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THENEWYOR: LGARDEN 

BRONX NEW V 10458 



THE SPANISH SERIES 



GRANADA AND 
THE ALHAMBRA 



THE SPANISH SERIES 
EDITED BY AL BER T F. CA L VER T 

GOYA 

TOLEDO 

MADRID 

SEVILLE 

MURILLO 

CORDOVA 

EL GRECO 

VELAZQUEZ 

THE PRADO 

THE ESCORIAL 

ROYAL PALACES OF SPAIN 

GRANADA AND ALHAMBRA 

SPANISH ARMS AND ARMOUR 

LEON, BURGOS AND SALAMANCA 

VALLADOLID, OVIEDO, SEGOVIA 

ZAMORA, AVILA AND ZARAGOZA 



GRANADA AND 
THE ALHAMBRA 

A BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE 
ANCIENT CITY OF GRANADA 
WITH A PARTICULAR ACCOUNT 
OF THE MOORISH PALACE 
BY ALBERT F. CALVERT 
WITH 460 ILLUSTRATIONS 



LONDON : JOHN LANE, THE BODLEY HEAD 
NEW YORK: JOHN LANE COMPANY MCMVII 



Priated by EALLANTYNE & Co. LIMITED 
Tavistock Street, London 



TO 

H.I.M. THE EMPRESS EUGENIE 
THIS SOUVENIR OF THAT FAIR GRANADAN HOME 

FROM WHICH SHE CARRIED 

THE CROWN OF SPANISH BEAUTY 

TO GRACE THE THRONE OF FRANCE 

IS DEDICATED 

IN ACCORDANCE WITH HER MAJESTY'S 
GRACIOUS PERMISSION 



PREFACE TO FIRST EDITION 

ALTHOUGH the admission may be construed by 
the censorious as betraying a lack of becoming 
diffidence, I am tempted to believe that no 
apology will be demanded for the publication of 
this volume by that section of the reading public 
for which it has been chiefly compiled. My 
temerity goes even further, and I anticipate with 
some confidence that visitors to the Alhambra, 
and pilgrims to that famous Mecca of Moorish 
workmanship, will recognise in this book an 
earnest attempt to supply a long-felt want. 
When I paid my first visit to Granada some years 
ago, I was surprised and disappointed to find 
that no such thing as an even fairly adequate 
illustrated souvenir of this " city of the dawn ' 
was to be obtained. Many tomes, costly and 
valuable (not necessarily the same thing), have 
been written to place on record the wonders of 
" the glorious sanctuary of Spain," but these are 
beyond the reach of the general public. Many 
beautiful pictures have caught odd ecstasies of 



viii PREFACE TO FIRST EDITION 

this superb and perfectly harmonised palace of 
art, but these impressions are not available to 
the ordinary tourist. 

What is wanted, as I imagine, is a concise 
history and description of the Alhambra, illustrated 
with a series of pictures constituting a tangible 
remembrancer of the delights of this Granadian 
paradise 

" Where glory rests 'tween laurels, 
A torch to give thee light ! " 

The Alhambra may be likened to an exquisite 
opera which can only be appreciated to the full 
when one is under the spell of its magic influence. 
But as the witchery of an inspired score can be 
recalled by the sound of an air whistled in the 
street, so it is my hope the pale ghost of this 
Moorish fairy-land may live again in the 
memories of travellers through the medium of 
this pictorial epitome. 

I desire, however, to submit an explanation 
or excuse for the unusual form in which this 
volume is issued. At the commencement of my 
work I experienced no little difficulty in collecting 
the requisite illustrations, for most of the obtain- 
able photographs were ill-chosen and but care- 
lessly developed, and I was compelled to press my 
own cameras into the service of my scheme. But 
when my designs became known, I was inundated 
with offers of pictures of every description, until 



PREFACE TO FIRST EDITION ix 

the embarrassment of artistic treasures entirely 
upset the original purpose of my book. Artists 
placed their studies at my disposal ; collectors 
begged me, with irresistible Spanish courtesy, to 
regard their galleries as my own ; and students 
directed my attention to little-known publications 
on the subject. 

Don Mariano Contreras, Conservator of the 
Alhambra, the son of the gifted Raphael Contreras, 
who devoted thirty-seven years of his life to the 
restoration of the Palace gave me the benefit of 
his knowledge of this unique treasure-house of art ; 
and I have also laid under contribution the 
beautiful plates of Owen Jones, who disposed of 
a Welsh inheritance in order to produce his 
great work on the Plans, Elevations, Sections, and 
Details of the Alhambra. Jones's Grammar of 
Ornament, which has been described as " beauti- 
ful enough to be the horn-book of the Angels," 
also contains the result of his researches in the 
Alhambra, which occupied him for the greater 
part of eleven years. A selection of these 
illustrations is here rescued from the obscurity 
of public libraries and the inaccessible fastnesses 
of private collections. The inclusion of John F. 
Lewis's drawings, and the reproduction of a 
series of pictures by James C. Murphy, who spent 
seven years in the study of the artistic marvels of 
the Alhambra, I do not feel called upon to defend. 



x PREFACE TO FIRST EDITION 

The photographs, several of which were placed 
at my disposal by Don Rafael Garzon, represent 
the buildings as they appear to-day ; the drawings 
were made before the Palace was damaged by 
the disastrous fire of September, 1890. 

For the historical portions of the description 
contained in the letterpress I have levied tribute 
on a variety of. authors. The History of the 
Mohammedan Dynasties in Spain, by the learned 
Spanish Orientalist, Don Pascual de Gayangos ; 
Raphael Contreras' Etude Descriptive des Monu- 
ments Arabes; Richard Ford's reverent apprecia- 
tions ; Dr. R. Dozy's history ; Mr. Stanley Lane- 
Poole's The Moors in Spain; Washington Irving's 
fascinating writings ; and The Alhambra Album, 
presented by Prince Dolgorouki in 1829, contain- 
ing the autographs, poems, and thoughts of 
succeeding generations of visitors to Granada, 
these and many others have been drawn upon in 
the following pages. 

But the multiplicity of my illustrations con- 
vinced me that if I adhered to my idea of 
furnishing an amount of letterpress sufficient to 
" carry "the blocks, I should only end in pro- 
ducing a book that would tax the physical 
endurance of my readers by reason of its bulk, 
and exhaust their patience with a tedious super- 
abundance of minute descriptive pabulum. I 
resolved, therefore, to give pride of place to the 



PREFACE TO FIRST EDITION xi 

pictorial side of the volume ; to abandon the 
traditions regulating the proportions of prose to 
pictures ; and make my appeal to the public by 
the beauty and variety of the illustrations I have 
collected, and the immensity of elaborate letter- 
press which I have not written. 

A. F. C. 

" ROYSTON," 

HAMPSTEAD, N.W., 1904. 



PREFACE TO SECOND EDITION 

THE compilation of a book of this kind reveals in 
the author a refreshing optimism which does not 
always survive the ordeal of publication, and it is, 
perhaps, out of sympathy with the misgivings that 
assail him as he approaches the bar of public and 
critical opinion, that convention cedes to him the 
privilege of making some apology for the faith 
that is in him. In his preface he is permitted to 
explain himself, and this apologia or justification, 
call it which you will, stands as the last word in 
his own defence. But the demand for a further 
edition is the outcome of an amiable conspiracy 
on the part of the public, and it is not required 
of the author to explain, justify, or excuse an issue 
for which he is not directly responsible. Any 
revision or amplification, however, which is to be 
found in a second impression, may be briefly 
referred to, and at the same time tradition allows 
him to express the feelings of gratitude and 
gratification that the occasion inspires. 

It has been my ambition to acknowledge the 



xiv PREFACE TO SECOND EDITION 

favour with which this book has been received, by 
having the present edition produced with the 
greatest care on special paper, and by the addition 
of a number of new illustrations, including some 
half-tone and coloured plates reproduced from the 
Monumentos Arquitectonicos de Espana and other 
sources, which I have acquired since it was first 
produced. It will be seen that several of the 
coloured pictures in this book illustrate designs 
which are common to the Arabian ornamentation 
to be found in Cordova and Seville, and, as rJeing 
representative of the Moresco work of the period, 
they also appear in the companion volume on 
Moorish Remains in Spain, but it may be stated 
that the whole of the plates reproduced here are 
from photographs and drawings secured or 
specially made to illustrate The Alhambra. In its 
pictorial appeal it has been my ambition to make 
this edition as worthy of its subject as means and 
ability permit, and I offer this assurance as an 
earnest of my sincere appreciation of the generous 
manner in which the Press and public rewarded 
my previous effort. 

A. F. C. 



PREFACE TO NEW EDITION 

THE generous appreciation with which my larger 

book on the Alhambra was received by both the 

Press and the public in Spain and America, as 

well as in this country, encourages me to hope 

that the present volume will prove a popular 

addition to this Spanish Series. Three years ago, 

when I published The Alhambra to supply what 

my own experience taught me to be a real want, 

the scale and quality of the illustrations made it 

impossible to issue the work at a popular price. 

I am now enabled to present an inexpensive and, 

I trust, adequate souvenir of the fascinating city 

of Granada and its Red Palace. The text is no 

mere reprint of the matter which appeared in 

my former work, but embodies the results of a 

more critical, though not less appreciative, survey 

of the last monuments of the Spanish Moor. 

Bearing in mind, too, that the illustrations, being 

on a reduced scale, called for fuller explanation, 

I have endeavoured to condense as much detail 

and descriptive matter into the letterpress as 

the limits I had laid down for myself admitted. 



xvi PREFACE TO NEW EDITION 

Those limits were still further encroached upon 
by the additional wealth of illustration which 
resulted from the decision to include the city of 
Granada in a work which, in previous issues, 
had been devoted entirely to the palace of the 
Alhambra,andthe new pictorial matter so acquir ed 
threatened to annex all the space allotted for the 
text. But little as I liked the idea of further con- 
densing the letterpress, I was even less inclined 
to neglect the opportunity of enhancing the 
pictorial value of the volume. In dealing with 
the Moorish art of Spain, I have always recognised 
that the popular want is for pictures rather than 
the printed word, and I venture to hope that the 
present volume, which surpasses its costlier pre- 
decessors in the number of the plates reproduced, 
will constitute a serviceable if not exhaustive guide 
to the beautiful Moorish capital, and an artistic 
remembrancer of its fascinating monuments. 

I have to acknowledge my obligations to Mr. 
E. B. d'Auvergne for his kind and valuable 
assistance in the compilation of the text, and for 
permission to reproduce many of the additional 
photographs I am indebted to the courtesy of 
Don Senan y Gonzalez, of Herr Ernst Wasmuth 
of Berlin, publisher of Uhdes Baudenkmaeler in 
Span ic ii nnd Portugal, and of Herr Eugen Twiet- 
meyer of Leipzig, publisher of Junghandel's Die 
Baukunst Spaniens. 



PREFACE TO NEW EDITION xvii 

As I have remarked in the preface to the volume 
on Cordova, it may be thought that in the present 
work I have given an excess of detail of Arabian 
decoration and ornament, but it has been my aim 
to provide the last word on Moorish art so far at 
least as the pictorial representation of it is con- 
cerned wherever I have dealt with it in Spain. 
To the general reader these reproductions of 
tracery and elaborate detail may seem superfluous, 
but they will, I trust, lend to the book an addi- 
tional interest in the eyes of students and artists, 
for whose delectation they are included here. 

A. F. C. 



CONTENTS 

PAGE 

THE CITY OF THE MOOR i 

THE ALHAMBRA 25 

THE GENERALIFE 61 

CATHOLIC GRANADA 65 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS 

TITLE PLATE 

View of Granada, showing the Alhambra and the Sierra 

Nevada ........ i 

General View of the Alhambra ..... 2 

View of the Alhambra from the Sacromonte Road . 3 
The Alhambra from the Moor's Seat La Silla del Moro 4 
General View of the Alhambra from San Nicolas . . 5 
View of the Gate of Elvira ..... 6 

A View of the Alhambra from the Albaicin (Sketch) . 7 
View of the Cathedral and the Alhambra from San 

Ger6nimo ....... 

View of the Sierra Nevada from the Carrera de las 

Angustias ....... 9 

View of the Royal Gate . . . . . .10 

View from the Tower in the Alhambra . . .11 
La Plaza Nueva . . . . . . .12 

Monument to Columbus in the Paseo del Salon ; the 

Sierra Nevada in the Distance . . . .13 

The Street of the Catholic Sovereigns . . 14 

Arab Silk Market . . . . . . 1 5 

La Casa de los Tiros ..... 16 

Church of Santa Ana . . . . . .17 

Limoges Enamel Triptych which belonged to the Gran 

Capitan. (Provincial Museum, Granada) . . 18 
Altar in the Church of San Geronimo . . . .19 
House in the Calle de Darro. The Palacio de Justicia . 20 
The House of Castril , . . , . .21 



xxii GRANADA 

TITLE PLATE 

Typical Gypsies and their Quarters 1 ... 22 
Gypsies in Front of their Dwellings . . . .23 

Gypsy-dwellings in the Sacromonte . . . .24 

General View of the Gypsy Quarters . . . .25 

Interior of a Gypsy's Cave ..... 26 

Group of Gypsies ....... 27 

A Gypsy Family ....... 28 

Gypsies bivouacking ...... 29 

Gypsies ......... 30 

Gypsies clipping a Mule . . . . . .31 

Gypsies ......... 32 

Gypsies ......... 33 

Gypsy Dance ........ 34 

Interior of the Sacristy of the Cartuja . . -35 

Interior of Cartuja : The Sacristy .... 36 

Interior of the Cartuja Church . . . . 37 

Saint Bruno, by Alonso Cano, at the Carthusian Monas- 
tery of Granada . . . . . .38 

Exterior of the Royal Chapel . . . . .39 

The Gate of Pardon and the Exterior of the Cathedral . 40 
Fa9ade of the Cathedral . . . . . .41 

Exterior Gate of the Royal Chapel . . . .42 

Detail in the Royal Chapel . . . . .43 

Ancient Gothic Entrance to the Royal Chapel . . 44 
General Exterior View of the Royal Chapel, Upper 

x cirr . . . . . . . .45 

General Exterior View of the Royal Chapel ... 46 
Fa9ade of the Cathedral. Exterior of the Royal Chapel 47 
General View of the Interior of the Cathedral . . 48 
The Cathedral. General View of the Interior . . 49 
The Cathedral. View of the Principal Nave . . 50 
The High Altar in the Cathedral . . . .51 

Altar-piece in the Royal Chapel, by F. de Borgona . 52 
The Cathedral. Boabdil giving up the Keys of Granada 
to the Catholic Sovereigns. Fragment of the Altar- 
piece in the Royal Chapel . . . . -53 

The Inner Choir of the Cathedral . . . -54 



ILLUSTRATIONS xxiii 

TITLE PLATE 

The Cathedral. Tombs of the Catholic Sovereigns in 

the Royal Chapel . . . . . -55 
View of the Royal Chapel and Tombs of the Catholic 

Sovereigns, by P. Gonzalvo .... 56 

Royal Chapel. Tombs of Ferdinand and Isabella . 57 

Vault of the Catholic Sovereigns at Granada . . 58 
Tombs of Ferdinand and Isabella, Dona Juana and 

Philip the Handsome . . . . 59 

Tombs of Ferdinand and Isabella, Dona Juana and 

Philip the Handsome ..... 60 

Sceptre, Crown, Sword, Mass-book, and Coffer of the 

Catholic Sovereigns . . . . . .61 

Relics of the Catholic Sovereigns .... 62 

Royal Chapel : Statue of Queen Isabella the Catholic 63 

Statue of Isabella the Catholic ..... 64 

Chapel of San Miguel in the Cathedral, Marble Sculpture 65 

Plan of the Alhambra Palace at Granada ... 66 

General Plan of the Alhambra ..... 67 

General View of the Alhambra from San Nicolas . . 68 

The Red Towers from the Ramparts .... 69 

View of the Alhambra from the Sacromonte . . 70 

General View of the Alhambra and Algibillo Promenade 71 

View of the Alhambra from the Cuesta del Chapiz . 72 

The Red Towers ....... 73 

General View of the Alhambra ..... 74 

The Tower of the Peaks . . . . . 75 

The Infantas' Tower and Captive's Tower ... 76 

View of the Watch Tower and Granada ... 77 

View of the Ramparts and the Watch Tower . . 78 

The Aqueduct Tower and the Aqueduct ... 79 
The Gate of Justice. Detail of a Door in the Court 

of the Myrtles ....... 80 

The Alhambra and the Sierra Nevada . . .81 
Granada, from the Homage Tower . . . .82 

" The Queen's Dressing-room," at the Summit of the 

Mihrab Tower, with Distant View of the Generalife 83 
The Gate of Justice, erected by Yusuf I. . .84 



xxiv GRANADA 

TITLE PLATE 

The Tower of the Peaks . . . . . .85 

The Captive's Tower ...... 86 

Exterior of the Mosque, Private Property . . -87 
Tower of the Aqueduct ...... 88 

Ascent to the Alhambra by the Cuesta del Rey Chico 

Lesser King Hill ...... 89 

The Ladies' Tower ....... 90 

Part of the Alhambra, Exterior . ... 91 

The Homage Tower. Ancient Arab Ruins in the 

Alcazaba ........ 92 

Gate of Justice, the Alhambra ..... 93 

Gate of Justice (Sketch] ...... 94 

The Gate of Justice ....... 95 

Plan, Height, and Details of the Gate of the Law, com- 
monly called of Justice ..... 96 

Elevation of the Ancient Gate of Justice ... 97 
Portal commonly called the Wine Gate . 98 

Porch of the Gate of Judgment ..... 99 

Elevation of the Wine Gate . . . . .100 

Transverse Section of Part of the Alhambra . . 101 

Section showing Heights of the Alhambra . . 102, 103 
Promenades at the Entrance to the Alhambra . .104 
The Hall of Justice and Court of the Lions . . .105 
Hall of Justice. Left Side . . . . .106 

Hall of Justice, showing Fountain of Court of the Lions 107 
Section of the Hall of Justice (looking East) . .108 
Section of the Hall of Justice (looking towards the 

Court of the Lions) . . . . . .109 

Vertical Section of the Hall of Justice . . .no 
Details of the Hall of Justice . . . . .in 

Plan and Window of the Hall of Justice . . .112 
Painting on the Ceiling of the Hall of Justice. No. i . 113 
Painting on the Ceiling of the Hall of Justice. No. 3 . 114 
Part of Picture in the Hall of Justice The Moor's 

Return from Hunting . . . . .115 

Hall of Justice The Death of the Lion at the Hands of 

a Christian Knight . . . . . .116 



ILLUSTRATIONS xxv 

TITLE PLATE 

Part of Picture in the Hall of Justice representing a 

Christian Knight rescuing a Maiden from a wicked 

Magician, or Wild-Man-o' -the- Woods . . .117 
Part of Picture in Hall of Justice Moorish Huntsman 

slaying the Wild Boar . . . . .118 
Hall of Justice Three Figures from the Picture of the 

Moorish Tribunal . . . . . .119 

The Mosque and Generalife . . . . .120 

Court of the Mosque . . . . . .121 

Fa$ade of the Mosque . . . . . .122 

Interior of the Mosque in the Alhambra . . .123 

Interior of the Mosque . . . . . .124 

Elevation of the Portico adjacent to the Mosque . . 125 

Detail of the Entrance Door of the Mosque . . .126 

An Arched Window of the Mosque . . . .127 

An Arched Window of the Mosque . . . .128 

The Koran Recess in the Mosque, the Scene of Yusuf's 

Assassination . . . . . . .129 

The Mosque from Koran Recess . . . .130 

Details of Ornament of Koran Recess near the Entrance 

Door of the Mosque . . . . . .131 

Cornice and Window in the Facade of the Mosque . 132 

Vertical Section of the Mosque . . . . .133 

Arab Lamp in Mosque . . . . . .134 

Details of the Front of the Mosque of the Harem . . 135 

Details of Ornament in the Court of the Mosque . .136 

Details in the Court of the Mosque, Eastern Fa9ade . 137 

Ornament in Panels, Court of the Mosque . . .138 

Window in the Hall of Ambassadors . . . .139 

Entrance to the Hall of Ambassadors . . .140 

Hall of Ambassadors . . . . . .141 

Section and Elevation of the Interior of the Hall of 

Ambassadors . . . . . . .142 

Encaustic- tile Work of the Hall of Ambassadors . 143 

Ornament in Panels, Hall of Ambassadors . . . 144 

Inscriptions in the Hall of Ambassadors . . .145 

Kufic Inscriptions, Hall of Ambassadors . . .146 



xxvi GRANADA 

TITLE PLATE 

" Wa la Ghalib ila Ala ' -There is no Conqueror but 
God ! The famous Motto of Mohammed I. and his 
Successors. An Example from the Hall of Am- 
bassadors ....... 147 

The Court of the Lions from the Templete Pomiente . 148 
Entrance to the Court of the Lions through the Pomiente 

Corner ........ 149 

North Gallery and Fa9ade of the Hall of the Aben- 

cerrages . . . . . . . .150 

The Court of the Lions from the Pomiente Corner . 151 
View in the Court of the Lions . . . . .152 

View in the Court of the Lions from the Hall of Justice 153 
The Court of the. Lions . . . . . .154 

General View of the Court of the Lions . . 1 5 5 

Court of the Lions . . . . . . .156 

North Gallery in the Court of the Lions . . 157 

Section, Court of the Lions . . . . .158 

Pavilion in the Court of the Lions . . . .159 

Fountain'and East Temple in the Court of the Lions . 160 
Hall of Justice and Court of the Lions . . .161 
Angle in the Hall of Justice . . . . .162 

Hall of Justice . . . . . . .163 

Ceiling of the Hall of Justice . . . . .164 

The Mosque, and View of the Generalife . . .165 
Exterior of a Window in the Mosque . . . .166 

The Mosque, and View of the Generalife . . .167 
Interior of the Mosque . . . . . .168 

Court of the Mosque, West Fa9ade . . . .169 

Interior of the Mosque, converted into a Roman Catholic 

Church . . . . . . . .170 

Interior of the Mosque, converted into a Roman Catholic 

Church . . . . . . . .171 

Jalousies in the Court of the Mosque . . . .172 

Entrance to the Hall of Ambassadors . . 173 

Balcony in the Hall of Ambassadors . . . .174 

Detail of the Hall of the Arched Windows . . . 175 
Detail in the Hall of the Abencerrages . . .176 



ILLUSTRATIONS xxvii 

TITLE PLATE 

The Court of the Lions . . . . . .177 

General View of the Court of the Lions . . .178 
The Fountain and West Temple of the Court of the Lions 1 79 
Elevation of the Fountain of the Court of the Lions . 180 
The Fountain of the Court of the Lions, with Details 

of the Ornament . . . . . .181 

Plan of the Basin of the Fountain in the Court of the 

Lions . . . . . . . .182 

Section of the Pavilion in the Court of the Lions . . 183 
Section of the Hall of the Two Sisters, and Section of 

Part of the Court of the Lions . . . 184, 185 
Capital in the Court of the Lions, with a Scale of One 

Metre . . . . . . . .186 

Details of the Centre Arcade of the Court of the Lions . 187 
Frieze over Columns, Court of the Lions . . .188 
Detail of the Central Arch in the Court of the Lions . 189 
The First Six Verses of the Inscription around the Basin 

of the Fountain of the Court of the Lions . .190 
Entablature in the Court of the Lions . . .191 
Cupola of the Pavilion in the Court of the Lions . .192 
Entrance to the Court of the Lions. Little Temple, the 

Court of the Lions . . . . . .193 

The Court of the Lions . . . . . .194 

The Little Temple, and the Fountain, the Court of the 

Lions ........ 195 

The Court of the Lions . . . . . .196 

The Court of the Lions, West Angle . . . .197 

Morocco Embassy, December 1885 . . . .198 

The Court of the Lions from the West Temple . .199 
The Court of the Lions from the West Temple . . 200 
West Gallery in the Court of the Lions . . .201 
The Court of the Lions, Fa9ade of the Hall of the Two 

Sisters ........ 202 

The Court of the Lions, Left-hand Angle . . . 203 
The Court of the Lions, Fagade of the Hall of Two 

Sisters ........ 204 

The Court of the Lions from the Entrance . . . 205 



xxviii GRANADA 

TITLE PLATE 

Detail of the Entrance to the Court of the Lions . . 206 
Detail in the Court of the Lions ..... 207 

Mosaics, North and South Sides, the Court of the Lions 208 
Hall of the Abencerrages ...... 209 

Hall of the Abencerrages . . . . . .210 

Hall of the Abencerrages . . . . . .211 

Hall of the Abencerrages . . . . . .212 

Wooden Doors, Hall of the Abencerrages . . .213 
Gallery in the Court of the Fish-pond ; or, of the 

Myrtles . . . . . . . .214 

Court of the Myrtles ; or, of the Fish-pond. Fa9ade 

of the Hall of Ambassadors . . . .215 
Court of the Myrtles ; or, of the Fish-pond . . .216 
General View of the Court of the Myrtles ; or, of the 

Fish-pond . . . . . . .217 

North Side of the Court of the Fish-pond ; or, of the 

Myrtles . . . . . . . .218 

Entrance to the Court of the Fish-pond ; or, of the 

Myrtles . . . . . . . .219 

Gallery in the Court of the Myrtles ; or, of the Fish- 
pond ........ 220 

General View of the Court of the Myrtles and Comares 

Tower . . . . . . . .221 

Court of the Myrtles, East Fa$ade .... 222 

Detail in the Court of the Myrtles .... 223 

Court of the Myrtles, East Fa9ade .... 224 

Exterior of the Gallery in the Court of the Fish-pond ; 

or, of the Myrtles . . . . . .225 

The Court of the Fish-pond ; or, of the Myrtles . . 226 
Ornament in the Court of the Fish-pond ; or, of the 

Myrtles ........ 227 

Court of the Myrtles ; or, of the Fish-pond, formed by 

Yiisuf 1 228 

The Court of the Fish-pond ; or, of the Myrtles. Gallery 

in the Court of the Fish-pond ; or, of the Myrtles . 229 
The Hall of the Baths . . . . . .230 

The Sultan's Bath . . . . . . .231 



ILLUSTRATIONS xxix 

TITLE PLATE 

The Sultana's Bath ....... 232 

The Baths, Hall of Repose ..... 233 

Chamber of Repose . . . . . . .234 

Section of the Hall of the Baths . . . .235 

Longitudinal Section through the Baths . . .236 
Ground Plan of the Baths in the Alhambra . . .237 
Ceiling of the Hall of the Baths . . . .238 

Plan and Section of the great Cistern in the Alhambra 239 
A Section of the Baths in the Alhambra . . . 240 
Chamber of Repose. Sultan's Bath constructed by 

Yusuf I. . . . . . . . 241 

Interior of the Infantas' Tower. .... 242 

Sections of the Infantas' Tower .... 243 

Interior of the Tower of the Infantas, Upper Part . 244 
Balcony of the " Captive " (Isabel de Solis), overlooking 

the Vega, or Plain, of Granada .... 245 

Alcove of the " Captive " (Isabel de Solis) . . . 246 
Interior of the Tower of the " Captive " (Isabel de 

Solis) ........ 247 

The " Captive's " Tower from the Entrance . . 248 
Interior of the Mosque. Room in the " Captive's " 

Tower ........ 249 

Hall of Justice. Baths, the Chamber of Repose . 250 

Balcony of the Favourite, " Lindaraja " . .251 

Alcove in the " Lindaraja " Apartments . . .252 
Garden of " Lindaraja," and the Apartments tradi- 
tionally said to have been occupied by " Lindaraja," 
a favourite Sultana . . . . . .253 

