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Granite Monthly 

ISew Hampshire Slate Magazine 


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X 698881 


Abbott H. Thayer Memorial Exhibition, Alice Dinsmoor , 

A. D. H523, Khvin L. Page 

Arthur G. Whittemore • * 

A-Warbleririg on the Marsh, Katherine Upham Hunter 

Harrington Celebrates, Morton Hayes Wiggin 

Bath : a Town That Was, Kate J. Kimball 

Berlin, a City of Opportunities. O. W. Female! 

Book Reviews : 34. 64. 100, 134. 186, 218. 255, 301. 344, 3SS, 431 

Brookes More Prize Award 

By the Veery's Xest, Caroline Stetson Allen 

Chester's Bicentennial 

Danger Facing New England, The. Ervin \V. Hodsdon 

Daniel Webster. New Hampshire's Giant, Roland D. Sawyer 

Daniel Webster Highway, The 

Date of the First Permanent Settlement in New Hampshire, The, John Scales 

Editorials 32. 62, 99. 133, 184, 217, 254, 300, 343, 3Z7, 434, 

Franklin B. Sanborn, an Appreciation, Harold D. Carew 

Gasoline Tax for New Hampshire. A. Winthrop Wadleigh 

Hampton Falls Bicentennial, Frances Healey 

Highways of Proven Merit in Nashua, George P. Winn 

Historical Notes on Chester • • 

History of Street Railways and Power Development in New Plampshire, 

Frederick E. Webster 

Home Spun Yarns from the Red Barn Farm, Zilla George Dexter 49, 77, 

How New Hampsire Raised Her Armies for the Revolution, Jonathan Smith 

Indian Stream War, The, Mary R. P. Hatch 

In Praise of Brooks. Katherine Upham Hunter 

Lake Winnipesaukee, Mary Blake Benson 

Metalak. a True Story, Gertrude Weeks Marshal 
Mv Pine Tree. Mary Blake Benson 


New England's Industrial Future, Robert P. Bass 

New Hampshire Day by Day ....3, 59, 95, 131, 172, 212, 250, 296, 341, 385, 426, 
New Hampshire in History and Story for Children, Grace Edith Kingsland 
Hampshire Necrology: 

John Quincy Adams. 259; Edwin G. Annable, 475; Jeremiah E. Ayers, 
261: Joseph G. Avers. 303: Chas. U. Bell, 476; Walter Irving Blanchard, 
475; Madame Bouguereau, 103; Charles C. Buffum, 435; J. Milnor Coif, 
69.; Ja^. L. Colby, 102; Edmund C. Cole, 140; Otis Cole, 104; Geo. Cook, 
391; Frank D. Currier, 36; Dennis Donovan, 104; Irving W. Drew, 189; 
Thomas Entwistle, 3"3: Henry Farrar. 36; L. M. Farrington, 36; Oscar 
F. Fellows, 69; Frank P. Fisk, 36; William W. Flanders, 303; Rqei H, 
Fletcher, 69; George C. Hazelton, 391; Samuel W. Holman, 104; Will 
B. Howe, 188; Harriet E. Huntress, 345; Joseph H. Killourhy, 435; 
Joseph VV. Fund. 220; Joseph Madden, 391; William H. Manahan, 259; 
Luther F. McKinney. 345; Charles R. Miller, 345; John B. Mills, 70; 
William Nelson 140; Eugene P. Nute, 261; John C. O'Connor, 69; Flosea 
W. Parkei, 389; Mary R. Pike, 303; Samuel E. Pingree, 259; Henry Cole 

















Quiriby, - j 75; Charles B. Rogers, 140; Mary C. Rotofson, 345; Erison 
D. Sanborn. 140; Burton T. Scales. 103; James C. Simpson. 2n0; 
William E. Spanieling 261; William L. Sutherland, 104; David A. Tag- 
gart, 101; Levi C. Taylor, 103; John M. Thompson, 220; Charles R, 
Walker. 220; Reuben E. Walker., 68; Moses J. Wentworth, 140; William 
A. Whitney, 476; Richard Wh'oriskey, 103;.Fiank G. Wilkins, 303. 

New Wiiley House Cabins. The, John H. Foster 379 

North Parish Church. North Haverhill, Katherine C. Meader 330 

Nottingham's 200th Anniversary. Harold H. Niks 369 

Old Dover Handing. The, John B. Stevens 448 

Oldest Church in New Hampshire, The, George B. Upham 39 

Outdoor Sports in Colonial Times, Samuel Copp Worthen 450 

Parker Pillsbury, Albert E. Pillsbury 73 

Pascataquack and Kenebeck, Elvvin L. Page 292 

Pictorial Wealth of New Hampshire, The, A. H. Beardsley 317 


A Bit of Color, Laura Garland Carr, 384; A Brook in the Woods, 
Charles Wharton Stork, 452; A Degenerate of the Pink Family, Mary E. 
Hough, 383; A Dream of Mount Kearsarge, Alice Sargent Krikorian, 
66; A Song of Hope. Lyman S. Herrick. 471; A Song to Pass Away the 
Evening, Helene Mullins 388.; A Winter's Night Storm, Perley R. Bug- 
bee, 106; An August Picture Alice Sargent Krikorian, 342; Anodyne, 
Francis Wayne MacVeagh, 4/4; Alone, Marie Wilson, 436; Arbutus, 
Edna Logan Hummel, 185; As a Tie! Tree and an Oak, Eleanor Kenly 
Bacon. 238; Awakenings. Alice M. Sbepard. 92. 
Baby's Puff, Ruth Bassett, 382: Bitie, Walter B. Wolfe, 221. ' 
Celia Thaxter, Reign old Kent Marvin. 304. 

Day Dreams, Sarah Jackson. 256; Dear Echoes, Katharine Sawin 
Oakes, 172: Dilemma, Cora S. Day, 216; Dreamers, Cora S. Day, 299; 
Dreams,. Lihan Sn- Keech, $<*. '■■ 

Enchantment, J. Roy Zeiss, 2; 4; Eventide, Edward H. Richards, 304; 
Extinctus Amabitur Idem, Helen Adams Parker, 424. 
Fantasy, L. Adelaide Sherman, 378. 

God — Thanks, Ruth Bassett, 151; Gone, Harold Vinal, 136; Grosbeaks, 
W r alter B. Wolfe, 139. 

His Little Flock Are We, Elias H. Cheney, 348; Homesick, Cora S. 
Day, 296. 

Indian Summer, Laura Garland Carr, 425; Inspiration, Eleanor W. 
Vinton, 198; In the Garden, Alice Leigh, 449. 

Jack Frost, Walter B. Wolfe, 94; Just Dreaming, Frederick W r . Fowler, 

Last Days, Harold Vinal. 135; Lart Death. Harold Vinal, 280; Last of 
April, Harold Vinal, 136; Late November. George Quinter, 425; Life's 
Eventide, Aiida Cogswell True, 436; Lilac Shadows, Louise Piper 
Wemple, 21; Lodestars, Fanny Runnells Poole, 237. 

March, Helen Adams Parker, 93; Mary, Mother, Helen Adams Parker, 
471; Memories, Katharine Sawin Oakes. 446; Monadnock, J. L. McLane, 
Jr., 461; Morning in the Valley of the Mad River, Adaline Holton Smith, 
66; My A ready, Eugene IL Musgrove, 31; My Chester, Isabelie H. 
Fitz, 362; My Song That Was a Sword, Hazel Hall, 58. 
New Houses, Cora S. Day, 137. 
Oh, Come and Walk With Me, Mabel Cornelia Matsom 187; Old Home 




Flowers. Alice L. Martin, 268; On the Road From Cormicy, Mary E. 
Hougfc, 3-17; Opulence, Alice Sargent Krikorian, 301. 
Pine-Tree Song, Helen Adams Parker, 340; Prometheus, Walter B. 
Wolfe, 402. 

Ragged Mountain, M. White Sawyer, 343; Real Royalty, Edward H. 
Richards, 35; Rebirth, Nellie Dodge Free, 90; Reflets Dans L' Infinite, 
Walter B. Wolfe, 63; Resurrection of the Ships, Reignold Kent Marvin, 
33; Retrospection. Ethel Davis Nelson, 392; Return, Harold Vina), 137. 
Sails, Alice Leigh, 36S; Search, John Rollin Stuart. 288; Separation, 
Helene Mullins. 425; Solitude. Helene Mullins, 387; Songs, Letitia M. 
Adams, 138; Sonnet. Louise Patterson Guyol, 430; South of Magadore, 
E. F. Keene, 382; Spring and Dawn. Adeline Holton Smith, 123; Spring 
Flame, Harold Vinal, 136; Spring Mist, Eleanor Vinton, 138; Spring 
Promise, M. White Sawyer, 221; Storms, Ruth Bassett, 257; Substitute, 
Helene Mullins, 434; Summer Time. Mary E. Partridge, 258; Sunapee 
Lake, Mary E. Partridge, 316; Sunset on Lake Winnepesaukee, Mattie 
Bennett Mcader, 327. 

To a Hamadryad, Walter B. Wolfe, 258; To an Icicle, F. R. Bagley, 67; 
To Monadnockr, H. F. Ammidown, 105; To Those Who Come After, A. 
A. D., 473; Travel With a Smile, Eleanor Kenley Bacon, 166; Treason, 
Helen Frazee-Bower, 190; The Alien, Lilian Sue Keech, 440; The 
Bird's Message, Helen Adams Parker, 135; The. Black Rock of Nan- 
tasket, Alice Sargent Krikorian, 410; The Color of Happiness, Louise 
Patterson Guyol, 368; The Hampshire's, Mary E. Plough, 302; The 
'Haven of Lost Ships, E. F. Keene, 338; The Hermit Thrush, Laura Gar- 
land Carr, 382; The Living Dark, Claribel Weeks Avery, 70; The 
Oriole, Ellen Lucy Brown. 329; The Pilgrim Woman, Mary Richard- 
son, 48; The Poet, John Rollin Stuart, 114; The Road, L. Adelaide Sher- 
man, 277; The Tear That Says Good-By, Frank R. Bagley, 257; The 
Tree, T. P. White. 219; The Turning of the Tide, Helen Mowe Phil- 
brook, 88; The White Flower, Alice Sargent Krikorian, 253; The Wind- 
ing Road, Nellie Dodge Frye, 183; The Woodsey Trail, Adeline Hol- 
ton Smith, 216. 

LHysses, Returned. Carolyn Williams, 19; Urania: Muse of Astronomy, 
Louise Patterson Guyol, 410. 

Water Lilies, Plelen Frazee-Bower, 304; When the Birds Fly North, 
Althine Sholes Lear, 76; When the Summer Days Flave Fled, Alice 
Sargent Krikorian. 381; Willow Tree, Alice Leigh, 467. 
Pre-Revolurionary Life and Thought in a Western New Hampshire Town, 

George B. Upham 109, 143, 199, 238 

Procession of Discontent, The, William M. Stuart 421 

Putting New Hampshire on the Toboggan, George B. Upham 278 

Remarkable Family, A ••...... 339 

Resistless Appeal of New Hampshire, The, Charles S. Tapley 249 

Settlement of New Hampshire, The, Paul Edward Moyer 153 

Snow, Charles Nevers Holmes ( 462 

Spence House, The, Joseph Foster 466 

Three Boys of Cornish, Samuel L. Powers 89 

Timothy P. Sullivan , • • . . 307 

Tragedies in My Ancestry, Roland D. Sawyer 409 


Unchanging The, Winnifred Janette Kittredge 91 

Vendue at Valley Farm, The, Emma Warne 265 

What of New England's Future? Ervin W. Hodsdon 127 

Who Planted New Hampshire? Charles Thornton Libby 364 

Widest Paved Street in New England, The, Wirtneid M. Chaplin 85 


Page 103, lor ""May," read "June." 

Page 360, insert after sixth line, ''R. French and the mother of." 

Page 390, eighth line from last, read "Lovisa" for "Louisa." 



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Attorney at Lav/ 

Attorneys at Law 


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COH&O&D, IS. H. 

Entered a 

cord K'. HA as second class 02 slier, 

Jud<:;: George F. Morris. 


Vol. LIV 

JANUARY, 1922 

No. 1 


George Franklin Morris of Lan- 
caster, the new judge of the United 
States District Court tor the District 
■of New Hampshire, is seventh in the 
line of that honorable and distin- 
guished succession, the office having 
but four occupants between 1804 and 
1921. The first judge, appointed by 
President Washington September 26. 
1789, was General John Sullivan of 
Durham, hero of the Revolution and 
one of the most interesting figures in 
the early history of New Hampshire. 
He was a brilliant lawyer, as well as 
a gallant soldier and courtly gentleman, 
and was attorney general of the state 
before accepting the place on the bench 
which he filled until his death January 
23, 1795. 

His successor was John Pickering 
■of Portsmouth, whose life story is one 
of the tragic pages in the history of 
the New Hampshire bench and bar. 
Native of Newington, Harvard grad- 
uate, eminent lawyer, useful patriot, 
one of the framers of the state con- 
stitution, chief justice of the supreme 
-court, attorney general, he was in 
failing health when he received his 
appointment to trie federal court and 
a few years later became insane. His 
removal from office, effected by the 
harsh expedient of his impeachment 
for "high crimes and misdemeanors," 
"became not only a celebrated case, but 
a national political issue. 

In his place was appointed John 
Samuel Sherburne of Portsmouth, 
who had been the first United States 
district attorney for this district. 
He was a preacher turned lawyer, 
Revolutionary soldier, legislative lead- 
er and congressman, and served as 

judge until 1830. After him came 
-Matthew Harvey, the only man who 
ever resigned the office of governor of 
New Hampshire ; which he did to ac- 
cept the appointment to the federal 
bench. Born in Sutton, educated at 
Dartmouth, he was a lawyer in Hop- 
kinton until his removal to Concord in 
1850, where he died in 1866, having 
held office, state or federal, continu- 
ously for 52 years. His name appears 
in the list of our executive coun- 
cilors, speakers of the House, presi- 
dents of the Senate and United States 
Senators, as well as in those of gov- 
ernors and judges. 

Daniel Clark of Manchester, the 
next district judge, also resigned what 
some might consider a more important 
office to go upon the bench ; for he 
was United States Senator when he 
accepted the judicial appointment and 
qualified July 27, 1866. This action, 
however, was not unique, like that of 
Governor Harvey, for in the early 
days of the Republic Samuel Liver- 
more, James Sheafe and Nahurn Par- 
ker resigned the office of United States 
Senator from New Hampshire, as did, 
somewhat later, those more famous 
sons of the state, Levi Woodbury and 
Franklin Pierce. 

Judge Clark was a native of 
Stratham, a graduate of Dartmouth 
and for two years during his service 
in the Senate president of that body. 
Upon his death in 1891 the choice 
for his successor fell upon Edgar 
Aldrich of Littleton, native of Pitts- 
burg, graduate of the University 
of Michigan, speaker of the New- 
Hampshire House, whose distin- 
guished career as lawyer and jur- 


ist and eminent public services are 
:still fresh in the public mind. It 
was his lamented death on Sept, 15. 
1921, which caused the vacancy 
now so well filled by the appoint- 
ment of Judge Morris. 

George F. Morris was born in 
Vershire, Yt., April 13, 1866, the 
son of Josiah S. and Lucina C. 
(Merrill) Morris, and attended the 
schools of Corinth and Randolph, 
Yt. For some years he was a suc- 
cessful school teacher, at the same 
time reading law. and was admitted 

resentatives of 1905, when the im- 
portant standing committee on ways 
and means was first appointed, he 
was made its chairman, although a 
new member, and in that capacity 
rendered valuable service. Both 
at Lisbon and Lancaster he served 
on the school board. He has been 
a member of the state board of bar 
examiners since 1914 and in 1917 
was president of the state bar as- 
sociation. Despite his devotion to 
his profession he has many outside 
interests, including an extensive 

Federal Building, Concord, N. H. 

to the bar in 1891. He practised 
at Lisbon until 19G6, when he re- 
moved to Lancaster and became a 
member of the firm of Drew. Jordan 
Shurtleff & Morris, headed by U. S. 
Senator Irving \Y. Drew and the 
late Governor Chester B. Jordan, 
the most important law partnership 
in Northern New Hampshire. In 
this connection he has had a very 
wide and successful professional ex- 
perience. While at Lisbon he rep- 
resented the town in the legislature 
and constitutional convention and 
was for four years solicitor of Graf- 
ton county. In the House of Rep- 

farm, and has been president of the 
Coos County Farm Bureau. He is 
an authority on the early history of 
Northern New England as well as 
upon its flora, of which he has a 
large collection. Judge Morris 
married May 16, 1894, Lula J. 
daughter of Charles and Persis 
(Hall) Aldrich, of Lisbon, widely 
known as a clubwoman and as past 
grand matron of the Eastern Star. 
They have one son, Robert Hall 

Judge Morris counts himself fort- 
unate in having the experienced 
and expert assistance in his new 


duties of another North Country 
lawyer. Burns P. Hodgman, for- 
merly of Littleton, who has been clerk 
of the district court since August 
1, 1900. He is the 12th occupant 
of the position, his predecessors hav- 
ing beenjonathan Steele of Durham, 
1/59 — 1804; Richard Cults Shannon 
of Portsmouth. 1804— IS 14; George 
Washington Prescott of Portsmouth, 
1814—1817; Pen ton Randolph Free- 

Mayor Fred H. Brown of Somers- 
svorth has been United States dis- 
trict attorney since 1914, being the 
26th in a distinguished succession 
which; includes such names as Jere- 
miah Smith, John P. Hale and 
Franklin Pierce. Thomas B. Don- 
nelly of Manchester took office this 
year as United States marshal in 
this district, an office in which he 
has had 21 predecessors. 

Hon. George E. Truoel. 
Mayor of Manchester. 

man of Portsmouth, 1817 — 1820; 
William Claggett of Portsmouth, 
1820 — 1825 ; Samuel Cushman of 
Portsmouth. 1825—1826 ; Charles 
W. Cutter of Portsmouth, 1826 — 
1841 ; John L. Hayes of Portsmouth. 
1841 — 1847; Charles H. Bartlett of 
Manchester, 1847—1883; Benjamin 
F. Clark of Manchester, 1883—1891 ; 
Fremont E. Shurtleti of Concord, 

Sessions of the district "court are 
held in Portsmouth and Littleton 
as well as in Concord, but the per- 
manent offices of the clerk arid mar- 
shal are in the federal building at 

While 1921 was the "off year" in 
Xew Hampshire as regards state 
elections, the people. of several cities 
went to the polls in November and 


December to choose members of It was a somewhat singular cir- 

their city governments, and some cufrfstance that in every case where 
interesting contests resulted. This a mayor was a candidate for reelec- 
\yas particularly the case in our me- tion lie was successful. Major Or- 
tropolis, Manchester, where Hon. ville E. Cain, mayor of Keenc, and 
George E. Trudel. Republican, William K. Kimball, mayor of 
member of Governor Albert O. Rochester, had no opposition. In 
Brown's executive council from the Concord, Mayor Henry E. Chamber- 
third district, defeated John L. Bar- lin was given a second term over 
ry, Democrat, president of the State Alderman Arthur F. Sturtevant. 
Federation of Labor. Mayor Tru- At Portsmouth. Major Fernando 
del is a native of Canada, of French \Y. Hartford, editor and publicist, 
descent, but has lived in Manches- was elected for a second term, his 
ter since childhood. Throughout opponent being ex-Mayor Daniel 
the State he has a wide circle of W. Badger, member of Governor 
friends, gained during many years Samuel D. Felker's executive coun- 
_ _ - ....-,-,--- . = - , cil. Henri A. Biirque was re-elect- 

ed mayor of Nashua by 4,343 votes 
to 1,873 for Alderman John W. Bro- 
derick. The chief election day sur- 
prises were in Dover and Franklin. 
In the former city, Charles G. Wal- 
dron, Democrat, defeated Alonzo 
1 G. Willand, Republican, for mayor, 

I although the latter party carried 

four of the five wards for other 
offices. Mayor-elect Waldron has 
chosen a "cabinet," or board of ad- 
visors, of eight Republicans and 
four Democrats with whom he says 
he will take counsel as to the finan- 
cial and other policies of the city. 
In Franklin the strike of paper mill 
workers was made an issue in the 
election and the labor candidate- 
L, ,- Louis H. Douphinette, Democrat, 

beat Clarence P. Stevens, Republi- 
Hon. F. W. Hartford. can. Mr. Douphinette, like Mr. 

Mayor of Portsmouth. Waldron. was a member of the leg- 

"on the road" as a commercial trav- islature of 1919 and is president of 
eller and is now prosperously en- the Central Labor Union of his city, 
gaged in business for himself- His Several women were elected to 

candidacy for the council was his the school boards of their respec- 
first political experience, but he now tive cities, Mrs. Ida Benheld in 
holds the record of having, within Portsmouth; Mrs. Delia Alton in 
thirteen months, "redeemed" both Nashua; Miss Annie Wallace and 
his city and his councilor district Mrs. Sarah E. Kendall in Rochester ; 
from the opposing part)'. An is- while in Keene one woman council- 
sue in this election was the legisla- man was chosen from each of the 
tion regarding Manchester enacted five wards: Mr.s. Maude S. Puthey, 
by the general court of V)2\ . which Miss Grace A. Richardson, Mrs. 
was favored by Councilor Trude! Annie- L. Holbrook, Mrs. Katherine 
and his supporters and denounced E. Faulkner and Mrs. Lulu F. 
by their opponents. Lesure. 


By Jonathan Sm 

In the three great Wars which 
this country has waged, namely, the 
Revolution, the Civil and the World 
War. the nation has raised its 
armies in three different ways: by 
the militia system, the volunteer 
method and by conscription. In 
the Revolutionary struggle, under 
the so-called militia system, the men 
were drawn from State Militia reg- 
iments already organized, through 
voluntary enlistment or by draft. 
Its distinguishing feature was a 
short term of service, and was the 
sole method of raising the armies in 
the war for independence. Under 
the volunteer plan the men are re- 
cruited from civil life, and are us- 
ually enlisted for one, two or three 
years, as may be named in the call 
for men. This was the leading 
method of raising the armies dur- 
ing the Rebellion, although during 
the last three years a conscription 
law was in force. In the World 
War the reliance was on the draft- 
Still a large number also volunteered 
for service. Each plan has its ad- 
vantages and its disadvantages. 

The Legislation of New Hamp- 
shire and Massachusetts was gener- 
ally alike in the Revolutionary war, 
and in its details varied only in 
minor particular.-,. The two States 
often consulted together through 
Committees, not only in answering 
the calls for men, but also in gen- 
eral war legislation. Both met 
with the same difficulties in filling 
their quotas. The men were called 
for substantially the same length of 
time, given about the same pay, and 
each state was compelled to fix pen- 
alties on both officers and civil 
authorities for negligence in per- 
formance of their duties imposed 
under many of the calls. The meth- 

ods pursued by both., and their ex- 
periences in recruiting men for the 
armies, were probably similar to 
those of every other colony. 

There was no standing army when 
the conflict opened, but all men 
were already enrolled in companies 
and regiments. New Hampshire 
had twelve, and when it re-organized 
its militia in May. 1775, created the 
same number. When it again re- 
organized its militia in 1777, it 
made eighteen regiments. The size 
of these regiments varied from two 
or three hundred to seven hundred 
and rift)' men each. All male in- 
habitants were divided into two 
classes, one called the active list, 
which included those between the 
ages of sixteen and fifty, and the 
alarm list, embracing all between 
sixteen and sixty-five, not enrolled 
in the active list. Many of the offi- 
cial classes were exempted from 
both groups. The State appointed 
the general officers of Divisions 
and Brigades, and also the Colonels 
and Field officers of the several 
regiments. Each Company elected 
its own officers. The men on the 
active list were required to meet 
for drill and instruction eight times 
a year, and those on the alarm list, 
twice a year. These encampments 
lasted from three days to a week 
each. They were scenes of hilarity 
and dissipation, and were nothing 
but picnics on a large scale. As 
schools for instruction in the serious 
duties of the soldier, they were of 
no account. Each man had to fur- 
nish his own gun, accoutrements, 
and ammunition while serving in 
the militia. There was no pre- 
scribed uniform. If a man was 
unable to provide himself with liis 
arm-s and other military implements, 


the selectmen or State furnished 
them for him. In the fust years of 
the war the calls were from the 
active list, but later the alarm list 
was also included and no distinc- 
tion was made between the two. 
It was from this force, so organized, 
that the armies of the Revolution 
were drawn. 

The men were called for service 
in this way. If they were wanted 
to protect the sea coast or critical 
points within the State, the demand 





Council or Committee of Safety. 
which passed Acts or issued or- 
ders to raise so many men to guard 
certain points named in the Law, 
and the Colonels of the militia 
regiments were ordered to recruit 
them out of their cummands. The 
men called for State service were en- 
listed generally for longer terms, 
varying from three months to a 
year; while if they were to serve 
without the State, the Governors 
of neighboring commonwealths. 
General Washington, or the Conti- 
nental Congress, would call upon 
the Governor or Legislature to fur- 
nish so many men for such and such 
a duty. The Legislature would 
forthwith enact a law, or the Coun- 
cil or Committee of Safety issue 
orders, addressed to the General 
commanding the militia or to the 
Regimental Colonels to recruit the 
number of men required. The 
General would divide the quota 
among the State regiments, and 
direct the Colonels commanding to 
recruit or draft the men called for. 
1 ne Colonels would apportion the 
men among the towns represented 
in his command, and order his 
Captains to execute the law. No 
town was required to furnish more 
than its proportionate share under a 
call. The orders were given more 
frequently direct to the Colonels of 
the regiments. The law enforcing 
the call frequently stated the number 

of men each town was to furnish as 
its quota. 

Officers to command the men thus 
called out were not the same as those 
of the original militia regiments, but 
were specially appointed by the State 
for each battalion, and company of- 
ficers were, selected by the companies. 
The Field officers were often drawn 
from the primitive organizations, but 
not always, while the companies elect- 
ed entirely new officers. They were 
original organizations, except that the 
men were taken out of the old order. 

An enumeration of the laws passed 
for filling the armies, and a brief out- 
line in some detail of the terms and 
conditions under which the men 
served, is necessary to appreciate fully 
how the system worked as a way of 
recruiting for the army. It is briefly 
sketched in the following pages, and 
explains, in part, why the struggle 
was so long, and makes plain in its 
results some of the reasons why the 
people suffered so intensely dur- 
ing the struggle. It will be appreciat- 
ed by those who are familiar with the 
methods of raising armies- 

The armies of 1775 were entirely 
volunteers, and were recruited in part 
out of the men who went to Cam- 
bridge, after the Lexington alarm. 
They came from all sections of Mas- 
sachusetts and central and southern 
New Hampshire. The historian of 
a New Hampshire town has left on 
record a description of how they 
started for Cambridge. The alarm 
reached the Captain of the militia 
company of the place about daylight 
on April 19th. He immediately 
sent out his hired man to notify the 
members, and by ten o'clock all had 
assembled. "We all set out." to 
quote the words of an actor in the 
drama, "with such weapons as we 
could get. going like a flock of wild 
geese we hardly knew why or whither" 
and in two hours from the time of 
getting notice he was on his way 
to the place of assembly with his 


son and hired man, they on foot and 
he on horseback, carrying a bag 
with pork in one end of it and a 
large baking pan of bread just taken 

rroin tne oven, in ti 




pan v was ready to march at 10 o'clock; 
some had fire arms with a meager 
supply of powder and ball; some of 
the guns were the old heavy, clumsy 
Queen's arm ; some were light 
French pieces called fusees. Many 
of the guns had seen hard usage in 
the French war. Some of the men 
had pitchforks- some shillelahs and 
one ardent patriot was armed with 
his grain flail. The men were of all 
ages, untrained in the soldier's art. 
and their uniforms of homespun 
were as various in cut and color as 
the personality of the wearers. 
This would be a fair description of 
many of the men when they got 
to Cambridge. This company 
started for Cambridge and li?.d got 
as far as Groton when they heard 
the result of the Concord fight, 
and half of them, including their 
Captain, turned back home. The 
rest kept on to their destination. 
At Cambridge, all was confusion 
and chaos ; some of the men were 
under their regular officers; many of 
them were mere detachments of 
their companies, while a large por- 
tion were without any officers or 
semblance of a Commander or or- 

But the authorities of Massachu- 
setts immediately set themselves 
to work to bring order out of this 

Boston of course was the center 
of military operations, and the peo- 
ple of Massachusetts felt the crisis 
more keenly than those of any other 
State, but New Hampshire was not 
idle. In May, 1775, the Fourth 
Provincial Congress voted to raise 
two thousand men for the cause, 
dividing them into three regiments. 
The regiments under Stark and 
Reed were largely recruited from 

tlie New Hampshire men present at 
Cambridge between April 20th and 
June 1st. The third regiment, 
under Colonel Poor, was first de- 
signed tor the protection of the New 
Hampshire sea coast, but after the 
battle of Bunker Hill was also or- 
dered to Cambridge and there re- 
mained until the following January. 
These men were enlisted to serve 
until the last day of the next De- 
cember, and their pay was forty 
shillings a month. 

They were volunteers and there 
was no suggestion of a draft by 
either State. The men were to fur- 
nish their arms and equipment, the 
same as in the original militia. An 
allowance of a penny a mile was 
made for travel and four dollars 
was allowed for an over-coat. 

September 1st, 1775, the Fourth 
Provincial Congress voted to raise 
four regiments of Minute ?vlen out 
of the Militia regiments to be ready 
for immediate duty on call ; to serve 
for four months and at the end of 
that time to be re-enlisted and 
keep being re-enlisted until further 
orders. When called to duty they 
were to be allowed the same pay 
and emoluments as the men in ac- 
tive service. How many of these 
Minute Men actually entered active 
service afterwards does not appear, 
but probably most, .if not all, of 
them did. Aside from these men 
there came a call the first of Decem- 
ber from Generals Washington and 
Sullivan upon the two States for five 
thousand men to take the place of 
the Connecticut militia, which had 
taken a miff at some fancied griev- 
ance, and refusing to serve longer, 
had marched off home. New 
Hampshire recruited thirty-one 
companies, eighteen hundred men, 
and Massachusetts contributed the 
balance. These men were to serve 
six weeks, and at the end of that 
time were discharged. Besides the 
men so furnished New Hampshire 



also raised three companies for 
serviee in Canada, and one or two 
companies to guard the coast about 

The year ]776 was a busy one 
in raising men for the army. The 
colonies had come to realize the 
character of the struggle before 
them. The Declaration of Inde- 
pendence gave them a new incen- 
tive and had also emphasized the in- 
tensity of the war on the part of 
Great Britain. On January 20th, 
1776, the Legislature voted to raise 
two regiments of 780 men each tor 
two months. One of these was in- 
tended for CTeneral Schuyler and its 
term of service was later extended 
to ore year. The/other was to rein- 
force General Sullivan and its term 
was two months. Two months' 
pay m advance was offered. in 
March of this year New Hampshire 
voted to raise a regiment of seven 
hundred and twenty-five men, be- 
sides three hundred additional, to 
serve for nine months, as a guard 
for the sea coast, and seven hundred 
and sixty men for service in the 
Continental arm} - in Canada. Their 
pay was to be the same as in the 
preceding year. Again in Jul} - the 
State decided to raise seven hunt 
dred and lift}' more men for ser- 
vice until the 1st of the next De- 
cember to serve in Canada. The 
Colonels of the several militia regi- 
ments were to recruit the men out 
of their commands, A bounty of 
seven pounds for equipment and one 
month's pay of 40 shillings in ad- 
vance was offered, while their regu- 
lar pav was the same a.s formerly. 
After "the defeat at Long Island in 
August, in response to urgent calls 
from General Washington and the 
Continental Congress, it was decided 
to raise one thousand men for duty 
in New r York to serve until Decem- 
ber 1st. offering a bounty of .six 
pounds and advanced pay. as in the 
preceding case. All these men were 
to be raised bv voltmtarv enlistment 

- — but in December the State ordered 
a draft of five hundred men out of 
the militia for service in northern 
New York to serve until the first 
of the next March. Their pay was 
three pounds a month. General 
Carleton had invaded that State and 
captured Crown Point, thus creat- 
ing an emergency which required 
prompt action. The fore part of 
the year it was determined to raise 
eight companies to reinforce Gener- 
al Schuyler, and to serve in Canada 
until the first of the following 
January. These companies were a 
part of the one thousand men called 
in July. Two months' wages in ad- 
vance w r as offered. In September a 
regiment of militia was raised to serve 
for four months at Portsmouth. 

P.y the Act of September 12th of 
th. is year, ever}' soldier was to fur- 
nish his own gun. ramrod, worm, 
procuring wire and brush, a bayonet, 
cutting sword, or tomahawk or 
hatchet, a pouch containing a car- 
tridge box holding fifteen rounds. 
one hundred buck shot, a jackknife, 
tow for wadding, six flints, one 
pound of powder and forty balls. It 
unable to supply them the Selectmen 
were to furnish them for him. Men 
refusing to obey the call were to be 
fined not less than 20 shillings nor 
more than three pounds. In all 
subsequent calls the men were re- 
quired to furnish these equipments. 
This year, the State, besides the 
three regimerits in the American 
army, had one in Canada, another in 
Portsmouth, and had also furnished 
five regiments of militia besides 
several companies recruited to guard 
certain points within the State. 

By the middle of the year, the 
colonial leaders had seen the folly 
of trying to carry on the war under 
the methods hitherto employed. 
Washington had denounced the mil- 
itia as unreliable and that the short 
terms of its enlistment made it a 
"worthless force with which to op- 
pose the trained veterans of Eng- 




land. In September, 1776. Con- 
gress voted to raise about sixty- 
six thousand men — the men to be 
enlisted for the war. This was mod- 
ified later to make the term three 
years or during the war. These 
battalions were apportioned to the 
several States, three being assigned 
to Xew Hampshire. Congress of- 
fered a bounty of twenty pounds, 
a suit o\ clothes, consisting of two 
linen hunting shirts, two pairs of 
overalls, a leathern or woolen waist- 
coat with sleeves, a pair of 
breeches, a hat or leathern cap. two 
shirts, two pairs of hose, and two 




Judge Joxathax Smith. 

pairs of .shoes, all of the value of 
twenty dollars, and one hundred 
acres of land to each man. 

The States agreed to pay twenty 
shillings a month, wages ; the soldier 
was to be . allowed a blanket and 
one penny a mile for travel. When 
the request ' for the battalions came, 
the Assemblies appointed Commis- 
sioners to go to the armies and en- 
list out of the militia of their own 
State there serving, as many men as 
possible into the battalions. The State 
offered a bounty of twenty pounds 

in addition to that of Congress, and 
in \77\\ increased the travel to six 
shillings a mile, and the bounty to 
three hundred dollars. On March 
20th. 1777, a peremptory order was 
issued to General Folsom, Comman- 
der of the State Militia, directing him 
to order the Colonels of the regi- 
ments to command the Captains of 
their companies to raise the required 
number of men for the battalions 
forthwith and to recruit these from 
both the active and alarm lists. 
In 1778, it was voted to appoint a 
suitable person in each militia regi- 
ment to enlist 700 men to fill up 
the three battalions on or before 
March 18. The cost for getting the 
men was to be assessed upon the 
towns short on their quotas and the 
militia officers and others of the de- 
linquent places were admonished in 
the strongest terms to complete 
their number, and they were author- * 
ized to hire the men anywhere 
within the State. In November. 

1779, the Council and Committees of 
Safety voted that the 3 battalions be 
filled up; that a committee of two 
be sent to headquarters to re-enlist 
the men whose terms were expiring 
and to offer them instead of a boun- 
ty, 100 acres of land or such sum 
of money as may be given by Massa- 
chusetts and other States. The 
men re-enlisting were also to be as- 
sured that they should be paid the 
same for depreciation of money as 
those enlisting were entitled to be 
paid tinder existing laws. In De- 
cember. 1779, General Folsom was 
ordered to fill up three battalions 
immediately. On March 3rd, 1780. 
recruiting officers for the three 
battalions were allowed 30 pounds 
for each man they secured. On 
June 8th, it was voted to draft, for 
service until the last day of the 
next December, to fill up the bat- 
talions. By the act of March 19th. 

1780, the State amended its militia 
laws providing that the Colonels 



and subordinate officers neglecting 
or refusing" to enlist or draft men 
called for, were to be cashiered; 

and the law gave the Colonels pow- 
er to draft the men. If the conscript 
did not go he was ordered to 
be fined 15 pounds to be collected 
by a warrant of distress; in case of 
no goods his body was to be taken. 
If he failed to appear when ordered 
and did not furnish a reasonable ex- 
cuse or furnish a substitute he was 
fined 150 pounds; and officers re- 
fusing" or neglecting to collect fines 
from the delinquents were assessed 
250 pounds. On June 16th, 1780, the 
militia officers were ordered to enlist 
or draft six hundred men to fill up 
the three battalions of the State. 
Every conscript was made subject 
to a fine of five hundred dollars for 
failure to march or furnish a sub- 
stitute within twenty-four hours. 
* The pay was to be forty shillings 
a month, reckoned in corn at four 
shillings a bushel, sole leather at 
one shilling, six pence a pound and 
grassed ,beef at three pence a 
pound. If the man served until the 
last day of December, 1/81, he was 
to have one suit of clothes and if 
he served until the last day of De- 
cember, 1782. he was to be entitled 
to a suit of clothes annually. In 
January. 1781. thirteen hundred and 
fifty- four men were called for to fill 
the State's three battalions. The terms 
of the men enlisting in 1776 and 1777, 
were expiring - and these men were 
called to keep the battalions full. 
The towns were permitted to divide 
their inhabitants into groups, as 
many groups as the quota called for, 
each group to be responsible for one 
man. Towns were allowed to of- 
fer a bounty of twenty pounds, 
reckoned in corn, etc . at the above 
prices. Classes were to furnish 
their men for three years before 
February 20th. If they (the class- 
es) refused or neglected to do so 
then the town was to furnish them 
and assess the cost upon the classes 

or individuals responsible for the 
failure, li the towns themselves 
failed to make the assessments then 
the towns were to be penalized to 
double the amount it cost to hire a 
recruit, if the men were not fur- 
nished by March 3rd. Later in 
June, it was enacted that if the 
towns found it impracticable to raise 
the men under the January law, 
then they were to recruit them to 
serve till the 31st of the next De- 
cember. If the towns neglected 
or refused to get them, the men 
were to be hired and the cost to 
be assessed on the delinquent towns. 
In March, 1782, the State was still 
short in its quota by six hundred 
and fifty men, and delinquent towns 
were peremptorily ordered to com- 
plete their quotas before the 15th 
of May. In 1781, the officers were 
ordered to hire men wherever they 
could be found, but these measures 
did not hll the quota for at the end 
of the war the State was still short 
by more than 550 men. 

This recital is a suggestive de- 
scription of the difficulties of the 
colonies in getting soldiers, particu- 
larly for the 88 battalions. The men 
were 1 , loth to enlist^ for anything 
but short terms. A.s the war went 
on their ardor and patriotism, so 
manifest in 1775 and 1776, abated, 
and ony by large bounties, increased 
pay and by threats of conscription 
could they be induced to enter the 
servce at all, and even by draft 
with heavy penalties upon both 
men and civil and military author- 
ties for negligence or disobedience, 
could soldiers be obtained, and then 
in insufficient numbers. 

The battalions suffered severely 
from sickness, deaths and desertion. 
During the last years of the strug- 
gle, as in the case of the Civil war, 
towns fell into the habit of hiring 
men to fill their quotas, paying 
what was necessary for the purpose. 
These hired recruits were younger 
in years than many of those serving 




in the earlier part of the struggle. 

General Knox reported to the 
First Congress in 1790 all available 
data for the men furnished by the 
two States for the eighty-eight bat- 
talions. According to tins report 
New Hampshire never had more 
than twelve hundred and eighty-two 
men in the Continental line, and in 
1781 had only seven hundred. 
Massachusetts' highest number 
was se\aai thousand, eight hundred 
and sixteen in 1777. and in 1781 
had only three thousand, seven hun- 
dred and fifty-two. The total 
number of the Continental line in 
Washington's army was at its high- 
est in Y/77, when- according to 
Genera! Knox, it numbered thirty- 
four thousand eight hundred and 
twenty* men, which in 1781 had 
-shrunken to thirteen thousand, 
eight hundred and ninety-two. 

The year 1777 was one of great 
anxiety to the New England States. 
The British plan was for General 
Burgoyne to invade northern Xew 
York with an army of ten thousand 
men ; General Elowe to march up 
the Hudson nver with his army 
from Xew Yurk City and St. Leger 
to advance down the Mohawk val- 
ley from Fort Xiagara. These forces 
were to unite at Albany, crush Gen- 
eral Schuyler's troops, and then to 
invade, over-run and subdue the 
Eastern States. St. LegeCs army 
was beaten and dispersed at Orisk- 
any; General Howe went off on a 
campaign into Pennsylvania, but 
Burgoyne faithfully tried to carry 
out his part of the plan with an 
army of seven thousand regulars 
and a large force of Indians and 
Tories. Calls upon the militia of 
the two States were many and came 
often to resist the invasion. Bur- 
goyne reached northern Xew York 
early in the season, and in May, on 
a report that Ticonderoga was in 
danger, the Xew Hampshire Assem- 
bly ordered the militia Colonels to 
send all the force they could muster 

as soon as possible, to the point of 
danger. hour hundred and thirty- 
four men were called, but before 
the}" reached Ticonderoga, word 
came that the enemy nad fallen 
back, and the men were ordered 
home and discharged, after a little 
over a month's service. A few days 
later another alarm came that Ti- 
conderoga was again in danger, and 
the militia were once more sent out, 
but after marching part way it was 
reported that the iort had fallen and 
the men returned home after a 
service ,'of from four to fourteen 

in January of this year the State 
enacted a law that when an order 
came for men to the Generals of the 
militia, the Captains were to call 
tneir companies together and if a 
sufficient number did not volunteer, 
to draft the balance of the quota. 
If the conscript failed to appear 
and did not pay a hne of ten 
pounds, afterwards increased to 
ni'ty, he was then to be held and 
treated as a soldier. If he failed 
or refused to march when ordered 
he was to be fined twelve pounds, 
which was later increased to sixty 

On June 5th. a regiment of 720 
men was voted to be raised for ser- 
vice in Xew England for a term of 
six months. i hree hundred of 
these men were sent to Rhode 
Island. As stated before the men 
were to be paid a bounty of thirty 
shillings when they enlisted and a 
further bounty of four pounds, ten 
shillings when the}" were accepted, 
with the same, monthly pay as the 
year before. Officers were allowed 
six shillings for every soldier they 

On July 18th, the State Assembly 
reorganized its militia, into two bri- 
gades of nine regiments each, ana 
on the same day ordered a draft of 
one-fourth of the militia of the sec- 
ond brigade and three regiments of 
the first for a service of two months. 



Their pa}- was four pounds and ten 
shillings a month, The. whole draft 
was placed under the command of 
General Stark, ft was there troops. 
with the Massachusetts militia from 
Hampshire and Berkshire counties. 
that fought the battle of Bennington 
and afterwards joined General Gates 
at Stillwater. Their term expired 
on the very da}' of the battle of 
Benlis Heights and they marched 
home a few days later. 

A contemporary has left on rec- 
ord a description of one company 
of these men that marched out of 
New Hampshire on the 19th day of 
lulv to join General Stark, as fol- 

To a man they wore small clothes, 
coming down and fastening just be- 
low the knee, and long stockings 
with cow-hide shoes ornamented 
with large buckles, while not a pair 
of boot? graced the company. The 
coats and waist-coats were loose 
and of huge dimensions with colors 
as various as the barks of oak. su- 
mack and other trees of our hills 
and swamps could make them, and 
their shirts were all flax and like 
every other part of the dress, were 
homespun. On their heads was 
worn a large round-top and broad- 
brimmed hat. Their arms were as 
various as their costumes; here an 
old soldier carried a heavy King's- 
arm, with which he had done ser- 
vice at the conquest of Canada 
twenty years before; while at his 
side walked a stripling boy with a 
Spanish fusee not half its weight or 
calibre, which his grandfather may 
have taken at the siege of Havana, 
while not a few had old French 
pieces that dated back to the reduc- 
tion of Louisburg. 

Instead of a cartridge box a large 
powder horn was slung under the 
arm, and occasionally a bayonet 
might be seen bristling in the ranks. 
Some of the swords of the officers 
had been made by province black- 
smiths, perhaps from some farming 

utensils. They looked serviceable 
but heavy and uncouth. Such was 
the appearance of the Continentals 
to whom a well appointed army was 

soon to lay down its arms. After 
a little exercising on the Old Com- 
mon, and performing the then pop- 
ular exploit of whipping the snake, 
they briskly riled off on the road by 
the foot of Kidder Mountain and 
through the Sport ord gap towards 
Peterborough; to the tune of "Over 
the Hills and Far Away." 

Let no one smile at this descrip- 
tion. These men were the raw 
material out of which the very best 
soldiers in the world could be made 
by training and discipline, and it was 
their descendants that eighty-seven 
years later crushed the charge of 
Pickett at Gettysburg and in 1918 
cleared the Belleau Wood and the 
Argonne forest of the German 

Early in September the State or- 
dered one-sixth of the militia to join 
General Gates at Saratoga, and it was 
in service for only a month or six 
week. On the 17th of the same 
month a large number of volunteers 
out of the militia were also called 
and sent forward to the army at 
Saratoga. How man}' men were fur- 
nished out of this last call does not 
appear for many of the mili- 
tary rolls are missing. Some of 
them were in service six weeks, and 
some served as long as two months. 
Besides these men sent to the army 
in Xew York, the Asembly in June 
in response to a call from the Gov- 
ernor of Rhode Island, voted to 
raise a force of three hundred men 
for six months in that State A 
bounty of six pounds was offered 
them and their pay was two pounds 
a month. Four companies of two 
hundred men were also raised to 
guard the western and northern 
frontiers to serve till January 1st. 
They were to be paid ten dollars 
a month and one month's pay in 
advance. Besides these troops two 



companies were also recruited foi 
guards at Portsmouth. 


attention of both 

States was largely directed to Rhode 
Island and most of the men re- 
cruited, except for local service, 
were sent there. Early in the year 
New Hampshire voted to raise two 
hundred men for one year, and later 
added one hundred more, for duty in 
Rhode Island or elsewhere in New 
England or New York. They were 
ottered fifteen dollars a month with 
one month's pay in advance and a 
bounty of six pounds. The Com- 
mittee of Safety afterwards in- 
creased that bounty to ten pounds. 
Enlistments for this service were 
slow, and on the last day of May 
the Assembly voted to draft the 
men necessary to fill the call, who 
were to serve until the end of the 
year. The}- were offered a bounty 
of six pounds ; and four pounds, 
ten shilling's a month for pay. In 
August the same State voted to 
raise a brigade of five regiments, 
two thousand men. for one month's 
service in Rhode Island. They 
were paid five pounds a month, and 
were in service less than thirty days. 
The State also raised a regiment for 
the defense of the Connecticut River 
and offered the men the same 
wages, namely -six pounds a month. 
Besides these calls 420 men were 
ordered to be drafted ; their wages to 
be thirty dollars a month, for one 
month's service ; to guard the sea 
coast and different points within the 
State. Their terms were to expire 
the first of the following January. 
In 1779, the State voted three hun- 
dred men for the defense of Rhode 
Island to serve for the term of six 
months. They were offered a 
bounty of thirty dollars and twelve 
pounds a month. The State also 
raised twelve comp'anies and one 
regiment for local defense. 

In June 1780, the Assembly voted 
to enlist or draft nine hundred and 
fortv-five men for the defense of the 

United States for three months' 
duty. The soldiers were to be paid 
forty shillings per month, and said 
money to be equalled to Indian corn 
at tour shiillings a bushel, sole 
leather at one shilling, six pence 
per pound, and grassed beef at three 
pence per pound. If a man served 
until the last day of December. 1781. 
he was to receive in addition a suit 
of clothes. If he served until the 
last day of December, 17S2, he was 
to receive an additional suit. Under 
the same Statute ISO men Avere 
called for three months' service on 
the frontier and at Portsmouth Har- 
bor. This year the State also 
raised four companies of rangers 
for duty on the northern border, 
for a term of three months, and two 
companies to guard Portsmouth 
Harbor for nine months. In No- 
vember it was enacted that all men 
drafted for three or six months who 
did not march or pay their fine 
should be arrested and committed to 
jail. The following year. 1781, two 
companies were raised for a term of 
six months for local defense. In 
the last days of June it was agreed 
to raise by enlistment or draft, a 
regiment of six hundred and fifty 
men for the Continental army. The 
number of men each militia regi- 
ment was to furnish under this call 
was stated in the Act. If the draft- 
ed man refused to march at once, he 
was to be fined thirty pounds. In 
the following August the quota not 
being full, the towns were ordered 
to hire the number of men recptired 
to fill the quota, and the officers 
were to pay them in specie or the 
equivalent in produce. The pay 
was to be forty shillings per month, 
and the cost of hiring the men was to 
be assessed proportionally on the 
towns deficient in their quota. 

The number of. militia furnished 
by the two States cannot be ac- 
curately stated, owing to the loss of 
many of the military rolls. During 
the first two years, up to 1777, the 


the: granite monthly 

quotas Galled for were, in all proba- 
bility, substantially filled, but after 
January of that year, many were 
never fully answered. \\ ith one or 
two exceptions and excluding men 
for the Continental line, the militia 
officers were, up to that dale, direct- 
ed to enlist the men ; later they were 
directed to enlist or draft; and in 
the last years of the struggle were 
ordered peremptorily to draft or de- 
tach, which is the same thing. In 
truth the men were beginning to 
weary of the war. The calls for 
soldiers came every month, some- 
times three or four in a month. L T s- 
ually the demand was for voluntary 
enlistment but after the beginning 
of 1777 a threat of conscription was 
attached to the call accompanied by 
heavy penalties, not only upon men 
disobeying but also upon officers, 
civil authorities, and towns for neg- 
lect or refusal to carry out the law. 
The effect of all this was discour- 
aging. By 1778 most of the men 
had had a taste of military service, 
and many of them did not like it. 
Large numbers of the militia were 
men of mature years, owning farms 
and having dependent families. The 
calls often came in the busiest sea- 
son, planting or harvesting time, 
when their presence at home was 
absolutely necessary to keep their 
wives and children from want. One 
of General Stark's most trusted offi- 
cers and one who commanded the 
escort of the Burgoyne prisoners to 
Boston, was obliged to go without 
leave to New Hampshire to save his 
crops, lie states in his excuse to the 
authorities that his family was then 
sick; that his fields lay exposed to 
ruin; and that it was impossible 
to hire a person capable of taking 
cafe of his sick family and crops, 
though he used his utmost endeavor 
so to do. This is probably a fair 
statement of the situation with many 
of the men called to service. The 
laws, especially those relating to the 
recruiting of the eighty-eight bat- 

talions, were very severe. Every 
man drafted had to go or furnish a 
substitute within twenty-four hours, 
or pay a penalty of ten pounds or 
more. These harsh terms did nut 
increase the popularity of the service. 

L nder ail these conditions men were 
slow to enlist and if they did so, it 
was to avoid conscription. When 
their terms were out they insisted 
on immediate discharge, regardless 
of what the military situation was 
at the time. "I have had my term," 
the man would say. "I have fought 
bravely. Let my neighbor do like- 
wise." Perhaps the neighbor, from 
patriotic motives and anxious for a 
chance to fight the enemy, enlisted, 
but the battle he enlisted to tight 
did not come off in a month, two 
months, or three months. His ardor 
cooled; he grew homesick to see 
his wife and children. Then he 
would be sent to the hospital. 
From this the road to desertion was 
broad and straight, and he often took 

Washington repeatedly urged up- 
on Congress the futility of relying 
on the militia. "The soldier being 
told of the greatness of the cause he 
was engaged in replied that it was 
of no more importance to him than 
to others ; that his pay would not 
support him and he could not ruin 
himself and his family." "Men," 
Washington continued, "just drag- 
ged from the tender scenes of do- 
mestic life, were not accustomed to 
the din of arms and every kind of 
military .skill. When opposed by 
veteran troops they were ready to 
fly from their own shadows. The 
soldier's change in manner of living 
and bodging brought sickness to 
many, and impatience to all, and 
such unconquerable desires as . to 
produce shameful and scandalous 
desertion among themselves, that in- 
spired the same spirit in others. 
Men accustomed to unbounded free- 
dom and no control, cannot stand 
the restraint necessary to good disci- 


plitie. If I were called upon to de- 
clare on oath whether the militia 
had been most serviceable or most 
. harmful, I should subscribe to the 
latter. " 

And then too, both militia officers 
and the Selectmen and Committees 
of towns were not only slbw but 
negligent in filling the calls. The 
State passed Statutes remonstrating 
with them, and demanding that they 
complete tlfir quotas forthwith. In 
some cases heavy penalties were im- 
posed upon towns and officers if 
they neglected to till their call within 
a certain date, and lines were as- 
sessed upon them for each soldier 
deficient in the number required to 
fill the quota. Desertion was a terri- 
ble evil and the army suffered se- 
verely on account of it. The mili- 
tia would sometimes march off 
home in squads and companies with- 
out leave or license. 

The currency condition intensi- 
fied the difficulty. The pay of the 
soldiers was originally fixed in 1775 
and 1776 when paper money was on 
v. par with silver. In January. 
1777, it took one and one-fourth in 
bills to equal one in silver. Janu- 
ary, 1778. the ratio was four to one. 
It steadily declined till 1780, when- 
fur a few months, it stood sixty to 
one, and in November of the same 
year, one hundred to one. In May, 
1781, the currency had become en- 
tirely worthless and ceased to circu- 
late, h is hard now to imagine the 
chaos which ensued and the dissatis- 
faction, varying from hitter remon- 
strance to open mutiny, which this 
bred in the army. Men who had 
early enlisted into the Continental 
line, in the earlier years of the war 
deserted in numbers ; went home and 
re-enlisted on the quota of some 
other town for the sake of the large 
bounties offered. From the close 
of 1778, the men were virtually serv- 
ing without pay and all the while 
as they well knew, their families 
were in danger of destitution. They 

were compelled to run heavily in 
debt. The State struggled with the 
problem the best it was able, but 
could not afford much, relief. Things 
eventually came to such a condi- 
tion in consequence, that open riots 
and 'blood-shed occurred in New 
Hampshire: and in Massachusetts 
the troubles developed into Shay's 

During the last years of the war 
it will be observed the State heavily 
increased the pa}- and bounties of- 
fered the men. While in part, this 
was due to the depreciation of the 
currency, still in part the increase 
was ottered to stimulate enlist- 
ments; yet it failed to bring the 
hoped-for results, and did not at- 
tract men to the army. These 
things, well known to everyone fa- 
miliar with the history of the war, 
bring into clear relief the defects of 
the militia system as a method to 
fight a great war. 

The weakness of the militia as a 
fighting force, hardly needs restat- 
ing. It will fight bravely behind 
breastworks. General Putnam said 
of it at Bunker Hill that "the Ameri- 
cans are not afraid of their heads 
but only think of their legs." It 
will also stand for a time against 
an enemy in front, but it cannot be 
depended upon under a flank or rear 
movement of the enemy. When it 
breaks it generally throws away its 
arms and accoutrements and' cannot 
be relied upon to take further part 
in the action. While a well disci- 
plined regiment will often break un- 
der a prolonged or overwhelming 
front fire, or by an attack upon its 
flank or rear, yet it can be rallied 
again and brought back into the bat- 
tle ; its organization is never lost. 
This was demonstrated on many 
fields during the Revolutionary and 
the Civil wars. At Bunker Hill, 
Saratoga and Bennington the mili- 
tia fought creditably, but it was 
either behind breastworks or the foe 
was in front of it. Vet at Camden 



and in many other battles it broke at 
the first fire and was not again an 
.effective force on that field. 

Why the colonies should 'nave 
continued to employ such a feeble 
instrument is not far to seek. The 
dread of a standing army was in- 
grained in the very nature of the 
people. They not only feared it, but 
would not adopt any policy which 
looked towards its establishment. 
The Continental Congress had no 
authority over the States. Each 
colony was not only independent 
hut jealous of it. While Congress 
could recommend and express a de- 
sire, the States would fill their quota 
in their own way and on terms of pay 
and length of service to suit their 
own convenience. The men of the 
Continental line which was enlisted 
for three years or the war, were the 
backbone of the army and Washing- 
ton's main support throughout the 
conflict. It was the staying force in 
every battle, and always gave a 
good account of itself. It fought 
the veteran soldiers of England as 
bravely as men could, and showed all 
the courage and stubborn qualities of 
the best American troops, exemplified 
so many times in the battles of the 
Civil war, and in the recent struggle 
in France. 

In the Civil war the main reliance 
for the first year and a half was on 
the volunteer system, but after the 
autumn of 1862, when patriotic en- 
thusiasm had somewhat cooled, it 
was found necessary that a resort 
should be had to some other meth- 
od. The Conscription Act of that 
year was designed to supplement 
the volunteer policy As a matter 
of fact, while it was vigorously en- 
forced in the summer of 1863, in 
later years it was little employed. 
When calls for men were issued and 
the quotas assigned to the different 
towns, men were hired to fill the 
quotas. Citizens, both those liable 

to draft and many also beyond mili- 
tary age would engage a. substitute 
to take their places in the army. If 
there was still a deficiency the towns 
would hire men enough to complete 
their quotas, so that conscription 
was not necessary. The men hired 
by the citizens were often from the 
vicinity, but usually were obtained 
through bounty brokers. The towns 
generally went to these brokers for 
recruits. These so furnished were 
the very scum and off-scourings of 
our large cities. The brokers 

would hire them for what they were 
willing to accept, and the brokers 
got the bounty offered by the Na- 
tional Government, by the State and 
by the town. The substitutes them- 
selves were professional bounty 
jumpers and usually deserted at the 
first opportunity. As soon as the}' 
could get away, they would go to 
some other town, enlist under 
another name, and so continue to 
do as long as they could find brok- 
ers to hire them, until the war 
closed. Very few of them ever did 
any military duty, and the custom 
was the great scandal and disgrace 
of the war. It was not so during 
the Revolution because that class of 
men did not exist ; and while during 
the last years of the conflict the 
towns rilled their quotas by hiring re- 
cruits, they were men from the vi- 
cinity, and were as good material 
for soldiers as could be found. The 
experience of the United States in 
the three great wars in which it has 
taken part, has justified the policy 
adopted in the World war of raising 
men by draft under a well-con- 
sidered and carefully guarded con- 
scription act. It is the most equita- 
ble and most democratic method to 
fill the armies of a Republic. It is 
very unlikely that in any future war 
the country will raise its armies by 
anv other method. 



By Carolyn Hiliwah 

I, Ulysses, 

have finished wandering. 

Nevermore, ah nevermore 

for me 

the bright blue of the waters, 

frothing into white about the Islands. 

Nevermore the Islands, 

warm and brown, 

rising like sardonyx stones 

from the turquoise sea. 


Nevermore the tawny beaches, 

hot in the noon sunshine. 

where the traders landed 

from the Tyrian ships 

throw down long bales 

which loosed from their 

encircling cords, 

spill yellow amber. 

ivories and sweet smelling musk, 

rich silks in shimmering folds 

of violet and rose, 

of saffron and pearl. 

Nevermore, O Iacchus 

to grasp thy robe, 

as through the dark cedars 

thou passest. illusive, alone. 

here with me for one 

mad moment divine, 

then gone, 

lost in the shadows. 

And Thebes, 

seven-gated Thebes! 

Nevermore the pale, low -lying moon 

will light for me the dark ways. 

the throngs tumultuous. 

the faces of maidens, 

wan in the torch flare. 

Nevermore Circe. 

to drink with thee 

from the violet veined marble. 

the dark seeded wine 

with the vine-h 

about the bowl's brim. 


Nevermore will I. Ulysses, 

drain the hot wine of passion, 
of love, of wandering. 
Now for me the tame clays 
the long nights unbroken 
except by the cry 
of the lost Philomela., 
whose agony rings 
again, ah ever again, 
in my ears ! 

Nevermore on Pelion 

to see the centaurs 

race madly ; 

gallop on swift hooves 

with necks arched, 

cutting the wind 

like ships that sail 

with white sheets 

and snapping halyards, 

sweeping through a jacinth sea. 

Nevermore to see the rocks of Delos 

nor Daulis, 

where the mountain ash 

trails its red berries 

in the green flowing brook, 

flowing forever to the salt seas. 

Nevermore, ah nevermore 
will I. Ulysses, wander 
careless, like the south wind, 
by waters Aroanian, 
by the deep streams, 
where the singing fish leap, 
where the lofty .Cylene 
sleeps in deep snows. 

The Cods will see me no more 
on land and sea, a wanderer, 
Now will the sweet lavendar 
and the blossoming oleander, 
the yew and the myrtle, 
the white and purple irises 
flower and fade, 
fade and flower 
while I, Ulysses, 
> ■ keep my home, 

wither, grow old, 
" and at last lay me down to die. 
Then the Dark River— 




By Louise Piper Wemple 

I wandered thro the countryside 

One sparkling day in Spring, 

1 heard the robin's early call 

Blend with the brook's lew murmuring; 

Pink petals drifted down from flowering trees, 

And in my path, dew drenched the violets lay, 

All Xattire to triumphant life awoke 

Beneath the quickening touch of early May. 

At last beside a grassy, wind swept knoll. 
Weary I sat me down to rest 
Upon a wide, low granite stone, 
By purple lilac blooms caressed ; 
And 'mid the riot of growing things, 
By time, its edges smoothed away. 
I The rough hewn doorstep only now remained. 

Of the old home of earlier dav. 

For but a yawning cavern showed 
Where once had stood the ancient dwelling place, 
And here and there a few rough stones 
Of the strong foundation could I trace; 
Among the scattered stones, rank weeds and grasses grew, 
And blue green sage and tawny tansy cast 
I Dim shadows, where a sluggish adder slow uncoiled, 

Rustling the grasses as he passed. 

Then as I sat there, dreaming in the sun. 

Vanished all signs of ruin and decay, 

I saw again the old time home restored. 

With time just tinting it to mellow gray; 

I saw the spreading eaves, where snowy pigeons cooed 3 

The latticed stoop, where woodbine's banners hung, 

And lilacs bloomed beside the wide stone step 

And to the breeze their fragrance flung. 

The vision passed, but in its sunken bed. 
Half hidden 'neath the riotous bloom of May 
A monument to days well-nigh forgot, 
The time worn granite door stone lay; 
Where once resounded tread of eager feet, 
And where had echoed lilting voices call, 
Where past the stir of fervid human life, 
But shadows of the lilacs fall. 




By Caroline Stetson Allen 

Continued from December issue. 

Chapter III. 


In an early morning of February 
in the following winter, the two girls 
were sitting together in Alicia's 
room. It was a pretty room, the 
prevailing color primrose yellow, but 
Louisa thought that the brown sweat- 
er thrown over a chair should have 
been in a drawer, and that the floor 
was hardly the place for her friend's 

"I wanted to bring the letter over 
to you last night, it's so exciting," 
said Alicia, "but I couldn't because 
some boring old callers came-" 

"Oh. Alicia," said Louisa reprov- 
ingly. "Wasn't it the minister?" 

"Yes" and his sister. They talked 
two hours about Roman excavations. 
I saw Father yawn three times." 

Louisa had her own opinion about 
that, but she kept silence. 

"Here's the letter. — at least I 
thought it was here," said Alicia, rum- 
maging recklessly in her top drawer. 
"1 guess I left it downstairs. Wait 
a minute." 

She soon returned, an elegant look- 
ing missive in her hand- The paper 
was thick and white, with monogram 
in gold. 

"It's from Elsie Redpath." 

Alicia read the letter aloud rap- 
idly. It contained an invitation to 
both girls to visit Elsie for the next 
fortnight in New York, and Mr. 
Redpath wished to make all ex- 
penses of the trip his care. 

"Oh, won't it be too delicious!" 
cried Alicia. 

'AYe can't decide right off so," said 
Louisa. "Perhaps Mother can't spare 
me." She had, however, fully de- 
termined to go. It certainly would be 

the height of folly to miss such an 

"You just must go! It won't be 
for long. Mother said right off I 
could. Can't Miss Hadley come over 
and stay with your mother?" 

"Perhaps so," replied Louisa. I'll 
ask her. She would be a good one." 

"Yes, she would. She's always so 
careful about tilings- Oh, Louisa, 
we'll have the time of our lives! If 
only my clothes will do!" her face so- 
bering suddenly. 

"I shall fix over my best green," 
said Louisa thoughtfully, "and it's 
time 1 had a new hat anyway. I'll 
buy it in New York as soon as we're 
there. My old dark blue will do to 
travel in." 

"I didn't get much this winter," 
said Alicia, "Father seemed so hard 
up. Anyway, Elsie won't care a rap. 
Hurrah for New York!" And she 
began to waltz about the room. 

\\ hen Louisa reached home she 
joined her mother to talk the matter 
over. Mrs. Acton at once saw the ad- 
vantages to her daughter of this little 
peep into the world, and agreed, too, 
that it would be a sensible plan to ask 
M iss Had ley to take Louisa's place 
during the visit. As Mrs. Dale was 
equally alive to what the New York 
stay would mean for Alicia, the girls 
entered with zest into their prepara- 
tions, after each sending an enthusi- 
astic acceptance to Elsie Redpath. 

Then, the day before they were to 
start, Mrs. Gray fell severely ill with 
inflammatory rheumatism. Every at- 
tempt to secure a nurse proved una- 
vailing, and Mr. Gray, in his alarm 
and anxiety, appealed finally to 
Louisa, as the elder of the two girls. 
Louisa saw him coming up the path, 
and went to the door. 

"Good morning, Mr- Gray," she 
said, "i hope Aunt Helen is better?" 



"Xo. Fm a Irak 
'--' Mr. Crav. 

died high and low," said 
and so has Dr. Bond. 

1 she isn't so well," 
:epiiea my. uray. "J can't stop, but 
I wont keep you in the cold."— and he 
stepped into the warm hall. Louisa 
brought him a chair, and seated her- 
self near. 

"I've scare 
Mr. Gray 
Nurses seem to have slipped out of ex- 
istence,— the country is void of them. 
My dear Louisa 5 '— his eyes fixed 
auxiousl) on her calm and pretty face 
— "would it be a possible thing — I 
know all I'm asking — to come to us. 
and do what you can for my poor 
wife for a week ? Dr. Bond has got 
in touch with a Miss Kent who may 
be free by that time." He hastily 
added, as he saw Louisa was about to 
reply, "You won't have to do any lift- 
ing, — I can do that myself. And it 
would be perfectly possible, if you 
wished, for you to go home nights." 

Louisa's face expressed the sympa- 
thy and regret she felt. 

"I'm so very sorry, Mr. Gray, I have 
a positive engagement in Xew York, 
beginning tomorrow. I don't believe 
you knew about, though I think Aunt 
Helen did. Alicia and I are going to 
visit the Redpaths there. 1 am so 
very sorry! Do let me know if there 
is anything I can get for Aunt Helen, 
and send from Xew York." 

"I don't at tins moment call any- 
thing to mind," said Mr- Grav, in a 
tune of deep dejection, and rising, 
"Well my dear, 1 see how it is. I 
mustn't stop." 

"lie might have wished me a good 
time," thought Louisa, as she watched 
him walk quickly down the road. 

Mr. Gray, hurrying to rejoin his 
wife, took the short cut through the 
little patch of home woods, now 
lightly covered with snow. And here, 
by the long-deserted veery's nest, he 
came upon Alicia, taking an idle 

"Good morning, Mr. Gray!" said 
she. "I had a letter from Bob this 

morning. I'll bring it over to Aunt 
Helen by-and-by." ' 

"I fear she isn't quite able today." 
said Mr. Gray. "The boy's well, L 
be?— She became much worse in the 
night. She's in great pain." 

"Oh, Mr. Gray ! I had no idea. 
Have you a good nurse?" The tears 
stood in Alicia's eyes. 

"That's the trouble- We can't find 

"Dear Aunt Helen !-- Could I be 
of any use? 1 helped nurse Father 
once, when he had sciatica. He was 
sick, too ! Let me come right over 
and try. LI! stay till you get some- 
body better. Let me!" Pleaded 

Her old friend could see the sin- 
cerity of her desire, and his face 
brightened a little. 

"But your visit/' he said, remem- 
bering. "Louisa tells me you leave 
tomorrow for X'ew York." 

Alicia placed a brown-mittened 
hand upon his arm. ''Little Old Xew 
York may be a cunning little town in 
its way." said she, "but it isn't Aunt 
Helen. How could I enjoy frivoling 
around if I knew all the time she 
was suffering so here? 1 just. 
Ci^tkhi't! So don't go and think it 
any sacrifice." 

"But," began Mr. Gray in perplex- 
ity. — "There isn't any 'but,' ' said 
Alicia. "It's all settled,— that is, if 
you like to have me." Alicia surely 
knew how to make her voice irresis- 

"It would, I admit, take a great 
load off my mind," said Mr- Gray, 
"but are you sure your mother will 
deem it wise ?" 

"Mummy? Good gracious! do you 
think she hasn't a heart ?"said Alicia. 
"Expect me in an hour." And she 
turned, and ran back through the 
woods toward her own home, un- 
heeding a last remonstrance called 
after her by Mr. Gray. 

Alicia was as good as her word. 



Her little straw suitcase, in which 
she tossed the few necessary changes 
would riot have passed an examination 
on skilful jacking, but everything 
needful was there, even to three long- 
white aprons. 

"I'll send Maggie over- excry day. 
to see if there's anything you want," 
said her mother, "and you can send 
back by her anything for the wash." 

Louisa didn't accept easily bier 
friend's decision, and was astonished 
that Alicia, usually so ready to follow 
her lead could be so "obstinate." 

''You're acting very foolishly," she 
said. "Rheumatism isn't a dangerous 
thing. And of course a doctor, if he 
is any good at all, must be able to 
find a nurse, besides," as Alicia 
was about to speak, "this is a very 
unusual opportunity for us. It is 
our duty, to broaden ourselves when 
we can." 

"I'd rather stay narrow, when it's 
a question of Aunt Helen's comfort," 
said Alicia. "Give my love to Elsie, 
and tell her I'm sorry." 

"She'll think it queer," said Louisa- 
"It isn't likely she'll invite you again." 

Alicia looked troubled. She was 
fond of Elsie. But she didn't waver. 

"Alicia's changing, I think," said 
Louisa later to her mother. She's' 
growing self-willed and opinionated. 
I'm sorry, chief! v for her own sake." 

Chapter IV 


Mrs. Gray knew that her husband 
had gone to get Louisa to come, if 
possible, for some days. No sooner 
had he left the house, however, than 
she began nervously to wish that she 
had not consented to his doing so. 
An exaggerated vision arose in her 
mind of the kind of nurse Louisa 
would be. "She'd have a time set by 
the clock for me to turn over in 
bed," she said to herself, "and she'd 
put rny books in an even pile, so I'd 
want to fire them across the room." 

She tossed and turned; and when, at 
last. Mr. Gray came upstairs, stepping 
with gingerly tread lest he wake her, 
she could hardly wait for him to ap- 
pear in the doorway. 

"Did you get her?" she asked 
quickly. "Yes, my dear," replied her 
husband in a satisfied tone- ' "She is 
more than willing to come. — more 
than willing," he repeated. 

Mrs. Gray half groaned, and turned 
her head to the wall. 

"I thought it was your own wish,' 
said Mr. Gray, slightly crestfallen. 
"Alicia's young to be sure, but, — " 
t ."Alicia!" came in a different voice 
from the bed . 

"Yes, Oh, we did think first of 
Louisa, I know. She would have been 
glad to come, but she goes to New 
York just at this time. On a visit to 
a young friend, I believe." 

"So it's Alicia! Charles, tell Bridget 
to get out the new quilt, and put it on 
the blue-room bed. And Charles," 
as he was about to obey, "take the little 
stand from the corner here, and put 

it in the blue room. Let me see 

Well, go along, and I'll think what 

Charles went along. He was ac- 
customed to follow any suggestion of 
his wife's, and his mind was im- 
mensely relieved to find that the 
younger of the two girls was evident- 
ly more to her mind, than the probably 
more competent elder. 

Alicia came. . Why she was just 
such a success was a mystery to the 
doctor, to Aunt Lizzie (to whom they 
wrote in her distant home), and to 
the neighbors in general- She made 
her first entrance by tripping and fall- 
ing into the invalid's room. She 
promptly forgot two of a list of direc- 
tions given her by the doctor. And a 
curious slow-passing neighbor dis- 
tinctly heard her laugh. But Mrs. 
Gray declared herself perfectly suited. 

"She's good and wholesome to 
look at," she said to her husband. 
"And she isn't nailed to her own way. 



She's first-rate company, and makes 
me forget my pain half the time. 
"i^es, Charles, whoever asks, you tell 
them Alicia's a nurse worth having/' 

"But she forgot Dr. Bond's mix- 
ture." said Mr. Gray. 

"Drat the mixture!" said his wife. 
"It's hitter as gall. I'm only too 
thankful 1 missed one dose of it." 

Alicia won high praise from Bridg- 
et. "She never asks for wan thing 
for herself," was her verdict. "She'd 
take her coffee cold, and any scrap I 
put before her. But she'll not take 
take her coffee cold ! It's a trate to 
do for her, if 'tis only to see the 
purty smile av her!" 

If Alieia felt a little disconsolate 
when she read the letters that came 
from Louisa, with their accounts of 
gaieties and sight-seeing, she was care- 
ful to shake off any least trace of 
such regrets before she regained her 
charge. It was always a bright- faced 
nurse that sat beside Mrs. Gray, and 
read to her the long letters from 
Robert to his mother, or from a 
magazine or book. When Airs. 
Gray's pain was severe, Alicia's touch 
was gentleness itself, and before long 
the whole household relied on her ex- 
plicit!} . "Ask Alicia," - — — "Alicia 
will know," were words often heard. 

When the girl felt sure that Mrs. 
Gray was asleep and free from pain, 
she would change her dress of white 
linen for one of dark woolen, get 
into a heavy cloak, slip out of 
the house, and on snowshoes make 
her way to the veery's nest- 
She seldom stayed more than ten or 
fifteen minutes, but it rested her to 
be in the different sort of quiet one 
finds in the woods, — a quiet thrilling 
with strong growing life, and devoid 
of fussy insignificant noises. 

Here she brought her own letters 
from Robert to read over. He was a 
faithful correspondent, and in the 
half-year's letters to her had said more 
of his serious interests than he ever 
had when thev were together- Alicia 

thought herself a poor letter-writer, 
but in her few letters she accom- 
plished what Louisa's carefully com- 
posed letters did not, — she made her- 
self present; each expression was her 
very own. The brief letter might 
be misspelled — it often was — but it 
breathed the charm of naturalness 
ami brought to a rather homesick 
you n<g man the. very air of his native 

There was more than one reason 
for her not staying long by the 
veery's nest. The weather was now 
intensely cold. Louisa had barely 
left for New York, when there came a 
sudden drop of many degrees in the 
mercury, The cold relentlessly in- 
creased, and was followed by a heavy 
snow-fall. Outlying roads became 
most of them, impassable, and the 
nurse finally secured, who was to 
take Alicia's place that the girl might 
have the tail-end of the New York 
visit,, was hopelessly snowbound in a 
remote town still further north. 

