may He be ever praised I 

nftn rft rftm' kin, we glorify thee 

nftn' sntik, where are we both ? 

nftn' tft, where is he } 

nftn' tftz mft, where are they "i (Tununa) 

nftn'takk5ft, I suffer 

nftn yft ch5' ft yftk, a very small lake 

nftn yft hftq tftng' kft tdk, there is a lake 

nftn' yftk, lake 

nftn' yftq pftk, a great lake 

nftn yft rft' ch5 ft, a little lake 

nftn' yft rfik, a large lake (St. Michael) 

nft'pft, tree 

nft pft chft 6q' tft, sailor (i.e., mastman) 

nft pftg' nfik, six inches 

nft pft kfi tft' rftt, the uprights of a sled 

nft pftq' chXr' yik, the brace of the mast of 
native sailboat 

nftpftq'tftkft, I erect the mast, set np a 
post, etc. 

nft pftr' yft che' thlfik, an old stump 

nft pftr' yftl k5k, post 

nft pa' tftk, mast 

nft pftts' kftq tdk, it lodges (said of an arrow 
or harpoon when thrown) 

nftpSl'kftk, file (Russian) 

nft p«l kftq' to ft, I file 

nft'pflt, the cross pieces of a sled 

nftq' chftl k5k, sled toggle, to which the tow- 
line is fastened 

nftq' to ft, I am hindered 

nft' rft kft, I point at it 

nft' rh5 ft, I smell 

nftr' kg yik, term for school, teaching place 

nft r5q chft rftl' rft ft, a contradicter 

nft r5q ch§ mft yO' e to ft, I am obstinate 

nft r6q' st kft, my contradicter 

nft r5q' tft kft, I contradict him 

nft riilth kftq' to ft, I harpoon 

nfts' k5 nSt, roots 

nft 8 kul gnu' ghft, I have headache 

nfts kwau' gwo ft, I am a little girl 



VOCABl/LARV 



355 



nils pfl' go I, I1&8 pA^ gA k&, I endeavor 
nil tA' kA k2, I find it (far off, understood) 
nA tA ko chug ghi ru^ to A, I cannot find it 

at all 
iiAtAk'stA, finder 
nAtAku'tSA, I find out 
nA' this, in the time of 
hA this mis' kA kA, I order it to be covered 
hA thlo' A kA, I ignore it =r I do not know 
hA thlSk' f Ak, straight above 
hA thldk' f Aq tdk A kAq' tA, it is midday, noon 
nAthlu'e, nA'thlSn, he does not know 

about it 
nA thlfif kA' pflk nS, I unknowing 
nA thlu' k tOk, he is insensible 
nA thla IS 5' rA kA, I backbite him 
nA thia nAq' k5k, it is unknown 
nA thlu nAf mfin, unexpectedly, u n k n o w- 

ingly 
nA thlil nn' kii tAk, sign, indicator = that 

which makes known 
nA thlil n! ni' t5 A, I am in sight of 
nA thltin rA chu^ yA' kA kA, I would like to 

know it 
nA thlun rA rA kaun rA' tA kA, I am unable to 

know it fully 
nA thian rA XMf kA, I know it 
nA thlun rA tii r5' A kA, I know it better than 

he does 
nA thlun rS Ilk tAq' kA, I know something 

about it 
nA thlun ris' tS, one who knows, its knower 
nA thlds' t kA, my one who does not know me 
nA thia yA ga' U kA, I forget it 
nAtkdIk'tdk, blizzard 
nA tdk' f Ak, direction 
nA tdk'fA nS, in what direction 
nA t5k fAn Id' chS A, his, or its, direction 
nA tri ril' t5 A, I have a hole in my boot sole 
nA' tr5k, boot sole 
nAt'stdA, I look down (from a height, 

hill, etc.) 
nA tflg' mit' t6 A, I am on the floor 
nA'tfik, floor 

nA' t&t mdq tA, where did he, or it, go ? 
nA tfit' mfin, to which direction 
nau, fruit of any description 
nail' gw5k, it grows 
nau' hwA, where 
naii' hwA mS, where is it ? 
nail' hwA naii, exclamation used in scolding 



naii'hwi, where 

nau' hwOn, whither 

naiin, fruit 

naiin' rAk, naii' stAt, seeds 

nail' thlu, don't (exclamation) 

nail thlu' gwo A, I am an invalid 

nail' thlQ hwAng' nS, alas for me ! 

nail thlulth' kA, my sickness 

nail thlu nS u' gnA, I say that I am sick 

nail thlun ro u' ghA, I am more sick = I am 

worse 
nail thlu thlS nS' ku mA, if I should be sick 
nail thlu' thlfik, a sick person, invalid 
naut' stAk, plant 
nant stAr^ *vlk, term for garden 
naut stAr' Ml Uk, a place having a garden 
nAvrStA'kA, I lend it 
nAv ihAq' kA kA, I borrow it, I have it 

borrowed 
nAv rhAq' t5 A, I borrow 
nAy 10 tA' kA, I exchange it 
nA zaii' hu 15k, girl (Tununa) 
nA zau hil lu' gw5 A, I am a girl (Tununa) 
nAz vA gA' kA, I exhibit it 
nAz vAq' tA, exhibitor, one who shows 
nAz vlt sti' td A, I have no instructor 
nS chS fi' gnA, I hear well, good hearing 
nS chQ sr ghdk, a deaf person, one who 

does not hear well 
nS chfl S' t5 A, I am deaf (i.e., I never hear) 
nS chdg' nAq' kOk, it is interesting, it is worth 

hearing 
nS chiig' nS A' kA, I listen to him 
nS chug' nS kSr' td A, I listen for an instant 
nS chfl lAn rS' t5 A, I do not want to hear 
nS chd yQ' S td A, I never want to hear 
nS gS' II kA, my collar 
ne gS til kA rail' gnA, I have hiccough 
nS gfik', north 
nS gfik'fAk, the far north 
nS gfik f A Urq' td A, I go north (Le., to travel 

in that direction) 
nS gflk' sin lAt, most northerly 
nS pA gA' kA, I point at him (i.e., to ridicule) 
ne pi' llg' mA, I before hearing 
nS rhAq' td A, I cross over 
nS rhA yfl' S td A, I never go across 
nSsh' kfik, head 
nS' tilth kA, the thing I heard = my heard 

thing 
nSt nfik shA' kA kA, I ought to obey him 



3S6 



ESSENTIALS OF INNUIT 



vA' td I, I obey (i.e., I hear) 

n§t8 Chi &q' Uk, term for an ear trumpet, 

what will make it heard 
nSt tUq ^ thl« &' kfl, perhaps I will not 

understand it 
ne yu^ chSk, the thing heard 
& gnA' IQq t5k, it growls 
h ghl rail' ghfl, I groan 
nl gftk^, snare (native) 
nigft'mfln i g&qH5k, caught in a snare 

(i.e., it gets hung to the snare) 
nl giq tOq' td I, I set snares 
nl gftq' tu 1§, mesh 
nl g&' rftt, a long series of loops forming a 

snare for wild geese 
nig'' gik, spider 
nig' gi rim kuv'yi, a spider web, of the 

spider his net 
nir U ik, womb 
nil lis' ti, a house builder 
nilth' ki, my former house 
nllth'thi^k, old house 
nllth thlflq t5q' to i, I suffer much 
nim' ri ki, I bind it 
nimflq'kik, binding material, string, rope, 

etc. 
nim urh' 'yik, a species of eel which abounds 

in the Yukon 
ning chu ni' to i, I cannot attain 
ning'ghiq kik, term for anything that will 

stretch 
ning gnir yik, periods of intense cold 
niug ^r yiq tdk, it is intensely cold 
ning' gno i, I stretch out or reach for 
nlug' gn5k, it stretches 
ning gh5k chiq' to i, I stretch to reach 
ning kle 5rq' td i, I am cold 
ning'li, cold weather 
ning li' i tdk, it is warm weather 
ning li' lin, being warm = lacking cold 
ning lilth' h5k, it is warmer 
ning lilth hul^ ri i, warmer 
ning'lln, warmth 

ning ling ghe' ni t5k, it grows colder 
ning' ling ghSk, it becomes cold 
ning ling ki ti' t5k, it commences to get cold 
ning li' ro t5k, it moderates (the weather) 
ning Urq ki tiq ytig' ni' k5k, it begins to look 

as if it will grow warmer 
ning nfiq kaii' ri ki, I stretch it out 
ning' thli in, on account of the cold 



ning thli chlq' td i, I cool off (after a vapor 

bath) 
ning thling' id 5k, it is colder weather 
ning thUng rfil' li i, colder 
ning' thllrq pi, oh, how cold I 
ning' thllr tdk, it is cold 
ning' td i, I yawn = stretch 
nl' pi ki, I extinguish it 
nip chd a' ghi, I extinguish 
nlq' ti, a weight of any sort 
nirq' td i, I point out 
nit' chd i, a little house 
nl'yi, maid 

nl yi' gi ki, my younger sister 
ni yi' gi klSk, youngest sbter 
nl yi gi id' i ki, my cousin (female) 
nl yi gd ku' ki kldk, a younger sister 
ni yi' ghik, respects, salutation, a bow 
ni yi'^q ki, I bow to him, salute him 
nl yi ghi' rim kin, I send my love to you 
nl yi ghif ti, he wags his tail = he salutes 

(of dogs) 
nl' yik, the small seal, harbor seal 
n! ying ni' ti ki, I shake it 
ni yi' 'd 15k, giri (Kuskokwim) 
ni yiq chdq' td i, I hunt niyaks, I seal 
n! ye' pi, name given to a certain star 
nl ydrq sti' td i, I have none to care for me 
nl yuq' ti ki, my protector, guardian 
ni yH' ri ki, I guard, aid him 
ft' ni, nllm, house (i.e., a winter dwelling) 

(8ii and 821) 
&' nfik, bone ; also framework 
nd i giq' ti ki, I wet it in my mouth 
ndk, nd' gfim, end, tip 
nd ki' gni, he needs me 
nd' ki ki, I need it 

ndk kle tli r5' td i, I do not need anything 
ndk' kfik ki, a necessity to me, my needed 

thing 
ndkti'ki, I jerk it 
ndl lu' ri ki, I make a sign to him 
n5q chd ki' ki, I fail to attain it 
ndq' ni ki pik' tdk, it is very necessary 
ndq' nil' ri i, necessary 
ndq' 'ni tdk, it is necessary 
ndq' ti ki, I haul 
& ri nd' td i, I await 

i ri ni niq' kdk, exclamation of impatience 
& rdt' n5k, negative suffix 
& rfis' chir t5k, he is lousy 



VOCABULARY 



3S7 



& rils' tl, loose 
h tSk', ebb tide 
ntif kaiin, native tool, a tip of deer horn 

set in a handle 
nu ^u^ t2 ki, I fasten it 
nd ghii^ yun, term for a button (Le., fastener) 
nfi k& k&^ ki, I remember it 
nil U' r&k, second idfe of a polygamist 
na U rr kl, I just recaU it 
na k2 rail' gwd ft, I am the second of his 

wives, I am a nukarak 
nu kft yar ri I, sulky 
na k& yaq' t5 ft, I sulk 
nfl kim' chfik, ligature 
nfik' kft, my house, home 
n&k kft^ it is his house 
nOk kftk ^ rfi' td ft, I am out of debt 
nflk kft Urq' tOk, it abounds in fish 
nflk kftlth' pi ft, a young man who is a good 

hunter 
nflk kftlth' p$ ftk, chief man of a village, 

best hunter 
nfik kftlth p$ ft' pft thlfik, a big strapping 

fellow 
nflk kftlth pS ft' pik, a fine young fellow 
nfik kftlth pi ft' rft tftk, the most prominent 

man of a village 
nfik kftlth pi ft rft tail' gwo ft, I am chief 

man 
nfik kftlth pi ft rou' ghft, I am a successful 

hunter, food provider 
nfik kftng chftq' td ft, I deliberate 
nQk kft' to ft, I get food (i.e., fish) 
nfik kail' '15k, a shiftless fellow 
nfik kail' thlflk, a large bag of woven grass 

for holding frozen fish 
nfik Id' ft t5k, it lacks fish (said of certain 

rivers, etc.), no fish there 
nfik'kllg' nftk, pitiful state 
nfik kfing' kft to ft, I have a supply of food 
nfik'kQt kft tfi tfit kshi' tfit, have the 

salmon come yet? 
nfik' kSt king gndii' tfit, the fish have gone 

by, it is the end of the run 
nfik kfit tu' tut, the fish (i.e., salmon) have 

come (the annual run) 
nfik nirq' t5k, it is sweet to the taste 
nfik nil' rft ft, sweet 
nfik' nfik, food 

nu kfiy ghft' t5k, it is a spruce tree 
nfik yfi' tit, term for pins 



nfi'lftftts, cousin, young woman (mode of 

address) 
nfi 1ft 111' rft ft, polygamous 
nfi li 5q kll' rft ik, a couple, man and wife 
nfi lir hre' t5 ft, I have no wife 
nfi lirq' kft, my wife 
nfi lirq' pftk, first wife of a polygamist 
na lirq tOq' t5 ft, I take a wife 
nfi 16rq t5 rft' kaun ri td ft, I am not per- 
mitted to marry 
nfil' gft kft, I break it slightly 
nfi ling kft' t5 ft, I have a wife 
nfi Uq' klft Idn, I marry you (man speaking) 
nfi Uq' kfi kuk, we are married 
nfi Uq kfi mft' kft, expresses I keep my wife a 

long time = no change of wife 
nfi Uq sfi mft' kft, I desire her to still remain 

my wife 
nu Uq sfi' wftm kin, I want you to be my wife 
nfi Uq' tdk, the half moon 
nu Uq tfi mall' tii kft, have you a wife ? = are 

you married ? 
nfi Uq tfis' kftm Un, I bid you to marry 
nu Ifiq' kft kft, my cord 
nfi Ifiq kail' ti kft, cord belonging to me 
nfi Ifiq' to ft, I cord 
nfi lu' rft kft, I cord it, lace it up, etc. 
nfi mi chftq' td ft, I would remain at home 
nfi mlt' t5 ft, I am in the house 
num' rft kft, I braid or plait it 
nfi' nft, the earth 
nfi' nft pfik' tOk, earthquake 
nfi nft ch5' ft thlfiq tfik, their (dual) little old 

house 
nfi nftk shfin rft tft' kft, I am dissatisfied to be 

here 
nfi nft U gfi chir' 'lu tft, residing amongst us 
nfi nft U gfit' kft kft, one from my village = 

my fellow-citizen 
nfi nft U gfi tfik' klfi ki fi i' tauk, he stays in 

their midst 
nfi nft' Uk, resident 
nfi nft U§ u' ghft, I build 
nfi nftlth' hrfit, a deserted village 
nfi nft Ifiq' pi ftk, term for a continent 
nfi nftm Id i' nftn ^1 gh5r 'n§, we on earth 

dwellers = we mortals 
nfi nfi mi' thle, how nice a place ! 
nfi nft mi u tail' gwfit, they live on land (i.e., 

terrestrial) 
nfi nftm yfi' tftt, a variety of Alaskan berry 



3SS 

dB nl'idk, joy, delight, glory 

DSnlnik'kBkkl, my happineu 

oil ii« Diq kU' il hBd kEI' Itm t ylq' Uk, be 

has gone (o the happiness of heaven 
bQ nl nBiq' pi, it is a place of glory 
na nl' Qtrq tBk, il U delightful 
na al nJir' il i, used to express 'ave' and 