Detail, Interior of the Balcony of " Lindaraja " . . 254 
Detail, Lower Part of the Balcony of " Lindaraja " .255 
Detail of the Central Part of the Balcony of " Lindaraja " 256 
The Queen's Boudoir and Distant View of the Generalife 257 
The Queen's Boudoir and View of the Generalife . . 258 
The Queen's Boudoir and old Albaicin Quarter . .259 
The Queen's Boudoir and Defile of the Darro . . 260 
" Lindaraja's " Garden and the Apartments in which 

Washington Irving stayed . . . . .261 



xxx GRANADA 

TITLE PLATE 

Angle of the Balcony of " Lindaraja "... 262 
Balcony of the favourite "Lindaraja" . . . 263 
Interior of the Tower of the Captive, Isabel de Solis . 264 
Exterior of the Captive's Tower . . . .265 

The Tower of the Captive, Isabel de Solis . . . 266 
Interior of the Infantas' Tower, Upper Part . . 267 

Interior of the Infantas' Tower ..... 268 

Detail of the Upper Part of the Balcony of " Lindaraja " 269 
Hall of the Two Sisters . . . . . .270 

Entrance to the Hall of the Two Sisters . . .271 
Interior of the Hall of the Two Sisters . . . 272 
Hall of the Two Sisters . . . . . .273 

Hall of the Two Sisters . . . . . .274 

Temple and Fa9ade of the Hall of the Two Sisters . 275 
View in the Hall of the Two Sisters .... 276 

Hall of the Two Sisters from the Entrance Door, built 

by Y u suf I. ....... 277 

Upper Balcony of the Hall of the Two Sisters . . 278 
Hall of the Two Sisters from the Entrance Door . . 279 
Ceiling of the Hall of the Two Sisters . . . .280 

Detail of the Upper Story, Hall of the Two Sisters . 281 
Detail of the Lateral Windows of the Hall of the Two 

Sisters ........ 282 

Detail in the Hall of the Two Sisters . . . .283 

Panel, Ornament, and Inscriptions in the Hall of the 

Two Sisters ....... 284 

Inscription in the Hall of the Two Sisters . . .285 
Frieze in the Hall of the Two Sisters . . . .286 

Panel on Jambs of Doorways, Hall of the Two Sisters. 287 
Details of the Glazed Tiles in the Dado of the Hall 

of the Two Sisters ...... 288 

Band round Panels in Windows, Hall of the Two Sisters 289 
Mosaic in Dado of Recess. Mosaic in Dado of the 

Entrance to the Hall of the Two Sisters . . 290 
Mosaic in Dado of Hall of Ambassadors. Mosaic in 

Dado of the Hall of the Two Sisters . . .291 
Wine Gate. West Fagade ..... 292 



ILLUSTRATIONS xxxi 

TITLE PLATE 

Detail of the only ancient " Jalousie " remaining in 

the Alhambra ....... 293 

El Jarro. Arab Vase now in the Museum of the Palace 294 
El Jarro. The Arabian Vase and Niche in which it 

formerly stood, Hall of the Two Sisters . .295 
An Arab Vase of the Fourteenth Century in the Niche 

wherein it stood until the Year 1837 . . . 296 
Sword of the last Moorish King of Granada, commonly 

called " The Sword of Boabdil " . . . .297 

The Surrender of Granada by Boabdil to Ferdinand 

and Isabella, January 2, 1492 .... 298 

Gold Coin (obverse and reverse) of Mohammed I., the 
Founder of the Alhambra, who reigned 1232-1272 
A.D. . . . . . . . . 299 

Details and Inscriptions, and Arabian Capitals . .300 
The Gothic Inscription set up in the Alhambra by the 
Count of Tendilla, to commemorate the Surrender 
of the Fortress in 1492 . . . . .301 

Mosaic Pavement in the Queen's Dressing-room (To- 
cador de la Reyna). Mosaic, from a Fragment in 
the Alhambra ....... 302 

The House of Carbon ...... 303 

The ancient Granary Market and House of Carbon . 304 
Elevation of the Casa del Carbon, or House of 
Carbon, once known as the House of the Weather- 
cock ........ 305 

Courtyard of a Moorish House in the Albaicin . . 306 
Interior of an Arab House in the Albaicin . . . 307 
The Proclamation of Boabdil. By Placido Frances 

(National Exhibition of Beaux Arts, 1884) . . 308 
The Author in the Alhambra ..... 309 

Cornices, Capitals, and Columns in the Alhambra. . 310 
Miscellaneous Ornament in the Alhambra . . .311 
The Fable of Jupiter and Leda in the Alhambra . .312 
Bas-relief, now in the Museum of the Alhambra . -313 
Arabian Sword . . . . . . .314 

Capitals from the Courts and Halls of the Alhambra . 315 



xxxii GRANADA 

TITLE PLATE 

Encaustic-tile Work in the Royal Room of Santo 

Domingo . . . . . . . .316 

Various Mosaics from the Alhambra . . . .317 

Inscriptions in the Alhambra . . . . .318 

Plan of the Palace of Charles V. and of the Subterranean 

Vaults of the Alhambra . . . . .319 

General View of the Alhambra from the Homage Tower 320 
Ancient Cistern. Early Fourteenth Century . .321 
The Alhambra. (Specially drawn for the Spanish 

Series] ........ 322 

Part of Exterior of the Palace of Charles V. . . . 323 

Elevation of the Palace of Charles V. . . . .324 

Section of the Palace of Charles V. . . . .325 

Fountain of the Emperor Charles V. . . . .326 

View of the Alhambra from the Homage Tower . . 327 
Interior of the Palace of Charles V. . . . .328 

Doorway of the Palace of Charles V. . . . .329 

Bas-relief in the Palace of Charles V. . . . .330 

Porch of the Palace of Charles V. from the West . .331 
Roman Court, Palace of Charles V. . . . .332 

Ground Plan of the Generalife at Granada . . -333 
The Generalife . . . . . . -334 

The Principal Court of the Generalife. . . -335 
The Court of the Fish-pond in the Generalife . .336 
Promenades and Gardens of the Generalife . . -337 
The Generalife . . . . . . .338 

Front View of the Portico of the Generalife . . -339 
Transverse Section of the Royal Villa of the Generalife 340 
Gallery in the Generalife . . . . . .341 

The Generalife. Gallery in the Acequia Court . . 342 
The Generalife. Entrance to the Portrait Gallery . 343 
Garden of the Generalife ...... 344 

Elevation of the Portico of the Generalife . . . 345 
The Acequia Court in the Generalife .... 346 

A Corner of the Acequia Court in the Generalife . . 347 
Cypress Court. A Corner in the Acequia Court . . 348 
The Cypress of the Sultana in the Generalife . . 349 



ILLUSTRATIONS xxxiii 

TITLE PLATE 

A Ceiling in the Generalife . . . . 350 

The Generalife. The Acequia Court from the Main 

Entrance . . . . . . . 351 

The Generalife. The Acequia Court from the Interior 352 
Exterior View of the Generalife . . . -353 

Entrance to the Generalife . . . . .354 

The Generalife. Court of the Sultana's Cypress . . 355 
The Generalife. The Acequia Court from the Interior 356 
South Fa9ade of the Palace of Charles V. . . - 357 
Bas-relief in the Palace of Charles V. . . . .358 

Bas-relief in the Palace of Charles V. .... 359 

Gate of the Granadas ...... 360 

Promenades and Hotels of the Alhambra . . .361 
The Gate of Justice and Fountain of Charles V. . . 362 
Environs of the Alhambra. Fountain of Charles V. . 363 
Gate of Justice. Principal Entrance to the Alhambra 364 
Gate of Justice ....... 365 

Wine Gate. East Fa9ade ..... 366 

Environs of the Alhambra. Tower of the Peaks . . 367 
Tower of the Peaks. ...... 368 

General View of the Alhambra from the Silla del 

Moro ........ 369 

General View of the Alhambra from the Gypsy 

Quarters ........ 37 

General View of the Alhambra from the Generalife . 371 
View of Granada and the Alhambra from the Sacro- 

monte ........ 372 

General View of the Alhambra from San Nicolas . . 373 
The Watch Tower, the Cathedral, and Granada . . 374 
Villas on the Banks of the River Darro . . -375 
A View of the Alhambra . . . . . 376 

Villas on the Banks of the River Darro . . . 377 
The Watch Tower and Cathedral .... 378 

The Red Tower ....... 379 

The Homage Tower and Gypsy Quarters : exterior of 

their Caves ..... . 380 

Carrera del Rio Darro . . . . . .381 

C 



xxxiv GRANADA 

TITLE PLATE 

The Gate of Elvira. The old Entrance to the Fortifi- 
cations ........ 382 

Washing Place in the Puerta del Sol . . . -383 
Courtyard of an Arab House . . . . -384 

A Moorish Archway . . . . . -385 

Interior of an old House in the Calle del Horno de Oro. 386 
Interior of an old House in the Albaicin . . . 387 
The Cathedral and General View .... 388 

General View of the Cathedral. .... 389 

General View of the Exterior of the Cathedral . . 390 
Entrance to the Royal Chapel . . . . .391 
Exterior of the Royal Chapel of the Catholic Sovereigns 392 
Detail of the Exterior of the Royal Chapel . . . 393 
Exterior of the Royal Chapel ..... 394 

Exterior of the Cathedral ..... 395 

Exterior of the Royal Chapel ..... 396 

Exterior of the Cathedral. The Gate of Pardon . . 397 
Gothic Pinnacle on the Royal Chapel .... 398 

The Cathedral. View from the Choir . . . 399 
The Cathedral. General View of the Chancel and 

High Altar ....... 400 

Bas-relief in the Altar-piece of the Royal Chapel . .401 
General View of the Chancel in the Cathedral . . 402 
The Royal Chapel. Sepulchre of the Catholic Sove- 
reigns ........ 403 

The Royal Chapel. Detail of the Sepulchre of the 

Catholic Sovereigns ...... 404 

The Royal Chapel. Sculpture of King Ferdinand the 

Catholic ........ 405 

Sepulchre of Ferdinand ...... 406 

Sepulchre of Isabella the Catholic .... 407 

Portal of the Church of San Juan de Dios . . . 408 
Sepulchre of Alonso Cano in San Geronimo. . . 409 
Head of John the Baptist. . . . . .410 

Head of John the Baptist. . . . . .411 

Head of John the Baptist. . . . . .412 

Exterior of the Cartuja Monastery . . . .413 



ILLUSTRATIONS xxxv 

TITLE PLATE 

Sacristy in the Cartuja, Left Side . . . 414 

Sacristy in the Cartuja, Right Side . . . .415 

Cartuja. Sancta Sanctorum . . . . .416 

Cartuja. Detail of the Cupboards in the Sacristy . 417 
Altars in the Cartuja. Pictures by Sanchez y Cotan, 

a Monk of the Order ...... 418 

Cartuja. The Immaculate Conception. By Murillo . 419 
Cartuja. The Virgin of the Rosary. By Murillo . 420 
Cartuja. St. Joseph and the Child. Sculpture by 

Alonso Cano . . . . . . .421 

Cartuja. St. Mary Magdalene. Sculpture by Alonso 

Carlo ........ 422 

Cartuja. Horsemen hanging Martyrs. By Sanchez 

Cotan ........ 423 

Cartuja. The Baptism of Our Lord. By Sanchez 

Cotan ........ 424 

Cartuja. The Holy Family. By Sanchez Cotan . 425 
The Crucifixion of Our Lord. By Morales . . . 426 
The Conception of Our Lady. By Morales. . . 427 
The Gypsy Quarters. Exterior of the Caves . . 428 
The Gypsy Quarters. An " At Home " . . 429 

Gypsy Dance in their Quarters ..... 430 

Gypsy Types at the Doors of their Caves . . .431 
Gypsy Dance in their Quarters . . . . .432 

Gypsy Dancers and their Captain, J. Amaya . -433 
Bridge of the Genii ....... 434 

General View . . . . . . . -435 

General View of the old Albaicin . . . . 436 

General View from the Watch Tower . . . -437 
Old Arab Palace, now the Property of a Spanish Noble- 
man ........ 438 

The old Town Hall 439 

The Royal Gate and Street of the Catholic Sovereigns . 440 
Monument to Columbus in the Paseo del Salon . .441 
The Raw Silk Market ...... 442 

The Raw Silk Market. Ancient Arab Silk Market . 443 
Exterior of an old House, Cuesta del Pescado . . 444 



xxxvi GRANADA 

TITLE PLATE 

The Court of Justice ...... 445 

Carrera del Darro ....... 446 

Market and Gypsy Fair in the Triunfo . . . 447 
Calle de San Anton ....... 448 

Antequeruela Quarter, Sierra Nevada, and the " Last 

Sigh of the Moor " . . . . . . 449 

Carrera de Genii and View of the Sierra Nevada . . 450 
Plaza de Mariana Pineda, Arab House, and View of the 

Sierra Nevada . . . . . . -451 

General View of the Alhambra and of the Sierra Nevada 

from St. Michael . . . . . .452 

Huetor High Road and View of the Sierra Nevada . 453 
Villas on the Borders of the River Darro . . . 454 
Defile of the Darro . . . . . . .455 

The Green Bridge and View of the Sierra Nevada . 456 
View of the Sierra Nevada . . . . -457 

General View of the Sierra Nevada and the River Genii 458 
Granada. (Specially drawn JOY the Spanish Series) . 459 
Arms of Granada .... . 460 

Plan of Granada s . page 89 



GRANADA 



THE CITY OF THE MOOR 

GRANADA is the creation of the Moors. Its 
history is all of them the record of their glory 
and their fall. The Pomegranate, as its con- 
queror styled it, ripened only in the warm sun- 
shine of Islam, and withered with its decline. 
Under the Christian, it fell from the rank of a 
splendid capital to a poor provincial town. Now 
it subsists merely as a great monument to a 
vanished race and a dead civilisation. 

With Granada before it became the centre of 
an independent kingdom, we need concern 
ourselves but little. Its real interest dates from 
the establishment of the Nasrite dynasty in the 
first half of the thirteenth century. It was the 
time when the great Almohade Empire was 
breaking up. Probably all Andalusia would 
have shared the fate of Cordova and Seville, 
and the conquests of the Catholic kings been 
anticipated by two centuries, had not a young 
man of Arjona, Ibn Al Ahmar by name, deter- 
mined to fashion for himself a kingdom out of 

A 



2 GRANADA 

the fragments of empire. With an ever-increasing 
following, he seized upon Jaen in 1232, and 
obtained possession of Granada itself in 1237. 
City after city opened its gates to him, including 
Malaga and Almeria, and in 1241 he was recog- 
nised as Lord and Sultan of all the territory 
between the Sierra Morena and the Pillars of 
Hercules, from Ronda to Baza. 

A great man, in every sense, was this founder 
of the Nasrite dynasty. His presence was fine 
and commanding, his manner bland and amiable, 
his courage worthy of the heroic age. For all 
his valour and prowess on the battlefield, no 
monarch prized peace more highly. He proved 
himself a true national hero and the father of his 
people. He fostered industry and agriculture, 
was a patron, like all his race, of arts and letters, 
and encouraged immigration by every means in 
his power. A far-sighted statesman, he perceived 
that a state so limited in area as his own could 
only hope to exist by virtue of an unusual density 
of population, and he offered every inducement 
to Muslims from the provinces conquered by 
the Christians to settle within his dominions. 
Granada was the last hope of Islam in Europe, 
and he resorted to all possible means to safeguard 
it. He concluded alliances with the rulers of 
Morocco, Tlemsen, and Tunis, and even of dis- 
tant Baghdad. Above all, he neglected no means 



THE CITY OF THE MOOR 3 

of humouring and conciliating the irresistible 
Castilian. He negotiated an alliance with Fer- 
nando III., binding himself to attend the Cortes 
(a curious stipulation for a Mohammedan) and 
to attend the king in his wars with 1500 lances. 
This latter part of the bargain he was speedily 
called upon to fulfil, and against his own co- 
religionists of Seville. It seemed an unnatural 
warfare, but, to palliate the iniquity, let it be said 
that Ibn Al Ahmar probably looked upon the 
Almohade citizens of Ishbiliah as heretics. At 
all events, whether his conscience approved his 
action or not, he contributed in no small measure 
to Fernando's success, and was hailed enthu- 
siastically as a conqueror upon his return to 
Granada. That the assistance he rendered was 
not looked upon as altogether voluntary by the 
people of Seville is shown by the fact that 
thousands of them migrated to his dominions 
and settled there. 

Ibn Al Ahmar dreaded the might of Castile. 
The only hope for the Mohammedans of Spain 
lay, he knew, in rest and consolidation. Careful 
not to give offence to his dreaded neighbour, 
he courteously received the revolted and exiled 
Infante Don Enrique when he sought refuge at 
Granada, but sent him on to Tunis with letters 
recommending him to the Sultan of that country. 
All his diplomacy, however, could not avert a 



4 GRANADA 

war with Alfonso, and to add to his troubles, 
the Walis of Guadix, Malaga, and Comares 
revolted against his authority. But an insurrection 
soon after broke out in Castile, and Alfonso 
was compelled to leave the Walis to fight their 
own battles. Ibn Al Ahmar, an old man of eighty 
years, wearily girded on his armour for another 
of the campaigns he had learned to hate. But 
his time for rest had come at last. A few miles 
beyond the gates of his capital, his charger threw 
him, as he rode at the head of his army. He 
breathed his last at sundown, by the roadside, 
surrounded by his weeping warriors. It was a 
dark night for Granada. 

Al Ahmar's son, under the style of Mohammed 
II., succeeded him at the age of thirty-eight years, 
on January 21, 1273. Arabic historians have 
lavished their encomiums upon him, as indeed 
upon most of his dynasty. He is described as 
a warrior and a statesman, as a man of letters 
and a poet of considerable ability. During his 
reign of twenty-nine years, he was almost con- 
tinuously at war. Soon after his accession 
he crushed the rebel Walis at Antequera, and then 
paid a visit to Alfonso X. at Seville, with a view 
to detaching the Castilian king from his alliance 
with the defeated insurgents. In this he was 
successful. Queen Violante, however, at the 
conclusion of his visit, asked of him a boon, 



THE CITY OF THE MOOR 5 

which, according to the custom of the times, 
as a true knight, he was bound to grant. He 
then discovered, too late, that he had been 
tricked into granting a year's truce to the Walis. 
Smouldering with rage, he returned to Granada 
and spent the year in maturing plans for the 
complete overthrow of his enemies. This he 
effected with the aid of the Sultan Yusuf of 
Morocco, whose army of 100,000 men landed at 
Tarifa in 1275. The Africans, as on previous 
occasions in Moorish history, proved dangerous 
allies. Mohammed found himself embroiled in a 
long and absolutely unprofitable war with Castile, 
and had the mortification of seeing the Africans 
possess themselves of Algeciras, Tarifa, and 
Malaga. He recovered possession of the latter 
town by bribing the governor to exchange it 
for the town of Salobrena, to be held as a personal 
acquisition ; and rid himself at last of the trouble- 
some Africans by means of an alliance with 
Sancho of Castile. But in 1302 we find him 
again at war with the Christians, fighting against 
whom he died. 

Mohammed III. was the worthy son of his 
father, and is specially commended for his in- 
defatigable energy. He took a short way with 
traitors, even for those rough times. Ibn Nasr, 
the governor of Guadix, having been removed 
from his office by the Sultan, exerted himself 



6 GRANADA 

to form a faction in his favour. Mohammed III., 
hearing of this, summoned him to court, and 
had him slain there and then in his presence. 
A more honourable exploit was his conquest of 
the town of Ceuta, opposite Gibraltar, in the year 
1306. With the rich spoils of the foray, he 
built a magnificent mosque at Granada, resplen- 
dent with gold and silver, jasper and marble. 
His success perhaps excited the jealousy of 
the Catholic powers. Attacked on either side 
by the Kings of Castile and Aragon, he was 
forced to conclude a humiliating peace. On his 
return to his capital he was seized in the Alhambra 
itself by a band of conspirators and forced to 
abdicate in favour of his brother, Muley Nasr. 
The new Sultan began his reign with some military 
successes (1309). He forced Jaime of Aragon to 
raise the siege of Almeria; but as a set-off, he had 
to deal with conspiracies and rebellions at home, 
the most formidable of these being headed by 
his nephew, Abu-1-Walid. In the midst of these 
complications a curious incident occurred. Nasr 
was stricken with apoplexy and left for dead. 
His deposed brother, Mohammed III., was 
then released by some courtiers and brought 
to Granada, only to find that the usurper had 
recovered his health and his crown. The luck- 
less Mohammed did not long survive his 
partisans' mistake. But retribution speedily 



THE CITY OF THE MOOR 7 

overtook his brother. He was forced to yield 
to Abu-1-Walid, and was glad to be allowed to 
retire to Guadix, the sovereignty of which was 
allotted to him. Usurper though he was, Nasr 
conducted himself with the dignity of a philo- 
sopher. His rival's triumph chagrined him not 
at all, and when invited by Pedro I. to join him 
in an attack on Granada, he patriotically declined. 
He was a brave man, who did not complain at 
meeting the fate to which he had subjected others. 
The new monarch of Granada, Abu-1-Walid 
Ismail, was a fighter and a fanatic. He was fond 
of saying that he believed only in God and his 
good sword. His faith in the latter weapon was 
justified. He annihilated a Spanish army which 
had approached Granada, among the slain being 
the Infantes, Don Juan and Don Pedro ; and 
carrying his victorious arms eastwards, wrested 
Baza and Martos from the enemies of his race. 
But others also reposed their faith in the sword. 
Like another Agamemnon, he appropriated 
a beautiful captive, the prize of the young 
Mohammed of Algeciras. Three days after his 
triumphal entry into his capital he fell at the 
gates of the Alhambra, a victim to the poniard 
of the man he had injured. Perceiving his 
sovereign to be at the point of death and resolving 
to avert the horrors of a disputed succession, the 
Wizir summoned the chief men of Granada to 



8 GRANADA 

the palace, and announced that Abu-1-Walid 
was recovering from his wounds. The royal 
order was that all present should take the 
oath to the boy-prince, Muley Mohammed Ben 
Ismail, as successor to the kingdom. When this 
command had been obeyed, the wily Wizir 
announced the death of Abu-1-Walid and the 
accession of Mohammed IV. This was in the 
year 1325. 

When he had freed himself from the control of 
an unpopular regent, the young Sultan displayed 
qualities of heart and mind in no way inferior to 
those of his progenitors. It must be admitted 
that Arab historians have been somewhat too 
partial to this line of kings, for there is hardly 
one who is not described more or less explicitly 
as a paragon of all the virtues. Mohammed IV. 
had to fight hard to hold his own against the 
Spaniards on one side and the Africans on the 
other. He took Gibraltar, and lost it again to 
Abu-1-Hasan of Fez. But the African king was 
soon after obliged to ask his help to hold the 
fortress against the Christians. Mohammed 
generously responded to the appeal, fell like 
a thunderbolt upon the Spanish camp, and raised 
the siege. He was ill repaid. In August 1333, 
he was imprudent enough to reproach his African 
allies with their inability to hold the fortress ; 
and a day or two later, having sent his army 



THE CITY OF THE MOOR 9 

home, made an excursion to the summit of the 
Rock. He was followed by some among those 
he had reproached, and quickly despatched by 
their poniards. His body, naked and mangled, 
was found at the foot of the Rock, and conveyed 
to Malaga. No attempt seems to have been made 
to identify or to punish his murderers. 

The ill-fated Mohammed was succeeded by his 
brother, Yusuf L, Abu-1-Hejaj. While possessed, 
of course, of the virtues which seem to have been 
inherent in the Nasrite dynasty, this prince was 
exceptional in being an ardent, almost a pas- 
sionate, lover of peace. He believed, says Don 
Francisco Pi Margall, that it was more glorious 
to remedy evils than to attempt perilous enter- 
prises. Assisted by his able Wizir, Redwan, he 
revised the laws and purified the administration 
of justice. He built a magnificent palace at 
Malaga, and the great aljama or mosque at 
Granada, of which no trace remains. Abandoning 
for once his settled policy, he joined the Africans 
in a war against Castile. He was badly beaten, 
and was glad to negotiate a truce of ten years. 
At the end of that time, Alfonso of Castile died, 
and the Sultan of Granada was stabbed to death 
by a madman, while at his prayers in the mosque, 
in the year 1354. 

Mohammed V. was as virtuous and as unfor- 
tunate as his father. He had reigned but four 



io GRANADA 

years when he was attacked in his own palace 
by the partisans of his half-brother, Ismail. 
Narrowly escaping death, he fled to his harem, 
and in the disguise of a slave eluded his pursuers 
and made his way to Guadix. Ismail II. ran a 
brief and inglorious career, and was dethroned 
and slain (1360) by the "Red King," Abu Said. 
Meantime, Pedro I. of Castile espoused the 
cause of the lawful sultan and invaded the 
territory of Granada. But the magnanimous 
Moor would not consent to remount the throne 
at the cost of his people's blood. Pedro accord- 
ingly withdrew, but freed Mohammed from his 
enemies by murdering Abu Sai'd when the latter 
incautiously paid a visit to Seville. Mohammed 
was reinstated on his throne, and mindful of the 
services rendered him by Pedro, advanced to his 
support with a Grenadine army against Enrique 
de Trastamara. The tragedy of Montiel made a 
continuance of the struggle useless, and the 
Moorish sultan devoted the remainder of his reign 
to improving the condition of his subjects. He 
founded charitable institutions and asylums, 
and raised Granada to a high pitch of prosperity. 
The city, according to the contemporary writer, 
El Khattib, became the metropolis of the Medi- 
terranean, the emporium of commerce, and 
the common fatherland of all nations. Under 
Mohammed V., the kingdom may be considered 



THE CITY OF THE MOOR n 

to have reached its zenith. Thence to its nadir 
we count but a century of years. 

Yusuf II., who succeeded his father in 1391, 
was so averse to war that his subjects suspected 
him of Christian sympathies. His son rose against 
him, and the pacific monarch was disposed to 
abdicate rather than draw the sword. The 
exhortations of the Moroccan ambassador in- 
duced him to take a manlier course, and putting 
himself at the head of the army lately arrayed 
against him, he ravaged Murcia with fire and 
sword. It was against this peace-loving sultan 
that Don Martin de la Barbuda, the Quixotic 
Master of Calatrava, directed his wild expedition 
defeated, of course, and emphatically dis- 
avowed by Enrique III. of Castile. Yusuf's 
younger son and successor, Mohammed VII.,* 
was a prince of a very different stamp. Accom- 
panied by only twenty-five horsemen, he pene- 
trated to Toledo, and negotiated in the heart of 
Castile with Enrique III. The peace thus con- 
cluded was soon interrupted, and Mohammed 
was quickly waging war throughout the length and 
breadth of Andalusia. The war continued with 
varying fortunes, and was carried on, as was usual 
in those days, by a series of forays, neither side 

* He is reckoned as Mohammed VI. by the writers who 
deny the title of Sultan to the usurper of Mohammed V.'s 
throne. 



12 GRANADA 

making any determined effort to take the other's 
capital or to secure his conquests. On feeling 
his end approaching, the warlike Sultan bethought 
him of his elder brother, Yusuf, whom he had 
confined in the castle of Salobrena. Fearing that 
the captive might now supplant his own son, 
Mohammed sent a messenger to command his 
execution. Yusuf was playing chess with the 
governor of the castle when the fatal mandate 
arrived. He asked leave of the emissary to 
finish the game, and before he had made the 
final move, the news arrived of the death of 
Mohammed and of his proclamation as Sultan of 
Granada. Yusuf showed himself as calm and 
unmoved at his accession to the throne as when 
he had stood upon the threshold of death. 