Alicia's disappointment was lessened 
by the evident relief of Mrs. Gray in 
keeping her on. Mr. Gray, too, in 
somewhat cumbersome language, ex- 
pressed his gratification. 

Alicia's job called for patience, in 
spite of her whole-hearted gladness to 
be of help. Mrs. Gray had hardly in 
all her life known what actual ill- 
ness was, and the pain she now had 
to endure — at times severe — made her 
often irritable and unlike her usually 
well-balanced self. Mr. Gray was 
kindness itself, but his efforts were 
somewhat clumsy and wanting in 
tact- He was apt to appear at inop- 
portune moments. Alicia,— well, as 
Bridget put it to Timothy, the man- 
of-all-work. " 'Tis the swateness of 
her!" Alicia's sunshine held out for 
the family through what would other- 
wise have been a totally dreary period. 

Toward the middle of the second 
week, Mrs. Gray began to gain more 
decidedly. The pain no longer was 
severe, and she could sleep through 



the night, and enjoy Alicia's com- 
panionship through the day. So fi- 
nally came the day when Louisa was 
to leave New York, and Alicia return 
to her own home. 

Alicia woke early on the last morn- 
ing, a glow of happiness at her heart. 
She had been a comfort. Little had. 
been said, but there was something in 
the way in which Airs. Gray had last 
night taken the girl's two hands in 
hers, and held them close for one 
moment, that was better than words. 

When Alicia parted her blue cur- 
tains to look otit on an early morning 
world, it was a sort of fairyland that 
met her eyes. For after all the snow, 
the weather had the day before mod- 
erated, and a slight rain fallen, 
turning before morning to ice. Every 
twig on every branch glittered in its 
bath of sunbeams. Alicia caught her 
breath, at the beaut}' of it. 

Across the tip of Moat drifted a 
fleecy scarf of mist, and far in the 
distance Washington reared majestic 
in white shining robes. The air was 
as clear as a bell, and again penetra- 
tingly cold, and the girl's healthy 
young blood tingled responsively as 
she took her icy bath and got quick- 
ly into her clothes- Her room was 
unheated except by the warmth that 
came from the hall when she left her 
door open. 

Peeping into Mrs. Gray's room as 
she passed through the upper hall, and 
finding her sound asleep, Alicia took 
a hasty bite in the pantry, and was 
soon outdoor i> and had strapped on 
her snowshoes. 

As she made her way toward the 
veery's nest through the gleaming 
pines and fir balsams, an icy twig 
snapped here and there with a tink- 
ling sound, musical, as if the elves of 
the wood were playing their chimes 
to greet the early day. And here 
was the veery's nest, lined with silver, 
and folded about with a napkin of 
snow. Alicia knelt, and touched her 
lips to the cup's rim "To Robert!" 

she whispered, as if the elves might 
hear. "And Aunt Helen. Let her 
keep well for him." 
- She started at a sudden sound. It 
was only a rabbit within a stone's 
throw, eyeing her alertly, and ready to 
vanish if she stirred. He made 
such a charming picture that Alicia 
kept as still as she could, and longed 
for her camera. A moment or two. 
audi he was away. She must go 
back. But first she drew from her 
pocket a letter from Robert to Louisa, 
which the latter had forwarded with- 
in one of her own. "Dear Louisa,'' 
it ran. "So you and Alicia are going 
to disport yourselves in the big city- 
I wouldn't mind very much being 
there at the same time. It seems 
about two years since I saw you all. 
How is Alicia? Tell her she doesn't 
keep up her end of correspondence. 
Does she seem older, or changed any ? 
How about Hurry? Of course Alicia 
can ride him whenever she likes. 
What have you both been up to?***" 
An account of his own doings follow- 
ed, of ranch life that evidently appeal- 
ed to him strongly, and then he wound 
up his letter with a few more ques- 
tions. Alicia was all right, wasn't she? 
She must be, he knew, but the let- 
ters he had got from her so far 
wouldn't fill the veery's nest. ****. 
Did Alicia play on his piano? He 
surely hoped so. Tell her that Dad 
and Mother would like it if she did. 

"This letter seems to be more for 
you than me," Louisa had penciled 
on the margin. "You needn't return 

Alicia's cheeks felt burning. She 
took up a handful of snow and 
rubbed them till they glowed like 
wild roses. 

Chapter V 
Xew York, February 14,1896 
Dear Alicia, 
It is not a week yet since I 



left North Conway, but 1 feel as if 

it were much longer. Not that the 
time has dragged in the least, but it 
has been full of so many new experi- 
ences. I feel myself such a different: 
person, and would not for the world 
have missed this broadening and en- 
larging experience. I'm afraid Mrs. 
Redpath won't ask you next year, 
as you thought possible, for she 
seems a little offended. I think, at 
your lightly refusing so generous an 
offer- You are too impulsive, I am 
afraid, for certainly you must by this 
time be regretting your mistake. 

Mr. Redpath's tastes are quite lit- 
eral'}', and many most interesting peo- 
ple come to the hottse. Already I 
have met and talked with two well- 
known authors- -Mrs. C — and Mr. R. 
I have been twice to the theatre, and 
tonight is Grand Opera. 

You asked if Elsie is as pretty as 
ever. How much you always think 
of looks, Alicia! Yes, I believe she 
is called very pretty, though I myself 
prefer the blonde type. She has a 
good many men callers, and two in 
particular rather haunt the house. A 
Mr. Islington, said to be fabulously 
rich, is bright, tall, and I must admit 
the finest looking man I have ever 
seen. He sat next me at dinner last 
night. I will tell you more about him 
later, for I saw more of him than 
of anvone else during the evening- 
hie wants to come to North Conway 
next summer, for he has never seen 
the White Mountains. The other 
man is Mr. Brown, who supports two 
elderly sisters, and has hardly a penny 
to his name. What the Redpaths see 


it is 

hard for me to under- 

stand. He has nothing to say for 
himself, and is bald and very 
stout. Yet his intimacy with Elsie 
seems to be encouraged. I cannot 
understand it. 

Well, it is time for me to dress 
for dinner and opera. I shall wear 
light green and rosebuds. A box of 
them has just come from Mr. Isling- 

ton. How charming of him! I 
haven't any proper opera cloak, but 
Elsie lias lent me one of hers, a 
beauty* of dark green velvet trimmed 
with swans down. 

1 thought Elsie seemed a little 
jealous about the rosebuds. She has 
known Mr. Islington a long time. If 
there is one fault above another I dis- 
like, and have always tried to avoid, 
it is jealousy. Now I think of it, 
Elsie has more than once shown 
signs of it since I came- If Mr. 
Islington finds it interesting to sit by 
me and talk with me the greater part 
of the evening, surely he has a right 
to do so, since he and Elsie are not 
engaged. If they were, that would be 
an entirely different matter. I natur- 
ally took an interest in him, as she 
had told me a great deal about his 
being such a fine character. Now I 
must dress, or I shall be late. Love 
to Aunt Helen. 



New York, February 18, 1896 
Dear Alicia, 

What a difference a few days 
can make in one's estimate of persons.! 
I find that my first impressions of 
Mr. Brown and Mr. Islington were 
very superficial. On closer acquaint- 
ance I find Air. Brown possesses a 
certain stability and dignity that has 
won my high esteem. He is not so 
very bald, and his eyes are a beauti- 
ful shade of blue. As to Mr. Isling- 
ton. — it was unusually stupid of me, — 
he is the peYmiless one with the two 
old sisters. It seems to me that he 
himself might have made that clear 
to me, since Elsie did not. If there 
is one fault above another I find it 
hard to forgive, it is duplicity. On 
after reflection it struck me as in 
poor taste, Mr- Islington's sending me 
the rosebuds There were at least two 
dozen of them, and he is far from 
being in a position to squander money 
on flowers, or on anything else. Elsie 



quite fired up when I said so to her. 
and implied, quite unjustly, that I had 
"led him on." 

I shall certainly not encourage that 

silly notion of his about coming to 
North Conway. It would look very 
marked, r.r.d I am not one to give 
encouragement indiscreetly'. For that 
reason I think I shall, from now on, 
not write so frequently to Robert, and 
I would advise you not to. Come to 
think of it, you haven't sent him 
many letters. Probably you haven't 
thought of him as a possible lover 
for either of us. 

You don't know how much more 
able I feel, from this visit to New 
York, to take the wide view of 
things. One admires Robert certain- 
ly, but what prospect is there of 
his ever having much of an income? 
It looks to me as if he meant to 
settle out at the ends of the earth 
on one of those ranches. What 
sort of a life would that be for 
either of us? 

They say Mr. Brown is immense- 
ly rich. He inherited two enor- 
mous fortunes. Yet he keeps at his 
business all the time, which is ad- 
mirable, I think. He is just com- 
ing to go with me over the Metro,- 
politan Museum, so good-bye for 
now. Love to Aunt Helen. 
In haste, 


New York, February 23, 1896 
Dear Alicia, 

Mr. Brown took me to see 
The School for Scandal last evening, 
and I had the most delightful time! 
You see what you are missing. I 
could stay here contentedly for 
weeks, but— this is private — for 
some utterly incomprehensible rea- 
son Mrs- Redpath. doesn't seem 
quite as cordial as she did at first. 
I can't think of any possible reason 
for this, unless it is, what friends 
of Elsie tell me, that Mr. Brown 

was xery attentive to her before I 
came. 1 suspect that all Mrs. Red- 
path attaches value to is the fact of 
his wealth, for it is perfectly evi- 
dent that Elsie is madly in love with 
Mr. Islington. If there is one fault 
I despise more than another it is 
worklliness. What I care about 
myself in Mr. Brown is his dignity 
and real worth.. 

There was something else I meant 
to tell you, but I can't now recall 
what it was. Mr. Brown is coming 
to call at five, and it is quarter of 
now. I must do a little to my hair. 
He says it is the prettiest he ever 
saw. Love to Aunt Helen- I shall 
be home soon, and then she will 
see me often. New York is al- 
together delightful, but nothing 
now would induce me to prolong 
the visit, for I am sure Aunt Helen 
needs me. This is the important 
time to be with her, when she is 
convalescing and really able to care 
who is near her. 



P. S. Mr. Brown has offered 
himself, and I have accepted. I am 
coming home directly, and will tell 
you everything then. I am so sor- 
ry I haven't had time to buy the 
scarf you wrote about. You can 
see how- every instant of my time 
has been filled. And the shopping 
district is so far down. And real- 
ly, Alicia, those scarfs are very ex- 
pensive, and if I were you I should 
think twice before deciding to buy. 
one. You may have my last year's 
gray one if you like. We shall marry- 
in May, and I mean to come on in 
April and get all my trousseau in 
New York. 

Chapter VI 


June! And Robert was coming 
tomorrow. Alicia wished the day 



had wings, and she kept restlessly 
busy from one task to another that 
the hours might hurry by. Hut 
In- the middle of the afternoon there 
seemed to he nothing' left undone in 
the little house, now in a state of 
unwonted tidiness, and Alicia de- 
cided to canw over a basket of wild 
strawberries to Mrs. Gray. She 
chose a pretty Indian basket, and 
heaped it with the spicy fruit, which 
grew near by. She added a deep- 
piiik wild rose, from the clusters 
that peered over the Dale's green 

Arrived at Tanglewild. she found 
Mrs. Gray putting some finishing 
touches to Robert's room. The 
green and white curtains had been 
freshly laundered, and a vase of 
mountain laurel stood upon the 

"I'm so 

glad you've come over, 
dear," said Mrs. Gray- You've 
for I was just 
i f you would 
to Stepping 
a pair of 

to ge 

eggs, and 

man is to 
said .Alicia, 

saved me some steps 
going over to see 
drive with me over 
Stones. I want 
chickens. and 

"I see your young 
have a royal welcome!" 
"Yes, I'd just love to go. I'll 
run back for my jacket." 

"Oh, don't trouble to do that. 
Take my plaid shawl. I engaged 
the carriage for four o'clock, and it 
ought to be here soon." 

A few minutes more, and it came, 
and Mrs. Gray and Alicia had set- 
tled themselves comfortably on the 
wide seat, and were on their way. 

Stepping Stones was a farm on 
the edge of Bartlett. and Alicia, 
who had always delighted in any ex- 
cursion to this region, was often 
Mrs. Gray's companion thither. Their 
way, for the latter part, lay beside 
the Saco River, and its gleaming, 
rippling waters were glimpsed be- 
tween the trees that grew thickly 
along its banks. The river wound 

about with a leisurely grace, and lay 
a wide blue scarf upon the dreaming 
light green meadows. 

"Do let's drive very slowly for 
awhile." said Alicia- "It is so 

"Get out for a minute or two if you 
want to.' said Mrs. Gray. "We've 
time enough for that. Run down 
to the river." She checked the 
horse as she spoke. 

Alicia made her way to the shore. 
How still it was, except for the 
swaying of some branches of weep- 
ing-willow ! As she stooped and made 
a hollow of her hand to drink from 
the clear water, she saw, close to her 
on the ground, perhaps thirty butter- 
flies, with folded wings. And now 
they rose, and fluttered together over 
the river, a shining, widening golden 

"I want to live in North Conway," 
said Alicia as she stepped back into 
the buggy, "because I always have 
lived there, and I love it. but it I ever 
chose to move it would be to Bart- 
lett. There is an indescribable charm 
about the place." 

"There is," assented Mrs. Gray- "I 
always took to Bartlett." 

And it suddenly entered the older 
woman's mind that the charm of that 
peaceful village was not unlike that 
of the girl herself in her quieter 
moods. Bartlett was unfinished, it had 
some inharmonious houses, but in the 
main there was about it a natural 
restful beauty, with unexpected de- 
lights for those who cared to wander 
among its fields and woods. 

They reached the hospitable farm, 
with its many outlying buildings, and 
while Mrs. Gray enjoyed a gossip with 
the farmer's wife, Mrs. Deane, Alicia 
strolled about and went finally into the 
great fragrant barn to watch the 
milking of the Jersey cows. 

Edith Dabney, a North Conway 
child visiting at the farm, ran into the 
barn, and came to a stand by Alicia's 
side. She was eleven vears old, 



strong and tall for her age, with a 
piquant face and curly light brown 
hair winch she shook about a good 

"Why is this place named 'Stepping 
Stones'? asked Alicia. 

"You see that brook over there. 
Stones' "? replied the little girl "No. 
I guess you can't see it from here, but 
you can hear it. It makes noise 
enough ! It cuts right across the 
farm- And in the widest part there's 
a lot of stepping-stones! We chil- 
dren all like the. brook the best of 
any part of the farm, 'cause we like 
sailing chips there, and going across 
the stones. It's awful tipply ! 

So we young ones got to saying, when 
we were coming here, that we were 
coming to Stepping Stones. Then 
Mrs. Deane's folks began to call it 
that, and everybody else." 

"Ir's a pretty name," said Alicia. 
Mrs. Gray and Alicia made no stop 
on their homeward road. Alicia 
hardly spoke. Her thoughts were of 
tomorrow, and of Robert coming. She 
wondered if he would be changed. 
She felt a queer unfamiliar shyness at 
the idea of meeting him. She knew 
one thing, — she was going to be very 
dignified, and entirely ■ grown-up. If 
she hadn't been quite that when they 
parted last year, she certainly was 
so now. Very likely he had thought 
her a silly thing ! Oh, she would be 
cordial of course, but reserved. How 
she lamented her former childishness ! 

"You must go to bed early," said 
Mrs. Gray, glancing at the girl's 
dreamy face- "We must be out- 
brightest for Robert tomorrow.' 

"I shan't be over tomorrow. Aunt 
Helen, dear," said Alicia, rousing her- 
self. "Robert can very well wait till 
the next day to see me." 

"You're always welcome, Alicia," 
said Mrs. Gray. "You know that, I 

"You always make me feel so, but 
I'll come the next day. I'd reallv 

rather. Or Robert can run over to 
see us. I've got some sewing for 
Mother 1 must finish." 

Mrs. Gray dropped Alicia at her 
own house. Supper would be late for 
them both. Alicia was very hungry 
after the long drive, and it was 
nearly eight o'clock when she had 
cleared away the remnants of food 
and washed the few dishes. She 
stepped out into the front garden 
where her father and mother were 

The air was deliciously cool and 
fragrant with near-by balsam and the 
roses that grew in profusion and were 
Alicia's pride. There were several 
varieties, and perhaps the kind Alicia 
loved best was the bush of soft-pet- 
aied old-fashioned white ones- She 
took one of these from the bush, and 
fastened it in the belt of her blue 

"I think I'll go and look at the 
veery's nest." she said, "else the 
mother- veery will think I'm offended, 
it's so long since I made her a real 

There had been a drenching rain 
two days ago. and the woods were at 
their freshest. Every leaf glistened, 
and the mosses and ferns were softly 
green under the light that filtered 
through the branches. A patch of 
wild strawberries busied Alicia's hands 
for a few moments. Seeing a strip 
of birch bark that lay upon the 
ground, she picked it up and formed 
it into a little basket for the berries. 

Through an opening among the 
pines she could just make out the 
"white horse" upon Humphrey's 

In all Alicia's after-life the recol- 
lection of what next happened had 
power to thrill her afresh. She had 
been so absorbed in her own thoughts 
that she did not hear quick steps 
coming over the pine carpet. Then 
Robert was before her. Robert more 
stalwart than ever, and deeply'tanned. 


Mis face wore a look of eager joy, At that moment, clear and vibrating- 

and he opened his arms wide. Alicia ly sweet, close over them, came the 

{lev/ into them, and her brown head matchless song of the veery. 
was on his breast. the end. 


(To former pupils, after reading Wordsworth's 
Ode on Immortality) 

By Eugene R. Musgrove 

Again I take the great Ode from its place 
And yield myself to its majestic sway. 
Across the page the same old glories play, 
-And ''trailing* clouds of glory" 1 retrace 
The gifts that glorify the commonplace; 
For tho we all like sheep have gone astray. 
Still Faith's unerring finger points the way 
With clearness that our doubts can not efface. 

But lo! today new "clouds of glory" come. 

Transfigured by the light of memory: 

In letters that would strike Belshazzar dumb 

Your names are flashed — with joy, with joy I see. 

And in my Arcady I count the sum 

Of all the nameless things you are to me. 

■ 1 


I i 
•; E 



The editor of the Granite Monthly 

was gratified to receive, recently, a 
letter from Mr. Brookes More in 
which the generous donor of the $50 
prize for the best poem published in 
the magazine during 1921 expressed 
his satisfaction with the results of 
the contest; said that his check was 
read_v for the winner when an- 
nounced to him by the judges; and 
expressed his willingness to con- 
tinue the competition through 1922 
under slightly changed conditions. 
It is needless to say that the Granite 
Monthly was pleased to accept Mr. 
More's suggestions and is glad to 
announce that he will award the 
same sum. $50, to the author 
of the best poena printed in the 
Granite Monthly during the year 1922. 
It is Mr. More's opinion, in which we 
coincide, that the best interests of the 
magazine and of the competition will 
be served by the adoption of the fol- 
lowing two rules: No "free verse" will 
be eligible for the prize and those who 
desire to enter the contest must be- 
come subscribers for the Granite 
Monthly. It is hoped to be able to 
secure the services of the same, board 
of able judges as for 1921 ; and it is 
also hoped that their decision of the 
prize winner for last year may be 
announced in the February number. 

Kind words for the Granite Month- 
ly in the state press arc frequently 
seen and highly appreciated. Says the 
Rochester Courier editorially : "The 
literary merit of the magazine has 
never been on so high a plane, and, 
with its devotion to the interests of 
New Hampshire, it is a distinct asset 
to the state. Long may it continue 
to flourish and prosper under its pre- 
sent management." The Claremont 
Eagle expresses pleasure that the 
continuance of the magazine for an- 
other year is assured and says :"Since 

1S78 it has been published and has 
never failed to live up to its mission 
as the 'New Hampshire State Maga- 
zine.' It should have a more generous 
support with its advancing years." 

In accordance with the terms of a 
concurrent resolution adopted by the 
legislature of 1921 a committee com- 
posed of former State Senator Elmer 
E. Woodbury of Woodstock, Admiral 
Joseph B. Murdoch of Hill and Major 
John G. Winant of Concord is engaged 
in securing by patriotic contributions 
the necessary funds for placing in the 
New Hampshire capitol a worthy por- 
trait in oils of Abraham Lincoln. 
An appeal will be made especially to 
the school children of the state during 
the second week of January and ten 
cents from each child would provide 
the sum thought necessary for the pur- 
pose. Contributions from other sour- 
ces will be welcome, however. 

The beautiful classic poem. 
''Ulysses." in this issue, is contributed 
by a member of the Boston Tran- 
script's literary department whose 
reviews over the signature of "C. K. 
H." have been widely appreciated and 
quoted. Friendship for the magazine, 
manifested by sending us so brilliant 
a poem as Mrs. Hillman's, is, indeed, 

Mr. Charles Knowles Bolton, libra- 
rian of the Boston Athenaeum and a 
member of the Massachusetts Histor- 
ical Society, is at work upon a third 
volume of his "Portraits of the 
Founders." He would like to hear 
of portraits of persons born abroad 
who came to the American colonies 
before the year 1701. 


We shall begin in the February opinion. The author, Mrs. Zillah 
Granite Monthly the publication of George Dexter, of Franconia, draws 
"Homespun Yarns from the Red Barn upon the experiences of her own girl- 
Farm" partly fact and partly fiction, hood among tire mountains for much 
but in both respects giving as true of her manuscript and the results seem 
a picture of rural New Hampshire 70 to us most interesting and enjoyable. 
■.ears ago as ever was printed, in our 


By Reignold Kent Marvin 

The tides of Riverrnouth at God's behest 

Sweep clean Xew Hampshire's seaport day by day 

And like good servants let no refuse stay. 

But broom it far to sea, now east, now west. 

So deep the thresh of tides, there is no rest 

For sunken skeletons of ships and men 

That ever grind in restless graves and then 

Moan low for quiet beds of bones more blest. 

But when at last the sea gives up its dead. — 

A risen fleet well manned by ghostly crew. 

The Spanish galleon and East Indian bark. 

A phantom argosy by Nereus led,— 

Will set worn sails the voyage to renew 

To sunset harbors gleaming through the dark. 


I * 






of Ma 

gasine Verse 



; i n c 

921. Edited 

by Wi 

Iliajii Stanley 




Joston : Small 

. May 

lard and Co. 

These two years, William Stanley 
Braithwaite ha"s more than maintain- 
ed his position as the nation's most 
brilliant critic of poetry. He lias "dis- 
covered" man}' American poets that: 
otherwise might have still heen sing- 
ing in obscurity, he knows the field 
of modern poetical endeavor as no 
other man on this side of the water, 
his appraisals end reviews are just. 
his opinions well founded, his annual 
collections of magazine verse' quite 
unequalled among all modern antho- 
logies. And in making these selec- 
tions from the year's output of per- 
iodical verse, Mr. Braithwaite rend- 
ers double service, on the one hand 
bringing the poets to the public, on the 
other bringing the public to the poets. 
EI is selections will curry favor with no 
particular group of stylists, will please 
no one cult. The are, in their way, 
well nigh universal. Conceivably, no 
one will enjoy every bit of verse in 
the anthology, but agree or disagree, 
it must be admitted that rarely have 
there been made selections so excel- 
lently impartial. To collect the best 
in magazine verse year by year can 
be no small task, yet for his part, Mr. 
Braithwaite is quite equal to it. His 
former anthologies are accurate mir- 
rors of the poetic trend of those times, 
in fact the student of American poet- 
ical progress in the Twentieth Cen- 
tury can do no better than read them 
through. They will teach him much 
that the ordinary book cannot. 

Even two such closely linked years 
as those of 1920 and 1921 offer in- 
teresting comparison. Some of the 
voices of last year are silent; others 
take their place- David Morton on 
the one hand and Edna St. Vincent 
Millay on the other, seem the two 
finest youthful lutanists of the day, 

Hazel Hall continues Iter even way, 
Elinor Wylie springs from nowhere 
to add no small bit to the output of 
'21. Sara Teasdale. Katharine Eee 
Bates, John Gould Fletcher, Mrs. 
Richard Aldington, Robert Erost, 
John Hall Wheelock, Edgar Lee Mas- 
ters, Amy Lowell, Scudder Middle- 
ton, Gamaliel Bradford, Edward O* 
Brien, Edwin Arlington Robinson. 
Clement Wood, Christopher Morley 
and Charles Wharton Stock appear 
and reappear through the two years. 
Amanda Benjamin Hall, Agnes Lee 
and Djuna Barnes, all promising 
figures of 1920, have nearly dropped 
from sight ; to take their places come 
Miss Wylie, John V. A. W'eaver, and 
Adul Tima, claiming first brilliance 
this year, perhaps to be forgotten the 

Moreover, in the back of the Antho- 
logy lurk yet new poets of the future, 
not a few of them identified with the 
Granite Monthly prize contest, per- 
haps making their first public appear- 
ance therein. Many of them, it 
seems, will go far. Next year will 
undoubtedly see some few honored on 
Mr. Braithwaite's pages. 

Oi the output of 1920, Mrs. Ald- 
ington's "The Islands," Miss A. B. 
Hall's "EJancer," Mr. Morton's "Gar- 
den Wall," Louis Ginsberg's "April," 
Miss Millay 's lyrics and Sara Teas- 
dale's, Conrad Aiken's "Asphalt," 
Margaret Adelaide Wilson's "Baby- 
lon." Mr. Masters' "A Republic," 
Miss Lee's "Old Lizette," Mr. Unter- 
myer's "Auction," and Miss Barnes 
"Dead Favorite," seemed the best. 
The pattern of 1921 is entirely dif- 
ferent; of them all. Miss Millay, Miss 
Teasdale. Mr Morton alone may 
match their excellences of the former 
year. The pick of the new collection 
seems Maxwell Anderson's "St Agnes' 


Katharine Lee Bate: 

'Brief Life," H. D.'s fragments of 

•V 698881 


Ancient Greece. Louise Ayres Gar- Robert Frost's lour poems of New 
nett's dialect verse, Mr. Morton's Hampshire, Winifred Viginta jack- 
two new sonnets. Adul Tinia's "W ild son's stern picturings of Elaine, E. 
Plum," Sara Teasdale's "The Dark A, Robinson's "Monadnoek Through 

Cup," Elinor Wylie's "Bronze Trum- the Trees" and Harold Vinal's 

pets and Sea Water." Of especial sonnet. 

interest to New Englanders are -Miss _ 

Millav's lyrics. H. C. Gauss's "Salem,'-' eiORL,ox Hillmax. 


\ By Edivard H. Richards 

At times I think I'd like to be 
§ A king or some celebrity ; 

A jeweled crown I'd like to wear 
A bard I'd be or genius rare; 
A knight, with purpose bold and high 
An aviator in the sky ; 
Such men as these appeal to me 
And any one I'd like to be 
| Except myself, a common man, 

- Who has to work and save and plan. 
But I have health and 1 have love ; 
The sun shines gladly up above.; 
My life is clean; I fear no foe, 
1 play my part as best I know, 
| I eat, I sleep. 1 smile. I sing; 

By Jove, why am I not a King? 


son and one of fiv 
and Emma (Plastrit 
November IS at his 


Frank Dunklee Currier was born at 
Canaan Street. October 30, 1853, the elder 
■ children of Horace 
s:e) Currier, and died 
home in Canaan. He 
had been an invalid since stricken with a 
shock of paralysis in Washington 10 
years ago. 

Air. Currier attended as a boy the 
Canaan schools and later the Concord 
High school, Kimball Union academy at 
Me'riden and Hixon academy at Lowell, 
Mass. Studying law with the late U. S. 
Senator Austin F. Pike at Franklin, he 
was admitted to the bar in 1874 and 
opened a law office in his native town. 

In 1879 he represented Canaan in the 
legislature; was clerk of the state senate in 
1883 and 1885 ; and being eleeted a mem- 
ber of that body for the session of 1*887, 
was chosen its president. From 1890 he 
was for four years naval officer of the 
pert of Boston. In 1899 he returned to 
the state house of representatives and 
was chosen its speaker. 

In 1900 he received his first election to 
the National Llouse from the Second New 
Hampshire District and there served for 
12 years, making a brilliant record as a 
parliamentarian, committee chairman and 
party leader. His close friend, Speaker 
Joseph G. Cannon, frequently called upon 
hirn to preside over the house ; he was a 
member of its all important committee 
on rules; and was chairman of the Re- t 
publican caucus. As chairman of the 
standing committee on Patents he secured 
the passage in 1909 of a new copyright 
law which was characterized by President 
Roosevelt as the session's best piece of 
legislation and which has stood admirably 
the test of time. To his patience, watch- 
fulness, good generalship and untiring 
labors was largely due the establishment 
of the White Mountain Forest Reserve. 

Congressman Currier was an ardent and 
devoted Republican throughout the politi- 
cal career which occupied so great a part 
of his life. In addition to the offices pre- 
viously mentioned, he was secretary of 
the Republican state committee from 1882 
to 1890; and delegate to the national 
convention of 1884. He was for a brief 
period judge of the Canaan police court 
and for many year moderator of its town 
meeting, never failing to make the trip from 
Washington when necessary in order to 
discharge the duties of the position. 

Mr. Currier received the honorary de- 
gree of Master of Arts from Dartmouth 
College in 1901. He was a member of the 

Masonic fraternity. In 1890 he married 
Adelaide K. Sargent of Grafton, whose 
death preceded his five years to a day. 
He is survived by two sisters, Mrs. Jennie 
Pratt of Concord and Miss Maud Cur- 

• By the terms of his will the town of 
Canaan receives $25,000 for the construction 
of the Currier Memorial Library and $3,- 
000 lor the encouragement of public 
speaking among the pupils of the schools. 


Rev. Henry Farrar, born in Lancaster, 
November 20 1831, died upon his 90th 
birthday in Yarmouth, Me.. He graduated 
fmm_ Bowdoin College in 1856 and after 
teaching for a few years entered the Ban- 
gor theological seminary from which he 
graduated in 1862. He served Congrega- 
tional parishes in Maine and New Hamp- 
shire until 1887, when he retired. 


Leander Morton Farrington. M. D., born 
in Conway. Jan. 8. 1S72, the son of Jere- 
miah and Ellen (Morton) Farrington, 
died suddenly in his office at Manchester. 
December 10. He was educated at the 
Portsmouth High school and the Harvard 
Medical school, from which he graduated 
in 1893, the youngest man in his class. 
For a number of years he practiced in 
Boston and then located in Manchester. 
where he served on the medical advisory 
board during the recent war; was a mem- 
ber of the staff of Notre Dame hospital, 
of city, county and state medical soci- 
eties, of the Masonic order and of the 
Calumet club and the Y. M. C. A. He 
is survived by his widow, two daughters, 
a brother and two sisters. 


Frank Parker Fisk, member of the legis- 
lature of 1919 from the town of Miiford, 
died there suddenly Dec. 2. Fie was born 
in Dublin, May 31, 1858, son of Levi and 
Sarah (White) F"isk, and as a young man 
was a school teacher. lie was prominent 
in the Grange, having been master of both 
Cheshire and Hillsborough Pomonas, and 
in the 1. O. O. F., where he was a past 
district deputy. Fie was a Republican in 
politics and a trustee of the Unitarian 
church. He is survived by his wife, who 
was Hannah SpofTord of Peterborough, 
and by one son, Charles. 

¥tw Kss-ij/ahire State Magazine 




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Union Church, early called the "English Church," at Claremont, New Hampshire 




Vol. L1W 


No. 2 

Tke Oldest Ghurch in New fiampsnire and a Mascju; 

Por trailing Its JCarlij liistonj. 
j-ebrge B. Upham 


The first parish of the Church of 
England in western New Hampshire 
was organized in Claremont in 1771. 
Its church is the oldest still standing 
in the state. It was built in 1773, on 
"the Plain," within the shadow of 
Twistback, a little south of Sugar 
River, and a tittle more than a mile 
from the Connecticut. The plans 
were sent from Portsmouth by that 
gracious Royal Governor, John Went- 
worth. It is designated on early maps 
as the ''English Church." 

More than a century ago water 
power on Sugar River, two miles to 
the eastward, gradually attracted the 
settlers away from this vicinity. Few 
of the old houses and none of the 
workshops that formerly clustered 
around the church now remain. (1) 
Today it stands almost alone, near its 
old burying ground under the pines. 
Services are, however, held here every 
Sunday, except in the severest months 
of winter. 

Many recollections of the writer's 
childhood center around this church, 
especially of the going there on Christ- 
mas Eve ; the swift-moving sleighs ; 
the crunch of the snow under the 
horses' hoofs; the jingling sleigh- 
bells; the snow- laden pines. The 
church comes into view, its many 
paned windows brilliant with points 

of light from row upon row of long, 
home-made tallow candles. 

Within the church a small forest of 
young pines and hemlocks line the 
walls and mark the old square pews. 
Long festoons of evergreen cross and 
recross overhead. The candles shin- 
ing through the green, and on the 
wonderful Christmas tree are seem- 
ingly increased a hundredfold. This 
fairyland, with the peals of the little 
wooden-piped organ— it was hand- 
made within a stone's throw of the 
church door — (2) the Christmas 
carols, and the beautiful service of the 
Church of England all contribute to 
a child's impressions still unfaded; im- 
presssions more dear and lasting than 
an}- of later years, even those of really 
wonderful Christmas services in great 
cathedrals many centuries old. 

An affection inspired by such 
memories led to the writing of a 
Masque, portraying something of the 
early history of this old church, so 
unique a monument among the hills. 
The characters are as follows : 

Ranna Cossit, first pastor of the 
parish, born in Granby, Connecticut, 
December 29, 1744. He was educated 
for his profession at the cost of the 
Society for the Propagation of the 
Gospel in Foreign Parts, ,3) and or- 
dained in London in December 1772. 

(1) The last of these was a wheelwright's shop which stood on the west side of the road 
and north of the burying ground. It was last used in ihe early sixties. 

(2) An advertisement appearing in the Claremont Spectator of September 19, 1823, reads 
as follows: "Organs, The Subscriber would inform the publick that he has engaged in Manu- 
facturing- Organs, a few rods north of Union Church in Claremont, where Church and 
Chamber Organs will be furnished on as gopd terms as can be obtained elsewhere, and as short 
notice as the complication of the work will admit. Will soon be completed an Organ well cased 
with It ml Gilt Pipes in Front adapted to the use of a Church or Meeting-home. Stephen Rice." 

The "Subscriber" was the son of Ebenezer Rice. Master Carpenter of the Church, and builder 
of the interesting pre-Revolutionary house for many years the home of the Rice Family, and 
later that of the Bancrofts. It was probably in one of their buildings, now used as a barn,, that 
the organs were made. No power was available, so- the work must have been done wholly by hand. 

(3; This Society was founded in 1701. Under the great seal of England it was created a 
corporation with this name. There were then probably not twenty clergymen of the Cnurch 
of England in foreign parts. Its work, educational and ecclesiastical, in "spiritually waste 
Places" of the earth has been extensive almost beyond belief, and still continues. 



Safety restricted his movements mere- 
ly to the Town boundaries — unless he 
should he called beyond them "to of- 
ficiate in his ministerial office." ""'' 

We learn from his letter dated 
New York, January 6. \77 ( K that he 
was provided with "a Hay," and under 
its protection visited loyalist friends in 
New York while that city was still 
in the possession of British troops. 

It appears, on the whole, that, offi- 
cially at least, he was treated with 
consideration, and that his "confine- 
ment," "trials" and "persecutions" 
have been grossly exaggerated. (7) 

In 1786. at the instance and cost 
of the Society, he removed to Syd- 
ney. Cape Breton Island, to become 
rector to St. George's church, also 
"Missionary to the Island." In 1788 
he returned to Claremont to bring his 
family to this new abode. 

Deprived by the Revolution of as- 
sistance from his patron Society — 
which by charter was restricted to 
using its funds in British Domin- 
ions—and with a large family to sup- 
port, it is doubtful whether Cossit 
could have remained in Claremont 
had he desired to do so. He died 
at Yarmouth, Nova Scotia, in 1815. 
A few of his letters have been pre- 
served in the archives of the Society 
in London. Some of their language 
is used in the Masque. 

Asa Jones was a young farmer, 
patriot and member of the church. 

(1) Cossit was appointed by the Society for Cue" Propagation of the Gospel a missionary to 
Haverhill, New Hampshire, on March 19, 177:3, and to Claremont at about the same time, for 
he arrived there sprrsf v eeks. <>r months, before July o. 1773. Until 1775 he "officiated at Clare- 
mont half this time, and hilf at Haverhill." See Journal of the Society, Vol. 10. pp. 3D9. 472. 
Vol. 20, p. 12.J 

(5) See a statement to this effect in Cossit's letter to the Society for the Propaga- 
tion of the Gospel, dated New York, January 6. 1770, hut in a letter dated January 10. 1731, as 
condensed in the Society's Journal. Co. c sit reported "That he is sorry to acquaint the Society 
that, upon some occasions, when his church has been frequented by people from the Dissenting 
parishes in the neighborhood, who have been very inimical and have threatened his life, he has 
been necessitated to omit the prayers fo- the King in the Liturgy; but when his own Parishioners 
only are present, he uses the whole Liturgy. He hopes the Society will not be displeased with 
this prudential step, by means of which alone he apprehends the Church of England has any 
existence in New England." Journal of the Society, Vol. 22, p. 260. 

(6) On December 2f>. 1774, Cos-sit wrote to the Society describing "the doings of the Lib- 
erty Men at Haverhill — he managed to escape from them to Claremont, where he has 
been ever since, 'with forty armed men' " Journal of the Society, Vol. 20, pp. 310-351. In 
his letter dated New York, January G. 1770. Cossit wrote, "I have been by the Committees 
confined as a Prisoner in the Town of Claremont ever since the 12th of April, 1775"; a day Just 
one week before the fight at Concord and Lexington, S.P.G. M.S.?. B. 3, No. 352. 

(7) Notably in the letter of Col. John Peters to his brother, the Rev. Samuel Peters, in 
London, dated Quebec. July 20, 1178. .See VVaite's History of Claremont, pp. 97, 98. 

He came to Claremont in the Spring 
of 1773 (4) and remained until 1786. 
His house, which within the writer's 
recollection remained standing, was 
spacious and interesting; its second 
story overhung the walls below. 
Traces of the cellar, and old apple- 
trees of the garden, or what were 
sprouts from the original stock, may 
still be seen south of the road lead- 
ing to the Upham homestead on Town 
Hill. The brook, a little to the west, 
at the loot of the terrace, is still 
called Cossit Brook. 

Raima Cossit was a strong char- 
acter, a persistent Tory. He made no 
effort to conceal convictions, on the 
contrary seized every opportunity to 
make them known. At his examina- 
tion by the Committee of Safety he 
asserted that the colonies were "al- 
together in the wrong;" that "the 
King and Parliament have a right 
to make laws and lay taxes as they 
please on America;" and that "the 
British troops will overcome (the re- 
bellion) by the greatness of their 
power and the justice of their cause.'' 
In public services throughout the war 
he read the prayer for the safety of 
the King and Royal Family, also 
that for the welfare of "the High 
Court of Parliament." (5) Notwith- 
standing all this, and the fact that 
Cossit's preaching and influence had 
held several prominent parishioners 
loval to the Crown, the Committee of 



As one of the Committee of Safety 
for the Town, he took part in the. 
examination of Ranna Cossit and of 
tfl'esred Tories. As Lieutenant 


Tousa. Tradition is to the effect 
that the sole Indian living in Clare- 
mont when the settlers arrived, came 
to the raising of the church, and ob- 
jected to the erection of so large a 
building on his hunting grounds. Its 
size certainly presaged the coming of 
many more white men. n0) Tousa, so 
named by the settlers, finished with 
the threat that be would, kill any white 

came near ins wigwam 
side of Sugar Rr 


in Captain Oliver Ashley 
he marched to Tieonderoga in May. 
1777. Most of the men in this com- 
pany — their names not given — fought 
at Saratoga in September of that 
year. (S> Jones' farm was then on 
Town Hill, the place known from 
1784 to 1815 as the "Ralston Tavern/' 
and later as the "Way Place." 

Benjamin Tyler walked from 
Farmington, Connecticut, to Clare- 
mont in 1767. 1 he next year he built a 
sawmill on Sugar River just east of 
the northerly end of the present West 
Claremont highway bridge ; here the 
boards for the church were sawed. 
Tyler also built a forge and slitting- 
rnill (ro at a small water power a 
few rods above the site of the pres- 
ent ''High Bridge." These supplied 
the iron and nails used in building 
the church. The iron was reduced 
from bog deposits found in "Charles- 
town, Number Four." The frame of 
the forge bunding was moved to the 
Upham homestead, nearly a century 
ago, and used for a barn. This has 
ever since been called "the forge 

Between 1770 and the end of the 
century Tyler built saw and grist 
mills for many miles around ; he 
shaped mill stones from biotite- 
granite which he quarried on the 
southeastern slopes of Ascutney, send- 
ing them to nearly all parts of New 
England, New York and Canada. 
He invented and patented improve- 
ments in water-wheels, also a process 
for dressing flax. Fie called himself 
a millwright. He was, in fact, a high- 
ly competent, self-educated, mechani- 
cal engineer. 

(Sj See Waite's History of Claremont, p. 231. 

(9) A mill in which Iron was hammered or rolled into plates and 
These were cut into desired lengths, headed and pointed, by hand labor, 
was commonly winter's evening work for the settlers. 

(10) James TrusJow Adams in his excellent recent work, "The Founding- < 
Page 30, estimates th-.'t one Indian required to sustain his life approximately 
miles as the English settler, with his domestic animals, needed acres. 


the north side of Sugar River. This 
challenge was accepted by one Timo- 
thy Atkins, hunter and trapper of 
local fame. Tousa was seen no more. 
A skeleton, pronounced to he that of 
an Indian, was dug up near the sup- 
posed site of his wigwam three quar- 
ters of a century later. 

Dr. M-eiggs. Aimer Meiggs was 
the first of the medical profession to 
come to Claremont. This was in 
1773 or earlier. He was a member 
of this church, and practiced his pro- 
fession in Claremont for more than 
twenty years. 

Goody Cole is an imaginary char- 
acter, but might have been the sister, 
cousin or aunt of Samuel Cole, the 
first schoolmaster in the town. 

The Hermit of the Mountain is, 
manifestly, an imaginary character, 
created to supplement the scant drama- 
tic material to be found in the early 
years of a sparsely settled, frontier 

In 1794 the church was incorporat- 
ed with the name "Union Church." 
At that time it had been proposed to 
form a union with the Congregation^ 
alists, the pastor of that church re- 
ceiving Episcopal ordination. This 
proposal came to nought, but the name 
remained. The service has always 
been, as it began, that of the Church 
of England, after the Revolution call- 

then slit into rodf< 
o make nails. This 

New England," 
is many square 



cd the Protestant Episcopal Church. 
Some difficulty was encountered in 

spelling the new name. On the rec- 
ords of a Meeting" of the Town Pro- 
prietors held in May, 1784, it is des- 
cribed as "The Apescopol Church, 
Commonly called the Church of Eng- 

Precursors of the Revolution 
A Historical Masque 

Performed at the Hundred and Fiftieth 

Anniversary of the Parish at Claremont, 

New Hampshire, July 27, 192 1. 

The People 

Ramia Cossit, pastor of the parish, 

William Augustus Whitney 

Asa Jones, a young patriot 

William Edwards Kinney 

Benjamin Tyler, a millwright 

Hiram Patterson 

Tousa. an Indian. Seth Newton Gage 

Timothy Atkins, a hunter and trapper, 

Elmer Ken von 

Abner Meiggs, a physician 

Leonard Jarvis 

Goody Cole, given to interruption .... 

Mabel Alvord Freeman 

A Hermit of the Mountain 

George Baxter Upharh 

Children of the Valley 

George Upham Sargent and Francis 

Porter Sargent 

The Place 
On the Green in front of the Church. 

The Time 
Summer of 1774. 

The people, come out of the church 
and stand talking on the Green. 
They are soon followed by their pas- 
tor in his surplice, who, standing on 
the platform at: the church door, ad- 
dresses his parishioners in a some- 
what pompous manner. 

Ranna Cossit: Members of the 
Church of England in the Parish of 
Claremont and Royal Province of 

New Hampshire. I* would have a 
word with you pertaining not to 
things spiritual, but to affairs of state. 
Your pastor has been pained to 
learn that some of his parishioners 
have, of late, spoken disrespectfully 
of our Blessed Sovereign. King 
George the Third, and have raised ob- 
jections to certain laws which the 
Great Parliament in London has, in 

William Augustus Whitney, as Ranna 
Cossit, first pastor of the parish. 

its wisdom, seen fit to promulgate for 
the regulation and welfare of these 

This I conceive to be the result of 
ignorance, not of malice, for it is in- 
conceivable that any of you could 
bear malice toward your King, or. in 
seriousness, attempt to criticise the 
Acts of Parliament, or the British 
Constitution, which is the Wisdom of 



God, and the Glory of the whole 

I feel it to be my duty to God, and 
to you, to warn you against using' 
language disrespectful to his Ma- 
jesty, or cavilling at the wise enact- 
ments of Parliament; for whosoever 
so offend will be called to account and 
made to suffer ; unless, forsooth, they 
separate themselves from their mis- 
demeanors, and henceforth speak lov- 
ing!}', yea. reverentially of their Sov- 
ereign, and strictly obey every letter 
of the laws provided fur the regula- 
tion of their conduct and affairs. 

Asa Jones: Raima Cossit — 

Cossit: It would be more respect- 
ful. Asa Jones, were you to address 
your pastor as Reverend Sir. 

Jones : 1 yield to no man in res- 
pect for the clergy when it speaks of 
matters spiritual or of affairs of the 
church, but when one of that profes- 
sion attempts to meddle with affairs 
of state he is to me as any other citi- 
zen of the colony. 

1 am a plain fanner, but a member 
of the Church of England which I 
love and revere. That being as I 
have said, is it any reason why I 
should love and respect a King who 
has done us grievous harm, or a 
Parliament which has done us griev- 
ous wrong? Never would the Stamp 
Act have been repealed had we failed 
to make it clear that it could never 
be enforced. Other laws made by 
Parliament will be resisted. For, 
Taxation without representation is 


Goody Cole: (interrupting) What 
do you know about Taxation, Asa 
Jones? Much as you know 'bout the 
stars, which is nothing. But / know 
now why you made your scarecrow 
look, 's much as you could, like Par- 
son Cossit— you don't like him. Well, 
I must say. Fin sometimes skeered of 
him myself when he tells us what's 
likely to be coming to us hereafter. 
Cossit: Be silent. Goody Cole. 
You should not interrupt your betters. 

Goody Cole : He ain't no better'n 
I be. 

Benjamin Tyler : Now to my way 
of thinking, Taxation - ain't the worst 
of it 

Cossit : And you, Benjamin Tyler, 
Iron Master, you too, disloyal to the 
Crown? I mistrust you have disobeyed 
the law, for, as you know. Parliament 
has provided, that no iron is to be 
made, forged or manufactured in the 
colonies, but all is to be brought from 

Tyler: Frn no Iron Master; I'm 
just a plain millwright, who has to 
make his own iron or go without. 
I'm loyal to the King and always have 
been. but. in truth. F can't be loyal to 
his fool Parliament. 

You say I've disobeyed the law. 
That's right, I have, but if I hadn't 
whence would have come the mill- 
cranks and saws to saw the boards 
for this church building? If it 
weren't for my slitting-rnill whence 
would have come the nails to fasten 
those boards to the frame? 

Your wise Parliament may know 
much about some things, but it seems 
not to know that we, here in America, 
have few roads, except'n horse tracks, 
and that we can't pack a mill crank 
or a barrel of nails like a lady on a 

Those gentlemen of England don't 
k)io-u> how we have to toil in the bogs 
to get the mud for our iron ore, or 
how it often takes more'n a bushel of 
burnt mud to make the iron for three 
or four nails. 

There's lots of things those gentle- 
men in Parliament don't know; and 
for all his Harvard College education 
and travels over seas, there's lots of 
things our Governor, John Went- 
worth, don't know 

Goody Cole: (interrupting) I jes' 
won't stan' here and listen to no slurs 
on our good Governor, John Yv r ent~ 
worth. I saw him when I was down 
to Portsmouth, and lie's jes' the hand- 
somest man I ever saw — not except'n 




Ben Tyler, An' I heer'd him a 

speakin to the peepul an' he had jes' 

the nicest voice you ever heer'd — and 
he says, "Good day" to me— to me, 
Goody Cole, which is more'n some 
folks roun' here say. that's civil, in a 
whole vear. An' I saw the ships 

they're ignorant, just ignorant and 
don't know how we. over here, have 
to struggle for - everything we get. 
Why. if I'd obeyed the law. you 
wouldn't have had even a pair of 
hinges to hang your church door. 
Goody Cole: Oh, 1 say, Ben Tyler, 

Seih Newton Gace, as Tousa. 

down there to Portsmouth, ship; 
had sailed all the wav from Em 


which is more'n some of these clod- 
hoppers standin' roun' here have ever 

Tyler: If you've finished, Goody 
Cole, I will say a few words more, 
which is, that I don't blame the King; 
I don't much blame Parliament, for 

what do you know about hinges? 
Those big ones you hammered out 
for my cabin door creak like an ox- 

Tyler: They wouldn't if they were 
half as well greased as your tongue. 

Cossit: Oh, my parishioners! 
Little do you know what a bitter 
draught to your pastor are the words 



he has heard spoken here today, but 
you ought to know, for you are 
aware that I have lived long- in Eng- 
land; that 1 was educated -and took 
holy orders there, in beautiful, glori- 
ous England, the garden of all the 
earth. You know that my education 
was at the cos: of the great Society 
for the Propagation of the Gospel in 
Foreign Parts, which Society has 
been so greatly aided by grants from 
the Parliament you so glibly decry; 
you are aware that this very parish 
was organized, and that its pastor is 
in large part mid by the munificence 
of this great Society. 

Oh. such ingratitude ! It's sharper 
than the serpent's tooth. And then — 
(Cossit is here interrupted by the 
approach in from of Tousa, an In- 
dian, emitting grunts and guttural 

Cossit: Good day to you, Tousa. 
We hope you have good luck hunting 
and fishing 'these beautiful summer 
days. (Tousa emits more grunts 
and guttural sounds) What would 
you say to us, Tousa? 

Tousa: Umph— Ugh— Heap big 
wigwam, white man make— Ugh— 
Umph — Manitou wigwam — Umph— 
Great Spirit no like big wigwam. 
Tousa no like— Deer no like — Umph 

— Ugh— Here Tousa's hunting-ground 

— Ugh. White man scare deer, kill 
beaver. Tyler make big mill, make 
big noise at fish place. 

White man have much land 'cross 
big water — Umph — wince man go 
'way— much far off— leave Tousa 
lone — all 'lone. Tousa like more be 
'lone— Umph— Ugh. Tousa say, 
white man no come 'cross little sweet- 
water river. Tousa say, white man 
come, Tousa kill. 

Timothy Atkins: (interrupting) 
Don't you, Parson Cossit, be wastin' 
none o' your time listen in' to such as 
him. Leave him to me. I'll take care 
of him, an' any more like him that 
come loafin' roun' these parts. 

Goody Cole: I suspec' Tousa's 

one of the foxes that steals my chick- 

Cossit: Timothy Atkins, this In- 
dian is entitled to the full protection 
of the law. I warn you against any 
violence not compelled in self de- 

(Meanwhile Tousa, scowling at 
Timothy Atkins and Goody Cole, 
slowly withdraws, disappearing be- 
hind the pines. 

An old man with long, gray hair 
and beard, a child on one shoulder, 
leading another by the hand, is seen 
approaching from the background.) 

Cossit: (addressing his parish- 
ioners) A stranger approaches — 
(turning to the stranger) What is 
your name, good stranger? 

Stranger : I have no name. 

Cossit: Whence do you come, good 

Stranger: From yonder mountain 
the Indians call Ascutney. 

Cossit : And what do you there ? 

Stranger: I study omens — I study 
the thunder and the lightning, the 
rains and mists. I study beasts and 
fowl and growing things. I play 
with little children of the valley when 
the sun is getting low. 

Cossit: What more do you, good 
stranger ? 

Stranger: I ponder upon the past 
and look far into the future. 

Cossit: (aside to his parishioners) 
This poor man must be demented, 
but let us learn what weird fancies 
fill his distraught brain, (turning to 
the stranger.) The past we know; 
what, good sir, can you tell us of the 
future ? 

Stranger: (shades his eyes with 
uplifted hand, gazes into the distance, 
t and says, very slowly at first) I see 
great wars — I see great ships come 
filled with fighting men — I see great 
battles — I see this land made free, 
free to make its own laws, good or 
bad, for which the people will have 
only themselves to praise or blame. 

I see these people spreading from 



the great ocean on the east to the combat with the people of the South. 

greater ocean on the west — I see I see the wound healed; and many 

growth — growth — growth. millions of people united into the 

I see dissension, rebellion and civil greatest nation on his fair earth, 
strife. The people of the North in 1 see times when men who work 

The Author, as the Hermit of: the Mountain, 
with his two grandsons as Children of the Valley. 



and save and use their brains will 
prosper as men had never done be- 
fore, — knowing comforts that even 
kings now know not < y i- 

Times when men will master the 
very elements, make tire and water 
do the work now done by toil that 
draws the sweat from their brows, 
Thev will harness the lightning to 
light great cities, unloosing it at will. 
They will talk long distances with 
those who are many miles away, and 
send messages across broad oceans 
with lightning speed. 

Goody Cole: He's madder than a 
March hare. 

Atkins: lie's crazier than any 

Stranger: In the far distance I see 
a tragedy greater than any this world 
had ever seen before. A great war 
growing out of lust for power, into 
which all the nations of the earth 
are drawn. A war in which millions 
of men, women and children will 
perish. A war fought on land and 
sea, under the sea. and in the air; 
for men will then build great ma- 
chines to fly higher and swifter than 
the swiftest bird can fly. 

Gocdy Cole: Dr. Meiggs, Dr. 
Meiggs ! Bleed him — bleed him. Do 
something to relieve the pressure on 
his poor brain. 

(Dr. Meiggs hastily gets his in- 
struments, rusty saws and knives out 
of a clumsy box and approaches the 
stranger, who, with folded arms, 
looks calmly on.) 

Stranger: Nay, good doctor — stay 

your hand. In time of which I tell 
men of your profession will do all to 
save ever}- drop of good red blood 
and naught to spill it. 

( Dr. Meiggs withdraws, the strang- 
er continues.) 

Beyond ail this I see a time when 
the British Empire and the Great Re- 
public of the West will join in might 
invincible to make peace, justice and 
good-will prevail throughout the 

Of that which I foresee no man 
shapes the end, but a Power greater 
than any of us can understand. 
Great laws of growth and change 
will work as they have ever worked 
since time began. 

Man's intellect can no more com- 
prehend than can the meadow mouse 
that scampers at his approach. 

Fare thee well. Reverend Sir — 

Fare thee well. Good People — I 
return to the mountain whence I 
came, (withdraws) 

Jones: Of the far future, of which 
the stranger tells, I know not; but 
this I know: That soon, as he pre- 
dicts, this country will be free — our 
(9rc;2. Not by merely wishing for it, 
bait by fighting for it. 

It will be long. hard, bloody work, 
but I, for one, stand ready. 

(A stir among the people) 

Voices: And I, and I, and I. 

Cossit: (covers his eyes with his 
hand, then raises his arms to heaven, 
saving) From battle and murder, and 
from sudden death, Good Lord, de- 
liver us. 



By Mary Richardson 

On a bleak, rocky hillside of New England, 
1 stood, beneath gray clouds, and listened, lonely, 
To the deep silence. The wind's mournful sighing, 
A distant wnippoorwilFs sad call, these only 
Broke the vast stillness, like a faint voice calling 
From the dim past, upon my spirit falling. 

I raised my eyes and saw a woman standing, 
The Mother of our present, strong and fair 
Gazing before her with undaunted courage. 
She turned away from the dear past, and there 
She faced the future, dim and terrifying; 
The toilsome living and the lonely dying. 

But with the eyes of faith she saw the future; 

A race of freemen rising from this soil! 

She turned and spoke to him who stood beside her : 

"Go, fell the trees, and count it blessed toil ; 

Give me four walls, a hearthstone and a door, 

And I will make a home in this new shore." 

Surely I saw her, when the house was built, 

Lift up her eyes and call on God to bless 

Her new made home, and all that it should shelter; 

And then she gathered, in the wilderness, 

Fagots, and, kneeling, to give God the praise, 

She lit the fire that warms us with its rays. 

The twilight deepened and the vision faded ; 
Out of the dusk glimmered the evening star; 
But in my heart I heard the Pilgrim Woman 
Speak softly, in a voice faint and far; 
"Daughter, this fire I gave so much to light 
Must never fail, for you must keep it bright!" 



By Zillii George Dexter 


An All Day Visit. 

"Watch the risiu', Liddy, I 
wouldn't have that bread sour in' on 
liiv hands t'day for all the world, 
seem* the minister and his new wife 
is comin' to help eat it. I like dread- 
ful well to show the Elder that Man- 
dy Bowles can cook, if she can't talk 
in prayer-meetin' like some folks." 

It was Mother's anxious voice pene- 
trating to the big, sunny kitchen from 
the cool depths of the summer dairy. 

"Don't worry no more about the 
bread, Mother, it's all in the tins and 
set to risin' ag'in ; about as harnsum 
a batch as you ever see." Liddy ap- 
peared at the open door. Softly 
closing it behind her, she came down 
the worn steps and stood with her 
mother upon the cool flag-stones that 
paved tlie milk-room floor. 

"'What under the sun's the marter 
now? Y\ "hat's come over ye to make 
ye look and act so worrittid, child?" 
gasped the house-wife, startled by 
her daughter's unusual air of mystery. 

"I wanted to ask you somethin' I 
didn't want sister Ploomy to be 
hearin'," whispered Liddy. 

"Well/' in a tone of relief, "you no 
need to sca't me so. But fust, let 
me git this cream inter the churn so'st 
I can be churnin' whil'st you'r talkin' ; 
it's took so everlastin' long this 
mornin' to git that cheese out o' press 
and set up another curd." 

"O Mother, don't touch that now 
for I want you to be hstenin' to me." 
Liddy had laid a restraining hand on 
her mother's arm, already outstretch- 
ed to lift the jar of cream from off 
its shelf. 

The woman turned with a rebuke 
upon her lips but meeting the eyes of 

her daughter, always somber, now 
both determined and appealing, she 
snapped tartly. "Well, why don't ye 
talk then. I'm listenin' ain't I? Be 
spry though, for the square-room 
ain't dustid yit." 

"I've rolled up the curt'ins in the 
square-room and h'isted all the win- 
ders and shook all the rugs and laid 
'em, and now I thought perhaps," the 
girl's voice faltered slightly, "I 
thought perhaps, maybe you'd let 
Ploomy do the rest of the dustin'. 
I've did all the heft of it and jest left 
them pretty things on the mantletree 
and round ; such things as she used to 
love to take care on. 'Twill do her 
sights o' good and can't noways hurt 
her. It's goin' to be such a day o' 
happeniivs, too. You know Ploomy 
hain't never seen the minister's wife, 

The mother's face paled and her 
voice shook as she answered the eager 
petitioner. "I'll finish the dustin' and 
do all the rest what's got to be done, 
amd sha'n't call on my sick and dyin' 
daughter to help me nuther. And 
you, Liddy Bowdes, layin' your im- 
pudent hands on your mother and 
tellin' her what not to do, you stiver 
right up charmber and stay there. I 
don't need ve. I'm shamed on veV 


face even whiter than her 

mother's, the girl started to obey, but 
stopped and steadily confronted that 
already relenting parent. "I'm goin' 
to mind you Mother," she said, 
"same as I've always did and I'm 
sorry if I sassed ye. But it's sufferin' 
cruel to talk as tho'f I ain't bein' 
lovin' to my sister Ploomy. Nobuddy 
could love her more than me, ever 
sence you put her in my arms, a 
warm, cudTin' little tiling. And that's 
how I dar'st to hinder you today. 



I've got somcthin' to say and I'm 
goin' to say it before I go, I seem 
to have to." 

Her mother making no remon- 
strance, Liddy continued, "I'm cer- 
tain, Maim, that our Ploomy don't 
need to fade away and die as she is 
doin, seein' she ha : n't got none of 
them symtu-ms, Prissy Emmons died 
of. Our Ploomy begun to fail right 
arfter you sent Alic Stinson off, no- 
buddy knows where.'' 

"Liddy Bowles, you'r going' too fur 
now," her mother interrupted sharply. 

"1 didn't exact 1 }- want to speak his 
name,'' stammered the girl, "but it 
was then that Ploomy used to wake 
me up, cryin' in the night. Some- 
times she'd say it was about Prissy's 
layin' all alone up there in the old 
grave-yard, and tell me she was 
growin' cold just like her. Then I'd 
cuddle her up to me, her the hull time 
shakin like a popple leaf. Xow you 
are givin' 'er lotions and 'arb-drinks' 
she is more quieter but she don't git 
no better. It seems as tho'f we was 
lettin' her go on dyiii' of somethin' 
she hain't got. Stop it, Marm, do. 
You can do most anythin' you set 
out to." dry sobs choked the pleading 

"Be ye through talkin', Liddy?" 
asked her mother, "cause if you be, I 
want to say somethin'. I'm sorry I 
was so hash to ye. I ought not to 
ben. I'm mindid, myself, how'st I 
felt jest so about your aunt Ploomy, 
she that our Ploomy was named arf- 
ter, when site was took the same way, 
she died." 

"Liddy, Liddy Bowles, where be 
you? Where's Mother?" Janey's 
bird-like voice (a blessed interrup- 
tion) rang through kitchen and pan- 
try. The child swung wide the milk- 
room door and stood perilously swing- 
ing a basket heaped with fresh-laid 
eggs. "See," she shouted, "I found 
two new nests, and where old Spot 
hid her kittens. Now I'm going 
blackber'in' with the Bean children, 

over round Birch Knoll ; I may, 

mayn't I, Mother? Yon said I 
might, some day. And, Liddy, put a 
lot of bread and butter in my pail; 
I am hungry now." 

"Liddy, do go 'long and take care 
of them aigs 'fore that young-one 
smashes 'em." Mrs. Bowles' voice 
had regained its usual brisk and pleas- 
ant tone. "I'm thinkin, Janey, you'll 
find slim pickin', it's ben so dreadful 
droughty all summer; but I should 
love to s 'prise the Elder with one of 
my blackb'ry short-cakes for supper. 
Git the child a pail, Liddy, and put 
'no ugh o' your good cookies in it for 
the Bean children, too. They'll like 
'em ; their own mother was a marster 
good cook." With squeals of delight 
Janey tied the kitchen, leaving sun- 
shine behind her. 

When at last the hour approached 
for the expected guests to arrive, 
there was nothing left to betray the 
morning's unusual activities save the 
spicy aroma of plum-cake and cara- 
way cookies that still pervaded the 
pantry. Even the shining kitchen 
stove looked cool and innocent of un- 
duly heated transactions. 

No less guiltless of bustling anx- 
iety looked good Mrs. Bowles and 
her daughter Liddy. when, dressed 
in their seven-breadth ginghams and 
snowy aprons, they met their visitors 
under a canopy of woodbine that riot- 
ed lawlessly over the front door of 
the farm-house. Mrs. Bowles' greet- 
ing was noisy and voluble; no other 
would she have deemed sufficiently 

"Good mornin', good mornin', 
Brother'n Sister Norris. We are 
dreadful glad to see ye. Looked for 
ye more'n an hour ago. That's 
right, Elder, take your little wife 
right out the waggin and we'll see to 
her whilst you put up your hoss. 
She's a harnsom critter ain't she? 
Your hoss I mean. But you'll have to 
unhitch, yourself, Elder, for the men- 
folks is all down in the field reapiu' 



or pretend in' to. Tin's terrible dront 
has about sp'iled the harvist. But the 
Lord'll take care on us, as Siah says." 
Here the good Woman indulged in aii 
audible sigh of which the minister 
took speedy advantage. 

"Good morning, Sister Bowles, and 
Liddy, too," he ^.id in a pleasant and 
rather boyish voice, extending a hand 
to each in turn. "I'm glad to leave 
Mrs. Xorris in excellent hands while 
1 care lor my horse and with your 
permission, Mrs. Bowles, look for 
those busy men in the field." 

After lifting his wife from the car- 
riage to the door-stone, he turned to 
lead his impatient horse to the shelter 
of the hospitable old Red Barn; not, 
however, before catching a humorous 
gleam of protest from a pair of very 
blue eyes, together with a last word 
from Man&y, "Be sure you don't 
hinder them men -folks. Elder, if you 
should chance to find 'em workin'." 

With a chuckle the hostess turned 
to her remaining guest. After a 
feeble hand-shake Liddy had vanish- 
ed, leaving Mrs. Xorris to be volubly 
ushered by Mrs. Bowles, into the 
square-room, there to be breezily 
stripped of bonnet and shawl, thrust 
into a white-cushioned rocking-chair,. 
a big fan of turkey- feathers pressed 
into her hand, all in a twinkling. 

"Now you set right there by that 
north winder and cool oft." com- 
manded Mrs. Bowles, not unpleasant- 
ly, "Your pretty face is most as 
pink as our Ploomy's hollyhocks. 
Per'aps she'll feel like comin' in to 
set with ye, whilst I and Liddy's git- 
tin' the dinner on. With company 
and two extry hired men in the field 
t'day I can't spare a minute to set. 
'Twould gin me conniption fits, to 
have my dinner laggin'. Mandy 
Bowies' dinner horn blows reg'lar the 
year round ; folks sets their clocks by 
it, so they say." 

The minister's wife might as well 
have been dumb, for as yet she had 
not been able to complete a full sen- 

tence. Now she looked up, surprised 
at the sudden silence, and started 
by the changed expression on the 
face before her. Its features were 
working convulsively to repress emo- 
tion that threatened tears. 

"Don't be sca't, Miss Xorris, 'taint 
nuthm\" the unsteady lips replied to 
her frightened exclamation. "I stood 
lookin' at ye and it 'minded me that 
only last spring our Ploomy had as 
red cheeks and dancin' eyes as you've 
got t'day, every bit ; if anything, 
Ploomy's eves was the harnsumist ; 
the reg'lar Bowles eye, grey with the 
blue in 'em. Ploomy was the light 
of the house, — the light of my life, 
but she's goin' out. Don't open yer 
lips! Don't pity me! for I jest couldn't 
stan' it." The woman had lifted a 
bony hand as in protest. "'Twould 
break me all up if ye talked to me; 
and I've got to be the head for the 
hull of 'em. Land sakes alive! What 
am I thinkin' on? Liddy out there 
all alone, tewin' over the dinner.'''' 

Mandy was herself again, and. 
Mrs. Morris, watched her through 
the narrow hall, where the kitchen 
door closed on her. 

"Dear me, what a strange person," 
thought the young wife, "I never of- 
fered a word. My eyes were filled 
with tears, but not one pious thing had 
I to say ; not even a bit of comforting 
Scripture. O Sally Morris," she 
whispered, "what a fraud for a mini- 
ster's wife! Mother dear, you were 
not far wrong when you warned 
Charley that J was no more fitted for 
the position than a blind kitten. You 
might have spared the adjective, 
though; and Charley seems to dote 
on kittens. But what a dear, sweet 
room this is with 'Ploomy's holly- 
hocks' peeping in! It makes me 
think of home." 

The green paper curtains were 
rolled high, the windows opened wide. 
Outside, swayed by a gentle wind, 
slender spires of hollyhocks seemed 
to be peering within, their fair bios- 



soms pink with amazement at their 
own audacity. Between these Mower 
bedecked windows stood a narrow, 
fall-leaf table, covered with a snowy 
cloth of home-made linen, deeply 
fringed with netting and tassels. 
Here reposed the big Bible sacred to 
family records. Hanked by an order- 
ly array of daguerreotypes, a Gift 
Book and a Daily Food. Opposite 
the windows, on the far side of the. 
room wis the never absent ''square- 
room" bed, high-piled with the 
downiest of "live-geese" feathers and 
covered with marvels of loom and 
needle work. This slender-posted, 
high-canopied bed. the heavy bureau 
of many drawers, together with- the 
gem of a small table now attracting 
the admiring gaze of Mrs. Xorris. 
were deservedly the pride of trie mis- 
tress of Red Barn Farm. She never 
wearied of repeating this formula, 
"My greatmother was a Marsh; one 
of them Marshes, they say. that was 
distant kin of old Gov'ner Marsh of 
Yarrnount. This 'ere bedstid and the 
hull set was her'n, and it fell on me. 
The old Gov'ner was a smart man in 
his day." 

There was scarce opportunity to 
wince at the atrocious plaster o' 
paris "ornamints" ranged on the 
mantle, or to shake a wrathful, small 
first toward the wall where hung the 
ubiquitous memorial picture, (a very- 
weeping willow, and a very drooping 
lady with classical features cheerfully 
resigned) ; certainly there was no 
time to examine the finely braided 
and "drawn-in" rugs that so plenti- 
fully covered the stainless floor, be- 
fore the kitchen door softly opened 
and closed. 

Ploomy stood within the small en- 
try, swaying and slender, like a young 
birch of the forest. Her cheeks were 
flushed with expectancy and her really 
beautiful eyes appealed for compan- 
ionship. At least so interpreted the 
girl-wife, prompted by hidden pangs 
of homesickness. Without ceremony 

she met the frail, hesitating young 
thing with a loving embrace and drew 
her gently to the one rocking-chair by 
the cool north window, saying with a 
tuneful chuckle, 

"With those wonderful eyes, you 
must be Ploomy, and 1 am Sally 
Xorris. Now that we are quite pro- 
perly introduced I will bring my 
chair and sit close by you if I may. 
J have a sister about your age and 
those lovely hollyhocks at the windows 
reminded me of her and home. Did 
you plant them? Your mother call- 
ed them yours." 

"Yes. they and the grass pinks were 
mine but sister Liddy has took the 
hull care of 'em this summer. It's 
ben a sight of work for there haint 
ben a drop of rain, scurcely." 

Ploomy l s voice was disappointing, 
hopeless, lifeless, save its bit of whin- 
ing drawl. Mrs. Norris in her frank- 
ly convincing way disarmed the girl's 
shyness and incited her interest. With 
even a faint show of eagerness, she 
was soon asking and answering ques- 

After a silence consumed by Sally 
in looking at family daguerreotypes 
Pioonry said softly, "Your sister is 
nineteen years old and past, if she is 
my age, and she has never had no 
trouble nor any sorrow has she?" 

Not waiting for an answer to so 
dazing a question, she went on, 
"There hain't nobuddy told you how 
much I thought of Prissy. I loved 
her more'n I did my sister Liddy. 
We was nigher of age and said our a, 
b, abs, and worked our samplers to- 
gether and always set with one 'nuther 
to school." 

"Who is Prissy? asked Mrs. Nor- 

"Prissy Emmons. She was the 
harnsomist girl in these parts, folks 
all said, and I know she was the 

"Has she gone far away?" still 
questioned Mrs. Norris. 

"Prissy died, and they've buried 


her, up in the old grave-yard tinder 
the shadder of the mountain ; when 
she was always so tender and timid 
like, " I wish grave-yards was nigher 
home." Ploomy's voice had again 
trailed off into hopeless depths, her 
face, pallid, her eyes dilated with vague 

Mrs. Norris, bending" forward, laid 
her own warm, pulsing hand upon 
Ploomy's folded cold and still on the 
girl's lap. "Nov/ my little friend/' 
she said brightly, "we are not to talk 
of sad things today. My own heart 
is heavy too, with homesickness. 
Your big. solemn, old mountains 
glooming over US, are behaving horri- 
bly, covered with haze or smoke ; the 
air is fairly stifling in the valley. It did 
seem so good to come up here on the 
hills where one can breathe." Here 
Ploomy, in turn, lifted her hand and 
laid it in shy sympathy upon Sally's. 

Acute illness or distress never fail- 
ed to claim Mrs. X orris' quick pity, 
while she had small patience with 
seemingly minor ills. . She had much 
to learn. Here is a confession made 
later to her husband. 

"Ploomy captured me with her 
lovely eyes and her exquisite figure, 
and something more that I cannot ex- 
press; like the cling and curl of baby 
fingers around one of your own. You 
can't let go and baby won't. At the 
same time .1 fairly ached, at first, to 
treat her as I used to treat my dolls 
when they got limp and flabby, chuck 
in the saw-dust." 

Indeed, Ploomy was not easily re- 
pulsed. With a new-found friend 
she was like a brook bursting icy bar- 
riers under melting sunbeams. With 
new color and livelier tone she stam- 
mered, "Now certain, Miss Norris, 
certain, I didn't set out for to make 
you feel bad, I didn't. But. Oh, I 
do want somebuddy to talk to 
and somebuddy to talk with me! 
Liddy can't think of things to say 
much, and Mother says talk is weak- 
ening Ther's nothin' to do but be 

thinkin*. Nothin' like it was before." 

The minister's wife might now have 
been grateful for an excellent mem- 
ory and easy conscience that permit- 
ted her to repeat choice thoughts and 
passages to the eagerly listening girl, 
nearly ail filched from Mr. Norris' 
latest sermons. "Anything," she 
thought, "if I may only keep her 
mind away from the grave-yard until 
'Maridy Bowles' dinner horn' blows. 
Of course the child can not appreciate 
all these fine thoughts, but she does 
listen, and that is better than half of 
Charley's audience' does, poor boy." 

But at last in a voice more tuneful 
and vibrant than had seemed possible 
for Ploomy, she interrupted with, 
"I thank you. Mis' Norris, for all 
them wonderful words you've ben 
speakin' to me. I've read em in my 
Bible, some of 'em, but I never 
thought they were writ to be lived 
by every day. easy and comfortable. 
Father has come the nighest, but it 
has took a sight of goin' to prayer- 
meetin'. Two things you said I aint 
never goin' to forgit. You said hate 
is poison; and that it works just like 
poison in our blood. A little makes 
us uncomfortable, and any more is 
dangerous, and all the biggest doctors 
know it. They must have a lot of 
cases. I suppose they call it by some 
other name more satisfyin'. And 
you said too, Mis' Norris, that loving 
was living; that love was all around 
us and in us all, even when we mayn't 
be noticin', for God is Love. You 
said, that love shows up dif'runt in 
dif'runt folks. And there are so 
many dif'runt folks that ain't alike." 

