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George I'^outledge cSc Sons, Limited, new York, London. Glasgow «i»' Manchester. 




THE Civil War lu',i,'.-iii with tlio attaol< of tlic Confodoratos on Fort 
S\imlor, a fortress in CMiarlcston llarlior, into wliicli Major Ander- 
son liad witlulrawn liis troops. 'I'lio first i;;im pointed !>)' tlie Confederates on 
tlie Union troops was lircd by Edmund Rafliii, of Virginia, April 12, 1861. 
This shot was foUowixl by a tempest of shells and balls from thirty eannons 
and mortars ; the assault continued all day, and a sluggish bombardment 
was kept >ip during the dark and stormy night. The garrison o£ Fort 
.Sumter, seventy in num- 
ber, were worn out when 
the morning of April 1,5 
dawned ; their provisions 
had given out, the bar- 
racks was on lire, ami 
the smoke and heat in- 
tense. At noon the Union 
flag was cut down by a 
shell, but was caught as it 
fell and replaced by Ser- 
geant Hart. The fall of 
the flag induced the Con- 
federate (jencral lieaure- 
gard to scud a flag of truce 
to the besieged Ihiion 
troops, and on April 14 
the little garrison evacua- 
ted the fort, and was con- 
\'eyed to New York. 

The news of the attack 
and evacuation of the fori 
created the wildest excite- 
ment in the North. On April 15 President Lincohi issued a call for sev- 
enty-five thousand troiips, and siunmoned the Congress to meet on ]uly 4. 
AVashington now became the centre of the struggle. " On to AV'ashiu"- 
ton I " was the Southern cry, whose spokesman, Alexander H. Stephens, 
declared, " There is one wild shout of fierce resolve to capture AVash- 
ington City at all a'tia jevery human hazard." 

The first Northern troops ready were those of Massachusetts ; they 
reached Baltimore April 19, where they were attacked on the march, and 

ConmcHT, 1890, UY Hugh Cbaiu. 


three men of the Sixth Massachusetts were killed. This was the first 
blood shed. On May 14 Baltimore was occupied by Union troops, and in 
obedience to a new call by the President for sixtj'-four thousand troops to 
serve " during the war," men were flocking into Washington by thousands, 
and gave it the appearance of a garrison town. 

The Civil War was one of the most destructive on record. During 
the four years of its continuance, on the Union side, two million six hun- 
dred and fifty-six thousand 
and five hundred and thir- 
ty-three men were called 
into service ; one million 
four hundred thousand 
were in actual service ; 
sixty thousand men were 
killed in the field, thirty 
thousand mortally wound- 
ed, one hundred and eigh- 
t}'-four thousand died in 
hospital or camp. The 
Confederates, it is suppos- 
ed, lost an equal number, 
while on both sides a large 
number were more or less 
disabled for life. Nor was 
the expenditure of money 
less lavish. In August, 
1865, three months after 
the close of the war, the 
>K, iiiN.-. -.nKori-.H «AMMN,,i.'N. dcbt of thc Uuiou was 

over three billion dollars, 
and if wc include the whole nation, the actual cost of the war must 
have been over six billion dollars. 

Some small skirmishes took place between the Confederates advancing 
on Washington and the loyal troops in the mountain regions of Virginia, 
where General George B. McClellan had dispersed the Confederate force 
luider Garnett and Wise. But the first pitched battle, the one that made 
both sides see how terrible would be the struggle, was that fought in fiont 
of Washington, on the soil of A'irginia. 

h i^p 

COatLlLT AT liLACK KIVEi!. .NKAIt UMi'll^HHlUtJ, \UiGlSiA. JULY H, ml. 


advance and attack tl>c 

In tlic summer months (i( 1H61, 
troops from all the loyal States 
wcn' j;allnri'(l lo ilefciid Wash- 
ini;lon, when news arrived that 
.|(),(i()n ( 'onli'deiaU- troops iinilei" 
lieaiu'egard were oeeiipying a 
sironp; position at Manassas June- 
lion, about thirty miles (rum Wash- 
inti'lon. l\Ianassas was connected by 
railroads with the Confederate capi- 
tal, Richmond, and with the fertile 
Shenandoah Valley, where, at Win- 
chester, Joseph K. Johnston had 
nearly as many nun. On July 16 it 
was announceil that the Union forces 
under (icncral McDowell were to 
'I'liey were in l"i\e divisions, under 
Generals Daniel Tyler and 'riuodorc Runyon, and Colonels Daviil 
Hunter, Samuel P. llcintzelman, and Dixon S. I\liles, while Clencral Pat- 
terson was stationed at Martinsbnrf;- lo keep Joseph IC. Johnston from 
joining his forces with those under Beauregard. The latter had disposed 
his troops along a little stream named l?ull Run, a tributar)' of the 
Oecoquan, from Union l\Iills, where the Orange and Alexandria Rail- 
road crosses the stream, to the Stone Bridge on the Warrenton t>n-npike, 
a distance of about eight miles. McDowell's troops encountered no 
opposition at Fairfax Court Mouse or Centreville, from which jilaces the 
Confederates retired before the Federal advance. I\lcDowell pushed 
on to Blackburn's Ford, wlwre the Confederate General Longstrcct 
was stationed with a strong force of men and concealed batteries. 
Here, on July 18, a severe tight began, m which I\lichigan, Massachu- 
setts, and New York troops were engaged, but the Confederates were 
too strong, and the Union forces were forced back on Centreville. 
McDowell now resoUed on a grand attack, and the two following days 
were de\oted to preparations. On July Ji,^t two in the morning, the 
moon shining brightly, three colunms of Union soldiers started for 
Centreville. General Tyler, with the brigades of. Sehenck and Sher- 
man, were sent on to the Stone Bridge, where they were to makp a 
feigned attack, while two other columns were to cross Bull Run, Dur- 
ing the preceding day the Confederate army, under General Joseph 
E. Johnston, had succeeded i[i chiding the Union General Pattci-son, 
and had arrived from the Shenandoah valley, and joined the 

^ (jcneral Tyler opened the battle by flinging a shell into the Confederate 
troops under General Evans, at the Stone Bridge ; reinforcements were 
sent to him by General Beauregard, and a counter-attack by the Confed- 
erates on McDowell's forces at Blackburn's Ford failed. General Hunter 
crossed Bull Run at Sudley Chiu-ch about ten in the morning, and a 
furious struggle began. Hunter was wounded, Colonel SlocUm, of Rhode 
Island, was killed, and the National line began to tremble, when General 
Porter, with some regular troops, came up and opened a heavy tire on the 
Confederate foi'ces. A charge made by a New York regiment under Gen- 
eral H. W. Sloeum dro\'e the Confederate line back to a plateau, 
where General Thomas J. Jackson just arrived with the reserves. 
" They arc beating us back I " exclaimed the Confederate General Bee. 
" Well," said Jackson, " give them the bayonet." Bee, resuming cour- 
age, ordered his men to form, adding, "There stands Jackson like a 
s/o/ic -Villi." The flight was checked, and the struggle was renewed, 
and up till three o'clock the Union armj' had rather the better of it. 

" Oh, for four more regiments ! " cried General Johnston. Just then 
he s.-iw a cloud of dust in the direction of the Manassas Gap Railroad. 
It was General Kirby Smith's force, four thousand strong, and it was 
at once flung into the thickest of the fight. The effect was sudden, 
unexpected, and ovcrwdielming. The Union troops were swept from 
the plateau, and by four o'clock a panic seized most of the men ; it 
was not a retreat, but a rout ; the army fled across Bull Run toward 
Centreville, pouring in confusion over the Stone Bridge, and leaving on 
the field three thousand of their comrades, killed, wounded, or prisoners. 

Little was this result expected 
Crowds had come out from Wash- 
ington to see the battle, and the vi- 
cinity of the battlefield was gay with 
visitoi-s. The heights near this town 
were crowded with spectators, and 
the terror of these visitors when 
the defeat of the Union army was 
evident, added to the dangers of 
the flight. The roads were blocked 
with overturned vehicles or aban- 
doned cannon, and a mass of soldiers, 
ei\ihans, and well-dressed women 
mingled in picturesque confusion. 
The fugitives made no pause till they , ^ s^-^_^-/^ -_ i 

guns of the capital. g^ t. beauregarp. 

main army, were under th- 

BATTLE t ■^fXESSI NVILJ £, J43IES LSI 4ND b ( JUNf If JW I ^^ 1- r f A f > r 

I K\ mrsFHi! s I s) nt ( J'^ntM sri-\hNs 


NiCAK llu' lioundaiy 
(){ Kentucky and Ten- 
nessee, tlie two ii-reat 
rivers, the Cumberland 
and llie 'l\'nnessee, ap- 
proaeh within tweUe 
miles ot each cither. 
Here, at a bend in each 
ri\cr, the Confederates 
hail erected F<n-t Henry 
im llic 'I'ennessee, and 
l'"url Donelson iin the 
Cumberland, to com- 
maiul the rivers, and 
|iri-\i'nl IJK' advance ol 
lite Federals into these 
.States. These two forts, 
(Icnrial (iiant saw, 
were the 1se\ of the 
siluat \on. and he resol\ ■ 
ed III t.d^c them. A 
nax.-d and military ex- 
pedition was preiiared, and on l'\'brnary j, iSdj, Grant left Cairo with 
17,000 men in transports, and Flajj-ollicer h'oote aeeompanied him with 
seven gunboats. Fort Henry fell on Febrnary 7, and (Jrant tele- 
graphed to Washini;'ton, "1 shall taUe and destroy Fort Donelson on 
the Hlh." Ooncl-on was tlie stronfjest military work in the entire 
theatre ol wai'. It stood on a rnuiied and inaccessible series of hills, 
the country was denscl\ wooded, and all around the fioni ot the fort 
the timber had been lelled, anil the limbs cleaned and shaipened to 
ob.truet any .uhancc. .\ strong line of riHe-pits had been lornied, and 
detached batteries placed on eonniiandiuii' heights. It was a marvellous 
work, covering a hundred acres of ground, and garrisoned with 21,000 
men. On Febru;uy 14, the lleet commenced the action, hut after a tire 
of an hour and a half, the liagship S/. Loids and the iron-clad /.oiiisvillc 
were disabled, and drifted out of action. The lire ol the fort, which 
was rapid and accurate, now was concentrated on the rest of the tleet, 
the Caromkhl and the I'ilhhiiro; and compelled them to retire. Never 
were war vessels exposed to a more tremendous pounding than those 
four gunboats while the liglit lasted. The night of February 14 was an 
anxious one for both sides; the Confederates resolved to make a sortie. 