■ Uelare ' 
nil ol nee tl yUq' tS 1, I rejoice 
Bfliiani'ylirf kll'ltm, in the glory of 

heaven 
nd Di' pi Uk, a small area of solid ground 

lit to build on 
nani'plk, sut id ground (not low or swampy) 
dB Dl pi thlu' elk, a stretch of high solid 

bQ' nit, a village 

na ai' tbiak, an old village 

nQ nit' a i. 1 go Co (he village 

nOng naV ^li, I am hia son-in-latr 

Bllnguu'kl, my son-in-law 

nOng' luiiin, son-in law 

nfl'iilk, hedgehog 

oi nl' il kl, I take his place 

nQ nQ' liq. a present, gift, also pay 

dQ nQ III rlq' kik, the one to be paid 

na nQ 111 rSq kail' g:w9 1, I am the one Co b« 

nS Du' rt ks, 1 scold him 

DQp'chi kSk, it is sticky 

nap' pi. sound, noise 

oBp pail' nik, be still 

nUp pi i' kl pat. our true home 

nap^'atSk, it is quiet, il lacks noise 

ndp plTtiSr'til, pi.-j.i.u maker, consoler 



ESSENTIALS OF INNUIT 






'uSk. .. 



ntlp pi te ri' kt. I quiet him 

DflppliU'rait mourners 

n&p' pliiq tfik, it is noisy 

nflp'stlk, native mask (large uze) 

nflqchigS'kfl. 1 ))al1 it (i.e., a trap) 

ntlq'kik, northeast 

nliq'ilkl. I eac it 

nllq' rim Un, in the game of checkers I eat 

you (i.e., take your man) 
oQq'rhfi 1, I eat 
nllq'atik, bait 
nBq' aU U, I get him to eat, I tempt him 

to eat 
nflq' atiq ki, I poison him 
nBq'U ki, I putt it up from or out from 



nflq tiq' t6 i, I move from one to another 

nHqti'ii kl, I press on it 

nSqti'ilylTit, ridges on the handle of 

sflq' U) 1, I grin 

Dflq'yil'^ti, I eat well (i.e., have plenty 

food) 
ntiq'yilq'titi, I wane to eat 

nfiri llJt. adoeirilh herfawn 

ii(li'yuniii'6rq'tcl&, lexpect 

Titi'»ek,lmife Russian) 

na U' rik, fresh Rsh 

aa ti rail' gwJSk, it is fresh 

nSf cha ^k, a small house 

Dflt Ik gbti' U kL I kill something for him 

(i.e., 1 gun something) 
v& tIq*Uq'tii na ni'mflk, expresses 1 

blast (rocks, etc.) 
natTki, mygun 
naf tin, expresses all right 
naf Un la hSk, it Chen being all right 
nOf tflm, own, very, etc 
nQ Ti S chil'thlak, an ugly girl 
nQ vS iq' etii, a pielty girl 
nQ vi iq chi' klr ti. a very h andsome girt 
nQ Ti iq cbi ri' chQ ^k, a nice little girl 
nQ Ting kit i' hi lik, a great ugly girl 
na Ting silth' tlUtik, an old ugly girl 
nQ tQ', mire 

na Tlisg kill' ghl, I sprawl out on my back 
aaT* Tit. dried fish o( a certain Taiiety 
nGTyQn'^ I thread it 
na jtl eUng uiii' gSk, he has short hair 
nQ ylq' pik, one «ith a great Chick head of 

hair 
nQ yiqpaVgwIi, Dfl ylq p( fl' ^il, I am 

nflyiq pail liq' til, I generally keep my 

hair long 
dG ylq pall wl ktq' td i, my hail 1( too long 
nS'ytt. hair (used in plural) 
nQyfrq'tSi, I comb 
na yfr* ri ki. I comb him 
na ylr' rfl at, a comb 
nBylratnililq'tSI, I am nearly bald 

(i.e., I have almost no more hairs) 
nByt'til, I am bald 
nQ (hitq' pit, a trident spear for capturing 

geese 
liTlq'tak, a very low tide 



VOCABC/LARY 



3S9 



5 Iki rft' n8, a Uttle below 

5 ft kS rftn' td ft» I am a little below (Le., 

down stream) 
5 ftk'fftk, 5 ftk^fft nS, away down 
5 ftk' Urn, part of native house 
5 Ik II mlt^ to ft, I am in the oaklim 
&m kft katin ih' t5 ft, I am busy 
5 ftm"* nftq kSk, it is time lost 
ftm'' tft kft, I lose time with him 
5 ftm'' td ft, I trifle time away 
5 ftm yfln rS' t5 ft, I do not want to be 

bothered, lose time 
5 ftn^ down front, down stream 
5 ft' nS, forward 
5 ftn' t5k, he is forward 
5 t\f kft, my front lower half of body 
5 ftt mfiq 8t chfi kft' to ft, I just go a little 

way down the bank 
5 ftt mfiq" t5 ft, I walk down the bank 
oft'vflt, forwards 
ch5r' 'n5k, glory 
5g' nSrq' t5 ft, I threaten 
5g* n« a' tft kft, I threaten him 
5h'rfit, moss 



5 kS Um^ nft, I run swiftly 

5 k6 li' to ft, I do not run fast 

5 kS' maiik, it leaks (Le., it is perforated) 

5 kS' nftk, hole, a leak, etc. 

5 kS nftng' kft tOk, it is hollow, it has a hole 

m It 
k§' tft kft, 1 make a hole 
5 kirq' kft, I put in oil (into a lamp) 
kit' to ft, I burn myself 
5 klzh' vlk, shelter 
5 klzh vlq' t5 ft, I seek shelter 
hlsf k§ ftk, firewood 
Sk' nftq k6k, it is hot 

d'k5k, blubber of seal walrus, etc. ; also oil 
5' k5r sflk, cap 
5' k5r ad kft, my cap ^ 

5 k5r sfln' kft t5 ft, I have a cap 
rau' giift, I whoop, yell 

6 riin kin ri^t' 5 ft, I have no time 
6 rSn' k5 ft, I have time 

5 r6n ku' kQ mft, when I have time 
5rh' lu viik, native bow 
5rh' lil vttq' td ft, I carry (arm myself with) a 
bow 



pft ch«' = pft chSf , gills 

pft ch§' g5 ftk, nostril 

pft ch$ g5 ftq' kft, my nostrils 

pft gft'n§, up there (St. Michael) 

pft'gi, up (St. Michael) 

pftk, large (in composition) 

pftk' mft nft, up there 

pftk mftn' U ghdk, the one who is up 

pftk mftn' to ft, I am up 

pftk' td ft, I go to see 

pftk' fi ml nft, the one above 

pftk u ml nftlth' kfik, the one up there whom 

I dislike 
pft kjim' ydk, you aloft there 1 
pft 1ft hwa chai' rft St, term for those who 

work on the river steamers 
pftlfthwu'tftk, steamboat (Russian) 
pft Iftq' td ft, I take sparingly 
pft Iftt' kftk, tent (Russian) 
pft Iftf kd ft, I tent, pitch a tent 
pftlSq'tOk, sunburn; also the pain from 

wind and cold 



pftl' lat, they starve 

pft 15k' tftk, beaver 

pftldrftq'tdft, I dodge 

pft Ifig' naiiq' td ft, I spread out, lie spread 

out on the floor 
pft Ifiq' tft kft, I turn it over 
pft la' a kft, I shut it 

pft mft Ur' nOr' mit' td ft, I am down that side 
pft mft' llr' nOr rftk, down that side 
pft mft' nft, up 

pft mftn' 11 ^5k, the one who is down there 
pft mftn' td ft, I am up 
pft' ml nft, he back there 
pftm' kdk, hi, you two down there ! 
pftm mflq' td ft, I scratch (i.e.,to ease itching) 
pft mfing ghd ft' rd 5k, like the upper one 
pftm' ydk, you back there ! 
pftm' yti, tail of any animal 
pftm jrfiq' pft Ilk, comet = thing having a 

long tail 
pft' nftk, a variety of spear having a large 

blade 



36o 



ESSENTIALS OF INNUIT 



pAng gn&lth k& chS^ flq tSk, he lopes along 

easily (a dog) 
p&ng gn& Ifiq' t5k, he gallops 
ping'hfln, double-bladed paddle; also fin 

of a fish 
ping' ntr t5 1, I paddle 
pfl ning kA^ t5 i, I have a daughter 
pin ng' kS, my daughter 
p&q til'' ghQt, native fish-trap, single trap 
p& t& gis' kfl kA, I make him hurry 
pX tl gau' ^hl, I am in a hurry 
pX tXq t5q^ to i, I act hurriedly 
p& tlq to^ rft UL, I hurry him 
pXt' gl kX, I press on it 
pX thU^ tXk, heavy skin hung over entrance 

of kazhga, curtain 
pit' nflk, native measure, four inches 
p&' t5k, marrow of bones 
pflt^ snXk, the extreme polar cold 
pits' snaitdk, it is excessively cold 
pXt' stSk, a damp cold 
pflf tlg&kX, I pat it 
pit to'' X kX, I put the cover on it 
pXt tQ h' rX kX, I uncover it, take the lid o£f 
pX tfik'tXk, compressed ; also term for plug 

tobacco 
pau gulth' hrXm, you scoundrel up there 1 

(abusive) 
pail' gfi nX, part of river, from its centre to 

the shore 
paV IXt, a spark of fire 
pau wX' n$, somewhere up there 
pail wXn'lI gnSk, the one somewhere up there 
pail wXn' to X, I am somewhere up there 
pe, do 

p§ X', own, real, true (suffix) 
pe X' gX lik, a bear with her cubs 
p^^Xk (suffix) (1S2) 
pe X^ kX, I do it, it is my doing 
pe X' kX kX, it is my act 
p§ X' kX mX, whenever I do 
peXkauq'tdX, I resolve 
pe Xk kllg go X' kX, I am able to do 
pe Xk klig' 5 Xn, that which can be done 

by me 
pe Xk kllg' 5k, one able to work 
ps X kllg u' giiX, I am fit to do 
pe X' klik, one competent, able (suffix) 
pe X' k5 X, I do 
pe X' mX, because I do 
pe Xn rX chXq' kX, I would not do it 



p8 Xq' kXk, what has to be done 

pi Xq kail' gwX kX, I must, I have to do it 

pS X rX Xq tfl' txi, you are too early (idiom) 

p« chXg' y« kX' kX, I ask him for it 

pi chXg' yX rXk, petition 

pi chX' kX, my doing 

pi chXq' td X, I request 

pi chX il X' rX thlfiq, mode of doing 

pi'chik, true 

pi' chi kXk, berry basket 

pichiknXf t5X = pichiknX'tXkX, I am 

the one to do it 
pi chik shag' nX' k5k, he is likely to do it 
pi chiq tXn rfi' kX ni, how funny I 
pichiqarachIrkX'ti,Ill play a trick on 

you 
pi chir' il yX rXk, way of doing, mode, 

custom 
pi chir ri yX rX' kX, my custom, habit 
pi chir ri yX rXm' kfin, according to my way 
pi chir il yX rXng' kX t5 X, I have the custom 
pi chir ri yX rXq' thlfi kX, my bad habit 
pi chi' li gwik, it is truth 
pi chi' fi tOk, it is true 
pi i', up there 
pi'kX, pi'mX, mine 
pi kX' kX, it is mine 

pi kX' kX kX, it is for me, it is to be mine 
pi kX kin rX tX' kX, it is not for me 
pi kXn' II gnik, the one above 
pi kXn' thlflk, one who was above 
pi kXn' t5 X, I am above 
pi kX tX rXq' pQ ^hX, you are to treat me 
pi' kail, it is owned by, it belongs to 
pi kail' tl kX, it is to be mine 
pi kail t kin rX tX' kX, it is not to be mine 
pi ki' ghX, it impedes, prevents me 
pi kin rX tX' kX, it is not mine 
pi kil chX' kX, my ownership 
pe ku' mX, when I do 
pe kfi tX rail' ghX, I breakfast 
pe IXq' t5 X, I often do 
pi llq'to X, I abound in 
pi lu' gwuk, boots 
pe Ifiq' to X, I put on boots 
pi' mX II lit' nflk, any of mine 
pi' mX II lit' nflk, some of mine 
pi nX charq til' tii, you are too late (idiom) 
pe nXn k hi u' ghX, I am clumsy 
pi nXq k ku' mX, when I am able 
pi nXq thlfiq' n5k, bad luck 



VOCABl/LAJiY 



361 



pe n^iq thlfiq' t5 ft, I am unlucky 

pe nft rft kft pik' tl hrft nS, just in the right 

time 
p6 nS thl6^ a ^, I am strong 

V 

p6 nh' t k5k, he is vain 

p6 ning' ro dk, it is the stronger 

p6 nin'' rft, the stronger 

pe nlq tft' rdt kft kft, I play at trying to 

lift it 
pS nlr^ *lfi kuk, put some straw in my boots 
pin^rfik, socks woven from grass, foot 

covering 
penfiq'kftk, grass dried and prepared for 

use in native boots 
p6 nfiq shft^ k5 ft = pi nfiq shft' kft kft, I ought, 

I ought to do it 
p6 nfiq thlfiq'' t5 ft, I do badly (on purpose, 

understood) 
pi Ok', he is dead (i.e., done) (idiom) 
pi' 6q rft, * au revoir * (idiom) 
pi' 5q toft (neg., piOqtiiri'tift), Ido 
pi 5rq' tft kft, I make it 
pi pi yu' gwik, it is true 
pi pi y^n' rft tik, it is not true 
pi' pik, pi' pim, true doing (suffix) 
pir thli nft' kft, I always do it 
pir thli nftr' 1&' to ft, I always do much, or 

many things 
pir thli nft' t5 ft, I always do 
pi ru' tft kft, I exhaust it 
pi rfi' t5 ft, I have no more 
pi tft chft hft' kft, all I can, my utmost 
pi tft chft hftm'tfin, according to my ability 
pi tft cha' kft kft, it b my utmost endeavor 
pi tft' chim tfin, with all my might 
pi tftlth' kSr tdk, it is just enough, just right 
pi tftlth kfin ri' td ft, I had not enough 
pi tft nftq' kft ghft, it suffices me 