In the short silence, Mrs. Norris, 
looking into Ploomy's eyes, lighted 
from within, could, for the first time, 
imagine this frail, wilted little body, 
as having once been "the light o' the 

"I can't say them words as beautiful 
as you said them to me, Mis' Norris," 
resumed the girl." but I can see them 
beautiful, and shinin'. You said, 



some love was like a spring a-vvellin' 
up. That 'minded me of Prissy's 
love bubbhV and sparklin' like the 
spring down by the big ledge, where 
we used to make our play-house when 
the bluets were in. blossom. Then 
when you told about a deep well with 
a star shinin' in it. I thought of sister 
Liddy's love. Only I had never 
called it love before; just called it 
'doiu things," such as I expected. 
But I see now, doiiv is the deepist 
kind of lovin.' But the best was, 
when you said that some foikses love 
might be deep and hotlist but mis- 
taken ; and they'd likely act ha'sh and 
cruel, thinkiu' all the time it was for 
your good. Then maybe you would 
git all r'iled up and forgit the years 
of lovin' that lias gone before and git 
to hatin' and perhaps dym' afore you 
know it. That made me think of-of- 
someone else. But I can see now. it 
was her way of lovin*. I sha'n't hate 
her no more, never. I am so glad/' 

After another short pause, Ploomy 
added, "O, Mis' Norris, your words 
are wonderful to me; like after a long 
spell, everything dryiir up, you lay 
in the hot night pantin' for your 
breath, and all at once, feel a cool 
wind liftin' the heavy hair oft'n your 
for'ed. like your mother's hand use 
to, and you go to sleep, listenin' to 
the rain." 

The eyes of the young wife brim- 
med with sudden tears. Ploomy, 
drawing the sweet face nearer to her 
own, caressed with shy fingers the 
sunny curls on Sally's forehead. "I 
have never seen a minister's wife like 
you before," she said, with the dear- 
est smile. "Why, you are just like 
other girls,' only nicer of course. I 
must have thought you was all born 
with hair smooth and shiny, and 
linin collars on." The girl ended with 
a genuine giggle and was rewarded 
by an approving pat and a ripple of 

"Now you see, Mis' Ploomy," still 
laughed the little woman, "I am not 
a regular born, parson's wife. My 

hair will curl and I abhor linen col- 
lars. The minister business I have 
to learn from a to z. Really those 
fine thoughts that proved angel wing- 
to you, were none of them mine. 
They were stolen from Mr. Norris' 
sermons. And I have it all to con- 
fess to hint before I sleep tonight." 

"They was all true thoughts," as- 
serted Ploomy, the inner light deep- 
ening in her eyes, "and seein' you 
stole our Elder's heart, he shouldn't 
be put out if you steal more that's 
good and true, of his'n." 

"1 will remember that. Little Girl, 
when I make my confession," said 
Sally, laughing again merrily, then, — 
"But how your 'Elder' loves these 
mountains, his work, and his people; 
the brawny-armed, sooty-faced miners 
and all ! A few may be slow of 
speech, and like their valleys, narrow 
and confined in their ideas, but they 
are honest thinkers and their valleys 
are on a high level. These last words 
are his, Deary. 1 repeat them when- 
ever I need bracing. But between you 
and me. Ploomy, J don't like these 
mountains. They have sulked be- 
hind a dismal haze ever since I came, 
which is a very impolite way to treat 
a bride, to say the least. Your people 
are, no doubt, excellent, so are butter- 
nuts, and Eve only my two small fists 
to smite with. Charley has the ad- 
vantage, for lie can lay them on the 
anvil Sundays and make sparks fly. 
O Sally Xorris, what an unguarded 
speech !" 

While she had been talking, Sally 
had slipped from her uncomfortable, 
straight backed chair, to the velvety 
"drawn in" rug, flaunting its gay 
medley of bright colors in front of 
Ploomy's rocking-chair. While re- 
clining there, and tracing with her 
dainty finger around the intricate 
scrolls and amazing roses, she was 
chatting idly and busily on, but keep- 
ing an ear alert, to catch the first 
blast of the long delayed dinner-horn. 

"Now you see," she exclaimed, 
while lifting her bonny face, and 



shaking that dainty linger to Ploorny. 
"You see, Ploorny, Mr. Norris, even 
for rile, would not leave bis work 
here and his people, as- he loves to 
call them; yet he did ask me to leave 
the dearest, sunniest home and come 
to him." 

"What made you listen to him? 
What made yon come?" Ploorny 
questioned with eager interest, ' 

"Oh, perhaps 1 admired him the 
more, for not betraying; his man- 
hood ; for not letting anything beguile 
him from his chosen work. He 
would not make an idol of me, so I 
am proud to be his wife. Proud.'' 
with a brave tilt of the curly head, 
"to find that I have it within me, to 
"endure things, (even desperate home- 
sickness, just now,) for one whom I 
love. Can you understand that, 

"Yis, oh vis. Mis' Norris ; the more 
my Alic had to bear, the more I want- 
ed, to stand by him. But Mother said 
I couldn't never be his wife; she'd 
see me laid in the grave-yard first, 
'side of Prissy." Ploomy's reply had 
been hurried, and shrill with emotion. 
After an abrupt pause, she resumed 
in an even and decided tone, "But, 
Mis' Norris, as 1 said to you, I won't 
never hold it no more against my 
mother, for you've made me see so 
plain, it's her way of lovin' me, and 
a sufterin' way too ; like a wild ana- 
mile when somethin's threatenin' its 

"But, who is Alic?" asked Mrs. 
Norris, a new note of sympathetic in- 
terest in her voice. 

"He was Father's bound boy, took 
when he was ten year old, to work 
for his keep an' schoolin' and three- 
hundred dollars when he got to be 
one-an'-twenty." Plomy's voice was 
trailing oft again, and Sally deplored 
asking that last, unfortunate question. 

"I was eight year old," P|loomy 
rallying, continued, "when Alic first 
come. We all growed tip together 
like one fam'ly, and did'nt see no 
dif'runce; 1 didn't till he was twenty, 

past. When Alic spoke about it to 
Father, he was glad, and said Alic 

was j 
said ; 
tell in' 

*e his own boy. With Mother 
dif'runt. She liked Alic, she 
rut, she said, she 'couldn't stum- 
them Stinsons.' They was 
respectable folks. Father kept 
her. Though they did have a 
big fam'ly, always cornin', and piles 
of docter's bills. Mother tried to be 
happy, because I was, and we had got 
my chist most full, when something 
happened among his family ; 'something 
he couldn't be blamed for, more'n the 
angels in heaven. Then mother up 
and talked to Alic and me. But I 
won't think of them cruel words no 

"The next mornin' Father found a 
writin' left on Alic's chist when he'd 
gone and went off in the night. I 
can say it by heart. It reads like 
this, — 'Dear Uncle Siah, I thank you 
for bein' a father to me, and for 
the prayers I have heard you putting 
up for me in the old barn chamber, 
many a time, when you didn't know 
I was nigh. I shall never forget 
Red Barn Farm, I would like to 
say more, but I am forbid, and I 
have promised. Give my three hun- 
dred dollars to Father, to help on 
the mortgage. Good bye. Alic' ' 

"Was that all?" asked Mrs. Nor- 
ris. very softly. "Have you never 
heard from him since?" 

"Nobuddy has," sighed Ploorny, 
"But I could have stood it all, and 
not give up and die, like I am doin' ' : 
she still continued, "for Alic wouldn't 
never forgit me, and I could be wait- 
in' ; and I dreamed such a comfortin' 
dream about Prissy. I saw her 

standin' by the old spring, her white 
feet shinin' among the bluets, and she 
was laughin' and holdin' up a drip- 
pin' cup of water to me, when a 
white veil, like a thin mountain show- 
er, only brighter, come sweepin' be- 
tween us. I know now she is some- 
where among flowers and sparklin' 
waters. But with mother it was 
dif'runt. There I have ben all the 



time pilyin' myself to death and 
lav in' it all on her. arid most hatin' 
her because 1 thought she was hat in' 
Alic and me. All the time she is 
lovin' and pfotectiiT me die best she 
knows how; like an anamile that don't 
sense but one kind of lovin', — the 
fear kind. My pyes is opened now, 
and MotherTl see dit'runt, give her 
time. Kittens is wiser than folks. 
They cuddle down together, patient 
and lovin', and let one 'nuther's eves 

"Thank you, Ploomy, that counts 
one for kittens. The minister will 
enjoy that too." 

The little wile, still half reclining 
upon the rug. moved closer and 
throwing her arm across the girl's 
lap laid her head upon it. Ploomy's 
face flushed with pleasure, and again 
her light fingers touched and toyed 
with those rings of sunny hair. 

"Oh. what a day o' happenm's," she 
breathed, scarcely above a whisper ; 
then aloud, "why this mornm' I didn't 
have nothin' else to do. or think on 
but dyin'. I know, of course, 1 can't 
never git well again, for Mother 
keps saying so; and she's always did 
all the plaunin'. But I heard Pris- 
sy ''s mother tellin' her that I ain't a 
mite like Prissy was, and if she was 
her, she'd have Dr. Colby come right 
up and see me. Mother told her that 
I was jest like my aunt Ploomy, and 
old Dr. Richardson had always ben 
the fam'ly doctor, and she didn't be- 

lieve in 

with her 
of holy 

"But i 






a moment's silent -• struggle 
self, the girl went on. a strair 

purpose livening her tones, 
ain't goiu' to feel bound to 

put nr 



d on dyin' as I have 
doin'. I'd mostly forgot about 
lovin' and. that's no way to die happy, 
is it?. I'm gohT /right to lovin". 
speshTy them that's makiu' mistakes 
and don't sense it." Xow bending 
low until a tear fell among the bright 
curls, she said, "You told me. Mis' 


Xorris. that you was no kind o; 
minister's wife. You have ben to 
me like Prissy at the spring; and I'm 
diinkin', oh! how I'm drinkin', at the 
cup you've ben holdin' to my lips." 

Sally, now half-kneeling before 
Ploomy, took her wasted hands in 
icr own savins: softly, "Listen, Little 


One, I am. learning of you, here at 
your blessed feet. Learning to sep- 
arate souls from their mistakes ; 
learning how mean and ill-natured 
self-pity is. For instance, blaming 
my natural homesickness to your 
noble old mountains, who seem just 
now to be having troubles of their 
own ; and to Charley's dear people, 
who are far too wise to accept me at 
my own valuation. But, do we hear 
mien's voices? Is that your mother's 
step in the kitchen ? Why have we 
not heard the dinner-horn blow?"' 

{To be continued) 



Harold Vinal, a. teacher oi music 
at Steinert Hall. Boston, but also 
the editor and publisher of Voices, a 
quarterly journal of verse, is the win- 
ner of the $50 prize offered by Air. 
Brookes More for the best poem pub- 
lished in the Grauite Monthly during 
the year 1921. The distinguished 
judges. Professor Katharine Lee 
Bates of the department of English 
at Wellesley College. William Stanley 
Braithwaite, critic and anthologist, 
and former Governor John H. Bart- 
lett of New Hampshire, were unani- 











HaKOLL' \'lN'AL. 

mous in making the award to Mr. 
Vinal, though they were not so agreed 
as to which was the best of his sev- 
eral contributions to the magazine 
during the year. One of the judges 
preferred his Sonnet, published in the 
May issue; but the other two gave 
the honor to "Alien," printed on page 
35 of. the January, 1921, issue as 
f ollows : 

The gorse grass waves in Ireland, 
Far on the windless hills; 
In France dark poppies glimmer — 
Sunenps and daffodils. 

The heather seas are crying — 
And deep on English lanes 
Blown roses spill their color 
In the soft, grey rains. 

My heart alone is broken 
For things 1 may not see — 
New England's shaken gardens, 
Beside a dreaming sea. 

Mr. Brookes More 

We also reprint the Sonnet, as fol- 
lows : 

I have touched hands with peace and 

When the first breath of May crept 

through the trees; 
Watched lyric flowers tremble in the 

breeze — 
I cannot say I have been comfortless. 
Often the nights have whispered words 

to me; 
With wonder I have watched a new day 

Shaking its veils across the windy lake- — ■ 
The wind that stirred them, brought me 




My heart can know no pain while beauty 

Quaint patterns in the corridors of 

Patterns of curving cloud and ^ waving 

All the indifference that time has 

Will softly pas?, when I behold afar — 
The lovely beauty of an evening star. 

Mr. Vinal is a contributor of verse, 
to many magazines besides the Gran- 
ite Monthly, the list including The 
Atlantic Monthly-, Pearson's. The 
Smart Set, The Bookman, The Son- 
net, Poetry, Contemporary Verse, The 
Lyric, The Lyric West, The Liberator, 
etc. His first volume of verse, "White 
April." will be brought out by the 
Yale University Tress in the spring in 
their Yale Series of Younger Poets. 

Readers of the Granite Monthly 
who were asked by the editor to in- 
dicate their individual choices for the 
prize awards made these interesting 
suggestions : "Snow Trail," by Ber- 
nice Lesbia Kenyon; "Au Soleil," by 
Walter B. Wolfe; "Spring," by Mar- 
tha S. Baker; "The Angel of the Hid- 
den Face." by Helen L. Newman; 

"My Baby," by George A. Foster; 
? Cora S. Day ; "Home/f 

by W. B. France; "The Blind/'. by 
Edwin Carlile Litsey; "Roses." by 
Frances Parkinson Keyes ; "After- 
math," by Alice D. O. Greenwood; 
"A Christmas Wish," by George 
Henry Hubbard; "O Little Breeze," 
by George I. Putnam; "Nothing Com- 
mon or Unclean/' by Claribel Weeks 
Avery; "Day Time," by Mary E. 
Hough; "In Violet Time," by L. 
Adelaide Sherman ; "Sonnet," by 
Louise Patterson Guyol ; "Camilla 
Sings," by Shirley Harvey. 

As we have said before the 1921 
competition was of a character which 
gave real pleasure to the management 
of the Granite Monthly and which so 
impressed Mr. More with the value 
of his gift in creating and increasing 
interest in poetry that he has kindly 
offered to renew the award for the 
present year, 1922. By the terms of 
his gift this year, $50 will be award- 
ed in January, 1923. to the author 
of the best poem not in free verse 
and written by a subscriber to the 
Granite Monthly which is printed in 
that magazine during 1922. 


By Hazel Hall 

My song that was a sword is still. 

Like a scabbard I have made 

A covering with my will 

To sheathe its blade. 

It had a flashing tongue of steel 

That made old shadows start; 

It would not let the darkness heal 

About mv heart. 



January 20, 1922, Professor George 
H, Whkcher, formerly deputy state 
superintendent of schools, was suc- 
ceeded as federal director of prohibi- 
tion law enforcement for the state 
of New Hampshire by Rev. Jonathan 
Snow Lewis, since 1918 state commis- 
missioner of law enforcement under 

Mr. Lewis was born in Boston, 
Mass., November 14, 1864, the son of 
Luther and Almira Horton (Smith) 
Lewis. He attended the public 
schools of Boston. Everett and East- 
ham, Mass., and, after engaging in 
business life for a time, the theologi- 
cal institution at Newton Center, 


Rev. Jonathan S. Lewis 

the New Hampshire prohibitory 
statute. On the same day Ralph W. 
Caswell of Dover, who had been Com- 
missioner Lewis's deputy, was pro- 
moted to fill the vacancy in the higher 
place. These appointments were 
asked for by friends of Prohibition 
as a government policy, headed by 
the Anti-Saloon League. 

Mass., where he graduated with the 
degree of B. D. in 1911, being class 
president. He was pastor of the 
Baptist church in Amherst from 1908 
to 1918 and while holding this posi- 
tion was chosen to represent the town 
in the state legislatures of 1915 and 
At both sessions he was in the fore- 



front of those who were fighting tor 
the repeal of the stale local-option 
liquor law and a return to state-wide 
prohibition and in 1917 he and his 
fellow-workers were successful hi 
bringing about this result, Several 
measures designed to put new "teeth" 
in the prohibition law accompanied 
t'lie overtoil of the license system and 
among them was the establishment of 
the office of commissioner of law en- 
forcement- For this place Mr, Lewis 
was the unanimous choice of the 
temperance workers inside and outside 
of the legislature and Governor 
Henry W. Keyes at once .gave him 
the appointment. His administration 
of the office has not been spectacular, 
but steady, just and efficient to a de- 
gree which made him the logical can- 
didate for the federal place if a 
change in the latter were to be made. 

While a lesident of Massachusetts 
Mr. Lewis was a Prohibitionist in 
politics, being chairman of that party's 
state committee, its candidate for 
lieutenant governor and for secretary 
of state and a delegate to its national 
convention ; but since locating in New 
Hampshire he has acted with the Re- 
publican party. He is president of 
the Xew Hampshire Anti-Salooa 
League and a director of the National 
Anti-Saloon League; also, of the New 
Hampshire United Baptist conven- 
tion. Since his appointment as law 
enforcement officer he has made his 
residence in Concord. 

In recent newspaper interviews Mr. 
Lewis is quoted as taking an op- 
timistic view of the situation as to law 
enforcement in this state, in which he 
is supported by public utterances of 
Governor Brown and other high of- 
ficials. Mr. Lewis says with pride 
that men who have taken a country- 
wide view of the conditions, place 
New Hampshire among the three or 
four states in which the prohibitory 
liquor laws are best enforced; and 
he is confident that this good record 

will Jbe maintained and improved by a 
continuance of the excellent co-opera- 
tion among law enforcing officials and 
of the public sentiment in support of 
the law. 

For almost eighty years laws pro- 
hibiting the sale of intoxicating liquor 
have been on the statute books of New 
Hampshire. Even during the decade 
of local option prohibition was the law 
in by far the greater part of the state. 
While it is true that at times the 
people have semed to be "for the law. 
but agin its enforcement," this is not 
to-day the fact. It seems safe to say 
that New Hampshire has seen its last 
open saloon and that while the laws 
against the manufacture and sale of 
alcoholic beverages will be violated in 
the future, as are all laws of God and 
man, there will be less of such viola- 
tion than at any time in the past. 

In New Flampshire history 1922 
will be remembered, among other 
reasons, as the year in which Dart- 
mouth College was forced to adopt 
an unique and highly selective pro- 
cess for admission to its courses. 
For several years the College, has been 
able to accept but a limited portion 
of the number of candidates who have 
applied for admission, and this pres- 
sure, far from abating, has shown 
every sign of increasing until an 
army of 5,000 boys would be march- 
ing on Hanover where accommoda- 
tions for only 500 would be available. 

The solution which the Dartmouth 
authorities have worked out for their 
problem is very interesting and will 
be watched intently by other institu- 
tions of learning in a somewhat simi- 
lar predicament. It seeks to secure 
for its student body young men of in- 
tellectual capacity, character and 
promise, coming from homes of a 
variety of types and having a 
certain geographical distribution. 
"Lest the old traditions fail" and in 
order that the indefinable, but cer- 



tainly existent "Dartmouth spirit" 
shall be handed clown from genera- 
tion to generation, all properly quali- 
fied sons of alumni and of Dartmouth 
college officers will be. accepted. 

We are very glad that under "geo- 
graphical distribution" all residents of 
the state of Xew Hampshire will be 
admitted. All residents of districts 

and. School Activities shall be used 
supplementary to scholastic records. 
and those which indicate men who are 
plainly possessed with qualities of 
leadership or qualities of outstanding 
promise shall be given particular con- 
sideration as compared with the rec- 
ords of those otherwise qualified by 
high, scholarship ranks with no evi- 

Presidext Ernest M. Hopkixs, of Dartmouth College 

west of the Mississippi and south of 
the Potomac and Ohio rivers also 
will be admitted with the end in view 
of making Dartmouth a truly national 

This frank paragraph from the of- 
ficial statement of the plan has rous- 
ed much comment pro and con 
among educators, but seems well 
adapted to assist in producing 
what has become known as the typical 
Dartmouth man : "Personal Ratings 

deuce of positive qualities otherwise." 
Meanwhile if Daniel Webster had 
to deliver his Dartmouth College ora- 
tion to-day he could not move the 
Supreme Court of the United States 
to tears by his declaration "It is a 
small college but there are those who 
love it." He might, however, say 
with truth "It is a great college and 
there are many who would like to 
love it." 



More than once, in the past, the 
Granite Monthly has pointed out the 
opportunity of New Hampshire to 
become the winter resort and winter 
sport state par excellence of the East, 
and it is good to hole that real pro- 
gress in this direction has been made 

during the 


the capital city. 

present season. in 
nineties, Concord 
several times entertained its legisla- 
tive visitors and thousands of other 
guests with winter carnivals that 
were most elaborate and enjoyable 
events, especially featuring long and 
beautiful parades of horse, drawn 
sleighs and tloats. 

.After an interval, Dartmouth Col- 
ege, thanks to an undergraduate. Fred 
H. Harris of Brattleboro, Vt., sud- 
denly awoke to a realization of the 
fact that its isolation among the snow- 
clad hills was an asset instead of the 
curse it always had been considered. 
In due time the first winter carnival 
at Hanover was held and in each suc- 
ceeding year has increased in suc- 
cess and popularity. Of greater im- 
portance, of course, is the fact that 
a large part of the student body has 
been outfitted with skiis and snow- 
shoes and drawn out into Richard' 
Hovey's "great white cold" for the 
most healthful and exhilarating of 

A few years since Newport, with 
the owners of Blue Mountain For- 
est, co-operating, opened a series of 
successful carnivals. Then Gorham 
got in line with a fine entertainment. 
This winter Berlin, Bristol and Con- 
way have joined the list and doubt- 
less others will have been heard from 
before these words appear in print. 
Cities and towns which have not held 
carnivals have made arrangements 
for various branches of winter sport, 
by giving official sanction to coasting, 
by building toboggan slides, by main- 
taining rinks for ice skating and in 
other ways. On Wednesday and 
Saturday afternoons the people of 

Concord, old and young, have joined 
in ''community hikes" on snowshoes 
and skiis under the direction of the 
winter sports committee of the 
Chamber of Commerce. 

Xew Hampshire has had more 
winter guests from abroad, our old 
friends of the Appalachian Mountain 
Club and many others, this year than 
ever before. Of that we are glad. 
More Xew Hampshire people have 
availed themselves of their home op- 
portunities for winter sport ; and that 
gives us even greater pleasure. The 
opportunities for future development 
on these good lines are practically un- 
limited and that is the best of all. 
Xew Hampshire's supply of hills and 
lakes is sufficient to meet any demand 
that may be made upon her. Usual- 
ly, the supply of snow and ice is 
equally adequate. So let snowshoes, 
skiis, skates, sleds and toboggans be 
counted among household necessities 
in the Granite State. Jingle bells on 
the one-horse sleighs and the six- 
horse sleighs. Put on your mittens, 
pull your cap down over your ears 
and get out into the air — and into the 
snow if you are a novice at the win- 
ter-games. It will make you health}' ; 
you will know you are wise and you 
won't care whether you are wealthy 
or not. 

As we were thinking, on a recent 
day. that it was time to write an edi- 
torial boosting the Granite Monthly 
advertising pages, the holder of an 
annual contract for one of those 
pages came into our ofhee and renew- 
ed the contract. That gave us a pleas- 
ant sensation which was intensified 
when the gentleman in question re- 
marked: "I have just made a sale 
which I can trace directly to my ad- 
vertising in the Granite Monthly, the 
profit on which will more than pay 
your bill to me for a year." Xo 
lengthy sermon on that text seems to 
be necessarv. 



In to-day's mail we find a letter see how any son or daughter of New 
from a well known New Hampshire Hampshire can fail to find much more 
woman now resident in another state, than two dollars' worth of interest- 
enclosing her check for renewal of ing matter in the twelve issues of 
subscription and saying: "I do not your magazine/' 


By Walter B. Wolfe 

Last night I fell from the vermeil bourne 
Where dwell the dreams ; 
Fell from the mirrored splendors 
Of lustrous palaces in lapis-lazuli 
And chrysoberyl wrought. 
Where vetiver and sandalwood 
And scent of aloes rose in heavy incense 
'And the fragrance of neroli wafted thru the halls 

Last night I fell in a spray of star-dust 
From the tinted palaces of dreams 
Thru clouds of radiant whiteness 
Down .... down .... 
All thru the dream-bourne of infinity 
And wakening, dream melodies 
Still lingered ethereal in my ears 
And scent of ylang-ylang blossoms 
Weighed on my senses .... 

I " 

1 found you. soft against me; 
Your hair and amber halo all about your face, 
And playing round you, the dream-incense 
| Of your loveliness and melodies 

Strayed from the stars 
Piaimting your sweet presence- 
Late revellers these, that strayed with me 
From the vermeil bourne where dwell the dreams 



A stalwart and handsome volume, 
a? stately as "The Frierate Medusa" 

and as trim 

last moving as 


Speedwell Privateer.'* is the 412 page 
book written by Ralph D. Paine of 
Durham and published by the Cen- 
tury Company. New York, under the 
title, "Lost Ships and Lonely Seas." 
The 17 illustrations, from paintings 
by Waugh and others, and from old 
prints, add to its interest, but give no 
better pictures of sailors, seas and 
ships than are drawn in easy prose 
by Mr. Paine, who writes of such 
things with an understanding equal- 
led by few Americans. 

In other books Mr. Paine has told 
of the boxes of iron and steel in which 
men go over and under the sea to- 
day. In reports of facts and in crea- 
tions of fiction lie has given us the 
most appreciative accounts of what 
was dared and endured and won by 
the boys who manned our submarines 
in the world war. From his own ex- 
perience he has told the sea side of 
the Spanish War and has put on paper 
the reactions of a man in a Yale shell 
as Harvard changes defeat to vic- 
tory on the Thames. 

But this volume is of different 
type. In it he goes back a couple 
of centuries to the days when sailor- 
men still wooed the winds, and mast 
and spar bloomed for the breezes 
with great clouds of canvas; to "the 
roaring days of piracy;" to the days 
when the Sargasso Sea was still a 
mystery and the South Seas had been 
violated by no passionate press agent; 

when there were mutineers and casta- 
ways, with new lands to find and new 
peoples to see. 

Mr. Paine, like the good newspaper 
man. he u^d to be. headlines his 17 
tales attractively from "The Singular 
Fate of the Brig Polly" to "The Noble 
King of the Pelew Islands." First 
choice for us must go to "Captain 
Paddock on the Coast of Barbary" 
because it is introduced with a refer- 
ence to the "frigate, the Crescent, 
which sailed from the New England 
harbor of Portsmouth, whose free 
tides had borne a few years earlier 
the brave keels of John Paul Jones's 
Ranger and America," . a gift from 
this government to the Bey of Algiers 
as part of a "humble tribute to this 
bloody heathen pirate in the hope 
of softening his heart/' 

But. as Mr. Paine says, a little 
later, "while Europe cynically looked 
on and forebore to lend a hand. 
Commodore Preble steered the Con- 
stitution and the other ships of his 
squadron into the harbor of Tripoli, 
smashed its defenses and compelled 
an honorable treaty of peace. Of all 
the wars in which the American Navy 
has won high distinction there is none 
whose episodes are more brilliant 
than those of the bold adventure on 
the coast of Barbary." 

And with those episodes, also, 
Portsmouth had a connection which 
we recall through the fact that one 
of her most gallant and brilliant sons 
bore the name of Admiral Tunis 



By Lucy W. Perkins 

The twilight softly fall's; 
A lone thrush calls 

Divinely sweet. 
As though in rarer sphere 
Some spirit dear 

Love longs to greet. 

Such call my heart would send, 
O sweetest friend, 

Through space unknown,- — 
Your waiting soul to find 
And closer bind 

Unto mine own. 


1 Ux Elias H. Cheney. 


(On His 90th Birthday, Jan. 28, 1922) 
Thou, who e'er thy flock defendest; 
Who each added blessing sendest ; 
Thou who borrowed time extendest ; 
What thou wiliest that I borrow ; 
One year more or but tomorrow. — 
Fill with jov, and spare me sorrow. 


lhou, almighty to deliver. 
Gracious, loving sin-forgiver ; 
When 1 fathom Jordan's river. 
With thy banner waving o'er me, 
Roll the waters back before me; 
If my Faith grow weak, restore roe. 

& j 

Where God's sun is ever shining ; 
Where each cloud has silver lining; 
Quite completed soul refining ; 
Where those lost a while will meet me 
Kindly welcome, sweetly greet me — 
In thy presence, Father, seat me. 

There'll be no goodbyes up yonder ; 
Friendships sweeter, purer, fonder, 
And sincerer ! O, what wonder 1 
Nothing from God's love can sever 
Those who enter there ; no, never. 
With the Lord ; at home ; Forever ! 



by Adclcnc Holt on Smith 

Aurora the maid of the dawn 

Peeps over the rim of the world. 
The maid of the mist is fast asleep 

In her gossamer draperies curled. 
The maid of the mist is a lily maid, 

A lily white and cold 
But the maid of the dawn is a golden rose 

Most glorious to behold. 
The maid of the dawn slips over the rim 

She kneels by the maid of the mist 
The eyelids flutter, the draperies stir 

The sisters have clasped and kissed. 


By Alice Sargent Krikoridn. 

Thou member of a mighty Titan brood 
Of giants, whose cloud-wreathed summits lure 
Our pilgrim feet from meadows safe and sure 
To woodsy paths the Red Men understood, 
O'er rocky cliff, and up thy granite side, 
Until we gain the peak, the longed for prize. 
There, bathed in silver sheen, afar off lies 
The lake of Maine, and proudly, as a bride 
Is followed from the altar to the door, 
So mountain follows mountain, crest on crest ; 
Webster, Franklin, Washington, — the rest 
Of that Great Galaxy, that pour 
Their glory, till our very senses reel ; 
We gaze in wonder, glad that we can feel 
New Hampshire's earth, and if we nevermore 
Dear Kearsarge, breathe thy winds that sing 
Of Presidential Range and Carter's Dome, 
In wintry nights, when winds are whistling, 
My happy heart, remembering, will stray 
To those sweet summer hours, when alone 
Upon thy breast I dreamed the time away. 



/A< F. R. Bagley 

O thou most wonderfully constructed mass 
Of ordered matter, destined soon to pass. 
Colder than crocodilian tears — aye, . colder 

I Than the proverbial feminine cold shoulder, 

Pellucid as a drop of virgin (\?v: 

Distilled from vapor chastened through and through. 
Brittle as glass, and compact as the dome 
Of surly Ajax ; whiter than the foam 
Cast up by mounting tides upon the sands. 

I Brilliant as gems upon my lady's hands, — 

Pendant from shelving eaves or drooping bough. 
Thou art a first-class bunch of beauty now. 

I But hold, don't get conceited ! There's no doubt 

[ That thou art destined soon to peter out. 

Thy charms— thy very life — hangs on the weather, 
More fickle far than all tilings else together. 

f. . Thy fragile figure fashioned without flaw — 

Wait 'till the the weather man declares a thaw! 
A few strong, searching calorific rays. 
Shot by Old Sol. will surely end thy days, — 
Loosen thy frostbound particles, and so 
Detach thy grip and lay thee, sprawling, low. 
Alas ! that beauty such as thine should hold 
So little natural warmth and so much cold. 




Judge Reuben Eu 

te Walker 

born in Lowell; Mass.. February 15, 1851, 
the son of Abial and Mary (Powers) 
Walker, and died at his home in Con- 
cord, January 1, 1922. He was educated 
in ihe public schools of Warner, where 
he removed, with his parents, when a 
child; at Colby Academy, New London; 
and at Brown University, where he 

Walker & Hollis. Appointed associate 
justice of the New Hampshire supreme 
court March 2$. 1901. he served with 
the utmost usefulness and honor until 
retired by age limitation on reaching the 
age of 70. While a young man Judge 
Walker served on the Warner school 
committee. He was solicitor of Merri- 
mack county, 1889-1891, representative 
in the legislature, 1895, and a dele- 
gate to the Constitutional Conven- 

The Late Judge Reuben E. Waekei 

graduated with the degree of A. B. in 
1875, subsequently receiving the hon- 
orary degree of LL. D., which also was 
conferred upon him by Dartmouth. He 
studied law with Sargent & Chase of 
Concord and was admitted to the bar in 
1878. He was for a time a partner of 
the late Judge Robert A. Ray, with 
whom he co-operated in writing and 
publishing a volume of New Hampshire 
Citations, and from 1891 to 1901 was a 
member of the law firm of Streeter, 

tion, 1902. He had been a trustee 
of the Concord city library since 1901 
and the president of the board since 
1903. At the time of his death he was 
president of the New Hampshire Bar 
Association and had served as vice- 
president for New Hampshire of the 
American Bar Association. Judge Walk- 
er was a Republican in politics and a 
Unitarian in religious belief. He mar- 
ried June 8. 1875, Mary E. Brown, who 
died Julv 21, 1903. Their one chili 



;, survives 
service as 


a lawver. 



:• of 

Miss Bertha May Walke 
father, whom she great I; 

his work by competent 

One who had intimate 
Judge Walker as a man, 
a jurist, says of him: 

''Before going upon the bench he so 
enjoyed the confidence of the court 
and had such, aptitude for such judi- 
cial work that he had been entrusted 
hv the court with, the responsible duty 
of editing many of their unpublished 
opinions which later appeared in per 
curiam form. He was a most able 
and upright judge. His service upon 
the bench was of the highest order. 
His opinions will raid: among" the best 
for learning, diction, clarity, brevity 
and soundness. While his chief dis- 
tinction is as a judge, the confidence 
and respect in which he was held is 
otherwise and variously attested/ * * * 
The many and various honors which 
came to him are the more significant 
because the}' all came in recognition of 
modest worth — never through self-seek- 


Dr. James Milnor Coit, formerly for 
30 years connected with St Paul's School, 
Concord, died January 5 in Munich. 
Germany', where he had resided since 
1906. He was born in Harrisburg, Pa., 
January 31, 1845, the son of Rev. Dr. 
Joseph Howland Coit, founder of St. 
Paul's, and younger brother of Rev. Dr. 
Henry A. Coit, who succeeded his father 
as second rector of the school. Milnor 
Coit was educated at St. Paul's and at 
Hobart College and after a few years 
of business life in the West joined the 
staff at the school. Dartmouth College 
gave him the honorary degree of Ph. D. 
Mrs. Coit, who was Miss Eliza Josephine 
Wheeler of Cleveland. Ohio, died two 
years ago in Munich, where Doctor 
Coit conducted a school for American 
boys for a number of years. They had 
no children. Doctor Coit was a mem- 
ber of the various Masonic bodies in 
Concord, where he is widely and kindly 


Oscar Fowler Fellows was born in 
Bristol, Sept. 10, 1857, one of the seven 
children of Milo and Susan (Locke) 
Fellows, and died at Bucksport, Me., 
Dec. 28, 1921. He was educated at New 

Hampton Literary Institution and was 
admitted to the bar in 1881. practising 
at Bucksport until 1905 and subsequently 
in Bangor. He was president of the 
Maine Bar Association. 1911-1913. Mr. 
Fellows was a member of the Maine 
House of Representatives in 1901 and 
1903 and its speaker in the latter year. 
He had served as collector of customs at 
Bucksport and as attorney or Hancock 
county, and in 1909 was appointed by 
President Roosevelt counsel on behalf 
of the United States before the inter- 
national commission in the matter ol 
St. John River. He was a 32nd degree 
Mason and belonged to the I. O. O. F.. 
A. O. U. W.. Modern Woodmen and 
Bangor Historical Society. He was a 
Republican in politics and a member of 
the Methodist church. May 2-1, 1883, he 
married Eva M. Fling of Bristol, daugh- 
ter of Hon. Lewis W. Fling. She sur- 
vives him with two sons, Raymond and 
Frank, both of whom were associated 
with their father in the practise of law. 


Rtiel H. Fletcher, born at Cornish, 
May 16. 1829, died January 14 at his 
home in Cambridge, Mass. He attend- 
ed Kimball Union Academy at Meriden 
and at the age of 20 began a career as 
teacher which extended oxer 60 years. 
being connected with the schools of 
Cambridge for half a century. The 
Fletcher School in that city is named in 
his honor. Fie is survived by four sons 
and a daughter, Miss Caroline R. Flet- 
cher," of the Welle'sley college faculty. 


John Christopher O'Connor, 1M. I)., 
born at Bradford, Mass.. Dec. 21, 1878, 
the son of James F. and Helena M. 
O'Connor, died suddenly January 5' at 
Manchester, where he was a member 
of the staffs of the Eliot and Balch hos- 
pitals and a trustee of the state indus- 
trial school. He graduated from the 
Haverhill. Mass. High School in 1898, 
from Dartmouth in 1902 and from the 
Bowdoin Medical School in 1905. lie 
was one of the finest football players in 
Dartmouth's athletic history being cap- 
tain of the eleven in his senior year. 
After graduation he was equally sue-' 
cessful as coach, at Bowdoin, Phillips 
Andover and Dartmouth. During the 
world war he was a major in the Ameri- 
can Expeditionary Force in France and 
made a splendid record there, as in all 
his undertakings. He is survived by his 


parents, his widow, Mrs. Helen Ray- ter, being admitted to the liar in 1 875. 
mond O'Connor, and two sons, Marshall A Democrat in polities he was clerk of 
and Raymond. the New Hampshire house of represen- 

tatives in 1873. He took up journalism 
instead of the law and worked on the 
TORN B. MILLS Manchester Union, later in New York 

and nnallv tor 2b years on the Grand 
John Bailey Mills, horn in Dunbarton. Rapids, Mich., Herald. His wife, who 
September J. 1S48, died In Washington, died a few years ago, was Miss Emma 
D. C, January 7. He graduated from Hammond, a fellow employee of the 
Dartmouth college in 1S72, president of Union. Mr. Mills gave the historical 
his class in his senior year, and studied address at the 150th anniversary cele- 
law with Briggs & Huse in Manches- bration of his native town. 


By Claribcl Weeks Avery 

We were sitting by the grapevines where the clustered 

globes hung; blue. 
And the air was filled with sweetness such as summer 

never knew, 
And a wind that slept by daylight and had now come 

out to play. 
Shook the empty nest above us whence the birds 

had flown away. 

We were not alone together., for the night was there, 
Shaking out the sable splendor of her star- 

bejeweled hair, 
And the moon stole through the tangles like a roguish 

queen of thieves 
Poking with her golden fingers at the dark and 

dewy leaves. 

Then the insects ceased their humming and the waters 

ceased their play ; 
Nature held her breath to listen to the things we 

had to say ; 
So we wem in from the darkness that was full of 

prying eyes, 
Lit the lamp and drew the curtains in the parlor 

safe from spies. 


- ■' I •' , - 

..... : . . - 

e Maga 

■. . 


■ SIS 


By .- Ifteri E bury 



|] 'it- 13 IS 

I : 

i i v . 


econd cias 


Photo by K. D. Smiti 

Courtesy of Photo Era Magazine 

Winter ix the Flume. 



Vol; LIV 

MARCH, 1922 

No. 3. 


By Albert E. Piilsburv 

(At the 99th annual meeting of the 
New Hampshire Historical Society. 
held at its beautiful home in Concord 
on January 26, 1922, a bronze bust of 
the* late Parker Piilsburv, by J. F. 
Paramino. was presented to the socie- 
ty by his nephew, Hon. Albert E. 
Pillsbury of Boston, native of Mil- 
ford and former attorney general of 
the state of Massachusetts, whose in- 
teresting remarks on the occasion are 
published herewith,. — Editor.) 

I feel that my first duty here is to 
acknowledge my obligations to the 
artist whose genius lias created, out of 
the scant material supplied by a cou- 
ple of photographs, a living likeness 
in bronze of Parker Pillsbury. Ex- 
cept for the peculiar gift of what may- 
be called posthumous sculpture, 
which is one of Mr. Paramino's pos- 
sessions, making the dead live again, 
probably my purpose could rot have 
been realized, for I know no other 
follower of his art who has at once 
the eye to see so clearly the man he 
never saw and the hand so cunningly 
skilled to reproduce him. 

Jn offering the Society this memo- 
rial of the abolition movement, and 
of New Hampshire's part in it, I 
did not expect to make it the subject 
of any public comment, but your in- 
vitation has suggested to me the ques- 
tion whether it may not be necessary 
to say something by way of explana- 
tion, or of reminder, if for no other 
reason. The present generation never 
stood face to face with slavery. It 
has no adequate conception of the 
barbarism so deeply rooted in the so- 
cial system where slavery prevailed, 

that Congress is struggling at this 
very hour, more than half a century 
after the legal extinction of slavery, 
with one of the direct survivals of 
it. The satanic orgies of Southern 
mobs in burning negroes at the stake 
have made us a name of reproach 
around the world. The people of to- 
day have forgotten the abolitionists 
and have no realizing sense of what 
they were or what they did or suf- 
fered. Parker Pillsbury 's home was 
in this town and city of Concord for 
half a century or more, and he was 
for many years as well known a 
figure, almost, as any in this corner of 
the country, yet it would not surprise 
me to know that there are but few 
people living in Concord or in New 
Hampshire to-day who would recog- 
nize his name if they heard it, or 
know anything of the part he bore in 
the moral warfare that led up to the 
abolition of slavery. In his later 
years he published a book, under the 
characteristic title "Acts of the An- 
ti-Slavery Apostles," in which he 
records his concurrence in Cato's 
caustic remark upon statues that 
have to be accounted for, in which I 
agree, and while I think he would 
have disclaimed any such distinction, 
if I felt that reasons need be given 
for remembering him in a perma- 
nent memorial I should not be here 
on this errand. 

The relation of the abolitionists to 
the social order of their time was 
much like that of the early Christians. 
whose experiences they shared, even 
to a martyrdom hardly less cruel, if 
less bloody, than that of the Roman 



amphitheatre. The slave-power, ag- 
gressive and defiant, dominated the 
country and was advancing" with 
startling strides toward making slav- 
ery universal. To attack it in its en- 
trenchments called for moral heroism 
of a high order. The men who first 
rose to that duty became the leaders 
of the abolition movement. Their 
part in the destruction of slavery 
has been questioned by some who see 
history as they would have preferred 
to have it, but I think the final judg- 
ment must be that the abolitionists 

Parker Pillsbury 

were the pioneers who cleared the 
ground for the march of our vic- 
torious armies. Every man who fell 
on the battlefields of the Rebellion 
died in the cause for which they 
wrought. The war, though called a 
war for the Union, was in truth a 
war about slavery, and about nothing 
else. Their appeal was only to con- 
science; they could not gather in bal- 
lots the harvest they had sown, but 
at the opportune moment appeared the 
great last prophet of the cause, who 
denounced the house divided against 

itself and coupled the moral forces 
of abolition to the train of events 
that brought in Emancipation and a 
Union without slavery, trie only thing 
that ever threatened the Union. 

I cannot take the time of this 
meeting to enlarge upon the epic of 
abolition or to say more of Parker 
Pillsbury than to sketch in the brief- 
est outline enough of him. to give this 
audience a background for the im- 
agination. Pie whs brought from 
his birthplace in Hamilton, Massa- 
chusetts, as a child in arms, and 
grew up on his father's farm in Hen- 
niker, early developing qualities that 
led his pious parents to devote him 
to the Congregational ministry. For 
this he took the training of the short- 
lived Gilmanton seminary, and a sea- 
son at Andover. was licensed to 
preach, and undertook the supply of 
a little church in Loudon. Even then 
he had heard and answered the call 
of William Lloyd Garrison, and from 
that time until the final overthrow of 
slavery he was at the forefront of 
battle in the abolition cause, aban- 
doning the church for its guilty fel- 
lowship as he called it, truly enough, 
with the slaveholder. To the sum- 
mons of the church and conference 
for expulsion he replied "I have al- 
ready excommunicated you, for your 
complicity in the sins of slavery." 

In leaving the pulpit to follow 
Garrison he. of course, exchanged at 
the outset all his worldly prospects 
for social ostracism, broken friend- 
ships, public and private contumely, 
mob violence, of which he was more 
than once the object if not the vic- 
tim, threats of indictment, and offers 
in Southern newspapers of a price for 
his head, all of which were part of 
his reward. The very name of abo- 
litionist not only closed every door 
of preferment but went far to out- 
law the bearer from respectable so- 

As a platform orator in the anti- 
slavery field, the press and other 



chronicles of his time appear to re- 
gard him as second only to Garrison 
and Phillips. In the force of his 
blow I think some of those on whom 
it fell might not regard him as sec- 
ond to any. Honeyed words were no 
part of any abolitionist's equipment, 
but Parker Pillsbtiry's were likened 
to "red-hot iron searers."A contempo- 
rary said that while other abolition 
orators spoke. Pillsbury lightened, and 
thundered. He never hesitated to 
startle or even to shock his hearers, 
believing that by no other means 
could they be brought to a 
realizing sense of the all-embracing 
iniquities of slavery, and in this be- 
lief he poured out upon their frozen 
apathy the fiercest heat of the invec- 
tive of which he was master, until he 
became, perhaps, the best-hated and 
reviled of all the reviled and hated 
tribe of abojition agitators. He 
seems to have had the spirit of pro- 
phecy upon him, and it was his con- 
stant prediction from the beginning 
that American slavery was destined 
to go down in blood. 

It would not become me, and I 
have no purpose or desire, to mag- 
nify his service or his merits. I pre- 
fer to leave him as the men of his 
own time saw him, the men who knew 
him best — a striking figure, evident- 
ly, upon which many writers were 
tempted to try their hand. Among 
the pen-portraits of Parker Pillsbury 
which have come down in the litera- 
ture of that period are two, each 
drawn from life by the hand of a 
master, so vigorous and yivid that: 
they ought to be left here with the 
sculptured image. 

In James Russell Lowell's works 
will be found a series of sketches, 
struck off with mingled sympathy and 
humor, of the leading figures in 
anti-slavery convention at Boston in 
1846, where Parker Pillsbury appears 
in action in these lines: — 

"Beyond, a crater in each eye, 
Sways brown, broad-shouldered Pills- 

Who tears up words, like trees, by the 

A Theseus in stout cowhide boots; 
The wager of eternal war 
Against that loathsome Minotaur 
To which we sacrifice each year 
The best blood of our Athens here. 

A terrible denouncer he. 
Old Sinai burns unquenchably 
Upon his lips; he well might be a 
Hot-blazing soul from fierce Jud'ea, 
Habakuk, Ezra, or Hosea." 

So he appeared to Lowell, who 
was not alone in likening him to the 
fiery souls of Hebrew scripture. 

One of Emerson's essays on Elo- 
quence has a passage which I always 
believed to have been written with 
Parker Pillsbury in mind, but ■ was 
never assured of this until his Jour- 
nals were published by his son a few 
years ago, when the fact stood con- 
fessed. I give it as it appears in the 
Journal, fresh from the occasion, 
from which it was transcribed into 
the essay with little change. 

"We go to the bar, the senate, the 
shop, the study, as peaceful professions, 
but you cannot escape the demands for 
courage, no, not in the shrine of Peace 
itself. Pillsbury, whom I heard last 
night, is the very gift from New Hamp- 
shire which we have long expected, a 
tough oak-stick of a man, not to be 
silenced or insulted or intimidated by a 
mo!), because he is more mob than they; 
he^ mobs the mob. John Knox is come 
at last on whom neither money, nor po- 
liteness, nor hard words, nor rotten 
eggs, nor blows, nor brickbats, make 
the slightest impression. He is fit to 
meet the bar-room wits and bullies; he 
is a wit and a bully himself, and some- 
thing more: he is a graduate of the 
plough and the cedar swamp and the 
snow-bank, and has nothing to learn 
of labor or poverty or the rough farm. 
His hard head, too, has gone through 
in boyhood all the drill of Calvinism, 
with text and mortification, so that he- 
stands in the New England assembly 
a purer bit of New England than any 
ancl flings his sarcasms right and left, 
sparing no name or person or party or 
presence. He has not only the docu- 
ments in his pocket to answer all cavils, 
and to prove all his positions, but he 
has the eternal reason in his head."' 

With this I leave him to a place 
hi your gallery of New Hampshire 


worthies. I believe it was Andrew thought, Of these Parker Pills- 
Fletcher of Saltoun who said that bury in his degree was one, at a 
one need not care who makes the time when the fate of the country. 
laws of a nation if he can make its a country worth saving and desper- 
ballads. The meaning" of this is ately needing to be saved from the 
that the men of real influence in the sin which he denounced, was trem- 
world, the men wlio control events, bling in the balance, and to this he 
are not the titled puppets that mas- gave all that he was. all that he had, 
querade in the places of power but and all that he could expect in this 
the men who stir the public feeling world, without fear or hope of re- 
and shape the course of public ward. 


By AltJiinc S holes Lear 

They have spread their dainty pinions — 

Little, feathered friends of ours — 
They have flirted to the Southland, 

With its sunshine and its flowers. 
And we miss their merry music 

From the hillside and the glen. 
But when wintry days are over. 

Then the birds will come again. 

If our courage sometimes falters 

When the days are dark and cold, 
And the burden seems too heavy 

For our tired hands to hold ; 
'Tis a glad thing to remember 

That these days will pass, and then 
There will come a happy spring-time. 

And the birds fly North again. 

There are warm, red rosebuds sleeping 

Underneath the ice and snow; 
There are days of rest and gladness 

That our happy hearts shall know. 
'Tis the very sweetest message. 

And it cheers the hearts of men. 
There will come a brighter morrow 

When the birds fly North again. 



Bv Zilla G conic Dcx 


An All Day Visit 

Springing to her feet, the little 
lad}' shook out the crushed folds of 
her pretty muslin, and was standing 
before the quaint mirror patting 
here and there her tousled head 
when the kitchen door opened with 
a bang. Mrs. Bowles, blowsy and 
heated and swinging a Shaker sun- 
bonnet by the 'string, entered the 
square-room and threw herself 
down upon one of the straight- 
backed chairs. 

"Wal,' if this ain't a day to be 
remembud,'' she. ejaculated, going 
on as usual, unmindful of all voices 
save her own. "Ain't you most 
starved, Mis' Ndrris? I worried 
about ye, but I hadn't no time to 
waste on ye. Sich a thing never's 
happened to me before. Prob'ly 
ev'rybuddy down t' the Works is 
wonderin' what under the sun has 
come across Mandy Bowles' cause 
'er diner-horn hain't blowed. But 
if 1 can't blow on time I don't blow. 
Catch me advertisim ray own shif- 
lisniss. But as I w r as savin', this 
day'll be remembud." 

The woman paused to indulge in 
a prolonged breath, when Ploomy 's 
voice joined with Mrs. Xorris, 
"Mother, do tell us what has hap- 
pened. Stop your talkin' and tell 

Mandy turned sharply on her 
daughter, "Ploomy Bowles," she 
exclaimed, "I'd clean forgot ye. 
O Lord ! how red your cheeks is. 
And your eyes is brighter'n they 
ought t'be. You go right up stairs 
and lay down this minute. Go I 
tell ye. Mother doesn't like to see 

you lookin' so all flushed up and 

Ploomy, casting a bright glance 
on her new-found friend, arose 
quietly and left the jloom, while 
her mother began her tardy ex- 

"Wal,' she commenced, "I was jest 
goin' to blow, right on tick as usual, 
when Phibby come tumblin' over 
the garden wall hollerin,' 'Marm, 
Father says, you'n Liddy git a 
couple long-necked bottles and a 
kittle o'b'iliir water an' stiver for 
the field.' I knew what that 
meant. Old Suke, our best hoss, 
was havin' nuther one of her 
spells of colic. She likes to die 
with 'em sometimes. But it's all 
over now, and Suke's in the 
barn right as a trivit, thanks to 
the Elder. He had a parcil of 
hoss-medicine in his buggy. That 
saved the day, or the hoss. He's 
a sight better hoss-cloctor than he'll 
ever be a preacher in my opinion. 
Now don't flare up, little woman, 
he w r as our 'boy minister' afore he 
was your'n ; and there ain't a house 
in the hull town where the Elder 
ain't counted one of the fam'ly; 
nor Priest Burt nuther. He's the 
Congregationlist preacher, and he 
can preach too ; but of course he is 
older and a sight more ministerfied." 

"Why do you call Mr. Burt, 
Priest?" choked the brave little 
woman, eager to change the 

"Same as we Baptists call our 
man, Elder; so'st not to git 'em 
mixed s'pose. I should like to 
know what they all are savin' 
though, down to the works 'cause 
my dinner-horn didn't blow. Le's 
go out in the kitchen now, the men- 



folks will be right in, and Liddy's 
got the dinner on by this time. 
Tain't sp'iled nuth'er, for baked 
beans and Injun puddin* Is all the 
better for standin' a spell." 

Mandy's kitchen, where the din- 
ner-table was spread, looked whole- 
some and homelike, from it.- shin- 
ing spruce-yellow floor to the Mon- 
day's wash, faultlessly laundered 
and hung high overhead to air, on 
slender bars suspended from the 

The wide-open South door, with 
casings slightly sagging, framed a 
rare picture, blurred today by a smoky 
atmosphere and the scorched effects 
of a summer's drought. A picture 
of bare and lofty peaks, near and 
distant, with a deep and narrow 
valley winding southward its pano- 
ramic way among bold foothills ; here 
a miniature canyon, there broaden- 
ing into sunny meadows and every- 
where watched by close-peeping 

Within this valley, overlooked from 
the high ridge of the Red Barn 
Farm, a small village or hamlet, was 
slowly building, along the narrow 
meadows that fringed two moun- 
tain streams. The one, a true 
cavalier from the heights, leaping, 
dancing, noisy with bravado, hurry- 
ing" to his tryst ; the other, dallying 
through the low-lands, dreaming 
in the pools, at last to steal out 
from under the hem of the hill, 
there to be caught in the ripple and 
swirl of meeting waters. 

High on the bank above the 
united streams. an iron-furnace 
reared its belching .smoke-stack. 
This busy intruder with forge, and 
shop, and sooty coal-sheds on the 
island, sorely vexed, (with its dams 
and bridges.) the once untrammel- 
led river. Maddened by a sudden 
storm from the mountain, the swol- 
len torrent roared over the dam and 
through the sluices, foaming arid bit- 
ing at its banks until its wild bej- 

lowings were plainly heard at the 
old South door. 

Today. Sally Norris stands there, 
watching the leisurely approach of 
trie ''men-folks" toward the house 
after giving a last look at old Suke, 
now quietly nibbling at her hay. 
Evidently no one is seriously dis- 
turbed by Mandy's last threat to 
"clear them vittles off n the table," 
if she waited another minute. In- 
stead all were gravely discussing 
the increasing signs of fire, "mullin' 
away somewhere on the mountain." 
Sallv looked at her husband with 
dismay and decided disapproval, 
but met such a deprecatory glance 
from his eye that she refrained from 
farther noticing that the men. the 
minister with them, were coming into 
dinner, collarless and in their shirt- 
sleeves, after their vigorous wash 
and scrub at the log water-trough. 

With janey, Mrs. Norris tripped 
down the worn path to meet good 
Mr. Bowles. Very tall, thin and 
loose-jointed, he came toward her 
extending a broad, cleanly palm 
which she took smilingly, assured 
of its gentle grasp. 

"Wal/ wal,' Sister Norris." with 
his genial drawl, "I'm real glad ye 
come up terday, you'n the Elder. 
'Tain't very pleasant but it might 
ben wuss. Here's Elijah, my fust- 
born." he continued, giving place to 
a young man as tall as himself, 
though well-knit and far from awk- 
ward. "Son, this is the Elder's 
little woman." 

Looking up into steady grey eyes, 
listening to a quiet greeting, the 
"little woman" thought, "he might 
have ben wuss too." though the 
manly young man blushed like a 

"This 'ere is Steve, — Steve Hough- 
ton." Mr. Bowles continued intro- 
ducing, "he's ben our hired man for 
fifteen year past. But." with a sad 
shake of the head, "Abby Ann Bar- 
ritt's growin' powerful winninV 



At a distance Mr. Houghton im- 
pressed Mrs. Norris unpleasantly; but 

on nearer approach, all suggestion of 
dark deeds or smugglers' caves van- 
ished. She met a somewhat con- 
ceited "Old Bach" with voice like 

The rascal of the family was yet 
invisible. Only as the last chairs 
were being drawn up to the table 
with much clatter, especially by the 
"extra men," did he appear. Mrs. 
Xorris heard a remembered voice at 
her elbow. "Say, can you spell my 
name today. Teacher?" She turned 
to recognize the same black-eyed, cur- 
ly-headed boy who nearly tortured 
her to tears, in her first attempt at 
Sunday-school teaclmig. There he 
stood grinning, hare-foot, with Sun- 
day pants rolled high. face, neck and 
even knuckles pink from Liddy's re- 
lentless scrubbing. 

"Me-phih-o-sheth Bowles," sparred 
Sally, "I'll not attempt your cranky 
name until I have eaten my dinner. 
Take your seat, sir." 

With a saucy giggle the boy obeyed, 
and the big bowl of cider applesauce 
intervening, was an unconscious wit- 
ness to the merry-eyed pact of good- 
fellowship formed that day to be 
culminated, years later, in heart- 
breaking tenderness on the distant 
field of Shiloh> 

Now came the perfect hush, so 
familiar in those days, and the simple 
giving of thanks, after which, Mr. 
Bowles heartily urged, — 

"Now dew take right holt an' help 
yerselves. We don't have no mar- 
ners," adding, "Brother Norris, see 
that your wife gits a good holpin' o' 
beans and brown bread ; Mother's 
brick oven turns out good victuals. 
You can always count on that. Have 
some of her cowcumbers, rum- 
pickled, put up tew year ago. Some 
twang}% but that don't hurt 'Gm. ,y 
,"Yis, I'm a marster hand, to pickle 
and put up," chimed in Mandy. "I 
always calcerlate to have 'nough to 

give 'way. The shif'less ye have al- 
ways round ye. But now there ain't 
sctirce a cowcumber nor any other 
garden sass, or 1 wouldn't het up my 
brick oven this time o' year, minis- 
ter or no minister." 

The platters and yellow nappies 
emptied of the richly flavored beans 
and "Injun puddin,", Liddy of the 
deft hand and quiet step, replaced 
them; with plates of milk-yeast bread, 
solid pats of butter, . and generous 
bowls of preserved "Canada plums." 
floating like monster rubies in their 
rich, translucent syrup. There were 
big cubes of maple-sugar sweet cake, 
twisted nut-cakes, spiced with cara- 
way, the like of which this generation 
may only dream of and pies, of 
course, with bronzed and tender 
crust, flanked by plates of Mandy's 

-With renewed cups of tea. general 
conversation began. 

"Stephen," said Mr. Norris, after 
helping his wife to the plums, "you 
were speaking of a gang of counter- 
feiters who have been ranging- the 
mountains lately, and of their care- 
lessness with fire; you said they 
camped near Mormon City. Where is 
that city? Is there a buried city as 
well as a lost river in this wonderful 
region of the North Woods?" 

While the rest were laughing and 
joking at the minister's expense, 
Stephen reached his long arm in its 
clean, white shirt-sleeve, half-way 
across the table, and inserting his own 
knife underneath a juicy triangle of 
applepie, he adroitly transferred it to 
his own plate, together with a "hunk" 
of cheese and the biggest doughnut. 

Now that his favorite dessert was 
secured, he expressed a willingness 
to impart all the information needed. 

"Eh," sniffed Mandy. "There's jest 
one thing, Steve Houghton, is al- 
ways ready to give and that's infor- 

Undisturbed, Stephen began, "No 
doubt, Elder, you have followed up 


Ham Branch, mam's the time, to 
call on that good man, Elder Cogs- 

"Certainly, certainly." choked the 
minister, his mouth full of pie. 

"Well," proceeded the narrator, in 
his most ponderous style, that never 
tailed to nettle Mandy, "Well, it you 
had followed that road far enough, 
YOU would have struck the Old Coun- 
ty road that leads over the Benton 
Hills to Haverhill ; the very road (on- 
ly a hard-trod Indian trail then, pro- 
bably hundreds of years old.) by 
which our first white settlers came 
into this Francony region, as late as 
seventeen seventy- four, or' there- 
abouts. The country was wild as 
snakes. The first ten years, there 
were killing frosts, war with Britain, 
the Indian scare, with no mills, no 
roads, no bridges ; though there was 
a log school-house and a meeting- 
house is referred to in the Proprie- 
tor's Books as the proper place to 
post their notices, 'being the most fre- 
quented public place.' " 

'"That sartin speaks well for 'em," 
interrupted good Mr. Bowles. "They 
might have ben wuss ; and they do 
say, Artemas Knight, our fust set- 
tler, was powerful in prayer, and as 
kind-hearted and honist as he was 
pious. Well to do, too." 

"Shet up. Siah, and pass the Elder 
some of my sage cheese. Don't be- 
lieve he's had a speck." 

"After the settlers had lost all 
their titles, through the war of the 
charters." Stephen went calmly on. 
"everybody was for leaving the val- 
ley to grow up to wilderness again. 
But about that time, they began to 
dig first-class ore out of Iron Moun- 
tain ; they formed the Haverhill and 
Franconia Iron Company, and built 
a small furnace, (the first one in 
town, all the old folks tell me,) a 
mile or so up the valley on Ham 
Branch. From there they followed 
a road up the steepest of the hill to 
the mine, because it was nearer, and 
all the ore was hauled bv oxen. The 

Upper Works, as we call it now, must 
have been a smart, busy, little place 
for those days. There were the fur- 
nace buildings, neat and snug, on 
both, sides of the Branch and a good- 
sired store, with a hall for meeti ig< 
and the like; besides, there were nigh 
a dozen houses, not counting the 
haunted house, nor the big one on 
the bank above the grist-mill. It 
was a pretty spot, with the pond 
spreading from hill to hill, and 
farms scattered around on the hill- 
sides. But they built a larger fur- 
nace here on the river, and since 
that one at the Upper Works was 
burned, they have been hauling that 
first little village down here house 
by house. There'll be nothing left 
on the Branch but cellar-holes and 
scrub growth; the town is going to 
forget and perhaps deny its own 

Mandy had reached across the 
table and rilled Steve's cup with boil- 
ing tea, its acrid fumes beguiling him 
to pause and take a cautious soop. 

"Now Elder," she cut in, "have 
another piece of my dried rosb'ry 
pie. Good, ain't it? Made it pupus 
for ye. You'll need it too, 'fore you 
ever see Mormon City at this rate," 
schemed the hustler. "I say, Steve, 
I'll take the Elder a shorter trip, 
while you catch up with them vic- 
tuals on your plate there." 

Janey slipped from her chair, gave 
Phib's curls a sly twitch, and vani- 
shed through the South door, the boy 
following, with a whoop of relief. 

All the men, save Stephen, had 
moved their seats a space from the 
table, each taking a comfortable posi- 
tion, and were now busily manipula- 
ting their goose-quill tooth-picks. 
Mrs. Norris had volunteered, and 
was quietly helping Liddy "clear off 
the table," good-natureclly assisted 
by the hired men, around whom they 
both were obliged to circulate. 

"Now, Elder," said Mrs. Bowles, 
"come with me down East Landaf 
way, and up among the hills there, 



on the flank of old Kinsman, you'll 
find all there is left of Mormon City, 
Nothing not even a sunken holler. 
Much less a broken door-stone, with 
an old lilock hush, or clump of cin- 
namon roses nigh; though ther's 
slathers of Bouncin' 'Bets' in places, 
tjbe) say. There used to be a little 
graveyard. But the angels couldn't 
find it now. The place is all grow- 
in' up thick, to young timber with 
miles of stun wall windin' through 
it. that used to mark off fields and 
pastures. Now there's the city, 
Elder, I can tell ye more about it if 
ye want to listen; somethiiT of a story 
though. But just as you say, seem' 
your wife's lielpin' Liddy do the 
dishes ; and these hired men can mog 
off to the field any time now, no- 
buddy'll miss 'em." 

The minister had begged for the 
story, Steve had at last left the table 
and was happy with his toothpick, 
and the "extry men" had taken Airs. 
Bowies' sharp hint, and "mogged off" 
to the held to finish their day's reap- 

"Wei' as I was goin' to say," began 
Mandy, seated in her splintbottomed 
arm-chair by the South door, her fly- 
ing knitting-needles vying with her 
tongue, "them settlers want no Mor- 
mons when they 'fust come to these 
parts. My Gran'ther Spooner used 
to trade cattle with 'em in his young 
days. He called 'em honist and 
close-fisted in their deal, and their 
wimmin'- folks, he said, was good 
house-keepers and poor gadabouts; 
uncommon good-lookin' too, he said. 
And their farms was prosperous. 
'Bout the time their boys and gals 
was gruwed up to sparkin' age, a 
stranger come snoopin' round these 
parts. There wa'n't nothin' par- 
ticular ag'inst 'im fust off. But when 
folks, spesh'ly young folks got to be 
carried away with him, he let it leak 
out that he was a Mormon Elder, 
and he 'pointed meetin's round in the 
school-houses. When the news got to 
good old Elder Quimby's ears, you'd 

better believe there was some hust- 
ling in the dock and the Mormon 
come up mis'siri' ; 'xactly like a 
wolf that had ben sneakin' round 
a sheep-pen. But the next day they 
heerd. he was up in the mountain 
district makin' converts and baptizin' 
of 'em every Sunday up there in the 
pool. But one Sunday he had a big- 
ger aud'yance and one more candidate 
then he was expectin'. 

"\YaF, as I was tellin'" Mandy had 
stopped to set her seam, "one Sun- 
da}", not as I approve, some boys got 
cur'ous as boys will, and went up 
there on the sly and hid 'mong the 
thick spruces on the high bank of 
the pool. The lit'list shaver among 
'em, (prob'ly a Noyes or maybe an 
Edwards, all nice folks) shinned up 
a slim birch that leaned over the 
water. The boys could see right off 
that there wa'n't any high jinks go- 
in' to be performed ; there was nothin' 
dif'runt from Elder Quimby's bap- 
tisums ; jest a gatherin' on the shaller 
bank of the pool, with him readin' to 
'em. When he shet up his book, a 
woman begun to sing. My old 
gran'ther has heered Zeb Young tell 
this many's the time, and he was the 
biggest rogue among 'em. 

"Zeb always said that he didn't see 
the woman fust off, and that he 
sartin thought it was one of them 
birds what we hear singin' deep in 
the woods, thrushes, Steve calls 'em ; 
but when he heered words that sound- 
ed like 'All to leave and follow; he 
peeked through the thick boughs, he 
said, and see the woman standin' and 
singin' and looking up into the sky, 
with the sunshine fallin' down all 
round her, and in the pool. Then the 
Elder stepped down into it. Zeb 
said, that all at once, he felt so mad 
at the old hypocritter breakin' up 
homes, and hearts, maybe, that'e just 
had to do somethin' particular mean. 
So he grabbed up his axe, that he 
had brung along to hack off spruce- 
gum with, and struck it plumb into 
the slim birch; the sca't little imp in 



it, lost holt, and went down ker- 
splash into the deepest part of the 
pool. Zeb and the other boys waited 
jest long 'n'ough to see the Elder fish 
him out, gaspin' and sputterm*. The 
old teller shook him dry, all right, 
but when the little chap caught up 
with the other boys most: home he 
showed 'em his pockits stuffed with 
apples, them good folks had gi'n Tm." 

"They might 'ave lien wuss, wuss," 
whispered kind Mr. Bowles, as his 
wife paused to measure on her fin- 
ger, the length of the stocking-leg 
she was knitting. 

"They might have ben more level- 
headed too." she resumed, tartly. 
"} Towsomever, late in the fall, some 
hunters from down below, come, 
trapesin' over the mountain and lost 
themselves. 'T was a bright ..moon- 
light night, hunter's moon' you know, 
but they was pesky glad to strike a 
clearin'. They couldn't seem to rouse 
nobuddy at the fust two cabins, so 
they went on, thinkin' the folks was 
all gone to a buskin', likely. But the 
third cabin-door stood wide open 
with the moonlight shining still and 
solemn on the white floor, like can- 
dle-light on a dead face. Wal, them 
bold hunters never stopt ag'in till 
they got to the old Kinsman place. 
There, settin'round a bright fire 
they told how every house in the hull 
clearin' was left stark and alone. 'T 
was news to ev'rybuddy. But some 
one hollered, 'Bet a hooky, they've all 
went and jined the big Mormon ex- 
odus ; I was readin' about it in my 
last Mornin' Star.' And they had. 
They'd exodustid, all right. - They 
had left twenty-five year of home- 
buildin' behind ; and, nobuddy's I 
know on, has ever heered from one 
on 'em sence. Now I'm goin' to set 
the heel of this 'ere stockin'." 

With many thanks for the story, 
and for Stephen's bit of history, as 
well, Mr. Norris soon followed Mr. 
Bowles, Stephen and Elijah to the 
barn. "The farmers' appropriate 
withdrawing room," thought Sally, 

envious at the thought of wide-flung 
doors and bays piled high, but soon 
merrily employed in the fragrant 
depths of the milk-room, helping 
Liddy "lift and turn" the cheese. In 
like simple pleasures passed the clos- 
ing hours of the "all day visit." 

It was late bed-time at the farm. 
Elijah and Phib. refusing to follow 
Stephen into the close attic chamber, 
were stretched upon the grassy bank. 
below the barn ; while their father, 
after bathing his tired feet at the old 
trough, had cast his length upon the 
ground by the South door. Mandy 
had brought out her low chair to the 
door-rock, and sat by, knitting; she 
needed small light for "sich work." 
The two were quietly chatting. 

"How ' the Elder did enjoy my 
blackb'xy short-cake for supper," re- 
marked Mandy. "He'd e't two 
pieces, if Liddy 's custud pie hadn't 
ben on the table. But where, under 
the sun, did you and Lige and him 
go to, his dandy mare hitched to our 
buck-board ? Kept supper waitin' 

"Not for long, Mandy. It might — 

"Vv'here'd ye go. and what did ye 
go for. is what I asked ye." 

"I was on the p'int of tellin' ye 
Mandy," said Josiah, meekly of- 

"We driv up over the Ridge, to 
Square Parker's. J wanted to see 'im 
on a little marter o' law. There ain't 
no better man to go to, in these parts, 
for law and justice, then Square Par- 
ker of Sugar Hill. I told the Elder 

"He knows that ; ev'rybuddy does. 
But, what the Elder and his mare, 
and you, went for, is what Em after." 
Mandy 's needles stabbed viciously. 

"Wal', to tell it as it is," here Mr. 
Bowles' voice dropped confidentially, 
"the Elder is in somethin' of . a fix, 
amongst a parcil o' wimmin folks. 
down to the works." 

"Siah •! — I don't believe it." 

"There, there, Mother, its only, 
they've took a notion lately, to 



borry the minister's boss an' rig', to 
go to Littleton with, ev'ry time they 
mt mad to the store, or want to spite 
voting Letty's bunntt shop.. Course 
the Elder don't make it his business. 
what they go for. but they are nigh 
sp'ilin' as good a piece of boss- flesh, 
as ther is in the County. The crit- 
ter's all ga'ntid up a'ready. They're 
spreadin' it on too tarnal thick." 

"No need swearin' about it," re- 
marked Mrs. Bowles, stiffly. 

He sighed. "Tarnal's my wust 
word, Mandy, and you kriOwit. 'T 
ain't adornin' my perfession, but it 
seems tho'f some fitting word ought 
to beElowable — at times." 

"Go on," said Mandy. 

"I can see how'st the Elder, bein' a 
minister so, can't say 'No' to a parcil 
o' fool wimmin. same as I could; and 
I ain't so sartain as I could, come 
case in hand." A derisive snort from 
his wife. "But as I was goin' to tell 
you," he went on, "the Elder wants 
me to buy his mare and promise 
never to trade her out of the fam'ly. 
He's hear'n tell, I'm marster kind to 
my critters; how Eve walked up and 
down these 'ere hills., year after year, 
ruther'n have a boss of mine stand 
out shiverin', at twenty below, or so, 
while I'm warmin' up in the prayer- 

"What's he askin' for his mare?" 
Mandy was interested. "More than 
we can give, of course, seein' she's 
a bloodid Morgan." 

"His price is oncommon reason- 
able," seems to me, "Woman." 

"Him bein' a minister, you took her, 
at fust offer, prob'ly. Just like ye." 

"No, I didn't." 

"Why didn't ye? Mark my word, 
Hod Knight will have that mare. 
He's always ben wan tin' her. ..And 
he ain't cold merlasses. He's got 
gump. All of Deacon Thomas' boys 
is smarter'n lightnin'." 

"I guesss you're pretty tired, 
• Mandy. But as I said, I told the 
Elder, (and he thought Ed better) 
Ed talk the trade over with you, 'fore 

we c'tinched it. If you hadn't liked 
it. you'd sartin have put your foot 
in it." 

"Prob'ly I should." The woman's 
wearied and slightly regretful tone 
was unlike herself. Her man was 
sifting near her now, with knees 
drawn up, his long arms encircling 
them, his head with its shock of 
grizzled hair bowed low. She looked 
at him in the dim light and repeated, 
"Prob'ly 1 should." 

"Josiah Bowles," after minutes of 
silence, "I do wish it was in ye to 
make your own trades, and stick to 
'em, spite of me or any other woman 
upsettin' 'em." 

"Eve wished so, many's the time," 
groaned the man. Then lifting his 
head he continued, "But, Mandy, ye 
got the upper hand; you was too 
bright and sparklin' to be ha'sh to ye. 
I didn't know you liad it in ye. to be 
so — so hard and usarpin' like. I 
ain't no coward' mong beast-critters, 
the men will all tell you that, but 
wimmin-folks is dif'runt — , some. 
So you've had the manigemint of me 
in your own bauds, mostly; I've ben 
standin' round lookin' on ; I ain't a 
mite prouder of the man you've made 
for yourself, then you talk as tho'f 
you was, sometimes. But that ain't 
what I set out to tell ye. Old Man 
Stinson, was down in the field this 

"What did he want? Whinin' 
about the mo'gige, likely." 

"No, Mandy, he come clean over, 
to tell me he had heered from Alic. 
He's in Calif orny. Digging out gold 
by the harnfull, by this time prob'ly. 
That's what Jim Oakes's boy is tell- 
in' round. He's jest come back from 
the "cliggins" with a mint o'money 
they say. Oakes says, when he was 
comin' out of the "diggins", as fur 
as Nevady City, he met two clean, 
husky men goin' in. One of them 
was our Alic." 

Here came an angry snarl from 
Mandy, met with manly defiance; 
"Yis, I'll say it ag'in, our Alic. 



He sent word by Jim's boy to his 
father, and said he'd write if he ever 
struck luck. Oakes says, thcr's gold 
enough. It all depends on what kind 
of a filler the feller is that goes inter 
the "diggins" after it. Some finds it 
too easy, and goes tool crazy and gits 
rid of it jist as easy; some can't ust 
no patience on a slow claim, but quit 
it for the other idler to git rich on, 
while the)* go hiintin' round, wastin' 
spunk. Hut that ain't our Alic. 
Tie's got a head on him. You can 
trust him anywheres. God bless the 
boy tonight, wherever he is." The 
greying head bowed again and the 
shrunken shoulder- heaved. 

"Josiah Bowles." never was his 
wife's voice colder, never more tin- 
sympathizing, never harder. "I un- 
derstand what ye're drivin' at, and 
I've jes this one thing to say to ye. 
If ever that boy shows himself back 
here, no matter if his pockits is lined 
with gold inside and out, he, nor no 
other Stinson shall come nigh a dar- 
ter o'mine. I told him to his face, 
and I meant it too, that before he 
should have my Ploomy. to help him 
bear his fam'ly's disgrace and shif- 
lissniss, I'd lay her in her coffin, with 
my own hands. Her aunt Ploomy 
'scaped lots of mis'ry dyinf young." 