and next morning at 5 A.M, 10,000 inen under Generals Pillow and Buek- 
ner sallied forth, the former attacking the Federal right under General 
MeClernand, the latter prepared to fall on the centre under General 
W.allace. The charge was quick and furious, the whole Federal right 
gave way except the extreme left under General Logan, whose Illinois 
regiments stood lirm and pre\'ented a panic. MeClernand now called on 
Wallace for help, and so effectual was the aid he gave that the Con- 
federate forces were compelled to retire to their trenches. " I speak 
advisedly," wrote Grant's aide-de-camp to Wallace, " God bless j'ou ! 
You did save the day on the right." 

The Confederates were now shut up in the fort, and, at a pri\ate 
meeting at General Pillow's quarters, it was resolved to surrender. 
Floyd, who had been Secretary of War under President Buchanan, 
exclaimed, " I cannot surrender I You know mj' position with the 
I'^cdcrals. It won't do ! It won't do ! " Pillow then said : " I will not 
surrender myself or m\' command — I will die first." Then said Buek- 
ner, " I suppose, gentlemen, the surrender will devolve upon me." Then 
Moyd and Pillow resigned their commands, and Buckner, the third in 
rank, said : " 1 will accept and share the fate of my command." Within 
an hour Moyd and Pillow had Bed from the fort, and early next morn- 
ing, it was .Sunday, Buckner sent out his flag of truce to ask the appoint- 
ment of a commission to agree on terms of surrender. " No terms," was 
(irant's reply, "other than unconditional and immediate surrender can be 
accepted. I propose to mo\'e immediately on your works." Buckner, 
after protesting against these terms as " ungenerous and unchivalrous," 
gave \\\i the contest, and the Union flag soon floated over the captured 
lort. 'I he h\dcral loss was severe, about 2000 men; the Confederates 
lost 1200 men, beside 15,000 prisoners, 50 cannon, 3000 horses, 20,000 
stand of .irms, and a large quantity of stores. 

The rcsidts of the \ ictory were that the whole of Kentucky and 
Tennessee at once 
fell into the hands 
of the Federals. 
Nashville fell. 
Bowling Green 
was abandoned ; 
Columbus was 
evacuated, and the 
Mississippi was 
free fiom St. Louis 
to Arkansas. |,„^-,. ^p^.^,. 

liAZ'LLK OF WLNCUKJiTl-li, V]1(GI.MA.-'HAU';K Ot 'HOUKH KKJUTil COItP'o, Ti(K illfJHT. MAltCH 2f, 



€^mr^ ^ W - -' / 





On Fcbnuiry 15, 1862, Guiicnil Grant was assigned to the new military 
district of West Tennessee, and nt once began to concentrate liis forces to 
meet tlic new dispositions of tlic Confederates after tlic fall of Fort Don- 
elson. At the beginning of A|iril the main body of Grant's army was 
encamped on the 'l\'nnessee River, between Pittsburg Landing on the 
left bank, and Shiloli meeting-house. His object was to attack and seize 
Corinth. General Heauregard, with a l.-u'ge Confederate force, hastened 
towards Corinth, and joining the troops under (Jeneral A. S. Johnston, con- 
centrated a few miles from 
Shiloh. So stealthy had 
been their approach that 
they were within four 
miles of the Union forces 
before they were discov- 
ered. On April 5, at a 
Confederate council of 
war, Beauregard exclaim- 
ed, " Gentlemen, wc sleep 
in the enemy's camp to- 
morrow niglu ! " On the 
Union side. General liuell 
was marching up to join 
Grant ; General Sherman's 
division was near Shiloh, 
and between them and 
Pittsburg I^anding were 
the commands of Cicnerals 
Ilurlburt and Lew Wal- 

Before the dawn of da\' 
on Sunday, April 6th, 
the Confederates attacked 
Sherman's troops, and the 
soldiers of General Hardee po\ucd into the Union camp. Cieneral Prentiss' 
division, that lay across the road to Corinth, was next attacked, his col- 
umns shattered, many prisoners taken, and his camp oecuiiicd by the 
Confederates. For ten hours the b.ittlc raged with various fortunes, and 
with heavy loss to both armies, 'rhc ITnion army was pushed back to 
the rixer, and was gathered in the rear of the only camp unoccupied, 
that where General AfcArthur was in command. So certain was the Con- 
federate chief of triumph, that he telegraphed " Victory ! " to Richmond. 


The Union army was in a perilous position, the troops had been 
driven from point to point, and from ridge to ridge, and stood at bay on 
the bank. Here the gunboats Lexington and Taylor did good service, 
and under cover of their fire the Union array rallied, made a superb 
resistance, and again and again drp-\'e the enemy back. To aid the fire of 
the boats, a battery was hastily thrown up on the shore, and in the night 
Buell's armj' came up from Nashxille. Next morning Lew Wallace re- 
newed the fight by attacking the Confederate left under Beauregard, and 

the engagement soon be- 
came general. One of 
the most brilliant actions 
of the day was the recap- 
ture of our artillery by 
the Ohio regiment under 
General Rousseau. The 
Confederates fought gal- 
lantly, but were pushed 
back by a superior force, 
and in a storm of sleet and 
rain retired in the direc- 
tion of Corinth. 

The battle of Shiloli was 
a terrible one ; the Confed- 
erates lost over 10,000 
men, the Unionists over 
15,000. The slain on the 
battlefield were soon bur- 
ied, and the hospital ships 
sent down the Tennessee 
crowded with sick and 
maimed. The Confeder- 
ates fell back on Corinth, 
and General Grant was 
aboiU to iiursuc them, when General Ilalleck came up and took the chief 
conuuand. The fierceness of this battle proved that the struggle for the 
Union was to be a long and desperate one. " The more the Confederates 
were beaten, the harder they fought, and the loss of Donelson, the defeat 
of Shiloh, tlie capture of Nashville, made no perceptible effect on their 
resolution." On April 22 General Pope arrived at Pittsburg Landing 
with 25,000 men, and Halleck, with his army of ioS,ooo men, prepared to 
advance on Beauregard at Corinth. 

?r ^.IILIE I \IT1JIL1 T 1 lTTsJ;[ ];<; L.\:;htSi;, I;V TKC KUtST OflJO I'J/WMJ.NT UNUKH 'JKNJ.IUJ. UOL'SKKAIT, .■.I'KIJ, 7. imii 


Ai'TliK llu' biilllc cil CiniiK's' Mill, 111 I'nlil lliirbor, Ccnci-nlMcC'lcllnn'.s positicm held by McClcllnn's troops, nnd they had to recoil. But a new 

army on its relreal was allac-Ued by Ihr L'oiilederaU'S at Charles City line was soon formed, another assault was made with dauntless courage. 

Cross Roads, on Innc ,(<). lleaxy lifrhtinfi look plaie, and the Union " Come on, come on, my men !" cried the Confederate officer. " Do you 

army lost ten jjnns. The retreat, however, was continued till Malvern vv'ant to live forever ? " But in spite of their determined energy they were 

Mill was reached, where McCk'Uan resolved to give batllr. On llu' James again repulsed, and pursued by the brigades of Generals Meagher and 

River there is a bend named 'rnrhey Bond, and near it a blnff about sixty Sickles, who had come up in answer to Porter's summons. The gunboats, 

feet liigh, with a level .si^acc o( about a mile in breadth and a mile and a too, had done good service, sending such volleys of shot and shell that the 

half in len"'lh on its summit. All aninnd this high bit of ground were Confederates had to take shelter some distance to the rear. At 9 p.m. 

swamps and streams, so that il conkl only be entered by a narrow strip 
of firm groiuul cm the norlhwesl. The formation of the ground was 
well adapted (nr artillery, and he 
had disinised his guns ;ill along his 
front. There was plenty of shelli-r 
in some inequalities of the surface to 
protect the men, so that no intrench- 
nients were thrown up. Under or- 
dinary circumstances ordinary gen 
erals would ha\e hesitated to .attack 
•SO strong a position, so well defended, 
lint Lee and his men h.-id been \ ie- 
lorions in the Se\en Oays' Haltles, 
and were not to be daunleil by any 
thing they nu-l. 'I'heii lirsl attack 
i\ith yooo men and six guns tailed ; 
Ihe artillery of llie Union army 
kLioeked their liattery to pieces, 
while shells from the l^i^ion gun- 
boats in the ri\er drove back the 
infantry. On July 1, Lee attacked 
with his whole army. The nuuning 
was spent in an artiller)' duel, in which the Confeder.ite 

all th'ing ceased. The Union line, 
once broken or the guns in danger 


General Webb tells us, was never 
During the night McClellan with- 
drew to Harrison's Landing, and 
there all that remained of the Army 
of the Potomac encamped Jul}- 3. 

