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Ilibcral Hrts 







A mm RAmpsRiRG mAGAZinc, 







co:ntents of vol. ix. 

Hon. Charles H. Burns, . . . i 

Hon. Frederick G. Stark and the Merrimack River Canals — Gen. Geo. Stark, 5 

Green, M 



What the Old Clock Says — H. E. Walker, . 

Young Men's Christian Associations — Russell Sturgis, Jr.,- 

George Fuller — Sidney Dickinson 

The Loyalists of Lancaster — Hon. Henry S. Nourse, . 

Louis Ansart — Clara Clayton, 

The Boundary Lines of Old Groton, II — Hon Samuel A 
Tuberoses — Laura Garland Carr, ..... 
British Forces and Leading Losses in the Revolution, 

Historical Notes, 

Hon. Jesse Gault (Portrait)— Col. J. Eastman Pecker, . 
George Peabody Little — Isaac Walker, A. M., 
Publisher's Department — Boar's Head, 


Book Notices, 

Business Element in American History— Willard H. Morse, M 
God's Love and Mine — William Hale, .... 
A New Hampshire Countess — Rev. Edward Cowley, 
The Doctor's Granddaughter — Annie Wentworth Baer, 

Who Was Publico?— A. H. Hoyt, 

Historic Problems— Fred Myron Colby, 

Arria Marcella : A Souvenir of Pompeii. A Translation from the French 

Frank West Rollins, . , . , 
Ticknor & Co.'s New Books, .... 
John McDuffee— Rev. Alonzo H. Quint, D. D., 

Franklin McDuffee, 

The Family Emigration to New England — Thomas W. Bichnell 

An Incident of Sixteen Hundred and Eighty-Six — Hon. Mellen Chamberl 

The Boundary Lines of Old Groton — Hon. Samuel Abbott Green, 

Wachusett Mountain and Princeton— Alberton P. Mason, . 

Washington and the Flag — Gen. Henry B. Carrington, LL. D., 

A Summer on the Great Lakes — Fred Myron Colby, 

Our National Cemeteries — Charles Cowley, LL. D., 

The Ogunquit Fishing Fleet — William Hale, 

Col. Thomas Cogswell — Editorial, 

Lycurgus Pitman — W. B. Osgood, 

HosEA B. Carter, 

New Hampshire Fire Insurance Company, 

Nathaniel E. Martin, .... 

Capt. John McClintock, 

The Old Stores and Post-Office of Groton — Hon. S 

LL. D., 

A. Green, M. D., 








n, 139 



6 e>s^^ 

Contents of Volume IX. 

Beacon Hill before the Houses — David M. Balfour, 205 

Col. Joseph Wentworth — Editorial 211 

Book Notices, 214 

Col. Albert A. Pope, 215 

The First Schoolmaster of Boston — E. P, Gould, 223 

The Old Taverns and Stage Coaches of Groton — Hon. S. A. Green, M. D., 231 

Capt. John McClintock, " 240 

Col. Charles H. Sawyer — Hon. Charles H. Bell, LL. D., .... 243 

Hon. Jacob H. Gallinger, M. D., 247 

H. G. Sargent, 249 

Book Notices, 250 

Robert R. Livingston — James Huges Hopkins, 251 

But a Step — Henrietta E. Page 258 

Local Self-Government — R. L. Bridgeman, 259 

Lieut. Gen. Sir William Pepperrell, Bart. — Daniel Rollins, . . . 263 

The Harrisburg Convention of December, 1839 — C. S. Spaulding, . . 268 

Protection vs. Free Trade, 270 

Groton Plantation — Hon. S. A. Green, M. D., 272 

Jeremiah W. White, Esq. — Hon. John H. Goodale, 275 

Hon. Josiah Gardner Abbott, LL. D. — Col. John Hatch George, . . . 278 

Esoteric Buddhism : A Review — Lucius H. Buckingham, Ph. D., . . . 281 

The Defence of New York, 1776 — Henry B. Carrington, U. S. A., LL. D., . 292^ 

Lowell — Editorial, 299 

Banks and Bankers of Concord, 339 

A Bit of Family Brag— P. B. Shillaber, 348 

Historical Sketch of the Town of Lancaster — J. S. Brackett, . . -351 

Localities in Ancient Dover — John R. Ham, M. D., 362 

A Jail Adventure — William O. Clough, '. . 368 


Eng ^hyAEBxtzi'J-''- 

C^yh^^a/r-tj^ JY: 





Devoted to Literature, Biography, History, and State Progress. 

Vol. IX. 


Nos. I., II. 


As the thoughtful traveller passes the 
wayside school-house in some remote 
rural district of New England and 
catches a glimpse of the tow-headed 
boys and girls, he sees not only future 
American sovereigns, but the blue- 
blooded descendants of the Puritan and 
Scotch Covenanter ; — boys, whose an- 
cestors overturned princes, fought and 
died for principle, and founded a nation, 
— boys upon whom will devolve the 
future prosperity of the United States. 
From the hill-side farms have gone 
forth the financiers, writers, orators, and 
statesmen who have so far guided and 
directed the destinies of this country ; 
while the wisdom exercised in con- 
ducting the affairs of each township, or 
miniature commonwealth, is a school in 
statescraft of the highest order. 

New England weather, with its ex- 
tremes of heat and cold and sudden 
changes, illustrates the theory of the sur- 
vival of the fittest. The hardy consti- 
tution inherited from stalwart sires and 
noble mothers, a boyhood and youth 
passed amid the health-giving and in- 
vigorating occupations of farm life 
among the hills of New Hampshire, a 
character, partly inherited, partly formed 
by precept upon precept and the most 
loving and tender guidance, ine^is sana 

in corpore sano, fit a young man to 
enter the arena, assured of success, to 
struggle for the prizes given only to the 
victors. From the ranks of such young 
men are recruited the great actors in the 
political and social drama. 

Hon. Charles H. Burns, of Wilton, 
scarcely needs an introduction to the 
people of New Hampshire. From his 
start in life as a farm lad he has won a 
distinguished rank among the lawyers of 
the State, as a legal student, as an advo- 
cate of rare eloquence, and as an orator 
broad in his views, and swaying great 
audiences by his well chosen words. 
Mr. Burns is a representative of the two 
peoples, or races, who have made a 
marked impression not only on New 
Hampshire and New England, but on 
American history ; the Puritans of the 
Massachusetts Bay Colony and the 
Scotch Irish clans who migrated later 
were his forefathers. 

For many generations his ancestors 
have been sturdy, liberty-loving. God- 
fearing, upright, and honorable citizens, 
yeomen ready to do service for their 
country and for their faith. The Burns 
family is of Scotch origin, whose annals 
are lost in the oblivion of border war- 
fare and anticjuity. The pioneer an- 
cestor, John Burns, was born in 1700, 

Hon. Charles H. Burns. 

came to this country in 1736 from the 
north of Ireland, and settled in Milford 
in 1 746, where he died in i 782. Thomas 
Burns, the son of John Burns, married 
Elizabeth Hartness, of Lunenburg, 
Mass., and settled in Milford, where he 
died at the age of eighty. 

Samuel Burns, son of Thomas and 
Elizabeth ( Hartness) Burns, and grand- 
father of Charles H. Burns, was born in 
Milford, September 17, 1779; married 
February 12, 1801, Abigail Jinies. a 
woman of gieat strength of mind, and 
of most excellent character, and settled 
in Milford. He was a strong man, fre- 
quently elected to responsible offices, 
serving the town ten years as one of the 
selec'men, and died of brain fever in 
the prime of life, September 20, 1817. 
His funeral was the largest ever held in 

Charles A. Burns, son of Samuel and 
Abigail (Jones) Burns, was born in Mil- 
ford, January 19, 1S09 ; married De- 
cember 31, 1833, Elizabeth Hutchinson, 
of Milford, and settled in his native 
town. They were both people of the 
highest character, and well known for 
their intelligence and worth. They were 
the parents of Charles H. Burns. The 
father died of fever January 25, 1857. 
The mother, Elizabeth (Hutchinson) 
Burns, born in Milford, June 18, 1816, 
and now living, traces her descent from 
Barnard Hutchinson, who in 1282 was 
living in Covvlan, in the county of York. 
He was an esquire, and married at 
daughter of John Bagville, of one of 
the oldest families of Yorkshire. From 
their oldest son, John Hutchinson, 
(i) Richard Hutchinson, the pioneeran- 
cestor of Mrs. Burns, traced his descent. 
He was born in England ; married De- 
cember 7, 1627, xAlice Bosworth ; re- 
sided in North Markham, and in 1635 
migrated to America. The following 

year he was in Salem, Mass. He died 
about the year 1662. 

2. Joseph Hutchinson was born in 
England in 1633, ^"^1 was brought to 
this country in his infancy. 

3. Benjamin Hutchinson married (i) 
Jane, daughter of Walter and Margaret 
Phillips; married (2) January 26, 17 14, 
Abigail Foster; died in 1733. 

4. Benjamin Hutchinson, son of Ben- 
jamin and Jane (Phillips) Hutchinson, 
was born in Salem, Mass., January 27, 
1693, ^'^'^^ married February 7, 17 15, 
Sarah, daughter of John and Mary 
(Nurse) Tarbell. He was a man of 
large wealth. 

5. Nathan Hutchinson, son of Ben- 
jamin and Sarah (Tarbell) Hutchinson, 
was baptized February 10, 171 7; mar- 
ried Rachel Sterns, and was one of the 
first settlers on the territory within the 
present limits of Milford. He died Jan- 
uary 12, 1795. 

6. Nathan Hutchinson, son of Na- 
than and Rachel (Sterns) Hutchinson, 
was born in Milford, which was then a 
part of the town of Amherst, in Febru 
ary, 1752; married, in 1778, Rebecca, 
daughter of William and Rebecca 
(Smith) Peabody ; was a farmer, and 
died December 26, 1831. She was 
born January 2, 1752; died February 
25, 1826. 

7. Abel Hutchinson, son of Nathan 
and Rebecca (Peabody) Hutchinson, 
father of Mrs. Elizabeth (Hutchinson) 
Burns, and grandfather of Charles H. 
Burns, was born in Milford, August 8, 

1795, ^^d married January 22, 181 5, 
Betsey, daughter of Isaac and Elizabeth 
Bartlett. She was born October 26, 

1796, and died August 23, 1873, 
in Milford. He died February 19, 
1846. Of this union was born, June 
18, 1816, Elizabeth (Hutchinson) 

Hon. Char/es H. Burns. 


Charles Henry Burns was born in 
Milford, January 19, 1835. On his 
father's farm he sjient his early years, 
improving a naturally good constitution, 
sainin" strength of muscle and habits 
of industry and endurance. His desire 
for an education was fostered, and he 
took advantage of all the scholastic 
facilities afforded by the common 
schools of his native town. These were 
of a high order. His academic educa- 
tion was acquired at the Appleton Acad- 
emy, in the neighboring town of New 
Ipswich, of which at the time Professor 
E. T. Quimby was principal. From 
this institution Mr. Burns graduated in 
1854. He read law with Col. O. W. 
Lull, in Milford, and graduated from 
the Harvard Law School in 1858. In 
ALay of the same year he was admitted 
to the Suffolk bar, and in the following 
October he was admitted to the practice 
of law in the New Hampshire courts. 

In January, 1859, he commenced the 
practice of his chosen profession in the 
town of Wilton, where he has ever since 
resided, although his extensive and 
steadily increasing business has necessi- 
tated his opening an office of late years 
in the city of Nashua. 

" He commenced his professional 
labors, as every young man must who 
has no one to rely upon but himself, 
with the smaller and more ordinary 
kinds of legal work, but by slow degrees 
he has risen, until to-day he is one of 
the most successful lawyers in New 
Hampshire, and his practice includes 
the highest order of cases. Mr. Burns, 
although a good lawyer in all the 
branches of his profession, especially 
excels as an advocate. His advocacy 
is of a high order. He is what most of 
our lawyers, and public speakers even, 
are not, a natural orator. The whole 
bent and inclination of his mind has, 
from his earliest years, always been in 
this direction. He has given himself a 
thorough training and practice at the 

bar, on the stump, and on all those va- 
ried occasions when a public speaker is 
called upon to address the people. This 
natural talent, thus trained, has made 
him a clear-cut, incisive, and polished 
orator, who never fails to hold and im- 
press his audience. 

"'It can be said of him, what can be 
said of very few men, he excels in ad- 
vocacy and general oratory. His argu- 
ments before juries best illustrate his 
power as a speaker, while his public ad- 
dresses exhibit his peculiar charm as an 
orator. As an advocate he ranks among 
the first in the New Hampshire bar. 
As an orator he compares favorably with 
our best public speakers. " * 

Mr. Burns has been a Republican 
since the formation of the party. His 
father was an active and prominent 
worker in that litde band of anti-slavery 
agitators which existed in Milford before 
the great Rebellion, and as a boy young 
Burns was deeply impressed with the 
teachings of Parker Pillsbury, Wendell 
Phillips, William Lloyd Garrison, and 
Fred Douglass. When quite young his 
interest in the Republican cause, to- 
gether with his aptitude for public 
speaking, led him to take the stump for 
his party. For years he has performed 
in this way the most efficient service for 
the Republican party, and, to-day, is 
one of its ablest and most eloquent stump 
speakers. In 1864 and 1865 he was 
elected county treasurer of Hillsborough 
County. In 1873, and again in 1879, 
he was a member of the New Hamp- 
shire State Seiiate, serving during both 
terms as chairman of the Judiciary 
Committee, and taking a prominent 
part in directing and shaping the legis- 
lation of those years. 

In 1876 he was appointed by Gov- 
ernor Cheney county solicitor for Hills- 
borough County, and subsequendy was 
twice re-elected to that office by the 

* U. M. Wallace in History of Hillsborough 


Hon. Charles H. Burns. 

people, in all serving seven years. He 
discharged the difficult and delicate 
duties of a prosecuting officer in an able 
and satisfactory manner. 

He was a delegate-at-large to the 
National Republican Convention at Cin- 
cinnati in 1876, and represented the 
New Hampshire delegation on the Com- 
m'ttee on Resolutions. 

At the Republican State Convention 
in 1878, Mr. Burns presided and de- 
livered one of his strong and character- 
istic speeches which created a deep im- 
pression throughout the State. It was 
everywhere commended as an able and 
forcible presentation of the issues of 
the hour. In 1879 he was appointed 
judge advocate-general, with the rank of 
brigadier-general, on the staff of Gov- 
ernor Head. In February, 1881, he 
was appointed United States district 
attorney for New Hampshire, and in 
February, 1885, he was reappointed, 
carrying to the performance of the du- 
ties of that office the same zeal and 
fidelity displayed in all his professional 

In the exciting senatorial contest of 
1883, Mr. Burns was the recipient of 
testimonials of the highest respect and 
confidence from party leaders through- 
out the State ; and the enthusiasm with 
which his name was greeted, and the 
ardent support accorded by his many 
friends, was very flattering, especially as 
he had not entered thefield as a candi- 

Mr. Burns is a man of scholarly tastes 
and habits. He has a fine law library, 
one of the best in the State, and a 
choice and valuable collection of mis- 
cellaneous books. He is a member of 
the New Hampshire Historical Society, 
and the New England Historical and 
Genealogical Society. In 1874 he re- 

ceived from I )artmouth College the 
honorary degree of A. M. In Masonic 
circles Mr. Burns is very prominent, 
having taken thirty-two degrees in that 

Mr. Burns was united in marriage, 
January 19, 1856, his twenty-first birth- 
day, with Sarah N. Mills, of Milford. 
They have been the parents of eight 
children, four of whom are living. Their 
oldest son, Arthur H. Burns, a young 
man of fine character and great promise, 
died at the early age of twenty, — a se- 
rious loss to his parents and to the com- 
munity in which he lived. He was 
universally loved and respected. Mr. 
Burns has a fine homestead in Wilton, 
in which and all its surroundings he very 
properly takes great pride and pleasure. 
To his wife, his family, and his home he 
is very loyally and devotedly attached. 

In Mr. Burns are developed many 
traits of character which have distin- 
guished the two races from which he 
traces his descent. He is conscientious 
and firm in his allegiance to a principle. 
His political faith is not a garment to be 
donned at pleasure, but a part of his 
being. He is frank and hospitable. 
The occasion of the twenty-fifth anni- 
versary of his marriage was celebrated 
at his home in Wilton by the presence 
of a large concourse of friends and 
guests, who expressed their appreciation 
of their host by many appropriate pres- 

Mr. Burns is sincere in his friendship 
and loyal to his friends. Their trust in 
him is never misplaced. As a conse- 
quence he has many warm personal 
friends. He is genial and affable. The 
portrait accompanying this sketch was 
engraved from a photograph taken on 
his fiftieth birthday. 

Frederick G. Sfark and the Merrimack River Canals. 



The canals of the Merrimack river 
had their day and active existence in 
the first half of the present century. 
'I'hey have been referred to as the ear- 
liest step towards asolution of the prob- 
lem of cheap transportation between 
Boston and the northern country ; but 
]:)erhaps they may more properly be 
classed as the second step in that di- 
rection, the turnpikes having been first 
in the field. James Sullivan and his 
associates, the original projectors of 
this canal system, undoubtedly had in 
mind not only to connect Boston with 
the Merrimack river country, but also 
to extend their canals from the iMerri- 
mack to the Connecticut river, and 
from the Connecticut to Lake Cham- 
plain and through its outlet to the St. 
Lawrence, thus bringing Boston into 
inland water communication with Mont- 
real and the Lower Canadas. The 
project was too vast and the physical 
obstacles too formidable to admit of 
full consummation, and their labors re- 
sulted only in uniting by navigable wa- 
ters the capitals of Massachusetts and 
New Hampshire, covering a distance 
by river and canal of about eighty-five 

The Middlesex canal, twenty-seven 
miles in length from Boston to the 
Merrimack river, at what is now known 
as Middlesex Village, about two miles 
above Lowell, was the first constructed. 
The work on this canal was com- 
menced in 1 794, and the canal was 
completed and opened for public use 
in 1803. A very complete history of 
the Middlesex canal, by Lorin L. 

Dame, A. M., was published in the 
February (1885) number of the (iRAX- 
riE Monthly. 

Following the construction of the 
Middlesex canal came the requisite 
works to render the Merrimack river 
navigable from the head of the Middle- 
sex to Concord, N. H., being a series 
of. dams, locks, and short canals to 
overcome the natural ra])ids and falls 
of the river. The first of these works 
was a lock and short canal at Wicasee 
tails, three miles above the head of the 
Middlesex, at what is now known as 
Tyng's island. No fall is now percep- 
tible at that point, the Lowell dam hav- 
ing flowed it out. The second work, 
fifteen miles further up the river, at 
Cromwell's falls, consisted of a dam 
and single lock. Then came dams and 
single locks at Moor's, Coos. Goff's, 
Griffin's, and Merrill's falls. About a 
mile above Merrill's falls were the lower 
locks of the Amoskeag— a canal next 
in importance to the Middlesex. It 
was only about one mile in length, but 
surmounted by works of very consider- 
able magnitude, the great fall of be- 
tween fifty and sixty feet, that now 
furnishes the water power for the manu- 
factories of Manchester. Its construc- 
tion was first undertaken by Samuel 
Blodgett early as i 794, but it was not 
completed until 1807. 

Eight miles above Amoskeag the 
locks and short canal of Hooksett over- 
came a fall of some seventeen feet : 
and six miles further on the Bow locks 
and canal afforded the final lift of 
twentv-seven feet, to the level of the 

Frederick G. Stark and /lie Merrimack River Canals. 

navigable water of the Merrimack river 
at Concord. 

Short side canals with loc'ks were 
subsequently built at the junctions of 
the Nashua and Piscataquog rivers with 
the Merrimack to facilitate the passage 
of boats from the Merrimack to the 
storehouses in Nashua and Piscatatjuog 

iron, glass, grindstones, cordage, paints, 
oils, and all that infinite variety of mer- 
chandise required by country mer- 
chants, formerly classed under the gen- 
eral terms of " dry and West India 
goods." The original bills of lading, 
many of which are now in the writer's 
possession, also show that they brought 
up from Boston for consumption in the 

The old Blodgett Mansion at Amoskeag Canal. Erected in 1795. Pulled down in 1870. 

For forty years this line of canals 
formed the principal channel of heavy 
transportation beween the two capitals, 
and, except that the canals did not 
effectually compete with the stages for 
carrying passengers, they held the same 
position to transportation as is now held 
by their successor and destroyer — the 

Daring the entire season of open 
river, from the time that the spring 
break-up of winter ice permitted navi- 
gation to commence, until the frosts of 
fall again closed it, this eighty-five miles 
of water was thronged with boats, taking 
the products of the country to a market 
at the New England metropolis, and 
returning loaded with salt, lime, cem- 
ent, plaster, hardware, leather, liciuors. 

country, flour, corn, butter, and cheese, 
which plainly indicates that the people 
of the Merrimack river valley gave 
more attention in those days to lumber- 
ing and river navigation than to agri- 

These boats, of which there are 
probably none now in existence, were 
peculiarly constructed, to answer the 
requirements of the river and canal 
navigation, and their mode of propul- 
sion was as peculiar as their model. 
They were about seventy- five feet long 
and nine feet wide in the middle ; a 
little narrower at the ends ; fiat bot- 
tomed across their full width, but the 
bottom sloped or rounded up from 
near the mid-length of the boat, both 
towards stem and stern, so that while 

Frederick G. Siark and the Merrimack River Canals. 


the sides were level on top and about A cross yard, with a square sail at- 

three feet deep at mid-length, they tached, which could be hoisted or 

were only a foot or less in depth at lowered at pleasure by a rope working 

either end. A load of about twenty over a single block in the top of the 

tons would make the boat draw two mast, completed the sailing outfit. It 

feet or more, near the middle, while the was only used upon the river, the mast 

bottom wouUl be out of water at each being struck and stowed in the boat 


end. When the river was low in mid- 
summer, only about half a full load 
could be carried to Concord. 

The boats were built of two-inch 
pine plank, spiked on small oak cross- 
joists and side-knees, and had heavy 
oak horizontal timbers at either end. 
The sides were vertical and without 
cross thwarts, except what was called 
the mast-board ; a thick oak plank, se- 
curely fastened across on top, from 
side to side, a little forward of the cen- 
tre of the boat. The seams between 
planks were calked with oakum and 
pitched. The mast was a spar about 
twenty-five feet long and six inches in 
its largest diameter. A foothold or step 
was fixed in the bottom of the boat 
under the cross-plank to receive it, and 
it was further steadied by the cross- 
plank, which was slotted to admit it 
when set up, and had a wedge and 
staple arrangement to hold it in place. 

when passing the larger canals. The 
rudder was a long steering oar, pivoted 
on the centre of the cross-frame of the 
stern, the blade, about eighteen inches 
wide and ten feet long, trailing in the 
water behind the boat, and the handle 
or tiller extending about the same dis- 
tance over the boat, so as to afford a 
good leverage for guiding the unwieldy 
craft. Three large scull oars, about 
sixteen feet long with six-inch blades, 
and three setting poles, or pike poles as 
they- were sometimes called, stout, 
straight, round poles, wrought out of 
tough and springy ash, about fifteen feet 
long, nearly two inches in diameter and 
shod at one end with a long iron point, 
completed the propelling outfit. The 
crew consisted of a skipper and two 

In going down the river between 
canals the usual mode of propulsion 
was bv use of the scull-oars. The bow- 


Frederick G. Stark and the Merrimack River Canals. 

men took position close to either side 
of the boat, facing the l)Ovv and about 
six feet froai it, and each worked his 
oar against a thole-pin i^laced in the 
o])posite gunwale, tlie oar handles 
crossing, so that they were necessarily 
worked simultaneously. The skipper 
also had his oar, which he worked in a 
similar manner when his attention was 
not wholly taken up in steering. When 
there was a fair wind the sail would be 
hoisted. The current also materially 
assisted on the downward trip, and 
sometimes the poles would be used. 

and, with his feet firmly braced against 
the cross-timbers in the bottom of the 
boat, he exerted the strength of his 
body and legs to push the boat for- 
ward. As it moved, he stepped along 
the bottom of the boat still bracing his 
shoulder firmly against the pole until 
he had walked in this manner to the 
mast-board, — or, rather, until the move- 
ment of the boat had brought the 
mast-board to him. He then turned 
round and walked to the bow, trailing 
his pole in the water, thrust it again to 
the bottom (jf the river, and repeated 



On the return trip against the current, 
the setting poles were the chief reli- 
ance, but sometimes aided by the sail. 
The cargo was so piled in the boat as 
to leave a narrow passage next each 
sunwale from the bow to the mast- 
board. There was also a clear space 
of six to ten feet left at the bow, and 
enough at the stern to allow the tiller 
to be moved freely across the boat. 
To propel the boat by poling, a bow- 
man stood on either side of the bow, 
with his face towards the stern, and 
thrusting the pike end of his pole down 
beside the boat in a slanting direction 
towards the stern until it struck the 
bottom of the river, he placed his 
shoulder against the top of the pole, 

the pushing movement. The skii)per 
also had his pole, but having very limit- 
ed space to work in, and being obliged 
to mind the helm pretty closely in 
moving against the current, he could 
do comparatively little to aid the prog- 
ress. These modes of propulsion ap- 
plied only to the river and the river 
canals. The boats were towed through 
the Middlesex canal by horses. A trip 
from Concord to Boston and return 
usually took from seven to ten days. 

Concord, Piscataquog, Litchfield, and 
and Nashua each had its lin^s of boats, 
making in the aggregate ijuite a little 
fleet. The broad reaches of the river 
below Nashua were at times rendered 
especially j)i(tures(|ue by the bellying 

Frederick G. Stark and the Merrimack River Canals. 

sails as the boats drove before the 

This part of the river had also upon 
it. for three or four years subsequent to 
1 834, a fair-sized steamboat, plying for 
l>assengers and freight between Nashua 
and Lowell. She was commanded one 
season by Capt. Jacob Vanderbilt of 
Staten Island, New York, brother to the 
late Commodore Vanderbilt. In the 
early part of the season, while the wa- 
ter of the river was at its highest stages, 
it was also thronged with logs and lum- 
ber being taken down for market. The 
larger falls being impassable except by 

structed for navigation purposes about 
the same time as the other Merrimack 
river canals but by different parties, 
who subsequently (in 182 1) sold out 
to the Lowell manufacturing compa- 
nies. Newburyport rafts usually con- 
sisted of ship-timber, masts, lumber, 
and wood ; and, if starling from any 
place below Amoskeag falls, could be 
made into larger shots than those des- 
tined to pass through the Middlesex 
canal, because the Fawtucket canal 
locks were much larger. 

The construction of these canals was 
a great enterprise in that day. Boston 


their canals the logs and lumber had 
necessarily to be bound into rafts oi" 
such dimensions as would pass through 
the locks. And at the larger canals, 
such as the Amoskeag and Middlesex, 
the labor of locking down and towing 
these rafts — called shots — was verv 
considerable and consumed much time. 
Between canals these shots were bound 
together into large rafts of eight or ten 
shots, called bands, and floated down 
with the current, generally at high wa- 
ter, avoiding the locks at the smaller 
canals by running the falls. Many of 
these rafts continued down the river to 
Newburyport, passing the Pawtucket 
falls through a canal and locks con- 

was a town of only about twenty thou- 
sand inhabitants when the Middlesex 
canal was opened ; neither Lowell nor 
Manchester had been commenced ; 
Nashua was a small j^lace, without 
manufacturing, and Concord was a 
country village. 

Massachusetts granted in aid of the 
Middlesex canal two townships in 
Maine, of small value at that time, and 
but little was realized from them. Cu- 
riously enough, a very considerable 
portion of the money for the enterprise 
was raised by lotteries. Notably so in 
the case of the Amoskeag canal, tne 
projectors of which were at several 
different times authorized by the legis- 


Frederick G. Stark and the Merrimack River Canals. 

latiires of New Hampshire and Massa- 
chusetts to estabhsh lotteries for raising 
funds to carry on the work. In a quarrel 
which arose between the lottery mana- 
gers and Judge Blodgett, the leading 
projector of the Amoskeag canal, it was 
alleged on one ftand that the lottery 
drawings were unfairly managed, and 
that the money paid over to the canal 
company was only a part of the pro- 
ceeds. On the other hand, the lottery 

make way for new improvements. The 
writer hereof was born in this house, 
and, having spent his childhood and 
early boyhood on the place, has vivid 
recollections of all its surroundings. 
" Mansion " it has been styled, but as 
a matter of fact it was simply one of 
those large houses so much affected in 
New England in the last century. 
Somewhat more ornate in its external 
finish than the average of such houses, 


managers alleged that a part of the 
money which they did pay over was 
illegally used by Blodgett in building 
" a splendid mansion " for his own resi- 
dence. The " mansion " in question 
was certainly built (about 1795) and 
occupied by Blodgett until his death in 
1807 ; but it was asserted by him, and 
seems wholly probable, that the cost of 
its construction came entirely from his 
private purse. The engraving at the 
head of this article gives a good repre- 
sentation of the house and its surround- 
ings about forty years after its erection, 
at which time sketches were taken 
from which the present drawing was 
made. It stood between the river and 
the old boating canal, below the upper 
locks, and a little north of the present 
site of the Hoyt paper mills. In 1870, 
or about that time, it was torn down to 

but still a heavy, matter-of-fact struct- 
ure, relieved only by the picturesque 
row of tall, lombardy poplars, then in 
fashion at houses of any pretension, and 
by the soft yellow and red colors in 
which the buildings were painted. In- 
ternally it had its large square rooms, 
its tall clock, its brass fire-irons in open 
fireplaces, its wide kitchen chimney and 
its great chambers and attic, common 
to all its class. But the attaching out- 
buildings were uncommonly numerous, 
and included a little red store, contain- 
ing that indescribable and innumerable 
assortment of goods required by a rural 

The owner and master of this man- 
sion, from 1820 to 1837, was Frederick 
Ci. Stark ; a man of the times ; in the 
meridian of life contemporaneously 
with the canal ; superintendent of all 

Frederick G. Stark and the Merrimaek River Canals. 


the navigation works upon the river 
above Middlesex canal : merchant, 
politician, trial justice, surveyor, and 
among the foremost in all the business 
activities of the time and place. A 
short sketch of his life may appropri- 
ately be given in this connection. 

Silhouette profile of Frederick G. Stark. 

Frederick Oilman Stark was born in 
the house of his grandfather, General 
John Stark, at Derryfield, now ^[an- 
chester, August 6, 1792. The place 
of his birth was upon land in the north- 
erly part of Manchester, now owned by 
the state of New Hampshire, and oc- 
cupied for the Reform School. The 
house was destroyed by accidental fire 
in 1866. 

Of the five sons of Oeneral John 
Stark, the third one, John, Jr., known 
in his day as the "justice," inher- 
ited the family mansion and home 
farm, where he had lived with and 
assisted his distinguished father during 
the last forty years of the life of the 
old patriot, and where he spent the re- 
mainder of his own long life engaged 
mostly in agricultural pursuits. His 

third son, Frederick, the subject of this 
memoir, was one of a family of twelve 
children, all of whom lived to advanced 
age and raised families of their own. 
Starting in life with the advantage of a 
good physical constitution, as indicated 
by the remarkable longevity of the fam- 
ily, and what may perhaps be consid- 
ered a further advantage of comparative 
poverty, — the family property being 
inadequate to the support of so many 
children without exertions of their own, 
— Frederick seems to have developi-d 
at an early age a rugged spirit of self- 
reliance, and a determination to make 
his way in the world by his own efforts. 
The years of childhood were passed 
at home. The daily duties of the es- 
tablishment required such aid from the 
children as they were able to give. In 
the winter there was some schooling, 
and in this direction he seems to have 
shown great aptitude, especially for fig- 
ures. There is now in existence a 
manuscript book of complete arithme- 
tic of the higher grade wholly in his 
handwriting, with all the rules and 
examples worked out in detail, em- 
bracing simple rule of three, inverse 
proportion, compound proportion, 
practice, tare and ti^et, single fel- 
lowship, simple interest, compound in- 
terest, commission brokerage, insur- 
ance, discount, bank discount, equa- 
tion of payments, barter, loss and gain, 
alligation medial, alligation alternate, 
position, double position, vulgar frac- 
tions, and decimals. This manuscript 
book is dated in 1809, and has the ap- 
pearance of being his own composition. 
There is no positive evidence of its 
originalty, but it is at least evident that 
he thoroughly mastered the subjects of 
which it treats. He was then seven- 
teen years of age and in attendance 
upon school in Londonderry. 


Frederick G. Stark and the Merrimack Rij'cr Canals. 

His stddious inclinations in these 
early youthful days seem to have opened 
many schoolhouses to his care ; and 
from 1810, when he was eighteeen 
years old, until more mature years 
brought higher responsibilities that ab- 
sorbed all his time and energies, we 
find records of his teaching, for the 
usual short periods of winter schooling, 
in various districts of Manchester and 
the neighboring towns. During this 
period he also mastered, without a 
teacher, the art of surveying land ; and 
subseiiuently, up to a late time in his 
life, his ability as a surveyor was 
endorsed by extensive employment 
throughout his own and neighboring 
towns. His surveys, plans, and papers 
relating thereto are yet much sought 
after as standard references. He was 
ah'j an elegant penman and book- 
keeper, his account-books being mod- 
els of neatness and accuracy. 

But teaching in those days could not 
be a regular occupation. Schools were 
only for a short term in the winter. 
Teachers were poorly paid, and only 
taught when more profitable occupation 
was not at hand. Other business must 
be depended upon, in thi main, for a 
livelihood. A natural aptitude and in- 
clination for trade led him first to ap- 
ply for a situation in a country store ; 
and in 18 10 he took his first lessons 
with Riddle & Whittle, in their Bedford 
( Piscataquog) store, and remained with 
them about six months. He then 
changed into the neighboring store of 
Parker ^: Palmer, where he remained 
two years, leaving December 26, 1812. 
That winter he kept school in district 
No. I of Manchester ; and in the spring 
of 1813 desirmg to see something of 
the surrounding country, he travelled 
through most of the towns of Hills- 
borough, Rockingham, and Middlesex 

counties, paying his way by assuming 
for the occasion the role of a foot- ped- 
dler, carrying his small stock of goods 
in tin hand-trunks. The following ex- 
tract from his diary record of these foot 
journeys illustrate the times : 

"• Thursday, April 1 5th, 181 3 — Set out 
from home in the morning. Went to 
Piscataquog, got on a raft and went down 
to the head of Pawtucket canal, (iot off 
and went to Manning's, near Chelms- 
ford meeting-house, and put up. 

" Friday — Passed down the turnpike 
to Boston. Arrived about half past 2 
p. M. 

"Saturday — Stayed in Boston. 
Walked about town. 

" Sunday — Went to the Roman 
Catholic Church in the forenoon, and 
in the afternoon went in company with 
Charles Stark over Cragie's bridge and 
round to Charlestown. Went on to 
Bunker Hill ; climbed on to General 
Warren's monument, and saw two Brit- 
ish frigates lying off in Boston Bay ; re- 
turned to Boston. 

" Monday — Started from Boston 
about 1 1 o'clock and travelled to old 
Concord. Put up at Davis'es, al)out 
two miles north of the town. 

" Tuesday — Passed up as far as 
Westford. Sold five or six dollars' 
worth of goods during the day. 

" Wednesday — Passed through Car- 
lisle and Groton and put up in Pep- 

"Thursday — Went from Pepperell 
to the upper part of Hollis. Stayed at 
the clothiers. 

" Friday — Arrived at Amherst about 
noon ; took dinner, and then came on 
and put up a little before night at the 

" Thursday, April 29th — Passed 
through Londonderry, Hampstead, 

Frederick G. Stark and the Merrimack River Canals. 


riaistow. and Haverhill and stayed in 

" Friday — Walked to Ames'es in An- 
dover, then got on board the stage and 
went to Boston. Arrived about 2 p. m. 
Saw the marshalls of the W. B. S. with 
their banners pass into Faneuil hall. 
They were accompanied by three uni- 
formed companies and an excellent 
band of music, and made a very splen- 
did appearance. 

"Saturday, May ist — Left Boston 
after breakfast. Passed over Cam- 
bridge bridge ; got on board a wagon 
and rode to Concord ; then walked to 
Acton and put up at Stearns 'es. 

'• Sunday — Spent the day in Acton. 
Went to meeting in the forenoon, and 
spent the afternoon in and about the 

" Monday — Passed through Litdeton 
and put up at a private house in Grot- 
on. Polly brought in the milk and 
strained it into a large wooden bowl, 
then seated herself at the table and 
crumbed the bread into some pewter 
basons, and with a tin dipper laded the 
milk from the wooden bowl ; then 
handed the old gentleman his bason 
and one to Phineas, and I was seated 
at the table to eat mine. 

" Tuesday — Passed through a part of 
Shirley and through Lunenberg to 
Townsend. Put up at Stines'. 

" Wednesday — Passed through Ash- 
by and New Ipswich to the north part 
of Temple. Stayed at Farrar's. 

'• Thursday — Through Wilton and a 
part of Milford to Mont Vernon. 
Stayed in the north part of the town. 

" Friday — From Mont Vernon to 
New Boston and Goffstown. Dined at 
Caldwell's. Arrived home about half 
past three. Cold N. E. storm." 

I'he first cotton factory at the falls of 
Amoskeag was erected and put in op- 

eration in 181 I. It stood near the 
head of the falls on the west side of 
the river, then in (roffstown, about upon 
the ground now occupied by the Che- 
ney paper mills, within the present lim- 
its of Manchester. The product was 
cotton yarn only, which was sold to be 
woven in domestic looms. Jotham 
(iillis was the first agent of this factory 
company. He was succeeded as agent, 
successively, by Philemon Walcott, John 
G. Moore, and Frederick G. Stark. 
Mr. Stark's appointment dating from 
July 28, i8i3,and terminating May 11, 
1 8 14, when he went into trade, in 
Goffstown, as a partner to Capt. Trask. 
From this time until 1820 he contin- 
ued in trade at Goffstown and at Man- 
chester with various partners. In 1820, 
after occupying the place two years un- 
der a lease, he purchased the Blodgett 
mansion with its attaching property, for 
residence and place of business, and 
lived and traded there on his account 
up to the time when he removed to 
Bedford in 1837. 

In 18 1 5 he was united in marriage 
with Nancy Gillis, daughter of Jotham 
Gillis, Esq., — above referred to as the 
first agent of the Amoskeag factory, — 
a lady in every way calculated to pro- 
mote his happiness and prosperity, and 
whose Christian virtues and benevolent 
life endeared her to all who came with- 
in her sphere. Their happy marriage 
relation continued unbroken through 
forty-one years, until her decease in 

The first agent appointed by the 
Canal company, " to superintend the 
said canals, to collect tolls," &c., was 
Samuel P. Kidder, who had for many 
years been Blodgett's assistant and con- 
fidential secretary. He held the ap- 
pointment until his decease in 1822, 
when Frederick G. Stark was appointed 


F> ederick G. Stark and the Merrimack River Canals. 

his successor. Mr. Stark held the po- 
sition continuously about fifteen years 
until 1837. During this period his cor- 
respondence shows him to have been 
in active communication with the Bos- 
ton agents of the proprietors of the 
Middlesex canal, who also owned or 
controlled the river canals, and he ap- 
pears to have at all times enjoyed their 
full confidence. 

In summer, matters connected with 
the river navigation and trade absorbed 
his attentton. In winter there was leis- 
ure for public affairs. So prominent 
and active a man, possessing such keen 
abilities, could not fail to become iden- 
tified with the business affairs of the 
town. We accordingly find that from 
1819 to 1837, he held some town office 
almost every year. From 18 19 to 
1823, inclusive, he was town-clerk. 
He was on the board of selectmen in 
1826-7-9, 1831-2-4-5-6, and as mod- 
derator in 1 830-1-2-7. He repre- 
sented the town in the lower branch of 
the legislature in 1824-5-6, and was a 
member of the state senate in 1830 and 
1 83 1. Most of the small quarrels of 
the neighborhood were brought before 
him, as justice of the peace, for trial or 
adjustment. His record-book of trials 
is carefully written out, and indicates 
discreet judgment in his decisions. 
The river community had many rough 
members, and naturally a considerable 
proportion of the cases tried before his 
justice court were for assault and bat- 
tery. It appears that the expense of 
giving a man a sound beating was, gen- 
erally, about four dollars and costs. 

In 1833 Mr. Stark was appointed one 
of the side judges of the court of com- 
mon pleas for Hillsborough county. A 
position — since abolished in 1855 — for 
which his business qualifications and 
knowledge of the county eminently fit- 

ted him. He retained the pl^ce about 
three years. Geo, A. Ramsdell, Esq., 
says, in his history of the Hillsborough 
bench and bar, " It is generally sup- 
posed that these judges were but orna- 
mental appendages to the learned judge 
who actively presided in court ; but in 
addition to the discharge of the dudes 
now substantially performed by the 
county commissioners, they often aided 
the court by their sterling common- 
sense, in matters requiring not legal 
learning merely, but an acquaintance 
with men and the ordinary concerns of 
life, which is not always possessed by 
learned lawyers." 

The commencement of the present 
manufacturing establishments of Man- 
chester dates from 1836. In that year 
the Amoskeag Company began to pur- 
chase the land adjacent to the falls, 
with a view of constructing canals and 
factories and building up a manufactur- 
ing town. Mr. Stark sold to them such 
of his real estate as they desired, in- 
cluding the residence at the old Blodg- 
ett mansion, and at once commenced 
to build him a new dwelling in the 
neighboring village of Piscataquog, — 
then in Bedford, but since annexed to 
Manchester, — where he took up his 
residence the next year, and from which 
he never removed. From this period 
(1837) to 1847, or later, he continued 
his mercantile business in the village of 
Piscataquog. He also held the office 
of high sheriff of the county for five 
years, — from 1837 to 1842. Subse- 
quently his attention was absorbed in 
the care and management of his invest- 
ments, especially his landed property, 
which, being situated in and near the 
growing city of Manchester, had be- 
come valuable. Thus passed his de- 
declining years. Identified with the 
local projects of his vicinity, in good 

Frederick G. Stark and the Merrimack River Canals. 


fellowship with his neighbors, and re- 
spected by all who knew him, his latter 
years were in quiet contrast to the rest- 
less energy of earlier times. 

The death of his wife, in 1856, 
seemed to mark the turning-point of 
his life. From that time his health 
gradually declined. Four years later 
he was stricken by a slight paralytic 

opening of the railroad to Lowell in 
1835, to Nashua in 1838, and to Con- 
cord in 1842 were successive steps of 
destruction to the whole system of 
river navigation, and culminated in a 
total abandonment of the canals soon 
after the Concord Railroad was put in 

A hardy race of boatmen, pilots, and 


shock, and on the 26th day of March, 
1 86 1, he died, aged nearly 69 years. 
The public journals of that date paid 
him this just tribute of respect : 

"Judge Stark was a man remarkable 
for his industry, energy, and correct 
business habits ; and as the result of 
nearly half a century of public and 
private business has left behind a repu- 
tation for reliability and strict integrity 
second to no man in the state." 

The Merrimack river canals were 
blotted out by the railroads. The 

raftsmen — men of uncommon strength 
and endurance, skilful in their calling 
but unfamiliar with other labors-were 
suddenly and permanently thrown out 
of employment. The wooden dams 
and locks went to decay, the embank- 
ments were cut and ploughed down, 
and successive spring freshets have 
hurled their icy batteries against the 
stone abutments and lock walls until 
they are nearly obliterated, and the 
next generation will know not of 

/^ What the Old Clock Says. 



Tick, tick, he whispers tales of love 

To milkmaid by the bars ; 
She blushes like the new-blown rose 

Beneath the smiling stars. 

Tick, tick, the white-haired priest has come. 

'I'o join their holy love, 
And down from out propitious skies 

The angels smile above. 

Tick, tick, and smiles a pretty babe 

To join them closer yet. 
And mothers said from out the heart 

Two mates for once are met. 

Tick, lick, and now her aged form 

Is still at last in death ; 
.\ rugged son, a faded sire. 

Are mourning 'neath the l)reatii. 

Tick, tick, and now tw(.) holy graves 

Are mouldering side by side. 
The bridegroom of her earliest love, 

And she, his lovely bride. 

Tick, tick, and by two graves at last 

The son stands there alone ; 
The world is large, but crowds of men 

Heed not his piteous moan. 

Tick, tick, tick, tick, and now 

The graves are one, — two, — three 1 

The same sweet skies are smiling yet 
( )n flower and weed and lea. 

The old clock still is ticking on 

Beside the great hall door. 
The same old face, tho' faded some. 

We saw in days of yore. 

Its solemn tick more solemn still, 

Does softly say to all : 
" From life to death we all must go, 

The fairest flower -.vill fall I " 

Clarcmont, N. H., July 23, 1883. 

Young Men's Christian Associations. 



By Russell Sturgis, Jr. 

There is an old French proverb 
which runs : '■' L'homme propose, et 
Dieu dispose," which is but the echo of 
the Scripture, " A man's heart deviseth 
his way, but the Lord directeth his 

Founder of Young Men's Christian Associations. 

steps." In truth, God alone sees the 
end from the beginning. 

From the beginning men have been 
constantly building better than they 
knew. No unprejudiced man who 
looks at history can fail to see from 
how small and apparently unimportant 
an event has sprung the greatest results 
to the individual, tlie nation, and the 
world. The Christian, at least, needs 
no other explanation of this than that 
his God, without whose knowledge no 
sparrow falleth to the ground, guides all 
the affairs of the world. Surelv God did 
not make the world, and purchase the 

salvation of its tenants by the sacrifice 
of his Son, to take no further interest in 
it, but leave it subject either to fixed 
law or blind chance ! Indeed the God 
who provided for the wants of his 
people in the wilderness is a God who 
changeth not. The principles which 
once guided him must guide him to-day 
and forev'er. There never has been a 
time when to the open eye it was not 
clear that he provides for every want 
of his creatures. Did chance or the 
unassisted powers of man discover coal, 
when wood was becoming scarce ? and 
oil and gas from coal, when the whale 
was failing? Cowper's mind was clear 
when he said : — 

" Deep in unfathomable mines 
With never-failing skill, 
He treasures up his bright designs, 
And works his gracious will." 

If in his temporal affairs God cares 
for man, much more will he do for his 
soul. Great multitudes of young men 
came to be congregated in the cities, 
and Satan spread his nets at every 
street-corner to entrap them. 

In 1837, George Williams, then six- 
teen years of age, employed in a dry- 
goods establishment, in Bridgewater, 
England, gave himself to the service of 
the Lord Jesus Christ. He immediately 
began to influence the young men with 
him, and many of them were con- 
verted. In 1 84 1, Williams came to' 
London, and entered the dry-goods 
liouse of Hitchcock and Company. 
Here he found himself one of more 
than eighty young men, almost none of 
them Christians. He found, however, 
among them a few professed Christians, 


Young Mais Christian Associations, 

and these he gathered in his bed- 
room, to pray for the rest. The number 
increased — a larger room was neces- 
sary, which was readily obtained from 
Mr. Hitchcock. The work spread from 
one establishment to another, and on 
the sixth of June, 1844, in Mr. Will- 
iams's bedroom the first Young Men's 
Christian Association was formed. 

In 1844, one association in the 
world: in November, 185 1, one asso- 
ciation in America, at Montreal ; 
in December, one month after, 
with no knowledge on the part of 
either of the other's plan, one asso- 
ciation in the United States, at Boston. 
Was it a mere hap that these two 
groups formed simultaneously the 
associations which were always to 
unite the young Christian men of the  
two countries, and to grow together, 
till to-day the little one has become 
a thousand ? 

Forty years ago, one little associa- 
tion in London : to-day Great Britain 
dotted all over with them ; one hun- 
dred and ninety in England and 
Wales ; one hundred and seventy- 
eight in Scodand, and twenty in Ireland. 
France has eight districts, or groups, 
containing sixty-four associations. Ger- 
many, divided into five bunds, has four 
hundred ; Holland, its eleven prov- 
inces, with three hundred and thirty- 
five ; Romansch Switzerland, eighty- 
seven ; German Switzerland, one 
hundred and thirty-five ; Belgium, 
eighteen ; Spain, fourteen ; Italy, ten ; 
Turkey in Europe, one, at Philip- 
popolis ; Sweden and Norway, 
seventy-one ; xA.ustria, two, at Vienna 
and Budapesth ; Russia, eight, among 
them Moscow and St. Petersburg ; 
Turkey in Asia, nine ; Syria, five, 
at Beirut, Damascus, Jaffa, Jerusalem, 
and Nazareth ; India, five ; Japan, 

two ; Sandwich Islands, one, at 
Honolulu ; Australia, twenty-seven ; 
South Africa, seven ; Madagascar, two ; 
West Indies, three ; British Guiana, 
one, at Georgetown ; South America 
(besides), three; Canada and British 
Provinces, fifty-one. In the United 
States, seven hundred and eighty-six. 
In all, nearly twenty-seven hundred, 
scattered over the world, and all the 


Chairman of the International Executive 
Committee Y. M. C. A. 

outgrowth of forty years. It has been 
said that the sun never rises anywhere 
that it is not saluted by the British 
reveille. Look how quickly the organ- 
ization of young men has stretched its 
cordon round the world, and dotted it 
all over with the tents of its conflict for 
them against the opposing forces of the 
evil one. 

What are its characteristics ? 

I. It is the universal church of 
Christ, working through its young men 
for the salvation of young men. In the 
words of a paper, read at the last 
world's conference, at London : — 

YoJCJKT Men' s CJiristian Associations. 


" The fundamental idea of the organ- thus emphasized at the Chicago con- 
ization, on which all subsequent sub- vention in 1863, in the following 
stantial development has been based, resolutions presented by the Reverend 
was simply this : that in the associated Henry C. Potter, then of Troy, and 
effort of young men connected with the now assistant bishop of the diocese 
various branches of the church of of New York : — 


Christ hes a great power to promote 
their own development and help their 
fellows, thus prosecuting the work of 
the church among the most-important, 
most-tempted, and least-cared-for class 
in the community." 

The distinct work for young men was 

" Resolved, That the interests and 
welfare of young men in our cities 
demand, as heretofore, the steadfast 
sympathies and efforts of the Young 
Men's Christian Associations of this 

"Resolved, That the various means by 


Young Mens CJtristian Associations. 

which Christian associations can gain 
a hold upon young men, and preserve 
them from unhealthy companionship 
and the deteriorating influences of our 
large cities, ought to engage our most 
earnest and prayerful consideration." 

2. It is a Christian work. It stands 
upon the basis of the faith of the 
church of all ages, which is thus set 
forth in the formula of this organiza- 

The convention in 1856 promptly 
accepted and ratified the Paris basis, 
adopted by the first world's conference 
of the associations, in the following 
language : — 

"The Young Men's Christian Asso- 
ciations seek to unite those young men 
who, regarding Jesus Christ as their 
God and Saviour, according to the 
Holy Scriptures, desire to be his dis- 
ciples in their doctrine and in their 
life, and to associate their efforts for 
the extension of his kingdom among 
young men." 

This was reaffirmed in the convention 
of t866 at Albany. In 1868, at the 
Detroit convention, was adopted what 
is known as the evangelical test, and at 
the Portland convention of 1869 the 
definition of the term evangelical ; they 
are as follows : — 

"As these associations bear the 
name of Christian, and profess to be 
engaged directly in the Saviour's service, 
so it is clearly their duty to maintain 
the control and management of all their 
affairs in the hands of those who love 
and publicly avow their faith in Jesus 
the Redeemer as divine, and who testify 
their faith by becoming and remaining 
members of churches held to be evan- 
gelical : and we hold those churches to 
be evangelical which, maintaining the 
Holy Scriptures to be the only infallible 
rule of faith and practice, do beUeve in 

the Lord Jesus Christ (the only begotten 
of the Father, King of kings and Lord 
of lords, in whom dwelleth the fulness 
of the Godhead, bodily, and who was 
made sin for us, though knowing no sin, 
bearing our sins in his own body on the 
tree) as the only name under heaven 
given among men, whereby we must be 
saved from everlasting punishment." 

But while the management is thus 
rightly kept in the hands of those who 
stand together upon the platform of the 
church of Christ, the benefits and all 
other privileges are for all young men 
of good morals, whether Greek, 
Romanist, heretic, Jew, Moslem, 
heathen, or infidel. Its field, the world. 
Wherever there are young men, there is 
the association field, and an extended 
work must be organized. Already in 
August, i8'55, the importance of the 
work made conference necessary, and 
thirty-five delegates met at Paris, of 
whom seven were from the United 
States, and the same number from 
Great Britain. 

In 1858, a second conference was 
held at Geneva, with one hundred and 
fifty -eight delegates. In 1862, at 
London, were present ninety - seven 
delegates; in 1865, at Elberfeld, one 
hundred and forty; in 1867, at Paris, 
ninety-one; in 1872, at Amsterdam, 
one hundred and eighteen; in 1875, 
at Hamburg, one hundred and twenty- 
five ; in 1878, at Geneva, two hundred 
and seven, — forty-one from the United 
States ; in 1881, in London, three 
hundred and thirty-eight, — seventy- 
five from the United States. 

At the conference of 1878, in Geneva, 
a man in the prime of life, and partner 
in a leading banking-house of that city, 
was chosen president. He spoke with 
almost equal ease the three languages 
of the conference — English, French, 

Young Mejis Christian Associations. 


and German. Shortly after that con- 
vention Mr. Fermand gave up his 
business and became the general sec- 
retary of the world's committee of the 
Youns: Men's Christian Associations. 
He traveled over the whole continent 
of Europe, visiting the associations, 
and then came to America to make 

of all nations, brought together by the 
love of one person, each speaking in his 
own tongue, praising the one name, 
so similar in each, — that name alone 
in each address needing no interpre- 

The conference meets this year, in 
August, at Berlin, when probably as 


acquaintance with our plans of work. 
Now stationed at Geneva, with some 
resident members of the convention, 
ne keeps up the intercourse of the 
associations through nine members 
representing the principal nations. I 
have spoken of the three languages of 
the conference. It is a wonderful in- 
spiration to find one's self in a gathering 

many as one hundred delegates will be 
present from the United States. 

But inter-association organization has 
gone much further in this country 
than elsewhere, and communication is 
exceedingly close between tlie nine 
hundred associations of America. 

The first conception of uniting asso- 
ciations came to the Reverend William 


Young Men's Christian Associations. 

ChauRcey Langdon, then a layman, and 
a member of the Washington Asso- 
ciation, now rector of the Episcopal 
Church at Bedford, Pennsylvania. Mr. 
McBurney, in his fine Historical Sketch 
of Associations, says : " Many of the 
associations of America owe their indi- 
vidual existence to the organization 
effected through his wise foresight. 
The associations of our land, and in 
all lands, owe a debt of gratitude to 
Mr. Langdon far greater than has ever 
been recognized." Oscar Cobb, of 
Buffalo, and Mr. Langdon signed the 
call to the first convention, which 
assembled on June 7, 1854, at Buffalo. 
This was the first conference of associa- 
tions held in the English-speaking world. 
Here was appointed a central committee, 
located at Washington, and six else- 

In i860, Philadelphia was made the 
headquarters. The confederation of 
associations and its committee came 
to an end in Chicago, June 4, 1863, 
and the present organization with its 
international executive committee was 
born, with members increasing in 
number. The committee now numbers 
thirty-three, two being resident in New 
York City. 

In the year 1865, a committee was 
appointed by the convention at Phila- 
delphia. The president of this con- 
vention became the chairman of the 
international executive committee, con- 
sisting of ten members resident in 
New York City, and twenty-three 
placed at different prominent points in 
the United States and British Provinces. 
There is also a corresponding member 
of the committee in each State and 
province, and means of constant com- 
munication between the committee and 
each association, and between the 
several associations, through the Young 

Men's Christian Association Watchman, 
a sixteen-paged paper, published each 
fortnight in Chicago. 

On the sixteenth day of April, 1883, 
the international committee, which had 
been superintending the work since 
1865, was incorporated in the State of 
New York. Cephas Brainerd, a lawyer 
of New York City, a direct descendant 
of the Brainerds of Connecticut, and 


present owner of the homestead, has 
always been chairman of the committee, 
and, from a very large practice, has 
managed to take an immense amount 
of time for this work, which has more 
and more taken hold on his heart, — and 
here let me say that I know no work,, 
not even that of foreign missions, 
which takes such, a grip upon those 
who enter upon it. Time, means, 
energy, strength, have been lavishly 
poured out by them. Mr. Brainerd 
and his committee work almost as 
though it were their only work, and yet 
each member of the committee is one 
seemingly fully occupied with his busi- 
ness or professional duties. See the 
members of the Massachusetts com- 
mittee, so fired with love for this work 
that, in the gospel canvasses of the 
State, after working all day, many of 
them give from forty to fifty evenings,. 
sometimes traveling all night to get 
back to their work in the morning. It 
is no common cause that thus draws 
men out of themselves for others. 
Then, too, I greatly doubt where there 
are such hard-worked men as the 
general secretaries, — days and evenings 
filled with work that never ends ; the 
work the more engrossing and exacting 
because it combines physical and men- 
tal with spiritual responsibility. We 
who know this are not surprised to find 
the strength of these men failing. 
Those who employ them should care- 

Yo?mg Men's CJiristian Associations. 


fully watch that relief is promptly because the appliances are too expen- 

given from time to time as needed. 
There are now more than three hundred 
and fifty of these paid secretaries. Now, 
look back over the whole history of the 
associations, and can you doubt that 
he who meets the wants of his 

sive for the individual churches. Large 
well-situated buildings, with all possible 
right attractions, are simply necessary to 
success in this work. These things are 
so expensive that the united church 
only can procure them. That in 


creatures has raised up the organization 
for the express purpose of saving young 
men as a class? And to do this he 
employs the church itself — not the 
church in its separate organizations, but 
the church universal. A work for all 
young men should be by the young men 
of the whole church. First, because it 
is young manhood that furnishes the 
common ground of sympathy. Second, 

Philadelphia cost $700,000; in New 
York, $500,000 ; in Boston, more than 
$300,000 ; in Baltimore, $250,000 ; in 
Chicago, $150,000; San Francisco, 
$76,000; Montreal, $67,000; To- 
ronto, $48,000 ; HaUfax, $36,000 ; 
West New Brighton, New York, $19,- 
000 ; at the small town of Rockport, 
Massachusetts, about $4,000 ; and at 
Nahant, $2,000. In all these are 


Young Men's Christian Associations. 

eighty buildings, worth more than 
^3,000,000, while as many more 
have land or building-funds. Third, 
how blessedly this sets forth the vital 
unity of Christ's church, " that they 

most conspicuous has been that at the 
West and South. In 1868, the con- 
vention authorized the employment of 
a secretary for the West. This man, 
Robert Weidansall, a graduate of Penn- 

may all be one," and also distinguishes sylvania College, Gettysburg, was found 

working in the shops of the Pacific 
Railroad Company at Omaha. He 
had intended entering the ministry, but 
his health failed him. To-day there 

them from all other religious bodies. 
" Come out from among them and be 
ye separate." 

This association work is divided into 
local (the city or town), state 
or home mission, the inter- 
national and foreign mission. 

The local is purely a city 
or town work. The "state," 
which I have called the home 
mission, is thoroughly to can- 
vass the State, learn where 
the association is needed, 
plant it there, strengthen all 
existing associations, and 
keep open communication 
between all. This is also the 
international work, but its 
field is the United States 
and British Provinces, under 
the eiificient management of 
this committee. 

As has been said, the con- 
vention of 1866 appointed 
the international committee, 
which was directed to call 
and arrange for state and 
provincial conventions. This 
is the result : in 1866, no state or pro- is no question as to his health — he has 
vincial committee or conventions. Now, a superb physique, travels constantly, 
thirty-three such committees, thirty-one works extremely hard, and has been 
of which hold state or provincial con- wonderfully successful. When he be- 
ventions, together with a large number gan there were thirty-nine associations 
of district and local conferences. in the States of Indiana, Illinois, 

In 1870, Mr. R. C. Morse, a graduate Michigan, Wisconsin, Iowa, Minnesota, 
of Yale College, and a minister of the Missouri, Kansas, Nebraska, Kentucky, 
Presbyterian Church, became the gen- and Tennessee. There was only one 
eral secretary of the committee and secretary, and no building. Now there 
continues such to-day. Of the mis- are nearly three hundred associations, 
sionary work of the committee the spending more than one hundred and 


Young Mciis Christian Associations. 


ten thousand dollars ; twenty general 
secretaries, and five buildings. Nine 
States are organized, and five employ- 
state secretaries. The following words 
from a recent Kansas report sound 
strangely, almost like a joke, to one who 
remembers the peculiar influence of 
Missouri upon the infant Kansas : 
" Kansas owes much of her standing 
to-day to the fostering care and efforts 
of the Missouri state executive com- 

not only harmony prevailed, but it 
seemed as though each were trying to 
prove to the other his intenser brotherly 
love. The cross truly conquered. No 
one who was present can ever forget 
those scenes, or cease to bless God for 
what I truly believe was the greatest 
step toward the uniting again of North 
and South. Mr. T. K. Cree has had 
charge of this w^ork since the begin- 
ning. Not only has sectional spreading 

-^--;lifiMU«tflU; TURUNTQ  ^ ^ 


mittee." In 1870, two visitors were 
sent to the Southern States. There 
were then three associations only be- 
tween Virginia and Texas. There are 
now one hundred and fifty-seven. 

Previous to the Civil War the work 
was well under way, but had been almost 
entirely given up. Our visitors were 
not at once received as brethren, but 
Christian love did its work and gradu- 
ally all differences were forgotten by 
these Christians in the wonderful tie 
which truly united them, and when, in 
1877, the convention met at Richmond, 

of associations been done by the com- 
mittee, but, in the language of the 
report already quoted : " Special classes 
of young men, isolated in a measure 
from their fellows by virtue of occupa- 
tion, training, or foreign birth, have 
from time to time so strongly appealed 
to the attention of the American asso- 
ciations as to elicit specific efforts in 
their behalf." Thus, in 1868, the first 
secretary of the committee was directed 
to devote his time to railroad employees. 
For one year he labored among them. 
The general call on his time then be- 


YouHo- Meiis Christian Associations. 

came so imperative that he was obliged 
to leave the railroad work. This work 
had been undertaken at St. Albans, 
Vermont, in 1854, and in Canada in 
1S55. The first really important step 
in this work was at Cleveland in 1872, 
when an employee of a railroad com- 
pany, who had been a leader in every 
kind of dissipation, was converted. 
He immediately began to use his 
influence among his comrades, and 
such was the power of the Spirit that 
the Cleveland Association took up the 
work and began holding meetings 
especially for these men. In 1877, Mr. 
E. D. Ingersol was appointed by the 
international committee to superintend 
the work. There has been no rest 
for him in this. A leading railroad 
official says : " Ingersol is indeed a 
busy man. Night and day he travels. 
To-day. a railroad president wants him 
here, to-morrow a manager summons 
him. He is going like a shuttle back 
and forth across the country, weaving 
the web of railroad associations." 
When he entered on the work there 
were but three railroad secretaries ; now 
there are nearly seventy. There 
are now over sixty branches in opera- 
tion ; and the work is going on besides 
at twenty-five points ; almost a hundred 
different places, therefore, where specific 
work is done for railroad men. They 
own seven buildings, valued at thirty- 
three thousand two hundred and fifty 
dollars. The expense of maintaining 
these reading-rooms is over eighty 
thousand dollars, and more than two 
thirds of this is paid by the corporations 
themselves ; most of the secretaries 
are on the regular pay-rolls of the 
companies. How can this be done? 
Simply because the officers see such a 
return from this expenditure in the 
morals and efficiency of their men that 

they have no doubt as to the propriety 
of the investment. 

Mr. William Thaw, vice-president of 
the Pennsylvania Company, writes : 
" This work is wholly good, both for the 
men and the roads which they serve." 
Mr. C. Vanderbilt, first vice-president 
of the New York Central and Hudson 
River Railroad, writes : " Few things 
about railroad affairs afford more satis- 
factory returns than these reading- 
rooms." Mr. J. H. Devereux, of 
Cleveland, president of the Cleveland, 
Columbus, Cincinnati, and Indianapo- 
lis Railway, writes : " The association 
work has from the beginning (now 
ten years ago) been prosecuted at 
Cleveland satisfactorily and with good 
results. The conviction of the board 
of superintendents is that the influence 
of the room and the work in connection 
with it has been of great value to both 
the employer and the employed, and 
that the instrumentalities in question 
should not only be encouraged but 
further strengthened." Mr. John W. 
Garrett, president of the Baltimore and 
Ohio Railroad Company, says : " A sec- 
retary of the Young Men's Christian 
Association, for the service of the Balti- 
more and Ohio Railroad Company, was 
appointed in 1879, ^^^ ^ ^"^^ gratified 
to be able to say that the officers un- 
der whose observation his efforts have 
been conducted informed me that this 
work has been fruitful of good results." 
Mr. Thomas Dickson, president of the 
Delaware and Hudson Canal Company, 
writes : " This company takes an active 
interest in the prosperity of the associa- 
tion, and will cheerfully co-operate in 
all proper methods for the extension of 
its usefulness." Mr. H. B. Ledyard, 
general manager of the Michigan Cen- 
tral Railroad Company, writes : " I have 
taken a deep interest in the work of 

Yoimz Mens CJiristian Associations. 


the Young Men's Christian Association tendent of another, and other officials, 
among railroad men, and believe that, are serving on the railroad committee 
leaving out all other questions, it is a of the Young Men's Christian Associa- 


paying investment for a railroad com- 

These are a few out of a great num- 
ber of assurances from railroad men 
of the value of this organization. In 
Chicago, the president of one of the 
leading railroads, the general superin- 

tion, and it is hoped that at every 
railway centre there may soon be 
an advisory committee of the work. 
Such a committee is now forming in 
Boston. This work should interest 
every individual, because it touches 
every one who ever journeys by train. 


Yowig Mens Christian Associations. 

Speak as some men may, faithlessly, 
concerning religion, where is the man 
who would not feel safer should he 
know that the engineer and conductor 
of his train were Christians? men not 
only caring for others, but themselves 
especially cared for. 

Frederick von Schluembach, of noble 
birth, an officer in the Prussian army, 
was a leader there in infidelity and 
dissipation to such a degree as to drive 
him to this country at the time of our 
Civil War. He went into service and 
attained to the rank of captain. His 
conversion was remarkable and he 
brought to his Saviour's service all the 
intense earnestness and zeal that he had 
been giving to Satan. He joined the 
Methodists and became a minister 
among them. His heart went out to 
the multitudes of his countrymen here, 
and especially to the young; thus he 
came in contact with the central com- 
mittee and was employed by them to 
visit German centres. This was in 
1871, in Baltimore, where took place 
the first meeting of the national bund 
of German-speaking associations. At 
their request Mr. Von Schluembach 
took the field, which has resulted, after 
extreme opposition on the part of the 
German churches, in eight German 
Young Men's Christian Associations, 
besides an equal number of German 
committees in associations. When we 
remember that there are more than two 
million Germans in this country, and 
that New York is the fourth German city 
in the world, we can scarcely over- 
estimate the greatness of this work. 
Mr. Von Schluembach was obliged on 
account of ill health to go to Germany 
for a while, and, recovering, formed 
associations there, — the one in Berlin 
being especially powerful, some of 
*' Caesar's household " holding official 
Vol. I. — No. VI. — c. 

positions in it. He has now returned, 
and with Claus Olandt, Jr., is again at 
work among his countrymen. His first 
work on returning was to assist in raising 
fifty thousand dollars for the German 
building in New York City. 

Mr. Henry E. Brown has always 
since the war been intensely interested 
in the colored men of the South. 
Shortly after graduation at Oberlin 
College, Ohio, he founded, and was for 
two years president of, a college for 
colored men in Alabama. He is now 
secretary for the committee among this 
class at the South, and speaks most 
encouragingly of the future of thi". 

In 1877, there was graduated a young 
man named L. D. Wishard, from 
Princeton College. To him seems to 
^have been given a great desire for an 
inter-collegiate religious work. He, 
with his companions, issued a call to 
collegians to meet at the general con- 
vention of Young Men's Christian 
Associations at Louisville. Twenty-two 
colleges responded and sent delegates. 
Mr. Wishard was appointed inter- 
national secretary. One hundred and 
seventy-five associations have now been 
formed, with nearly ten thousand mem- 
bers. These colleges report about 
ninety Bible-classes during the past 
year. Fifteen hundred students have 
professed conversion through the asso- 
ciation ; of these forty have decided to 
enter the ministry, and two of these are 
going to the foreign fields. 

The work is among the men most 
likely to occupy the highest position in 
the country, hence its importance is 
very great. Mr. Wishard is quite over- 
taxed and help has been given him at 
times, but he needs, and so also does 
the railroad work, an assistant secretary. 