As peaceably disposed as his father, Yusuf 
III. had to withstand some of the most deter- 
mined assaults upon his doomed kingdom. In 
his reign took place the celebrated siege of Ante- 
quera by the Castilians, the survivors of which 
founded the suburb of Antequeruela adj acent to 
Granada. Yusuf ultimately found peace and a 
valuable ally as the outcome of a strange story of 
fraternal animosity. The people of Gibraltar 
revolted against Granada and proclaimed them- 
selves the subjects of Fez. The Sultan of that 
realm sent his hated brother, Abu Sa'id, to take 
possession of the town, and treating him as David 



THE CITY OF THE MOOR 13 

did Uriah, left him at the mercy of the enemy. 
Yusuf, however, treated the captured prince with 
generosity, and showed him a letter which he 
shortly after received from the Sultan of Fez, 
requesting that he might be poisoned. Thirsting 
for vengeance, Abu Said procured arms and 
soldiers at Granada, and, invading Morocco, 
drove his perfidious brother from the throne. 
Thereafter he was the sworn ally of the Sultan 
of Granada, whom Castile and Aragon no longer 
ventured to trouble. Yusuf III. passed away 
in 1417. 

The history of Granada is henceforward one 
of almost continuous revolution and tumult. 
Mohammed VIII. was driven into exile by a name- 
sake reckoned as the ninth of his name, and then 
restored by a counter-revolution. A Castilian 
army ravaged the Vega up to the walls of the 
capital. Granada itself would have fallen, had 
not Juan II. and the great Constable, Alvaro 
de Luna, been recalled to Castile by the dis- 
orders which resulted in the latter's overthrow. 
An earthquake desolated the distracted kingdom ; 
and we may suppose that Mohammed VIII. 
was not altogether sorry when he abandoned 
his throne to a pretender and fled to Malaga. 

The new sultan, Yusuf IV., held his throne as 
a fief of Castile, the support of which he had 
to purchase with humiliating concessions. He 



i 4 GRANADA 

anticipated inevitable assassination by dying 
after sixteen months of authority ; and for the 
third time, Mohammed VIII. was proclaimed 
at Granada (1432). Hostilities with Castile 
were at once renewed. This time the fortune 
of war was with the Moors, who routed their 
opponents at Illora, Archidona, and Castril. 
But Mohammed VIII. 's star was never long in the 
ascendant. He quarrelled with the powerful 
family of the Abencerrages ; and, deprived of 
their support, was finally expelled from his 
kingdom, by his kinsman, Aben Osmin.* The 
usurper was victorious over the Christians and 
took several strongholds, but his army suffered 
at last a bloody defeat at Alporchones. This 
reverse seems to have maddened Osmin, who 
henceforward conducted himself as a tyrant of 
the old Roman type. Revolutions had now 
become as frequent in Granada as in some South 
American states. The usurper ran his brief 
career, and was then forced to make room for 
Mohammed VIII. 's cousin Said. Granada was 
all for peace. Tribute was paid to Enrique IV. 
of Castile, Christian captives released all in 
vain. The intermittent warfare went on as before. 
Jaen, Archidona, Gibraltar, were lost, despite 
the desperate valour of the Prince, Muley Hassan, 
and of the Chieftain, Ibrahim, who, on being 

* Known as Mohammed"* X. 



THE CITY OF THE MOOR 15 

vanquished, plunged on horseback into the depths 
of a ravine. At last, however, the distracted 
Ibn Ismail obtained peace for his wretched 
country by a personal interview with Enrique, 
outside the walls of Granada. He devoted the 
remainder of his reign to the encouragement of 
commerce, industry, and agriculture in his do- 
minions labour that did not benefit even those 
who were to succeed him ; and died at Almeria 
in the year 1465. The knell of the Moorish 
Empire in Europe was sounded over his bier. 

The reigns of Ali Abu-1-Hassan, Mohammed 
XI. (Boabdil), and Mohammed XII. (Az- 
Zaghal) covered the years 1465-1492, during 
which the downfall and extinction of the kingdom 
were accomplished. The history of these events 
has already filled many bulky tomes, and has been 
made familiar to English readers by the works 
of Prescott. Even our brief survey, however, 
cannot be concluded without a summary of the 
last chapter of the story of Granada. 

The character of Muley Ali Abu-1-Hassan was 
the reverse of his predecessor's. He was arrogant, 
impetuous, and warlike, a fanatical hater of the 
Christians, and a zealous Muslim. In the first 
years of his reign he gained some successes 
over the feeble Enrique IV., and proved himself 
strong enough to quell a revolt at Malaga. But 
he let slip the opportunity of attacking the new 



16 GRANADA 

sovereigns of Spain, Ferdinand and Isabel, when 
they were engaged in war with the partisans of 
" La Beltraneja," nor did he make any attempt 
to effect an alliance with their numerous enemies. 
State-craft does not appear to have been possessed 
to any great extent by the descendants of Al 
Ahmar. In 1476, Abu-1-Hassan condescended 
to sue for a renewal of the alliance with the Queen 
of Castile ; but when Ferdinand of Aragon made 
the payment of the tribute stipulated by Ibn 
Ismail a condition of the treaty, the Moor's 
proud nature revolted. " Return to your sove- 
reigns," he said to the Spanish ambassadors, 
" and tell them that the sultans who paid tribute 
to the Christians are dead ; that here we manu- 
facture only iron spear-heads for our enemies." 
These words sealed the fate of the Moors in Spain, 
though the ruler who uttered them probably 
thought them merely the prelude to just such a 
frontier war as had raged intermittently for so 
many years. 

The first act in the long-drawn-out drama was 
the capture of Zahara by the troops of Granada, 
in 1481 provoked by the predatory incursions 
of the Marquis of Cadiz. The Christian garrison 
was surprised during a furious tempest, and put 
to the sword. The rest of the inhabitants were 
carried off in captivity to Granada. Abu-1- 
Hassan, inflated with pride, returned to his 



THE CITY OF THE MOOR 17 

capital. There were popular rejoicings, but 
the wiser Moors shook their heads and predicted 
that the ruins of Zahara would fall upon their 
own city. 

The fiery chivalry of Andalusia were not slow 
to retaliate. Two months after the capture of 
Zahara, the more important Grenadine strong- 
hold of Alhama was taken by storm by the forces 
of the Marquis of Cadiz. The news produced 
the utmost consternation in Granada. Abu-1- 
Hassan at once set out with 53,000 men, and 
invested the place. Ferdinand the Catholic, 
who had now conceived the idea of reducing 
the whole kingdom of Granada, hurried to 
its relief ; but he had only reached Lucena 
when tidings arrived of the raising of the siege 
by the Marquis's hereditary foe, the Duke of 
Medina Sidonia. Abu-1-Hassan returned to the 
attack a few weeks later, and Ferdinand resumed 
his advance, before which the Moors retired. 
The Catholic sovereigns made their triumphal 
entry into Alhama on May 14, 1482. 

Great preparations were made throughout 
Castile and Aragon for the prosecution of the 
war, but the army actually assembled before 
Loja on July i 16,000 men fell far short of 
Ferdinand's requirements and expectations. The 
town was ably defended by one of the bravest 
Moorish chieftains, Ali Atar, who repulsed the 

B 



i8 GRANADA 

Christians with severe loss. The King of Aragon 
narrowly escaped with his life, and was compelled 
to beat a retreat. Abu-1-Hassan swept the 
country as far as the Rio Frio. 

Such a success, if it had been followed up, might 
have turned the scale in favour of the Moors. 
But at Granada, treason always followed closely 
on the heels of victory. Years before, a beautiful 
Christian captive, Doiia Isabel de Solis, daughter 
of the Governor of Martos, had been added to the 
Sultan's harem. Under the name of Zoraya, 
in the course of time, she bore him a son, Abu 
Abdullah, and rose to the rank of favourite 
Sultana.* Now, jealous, it is said, of a Greek 
slave, or perhaps antagonised by the first Sultana, 
Ayesha, she fomented a conspiracy against her 
aged lord, and was imprisoned with her son in 
theAlhambra. Thence they contrived to escape, 
and, exciting the populace in their favour, obliged 
Abu-1-Hassan to seek refuge at Malaga. Abu 
Abdullah, better known as Boabdil, or el Chico 
(the little), reigned in his stead, but Baza, Guadix, 
and other eastern towns remained faithful to their 
old allegiance. 

These dissensions among the Moors, though 
ultimately benefiting the Spaniards, contributed 

* I adopt Mr. U. R. Burke's statement of the relationship 
between Abu-1-Hassan, Zoraya, and Boabdil. (Burke, " His- 
tory of Spain," II. p. 98.) 



THE CITY OF THE MOOR 19 

indirectly to one of the most serious disasters 
that befell the latter during the campaign. For 
an expedition against Malaga, headed by the 
Marquis of Cadiz and the Grandmaster of Santiago, 
while threading its way through the passes of 
the Ajarquia, was attacked by the lieutenants 
of the old lion, Abu-1-Hassan, and cut to pieces. 
Eight hundred Spaniards were left dead on the 
field. Boabdil, emulous of the glory his father 
had acquired, marched out of Granada with 9700 
men, and gave battle to the enemy under the 
Count of Cabra, near Lucena. The Moors were 
totally defeated, their bravest general, Ali Atar, 
was slain, and Boabdil himself captured by a 
private soldier, named Martin Hurtado. 

Had this unlucky prince been left in the hands 
of his enemies, the war might have had a different 
result, but his mother and followers at once made 
proposals for his release. This was finally effected 
by a most dishonourable treaty. Boabdil was 
accorded a two years' truce, covering all places 
that acknowledged his authority, and in return 
bound himself, not only to pay a tribute of twelve 
thousand golden ducats, but to assist with supplies 
the Spanish troops passing through his dominions 
to attack his own father. Having thus exchanged 
his honour for his liberty, the miserable Sultan 
returned to his capital, to find that the old 
King had possessed himself of the Alhambra. 



20 GRANADA 

A collision between the two factions deluged 
the streets of Granada with blood. The alfakis 
and ancients at length arranged an armistice, 
and Boabdil was suffered to retire to Almeria, 
which was assigned to him as capital and residence. 
For the next four years, the Catholic sovereigns 
abstained from any important military demon- 
stration, contenting themselves with ravaging 
the wretched country and harrying its frontiers 
with incessant forays and marauding expeditions. 
Meanwhile, a strong man appeared on the scene 
in the person of Abu-1-Hassan's brother, Abdullah 
Az-Zaghal. Determined to put an end to the 
divisions which, more than the prowess of the 
Spaniards, were bringing about the ruin of his 
country, this prince swept down upon Almeria, 
slew the governor, took prisoner Zoraya, but 
failed, alas ! to secure the person of Boabdil, 
who fled to Cordova and placed himself under 
Ferdinand's protection. Not long after, Abu-1- 
Hassan, aged and worn out, abdicated in favour 
of his warlike brother, and died at Mondujar. 
This event strengthened Boabdil's claims upon the 
tottering throne ; and he entered into a compact 
with his uncle, whereby both were to reign in 
Granada, the one in the Albaicin, the other in the 
Alhambra. Anxious to redeem his reputation, 
the newly restored monarch attacked the Chris- 
tians near Loja with vastly inferior forces. He 



THE CITY OF THE MOOR 21 

was soundly beaten and forced to take refuge in 
the Alcazar of Loja, whence he was only allowed 
to emerge on renewing the humiliating treaty 
he had concluded at Cordova. He was not, 
however, disposed to yield the crown to his 
rival, and returning to Granada, surprised and 
seized the Alcazaba. One of the most desperate 
conflicts recorded in the history of the city then 
occurred between the partisans of the rival 
sultans. Further bloodshed was at last averted 
by the intervention of ambassadors sent by 
Ferdinand. The old dual arrangement seems 
to have been temporarily resumed. Meanwhile, 
Ferdinand and Isabel once more took the field, 
and, in 1487, they invested and captured Velez- 
Malaga and the important city of Malaga, not- 
withstanding Az-Zaghal's efforts to relieve both 
places. The brave Sultan now abandoned the 
capital to his nephew, and established his head- 
quarters at Almeria. He succeeded throughout 
the year 1488, in repelling an invasion of his 
province ; but in the following year, after the 
fall of the strong city of Baza, he bowed, as he 
himself expressed it, to the will of Allah, and 
surrendered all the places in his possession, 
including Almeria and Guadix, to the Catholic 
sovereigns. Mohammed XIII., as he is styled by 
Moorish historians, retired to Algeria,where he died, 
years afterwards, in indigence and obscurity. 



22 GRANADA 

There remained now, of all the Moorish do- 
minions in Europe, but the single city of Granada, 
of which Mohammed XII., Boabdil, was at last 
undisputed sovereign. He formed the manly 
resolution to sell his hard-won crown as dearly 
as possible. He sallied from Granada, took 
Alhendin and Marchena by assault, and laid 
waste the country in possession of the Christians. 
Summoned by Ferdinand and Isabel to surrender 
the city in accordance with an alleged treaty, 
he replied, and probably with truth, that his 
proud and exasperated subjects would not permit 
him to do so. The population of Granada was 
swollen by refugees from all parts of the kingdom 
to thrice its normal figure. The Spanish king 
perceived that the surest method to reduce it 
was by blockade. With 20,000 men, including 
some of the first chivalry of all Europe, he entered 
the Vega, and built the town of Santa Fe, almost 
at the gates of the threatened city. This per- 
manent establishment of the Infidels on their 
native soil plunged the Moors into profound 
gloom. No ray of hope remained to the unfor- 
tunate Boabdil. The city endured the horrors of 
a famine. The Spanish fleet precluded all hope 
of supplies from Africa, towards which country 
the wretched people still turned in expectation of 
help. The negotiations for the capitulation which 
the Sultan most reluctantly entered upon in 



THE CITY OF THE MOOR 23 

October 1491, had to be conducted, through 
fear of the populace, with profound secrecy. 
Indeed, at the last moment, Boabdil, in danger 
of his life, besought Ferdinand to accelerate 
his entrance into the city. On January 2, 1492, 
accordingly, the Moorish king, attended by fifty 
horsemen, surrendered the keys to the Catholic 
sovereigns on the banks of the Genii, passing on 
to the domain allotted him by the conquerors 
in the rocky Alpuj arras. The story of his stop- 
ping to gaze for the last time on his former 
kingdom, and of the rebuke administered to him 
by his mother, is well known. We are not told 
whether his eye caught the gleam of the great 
silver cross hoisted over the Alhambra by Car- 
dinal Mendoza by way of signal to the Spanish 
host that the occupation of Granada was com- 
pleted and that the dominion of Islam in Spain 
was for ever at an end. 

It had endured seven hundred and eighty-one 
years a period only sixty years short of that 
which has elapsed since the Norman Conquest of 
England. More remarkable still, the Sultanate 
of Granada had survived the virtual break-up 
of the Saracen empire by over two centuries. 
When we consider its limited area, its isolated 
position, the might and the inveterate hostility 
of the neighbouring states, and the attacks to 
which it was unceasingly subjected, we cannot 



24 GRANADA 

but feel the liveliest admiration for the valour 
and sagacity of its rulers and the stout-hearted- 
ness of its people. Had not the Court been too 
often the theatre of contending factions, had not 
those factions turned their swords against each 
other, the Sultanate of Granada might have 
outworn Spain's military and national vigour, 
and have endured to our own day as a western 
Turkey. For the spirit of Tarik, of Abdurrah- 
man, and of Almansur was not altogether dead, 
even in the brave but ill-starred sovereign to 
whom alone historians ascribe the downfall of 
the kingdom, and whom they, strangely enough, 
accuse of effeminacy and weakness. The Moors 
of Granada knew how to fight a losing fight ; 
in gambler's parlance, when they had lost the 
tricks, they struggled to win the honours. They 
proved themselves worthy of their ancestors ; 
and the finest, as it was also the latest, monument 
of the Mohammedan dominion in Spain is Granada 
the noble and the memorable. 



THE ALHAMBRA 

THE Alhambra, or Red Palace, the Acropolis of 
Granada, is the finest secular monument with 
which the Muslims have endowed Europe. It 
belongs to the last period of Spanish-Arabic 
art, when the seed of Mohammedan ideas and 
culture had long since taken deep root in the soil 
and produced a style which might more properly 
be called Andalusian than Moorish. If the 
Muslims left a deep impression upon Spanish 
thought and art, it must not be supposed that 
they altogether escaped the influence of their 
Christian neighbours. During the last two cen- 
turies of their occupation the rigid puritanism of 
their creed was greatly relaxed, especially as 
regarded art always the reflection of the customs 
and spirit of a people. The wave of the Renais- 
sance did not leave untouched the shrunken 
Moorish empire, and if Castilian kings did not 
hesitate to employ Muslim artisans in the con- 
struction of their cathedrals, the Sultans of 
Granada did not disdain the advice of Christian 
artists in the embellishment of their palaces. 
The Alhambra remains a thoroughly Moham- 



26 GRANADA 

medan monument, but one which symbolises 
a phase of Mohammedan culture and institutions 
almost peculiar to one country and epoch. No- 
where else and never since has Islam reached 
such a pitch of refinement. The Alhambra 
stands as the high-water mark of its art and 
civilisation. 

There will never be produced a new Alhambra, 
any more than a new Parthenon or new Pyra- 
mids ; for these great buildings were the expres- 
sions of ideas and aspirations peculiar to societies 
which have long ago perished. Thus, the Red 
Palace of Granada is not interesting merely as 
a Mohammedan edifice left isolated in the far 
west of Europe, but as the monument of a people 
and a civilisation long dead and gone. A sadness, 
too, attaches to it, proceeding from the memory 
of the violent extinction of that people with a 
mission unfulfilled fraught, as it seems to have 
been, with so much of light and beauty to the 
Christian and the Muslim worlds. 

The Sierra Nevada thrusts forward a spur 
which overlooks Granada on the south-east, 
and is divided by two clefts or barrancos into three 
eminences. The easternmost of these is crowned 
by the Generalife, the westernmost by the ancient 
fortifications known as the Torres Bermejas or 
Vermilion Towers. The hill between the two 
in shape aptly compared by Ford to a grand 



THE ALHAMBRA 27 

piano is that on which the various buildings, 
collectively styled the Alhambra, are reared. 
Here there existed a settlement in remote Celti- 
berian days ; and the later city of Illiberis or 
Elvira stood here, and perhaps extended to the 
Torres Bermejas. When the Moors came they 
erected a fortress the Alcazaba on the point 
of the Alhambra hill, overlooking the Vermilion 
Towers. To this they gave the name of 
Alhamra, "the red," as Riano thinks, to dis- 
tinguish it from the Alcazaba in the Albaicin 
quarter, or perhaps from some confusion of the 
new building with the old . The builder, according 
to Al Khattib, was one Saw r ar Alcaysi, who lived 
in the second half of the ninth century ; though 
Contreras says it was known as the Tower of 
Ibn Jaffir, and Ford names Habus Ibn Makesen 
as the founder. At all events, the structure 
dated from the earliest period of the Arabic 
domination, and Al Ahmar found here, on taking 
possession of Granada, a small town girdled with 
walls and defended by a citadel. 

Al Khattib refers to the Citadel of Granada 
in these terms : " The southern part of the city 
is commanded by the suburb of the Alhambra 
or Medina Alhamra, the court of the sultanate, 
crowning it with its turrets, its lofty towers, its 
strong bastions, its magnificent Alcazar, and other 
sumptuous edifices, wilich by their splendour 



28 GRANADA 

ravish the eye and the soul. There is, too, such 
an abundance of waters that, overflowing in 
torrents from the tanks and reservoirs, they 
form on the declivity streams and cascades, 
whose sonorous murmurs are heard afar off. At 
the foot of the walls are spacious gardens, the 
domain of the Sultan, and leafy groves, through 
the dense greenery of which the white battle- 
ments gleam like stars. There is, in short, 
around the circuit of the walls, no spot that is 
not planted with gardens and orchards." The 
scene has not greatly changed since the Arab 
wrote. Gurgling brooks still run down the slopes 
of the Alhambra Hill, and nightingales sing in 
the thick woods of elm. 

The Alcazaba, being the oldest part of the palace- 
fortress, should be studied first. It is entered by 
the Torre and Casa de las Armas, through a horse- 
shoe arch in red brick, with fine azulejos or glazed 
tiles. To the left is the Torre de Homenage, 
with which war and time have not dealt too 
gently. It contains, it is interesting to note, a 
Roman votive altar, embedded by the Moorish 
builders in the masonry, and inscribed by " the 
grateful Valerius to his most indulgent wife, 
Cornelia." At the opposite extremity of the 
Alcazaba is the Torre de la Vela, or Watch 
Tower. It is in two storeys, communicating 
by a dark and narrow staircase, with loopholes 



THE ALHAMBRA 29 

in the wall.* In this tower is hung a famous 
bell, to be heard, it is said, at Loja, thirty miles 
away. It is rung on the anniversary of the 
Conquest of Granada, on which day it is the 
custom, according to local superstition, for 
damsels, desirous of husbands, to strike it with 
all their strength. On the summit of this tower 
the cross was first planted by el tercer rey, Cardinal 
Mendoza. The view from the platform, of city 
and snow-clad Sierra, luxuriant Vega, and white- 
walled towns and villages, is as extensive as it 
is beautiful. At the foot of the Torre de la Vela 
extends the place of arms, defended by two 
towers, now styled de los Hidalgos and de la 
Polvora, and formerly known as the Paniagua 
and Cristobal del Salto names suggesting legends 
now forgotten. 

An ancient document at Simancas names 
among the towers connecting the Alcazaba with 
the rest of the fortress, the Torre del Adarguero, 
" the Tower in which dwelleth the servant of 
Doctor Ortiz," the Torre de Alquiza, the Torre 
de Hontiveros (now the Torre de las Gallinas), 
and the Tower and Room of Machuca. Of 
these remains exist, but of another tower, referred 
to as the Torre de la Tahona, no trace remains. 

The Alcazaba, according to the most recent 
researches, was separated from the site of the 

* Here was lodged the cavalry of the Moorish Sultans. 



30 GRANADA 

palace by a ravine where, after the Conquest, 
cisterns were constructed by order of the Conde 
de Tendilla and over which the existing Plaza 
de los Algibes was formed. These works appear 
to have necessitated the demolition of a wall 
which ran across from the Torre de las Gallinas 
on the north to the beautiful Puerta del Vino 
on the south. This gateway is now quite isolated 
from the wall of circumvallation. Over the horse- 
shoe arch is an inscription in stucco, of the usual 
Moorish character, invoking the Divine protec- 
tion for the builder, Sultan Mohammed V. It 
appears to commemorate some striking victory. 
Over the arch again is a fine double window 
or ajimez. On the keystone is seen the key, 
so often figuring as a symbol in all parts of the 
Alhambra, with a G in Kufic characters perhaps 
the initial letter of the city. The interior fagade 
has a large horseshoe arch and the twin-windows 
above. The Puerta del Vino was probably 
the entrance to the courts and gardens of the 
palace. 

Having crossed the Plaza de los Algibes, we 
leave behind us the early Moorish works, and 
approach the buildings which owe their founda- 
tion to the Nasrite or Grenadine dynasty. 
The story which credits Al Ahmar (Mohammed 
I.) with the creation of the Red Palace in 
the middle of the thirteenth century appears to 



THE ALHAMBRA 31 

be well-founded, for when the Alhambra is referred 
to as existing in earlier times, it is undoubtedly 
the Alcazaba that is meant. To the same hands 
may be safely attributed the great outer wall of 
the Alhambra which girdles palace and fortress, 
following the inequalities of the hill's contour. 
Al Ahmar has left his device, Wa ha ghalib ila 
Allah (There is no conqueror but God), in many 
parts of the building. These words were uttered 
by him in mournful deprecation of the acclama- 
tions of his subjects on his return from assisting 
the Christians in the Conquest of Seville. During 
the two and a half centuries of the Nasrite rule, 
the palace underwent many radical transforma- 
tions and renovations, so that it is difficult to 
distinguish between the works of the various 
sultans. Ford infers, rightly as it seems to us, 
from the frequent repetition of their names upon 
the walls, that Yusuf I. and Mohammed V. had 
the largest share in the embellishment and 
restoration of the edifice. Since the Reconquest 
many changes and additions have been made 
notably the Palace of Charles V., to which detailed 
reference will be made later. 

The summit of the Alhambra hill was probably 
peopled in Al Ahmar's time, and it continued to 
be so during the reigns of his successors. The 
population thus dwelling at the foot of the throne 
was mainly composed, in later times at least, of 



32 GRANADA 

hangers-on at the Court, ex-favourites and 
discarded sultanas, ulemas and doctors of the 
law, soldiers of fortune, and ambassadors, per- 
manent and extraordinary. Such powerful tribes 
as the Beni Serraj, which exercised so much 
influence in the last stages of Nasrite rule, 
would also have had quarters for their leaders 
here. The little town which seems to have 
had no parallel before or since extended from 
the eastern extremity of the hill to within as near 
the doors of the palace as the temper of the 
monarch for the time being may have permitted. 

The precise limits of the palace, even at the 
time of the Conquest of the Catholic sovereigns, 
have never been ascertained. Portions of it were 
undoubtedly demolished to make room for the 
palace of Charles V. On the other hand, it is 
recorded in the archives of the Alhambra that 
various private houses were acquired for the pur- 
pose of enlarging the older building. But making 
due allowance for demolitions, extensions, and 
restorations since the fifteenth century, we have 
before us in the Palace of the Alhambra a magni- 
ficent example of the last or third period of 
Hispano- Arabic architecture. 

On the general plan of the edifice, the remarks 
of Contreras are worth quoting in extenso : We 
penetrate into every Arabic monument through 
an outlying tower, or between two towers, except 



THE ALHAMBRA 33 

in the dwelling-houses of the people, in which 
case the entrance is by a small, square opening, 
a portal useless among us, though seen with 
frequency in the ancient houses of Andalusia. 
A long, narrow hall cuts the axis perpendicularly, 
thus determining the distribution into two wings 
of the edifice. By the meeting of the two axes is 
found the entrance, before which we find those 
effects of perspective which are so fantastic in 
these buildings. Following the ingress we find 
a court with tanks and fountains, with light and 
graceful arcades. Behind the second gallery, 
following the same central axis, are oblong naves 
which cross each other at right angles to the 
extreme end of the building, where the cupolas 
or turrets of the innermost dwelling apartments 
rise majestically above the level of the edifice and 
are reflected in the waters of the basins. The 
halls of a house of this kind, according to its 
rank or grandeur, were arranged in little pavilions 
on the long sides of the courts, as various in their 
style of decoration as the tents of a Turkish 
camp, where the quarters of an Amir may be found 
beside those of the common soldiers. And if 
these rows of chambers are now found disposed 
according to the strict alignment of Mudejar 
eaves, it is an indication that the severe genius 
of the Christian conquerors has transformed 
them, not permitting those crests, cupolas, or 

c 



34 GRANADA 

steeples which disturb the symmetry of the 
decoration. 

" Outside this plan, absolutely classical, which 
we may compare to a cross with the transverse 
arm prolonged and cut at various distances by 
perpendicular arms parallel to each other, but of 
different length, the Spanish Arabs found no 
other easy method of building, so that, while 
diminishing or prolonging the arms of the axis 
as much as the dependencies of the largest palaces 
might require, they never departed from the 
system, wherever they might build. . . . This, 
then, is the true scheme of the Alhambra, and it 
is quite other than that conceived by the classi- 
cists of the eighteenth century, with its fagades, 
angles, and squares." 

It must, however, be admitted that order is 
much more conspicuous in the decoration than 
in the ground plan of the palace. All Moorish 
ornamentation is based on a strictly geometrical 
scheme, and every design may be resolved into 
a symmetrical arrangement of lines and curves 
at regular distances. The intersection of lines 
at various angles is the secret of the system. 
All these lines flow from a parent stem, and no 
figure or ornament is introduced at random. 
Moslem ornamentation abhors irregularity and 
rejects symbolism. The law of Islam which 
forbade the delineation of living objects was not, 



THE ALHAMBRA 35 

however, always observed in this palace of half- 
Europeanised Arabs. 