On the following day, Julj' 4, 
General McClellan issued an address 
to his soldiers, in which he said : 
" Soldiers of the Armj- of the Poto- 
mac, your achievements of the last 
ten days ha\-e illustrated the valor 
■and endurance of the American sol- 
dier. Attacked by superior forces, 
and without hope of reinforcement, 
you have succeeded in changing 
your base of operations b)' a flank 
mo\'emcnt, alwajs regarded as the 
most hazardous of militarj- expedi- 
ents. You have sa\-ed j'our material, 
all your train and all 3-our gims, 
except a few lost in battle, taking 

in return guns and colors from the 

latteries came enemy. Upon your march you have been assailed day after day with 

off second best ; in the afternoon the infantry attack was to be made, but, desperate fury by men of the same race and nation, skilfull\- massed 

owing to some misunderstanding, or to the fact that the \arious divisions and led. Under every disadvantaye of numbers, and necessaril}- of posi- 

of the Confederate army were separated 1\\- thick woods, instead of a tion also, you have in every conflict beaten back your foes with enormous 

general ad\anee of the whole line, there was a series of separate attacks, slaughter. Your conduct ranks you among the celebrated armies of his- 

The Confederate signal was to be a " yell " from General Ilnger's corps, tory. No one will now question that each of \ou ma}- alwa\-s with pride 

and General D. II. Hill, heariiig a loud shout, ruslied \ipon the divisions say, ' I belong to the Army of the Potomac ! ' " The Confederate loss at 

ȣ Couch and Porter, but, having no support, had soon to retreat. Then Malvern Hill is estimated at 5000 men; that of the Union army only 1600 

the Confederate brigades under Magruder and linger charged the Union men. The retreat of the l^nion army from its original position on the 

left, while ^f.ihone, Anderson, and Wright assaulted the right and centre. Chickahominy is usually known as the Seven Days', the total losses 

The dash of the Confederates was heroic, but powerless against the strong during the week being. Unionists, 15,000 ; Confederates, 19,000 men. 



In the summer of 185.; tlio Cim- 
fccU'ialo (lOvcrniiK'nt ordcrcil Guiioxal 
Li'i' lo :iltiick Wiishiiiflton. On 
Si'iili'mbiT 7 he WHS at Frederick, in 

the creek. The struggle had now 
lasted tweh-e to fourteen hours, and 
night brought the battle to a close. 
Both armies had suffered severel}' ; 

Maryland, and thence crossed over the the Nationals had lost 12,470 men, 
South Mountain into the valley of and MeClcUan estimated the Confcd- 

Anlietani (.'reek Tlie National ad- 
\anee Ihal hastened to give them bat- 
lie was led by General Burnside, who 
fought a desperate engagement at 
'Turner's (lap, September 14, in which 
(uMieral Krno was killed. On .Sep- 
tendier 1(1 llie C'lin- 
lederale array under 
(Uioii.n: li. M.ei.KuvN. hee held the heights 

near Sharpsburg, on 
the west side of Anlielani (.'reek ; bis position was well 
selected, and his llanks protected by the P<itomae \\ hieh 
here makes a bend ; in front of Sbarp.sburg was (ieneral 
Longstreel and 1). 11. Hill, with Hood's brigade on the 
left, and Jackson in reserve. On September 17 tieneial 
Hooker opened the bailie by allaeking the Confederal e 
lelt with iH,ooo men, Doubleday was on his right, MeaiK- 
on his left, and Rieketls in I he centre, while the enemy 
was led by Jackson. ManslieUl eame up lo 1 looker's aid, 

biU losl his life on I he 
lield ; lluee di\isions 
of Sumner's corps koi;kki 11 

were engaged, and 
wilb ihe aid of arliUery held ibcir 
ground, allbough Lee's steady advance 
arrested the National troops on their 
march to victory. Not till one o'clock 
e.M. was Riunside alile to carry out his 
orders to cross the creek, and not till 
three did he assault the ridge of Sharps- 
burg, and capture a Confederate bat- 
tery. Just then Cieu. A. V. Hill's di- 
vision hurried up fronv Harper's Kerry 
to Lee's assistance, resumed the offen- 
1110.MA; J, JACKS J.N- \" .'jtoncwoU"). sivc, aud dfovc BuHisidc back over 

crate loss at 20,000 ; it was probably 
much below that number. 

Anlietam may be fairly called a 
drawn battle ; Lee awaited an attack 
ne.\t day, and McClellan did not de- 
li\'er one. 


e cautiously said, " 'Vir- 
ginia is lost. Wash 
ington is menaced, 
Maryland invaded, 
the National eausecan 
affcn-d no risk of defeat." Thus Lee retreated without' 
molestation or pursuit to his native soil of 'Virginia. What 
was felt most bitterly by the Confederates was the want 
of sympathy for the Confederate cause in Marj-land. They 
had expected to be hailed as deliverers; they met only 

This campaign will always be held in memory as sup- 
plying a basis for Wbitticr's poem of " Barbara Frietchie." 
This tells how the old woman kept her Union Hag flying 
when Stonewall Jack- 

son rode into Freder- 
u Nil i.KE, ick. The staff was 

shot away, when the 
patriotic Barbara picked up the color: 

Fur out on the window sill. 

She shook it lorth with a roynl will. 
•• Sl.oot ! if you must, this old sjray head. 

But sixirc your country's Hag! " she said ; 

.\ shade of sadness, il blush of shame. 

Over the face of the leader came : 

ri>e nobler nature within him stirred 

To life at that woman's deed and word. 
" Wlio touches a hair of yon gray 

Dies like a dog ! March on ! " he said. 

\aA all day long through Frederick Street 

Sounded the tread of marching feet. 

.Ml day long that frte flag tossed 

Over the heads of the rebel host. 


fOI/JNKJ, _lIoHHI.SU.V (■flAJyjl.VfJ ON THK OLTWuKKS OF KOitT l>ONKIJ*fjN. KKUKtMitV J.'f, ;«*K. 


Jiiiw^i itfty > w^.t. . .-t .-y.-.-. 




JOHN A, M-Cl.l''UN \NMi 

In tlio spring of 1862 the chief 
(ihslniclioiiU) lhc(i-ce navij^ation of 
the Mississippi was llic Confederate 
work al Vielcsbin-i;'. Tliis town 
stands on a hi;;h liluff on llie easlein 
banl< of the river, wliere tliere is a 
bold Inrn in llie stream, and almost 
impregnable fortilieations bad been 
thrown. Admiral Farrajjut sailed 
npihe ii\er Ircun New Orleans, and 
iHi )iine ->() atlaeked the Confeder- 
ate forts, bnt did not elfeel anything, 
anil retired, U\il in the beginning;- 
cif iSd^ another attack was directed 
ajjainst the place, (icncral j. A. 
Mcl-'lcrnand toiik the command of 
the National forces in Jannary, and 
he and Admiral Porter on January 11 captured b'orl I lindman, on the 
Arkansas River. Meanwhile (icneral (irant had assembled liis army, 
and came down the ri\cr from IMcmpbis, and arrived in person at Youns^'s 
Point )annarv .'o, assinnini; connnand the ne\l day. tirant, lo <piote 
Admiral Porter's lansjnane, soon saw that Vicksbin;; conld not be taken 
by lookinj; at it from the other side of the river ; no force could land in 
front of this city, with its Ion;; lines of batteries on the hills and the water 
front ; there was no use attempting a llank attack, while the Confederate 
garrison under Cicneral I'cmbcrlon numbered |j,ooo men, and 
more w-cre with (icncral J. V.. John- 
ston at Jackson, within easy distance. 
Vicksbiirg moniUed 75 licavy guns 
and many hea\y ritfed tield-picecs. 
The naval forces under Porter had 
a busy time, and after tlicy bad run 
past the batteries at Yicksbnrg, 
Grant i>reparcd for vigorous ojicra- 
tions ; and in May, after two un- 
successful assaults, began a regular 
siege with the aid of the fleet. By 
the middle of June the place was 
invested, Sherman's corps was on 
the right, then came McPherson's, 
then Ord's on the left. Logan's 

iNrnR\n\\ iirxw ci n ci \nt and p^^niLRTON 

division of McPherson's corps 
was stationed on the Jackson 
road, and from this position a 
long sap was constructed to the 
large Confederate fort named 
Fort Hill. From the saji 1 
wire was driven under the fc 1 1 
thirty feet below the surfaiL 
On June ->5 the mine firtd 
the (ml was hmled into the 
air, a desperate encountci, 
iMidcr (icncral Leggctt, took 
place in the cone-shaped cavity i^>^^gZv^^'J^ 
which the explosion had left , 
and the struggle continued all 

night and part of the next day. Porter, meanwhile, had rendered active 
aid on the river, the gunboats were in turns throwing shells day and 
night, and the mortars kept up an incessant fire. The inhabitants liad 
sought shelter in caves in the clay hills on which the city stands, and 
lived there for weeks ; famine had begun to afflict them ; nnde-tlesh was 
eaten, and the trials and privations of the besieged Confederates can only 
be described by those who took part in them. With the capture of Fort 
Hill the Confederate citadel had fallen, and the guns which General 
IMcl^berson had mounted on its ruins commanded most of the works. 
'■ \\'hcn they opened Hre the requiem of Vicksburg was rung by the shriek- 
ing shells as they Bcw through the air, carrying death and destruction." 