V 

pi tftng k 8ft' kik, there was onef (and it is 

yet, understood) 
pi tftng k 8fi' klo ft, I think I have it 
pi tft ti' II gnOk, big as possible 
pi tft' t kuk, they are both equal 
pi tau' ^ft, I have enough 
pi thiil' rft ft hwft, it may be I 
pi thlU rft ft' ^, maybe I did 
pithlfik', pithlfi'rfim, the having done, 

which is done 
pi' thifir kftk, which is to be done 
pi'thlfirkftkft, pi' thifir kft mft, it is my 

deed to do 



pi' tik klfi kfl, expresses on account of, by 

reason of, for 
pit naoq'ti ft, I may not = * non licet mihi' 
pit n xUth' ku mft, when I do not 
pi tfi' ^iift, I am an adept, accustomed 
pi tfiq chft rft yauq' td ft, I am an adept, 

skilled in using the bow 
pi fi' ^ft, I am doing 
pi fi' gwd ft, I am, exist 
pi fi' nik, the doing 

pi fin ill' rft ft, the late, deceased (idiom) 
pi fi rfif kft, my departed ones (idiom) 
pi yft thifiq'td ft, I overdo 
pi yi' kft, pi' win, pi' wi ft, my place to do 
pi yi' td ft, I have no place to do 
pi ying' kft tik, it can serve yet, can be used 

yet (idiom) 
pi ylq Id' to ft, I haye no place (i.e., no 

special) 
pi'wik, pi'wim, work place 
piyfts'kftk, name given to the game of 

checkers or draughts 
pi yfts kftq' to ft, I play checkers 
pi yfts kftr' Mk, checker-board 
pi yfts Id' to ft, I have no men (i.e., checkers) 
pi' yi ft, do I make ? 
piyfiithllq'kift = piyfiithllq'kftkft, I 

fail 
piyfi'gftkft = piyfin'rfttftkft, I want it 
pi yfi gi ft' kd ft, I would like 
pi yfi'ghft = pi'ft kft, I do, I make it 
pi yfilth' hftn kft, my selections = my wanted 

things 
pi yfi' nOk, the desire to do 
pi 3rfin rirq' kft, I destroy it 
pi yfin rSr ris' tft, destroyer 
pi 3rfiq' td ft (neg., pi yfin ri' to ft), I want 
pi yfi' tii, that will do now (idiom) 
pi, pim, hatch of a kiyak, mouth of a 

river 
pif kftq' kft, I let him do it 
pif kin nS, without me 
pif tft kft, I produce it, unpack or untie 
pi' ghft, its mouth (i.e., of a stream) 
pIk, pim, real (suffix) 
pi kftn' II ^Ok, the one who is above 
pi kirq t5 rft' kft, I strike him with something 
pi kirq tfi' tftk, native axe (Kuskokwim) 
pi ki' tft kft, I give it 
pIk' kft, it is his 
pIk kft' i^ft, he owns me, he supports me 



362 

plk ke'9 1( kl, 1 make it for him 
taU'aaU, my g^l, a. little trifle given 

me gratis 
plkT kt yan, pik' U yd tflm, a trifling gift 
pik kU ku' t9k, wauld i< vere mine I 
plk'krtldni, pIk bi m nl' kBn, from no- 
where 
pIk krl yi' ko 1. I try hard (i^., for > 

moment only) 
pik'nl, pi'kam. the top one 
^uii'iit, 1 without doing 
pIk ihl' ) tSk, it is not yet 
pi' ilK'ma, befotu (in composition) 
pi 111 la A ghS. I am making 
pU U r kl kl, I make it 
pule lie flm toi, fail to make 
^ li « Un' li t* Ul, 1 do not make it 
^ l« Ik ni thiaq' U U, I do it wrong, badlj 

(but without intending) 
pn It ik ikDn liiS-a, I do not allow him 

pD » tk' ate, pll H or aUn, maker 

pU If 16 1' bit tS I, 1 do well, do good work 

^ij'iUlk, the making 

pnii til' 'Tfk, workshop, working place 

pn W ti ki. I do to him, or for him 

pU le ta' gU, I am accustomed to do 

pn»r^l, r make 

pnityS'gnA, pniiTflld'gwii, I am a 

good worker 
pnili'U, a doer 

pn 15 a' kit te I, I do it well 

^TJd'gnj, I am doing 

pOthhS'ikl, I did it 

^th h6 &' gaS. I did 

pUth'kl, my having done, my deed in the 

pnth' kt k«. it is my deed 
plnggiiaun'ktMi, intelligent 
ping gD>' jwin, three pairs 
plng^gnflq'toA, 1 am getting worse 
ping giiEqU' tut, they play hop, skip, and 

jump 
[dng ^ yCq' ki nQk, threefold 
ping pu ySiq' tin kl, I have three 
ping ^i' yu ilk, third 
ping fill yu' It Bi. on the third 
ping ^i yflg" 'nOk. a native 

and a quarter inches 
ping pil yfl' gfit, there are t 
ping ghi' yQ lin, eight pairs 



ESSENTIALS OF INNUIT 



ping S^' yllD, three 

plng^'yfln I'pilt, linty (i.e., three 

twenties) 
plnggbl'yaD klo'nlrii Idkiteimtoexpress 

a triangle 
ping ^ yOn' U gSk, eighth 
plnggMyunHEit'nt, inoron the ughth 
plnggUyun'IIsglii, eight 
plug ghl yfln U gtq' tin ki, I have eight 
ping glJ ySn ISq' kS ndk, eightfold 
plug gill' yO iia, tenn for Wednesday 
plDggolyQ'tSI, I got three 
ping' ki til, 1 have 
plng'klng'nQr'ml, expresses even though, 

although 
ping' k nSk. the having 
ping'nl, the one back there 
pIngDik'kil, I try 
ping nik" n£k. energy 
plng'yok. jiJii up there 1 
pin kiga' ghwQ, do it again 
pin kiq Chi Ut' oik, you most not do it again 
pin Uq' tiki, 1 do it again, I repeat it 
pio Uq tf q kaUf ki nl, I resolved not to do 

plnklq ti'itbvO, do it over and over 

pin Uq ti' rl U, I do it over and over 

pin nik ai'ki U, I ought to do it 

plnnlqtirfif kika. I piny with i1 

pin rl cbiq'kt, I would not do it 

plD ti U li' ki, I almost do it 

pio tita' iniq ki, I cannot do it at all 

pin t>' ta I, I cannot (often used to express 

no) 
pin iB tar k« n«, I without fail 
plndf chii. do I not make? 
I>lD'rItIi,do not) 
pin' vS i, I make rope (native way of cutting 

a hide into strips) 

jdq kOn' ^li i, I encounter 

piq' ti UU I meet him 

plq tU ol yii' I tSk, it is unfrequented 

pIq til nl ya' ni nC, unfrequented 

[d rfii kCm' Idi, If I meet him 

pli hi tbll fl' gid, I make straw rope = plait 

pllbl'tUiik, cord made from straw 
plik' aik ^imperative suffix) (493) 
plr* ni fcek, a head wind 
^rq chi' kim klo, I will meet you 



VOCABl/LARV 



363 



pirq^ chSr tSk, the blizzard rages 

pirq t W r& St, the large double fish-trap 

pish tS ^fi' ^hft, I work for him = I am his 

workman 
pish t }sMf k&, my workman 
pis' k& k&, I order him to do 
pis' Idl hrX nfik, that which I am ordered 

to do 
pis kll hrftf nfiiit to the place I am ordered 
pis Idl hfin r& chi' rft k&, I do not order him 

to do it 
pis'" kfin, a duty 

pis kQn r& ti'k&, I tell him not to do it 
pis kfi' t U, my duty, what I am ordered 

to do 
pIssSq'tdft, I hunt 

piszdrq'tdfl, I hunt (Nunivak = Tununa) 
pi tft' Uk, a kiyak with three hatches 
pltin^kft, my game, the amount brought 

back from a hunt 
pit gft rftn' kl, I shot it (i.e., with an arrow) 
pi thlSq' k& kl, my end, what I have to do 
pi thUl ri r gnA, perhaps I did 
pi thlln' n& dk, quoth he 
pit kll' t5 X, I shoot with the bow 
pit' mik, a dead-fall trap 
pit m5q' t5 ft, I go to the mouth of the river 
pit sft'kld kfl, intending 
pit sft' ko ft, I feign 

pit sft kfif kS nft' ku, without intending 
pit'sft kfin, intention of doing 
plt'stftkft, I allow him 
pit stft rO ch§' yft r&k, an accusation 
pit tlq chft' td ft, I discharge an arrow 
pit tlq' chaun, arrow; also name of the 

constellation Orion 
pit tu' gft kft. Hasten or tie (dog, understood) 
pit tfiq' chft rftk, native lance or javelin 
pi tfl' ^hft, I am accustomed 
ply zhe ft rft' kft, I finish it (Tununa) 
piyQq'tft kft, I present him food 
piz zft kir ra St, name given to the Innuit 

of the Yukon Delta by those on the 

Kuskokwim 
plz zft' kiiq to ft, I speak as the Delta Innuit 
plA' g§ nftt, term for imported rope 
pl5k, plfim, ashes (Tununa) 
plulth'kft, my passage 
pIQm' ghun, tool for scraping skins 
pifiq ksi' t5k, it has not yet calmed down 
pliiq' to ft, plu' gft kft, I pass 



plQq'tdk, it calms down (i.e., it passes) 

(idiom) 
po ft thlah' ghft, I dance 
p5 ch6 kftq' t5 ft, I fall face downwards 
po kftq' t5 ft, I bump my head 
p5 k6' chftk, term for a button 
po kS chft' kft kft, expresses I button it 
po Ug ^h5q' t5 ft, I improve more 
p5 klq' t5 ft, I improve 
po klft' nSrq tdk, it is hot 
p5 klft nil' rft ft, hot 
prft'rftkft, I wipe it 
i thlft' gd ft, I stray, get lost 
^ tUft' tft kft, lied him astray 
i thlau' ghft, I am lost 
^ thlo' ftn, having passed, elapsed 
^ thlfiq' t5k, it elapses 
^ tfing' tft, dorsal fin, spines along the back 

of a fish 
pflg gS 5rq' t5 ft, I imagine 
pfi' gd ft, I enter a house 
pfig wS yS' thlftq tdk, it rises to the surface, 

it bobs up 
pQg' yft rftk, entrance hole in the floor of 

native house 
pd kft' § ^ftk, wisdom 
puk chft ko' nftk, do not move = keep still 
puk chl thlSq'td ft, I move quickly, dodge 
puk' kor* wit, back of the hand 
pfik' sdk = pfik' sat, egg 
pak' sum T' zhe ft, yolk of egg 
pjik' sum kll' tS, eggshell 
pjik sii' td ft, I gather eggs 
pfik tft kO' tftk, the float used on fish-nets 
piik til gh6q' to ft, I am tired walking 
pfik tilth' kft, my walking 
piik t Iftq' t5 ft, I can walk, am able to 
piik' t5 ft, I move 

pQ 1ft rftq' td ft, I hunt in the woods 
pQ' ling tftk, expresses often 
pu ling' tft kft, I frequently do it 
pQl Ift' g5 ft, I stray (in the woods) 
pul lau' gnft, I go through the woods, 

traverse 
ptil 1! yft rftq kwlrq' t5 ft, I go along the wood 

path 
pul U yft rftq' pdt, path made by going for 

wood 
pfil lug' 'nftk, mud, mire 
pfil Ifig' nftq k5k, it makes muddy (said of 

wet weather) 



364 



ESSENTIALS OF INNUIT 



pfil Ifiq'' thld n§, he smears himself 

pfil Ifiq' td ft, I am dirty, muddy, smeared 

pdlq^ kSk, the midrib of a leaf 

pfilth'kflt5&, I go through 

pfin g& lis kaim r6^ td ft, I need feel no anxiety 

pfin gft'' tft kft, I am anxious about him 

pfingft^tdft, I worry 

pflng gftq' thlfiq, anxiety, concern, worry 

pttng gild kfi chu' chd ft, the same as pttng- 

^Sqpftk, but very small 
pfing gnd ku chQ^ hwdk, the same, large 

enough for a few steps 
pfing gh6q^ pftk, small hillocks scattered 

over the tundra 
pfl^nSk, the having 
pfi pS^ k§, one with smallpox 
pfip^ sG Uk, crab 

pfip sfi Uk sfiq^ t5 ft, I go crabbing, hunt crabs 
pfip sfiq' td ft, I use scissors, I cut with 
pHq chft ^' gnft, I curve it 
pQq chl^ sfin, mould for curving the front of 

the runners of a sled 



p8q hreu' chS tilt, native tool for carding 

pfiq' tft kft, I let him go, free him 

pfiq' tank, it floats 

pfiq' taiin, lung (Tununa) 

pfiq tin' rft tdk, it is not strong 

pfiq' t inth hftn kft, what I use no more 

pfif t5 ft, I bend my head 

pfi tfis' kftk, pillow 

pfi yft lau' ^ift, I cook 

pfi yi' i9 tdk, the swelling subsides 

pfi' y5kf it swells, inflames 

pfi 3rll' rft ft, smoking 

pfi ylrq' tSk, it smokes 

pfi ylr' 'yft rftk, chimney, smoke pipe 

pfi'ydkf smoke 

pfi ydk' nfik, soot 

pfi y5q' chft vik, place to smoke dried fish 

pfi y5q' kftk, term for gunpowder (Le., what 

will be smoke) 
pfi yoq' kft thlfik, powder grime 
pfi y5q tfi' tftk, pipe for tobacco 



rft' S nft kft, my voice 

rft h nftk' k chS fi ghft, I have a good voice 
rft S ni' rfi t5 ft, I am hoarse, I have no voice 
rft' thlfik, an old or stale fish roe 



rS, xlk, rit, fish roe 
rSt'ttSk, without (suffix) 
ffa mlq' chfin, washbowl 
f h mlq' to ft, I wash my face 



sft gS ghi y^ wftn' kft, I want them in a row 

or line 
aft' gS naut, they are in a row 
sft' kft sSk, a grade in sorcery next to that 

of a tuyuk 
sft li' yftk, a summer storehouse for fish 
sftq chim' numk, it is spread out 
sftq ko ftr rft et, which are nearly in a line, 

name of a constellation 
sftq'tft kft, I open, unfold it, spread it 
se yft' td ft, I emerge from woods, etc. 
%h yuk', sparrow 

sTq' t5 ft, I cut up salmon for drying 
skftf tftn kft, I scatter them 
8ku' tftk, the sheet rope in native sailboat 
sift, slftm, weather, sky, out of doors 
sift' ghft to ft, I realize 
sift \}k! ko 5k, it changes suddenly to warmer 

weather 



sift' kft, my senses 

sift kft chS' Q ^hft, I am out (Le., of doors) 

sift kft k6' nft, you must be careful 

sift' kft kS G, be careful of it 

sift' klr tSk, it is fine weather 

sift Idl ho' kfi mft, if I had been careful 

sift k td ri nftq' t5k, it clears up at last (the 

weather) 
sift Uk' k ^hft, advise me 
sift Ur' rft kft, I advise him 
slftm kU le g5q' tft, observer of the universe, 

old term for God 
slftm nftn ^Ith' hift nfin, untU the end of 

the world 
slftm pe 5q' tl hrft ft, creation of the world 
slftng chftq' kft, term for I punish him 
slftng chftq' t5 ft, I reflect 
slftng kSr thlftq' t5 ft, I have good sense 
slftng kin' rft t5k, he is a fool = has no sense 