Simplicity and a love of the elementary 
characterise also the colouring of the decorations. 
On the stucco work only the primary colours were 
used : blue, red, and yellow. The secondary 
colours occur only in the dados of mosaic. The 
green groundwork of much of the ornamentation 
as it is to-day was formerly blue, time having 
changed the tint of the metallic pigment employed. 
The decoration of the surfaces seems to have been 
planned with strict regard to the colouring they 
were to receive. Both as regards decoration 
and colour, allowance must always be made 
for innovations since the Alhambra passed into 
Christian hands. 

" Let us look for a moment," writes Mr. John 
Lomas, " at some points of detail more especially 
of the ornamentation. Wherever the eye falls, 
it may rest upon some fine bit of arcading or 
peristyle, so delicate in the transparent tracery 
of its spandrils, in the rich work of its capitals, 
and its slenderness of pillar, that one marvels 
at first how such fairy-like construction could 
stand for even a single generation. ' Lovers' 
tears ' they call this lace-work, and they tell one 
to stand just within the dim hall or vestibule, 
and get a vision of the blue sky that appears 
beyond as a little cloud of sapphires. But it 



36 GRANADA 

is surely better an insight into a piece of truer 
art to stand outside the eastern kiosk of the 
Lion's Court and looking through spandril, vesti- 
bule, and sala, catch the light glinting through 
the distant opposite windows. That is trans- 
parency of effect, indeed ! One would like to 
meet with the architect who thought it out. 

" Some of the irregularities which obtain here 
seem almost incredible. What could be more 
satisfactory than this range of exquisite arcading, 
its slender palm-like stems, its gracefully stilted 
arches, and the fairy filigree- work of the span- 
drils ? There seems to be not one single point 
that can offend the justest eye, and yet there are 
nearly a dozen different archings, differing in 
form, or height, or width ; the cloister varies 
in breadth at every turn ; the upper galleries 
are uneven ; the doorways are the personification 
of self-will ; the columns are placed, sometimes 
singly, sometimes grouped, and the numbers of 
them on the respective sides in no way corre- 
spond. . . . And, nevertheless, there is an all- 
prevailing symmetry and harmony. The whole 
is a triumph of accurately judged effect." 

In a foot-note Mr. Lomas adds : "As an 
instance of the careful way in which the architects 
of these olden days went to work, it may be 
mentioned that the exact relation between the 
irregular widths of cloistering on the long and 



THE ALHAMBRA 37 

short sides of the court is that of the squares 
upon the sides of a right-angled triangle. This 
obtaining of beautiful symmetry through irregu- 
larity is a strangely lost art." 

We will now proceed to a more detailed descrip- 
tion of the Palace of Al Ahmar. 

THE PATIO DE LA MEZQUITA AND 
ADJACENT BUILDINGS. 

Recent researches have shown that the ancient 
ingress to the Palace of the Alhambra was by a 
doorway leading into what is now the chapel. 
It is square in shape and has long been walled up. 
Above it may be deciphered the following inscrip- 
tion : " O place of the high kingdom and asylum 
of prodigious aspect ! Thou hast achieved a 
great victory, and the merits of the work and of 
the artificer [are] the glory of the Imam Mo- 
hammed. The Shadow of the Most High [be] 
upon all ! " This text is believed to refer to 
Mohammed III. (1302-1309). 

The chapel, which had been established by 
Ferdinand and Isabel adjacent to the Patio de 
los Leones, was transferred to this part of the 
Palace of Philip IV. in 1621. At that time a 
fine chimney-piece in the Renaissance style was 
converted into an altar. The apartment contains 
but few remains of its Moorish builders . Without, 
is the Patio de la Mezquita, with an exquisite 



38 GRANADA 

fagade, much disfigured by a modern gallery. 
The walls are adorned with the oft-recurring 
device, " God alone is Conqueror," and with 
sentences extolling the sultans, in various sorts 
of arabesques. The inscription round the central 
window refers to Mohammed V. (1354-1391). 

The grand Mosque of the Alhambra was built 
in 1308 by Mohammed III., and was in good 
preservation until the occupation of the French, 
who, according to Gayangos, entirely destroyed it. 
An account of it has been left to us by Ibn-ul- 
Khattib, the Wizir of Yusuf I. : " It is orna- 
mented with mosaic work and tracery of the most 
beautiful and intricate patterns intermixed with 
silver flowers and graceful arches, supported by 
innumerable pillars of polished marble ; indeed, 
what with the solidity of the structure which the 
Sultan inspected in person, the elegance of the 
design, and the beauty of the proportions, the 
building has not its like in this country, and I have 
frequently heard our best architects say that 
they have never seen or heard of a building which 
can be compared with it." Little more remains 
of this superb temple than the small oratory 
entered through a door in the wall opposite the 
altar of the chapel. Here the mihrab is still 
to be distinguished. Before it, Yusuf I., in the 
act of prayer, fell a victim to the poniard of an 
assassin in the year 1354. 



THE ALHAMBRA 39 

Adjacent to the mihrab is the ruined tower of 
Punales, which presents many architectural points 
of difference from the rest of the palace, and has 
features which may have suggested these charac- 
teristics of the Mudejar style seen in other parts of 
Andalusia. The principal window of the tower 
was furnished with a wooden balcony with 
lattices similar to those seen in Constantinople 
and Cairo. 

Retracing our steps across the Patio de la 
Mezquita, we reach the spacious Court of the 
Myrtles or of the Fishpond (Patio de los Arrayanes, 
or de la Alberca). This is the court first entered 
by the visitor through the modern entrance. It 
is one of the most beautiful parts of the palace, 
and gives a foretaste of the glories that lie beyond. 
One feels immediately transported to the East. 
" The originality of the architecture [says Don 
Francisco Pi Margall], the airy galleries, its rich 
alhamis or alcoves, the splendid apartments of 
which glimpses are obtained through its arches, 
the fountains and foliage, the reflection of its 
stuccoed walls in the waters of the pond, the 
murmur of the breezes that agitate the dense 
myrtles, the transparency of the sky, the silence 
that reigns all about all oppress the soul at the 
same time, and leave us for some moments 
submerged in a sea of sensations which reveal to 
us little more than the harmony of the whole 



40 GRANADA 

scene." The court forms an oblong, bounded 
at the north and south by two galleries supported 
on eight columns of white marble, and to the east 
and west by walls pierced with doors and twin- 
windows covered with arabesques, but differing 
in degree of ornamentation. At each angle 
we find an alhami or alcove, where the Moors 
were accustomed to laze away the day, extended 
on rich carpets and divans. The walls of these 
little places are encrusted with reliefs in stucco, 
their roofs are of the stalactite pattern. Along 
the middle of the court extends the alberca or 
fish-pond, its margins hidden by orange trees and 
myrtles. The clear water gushes up into two 
round basins at either end. To the north, the 
prospect is closed by the battlemented Tower of 
Comares, to the south by the walls of the Palace 
of Charles V. Through one of the entrances can 
be seen the fountain in the Patio de los Leones. 
The court is redolent of the languor, voluptuous- 
ness, and splendour of the East. 

Each arcade is composed of seven semicircular 
arches, the central one reaching up to the cornice, 
while the others, much lower, are closed with 
perforated wood work or lattices. Thereof of the 
southern gallery is of artesonado or troughed form, 
and bears seven small cupolas ; over the central 
arch of the northern gallery is a single cupola 
painted with little gold stars on a blue ground. 



THE ALHAMBRA 41 

In this court there are numerous inscriptions, 
of which the following are the most important. 

" Go and tell true believers that Divine help 
and ready victory are reserved for them." 

" I am like the nuptial array of a bride, endowed 
with every beauty and perfection." 

" Truly Ibn Nasr is the sun, shining in 
splendour." 

" May he continue in the noontide of his glory 
even unto the period of his decline." 

In the Patio de la Alberca is an arch differing 
altogether from all others in the Palace. Only 
one surface is decorated, and that with a principal 
or guiding figure made out by colours. The 
ornaments approximate more closely than is 
usual in Moorish architecture to natural forms, 
and the arch has very much of a Persian character. 

This court is believed to have constituted 
the division between the male apartments, fre- 
quented by the general public, which we have 
already described, and the Harem, or private 
quarters, including the Patio de los Leones, &c. 

We pass through a beautiful arch decorated 
with tasteful floral designs, into the Sala de la 
Barca, or ante-room of the Hall of Ambassadors. 
This fine apartment, formerly radiant with colours, 
was seriously damaged in the fire of 1890. The 
ceiling of this hall, says Owen Jones, " is a wagon- 
headed dome of wood of the most elaborate 



42 GRANADA 

patterns, receiving its support from pendentives 
of mathematical construction so curious that they 
may be rendered susceptible of combinations 
as various as the melodies which may be pro- 
duced from the seven notes of the musical scale ; 
attesting the wonderful power and effect obtained 
by the repetition of the most simple elements." 

Beyond this hall rises the Tower of Comares, 
appearing to rest on the slenderest pillars and 
almost to be balanced in the air. The real sup- 
ports have been purposely kept out of sight. 
The view from the summit of the massive battle- 
mented tower is magnificent. From this platform, 
Washington Irving remarks, the proud monarchs 
of Granada and their queens have watched the 
approach of Christian armies, or gazed on the 
battles in the Vega. The walls of the tower 
are of surprising thickness. 

The interior, which is a square of 37 ft. by 75 
ft. high up to the centre of the dome, is occupied 
by the Sala de Embaj adores, the reception- 
room of the Sultans. It is the largest and 
perhaps the most imposing of the halls of the 
Alhambra. Lifting our eyes, we behold a glorious, 
airy dome, of artesonado work, with stars and 
painted angles. Owen Jones is of opinion that 
the present ceiling replaced an earlier one, which 
was supported by an arch of brick. The hall 
lacks its former pavement of marble, its central 



THE ALHAMBRA 43 

fountain, and the lattices that filled in its twin- 
windows. But it is still adorned by a beautiful 
mosaic dado (known as sofeisfa) reaching to the 
wooden cornice. Numerous are the Kufic and 
African inscriptions introduced into the decora- 
tion, the motto of Al Ahmar being frequently 
repeated. Opening on to the hall are nine 
alcoves, each with twin-windows, which have 
replaced balconies. The alcove opposite the 
entrance was the site of the Sultan's throne, as 
the long poetical inscriptions testify. What 
gorgeous assemblies must have filled this saloon 
in bygone years and what tumultuous scenes and 
fateful decisions must have been here enacted ! 

THE PATIO DE LOS LEONES AND 
ADJACENT APARTMENTS. 

The Patio de los Leones (Court of the Lions) 
occupies, with the chambers opening on to it, 
the south-eastern quarter of the Palace. " There 
is no part of the edifice that gives us a more 
complete idea of its original beauty and magni- 
ficence than this," says Washington Irving, 
" for none has suffered so little from the ravages 
of time. In the centre stands the fountain famous 
in song and story. The alabaster basins still 
shed their diamond drops ; and the twelve lions, 
which support them, cast forth their crystal 
streams as in the days of Boabdil. The archi- 



44 GRANADA 

lecture, like that of all other parts of the palace, 
is characterised by elegance rather than grandeur ; 
bespeaking a delicate and graceful taste, and a 
disposition to indolent enjoyment. When one 
looks upon the fairy tracery of the peristyles, 
and the apparently fragile fretwork of the walls, 
it is difficult to believe that so much has survived 
the wear and tear of centuries, the shocks of 
earthquakes, the violence of war, and the quiet, 
though no less baneful, pilferings of the tasteful 
traveller : it is almost sufficient to excuse the 
popular tradition, that the whole is protected 
by a magic charm." 

The court is an oblong measuring 116 ft. by 
66 ft. On each side is a peristyle or portico, and 
at either end a graceful pavilion with a fine dome. 
The supporting marble columns are 124 in number 
and ii ft. high. They are placed irregularly, 
sometimes singly, sometimes in pairs an arrange- 
ment which does nothing to mar the general 
impression of harmony. The arches exhibit 
a similar variety of curve, and spring from capitals 
decorated with rich foliage of various designs. 
The space above the arches is filled in with the 
usual arabesque work, and adorned with verses 
from the Koran. The ceilings of the porticos 
are enriched with delicate stucco work, and the 
walls are covered to a height of five feet with a 
dado of blue and yellow azulejos, bordered with 



THE ALHAMBRA 45 

blue and gold enamelled escutcheons bearing an 
Arabic motto on a bend. 

In the centre of the court is the fountain from 
which it derives its name. This is composed of 
two basins (in Moorish times there was but one) 
supported by twelve marble lions. These Arabian 
sculptures, remarks Ford, are rudely but heraldi- 
cally carved, and closely resemble those to be seen 
supporting Norman- Saracenic tombs in Apulia 
and Calabria. " Their faces are barbecued, 
and their manes cut like the scales of a griffin, 
and their legs like bedposts, while a water-pipe 
stuck in their mouths does not add to their 
dignity." Indeed, the consolatory reminder con- 
tained in the tremendously long inscription round 
the basin, that there is nothing to be feared from 
these creatures, for " life is wanting to enable them 
to show their fury," seems ludicrously unneces- 
sary. As specimens of Arabian sculpture they 
are in all probability unique ; the builders of 
the Alhambra were evidently not over-strict 
in the observance of their religion. The inscrip- 
tion referred to has been versified by Valera, 
and runs into forty-four lines of Castilian. 

On the south side of the Patio de los Leones 
is the Sala de los Abencerrages (Hall of the Beni 
Serraj), so called because it is believed to be the 
scene of the massacre of thirty-six chiefs of that 
tribe by order of Boabdil. A reddish vein in 



46 GRANADA 

the marble flooring is pointed out as the victims' 
indelible bloodstains. The story has only the 
slenderest historical foundation, and was first 
circulated by a writer of the name of Gines Perez 
de Hita, who lived in the sixteenth century. 
According to some, the usurper Aben Osmin 
(1446) was beheaded here by order of the prince 
Muley Hassan ; but others, writing of that con- 
fused period of Granadine history, say the tyrant 
fled to the mountains. This chamber, perhaps 
the most elegant in the Alhambra, does not seem 
a likely place for deeds of blood. It is entered 
through a wonderfully graceful arch, growing 
out of, rather than springing from, marble shafts. 
The chamber is a square, prolonged on the east 
and west by two alhamis or alcoves, which are 
entered through exquisitely-curved arches. But 
the glory of the Sala de los Abencerrages is its 
roof its plan like that of a star, with pendants 
or stalactites, and sixteen windows in its vaultings. 
" Its thousand stalactites," writes Don Fran- 
cisco Pi Margall, " its colours, its innumerable 
archings, its cro\vns of stars, its complicated 
depressions and projections, its cones,its polygons, 
its accidents of light, the effects of chiaroscuro, 
present it at first sight as something confused, 
indefinable, indecipherable, resplendent, and 
vague, like that broad band, the Milky Way, 
which crosses the pavilion of the heavens. Yet 



THE ALHAMBRA 47 

in reality it is most regular, although irregular in 
appearance ; the compass of the geometrician 
had more to do in planning it than the genius of 
the artist ; but its lines are so many, and their 
combinations change so rapidly, that the scheme 
is only to be comprehended after a long and 
patient study." 

The azulejos which face the walls date from 
the time of Charles V. In the centre of the hall 
is the marble basin beside which the Beni Serraj 
are fabled to have been slain. 

Opposite this hall, on the north side of the 
Lions' Court, is the Sala de las Dos Hermanas 
(or, of the Two Sisters), so called after two twin 
slabs of marble let into the pavement. An 
exquisite arch gives admittance from the court 
to a narrow corridor, which communicates on the 
right with the upper storey, and with the mirador 
or latticed balcony, from which the ladies of the 
Harem would gaze into the patio below. The 
hall is as rich, as graceful, as suggestive of Eastern 
luxury and repose as that which we have just 
left. In each wall is an arched opening, two being 
entrances, the others admitting to alcoves some- 
what more shut off than in other parts of the 
Alhambra. Above each arch is a window corre- 
sponding to the apartments in the upper storey, 
now vanished. The roof exhibits the same 
marvellous combinations of geometrical forms, 



48 GRANADA 

the same confused symmetry, as are seen in the 
Sala de los Abencerrages. Indeed, this hall is 
generally (but not universally) considered the 
more admirable of the two. The surface of the 
walls is hidden beneath costly reliefs of stucco 
and azulejos. Inscriptions on the sixteen medal- 
lions and cartouches have been deciphered into 
a long poem by Ibn Zamrek, composed in honour 
of Mohammed V., and translated into eleven 
verses of Spanish by Valera. One verse exhorts 
us "to look attentively at my elegance and reap 
the benefit of a commentary on decoration ; here 
are columns ornamented with every perfection, 
the beauty of which has become proverbial." 

In this magnificent apartment formerly stood 
the famous vase (el jarron), which tradition says 
was discovered in one of the subterranean chambers 
of the Palace, full of gold. It is now in the little 
Alhambra Museum. The vase, which dates from 
the fourteenth century, and is beautifully ena- 
melled in white, blue, and gold, is described by 
Baron Davillier in his work on Spanish Pottery. 

Beyond the Hall of the Two Sisters is a long, 
narrow apartment called the Sala de los Ajimeces 
(Hall of the Twin Windows). Its ceiling and 
decorations are little inferior to those of the 
larger hall. On the north side opens the exquisite 
Mirador de Lindaraja, or prospect-chamber, 
affording a delightful view of the garden beyond. 



THE ALHAMBRA 49 

In wealth of detail and ornamentation, this little 
bower of fifteen by ten feet surpasses all other 
parts of the Palace. In Moorish days the Sultanas 
could look from behind the lattices of the three 
windows across the town and the plain of the 
Vega. When their eyes wearied of the prospect 
they could scan the numerous poetical effusions 
traced upon the walls. 

Returning to the Patio de los Leones, we enter, 
at its eastern extremity, the Sala del Tribunal, 
or de la Justicia. This hall consists of seven 
chambers opening on to a common vestibule. 
The four small rooms are square, and are separated 
by three larger oblong apartments. The same 
gorgeous colouring, the same profusion of geo- 
metrical ornamentation, here as elsewhere in the 
Alhambra ! The arch over the central small 
chamber, or divan, is perhaps the finest in the 
whole Palace. But what renders this hall the 
most remarkable in the edifice is that it contains 
what are probably the only existing specimens 
of mediaeval Muslim figure painting. The ceiling 
of the central alcove or alhami is adorned by a 
painting representing ten personages, who were 
formerly supposed to be judges, whence the name 
given to the hall. They were intended, more 
probably, to represent the first ten sultans of the 
Nasrite dynasty. The painting, like those in 
the other alcoves, is done in bright colours (gold, 

D 



50 GRANADA 

green, red, &c.) on leather prepared with gypsum. 
The designs appear to have been sketched in 
brown. The paintings in the other alhamis are 
of an even more interesting character. In the 
first, a castle with square towers and battlements 
is seen ; outside it is a lion led in chains by a 
maiden, whose hands are rudely grasped by a 
savage with shaggy hair and beard. A rescuer 
hurries to her assistance in the person of a Chris- 
tian knight, armed cap-a-pie. On the other side 
of the picture, the same knight is shown attacked 
by a Moorish cavalier, who plunges a lance into 
his breast. The Moor is evidently out hunting, 
for beneath the combatants' horses his dogs are 
chasing the wild boar and fox. From the towers 
of the castle two fair ladies observe, with evident 
pleasure, the Christian's overthrow. In another 
part of the picture both knights are shown, 
following the chase ; and a page is seen, leaning 
against a tree, with sword and shield, presumably 
awaiting his master's return. 

The second painting is entirely devoted to 
hunting scenes. Moors are seen chasing the wild 
boar, while the Christians occupy themselves 
with bears and lions. The huntsmen are also 
seen returning and offering the spoils of the chase 
to their ladies. The Moor greets his sultana with 
a benign and condescending air ; the Christian 
warrior kneels to the lady and offers his prize. 



THE ALHAMBRA 51 

The most competent critics have now arrived 
at the conclusion that these paintings are of the 
fourteenth century, and therefore executed under 
the Muslim sovereigns, in defiance of the precepts 
of the Koran. Whether they were the work of a 
Mohammedan it is not so easy to say. Gayangos 
has pointed out remarkable similarities between 
these paintings and those in the Campo Santo at 
Pisa ; and on the whole it is probable that they 
were executed by an Italian artist, whom the 
Muslims may not have scrupled to employ to 
do a thing for them unlawful. A parallel instance 
of casuistry is that of London Jews, who on cer- 
tain feasts employ Christians to perform forbidden 
menial offices. It should also be said that in 
the opinion of some modern Muslim doctors the 
prohibition of sculpture and painting is not to 
be taken as absolute. 

In the Sala de la Justicia was found a basin 
for ablutions, now in the Museum, on which are 
interesting reliefs of lions, deer, and eagles. 
According to the inscription, this was designed in 
1305 for the service of the mosque, a fact which 
seems to support the view of the authorities 
just mentioned. 

It was in this hall that Ferdinand and Isabel 
caused Mass to be celebrated after the Reconquest, 
and here that the cross was set up by Cardinal 
Mendoza. The devices of the Catholic sovereigns 



52 GRANADA 

the Yoke and Sheaf of Arrows have been 
introduced into the decoration of the alcoves. 

The ruinous tower and apartment to the south 
of the Hall of Justice, called the Rauda, appears to 
have been the mausoleum of the Sultans. The 
niches in which the titrbehs were placed may 
till be distinguished, and the long, narrow 
.rough used for the purification of the corpse. 
In the Museum may be seen three tablets with 
the epitaphs of the Sultans Yusuf III. and 
Mohammed II. and of a prince Abu-1-Hejaj, 
probably the former's son. 

Of the few remaining apartments of the Alham- 
bra, the most interesting perhaps is the Tocador, 
or Queen's Dressing-room, at the side of the Patio 
de Lindaraja, opposite the Mirador de Lindaraja. 
This was the apartment occupied by Washington 
Irving, according to his own showing : " On 
taking up my abode in the Alhambra, one end of 
a suite of empty chambers of modern archi- 
tecture, intended for the residence of the governor, 
was fitted up for my reception. It was in front 
of the Palace. ... I was dissatisfied with being 
lodged in a modern apartment. ... I found, 
in a remote gallery, a door communicating 
apparently with an extensive apartment locked 
against the public. ... I procured the key, 
however, without difficulty ; the door opened 
to a range of vacant chambers of European 



THE ALHAMBRA 53 

architecture, though built over a Moorish arcade. 
. . . This fanciful suite of rooms terminated 
in an open gallery with balustrades, which ran 
at right angles with a side of the garden . . . 
I found that it was an apartment fitted up at 
the time when Philip V. and the beautiful Eliza- 
beth of Parma were expected at the Alhambra, 
and was destined for the Queen and the ladies of 
her train. One of the loftiest chambers had been 
her sleeping-room, and a narrow staircase leading 
from it ... opened on to the delightful belve- 
dere, originally a mirador of the Moorish sultanas, 
which still retains the name of the tocador. I 
determined at once to take up my quarters in 
this apartment. My determination occasioned 
great surprise, but I was not diverted from my 
humour." 

This exquisite apartment is adorned by four 
sixteenth-century paintings, representing the 
legend of Phaeton. On the artesonado ceiling, 
painted and gilded, may be read the invocation : 
" The help and protection of God and a glorious 
victory for our Lord, Abu-1-Hejaj, Amir of the 
Muslims ! ' Round the boudoir runs a gallery 
of nine arches on Arabic pillars, painted and 
decorated with the figures of Faith, Hope, and 
Charity, Justice, Strength, and Temperance, 
Jupiter, Neptune, Plenty, and the Vestals' Fire. 
These paintings were the work of two Italians, 



54 GRANADA 

Giulio Aquila and Sandro Mainere, both pupils 
of Raphael. 

The charming little garden or patio of Lin- 
daraja or Daraja, which intervenes between 
this regal boudoir and the Moorish mirador, 
appears to have been originally called Jin Dar 
Aja, or garden of the palace of Ayesha. The old 
Moorish garden that used to extend as far as the 
Tower of Comares is now confined by the walls 
of the Sala de las Ajimeces and three arcades 
of modern construction. The fountain in the 
centre dates from the seventeenth century. 
An enchanting spot is this, with its cypress, 
orange, and citron-trees rising from trim hedges 
of myrtle and rose. 

Between this garden and the court of the Al- 
berca lie the baths those indispensable adjuncts 
to the Muslim household most skilfully and 
artistically restored by Contreras. The plan is 
that usually followed throughout the East. 
Passing through the Sala de las Cdmas or Unrobing 
Room, where, from a high gallery the songs of 
the odalisques were wafted down to the sultan 
reclining in one of the alcoves, we enter the Sala 
de Bafios, with its white marble bath and pave- 
ment of glazed tiles. This corresponds with the 
apartment called by the Arabs, the hararah, or 
vapour-bath, and described in Lane's " Manners 
and Customs of the Modern Egyptians " ; and 



THE ALHAMBRA 55 

it was under the graceful arcades which support 
the dome that the bathers underwent the kneading 
and rubbing processes lately introduced among 
us. The chamber is lighted from above through 
star-shaped apertures. The inscriptions refer to 
the felicity awaiting men in this palace of delight. 
The bathing-apartments consist of three halls 
and two smaller chambers, vulgarly called the 
Infantas' Baths. 

THE TOWERS AND GATES OF THE 
ALHAMBRA 

" The wall of the Nasrites," writes Senor 
Fernandez Jimenez, " of which scarcely a patch 
remains unimpaired, measured about 1400 metres 
from one extremity to the other, and was defended 
by twenty-six towers, counting as one the two 
buttresses that defended the gate of the Siete 
Suelos. To this number should properly be added 
the Torre de las Armas, which is pierced by a gate 
common to the Alcazaba and Alhambra, and is 
therefore also a Nasrite work. The citadel was 
fortified, moreover, by five bastions, corre- 
sponding to as many gates, and by various 
external defences, of which traces remain in the 
modern alamedas. The thickness of the towers 
varies according to their situation and purpose, 
the distance between them ranging from 34 to 
64 metres approximately." At the present day 



56 GRANADA 

we can count only fifteen towers, the names of 
which are : las Aguas, los Siete Suelos, las Cabezas, 
la Justicia, la Polvora, los Hidalgos, la Vela, 
las Armas, las Gallinas, los Punales, las Damas, 
los Picos, del Candil, de la Cautiva, and las 
Infantas. 

The Puerta de la Justicia is the principal 
entrance to the Alhambra. It was built, as the 
inscription over the arch relates, by the Sultan 
Yusuf Abu-1-Hejaj, in 1348. Here justice was 
administered in Moorish days after the old 
patriarchal fashion. Above the arch is carved an 
open hand, the signification of which is a matter 
of controversy. The most probable explanation 
is that it is a religious symbol, the five fingers 
typifying Faith in God and the Prophet, and 
the commandments, to pray, to fast, to give 
alms, and to make the pilgrimage to Mecca. 
The inner arch is beautifully decorated with 
arabesques, and with the symbol of the key. 
The entrance is continued through another gate, 
with winding passages contrived so as to em- 
barrass an enemy. The arch which gives egress 
from the tower shows some fine enamelling 
and festoons. 

Just outside this gate is the Pilar de Carlos 
V., a fountain in the Greco-Roman style, erected 
by the Alcaide Mendoza in 1545. It is orna- 
mented with the Imperial arms, and sculptured 



THE ALHAMBRA 57 

heads of the river gods, Genii, Darro, and 
Beiro. 

The double Torre de los Siete Suelos flanks a 
gateway, now walled up, which was formerly 
the principal entrance to the fortress. Through 
it the unfortunate Boabdil is said to have passed 
on his way to exile and obscurity. The tower 
is so called because it is believed to descend 
seven storeys underground. Four subterranean 
chambers have been investigated. Here tradi- 
tion places the site of much buried treasure, and 
fables are told of phantom guards and enchanted 
sentries. 