"Did ye hear that noise, Mandy? 
Sounded as tho'f somehbuddy's fell 
down, up charmber." 

"Liddy puttin' down the winder, 
likely, to keep the smoke out ; its 
growin' smokier ev'ry minute, seems 
so," was the undisturbed response. 

There was a prolonged sigh and 
the weary man, by the aid of his 
muscular hands and long arms, swung 
and lifted himself easily from his low 
seat, standing a moment, trying to 
penetrate the thickening gloom, he 
said in his usual mild tone, "Now, I 
guess I'll go down to the barn and 
see how the critters are standin'. 

Don't forgit it's the night to wind the 
clock, Mandy." 

'Did ye ever know me to forgit it?" 
she called after the man. lurching 
away in the darkness. She still con- 
tinued knitiing rapidly for a time; 
then letting her work lie idly upon 
her lap, she leaned forward, listening. 
A weird tone was rising and falling 
in tuneful, mournful cadence. It 
came from the barn chamber. 

"SialTs prayin'," muttered the 
woman with grim lips. "I knew he 
would. Nothin' can' stop 'im, though 
it's never 'mounted to shucks, as I can 
see. He wouldn't be Siah Bowles 
without prayin*. Wonder what he 
would ben, livin' with me all these 
years. But, no matter. Maud}- Bow- 
les, you ain't goin' to weaken nor 
soften on his accoun, nor nobuddy 
elses. Graves ain't the wust of trou- 
bles by a long shot. No, they's peace- 
ful compared with some kinds of 
livin'. My harnsome little Ploomy 
ain't going to be dragged through 
this 'ere world, in no down-at-the- 
heels fam'ly. not if I know it. I'd 
ruther die with 'er. O Ploomy." she 
continued, half aloud, "many is the 
time, I wish I could go long with ye, 
if you've got to go; but I'm so well to 
livin; and ther's so many things for 
me to see to. and — I ain't — noways 
ready. But the taste of livin' is all 
gone; all gone." 

She wound up her knitting, stab- 
bing her needles into the ball of yarn, 
and turned and reentered the house. 
A loud outcry from the boys stayed 
her step. 

"A big fire on the mountain," they 
were shouting. 

High on the opposite heights, be- 
yond the deep, narrow valley, a lurid 
blaze was struggling through clouds 
of mounting smoke. 

(To be continued) 



By Winficld M. Chaplin, Superintendent of Highzvays, Keenc, N. H. 


Last October, what is conceded to 
be the widest paved street in New 
England — and few will deny that it 
is also one of the most beanti fu! — 
was opened to traffic on Main Street 
in our business district, where it is 
140 feet between curbs, after laying 
a modern rein forced-concrete pave- 

Due to lack of maintenance brought 
about by war conditions, our streets, 
like those of other municipalities, ap- 
proached ruin to an extent that meant 
practically a reconstruction of the 
whole, without any salvage of the 
remnants, as they were worn below 
their uppers— so to speak; and there 
was a lack of stability in the base that 
would scarcely permit of patching 
that would withstand motor traffic 
any length of time. 

Therefore, it became necessary to 
pave these worn-out streets with con- 
crete, which eliminates costly main- 
tenance in war or peace. 

In 192Q, an appropriation of $18,- 
000 was made for permanent high- 
ways, but owing to the impossibility 
of obtaining materials early enough 
to complete the work before cold 
weather the work was deferred. 
I-ast year the Honorable Mayor and 
gentlemen of the Highway commit- 
tee, after careful investigation and 
scrutiny of all types of roads, again 
selected cement-concrete paving as 
the most durable type within our fi- 
nancial means and, accordingly 12,560 
square yards of rein forced-concrete 
pavement of the most up to date 
type was put under contract with the 
Portland Construction Company of 
Portland, Me., at $2.58 per square 
yard, which included all materials in 
place and all excavation to the depth 
of the pavement. 

The above yardage was laid on 
Court street, South Main and Main 
street ; also a considerable amount 
of concrete integral curbing. 

On the beautiful grass plots that 
park each side of South Main street 
stand the celebrated giant elms for 
which this city is noted and. men- 
tioned all over the country — choicest 
ornaments of which we are proud. 
In this charming city there are 5,000 
magnificent elms embraced within a 
radius of one mile from the soldiers' 
monument in Central Square. The 
new and excellent reinforced-con- 
crete pavement has enhanced the ap- 
pearance of our down town district; 
has brought light into the darkness; 
and has made a strikingly attractive 
thoroughfare every where it is laid — ' 
a thing of beauty, a joy forever. 

On South Main street, where it is 
well shaded by the stately elms, prior 
to concreting, the street surface was 
annoyingly muddy because it would 
not dry out, as the grade is very flat; 
but after these slabs were laid the 
street was easily kept clean and sani- 
tary, as the surface water is afforded 
a quick run-off by the smooth, even 
and gritty concrete. This is one of 
the good points of concrete surfaces 
on flat gutter grades, where leaves 
in the fall will clog if permitted 
to accumulate. 

All of our Rein forced -Concrete 
is seven inches in thickness, contain- 
ing steel mesh ; all transverse joints 
contain pre-moulded bituminous 
filler to provide for expansion; the 
mixture is one part Portland ce- 
ment to two parts sand and three 
parts crushed New Hampshire 
granite, clean and uniformly well 
graded. Half of the 140 itei width 
on Main Street was laid at a time 



and is divided longitudinally into 
three sections by plain butt joints. 
All slabs are Laid directly on soil 
as it was found alter excavating to 
proper grade, without any prepara- 
tion for sub-soil grade such as loose 
stone foundation or gravel, the sub- 
grade being consolidated by proper 
rolling. At the street crossings for 
pedestrians a ten foot strip was laid 
with darkened mixture made by in- 
corporating two pounds of lamp black 

ideal surface that is easily swept, 

kept clean and attractive. 

Local material was available for the 
bulky parts of this new pavement. 
The sand is of good quality and the 
crushed granite was trucked in from 
the Webb Quarry six miles away. 

This pavement is virtually a con- 
crete-granite pavement, because 66 
per cent of it is crushed Xew Hamp- 
shire granite and this opens up a new 
use. a new market for this material 

■ T '1 

I ' t - ■ 

i >. .'■' 



.■>. . 

Concrete-Granite Pavement Under Construction, 
Main Street, Keene, N. H. 

(View taken September 27, 1921) 

per bag of cement into the mixer 
and placed two inches in thickness 
on the surface to define the safety 
lanes. A considerable area of vitri- 
fied brick supported by concrete 
foundation was removed and replaced 
with the superior reinforced-concrete 
in order to lay to the established 
grade. Wide granite block gutters 
that were rough in surface and almost 
impossible to keep clean and sanitary 
were removed and replaced by new 
concrete paving which furnishes an 

for which our state is celebrated. 
For years we have been exporting 
our granite all over the country, and 
for years we have been importing 
fancy trap rock from Massachusetts 
for the macadam type of roads, a 
type that is now outworn by our 
heavily increased modern traffic. The 
principal reason why our New 
Hampshire granite is not used for 
macadam road surfacing is because 
it pulverizes under ten ton rollers, 
thereby preventing proper penetra- 




tiori in binding, and again, there is 
an internal friction in madacam roads 
that causes undue wear produced by 
swift heavy trucks that were restrict- 
ed to three tons gross load last spring 
to save the inadequate roads where 
soils were in many places reduced to 
a state approaching fluidity from 

On the other hand granite when 
incorporated with cement mixtures 

to all granite dealers, and to the state 
it represents an investment. 

New Hampshire fortunately pos- 
sesses an unlimited supply of this 
useful granite which is an igneous 
rock of crystai ine structure com- 
posed of interlocking grains of 
quartz, feldspar and mica or horn- 
blende; and while it varies as to 
texture to some extent it is a rock 
that is especially adapted to absolute- 









\ i 

^%-t ij^rr^- 

- "•.■• ■ - y 
...■••■ ' ""4 

'V - 


Widest Paved Street in New England, Main Street, Keene, N. H. 
Concrete-Granite Pavement 140 ft. between curbs. 
(View taken October 10, 1921) 

is an ideal road slab that has no in- 
ternal wear. There is not a better 
market, there is no more economical 
use, than for New Hampshire to build 
her main roads of material from her 
granite quarries where for years this 
waste granite has accumulated in 
pyramidal piles. Its salvage into 
concrete-granite roads is like re- 
ceiving a new dollar for an old one 

ly durable and indestructible roads. 
Concrete-granite roads improve with 
age; they do not deteriorate from age, 
wear and weather ; they do not re- 
quire costly maintenance; they are 
absolutely adaptable to our New 
Hampshire climate, soil and traffic. 

Conclusive evidence of the value of 
cement pavements was noted last year 
during our investigation right here 



in Keene where we found stretches 

in continuous use for years that are 
as good as new. One of these is a 
cement walk on the west side of 
Main street which has been down 
seventeen years with constant use and 
without any repair whatever, showing 
no sign of wear. Another, a pave- 
ment in Dipthpng Alley has been 
subjected to vehicular * traffic oyer 
seven years without any outlay for 
maintenance and showing no signs of 
wear; which indicates the exceptional 
value of plain concrete slab pave- 
ments. On many of our macadam 
streets we have cross walks built of 
plain concrete slabs and some of 
these were taken up last year after 
seven or eight years service in order 
to relay reinforced concrete paving. 
Man)- of these old slabs we propose 
to use again for street crossings. 
Last year the Standard Oil Company 
laid an excellent stretch of reinforced 

concrete slab pavement in the yard 
of their distributing plant to support 
their heavy trucks. 

The first cost of any type of pave- 
ment is not a .fair measure of the 
value of that type. The value of any 
type depends upon the term of ser- 
vice it can. render without costly 
maintenance. A type of construc- 
tion, the initial cost of which may be 
ten or twenty per cent more than 
another type is much more economi- 
cal investment if it eliminates or 
materially reduces the maintenance 
charges and gives a much lengthened 
period of service. In my opinion this 
type of concrete-granite highway will 
positively arrest maintenance and its 
use on main highways will surely 
release funds now used for mainte- 
nance so that we can build more 
and better roads that are capable of 
meeting future requirements. 


By Helen Mowe Philbrook 

We talked, the half remembered sea beside. — 

Blent with our words its murmurous voice and low 
Idly we watched the silvering grasses blow. 

And now a sail the beryl harbor ride, 
And now a tilting curlew, circling wide. 

One moment thus— the next the wind's warm flow 
Quickened and chilled : cried one with eyes aglow, 

"Oh hark! It is the turning of the tide!'" 

With far clear call the great deep veered once more 
With swelling breast to the forsaken shore; 

The sea flower drooping in its emptied pool 
Lifted and lived in flooding waters cool. 

So felt I once faith's turning ebb tide roll 
Across the withering blossoms of my sou: 



Bv Samuel L. Powers 

■ (Part of an after-dinner address 
at the annual reunion and banquet of 
the Dartmouth Alumni Assoeiation 
of Boston and vicinity.) 

Eighteen miles south oi Hanover, 
upon trie banks of the Connecticut, is 
a country town which was christened 
Cornish. It never had a population of 
over 1,800 people, and at the present, 
lime lias only one-half that number. 
That town sent to Dartmouth three 
boys upon whom the college conferred 
decrees. These men entered different 
fields of service, and each achieved, in 
his chosen field, the highest distinc- 
tion ever achieved by any American. 

The first was Philander Chase, who 
graduated from Dartmouth in 1796. 
He did more for the promotion of 
established religion than any other 
American that the country has pro- 
duced. He emigrated to Ohio, 
where he planted the Protestant 
Episcopal Church, and he extended 
it over into Pennsylvania, to Illinois 
and into the Middle West. He be- 
came its great bishop. He was 
equally as well known in church 
circles in England as in America. In 
England he is referred to as the great 
American bishop. He not only pro- 
moted the establishment of the church 
but he was the founder of Kenyon 
College in Ohio, and the founder of 
Jubilee College in Illinois. Some 
years since I asked the late Senator 
Knox of Pennsylvania how it hap- 
pened that he was christened Phil- 
ander Chase Knox. "Why," he said, 
"at the time of my birth the greatest 
blessing that a mother of Pennsyl- 
vania could confer upon her son was 
to christen him after the great 
American bishop." 

The second of this group of three is 
Nathan Smith, who founded the 
medical school at Dartmouth, the 
medical school at Yale, at Bowdoin 
and at the University of Vermont, 

and in the course of his life he 
taught every branch in the curricu- 
lum of those four schools, and was 
one of the leading lecturers before 
the Harvard medical school. Dr. 
Oliver Wendell Holmes, in referring 
to Dr. Smith as an instructor in 
medicine, says that he did not occupy 
a chair, he occupied a settee. The 
history of Nathan Smith's life reads 
like a romance. At 2& years of age 
he was following the plow, and be- 
came interested in medicine through 
talking with a country physician who 
was ministering to one of the mem- 
bers of his family. He borrowed 
from this doctor some medical books 
and became so interested in the study 
of science that he went before the 
trustees of Dartmouth and suggested 
that he would like to establish a medi- 
cal school in connection with the col- 
lege. At that time he had never re- 
ceived any medical degree, nor was 
he licensed to practice, but he so im- 
pressed the trustees that they loaned 
him the money to go abroad for the 
purpose of studying medicine and sur- 
gery. Later he returned and founded 
the, Dartmouth medical school in a 
room in the northeast corner of old 
Dartmouth Hall. That room was 
not a large one, yet it was the lecture 
room, the laboratory and dissecting 
room of the new medical school. 
Later on the college conferred upon 
him the degree of doctor of medicine, 
and Nathan Smith is recognized today 
by the medical profession as having 
done more for the promotion of 
medical education than any other 

The third of this group is Salmon 
P. Chase, nephew of Bishop Chase, 
who received his degree from Dart- 
month in 1826. He is recognized 
as the greatest financier this country 
has produced. After his graduation 
he went to Ohio, where he achieved 


distinction, in the legal profession, could be borrowed by the Unit*-] 
entered public life, was governor of States was 12 per cent. Chase worki 
his adopted state, a United States out a theory of finance through a sys 
senator, and later chief justice of the tern of legal tender notes, shaped ti - 
United States supreme court. But legislation necessary, and insisted ui 
his great fame will always rest upon on and secured favorable action from 
lh^' service which he rendered as sec- Congress. He also formulated t! 
retary of the treasury under Presi- method of taxation, and the Norui 
dent Lincoln. When he accepted was aide to secure billions of moils 
that portfolio he had no special which maintained the army in t! •■ 
knowledge of finance or banking. To fidd and preserved the Union of the 
him it was a new field. The treasury states. And, what is more, while 
was without money, and its credit the war was in progress the credit of 
was at its lowest ebb. Obligations of the country improved from year to 
the United States had been protested year,, and in 1864 the 7 per cent 
in New York. The great war was bonds of the United States were sell- 
On. Millions of men were to be ing at a premium. There is nothing 
clothed, fed and equipped, and the comparable with his record as a fi- 
duty was imposed upon Chase to nancier in this country Or in any 
formulate a plan by winch this tre- other country on the face of the 
mendous expense could be financed, globe. 
The lowest rate at which monev 


By Nellie Dodge Fryc 

When Autumn waves with red and gold. 
And fields fulfill their prophecy, 
A sombre spirit seems to all enfold, 
Like music in a minor key. 

The Summer's birds have southward flown, to 


A warmer clime, ere Winter cold. 
In woods where lichens grew, lie intertwined 
Some mosses green from out the old. 

So shall balmy Spring resplendent be. 
From leafy boughs the birds at morn 
Will pour forth their full-throated melody 
In ecstacv of earth reborn. 



By Winnifred Janette Kittredgc 

The Great Stone Face looked clown 
beneignly at the Girl. The Girl 
stared rebellion sly up at the majestic 
countenance. ''Why? Great Spirit, 
why?" she cried angrily to the moun- 
tain. "Mow can anyone he so in- 
sane? Oh, I can't stand it that they 
should betray you so. Think. of it. 
right here, Great Spirit, right here 
on this hill where I am they're going 
to build a store. A store having any- 
thing to do with you !" Her voFe 
shook with intensity, "I-I'd almost 
rather you fell down than be glanced 
at and commented on every year by 
those insane summer people." 

"Lucy -Lucy," came a faint hail 
far down the road. The Girl arose 
slowly and watched a shadow chase 
across the clear lake at her feet. 
Then in a changed mood she turned 
her eye.- to tht quiet Face above. 
"Good-bye, dear Great Spirit," she 
said. "I can't bear to leave you. I 
know I shall be achingly lonesome 
without you or any mountains at all. 
But I couldn't bear to stay either, 
with those awful summer people 

The Girl whistled to her horse 
grazing near her. She rode swiftly 
down the road to a little cabin half 
hidden by yellow birches and moun- 
tain ash trees. "Yes. mother, here I 
am," she called, "I was just taking a 
little ride up the road. I'll finish 
packing my things now." 

Late into the night the mother and 
daughter worked on the last details 
which always precede a momentous 
departure. Lucy was to leave her 
mountain home for a city school. It 
was indeed a great event, for she had 
known little else than the rugged 
mountains where houses were far 
apart and the great cliffs were con- 
stant companions. 

As Lucy mounted her horse to ride 
beside the big wagon which carried 
her trunk, two men passed with sur- 

veying instruments. Lucy did not 
look at them. "If you must go and 
l)ii i Id a hotel," she said to herself, 
"1 think you might at least wait un- 
til I'm gone. Anyhow I needn't be 
civil." And the Girl rode cityward 
down the path. 

* * * * * 

The day had been a busy one at 
the Profile House, and still busier at 
the little Profile Store. Crowds of 
sightseers had stopped there to gaze 
at the rugged Face and watch the 
cloud shadows darken the mountain. 
The tray of spruce-twig alpenstocks 
was almost empty and there was left 
but one birch bark album, soiled by 
the perspiring fingers of the eager 
tourists. The girl at the counter was 
very tired hut she bestowed her usual 
smile on all newcomers and patiently 
sold pictures of hardy mountain- 
climbers dangling their feet over the 
forehead of the Profile. Now and 
then she glanced at the Face itself, 
her eyes lingering lovingly on the 
strong features. 

Up the hill came a woman seeming 
at first only another tourist but her 
buoyant and accustomed step pro- 
claimed her to be of mountain birth. 
The Girl had come back. "I won't 
look up yet," she thought, "I'll put it 
off as long as I can. Goodness aren't 
there a lot of people!" 

"Isn't it pretty," effervesced a silk- 
clad lady at her side. The Girl 
sighed for she had by this time 
reached the porch of the little store 
and the Stone Face was before her. 

"Oh!" she gave an audible gasp. 
She had thought it would be changed, 
different, alien to her now ; but there 
was the Face majestic and calm as 
always. She gazed long, and caught 
what the Great Face had been wait- 
ing twenty years to tell her if only 
she had not been too angry to listen — 
That the people could not spoil that 
majestic calm, and it might be that 


they would go away enriched. With ''Just one," said the patient girl 

the realization of it a great wave of within. Then seeing the friendly look 

kindliness swept over her. She she went on, "Isn't He great, though ! 

longed to show her good-will even J just can't, bear to go away and 

toward the hated store. Impulsive!}* leave i dim all alone this winter with- 

she turned to the counter. "Have, iout anyone to be company for Him." 

you any birch-bark albums left?" she The Great Stone Face looked down 

asked. benignly at the two. 


By Alice M. Shepard 

As sometimes in a friend's house we awake 
From deepest sleep and look around the room, 
And drowsy, suiter sudden fright, and quake, 
As if at some fixed, slow-impending doom, 
And feel a loss of what we cannot tell, 
And beat our wills against unyielding force, 
Till memory arouses to dispell 
The fears our prostrate senses would endorse; 

We took a motor trip and rushed through air 
Cooled by the dew which gathers after heat, 
Our headlight caught the treetops in its glare 
And changed their green to torches white and 

Then slowing down with creak of curbing brake 
We entered where, the portal shed its light 
Oh, yes, a loving friend was there to take 
Our hand, and bid us welcome for the night. 

Shall sometime thus, our weary, torpid soul 
Awake, in unfamiliar chamber, insecure 
Amid surroundings strange to our control 
And things we did rot fashion or procure? 
Shall we then half remember, as a dream, 
A journey, rushing clouds, and flying stars, 
Which lighted up our way with friendly gleam 
Or traced our path with soft and fleecy bars? 

Our soul then shall we shake, and stretch our 

To free them from their cramped and heavy sleep 
Which like a long worn garment wraps and clings 
In folds and wrinkles, hampering and deep? 
Shall we forget earth's sad and last farewell, 
The journey undertaken, full of dread, 
Lost in the welcomes which all else excel, 
Of those we love and mourned long years as 

dead ? 



By Mary Blake Benson 

Far away from the noise and con- 
fusion of the city, and where bird 
songs mingle happily with the fra- 
grance of cool woods, there is a de- 
serted pasture. On three sides it is 
separated from smooth green fields 
by irregular lines of old stone walls, 
over which wild blackberry vines and 
woodbine have dispersed themselves 
in confusion; but on the fourth side 
of the pasture, the land slopes lazily 
to the shores of a beautiful lake. 
Years of neglect have left their mark 
upon these few acres of land, the 
greater part of which is rapidly grow- 
ing up to trees and bushes again. 
Cows have long since ceased to feed 
upon the grassy knolls, and birds and 
squirrels find in it an undisturbed 
paradise. Almost in the center of 
the pasture stands a pine tree. I do 
not know how old it is, but in all 
the surrounding country there is 
none that can equal it in size or 
beauty. Its lowest branches which 
are perhaps ten feet above the ground, 
spread out over a circle at least twen- 
ty feet in diameter ; while its topmost 
plumes toss themselves skyward no 
less than five times that distance 
above the soft bed of brown needles 

at its base. On all sides aggressive 1 
alders and scrawny birches have 
crept up until they stand in a re- 
spectful circle around this monarch 
of the pasture. The storms of count- 
less New England winters have brok- 
en over my pine, and icy winds have 
twisted and bowed its graceful 
branches. The suns of innumerable 
summers have poured their scorch- 
ing rays down upon it, and once a 
swift bolt of lightning tore away a 
line, big limb. But in spite of all, 
my pine has stood calm and serene 
throughout the years. "The peerless 
pine was the first to come and the 
pine will be the last to go!" 

It waves me a welcome whenever 
I go home, and it murmurs a bene- 
diction when I leave. Oh, the happy 
hours I have spent beneath the shelter 
of my grand old tree ! I have been 
soothed by its soft voices and cheered 
by the songs of birds in its branches. 
It has rejoiced with me in my glad- 
ness, even as it has comforted me in 
my sorrows. Its beauty never fails 
to thrill me with wonder; and its 
fragrance steals across the distance, 
.bringing strength and courage to my 
weary soul. 


By Helen Ad cms Parker 

Forbidding March has come at last — ■ 
Still pile the wet logs higher; 
But wait — there lies, beneath his blast, 
The Spring of our Desire. 



By Walter B. Wolfe 

Jack Frost! Xov; there's a chap that somehow gets 
Too little credit from his fellowmeri ! 
A poet, little understood by all 
The sallow ox-eyed countryfolk — 
His neighbors on the steps at Aulis's 
Or loafing down at Tanzi's in the haze 
And smoke of cheap cigars, have never heard 
His name; they talk about the price of wheat, 
Of Hardy's wile who has the chills again, 
How Nye has bought a heifer of old Hodge; 
And yet there isn't: one of them that drives 
Up to the town from Norwich, Lyme, or Wilder, 
These sparkling winter mornings when the snow- 
Glistens as though some god had strewn the dust 
Swept from a starry feasting chamber down 
To our poor earth — not one of them that sees 
Or understands the poems Jack has penned. 

No other poet thinks to trtke his themes. 
The simple homely things of everyday 
And write such glorious poems our Jack Frost 
Can write thereon'! A sidewalk, windowpane, 
The little pond high up on Occum Ridge 
That dull professors pass without a thought 

For beauty such are all that Jack would ask. 

His poems? Full of dainty thought, of form 

Delightful to the eye, piquant, and charmed 

With airy grace ! He has ideas too ! 

His head is full of curious rococo — 

Thoughts yeast and foam as in a cauldron there 

And yet our Jack is modest, shuns the glance 

Of all who do not understand his faery art, 

Or those concerned too much with worldly things. 

And so it is he's never, seen with men 
Or walking on the streets he loves so well, 
The streets in which he sees a shimmering world 
Of many-colored beauties. Vet sometimes 
\\ 'hen song wells in his heart so loud, so clear 
He can no longer keep its melody 
Shut in himself, some frosty morning when 
The streets are covered with new-fallen snow, 
He skips upon earth's samite mantle, runs 
Out to the streets of Hanover, and writes 
His charming verses on a thousand panes 
Of glass; a poet of rare honesty, 
A lapidary etching w r ords like gems 
He never fills a line with sounding words 
To catch the yokel's ear for platitudes. 

Dear Jack! His head's so full of melodies 
He needs must write on every windowpane 
Tripping from house to house with eager pen 
To jot his fanciful ideas down. 
It's really very sad there are so few 
To read the lyric greeting he has left 
Gracing their windows on cold sunny mornings. . . . 



The nomination by President Hard- 
ing on February 2. 1922,of Stephen 
Shannon Jewett of Laconia, New 
Hampshire, to be naval officer of cus- 
toms in customs collections district 
Number Four, with headquarters at 
Boston, Mass., conformed to prece- 
dent of more than sixty years stand- 
ing that this office should be filled 
by a distinguished political leader 
from the Granite State.' . 

President Lincoln started the long 
line when he named for the place, the 
Honorable Amos Tuck of Exeter, 
Free Soil Congressman, one of the 
founders of the Republican party. 




Col. Stephen S. Jewett 
father of New Hampshire's bene- 
factor, Mr. Edward Tuck of Paris. 
France. There was a brief interreg- 
num under Pres. Johnson, who wanted 
the post for Hannibal Hamlin of 
Maine, but President Grant resumed 
the succession, not to be again inter- 
rupted, by the appointment of Walter 
Harrirnan, Civil War general and 
governor of Xew Hampshire. 

Since his day both Republicans 
and Democrats have held the office, 
with the change of administrations 

at Washington, but all alike have 
been brilliant and loyal sous of the 
Granite State; Colonel Daniel Hall 
of Dover, like Governor Harrirnan 
soldier, orator and historian ; Colon'el 
Henry O. Kent of Lancaster, 
who shared the same distinctions; 
Frank D. Currier of Canaan, whose 
subsequent career in Congress was 
one of long and useful service ; 
Charles F. Stone of Laconia, after- 
wards judge of the superior court of 
his state; James O. Lyford of Con- 
cord, one of the ablest and most effi- 
cient men New Hampshire public 
life ever has known; and John B. 
Nash of Conway, picturesque 
pleader in the political forum. 

Of these, only Colonel Lyford, 
who held the Boston office from 
1898 to 1913, and is now the 
esteemed and appreciated chairman 
of the New Hampshire state bank 
commission, survives. 

Like most of the New Hamp- 
shire naval officers of the port of 
Boston, Colonel Jewett has been 
long prominent in the legal and 
political circles of his state. Born 
in Gilford, N. PL, September 18, 
1858, the son of John Glines and 
Carrie E. (Shannon) Jewett, he 
studied law with Judge Stone, 
named above, and was admitted to 
the bar in March, 1880. Since that 
time he has practiced his profession 
continuously in Laconia with mark- 
ed success and during the past de- 
cade has enjoy^ed the pleasure of 
having his son, Theo Stephen 
Jewett, Dartmouth T3, as his part- 
ner. Mrs. Jewett was Annie L. 
Bray and the date of their marriage 
was June 30, 1880. 

Mr. Jewett took an early interest 
in politics and was engrossing clerk 
of the state legislature, 1883; assis- 
tant clerk of the house, 1887 and 1889; 
clerk, 1891 and 1893; member, 1895; 
speaker, 1897; state senator, 1899; 
councilor, 1907. In the meantime he 




had been secretary and chairman of 

the Republican state committee and 
delegate-at-large and chairman of the 
delegation from New Hampshire to 
the national convention of 1S96. At 
one time he was clerk of court for 
Belknap county; was for IS years 
city solicitor of Laconia; and served 
on the staff of Governor David H. 

Colonel Jewett is a 33rd degree 
Mason and has been grand master of 
the grand lodge of New Hampshire, 
grand commander of the Knights 
Templar and grand master of the 
grand council. He is the holder of 
an honorary degree from, Dartmouth 
college and was one of the state's 
most active war workers. His popu- 
larity is co-extensive with his very 
wide acquaintance. 

While the fact probably did not 
enter into the selection of Colonel 
Jewett for his new place it is interest- 
ing to note that he is a direct descend- 
ant in the ninth generation from 
Nathaniel Shannon, who held the 
office of Naval Officer at the port of 
Boston from 1701 to 1721, being the 
first occupant of the place to receive 
his commission from the Governor of 
the Plantation and General Court of 

An interesting summary by Fred- 
erick E. Everett, state highway 
commissioner, of the work of his de- 
partment in 1921, makes the some- 
what surprising showing that although 
there was no legislative appropriation 
for tiunk line construction there was 
more money expended for all high- 
way purposes than in any previous 
year, namely, $825,000 for construc- 
tion and $1,375,000 for maintenance. 

Says Mr. Everett : 

"The amount expended for main- 
tenance and reconstruction greatly ex- 
ceeds that of any previous year for 
several reasons, not the least of which 
is the fact that the winter of 1920-21 
was one of the most severe in the his- 

tory of the department. There was 
very little snow and the roads were 
open for traffic during the entire 
winter with the result that the frost 
penetrated deeper than ever before, 
and being subject to traffic during the 
freezing and thawing weather, many- 
sections were entirely cut to pieces 
that hitherto had answered all re- 

"Another reason was that during 
the extremely dry weather of August, 
many of our gravel roads failed to 
carry the tremendous heavy traffic 
of the tourist season and it was clearly 
shown to the department that many 
sections of gravel of the main lines 
would have to be treated with some 
sort of a bituminous surface or dust 
layer early in 1922 and to get these 
roads in condition for this application 
of the bituminous material, extensive 
resurfacing was necessary and it was 
the endeavor of the department to do 
as much as possible of this resurfac- 
during the fall of 1921. 

The mileage added to the improved 
roads, during the season of 1921 
is as follows : 

81.39 miles of new road. 

17.98 of old road reconstructed. 

65.81 of the new construction was 
of gravel and the remainder was 
made up of bituminous macadam, 
waterbound macadam, cement con- 
crete and crushed gravel. Of the 
mileage of reconstructed road, 3 1-2 
miles was gravel and the remainder 
made up of bituminous macadam 
and modified asphalt. 

"It is known now that the revenue 
from the automobile licenses for 1922 
will greatly exceed those of any pre- 
vious years and extensive plans are 
being made by the department in an- 
ticipation of this increased revenue. 
There is also available from the fed- 
eral government for expenditure this 
next year practically $365,000 which 
must be met by the state and towns. 

"Inasmuch as there is practically 
no state money for trunk line con- 
struction, a greater part of this 



amount will be used in the recon- 
struction of sections of the trunk line 
roads that are carrying the heavier 
traffic and where a hard surface road 
is demanded. Seventeen projects 
have been outlined under the heading 
of reconstruction. 

"There are a. number of unim- 
proved sections of 1 aid-out sys- 
tem where existing traffic is suffer- 
ing for a new road. Answering this 

Frederick E. Everett 

demand, the department has outlined 
seven federal aid projects under the 
heading of construction. In these 
cases with one exception, the towns 
will be asked to advance the funds to 
meet the federal allotment. 

"In addition to the federal aid pro- 
gram, extensive reconstruction is 
planned in various towns throughout 
the trunk line and state aid system 
and it is planned now, providing the 
towns raise the money requested of 
them, to treat with bituminous ma- 
terial the whole of the West Side 
Road from the Massachusetts line to 
Newport and from Woodsville to 
Twin Mountain; all of the Daniel 
Webster Road that is not now sur- 
face treated from the Massachusetts 
line to North Woodstock and from 

Twin Mountain to Groveton ; the 
South Side Road from Keene to and from Manchester to 
Portsmouth and various sections 
along the East Side Road that have 
been carrying extensive traffic. 

"It will be impossible to make all 
the improvements in 1922 that the 
public will demand. Many sections 
of gravel road that perhaps should 
be oiled or tarred cannot be treated. 
$300,000 to $400,000 additional rev- 
enue will not perform the impossible. 
$1,000,000 could be used to advant- 
age on the roads of New Hampshire. 
However, it will be the earnest en- 
deavor of the department to give 
value received for the additional reve- 
nue given by the passage of the new 
motor vehicle act. 

"New Hampshire has a greater 
mileage in its trunk line system than 
most states, and a much smaller reve- 
nue for construction and mainte- 
nance. These roads must be ade- 
quately maintained in order to give 
satisfactory service and to preserve 
the original investment in the con- 
struction. The motor vehicle fees for 
the last few years have not been suf- 
ficient to provide adequate mainte- 
nance, and we believe that the mo- 
tor vehicle owner will be more than 
repaid for his increase in fees by the 
better maintenance and the increase 
in oiled and hard surfaced roads 
which this increase will make possi- 
ble. The wear and tear on a main 
highway today is almost wholly 
caused by the motor vehicle and 
when the taxpayer builds a road it 
seems not only reasonable but justi- 
fiable to require that the motor vehi- 
cle user keep this road in good repair 
by replacing through proper main- 
tenance what he has destroyed." 

Upwards of 35,000 inhabitants of 
New Hampshire in 1920 were natives 
of Massachusetts, nearly 21,000 were 
born in Vermont and more than 17,- 
Q00 first saw the light of day in 



Maine, according to statistics just- 
made public by the Department of 
Commerce through the Bureau of 
the Census. 

Of the 443. OSS people in the state 
in 1920, 257,074 were born within its 
confines. Exactly 94,612 were na- 
tives of other states of the Union or 
outjying United States territorial 


possessions. Slightly less the 
number, or 91,397, to be exact, were 
born in foreign countries. 

One striking- fact the census records 
indicate is that during the decade 
from 1910 to 1920 the percentage of 
native Americans in New Hampshire 
shows a distinct increase and, corre- 
spondingly, the number of foreign- 
born inhabitants shows a distinct 
decrease. The native population in- 
creased from 77.5 per cent in 1910 
to 79.4 per cent in 1920. The for- 
eign-born population decreased from 
22.5 per cent in 1910 to 20.6 in 1920. 

Folio wing the lead of Massachu- 
setts, Vermont and Maine, whose na- 
tive sons have found a habitat in the 
Granite State, New York takes 
fourth place in such a list, claiming 
l.S per cent of the total population 
for her native sons ; Connecticut and 

Rhode Island are tied for fifth place 
with 0.4; Pennsylvania is sixth with 
0.3; New Jersey and Michigan are 
tied for seventh place with 0.2 and 
Illinois held eighth place with 0.1, 

Tiie percentage of the total popu- 
lation held respectively by the sons 
and (laughters of Massachusetts. Ver- 
mont and Maine, are 7.9 per cent. 
4.7 per cent and 3.S per cent. 

All the states listed above have 
shown a percentage increase in the 
number of native sons who have emi- 
grated to New Hampshire during the 
last 10 years, excepting Connecticut, 
New Jersey and Illinois. These 
three states have not lost their 1910 
ratio ; it has simply remained sta- 

The state of New Hampshire itself 
has shown a gain of only three tenths 
of 1 per cent as regards the number 
of persons born within the state rela- 
tive to the total population during 
the last ten years. In 1910 the num- 
ber of persons living in New Hamp- 
shire who were born within the bor- 
ders of the commonwealth, consti- 
tuted 57.7 per cent of the total popu- 
lation. In 1920 this percentage had 
increased to exactly 58 per cent. 



New Hampshire is having her 
share of the plagues and problems 
that follow in the wake of wdv. In 
this slate, as in this country and 
throughout the world, there is the 
greatest need of less splurge and 
more sense; fewer words and more 

We are more fortunate than some 
of our sister states in that we did 
not reach their heights of war-forced 
industrial activity and therefore have 
not so far to descend, rather sud- 
denlv, to the sea-level of normal 

But even with, us too many em- 
ployers have been profligate with their 
excess profits ; too many employees 
have been wearing silk shirts and fur 
coats and paying high prices for 
low liquor. We, too. must have a 
sobering-up time, during which our 
aching heads, outraged digestions and 
general grouches will lead us into 
serious trouble if we are not careful. 

The re-assimilation into the civic 
body of our part of the soldiers re- 
turning from war has not been 
difficult. The New Hampshire boys 
in the service were of a higher cali- 
bre than the average, in the first 
place ; and in the next place, so far 
as our observation goes, most of 
them found work waiting for them 
which they are willing to do and 
which they are doing well. 

But the necessary re-adjustment 
to a new scale and manner of living, 
following iht deflation of a few 
years' boom, is causing so many 
pains and aches and sore spots, in 
New Hampshire as elsewhere, that 
there seems never to have been a 
time when it was more necessary 
and desirable for all of us to keep 
the Golden Pule in mind in our civic, 
industrial and social relations. Our 
population is not exactly divisible 
into halves, but if it were, each half 
would know exactly how the other 
half lives and be severely critical of it. 

What a lot of trouble it would 
save us if a hundred- leaders of pub- 
lic opinion in New Hampshire could 
be endowed suddenly with the. power 
to see fairly and truly and wisely 
both ^ides of a question. 

An interesting letter recently re- 
ceived from a reader of the Granite 
Monthly in another state, states that 
she was led to subscribe for the maga- 
zine by finding some old copies in the 
New Hampshire house which she has 
acquired as a summer home. With 
kind words for the present maga- 
zine and good wishes for its growth 
and prosperity she adds this interest- 
ing paragraph: "The state of our 
permanent home has had the expe- 
rience of publishing a state maga- 
zine, which failed. It was a very 
artistic and valuable magazine and 
public libraries highly prize the copies 
that are still in existence. It seems 
to me that any state should encour- 
age, with financial aid if necessary, 
the publication of a state magazine 
devoted to the history, the scenery, 
the general welfare of the state; and 
to the lives and talents of its people." 

"It's an Al magazine," is the con- 
cise way a leading Manchester mer- 
chant puts it in forwarding his $2.00 
for 1922. 

It is a pleasure to announce that a 
new series of articles is being pre- 
pared for the Granite Monthly by 
Mr. George B. Upham of Claremont 
and Boston, the first of which will 
appear in an early issue, probably in 
April. "There is real meat for any- 
one interested in history, in every- 
thing Mr. Upham writes," says a 
Cheshire county correspondent, who 
is himself a writer and student of 
New Hampshire history*. • * : 



In her first novel. "Lost Valley," 
(Harper & Brothers) Mrs. Katherine 
Fullerton Gerould, distinguished es- 
sayist, short story writer and daugh- 
ter-in-law of New Hampshire, takes 
our state skeleton out of its closet 
and rattles its hones as they have not 
heen since the late Governor Frank 
W. Rollins issued an official Fast Day 
proclamation which is not yet for- 
gotten, though its elate was more than 
two decades ago. 

Mrs. Geroukl does not say that her 
"Lost Valley." where nature is at her 
hest and man is at his worst, is lo- 
cated in New Hampshire. But all of 
us who have been up and down and 
over and across this state for forty 
years know that we have our share, 
with the other New England states, 
of these "Lost Valleys." The state 
board of education and the state 
board of health could tell quite ac- 
curately how many we have and 
where they are situated ; for these 
departments of the government, and 
others, in a less degree, are trying to 
reduce the number of such places in 
our midst. 

In the last chapters of her novel 
Mrs. Gerould offers a solution of the 
problem in the love of the land that 
is inherent in the human animal and 
that oft-times is content with small 
return for its affection. But we fear 
that the number of Jake Leffmgwells 
left in New Hampshire is too few 
to redeem its hill acres. It would 
have been mo r e up to date, as re- 
gards the story, if when John Law- 
rence, the railroad king, came back to 
view with dismay the place of his 
birth, Silas Mann, his old schoolmate, 
who drove him over from Siloam, 
should have turned out to be a real 
estate agent, ready with plans for the 
damming of Lost Brook for water 
power, the reforesting of the hill- 

sides above it and the building of a 
summer hotel on their . sightliest spot. 

But on the whole Mrs. Gerould's 
local color as to both persons and 
places is excellent. Some of the 
minor characters, such as Sarah Mar- 
tin, the Siloam school teacher, and 
Andrew Lockerbury, the work- 
warped farmer, are splendidly done. 
Madge Lockerby, the heroine, setting 
forth on her almost hopeless quest 
with a spirit that came straight down 
from a crusader ancestor, is vivid and 
true. The idea of the beautiful im- 
becile girl who looked like a saint 
and worshipped a monkey is gro- 
tesque, but motivates the plot with 
sufficient energy to carry us from 
Lost Valley to Boston and New 
York, to Revere street and Mulberry 
street, to Mrs. Blackmer's boarding 
house on Pinckuey street and to 
Arthur Burton's studio in "the Vil- 

All of Mrs. Gerould's Yankees, 
whatever their age and generation, 
class and station, are true to life. 
She sees into our ingeniously closed 
hearts and fathoms correctly the re- 
actions behind our impassive counte- 
nances. Her pictures of Italians and 
Chinese have at least the fidelity of 
good reporting. We do not ques- 
tion the artist, Burton, and his Juan- 
ita. Only when Desmond Reilly 
comes upon the scene to forecast the 
happy ending do we realize that this 
is one more "made up" story, as the 
children say. And even to the final 
page Mrs. Gerould revolts against the 
formulae of romance, her final 
"clinch" coming when "High noon 
lay on Barker's Hill. It was the least 
romantic hour of the day. The sea- 
son had already wearied of temper- 
ance, and the Valley, shut off from 
the wind, sweltered below them in 
hot undress." 




David Arthur Taggart, loader of the 
Kt\x Hampshire bar, died at his home 
in Manchester, Februrary 9. He was 
born in GofYstown, January 3iK 1858, 
the son of David Morrill and Esther 
(Wilson) Taggart, and was educated in 
the town schools, at "Manchester High 
School where he graduated in 187-1, and 
at Harvard University, class of 1S78. 
Studying law with the late judge David 

of his death vice-president and acting 
president of the state bar association. 

In early life Mr. Taggart took an 
active interest in Republican politics; 
was a member of the house of repres- 
entatives in 1883. president of the state 
senate of 18S9 and the candidate of his 
party, for Congrress from the First Dis- 
trict in 1890. He was a 32d degree- 
Mason and a Knight Templar, and a 
member of the Sons of the American 
Revolution, the Derryfield club, the 

' ..--... . .......... ... 

.*— -(W^-* ■■■■•'> 

The Late David A. Taggart 

Cross, he was admitted to the bar Sept. 
1, 1881, and practised his profession in 
Manchester with high success until his 
death, being at that time the head of the 
firm of Taggarc. Tuttie. YVyman & Starr 
and having included among his former 
associates Judge Geo. H. Bingham and 
Congressman Sherman E. Burroughs. 
For many years he was one of the state 
bar examiners; was a member of the 
national bar association; and at the time 

Intervale Country Club and the New 
Hampshire Harvard club. He was an 
attendant at the Franklin Street Con- 
gregational church. 

November 11, 1884, Mr. Taggart mar- 
ried Miss Mary Elbra Story, daughter 
ot Dr. A. B. Story of Manchester. He 
is survived by his wife and by two 
daughters, Mrs. Ernest R. Cooper and 
Airs. Stanley C. Whipple, both of Boston. 




James L. Colby, commissioner ©I Mer- 
rimack County, died at his home in 
Webster at 10 o'clock in the evening of 
Tuesday, January 24, after several 
months of illness. He was born in 
Rumford, Me.. November 15, 1855, the 
only child of Charles S. and Ann (Gree- 
ley) Colby, and came to Webster in 
childhood with his parents.. His grand- 
father, on his mother's side, was Reuben 
Greeley, leading citizen of Salisbury, 
who married Mary Ann. daughter of 
Captain James Shirley of Chester. 

With the exception of a few brief 

Mr. Colby was a member of the Re- 
publican State committee and an ener- 
getic and successful worker in the in- 
terests of his party. His townspeople 
had honored him with all the offices in 
their gift, including moderator, select- 
man, member of the school board and 
representative to the legislature in 1917, 
in which he served upon the standing 
committee on County Affairs. This was 
appropriately followed by his election 
in 1918 as a member of the board of 
commissioners for Merrimack county, a 
position which he filled so well that 
his re-election in 1920 for another term 
was a matter of course. 


tu .j,.-. 

i-r - ■ - ' - - •'■ 

. .,■: :';■'. ■■:«.'.■:« ' ■ . 

The Late James L. Colby 

absences, Mr. Colby was a lifelong resi- 
dent of Webster and one of the town's 
best known citizens. After attending 
the schools there and Simonds Free 
High school at Warner he learned the 
carpenter's trade, but devoted most of 
his time to carrying on the home farm, 
combined, in later years, With exten- 
sive lumbering operations. Before the 
death of Charles S. Colby, who passed 
away December 17, 1918, at the age of 
92, four generations, including father 
son, grandson and great-grandson were 
active at; the same time on the old place. 

For many years he was a director of 
the Merrimack County Mutual Fire In- 
surance company and its treasurer at 
the time of his death. He was a mem- 
ber of Harris lodge, A. F. and A. M., 
of Warner, and of the New Hampshire 
Lumbermen's Association. 

Mr Colby married June 14, 1891, 
Mary Morse of Webster, who survives 
him, with their son, Joseph G. Colby, 
of Webster, their daughter, Mrs. Annie 
Brock way of Newport, and four grand- 

Not only in his family circle and by 


his Fellow townsmen and business and sons. Charles Bracket!. and Leon 

official associates is Mr. Colby's death Everett, having previously passed awav. 

deeply mourned, but also by a wide 

c ;r C !e of friends throughout the state. 

h v whofn his hearty greeting, its siheeri- MADAME BOUGUEREA1J 

fv . warmth and vigor so typical of the ^ 

man will be greatlv missed. Madame Elizabeth Gardner Bouguer- 

eau, the American girl who opened the 

art schools of Paris to women, died at 

^ T> . __._ r „,, V1 ni> St. Cloud. France, January 29. She was 

DR. LEVI U. TAYLOK bopf| {n Exeter> October 4, 1837, the 

Levi Colby Taylor was born in Lemp- daughter of George and Jane (Lowell) 

ster Dec. 12, 1841. died in Hartford, Gardner, and after graduating from 

rnnn Feb 8 19^2 Dr Taylor was Lasell Seminary went abroad in 1862 to 

one of the most eminent and successful study art At Paris she was. successively 

dentist? in New England, and had been the pupil, co-worker and wife of V\ il- 

n practice in Hartford since 1875, hav- ham Bouguereau, one of the greatest of 

ing been previouslv located at Holyoke, modem painters. She was herseii an 

Mass for seven 'years, after complet- artist of distinction the first woman to 

ing his preparatory studies. He had be an exhibitor and prize winner at the 

"*» l ' " Salon. She revisited America m 18/0 

- T , : r---- apr j jg^g anc j cr ave t h er native town 

one of her finest works, 'Across the 
Brook,'' which hangs at Robinson Sern- 

I inary. 


Professor Richard Whoriskey. h.ead of 
I the department of modern languages at 

New Hampshire College and the best- 
loved member of the faculty of that in- 
stitution, died February 21. He was 
born in Cambridge, Mass., December 2, 
1874. the son of Richard and Anne 
(Carroll) Whoriskey, graduated at 
Harvard in 1897 and had taught at 
Durham since 1899. For 25 years he 
• had served on the athletic council and 
his relations with the undergraduate 

bod}- were always most intimate and 

helpful. During "the World War he 

became well known throughout the 

state as a patriotic speaker and was the 

lI_^ •,•■-_..--.-. .--—-_. :,-_^ •" .-.- ■■ ■ ■< valued assistant of Chairman Huntley 

„ T T r* /r« \ , TT nn N. Spaulding in the work of the state 

The Late Levi C. Taylor food Administration. prcsidmt of the Connecticut Yal- . 

ley Dental society, which he was instru- cr . Trc 

mental in organizing, and was the first liUKiUA 1. iLALLb 

Dresidtmt of the Hartford Dental society. ^ c , ,. , 

^icbiuLiu vi uxc ndnu ^ r* nn or Burton True Scales, director of music 

He was also a member of the t^onnec- . ,.. > ,. , t->l-i 

aic was cumj d. iik. ,,;.,„ in Girard college, who died at Phila- 

ticut, the Northeastern the ^ Massacju- de , w Jamiary 31< was born in Dover , 

setts and National Dental Association., gt ^ ^ ^ of hn d 

and an honorary member of the N. H. E1]en (Tasker) Scales . H e graduated 

Dental Association and the M. Y. In- at Dartmouth in 1895 and a f ter two 

stitute of Stomatology. He was for ^ q[ ne r WQrk at Dover 

some time a lecturer on Oral Pro- gtudicd musk Jn BostQn and New Yofk 

Phy axis and Orthodontia in the New Hq g yhor f music Jn tft b _ 

Wk College of Dental and Oral bur- u h j » . Newmarket, 

ger.y. He married. Dec. 8, 1874, Miss 
Nellie Thaver of Peterboro, N. H., who 

1897-99, and from the latter year until 

ncuie map u ^.t ^ '^V. MW^ l9i ' 4 director of music in the William 
r^l^\L't., a oflar^rd; Ia nvo *?" ***** at Philadelphia. Since 



1914 he had been at Girard College. He 
was also instructor in music at the sum- 
mer sessions of the Plymouth Normal 
school and New York University and 
Cornell University and had been di- 
rector of the! University oi Pennsyl- 
vania glee club and a lecturer at the 
New York Institute of Musical Art. 
He was a member of the Masons and 
the Sons of the American Revolution, 
and, at Dartmouth, of the Delta Kappa 
Epsilon fraternity and the Casque and 
Gauntlet senior society. He is sur- 
vived by his father; his wife, who was 
Miss Kate Hubbard Reynolds, of 
Dover; and by two children. Catherine 
Bradstreet and Benjamin Reynolds. 


Rev. William Lang Sutherland was 
born at West Bath. Nov. 5, 1864, and 
died at Clinton, Iowa, January 17. He 
graduated from Dartmouth college in 
the class of 1877 and for more than 
40 years labored as a home missionary 
in Minnesota, Kansas, Iowa and North 
Dakota, being at the time of his death 
the pastor of the church at Medford, 
Minn. He married Mary A. Hopkins 
of Morrison, Minn., a graduate of Clarke- 
ton college, who survives him, with two 
daughters and five grandchildren. 


Rev. Dennis Donovan, pastor of the 
Baptist churcn at South Lvndeborough 
from 1886 to 1918, died December 16, 
1921, at the home of his son, Prof. W. 
N. Donovan, in Newton, Mass. He was 
bcrn in Myross, County Cork, Ireland, 
April 8, 1837. the son of Michael and 
Mary (Dempsey) Donovan, and came 
to this country when 10 years of age 
with his parents, one of whom died on 
the ship and the other within a month 
after landing. He worked his way to 
an education, graduating from the Uni- 

versity of Vermont and the Newton 
Theological Institution, and was or- 
dained to the Baptist ministry in 1867. 
Besides his long service at Lvnde- 
borough, he held pastorates in Massachu- 
setts, Rhode Island and New York. In 
Lvndeborough he served as trustee of 
the town library and had much to do 
with the preparation of the town his- 
tory. He was a member of Phi Beta 


Rev. Otis Cole, born in Stark, De- 
cember 25. 1833. died at Haverhill, Mass.. 
February 4. He was the son of Joshua 
and Amanda (Hinds) Cole and was 
educated at the Wilbraham and West- 
minster academies and at the Bible In- 
stitute in Concord, now the theological 
school of Boston University. With 
the exception of two years in educa- 
tional work in Tennessee he occupied 
pulpits in the New Hampshire Metho- 
dist conference from 1866 for half a 
century. He was a trustee of Tilton 
Seminary. One daughter, Miss Helena 
Cole, survives him. 


Samuel Weare Holman was born in 
York, Maine, June 5, 1855, the son of 
Rev. Morris and Mary Weare (Lunt) 
Holman, and died at Hillsborough, 
January 21. Mr. Holman attended 
Francestown academy and Bates col- 
lege and studied law with Attorney Gen- 
eral Mason W. Tappan. For 45 years 
he practised that profession at Hills- 
borough and was police court judge 
for 30 years. He was a prominent Re- 
publican and had been a member of the 
legislature and constitutional convention 
delegate. He was an Odd Fellow and 
a liberal supporter of the Congrega- 
tional church. One daughter, Mrs. 
Mary Van Horn, of Portland, Maine 
survives him. 



By H. F. Animido'wn 

Grand granite guardian of three noble states! 
Proud chieftain of New England's lesser hills! 
What restless hearts your changeless presence fills 
With peace! What listless souls your calm elates, 
From teeming Boston's light-house guarded gates 
To lonely towers that watch green Berkshire's rills ! 

Before proud Pharaoh piled a pyramid ; 

Ere Bahel burdened Babylonia's plains; 

Or Noah sought refuge from revengeful rains. 

Across sweet summer woods, or slopes snow hid, 

You looked upon Mt. Washington amid 

His subject peaks, and the Green Mountain chains. 

You watched mysterious reptiles track smooth sand 

We call Mt. Tom and Sugar Loaf, West Rock, 

And kindred names: and as the constant clock 

Of time ticked on, behold the ocean's strand 

Retire, whilst that alluvial soil, obtained, 

Perchance, from your gray flanks, changed back to rock. 

And you shall still survey yon glistening lake 
When generations yet unborn ar£ gray. 
A thousand years, when gone, are yesterday 
To you ; and shall be till God's trumpets shake 
Rock, plain and mountain; and the dead awake; 
And the eternal skies are rolled away. 



By Perley R. Bugbee 

The skies are heavily overcast. 
Twinkling" stars are nowhere visible. 
Dark the horizon, its clouds are massed. 
Fairy snow Makes are seasonable. 

The house is chilly, the ground is hare. 
Round the fireside, families gather. 
For wintry signs are everywhere, 
Snow King is monarch of the weather. 

All the night long his wintry storm lasts. 
Now and then the windows and doors creak." 
The dark chilly winds and snowy blasts 
Are searching; for the Snow King they seek. 

The' wild winds shake every bush and tree, 
In the valley and upon the hills, 
And snow flakes cover them in fury, 
For the night's ruling Snow King so wills. 

Another dawn and a new day breaks. 

And the wintry tempest is over. 

The Day's bright sun rules the sparkling flakes 

From a throne of sapphirian splendor. , 

I . i * ...■ • 


k- ••■' I ' rji 

I IN . . . ISSUE; 


I y-.Gi . 

i z HARLAN C, PEARSON, Publisher 


f; ' 




\0 7-lOtf 

£x-Goverxqr John IT. Bartlett 
First Assistant Postmaster General of the United States. 



Vol. J. IV. 

APRIL, 1922 

No. 4. 


By George 

Editor'.- Note: — The following is the 
first of a series of articles which, although 
local in character, reach out collaterally 
in a way to embrace 10 some extent mat- 
ters pertaining to the history of all New 
Hampshire, in fact of all New England. 

Ii is possible that the series may prove 
of value in suggesting to writers of local 
history neglected sources of information. 
such as the archives of ancient societies 
in London. They also illustrate how 
local history may be made more inter- 
esting if given perspective by not con- 
fining it too much within the four 
corners of the town. 

In Europe, as in most of the east- 
ern hemisphere, the beginning of his- 
tory is hidden in mist ; in America it 
is an affair of yesterday. Here we 
have written records from the very 
start; yet in New Hampshire few 
that tell us of the daily life of the 

From a small town in western 
Xew Hampshire a schoolmaster 
wrote letters to an ancient society in 
London. That society kept them, or 
abstracts of their contents. (1) From 
these, reading largely between the 
lines, an attempt will be made to 
gather something of local life and 
thought at a time shortly preceding 
the Revolution. 


The Societv for the T 

of the Gospel in Foreign Parts — here- 
inafter called the Society— is the 
direct successor of the Society for 
the Propagation of the Gospel in 
New England, chartered in 1649. 
chartered anew, after the Restora- 
tion, in 1661 ; and again, with its 
present name and enlarged powers, 

(1 ) Since obtaining- copies from London it 
J u the archives of the Society relating to the Ai 
of Congress at Washington. 

B. Upham. 

under the Great Seal of England in 

Samuel Cole Esquire was the first 
schoolmaster in Claremont, and, so 
far as known, the only schoolmaster 
in Xew Hampshire maintained by 
funds sent from England. From 
F. Bowditch Dexter's "Biographies 
and Sketches of the Graduates of 
Yale College. 1701-1745," we learn 
that he was graduated in the class of 
1731 with the degree of Master of 
Arts. It was a small class of only 
thirteen members. In early cata- 
logues, curiously enough, the names 
were "arranged in the order indicat- 
ing the social rank of the families 
represented." Cole's name was the 
ninth. The Biography further tells 
us that : 

"He was the son of Samuel Cole Jr. 
of Hartford, Connecticut, was born in 
that town February 7th, 1710-il. His 
mother was Mary, daughter of James 
Kingsbury, of Plainfield. Connecticut." 

"His early history is little known, but 
he appears to have resided soon after 
leaving college in Northbury Society, 
now Plymouth, in the northern part of 
Waterbur.y, Connecticut." 

"Soon after 1740 he conformed to the 
Church of England, and for a number 
of years officiated as a lay reader to the 
Episcopaleans in Litchfield and the 
neighborhood, entertaining until at 
least 1747, a design of crossing the At- 
lantic for holy orders; his fears of the 
dangers of the sea, however, prevented 
the accomplishment of this design. At 
the last named date he was residing in 
Litchfield, Connecticut, and received on 
behalf of the churchmen there a valu- 
able donation of land. Lie seems to 
have spent his life mainly as a school 

lias been learned that copies of all documents 
neriean Colonies are in the files of the Library 



teacher. About 1767 he was one of the 
prominent settlers in Claremont, New 
Hampshire, and in 1769 received from 
the Society for the Propagation of the 
Gospel, the appointment as Catechist 
and Schoolmaster at that place, with an 
annual stipend of £15. He conducted 
services of the Church of England there, 
until the arrival of an ordained clergy- 
man in 1773. At the outbreak of the 
Revolution his sympathies were with the 
British. He is said to have died in 
Claremont late in the year 177/ in Ids 
67th year. No will is on record." 

"He married Mary Dean, at Strat- 
ford, Connecticut, April 6, 1753. She 
was probably the widow of the Rev. 
Barzillai Dean, Yale College, 1737. Mr. 
Cole had two daughters." 

Dexter cites numerous authorities 
for the statements above quoted; but 
his sketch contains practically all the 
information heretofore published 
about Samuel Cole, except that to be 
found in Batchelder's '"'History of the 
Eastern Diocese" — printed at Clare- 
mont in 1876- -and the little in 
Waite's "History of Claremont," 
mostly reprinted from the New 
Hampshire State Papers. 

From a Memorial dated at Clare- 
mont April 28. 1769. we learn that 
he was "an Inhabitant and Proprie- 
tor" in Claremont, the latter word in- 
dicating that he was a landowner 

The ordinal MSS. of this Memori- 
al is preserved in the archives of the 
Society in London. Series P. Vol. 
23. No. 419. It reads as follows: 

To the Reverend Clergy of the 
Church of England and Missionaries of 
ye Venerable Society for the Propa- 
gation of the Gospel in foreign Parts 
to be convened at New Milford in the 
Colony of Connecticut on Trinitv 

The Memorial of us the Subscribers 
Conformists to the Church of Eng- 
land and Inhabitants of the Town of 
Claremont in the Province of New- 
Hampshire in New England humbly 
sheweth That the first begining of the 
Settlement of this Town by the Pro- 
prietors was about two years ago.. And 
untill Since the Proclamation of the 
Peace last between Great Britain and 

France this Land was a wild uncultivat- 
ed Desert which no Christian ever saw 
except some light Scouts of English in 
pursuit of blood thirsty Savages or of 
the wild Beasts of the Earth we live 
very remote from all the Clergy of the 
Ch h of England and there is but one 
Ch 11 in this Province which is at Ports- 
mouth under the pastoral Care of the 
P.fv. d Mr, Browne who is about One 
Hundred and Fourty miles distant from 
us Five Infants born here are yet un- 
baptized for no Missionary has yet gave 
us a visit yet we maintain our principals 
of Conformity notwithstanding we are 
surrounded with the various Denomina- 
tion of Dis>enters who would willingly 
raze us to the Foundation and hope for 
a Missionary to reside among us before 
many years 

The Land here is excessively burdend 
with Timber which renders the Culti- 
vation of it very laborious However 
the little we have brought under Culti- 
vation is abundantly Fruitfull so that 
(God willing) most of the necessaries 
of Life will be plentiful!. 

And altho' there is a Right of Land 
Granted for the L T se of a School (by his 
Excellency Bening Went worth Esq' oar 
late Gov 1- ) in this Town about One 
Hundred and fifteen Acres of which is 
already laid out, and an equal number of 
Acres on the Glebe Right and the Right 
granted to the Society for the Propaga- 
tion of the Gospel in foreign Parts all 
which rights (notwithstand the Opposi- 
tion of enemies of the Church) we have 
much a do caused to be laid out in some 
Measure equitably and there is a Right 
l also granted to the first Gospel Minister 
which we hope will .fall into the hands 
of a missionary for there was no en- 
deavours to Injure that Right for the 
Dissenters took for granted that that 
Right was for their Teachers These 
Rights will be a Noble Fund for the 
Church in after ages. Nevertheless 
these Rights are yet useless to us and 
altho we have agreed to build a School 
House Twenty feet square and have al- 
ready Subscribed near enough to com- 
pleat it and are all unanimous in the 
Affair yet we are unable at present to 
give sufficient encouragement to an able 
School Master to under take for us. 
Some of us have numerous families of 
Small Children fit for Schooling the 
Number of our Children under age of 
16 years is 35 there is about 2 families 
of Dissenters to one of ours. We are 
grieved at the thoughts of having them 
brought up in Ignorance and dread their 
becoming a Prey to Enthusiasts carried 
about with every wind of Doctrin 



We believe a good School lays the 
best Foundation tor a sober righteous 
and godly Life and since Sam. el Cole 
i£sq re has been much imp!o}'d in keep- 
ing School and is an Inhabitant and 
Proprietor among us (whose Character 
and Qualifications some of you well 
know) We humbly desire you would 
phase to ^represent our State to the 
Venerable Society and endeavor that he 
may be appointed Chatechist and School 
Master among- us a few years till we 
have got over the first Difficulties and 
hardship of Settling a wild uncultivated 
Land or Some way in your Wisdom en- 
deavour cur Relief and we as in Duty 
Round shall ever pray 
Claremont April 28th, 1769. 

Abel Bachelor 
Hez Rice 
Mkah Potter 
Cornelius Brooks 
Benjamin Tyler 
Ebenezer Rice 
Daniel Warner 
Levi Warner 
Benj n Brooks 
Asa Leet 

Benjamin Brooks Jr 
benj rice 

stated : "That the 
the Settlement of 
this Town by the Proprietors was 
about two years ago," that is, in the 
spring or summer of 1767. But the 
word "Proprietors'' is here used to 
designate the grantees named in the 
Town Charier, or their assigns. 

The first settlers were squatters, 
not Proprietors under the charter, 
which was dated "the Twenty-sixth 
day of October, in the year of our 
Lord Christ 1764." These squatters 
came before that date, or at least, 
before the Proprietors or their as- 
signs, met to organize, which was 
in Winchester, X. II.. near the 
Massachusetts line, on February 2, 
1767. We know of seven such not 
counting children ; Moses Spoflord 
and David Lynde, here in 1762. 
John Peak, his wife and two children 
here in 1764 or earlier; J. Peterson 
whose name was on the muster roll of 
Robert Roger's Rangers ; and the two 
Dorchesters, met here by John Mann 
and his wife, Lydia, on their journey 

(2.) See Granite Monthly, Vol. 51, p. 429. 

It is true. 
first begining of 

to Or ford in October 1705. Peak 
writes of "five or six log cabins built 
here before the town was incorporat- 

"The Proclamation of the Peace 
last between Great Britain and 
France" referred to in the Memorial, 
for the purpose of fixing a date, was 
the Proclamation following the 
Treaty of Paris, signed February 10. 
1763. This Treaty ended the 
"Seven Years War;" a war in which 
nearly all the powers of Europe were 
engaged, but principally important 
because it broke the power of the 
French in America. The treaty gave 
the English all the territory east of 
the Mississippi, except the town and 
island of Xew Orleans, and the rocky 
islets. St. Pierre and Miquelon, 
which were retained by the French; 
and excepting, of course, Florida 
then possessed by Spain. 

The statement that until this Pro- 
clamation "this Land was a wild un- 
cultivated Desert which no Chris- 
tian ever saw except some light 
Scouts of English in pursuit of blood 
thirsty Savages or of the wild Beasts 
of the Earth" — is somewhat over- 
drawn. Number Four, later Charles- 
town, had been settled in 1740; and 
the fort begun there in 1743 had been 
finished in 1744. Haverhill had been 
settled in 1762, and these settlers had 
passed up the Indian trail, and over 
land in Claremont which the signers 
of the Memorial acquired five or six 
years later. Then, as previously 
stated, Spaftord and Lynde had set- 
tled in Claremont in 1762. It must, 
however, be confessed that if even 
half a dozen squatters were living in 
Claremont prior to the "Proclamation 
of the Peace." in 1763, its thirty six 
square miles of forest and meadow, 
mountain and valley, hill and dale, 
would not appear thickly populated 
to those who came a little later. 

The mention of the four "Rights 
of Land," granted for educational 
and ecclesiastical purposes, requires 



^^c>>^ v af ^r hk ^k^ •■■-^■' ■■-■- ; ' fe> ,''^.»- / -x / \ | 
^£ SOW /--w. V <#a t^' •" ^H 7 A : - J^^^v % \ tf 

"A Topographical Map of the State of New Hampshire. Surveyed under the direction of 

Samuel Holland, Esq'r., Surveyor General for the Northern District of North America. 

London; printed for "William Faden, geographer to the King. Charing Cross. March 1st, 1784." 
All the material for this map had been made ready for publication in 1774. so it may be con- 
sidered as of that date. The Mason Curve, beginning at the S. W, corner of FitzwiUiam 
on the Massachusetts line, divides at the S. E. corner of Grafton into two curves both extend- 
ing to the Maine line. For the purposes discussed in this article the more northerly curve 
may be disregarded. The towns of Plymouth, Hoiderness, Sandwich, Tamworth and Eaton 
were regarded by Gov. B. Wentworth as outside the curve. Their charters gave the land to 
individual grantees, and shares for ecclesiastical and educational purposes as in the charter 
©* Claremont. For the story of the Survey of the Mason Curve, see Granite Monthly. Vol. 52, p. 19. 



sonic explanation. In the Town 
Charter, immediately after the names 
of the seventy individual grantees of 
Clarempnt, is the following: "One 
whole Share for the- Incorporated So- 
ciety for the Propagation of the 
Gospel in foreign Parts — one whole 
Share tor A Glebe for the Church 
of England as by Law Established (3) 
one Share for the first Settled Min- 
ister of the Gospel — and one Share 
for the Benefit of A School in Said 
Town forever." 

Shares for these same purposes in 
these same words were given in near- 
ly all charters granted by Governors 
Benning and John Wentworth to 
towns outside the great Mason 
Curve. The Wentworth charters 
within the Curve differed greatly 
from those outside. Within much of 
the land had been acquired by earlv, 
long recognised possession, and by 
settlement under old Massachusetts 
charters while such as remained un- 
settled was claimed and held by the 
Mason Proprietors/ 4 ' and their as- 
signs under the ancient Mason 
Grants, then mo r e than a century old. 
The Wentworths, to be sure, granted 
many charters to towns within the 
Curve, but in so doing gave away 
little land; these charters being main- 
ly in bestowal of political rights af- 

ter title to the land had already pass- 
ed. Outside the Mason Curve, as far 
west as Lake Champlain and north 
nearly to the Canadian line, in nearly 
two hundred charters, the Went- 
worths gave land to themselves, their 
friends, the Church of England and 
to the Society for the Propagation of 
the Gospel, with a liberality unparal- 
leled in towii charters by any other 
representatives of the Crown in 

Thus it appears that the titles to 
many thousands of acres of land in 
western New Hampshire and the 
"New Hampshire Grants." now Ver- 
mont, trace back to the "one whole 
Share" given in so many townships 
to the "Incorporated Society" in Lon- 
don,' "'' the Society which, as we have 
seen, was petitioned to appoint Sam- 
uel Cole Esquire its "Chatechist and 
Schoolmaster" in Claremont. 

Hie fact that this Memorial was 
signed, by twelve persons, together 
with the statement, "Some of us have 
numerous families of Small Children 
fit for Schooling, the number of Chil- 
dren under age of 16 yrs. is 35, 
there is about 2 families of Dissen- 
ters to one of ours" — leads us to 
think that in the spring of 1769 about 
thirty- five or forty families and one 
hundred and seventv or one hundred 

(3 ) The word glebe is still in common use in England, designating- the cultivatable land 
belonging to a parish church. It would be interesting as a matter of local history if, in the 
various towns, the shares drawn to One rights above quoted could be definitely located and 
described by metes and bounds. If situated in places where conveyances have been infrequent 
the task, in any one township, would rot be so laborious as might at first sight appear. Most 
towns have the original "Proprietor's Map." showing the lots as laid out and numbered. The 
"Proprietor's Records" give the numbers of the lots drawn to these rights. In the county 
Records of Deeds the title may be traced down to the present owners, or, if k be known ap- 
proximately where the lots v\ ere. from the present owners back to the original drawings. In 
Claremont the "one whole Share" drav. n "for A Glebe for the Church of Englands as by Law 
Established" has never been conveyed. It is still owned by "Union Church," and lies west of 
the cemeteries and beside the "New Road" — built eighty-three years a 20 — leading from "West 
Claremont" to "Ciaremont Junction." It is bounded on the south by the road leading to the 
bridge over the railroad cut: thence up the hill to the "Great Road" and the pre-RevoIutiona ry 
house owned from 17i07 until a few years since by the Ellis family. 

(4.) The Mason Proprietors were originally twelve in number, alt living in or near Ports- 
mouth. They surveyed their lar.rl, laid out and named townships, all inside the Curve, just as if 
they were the Government itself; and, what interested them more, sold the land, or, to some 
extent, divided it among themselves. The Province and State later granted charters to these 
towns, generally accepting the boundaries fixed and names given by the Proprietors. Such 
towns were, mostly, not far distant, from the Curve Rine. See Mr. O. G. Hammond's "Mason 
Title" etc., pp. 13-21. 

(5.) In 1788 the Society conveyed all its land in New Hampshire to nine trustees, one- 
tenth of the income to be for the use of the Bishop- of the state, nine-tenths for the support 
of an Episeopalean clergyman in the several towns where its lands were situated. For a fuli 
statement respecting this conveyance and its questionable validity, see Batchelder's "History 
of the Eastern Diocese" Vol. 1, pp. 278-312. The society did not convey title 'o its lands in 
Vermont. The writer has been told that it still owns a fid leases lands on the slopes of 



and eighty people lived in the town. 
The census return made by the Select- 
men of Claremont to Governor John 
Wentworth, in October or November 
1/73, reported 423 inhabitants. 
From the concluding prayer of the 
Memorial, viz : "and we as in Duty 
Bound shall ever pray," we may 
gather that someone more or less 
versed in legal verbiage e drafted it. 
probably Samuel Cole, M. A. of 
Yale. He had lived, as we have 
seen, in Litchfield, Connecticut, the 
site of the earliest Law School 
in America; in fact of the 
first real Law School in the 
English speaking world, although 

some law lectures had been given 
previously at Oxford, and at the Col- 
lege of William and Mary in Vir- 
ginia. It seems likely that in as- 
sociation will; the very able lawyers 
who lived in Litchfield, and who 
later, in 1782. started the Law School 
there, the lay reader and schoolmaster 
lad picked up some of the phrases 
commonly used in legal documents. 

The Memorial is well written, well 
phrased, and, as of the period, cor- 
rectly spelled. It is doubtful whether 
any person, then living in Claremont, 
other than the schoolmaster, could 
have drafted it. 

(To be continued) 


By John Rollin Stuart 

Thou shah be lover of rose and star 
And the gleam of a fa "--stretched sea — 
For thou, a poet, from near and far 
Shall hear each whisper the wind shall free. 

There shall be pain when the sun goes down 
And joy in the noontide light. 
But braver visions shall follow the flown 
Over a worldwide flight. 

And thou shalt match by twos and fours 

The worldly pageantry. 

And total all the checkered scores 

Of man and bird and tree. 

And in the end thine only rest 
Of thy work to hear men say : — 
"Lo, I have seen his sunlit West, 
Or, "I have loved that wav." 



Bv Zilla George Dexter. 

The Fire on the Mountain 

By midnight, the Fire on the 
.Mountain had become spectacular; 
largely reflecting: itself in the dull 
red glare cast upon heavy clouds of 
ascending smoke. Beyond the 
Big River Valley, on the neighbor- 
ing hills of Vermont, it soon be- 
came the subject of dire prophe- 
sies, taking into account the wide- 
ly prevailing drought. 

By noon of the following day, 
the fire was spreading well over 
the thickly-wooded shoulder of the 
mountain, encouraged by varying 
winds that sent occasional showers 
of glowing brands, hurtling high 
above the valley, to fall like so 
many torches on the surrounding 
hills, parched to tinder by a long 
dry season. 

Young cattle were hastily herded 
in from the back pastures, and by 
night most of the hill-side farms 
were deserted by the women and 
children, leaving only the strong 
and able to guard buildings and 
wood-lots from incipient fires, fast 
multiplying. A few families found 
refuge among their relatives and 
friends at the Works, as the vil- 
lage was then most commonly 
called ; some ostensibly taking this 
favorable opportunity to make a 
long neglected visit. Neverthe- 
less all were made cordially wel- 
come, while especial care was giv- 
en to the feeble and aged, so sud- 
denly removed from their wonted 
home comforts. 

Thus, when night fell upon the 
harrassed town with its burning 
mountain, it found it filled with not 
wholly unpleasant excitement. On- 

ly the few as yet had expressed 
undue anxiety, or voiced alarm; 
although one listening, might hear 
along the street, between neighbor 
and neighbor, conversation like 
this — 

"I ain't a particle stirred up about 
the fire, be you, Rilly? Why, Jim 
says his father can remember a 
much worse one, in the ninety's, 
lower down in big timber. But it 
raised such a wind that it brought 
the rain and put itself out; this 
will, too, Jim says." 