VOCABULAJiy 



365 



sUlng^ thlfiq tdk, it is bad weather 

%W Bhfin, term for thermometers, etc. 

sU' thlfik, rain 

bU thlfiq k& t& yfig' nl' kdk, it looks as if it 
was about to rain 

%VSi' thlfirq t5k, it rains 

sirgdX, I whet 

si!'" U gndk, an idiot, one without intelligence 

alln, whetstone 

all' t5 ft, I am idiotic, I lack intellect 

Bl5q tftr rl yft t5q' t5 ft, I go sliding (amuse- 
ment) 

8l5q' t5 ft, I slide on the ice for fun 

Bldr tftq' to ft, I slide (chUd's word) 

snft'' ft kft, I go by its shore (definite) 

snftk, the banks (dual) 

Bnft]< 'mS fit, coast dwellers 

snft Bfiq'' t5 ft, I hunt along the shore 

snS, its bank or edge 

snSk'tftk, another term for bear (Le., that 
feeds along the bank) 

snSq k5]< to ft, I go along the bank = walk 

snSq^ shlq tdk, it is too close to the bank or 
edge 

sn6q't5 ft, I go along the shore 



spitch' kftt, matches (Russian) 

Btft, doer (suffix) 

Btft mft'' ko nS, in four 

8tft mft'' k5 nfik, four times, fourfold 

Btft mft"* to ft, I get four 

Btft mauq'' tftn kft, I have four 

Btft mft^ w5k, it is four 

Btft mSk', fourth 

Btft^mSn, four 

Btft^ mSn %' piftt, eighty 

Btft' m6 xln, term for Thursday 

Btft'' mS lit n6, on Thursday 

Btft' min, four pairs 

BtS, its maker (suffix) 

Bto' ftk, the white whale or beluga 

Bto kft' t5 ft, I drift down with the current 

Btd' gnft, I am drifting 

Btiik, finger-nail 

Btu kft' t5 ft, I knock, tap with my nails 

Btu mS ft' to ft, I scratch, to hurt 

Btfim' kft rhft, it clutches it (bird of prey) 

Bfik, sweat 

Bfik'ktdft, I sweat 

Bfin' nftk, sailboat (Russian, Kuskokwim) 

Bfiq'tdk, he is tall 



tft' chSk, bay, native name of St. Michael 

tftft&k,clam 

tftg'gd ft, I come = up from shore (861) 

tftg g5q' td ft, I go inland 

tft' ghfin, harpoon (large size) 

a g5' ft kft, I hold it 

tft ga mft ft' kft kft, I have hold of it 

tftgamftftkBfiqyft'kftkft, I offer to take 

hold of it 
tft gu' m§ ftt, expresses weapons in general 
tft gang nft kft' kft, I try to take it 
tft gtis' t kftk, expresses soldier, etc., one 

who will take captive 
a gfi thlft gft' kft, I grab it 
a ga' tit ch5 ftq chSk k5 ft, I will take a little 
agatlftk'tdft, I snatch 
tft gaf n5k, taking 
tft ga yftq p6 ftq' kft, I start to take it but 

do not 
tft ga' yft rftk, handle, thing to take by 
a ga' yft rft kft, I would take- it 
tft ga' y^n, native basket 



tft ga' yttq pft ft' rft kft, I start to touch him 

but withdraw 
tft' httn, in that direction 
tft' kftk, vein 

tft kft' kft kft, I honor him 
tft' kft nfik, stick to hold a kettle over the 

fire 
tft k§' tft kft, I change my mind 
tft ket nft rft' kft, I kill it (at one blow) 
tft k5 a' ^iift, I reconsider ; also means I cut 

a vein 
tftk'fft, oh, how long I 
tftk f ft k5q' tft, it is too long 
tftk fg ft 1ft' mft, because I do not see far 
tftkfe ft'U ^dk, one with weak sight 
tftkfS ft'td ft, I have poor sight 
tft Un' ro dk a' mS, it is longer than thb 
tftk kft yft k5' nftk, do not change your mind 
tftk Idk kaim liq' t5 ft, I am determined 
tftk k! yft' lu n£, oblong 
tftkklftq't5ft« I lie down 
ak'koft, I finish 



366 



ESSENTIALS OF INTUIT 



tAk' k5 Ue, provision for a journey 

tAk kil' kA, the brown bear 

t&k kO^ kAm ft' mb ft, a brown bear's skin 

tftk ka' kftm Iq' ti, a bear's den 

tftk kfi' kftt t5 ft, I kill a brown bear 

tftk kw§' g5 ft, I look after the fish-trap 

tftk mftr hrftt, old clothes, etc. 

tftk nft thliiq' tft kft, I do it carelessly (Le., I 
end it badly) 

tftk dk klarq' t5 ft, I reverence 

tft k5 mau'' ghft, I am in readiness 

tftkd'tdft, I finish 

tft k5 tfik Shi' t5 ft, I have not ended yet 

tftk" skft kft, I Stop him 

tftk sfi kftq'' t5 ft, I am weary 

tftk sQ koV tft kft, I am tired of it 

tftk'tft. Id 3rfi'tQm, how long 

tftk' tatik, hwft' tfi, it is so long, it is this long 

tftk this ftq' t5 ft, I do good work (i.e., I end 
it well) 

tft kfif kft rft' kft, I make him stop 

tft kfi mftn' lil ^5k, it is not ready 

tft kfim chfi kft' kft, I have mercy on him 

tft kflm chfi tftr rft et, the merciful ones 

tft kfi' mS fit, the people there, the residents 
there 

tft kfl mXf t5 ft, I am in presence of 

tft kflm' nS, before me, in my presence 

tft' kfir'nftk, honor 

tft kfir' nftq' kSk, it is honorable 

akuyftq'tdft, I reflect 

tft kfi yft' rft kft, I look back at it 

tft kfi yft rft yS kft' kft, I turn and look at him 

tft kfl yft' to ft, I turn away 

tft' Ilk, place where (suffix) 

tftl IS' nfik, shadow 

tftl Ifi' glift, I use a bodkin 

tftl' Ifin, native bodkin of ivory 

tftl Id yftn' kft, my fish-trap 

tftl Ifi yft' nfik, native measure, fifty-four 
inches 

tftl IQ yftq' pSt, large fish-trap (used for white- 
fish) 

tftl Ifi yftq pir' *yik, place for setting one of 
the large fish-traps 

tftl Ifi y§t', the small variety of fish-trap 

tft'mft, at once 

tft mft' Un kft, all my lost things 

tft mft klau' gw5k, it is almost all 

tft mftlth' kSk, aU 

tft mftlth kfi' gw5k, it is entire 



tft mftlth kfin zH' ^k, what is not entire 

tft mftn' U ^bttk, the one who is over there 

tft mftn tl ^hSq' k t5 ft, I tire of staying there 

tft mftn' tSk, it is there 

tft mftq' Un kft, all of both 

tft mft' rft kft, I lose it 

tft mS' nS, everywhere 

tft mSn' t5k, it is everywhere 

tft mi', there it is 

tft mit' nS, expresses any time 

tftm IQ rfi tin' kft, I tattoo him 

tftm Ifi' rfi tit, tattoo marks on chin, etc. 

tftm md ft' gft kft, I chew it 

tft'mfllfi, chin 

tftng, see I behold ! there I 

tftn' gftk, darkness 

tftn' gftq pSt, a variety of native berry 

tftn' gftq stSk, tftng' gfiq stSk, it is dark 

tftng' Srq stSk, it is visible, it lets itself be 

seen 
tftng gau hftng £bJSi' rSk, a bad boy 
tftng gaii' hd 15k, boy 
tftng gaii hfi Ifl chfi' ghftk, a nice boy 
tftng ghin rfin' r6rq tSk, it is no longer to be 

seen 
tftng ^fiq aft' kft, I look for in vain 
tftng ^fiq thlft rft' kft, I usually see it 
tftng hfi mftq' kftk, that which is to be seen 
tftng hfi mail' ghft, I am seen 
tftng hfi tfik 81' t5 ft, I see no effect 
tftng kS' tdk, it is dark (without light) 
tftng' kig tit ti h5k, there was no light 
tftng' kik, light (used also for glory) 
tftng kil' rft ft, shining (used also for holy) 
tftng klq' pft, most brilliant = how j^orious 
tftng klq' std ft, I become holy 
tftng kiq tail' nft nS, without light 
tftng kiq' tdk, it shines 
tftng IS dq' t5 ft, I repair my snowshoes 
tftng 15 ftq't5 ft, I walk on snowshoes 
tftng 15 rftng r5't5 ft, I do not t&e snowshoes 
tftng Ifi' 5 15 ft, I have no snowshoes 
tftng' IQk, a snowshoe 
tftng Ifink' t5 ft, I have snowshoes 
tftng Ifi rft' thlfit, the Via Lactea (Le., snow- 
shoe track) 
tftng yft gft' kft, I see him 
tftng y&lth' kft, what I saw = my seen thing 
tftng vau' rft kft, I gaze at it 
tftng yS ft' Ifiq t5 ft, I scowl 
tftng vuk si' tft kft, I never see it 



VOCABl/LARV 



367 



tftp^ rflk, native rope 

tftp^ tft kft, I fold it over, double it 

tftpt&rr&gk, expresses a pocket knife, 

which folds over twice 
tftp tft' rl yX rflk, another term for a pen- 
knife 
tiq ch6 a' ^hl, I win (Le., in gambling) 
tftq chir rX' k&, I summon him 
t&qhrd'tit, bunch of twigs used in the 

vapor bath 
tftq hr§ Q' ^hH, I use the taqhretit to pro- 
mote perspiration 
tiq' tA k&, I take it up from (Le., the water) 
tft ift' y5k, salt 
tft r& yOk' fftk, a king salmon 
ti r& y5k f&k tSq'" to ft, I eat king salmon 
tftrftySkfftktdrlyfiq'toft, I want to eat 

some king salmon 
tft rft ySk'fS ylk, June (salmon season) 
tftr6^k2kft, I am on the lookout for him 

(i.e., to defend myself) 
tft r§' nft kft, I notice it 
tft r^n^ gho ft, I understand 
tft rin^ nft kft, I understand him 
tft' rSn rftk, picture 

tft r$n rft d]< rfl tftk, term for a mirror, look- 
ing glass 
tft rSn rft shftq' tSk, he evokes the ^ott 
tft rSn rft fiq' to ft, I look in a mirror 
tft rSn r§ fi' hfin, term for a mirror 
tft ling nftk sft'' kft kft, I ought to notice 
tft zlq saiiq'' tftn kft, I protect my property 
tft zlq sauq' t5 ft, I look out for myself 
tft rfi^ man 
tft rfl yftq' rft rfin, ornament held in the hands 

during a dance 
tfts sG kft' kft, I lead him by the hand 
tfts' t5q t5k, expresses it does not fit 
tfts to' rft kft, expresses it does not fit me 

(i.e., I exceed it) 
tft tft' m5 ft, I get startled 
tft tftm' tft kft, I startle him 
tft' this kft, my arm 
tft thlSr' mS xln, term for Friday 
tft thlSr' pi kft, my right arm 
tft thllk Ir' rfik, his foreleg 
tft thllrq'tSkf he has a broken arm 
tft thlfir nft pSt' IS, I am very glad of it 
tft thlfir yak' td ft, I am bashful 
tftt kft ft' kft, I put it up on supports 
tftt kS IS' kS a, put it up on supports 



tftt kS mftl' rft ft, which is on supports 

tftf Idk, supports (i.e., four poles or oars 

tied in pairs and extended) 
tftt Idm' mauk, it is on supports 
tftt IS mft' k5 nfik, five times, fivefold 
tftt IS mau' gtit, there are five 
tftt IS mauq'tftn kft, I kUl five, get five 
tftt IS' mSk, fifth 
tftt IS' mSn, five 

tftt IS' mSn S' pS ftt, one hundred 
tftt IS mSf nS, on the fifth 
tftt IS' min, five pairs 
tftt' stakfin, hope 
tftt 8tfi kfi ti kft'kft, I hope 
tftt tlS' ft hiftt, bracelet 
tft' tflk, forehead 
ta'u' ghSk, he is the one 
tail ^5q chft ft' kft, I know he is the one 
tau ^Q chS' tft kft, I cannot say that he is 

the one 
tail ^fi' fnft, I am that one 
tau ^fiq chin rft tft' kft, I did not find out 

that he is the one 
tao' gwftm, but, only 
tail' mfik, expresses that is why 
tail' nft, taiim, that, that one 
tail' nftk, term for whiskey (corruption of 

English tonic) 
taiinftr''vlk, term for saloon (place where 

whiskey may be had) 
tail' ghS nftk, for no reason 
tail ghfi ^S' Ifi kfl, in vain 
tft' zhSk, bay (St Michael's trading post) 
tchflp&q'tdft, I blow 

tchfip' pfit, drifting ice floes = blown about 
t hftlth' kSk, rock or large stone 
t hftlth' ko pftk, a large rock 
this' ft kft, I place it 
this' ghS nftk, for no reason 
this hfti'ft kft, first I replace it 
this m6q to' rft kft, I urge him 
this mu rft' kft, I notify him 
this' rftk, an orphan 
this rft rail' gw5 ft, I am an orphan 
this rft rail' bd 10k, a poor boy, an orphan 

boy 
this rft ratiq' hd Ifi gw5 ft, I am an orphan 

boy 
this thlfiq' kft nttk, the placmg or putting 
this yS kft' kft, I put it, place it 
this yS' tft kft, I have no place to put it 