At the south-eastern angle of the enceinte is 
the ruinous Torre del Agua, which derives its 
name from the aqueduct that at this point spans 
the ravine. On the north-eastern side we reach 
the Torre de las Infantas, the interior of which 
is a perfect model of the smaller Oriental dwelling- 
house. Through a small vestibule we reach a 
covered-in patio with a fountain in the centre, 
and alcoves opening out on three sides. The 
ornamentation is graceful and original. The 
tower is one of the most interesting parts of the 
fortress. Somewhat less complete and regular 
in its plan, but even more elegantly decorated 
with rose-coloured tiles, is the adjoining Torre 
de la Cautiva (Captive's Tower). Here the 
inscriptions resound the praises of Abu-1-Hejaj 



58 GRANADA 

and refer to the Lion residing within these walls 
a very different occupant from a captive ! 

The Torre de los Picos seems to have been so 
styled from the peaked battlements which crown 
it. It evidently underwent extensive remodelling 
about the time of the Spanish Reconquest, but 
some relics of the Nasrite rule remain in the 
shape of some beautifully moulded twin windows. 

The Torre de Ismail, or de las Damas (Ladies' 
Tower), was given by Mohammed V. to his son 
Ismail, and has a richly decorated belvedere 
and a hall very tastefully ornamented. The 
ruined tower of Pufiales has some curious stucco 
decorations, differing from those found in other 
parts of the palace. 

Between the Torres de los Picos and de las 
Damas is a little mihrab or oratory built on the 
wall. At the Reconquest it was appropriated to 
the private use of one Astasio de Bracamonte. 
Though it has undergone deplorable " restora- 
tions," the kiblah or easterly niche and other 
indications of the Muslim rite can still be made 
out. Strangely enough, the portal is guarded by 
two Moorish lions brought from the old Mint 
the injunctions of the Mohammedan religion 
being thus ignored in its own temple ! 

The parish church of Santa Maria, erected in 
1581, occupies the site of the Mosque of which 
Al Khattib appears to speak, writing of the deeds 



THE ALHAMBRA 59 

of Mohammed III. (1302-1309). " And among 
his great actions, the greatest and most remarkable 
was the construction of the great Mosque or 
Aljama of the Alhambra, with all that it con- 
tained of elegance and decoration, mosaics, and 
cements ; as well as lamps of pure silver and other 
great marvels. In front of the Mosque were the 
baths, erected with the money levied from the 
Christians in his dominions. With the receipts 
from these baths the Mosque and its ministers 
were maintained." The modern church is of 
brick, and contains nothing of note, except a 
Visigothic inscription, referring to the construc- 
tion of three temples, dedicated to St. Stephen, St. 
John, and St. Vincent, in the years 594 and 607. 

THE PALACE OF CHARLES V. 

The forlorn, roofless palace in the classical style, 
which seems so out of place amid these Oriental 
buildings, was begun by order of the Emperor 
Charles V. in 1538. It was never completed. 
The Flemish Caesar's intention seems to have been 
to establish a permanent residence here, whence 
he could contemplate the beauties of the Moorish 
palace. The building is a quadrangle of four 
facades, each seventeen metres high. The lower 
storey is of the Tuscan order, the upper, Ionic. 
Some of the marble portals are very fine. In the 
decoration appear allusions to the campaigns, 



60 GRANADA 

on sea and land, directed by the Emperor, his 
motto, Plus oultrc, and the emblem of the Golden 
Fleece. 

The interior of the palace is occupied by an 
imposing circular court, with a gallery supported 
by thirty-two columns. The staircase is loftily 
designed, and altogether the palace, if it had 
been completed and built almost anywhere else, 
would have been a dignified memorial of Charles's 
reign. 



THE GENERALIFE 

ACROSS an ivy-draped ravine a perfect study 
in green and red the Palace of Recreations, 
the Generalife, overlooks the rugged walls of 
the Alhambra. The name is believed to have 
been derived from Jennatu-l'arif, " the garden 
of the architect." The palace appears to have 
been built by a Moor called Omar, from whom 
it was purchased by the Sultan Abu-1-Walid. 
At the Reconquest it became the property of a 
renegade prince, Sidi Yahya, who adopted the 
name of Don Pedro de Granada, and whose 
descendants, the family of Campotejar, are to 
this day the actual owners. 

The Generalife cannot be regarded as an 
important monument of Moorish architecture. 
Through the central court, which measures 48.70 
by 12.80 metres, runs the conduit which irrigates 
the whole estate, and connects with the Acequia 
(or canal) de la Alhambra. The arcaded southern 
fagade and the spacious hall adjoining have been 
altered in order to make a large vestibule. The 
arcade resembles that of the Court of the Fish- 
pond, and exhibits a poetical inscription declaring 



62 GRANADA 

that Abu-1-Walid restored the palace in the 
year 1319. 

The halls of the Generalife are of little interest 
in themselves, and contain several portraits of 
doubtful authenticity. Those of Ferdinand and 
Isabel, of Juana la Loca and her husband, and 
of the fourth wife of Philip II., are the most 
important. Among the portraits of the Granada 
family is one supposed to be that of Ben Hud 
Al Mutawakil, the rival of Al Ahmar, and ancestor 
of Sidi Yahya. This seems to be the portrait 
which English travellers persist in mistaking for 
that of Boabdil. 

But if the palace is in no way remarkable, 
the gardens are a veritable bower of beauty and 
delight. Water bubbles up everywhere and 
moistens the roots of myrtles, cedars, and tall 
cypresses, the finest trees in all Spain. The 
legend of the Abencerrage discovered in dalliance 
with a Sultana, beneath one of these cypresses, 
is absolutely destitute of any sort of foundation. 
The nature of the spot so eminently fitted for 
love and lovers' trysts may have suggested 
the story. But the garden is ill-kept, and many 
of the magnificent trees have been cut down. 



In the city of Granada itself the memorials 
of the Moorish domination are scanty and fast 



THE GENERALIFE 63 

disappearing. In the Zacatin, which was in 
old times the chief bazaar, is a building 
formerly styled the Casa del Gallo de Viento 
(Weathercock House), and now known by the 
commonplace designation of Casa del Carbon 
(Charcoal House), owing to its having been appro- 
priated to the storage of that useful product. 
Tradition avers that the palace (for such the house 
at one time was) was built by Badis Ibn Habus, 
a governor of Granada, who ruled about 1070 
A.D., by whose direction a vane was made in the 
shape of a warrior, mounted and armed with 
shield and spear. In later years the building 
served as a corn exchange. The only notable 
features are the entrance with its horseshoe arch 
and twin-windows, and vestibule with dome and 
alcoves. Adjacent to the Casa del Carbon is 
the house of the Duque de Abrantes. Beneath it 
is said to be a subterranean passage communi- 
cating with the Alhambra blocked up, oddly 
enough, by the present owner of the site, without 
any exploration or examination. 

Entered from the Carrera de Darro is the once 
handsome Moorish bath house, now in the last 
stages of dilapidation and neglect. It is believed 
to date from the earliest period of Mohammedan 
rule. The arches are of the old horseshoe type, 
and the columns and capitals of a primitive order. 
An inscription beginning, " In the Name of God, 



64 GRANADA 

the Merciful, the Compassionate . . ." may still 
be made out. 

The bath itself, the various chambers of repose 
and disrobing, the usual alhamies, can also be 
traced. 

The old Moorish mint was demolished in 1643, 
and the famous Gate of Bivarrambla can no 
longer be described in any sense as a Moham- 
medan work. 

The effacement of the Moorish character of 
Granada, as compared with its survival in Seville, 
serves to show how much more intense the 
religious and racial bias became in Spain 
during the two hundred and odd years that 
elapsed between the conquests of the two cities. 
The spirit in which St. Ferdinand, Alfonso el 
Sabio, and Pedro I. approached the works of 
their Mohammedan foes and subjects presented 
a very favourable contrast to that manifested 
by the Catholic sovereigns, Charles V. and 
Philip II. 



CATHOLIC GRANADA 

ALMOST the first act performed by a Spanish king 
on his entry into a conquered Mohammedan city 
was to convert the chief mosque (aljama) into a 
Christian church. This was also done at Granada, 
but the chapel of the Alhambra remained for some 
time the cathedral of the new See. The mosque 
in the city, afterwards elevated to that rank, 
is described by the Abbe Bertaut of Rouen 
(quoted by Valladar), writing in 1669, as " square, 
or rather longer than wide, without vaults, and 
the roof covered with tiles, which for the most 
part were not even joined. The whole was sup- 
ported by a number of small stone columns, har- 
moniously arranged." Jorquera says the mosque 
was composed of five low naves. Whether or 
not it was originally a Visigothic church, as some 
writers pretend, the temple probably dated 
from the earliest centuries of the Muslim occupa- 
tion, and the tower which contained the mihrab 
was long famous as the Torre Turpiana. 

The building, after serving the purposes of the 
Catholic rite for two centuries, disappeared 
between 1705 and 1759 to make room for the 

E 



66 GRANADA 

present sacristia (sacristy). As a cathedral, it 
had been superseded by the adjoining and existing 
edifice, dedicated on August 17, 1561. 

Older by about a quarter of a century than the 
foundations of the cathedral is the Royal Chapel 
(Capilla Real), which is the most striking and 
interesting memorial of the Conquest of Granada. 
It was begun in 1505 as a mausoleum for the 
Catholic sovereigns, Ferdinand and Isabella, under 
the direction of the famous Enrique Egas, and 
completed in the year 1517 a year after the 
king's death and thirteen years after the queen's. 
The chapel is shaped like a Latin cross, and is 
one of the latest specimens of the Spanish Gothic 
style. It is a comparatively modest and simple 
building, contrasting strongly with the ornate 
and elaborate structures of the succeeding age. 
The decoration of the interior consists almost 
entirely in a frieze bearing a long inscription in 
gilt letters which reads : " This chapel was 
ordered to be built by the most Catholic Don 
Ferdinand and Dona Isabella," &c. &c. There 
is a suggestion of Gothic influence in the magni- 
ficent railing or grille, partly of iron, partly gilt, 
which divides the nave from the transept, and was 
made in 1522 by Maestre Bartolome. The 
kneeling figures of the Catholic sovereigns are 
seen on either side of the high altar. These, 
says Ford, " are very remarkable, being exact 



CATHOLIC GRANADA 67 

representations of their faces, forms, and costumes : 
behind Ferdinand is the victorious banner of 
Castile, while the absorbing policy for which both 
lived and died the conquest of the Moor and the 
conversion of the infidel are embodied beneath 
them in singular painted carvings ; these have 
been attributed to Felipe Vigarny, and are certainly 
of the highest antiquarian interest. In that 
which illustrates the 'surrender of the Alhambra, 
Isabel is represented riding on a white palfrey 
between Ferdinand and the great Cardinal 
Mendoza, who sits on his trapped mule, like Wolsey. 
He alone wears gloves ; his pinched aquiline face 
contrasts with the chubbiness of the king and 
queen. He opens his hand to receive the key, 
which the dismounted Boabdil presents, holding 
it by the wards. Behind are ladies, knights, and 
halberdiers, while captives come out of the gates 
in pairs. Few things of the kind in Spain are more 
interesting. The other basso-relievo records the 
' Conversion of the Infidel ' ; in it the reluctant 
flock is represented as undergoing the ceremony 
of wholesale baptism, the principal actors being 
shorn monks. The mufflers and leg-wrappers 
of the women the Roman fascia are precisely 
those still worn at Tetuan by their descendants." 
These reliefs are unquestionably more vigorous 
and artistic, and also more in harmony with 
the structure generally, than the gorgeous Renais- 



68 GRANADA 

sance cenotaphs of Ferdinand and Isabella 
most probably the work of the Spanish sculptor, 
Bartolome Ordonez. The two great sovereigns 
are shown lying side by side, the faces expressing 
infinite dignity and repose. At each corner of 
the sepulchre is seated one of the four Doctors 
of the Church, below whom is a Sphinx. Medal- 
lions on two of the four sides represent respectively 
the Baptism and Resurrection of Jesus, and St. 
George and St. James. Beautifully done are 
the figures of the Twelve Apostles, the escutcheons, 
and, in fact, all the details of this grandiose but 
unimpressive monument. 

The adjacent sepulchre of Ferdinand and 
Isabella's daughter, the unhappy Queen Juana, 
and of her husband, Philip L, the Handsome, 
is inferior in design and execution. The heads of 
the recumbent figures are not faithful portraits. 
The reliefs represent the Nativity, the Adoration 
of the Magi, the Agony in the Garden, and the 
Entombment. In the niches are figures of the 
Cardinal Virtues (not conspicuous in Philip 
during life), and at the corners the statues of 
Saints Michael, George, Andrew, and John the 
Divine. Very beautiful are the figures of children, 
and much of the heraldic decoration. The whole 
is in the most florid style of the Renaissance, 
and was carved at Genoa by order of Juana's 
son, Charles V. 



CATHOLIC GRANADA 69 

Very different are the actual resting-places 
of the sovereigns so gorgeously commemorated 
in stone above. Descending to a narrow vault 
beneath the cenotaphs, we find five rude coffins, 
with iron bands. Herein repose the remains 
of Ferdinand and Isabella, of Juana and Philip, 
and of their son, Prince Juan. Ferdinand's 
coffin may be identified by the letter F. " Here," 
writes Pi Margall, " lie together in the dim light 
fathers and sons, monarchs of three dynasties 
united in less than a century for the greater 
glory of the fatherland ; here lie the last princes 
of the Mediaeval Age, and those who at its close 
inaugurated the Modern Era. Here they lie 
heroes and fathers of heroes kings who never 
retreated before the face of danger, and queens 
whose lives were consumed in the fire of profound 
love ; fortunate ones who, returning from the 
battle, found rest and refreshment in the arms of 
their beloved ; and unhappy souls who drained 
the cup of suffering, without finding in the dregs 
even that lethargy which the excess of grief 
procures for some. Who can enter this murky 
precinct without feeling his heart swayed by con- 
trary emotions without inclining with reverence 
before the lead which covers the men who rescued 
the nations from the anarchy of feudalism ? 
While a tear may drop on the bier of that great 
princess [Isabella], who can restrain his pity for 



70 GRANADA 

that unhappy queen [Juana] who, intoxicated 
with love, passed the night waiting for the dawn 
to break that she might go forth, alone, to the 
ends of the world, in search of her adored husband, 
and would not leave his coffin till the tomb had 
closed upon it ? ' 

We leave these great and unhappy ones of a 
bygone age, passing away to nothingness in their 
last dark palace, and ascend to the chapel. There 
is not much more to see. In the sacristy are 
preserved the crown and sceptre of the Catholic 
queen, the sword of Ferdinand, and some rich 
Gothic vestments. Over an altar on the south 
side is a Descent from the Cross, of which Ford 
speaks highly. The Chapel Royal communicates 
with the cathedral by a noble portal in the Late 
Gothic style. The pillars on each side are adorned 
by the statues of kings-at-arms. Above the 
entrance an eagle upholds the Arms of Spain. 
Heraldic devices, religious emblems, and reliefs 
of saints and cherubim are mingled in the decora- 
tion, which is beautiful and not over-elaborate. 

The Chapel Royal, though architecturally 
forming part of the cathedral building, has an 
entirely independent ecclesiastical organisation 
of its own, with its own chapter and clergy. 
Amusing instances are recorded of the bad blood 
existing between the cathedral canons and the 
royal chaplains. This enmity (says Valladar) 



CATHOLIC GRANADA 71 

was carried so far that once, when the Arch- 
bishop Carrillo de Alderete wished to visit the 
chapel, attended by his canons, the chaplains 
refused to admit them. The archbishop ac- 
cordingly caused the disobliging priests to be 
arrested, whereupon a long lawsuit ensued. The 
chaplains had the right of passage across the 
cathedral transept to the Puerta del Perdon, 
which is the official or state entrance to the royal 
mausoleum a privilege which seems to have 
galled the canons to the quick. Strange that such 
ludicrous bickerings should have arisen out of a 
foundation which commemorates the grandest 
and most epoch-making events in the national 
history. Truly from the sublime to the ridiculous 
there is but one step. 

THE CATHEDRAL 

The Cathedral of Granada was built adjoining 
and connecting with the Chapel Royal and 
sacristy or old mosque, between the years 1523 
and 1561. Charles V. preferred the Gothic style, 
but at last consented to the adoption of the 
designs of Diego de Siloe. The church is described 
by Ford as one of the finest examples of the Graeco- 
Roman style, but the plan is distinctly Gothic, 
nor can the edifice be said to deserve the descrip- 
tion, " the most magnificent temple in Europe 
after the Vatican." It is impressive in its severity 



72 GRANADA 

and vastness, and may be described as dignified 
rather than beautiful. 

The facade, said to have been designed by 
Alonso Cano, is flanked by towers (one unfinished) 
and divided by four huge stone columns which 
support a cornice. On this rest four pillars, 
sustaining three deep, gloomy vaultings. At 
the foot of these pillars, on the cornice, are 
statues of the Apostles. The principal door is 
adorned with a high relief of the Incarnation by 
Risueno, the side-doors with reliefs of the Annun- 
ciation and Assumption. The tower on the left 
rises seventy-five metres above the level of the 
present floor ; its three stages are in the three 
styles of Grecian architecture respectively. 

The walls of the Cathedral are, to a great extent, 
hidden, as is so often the case on the Continent, 
by adjoining buildings. The Puerta del Perdon, 
which, as we have said, officially belongs to the 
Chapel Royal, is Diego de Siloe's masterpiece, 
and is elaborately sculptured. Over the arch 
two allegorical figures uphold a tablet on which 
is inscribed a dedication to the Catholic monarchs. 
The great flanking columns of the portal are 
decorated with huge escutcheons. The introduc- 
tion of heraldic symbols into religious archi- 
tecture is nowhere more conspicuous than at 
Granada. 

The interior of the church, which is paved with 



CATHOLIC GRANADA 73 

black and white marble, is composed of five 
naves with a cross -vaulting in the Gothic style, 
supported by five piers, each of which is composed 
of four Corinthian pillars. Above the high 
altar at the east end of the structure rises a 
noble dome, 220 ft. high, resting on eight pillars, 
and opening with a bold main arch, 190 ft. high. 
The expansion of the Capilla Mayor (principal 
chapel) at this point into the segment of a circle 
is a clever feat of architecture. Lafuente says, 
" The daring of the main arch is admirable, 
the way it is contrived creating a wonderful 
effect : looking at it from the elliptical arches 
it appears to be extended and on the point of 
falling away through having sunk below its 
level." 

The Capilla Mayor is a handsome, profusely 
ornamented fabric, supported on twenty-two 
Corinthian columns in two courses. Between 
the lower columns are the elliptical arches referred 
to, and on the upper course are the seven beautiful 
paintings of scenes from the Blessed Virgin's 
life, by Alonso Cano. Between the courses are 
interesting paintings by Juan de Sevilla and 
Bocanegra. Much of the statuary is good, 
and the Flemish stained glass in the fourteen 
windows is beautifully rich in colour and well 
executed. The high altar itself, the work of 
Jose de Bada, is in a depraved style ; but its 



74 GRANADA 

badness is redeemed by the two kneeling statues 
of Ferdinand and Isabella on either side by Mena 
and Madrano, and by the bold, great heads 
of Adam and Eve, above the pulpits, carved and 
painted by Alonso Cano. 

In the centre of the middle nave, separated 
from the Capilla Mayor by the transept, is the 
choir, in that debased Churrigueresque style 
of which every one speaks ill. The only things 
notable within it are the fine organs, and the 
crucifix by Pablo de Rojas. Beneath the choir 
is entombed Alonso Cano (died 1667), one of 
the greatest of Andalusian painters, and a minor 
canon of the Cathedral. 

One of his most characteristic pictures the 
Virgin de la Soledad is to be seen over the altar 
of the Capilla de San Miguel (the first chapel on 
the right on entering the church). It was stolen 
in 1873, and recovered in the city shortly after. 
The chapel is beautifully adorned with red 
marbles and serpentine. It was built by that 
high-minded, beneficent prelate, Archbishop 
Moscoso, in 1804. His tomb is by the sculptor 
Folch. In the chapel are placed we do not 
know why two elegant Chinese vases. 

Between this and the next chapel is the entrance 
to the sacristy or old mosque, and to the left 
of it a small picture, before which that really 
saintly saint, St. John of God, was accustomed 



CATHOLIC GRANADA 75 

to pray. The Capilla de la Trinidad has some 
good paintings, among them a Trinity by Cano, 
two miniatures on copper by the same artist, 
a Death of St. Joseph by Maratta, and copies of 
works by Raphael and Ribera. There are genuine 
Riberas (The Child Jesus, St. Laurence, and St. 
Mary Magdalene) and more works by Cano in 
the extravagant eighteenth-century chapel of 
Jesus Nazareno. After this comes the handsome 
Gothic door of the Chapel Royal, by Enrique 
Egas ; and beyond that the Chapel of Santiago, 
with a fine equestrian statue of the Patron 
Saint of Spain, presented to the Cathedral by 
the City in 1640. The old painting of the Virgen 
del Perdon was given to Isabella the Catholic 
by Innocent VIII., and used to be carried about 
by the queen. It is publicly venerated (not 
worshipped or adored, please note) on the anni- 
versary of the Reconquest, January 2. 

Passing the Cathedral sacristy with its hand- 
some door by Siloe, we pause before the Puerta 
del Colegio. Behind the sculptured Ecce Homo, 
it is said Maeda carved a Lucifer of extraordinary 
beauty. He applied to Siloe for permission to 
give a proof of his skill, and was told by the 
testy architect to sculpture the Devil himself 
if he wanted to. Maeda was wag enough to 
take him at his word. 

The chapel of Santa Ana covers the vault 



76 GRANADA 

intended for the archbishops, and contains a 
good sixteenth-century altar-piece, and a St. 
Jean de Matha (a Frenchman, not a Spaniard) 
by Bocanegra. The six chapels that follow 
present no features of interest. The fourth chapel 
on the left side of the Cathedral is named La 
Virgen de la Antigua, after a Gothic image greatly 
venerated by Ferdinand the Catholic, and regarded 
with great reverence by the devout of Granada. 
Here are two portraits by Juan de Sevilla of Fer- 
dinand and Isabella at prayer ; the king is clad 
in armour. The paintings are in the Venetian 
style. Of the retablo by Cornejo, the less said 
the better. Cano's realistic heads of Saints 
John and Paul reflect the fondness of the pietists 
of his day for the morbid they are in the Chapel 
of the Virgen del Carmen. The first chapel, 
or baptistry, was erected by Adam and Aguado, 
at the expense of Archbishop Galvan, who is 
buried here near another occupant of the episcopal 
throne, Don Bienvenido Monzon. The fine reliefs 
of Saints Jerome and Isidore are by Mora. We 
have now reached the entrance doors, on each 
side of which hangs a good painting. The 
three pictures over the doors represent mystic 
allegories. 

The most interesting feature of the chapter 
room, or Sala Capitular, is the noble porch, 
with its figures of Justice and Prudence, which, 



CATHOLIC GRANADA 77 

with the group of the Trinity, may be safely 
attributed to Maeda. 

Before leaving the Cathedral, the sacristy 
should be visited. It contains Cano's Assumption 
and two small statues by him ; a Crucifix by 
Montanez ; a Holy Family, by Juan de Sevilla ; 
and a Mary Immaculate by Bocanegra. The 
treasury contains some wonderfully embroidered 
vestments, and good, but not extraordinary, 
examples of the silversmith's craft. The signet 
ring of Sixtus III., and the monstrance presented 
by Isabella, have of course, an historical interest. 

A casket is also shown to visitors, who are 
assured it is that in which were placed the jewels 
pawned by Isabella to provide funds for Colum- 
bus's first voyage. If this is true, Pandora's 
box was as nothing compared to this one ! The 
Queen's Missal, the work of Francisco Flo res, 
is beautifully illuminated. It is placed on the 
high altar on the anniversary of the Reconquest. 
Those interested in arms will handle with curiosity 
the sword of Ferdinand the Catholic ; the hilt has 
a spherical pommel and drooping quillons with 
branches towards the blade, which is grooved for 
about two-thirds of its length. Other relics of 
the Catholic sovereigns are their sceptre, Isabella's 
crown, the royal standards used at the Recon- 
quest, and a chasuble said to have been em- 
broidered by the Queen. 



78 GRANADA 

By the door next to the Capilla de San Miguel 
we pass into the Sagrario (sacristy) occupying 
the site of the old mosque, which it replaced in 
1 705 . It was designed by Don Francisco Hurtado 
and Jose de Bada, and it is well that the responsi- 
bility for so meretricious a piece of architecture 
should be divided. It may be dismissed as 
Churrigueresque. It is not, fortunately, devoid 
of interest. In one of the chapels is buried 
' the magnificent cavalier, Fernando del Pulgar, 
Lord of El Salar," as the inscription records. 
This valiant knight and true, during the last 
campaign against Granada, rode into the city 
with fifteen horsemen, and set a lighted taper 
on the floor of the mosque, and, as others say, 
nailed a paper bearing the Ave Maria on the door. 
This exploit earned for him and his descendants 
the extremely valuable privilege of wearing their 
hats in the Cathedral. De Pulgar's bones have 
fared better than those of the good Archbishop 
de Talavera, which were scattered when the old 
mosque was demolished. The Sagrario possesses 
several good paintings, including a San Jose 
by Cano, of whose works the Cathedral buildings, 
as may have been noticed, contain a fine selection. 
By the door next to the Capilla de Pulgar, and a 
darkish passage, the Chapel Royal may be entered. 
The oldest purely Christian building in Granada 
is the convent and chapel of San Jeronimo, a 



CATHOLIC GRANADA 79 

foundation transferred here from Santa Fe 
immediately after the Reconquest. The convent 
is now a cavalry barracks, and is not to be inspected 
by the curious. The church, built by Diego 
de Siloe, is in the form of a Latin cross stern, 
plain, dignified. The walls are adorned with 
frescoes representing scenes from the Passion, 
portraits of the Fathers of the Church, and angels 
playing on the harp and singing. They were 
executed in 1723 by an obscure painter called 
Juan de Medina. Eight chapels open on the 
aisles and nave, one containing a fine retablo, 
with the Entombment as subject. The principal 
chapel exhibits Siloe's skill at its best. He is said 
to have realised in its construction " his lofty ideal 
of effecting a truly Spanish Renaissance ; an 
ideal which bore little fruit, since some of his 
followers confined themselves to the strictest 
classicism, others to the development of the 
plateresque." Very much in the spirit of the 
Renaissance is the decoration of the chapel 
with the statues of the worthies of the classic 
world, Caesar, Pompey, Hannibal, Homer, and 
others, side by side with Old Testament characters. 
Strange, this admiration for a pagan civilisation 
co-existent with violent religious fanaticism 
against all contemporary non-Catholics ! 

The whole church was practically dedicated to 
the memory of Spain's greatest soldier, the Great 



80 GRANADA 

Captain, Gonzalo de Cordova, who was buried 
here, but whose ashes have been transferred to 
Madrid. The hero and his duchess are shown, 
sculptured, kneeling in prayer on either side of 
the high altar, over which rises a magnificent 
retablo, divided into several compartments filled 
with reliefs and statues. The horizontal sections 
are in the Doric, Ionic, Corinthian, and composite 
Orders respectively. The lowest central compart- 
ment is occupied by the Tabernacle, the subjects 
of the three compartments immediately above 
being the Immaculate Conception, St. Jerome, 
and the Crucifixion. Over all is shown the figure 
of the Eternal Father. This splendid work, the 
best of its kind in Spain, seems to have been 
executed by a variety of artists, among them 
Juan de Aragon, Pedro de Orea, and Pedro de 
Raxis. The beautiful shell-like vaulting above 
is adorned with figures of the Apostles, of Saints 
Barbara, Katharine, Magdalen, and Lucy, and the 
warrior-saints, George, Eustace, Martin, Sebas- 
tian, and Francis. The sword given by the Pope 
to the Great Captain, formerly one of the treasures 
of the chapel, was carried off by Sebastiani during 
the Peninsular War. 