Other mines directed against 
- other parts of the Confederate forti- 
fications were made ready, but even 
the bravest and most skilled of the 
Confederate leaders saw that further 
resistance was useless, and on July 4, 
I «6,:i, General Pemberton, despairing 
of aid from Johnston, surrendered the 
great stronghold to General Grant. 
This \ ictory, taking place on the very 
dav when the birthday of the Nation 
is celebrated, was everywhere re- 
garded as an omen of success for 
the Union cause. The number of 
SKu-.K OF VICKSBURG. mcu suncndcd was 27,000. 

>i.U-HXGS HEIUHIS.-Of.NEKAL 6H.V0LAIJ WUO.ift I^lilVlNO lUE W^ir.l:t.ltltTllli J l.v.l lUt HILL. Jl.LV 


At 1]k' iH'.niiiniii},' of IIk' siimmrf of iS()2, New OrK'ans ami llio mouth 
of 11k' Mississippi wnv in posscssiiiii o( llu' I'"i'cUt:iI Irnops, wlio also liclil 
Ihf ii\iT from St. 1 -niiis lo Memphis, iiml oi-ciipii'il soiilli- 
cni 'I\miih'ssih'. 'I'lic " Army of llic ( "iimliciland," as llic 
National army in llial Slalr was nami'd, was rommaiulnl 
by (JL'noral Kosi'iaans, anil (owanls llu' rnil ol ihr yi-ar 
was iiiDviMij; sonlhwaril from Naslnillr towarils Mm-fi-i'cs- 
boroiifjli, wlu'rc CuMU'i-al Mra,u'!;' anil llii' (.'onft'ili'ialc foivi'S 
were lyinj;. On 1 VccnibiM- ji), pivpaialions for a baltif 
wort' maili' by bolli iiarlii's, and on 1 X'lvmbi'r ji, Ilii' allai'U 
WHS begun by tlio (.'ojifi'ilcrati's. 'I'lii' weaihrr was foi;i;y' 
anil llu' National troops wen- somi-wliat laUiai bysnrprisi-. 
The ontiri' front was assanlti'il at oiu'i', anil tlio t-'onfcik'rali' 
columns foiif^hl with sui-li lau'iny anil ilotormination tlial 
thoy .speedily i'a|itmvd two batteries and foreed the l'"eil. 
cral troops baik : it wasouh b\ the most hetoie eflorls 
of our soldiers that the onset was stayed. The ohjeel ol this day's ti^ht 
was 1:0 turn Roseerans' ri};ht llanU; the (."onfederates lost .|ooo n\en killed 

and wounded, and captured 3000 
h'^leral troops and \i cannon. 
Roseerans decided to continue the 
liyht next day, and in the afternoon 
of January 1, iSi^j, when nioreix'in- 
foivcnients came up, he sent scxeral 
brigades across Stone River to 
occupy a strong position on an em- 
inence i\car the upper ford, while 
other forces were stationed east of 
the Nashville Railroad, with Gen- 
eral Negley's force as a reserve in 
the rear. Early in the morning of 
January J.the Confederates opened 
tire from fotu" batteries that they 
had erected during the night, but, 
after a tierce artillery duel, the Fed- 
eral guns silenced them. About 3 p.m. the great attack by the Confed- 
erates began b)- troops under General Breckenridge, artillery inider Rob- 
ertson, and cavalry under Pegram. The attack was so forn\idabte that the 
first Federal line ga\-e wa)', its reserve of Ohio and Kentuck\- regiments 
look its place, but after a severe struggle the Federals were conipelled to 
withdraw across the ri\er. On the opjiosite bank of Stone Ri\er sixt\- 


guns were jiosted, and were worked with, such deadlj- vigor that in less 
than an hour Breckinridge lost more than one-third of .his entire force. 
Three fresh Federal brigades were now sent to the front, 
and the batteries on both sides being massed, the slaughter 
was dreadful, the dead and wounded lying scattered on 
scores of acres. At one time, so dauntless were the two 
armies', that it seemed as if both would be destroyed. At 
L-ngth the Federal line of se\en regiments were ordered 
lo charge. The 78th Pennsylvania, Col. Stillwell, led the 
way, followed by the iSth, 21st, and 74th Ohio, the nth 
Michigan, the 19th Illinois, and 37th Indiana regiments. 
Charge after charge was made, and gallantl}' repulsed by 
the Confederates, till General Negley brought up the 
reserxes, charging across the river, and they, supported 

KiNKinr.F. l\v Stanley's cavalry, turned the fortune of the day. On 

they swept with irresistible force ; the Confederate right 

wing was the lirst to gi\c way, ;ind retreated on Lj-tle's Creek ; tlicn 

the centre broke, and when night fell on the deadly struggle, the entire 

Confederate line had been dri\en 

back lo the front of ISIurfrees- 

borough. The night was dark 

and a hea\y rain-storm poured 

down, preventing Roseerans from 

following up the retreating eneni}-. 

Hui during the night, and in spite of 

the storm, which continued all the 

next day, January 3, General Crit- 

tenilen's entire corps was sent ^g^ 

across Stone Ri\-er, new entrench- 6^^^ 

ments thrown up, and all prepaia- ^" 

tions made to renew the struggle. 4 

No movement was made on either ] 

side, till on Sunday, January 4, it : 

was found that the Confederates 

had retreated to Tullahoma and 

Shelbyville, and Murfreesborough was occupied by the Federal forces on 

the following dav. This battle was one of the most determined and 

eii»ally sustained battles of the war. and victory gave to the Federals a 

\ast and important frontier. The total loss on the Union side was about 

12,000 men ; the Confederate loss was reported at 10.000, although more 

than 2000 wounded were left b\- them in the hospitals of Murfreesborough. 


Aptkr tlic fall of Vifksbiii-f,' and Poi-1 lliulson, General Shci-man sug- had been compelled to bridge many bayous. When he arrived within 

o'csted to Admiral F'orler ihal an expodilion be sent up the Red River, three miles of the fort, the report came that a strong force would dispute 

and in February, 1864, (ienei'al Hanks discussed with the Admiral the his passage. General Mower at once formed his men for an attack, 

question of a joint naval and military cxpeililion up that river. At the The first line under Colonel W.J. Shaw, 14th Iowa Infantrj', was com- 

same time an army under (iieneral Steele entered the State of Arkansas, posed of the 13th and 32d Iowa and the 3d Indiana Batterj^ The space 

reached Little Rock early in March, and arrived at Arkadelphia, March between the fort and the Union army was obstructed with fallen trees, 

29. 'I'lu' na\.-il \cssels destined to ascend the river assembled on March and a wood to the left afforded cover to sharpshooters. It was then 

10, and on the 1 ilh General A. J. Siuilh arrived with 10,000 soldiers in 4 p.m., and although the troops had been marching all da)' they came up 

transports. The movenunl up llie river began 
on the r .'th, the licet of gunboats leading the way, 
and Ilie transports following them. News ol the 
intended advance had, of course, reached the Con- 
federates, and they set zealously to work to ob- 
struct the progress of the I'Vderal licet and army. 
Near a bend of the ri\er, named " The Rap]iiones," 
they erected a series of works conuuanding the 
channel of the stream, and ]ilnced formidable ob- 
structions to iircNcnt Ihe ad\aiu'c of the gunboats. 
These obslruclions, consisting of deep lines of iiiles 
driven into the nuuUl) boHuni of the ri\cr, with 
rafts of timlier and a loresl o( trees liacking them 
up, seemed iiupassable. It was, writes Admiral 
I'orler, a Ilerctdean job, but the energetic sailors 
had had loo nuich experience in the strange epi- 
sodes of the Civil War to quail before such oli- 
st.-u-les. The piles near the banks wei'c first remo\ eil 
and the rush of water carried away the sides of 
the bank, the iron-clads flung themselves like rams 
on other parts of the boom, and in twelve horns a 
passage was cleared. Before this attack on the 
boom, General Smith had landed his forces and had 
adxanced to the vicinity of Fort de Russy ; there the Jursfpor/, Ostroc, 
Fort Hiiidiiian, and Crhh't joined him, and there was qtiite a brisk 
firing of artillery and small arms, but the gunboats coidd not take part in 
the skirmish without endangering the co-operating troops. A loo-pmuid 
rifle shell was fired at the water battery and burst o\er it. driving the enemy 
out; but to have continued the lire, the Admiral writes, >qion the main fort, 
would ha\'e injured friends more than foes. Fort de Russy was originally 
garrisoned with 5000 men under General Walker, but he had marched 
out to meet the army under General Smith, leaving only 300 men to 
defend the fort. General Smith's advance had been toilsome, and his men 


fresh to the task. Part of the Iowa forces were 
deploj'ed as skirmishers to within 300 3-ards of the 
works, occupying some rifle-pits which had been 
thrown up bj' the Confederates, and did great 
execution during the fight. Meanwhile the 58th 
Illinois, 8th Wisconsin, and 29th Iowa came up 
from the rear ; the fire from the fort all this time 
was rapid, but did little execution, and after a two 
hours' e-Kchange of shots all of General Smith's 
forces got into position. They advanced and carried 
the works without difficulty, capturing 24 officers, 
275 men, and 10 pieces of artillery. 