"But, Ellen," queried the second 
neighbor, "have you thought that 
the dry spell has made the woods 
and fields like tinder in many 
places ; and as the wind rises, 
brands are falling thicker and fast- 
er? We need more men in the 

"They are coming, Rilly. All 
we need," was the cheery assertion. 
"Some from as far oft as Water- 
ford, so Jim says." 
, f Tf that is so,' Flllen, I must hurry 
home and fill up my oven again. It 
is hungry work for men. threshing 
out fires. I feel, Ellen, as though 
we ought to pray while we are cook- 
ing. Pray for rain in due season." 
"For the land sake, Rilly, I can't 
pray any too well with nothing 
special on my hands ; I ain't a bit like 
you. I should spoil my cooking. I 
know I should; and the dear Lord 
will need doughnuts too, to carry on 
his work here tonight. But I can 
work better if I know you are pray- 
ing. He will hear you, Rilly." 

The two comely young wives, shar- 
ing each the other's most precious 
secret, clasped hands for the moment, 
blue eyes and brown, brimming with 
unshed tears, then quietly separated. 
There were many such women, brave, 



reverent, and tender, in the dear old 
days; mixing together their service 
and prayers in true neighborly fel- 

Notwithstanding the optimistic 
spirit, so evident, there was much sly 
preparation going on here and there; 
for nothing was to be avoided more. 
by our efficient grandmothers, than 
to be "caught napping, if anything 
should happen/' At the suggestion 
of Aunt Cyrithy Oakes. she who was 
ever composed and never idle, the 
old men and boys were even set to 
mending harnesses and greasing the 
wheels of all kinds of vehicles, 
from the. uncompromising "thorough- 
brace." to the tipsy, rollicking "buck- 

Past midnight, and the mounting 
winds lifting heavy columns of 
smoke, revealed for the first time 
the full extent of the fire. Boldly 
sweeping the high face of the moun- 
tain, it was also edging perilously, 
upon the tall timherline below; its 
fiendish forces rampant. The "big 
mountain" beyond the narrow notch 
had become no longer impervious to 
the now steady attack of flaming 
brands tossed thitherward by the 
veering winds. 

This turning of night into day. 
with its general release from bed- 
time routine, was looked upon by the 
children as a wonderful lark. 
Bunched together, on fence or porch- 
rail, like so many young turkeys, 
they read in jangling concert, by 
the light of the blazing pines, (giant 
candles, molded through slow cen- 
turies) read of "Mary's Little 
Lamb," "Why Phebe, are you come 
so soon?" "The Assyrian came down 
like a wolf," and other favorite^ ; a 
feat to be remembered for a lifetime. 

Neither did they fail to watch for. 
nor to shout in ferocious glee, when- 
ever the steadily advancing foe 
reached still another patriarch of the 
hills; shot up its sturdy hundred feet 
of stem, flashed along its out-spread 

branches. ascending 
flame, to leave yet another blackened, 
and smouldering stub, high on the 
mountain-side. And the children 
shouted and danced, so little com- 
prehending the mountain's sore trag- 
edy; being robbed of its age-purpled 
mantle, (oftimes, in the tempered 
light, sheeny as velvet.) being bared 
to the rock— a shame that the larger 
part of a century has failed to 
wholly conceal. 

The hours were growing ominous, 
and long-standing family feuds 
were fast "going up in smoke." Josh 
Harris' girls, Rhody and Abby Jane, 
now met in a loving embrace, after 
fourteen unhappy years of estrange- 
ment ; Square Brooks and the Select- 
men shook hands; it was reported 
as a fact that Mar thy Aldrich ac- 
cepted Timothy Babcock, her long 
and persistent wooer, on the spot; 
but from that hour to her dying day, 
Marthy never gave Timothy even a 
look, much less a hint that she re- 
membered so frivolous a transaction. 

On the village common men were 
gathered in shifting groups. Though 
restless, few seemed over-anxious; 
some were whittling. A number were 
collected around one of Deacon 
Thomas' wideawake sons who was 
repeating his father's story of the 
"big fire of the nineties." 

"But ye say, Luther," boomed a 
loud voice, "that a thunderin' big 
rain come jest in time to stop that 
fire your dad tells so much about. 
Wal' that's jest what we've spoke 
for. but 't will have to come mighty 
quick and a mighty delooge of it too, 
or I wouldn't give a lousy coon-skin 
for the hull contraption here, to- 
morrer. this time." 

"You are not far wrong, Quim- 
by," spoke another voice, "but it's 
not the big fire only, we are up 
against, nor the small ones that are 
showing themselves, and that I've 
been fighting for six hours. It is 
the hidden fires working in the dry 



mould. We just came across one, 
working its way along towards those 
pitch-pine stubs, left in the clearing 
on Fox Hill, as they never should 
have been." 

"That's a (act, Kdson. you've ben 
tellin' us the p'intid truth." This last 
sneaker stood where the firelight 
shone on his smudged face; bare, 
blackened arms ; crisped boots and 
singed beard. Volunteers from 
neighboring towns were fast taking 
the places of these over-taxed men 
in the woods, who, glad of a short 
respite, had hurried to the village 
for a hot meal, an hour's rest and 
this little chat on the common. 

"Yis, the p'intid truth." reiterated 
the man, "for hell is creepin' all 
around us; but them Waterford 
chaps tell us that light'nin's playing 
sharp down below Moose Hillock, 
and comin' over the Xorth Ridge, 
some thought they heered thunder. 
That sartin means rain. boys. Mark 
my word ! But as Ouimby says, 
it has got to come with a delooge or 
this valley '11 be hotter'n — " 

"Hold on, no swearing, Levi. No 
one wants to hear it tonight." 

"That's so Leazer. 't ain't fair to 
the crowd, is it? I'll take a callin' 
down from you, quicker'n any man 
I know on. But, 1 vum, I should 
forgit and swear in heaven, — If I 
ever git there." 

"We are not worrying," said the 
young merchant dryly, "but come in- 
to my little store some day, Leve, 
and make up for lost time if you 
must; tonight, it is not fair to your- 
self, say nothing about the crowd. 
Now come on, let's hear what Kelsy 
has to tell, for he has just come 
through the Notch, they say. Come." 

They all followed, (men usually did 
follow him) to where a larger group 
were gathered closely about a new- 
comer. He was saying — 

"I'd got as far on my way home 
from Plymouth, with my load of 
freight, as T tittle's Tavern down in 
Thornton. There I heard that you 

were all hemmed in, in this valley. 
I'd been watching the smoke for 
miles and had got pretty nervous, so 
J snatched a cold bite and straddled 
a fresh horse and came on, bearing 
things worse and worse till I reached 
Taft's in the Notch. Then for the 
first time I believed all that I had 
been told. A few men were left 
there to put out the hres. and it was 
getting hot for them. They tried 
hard to discourage me, but I wouldn't 
talk. I left my borrowed horse in 
their care and started on the run. 
At the top of Hardscrabble, it looked 
like plunging down into — 1 wont say, 
for I don't swear ; but the roaring 
on the mountain above, the heat and 
blinding smoke that almost stifled 
me, and not knowing what was a 
yard ahead of me, made it seem 
worse than it was. I stood for a 
minute with my eyes shut, thinking 
of — Dad and Mother, when in a 
flash, I saw the Meeting-house, (I 
had been worrying about it, all the 
old folks had prayed and worked for 
it, so many long years) I saw it be- 
fore me white and shining. In a 
flash it was gone, and all my fear had 
gone with it." 

. "The next I remember, worth men- 
tioning, I was wallowing in Knapp's 
old horse-trough at the foot of Hard- 
scrabble; hauling my breath, and put- 
ting out a few private fires of my 
own. Mother says she wall keep 
that cap and coat as long as she lives. 
I didn't stop long there, but ran on 
till I got sight of Iron Mountain, 
Governor's Lot and the ridge. From 
what I had heard. I expected to see 
them blazing, more or less. But the 
only light 1 made out across the val- 
ley was twinkling from the windows 
of the Red Barn Farm. Then tears 
came thick and fast, Boys ; I couldn't 
help it. The rest of the way down 
was one long sob of thanksgiving, 
till I sighted Gale Spring, parched 
enough to drink it dry. A monster 
bear with her cubs was there before 
me, driven down from the "Big 

: - 



Mountain/' I didn't stop to argue 
claims with her, for just then I 
caught sight of Mother waving to 
me from the kitchen door. She had 
seen me first.. Mothers are so 
funny, you know. Father said she 
had stood there in that door, the big- 
gest part of two hours, the cat in a 
basket, and her silver spoons in her 
pocket, 'waiting for the boy.' " 

The horse had stood harnessed, 
ready to rake her to the village; (her 
neighbors had gone hours before), 
but she couldn't be stirred a peg. 
She'd say, "yes, Nathan, 1 am all 
ready to go when the boy comes." 
And he couldn't be cruel to her. I 
caught up the little woman and 
danced a mad jig with her, all over 
the kitchen floor, till I heard Father 
haw-hawing to beat the band and 
Mother complaining that I was 
jamming her best cap. She is here 
at the Elder's now, cat, spoons and 
all ; and I shall always believe she 
watched and prayed me through. 
Joel, with you and Deacon Joseph to 
lead us, next Sunday morning, we 
young folks will sing Old Hundred 
till we make the rafters ring, in that 
blessed Union Church of ours." 

"We'll be there," boomed Quimby's 
voice again, "unless Fox Hill gits too 
blazin' hot before them showers ye're 
bankin' on gits here. Fve known 
'em to hang round for hours then 
break and scatter and not come nigh." 

"I heard Doctor Colby's voice in 
that crowd around the Company's 
Store," remarked. Kelsy, and soon he 
had piloted his friends to where, on 
the platform before the store en- 
trance, the doctor's figure was clearly 
revealed in the light of the increas- 
ing fire. With silvered hair un- 
covered, not sparse, but wavy and 
abundant, the glory of a noble head 
and fine countenance, he stood anions 
his people, a rightful son of the val- 
ley and its trusted, faithful physician 
for a lifetime; a worthy pioneer of 
a line of noble, self-sacrificing men, 
who as physicians have so singularly 

served and blessed this hemmed-in 
mountain region. 

Just now the doctor was speaking 
in his quiet, convincing manner to the 
still crowd before him, whose up- 
turned faces were growing anxious 
and strained. He was saying. — 

"Friends, even if worse should 
come to worse, not one of us is in 
personal danger. Easy conveyance 
is already provided for the aged and 
feeble, and the South Branch road is 
safe for hours. We do not doubt 
the sincerity of the invitations coming 
to us. Plenty of hearts and homes 
are waiting to give lis temporary 
refuge, if need be. But it is not pro- 
bable, it is unthinkable that we shall 
be compelled to abandon to the cruel 
flame our homes made sacred to us 
through pioneer hardship, and our 
village with its thriving industry, of 
which we are justly proud, to say 
nothing of its little church so long 
desired, so recently completed, and — " 

"O God, send us rain in due sea- 
son !" came thin and wavering from 
the lips of "Old Uncle William Wal- 
lace." the town's centenarian and 
saint, tremblingly bending over his 
cane, close by the doctor's elbow. 
Thin and wavering was his voice, but 
distinct in the silence and instantly 
followed by a fervent, resonant 
"Amen" from the lips of Priest Burt, 
who now stood forth, his fine face 
uplifted, his hands extended half in 
supplication, half in benediction 
ove r the bowed heads of his people; 
at his shoulder, stood his true friend 
and fellow-pastor, the "young Elder," 
just from the woods, scorched, weary 
and anxious. Through the solemn 
hush, the breathless waiting on the 
lips of prayer, there came the roll of 
near-by thunder. Peal followed peal 
and scattering raindrops fell in noisy 
thuds over the dusty common. 

"Joel, is your pitch-pipe handy?" 
some one called. 

"Praise God from whom all bless- 
ings flow," burst forth to be caught 
up, echoed and re-echoed by a score 



of melodious voices, again and again, 
ere the men thought to seek refuge 
from the sudden down-pour. For 
.it rained. Oh, how it rained! 

An hour previous to the sudden on- 
slaught of the tempest, shower fol- 
lowing shower, grossly exaggerated 
reports had been brought to the Red 
Barn Farm ; somewhat through mis- 
understanding, but largely through 
love of the tragic. The tires on 
Fox and Furnace Hills, it was said, 
were beyond control, and the men 
were fast leaving the woods and 
standing around the common, the 
Flder with them. Dr. Colby had al- 
ready sent oil one load of sick folks, 
etc., etc. 

Josiah Bowles was not easily 
moved by rumor. As he had never 
yet experienced the "wust," he was 
never looking for it. But upon meet- 
ing the men coming out from his 
own woods, who flatly refused the 
double pay he offered them to re- 
main, he turned and walked hurridly 
to the house. 

"Where's yer mother, Liddy?" he 
asked, upon entering the kitchen 
where the table was spread with 
plates of baked-beans, brown bread, 
ginger-bread and cheese, having been 
often respread in the past twenty- 
four hours ; for the Red Barn Farm 
was the vantage ground to which the 
people had come from far and near 
to "watch the fire" But now the 
number of self-invited guests were 
fast thinning. But few remained in- 
door or out. 

"Liddy, where's yer mother ?" Mr. 
Bowles repeated, glancing around the 
almost deserted room. 

"Mother's gone into the square- 
room and shet the door and says she 
don't want nobuddy to come nigh 'er, 
and for me to tell you so. She didn't 
believe them stories' they all are teli- 
in', fust off; but when they said they 
seen the Elder standin' round with 
the rest doin' nothin', she went whit- 
er'n a ghost, and now she has put 

down the latch and won't speak to 
me nor nothin'." 

Within the pretty square-room, 
lighted by one dim candle, Mandy sat 
rigidly upright in the low rocker, 
with eyes fixed on the ancient bed- 
set. Josiah, bursting the frail latch 
quietly entered. 

"Mandy. Woman, what can you be 
doin' in here, all sole alone, and won't 
speak to nobuddy? We are both or. 
us in trouble, together, Mandy, and I 
don't know what to be doin' next, 
without you." 

Grieved and perplexed at his wife's 
persistent silence, wearied by hours 
of anxiety and over-strenuous exer- 
tion, the dear man lurched awkward- 
ly toward the cruelly immaculate, yet 
inviting bed. 

"Siah Bowles ! what are you think- 
in' about?" cut the air like a knife. 
"Don't you dare go nigh that spare 
bed. There's a chair, if ye can't 
stand up." 

With a queer bit of a smile he 
drew the uncomfortable chair so un- 
ungraciously offered, close to his 
wife's side and sitting upon it as best 
he could, remarked cheerfully, 

"Now Mandy, I guess we can 

"Talk, and have done with it; Fin 
listenin' ain't I ?" 

"Mother, you are tired," he further 
ventu 1. "Have you heered them 
'ere reports them boys brought up 
from the Works?" 

"Do you believe 'em?" she snapped. 

"I can't say as I do," he answered. 
"I shouldn't took no notice on 'em 
'tall, if the Elder's and Dr. Colby's 
name hadn't been drawed in. But 
the mischief's done already, so fur 
as you an' I'm consarned. I jest 
met my men leavin' the grove, that I 
hired to watch it, and no 'mount o' 
money could coax 'em back ag'in. 
So. Mandy, I and Steve and the boys 
will stay on and save all we're per- 
mitted to' but I mustn't risk you and 
the little gals any longer. You must 



pick up what you've got to. 
and start for Sister janes', within 
an hour. It is sart'in gettin' risky." 

"•Siah Bowles, you and the rest of 
ye. can do what ye're mind to; I and 
my daughter, Ploomv, will stay right 
here, where we be. She couldn't 
stand the ja'nt nohow. She hain't 
ben down charmber, a minute 

"I guess, Mandy, ther's ben so 
much goiu' on, you don't sense 
that these 'ere buildin's has took 
fire twice a'ready today. when 
there was plenty of men here to 
help save 'em. Them men ain't here 
now, Woman." Josiah's voice was 
losing its patient drawl. 

"Yis, 1 sensed all about it but 
that don't scare me none. Siah 
Bowles, look all round ye, in this 
square-room, and see all my hard 
work for twenty-five year; did 
mostly by candle-light when you 
and other wimmin-folks was bed'n 
asleep. All these harnsum rugs! 
That hair wreath ! The weavin', 
quiltin', Tiettin' and fringin'. O 
Lordy, Lordy !" The woman was 
all unconsciosly wringing her worn 

"These are your idols, Mandy." 
The man's tone was wonderfully 
tender. "We al 1 have 'em, one 
thing or nuther. But none of 'em, 
your's nor mine, is made to stand 
the burnin'. But thank God, we 
ain't called to burn with 'em; and 
it stands ye in hand now, to git 
ready and git out o' here as spry 
as ye can. Now don't ye think so, 
Mother?" he added coaxingly. 

"No, I don't. Leave my great- 
grandmother's bed-set and all these 
harnsum things to burn up, here 
all alone? Josiah Bowles, I won't. 
I tell ye, I couldn't live without 
'em. T wouldn't be livin'. You 
may go, with your everlastin' coax- 
in' and prayin'; I'm sick o' hearin' 
it. Ploumy'n I'll stay right where 
we be." 

Both were standing now. He, 

drawn up to his full height, pale to 
his lips, met his wife's half-man 
iacal stare, until it fell before his 
steadily rebuking gaze. When he 
spoke, his voice, though strange, 
was kindly still. 

"Mainly, my woman," he said, "I 
am to blame for lettin' you git to 
this; I've ben too afeard of cross- 
in' ye. I've made an idol of your 
love to me. I thought I couldn't 
noways live without it. I can see 
now, it won't stand the burnin'. 
It is nigh all gone to ashes 
a'ready." These last /words were 
but a bitter sob. Gathering quick- 
ly, he went on with no hint of his 
habitual drawl. 

"Now you ain't none to blame, 
little woman," he said, "for that 
wild Injun blood in your veins, 
comin' down in your proud family 
for ginerations. It ain't the only 
fa'mly in this 'ere North Country 
that has mixed bood. Some is 
proud of it. But it need.s curbin', 
and I hain't ben the man to do it. 
Stop, Woman! 1 am doin' the 
talkin' now'," his look and voice 
were a revelation. She was cowed. 

"Mandy," he continued, "from 
now on, I'm detarmined to save 
you from yourself. I can, I know I 
can, for I love you with a mighty 
love. You are the smartest and al- 
ways am goin' to be, and I'll be 
proud to take your advice, at times ; 
hut you can't take the reins clean 
out o' my hands never, no more. 
I'll either hold on to 'em as God 
meant me to, or I'll quit — prayin' 
to Him in the old barn charmber. 
I wonder He has suffered me so 

"But to begin on, (don't speak, 
remember I am doin' the talkin' 
now), to begin on, I don't calcer- 
late for a minute that you mean for 
our little gal, Ploomy, to die ; but 
you ain't meanin* for her to git 
well and strong. You're afraid 
she'll cross your will and shame 
your mighty pride. Jest to have 



your way you . are shettin' your 
eyes to her danger. I can see 
her slippin' away from us. But if 
God will help me now, to be a man, 
I'll save my little gal and her 
mother too. He is wonderful ten- 
der, Mandy, and knows what has 
been handliir ye all this time, and 
how I've failed ye. But from now 
on, remember, Ploomy don't hear 
no more about her Aunt Ploomy 
nor the grave-yard. She's heerd 
enough. Now she shall have her 
chance to git well, and marry Alic 
Stinson too, when him and her gits 
good and ready ; and nobuddy's 
goin' to hound her out of it." 

Here Josiah's failing breath com- 
pelled a halt. There was dead si- 
lence. Mandy stood with her back 
to him, straight, rigid, apparently 
unmoved. With a .sudden gulp and 
awkward twitch at his gallowses 
he left the room, closing the door 
to immediately re-open it and say, 

"Mother, if you have a mind to 
help Liddy pick up a few things 
that you are goin' to need bad; 
then if you are willin' to go with- 
out putting' me to shame before 
Stephen and the rest, I'll sartin 
be glad. But you are goin' ! I 
dasn't take back nothin\ Not 
nothin'. I guess I'll go up charm- 
ber a minute and chirk up Ploomy. " 
In another moment Mandy, listen- 
ing, heard him stumbling up the 
dark stairway. 

"O God, Siah's God," whispered 
Mandy, with woeful eyes upraised. 
"Stand by 'im as he is expectin' ye 
to, and as lie says ye've promised 
to. Jest try and make him a man 
as he tells about; as I and. ev'ry 
other woman needs, and could be 
proud on. Stand by, and help him, 

Lord, and I promise you solemn, 
that I won't make it so hard for 
Him and you, as I might have ben 
likely to. When he opened that 
door agin, jus now, I was sca't. I 
thought, "There he's backed out, 

1 knew he would ; and there ain't 
no God, to speak on." But there 

is, and we both need ye. I see it 
now, in my night o' trouble. With 
a God to stand by, and a man like 
iny Siah, that ain't afraid to tackle • 
me, at my wust, it is wuth it all." 
Her quick eye swept the. room, 
talcing in every precious object; 
then with a light on her face above 
the light of the candle, she repeated, 
"Yis, it is wuth it ail, and now, O 
God, amen, if this is real prayinV 

"Be you up here, Ploomy?" 
called her father softly, peering in- 
to the chamber bed-room, quite 
dark, save for the flickering light 
from the mountain. 

"Vis, Father, I'm settin' here on 
the low chist by the winder, 
litre's lots of room. Set right 
close by me. I was gittin' hungry 
to talk to some buddy." 

"If ye don't mind, little Gal, I'd 
much ruther camp down on the. rug 
at yer pretty feet, it is restfuller," 
he said, suiting action to word. "I 
can't rest nowhere but a minute," 
he sighed, "for I must be helpiiv 
Steve hitch up and git you and yer 
mother and the rest of ye out of 
reach of this hre, before it spreads 
any worser. I s'pose Liddy's told 
ye all about wdiat them bovs was 

"Yis, Father, but I shouldn't 
worry about hurryin' if I was you. 
You may git ketched in the rain." 
With a low laugh, both saucy and 
sweet, the girl drew her father's 
tired shoulders to rest against her 
low, cushioned seat. 

"Your latin' sounds 'mazing like 
yer gran'mother's t'night, Ploomy; 
as it use' to when I was a tow- 
headed little feller hangin' round 
her lap. And," drawing another 
heavy sigh, "I ain't no kind of a man 
yit. No kind of a man." 

"leather Bowles ! the strongist, 
lovingist, best man in the world, 
what's come over ye? Y'ou must 
be all tired out, or you wouldn't 
notice them scare stories, the 

"Bless ye, child, I'd clean forgut 



'em," he interrupted. " HEam't that 
a-tall. But I've ben talkm' rough 
to your mother. Somethin 1 I've 
no\er did afore. She shet herself 
up in the square room alone, and I 
bust in on *er. She said some 
words to me. and ] knew she was 
nigh out of her head; and that 
look in her eyes minded me of a 
doc at bay, ugly an' suiierin'. Oh, 
so suf'rin !" 

"I had to save her from herself, 
I had to take aim. But I no need 
to twitted her of her Injun blood, 
for that wa'n't called for." 

"Now, Father/' said Ploomey, 
very tender!)-, "don't never let that 
trouble you no more. I am proud 
of that dark blood in my veins. I 
have first rig'ht to all these moun- 
tains and valleys, don't you see? 
And Stephen says, that the Pemi- 
gewassets were brave and peace- 
loviiv, with not half the vices of 
the white man." 

''Wal', per'aps, per'aps so. Steve 
knows. But, Ploomy, I told your 
mother she shouldn't hound you to 
death no longer; and now if you hurry 
up and git well by the time Alic 
gits home from Californy, lucky or 
no lucky, he .shall have a fair 
chance, little gal, and nobuddy to 
hinder, but yerself." 

The roll of distant thunder was 
now distinctly heard within the lit- 
tle room, but neither occupant 
seemed to note it. Ploomy was 
talking low and earnestly in the 
darkness. She wa> saying. — 

"Night before last, if you remem- 
ber, Father, you an Mother were 
talkin' together by the South door. 
I was settin' " right here by this 
open winder, so happy and peace- 
ful because I was understanding 
Mother more, sence the minister's 
wife had showed me how. Liddy 
was sound asleep. All at once, I 
heard you speak Alic's name, and 
I listened and heard all that you 
and Mother was sayin'. All that 

dylr^ hate that I thought was gone 
forever come back. I must have 
faintid an' iell over, for Liddy 
found me- on the floor when the 
boys waked her up, hollerin' about 
the rire on the mountain. I come 
to. and she liftid me onto the bed. 
I laid there alone, not thinkin' 
about the tire, but struggliir and 
pray in' like a drownin' thing, for 
God to give me back my love for 
my Mother. He did. My love for 
Alic, and Alic's love for me is 
safe, for it is true. ; we can wait 
till Mother is willin'. Now, Father, 
dear old Father, you mustn't wor- 
ry no more about your 'little gal 
Ploomy.' " He felt her slender 
arms about his neck, and the caress 
of her lips like a dewdrop on his 
care-wrinkled forehead. 

Xow came the near thunder's 
peal overhead, and rain was pelting 
the roof. 

"O Lord, forgive my unbelief," 
prayed Josiah, painfully pulling 
himself to an upright position, then 
adding. '"I guess I'll go down now 
and find your Mother." 

"I am right here. Siah," Mandy 
was standing close by them. She 
bent and lifted Ploomy from her 
low seat, drawing the pretty brown 
head to its old-time nestling place. 
Tufiiing to Josiah, who was using 
his red hand kerchief in sudden 
frenzy, while awkwardly heading 
for the stairs, she warned him 

''Xow, Siah, see that ye don't go 
headlong down them stair-way ; 
they are dark as a pockit. And 
tell" Liddy :F11 be right down, 
soon's ever I tuck little Ploomy in- 
to bed." What passed within that 
little upper chamber, in the next 
half-hour, with the welcome rain 
thrumming on the shingle over- 
head, is sacred. 

On the far "Pacific coast, within 
their native city, the children and 
grandchildren of Alic and Ploomv 


have filled, and arc still filling posi- It hung for many years in "Moth- 

tions of honor and responsibility, er's room," reminding her of her 

And, among the many fine pictures be- early home among the" White Hills' 

longing to the Stinson family in o\ New Hampshire; a well painted 

that far-away land is one, the least picture oi the mountain, the grove 

costlv, but most hisflilv cherished, and the Red Barn Farm. 


An Allegory 
By Adeline Half on Smith. 

Voting Spring was lurking in the wood 
The dark wood cool and still 
For well he knew sweet Dawn would soon 
Come dancing down the hill. 

He heard a drowsy robin's note — 
An echo from afar— 
Between the swaying maple boughs 
He saw the morning star. 

He heard the whisper of the pines, 
He watched the eastern hill; 
Fie thought of this elusive maid 
With senses all athrill. 

He knew his ambush well prepared, 
The snares all out of sight 
For on the ground his nets were spread 
Silken, and strong and light. 

Fair Dawn stole softly through the wood 

Demure and very sweet. 

She saw the nets laid all about 

For her unwary feet. 

She smiled, a little elfin smile 

And paused to think, aside, 

And then, those innocent white feet 

Tripped lightly to his side. 

That charming face was rosy-sweet 
As ever lover kissed, 
Pie clasped her close, and lo, he held 
A wisp of morning mist. 




By George P. lV.inn 4 Assoc. M. Am. Soc. C. £., 
City 'Engineer, Nashua, A'. H. 

We are justly proud of the fact 
that the City of Nashua, sometimes 
called the Gate City of New Hamp- 
shire, is also known as one of the 
"best dressed cities" in New England. 
This is probably due to the fact that 
we have fifteen miles of modern 
paved streets that are adorned with 

to the conclusion that cement-concrete 

is the most economical and at the 
same time a most durable and adapta- 
ble pavement for our city streets and 

I believe that one of the most con- 
vincing demonstrations of the value 
of cement-concrete slabs is shown on 


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Amherst Street, Nashua 

attractive stores, pretty homes and 
beautiful parks. These are passed 
by hordes of summer visitors on their 
way northerly, through the Merri- 
mack Valley and over the Daniel 
Webster Highway, to the famous re- 
sorts amid the lofty peaks and scenic 
valleys of the White Mountains. 

With fifteen miles of nearly all 
types of road paving we have come 

Amherst street which was laid seven 
years ago with slabs seven inches in 
thickness, directly on "mother earth." 
No sub base course such as loose 
stones or porous layer of gravel was 
used. After seven years of unres- 
tricted truck traffic this pavement is 
as good as the day it was laid and has 
required no money for maintenance. 
While there are a few cracks in it 


they are of a very trivial nature and 
they do not affect the life. of the pave- 
ment and its. excellent riding qualities. 
This stretch was originally laid as a 
concrete foundation to support a 
bituminous top surface which has 
never been applied because we found 
the superior wearing qualities of the 
concrete did not require it. 

Our paving policy has been to pave 
such streets as are subjected to the 
greatest, amount of traffic so as to se- 
cure the greatest benefit to the great- 
est number. With that policy in 

the paving of six concrete streets 
which now brings the total up to six- 
teen on our principal thoroughfares 
and it is arranged to construct several 
more concrete streets this year. 

Prior to concreting, many of our 
streets rode like a eloud of dust 
where the money seemed to go from 
the hole-filled surface into the wind, 
and from the winds into our stores 
and homes to become an unsanitary 

The former method of street work 
was the old-fashioned way of main- 



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Railroad Square, Nashua 

mind we have already paved the main 
arterial streets of the city, and at the 
present time we are working out a 
belt line system of street paving. 
The construction of this belt line 
street paving is being financed by bond 
issues. This system should be com- 
pleted in a few years at which time 
it will be possible to travel between 
any two points in the city over contin- 
uous stretches of well paved streets. 
Our program last year included 

taining by large additional sums of 
money each year, only to have to re- 
turn to the roads and do the same 
work all over again. The great 
economy effected by the use of con- 
crete has practically eliminated main- 
tenance on these streets and the 
money saved will more than pay the 
interest on the bonds issued. It has 
lessened also the cost of maintenance 
on neighboring streets, due to their 
relief from traffic because of its 



natural diversion from the poorer to 

better paved streets. 

Several years experience with 
these concrete pavements. all of 
which have been laid directly on 
natural sub soil, have shown us their 
great ability to bridge wide trench 
areas and oilier weak spots in the 
sub grade. In 3914 the concrete 
pavement on Bridge Street was laid 
directly on clay soil that was a mud- 
hole in spring, and a dust nuisance 
in summer, and although this clay 
soil is naturally affected by frost ac- 
tion, the pavement has never shown 

washed into the catch basins and 
sewers. The general appearance of 
our paved streets is wonderfully en- 
hanced by the use of this Elgin Mo- 
tor Sweeper which renders them 
clean, radiant and sanitary. 

The practice of this city is to do all 
paving construction with our own or- 
ganization and it has proven success- 
ful through the co-operation and co- 
ordination of duties among the mayor 
and board of public works, the en- 
gineering department, and the street 
department, the latter department 
being in charge of William H. Tolles. 

The Eloix Motor Sweeper 

any signs of heaving and is still in 
the best of condition after eight 
years of wear by heavily laden trucks. 
Daring the past few years a sub- 
stantial saving in street cleaning has 
been brought about by the use of an 
Elgin Motor Sweeper which ha- dis- 
placed the horse drawn broom and 
quaint old hand methods by a most 
efficient and economically operated 
machine that sprays the street, sweeps 
it, collects the sweepings and carts 
them away by motor power, thus 
quickly removing all refuse and filth 
and preventing the same from being 

highway commissioner, a man of wide 
experience in practical road building. 
We are fortunate in having a local 
supply of suitable material for our 
concrete paving and we have on many 
streets used crushed New Hampshire 
g r anite. The selection of a suitable 
street pavement and the details of its 
construction require study and experi- 
ence. The experience of the City of 
Nashua during fifteen years has 
proven cement-concrete to be a most 
durable, practical and economical 



By En in W . Hodsdon. M. D, 

fl)r. E. W. Hodsdon of Mountain- 
view, Ossipee, is as well known as a 
student of economics as a general prac- 


•ducated at 


High, Phillips Exeter and Washington 
University, St. Eouis. He has served 
four terms in the New Hampshire Legis- 
lature, and has been medical referee of 
Carroll Count}' for about IS years. -He 
has been selectman and town clerk, also, 
and is now postmaster and a member of 
the school committee. — Editor's note.] 

What of New England? 

Wherein is its future growth and 

What shall be its measure in trie 
final analysis of distribution after the 
completion of war re-adjustment? 

Will it continue on a downward 
business course, as its most ardent 
and optimistic friends admit is the 
situation at present, or will a way he 
found of development toward its com- 
mercial, financial and manufacturing 
glories of a century and a half-cen- 
tury ago? 

What will atone for the loss of 
supremacy in cotton textile production 
and boot and shoe manufacturing; the 
immense falling off in cigar-making; 
the threatened exodus of nearly all 
pulp paper manufacturing; the de- 
cline in shipping; the lessening of 
national financial importance ; the 
retrogression in railroad and general 
transportation affairs, local as well as 
national, and the continued depres- 
sion in agricultural matters and the 
noticeable loss of population in nearly 
all agricultural communities ? 

Where do we find prosperity and 
contentment . among the people ? 
Surely not where 48 hours for a 
weekly working limit is enforced and 
where rigid regulations of industrial 
pursuits prevail. 

"Wake up New England" and 
"Room New England" are the pitiful 
crieb with which thousands of anx- 
ious citizens endeavor to stem the 

tide of retrogression — cries which but 
affirm the existence of somnolence 
and the lack of enthusiasm. 

Whosoever calls tins "pessimism" 
in this critical stage of affairs but ac- 
centuates his lack of wisdom in the 
lace of danger and seeks to perpetuate 
a false sense of security which is not 
warranted by bald facts — facts that 
may seem cruel and, at times, im- 
possible, but which are definite and 
convincing when viewed in the light 
of reasonable study based on business 
conditions and statistics of past and 
present performances. Optimism 
has no part in New England's scheme 
until some satisfactory solution of the 
great problem of self-preservation is 

Let us see what "48 hours" has 
done for New England in three 
specific instances which are of the ut- 
most importance to every citizen who 
wants to pass his years in the glorious 
region of the six northeastern states 
that were once rightfully and honor- 
ably regarded as the back bone of the 

In this particular it should be borne 
in mind that, while Massachusetts is 
the only manufacturing state in the 
union where a 48 hour weekly work- 
ing law prevails, the time limit has 
been quite generally adopted in New 
Hampshire and portions of Maine, 
Rhode Island and Connecticut. So 
the 48 hour handicap may be regard- 
ed in a general sense as one confined 
exclusively to New England indus- 
tries. The law applies only to the 
working hours of women and chil- 
dren, but the protection is sought, 
also, by men who recognize 
that manufacturing establishments 
cannot divide their working forces 
into male and female classes. Cali- 
fornia is the only state beside Mas- 
sachusetts where a 48 hour law is in 



force and Ohio has one for ?0 
hours, but the former is in no sense 
a manufacturing State and the latter 
has practically nothing in competi- 
tion with New England. 

In 1921 New England manufactur- 
ed only 37 per cent of the hoots and 
shoes of the nation. Within the 
memory of the present generation of 
men and women it manufactured sub- 
stantially all. More than half are 
now produced in the west and 
the great centres of production are 
St. Louis and Milwaukee. 

Missouri has a 54 hour weekly 
working law and Wisconsin has 55. 

Much of the cigar-manufacturing 
business of New England has gone 
to New Jersey within a decade and 
millions of what were known for a 
half .century as "Boston cigars" are 
now shipped from the state of skeet- 
eis and lightning to every city and 
town of New England, resulting in a 
loss of millions of dollars to this im- 
mediate community. New Jersey 
has a 60 hour law. 

In no industry, however, has New 
England felt the burden of statutory 
handicap and general competition so 
severely as in cotton manufacturing. 
In 1900 it had approximately four 
times as many active spindles as the 
South. To-day the number is almost 
even and the South had in January a 
larger number of spindleage hours. 
The increase in the South has ap- 
proximated 300 per cent ; in the 
North less than 40 per cent. 

According to recent figures of the 
United States Census Bureau, of a 
total spindleage in the nation of 36,- 
725,0*30. five New England States 
(all but Vermont) had 18,602,732 
and nine southern cotton-growing 
states. North Carolina. South Caro- 
lina, Alabama, Georgia, Mississippi, 
Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland and 
Virginia, had 15,487,160. . 

In the New England states Mas- 
sachusetts has a 48 hour law, New 
Hampshire, Maine and Rhode Island 
54 hours, and Connecticut 55 hours. 

In all the Southern states, except 
Alabama. 60 hours prevails. In Ala- 
bama there is no statutory limitation. 

New England is located in the most 
difficult position in which to maintain 
a great industry like the cotton in- 
dustry of any section east of the 
Mississippi. - All of its railroad traf- 
fic comes through a narrow neck of 
communication and it is the most 
distant from the sources of raw nia- 
erial of any cotton manufacturing 
State. It is subject to the highest 
freight rates. It is subject to every 
derangement of traffic and the victim 
of every freight boycott or conges- 
tion of traffic. It does have the ad- 
vantage of some water transportation, 
but this is slow and uncertain and in 
the main it depends on the railroads, 
both for incoming and outgoing 

The South has an enormous ad- 
vantage over New England in being 
near great coal fields and being itself 
the cotton producing area of the 

Massachusetts has been always a 
leader in the regulation of industries 
by law. It is safe to say that no ex- 
periment in this kind of regulation 
has existed anywhere in the country 
which is not now in some form a part 
of its statutes. Many of the states 
have some of these laws. Massa- 
chusetts has them all and with a 
higher average of stringency than 
any other state in the country. 

Some of these laws are of net 
advantage. Many of them are an ex- 
treme handicap and of all these laws 
none is so prejudicial to its inter- 
ests as the present 48 hour law. No 
other industrial^ state in the country* 
has it, while in the South a 60 hour 
law may be said to prevail. 

In no industry in the country is 
competition so keen as in the manu- 
facture of cotton goods. Among all 
tile combinations, or so-called trusts, 
which have come into being in the 
past twenty-five years no combination 
has ever existed, or has been claimed 




to exist, in the cotton industry. Com- 
petition has been tree and often- 
times ruthless. 

For many years, during the time 
that New England lias been tighten- 
ing the cords of legislative restriction. 
the prediction has been made that 
this would result in competition in the 
South and tiiat New England was in 
danger thereby of losing its great 
cotton industry. By this was not 
meant that the cotton mills would 
be actually moved to the South or 
that mills would immediately close 
down and that those interested in 
them would move to the South. 
What was meant was that northern 
capital interested in the cotton in- 
dustry would turn to the South as 
a better field of activity; .that the 
southern mills would underbid 
northern mills for business ; and that 
the seat of the industry would be 
removed to the South ; that the indus- 
try here in the North would gradual- 
ly languish — become a minor factor — 
diminish and possibly eventually dis- 
pear to the disaster of New England. 

Every prophecy of this kind is now 
showing unmistakable signs of ful- 
fillment. Out of approximately 60,- 
000,000 spindles now operating in the 
world the United States has about 
36.000,000, and of these nearly 11,- 
000,000 are in North and South Car- 
olina alone. These states in a period 
of fifteen years have risen from prac- 
tically nothing to equality in numbers 
with Masachusetts. 

Insofar as northern competition 
is attracted to the South it is follow- 
ing economic law. Except as special 
war conditions made necessary, prac- 
tically all the new mill construction 
is going on in the South and New 
England is finding itself over-bur- 
dened with mill property as a result 
of additions which were thus made 
during the war. On the contrary, 
the South expanded to an equal ex- 
tent with the North for special war- 
purposes and is today using such ex- 

panded facilities to the last degree in 
augmenting its production. 

The factors which make southern 
competition so keen are as follows: 
Cheaper and easier coal transporta- 
tion, cheaper and more regular sup- 
ply of cotton, cheaper labor, more 
hours of labor, less stringent indus- 
trial laws, less burdensome taxation. 

Editorials of the South freely 
comment on this advantage which 
they have over New England and 
prophesy for the South wonderful 
development because these things are 

The question may be asked how 
New England has up to now main- 
tained what to the casual observer 
might appear to be " a very strong 
position in the textile industry. Up 
to recent years, as would be expected 
in a rapidly developing industry such 
as exists in the South, the bulk of 
production has been in the coarser 
grades of cotton fabrics. This has 
been due to the fact that, first, the 
market for these goods was more 
readily obtainable; second, that the 
available labor in the early stages of 
the development of the industry was 
more adaptable to such production 
and the North was thus able to switch 
from coarser grades to the finer 
grades of cotton and thus maintain a 
volume of business in this style of 
production which, apparently, kept 
it from losing ground. As the in- 
dustry has developed in the South, 
the North has found itself in a posi- 
tion of having almost entirely lost the 
coarse goods business and competi- 
tion is becoming very keen in the 
fine goods business. Today a north- 
ern cotton mill must depend for mer- 
chandising this quality of goods en- 
tirely on nearness to its consumer or 
marked superiority. Goods being 
equal in quality the southern com- 
petitor usually has the advantage. 

New England once had a power- 
ful steel industry. With a few ex- 
ceptions, it has none today and what 



it has is subsidiary to large organiza- 
tions outside. 

The automobile industry might 
become a very important factor in 
New England's industrial life. It 
fairly well controlled the bicycle 
manufacture and. as the automobile 
business grew, it developed strongly 
in Xew England. It has now disap- 
peared, with one or two very minor 

The question arises as to what 
could take the place of textiles in New 
England if they were gradually elimi- 
nated. The answer, if it were made, 
would be an appalling one. We might 
have a section of superior education- 
al advantages ; an interesting summer 
resort; a region of interesting his- 
torical points of view; possibly a col- 
lection of capital with money invest- 
ed in southern cotton mills, western 
copper mines and foreign invest- 
ments ; an experimental territory for 
new forms of legislation, and an ideal 
community without body or sub- 

The 48 hour law has proved to be 
a losing experiment and in the return 
to normalcy every year of delay is 
dangerous to the well-being of the 

Is the cost of living lessening? 

Read what a national authority 
has to say. He is M. W. Alexander, 
managing director of the National In- 
dustrial Conference Board: 

"Farm products and raw materials 
have been deflated to the 1914 basis, 
but in manufactured products and the 
necessaries of life we have not come 
anywhere near the 1914 level. Agri- 
culturalists no longer represent the 
buying power of the nation, as is so 
often said. There are 2,000,000 more 
persons engaged in manufacturing 
today than in agriculture and every 
year will show an increase in favor of 
the manufactures. 

"In the manufacturing industry the 
average hourly pay of the worker 
makes him 31 per cent better off than 
in 1914, while, according to the aver- 
age, weekly wage, he is 14 per cent 
better off as regards the purchasing 
power of his money than he was be- 
fore the war. This shows that Amer- 
ican manufacturers have met the test 
of social justice and are paying a fair 
wage. . The problem of unemploy- 
ment is not theirs, it is a joint pro- 
blem of the employer, employee and 

"Similarly the railroad worker is 42 
per cent better off than in 1914. In 
1916, 41 per cent of railroad expen- 
diture went for labor and in 1920 this 
had grown to 60 per cent, forcing the 
complete elimination of interest, divi- 
dends and improvement of property. 
Again in the anthracite coal industry 
the workers have 60 per cent greater 
purchasing power than in 1914. 
Their contracts expire on March 31 
and a strike has been called. I be- 
lieve it will be a long and bitter fight 
but I believe public opinion will force 
a deflation of the wages." 

In conclusion: 

New England needs a square deal. 

Its economic condition requires in- 
dustry, frugality and hard work. 

Sophistry and quibbling are use- 
less in seeking a solution of the pro- 
blem. Any suggestion that more 
than eight hours' labor a day is in- 
jurious to the people is an insult to 
the magnincient men and women who 
enabled New England to reach the 
proud position it once held, which it 
can regain never if its citizens fear 
hard work and honest toil. 

Sympathy never yet added to the 
pay envelope, and it is the pay en- 
velope that counts. 

Save New England. 



It was an interesting coincidence 
that at almost, the same hour of Wed- 
nesday, March 8. l c >22. the United 
States Senate confirmed the appoint- 
ment of farmer Governor John H. 
Bartlett of New Hampshire as first 
assistant postmaster general and the 
New Hampshire Executive Council 
confirmed the re-appointment by Gov- 
ernor Albert O. Brown of Mott L. 
Bartlett as state fish and game com- 

Both Governor Bartlett and Com- 
missioner Bartlett are sons of John 
Z and Sophronia A. (Sargent) Bart- 
lett. of Sunapee ; John Henry having 
been horn in that town March 15, 
1869, and Mott L.. a few years later. 

The ex-Governor's highly success- 
ful career in the legal profession, in 
finance and in politics is well known 
to the readers of the Granite Month- 
ly and it is only necessary here to point 
out the favorable impression made by 
him upon President Harding and 
others high in authority at Washing- 
ton during his brief term of service 
as chairman of the national civil 
service commission, from which place 
he now has been taken to fill one of 
even greater responsibility and oppor- 

Mott L. Bartlett. who was repre- 
sentative from the town of Sunapee 
in the legislature of 1919, was ap- 
pointed fish and game commissioner 
June 1, 1919. and his re-appointment 
almost thr^e months before the ex- 
piration of his three year term, was 
preceded by a flood of letters in his 
favor from nAh and game clubs and 
others in all parts of the state. 

Among the achievements of his 
first term may be enumerated the 
establishment at Xew Hampton of 
the largest fish hatchery in New Eng- 
land and the state's first game farm, 
on the C. E. Dickerman property of 
174 acres, purchased for $25*000. 
This is an ideal plant for its pur- 

At the Colebrook fish hatchery 
artesian wells have been drilled which 
furnish a fine additional supply of 
water and made it possible in build- 
ing new pools to double the capacity 
for raising hngerling. At the War- 
ren hatchery a nest of 16 rearing 
pools and several natural pools have 
been built, doubling the rearing 
capacity at this plant. At Laconia 
a re-arrangement and renewal of the 
working parts of the hatchery has in- 
creased the output one- fourth and 
the water supply has been much im- 
proved. The total output of all the 
New Hampshire hatcheries for 1919 
was about three and one- fourth mil- 
lions of brook trout; in 1920. about 
three and one half millions; and in 
1921 over seven millions. 

Fred Herbert Brown, mayor of 
Somersworth and United States at- 
torney for the district of New Hamp- 
shire since 1914, was elected for the 
ninth time to the former office and 
resigned the latter office during the 
month of March. His term did not 
expire until July 1, but he asked the 
acceptance of his resignation to take 
effect April 1 in order that he might 
secure a needed rest for the benefit 
of his health. In his place as federal 
prosecuting officer, President Hard- 
ing has nominated, at the unanimous 
request of the New Hampshire con- 
gressional delegation, Raymond U. 
Smith, Esq. of Woodsville. Mr. 
Smith was born in Wells River. Vt., 
September 11, 1875, the son of Ed- 
gar William and Emma M. (Gates) 
Smith. He graduated from Nor- 
wich University in 1894. studied law 
with his father, was admitted to the 
bar in 1897 and since that date 
has practised his profession in as- 
sociation with his father. He is a 
Republican in politics and served 
with the rank of major on the staff 
of his personal friend, Governor 
Henry W. Keyes. He is a member 


of the various Masonic bodies and of 
the Odd Fellows ^ 

No New Hampshire town meetings 
had to be postponed this year be- 
cause of roads blocked by snowdrifts 
or floods, as has been the case in 
some past years, but in one town, 
Lyme, the board of health ordered 
an adjournment because of the preva- 
lence of influenza. In Lancaster and 
Weare so large a proportion of the 
voters left the town halls to fight 
fires in near-by buildings that the 
election proceedings were held up for 
some hours. 

Several towns made liberal appro- 
priations for celebrating their anni- 
versaries this year, Chester leading 
with $1,000 in commemoration of 
its completion of two centuries- 
Auburn, once a part of Chester, will 
join in the parent town's observance 
and appropriated $200 for the pur- 
pose. Francestown. which is 150 
years old, will start its celebration 
fund with $800 from the town treas- 
ury; Hooksett appropriated $500 for 
its centennial ; and Greenville the 
same amount for its semi-centennial 
Harrington and Hampton Falls, at 
the end of their second centuries of 
existence, appropriated $200 each 
for observances. 

The headquarters in this city of 
the state Old Home Week associa- 
tion have received information that 
40 towns made appropriations for 
local Old Home Day celebrations this 
year ; a larger number than usual, as 
in most cases the expenses of the ob- 

servances are defrayed by local as- 
sociations without calling upon the 
town treasury for aid. 

Although business conditions 
throughout the state might be better, 
and in spite of words of warning 
recently uttered by ex-Governor 
Charles M. Floyd, chairman of the 
state tax commission, there was lit- 
tle retrenchment in evidence in gen- 
eral appropriations. It is thought 
that complete reports will show a 
larger amount than ever before ap- 
propriated in the aggregate for 
schools, highways, bridges, sewers, 
lights, water supplies, fire and police 
departments, cemeteries, sidewalks, 
the support of poor, etc. 

Other purposes for which money 
was appropriated in a greater or less 
number of towns included the sup- 
port of libraries and reading rooms; 
historical society; free beds in hos- 
pitals; public health nurse; town 
clock ; "to name streets and put up 
signs;" care of shade trees; to fight 
the white pine blister rust and the 
gypsy moths ; swimming pools and 
playgrounds ; "to flood the common 
for winter sports ;"■ band concerts ; 
soldiers' memorials; Memorial Day; 
equipping" town halls with fire proof 
booths for motion picture machines; 

In spite of the doubt expressed by 
Attorney General Young as to the 
lej^al right of women to hold elective 
offices in Xew Hampshire, not a few 
were chosen to fill all the various 
positions in town governments ex- 
cept selectman. 

-' ' 


There was held, recently, at the 
state house in Concord, a well-at- 
tended and enthusiastic meeting to 
consider the preservation of the 
shade trees which are so important 
an asset of the .Granite State, not 
only from the aspect of their scenic 
beauty, but also, as was shown at 
the meeting, from the standpoint 
of economic value in prolonging the 
life of our highways. Governor 
Brown gave the meeting an ad- 
dress of endorsement and there was 
a general expression, by represen- 
tatives of all parts of the state, of 
interest in its purpose. The state 
forestry department and the So- 
ciety for the Protection of New 
Hampshire Forests co-operated in 
support of the meeting and the lat- 
ter society is to have general charge 
of the work in behalf of shade 
trees, although a strong special 
committee has been formed for the 
same purpose and the formation of 
local committees also will be 
sought The chairman of the gen- 
eral committee is C. E. Farns- 
worth of Gilford and Boston, a 
summer resident of our state, whose 
initiative was responsible for the 
holding of the meeting and whose 
interest in the matter had its ori- 
gin in a personal experience rela- 
tive to the preservation of some 
unusually handsome shade trees 
in his section of the state. 

At an opportune time in the pro- 
gress of the meeting, Mr. Farns- 
worth, who is in charge of the 
travel, Vesbrt and hotel depart- 

ments of the Boston Globe, "talked 
shop" to those present in a way 
that was not only very interesting, 
but was full of valuable sugges- 
tions for the future benefit and 
profit or our state. It is to be re- 
gretted that his remarks were not 
reported stenographically so that 
they might be circulated widely 
by the state board of publicity last 
year appointed. He showed the 
generally underestimated size of 
our "summer" business, suggested 
ways in whreh it might be still fur- 
ther increased and brought out 
some of its benefits to New Hamp- 
shire other than which are 
financial and directly visible. We 
wish he would make this address 
or one like it to an appropriate com- 
mittee of the legislature of 1923. 

But before that time a summer 
season is approaching during which 
individual and associated effort can 
accomplish much towards getting 
more visitors into New Hampshire, 
keeping them here longer and mak- 
ing them better satisfied with their 
stay among us. If we do that we 
shall reap other than a direct fi- 
nancial benefit, for the things which 
our guests desire us to have and 
to be are the same as those which 
we should wish for ourselves the 
year around; good roads, good 
hotels, good stores, good homes, 
good manners, good will. We 
shall like ourselves and our sur- 
roundings the better the more we 
make them appeal to strangers. 



"Fundamentals of Faith in the 
Light of Modern Thought," is the 
title of a hook just issued from the 
Abingdon Press, the author being 

Rev. 'Horace Blake Williams. Ph. D., 
pastor of St. Paul's M. E. Church, 
Manchester, formerly 1 * the First M. 
E. Church of Concord, later of the 
leading Methodist church in Lynn, 
Mass., from which he resigned to en- 
ter Y. M. C. A. work in Europe dur- 
ing the World War. 

Dr. Williams, to whom public at- 
tention was recently directed, through 
an earnest call to the pastorate of the 
American Church in Paris, which he 
felt obliged to decline, is not only 
known as one of the ablest preachers 
in New England, but as a close stu- 
dent and deep thinker along religious 
and philosophical lines, and in the 
above named volume, of nearly two 
hundred pages, he presents his con- 
clusions concerning the most vital 
problem which faces the mind and 
soul of man. Religion, which has 
been defined as "the life of God in 
the soul of man," is the supreme need 
of every human being, as Dr. Wil- 
lims. manifestly concludes, and only 
as exemplified in the life and charac- 
ter of Jesus of Nazareth, can it be 
truly accepted and possessed. It is 
not a matter of creed or dogma, pro- 
fession or belief, but of Life, itself, 
and in the life of Christ alone is the 
pattern truly set. 

No review of the book is attempted 
here. It must be read to be appre- 
ciated, and if read, even by the most 
irreverent, will he regarded as a mas- 
terpiece of English composition, if 
not a valuable contribution to current 
religious literature, as it will gener- 
ally be considered. 

II. II. M. 

Trie output is and should be nourish- 
ed. l\ no giants appear, at least the 
middle-sized folk are many. Occa- 
sionally an unusual voice is raised. 
For instance, John Rollin Stuart, 
standing aloof from, the merely pleas- 
ing poets, attains an height to which 
few have even aspired to climb. An 
Oxford student, influenced by the 
traditions and truths of yesterday and 
the day before — and of many days in 
the past, he brings back to modern 
poetry much that it has lacked. With 
him it is a serious, beautiful medium 
of expression, not an excuse for a 
moment's vent of a passing emotion. 
If Mr. Stuart keeps the austere and 
loft}, path which he has chosen, he 
will become a factor in American 
poetry, such as has long been needed. 
His purity of style could well be emu- 
lated by every aspiring young poet. 

To have the high purpose, the 
courage to hold it. the strength to 
deny the constant call to write lesser 
verse, is no mean tiring in itself. 
When added to this, the ability to ex- 
press, often faultlessly, conceptions 
of beauty, wisdom and truth, is pos- 
sessed as Mr. Stuart possesses it. a 
^prophecy may safely be made. He 
will hold up a momentarily forgotten 
ideal and help to restore the criterions 
overlooked or under-estimated, and 
help to re-establish something of the 
spirit of the Greater Victorians ! 

C. H. 

Shrines and Shadows. By John 
Rollin Stuart. Boston : The Four 
Seas Company. 
This is a day of poetical endeavor. 

Songs of Home is the title of a 
little book of poetry, attractive in ap- 
pearance as a volume and delightful 
in the character of its contents of 
which Martha S. Baker (Mrs. Wal- 
ter S. Baker), of Concord, is the au- 
thor, and the Cornhill Publishing 
Company, Boston, the publisher. 
Mrs. Baker's verses have been known 
to and appreciated by the editors and 
readers of the Granite Monthly for 
many years and we are pleased to find 
that several of her contributions to 



this magazine have been chosen by 
her for preservation in this permanent 
form. "Home" in youth meant to 
Mrs. Baker, Cape Cod and some of 
her best poems, such as "The Land 
of the Pilgrims," celebrate that fa- 
mous tip of New England. But the 
stave and city of her present icsideiKe 
share in the tribute of her pen and 
the lines of "New Hampshire's In- 
vitation"' and "Concord" "should be 
included in every Granite State an- 
thology. Mrs. Baker calls her 
verses "simple rhymes,''' which we 
will accept as a reference to their 
clarity, so great a rarity, and so desir- 
able, in these days. But their rever- 
ent appreciation of the beauties of 
nature their calm and kind philiso- 
phy, their permeating spirit and pur- 
pose of kindliness, helpfulness and 
good will raise them above the level 
upon which the author's phrase 
might seem to place them. 

II. G P. 

The Government of New Hamp- 
shire, by Leonard S. Morrison, form- 
er principal of the schools at Peter- 
borough and superintendent of 
schools at Lisbon, is a textbook ci 
state civics containing a large amount 
of important information, which 
comparatively few people, children or 

adults, possess, but with which it is 
most desirable that as large a part 
as possible of our population should 
be acquainted. The W. B. Ranney 

Company, printers of the Granite 
Monthly, have published the book in 
handsome and handy form, and it is 
in every way suitable for use in our 
schools and as a valuable addition to 
all our libraries, public and private. 
A good index adds convenience to its 
merit Mr. Morrison has divided his 
work into sections upon local govern- 
ment, county government and state 
government, with appendices giving 
the state constitution, time of court 
sessions and congressional, councilor 
and senatorial districts. Who may 
vote. when, where and how, are 
shown, and the control and manage- 
ment of our schools, towns, cities, 
counties and state are described. The 
progress of a law through the legis- 
lature is followed and its interpreta- 
tion by the courts and administration 
by the executive department are des- 
cribed. The state institutions are 
briefly outlined. Mr. Morrison has 
done his commendable work clearly 
and concisely and with an approach 
to completeness that is remarkable for 
a book of 127 small pages. 

H, C. P. 


By Helen Adams Parker 

The Bluebird, harbinger of Spring. 

For the first time appeared today ; 

A tiny speck of Heaven's own blue 

Perched on the elm-tree's topmost spray. 

I heard his joyous note awhile 

Before his little form 1 spied. 

As swift from branch to branch he flew, 

Singing his song as though he tried 

To fill each listener with new hope; 

Banish dark Winter's cold and gloom 

From every heart, and leave no room 

For past regrets or vain complaints ; 

This morning I had felt so sad. 

His little song now makes me glad. 



By Harold Vinal. 

I have been hurt too much by singing rain. 

And winds that cry down slumbrous ways of night. 

Moonlight and song and flowers ghostly white 

That drop their petals on a lonely lane. 

Oh could my heart but break and then be still, 

Rather then watch another April pass 

Along the lyric pathway of the grass, 

Over the orchid beauty of a hill. 

God, let not too many blossoms fall, 
Lest beauty grow a thing too great for me ; 
Let not your music come in one. bird call, 

For all these tilings have hurt too poignantly. 

Give me a flower for an afternoon 

Or a white star that comes before the moon. 


1 have imagined things for my last days. 

Dim, glimmering nights of stillness and the stars, 

A harbor where the tall ships lift their spars, 

A curve of shoreline gleaming through a haze. 

I have imagined how such things will be 

When all these banished Aprils are no more; 

A glimpse of white waves on a windy shore 

And all the strange, dark mystery of the sea. 

I do not fear to wonder now at all, 

I am so sure such things must come to pass ; 

The Spring comes back to dream upon the grass. 

The roses blow again along the wall. 

Birds haunt old gardens where the flowers are 

And every evening has its wistful star. 


One star upon the April sky, 
One robin on the lawn, 
A hyacinth below the pain. 
The rapture of the dawn. 

One daffodil upon the hill 

A flower in the grass 

That you shall never stoop to see— 

Or ever pass. 


The cherry trees are white with snow 
In a rush of rain, 
April kissed them with delight 
Till they bloomed in pain. 


POEMS 137 

Tremulous the Valley gleams 
She danced there for ah hour; 
High upon a windy hill 
She hung a flower. 

Oh April lift your flame for me 
Aug bind me with a song — 
For I must learn to bear the pain 
Of leaving you too long. 


There is a peace upon the orchard trees 

And the old meadow that was once so flushed 

With blowing clover, lies forever hushed ; 

Winter lias turned to touch such things as these. 

The pool that in the transient Summer wore 

A fluted lily on its curving breast 

Has stilled its heart, the fountain is at rest. 

Even the crimson rose will blow no more. 

Yet a strange Spring will flutter through the leaves 

And creep upon the hills and wake the flowers 

And the pathetic trees. Soft, gentle showers 

Will drop their tears upon a world that grieves. 

Pan will come piping where the dryads play— 

The frostv hill will blossom in a dav. 


By Cora S. Day 

The hammer and the saw are still at last. 

The workmen's heavy footsteps all arc gone. 

And now a stillness, hushed, expectant, falls, 

Like that before the trembling light of dawn. 

What do they dream, new houses, on that night 

Between the workmen's going and the day 

t brings the things which make of them new homes? 

What do they dream, when all is still and gray? 

Of love and laughter, music, dancing feet? 

Of pain and sorrow, heartbreak, bitter tears? 
The morning brings awakening — and life 

Shall bring all these, new houses, through the years. 


By Eleanor IV. Vinton 

Behind this rain drenched curtain gray 
Which makes our earth seem dull "today 
Quaint little folk with busy hands 
Obey fair Lady Spring's commands. 
Gay Dandelions they must dress 
In gowns of golden loveliness. 
Now here, now there, a green garbed lass 
Is tinting" tiny blades of grass. 

Wee messengers with hurrying feet 

Dance through dark woodlands, spicy sweet 

And shout in rippling voices clear 

"Arbutus, come; Wake, Violet dear, 

Hepatica. Anemone, 

Fair Lady Spring has need of thee !" 

Take heart, earth folk, though mists are gray, 

For elves and fairies work today. 


By Letitia M. Adams 

Oh sing we a song 

A beautiful song, 

Like the song of the birds in the morning. 

An uplift of praise 

To the maker of days 

And the glory that heralds the dawning. 

Oh sing we a song 

A carefree song. 

Like the rush and the sweep of the river 

As a child at rest 

On its mother's breast. 

While the tide rolleth onward forever. 

There are songs of joy, 

There are songs of peace, 

There are songs of grief and of sorrow, 

But the songs we love, 

AH others above. 

Are of hope, which inspires the morrow. 

Then sing we the songs, 

The wonderful songs, 

The songs in their fullness and sweetness, 

With anthems of praise, 

To the maker of days, 

Who crowneth each one with completeness. 




By Walter B. Wolfe 

Beat it, you evening grosbeaks, you- yellow — 
breasted, black wing-tipped invaders from 
the Arctic Circle or Rocky Mountains! Beat 
it back to cold fastnesses in the north, for 
spring is coming to Hanover ! 

Beat it. you yellow grosbeaks, chattering in the 

tamaracks behind the Medical School, for windows 
are open now in the Physiology laboratory and 
your noisy love-making interferes with the sol- 
emn disquisitions of Dr. Stewart. Beat it, you 
winter birds, we are dreaming of summer ! 

Away to the north, you animated yellow polka-dots 
in the somber black bow tie of winter! Don't you 
see boardwalks across campus river-paths? Furry 
pussywillows popping their grey heads out of 
brown winter stocking-caps? Beat it, you north- 
loving grosbeaks, haven't you heard galoshes 
flop-flop-flopping in thaw puddles? 

Back to Alaska, Klondike, Manitoba, back to the high 
Sierras and Rockies, you black and orange mi- 
grators from far norths ! Down on Lebanon Street 
where there is a bit of brown earth, kids are 
dropping pink and white chinies into the ring, 
laying up the aggies at long awse and short awse 
crying, "Knucks down ! Screwbony tight !" 

Beat it you evening grosbeaks, you yellow cold-de- 
fiants ! Through closed windows we have heard 
you all winter playing at hide-and-seek among 
the pine branches, chattering in the tamaracks! 
Come again next year to winter behind the Medical 
School, but now we expect fat redhreasts and 
pirate bl ue- jays. Beat it you yellow- feathered 
gossips, lest the dandelions shame your color, 
for spring is coming to Hanover ! 




Moses I. . Wentworth, . wealthy descen- 
dant of one of New Hampshire's oldest and 
most distinguished families, died in Chi- 
cago, March 12. He was born in Sand- 
wich. May 3, 184S. the son of Joseph and 
Sarah Payson (Jones) Wentworth; grad- 
uated from Phillips Academy. Andover, 
Mass.. in 186.3* and from Harvard in 1868. 
later receiving the degree of Master of 
Arts; studied law at Union College; was 
admitted to the Illinois bar in 187 \. He 
was a Democrat in politics and the nomi- 
nee of his party for presidential elector 
in 18SS. He was a director of the Mer- 
chants Loan & Trust Company, of the 
State Bank, trustee of the Newbury Lib- 
ra:-}-, director of the Metropolitan Ele- 
vated railroad, trustee and president of 
the Fourth Presbyterian Church and vice- 
president of the Tames C. King Home for 
Old Men. 


Edmund C. Cole, who founded- the Kear- 
sarge Independent and Times at Warner 
in 1884 and published it until 1910. died 
there March 13. He was born in Milton, 
Me., October 5. 1845; graduated at Bow- 
doin in 1871 : and came to Warner as 
principal of Simonds Free High school. 
A Republican in politics, he had been 
postmaster, representative in the legisla- 
ture, member of the school, health and 
library boards. He was a Mason. Odd 
Fellow, Granger, member of the Eastern 
Star, Rebekahs and Golden Cross. 


William Nelson, widely known as a 
civil engineer, died at his home in Laco- 
nia. March 13. He was born in that city, 
April 20. 1871. the son of Dr. David B, 
and Susan E. Nelson, and was educated in 
the city schools. Beginning his engineer- 
inor work with the Concord & Montreal 
railroad, he was city engineer of Laconia 
from 1892 to 1900 and subsequently was 
plant manager and consulting engineer 

for several important manufacturing com- 
panies. For a time he was secretary of 
the Chamber of Commerce at Binghamton, 
N. Y. He was a Mason and a Congrega- 



Edson Dana Sanborn, representative in 
the legislature of 1919 from Fremont, died 
in that town, March 14. He was born 
there, the son of Mir. and Mrs. Alden 
Sanborn, and fitted at Sanborn Seminary, 
Kingston, for New Llampshire College, 
where he graduated in 1910. During his 
college life he was captain of the football 
eleven and otherwise prominent in under- 
graduate activities and as an alumnus his 
interest in the institution continued and he 
did valuable service as president of the 
alumni association and chairman of its 
committee on scholarships. Mr. Sanborn 
had been a member of the faculty at 
North Carolina State College and Massa- 
chusetts Agricultural College until ill 
health forced his return home. He was 
prominent in Masonry and a niember of 
the Eastern Star and Grange, as well as 
of the Sigma Alpha Epsilon and Alpha 
Zeta college fraternities. 


Charles B. Rogers, president of the 
Suncook Bank, died in that village Feb- 
ruary 27. Fie was born in Manchester, 
February \6, 1859, spent his boyhood in 
Bow and attended Pembroke Academy. 
For many years he was one of the largest 
lumber operators in this section of the 
state. A Democrat in politics he was a 
member of the party state comraitttee, 
had served in both branches of the legis- 
lature, as selectman and school board 
member and as his party's candidate 
for the executive council. He was chair- 
man of the Pembroke committee of 
safety during the war. Mr. Rogers was 
a 32nd degree Mason and prominent, also 
in other fraternal orders. His widow, who 
was A. Genie Knox of Pembroke, and 
one son, Harry K. Rogers, survive him. 



. i C . 1 ' UAMPi 
By Paul E. Meyer 


'Ills Nfll W €': 

. ; i 1 ear.. 


H H \ -HX 


The late Hon. Irving W. Drew. 



Vol. LIV 

MAY. 1022 

No. 5. 


By George B. Upham. 



The Memorial dated Claremont. 
April 28, 1769, requesting that 
Samuel Cole Esq'r. "be appointed 
Cateehist and Schoolmaster among 
us" was sent, probably much of the 
way by some missionary travelling on 
foot or horseback, to the Convention 
of the Society's Missionaries as- 
sembled at New Milforcl, Connecti- 
cut, in the latter part of May. 1769. 
This Convention forwarded it to Lon- 
don with a communication as follows : 
See MSS. of the Society Series B. 
Vol. 23 No. 420. 

New Milforcl May 25 1769. 

We the Subscribers, the venerable So- 
ciety's dutiful missionaries met in volun- 
tary Convention; with Deference trans- 
mit to the venerable Society the inclos'd 
paper sent us from the good People of 
Claremont in the Province of New 

In this Paper the Circumstances of 
that Place and People are so fully and 
faithfully represented as to leave but 
little needful to be said by us on these 
points Yet it may be well for us to in- 
form our venerable Patrons that we are 
in general acquainted with the Subscrib- 
ers of the inclos'd, (as all of them went 
from our different missions) and can 
give them a good and unexceptionable 

With respect to Sam el Cole Esq"; we 
can likewise bear a good Testimony in 
his Favour in all such Particulars as the 
Society (our good Benefactors) require 
in a Person to be receiv'd to their Ser- 
vice. This good old Gentleman many 
years since, designed to make Applica- 
tion for holy Orders, but by a Series of 
unexpected Occurences has been pre- 
vented. He was educated at Yale Col- 
lege in Connecticut, is now advanced ill 
years, has always been esteem' d a Gen- 
tleman of much Godliness, Honesty and 

Sobriety; and in a word, we think (but 
with Submission) Mr. Cole might be 
with great Propriety and Usefulness em- 
ployd at the afore mention'd Place as 
Cateehist and School Master 

We are 

with dutiful Acknowledgments, the 
venerable Society's Missionaries 
and Servants 

Joseph Lamson 
John Beach 
Ebenezr Dibblee 
Christopher Newton 
James Scovil 
Sam el Andrews. 
John Beardsley 
"Roger Viets 
Bcla Hubbard 
Ebenezer Kneeland 
Richard Clarke 
Epenetus Townsend 
John Tyler. 

The statement that "we are in gen- 
eral, acquainted with the Subscribers 
of the enclosed fas all of them went 
from our different Missions)" con- 
firms information from various other 
sources, that most of the early settlers 
in Claremont came from Connecticut. 
This is also true of many other towns 
in western New Hampshire and east- 
ern Vermont. 

Had we not the statement respect- 
ing Mr. Cole that he was an "old 
Gentleman, now advanced in years," 
we should so conclude from the fact 
that he had been graduated, at Yale 
thirty-eight years before. 

"At a General Meeting" of the So- 
ciety, held in London, October 20, 
1769. the Memorial and accompany- 
ing letter of recommendation were 
"reported by the Committee," where- 
upon it was; 

"Agreed to recommend that Mr. Cole 
be appointed the Society's Schoolmaster 



Mr. Cole probably journeyed to and 
from Connecticut on foot, making 

slow progress; but other modes of 
travel were slow in those days. Note 
that the appointment as schoolmaster 
was made in London on October 20th 
1769, but that Mr. Cole first learned 
of it at Hartford a few days before 
April 4th, 1770. Further difficulties 
of correspondence with London, of 
getting letters transmitted even so far 
as Boston, will be mentioned, later by 
Mr. Cole. 

Sir George Trevelyan in his great 
work. ''The American Revolution" — 
particularly interesting as picturing 
that great event from a contemporan- 
eous English point of view — ascribes 
their failure to understand America 
as in no small degree due to slow com- 
munication ; the factors of time and 
space had not then been eliminated. 
This is what he writes of it: <2) 

"It is not too much to say that, 
among our own people of every degree, 
the governing classes understood Amer- 
ica the least. One cause of ignorance 
they had in common with others of 
their countrymen. We understand the 
Massachusetts of 176S better than it was 
understood by most Englishmen who 
vvro'e that date at the head of their 
letters. A man bound for New York, 
as he sent his luggage on board at Bris- 
tol, would willingly have compounded 
for a voyage lasting as many weeks as it 
now lasts days. When Franklin, still a 
youth, -went to London to buy the press 
and types by which he hoped to found his 
fortune, he had to wait the best part of a 
twelve month for the one ship which 
then made an annual trip between Phil- 
adelphia and the Thames. When. in 
1762, ahead}- a great man. he sailed for 
England in a convoy of merchantmen, 
he spent all September and October at 
sea, enjoying the calm weather, as he 
always enjoyed everything; dining on 
this vessel and the other; and travelling 
'as in a moving village, with all one's 
neighbors about one.' Adams, during 
the height of the war, hurrying to 
France in the finest frigate which Con- 
gress could place at his disposal, — and 
with a captain who knew that, if he 

(1) In the Library of the Boston Anthenaeum in a catalogue of Harvard Graduates. 1612- 
1791, marked "B.2508." On the margins, in the hand-writing cf Josiah Q'uincy of the ciass of 
1790, may be seen the ages of all graduates on entering college in the classes 1732 to 1701 

(2) Trevelyan's American Revolution Vol. I. pp. 11, }2, edition of 1917, 

at Claremont in New Hampshire; and 
that Inquiry be made, whether Mr. Bad- 
ger does not occasionally visit these 

"Resolved to agree with the Commit- 
tee and that Mr. Cole have a Salary of 
£15 p. ami. to commence from Mid- 
summer last." (Journal o c the Soeietv, 
Vol. 18, pp. 217-220.) 

The Mr. Badger referred to was 
Moses Badger, the Society's Itinerant 
Missionary in New Hampshire from 
1767 to 1774. He was a native of 
New England, entered Harvard at 
the age of fourteen. (1) and was gradu- 
ated in 1761. He travelled through- 
out New Hampshire wherever there 
were settlers attached to the Church 
of England. We know from Mr. 
Cole's letters that he visited Clare- 
mont at least once prior to 1771. He 
probably did so several times, and also 
visited all other Connecticut River 

Before receiving notice of his ap- 
pointment as the Society's School- 
master, Mr. Cole, in the summer or 
autumn of 1769, had felt it neces- 
sary to leave Ins home in Claremont 
and to resume teaching in Connecti- 
cut. We learn this from -an abstract 
of a letter read at a Meeting of the 
Soeietv in London August 17th, 
1770. '(Journal, Vol. 18, p. 3S2) 

Meeting 17 August 1770. 

fit was reported by the Committee 

that they had read [&cl 

A letter from Mr Samuel Cole School- 
master at Claremont New Hampshire N. 
England dated Hartford in Connecticut 
April 4 1770, acquainting the Society 
that, at Xmas last he was with Mr 
Scovil at Waterbury and the next day 
began a school within 3 miles of that 
place, where he taught upwards of 30 
children, whose parents were of the 
church. That within a few days of the 
date of this letter, Mr. Hubbard ac- 
quainted him of his appointment from 
the Society, for the honour of which he 
returns them his humble thanks: and as 
soon as he gets home, he will send a 
particular account of the affairs at Clare- 

P R E - R E \ * O I. U X 1 O X A R Y L I F E A N D T KOU G H T 


encountered a superior force, his dis- 
tinguished guest did not intend to be 
carried alive under British hatches, — 
could make no better speed than five 
and forty days between Boston and 
Bordeaux. Lord Carlisle, carrying an 
olive branch the prompt delivery of 
which scented a matter of life and 
death to the Ministry that sent him out, 
was for six weeks tossed by gales be- 
tween port and port. General Riedesel, 
conducting the Brunswick auxiliaries to 
fight in a quarrel which, was none of 
theirs, counted three mortal months 
from the day when he stepped on deck 
iit the Elbe to the day when he step- 
ped cfl it at Quebec in the St. Law- 
rence. If such was the lot of pleni- 
potentiaries on mission and of generals 
in command, it may be imagined how 
humbler individuals fared, the duration 
of whose voyage concerned no one but 

The next of Mr. Cole's letters is 
derived from two sources, the part 
in brackets from the abstract in Lon- 
don. (Journal of the Society, Vol. 19, 
p. 26), the remainder from Batchel- 
der's "'History of the Eastern Dio- 
cese" Vol. I, pp. 178. 179. The lat- 
ter agrees with the abstract, but gives 
more details. 