There are a great many beautiful things in 
this old church which seem to escape the ordinary 
traveller's notice. The seats in the choir were 
designed by Siloe. The frescoes, representing the 



CATHOLIC GRANADA 81 

Triumph of the Church, of the Virgin, and of the 
Eucharist, the Assumption,&c.,are very well done. 
The restoration of the fabric has often been 
denounced, but it is difficult to see how it could 
have been better carried out. 

In the neighbourhood of the Great Captain's 
chapel is a monument to a hero and a great 
Spaniard of a very different type. Juan de 
Robles devoted himself to the sick and the suffer- 
ing with a zeal which earned for him confinement 
in a madman's cage. His virtues were recognised 
after his death, and procured him canonisation 
as St. John of God in 1669. A tribute to his 
memory which he would have no doubt appre- 
ciated better is the large hospital founded two 
years after his death, that is, in 1552. The saint's 
ashes, in a silver coffin, repose in the hospital 
chapel, a gorgeous structure, characterised by 
costliness and bad taste. The trail of the serpent 
of Spanish architecture Churriguera is over 
all. All that is interesting in it is the portrait 
of the saint, a copy of one in Madrid. 

The name of the Great Captain is associated 
with the Cartuja, or suppressed Carthusian 
monastery, the site of which was his gift. The 
monastery, begun in 1516, was pulled down in 
1842. A small portion of the buildings, however, 
remains, together with the church. The single nave 
is disfigured by over-elaborate ornamentation 

F 



82 GRANADA 

in the plateresque style. The doors of the choir 
are richly and tastefully inlaid with ebony and 
mother of pearl, cedar and tortoise-shell, and 
were the work of a friar, Manuel Vazquez, who 
died in 1765. The sanctuary, in the baroque 
style, is enriched with precious marbles, some 
richly veined with agates. On some of the slabs 
the hand of Nature has traced the semblances of 
human and animal forms. In the adjoining 
sacristy, various marbles have been combined so 
as to produce an effect dazzling and gorgeous in 
the extreme. The hall is certainly one of the 
most remarkable in Spain. Scarcely less marvel- 
lous are the exquisitely inlaid doors and presses. 
The generally bad style of the church is also 
redeemed by a statue of St. Bruno, the founder 
of the Carthusian Order, ascribed to Alonso Cano, 
and some pictures by Bocanegra, Giaquinto, and 
Cotan. The last named, a friar, was responsible 
for the pictures in the cloister, representing the 
martyrdom of Carthusian monks in London by 
the tyrant Henry VIII. and the brigands who 
acted as his officers. 

The Cartuja was formerly much richer in 
works of art, but, like San Jeronimo, it was 
ransacked by the French under Sebastiani, who 
exhibited, as on all occasions, the discrimination 
of a dilettante coupled with the rapacity of a 
bandit. 



CATHOLIC GRANADA 83 

In front of the church of Santos Pedro y Pablo 
is a very handsome mansion built in 1539 for 
Hernando de Zafra, secretary of the Catholic 
sovereigns. The portal is in three stages : the 
first contains the entrance, a square doorway, 
between Doric columns ; the second bears the 
escutcheons of the family, above them being 
sculptured griffins and lions ; the third, a bal- 
cony between pilasters, carved in delicate relief. 
In a line with this is another balcony, bear- 
ing the curious inscription, Esperandola del 
Cielo "Looking for it from Heaven." These 
words are explained by a tragic legend. De 
Zafra is said to have suspected his daughter 
of a clandestine attachment. To satisfy his 
doubts, he burst into her room one day, and 
found her page assisting the lover to escape 
by the window. Baulked of his prey, the father 
turned, with death in his face, upon the 
boy. "Mercy!" shrieked the page. "Look 
for it in Heaven ! " answered the Don, as he 
hurled his daughter's accomplice from the bal- 
cony into the street below. So runs the legend. 
De Zafra does not appear, according to the 
records, to have left any children ; but his 
daughter may not have survived the terrible 
consequences of her amour. ' After all," 
remarks Valladar, " nothing was easier in the 
sixteenth century than to throw a page out of the 



84 GRANADA 

window without attracting the attention of the 
police or magistrates." 

Granada is by no means as rich in ancient 
churches and houses as Seville. The house of 
the Great Captain now forms part of the convent 
of Carmelite nuns. On the facade a tablet sets 
forth that " In this house lived, and on December 
2, 1515, died, the Great Captain Don Gonzalo 
Fernandez de Aguilar y de Cordoba, Duke of 
Sessa, Terranova, and Santangelo, the Christian 
hero, and conqueror of the Moors, French, and 
Turks." 

The early sixteenth-century Casa de los Tiros 
the property, like the Generalife, of the Marques 
de Campotejar seems to occupy the site, if it 
did not actually form part, of a Moorish fortified 
dwelling. Some think it was an advanced work 
of the fortifications known as the Torres Bermejas. 
The interior certainly shows Arabic influence. 
The staircase was probably built by Moors, and 
there are rich azulejos and a splendid artesonado 
hall. This is adorned with busts of various 
Spanish celebrities, with the graven heads of 
Moors and Christians, and with reliefs of Lucretia, 
Judith, Semiramis, and Penthesilea. 

In this house is preserved an Arabic sword 
with a magnificent hilt and scabbard, said to 
have belonged to Boabdil. The scabbard, at 
all events, is unquestionably of workmanship 



CATHOLIC GRANADA 85 

posterior to the Reconquest ; and it is well to 
be a little on one's guard in the matter of the 
numerous relics ascribed to the last Moorish 
king. 

Of old Granada, in truth, not much more 
remains than the buildings we have already 
named. We may glance at the tower of San 
Juan de los Reyes, so badly restored that its 
peculiar Moorish architecture, more markedly 
Eastern than that of any other Grenadine monu- 
ment, has been almost entirely effaced. And in 
the old Casa de Ayuntamiento there are some 
historical curiosities, notably the original draft 
of the charter granted to Granada by the Catholic 
sovereigns, and the handsome official shield of 
the city. Many sites, such as the Plaza de Bibar- 
rambla, commemorated in the songs and stories 
of old Spain, have been completely modernised. 
But there is a monument a simple column 
surmounted by an iron cross more deeply in- 
teresting than any reared by the Moors. The 
inscription on the pedestal records that on this 
spot, on May 26, 1831, Dona Mariana Pineda 
was publicly garroted at the age of thirty-two 
years. She died a martyr for liberty and a 
victim of the strange absolutist frenzy which 
did much to ruin Spain in Ferdinand VI I. 's reign. 
Dona Mariana's house had been a centre for 
liberal gatherings, and when raided by the police 



86 GRANADA 

was found to contain a tricolour flag. She met 
her death with a courage worthy of her cause. 
Five years later, when the nation had recovered 
its sanity, her ashes were carried in state to the 
Ayuntamiento. The magistrate who had con- 
demned her was in his turn executed. On the 
same site many Spanish patriots were shot by 
the French their labour and their lives being 
given to replace Ferdinand VII. on the throne 
The square, formerly called the Campillo, is now 
named after Mariana Pineda. You may see there 
her statue in marble, sculptured by Marna and 
Morales. 

The hill called the Sacro Monte is a curious 
memorial of human credulity. In 1594 one 
Francisco Hernandez reported to the Archbishop 
Don Pedro Vaca de Castro that he had discovered 
the relics of several local martyrs in the caves 
here. A church of no architectural merit was 
raised on the spot, and became a place of pil- 
grimage the evidence that the martyrs referred 
to had ever existed being meanwhile wanting. 
Within the church are preserved some leaden 
books, inscribed in Arabic characters, and sup- 
posed to contain the acts, of the saints. These 
works were the subject of a furious controversy 
in the seventeenth century. The caves are 
interesting on account of their natural peculiari- 
ties, and were quite probably catacombs used by 



CATHOLIC GRANADA 87 

the early Christians of Illiberis. Some rocks 
may be noticed, in parts worn away by the 
repeated kisses of devotees. There is a super- 
stition that the person who kisses the stone the 
first time will marry within the year, and that a 
second kiss will ensure to those already married 
an early dissolution of the conjugal tie. 

On the opposite side of the city, also in the 
outskirts, is a little Mohammedan oratory, now 
disfigured and restored beyond recognition. It 
is called the Ermita de San Sebastian, and was 
the place where Boabdil gave up the keys of 
Granada to Ferdinand and Isabel. 

When we walk through the streets of the 
modern Granada, with its tawdry churches and 
commonplace private houses, it does not seem 
that the city has gained much by its change of 
masters. But its decline was not at least very 
marked till many years after the Reconquest. 
The French invasion, and still more the ruin of the 
silk industry, completely undermined the pros- 
perity of the place. During the last century it 
lost its rank as the seat of a Captain General. But 
a new day is dawning for the proudest city of the 
Moor, as for all Spain. Granada is content no 
longer to brood over its splendid past ; indeed, its 
citizens seem to prize but lightly the monuments 
of those days. There is a general appearance 
of wealth and elegance about the promenaders 



88 GRANADA 

on the broad, well-lighted paseos ; and, thanks 
to the newly introduced manufacturing industry 
of beetroot sugar, the Vega has already resumed 
the flourishing smiling aspect it wore when 
a Mohammedan amir called it his and the cry 
of the muezzin was heard from a hundred 
minarets. 



PLAN OF GRANADA 



REFERENCE TO PLAN OF GRANADA 



BUILDINGS AND PLACKS 



1. Hospital of San Lazaro. 56. 

2. Church of San Juan de Lctran. 57. 

3. Hermitage of Santo Cristo de Yedra. 58. 

4. San Bruno and the Cartuja. 

5. The Sacro Monte. 59, 

6. The Holy Tomb. 60, 

7. Cavalry Barracks, and San Jer6nimo. 61, 

8. San Juan de Dios. 

9. San Juan de Dios (Street). 62. 

10. Lunatic Asylum. 63, 

11. Bull Ring. (Plaza de Toros.) 64, 

12. San Ildefonso, and Avenue del 

Triunfo. 65. 

13. Pay Office. 66, 

14. Gate of Elvira. 

15. Gate of Monaita. 67, 

1 6. San Andres. 68, 

17. Children's Hospital. 69. 

1 8. Office for Civil Affairs. 70. 

19. Santos Justo and Pastor. 71. 

20. Institute of Music. 73. 

21. Botanical Garden and Nunnery of 74. 

Piety. 

22. Square of Rull and Godines. 75, 

23. Convent of the Incarnation. 76. 

24. Santa Paula. 77. 

25. Elvira (Street). 78. 

26. San Jeronimo. 

27. Orlando's Balcony. 79. 

28. San Diego. 80. 

29. San Gregorio. 81. 

30. San Luis. 82. 

31. Arab Ramparts. 

32. San Miguel the Greater. 83. 

33. Gate of the Standards. 84. 

34. El Salvador. 85. 

35. San Jos6. 86. 

36. Convent of the Angel. 87. 

37. Ecclesiastical College. 88. 

38. The Cathedral. 89. 

39. High School and Palace of the 90. 

Province of Granada. 91. 

40. School of Economics. 92. 

41. Market Place, and Palace of the 93. 

Archbishop. 94. 

42. Court of First Instance (Plaza de 95. 

Rib-Rambla). 96. 

43. Convent of Augustines and La Mag- 97. 

dalena. 98. 

44. House of Grace. 

45. Puentezuelas (Bridge). 99. 

46. Square of Marshal Prim. 100. 

47. Town Hall. 101. 

48. Santa Teresa. 102. 

49. Convent of the Holy Spirit. 103. 

50. Military Office. 

51. Carmelite Convent. 104. 

52. Hospital for Leprosy. 

53. Santa Ana. 105. 

54. Santa Ines. 106. 

55. Convent of the Conception. 107. 



San Juan de los Reyes. 
Ex-Convent of The Victory. 
Watch-tower of the Alhambra (Torre 

de la Vela). 
The Alhambra. 
Gate of Las Granadas. 
Gate of Judiciary Astrology (Judi- 

ciaria). 

The Generalife. 
Gate of Hierro. 
San Francisco (formerly Convent of 

St. Francis). 

The Chair of the Moor (Silla del Moro) 
The Tower of the Seven Storeys 

(Alhambra). 

The Fountain of Expiation. 
Gate of the Sun. 
Convent of Santa Catalina. 
Ecce Homo. 

San Cecilio, and Military Hospital. 
Santa Escolastica. 
Capuchin Convent and Santa Maria 

Egipciaca. 
San Anton. 
Gas Works. 
Public Shambles. 
San Sebastian and Avenue del 

Violon. 

Las Angustias. 
El Salon. 

Convent of Santiago. 
Museum of the Academy of Fine 

Arts. 

Monument of Mariana. 
Artillery Barracks. 
Principal Theatre (Plaza de Bailen). 
New Square. 
Zacatin. 
Fish Market. 
Church of Santiago. 
San Nicolas. 
Convent of Tomasas. 
Bermeja Towers. 
Palace of Charles V. 
Gate of the Mills. 
San Basil. 

Recreation Grounds. 
Cemetery. 
Convent of San Bernado and Church 

of San Pedro. 
San Bartolome. 
Avenue of San Basil. 
San Crist6bal. 
Hospital of Corpus Christi. 
Santa Isabel la Real, and San Miguel 

the Less. 
Santa Maria (Ancient Mosque of the 

Alhambra). 
San Matias. 
Gate of Fajalanza. 
M6ndez Nunez (Street). 



GRANADA 




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THE STREET OF THE CATHOLIC SOVEREIGNS 



PLATE 15 





ARAB SILK MARKET 



PLATK 16 







LA CASA DE LOS TIROS 



PLATE 17 




CHURCH OF SANTA ANA 



I'LATI-: 18 




LIMOGES ENAMEL TRIPTYCH WHICH BELONGED TO THE 
GRAN CAPITAN (PROVINCIAL MUSEUM, GRANADA) 



PLATE 19 




ALTAR IN THE CHURCH OF SAN GERONIMO 



PLATE 20 






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HOUSE IN THE CALLE DE DARRO 
THE PALACIO DE JUSTICIA 



PLATE 21 




THE HOUSE OF CASTRIL 



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PLATE 24 




GYPSY DWELLINGS IN THE SACROMONTE 



PLATE 25 




GENERAL VIEW OF THE GYPSY QUARTERS 



PLATE 26 










INTERIOR OF A GYPSY'S CAVE 



PLATE 27 




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A GYPSY FAMILY 



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PLATE 33 




GYPSIES 



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GYPSY DANCE 



PLATE 35 







INTERIOR OF THE SACRISTY OF THE CARTUJA 



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INTERIOR OF THE CARTUTA CHURt 1 1 



1'I.A I I. 38 




SAINT BRUNO, BY ALONSO CANO, AT THE CARTHUSIAN 
MONASTERY OF GRANADA 



PLATE 39 







EXTERIOR OF THE ROYAL CHAPEL 



1 ' i \ 1 1-: 40 




THE GATE OF PARDON AND THE EXTERIOR OF THE 

CATHEDRAL 



PL ATI; 41 




OF THE CATHEDRAL 



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EXTERIOR GATE OF THE ROYAL CHAPEL 



PLATE 43 




DETAIL IN THE ROYAL CHAPEL 



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ANCIENT GOTHIC ENTRANCE TO THE ROYAL CHAPEL 



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PLATE 49 




THE CATHEDRAL. GENERAL VIEW OF THE INTERIOR 



PLATE 50 




THE CATHEDRAL. VIEW OF THE PRINCIPAL NAVE 



PLATE 51 




THE HIGH ALTAR IN THE CATHEDRAL 



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THE CATHEDRAL. TOMBS OF THE CATHOLIC 
SOVEREIGNS IN THE ROYAL CHAPEL 



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SCEPTRE, CROWN, SWORD, MASS-BOOK, AND COFFER OF 
THE CATHOLIC SOVEREIGNS 



I'l.ATK 62 




RELICS OF THE CATHOLIC SOVEREIGNS 



PLATE 63 




ROYAL CHAPEL. STATUE OF QUEEN ISABELLA 

THE CATHOLIC 



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STATUE OF ISABELLA THE CATHOLIC 



PLATK 65 




CHAPEL OF SAN MIGUEL IN THE CATHEDRAL, 
MARBLE SCULPTURE 



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THE AQUEDUCT TOWER AND THE AQUEDUCT 




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THE GATE OF JUSTICE. DETAIL OF A DOOR IN 
THE COURT OF THE MYRTLES 



PLATE 81 




THE ALHAMBRA AND THE SIERRA NEVADA 



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GRANADA. FROM THE HOMAGE TOWER 



PLATE 83 




'HE QUFFX'S DRESSING-ROOM," AT THK SUMMIT OF 
THE MIIIRAP, TOWER, WITH DISTANT VIK\V OF 
TIIF GENERALIFE 



I 'i \ i r. 84 




THE GATE OF JUSTICE, ERECTED BY YUSUF I 



PLATE 85 




THE TOWER OF THE PEAKS 



I 'I \ I I 




THE CAPTIVE'S T< >WER 



PLATE 87 




EXTERIOR 01" THE MOSO.UE, PRIVATE PROPERTY 



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TOWER OF THE AQUEDUCT 



PLATE, 89 




ASCENT TO THE ALHAMBRA BY THE CUESTA DEL 
KEY CHICO LESSER KING HILL 



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THE LADIES' TOWER 



I'LATK 91 




PART OF THE ALHAMBRA, EXTERIOR 



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THE HOMAGE TOWER. ANCIENT ARAB RUINS IN 

THE ALCAZABA 



PLATK 93 




GATE OF JUSTICE. THE ALHAMBRA 



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THE GATK OF TUSTI< !E 



I 'I A I i 96 




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PLAN, HKIGHT AND DETAILS OF THK GATE OF THE 
LAW COMMONLY CALLED OF JUSTICE 



PLATE 97 





ELEVATION OF THE ANCIENT GATE OF JUSTICE 



I 1 ! \ I 1 







PORTAL COMMONLY CALLED THE GATE OF THE VINE 



PLATE 99 




f . ; 



i 
















PORCH OF THE GATE OF JUDGMENT 



'I A I K 100 




I rl, 



, 

, \ L r k ^:; 
* - J - 




ELEVATION OF THE WINE GATE 



PLATE 101 




mM 



pq 




H 
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a 
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C/3 



I 'I Ml-. [02 






, ,i 

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SECTION SHOWING 



I 'I, ATE 103 









HEIGHTS OF THE ALHAMBRA 



I'l A I I 104 




u 


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f. 

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PLATE 105 






3P**S) 



->^r -t 



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r. 

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Ct, 
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I'LAII: 106 







HALL OF JUSTICE. LEFT SIDE 



PLATK 107 




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X 



O 



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h 



I'LATK 108 



h 
s. 

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u 

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PLATE 109 






. 









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c 

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a 
ffi 






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Pi. \TK 110 



* .- s: 

\ --_ 




" ; 







VERTICAL SECTION OF THE HALL OF JUSTICE 



PLATE nt 




DETAILS OF THE HALL OF JUSTICE 



I 'I All II.: 



* 
* 
* 



o 

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" 



# 



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# 


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I'l A I I I 14 



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^M'V^ C .Ari^fej 

c^S 1 - - - s^ ! ^S 

t^^S ^ /._ ^ . ^- ^jTrT,?; 

l^iffi^ 

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PLATE 115 




PART OF PICTURE IN THE HALL OF JUSTICE- 
THK MOOR'S RETURN FROM HUNTING 



I'l.A II M" 




HALL OF JUSTICE THE DEATH OF THE LION 
AT THE HANDS OF A CHRISTIAN KNIGHT 



PLATE 117 




PART OF PICTURE IN THE, HALL OF JUSTICE REPRESENTING 

A CHRISTIAN KNIGHT RESCUING A MAIDEN FROM A \YICKED 

MAGICIAN, OR \\TLD-MAN-O'-THE-\YOODS. THE CHRISTIAN 

KNIGHT IS, IN TURN, SLAIN BY A MOORISH WARRIOR 



I'l VI I I I 




PART OF PICTURE IN HALL OF JUSTICE-MOORISH 
HUNTSMAN SLAYING THE WILD BOAR 



PLATE 119 




HALL OF JUSTICE THREE FIGURES FROM THE 
PICTURE OF THE MOORISH TRIBUNAL 



I'l A IT. 120 




V 



D 

"~V 

d 



* ' 









PLATE 121 





COURT OF THE MOSQL'K 











- , 

mammmm ^^^^ 

HI Nfesig : ' I 





FACADE OF THE MOSQUE 



PLATE 123 




*fl 
CO 



M 
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a 

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55 



Pi vri-: 124 




5 

C/3 

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ai 



PLATE 125 



' ' ' - "^ 




'!>.' .- U 

-:'- r :-~- 

'I _*. ' r '?'' H.'" .- ij., 

7 " - '"if. 

" '' TV 

''P'" ^ \ ~'~--*~- '. 






'-w -" - J i--'^'-s. 

7 . .".. _K 7s 

r ' .. -VT.. ' iV 

-' '" -"~" - 



PL ATI i - 







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vv vv* 

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** 




DETAIL OF THE ENTRANCE DOOR OF THE MOSQUE 



I'l.ATF. 127 




AN ARCHED WINDOW OF THE MOSQUE 



I 1 ! \ I I. 128 




AN ARCHED WINDOW OF THE MOSQUE 



PLATE 129 



Mmyj&gf, ^p i-;AS*>;\r-v 



~ff$ -fa*-* *i SlAi '^-v^-l^ 

' 



l||i;pi^Q| 




THE KORAN RECESS IN THE MOSQUE, THE 
SCENE OF YUSUF'S ASSASSINATION 



I'l \ I K 130 




tfv 



iff?* m 

': s ?. 

ify$$'* f '' 




THE MOSQUE FROM KORAN RECESS 



Pl.ATK 






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H 

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tf 

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73 



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Cd 

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I'l \ 




CORNICE AND WINDOW IX THE FACADE OF THE MOSQUE 



PLATE 133 




- 



MM; 



i A A A * A i A 4 4 t A A i 

' ; "(,-: 



' 









fcl . r _> 



<*!.* 




VI-:RTICAL SECTION or THK MOSOUE 



I ' I \ 1 1 




ARAB LAMP IN MOSQUE 



PLATE 135 




w 



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ac 

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C/3 



I'l \ I K 





DETAILS OF ORNAMENT IX THE COURT OF 
THE MOSQUE 



PLATE 137 



x */ 



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a 
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C/3 



I 'I. VI I 




Ok\.\MI-:NT IX PANELS. COURT OF THE MOSQUE 



1'I.ATE 139 




\VIND(.AV IN THI-: HALL OF AMBASSADORS 



Pi A IK I (O 



^ 




ENTRANCE TO THE HALL OF AMBASSADORS 



PLATE t_|t 




C/5 
f- 

< 

03 



o 

J 



I'l \ 1 1 




"V-^-^-V-\~l~ 





~\ ^,-V-.'-\-N^ I .~j x-v->~y- -x y-> -N > "V-> " , 

- - - 



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, 
ffi 






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v- -; -; 

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HZXXZZSZ 



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iiiiiilii 



i i 



jj .....:. , 



SKCTION AND ELEVATION OF THE INTERIOR OF 
THE HALL OF AMBASSADORS 



IT. ATI-: 143 






:$:K* : 

*& v .s* 








*T~ V* ** *4eSli 
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Pi vii 144 





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l^filiill 

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Mmm 

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^ 







ORNAMENT IN PANELS, HALL OF AMBASSADORS 



I J I. All. 145 





~m &zM&M*MM; 




mum. 




, 



INSCRIPTIONS IN THE HALL OF AMBASSADORS 



I'l \ 1 1 













I 






I ' '1*1 r^"^* I I ) I i I - . 

1 

^ 











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\f i I x t ^ X :^t M ''* f . 

v r- 'j- 'J- ' d "h 

i - ^ ' ^ LV y 



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KUFIC INSCRIPTIONS, HALL OF AMBASSADORS 



PLATE 147 




- 

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> os C 

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x /. < 

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^ x^- 



ill 

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< - 



C 



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PLATE 148 




h 
X 




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l'I.ATK~I49 




ENTRANCE TO THE COURT OF THE LIONS THROUGH 
THE POMIENTE CORNER 



I'l Ml 




f. 





y 

HE 





O 



M-, 

c 



Pi. ATI-: 151 




OJ 

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p i 

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5 



I'l A I I 




V1KVV IX THE COURT OF THE LIONS 



PLATE 153 




VIEW IN THE COURT OF THE LIONS FROM THE 
HALL OF JUSTICE 



I'l.ATK 154 




C/3 


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PLATE 155 




c/: 

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I'l VII 156 





O 





D 
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PLATE 157 




NORTH GALLERY IN THE COURT OF THE LIONS 



I'l \ i i 1^ 



' 





u 
w 




1'I.ATE 159 




PAVILION IX THE COURT OF TIIK LIONS 



I'l \ ii 160 




FOUNTAIN AND EAST TEMPLE IN THE COURT OF THE LIONS 



1'LATb: 161 




X, 

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u 

t-M 

^ 

C/3 



ffi 



I'l.AlH l62 




i f 

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^ *i * *~ 







' : 

: $|! 

iHi^r *.* ', .' ,.*** I ' 

: :, 

: XXX 



Mr. 

--: 

' 



ANGLE IN THE HALL OF JUSTICE 



PLATE 163 




HALL OF JUSTICE 




CEILING OF THE HALL OF JUSTICE 



165 




Pi \TE 166 








EXTERIOR OF A WINDOW IN THE MOSQUE 



PT.ATF, 167 




' 





THE MOSQUE. AND \\Y\\ OF THE GKNKRALIF1- 



Pi ATE 168 



ffitt'j ' *# 

_. . . a T. 







* , " ' 
>,- . , 

V-I- '- 



;'?*"" '* aT>: 

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*y ; . Ill V.|^B rr >.' 

^?55%X I'WL' 

^?-%^ ^ 




C- 



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p- 

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5 

H 



\ \ i 



PT.ATE 169 




COURT OF THE MOSQUE, WEST FA'ADE 




ai "^ 
a os 
> D 

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P U 



55 



Ci2 

X 



O 

5 



171 







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Pi VTF. t- 






W^^-9i^fw3^^K<2?'^M 







f. 

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r 1 
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u 



X 

r. 



PL ATI-; 173 












ENTRANCE TO THE HALL OF AMBASSADORS 



I 'I Ml I- \ 




BALCONY IN THE HALL OF AMBASSADORS 



PLATE 175 




O 
Q 



r -> 






W 

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t- 1 

O 



h 

a 

Q 



I'l. \M 176 



\ " 










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PS! 

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:N o 




N ' Jfc, 







x. 



PLATE 




THE COURT OF THE LIONS 



1 V I.ATK I ? 




GENERAL VIEW OF THE COURT OF THE LIONS 



PLATE 179 




THE FOUNTAIN AND WEST TEMPLE OF THE COURT 

OF THE LIONS 



I M A i r. 180 









f 



1 I I 



* * * 9, * *** 




f 




ELEVATION OF THE FOUNTAIN OF THE COURT 

OF THE LIONS 



PLATE 181 




't - 

:, I--. 
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, ' . 

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C/2 

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[^ 

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is 

c w 



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ffi 

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^ 



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^ I < 

X 



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I 'I A II. 182 




PLAN OF THE BASIN OF THE FOUNTAIN IN THE COU RT 

OF THE LIONS 



PLATE 183 







-4 



SECTION OF THE PAVILION IN THE COURT OF 

THE LIONS 



\ 1 1. 184 




SECTION OF THE HALL OF THE TWO SISTERS, AND 



PLATE 185 



. 