" It was pleasant," writes Admiral Porter in his 
account of the operations, " to see the United 
States flag floating o\'er a work which had been 
built with so much trouble and expense to the 
Confederates, and the Navy regretted that it could 
not take a more important part in the affair." Gen- 
eral Smith remained a few days to destroy the 
works of Fort de Russy. They were as strong 
as an}- ever built by the Confederacy. After 
3000 pounds of powder had been exploded, there 
remained three huge excavations, while the whole 

vicinity was strewn with broken timbers and twisted iron, presenting a 

scene more easily imagined than described. 



MAItCII lii, 18M. 


Till! Confederate army was 
iHvi-r nunc complete in mini- 
Ihts, ciiiiipmciit, aiul discipline 
lliiui in the summer of 1H63. 
The Confederiio)' had 500,000 
men on its army rolls, and 
300,000 tit for duty, and elated 
by success at ChanccUorsville, 
it ordered T>ee to invade Marj- 

land a second time. The Army of the 
I^otomac, which was estimated at 100,000 
strong, was now under the command of 
General Meade, and had nearly as 
many under his orders. On June 8 the 
(.'ontcdeiate corps under l.ongstreet and 
ICwcU had been at Culpc\HM', where they 
met ]. K. U. Stuart's cavalry; onjunc 

10 Ewell had crossed the Blue Ridsje into hknkr.m. stuart. 

the Shenandoah \'aUey, and on June 13 

was before Winchester. The Union forces had swept out of the \aUcy, 

and a body of cavalry under the Confederate leader, Jenkins, crossed the 

Potomac and entered the town of Chambersburg on June 15. The bridges 

of the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad were destroyed, and requisitions made 

on the rich farmers of Pennsyh ania. 

On June iS General Meade had been placed in command of the Union 

forces. By this time the troops of Generals Ewell, Longstrcct, and Hill 

were encamped near Chambersburg, and their advance on June 26 was were repulsed with hea\y loss, 

in Gettysburg. Lee was preparing to cross the Susquehanna when he The Union loss in killed. 

on hearing of his death, sent General Hancock to the scene of action. The 
report he made of the position induced Meade to give battle next da}- 
under General Sickles, who fell severely wounded. 

At 4 P.M. Lee opened fire with a terrible cannonade and an attack on 
the Union left. The Nationals met the assault steadily, but were about 
to be pushed back when General Warren seized a height called Little 
Round Top, and drove the enemy down the hill. On the right the Con- 
federates did not attack till sunset, when the)- took possession of Culp's 
Hill. Next day, June 3, the strife began again, and the Nationals under 
Geary, after a four hours' contest, recovered Culp's Hill. Then 
a pause ensued, till at i p.m. Lee's 1 50 guns broke the silence. The 
cannonade was replied to on the Union side, but perhaps this artillery 
duel had not much direct effect on the fortunes of the day. When 
it ceased, the Confederates, preceded by a cloud of skirmishers, 
swept over the plain and assailed the Union line. The struggle 
was a terrible one. Pickett's di\-ision of Longstreet's corps dashed 
forward with such impetuosity as to gain the crest of Cemetery 

Ridge, the key of Hancock's 
position, but there they were re- 
pulsed, cut down, and broken, 
while Hancock' was severely 
wounded, and .had to turn his 
command over to Gibbens. Pet- 
tigrew's North Carolina di\-ision 
fled in disorder, and Hood in vain 
strove to turn the flank of the 
Nationals at Little Round Top. 


Then a vigorous charge of the Federal 
line was hurled at the enemv, and thcv 


was at South Motuitain, and on Jul)- i Buford's cavalry came into conflict wounded on the field, lost 1 3,000 prisoners, 
with the Confederate advance. General Rcvnolds, who hmried to l?u- and perhaps had killed, wounded, and 
ford's aid, fell dead on the field as he was leading on his men; anil Meade, missing some 12,000 men. 



In June, 1S62, tl.e National forces, under General (i. B. MeClcIlan, were LVanklin's eorps I, 

on the Chiekaho 

ommy River, their numbers being 92,500 men. The posi- 
tion of the army was not a good one, and the General del 
his base. His heav 

etcrniined to ehango 

vy guns were sent across the ChieUahominy River and 

on the morning of June 27, General Fitzjohn Porter had iH,ooo infantry. 

then in Rielniiond, which 

ps, lor lie was afraid ni In'in;; aihickcil |,y 

Magruder's army, 
iich heoslinialr,] iniiinnimi men, wliile'it 
really was only 25,000, 'I'he I,,mII|c eonlinncd l( 
and retaken as the lide 
spatehed the brigades ol Meagher and Kiehard.son the ri^v, lo 

III r.agc, guns were taken 
balllc ebbed, and llowed, and MeUellan de- 

2500 artillerymen, and a weak body of cavalry to meet the Confeder-ite^' IW."V , ""^'"^;,"' ""'''K"^'"- and Ku'hard.son aero,Ks the ri,v, I. 


the Chickahomin)' to the 

James River, and to carry 

the siege guns, and he 

arranged his troops on 

a rising ground near 

Gaines' Mills, between 

Cold Harbor and the 

Chickahominy. About 2 

P.M. the Confederate Gen- 
erals A. P. Hill and Long- 
street began the fighting 
by an attack on Porter's 
centre. The struggle here 
lasted for two hours, and 
resulted in the defeat of 
the Confederates with 
heavy loss. At this period 
Stonewall Jackson's men 
appeared on the scene of 
battle. A resolute attempt 
was then made on all parts 
of General Porter's line. 
The Confederates were 
sheltered by thick woods, 
where the_\- could form and 

advance, while the Federals had only slight breastworks to protect tncm. known by the title given it here, of the 
1 h^'-'- ._.... 

le shatlered eohimns fall- 
"i;; li:i(lv in di,s()rder, when 
ilii'sr ni'w Iroops gave 
llic'iii i'oiir;if.-c I,, ]-i.|ii-e 
ill Ih'IIci' liirni. Purler 
losi J.! giin,s .•iiul Hooo 
iiii'ii, Ihr C'cin(rdrr;ile loss 
ua;, :iliiiiil 5"i'". The 
Nalional aiiny, or its re- 
in;iiiis, crossed the river in 
ilii'iiigliland destroyed the 
ind on the ne.xt 
il.i V iiioM'd (liivvii lo Tur- 
I ' y Heiul, on the James 
\'er. (Jeneral Kej-es led 
I lie way, followed by Por- 
ter's shattered corps. ,'\nd 
so skilfully was the move- 
ment masked that General 
i-ee was completely de- 
ceived, and not till the 
evening of June 28 did he 
know that " 'I"he Army of 
I lie Potomac " was moved 
lo a new position. 

This battle, usually 
•attle ol Gaines' Mill," is 

ese were not much use, for the men at this early period of the war had called by the Confederates the " Battle of the Chickahominy." Two 

not learned how to intrench themselves as they did afterwards. The battle years later it was the scene of a battle between Grant and Lee. This, 

was a very fierce one; the Confederates advanced with their famous yell, battle was followed on June 30 by that of Charles City Cross Roads. 

to which the Federals replied by their Union cheer. Porter was hard and on July i McClellan made his last stand at Malvern Hill, and his 

pressed, and sent a message to McClellan, who was on the opposite side withdrawal from this next day ended the Seven Days' Retreat, during 

o the river, to help him: but >rcClelIan sent only Slocum's division of which 15,000 Nationals and 10,900 Confederates had fallen. 


V, in 1864, was llu- Union depot for tlic great campaigns in was going on at tlie left o£ the line, the Union right was advancing, and, 

Tennessee and Georgia, and was lield by General Thomas. Thither liad under cover of the fog, General Smith's divisions of the Sixth Corps 

been gathered reinforeements from St. Louis, convalescents and furloughed and Wilson's cavalry fell on the Confederate left, and drove in their 

menh-om Chattanooga, and bodies of detached troops of all sizes and from pickets. The dismounted cavalry under General Hatch came upon a 

all (piarlers, and in early Deeeniber tlie General had 50,000 men ready for redoubt with four guns ; they took it, and turned the guns upon the 

a defensive or offensive "campaign, ll may be well to recall to our readers' enemy ; then, without pausing, they captured another redoubt with four 

minds that General Sherman had occupied Atlanta in tlie beginning of guns, and drove the Confederates back towards the Franklin pike road. 

September, and dm-ing lliat month iuul October had been preparing for Tlie Confederate centre, with its strong post at iS'fontgomery Hill, was 

his "March to the Sea," which began on November 15. Before this charged by Post's brigade of Beatty's third division, the position turned, 

great march began it was suggested to Sherman that Hood's army ought and many prisoners taken. Then all the Union forces were drawn up 

to be first destroyed, but as pursuit of this force b\' Union troops from in connected line, a second line of Confederate works was carried by the 

Atlanta would saeriliee all the)' had Fourth Corps under General Wood, 

gained ill territory, it was deemed and nightfall only stopped the pur- 

wisest In leave Thomas to take care 
of 1 lodd. 'I'lie latter liad been try- 
ing to hire Sherman away from At- 
lanta, and when he found tliat Sher- 
man was not the man who could be 
thus induced to surrender the prize 
of the long 

crate General turned to Nasliv ille, 
hoping to crush Thomas while he 
was still organizing his army. Late 
in November I lood encountered Gen- 
eral SehotieUl at Franklin, and as 
the Confederate force outnumbered 
his, the latter fell back on Nasli- 
ville. On December 2 the Confed- 
erate General 1 lood liad invested tlie 
city on its southern, southeastern, 
and soutluveslein sides, and thrown up three lines of breastworks ; his in- 
fantry had its right at Nolensville pike, and extended to Hillsboro' pike, 
where the left \ny; he blockaded the Cumberland River by batteries on the 
shore, so that the only source of supply for the Union army was the Louis- 
ville road. Hood was waiting till tlie ri\er fell so that his ea\alrv could 
cross ; Thomas was busy in reorganizing and remounting his cavalr\- ; 
and so time passed till December 1 5, when the Union anii\- adxanced from 
its entrencliments, hidden b\' a hea\y fog. At daybreak. General Steed- 
man, with tliree brigades, of which two were colored troops, drove in 
• the Confederate pickets, and a gallant attempt was made to take tlieir 
earthworks, but the ass.-uilt was repulsed with severe loss. While this 


suit. This first day's captures were 
1200 prisoners, 16 guns, 40 wagons, 
and man)' small arms. Tliomas tele- 
graphed, " 1 shall attack the enemy 
to-morrow if lie stands to fight ; if 
he retreats during the night I will 
campaign, the Confed- pursue him." 