There is a class of men in our 

Young Mens Christian Associations. 


community who are almost constantly 
traveling. Rarely at home, they go 
from city to city. The temptations to 
these men are peculiar and very great. 
In 1879, Mr. E. W. Watkins, himself 
one of this class of commercial travelers, 
was appointed secretary in their behalf. 
He has since visited all the principal 
associations, and has crer.ted an interest 
in these neglected men. Among the 
appliances which are productive of the 
most good is the traveler's ticket, which 
entitles him to all the privileges of mem- 
bership in any place where an associa- 
tion may be. A second most valuable 
work is the hotel-visiting done by more 
than fifty associations each week. The 
hotel -registers are consulted on Saturday 
afternoon, and a personal note is sent 
to each young man, giving him the 
times of service at the several churches 
and inviting him to the rooms. Is it 
necessary to call the attention of busi- 
ness men to the importance to them- 
selves of this work? Is it not patent? 
You cannot follow the young man 
whose honesty and clear-headedness is 
of such consequence to you. God has 
put it into the heart of this association 
to try and care for those men upon 
whom your success largely depends. 
Can you be blind to its value ? Every 
individual man who employs commer- 
cial travelers should aid the work. But 
how is all this great work for young men 
carried on? It requires now thirty thou- 
sand dollars a year to do it. Of this 
sum New York pays more than one half, 
Pennsylvania about one sixth, and 
Massachusetts less than one fifteenth. 
But to do this work properly, — this 
work of the universal church of Christ 
for young men, — at least one third 
more, or forty thousand dollars a year, 
is needed. There is another need, 
however, much harder to meet — the 

men to fill the places calling earnestly 
for general secretaries. There are 
nearly three hundred and fifty paid 
employees in the field, representing 
about two hundred associations. Since 
every association should have a secre- 
tary, and there are nearly, if not quite, 
nine hundred, the need will be clearly 
seen. This need it is proposed to meet 
by training men in schools established 
for the purpose. Something of this has 
already been done in New York State 
and at Peoria, Illinois, and there must 
soon be a regular training-school estab- 
lished to accommodate from fifty to 
one hundred men. 

This is a very meagre sketch of 
a great work. How inadequately it 
portrays it, none know so well as those 
who are immediately connected with it. 
Could you have been present at a 
dinner given a few months ago to the 
secretaries of the international com- 
mittee, and heard each man describe 
his field and its needs ; could you have 
seen the intensity with which each 
endeavored to make us feel what he 
himself realized, that his special field 
was the most important, — you would 
have come to our conclusion : that 
each field was all-important, and that 
each man was in his proper place, 
peculiarly fitted for it and assigned to 
it by the Master. 

A prominent divine has lately said : 
" I believe the Young Men's Christian 
Association to be the greatest religious 
fact of the nineteenth century." 

What has been effected by this fact ? 
Thousands of young men in all parts 
of the world have been brought to 
Jesus Christ. It has been the training- 
school for Moody, Whittle, and hosts of 
laymen who are to-day proclaiming the 
simple Gospel. It has organized great 
evangehstic movements both here and 

George Fuller. 

abroad. It formed the Christian Com- 
mission* which not only reUeved the 
wants of the body during our war, 
but sent hundreds of Christ's mission- 
aries to the hospitals and battle-fields. 
It has gloriously manifested the unity of 
Christ's true church. It stands to-day 
an organic body, instinct with one life, 
spreading its limbs through the world, 
active, alert, ready at any moment to 
respond to the call of the church, and 

enables it to present an unbroken front 
to superstition and infidelity, which al- 
ready rear their brazen heads against 
Christ and his church, and will soon 
be in open rebellion and actual war- 
fare, and which Christ at his coming 
will forever destroy. 

[Note. — Through the kindness of Messrs. Harper 
and Brothers, of New York, we present to our readers 
the two portraits in this article. For the cuts of the 
buildings we are indebted to the Chicago Watchman, 
mention of which is made above. — R. S., Jr.] 


By Sidney Dickinson. 

The death of George Fuller has 
removed a strong and original figure 
from the activity of American art, and 
added a weighty name to its history. 
To speak of him now, while his work 
is fresh in the public mind, is a labor 
of some peril ; so easy is it, when the 
sense of loss is keen, to make mistakes 
in judgment, and to allow the friendly 
spirit to prevail over the judicial, in an 
estimation of him as a man and a 
painter. Yet he has gone in and out 
before us long enough to make a study 
of him profitable, and to give us, even 
now, some occasion for an opinion as 
to the place he is likely to occupy in 
the annals of our native art. Mr. 
Fuller held a peculiar position in 
American painting, and one which 
seems likely to remain hereafter un- 
filled. He followed no one, and had 
no followers ; his art was the outgrowth 
of personal temperament and experi- 
ence, rather than the result of teaching, 
and although he studied others, he was 
himself his only master. In other men 
whose names are prominent in our art, 
we seem to see the direction of an out- 
side influence. Stuart and Copley con- 

fessed to the teaching of the English 
school of their day — a school brilliant 
but formal, and holding close guiding- 
reins over its disciples ; Benjamin West 
became denationalized, so far as his art 
was concerned ; AUston showed the im- 
pression of England, Italy, and Flanders, 
all at once, in his refined and thoughtful 
style, and Hunt manifested in every 
stroke of his brilliant brush the learned 
and facile methods that are in vogue in 
the leading ateliers of modern Paris. 
In these men, and in the followers whom 
their preeminent ability drew after them, 
we perceive the dominant impulse to be 
of alien origin ; Fuller alone, of all the 
great ones in our art, was in thought 
and action purely and simply American. 
The influence that led others into the 
error of imitation, seems to have been 
exerted unavailingly upon his self- 
reliant mind. We shall search vainly if 
we look elsewhere than within himself- 
for the suggestions upon which his art 
was established. Superficial resem- 
blances to other painters are sometimes 
to be noted in his works, but in govern- 
ing principle and habit of thought he 
was serenely and grandly alone. 

George Fuller. 


We must regard him thus if we would 
study him understandingly, and gain 
from our observation a correct estimate 
of his power. We think of our other 
painters as in the crowd, and amid the 
affairs of men, and detect in their art 
a certain uneasiness which the bustle 
about them necessarily caused. We 
perceive this most in Hunt, who was 
emphatically a man of the world, and 
in Stuart, who shows in some of his 
later work that his position as the court 
painter of America, while it aided his 
purse and reputation, harmed his re- 
pose \ least in AUston, whose tastes 
were literary, whose love was in retire- 
ment, and who would have been a poet 
had not circumstances first placed a 
brush and palette in his hands. Allston, 
however, enjoyed popularity, and was 
courted by the best society of his time, 
and was not permitted, although he 
doubtless longed for it, to indulge to its 
full extent his chaste and dreamy fancy. 
It may be said without disrespect to his 
undoubted powers, that he would have 
been less esteemed in his own day if 
his art had not been largely conven- 
tional, and thus easily understood by 
those who had studied the accepted 
masters of painting. He lacked posi- 
tive force of idea, as his works clearly 
show, — that quality which was among 
the most characteristic traits of Fuller's 
method, and made him at once the 
greatest genius, and the man most 
misunderstood, among contemporary 
American painters. 

Although men who have not had 
"advantages" in life are naturally prone 
to regret their deprivation, they fre- 
quently owe their success to this seem- 
ing bar against opportunity. We have 
often seen illustrated in our art the fact 
that favorable circumstances do not 
necessarily insure success, and now from 

the life of Fuller we gain the still more 
important truth, that power is never so 
well aroused as in the face of obstacles. 
Few men endured more for art than he ; 
none have waited more uncomplainingly 
for a recognition that was sure to come 
by-and-by, or received with greater 
serenity the approbation which the dull 
world came at last to bestow. His his- 
tory is most wholesome in its record of 
steadfast resting upon conviction, and 
teaches quite as strongly as his pictures 
do, the value of absorption in a lofty 

If the saying that those nations are 
the happiest that have no history is 
true of men, Mr. Fuller's life must be 
regarded as exceptionally fortunate. 
Considered by itself, it was quiet and 
uneventful, and had Httle to excite 
general interest ; but when viewed in 
its relation to the practice of his art, 
it is found to be full of eloquent sug- 
gestions to all who, like him, have been 
appointed to win success through suf- 
fering. The narrative of his experience 
comprises two great periods — the 
preparation, which covered thirty-four 
years, and the achievement, to the en- 
joyment of which less than eight years 
were permitted. The first period is 
subdivided into two, of which one em- 
braces eighteen years, from the time 
when, at the age of twenty, he entered 
upon the study of his art, to his retire- 
ment from the world to the exile of his 
Deerfield farm ; the other including 
sixteen years of seclusion, until, at the 
age of fifty-four, he came forth again 
to proclaim a new revelation. The 
first part of his career may be dismissed 
without any extended consideration. 
Its record consists of an almost unre- 
lieved account of struggle, indifferent 
success, and lack of appreciation and 
encouragement, in the cities of Boston 


George Fuller. 

and New York. In Boston he ap- 
peared as the student, rather than the 
producer of works, and laid the founda- 
tion of his style in observation of the 
paintings of Stuart, Copley, AUston, and 
Alexander, — all excellent models upon 
which to base a practice, although 
destined to show little of their influence 
upon the pictures which he painted in 
the maturity of his power. It is not to 
be doubted, however, that all these 
men, and particularly Stuart, made an 
impression upon him which he was 
never afterward wholly able to conceal. 
We may see even in some of his latest 
works, under his own peculiar manner, 
suggestions of Stuart, particularly in 
portraits of women, which in pose and 
expression, and to a considerable 
degree in color, show much of that 
dignity and composure which so dis- 
tinguish the female heads of our great- 
est portrait-painter. He always ad- 
mired Stuart, and in his later years 
spoke much of him, with strong appre- 
ciation for his skill in describing char- 
acter, and the refined taste which is 
such a marked feature of his best 

His work in Boston made no par- 
ticular impression upon the public 
mind, and after five years' trial of it he 
removed to New York, where he joined 
that brilliant circle of painters and 
sculptors which, with its followers, has 
made one of the strongest impressions, 
if not the most valuable or permanent, 
upon the art of America. During his 
residence in that city he devoted him- 
self almost exclusively to portrait-paint- 
ing, in which he developed a manner 
more distinguished for conventional 
excellence than any particular individ- 
uality. It was remarked of him, how- 
ever, that he was disposed, even at this 
time, to seek to present the thought 

and disposition of his subjects more 
strongly than their merely physical fea- 
tures, and among his principal asso- 
ciates excited no httle appreciative 
comment upon this tendency. In 
some of his portraits of women of that 
period, wherein he evidently attempted 
to present the superior fineness and 
sensibility of the feminine nature, this 
effort toward ideality is quite strongly 
indicated ; they are painted with a more 
hesitating and lingering touch than his 
portraits of men, and with a certain 
seeming lack of confidence, which 
throws about them a thin fold of that 
veil of etherialism and mystery which 
so enwraps nearly all his pictures of the 
last eight years. This treatment, how- 
ever, seems to have been at that time 
more the result of experiment than con- 
viction ; later in life he wrought its 
suggestions into a system, the principles 
of which we may study further on. 
His earHer work, as has been said, was 
chiefly confined to portrait-painting, 
although it is a significant fact that 
among his pictures of that time are 
two which show that the feeling for 
poetical and imaginative effort was 
working in him. At a comparatively 
early age he painted an impression of 
Coleridge's Genevieve, which showed 
marked evidence of power, and later, 
after seeing a picture of the school of 
Rubens, which was owned by one of his 
artist friends, produced a study which 
he afterward seems to have developed 
into his well-known Boy and Bird; 
a Cupid-like figure, holding a bird 
closely against its breast. These ex- 
ercises, however, seem to have been, as 
it were, accidental, and had little or no 
effect in leading him to the practice 
in which he afterward became ab- 

His life in New York, which was 

George Fuller. 33 

interrupted only by three winter trips lofty spirit in which the greatest of the 
to the South, whither he went in the world's painters labored. The colorists 
hope of securing some commissions for and chiaroscurists, such as Titian on 
portraits, was an uneventful experience the one hand and Rembrandt on the 
of very modest pecuniary success, and other, seem to have impressed him par- 
brought him as the only official honor ticularly, and of all men Titian the 
of his hfe an election as associate of most strongly, as many of his pictures 
the National Academy of Design. He testify, and as such glowing works as 
then went to Europe, where, for eight the Arethusa and the Boy and Bird 
months, he carefully studied the old unmistakably show. Yet it was not 
masters in the principal galleries of in matter or in manner, but in the 
England and the Continent. This visit expression of a great truth, that the old 
to the Old World was of incalculable masters most strongly affected him. He 
value to him in the method of painting felt at once, and grew to admire great- 
which he afterward made his own, and, ly, their repose and modesty, calm 
in point of fact, gave him his first de- strength and undisturbed temper, and 
cided inclination toward it. Its best drew from them the important principle 
influence, however, was in giving him that true genius may be known by 
confidence in himself, and assurance of its confessing neither pride nor self- 
the reasonableness of the views which distrust. The serenity of their style 
he had already begun to entertain, he sought at once to appropriate, and 
He had been led before to regard the thereafter worked as much as possible 
old masters as superior to rivalry and in imitation of their evident purpose, 
incapable of weakness, superhuman striving simply to do his best, without 
characters, indeed, whose works should any question of whether the result 
discourage effort. Instead of this, would please, or another's effort be 
however, he fotmd them to be men like reckoned as greater than his own. It 
himself, with their share of defect became a governing principle with him 
and error, yet made grand by inspira- never to seek to outdo any one, or to 
tion and idea, and this knowledge feel anything but pleasure at another's 
greatly encouraged him, a man who of success, for he was not a man who 
all painters was at once the most could fail to recognize the truth that 
modest and devoted. Most painters envy is fatal to a fine mood in any 
who resort to Europe to study the old labor. Few artists, we may well he- 
art find there one or two men whose lieve, study the great art of the world 
works make the strongest appeals to in this spirit, or derive from it such a 
their liking, and, devoting their atten- lesson. 

tion chiefly to these, they show ever On his return to America, he betook 

after the marks of an influence that is himself to his native town of Deerfield, 

easily traced to its source ; Fuller, how- to assume for a time the care of the 

ever, observed with broader and more ancestral farm, which the death of his 

penetrating view, and, as his works father had placed in his hands. He 

show, seems to have studied men less had returned from Europe full of in- 

than principles, and to have been filled spired ideas, and was apparently ready 

with admiration, not so much for par- to go on at once in new paths of labor ; 

ticular practices as for the common and but the voice of duty seemed to him to 

34 George Fuller. 

call him away from his chosen life, and them the spaciousness of its meadows, 
he obeyed its summons without hesita- the inviting slope of its low hills, the 
tion. Moreover, he loved the country calm grandeur of its encircling moun- 
and the family homestead, and may tains, the mysterious gloom and whole- 
have perceived, also, that the condition some brightness of its changing skies, 
of art in Boston and New York was not the atmosphere of history and romance 
such as to encourage an original pur- which is its breath and life. Song and 
pose, and that, if he was ever to gain story have found many incidents for 
success, he must develop himself in treatment in this locahty. Not far from 
quiet, and aloof from the distracting the farm where Fuller's daily work was 
influences of other methods and men. done, the tragedy of Bloody Brook 
It is easy to perceive, with the complete was enacted ; the fields which he tilled 
record of his life before us, that this have their legend of Indian ambuscade 
experience of labor and thought upon and massacre ; the soil is sown, as with 
the Deerfield farm, although at first dragon's teeth, with the arrow-heads 
sight forming an hiatus in his career, and battle-axes of many bitter conflicts ; 
was really its most pregnant period, and even to the ancient house where, in 
that without it the Fuller who is now so recent years, the painter's summer 
much admired might have been lost to easel was set up, a former owner was 
us, and the spirit that appears in his brought home with the red man's bul- 
later works never have been awakened, let in his breast. The menace of 
It is, indeed, a spirit that can find no midnight attack seems even now to the 
congenial dwelling-place in towns, but wanderer in the darkness to burden 
makes its home in the fields and on the the air of these mournful meadows, and 
hillsides, to which the poet-painter, tradition shows that here were felt the 
depressed but not cast down by his ripples of that tide of superstitious 
experience of life, repaired to work frenzy which flowed from Salem through 
and dream. For sixteen years, in the all the early colonies. No place could 
midst of the fairest pastoral valley of have furnished more potent suggestions 
New England, he lived in the contem- to the art-idealist than this, and al- 
plation of the ideas that had passed though it did not lead him to paint its 
across his mind in the quiet of tragic history (for no man had less 
European galleries, and now became Hking for violence and passion than 
more definite impressions. The secret he), it impressed him deeply with its 
of those years, with their deep, slow concurrent records of endurance and 
current of refined and melancholy devotion. Nor did it invite him, as* it 
thought, is now sealed with him in might have done in the case of a 
eternal sleep ; but from the works that weaker man, into mere description, but 
remain to us as the matured fruits of having aroused his thought, it submitted 
his life, we may gain some hint of his itself wholly to the treatment of his 
experiences. It is not to be questioned strong and original genius. He ap- 
that he drew from the New-England proached his task with a broad and 
soil that he tilled, and the air that he comprehensive vision, and a loving and 
breathed, an inspiration which never inquiring soul. He was not satisfied 
failed him. The flavor of the quiet with the revelation of his eyes alone, 
valley fills all his canvases. We see in but sought earnestly for the secret of 

George Fuller. 35 

nature's life, and of its influence upon to strike at once to the ceatre, present- 
the sensitive mind of man. He per- ing the vital idea with decision, and 
ceived the truth that nature without departing from it with increasing vague- 
man is naught, even as there is no ness of treatment, until the whole area 
color without light, and strove earnestly of his work was filled with a harmonious 
to show in his art the relations that they and carefully graduated sense of sug- 
sustain to each other. He saw, also, gestion. He arrived at his method by 
that the material in each is nothing an original way of studying the natural 
without the spirit which they share in world. He did not, as most artists do, 
common, and thus he painted not take his paint-box and easel and devote 
places, but the influence of places, even himself to description, and from his 
as he painted not persons merely, but studies work out the finished picture, 
their natures and minds. It is for this Instead, he disencumbered himself of 
reason that, although we see in all his all materials for making memoranda, 
pictures where landscape finds a place and merely stood before the scene that 
the meadows, trees, and skies of Deer- impressed him, looking upon it for 
field, we also see much more, — the hours at a time. Then he betook him- 
general and unlocated spirit of New- self to his studio, and there worked 
England scenery. from the impression that his mind had 
This is the true impressionism — a formed under the guiding-hand of his 
system to which Fuller was always con- fancy, the result being that nature and 
stant in later life, and which he de- human thought appeared together upon 
veloped grandly. He was, however, as the canvas, giving a double grace and 
far removed as possible from that cheap, power. The process was subtle, and 
shallow, and idealess school of French not to be described clearly even by the 
painters whose wrongful appropriation painter himself, who found his work so 
of the name " Impressionist" has preju- largely a matter of inspiration that he 
diced us against the principle that it was never able to make copies of his 
involves. The inherent difference be- pictures. They grew out of his con- 
tween them and Fuller lies in this — sciousness in a strange way whose secret 
he exercised a choice, and thought the he could not grasp ; to the end of his 
beautiful alone to be worthy of descrip- life he was an inquirer, always hesitat- 
tion, while they selected nothing, but ing, and never confident in anything ex- 
painted indiscriminately all things, with cept that art was truth, and that he who 
whatever preference they indicated lying followed it must walk in modesty and 
in the direction of the strong and ugly, humbleness of spirit before the great- 
as being most imperative in its demands ness of its mystery. A man of ideas 
for attention. Fuller's subjects were and sentiment, remote from the clamor 
always sweet and noble, and it followed of schools and the complaints of critics, 
as a matter of course that his treatment with recollections of the grandest art of 
of them was refined and strong. His the world in his mind, and beautiful 
idea was also broad ; he sought for the aspects of nature continually before his 
typical in nature and life, and grew in- eyes, he could hardly fail to work out a 
evitably into a continually widening and style of marked originality. The effort, 
more comprehensive style. He taught however, was slow ; one does not erase 
himself to lose the sense of detail, and on the instant the impressions that 


George Fuller. 

eighteen years of study and practice 
have made, and Fuller found his life 
at Deerfield none too long to rid him 
of his respect for formulas. 

His experience there was a continu- 
ous round of study. He completed 
little, although he painted much, inex- 
orably blotting out, no matter after what 
expenditure of labor, the work that 
failed to respond to his idea, and striv- 
ing constantly to be simple, straight- 
forward, and impressive, without being 
vapid, arrogant, or dogmatic. He pos- 
sessed in large measure that rarest of 
gifts to genius — modesty — and ap- 
proached the secrets of nature and life 
more tremblingly as he passed from 
their outer to their inner circles. It 
was a necessity of his peculiar feeling 
and manner of study that he should 
develop a lingering, hesitating, half- 
uncertain style of painting, which, how- 
ever variously it may be viewed by 
different minds, is undoubtedly of the 
utmost effectiveness in describing the 
principles, rather than the facts, of na- 
ture and life. This way of presenting 
his idea, which some call a " manner- 
ism," — a term that has wrongly come 
to have a suggestion of contempt at- 
tached to it, — was with him a principle, 
and employed by him as the one in 
which he could best express truth. Art 
may justly claim great latitude in this 
endeavor, and schools and systems ar- 
rogate too much when they seek to 
define its limitations. Absolute truth 
to nature is impossible in art, which is 
constrained to lie to the eye in order 
to satisfy the mind, and continually 
transposes the harmonies of earth and 
sky into the minor key. Fuller of- 
fended the senses often, but he touched 
that nerve-centre in the heart, without 
which impressions are not truly recog- 
nized. He won liking, rather than 

startled men into it, and his art, instead 
of approaching, retired and beckoned. 
His fisrures never " came out of the 
frame at you," as is the common 
expression of admiration nowadays. 
He put everything at a distance, made 
it reposeful, and drew about figure and 
landscape an atmosphere which not 
only made them beautiful, but estab- 
lished a strange and reciprocal mood of 
sentiment between them. He alone of 
all American painters filled the whole 
of his canvas with air ; others place a 
barrier to atmosphere in their middle 
distance, and it comes no farther, but 
he brought it over to the nearest inch 
of foreground. This treatment, while 
it aided the quietness and restful mys- 
tery of his pictures, also strengthened 
his constant effort to avoid marked 
contrasts. He sought always a general 
impression, and ruthlessly sacrificed 
everything that called attention to itself 
at the expense of the whole. Yet he 
was not a man of swift insight in 
comprehensive matters, nor one who 
could be called clever. Weighty in 
thought as in figure, he moved slowly 
and in long waves, and although of 
marked quickness in intuition, he 
seemed to distrust this quality in him- 
self until he had proved it by reason. 
He received his motive as by a spark 
quicker than the lightning's, and when 
he began a work saw its intention 
clearly, although its form and details 
were wholly obscured. Out of a mist 
of darkness he saw a face shine dimly 
with some light of joy or sorrow that 
was in it, and at the moment caught its 
suggestion upon the waiting canvas. 
Then came inquiry, explanation, rea- 
soning, the exercise of a manly and po- 
etic sensibility, and endless experiment 
with lines and forms, of which the 
greater part were meaningless, until by 

George Fuller. 37 

unwearied searching, and constant trial by circumstances, and through it all he 

and correction, the complete idea was was impelled to steps which he might 

expressed at last. never have taken of his own accord. 

When a painter produces works in He was drawn by influences that he 

this strange fashion, an involved and could not control into his fruitful course 

confused manner of technical treatment of study and experience at Deerfield, 

becomes inevitable. The schools, which where his farm gave him support, and 

glorify manual skill and the swift and permitted him to indulge in an un- 

exhilarating production of effects, can- embarrassed practice of his art ; then, 

not appreciate it, for all their teaching when his time was ripe, he was driven 

is opposed to the principle that makes by the sharp lash of financial embar- 

technique subordinate to idea, and they rassment into the world again. Eight 

cannot look with favor upon a man who years ago he reappeared in Boston, with 

boldly reverses everything. The perfect about a dozen paintings of landscapes, 

art undoubtedly rests upon a combina- ideal heads, and small figures, which 

tion of sublime thought and entire were exhibited and promptly sold amid 

command of resources, but while we every expression of interest and favor, 

wait for this we shall not make mistake Confirmed and strengthened in his 

if we consider the effective, even if un- belief by this success, he again estab- 

licensed, expression of idea superior to lished his studio here, and began that 

a facility that has become cheap from series of remarkable works which have 

hundreds mastering it yearly. We can- given him a place among the greatest 

not close our eyes to Fuller's technical of American painters. The touch of 

faults and weaknesses, but his pictures popular favor quickened him into a 

would undeniably be a less precious lofty and quiet enthusiasm, and stimu- 

heritage to American art than they now lated both his imagination and his 

are, if he had not been great enough to descriptive powers. During all his 

perceive that academic skill becomes experience at Deerfield a certain lack of 

weak by just so much as it is magnified, self-confidence seems to have prevented 

and is strong only when viewed in its him from making any large endeavor, 

just relation, as the means to an end. but with his convictions endorsed by 

We perplex and confuse ourselves in the public, he attempted at once to 

studying his work, and are naturally a labor on a more ambitious scale. He 

little irritated that he keeps his secret broadened his canvases, and increased 

of power so well ; yet we cannot help the size of his figures and landscapes, 

feeling that his style is wonderfully and where he was before sweet and 

adapted to the end in view, and per- inviting, became strong and impressive, 

haps the only appropriate medium for yet still holding all his former qualities, 

the expression of a habit of thought The first year of his new residence in 

that is as peculiar as itself. Schools Boston saw the production of The 

will insist, and with reason, upon work- Dandelion Girl, a light-hearted, care- 

ing by rule ; yet in art, as in other dis- less creature, full of a life that had no 

cipline of teaching, genius does not touch of responsibility, and descriptive 

develop itstlf until it escapes from its of a joyous and ephemeral mood. A 

instructors. long step forward was taken in The 

Mr. Fuller's life was constantly swayed Romany Girl, which immediately fol- 

38 George Fuller. 

lowed, — a work full of fire and freedom, anticipate or dream, and the spectator's 

strongly personal in suggestion, and interest was intensified at seeing in her 

marked by a wild and impatient indi- and before her what she herself did not 

viduality which revealed in the girl the perceive. That art can give such power 

impression of a lawless ancestry, that of suggestion to its creations is a marvel 

somehow and somewhere had felt the and a delight. 

action of a finer strain of blood. The Following these two works — and at 
next year Fuller reached the highest some distance, although near enough 
point of his inspiration and power in to confirm and even increase the 
The Quadroon, a work which is likely painter's fame — came the Priscilla, 
to be held for all time as his master- Evening; Lorette, Nydia, Boy and 
piece, so far as strength of idea, im- Bird, Hannah, Psyche, and others, 
portance of motive, and vivid force of ending this year with the Arethusa, 
description are concerned. Without whose glowing and chastened love- 
violence, even without expression of liness makes it his strongest purely 
action, but simply by a pair of haunting artistic work, and confirms the techni- 
eyes, a beautiful, despairing face, and cal value of his method as completely 
a form confessing utter weariness and as The Quadroon and Winifred 
abandonment of hope, he revealed all Dysart do his habit of thought. He 
the national shame of slavery, and its painted innumerable landscapes, por- 
degradation of body and soul. Every traits, and ideal heads, and in figure 
American cannot but blush to look upon compositions produced, among others, 
it, so simple and dignified is its rebuke two works of great and permanent 
of the nation's long perversity and guilt, value, the And She Was a Witch, and 
The artist's next important effort was The Gatherer of Simples, to whose 
the famous Winifred Dysart, as far absorbing interest all who have studied 
removed in purpose from The Quad- them closely will confess. The latter, 
roon as it could well be, yet akin particularly, is of importance as show- 
to it by its added testimony to the ing how carefully Fuller studied into 
painter's constant sympathy with weak the secret of expression, and of nature's 
and beseeching things, and worthy to sympathy with human moods. This 
stand at an equal height with the pic- poor, worn, sad, old face, in which 
ture of the slave by virtue of its beauty beauty and hope shone once, and 
of conception, loveliness of character, where resignation and memory now 
and pathetic appeal to the interest, dwell ; this trembling figure, to whose 
It was in all respects as typical decrepitude the bending staff confesses 
and comprehensive as The Quadroon as she totters down the hill ; the gath- 
itself, holding within its face and figure ering gloom of the sky, in which one 
all the sweetness and innocence of ray of promise for a bright to-morrow 
New - England girlhood, yet with the shines from the setting sun ; the mute 
shadow of an uncongenial experience witnessing of the trees upon the hill, 
brooding over it, and perhaps of in- which have seen her pass and repass 
herited weakness and early death. And from joyful youth to lonely age, and 
the wonder of it all was that the girl even her eager grasp upon the poor 
had no sign about herself of longing or treasure of herbs that she bears, — 
discontent ; she was not of a nature to all these items of the scene impress 

George Fuller. 39 

one with a sympathy whose keenness is yet in some strange way seems the only 

even bitter, and excite a deep respect proper title for the work to which it is 

and love for the man who could paint attached, came out of the artist's own 

with so mucla. simplicity and power. It mind. His Priscilla was started as 

is not strange that when the news of an Elsie Venner, but he found it 

his death became known, many who impossible to work upon the lines 

had never seen him, but had studied another had laid down without too 

the pictures in his latest exhibition, much cramping his own fancy ; when 

should have come, with tears in their half done he thought of calling it 

eyes, to the studios which neighbored Lady Wentworth, and at last gave, it 

his, to learn something of his history. its present name by chance of having 

Such works are not struck out in a taken up The Blithedale Romance, 
heat, but grow and develop like human and noting with pleased surprise how 
lives, and it will not surprise many to closely Hawthorne's account of his 
know that most of them were labored heroine fitted his own creation. The 
on for years. With Fuller, a picture Nydia was started with the idea of 
was never completed. His idea was presenting the helplessness of blind- 
constantly in advance of his work, and ness, with a hint of the exaltation of 
persisted in new suggestions, so that the other senses that is consequent 
the Winifred Dysart was two years upon the loss of sight, and showed 
in the painting, the Arethusa five, at first merely a girl groping along a 
and The Gatherer of Simples and wall in search of a door ; and the Are- 
tha Witch, after an even longer thusa was the outgrowth of a general 
course of labor, were held by him at inspiration caused by a reading of Spen- 
his death as not yet satisfactory. The ser's Faerie Queen, and did not receive 
figures in the two works last mentioned its present very appropriate name until 
have suffered almost no change since its exhibition made some designation 
first put upon the canvas, but they necessary. 

have from time to time appeared in at I have devoted this study on of 

least a dozen different landscapes, and Mr. Fuller to his quality as an artist 

would doubtless have been placed in as rather than to his character as a man, 

many more before he had satisfied his but shall have written in vain if some 

fastidious and exacting taste. hint has not been given of the loveli- 

The artist found as much difficulty ness of his disposition, the modesty of 

in naming his pictures when they were his spirit, the chaste force of his mind, 

done as he did in painting them. It is A man inevitably paints as he himself 

a prevalent, but quite erroneous, impres- is, and shows his nature in his works : 

sion that his habit was to select a sub- Fuller's pictures are founded upon 

ject from some literary work, and then purity of thought, and painted with 

attempt to paint it in the light of the dignity and single-heartedness, and 

author's ideas. His practice exactly the grace of his life dwells in them. 

reversed this method : he painted his  — 

picture first, and then tried to evolve [George Fuller was born in Deer- 

or find a name that would fit it. The field, Massachusetts, in 1822. He was 

name Winifred Dysart, which is with- descended from old Puritan stock, and 

out literary origin or meaning, and his ancesters were among the early 


The Loyalists of Lancaster. 

settlers of the Connecticut River val- 
ley. He inherited a taste for art, as 
an uncle and several other relatives of 
the previous generation were painters, 
although none of them attained any 
particular reputation. He began paint- 
ing by himself at the age of about six- 
teen years, and at the age of twenty 
entered the studio of Henry K. 
Brown, of Albany, New York, where 
he received his first and only direct 
instruction. His work, until the age of 
about forty years, was almost entirely 
devoted to portraits ; but he is best 
known, and will be longest remem- 
bered, for his ideal work in figure and 

landscape painting, which he entered 
upon about i860, but did not make his 
distinctive field until 1876. From the 
latter date, to the time of his death, he 
painted many important works, and was 
pecuniarily successful. He received 
probably the largest prices ever paid to 
an American artist for single figures : 
$3,000 for the Winifred Dysart, and 
$4,000 each for the Priscilla and 
Evening ; Lorette. He died in Boston 
on the twenty-first of March, 1884, 
leaving a widow, four sons, and a 
daughter. During May, a memorial 
exhibition of his works was held at 
the Museum of Fine Arts. — Editor.] 


By Henry S. Nourse. 

The outburst of patriotic rebellion in 
1775 throughout Massachusetts was so 
universal, and the controversy so hot 
witli the wrath of a people politically 
wronged, as well as embittered by the 
hereditary rage of puritanism against 
prelacy, that the term tory comes down 
to us in history loaded with a weight of 
opprobrium not legitimately its own. 
After the lapse of a hundred years the 
word is perhaps no longer synonymous 
with everything traitorous and vile, but 
when it is desirable to suggest possible 
respectability and moral rectitude in 
any member of the conservative party 
of Revolutionary days, it must be done 
under the less historically disgraced title, 
— loyalist. In fact, then, as always, 
two parties stood contending for prin- 
ciples to which honest convictions made 
adherents. If among the conservatives 
were timid ofifice-holders and corrupt 
self-seekers, there were also of the 
Revolutionary party blatant demagogues 

and bigoted partisans. The logic of 
success, though a success made pos- 
sible at last only by exterior aid, 
justified the appeal to arms begun in 
Massachusetts before revolt was pre- 
pared or thought imminent elsewhere. 
Now, to the careful student of the 
situation, it seems among the most 
premature and rash of all the rebellions 
in history. But for the precipitancy of 
the uprising, and the patriotic frenzy 
that fired the public heart at news of 
the first bloodshed, many ripe scholars, 
many soldiers of experience, might have 
been saved to aid and honor the 
republic, instead of being driven into 
ignominious exile by fear of mob vio- 
lence and imprisonment, and scourged 
through the century as enemies of their 
country. In and about Lancaster, 
then the largest town in Worcester 
County, the royalist party was an 
eminently respectable minority. At 
first, indeed, not only those naturally 

The Loyalists of Lancaster. 41 

conservative by reason of wealth, or accepting the appointment of councillor 
pride of birthright, but nearly all the in 1774, he became at once obnoxious 
intellectual leaders, both ecclesiastic and to the dominant party, and in August, 
civilian, deprecated revolt as downright when visiting Connecticut on business 
suicide. They denounced the Stamp connected with his large landed inter- 
Act as earnestly, they loved their coun- ests there, he was arrested by the citi- 
try in which their all was at stake as zens of the town of Union, and a mob 
sincerely, as did their radical neighbors, of five hundred persons accompanied 
Some of them, after the bloody nine- him over the state line intending to con- 
teenth of April, acquiesced with such vey him to the nearest jail. Whether 
grace as they could in what they now their wrath became somewhat cooled 
saw to be inevitable, and tempered with by the colonel's bearing, or by a six- 
prudent counsel the blind zeal of parti- mile march, they released him upon his 
sanship : thus ably serving their country signing a paper dictated to him, of 
in her need. Others would have awaited which the following is a copy, printed 
the issue of events as neutrals ; but such at the time in the Boston Gazette : — 
the committees of safety, or a mob, not 

Sturbridge, August 25, 1774. 

unnaturally treated as enemies. .„, , ai.-- 1. nr-n j r t 

•' Whereas I Abijah Willard, of Lancas- 

On the highest rounds of the social ^^^^ ^ave been appointed by mandamus 

ladder stood the great-grandsons of Counselor for this province, and have with- 

Major Simon Willard, the Puritan com- out due Consideration taken the Oath, do 

mander in the war of 1675. These now freely and solemnly and in good faith 

three gentlemen had large possessions promise and engage that I will not set or 

in land, were widely known throughout act in said Council, nor in any other that 

the Province, and were held in deserved ^^all be appointed in such manner and 

r ^, . ,.^ J 1 -i-^ form, but that I will, as much as in me 

esteem for their probity and ability. ,. . . , „, „. , , ^ ., 

. -^ , lies, maintain the Charter Rights and Lib- 
They were all royalists at heart, and all ^^^^^^ ^^ ^^^ Province, and do hereby ask 
connected by marriage with royalist forgiveness of all the honest, worthy Gentle- 
families. Abijah Willard, the eldest, had men that I have offended by taking the 
just passed his fiftieth year. He had abovesaid Oath, and desire this may be 
won a captaincy before Louisburg when inserted in the public Prints. Witness my 
but twenty-one, and was promoted to a Hand 

•'. ' y . ABIJAH WILLARD. 

colonelcy in active service against the 

French ; was a thorough soldier, a From that time forward Colonel Wil- 
gentleman of stately presence and dig- lard lived quietly at home until the 
nified manners, and a skilful manager of nineteenth of April, 1775; when, set- 
affairs. For his first wife, he married ting out in the morning on horseback 
Elizabeth, sister of Colonel William to visit his farm in Beverly, where he had 
Prescott ; for his second, Mrs. Anna planned to spend some days in super- 
Prentice, but had recently married a intending the planting, he was turned 
third partner, Mrs. Mary McKown, of from his course by the swarming out of 
Boston. He was the wealthiest citizen minute-men at the summons of the 
of Lancaster, kept six horses in his couriers bringing the alarm from Lex- 
stables, and dispensed liberal hospitality ington, and we next find him with the 
in the mansion inherited from his British in Boston. He never saw Lan- 
father Colonel Samuel Willard. By caster again. It is related that, on the 


The Loyalists of Lancaster. 

morning of the seventeenth of June, 
standing with Governor Gage, in Bos- 
ton, reconnoitring the busy scene upon 
Bunker's Hill, he recognized with the 
glass his brother-in-law Colonel William 
Prescott, and pointed him out to the 
governor, who asked if he would fight. 
The answer was : " Prescott will fight 
you to the gates of hell ! " or, as an- 
other historian more mildly puts it : 
"Ay, to the last drop of his blood." 
Colonel Willard knew whereof he testi- 
fied, for the two colonels had earned 
their commissions together in the expe- 
ditions against Canada. An officer of 
so well-known skill and experience as 
Abijah Willard was deemed a valuable 
acquisition, and he was offered a colo- 
nel's commission in the British army, 
but refused to serve against his country- 
men, and at the evacuation of Boston 
went to Halifax, having been joined by 
his own and his brother's family. In 
1778, he was proscribed and banished. 
Later in the war he joined the royal 
army, at Long Island, and was ap- 
pointed commissary ; in which service 
it was afterwards claimed by his friends 
that his management saved the crown 
thousands of pounds. A malicious 
pamphleteer of the day, however, 
accused him of being no better than 
others, and alleging that whatever 
saving he effected went to swell his own 
coffers. Willard's name stands prom- 
inent among the " Fifty-five " who, in 
1783, asked for large grants of land in 
Nova Scotia as compensation for their 
losses by the war. He chose a resi- 
dence on the coast of New Brunswick, 
which he named Lancaster in remem- 
brance of his beloved birthplace, and 
there died in May, 1 789, having been for 
several years an influential member of 
the provincial council. His family re- 
turned to Lancaster, recovered the old 

homestead, and, aided by a small pen- 
sion from the British government, lived 
in comparative prosperity. The son 
Samuel died on January i, 1856, aged 
ninety-six years and four months. His 
widowed sister, Mrs. Anna Goodhue, 
died on August 2, 1858, at the age of 
ninety-five. Memories of their wholly 
pleasant and beneficent lives, abound- 
ing in social amenities and Christian 
graces, still linger about the old 

Levi Willard was three years the 
junior of Abijah. He had been col- 
lector of excise for the county, held 
the military rank of lieutenant-colonel, 
and was justice of the peace. With 
his brother-in-law Captain Samuel Ward 
he conducted the largest mercantile 
establishment in Worcester County at 
that date. He had even made the 
voyage to England to purchase goods. 
Although not so wealthy as his brother, 
he might have rivaled him in any field 
of success but for his broken health ; 
and he was as widely esteemed for his 
character and capacity. At the out- 
break of hostilities he was too ill to 
take active part on either side, but his 
sympathies were with his loyalist kindred. 
He died on July 11, i 775. His partner 
in business. Captain Samuel Ward, cast 
his lot with the patriot party, but his 
son, Levi Willard, Jr., graduated at 
Harvard College in 1775, joined his 
uncle Abijah, and went to England and 
there remained until 1785, when he re- 
turned and died five years later. 

Abel Willard, though equally graced 
by nature with the physical gifts that 
distinguished his brothers, unlike them 
chose the arts of peace rather than those 
of war. He was born at Lancaster on 
January 12, 1 731-2, and was graduated 
at Harvard College in 1752, ranking 
third in the class. His wife was Eliza- 

The Loyalists of Lattcaster. 


beth Rogers, daughter of the loyalist 
iDinister of Littleton. His name was 
affixed to the address to Governor 
Gage, June 21, 1774, and he was 
forced to sign, with the other justices, 
a recantation of the aspersions cast 
upon the people in that address. He 
has the distinction of being recorded 
by the leading statesman of the Revolu- 
tion — John Adams — as his personal 
friend. So popular was Abel Willard 
and so well known his character as 
a peacemaker and well-wisher to his 
country, that he might have remained 
unmolested and respected among his 
neighbors in spite of his royalist opin- 
ions ; but, whether led by family ties or 
natural timidity, he sought refuge in 
Boston, and quick-coming events made 
it impossible for him to return. At the 
departure of the British forces for Hali- 
fax, he accompanied them. A letter 
from Edmund Quincy to his daughter 
Mrs. Hancock, dated Lancaster, March 
26, 1776, contains a reference to him : 
. . . " Im sorry for poor Mrs Abel 
Willard your Sisters near neighbour & 
Friend. Shes gone we hear with her 
husband and Bro and sons to Nova 
Scotia P'haps in such a situation and 
under such circumstances of Offense 
respecting their Wors"" Neighbours as 
never to be in a political capacity of 
returning to their Houses unless w"* 
power & inimical views w*^^ God forbid 
should ever be ye Case." 

In 1778, the act of proscription and 
banishment included Abel Willard's 
name. His health gave way under 
accumulated trouble, and he died in 
England in 1781. 

The estates of Abijah and Abel 
Willard were confiscated. In the Massa- 
chusetts Archives (cliv, 10) is preserved 
the anxious inquiry of the town author- 
ities respecting the proper disposal of 
the wealth thev abandoned. 

To the Honotirable Provincial Congress 
now holde7i at Watertowti in the Provi- 
ance of the Massachusetts Bay. 

We the subscribers do request and 

desire that you would be pleased to direct 

or Inform this proviance in General or the 

town of Lancaster in Partickeler what is 

best to be done with the Estates of those 

men which are Gone from their Estates to 

General Gage and to whose use they shall 

Improve them whether for the proviance 

or the town where s^ Estate is. 


The Selectmen of Lancaster. 
Lancaster June 7 day 1775. 

The Provincial Congress placed the 
property in question in the hands of the 
selectmen and Committee of Safety to 
improve, and instructed them to report 
to future legislatures. Finally, Cyrus 
Fairbank is found acting as the local 
agent for confiscated estates of royalists 
in Lancaster, and his annual statements 
are among the archives of the State. 
His accounts embrace the estates of 
"Abijah Willard, Esq., Abel Willard, 
Esq., Solomon Houghton, Yeoman, 
and Joseph Moore Gent." The final 
settlement of Abel Willard's estate, 
October 26, 1785, netted his creditors 
but ten shillings, eleven pence to 
the pound. The claimants and im- 
provers probably swallowed even the 
larger estate of Abijah Willard, leaving 
nothing to the Commonwealth. 

Katherine, the wife of Levi Willard, 
was the sister, and Dorothy, wife of 
Captain Samuel Ward, the daughter, of 
Judge John Chandler, " the honest 
Refugee." These estimable and ac- 
complished ladies lived but a stone's 
throw apart, and after the death of 
Levi Willard there came to reside with 
them an elder brother of Mrs. Ward, 
one of the most notable personages in 
Lancaster during the Revolution. Clark 
Chandler was a dapper litde bachelor 


The Loyalists of Lancaster. 

about thirty-two years of age, eccentric 
in person, habits, and dress. Among 
other oddities of apparel, he was partial 
to bright red small-clothes. His tory 
principles and singularities called down 
upon him the jibes of the patriots 
among whom his lot was temporarily 
cast, but his ready tongue and caustic 
wit were sufficient weapons of defence. 
In 1774, as town clerk of Worcester, 
he recorded a protest of forty-three 
royalist citizens against the resolutions 
of the patriotic majority. This record 
he was compelled in open town meet- 
ing to deface, and when he failed 
to render it sufficiently illegible with 
the pen, his tormentors dipped his 
fingers into the ink and used them to 
perfect the obhteration. He fled to 
Halifax, but after a few months returned, 
and was thrown into Worcester jail. 
The reply to his petition for release is 
in Massachusetts Archives (clxiv, 205). 

Colony of the Massachusetts Bay. By 
the Major part of the Council of said 
Colony. Whereas Clark Chandler of 
Worcester has been Confined in the Com- 
mon Prison at Worcester for holding Cor- 
respondence with the enemies of this 
Country and the said Clark having humbly 
petitioned for an enlargement and it having 
been made to appear that his health is 
greatly impaired & that the Publick will not 
be endangered by his having some enlarge- 
ment, and Samuel Ward, John Sprague, & 
Ezekiel Hull having Given Bond to the 
Colony Treasurer in the penal sum of one 
thousand Pounds, for the said Clarks faith- 
ful performance of the order of Council for 
his said enlargement, the said Clark is 
hereby permitted to go to Lancaster when 
his health will permit, and there to con- 
tinue and not go out of the Limits of that 
Town, he in all Respects Conforming him- 
self to the Condition in said Bond con- 
tained, and the Sheriff of said County of 
Worcester and all others are hereby 
Directed to permit the said Clark to pass 
Vol. I. — No. VI. — D. 

unmolested so long as he shall conform 
himself to the obligations aforementioned. 
Given under our Hands at ye Council 
Chambers in Watertown the 15 Day of 
Dec. Anno Domini 1775. 
By their Honors Command, 

James Prescott W™ Severs 
Cha Channey B. Greenleaf 

M. Farley W. Spooner 

Moses Gill Caleb Gushing 

J. Palmer J. Winthrop 

Eldad Taylor John Whitcomb 

B. White Jedn Foster 

B. Lincoln 
Perez Morton 
Dpt Secy. 

The air of Lancaster, which proved 
so salubrious to the pensioners of the 
British government before named, grew 
oppressive to this tory bachelor, as we 
find by a lengthy petition in Massachu- 
setts Archives (clxxiii, 546), wherein he 
begs for a wider range, and especially 
for leave to go to the sea-shore. A 
medical certificate accompanies it. 

Lancaster, Oct. 25. 1777. 
This is to inform whom it may Concern 
that Mr. Clark Chandler now residing in 
this Town is in such a Peculiar Bodily 
Indisposition as in my opinion renders it 
necessary for him to take a short Trip to 
the Saltwater in order to assist in recover- 
ing his Health. 


He was allowed to visit Boston, and 
to wander at will within the bounds of 
Worcester County. He returned to 
Worcester, and there died in 1804. 

Joseph Wilder, Jr., colonel, and 
judge of the court of common pleas 
of Worcester County, — as his father 
had been before him, — was prominent 
among the signers of the address to 
General Gage. He apologized for this 
indiscretion, and seems to have received 
no further attention from the Committee 
of Safety. In the extent of his posses- 

TJie Loyalists of Lancaster. 45 

sions he rivaled Abijah Willard, having Black List," It was also ordered that 

increased a generous inheritance by the the selectmen " Return a List of these 

profits of very extensive manufacture Dangerous Persons to the Clerk, and 

and export of pearlash and potash : an he to the Justice of the Quorum as 

industry which he and his brother soon as may be." This action of the 

Caleb were the first to introduce into extremists seems to have aroused the 

America. He was now nearly seventy more conservative citizens, and another 

years of age, and died in the second meeting was called, on September 23, 

year of the war. for the purpose of reconsidering this 

Joseph House, at the evacuation of ill-advised and arbitrary proscription, at 

Boston, went with the army to Halifax, which meeting the clerk was instructed 

He was a householder, but possessed not to return the names of James Carter 

no considerable estate in Lancaster, and the Reverend Timothy Harrington 

In 1778, his name appears among the before the regular town meeting in 

proscribed and banished. November. 

The Lancaster committee of corre- Thomas Grant was an old soldier, 
spondence, July 17, 1775, published having served in the French and Indian 
Nahum Houghton as "an unwearied War, and, if a loyalist, probably con- 
pedlar of that baneful herb tea," and doned the offence by enlisting in the 
warned all patriots "to entirely shun patriot army ; his name is on the muster- 
his company and have no manner of roll of the Rhode Island expedition in 
dealings or connections with him except 1777, and in 1781 he was mustered 
acts of common humanity." A special into the service for three years. He 
town meeting was called on June 30, was about fifty years of age, and a poor 
1777, chiefly "to act on a Resolve of man, for the town paid bills presented 
the General Assembly Respecting and " for providing for Tom Grant's Family." 
Securing this and the other United Moses Gerrish was graduated at 
States against the Danger to which thay Harvard College in 1762, and reputed 
are Exposed by the Internal Enemies a man of considerable ability. Enoch 
Thereof, and to Elect some proper per- Gerrish, perhaps a brother of Moses, 
son to Collect such evidence against was a farmer in Lancaster who left his 
such Persons as shall be demed by home, was arrested and imprisoned in 
athority as Dangerous persons to this York County, and thence removed for 
and the other United States of Amarica." trial to Worcester by order of the 
At this meeting Colonel Asa Whitcomb council. May 29, 1778. The following 
was chosen to collect evidence against letter uncomphmentary to these two 
suspected loyalists, and Moses Gerrish, loyalists is found in Massachusetts 
Daniel Allen, Ezra Houghton, Joseph Archives (cxcix, 278). 
Moor, and Solomon Houghton, were 

voted " as Dangerous Persons and In- Sir. The two Gerrishes Moses & 

ternal Enemies to this State." On Enoch that ware sometime since appre- 

^ , hended by warrant from the Council are 

September 1 3 of the same year, appar- ^ I^ t -uu * u r .1 <. t 

^ 7 ' I r j^Q^y gg^ ^^ Libberty by reason of that Laws 

ently upon a report from Colonel Asa g^pj^ing on which they were taken up. I 

Whitcomb, it was voted that Thomas ^^^^^^ ^love to your Honrs a new warrant 

Grant, James Carter, and the Reverend might Isue, Directed to Doer. Silas Hoges 

Timothy Harrington, " Stand on the to apprehend & confine them as I look 


The Loyalists of Lancaster, 

upon them to be Dangerous persons to go 

at large. I am with respect your Hon^s. 

most obedient Hum. Ser'. 

Groton 12 of July 1778. 

To the Hone Jereh. Powel Esq. 

An order for their rearrest was voted 
by the council. Moses Gerrish finally 
received some position in the com- 
missary department of the British army, 
and, when peace was declared, obtained 
a grant of free tenancy of the island of 
Grand Menan for seven years. At the 
expiration of that time, if a settlement 
of forty families with schoolmaster and 
minister should be established, the 
whole island was to become the free- 
hold of the colonists. Associated with 
Gerrish in this project was Thomas 
Ross, of Lancaster. They failed in 
obtaining the requisite number of set- 
tlers, but continued to reside upon the 
island, and there Moses Gerrish died at 
an advanced age. 

Solomon Houghton, a Lancaster 
farmer in comfortable circumstances, 
fearing the inquisition of the patriot 
committee, fled from his home. In 
1779, the judge of probate for Worces- 
ter County appointed commissioners to 
care for his confiscated estate. 

Ezra Hougliton, a prosperous farmer, 
and recently appointed justice of the 
peace, affixed his name to the address 
to General Gage in 1775, and to the 
recantation. In May, 1777, he was 
imprisoned, under charge of counter- 
feiting the bills of public credit and 
aiding the enemy. In November fol- 
lowing he petitioned to be admitted to 
bail (see Massachusetts Archives, ccxvi, 
129) and his request was favorably 
received, his bail bond being set at 
two thousand pounds. 

Joseph Moore was one of the six 
slave-owners of Lancaster in 1771, pos- 
sessed a farm and a mill, and was 

ranked a " gentleman." On September 
20, 1777, being confined in Worcester 
jail, he petitioned for enlargement, 
claiming his innocence of the charges 
for which his name had been put upon 
Lancaster's black list. His petition 
met no favor, and his estate was duly 
confiscated. (See Massachusetts Ar- 
chives, clxxxiii, 160.) 

At the town meeting on the first Mon- 
day in November, 1777, the names of 
James Carter and Daniel Allen were 
stricken from the black list, apparently 
without opposition. That the Reverend 
Timothy Harrington, Lancaster's pru- 
dent and much-beloved minister, should 
be denounced as an enemy of his coun- 
try, and his name even placed temporarily 
among those of " dangerous persons," 
exhibits the bitterness of partisanship at 
that date. This town-meeting prosecu- 
tion was ostensibly based upon certain 
incautious expressions of opinion, but 
appears really to have been inspired by 
the spite of the Whitcombs and others, 
whose enmity had been aroused by his 
conservative action several years before 
in the church troubles, known as " the 
Goss and Walley war," in the neighbor- 
ing town of Bolton. The Reverend 
Thomas Goss, of Bolton, Ebenezer 
Morse, of Boylston, and Andrew Whit- 
ney, of Petersham, were classmates of 
Mr. Harrington in the Harvard class of 
1737, and all of them were opposed to 
the revolution of the colonies. The 
disaffection, which, ignoring the action 
of an ecclesiastical council, pushed Mr. 
Goss from his pulpit, arose more from 
the political ferment of the day than 
from any advanced views of his oppo- 
nents respecting the abuse of alcohohc 
stimulants. For nearly forty years Mr. 
Harrington had perhaps never omitted 
from his fervent prayers in public assem- 
blies the form of supplication for 

The Loyalists of Lancaster. 


divine blessing upon the sovereign 
ruler of Great Britain. It is not strange, 
although he had yielded reluctant sub- 
mission to the new order of things, and 
was anxiously striving to perform his 
clerical duties without offense to any of 
his flock, that his lips should sometimes 
lapse into the wonted formula, "bless 
our good King George." It is related 
that on occasions of such inadvertence, 
he, without embarrassing pause, added : 
" Thou knowest, O Lord 1 we mean 
George Washington." In the records 
of the town clerk, nothing is told of 
the nature of the charges against Mr. 
Harrington, or of the manner of his 
defence. Two deacons were sent as 
messengers " to inform the Rev** Timo" 
Harrington that he has something in 
agitation Now to be Heard in this 
Meeting at which he has Liberty to 
attend." Joseph Willard, Esq., in 
1826, recording probably the reminis- 
cence of some one present at the 
dramatic scene, says that when the 
venerable clergyman confronted his 
accusers, baring his breast, he exclaimed 
with the language and feeling of out- 
raged virtue : "Strike, strike here with 
your daggers ! I am a true friend to 
ray country ! " 

Among the manuscripts left by Mr. 
Harrington there is one prepared for, if 
not read at, this town meeting, contain- 
ing the charges in detail, and his reply 
to each. It is headed": "Harrington's 
answers to ye Charges &c." It is a 
shrewd and eloquent defence, bearing 
evidence, so far as rhetoric can, that its 
author was in advance of his people 
and his times in respect of Christian 
charity, if not of political foresight. 
The charges were four in number : the 
first being that of the Bolton Walleyites 
alleging that his refusal to receive them 
as church members in regular standing 

brought him " under ye censure of 
shutting up ye Kingdom of Heaven 
against men." To this, calm answer 
is given by a review of the whole con- 
troversy in the Bolton Church, closing 
thus : " Mr. Moderator, as I esteemed 
the Proceedings of these Brethren at 
Bolton Disorderly and Schismatical, 
and as the Apostle hath given Direction 
to mark those who cause Divisions and 
Offences and avoid them, I thought it 
my Duty to bear Testimony against ye 
Conduct of both ye People at Bolton, 
and those who were active in settling a 
Pastor over them in the Manner Speci- 
fied, and I still retain ye sentiment, 
and this not to shut the Kingdom of 
Heaven against them, but to recover 
them from their wanderings to the 
Order of the Gospel and to the direct 
way to the Kingdom of Heaven. And 
I still approve and think them just." 

The second charge, in full, was as 
follows : — 

" It appears to us that his conduct 
hath ye greatest Tendency to subvert 
our religious Constitution and ye Faith 
of these churches. — In his saying that 
the Quebeck Bill was just — and that 
he would have done the same had he 
been one of ye Parliament — and also 
saying that he was in charity with 
a professed Roman Catholick, whose 
Principles are so contrary to the Faith 
of these churches, — That for a man to 
be in charity with them we conceive 
that it is impossible that he should be 
in Charity with professed New England 
Churches. It therefore appears to us 
that it would be no better than mock- 
ery for him to pretend to stand as 
Pastor to one of these churches." To 
this Mr. Harrington first replies by the 
pointed question : " Is not Liberty of 
Conscience and ye right of judging for 
themselves in the matters of Religion, 

^8 The Loyalists of Lancaster. 

one grand professed Principle in ye Lastly came the political charge 

New England Churches ; and one Cor- pure and simple. 

ner Stone in their Foundation?" He "His despising contemning and set- 
then explicitly states his abhorrence ting at naught and speaking Evil of all 
of " the anti-Christian tenets of Pop- our Civil Rulers, Congress, Continental 
ers," adding : " However on the other and Provincial, of all our Courts, Legis- 
hand they receive all the articles of the lative and Executive, are not only sub- 
Athanasian Creed — and of conse- versive of good Order : But we appre- 
quence in their present Constitution hend come under Predicament of those 
they have some Gold, Silver, and pre- spoken of in 2 Pet. H. 10, who despise 
cious stones as well as much wood, hay, government, presumptuous, selfwilled, 
and stubble." He characterizes the they are not afraid to speak evil of 
accusation in this pithy paragraph : Dignities &c." 

"Too much Charity is the Charge here Mr. Harrington acknowledges that 
brought against me, — would to God I he once uttered to a Mr. North this 
had still more of it in ye most irapor- imprudent speech. " I disapprove 
tant sense. Instead of a Disqualiiica- abhor and detest the Results of Con- 
tion, it would be a most enviable ac- gress whether Continental or Provin- 
complishment in ye Pastor of a Protes- cial," but adds that he " took the first 
tant New England Church." A sharp opportunity to inform Mr. North that I 
argumentum ad hominem, for the bene- had respect only to two articles in said 
fit of the ultra-radical accuser closes Results." He apologizes for the speech, 
this division of his defence. "But, but at the same time defends his 
Mr. Moderator, if my charity toward criticism of the two articles as arbitrary 
some Roman Catholicks disqualifieth measures. He also confesses saying 
me for a Protestant Minister, what, that " General Court had no Business to 
what must we think of ye honorable direct Committees to seize on Estates 
Congress attending Mass in a Body in before they had been Confiscated in a 
ye Roman Catholic Chappel at Phila- course of Law," and " that their Con- 
delphia? Must it not be equal mock- stituents never elected or sent them for 
ery in them to pretend to represent that Purpose," but this sentiment he 
and act for the United Protestant claimed that he had subsequently re- 
States.?" . . . tracted as rash and improper to be 
The third charge was that he had spoken. These objectionable expres- 
declared himself and one of the breth- sions of opinion, he asserts, were made 
ren to "be a major part of the Church." " before ye 19th of April 1 775 •" 
This, like the first charge, was a revival It is needless to say that the Reverend 
of an old personal grievance within the Timothy Harrington's name was speed- 
church, rehabilitated to give cumulative ily erased from the black list, and, to 
force to the political complaints. The the credit of his people be it said, he 
accusation is summarily disposed of; was treated with increased considera- 
the accused condemning the sentiment tion and honor during the following 
"as grossly Tyrannical, inconsistent with eighteen years that he lived to serve 
common sense and repugnant to good them. In the deliberations of the Lan- 
order " ; and denying that he ever caster town meeting, as in those of the 
uttered it. Continental Congress, broad views of 

Louis Ansart. 49 

National Independence based upon Beau S^jour. Captain Willard, though 

civil and religious liberty, finally pre- not at Grand Pr^, was placed in com- 

vailed over sectional prejudice and mand of a detachment which carried 

intolerance. The loyalist pastor was desolation through the villages to the 

a far better republican than his radical westward of the Bay of Minas ; and 

inquisitors. the diary affords evidence that this 

warfare against the defenceless peas- 

[SiNCE the paper upon Lancaster and antry was revolting to that gallant 

the Acadiens was published in The Bay officer ; and that, while obedient to his 

State Monthly for April, I have been positive orders, he tempered the cruelty 

favored with the perusal of Captain of military necessity with his own 

Abijah Willard's " Orderly Book," humanity. 

through the courtesy of its possessor, The full names of his subalterns, not 

Robert Willard, m.d., of Boston, who given in the list from General Winslow's 

found it among the historical collec- Journal, are found to be 

tions of his father, Joseph Willard, Esq. "Joshua Willard, Lieutenant, 

The volume contains, besides other Moses Haskell, „ 

interesting matter, a concise diary of Caleb Willard, Ensign." 

experiences during the military expe- Of the Lancaster men, Sergeant James 

dition of 1755 in Nova Scotia; from Houghton died, and William Hudson 

which it appears that the Lancaster was killed, in Nova Scotia, 

company was prominently engaged in The diary is well worthy of being 

the capture of Forts Lawrence and printed complete. h. s. n.J 


By Clara Clayton. 

One of the notable citizens of had charge until the close of the 

Revolutionary times was Colonel Louis Revolutionary War. 

Ansart. He was a native of France, Colonel Ansart was an educated 

and came to America in 1776, man — a graduate of a college in 

while our country was engaged in war France — and of a good family. It 

with England. He brought with him is said that he conversed well in seven 

credentials from high officials in his different languages, 

native country, and was immediately His father purchased him a commis- 

appointed colonel of artillery and sion of lieutenant at the age of fourteen 

inspector-general of the foundries, and years ; and he was employed in military 

engaged in casting cannon in Massa- service by his native country and the 

chusetts. Colonel Ansart understood United States, and held a commission 

the art to great perfection; and it is until the close of the Revolutionary 

said that some of his cannon and mor- War, when he purchased a farm in 

tars are still serviceable and valuable. Dracut and resided there until his 

Foundries were then in operation in death. He returned to France three 

Bridgewater and Titicut, of which he times after he first came to this country, 


Louis Aftsart. 

and was there at the time Louis XVI 
was arrested, in 1789. 

Colonel Ansart married Catherine 
Wimble, an American lady, of Boston, 
and reared a large family in Dracut — 
in that portion of the town which was 
annexed to Lowell in 1874. Atis 
Ansart, who still resides there, in the 
eighty-seventh year of his age, is a son 
of Colonel Ansart ; also Felix Ansart, 
late of New London, Connecticut, and 
for twenty-four years an officer of the 
regular army, at one time stationed at 
Fort Moultrie, South Carolina, and 
afterwards at Portsmouth, New Hamp- 
shire, where he remained eight years, 
and died in January, 1874. 

There were five boys and seven girls. 
The boys were those above named, and 
Robert, Abel, and Louis. The girls 
were Julia Ann, who married Bradley 
Varnum ; Fanny, who died in childhood \ 
Betsey, who married Jonathan Hildreth, 
moved to Ohio, and died in Day- 
ton, in that State ; Sophia, who married 
Peter Hazelton, who died some twenty 
years ago, after which she married a 
Mr. Spaulding ; Harriet, who married 
Samuel N. Wood, late of Lowell ; 
Catherine, who married Mr. Layton ; 
and Aline, who died at the age of 
eighteen years. 

Colonel Ansart was trained in that 
profession and in those times which had 
a tendency to develop the sterner 
qualities, and was what would be 
termed in these times a man of stern, 
rigid, and imperious nature. It is said 
he never retired at night without first 
loading his pistols and swinging them 
over the headboard of his bed. 

After settling in Dracut, — and in 
his best days he lived in excellent style 
for the times, kept a span of fine 
horses, rode in a sulky, and "lived 
like a nabob," — he always received a 

pension from the government ; but his 
habits were such that he never acquired 
a fortune, but spent his money freely 
and enjoyed it as he went along. 

Before he came to America he had 
traveled in different countries. On one 
occasion, in Italy, he was waylaid and 
robbed of all he had, and narrowly 
escaped with his life. He had been 
playing and had been very successful, 
winning money, gold watches, and dia- 
monds. As he was riding back to his 
hotel his postilion was shot. He imme- 
diately seized his pistols to defend him- 
self, when he was struck on the back of 
the head with a bludgeon and rendered 
insensible. He did not return to con- 
sciousness until the next morning, when 
he found himself by the side of the 
road, bleeding from a terrible wound 
in his side from a dirk-knife. He had 
strength to attract the attention of 
a man passing with a team, and was 
taken to his hotel. A surgeon was 
called, who pronounced the wound 
mortal. Mr. Ansart objected to that 
view of the case, and sent for another, 
and with skilful treatment he finally 

It is said that he was a splendid 
swordsman. On a certain occasion he 
was insulted, and challenged his foe to 
step out and defend himself with his 
sword. His opponent declined, saying 
he never fought with girls, meaning 
that Mr. Ansart was delicate, with soft, 
white hands and fair complexion, and 
no match for him, whereupon the 
young Frenchman drew his sword to 
give him a taste of his quality. He 
flourished it around his opponent's 
head, occasionally stratching his face 
and hands, until he was covered with 
wounds and blood, but he could not 
provoke him to draw his weapon and 
defend himself. After compUmenting 

Lotiis Ansart. 


him with the name of " coward," he 
told him to go about his business, 
advising him in future to be more care- 
ful of his conduct and less boastful of 
his courage. 

During the inquisition in France, 
Colonel Ansart said that prisoners were 
sometimes executed in the presence 
of large audiences, in a sort of amphi- 
theatre. People of means had boxes, 
as in our theatres of the present day. 
Colonel Ansart occupied one of these 
boxes on one occasion with his lady. 
Before the performance began, another 
gentleman with his lady presented him- 
self in Colonel Ansart's box, and 
requested him to vacate. He was told 
that he was rather presuming in his 
conduct and had better go where he 
belonged. The man insisted upon 
crowding himself in, and was very 
insolent, when Colonel Ansart seized 
him and threw him over the front, 
when, of course, he went tumbling 
down among the audience below. 
Colonel Ansart was for this act after- 
ward arrested and imprisoned for a 
short time, but was finally liberated 
without trial. 

History informs us that a combined 
attack by D'Estaing and General 
Sullivan was planned, in 1778, for the 
expulsion of the British from Rhode 
Island, where, under General Pigot, 
they had established a military depot. 
Colonel Ansart was aide-de-camp to 
General Sullivan in this expedition, 
and was wounded in the engagement 
of August 29. 

On a certain occasion he was taking 
a sleigh-ride with his family, and in one 
of the adjacent towns met a gentle- 
man with his turn-out in a narrow and 
drifted part of the road, where some 
difficulty occurred in passing each other. 
Colonel Ansart suggested to him that 

he should not have, driven into such a 
place when he saw him coming. The 
man denied that he saw the colonel, 
and told him he lied. Colonel Ansart 
seized his pistol to punish him for his 
insolence, when his wife interfered, an 
explanation followed, and it was ascer- 
tained that both gentlemen were from 
Dracut. One was deacon of the 
church, and the other " inspector- 
general of artillery." Of course the 
pistols were put up, as the deacon 
did n't wish to be shot, and the colonel 
wouldn't tell a lie. 

In his prime, our hero stood six feet 
high in his boots, and weighed two 
hundred pounds. He died in Dracut, 
May 28, 1804, at the age of sixty- two 

Mrs. Ansart was bom in Boston, and 
witnessed the battle of Bunker Hill, 
and often described the appearance of 
the British soldiers as they marched 
along past her residence, both in going 
to the battle and in returning. She was 
thirteen years of age, and recollected it 
perfectly. She said they were grand 
as they passed along the streets of 
Boston toward Charlestown. The 
officers v/ere elegantly dressed and 
were in great spirits, thinking it was 
only a pleasant little enterprise to go 
over to Charlestown and drive those 
Yankees out of their fort ; but when 
they returned it was a sad sight. The 
dead and dying were carried through 
the streets pale and ghastly and covered 
with blood. She said the people wit- 
nessed the battle from the houses in 
Boston, and as regiment after regiment 
was swept down by the terrible fire of 
the Americans, they said that the 
British were feigning to be frightened 
and falling down for sport; but when 
they saw that they did not get up again, 
and when the dead and wounded were 


The Boundary Lines of Old Groton. — //. 

brought back to Boston, the reality 
began to be made known, and that 
little frolic of taking the fort was really 
an ugly job, and hard to accomplish. 
Mrs. Ansart died in Dracut at the 
age of eighty-six years, January 27, 
1849. She retained her mental and 
physical faculties to a great degree till 

within a short time before her death. 
She was accustomed to walk to church, 
a distance of one mile, when she was 
eighty years of age. Colonel and Mrs. 
Ansart were both buried in Woodbine 
Cemetery, in the part of Lowell which 
belonged to Dracut at the time of their 


By the Hon. Samuel Abbott Green, M.D. 