368 



ESSENTIALS OF INNUIT 



thr gnUq tSk, it leaks 

thllm'' mS kfln, in vain, by oneself 

tbllng^ \ gnSk, in vain 

thlmlU a bit (suffix) 

thld^'ftk, holiness 

thlo & tfin^ r& tSk, it is worn out, no good 

thld'kSU, my bolas 

thl5' kuk, bolas, weapon for capturing geese 

thl6q^ til kl, I arrange it 

thld §' g5 ft, I am well, happy 

thliiq, old (suffix) 

ti &' tft kft t& kr ghwfl, when he is about to 

bring it 
ia! chSr t5k, it is foggy, there is a fog 
tich kft' td ft, I approach 
ti' Sm gndk, the absent one 
ti^ § tft kft, I hand it over, bring it . 
tif kftlth kfin rft tft' kft, I prevent his coming, 

hinder him 
tif^kfttdk, it storms 
^' gftk, a comer 
tiggliagft'kft, I steal it 
tig gl Ifiq' to ft, I am a thief, I steal 
tig gw6^ go ft, I reclaim, take back 
tlg^Unfik, theft 
tig rthlfik, thief 
tik kftq^ kft, I conceal, bury it 
tilth'' kft, my coming 
tim' mak, the two strips of the sled on which 

the runners are put 
ting ail 18 u' ghft, I shoot on the wing 
ting ghaiir rft ft, something flying 
ting ^hn^ rft nft kdk, aft wind (i.e., good for 

sailing) 
t^g ghn rail' tftk, a sail 
ting' la kft, my fist 
ting 10 wft' kft, I strike him with my fist = 

I fist him 
ting mft ft' chfi ^hftk, a nice little bird 
ting mft Sng^ chS kSk, it will soon be the 

goose season 
ting mft ft' ndk, the annual coming of the 

geese, ducks, swans, etc. 
ting mft ftr' 'vik, arrival of the geese 
ting mft ft 85q' to ft, I hunt geese 
ting' mft ftt ing ^a' tSt, July 
ting' mft ftt ting ^fi' tet, August 
ting mS i' yftk, bird 
ting nail' t5k, it flies, soars 
ting' n5k, it flies 
tin klq'to ft, I come again, return 



tis' kft kft, I call him, make him come 

ti Bfi S ti' t5 ft, I have nothing to come in, 
no conveyance, boat or sled 

ti' sftn, a conveyance of any sort 

ti' tiik, haze, fog 

ti' wik, source, origin 

ti yftr^ 'nfl kft, my wrist 

ti yft' mft, away 

ti yh mftn' tSk, he is away 

ti yft mftf mfin, expresses accidentally with 
verbs of finding, etc. 

ti yftm' ^dk, absent 

ti jrfi'ndk, the desire to come 

t k6f kft rft yfiq t5 ft, expresses I am home- 
sick, wishing to return 

t k5' t5 ft, t kS' tft kft, I come, I bring it (842) 

t kS r tft kft, I come with it 

t Idk', t kSm^, the wax in the ear 

t kSk', the index finger 

t mft', torso, body deprived of head and 
limbs 

t mft' kft, my body 

tmft'thlfik, dried fish 

t nfik' thlfir tdk, it aches 

t5 ftlth', so (abbreviated form) 

t5 ftm' tftt Ifi, and so 

t6 ft' n€, over there 

t5 ftn tft rft thlft n§' a ^hft, I am over there 
yet 

td ftn' td ft, I am over there 

tdft'piftk, just like 

t5 ft' thlftm, t5'i ftm, again 

tSft'thlft, and then 

t5 ft' this tau' nft, so be it 

to ft this' to ft, and so then 

to ft' thlfl, td ftm' thlfl, then 

td ft' thlfl hdk, and so then 

to ft' thlfi h5k ftm, and so then again 

to ft' thlfl h5k hw!, and so it is then 

t5 ft thlu' n8, therefore, that is why 

to ft' tii, thus, this way, so 

to ft tii n&f kft rft' kft, I determine it thus 

td ft' ^ thlu, and thus 

to ft tft thlfi chfi 1ft', and so on 

td ft virq' td ft, I go thither 

td ft yflq thli' nfik, just the right place 

td ft' vfit, yonder (motion towards) 

tdh' hlfik, Adam*s apple 

td'i, all right = enough, yes, just so, etc. 

. to' i d kd kft, I suppose, take it for granted 

td' I ghdk, it is all, it is the end 



VOCABULARY 



369 



t5 1 QifLn' rft t5k, neg. of tdignfik, expresses 

• au revoir,* farewell 
tdl^fin'r&tdk t5 i ya' hwft, good by 
td''ihdk, just so 
to' i U, is it all right ? 
to' i y^ hwft, of course 
t5k klo' rfl U, I designate it, call it 
tOk'mlk, bucket (Russian) 
to k5 chAq tSk' tS ti, who come to slay 
tSkdche'thlfik, t5k5ch$tri6, tokfitiri^- 

yQle, murderer 
t5 W chin nfik, murder 
t5ko'^, I die 
to k5 m&l' rfl &, t5 k5 mflr rft St, the deceased, 

the dead 
t5 k5 mil rfl &q' tftk, thing belonging to the 

dead 
td ko mil ri r t& Hk, graveyard 
td k5' mauk, he is dead 
t5 k5' nik, death 
t5 ko nlq' kSk, deadly 
t5' ko nfir> 16, a kUler 
to' kd nSr' Ilk, one having power to kill 
t5 ko nl It' tdk, that he may die 
t5 kd sti 1§ I' kl, I save him from death 
t5 ko' thlfiq, the deceased person 
td ko y^ §r U ^nfik, immortal, one who is 

deathless 
t5 kfl chlq td rl' kl, I went to kill it 
tdkfi'tftkl, I kill him 
t5 ku' tl kl, my murdered one, whom I killed 
tdq'tuUk, lynx 
tq' hi, the bottom 
tq'hinfin, Smiq'pdm, to the bottom of 

the sea 
tq hd fi' ^I, I am stiff in my joints 
tr6 kin' ny Ik, wolverine 
tfi Im' 85k, native bead ornament 
tfi chllth' hiik, hole pierced in lower lip to 

hold labret 
tfidglq'tol, I dodge 
tfif chlq pe Iq' to I, I almost choke 
tfif thlfik, a choked person 
tfif to I, I choke 
tfi ghllth' kSk, near to, a relative 
tfi ^Ith' ko kl, my relative 
tfig'nfik, spot in a river curve where the 

current hits the bank 
tfig' rl kl, I ram it, I beat against it 
t&k kl Iq' tl kl, I come on it suddenly, 

unexpectedly 



tfik' nIk, power 

tfik' nl kl, my power 

tfik ning kl' t5 1, I possess power 

tfik'nfik, native measure, three-quarters of 

an inch 
ta kSq'tfit, they hatch (eggs) 
tfik' 8fi kik, bird's tail 
tfi kfi'gwd I, I am rich 
tfi kfi' td I, I get rich 
tfi kfi tfi' kd I, owl 
tfi Ifi'klk, tfi Ifi'kl rfik, tfi Ifi kaii' gdk, raven 

(this bird has several names) 
tfi Ifi' kl rfim ting Ifi rl rllth' hid, the Milky 

Way (i.e., the raven's snowshoe track) 
tfi' ml (plur., tfi'mfit), track, trail (used 

for road) 
tfi' mik, hollow of the hand 
tfi ml' kl, my palm 
tfi ml' Idt, one of the many varieties of 

Alaskan berries 
tfi mlq' tl kl, I repair it 
tfi mlq' td I, I follow its trail 
tfim' chl nIk, fun 
tttm chl nlq' kdk, funny 
tfi mllth' hrlt, an old trail, hard to discern 
tfi mi' rfi tdk, there is no trail any more, the 

trail is lost 
tfim' kl, my trail 
tfim kl chin r6' td I, I have not a good trail 

or road 
tfim ke d' rl kl, I make the road (i.e., beat 

down the snow), I guide 
tfim kd drq' tl, a road shower = guide, pilot 
tfim k 8fi d rfi' tit, unt ravelled 
tfim' Id dk, a somnambulist 
tfim mil' td I, I make a noise 
tfim mil gnfi' ^2il, I am voraciously hungry 
tfim' nIk, native bowl for food (large size) 
tfim thlfiq thldq' td I, I have a bad road, 

hard travel 
tfim ti' I tdk, there is no trail 
tfi mfik' klfi kfi, expresses through 
tfimfing'knfik, opp>ort unity 
tfim' yl rit, a long trail 
tfing ghfin kd pik' tl, pupil of the eye 
tfing'kl, tfing' Ukl, my next brother, 

sister 
tfing' Id I, next 
tfing Id In' 11 ^dk, the third (i.e., the one 

next to the second) 
tfing II U' rl kl, I put myself next to him 



370 



ESSENTIALS OF INNUIT 



tdng m&q chS fi' 'j^iiX, I prepare a body for 

burial 
tang m&q' tft kfl, I lay him in a coffin 
tfing nl' k& td ft, I crouch down 
tfing rft ^i! zftk, devil (Tununa) 
tang rft ghryftk, devil (Yukon) 
tfing rft ghr yim &^ ne, hell (abode of the 

devil) 
tflng^ rft Ilk, sorcerer (i.e., one having a 

devil) 
tang rft d' gnft, I practise sorcery 
tun' nft kft, I give it 
tfln nd' ft nS, in behind 
tiin no' ftn to ft, I am just behind 
tun nu' chfl kft, back of my head 
tiinnu'grfln, a slough (a branch which 

leaves the river and re-enters it) 
ttin nfi' kft, my back 
til' ndk, back fat of deer 
tttn' stft, the giver 
tfin'td, deer 

tfin'tum k5' md gft, venison 
tfin td' rd ftk, picture of a deer 
tdn tu ro ft lie d' ghft, I draw a deer 
tdn td sg' gdt, jack-snipe 
tdn tu sir'' t5 ft, I hunt deer 
tdn' tut Ir* ni' yg ftt, a name for May = 

fai^Ti time 
tdn td'td le, deer hunter 
tdn td tu' Ilk, deer hunting ground 
tdn tu' vftk, a moose 
tdn tu vftq' chdn, a dog trained to hunt 

deer 
tdn td yft' gftk, fawn 
tdn td ydq' pftk, Ursa Major (i.e., the great 

stag) 
tu nu' hftk, a bit of deer tallow 
td nul' rft ft, black 
td ndq' pftk, a black dog 
td pftq shft gft' kft, I try to wake him 
td pftq' td ft, I rise (i.e., from sleep) 
td pail mail' ^hft, I am awake 
tu pail tftq' to ft, I breakfast 
td p§' gftk, native mat made of grass 
td pg' gft kftt, straw suitable for mats, mat 

straw 
tu p€ gft lis d' ghft, I am making a mat 
td piq' to ft, I weave mats 



tdp' ker chatin, term for perfume 

tdp'p5k, it drifts ashore 

tdp psft' k5k, it stinks 

tdp pd' mft kftn, when it drifts ashore 

tdp pd mft' kid kd, bemg cast ashore 

tdp pd'maiik, it is jetsam 

tfiq chftr r6 d' glift, I temper it 

tuq' hSk, it b hard 

t&q' hd tftk, a splint 

tdq' kft rftt, fossils 

tdq' xh ftk, ermine 

td rd'tdk, the two side strips of a sled 

td' tft kft, I cross over it 

td tft' ro ftt, roseberries 

td' t ghft rftk, a grandchild 

td t ghft rail* Idq kll' rft Sk, a grandmother and 

grandchild 
td t ghft rail' 15q' '15 kft, my poor grandchild 
td t ghft rail' *lu kft, my friend 
td t ghft rail' Id thldq' kft, my false friend 

V 

tu t ghft thld' gwft, my child (to address) 

td tl hu chft' kft, my arrival (past) 

tdt mft rft' kft, I step on it 

td'^toft, I cross over (859) 

td'' tdt, isolated stranded blocks of ice (860) 

td yds' kg, constipated 

td yd tft' ^hft, I am constipated 

tdy y§ ft' Idk, bad, clumsy (suffix) 

tdy'yo ft, I go across, portage a canoe from 

one creek to another 
tdy ywS' nftk, over and over 
tdy' yft rftk, portage place 
td yd chft' kft, my arrival on the other side 

(present) 
td y^' gwd ft, I am a ruler 
td'ydk, a ruler 
td yd' rft kft, I send it over 
td y^ ydq'' to ft, I want to send 
td zhe' tl rft ft, a cripple 
td zhgf nSk, lameness 
td zh§t fi rSt' n6k, not being lame 
td zhg' td ft, I am lame 
td zhg tdf kg nft' nS, I without being lame 
tdzh' kft, my shoulder 
t yft' tdy yftk, the large snipe 
t yg thlg nil' rft ft ft' kftq tft, the setting sun 
t yir' t5k, it sets (i.e., the sun) 
t ydq' stft kft, I get him to go behind 