The afternoon of December 16 
was well advanced when the decisive 
instant came. The attacking col- 
umns of Union troops under Wood's 
command were formed, and ad- 
Aanced under a tremendous fire of 
grape up to the Confederate breast- 
works at 0\erton. But there the 
Confederate reserves poured into 


them a deadly volley, and the charg- 
ing line recoiled and fell back, " lea\-ing its dead and wounded, white and 
black indiscriminately mingled," on the slope. Smith and Schofield mean- 
while had fallen on the Confederate centre and left, " carrying all before 
tlieiu and breaking his line in a dozen places." The Fourth Corps had now 
had time to reform, and again assaulted the works at Overton. This time 
nothing could resist them, and in spite of the dreadful rain of fire poured on 
them, they won the crest of 0\erton Hill, and drove the occupants out in 
utter rout, along the Franklin road. The pursuit continued for miles, till 
night fell on the scene of carnage. The Confederates lost 4500 prisoners, 53 
guns.^ In the whole series of battles between September 1S64, and January 
301 1865, Thomas captured 13,185 prisoners, 72 guns, and many battle-flags. 


IHE BATTLE OF COLD HAEEOR. VIEGINU. THE ElfiilTiit.NTil Cylll-S KUIVINfJ LO-N'OSTlitCTd loilCtS I I: ...1 Illhlj: iji^f LLNE Ul' KIFLE-I'ITS, JUNE 1, 1S«. 


/VTLANTA, the "Gate City of the 
South," the door of Georgia, had an ad- 
mirably protected situation, and was a 
i^rcat depot and worksliop for the Con- 
fuderale Government. Here were arse 
nals, (cnuuhies, furnaces, rollin^-mi 
factories, all busy in supplying munitions 
of war to the Southern armies. It was 
necessary for the Union forces to attack 
and capture this stronghold of the encm)'. 
•General Sherman 
- was in command of 
the Division of the 
Mississippi, and had 
wilhhinithe "Army 
of the Cunibcrlaiul," General Thomas; the "Army 
of the Tennessee," General Mcl'licrson ; and the 
" Army of the Ohio,'' (icneral Scholicld ; amounling 
to about 100,000 men. They were confronted b)- 
58,000 men under General Joseph \\. Johnston, ar- 
ranged in three corps commanded by Generals liar 
dee, Hood, and Polk. Slierman by a succession of 
flank movements compelled ll\cm to leave AUatoona 
Pass, abandon Kenesaw, and evacuate Marietta. At 
this time the eautio\is Johnston was superseded by 
the Confederate (nnernmenl, and J. U. Hood, a dasli- 
ing, hghling olVieer, \ilaced in command. Towards 
the middle of July the eventful day approached. On 
Jvdy 2.;, 1S64, an attack was directed on Sherman's 
rear, but re\nilsed. During this contest MePherson 
was killed, and Cleneral Logan succeeded him. " Gen- 
eral Logan," so writes an eye-witness, "on that famous black stallion 

Hood's brilliant attack began. Six times they advanced, six times tliey 
were repulsed, in a succession of charges from noon to 4 p.m. At no 
period during this hard-fought battle did the temporary lulls in the fight- 
ing exceed at any time fifteen minutes. The front of the battle extended 
for nearly seven miles. The Confederate General Hardee broke the 
Us, and Federal lines, but his charge was finally cheeked, and General Hood 
claimed that the result was beneficial, and improved the courage and 
feeling of his troops, and defeated the Federal attacks on his line of com- 
munications. The battle was a desperate one, and when the Confeder- 
ates withdrew towards Atlanta, the Federal loss was over 3,000 men, 
and the Confederate loss was larger. The death of 
the Union leader, General McPherson, took place 
just as the battle opened. General Sherman relates 
that while they were talking at head-quarters, the 
sound of artillery was heard, and that McPherson, 
having sent off all his staff with orders to support the 
points attacked, set off alone to cross a wooded val- 
ley which he thought safe. The first news of his fate 
was the appearance of his horse, wounded and rider- 
less. General Sherman remained quiet a few days, 
but on July 27 the battle of Ezra Church took place. 
During .the conflicts before Atlanta in the month of 
June, the Confederate loss was 8,841, the Federal loss 
9,719, not including the cavalry losses. On both 
sides the highest courage was displayed, and the sol- 
diers, whether in 
the blue of the Union, 
or the gra)' of the 
Confederacy, exhib- 
ited maginficent val- 
or and endurance. 
Sherman, however, was the superior of 


of his, became a flame of fire and fury, yet keeping' a wondrous method in Hood in generalship, and under his 

his inspired madness. He was everywhere, his horse covered with foam, leadership the tide of Federal success 

himself hatless and begrimed with dust, giving sharp orders to oflicers steadily continued. Hood drew off his 

as he met them, and planting himself firmly in front of fleeing columns, troops, and on September 2, i86j., the 

revolver in hand, and threatening in tones not to be misunderstood to fire Union troops marched into Atlanta, and 

into the advance if they did not instantly halt and form in order of bat- the Stars and Stripes flung out its folds 

tie." Then the broken ranks reformed, the battle was renewed in order over the coiut-house. On November 

and with fury— a tempest of thunder and fire— a hailstorm of shot and 14, Atlanta was in flames, and Sherman 

shell. Hardly had Logan's corps time to throw up earthworks than started on his march to the sea. 






Aftfr the battle of Chiel<a,uiu>t,'a, the clepartments known as those of command crossed shortly after, and the action became general. Ram was 

the Oliio ihc Cnn,berland, and the Tennessee were united to form the falling, but his men climbed upwards, clearing away, as they went the 

Division of the Mississippi, and on October 23, 186,,, its commander. Gen- obstructions placed by the Confederates, and disappeared m a belt ot cloud 

eral Grant, arrived at Chattanooga. The city, though no longer in a state that hung around the mountain. Onward the Union troops pressed till they 

of" siecre vvas menaced by the Confederate 'force under General Bragg, reached the summit, driving the enemy from his strongest positions, and 

'^ ' ■ ' ■ juns and prisoners. This 

His centre stretched across the valley of 
Chattanooga, while his Hank rested on 
Lookout Mountain and Missionary Ridge, 
the whole forming a line twelve miles long, 
well entrenched for the most part of this 
distance. Grant resolved to attack Bragg, 
for, as General Sherman had arri\ed, he 
had at his disposal men. I le placed 
Sherman on the left with orders to attack 
Bragg 's right and capture the heights of 
Missionary Ridge. To divert allonlion 
from Sherman's movements, (ieneral 
Thomas had, on November 23, seized and 
fortified Orchard Knob, in front of Mis- 
sionary Ridge, and Hooker was onlered 
next day to fall on Bragg's left at Look- 
out Mountain, while Sherman crossed the 
Tennessee River above Chattanooga. On 
the day named Sherman passed his army 
across the ri\er by two bridges which he 
had built on the night of November J,j, 
but met with unexpected ditViculties as he 
advanced. Hooker, on his part of the 
line, moved with vigor against the wooded 
steeps of Lookout Mountain, a height that 
seemed impregnable. His advance was 
checked by the necessity of building a 
bridge over Lookout Creek, and, while 
this was being done, he sent General Geary 
to effect a landing at Wauhatchce. A 
dense mist enabled Geary to reach the 
creek, and fall on the Confederate pickets, and a lively skirmish took place 
before the alarm was given to the Confederate General Stexenson. A 
second bridge was soon built by the Federal soldiers, by which Generals 
Wood and Geose crossed to join Geary's force, while the artillery was 
placed to cover the preliminary movements. The remainder of Hooker's 

taking many 

action became known as " Hooker's Battle 
above the Clouds," and at night the out- 
lines of his battalions were seen crossing 
the disk of the rising moon. The Confed- 
erates fled down the northern slopes of the 
mountain and joined General Bragg on 
Missionary Ridge. Next morning, as the 
sun rose, the Stars and Stripes were float- 
ing from Pulpit Rock, the crest of Look- 
out Mountain. On November 25, it was 
the plan of General Grant to send Hooker 
and his men across the Chattanooga valley 
and attack Bragg at Missionary Ridge. 
"But the Confederates on their retreat had 
broken down some bridges, which caused 
a delaj' of several hours in Hooker's ad- 
vance. During this time Bragg was mass- 
ing troops to fall on Sherman, and this 
his wing naturally 
Grant resohed to 
send forward the Union centre under Gen- 
eral Thomas without waiting any longer 
for Hooker to come up. General Thomas s 
sent forward under the leader- 
and Wood. 

troops to tall on 
gathering of men on 
weakened his centre. 


men were 

ship of Generals Sheridan 
They took the f^rst line of Confederate 
works without difficulty, and followed the 
■^ -■ whieh 

retreating enemy to a second line, 

they also took and thus reached the sum- 

, , mit, sweeping all before them. 