The report of the Comitty of the Honbie 
Court vpon the petition of Concord 
Chelmsford Lancaster & Stow for a 
grant of part of Nashobe lands 

Persuant to the directions giuen by this 
Honbie Court bareng Date the 30'h of 
May 171 1 The Comity Reports as 
foloweth that is to say &ce 

That on the second day of October 171 1 
the s'l comitty went vpon the premises 
with an Artis and veved [viewed] and 
servaied the Land mentioned in the 
Peticion and find that the most south- 
erly line of the plantation of Nashobe is 
bounded partly on Concord & partly on 
Stow and this line contains by Estimation 
vpon the servey a bought three miles & 50 
polle The Westerly line Runs partly on 
Stowe & partly on land claimed by Groton 
and containes four miles and 20 poll ex- 
tending to a place called Brown hill. The 
North line Runs a long curtain lands 
claimed by Groton and contains three 
miles, the Easterle line Runs partly on 
Chelmsford, and partly on a farm cald 
Powersis farm in Concord ; this line 
contains a bought fouer miles and 
twenty fine pole 

The lands a boue mentioned wer shewed 
to vs for Nashobe Plantation* and there 
were ancient marks in the seuerall lines 
fairly marked, And sd comite find vpon the 
servey that Groton hath Run into Nashobe 
(as it was showed to vs) so as to take out 
nere one half s^ plantation and the bigest 
part of the medows, it appears to vs to 
Agree well with the report of Mr John 

Flint & M"" Joseph Wheeler who were a 
Commetty imployed by the County Court 
in midlesexs to Run the bounds of said 
plantation (June ye 2o'ii 82) The plat will 
demonstrate how the plantation lyeth & 
how Groton coms in vpon it : as aleso the 
quaintete which is a bought 7840 acres 

And said Comite are of the opinion that 
ther may [be] a township in that place it 
lying so remote from most of the 
neighboreng Towns, provided this Court 
shall se reson to continew the bounds as 
we do judg thay have been made at the 
first laieng out And that ther be sum 
addition from Concord & Chelmsford 
which we are redy to think will be com- 
plyed with by s^ Towns And s^ Comite 
do find a bought 15 famelys setled in s^ 
plantation of Nashobe (5) in Groton 
claimed and ten in the remainder and 3 
famelys which are allredy setled on the 
powerses farm : were convenient to joyn 
w sd plantation and are a bought Eaight 
mille to any meting-house (Also ther are 
a bought Eaight famelys in Chelmsford 
which are allredy setled neer Nashobe 
line & six or seven miles from thir own 
meeting house 


\\\ the Houes of Representatives 
Nov™ 2 : 171 1. Read 
Octo. 23, 1713. In Council . 

Read and accepted ; And the Indians 
native Proprietors of the sd Plantacon. 
Being removed by death Except two or 

TJie Boundary Lines of Old Grot on. — //. 


Three families only remaining Its Declared 
and Directed That the said Lands of 
Nashoba be preserved for a Township. 

And Whereas it appears That Groton 
Concord and Stow by several of their 
Inhabitants have Encroached and Setled 
upon the said Lands ; This Court sees not 
reason to remove them to their Damage ; 
but will allow them to be and remain with 
other Inhabitants that may be admitted 
into the Town to be there Setled ; And that 
they have full Liberty when their Names 
and Number are determined to purchase of 
the few Indians there remaining for the 
Establishment of a Township accordingly. 

Saving convenient Allotments and 

portions of Land to the remaining Indian 

Inhabitants for their Setling and Planting. 

Is* Addington Secry. 

In the House of Representatives 
Octo"": 23th: 17 13. Read 

[Massachusetts Archives, cxiii, 600.] 

The inhabitants of Groton had now 
become alarmed at the situation of 
affairs, fearing that the new town 
would take away some of their land. 
Through neglect the plan of the 
original grant, drawn up in the year 
1668, had never been returned to the 
General Court for confirmation, as was 
customary in such cases ; and this fact 
also excited further apprehension. It 
was not confirmed finally until February 
10, 1 71 7, several years after the incor- 
poration of Nashobah. 

In the General Court Records 
(ix, 263) in the State Library, under 
the date of June i8, 1713, it is 
entered : — 

Upon reading a Petition of the In- 
habitants of the Town of Groton, Praying 
that the Return & Plat of the Surveyor of 
their Township impowered by the General 
Court may be Accepted for the Settlement 
& Ascertaining the Bounds of their Town- 
ship, Apprehending they are likely to be 
prejudiced by a Survey lately taken of the 
Grant of Nashoba ; 

Voted a Concurrence with the Order 

passed thereon in the House of Repre- 
sentees That the Petitioners serve the 
Proprietors of Nashoba Lands with a copy 
of this Petition, That they may Shew Cause, 
if any they have on the second Fryday of 
the Session of this Court in the P'all of the 
Year, Why the Prayer therof may not be 
granted, & the Bounds of Groton settled 
according to the ancient Plat of said Town 
herewith exhibited. 

It is evident from the records that 
the Nashobah lands gave rise to much 
controversy. Many petitions were pre- 
sented to the General Court, and manv 
claims made, growing out of this ter- 
ritory. The following entry is found 
in the General Court Records (ix, 369) 
in the State Library, under the date 
of November 2, 17 14: — 

The following Order passed by the 
Representees. Read & Concur'd ; viz, 

Upon Consideration of the many Peti- 
tions & Claims relating to the Land called 
Nashoba Land ; Ordered that the said 
Nashoba Land be made a Township, with 
the Addition of such adjoining Lands 
of the Neighbouring Towns, whose Owners 
shall petition for that End, & that this 
Court should think fit to grant. That the 
said Nashoba Lands having been long since 
purchased of the Indians by M'' Bulkley & 
Henchman one Half, the other Half by 
Whetcomb & Powers, That the said pur- 
chase be confirmed to the children of the 
said Bulkley, Whetcomb & Powers, & Cpt. 
Robert Meers as Assignee to M"" Hench- 
man according to their respective Propor- 
tions ; Reserving to the Inhabitants, who 
have settled within these Bounds, their 
Settlements with Divisions of Lands, in 
proportion to the Grantees, & such as 
shall be hereafter admitted ; the said 
Occupants or present Inhabitants paying 
in Proportion as others shall pay for their 
Allotments ; . Provided the said Plantation 
shall be settled with Thirty five Families & 
an orthodox Minister in three years time. 
And that Five hundred Acres of Land be 
reserved and laid out for the Benefit of any 
of the Descendants of the Indian Pro- 


The Boundary Lines of Old Groton. — //. 

prietors of the said Plantation, that may be 
surviving ; A Proportion thereof to be for 
Sarah Doublet alias Sarah Indian ; . The 
Rev. W. John Leveret & Spencer Phips 
Esqr. to be Trustees for the said Indians to 
take Care of the said Lands for their Use. 
And it is further Ordered that Cpt. Hope- 
still Brown, M^. Timothy Wily & M>-. 
Joseph Burnap of Reading be a Committee 
to lay out the said Five hundred Acres of 
Land reserved for the Indians, & to run 
the Line between Groton & Nashoba, at 
the Charge of both Parties & make Report 
to this Court, And that however the Line 
may divide the Land with regard to the 
Township, yet the Proprietors on either 
side may be continued in the Possession of 
their Improvements, paying as aforesaid ; 
And that no Persons legal Right or 
Property in the said Lands shall [be] 
hereby taken away or infringed. 

Consented to J Dudley 

The report of this committee is 
entered in the same volume of General 
Court Records (ix, 395, 396) as the 
order of their appointment, though the 
date as given by them does not agree 
with the one there mentioned. 

The following Report of the Committee 
for Running the Line between Groton & 
Nashoba Accepted by Representees. Read 
& Concur'd ; Viz. 

We the Subscribers appointed a Com- 
mittee by the General Court to run the 
Line between Groton & Nashoba & to lay 
out Five hundred Acres of Land in said 
Nashoba to the the \sic\ Descendants of 
the Indians ; Pursuant to said Order of 
Court, bearing Date Octob^ 20* [Nov- 
ember 2?] 17 14, We the Subscribers 
return as follows ; 

That on the 301^1. of November last, we 
met on the Premises, & heard the Infor- 
mation of the Inhabitants of Groton, 
Nashoba & others of the Neighbouring 
Towns, referring to the Line that has been 
between Groton & Nashoba & seen several 
Records, out of Groton Town Book, & 
considered other Writings, that belong to 
Groton & Nashoba, & We have considered 

all, & We have run the Line (Which we 

account is the old Line between Groton & 

Nashoba;) We began next Chelmsford 

Line, at a Heap of Stones, where. We were 

informed, that there had been a great Pine 

Tree, the Northeast Corner of Nashoba, 

and run Westerly by many old mark'd 

Trees, to a Pine Tree standing on the 

Southerly End of Brown Hill mark'd N 

and those marked Trees had been many 

times marked or renewed, thd they do not 

stand in a direct or strait Line to said Pine 

Tree on said Brown Hill ; And then from 

said Brown Hill we turned a little to the 

East of the South, & run to a white Oak 

being an old Mark, & so from said Oak to 

a Pitch Pine by a Meadow, being an other 

old Mark ; & the same Line extended to 

a white Oak near the North east Corner of 

Stow : And this is all, as we were informed, 

that Groton & Nashoba joins together: 

Notwithstanding the Committees Opinion 

is, that Groton Men be continued in their 

honest Rights, thd they fall within the 

Bounds of Nashoba ; And We have laid 

out to the Descendants of the Indians 

Five hundred Acres at the South east 

Corner of the Plantation of Nashoba ; 

East side, Three hundred Poles long. 

West side three hundred Poles, South & 

North ends, Two hundred & eighty Poles 

broad ; A large white Oak marked at the 

North west Corner, & many Line Trees 

we marked at the West side & North End, 

& it takes in Part of two Ponds. 

Dated Decemr 14. 1714. 


Consented to J Dudley. 

The incorporation of Nashobah on 
November 2, 1714, settled many of 
the disputes connected with the lands ; 
but on December 3 of the next year, 
the name was changed from Nashobah 
to Littleton. As already stated, the 
plan of the original Groton grant had 
never been returned by the proprietors 
to the General Court for confirmation, 
and this neglect had acted to their 

The Boundary Lines of Old Groton. — //. 


prejudice. After Littleton had been set 
off, the town of Groton undertook to 
repair the injury and make up the loss. 
John Shepley and John Ames were 
appointed agents to bring about the 
necessary confirmation by the General 
Court. It is an interesting fact to 
know that in their petition (General 
Court Records, x, 216, February 11, 
1 71 7, in the ofifice of the secretary of 
state) they speak of having in their 
possession at that time the original plan 
of the town, made by Danforth in the 
year 1668, though it was somewhat 
defaced. In the language of the 
Records, it was said to be " with the 
Petitioner," which expression in the 
singular number may have been inten- 
tional, referring to John Shepley, prob- 
ably the older one, as certainly the 
more influential, of the two agents. 
This plan was also exhibited before 
the General Court on June 18, 1713, 
according to the Records (ix, 263) of 
that date. 

The case, as presented by the agents, 
was as follows : — 

A petition of John Sheply & John 
Ames Agents for the Town of Groton 
Shewing that the General Assembly of the 
Province did in the year 1655, Grant 
unto Mr Dean Winthrop & his Associates 
a Tract of Land of Eight miles quare for 
a Plantation to be called by the name of 
Groton, that Thorns. & Jonathan Danforth 
did in the year 1668, lay out the said 
Grant, but the Plat thereof through 
Neglect was not returned to the Court for 
Confirmation that the said Plat th6 some- 
thing defaced is with the Petitioner, That 
in the Year 17 13 M^ Samuel Danforth 
Surveyour & Son of the abovesaid 
Jonathan Danforth, at the desire of the 
said Town of Groton did run the Lines & 
make an Implatment of the said Township 
laid out as before & found it agreeable to 
the former. Wh. last Plat the Petitioners 
do herewith exhibit, And pray that this 

HonWe Court would allow & confirm the 
same as the Township of Groton 

In the House of Representves; Feb. 10. 
1 717. Read, Read a second time, And 
Ordered that the Prayer of the Petition be 
so far granted that the Plat herewith ex- 
hibited (Althd not exactly conformable to 
the Original Grant of Eight Miles quare) 
be accounted, accepted & Confirmed as 
the Bounds of the Township of Groton in 
all parts. Except where the said Township 
bounds on the Township of Littleton, 
Where the Bounds shall be & remain 
between the Towns as already stated & 
settled by this Court, And that this Order 
shall not be understood or interpreted to 
alter or infringe the Right & Title which 
any Inhabitant or Inhabitants of either of 
the said Towns have or ought to have to 
Lands in either of the said Townships 

In Council, Read & Concur'd, 

Consented to Sam'i Shute 

[General Court Records (x, 216), February 11, 1717, 
in the office of the secretary of state.] 

The proprietors of Groton felt sore 
at the loss of their territory along the 
Nashobah line in the year 1714, 
although it would seem without reason. 
They had neglected to have the plan of 
their grant confirmed by the proper 
authorities at the proper time ; and no 
one was to blame for this oversight but 
themselves. In the autumn of 1734 
they represented to the General Court 
that in the laying out of the original 
plantation no allowance had been made 
for prior grants in the same territory, 
and that in settling the line with Little- 
ton they had lost more than four 
thousand acres of land ; and in con- 
sideration of these facts they petitioned 
for an unappropriated gore of land 
lying between Dunstable and Town- 

The necessary steps for bringing the 
matter before the General Court at this 
time were taken at a town meeting, 
held on July 25, 1734. It 'was then 


The Boundary Lines of Old Grot on. — //. 

stated that the town had lost more 
than twenty-seven hundred and eighty- 
eight acres by the encroachment of 
Littleton line ; and that two farms had 
been laid out within the plantation 
before it was granted to the proprietors. 
Under these circumstances Benjamin 
Prescott was authorized to present the 
petition to the General Court, setting 
forth the true state of the case and all 
the facts connected with it. The two 
farms alluded to were Major Simon 
Willard's, situated at Nonacoicus or 
Coicus, now within the limits of Ayer, 
and Ralph Reed's, in the neighbor- 
hood of the Ridges ; so Mr. Butler told 
me several years before his death, giving 
Judge James Prescott as his authority, 
and I carefully wrote it down at the 
time. The statement is confirmed by 
the report of a committee on the peti- 
tion of Josiah Sartell, made to the 
House of Representatives, on June 13, 
1 7 7 1 . Willard's farm, however, was not 
laid out before the original plantation 
was granted, but in the spring of 1658, 
three years after the grant. At this 
time Danforth had not made his plan 
of the plantation, which fact may have 
given rise to the misapprehension. 
Ralph Reed was one of the original 
proprietors of the town, and owned 
a fifteen-acre right ; but I do not find 
that any land was granted him by the 
General Court. 

It has been incorrectly supposed, 
and more than once so stated in print, 
that the gore of land, petitioned for by 
Benjamin Prescott, lay in the territory 
now belonging to Pepperell ; but this is 
a mistake. The only unappropriated 
land between Dunstable and Townsend, 
as asked for in the petition, lay in the 
angle made by the western boundary 
of Dunstable and the northern bound- 
ary of Townsend. At that period 

Dunstable was a very large township, 
and included within its territory 
several modern towns, lying mostly 
in New Hampshire. The manuscript 
records of the General Court define 
very clearly the lines of the gore, and 
leave no doubt in regard to it. It lay 
within the present towns of Mason, 
Brookline, Wilton, Milford, and Green- 
ville, New Hampshire. Benjamin Pre- 
scott was at the time a member of 
the General Court and the most in- 
fluential man in town. His petition was 
presented to the House of Repre- 
sentatives on November 28, 1734, 
and referred to a committee, which 
made a report thereon a fortnight later. 
They are as follows : — 

A Petition of Benjatnin Prescot, Esq ; 
Representative of the Town of Groton, 
and in behalf of the Proprietors of the 
said Town, shewing that the General 
Court in May 1655, in answer to the Peti- 
tion of Mr. Dean Winihrop and others, 
were pleased to grant the Petitioners a 
tract of Land of the contents of eight 
miles square, the Plantation to be called 
Groton, that in taking a Plat of the said 
tract there was no allowance made for 
prior Grants &c. by means whereof and in 
settling the Line with Littleton Amio 171 S, 
or thereabouts, the said Town of Groton 
falls short more than four thousand acres 
of the Original Grant, praying that the 
said Proprietors may obtain a Grant of 
what remains undisposed of of a Gore 
of Land lying between Dimstable and 
Towns/lend, or an equivalent elsewhere of 
the Province Land. Read and Ordered, 
That Col. Chandler, Capt. Blattchard, 
Capt. Hobson, Major Epes, and Mr. Hale, 
be a Committee to take this Petition under 
consideration, and report what may be 
proper for the Court to do in answer 

rjournal of the House of Representatives, November 
28, 1734, page 94.] 

Col. Chandler from the Committee 
appointed the 28///. ult. to consider the 

The Boicndary Lines of Old Grot on. — //. 


Petition of Benjamin Prescot, Esq; in 
behalf of the Proprietors of Groton, made 
report, which was read and accepted, and 
in answer to this Petition, Voted, That a 
Grant of ten tliousand eight hundred acres 
of the Lands lying in the Gore between 
Dunstable and Townshend, be and hereby 
is made to the Proprietors of the Town of 
Groton, as an equivalent for what was 
taken from them by Littleton and Coyachus 
or Willard^s Farm (being about two acres 
and a half for one) and is in full satisfac- 
tion thereof, and that the said Proprietors 
be and hereby are allowed and impowred 
by a Sun-eyor and Chain-men on Oath to 
survey and lay out the said ten thousand 
eight hundred acres in the said Gore, and 
return a Plat thereof to this Court within 
twelve months for confirmation to them 
their heirs and assigns respectively. 

Sent up for Concurrence. 

[Journal of the House of Representatives, December 
12. 1734. page 119.] 

The proprietors of Groton had a 
year's time allowed them, in which they 
could lay out the grant, but they appear 
to have taken fifteen months for the 
purpose. The record of the grant is 
as follows : — 

A Memorial of Benja Prescott Esq : 
Representa of the Town of Groton in 
behalf of the Proprietors there, praying 
that the Votes of the House on his Me- 
morial & a plat of Ten Thousand Eight 
hundred Acres of Land, lately Granted to 
the said Proprietors, as Entred in the 
House the 25 of March last, may be 
Revived and Granted, The bounds of 
which Tract of Land as Mentioned on the 
said Plat are as follows vizt. : beginins: 
at the North West Corner of Dunstable 
at Dram Cup hill by Sohegan River 
and Runing South in Dunstable line last 
Perambulated and Run by a Comtee of the 
General Court, two Thousand one hundred 
& fifty two poles to Townshend line, there 
making an angle, and Runing West 
31 1-2 Deg. North on Townshend line & 
province Land Two Thousand and Fifty 
Six poles to a Pillar of Stones then turning 

and Runing by Province Land 31 1-2 deg 
North two Thousand & forty Eight poles 
to Dunstable Corner first mentioned 

In the House of Representa. Read & 
Ordered that the prayer of the Memorial 
be Granted, and further that the within 
Plat as Reformed and Altered by Jonas 
Houghton Survey, be and hereby is 
accepted and the Lands therein Delineated 
and Described (Excepting the said One 
Thousand Acres belonging to Cambridge 
School Farm and therein included) be and 
hereby are Confirmed to the Proprietors 
of the Town of Groton their heirs and 
Assignes Respectivly forever. According 
to their Several Interests ; Provided the 
same do not interfere with any former 
Grant of this Court nor Exceeds the 
Quantity of Eleven thousand and Eight 
hundred Acres and the Committee for 
the Town of Ipswich are Allowed and 
Impowred to lay out such quantity of Land 
on their West line as is Equivalent to 
what is taken off their East line as afore- 
said, and Return a plat thereof to this 
Court within twelve Months for confirma- 
tion. In Council Read & Concurred. 
Consented to J Belcher 

And in Answer to the said Memorial of 
Benja Prescott Esq"" 

In the House of Representa. Ordered 
that the prayer of the Memorial be 
Granted and the Comt^e. for the new 
Township Granted to some of the In- 
habitants of Ipswich are hereby Allowed 
to lay out an Equivalent on the West line 
of the said New Township Accordingly. 

In Council Read & Concurr'd 

Consented to J Belcher 

[General Court Records (xvi, 334), June 15, 1736, m 
the oflSce of the secretary of state.] 

This grant, now made to the pro- 
prietors of Groton, interfered with the 
territory previously given on April, 1 735, 
to certain inhabitants of Ipswich, but 
the mistake was soon rectified, as 
appears by the following : — 

Voted, That one thousand seven hundred 
Acres of the unappropriated Lands of the 
Province be and hereby is given and 


The Boundary Lines of Old Groton. — 11. 

gmnted to the I'roprietors or Grantees of 
the Townsliip hitely granted to sixty Inhab- 
itants of the Town of Ipswich, as an Equiv- 
alent for about that quantity being taken 
off their Plat by the Proprietors of the 
Common Lands of Groton, and that the 
Ipswich Grantees be allowed to lay out the 

shire. From that point the line ran 
south for six or seven miles, following 
the western boundary of Dunstable, until 
it came to the old Townsend line ; then 
it turned and ran northwesterly six miles 
or more, when turning again it made 






scALc or M I LE E 



R I V ^^ 



31 33 





s o 


BOUNDARX L1ne\ between NEN 



T o^vvnsr 




same on the Northern or Westerly Line of 
the said new Township or on both sides. 
Sent up for Concurrence. 

[Journal of the House of Representatives (page io8), 
January 12, 1736.] 

The record of the grant clearly marks 
the boundaries of Groton Gore, and by 
it they can easily be identified. Dram 
Cup Hill, near Souhegan River, the old 
northwest corner of Dunstable, is in the 
present territory of Milford, New Hamp- 

for the original starting-place at Dun- 
stable northwest corner. These lines 
enclosed a triangular district which 
became known as Groton Gore ; in 
fact, the word gore means a lot of land 
of triangular shape. This territory is 
now entirely within the State of New 
Hampshire, lying mostly in Mason, but 
partly in Brookline, Wilton, Milford, 
and Greenville. It touches in no 
place the tract, hitherto erroneously 

The Boiindary Lines of Old Groton. — //. 


supposed to comprise the Gore. It 
was destined, however, to remain only 
a few years in the possession of the 
proprietors; but during this short 
period it was used by them for pas- 
turing cattle. Mr. John B. Hill, in his 
History of the Town of Mason, New 
Hampshire, says : — 

Under this grant, the inhabitants of 
Groton took possession of, and occupied 
the territory. It was their custom to cut 
the hay upon the meadows, and stack it, 
and early in the spring to send up their 
young cattle to be fed upon the hay, under 
the care of Boad, the negro slave. They 
would cause the woods to be fired, as it 
was called, that is, burnt over in the 
spring; after which fresh and succulent 
herbage springing up, furnished good 
store of the finest feed, upon which the 
cattle would thrive and fatten through the 
season. Boad's camp was upon the east 
side of the meadow, near the residence of 
the late Joel Ames. (Page 26.) 

In connection with the loss of the 
Gore, a brief statement of the boun- 
dary question between Massachusetts 
and New Hampshire is here given. 

During many years the dividing-line 
between these two provinces was the 
subject of controversy. The cause of 
dispute dated back to the time when 
the original grant was made to the 
colony of Massachusetts Bay. The 
charter was drawn up in England at 
a period when little was known in re- 
gard to the interior of this country; 
and the boundary lines, necessarily, 
were very indefinite. The Merrimack 
River was an important factor in fixing 
the limits of the grant, as the northern 
boundary of Massachusetts was to be 
a line three miles north of any and 
every part of it. At the date of the 
charter, the general direction of the 
river was not known, but it was incor- 
rectly assumed to be easterly and 

westerly. As a matter of fact, the 
course of the Merrimack is southerly, 
for a long distance from where it is 
formed by the union of the Winne- 
peseogee and the Pemigewasset Rivers, 
and then it turns and runs twenty-five 
or thirty miles in a northeasterly direc- 
tion to its mouth ; and this deflexion 
in the current caused the dispute. The 
difference between the actual and the 
supposed direction was a matter of 
little practical importance so long as 
the neighboring territory remained im- 
settled, or so long as the two provinces 
were essentially under one government ; 
but as the population increased it 
became an exciting and vexatious 
question. Towns were chartered by 
Massachusetts in territory claimed by 
New Hampshire, and this action led to 
bitter feeling and provoking legislation. 
Massachusetts contended for the land 
" nominated in the bond," which would 
carry the line fifty miles northward into 
the very heart of New Hampshire ; and 
on the other hand that province stren- 
uously opposed this view of the case, 
and claimed that the line should run, 
east and west, three miles north of the 
mouth of the river. At one time, a 
royal commission was appointed to 
consider the subject, but their labors 
produced no satisfactory result. At 
last the matter was carried to England 
for a decision, which was rendered by 
the king on March 5, 1739-40. His 
judgment was final, and in favor of New 
Hampshire. It gave that j^rovince 
not only all the territory in dispute, but 
a strip of land fourteen miles in width, 
lying along her southern border, mostly 
west of the Merrimack, which she had 
never claimed. This strip was the tract 
of land between the line running east 
and west, three miles north of the 
southernmost trend of the river, and 


The Boundary Lines of Old Groton. — //. 

a similar line three miles north of its 
mouth. By the decision twenty-eight 
townships were taken from Massachu- 
setts and transferred to New Hamp- 
shire. The settlement of this disputed 
question was undoubtedly a public ben- 
efit, although it caused, at the time, 
a great deal of hard feeling. In estab- 
lishing the new boundary Pawtucket 
Falls, situated now in the city of 
Lowell, and near the most southern 
portion of the river's course, was taken 
as the starting-place ; and the line 
which now separates the two States was 
run west, three miles north of this 
point. It was surveyed ofificially in 
the spring of 1741. 

The new boundary passed through 
the original Groton grant, and cut off 
a triangular portion of its territory, now 
within the limits of Nashua, and went 
to the southward of Groton Gore, leav- 
ing that tract of land wholly in New 

A few years previously to this time 
the original grant had undergone other 
dismemberment, when a slice of its 
territory was given to Westford. It 
was a long and narrow tract of land, 
triangular in shape, with its base resting 
on Stony Brook Pond, now known as 
Forge Pond, and coming to a point 
near Millstone Hill, where the boundary 
lines of Groton, Westford, and Tyngs- 
borough intersect. The Reverend 
Edwin R. Hodgman, in his History 
of Westford, says : — 

Probably there was no computation of 
the area of this triangle at any time. 
Only four men are named as the owners 
of it, but they, it is supposed, held titles 
to only a portion, and the remainder was 
wild, or " common," land. (Page 25.) 

In the Journal of the House of 
Representatives (page 9), September 
10, 1730, there is recorded: — 

A petition of Jojias Prescoi, Ebenezer 
Prescot, Abner Kejit, and Ebenezer Town- 
send, Inhabitants of the Town of Groton, 
praying. That they and their Estates, con- 
tained in the following Boundaries, viz. 
beginning at the Northwesterly Corner of 
Stony Brook Pond, from thence extending 
to the Northwesterly Corner of Westford, 
commonly called Tyng^s Corner, and so 
bound Southerly by said Pond, may be set 
off to the Town of Westford, for Reasons 
mentioned. Read and Ordered, That the 
Petitioners within named, with their 
Estates, according to the Bounds before 
recited, be and hereby are to all Intents 
and Purposes set off from the Town of 
Groton, and annexed to the said Town 

of Westford. 

Sent up for Concurrence. 

This order received the concurrence 
of the council, and was signed by the 
governor, on the same day that it 
passed the House. 

During this period the town of 
Harvard was incorporated. It was 
made up from portions of Groton, 
Lancaster, and Stow, and the engrossed 
act signed by the governor, on June 
29, 1732. The petition for the town- 
ship was presented to the General 
Court nearly two years before the 
date of incorporation. In the Journal 
of the House of Representatives 
(pages 84, 85), October 9, 1730, it 
is recorded : — 

A Petition of Jorias Houghton, Simon 
Stotte, Jonathan Whitney, and Thotnas 
Wheeler, on behalf of themselves, and on 
behalf and at the desire of sundry of the 
Inhabitants on the extream parts of the 
Towns of Lancaster, Groton and Stow, 
named in the Schedule thereunto annexed ; 
praying, That a Tract of Land (with the 
Inhabitants thereon, particularly described 
and bounded in said Petition) belonging 
to the Towns above-mentioned, may be 
incorporated and erected into a distinct 
Township, agreeable to said Bounds, for 
Reasons mentioned. Read, together with 

The Bowidary Lines of Old Grotoji. — //. 


the Schedule, and Ordered, That the 
Petitioners serve the Towns of Laticaster, 
Groton and Stow with Copies of the 
Petition, that they may shew Cause (if 
any they have) on the first Thursday of 
the next Session, why the Prayer thereof 
may not be granted. 

Sent up for Concurrence. 

Further on, in the same Journal 
(page 136), December 29, 1730, it is 
also recorded : — 

The Petition of Jonas Houghton, Simon 
Stone, and others, praying as entred the 
9th. of October last. Read again, together 
with the Answers of the Towns of Lan- 
caster, Groton and Stow, and Ordered, 
That Maj. Brattle and Mr. Samuel 
Chandler, with such as the Honourable 
Board shall appoint, be a Committee, (at 
the Charge of the Petitioners) to repair to 
the Land Petitioned for to be a Township, 
that they carefully view and consider the 
Situation and Circumstances of the Peti- 
tioners, and Report their Opinion what 
may be proper for this Court to do in 
Answer thereto, at their next Session. 

Sent up for Concurrence. 

Ebenezer Burrel Esq ; brought from the 
Honourable Board, the Report of the Com- 
mittee appointed by this Court the 30th of 
December last, to take under Consideration 
the Petition of Jonas Houghton and others, 
in behalf of themselves and sundry of the 
Inhabitants of the Eastern part of the 
Towns of Lancaster, Groton and Stow, 
praying that they may be erected into a 
separate Township. Likewise a Petition 
of Jacob Houghton and others, of the 
North-easterly part of the Town of Lan- 
caster, praying the like. As also a Petition 
of sundry of the Inhabitants of the South- 
west part of the North-east Quarter of the 
Township of Lancaster, praying they may 
be continued as they are. PassM in Coun- 
cil, viz. In CouncU, June 21, 1731. Read, 
and Ordered, That this Report be accepted. 

Sent down for Concurrence. Read and 


[Journal of the House of Representatives (page 52), 
June 22, 1731.] 

The original copy of the petition for 
Harvard is now probably lost ; but in 
the first volume (page 53) of "Ancient 
Plans Grants &c." among the Massa- 
chusetts Archives, is a rough plan of 
the town, with a list of the petitioners, 
which may be the " Schedule " referred 
to in the extract from the printed Jour- 
nal. It appears from this document 
that, in forming the new town, forty- 
eight hundred and thirty acres of land 
were taken from the territory of Groton ; 
and with the tract were nine families, 
including six by the name of Fams- 
worth. This section comprised the 
district known, even now, as " the old 
mill," where Jonas Prescott had, as 
early as the year 1667, a gristmill. The 
heads of these families were Jonathan 
Farnsworth, Eleazer Robbins, Simon 
Stone, Jr., Jonathan Farnsworth, Jr., 
Jeremiah Farnsworth, Eleazer Davis, 
Ephraim Farnsworth, Reuben Farns- 
worth, and \torn'\ Farnsworth, who 
had petitioned the General Court to 
be set off from Groton. On this plan 
of Harvard the names of John Burk, 
John Burk, Jr., and John Davis, appear 
in opposition to Houghton's petition. 

The town of Harvard took its name 
from the founder of Harvard College, 
probably at the suggestion of Jcuathan 
Belcher, who was governor of the 
province at the time and a graduate 
of the college. 

To his Excellency Jonathan Belcher 
Esqi". Capt General and Governour in Chief 
The Honbie. The Council and the Honour- 
able House of Representatives of His 
Majestys Province of the Massachusetts 
Bay in New England in General Courl 
Assembled by Adjournment Decemb'' 16 


The Memorial of Jonas Houghton Simon 
Stone Jonathan Whitney and Thomas 
Wheeler Humbly Sheweth 

That upon their Petition to this Great 


TJie Boundary Lines of Old Groton. — //. 

and Honourable Court in October last [the 
9th] praying tha, a Certain Tract of Land 
belonging to Lancaster Stow and Groton 
with the Inhabitants thereon may be 
Erected into a Distinct and Seperate 
Township (and for Reasons therein As- 
signed) your Excellency and Honours were 
pleased to Order that the petitioners Serve 
The Towns of Lancaster Groton and Stow 
with a Copy of their said Petition that 
they may shew Cause if any they have on 
the first Thursday of the next Sessions 
why the prayers thereof may not be 

And for as much as this great and 
Honbie. Court now Sitts by Adjournment 
and the next Session may be very Remote 
And your Memorialists have attended the 
Order of this Hon^'e : Court in serving the 
said Several Towns with Copys of the said 
Petition And the partys are attending and 
Desirous the hearing thereon may be 
brought forward ye former order of this 
Honl Court notwithstanding 

They therefore most humbly pray your 
Excellency & Honours would be pleased 
to Cause the hearing to be had this present 
Session and that a Certain day may be 
assigned for the same as your Excellency 
& Honours in your great wisdom & Justice 
shall see meet 

And your Memorialists as in Duty bound 
Shall Ever pray 


In the House of Rept'ves Dec 17 1730 
Read and in Answer to this Petition 
Ordered That the Pefs give Notice to the 
Towns of Lancaster Groton and Stow or 
their Agents that they give in their 
Answer on the twenty ninth Instt. why 
the Prayer of the Petition within referred 
to may not be granted 

Sent up for Concurrence 

J QuiNCY Spl^r : 

In Council Dec. 18, 1730; Read and 

J WiLLARD Secry 

[Massachusetts Archives, cxiv, 6-8.] 

The next dismemberment of the 

Groton grant took place in the winter 
of 1738-39, when a parcel of land was 
set off to Littleton. I do not find 
a copy of the petition for this change, 
but from Mr. Sartell's communication 
it seems to have received the qualified 
assent of the town. 

To his Excellency Jonathan Belcher 
Esqr Captain General & Governour in 
Chief &c the Honorable Council and 
House of Representatives in General Court 
assembled at Boston JanT. i. 1738. 

May it please your Excellency and the 
Honorable Court. 

Whereas there is Petition offered to 
your Excellency and the Honorable Court 
by several of the Inhabitants of the Town 
of Groton praying to be annexed to the 
Town of Littleton &c. 

The Subscriber as Representative of 
said Town of Groton and in Behalf of 
said Town doth hereby manifest the Will- 
ingness of the Inhabitants of Groton in 
general that the Petitioners should be 
annexed to the said Town of Littleton 
with the Lands that belong to them Lying 
within the Line Petitioned for, but there 
being a Considerable Quantity of Proprie- 
tors Lands and other particular persons 
Lying within the Line that is Petitioned 
for by the said Petitioners. The Sub- 
scriber in Behalf of said Town of Groton 
& the Proprietors and others would humbly 
pray your Excellency and the Honorable 
Court that that part of their Petition 
may be rejected if in your Wisdom you 
shall think it proper and that they be sett 
off with the lands only that belong to them 
Lying within the Line Petitioned for as 
aforesaid, and the Subscriber in Behalf of 
the Town of Groton &c will as in Duty 
Bound ever pray &c. 


[Massachusetts Archives, cxiv, 300.J 

yohn yeffries. Esq ; brought down the 
Petition of Peter Lawrence and others of 
Groton, praying to be annexed to Littleton, 
as entred the 12th ult. Pass'd in Council, 
viz. In Council Jatiuary /[th 1738. 
Read again, together with the Answer of 
Nathanael Sartell, Esq ; Representative 

The Boundary Lines of Old Groton. — //. 

for the Town of Groton, which being con- 
sidered, Ordered, That the Prayer of the 
Petition be so far granted as that the Peti- 
tioners with their Families & Estates with- 
in the Bounds mentioned in the Petition 
be and hereby are set off from the Town 
of Groton, and are annexed to and 
accounted as part of the Town of Little- 
ton, there to do Duty and receive Privi- 
ledge accordingly. 

Sent down for Concurrence. Read and 

[Journal of the House of Representatives (page 86), 
January 4, 1738.] 

In the autumn of 1738, many of the 
settlers living in the northerly part of 
Groton, now within the limits of Pep- 
perell, and in the westerly part of 
Dunstable, now Hollis, New Hamp- 
shire, were desirous to be set off in 
a new township. Their petition for 
this object was also signed by a consider- 
able number of non-resident proprietors, 
and duly presented to the General 
Court. The reasons given by them for 
the change are found in the following 
documents : — 

To His Excellency Jon^. Belcher Esq"". 
Captain General and Governour in Chief 
&c The Honbie. the Council and House of 
Reptiles in General Court Assembled at 
Boston November the 29* 1738 

The Petition of the Subscribers Inhab- 
itants and Proprietors of the Towns of 
Dunstable and Groton. 

Humbly Sheweth 

That your Petitioners are Situated on 
the Westerly side Dunstable Township 
and the Northerly side Groton Township 
those in the Township of Dunstable in 
General their houses are nine or ten miles 
from Dunstable Meeting house and those 
in the Township of Groton none but what 
lives at least on or near Six miles from 
Groton Meeting house by which means 
your petitioners are deprived of the benefit 
of preaching, the greatest part of the year, 
nor is it possible at any season of the 
year for their familys in General to get to 
• Meeting under which Disadvantages your 

pefs. has this Several years Laboured, 
excepting the Winter Seasons for this two 
winters past, which they have at their Own 
Cost and Charge hired preaching amongst 
themselves which Disadvantages has very 
much prevented peoples Settling land 

That there is a Tract of good land well 
Situated for a Township of the Contents 
of about Six miles and an half Square 
bounded thus, beginning at Dunstable 
Line by Nashaway River So running by 
the Westerly side said River Southerly 
One mile in Groton Land, then running 
Westerly a Paralel Line with Groton North 
Line, till it comes to Townsend Line and 
then turning and running north to Grot- 
ton Northwest Corner, and from Grotton 
Northwest Corner by Townsend line and 
by the Line of Groton New Grant till it 
comes to be five miles and an half to the 
Northward of Groton North Line from 
thence due east, Seven miles, from thence 
South to Nashua River and So by Nashua 
River Southwesterly to Grotton line the 
first mentioned bounds, which described 
Lands can by no means be prejudicial 
either to the Town of Dunstable or Groton 
(if not coming within Six miles or there- 
abouts of either of their Meeting houses 
at the nearest place) to be taken off from 
them and Erected into a Seperate Town- 

That there is already Settled in the 
bounds of the aforedescribed Tract near 
forty familys and many more ready to 
come on were it not for the difficulties and 
hardships afores<i. of getting to meeting. 
These with many other disadvantages We 
find very troublesome to Us, Our living so 
remote from the Towns We respectively 
belong to. 

Wherefore your Petitioners most humbly 
pray Your Excellency and Honours would 
take the premises into your Consideration 
and make an Act for the Erecting the 
aforesaid Lands into a Seperate and dis- 
tinct Township with the powers priviledges 
and Immunities of a distinct and Seperate 
Township under such restrictions and Lim- 
itations, as you in your Great Wisdom 
shall see meet. 


77/1? Boundary Lines of Old Groton. — II. 

And Whereas it will be a great benefit 
and Advantage to the Non resident pro- 
prietors owning Lands there by Increasing 
the Value of their Lands or rendering easy 
Settleing the same, Your Pefs. also pray 
that they may be at their proportionable 
part according to their respective Interest 
in Lands there, for the building a Meeting- 
house and Settling a Minister, and so 
much towards Constant preaching as in 
your wisdom shall be thought proper. 

Settlers on the afores^. Lands 
Obadiah Parker Willm Colburn 

Josiah Blood Stephen Harris 

Jerahmal Cumings Tho^. Dinsmoor 

Ebenr. Pearce Peter Pawer 

Abrm. Taylor Jun"" Benja Farley 

Henry Barton Peter Wheeler 

Robert Colburn David Vering 

Philip Woolerick NatW. Blood 

William Adams Joseph Taylor 

Moses Procter Will™ Shattuck 

Thos. Navins 

Non Resident Proprietors 

Samuel Browne W Browne 

Joseph Blanchard John Fowle Jun"". 

Nath Saltonstall Joseph Eaton 

Joseph Lemmon Jeremiah Baldwin 

Sam' Baldwin Daniel Remant 

John Malven Jona. Malven 

James Cumings Isaac Farwell 
Eben' Procter 

In the House of Representatives Dec. 
12*. 1738. Read and Ordered that the 
Petitioners Serve the Towns of Grotton 
and Dunstable with Coppys of the peti- 

In Council January 4*. 1738. 

Read again and Ordered that the 
further Consideration of this Petition be 
referred to the first tuesday of the next 
May Session and that James Minot and 
John Hobson Esqi^. with Such as the Hon- 
ourable Board shall joine be a Committee 
at the Charge of the Petitioners to repair 
to the Lands petitioned for to be Erected 
into a Township first giving Seasonable 
notice as well to the petitioners as to the 
Inhabitants and Non Resident Proprietors' 
of Lands within the s^ Towns of Dunstable 
and Groton of the time of their going by 

Causing the same to be publish'd in the 
Boston Gazette, that they carefully View 
the sd. Lands as well as the other parts of 
the sd. Towns, so farr as may be desired 
by the Partys or thought proper, that the 
Petitioners and all others Concerned be 
fully heard in their pleas and Allegations 
for, as well as against the prayer of the 
Petition ; and that upon Mature Consid- 
eration on the whole the Committee then 
report what in their Opinion may be 
proper for the Court to do in Answer there 
to Sent up for Concurrence. 

J QuiNCY Spi'r. 

In Council Jano^ 9th. 1738 
Read and Concurred and Thomas Berry 
Esqr. is joined in the Affair 

Simon Frost Depty. Seer. 
Consented to 

J. Belcher 

A true Copy Exam^. per Simon Frost, 
Depy SeCT. 

In the House of Rept'ves June 7'h : 1739 
Read and Concurred 

J QuiNCY Splor ; 
[Massachusetts Archives, cxiv, 268-271.] 

The Committee Appointed on the Peti- 
tion of the Inhabitants and Proprietors 
situated on the Westerly side of Dunstable 
and Northerly side of Groton, Having after 
Notifying all parties, Repaired to the 
Lands, Petitioned to be Erected into a 
Township, Carefully Viewed the same. 
Find a very Good Tract of Land in Dun- 
stable Westward of Nashuway River 
between s^ River and Souhegan River 
Extending from Groton New Grant and 
Townsend Line Six Miles East, lying in 
a very Commodious Form for a Township, 
and on said Lands there now is about 
Twenty Families, and many more settling, 
that none of the Inhabitants live nearer to 
a Meeting House tlien Seven miles and if 
they go to their own Town have to pass 
over a ferry the greatest part of the Year. 
We also Find in Groton a sufficient Quan- 
tity of Land accommodable for settlement, 
and a considerable Number of Inhabitants 
thereon, that in Some Short Time when 
they are well Agreed may be Erected into 
a Distinct Parish ; And that it will be very 

The Boiindary Lines of Old Grot on. — //. 


Form prayed for or to Break in upon 
Either Town. The Committee are of 
Opinion that the Petitioners in Dunstable 
are under such Circumstances as necessi- 
tates them to Ask Relief which will be fully 
Obtained by their being made Township, 
which if this HonWe. Court should Judge 
necessary to be done ; The Committee are 
Further of Opinion that it Will be greatly 
for the Good and Interest of the Township 
that the Non Resident Proprietors, have 
Liberty of Voting with the Inhabitants as 
to the Building and Placing a Meeting 
House and that the Lands be Equally 
Taxed, towards said House And that for 
the Support of the Gosple Ministry among 
them the Lands of the Non Resident Pro- 
prietors be Taxed at Two pence per Acre 
for the Space of Five Years. 

All which is Humbly Submitted in the 
Name & by Order of the Committee 

Thomas Berry 

In Council July 7 1739 
Read and ordered that the further Con- 
sideration of this Report be referred to the 
next Sitting, and that the Petitioners be 
in the meantime freed from paying any 
thing toward the support of the ministry 
in the Towns to which they respectively 

Sent down for Concurrence 


In the House of Rep'ives June 7 : 1739 
Read and Concurred 

J QUINCY Spkr : 

Consented to 

J Belcher 

In Council Decemr. 27, 1739. 
Read again and Ordered that this Re- 
port be so far accepted as that the Lands 
mentioned and described therein, with the 
Inhabitants there be erected into a Sep- 
arate & distinct precinct, and the Said 
Inhabitants are hereby vested with all Such 
Powers and Priviledges that any other Pre- 
cinct in this Province have or by Law 
ought to enjoy and they are also impowered 
to assess & levy a Tax of Two pence per 
Acre per Annum for the Space of Five 
years on all the unimproved Lands belong- 
ing to the non residents Proprietors to be 

applied for the Support of the Ministry 
according to the Said Report. 
Sent down for Concurrence 

Simon Frost Depy SecT. 
In the House of Reptiles Dec 28. 1739 
Read and Concur'd. 

J QuiNCY Spkr : 
Janua. I : Consented to, 

J Belcher 

[Massachusetts Archives, cxiv, 272, 273.] 

While this petition was before the 
General Court, another one was pre- 
sented praying for a new township to 
be made up from the same towns, but 
including a larger portion of Groton 
than was asked for in the first petition. 
This application met with bitter oppo- 
sition on the part of both places, but it 
may have hastened the final action on 
the first petition. It resulted in setting 
off a precinct from Dunstable, under 
the name of the West Parish, which is 
now known as HoUis, New Hampshire. 
The papers relating to the second 
petition are as follows : — 

To His Excellency Jonathan Belcher 
Esquire Captain General and Governor in 
Chief in and over His Majesty's Province 
of the Massachusetts Bay in New England, 
the Honourable the Council and House of 
Representatives of said Province, in Gen- 
eral Court Assembled Dec. 12*, 1739. 

The Petition of Richard Warner and 
Others, Inhabitants of the Towns of 
Groton and Dunstable. 

Most Humbly Sheweth 

That Your Petitioners dwell very far 
from the place of Public Worship in either 
of the said Towns, Many of them Eight 
Miles distant, some more, and none less 
than four miles, Whereby Your Petitioners 
are put to great difficulties in Travelling on 
the Lord's Days, with our Families. 

Your Petitioners therefore Humbly Pray 
Your Excellency and Honours to take their 
circumstances into your Wise and Com- 
passionate Consideration, And that a part 
of the Town of Groton, Beginning at the 
line between Groton and Dunstable where 
inconvenient to Erect a Township in the 


The Boundary Lines of Old Groton. — //. 

it crosses Lancaster [Nashua] River, and 
so up the said River until it comes to 
a Place called and Known by the name of 
Joseph Blood's Ford Way on said River, 
thence a West Point Hill it comes to 
Townshend line &c. With such a part 
and so much of the Town of Dunstable as 
this Honourable Court in their great Wis- 
dom shall think proper, with the Inhab- 
itants Thereon, may be Erected into a 
separate and distinct Township, that so 
they may attend the Public Worship of 
God with more ease than at present they 
can, by reason of the great distance they 
live from the Places thereof as aforesaid. 

And Your Petitioners, as in Duty bound, 
shall ever Pray &c. 

Richard Warner 
Benjamin Swallow 
William Allin 
Isaac Williams 
Ebenezer Gilson 
Ebenezer Peirce 
Samuel Fisk 
John Green 
Josiah Tucker 
Zachariah Lawrence Junf 
William Blood 
Jeremiah Lawrence 
Stephen Eames 

"[Inhabitants of Groton]" 

Enoch Hunt 
Eleazer Flegg 
Samuel Cumings 
William Blanchard 
Gideon Howe 
Josiah Blood 
Samuel Parker 
Samuel Farle 
William Adams 
Philip Wolrich 

•'[Inhabitants of Dunstable]" 

[Massachusetts Archives, cxiv, 274, 275.] 

Province of the Massachusetts Bay 

To His Excellency The Governour The 

Honbie Council & House of Reptives in 

Generall Court Assembled Dec. 1739 

The Answer of ye Subscribers agents for 

the Town of Groton to ye Petition of Rich- 

ard Warner & others praying that part of 
Said Town with part of Dunstable may 
be Erected into a Distinct & Seperate 
May it please your Excellency & Hon"^ 
The Town of Groton Duely Assembled 
and Taking into Consideration ye Reason- 
ableness of said Petition have Voted their 
Willingness, That the prayer of ye Petition 
be Granted as per their Vote herewith 
humbly presented appears, with this altera- 
tion namely That they Include the River 
(vizt Nashua River) over wch is a Bridge, 
built Intirely to accommodate said Peti- 
tioners heretofore, & your Respondents 
therefore apprehend it is but Just & Rea- 
sonable the same should for the futiu-e 
be by them maintain'd if they are Set of 
from us. 

Your Respondents Pursuant to ye Vote 
Aforesaid, humbly move to your Excel- 
lency & Hours That no more of Dunstable 
be Laid to Groton Then Groton have 
voted of, for one Great Reason that In- 
duced Sundry of ye Inhabitants of Groton 
to come into Said Vote was This Namely 
They owning a very Considerable part of 
the Lands Voted to be set of as afores^ 
were willing to Condesent to ye Desires of 
their Neighbours apprehending that a 
meeting House being Erected on or near 
ye Groton Lands & a minister settled it 
would Raise their Lands in Valine but 
should considerable part of Dunstable be 
set of more then of Groton it must oi 
course draw the Meeting House farther 
from ye Groton Inhabitants w^h would be 
very hurtfull both to the people petitioners 
& those that will be Non Resident pro- 
prietors if the Township is made. 

Wherefore they pray That Said New 
Township may be Incorporated Agreeable 
to Groton Vote vizt Made Equally out of 
both Towns & as in Duty bound Shall 
Ever pray 

Natell Sartell 
William Lawrence 

[Massachusetts Archives, cxiv, 278, 279.] 

At A Legall town Meeting of the Inhab- 
itants & free holders of the town of Groton 
assembled December ye. 24*: 1739 Voted 

The Botaidary Lhies of Old Groton. — //. 


& Chose Cap'. William Lawrance Mad- 
derator for said meeting &c : 

In Answer to the Petion of Richard 
Warnor & others Voted that the land with 
the Inhabitance mentioned in said Petion 
Including the Riuer from Dunstable Line 
to o''. ford way Called and Known by ye. 
Name of Joseph Bloods ford way : be Set 
of from the town of Grotou to Joyn with 
sum of the westerdly Part of the town of 
Dunstable to make a Distinct and Sepprate 
town Ship Prouided that their be no : More 
taken from Dunstable then irom Groton in 
making of Said new town. Also Voted 
that Nathaniel Sawtell Esqr. and Cap' 
William Lawrance be Agiants In the affair 
or Either of them to wait upon the Great 
and Generial Cort: to Vse their Best in 
Deauer lo set off the Land as a forest, so 
that the one half of y^. said New town may 
be made out of Groton and no : more. 

Abstract Examined & Compaird of the 
town book of Record tor Groton per 

lona*. Sheple Town Clark 
Groton Decenifr ; 24th : A : D : 1739 

[Massachusetts Archives, cxiv, 281.] 

Province of ye Masses Bay 
To His Excellency Jonathan Belcher Esqi" 
Governour &c To The Hon^. His 
Majesty's Councill & House of Repre- 
sentatives in Gen'i Court Assembled 
December 1739 
Whereas some few of the Inhabitants of 
Groton & Dunstable have Joyned in their 
Petition to this Hond. Court to be erected 
with Certain Lands into a Township as per 
their Petition entered the I2«h: Curr. 
which prayer if granted will very much 
Effect ye. Quiet & Interest of the Inhab- 
itants on the northerly part of Groton 

Wherefore the Subscribers most Humbly 
begg leave To Remonstrate to y^"" Excel- 
lency & Honi's, the great & Numerous 
Damages that we and many Others Shall 
Sustain if their Petition should be granted 
and would Humbly Shew 

That the Contents of Groton is ab* . forty 
Thousand Acres Good Land Sufficient & 
"nappily Situated for Two Townships, and 
have on or near Two Hundred & Sixty 
Familys Setled there with Large Accomo- 
dations for many more 

That the land pray'd for Out of Groton 
Could it be Spared is in a very Incomo- 
dious place, & will render a Division of 
the remaining part of the town Imprac- 
ticable & no ways Shorten the travel of 
the remotest Inhabit^ts. 

That it will leave the town from the 
northeast and to the Southwest end at 
least fourteen miles and no possibillity for 
those ends to be Accomodated at any 
Other place w^h will render the Difficulties 
we have long Laboured under without 

That part of the lands Petitioned for (will 
when This Hond. Court shall see meet to 
Divide us) be in & near the Middle of one 
of ye. Townships 

And Alth6 the number of thirteen per- 
sons is there Sett forth to Petition, it is 
wrong and Delusive Severall of them gave 
no Consent to any Such thing And to 
compleat their Guile have entered the 
names of four persons who has no Interest 
in that part of the town viz Swallow Tucker 
Ames & Green 

That there is near Double the number 
On the Lands Petitd. for and Setled 
amongst them who Declare Against their 
Proceedings, & here Signifie the Same 

That many of us now are at Least Seven 
miles from Our meeting And the Only 
Encouragement to Settle there was the un- 
deniable Accomodations to make An Other 
town without wch. We Should by no means 
have undertaken 

That if this their Pet^. Should Succed — 
Our hopes must Perish — thay by no means 
benifitted — & we put to all the Hardships 

That the whole tract of Land thay pray 
may be Taken Out of groton Contains 
about Six or Seven Thousand Acres, (the 
Quantity and Situation may be Seen on ye, 
plan herewith And but Abt. four Or five 
hundred Acres thereof Owned by the Peti". 
and but very Small Improvements On that. 
Under all wch. Circumstances wee Humbly 
conceive it unreasonable for them to desire 
thus to Harrase and perplex us. Nor is it 
by Any means for the Accomodation of 
Dunstable thus to Joyn who have land 
of their Own Sufficient and none to Spare 



without prejudicing their begun Settlement 
Wherefore we most Humbly pray Yor. 
Excellency & Hon^s. to compassionate Our 
Circumstances and that thay may not be 
set off and as in Duly bound &c 

John Woods 
Samuel Shattuck iu 
James Larwance 
Jonathan Shattuck 
James Shattuck 
John Chambrlen 
John Cumings 
Henery Jefes 
David Shattuck 
Seth Phillips 
Samuel Wright 
John Swallow 
William Spoalding 
Jonathan Woods 
Wiliam Cumings 

Benj"*. Parker 
Josiah Sartell 
Joseph Spoaldeng 

Nath". Parker 
Jacob Lakin 
Thomas Fisk 
Isaac Lakin 
John Shattuck 
John Scott 
Benj'". Robines 
Isaac Woods 
Enoch larwance 
John Blood 
James Green 
Joseph Blood Nathaniel Lawrence 

[Massachusetts Archives, cxiv, 282-284.] 

Wee the Sub*^ : Inhab^s : of y= Town of 
Dunstable & Resident in that part of it 


Called Nissitisitt Do hereby authorize and 
Fully I mpower Abraham Taylor Jun^. and 
Peter Power to Represent to GenH. Court 
our unwillingness that any Part of Dun- 
stable should [be] sett off to Groton to 
make a Township or Parish and to Shew 
forth our Earness Desire that a Township 
be maide intirely out out \jic\ off Dun- 
stable Land, Extending Six mils North 
from Groton Line which will Bring the on 
the Line on y^ Brake of Land and Just 
Include the Present Sellers : or otherwise 
As ye HonU. Commitee Reported and 
Agreeable to the tenour thereoff as The 
Honrd Court shall see meet and as Duly 
bound &c 

Thos : Dinmore, and 20 others. 
Dunstable DecC: ye 21st: 1739 

These may sertifie to ye Hon^d. Court 
that there is Nomber of Eleven more yt 
has not signed this Nor ye Petetion of 
Richard Worner «& others, that is now 
setled and About to setle 

[Massachusetts Archives, cxiv, 277.] 


By Laura Garland Carr. 

In misty greenhouse aisles or garden walks, 

In crowded halls or in the lonely room, 
Where fair tuberoses, from their slender stalks, 

Lade all the air with heavy, rich perfume. 
My heart grows sick ; ray spirits sink like lead, — 

The scene before me slips and fades away : 
A small, still room uprising in its stead. 

With softened light, and grief's dread, dark array. 
Shrined in its midst, with folded hands, at rest, 

Life's work all over ere 'twas well begun. 
Lies a fair girl in snowy garments dressed. 

And all the place with bud and bloom o'errun; 
Pinks, roses, lilies, blend in odorous death. 
But over all the tuberose sends its wealth, 
Seeming to hold the lost one by its breath 
While creeping o'er our living hearts in stealth. 
O subtle blossoms, you are death's own flowers ! 
You have no part with love or festal hours. 

British Force and the Leading Losses. 



[From Original Returns in the British Record OflSce.] 

Compiled by Henry B. Carrington, U.S.A. 

At Boston, in 1775, 9,147- 
At New York, in 1776, 31,626. 
In America: June, 1777, 30j957; 
August, 1778, 33,756; February, 1779, 
30,283; May, 1779, 33,45s; Decem- 
ber, 1779, 38,569 ; May, 1780, 38,002 ; 
August, 1780, 33,020; December, 1780, 
33,766; May, 1781, 33,374; Septem- 
ber, 1 781, 42,075. 


Bunker Hill, 1,054; Long Isjand, 
400 ; Fort Washington, 454 ; Trenton, 
1,049 (including prisoners) ; Hubbard- 

ton, 360; Bennington, 207 (besides 
prisoners); Freeman's Farm, 550; 
Bemis Heights, 500 ; Burgoyne's Sur- 
render, 5,763 ; Forts Clinton and 
Montgomery, 190; Brandywine, 600; 
Germantown, 535 ; Monmouth, 2,400 
(including deserters) ; Siege of Charles- 
town, 265 ; Camden, 324 ; Cowpens, 
729; Guilford Court House, 554; 
Hobkirk's Hill, 258 ; Eutaw Springs, 
693; New London, 163; Yorktown, 
552; Comwallis's Surrender, 7,963. 


Bird and Squirrel Legislation in 
" Whereas, much mischief happens 
from Crows, Black Birds, and Squirrels, by 
pulling up corn at this season of the year, 
therefore, be it enacted by this Town 
meeting, that ninepence as a bounty per 
head be given for every full-grown crow, 
and twopence half-penny per head for 
every young crow, and twopence half- 
penny per head for every crow blackbird, 
and one penny half-penny per head for 
every red-winged blackbird, and one 
penny half-penny per head for every thrush 
or jay bird and streaked squirrel that shall 
be killed, and presented to the Town 
Treasurer by the twentyeth day of June 
next, and that the same be paid out of the 
town treasury." 

' Barrington, Rhode Island. 

At the meeting of the town held on 
the fourteenth of March, 1774, James 
Brown, the fourth, was the first on the 
committee to draw up resolves to be 

laid before the meeting respecting the 
infringements made upon the Americans 
by certain " ministerial decrees." These 
were laid before a meeting held March 
21, 1774, and received by the town's 
votes, as follows : — 

" The inhabitants of this Town being 
justly Alarmed at the several acts of 
Parliament made and passed for having 
a revenue in America, and, more es- 
pecially the acts for the East India 
Company, exporting their tea into 
America subject to a duty payable here, 
on purpose to raise a revenue in Amer- 
ica, with many more unconstitutional 
acts, which are taken into consideration 
by a number of our sister towns in the 
Colony, therefore we think it needless 
to enlarge upon them ; but being sensible 
of the dangerous condition the Colonies 
are in, Occasioned by the Influence of 
wicked and designing men, we enter 
into the following Resolves ; 


Historical Notes. 

" First, That we, the Inhabitants of 
the To\vn ever have been & now are 
Loyal & dutiful subjects to the king 
of G. Britain. 

" Second, That we highly approve of 
the resolutions of our sister Colonies 
and the noble stand they have made 
in the defense of the liberties & 
priviledges of the Colonys, and we 
thank the worthy author of ' the rights 
of the Colonies examined.' 

" Third, That the act for the East 
India Company to export their Tea to 
America payable here, and the sending 
of said tea by the Company, is with an 
intent to enforce the Revenue Acts and 
Design^ for a precedent for Establish- 
ing Taxes, Duties & Monopolies in 
America, that they might take our 
property from us and dispose of it as 
they please and reduce us to a state of 
abject slavery. 

" Foicrth, That we will not buy or sell, 
or receive as a gift, any dutied Tea, nor 
have any dealings with any person or 
persons that shall buy or sell or give 
or receive or trade in s** Tea, directly 
or indirectly, knowing it or suspecting 
it to be such, but will consider all per- 
sons concern** in introducing dutied 
Teas .... into any Town in Amer- 
ica, as enemies to this country and 
unworthy the society of free men. 

" Fifth, That it is the duty of . every 
man in America to oppose by all proper 
measures to the uttermost of his Power 
and Abilities every attempt upon the 
liberties of his Country and especially 
those mentioned in the foregoing Re- 
solves, & to exert himself to the utter- 
most of his power to obtain a redress of 
the grievances the Colonies now groan 

"We do therefore solemnly resolve 
that we will heartily unite with the 
Town of Newport and all the other 

Towns in this and the sister Colonies, 
and exert our whole force in support of 
the just rights and priviledges of 
the American Colonies. 

" Sixth, That James Brown, Isaiah 
Humphrey, Edw^ Bosworth, Sam' 
Allen, Nathaniel Martin, Moses Tyler, 
& Thomas Allen, Esq., or a major 
part of them, be a committee for this 
town to Correspond with all the other 
Committees appointed by any Town in 
this or the neighboring Colonies, and 
the committee is desir*"- to give their 
attention to every thing that concerns 
the liberties of America ; and if any of 
that obnoxious Tea should be brought 
into this Town, or any attempt made on 
the liberties of the inhabitants thereof, 
the committee is directed and empow- 
ered to call a town meeting forthwith 
that such measures may be taken as 
the publick safty may require. 

''■ Seventh, That we do heartily unite 
in and resolve to support the foregoing 
resolves with our lives & fortunes." 

John Rogers, Esquire. 

A DESCENDANT of JoHq Rogers, of 
Smithfield farm, came to America in the 
early emigration. Can any one give any 
information as to the life and death of 
a son, John Rogers, Jr., of Roxbury ? 

Answer. — John Rogers, Jr., or second, 
was born at Duxbury, about February 28, 
1641. He married Elisabeth Peabody, 
and, after King Philip's War, removed to 
Mount Hope Neck, Bristol, Rhode Island, 
about 1680. He again removed to Boston 
in 1697; to Taunton in 1707; and to 
Swansea in 1710. He became blind in 
1723, and died after nine days' sickness, 
June 28, 1732, in the ninety-second year of 
his age, leaving at the time of his death 
ninety-one descendants, children, grand- 
children, and great-grandchildren. He 
was buried at Prince's Hill Cemetery, in 
Harrington, Rhode Island, where his grave 
is marked by a fine slate headstone in 
excellent presei-vation. m. h. w. 




Uevoted to Literature, 'Biography, History, and State Progress. 

Vol. IX. 


Nos. III., IV. 



Hon. Jesse Gault was. born in Hook- 
sett, N. H., September 20, 1823, and 
is a direct descendant, in the fifth gen- 
eration, of Samuel Gault, who was born 
in Scotland and emigrated to the north- 
ern part of Chester, now included in 
Hooksett, and settled on the '*' Suncook 
Grant, " so called. Matthew Gault, who 
was born in 1755 on the old Gault 
homestead in Chester, and who married 
Elizabeth Bunton, was the grandfather 
of the subject of this sketch. They 
had twelve children, nine living to be 
married, of whom Jesse, the second 
son, who was born October 22, 1790, 
while the family was temporarily resid- 
ing in Springfield, N. H., and who died 
in Hooksett September 25, 1855, aged 
sixty-five, was the father of Hon. Jesse 
Gault. He was a successful farmer and 
a man of property, his homestead was 
one of the finest in his town or county. 
He married Dolly Clement, who was 
born in Pembroke April 21, 1794, and 
died March 30, 1873, her father being 
Joshua Clement, who was born in Go- 
shen June 12, 1764, and died in Con- 
cord December 26, 1840. Mr. Clem- 
ent was a clothier, and was many years 
in business in what is now Suncook, 
where he was a large owner of real es- 
tate, including considerable water power. 

He married Abbie Head, daughter of 
General Nathaniel Head, of Pembroke, 
September 26, 1790, and on the ma- 
ternal side was of English descent. 

Jesse Gault, Sr., had four children, 
two sons and two daughters. Matthew, 
the elder son, was born September 23, 
181 7, and died December 2, 1846. Of 
the daughters, Almira C, born Decem- 
ber 2, 18 19, and died February 20, 
1853, married Harlon P. Gerrish, of 
Boscawen. She left a son, John C. 
Gerrish, now living in Missouri. The 
remaining sister, Martha H., was born 
July 3, 1828, and died April 23, 1853. 

Hon. Jesse Gault was brought up on 
his father's farm, and his opportunities 
for obtaining an education were the 
public school and Pembroke Academy. 
At the age of sixteen he began teach- 
ing in his own district, where he taught 
the winter school for four consecutive 
years, working on the farm in summer. 
Subsequently he was an instructor in 
Suncook and Hooksett village. On 
reaching twenty-two he left home to 
commence life's work for himself and 
went to Baltimore, Md., where he en- 
gaged as book-keeper and surveyor for 
Messrs. Abbott & Jones, ship lumber 
merchants. His health becoming im- 
paired, he was forced in less than a 


Hon. Jesse Gault. 

year to relinquish his situatioii, which 
had ah-eady become a most promising 
one, and returned home. After regain- 
ing his strength he, upon the soHcitation 
of his aged parents, consented to re- 
main in Hooksett. April 3, 1846, he 
married Miss Martha A., daughter of 
Isaac C. Otterson, of Hooksett, whose 
wife was Margaret Head, an aunt of ex- 
Governor Nathaniel Head. The same 
year Mr. Gault opened a brick yard in 
Hooksett on a small scale wliich he has 
developed until its production is about 
six millions yearly, affording employ- 
ment to sixty men. This extensive bus- 
iness necessitates the purchase of large 
tracts of woodland for obtaining fuel, 
while the lumber is sold in the market. 
In this way he has bought some three 
thousand acres of forest domain. In 
addition, he owns several farms, tlie one 
upon which he lives cutting seveniy-five 
tons of hay annually, and producing 
largely of other crops. His re*idQ«*e, 
on the old stage road from Concord to 
Haverhill, Mass., was built some five 

years ago, and is one of the most ex- 
pensive in that section. 

Mr. Gault was early active in civil af- 
fairs. After filling various local posi- 
tions, including chairman of the board 
of selectmen for many years, he was 
chosen delegate from Hooksett to the 
Constitutional Convention of 1851, be- 
ing the youngest member of that body. 
Mr. Gault was then a Whig, and Hook- 
sett was at that time Democratic by 
more than two to one. In iS'7 and 
1858 he represented his town in the 
lower branch of the legislature, and in 
1867 was elected a railroad comaiis- 
sioner for a triennial term, being chair- 

man of the board the last year. In 
1 8 76 he was delegate to the Republican 
National Convention at Cincinnati, and 
has for many years been a member of 
the Republican State Committee. He 
was chosen from the Londonderry Dis- 
trict to the State Senate in 1885, and 
was chairman of the committee on 
claims, aixd a member of those on the 
revision of the statutes and the Asylum 
for the Insane. Mr. Gault, by great 
industry and perseverance, has accumu- 
lated a large property, and is extensively 
interested in ownership and officially in 
milway, banking, and other corporations. 
He is a regular attendant at the Union 
church in Hooksett, is universally re- 
spected in private life for the purity and 
Uprightness of his character, and is a 
member of the Masonic fraternity. Of 
the five children, two sons and three 
daughters, born to Mr. and Mrs. Gault, 
four have died, the oldest, a son, reach- 
ing sixteen. The surviving child is the 
wife of Frank C. Towle, a young busi- 
ness man of Suncook. Senator Gault 
i*a gentleman of commanding personal 
presence, is a fine speaker, and often 
presides over public assemblages. Pos- 
sessing executive abilities of the highest 
order and excellent judgment, his opin- 
ion upon important matters, both pri- 
vate and public, is often sought. Al- 
though, as will be seen above, he has 
already filled many responsible civil 
offices, yet his host of friends are confi- 
dent that higher political honors will 
hereafter be bestowed upon him. His 
house, presided over by his refined and 
accomplished wife, is widely known, no 
less for its elegance than for its generous 
hospitality, and attracts many visitors. 