VOCABULARY 



371 



U 



fi' chS, load 

fi ch6 k&^ fhl, he has me as a load, in the 

same kiyak 
u chS llrq' t5 ft, I load up 
a chS^ rft kll, I unload it 
d ch6' t5 &, I have no load 
d ching^ kfl t5 fl, I have a load 
d chd^ ft tSk, vain 
d^ chdk, genitalia 
d §^ husband 

d 6f tftng^ kft tdk, it is round 
dSgSft'kdft, I strive 
d h' ^5 ft, I marry (woman speaking) 
d e^ kft, my husband 

d e^ klft kfi, marry me (woman speaking) 
d W sko ft, I propose marriage 
d §1^ g&k, widow 
d e^ 15k, small native spoon 
d elth^ kft, d h' thll mft, my quondam husband 
d h' ng tSk, she b a widow 
d Sn^ kft td tii, have you a husband ? 
d g tft chS kft^ ftq td ft, I am going to remain 
d 6 tft kft' t5 ft, I stop for a little while 
d S tft Iftq' t5 ft, I continue 
d 6 tftl ghatiq'' to ft, I am going to abide 
d S tftl ^6q' k t5 ft, I tire of staying 
d h tftlth' kft, where I am, my place of being 
d h tftr thldq kft kft, my life = the time I 

will live 
d 6 tft nftq' aft k5 ft, I ought to be 
d 6 tft tail' ^nft, I am, I stay 
d h taiiq kaii' gw5 ft, I must, I have to be 
d h taiiq' td ft, I am 
d S tft vft kdq' t5 ft, I stay too long 
d S' tft vik, waiting place 
d S tft vi' kft, my stopping place 
dStftyl'kftkft, the place where I am to 

stay 
d S tft yl' kftnkkln, I am with thee 
d 6 tft yi Idl kft' kft, the place where I once 

was 
d S tft ylk Iftlth' kft, the place where I used 

to be 
d S tft ylk U rft' kft, I used to live with him 
d S tft yin' kft, my comrades 
detftyft'kSft, I waited 
d §' thldq, a husband who deserts his wife 
d S' t5 ft, I open my eyes 
d h t5q' tdk, we are married 



d Sts', cousin (mode of address) 

d S' yftq to ft, I encircle, I go around 

d 6' yS 1ft tSk, it revolves 

dS'vik, December 

d 6' yd ft, I go around 

d h' vdt mdn, around (with verb of motion) 

ftf chd'ftrftkft, I shake it (to get the dust, 

snow, etc., off) 
ttg^ghft, moss 
d ghft' r&n kft, my toes 
d ghwdq' tSk, it liquefies 
d' gi nft, front, forward part 
dgish'kdk dkftm'rftk, put the sled upon 

its rack 
dg' mft ftn, he passing right through 
dg' mft d che d' gnft, I keep on without 

stopping 
dg' m§ u' tft kft, I go through it without 

stopping 
d ^iift chS' rftq kft, I coax him 
d ghft' gd ftt, beard-like = a moss which re- 
sembles hair 
d' gliftk, u' glidt, beard 
d ghft' Iftk, south 
d ghft' Iftk f ftk, the far south 
d ghft' Iftk fft ndn, away to the far south 
d ghft Iftk fft' rft ndn, to the extreme south 
d ^iift Iftk sin' rftt, the most southerly 
d ^& U llrq' to ft, I go south 
d ghft' Uk, a bearded man 
d^Slftq'tdft, I itch 
d ghdn' kft, my beard 
d fnir' t5 ft, I shave 
d gh5 ft' ghft, night coming on me 
d ^d^ yftm tich' stS, the Giver of Life 
dg'hdWftm yd' ft, the Master of Life 

(heathen term) 
d ghd yftq katm' r&r tdk, he cannot possibly 

live 
d gwft' nS, by, on account of, through 
d hrfts'kftk, white clay, kaolin 
dkftk'fftk, little nearer 
d kftk fft kft nSrq' t5 ft, I draw nearer 
d kftk fft Urq' t5 ft, I go a little distance 
d kftk fail' hdn, soon 
d kft' kUk, next one 

d kftk 86 gg' nftq t5 ft, I am getting closer 
d kftk fk gg y^' ghft, I draw nearer 
d kftk' se gllth kft, my approach 



372 



ESSENTIALS OF INNUIT 



fiUkssrtdfl, I get near 

a Uk BbU' ri ft, short, near 

Q Uk shlq' t5 ft, I am near 

Q kft ml^ tSk, it is heavy 

a kft mSq' t5 ft, I tow 

fi kft^ ni kil, in the next life 

fi kftt mSq' td ft, I approach towards 

ii \3b' \l rft kft, I wound him 

ii k6 thlfiq^ tft, his wound inflames 

fik'ft gftk, ak'fS gftt, willow bashes 

fik f6q' t5 ft, I believe 

fik fu kft' kft, I believe it 

fik ffik kftq kaan rft' tft kft, I cannot possibly 

believe it 
fik ffik & rXf 8ti, an unbeliever 
fik'ffikstft, a believer 
fikls'kSrftkft, I aid him 
fik kir' kft, my wound 

Sk' k5 ft, I embark, enter a boat, canoe, etc. 
Qkkdft'gdk, it burns 
ftk k5 ftn' rft tdk, it does not kindle 
fik ko' hft kft, my son's wife 
fik'kSk, it shrivels up 
Ilk kdq' pftq tdk, it burns fiercely 
fik' k5r sfik, the hood on the native blouse 
fik kdr sfiq' td ft, I draw the hood on 
fik k5r 8w§' td ft, I throw the hood back 
fik' kru nftk, rage 

fik kfit k§ uq' td ft, I make kindling 
fik kfizh' me, and these I what about them ? 
fik' 8hd vik, a winter \'illage 
fik' shd ftk, autumn (le., winter-like) 
fik' 8h5 ft kftn, when it is autumn 
fik shd ft' nft ft rft kftn, when it is about 

autumn 
fik' shd ftq tdk, it is autumn 
fik'shfik, winter 

fik shul gbu' ghft, I have headache 
fik' shu pftk, all wnter, during the winter 
fik shfiq pil' gftn, before winter 
fik' shfiq tdk, it is winter 
fik'su, head 
fik' sfi kft, my head 
u' ktik, wound 

u' kum chft dk klfl ft' nS, prior to this period 
u' kum king gndk klft ft' nft, after this period 
u kwft rft' d td ft, I am content 
u Id' gft kft, I spread a blanket over him, I 

cover him 
fi' Idk, native covering of furs, etc. ; also 

used for blanket 



fi Id kfl tft'rft kft, I cover him up, wrap the 

blanket around him 
fildq'tdft, I cover myself, I roll up in the 

blanket 
fi' U fin, mass of sinew (i.e., covering) = to 

be dried and used for thread 
fi 111 kir' tdk, there is a great rise (i.e., in a 

« 

river) 
fil' Idk, it is flood, incoming tide 
fil' Ifi dk, a woman's knife, semilune-shaped, 

for cutting furs 
fil Ifi dq' td ft, I use an ulluok, I cut with 
fil' Ifiq pftk, a great overflow ; used for deluge 
fi Idg' yft rfi' tftk, a native maul 
fi Idg' yft rfi' tftq pftk, a large maul for driving 

wedges 
filth' tft kft, I turn it inside out 
fi Ifi' hfig' nftk, a marine monster (supposed 

to devour whales) 
fi IQ' kft, my tongue 

Q Ifi' kftk, stone suitable for making uUuoks 
Q Iftq kd drq' tdk, he gives an expiring shudder 
fi'lfiqtdft, I quiver with pain, convulsive 

shudder 
Q md kft' kft, I hate him 
Q' md kfi, the next time 
Q md nftk' fft, an expletive of anger 
fi' md nftq kdk, it is hateful 
d md u' ^hft, I am long absent 
fim' gft kft, I close it 
fi mXf kd nft'nd, I without delaying 
fim mft' td ft, I groan 
fim' md, sharp point of stone 
fim' md ft, chft' vfim, harpoon point 
fim yfi ft' kft kft, I think 
fim yu ft k chd' kft kft, I will consider it 
fimyfiftkinrllth'kft, that which I do not 

mean 
fim y^ ftk 8kd rft' kft, I make him think 
fim yfi ftm' kfin fik ffi kft' kft, expresses I be- 
lieve in my heart (Le., by my mind) 
fim yd ftng' ghd ft, I design 
fim yu ftng gfi' tft kft, I plan it 
fim y^ gf td ft, expresses I am nervous, 

excited, I do not think 
fim yu dr' k kfik kft, my meaning 
fim yfi dr kd rftq' kft, I am wondering 
um yu dr nft dq' td ft, expresses my mind is 

troubled 
um yfi drq' t kd ft, I ponder over 
fim yu dr' t Ulth kft, the thing I think «f 



VOCABULARY 



373 



fim yfi 5r t k5q' td ft, I deliberate 

flm yfi Or t kfif kft rft Iftq' kft, I always make 
him think of it 

flm yfl 6r tfir r& ft, sensible, clear-headed 

fi'nft, fi^kflk, Q^kflt, this, these two, these 

fi nft^ jin'kflk, fin'kfit, the one down 

Q nft'' kft kft, I catch (i.e., fish, game, etc.) 

a nftk sftq p6 ft' rft kft, I nearly got it 

ii nftng kfl tft' gftk, worthless 

ii nftn' U gii5k, the one who is down 

fi nftq'' chft ftk, a piece of straight-grain 
wood 

a nftq chft ftq' t5 ft, I hunt for straight-grain 
wood 

fi nft thlfiq p6 Q' ghft, I have big hands 

fi nft ti rft rft'' ^hft, my hands are cold 

Q nfttl' rft ft, one suffering from salmon 
poisoning 

Q nft' tfi kft, my hands (i.e., my fingers) 

Q nftf 'td ft, I am poisoned by salmon bite 
(i.e., the fingers are sore) 

fi nft' tftk k6, one with a boil or ulcer on his 
hand 

fi nS ftq' tft kft, I move off, move away 
from 

a n6 chfln' rft tft kft, I do not want to aban- 
don him 

a nS 5q' tft kft, I miss it 

Q n§st' kft, my deceased father 

a n6' tft kft, 1 leave him 

Q ne t kft tft' rft lu tft, I am getting ready to 
leave you 

a nS tlft' rft kft, I used to leave it 

fin' gft n§, down there 

fin gftn' to ft, I am down there 

fin gftq' to ft, I am remaining 

fin gft vftq' t5k, it is sunset 

fin gft virq' t5 ft, I go down there 

fing ^ung se Id' ftk, any large, fierce brute 

fing gnung' shftr tftk, animal (contradistinc- 
tion to human) 

fing gniing' sik, an animal 

fing gnu' vft, life 

fing gnu vftlth thlfiq' chSk k5 ft, I will have 
misfortune 

fing ^Q Tail' ghft, I live 

fing ghfi vll' rft ft, a suicide 

fing ^d w§' thlftq kftt, the resurrection 

fing' Idt, nest of a bird 

finghoft'^bft, I am benighted, it nights 
me 



fi nif kft nfik, death tidings 

Q nif kft nfiq thlfiq' t5 ft, I have bad news 

Q nif kft' td ft, I have news of a death 

fi nig' 'nft, the one down there 

fi ni yft kft' kft, I call him to accompany me 

fin' kft, armpit 

fi' n5 ftk, early this morning 

fi nd r ftk, very early this morning 

fi nfi gft' ghft, it is night to me 

Q'nfik, last night 

fi nfi kft rft' ^hft, I am benighted, overtaken 
by night 

fi nfi ko' ft kftn, every night 

fi' nfim k5 kft' nS, midnight 

Q nfin'rft kfin, just at nightfall 

fi nfiq pil' gftn, before it is night 

fi nuq'td ft, I stay over night 

fi nfiq't5k, it is night 

fin wft' klSk, term for morning service 

fin wft kd' ft kftn, every day, daily 

fin wft' kd ftn, when it was morning 

fin wft kd' mS, in the morning 

fin wft' ku, to-morrow 

fin wft ku chS fi' ghft, I breakfast 

fin wft kfi tft t5q' t5 ft, I eat the morning 
meal 

fin wft kfit' td ft, I depart to-morrow 

fin wft yft rft' md, at dawn, in early morn- 
ing 

Q pftq' to ft, I set out for the spring village 

Qp' *nftq kftk, springtime 

fip' nftq' kft kfi, next spring 

up' nftq' kftq pftk, during the spring 

Qp' nftq katiq' tdk, it is spring 

fip' nftq ke Tig' mXf to ft, I ahi at a spring 
village 

fip' nftq kd' ylk, a spring village 

fip' nftt, lofty peaks 

fip'pdft, I suffocate (i.e., unable to breathe 
at high altitudes) 

fip'tdft, I pack 

fi pfi' tft kft, I malign him 

fiq'chftn, the dawn 

fiq chft rft kftl' rft dt, sorrowful ones 

fiq chft rft ndk' tfi Id, a most distressed person 

fiq chft rX' yft rftk, distress, sorrow 

fiq fd ft' rfit, bushes 

fiq kft 5q' tdk, he cuts firewood 

fiq kd ftn' tdk, it is in the back of the house 

fiq'kdk, a part of a native house (in the 
back) 



374 



ESSENTIALS OF INNUIT 



&q' kSk, the rear portion of a native house 

ftq kfim^ td ft, I am in the rear 

dq nS rft' kfln, exactly at dawn 

fiq pn^ gftn, before it dawns 

fiq' tft kft, I place it up 

ftq^ tft kft, I throw it away = I cast it on 

the grave 
fiq'' tft kftn, daily, every dawn 
fiq tftn^ ^ft, the dawn coming on me 
fiq'tftt, marine animals 
Sq' tftt, the things thrown on a grave 
fiqtnkft'tSk, it holds, it contains (said of 

pots, kettles, etc.) 
fiq' t5 ft, I get up 
firk nftk', a hot spring 
fir' 'nfiq pftk, all day long, the whole day 
fir'rfit, tundra moss 
fis k5q t5q' tft kft, I hold him with a cord 

(dog, etc.) 
fis ku hftq' t5k, he is out of his harness 

(dog) 
fis kfi rft' kft, I harness him 
fis' kti rftt, dog harness 
fis ku ri' gft kft, I unharness him 
fissu'kfttftk, native tool for getting fire, 

fire stick 
fis 8U kft tftq' t5 ft, I make fire (i.e., by means 

of the fire-stick drill) 
Gs' tft kft, I break it 
fis' t5k, uz' zSrq kSk, it caves in (river bank, 

etc.) 
fi sfik chau' tut, term for they crucify (i.e., 

they nail him up) 
Q suk chauz' nft nfik, the crucifixion 
rtftk (suffix) (218) 
G tft kft' kft, I wait for him 
G tft kftr g§ nfik, weariness (from waiting) 
G tft kftlth' kft, the one I waited for, my 

expected one 
G tftng' gnft, it burns me 
&t chu' e t5k, it is clear, limpid, transparent 
Gt' ghfik, a wart 
Gthlft'gftkft, I go up to him, draw near 

him 
fi thlft gftq chft' kft kft, I spring at it (and 

miss it) 
G thlft gftq' tft kft, I spring at it (and get it) 
u thlG veq' kft, my cheeks 



fi thlfi' wSk, the cheeks 

fi tlt^mfin, to go back home, homewards 

fit'kftqtS ft, I go back at once 

fit' k kfin, an oar 

fit rfi chfiq pft kftq' t5 ft, I am most desirous 

to go back 
fit rfi chfiq' t5 ft, I want to go back 
fit rfi tft'kft, I bring it back 
fit rfit' 8t kftk, the bringing back 
fits' thlG yftk, whirlwind 
fits thlG yftq' t5k, it is a whirlwind 
fi tfi mftq' t5 ft, I change for the better, am 

better 
fi tfi' mftq tSk, it quiets, etc. (said of storms) 
fi tG' mft rft, it moderates, changes, etc. (said 