: ' 







SECTION OF PART OF THE COURT OF THE LIONS 



PLATE 186 




CAPITAL IN THE COURT OF THE LIONS, WITH A SCALE 

OF ONE METRE 



PLATE 187 



. . . .V.T: :ir .1; 
~ 



" ' PH*P?3 




- 



S'liSfStf " 

i$m^ -* K Ml 



2 ' 



I1WA*S8 fi> ' ^'-^i^ 
^-rVcfe;-! ,lv>"-..^ '.-ViS^^ T ^8? 



T. Oil -' I 

r'>, ! 



- 

- -A. I 



iOli 




/. I &^p;Cfe>s 
-. i ^;;^(p'^kj .x- 

i ._i ! i i?~',}, ''- { ^~^J\, : -~ ': . , 

^fei?Misy 





DETAILS OF THE CENTRE ARCADE OF THE COURT 

OF THE LIONS 



I'l \ 1 1 188 



J J J J , 



rii ^^ 'x^^^^^\/^^/.\ 

r> f Mj W/ Vf/ f ft h> !< = :: >iv( A- 1 

u^^^^n-^ii 




'; 

fe -)^^r^^^^U^4^ 

^ f^^^ai^ -f5^g5 ^ 

^ U^X, ^>-/,^tJli! 11 < IVI-iK'^VV^ <J(J ^ 

^Tis 

^fe 

_r \ I L/^ 



^ :7 J"v _/ /-j JV J^> - Jj ^' p 7 ^ y -J J j .O j J j J'J -> . 



FRIEZE OVER COLUMNS, COURT OF THE LIONS 



PLATE 189 



-r * x, r '~i_ * 

^j,^;\l" 



w^mti 

<ur^?\isl*jm 



^y ^. A >- ... \ > .- 

i^SiK^:; ' 

> *'+?Kr\.>i-T~ *' 




DETAIL OF THE CENTRAL ARCH IN THE COURT 

Of THE LIONS 



i vi r. 190 



fr 



,fe 









rr .X 1 I .. ^ 














mmmm^&^<^ 











*P - / < P/^r 




. 




b* 



j 



THE FIRST SIX VERSES OF THE INSCRIPTION AROUND 
THE BASIN OF THE FOUNTAIN OF THE 
COURT OF THE LIONS 



PLATE 1-9 1 




ENTABLATURE IN THE COURT OF THE LIONS 



Pi ATE 192 






I 



^ > -r ,x-;.-v-/.^\ --" 

ls> -.-! ; . >' x- >/ > 
> l r > v_. ^ A 

,^A v^ -rr 31 

> 1 \~<tC'**~. 

\ r ^ ' r ",- / i,^-''" ; '!i < '"v^ > 

A^V-^ I mi 

i^,v* -:^\ 







^--. '> 



/ ^'i i ^"--<V ^ 

i 

V , ^ ^"' '-* * 



^^ T^/ 

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/:, 



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/Si 

^ * 



{ 



^ 



v - 



/ 



I. 



f r ' 

*++ Jkv ->-,-.^ 

o. //.:.', AMs 




CUPOLA OF THE PAVILION IN THE COURT OF THE LIONS 



PLATE 193 




04 

D 

O 

u 

: c/3 

- 

H O 

w J 

CL| ^^ 




D 
O 

'J r 

= 1 



^^-.- -. 



< 
p^ 

H 
J5 

W 



I'J.ATK IQ4 




C/3 

z 

o 

^ 
w 

E 
H 

r 

H^H 

O 

h 

oi 
D 
O 

u 



PLATE 195 



< 




\ i 
\ 




D 

O 
Pn 

W 
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HH 
MH 

- 



O 
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g 

a D 
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PLATE 196 




r. 


O 



W 
DC 



O 

h 



O 
U 

H 
K 
H 



PLATE 197 




O 



h 

en 

W 



O? 

6 

)> 

j 

w 

i 

:_ 
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D 

O 

u 



1'I.A 111 198 




00 

00 



03 
S 

a 
u 



o 
u 
u 

o 



1'I.ATE 199 




C/2 




CA; 

O 
i i 

J 



O 

H 
c^ 
D 
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u 



I'l All! 200 




. 



D 

O 

u 



PLATE 201 



F>S:--V: - 




D 
O 

u 

w 
ac 
- 



I- 



a 



: 



I 'I VI I. JOJ 




H 



PLATE 203 




O 



t- 1 

fa 



Z 

o 



w 

ffi 



o 

L- 

a: 
D 
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vi 1: 204 




THE COURT OF THE LIONS, FACADE OF THE HALL OF 

THE'TWO'SISTERS 



LATE 26 5 




THE COURT OF THE LIONS FROM THE ENTRANCE 



I'l V1T. 206 



r,'v^y> 

&&&* 



^ ^^^^^^^W-^ 




PLATE 207 




o 



J 

w 

DC 



H 

Od 

D 
O 

u 

I 

LH 



I H 
J 



I'l All. 80S 



1 

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* 



* 



' 



- X . 



; : '& 

*** 




T 




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U 

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: : r 5r; :: ^ ;;/;/ 

^a ^T -^v 1 , \? vm.' 






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w 

Q 



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co 

of 
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u 

w 

p 

HH 

CO 

ffi 

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co 

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PLATE 209 









r 



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^^vlf^S 




u 
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Ct, 

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! ! All 




HALL OF THE ABENCERRAGES 



PLATE 211 




HALL OF THK ABENCERRAGES 








HALL OF THE ABENCERRAGES 



PLATE 213 






. 






= I 
^==1 

: 



& 



' 

- - 

. /->-.. -> ; -\ - 



' 

-r>' 1 1 6zK-' i y\ 



C C'( 









C^C- 



WOODEN DOORS, HALL OF THE ABENCERRAGES 



I 'I All 214 




H 
O 



G 
Z 

O 

OH 

I 

ffi 



O 

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D 
O 

u 



w 



O 



PLATE 215 



tit 




COURT OF THE MYRTLES; OR, OF THF FISH-POND. 
OF THE HALL OF AMI! \SSADORS 



FACADE 



PLATE 216 




COURT OF THE MYRTLES; OR, OF THE FISH-POND 



t>LATE 217 




c 


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p 

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fr] 
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(XJ 

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I'l \ I K 2l8 




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Di 
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fc, 
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PLATE 219 



W ''& 

-3&v:& J 








\ 



H 
OS 



I 

H 



oi 
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CH 



E 
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--> ="? r? ^Vti,- ! 

L. ^ J^iiilTSAv 




a 
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PLATE 220 




GALLERY IN THE COURT OF THE MYRTLES ; OR, 
OF THE FISH-POND 



PLATE 221 



; 



1 




H 




O 

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I'l. \ 1 1 




H 

P 



f. 

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D 
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PLATE 223 




--. >' -- V4 



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tf 

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, ' . < 

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PLATE 224 




h 
f. 



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U 



PLATE 225 




EXTERIOR OF THE GALLERY IX THE COURT OF THE 
FISH-POND; OR, OF THE MYRTLES 



I 1 ! \'1T. 226 






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PLATE 227 




Q 
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w 



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O 



Pi A i 1 




COURT OF THE MYRTLES ; OR, OF THE FISH-POND 
FORMED BY YUSL/F I. 



PLATE 229 




O - 
t- ' 



53 



55 ^ 



>- X 
X. x 



c :: 




Q 
Z 

O 






a 



J'l \ 




THE HALL OF THE BATHS 



PLATE 231 




THE ST I /FAN'S BATH 



IM.ATK 232 




THE SULTANA'S BATH 



PLATE 233 







THE BATHS, HALL OF REPOSE 



: 



ail 



I 







^>>.>.J }JK>.. 




4- -* 











CHAMBER OF REPOSE 



PLATE 235 







8 r 



.1. :;-. 
. - 







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u 



PLATE 236 




~ : 







f. 

a: 
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td 







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O 

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y 
f. 



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f 



PLATE 237 




GROUND PLAN OF THE BATHS IN THE ALHAMBRA 



1Y \ 




E 

H 



^ 

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PLATE 239 





AND SECTION OF THE GREAT 
CISTERN [\ THE ALHAMBRA 



PI..VIT. 240 






f 

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v .- 






, 





-:-,. 



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PLATE 241 



1 



'If 



r *.* ****+ **.* w-.*.^ .*'***'..* *.- 
*-*.+T4.f*-r4.T.J "jr**** +*+.*+* | 




%;: ^ 



CHAMBER OF REPOSE 




SULTAN'S BATH CONSTRUCTED BY YUSUF I. 



1'l.A Ih J4_> 




INTERIOR OF THE INFANTAS' TOWER 



. 









PLATE 243 





O 


--T ' T~ 


H 




: 


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T 



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H 
u 






I'LA I 1 




02 



02 

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CL, 

CL 




CO 






w 
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02 
W 



H 
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LH 



02 

W 



245 







BALCONY OF THK "CAPTIVE" .ISABEL DK 

SOLISi, OVF.kLOOKIXG THE VEGA, OR 

PLAIN. OF GRANADA 



Pi ATI: 246 




ALCOVE OF THE " CAPTIVE 1 ' (ISABEL DE SOLISi 



Pi. ATI-: 247 




(. * . 
If t , 

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: -'*<'vv; 

^"'.:', 




-! '*^'t*?;itc*r*v! 



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lYATK 248 




THE "CAPTIVE'S" TOWER FROM THE ENTRANCE 



PLATE 249 




INTERIOR OF THE MOSt >L'E 




ROOM IN THE "CAPTIVE'S" TO\YER 



I 1 ! \ I ! 




, t A *.:f ' 

. V 4*4 . 




I 




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td 

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PQ 



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vj 

C/3 

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fc 

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1'I.ATK ->;i 



.- - 



r - 




D 
O 



cd 



o 
u 



Pi \ i i ^; 




ALCOVE IN THE "LINDARAJA" APARTMENTS 



PLATE 253 




GARDEN OF " LINDARAJA," AND THE APART- 
MENTS TRADITIONALLY SAID TO HAVE 
BEEX OCCUPIED BY "LiNDARAJA" 
A FAVOURITE SULTANA 







ggjf 

1&!*^J&&&&&<A &^z 

's: s: s x x * .* * ** te^^A^g^njft^jft^^^^^jF^f^fti 1> ~ 



= ifotfUEUWU 

-feiSffl 

: tr^*; h H-y_?v__jri^ 1 



^M-^ H> 

j . ^i5%/^'* r ^ >' 

' //% V ^ ^ : Ife 

':f ':. --' a /H t ',-l te (H 



--T v --^k'tP : >K 

SfilKi^ftP ^ 

1 ' / --~ "= r5 3c i* RA v -^ jsi- ~^ r ^* T /* 

^i-i _.-". . ,*'* r^ - .-*i. .. ' . 1 . 



.- l "/"v"-*-=^i:'l* r '-- * f^' -^ f^^5> - T/* 
. _ * , "V-i ^^^j- 1 -3 1 J -' *" J\f ~t (*f\r '. & 







DETAIL, INTERIOR OF THE BALCONY OF " LINDARAJA" 



PLATE 255 




~-v, *. .. .. .. ** ww a m ft < Jft AB m ^B 



7-!f-t|xL'"f|M?'<ttfr| 4 



i *f * * <* f<r * 

,- >iC'Sv' 






t,. t,.'.'i.*i5,*A < * 

^^^ili^p-i's 

_ JF.^V^P* ^_ . . _ ^ .A K 




'*.**'^?!j5?i5i*'>*.!<!>!r*i'" > ' i ! ir i'l 

: *\ *-,%|0,*|vt:." 4^ *" 

t ^ 

' ij : tti*l*'f 4***l^*ll%l? *' 




DETAIL, LOWER PART OF THE BALCONY OK "LINDARAJA" 



I'l \ 



j 




DETAIL OF THE CENTRA!, PART OF THE 
BALCONY OF " LINDARAJA" 




THE OUEEN'S HOmOlR AND DISTANT VIEW OF THE 

GENERALIFE 



I'l \ IK 258 




-V 

w 

w 

c 

w 





C 
X 



o 

Q 
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O 

C2 

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Cd 
D 

fy 



PLATE 259 




u 



o 



o 

Q 
D 

O 

CQ 

- 



c j 
a 



I'l \ 1 1 




o 

a: 



p 

u: 

H 

(b 
O 



O 
Q 
D 
O 



W 
W 
- 

O 



PLATE 261 




O 
~ 
O 



r. 






:- 
< * 

<g 
EC 



I'l \ 1 1 







ANGLE OF THE BALCONY OF LTNDARAJA 



PLATE 263 






.st 




J 
w 



D 

O 



fc, 
O 

> 

2; 

O 

u 

< 
ac 



Pi \ 1 1. 264 



3l,t ' 

V: 

" 









* r ' x.r x' 



- &l&i- WvPi r ^StgiP^ ^ r l ' --,- 

r&ff^.: --.-.' ^/ if-*/' ^/fad^:U*r;-!;;-;u-r? r: ; _\ V*^ir*" v< *^* 

v ; ",-:- .---^^.n'-V^-i. '-^ - '-.-: .---^ -..; ' '- <^ *1^A***-" 

', tii.'-.- -<'_. -'- . ; % -i"V-^- ; '"' :'' -"> ' : ,>i^--;-.-,-- . - Qfc? 3*** -**. 

^<^i i-TV. ;-'. -.*._. ..'*~J?a;"'Tl*.r-;"i^' , ---.i . .' .- i--S- * :jfar V 



r. 

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Ed 



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O 



O 

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O 

zL 

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PLATE 265 



JUT 








O 

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f. 



o 

c 



h 
x 



I 'I VI I 266 




THE TOWER OF THE CAPTIVE, ISABEL DE SOLIS 



PLATE 267 





I\V> 

: v !s 



Jl* 






** '''/< 

m 



*9* 




m 



^ff 



*< 

' ^a 










INTERIOR OF THE INFAN I AS' T< >\VEK, UPPER PART 



i \ i K 268 



# * * 

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J5*!#**f 

v i 



r:v > 

- > 

iK*a*it ** - i 

: #* t I 




o 

C-i 



X 

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t. 



O 

ai 
O 

QL 
W 



PLATP: 269 



T 







DETAIL OF THE UPPER PART OF THE 
BALCONY OF LINDARAJA 



I 'I AIT. 270 







r. 



C/J 

O 



h 

fc 
O 




PLATE 271 






ENTRANCE TO THE HALL OF THE TWO SIS! KKS 



I 'I All 









INTERIOR OF THE HALL OF THE TWO SIS'] ERS 



PLATE 273 




I'l A I l J7-| 




HALL OF THE TWO SISTERS 



PLATE 275 







TEMPLE AND FA' ADE OF THE HALL 
OF THE TWO SISTERS 



1'LATE 2/6 



r 

I 

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c 



r< * '.i v /' 

n - > 7 - ri 1| 
--i:i., .,,!-- 




I 



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^v /- 

' - - >- 

RJ,-,-. 



V 

, ' -^ ..' 



,<-:.;:', 

""%' 

^"w *^/ ; ' J v 

""" "fr ^V'T'i'V/i' 

"./ f f f . , V a. i-ff;-j 




VIEW IN THE HALL OF THE TWO SISTERS 



PLATE 277 




HALL OK THE TWO SIFTERS FROM THE ENTRANCE 
DOOR, BUILT BY YUSUF I. 



PLATE 278 




UPPER BALCONY OF THE HALL OF THE TWO SISTERS 






PLATE 279 




- 




HALL OF THE TWO SISTERS FROM 
THE ENTRANCE DOOR 



PLATE 280 




**' 



y , -- __ C* ,' ("- >v* *? 

-.-^-^- .->*i?^ : ' 

"\1 Jfe- \"^^ 

j ."' * H " 
i&W^ 



CEILING OF THE HALL OF THE TWO SISTERS 



PLATE 281 




~" x 









, , 




I 
^^^^^J^SSjjS'- ' 



w^^^p^ 

vT^i : 





';%.;;% ;; '~-~- >;;< ;;;;;; 
"%! %** '*?' %*%*?! 







DETAIL OF THE UPPER STORY, HALL 
OF THE TWO SISTERS 



PLATE 282 




DETAIL OF THE LATERAL WINDOWS OF THE 
HALL OF THE TWO SISTERS 



PLATE 283 
















DETAIL IN THE HALL OF THE T\YO SISTERS 



PLATE 284 




PANEL, ORNAMENT, AND INSCRIPTIONS IN THE 
HALL OF THE TWO SISTERS 



PLATE 285 




INSCRIPTION IN THE HALL OF THE TWO SISTERS 



I'l.ATE 286 



gfP ^ j-% O r( 

ti / '.'' < i. ' l V ' ' /. V % 




FRIEZE IN THE HALL OF THE TWO SISTERS 



PLATE 287 



y^^'S" \\fi&y^ 

"/?^ 4X^' 

1 1 1~/"~ V -'/A i 1 ^ ^I 

iJfl? ^k^^^Nxfj^ 5 *^ 
W* _^ ^?v \\ ^f>~^ 




PANEL ON JAMBS OF DOORWAYS, HALL OF 
THE TWO SISTERS 



PLAT! 




DETAILS OK THE GLA/ED TILES IN 

THE DADO OF THE HALL OE 

THE TWO SISTERS 



PLATE 289 



m 



tV^f^b M IVevp 

>Yffc\J i^cit/ 



'h^^x^T^-v^v 

/^X<^;Q^^ 




BAND ROUND PANELS IN WINDOWS, HALL 
OF THE TWO SISTERS 



i'l \ IT 



T'V' 1 V 1 ' Tj'J.% T j'J^'iT i'J^-4 T ,'J^. T j'JK Tj'J/ 

f F!*rrlAT.M T^i M i^T. i -T' i 'T- 



' 



rl- 





I 

r* 






i * 7 



. T .nS T ^>NT^T 



MOSAIC IN DADO OF RECESS 



. ,, \/.\ ^t%^ 

',* ^. ^ "r," ^ 'r," ^,'''r 'r'" ^ ' , , " , ^ " r - 

L 4 A k ^0 A *4 -. ... ^4 V% k . ^ >_ k< 

: LI - - -i 

r ^Sr ^ ^r > 



WM 




MOSAIC IN DADO OF THE ENTRANCE TO 
THE HALL OF THE TWO SISTERS 



. ATI: 291 



^ r^ ^ ~ ^ ^ ^> A 

1 ~o~o~ | 

4 J T_l^ TPw^ TP^~ K * 

> 4 

it! 

it^; ;^; ;; ;^; ^i^^Tv^ti 




MOSAIC IN DADO OF HALL OF AMBASSADORS 



V X n > 

v^ ^___- ^_____ 



M o ru 







3AIC IN DADO OF TIIF TfALL Ol- THE 
TWO SISTKKS 



IM vi i 292 




\\YVmi77777 













X. >" 



WINK GATE. WEST FACADE 



PLATE 293 




DETAIL OF THK ONLY ANCIKXT "JALOUSIE" 
REMAINING IN THE ALHAMBRA 



I'l Ml. 294 




EL JARRO. ARAB VASE NOW IN THE MUSEUM OF 

THE PALACE 



PLATE 295 




EL JARRO. THIi ARAMIAX VASK AND NICHK IN WHICH 
IT FORMERLY STOOD, HALL OF THE TWO SISTERS. 
' t THE VASE, CONSIDERABLY MUTILATED, IS NOW 
IN THE MUSEUM OF THE PALACE 



I 'I \ 1 1. 296 




AX ARAB VASE OF THE FOURTEENTH 
CENTURY IN THE NICHE WHERE- 
IN IT STOOD UNTIL THE 
YEAR 1837 



I 'i. ATI-: 297 











SWORD OF THE LAST MOORISH KING OF GRANADA, 
COMMONLY CALLKD " THK SWORD OF BOABDIL" 



Pi ATI' 298 




X. 

< 

X 

,. 

a: 



^ 
N 



< 



g z 

z 

2/ 
[/] 

w 
ffi 



I' I, ATE 299 





GOLD COIN (OBVKKSK AND KKYEKSEi OF MOHAMMED I., 

THE FOUNDER OF THE AEHAMBKA, WHO. 

REIGNED 1232-1272 A.D. 



I'l VII jOO 





4>r 74*N- J 
A&}&A&rc9 






;--~ M s*v'* 
Ife^l 

S?-l < -^- ..>- U 







53 

I 




HI 
< 
_ 

X 









/. 
X 

c 

- 

:_ 

U 




fPSIP^ffe^! 








cc 



~ 

_ 

G 



PLATE 301 



losiupalto s ratWuos;ppoiirrofos rnlorr s flmfcmauto )Miay 
rcj iTiTiiamtftTO (prrs r ououiftavou jiorf iima Onmasfjit m 











caMnust uullpws rateuiorosmaiitia 
qii(iiami[5Hifa5 mlanbiiatiffiis altanas c 





THE GOTHIC INSCRIPTION SET UP IN THE ALHAMBRA 

MY THE COUNT OF TENDILLA, TO COM M KMORATE 

THE SURRENDER OF THE FORTRESS IN 1492 



Pi. Ml. 302 




MOSAIC PAVEMENT IX THE QUEEN'S DRESSING 
ROOM iTMCADOR DE LA REYXA. 







Jk 

>^A 



4HMHHHMHMH* 



;> .. v.^ 3 ^ . T^Cd ' 

:;::/','; 



r X ~V V , */ Vi. V^^V -tV 1 "V yv i ' 

= O=C- 

^r<^ 
<^=. '._ 







MOSAIC, FROM A FRAGMENT IN THE ALHAMBRA 



PLATE 303 



"-^ :-- - '- * 




THE HOUSE OF CARBON 



I'l Ml 304 




THE ANCIENT GRANARY MARKET AND 
HOUSE OF CARBON 



I'l. ATE 305 




KLKVATION OF THK CASA DHL CARBON, OR HOUSE 

OF CARBON, ONCK KNOWN AS THE HOUSE OF 

THE WEATHERCOCK 



Pr.ATK 306 




COURTYARD OF A MOORISH HOUSE IN THE ALBAICIN 



PLATE 307 




INTERIOR OF AN ARAB HOUSK IN THK AIJSAK'IN 



PLATE 308 




w 

u 



oo 

oo 






as 
< 



62 

"!* r 



X 
X 



32 

O r- 
O < 
OH Z 



PLATE 309 




II IE AUTHOR IN THE ALIIAMBRA 



Pl.ATK 310 



' .... 

. 







.w*. 



NT 




<.- 

o: 














Err: 



^*rt 

- 



"- * 



CORNICES, CAPITALS, AND COLUMNS IN THE ALHAMBRA. 
THE SPLENDID CORNICE AT THE RIGHT-HAND TOP 
CORNER IS FROM THE LOGGIA OF 
THE GENERALIFE 



- 

!& 

"/of 
m 







PLATE 311 




2. 3 4- 5 e 83 



--, . - - 




I 






F 

k 





- 
- 




, tf*>.wM* 

vA'te 

^gs^- 








MISCELLANEOUS ORNAMENT IN THE ALHAMBRA 



I'l VI K 




X 



> 

o 
u 



o 

> 

HE 
w 



PLATE 




BAS-RELIEF, NOW IN THE MUSEUM OF THE ALHAMP.RA 



Pi. ATI. 314 



S 




& 







" " 








|l 






. 







* '- *~s *s 

*?-r* tr'-i . -v 
rA^rti 



-K'/.^v 

- . \ " - , " * 7 

% -\^M 

^?%+^<&&i 
V m- ^^f 

i !, v*. tj x /X V >. 8 '' 

JKI 

Kaf^i 




ARABIAN SWORD 



PLATE 315 









J 

M 

"F- 





r 





H 



CQ 



w 
ffi 



ffi 
Q 



Cfl 

H 
cu 
D 
O 
U 

^_; 

EC 





C/3 
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I'l \ I K 




:*: 



> '- :*> d *: 

'' 



. 

:: : 



.. .. 

> -' -:*> '' < 

' 



>< 

r JT 

X X 




JT 



r 

X X X 

r V V jr 
X X X 






* # > 



.a: 4 



I * 



. ::*: 






V V- -V V- -V V- 
^"e- ^ ^ 
.k'k. "Wfc. %\k. 



a*!W5 



^BSSfiS^! 

L^^^."' * 



8"a; 

:*.*: 



>R^^. 



k "^( 



* ^ 
*=*jij 

^ , 



s^sj^j 

-.- f -^^\w.1 



as 



.>.r'v,rvh,r; 

.aissSasBJass^ 




l.XCAUSTIC-TILE WORK IN THE ROYAL ROOM 
OF SANTO DOMINGO 



1'I.ATE 317 




9 ^ w< .._ r -_-^ 






i 



PQ 

S 
< 
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J 

a 



. 
u 

H-< 

< 
C/i 

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D 

O 



I'l ATE 318 





INSCRIPTIONS IN THE ALHAMBRA 



PLATE 319 




a 



CQ 

D 
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a 



3 



< 



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CT; ' 




< 
Cu 



O 



1 'I \ I I 




o 

H 



O 



ac 

H 



Qi 

oa 



ffi 
H 



w 

I I 

> 
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W 
O 



PLATE 321 



-i^s***- 




AN<']|-,N'I' CISTERN. KAHLV FOL'K'I Kl-'.N'l II 

CENTURY 



\ 1 1 322 







Js 



h 



I 'LATH 323 




> 
w 



I 

u 



Ed 
U 

J 

o. 
H 

h 



c 



a 

X 

w 



< 



I'l \ 1 1 243 



. 02TO 



* 




X 



Di 



u 

u- 
c 

w 
u 



X 

o 



PLATE 325 




/. 

. 1 



o 



u 



o 
o 
u 

v: 



I'LATK 




> 

C/3 






QJ 
< 

rn 
u 

Di 

o 



Cu 



ffi 
h 






.-*: 

,Vr 

* , 










s 



PLATE 327 



--*-* ~*-~t 

i^rsffT 5 r 




VIEW OF THE ALHAMRRA FROM THE HOMAGE TOWER 



I'l \ 1 1 328 







PLATE 329 




DOORWAY OF THK I'ALACK OF CHARLES V. 



I 'I Ml 330 




> 

_ 

E 
U 

O 
~ 



X 
H 



C5 
< 

PQ 



PLATE 331 




I'okCII OF THE PALACE OF CHARLES V. 

FROM mi-: WEST 



I'l VI 1 




ROMAN COURT, PALACE OF CHARLES V 



PLATE 333 




s - 

= tt 



/ 

I - 

- ~ 



u 



;:-: 



- 
_- 

<u 

JZ 



O a 
-s _ 



I 

u 



- r 

. = 

~. 

^ ~ 

< 

< a 



1'l.AII 









o 




I'l ^TE 335 




H 
O 



o 

u 



Z- 
u 



I'l \M 




UJ 
X 

bJ 

O 

UJ 



X 

^ 

Q 

2 

O 



O 

a: 
D 
O 
u 



I'I.ATK 337 




w 

w 



*-^ 

H 

O 



p 

V 



V. 

W 
Q 
< 
Z 

w 

s 
o 



I'l Ml 338 




THE GENERALIFE 



I'LATF, 339 



H_ 

Sli'' 
m 




u 

X 
Ed 

G 

, 

E 

H 



O 
u 



tt- 

O 



_ 
> 

z 

O 



vii 340 







- 






X 

.' 

o 






, .. .., . 

- - -' -- 






*; 

/ 

K 



i i 



,if 



- 






- 



-p-^^r^As- 
- 



- ' i 
--' ] 

~ 






''' X * 




o 



o 

b 
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v. 