George Peabody LiMle. jj 



George Peabody Little was the son In 187 1 he was elected a member of 
of Elbridge Gerry and Sophronia Phelps the board of trustees of Pembroke Acad- 
(Peabody) Little. His father was bcfrn emy, and from about the first has been 
in Bradford, Mass., and his mother in chairman of the executive committee ; 
Danvers, Mass. His mother was the and the school has always found in him 
sister of the late George Peabody, the a firm friend and supporter. He has 
distinguished London banker and phi- twice been elected representative to the 
lanthropist, from whom the son received legislature. At present he is one of the 
his name, and by whom he was liberally selectmen and also county treasurer, 
remembered in the last will and testa- this being his second term of office, 
ment of the banker. Mr. Little was born He is a Mason, being a member of the 
in Pembroke, Genesee County, New Mount Horeb Commandery, of Con- 
York, June 20, 1834. His early life was cord, N. H., and the De Witt OHnton 
passed in that town and in Lewiston, Consistory, of Nashua, N. H., to the 
New York, when lie attended Lewiston thirty-second degree ; also a member 
Academy. He came with his mother of the Odd Fellows' Encampment. 
to Pembroke, N. H., at about the age Although belonging to these secret so- 
of thirteen years. He attended Pern- cieties, he is loyal U3 the church (Con- 
brol<e Academy and the People's Gym- gregational) of which he is a member, 
nasium and Literary Institute, He always showing himself ready to bear 
taught one term of district school at the his part in every good work. For many 
age of eighteen. When nineteen years years he has been superintendent of 
old he went to Portland, Maine, as clerk the Sabbath school. In 1854 he mar- 
in a store. It was then that he cast his ried Miss Elizabeth A. Knox, daughter 
first vote, the same being for Neal Dow of Daniel M. Knox, of Pembroke, 
as mayor. The next ten years he spent N. H. Their children are George Wil- 
in Palmyra, N. Y. He held the office of liam, who died at the age of three and 
United States deputy collector, and as- a half years, Clarence Belden, Mary 
sisted in the formation of the first Re- Georgiana, Lizzie Ellen, Nettie Knox, 
publican Club in western New York. In Lucy Bowman, and Clara Frances. 
1868 he returned to Pembroke, N. H., Clarence B. Little is a resident of Bis- 
buying the farm and buildings formerly marck, Dakota, He is Judge of Pro- 
belonging to the late Hon. Boswell bate for Burleigh County, a member of 

Stevens, where he had lived when a boy. 
The same year (1868) he erected his 
present substantial and elegant resi- 
dence, and from time to time has en- 

the Governor's staff, and a director in 
the National Bank. Lizzie married 
Lester Thurber, of Nashua, N. H., and 
Nettie is a student at Smith College, 

larged the farm until now it comprises Northampton., Mass. The others re- 
about one thousand acres lying in Pern- main at home with their parents, 
broke and adjoining towns. 


George Peabody Little. 











h- 1 


Publisher'' s Department. 



The popularity of summer travel in- 
cr-eases every year. The desire if not 
the need of a vacation thrusts itself 
upon the overworked father and mother 
of a family, and the pale faces of school 
children demand for them a change of 
scene and air. From the great cities 
on the Atlantic coast every summer 
rush forth a host to find rest and repose 
in the hill country of New Hampshire. 

For a change the people of New Hamp- 
shire demand a view of the great ocean 
and flock to the sea-shore. All along 
the New England coast our citizens 
have built cottages to which they resort 
in July and x'X.ugust with their families, 
and gain health and vigor for the ensu- 
ing year. However, all cannot afford 
to build cottages ; many can ill spare 
the time save for a sniff of the salt air : 


Publisher'' s Deparime7it. 

one will be satisfied with a day at the 
sea-shore ; another will never tire watch- 
ing the restless waves break upon the 
rock bound coast. To those in our in- 
land towns who wish a change ive recom- 
mend Boar's Head Hotel, in the town 
of Hampton, New Hampshire. 

From Col. John B. Batchelder's 
Popular Resorts we glean this informa- 
tion about the town. It " has little to 
distinguish it from towns of modest 
pretensions generally, but its beach — 
Hampton Beach — is renowned in every 

lashed by the fury of the waves, to the 
enraged boar. 

This summer resort has been long 
and favorably known. The house stands 
on the crest of a rocky promontory, 
which rises gradually to the height of 
eighty feet, against whose jagged base 
for ages past the waves in ceaseless roll 
have dashed their whitened spray. On 
either side, stretching for miles away, 
extend beautiful beaches, whose waters' 
furnish rare facilities for bathing, and 
whose hardened sands present a surface 



Cjuarter. Boar's Head, a bold anti com- 
manding promontory projecting a quar- 
ter of a mile from the main land di- 
rectly into the sea is the hospitable 
castle which ''lords it" over the adja- 
cent beaches. Here the admirer of the 
murmuring sea can find full scope for 
his admiration. The views from this 
lofty eminence are numberless and 
varied. The origin of the name is some- 
what shrouded in mystery. Tradition 
says it was given by fishermen from the 
similarity of its foam-laved rocks, when 

for driving not excelled along the 

The landlord of the hotel, Col. S. H. 
Dumas, is a veteran in administering to 
the wants of an exacting public. He 
has a nice, large, comfortable hotel and 
knows how to conduct it. During the 
season the table is supplied with the 
latest luxuries, while the sea at his very 
feet furnishes the most delicious of fresh 
fish to tempt the appetite. The rooms 
are large and airy, the furniture service- 
able, the public parlors, reading rooms 

Publisher's Departmeiit. 


and ofifices home like and comfortable. 
The house is of four stories like an I., 
and on five of its six sides is surrounded 
by a wide piazza affording a delightful 
promenade. It is but a step from this 
piazza to the green sward of the lawn, 
one of the most charming lawns in the 
world, surrounded on thre^ sides by the 
ocean, and without obstruction in every 
direction. A glorious place for chil- 
dren, for croquet, for lawn tennis, for 
foot races, for kite flying. The point 
extending into the sea makes a haven 
tor small boats or yachts, and just out- 
side the surf is an inexhaustible fishing- 

The colonel got rich many years ago 
in the hotel business, and now .carries 
on the caravansary more as an English 
manor house in which to entertain his 
guests than as a public house. His 
prices are merely nominal, what ordina- 
rily go to feeing servants at the great 

popular resorts. Three dollars a day 
for transient guests, and ten and twelve 
dollars a week for boarders may be con- 
sidered very moderate charges for a 
first class hotel open less than three 
months in the summer. The season 
here commences about the middle of 
June and ends about the middle of Sep- 
tember, although season after season his 
delighted guests refuse to leave his do- 
main for a month or six weeks after the 
house is nominally closed for the sum- 

In short, Col. Dumas has a large first 
class hotel at Boar's Head, Hampton 
Beach, on the coast of New Hamp- 
shire, which he wishes filled all through 
the summer of 1886. Every visitor will 
be charmed with his sojourn there and 
will regret his departure. Write early 
for terms and accommodation that he 
may be prepared for you and that you 
may not be disappointed. 


The pioneer of the hosiery industry 
in Laconia was John W. Busiel, who 
came to Laconia in 1846 and began 
the manufacture of woollen yarns. In 
1856 he began to use the yarn product 
of his mill in making the coarser grades 
of wool hosiery, and continued in the 
business until his death in 1872. His 
sons, Charles A. Busiel, John T. Busiel, 
and Frank E. Busiel, succeeded him 
under the firm name of J. W. Busiel & 
Co. They have largely increased the 
business and have erected as fine a set 
of mills as can be found in New Eng- 

land devoted to the line of woollen 
goods. They are manufacturing the 
finer grades of woollen hosiery in full 
fashioned goods, using machinery of 
the latest pattern, some of which they 
control exclusively under letters patent. 
They employ two hundred and fifty 
hands, and their annual product is about 
$500,000, with a monthly pay roll of 
$6500 to $7000. Their goods are 
known in the trade as the Perfect Foot 
goods, and find a ready and increasing 
sale all over the country. 


Publisher's Department. 

"Next Dddk." A story modest in aim, 
hut cleverly executed and remarkal)ly interest- 
ing as a jiiece of narration, will lie found in 
" Xext Door," by Clara Louise Ikirnham. 
This author writes a_<^reeal)ly, in a clear, fluent 
style, and describes the domestic and social 
life of our day in a manner which merits high 
praise. She has a good eye for character as 
well, and in one of her personages, Aunt Ann 
Eaton, has given us a genuine portrait of a 
woman which many jicople will admire for its 
felicitous touches. The other people who fig- 
ure in the story are perhaps less carefully dis- 
criminated; hut unless it he the antipode of 
Aunt Ann in the city matron, who also pre- 
sents familiar traits, the remaining characters 
are all interesting to the reader. The quar- 
tet of lovers especially enlists sympathy. It 
is on their experiences that the story turns. 
We see what its inevitable result will be, for 
the writer of this book is not one of those au- 
thors who are given to harrowing the sensibil- 
ities of his audience; but we follow the tale 
none the less, always entertained by it, and 
with a curiosity as to how the end is to be 
brought about, which is more agreeable than 
anxious misgiving as to what is to be done 
with the characters. This story, as we have 
said, is charmingly told. It has some of the 
qualities which have made the works of that 
English writer known as "The Duchess" pop- 
ular, without her effusiveness, sometime slang 
and ultra-romanticism. The conversations are 
particularly good. They are easy and natural, 
and they well illustrate much of the manner 
of the day which is found among young peo- 
ple. Margery is agreeably and often spicily 
vivacious, and Ray Ingalls is a good specimen 
of a genuine, warm hearted youth. The hu- 
mor of the introductions of two of the char- 
acters in the opening chapter is especially 
neat, and we can jjromise readers a genuine 
entertainment from the story throughout. 
["Next Door," by Clara Louise Burnham. 
Boston : Ticknor & Co. : i2mo, pp. 371.] 

Life of Henry Wadsworth Longfellow. 
With Extracts from his Journals and Cor- 
respondence. By Samuel Longfellow. Bos- 
ton : Ticknor & Company. 2 vols., 450 pp. 
each : price, $6.00. 

The life of no man of letters could be more 
welcome than that of the admired, honored, 
beloved poet of " creative imagination, airy 
fancy, exquisite grace, harmony and simplic- 
ity, rhetorical brilliancy, and incisive force," 
who vitalized everything he touched in verse 
by the sympathy of his nature. He always 
touched humanity with voice or pen tenderly. 
Humanity's response is in the welcome given 
these exquisite volumes, which could not have 
been written with more appreciative fervor, or 
more modest, cla.ssic phrase, and could not 
have been issued with more delicate elegance 
than from the press of Ticknor & Co. As a 
biography it is complete in a sense that no 
other writer could have made it. The 

boyhood life is tenderly revealed, not from the 
standpoint of a literary critic, not as one who 
tries to write, but the most delicately sensitive 
memories of a devoted brother. School days 
and college years are briefly hut significantly 
portrayed. Where the professional biographer 
would have reveled in the abundant material, 
we are given all that is of any real interest 
without any of the tediousness that usually af- 
flicts. In turning the pages as the paper-knife 
runs through the uncut leaves, the impression 
is that the Ijiographer tarries too long on his 
early foreign travels, but as we read, and find 
Mr. Longfellow's choicest descriptions, with a 
vein of wit rarely revealed by him intermingled 
with original art sketches, we regret that it so 
soon shades into his professional days at Bow- 
doin, only to rejoice us by emerging into a 
second European tour, prolonged but delight- 

The Cambridge home, life, work and friends 
are left to appear as visitors here and there, 
delicate glimpses in journals, letters and poems. 
One of the most genuine phases of the writer's 
art is the ease, good taste, and discriminating 
judgment with which he brings into view for a 
moment's entertaining thought the characters 
worth knowing in both hemispheres for a half- 
century. The world is richer for having in its 
libraries and upon its tables two such elegant 
volumes as Ticknor & Co. have given us in 
Samuel Longfellow's life of his brother, 
Henry Wadsworth Longfellow. 

The Sphinx's Children : and Other Peo- 
ple's. By Rose Terry Cooke, author of 
Somebody's Neighbors, etc. i2mo. ^1.50. 

"A bouquet of native New P^ngland flow- 
ers, and the flowers have a peculiar beauty and 
fragrance too. " — Flartford Courant. 

The short stories in this volume are of the 
very essence of New England. A somewhat 
fanciful revery lends its peculiar title to the 
book, but the " Other People's " offspring are 
the individual product of the soil, full of the 
grit, the doggedness and the grim humor that 
came over with our grandparents' furniture in 
the Mayflower. These stories are the fruit 
and blossom of all that is noblest and best in 
the qualities of the Puritan, and it may be 
that their appreciation — though not their 
beauty or their power — will be restricted by 
reason of what is distinctive and individual 
about them. Surely no short story of recent 
years has surpassed "The Deacon's Week" 
in pathos, in artistic truth, in the inspiration of 
a sublime and noble purpose. It would seem 
that no one could rise from its perusal with- 
out an impulse toward kindness and charity 
and a sense of benefit received. Without a 
word of moralizing or tawdry reflection, it 
gives the same lesson that is practiced out by 
true and manly conduct and unselfishness. 
And all the time the perfection of the picture 
as a work of art, as a truthful portrait set out 
with exquisite literary finish, captures the 
mind and entrances the imagination. 

The Business Element in American History. 'jc^ 


By Willard H. Morse, M.D. 

When this country has attained to tion stalks through our daily markets 

twice its present age, and Americans ready to devour. Then there existed 

begin to think more of life than they gigantic bubble companies that are the 

do of money, some careful historian direct ancestors of our modem stock 

will trace the province of business in enterprises. Then as now big sums 

our national history, and make that were risked, and at times the ventures 

chapter of American history one of the exceeded in magnitude any thing we 

most readable in our chronicles. Since have seen. 

the days of Miles Standish, we have I like to hear wise men say that we 
been a business people ; and the phrase of to-day are fools in business. Of 
has meant more on this side of the At- course it is true ; and why should it not 
lantic than it has in any of the mother be, when the men of 1884 are sons of 
countries. Blankets for com, and whis- men who in the years of a not-long-gone 
key for venison, has changed in the century did much foolish business? 
century to stock-jobbing and mark- There is nothing new under the sun 
down sales ; but nevertheless business that has shone on a goodly lot of Amer- 
is and was a dominant factor, and a ican business folly. To him who points 
matter of astonishment. One hundred the finger of scom at our Wall Street, I 
years ago the old Dutch store-keepers like to talk of the " Darien scheme," 
of New York stood still in their door- the " South-sea bubble," or perchance 
ways in mute astonishment as they saw of the " scheme of William Law." 
farmers and strangers come by with Alas, we cannot make men like Law 
their produce on their wagons, and a in this year of grace, our best efforts in 
determination for a good bargain on that direction only resulting in a Ferdi- 
their calculating faces. The same sen- nand Ward ! Just think of that man 
timent is with us who are idlers to-day, and his Mississippi scheme ! He went: 
and stand at an elevated-railway station to work on an arbitrary court, pro- 
any morning, and watch the horde of fessing magnificent faith in boundless 
passengers. If the Nick Van Stans sources of credit. He made ready 
stared in amazement, so do we, as we converts of wise men who could find 
look at the trains discharging their no bound between the real and ideal, 
loads, and see on anxious, worried, and Under his sophistry Paris lost its head, 
excited faces the deep-worn signs of the and the world witnessed a financial ex- 
never-ceasing struggle for business pros- citement never equalled. There was a 
perity. It is quite the same to-day as rush to the Bank of France, to change 
it was in 1784. Then men traded gold and silver for empty promises 
under difficulties, and now gains are not concerning an American scheme. The 
to be had except at extreme risk. Then Scotch parvenu held levees, where the 
pirates, Indians, and other treachery nobles of France were his obsequious 
lurked somewhere as a perpetual terror, courtiers. In short, he was the fashion, 
just the same as treacherous Specula- and has had no successor. He anti- 


The Business Element in American History. 

cipated such schemes as the Credit 
Mohilicr, and the selling of imaginary 
silver mines to sanguine English invest- 
ors ; but none of these ventures have 
equalled the original. Then a Scotch- 
man could sell a French regent a league 
of Louisiana swamp for three thou- 
sand livres, while now we have " puts " 
and " calls " on railroad stocks that are 
just as swampy. Ah, but we cannot 
do such magnificent swindling in Wall 
Street ! The good American is as 
" cute " as the evil one, and both are 
" cuter " than the William Laws. He 
spoilt all by dying poor, while our 
modern speculator dies rich, even after 
he is ruined ! Poor Law, if he had 
only known how to go into bankruptcy, 
or to settle his estate on his wife ! 

But there were solid business-men in 
those last centuries as well as specula- 
tors. In New York and Boston, at the 
close of the Revolution, there were 
merchants of ability and energy, 
stanch, steady heads of houses, with- 
out a particle of folly or romance about 
them. Such men might live over their 
shops, or might have ships trading in 
the Levant. Men who were the direct 
progenitors of some of our best modern 
houses got a respectable and honest 
living out of coffee and sugar, or in 
butter and eggs, and were esteemed for 
their principles. Such men got influ- 
ence, and went about making their 
country's history. Theirs was an abso- 
lutely unique position. While lawyers 
played the leading characters on the 
stage, there were times when a business- 
man was asked for, and a John Jay 
stepped forward. The lawyer and sol- 
dier gave his country his brain ; but the 
business-man added to that gift the 
product of his brain, — his money. He 
had calculation and prudence about 
him ; and, though the pet of Fortune, 

he never presumed on her favors. 
Strangely, the troubled times in which 
his lot was cast well served his sagacity. 
His tact developed into genius, and his 
gains were only measured by his cred- 
its. He knew no " bulls," and he never 
felt the mercy of " bears." Boti chien 
chasse de race ; and, like the speculator, 
the old-fashioned merchant has his heirs 
in our time. When that American his- 
tory is written, it will tell of these 
steady-going merchants of to-day, who 
are masters of many situations, and who 
are even wiser and stronger than their 
honored fathers. We want such men 
more now than we ever did before. In 
the twenty-five years since 1859, how 
many such men have there been ! 
They do not fritter away time and tal- 
ents in speculation. Their habits are 
of steady application. Their ways are 
respected. The self-styled capitalist is 
shy of entertaining proposals which are 
already prejudiced in the opinion of 
steady-going business-men. That which 
they accept is launched handsomely. 
If real business-men push a railway 
scheme, the public has no fear of what 
the Law and Ward element may do. 
The undertakings of the solid element 
are measured by its ambition and energy, 
rather than its resources ; and it is not 
strange to see a million of capital follow 
in the road a single dollar has cut. 

But in the same history we shall have 
to read of a class that is not of specu- 
lators or of solid men. There is a mid- 
dle class, — the class of honorable men 
who have speculated, and have hung 
on the slippery edge of the abyss of dis- 
honor until they have failed. These 
men have tried to keep a footing by 
means desperate and discreditable, in 
hopes to avert the evil day. Not dar- 
ing to show the world that they want 
to retrench, they have become slowly 

The Business Element in American History. 


resigned to the life of swindlers. Their 
dinners, equipages, and other extrava- 
gance become parts of a system of im- 
posture. They dare not do aught else 
than to try and maintain their position ; 
and they strain every nerve for that pur- 
pose, until the morning comes when we 
read of their suspension, and in the 
crash the creditors are dismayed. It 
is a relief to a once honorable man to 
lose all, and make a clean breast of his 
folly. His only regret is that he may 
have cast his character after his fortune 
into the vortex of speculation. But if 
he hasn't done any act of overt crimi- 
nality, he has come off better than he 
deserves, and can show that he has no 
moral liabilities. If the contrary is the 
case, the means did not justify it. From 
such means we shrink. If a well-known 
business-man goes openly into specula- 
tion, and is known as the promoter of 
a stock enterprise, we throw stones at 
him when he suspends. We cannot 
help it, and we do not want to help it. 
The public wants the business- men to 
do that which they advise the cobbler 
to do, — " stick to his last." If he fails 
to keep to that little law of conduct, he 
is supposed to be worthy of suspicion. 

Imagine how it will tell in that com- 
ing American history, that a most won- 
derful event was an assignment ! As 
the story of Law's bubble and its burst- 
ing has amused us, so will our children 
be interested in reading of the crashes, 
suspensions, and panics of the last half 
of the nineteenth century. We are too 
near them, and too much in them, to 
realize how tragic, grotesque, and mel- 
ancholy they are. But, when it comes 
to the fall of a real rascal, we can real- 
ize that ; for such a person is known 
where the quiet business-man is not. 
You knew this rascal, and everybody 
did. He was smooth, seductive, and 

fashionable. He took liberties with the 
public credulity. He had talent and 
enterprise, and made a big show. He 
had gold-letter prospectuses, elegant of- 
fices, a sumptuous reception-room, and 
magnificent house, horses, and plate. 
He was puffed by the press. He was 
a lion in society, and gave grand enter- 
tainments. He subscribed largely to 
charities, and to churches and schools. 
He had lots of money ; because, for 
some unexplainable reason, the public 
took in his scheme, and invested liber- 
ally in the stock that he sold. Then 
came the re-action. Insolvency fol- 
lowed close on inflation. The bank- 
rupt became defendant in a legion of 
transactions. He was alleged to be a 
fraud. His estabhshments were in the 
hands of a keeper. He was in the last 
throes, when presto ! he came up smil- 
ing. He had made friends of the mam- 
mon of unrighteousness; he had it in 
his power to involve others : immedi- 
ately he had all the help he wanted, 
and he shpped through the fetters he 
should have worn. He had money laid 
by for the emergency, his broken char- 
acter at once stepped forward again, 
and, before the scandal of his failure 
was cold, he was once more in the full 
tide of business. That was your sharp 
American gentleman rascal. 

The Old World has made marvellous 
progress in the ways of business, but 
we get the real drama of business in 
America. The story will be interest- 
ing reading, and no one will pass it 
by because it is dry as dust. Ours is 
a big field, big men, and big, bold 
ventures. The climate or the soil pro- 
duces all kinds of daring and shrewd- 
ness. We have both the mushroom 
dealer, and the man of enormous 
wealth ; men making splendid fortunes, 
and men continually failing and begin- 


The Business Element in American History. 

ning anew. WTiat a place these classes 
have in our history ! Put aside one 
steady-going man out of a hundred, 
and you will find the ninety-and-nine 
are quite worthy to be called gamblers. 
We all play at the game of chance. The 
Puritans played it, — selling one newly 
settled farm, and striking out into a 
newer country to better themselves. 
The Californian miner played it, — 
prospecting in wild solitudes for the 
sake of hope. The store-keeper plays 
it when he starts his business on credit. 
The physician and lawyer play it as 
they choose debt and trusting to the 
" pay-as-you-go " modus. We all play 
it. If the game succeeds, — and in 
some measure or other it generally 
does succeed, — the player is not sel- 
fish. Your American man of business 
is not a selfish man. Quickly his 
money changes hands ; he makes the 
trade of his fellows brisk by his mites 
or his millions ; he backs all of his 
acquaintances with ready dollars. But 
he is provident. While he makes free 
with his capital, he has a good life, and 
a " pile " of some size or other laid by 
for keeping. This idea was got from 
the old-time New-York burgher, whose 
rule of " putting by a dollar for every 
dollar spent " is amended a good deal 
by present usage. The inheritance of 
fun in business, of making business a 
pleasure, came from the old-time Bos- 
ton tradesman. Even as Caleb Grosve- 
nor of Milk Street found trade " more 
amusing than a game of quoits," so our 
modern business-man enjoys his trade 
to such an extent, that, even though 
he is unfortunate, he prides himself on 
the pleasure it afforded him, and com- 
mences again with the idea of having a 
new game of amusement. Then comes 
the satisfaction of the reflection, that, 
whatever one's change of fortune may 

be, the country has such magnificent 
resources that the phoenix of prosperity 
will rise even from the ashes of panics. 

Trade in Colonial times was sensa- 
tional. There was first of all the fur 
trade, and nothing more thrilling than 
the adventures of the trappers of the 
last century has ever been written. 
Though powder and fire-water bought 
the furs of the white or Indian trapper, 
there was fine business in collecting 
the furs, and there was excitement as 
well. Perhaps an itinerant fur-buyer 
paid occasionally for an otter skin with 
his scalp ; yet the game was fascinating, 
and the chances of death had few ter- 
rors. There were also privations, long 
journeys, and the battle with the ex- 
tremes of cold ; but then at last came 
the journey's end, and money payment. 
There was rivalry of merchants, too, in 
the wilds, — the American Fur Com- 
pany and the Hudson Bay Company, 
each bidding rum prices for furs. There 
were savage fights in this rivalry, and 
the staining of many a fur robe with 
crimson. There was cheating too, — 
the cheating of Indians by the agents, 
who had passed out the whiskey until 
the red men did not know what they 
were doing. There were losses too, — 
moths, and robbery, and the burden of 
the power of storm. 

In other branches of industry the like 
prevailed, until we who have come 
after have pride in saying that our his- 
tory has been that of a trading people. 
Every colonist, and every colonist's son, 
had a mercantile aptitude. From the 
first, there were grand openings in agri- 
culture and commerce ; and with fertile 
soil and magnificent harbors, the prom- 
ise first made has never been broken. 
New blood provoked feverish action. 
As the country grew, its people worked 
with the force of a high-pressure engine, 

God's Love and Mine. 83 

until business had been taken from the aim, and that is to be busy. Perhaps 

quiet, plodding labor to the grasp of we do not so much want money ; but 

restless enterprise. Now it has so hap- money is the wages of the busy ones, 

pened that we have no time for aught and the impetus that makes room for 

but business ; no time to take a good another impetus is the prize of our 

meal, no time to sleep, no time for the high calling. Our grandchildren will 

pleasures of the world. Realizing the write and read an interesting history; 

scope that is offered to financial ambi- and it is quite to be feared, that, when 

tion, we have only to live for the sake of they are asked what they will do with 

business. Every man is alike. There the past, they will say, '' Like the past 

are no lazy ones in America. Rich is the present. We are not through 

and poor, saint and sinner, legitimate with it yet. The hopes and desires of 

effort and illegal effort, — all have one business are peremiial." 


William Hale. 

God's love is like a light-house tower, 

My love is like the sea : 
By day, by night, that faithful tower 

Looks patient down on me. 

By day the stately shaft looms high, 
By night its strong lights burn, 

To warn, to comfort, and to tell 
The way that I should turn. 

God's love is like a light-house tower, 

My love is like the sea : 
He strong, unshaken as the rock ; 

I chafing restlessly. 

God's love and my love ! Oh, how sweet 
That such should be my joy ! 

God's love and mine are one to-day: 
No longer doubts annoy. 

By day or night he gazes on 

My bitter, brackish sea ; 
Forever tends it with his grace, 
Though smooth or rough it be. 

So, singing at its base, it rolls 
And leaps toward that tower, 

That all my life illuminates, 
And brightens every hour. 

God's love is like a light-house tower, 

My love is like the sea : 
I, peevish, changeful, moaning muchj 

Steadfast, eternal, he. 


A New-Hampshire Countess, 


By the Rev. Edward Cowley. 

Upon visiting the ancient and pic- 
turesque cemetery of Concord, where 
FrankHn Pierce and many others not 
unknown to fame await the archangel's 
summons, one is struck by the name and 
title of Sarah, Countess of Ru.mford, 
inscribed upon a certain gravestone 
there, in memory of the first American 
who inherited and bore the title of 
countess. She was born at the Rolfe 
mansion, Concord, Oct. i8, 1774 (not 
Oct. 10, as her epitaph erroneously 
reads). She was the daughter of 
Major Benjamin and Sarah (Walker) 
Thompson. The major fairly earned, 
by his various merits and works, before 
he was forty years of age, the especial 
favor of the reigning Duke of Bavaria, 
and by him was made a count of the 
Holy Roman Empire. 

His first wife was the above-men- 
tioned Sarah Walker, the widow of Col. 
Benjamin Rolfe, one of the earliest 
settlers of Concord, which was original- 
ly called Rumford. She was the oldest 
daughter of the Rev. Timothy Walker, 
pastor of the first Congregationalist 
church in Concord, where she was 
born, and where she passed the larger 
portion of her life. She was thirty 
years old when first married to the 
colonel, — a rather late age for a bright 
and winsome lady of those days, — yet 
his years numbered twice as many as 
hers ; and, after two happy summers of 
wedded life. Col. Rolfe died, leaving 
one son, Paul Rolfe, who also became 
a colonel. To the young mother was 
left one of the largest estates in New 
Hampshire. She remained a widow 
but one year, when she married Benja- 

min Thompson, late of Wobum, Mass., 
and then in his twentieth year. He 
was tall and comely of person, mature 
above his age, with capacity and for- 
tune seemingly in his favor, and was 
forty-two years younger than the for- 
mer husband of his bride. In October 
following, 1774, Sarah, whose history 
we shall briefly relate, was born of this 
marriage in the Rolfe mansion. 

What changes are wrought by war ! 
Within six months of the birth of this 
infant, the father became suspected of 
his attachment to the cause of inde- 
pendence, and the victim of an intoler- 
ant and cruel persecution. Threats 
of personal violence compelled him to 
leave his home and child and wife ; so 
he returned to his native town, seeking 
safety in Woburn, Mass. But jealousy 
and suspicion followed him even there ; 
and the early spring of 1776 found him 
a refugee within the British lines, and 
soon afterward the bearer of royal de- 
spatches to England. Major Thompson 
seems to illustrate what Renan says, that, 
when you have excited the antipathy of 
your country, you are too often led to 
take a dislike to your country. Having 
honest doubts of the wisdom and prac- 
ticability of colonial separation from 
Great Britain, he was bitterly calumni- 
ated as a Tory, was driven from his 
home, separated from his family, and he 
sought safety in exile. His lovely babe, 
whom he left sleeping in her cradle, 
he saw not again for twenty years, till 
she had grown to womanhood, remem- 
bering her father only by name, when 
he sent her the means, and requested 
that she would sail for London and 


A Nezv-Hampshire Cotintess. 


join him there, which she did in Janu- Leopold II., reigned as vicar. And in 
ary, 1799, being in her twenty-second 1797 the Elector received his daughter 
year. Her mother had already died, Sarah as a countess of the empire, and 

Jan. 19, 1792, after a semi-widowhood 
of near sixteen years. Her husband 
bade her adieu in Woburn, Oct. 13, 
1775, when he set out for Narragansett 
Bay and the British frigate, then in the 
harbor of Newport. Frequent letters 
show that he had the heart of a man 
for the wife of his youth. 

Already had he been made a major 
by Gov. Wentworth of New Hampshire. 
On his arrival in England he was soon 
employed as under secretary to Lord 
George Germaine, and then became by 
royal appointment a colonel of his 
Majesty's forces. In such official ca- 
pacity he returned to this country, 
near the close of the war, and then 
back to England ; was allowed half 
pay as pension for his services to the 
king, and subsequently was knighted 
by his royal master. This put him in 
comfortable circumstances as to income. 
But, in the mean time, his goods and 

allowed her to receive one-half of her 
father's pension, with permission to re- 
side wherever she might choose. The 
half pension was worth a thousand dol- 
lars annually : so that to the daughter 
her title was not an empty sound, but 
the reward conferred upon her father 
for his merits and talents. He had 
labored assiduously for the good of 
mankind : in the preparation of foods, 
soups, and various cooking ; in the use 
of fuel and lamps, baths, and chimneys ; 
in heating-appliances of fire and steam ; 
for the comfort of soldiers in camp and 
in barracks, giving them employment, 
better food, and better pay ; in houses 
of industry and instruction for prevent- 
ing mendicity, and furnishing work to 
the idle ; in schemes of humanity and 
economy for improving the condition 
of the poor ; in founding prizes for the 
encouragement of scientific research, 
one in England and one in Harvard. 

property in this country had been for- His bequests to the latter college now 

feited ; even his personal effects, which amount to more than fifty thousand 

he had invoked the Rev. Samuel Parker dollars in value. Americans may be 

of Trinity Church, Boston, to protect, proud to remember that the Royal In- 

including his most valuable papers, 
which, as he says, were of " the greatest 
consequence " to him, were saved only 
by the efforts of that gentleman. We 
have Major Thompson's imploring let- 
ter to him, but not the reply of Rev. 
Mr. Parker. This clergyman was after- 
ward known as the Rev. Dr. Parker, 
and father of the wife of Rev. Dr. 
Edson of Lowell, Mass. 

stitution of Great Britain (1799) was 
founded, and for some time managed, 
by a son of Massachusetts, Benjamin 
Thompson, Count Rumford, who as- 
sumed that name because it was the 
ancient name of the town where his 
wife and daughter were born. In con- 
sideration of plans and endeavors for 
benefiting the poorer classes, Rumford 
was largely in advance of his age. While 

In 1 791 Sir Benjamin Thompson was Rumford prizes and professorships will 

raised to the dignity of Count of the 
Holy Roman Empire by his friend and 
patron the Elector, who, during the 
interval between the death of the 
Emperor Joseph and the coronation of 

ever be remembered, the Rumford me- 
morials at Munich, and the Rolfe and 
Rumford Asylum at Concord, will never 
be forgotten. Both and all are of last- 
ing benefit to mankind, on both sides 


A New-Hampshire Countess. 

the ocean, to illustrate the broad sym- 
pathies of the man who founded them. 

The count died at Auteuil, near Paris, 
Aug. 2 1, 1 8 14, in his sixty -second 
year, where his remains are entombed. 
His first wife died the year after he re- 
ceived his high title, and was buried in 
Concord by the side of her first hus- 
band, Col. Rolfe. Their graves adjoin 
the plat which contains the ashes of 
Sarah, Countess of Rumford, but there is 
no tombstone erected to their memory. 

During the life of her grandmother, 
.the countess often visited the birthplace 
of her father, and quite a portion of 
her childhood was passed in North 
Woburn. The house in which the 
count first saw the light of day still 
stands, and is now the property of the 
Rumford Historical Society. Very 
noteworthy is it that the man himself, 
not his inherited wealth, — for he never 
enjoyed it, — is entitled to all the praise 
of his achievements, honors, and money 

The first passage of the countess 
across the Atlantic, in 1 796, occupied 
nearly as many weeks as her last con- 
templated trip (in 1852) would have 
taken days. When she joined her fa- 
ther in London, he and all his friends 
gave her a cordial welcome ; though he 
and they were in person strangers to 
her, knowing them only by name and 
correspondence. But her father had 
access to the best society, and was 
literally famous for his deeds and writ- 
ings. In Munich she found a Bava- 
rian marble and freestone memorial 
erected to his honor in the English 
Gardens he had planned, and that the 
hearts of thousands pulsed with joy on 
his return. His public reception was 
a triumph. Even the inmates of the 
workhouses praised him, as w^ell as the 
soldiers, for the improvements he had 

made for them. Thus the countess 
soon learned to love the Germans for 
their admiration of her father; to re- 
spect the English for the honor they 
had done him, and for the generous 
pension which they regularly paid ; and 
she thoroughly enjoyed " the graceful 
good-humor of the French : " hence 
the years she passed in Paris, and her 
protracted visits to London. With her 
father she " did " the Continent and 
visited Italy. Like him, also, she early 
became interested in devising generous 
things for the poor. In March, 1797, 
writes the count, " My daughter, desir- 
ous of celebrating my birthday in a 
manner which she thought would be 
pleasing to me, went privately to the 
House of Industry, and choosing out 
half a dozen of the most industrious 
little boys of eight and ten years of 
age, and as many girls, dressed them 
new from hand to foot, in the uniform 
of that public establishment, at her own 
expense, and dressing herself in white, 
early in the morning of my birthday 
led them into my room and presented 
them to me, when I was at breakfast. 
I was so much affected by this proof of 
her affection for me, and by the lively 
pleasure that she enjoyed in it, that I 
resolved it should not be forgotten." 
Immediately he formed a plan for per- 
petuating the remembrance of this in- 
cident, and for renewing the pleasure 
that it gave. He made his daughter 
a present of two thousand dollars in 
American stocks, in order that she might 
foj-ever repeat a like benefaction on 
behalf of the poor children of her na- 
tive town. Concord. Thus commenced 
the foundation of the fund for the Rolfe 
and Rumford Asylum in that city, to 
which other endowments were subse- 
quently made. And no good deed which 
the count and his daughter ever did 

A Neiv-Hampshire Countess. 


has produced more unmixed pleasure. 
Their several gifts have created no 
jealousy nor ambition of management, 
nor sinister purpose in any trustee to 
rule or ruin the charity. All rejoice at 
its judicious management, its gentle- 
manly trustees, its kind and competent 
officers, its thirteen happy, industrious, 
and improving children. Its system of 
home training and education, of dress 
and pastimes, of alternate work and play, 
and of inculcating and applying Chris- 
tian principles to the practical needs of 
daily duty, is essentially the same as 
that which had governed and had been 
happily illustrated in a similar institu- 
tion of the city of New York. Long, 
long may it be before any one shall 
arise to disturb its harmony, or lessen 
its prosperity ! 

The house of the countess's mother, 
inherited from her first husband, Col. 
Rolfe, and from his son Paul, who died 
childless, has been enlarged and con- 
verted into the Rolfe and Rumford 
Asylum, " for the poor and needy, par- 
ticularly young females without moth- 
ers, natives of Concord." The entire 
bequests, with their accumulations, now 
amount to more than fifty thousand 
dollars, and are taken in trust by the 
city. The countess also bequeathed 
fifteen thousand dollars to the New- 
Hampshire Asylum for the Insane ; to 
the Concord Female Charitable Society, 
two thousand dollars ; to the Boston 
Children's Friend Society, two thousand 

dollars ; to the Fatherless and Widows' 
Society, Boston, two thousand dollars. 
And she left ten thousand dollars to 
the son of her half brother, Joseph 
Amedie Lefevre, and provided that her 
legacy of fifteen thousand dollars to 
found the asylum should revert to him 
if the city of Concord failed to assume 
the trust. All the remaining real estate 
of Col. Rolfe was devised to the Institu- 
tion. This was duly incorporated by 
special statute in July, 1872 ; but the 
asylum itself was not opened for the 
reception of beneficiaries till the fif- 
teenth day of January, 1880. 

After the count's death, the count- 
ess seems to have divided her time 
between residence in London and her 
house at Brompton, protracted visits 
to Paris of two and three years' du- 
ration, and to residence in Concord. 
From July, 1844, she occupied the 
house and chamber in which she was 
born. After an eventful life, and while 
preparing for another visit to France, 
where she had vested funds, she was 
taken with the illness of which she 
died, Dec. 2, 1852, in her seventy-ninth 
year. Her only companion, and the 
solace of her declining years, was a 
young lady, Miss Emma G., a native of 
Birmingham, whom she had adopted 
when a child, at Brompton, and who 
has married Mr. John Burgum of Con- 
cord. Thus in family and institutional 
life, her charity has immortalized the 
Countess of Rumford. 


The Doctor's Granddaughter. 


By Annie Wentworth Baer. 


One evening in the spring of 1776, 
in a small town of one of the early Col- 
onies, a young couple were saying their 
sad farewell. 

John Pendexter had enlisted, and 
the next morning would find him well 
on his way to join his regiment. At 
this time he had come to have his last 
talk with Susanna Carwin, his affianced. 

Long had they been sitting before 
the open fireplace, many plans had they 
laid for the future ; and, when the shad- 
ows began to gather in the corners of 
the low-posted, spacious room, John re- 
membered the numerous arrangements 
he had to make before leaving his 
mother, already widowed by the war. 

Turning to Susanna, in whose black 
eyes a world of sorrow was expressed, 
he took her hand, now cold and damp, 
in his broad palm, and led her to one 
of the deep windows in the room facing 

Susanna leaned her head against the 
edge of the sliding shutter, and mus- 
tered all her will-power to keep back 
the bitter tears. 

John said, " Susanna, I want you to 
wear this little ring until I return. I 
will put it on your finger, with a wish for 
our future happiness and the freedom of 
our country." He slipped the tiny cir- 
clet on her finger, saying, " My love for 
you is like this ring, — without end." 

Susanna said, " My heart is too full 
of woe to-night, John, to say half that 
I want to. I feel a cloud of sadness 
settling over me. How can I live with- 
out you? How can I let you go?" 
sobbed forth the poor girl. 

" Susanna, we have talked this over 
many times ; and to-morrow you will 
feel about the matter as you have felt 
in times past. Dear girl, I must go ! 
Keep up good heart, and remember our 
happy home in the future, God will- 

He put his arm around her, and drew 
her towards him, as he walked out into 
the great hall for his hat. 

Susanna picked up a small leather- 
bound Bible from a half-round table 
standing in the hall, and gave it to him, 
saying, " Take this with you, John : it 
was mother's, and I have always used 

With a misty look in his frank blue 
eyes, John Pendexter took the book, 
and carefully put it in the pocket of his 
home-spun coat. For a few minutes 
he seemed to try to smooth his rough 
hat, as if his whole attention was given 
to the trivial matter. At once he thrust 
the hat onto his head, put his arms 
around the tearful girl, kissed her many 
times, bade her good-by, and, without 
waiting to hear her trembling words, 
swung open the great door, and walked 
with long, strengthful strides down the 
walk to the road. 

Susanna stood by the heavy stair- 
post, much like a lily beaten by the 
wind. At last she went into the room 
again, and stood by the window watch- 
ing the tall, stalwart form stalking along 
the sloppy road, in the gloaming of a 
dull spring day : she saw him turn the 
corner by the meeting-house, and then 
he passed out of her sight. Susanna 
felt that her heart, her life, had gone 
with him. 

The Doctor* s Granddaughter. 


Left an orphan when a small child, 
her grandfather had brought her up in 
his desolate home. Dr. Carvvin had 
educated the girl ; and she had found a 
playmate in John Pendexter, five years 
her senior. Mrs. Pendexter had taught 
her many womanly accomplishments, 
and had told the two children tales of 
her ancestors. The landing of the little 
band in November, 1620, on the bleak 
shores of Cape Cod, the names of 
Carver, Bradford, Winslow, and Miles 
Standish, were familiar to them. The 
little fellow. Peregrine White, seemed 
almost a baby then, when Mrs. Pen- 
dexter told them about the first New 
Englander. With open eyes they lis- 
tened to the rehearsal of the hardships 
of the sixty men, women, and children 
who started out from Newtown and 
Watertown in Massachusetts, for Con- 
necticut. With tears running down 
their ruddy cheeks, they heard of their 
journeying through swamps, over rivers, 
and up mountains, driving their cattle 
before them ; and how, in November, 
they reached the frozen Connecticut, 
and had to halt to build huts to protect 
themselves and their herds. To divert 
their minds from this sadness, "Mother 
Goose Melodies " for children, printed 
in Pudding Lane, Boston, would be 
read ; and this never failed to chase 
their tears away. 

In this manner Susanna grew to be a 
tall, graceful, handsome girl ; and John 
Pendexter knew that he loved her, and 
told her so. She accepted his love, 
and in return gave him the wealth of 
her pure heart. 

As John grew to manhood, he had the 
wrongs of the Stamp Act to dwell on ; 
and he smiled at the account of the 
raid by Boston citizens on the house of 
Oliver, the stamp-officer ; he rejoiced 
at the bold assertions of Patrick Henry. 

A little later, the manner in which tea 
was received by the Americans pleased 
him ; and when he read the notice of 
the strong cup of tea made in Boston 
Harbor, at the expense of Great Britain, 
in " The Essex Gazette" of March 29, 

1774, printed in Salem by Samuel and 
Ebenezer Hall, he was proud of his 

Following close on this came the be- 
sieged condition of Boston. The in- 
solent way in which the citizens were 
treated by the British soldiers fired 
every American heart ; and James Pen- 
dexter, John's father, marched to the 
aid of the distressed city. June 17, 

1775, the brave man fell ; and with this 
sad news came the story of the burning 
of Charlestown, and of the hundreds of 
people who were left homeless, and of 
the thousands of pounds in property 
scattered in ashes. 

In less than a year after this George 
Washington was made lawful com- 
mander of the army ; and in answer to 
the call for more men, John Pendexter 
stepped boldly forward to fill the place 
of his slaughtered father, willing to fight 
for his country, come weal or woe. 


Susanna found no comfort in the 
fields, the woods, or the sky, on this 
gloomy spring night. A heavy mist 
hung from the shaggy branches of the 
pitch-pines, and every little knoll in 
the fields was bare and brown, and the 
snow looked dirty and sullen as it 
slipped down their sides. Pools of 
muddy water stood in the road, and 
the whole world about seemed weeping 
and sad. 

With much fluster, the forestick 
burned in two, and dropped down on 
either side of the tall brass andirons ; 
a cloud of sparks went up as if in pro- 


TJie Doctor^ s Granddaughter. 

test — such flighty conduct was unseem- 
ingly in the long forestick. The huge 
back-log blazed up, and threw weird 
shadows out into the large, square 
room : these shadows flickered, and 
then ran out long on the wide beams 
supporting the low ceiling, as if trying 
to attract the attention of the sad girl 
by the window ; but she heeded them 

Soon the door opened from the hall ; 
and Peter, with many a grunt and gri- 
mace, laid a large pile of wood on the 
brick hearth. He glanced at Susanna, 
but, with instinctive kindness, turned 
away. Peter knew that John Pendex- 
ter had been there and gone, and all 
the servants loved Susanna very much. 

He gathered up the charred ends of 
the forestick, raked over the coals, and 
laid the wood on in a skilful manner. 
Finally Susanna turned around. Many 
times had she smiled at the funny face 
old Peter made when he blew the coals ; 
but to-night her heart was too sore for 
her to see any thing comical in the purs- 
ing-up of the monstrous lips, or the dis- 
tended appearance of his eyes ; the 
white ashes powdered his crisp wool 
unheeded by Susanna this woeful night. 

When Dr. Carwin came in from a 
long ride in the country on Sorrel, he 
rubbed his hands before the new fire, 
and said, " Come, Susanna, let us have 
supper : old MoUie has it ready." Dur- 
ing the meal he never spoke of John, 
but talked of his patients ; and after 
they had finished, and Susanna had 
pushed back her plate unused, her 
grandfather asked her to help him 
about some herbs. He talked of every 
thing but John, and Susanna felt that 
her grandfather was thoughtless for 
once ; but, when she took her candle- 
stick for bed, the old doctor kissed her, 
and said, " God bless you, my poor 

child ! " and led her out to the wide 

In this same spring of 1776, Gen. 
Washington contemplated the expul- 
sion of the British army from Boston. 
He decided to fortify Dorchester 
Heights, which commanded the harbor 
and British shipping. The army forti- 
fied itself so quietly and expeditiously, 
that the British knew nothing of the 
matter until the small band of two 
thousand men had taken possession of 
the Heights. John Pendexter worked 
faithfully at this time, and felt his labors 
well paid, when, on the 17th of March, 
the British began to evacuate Boston, 
under command of Lord William Howe. 
When the rear guard of the British 
troops were leaving one side of the 
city, Gen. Washington, with his joyous 
soldiers, marched in on the other. 
The inhabitants hailed these troops 
with gratitude ; for sixteen months Bos- 
ton had been the headquarters of the 
British army, and the people had suf- 
fered at the hand of an insolent sol- 
diery. John Pendexter wrote a letter 
to Susanna, describing the forlorn con- 
dition of the town. Many of the Roy- 
alists had fled with the British army. 
Churches had been stripped of pews 
and benches to supply' the soldiers' 
fires ; stores had been rifled to clothe 
them, and houses pillaged at their will. 
John's description of the joy of the 
people when Gen. Washington came 
among them caused Mrs. Pendexter 
and Susanna to weep. How proud 
they were of John ! How brave he 
appeared to them ! But a nameless 
dread crept into the heart of each, when 
they thought of the battles yet to 

In the following June, Richard Henry 
Lee of Virginia rose in the Continental 
Congress, and made a motion to de- 

The Doctor's GranddaiigJiter. 91 

clare America free and independent, at the four comers, and stamped out 

John Adams seconded the motion. For the king's arms. Joseph Brownlow cut 

three days this motion was discussed, down his sign of the ' Crown and Scep- 

— amotion fraught with intense inter- tre,' and calls his tavern the ' Inde- 

est ; on the last day it was postponed pendence ' now." 
for further consideration to the first day " O grandfather ! I fear we shall have 

of July, and it was voted a committee much bloodshed before we can enjoy 

be appointed to propose a declaration our freedom : it must be bought with 

to the effect of the resolution. The the lives of our best men," said Su- 

committee was elected by ballot the sanna. 

following day : this committee numbered "I can't deny that, child," said the 

five, and their names were well known old doctor ; " but, as John Adams said, 

in the Colonies. Thomas Jefferson re- ' The die is cast.' It is now gain all, or 

received the largest number of votes lose all." 

by one, and Mr. Adams came next by During the weary months that fol- 

choice. lowed, Susanna knew of the long march- 

The other three requested Mr. Jeffer- es, the poor quality of the supplies for 

son and Mr. Adams to draw up the the army, and of the dire sickness that 

paper ; and Mr. Jefferson did so, with fell upon them. The letters that she 

hints and help from the others. On received from John encouraged her and 

the ist of July the subject was resumed ; his mother : these letters were few and 

and upon the report of Thomas Jeffer- far between. In one he wrote them 

son, John Adams, Benjamin Franklin, that he had been inoculated with the 

Roger Sherman, and Philip Livingston, small-pox, and did nicely. Every word 

the thirteen Colonies declared them- was read over and over again by the 

selves free and independent States, two sad women. John Pendexter 

and dissolved their allegiance to the proved himself a good soldier, and a 

British Crown on the 4th of July, strong one too : he kept with his regi- 

1776. Three of these five men were ment, and encountered the British, and 

born in Massachusetts, and had recently fought manfully for his country, 
felt the British heel. The surrender of Burgoyne's army 

This news was received with great was a proud moment for him ; and the 

joy by the Colonies : bells were rung, forced march of forty miles in fourteen 

cannon fired, and public processions hours, to waylay the British Gen. Clin- 

formed. ton, was cheerfully performed by the 

The far-away towns speedily heard battle-worn troops. Clinton, hearing 

the news, and quickly began to show of Burgoyne's defeat, went back to 

their hatred for the British yoke. New York, and left Albany in peace. 

Dr. Carwin said one day when he The British army now took up its 
came in, " Susanna, the thing is done, winter quarters at Philadelphia, and the 
We have cut loose from England now, American troops established themselves 
and we stand or fall for ourselves. I at Valley Forge. Here the suffering of 
want that old portrait of King George the army was intense : famine threat- 
taken down and put in the attic : he is ened them, and the bitter cold was 
my king no longer. To-day the young keenly felt through their scanty cloth- 
lads pulled the old sign-board down ing ; many sickened and died. 


The Doctor's Granddaughter. 

Susanna had noticed for some time 
that Mrs. Pendexter seemed feeble : 
she had a sharp, dry cough, and com- 
plained of a pain in her side. As the 
weather grew cold in the fall, Mrs. Pen- 
dexter grew worse. Once Susanna said 
to her grandfather, " Mrs. Pendexter is 
very poorly ; can't you give her some- 
thing to help her? She has been doc- 
toring herself, but she grows worse." — 
"Yes," said the doctor, "I can give 
her something to loosen her cough; 
but Mrs. Pendexter has been ailing for 
a good while. She belongs to a con- 
sumptive family." As the weather grew 
colder, Mrs. Pendexter was confined to 
the house. John wrote cheerful letters, 
and Susanna tried to keep the failing 
health of his mother from him. Su- 
sanna was with Mrs. Pendexter a great 
deal this long winter. She tried to 
tempt her failing appetite with little 
delicacies, but the flattering disease 
kept gaining every day. The fever 
spots came, her eyes grew bright, and 
her cough dry. Dr. Carwin gave her 
medicines to strengthen her; but she 
said, " Doctor, it's no use, you can't 
help me : my course is almost run. I 
told Mr. Bostwick yesterday that I was 
ready, I only waited my summons. I 
have had one hard struggle, and that 
was about John. Poor boy ! How he 
will miss his mother when he gets back 
to the old home ! But I have fought 
the battle, and I can say, * Thy will be 
done.' " 

One bright winter day Susanna was 
sitting with Mrs. Pendexter, and the 
latter was very comfortable. They had 
talked of John, and Mrs. Pendexter had 
worried about his condition. Susanna 
took the part of comforter, and with 
cheerful words soothed Mrs. Pendexter 

The sick woman leaned back in her 
low, rind-bottomed chair, and said, " Su- 
sanna, a flock of snow-birds just flew 
by the window. Has Amos thrown out 
the hay-seed? John always did, and 
the little birds expect it. In about 
three days we shall have a snow-storm. 
I wonder if I shall live to see it." 
Susanna said, " Oh, yes ! You seem 
real bright to-day ; and you know the 
winter is going, and you will feel better 
when the weather is warmer, I hope." 
Mrs. Pendexter shook her head slowly, 
and said, " Not much longer. I could 
never climb ' May Hill ' any way ; but 
I shall go before that. Here comes 
Mr. Bostwick. He is a good man, but 
his idea of heaven is so cold." Su- 
sanna opened the door, and invited 
the minister in, and told him, in answer 
to his inquiry, "that Mrs. Pendexter 
was quite comfortable." She passed 
into the room, and placed a chair by 
the fire for the caller. After he had 
warmed his hands before the crackling 
fire, he took the fever-parched hand of 
Mrs. Pendexter, and said, " How are 
you to-day? Susanna thinks you are 
quite comfortable." — "Yes," she said, 
" for now I am, but somehow I think I 
shall have a hard night." Susanna left 
the two alone, and went into the kitch- 
en to see about something tempting for 
Mrs. Pendextet's supper. "Who sits 
up to-night, Catherine?" she asked of 
the woman who lived with Mrs. Pen- 
dexter. " One of the Alden girls and 
Jane Burrows. Y"ou go home, Miss 
Susanna : you are most tired out, and 
we shall need you more." — "No, I 
shall stay to-night. She is very feeble, 
her breath is short, and she hasn't 
coughed any to-day." 

The short winter day was waning 
when Mr. Bostwick left the sick wo- 
man. He felt as if she had looked into 

The Doctor^ s Granddaughter. 


the " promised land : " she had talked 
to him like one inspired. But he found 
that she grew weak, and her breath 
came short ; rising, he took her hand 
once more, bowed his head over it, 
and said, " God be with you." — 
" Amen," said Mrs. Pendexter ; and the 
minister passed out of the house over 
which the Angel of Death hovered. 

After Mrs. Pendexter had been made 
as comfortable as possible in her bed, 
Dr. Carwin came in ; when he stepped 
to the bedside, he noticed a great 
change. Looking up, Mrs. Pendexter 
said, " I know it, doctor, call Susanna." 

Susanna came in ; and Mrs. Pendex- 
ter said to her, " Break it easy to John. 
Poor boy ! " Susanna felt the tears 
filling her eyes, and she turned away. 

Ere morning Mrs. Pendexter's soul 
had been released, and only the shat- 
tered tenement was left. 

A hard task was before Susanna. 
Daily she asked herself, " How shall 
I write John ? " The posts were slow 
and uncertain : many weeks perhaps 
would pass before the black-winged 
letter would reach him in his desolate 
condition. . 

Many' letters she wrote, and then 
watched them grow white and crisp 
between the andirons. Finally she 
wrote and told him of the time when 
his mother passed away, how happy 
she was to go, her loving message to 
him. She even told him of the snow- 
birds his mother had spoken of; and 
how the soft snow fell on the third dav, 
and covered her grave with a fleecy 
covering. She carefully avoided telling 
him of the suffering his mother endured, 
and made her death seem like a happy 
release. Susanna carried the letter to 
her grandfather in his office. The old 
man looked up from his battered lig- 
num-vitae mortar as she came in. She 

said, " Grandfather, I have \vritten to 
John about his mother. Will you read 
it?" Without speaking, the old man 
reached out his hand ; and leaning on 
the table littered with books, herbs, 
bottles, and a skull, he read slowly the 
written page. Once he took off his 
glasses and wiped them, and then read 
on. When he had finished, he said, 
" Susanna, you have done well. John 
is fortunate to have one so kind to 
break this sad news to him. Come, 
get ready and go with me up to Joel 
Heard's : the old man has got bad eyes, 
and has sent for me. I have got some 
medicine fixed here for him." Susanna 
said, " I will be ready soon." She took 
the letter, and went out to direct and 
seal it. 

Dr. Carwin said to himself when the 
girl had gone, " How sad Susanna is ! 
She has had so much trouble in the 
last year or two. I shall be glad when 
John's time is out, and he gets back. 
There ! I believe that is fine enough. 
Now I will get the saddle-bags, and 
tell Peter to put on the pillion. A ride 
will do Susanna good." When Peter 
led Sorrel round to the horse-block, 
Susanna came out. Peter grinned and 
showed his white teeth, he was so glad 
for Miss Susanna to ride once more. 

When they started off, the doctor 
said, " What did you do with your let- 

" I left it on the table in the hall, for 
Peter to post," answered Susanna. 

" Well," said the doctor, " I am glad 
that you have got through with that 
task. You mustn't dwell on these sad 
things. Cheer up, and be the bright 
girl you used to be." Susanna smiled 
at her grandfather's earnest words, and 
felt a relief herself that the sad missive 
was off her hands. 

After a short ride over the sloppy 


The Doctor's Granddaughter. 

roads, — for there had been a rain, and 
it had cleared off warm, — they rode up 
to a great two-story doul)le-in-width 
house. Joel Heard lived here with his 
youngest son : two of his boys were in 
the army with John Pendexter. 

The old man was very glad to see 
Susanna with her grandfather ; and, to 
show how welcome they were, he filled 
the wide-mouthed fire-place full of 
wood, and drew the kitchen chairs 
close to the brick hearth. "Well, 
Joel," said the doctor. " How are your 
eyes to-day? Joseph said that you 
were pretty bad off this morning." — 
"Yes," answered Joel, "I tell ye they 
smart awfully. I can't look out door 
at all without their runnin' water." 
With a merry look the old man said to 
Susanna, " I guess I shall have to have 
my eyes pulled'^ While the doctor and 
his patient were talking, Joseph's wife 
came in from the barn with some hens' 
eggs in her woollen tire. She put them 
in a basket standing on the black case 
of drawers by the window, and then 
came along to the hearth. She said, 
"How d'ye do to-day, Miss Susanna? 
I'm glad to see ye out. Oh dear, what a 
dirty hearth ! Father always makes sich 
a clutter when he puts on wood ; " and 
she brushed vigorously with the speckled 
turkey's vving, until every chip and spill 
was lodged between the huge iron fire- 
dogs. When she had pulled out the 
ungainly oven-stopper, and tossed the 
wing into the oven, she said to Susanna, 
" Has John Pendexter heard of his 
mother's death? I s'pose he'll feel or- 
ful when he hears how sick she was." — 
" I have written him," said Susanna, 
" but it will be some time before he will 
get it." — "Joseph got a letter from 
Oliver last week, and he said as how 
John wa'nt very well. I guess they have 
had a tough time this winter, and it has 

told on 'em all," said Joseph's wife. 
" I hope that the army will be more 
comfortable now the spring is at hand," 
said Susanna. " The British have been 
living in Philadelphia, and having all 
they needed ; while our poor boys have 
suffered every thing." — " Well, Susan- 
na, shall we go ? I have got to be at 
a parish meeting to-night, and we must 
be off," said the doctor. " Come up 
agin, Susanna : I hain't had no chance 
to talk with ye this time," said the poor 
old man. " I thank you," said Susanna, 
" and I hope your eyes will be better 
soon, so that you can come down to 
meeting." — "Thank ye, thank ye. I 
hope so." 

When Susanna and her grandfather 
got home, the letter had gone, and the 
ride had done her good ; but the little 
word dropped by Joseph Heard's wife 
troubled her. She went into the great 
room where she and John had stood 
so many months before, and tried to 
feel that all would be well. She could 
hardly realize that she was the same 
girl who used to be so blithe and gay, 
and she wondered if she had left all 
her happiness behind her. . Her love 
for John Pendexter had been so strong, 
that at times it had been almost a pain. 
She had tried to live in the future, 
had borrowed trouble : now things had 
changed, — she dreaded to know the 



The spring had come, and grown into 
summer. All the evening in the soft 
twilight Susanna had been sitting in the 
front-door. She was looking back over 
the past few months. She had had so 
much to be thankful for. John was well, 
and her grandfather declared " that he 
was never better in his life." Bluff, the 
great yellow house-dog, was lying at her 
feet ; and she stooped to pat his broad 

The Doctor's G randdanfrhter. 


head, when she noticed a dark cloud 
rising in the south. Soon after a breeze 
freshened up, and she thought there 
was going to be a shower. Bluff got 
up and walked around uneasily, and 
seemed anxious. Peter went about shut- 
ting up the stable windows and doors. 
He said, "Thar's gwine to be a big 
shower, or a sou'-east storm ; 'twont last 
long, but 'twill be tough." Mollie shut 
every window in the house, and waited 
in terror by the kitchen hearth for the 
" thunder." 

When Susanna retired, she opened 
her Bible in an absent way, thinking 
of the shower meanwhile. When she 
looked, the book lay open in Ecclesias- 
tes, and she read the twelfth chapter. 
Many times had she read the beautiful 
words, " Or ever the silver cord be 
loosed, or the golden bowl be broken, 
or the pitcher be broken at the fountain, 
or the wheel broken at the cistern ; " but 
to-night they gave her a restless feeling, 
their beauty had fled, and they seemed 
a portent of ill. She thought, " It is 
the weather, something in the air, that 
gives me this feeling. I will go to sleep, 
and perhaps I shall know nothing of 
the shower." Just then Bluff gave out 
the most pitiful howl, something he 
seldom did ; and it sounded uncanny 
in the thickening gloom. Poor Mollie 
believed that she or Peter were to be 
struck by thunder sure : " a dog's howl- 
ing meant death alius." 

Slowly the rain-ladened clouds rolled 
on, and midnight had come before the 
fury of the storm burst over Dr. Car- 
win's home. Susanna had succeeded 
in getting to sleep ; and the thunder had 
muttered, and the lightning had darted 
out its forked tongue like a venomous 
serpent, and finally rent the sagging 
clouds, and the rain rushed before 
the fierce south-east wind. The wiry 

branches of the elms before the house 
rattled and scraped against the win- 
dows, as if trying to get in ; the hang- 
bird's nest was beaten and tossed by 
the swinging branches. The wind 
boomed in the great chimney in Susan- 
na's room, and it sounded like artillery. 
The thunder crashed close to them, and 
shook the oaken frame of their dwell- 


Susanna pulled aside the curtains of 
her bedstead, and saw the room filled 
with a garish light, and the shadow of 
the writhing elm branches looked like 
a strange writing on the wall ; following 
this another peal of thunder, and crash 
after crash followed. During a momen- 
tary silence, the tall clock in the hall 
struck one, that lonesome hour. Al- 
though the elements were at war, and 
over her head the battle-ground, Su- 
sanna felt the sound to be prophetic. 
Was she one alone ? 

After a few hours of fury the tempest 
was over, and morning dawned on many 
a shattered tree and rain-washed road ; 
the tender grass had been laid low, and 
the tiny birds were drowned in their 

One morning in July, Susanna saw 
Joseph Heard coming down the road 
in a hurried way. He walked into 
their yard, and went to the stable ; 
when he passed the house, he gave a 
guilty look at the windows, as if he 
feared he might be detected in some 

Susanna heard him say " Good-morn- 
ing " to Peter, who was currying Sorrel. 
All the time Joseph was looking beyond 
Peter in search of some one else. 
"Has the doctor gone out yet?" he_ 
asked, " No sar, he's in the office. 
Shall I speak to him?" — "No," said 
Joseph, " I will go in and find him." 
— "Is yer father wus?" asked Peter 


The Doctor's Granddaughter. 

hurriedly, as he saw Joseph moving off. 
" No," said Joseph ; and he walked on, 
with his right hand thrust deep into his 

Joseph went in through the long hall, 
and halted at the doctor's door. He 
took a crumpled letter out of his pocket, 
folded it up, looked at the directions, 
and put it back. He took off his hat, 
pulled out his blue-and-white checked 
handkerchief, and wiped his face ; then 
he put the handkerchief back into the 
hat, put the hat on, and stepped up 
near the door. He touched the rough 
brass latch, and it rattled. " Come in," 
said the doctor. Joseph started like a 
thief, but it was too late to turn back. 
He opened the door and walked in. 
" Good-morning, Joseph, good-morn- 
ing," said the doctor. " How is your 
father this morning?" — "Oh, he is 
well ' " and there Joseph stopped. 
" Have a chair, Joseph ; " and the doc- 
tor motioned to a large square chair by 
the table. " No, I can't stop," said 
Joseph, but he seemed loath to make 
known his business. The doctor spoke 
of the heavy shower they had in June ; 
and Joseph answered in an abstracted 
way, all the while keeping his hand in 
his pocket. At last he said, " Doctor, 
we got a letter from Oliver last night, 
and we have heard some bad news." — 
"Is Alex hurt?" inquired the doctor 
eagerly. " Well, yes, wounded in the 
arm ; but you know that battle at Mon- 
mouth on the 2Sth of June was terrible. 
It was so hot." Joseph seemed over- 
come with the thoughts of this battle, 
and he dropped into the great square 
chair. "Where in the arm is Alex 
wounded, and what ails you, man?" 
said the doctor. " Well, doctor, to tell 
the truth, I have got bad news for you : 
John Pendexter is killed — killed out- 
right." The doctor sat down like one 

paralyzed. " Poor Susanna ! Poor 
child ! " he said. " I don't know but 
what this will finish her. She has 
seemed for a year or two like a sapling 
bent down by some great weight ; but 
this summer she has been springing 
back. What does the letter say?" — 
" Here it is, you can read it ; " and 
Joseph took out once more the small 
piece of paper freighted with so much 
sadness for Susanna. He dropped it as 
if he were glad to be rid of the crum- 
pled sheet. 

The doctor read how the army had 
crossed the Delaware, and met the Brit- 
ish at Monmouth, N.J. Oliver de- 
scribed the heat of the day, how the 
troops suffered, and many died. He 
wrote that his tongue was swollen so 
that he couldn't keep it in his mouth, 
and how at times a British bullet would 
have been welcome. At length he 
wrote, " This sad news I have to write : 
John, Alex, and I marched together and 
stood together till John fell. He never 
spoke. Alex and I took him up, but 
the work was done. We buried him 
carefully, and wept as we would have 
for each other. John had got Susanna's 
letter telling of his mother's death, — it 
had been delayed. It was hard for him : 
he often spoke of the old home, and 
wanted to keep it for himself and Su- 
sanna," Oliver wrote kind words to his 
poor old father, and told him not to 
worry about Alex : he sent messages to 
the neighbors, and told Joseph to give 
the letter to Dr. Carwin. " Joseph, this 
is dreadful," said the doctor. " How 
can I tell Susanna?" Just as he was 
speaking, Susanna opened the door, and 
said, " Grandfather, I am going up in the 
pasture with Bluff." The old dog, hear- 
ing his name, brushed by her, wagging 
his tail with evident pleasure, " Why, 
grandfather, what is the matter ? — Jo- 

The Doctor's GranddaugJiter. 


seph, who is ill ? " — " O Susanna, no 
one is ill: he is past that!" said the 
doctor. "Who is past that?" cried 
Susanna in a shrill, unnatural voice. 
" What letter have you ? O Joseph ! who 
is killed? Is John?" Both the men 
were silent. The doctor's eyes grew 
misty behind his glasses, and Joseph 
had his handkerchief bound to his face, 
Susanna took the letter, and read it 
calmly through ; slowly the color left her 
face, and her eyes seemed to fill with a 
suffering look. " Grandfather," she 
said, " is this the last ? Have I reached 
the bottom of misery?" With one 
wringing clasp of her hands, she said, 
" John, I wish I were with you ; " and 
she walked out of the room in a blind 
way, and left the two men sitting there, 
helpless to comfort her. Every thing 
was so still that they heard her uncer- 
tain steps through the long hall, heard 
the rattle of Bluft's nails as he followed 
her at a little distance; and the hall- 
clock ticked slow and loud as its long 
pendulum swung back and forth. 

The doctor got up, went out, and 
looked after the girl as she walked on 
in the footpath towards the pasture. 
Bluff followed, with his tail dropped ; 
and he kept behind her all the way. 
Joseph came out, and said, " I must go : 
doctor, as true as you live, I should 
have rather had Alex's arm, than 
brought that letter to you." — "I don't 
doubt it, Joseph," said the doctor. 
" You pitied us both ; and you knew 
what such a message meant to Susanna. 
I feel as if my prop was gone. I in- 
tended for John to come here and live : 
I couldn't let Susanna go. But it is all 
over now : the poor child and I will 
plod on till we get through with affairs 
of this life." — "I know, doctor. I do 
feel awfully about John ; " and Joseph 
went out in a sideling manner over the 

oaken threshold, and walked down the 
wide path much as one goes from 
the house of the dead. 