''Claremont in the Province of New 

[December 26th 1770] 
To the Secretary of the Venerable So- 

Reverend Sir: [A letter from Mr. 
Cole Schoolmaster at Claremont New 
Hampshire N. E. dated at Claremont 
Deer. 26, 1770 acquainting that having 
received intelligence from the Clergy in 
Convention of his appointment, he soon 
opened his school, that he has kept it 6 
hours in a day till the days grew so 
short that the children could not come 
seasonably.) The number taught in the 
School is 22, who were all baptized in 
the Church, exclusive of those four 
above mentioned. Some of these are 
not constant at school: for their parents 
want the help of all that are able. I 
have had six belonging to dissenting 
parents a while who allowed me to 
teach them some part of the Church 

Some of the dissenters challenge a 

right to the school without complying 
with the orders of it; in short the}* seem 
desirous that their children should learn 
to read and write, and ever retain the 
same prejudice against the Church 
which they themselves have. I want 
particular directions in this affair for my 
school would be crowded if I would 

earn the- Westminster Catechism and 

comply with all their humors. There- 
is not an Indian or a negro in this town. 
The Indians in Connecticut are strange- 
ly dwindled away and to the north 
there is none that I hear of on this side 
of Canada, unless four or five in Dr. 
Wheelock's school at Hanover, about 24 
miles above us. 

There have been ten infants baptized 
in this town since we came here, five by 
the Rev. Mr. Badger and five by the 
Rev. Mr. Peters. 

An itinerant missionary in these parts 
I am persuaded may answer well the de- 
sign of the Venerable Society. The Rev. 
Mr. Badger whom we highly esteem 
upon all accounts is unable to fulfil the 
task in such an extensive Province. 

"We assemble every Lord's day and I 
read such parts of the Common Prayer, 
the Lessons, etc., as are generally sup- 
posed may be done without infringing on 
the sacred function, and the church 
people constantly attend. We read Abp. 
Sharp's and Bp. Sher locks sermons/ 3 > 

I am desired .by the Wardens and 
Vestry of the Church in Claremont "to 
return their most grateful thanks to the 
Venerable Society for appointing a 
schoolmaster among them. They with 
myself devoutly pray that the Society's 
gratuity may not fail of producing a 
plentiful increase of Knowledge, virtue 
and loyalty. 

I would humbly beg of the venerable 
Board some Bibles, Common Prayer 
Books, Catechisms, etc., to be distribut- 
ed among my pupils which properly dis- 
tributed might greatly excite them to 
learn — Samuel Cole. 

In response to the request at the end 
of this letter it was: ["Agreed that Mr. 
Cole have 6 Bibles. 6 new Testaments. 
25 prayer books and 25 Lewis Catechisms 
for the benefit of the children in his 

Soon, doubtless, these books began 
their long journey, by sail across the 
ocean to Portsmouth or Boston, 
thence, most of the way with other 

(3) Abp. Sharp was James Sharp. 1618-1679. Archibishop of St. Andrews, Scotland. Form- 
erly a Presbyterian he turned to the Church of England on the return of Charles 11". He had 
much to do with the restoration of Episcopacy in Scotland. With Rothes he for some years in 
great part governed Scotland. However pious his sermons, he was a despicable cha-rac**"**. a 
fact doubtless unknown to Mr. Cole. Bp Sherlock was Thomas Sherlock, 1678-1761, Master of 
the Temple and Jatt.r Bishop of London, His four volumes of sermons "were at one time highly 
esteemed,' 7 



permission could not have come with- 
out much home discussion. The 

Church of England stood for tilings 
English, and was at the time far 
from being liked, even by those who 
troubled themselves little about the 
nicities of its doctrines or those of 
the dissenters. (l) 

The Rev- Mr. Peters, mentioned in 
the above letter, was the Rev. Samuel 
Peters of Hebron, Connecticut, grad- 
uated at Yale in 1757. The same who 
organized the parish of the Church 
of England in Claremont in 1770/ 6) 
It has heretofore been believed that 
this parish.— the second of the Church 
of England in New Hampshire, — was 
organized in 1771 ; but the date of the 
above letter returning the thanks of 
"the Wardens and Vestry of the 
Church in Claremont," shows that it- 
must have been earlier, probably in 
September, 1770. 

YVe know from Mr, Peters' letter 
to the Society (7) that he left Hebron 
with his clerk on September 10, 
1770, and travelled up the. Connecti- 
cut River valley visiting Claremont, 
Windsor, Thetford, Or ford, Haver- 
hill and other river towns. (S) He 
describes the inhabitants as "living 
without means of grace, destitute of 
knowledge, laden down with ignor- 
ance, and covered with poverty," not 
complimentary, nor necessarily to be 
accepted because Mr. Peters so wrote. 

(4) See a series of Historical Articles published in the National Eagle, Claremont, in the 
early fifties, also Granite Monthly, Vol. 51, p. 425, and Vol. 54. p. 41. 

(5) Such Church is described in nearly two hundred Went worth town charters in New 
Harnphi e and in the Hampshire Grants (now Vermont) in th«se words, "the Church of Eng- 
land as by Law Established;" but it was never by law established in New Hampshire, and in 
none of the colonies except Virginia and the Carolinas. The words in the W.ertt worth charters 
must, therefore, be taken as referring to conditions in England — see S. H. Cobb's Rise of Re- 
ligious Liberty in America, pp. 74. 115, 290-300. 

(6) In the Churchman's Magazine for August, 1S05, it is stated that the Church in Clare- 
mont was organized by the Rev. Samuel Peters in or about the year 1771. The date should 
have been 1770. 

'7i See Church Documents of Connecticut, ed. by Hawks and Perry — 1864, Vol. II. pp. 

(8) In the Political Magazine. London for November, 1781, Vol. 2, p. 050. .Mr. Peters 
published a description of the Connecticut River, from which those familiar with it may learn 
much unknown to them before. "Above five hundred rivulets which issue from lakes, ponds 
and drowned lands full into it; many of them are larger than the Thames at London." "Rivu- 
lets," barely worth mentioning, but "larger than the Thames," with its even then wondrous 
traffic. What better calculated to impress the cockney? But the following, accepted readily 
enough by Londoners, may impress the people of Haverhill and Newbury: "At the upper 
cohos the river spreads twenty-four miles wide, and for five cr six weeks ships of war might 
sail over lands that afterwards produce the greatest crops of hay and grain in all America." 
We sympathize with the Reverend Peters in his restraint. Why stop at a mere twenty-four 
miles in width with the water fatt rising? J"?ote continued on bottom of page 147. 

goods by pack-horse to Boscawen. 
from there over the "Province Road" 
to Charlestown, and finally up the 

"Great Rive"-" by the old Indian Trail 
to Claremont; not to the site of the 
large village of to-day. but three miles 
further west, to the little settlement 
on "Town Hill,*' the name then given 
to the easterly and northerly slopes 
of Barber's Mountain, where, along 
the "Great Road," now grass-grown. 
were nearly all the houses in the 

What Mr. Cole wrote, respecting 
Indians by no means disposes of the 
sole Claremont aborigine, our old 
friend Tousa, for Indians are a wan- 
dering people, and he was, probably, 
at that time absent, perhaps with the 
Indian settlement at Squakheag, now 
North field, Mass., perhaps in Cana- 
da. It may well be that after wan- 
dering, or trying some other habita- 
tion, Tousa longed for his old hunt- 
ing-ground in Claremont. and return- 
ed there. At all events we much 
prefer to believe the tradition, of only 
eighty years until the story was 
printed, that for a time at least Tousa 
lived in Claremont, and was present, 
objecting, when the frame of Union 
Church was raised. {i) 

Mr. Cole mentions "six [children] 

belonging to dissenting parents 

who allowed me to teach them some 
part of the Church Catchism." Such 



brother clergyman and a fellow- 
townsman in Hebron, said of him 
that of all men he ever knew Mr. 
Peters was "least to be depended 
upon' as to any matter of fact." 

While in Claremont he was prob- 
ably the guest of- his fellow-col- 
legian, Samuel Cole, and it was prob- 
ably at the latter's house, and due 
to his initiative, that the parish in 
Claremont was organized. We may 
imagine these two worthies walking 
leisurely over Town Hill, on a pleas- 
ant autumnal afternoon, the clergy- 
man, who had been ordained in Eng- 
land, discoursing to his untravclled 
companion upon the great size and 
unrivalled magnificence of London, a 
story which, we may rest assured, lost 
nothing in the telling. m 

No words in Mr. Cole's letters give 
so much information respecting the 
intellectual status of early settlers 
and their children as can be gathered, 
indirectly, from the few books men- 
tioned by him ; for these furnished 
the greater part of the mental nour- 
ishment of both parents and children 
of the time. The words ''Westmin- 
ster Catechism" thus serve almost as 
a volume in themselves ; for our fore- 
fathers, mostly dissenters from the 
Church of England, were brought up 
on it. This Catechism, a rigid em- 
bodiment of hard Calvinistic theology, 
was devised by the "Westminster As- 
sembly" summoned by the insubordi- 
nate Long Parliament. As the re- 

"Tvo hundred miles from the Sound is a narrow of five yards only, formed by two shelving 
mountains of solid rock, whose tops intercept the clouds."' [This was at the Great Falls, now 
known as Bellows Falls.] '"People who can bear the sight, the groans, the tremblings, the 
•vurly motion of the water, trees, and ice, through this awful passage, view with astonishment 
one of the greatest phenomenons in nature. Here water is consolidated without frost, by pres- 
sure, by pwiftness, between the pinching sturdy rocks, to such a degree of induration, that 
no iron crow can be forced into it: here iron, lead, and cork have one common weight, here, 
steady as time, and harder than marble, the stream ras^s irresistable ; the lightning rends 

trees in pieces with no greater ease than do^s this mighty water.*** No living creature 

was ever known to pass through this narrow, except an Indian woman, who was in a canoe 
attempting to cross the river above it, but carelessly suffered herself to fall within the power 
of the current. Perceiving her danger, she took a bottle of rum which she had with her, and 
drank the whole of it; then lay down in the canoe to meet her destiny. She marvellously, 
[aided perhaps by the Great Spirit], wont through safely, and was taken out of the canoe 
some miles below quite intoxicated, by some Englishmen. Being asked how she could be s,o 
daringly imprudent as to drink such a quantity of rum with the prospect of instant death be- 
fore her, the squaw, as well as her condition would let her, replied: Yes it was too much rum 
for once; but I was not willing to lose a drop of it, so I drank it,* and you see I have saved ail." 

(0) The record of Mr. Peters activities may be found in F. B. Dexter's Biographies of 
Yale Graduates, 1745-1763, Vol. 2, pp 482-1^7; Sabine's. Loyalists of the Americun P,evo'.ution, 
Vol. II, pp. 177-1*2 ; Trevelyan's American Revolution, Vol. I, pp. 278, 279, 375, and Batcheider'e 
History of the Eastern riocese, Vol, I, pp. 175, 176. 

In October he crossed the Green 
Mountains, "16 miles over." to Man- 
chester, finding his way "in a path- 
less wilderness, by trees marked and 
by compass" ; he thence proceeded to 
Arlington, on the present New York 
line. On this journey "preaching as 
often as every oilier day I travelled 
700 or 800 miles in a way so uneven 
that 1 was in peril oft." 

We can but admire Mr. Peters 
energetic activity, and note with re- 
gret that he later left an unenviable 
record in Connecticut, Boston, and 
even London, as an indiscreet and 
obnoxious Tory. In a search of his 
house at Hebron for arms, a punch- 
bowl was broken, about which Mr. 
Peters made much ado, though no 
appropriation of materials suitable to 
be compounded in it is recorded. 
He soon fled for sanctuary to Boston, 
whence he wrote : "I am in high 
spirits. Six regiments are now com- 
ing from England, and sundry men- 
of-war. So soon as they come, hang- 
ing work will go on, and destruction 
will first attend the seaport towns-" 
He soon sailed for England, where, 
by way of getting even, he wrote a 
"History of Connecticut," said by 
natives of that state to be worthy of 
a direct descendant of Ananias. Sa- 
bine, in his "American Loyalists," 
says of Mr. Peters: "perhaps no 
clergyman of the time was more ob- 
noxious-" Dr. Benjamin Trumbull, 
Yale 1759, a man of eminence, a 



suit of five years of deliberation by 

one hundred and twenty divines, 
nearly all Calyinists, it was- publish- 
ed in 1647 and 1648 in two forms, 
the Larger Catehism, "for such as 
have some proficiency '"' and the Short- 
er Catechism "for such a.-, are of 
weaker capacity." If we of a later 
generation were expected to commit 
to memory and to comprehend the 
Shorter Catechism, most of us would 
fail to measure up to the "capacity" 
for which it was designed. 

The Shorter Catehism was publish- 
ed here in many editions and large 
numbers but the form in which it 
came to be most widely used was in 
the numerous editions of the .New 
England Primer, winch for more 
than a hundred years was the school 
book of the dissenters, and almost the 
sole book for juvenile reading in 
America. With it minions were 
taught to read, and then, catechised 
unceasingly. Aside from the Bible 
no book printed in this country has 
had anything like the extended and 
enduring influence of the New Eng- 
land Primer. "An over conservative 
claim for it is to estimate an annual 
average sale of twenty thousand 
copies, during a period of 150 years, 
or total sales of three million 

Every known edition printed in the 
eighteenth century, and most of those 
issued later, contained the Shorter 
Catechism which occupied nearly 
half the pages. Although a million 
or more copies are believed to have 
been printed in the eighteenth century 
less than fifty of these are now known 
to exist- The high prices, — more 
than $100— paid by collectors for 
copies in good condition printed prior 
to 1800, attest their rarity. (11) 

Originally compiled by Benjamin 
Harris 112 ' the earliest edition, as 
shown by an advertisement in an al- 
manack, was published in Boston 
about 16S9. Several other editions 
were issued before 1727 but none 
earlier has been found. In the 
edition of 1737 first appeared the 
four lines. "Now I lay me down to 
sleep," etc., author unknown- They 
were printed in almost every subse- 
auent edition, and. with the Lord's 
Prayer, have been taught the world 
over by millions of mothers to many 
millions of children kneeling at their 

One edition only was printed in 
New Hampshire prior to 1800; and 
that by J. Melcher at Portsmouth, 
without date, but probably about 
1795. (13) 


(10) The New England Primer, by Paul I- 
debted for the greater part of the informati 
this article. 

eicester Ford, p. 1!>. To this hook we are in- 
on respecting the Primer which appears in 

(11) The first cohector o: this Pr?;ner, who began in 1840. found copies of only two 
eighteenth century editions; the next, who began at about the same time, after forty years 
of search, obtaind only nine Primers of that century At the time Mr. Ford's book Mas pub- 
lished, 1S07. the fir. est collections of Primers of the eighteenth century were those owned by 
Mr. Cornelius Yanderbilt, six copies, and the Lenox Library in New York, alro six conies. In 
the latter is the copy of the edition of 1727, the earliest edition of which any copy has been 
found. The American Antiquarian Society, Worcester, Mass . owned four copies. The won- 
derful Library of the British Mutenxn had but cue copy. The orly krown copy of the J. 
Melcher, Portsmouth. N. H.. edition was, in 1S97, owned by Dr. Henry Barnard of Hartford, Com 

(12) Harris also deserves distinction as the editor and printer of the first newspaper in 
America. This he issued, without permission, in 1690 under the name "Public Occurrances." 
As might have been exported it was promptly suppresses! by Proclamation. 

(13) An edition was printed in Newbury. Vermont, "by Nathaniel Coverly Jun'r, For John 
West of Boston." It is regarded as an eighteenth century edition. If this is correct it was 
probably printed in 1703 or 1800; for Nathaniel Coverly Jun'r. printed an edition at Med ford, 
Mass., in 179$. He apparently removed to Newbury, perhaps carrying the forms with him. 
The copy of the Newbury edition is owned by the American Antiquarian Society, Worcester, Mass. 



The title page is as follows: 







to which is added 




Printed and Sold by J.. M EEC HER 

The New England Primer was 
carried in stock and sold by all gen- 
eral stores in country four corners 
and villages. Some of the articles 
advertised for sale in Litchfield, 
Connecticut, in 1/83 were as follows: 
"Allbiades Bibles, Brimstone, and. 
Broadcloths, Buttons, Buckles of dif- 
ferent sorts. Pipes, Pins & Xeedles. 
Powder & Shot, Primers, [a Primer 
was always a Xew England Primer,] 
Rum, rod Nails, Saws, Spelling 
Books, Sugar, Tea, Testaments and a 
variety of other Articles." 

Primers were undoubtedly carried 
in general stock and hundreds of 
copies sold in Claremont in the 
eighteenth century as they were in 
all other Xew Hampshire towns. 
Can one of them of that period, out- 
side the few collections, now be 
found ? 

In the Primer even the Alphabet, 
with the heavily inked depictions . ac- 
companying each letter, is made de- 

A In Adams' Fall 
We sinned all. 

j Job feels the Rod, — 
Yet blesses GO D. 

* >|; >fc & 

X Xerxes did die 
And so in list I. 

The not unnatural fate of Xerxes is 
accentuated by a crude woodcut of a 
particularly dismal coffin. 

* * * * 

Y while Youth do chear 
Death may be near • 

In the accompanying illustration the 
hilarity of Cheating Youths, three of 
them partaking of refreshments at a 
table, seems not to be diminished by the 
approach of a skeleton pointing with an 
arrow: whether the arrow is pointed at 
only one, or impartially at the" three 
seems uncertain. 



Zacheus he 

Did climb the Tree 

Our Lord to see 

Even Zacheus' effort was not in- 
tended to be amusing. 

There was in all editions the rough 
woodcut of John Rogers, burning at 
the stake in Queen Mary's gentle 
reign, while his wife with nine small 
children, and one at her breast, look 
sadly on. The crude wood-cuts ap- 
pear to have been prepared by self- 
taught wood engravers in the printer's 
shops, for in few of the different 
editions were they the same. (14) 

These were doubtless under- 
stood by countless children who were 
sorely puzzled in the effort to under- 
stand the nature of orignal sin, or the 
doctrine of election whereby so few 
were destined to be saved ; or why, 
for Adam's Transgression, so long 

ago, "All Mankind are under 

God's Wrath & Curse, and so made 



liable to all Miseries in this Life, to 
Death itself. & to the pains of Hell 
forever."* 13 > 

Mr. Cole, it may be noted, asked 
for "particular directions" about 
teaching the Shorter Catechism ; that 
"Golden Composure" as Cotton 
Mather in admiration called it. 

In addition to the Shorter Cate- 
chism we find printed in nearly all 
editions of the New England Primer 
a still further simplified catechism 
entitled "Spiritual Milk for Ameri- 
can Babes," "By John Cotton," a dis- 
senting divine who arrived in Boston 
in 1633- After demonstrating how 
slight the chance of being judged 
otherwise than wicked, the Reverend 
Cotton gives, as a last sip of his 
lacteal preparation, the following : 
"and the wicked shall be cast into 
everlasting fire with the devil and all 
his angels." 

Other gems designed to cheer the 
children may be quoted from the 

F. "Foolishness is bound up in 
the heart of a child, but the rod of 
correction shall drive it from him." 

Frequent applications of the birch 
were, doubtless, prompted by this wise 

L. "Liars shall have their part in 
the lake which burneth with fire and 
brimstone :" 

Often cited in cases of inaccurate 

U. "Upon the wicked God shall 
raise an horrible tempest-" 

To be remembered at times of severe 

A cause for the astonishing disap- 
pearance of the million- of copies of 
the New England Primer.. may be 
imagined. It seems, however, un- 
likely that any reliable statistics res- 
pecting it will ever be obtained. 

But the Puritanic Primer is not 
the only publication. pointing the 
straight and narrow path, upon which 
the return non est inventus must be 
made. Of Lewis' Catechism, — 25 
copies of which, as we have seen, 
were sent to Mr, Cole, — the Cata- 
logue of Printed Books in the Li- 
brary of the. British Museum tells us 
that at least fifteen editions were 
published, the first in 1700. But not 
a cop}' is to be found among the four 
millions of volumes in the great 
libraries, general and theological, of 
Boston and Cambridge. n6) 

Whatever the unascertained teach- 
ings of Mr. Lewis' book, it is to be 
hoped they were less depressing than 
those of the Shorter Catechism. 

In contemplating the religious in- 
struction of New England children a 
century or two ago, we may wonder 
how they grew ttp to see anything 
other than gloom in life. But it 
should be remembered that the un- 
taught beauties of nature all around, 
and the child's natural joyousness, 
served as antidotes for much dismal 
teaching thrust upon him. And, as 
a great teacher of theology now tells 
us, the very attempt to understand 
these problems, with a chance of 
heaven on one side, hell on the other, 
was mentally stimulating. 

It is refreshing to find in an edition 
of the Primer, as early as 1767, any- 

(lu) Some of the extremely orthodox have been paired by the gradual extinction of 
this belief: as with the Calvinistic clergyman v. ho remarked: "The Univers alists believe that 
all men .viil be saved, but we hope for better things." 

A newly instated pastor said to a spinster parishioner: "I hope, madam, yru believe in 
total depravity," ana promptly received the reply: "Oh parson, what a fine doctrine it would 
be, if folks only lived up to it." 

(16) This Catechism was compiled by John Lewis, Vicar of Minster. It was translated into 
Irish and Welsh, but does not appear to have been printed in America. Lewis was the author 
of some twenty books, nearly all of historical value, and all to be found In the Libraries of 
Buston and Cambridge, although not generally reprinted, and issued in very small editions 
compared with those of his Catechism 



thing so essentially hitman as the fol- 
lowing Old English Proverbs. 

"A friend in need is a friend indeed. 
Fair words butter no parsnips. 
When the fox preaches let the geese 

Fly the - pleasure that will bile to- 

If all fools wore white caps, we 
should look like ?. flock of geese." 

(To be continued) <17) 

(17) The writer wishes to correct an error in the first article of this series, not discovered 
until after the pages had gone to print On page 111 of the April issue the words, "and ex- 
cepting 1 , of course. Florida then possessed by Spain, - ' should have been erased; for by that 
sa ne Treaty of Paris. Feb. 10, 1763, Florida was ceded by Spain to England. In 17S3 it was 
returned by England to Spain; and ceded by the latter to the United States by the Treaty cf 
1819, reluctantly confirmed by Spain in 1S2.1. 


By Ruth Bassctt 

Don't take the earth for granted — 

With all its changing beauty 

Make it a sacred duty 
To kneel in prayer 

For every bird-song chanted, 
For every new- found blessing, 
To God your thanks confessing 

For glories there. 

Don't take loved ones for granted. 

When happy hours surround you 

And peaceful home-ties crown you, 
Take time to go 

With humble trust implanted 
In nature's generous voicing. 
Lift up your heart, rejoicing, 

So God will know. 



Fy Katharine Upliam tinnier 

The Brook is a good friend of 
mine — I suspect it has shared many 
reciprocal emotions with the dwellers 
in this old countrv-house and that I 
am merely the latest of a long line to 
know it ; thus pleasant thoughts come 
to me of the cheer, the infectious 
gladsomeness its friendship has com- 
municated to my predecessors. 

After it leaves the wood-land— and 
it has a right merry leap through, the 
birch and hemlock woods — the Brook 
purls and meanders through the pas- 
ture and then slipping under the 
highway (swiftly, as if to get away 
from the ugly concrete culvert) it 
races merrily through the meadow to 
the rushing River, which as tributary 
joins the Connecticut on the border 
of this same meadow: And the state- 
ly Connecticut, flowing on to the. dis- 
tant sea, carries on its bosom the clear 
crystals of my Brook. 

This in short is the life history of 
the Brook ; it is the history of all 
brooks and all friendships— this 
merging of self into the harmony of 
altruism. . 

On the old maps the Brook had a 
name, an ordinary name — one won- 
ders why? Perhaps the settlers on 
this river highway between Canada 
and the provinces, busy clearing the 
forest, planting corn, and ^watching 
for marauding Indians, regarded life 
quite literally and named the stream 
for the man who built the first cabin 
on its bank. If he were a wise man 
he raised his roof-tree on the knoll 
high above for in the spring of the 
year the Brook goes mad — mad as 
Ophelia and drowns itself under the 
grey willows ; you hear it weeping 
even above the March winds. 

No. I cannot rename it; if it is 
Ophelia in March why is it not Per- 
dita when spring at last arrives? 
Perdita whose silvery laughter mocks 
me as she runs under the tender bud- 

ding trees towards the River. Then, 
O Brook, you are indeed "my pret- 
tiest Perdita" as you trip blithely on 
your way. garlanded with ''lilies of 
all kinds" and 

4i . violets dim 

But sweeter than the lid of Juno's eyes, 
Or Cytherea's breath." 

A Brook will not harbour dull care 
or grumpiness of mind — in summer! 
In winter one takes from it what one 
reads into it, and as for the most part 
only the stout-hearted are afield in 
winter I think that the Brook gives 
them back stout cheer — making of 
their valiancy an order of merit, as 
it were. 

In the winter-time I follow its 
course through the meadow : when I 
am on snowshoes its banks are pil- 
lowed by soft snow and its waters, 
dark and glass}', swirl between them 
past me ; when I am on skiis the 
banks are crusted and the stream is 
ice. Then I think of little Robert 
Louis and his faithful Alison, for 
"Water now is turned to stone 
Nurse and I can walk upon;" 
and the Spirit of Childhood is with 
me gleefully sliding on the ice. But 
there are other times when the thin 
snow on the stubble permits neither 
snowshoes nor skiis; then I foot it 
musingly along the banks, watching 
little icicles form about tree roots, 
watching the waters which hardly 
move, they are so sluggish. I sud- 
denly realize that the Brook is about 
to freeze and stand long minutes in 
the crisp air waiting: now there is an 
abatement of current, the water be- 
comes just tremulous and in its depths 
is a gelatinous cloudiness which slowly 
spreads; the surface of the Brook 
wrinkles, stiffens, and is ice, and be- 
neath the gelatine has set. Thus the 
Brook has frozen. But the wdnd, 
stinging my face, urges me back to 
the hearthside. Tomorrow 7 I will 
come again, 



Bv Paul Edzvaitd Mover. 

The settlement of New Hampshire 
was first undertaken by Captain John 
Mason. The actual grant of this 
early New England province, like 
several. of the other province?, is dif- 
ficult to unravel because the English 
Crown granted and re-granted the 
territory within which it lies. In 
every instance, however, John Mason 
figures as one of the grantees, and in 
three specific instances, at least, he is 
the sole grantee. 

"There were three charters grant- 
ed to Captain John Mason solely, and 
three to him associated with others. 
Those to him solely were Mariana, 
March 9. 1621-2; New Hampshire, 
November 7, 1629 ; New Hampshire 
and Masonia, April 22. 16357' (1 > 

Those in association with others 
were the province, of Maine, August 
10, 1622 and Laconia, November 17, 
1629- These two grants were made 
to Mason and Gorges, jointly. On 
November 3. 1631, the Crown also 
made the grant of Piseataqua to 
Mason and seven other proprietors. 

With the exceptions of Mariana 
and Maine, every one' of the above 
grants falls wholly or partially with- 
in the present confines of the state of 
New Hampshire. Evidently, how- 
ever, of the four grants relating to 
the present boundaries of New 
Hampshire, none save the grant of 
New Hampshire. November 7, 1629, 
could stand the test of time for it is 
related that in (2) "the case of His 
Majesty's Province of New Hamp- 
shire, upon two appeals relating to 
the boundaries between .that Province 
and the Province of the Massa- 
chusetts Bay, to be heard before the 
Right-Honorable, the Lords of the 
Committee of His Majesty's Most 
Honorable Privy-Council, for hear- 
ing appeals from the Plantations, at 

(1) Dean, J. W. Capt. John Mason. P. 169. 

(2) N. II. Prov. Fapers, Vol. I, p. 28. 

(3) N. II. Prov. Papers. Vol. I, p. 22, 

the Council Chamber at Whitehall, 
6th of February, 1637. and 20th of 
July, 1738.... the only giant refer- 
red to and relied on by the parties 
in controversy," so far as New 
Hampshire was concerned, "was that 
to Captain Mason, November 7, 

1629; the inference is, that all 

the other grants had failed, through 
some defect, informality, or want of 
compliance with conditions." It is 
therefore plain that the so-called La- 
conia grant, 1629, and the Masonia 
grant. 1635, the two most important 
grants next to the New Hampshire 
grant of November 7, 1629, which 
appertain to the first settlement of 
the province of New Hampshire, 
were considered entirely void less 
than a decade after the patent was 

According to the principal grant, 
therefore, on which the Mason heirs 
later relied to prove successfully 
their ownership of the land contained 
within the present boundaries of the 
state of New Hampshire, the* 8 ? "In- 
denture witnesseth that the said Pres- 
ident and Council (of Plymouth) of 
their free and mutual consent, as well 
to the end, that all their lands, woods, 
lakes, rivers, waters, islands, and fish- 
ing, with all the traffic, profits and 
commodities whatsoever, to them or 
any of them belonging, and hereafter 
in these presents mentioned, may be 
wholly and entirely invested, appro- 
priated, served and settled in and up- 
on the said Captain John Mason, his 
heirs and assigns forever, as for 
divers special services for the 
advancement of the said Planta- 
tion, and other good and sufficient 
causes and considerations, them es- 
pecially, thereunto moving, have 
given, -granted, bargained, sold, as- 
signed, aliened, set over, enfeoffed. 



and confirmed, and by these presents 
do give, grant, bargain, sell, assign, 
alieiie, set over, enfeoff and confirm 
unto the said Captain John Mason, 
his heirs and assigns, all that part of 
the mainland in New England, lying 
upon the sea-coast, beginning from 
the middle part of the Merrimack 
river, and from thence to proceed 
northwards along the sea-coast to 
Piscataqua river, and so forwards up 
within the said river and to the fur- 
therest head thereof, and from thence 
northwestward, until three score miles 
be finished from the first entrance 
of the Piscataqua river; also from 
Merrimack through the said river and 
to the furtherest head thereof, and so 
forwards up into the lands west- 
wards, until three score miles be fin- 
ished ; and from thence to cross over 
land to the three score miles end ac- 
compted from Piscataqua river, to- 
gether with all islands and isletts 
within five leagues distance of the 
premises, and abuting upon the 
same " 

This rather indefinite grant was to 
include all the useful privileges and 
opportunities that colonial patents in- 
volved, with special reference to (4) 
''all havens, ports, rivers, mines, min- 
erals, pearls, precious stones, woods, 
quarries, marshes, fishings, huntings, 
hawkings, fowlings, and other com- 
modities and hereditaments whatso- 
ever." The only economic reserva- 
tion stipulated by the Council was 
to the effect that, in case gold or sil- 
ver were discovered, the Crown 
should be entitled to one-fifth of the 
ore mined. 

Careful provision was made for 
the government of the province for it 
was distinctly stated that (r,) '/the said 
Captain John Mason doth further 
covenant for him, his heirs and as- 
signs, that he will establish such gov- 
ernment in the said portion of lands 
and islands granted unto him, and the 

(4) N. H. Prov, Papers, Vol. J. p. 2.H. 

(5) N. H. Prov. Papers, Vol. I, p. 25. 

(6) N, H, Prov, Papers, Vol. I, p. 56, 

same will from time continue, as shall 
he agreeable, as near as may be. to 
the laws and customs of the realm of 
England; and if he shall be charged 
at any time to have neglected his duty 
therein, that then he will reform the 
same, according to the discretion of 
the President and Council, or, in de- 
fault thereof, it shall be lawful for 
any of the aggrieved inhabitants or 
planters, being tenants upon the said 
lands, to appeal to the chief court of 
justice, of the said President and 
Council." It later developed that 
Mason failed to provide a stable and 
satisfactory government with the re- 
sult that the scattered settlers were 
compelled to appeal to Massachusetts 
Bay for protection and a definite 
form of government. 

The records of this colonial pro- 
vince disclose the fact that, aside 
from the disputed claim to the terri- 
tory made by Massachusetts Bay, 
title to the New Hampshire colony, 
in part, at least, was claimed by Rev. 
John Wheelwright and his followers. 
It was alleged that on Slay 17, 1629, 
a treaty and deed was drawn up be- 
tween several Indian tribes and the 
Wheelwright company which gave 
most of the territory now included in 
the state to these exiles from Mas- 
sachusetts Bay Colony. 

This grant by (6) "wee the Saga- 
mores of Penacook, Pentucket, 
Squamsquot and Nucha wanick," how- 
ever, is considered by the more relia- 
ble authorities to have been a forgery. 
Certain it is that the document never 
was seriously considered as giving the 
Wheelwright malcontents any juris- 
diction over the province. 


The Four Settlements 
The first settlement in this ill-de- 
fined Masonian area was undoubtedly 
made at Strawberry Bank which later 
was to take its present name of Ports- 



mouth. The date of actual settle- 
ment is a bit uncertain but it is now 
historically asserted to have been in 
1623. less than three years after the 
landing of the Pilgrims at Plymouth- 
(T) "Some merchants and oilier 
gentlemen in the West of England, 
belonging to the cities of Exeter. 
Bristol, Shrewsbury etc. made 

some attempt of beginning a planta- 
tion in some place about Piscataqua 
river about the year 1623." The 
settlement did not flourish, however, 
to any considerable extent during the 
next few years for in 1631 only three 
houses had been built. In 1631 
Captain Mason sent over agents and 
supplies. A man named Chadbourne 
at this time erected the Great House, 
as it was called, and another gentle- 
man named Williams was designated 
to take charge of the salt works 
which were, developed following the 
arrival of the men despatched by the 
proprietor. Such growth had oc- 
curred by 1633 that need was felt for 
the establishment of some kind of 
government. Accordingly Williams 
was chosen governor. The records 
show that he was still in office in 
1638, being re-elected annually by vote 
of the inhabitants. These dates must 
be taken on faith, however, for the 
original records were destroyed by 
fire in 1652. A court record of 1643, 
however, proves that the Williams 
governorship was a reality and that 
the combination was entered into at 
♦ an early period following* the original 
settlement of the place. 

The first church was built in 1640. 
Religious harmony prevailed in the 
small settlement up to this date and 
the erection of the house of worship 
was the result of the combined eflorts 
of all the inhabitants of the first set- 
tlement, for it was noted* s> "how the 
inhabitants of Strawberry Bank hav- 
ing of their free and voluntary minds, 
and good will, given and granted sev- 

(7) N. H. Prov. Pup^rs, Vol. I. p. 108. 

(8) N. H. Prov. Papers I, p. 111. 

(9) N. H. Prov. Papers, 1, p. 11&. 

eral sums of money for the building 
and founding of a parsonage house 
with a chappie thereunto united, did 
grant fifty acres of land to be an- 
nexed thereunto as a Glebe laud be- 
longing to the said parsonage, and all 
was put into the hands of two men, 
viz., Thomas Walford and Henry 
Sherburne, church wardens." 

Some time during the year 1623 it 
is believed Edward and William Hil- 
ton and Thomas Roberts, with their 
families settled at Wecohannet. which 
a few years later was to be known as 
Dover. Xo record exists to show 
that any additional settlers arrived in 
Dover prior to 1631. Two new 
names, Edward Colcott and Captain 
Thomas Wiggins, were added to the 
town list at this time. It is to be 
presumed, however, that more set- 
tlers had arrived for it was necessary 
to have a governor in 1631 and the 
office was tilled by Captain W r iggins. 
Idie governor made a trip to England 
in 1632 and returned the following 
year with a large number of colonists. 
From this date, therefore, the success 
of the Dover settlement was assured. 

The inhabitants of Dover anticipat- 
ed their neighbors at Portsmouth in 
the matter of building a church for in 
1634 ,9) "they built a meeting house, 
which was afterwards surrounded 
with an entrenchment and flarikerts." 
This first church erected in the prov- 
ince .of New Hampshire remained in- 
tact until Major Richard Waldron 
constructed a new edifice in 1653. 
Captain Wiggins had taken care to 
bring over a minister, the Rev. Wil- 
liam Leveredge, on his return from 
England in 1633. Conditions could 
not have been very prosperous in the 
little town, however, for in 1635 the 
reverend gentleman was compelled to 
forsake his parish "for want of ade- 
quate support/' 

It proved an unfortunate incident 
in the history of the little town for 



his successor was- one Rev. George 
Burdet who, in addition to his min- 
istrations, proceeded to mix m poli- 
tics .so successfully that he defeated 
Captain Wiggins for the governor- 
ship in 1638. Possibly it was the 
contamination of crooked colonial 
politics that caused the downfall of 
this reverend individual. At any rate 
he lost his religion and was given his 
passports after he was ii0) "indicted 
by the whole Bench for a man of ill 
name and fame. Infamous for in- 
continency, a publisher and Broacher 
of divers dangerous speeches, the bet- 
ter to seduce the weak sex of women 
to his incontinent practices, contrary 
to the peace of our Soverign Lord the 
King, as by Depositions and Evi- 
dences." This unfortunate scandal 
rent the little village almost in twain 
and. for three years the settlement was 
"a divided house.'' But after the 
gossips ceased talking of their erst- 
while governor the town took a new 
lease on life and growth rapidly went 

Exeter was settled in 1638 by Rev. 
John Wheelwright and his followers 
after their banishment by the authori- 
ties of Massachusetts Bay for relig- 
ious heresies and seditious practices- 
After their arrival at Exeter they 
made an agreement with the neigh- 
boring Indians relative to the grant- 
ing of necessary land for habitation. 
It is impossible to tell how many 
members made up the colony. But, 
originally, it probably was not less 
than fifty and undoubtedly not more 
than seventy-five. After the con- 
viction of the inconsonant Wheel- 
wrighters it was ordered that inas- 
much as they (1I) "have seduced and 
led into dangerous errors, many of 
the people here in New England, * * * 
there is just cause of suspicion that 
they * * * *may, upon some revela- 
tion, make some suddaine irruption 
upon those that differ from them in 

(10) N. IT. Prov. Papers, I, p. 121. 

(11) Mass. Col. Kec. I, p. 211. 

(12) Mass. Col. lire. I, p. 100. 

(13) Winthrop Hist, of N. E., p. 348. 

judgment; for prevention thereof it is 
ordered that all those whose names 
are underwritten shall (upon warning 
given or left at their dwelling houses) 
before the 30th day of this month of 
November, deliver in at Mr. Cane's 
house, at Boston, all guns, pistols, 
swords, powder, shot and match, as 
they shall be owners of or have in 
tlieir custody, upon pain of ten pound 
for every default to be made thereof 
a * * * » jj ie tola | num \ ) Q T Q f those 

disarmed were seventy-five. Fifty- 
eight of the entire number were Bos- 
tonians. It is supposed that nearly 
all of these persons followed their 
leader to New Hampshire and settled 
with him at Exeter. 

The fourth early settlement in New 
Hampshire was Hampton. Massa- 
chusetts claimed this settlement as ex- 
clusively belonging to the people of 
that colony from the first day of the 
settlement. Indeed as early as 1632 
the Massachusetts authorities de- 
clared (12) : "Mr. Batcheler is required 
to forbear exercising his gifts as a 
pastor or teacher publiquely in our 
patient, unlesse it be to those he 
brought with him, for his contempt 
of authority, till some seandies be re- 
moved/' The Batcheler adherents, 
however, and sundry others who had 
taken refuge in Hampton community 
refused to recognize Massachusetts 
jurisdiction which led the latter colo- 
ny to regard their attitude (13) "as 
against good neighborhood, religion 
and common honesty." As Win- 
throp states the case: "Another plan- 
tation was begun upon the north side 
of Merrimack *' * * at Winnicawett, 
called Hampton, which gave occasion 
to some difference between us and 
some of Pascataquack. which grew 
thus: Mr. Wheelwright, being ban- 
ished from us gathered a company 
and sat down by the fails of Pascata- 
quack and called their town Exeter, 
and for their enlargement they dealt 



with an Indian there and bought of 
him Winnicawett, and then wrote us 
what they had done and that they in- 
tended to let out all their lands into 
farms, except we could show a better 
title. They wrote also to those whom 
we had sent to plant Winnicawett, to 
have them desist, etc. These letters 
coming to the General Court, they 
returned answer, * * * * that know- 
ing we claimed Winnicawett as with- 
in our patent, or as vaeum domi- 
cilium, and had taken possession 
thereof by building an house there 
above two years since, they should 
go now and purchase an unknown 
title and then come to (inquire, deny) 
of our right." The whole controver- 
sy, however, a few years later was to 
be terminated by the junction of the 
four towns with the Ma-sachusetts 
Bay colony- 

Before this annexation occurred, 
however, these early settlements in 
New Hampshire endeavored to estab- 
lish some form of government for 
themselves. Strange as it may seem, 
apparently the only requirement for 
membership in the body politic was 
that the persons concerned should be 
freemen and should agree to do 
nothing contrary to the laws of Eng- 
land. Doubtless, the memories of 
experiences in Massachusetts Bay 
were still poignant in the minds of 
some, at least, and probably those who 
had not sustained actual contact with 
the straightlaced Massachusetts au- 
thorities had profited by the expe- 
riences of their confreres. Suffice 
it to say that the form of covenant, 
constituting a government, which 
was signed by the inhabitants of 
Dover is common, with minor ex- 
ceptions, to all four settlements. 
This simple covenant read as follows : 
<n) "Whereas sundry mischiefs and 
inconveniences have befallen us, and 
more and greater may, in regard of 
want of civil government, his most 

(11) N. IT. Prov. Papers, I, p. 12G. 
(15) N. H. Prov. Papers, I, p. 132. 
(10) Winthrop II. p. 82. N. H. Prov. Pap 

gracious Majesty having settled no 


to our knowledge: we, 

whose names are underwritten, being 
inhabitants upon the river Piscataqua, 

have voluntarily agreed f to combine 
ourselves into a body politic, that we 
may the more comfortably enjoy the 
benefit of his Majesty's laws, to- 
gether with all such laws as may be 
concluded by a. major part of the 
freedom of our Society, in case they 
be not repugnant to the laws of Eng- 
land, and administered in behalf of 
his Majesty- And this we have mu- 
tually promised and engaged to do, 
and so continue till his Excellent Maj- 
esty shall give other orders concern- 
ing us. In witness whereof, we 
have hereunto set our hands, etc." 

The covenant framed at Exeter (15) 
is fiavored with more religiosity but 
in its essential elements differs in no 
wise from the other sealed govern- 
mental agreements. 

Every person claiming membership 
in the community was compelled to 
subscribe to a solemn oath to support 
the government and to obey the laws 
of England and the statutes that 
might be enacted by the settlement 
itself. Two oaths were devised, one 
to be subscribed to by the rulers or 
elders, the other by common people. 

In spite of the most earnest efforts 
to live peaceably together, however, 
dissensions and rivalries became ram- 
pant and the struggling little commu- 
nities found themselves in frequent 
difficulties. Dover, especially, seemed 
almost continuously to meet various 
kinds of obstacles and impediments 
to decent government. Following the 
scandalous experiences with Rev. 
George Burdet, one time governor, 
the town found itself facing the dis- 
ruption caused by the famous con- 
test between Mr, Knowles and Mr. 
Larkham. It appears that (16) "they 
two fell out about baptizing children, 
receiving members, burial of the 

ers, I, p. 123. 



dead;- and the contention was so 
sharp that Knowles and his party 
rose up and excommunicated Mr. 
Larkham and some that held with 
him and further, Mr. Larkham, fly- 
ing to the magistrates, Mr. Knowles 
and Captain Underbill raised arms, 
and expected help from the Bay, 
Mi. Knowles going before the troop 
with a Bible upon a pole's top, and 
giving forth that their side were 
Scots and English-'' The division 
caused by this occurrence continued 
and the adherents of both leaders tol- 
erated no insults from each other. 
The breach was not healed for many 
months. Finally, in 16-10 Knowles 
was heavily fined and conditions 
made so uncomfortable for him that 
he voluntarily left the community. 
The next year Mr. Larkham left al- 
so "to avoid the shame of a scandal- 
ous sin it was found he had commit- 

There was not so much "scandal- 
pus sin" in the other three communi- 
ties as to cause divisions like those 
which tore Dover asunder. But no 
greater success in the enterprise of 
self-government was obtained and 
accordingly all four towns began to 
consider measures to relieve a situa- 
tion that was rapidly becoming dan- 
gerous to community welfare. 


Union with Massachusetts 
The definite decision to join their 
fortunes with ■Massachusetts Bay col- 
ony and accept its jurisdiction com- 
pletely was taken in 16-11 and hence- 
forth, until 1679, the four original 
New Hampshire settlements were to 
be part and parcel of the Massachu- 
setts group. Eight years earlier than 
this, however, Massachusetts had 
hinted that possibly they belonged in 
her jurisdiction. For Captain Wig- 
gin of Piscataqua had written to the 
governor of Massachusetts in 1633 
that one of his people had stabbed a 

(17) Winthrop Hist, of N. E.. p. 13S. 

(IS) Hutchinson Hist, of Mass. Vol. I, p 93. 

fellow citizen and requested that he 
might be tried for the offense in 
Massachusetts. The governor re- 
plied that (17) "If Piscataguaek lay 
within their limits (as it was sup- 
posed) they would try him." 

Dover and Portsmouth took the 
first steps to incorporate themselves 
in the Massachusetts commonwealth 
and the other two towns soon fol- 
lowed suit. As Hutchinson de- 
scribes the process : (1S) "The settlers 
of Piscataqua * * * * submitted them- 
selves to the Massachusetts govern- 
ment- The submission and agree- 
ment upon record is as follows : 
"The 14th of the 4th month, 1641, 
"Whereas some Lords, Knights, 
Gentlemen and others did purchase 
of Mr. Edward Hilton and some 
merchants of Bristol two patents, 
the one called Wecohamet, or Hil- 
ton's Point, commonly called or 
known by the name of Dover or 
North-am, the other patent set forth 
by the name of the south part of the 
river Piscataquack, beginning at the 
sea side or near thereabouts and com- 
ing round the sail land by the river side 
unto the falls of Quamscot, as may 
more fully appear by the said grant : 
And whereas also the inhabitants re- 
siding at present within the limits of 
both the said grants have of late and 
formerly complained of the want of 
some good government amongst 
them, and desired some help in this 
particular from the jurisdiction of 
the Massachusetts Bay, whereby 
they may be ruled and ordered ac- 
cording unto God, both in church and 
common weal, and for avoiding of 
such unsufferable disorders whereby 
Gcd hath been much dishonored 
amongst them, these gentlemen, 
whose names are here specified, * * * 
do in behalf of the rest of the pa- 
tentees dispose of the lands and ju- 
risdiction of the premises as fol- 
loweth ; being willing to further such 
a good work, have herebv, for them- 



selves and in the name of the rest 
of the patentees, given up and set 
over all that power of jurisdiction of 
government of said people dwelling 
or abiding within the limits of both 
the said patents unto the government 
of Massachusetts Bay. by them to be 
ruled and ordered in all causes crim- 
inal and civil as inhabitants dwelling 
within the limits of Massachusetts 
government, and to be subject to 
pay. in church and commonwealth as 
the said inhabitants of Massachusetts 
Bay do, and no others ; and the free- 
men of said two patents to enjoy the 
like liberties as other free men do with 
the said Massachusetts government 

;}; ;jc zip. >*c " 

For thirty-eight years this combi- 
nation of the New Hampshire and 
Massachusetts interests was to endure 
and prosper. In fact, the arrangement 
worked even more satisfactorily than 
even its most sanguine supporters had 
dared to hope. Thirty years after- 
wards, Hutchinson, commenting on 
the situation, remarked : (19) "New 
Hampshire (has) been so long united 
to Massachusetts, that the people of 
both colonies (are) of one heart and 
mind in civil and religious affairs." 

To find the reasons for this harmo- 
nious blending of interests, it is nec- 
essary to examine more closely the re- 
lations that existed between them for 
nearly four decades. 


Conditions of Union 
In the first place, the fact that the 
new members of the Massachusetts 
Bay colony were guaranteed the same 
"liberties as other freemen do with 
the said Massachusetts government" 
was an earnest of successful co-opera- 

In the second place, the inhabitants 
of the four settlements were assured 
that C20) "they shall have the same or- 

(1.9) Hutchinson Hist, of Mass. Vol. I, p. 

(20) Hutchinson Hist, of Mass. Vol. I, p. 

(21) Ibid, p. 10G. 

(22) Hutchinson Hist, of Mass. Vol. I, p. 105. 

(23) N. H. Prov. Papers, I, p. 161. 

der and way of administration of jus- 
tice and way of keeping courts as is 
established at Ipswich and Salem." 
Considering that evils in many states, 
particularly new ones, arise from mal- 
administration of justice and discrimi- 
nation between "old-timers" and "new- 
comers," this careful provision for 
orderly judicial arrangements is im- 
portant as bearing on the future peace- 
ful relations of the two common- 

Thirdly, precautions were taken that 
no "taxation without representation" 
difficulties should be encountered. It 
was expressly agreed that (21) "they 
shall be exempted from all publique 
charges other than those that shall 
arise for, or from among themselves, 
or from any occasion of course that 
may be taken to procure their own par- 
ticular good or benefit." 

In the fourth instance, it was stipu- 
lated that the inhabitants of the four 
towns should continue to enjoy all the 
economic and natural advantages and 
privileges to which they had been ac- 
customed. The agreement declared 
that <22) "they shall enjoy all such law- 
ful liberties of fishing, planting, fell- 
ing timber as formerly they have en- 
joyed in the said ryver." 

Again, during the year following 
the annexation of the four towns, 
the Massachusetts General Court 
passed a resolution granting complete 
liberty of local self-government in each 
of the four communities. In the 
same resolution it was stipulated that 
123> "each town (may) send a deputy 
to the General Court though they be 
not at present Church members." 
These important considerations, name- 
ly, that the towns were privileged to 
have representation in the General 
Court and to enjoy complete local self- 
government, cannot be over-estimated 
in their far-reaching consequences. In 
evaluating the diplomatic and states- 


105. N. H. Prov. Papers, I, p. 159. 



manship qualities of the so-called un- 
bending and strait-laced Massachu- 
setts Puritans, it is well to recall that 
in this instance they granted to four 
towns, honeycombed with religious 
ideas that Massachusetts rulers 
scorned and saturated with unholy dis- 
sipations that Massachusetts punished 
severely in her own confines, a lati- 
tude of government and control that 
they could easily have withheld, for 
conditions proved that the said towns 
were wholly at the mercy of Massa- 
chusetts, and by their own confessions, 
could no- longer have endured in se- 
curity alone. So much for a good 

But good relationships were not 
confined to the earlv years. Decade 
after decade, the Massachusetts gov- 
ernment very rarely withheld re- 
quested favors provided they were at 
all reasonable, as is clearly demon- 
strated by a perusal of the record of 
petitions addressed by the New Hamp- 
shire settlements to the Massachusetts 



A typical petition is that submitted 
by Hampton, .May 20. 1646. which (24 > 
"sheweth unto this Honorable Court 
that your petitioners were lately pre- 
sented for not repayring & making 
good their high waves which your 
poor petitioners by reason of their poor 
estates & the greatness of the work 
are not able to compasse * * * * which 
your petitioners in most humble man- 
ner desire this honored court to re- 
lieve them from * * * * and to re- 
mit your petitioners fine * * * * for 
they have laid out neere ten pounds 
and very little seene & your petition- 
ers as in duty bound shall pray." 

As was customary in all such 
cases, the General Court appointed a 

special committee to examine the facts 
in the case and submit recommenda- 
tions. Following the committee's re- 
port, it was ordered that <26) "their fine 
is remitted that was imposed by the 
Court at Ipswich for their defect 
about their high way." 

May 24, 1652, Exeter submitted a 
petition respecting lands which stated 
that (26) "the humble petition of the 
inhabitants of Exeter, giving this 
Honorable Court to understand that 
we are exceedingly straitened for the 
want of meddow & the Indians have 
informed us that there are 3 or 4 
spots of meddow something neer one 
another about 7 or 8 miles from our 
towue, westward or norwest farre 
from any other plantation & not yet 
possest by any, our humble request 
therefore is that this honoured Court 
would be pleased to grant it to our 
Towne in regard of our great need 
of it, & the quantity of them all is 
conceaved not to exceed 100 akers, if 
it be so much, & so shall we rest 
thank full to the honoured Court & 
as serviceable as we are able." The 
petition, having received the approval 
of the committee, (27) "provided it be 
not within the lirnmitts or bounds of 
any other towneship," was ratified by 
the General Court with the added pro- 
viso that "the Meddow shall not ex- 
ceed one hundred acres." 

Petitions did not always fare so 
nicely, however, as for instance, when 
Exeter in October, 1648, petitioned 
for liberty to choose a constable and 
commissioners, the town was bluntly 
told that (2S) "in answer to the petition 
of the freemen of Exeter for liberty 
to chosse a Constable & Commission- 
ers to end small causes, the Court 
conceives there will be no need of 
such Commissioner." 

Strawberry Bank encountered 
trouble also when in May, 1653, they 

(24) Mass. Col. Records III, p. 2G. 

(25) N. H. Prov. Papers, I, p. 183. 
(2G) N. H. Prov. Papers, I. p. 198. 

(27) N. H. Prov. papers, I. p. If)!). 

(28) Mass. Col. Records III. p. 252 

N. H. Prov. Papers I, p. 182. 

N. II. Prov. Papers I. p. 193. 



petitioned the General Court after 
this manner: (£9) *.The humble peti- 
tion of the Inhabitants of the Towne 
(atl present) called Straberry Banke, 
Sheweth that whereas there are cer- 
taine Townes about us, which enjoves 
the priviledge of freemen & have 
their votes in cruising Governor 1 -, 
magistrates & other ofhcers for the 
administration of justice, our humble 
request is that this honoured Courte 
will be pleased to grant unto us equal 
priviledge with Kittery & York, & 
likewise that you will giver power to 
those magistrates that are to keepe 
Courte among us to nominate & ap- 
point Commissioners for the ending 
of differences under tenn pounds, 
having great need of such, for many 
times we loose our right, by reason 
we cannot summon those that are. de- 
linquents to any other Courts except 
it be for great sumes. And likewise 
that you will be pleased to Confirme 

our Militarie Ofhcers, etc " 

To this earnest petition, the usual 
committee drafted a reply for the 
perusal of the General Court to the 
effect that (30) "we conceive the in- 
habitants of Straberry Banke should 
be satis fyed with the priveledges 
granted by the Court at their coming 
under this government," but recom- 
mending that the nomination and con- 
firmation of commissioners for small 
causes be allowed and also that the 
request concerning military officers be 
complied with. In final disposition 
of the case, the General Court said : 
(31) "The Inhabitants of Straberry 
Banke preferring a petition for equall 
priviledges with other townes in res- 
pect of choyce of Magistrates, &c, 
are denyed, but as a farther answer 
to them in respect to their Military 
officers, the Court of Dover or Stra- 
berry Banke may confirme as they 
shall present, who have hereby also 
power to Nominate & Confirme 

Commissioners for the ending of 
small Causes under 40s as in other 

The General Court, in the case of 
Hampton, was also dialled upon to 
devise a liquor prohibition law and in 
the case, of one Roger. Shawe, aver- 
red: (3 - >)<< In Norfolke. Roger Shawe 

of Hampton is impowered and 

ordered to sell wine of any sort and 
strong licquors to the Indians as to 
theire (his) judgment shall seeme 
meete and necessary for their relief, 
in just and urgent occasions, and not 


Strict Control by Massachusetts 
While Massachusetts dealt in a 
reasonably lenient fashion with the 
New Hampshire towns when they 
were striving to comply with the laws 
and statutes of their adopted mother 
colony, the older colony did not hesi- 
tate to rebuke sternly and punish 
severely any major infractions of the 
disciplinary code of that era- (33) For 
instance, when the General Court was 
"given to understand that there is an 
intent of divers of the inhabitants of 
Strawberry banke, seditiously to with- 
draw their subjection from this Gov- 
ernment over them, & to sett up a 
new Government without and con- 
trarie to their engagement & oathes 

" it was immediately ordered 

"That you forthwith send one or more 
of the chief est, we mean principal 
actors therein to the prison at Bos- 
ton who shall answer their rebellion 
at the General! Court next month, for 
we must tell you we are verie sensible 

of these motions, " 

Some times the towns offended in 
lesser fashion. Dover, as usual, was 
again in trouble when she . failed to 
send her representative to the General 
Court because she felt she had been 
slighted unduly and so the General 

(29) Mass. Col. Records III, p. 374. N. H. Prov. Papers I 

(30) N. H. Prov. Papers, 1, p. 20C. 

(31) Mass. Co'.. Records. Ill, p. $80. N. H 

(32) Mass. Ccl. Records, IV, p. 201. N. H. 

(33) N. H. Prov. Papers, Vol. I, p. 195. 

Prov. Papers I, p. 207. 
Prov. Papers, I, p. 214. 



Court. (34) "think rneete that the said 
towne of Dover shall be fined ten 
pounds for their neglect." 

In spite of all the punishments and 
sentences meted out, however, only 
occasional friction of a serious nature 
marred the otherwise pleasant rela- 
tions between the two colonies. No 
protests against taxation of the New 
Hampshire towns for the expenses of 
Indian warfare, and other necessary 
outlays, appear to have been offered 
by the Northern towns. That the 
towns were, at intervals, ordered to 
help defray such expenses may be 
seen from the following memoran- 
dum: (35) "This Court having taken 
into their consideration the great and 
dayly growing charge of the present 
war 1675) against the Indians, doe 
hereby order and enact, that, for the 
defraying of the charges above said 
there shall be levyed seven single 
country rates- The severall townes 
proportions. Hampton 028.00.00, 

Exeter 000,808.00." 

At various times the towns volun- 
tarily aided the older colony as, for 
instance, when Portsmouth in 1669 
sent word to the General Court that 
it would be glad to aid Harvard Col- 
lege, "for the behoof of the same." 
The generous inhabitants of the town 
averred that f36) "the loud groans of 
the sinking Colledge in its present 
low estate came to our ears, The re- 
leiving of which we account a good 

w r ork for the house of our God 

& needful for the perpetuating of 
knowledge , & therefore grate- 
ful to yourselves whose care and 
studdy is to seek the welfare of our 
Israel. The premises considered we 
have made a Collection in our town 
of 60 pounds per annum (& hope to 
make it more) which said sum is to 
be paid annually for these seven 
years ensuing. ...... .hoping withall 

that the example of ourselves (which 

have been accounted no people) will 
provoke the rest of the Country to 
Jealousy. ..-..." 


Religious Persecution 

The religious intoleration which 
was peculiar to Massachusetts Bay 
did not abate its persecuting force 
after the four New Hampshire towns 
became a part of the commonwealth. 
The relentlessness of the intolerant 
clerical attitude was manifested very 
markedly in the case of the Ana- 
baptists and the Quakers. 

In October, 1648, for instance/ 375 
"this Court being informed of great 
misdomeanor Committed by Edward 
Starbuck of Dover, with profession 
of Anabaptism, for which he is to be 
proceeded against at the next Court 
of Assistants," it was ordered that 
the individual be punished for his 
non- conformity. 

But it was upon the Quakers that 
the full severity of the Massachusetts 
Puritans was destined to fall- No 
leniency was to be shown to the (3S) 
"cursed sect of hereticks lately risen 
up in the world." Commanders of 
ships bringing them into territory un- 
der the jurisdiction of Massachusetts 
were to be heavily fined and 
were to meet the expense of deporta- 
tion of "hereticks." Any person 
having any intercourse with them 
whatsoever was to be severely dealt 
with and the possession of books on 
Quakerism was to be deemed prima 
facie evidence of guilt. As for the 
Quakers themselves, "whatsoever 
shall arrive in this countrie from 
forraigne parts, or come into this 
jurisdiction from any parts adjacent, 
shall be forthwith committed to the 
house of correction, and at theire en- 
trance to be severely whipt, and by 
the master thereof be kept constantly 
at work, & none suffered to converse 

(31) N. H. Prov. Papers, I, p. 19G. 

(35) N. H. Prov. Papers, I, p. 3 IS. 

(36 » N. H. Prov. Papers, I, p. 300. 

(37) Mass. Co!. Records. Ill, p. 151. 

(35) N. H. Prov. Papers, I, p. 22C. 

N. II. Prov. Papers, I, p, V,H. 



or speak with them during the time 
of theire imprisonment which shall 
be no longer than necessitie re- 
quireth-" Unfortunately, the records 
indicate that "necessitie" generally 
required considerable time. Mere 
imprisonment, however, did not 
suffice, to brea.k the spirit of the 
"hereticks" and banishment was pre- 
scribed. To return a Her banishment 
was tantamount to committing suicide. 
For the death penalty was reserved 
for those who returned until the 
Quakers grew in numbers to such an 
extent the drastic remedies had to be 

How effectively the persecution of 
the Quakers in New Hampshire was 
carried out by the Massachusetts au- 
thorities may be discovered by a 
glance at the pitiful story of Anna 
Coleman, Mary Tompkins and Alice 
Ambrose. Richard Waldron of Do- 
ver, magistrate for the town, <39) 
"made his town and Colony infam- 
ous" by directing the constables of 
ten towns, including Dover and 
Hampton, "to take these vagabond 
Quakers, Anna Coleman, Mary 
Tompkins and Alice Ambrose, and 
make them fast to the cart's tail ; and 
drawing the cart through your sev- 
eral towns, to whip them upon their 
naked backs, not exceeding ten stripes 
apiece on each of them, in each town, 
...." Fortunately Barefoot rescued 
then surreptitiously as they were 
passing through the third town and 
spirited them away. 

Piercing the ears and boring the 
tongue of the members of this un- 
fortunate sect also were common 
practices until the organization became 
so widespread that such harsh meas- 
ures had to be abandoned. 

To be sure, there was some justi- 
fication for the repressive measures 
used by the Massachusetts authorities, 
but imprisonment naturally should 
have been the remedy. Deborah 
Wilson, for instance, "went through 

(39) F. B. Sanborn Hist of N. II,. p. 51. 

(40) Hutchinson Hist, of Mass. I, p, 187. 

the streets of Salem (40) naked as when 
she came into the world, for which 
she was well whipped." And authen- 
tic records exist to show that 
Deborah was not the only stylist of 
those Quaker days. 


The N i colls Commission 

The royal commission, composed 
of Messrs. Nicolls, Carr, Cart- 
wright and Mavericke, found a stub- 
born group of people to deal 
with when they established contact 
with the Massachusetts authorities. 
Despite their most earnest efforts, 
they could not break the spirit of 
resistance to dictation which the 
Massachusetts people steadfastly dis- 
played toward the king's commission- 

The royal commission made its 
way to New Hampshire and there 
came into violent disagreement, not 
only with the officials resident in New 
Hampshire, but also with the officials 
of Massachusetts who took advantage 
of every opportunity to sustain the 
attitude of the New Hampshire in- 
habitants as well as to re-assert their 
own control of the adopted province. 

The record discloses that "after 
the Court at Boston was ended, we 
(the commission) went to visit the 
Eastern parts ; and first we past a 
tract of land laid claime to by Mr- 
Mason, who petitioned His Majesty 
about it. His Majestic referr'd it to 
Sir Robert Mason and others, who 
made theire report to the King; all 
which Mr. Mason sent to Colonell 
Nicolls, whom he made his attorney. 
This province reaches from 3 miles 
north of Merimack river to Piscata- 
quay river, and 60 miles into the 
country. We find many small pa- 
tents in it, & the whole Province to 
be now under the usurpation of the 

Massachusetts, " Before it 

finished its wanderings in New 
Hampshire and on the Maine coast, 

K. H, Frov. Papers, I, p. 243. 



the commission was to discover that 
the "usurpation" of "the Massa- 
chusetts" had sufficient force behind 
it to nullify effectually the hest efforts 
of Nicolls, et ah 

Certain parties in New Hampshire, 
discontented with the rule of Massa- 
chusetts, had addressed petitions to 
the English government asking that 
Massachusetts jurisdiction should 
cease. But, at ' this time, Colonel 
Nicolls was in New York and pend- 
ing his return the other members of 
the commission decided not to inter- 
fere and so (41) "we left them as we 
found them, under the Massachusetts 
government, though they were very 
earnest to be taken under His Ma- 
jestie's government.''' 

As a result of this intrusion of the 
commission into the affairs of New 
Hampshire and Maine, the Massa- 
chusetts authorities took energetic 
steps to frustrate the efforts of the 
royal quartette and consequently 
(42) "they sent a peremptory summons, 
dated October 10th (1665) to one 
Abraham Corbette to appear att 

theire next General Court to 

answer for contempt for in a disor- 
derly manner stirring up sundry of 
the inhabitants to signe a peticon or 
remonstrance against His Majestie's 
authority there settled." The mar- 
shals of Dover and Portsmouth 
speedily escorted Corbett to Boston 
where he was fined and imprisoned 
by the Massachusetts government. 
The episode led the commissioners to 
write home the suggestion, through 
Sir Robert Carr, that ^ 43 >'T wish that 
His Majestie would take some speedy 
course for the redresse of these and 
the like innormities, and for the sup- 
pression of the insolencies of these 
persons here." But the commission- 
ers found little to reward them for 
their efforts in New Hampshire and 

the record of events is well summed 
up by Hutchinson who remarked: 
(44) **The commissioners had prevailed 
on some of the inhabitants of the 
towns in New Hampshire to sign a 
petition and complaint to His Ma- 
jesty of the wrongs they had sustain- 
ed from Massachusetts,. . • • . .but the 
inhabitants of Dover in town meet- 
ing, and Portsmouth and Exeter by 
writings under the hands of the 
town officers, declared their dissent, 
and all the towns desired to be con- 
sidered as part of the Massachusetts 
colony, as they had been for many 
years before." 

The Masonian Claims 
Not long after the appointment of 
the royal commissioners in 1664, 
Colonel Nicolls of the commission 
was designated by Robert Mason, 
heir of the original grantee of New 
Hampshire, to act as his representa- 
tive in contesting with Massachusetts 
the title to the northern colon}'. 
Colonel Nicolls was given Ci5)ii direc- 
tions to take such a quit-rent from 
the occupants of the land as would 
give them encouragement." Nicolls, 
at the suggestion of his colleagues on 
the commission, transferred the man- 
agement of the Mason property to 
Nicholas Shapleigh. The latter, in 
turn, notified Mason of the change, 
adding that, while some of the New 
Hampshire people were willing to 
accept the rule of Mason, a large 
number still wished to remain under 
Massachusetts jurisdiction. Mason 
himself, in his petition to the king, 
ruefully stated that his grandfather 
(46) "did expend upwards of twenty 
two thousand pounds in transporting 
people, building houses, forts, etc., 
* * * *," a fact which the Massachu- 
setts people did not seem to appreci- 

(41) N. H. Prov. Papers, Vol. I, p. 252. 

(42) Mass. Co!. Rec. 12 J, p. 106. N. H. Prov. Papers. I, p. 257. 

(43) N. II. Prov. Papers, p. LT>8. 

(44) Hutchinson Hist, of Mass. I, p. 23 1. 

(45) Fry: N. H. as a Royal Prov., p. "»0. 
(40) N. H. Prov. Papers, Vol. I, p. 322. 



aie ; in his opinion* For he told the 
King** 7 * "that all ways have been tried 
and all methods used to obtain justice 
from the Bostoners, but all have 
.proved ineffectual that your petition- 
er's losses have been so many and 
great and his sufferings so continued 
that lie cannot any longer support the 
burthen of them." 

In 1667 Joseph Mason, a relative 
of Robert Mason, who had formerly 
been an agent for the state, informed 
his kinsman that Massachusetts was 
ready to surrender the land and titles 
in New Hampshire, provided that she 
could still retain political sovereignty. 
Joseph Mason advised his relative to 
accept the proposition but Robert 
Mason' 4S) "does not seem to have 
been favorably impressed . with this 
proposal." In April, 1671, however, 
Mason informed Shapleigh that he 
would not demand any past dues for 
the occupancy of his New Hampshire 
hills but would like to be paid quit- 
rents in the future. To this his ten- 
ants joyfully agreed but, feeling now 
that Mason was going to treat them 
fairly, admonished him not to allow 
Massachusetts longer to lord it over 
him politically. 

Meanwhile Mason (if,) "offered to 
sell his patent of New Hampshire to 
the King." Evidently His Majesty 
was either too wise or too poor at this 
time for he did not unburden Robert 
Mason. Two more attempts to sell 
the King this handsome colony failed. 
Possibly the monarch was pondering 
the statements made by the Massa- 
chusetts authorities in their reply -to 
the Mason petition when they warned 
the king that it was f50) "no wonder if 
silly people are so soon affected with 
such faire glozing promises as Mr. 
Mason hath made and published," and 
added that' 51 ' "they (New Hampshire 
people) have part of them for 35 

(47) N. H. Prov. Papers, I, p. 32G. 

(48) Fry: N. H., p. 60. 

(49) Fry, p. 01. 

(50) N. II. Prov. Papers, I, p, 333. 

(51) N. H. Prcv. Papers. I. p. 333. 

(52) Fry N. H., p. 02. Mass. Col. Pec. V, 

(53) N. H. Prov. Papers, I, p. 336. 

years * * * * lived under the govern- 
ment of Massachusetts a quiet, well 
ordered and thriving people." 

In 1676, the king ordered colonial 
agents, representing both parties, to 
proceed to England and lay their re- 
spective claims before governmental 
authorities. (52) "In February, 1677, 
the whole Mason and Gorges contro- 
versy was referred for determination 
to the Committee of Trade with di- 
rections to call upon the chief justices 
of the kingdom for assistance." 

William Stoughton, Esq., and Mr. 
Peeter Bulkley were selected by the 
Massachusetts government to repre- 
sent the colony before the English 
court and so were informed that 
"you take the first opportunity to 
embareque yourselves for London, 
thoroughly and considerately pursu- 
ing the declaration & defence now de- 
livered unto you, observing the argu- 
nients & pointing the evidence ac- 

But the trip was in vain for the 
English justices held that the Mason 
title was just and that Massachusetts 
was encroaching on territory that the 
proper owner now desired to handle 
exclusively. The Court, however, 
decided that it would make no final 
award of the property held by the in- 
habitants of New Hampshire pend- 
ing a hearing at which representatives 
of the actual tenants of the land could 
be heard. Meanwhile the local 
courts in New Hampshire were em- 
powered to decide all disputes over 
] anc ](33) "until it shall appear that 
there is just cause of complaint 
against the courts of justice there for 
injustice or grievance." 

The decision of the English court 
was accepted by the Board of Trade 
and approved by the king in July, 
1667. Two years later His Majesty 
informed the Massachusetts authori- 

p. 113. 



ties that it was his desire to establish 
a new government in New Hampshire 
and commanded the Massachusetts au- 
thorities (54> "to recall and revoke all 
commissions which had been granted 
by them for the government of that 
territory-. " 

On February 4th, 1679-80. there- 
fore, Massachusetts and New Hamp- 
shire came to the official parting of 
the ways when^ 55> "at a General 
Court specially called by the Governor 
and assistants at Boston : This Court 
doth hereby declare that all Commis- 
sions that have been formerly granted 
by the Colony of Massachusetts to 
any person or persons that lived in 
the townes of Hampton, Exeter, 
Portsmouth & Dover are hereby with- 
drawn, and as to any future act made 
voyd and of no effect." And so New 
Hampshire was numbered among the 
royal provinces. 


Records of the Governor and Company 
of the Massachusetts Bay in New 
England (.Mass. Col. Rec.) ■ 
5 Vols 
New Hampshire Provincial Papers: 

Vol. 1 only (1623-1686) 
Jennes, J. S., Transcript of Original 
Documents in the English Archives 
relating to Early History of N. H. 
(Privately Printed, New York, 1876) 

Standard Works 

Winthrop, John, Journal: Massachu- 

(54) Fry N. II.. p. 65. 

(55) Mass. Col. Rec. V, p. 253. 

setts and Other N. E. Colonics, 
1030-44 (Boston, 1825) 

Hutchinson, Thomas, History of Mas- 
sachusetts (Boston, 1795) 

Belknap, Jeremy, History of New 
Hampshire (3 vols) Vol. 1, only 
Philadelphia, 1784) 

Palfrey, John G., .New England, Vol. 
1, (Boston, 1884) 

Fiske, John, The Beginnings of New 
England (Boston, 1889) 

Secondary Volumes: 

Doyle, John A., The English in Amer- 
ica, Vol II (New York, 1907) 

Adams, James T., Founding of New- 

Sanborn, E. D. History of New Hamp- 
shire (Manchester, N. H., 1875) 

Sanborn, F. B.. History of New 
Hampshire, (Cambridge, 1904) 

Dean, John YV\, Captain John Mason, 
the Founder of N. H. (Boston, 

Ellis, George E., The Puritan Age 
and Rule in the Colony of Mass. 
Bay (Boston 1888) 

Fry, W. H., New Hampshire as a 
Royal Province, (New York, 1908) 

Stackpole, History of New Hamp- 
shire, (New York, 1916) 

McClintock, John N., History of New 
Hampshire, Boston, 1888) 

Pope, Pioneers of Maine and New 
Hampshire, (Boston, 1908) 

Barstow, George, History of New 
Hampshire, (Concord, N. H., 1842) 

Carleton, E. A., New Hampshire As 
It Is, (Claremont, N. H, 1856) 

Whiton, John M., New Hampshire 
(Concord, N.-H, 1834) 


By Eleanor Kenly Bacon 

''Grab a grin and wear it," 
Seize a joy and share it, 
Brace a burden, — bear it — 
Ah, but life's worth while! 
Find some work and do it, 
If worry comes just shoo it 
Where you can't pursue it. 
Travel with a smile ! 