I" these battles the National loss was about 6000 men, the Confederates, 

10,000, of whom 6000 were prisoners, and 42 guns. In the President's lette. 

to Grant he thanked him and his men for their skill and bravery, and Con- 

■ th suitable emblems. 

gress ordered a 
devices, and 

_old medal to be struck for him, 



In March, 1864, General Grant assumed command of all the armies of 
the United States, and at once reorganized the Army of the Potomac, 
amounting to 140,000 men. On May 4, his headquarters were at Culpep- 
er ; on that <.h\y lie set his army in motion, and hefcno night all his troops 
had crossed llie Rapidan. His line of march led thrmigh the Wilderness, 
a dreary region co\ered with scrnlvoalcs and thick underwood, intersected 
by numerous cross-roads, and where it was dilTicult to use artillery. 
Lee resolved to stop the advance of the Ihiionisls, and on May 5 tlic bat- 
tle began. Grant wriles : " The battle raged furiously all day, the whole 

army being brought into the 
fight as fast as the corps 
could be got upon the field, 
whicli, considering the den- 
sity of tlie forest and the 
n.'irrowncss of the roads, was 
done with commendable 
prouipliludc." The fight- 
ing continued till late in the 
cNcning witho\it material 
athantagc for either party. 
Next morning the contest 
was renewed, over a line of 
seven miles from Sedg- 
wick's right to Hancock's 
left. The assaidts of the 
Confederates were furious, 
but were gallantly met, and 
when night again descended 
the two armies were in 
nearly the same position 
tliey liad occupied the even- 
ing before. The total loss in the two days' battles was on the Union 
side 15,000, on the Confederate about 10,000. The chief part of the fight- 
ing on the Union side was done by Hancock's command, and on the Con- 
federate side by Longstreet's di\ision. On the second day, I lancock, push- 
ing forward into the dense tliickel, met the two dixisions of Hill, and, 
" after a desperate contest, in which our troops conducted themselves in 
the most intrepid manner, the enemy's line was broken at all points, and 
he was driven in confusion through the forest for almost one and a half 
miles, suffering sex'cre losses in killed, wounilcd, and prisoners." But bv 
this time the Union line had lost its formation in the tangled wilderness. 


and a halt was made in order to reform the line. The two hours thus spent 
enabled the remaining divisions of Hill's corps to come up, and Longstreet's 
column was reported as approaching. General Lee placed himself at the 
head of the Texans, and ordered a charge; but a " grim and ragged " sol- 
dier of the line raised his voice in protest at their coinmander thus risking 
his life, and Lee had to return to his proper place at the rear. The Con- 
federate line was now inflexible, and Hancock's advance at 9 a.m. was fu- 
tile. Till noon there was a pause, then a burst of musketry announced the 
Confederate adx'ancc, and Hancock, unable to hold his position, had to rally 
and reform behind 
his breastworks. 
General Wadsworth 
fell, mortally 
wounded, as he 
strove to arrest the 
fugitives. It looked 
as if victory would 
favor the Confeder- 
ates, but at the criti- 
cal moment their at- 
tack ceased. Long- 
street, who had 
planned the action, 
had been wounded 
by a volley from 
his own men. " I 
thought," Long- 
street said after- 
wards, " that we had 

another Bull Run on ,,,^ 

you." His fall fi-us- "" ""''° "•"""'' "■"»' 

trated the execution of liis plan. Not till after 4 p.m. did the Confederates 
renew their attack, and ad\ance up to the Union breastwork. Then a 
strange thing happened. The wooden breastwork took tire, and the 
intense heat and dense smoke made the LTnion troops cease firing, and 
some of the Confederates reached the breastwork and placed their colors 
on It. Then Carroll's brigade ad\anced at the double-quick, retook the 
breastwork, and forced tlie enemy to fall back with heavy loss. 

Thus closed the battle of the Wilderness, " one of the strangest battles 
ever fought," writes William Swinton ; " a battle which no man could see, 
and whose progress could only be followed by the ear." 



Chickamauga is the name of a small creek in 'rcnnessce, and the 
word is said to mean in the Indian ton},'ue, " The River of Death." A 
fitting name (or the scene of the bloody struggle that took place on its 
banks on September 19 and 20, 18(13. While Grant w.-is before Vieks- 
bm-g,the Federal General Roscerans and the Confederate General Bragg 
were watching each other near Mnrfrcesborougb, Tennessee, both unwilling 
to make any grand m<)\-ement. When Rosecrans did at length move, he 
succeeded iii compelling Bragg to fall back on Chattanooga. A brilliant 
piece of strateg\-, which led the Confederates to 
believe that Rosecrauswasabout to invadeCJeor- 
gia, forced Bragg to .-diandon Chalnooga and to 
fall back on Lafayette, and then, afler a week of 
careful feeling about for each other's presence, 
the two armies stood face to face on each side of 
the creek of Chickamauga. Each line extended 
towards the heights of Missionary Ridge. 
Rosecrans had about 55,000 men, and Bragg, 
when he had been joined by Longstrect on the 
night of September 18, had 70,000 men at 
his disposal. The Federal troops were facing 
southeast, the Confederates faced northwest, 
but during the battle both lines became broken 
and bent. General Thomas held the left of 
the Federal position, and MeCook the right. 
General Bragg began the attack on the morn- 
ing of September 19. He had been able to 
see from the mountain heights wliat arrange- 
ments General Rosecrans was making, and 
knew therefore what he had to expect. 

The Confederate army achanced conlidently 
over Chickamauga Creek, which they crossed 
without opposition. The fiercest fighting, how- 
ever, took place on the spot where General Thomas was posted, and against 
him the troops of General Leonidas I'olk were directed. 15ut Thomas, 
though noted for the stubbornness with which he could tight to the most 
desperate straits, did not wait quietly for the enemy ; he struck out un- 
expectedly whenever an opportunity offered. The fight became furious. 
Brigades ad\anced and were driven back, reformed, advanced, and again 
repulsed. Batteries were taken and retaken, regiments sliattered, and 
many prisoners taken on both sides. But, in spite of all his gallantrv. 
Thomas' line was forced back, and when night closed on the struggle he 

was in his original position, and the situation of the two armies was 

The morning of September 20 was foggj-, and this dela3'ed the various 
movements, so that the action did not begin till the forenoon, instead of 
at daybreak, as Bragg had planned. The brunt of the battle again fell 
on Thomas and Polk, but the dash of the latter could make no impression 
on the steadiness of the former. Thomas had been calling repeatedl}' for 
reinforcements, which sometimes came up, and sometimes did not, but 
whether they came or not, he obstinately held 
his ground. Victory might perhaps have 
crowned the Federal arms, if an unexpected 
misunderstanding had not taken place. An 
order was sent to General T.J. Wood, bidding 
him " to close up on Re3'nolds and support 
hini." Tliese words are plain enough in mean- 
ing to civilian readers, but in military language 
" closing up " means to bring the ends of the 
lines together, while " supporting " means to 
take a position in the rear. General Wood 
obej-ed the order to support literally, and thus 
left a wide gap in the Federal line. Long.street 
at once percei\'ed the mistake of the Union 
leader, and sent six divisions of his men through 
the gap. This advancing body cut off Mc- 
Cook's corps from the rest of the arm}', and, 
in spite of heroic efforts bj" Negley, Crittenden, 
and McCook, it was dri\-en back in wild con- 
fusion. The whole Federal centre was crumb- 
ling away. Rosecrans himself rode off to 
Chattanooga to rallj- his forces, but his chief of 
staff, General James A. Garfield, afterwards 
President, remained on the field, and found 
Thomas undauntedly standing in his old position, though three-fifths of 
the army were destroyed, repelling the last Confederate charges by the 
bayonet. When darkness came down Thomas retired to Rossville, leav- 
uig the enemy in possession of the field, and at that spot he was met next 
morning by General Sheridan, who had marched round the mountain 
after Longstreet had broken the Federal line. 

The National loss is estimated at 16,336 killed, wounded, and missing, 
while Bragg's loss is reckoned to have reached 18,000. Next to Gett3S- 
burg this was the most deadly and destructive fight of the war. 