Susanna walked along through the 
tall, waving grass. Long shadows were 
chasing each other over the fields, and 
the pearl and blue sky was calm over 
her. When she reached the tall pines 
in the pasture beyond the field, she 
threw herself down on the warm ground, 
and tried to realize what this news 
meant. "Was John dead? Had he 
gone to the echoless shore ; and was 
she left a wreck on the shores of 
time ? " 

" The Lord loveth whom he chasten- 
eth," went through her mind ; but she 
felt rebellious, and thought, " No : 
grandfather wouldn't have made me 
suffer like this, because he loved me." 
Then she thought of John and his 
mother : Would they meet his father ? 
or had they all got to sleep until the 
resurrection? Oh, what a muddle ! 
Was there a heaven ? She almost shud- 
dered at this last thought. She had 
never been so wicked in all her life. 
Had she come out here to be tempt- 
ed, and was she going to lose her 
faith? Not a tear had come to her 
relief: her head seemed to be bursting, 
and her eye-balls felt too large for their 
sockets. She thought of her last talk 
with John, of his last caress ; and she 
pressed the tiny gold ring to her lips, 
and remembered that he said, " Wear it 
till I come." " Now I must wear it till 
I can go to him." When she looked at 
the ring, the tears burst forth, and she 
buried her face in her hands among the 
sweet pine-spills. The birds twittered 
above her head, and the cattle stood 
off chewing their cuds, and seemed to 
wonder at the strange figure. 

At once she felt a cold, damp nose 
nuzzling her hair; and, looking up, 


The Doctor's Gratiddaughter. 

Bluff stood over her : his eyes grew 
dark, and he uttered a low whine, as 
she laid her tear-stained face on his 
soft, round neck. The dog sympathized 
with his mistress : he stood by her, with 
his head hung down, and his face was 
sad. The shadows fell towards the 
east, and the sun began to slip behind 
the western hills, when Susanna sat up, 
and pushed back her hair. She laid 
her hand on Bluffs head, and felt that 
even the company of this mute friend 
had done her good. She trembled as 
she looked back over the last few 
hours, and saw how near to the brink 
of unbelief she had wandered. She felt 
that now she must take up the burden 
of life again, and travel on alone. She 
should have no plans now, — only live 
from day to day. 


The hay had been cut, and the grain 
garnered ; the oaks had begun to drop 
their acorns ; the squirrels, rabbits, 
partridges, and wild pigeons were 
gleaning ; the air was balmy, and all 
nature seemed at peace. 

Susanna was getting ready to ride 
with her grandfather ; she heard his 
step in the hall, and hastened down 
to help him. " Well, dear, are you all 
ready?" said the doctor, with a kindly 
smile. " Yes, grandfather. What can 
I do to help you?" said Susanna. "Let 
me see," said her grandfather, peering 
into the saddle-bags : " I have got my 
cupping-glass, — there, just step into the 
office, and get that punk on the table : 
the old lady Grummet always wants to 
use punk when she is cupped ; " and 
the doctor went on looking over his 
' articles. He took out his often-used 
lancet, felt of the edges, and said to 
Susanna when she returned, "I suppose 
Jason's wife will want to be bled while 

I am there ; about twice a year I bleed 
her. — Peter," said the doctor, when 
he and Susanna were ready to ride off, 
"if any one calls, tell them that we 
have gone to Jason Grummet's, and 
sha'n't get back very early." — " Yar, 
sar," said Peter, with a low bow. 

Sorrel seemed to feel young this fine 
morning ; and he shook his rusty mane, 
and cantered along with his double 

" Did Jason think his mother very 
sick, grandfather? " — " No : her cough 
was a little more troublesome ; and she 
thought winter was at hand, and wanted 
me to come up and attend to her be- 
fore cold weather." — " What is that 
in the road, grandfather?" — "I don't 
know. Ah ! it's Jabez West : he is hav- 
ing another crazy spell." Sorrel stopped 
to walk, and eyed askance the rocks 
rolled into the road, and the strange 
antics of the man before him. " Good- 
morning, Jabez. What's the matter 
here ? " — "I want you to pay for going 
this way : this road is mine ; and you 
must pay, or I shall murder you," said 
the madman. Susanna drew back be- 
hind her grandfather : a murderous 
look gleamed in the maniac's eye, and 
his hair was hanging over his face, crim- 
son with madness. The doctor drew a 
small silver coin from his waistcoat 
pocket, and tossed it to Jabez. " How 
is that, Jabez?" — "All right, sir, go 
on ; " and he rolled away the rocks so 
that Sorrel could get through. 

Susanna felt a sense of relief when 
they had left the poor soul behind them : 
he was busily engaged in barricading 
the road against the next traveller. 

" Do you consider him dangerous, 
grandfather?" asked Susanna. "At 
times I suppose he is ; but Stephen 
can't do much with him unless he 
chains him, and he don't like to do 

TJie Doctor's Granddaughter. 


that." — "What caused him to have 
these attacks?" — "I think it was a 
sunstroke," answered the doctor. 

As they rode up a long hill, off to the 
left, partly hidden by large oaks, Su- 
sanna caught a glimpse of buildings in 
a tumbled-down condition. 

" Is that the Captain Flanders place 
over there ? " she asked her grandfather. 
The doctor turned and said, " Yes ; 
that's the old place, and there seems to 
be something mysterious about that 
farm : ill luck goes with it. My father 
said that Capt. Flanders had been a 
pirate, and got his money by sea-rob- 
bery. Father always told this story 
about the captain. He said that when 
Capt. Kidd came back from London, 
with his ship the " Adventure Galley," 
to get a crew in New York, Capt. Flan- 
ders was among the volunteers. You 
know that the Earl of Bellamont was 
sent over by King William as governor 
of New York and Massachusetts in the 
latter part of 1600. He was anxious to 
put down piracy in the Indian Ocean. 
After a good deal of talk, and by the 
aid of friends in England, he got a ship, 
and hired Capt. Kidd — an old sailor 
of the settlement — to take command 
of her. Capt. Kidd couldn't get a crew 
in England, the men were taken up so 
by the English navy : so he came back 
to New York, shipped a full crew, and 
left the Hudson in February, 1697. 
When he reached the Indian Ocean, he 
found how much easier it was to capture 
the slow-sailing, defenceless merchant- 
ships, than it was to defend them, and 
try to capture the armed and desperate 
pirates : his pay would be small in com- 
parison to the prize he could easily 
take ; and he decided to throw over his 
command as privateer, and commenced 
piracy on his own hook in the English 
ship. He made a savage pirate, we 

always heard ; and his deeds of cold- 
blooded murder were fearful." The 
old man paused, and Susanna said, 
" How did Capt. Flanders get here, 
grandfather?" —"Well, when Capt. 
Kidd knew that England had heard of 
his treachery, he concluded to divide 
the riches they had captured among the 
crew, and burn the ship : he thought 
that they could get back to America 
with their spoils on some pirate ships, 
and they did. He, with several of his 
crew, got berths in a pirate sloop, and 
came back to New York. Capt. Kidd 
told many plausible lies to the gov- 
ernor, who at first believed him, and 
Kidd expected to live in luxury on his 
blood-money ; but at last the governor 
got his eyes open, and captured Kidd, 
and kept him until he was ordered to 
send him to England, where he was 
hanged. Some think that his trial was 
unfair, as he was tried for the murder 
of one of his sailors. This sailor was 
so dissatisfied with the way they were 
doing on the ship, that he said to Capt. 
Kidd, ' I shipped to protect these ships, 
and now we are stealing them, and 
killing the crews.' In the heat of this 
quarrel it is said Kidd struck the man, 
and killed him. Some don't believe it ; 
but I guess he deserved hanging any 
way." — "And Capt. Flanders," said 
Susanna, trying to call her grandfather 
back to his story. "Capt. Flanders 
was never a captain, so father said, but 
people called him so. When he landed 
with Kidd, he didn't stop in New York, 
but came on this way, and bought that 
great farm. He built a nice set of 
buildings, a monstrous barn, over a hun- 
dred feet long, and fixed the house off 
in great style. His wife was some out- 
landish woman — a Spaniard, I believe. 
They had some children, and they died 
except one : that lived a few years, and 


The Doctor's Granddatighter. 

was foolish, and then it died. His wife 
took to drink ; and he carried on with 
such a high hand, that, a year or two 
after she died, he sold out to the Mor- 
gan boys. These young men were two 
brothers from Vermont : tliey were 
married, and father said every thing 
looked bright for them. In a few years 
the eldest brother's wife died, and he 
was left desolate ; shortly after, the 
younger brother broke his arm, and it 
withered. In the few years they lived 
there they lost two children, and de- 
struction seemed to be in their midst. 
They sold, and went back to Vermont 
maimed in heart and body. 

" The next man came with a family of 
boys and girls, some of them grown up. 
I can remember them. Everybody 
said, 'They will make things brighten 
up on the Captain Flanders place now ; 
but the curse appeared to rest on them. 
The boys took to drink, and the girls 
went to the bad : the old man was hurt 
by his oxen, and died in a few days. 
The mother took what the law allowed 
her, and went away, I don't know 
where. Since that time, no one has 
lived there, and the house is all going 
to ruin. Some say that the house is 
haunted, but I guess not. I do think 
that there is something there that is 
wrong : some demon holds possession, 
and it seems to crave human life and 
human happiness. I don't believe in 
ghosts, but your grandmother always 
had forerunners of death : she could 
tell when she was going to lose a 

During this long talk. Sorrel had been 
jogging slowly along in the grass-grown 
road ; recollecting himself, the doctor 
slapped him on his neck with the reins, 
and told him in affectionate way that 
he was as stupid as a woodchuck in 
the spring. 

Soon they turned into the long lane 
leading to Jason Grummet's house. 
The double front-door stood open, and 
the dog got up and welcomed them 
most graciously. Jason came out of 
the barn, and took the doctor's horse, 
and invited them into the house. 
" Miss Susanna, I am very glad to see 
you ; you hain't been here for years," 
said Jason. Susanna thanked him, and 
said, " Not since I was a child." The 
old lady met them in the door, dressed 
in short-gown and petticoat. She was 
very glad to see them, and exclaimed 
when she shook hands with Susanna, 
" Massy, child ! you are the picter of 
your mother ; and Mary Carwin was the 
handsomest bride that ever went into the 
old meetin'-house 1 " Susanna smiled 
at the compliment, and thanked the 
old lady. The odor of roasting fowl 
greeted them as they went into the 
great front-room, and the tall clock 
soon told the hour of noon. The doc- 
tor was astonished to think that they 
had spent so much time on the road. 

Soon Jason's wife came in flushed 
from the spit, but she greeted them 
cordially. The old lady said, "We 
sha'n't have any doctorin' done till arter 
dinner. I'm so glad' it was pleasant 
to-day, so you could come. She 
reached down into her huge pocket, 
and drew out her round snuff-box : she 
wiped it, gave it a tap, and passed it 
to the doctor, saying, " Have a pinch 
of rappee ! " — "I don't care if I do : 
this is good, Mrs. Grummet. — Susanna, 
have some." Susanna acquiesced, and 
the three enjoyed the pinch from the 
small black box, 

" Gome, doctor, mother, and Su- 
sanna," said Jason, standing in the 
kitchen-door in his shirt-sleeves, his 
face shining, and his hair damp, from 
his wash in the skillet on the door- 

The Doctor's Granddaughter. 


step, and his wipe on the coarse tow 
towel. In the long, dark kitchen stood 
a cross-legged table, and the family and 
guests sat down to a large pewter plat- 
ter of smoking birds. " Pigeons, Ja- 
son?" said the doctor. "Yes: I went 
out on the wheat stubble early this morn- 
ing, and I got a good shot : they are 
very plenty this fall," said Jason. 

"You have roasted the birds to a 
turn, Mollie," said the doctor to Jason's 
wife. A pleased look crossed the 
woman's face ; and feeling that she 
must do something — words failing her 
— she jumped up and brushed the 
whitening coals from the Dutch oven, 
and flopped into a pewter plate in a 
skilful manner a wheaten short-cake. 
This dainty was hastily prepared after 
the arrival of the doctor and Susanna. 
The old lady gave Jason's wife a grate- 
ful look when this was brought on. 
" Now, doctor," she said, " have some 
o' this short-cake. I think Mollie can't 
be beat makin' ' em ; and have some 
o' this cheese. We made a few small 
ones, and they ain't very dry yit ; but 
new cheese goes good with short-cake." 

Susanna thought that there was never 
a dinner cooked that tasted so good as 
this : the long ride in the clear air had 
given her an appetite, and she was glad 
to see her grandfather enjoy it. The 
old lady had always known him : she 
said, " I remember when you fust started 
here, and Debby was putty proud when 
you begun to keep company with her ; 
but that was a long time ago, wa'n't it, 
doctor? " — " Yes, Mrs. Grummet, you 
and I have reached the age of man," 
said the doctor. " I'm living on God's 
time now," said the old woman. " If 
I live till next Jinerwary, I shall be sev- 
enty-nine year old. You ain't quite so 
old, doctor?" — "No, I shall be sev- 
enty-eight next March." Susanna felt 

a pang of sadness when she looked at 
her grandfather. " How much longer 
should she have him?" "Not long," 
she feared ; and she herself was a girl 
no longer, although people called her 
"a girl," and always would unless she 
was married. 

She found herself dreaming, and 
hastened to talk with Jason's wife. 
"Are your children at school, Mrs. 
Grummet?" she asked. "Yes: we 
have only a few weeks of schoolin' ; and 
it's way up in the north-west part, so 
they take their dinners." 

The dinner had long been over, and 
the party had been talking around the 
table, when the doctor said, " Mollie, 
do you want me to bleed you to-day?" 
With a glance at her husband, Mollie 
said, " I don't care if you do, my head 
troubles me an awful sight ; when I 
stoop over round the fire, I am terrible 
dizzy." — "All right, I'll bleed you." 
Turning to the old lady, he said, " I 
suppose you still have faith in cup- 
ping?" — " Yes indeed, I do," she said. 

After attending to his patients, and 
when he had looked over Jason's crops, 
the doctor went in to call Susanna. 
She and the old lady were sitting in 
low chairs before the fire : they had 
evidently been talking very seriously. 
The old lady had been asking Susanna 
about John, and the trials she had 
passed through, and she wanted to 
console her. 

Although a few years had sent their 
rain and snow on John Pendexter's un- 
marked grave in New Jersey, still it 
seemed to Susanna like a new death to 
have the smouldering ashes of her grief 
raked over by curious hands ; but she 
bore the torture well, thinking that the 
old lady meant kindly. Her grand- 
father's voice was a welcome sound. 
As they rode out in the narrow lane, 


The Doctor'' s Granddaughter. 

they heard the old lady say in a thin, 
feeble voice, " Come agin." They 
might, but she would be missing. 


The months rolled on with Susanna 
and her grandfather, and one day was 
much like another, save in the failing 
strength of the three old people around 

Her grandfather rode off occasionally 
among his patients ; but Sorrel was 
clumsy, and often stumbled, and the 
doctor was talking of buying a new 
horse, and of giving Sorrel "his time." 
Mollie was so feeble that Susanna had 
talked with her grandfather about hav- 
ing one of the Samson girls come and 
help Mollie, and learn about the work. 
The doctor had thought it best, and 
Patty Samson was in the family. It 
was like sunshine to hear the young 
girl's voice singing so gayly, as she 
skipped up the wide, low stairs. Peter 
had given up many of his old ways, and 
was like Sorrel, — stiff and clumsy. 
Mollie sat by the kitchen fire and 
jogged herself in a pitiful way ; but she 
said " she didn't think much o' that 
Samson gal, young 'uns was more 
plague than profit alius." 

When the summer came again, Su- 
sanna helped her grandfather in the 
garden, where he raised many of his 
herbs. In the sweet summer days she 
walked with him, and gathered the 
bright saffron blossoms. At this time 
he talked with her about her grand- 
mother, and her father and mother. 
The old man always spoke of his 
wife with so much tenderness and love, 
and once only he told of her sickness 
and death. Tears filled his eyes, dimmed 
with age, as he went over this scene 
again. "Your mother was a beautiful 
woman, Susanna : when James told me 

that he was going to be married, I felt 
thankful to have them come home. 
Mollie was young when your grand- 
mother died, but she did very well. 
When Mary came, she straightened every 
thing, and we were so happy. In a 
little while after you were born, I found 
that your mother had got to leave us, 
and I felt that my cup was too full. She 
lingered along through the winter, and 
died in May. You were three years 
old : when you were five, your father 
died, and you were all I had. I never 
realized how thankful I was for you 
until then. When you were eight years 
old, you had the throat distemper. I had 
almost given you up. Peter and Mollie 
worked and watched over you, Susanna ; 
and, when your throat was swollen out 
even with your face, Peter was nearly 
crazy. He went down to the spring by 
the thick hemlocks, and dug through 
the frozen ground till he found a frog. 
He brought it up, and sat it on your 
chest close to your mouth : the frog 
drew several long breaths, and then top- 
pled over, dead : we thought that it 
helped your throat." Susanna felt after 
this talk how good they had all been to 
her ; and, if she could comfort them in 
their old age, she was glad that she had 
lived, had loved and lost. 

Once in early autumn the doctor 
walked to the church with Susanna, and 
this sabbath Mr. Bostwick preached 
such a comforting sermon ; often before 
Susanna had thought his sermons were 
cold. He had made God seem unap- 
proachable, not a God to love, but a 
God to fear ; but this day that feeling 
melted away, and his words floated out 
from under the sounding-board, and 
settled like a balm on his listeners. 
Susanna and her grandfather had many 
pleasant talks before the fire when the 
days grew colder, and the doctor had 

The Doctor'' s Granddaughter. 


given up going out : patients came to 
the house, but he was too feeble to 

One night he went to his room ; and, 
when Susanna went in to see that he 
was made comfortable for the night, he 
said, *' Sit down here by me, Susanna, 
I want to talk with you a Httle." Su- 
sanna gave him an anxious look. 
" Don't be worried, child," he said : 
"you know I can't live long. I have 
passed by my days of usefulness, and 
I have no desire to live longer." — " Oh, 
don't say so, grandfather ! You are all 
I have," said Susanna, "\yell, dear, 
when I am gone, you will live here just 
the same, of course. I have made all 
legal arrangements. Mollie and Peter 
won't last long. I want you to keep 
Sorrel and Bluff as long as they live, 
and give them a decent burial. There, 
that is all, now go to bed. Peter will 
see to the fire." Susanna bent over 
and kissed his forehead, and took his 
shrunken hand in hers. " Now go, 
Susanna. I shall soon sleep." 

In the morning Peter knocked at 
Susanna's door, and said, " Somethin' 
is the matter with massa, he don't answer 
me." Susanna's heart seemed to stop 
as she walked into her grandfather's 
room. Just as she had left him, lying 
on his side : not a struggle had he made 
when death came. He had met the 
stern messenger fearlessly, and had 
gone into a better life. Susanna felt 
that he was ripe for the harvest, and 
that he longed to be with those who 
had crossed before. 

Patty came into the sitting-room one 
morning with an armful of sheets, and 
said, " Miss Susanna, where shall I put 
these fine sheets? in the press in the 
attic? Mollie always kept them there." 
— " Yes, I think so," said Susanna. 

" I will go up with you, and we will 
look them over." Standing in one end 
of the attic was a large press filled with 
homespun linen, sheets, towels, and 
table-cloths : they were yellow with 
age, and Patty said, " Hadn't I better 
bleach these on the grass ? " — " Yes, 
I think so," said Susanna, and they 
piled them out to take dowTi. " What's 
in this great chist ? ' ' asked Patty. 
"Things of by-gone days," answered 
Susanna, as she went along to open the 
heavy oaken lid. 

" Here is my mother's wedding- 
dress," she said, as she unfolded a stiff 
white brocade. " Grandfather always 
said that he wanted me to be married 
in it." With a sigh she took out a 
thin white gown, and a pair of white 
spangled slippers. " There, Patty, this 
was my only party dress. I wore it to 
'Squire Ricker's ball. You know the 
old 'Squire Ricker house? The whole 
upper story is a hall. I wore this dress 
there full twenty years ago, and I was 
as happy then as a mortal ever was." 

Susanna lived on with Patty. Peter 
and Mollie had died very near each 
other, and Susanna cared for them as 
tenderly as they had watched over her 
in her childhood. Sorrel and Bluff 
were sleeping in company under the 
pines where Bluff had shown so much 
sympathy for Susanna in her hour of 

Susanna grew old beautifully. She 
mellowed, and ripened, and shed hap- 
piness in her pathway. The young 
people in the old town came to her 
for counsel ; and many a disappointed 
maiden and jilted lover found comfort 
in talking with " Miss Susanna." She 
cared for the poor ; and Patty expected 
always to cook extra " for stragglers," 
she said. The sick felt that her pres- 
ence was a medicine to them, and the 


IV/io was Piiblicola ? 

afflicted hailed her with thankfulness. 
For years she had been tried in the 
furnace, and they believed that she 
was cleared of all earthly dross. Su- 
sanna saw, as the years rolled on, the 
marks of age plainly in her face and 
form ; and she called them mile-stones. 
And she counted many behind, and 
believed that there were few ahead : 

not that she wanted her life closed, she 
was happy now in a peaceful way ; but 
she had thought of her own in heaven 
for so many years, that heaven had 
grown to seem like a home to her. 
She didn't expect to be surprised when 
she had crossed the dark river, but 
hoped for this from her Master, " Well 
done, good and faithful servant.' ' 


Can any reader of this magazine in- 
form me who was the author of the book 
with the following title ? 

" New Vade Mecum ; or. Pocket 
Companion for Lawyers, Deputy Sher- 
iffs, and Constables ; suggesting many 
grievous abuses and alarming evils, 
which attend the present mode of ad- 
ministering the laws of New Hamp- 
shire ; together with the most obvious 
means of redressing and removing them. 
In nine numbers, humbly inscribed ' To 
all whom it may concern.' To which 
is subjoined an appendix, containing all 
the laws relating to fees, and those 
requiring oaths to be administered to 
attorneys and sheriffs ' officers." By 

" Non mihi, si linguae centum sint, oraque 
Ferrea vox, omnes scelerum comprendere 


Boston : Published by Hews & Goss, 
and Isaac Hill, Concord, N.H. Hews 
& Goss, printers, 1819. 

This is a i6mo volume of one hun- 
dred and fifty-five pages. The author 
opens his introduction with the follow- 
ing statement : — 

" I have lived something more than forty 
years in one of the towns of this State, where 
there is held annually a term of the Superior 

Court, and of the Court of Common Pleas. 
The same town being, moreover, blessed with 
four or five lawyers, and some half a score of 
deputy sheriffs and constables, is likewise fav- 
ored with a weekly session of one or more of 
those august and dignified tribunals denomi- 
nated Justices' Courts." 

The book is ably and keenly written, 
and shows that the author had been 
classically educated and was a practised 
writer. There are, it seems to me, also 
unmistakable indications, all through 
the book, that its author had been edu- 
cated for the bar, and that he was en- 
tirely familiar with the methods of court 
procedure. The friendly personal ref- 
erences to Gov. Plumer, who was in 
office when the volume was written, 
would clearly imply that the author was 
of the same political party ; at least, 
that he was anti-Federal. A good deal 
of correspondence had with elderly 
members of the bar in New Hampshire 
has thus far failed to discover the name 
of the writer ; but it would seem that 
there must be some one, at least, of the 
readers of this magazine who will be 
able to recall the name of the author 
of one of the ablest books ever written 
in the Granite State. There is some- 
thing more than a mere antiquarian or 
bibliographical interest connected with 
the subject. 

A. H. HoYT. 

Historic Problems. 



By Fred Myron Colby. 

There are historic as well as mathe- 
matical problems, but there is no gen- 
eral similarity in them save in the 
name. Theorems in mathematics are 
susceptible of solution, if one can only 
get at the principles that underlie them ; 
but there are no known rules by which 
the historical student can certainly and 
demonstrably solve the problems that 
are ever appearing on Clio's scroll. A 
theorem of Euclid, however difficult, 
consists of certain logical elements ; and 
a series of mathematical processes will 
prove the truth or the fallacy of an 
operation indisputably and unerringly. 
None of the problems of history can be 
disposed of so readily. Assumptions 
of solutions can easily be made;, but 
these, in turn, can be overthrown by the 
more subtle reasoning or the profounder 
erudition of another. And even the 
assumption of the last is not received 
as irrevocable. They are only specu- 
lations at the best, dependent on the 
animus of the writer, and can never 
receive the credence accorded to testi- 
mony irrespective of personal consid- 

Many of these questions are perhaps 
silly ones, the more so as it does not 
appear in all cases what should be the 
conditions of the problems. And still 
the amusement experienced in their 
examination is not surpassed by the 
interest and importance many times 
attached to them. An acute observer 
has declared that the study of history 
makes one wise. Accepting the truth 
of this apothegm, as applied to history 
in its political and philosophical bear- 
ing, it must be no less true that an* ex- 

amination of its mathematical qualities, 
as we are pleased to term them, must 
render one subtle and profound. Take, 
for instance, that problem of Herodo- 
tus : What would have been the result 
if Xerxes had been victorious at Sala- 
mis? In order to arrive at any satis- 
factory conclusion, one must read 
through long annals, look at this and 
that authority, examine the religious 
and civil institutions of the rival na- 
tions ; and not only must he be conver- 
sant with all the details of contemporary 
history, but he must stand far enough 
off to judge of the effects pro and con 
upon his own age. In fact, he must 
bring to the investigation a mind filled 
with the knowledge of long years of 
study. No novice, no empiric, can sit 
in judgment upon the declarations of 
astute and experienced historians. 

Sir Edward Creasy, in his " Fifteen 
Decisive Battles," maintains that Mara- 
thon was the important and decisive 
event of the Grseco- Persian war, rather 
than Salamis. How this could well be, 
when the Persians were urged on to 
still more desperate undertakings by 
Xerxes, and the Greeks had all their 
glories to win over again, we fail to see. 
Nor do we accept the assertion that 
Europe was saved from a desolation 
greater than would have occurred from 
a deluge by the destruction of the Per- 
sian armament. Greece rose, indeed, 
to unprecedented greatness and splen- 
dor after the billows of that mighty tor- 
rent had ceased to roll ; but has one 
ever thought what lay at the bottom of 
that majestic and brilliant upheaval? 
The inherent genius of the Greek mind 


Historic Problems, 

alone would never have forced into such 
sudden action the arts and philosophy. 
Nor was it through the artificial and 
forced influence of the fierce struggle 
the Greeks had passed through. Some- 
times, but not in this case, has civili- 
zation been matured by the energy of 
distress. What was it, then, that 
brought about this unexpected and glo- 
rious epoch that boasted of the Parthe- 
non, of Plato, and of Sophocles? We 
answer, it was the influence of the Ori- 
ental upon the Greek mind. 

The results were brilliant, but per- 
manent : the process had been of slow 
growth. From the time of Croesus, 
from the time when Solon and Pythag- 
oras had studied at Asiatic courts, 
this influence had been going out si- 
lently and slowly. The injection of 
the vast hosts of Darius and Xerxes 
into Greece forwarded this revolution. 
Mere contact alone would have done 
much, but how much more these count- 
er-surges of invasion. Doubtless many 
of the conquered — some of them were 
Asiaticized Greeks — remained behind, 
and their influence performed no un- 
important work. Greece threw off the 
Asiatic despotism, but succumbed to 
Asiatic thought, Asiatic manners, Asi- 
atic religion. To the active, subtle, 
restless spirit of the Greek were now 
joined the gravity, the philosophy, of 
the Oriental. All the Greek philoso- 
phers drank their wisdom from founts 
in the East. All the Greek poets 
caught their imagery and inspiration 
from the Orient. Greek commanders 
copied the military system of Cyrus. 
Greek architects took their models from 
the grandeur, the beauty, the splendor, 
of Eastern monuments. - 

In all this no evil was done to Greece, 
but much good. But would there 
not have been good of much greater 

abundance, had Persian and not Greek 
arms prevailed at Salamis? No, re- 
plies the modern democrat. Greek 
genius soared only for the reason that 
it was free. But when was Greece ever 
free? True, foreign domination did 
not always hold her in subjection ; but 
her gigantic oligarchies, her rude de- 
mocracies, her bad institutions, were 
worse than foreign masters. Besides, 
if democracies and oligarchies were in- 
deed so stimulative of genius, so patron- 
izing of letters, why sought Plato the 
court of the tyrant Dionysius, Pindar 
and Euripides the court of the Mace- 
donian Alexander, and Aristotle the 
court of Philip? Moreover, did not 
the first soarings of Greek genius take 
place under the early tyrants? Oh, 
no ! genius is not dwarfed or fettered 
by any thing. It flourishes at the 
courts of despots, under the rule of 
oligarchies, under the sway of democ- 
racies. Its habitat does not make nor 
mar it. Genius is divine, and God is 

But if Persia had conquered Greece, 
what then? What evil would have 
been done ? The religion of Zoroaster 
was superior to that of Homer and 
Hesiod, less animated and picturesque 
indeed, but more simple and exalted. 
The Persians had no gods partaking of 
the worst characteristics of a mortal 
nature. They worshipped their Great 
One not in statues nor in temples, but 
upon the sublime altars of lofty moun- 
tain-tops. In many respects it resem- 
bled the religion of the Hebrews, and it 
was about the only other religion in the 
world which was not defiled by human 
sacrifices and brutal worship. Surely it 
would not have injured Greece to have 
received this paternal, mild monotheism 
over their false though very beautiful 
system of polytheism. 

Historic Problems. 107 

Nor were the Persians inferior in men- been stronger ; and the Roman might 

tal vigor or graceful accomplishments not have succeeded against the Perso- 

to their Greek neighbors. They culti- Greek, It is suggestive that it was not 

vated all the elegant arts. The remains democratic Athens or oligarchal Sparta 

of the palace of Chil-menar at Persepo- that withstood Rome the longest and 

lis, ascribed by modem superstition to the last, but Macedon and Etolia, — 

the architecture of genii, its mighty Macedon whose king paid the tribute 

masonry, its terrace flights, its graceful of earth and water to Darius, and Etolia 

columns, its marble basins, its sculp- whose wild tribes rushed to the aid of 

tured designs stamped with the em- Xerxes. 

blems of the IMagian faith, show the It has always been a mooted question 

advance of the Persian mind in the whether, if Alexander the Great had met 

elaborate art of architecture. The Per- the Romans, he himself or the Romans 

sian kings were in most cases men of would have succumbed, Livy the his- 

ability, of broad benevolence, of active torian, in a marked passage, undertakes 

energy. Palestine renewed her former to weigh the chances of success with 

glory under their sway. Why should not which the mighty conqueror of the East 

Greece have flourished the same, nay, would have encountered the growing 

ten times more abundantly, the active Western Republic, had he lived to lead 

Greek blood stimulated by Oriental his veterans across the sea into Italy, 

magnificence, had she succumbed to He decides in favor of Rome ; but Livy 

Xerxes ? Nor would it have been the was a Roman, and could well do no 

first or the last time that Asia has con- otherwise. Besides, he was not in a 

quered Europe. Every thing good, ex- position to fairly examine the question 

alted, and venerable has come from the upon its merits. Livy lived in the time 

East. It was the cradle of art, of poesy, of Augustus ; and it was not easy to con- 

of every civilizing agent. All the pro- template, when Rome was the world, 

gressive religions of the world rose in that Rome could ever have fallen, 

the Orient. It would not have been so Hannibal, Antiochus, Mithridates, had 

fearful, after all, if Greece had been con- been conquered : surely, Livy argued, 

quered. A hundred years more of Alexander would have been conquered 

glory might have been hers; and her too. A modern scholar will hesitate 

wise men, her artists, her poets, and before he accepts this decision, 

her statesmen, instead of having their Alexander concluded his Oriental 

genius cramped by the petty jealousies, conquests, and died at Babylon, in the 

the limited ambitions, of their native year 324 B.C. AX this time Rome was 

states, might have developed their full engaged in a life-and-death struggle 

powers under the fostering care and with the Samnite league. Hardly did 

the brilliant courts of the great kings, she succeed against the skill of C. Pon- 

In fact, Greece conquered by Persia, tius, the Samnite leader ; and when the 

Oriental blood infused into her veins as war closed, the victorious republic was 

well as Oriental thought into her brain, reduced to the last stage of exhaustion, 

she would have been stronger than she Had the Macedonian led his thirty thou- 

could ever have been else. The Greek sand Greeks, flushed with the conquest 

mind would not only have risen to of the Eastern world, into Italy, and 

greater affluence, but politically have joined the Samnites ; or had he alone 


Historic Problems. 

marched up with the cities of Magna- 
Groecia, and presented a second foe 
to Rome, — what would have availed 
the valor of all her great captains, of 
a Fabius or of a Papirus, to save the 
republic? Rome fell once under C. 
Pontius unassisted, and only the most 
desperate measures saved her in the 
end. Assailed by a second and far 
more formidable enemy, what could she 
have done? Even fifty years after- 
wards, Pyrrhus beat her armies in 
three great battles when she had the 
Samnites under her feet ; and had that 
hero possessed half the vast resources 
of Alexander, together with his persist- 
ence, he might easily have conquered 
Italy. Think you not, then, that a great- 
er than Pyrrhus might have been the 
conqueror at this earlier date ? 

But, objects the disciple of Livy, 
mighty as Alexander's name is among 
military captains, there is little evidence 
of his capacity in conflict with equal 
enemies. Was not Memnon, who com- 
manded the Persians at the Granicus, 
an equal enemy, and had twenty thou- 
sand trained Greeks, besides fifty thou- 
sand Persians? And was not Porus 
an equal enemy, who was the monarch 
of a highly civilized Indo-European 
race, and who could bring into the field 
a hundred thousand trained infantry, 
besides chariots and elephants? Yet 
the genius of the Macedonian over- 
came them both. It is well to remem- 
ber, too, that the Macedonian phalanx 
was the most perfect instrument of war- 
fare the world had yet seen. The 
Roman legion was nothing like it until 
Scipio improved it a hundred years 
later. None of the Greek soldiers 
showed fear before the elephants of 
Darius and Porus. How did the Ro- 
mans withstand them in the ranks of 
Pyrrhus? In Alexander's day the 

Romans were probably not so civilized, 
though they might have been as far 
advanced in military art, as were the 
Persians and the Indians. It was only 
through contact with the magnificence 
of the Greek cities of Southern Italy, 
and by the long campaigns with the 
Samnites, their equals, that Rome in 
the time of Pyrrhus was the powerful 
state she was. 

Hannibal was a greater general than 
either Pyrrhus or Alexander, and would 
not his ultimate failure teach us to 
doubt the Macedonian's success ? We 
answer. No. There were excellent and 
logical reasons why the great Cartha- 
ginian hero met with defeat. In the 
first place, he was not supported by 
the Carthaginian government. Hanno, 
the great enemy of the Barcine family, 
was all-powerful in the home senate, 
and Hannibal was forced to rely on the 
aid of the Italian tribes. In this also 
he was disappointed. Despite his dip- 
lomatic skill, despite his series of bril- 
liant victories, the aid of the Italians 
was lukewarm and limited. Their sub- 
jugation and humiliation had been so 
complete that even the sentiment of 
revenge was obliterated ; consequently, 
Hannibal's accession of native soldiers 
was wholly inadequate to enable him 
to press on as he had begun. He then 
summoned his brother from Spain, but 
that brother's head alone reached him : 
his body and the bones of his soldiers 
lay rotting on the banks of the Metau- 
rus. The home government inactive, 
his Italian allies lukewarm, his brother 
defeated, there was nothing for the 
Carthaginian to fall back upon but his 
own genius ; and that, unparalleled as 
it was, could not long avail him against 
the resources, the valor, the persistence, 
of Rome. 

In Alexander's case it would have 

Historic Problems. 109 

been different. His authority was ab- in the long and tedious siege of a 

solute in Greece, and his resources powerful walled city. Secondly, Han- 

without end. Even had he been beaten nibal had no engineers or apparatus for 

in one or two battles, he could easily a siege, and no means to organize a 

have summoned new contingents from force of this nature. Thirdly, the idea 

Greece, from Macedon, from his Asiat- of twenty thousand regular troops, aided 

ic territories. He could have piled in perhaps by as many irregular Italian 

not merely thirty thousand Macedo- allies, even if they had possessed all 

nians, but double that force, with myr- the necessary siege equipments, laying 

iads of Syrians, Persians, and Greeks, leaguer to a city whose men vfere all 

with chariots, elephants, and horsemen, warriors, and which could summon from 

He could have exhausted the Roman her Italian tributaries two hundred and 

armies in a twelve-month. Hannibal fifty thousand conscripts, is in itself pre- 

was always m need of a good engineer posterous. Hannibal would have been 

corps and siege apparatus. Alexander crushed in a moment, 

possessed an excellent supply of these Hannibal excelled in the qualities of 

accessories. He would have pressed a deplomat as well as those of a miU- 

right on to the siege of Rome, and the tary chieftain. His emissaries were 

Roman capital would have fallen as already at work among the Italian 

Tyre fell. And the republic would cities. His great project was to raise 

have expired when the capital fell. Italy in insurrection against Rome. 

Another question that has been the The Roman conquests of that country 

occasion of much dispute is the more had been so thorough, her system of 

familiar one of Hannibal's chance of colonization so perfect, that Italy in 

conquering Rome if he had not stopped one sense was Rome, and Rome Italy, 

at Capua. It has always been fashion- Therefore, he could not hope to pre- 

ble to suppose that Hannibal was guilty vail against Rome while all the Italian 

of a great military error in going" into cities were free and ready to aid her. 

winter quarters, and submitting his men He wished to detach them from their 

to the luxuries and Circean blandish- allegiance to the republic, incorporate 

ments of the splendid Campanian cap- their soldiers into his army, and then 

ital. He should have marched on while he could march on to the capital with 

Rome was paralyzed by the defeat of no enemy behind him. Meanwhile, he 

Cannse, and attacked the capital itself, needed some city for headquarters ; and 

But had Hannibal done this latter thing, Capua the opulent, Capua whose walls 

instead of fifteen years of victorious were seven miles in circumference, 

occupancy of Italy, he would have met Capua the second city of Italy in 

with instantaneous and irrevocable de- strength and the first in wealth, offered 

feat. In the first place, Hannibal's men suitable accommodations, 

were mercenaries, Numidians and Span- That Hannibal's plans did not suc- 

iards, fierce desert men and wilder clans- ceed was through no fault of his. Only 

men from the hills of interior Spain, paltry aid was granted him by Car- 

that he and his father had trained, thage. The Italian tribes, long held in 

They were fitted only for fighting in subservience to the military despotism 

the field, and had not the determina- of Rome, were slow to rally under the 

tion and the pertinacity to participate Carthaginian banners. Lastly, the de- 


Historic Problems. 

feat of his brother, who was advancing 
from Spain to aid him, completely de- 
stroyed all chances of his success. " I 
see the doom of Carthage," groaned the 
chieftain, when the head of the unfor- 
tunate Hasdrubal was thrown into his 
camp in Apulia. But he did not yet 
give up the field. Once, in fact, he 
appeared before Rome, but it was an 
act of mere bravado on his part. His 
army was small, and he was unprovided 
with material for a siege. Rome 
was strongly fortified, and would have 
laughed all his toils to scorn. He 
flitted from place to place, the Ro- 
mans never daring to meet him in the 
field ; and after a few years the needs 
of his own country, that was lying at the 
mercy of Scipio, called him home. As 
explanatory of his defeat at Zama, it 
must be remembered that he had only 
raw and inexperienced troops — many 
of them the merchants and the young 
patricians of Carthage, unaccustomed to 
toil — to pit against the experienced 
legions of Scipio. The fact that he 
made as good defence as he did alone 
justifies the homage which is still paid 
to the genius of Hannibal. 

Did Ccesar pause on the Rubicon? 
No, we answer, despite the assertions of 
many to the contrary. Why should 
he have paused? What reason was 
there for his doing so? We know 
none. Yet Plutarch says that he 
paused, enumerating the calamities 
which the passage of that river would 
bring upon the world, and the reflec- 
tions that might be made upon it by 
posterity. At last exclaiming, "The 
die is cast ! " he drove his horse into 
the stream, and Rome was free no 
more. The tale reads like a passage 
from a romance, and is evidently a 
fiction. Although rhetorical writers of 
later times have delighted to refer to 

this dramatic scene somewhat in the 
style of J. Sheridan Knowles, there are 
both critical and internal evidence that 
it is a fraudulent piece of history, 
either written for dramatic effect, or in- 
tended as a libel on Caesar. 

Let us glance at the authorities. Sev- 
eral writers give us the history of that 
interesting and important epoch. First 
of all is the unrivalled narrative of the 
great commander himself, who wrote 
as ably as he fought battles or prac- 
tised state - craft. Yet Caesar, in his 
Commentaries, makes no mention of 
this incident. His simple narrative 
reads, that at nightfall he left Ravenna 
secretly, crossed the Rubicon in the 
night, and at daybreak entered Ari- 
minum. Of Livy's history of this age, 
we have only the Epitomes ; but these 
Epitomes form a complete, though of 
course far from a detailed, narrative. 
Yet in them is no allusion to Caesar's 
halting at the Rubicon. If such an 
event had happened, Livy must have 
known of it, for he lived in the succeed- 
ing generation ; and, if he had heard of 
it, there is no reason why he should not 
have recorded it. Nor do Dion Cassius 
or Velleius, in their histories, — the for- 
mer living in the time of Alexander 
Severus, the latter in that of Tiberius, — 
seem to know any thing about such an 

Suetonius, in his " Lives of the 
Caesars," was the first to mention it. 
Who was Suetonius ? He was a Roman 
biographer who lived in the time of the 
Emperor Hadrian, one hundred and 
thirty years after our era, and was the 
author of the " Lives of the First Twelve 
Caesars," in eight books. They have 
little critical value, and abound in de- 
tails and anecdotes of a questionable 
character. The next author who speaks 
of the incident is Plutarch, whom we 

Historic Problems. 


have already quoted. Plutarch was a 
Greek writer contemporary with Sue- 
tonius, whose parallel " Lives of Greek 
and Roman Commanders " are among 
the most useful and popular of ancient 
compositions. But Plutarch has very 
little historical value, and he is regarded 
as authority only when his statements 
coincide with those of other writers. 
In fact, he himself tells us that he does 
not write history : he writes the lives of 
great men, with a moral purpose. His 
life of Julius Caesar is the most imper- 
fect in the whole series. It is a con- 
fused jumble of facts snatched from 
different sources, without order, consis- 
tency, regularity, or accuracy. The 
writer seemed to labor like a man 
under restraint. He skimmed over all 
of Caesar's great actions, and manifestly 
showed a satisfaction when he could 
draw the attention of the reader to 
other characters and circumstances, 
however insignificant. Where he de- 
rived his information concerning the 
dramatic incident of the great captain's 
anxious pause on the banks of the 
Italian river, we do not know ; but this 
we know, that no reliable historian, 
contemporary or otherwise, has made 
mention of it. 

The internal evidences are still 
stronger that Caesar never acted the 
part ascribed to him on the Rubicon. 
Caesar was not the man to hesitate 
after he had once determined on a 
thing. If he ever possessed doubts 
at all, they were all settled before he 
summoned his legions to march out 
of Cisalpine Gaul. The idea of his 
stopping in full march, and anxiously 
weighing the probable consequences 
of one irremediable step, is not consis- 
tent with Caesar's character. He had 
calculated his chances, examined the 
whole field from every point of view, 

before he left Ravenna. He never 
undertook an enterprise until he had 
carefully examined the chances of suc- 
cess ; and, when once he had deter- 
mined upon his course, his audacity 
and his despatch confounded his ene- 
mies, and his genius overthrew them. 

Why should Caesar have paused on 
the Rubicon ? You answer that he was 
a rebel marching to enslave his countrj-. 
But Rome was already enslaved. The 
Rome of the Fabii and the Comelii 
was no more. Her republican institu^ 
tions had been overthrown by Marius, 
by Sulla, by Pompey. Ten years pre- 
vious her territories had been parcelled 
among the triumvirs. Caesar was no 
upstart rebel. The strife was not be- 
tween principles or parties, but it was a 
strife for power between two individuals. 
That Pompey was the representative of 
the senatorial party, made it no better 
for him, but worse ; for it had been the 
subserviency of the senate that at first 
paved the way for the dictators and the 
triumvirs. That Caesar was the rep- 
resentative of the people, did indeed 
better his circumstances ; for Rome was 
free, you say. Pompey and the senate 
fled: the people welcomed him. Caesar 
was no rebel then ; or, if a rebel, Pompey 
was a tyrant. If Pompey was a tyrant, 
then Caesar, instead of being a base, dis- 
honorable wretch plotting to overthrow 
his country, was rather an ardent patriot 
seeking to deliver her. Surely there 
was no more need of Cassar pausing 
on the Rubicon than there was of 
Washington pausing on the bank of the 
Delaware, when he was about to attack 
the Hessians ; and as the latter did not 
hesitate, we have no reason to believe 
the other did. 

It has been strongly doubted whether 
Jeanne d'Arc ever suffered the punish- 
ment that has made her a martyr, 


Historic Problems. 

though details of her execution and last 
moments crowd the civic records of 
Rouen. Several books have been pub- 
lished discussing the question. A Bel- 
gium lawyer is the author of one 
of these. He contends that the his- 
torians — who have done nothing but 
copy each other in the narratives of her 
death — err exceedingly in saying that 
it took place on the last day of May, 
1429, the fact being that she was alive. 

There are good grounds, it is also 
asserted, for believing that the pretty 
tale of Abelard and Heloise is a pure 

Nobody has yet unriddled the mys- 
tery of the man in the iron mask, and 
nobody seems likely to do so. Of the 
various theories advanced by different 
writers, some are more probable than 
others. It is not likely that he was the 
Duke of Monmouth, or a bastard son 
of Anne of Austria, or a twin brother 
of Louis XIV. He was probably a 
political offender, or else a rival of the 
king in one of his numerous amours. 
Still, his identity remains unsettled, a 
problem as uncertain as that regarding 
the identity of the writer of the famous 
" Junius " letters. These are two in- 
soluble enigmas, impenetrable mysteries, 
that baffle solutions, and about which 
perhaps the public has become tired of 

An extremely witty and characteristic 
anecdote of the late Lord Beaconsfield 

will bear repetition in this connection. 
An adherent from a distant county 
brought his two sons to the then Mr. 
Disraeli, and asked him to give them a 
word of advice on their introduction 
into hfe. " Never try to ascertain," 
said the illustrious statesman to the 
eldest boy, " who was the man who 
wore the iron mask, or you will be 
thought a terrible bore. — Nor do you," 
turning to the second, " ask who was 
the author of 'Junius,' or you will 
be thought a bigger bore than your 

VValpole wrote an ingenious work to 
show — taking for his base the con- 
flicting statements in history and biog- 
raphy — that no such person as 
Richard the Third of England ever 
existed, or that, if he did, he could not 
have been a tyrant or a hunchback. 
" Historic Doubts Relative to Napoleon 
Bonaparte " was published in London 
in 1820, and created widespread amuse- 
ment because of its many clear strokes 
of humor and satirical pungency. Na- 
poleon, who was at the time a captive 
at St. Helena, admired the composition 
greatly. Archbishop Whately and Syd- 
ney were each reported to be the 
authors. Since the publication of that 
sketch, numerous imitations have been 
issued ; but none have shown much 
originality or literary skill, and have 
therefore vanished into the darkness of 
merited oblivion. 

Arria Marcella. 113 


By Frank West Rollins. 

Three young men, who were travel- too much absorbed to hear their ap- 

Hng together in Italy, found themselves proach. 

one day in the museum at Naples, where " Come, Octavio," said Max, " don't 

the results of the excavations in Hercu- spend the day at each alcove, or we 

laneum and Pompeii are exhibited. shall miss the train, and not get to 

They strolled through the halls ; and Pompeii till night." 

when one of them discovered any "What are you looking at ? " added 

thing curious he called his companions Fabio. " Ah ! the cast found in the 

in a loud tone, to the great scandal of house of Arrius Diomedes." And he 

the taciturn English people who were gave a rapid and curious glance at 

present. Octavio. 

But the youngest of these three stood The latter blushed, and taking Max's 

absorbed before one of the alcoves, and arm they finished the museum without 

paid no attention to the cries of his further incident. On getting outside, 

friends. The object that he was look- they at once called a carriage, and pro- 

ing at so intently was a mass of hard- ceeded to the railway station. The 

ened ashes which contained the imprint corricolo, with its huge red wheels, is 

of a human form. It had the appear- too well known to need a description 

ance of a piece of the mould for a here ; and, besides, we are not writing 
statue, broken by a fall : the eye of a story of Naples, but a simple, though 

an artist would readily detect the form strange, adventure, which may seem 

of the side and breast of a beautiful incredible, yet still is true, 

figure, as pure in style as a Greek The road to Pompeii follows the sea 

statue. The traveller's guide will tell almost all the way, and the long white 

you that this lava formed around the waves come rolling in upon the dark 

body of a woman, and preserved its sand with a pleasant murmur. This 

beautiful contour. Thanks to a caprice beach is formed of powdered lava and 

of the eruption which destroyed four cinders, and makes a fine contrast to 

cities, this noble form, turned into dust the deep blue of the heavens and the 

centuries ago, has been preserved for white foam of the breakers, 

us : the soft roundness of a neck has On the way you pass through Portici, 

survived the centuries in which so many — made famous by M. Auber's opera, 

empires have disappeared, leaving no "Torre del Greco, and Torre del An- 

trace. nunziata," — with its galleried houses 

Seeing that he obstinately refused to and terraced roofs. The sand here is 

be turned from his contemplation. Max black, and an almost impalpable soot 

and Fabio returned to him, and touched covers every thing. One feels the near- 

him on the shoulder, upon which he ness of the fiery Vesuvius, 

trembled like a man surprised in some The three friends got out at the sta- 

guilty action. Evidently he had been tion at Pompeii, laughing at the strange 


Arria Marcella. 

mixture of the past and present sug- 
gested by the cry of the guard, "Sta- 
tion de Pompeii." They took a guide 
for the hotel, situated outside of the 
ramparts of the old city, and started 
off through a field of cotton-wood trees. 
It was one of those beautiful days so 
common in Italy, when the light of the 
sun is so transparent that objects have 
a rich color unknown in the North, and 
appear to belong rather to the land of 
dreams than to that of reality. Who- 
ever has once seen this golden and 
azure light will remember it all his life. 
The excavated town, having raised a 
corner of its shroud of cinders, gleams 
with its thousand details under the 
burning sun. Vesuvius stands at the 
back, with its furrowed sides of many- 
colored lava — blue, red, violet — 
changing with the sun. A faint cloud, 
almost imperceptible in the light, en- 
circles the summit. At first glance, you 
would take it for one of those mists, 
which, even in the clearest days, en- 
velop the summits of high peaks ; but, 
on looking at it more sharply, you would 
see that little streams of vapor are com- 
ing out of the mouth. The volcano, in 
good-humor to-day, smoked quietly ; 
and, if it were not for Pompeii at your 
feet, you would not believe it more 
fierce than Montmartre. On the other 
side, beautiful undulating hills marked 
the horizon; and farther still, lay the 
sea, which formerly bore ships with 
their two or three banks of oars under 
the very ramparts. 

The appearance of Pompeii is very 
surprising : this sudden leap over nine- 
teen centuries startles even the most 
prosaic natures. Within a few feet of 
each other, ancient and modern life 
are mingled, Christianity and Pagan- 
ism. When the three friends saw the 
street in which the remains of a van- 

ished existence are preserved intact, 
they experienced a profound sensation 
of awe. Octavio, especially, seemed 
struck by a kind of stupor, and followed 
the guide mechanically, without listen- 
ing to the monotonous description which 
his ready tongue was giving. 

He looked with a bewildered stare 
at the ruts in the streets, fresh as though 
they were made but yesterday ; the 
inscriptions written in a running hand 
upon the walls ; notices of spectacles, 
and announcements of all sorts, as 
curious to them as ours would be two 
thousand years from now ; these houses 
with their crushed roofs, allowing one 
to see all the mysteries of their interi- 
ors, all the domestic details which his- 
torians neglect ; these fountains ; this 
forum, surprised in the midst of doing 
an act of reparation by the catastrophe, 
and whose sculptured columns are as 
perfect to-day as when they were 
erected ; these temples devoted to 
some god of the age of mythology ; 
these shops where only the shop-keeper 
is wanting; these cabarets where one 
can still see the round glass left by the 
last customer ; these barracks with their 
red and yellow columns, which the sol- 
diers have covered with caricatures of 
struggles ; and the double theatres of 
the drama and of song, opposite each 
other, which might go on with their 
performances if the troupe which oc- 
cupied them were alive. 

Fabio stood upon the entrance of 
the theatre, while Octavio and Max 
climbed to the highest seat by the stairs, 
and the latter delivered in a loud voice, 
and with appropriate gestures, all the 
bits of poetry that he could think of, 
to the great fright of the lizards, who 
ran off, twisting their tails, into the 
crevices in the walls ; and, although the 
plates of brass for reflecting the sound 

Arria Marcclla. 


no longer existed, his voice was none 
the less full and resonant. 

The guide conducted them across 
the agricultural land to the amphithea- 
tre, situated at the extremity of the 
town. They walked under trees whose 
branches hung over into the now roof- 
less houses. Among these marvels of 
art grew vulgar vegetables, a reminder 
of the forgetfulness with which time 
covers the most beautiful things. 

The amphitheatre did not surprise 
them. They had seen the one at Ve- 
rona, more vast and better preserved ; 
and they knew the arrangement of 
these ancient arenas as well as they 
knew their native land. They then re- 
turned by way of the rue de la Fortune, 
listening absently to the guide, who 
gave the name of each house as they 
passed it. Each one was named for 
some peculiarity : the house of the 
Bronze Bull, the house of the Faun, 
the house of Fortune, the Academy of 
Music, the Pharmacy, the Surgeon's 
Office, the house of the Vestal Virgins, 
the inn of Albinus, and so on to the 
door which leads to the tombs. 

This brick door, covered with bas- 
reliefs now effaced, has on its inner side 
two deep grooves through which the 
portcullis was raised. 

"Who would have expected," said 
Max to his friends, " to see at Pompeii 
a door fit for the romantic age of 
chivalry? Imagine a Roman cavalier 
sounding his horn before this door for 
them to raise the portcullis, like a knight 
of the fourteenth century ! " 

"There is nothing new under the 
sun," continued Octavio, smihng with 
melancholy irony. 

" My dear Octavio," said Max, stop- 
ping before an inscription on a wall, 
" would you like to see a combat in the 
arena? Here are the notices : — 


Twenty pairs of Gladiators will fight ; and, 
if you are afraid of your complexion, re-assure 
yourself, for there will be curtains overhead; 
unless you prefer to go early in the morning, 
and then in your hurry you will cut your throat 
with your knife, and will not be the happier." 

In examinations of this sort the three 
friends passed along the edge of the 
tombs, which in our modern times are a 
lugubrious spectacle, but which were 
the contrary for the ancients, whose 
tombs, instead of a horrible corpse, 
contained only a mass of cinders, the 
abstract idea of death. Art embellished 
these relics ; and, as Goethe said, " The 
pagans decorated their tombs with the 
representations of life." 

It was this, no doubt, that made Max 
and Fabio look upon them with such 
gayety and light curiosity, — a feeling 
which they would not have had in one 
of our cemeteries. They stopped be- 
fore the tomb of Mammia, the public 
priestess, near which grows a poplar ; 
they sat down near it, laughing like her- 
etics ; they lazily read the epitaphs of 
Nevoleja, and of the family of Arria, 
followed by Octavio, who seemed more 
touched than his companions by these 
souvenirs of past centuries. 

At last they arrived at the house of 
Arrius Diomedes, one of the most 
important in Pompeii. They mounted 
the brick steps ; and, when they had 
entered the door flanked by two lateral 
cohmins, they found themselves in a 
sort of court, like those in the centre 
of a Spanish house ; fourteen coluinns 
of brick covered with stucco-work 
formed the four sides of a portico or 
covered peristyle, under Avhich one 
could move about without fear of the 
rain. The pavement of this court is a 
mosaic of brick and white marble, hav- 


Arria Marcella. 

ing a soft, pleasant effect upon the eye. 
In the middle, a basin of marble, which 
still exists, received the rain - water 
which ran from the roof. The effect 
of entering upon this antique life was 
singular. They were treading the very 
floors where the contemporaries of Au- 
gustus and Caesar had passed with their 
sandalled feet. 

The guide then led them into the tri- 
cHnium, or summer room, which opened 
toward the sea to allow the fresh ocean 
breezes to enter. Here they were ac- 
customed to receive visitors, and pass 
the burning afternoons of summer, when 
those hot, storm-laden African winds 
swept over the city. From this room 
they entered into a long gallery, having 
no roof, in order to give light to the 
other apartments. This was the place 
in which visitors and clients waited un- 
til summoned to the audience-chamber. 
They were then conducted upon a ter- 
race of white marble, which commanded 
a fine view of the rich gardens and the 
blue sea ; then into the nympheum, or 
bath-room, with its walls painted yellow, 
its columns of stucco-work, and its mo- 
saic pavement and marble bath, which 
had held so many beautiful forms now 
less than the dust ; then into the cubicu- 
lum, with its curtained alcoves ; the tet- 
rastyle, or recreation-room ; the chapel 
of the gods ; the library ; the picture- 
gallery ; the women's apartments, little 
rooms partly ruined now, whose walls 
still retain traces of paintings and arab- 

After viewing this, they descended to 
the lower floor ; for the ground is much 
higher on the garden side than on the 
side towards the tombs. They went 
through eight rooms painted red, one 
of which is full of niches like those 
used at the present day for statuary ; 
and at last they arrived at a kind of 

cave or cellar, the use of which was 
clearly indicated by eight clay pitchers 
placed against the wall, and which had 
been filled with the wine of Crete and 
f alerna, as the odes of Horace tell us. 
A bright ray of light passed through 
a crevice in the roof, and the foliage 
outside was turned into emeralds and 
topaz ; and this beauty of the outer 
world only made the sombre interior 
more gloomy by the contrast. 

" It was here that they found, among 
seventeen other skeletons, the form that 
you will see in the museum at Naples," 
said the guide in a nonchalant voice. 
" There were some gold rings and fila- 
ments of her tunic still adhering to the 
hardened cinders which preserved her 

These words, carelessly spoken by the 
guide, strangely excited Octavio. He 
went in to see the exact place where 
her body had lain ; and, if it had not 
been for the presence of his friends, he 
would have dona something extrava- 
gant : his breast heaved, and his eyes 
trembled with tears. This catastrophe 
of two thousand years ago touched him 
as though it had happened yesterday. 
The death of a wife or a friend could 
not have affected him more ; and a tear 
fell upon the spot where this woman, 
for whom he felt a hopeless love, had 
perished, stifled by the falling ashes of 
the volcano. 

" Enough of archseology," cried Fabio. 
" We do not intend to write a disserta- 
tion upon the times of Julius Csesar. 
These classical souvenirs cause a vac- 
uum in my stomach. Let's go to din- 
ner, if such a thing is possible in this 
picturesque hotel, where I am afraid 
they will serve us fossilized beefsteak, 
and eggs fried before the death of 

" I will not say, like Boileau, ' A fool 

Arria Marcella. 


sometimes says something important,' " 
said Max, laughing : " that would be 
unkind ; but your idea is good. It 
would be far more pleasant, however, 
to dine here in the triclinium, among 
these antiquities, served by slaves, like 
LucuUus or Trimalcion. It is true that 
I do not see many oysters ; that the tur- 
bots and roaches are absent ; the wild 
boar of 'Apulia is missing in the mar- 
ket ; the bread and cakes are seen in 
the museum at Naples, as hard as the 
stones ; but maccaroni, though detest- 
able, is better than nothing. Don't you 
think so, Octavio ? " 

Octavio, who was regretting that he 
had not been at Pompeii on the day of 
the eruption, in order to save the beau- 
tiful young girl, and thus win her love, 
had not heard a word of this conversa- 
tion. But Max's last words called him 
back to himself, and he made a sign of 
assent ; and they all started towards the 

The table was spread under an open 
porch, which served as a vestibule for 
the hotel. The walls were decorated by 
some indifferent pictures by the host, 
and which he described with fluent 

"Venerable host," said Fabio, "do 
not waste your eloquence. We are not 
English, and we prefer young girls to 
old men. Send us the hst of your 
wines by that pretty brunette, with the 
velvet eyes, whom I saw at the top of 
the stairs." 

Then he ceased to vaunt his paint- 
ings, and began to praise his wines. 
He had all of the best vintages, — Cha- 
teaux-Margaux, Grand- Lafitte, Sillery de 
Moet, Hochmeyer, Scarlat-wine, porter, 
ale and ginger-beer, Capri and Falema. 

" What ! you have Falerna wine, ani- 
mal, and put it at the end of your list : 
you are insupportable," cried Max, with 

a comical expression of fury : " you 
are unworthy to live in this ancient 
neighborhood. Is your Falerna good? 
^\'as it put in casks during the reign of 
the consul Plancus ? " 

" I do not know the consul Plancus, 
and my wine is not in casks ; but it is 
old, and cost me ten carlins per bottle," 
replied the host. 

The sun had set, and night had fallen, 
clear and beautiful, clearer than mid- 
day in London : every thing had taken 
a rich blue hue, while the heavens were 
of clear silver. It was so still that a 
candle-flame would scarcely flicker. 

A young boy with a flute came up to 
the table, and blew upon his instrument 
a few soft, melodious notes. 

Perhaps this boy was descended in 
direct line from the flute-player who 
preceded Duilius. 

"Our supper has all the surroundings 
of antiquity, except the dancing-girls 
and the crowns of ivy," said Fabio, 
drinking a large glass of Falerna wine. 

" I feel like making some Latin quo- 
tations," added Max. 

" Spare us," cried Octavio and Fabio, 
justly alarmed : " nothing is so indi- 
gestible as Latin." 

The conversation of these young men, 
who sat with cigars in their mouths, 
and several empty bottles before them, 
soon turned upon women. Each re- 
lated his experience, of which the follow- 
ing is a resume. 

Octavio declared that reality never 
had any charm for him ; not that he was, 
like a student, filled with rose-colored 
dreams, but every beautiful woman was 
surrounded by too many prosaic and 
repulsive friends, too many stupid fa- 
thers, too many coquettish mothers, too 
many anxious cousins ready to propose, 
too many ridiculous aunts with little 
poodles. A water-tint engraving after 


Arria Marcella. 

Horace Vernet or Delaroche affected 
him far more. More poetical than pas- 
sionate, he would prefer a quiet spot 
on the shore of a lake by the soft light 
of the moon to meet his lady-love. He 
wished to raise his love above earthly 
things, even to the stars. He felt the 
greatest admiration for the grand types 
of womanhood of antiquity, preserved 
by art and history. Like Faust, he loved 
Helen ; and he longed for those subHme 
personifications of human desires and 
dreams, whose forms, invisible to vulgar 
eyes, exist forever in space and time. 
Sometimes he loved statues ; and once, 
in passing by the Venus de Milo at a 
museum, he had cried, " Oh, who will 
give you arms to press me to your mar- 
ble breast ! " 

Fabio loved youth and beauty. Vo- 
luptuous and passionate, his illusions 
cost him no twinges of conscience, and 
he was without prejudice. A peasant 
pleased him as well as a duchess, pro- 
vided she were beautiful ; the form 
pleased him more than the dress ; he 
laughed at his friends who were in love 
with a robe of silk, and thought it would 
be wiser to fall in love with a modiste's 

Max, less artistic than Fabio, cared 
for nothing except difficult enterprises, 
complicated intrigues : he wished to 
overcome resistance and obstacles, and 
conduct a love-affair as one would a 
battle, by stratagem. Among a party 
of women he would choose the one who 
seemed to dislike him the most, and 
attempt to overcome her dislike, and 
turn it to love. To cause the fair one 
to pass by gradual steps from hatred to 
love, was to him a delicious pleasure ; 
like a thorough hunter, who pursues 
his game in rain and sun and snow, and 
when it is at last killed cares nothing 
about it. 

As Fabio had expected, the sight of 
the place where the form of the woman 
seen at the museum was found deeply 
agitated Octavio : he tried to forget his 
identity, and transport himself to the 
times of Titus. 

Max and Fabio went to their cham- 
bers, and the wine they had drunk soon 
put them to sleep. Octavio, who had 
hardly touched his wine, not wishing to 
mingle it with his poetic dreams, felt 
that he could not sleep, and went out- 
side to cool his heated brow in the fresh 
air. Unconsciously his feet carried 
him to the entrance of the excavated 
city : he took down the wooden bar 
which closed the gate, and entered 
among the shades. 

The moon cast a white light on the 
houses, making the shadows all the 
deeper. This soft light covered up 
many of the defects of day, and made 
the city appear more complete. The 
broken columns, the fagades covered 
with lizards, the crushed roofs, were not 
so noticeable as in the sunlight. The 
genius of the night seemed to have re- 
paired the fossilized city for some rep- 
resentation of fantastic life. 

Sometimes Octavio thought he saw 
shadowy human forms glide among the 
shadows, but they quickly disappeared 
on nearing them. Heavy falls, a vague 
rumbling, broke the silence. Octavio 
attributed them at first to his imagina- 
tion. It might be caused by the wind 
or by a Hzard. Meanwhile, he felt an 
involuntary fear, a slight trembling, 
which perhaps was caused by the cool 
air. He turned his head two or three 
times : he did not feel alone as when 
they were here in the day. Had his 
friends followed his example, and were 
they now wandering among the ruins ? 
These vanishing forms, these distant 
noises, were they caused by Max and 

Arria Marcella. 


Fabio chatting and walking in the dis- 
tance ? Octavio knew at once that this 
very natural explanation was not suf- 
ficient. The solitude and the shadows 
were filled by invisible beings whom he 
was disturbing ; he had stumbled upon 
a mystery ; and they all seemed to be 
waiting for him to depart to come out 
of their hiding-places. Such were the 
extravagant ideas which whirled through 
his brain, and which were strengthened 
by the hour, the place, and a thousand 
and one details which only those who 
have been at night in some vast ruin 
can comprehend. 

In passing before a house which he 
had noticed during the day, and upon 
which the moon shone full, he saw a 
portico as perfect as the day it was 
built, which he had tried in vain to re- 
construct in his mind only that after- 
noon : four columns of the Doric order 
fluted to the centre, and the shafts en- 
veloped as by a purple drapery, sus- 
tained a moulding decorated with 
colored ornaments, which it seemed as 
though the decorator had finished yes- 
terday ; on the face of the door was a 
verse by Laconic, accompanied by a 
Latin inscription. Upon the sill, in 
mosaics, was the word " have,'' in Latin 
letters. The outside walls, painted in 
yellow and ruby color, were without a 
crack. The house was of one story ; 
and the tiled roof, of bronze color, cast 
its profile against the sky. 

This strange restoration, made at 
midnight by an unknown architect, 
troubled Octavio, who was sure he had 
seen it that day in hopeless ruin. The 
mysterious reconstructor had worked 
very quickly, for the neighboring houses 
all had the same appearance of perfect 
repair : all the pillars had their fluting 
entire ; not a stone was missing, not a 
brick, not a piece of stucco ; not a fig- 

ure was wanting in the pictures which 
ornamented the walls ; and around the 
fountains he could see laurels, roses, 
and myrtle growing. History was mis- 
taken : the eruption had not taken 
place, or else the needle of time had 
gone backwards twenty centuries upon 
the dial of eternity. 

Octavio, thunderstruck, asked him- 
self if he were sleeping and this a 
fevered dream ; but he was obliged to 
acknowledge that he was not asleep, 
nor was he drunk. 

A singular change had taken place 
in the atmosphere : vague rosy tints, 
mingled with violet, succeeded to the 
azure light of the moon ; the heavens 
grew light in the east ; day was appar- 
ently about to dawn. Octavio took 
out his watch, and touched the spring : 
it struck twelve times. He listened, 
and touched it again ; and, as before, 
it struck twelve. It was certainly mid- 
night ; but still the light grew brighter, 
and the moon disappeared, — the sun 
was up. 

Then Octavio, who began to lose all 
idea of time, was convinced that he 
was not walking in a dead Pompeii, but 
in a living Pompeii, youthful, complete, 
and upon which the torrents of boiling 
lava had not rushed. 

This was proved to him ; for a man, 
clothed in the ancient costume of Pom- 
peii, came out of a neighboring house. 
This man wore his hair short, and had 
no beard. A tunic of a brown color, 
and a gray mantle (the ends of which 
were held back so as not to retard his 
movements), constituted his dress. He 
walked rapidly, and passed by Octavio 
without seeing him. A basket made of 
cords hung on his arm, and he went 
towards the Forum Nundinarium : it 
was a slave going to market. There 
could be no mistake. 


Arria Marcella, 

The sound of wheels caught his ear ; 
and a cart drawn by white oxen, and 
loaded with vegetables, passed through 
the streets. By its side walked an ox- 
driver, with naked legs browned by the 
sun, with sandals on his feet, and 
clothed in a kind of a shirt with a belt 
round the waist. He wore a conical 
straw hat \ its point thrown behind the 
neck, and fastened by a button. His 
head was of a type unheard of to-day : 
his low forehead covered with hard 
bunches, his hair crisp and black, his 
nose straight, his eyes calm as those of 
an ox ; and his neck like that of a Her- 
cules. He touched the oxen gravely with 
his stick, with a pose which would have 
put Ingres into an ecstasy of delight. 