O. W . Fernuld, President N. H. Good Roads Association, 
Commissioner of Public Works, Berlin, N. PI. 

Nestled in the bosom of the An- 
droscoggin valley skirting the north- 
ern slope of the celebrated White 
mountains in the scenic north coun- 
try of New Hampshire, which has 
been rightly termed the "Switzer- 
land of America," the City of Berlin, 
the northern metropolis of the state, 
has maintained a steady progress in 
development of her great natural re- 
sources, chief of which is the im- 
mense water power of the Andro- 
scoggin river — a hundred feet fall 
with a hundred and fifty horse power 
for every foot. Berlin has the fin- 
est water power in New England and 
it is only about half developed at 
present as there is unutilized water 
power today within thirty miles of 
the city to the amount of forty-five 
thousand horse power, all easily avail- 
able by means of electric transmis- 
sion. The flow of the Androscoggin 
river is maintained at a minimum 
varying from 1.600 to 2,000 feet per 
second by means of the large storage 
dams of the Androscoggin Reser- 
voir Co. These dams store about 
25,000 billion cubic feet of water dur- 
ing the spring, which greatly reduces 
the danger from freshets, mitigates 
the going to waste of tremendous 
amounts of energy- and permits the 
utilization of a large amount of 
water during the remainder of the 
year as it is needed to turn the wheels 
of industry and thus comprising one 
of the most complete water systems 
of the country. In this system is 
the new artificial lake known as Lake 
Aziscohos, which is the fourth largest 
artificial lake in the world. It is 
thirteen miles long, a mile wide, and 
about forty-five feet deep. The City 

of Berlin has some of the largest and 
finest paper mills in America and it 
has the largest sulphite fibre mill in 
the world. The Berlin Mills Com- 
pany operate a two-band-saw mill that 
saws out more than two hundred 
thousand feet of lumber every twenty 
four hours. This mill for many 
years held the world's record of 228,- 
000 board feet sawed in one day by 
one saw. In connection with this is 
a wood working mill that specializes 
in manufacturing window and door 
frames and having the largest capac- 
ity in its line of any mill in the United 
States. The daily average consump- 
tion of wood is around 1,275 cords 
of pulp wood which sends out to all 
parts of the world 775 tons of pulp 
and 375 tons of paper. Taking the 
whole daily consumption of logs this 
means that on each week day Berlin's 
mills use up 1.500 cords of spruce 
and fir; or to express it another way 
the mills of this city consume the pro- 
duct of 150 acres of average forest 
land daily, the value of raw material 
amounting to about $18,000 worth of 
pulp wood or yearly over four and 
a half million dollars' worth. The 
visitor to this thriving city sees veri- 
table mountains of pulp wood piled 
ready for use and it is no uncommon 
occurrence that one of these piles rep- 
resents a money value of over a half 
a million dollars. 

Away back in the early seventies 
all this community could boast of was 
a small saw mill, a shingle mill, a 
grist mill, a blacksmith shop, and a 
depot, that's about all. Since that 
period with the building of the first 
large mills the waters have been 
backed by large dams ; huge penstocks 



have been built and now thousands of 
wheels are turning out many products 
that are shipped to the (our points 
of the compass. Between the Ber- 
lin of the early seventies and the Ber- 
lin as it is now known there is a well 
defined line of demarcation. In the 
memory of men now living there 
were only three houses in this com- 
munity and one of these is still in 
existence — the. Wilson house, now 
bearing the number of 187 on Main 

began experimenting about 1870 or a 
little later, and soon mastered, the 
subject, acquiring a formula which 
revolutionized the paper industry. 
In a short time he began the making 
of paper from pulp and this was the 


ie paper industry that 

makes Berlin today the leading paper 
city of the world. From the first 
moment of the success of Furbish's 
plant Berlin emerged from its former 
insignificant place on the map of the 

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Berlin-Milan Concrete Road. 
No Load too Heavy. 

St. The change from rural to urban 
conditions began when Mr. H. H. 
Furbish came to this town in 1878, 
attracted by the abundance of water 
power and the plentitude of timber 
adapted to the manufacture of paper. 
For many years the scientists of the 
world sought practical means of mak- 
ing paper from wood, and as early as 
1848 George Burgess had succeeded 
in producing paper in England, but 
at a prohibitive cost. Mr. Furbish 

world as an industrial center and be- 
came the leader in the industry which 
has made it known wherever paper is 
used. The industrial history of the 
world underwent a sudden change 
and Berlin was the pivotal point on 
which the turn was made. The charm- 
ing sublimity of the wonderful natur- 
al beauty of northern New Hampshire 
is no where excelled the world over, 
the varied but unfailing vernal loveli- 
ness of the glorious White Monti- 



tains and fertile valleys; of verdant 
peaks and ranges whose scenic gran- 
deur is intimate and inviting; of fish 
ladcned streams that tumble and eddy 
over the rocky rifts by the winding 
roadways that are as crooked as the 
tentacles on the octopus in merry and 
friendly fashion — no son .of this 
State can refer to his native State 
without a thrill of honest pride! 
The wonderland of the White 
Mountains set the standard for 
travel interest, whether it is in the 
winter with the fashionable and 
healthy winter carnivals or the sum- 
mer months when the cool and ro- 
mantic nooks attract: thousands of 
people from every land to the numer- 
ous famous resorts where rest and 
recreation may be had amid sur- 
roundings of perennial interest. 

One of the greatest factors in the 
marvelous growth of Berlin has been 
the extremely durable pavements 
on the main street, laid in 1909 
with plain cement-concrete where the 
advent of the motor truck, which is 
used extensively here in handling ma- 
terial, compelled the installa- 
tion of smooth and durable pavement 
that will furnish transportation 
twelve months in every year to the 
•heaviest of trucks without any bans 
as to weight. To this city belongs 
the credit of building the first con- 
crete streets in New Hampshire. 
While we realize that they were 
made with somewhat crude methods 
as to finish, and without the modern 
steel reinforcement, we look back at 
the end of these thirteen years of 
constant use of these plain concrete 
streets with considerable satisfac- 
tion because we have them to show 
after a long term of years with a 
much longer period of life to render 
the best sort of service to modern 
traffic. To correct any misimpres- 
sion that one might have of these 
old plain concrete surfaces I will say 
that they have always been 100 per 
Cent efficient in every respect, we 
never have found it necessary to 

limit any weight of trucks using 
these pavements. Approximately 

23,000 square yards were laid in 1909 
with what might be termed a lean 
mix in that it was only one part 
cement to two and one half parts 
sand and five parts stone. Although 
no steel was embedded in the mix the 
behavior of these raft like slabs in 
sustaining hard wear and weather fur- 
nishes the best of proof of this ma- 
terial giving the best value per dol- 
lar. Large areas were laid on a saw- 
dust fill and many of the concrete 
slabs are like new after the thirteen 
years of incessant pounding. Few of 
us stop and reflect. We seldom stop 
and look back over the thirteen years 
and recall the almost unnegotiable mud 
link that poorly served our store dis- 
trict on the Main street before con- 
creting, nor do we realize the 
practice at the time those plain con- 
crete slabs were laid right here in Ber- 
lin, that they were not given proper 
chance to harden and cure after the 
mixture was laid on the sub soil as 
it came. In fact, barricades were 
thrown aside next day after laying 
and traffic vehicled over the stretches 
of new concrete, within twenty-four 
hours after laying it is known that 
the trolley cars were permitted to use 
the tracks freshly encased in plain 

In those days it wasn't generally 
known that full money's worth of 
new concrete comes from proper 
hardening and that it is a matter of 
utmost importance that concrete har- 
den thoroughly before traffic is allow- 
ed to pass over it. Concrete does 
not harden by drying as some think. 
Chemical action between cement and 
water brings this about. To make 
the hardening thorough and uniform 
the concrete must be protected from 
the hot sun and winds to prevent the 
water in it from evaporating. If the 
concrete is allowed to lose this water 
by evaporation, the cement mixture 
will be robbed of one of the elements 
necessary to the chemical process 



which gives concrete pavements their 
great strength and durability. Both 
actual experience and laboratory 
tests; have shown the value of proper 
curing. It has been found that con- 
crete cured first in water and then 
in the air is from two to three times 
as strong as concrete which was al- 
lowed to harden without such pro- 
tection. In tests of wearing quali- 
ties, also, concrete properly cured 
showed more than twice the ability to 
resist abrasion than concrete not pro- 
perly cured. The greatest detriment 

extreme permanency as a concrete 
track support. Since opening this 
pavement through the business dis- 
trict in 1909. the heavy double truck 
cars have literally pounded the light 
rails on decayed wooden ties out of 
shape and has left holes that permit 
surface water to seep into the sub 
grade and become soggy. If there is 
one place on the face of tire globe 
where plain concrete pavements have 
stood the "acid test'' it is right here 
in the City of Berlin, where they have 
given sucessful service during the 

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Main St., Berlin, N, H. 
Plain Concrete Road Built 1909. 

to the Main Street stretch which is 
paved between curb lines with plain 
concrete is the car track area where 
the wooden ties have gone into decay 
and permitted the rails to become de- 
pressed, thereby causing impact at 
each joint where bonds are discon- 
nected from time to time, and it is 
necessary in such cases to chop away 
the concrete to insert new bonds and 
tighten the rail connections. It is 
thought that the best solution of the 
worn out track is to renew it with 
steel rails encased in concrete with 
twin steel tie construction that insures 

thirteen years to the heaviest of 
truck traffic — frost Iras never hurt 
these pavements here in northern 
New Hampshire, neither has the ex- 
tremely warm days had the slightest 
effect on them — although they are 
lying on all sorts of soil from clay to 
muck without any porous gravel lay- 
er or extra loose stone foundation 
these pavements are and have been 
always 100 per cent efficient all the 
time. The installation of porous 
foundation courses under concrete 
slabs is of doubtful value in that it 
offers a receptacle for water that 



will freeze and thaw in 
weather when slush and ice prevents 
free movement to drainage. The 
mooted question of drainage is 
definitely settled where properly 
built concrete slabs are laid as pave- 
ments. One of the most severe 
tests any pavement can be put to was 
successfully accomplished here this 
April when a large pipe culvert col- 
lapsed and caused a large cavity un- 
der our old concrete slabs, and it had 
undoubtedly been there for weeks 
with traffic pounding over this 
large hole — the settling at the joint 
that separated the slabs directly over 
the cavity indicated something un- 
usual at this point, and after investi- 
gation we found the large hole under 
the concrete, which had bridged the 
space for no one knows how long, 
and with no menace to the heavy 
trucks passing over it everyday — - 
what other pavement under the sun 
can stand such a test? In my opinion 
if concrete slabs won't stand up under 
heaviest of traffic on all character of 
soils there is no sort of pavement 
that will. We have made many- 
crack surveys to note their behavior 
all through the thirteen years and 
after the closest investigation we find 
that they are not serious, they are not 
detrimental to the structure and we 
cannot condemn it any more than we 
could condemn Abe Lincoln for hav- 
ing wrinkles in his face. The sterl- 
ing qualities are there just the same. 
The question of road surfaces 
is a very important one. these days 
of swift heavy trucks. The best 
road bed is the absolutely solid 
one with as straight a surface as 
can be obtained to avoid impact of 
swift and heavy vehicles. Soft and 
yielding road surfaces that will bend 
under traffic have not the life be- 
cause where there is elasticity there 
is friction and a subsequent wavi- 
ness that increases and brings on 
more and more maintenance and 
frequent surface applications at 
close intervals. These soft and 

colder bending surfaces frequently hug a 
very weak subgrade that becomes 
fluxed with water in wet periods. 
On the other hand, the bearing val- 
ue of concrete is 3, COO pounds per 
square inch which is more than suffi- 
cient to carry the loads, but the bear- 
ing value of our soils is far below this 
and, therefore, a smooth rigid sur- 
face is best for modern traffic — best 
for the taxpayer who pays for the 
roads and best for the truck owner 
who pays for the broken springs 
and upkeep on his rolling stock — 
and again, best for those who de- 
sire to ride in comfort to avoid 
wash-board surface irregularities. 
From our extended experience with 
concrete we now favor steel re- 
inforcement in all paving slabs of 
this material because we are con- 
vinced that steel prolongs the life 
of the structure, it preserves its in- 
tegrity, minimizes maintenance, less- 
ens the cracks and renders them 
innocuous and harmless. 

As shown in one of the ac- 
companying views of our Main 
street paved in 1909 with plain con- 
crete it is one of the first "divided 
road construction" in the State — it 
is a very good method in that it 
gives a much stronger slab pave- 
ment and the joint through the cen- 
ter tends to keep traffic where it 
belongs — a very good feature on 
busy thoroughfares. Last year a 
half -mile stretch of re-in forced con- 
crete was laid on the Berlin-Milan 
Road, averaging seven inches in 
thickness and the slabs were de- 
posited directly on soil just as it 
came. This year arrangements are 
made to lay about a mile .stretch of 
reinforced concrete on this road, 
which is a part of the East Side 
Trunk line road and the entire 
work is done by the State Highway 
department and the City of Berlin 
jointly. The reason why this 
type of pavement is chosen on this 
important trunk line road is be- 
cause Milan has no rail connections 



and it is therefore deemed neces- 
sary to have, a connecting road that 
will furnish unrestricted traffic all 
the year round and get twelve- 
months' returns from our road in- 

of traffic 
some of 
Engineers 1 

The volume and weight 

is growing rapidly and 
our highways are now 
At a meeting of the 
Society in Boston 
the problems due to 
growth of motor transportation 
were discussed and it was enumer- 
ated that in Massachusetts 44 towns 
found that the roads bore only 360 
tons of traffic per day in "1909. 

These same roads now bear an av- 
erage of 5.530 tons per hour. 

The best investment this State 
can make with her wonderful natur- 
al resources, consisting of an unlim- 
ited supply of granite, is to build 
Renforced Concrete roads that set- 
tle the question definitely. The 
very fact that we can now see every 
day after thirteen years of constant 
service the very pavements we in- 
vested our money in during 1909 is 
the best sort of evidence that such 
roads are an investment and not a 
mere expenditure requiring period- 
cal renewals. 


By Katliarinc Sazmn Oakes 

Baby, will you love the wind on a high spring hill ? — 
Smooth with tender lingers the pussywillow's coat ; 
Stop your play to catch the husky song the frog choirs 
quote ; 

Lie awake to listen to the eerie whippoorwill? 

Baby, when you thread your little trails, who'll run with 



Shy Alice in white pinafore; Rapunzel from her tower; 
Tom, the tiny chimney sweep ; gay elves and witches 
dour ; 
Glass- slippered Cinderella; Thumbeline, (her swallow, 
too) ? 

(I used to know a small girl once who hugged these to her 

heart ; — 
Please let her come along, dear lass, and have a little part!) 



At the 55th annual encampment 
of the X e w H a m pS h i r e d e p a r t - 
ment, Grand Army of the Repub- 
lic, held in Representatives' Hall 
at the State House. Concord, on 
April 13, a present membership of 
731 was reported. General Joab 
N. Patterson, the last survivor of 

cook and raised a company; was 
commissioned lieutenant of Company 
J.i, Second New Hampshire Regi- 
ment, June 4, 1861, and promoted to 
captain Klay 23. 1862, (wounded at 
Gettysburg." July 3, 1863); lieuten- 
ant-colonel, June 21, 1864; colonel, 
Jan. 30, 1865; brevetted brigadier 

New Hampshire's brigadier generals general for courage and good conduct 

General Joab X. Patterson. 

in the Civil War, was elected de- 
partment commander. Bora' in 
Hopkinton, January 2, 1835, Gen- 
eral Patterson graduated from 
Dartmouth college with the class of 
1860, of which he is the secretary, 
teaching school in the winters as an 
aid in securing his education. Upon 
the outbreak of the Civil War he 
opened a recruiting office at Contoo- 

to date from March 13, 1865; mus- 
tered out, Dec. 19, 1865. Returning 
to New Hampshire he was com- 
mander of the First Regiment, New 
Hampshire Militia, 1866-8 and bri- 
gade commander, 1S68-71 ; colonel 
Third Regiment, N. H. N. G., 1878; 
brigadier general in command, 1889. 
Upon the outbreak of the_ Spanish 
War General Patterson enlisted as a 



private, but. was soon commissioned 
Captain and served on the staff of 
Gqii. J. P. Sanger; afterwards serv- 
ing for three years as superintendent 
of public buildings in Havana, Cuba, 
during the American occupation of 
the island. Pie was agent for the 
state of New Hampshire foi the 
transportation of the soldiers of the 
state to attend the 50th anniversary 
of the battle of Gettysburg in 1913. 
In addition to his military service 
General Patterson has held many 
civic offices of trust and responsibili- 
ty. He was a member of the legis- 
lature from Hopkinton, 1866-8; 
United States marshal for the dis- 
trict of New Hampshire for 19 years 
from 1867; second auditor of the 
United States Treasury at Washing- 
ton for four years from 1889; and 
United States pension acent at Con- 
cord from 1908 to 1913. 

This interesting and important 
statement has been made to the 
public by the state tax commission : 

"The commission has just com- 
pleted a series of thirteen public 
meetings, held one at lea-St in each 
county in the state, the purpose of 
which was to inform the local as- 
sessors in regard to tax laws and 
methods, to urge upon them the 
necessity for a thorough re-valua- 
tion of all taxable property this 
year, and to inform the public as to 
our tax laws, and our methods and 
plans. Strange to relate the gen- 
eral public showed little interest 
in these meetings, where full oppor- 
tunity was granted to voice com- 
plaints and to request explanations. 
The lack of public interest was dis- 
appointing, but the interest and co- 
operation of the local assessors was 
most gratifying. 

The tax commission is asking for 
a revaluation of all taxable property 
this year. The Constitution pro- 
vides that there shall be a valua- 
tion of the taxable estates taken 

anew once in five years at least. 
In 1912, when the commission was 
first established, an extensive re- 
valuation was made. In 1917, the 
end of a live year period, an effort 
was made for a re-valuation, but 
war conditions engaged the interest 
and effort of the general public, and 
scant attention Was paid to the or- 
dinary processes of government. 
In 1922 we come to the end of an- 
other five year period, and, in obedi- 
ence to the mandate of the consti- 
tution and of the law creating the 
commission, we are attempting to 
perform our duty. 

The constitution of the state fur- 
ther provides, in terms, that all 
public taxes shall be distributed 
proportionately. The legislature 
has provided that in making such 
distribution all property declared 
taxable shall be appraised at its full 
and true value. It is, therefore, a 
primary obligation on the part of 
every citizen to bear his propor- 
tionate share of the public burden. 
The obligation is a moral one as 
well as a legal one. No good citi- 
zen will desire to escape that ob- 
ligation. There can be no answer 
to this proposition. Any taxpayer 
who attempts to deny it simply as- 
serts that his disposition is to evade 
his obligations as a citizen and to 
ask his neighbor to shoulder them 
for him. Our experience has been 
that the average citizen is a good 
citizen, and that it is his disposition 
to contribute his share of the ex- 
pense of government provided he 
can be convinced that his neighbor 
is disposed to do, or required to do, 
likewise. We receive in this office 
hundreds of complaints, annually, 
regarding the valuation of taxable 
property in all sections of the state. 
The general tenor of these com- 
plaints is not that the taxpayer does 
not want to pay his taxes, but 
rather that he does not want to pay 
more than his share. Hence, there 
can be no dissent which is in any 



manner justifiable that it is abso- 
lutely just that -ill taxable property 
be returned for taxation at its full 
and true value as nearly as human 
■effort can determine it for the pur- 
pose of effecting a proportionate 
distribution of the public burden. 

The tax commission is making 
this effort this year without fear 
or favor anywhere. In making the 
effort the question of the expedi- 
ency of the methods employed to 
arrive at the desired result is im- 
mediately brought into issue. No 
proper justification of the methods 
we have employed can be made 
without a somewhat extended ex- 
planation of our tax system which. 
unfortunately, is too little under- 
stood by the average citizen. Un- 
der our general property system 
of taxation in this state we tax four 
principal classes of property, — (1) 
real estate of all kinds, improved 
and unimproved, including mills 
and machinery, — (2) live stock, — 
(3) stocks in trade of merchants 
and manufacturers, — (4) intangible 
property, so-called, including 

bonds. excepting bonds of the 
United States and of the State of 
New Hampshire and its municipal 
sub-divisions, money on hand or at 
interest, including National Bank 
stock, in excess of what the owner 
pays interest on, but excepting de- 
posits Jn New Hampshire savings 
institutions, and excepting all cor- 
porate stock. Our problem has 
been to cover the whole state in 
the most practical way with the 
co-operation of the local assessors. 
Hence our study has been to deter- 
mine the work which the local as- 
sessors could perform most effec- 
tively, and to take upon our shoul- 
ders the work of re-valuation with 
which they have the most difficulty. 
The property which is most easi- 
valued by the local assessors is 
class (2), or live stock, and a 
considerable portion of class (1), 
or the ordinary real estate in 

the nature of the ordinary farm 
and the ordinary home. These 

are. the kinds of property of which 
the average assessor has the most 
intimate knowledge and which it is 
comparatively easy for him to ap- 
praise at full value. The extraordi- 
nary real estate in the shape of busi- 
ness blocks and mills present a very 
difficult problem for the average 
assessor. They are rarely sold, 
and the information upon which 
sensible and unbiased judgment 
should be based in arriving at the 
full value of those properties has 
not be commonly available. The 
result has been an extensive under- 
valuation due to the practical in- 
ability of the assessors to make a 
valuation based on the facts. 7 ne 
third class of property, stocks in 
trade, has likewise presented great 
difficulties because of the inability 
of the ordinary person to go into a 
store, or a mill, and, simply upon 
view of the property, to determine 
what the taxable value of a stock 
in trade is. This problem is fur-® 
ther complicated by reason of the 
fact that the law makes the taxable 
value of stocks in trade the aver- 
age value throughout the year 
rather than the actual amount on 
haild on April 1. The fourth class 
of property, intangibles, has been 
beyond the control of the local as- 
sessors. They have no opportuni- 
ty to make valuations as they do 
in the case of real estate or live 
stock, and in the absence of an 
honest return from the taxpayer 
the}' are practically helpless. 

The obvious result, of which we 
have ample evidence by various 
sorts of tests, made in different sec- 
tions of the state, is that the pro- 
perty which the average assessor 
knows best how to value will be 
valued at nearest to its full and 
true value, and, as the difficulties 
of valuation by the local assessor 
increase in about the same measure 
does the undervaluation increase. 



This is the actual fact as it exists 
in the state to-day. There are 
thousands and thousands of ordi- 
nary farms and ordinary homes 
which are valued at their full and 
true value. Many are undervalued, 
to some extent, many are over- 
valued. But the fact remains, and 
it cannot be successfully contradict- 
ed, that, as a class, the ordinary 
home and the ordinary farm 
throughout the state are valued at 
much nearer their full and true 
value than any other kinds of pro- 
perty. It is quite as much the duty 
of the tax commission and of the 
local assessors to prevent any tax- 
payer from being injured in being 
required to pay more than his share 
of the public burden, as it is our 
duty and theirs to see that others 
who have not been paying their 
just share are recmired to do so. 
In other words, equalization of tax 
burdens is the final result to be 
achieved, and in every effort 
towards equalization it should be 
borne in mind by the local asses- 
sors and by the general public that 
it is just as important, to see to it 
that no man's property be over 
valued for the purposes of taxation 
as it is to see that no man's pro- 
perty be undervalued. To the 
thousands and thousands of tax- 
payers throughout the state whose 
property is now overvalued, or 
fully valued, or valued at nearer 
full value than that of many others, 
the efforts of the tax cornrdssion 
are addressed with the hope that 
a real equalization ultimately may 
be effected. 

Tn the effort to accomplish our 
purpose we have taken four dis- 
tinct steps. We have taken these 
on a statewide basis to as great an 
extent as it is humanly possible to 
do with the physical and financial 
resources we have at our command. 
We have done it in a statewide 
way in order that the charge of 
discrimination or selection might 

be reduced to a minimum, and in 
order thai no man, or no group of 
men might say that they have been 
affected and others allowed to go 
unreached. There is no answer 
which we can make in effecting an 
equalization of taxes if we cause 
the property of the owner of an 
ordinary farm or home to be plac- 
ed at its full and true value and 
permit the owner of a mill, or of 
a stock in trade, or of a business 
block, or of taxable bonds to con- 
tinue to have his property remain 
undervalued. If that were done, 
the injury is just as great as if the 
property of some individual tax- 
payer in a town were placed at full 
value and all the other property in 
that town allowed to be under- 
valued. There are some phases of 
our tax system, created by the 
constitution and by the legislature 
which we believe need to be chang- 
ed, but we cannot amend constitu- 
tions, nor can we legislate. We 
must administer the law as we find 
it and seek necessary constitutional 
amendment, or legislation, where 
equitable changes are necessary. 

The first step which we have 
taken is to formulate a card on 
which the assessors in the various 
towns and cities are asked to ob- 
tain all the information relating to 
business properties, upon which, 
combined with a view of the pro- 
perty itself, a just valuation may 
be made. Income, expense of up- 
keep, location, construction, sell- 
ing price are all evidence on which 
to base the value of this sort of 
property. And by these cards, 
which we believe furnish informa- 
tion which it is quite important for 
the owner himself to have consid- 
ered, it is our expectation that the 
.assessors will have before them all 
the information regarding trouble- 
some properties which they never 
have had before, that it will be had 
in a uniform way throughout the 
state, and that the resultant valua- 



tions will be based on facts rather 
than on guess. 

1 he second step which, we have 
taken is in the re-valuation o\ mills 
and machinery. Because of the 
varying kinds of mills it has been 
impossible to work out am state- 
wide blank or plan by which this 
could be done. We are attempting 
to cover all mills in the state by two 
methods. First, preferably, by 
talking- with the owner, who ordi- 
narily knows better than anyone 
else what is the true value of his 
property, convincing him first that 
there is no intention to injure him 
but the intention only to arrive at 
a just conclusion, and then asking 
him to help us in arriving at that 
conclusion. Our experience has 
been that in the great majority of 
cases, as soon as a mill owner 
could be convinced that he was to 
be dealth with fairly, that every one 
else and every orher class of property- 
was to be dealt with on the same basis 
throughout the state, the mill own- 
er has demonstrated a most admir- 
able and praiseworthy disposition 
to co-opera ie. In other cases some 
resort has been made to a valua- 
tion by experts, but manifestly 
without the same degree of satis- 
faction to the owner. Obviously, 
with only three commissioners and 
one able assistant, and with ex- 
tremely limited financial resources, 
we cannot do all the mills at once 
unless the mill owners show the 
same public spirited co-operation 
with their local assessors which 
they have shown to us. With the 
assurance that it is furthest from 
our desires to injure anyone in the 
payment of his taxes, and with the 
further assurance that every com- 
plaint of over-valuation which has 
been, or may be made, has been, 
and will be given, the thorough 
consideration of this commission, 
we confidently expect the co-oper- 
ation so urgently needed in the per- 
formance of a just, but difficult 

and often unpleasant duty. Some 
complaint has been made because 
mill owners are being asked to have 

their property re- valued, which 
complaint lias been grounded on a 
fear of injury to our industrial con- 
cerns. The logical answer to this 
compaint, of course, is that the leg- 
islature for over fifty years has au- 
thorized towns and cities to extend 
aid where it is needed to manufac- 
turing establishments through ex- 
emption from the payment of local 
taxes. Approximately $20,000,000 
of this property is enjoying that 
exemption today. Consequently, 
with this consideration having been 
extended, the legislature cannot be 
understood as having intended any- 
thing else, than that where exemp- 
tions were not granted that class 
of property should be valued on 
the same basis as any other. If 
that class of property is under- 
valued through fear of injury to it, 
the burden' is shifted immediately 
onto the farming industry which 
has been many times termed the 
basic industry of the state. Clearly, 
the only just way is to treat all alike. 
The third step which we have 
taken is in the much discussed re- 
valuation of stocks in trade and 
of the consequent return which has 
been sent out to every merchant 
and manufacturer in the state. In 
the outline above we have suggested 
some reasons why it is difficult for 
the average assessor properly to 
value stocks in trade. As a matter 
fact every merchant and manufac- 
turer knows that it resolves itself 
very largely into a question of book- 
keeping rather than a question of 
a valuation by a view of the pro- 
perty. Last year we went into 
several cities and towns in the state 
for the purpose of making thorough 
tests as to the validity of hundreds 
of complaints of under-valuation. 
The results were startling. We 
have for some time been convinced 
by evidence received from several 



sources that this class of property 
was largely under-valued, but the 
results of our investigation went 
quite beyond our expectations. 
3^et it be borne in mind that, while 
there is doubtless large nnder-valu- 
tion In this class of property, there 
are many manufacturers and mer- 
chants throughout the state who 
have been paying on the fill! value 
of their stocks in trade. Hence 
the inequalities become so much 
more marked. These tests made, 
perhaps, in fifteen or twenty places, 
naturally subjected us to the criti- 
cism on the part of the merchants 
and manufacturers in those places 
that we had picked them out and 
had not applied to .all others the 
process which we applied to them. 
Therefore, we have endeavored to 
devise a practical method by which 
two thing's might be accomplished, 
— first, treatment of the same na- 
ture accorded fairly to every tax- 
payer owning that class of property 
at the same time, and, second, by 
a method which would at once ef- 
fect the result and put the taxpayer 
to the least inconvenience possible. 
Accordingly we formulated a blank 
which has been the subject of much 
controversy. The taxpayers will 
please bear in mind that we had to 
consider that there are a hundred 
ways, figuratively speaking, of 
taking an inventory — that there are 
a hundred ways of book-keeping, 
and that there are hundreds of 
different kinds of business. Nec- 
essarily our blank had to be de- 
vised so as to reach all. There are 
questions on it which some cannot 
answer. There are some who can- 
not answer any, except the question 
relating to the average value of the 
stock in trade, question 1 (d). 
There are some who can answ r er 
them all. The question relating to 
average value is the question which 
every merchant and manufacturer for 
years has been required to answer 
on his ordinary inventory blank. 

There is no question on the blank 
which does not afford some evi- 
dence of the taxable value of the 
stock in trade of some kind of busi- 
ness conducted within the state. 
Most of the questions on it afford 
tests by which it may be deter- 
mined whether the taxable value of 
a great majority of the stocks in 
trade have been computed accord- 
ing to a correct method. This is 
as true with relation to the ques- 
tion of gross sales in some kinds 
of business as it is with relation to 
the actual inventor}" in all kinds 
of business. Occasionally a mer- 
chant is found who has never 
taken an inventory and never kept 
any books though those cases are 
now becoming rather rare. In such 
cases the taxpayer should answer 
according to the best of his ability 
based upon his honest judgment 
and nothing more can be expected. 
This statement applies, further- 
more, to every taxpayer. All we 
expect is that, without requiring 
him to change his methods of do- 
ing business, he furnish us with all 
the information available from his 
books and, failing that, from his 
best judgment, which will enable 
us justly to determine the taxable 
value of his stock in trade. The 
suggestion that the figures should 
conform to income tax returns was 
inserted to establish the same stand- 
ard of inventories that has been es- 
tablished by the federal govern- 
ment, and was inserted to make 
the standard uniform and to pre- 
vent confusion and was intended, 
purely and simply, as a help and 
guide to the taxpayer. Our atten- 
tion has been called to an opinion 
given by a most eminent and rep- 
utable firm of attorneys who, while 
denying our authority in making 
this investigation, were extremely 
generous to us personally. It is 
not our intention to present here 
a legal brief in support of a posi- 
tion in which we have entire con- 



fide nee, It may not: be out of 
place, however, to suggest some 
reasons, br icily, which appear to us 
incontrovertibly to- support our at- 
titude and action. The law creat- 
ing the tax commission is found in 
chapter 169 of the Laws of 1911. 
An song numerous other duties it 
is provided that wc shall receive 
complaints and "carefully examine 
into all cases where it is alleged 
that property subject to taxation 
has not been assessed, or has been 
fraudently or for any reason im- 
properly or unequally assessed, 
or the law in any manner evaded or 
violated, and to order re-assess- 
ments of any or all real and per- 
sonal property, or either, in any as- 
sessment district, when in the judg- 
ment of said commission such re- 
assessment is advisable or neces- 
sary-, to the end that all classes of 
property in such assessment dis- 
trict shall be assessed in compli- 
ance with the law." Every town 
and city in the state is an assess- 
ment district. Every county is an 
assessment district. The state, as 
a whole, is an assessment district. 
To say that the law above quoted 
means that we must wait until pro- 
ceedings have been instituted in 
court before we can act, in view 
of the fact that the court may or 
may not in its discretion refer any 
tax matter to us for decision, 
would result in requiring us to say 
to any taxpayer and every taxpayer 
who made any complaint to us that 
it was not the duty of the tax 
commission to pay any attention 
to his complaint but that he must 
resort to legal process at consider- 
able expense and then if the court 
asks us to determine it we will do 
so but otherwise we . will not. 
There is no doubt in our minds 
that, as a practical matter, if we 
took that attitude the protest would 
be statewide and justly so. In 
other words, we deem it our duty, 
and we have performed it, to pay 

attention to every complaint of 
unjust taxation which, is' brought 
to our attention. There can be no 
other logical construction placed 
upon the statute. If nothing fur- 
ther had been said by the legisla- 
ture than what' has been quoted 
above, it would be presumed, in the 
absence of anything in the law to 
the contrary, that the legislature, 
having given us a duty to perform, 
intended that we should have the 
tools which would enable us to 
perform the duty. But the fact is 
that the law provides further that 
we may "summon witnesses to 
appear and give testimony, and to 
produce books, records, papers and 
documents relating to any tax 
matter which the commission may 
have authority to investigate or 
determine." It will be noted that 
this authority extends not only to 
those formal cases in the nature of 
court proceedings which, in the 
opinion of the learned counsel, we 
have authority to "determine." 
but that the law gives us this au- 
thority in cases which it is our 
duty or which we have authority 
to "investigate." We believe that 
if we have authority "to summon 
witnesses, to produce books," etc., 
to our office or to any place in the 
state, who are punishable for con- 
tempt for failure to obey the sum- 
mons under the provsions of the 
tax commission law, there can be 
little doubt about our authority to 
*ask them, for their own conven- 
ience, to place their testimony in 
the form of an affidavit in the pre- 
paration of which they are at lib- 
erty to seek all the advice of coun- 
sel they desire, rather than to cause 
them the discomfort, inconvenience, 
and embarrassment perhaps of 
travelling some distance and bring- 
ing their books with them for the 
examination of state officials. Fur- 
thermore, suppose for example that 
some of the street railways, steam 
railways, telegraph companies and 



telephone companies, many of whom 
arc represented by the eminent firm 
who rendered the opinion in ques- 
tion, should complain to us when 
we value their property for taxa- 
tion, as we are required to do, that 
their property should be under- 
valued because all other property 
in the state on the average is under 
valued. They are required by law 
to pay only their proportionate 
share of the taxes the same as an 
individual. Such a complaint would 
immediately raise the question of 
the true taxable value of all other 
property in the state, and it. is not 
conceivable that, if these attorneys 
should make that complaint on be- 
half of their clients, they would be 
satisfied with an answer from us 
that they must institute court pro- 
ceedings before they should be 
granted redress. They would ex- 
pect, of course, and have a right to 
demand that we investigate, em- 
ploying our authority to summons 
if necessary, and if, after such in- 
vestigation, we found that on the 
average throughout the state other 
property was on the whole assessed 
on a basis of seventy-live per cent 
of its true value the valuation of 
the property of their clients should 
be reduced accordingly in order to 
satisfy the constitutional rule of 
proportionality. But whether or 
not there is any doubt about our 
authority to formulate these blanks 
and require their return, there is 
surely no doubt of our authority to- 
summon to produce books, papers, 
etc. That authority is given in 
terms. We do not desire to exer- 
cise it. It has been our intention 
to abstain from its exercise as 
fully as possible. The result has 
been the blank which we have 
issued and which can be made out 
by the taxpayer — perhaps at some 
inconvenience but at not so great 
inconvenience as would result to 
him if he were summoned before 
us, — in the privacy of his own office 

without subjecting his books to the 
examination of strange eyes, and 
which can be made out after full 
opportunity for discussion either 
with the tax commission or with 
any attorney' he may choose to em- 
ploy. These returns are to be made, 
to this office. No one will see them 
excepting two or three lady clerks 
who file them away as soon as they 
come in and the three members of 
the tax commission and their 
assistant who is an accountant. If 
we had the time, which we have 
not, we certainly do not have the 
disposition to carry in our minds 
the. private affairs of some seven 
or eight thousand business men and 
peddle them abroad throughout the 
state for the delectation of their 
competitors. We propose to per- 
mit no one to see them except those 
connected with this office and the 
taxpayer who made the return. 
We propose to check up the infor- 
mation they contain, form our con- 
clusions as to what is shown and 
then to check up those conclusions 
with the return made to the local 
assessor. If the return does not 
check with our conclusions we pro- 
pose to take up the matter with the 
taxpayer. If the returns are not 
made on the blanks sent out by us 
we propose, likewise, to take it up 
with the taxpayer and make an ex- 
amination of his books. In brief, 
all we seek is all the information 
available to be received from all the 
merchants and manufacturers all 
over the state at the same time and 
in the same way, based, so far as 
it can be, on their books, and, so 
far as it cannot be, then on _ their 
best judgment, and we seek it in the 
simplest, most practical way we 
have been able to devise. _ Once 
having succeeded in placing the 
valuation of stocks in trade on an 
equitable basis, we anticipate that 
there will be no occasion for re- 
peating the process which we are 
going through this year. 



The fourth step which we have 
taken is in regard to the taxation of 
intangible property. Let us repeat, 

we can not justify enforcing- a full 
valuation of real estate, stocks in 
trade or livestock unless we make the 
same effort to procure a full valua- 
tion of intangible property. If a 
fifteen hundred dollar farm is valued 
at full value, as most of them are, 
and a hundred thousand dollars 
worth of bonds properly taxable is 
not taxed, the injury to the owner 
of the farm is quite as great as it is 
if the mill, the stock in trade or the 
business block is not taxed at its 'full 
and true value. There is no member 
of this commission who believes that 
intangible property can be taxed pro- 
perly under our existing system. 
Most states of the union have learned 
by experience that it cannot be taxed 
and reached as general tangible pro- 
perty is taxed. They have changed 
their methods to some sort of system 
which will permit a man to invest in 
what he pleases, get a fair return on 
his investment, pay his tax, be hon- 
est and give to the state, the county, 
the city and the town, a largely in- 
creased revenue. Common experi- 
ence has demonstrated that this com- 
bination of circumstances cannot 
exist under a system which attempts 
to tax this class of property as we at- 
tempt to tax it. It is estimated that 
nowadays the intangible wealth of a 
state is about equal to the tangible 
wealth. Assuming this to be true in 
New Hampshire, there is about five 
hundred million dollars of intangible 
wealth in this state. A large part of 
this, consisting of corporate stock, 
except National Bank stock, and of 
federal bonds, and of New Hamp- 
shire state, county and municipal 
bonds is not taxable here. Further- 
more, owners of money at interest 
in this state are allowed to off-set 
money at interest which they Owe on 
the first day of April which was not 
borrowed for the purpose of evading 
taxation. Therefore, a conservative 

estimate of the intangible property ac- 
tual!}" taxable in New Hampshire 
might be placed at a hundred million 
dollars. Ten years ago. there was 
twenty mil 1 ion dollars of this class of 
property taxed in the first year of the 
life of the tax commission. Since 
that time this total has shown a re- 
markably regular decrease each year, 
until, in 192:1, only about ten millions 
were taxed. Obviously, the system 
which we employ is driving it under 
cover and, furthermore, forcing men 
to be dishonest against their ordinary 
desire. In the attempt to tax this 
class of property at its full value we 
have made a revision of the ordinary 
inventor}' blank. The revision con- 
sists of two changes, one of form and 
the other of substance. The change 
in form consists in asking the taxpay- 
er to state the amount of intangible 
holdings which he has, which are tax- 
able, by classes, because there are sev- 
eral different kinds of this property 
which are taxable, instead of asking 
him, according to previous custom, 
how much lie had by enumerating all 
the different classes taxable in one 
general question. In other words 
the genera! question has been taken 
apart and itemized in order that there 
ma}* be as little confusion as possible 
as to what kinds of this class of pro- 
perty arc actually taxable. It is a 
change similar to what would have 
been done if we had been in the habit 
of asking the taxpayer to state on his 
blank how many live-stock he 
had and had now changed it 
and asked him how many horses,' 
how many cows, etc. No one 
who has answered this question 
truthfully in previous years will find 
any difficulty in answering the ques- 
tions truthfully now. The same pro- 
perty is taxable this year which has 
been taxable before. The second 
change, one of substance, relates to 
the off -sets of money at interest 
which may be deducted from the 
amount of taxable money at interest 
owned on April 1. Under the old 



form of question the taxpayer was 
permitted to strike the balance in Ins 
head. We have asked him to strike 
it on the inventory- blank. The rea- 
son for so doing is that all money 
owing is not a legitimate off-set. In 
the first place, indebtedness incurred 
for the purpose of evading taxes is 
not a legitimate off-set. In the sec- 
ond place, ordinary accounts out- 
standing, or any money owing, but not 
at interest, is not a legitimate off-set, 
It is only indebtedness which bears 
interest which may be off-set. Any 
taxpayer who has been able to com- 
pute the off-set properly before will 
find it easier to do so now, and we 
believe that it is perfectly legitimate 
to ask a taxpayer to specify what he 
claims as an off-set in order to enable 
the assessing officers to determine 
whether or not his claim is a proper 
one. Having made all the effert we 
can to enforce the tax laws relating 
to this class of property, one of two 
things will happen. Either it will be 
returned for taxation or the people of 
New Hampshire will be convinced 
that some change, either legislative or 
constitutional or both, is necessary in 
order to derive any financial benefit 
of any consequence from the taxation 
of this class of property. 

Speaking generally there are fur- 
ther reasons which call quite as in- 
sistently for an equalization of tax 
burdens this year as does the direct 
command of the constitution. Re- 
gardless of soaring tax rates the 
people in the town meetings are vot- 
ing to spend more money than ever 
before. Last year, notwithstanding a 
very general cry for economy, a cry 
which must evolve into a habit of 
economy if present tendencies con- 
tinue, the taxes assessed in the towns 
and cities of New Hampshire in- 
creased from about twelve million 
dollars to over thirteen million dol- 
lars. The valuation of the state was 
increased about twenty million dollars, 
which increase was due almost en- 
tirely to the correction of previously 

existing undervaluation in different 
sections of the state. But this in- 
crease in valuation was by no means 
sufficient to take care of the increased 
taxes. Consequently tax rates con- 
tinued to rise, and the average rate of 
taxation, which includes the unin- 
corporated towns where there are no 
local taxes, rose from $2.37 to $2.48. 
This year all the indications are that 
taxes will further increase. We 
have no additional sources of revenue 
on which to rely. If undervaluation 
exists, as it does, as taxes increase 
the inequalities become more distress- 
ing. In the poorer farming towns the 
tax rates are well on their way to 
four dollars. We had a call from a 
board of selectmen recently who stat- 
ed that, unless they received some 
help from the tax commission this 
year in finding undervaluation and in 
equalizing the. distribution, their tax 
rate would reach, if it would not ex- 
ceed, four dollars. In the face of 
such complaints, and calls for help, 
and with our knowledge of existing 
inequalities we would be most dere- 
lict in the performance of our duty 
if we did not render every effort, in 
compliance with the law and with the 
constitution, to equalize tax burdens. 
The average good citizen will rejoice 
after the result is achieved to see such 
an equalization effected. The citizen 
who has been escaping and who de- 
sires to continue to escape will con- 
tinue to. protest with ever increasing 

Further than that, the tax com- 
mission has in the last two years 
gone into some thirty-five or forty 
towns and thoroughly re-valued every 
piece of taxable property in the town. 
Next spring the legislature will make 
a new apportionment of the state and 
county taxes for every town and city. 
Those towns whose property has 
been placed at full value have a right 
to insist, and do insist, that all others 
shall be brought up to the same stan- 
dard, because the distribution of the 
state and county taxes is based for 



all practical purposes on the compara- 
tive assessed valuations of the towns 
and cities. If one town is assessed 
at full value and another, on the 
whole, is assessed at fifty or seventy- 
five per cent of its full value, injus- 
tice is done to the town assessed at 
full value in the distribution of the 
state and county taxes if the others 
are not brought up to full value. 
The relation of one town to another 
so far as the payment of state and 
county taxes is concerned, is about 
the same as the relation between an 
individual taxpayer in a town and all 
the other taxpayers in the same town. 
If the property of one. is at full value 
and the others are not, the one is in- 
jured and the others escape. This 
the constitution does not permit, the 
law does not sanction and the tax 
commission will not tolerate, so far as 
its ability exists to eliminate it. 

The tax commissioners are appoint- 
ed by the supreme court of the state, 
each for a term of six years. It was 
the intent of the legislature so far 
as possible to provide for the ap- 
pointment of a commission which 
would be placed in a position which 

would best enable it to enforce the 
tax laws without partisanship or par- 
tiality. It is equality, not exact but 
practical equality, which is sought and 
required. There can be no equality 
where there is partiality. So far as 
we are concerned personally, having 
accepted the office, we can pursue any 
one of the three courses. First, we 
can rest idle, draw our salaries and 
merit the contempt and ridicule of 
the state. Second, we can urge that 
the ordinary farm and the ordinary 
home, which are the easiest properties 
to appraise, be placed at their full 
value and the extraordinary real es- 
tate, the stocks in trade and the in- 
tangibles be allowed to remain as 
the}' are, thereby doing greater in- 
jury to some taxpayers and greater 
favors to others, — and merit the con- 
tempt and ridicule of the state. 
Third, we can see to it that all pro- 
pert}' of all classes, whether owned 
by rich or poor, is taxed at its full 
and true value under the law, thereby 
rendering equality to every one, and, 
regardless of protests, rest content in 
the consciousness of work honestly 


By Nellie Dodge Frye 

I came upon a little winding road, 
It led, I knew not where. 
To follow fancy-free, I dropped the load 
Of every carking care. 

The wild anemones were at my feet, 

A meadow brook ran by. 

Gray pussy-willows waited Spring to greet, 

Above was azure sky. 

My world was full of warmth and love and 

To me 'twas Nature's call. 
1 felt my faith and sympathy increase, 
And God was over all. 



New Hampshire dings to its 
spring 'holiday. Repeated efforts 
to have the legislature repeal the 
statute constituting Fast Day a 
legal holiday have failed: Yen- 
few fast. Not many pray. But 
practically all except the bed-rid- 
den get out of doors and give 
thanks because winter has come 
and gone and spring, for some time 
on the way, has arrived. The form 
of Fast Day observance, as Gov- 
ernor Brown neatly put it in his 
proclamation, "like that of the ob- 
servance of the New England Sab- 
bath, has yielded something of its 
strictness to the liberal tendency of 
the times. Actual abstinence and 
the political sermon have given 
place to sports and pastimes. Nev- 
ei theless," the governor continued, 
"the cay is still worthy of religious 
commemoration and its preserva- 
tion may well become an object of 
civic effort and a subject of earnest 
prayer." Such an object and sub- 
ject in this year 1922 the Governor, 
from the bottom of his heart pro- 
vided, when, in the second para- 
graph of his proclamation he said : 
"Among our supplications for time- 
ly blessings \q\ us include a peti- 
tion, from heart and soul, for per- 
manent and profound peace in the 
industries of the state. With such 
peace our manufactures should 
prosper and our people thrive. 
Without it disaster and want must 
ensue. May Divine Providence 
cause a spirit of justice and co- 
operation to prevail among , em- 
ployers and employed and thus pre- 
pare the way for them so to unite 
their interests in the ownership and 
operation of our great industrial 
enterprises as not only to elimi- 
nate strikes and lockouts but also, 
in other respects, to benefit them- 
selves and the state." It is safe to 
say that no gubernatorial procla- 
mation in the history of the state 

ever evoked a heartier "Amen!" 
from the people of the common- 

Comparatively few of the many 
thousand summer residents of 
New Hampshire are readers of the 
state magazine, the Graite Month- 
ly. All of them ought to be be- 
cause we know that they are inter- 
ested in what the magazine aims to 
do, viz., preserve the past, record 
the present, aid the future of the 
state which they have chosen for 
their holiday homes. Highly ap- 
propriate books to choose as fur- 
nishings of New Hampshire sum- 
mer homes are the bound volumes 
of the Granite Monthly, containing, 
as they do, a great amount of inter- 
esting and valuable matter about 
the Granite State. As a special 
inducement to increase the number 
of our readers among the "summer 
folk" we offer a year's subscription 
to the magazine and a bound vol- 
ume of the numbers for another 
year for $2, a "two for one" propo- 

Every now and then we find 
something in the Granite Monthly's 
mail which makes us think it is 
w r orth while to keep the New 
Hampshire state magaznej going 
even without personal reward or 
pecuniary profit. For instance, here 
is a letter from John B. Abbott, 
vice-president and treasurer of the 
William B. Durgin Company, Con- 
cord, one of the state's oldest and 
best known industries, in which he 
says: "I congratulate you on the 
splendid appearance of your pub- 
lication as well as upon its contents. 
The article in your April issue on 
New England industries ought to 
be broadcasted all over New Eng- 
land." Mr. Charles Emerson of 


Lynn, Mass., accompanies his sub- K. Daniels of Plainfteld. From 
scription check with the remark away down in Alabama Mr. Charles 
that "the Granite Monthly is a M. T. Sawyer of Fort Payne, form- 
magazine in which every natve of erly of New Hampshire, sends us 
New Flampshire should be nterest- word', with a check, that "Your 
ed." "The articles by Mr. Upham work is interesting/' 
are very valuable" writes Mrs. \V. 


By Edna Logan Hummel 

I know a slope that faces the south 
Where the earliest spring fiowers blow 
A sun-caressed slope where the delicate buds 
Of trailing arbutus grow. 

Glorious skies and blustery winds — 
The lamb and the lion together; 
Eager, I seek that warm sunny slope. 
For this is arbutus weather. 

Surely some frolicsome elves danced here 
Joyous and buoyant of wing, 
With rosy tipped censers of fairyland 
Exhaling sweet attar-of-spring. 

And then some mischievous mortal passed 
Disturbing their fairy glee ; 
They scattered in haste from that sunny slope, 
Dropping their censers for me. 

I gather you tenderly, fragrant flowers 
Rusty green leaves and all. 
I love you, I love you, frail beautiful buds, 
And the fairies who let you fall ! 


The probably large number of 
people, who are suffering from liter- 
ary indigestion caused by the. pre- 
valence of raw meat and tainted fish 
in their fiction diet should take "The 
Island Que" (Lothrop, Lee & Sliep- 
ard Company, Boston). Under this 
title Miss Grace Blanchard has told 
one of the prettiest love stories of re- 
cent publication. It is simple, it is 
dainty, it is charming; a delightful 
accompaniment to a summer outing 
in New England, while in process 
either of planning or of consumma- 
tion. The publishers have shown 
good taste in the setting of the story 
and in its illustration from excellent 

New Hampshire interest in the 
book is two fold ; arising from the 
personality of the author and from 
the fact that the first and last of the 
islands where her heroine takes the 
cure, which is, by the way, the well 
known love cure, are Granite State 
territory. Miss Blanchard's voca- 
tion is that of being the experienced 
and efficient head of the multum in 
parvo Concord city library. Her 
avocation, in which she achieves 
equal success, is the telling of clean, 
sweet stories, hitherto for and about 
girls, but in the present volume tak- 
ing a wider range. 

Jean Beverly had many delightful 
experiences on the islands of our At- 
lantic coast from Mount Desert to 
Nantucket, but the "island of their 
heart's desire," meaning Jean and 
her man, was found, as the fronti- 
piece shows us and the last chapter 
tells us, on "Big Squam." The 
roundabout journey there, with the 
Unitarian meetings on Star Island at 
the Shoals as the starting point, is 
one well worth taking, for with Miss 
Blanchard as the guide interest never 
slackens nor are entertaining inci- 
dents ever lacking:. 

As the story of "The Island 
Cure" ends on an ishn in A squam 
lake, so does that of "The New 
Gentleman of the Road" find its 
finish on the shores of Lake Suna- 
pee, where, for many years, has 
been the summer home of Mr. 
Herbert Welsh, the Philadelphia 
publicist, whose name is so famil- 
iar in connection with many good 
causes, from righting the wrongs of 
the Indians to preserving and pro- 
tecting the forests of New Hamp- 
shire. Although he has passed his 
70th year it is the annual 
custom of Mr. Welsh to make the 
500-mi.le journey from his city 
home to his country place entirely 
on foot; reaching his destination in 
such condition as to prove to phy- 
sicians that if the number of pe- 
destrians should increase their pa- 
tients would decrease in proportion. 

The story of two of his long 
walks through Pennsylvania, New 
Jersey, New York, Connecticut, 
Massachusetts, Vermont and New 
Hampshire, Mr. Welsh has told in 
a most readable way and put in 
print within the covers of a hand- 
some volume which it is a pleas- 
ure and a privilege to add to one's 
library. His adventures are not 
thrilling. Not once, he says, has he 
been "held up" or even had his 
pocket picked. But his chance 
acquaintances of the road are most 
interesting people as he describes 
them. Occasionally he waxes elo- 
quent as when he tells of his cus- 
tom "to steal out in the twilight 
before dawn to watch by the 
waters of the Lake the glorious sun 
suddenly and silently come up at 
a certain point over Garnet Hill, 
tracing in an instant fantastic 
forms in gold and rose on the 
morning violet of the northern sky. 
All this was framed by the trans- 



lucent delicate boughs of hem- 
locks, pines and birch trees.' 5 Hut 
for the most part his chronicles 





manner of Mr. 
Pepys and to us worthy of men- 
tion in the same breath with the 
immortal diary. 

Another successful author with 
whom the writing of books is an 
avocation rather than a vocation is 
William Dana Orcutt, native of 
West Lebanon, New Hampshire, son 
of the late Hiram Orcntt, deservedly 
famous educator of days gone by in 
the Granite State. For some time past 
the younger Mr. Orcutt has given us, 
as the spirit moved and time sufficed, 
someverv readable works of fiction, 
"The Moth," "The Lever," "The 
Spell," etc. Now the Frederick A. 
Stokes Company, New York, pub- 
lish from his pen "The Balance," 
which they well characterize as "an 
unusual story of love and business." 
The jacket illustration, as they fur- 
ther say, "sounds the. kevnote of the 

story, 'When Justice recognizes its 
injustice, then is justice possible.' " 
"The Balance," which, in the story, 
it is sought lo restore, is that of our - 
social order, grievously wrenched and 
distorted by the world war, far as 
that was from our hearthstones and 
mili-doors. The author saw the war 
in its progress over seas. He has 
come into intimate touch with some 
of the problems it has left behind, 
here, among us; and in the course of 
this story lie deals with them with in- 
sight, sympathy and wisdom. As a 
story, moreover, it is a good story ; 
with a fast moving plot, exciting epi- 
sodes, a murder mystery, etc. Some 
readers have identified the scene of 
the story with Norwood, Mass., the 
place of Mr. Orcutt's own residence; 
but the theme, the people, the lesson 
to be learned are not to be localized. 
They exist everywhere in America 
to-day and Mr. Orctitt's book de- 
serves a correspondingly wide atten- 


By Mabel Cornelia Matson 

Oh, come and walk an hour with me. 

The sky is blue as gentians, 

The breeze is sweeter than sweet spices are 

And it will carry far away 

The little nagging worries of the day 

And set your spirit free. 

Oh, come and walk an hour with me. 

Oh, come and walk a day with me. 

And you shall stand on younder blue-veiled hill 

And watching there the sunset flame and fade 

Shall backward look and forward, unafraid, 

Seeing the past -washed clean- of bitterness, 

The future safe with God. 

Oh, come and walk a day with me, 




Will Bernard Howe, for almost 30 
years Concord's efficient and popular 
city engineer and one of the best known 
men in the country in that line of pro- 
fessional work, died suddenly at his 
home on Saturday, April 1. ' He was 
born in Concord, July 3, 1S59, the son 
of William Hohnan and Mary (Carlton) 
Howe, both his father and mother being 

ofnce of Charles C. Lund, C. E., in Con- 
cord, in the fall of IS 78. He worked 
with Mr. Lund until the latter's death 
in December, 1880, as a rodnian, prin- 
cipally on railroad work, including trie 
construction of the Profile and Fran- 
conia Notch R. R. p.nd the location of 
its Bethlehem branch. After Mr. Lund's 
death, Mr. Howe continued in the cm- 
ploy of his successors, Foss & Merrill, 
in the construction of this Bethlehem 

The late Will B. Howe. 

of old Revolutionary stock. He was a 
direct descendant of Joseph Howe, who 
fought in the French and Indian War 
and was also a Minute Man at Lexing- 
ton. The old Howe tavern at Sudbury, 
Mass., immortalized by Longfellow as 
"The Wayside Inn," was built by an 
ancestor and occupied by three genera- 
tions of Howes. 

Mr. Llowe graduated from the Con- 

cord High Sc 

the class of 1876 

and began his life-work by entering the 

branch; in location work on proposed 
extensions of the Boston, Concord & 
Montreal R. R. in the White Mountain 
region, in maintenance work on the B., 
C. & M., the Concord R. R. and branches 
and in miscellaenous engineering work 
including surveys for the developments 
of the Sewalls Falls water power in the 
Merrimack river, now the property of 
the Concord Electric Company. 

In September, 1883, Mr. Howe went 
to Nova Scotia as principal assistant 




engineer on what is now known as the 
Central Railway, with headquarters at 
Bridgcwater, N. S., and assisted in re- 
locating portions of that railway and 
and in the construction of that line 
until May. 1888, being acting chief 
engineer in 1887. Returning to Con- 
cord in the month named he assumed 
the management oi Foss & Merrill's 
genera! engineering office ard so con- 
tinued until March, 1893, when he was 
chosen a r ... Concord's first city engineer 
and in that position remained until his 

Of Mr. Howe's long and faithful ser- 
vice as a municipal officer many monu- 
ments remain. One is the map of the 
city, pronounced by experts a splendid 
piece of work, which accompanied the 
official History of Concord. Another is 
the invaluable assessors' map, which he 
had brought up to date not long before 
his death. One of the first important 
municipal contracts awarded after he be- 
came city engineer was for the sewer 
from the State Hospital on Pleasant 
street through Clinton street; and it is 
recalled that, in order to be sure of its 
completion according to the terms of 
the contract, he entered the sewer and 
crawled through its entire length on his 
hands and knees, a painful and laborious 
progress. When it became necessary for 
the city to spend large sums on steel 
bridges, in the city proper and at Pena- 
cook, he took a special course in bridge 
engineering that he might be able to 
give their construction competent per- 
sonal supervision. 

As illustrating his standing in his pro- 
fession he had served as vice-president 
and as treasurer of the American So- 
ciety for Municipal Improvements, of 
which he had been a member since 1894, 
and last year he was voted in as a 
"member without dues," for the re- 
mainder of his life, this being the near- 
est approach to honorary membership 
.possible under the society's constitution. 
He was a member and had served as 
secretary of the New Hampshire Good 
Roads Association. He had also been 
a member of the Boston Society of Civil 
Engineers since Ma r ch, 1896, and of the 
National Geographic Society since Janu- 
ary, 1913. He was affiliated with the 
Masonic bodies of Concord, being a 
member of Blazing Star Lodge, Tri- 
nity Chapter, Horace Chase Council, 
and Mount Horeb Commandery. He 
was also a member of Bektash Tem- 
ple, A. A. O. N. M. S., the New Hamp- 
shire Society of Veteran Free Masons, 
and was vice-president of the Council 
of the Order of High Priesthood. He 

had served Trinity Chapter as high 
priest, and was a past thrice illustri- 
ous master of Horace Chase Council. 
He was a trustee of the Concord Ma- 
sonic. Association. . 

Mr. Howe was a member of the New 
Hampshire Society, Sons of the Ameri- 
can Revolution, serving as secretary and 
treasurer the past two years and hold- 
ing those offices at the time of his 
death. He was also a member of the 
New Hampshire Historical Society; the 
Men's Club of the South Congregation- 
al church; the Wonolancet Club; and 
the Concord Gun Club. He was a 
Republican in politics. 

In Nova Scotia, on January 22, 1889, 
Mr. Howe married Ida May Starratt, 
younger daughter of Tames Starratt, Jr., 
and Elizabeth Waterman, his wife. A 
daughter, Myrna. is their only chid. He 
is also survived by a sister, Mrs. George 
S. Milton. 

Efficienc}' economy and good sense 
v. ere Mr. Howe's attributes as an en- 
gineer. To them he added a quiet but 
sincere devotion to the best interests of 
the community which was manifested 
in many ways. An earnest hope, which 
had not been fulfilled when death took 
him away, was for a modern, safety- 
bringing building code in Concord. In 
all his relations, official, professional, 
personal and social. Mr. Howe was 
genial, kindly, helpful and just. 


Irving Webs-er Drew, eminent New 
Hampshire lawyer and United States Sena- 
tor, died April 10, after a brief illness of 
pneumonia, at the home of his daughter 
in Montclair, N. J. He was born in Cole- 
brook, January 8. 1845. the son of Amos 
Webster and Julia Esther (Lovering) 
Drew, his father being twice a State Sena- 
tor in Civil War days and a man of in- 
fluence and prominence in the North 
Country. Irving W. Drew prepared at 
Kimball Union Academy, Meriden, for 
Dartmouth College, where he graduated in 
the class of 1870 with the degree of A. B., 
subsenuently receiving that of A. M. He 
studied law with the famous Lancaster 
firm composed of Congressman Ossian 
Ray and Jud r /e William S. Ladd and suc- 
ceeded the latter as a partner. Other 
members of the firm in later years were 
the late Henrv Heywood. the late Gover- 
nor Chester B. Jordan, the late General 
Philip Carpenter, the late William P. 
Buckley, and, now surviving, George F. 
Morris, judge of the U. S. District court, 



Merrill Shu rtieff, Eri C Oakes and Irving 
C. Hmkley, the last three comprising the 
present firm. Mr. Drew was very success- 
full and highly esteemed .in his profession, 
as was shown by the extent of his prac- 
tice and the character of his clients arid 
by the fact that he was honored in 1899 
by election as president of the New Hamp- 
shire Bar Association. 

In other business relations he was presi- 
dent of the Upper Coos Railroad, director 
of the Hereford railroad, president of the 
Siwooganock savings bank, and director 
of the Lancaster National Bank. 

In politics Mr. Drew was an active 
Democrat until the days of Bryan and free 
silver and represented his party as a dele- 
gate to its national conventions of 1880, 
1892 and 1895, being one of the consider- 
able number who withdrew from the last- 
named gathering. He was a delegate to 
the constitutional conventions of 1902 and 
1912. and a state senator in 1883, but never 
sought higher office although often urged 
to do so. September 1, 1918. he was ap- 
pointed by Governor Henry W. Keyes as 
United State? Senator to fill the unexpired 
term of the late Jacob H. Gallinger and 
during his brief stay at Washington much 
impressed his associates in the higher 
branch of the national legislature with his 

Mr. Drew was a Mason and Knight 
Templar, a member of the I. O. O. F. 
and the New Hampshire Historical So- 
ciety. In religious belief he was an Epis- 
copalian. In youth he served in the 
National Guard attaining the rank of ma- 
jor in the Third Regiment. At the time 
of his death he was president of the Wil- 
liam D. Weeks Memorial Library associa- 
tion at Lancaster ; and the people of that 
town further showed their respect for him 
by making him the president of the day 

on the occasion of the 150th anniversary 
in DPI ; by securing Ins services as chair- 
man of their "war chest" ; and by asking 
him to make the official address of wel- 
come when President Harding was given 
the greetings of Lancaster in 1921. 

On November 4. 1869, Mr. Drew mar- 
ried Caroline Platch Merrill, of Colebrook, 
who died July 17, 1919. Their first son. 
Paul, died in infancy: their second. Neil 
Bancroft, in young manhood. Their sur- 
viving children are Pitt Fesseuden Drew, 
successful Boston attorney, and Sara May- 
nard, wife of Edward Kimball Hail of 
New York City and Montclair. One 
brother, Benjamin F. Drew of Cole- 
brook, and one sister, Mrs. F. N. Day 
of Auburndale, Mass.. also survive. 

The wide range of Mr. Drew's friends 
and admirers was shown by the messages 
which came, in the days following his 
death, to his children and his partners, 
and by the attendance at his funeral, which 
was held at St. Paul's church in Lancas- 
ter on April 13. The rector, Rev. A. J. 
Holley. conducted the service, assisted by 
Mr. Drew's nephew, Rev. Edw^ard Cum- 
mings, of Cambridge, Mass., and Rev. I. 

A. Haarvig", pastor of the local Congre- 
gational church. The bearers were 
nephews of Senator Drew and the hon- 
orary bearers were Governor Albert O. 
Brown of Manchester. Chief Justice Frank 
N. Parsons of the Supreme Court, Chief 
Justice John Kivel of the Superior Court, 
judge Robert J. Peaslee of Manchester, 
Georcre F. Morris of Lancaster, iudge of 
the United States District Court, Hon. W. 

B. C. Stickney of Rutland, Hon. Flerbert 
B. Moulton of Lisbon, A. N. Blandin of 
Bath, Prof. Harry Wellman of Dartmouth 
College, Councilor Arthur G. Whittemore 
of Dover. 


By Helen F razee -Bower 

My heart that swore allegiance to 

A cottage green and gray, 
Is traitor now to roof and walls 

Since April came this way. 

For eyes that closed on naked lines 
Of orchard boughs last night, 

This morning woke to fragrance blown 
From blossoms pink and white. 

They say that treason is most black— 

My heart denies it though 
When I from gray-green comfort turn 

To drifts of petal-snow! 


: ' '. ■ ! , 



- - - TT\T 


Elwin L. Page 




Hon. Arthur G. Whittemqee 



Vol. Ll\ 


Odn£ :^S: 1922 No. ¥. U> 


A man who has served use full y 
and with distinction in both branch- 
es of the Slate Legislature and in the 
Executive Council, as mayor of his 
city and as the head of an important 
state department is given by that 
experience such equipment for the 
further office of Governor as few 
Chief Executives in the history of 
New Hampshire have been able to 
bring- to the position. 

The fact that such a record be- 
longs to Honorable Arthur G. Whit- 
temore of Dover is cited by his 
many friends and political support- 
ers as the first among many rea- 
sons why his candidacy for the Re- 
publican gubernatorial nomination 
in 1922 should meet with popular 
favor and acceptance. They point 
to his years of public service and 
declare that in every position he 
has held he has shown a quiet, 
tactful, unwearying efficiency of 
which the people have reaped the 
benefit in worthy and valuable re- 
sults achieved. 

A member of the Xew Hampshire 
bar since his graduation from the 
Harvard Law School in 1879, his 
practice has been extensive and lu- 
crative and he holds an honored 
place in his profession, despite the 
fact that .so much of his time has 
been required for public service. 

This service began in 1887 when 
he was elected a member of the 
first board of water commissioners 
of the city of Dover and in that 
capacity handled successfully va- 
rious difficult and important mat- 
ters relating to land damages, con- 
tracts and the actual installation of 
the system of supply. 


For three terms, Degmning m 
1900. he was elected and re-elected 
mayor of Dover and gave his mu- 
nicipality what was recognized as 
an up-to-date Twentieth Century 
administration. During it a new 
public library building was erected 
and the construction of a new high 
school building was commenced; 
yet the tax rate was lowered, the 
bonded indebtedness was reduced 
and at the close of his. third and 
final term the cash balance in the 
city treasury had increased to $63,- 


Mayor Whittemore progressed 
from city to state politics in 
1902, when he was elected to the 
House of Representatives from 
Ward Three, Dover, by a vote of 
318 to 82 for his opponent. At 
Concord his ability was at once 
recognized and he was named by 
Speaker Harry M, Cheney to the 
most important standing committee, 
that on the Judiciary; which, at 
this session, was of unusual dis- 
tinction, including, as it did. the 
late Gen. A. T. Bachelder of 
Keenc, chairman, Judge William F. 
Nason of Dover, the late Daniel 
C. Remich and the late William 
H. Mitchell of Littleton, the late 
William P. Buckley of Lancaster, 
Councillors John B. Cavannaugh of 
Manchester and John Scammon of 
Exeter, the late Judge Herbert I. 
Goss of Berlin and others. 

Mr. Whittemore's excellent work 
as a legislator attracted general at- 
tention and when, in May, 1903. a 
vacancy occurred in the state rail- 
road commission he was named for 
the place by Governor Nahum J. 



Bachelder and subsequently was 
re-appointed for three year terms 
by Governors John Me Lane and 
Henry B. Quinby. In 1909 lie be- 
came the chairman of the board, 
upon, the death of Hon. Henry M. 
Putney of Manchester. 

A delegate from Dover to the 
convention of 1912 to propose 
amendments to the constitution of 
the state, Mr. Whittemore was ap- 
pointed by President Edwin F. 
Jones cm the standing- committee 
on Legislative Department and al- 
so was called upon by the president 
to act as chairman of the Commit- 
tee of the Whole during one of the 
liveliest and most important de- 
bates of the convention. Those 
within and without the convention 
who followed its proceedings care- 
fully will remember Mr. Whitte- 
more's active participation in its 

In November. 1918, Mr- Whitte- 
more was elected to the executive 
council from the second district, 
receiving 8,312 votes to 6,854 for 
his Democratic opponent. In 'his 
home city the vote was 1,399 to 
918 in his favor. In organizing 
the council for the important work 
of his administration, Governor 
John H. Bartlett named Mr. Whit- 
temore upon the finance committee, 
the state house committee and the 
board of trustees of the state pri- 
son and made him chairman of the 
highway committee. 

In these several capacities he 
rendered valuable service, one in- 
stance of which, to name no more, 
was the adoption by the highway 
department, at his suggestion, 'of 
the policy of owning, instead of 
hiring, necessary equipment, and 
of purchasing gravel banks in their 
entirety rather than paying more 
for them, load by load. 

During the World War Mr. 
Whittemore was one of the men 
to whom the nation owes much, 

the hard-working, pains-taking, jus- 
tice, dispensing members of the se- 
lective service hoards. lie serve- 1 
throughout the war as chairman 
of the Strafford Count}- board, with 
eminent efficiency and fairness, and 
received the thanks of the War 
Department for the manner in 
which the affairs of his board were 

This war service, as well as other 
considerations, made it natural that 
M r. Whittemore should be made 
chairman of the committees named 
to procure, certificates and medals 
for New Hampshire soldiers and 
to erect in the state house at Con- 
cord an appropriate tablet in mem- 
ory of the men from the Granite 
State who gave their lives for lib- 
erty in this most recent and terri- 
ble conflict. 

In 1920 Councilor Whittemore 
was nominated without opposition 
as the Republican candidate for 
the state senate in the 21st district 
and was elected in November by 
3,965 to 2,024, carrving his home 
city by 3,054 to "1.496. At the 
session of 1921 he was chairman 
of the principal standing committee, 
that on the Judiciary, in the upper 
branch and conducted its affairs 
with such good generalship that no 
minority report came from his 
committee and that every report 
made by it was adopted by the 
Senate, a most remarkable record. 
Senator Whittemore also served 
on the standing committees on 
railroads, banks, finance, and fish 
and game. 

His connection with banks is of 
long standing, dating back to 1895, 
when, as receiver of the Dover 
National Bank he liquidated its 
assets so successfully as to pay the 
depositors in full with interest 
and a substantial dividend to the 
stockholders. At the present time 
he is vice-president of the Strafford 
Savings Bank, a director in the 



Strafford National r>ank and a di- the president of the New Hampshin 

rector in the Dover Realty Corn 

At the hands of the present state 
administration, as" of so many 
others, Mr- Whittemore has re- 
ceived recognition, being named 

G o \ e r n o r A I b er t O . 


Genealogical Society and governoi 
of the New Hampshire Society of 
Colonial Wars. 

He believes that every man must 
stand or fall by his own acts and in 
his individual ease lays no stress up- 
on the record of his own ancestors 
for almost three centuries in Amer- 

upon the state commission to ar- tor almost three centuries in Amer 

range for the celebration in 1923 ica. Rut the wellknown writer, Ham- 

of the tercentenary of the first lin D. Brown, in a contribution to the 

settlement of New Hampshire. Independent Statesman. Concord, tells 


; >ve~ :t *' ,\ 

• -• w l*i1 
£» *j - - ■•.•{1 






- - V 

> ' 





The -Whittemore Residence, Dover. 

That his selection to act in this 
capacity was most fortunate is 
shown by the degree of interest which 
already he has aroused for the cele- 
bration in his section of the state. A 
somewhat similar service he lias been 
called upon to render is as a member 
of the committee which will place a 
suitable tablet upon the Memorial 
Bridge joining Maine and New 
Hampshire at Portsmouth. 

Mr. Whittemore's interest in and 
knowledge of history and biography 
is indicated bv the fact that he is 

the story in a most interesting way, 
in part as follows : 

"Six hundred and ninety-two 
years ago over in England there was 
a prominent family, one of whom. 
Sir John, was knighted on the bat- 
tlefield for valorous conduct in the 
year 1230 and was given a tract 
of land called 'Wrr/fernere' and re- 
ceived the title Lord John de Whyte- 

"The name was changed to Whit- 
temore and Thomas Whittemore 
emigrated to America in 1641 and 



settled in a part of Charlestown 

now Maiden, Mass. 

"I lis son, John, who was born in 
Kitchen Parish, Hertfordshire. Eng- 
land, four years before, came with 
his father. 

"Benjamin, grandson of Thomas, 
was burn in Cambridge but moved 
to Concord. Mass., where his son, 
Rev. Aaron Whittemore was 'horn 
in 1711. Aaron graduated from 
Harvard College in 1734 and March 
1, 1737, became the first pastor of 
the Congregational church of what 
is now Pembroke, N. H. 

"'Hon. Aaron Whittemore, great- 
grandson of Rev. Aaron Whitte- 
more, became one of the prominent 
men of New Hampshire. He rep- 
resented Pembroke in the Legisla- 
ture, served his town as selectman. 
treasurer, etc., was connected with 
the militia of the state, was promo- 
ted to be brigadier general and held 
many positions of trust. 

"His son Aaron Whittemore, I 
knew in Pittsiieid for several years. 
He practised law, became state sen- 
ator and was one of the represen- 
tative men of New Hampshire. His 
brother, Arthur Oilman Whitte- 
more, was also born in Pembroke, 
July 26, 1856. educated at Pembroke 
Academy and Harvard Law School 
and settled in Dover, where he has 
practised law. 

"During these years he has been 
one of the foremost men of the state. 

* >;- * 

"Councilor Whittemore still owns 
the old farm in Pembroke, where 
he spends his summer vacations. 

"Arthur G. Whittemore has good 
executive ability, integrity and is 
dependable. During my recent 

visit in the towns and cities of 
New Hampshire, I talked with 
many of the business men and 
found them interested in the 
Whittemore gubernatorial candidacy 
and I gladly recommend him to the 
voters of my native state as the next 
governor candidate. 

For 280 years the Win" tie more 
family has been one of the foremost 
of the state and I believe Arthur G.. 
would make one of the best Gov- 
ernors of New Hampshire." 

Mr. Whittemore married June 27, 
1887, Caroline B. Rundlett, who lias 
been president of the Dover Wo- 
man's Club and otherwise prominent 
in the social life and beneficent ac- 
tivities of that city. Their children 
are Manvel. a graduate of Dartmouth 
College and of the New York Law 
School, for some years successfully 
engaged in the practice of his profes- 
sion in New York City, and Caroline 
(Radcliffe College, 1919) now con- 
nected with the Brookline, Mass . 
Public Library. 

Air. Whittemore is a member of 
St. Thomas' Episcopal church at 
Dover; was one of the founders of 
the Bellamy Club there ; and was for 
several years the president of the 
Dover Board of Trade. 