In the early (all of 1864, he was repulsed with heavy loss. Sheridan in turn attacked the Con- 
Sheridan, on the federates in the afternoon, and, after some severe fighting, the whole line 
of the enemy gave way, and were driven in confusion, closely pursued by 
the Union cavalry. All the guns lost were retaken, and twenty-four 
othens captured. The road indeed was clogged with cannon, wagons, 
caissons, and men in utter confusion. The Confederate loss in this 
double battle was 3100, the Federal loss, 5700, of whom 1700 had been 
the morning and sent off to Richmond. This short 

General Sheridan, on 

Union side, and General 

Early, on the Confederate, 

hiid several engagements in 

the Valley of Virginia. On 

September 19, the former 

sent hi.s enemy "whirling up taken prisoners in HENkV SHRRIDAN. 

the valley," and on Septem 
ber 23, defeated them at 
Strasburg, and burned their 
wagon train at Port Re- 
public. On October 5, Sheri- 
dan retired down the valley 
and put his army in camp 
at Cedar Creek, north of 
Stra.sbtu'g, while he himself 
went on to Washington to a 
conference with the Secre- 
tary of War. The valley 
had been laid waste by Sheridan so that " a crow could not cross it with- 
out carrying his pro\-isions ; " and Early therefore had to retire or 
attack .Sheridan's camp, lie chose the latter course, and on October 
19, the Confederates, under the shelter of a mist, fell upon (icneral Crook's 
corps and routed it. When the battle began Sheridan was on his way 
back to join his arm)', and had reached Winchester when the sound of 
the cannon fell upon bis ear. He mcnmted his famous black charger 
and rode on with all speed to the scene of the conllict. He met a 
stream of fuu'tiixes, but stopped them by barring the road with his cav- 
alry. He ordered the retreating artiller}' to be packed on the side of 
the road, and dashed on at a swinging gallop. Thus he rode on for 
tvvehe miles, the stream of fugitives becoming thicker and thicker 
every moment. Onward he raced over the excellent turnpike road, 
and wa\ed his hat, crying, "Face the other way, boys! We are 
going back to our camps! We are going to lick them out of their 
boots ! " The words, the- gesture, the maif himself, had a magnetic 
effect on the soldiers ; they turned and followed him. As he dashed 
into the lines he called out to the regiments as they were reforming, 
"We'll have those cannon and camps back again." A new line of battle 
was quickly formed, and entrenchments thrown up. General Wright had 
succeeded in bringing order out of confusion, and when Early attacked 

but brilliant campaign of Shenandoah nearly annihilated Early's force, 
and ended hostilities in the Shenandoah valley. 

No incident of the war has left such an impression on the minds of the 
people as " Sheridan's Ride." The manoeuvering of armies in the field, an 
operation occupying days, the plans of campaigns, which required months 
to carry out, e\-en the battlefields themselves, with their miles of ground 
lined with fighting men, make no impression so sharp or clear, so easy to 
understand and realize, as the figure of Sheridan galloping up on his black 
horse and turning the tide of battle by bis single arm. 


•-^_ ^ 







Tiin; sicRO of Pcti-rstwrg lasli'il fron\ Jiiiu', ifif).|, to Mardi, iK()5. An 
iiUcmpt to tiiUc till- city by surprise liiul (iiiU'd, iind it was seen wlu-ii Ia-c 
had been able to Ibrow liis troops into the place, lliiil :i direct assault was 
impnictioable. 'flu- l'"edeial army llievelore Ihnw up a series ol earth- 
works, and thus pn. I eel I'd, le^nKi'd In make aiinlhei' assault when a favor 
able opportunity oeeurred. (ieneral liuinside oei-upied a position within 
it;o yards of llie (.'onfederate lines, whieli lliere formed an alible ici\i'nd 
by a fin-t. I'nder lliis Imi llie mine bad lieen run, anil on July 30, iN().|, 

Ibe explosion of the mine was 
lo take plaee. Al halfpasi | 
A.M. tlie mateb was applied lo 
Uu' Irain, bnl uwin^ lo ll\e 
deleelixe luse the mine did 
nol explode. 'Two men ol a 
eoiuajji' rarer iban thai seen 
m many a slrieken lielil, \ ol 
imteered to enter the dark 
ffalleries and sec what was 
nniiss. They were Lieutenant 
Jacob Douty and Scrjicant 
1 lenry Kees, of the .|8lh I'enn 
sylvania Kej;imenl. 'rbefuse 
was lelighted, and at 4.: uiin 
\ites past 4 the jjreat mine 
wont off. A solid mass of 
earth, through which the ex- 
plodinj;' powder blazed like 
lightning playing in a bank of 
clouds, was slowly raised two 
himdred feet into the air. 
U hung there black and om 
incus for a few seconds, then sank down, while a dense cloud of 
smoke floated off. Then the artillery tire opened all along the Union 
line ; it was slow, deliberate, careful, as if at target practice, and very 
effective. The enemy's guns were silenced. Then the leading division 
under Ledlie advanced to the charge. Where the fort had been was 
a crater 150 feet long, 60 wide, and 30 feet deep. Here Ledlie's column 
sought shelter. Then two divisions under Generals Potter and Wil- 
son adxanced, .and also huddled into the crater, creating a scene of disorder 
and confusion which continued nearly all day. The tirst to disentangle 

itrNjAMiN r. uuri.KR. 


Then the enemy under General 

itself was Potter's division, 
tliat charged towards the 
crest of the ridge behind 
where the fort bad been, 
but il badly supported, 
and had to fall back. At 
7 A.M. liurnside sent for- 
ward some colored trooiis, 
but the tire from the enemy, 
who bad now rallied from 
llu' confusion caused by the 
explosion, compelled them 
lo retire. Blacks and whites 
tumbled into the basin of 
the crater, where the Con 
tederate shot and shell 

rained down with awful havoc, ,_. ^ 

Mahone made a sally towards the crater, but were repulsed ; a second 
rally followed, which shook the mass of men in the crater, and a gen- 
eral rout ensued, 

Abo\e .(ooo men were killed or captured in what General Grant 
called " this miserable affair." 

Oiiriug the rest of the summer and the fall various movements of botli 
armies took plaee. Ilancock, in spite of liis skill and bravery, failed in 
turning the enemy's leff, 
Warren succeeded in de 
stroying twenty miles of the 
A\"eldon Railroail. a ver)' 
important line of communi- 
cation ; Sheridan had been 
operating in the Shenan- 
doah Valley, and in Marcli 
1865, joined the army be- 
fore Petei-sburg, and on 
April I his spirited charges 
drove the Confederates 
from two temporary lines, 
and eontined them to their 
works at Five Forks. Then 
the end was not far off. p.cket dutv. 



PlVR Forks, the last battle of tlic Confederate Arm)' of Virginia under 
Lee, was the hist important deeisive battle of the great Civil War. Earl)- 
in Mareh, 1S65, (leneral Lee rcsol\-ed to abandon Petersburg and Rich- 
mond, and to join Johnston in North Carolina. On paper Lee still had 
160,000 men ; he really liad not 50,000 effective troops. The spot called 
Five Forks is the junction of the road from Dinwiddle to the Southside 
Railroad, and the Wliite 0,ak road. It was held by 15,000 Confederates 
under Pickett, Bradley Johnson, and Wise, and on April i, General Sher- 
idan was ordered to nio\ e 

against it; he had his own "" ' 

cavalr)', Sooo strong, Mi 
Kenzie's cavalry, touu 
men, and llie Fifth Corps 
12,000 strong, and earl\ 
on that morning droM 
the Confederate fon 1 
from Dinwiddle to Fi\ r 
Forks, into their main 
works. The works a I 
Five Forks consisted ol 
logs and earth, with re- 
doubts at intervals, and 
an abaltis in front, wiili 
a thick pine undergrowili 
covering the approach. 
About I P.M., the Filth 
Corps, under Warren, 
was sent on to Gra\ell\- 
Run Church, and Ihence 
,iushcd to the White Oak 
road, wlierc it took Uji a 
position dircctl)' upon the 
loft of the Confcdciates, 
and overlapping it for a long distance. The Union troops under General 
Ayrcs became engaged with the Confederate skirmishers, and approached 
their breastworks; but there he encountered a severe tire, and his division 
staggered and broke. General Warren, however, sent forward Griffin's 
division, and then Ayres charged the entrenchments with Gwin's brigade 
on the right, the Marxlanders in the centre, and Winthrop's brigade' on 
the right. The)- dashed on with irresistible force and took thc"^ works 
wliile General Griffin fell on the Confederate rear and left. General 


Crawford at the same time pushed on till he struck the Ford road, directly 
north of tlie Confederate rear centre. The Confederates were now almost 
surrounded, cavalry coA'ered their whole front, while the infantry was 
falling on their rear, and, before they could reach the White Oak road, 
the Union troops had broken in, and forced almost all of the Confederates 
to surrender. Two miles west of Five Forks was another line of earth- 
works thrown up by the Confederates to protect their left flank, and these 
brought the victorious forces to a pause till General Warren rode up to 

the front, calling on his 
^Pl|ft||f|il| "">£" to follow. The 
officers at once sprang 
out, the men charged at 
the double quick and cap- 
tured the opposing- force, 
while the cavalr)' com- 
pleted the rout. 

When the news of 
Sheridan's triumph and 
Pickett's defeat reached- 
Lee, he at once carried 
out his plan, and evacua- 
ted Petersburg and Rich- 
mond. He commenced 
his mai-ch with 20,000 
men all told. On April 4, 
he reached Amelia Court 
House; on April 5, closely 
pursued b)- Sheridan, he 
was at High Bridge, 
where the road crosses 
the Appomattox ; on 
" '-i^-rKM- i-EE. April 6, the men sank 

I down from want of rest, 

Sleep, and food ; horses dropped dead from hunger ; two di\-isions, those 
ot l^ield and Mahone, alone could make any stand, the rest of the proud 
Army of Vngmia was a mob. Lee's officers saw' the hour of surrender 
was approachmg, and communicated their opinion to the General. During 
O A " -f °l'^'"''' ^ '"'"'^ ^' ^'■'''"' '''"d 'lis opponent were in correspondence. 
" Apnl 9, Lee summoned Longstreet and Mahone to his tent, and, after 
■ conterenee, Lee mounted his horse with the words, " I am going to hold 
a conference with General Grant." He went to surrender at Appomattox. 


^.o- 1,9- 



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