The ox-driver saw Octavio, and 
seemed surprised ; but he went on his 
way. Once he turned his head ; but, 
finding no explanation for the strange 
appearance, he plodded steadily on, too 
stupid to examine more closely. 

Some peasants passed also, driving 
before them asses loaded with wipe. 
They were as different from the peas- 
ants of to-day as black is from white. 

Gradually the streets became filled 
with people. Octavio's feelings had 
changed. Just now he had been a 
prey to an unknown fear amongst the 
shadows and spectres, but his vague 
terror was changed to stupefaction : 
he could no longer doubt the evidence 
of his senses, but nevertheless what he 
saw was perfectly incredible. Hardly 
convinced, he tried by noticing the 
smallest details to prove to himself that 
he was not the victim of an hallucina- 
tion. These were not phantoms which 
walked by him, for the sun shone upon 
them, and made their reality undenia- 
ble ; and their shadows, elongated by 
the height of the sun, were thrown upon 
the walls and sidewalks. 

Octavio did not understand what was 
happening to him, but still was filled 
with delight to see one of his most 
cherished dreams fulfilled. He resisted 
no longer, and gave himself up to the 
enjoyment of it, without pretending to 
account for it. He said to himself that 
since, by the aid of some mysterious 
power, he was allowed to live in a cen- 
tury which had long disappeared, he 
would not lose time by seeking for a 
solution of an incomprehensible prob- 
lem ; and he continued bravely on his 
way, looking to right and left at this 
spectacle, so old and so new for him. 
But to what epoch in the life of Pom- 
peii was he translated ? An inscription 
upon a wall told him the name of the 
public personages, and he saw that it 
was at the beginning of the reign of 
Titus ; that is, in the beginning of the 
year 79 of our era. A sudden idea 
crossed Octvaio's mind : the woman 
whose imprint he had fallen in love 
with at Naples must have lived at this 
time, since the eruption of Vesuvius, 
in which she had perished, was on the 
24th of August of this same year ; he 
might then find her, see her, speak to 
her. The insane desire that the sight 
of this lava cast had caused him would 
be perhaps satisfied, for nothing could 
be impossible to a love which had 
caused the centuries to roll back. 

While these thoughts were passing 
through Octavio's mind, some beautiful 
young girls passed on their way to the 
fountain, supporting urns upon their 
heads with the tips of their white fin- 
gers. Some patricians, with white togas 
bordered with purple bands, followed 
by their clients, went towards the forum. 
Buyers pressed around the stalls, each 
stall having its proper design in sculp- 
ture or painting. 

While walking along the sidewalks 

Arria Marcella. 


which bordered every street in Pom- 
peii, Octavio found himself face to face 
with a handsome young man of his own 
age, dressed in a saffron-colored tunic, 
and wearing a mantle of white wool, soft 
as cashmere. The sight of Octavio, 
with his frightful modern hat, wearing a 
black coat, and his legs imprisoned in 
pantaloons, his feet pinched into tight 
boots, appeared to surprise the young 
Pompeiian, as a wild Indian would sur- 
prise us upon the boulevard with his 
plumes. But, as he was a well-bred 
young man, he did not burst into laugh- 
ter ; but taking pity upon Octavio, whom 
he thought a poor barbarian, he said to 
him. in a voice accentuated and soft, — 

" Advena salve." 

Nothing was more natural than that 
an inhabitant of Pompeii under the 
Emperor Titus, very powerful and very 
august, should express himself in Latin ; 
but Octavio trembled at hearing this 
dead language in a living mouth. 
Then he congratulated himself for hav- 
ing studied it so thoroughly. The 
Latin taught at the university served 
him on this occasion ; and, recalling his 
knowledge of the classics, he replied to 
the salutation of the Pompeiian, in the 
style of de viris illustribus and of s elec- 
tee e pro/ants, in a manner sufficiently 
intelligible, but with a Parisian accent 
which caused the young man to smile. 

" Perhaps it will be easier for you to 
speak Greek," said the Pompeiian : " I 
know that language, for I studied at 

'' I know still less of Greek than of 
Latin," replied Octavio : " I am from 
the country of the Gauls, — from Paris." 

" I know of that country. My grand- 
father fought there under Julius Caesar. 
But what a strange costume you wear ! 
The Gauls whom I have seen at Rome 
were not dressed like you." 

Octavio undertook to explain to the 
young man that twenty centuries had 
rolled past since the conquest of the 
Gauls by Julius Caesar, and that the 
styles had changed : but he got in over 
his head in his Latin ; and, to tell the 
truth, it was no difficult work to do so. 

" I am called Rufus Holconius, and 
ray house is yours," said the young 
man, " unless you prefer the liberty of 
the tavern. They would treat you well 
at the inn of Albinus, near the gate of 
i\\t faubourg Augustus Felix, and at the 
tavern of Sarimus, son of Publius, near 
the second tower ; but, if you wish, I will 
serve as your guide in this town, which is 
perhaps slightly unknown to you. You 
please me, young barbarian, although 
you have tried to play upou my cre- 
dulity by pretending that the Emperor 
Titus, who is reigning to-day, died two 
thousand years ago ; and that the Naza- 
rene, whose infamous followers, covered 
with pitch, have lighted the gardens of 
Nero, rules single and alone in the de- 
serted heavens from whence the gods 
have fallen. By Pollux ! " cried he, 
casting his eye upon an inscription 
written at the corner of a street, " you 
arrive at a good time : they play Plau- 
tus's 'Casina' at the theatre to-day. It 
is a curious comedy, which will amuse 
you, although you will only compre- 
hend the pantomime. This is the time 
for it to begin : I will take you into the 
seats reserved for strangers." 

And Rufus Holconius turned towards 
the little thedtre-comique, which the 
three friends had seen during the day. 

The Frenchman and the citizen of 
Pompeii went along the street called la 
Fontaine d'Abondance, passing by the 
temple of Isis, the school of statuary, 
and entered the Odeon, or thedtre- 
comique, by a lateral entrance. Thanks 
to the recommendation of Holconius, 


Arria Marcella. 

Octavio was placed near the prosceni- 
um. All eyes were turned towards him 
with a wondering curiosity, and a wave 
of audible laughter passed over the 

The play had not yet commenced. 
Octavio looked around him. The semi- 
circular rows of seats ended on each 
side by a magnificent lion's paw sculp- 
tured from Vesuvian lava; in front of 
this was an open space corresponding 
to our parterre, and paved with mosaics 
of Greek marble ; a longer row of seats 
extended in the rear; and four stair- 
ways, corresponding to the entrances, 
ascended to the highest seats, dividing 
them into four sections. The specta- 
tors were furnished with programmes 
made of little leaves of ivory, and bear- 
ing the title of the piece, the name of 
the author, and each having the num- 
ber and position of the seat which the 
holder was to occupy upon it. The 
judges, nobles, married men, young 
men, soldiers (whose casques of bronze 
glittered in the light), occupied sepa- 
rate rows. 

It was a beautiful sight to see those 
elegant togas and fine mantles filling 
the first rows, and contrasting with the 
varied costumes of the women ranged 
behind, and the gray capes of the 
common people sitting in the back 
rows, near the columns which supported 
the roof, and through which the in- 
tensely blue heaven could be seen. A 
fine mist of perfumed water fell from 
the frieze in imperceptible drops, and 
perfumed the air which it refreshed. 
Octavio thought of the hot, ill-smelling 
interiors of our theatres, so uncom- 
fortable that they become places of 
torture ; and it occurred to him that 
civilization had not progressed much. 

The curtain, sustained by a transverse 
beam, was lost in the depths of the 

orchestra. The musicians came into 
their stalls ; and the " prologue " ap- 
jjeared, grotesquely clothed, and with 
his head covered by an immense mask. 

After having saluted the audience, 
he began a ridiculous argumentation. 
" The old pieces," said he, " were like 
wine which grew better with years ; and 
' Casina,' dear to the old ones, ought not 
to be less so to the young. All could 
take pleasure in it, — the old because 
they knew it, and the young because 
they did not know it. The piece had 
been, moreover, put on with care ; and 
one must listen with a soul free from 
all anxiety, without thinking of one's 
debts nor of one's creditors, for .they 
cannot arrest at the theatre. This was 
to be a happy day, and the halcyons 
hovered over the theatre." Then he 
gave an analysis of the play which they 
were about to give, with a detail which 
proved that surprise did not enter into 
the Roman idea of enjoyment at the 
theatre. He told how the old Stalino, 
in love with his beautiful slave Casina, 
wishes to marry her to his farmer, 
Omlympio, a weak man, whom he will 
replace on the wedding night ; and 
how Lycostra, the wife of Stalino, in 
order to prevent the luxury of her vi- 
cious husband, wants to unite Casina 
to the riding-master, Chalinus, with 
the idea of favoring the love of her 
sons ; and the manner in which Stalino, 
mystified, takes a young slave disguised 
for Casina, who marries the young rid- 
ing-master, whom she loves, and by 
whom she is beloved. 

The young Frenchman looked dis- 
tractedly at the actors, with their masks 
with bronze mouths. The slaves ran 
here and there, to represent haste ; the 
old wagged their heads, and held out 
their trembling hands ; the matrons, 
with high voices and disdainful airs, 

Arria Marcella. 


looked important, and quarrelled with 
their husbands, to the great amusement 
of the audience. All the characters 
entered and went out by three doors 
in the wall at the back, and communi- 
cating with the dressing-rooms of the 
actors. Stalino's house was at one cor- 
ner of the stage, and that of Alcesimus 
facing it. These scenes, though very 
well painted, were rather representa- 
tions of places than places themselves. 

When the bridal train accompanying 
the false Casina entered, an immense 
burst of laughter greeted them, and 
thunders of applause shook the theatre ; 
but Octavio neither saw nor heard. 

In the procession of women he saw 
a creature of marvellous beauty. From 
this moment the charming beings who 
had attracted his eye were eclipsed like 
the stars before Phoebe : all vanished, 
all disappeared, as in a dream \ a mist 
hid the people in front of him, and the 
voices of the actors seemed lost in the 

He had been struck as by an electric 
shock ; and, when the woman looked 
towards him, he felt as though his heart 
would leap out of his breast. 

She was dark and pale. Her waving 
hair was black as night, and was raised 
slightly over the temples in the Greek 
style ; and under her beautiful brows 
there shone two wonderful eyes, dark 
and sombre, yet soft, filled with an in- 
definable expression. Her mouth, dis- 
dainfully arched at the corners, showed 
two beautiful red lips against the white 
of the mask : her neck had those per- 
fectly pure lines only seen now in statu- 
ary. Her arms were naked to the 
shoulder ; and over her proud breast 
there hung down her tunic of a rose 
mauve, falling in two folds which might 
have been chiselled in the marble of 
Phidias or Cleiomene. 

The sight of this perfect throat, with 
its pure lines, starded Octavio : ic 
seemed to him that this form would fit 
exactly into the mould he had seen at 
Naples, and a voice from his heart told 
him that this was the woman stifled by 
the cinders and ashes of Vesuvius at 
the villa of Arrius Diomedes. By what 
miracle came she there, living, taking 
part in the comedy? He sought for 
no explanation ; besides, how came he 
there himself? He accepted her pres- 
ence, as in a dream one submits to the 
intervention of dead persons, who act 
as though they were alive ; and his 
emotion would not permit him to reason. 
For him the wheel of time had left its 
rut. He found himself face to face 
with his dream, his vision, one of the 
most impossible of dreams, a child's 
wish. His life was filled with joy at a 
single blow. 

While looking at this being, so cold 
yet so ardent, so dead and yet full of 
life, he felt that here before him was 
his first and last love, — his cup of 
supreme happiness was full. He saw 
the memory of all those with whom he 
had thought himself in love vanish like 
shadows, and his soul was free from 
every thing of the past. 

Meanwhile, the beautiful Pompeiian, 
leaning her chin upon her hand, looked 
at Octavio, while pretending to be oc- 
cupied with the performance, with a 
soft, deep glance ; and this glance was 
piercing and burning as a ball of fire. 
Then she whispered in the ear of a girl 
seated at her side. The comedy was 
finished : the crowd left by the en- 
trances. Octavio, disdaining the kind 
olBces of Holconius, entered the 
first passageway that presented itself. 
Hardly had he reached the door when 
a hand was placed upon his shoulder, 
and a female voice said to him in a 

124 Arria Marcella. 

low tone, but so that he did not lose The walls were made of fancifully 

a word, — decorated panels. Octavio noticed all 

" I am Tyche Novoleja, companion the details with a glance ; for Tyche 

of the pleasures of Arria Marcella, put him into the hands of some slaves, 

daughter of Arrius Diomedes. My who carried him into a thermal bath, in 

mistress loves you ; follow me ! " spite of his impatience. After having 

Arria Marcella had just stepped into passed through the different degrees of 

her litter, carried by four slaves naked vaporized heat, being rubbed with a 

to the waist, their bronze skins glitter- flesh brush, then washed in perfumed 

ing in the sun. The curtain of the litter oils and cosmetics, he was clothed in a 

was open ; and a white hand, glittering white tunic, and found Tyche at the 

with rings, made a sign to Octavio, as opposite door waiting for him. She 

if to confirm the words of her maid, took his hand, and led him into an- 

The purple curtain fell, and the litter other richly decorated room, 

went on its way. Upon the ceiling were paintings, ex- 

Tyche conducted Octavio by short ceedingly pure in design, of a richness 
cuts and alleys, crossing the streets by of color, and freedom of touch, which 
stepping lightly upon the pieces of belong to the hand of a master and not 
stone which connected the sidewalks, of a simple decorator ; a frieze com- 
and between which were the ruts for posed of stags, hares, and birds play- 
carriage-wheels. Octavio noticed that ing among foliage extended above a 
they traversed some quarters of Pom- border of marble ; the mosaic pave- 
peii that modern people have not dis- ment, marvellously done, — perhaps by 
covered, and which were consequently Sosimus of Pergame, — represented fig- 
unknown to him. This strange circum- ures in relief, executed with a skill that 
stance, among so many others, did not rendered them lifelike, 
astonish him. He had decided to be At the rear of the room, upon a di- 
astonished at nothing. In all this phan- van or bed, Arria Marcella was stretched 
tasmagoria, which would have driven an in a position which recalled the woman 
antiquary wild with happiness, he saw in bed, by Phidias, upon the front of 
only the black and profound eye of the Parthenon. Her stockings, embroi- 
Arria Marcella, and the superb throat dered with pearis, lay at the foot of the 
victorious over the centuries, and which bed ; and her beautiful naked foot, 
even destruction wanted to preserve, whiter than snow or marble, peeped 
They arrived at a door, which opened out from under a light coverlid of white 
and closed quickly after their entrance ; linen of the finest quality, 
and Octavio found himself in a court Two earrings made of strung pearls 
surrounded by columns of marble of lay along her pale cheeks ; a collar 
the Ionic order, painted half their height of balls of gold, with pear-shaped pen- 
of a lively yellow color, and the capital dants, hung over her breast, left half 
relieved by red and blue ornaments, uncovered by the negligently arranged 
A garland of birthwort suspended its folds of a light straw-colored hand- 
large leaves, in the form of a heart, from kerchief, with a Greek border of black ; 
the summit; and near a basin sur- a band of black and gold held her 
rounded by plants, a flaming rose was ebony-black hair in place (for she had 
held by a sculptured paw. changed her costume on returning from 

Arria Majxella. 


the theatre) ; and around her arm, like 
the asp around the arm of Cleopatra, 
was coiled several times a golden ser- 
pent, \A;ith eyes of precious stones. 

A little table supported by griffins, 
incRisted with gold, silver, and ivory, 
was at the foot of the bed ; and upon 
it were confections in little plates of 
silver and gold. These plates were 
ornamented with precious paintings. 

Every thing indicated that all was 
prepared for a husband or lover : fresh 
flowers .filled the air with their perfume, 
and vessels laden with wine were placed 
in urns heaped with snow. 

Arria Marcella signed to Octavio to 
sit down beside her on the divan, and 
to partake of the repast. The young 
man, half crazed by surprise and love, 
took at hazard some mouthfuls from 
the plates which the small Asiatic slaves 
with white hair held up to him. Arria 
did not eat ; but she sipped continually 
from a vase of opal tint, filled with 
wine of a deep purple color. As she 
drank, a hardly perceptible rose tint 
spread itself over her pale face from 
her heart, which had not beaten for so 
many years. Meanwhile, her naked arm, 
which Octavio slightly touched in rais- 
ing his glass, was cold as marble. 

" Oh ! when you stopped at Studij 
to contemplate the piece of hardened 
lava which preserved my form," said 
Arria Marcella, turning her long, deep 
glance upon Octavio, " and which caused 
your soul to ardently wish for me, I 
felt it in this world in which my soul 
floats invisible to human eyes. Faith 
made God, and love made woman. 
One is really dead, only when she is no 
longer loved. Your love has given me 
life : the powerful evocation of your 
heart has spanned the distance which 
separated us. 

" In fact, nothing dies," she con- 

tinued ; " every thing exists forever : 
no power can destroy that which once 
exists. All action, all words, all forms, 
all thoughts, fall into the universal ocean 
of things, and make circles, which go 
on growing larger to the confines of 
eternity. Material forms disappear only 
for the gross eye ; and the spirits, which 
are detached, people the Infinite. Paris 
is still charming Helen in the unknown 
regions of space. Cleopatra's galley 
still spreads its silken sails upon the 
azure of an ideal Cyanus. Some pas- 
sionate and powerful natures have been 
able to call back the centuries appar- 
ently gone, and give life to people dead 
for all eternity. Faust had for his mis- 
tress the daughter of Tyndare, and has 
led her to his Gothic chateau at the 
bottom of the mysterious abyss of 
Hades. Octavio has now come to live 
an hour under the reign of Titus, and 
make love to Arria Marcella, daughter 
of Arrius Diomedes, at this moment 
lying near him upon an antique bed in 
a town destroyed for all the rest of the 

" I was disgusted with all women," 
said Octavio, " and all things common, 
and it was for you whom I waited ; and 
this memento, preserved by the curi- 
osity of man, has by its secret magnet- 
ism put me in communication with 
your soul. I do not know whether you 
are a dream or a reality, a phantom or 
a woman ; whether, like Ixion, I press 
a cloud to my breast ; or whether I am 
the victim of sorcery : but I do know 
that you will be my first and my last 

" May Eros, son of Aphrodite, hear 
your promise ! " said Arria, resting her 
head upon his shoulder with a passion- 
ate gesture. " Held me to your young 
breast ; breathe upon me with your hot, 
sweet breath : I am cold from being 


Arria Marcella. 

so long without love." And Octavio 
pressed this beautiful creature to his 
heart, and kissed her lips : the softness 
of this beautiful flesh could be felt 
through his tunic. The band which 
detained her hair became unloosed, 
and her ebon locks spread themselves 
like a black sea over her lover. 

The slaves had carried away the 
table. There was nothing to be heard 
except the soft murmur of their own 
voices, mingled with the tinkling of fall- 
ing water from the fountain. The little 
slaves, familiar with these loving scenes, 
pirouetted upon the mosaic pavement. 

Suddenly the portiere was pushed 
back ; and an old man of severe coun- 
tenance, in an ample mantle, stood in 
the entrance. His gray beard was sep- 
arated into two points like the Naza- 
rene's, and his face was seamed and 
lined ; a little cross of black wood hung 
from his neck, and left no doubt as to 
his belief: he belonged to the sect, 
quite recent at that time, called the 
" Disciples of Christ." 

Upon seeing him, Arria Marcella 
seemed covered with confusion, and 
hid her face under the folds of her 
mantle, like a bird who puts his head 
under his wing when he sees an enemy 
whom he cannot avoid ; while Octavio 
leaned upon his elbow, and looked fix- 
edly at the scowling personage who 
entered so brusquely upon them. 

" Arria, Arria ! " said the stern-look- 
ing man in a tone of reproach, "was 
your life not sufficient for your misbe- 
haviors, and must your infamous loves 
encroach upon the centuries which do 
not belong to you ? Can you not leave 
the living in their sphere ? Has not your 
body had time to cool since the day 
in which you died, without repenting, 
under the ashes of the volcano ? Your 
two thousand years of death have not 

calmed you ; and your voracious arms 
draw to your cold breast, from which 
your heart has disappeared, the poor 
insane beings intoxicated by your phil- 

" Pardon, my father : do not crush 
me in the name of this gloomy religion 
in which I never believed. I believe in 
our ancient gods, who loved life, youth, 
beauty, pleasure. Do not send me 
back into the shades. Leave me to 
enjoy this life which love has given to 
• " Be quiet, impious girl ! Do not 
speak to me of your gods, who are 
really demons. Leave this young man, 
enchained by your affections, by your 
seductions ; do not hold him longer 
outside the realms of his life, of which 
God has fixed the bounds ; return to 
your paganism, to your Asiatic lovers, 
Roman or Greek. — Young Christian, 
abandon this phantom, who would seem 
more hideous to you than Empouse 
and Phorkyas if you could see her as 
she is." 

Octavio, cold and frigid with horror, 
tried to speak ; but the words would 
not leave his lips. 

"Will you obey me, Arria?" cried 
the old man imperiously. 

" No, never ! " replied Arria, her 
eyes flashing ; and with dilated nostrils 
and trembling lips, she threw her arms 
around Octavio, and pressed him to 
her cold breast. Her furious beauty, 
exasperated by the stmggle, seemed 
almost supernatural at this supreme 
moment, as though to leave her young 
lover an ineffaceable souvenir of her 

"Come, unhappy girl," replied the 
old man, " I must use stronger means, 
and show this fascinated boy that you 
are but a phantom, a shadow ; " and he 
pronounced in a commanding voice a 

Airia Marcella. 


formula which caused the tender red 
tint which the rich wine had brought 
to Arria's cheeks to disappear. 

At this moment the clock of one of 
the distant villages by the sea struck 
the "Angelus." 

At this sound, a sigh of agony broke 
from the lips of the young woman. 
Octavio felt the arms which held him 
relax ; the draperies which she wore, 
and which covered her, sunk in as 
though that which they enclosed had 
disappeared ; and the unhappy young 
man saw nothing by his side but a 
handful of ashes mingled with hard- 
ened bones, among which shone the 
bracelets and golden jewels, crushe'd 
out of shape, as you may see them to- 
day at the museum at Naples. 

A terrible cry broke from his lips, 
and he lost consciousness. 

The old man had disappeared. The 
sun rose ; and the room, just now filled 
with so much magnificence and beauty, 
was nothing but a confused ruin. 

After having slept off the effect of 
the wine, Max and Fabio awoke ; and 
their first thought was to call their com- 
panion, whose chamber was near their 
own. Octavio did not reply, for good 
reasons. Fabio and Max, receiving no 
answer, entered his room, and saw that 
his bed had not been slept in. 

" He must have slept upon a chair," 
said Fabio, " not being able to undress 
himself, — he can't stand much wine, 
our dear Octavio, — then he went out 
early, to walk off the effects." 

" But," said Max, " he drank hardly 
any thing. This seems very strange to 
me : let's look him up." 

The two friends, aided by the hotel- 
keeper, searched every street, alley, 
and archway ; entered into all the odd 
houses in which they thought Octavio 

might have strayed to copy a painting 
or an inscription ; and at last found 
him stretched out, unconscious, upon 
the mosaic floor of a half-ruined cham- 
ber. They found great difficulty in 
awaking him ; and, when at last they 
succeeded, he would give no explana- 
tion of how he came there, except that 
he had a fancy to see Pompeii by moon- 
light, and that he had been overcome 
by dizziness probably, and had fallen 
where they found him. 

The litde party returned to Naples 
as they had come ; and that evening, 
in their box at San Carlo, Max and 
Fabio witnessed with more delight than 
ever the pirouettes of two twin-sisters 
of the ballet. Octavio, with a pale face 
and troubled brow, looked at the panto- 
mime and the jugglery which followed 
as though he did not much doubt its 
reality after the adventures of the pre- 
vious night. He had hardly come to 
himself yet. 

From this time Octavio was a prey 
to a mournful melancholy, which the 
good humor and jests of his friends 
aggravated rather than soothed : the 
memory of Arria Marcella pursued him 
night and day, and the sad ending of 
his strange adventure had not destroyed 
its charm. 

He could not keep away, and secretly 
returned to Pompeii, and walked as be- 
fore among the ruins, by the light of the 
moon, with a palpitating heart, filled with 
a wild hope ; but the vision, or whatever 
it may have been, did not return. He 
saw only the lizards scurrying over the 
stones ; he heard only the cries of 
the night-birds ; he met no more his 
friend Rufus Holconius ; Tyche did not 
come, and lead him by the hand ; Arria 
Marcella obstinately refused to rise 
from her ashes. 

At last despairing, with good cause. 


Arria Marcella. 

Octavio married a young and charming 
English girl, who adores him. He is 
perfection, his wife thinks ; but Ellen, 
with that instinct which nothing can 
escape, feels that there is something 
wrong with her husband. But what? 
Her most careful watching reveals 
nothing, Octavio does not visit any 
actress ; in society he takes hardly any 

notice of women ; he even replied very 
coolly to the marked advances of a 
Russian princess, celebrated for beauty 
and coquetry. His secret drawer, 
opened during his absence, revealed 
no proof of infidehty to the suspicious 
Ellen. But how could she be jealous 
of Arria Marcella, daughter of Arrius 
Diomedes ? 


Life of Henry Wadsworth Long- 
fellow. Edited by Rev. Samuel Longfellow. 
2 vols., i2mo. With five new steel-engraved 
Portraits, and many Wood - Engravings and 
fac-similes. In cloth, $6.00. In half-calf, 
with marbled edges, $11.00. In half-morocco, 
with gilt top and rough edges, $11.00. 

" It has not been generally known that 
Mr. Longfellow added to his poetic gifts 
those of an artist. In this biography will be 
found letters and diaries written by the poet 
while abroad, and charmingly illustrated by 
him with dainty pen-and-ink drawings." — 
Chicago Tribune. 

" A vast amount of Mr. Longfellow's corre- 
Bpondence, which is of far more interest than 
is usual, even among men of letters, on ac- 
count of its fine and sympathetic literary 
quality. The poet's beautiful spirit shines 
through every private letter that he wrote. 
There will be no Carlyle revelations." — Bos- 
ton Traveller. 

" Remarkably rich in material relating to 
the daily life of the poet. Of course, a wealth 
of resource has been at the command of the 
biographer ; and the volume will include, in 
addition to the correspondence, several por- 
traits, taken at different periods of Longfel- 
low's life, from early youth to advanced age." 
— New York Evening Post. 

* Sent, Postpaid, on Receipt of 

The biography of the foremost American 
poet, written by his brother, is probably the 
most important work of the kind brought out 
in the United States for many years. It is 
rich in domestic, personal, and family inter- 
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oughly charming me?norabilia. 

Curiosities of the Old Lottery. The 
first volumes of " The Olden Time Se- 
ries," or " Gleanings from the Old News- 
papers, chiefly of Boston and Salem," with 
brief Comments by Henry M. Brooks of 
Salem, Mass. 161110. Cloth. Price 50 cents 
per vol. 

Vol. I. " Curiosities of the Old Lottery." 
Vol. II. " Days of the Spinning-Wheel 
in New England." 

Vol. III. " New-England Sunday." 
Should there be sufficient encouragement, 
the Series will be continued by these : — 

" Quaint and Curious Advertisements ; " 
" Literary Curiosities ; " " Some Strange and 
Curious Punishments ; " " New-England Mu- 
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beginning of the 19th Century;" " Travel in 
Old Times, with Some Account of Stages, 
Taverns, etc. ; " " Curiosities of Politics 
among the Old Federalists and Republi- 
cans," etc. 

Price by Ticknor & Co., Boston. 

Tick nor & Co.'s Nezv Books. 


The Prelate (by Isaac Henderson, 
i2mo, $1.50) is a romance of the American 
colony and native society at Rome, with most 
intense and dramatic situations, and rare 
power of description. The weird and bril- 
liant designs for the covers of " The Prelate " 
were made by Elihu Vedder, who is a friend 
of the author. 

The Boston " Budget " thus recognizes one 
of the unseen beauties of Howells's new 
novel, " Indian Summer : " — 

" Mr. Howells, in this the latest of his 
completed stories, paints life in Florence 
with a truthfulness begot of long acquaint- 
ance with the localities he is describing, and 
with that literary skill for which he is justly 

Next week will appear the new " Artistic 
Homes : In the City and Country." By Albert 
W. Fuller, Architect. (Fourth edition, re- 
vised, enlarged, and improved.) This rich 
new edition will have 76 full-page illustra- 
tions, many of which are from gelatine, sup- 
planting designs discarded from the earlier 
editions. There will also be one handsome 
colored plate (folio, $3.50). It is doubtful 
whether any of the numerous books of 
similar purport have succeeded so richly and 
steadily as Fuller's " Artistic Homes." 

The Cambridge " Tribune " says of Low- 
ell's Chozon (illustrated and richly bound, 
8vo, $5.00) : — 

" Mr. Lowell's book is one of rare interest 
and value. He has seen that which is wholly 
novel ; and he tells his story with delightful 
relish, evidently enjoying the telling as well 
as the rest of us do the reading. He begins 
with a vivid monograph on the myths and 
traditions of the far-off East, and the geog- 
raphy of the peninsula. He then gives an 
amusing description of the journey from his 
landing-place in Korea up to Soul, the capital 
of the country, and adds scores of episodes 

of his life in that great city, — diverting, 
pathetic, and all full of quaintness and origi- 
nality. The book is rich in allusions to the 
architecture, costumes, government, super- 
stitions, landscape-gardening, and other inter- 
esting features of thd Korean people, set 
forth with scientific precision and literary 
grace, yet without undue obtrusion of the 
author's personality. The book is full of 
quotable passages, describing the customs 
and oddities of the people, and giving many 
enticing glimpses of beautiful scenery and 
enjoyable experiences." 

An admirable suggestion to architects and 
persons interested in interior decoration is 
contained in the following paragraphs from 
the " Scientific American " referring to Pro- 
fessor Edward S. Morse's " Japanese Homes, 
and their Surroundings " (300 illustrations, 
8vo, $5.00) : — 

" For cultivated people of small means, 
desiiing to build for themselves, and having 
tastes which lead them to take pleasure in 
beautifying their homes and surroundings 
where this can be done in an inexpensive way, 
we know of no other publication so brimful 
of suggestion and valuable information as 
is this handsome and profusely illustrated 
volume. We do not mean, in saying this, to 
have any one infer that the book is not equal- 
ly well worth the attention of those who can 
build brownstone houses, or of the architects 
who design the most costly residences ; for, of 
the latter structures, too many are wanting in 
many of the essentials to comfortable living, 
that are generally found in less pretentious 
buildings. But the conditions of life in Japan, 
and the genius of its people, are such, that we 
often find in their work the development of 
an exquisite taste that makes the commonest 
articles they produce a source of constant 
pleasure. How this taste and Japanese con- 
structive ingenuity are manifested in their 
residences, in those of the humblest as well 
as those of the higher classes, the work of 


Ticknor & Go's Nciv Books. 

Professor Morse points out in ample detail, 
and in most attractive style." 

The " Hartford Courant " speaks thus of 
the new novel (" Two College Girls," by 
Helen Dawes Brown, $1.50) : — 

" 'Two College Girls ' must be pronounced 
a decidedly successful story. Edna Howe of 
New England, and Rosamond Mills of Chi- 
cago, are the two girls of the tale, but 
around them, in the college life, are grouped 
others who are only a little less important 
and interesting ; and their individual charac- 
ters are sketched with a firm, sure, skilful 
hand. In the first chapter we are introduced 
to a family gathering in a New-England 
village, in the home of Edna Howe, at which 
uncle Lemuel and aunt Almira and uncle 
Ira and all the relations discuss the matter of 
Edna's going to college. And we know not 
where to look for a more faithful description 
of such a scene. But Edna goes to college ; 
and from the day of examination to the day 
of graduation, her life there, interwoven with 
the lives of her mates and teachers, is one 
whose story will be read with eager delight. 
It is a delightful story, not in the least frivo- 
lous or superficial, but true to the life, and 
wought out with ease, grace, and power." 

The " Scotsman" (of Edinburgh), which is 
probably the most influential journal in Scot- 
land, thus praises Percival Lowell's " Choson: 
The Land of the Morning Calm " (Korea) : — 

" In his capacity of Foreign Secretary and 
Counsellor to the Korean Special Mission, 
he had exceptional opportunities afforded to 
him of studying the structure of Korean 
society, from the court life down to the low- 
est strata ; and these he has turned to excel- 
lent account. Specially interesting are the 
chapters on the origin, characteristics, and 
tendencies of Korean art, science, and phi- 

Professor Edward S. Morse's admirable 
" Japanese Homes and their Surroundings " 
is thus commented upon (in a three-column 
review) by the " London Building News : " — 

" Mr. Morse's very interesting and instruc- 
tive work is the only reliable guide to the 
architecture of Japan we have seen." 

" Edge-Tools of Speech " is one of the 
best books of quotations in the language. It 
was a happy thought that prompted that 
industrious, graceful, and talented man of 
letters, Mr. M. M. Ballou, to prepare such a 
work. It is indispensable in the library and 
at the ofiiice. The book is handsomely issued 
by Messrs. Ticknor & Co. 

The covers of Isaac Henderson's novel 
of Roman Life, " The Prelate," are embel- 
lished with original and striking designs by 
Elihu Vedder, who is an intimate friend of 




Devoted to Literature, Biography, History, and State Progress. 

Vol. IX. 

MAY AND JUNE, 1 886. 

Nos. 5, 6. 


]!y Rev. Alonzo 

To men of their own energetic stock, 
■who, refusing all political preferment, 
have given comprehensive abilities, ster- 
ling integrity, and sagacious industry, 
to the development of business, many 
New- Hampshire towns owe an imper- 
ishable debt. John McDuffee's record 
is in the prosperity of Rochester. 

The name itself suggests that strong 
Scotch-Irish blood which endured the 
siege of Londonderry, in which were 
Mr. McDuffee's ancestors, John ]\Ic- 
Duffee and his wife Martha, honored in 
tradition. John and Martha ]\IcDuffee 
had four sons ; viz., Mansfield, Archi- 
bald, John, and Daniel. Mansfield went 
to London, England ; the other three 
came with their parents to America in 
the emigration which gave New Hamp- 
shire the powerful stock of Derry and 
Londonderry. John, the father of these 
sons, settled in Rochester, in 1729, on 
land on the east side of the Cocheco 
River, adjoining Gonic Lower Falls, — 
the farm of eighty-five acres remaining 
without break in the family, and now 
owned by the subject of this sketch. 
The Rochester settler was, as just stated, 
the father of Daniel McDuffee, and also 
of Colonel John McDuffee, a gallant 
officer in the old French and Revolu- 
tionary wars, lieutenant-colonel in Col. 
Poor's regiment, who, never marrying. 

li. Quint, D.D. 

adopted his brother Daniel's son John, 
and eventually made him his heir. John, 
the colonel's heir, was a farmer in good 
circumstances, married Abigail, daugh- 
ter of Simon and Sarah (Ham) Torr, 
and was father of John McDuffee, the 
subject of this sketch, who was born on 
the farm once the colonel's, about a mile 
and a half from Rochester \illage, on 
the Dover road, Dec. 6, 1803. 

Of course, while working on the farm 
more or less, he had for five or more 
years the advantage of a good school. 

In 1 818, at the age of fifteen, the boy 
entered Franklin Academy, in Dover. 
In 1 82 1, at the age of eighteen, he 
went into the store of his uncle, John 
Greenfield, at Rochester. 

After two years' experience, he be- 
gan the same business for himself on 
the same square ; was successful, and, 
after two years, took into partnership 
his uncle, Jonathan H. Torr. During 
this period he was commissioned post- 
m.aster of Rochester, being not of age 
when appointed ; and he held this office 
until removed on Jackson's accession 
to the presidency. 

In the spring of the year 183 1 he 
went to Dover, and began the same 
business on a broader scale. Steady 
success continued to reward his energy 
and industry. In Februar}', 1833, he 



John McDiijfce. 

sold out his business in Dover, and re- 
turned to Rochester to settle the estate 
of his wife's father, Joseph Hanson, an 
old and wealthy merchant of Roches- 
ter, whose daughter Johanna Mr. Mc- 
Duffec had married June 21, 1829. 

There was no bank in Rochester. 
Mr. McDuffee saw that a bank was 
needed. He prepared the plans, se- 
cured signatures, obtained a charter 
from the Legislature in 1834, and or- 
cjanized the Rochester Bank. He be- 
came cashier, his brother-in-law, Dr. 
James Farrington, being president. 

Cashier for twenty years, on the then 
renewal of its charter, Mr. McDuffee re- 
signed the cashiership in favor of his 
son Franklin, and became president. 
The bank did not become a national 
bank until 1874, and in the six years 
previous he and his son formed the 
house of "John McDuffee & Co., pri- 
vate bankers," took up the old bank's 
business, and successfully carried it on. 
In 1 8 74 they merged it in a national 
bank, the one being president and the 
other cashier, as before, and the • two 
taking two-fifths of its stock. 

Mr. McDuffee was one of the original 
grantees of the Dover National Bank, 
and for a short time was a director. 
He is a heavy stockholder in the Straf- 
ford National Bank, and has been an 
active director since 1870. 

The Norway Plains Savings Bank, at 
Rochester, was chartered in 185 1, and 
Mr. McDuffee became its treasurer, be- 
ing succeeded by his son Franklin in 
1867, and himself becoming president, 
an office in which he still remains. 

Mr. McDuffee early saw the advan- 
tages of manufacturing to a community. 
By his own means and a liberal allow- 
ance of banking facilities he has greatly 
aided their development : the first such 
enterprise in Rochester, the Mechanics' 

Manufacturing Company, being decided 
to locate there by the new banking facili- 
ties. Mr. McDuffee was a director. It 
was a manufacture of blankets, and its 
successor is tlie Norway Plains Manufac- 
turing Company. The original company 
Mr. McDuffee carried safely through 
the crisis of 1837. The mill property at 
Gonic Mr. McDuffee bought in 1845 
to lease to N. V. Whitehouse, that the 
business might not be given up. He 
held his purchase for about ten years. 
The effort was successful, and the prop- 
erty was eventually taken by a joint- 
stock company. 

Stephen Shorey, owning some facili- 
ties for manufacturing at East Roches- 
ter, came to Mr. McDuffee to see if the 
bank would advance means to build. 
Mr. McDuffee at once pledged the 
means, and the mills were built. A 
stock company afterwards purchased 
mills and machinery, and the thriving 
village of East Rochester owes its pros- 
perity to Mr. McDuffee's liberal policy. 
Thus have been developed the three- 
principal water-powers of Rochester. 

Mr. McDuffee's personal interests in 
manufacturing were also in tlie Great 
Falls Manufacturing Company, in whose 
great business he was a director for four 
years. Capital, one million five hun- 
dred thousand dollars. In 1S62 he 
bought large interests in the Cocheco 
Manufacturing Company, and has there 
remained. Since 1874 he has been a 
director of that corporation. 

The need of railroad facilities at 
Rochester was early apparent to Mr. 
McDuffee. In 1846 he entered into 
two enterprises, — the Cocheco road, 
from Dover to Alton Bay, and Conway 
road, from Great Falls to Conway. 
Each was to, and did, pass through 

In each road Mr. McDuffee was the 

Jolin McDuffee. 


largest individual stockholder, and of 
each was the first treasurer. When the 
Conway road reached Rochester, Mr. 
McDuffee resigned its treasurership. 
The other road, after various difficul- 
ties, became the Dover and Winnipe- 
saukee by the incorporation of its bond- 
holders, and Mr. McDuffee continued 
to be a director. Rochester was thus 
doubly accommodated ; but another 
avenue was needed, and Mr. McDuffee 
took part in the Portland and Roches- 
ter, which secured a route eastward, 
of which road he was a director ; and 
he invested liberally in the Rochester 
and Nashua, which opened a line to the 
west. The result has been that Roches- 
ter is the " billing-point," and its vari- 
ous manufacturing interests have felt its 

The beauty of the " McDuffee Block" 
in Rochester, built by him in 1868, ex- 
hibits the owner's public spirit. 

As a Mason he joined Humane Lodge 
on the very day he became '• of lawful 

In religion, Mr. McDuffee was brought 
up under good old Parson Joseph Haven, 
and has remained a liberal supporter of 
the Congregational Society. 

In politics he was an earnest Whig. 
His first vote was for the electors who 
chose John Quincy x\dams president, 
and his postmastership was ended by 
Andrew Jackson. He has always been 
a decided Republican. 

Mr. McDuffee's great amount of la- 
bor has been possible only by the vigor- 
ous constitution which he inherited. 
The boy who, before he left home, 
•' carried the forward swath " in the hay- 
field made the man who now accom- 
plishes an amount of work which would 
surprise many younger men. Monday 
is always given to the Strafford Bank 

at Dover ; Tuesday he presides at the 
Rochester Bank meeting ; Wednesday, 
at the Savings bank ; and no day is 

Of Mr. McDuffee's happy domestic 
relations nothing need be said. Of 
his eight children, naming them in the 
order of birth, ( i ) Joseph, who fol- 
lowed the sea, died (single) on the 
ocean, at the age of thirty-five. (2) 
Franklin, left two sons, John Edgar 
and Willis. (3) John Randolph, grad- 
uated at the Chandler Scientific De- 
partment in 1 85 7, was a civil engineer 
in Rochester, and died single, aged 
twenty-five. (4) Anna M. is the wife 
of Frank S. Brown of Hartford, Conn., 
of the firm of Brown, Thompson, & 
Co. She has one son and two daugh- 
ters. (5) Mary Abbie is the wife 
of Charles K. Chase, a merchant in 
Rochester, and has tv/o daughters. 
(6) Sarah, died single. {7) George, 
♦the only surviving son, is engaged in 
extensive grain, mill, ami lumber busi- 
ness in Rochester. He married, first, 
Lizzie Hanson, who died leaving a son ; 
afterward he married, second, Nellie, 
daughter of Dr. James Farrington of 
Rochester, her father being nephew of 
Dr. James Farrington M.C. (8) Oli- 
ver, died in infancy. 

Judged by the sucess of his work as 
a banker, as developing by a liberal 
and wise help every worthy manufac- 
turing enterprise, and as foremost in the 
building of the various railways center- 
ing in Rochester, it is clear that Mr. 
McDuffee nobly comes into the list of 
those spoken of in our first paragraph, 
whose record is in the prosperity of his 
native town, where ability, sagacity, in- 
tegrity, and kindness have united to 
make that record, as well as his own 
personal success. 


Franklin McDujfce. 


Fr.\nklin McDuffee, son of John 
and Joanna (Hanson) McDuffee, was 
born at Dover, Aug. 27, 1832. He 
entered Gilmanton Academy at the age 
of twelve years, and graduated with 
honor at Dartmouth College in 1853. 
He read law for a short time with Hon. 
Daniel M. Christie of Dover. In May, 
1854, he accepted the position of 
cashier of the Rochester State Bank. 
In 1857 he was seriously injured by ex- 
posure incurred while on an expedition 
to the White Mountains, from the effect 
of which he never fully recovered. 

He married, Dec. 4, 1861, Fanny 
Hayes of Rochester. 

In 1866 he was appointed treasurer 
of the Norway Plains Savings Bank^ 
which office he held until his death. 
Two years later he became one of the 
firm of " John McDuffee & Co., Bank- 
ers." In 1874 he was appointed cashier 
of the Rochester National Bank. He 
was initiated in the Humane Lodge of 
Free and Accepted Masons, Dec. 9, 
1856. The next year he was chosen 
secretary. He was master of the lodge 
in 1863-64. In 1866 and 1867 he 
officiated as District Deputy of the 
Grand Lodge of New Hampshire. He 
served the town as selectman, and many 
years as superintending school com- 
mittee ; was a memb<jr of the Legisla- 
ture in 1862, and of the Constitutional 
Convention in 1876. He joined the 
Congregational Church in 1868, and 
was chosen deacon four years later. 
After a sickness of a few weeks he died 
at Rochester, Nov. 11, 1880. 

The character of Franklin McDuffee 

was one of rare excellence, blending 
many valuable traits. As a lad he was 
studious, thoughtful, kind, and mature 
beyond his years. He was thorough and 
exact in his studies, faithful and exem- 
plary as a student, and esteemed by his 
associate:;. He was industrious and 
honest, modest and retiring. 

In i)olitics he was a stanch Republi- 
can, an unflinching friend of temper- 
ance and good order. He had decision, 
energy, and sturdy pluck, without mal- 
ice or bitterness. He was an effective 
speaker, his words having weight from 
the influence of his character. He was 
one of the most entertaining lecturers in 
New Hampshire. He took a deep 
interest in education, and zealously 
soufrht to elevate the schools of Roches- 
ter. From his interest in historical 
subjects, he was elected a member of 
the New Hampshire Historical Society ; 
and wrote a series of valuable historical 
articles for the " Rochester Courier," 
which have lately been gathered into 
book form and will shortly be published. 
His mind was essentially mathematical, 
with keen powers of analytic thought. 
His methodical turn of mind fitted him 
especially for business, in which he was 
a model of diligence, exactness, and 
integrity. His neighbors and towns- 
men highly appreciated his sterling 
worth, and his intimates prized his 

His firm and substantial character 
was beautified and crowned with the 
graces of a Christian life. His religion, 
like every other part of his character, 
was genuine. 



The Family Immigration to New England. 



By Thomas W. Bicknell, LL.D. 

The unit of society is the individual. 
The u-nit of civihzation is the family. 
Prior to December 20, 1620, New- 
England life had never seen a civilized 
family or felt its influences. It is true 
that the Icelandic Chronicles tell 
us that Lief, the son of Eric the Red, 
1 00 1, sailed with a crew of thirty-five 
men, in a Norwegian vessel, and driven 
southward in a storm, from Greenland 
along the coasts of Labrador, wintered 
in Vineland on the shores of Mount 
Hope Bay, Longfellow's Skeleton in 
Armor has revealed their temporary 
settlement. Thither sailed Eric's son, 
Thorstein, with his young and beautiful 
wife, Gudrida, and their twenty-five 
companions, the following year. His 
death occurred, and put an end to the 
expedition, which Thorfinn took up 
with his marriage to the young widow, 
Gudrida ; with his bride and one hun- 
dred and sixty-five persons (five of 
them young married women), they spent 
three years on the shores of the Nar- 
ragansett Bay, where Snorre, the Jirst 
white child, was born, — the progenitor 
of the great Danish sculptor, Thor- 
waldsen. But this is tradition, not 
history. Later still, came other adven- 
turers to seek fortunes in the New 
World, but they came as individuals, — 
young, adventurous men, with all to 
gain and nothing to lose, and, if suc- 
cessful, to return with gold or fame, 
as the reward of their sacrifice and 

Six hundred years pass, and a colony 
of one hundred and five men, not a 
woman in the company, sailed from 
England for America, and landed 

at Jamestown, Virginia. Within six 
months half of the immigrants had 
perished, and only for the courage and 
bravery of John Smith, the whole would 
have met a sad fate. The first 
European woman seen on the banks 
of the James was the wife of one of the 
seventy Virginia colonists who came 
later, and her maid, Anne Burroughs, 
who helped to give permanency and 
character to a fugitive settlement in 
a colony, which waited two hundred 
and fifty years to learn the value of 
a New-England home, and to appre- 
ciate the civilization which sprang up 
in a New-England town, through the 
agency of a New-England family. 

An experience similar to that of 
the Virginia settlers — disappointment, 
hardship, death — attended the immi- 
grants who, under George Popham, 
Raleigh, and Gilbert, attempted to make 
a permanent home on the coast of 
Maine, but their house was a log camp, 
with not a solitary woman to light its 
gloom or cheer its occupants. Failure, 
defeat, and death were the inevitable 
consequences. There was no family, 
and there could be no permanency of 

The planting of Plymouth and Mas- 
sachusetts Bay Colonies was of another 
sort. Whole families embarked on 
board the Mayflower, the Fortune, the 
Ann, the Mary and John, and other 
ships that brought their precious freight 
in safety to a New World. Of the one 
hundred and one persons who came in 
the Mayflower, in 1620, twenty-eight 
were females, and eighteen were wives 
and mothers. Thevdid not leave their 


77^1? Family Immigration to New England. 

homes, in the truest sense, — they 
brought them with them. Their 
household goods and hearthstone gods 
were all snugly stowed beneath the 
decks of the historic ship, and the 
multitude of Mayflower relics, now held 
in precious regard in public and private 
collections, but testify to the immense 
inventory of that one little ship of 
almost fabulous carrying capacity. To 
the compact signed in Plymouth har- 
bor, in 1620, John Carv^/ signs eight 
persons, whom he represents; Edward 
Winslow, five ; William Brewster, six ; 
William MuUins, five ; William White, 
five ; Stephen Hopkins, Edward Fuller, 
and John Turner, each, eight ; John 
Chilton, three, — one of whom, his 
daughter Mary, was the first woman, as 
tradition says, to jump from the boat 
upon Plymouth Rock. In the Wey- 
mouth Company, under the leadership of 
the Reverend Joseph Hull, who set sail 
from Old Weymouth, England, on the 
twentieth of March, 1635, ^^*^ landed at 
Wessaguscus, — now Weymouth, Mas- 
sachusetts, — there were one hundred 
and five persons, divided into twenty- 
one families. Among these were John 
Whitmarsh, his wife Alice, and four 
children ; Robert Lovell, husbandman, 
with his good wife Elizabeth and chil- 
dren, two of whom, Ellen and James, 
were year-old twins ; Edward Poole 
and family ; Henry Kingman, Thomas 
Holbrook, Richard Porter, and jiot least 
of all, Zachary Bicknell, his wife Agnes, 
their son John, and servant John 

Families these, — all on board, — 
households, treasures, all worldly 
estates, and best of all the rich sym- 
pathies and supports of united, trust- 
ing hearts, daring to face the perils of 
an ocean -passage of forty-six days' 
duration, and the new, strange life in 

the wilds of America, that they might 
prove their faith in each other, in their 
principles, and in God. " He setteth 
the solitary in families," says the 
Psalmist ; and the truth was never 
better illustrated than in the isolated 
and weary life of our ancestry, two and 
a half centuries ago. 

To the Pilgrim and the Puritan, wife, 
children, house, home, family, church, 
were the most precious possessions. 
Nothing human could divorce ties 
which nature had so strongly woven. 
And whenever we think of our honored 
ancestry, it is not as individual adven- 
turers ; but we see the good-man, the 
good-wife, and their children, as the 
representatives of the great body of 
those, who with them planted homes, 
families, society, civilization, in the 
Western World. They came together, 
or if alone, to pioneer the way for 
wife and children or sweetheart by the 
next ship, and they came to stay, as 
witness the names of the old families 
of Plymouth, Weymouth, Salem, 
Boston, Dorchester, in the leading 
circles of wealth and social position in 
all of these old towns. " Behold," 
says Dr. Bushnell, " the Mayflower, 
rounding now the southern cape of 
England, filled with husbands and 
wives and children ; families of 
righteous men, under covenant with 
God and each other to lay some good 
foundation for religion, engaged both 
to make and keep their own laws, 
expecting to supply their own wants 
and bear their own burdens, assisted by 
none but the God in whom they trust 1 
Here are the hands of industry ! the 
germs of liberty ! the dear pledges of 
order ! and the sacred beginnings of a 
home ! " Of such, only, could Mrs. 
Hemans's inspired hymn have been 
written : —>- 

The Family Immigration to New EnglaJid. 137 

"There were men with hoary hair VIII. One Rcvercnd EdmUnd Pcach- 

Amidst that pilgrim band; , • o ^ i • i j 

Why had they come to wither there. ^ am, a clergyman m Somersetshire, had 

Away from their childhood's land ? ' his study brokcn Open, and a manu- 

._, , r , script sermon beinsr there found in 

" There was woman s fearless eye, >^ ° 

Lit by her deep love's truth; which there was Strong censurc of the 

There was manhood's brow, serenely high, gxtravaganc 6 of the king and the opprcs- 

And the fiery heart of youth. ° ° ^ '^ 

sion of his officers, the preacher was put 

to the rack and interrogated, " before 

REASONS FOR FAMILY REMOVAi^. ^^^^^^^^ ._^ ^^^^^^^^ \,^^s^^^n torture, and 

To understand the reasons why after torture," in order to draw from 
thirty-five thousand loyal and respecta- him evidence of treason ; but this hor- 
ble subjects of Charles I should leave rible severity could wring no confession 
Old England for the New, in family from him. His sermon was not found 
relations, between 1620 and 1625, let treasonable by the judges of the 
us look, if we can, through a chink in King's Bench and by Lord Coke ; but 
the wall, into the state of affairs, civil, the unhappy man was tried and con- 
social, and religious, as they existed in demned, dying in jail before the time 
the best land, and under the best gov- set for his execution. Just about this 
emment, the sun then shone upon. time was the State murder of Over- 
Charles I succeeded his father, bury, and the execution of Sir Walter 
James I of Scotland, in 1624. The Raleigh, one of England's noblest sons, 
great, good act of James was the trans- brave and chivalric, who, at the execu- 
lation of our English Bible, known as tioner's block, took the axe in his 
King James's Version, a work which, hand, kissed the blade, and said to the 
for the exercise of learning, scholar- sheriff: "'Tisasharp medicine, but a 
ship, and a zealous religious faith, has sound cure for all diseases." These 
not been surpassed in any age. Take and kindred acts serve to illustrate the 
him all in all, James was a bigot, a history of a king whose personal and 
t)Tant, a conceited fool. He professed selfish interests overruled all sentiments 
to be the most ardent devotee of of honor and regard for his subjects, 
piety, and at the same time issued a and who publicly declared that "he 
proclamation that all lawful recreations, would govern according to the good of 
such as dancing, archery, leaping, the commonweal, but not according to 
May-games, etc., might be used after the common will," With such a king 
divine service, on Sundays. An advo- as James on the throne, is it a wonder 
cate of religious freedom, he attempted that the more intelligent and conscien- 
to enforce the most abject conformity tious of his subjects — like the Pil- 
in his own Scottish home, against the grims and Puritans — sought a home 
well-known independence of that sec- on this side the Atlantic, where wild 
tion of his realm, and drove the Puri- beasts and savage men were their only 
tans to seek an asylum in Holland, persecutors? . 

where they might find liberty to wor- We are told that " the face of the 

ship God. Court was much changed in the change 

In the county of Somerset, the old of the king " from James to Charles I ; 

king consented to an act of tjTanny " that the grossness of the Court of 

which would grace the age of Henry James grew out of fashion," but the 

138 TIte Family Immigration to New England. 

people were slow to learn the differ- sharp and untenable," with " an elo- 
ence. Of the two evils, James was to quence full of fervor." That young 
be preferred. Charles ascends the man is yet to be heard from. His 
throne with flattering promises, attends name is Cromwell, known in history 
prayers and listens to sermons, pays as Oliver Cromwell. His briefly- 
his father's debts and promises to reported speech of six lines is destined 
reform the Court. Let us see what to be weightier than the edicts of a 
he does. The brilliant but profligate king. The session was brief. Popery 
Buckingham is retained as prime minis- and Arminianism, unjust taxation and 
ter. Charles marries the beautiful voluntary payment of taxes not ordered 
Henrietta Maria, the Roman Catholic by Parliament, were declared treason- 
princess of France. He fits out fleets able and hostile principles in Church 
against Spain and other quarters, and and State, — so said Parliament, 
demands heavy taxes to meet his heavy " You are a Parliament of vipers," — 
expenses. Parliament is on its dignity, so said the king ; and, on the tenth of 
and demands its proper recognition. March, Parliament was dissolved, not 
He dissolves it, and calls another, to meet again in the old historic hall 
That is more rebellious, and that he for eleven long years ; until, in 1640, 
summarily dissolves. Men of high the majesty of an outraged people 
and low degree go to prison at the rises superior to the majesty of an 
king's behest, and the disobedient were outraging ruler. Now follow the 
threatened with severer penalties. attempted riveting of the chains of 

The people of England are aroused, a despotic and unscrupulous power, 
as the king of the earth sets himself which does not understand the temper 
against their claims in behalf of the of the common people, nor the 
royal prerogative. The king and the methods of counteracting a great 
people are at war. Which will come popular upheaval in society, 
off conquerer? There is only one It is not easy to resist the iron pres- 
answer to that question, for the batde sure of a tyrant ; but, to our ancestors, 
IS one between the pigmy and the it was far better than to accept the 
giant. The contest grows sharper as peace and profit which might follow 
the months go on, and the people are abject submission. To borrow the 
in constant alarm. Murders are words of De Tocqueville : " They cling 
common, and even Buckingham, the to freedom for its native charms inde- 
favorite minister, dies at the point of pendent of its gifts, — the pleasure of 
the assassin's knife, and the murderer speaking, acting, and breathing without 
goes to the Tower and the scaffold restraint, under no master but God and 
accompanied by the tumultuous cheers the Law." The EngUshmen of the 
of London. Soon comes the Parlia- first half of the seventeenth century 
nient of 1629, in which the popular were the fathers of the men who 
leaders make their great remonstrance fired shots at Lexington and Concord, 
against the regal tyranny. In that " heard round the world." 
House sat a plain young man, with But how do the royal prerogatives 
ordinary cloth apparel, as if made by affect our ancestors in England } Our 
an old-country tailor, " his counte- fathers were of common mould, and 
nance swollen and reddish, his voice feel the unjust demand of the tax-gath- 

An Incident of Sixteen Hundred and Eighty -Six. 


erer and the insolent demeanor of the 
Crown officers, who threaten fines and 
imprisonment for a refusal to obey. 
The people are aroused and are 
united ; some are hopeless, some 
hopeful. The Crown seems to have 
its sway, but the far-sighted see the 
people on the coming throne of right- 
eous judgment. What troubles our 
ancestors most is the interference with 
their religious life. Archbishop. Laud is 
now supreme, and the Pope never had 
a more willing vassal. Ministers are 
examined as to their loyalty to the 
government, their sermons are read to 
private judges of their orthodoxy, the 
confessional is established, and the 

altar-service is restored. It is a time 
when earnest men and women cannot 
be trifled with on soul concerns. Their 
property may perish or be confiscated, 
hut the right to unmolested worship 
is older than Magna Charta, and as 
inalienable as life itself. What is to 
be done ? Resistance or emigration — 
which.? Resist and die, say Crom- 
well and Wentworth, Ehot and Hamp- 
den. Emigrate and live, say the men 
and women who came by thousands 
from all parts of England during the 
reign of this monarch, and made pos- 
sible the permanent establishment of 
a new society, on the basis of social 
order and family life. 



By the Hon. Mellen Chamberlain. 

On the afternoon of the twenty-sixth 
of May, 1686, two horsemen were rid- 
ing from Boston to Cambridge. By 
which route they left the town is not 
known ; but most probably over the 
Roxbury Neck, following the path taken 
by Lord Percy when he went to the 
relief of Lieutenant-Colonel Smith's 
ill-starred expedition to seize the miU- 
tary stores at Concord, on the nine- 
teenth of April, 1775. Of the nature 
of their errand — whether peaceful or 
hostile, — of the subject of their conver- 
sation, as they rode along the King's 
highway, neither history nor tradition 
has left any account. But when they 
had reached Muddy River, now the 
beautiful suburb of Brookline, about 
two miles from Cambridge, they were 
met by a young man riding in the 
opposite direction, who, as he came 
against them, abruptly and without 

other salutation, said : " God save King 
James the Second ! " and then rode on. 
But soon turning his horse towards the 
travelers he most inconsequentially 
completed his sentence by adding, 
" But I say, God curse King James ! " 
and this malediction he repeated so 
many times and with such vehemence, 
that the two horsemen at last turned 
their horses and riding up to him, told 
him plainly that he was a rogue. This 
expression of their opinion produced, 
however, only a slight modification of 
the young man's sentiments, to this 
form : " God curse King James and 
God bless Duke James !'' But a few 
strokes of their whips effected his com- 
plete conversion, and then, as a loyal 
subject, he exclaimed : " God curse 
Duke James, and God bless King 
James 1 " 

Such is the unadorned statement of 


An Incident of Sixteen Hundred and Eighty-Six. 

facts as sworn to the next day in the 
Council by these riders, and their oath 
was attested by Edward Randolph, the 
" evil genius of New England." I 
present it in its legal baldness of 
detail. The two horsemen are no 
reminiscence of Mr. James's celebrated 
opening, but two substantial citizens 
of Boston, Captain Peter Bowden 
and Dr. Thomas Clarke; and the 
young man with somewhat original 
objurgatory tendencies was one Wiswell, 
as they called him — presumably not 
a son of the excellent Duxbury parson 
of the same name ; and for the same 
reason, even less probably, a student of 
Cambridge University, as it was at that 
early day sometimes called. 

The original paper in which the 
foregoing facts are recorded has long 
been in my possession ; and as often as 
my eye has rested on it, I have won- 
dered what made that young man 
swear so ; and by what nicety of moral 
discrimination he found his justifica- 
tion in blessing the Duke and cursing 
the King — "unus et idem" — in the 
same breath. Who and what was he? 
and of what nature were his griev- 
ances ? Was there any political signifi- 
cance in that strange mingling of 
curses and blessings? That his tem- 
per was not of martyr firmness was 
evident enough from the sudden 
change in the current of his thoughts 
brought about by the tingling of the 
horsewhip. All else was mystery. But 
the commonest knowledge of the Eng- 
lish and colonial history of those days 
was sufficient to stimulate conjecture 
on these points. At the date of the 
incident recorded James II had been 
on the throne more than a year, and 
for a long time both as duke and king 
had been hated and feared on both 
sides of the ocean. The Duke of 

Monmouth's ill-fated adventure for 
the Crown had failed at Sedgemoor, 
and his young life ended on the block, 
denied expected mercy by his uncle, 
the king : ended on the block : but 
not so believed the common people of 
England. They believed him to be 
still living, and the legitimate heir to 
the British crown, and that his unnat- 
ural uncle was only Duke James of 
England. In those days English affairs 
were more closely followed by the col- 
onists than at present, and for obvious 
reasons ; and it is quite open to con- 
jecture at least that the feelings of Eng- 
lish yeomen and artisans were known 
to, and shared by, their cousins in 
Massachusetts Bay, and that Master 
Wiswell only gave expression to a 
sentiment common to people of his 
class on both sides the water. 

This, however, is mere conjecture. 
But there are important facts. On the 
preceding day, in the Town House, 
which stood at the head of State Street, 
where the old State House now stands, 
events culminated, in comparison with 
which the causes which led to the war 
of the Revolution sink into utter insig- 
nificance. On the twenty-third of 
October, 1684, in the High Court of 
Chancery of England, judgment was 
entered on the writ of scire facias, by 
which the charter of Massachusetts Bay 
was vacated ; and as a consequence, the 
title to the soil, with all improvements, 
reverted to the Crown, to the ruin of 
those who had wrested it from the wil- 
derness, and guarded it from the savage 
foe. The old government, so endeared 
to the people, and defended against 
kingly assault with the truest courage, 
was swept away by arbitrary power, 
and in its place a new one established, 
under the presidency of Joseph Dudley, 
and he a recreant son of the colony. 

Ati Incident of Sixteen Hundred and Eighty-Six. 


It was the inauguration of this govern- 
ment which had taken place on the day 
before Captain Bowden and Dr. Clarice 
encountered John Wiswell, Jr., on their 
ride to Cambridge. The ceremonies of 
the inauguration were not without cir- 
cumstances of pomp, and are set forth 
in the Council records at the State House, 
from which I transcribe the following 
incidents : When the new government, 
the president, and Council were assem- 
bled, the exemplification of the judgment 
against the charter of the late governor 
and company of the Massachusetts Bay, 
in New England, publicly (in the court 
where were present divers of the eminent 
ministers, gentlemen, and inhabitants of 
the town and county) was read with an 
audible voice. The commission was 
read and the oaths administered, and 
the new president made his speech, 
after which, proclamation was openly 
read in court, and commanded to be 
published by beat of drum and trumpet, 
which was accordingly done. 

The people in the Forum heard these 
drums and trumpets — young Wiswell, 
doubtless, with the rest — and knew 
what they signified : the confiscation 
of houses and lands ; the abrogation 
of existing laws ; taxes exacted without 
consent or legislation ; the enforced 
support of a religion not of the people's 
choice ; and navigation laws ruinous to 
their foreign commerce, then beginning 
to assume importance ; and from these 
consequences they were saved only 
by the revolution, which two years 
later drove James II from his 
throne. It is difficult to credit these 
sober facts of history, and still more to 
fully realize their destructive import ; 
but they should always be borne in 
mind ; for if any one reflecting on the 
causes assigned by the leaders of the 
great Revolution, as justifying the violent 

partition of an empire, is led for a 
moment to question their sufficiency, 
let him then consider that they were 
assigned by a people full of the tradi- 
tions of the long struggle against kingly 
injustice, in the days of the second 
Charles and the second James. 

A few words — the result of latei 
investigation — as to the actors in the 
events of this ride to Cambridge. 
When Bowden and Clarke had attested 
iJieir loyalty by horsewhipping young 
Wiswell, they took him in charge to 
Cambridge, and vainly tried to persuade 
Nathaniel Hancock, the constable, to 
carry him before a magistrate. This 
refusal brought him into difficulty with 
Council ; but his humble submission 
was finally accept^ and he was dis- 
charged on payment of costs, on the 
plea that upon the change of the 
government there was no magistrate 
authorized to commit him to prison. 
Not quite so fortunate was John 
Wiswell, Jr., for on the third of August 
the grand jury found a true bill against 
him for uttering " these devilish, 
unnatural, and wicked words following, 
namely, God curse King JatnesJ" 
That he was brought to trial on this 
complaint I cannot find. And so the 
actors in these scenes pass away. Of 
Bowden and Clarke I know nothing 
more ; and the little which appears of 
John Wiswell's subsequent life is not 
wholly to his credit, I am sorry to say, 
and the more so, as I have recently 
discovered that he was once a towns- 
man of mine, and doubtless a playmate 
of my kindred at Rumney Marsh. 

These actors have all gone, and so 
has gone the old Town House ; not so, 
as yet, let us heartily thank God, has 
gone the old State House which stands 
where that stood ; on the one spot — 
if there is but one — which ought to be 


The Boundary Lines of Old Groton. — ///. 

dear to the heart of every Bostonian, 
and sacred from his violating hand. 
For here, on the spot of that eastern 
balcony, looking down into the old 
Puritan Forum, what epochs in our 
history have been announced ! — the 
abrogation of the First Charter — the 
deposition of Andros — the inaugura- 
tion of the Second Charter — the 

death and ascension of English sove- 
reigns — the Declaration of Independ- 
ence, and the adoption of the 
Constitution of the United States ; 
and here still stands the grandest 
historic edifice in America, and within 
it? — why add to the hallowing words 
of old John Adams? — "Within its 
walls Liberty was born ! " 


By the Hon. Samuel Abbott Green. 

The running of the Provincial line in 
1 74 1 cut off a large part of Dunstable, 
and left it on the New Hampshire side 
of the boundary. It separated even the 
meeting-house from that portion of the 
town still remaining in Massachusetts, 
and this fact added not a little to the 
deep animosity felt by the inhabitants 
when the disputed question was settled. 
It is no exaggeration to say that, 
throughout the old township, the feel- 
ings and sympathies of the inhabitants 
on both sides of the line were entirely 
with Massachusetts. A short time 
before this period the town of Notting- 
ham had been incorporated by the 
General Court, and its territory taken 
from Dunstable. It comprised all the 
lands of that town, lying on the easterly 
side of the Merrimack River ; and the 
difficulty of attending public worship 
led to the division. When the Provin- 
cial line was established, it affected 

Nottingham, like many other towns, 
most unfavorably. It divided its terri- 
tory and left a tract of land in Massa- 
chusetts, too small for a separate town- 
ship, but by its associations belonging 
to Dunstable. This tract is to-day that 
part of Tyngsborough lying east of the 

The question of a new meeting-house 
was now agitating the inhabitants of 
Dunstable. Their former building was 
in another Province, where different 
laws prevailed respecting the qualifica- 
tions and settlement of ministers. It 
was clearly evident that another struc- 
ture must be built, and the customary 
dispute of small communities arose in 
regard to its site. Some persons favored 
one locality, and others another ; some 
wanted the centre of territory, and 
others the centre of population. Akin 
to this subject I give the words of the 
Reverend Joseph Emerson, of Pepper- 

The Boundary Lines of Old Grot on. — ///. 