' of the weather) 
fi tfi mft rft chd ftq' t5 ft, I am getting a little 

better 
fi tfi mail' ^hft, I recover, get better 
fi yft 1ft rft' kft, I always rock it 
Gvft'r&kft, I rock it 
Q' yaiik, it hatches (birds) 
fiy yftq'td ft, I hum, buzz, etc. 
fi wft' rftt, fingers 
fi wS' h5k, he fights (i.e., dog) 
G yft kre IS tftq' t5 ft, I wrap up my neck 
G yft' kfik, neck 
G yft' kfin kft, my neck 
fi yft kw$' \h tftk, dog collar 
fi yft' mXk, a talisman, charm worn around 

the neck 
G yft ming kft' t5 ft, I have a talisman 
G yft mXq' to ft, I wear a charm 
G yft mXq tG'mft ndk, the wearing of a charm 
G yftng' to ft, I look down from a height 
G' y5k, you there ! 
G y^ rft yft' gftt, down (from swans, ducks, 

etc.) 
Gz ghftn' hrSt, knuckle 
Gz' ghwG ndk, a joint 
G'z5k, same as Gydk (Tununa) 
Gz yftr' to ft, I am crazy 
Gz yel' gnSk, a crazy person 
Gz ve' to ft, I am absent minded 
Gz' vit tSk, alert, smart 
Gz wftr xh yG gG nftq' k5 ft, I think I must be 

crazy 
Gz wS tGl' rft ft, sly 



VOCABULARY 



375 



vS r Ifik, bad (suffix) (208) 
vS ft lulth'thlfiq, bad old (suffix) 
vik, place where (suffix) (117) 
yd'' rhfin, mote, speck 



yOrhfi'tdX, I go up 

yfiq' tftk, humble-bee = buzzer 

Tttq tft' td ft, I gather grass 



wftm^ nftq k5k, it is lost time 
wfts ke tftq' t5 ft, I keep slipping 
wfts knft^ kSk, slippery 
wfts ska &q' td ft, I slip 



w 



wSr tft kft, I twirl it 
wi yft' rft kft, I rob him 
wi yft rftf ^hft, they despoil me (gambler's 
expression) 



yft gh' vS kft kft, I extend my arm 

yftg^ *lu tfing, they fast = are in mourning 

yftg' *iiiik, native measure, arms extended, 

seventy-two inches 
yftk fft' chd ft, a little way off 
yftk' f ik, a slight distance 
yftk f ft kft nSrq' to ft, I move off a little 

distance . 
yftk fft llrq' td ft, I go far off yonder 
yftk fftn' II ^5k, the one who is off yonder 
yftk fftn^ to ft, I am far off 
yftk fft' rft nflk, a little further off 
yftk fft' rftn to ft, I am a little further off 
yft' kl6k, the last one over yonder 
yft' kll kft, my last one over there 
yftk' nSr t5k, it blows from the southwest 
yftk'nfik, southwest 
yft' kdk, a wing 

yftk se ge' kft to ft, I withdraw a little 
yftk se gg' wft kdq td ft, I am too far off 
yftk s8 ge' y^q to ft, I want to go off a little 
yftk sS gilth' kft, my withdrawing 
yftk s8' ii td ft, I am far apart from him 
yftk she kft' pik tdk, it is very far away 
yftk shik tftl lu' kd hwft' tft, as far as that 
yftk shIk' tatik kft, it is as far as 
yftk shin' kft, farther 
yftk shin rfin' rft tdk, it is not as far 
yftk shiq' pft, oh, how far I 
yftk shIq pft kft dq' tdk, it is rather too far off 
yftk shIq to' rftl rft ft, the further one 
yft'ku Ilk, bird (i.e., winged one) 
yft kti' Uq pftk, eagle (i.e., great bird) 
yft 1& ftg' nd, on the day before yesterday 



3rft lA ft' kfi, the day after to-morrow 

yft Ur' nfir' mit' td ft, I am on that side 

yft lir' 'nfir r&k, on that side 

yftn, yft' tfim, yonder 

yft'ne, over there 

yftn' U ^dk, the one who is over yonder 

yftn' td ft, I am yonder 

yftq' td ft, I stretch = extend, I am fasting 

yft' rftk (suffix) (217) 

yft' ti kft, beside me 

yft tim' II ghdk, the one over there 

yft tIm' n§ tdk, it is beside me 

yft' vut, to over there 

yi, there it is over there 

yin' rail gwdk, it is a corpse 

3rdk, suffix to words of place; a general 

vocative 
yfi* ft lu, thread made of sinew 
y^ ft Id kftng' kft td ft, I have sinew thread 
y^ ft lu lid &' ^nft, I make sinew thread 
yd ft' rft kft, I search for it 
yd ft rdf kft, my song 
yd' ftt, spirits 

yd' chft kft, my life (my manhood) 
yd' chdk, being (manhood) 
yd' chd ft, dwarf 

yd chd ft rati' gwd ft, I am a small man 
yd dl'rik, ghost 
yd d' nft nd, uninhabited 
yd' d nftn rft tft, nine 
yd d nati' gwdt, there are twenty 
yd' e ndk, twenty 

yd'dndk kdln'ndk chip' pld kd, thirty 
yd' e ndk e' pd ftt, four hundred 



376 



ESSENTIALS OF JNNUIT 



jrfl'itSk, there is no one 

3rfl gi' rin U, my fingers 

jrfl gfl' hwit, a crowd, multitude 

jrfl gfl' wlq ting kl tSk, there is a crowd 

j^' gw5 i, I land (i.e., from a boat), I am 
a man 

l^i 'yiq tOk, it is crowded 

3rfig'yi tfl' li, a populous place 

3rfik, yflt, a man 

3^'ki, my man 

3rfi' U pik, a true man 

yfl ker t& rau' gw5 i, I am a good man 

yfl kVr t& rauq^ t5 i, I become a good man 

3riikirr&«t, a family 

3rfi tilth hfln' ki, my former family 

jrfik' siq p&t unexpected arrivals 

yflk tfi yu' 18, term for lion (i.e., man eater) 

3rfi kfi t& chfig' \k' ri, a place always damp 

3rfl kfi' t&k, dampness 

3rfi kfi t&q chfi nir nik, a place that does not 
get damp 

y^ kfi tXq^ tl hr& St, damp things 

3rfi kfi tXq' tdk, it is damp 

yfl' Uq tdk, populous 

3rfil Ifiq'' 've fik, a variety of jay bird 

3rfilth'kfik, an abusive term applied to a 
man 

3rfim' ch&q tX, yfim chi ris' tl, healer, a phy- 
sician 

yfim' thlfim chik, one of the figures in the 
game of cat's cradle 

jrfing kfi chA' g&k, an abusive term for a man 

yun hrfl' chfi gn&k, a nice young man 

yfln hrfl chfi gnfllth' kfik, an unworthy youth 

3rfin hrft r&lth' kfik, an ugly young man 

3rfin hrfl rauq' td &, I am becoming a young 
man, reaching the age of 



jrfin' ki, my folks 

yfln nilq hri rail' gw5k, he is a bachelor, a 

young man 
yfln' ri tSk, it is not a man 
yfln^rSrq tSk, he is dead (i.e., he is no more 

man) 
yfln'illth hfit, the dead = the ceased to be 

folks 
j^' pik, the human race 
3rfiq pft chig^ yftk, a giant 
3rfiq^ pUc, a very tall man« also giant 
3rfiq pUth^thlfiq, giant 
3rfiq pao' gw5 i, I am a great tall man, a 

giant 
yfiq' t&k, anything pertaining to man 
yfiq'ti Uk, a place where people are 
yfiq' t&ng kl t6k, there is a man 
yfiq' t&ng kB& kdk, there was a man (who is 

yet) 
3rfiq ti &' tSk, there is no man 
yfiq tfi' t& ki, I fight for him, espouse his 

cause 
3rfiq tfif sti kX, my champion 
jrfi xiq' t5 i, I dance 
jrfiriyitSq'tfit, they dance (Le., a native 

feast) 
yfirq Ifiq' ki, my old parents 
yfirq' tSk, she conceives 
yfis' ki ki, I bid him to get off 
jrfit 11'' 1st, somebody 
ylit ti mi ri' mfing, everybody 
3rfi ▼< i Ifi' gw5 i, I am a great clumsy man 
yfiySi^lfik, a large, careless, awkward 

fellow 
jrfiy rSrq'" ki, I admire it 
yfi' wi ki, I pull off my boot 
yfi'wiqki, I pull of! both boots 



itfq ki yi' git, goslings = little hissers 



z&q' tSk, it hisses 



INDEX 



[Figures refer to sections.] 



Absent, expressed by chlitSLune, 510 
Absent, expressed by tiyemli, 759 
Account of, on : pettkkluku, 745 
Account of, on : ugwline, 748 
Adjectives, how expressed, 691 
Adjutants, 513 
Adjutants, synopsis of, 543 
Again, expressed by lim, 356 
Again, expressed by Mode XLI 
Agentialis, 36 
Agentialis, transitive, 41 
Aino language, Kamtchatka, specimen of, 

847 
Ainu language, Kurile Islands, specimen 

of, 847 
Aklimi, doable thirds, 523 
Aklim^, examples, 525 
Ak^mS, paradigm intransitive, 522 
Akam^, paradigm transitive, 524 
Akevegika, 851 
Akki tamanS, old times, 623 
Akklukllt, 853 
Akllng, 758 
Akm&chaaki, 862 
Akutik, 852 
All, 650 

All, examples, 654 
Alone, kahirma, 674 
Alone, kema, 668 
Am, again, 356 
Ami, 530 

Ami, examples, 534 
Ami, paradigm, 532 
Amti hwi, 375 
Amthl6k, much, many, 285 
And I, to express, 258 
And, omission of, supplied by lune, 478 
And, on the use of, 6% 
And, various ways to express, 701 
Aneguyik, 854 
Anybody, 762 
Any one, 762 



Anything, 766 

Any time, 775 

Anywhere, 772 

Aqhlii, the thrasher shark, 835 

Aqkik, suffix, 203 

Article, 688 

Article, examples, 690 

Article, how represented, 689 

As ... as, as ... so, 722 

Aspect, first, 430 

Aspect, second, 431 

Aspect, third, 432 

Aspects of the verb, 422 

Assiititut, 856 

Ataiichehik, 600 

Atauch^k, declension, 581 

Athli, another, 279 

At least, to express, 538 

At once, timi, 754 

At6qtoi, itoriki, idioms, 845 

Augmentative, in possessive locatives, 401 

Augmentative, suffix pik, 223 

Auguni, 278 

Aun, suffix, 116 

Aune, examples : chitsume, etc., 510 

Avveukiqke, 857 

Because : imi, 535 
Because : petikkluku, 745 
Behind me, 392 
Blacksmith shop, term for, 119 

Care, in my, 263 
Certain, 645 
Certain time, 646 
Chi, 308 
Chi, modes, 341 
Chi, paradigm, 310 
Chi, verb forms, 343 
Chichoi, 313 
Chichughik, 317 
Chi^ilgTiuhwi, 336 



377 



ESSENTIALS OF INNUIT 



ChiBhlii, 337 

Chihik, 320 

Chlhiki, 321 

Chihni. 330 

Chiki, 311 

Chiki, examplw, IS5 

ChikiLk. 3 2 

Chikiki. 325 

Chikikllki.i27 

ChihCnib, 315 

CMkTk, 323 

Chiklikut6k. 324 

ChlknAk. very, 753 

ChikOchetioa. 329 

Cbikuchtk, 326 

CMkutik, 338 

ChikwenQq, 24ti 

Chillcfirik, 340 

Chaiihkak, ilA 

Cbiral, 532 

Chime, whan, 309 

Chim niene, 646 

Chingnt. 863 

Chinnlki. paradigm, 399 

Chinuk, 339 

Chipfk. 322 

CUqpik, 314 

Chit nietne. 646 

Chaiihwipii. 265 

Cha-un, 319 

Chiweyugwi, 334 

Chi)inak,il8 

Checkers, game of, 831 

Ch«k, 152 

Chik, paradigm, 154 

Chik, possessive, 153 

Chfla. slill, 703 

Chin, why, 704 

Chenmc h5k, 706 

Chlgvek, nose beads, 864 

Ch!kkad<:-de.83+ 

ChIk[ili5gh'iin,S50 

Chillhkik, 742 

CMmniik, 157 

Chlmliln, I5S 

ChfyikkllggMki, 335 

Chlyikllk, 331 

Choi, 230 

Choi and pik, in verbs. SSI 

Choi, secondary meaning, 231 

Cheiyik, suffix, 237 



ChO^ik, suflix, 234 
ChOlAqtOi, 848 
CoUective*, 22 
Comparative suffix, 248 
Comparison, S79 
Comparison, by iniqtiki, 574 
Compass, points of the, 801 
Consonants, 2 

Day, 614 

Day and night, idiom, 750 

Day, examples, 618 

Days of the week, 610 

Days of the week, verb form*, 611 

Debt, idioms, 756 

Deceased, lo ejipcesa, 796 

Declension, 2S 

Demon&lrativelocatiTes: chimin!, etc, 379 

Diacritic poims, 4 

Diminutive suffix, 230 

Dooi, 819 

Doubling of demonstratives : tauni Imini, 

etc., 286 
Doubling of locatives : ml mintftk, etc., 362 
DoubUng of locatives: pikmlni kniSUtS, 

etc. 377 
Dual idioms, 18 
Dual nouns, 17 
During, to express, 618 

Each other, 263 

East and west, 804 

Elthkfik, suffix, 135 

Epeil, in namcrals, SS6 

Everybody, 763 

Everything. 767 

Everywhere. 774 

ExclamalOTy eipressioni in fi, pi,' and vt. 