- --j ^ 






-i rrrr 
i rrrl rl 
rl rl rl r 
rl rl 



- 



PLATE 341 




GALLERY IN TIIL GENERALIFE 



I'l \ 1 K 342 




THE GENERALIFE 
GALLERY IN THE ACEQUIA COURT 



PLATE 343 




THK <;KNERALIKK 
KNTRANCI-: TO THE PORTRAIT (iALLKRV 



I'I.ATK 344 




GARDEN OF THE GENERALIFE 



PLATE 345 






ELEVATION OF THE PORTICO OF THE GENERALIFE 



I'l \ 1 1. 346 




THE ACEQUIA COURT IX THE 
GENERALIFE 



PLATE 347 




A CORNER OF THE ACEQUIA COURT 
IN THE GENERALIFE 



Pi. \ IE 348 




D 

O 

u 



D 

C J 

u 
u 



O 
U 



el 

D 
O 
U 



U 



PLATE 349 




THE CYPRESS OF THE SULTANA IN THE GENERALIFE 



Pi Ml 350 



o 
o 
o 
o 
o 



O 









O 



o 



- o- 

' 

o o 



A CKIl.IXG IX THK GKNKRALIFE 



PLATE 351 




W 
U 



as 

H 

K 




< 



ac 

H 



D 

O 

U 

< 

I I 

D 

a 

u 

w 



OS 
W 



O 

w 
ffi 

H 



I'l Ml 352 




THK GENKRALIFE. THE ACEQUIA COURT FROM THE 

INTERIOR 



PLATE 353 



' ' 




Ed 

^ 
pi 

. 



g 
^ 

a 

r 
L 

X 



I 'i \ir 354 




ENTRANCE TO THE GEXERALIFE 



PLATE 355 




THE GENERALIFE. COURT OF THE SULTANA'S CYPRESS 



Pi VIT 




TIIK (JKNKRALIKK. Till-: ACKQUIA COURT FROM THE 

INTERIOR 



I'i. ATI-: 357 







-j 



SOUTH FACADE OF THK PALACE OF CHARLES V. 



I'l ATE 358 







w 



K 
U 



a 
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P3 



PLATE 359 




O 



w 
u 

< 
J 
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z. 

f 

E 



U 



ft! 



I'l. \ II 360 





GATE OF THE GRANADAS 



PLATE 361 




V 

EC 



PL.VII. 362 




PLATE 363 




f. 



< 

x 
u 



z 

c 

*^ 

cc 



c 

y; 

y. 

c 



' 



PLATI 364 




u 



u 



h 

y: 

D 



C 



PLATE 365 



: 

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1 







* iffi 







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I 'i \ 1 1: 400 




ARMS OF 1 GRANADA 



THE 

SPANISH SERIES 

Edited by ALBERT F. CALVERT 

ANEW and important series of volumes, dealing with 
Spain in its various aspects, its history, its cities and 
monuments. Each volume will be complete in itself 
in a uniform binding, and the number and excellence of the 
reproductions from pictures will justify the claim that these 
books comprise the most copiously illustrated series that has 
yet been issued, some volumes having over 300 pages of 
reproductions of pictures, etc. 

Crown 8vo Price 3/6 net 

1 GOYA ..... with 600 illustrations 

2 TOLEDO . . . . ,,510 

3 MADRID .... 450 

4 SEVILLE .... ,,300 

5 MURILLO .... ,,165 

6 CORDOVA .... ,, 160 

7 EL GRECO .... 140 

8 VELAZQUEZ .... ,,142 

9 THE PRADO .... 223 

10 THE ESCORIAL ... ,, 278 

11 ROYAL PALACES OF SPAIN . ,, 200 

12 GRANADA AND ALHAMBRA . ,, 460 

13 SPANISH ARMS AND ARMOUR . 386 ,, 

14 LEON, BURGOS AND SALAMANCA ,, 462 

1 5 VALLADOLID, OVIEDO, SEGOVIA, ) 

-, A V M 390 

ZAMORA, AVILA AND ZARAGOZA j 

i 



UNIFORM WITH THIS VOLUME 

MURILLO 

A BIOGRAPHY AND APPRECIATION. ILLUSTRATED 
BY OVER 165 REPRODUCTIONS FROM PHOTO- 
GRAPHS OF HIS MOST CELEBRATED PICTURES 

WHILE the names of Murillo and Velazquez are inseparably linked in 
the history of Art as Spain's immortal contribution to the small band 
of world-painters, the great Court-Painter to Philip IV. has ever re- 
ceived the lion's share of public attention. Many learned and critical 
works have been written about Murillo, but whereas Velazquez has 
been familiarised to the general reader by the aid of small, popular biographies, 
the niche is still empty which it is hoped that this book will fill. 

In this volume the attempt has been made to show the painter's art in its 
relation to the religious feeling of the age in which he lived, and his own feeling 
towards his art. Murillo was the product of his religious era, and of his native 
province, Andalusia. To Europe in his lifetime he signified little or nothing. 
He painted to the order of the religious houses in his immediate vicinity ; his 
works were immured in local monasteries and cathedrals, and, passing imme- 
diately out of circulation, were forgotten or never known. 



UNIFORM WITH THIS VOLUME 

SPANISH ARMS 
AND ARMOUR 

A HISTORICAL AND DESCRIPTIVE ACCOUNT OF 
THE ROYAL ARMOURY AT MADRID. ILLUSTRATED 
WITH 386 REPRODUCTIONS FROM PHOTOGRAPHS. 
DEDICATED BY SPECIAL PERMISSION TO 
H.M. QUEEN MARIA CRISTINA OF SPAIN 

ALTHOUGH several valuable and voluminous catalogues of the Spanish 
Royal Armoury have, from time to time, been compiled, this " finest 
collection of armour in the world " has been subjected so often to the 
disturbing influences of fire, removal, and re-arrangement, that no 
hand catalogue of the Museum is available, and this book has been 
designed to serve both as a historical souvenir of the institution and a record of 
its treasures. 

The various exhibits with which the writer illustrates his narrative are repro- 
duced to the number of nearly 400 on art paper, and the selection of weapons and 
armour has been made with a view not only to render the series interesting to 
the general reader, but to present a useful text book for the guidance of 
artists, sculptors, antiquaries, costumiers, and all who are engaged in the repro- 
duction or representation of European armoury. 



UNIFORM WITH THIS VOLUME 

THE ESCORIAL 

A HISTORICAL AND DESCRIPTIVE ACCOUNT OF THE 
SPANISH ROYAL PALACE, MONASTERY AND MAUSO- 
LEUM. ILLUSTRATED WITH PLANS AND 278 REPRO- 
DUCTIONS FROM PICTURES AND PHOTOGRAPHS 

THE Royal Palace, Monastery, and Mausoleum of El Escorial, which rears 
its gaunt, grey walls in one of the bleakest but most imposing districts 
in the whole of Spain, was erected to commemorate a victory over the 
French in 1557. It was occupied and pillaged by the French two and 
a-half centuries later, and twice it has been greatly diminished by fire ; 
but it remains to-day, not only the incarnate expression of the fanatic religious 
character and political genius of Philip II., but the greatest mass of wrought 
granite which exists on earth, the leviathan of architecture, the eighth wonder of 
the world. 

In the text of this book the author has endeavoured to reconstitute the 
glories and tragedies of the living past of the Escorial, and to represent the 
wonders of the stupendous edifice by reproductions of over two hundred and 
seventy of the finest photographs and pictures obtainable. Both as a review 
and a pictorial record it is hoped that the work will make a wide appeal among 
all who are interested in the history, the architecture, and the art of Spain. 



UNIFORM WITH THIS VOLUME 

TOLEDO 

A HISTORICAL AND DESCRIPTIVE ACCOUNT OF 
THE "CITY OF GENERATIONS," WITH 510 
ILLUSTRATIONS 

THE origin of Imperial Toledo, " the crown of Spain, the light of the 
world, free from the time of the mighty Goths," is lost in the impene- 
trable mists of antiquity. Mighty, unchangeable, invincible, the city 
has been described by Wormann as " a gigantic open-air museum of the 
architectural history of early Spain, arranged upon a lofty and con- 
spicuous table of rock." 

But while some writers have declared that Toledo is a theatre with the 
actors gone and only the scenery left, the author does not share the opinion. 
He believes that the power and virility upon which Spain built up her 
greatness is reasserting itself. The machinery of the theatre of Toledo is 
rusty, the pulleys are jammed from long disuse, but the curtain is rising steadily 
if slowly, and already can be heard the tuning-up of fiddles in its ancient 
orchestra. 

In this belief the author of this volume has not only set forth the story of 
Toledo's former greatness, but has endeavoured to place before his readers a 
panorama of the city as it appears to-day, and to show cause for his faith in the 
greatness of the Toledo of the future 



UNIFORM WITH THIS VOLUME 

S EVI LLE 

A HISTORICAL AND DESCRIPTIVE ACCOUNT, 
WITH 300 ILLUSTRATIONS 

SEVILLE, which has its place in mythology as the creation of Hercules, 
and was more probably founded by the Phoenicians, which became 
magnificent under the Roman rule, was made the capital of the Goths, 
became the centre of Moslem power and splendour, and fell before the 
military prowess of St. Ferdinand, is still the Queen of Andalusia, the 
foster-mother of Velazquez and Murillo, the city of poets and pageantry and 
love. 

Seville is always gay, and responsive and fascinating to the receptive visitor, 
and all sorts of people go there with all sorts of motives. The artist repairs 
to the Andalusian city to fill his portfolio ; the lover of art makes the pilgrimage 
to study Murillo in all his glory. The seasons of the Church attract thousands 
from reasons of devotion or curiosity. And of all these myriad visitors, who go 
with their minds full of preconceived notions, not one has yet confessed to 
being disappointed in Seville. 

The author has here attempted to convey in the illustrations an impression 
of this laughing city where all is gaiety and mirth and ever-blossoming roses, 
where the people pursue pleasure as the serious business of life in an atmosphere 
of exhilarating enjoyment. 



UNIFORM WITH THIS VOLUME 



THE PRADO 

A GUIDE AND HANDBOOK TO THE ROYAL PIC- 
TURE GALLERY OF MADRID. ILLUSTRATED WITH 
221 REPRODUCTIONS FROM PHOTOGRAPHS OF OLD 
MASTERS. DEDICATED BY SPECIAL PERMISSION 
TO H.R.H. PRINCESS HENRY OF BATTENBERG 

THIS volume is an attempt to supplement the accurate but formal 
notes contained in the official catalogue of a picture gallery which is con- 
sidered the finest in the world. It has been said that the day one 
enters the Prado for the first time is an important event like marriage, 
the birth of a child, or the coming into an inheritance ; an ex- 
perience of which one feels the effects to the day of one's death. 

The excellence of the Madrid gallery is the excellence of exclusion ; it is a 
collection of magnificent gems. Here one becomes conscious of a fresh power in 
Murillo, and is amazed anew by the astonishing apparition of Velazquez ; here is, 
in truth, a rivalry of miracles of art. 

The task of selecting pictures for reproduction from what is perhaps the 
most splendid gallery of old masters in existence, was one of no little difficulty, 
but it is believed that the collection is representative, and that the letterpress 
will form a serviceable companion to the visitor to The Prado. 



UNIFORM WITH THIS VOLUME 

GRANADA AND 
THE ALHAMBRA 

A BRIEF HISTORY OF THE MOSLEM RULE IN 
SPAIN, TOGETHER WITH A PARTICULAR ACCOUNT 
OF THE CONSTRUCTION, THE ARCHITECTURE, AND 
THE DECORATION OF THE MOORISH PALACE, 
WITH 460 ILLUSTRATIONS. DEDICATED BY SPECIAL 
PERMISSION TO H.I.M. THE EMPRESS EUGENIE 

THIS volume is the third and abridged edition of a work which the author 
was inspired to undertake by the surpassing loveliness of the Alhambra, 
and by his disappointment in the discovery that no such thing as an 
even moderately adequate illustrated souvenir of " this glorious sanc- 
tuary of Spain " was obtainable. Keenly conscious of the want himself, 
he essayed to supply it, and the result is a volume that has been acclaimed with 
enthusiasm alike by critics, artists, architects, and archaeologists. 

In his preface to the first edition, Mr. Calvert wrote : " The Alhambra may 
be likened to an exquisite opera which can only be appreciated to the full when 
one is under the spell of its magic influence. But as the witchery of an inspired 
score can be recalled by the sound of an air whistled in the street, so it is my 
hope the pale ghost of the Moorish fairy-land may live again in the memories of 
travellers through the medium of this pictorial epitome." 



UNIFORM WITH THIS VOLUME 



EL GRECO 

A BIOGRAPHY AND APPRECIATION. ILLUSTRATED 
BY REPRODUCTIONS OF OVER 140 OF HIS 
PICTURES 

IN a Series such as this, which aims at presenting every aspect of Spain's 
eminence in art and in her artists, the work of Domenico Theotocopuli 
must be allotted a volume to itself. " El Greco," as he is called, who 
reflects the impulse, and has been said to constitute the supreme glory 
of the Venetian era, was a Greek by repute, a Venetian by training, and a 
Toledan by adoption. His pictures in the Prado are still catalogued among 
those of the Italian School, but foreigner as he was, in his heart he was more 
Spanish than the Spaniards. 

El Greco is typically, passionately, extravagantly Spanish, and with his 
advent, Spanish painting laid aside every trace of Provincialism, and stepped 
forth to compel the interest of the world. Neglected for many centuries, 
and still often misjudged, his place in art is an assured one. It is impossible 
to present him as a colourist in a work of this nature, but the author has got 
together reproductions of no fewer than 140 of his pictures a greater 
number than has ever before been published of El Greco's works. 



UNIFORM WITH THIS VOLUME 

V EL AZ Q~U E Z 

A BIOGRAPHY AND APPRECIATION. ILLUSTRATED 
WITH 142 REPRODUCTIONS FROM PHOTOGRAPHS 
OF HIS MOST CELEBRATED PICTURES 

DIEGO RODRIGUEZ DE SILVA Y VELAZQUEZ" our Velazquez," 
as Palomino proudly styles him has been made the subject of innu- 
merable books in every European language, yet the Editor of this 
Spanish Series feels that it would not be complete without the inclusion 
of yet another contribution to the broad gallery of Velazquez literature. 
The great Velazquez, the eagle in art subtle, simple, incomparable the 
supreme painter, is still a guiding influence of the art of to-day. This greatest 
of Spanish artists, a master not only in portrait painting, but in character and 
animal studies, in landscapes and historical subjects, impressed the grandeur of 
his superb personality upon all his work. Spain, it has been said, the country 
whose art was largely borrowed, produced Velazquez, and through him 
Spanish art became the light of a new artistic life. 

The author cannot boast that he has new data to offer, but he has put 
forward his conclusions with modesty ; he has reproduced a great deal that is 
most representative of the artist's work ; and he has endeavoured to keep always 
in view his object to present a concise, accurate, and readable life of Velazquez. 



UNIFORM WITH THIS VOLUME 

ROYAL PALACES 

OF SPAIN 

A HISTORICAL AND DESCRIPTIVE ACCOUNT OF 
THE SEVEN PRINCIPAL PALACES OF THE SPANISH 
KINGS. PROFUSELY ILLUSTRATED 

SPAIN is beyond question the richest country in the world in the number 
of its Royal Residences, and while few are without artistic importance, all 
are rich in historical memories. Thus, from the Alcazar at Seville, which 
is principally associated with Pedro the Cruel, to the Retiro, built to 
divert the attention of Philip IV. from his country's decay ; from the Escorial, 
in which the gloomy mind of Philip II. is perpetuated in stone, to La Granja, 
which speaks of the anguish and humiliation of Christina before Sergeant Garcia 
and his rude soldiery ; from Aranjuez to Rio Frio, and from El Pardo, darkened 
by the agony of a good king, to Miramar, to which a widowed Queen retired to 
mourn : all the history of Spain, from the splendid days of Charles V. to the 
present time, is crystallised in the Palaces that constitute the patrimony of the 
Crown. 

The Royal Palaces of Spain are open to visitors at stated times, and it is 
hoped that this volume, with its wealth of illustrations, will serve the visitor 
both as a guide and a souvenir. 



UNIFORM WITH THIS VOLUME 

V ALLADOLI D , 
OVIEDO, SEGOVIA, 
ZAMORA, AVILA 
AND ZARAGOZA 

A HISTORICAL AND DESCRIPTIVE ACCOUNT, WITH 
390 ILLUSTRATIONS 

THE glory of Valladolid has departed, but the skeleton remains, and at- 
tached to its ancient stones are the memories that Philip II. was born 
here, that here Cervantes lived, and Christopher Columbus died. In this 
one-time capital of Spain, in the Plaza Mayor, the fires of the Great 
Inquisition were first lighted, and here Charles V. laid the foundation 
of the Royal Armoury, which was afterwards transferred to Madrid. 

More than seven hundred years have passed since Oviedo was the proud 
capital of the Kingdoms of Las Asturias, Leon, and Castile. Segovia, though no 
longer great, has still all the appurtenances of greatness, and with her granite 
massiveness and austerity, she remains an aristocrat even among the aristocracy 
of Spanish cities. Zamora, which has a history dating from time almost without 
date, was the key of Leon and the centre of the endless wars between the Moors 
and the Christians, which raged round it from the eighth to the eleventh centuries. 
In this volume the author has striven to re-create the ancient greatness of 
these six cities, and has preserved their memories in a wealth of excellent and 
interesting illustrations. 

UNIFORM WITH THIS VOLUME 

LEON, BURGOS 
AND SALAMANCA 

A HISTORICAL AND DESCRIPTIVE ACCOUNT, WITH 
462 ILLUSTRATIONS 

IN Leon, once the capital of the second kingdom in Spain in Burgos, which 
boasts one of the most magnificent cathedrals in Spain, and the custodian- 
ship of the bones of the Cid ; and in Salamanca, with its university, which 
is one of the oldest in Europe, the author has selected three of the most 
interesting relics of ancient grandeur in this country of departed greatness. 
Leon to-day is nothing but a large agricultural village, torpid, silent, dilapi- 
dated ; Burgos, which still retains traces of the Gotho-Castilian character, is a 
gloomy and depleting capital : and Salamanca is a city of magnificent buildings, 
a broken hulk, spent by the storms that from time to time have devastated her. 

Yet apart from the historical interest possessed by these cities, they still 
make an irresistible appeal to the artist and the antiquary. They are content 
with their stories of old-time greatness and their cathedrals, and these ancient 
architectural splendours, undisturbed by the touch of a modernising and renovat- 
ing spirit, continue to attract the visitor. 



UNIFORM WITH THIS VOLUME 

M A D Rl D 

A HISTORICAL AND DESCRIPTIVE ACCOUNT OF THE 
SPANISH CAPITAL, WITH 450 ILLUSTRATIONS 

MADRID is at once one of the most interesting and most maligned 
cities in Europe. It stands at an elevation of 2,500 feet above the 
sea level, j n the centre of an arid, treeless, waterless, and wind-blown 
plain; but whatever may be thought of the wisdom of selecting a 
capital in such a situation, one cannot but admire the uniqueness of 
its position, and the magnificence of its buildings, and one is forced to admit that, 
having fairly entered the path of progress, Madrid bids fair to become one of the 
handsomest and most prosperous of European cities. 

The splendid promenades, the handsome buildings, and the spacious theatres 
combine to make Madrid one of the first cities of the world, and the author has 
endeavoured with the aid of the camera, to place every feature and aspect of the 
Spanish metropolis before the reader. Some of the illustrations reproduced here 
have been made familiar to the English public by reason of the interesting and 
stirring events connected with the Spanish Royal Marriage, but the greater number 
were either taken by the author, or are the work of photographers specially 
employed to obtain new views for the purpose of this volume. 



UNIFORM WITH THIS VOLUME 

GOYA 

A BIOGRAPHY AND APPRECIATION. ILLUSTRATED 
BY REPRODUCTIONS OF 600 OF HIS PICTURES 

THE last of the old masters and the first of the moderns, as he has been 
called, Francisco Jose de Goya y Lucientes is not so familiarised to 
English readers as his genius deserves. He was born at a time when 
the tradition of Velazquez was fading, and the condition of Spanish 
painting was debased almost beyond hope of salvation ; he broke 
through the academic tradition of imitation ; " he, next to Velazquez, is to be 
accounted as the man whom the Impressionists of our time have to thank for 
their most definite stimulus, their most immediate inspiration." 

The genius of Goya was a robust, imperious, and fulminating genius ; his 
iron temperament was passionate, dramatic, and revolutionary ; he painted 
a picture as he would have fought a battle. He was an athletic, warlike, and 
indefatigable painter ; a naturalist like Velazquez ; fantastic like Hogarth ; 
eccentric, like Rembrandt ; the last flame-coloured flash of Spanish genius. 

It is impossible to reproduce his colouring ; but in the reproductions of his 
works the author has endeavoured to convey to the reader some idea of Goya's 
boldness of style, his mastery of frightful shadows and mysterious lights, and 
his genius for expressing all terrible emotions. 

8 



UNIFORM WITH THIS VOLUME 

CORDOVA 

A HISTORICAL AND DESCRIPTIVE ACCOUNT OF 
THE ANCIENT CITY WHICH THE CARTHAGINIANS 
STYLED THE "GEM OF THE SOUTH," WITH 160 
ILLUSTRATIONS 

GAY-LOOKING, vivacious in its beauty, silent, ill-provided, depopulated, 
Cordova was once the pearl of the West, the city of cities, Cordova of 
the thirty suburbs and three thousand mosques ; to-day she is no 
more than an overgrown village, but she still remains the most 
Oriental town in Spain. 

Cordova, once the centre of European civilisation, under the Moors the 
Athens of the West, the successful rival of Baghdad and Damascus, the seat of 
learning and the repository of the arts, has shrunk to the proportions of a third- 
rate provincial town ; but the artist, the antiquary and the lover of the beautiful, 
will still find in its streets and squares and patios a mysterious spell that cannot 
be resisted. 



BY ALBERT F. CALVERT 



LIFE 



O F 



CERVANTES 

A NEW LIFE OF THE GREAT SPANISH AUTHOR 

TO COMMEMORATE THE TERCENTENARY OF THE 

PUBLICATION OF "DON QUIXOTE," WITH 

NUMEROUS PORTRAITS AND REPRODUCTIONS 

FROM EARLY EDITIONS OF "DON QUIXOTE" 

Size Crown 8vo. 150 pp. Price 3/6 net 

PRESS NOTICES 



" A popular and accessible account 
of the career of Cervantes." 

Daily Chronicle. 

" A very readable and pleasant 
account of one of the great writers of 
all time." Morning Leader. 

" Mr. CALVERT is entitled to the 
gratitude of book-lovers for his indus- 
trious devotion at one of our greatest 
literary shrines." Birmingham Post. 

" It is made trebly interesting by 
the very complete set of Cervantes' 
portraits it contains, and by the in- 
clusion of a valuable bibliography." 
Black and While. 



" We recommend the book to all 
those to whom Cervantes is more than 
a mere name." Westminster Gazette. 

" A most interesting resume of all 
facts up to the present time known." 
El Nervion de Bilbao, Spain. 

" The most notable work dedicated 
to the immortal author of Don Quixote 
that has been published in England." 
El Graduador, Spain. 

" Although the book is written in 
English no Spaniard could have written 
it with more conscientiousness and 
enthusiasm." 

El Defensor de Granada, Spain. 



BY ALBERT F. CALVERT 

THE ALHAMBRA 

OF GRANADA, BEING A BRIEF HISTORY OF THE 
MOSLEM RULE IN SPAIN FROM THE REIGN OF 
MOHAMMED THE FIRST TO THE FINAL EXPULSION 
OF THE MOORS, TOGETHER WITH A PARTICULAR 
ACCOUNT OF THE CONSTRUCTION, THE ARCHITEC- 
TURE AND THE DECORATION OF THE MOORISH 
PALACE, WITH 80 COLOURED PLATES AND NEARLY 
300 BLACK AND WHITE ILLUSTRATIONS (NEW 
EDITION). DEDICATED BY PERMISSION TO H.M. 
KING ALFONSO XIII. 



Size 10 x 74-. 



Price 2 25. net 



PRESS NOTICES 



" It is hardly too much to say that 
this is one of the most magnificent 
books ever issued from the English 
Press." Building World. 

" One is really puzzled where to 
begin and when to stop in praising the 
illustrations." Bookseller. 

"The most complete record of this 
wonder of architecture which has ever 
been contemplated, much less at- 
tempted." British Architect. 

" A treasure to the student of 
decorative art." Morning Advertiser. 

" Mr. CALVERT has given us a Book 
Beautiful." Western Daily Press. 

" It is the last word on the subject, 
no praise is too high." 

Nottingham Express. 

"May be counted among the more 
important art books which have been 
published during recent years." 

The Globe. 

" Has a pride of place that is all its 

own among the books of the month." 

Review of Reviews. 



" Has in many respects surpassed 
any books on the Alhambra which up 
to the present have appeared in our 
own country or abroad." 

El Graduador, Spain. 

" It is one of the most beautiful 
books of modern times." Ely Gazette. 

" One of the most artistic produc- 
tions of the year." 

Publishers' Circular. 

" The most beautiful book on the 
Alhambra issued in England." Sphere. 

" The standard work on a splendid 
subject." Daily Telegraph. 

" A remarkable masterpiece of book 
production." Eastern Daily Press. 

" A perfect treasure of beauty and 
delight." Keighley News. 

" A magnificent work." 

Melbourne Age, Australia. 

" Immense collection of fine plates." 

The Times. 

" A standard work, the compilation 

of which would credit a life's labour." 

Hull Daily Mail. 



10 



BY ALBERT F. CALVERT 

MOORISH 
REMAINS 
IN SPAIN 

BEING A BRIEF RECORD OF THE ARABIAN 
CONQUEST AND OCCUPATION OF THE PENINSULA, 
WITH A PARTICULAR ACCOUNT OF THE MOHAM- 
MEDAN ARCHITECTURE AND DECORATION IN THE 
CITIES OF CORDOVA, SEVILLE AND TOLEDO, WITH 
MANY COLOURED PLATES, AND OVER 400 BLACK 
AND WHITE ILLUSTRATIONS, DIAGRAMS, ETC., 
DEDICATED BY PERMISSION TO H.M. KING 
ALFONSO XIII. 

Crown 4to. (7^ x 10 ins.) Price 2 2s. net 



PRESS NOTICES 



:< The making of this book must 
surely have been a veritable labour of 
love ; and love's labour has certainly 
not been lost." Pall Mall Gazette. 

" The best age of Moorish architec- 
ture in Spain is shown with remarkable 
vividness and vitality." The Scotsman. 

" A most gorgeous book. . . . We 
cheerfully admit Mr. CALVERT into 
the ranks of those whom posterity will 
applaud for delightful yet unprofitable 
work." Outlook. 

"A large and sumptuous volume." 

Tribune. 

"The illustrations are simply marvels 
of reproduction." Dundee Advertiser. 

" One of the books to which a simple 
literary review cannot pretend to do 
justice." Spectator. 

" A special feature of a work of 
peculiar interest and value are the 
illustrations." Newcastle Chronicle. 

" The illustrations are given with a 
minuteness and faithfulness of detail, 
and colour, which will be particularly 
appreciated and acknowledged by those 
who are most acquainted with the 
subject themselves." Liverpool Post. 



" It is impossible to praise too highly 
the care with which the illustrations 
have been prepared." 

Birmingham Daily Post. 

" It is illustrated with so lavish a 
richness of colour that to turn its pages 
gives one at first almost the same 
impresssion of splendour as one receives 
in wandering from hall to hall of the 
Alcazar of Seville ; and this is prob- 
ably the highest compliment we could 
pay to the book or its author." 

A cademy. 

" It is certainly one of the most 
interesting books of the year." Crown. 

" The occasional delicacy of design 
and harmony of colour can scarcely be 
surpassed .... a valuable and pro- 
fusely illustrated volume." Guardian. 

" An excellent piece of work." 

The Times. 

"Mr. CALVERT has performed a use- 
ful work." Daily Telegraph. 

" A truly sumptuous volume." 

The Speaker. 

" Mr. CALVERT has given a very 
complete account of the evolution of 
Moresco art." The Connoisseur. 



II 



New York Botanical Garden Library 

DP402.G6 C3 gen 

Calvert Albert Fre/Granada and the Alha 




3 5185 00073 6403