J 43 

ell — as quoted by Mr. Butler, in his 
History of Groton (page 306), — taken 
from a sermon delivered on March 8, 
1770, at the dedication of the second 
meeting-house in Pepperell : " It hath 
been observed that some of the hottest 
contentions in this land hath been about 
settling of ministers and building meet- 
ing-houses : and what is the reason ? 
The devil is a great enemy to settling 
ministers and building meeting-houses ; 
wherefore he sets on his own children 
to work and make difficulties, and to 
the utmost of his power stirs up the cor- 
ruptions of the children of God in 
some way to oppose or obstruct so good 
a work." This explanation was con- 
sidered highly satisfactory, as the hand 
of the evil one was always seen in such 

During this period of local excite- 
ment an effort was made to annex 
Nottingham to Dunstable ; and at the 
same time Joint Grass to Dunstable. 
Joint Grass was a district in the north- 
eastern part of Groton, settled by a few 
families, and so named from a brook 
running through the neighborhood. It 
is evident from the documents that the 
questions of annexation and the site of 
the meeting-house were closely con 
nected. The petition in favor of 
annexation was granted by the General 
Court on certain conditions, which 
were not fulfilled, and consequently the 
attempt fell to the ground. Some of 
the papers relating to it are as follows : 

A Petition of sundry Inhabitants of the 
most northerly Part of the first Parish in 
Groton, praying that they may be set off 
from said Groton to Dimstable, for the 
Reasons mentioned. 

Read and Ordered, That the Petitioners 
serve the Towns of Groton and Dunstable 
with Copies of this Petition, that they 
show Cause, if any they have, on the first 

Friday of the next Sitting of this Court, 
why the Prayer thereof should not be 

Sent up for Concurrence. 

[Journal of the House of Representaiives (pag- -64), 
March 11, 1746.] 

Fraiicis Foxcroft, Esq ; brought down 
the Petition of the northerly Part of Groton, 
as entred the nth of March last, and 
refer'd. Pass'd in Council, inz. In Coun- 
cil May 29th 1747. Read again, together 
with the Answers of the Towns of Groton 
and Dimstable, and Ordered, That Joseph 
Wilder and Joh^i (Jinncy, Esqrs ; together 
with such as the honourable House shall 
join, be a Committee to take under Con- 
sideration this Petition, together with the 
other Petitions and Papers referring to the 
Affair within mentioned, and report what 
they judge proper for this Court to do 
thereon. Sent down for Concurrence. 

Read and concur'd, and Major Jones, 
Mr. Fox, and Col. Gerrish, are joined 
in the Affair. 

[Journal of the House of Representatives (page iij, 
May 29, 1747.] 

John Hill, Esq ; brought down the 
Petition of the Inhabitants of Groton and 
Notti7ig]iam, with the Report of a Com- 
mittee of both Houses thereon. 

Signed Joseph Wilder, per Order. 

Pass'd in Council, viz. In Council 
June 5th 1747. The within Report was 
read and accepted, and Ordered, That the 
Petition of JoJm Swallow and others. In- 
habitants of the northerly Part of Groton 
be so far granted, as that the Petitioners, 
with their Estates petition'd for, be set off 
from Groton, and annexed to the Town of 
Dunstable, agreable to Groton Town Vote 
of the 1 8th of May last: and that the 
Petition of the Inhabitants of Nottingham 
be granted, and that that Part of Notting- 
ham left to the Province, with the Inhab- 
itants theron, be annexed to said Dun- 
stable, and that they thus Incorporated, do 
Duty and receive Priviledges as other 
Towns within this Province do or by Law 
ought to enjoy. 

And it is fiirther Ordered, That the 


TJic Boundary Lines of Old Grot on. — ///. 

House for publick Worship be placed two 
Hundred and forty eight Rods distant from 
Mr. John Tyng's North-East Corner, to 
run from said Corner North fifty two De- 
grees West, or as near that Place as the 
Land will admit of. 

Sent down for Concurrence. 

Read and concur'd with the Amend- 
ment, viz. instead of those Words, . . . 
And it is further Ordered, That the House 
for publick Worship be. . . insert the fol- 
lowing Words . . . Provided that within 
one Year a House for the publick Worship 
of GOD be erected, and . . . 

Sent up for Concurrence. 

[Journal of the House of Representatives (page a6). 
June 6, 1747.] 

To his Excellency William Shirley 
Esquire Captain General and Governour 
in Chief in and over his Majestys Province 
of the Massachusetts Bay in New England 
The Rouble : the Council and HonWe : 
House of Representatives of the said 
Province in General Court Assembled at 
Boston the 31st. of May 1749. 

The petition of the Inhabitants of the 
Town of Dunstable in the Province of 
the Massachusetts Bay 

Most Humbly Shew 

That in the Year 1747, that part of Not- 
tingham which lyes within this Govern- 
ment and part of the Town of Groton 
Called Joint Grass preferred two petitions 
to this Great and Hon^ie ; Court praying 
that they might be Annexed to the Town 
of Dunstable which petitions Your Excel- 
lency and Honours were pleased to Grant 
upon Conditions that a meeting house for 
the Publick Worship of God should be built 
two hundred and forty Eight Rods 52 
Degs : West of the North from North East 
Corner of Mr. John Tyngs land But the 
Inhabitants of the Town Apprehending 
Your Excellency and Honours were not 
fully Acquainted with the Inconveniencys 
that would Attend placeing the Meeting 
House there Soon after Convened in Pub- 
lick Town Meeting Legally Called to Con- 
clude upon a place for fixing said meeting 
house where it vyould best Accommodate 
all the Inhabitants at which meeting pro- 

posals were made by some of the Inhab- 
itants to take the Advice and Assistance 
of three men of other Towns which pro- 
posal was Accepted by the Town and they 
accordingly made Choice of The HonWe : 
James Minot Esq"". Maj"" : Lawrence and 
M"". Brewer and then Adjourned the 

That the said Gentlemen mett at the 
Towns Request and Determined upon a 

place for fixing the said 



which was approved of by the Town and 
they Accordingly Voted to Raise the sum 
of one hundred pounds towards defreying 
the Charge of Building the said House But 
Upon Reviewing the Spot pitched upon as 
aforesaid many of the Inhabitants Appre- 
hended it was more to the southward than 
the Committee Intended it should be And 
thereupon a Meeting was Called on the 
Twenty Sixth day of May last when the 
Town voted to Build the meeting house 
on the East side of the Road that leads 
from Cap' : Cummings's to M^ Simon 
Tompsons where some part of the Timber 
now lyes being about Forty Rods North- 
ward of Isaac Colburns house which they 
Apprehended to be the Spot of Ground 
the Committee Intended to fix upon. 

And for as much as the place Last Voted 
by the Town to Build their meeting house 
upon will best Accommodate all the In- 

Your pefs. therefore most humbly pray 
Your Excellency and Honours would be 
pleased to Confirm the said Vote of the 
Town of the 26'^ : day of May last and 
order the meeting Iwuse for the Publick 
Worship of God to be Erected on the 
peice of Ground aforementioned. 

And in duty bound they will ever pray 

Simon tompson 1 Comtee for the 
Eben Parkhurst \ Town of Dunstable 

[Massachusetts Archives, cxv, 507, 508.] 

The Committee appointed on the Peti- 
tion of a Committee for the Town of Dtm- 
stable, reported according to Order. 

Read and accepted, and thereupon the 
following Order pass'd, viz. In as imcch 
as the House for the publick Worship of 

The Boundary Lines of Old Groton. — ///. 


GOD in Dunstable was not erected tuithin 
the Line limitted inthe Order of thi<; Court 
of June 6th 1747, the Inhabitants of 
Groton and Nottingham have lost the 
Benefit of Incorporation with the Town of 
Dunstable : Therefore 

Voted, That a Meeting House for the 
publick Worship of GOD be erected as 
soon as may be on the East Side of the 
Road that leads from Capt. Cumtnins to 
Simon Thompson''s, where the Timber for 
such a House now lies, agreeable to a Vote 
of the said Town of Dunstable onthe 26th 
of May last ; and that the said Inhabitants 
of Groton and Nottingham be and con- 
tinue to be set oflf and annexed to the 
Town of Dunstable, to do Duty and receive 
Priviledge there, their Neglect of Com- 
pliance with the said Order of fune 6th 
1747, notwithstanding, unless the major 
Part of the Inhabitants and rateable Estate 
belonging to said Groton and Nottingham 
respectively, shall on or before the first 
Day of September next in writing under 
their Hands, transmit to the Secretary's 
Office their Desire not to continue so incor- 
porated with the town of Dunstable as 
aforesaid ; provided also, That in Case the 
said Inhabitants of Groton and Notti7ig- 
ham shall signify such their Desire in 
Manner and Time as aforesaid, they be 
nevertheless subjected to pay and discharge 
their Proportion of all Publick Town or 
Ministerial Rates or Taxes hitherto granted 
or regularly laid on them ; excepting the 
last Sum granted for building a Meeting 
House. And that the present Town 
Officers stand and execute their Offices 
respectively until the Anniversary Town- 
Meeting at Dunstable in March next. 
Sent up for Concurrence. 

[Journal of the House of Representatives (pages 46, 
47), June 26, 1749.] 

Whereas the Great & Generall Court of 
the the \sic'\ Province of the Massachusetts 
Bay in June Last, On the Petitions of 
Dunstable & Nottingham has Ordered 
that the Inhabitants of Groton and Not- 
tingham, Which by Order of the s^ Court 
the 6th of June 1747 Were On Certain Con- 
ditions Annexed to s^ Dunstable & (Which 

Conditions not being Complyed with) be 
Annexed to s^. Dunstable to do duty & 
Receive priviledge there their neglect of 
Complyance notwithstanding. Unless the 
major part of the Inhabitants and ratable 
Estate belonging to the s^. Groton & Not- 
tingham respectively Shall on or before the 
first day of September next in Writing 
under their hands Transmitt to the Secre- 
tarys Office their desire not to Continue so 
Incorporated With the town of Dunstable 
as aforesd. Now therefore Wee the Sub- 
scribers Inhabitants of Groton & Notting- 
ham Sett of as aforesd. do hereby Signifie 
Our desire not to Continue so Incorporated 
with the town of Dunstable as afores^. but 
to be Sett at Liberty As tho that Order of 
Court had not ben passed 

Dated the loth day of July 1749 

Inhabitants of Groton 

Timothy Read 
Joseph fletcher 
John Swallow 
Samuel Comings 
Benjamin Robbins 
Joseph Spalding iuner 

Inhabitants of Nottingham 

Samuell Gould 

Robert Fletcher 

Joseph perriaham Daken [Deacon ?] 

iohn Collans 

Zacheus Spaulding 

and ten others 

[Massachusetts Archives, cxv, 515.] 

A manuscript plan of Dunstable, 
made by Joseph Blanchard, in the 
autumn of 1748, and accompanying 
these papers among the Archives (cxv, 
519), has considerable interest for the 
local antiquary. 

In the course of a few years some of 
these Groton signers reconsidered the 
matter, and changed their minds. It 
appears from the following communica- 
tion that the question of the site of the 
meeting-house had some influence in 
the matter : — 


TJie Boundary Lines of Old Grot on. — ///. 

Groton, May lo, 1753. We have con- 
cluded to Joine with Dunstable in settling 
the gospell and all other affairs hart & 
hand in case Dunstable woud meet us in 
erecting a meting house in center of 
Lands or center of Travel. 

Joseph Spaulding jr. 

John Swallow. 

Timothy Read. 

Samuel Cumings. 

Joseph Parkhurst. 

[Nason's History of Dunstable, page 85.] 

The desired result of annexation was 
now brought about, and in this way 
Joint Grass became a part and portion 
of Dunstable. The following extracts 
give further particulars in regard to 
it: — 

A Petition of a Committee in Behalf of 
the Inhabitants of Dunstable, within this 
Province, shewing, that that Part of Dun- 
stable by the late running of the Line is 
small, and the Land much broken, unable 
to support the Ministry, and other neces- 
sary Charges ; that there is a small Part 
of Groton contiguous, and well situated to 
be united to them in the same Incorpora- 
tion, lying to the West and Northwest of 
them; that in the Year 1744, the Inhab- 
itants there requested them that they might 
be incorporated with them, which was con- 
ceeded to by the Town of Groto?t ; that in 
Consequence of this, upon Application to 
this Court they were annexed to the Town 
of Dunstable with the following Proviso, 
viz. " That within one Year from that 
Time a House for the publick Worship of 
GOD should be erected at a certain Place 
therein mentioned'* : Which Place was 
esteemed by all Parties both in Groton 
and Nottinghajn, so incommodious, that it 
was not complied withal ; that on a further 
Application to this Court to alter the Place, 
Liberty was given to the Inhabitants of 
Groton and Nottingliani, to withdraw, 
whereby they are deprived of that con- 
tiguous and necessary Assistance which 
they expected : Now as the Reasons hold 
good in every Respect for their Incorpora- 
tion with them, they humbly pray that the 

said Inhabitants of Groton by the same 
Bounds as in the former Order stated, may 
be reannexed to them, for the Reasons 

Read and Ordered, That the Petitioners 
serve the Inhabitants of Groton therein 
refer'd to, as also the Clerk of the Town 
of Groton, with Copies of this Petition, 
that so the said Inhabitants, as also the 
Town of Grot 071, shew Cause, if any they 
have, on the first Tuesday of the next 
May Session, why the Prayer thereof 
should not be granted. 

Sent up for Concurrence. 

[Journal of the House of Representatives (pages 
138, 139), April 4, 1753.] 

JoJin Hill, Esq ; brought down the 
Petition of a Committee of the Town of 
Dunstable, as entred the 4th of April last, 
and refer'd. Pass'd in Council, vis. In 
Council Jutie 5th 1753. Read again, 
together with the Answer of the Inhabitants 
of that Part of Groton commonly called 
Joint-Grass, and likewise Williajn Law- 
rence, Esq; being heard in Behalf of the 
Town of Groton, and the Matter being 
fully considered. Ordered, That the Prayer 
of the Petition be so far granted, as that 
Joseph Fletcher, Joseph Spaulding, Samuel 
Comings, Benjamin Robbitis, Timothy 
Read, John Swallow, Joseph Parkhurst, 
and Ebenezer Parkhurst, Jun. with their 
Families and Estates, and other Lands 
petitioned for, be set off from the Town of 
Groton, and annexed to the town of Duti- 
stable, agreable to the Vote of the Town 
of Groton on the i8th of May 1747, to 
receive Priviledge and do Duty there, pro- 
vided that TimotJiy Read, Constable for 
the Town of Groton, and Collector of the 
said Parish in said Town tlie last Year, and 
Joseph Fletcher, Constable for the said 
Town this present Year, finish their Col- 
lection of the Taxes committed or to be 
committed to them respectively ; and also 
that the said Inhabitants pay their Propor- 
tion of the Taxes that are already due 
or shall be due to the said Town 
of Groton for the present Year, for 
which they may be taxed by the Assess- 
ors of Groton, as tho' this Order had not 

The Boundary Lines of Old Groton. — ///. 


past : provided also that the Meeting- 
House for the publick Worship of GOD 
in DiiJistable be erected agreable to the 
Vote of Dunstable relating thereto in May 
17 S3- Sent down for Concurrence. 
Read and concur'd. 

[Journal of the House of Representatives (page 21), 
June 7, 1753.] 

The part of Nottingham, mentioned 
in these petitions, was not joined to 
Dunstable until a later period. On 
June 14, 1754, an order passed the 
House of Representatives, annexing 
" a very small Part of Nottingham now 
lying in this Province, unable to be 
made into a District, but very commo- 
dious for Dunstable ; " but the matter 
was delayed in the Council, and it was 
a year or two before the end was 
brought about. 

The west parish of Groton was set off 
as a precinct on November 26, 1742. 
It comprised that part of the town 
lying on the west side of the Nashua 
River, north of the road from Groton 
to Townsend. Its incorporation as a 
parish or precinct allowed the inhabi- 
tants to manage their own ecclesiastical 
affairs, while in all other matters they 
continued to act with the parent town. 
Its partial separation gave them the 
benefit of a settled minister in their 
neighborhood, which, in those days, 
was considered of great importance. 

It is an interesting fact to note 
that, in early times, the main reason 
given in the petitions for dividing towns 
was the long distance to the meeting- 
house, by which the inliabitants were 
prevented from hearing the stated 
preaching of the gospel. 

The petitioners for the change first 
asked for a township, which was not 
granted ; but subsequently they changed 
their request to a precinct instead, 
which was duly allowed. The papers 
relating to the matter are as follows : — 

Vol. II. - No. I. — B. 

Province of The Massechuetts Bay in 

New England. 

To His Excellency W^ : Shirley Esqf : 
Goveinr in & over ye Same And To The 
Hon'e : his Majestis Council & House of 
Representetives in Gen" : Court Assembled 
June 1742 : 

The Petition of Sundry Inhabitants & 
Resendant in the Northerly Part of Groton 
Humbly Sheweth that the Town of Groton 
is at Least ten miles in Length North & 
South & seven miles in wedth East & West 
And that in Runing two miles Due North 
from the Present Meeting House & from 
thence to Run Due East to Dunstable Wes , 
Line. And from the Ende of the S^ : two 
miles to Run West till it Comes to the 
Cuntry Rode that is Laide out to Towns 
hend & soon S^ : Rode till it Comes tc 
Townshend East Line then tur[n]ing & 
Runing Northly to Nestiquaset Cornei 
which is for Groton & Townshend ther 
tur[n]ing & Runing Easterly on Dun 
stable South Line & So on Dunstable Line 
till it comes to the Line first mentioned, 
Which Land Lyeth about Seven miles ic 
Length & four miles & a Ouai'ter in Wedth. 

And Thare is Now Setled in those Lines 
here after mentioned is about the Number of 
Seventy families all Redy And may [many ?] 
more ready to Settle there and as soon as 
scet oiT to the Petitioners & those families 
Settled in ye Lines afore sd : Would make 
A Good township & the Remaining Part 
of Groton Left in a regular forme And by 
reason of the ofreat Distance vour Petition- 
ers are from the Present. Meeting House 
are put to very Great Disadvantages in 
Attending the Public Worship of God 
many of Whom are Oblidged to travel Seven 
or Eight miles & that the Remaining Part 
of Groton Consisting of such good land & 
ye Inhabitants so Numerous that thay Can 
by no means be Hurt Should your Peti- 
tioners & those families Settled in ye Lines 
afore s^ : Be Erected to a Seprate & Dis- 
tinct Township : That the in Contestable 
situation & accomodations on the sd : 
Lands was ye one great reason of your 
Petitioners Settling thare & Had Not those 
Prospects been so Clear to us We should 


The Boundary Lines of Old Groton. — ///. 

by no means have under taken The Hard- 
ship We have already & must go Throu. 
Wherefore Your Petitioners Would 
farther Shew that Part of ye Land here 
Prayed for all Redy Voted of by the S^ 
town to be a PresLnct & that the most of 
them that are in that Lines have Subscribed 
with us to be a Dest[i]ncte Township 
Wherefore Your Petitioners Humbly Pray 
your Honnors to Grante us our Desire 
according to This our Request as we in 
Duty Bound Shall Ever Pray &c 

Joseph Spaulding iur 
' Zachariah Lawrance 

William Allen 
Jeremiah Lawrance 
William Blood 
Nathaniel Parker 
Enoch Lawarnce 
Samuel Right 
James larwance 
Josiah Tucker 
Samil fisk 
Soloman blood 
John Woods 
Josiah Sartell 
benjn. Swallow 
Elies Ellat 
Richard Worner 
Ebenezer Gillson 
Ebenezer Parce 
James Blood iu 
Joseph Spaulding 
Phiniahas Parker iur 
Joseph Warner 
Phineahas Chambrlin 
Isacc laken 
Isacc Williams 
John Swallow 
Joseph Swallow 
Benj" : Robins 
Nathan Fisk 
John Chamberlin 
Jacob Lakin 
Seth Phillips 
John Cumings 
Benj" : Parker 
Gersham Hobart 
Joseph Lawrance 
John Spaulding 
Isaac Woods 

In the House of Repines June. 10. 1742. 
Read and Ordered that the Pet*^^ serve 
the Town of Groton with a Copy of this 
Pet" that they shew cause if any they 
have on the first fryday of the next session 
of this Court why the Prayer there» i should 
not be granted 

Sent up for concurrtcce 

T Cu: ling Spkr 
In Council June 15. 1742; 
Read & Non Concur'd 

J Willard Sec'ry 

fMassachusetts Archives, cxiv, 779, 780.] 

To his Excellency William Shirley Esqr. 
Captain General and Governour in Cheiff 
in and over his Majesties Province of ye. 
Massachusetts Bay in New England : To 
ye. Honourable his Majesties Council and 
House of Representatives in General Court 
Assembled on ye : Twenty sixth Day of 
May. A: D. 1742. 

The Petition of as the Subscribers to 
your Excellency and Honours Humbley 
Sheweth that we are Proprietors and In- 
habitants of ye. Land Lying on ye. West- 
erly Side Lancester River (so called) [now 
known as the Nashua River] in ye North 
west corner of ye. Township of Groton : 
& Such of us as are Inhabitants thereon 
Live very Remote from ye Publick worship 
of God in sd Town and at many Times 
and Season of ye. year are Put to Great 
Difficulty to attend ye. same : And the 
Lands Bounded as Followeth (viz) South- 
erly on Townshend Rode : Westerly on 
Townshend Line : Northerly on Dunstable 
West Precint, & old Town : and Easterly 
on said River as it now Runs to ye. First 
mentioned Bounds, being of ye. Contents 
of about Four Miles Square of Good Land, 
well Scituated for a Precint : And the 
Town of Groton hath been Petitioned to 
Set of ye. Lands bounded as aforesd. to be 
a Distinct and Seperate Precint and at a 
Town Meeting of ye. Inhabitants of s^. 
Town of Groton Assembled on ye Twenty 
Fifth Day of May Last Past The Town 
voted ye Prayer of ye. s^. Petition and that 
ye Lands before Described should be a 
Separate Precinct and that ye. Inhabitants 
thereon and Such others as hereafter Shal' 

Tlie Bowidary Lines of Old Groton. — ///. 


Settle on lA. Lands should have ye Powers 
and Priviledges that other Precincts in s<i. 
Province have or Do Enjoy : as p^. a Coppy 
from Groton Town Book herewith Ex- 
hibited may Appear: For the Reasons 
mentioned we the Subscribers as afores^. 
Humbley Prayes' }our Excellency and 
Honours to Set oflf y^ s^ Lands bounded 
as aforesd. to be a Distinct and Sepperate 
Precinct and Invest ye Inhabitants thereon 
(Containing about y^ No. of Forty Fam- 
elies) and Such others as Shall hereafter 
Settle on sd. Lands with Such Powers & 
Priviledges as other Precincts in s^. Prov- 
ince have &c or Grant to your Petitioners 
Such other Releaf in y^. Premises as your 
Excellency and Honours in your Great 
Wisdom Shall think Fit: and your Peti- 
tioners as in Duty bound Shall Ever pray 


Benj Swallow 
Wf" : Spalden 
Isaac Williams 
Ebenezer Gilson 
Elias Ellit 

Samuel Shattuck iu 
James Shattuck 
David Shattuck 
David Blood 
Jonathan Woods 
John Blood iuner 
Josiah Parker 
Jacob Ames 
Jonas Varnum 
Moses Woods 
Zachery Lawrence Junf^ 
Jeremiah Lawrence 
John Mozier 
Josiah Tucher 
Wm Allen 
John Shadd 
Jams. Green 
John Kemp 
Nehemiah Jewett 
Eleazar Green 
Jonathan Shattuck 
Jonathan Shattuck Jun^ 

In the House of Rep^ives Novr. 26. 1742 

In Answer to the within Petition ordered 

that that Part of the Town of Groton 

Lying on the Westerly Side of Lancaster 

River within the following bounds viz* 
bounding Easterly on said River Southerly 
on Townsend Road so called Wisterly on 
Townsend line aad Northerly on Dun- 
stable West Precinct with the Inhabitants 
thereon be and hereby are Set otf a dis- 
tinct and seperate precinct and Vested 
with the powers & priviledges which Other 
Precincts do or by Law ought to enjoy 
Always provided that the Inhabitants 
Dwelling on the Lands abovementioned 
be subject to pay their Just part and pro- 
portions of all ministeriall Rates and 
Taxes in the Town of Groton already 
Granted or Assessed. 
Sent up for Concurrence. 

T Gushing Spk-. 
In Council Novr. 26 1742 Read and 

J Willard Secry 
Consented to, W Shirley. 

[Massachusetts Archives, cxiv, 768, 769.] 

When the new Provincial line was 
run between Massachusetts and New 
Hampshire, in the spring of 1741, it 
left a gore of land, previously belonging 
to the west parish of Dunstable, lying 
north of the territory of Groton and 
contiguous to it. It formed a narrow 
strip, perhaps three hundred rods in 
width at the western end, running 
easterly for three miles and tapering 
off to a point at the Nashua River, by 
which stream it was entirely separated 
from Dunstable. Shaped like a thin 
wedge, it lay along the border of the 
province, and belonged geographically 
to the west precinct or parish of Gro- 
ton. Under these circumstances the 
second parish petitioned the General 
Court to have it annexed to their juris- 
diction, which request was granted. 
William Prescott, one of the committee 
appointed to take charge of the matter, 
nearly a quarter of a century later was 
the commander of the American forces 
at the battle of Bunker Hill. It has 


The Boundary Lines of Old Grot on. — ///. 

been incorrectly stated by writers that 
tliis triangular parcel of land was the 
gore ceded, in the summer of 1736, to 
the proprietors of Groton, on the peti- 
tion of Benjamin Prescott. The doc- 
uments relating to this matter are as 
follows : — 

To his Honnor Spencer Pliipes Esq"" 
CajDt Geniorl and Commander In Cheaf in 
and ouer his majists prouince of the Mas- 
sachusets Bay in New england and to The 
Honbie his majestys Counsel and House of 
Representatiues In Geniral Courte assam- 
bled at Boston The 26 of December 

The Petition of Peleg Lawrance Jarimah 
Lawrance and william Prescott a Cumttee. 
for the Second Parish In Groton in The 
County of Middle sikes. 

Humbly Shew That Theare is a strip of 
Land of about fiue or six hundred acors 
Lys ajoyning To The Town of Groton 
which be Longs To the town of Dun- 
stable the said strip of land Lys near 
fouer mill in Length and bounds on the 
North Line of the said second Parrish in 
Groton and on the South Side of New- 
hampsher Line which Peeace by Runing 
the sd Line of Newhampsher was Intierly 
Cut off" from the town of Dunstable from 
Receueing any Priuelidge their for it Lys 
not Less then aboute Eight mill from the 
Senter of the town of Dunstable and but 
about two mill and a half from the meeting 
house in the said second Parish in Groton 
so that they that settel on the sd Strip of 
Land may be much beter acommadated to 
be Joyned to ye town of Groton and to the 
sd second Parish than Euer thay Can any 
other way in this Prouince and the town of 
Dunstable being well sencable thare of 
haue at thare town meeting on the 19 Day 
of December Currant voted of the sd Strip 
of Land allso James Colburn who now 
Lines on sd Strip Land from the town of 
Dunstable to be annexed to the town of 
Groton and to the sd second Parish in sd 
town and the second Parish haue aCord- 
ingly voted to Recue the same all which 
may appear by the vote of sd Dunstable 

and said Parish which will be of Grate 
advantige to the owners of the sd. strip of 
Land and a benefit to the said second 
Parish in Groton so that your Petitioners 
Humbly Pray that the sd. strip of Land 
may be annexed to the said second Parish in 
Groton so far as Groton Nor west corner 
to do Duty and Recue Priulidge theare and 
your petionrs In Duty bound shall Euer 


Peleg Lawrence 
Willm Prescott 
Jeremiah Lawrence 

Dunstable December 24 1751 

this may Certifye the Grate and Genirol 

Courte that I Line on the slip of Land 

within mentioned and it tis my Desier that 

the prayer of this Petition be Granted 

James Colburn 
In the House of Reptives JanT 4. 1752 
Voted that the prayer of the Petition be 
so farr granted that the said strip of Land 
prayed for, that is the Jurisdiction of it be 
Annex'd to the Town of Groton & to y^ 
Second Precinct in said Town & to do 
dutys there & to recieve Priviledges from 

Sent up for Concurrence 

T. Hubbard Spkr. 

In Council Jany 6. 1752 Read & Con- 

J Willard Secry. 
Consented to 

S Phips 

[Massachusetts Archives, cxvi, 162, 163. 1 

The west parish of Groton was made 
a district on April 12, 1753, the day the 
Act was signed by the Governor, which 
was a second step toward its final and 
complete separation. It then took the 
name of Pepperell, and was vested with 
still broader political powers. It was so 
called after Sir William Pepperrell, who 
had successfully commanded the New 
England troops against Louisburg ; and 
the name was suggested, doubtless, by 
the Reverend Joseph Emerson, the first 
settled minister of the parish. He had 
accompanied that famous expedition in 

The Boundary Lines of Old Groion. — ///. 


the capacity of chaplain, only the year 
before he had received a call for his 
settlement, and his associations with the 
commander were fresh in his memory. 
It will be noticed that the Act for 
incorporating the district leaves the 
name blank, which was customary in 
this kind of legislation at that period ; 
and the governor, perhaps with the 
advice of his council, was in the habit 
subsequently of filling out the came. 

Pepperell, for one " r " is dropped from 
the name, had now all the privileges of 
a town, except the right to choose a 
representative to the General Court, and 
this political connection with Groton 
was kept up until the beginning of the 
Revolution. In the- session of the 
General Court which met at Watertown, 
on July 19, 1775, Pepperell was repre- 
sented by a member, and in this way 
acquired the privileges of a town with- 
out any special act of incorporation. 
Other similar districts were likewise 
represented, in accordance with the 
precept calling that body together, and 
they thus obtained municipal rights 
without the usual formality. The pre- 
cedent seems to have been set by the 
Provincial Congress of Massachusetts, 
which was made up of delegates from 
the districts as well as from the towns. 
It was a revolutionary step taken out- 
side of the law. On March 23, 1786, 
this anomalous condition of affairs was 
settled by an act of the Legislature, 
which declared all districts, incor- 
porated before January i, 1777, to be 
towns for all intents and purposes. 

The act for the incorporation of 
Pepperell is as follows : — 

Anno Regni Regis Georgij Secundi 
vlcesimo Sexto 

An Act for Erecting the second Precinct 
in the Town of Groton into a seperate 

Be it enacted by the Leiu'. Govf Joun- 
cil and House of Representatives 

That the second Precinct in Groton 
bounding Southerly on the old Country 
Road leading to Townshend, Westerly on 
Townshend Line Northerly on the Line 
last run by the Governm^ of New Hamp- 
shire as the Boundary betwixt that Prov- 
ince and this Easterly to the middle of the 
River, called Lancaster [Nashua] River, 
from where the said Boundary Line crosses 
said River, so up the middle of ye. said 
River to where the Bridge did stand, called 
Kemps Bridge, to the Road first men- 
tioned, be & hereby is erected into a sep- 
erate District by the Name of 

and that the said District be and hereby is 
invested with all the Priviledges Powers 
and Immunities that Towns in this Prov- 
ince by Law do or may enjoy, that of 
sending a Representative to the generall 
Assembly only excepted, and that the In- 
habitants of said District shall have full 
power & Right from Time to time to joyn 
with the sd : Town of Groton in the choice 
of Representative or Representatives, in 
which Choice they shall enjoy all the Priv- 
iledges which by Law they would have 
been entitled to, if this Act had not been 
made. And that the said District shall 
from Time to time pay their proportionable 
part of the Expence of such Representative 
or Representatives According to their 
respective proportions of y=. Province 

And that the s^. Town of Groton as 
often as they shall call a Meeting for the 
Choice of a Representative shall give sea- 
sonable Notice to the Clerk of said Dis- 
trict for the Time being, of the Time and 
place of holding such Meeting, to the End 
that said District may join them therein, 
and the Clerk of said District shall set up 
in some publick place in s^. District a 
Notification thereof accordingly or other- 
wise give Seasonable Notice, as the Dis- 
trict shall determine. 

Provided Nevertheless and be it further 
enacted That the said District shall pay 
their proportion : of all Town County and 
Province Taxes already set on or granted 


WacJmsett Mountain and Princeton. 

to be raised by s''. Town as if this act had 
not been made, and also be at one half the 
charge in building and repairing the Two 
Bridges on Lancaster River aforesaid in sd : 

Provided also and be it further Enacted 
That no poor Persons residing in said Dis- 
trict and Who have been Warn'd by the 
Selectmen of said Groton to depart sd : 
Town shall be understood as hereby ex- 
empted from any Process they would have 
been exposed to if this Act had not been 

And be it further enacted that W™ Law- 
rence * Esq"" Be and hereby is impowered 

• This name apparently inserted after the original 
draft was made. 

to issue his Warrant directed to some prin- 
cipal Inhabitant in s^. District requiring 
him to notify the Inhabitants of said Dis- 
trict to meet at such Time & place as he 
shall appoint to choose all such Officers as 
by Law they are Impowered to Choose for 
conducting the Affairs for sd. District. 

In the House of Reptives April 5, 1753 

Read three several times and pass'd to 
be Engross'd 

Sent up for Concurrence 

T. Hubbard Spk^. 

In Council April 5 1753 AM 

Read a first and Second Time and pass'd 
a Concurrence 

Thos. Clarke Dpty. Secry 

[Massachusetts Archives, cxvi, 360-362.] 


By Atherton P. Mason. 

Almost the first land seen by a 
person on board a vessel approaching 
the Massachusetts coast is the summit 
of Wachusett Mountain ; and any one 
standing upon its rocky top beholds 
more of Massachusetts than can be 
seen from any other mountain in the 
State. For these two reasons, if for no 
others, a short historical and sceno- 
graphical description of this lonely and 
majestic eminence, and of the beautiful 
township in which it lies, would seem 
to be interesting. 

Wachusett, or " Great Watchusett 
Hill," as it was originally called, lies in 
the northern part of the township of 
Princeton, and is about fifty miles due 
west from Boston. The Nashaways, or 
Nashuas, originally held this tract and 
all the land west of the river that still 

bears their name, and they gave to this 
mountain and the region around its 
base the name of " Watchusett." Ris- 
ing by a gradual ascent from its base, 
it has the appearance of a vast dome. 
The Reverend Peter Whitney,* speak- 
ing of its dimensions, says : ''The cir- 
cumference of this monstrous mass is 
about three miles, and its height is 
3,012 feet above the level of the sea, 
as was found by the Hon. John Win- 
throp, Esq., ll.d., in the year 1777: 
and this must be i,Soo or 1,900 feet 
above the level of the adjacent coun- 
try." More recent measurements have 
not materially changed these figures, so 
they may be regarded as substantially 

The first mention, and probably the 

* History of Worcester County. Worcester: 1793. 

WacJmsett Mountain and Princeton. 


first sight, of this mountain, or of any 
portion of the region now comprised 
in Worcester County, is recorded in 
Governor Winthrop's journal, in which, 
under the date of January 27, 1632, is 
written : " The Governour and some 
company with him, went up by Charles 
Ri\er about eight miles above Water- 
town." The party after climbing an 
eminence in the vicinity of their halt- 
ing-place saw " a very high hill, due 
west about forty miles off, and to the 
N. W. the high hills by Merrimack, 
above sixty miles off." The " very 
high hill " seen by them for the first 
time was unquestionably Wachusett. 

"On the 20th of October, 1759, 
the General Court of Massachusetts, 
passed an act for incorporating the east 
wing, so called, of Rutland, together 
with sundry farms and some publick 
lands contiguous thereto," as a district 
under the name of Prince Town, " to 
perpetuate the name and memory of 
the late Rev. Thomas Prince, colleague 
pastor of the Old South church in 
Boston, and a large proprietor of this 
tract of land." The district thus in- 
corporated contained about nineteen 
thousand acres ; but on April 24, 1771, 
its inhabitants petitioned the General 
Court, that it, " with all the lands ad- 
joining said District, not included in 
any other town or District," be incor- 
porated into a town by the name of 
Princeton ; and by the granting of 
this petition, the area of the town 
was increased to twenty-two thousand 

The principal citizen of Princeton at 
this period was the Honorable Moses 
Gill, who married the daughter of the 
Reverend Thomas Prince. He was a 
man of considerable note in the county 
also, holding office as one of the judges 
of the court of common pleas for the 

county of Worcester, and being " for 
several years Counsellor of this Com- 
monwealth." His country-seat, located 
at Princeton, was a very extensive es- 
tate, comprising nearly three thousand 
acres. Mr. Whitney appears to have 
been personally familiar with this place, 
and his description of it is so graphic 
and enthusiastic, that it may be inter- 
esting to quote a portion of it. 

" His noble and elegant seat is about 
one mile and a quarter from the meet- 
ing-house, to the south. The mansion- 
house is large, being fifty by fifty feet, 
with four stacks of chimneys. The 
farmhouse is forty feet by thirty-six. 
In a line with this stands the coach and 
chaise house, fifty feet by thirty-six. 
This is joined to the barn by a shed 
seventy feet in length — the bam is 
two hundred feet by thirty-two. Very 
elegant fences are erected around the 
mansion-house, the outhouses, and the 
garden. When we view this seat, these 
buildings, and this farm of so many 
hundred acres under a high degree of 
profitable cultivation, and are told that 
in the year 1776 it was a perfect 
wilderness, we are struck with wonder, 
admiration, and astonishment. Upon 
the whole, the seat of Judge Gill, all 
the agreeable circumstances respecting 
it being attentively considered, is not 
paralleled by any in the New England 
States : perhaps not by any this side 
the Delaware." 

Judge Gill was a very benevolent and 
enterprising man, and did much to 
advance the welfare of the town in its 
infancy. During the first thirty years 
of its existence, it increased rapidly in 
wealth and population, having in 1 790 
one thousand and sixteen inhabitants. 
For the next half-century it increased 
slowly, having in 1840 thirteen hun- 
dred and forty-seven inhabitants. Since 


Wachusett Mountain and Pi'inceton. 

then, like all our beautiful New-Eng- 
land farming- towns, it has fallen off in 
population, having at the present time 
but little over one thousand people 
dwelling within its limits. Yet neither 
the town nor the character of the peo- 
ple has degenerated in the last cen- 
tury. Persevering industry has brought 
into existence in this town some of 
the most beautiful farms in New 
England, and in 1875 the value of 
farm products was nearly a quarter 
of a million dollars. Manufacturing has 
never been carried on to any great 
extent in this town. " In Princeton 
there are four grist mills, five saw mills, 
and one fulling mill and clothiers' 
works," says Whitney in 1793. Now 
lumber and chair-stock are the prin- 
cipal manufactured products, and in 
1875 the value of these, together with 
the products of other smaller manufac- 
turing industries, was nearly seventy 
thousand dollars. 

Princeton is the birthplace of several 
men who have become well known, 
among whom may be mentioned Ed- 
ward Savage (1761-181 7), noted as a 
skilful portrait-painter ; David Everett 
(i 770-1813), the journahst, and author 
of those famihar schoolboy verses be- 
ginning : — 

"You'd scarce expect one of my age 
To speak in public on the stage"; 

and Leonard Woods, d.d., the eminent 

This locality derives additional in- 
terest from the fact that Mrs. Row- 
landson, in her book entitled Twenty 
Removes, designates it as the place 
where King Philip released her from 
captivity in the spring of 1676. Tra- 
dition still points out the spot where 
this release took place, in a meadow 
near a large bowlder at the eastern 
base of the mountain. The bowlder is 

known to this day as " Redemption 
Rock." It is quite near the margin 
of Wachusett Lake, a beautiful sheet of 
water covering over one hundred acres. 
This is a favorite place for picnic par- 
ties from neighboring towns, and the 
several excellent hotels and boarding- 
houses in the immediate vicinity afford 
accommodations for summer visitors, 
who frequent this locality in large 

The Indian history of this region is 
brief, but what there is of it is interest- 
ing to us on account of King Philip's 
connection with it. At the outbreak 
of the Narragansett War, in 1675, ^^^ 
Wachusetts, in spite of their solemn 
compact with the colonists, joined King 
Philip, and, after his defeat, " the lands 
about the Wachusetts" became one of 
his headquarters, and he was frequently 
in that region. For many years their 
wigwams were scattered about the base 
of the mountain and along the border 
of the lake, and tradition informs us 
that on a large fiat rock near the lake 
their council-fires were often hghted. 

Until 1 75 1, but three families had 
settled in the Wachusett tract. In May 
of that year Robert Keyes, a noted 
hunter, settled there with his family, 
upon the eastern slope of the mountain, 
near where the present carriage-road to 
the summit begins. On April 14, 1755, 
a child of his named Lucy, about five 
years old, strayed away, presumably to 
follow her sisters wh -) had gone to the 
lake, about a mile distant. She was 
never heard of again, though the woods 
were diligently searched for weeks. 
Whitney speaks of this incident, and 
concludes that " she was taken by the 
Indians and carried into their countrv, 
and soon forgot her relations, lost her 
native language, and became as one of 
the aborigines." In 1765 Keyes peti- 

Waclnisett Mountain and Princeton. 


tioned the General Court to grant him 
" ye easterly half of said Wachusett 
hill " in consideration of the loss of 
" lOo pounds lawful money" incurred 
by him in seeking for his lost child. 
This petition was endorsed " nega- 
tived " in the handwriting of the sec- 
retary. With this one exception the 
early settlers of Princeton seem to have 
suffered very little at the hands of the 

Princeton, in common with its neigh- 
bors, underwent much religious contro- 
versy during the first half-century of its 
existence. The first meeting-house, 
" 50 foots long and 40 foots wide," 
was erected in 1762 "on the highest 
part of the land, near three pine trees, 
being near a large flat rock." This 
edifice was taken down in 1 796, and 
replaced by a more "elegant" building, 
which in turn was removed in 1S3S. 
The three pine trees are now no more, 
but the flat rock remains, and on ac- 
count of the fine sunset view obtained 
from it has been named " Sunset 

The first minister in Princeton was 
the Reverend Timothy Fuller, settled 
in 1767. In 1768 the General Court 
granted him Wachusett Mountain to 
compensate him for his settlement over 
" a heavily burdened people in a wilder- 
ness country." It was certainly at that 
time neither a profitable nor useful 
gift, and it was a pity to have this 
grand old pile pass into private hands. 
Mr. Fuller continued as pastor until 
1776. His successors were the Rev- 
erend Thomas Crafts, the Reverend 
Joseph Russell, and the Reverend James 
Murdock, d.d. At the time when Dr. 
Murdock left, in 18 15, Unitarian senti- 
ments had developed extensively, and 
" the town and a minority of the 
church " called the Reverend Samuel 

Clarke, who had been a pupil of Dr. 
Channing. The call was accepted and, 
as a result, a portion of the church 
seceded and built a small house of wor- 
ship ; but in 1836 the church and 
society reunited and have remained so 
ever since. 

In 1 81 7 a Baptist society was organ- 
ized, and had several pastors ; but in 
1844 the society began to diminish, 
and not long after ceased to exist. The 
meeting-house was sold and is now an 
hotel — the Prospect House. In 1839 
a Methodist Episcopal Church was 
organized which still flourishes. 

Besides Wachusett Mountain there 
are two other hills in Princeton that are 
deserving of mention — Pine HiU and 
Little Wachusett. The former is about 
two miles from the centre of the town 
and not far from Wachusett, and the 
latter is about half a mile to the north 
of the centre. Neither of these hills 
is large or high, their elevation being 
about one thousand feet less than that 
of Wachusett, but they appear like two 
beautiful children of the majestic father 
that looms above them. All these hills 
were once heavily wooded, but much 
timber has been cut off during the last 
century, and forest-fires have devastated 
portions at different times ; yet there is 
still an abundance left. Whitney speaks 
of the region as abounding in oak of 
various kinds, chestnut, white ash, 
beech, birch, and maple, with some 
butternut and walnut trees. The vigor- 
ous grow;h of the primeval forest indi- 
cated the strength and richness of the 
soil which has since been turned to such 
profitable use by the farmers. The 
houses in which the people live are all 
substantial, convenient, ctnd. in many 
cases, beautiful, being surrounded by 
neatly kept grounds and well - tilled 


IVac/msett Mojmtain and Princeton. 

In a hilly country such as this is, 
springs and brooks of course abound. 
The height of land upon which Prince- 
ton is situated is a watershed between 
the Connecticut and Merrimack Rivers, 
and of the three beautiful brooks hav- 
ing their source in the township, one, 
Wachusett Brook, runs into Ware 
River, and thence to the Connecticut, 
while the other two, East Wachusett 
and Keyes Brooks, get to the Merri- 
mack by Still River and the Nashua. 

Mention has been made of AVachu- 
sett Lake. Properly speaking, this 
cannot perhaps be considered as being 
in Princeton, inasmuch as about four 
fifths of its surface lie in the adjoining 
township of Westminster. Besides 
Wachusett Lake there is another called 
Quinnepoxet, which lies in the south- 
western part of the township, a small 
portion of it being in Holden. It is 
smaller than its northern neighbor, 
covering only about seventy acres, but 
it is a very charming sheet of water. 

A brief account of the geology of 
this region may perhaps prove interest- 
ing. In the eastern portion of Prince- 
ton the underlying rock is a kind of 
micaceous schist, and in the western is 
granitic gneiss. The gneiss abounds in 
sulphuret of iron, and for this reason is 
peculiarly liable to undergo disintegra- 
tion ; hence the excellent character of 
the soil in this portion of Worcester 
County where naked rock is seldom 
seen in place, except in case of the 
summits of the hills scattered here and 
there ; and these summits are rounded, 
and show the effects of weathering. 
As we go westerly upon this gneiss 
range, and get into the hmits of Frank- 
lin and Hampshire Counties, a larger 
amount of naked rock appears, the hills 
are more craggy and precipitous, and 

in general the soil is poorer. The three 
principal elevations in Princeton are 
mainly composed of gneiss. This 
variety of rock is identical with granite 
in its composition, the distinctive point 
between the two being that gneiss has 
lines of stratification while granite has 
none. The rock of which Wachusett 
is mainly composed has rather obscure 
stratification, and hence may be called 
granitic gneiss. What stratification 
there is does not show the irregularity 
that one would suppose would result 
from the elevation of the mountain to 
so great a height above the surrounding 
country ; on the other hand the rock 
does not differ essentially in hardness 
from that in the regions below, and 
hence the theory that all the adjacent 
land was once as high as the summit 
of the mountain, and was subsequently 
worn away by the action of water and 
weather, is hardly tenable. The gneiss 
of this region is not especially rich in 
other mineral contents. Some fine 
specimens of mica have however been 
obtained from the summit of Wachu- 
sett. The only other extraneous min- 
eral found there to any great extent is 
the sulphuret of iron before mentioned. 
The common name of this mineral is 
iron pyrites, and being of a yellow 
color has in many localities in New 
England, in times past, caused a vast 
waste of time and money in a vain 
search for gold. It does not appear 
that the inhabitants of Princeton were 
ever thus deceived, though Whitney 
wrote in 1 793 : " Perhaps its bowels 
may contain very valuable hid treasure, 
which in some future period may be 
descried." In describing the summit of 
the mountain he speaks of it as " a flat 
rock, or ledge of rocks for some rods 
round ; and there is a small pond of 

Wachusett Mountain and Princeton. 


A'ater generally upon the top of it, of 
^vo or three rods square ; and where 
there is any earth it is covered with 
olueberry bushes for acres round." 
The small pond and blueberry bushes 
are visible at present, or were a year or 
two ago at any rate, but the area of 
bare rock has increased somewhat as 
time went on, though the top is not as 
bare as is that of its New Hampshire 
brother, Monadnock, nor are its sides 
so craggy and precipitous. 

The people of Princeton have always 
kept abreast of the times. From the 
first they were ardent supporters of 
the measures of the Revolution, and 
foremost among them in patriotic spirit 
was the Honorable Moses Gill, pre- 
viously mentioned in this paper, who, 
on account of his devotion to the 
good cause, was called by Samuel 
Adams "The Duke of Princeton." 
Their strong adherence to the " state 
rights" principle led the people of the 
town to vote against the adoption of 
the Constitution of the United States ; 
but when it was adopted they abided 
by it, and when the Union was men- 
aced in the recent RebeUion they 
nobly responded to the call of the 
nation with one hundred and twenty- 
seven men and nearly twenty thousand 
dollars in money — exceeding in both 
items the demand made upon them. 
Nor is their record in the pursuits 
of peace less honorable, for in dairy 
products and in the rearing of fine 
cattle they have earned an enviable 
and well-deserved reputation. As a 
community it is cultured and industrious, 
and has ever been in full syronathy with 

progress in education, religion, and 
social relations. 

But few towns in Massachusetts offer 
to summer visitors as many attractions 
as does Princeton. The air is clear 
and bracing, the landscape charming, 
and the pleasant, shady woodroads 
afford opportunities for drives through 
most picturesque scenery. Near at 
hand is the lake, and above it towers 
Wachusett. It has been proposed to 
run a railroad up to and around the 
mountain, but thus far, fortunately, 
nothing has come of it. A fine road 
of easy ascent winds up the mountain, 
and on the summit is a good hotel 
which is annually patronized by thou- 
sands of transient visitors. 

The view from here is magnificent 
on a clear day. The misty blue of the 
Atlantic, the silver thread of the Con- 
necticut, Mounts Tom and Holyoke, 
and cloud - clapped Monadnock, the 
cities of Worcester and Fitchburg — all 
these and many other beautiful objects 
are spread out before the spectator. 
But it cannot be described — it must 
be seen to be appreciated ; and the 
throngs of visitors that flit through the 
town every summer afford abundant 
evidence that the love of the beautiful 
and grand in nature still lives in the 
hearts of the people. 

Brief is the sketch of this beautiful 
mountain town, which is neither large 
nor possessed of very eventful history : 
but in its quiet seclusion dwell peace 
and prosperity, and its worthy inhabi- 
tants are most deeply attached to the 
beautiful heritage handed down to 
them by their ancestors. 

I 58 Washington and the Flag. 


By Henry B. Carrington. 

"Strike, strike! O Liberty, thy silver strings! " 

Note. — On a pavement slab in Brighton Chapel, Northamptonshire, England, the Washington coat-of-arms 
appears: a bird rising from nest (coronet), upon azure field with three five-pointed stars, and parallel red-and-white 
bands on field below ; suggesting origin of the national escutcheon. 


Strike, strike ! O Liberty, thy silver strings ; 
And fill with melody the clear blue sky ! 
Give swell to chorus full, — to gladness wings, 
And let swift heralds with the tidings fly ! 
Faint not, nor tire, but glorify the record 
Which honors him who gave the nation life ; 
Fill up the story, and with one accord 
Our people hush their conflicts — end their strife ! 


Tell me, ye people, why doth this appeal 
Go forth in measure swift as it has force, 
To quicken souls, and make the nation's weal 
Advance, unfettered, in its onward course, 
Unless that they who live in these our times 
May grasp the grand, o'erwhelming thought, 
That he who led our troops in battle-lines, 
But our best interests ever sought ! 


What is this story, thus redolent of praise? 
Why challenge Liberty herself to lend her voice? 
Why must ye hallelujah anthems raise, 
And bid the world in plaudits loud rejoice? 
Why hft the banner with its star-lit folds. 
And give it honors, grandest and the best. 
Unless its blood-stripes and its stars of gold 
Bring ransom to the toilers — to the weary rest ? 



O yes, there 's a secret in the stars and stripes : 
It was the emblem of our nation's sire ; 
And from the record of his father's stripes, 
He gathered zeal which did his youth inspire. 
Fearless and keen in the border batde. 

A Summer 07i the Great Lakes. \ eg 

Careless of risk while dealing blow for blow, 
What did he care for yell or rifle-rattle 
If he in peril only duty e'er could know ! 


As thus in youth he measured well his work. 
And filled that measure ever full and true, 
So then to him to lead the nation looked, 
When all to arms in holy frenzy flew. 
Great faith was that, to inspire our sires, 
And honor him, so true, with chief command, 
And fervid be our joy, while beacon-fires 
Do honor to this hero through the land. 


Strike, strike ! O Liberty, thy silver strings ! 

Bid nations many in the contest try ! 

Tell them, O, tell, of all thy mercy brings 

For all that languish, be it far or nigh ! 

For all oppressed the time shall surely come, 

When, stripped of fear, and hushed each plaintive cry, 

All, all, will find in Washington 

The model guide, for now — for aye, for aye. 


By Fred. Myron Colby. 

Where shall we go this year ? is rondacks in years gone by. Saratoga ? 

he annual recurring question as the We have never been there, but we have 

ummer heats draw near. We must an abhorrence for a great fashionable 

go somewhere, for it will be no less crowd. To say the truth, we are heart- 

mwholesome than unfashionable to ily sick of "summer resorts," with their 

emain in town. The body needs rest ; gambling, smoking, and drinking. The 

the brain, no less wearied, unites in great watering-places hold no charms 

the demand for change, for recreation, for us. " The world, the flesh, and 

A relief from the wear and tear of pro- the devil" there hold undisputed sway : 

fessional life is a necessity. The sea- we desire a gentler rule. 

side? Cape May and York Beach are "What do you say to a trip on the 

among our first remembrances. We Great Lakes?" suggests my friend, 

believe in change. The mountains? Ralph Vincent, with indefatigable 

Their inexhaustible variety will never patience. 

pall, but then we have "done" the "I— I don't know," I answered, 

White Mountains, explored the Cats- thoughtfully. 
kills, and encamped among the Adi- "Don't know!" cried "the Histo- 

i6o A Siiuinier on the Great Lakes. 

rian " — (we called Hugh Warren by iiig Duluth the terminus of our journey, 
that title from his abiUty to always Our return would be leisurely, stopping 
give information on any mooted here and there, at out-of-the-way places, 
point) . He was a walking encyclopse- camping-out whenever the fancy seized 
dia of historical lore. " Don't know ! us and the opportunity offered, to hunt, 
Yes, you do. It is just what we want, to fish, to rest, being for the time knight- 
It will be a delightful voyage, with errants of pleasure, or, as the Historian 
scenes of beauty at every sunset and dubbed us, peripatetic philosophers, in 
every sunrise. The Sault de Ste. Marie search, not of the touchstone to make 
with its fairy isles, the waters of Lake gold, but the touchstone to make 
Huron so darkly, deeply, beautifully health. Our trip was to occupy two 
green, and the storied waves of Superior months. 

with their memories of the martyr It was well toward the latter part of 

missionaries, of old French broils and June in i88i^ on one of the brightest 

the musical flow of Hiawatha. The of summer mornings, that our steamer, 

very thought is enough to make one belonging to the regular daily line to 

enthusiastic. How came you to think Toronto, steamed slowly out from the 

of it, Vincent?" harbor of Oswego. So we were at last 

" I never think : I scorn the imputa- on the "beautiful water," for that is* 

tion," repled Vincent, with a look of as- the meaning of Ontario in the Indian 

sumed disdain. " It was a inspiration." tongue. Here, two hundred years 

" And you have inspired us to a before us, the war-canoes of De Cham- 
glorious undertaking. The Crusades plain and his Huron allies had spurned 
were nothing to it. Say, Montague," the foaming tide. Here, a hundred 
to me, "you are agreed.?" years later the batteaux of that great 

"Yes, I am agreed," I assented, soldier, Montcalm, had swept round 
"We will spend our summer on the the bluff to win the fortress on its height, 
Great Lakes. It will be novel, it will then in English hands. Historic mem- 
be refreshing, it will be classical." ories haunted it. The very waves 

So it was concluded. A week from sparkling in the morning sunshine 

that time found us at Oswego. Our whispered of romantic tales, 

proposed route was an elaborate one. Seated at the stern of the boat we 

It was to start at Oswego, take a bee- looked back upon the fading city, 

line across Lake Ontario to Toronto, Hugh Warren was smoking, and his 

hence up the lake and through the slow-moving blue eyes were fixed 

Welland Canal into Lake Erie, along dreamily upon the shore. He did not 

the shores of that historical inland seem to be gazing at anything, and yet 

sea, touching at Erie, Cleveland, San- we knew he saw more than any of us. 

dusky, and Toledo, up Detroit River, "A centime for your thoughts, 

through the Lake and River of St. Hugh ! " cried Vincent, rising and 

Clair, then gliding over the waters of stretching his limbs. 

Lake Huron, dash down along the " I was thinking," said the Historian, 

shores of Lake Michigan to Chicago, " of that Frenchman, Montcalm, who 

and back past Milwaukee, through the one summer day came down on the 

Straits of Mackinaw and the ship-canal English at Oswego unawares with his 

into the placid waves of Superior, mak- gunboats and Indians and gendarmes. 

A Summer on the Great Lakes. 


Of the twenty-five thousand people in 
yonder city I don't suppose there are 
a dozen who know what his plans were. 
They were grand ones. In no country 
on the face of the globe has nature 
traced outlines of internal navigation 
on so grand a scale as upon our Amer- 
ican continent. Entering the mouth 
of the St. Lawrence we are carried by 
that river through the Great Lakes to 
the head of Lake Superior, a distance 
of more than two thousand miles. On 
the south we find the Mississippi pour- 
ing its waters into the Gulf of Mexico, 
within a few degrees of the tropics after 
a course of three thousand miles. 
' The Great Water,' as its name signi- 
fies, and its numerous branches drain 
the surface of about one million one 
hundred thousand square miles, or an 
area twenty times greater than England 
and Wales. The tributaries of the 
Mississippi equal the largest rivers of 
Europe. The course of the Missouri 
is probably not less than twenty-five 
hundred miles. The Ohio winds above 
a thousand miles through fertile coun- 
tries. The tributaries of these tributa- 
ries are great rivers. The Wabash, a 
feeder of the Ohio, has a course of 
above five hundred miles, four hundred 
of which are navigable. If the contem- 
plated canal is ever completed which 
will unite Lake Michigan with the head 
of navigation on the Illinois River, it 
will be possible to proceed by hues of 
inland navigation from Quebec to New 
Orleans. There is space within the 
regions enjoying these advantages of 
water communication, and already 
peopled by the x^nglo-Saxon race, for 
four hundred millions of the human 
race, or more than double the popula- 
tion of Europe at the present time. 
Imagination cannot conceive the new 
influences which will be exercised 

on the affairs of the world when the 
great valley of the Mississippi, and the 
continent from Lake Superior to New 
Orleans, is thronged with population. 
In the valley of the Mississippi alone 
there is abundant room for a popula- 
tion of a hundred million. 

" In Montcalm's day all this territory 
belonged to France. It was that sol- 
dier's dream, and he was no less a 
statesman. than a soldier, to make here 
a great nation. Toward that end a 
great chain of forts was to be built 
along the line from Ontario to New 
Orleans. Sandusky, Mackinaw, Detroit, 
Oswego, Du Quesne, were but a few 
links in the contemplated chain that 
was to bind the continent forever to 
French interests. It was for this he 
battled through all those bloody, brilliant 
campaigns of the old French war. But 
the English were too strong for him. 
Montcalm perished, and the power of 
F^rance was at an end in the New 
World. But it almost overwhelms me 
at the thought of what a mighty empire 
was lost when the English huzza rose 
above the French clarion on the Plains 
of Abraham." 

"Better for the continent and the 
world that England won," said Vincent. 

" Perhaps so," allowed Hugh. 
" Though we cannot tell what might 
have been. But that does not concern 
this Ulysses and his crew. Onward, 
voyagers and voyageresses." 

"Your simile is an unfortunate one. 
Ulysses was wrecked off Circe's island 
and at other places. Rather let us be 
the Argonauts in search of the Golden 

" Mercenary wretch ! " exclaimed 
Hugh. " My taste is different. I am 
going in search of a dinner." 

Hugh Warren's ability for discovering 
anything of that oort was proverbially 

1 62 

A Summer on the Great Lakes. 

good, so we, having the same disposition, 
followed him below to the dining- 

We arrived at Toronto, one hundred 
and sixty miles from Oswego, a little 
before dusk. This city, the capital of 
the province of Ontario, is situated on 
an arm of the lake. Its bay is a beauti- 
ful inlet about four miles long and two 
miles wide, forming a capacious and 
well-protected harbor. The site of the 
town is low, but rises gently from the 
water's edge. The streets are regular 
and wide, crossing each other generally 
at right angles. There is an esplanade 
fronting the bay which extends for a 
distance of two miles. The population 
of the city has increased from twelve 
hundred in 1817 to nearly sixty thou- 
sand at present. In the morning we 
took a hurried survey of its chief build- 
ings, visited Queen's Park in the centre 
of the city, and got round in season to 
take the afternoon steamer for Buffalo. 

The district situated between Lake 
Ontario and Lake Erie, as it has been 
longest settled, so also is it the best- 
cultivated part of Western Canada. 
The vicinity to the two Great Lakes 
renders the climate more agreeable, by 
diminishing the severity of the winters 
and tempering the summers' heats. 
Fruits of various kind arrive at great 
perfection, cargoes of which are ex- 
ported to Montreal, Quebec, and other 
places situated in the less genial parts 
of the eastern province. Mrs. Jameson 
speaks of this district as " superlatively 
beautiful." The only place approach- 
ing a town in size and the number of 
inhabitants, from the Falls along the 
shores of Lake Erie for a great distance, 
beyond even Grand River, is Chippewa, 
situated on the river Welland, or Chip- 
pewa, which empties itself into Niagara 
Strait, just where the rapids commence 

and navigation terminates. One or 
more steamers run between Chippewa 
and Buffalo. Chippewa is still but a 
small village, but, as it lies directly on 
the great route from the Western States 
of the Union to the Falls of Niagara 
and the Eastern States, it will probably 
rise into importance. Its greatest cele- 
brity at present arises from the fact of 
there having been a great battle foughit 
near by between the British and Ameri- 
cans in the war of 181 2. 

The line of navigation by the St. 
Lawrence did not extend beyond Lake 
Ontario until the Welland Canal was 
constructed. This important work is 
thirty-two miles long, and admits ships 
of one hundred and twenty-five guns, 
which is about the average tonnage of 
the trading-vessels on the lakes. The 
Niagara Strait is nearly parallel to the 
Welland Canal, and more than one 
third of it is not navigable. The canal, 
by opening this communication between 
Lake Ontario and Lake Erie, has con- 
ferred an immense benefit on all the 
districts west of Ontario. The great 
Erie Canal has been still more beneficial, 
by connecting the lakes with New York 
and the Atlantic by the Hudson River, 
which the canal joins after a course of 
three hundred and sixty miles. The 
effect of these two canals was quickly 
perceptible in the increased activity of 
commerce on Lake Erie, and the Erie 
Canal has rendered this lake the great 
line of transit from New York to the 
Western States. 

Lake Erie is the most shallow of all 
the lakes, its average depth being only 
sixty or seventy feet. Owing to this 
shallowness the lake is readily dis- 
turbed by the wind ; and for this reason, 
and for its paucity of good harbors, it 
has the reputation of being the most 
dangerous to navigate of any cf the 

A Sunimei on the Great Lakes. 


Great Lakes. Neither are its shores 
as picturesquely beautiful as those of 
Ontario, Huron, and Superior. Still it 
is a lovely and romantic body of water, 
and its historic memories are interesting 
and important. In this last respect all 
the Great Lakes are remarkable. Some 
of the most picturesque and interesting 
chapters of our colonial and military 
history have for their scenes the shores 
and the waters of these vast inland seas. 
A host of great names — Champlain, 
Frontenac, La Salle, Marquette, Perry, 
Tecumseh, and Harrison — has wreathed 
the lakes with glory. The scene of the 
stirrins: events in which Pontiac was the 
conspicuous figure is now marked on 
the map by such names as Detroit, 
Sandusky, Green Bay, and Mackinaw. 
The thunder of the battles of Lundy's 
Lane and the Thames was heard not 
far off, and the very waters of Lake 
Erie were once canopied with the sul- 
phur smoke from the cannon of Perry's 
conquering fleet. 

We spent two days in Buffalo, and 
they were days well spent. This city is 
the second in size of the five Great Lake 
ports, being outranked only by Chicago. 
Founded in 1 801, it now boasts of a 
population of one hundred and sixty 
thousand souls. The site is a plain, 
which, from a point about two miles 
distant from the lake, slopes gently to 
the water's edge. The city has a water 
front of two and a half miles on the 
lake and of about the same extent on 
Niagara River. It has one of the finest 
harbors on the lake. The public build- 
ings are costly and imposing edifices, 
and many of the private residences are 
elegant. The pride of the city is its 
pubUc park of five hundred and thirty 
acres, laid out by Frederick Law 01m- 
stead in 1870. It has the reputation of 

being the healthiest city of the United 

Buffalo was the home of Millard 
Fillmore, the thirteenth President of 
the United States. Here the great man 
spent the larger part of his life. He 
went there a poor youth of twenty, with 
four dollars in his pocket. He died 
there more than fifty years aftenvard 
worth one hundred and fifty thousand 
dollars, and after having filled the 
highest offices his country could bestow 
upon him. He owned a beautiful and 
elegant residence in the city, situated 
on one of the avenues, with a frontage 
toward the lake, of which a fine view is 
obtained. It is a modern mansion, 
three stories in height, with large stately 
rooms. It looks very little different 
externally from some of its neighbors, 
but the fact that it was for thirty years 
the home of one of our Presidents 
gives it importance and invests it with 
historic charm. 

On board a steamer bound for 
Detroit we again plowed the waves. 
The day was a delightful one ; the 
morning had been cloudy and some 
rain had fallen, but by ten o'clock the 
sky was clear, and the sunbeams went 
dancing over the laughing waters. 
Hugh was on his high- horse, and full 
of historic reminiscences. 

" Do you know that this year is the 
two hundredth anniversary of a remark- 
able event for this lake?" he began. 
"Well, it is. It was in 1681, in the 
summer of the year, that the keel of 
the first vessel launched in Western 
waters was laid at a point six miles this 
side of the Niagara Falls. She was 
built by Count Frontenac who named 
her the Griffen. I should like to have 
sailed in it." 

" Its speed could hardly equal that 


A Summer on the Great Lakes. 

of the Detroit," obsen/ed Vincent, 

" You hard, cold utilitarian ! " ex- 
claimed the Historian ; " who cares any- 
thing about that? It is the romance of 
the thing that would charm me." 

" And the romance consists in its 
being distant. We always talk of the 
good old times as though they were 
really any better than our own age ! It 
is a beautiful delusion. Don't you 

the lakes communicating with the St. 
Lawrence, but no others. As the Falls 
of Niagara must always have existed, it 
would puzzle the naturalists to say how 
those fish got into the upper lakes 
unless there is a subterranean river ; 
moreover, any periodical obstruction 
of the river would furnish a not im- 
probable solution of the mysterious 
flux and influx of the lakes. 

Some after noon we steamed past a 

know how in walking the shady places small city on the southern coast which 

are always behind us?" 

The Historian's only answer to this 
banter was to shrug his shoulders scorn- 
fully and to liglit a fresh cigar. 

Lake Erie is about two hundred and 

had a large natural harbor. 

" Erie and Presque Isle Bay," an- 
nounced the Historian. "A famous 
place. From it sailed Oliver Hazard 
Perry with his fleet of nine sail to most 

forty miles in length and has a mean unmercifully drub the British lion on 

breadth of forty miles. Its surface is 
three hundred and thirty feet above 
Lake Ontario, and five hundred and 
sixty-five above the level of the sea. It 
receives the waters of the upper lakes 
by means of the Detroit River, and 
discharges them again by the Niagara 
into Lake Ontario. Lake Erie has a 
shallow depth, but Ontario, which is 
five hundred and two feet deep, is two 
hxmdred and thirty feet below the tide 
level of the ocean, or as low as most 
parts of .the Gulf of St. Lawrence, and 
the bottoms of Lakes Huron, Michigan, 
and Superior, although their surface is 
much higher, are all, from their vast 

that tenth day of September, 181 3. 
The battle took place some distance 
from here over against Sandusky. J 
will tell you all about it when we get 
there. My grandfather was one of the 

He said no more, and for a long 
time the conversation was sustained by 
Vincent and myself. The steamer put 
in at Cleveland just at dusk. The stop 
was brief, however, and we left the 
beautiful and thriving city looking like 
a queen on the Ohio shore under the 
bridal veil of night. The evening was 
brilliant with moonlight. The lake was 
like a mirror or an enchanted sea. 

depths, on a level with the bottom of Hour after hour passed, and we still sat 
Ontario. Now, as the discharge through on deck gazing on the scene. Far to 

Detroit River, after allowing all the 
probable portion carried off by evapo- 
ration, does not appear by any means 
equal to the quantity of water which 
the other three lakes receive, it has 
been conjectured that a subterranean 
river may run from Lake Ontario. 
This conjecture is not improbable, and 
accounts for the singular fact that 
salmon and herring are caught in all 

the south we saw the many lights of a 
city shining. It was Sandusky. 

" How delightful it is ! " murmured 

"Beautiful," I replied. " If it were 
only the Ionian Sea, now, or the cleat 
yEgean" — 

"Those classic waters cannot match 
this lake," interrupted Hugh. "The 
battle of Erie will outlive Salamis or 

A Summer on the Great Lakes. 


Actium. The laurels of Themistokles 
and Augustus fade even now before 
those of Perry. He was a hero worth 
talking about, something more human 
altogether than any of Plutarch's men. 
I feel it to be so now at least. It 
>^ais right here somewhere that the 
battle raged." 

" He was quite a young man, I be- 
lieve," said I, glad to show that I knew 
something of the hero. I had seen his 
house at Newport many times, one of 
the old colonial kind, and his picture, 
that of a tall, sHm man, with dash and 
bravery in his face, w^as not unfamiliar 
to me. 