Exclamatory 



n petU, 629 



FamUy. 787 

Firintoi, in locative verbs, 418 

Few, 602 

Fewi by hik, kwcniiq, etc, 243 

Financial terni?, SOO 

Fingers, for hand. 749 

Fit, it does not, etc., 785 

For instance, 747 

Future tense, 427 

Futare lime: in kQ QnmlkQ, etc, 



INDEX 



379 



Gender, 23 
Gneninim'ne, 539 
Gnen&nim'ne, examples, 541 
Gno&k, suffix, 1% 
Gnur'mi, 537 
Gnur'mi, examples, 538 
Gnur'mi, paradigm, 537 
Gw5ak, suffix, 196 

Hik, partitive suffix, 244 

Half, 599 

Hand, 749 

Have, as to keep, etc., 846 

Have much, many, 553 

Here, 353 

Here and there, 777 

Himself, 269 

Homonyms, 26 

H5r&t&, suppose, 752 

House, description of a native, 810 

House, plan of native, 811 

How good, 271 

How many, 303 

How many have you ? 301 

Hum, 627 

Hw5, 352 

Hwli and mlini, 353 

Hwi, examples, 359 

Hwalth^ 734 

Hw^ngghuchaki, 264 

Hwing^uyukkluku, 576 

Hwithloka, 733 

Hwitkiiptk, 726 

Idiomatic use of futures, 61 

Idioms, 798 

lepi, 649 

lepiki, 645 

leplrute, term for deceased wife, 824 

If I were you, 520 

Iletak, suffix, 209 

Iliaka, 639 

Ill&k^, paradigm, 644 

Ilthk^k, suffix, 134 

Imini, paradigm, 281 

Iminalthktik, 284 

Imperative, examples, 494 

Imperative, future, 486 

Imperative, on the, 481 

Imperative, paradigm, 482 

Imperative, various examples, 489 



Impersonal verbs expressing the seasons, 

604 
Increments of homonyms, 27 
Ingldi, 638 
Inglu, 630 

Inglu, paradigm, 635 
Ingluki, 636 

Ing'ni, Ingkuk, Tngkut, 277 
Inkuyukkluke, 576 
Instance, for, 747 
Instead of, 507 
Interjections, 626 
Interrogation : by k&, 718 
Interrogative aspect, examples, 461 
Irutkli, suffix, 189 
I thought it was you, 576 
It is I, 259 
It is you, 261 
ly&k, suffix, 240 

K&, interrogative, 718 

Kah&r'mi, alone, 674 

Kikii, when, 624 

K&mmegautit, 874 

Kamtchatka, specimen of the Aino Ian- 

guage, 847 
K&n&qt5i, 858 
King, no, 780 
Kinnirit, sleeps, camps on a journey, 

844 
Kinvik, when, in the past, 625 
Kiptk, 726 
Kissilupeit, 183 

Kitunrika, my son, full paradigm, 73 
Kauyi, suffix, 241 
Kizhgi, description of, 809 
Kei, interrogative pronoun, 293 
Keiklk, 299 
Kemi, alone, 668 
Kcr*l^, imperative, 485 
KSrtah, suffix, 200 
Ketik, imperative, 501 
KniTgint8k, 741 
Kithlun, 721 
KTttuchaki, 305 
Klyuhwi, 724 
Klyume, 725 
Kl«k, 149 

Kl^k, time forms, 150 
Kl^k, possessive, 151 
Kllk, 162 



38o 



ESSENTIALS OF INNUIT 



KHk, time forms, 163 

Kn^fhika, 193 

Kn^iki, time forms, 195 

Kdik&n, every, 616 

Kdchecheru^ii, putting snow to dr^, 

866 
Kd6rqku, suffix, 620 
Kii ; in time expressions : iinwikii, 625 
Kuch&g&k, suffix, 242 
KukkS, 190 
Kiikki, paradigm, 192 
Kumi, 514 

Kumi, intransitive, 518 
Kum&, paradigm, 519 
Kurile Islands, specimen of language of, 

847 
Kwenuq, suffix, 246 

Late, the, to express, 828 

Le, declension : lilUngtiirne, 178 

Le, paradigm, 180 

Le, possessive, 179 

Ll^oi, verbs in, 797 

LIgh6k, mode variations, 133 

LIgh6k, suffix : mtkknilghdk, 131 

LIk, mode variations, 126 

Ufk, suffix : tungrillk, 124 

Ukely, it is, 737 

Ulra^, suffix, 170 

LIr*nur*mitt65, verbs in, 410 

List of modes, 548 

list of verbs, 543 

Lm&, suffix, 247 

LoS, 470 

Lo^, examples, 476 

Localis case, 44 

Localis, in comparison, 45 

Localis, in idioms, 778 

Localis, in time expressions, 46 

Locatives, augmentative : yakfilk, etc, 368 

Locatives, chek : minluchek, etc., 407 

Locatives, demonstrative : emugw5i, 381 

Locatives, demonstrative : p&kumlna, etc., 

379 
Locatives, doubling of : ml m&ntdk, etc., 

377 
Locatives, impersonal : ml, etc., 361 
Locatives, modes, 411 
Locatives, on the, 344 
Locatives, possessive, 386 
Locatives, possessive diminutive, 403 



Locatives, possessive paradigm; chinnTki, 

399 
Locatives, primary : yin, etc, 364 
Locatives, rai, 420 

Locatives, relative : pikminll^dk, 385 
Locative verbs in mTttd&, 383 
Locative verbs in shiqtdi, 404 
Locative verbs in shTqtoi, augmentative, 

406 
Locative verbs in shlqtoi, diminutive, 405 
Locative verbs in \jq\\ p&kmiintdi, etc, 

371 
L5k, suffix, 184 
L5q*ldk, suffix, 184 
Lthkuk, suffix, 199 

Lthkiik, with pronouns : Tmln&lthkttk, 284 
Lueriit, suffix, 188 
Luku, 474 
Liine, 473 
Liine and luku, idioms, 480 

MikuchJ^k, 282 

Mani, 352 

Mlinluchaki, 408 

Miraimi, after ; see 76 in Index of Modes, 

548 
Marriage, 790 
Msm^i, the passive ; see 78 in Index of 

Modes, 548 
Me, suffix : chenme, etc., 707 
Meteor, term for, 855 
Meut, suffix, 102 
Meutik, 105 
Mi, 361 

MItt5i, verbs in, 383 
Modalis case, the, 48 
Modes, index of, 548 
Money, 800 

Month, declension, 613 
Months, names of the, 605 
Mountain spirits, 838 
Much and many, 553 
My, 676 

Nik, suffix, 219 

NikklTkaki and chuchuk&ki, 843 

Nikllng. 757 

Nikmen, own, 743 

Nimethlen, 760 

Namflth, 761 

Ninne, 712 



INDEX 



381 



Nlinti, 713 

Nintizme, 708 

Nithlene, in the time of, 757 

N^tdkfane, 368 

Nauhwli, 710 

Negative, on the, 780 

Negative, substitute for, 451 

Negative verbs, 445 

Negatives in nr^tndk, 161 

Nobody, 764 

Ndk, suffix, 159 

North and south, 802 

Nothing, 768 

Nouns, complete paradigm: k&tiinr&k&, 

73 
Nouns ending in consonants, 33 
Nouns ending in vowels, 32 
Nouns, future form, 60 
Nouns, list of possessives, 66 
Nouns, past form, 58 
Nouns, possessive paradigm, 67 
Nouns, time forms, 57 
Nouns, verb form, 453 
Now and then, 776 
Nowhere, 773 
Number, 34 
Numerals, 580 
Nuqhak, suffix, 212 
Nuttttm, 744 

Often : pulTngtSk, 751 
Olden times, 623 
On account of, 745 
Once, 583 
One another, 268 
One by one, 591 
One, 1 am that, 382 
One, I have, 589 
One of these, 771 
Only : kema, 672 
Or, 732 

Pa, exclamations in, 628 

Pair, 584 

Pak, 223 

Pak, in time expressions : duration, 616 

PakmSne, 376 

Pakminll^6k, 385 

PamalTr'nuka, 410 

Parentage, 789 

Partitive suffix, the, 243 



Passive, on the ; see 78 in Index of Modes, 

548 
Past tense, 426 

Past tense, " was and is yet," 550 
Payment, 755 
Pei, suffix, 181 
Pe^kii, 681 
Peliki, paradigm, 687 
PeSklTk, 682 
PelimkTn, paradigm, 687 
Peaptk, 216 
Pe&qkik, 682 
Pechalthki, 682 
Pech^k, 682 
Pech^rriy&rak, 682 
Peka, 676 

Peka, paradigm, 678 
PekSki, 677 
Pekaki, paradigm, 683 
Pekikiki, 679 
Pekaun, 682 
Pekalitika, 682 
Pekllle and the negative, 484 
Pedk, deceased, 826 
Peplk, 215 

Personal endings, intransitive, 438 
Personal endings of verbs, paradigm, 467 
Persons, 433 
Petlkkloa, 745 
Petle, 629 

Peu^i, paradigm, 686 
Pewlk, 682 
Peyun, 682 

PT, various meanings, 832 
PIk, suffix, 214 
Pik^, paradigm, 685 
Plkk^rle and negative, 485 
P!kkl£kut6k, paradigm, 498 
PIkmkTn, paradigm, 685 
PIksea, 684 
Plllg'ma, 526 

Plllg'ma, double thirds, 529 
PHTg'ma, paradigm, 528 
Pnie and negative, 483 
PnthkS, pethlTmne, etc, 680 
PTyuqtaka. 867 

Place for, expressed by fin&, 821 
Plural nouns, 19 
Poor me 1 266 
Positive, idiomatic use of, as nlithlo&k&, 

781 



382 



ESSENTIALS OF INNUIT 



Possessive, future form : iy&thljkikikii, 97 

Possessive, future form, modalis, 99 

Possessive locatives, examples, 400 

Possessive noun, full paradigm : kiitiinr&ki, 
73 

Possessive, paradigm of the present : nikii, 
nlmi, etc., 78 
Examples in the localis : nTmne, 79 
Examples in the modalis : nlmniik, 82 
Examples in the terminalis: kimniln, 

80 
Examples in the vialis : nlmkun, 83 

Possessive, past form, 85 

Possessive, past form paradigm: Ithkii, 
Ithlmi, 90 
Examples in the agentialis, 91 
Elxamples in the localis : thlTmne, 92 
Examples in the modalis : thlTmniik, 

93 
Examples in the terminalis : thlTmniln, 

94 
Examples in the vialis : thllmkiin, 95 

Possessive suffix, condensed paradigm, 65 

Possessive suffix, examples, 66 

Possessive suffix, full paradigm, 67 

Possessive, time forms, 74 

Present tense, the, 425 

Present tense, the, its double form, 428 

Pronouns, personal, examples, 270 

Pronouns, personal, paradigm, 257 

Pronouns, reduplication of, 286 

Pronouns, the, 251 

Pugwok, 820 

Pukn^, 502 

Pullngtak, often, 751 

Qtik, suffix, 107 

Rai, 164 

Ra^, declension, 166 
RaH, time forms, 165 
Rai^a, 462 
Rau'15q, suffix, 185 
Reduplication, 286 
Relationship, 789 
Robin, on the, 836 
Ruk, suffix, 229 

Saliva, superstitious use of, 839 
Salutation, 822 
Saun£, 508 



Sea 9^rpent, the, 228 

Seasons, the, 603 

Seasons, verb form of the, 604 

Secondary meanings in chdi, 231 

Secondary meanings in p&k, 224 

Secondary meanings in the third singular 

of verbs, 437 
Shimin, Siberian term for sorcerer, 125 
Shun, suffix, 108 

Sleeps or camps, measure of time, 844 
Some of these, 771 
Somebody, 765 
Something, 769 
Song, 841 
Sti and ste, 136 
Stli and ste, time forms, 137 
Sti, declension of, 138 
Sti, future form, 141 
Sti, past form, 140 
Ste, 144 

Ste, paradigm, 147 
Ste, possessive verb form, 148 
Stories, native, 799 
Substantive verb, the, 549 
Suffixes, on the, 101 
Sun, suffix, 108 
Sun or shun, possessive, 114 
Sun or shun, time forms, 112 
Suppose, to express by h5r&ti, 752 
Sweletik^, suffix, 210 

Tiggoa, 861 

Tillk, suffix, 127 

T^lTk, time forms, 128 

Timi = at once, 754 

T^makliki, 655 

Tamilthk6r*ma, 652 

T^minli, 276 

T^mirim^, 653 

TamStft, 360 

Tingvemi, paradigm, 533 

TinCm, 262 

T^qhreu^i, 868 

TSrSchugliak, 236 

Tiitkaikli, 873 

Tauni, 274 

Talinc, 509 

Tenses, the, 424 

Terminalis case, idioms, 52 

There is one, 596 

Third person, double form of, 69 



INDEX 



383 



Third person, double form of, paradigm, 

71 
Thlik, suffix : as hwlitoithUk, 621 
Thllnik, examples, 358 
Thllnik, suffix, 197 
Thliiq, suffix, 204 
Thousand, 587 
Through, u^wine, 748 
'Hgai and tketo&, 842 
Time, 619 
Time idioms, 620 
Time idioms, in thlSk: &kkw2lw&thUlk, 

621 
Time idioms, with tdk : hwSltSitSk, 469 
TIngliiki, paradigm, 468 
TTyemi, absent, 759 
Toa, 352 

Toa, examples, 356 
ToaqpeSk, 739 
Toithlune, 740 
Toatfi, 735 
T5i and toThwi, 357 
Tonsure, 830 

Too large, too small, etc., 785 
Tu^nthk6k, 659 
Tu^nthkokS, 660 
Tule, 173 
Tiingki, 663 
TungleSnllgfiSk, 667 
Tungllka, 665 
Tutoa, 859 

Tutut, stranded ice, 860 
TuvveSluk, suffix, 207 

UchekSghS, 872 

Ufk«n6, 505 

Ufk^n^, examples, 506 

U^ii, verbs in : as eu^^, Su^^, etc., 439 

Ug'^'Sne, on account of, 748 

Uhwit, suffix, 221 

Ule, 171 

Ulloak, woman's knife, 865 

Un, suffix, 108 

Un&, down, 280 

Una, this, 273 

UnStlrai, 870 

Unlfkinftk, 829 

Until, 622 

Unuqtum^n, idiom, 750 

UpnSt, 869 

UqpfletSka, 211 



Uqtdi, 812 
Us, idiom, 778 
Ut^k, suffix, 218 
Uyok, 348 

VeSluk, suffix, 208 

Vealulththluq, suffix, 206 

Verb, the, 421 

Verb, impersonal, 545 

Verb, impersonal, examples, 544 

Verb, interrogative intransitive, condensed 

paradigm, 459 
Verb, interrogative transitive, condensed 

paradigm, 460 
Verb, intransitive, condensed paradigm, 

457 
Verb, ITghoa, 797 
Verb, present tense. Arrangement I : tlng- 

luw&k^, 468 
Verb, present tense. Arrangement II : t^ng- 

v&g^ki, 469 
Verb, raS^nS. 462 

Verb, synopsis of the various parts, 543 
Verb, transitive, condensed paradigm: ke- 

putaki, 458 
Verb, transitive, personal endings, full para- 
digm, 467 
Very, chakn6k, 753 
Vialis case, use of, 55 
Vik, modes, 123 
VTk, possessive, 120 
Vlk, suffix, 117 
Vlk, time forms, 121 
Vocative, on the, 351 
Vowel change, 16 

Want to, in the sense of desiring one's 

presence, 847 
We mortals, idiom, 778 
What month is it? 608 
When, 624 
When, chime, 309 
Where, 710 
Where I am, 409 
Which, 306 

Which, paradigm : nilleik, 307 
Which way is north ? 806 
Who, 293 
Who am I ? 300 
Whoever, 295 
Whom I am, 305