Mr. Whittemore's candidacy for 
governor is a direct result of the fol- 
lowing resolution adopted and signed 
by the Republican members of the 
Strafford county delegation in the 
legislature of 1921 : 

"Whereas, the Honorable Arthur 
G. Whittemore of Dover, by reason 
of his executive experience and fa- 
miliarity with state matters, by reason 
of his services as mayor of Dover for 
three terms, as a Representative in 
the Legislature, as a member of the 
Governor's Council, and as a State 
Senator, in all of which offices he has 
shown marked ability and judgment 
and strict attention to the duties of 
the several offices, always producing 
results beneficial to the public by his 
keen business acumen and untiring 
energy ; wherefore, be it 

"Resolved, That we, the Repub- 
lican members of the Strafford Coun- 
ty Delegation to the present General 
Court, believing it to be for the best 
interests of the State of New Hamp- 



shire to have his services as chief ex- 
ecutive, we hereby request him to be- 
come a candidate for the Republican 
nomination for the office of Governor 
at the next primary, and we pledge to 

him our 


hearty support. Be 


To ti;is expression of desire and 
of confidence, Mr. Whittemore made 
reply in an opportune time in the form 
of the following" address to the Re- 
publican voters of New Hampshire: 

"In compliance with a promise 
made to the Stratford County Re- 

The Whittemore Homestead, Pembroke 

"Resolved, That the Chairman of 
this Delegation is hereby directed to 

communicate this resolution to Sena- 
tor Whittemore. 




publican delegation requesting me 
to become a candidate for Governor 
at the next primary election. I hereby 
announce my candidacy, for the office 
of Governor of our State, and I 
earnestly solicit the support of all 
the Republican men and women 
voters of the state. 


"In making this request 1 wish to wake, to Nation, State. City and 
assure the voters that it is not merely Town, a legacy of increased taxes, 
for personal honor or gratification, which has become a heavy burden to 
but for the purpose of giving to my all our citizens, and if allowed to eon- 
State the benefit of that knowledge tinue will arrest tin- development, 
and experience acquired in its service growth and prosperity of our State, 
through the different public positions "i favor a reduction of the. poll tax 
which it has keen my honor to hold, and a suspension of the former rega- 
in these several positions I have lar poll tax as applied to the women 
gained an intimate knowledge of of the State. The addition of two 
State affairs, which will enable me to dollars (which is to he levied for 
insure the State an efficient adminis- five consecutive years beginning 1920) 
tration of its Government for the en- to the regular poll tax for the purpose 
suing term. of redeeming the bonds issued to pay 

"My record for efficiency and pro- the soldiers' bonus, makes this form 

gressiveness in these various public of tax excessive and in man}' cases 

offices is known to many of my fellow burdensome. The proposed change 

citizens, and 1 hope during the cam- would not conflict with the soldiers' 

paign to inform those of you who are bonus act. 

not familiar. "It will be my purpose to check 

"The abandonment of the farm and reduce these burdens of taxa- 

and decrease in our farming pOpu- tion by eliminating from the budget 

lation concerns us all. I shall use all non-essentials, and 1 promise you 

every effort to promote all measures that, if nominated and elected, I will 

that will tend to remedy these condi- use all my influence and the power 

tions. Whatever adds to the content- given me by my office to eliminate 

ment and prosperity of the farmer in the interest of economy every 

adds to the well-being of the State, custom or expense nut required for 

"The World War has left in its du efficient administration." 


By Eleanor W. Vinton 

When the garden is gay with a bevy of jonquils 

Their cups liked with gold from the heart of the sun; 
When the wood-path I follow is violet bordered 

And sweet with the fragrance of summer begun; 
When down\- white clouds change to rose in the sunset 

While vibrant with rapture a robin's note rings, — 
Then in uttermost skill would my pen be abounding 

To gladden the world with the song my heart sings. 


By George B. Upham 


Over the next letter of the Clare- 
mont schoolmaster is crest a faint 
shadow of the coming Revolution. 
This letter like the last is derived in 
part, that in brackets, from the ab- 
stract entered in the records of a 
Meeting of the Society in London, 
Journal, Vol. 19, p. 152, and the re- 
mainder from the extract published 
in the. History of the Eastern Dio- 
cese, Vol. I, pp. 179, 180. 

[A Letter from Mr. Cole School- 
master at Claremont, New Hampshire, 
N. E. dated April 29, 1771, in which he 
acquaints the Society that] My school 
is enlarged by the addition of 7 or S 
children from among the dissenters, who 
submit regularly to the orders and in- 
struction of the school by the approba- 
tion of their parents, most of whom have 
never been baptized, and some attend 
school that are sixteen or seventeen 
years of age, parents are con- 
formists to the Church. 

[The inclemency of the weather, and 
a river lying between them made it in- 
convenient for the little children to at- 
tend in winter, but he hopes that will be 
remedied by the building of a bridged 

And although the school house is raised 
and the sides and ends are covered with 
planks, yet it is not finished. For the 
Sons of Liberty, (as they affect to call 
themselves), by their own [Non-j im- 
portation agreement made it impossible 
to procure glass, and indeed some few 
nails were made here, but their price 
was almost double to what it used to be, 
but these obstacles are soon to be re- 

[He thinks that 2 or 3 dozen psalters 
would be very useful in the school for 
they are not printed nor used by the 
Dissenters, and therefore seldom to be 
had. He has lately furnished the school 
with 2 doz. of spelling books.] 

[Agreed to recommend, that 3 dozen 
of psalters be sent to Mr. Cole for the 
use of Ins Scholars.] 

The [Non-] "importation agree- 
ment" of the "Sons of Liberty," 

which, as Mr. Cole wrote, "made it 
impossible to procure glass" for his 
school house, was the agreement of 
1767 and 1768 by which the merchants 
of Boston. Xew York, Philadelphia, 
and many other places, bound them- 
selves to order no new merchandise 
from England and to countermand all 
old orders. This was in retaliation for 
the Act of Parliament of June 29, 
1767, known as the Townshend Act: 
by which, to the utter astonishment 
of America, so soon after the repeal 
of the Stamp Act, duties were placed 
on various articles imported into the 
colonies, and steps taken to enforce 
collection. Among the rates fixed 
were 4s. 8d. per hundred weight on 
glass. 12s. per ream on paper of 
good quality, and, with most disas- 
terous consequences for this was not 
repealed, 3d. per pound on tea. Not 
that the latter was an excessive duty ; 
it was in fact a moderate one, less 
than it had been, indirectly, before; 
but with the colonists it was a matter 
of principle. Another factor, not so 
fully recognised, was that tea and 
other dutiable articles for years had 
been smuggled. The merchants and 
ship-owners, adepts in that gentle 
art. cared little what duties were laid, 
or what restrictions placed on com- 
merce and navigation, so long as the 
words merely encumbered the statute 
books but when George the Third and 
his subservient Parliament showed 
they meant to enforce the laws, that 
was — —different. 

The immediate effect of the non- 
importation agreement, coupled with 
the widespread indignation of the 
colonists, was that the value of Brit- 
ish goods exported to New England, 
New York and Pennsylvania fell 
from £L330.Q00 to £400.000 in a 
single year. Washington, when he 



sent his annual order for supplies to 
London, enjoined his correspondent 
not to forward any of them unless 
the offensive Act of Parliament was 
in the meantime repealed. The 
Townshend Aet brought into the 
British Treasury a paltry income of 
£300. The retention of even a part 
of it cost Great Britain, directly, at 
least five thousand times that sum 
in loss of trade; indirectly, an incal- 
culable sum of money, besides the 
loss of the better part of a con- 
tinent. (1) 

This letter of Mr. Cole shows how 
knowledge of the Townshend Act, 
and of the means taken to combat it, 
had found the way even to remote 
frontier settlements up the Connecti- 
cut River valley. They were, doubt- 
less, the subject of much indignant 
discussion in the flickering firelight 
of many a cabin kitchen. Charles 
Townshend, young, brilliant, rash, 
aptly described by Trevelyan as "mas- 
ter of the revels in the House of 
Commons," had surely, short as his 
life was, started his name sounding 
down the ages, to be remembered dis- 
creditably perhaps as long as Ed- 
mund Burke and Charles Fox, lead- 
ers of the opposition, will be remem- 
bered creditably, almost reverentially, 
by all the English speaking world. 

The Townshend Act, excepting the 
tax on tea. was repealed on April 12, 
1770. but a vigorous effort was made 
to continue the Non-Importation 
Agreements. This was for a time 
successful, except at Portsmouth, N. 
H., in Rhode Island and New York 
City. At a "Meeting of the Trade 
of Boston," June 18, 1770, it appear- 
ed that "the Merchants of Ports- 
mouth, N. H., have very lately im- 
ported large Quantities of British and 
East India Wares which are now ex- 
posed for Sale".... "Therefore, Re- 

(1) Trevelyan's American Revolution, Vol. 
C£.i See Massachusetts Gazette, June 2s 
published during July, 1770. 

(3) These Kon -Importation agreements m 
as the "jSolemn League ami Covenant," circula 
in 3 774, and which will be considered later. 

solved, That we will have no Trade 
or Commercial Intercourse with the 
Merchants of the Colony of New 
Hampshire, or any of its Inhabitants 
while they are counteracting the 
laudible Exertions of the other Colo- 
nies for the common Good." 

and "Resolved, — That the Committee 
of Exports and Imports be desired 
to keep the strictest lookout that no 
sort of Goods are imported into this 
Town from any part of the New 
Hampshire. Government, or exported 
hence to said Province," Vessels ar- 
riving from Portsmouth were driven 
from the port of Boston. 

Similar resolutions were adopted 
in other colonies. At Hartford, 
Conn., the boycott was limited to 
"the people of Portsmouth," instead 
of the entire Province of New Hamp- 
shire. (2) But notwithstanding all 
such efforts the attempt to continue 
the Non- Importation Agreements, en- 
tered into when the Townshend Act 
was passed, failed, greatly to the de- 
light of the Tories. (3) 

Plad Charles Townshend never 
been born the Revenue Act which 
bears his name, and which had so 
much to do with bringing about the 
American Revolution, would have 
been enacted none the less, for George 
the Third would have found some 
other instrument through which to 
work his will — Trevelyan shows, per- 
haps more fully than ever shown be- 
fore, the extent to which George the 
Third was personally responsible for 
the Revolution ; shows how the people 
of Great Britain knew little or noth- 
ing of America; how under the rot- 
ten borough system, then prevailing, 
they were but poorly represented in 
Parliament ; how the ablest statesmen 
of the period were opposed to tax- 
ing or coercing the colonists ; and how 
against the powerful, persistent in- 

I, pp. 74. 93. 
and July .">, 177<> alsc other Boston Newspapers 

ust. not l.e mistaken for the later ones; known 
ted after the passage of the "Boston Port Bill" 



ftuence of the Sovereign they were 

powerless. The King. by. ousting 
liis Ministers, who against his wishes 
had effected the repeal of the Stamp 
Act, by substituting for them men of 
little or no character, by persistent, 
misdirected industry, by intrigue and 
favor. — finally had his way; a stupid, 
aggressive, German way, ---for only 
German blood flowed in his veins; a 
way as stupid and unseeing as that 
of some of his German descendants in 
recent years. Pitt was, to be sure, 
nominally Prime Minister when the 
Townshend Act became law. Shat- 
tered in health, temporarily impaired 
in mind, in Iris absence, but in his 
name, ."the step was taken which in 
one day reversed the policy he had 
nearest his heart and undid the work 
of which he was most justly 
proud. *' yi) And this the man who 
iiad made the continent English; the 
greatest administrator of world af- 
fairs, among the many great, the 
British Empire has produced. 

Treveiyan further shows, by facts 
and reasoning incontrovertible, how 
in fighting against the tyranny of 
George and his Ministers, the colon- 
ists were fighting, the battle for the 
English, constitution, and how their 
submission must soon have been fol- 
lowed by a revolution in England. (5) 

The King had his way; yet the 
time came when Lord Sheiburne, — 
later Prime Minister,— "told the 
J louse of Peers, with a near approach 
to truth, that George the Third had 
but two enemies on earth ; — one the 
whole world, and the other, his own 
Ministry/'* 6 ;* 

Returning to the subject of win- 
dow glass, the lack of which was so 
inconvenient for the Glaremont 
school, it appears doubtful when or 





setter." ".« 
Hewes'a IA 

(») H 

Trevelyan's American Revolution 

Ibid, Vol. Ill, Ch. XXIV. 

Ibid, Vol. IV. p. 4GG. 

Mr. He'A'cs appears to have been a 

1780, and 1830, he i^ described as 

'late hog-batcher, now out of 

"starch maker." "Teacher sword 

where it was first made in America. 
Coarse, bottles were: marie at James- 
town, \ irginia, soon after 160/, and 
a liit'e later glass beads for trade 
with the Indians. Bottles and some 
oilier articles of glass were made at 
Salem, Massachusetts, as early as 
1,639; hut the first window glass was 
probably made at Allowayslown, 
Salem County, New Jersey, a short 
time prior to 1750. in considerable 
commercial quantities it was first 
manufactured in Boston, about 1792, 
by the Boston Crown-Glass Co., 
which was aided by an exclusive 
right and a bounty. In 1798 Boston 
produced glass, said to be superior to 
that imported, to the value of $82,000. 
It was widely used and became known 
throughout the country as "Boston 
window glass." 

The manufacture of glass was first 
rattempted in New liampshire at 
Temple, in 1780, by one Robert 
Hewes of Boston. (7) A substantial 
building with the necessary furnaces 
was constructed. . The glassddowers 
are said to have been Hessian and 
Waldecker soldiers, deserters from 
the British army. Only glass bottles 
and decanters were attempted. Af- 
ter a very short period of operation, 
and prior to \7Sl, the works were 
burned. Attempts made to revive the 
industry, even though aided by a lot- 
tery, were unsuccessful, (8) 

'Idie Embargo Acts and the War of 
1S12 led to the establishment of the 
glass industry in Keene in 1814. It 
flourished there until about 1850. 
John Ediot and Aaron Appleton built 
the first factory, on Prison Street. 
Eater a rival factory was built on 
Marlboro street. About 184-0 three 
glass factories were in operation in 
Keene. At times the business was 

i, p. s. 

versatile character. In the Boston Directories, 

i "tallow-chandlr-r." "manufacturer of soap and 

business," "fencing matter," ••surgeon- bone- 

exenise.'' "Gentleman/' "Manufacturer of 

unt," but is not rre.JittMl with being a class manufacture] 
nfy of Temple, Chap. XVII, pp. 1G0-173. 



exceedingly profitable. In the earlier 
years bottles and decanters appear to 
have been the principal products, 
later the manufacture of window 
glass was carried on. (9) The superior 
facilities at Pittsburg finally put an 
end to the industry in New England. 

Sheet mica was the only substitute 
for window glass known to have been 
used i3i western New Hampshire, 
where its shining outcroppings at- 
tracted the attention of the early set- 
tlers. In southwestern New Hamp- 
shire more marketable mica has been 
produced than in any other locality 
in the United States. The old Rug- 
gles mine on Glass Hill in Grafton, — 
about ten miles north of Sunapee 
Lake, — has produced mica for nearly 
one hundred and fifty years; yielding 
an estimated aggregate in value of 
over eight million dollars worth of 
that material. This mine at one 
time furnished four-fifths of the total 
consumption in the United States. In 
the adjoining town of Danbury two 
mines are in operation, producing 
mica of excellent quality, free from 
spots and very clear. In Alstead, on 
the northern border of Cheshire coun- 
ty, three mica mines are in successful 
operation. Mica is now used prin- 
cipally for electrical insulation. The 
waste is ground and serves to give 
brilliancy to wall papers, also to 
Christmas Trees and decorations. (10) 

The high cost of transportation, the 
Non-Importation Agreements, and 
the conflict at arms, doubtless led to 
the frequent use of mica locally as a 

(9) Griffin's History of Keens. Fee index, "Glass factory," and the pages there referred to. 

(10) India ranks first in the production of mica; Canada second, producing about half as 
much in value ae India. The United States ranks third with rather leas than half as much 
In value as Canada. The production of other countries is insignificant. Outside of New Hamp- 
shire the principal deposits of the 'United States are in the mountains of North Carolina, the 
Black Hills in South Dakota, and in eastern Alabama; unless the work in these stages has 
been greatly increased of late New Hampshire still leads in production. See "Mica, its Oc- 
currence, ExploitaUon and Uses" by Fritz Cirkel, Ottawa, 1905, published by the Canadian 
Government; "Mineral Industries" by A. Hoskins (1899) p. 507, and Holme's "Mica Deposits of 
the United States," published by the U. S. Geological Survey 

(11) The Town Histories occasionally mention the use of mica as a substitute for window 
glass, but the general absence of any index, except to the names of persons, renders It a pro- 
digious task to find anything in them. 

(12) Bog ore is esEentially a hydrous oxide of iron, of which the tnineraiogical name is 
limonite. It is found in swampy places, and frequently at the bottom of lakes and ponds. It 
is usually of very recent origin. In 1785 the Macon Proprietors "irnpowered a? Committee to 
treat with" certain persons •■respecting a grant of an exclusive right to all the Iron Ore in 

Ossipe Pond for a term of time not exceeding twenty-four years." N. H. State Papers, 

Vol. L'9, p. 592. Respecting Tyler's bog ore in Chsriestown, see Cheshire County Records, Vol. 
9, pp. 430, 486, and note that Daniel Greene's occupation is bloomer. 

substitute for window glass, both be- 
fore and during the Revolution. The 
sheets were usually set in diamond- 
shaped panes about the size of a 
man's hand. (11) 

Immediately following the state- 
ment that the [Non-] "importation 
agreement made it impossible to pro- 
cure glass," Mr. Cole tells us that 
"some few nails were made here, but 
their price was almost double to what 
it used to be, but these obstacles are 
soon to be removed." How the ob- 
stacles to glass were to be removed, we 
know not, unless by the expected ar- 
rival of glass from Portsmouth, or, 
more likely, of a pack-horse load of 
mica from some place nearby. Res- 
pecting nails, the schoolmaster pro- 
bably had in mind the completion of 
Benjamin Tyler's Forge and Slitting 
Mill, then under construction at a 
small water-power a few rods up- 
stream from the present site of the 
B. & M. R. R. "High Bridge" in 

Nails made there, as elsewhere in 
New England, involved various crude 
steps and processes. The bog-iron 
ore (i2> rnj xe d with much mud, was 
dug from swamp-land at Charles- 
town-Nurnber Four, carried to solid 
ground to be washed and dried, and 
then reduced in crude furnaces or 
"bloomeries," to something resembl- 
ing iron, at least in weight, but still 
mixed with much refuse. The re- 
sulting lumps were carted eight or ten 
miles over rough roads to Tyler's 
Mill, tnere to be reheated with char- 




coal and bellows to an almost white 
heat, and further separated from im- 
purities while being hammered and 
flattened into sheets under successive 
blows of the "Tilt Hammer," — we 
now call it trip-hammer. The sheets 
were then cut into strips, called nail- 
rods, in the Slitting Mill, which was 
merely a power shear or gang of 
shears, "working on the principle of 
scissors and sometimes cutting three 
rods at a time." The rail-rods were 
sold to the settlers who, of winter 
evenings by the kitchen fire, cut them 
into desired lengths and pointed and 
headed the nails by hand labor. 

Except in the vicinity of Salis- 
bury in the northwest corner of Con- 
necticut, and in western Massachu- 
setts, nearly all iron produced in New 
England, during the eighteenth cen- 
tury and earlier, was from bog ore. 
The manufacture of iron in New 
Hampshire dates from about 1722 
when several bloomeries, using bog 
ore, were in operation on Larnper Eel 
River which flows through Durham 
and Newmarket and into Great 
Bay. (13) Bar Iron was made at 
Kingston between 1749 and 1756. (11) 
Early Iron Works were in operation 
in Exeter. Before the Revolution 
Iron Works existed at Tamworth, 
where it is claimed that parts of the 
famous chain that barred the British 
ships of war from going up the Hud- 
son were made. At all these places 
bog ore was the only source from 
which iron could be obtained. The 
magnetic ore of Winchester was 
first smelted at Furnace Village in 
1795 by a Rhode Island Company. 
The Franconia furnace was built in 
1811 by a company organized six 
years earlier. (ir,) 

When Tyler began the construction 
of his Iron Works, about 1770, the 
erection and continued existence of 

(13) N. H. State Papers, Vol. 24. p. 424. 

(14) Ibid. Vol. 23. p. 4GS. 

Oft) The best article known to the write 
is that written by James M. Swai k under the 
the United States." Published by the U. S. 
see pp. SO; 84-90 — Sv.ank is mistaken in piac 
River as late as 1750. 

such a Mill was, and had been for 
twenty years, prohibited by law. 
Furthermore, Tyler knew it ; for lie 
was a man of wide experience, and 
the law had been widely and repeat- 
edly promulgated. But a law un- 
reasonable, contrary to the wishes of 
a large body of the community, and 
practically impossible of enforcement, 
is never feared or respected for any 
considerable length of time. So it 
was with the Act of Parliament, 23 
George II, Chapter XXIX, providing 
"That from and after the twenty- 
fourth Day of June One thousand and 
seven hundred and fifty, no Mill or 
other Engine for slitting or rolling 
of Iron or any Plateing Forge to 
work with a Tilt Hammer, or any 
Furnace for making Steel, shall be 
erected or after such Erection con- 
tinued in any of His Majesty's Col- 
onies in America." Every such con- 
struction was to be "deemed a com- 
mon Nuisance," and "abated" by the 
Governor and other officials under 
penalty of £500 for neglect, also dis- 
ability "to hold or enjoy any Office 
or Trust under His Majesty, his 
Heirs or Successors." 

The purpose of all this was, clear- 
ly, to retain for England the mono- 
poly of supplying all wrought iron 
and steel on this side of the Atlantic. 
The gentlemen of England in Parlia- 
ment assembled knew as little of the 
difficulties of transportation in 
America as they did of the temper 
and mechanical aptitudes of men 
who for five £renerations had been 
obliged to supply their own necessi- 
ties, or go without. Severe penalties 
were provided for each and every in- 
fraction of this law, and ingenious 
provisions made for its enforcement. 
But Benjamin Tyler was too busy 
building his dam, raising his build- 
ing, constructing furnaces, reducing 

r on the: early manufacture of iron in America 

tit It- "Statistics of Iron and Steel Production in 

Gov't in 1881 as a part of the Tenth Census — 

i'hjg the beginning of operations at Lamper Eel 



bog-iron "ore, designing and construct- 
ing his machinery, — to bother him- 
self about any such fool legislation 
enacted three thousand miles away, — 
thirty thousand as we reckon dis- 
tance, in time, to-day. The same 
may be said of young Peak, the black- 
smith, brought when an infant to 
Claremont. in 1764. He. at about the 
same time as Tyler, had a dam and 
a small home-made "Tilt Hammer" in 
his blacksmith shop on Walker Brook, 
near where it crosses "Peak Hill 
Roacl. M(U) 

As to the thirteen colonies the 
above quoted statute of 23 George II 
was practically repealed by the Dec- 
laration of Independence; but in 
Canada and the British West Indies 
it remained nominally in force until 
repealed by the Statute Law Revision 
Act of 1867. There were enacted 

Among the ninety instructions sent 
by George the Third to Gov. Rui- 
ning Wentworth. under date of June 
30, 1761, was the following: "And it 
is our express Will & Pleasure, that 
you do not upon any Pretense what- 
ever, upon Pain of our highest Dis- 
pleasure, give your .Assent to any 
Law or Laws for setting up any 
Manufactures and carrying on any 
Trade which are hurtful and predu- 
dicial to this Kingdom, and that you 
do use your utmost Endeavors to dis- 
courage, discountenance and restrain 
any Attempts which may be made to 
set up such Manufactures or estab- 
lish any such Trades." (17) 

There never yet has been published 
a careful study of the Acts of Parlia- 
ment and Royal Orders restricting 
colonial industries, showing the ex- 
tent to which these contributed in 

before the Revolution no less than preparing men's minds for a separa- 
twenty-eight similar statutes restrict- tioii from the mother country, 
ing colonial commerce and industries. To be continued. 

(16) See Memoir of John Peak. Boston 1832 — p. 18. "Peak Hill Road" is that leaving 
the "Great Road'-' (about three-quarters of a mile north from the road to the Connecticut 
River Bridge) crossing the railroad and then leading up a steep hill. This road and tht J hill 
to the north of it were named for John Peak, who came to Claremont before the town was 
incorporated and settled in that vicinity. The fact of the blacksmith shop and trip-hammer 
on that road and brook was told the writer by Miss Nancy Grannis, who heard it from her 
father. No tradition could be more reliable. Walker Brook crosses the "Great Road" a few 
rods northwesterly from the Cupola Bouse. See "Walling's Map of Sullivan County, 1860 

(17) Sec N. H. State Papers. Vol. IS, pp. 377, 37S, 53G. 537. Vol. 6. pp. 7, 8. 


A. D. 1623 

Bx Ekiin L. Page 

For two centuries and a half there 
has been a general and rather vague 
belief that New Hampshire was first 
settled in the spring of 1623 at both 
Little Harbor and Dover. Neverthe- 
less there has been considerable con- 
fusion about the subject. This 
prompted the writer recently to ex- 
amine the original sources of infor- 
mation with a view to an analysis of 
the evidence. These sources proved 
surprisingly numerous and interest- 
ing, but when the material was gath- 
ered, it was discovered that this ar- 
ticle had been anticipated nearly a 
half century ago by two earnest anti- 
quarians, Mr. Charles Dearie and Mr. 
John S. Jenness, whose monographs 
include practically every bit of evi- 
dence which is known to-day. How- 
ever, as we look forward to the ter- 
centenary of next year, a review of 
the sources may be worth while for 
the information of the present genera- 

The confusion spoken of arose in 
the first place from the statement by 
Hubbard in his General History of 
New England (1683). In effect this 
statement seemed to be that David 
Thomson settled at Little Harbor in 
1623 and that Edward and William 
Hilton, sharing the voyage with 
Thomson, planted at Dover a^ about 
the same time. One would think 
that Hubbard, writing barely 
than half a century after the 
would have at least a reliable 
tioii at hand, whatever may 
been his lack of documentary 
dence. Consequently his dictum, a 
rather vague one at best, has been 
somewhat uncritically followed by 
the historians of New Hampshire. 
It should be tested again by the con- 
temporary evidence ; that is. by the 
documents of 1623 and the few suc- 
ceeding years. 

The records of the Council of New 





England make frequent mention of 
David Thomson in the latter half of 
1622.. On November 16 lie was given 
a patent of six thousand acres and 
one-half an island, both unlocated. 
About two weeks later he made a 
proposition that the Council transport 
ten persons with provisions to his pa- 
tent. This apparently came to noth- 
ing, for on December 14, 1622, he 
made an indenture with thre? Ply- 
mouth merchants to send him out 
"this present year" in the ship "Jon- 
athan." It was common in those 
days to set out for New England so 
as to arrive in March, the first month 
of the old-style year. Thus we can 
imagine the "Jonathan" sailing from 
Plymouth that "present year." 
Imagination, however, is not to have 
a place in our discussion, except 
where it finds support in evidence, 

Edward Winslow, in his Good 
Ncwes from New England, published 
in 1624, relates that Captain Stan- 
dish went otit for provision and re- 
turned in July, 1623, accompanied by 
"Mr. David Torn son, a Scotchman, 
who also that spring began a planta- 
tion twenty-five leagues Northeast 
from us, near Smith's lies, at a place 
called Pascataqnack, where he liketh 
well." The date is fixed by Winslow 
as at the same time that the drought 
of 1623 was broken. The latter 
event Bradford places in the middle 
of July. Some imagine that Standish, 
who had been out to get provision, 
visited Thomson's settlement, but 
this is not certain. Yet we have con- 
temporary proof that Thomson ar- 
rived on schedule in the earlv part of 

Governor Bradford therefore spoke 
from almost first-hand information 
when, under date of 1623, he set 
down in his history Of Pliwouth 
Plantation the entirely casual sen- 
tence: "Ther were allso this year 



some scatermg begmings made in 
other places, as at Pascaraway, by 
Mr. David Thomson, at JMonhigen, 

and some other places by sundrie 
others." Nor was Thomson's visit 
to Plymouth in July Bradford's sole 
touch with the planting- of the new 

Thomas Weston, one of Plymouth's 
London adventurers, .,* came over with 
the fishermen in 1623 to inquire into 
the wreck of his plantation at Wes- 
sagusset (Weymouth). Under dis- 
guise he left his ship and went ahead 
in a shallop with a man or two. 
Somewhere between the Merrimack 
and the Piscataqua he was ship- 
wrecked. The Indians stripped him 
of every thing but a shirt. Thus 
shorn of his disguise, Bradford tells 
of his getting at last to Pascataquack, 
where he got clothes and found means 
to get to Plymouth. Later he recov- 
ered his ship, of which we shall pre- 
sently hear again. 

About the middle of September, 
1623, there arrived at Wessagusset, 
Captain Robert Gorges. Bradford re- 
lates that Gorges sailed thence east- 
ward, but was turned back by a 
storm and sought a pilot at Plymouth. 
Gorges was the son of Sir Ferdi- 
nando, and bore a commission from 
the Council of New England "to be 
generall Govff of y e cuntrie." This 
commission, of which Bradford was 
allowed to take a copy, named as as- 
sistants to Governor Gorges, Cap- 
tain Francis West, Christopher Lev- 
ett and the Governor of Plymouth for 
the time being. For fourteen days 
Gorges staved at Plymouth. During 
that time official relationships must 
have made necessary the fullest dis- 
cussion of the several plantations 
which Gorges, with Bradford's ad- 
vice, was to oversee. 

One of the other assistants was 
then in New England, or off its 
shore. West does not appear in our 
story except by name, but Levett 
gives us eye-witness testimony as to 
Thomson's plantation. He published 

at London, in 1628, A J r oyotjc into 
New England, Begun in 1623, and 
ended in 1624. From this it appears 
that Levett hrst visited the Isles of 
Shoals. Thereafter his account runs 
thus : 

"The next place I came unto was 
Panaway, where one M. Tomson 
hath made a plantation, there I stay- 
ed about one month, in which time I 
sent for my men from the east : who 
came over in divers ships. 

At this place I met with the Gov- 
ernor, who came hither in a bark 
which he had from one M. Weston 
about twenty days before I arrived 
in the land." 

The Governor was, of course, Rob- 
ert Gorges. While he was at Ply- 
mouth, Weston came in with his re- 
covered ship. Gorges at once charg- 
ed Weston with certain miscarriages 
in his now abandoned plantation at 
Wessagusset. -By Bradford's inter- 
vention a sort of truce was patched 
up. and Gorges went overland to Wes- 
sagusset, leaving his ship to proceed 
to Virginia. Weston remained at 
Plymouth, but Gorges, regretting his 
leniency, sent back an order for the 
arrest of both Weston and his ship. 
^Bradford advised Gorges by letter 
not to press his point, as Weston's 
ship was poorly provisioned and the 
owner deeply engaged to his men for 
wages, which could not but burden 
Gorges. But Gorges persisted, and 
in Weston's ship made his trip east- 
ward, which turned so to the former's 
loss that towards spring he restored 
the ship to the owner, made restitu- 
tion of the provision used, and re- 
turned to England, "having scarcly 
saluted y e cuntrie in his Govermente, 
not finding the state of things hear 
to answer his quallitie & condition." 

At Piscataqua there was probably 
little to encourage Gorges in that win- 
ter of 1623-1624. Levett proceeds: 

"In that time I stayed with M- 
Tomson, I surveyed as much as 
possible I could, the weather being 
unseasonable, and very much snow. 

A. D. 1623 


In those parts I saw much good 
timber, but the ground it seemed to 
me not to be good, being very rocky 
and full of trees and brushwood. 

There is great store of fowl of 
divers sorts, whereof 1 fed very 

About two English miles further 
to the east, I found a great river and 
a good harbor called Pascattaway. 
But for the ground J can say nothing, 
but by relation of the sagamore or 
king of that place, who told me there 
was much good ground up in the 
river about seven or eight leagues." 

The rest of the narrative relates to 
Levett's trip eastward to a little be- 
yond the Kennebec. The portion 
quoted is the only contemporary ac- 
count of the Piscataqua settlement 
from the hand of an actual visitor 
in the first year. It is striking, 
though riot wholly conclusive, that one 
coming to New Hampshire in the 
winter of 1623-1624 makes no men- 
tion of any settlement at Dover. It 
was only six miles from "Pannaway" 
to the point where Hilton made his 
settlement. Perhaps an explorer 
would not have gone even that short 
distance through unaccustomed snow 
and trees and brushwood, but he had 
a ship and could have reached Dover 
by the '"great river and good harbor 
called Pascattaway." Yet, as Levett 
was looking for a place to settle, he 
might not care to go to another plan- 
tation, when his only interest in in- 
habited places was to find a brief so- 
journ, for which "Pannaway" suf- 
ficed. After all, however, would not 
the sagamore have known if Dover 
had been settled in 1623 ; in that case, 
when he praised the ground up-river, 
would lie not have mentioned the fact 
that some Englishmen had already 
settled perhaps one-third the way up 
to the "good ground"; would Levett 
not have noted that? Reasonable 
answer must be in the affirmative. 
even though there be room for doubt. 

Leaving for a moment the strictly 
contemporary documents, we may re- 

fer to an interesting narrative that 
was written many years later. When 
the evidence was documented, the ex- 
perience it related was of such an- 
cient memory that we should give it 
comparative!}" little faith except as 
confirmatory of primary evidence 
written contemporaneously by those 
who. had means of knowledge, or 
at least trustworthy information. 
But in this case the secondary evi- 
dence checks so completely with the 
primary as to reduce greatly the 
chance of an inaccurate or imagina- 
tive memory. 

When, in 1623, Weston's people at 
Wessagusset were threatened with 
extinction by the Indians, one of the 
settlers, named Phinehas Pratt, came 
stumbling into Plymouth to ask for 
relief. Good neighbors ever in such 
matters, the Pilgrims sent aid on 
March 24, 1623, having, indeed, al- 
ready planned to do so on their own 
initiative. The people at Wessagus- 
set declined hospitality at Plymouth 
and, as Bradford records, sailed in 
their small ship eastward, hoping to 
meet Weston. Nearly forty years 
afterward Phinehas Pratt wrote A 
declaration of the affaires of the Eng- 
lish people, that first inhabited Nezv 
England. After telling of his trip to 
Plymouth and of Standi sh's expedi- 
tion to the relief of Wessagusset, 
Pratt places the time by referring to 
the fact that one of Weston's men 
died on ship before they came to the 
place where at that time of year, it 
being March, ships came to fish. 
Then he continues : "At this Time 
ships began to ffish at y e Islands of 
Sholes and I having Recovered a 
Little of my [healjth went to my 

Company near about this Time 

the first plantation att Pascataqua the 
[governor] thereof was Mr. David 
Tomson at the time of my arivall(?) 
att Pascataqua." The quotation is 
made exactly from the manuscript 
published in the Massachusetts His- 
torical Society Collections, with the 
inclusion, in brackets of what one 



might reasonably suppose were the 
letters which, because illegible, the 
print omits. The question mark ap- 
pears in the printed narrative. 

Some caution is necessary in view 
of the date of the narrative, and pos- 
sible tricks of memory, but the story 
fits perfect]}* with all the known facts. 
As to the time, of Thomson's settle- 
ment it is entirely consistent with the 
contract lor transportation, which 
would bring the "Jonathan" to our 
shore at about the season when the 
fishermen were wont to arrive for the 
spring fishing. It fits with- Win- 
slow's statement that Thomson set- 
tled in the spring of 1623. It is 
consistent with the fact that Weston 
came over with fishermen and had 
relief at Piscataqua after his ship- 
wreck. It is a reasonable deduction, 
also, that Thomson would not have 
visited Plymouth (in July, 1623) un- 
til he had spent some months getting 
his habitation in order and his ser- 
vants disciplined and contented 
enough to leave with safety while he 
called on his neighbors. So we may 
accept it as a well-proved fact that 
Thomson was settled on New Hamp- 
shire soil in the early spring of 1623. 
Little Harbor as the place is deter- 
mined by the story of Levett. 

The statement of Phinehas Pratt 
assumes importance with respect to 
the date of the Dover settlement 
when one considers the words "the 
first plantation att Pascataqua." 
When he recorded the visit, he must 
have had in mind that there were, at 
the time pf writing (1662), two set- 
tlements on the Piscataqua — Ports- 
mouth and Dover — and a third, if 
Exeter be assumed to be on a branch 
of that river. Did he consciously 
declare that they were all antedated 
by Thomson's plantation at Little 
Harbor ? Perhaps that would be 
claiming too much — not because Pratt 
had not ample means, in 1623, of 
knowing whether Dover was then in 
existence, but because of the possible 
failure of memory in nearly forty 

years. Yet here, again, it may assume 
some evidentiary value when com- 
pared with other evidence, or lack of 
evidence, as to the time of Dover's 

We return now to Hubbard, who 
states that the Plymouth merchants 
sent over in 1623, "one Mr. David 
Thompson, with Mr. Edward Hilton 
and his brother, Mr. William Hilton 

some of whom first in 

probability, seized on a place called 

the Little Harbor the Hiltons 

meanwhile setting up their stages 
higher up the river, toward the north- 
west, at or about the place since called 
Dover. But at that place called 
Little Harbor, it is supposed the first 
house was set up that ever was built 
in those parts." It will be noted that 
Hubbard's statement is chiefly sup- 
positious. He says "in probability" 
the first settlement was at Little Har- 
bor ; "it is supposed" the first house 
was built there. He says boldly how- 
ever, that the Hiltons came over with 
Thomson and settled at Dover at 
about the same time, though "proba- 
bly" a little later. 

Thus Hubbard set going a chain of 
guesses which have been written into 
New Llampshire history ever since. 
"As far as his suppositions about the 
first settlement and the first house are 
concerned, he is supported by the 
evidence we now have at hand. How 
about the rest of it? 

There is not a shred of proof that 
Edward and William Hilton came 
over with Thomson. As to the form- 
er, w*e simply do not know how or 
when he came. As to William there 
is Competent evidence. 

Captain John Smith in New Eng- 
land's Trials tells the story of the 
founding of Plymouth, of the return 
of the "Mayflower," of the immedi- 
ate fitting out of a ship (the "For- 
tune") to take supplies to the new 
colony, of her reaching there on 
November 11, 1621, of her return 
eastward, her capture by the French, 
her final arrival in England on Febru- 

I). 1623 



an, 14, 1622, hearing a letter in part 
as follows : 

"LOVING COUSIN, at our arivall 
at New Plimmouth in New England, 

we found all our friends and planters 

in gbod health We are all 

freeholders, the rent day doth not 
trouble us, — I desire your friendly 
eare to send my wife and children 

to me 

William Hilton" 

So William Hilton came to Ply- 
mouth in the fall of 1621. He liked 
so well that he sent hack immediately 
for his family. Naturally he waited 
for them ; he did not go hack to Eng- 
land and re-sail in the. "Jonathan" 
to an experimental, unlocated colony. 
At Plymouth he waited until his fami- 
ly arrived on the "Anne" in July, 
1623, several months after Thomson, 
without him, landed from the ''Jona- 
than" at Little Harbor — indeed after 
Thomson had himself visited Ply- 
mouth. Hilton was allotted some 
land at Plymouth in 1623. How long 
he stayed there is uncertain. After 
1627 it is sure he was no longer at 
Plymouth. The first evidence of his 
presence at Dover is as late as 1631. 

Of course this does not prove that 
Edward Hilton was not at Dover in 
1623. On the other hand the only 
ground we have to place him there 
is Hubbard's statement (made fifty- 
seven years later, without offering 
any proof) that Edward and William 
came over with Thomson and set up 
their fishing-stages at or near Dover. 
Hubbard was notoriously inaccurate 
and unreliable. On the face of them, 
his allegations about the Dover set- 
tlement are "probabilities"; his flat 
statement that Edward and William 
came with Thomson is provably er- 
roneous as to the latter, and entirely 
unsupported as to the former. It is 
to be regretted that some of our his- 
torians lacked the documents ; while 
others, having the documents, have 
not been over-critical in handling 

Edward Hilton is first located in 
New England by Bradford's record 
that in 1628 he paid one pound sterl- 
ing towards the expenses of ousting 
Thomas Morton from Merryrnount. 
This happened probably in the sum- 
mer; for Bradford says that shortly 
after that, Endicott came over. En- 
dieott arrived the early part of Sep- 
tember. If Hilton planted in the 
spring of 1628 lie was in time for this 
event. Yet he may have come earlier. 

Hilton was given a patent on 
March 12. 1629-30, "for and in con- 
sideration that Edward Hilton & his 
.Associates hath already at his and 
their owne proper costs and charges 
transported sundry servants to plant 
in New England aforesaid at a place 
there called by the natives -Wecana- 
cohunt otherwise Hilton's point ly- 
ing some two leagues from the mouth 
of the River Paskataquack in New 
England aforesaid where they have 
already built some houses, and plant- 
ed Corne, And for that he doth fur- 
ther intend by Gods Divine Assist- 
ance, to transport more people and 
cattle." Livery of seizin was given 
on Jul}- 7, 1631, in the presence of 
William Hilton and others. 

This preamble may not at first 
reading indicate much as to the date 
of Hilton's planting. Reread it sev- 
eral times, however, in the light of 
the knowledge that such preambles 
usually incorporated the most favor- 
able statement of the deserts and 
good faith of the patentees, and one 
will be struck with the omission to 
set forth occupation and cultivation 
since 1623. Fortified with such a 
long-standing colony as the inveter- 
ate tradition assigns, Hilton would 
have had much earlier ground for a 
patent, and in 1629 far stronger 
statement would have been made. 
"Already," "some houses," "planted 
Corne," are colorless words to des- 
cribe a plantation of six years stand- 
ing; they connote rather, as Jenness 
points out, a rather young settlement ; 
they point to the assumption of 1627 




or- 1628, rather than the year of 

And this is where the primary evi- 
dence as to Dover leaves u±: There is 
no proof of any settlement before 
1628. In the year 1623. both Levett 
and Bradford (William Hilton was 
then at Plymouth) had opportunity to 
know if Hilton's plantation then 
existed. Both wrote contemporan- 
eous narratives from which they 
would hardly have omitted reference 
to the settlement if existent. Neither 
mentions it. What primary evidence 
there is negatives a settlement at 
Dover as early as 1623. Secondari- 
ly, Pratt had opportunity of knowl- 
edge; though his silence might be ex- 
plained by forget fulness* his declara- 
tion that Thomson's was the first set- 
tlement has at least a remote value. 

For secondary evidence, document- 
ed many years later, we have the 
declaration made in 1654 to the 
Massachusetts General Court by John 
Allen, Nicholas Shapleigh and Thom- 
as . Lake, who humbly presented 
"That Mr. Edward Hilton was pos- 
sessed of this land [in Dover] about 
the year 1628, which is about 26 
years ago." The petitioners were 
seeking to show title to the land in 
question, and had every reason to 
date their claim from the earliest pos- 
sible year. If in their belief they 
could have placed the origin back to 
1623, would they not have done so? 
The tendency of those times (as per- 
haps of others) was always to make 
the claim at least as broad as the 
proof would warrant — if not to en- 
large it a bit. 

There remains for discussion one 
other important document, a peti- 
tion by William Hilton, Jr., made to 
the Massachusetts "General Court on 
May 31, 1660. The preamble fol- 
lows: "Where as your petitioners 
father William Hilton came ouer in- 
to New England about the year An- 
no: Dom. 1621: & yo r petitioner came 
about one Yeare & an halfe after, 
and In a little tvme following set- 

tled our seines vpon the River of Pis- 
chataq. with Mr. Edw : Hilton, who 
were the first Inglish planters 
there." This document has by sonic 
historians been accepted as proving 
beyond doubt the settlement of Do- 
ver by the Hiltons in 1623. The ar- 
gument is that "In a little tyme" 
means immediately; the rest is the 
mere addition of one and a half to 
1621. making 1623. 

Let us consider it carefully. First, 
we must remark that memory plays 
strange tricks after a lapse of thirty- 
seven years, which must lead us al- 
ways to scrutinize any writing based 
on old memory. Here is a case in 
point. The petitioner says his father 
came over "about" 1621. That hap- 
pens to be the correct year, as shown 
by the records of Plymouth Colony, 
but obviously the son did not trust 
his memory fully enough to give the 
date with assurance. 

There is a special reason for as- 
signing to this writing only a second- 
ary evidential value. It states not 
only a thirty-seven-year old memory, 
but a memory of childhood events. 
To a child, a little time is usually 
long; to a man of middle life, some- 
what lengthy periods of childhood 
may seem "a little tyme." Was it 
otherwise in this case? Mrs. William 
Hilton, Sr., and her two children ar- 
rived in Plymouth on the "Anne." 
The exact date cannot be fixed. The 
"Paragon" came the latter part of 
June. 1623. How long she stayed 
at Plymouth does not appear. A 
fortnight after she left for Virginia, 
Bradford says the "Anne" came in*. 
So the arrival of the Hilton family 
must have been after the middle of 

The Plymouth Records show that 
William Hilton was allotted one acre 
in 1623. After the "Anne" came in, 
there was an allotment to the settlers 
whom she brought, and Hilton's wife 
and "two children" were assigned 
three acres. Unfortunately there is 
no record showing when any of these 

A. D. 1623 


holdings were conveyed by Hilton, or 
when the Hiltons left Plymouth; hut 
tiie grants to them as late as mid 
summer of 1623. when no further 
crops could he. raised (and they could 
not be used for grazing, there being- 
no cattle then in the colony) negatives 
the idea that on the arrival of the 
"Anne" the Hiltons had any thought 
of settling on the Piscataqua in a 
short time, even that William then 
knew of any definite plan of his 
brother to plant there. The writer is 
aware of the tact that the grants of 

1623 were for that year only; but 
they were renewed in fee in 1624, 
and it is quite possible that when the 
passengers on the "Anne" received 
their grants it was foreseen they' 
would soon be made permanent. The 
internal evidence of the records 
shows clearly that the grantees of 

1624 received tha identical lots they 
had in 1623. 

So it is a quite possible inference 
that the William Hilton family in- 
tended to stay in Plymouth for the 
season of 1624, if not indefinitely; or 
they may have kept secret their plans 
and taken the land as a sort of unjust 
enrichment ; or neither assumption 
may lie true. Now we come to a 
tradition handed down by Hubbard 
and to be received rather critically. 
This states that the original trouble 
with Lyford and Oldham arose from 
the baptism of a child of William 
Hilton, unpermissable because the 
father was not of the Plymouth 
church. If this be trie, the Hiltons 
were at Plymouth in 1624, for Ly- 
ford did not come over until that year. 
Whatever be the trustworthiness of 
such a tradition, it is at least consis- 
tent with the first of the three infer- 

ences that William Hilton was still 
at Plymouth in 1624. If, then, his 

son was correct in declaring that Ed 
ward and William Hilton were the 
tirst English planters on the Piscata- 
qua (waiving the question of the 
priority of Thomson at the smaller 
mouth of the river, and taking the 
statement to mean, as it seems to 
mean, that Edward and William went 
to the river together), it surely re- 
sults that neither was at Hilton Point 
as a planter in 1623. So the secon- 
dary evidence leaves us just where the 
primary evidence did. 

We shall therefore next year cele- 
brate with assurance only the planting 
at Little Harbor. Put Thomson 
abandoned his settlement in 1626 or 
soon after, and in 1630 his house was 
leased as headquarters for tlie ser- 
vants of the Laconia patentees. They 
in turn abandoned it by 1633. Who 
thereafter occupied it we do not 
know. Long ago it fell into ruin, 
and nothing of it now remains ex- 
cept a few stones guessed to be the 
foundation of its chimney. There is 
no clear connection between "Panna- 
way" and the settlement begun at 
Strawberry Bank about 1631. So 
to Dover, whenever planted, belongs 
the honor of being our oldest planta- 
tion with an unbroken history. 

That is honor enough. The as- 
signing of the settlement of Dover to 
the year 1623 has never, since the 
days of Hubbard, been more than an 
unnecessary assumption — an assump- 
tion glorified by repetition into a well- 
nigh general belief. One is remind- 
ed of tlie saying of Doctor Johnson : 
"Many things which are false are 
transmitted from book to book, and 
gain credit in the world." 



Two . memorial occasions in the 
month of May in New Hampshire 
centered public attention, each for 
a day, v^on the greatest figures in 
the history of the Granite State, 
Daniel Webster and John Stark. 
On Tuesday, the 16th. at Nashua, 
the markers placed by the state at 
the beginning of the Daniel Web- 
ster Highway, near the border line 
between Massachusetts and New 
Hampshire, were dedicated with 
appropriate ceremonies, including 
a very interesting address by Judge 
Charles R. Corning, president of 
the New Hampshire Historical So- 
ciety, upon Webster, which we 
hope to print in full in the next 
issue of the Granite Monthly. 

On Tuesday, May 9, at Manches- 
ter, under the auspices of the local 
Historical Association, due honor 
was paid to General Stark, of whose 
death the previous day had been 
the 100th anniversary. Captain 
Frank IT. Challis presided, the 
High school pupils furnished music, 
Mayor George E. Trudel and others 
.spoke and Governor Albert O. 
Brown delivered the principal ad- 
dress of the occasion as follows : 
Mr. President, Ladies and Gentle- 
. men : 

New Hampshire may well be 
called the mother of men. From 
the earliest times her sons have 
distinguished themselves on almost 
every accessible field of human en- 
deavor. In public .service they have 
been conspicuous and in private af- 
fairs, prominent. They have found 
advantage and comfort in peace 
and sacrifice and glory in war. 

At the breaking out of the Rev- 
olution they constituted, from en- 
vironment, a race of farmers and 
hunters. They were inured to 
arms. Indeed, until the end of the 
Seven Years War they had not for 
a moment been free from the Indian 
menace. But with the peace of 

1760 many found their occupation 
gone. it was not for long, how- 
ever. The war for independence 
in which they were to bear such a 
noble part, and chiefly in other 
states for theirs was not invaded, 
soon followed. 

A list of great names adorns the 
pages of our early history, both as 
a province and a state. Bartlett, 
Whipple and Thornton, signers of 
the immortal declaration, Weare, 
Wentworth and Langdon, execu- 
tives and legislators, and Stark, 
Sullivan and Cilley, soldiers in the 
field, may be taken as the repre- 
sentatives of a much larger group. 
The name of Stark stands at the 
very top of the list and is most 
often upon the tongues of men. 

If it should seem strange that 
John Stark, born upon a frontier 
beset with savages, reared apart 
from schools and almost entirely 
deprived of the use of books, was 
able to acquire a considerable 
knowledge of military science and 
to gain admission to the society of 
such trained men as Howe and 
Washington, let it be remembered 
that his father was a native of 
Scotland and educated at the an- 
cient University of Glasg-ow. It 
is natural to believe that during 
the long winter evenings as well as 
in other periods of enforced leisure, 
die father imparted to the son 
something of the learning he was 
so fortunate as to possess. More- 
over there is proof of instruction 
by the mother. At all events, 
young Stark learned something of 
history. Among other things he 
became familiar with the campaigns 
of Alexander and of Charles the 
XII, both of whom he greatly ad- 

To the knowledge gained at 
home he soon added that of the 
wilderness. As a hunter and trap- 
per in the northern wilds, as a 



prisoner of the Indians in Canada 
and as a fore's! ranger fur main- 
years, he learned all there was to 

^ In the war between England and 
France his name and Iris presence 
were feared all the way from Al- 
bany to Quebec. His exploits and 
escapes were more remarkable even 
than those of Major Rogers him- 
self. So highly was his opinion re- 
garded that in the campaign of 
I/J8 he was summoned by Lord 
Howe for a conference at head- 
quarters, and the night before Howe 
fell the two men lay .side by side 
on a bear-skin in the forest and for 
hours discussed the position of 
Ticonderoga and the best methods 
of approach. 

It is known to every careful 
student that, despite the neglect of 
historians resident abroad, the bat- 
tle of Bunker Hill was fought and 
won, so far as it was won at all, 
by New Hampshire men. In num- 
bers, in valor, and in everything 
that makes for efficiency, they were 
far in the lead in thai memorable 
conflict. As they approached 

ChaHestown Neck their advance 
was halted by a body of deserters 
and skulkers who could not be forc- 
ed into action over that narrow 
passage, . even then swept by the 
tire of the British fleet. They were 
requested to advance or give way 
and let Stark pass. They did the 
latter. And Colonel Stark led his 
regiment, which marched slowly 
and with the precision of veterans, 
through the disordered mass and 
then through a rain of grape and 
canister, to its position on the hill. 

In this connection it is fair to 
remark that not all of the men of 
the Revolutionary perioel were 
heroes. But it is conforting to be- 
lieve that not one of those who had 
traveled all the way from their 
northern homes to engage the 
enemy wherever lie might be found, 
joined the rabble behind the" lines 

or united with those faithless sol- 
diers who from another hill looked 
down upon, the battle, without ren- 
der nig the aid or furnishing the 
supplies that would have meant 
victory to the American arms. 

Stark's men were opposed by the 
Welsh fusileers, veteran soldiers 
with a proud recorel to maintain. 
Three times they advanced to the 
attack. Three times they were 
swept back with terrible loss. That 
morning they had numbered 700 
strong. The next morning they 
could muster hut 83 men. 

Verily "the Angel of Death spread his 
wing's on the blast, 

And breathed in the face of the foe as he 

How did the men from Amoskeag 
fight on that eventful day? Cap- 
tain John Moor and his small com- 
pany strewed 96 dead bodies along 
the Mystic shore, exclusive of the 
officers, who were removed before 
the count was made. 

When the powder which Sulli- 
van had seized at Fort William and 
Mary at New Castle, at the time he 
began the war by the reduction of 
that fortress, and with which the 
battle of Bunker Hill was fought, 
failed, and Prescott was compelled 
to retreat, it was Stark who pro- 
tected his rear and then withdrew 
his own troops in the same good 
order in which they had come up- 
on the field. 

It is true that the glory of Bunk- 
er Hill belongs at least to all who 
participated in the battle, but if it 
be asked who contributed most of 
experience, of daring, of military 
capacity and aptitude, to the for- 
tunes of that day, the answer must 
inevitably be, John Stark. 

There is no question about Ben- 
nington. The credit for that vic- 
tory, as an achievement of com- 
mand, belongs wholly to Stark. 
It was his capital service, and was 
in itself a supreme accomplishment. 



Bennington, like Gettysburg, wats 

the turning point of a great war. 
And it was relatively more impor- 
tant than Gettysburg, for the army 
of Lee escaped while that of Bur- 
goyne was made an easy prey to 
General Gales. The attempt to 
separate New England from New 
York failed, and the way was open- 
ed for the French alliance. Thence- 
forth the fortunes of the colonies 
were in the ascendant. 

Stark, although somewhat im- 
perious, jealous of his rank and 
self-willed to the point of insubor- 
dination, continued in favor. He 
was gradually advanced until at 
the time of the fall of Yorktown 
he was . stationed at Saratoga in 
full command of the Department 
of the North. 

This assignment indicates that 
he was fitted for dutes of a far more 
comprehensive nature than those 
that devolve upon a mere scout or 
even a combat officer. His ap- 
pointment as a member of the court 
marshal that tried and convicted 
Andre points in the same direction. 
That he was possessed of great 
wisdom and prudence in civil as 
well as. military affairs must be the 
conclusion of all who will read his 
letter to Governor Chittenden on 
the relations of Vermont to New 
York and New Hampshire. 

General Stark needs a biographer 
just as the state needs a historian. 
If some author would perform for 
him a service similar to that re- 
cently rendered to his loyalist con- 
temporary, John YYentworth, by 
Mayo, he would stand forth more 
plainly than he does now as the 
great military genius which all 
those who have investigated for 
themselves know him to have been. 
He would clearly appear as second 
only to George Washington among 
the great commanders of the Rev- 

By a joint resolution of long 
standing the legislature has called 
upon our successive governors to 
proclaim an Arbor Day at this sea- 
son of the year. This has general- 
ly been done. In the present in- 
stance the day was made to fall up- 
on the one hundredth anniversary 
of the death of New Hampshire's 
greatest soldier and trees have 
been set for him as well as those 
who have died in Avar that we may 
live in peace. It would not seem 
inappropriate to make Arbor Day 
and Stark Day permanently iden- 
tical to be devoted, in some part 
and among other purposes, to 
memorial trees and vines and 


By J. Roy Zeiss 

Lure of the stream, and evergreen pines. 

Fragrance of clover and honeysuckle vines; 

Blue of the mirrored lake in early morn, 

Rise of the sun in splendor reborn; 

Call of the quail, and song of the lark, 

Lap of the waves on the side of your bark; — 

Fall of the fly and leap of the trout. 

Flash of the silver! Your line running out! 

Flicker of the shadows in the camp-fire's gleam, 

Joys of the follower of forest and stream! 



By Rev. Roland D. Sawyer. 



Two men grow upon me as I grow 
older, and as I have more to do with 
political and public life— they are 
Lincoln and Webster. Lincoln, for 
his quiet wisdom and ability to get 
things dune. Webster for his native 
powers of intellect. Webster was a 
giant. His poise in public life came 
from an intellect confident of itself. 

Capt. Webster of Kingston, born 
1739, married 1761, was the first to 
move into the "North Country" in 
New Hampshire after the French 
and English treaty of 1763 opened 
upper New Hampshire to settlement 
by the English along the coast. In 
the little two room frame house there 
was born on January 18, 1782, the 
greatest son of New Hampshire. 
(July the robust survived, and Daniel 
grew to be a man possessed of fine 
physical presence and great physical 
endurance. A boyhood spent among 
the hills, his sports those of the pio- 
neer, fishing, hunting, he from the 
out-door life learned to love Nature, 
to see things from the out-door stand- 
point—to see them big. He loved to 
see the sunrise upon the eternal hills 
of upper New Hampshire — to gaze 
upon the vast ocean at Portsmouth 
and Hampton, and later from his 
adopted home at Marsh held. He 
loved the great friendly ox — the best 
friend of the settler ; majestic, slow- 
moving, but sure and strong — they 
were like himself. And the last act 
of his life was to have his oxen 
driven on the lawn before his sick 
room window, so he might watch 
them feed. Life was hard and dull 
in the country of Webster's early 
life; no papers, few books, hard- 
ships and never-ending toil — but 
such environment stirred lads of 
native endowment like Lincoln, 
Greeley, Ballou, Webster — and he 
read and meditated and became a 

man of wide information and sound 
know ledge. 

Such was the life of the lad and 
young mar, and as he steps upon 
the forum he seems fitted for that 
calling- above all else. Just as 
Whitelield was fitted to be a great 
open-air preacher, so Webster was 
fitted for the forum of public life. 
His hne imagination, his stately 
eloquence, his love for his country — 
these fitted him to .stand in Wash- 
ington as America's Greatest Sen- 
ator. President he was not des- 
tined to be. and it was well ; the of- 
fice of president would have de- 
tracted from Iris glory as America's 
greatest figure in parliamentary 
life and activity. And W'ebster 
won his fame, not at a time barren of 
great men — his colleagues were 
Clay, and Calhoun — "there were 
giants in those days" in the federal 
senate. ■ 

Alongside of the classics from 
Greece and Rome in their glory, 
we Americans can place the speeches 
at Bunker Hill, the Eulogy on 
Adams and Jefferson, the Septem- 
ber speech at Marshfield, and the 
second speech on Foote's Resolu- 

. Webster symbolizes an epoch — 
he is the classic voice of America 
in the forming. Just as Washing- 
ton stands for America struggling 
to be free and as Jefferson stands 
for America drawing up its form 
of organic government — so Web- 
ster stands for America as it finds 
itself and stands among the nations 
of the earth, the youngest, most 
alert, most virile, most just — of the 
earth's nations. He stood the 
great voice of the federal parlia- 
ment, in that government, which 
as he himself expressed it is "The 
peoples' government, made for the 


people, made by the people, and ever hear the name of Webster 

answerable to the people." spoken, without drawing a long 

No native of New Hampshire breath of pride, that he too. was 

who knows human history, will born in the old Granite State. 


/>V Core 7 S. Day 

Riches and Greed and Pleasure 

Passed by me on the road. 

And not a one of them turned his head, 

Or helped me with my load. 

'Mien Love came by a-singing, 

And stopped to chat with me 

.And before I knew he had taken all 

My load, and set me free. 

No— all he asked was the heart of me ! 

Now — am I bond, or am I free? 


By Adeline Holt on Smith 

I have no use for the highway 

Where automobiles glide: 

Give me the little wOodsey trail 

That runs through the trees to hide. 

The trail that climbs to the ledges, 

The one to the shady pool. 

The one that wanders down the hill 

To the river swift and cool. 

Give me the trail to the birches 

Where, on either side 

Under the ferns and mosses 

The Christmas berries hide. 

And the trail that crosses the pasture 

Where the drowsy cattle are 

That takes me straight to the shining gate 

Of sunset and vesper star. 



Memorial Day, 1922, in New 
Hampshire, was well observed. 
Of all our holidays, it retains and 
expresses the most of the purpose 
for which it was instituted. This 
has been largely, though not by 
any means wholly, duo to the fact 
that behind its observance is an 
organization once powerful by vir- 
tue of its numbers and still potent 
because oi the great achievement 
to its credit in preserving the unity 
of our nation on the one right basis. 
So long as one veteran of the Civil 
War remains in a community as a 
living symbol of what Memorial 
Day means, that community is not 
likely to allow May 30 to pass with- 
out some fitting recognition of the 
war which saved the Union and the 
men who fought it. 

But when the last member of 
the. Grand Army of the Republic 
has answered the final roll-call, when 
the Boys in Blue are only a glori- 
ous memory, will their holiday be 
allowed to lose its meaning and be- 
come merely one more free day for 
motoring, sports and recreation ? 
We hope not. There are very few 
places in this country where July 4 
gives any justification for being 
known as Independence Day; but in 
the hundred thousand cemeteries 
where the grave of every dead sol- 
dier is carefully marked with flag 
and flowers Memorial Day means 
something, to the youngest child who 
follows the band and the soldiers, 
as well as the oldest survivor who 
enlisted under the Stars and Stripes 
when but a child himself. 

Let us whose generation came be- 
tween, who were too young to fight 
in trie Civil War and too old to fight 
in the World War, try to do some- 
thing of our part for patriotism by 
making certain, so far as the enact- 
ing oi laws and the educating of 
sentiment can do it, that the dee- 
orating of these graves continues, in 
the manner and the spirit of. those 
who founded and have faithfully 
carried on this beautiful custom. 

Just the kind of a letter, for three 
reasons, which the Granite Monthly 
likes to receive, came in today's mail 
from Mr. Charles W. Aiken, the 
distinguished inventor and manu- 
facturer, of Brooklyn, N. Y., whose 
old home town is Franklin, N. H. 
The three reasons were these: First, 
the letter enclosed a cheek in advance 
payment subscription; second, it 
said "The Granite .Monthly is inter- 
esting and very well worth while ;" 
third, it offered a valuable suggestion 
as to increasing the magazine's sub- 
scription list. Enough of that kind 
of mail makes a perfect day for an 
editor and publisher. "It is a valu- 
able work you are doing and I will 
lift my mite," writes J. M. Post of 
Mascoma, accompanying a check. 
The current catalogue of Libbie, of 
Boston of New England history, list- 
ing 50 volumes of the Granite Month- 
ly, says the set is "a veritable store- 
lion se of historical matter relating to 
the state, with much valuable genea- 
logical information, biography, local 
history, etc.. not to be found else- 



As interesting as the best fic- 
tion, yet of much value as an ac- 
curate historical record, is "The 
Cowboy," by Philip Ash ton Rollins 
(Charles Scribner's Suns, New 
York). Air. Rollins is a member 
of that distinguished New England 
family which has made so many im- 
portant contributions to the litera- 
ture of the nation as well as to its 
statecraft and finance, and, to its 
list the present work is a worthy 
addition. It is evidently a labor 
of love and one so well performed 
that even tlie casual reader, be- 
fore he lias turned many pages, 
comes to share the interest of the 
author in the subject of his por- 
trait, "The Cowboy,'' not the 
theatric figure of the movies, but; 
"an affirmative, constructive factor 
in the social and political devel- 
opment of the United States/' 

Mr. Rollins shows that he has 
read books, ransacked archives and 
consulted authorities in order to 
achieve correctness and complete- 
ness; which he has achieved to 
such an extent that we should call 
liis work monumental, if that ad- 
jective was not likely to convey a 
false impression as to the readable- 
ness of the narrative. But it is 
not his diligence, as a student which 
is the main factor in the undoubted 
success of Mr. Rollins's book; it is 
the vivid variety of his personal 
experiences, dating back to the 
days when Jim Bridger told him 
about Kit Carson, and coming 
down to the present time. Through 
long years he has been the cow- 
boy's close companion and warm 
friend ; so that he knows him from 
sombrero to chaps ; at work and at 
play; at the round-up or on the 
trail. Beyond that, and this is 
w f here the public gains an interest- 
ing story as well as a valuable 
source of information, Mr. Rol- 
lins makes his reader see the cow- 

boy as he was and is; to appreciate 
his virtues and to understand his 
faults; to recognize, in him "the 
spirit of the West." So true a 
picture, so honestly painted, de- 
serves a permanent place in our 
national gallery of American types. 

Publishers send us occasionally 
books which have not New Hamp- 
shire connection, but which we can 
recommend as of interest, for other 
reasons, to our readers. 

Coningsby Dawson's "The Van- 
ishing Point" (Cosmopolitan Book 
Corporation) is a thrilling tale of 
world war aftermath, in which the 
gifted author forsees monarch}" and 
anarchy in mortal combat and 
America once more quelling the 
storm, this time with bread in- 
stead of bullets. Very famous peo- 
ple appear in the .story under thin 
disguises and the "pull" of the plot 
in which they strangely figure 
never slackens. 

"The Wild Heart," by Emma 
Lindsay Squier (Cosmopolitan 
Book Company) is an engaging 
record of friendships between a boy 
and girl, on the shore of Puget 
Sound, and a sea gull, a jack rabbit, 
a deer, a bear, a heron, a seal, a 
quail, a hawk. The degree of rap- 
port attained between the humans 
and the wild things .seem almost 
incredible, yet the story is told 
with a simplicity that breathes 
truth in everv line. The publishers 
have given the book an attractive 
form, with illustrations and deco- 
rations by Paul Branspm. 

"The Red Cavalier," by Gladys 
Edson Locke (The Page Com- 
pany, Boston) is a mystery story of 
old England and old India with all 
the necessary ingredients of love, 
jealousy, murder, jewels, a cypher, 


etc., skilfully mingled so that the her which Thelma Gooch has paint- 
interest does not Hag through the ed. for the hook cover. 
372 pages. 

The Page Company "Little Cous- 

"Henrietta's Inheritance," b} r Le- in" series now has readied a total 

la Horn Richards (The Page Coin- of more than 50 titles, showing the 

pany, Boston), continues through popularity of this successful at- 

another volume the life story of a tempt to impart useful knowledge 

girl heroine already very popular in pleasant form. Emily God- 

with a large circle of young read- dard Taylor is the author of the latest 

ers; subjecting her to .severe trials issue which tells of the interesting 

but bringing her in the end a col- island of Barbadoes and its Caribean 

lege degree, a fortune and a. lover ; neighbors under the title, "Our Little 

of all of which she will make good West Indian Cousin." 
use, judging from the portrait of 


By T. P. White 

Silent and bare it stood when autumn days had past, 
Gray as the leaden sky, braving the wintry blast. 
Withered and sear there held onto its lofty arms 
Scattering leaves of brown— remnants of glory's charms. 
Weary and old it seemed, yet, sturdy, grand and strong, 
Awaiting spring again, the balmy days, the song 
Of mating birds. Its heart asleep dreamt of the time 
When Nature's hand renews its work sublime. 

Gladsome and gay there came the gentle winds of May; 

Then with the tender leaves springing in wild array 

Clothed and screened, the tree, out to the sky of blue, 

Offering God its crown, extended arms anew. 

Elfins and fairies danced under the swaying boughs, 

As softly sighed the breeze carrying lovers' vows; 

And Nature smiled. With sadness, mirth, laughter and 

Onward, ever onward roll the seasons and years. 




: Charles Rumford Walker, M. 1)., died 
in Concord, April 22. He was born in 
that cily, February 13. 1852, the son of 
Joseph B. and Elizabeth L. (Upham) 
Walker and a descendant in the fourth 
generation from Rev, Timothy Walker, 
first minister of Concord, lie attended 
the public schools of Concord; then grad- 
uated from Phillips Exeter Academy in 
1870. from Yale in 1874 and from the 
Harvard Medical school in 1878. After 
postgraduate work abroad, in Dublin, Lon- 

Dr.. -Charles R. Walker 

don, Vienna and Strassburg, he began the 
practice of his profession in Concord in 
1881 and so continued until his death, 
not only winning high honors as a phy- 
sician and surgeon, but also doing an 
amount of good as a doctor, citizen and 
friend which is beyond estimate, be- 
cause so much of it is known only to the 
persons benefited. 

He was a member of the New Hamp- 
shire Medical society, of which he was 
president in 1899; of the American Medi- 
cal association; of the staffs of the Mar- 
garet Pillsbury and New- Hampshire Me- 
morial hospitals ; and for 16 years was 
physician to St. Paul's school. During 
the war with Germany he served on the 
selective service board for his district. 

ture and 
in politics, 
from his 
but was a 

Outside of Ins practice, Dr. Walker was 
best known as the active mcmbei of the 
board of trustees of the Timothy and 
Abigail B. Walker Lecture Fund, in which 
capacity he added greatly to the oppor- 
tunities of the people of Concord for cul- 
entertainment. A Republican 
he could spare but little time 
profession for public service, 
member of the board of alder- 
men in \W2 and of the state legislature 
in 1895 and had served on the Concord 
water board. At the time of his death 
he was president of the New Hampshire 
Savings Bank and trustee of the Rolfe 
and Rumford Asylum. At one time he 
was a surgeon in the New Hampshire 
National Guard. His clubs were the 
Wonolancet and Snowshoe of Concord. 

June IS. 1888, Doctor Walker married 
in Boston, Frances Sheaf e, by whom he is 
survived, with their two sons, Rev. Sheafe 
Walker and Lieut. Charles R. Walker, 
both graduates of Phillips Exeter and 
Yale and now of New York City. 


Joseph Whcelock Lund, lawyer and 
sportsman, but best known, perhaps, for 
his activity as an alumnus of Harvard, 
died in Cambridge, Mass., May 5. He was 
born in Concord, March 14, 1867, the son 
of the late Charles Carroll and Lydia 
(French) Lund, and fitted at Phillips 
Andover academy for Harvard, where he 
graduated in 1890, being permanent, sec- 
retary of the class. He graduated from 
the law school of the university in 1893 and 
had practised his profession in Boston 
since that date. He was an ardent rowing 
enthusiast, a trustee of the Weld Boat 
club at Harvard, and also was devoted 
to hunting and fishing. He was one of 
the chief workers in the campaign which 
resulted in erecting the handsome house 
of the Harvard Club of Boston and was 
chairman of the club's first house com- 
mittee. He also was very active in the 
endowment drive of the university and in 
general was unceasing in his labors for 
Harvard. Mr. Lund never married. He 
is survived by a brother, Fred B. Lund. 
M. D„ of Boston. 


Brigadier General John Milton Thomp- 
son, U. S. A., retired, died at Berkeley, 
Cal., April 6. He was born at Lebanon, 
August 1, 1842, the son of Ira and Cyn- 



thia Wheeler (Spaulditig) Thompso 
He enlisted as a private in Company E 

N. H Vols., Ni 


War. one for the Indian wars and 

one for the 'war in the Philippines. He 

iikI was a member of the G. A. R..the Loval 

served with distinction throughout th 

great conflict; being- commissioned cap- 

Legion and the Sons of the American 
Revolution. Dartmouth college conferred 

tain Nov. 7, 1863. July 2$; 1866, he was upon him the honorary degree of master 

appointed second lieutenant in the 38th o\ arts in 1907. lie is survived by Ins 

U. S. Infantry and after almost 40 wife, Mrs. Carrie Ellis Thompson'; a 

years of service was retired with the sister, Airs. Ferdinand Davis, of ,Po- 

rank of brigadier general Aug. 9, 1903. mona, Cal.; a brother, Elbridge H. 

Congress by special act issued three Thompson of Lebanon; and a sou, J. 

bronze medals in recognition of General Walcott Thompson, of Salt Lake City. 
Thompson's bravery, one for the Civil 



'By M. White Sazvycr 

Paleyeilow green of Spring is seen 

Near brimming brooks, new grass is growing 

All living things from bondage spring 

As waking Earth new life is showing. 

The tulips start two leaves apart 

In pensive mood the garden dreaming 

Cool lilies lure with colors pure 

In myriad shades the glades are teeming. 

So may our hearts renew their hopes 
Let Charity enrich our living 
And like the flower laden slopes 
Let Love rejoice in Kindness giving. 



By Walter B. Wolfe 

If at Maytide I should die 

let me lie 
buttercups about my head, 
faery bluets for my bed, 
where some shady apple tree 
snows white petals over me. 

Should I die while lilacs bloom 

and perfume 
lazy breezes with their scent — 
when the willows redolent 
in their spring time fragrance wave, 
let their shadow be my grave. 

When the robin's roundelay 

fills the day 
pray, do not close me in a tomb 
but in sunlight give me room — 
where the lark has built her nest 
couched m grasses 1 would rest. 


Tax Free in New Hampshire, Vermont, Massachusetts and Connecticut 

pr pj |i pf b mi - put m ' ;"r 
tfiW liL FUWM AMI . I U 1 /! 

(A Massachusetts Corporation) 



Preferred as to Assets and Divdends 

AH outstanding Preferred Stock Callable on any dividend payment date at 105 
and accrued dividend or on any pari thereof at 110 and accrued dividend upon 

30 days' written notice. 

Dividends Payable Quarterly, Feb., May, .Aug. and Nov. 15th 

The Equitable Trust Company of New York, Registrar and Transfer Agent 


(As of August 31, 1921 giving effect to recent financing and acquisition 

of 11 properties) 

7% Cumulative Preferred Stock 

Common Stock 

Secured 7% Notes, Due 1921-1930 

First Mortgage and Prior Lien 6% Bonds 
*In hands of public. 

Years Ending 
Dec. 31, 1920 
Aug. 31, 1921 
Oct. 31, 1921 
Dec. 31, 1921 





Gross Net 

1,837,401 404,124 

1,960,924 491,489 

1,977,054 519,992 

2,015,275 547,560 



% 713,008 







PROPERTY VALUE approximately $5 887.000— after deducting par value bonds 
and notes outstanding, valuation remaining is nearly three times the amount of 
Preferred Stock outstanding. 

EARNINGS over FIVE TIMES Preferred Stock requirements. 
Net Earnings (after bond and note interest) must be two and one-half times divi- 
dend requirements if additional stock is issued. 

Properties located in the rapidly growing states of Texas, Missouri, Oklahoma 
and Arkansas, serving a total population of over 155,000. 

Very experienced and able management, with record of successful operation. 
PRICE— $37.50 and Accrued Dividend to Yield 8%. 





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