" Yes ; only twenty-seven, and just 
ioaarried," continued the Historian, set- 
tling down to work. " Before the 
battle he read over his wife's letters for 
the last time, and then tore them up, 
so that the enemy should not see those 
records of the heart, if victorious. 
' This is the most important day of my 
life,' he said to his officers, as the first 
shot from the British came crashing 
among the sails of the Lawrence ; ' but 
we know how to beat those fellows,' he 
added, with a laugh. He had nine 
vessels, with fifty-four guns and four 
hundred and ninety officers and men. 
The British had six ships mounting 
sixty-three guns, with five hundred and 
two officers and men. 

" In the beginning of the battle the 
British had the advantage. Their guns 
were of longer range, and Perry was 
exposed to their fire half an hour before 
he got in position where he could do 
execution. When he had succeeded 
in this the British concentrated their 
tire on his flag-ship. Enveloped in 
flame and smoke. Perry strove des- 
perately to maintain his ground till the 
*est of his ships could get into action. 
For more than two hours he sustained 

the unequal conflict without flinching. 
It was his first battle, and, moreover, 
he was enfeebled by a fever from which 
he had just risen ; but he never lost his 
ease and confidence. When most of 
his men had fallen, when his ship lay 
an unmanageable wreck on the water, 
' every brace and bowline shot away,' 
and all his guns were rendered inef- 
fective, he still remained calm and 

" Eighteen men out of one hundred 
stood alive on his deck ; many of those 
were wounded. Lieutenant Varnell, 
with a red handkerchief tied round his 
head and another round his neck to 
stanch the blood flowing from two 
wounds, stood bravely by his com- 
mander. But all seemed lost when, 
through the smoke. Perry saw the 
Niagara approaching uncrippled. 

" ' If a victory is to be won I will win 
it,' he said to the lieutenant. He tore 
down his flag with ita glorious motto, — 
' Don't give up the ship,' — and leap- 
ing into a boat with half a dozen others, 
told the sailors to give way with a will. 
The Niagara was half a mile distant to 
the windward, and the enemy, as soon 
as they observed his movement, direct- 
ed their fire upon his boat. Oars 
were splintered in the rowers' hands by 
musket-balls, and the men themselves 
covered with spray from the roundshot 
and grape that smote the water on 
every side. But they passed safely 
through the iron storm, and at last 
reached the deck of the Niagara, where 
they were welcomed with thundering 
cheers. Lieutenant Elliot of the 
Niagara, leaving his own ship, took 
command of the Somers, and brought 
up the smaller vessels of the fleet, 
which had as yet been little in the 
action. Perry ran up his signal for 
close action, and from vessel to vessel 

1 66 

A Summer on the Great Lakes. 

the answering signals went up in the 
sunhght and the cheers rang over the 
water. All together now bore down 
upon the enemy and, passing through 
his line, opened a raking crossfire. So 
close and terrible was that fire that the 
crew of the Lady Prevost ran below, 
leaving the wounded and stunned com- 
mander alone on the deck. Shrieks 
and groans rose fi-om every side. In 
fifteen minutes from the time the signal 
was made Captain Barclay, the British 
commander, flung out the white flag. 
The firing then ceased ; the smoke 
slowly cleared away, revealing the two 
fleets commingled, shattered, and torn, 
and the decks strewn with dead. The 
loss on each side was the same, one 
hundred and thirty-five killed and 
wounded. The combat had lasted 
about three hours. When Perry saw 
that victory was secure he wrote with 
a pencil on the back of an old letter, 
resting it on his navy cap, the despatch 
to General Harrison : ' We have met the 
enemy, and they are ours : two ships, 
two brigs, one schooner, and one sloop.' 

" It was a great victory," concluded 
the eloquent narrator. " The young 
conqueror did not sleep a wink that 
night. Until the morning light he was 
on the quarter-deck of the Lawrence, 
doing what he could to relieve his suf- 
fering comrades, while the stifled groans 
of the wounded men echoed from ship 
to ship. The next day the dead, both 
the British and the American, were 
buried in a wild and solitary spot on 
the Aore. And there they sleep the 
sleep of the brave, with the sullen waves 
to sing their perpetual requiem." 

We sat in silence a long time afler ; 
no one was disposed to speak. It 
came to us with power there on the 
moonlit lake, a realization of the hard- 
fought battle, the gallant bearing of the 

Vol. II. — No. I.— D. 

young commander, his daring passage 
in an open boat through the enemy's 
fire to the Niagara, the motto on his 
flag, the manner in which he carried 
his vessel alone through the enemy's 
Hne, and then closed in half pistol-shot, 
his laconic account of the victory to 
his superior oiificer, the ships stripped 
of their spars and canvas, the groans of 
the wounded, and the mournful spec- 
tacle of the burial on the lake shore. 
Our next stopping-place was at 
Detroit, the metropolis of Michigan, on 
the river of the same name, the colony 
of the old Frenchman De la Mothe 
Cadillac, the colonial Pontchartrain, the 
scene of Pontiac's defeat and of Hull's 
treachery, cowardice, or incapacity, 
grandly seated on the green Michigan 
shore, overlooking the best harbor on 
the Great Lakes, and with a population 
of more than one hundred thousand. 
Two stormy days kept us within doors 
most of the time. The third day we 
were again " on board," steaming up 
Detroit River into Lake St. Clair. On 
and on we kept, till the green waters 
of Huron sparkled beneath the keel of 
our steamer. All the way over the 
lake we kept the shores of Michigan in 
sight, beaches of white sand alternating 
with others of limestone shingle, and 
the forests behind, a tangled growth of 
cedar, fir, and spruce in impenetrable 
swamps, or a scanty, scrubby growth 
upon a sandy soil. Two hours were 
spent at Thunder Bay, where the 
steamer stopped for a supply of wood, 
and we went steaming on toward Mack- 
inaw, a hundred miles away. At sun- 
set of that day the shores of the green 
rocky island dawned upon us. The 
steamer swept up to an excellent dock, 
as the sinking sun was pouring a stream 
of molten gold across the flood, out of 
the amber srates of the west. 

A Summer on tlie Great Lakes. 


" At last Mackinaw, great in history 
and story," announced the Historian 
leaning on the taffrail and gazing at the 
clear pebbly bottom and through forty 
feet of water. 

" My hisfory consists of a series of 
statues and tableaux — statues of the 
great men, tableaux of the great 
events," said Vincent. '•' Were there 
any such at Mackinaw?" 

" Yes," answered Hugh, " two statues 
and one tableau — the former Mar- 
quette and ]SIae-che-ne-mock-qua, the 
latter the massacre at Fort Michili- 

" The event happened during Pon- 
tiac's war, I believe," I hastened to 
observe. " The Indians took the place 
by stratagem, did they not?" 

" They did. It was on the fourth of 
July, 1763. The fort contained a hun- 
dred soldiers under the command of 
Major Etherington. In the neighbor- 
hood were four hundred Indians ap- 
parently friendly. On the day specified 
the savages played a great game of ball 
or baggatiway on the parade before the 
fort. Many of the soldiers went out to 
witness it and the gate was left open. 
During the game the ball was many 
times pitched over the pickets of the 
fort. Instantly it was followed by the 
whole body of players, in the unre- 
strained pursuit of a rude athletic 
exercise. The garrison feared nothing ; 
but suddenly the Indians drawing their 
concealed weapons began the massacre. 
No resistance was offered, so sudden 
and unexpected was the surprise. 
Seventy of the soldiers were murdered, 
the remainder were sold for slaves. 
Only one Englishman escaped. He 
was a trader named Henry. He was in 
his own house writing a letter to his 
Montreal friends by the canoe which was 
just on Uie eve of departure, when the 

massacre began. Only a low board fence 
separated his grounds from those of M. 
Longlade, a Frenchman, who had great 
influence with the savages. He ob- 
tained entrance into the house, where 
he was concealed by one of the 
women, and though the savages made 
vigorous search for him, he remained 
undiscovered. You can imagine the 
horrible sight the fort presented when 
the sun went down, the soldiers in their 
red uniforms lying there scalped and 
mangled, a ghastly heap under the 
summer sky. And to just think it was 
only a short time ago, a little more 
than a hundred years." 

We could hardly realize it as we 
gazed up the rocky eminence at the 
United States fort, one hundred and 
fifty feet high, 'overlooking the little 
village. And yet Mackinaw's history 
is very little different from that of 
most Western settlements and military 
stations. Dark, sanguinary, and bloody 
tragedies were constantly enacted upon 
the frontiers for generations. As every 
one acquainted with our history must 
know, the war on the border has been 
an almost interminable one. As the 
tide of emigration has rolled westsvard 
it has ever met that fiery counter-surge, 
and only overcome it by incessant 
battling and effort. And even now, as 
the distant shores of the Pacific are 
wellnigh reached, that resisting wave 
still gives forth its lurid flashes of 

Mackinaw Island is only about three 
miles long and two in breadth, with 
a circuit of nine miles in all. It rises 
out of the lake to an average height 
of three hundred feet, and is heavily 
wooded with cedar, beech, maple, and 
yew. Three of its sides are bold and 
rocky, the fourth slopes down gradually 
toward the north to meet the blue 

1 68 

A Slimmer on the Great Lakes. 

waters of the lake. The island is inter- 
sected in all directions with carriage- 
roads and paths, and in the bay are 
always to be seen the row and sail boats 
belonging to pleasure-seekers. From 
four to seven steamers call at the wharf 
daily, while fleets of sailing-vessels may 
at any time be descried from old Fort 
Holmes, creeping noiselessly on to the 
commercial marts of those great inland 

Tradition lends its enchantment to 
the isle. According to the Indian 
legend it rose suddenly from the calm 
bosom of the lake at the sunset hour. 
In their fancy it took the form of a 
huge turtle, and so they bestowed upon 
it the name of Moe-che-ne-nock-e- 
nung. In the Ojibway mythology it 
became the home of the Great Fairies, 
and to this day it is said to be a sacred 
spot to all Indians who preserve the 
memory of the primal times. The 
fairies lived in a subterranean abode 
under the island, and an old sagamore, 
Chees-a-kee, is related to have been 
conducted a la ^neus, in Virgil, to the 
halls of the spirits and to have seen 
them all assembled in the spacious wig- 
wam. Had some bard taken up the 
tale of this fortunate individual, the 
literature of the red man might have 
boasted an epic ranking perhaps with 
the ^neid or the IHad. 

From the walls of old Fort Holmes, 
two hundred feet above the lake, a fine 
view is obtained of the island and its 
surroundings. Westward is Point St. 
Ignace, a sharply defined cape run- 
ning out from the mainland into the 
strait. There rest the bones of good 
Father Marquette, who, in 1 6 7 1 , erected 
a chapel on the island and began to 
Christianize the wild natives of this 
region. On the northwest we see the 
" Sitting Rabbits," two curious-looking 

rockhills which bear a singular resem- 
blance to our common American hare. 
Eastward stretches away the boundless 
inland sea, a beautiful greenish-blue, to 
the horizon. The mountains of St. 
Martin, and the hills frorn which flow 
Carp and Pine Rivers meet the northern 
vision. To the south is Boisblanc Island, 
lying like an emerald paradise on the 
bosom of Lake Huron, and close beside 
it, as if seeking protection, is lovely 
Round Island. Among all these islands, 
and laving the shores of the adjacent 
mainland, are the rippling waves of the 
lake, now lying as if asleep in the flood- 
ing light, anon white-capped and angry, 
driven by the strong winds. Beneath 
us are the undulations of billowy green 
foliage, calm and cool, intersected with 
carriage-roads, and showing yonder the 
white stones of the soldiers' and citizens' 
graves. Here, down by the water, and 
close under the fort, the white, quaint 
houses lie wrapped in light and quiet. 
Breezes cool and delightful, breezes that 
have traversed the broad expanse of 
the lakes, blow over your face softly, 
as in Indian myth blows the wind from 
the Land of Souls. The scene and the 
hour lulls you into a sense of delicious 
quietude. You are aroused by the 
shrill whistle of a steamer, and you 
descend dockward to note the fresh 

Several days' excursions do not ex- 
haust the island. One day we go to 
see Arch Rock, a beautiful natural 
bridge of rock spanning a chasm some 
eighty feet in height and forty in width. 
The summit is one hundred and fifty 
feet above the level. Another day 
we visit Sugar-loaf Rock, an isolated 
conical shape one hundred and forty 
feet high, rising from a plateau in the 
centre of the island. A hole half-way 
up its side is large enough to hold a 

A Siimvier on the Great Lakes. 


dozen persons, and has in it the names 
of a hundred eager aspirants after im- 
mortality. On the southwest side of 
the island is a perp jndicular rock bluff, 
rising one hundred and fifty feet from 
the lake and called "Lover's Leap." 
The legend was told us one afternoon 
by Hugh, as follows : — 

"In the ancient time, when the red 
men held their councils in this heart of 
the waters, and the lake around rippled 
to the canoe fleets of warrior tribes 
going and returning, a young Ojibway 
girl had her home on this sacred isle. 
Her name was Mae-che-ne-mock-qua, 
and she was beautiful as the sunrise of 
a summer morning. She had many 
lovers, but only to one brave did the 
blooming Indian girl give her heart. 
Often would Mae-che-ne-mock-qua 
wander to this solitary rock and gaze 
out upon the wide waters after the 
receding canoes of the combined Ojib- 
way and Ottawa bands, speeding south 
for scalps and glory. There, too, she 
always watched for their return, for 
among them was the one she loved, an 
eagle -plumed warrior, Ge-win-e-gnon, 
the bravest of the brave. The west wind 
often wafted the shouts of the victori- 
ous braves far in advance of them as 
they returned from the mainland, and 
highest above all she always heard the 
voice of Ge-win-e-gnon. But one time, 
in the chorus of shouts, the maiden 
heard no longer the voice of her lover. 
Her heart told her that he had gone 
to the spirit-land behind the sunset, 
and she should no more behold his 
face among the chieftains. So it was : 
a Huron arrow had pierced his heart, 
and his last words were of his maiden 
in the Fairy Isle. Sad grew the heart 
of the lovely Mae-che-ne-mock-qua. 
She had no wish to live. She could 
onlv stand on the cliff and ^aze at the 

west, where the form of her lover ap- 
peared beckoning her to follow him. 
One morning her mangled body was 
found at the foot of the cliff; she had 
gone to meet her lover in the spirit- 
land. So love gained its sacrifice and 
a maiden became immortal." 

A well-earned night's sleep, bathed 
in this highly ozoned lake atmosphere, 
which magically soothes every nerve 
and refreshes every sense like an elixir, 
and we are off again on the broad 
bosom of the Mackinaw strait, thread- 
ing a verdant labyrinth of emerald islets 
and following the course of Father 
Jacques Marquette, who two hundred 
years before us had set off from the 
island in two canoes, with his friend 
Louis Joliet, to explore and Christianize 
the region of the Mississippi. We 
looked back upon the Fairy Island with 
regretful eyes, and as it sunk into the 
lake Hugh repeated the lines of the 
poet : — 

" A gem amid gems, set in blue yielding waters, 
Is Mackinac Island with cliffs girded round, 
For her eagle-plumed braves and her true-hearted 

daughters ; 
Long, long ere the pale face came widely re- 

" Tradition invests thee with Spirit and Fairy ; 
Thy dead soldiers" sleep shall no drum-beat 

While about thee the cool winds do lovingly tarry 
And kiss thy green brows with the breath of the 


" Thy memory shall haunt me wherever life 

Thy day-dreams of fancy, thy night's balmy sleep. 
The plash of thy waters along the smooth beaches, 
The shade of thine evergreens, grateful and deep. 

" O Mackinac Island ! rest long in thy glory ! 
Sweet native to peacefulness, home of delight 1 
Beneath thy soft ministry, care and sad worry 
Shall flee from the weary eyes blessed with thv 


"That poet had taste," remarked 
our friend when he had concluded. 


A Sfimmer on the Great Lakes. 

" Beautiful Isle ! No wonder the great 
missionary wished his bones to rest 
within sight of its shores. Marquette 
never seemed to me so great as now. 
He was one of those Jesuits like Zin- 
zendorf and Sebastian Ralle, wonderful 
men, all of them, full of energy and 
adventure and missionary zeal, and 
devoted to the welfare of their order. 
At the age of thirty he was sent among 
the Hurons as a missionary. He 
founded the mission of Sault de Ste. 
Marie in Lake Superior, in 1668, and 
three years later that of Mackinaw. 
In 1673, in company with Joliet and 
five other Frenchmen, the adventurous 
missionary set out on a voyage toward 
the South Sea. They followed the 
Mississippi to the Gulf, and returning, 
arrived at Green Bay in September. In 
four months they had traveled a dis- 
tance of twenty-five hundred miles in 
an open canoe. Marquette was sick 
a whole year, but in 1674, at the solici- 
tation of his superior, set out to preach 
to the Kaskaskia Indians. He was 
compelled to halt on the way by his 
infirmities, and remained all winter at 
the place, with only two Frenchmen to 
minister to his wants. As soon as it was 
spring, knowing full well that he could 
not hve, he attempted to return to 
Mackinaw. He died on the way, on a 
small river that bears his name, which 
empties into Lake Michigan on the 
western shore. His memory en- 
wreathes the very names of Superior 
and Michigan with the halo of 

" Thank you," said Vincent, looking 
out over the dark water. " I can fancy 
his ghost haunting the lake at mid- 

*' Speak not of that down at the 
Queen City," returned Hugh, with a 
tragic air. " Pork and grain are more 

substantial things than ghosts at Chi- 
cago, and they might look on ycu as 
an escaped lunatic. Nathless, it was 
a pretty idea to promulgate among 
the Indians two centuries ago. Observe 
how civilization has changed. Two 
hundred years ago we sent missionaries 
among them : now we send soldiers to 
shoot them down, after we have plun- 
dered them of their lands." 

Neither of us were disposed to discuss 
the Indian question with Hugh Warren, 
and the conversation dropped after 
a while. 

At noon of the next day the steamer 
made Milwaukee, and the evening of 
the day after Chicago. These two 
cities are excellent types of the Western 
city, and both show, in a wonderful 
degree, the rapid growth of towns in 
the great West. Neither had an inhab- 
itant before 1825, and now one has 
a population of one hundred thousand, 
and the other of five hundred thou- 
sand. Chicago is, in fact, a wonder of 
the world. Its unparalleled growth, its 
phoenix-like rise from the devastation 
of the great fire of 1871, and its cos- 
mopolitan character, all contribute to 
render it a remarkable city. 

The city looks out upon the lake like 
a queen, as in fact she is, crowned by 
the triple diadem of beauty, wealth, 
and dignity. She is the commercial 
metropolis of the whole Northwest, an 
emporium second only to New York in 
the quantity of her imports and exports. 
The commodious harbor is thronged 
with shipping. Her water communica- 
tion has a vast area. Foreign consuls 
from Austria, France, Great Britain, 
Belgium, Italy, Sweden, Germany, and 
the Netherlands, have their residence 
in the city. It is an art-centre, and 
almost equally with Brooklyn is entided 
to be called a city of churches. 

A Slimmer on the Great Lakes. 1 7 r 

A week is a short time to devote to mores whose memories she has for- 

seeing all that this queen city has that gotten. 

is interesting, and that included every On the third day we steamed past 
day we spent there. Neither in a Mackinaw, and soon made the ship- 
sketch Hke the present shall we have canal which was constructed for the 
space to give more than we have done passage of large ships, a channel 
— a general idea of the city. One a dozen miles long and half a mile 
day about noon we steamed out of the wide. And now, hurrah ! We are on 
harbor, on a magnificent lake-steamer, the waters of Lake Superior, the 
bound for Duluth. We were to have " Gitche Gumee, the shining Big Sea- 
a run of over seven hundred, miles with Water," of Longfellow's musical verse, 
but a single stopping-place the whole The lake is a great sea. Its greatest 
distance. It would be three days length is three hundred and sixty miles, 
before we should step on land again, its greatest breadth one hundred and 

" Farewell, a long farewell, to the forty miles ; the whole length of its 

city of the Indian sachem," said Hugh, coast is fifteen hundred miles. It has 

as the grand emporium and railway- an area of thirty-two thousand square 

centre grew dim in the distance. "By miles, and a mean depth of one thou- 

the way," continued he, "are you sand feet. These dimensions show it 

aware that the correct etymology of the to be by far the largest body of fresh 

name Chicago is not generally known?" water on the globe. 

Vincent and I confessed that we did Nothing can be conceived more 

not even know the supposed etymology charming than a cruise on this lake in 

of the name. summer. The memories of the lake 

" No matter about that," went on the are striking and romantic in the ex- 
Historian. " The name is undoubtedly treme. There is a background of 
Indian, corrupted from Chercaqua, the history and romance which renders 
name of a long line of chiefs, meaning Superior a classic water. It was a fav- 
strong, also applied to a wild onion, orite fishing-ground for several tribes 
Long before the white men knew the of Indians, and its aboriginal name 
region the site of Chicago was a favorite Ojibwakechegun, was derived from one 
rendezvous of several Indian tribes, of these, the Ojibways, who lived on the 
The first geographical notice of the southern shore when the lake first be- 
place occurs in a map dated Quebec, came known to white men. The waters 
Canada, 1683, as 'Fort Chicagon.' of the lake vary in color from a dazzling 
Marquette camped on the site during green to a sea-blue, and are stocked with 
the winter of 1674-5. A fort was built all kinds of excellent fish. Numerous 
there by the French and afterward islands are scattered about the lake, 
abandoned. So you see that Chicago some low and green, others rocky and 
has a history that is long anterior to the rising precipitately to great heights 
existence of the present city. Have directly up from the deep water. The 
a cigar, Montague?" coast of the lake is for the most part 

Clouds of fragrant tobacco-smoke rocky. Nowhere upon the inland 

soon obscured the view of the Queen waters of North America is the scenery 

City of the Northwest, busy with Hfe so bold and grand as around Lake 

above the graves of the Indian saga- Superior. Famous among travelers 


A Summer on the Great Lakes. 

are those precipitous walls of red sand- 
stone on the south coast, described in 
all the earlier accounts of the lake as 
the "Picl^ired Rocks." They stand 
opposite the greatest width of the lake 
and exposed to the greatest force of 
the heavy storms from the north. The 
effect of the waves upon them is not 
only seen in their irregular shape, but 
the sand derived from their disintegra- 
tion is swept down the coast below and 
raised by the \vinds into long lines of 
sandy cliffs. At the place called the 
Grand Sable these are from one hun- 
dred to three hundred feet high, and 
the region around consists of hills of 
drifting sand. 

Half-way across the lake Keweenaw 
Point stretches out into the water. 
Here the steamer halted for wood. We 
landed on the shore in a beautiful 
grove. " What a place for a dinner ! " 
cried one of the party. 

"Glorious! glorious!" chimed in a 
dozen voices. 

" How long has the boat to wait?" 
asked Hugh. 

"One hour," was the answer of the 
weather-beaten son of Neptune. 

" That gives us plenty of time," was 
the general verdict. So without more 
ado lunch-baskets were brought ashore. 
The steamer's steward was prevailed 
upon, by a silver dollar thrust slyly into 
his hand, to help us, and presently the 
whole party was feasting by the lakeside. 
And what a royal dining-room was that 
grove, its outer pillars rising from the 
very lake itself, its smooth brown floor 
of pine-needles, arabesqued with a flit- 
ting tracery of sun shadows and flutter- 
ing leaves, and giving through the true 
Gothic arches of its myriad windows 
glorious views of the lake that lay like 
an enchanted sea before us ! And 
whoever dined more regally, more di- 

vinely, even, though upon nectar and 
ambrosia, than our merry-makers as 
they sat at their well-spread board, 
with such glowing, heaven-tinted pic- 
tures before their eyes, such balmy airs 
floating about their happy heads, and 
such music as the sunshiny waves 
made in their glad, listening ears? It 
was like a picture out of Hiawatha. 
At least it seemed to strike our young 
lady so, who in a voice of peculiar 
sweetness and power recited the open- 
ing of the twenty-second book of that 
poem : — 

" By the shore of Gitche Gumee, 
By the shining Big Sea- Water, 
At the doorway of his wigwam, # 

In the pleasant Summer morning, 
Hiawatha stood and waited. 

All the air was full of freshness, 
All the earth was bright and joyous. 
And before him, through the sunshine. 
Westward toward the neighboring forest 
Passed in golden swarms the Ahmo, 
Passed the bees, the honey-makers. 
Burning, singing in the sunshine. 

Bright above him shone the heavens, 
Level spread the lake before him; 
From its bosom leaped the sturgeon. 
Sparkling, flashing in the sunshine; 
On its margin the great forest 
Stood reflected in the water, 
Every treetop had its shadow 
Motionless beneath the water." 

"Thank you. Miss," said Hugh, 
gallantly. "We only need a wigwam 
with smoke curling from it under these 
trees, and a ' birch canoe with paddles, 
rising, sinking on the water, dripping, 
flashing in the sunshine,' to complete 
the picture. It's a pity the Indians 
ever left this shore." 

" So the settlers of Minnesota thought 
in '62," observed Vincent, ironically. 

" The Indians would have been all 
right if the white man had stayed 
away," replied the Historian, hotly. 

" In that case we should not be here 
now, and, consequently" — 

A Summer ou tJie Great Lakes. 


What promised to be quite a warm 
discussion was liilled in tlie embryo by 
the captain's clear cry, "All aboard ! " 

Once more we were steaming west- 
ward toward the land of the Dacotahs. 
That night we all sat up till after mid- 
night to see the last of our lake, for in 
the morning Duluth would be in sight. 
It was a night never to be forgotten. 
The idle words and deeds of my com- 
panions have faded from my mind, but 
never will the memory of the bright 
lake rippling under that moonlit sky. 

A city picturesquely situated on the 
side of a hill which overlooks the lake 
and rises gradually toward the north- 
west, reaching the height of six hundred 
feet a mile from the shore, with a river 
on one side. That is Duluth. The 
city takes its name from Juan du Luth, 
a French officer, who visited the region 
in 1679. ^" 1S60 there were only 
seventy white inhabitants in the place, 
and in 1869 the number had not much 
increased. The selection of the village 
as the eastern terminus of the Northern 
Pacific Railroad gave it an impetus, 
and now Duluth is a city of fifteen 
thousand inhabitants, and rapidly grow- 
ing. The harbor is a good one, and is 
open about two hundred days in the 
year. Six regular lines of steamers run 
to Ciiicago, Cleveland, Canadian ports, 
and ports on the south shore of Lake 
Superior. The commerce of Duluth, 
situated as it is in the vicinity of the 
mineral districts on both shores of the 
lake, surrounded by a well-timbered 
country, and offering the most con- 
venient outlet for the products of the 
wheat region further west, is of growing 
importance. In half a century Duluth 
will be outranked in wealth and popula- 
tion by no more than a dozen cities in 

Our stay at Duluth was protracted 

many days. One finds himself at home 
in this new Western city, and there are 
a thousand ways in which to amuse 
yourself. If you are disposed for a walk, 
there are any number of delightful 
woodpaths leading to famous bits of 
beach where you may sit and dream 
the livelong day without fear of inter- 
ruption or notice. If you would try 
camping-out, there are guides and 
canoes riglit at your hand, and the 
choice of scores of beautiful and 
delightful spots within easy reach of 
your hotel or along the shore of the 
lake and its numerous beautiful islands, 
or as far away into the forest as you 
care to penetrate. Lastly, if piscatorially 
inclined, here is a boathouse with every 
kind of boat from the steam-yacht 
down to the birch canoe, and there is 
the lake, full of " lakers," sturgeon, 
whitefish, and speckled trout, some of 
the latter weighing from thirty to forty 
pounds apiece, — a condition of things 
alike satisfactory and tempting to every 
owner of a rod and line. 

Tlfe guides, of whom there are large 
numbers to be found at Duluth, as 
indeed at all of the northern border 
towns, are a class of men too interest- 
ing and peculiar to be passed over 
without more than a cursory notice. 
These men are mostly French-Canadians 
and Indians, with now and then a 
native, and for hardihood, skill, and 
reliability, cannot be surpassed by any 
other similar class of men the world 
over. They are usually men of many 
parts, can act equally well as guide, 
boatman, baggage -carrier, purveyor, and 
cook. They are respectful and chival- 
rous : no woman, be she old or young, 
fair or faded, fails to receive the most 
polite and courteous treatment at their 
hands, and with these quahties they 
possess a manly independence that is 


A Summer on the Great Lakes. 

as far removed from servility as forward- 
ness. Some of these men are strikingly 
handsome, with shapely statuesque 
figures that recall the Antinous and the 
Apollo Belvidere. Their life is neces- 
sarily a hard one, exposed as they are 
to all sorts of weather and the dangers 
incidental to their profession. At a 
comparatively early age they break 
down, and extended excursions are left 
to the younger and more active mem- 
bers of the fraternity. 

Camping-out, provided the weather 
is reasonably agreeable, is one of the 
most delightful and healthful ways to 
spend vacation. It is a sort of wood- 
man's or frontier life. It means living 
in a tent, sleeping on boughs or leaves, 
cooking your own meals, washing your 
own dishes and clothes perhaps, get- 
ting up your own fuel, making your own 
fire, and foraging for your own proven- 
der. It means activity, variety, novelty, 
and fun alive ; and the more you have 
of it the more you like it ; and the 
longer you stay the less willing you are 
to give it up. There is a freedofh in it 
that you do not get elsewhere. All the 
stiff formalties of conventional life are 
put aside : you are left free to enjoy 
yourself as you choose. All in all, it is 
the very best way we know to enjoy 
a "glorious vacation." 

At Duluth, at Sault de Ste. Marie, at 
Mackinaw, at Saginaw, we wandered 
away days at a time, with nothing but 
our birch canoe, rifles, and fishing-rods, 
and for provisions, hard bread, pork, 
potatoes, coffee, tea, rice, butter, and 
sugar, closely packed. Any camper- 
out can make himself comfortable with 

an outfit as simple as the one named. 
How memory clings around some of 
those bright spots we visited ! I pass 
over them again, in thought, as I write 
these lines, longing to nestle amid them 

Following along the coast, now in 
small yachts hired for the occasion, now 
in a birch canoe of our own, we passed 
from one village to another. Where\eT 
we happened to be at night, we en- 
camped. Many a time it was on a 
lonely shore. Standing at sunset on 
a pleasant strand, more than once we 
saw the glow of the vanished sun 
behind the western mountains or the 
western waves, darkly piled in mist and 
shadow along the sky ; near at hand, 
the dead pine, mighty in decay, stretch- 
ing its ragged arms athwart the burning 
heavens, the crow perched on its top 
like an image carved in jet; and aloft, 
the night-hawk, circling in his flight, 
and, with a strange whining sound, 
diving through the air each moment for 
the insects he makes his prey. 

But all good things, as well as others, 
have an end. The season drew to a 
close at last. August nights are chilly 
for sleeping in tents. Our flitting must 
cease, and our thoughts and steps turn 
homeward. But a few days are still 
left us. At Buffalo once more we go 
to see the Falls. Then by boat to 
Hamilton, thence to Kingston at the 
foot of the lake, and so on through 
the Tiiousand Isles to Montreal, and 
finally to Quebec, — a tour as fascinat- 
ing in its innumerable and singularly 
wild and beautiful " sights " as heart 
could desire. 

Our National Cemeteries, 



By Charles Cowley, LL.D. 

There are circumstances generally 
attending the death of the soldier or 
the sailor, whether on battle-field or 
gun-deck, whether in the captives' 
prison, the cockpit, or the field-hospi- 
tal, which touch our sensibilities far 
more deeply than any circumstances 
which usually attend the death of men 
of any other class ; moving within us 
mingled emotions of pathos and pity, 
of mystery and awe. 

"There is a tear for all that die, 
A mourner o'er the humblest grave; 

But nations swell the funeral cry, 
And freedom weeps above the brave; 

"For them is sorrow's purest sigh, 

O'er ocean's heaving bosom sent; 
In vain their bones unburied lie, — 

All earth becomes their monument. 

"A tomb is their's on every page; 

An epitaph on every tongue; 
The present hours, the future age. 

Nor mem bewail, to them belong. 

"A theme to crowds that knew them not, 

Lamented by admiring foes. 
Who would not share their glorious lot? 

Who would not die the death they chose?" 

A similar halo invests our National 
Cemeteries — which are the most per- 
manent mementos of our sanguinary 
Civil War. 

Nature labors diligently to cover 
up her scars. Most of the battle-fields 
of the Rebellion now show growths 
of use and beauty. Many of the 
structures of that great conflict have 
already ceased to be. Some of them 
have been swept away by the Avinds 
or overgrown with weeds ; others, like 
Fort Wagner, have been washed away 
by the waves. But neither winds nor 
waves are likely to disturb the monu- 
ments or the cemeteries of our soldiers 
and sailors. Where they were placed, 

there they remain ; " and there they 
will remain forever." 

The seventy-eight National Ceme- 
teries distributed over the country 
contain the remains of three hundred 
and eighteen thousand four hundred 
and fifty-five men, classed as follows : 
known, 170,960; unknown, 147,495; 
total, 318,455. And these are not half 
of those whose deaths are attributable 
to their service in the armies and navies 
of the United States and the Confeder- 
ate States, who are buried in all sec- 
tions of the Union and in foreign lands. 

In some of these cemeteries, as at 
Gettysburg, Antietam, City Point, Win- 
chester, Marietta, Woodlawn, Hampton, 
and Beaufort, by means of public ap- 
propriations and private subscriptions, 
statues and other monuments have at 
different times been erected ; and many 
others doubtless will be erected in them 
hereafter. Some of them are in secluded 
situations, where for many miles the 
population is sparse, and the few people 
that live near them cherish tenderer 
recollections of the " Lost Cause " than 
of that which finally won. But such of 
them as are contiguous to cities are 
places of interest to more or less of 
the neighboring population ; and, in 
some of them, there are commemora- 
tive services upon Memorial Days. 

These cemeteries have many features 
in common ; and much that may be 
said of one of them may also be said 
of the others — merely changing the 

It happened to the present writer 
to visit the National Cemetery at 
Beaufort, South Carolina, to deliver an 
oration on Memorial Day, 1881, in the 


Our National Cemeteries. 

nidst of ten thousand graves of the 
lOldiers and sailors of the department 
of the South and South Atlantic block- 
ading squadron. The dead interretl in 
these thirty acres of graves are : known, 
4,748, unknown, 4,493; total, 9,241. 
Among the trees planted in this ceme- 
tery is a willow, grown from a branch 
of the historic tree which once over- 
shadowed the grave of Napoleon at 
St. Helena. 

Generals Thomas W. Sherman and 
John G. Foster, who commanded that 
department, and Admirals Dupont and 
Dahlgren, who commanded that squad- 
ron, all died in their Northern homes 
since the peace, and their graves are 
not to be looked for here. The same 
may be said of hundreds of mihtary 
and naval officers who performed valu- 
able services on these shores and along 
these coasts, and have since " passed 
over to the great majority." 

That neither General Strong nor 
General Schimmelfennig is buried here 
might be accounted for by the fact 
that, though they died by reason of their 
having served in this department, they 
died at the North. But even General 
Mitchell, whose flag of command was 
last unfurled in this department, who 
died in Beaufort, and was originally 
buried under the sycamores of the 
Episcopal churchyard, now sleeps in 
the shades of Greenwood, and not (as 
he would probably have preferred, could 
he have foreseen this cemetery) among 
the brave men whom he commanded. 

The best known names among those 
here buried (to use a pardonable 
Hibernianism) are among the " un- 
known." For here, as we may believe, 
in unknown graves, rest the remains 
of Colonel Robert G. Shaw, of the 
Fifty-fourth Massachusetts (colored), 
Colonel Haldimand S. Putnam, of the 

Seventh New Hampshire, Lieutenant- 
Colonel James M. Green, of the Forty- 
eighth New York, and many other gal- 
lant officers and men who were killed 
in the assault on Fort Wagner, July 
18, 1863, and who were first buried 
by the Confederates in the sands of 
Morris Island. 

Many a Northern college is repre- 
sented here. Among those to whom 
tablets have been erected in the Memo- 
rial Hall of Harvard University, who 
are buried here, besides Colonel Shaw, 
are Captains VVinthrop P. Boynton and 
William D. Crane, who were killed at 
Honey Hill, November 30, 1864 ; and 
Captain Cabot J. Russell, who fell with 
Shaw at Fort Wagner. Yet these are 
but the beginning of the list of the 
sons of Massachusetts who rest in this 
" garden of graves." 

Among the many gallant men of the 
navy buried here is Acting-Master 
Charles W. Howard, of the ironclad 
steam - frigate New Ironsides, #hom 
Lieutentant Glassell shot during his 
bold attempt to blow up the New 
Ironsides with the torpedo steamer 
David, October 5, 1863. Another 
is Thomas Jackson, coxswain of the 
Wabash, the beau ideal of an Ameri- 
can sailor, who was killed in the battle 
of Port Royal, November 7, 1861. 

Death, Hke a true democrat, levels all 
distinctions. Still, it may be mentioned 
that Lieutenant-Colonel William N. 
Reed, who was mortally wounded at 
Olustee while in command of the Thirty- 
fifth United States colored troops, 
February 20, 1864, was, while living, 
the highest officer in rank, whose grave 
is known here. Other gallant officers, 
killed at Olustee, are buried near him. 
Among these, probably, is Colonel 
Charles W. Fribley, of the Eighth 
United States colored troops ; though 

Our National Cemeteries. 


he may be still sleeping beneath the 
sighing pines of Olustee. 

As far as practicable, all Federal sol- 
diers and sailors buried along the sea- 
board of South Carolina, Georgia, and 
Florida, have been removed to Beaufort 
Cemetery ; and, as Governor Alexander 
H. Bullock said : " Wherever they 
offered up their lives, amid the thunder 
of battle, or on the exhausting march, 
in victory or in defeat, in hospital or 
in prison, officers and privates, soldiers 
and sailors, patriots all, they fell like 
the beauty of Israel on their high 
places, burying all distinctions of rank 
in the august equality of death." 

One section of the cemetery is 
devoted to the Confederates. There 
are more than a hundred of these, 
including several commissioned officers ; 
and on Memorial Days the same ladies 
who decorate the graves of the Federals 
decorate also in the same manner the 
graves of the Confederates ; recognizing 
that, though in life they were arrayed 
as mortal enemies, they are now 
reconciled in " the awful but kindly 
brotherhood of death." Sir Walter 

Scott enjoins : — 


"Speak not for those a separate doom, 
Whom fate made brothers in the tomb." 

And One infinitely greater than Sir 
Walter has inculcated still loftier senti- 

Among the graves to which the at- 
tention of the writer was particularly 

attracted was that of Charley , a 

boy of Colonel Putnam's regiment, who 
had now been dead more years than he 

had lived. His parents, living on the 
shores of Lake Winnipiseogee, and 
walking daily over the paths which he 
had often trod, had plucked the earliest 
flower of their northern clime and sent 
it to the superintendent of the cem- 
etery, to be planted at Charley's grave. 
The burning sun of South Carolina had 
not spared that flower ; but something 
of it still remained. Its mute eloquence 
spoke to the heart of the tender recol- 
lections of a father and of a mother's 
undying love. How truly does Words- 
worth say, — 

" The meanest flower that blows can give 
Thoughts that do often lie too deep for tears." 

For US who have survived the perils 
of battle and the far more fatal diseases 
that wasted our forces, and for all who 
cherish the memory of these dead, it 
will always be a consoling thought that 
the Federal government has done so 
much to provide honorable sepulture 
for those who fell in defence of the 
Union. We can all appreciate Lord 
Byron's lament for the great Florentine 
poet and patriot : — 

" Ungrateful Florence ! Dante sleeps afar, 
Like Scipio, buried by the upbraiding shore." 

But we can have no such regret for 
our lost comrades, buried not upon a 
foreign, nor upon an unfriendly shore, 
but in the bosom of the soil which their 
blood redeemed. Sacred is the tear 
that is shed for the unreturning brave. 

"'Tis the tear through many a long day wept, 
"Tis life's whole path o'ershaded; 
'Tis the one remembrance, fondly kept, 
When all lighter griefs have faded." 


OgiDujnit Fishing Fleet. 



I SEE the fishing boats put out 
Each morn ujion the sea, 

And from my early window watch 
Them floating far and free. 

Ere the first flush of day appears, 
While stars are in the sky. 

Out steal the boats all silently, 
And to their moorings hie. 

By heart and rote I know each boat, 
Name each familiar friend ; 

And out to each, in earnest speech, 
A hearty God-speed send. 

To each familiar form I turn, 

A-bending o'er the bay ; 
And ask of Him who made the sea, 

To guide them in his way. 

While rest their wives and little ones, 

And all the world's asleep, 
These hardy fishers launch their boats. 

And sail forth on the deep. 

O friends of mine, O fishers free, 

Sail on, and nobly on. 
Until the voyage of life be o'er. 

And the safe harbor won. 

To feed the little hungry mouths, 

To cover little feet, 
Each day, when wind and wave allow, 

Toils hard the fishing fleet. 

Sail on, and learn to prize full weU 

The joys of simple life ; 
Let not the great world beat for you 

Her noisy wings of strife. 

To keep their wives and little ones. 
And their snug homes maintain. 

They draw a well-earned livelihood 
From the begrudging main. 

Sail on, and ever fearless on, 
The billows bravely breast ; 

Nor let the hollow world entice 
You from your port of rest. 

A league or more out from the shore. 
They fish with trawl and line; 

With cunning hand draw deftly in 
The trophies of the brine. 

Sail on, and lean your trusting hearts 

Upon God's ocean wide ; 
And learn to prize his love more thaa 

The great round world beside. 

I see them stealing here and there. 
In distance small and slow; 

And with my glass I find each one 
As m and out they go. 

O friends of mine, O sailors strong, 

O hearts that beat so true ; 
Ye cannot know these earnest thoughts 

That go out after you. 

I know each boat, I find them all. 
And count them one by one ; 

Dark spots upon the waters bright. 
Like motes upon the sun. 

Good friends, ye cannot hear this song, 

Nor feel this heart of mine. 
That warm and loving beats for you 

Far out upon the brine. 

But heart shall read each heart one day, 
And friend with friend shall meet. 

Peace be with ye, O sailors of Ogunquit, 
Ogunquit fishing fleet! 

£'ilq^Oy A.H-IlilcT-'-' 





'Devoted to Literature, 'biography. History, ami State Progress. 

Vol. IX. 

JULY, 1886. 

No. 7. 



It has been suggested that Colonel 
Thomas Cogswell, the Democratic can- 
didate for Governor of New Hamp- 
shire, is a blue-blooded aristocrat. If 
having a long line of honorable, Chris- 
tian ancestors, the record of whom ex- 
tends back to the old country, to the 
days when the Stuarts ruled England 
and Cromwell was unheard of, if pious, 
patriotic, and sagacious forefathers give 
a man blue blood, the Colonel is really 
afflicted with blue blood. If being a 
hard working and practical lawyer, a 
farmer who personally superintends the 
cultivation of five hundred acres of 
land, a scholar who tries to keep up 
with the literature of the period, a kind 
and considerate neighbor, a cidzen 
always at the command of his fellow- 
citizens, a brave soldier in the late war, 
an easy and graceful public speaker, a 
man with a multitude of personal friends, 
if these are the characteristics of an 
aristocrat, then is Colonel Cogswell an 
aristocrat. If in his veins flows the 
best New England blood, if his charac- 
ter for honor and integrity is as estab- 
lished as the granite hills which hem in 
his paternal farm, there is no doubt that 
his ancestors are in part responsible. 
If a man's sins will live after him for 
generations so also will the noble actions 

of a man's ancestors be reflected in 
him and help him in the race. The 
Colonel's ancestors were among the 
first settlers who planted the Massachu- 
setts Bay Colony early in the seventeenth 
century. In every generation they have 
been law-abiding, God-fearing, and pa- 
triotic citizens, ready to serve their 
country in war or peace. • 


Hon. Thomas Cogswell, son of Hon. 
Thomas and Mary (Noyes) Cogswell, 
was born February 8, 1841, in Gilman- 
ton, in the house which in the early 
part of this century was the homestead 
of his great grandfather, General Joseph 
Badger, and which stood a few rods 
east of the Colonel's present residence, 
under the shade of a great elm tree 
lately injured by lightning. The frame 
of the old house was taken and used in 
the construction of the residence of 
James W. Cogswell, another son of Hon. 
Thomas and Mary (Noyes) Cogswell, 
who lives a quarter of a mile away on 
the main highway from Gilmanton Iron 
Works to Laconia. The present resi- 
dence was built in 1784 by Colonel' 
Thomas Cogswell, of the Continental 
.•\rmy, his father's uncle, and came into 
his father's possession over forty years 


Hon. Thomas Cogswell. 

ago, reuniting the old General Badger 
estate. It is a large, square, two-story, 
old-fashioned mansion, built in the sub- 
stantial manner in vogue about the 
time of the American Revolution, and 
as serviceable to-day as when erected 
by the old patriot. Here was passed 
the boyhood and youth of our friend. 
Colonel Cogswell. Here on his father's 
farm of a thousand acres he acquired a 
practical knowledge of farming, of 
stock raising, and of the many duties 
and obli2;ations of a successful farmer's 
career. Here he was surrounded by 
scenery unsurpassed in the hill country 
of New Hampshire. The farm occu- 
pies the summit and sides of a hill ; 
and the house, not far from the highest 
ground, commands a very extended 
view of hill and mountain, valley, 
stream and lake, woodland and cultiva- 
ted field, reaching to the horizon formed 
by distant elevations. 


With the boys of the neighborhood 
he received the first rudiments of an 
education at the little red school-house 
of the district. Here he developed a 
fondness not only for boyish sports but 
for books, and at an early age deter- 
mined to acquire a classical education 
with a ^•iew to becoming a lawyer. He 
entered Gilmanton Academy in 1857, 
and continued his studies there two 
years under the instruction of Professor 
Chase Parsons and of Professor Andrew 
Marshall. The Cogswell family have 
always been actively interested in main- 
taining this venerable institution, found- 
ed in 1 794 ; and it is a noteworthy fact 
that in its board of directors the name 
of Thomas Cogswell has appeared every 
year since its charter was granted. It 
is also remarkable that since 1 794 Gil- 
manton Academy has never missed a 

term of school. Here young Cogswell 
formed a close friendship with his room- 
mate and classmate, John B. Peaslee, 
with whom he went to Hanover in 1859, 
and entered the Freshman class of 
Dartmouth College. Of that class of 
eighty-nine members, forty-eight were 
living three years ago who graduated 
with their class in 1863. The class has 
given to the world fourteen lawyers, ten 
physicians, seven clergymen, ten teach- 
ers, besides nine patriots who laid down 
their lives for the good of their country. 
In his class was Alfred K. Hamilton, of 
Milwaukee, Charles C. Pearson, of 
Concord, Charles A. Pillsbury, of Min- 
neapolis, John vScales, of Dover, Isaac 
Walker, of Pembroke, Evarts W. Farr, 
of Litdeton, Stephen B. Kenrick, of 
Fort Madison, Iowa, and Hon. W. H. 
Clement, of Brooklyn, New York. 
Young Cogswell was a good scholar, 
ranking well in his class, and excelling 
as a speaker and debater. He was out 
all of the Senior year but graduated 
with his class. Before and during his 
college course young Cogswell taught 
school, first in Alton, when he was six- 
teen years of age, and afterwards in 
Deerfield, East Concord, and Laconia. 
Frequently he had scholars older than 
himself, and during one term of school 
he "boarded round." 


At the end of his Junior year in 
Dartmouth College the fate of the Re- 
public was in doubt. Those were the 
darkest days of the Great Rebellion. 
More soldiers were needed to fill the 
ranks of veteran regiments, and new 
regiments were needed at the front. 
The herculean task of suppressing trea- 
son began to be realized by the loyal 
North, and in the summer of 1862 
300,000 more volunteers were called 


Thomas Cogswell. 


for. Twenty boys from the class of 
1863 responded to the call, among 
whom was Thomas Cogswell. He en- 
listed in that summer as a private in 
Company A, Fifteenth Regiment, New 
Hampshire Volunteers, a company re- 
cruited in Gilmanton, Guilford, Alton, 
and Belmont, and entered the service 
for nine months. He was chosen by 
his company first lieutenant and was 
presented by his command with sword 
and equipments. For the ensuing year 
his history and that of the regiment are 

In October, 1862, the regiment was 
in camp in Concord, going to Long Is- 
land, New York, in November of the 
same year. The regiment was des- 
tined to join the expedition of Gen- 
eral Banks and proceeded to Louisiana, 
where in the following spring Lieuten- 
ant Cogswell was taken sick with the 
chills and fever. He lost twenty-five 
pounds in weight in one week. He re- 
covered sufficiently to join his company, 
of which he was commissioned captain 
April 8, 1863, before Port Hudson, and 
participated in the memorable attack. 
For a day and a half during the siege 
his command were without food. His 
weakened constitution could not with- 
stand such exposure and deprivation, 
and again he was sent to the hospital. 
When the regiment was embarking to 
return north, after their term of service 
had expired, the physicians forbade his 
being moved, but he ordered four of 
his men, who came to see him, to carry 
him upon the boat with the regiment. 
This they did and he was brought home 
with them almost a physical wreck. 
When he entered the service he was a 
strong, rugged, healthy boy of twenty- 
one, weighing one hundred and eighty- 
five pounds ; he weighed one hundred 
and six when he arrived at Gass' hotel 

in Concord, August 8, 1863. He was 
then twenty-two years old and wore the 
epaulets of a captain gained by gallant 
service before the enemy. 

It is unnecessary to add that Captain 
Cogswell was a brave soldier. He left 
a sick bed to join his regiment on the 
eve of a great battle. He was a good 
executive officer, kind and considerate 
to his men, and thoughtful of their 
needs and interests. When the regi- 
ment was ordered from Long Island to 
embark on a transport for the Gulf of 
Mexico, he joined with his captain in 
refusing to march his company on board 
of a boat manifestly unsafe and over- 
loaded. This refusal led to a court- 
martial, by which the young officers 
were exonerated from blame. He never 
wanted his men exposed to danger in 
which he could not share, and looked 
after them like younger brothers. For 
a year after his return from the south 
he was recuperating and regaining his 
lost health, six months of the time be- 
ing confined to his house and room. 
In the fall of 1864 Captain Cogswell 
was employed as a clerk in the com- 
missary department and reported to 
Captain John R. Hynes, but saw no 
more active service. 


Mr. Cogswell commenced to read 
law in the office of Stevens & Vaughan, 
of Laconia, and afterwards studied at 
the Harvard Law School. He was ad- 
mitted to the Belknap County bar dur- 
ing the September term, 1866. In De- 
cember of the same year he opened a 
law office in the village of Gilmanton 
Iron Works, where no lawyer had been 
settled for the previous twenty years. 
Formerly some noted lawyers had prac- 
ticed law there, among whom may be 
mentioned James Bell, George Minot, 


Hen. Thomas Cogswell. 

Arthur St. Loe Livermore and his 
brother, William Butterfield, George G. 
Fogg, and O. A. J. Vaughan. Here 
for twenty years has Mr. Cogswell prac- 
ticed law, doing the legal business for 
all the country round. He enjoys an 
excellent standing at the bar, not only 
with his clients and the people gener- 
ally, but with his brother lawyers and 
with the court. It has always been his 
j)olicy to discourage litigation, and many 
a promising lawsuit has been nipped in 
the bud by his advice. He has had 
the confidence of his neighbors and 
townsmen, and has done a large pro- 
bate business, written many wills, set- 
tled many estates and accepted many 
fiduciary trusts. He has had no 
specialty but has done a general law 
business in Belknap and in Strafford 
counties, and in the United States 
Courts, to which he has been admitted 
to practice.- He is bold and aggressive 
in the trial of causes and is a strong 
advocate before a jury. He is gener- 
ally considered a well educated, well 
read, and safe lawyer, careful in giving 
advice, and careful not to be drawn into 
a suit when his client is in the wrong. 
A compromise with him is a very com- 
mon and effective mode of procedure. 
Possibly had he been more dependent 
upon his profession for a livelihood, he 
might have been more industrious, but 
he could not have been more conscien- 
cious or more careful of the interests 
of his clients. 

In 1884 he was elected solicitor of 
Belknap County, running ahead of his 
party ticket, which office he now holds. 


The town of Gilmanton was divided 
in 1859, when Belmont was set off; but 
as it was against the will of the people 
of that section, they retained the old 

organization and the records, while the 
new town kept the old name. Of Gil- 
manton Mr. Cogswell was chosen rep- 
resentative to the General Court in 187 1 
and 1872, although the town was Re- 
publican. (The first office to which he 
was elected was that of superintending 
school committee, which office he held 
for one year.) During the latter term 
he received the nomination of his party 
for speaker of the House of Represen- 
tatives. He was elected Senator from 
the old district, Number Six, in 1878, 
and was the candidate the following 
year for re-election in the new district, 
Number Six. In this election there was 
no choice by the people and he lost his 
election in the Senate. In 1880 he 
was candidate for councillor in the Sec- 
ond Councillor District, but found it 
impossible to overcome a Republican 
majority of from sixteen to eighteen 
hundred. In June, 1886, he received 
of the Democratic State Convention 
the nomination for Governor. 

Mr. Cogswell is a Democrat. His fa- 
ther before him was a Democrat, a loyal 
supporter of the administration during 
the Rebellion, and a firm believer in the 
great underlying principles of the Dem- 
ocratic party. He believes in the sa- 
credness of the Constitution which forms 
the union of the States, in maintaining 
our national honor at home and abroad, 
in the equality of American citizens, 
and, with President Cleveland, heartily 
endorses the doctrine that public office 
is a public trust. He is^ and has always 
been, a conservative Democrat. Al- 
though he was defeated for councillor 
in 1880, that was the year he was 
elected by his fellow-citizens of Gilman- 
ton to the office of selectman, succeed- 
ing in raising that most important office 
out of the realm of party politics and 
inaugurating a non-partisan board, which 

Hon. Thomas Cogswell. 


the town has continued to this day. At 
that time the town was then, as it is 
now, strongly RepubHcan, and this over- 
turn was only accompHshed after a 
hard fight. He was re-elected in i88r, 
and 1 882, during both of which years 
he served as chairman of the board. 
During his term of office the financial 
affairs of the town were straightened 
out and a system of reform inaugurated 
which saved money to the town and 
benefited everybody. For many years 
he has been a delegate to the State 
Conventions and other conventions of 
his party, and has always been ready 
and willing to serve his party on the 
stump. His own nomination in June, 
1886, although given by a very large 
majority on the first ballot, came unso- 
licited and apparently spontane- 
ously. This result was brought about 
by his very large circle of personal 
friends, men who know him, who be- 
lieve in him, who want to vote for him 
and who hope to elect him. They 
know his strength as a speaker, as an 
executive, as a man of affairs, and his 
great personal popularity. 


For many years Mr. Cogswell has 
been interested in educational affairs. 
Mention has been made of his service 
one year as superintending school com- 
mittee of Gilmanton. Since 186S he 
has been a member of the Board of 
Trustees of Gilmanton Academy. He 
has been President of the Board since 
the death of Judge Eastman, and is 
now its Treasurer. To the affairs of 
the institution he has given a great deal 
of time and attention. In no small de- 
gree is its increasing reputation owing 
to his interest in it. At all times he has 

been generous in helping students who 
are seeking an education. 


Since the death of his father in 1868 
he has had the charge of a farm of over 
four hundred acres, now^increased to 
five hundred acres, and this he has 
steadily improved, not only in its capac- 
ity for yielding crops, but in its build- 
ings, fences, and orchards. Its chief 
crop is hay, of which he cuts from sev- 
enty-five to one hundred tons annually. 
He winters from forty to sixty head of 
cattle, and keeps from six to ten horses. 
His cattle are Durham and Devon 
grades, well adapted to his hillside 
farm. His horses are of the Wilkes 
stock. Only a few sheep remain at 
present of what was formerly a large 
flock. For sixty-five years the farm 
has produced a crop of wheat, some- 
times amounting to one hundred bush- 
els ; and in 1869 he received a silver 
medal for the best wheat from the New 
Hampshire Agricultural Society. Corn, 
beans, potatoes, and vegetables enough 
are raised on the farm for home con- 
sumption. There is much valuable 
wood and timber land on the estate. 
Mr. Cogswell requires the services of 
two assistants through the whole year, 
and during the haying and harvest sea- 
sons of as many as are available. There 
is a system in all his farm operations, 
and for the last ten years that of calling 
ten hours' labor a day's work on his 
farm has been in force. This is true 
even in haying weather. His men are 
always well treated, and, as a matter of 
course, it is considered very desirable 
to obtain work on the Cogswell farm. 

Mr. Cogswell was one of the first 
members of the Board of Agriculture, 


Hon. Thomas Cogswell. 

and served two years, and as 
his successor named Professor Jere- 
miah W. Sanborn, who has since 
done so much to elevate the farm and 
the farmer. He was President of the 
Belknap County Agricultural Society in 
1883 and in 1884, and was a charter 
member of Crystal Lake Grange, num- 
ber one hundred and one. Patrons of 
Husbandry, of Gilmanton Iron Works, 
and has been its Lecturer since its for- 
mation. He takes especial pride in his 
horses, for one of which he took the 
first prize at the New England Fair a 
few years since. His farm, as a whole, 
is one of the best in the town of Gilman- 
ton, and is excelled by only a few in 
the State. It is good, strong land, and 
is very carefully cultivated. 


Mr. Cogswell was commissioned col- 
onel by Governor Weston. His fight- 
ing rank was captain, won on the field 
of battle at the age of twenty-two years, 
and very acceptable to him when used 
in addressing him by an old comrade 
of army days. The Colonel is a very 
generous man to his needy townsmen. 
Many good men are ready to help the 
" Lord's poor ; " Colonel Cogswell al- 
ways has a kind word and a helping 
hand and purse for that other kind of 
poor not so often in high favor. A ten- 
dollar bill, given or loaned at times by 
him, has saved many a poor fellow from 
trouble and distress of a serious nature. 
The Colonel is public-spirited. He 
supports all measures calculated to bet- 
ter his immediate locality, his native 
town, the State, or the nation. The 
village at the Iron Works has been im- 
proved and the value of property en- 
hanced by his efforts with others in 
erecting there a shoe factory, which 

gives employment to above one hundred 
operatives. His large house is the home 
for the whole family of Cogswells where- 
ever scattered, and his many personal 
friends are there hospitably entertained. 
For many years he has been a liberal 
supporter of the Congregational Church 
of Gilmanton Iron Works, of which so- 
ciety he is a member, and he attends 
meeting regularly every Sunday. He 
is a member of the executive commit- 
tee, which has charge of a fund of some 
I3500. He is not bigoted in his relig- 
ious views, however, but contributes to 
the support of the gospel in all the 
neighboring churches. He is a mem- 
ber of the John L. Perley, Jr., Post, 
No. 37, G. A. R., of Laconia, and has 
frequently been called upon to deliver 
Memorial Day addresses. He is a 
member of the Winnipisseogee Lodge, 
F. and A. Masons, of Alton, and for 
two years was Master of the Lodge. 
He possesses a retentive memory and 
is an eloquent speaker, his off-hand ad- 
dresses being especially pleasing to his 
audiences. He is a storehouse of facts 
relating to the early history of Gilman- 
ton and its pioneers, and is especially 
interested in genealogies and subjects 
of antiquarian interest. He is a man 
of large frame, large head, large heart, 
popular with all who know him and 
with all who'can appreciate a thoroughly 
good fellow. In the entertainment of 
company at his hospitable home he is 
ably seconded by his bright and viva- 
cious wife, who heartily enters into all 
plans and aspirations of the Colonel's 


The Cogswell family of America can 
trace their descent from John Cogswell, 

-*Large'y compiled from -'The Cogs- 

wells of America." by E. O. Jameson. 

Hon. Thomas Cogswell. 


the emigrant ancestor, who came to this 
country with his wife and family 'in 1635 
and settled in Ipswich, Massachusetts. 

I. John Cogswfxl, son of Edward 
and Alice Cogswell, and grandson of 
Robert and Alicia Cogswell, was born 
in 1592 in Westbury Leigh, County of 
Wilts, England. His father and his 
grandfather and his ancestors for gener- 
ations had been engaged in the manu- 
facture of woollen cloths in the neigh- 
borhood of his birthplace ; and mem- 
bers of the Cogswell family continue to 
this day making cloth in the same local- 
ity. He married, September 10, 16 15, 
Elizabeth Thompson, daughter of Rev. 
William and Phillis Thompson, and set- 
tled down in the old homestead. His 
parents died soon after his marriage, 
and he succeeded to the business. This 
business he carried on successfully for a 
score of years, when he was impelled 
to migrate with his family. Those were 
troublesome times in the mother coun- 
try, and the tide of emigration had al- 
ready commenced to flow towards the 
New England coast. With his wife, 
the daughter of the parish vicar of 
Westbury Leigh, and eight of their nine 
children, he embarked May 23, 1635, 
at Bristol, England, on the ship Angel 
Gabriel, to find the home of religious 
freedom in the new world. He had 
previously disposed of his " mylls, " his 
houses, his land, and his business, and 
took with him several farm and house- 
hold servants, an amount of valuable 
furniture, farming implements, house- 
keeping utensils, and a considerable 
sum of money. After a very long pas- 
sage the vessel approached the harbor 
of Pemaquid, on the coast of Maine, 
when, within sight of their haven, they 
were overtaken by a fearful gale, which 
made a wreck of the Angel Gabriel and 
caused the loss of much of Mr. Cogs- 

well's property. The whole family, 
however, reached the shore in safety. 
Mr. Cogswell soon after settled in Ips- 
wich, where he became a leading citizen, 
and died full of years and honors, No- 
vember 29, 1869. Mrs. Cogswell, who 
" was a woman of sterling qualities and 
dearly beloved by all wlx) knew her," 
died, June 2, 1676. 

II. William Cogswell, eldest son 
of John and Elizabeth (Thompson) 
Cogswell, was baptized in March, 1619, 
and came with his parents to America. 
He settled on the home place in Ips- 
wich, now in the town of Essex, Massa- 
chusetts, and was an influential and 
highly respected citizen. He married, 
in 1649, Susanna Hawkes, daughter of 
Adam and Mrs, Anne (Hutchinson) 
Hawkes. She was born in 1633, in 
Charlestown, Massachusetts, and died 
in 1696. He died December 15, 1700. 

III. Lieutenant John Cogswell, 
son of William and Susanna (Hawkes) 
Cogswell, was born May 12, 1665, in 
Chebacco, Ipswich, where he lived until 
his death. He was called to fill various 
public offices in the town and was a 
member of the church. He married 
before 1693 Hannah Goodhue, daugh- 
ter of Deacon William, Jr., and Han- 
nah (Dane) Goodhue. He died in 
1 710. Mrs. Cogswell, born July 4, 
1673, ^ft^"" ^'''*^ death of her first hus- 
band married in 1713 Lieutenant 
Thomas Perley. She died December 
25, 1742. 

IV. Nathaniel Cogswell, son of 
Lieutenant John and Hannah (Good- 
hue) Cogswell, was born January 19, 
1 707, in Chebacco Parish, Ipswich. He 
was three years old when his father 
died and in earlv bovhood entered a 
store in Haverhill, Massachusetts. He 
became a leading merchant and a prom- 
inent citizen of the town. He was a 


Hon. Thomas Coi^s^vell. 

man of integrity and business capacity, 
and was a devoted and efficient member 
of the church. He married January 
31, 1740, Judith Badger, daughter of 
Joseph and Hannah (Peaslee) Badger. 
Mrs. Cogswell was the only surviving 
daughter of her father, who was a mer- 
chant of Haverhill. She was born Feb- 
ruary 3, 1724, and died May 7, 1810. 
After a successful business life, Mr. 
Cogswell retired in 1766, and settled 
upon a farm in Atkinson, New Hamp- 
shire. He at once became active in 
religious and educational matters in the 
town. During the Revolutionary War 
his patriotism was declared by large 
loans of money to provide equipments 
and provisions for the soldiers. These 
loans of money, by reason of a depre- 
ciated currency, proved almost a total 
loss. Besides providing money Mr. 
Cogswell gave eight sons to the army 
who served with distinction and fulfilled 
an aggregate term of service of more 
than thirty-eight years. The aggregate 
height of these eight brothers was about 
fifty feet. They all survived the war and 
became prominent in professional and 
civil life. Mr. Cogswell died March 23, 


V. Dr. William Cogswell, son of 
Nathaniel and Judith (Badger) Cogs- 
well, was born July 11, 1760, in Haver- 
hill, Massachusetts. At the breaking 
out of the Revolution he entered the 
army at the age of fifteen years, enlist- 
ing in the company commanded by his 
older brother, Captain Thomas Cogs- 
well, in Colonel Baldwin's regiment. He 
served through the year 1776. For the 
next year he studied medicine and sur- 
gery with Dr. Nathaniel Peabody, at 
Atkinson. In 1 7 78 he served with Gen- 
eral Sullivan in Rhode Island. Havins: 
completed his medical studies he was 
appointed, July 19, 1781, surgeon's 

mate in the Military Hospital at West 
Point. 'January 5, 1784, he was pro- 
moted to the position of surgeon-in- 
chief of the hospital, and chief medical 
officer of the United States Army, 
June 20, 1784. Dr. Cogswell resigned 
September i, 1785, after five years' ser- 
vice, married, and settled in Atkinson, 
where he continued in the practice of 
his profession until his death, nearly 
half a century later. He was one of 
the original members of the New 
Hampshire Medical Society, which was 
incorporated in 1 791, and was appointed 
one of its nineteen Fellows by the Gen- 
eral Court. Many medical students 
were under his instruction. He was 
one of the founders of Atkinson Acad- 
emy, and a member and President of 
its Board of Trustees for many years. 
He gave the land on which the Acad- 
emy was erected. He married, July 22, 
1786, Judith Badger, daughter of Gen- 
eral Joseph and Hannah (Pearson) 
Badger, of Gilmanton. She was born 
May 15, 1766, and died September 30, 
1859. Dr. Cogswell died January i, 
1 83 ijleaving behind him a distinguished 
family of children. One of his daugh- 
ters was the wife of Governor William 

VI. Honorable Thomas Cogswell, 
son of Dr. William and Judith (Badger) 
Cogswell, and father of Honorable 
Thomas Cogswell, of Gilmanton, the 
subject of this sketch, was born Decem- 
ber 7, 1798, in Atkinson. He married, 
February 25, 1820, Mary Noyes, daugh- 
ter of James and Mary (Weston) 
Noyes, and settled and resided in Gil- 
manton until his death, nearly fifty years 
later. He was an extensive farmer, 
owning the homestead of his maternal 
grandfather, General Joseph Badger, 
which he increased to one thousand 
acres. He was a man of great influ. 

Hon. Lycurgiis Pitman. 


ence in the town and State. Mr, Cogs- 
well was justice of the peace some 
forty years, county treasurer, deputy 
sheriff, selectman, representative, judge 
of Court of Common Pleas, 1841- 
1855, of Belknap county, member of 
the Governor's Council in 1856, trustee 
of Gilmanton Academy and Theologi- 
cal Seminary, and deacon of the Con- 
gregational Church in Gilmanton Iron 
Works. For many years he was mod- 
erator of that stormy legislative assem- 
bly, the annual town-meeting, and his 
voice always commanded the attention 
and respect of that critical and exact- 
ing body of citizens. 

Mrs. Cogswell was born in Plaistow, 
April 25, 1 80 1. She died May 3, 1886. 
Mr. Cogswell died August 8, 1868. 

VII. Hon. Thomas Cogswell, son 
of Hon. Thomas and Mary (Noyes) 
Cogswell, was born February 8, 1841, 
in Gilmanton. He married, October 8, 
1873, Florence Mooers, daughter of 
Reuben D. and Betsey S. (Currier) 
Mooers. She was born July 21, 1851, 
in Manchester, N. H. 


Anna Mooers, born Sept. 17, 1874. 
Thomas, born November 23, 1875, 
Clarence Noyes, born Nov. 3, 1877. 

The firm of James R. Hill & Co. 
have lately been obliged to enlarge their 
accommodations in the city of Concord 
foi the manufacture of their Concord 
Harness, so much has their business in- 
creased. This is no doubt owing to 
their judicious advertising in the pages 

of the Gr-«^ite Monthly. The addi- 
tion to their premises is a two story 
brick block, already fully occupied by 
their skilled workmen making harness 
for every land and every people the sun 
shines upon. 



Hon. Lycurgus Pitman, of North 
Conway, the Democratic candidate for 
Senator in the Grafton District, Num- 
ber 2, is a young man of great business 
ability, always ready to forward any en- 
terprise that may be beneficial to the 
town or to the State. He is the son of 
G. W. M. Pitman, a lawyer of northern 
New Hampshire, and Emeline Pitman, 
and was born in Bartlett April 9, 184S. 
He received his education at the com- 
mon schools of his native town and 
North Conway, and as a young man 
was for several terms a successful 

teacher of youth. He finally embarked 
in business in 1870 as a pharmacist and 
settled in North Conway. He is an 
earnest Democrat, prominent in his 
party and ready to promote its interests 
in all legitimate ways. As a neighbor 
and townsman he is open handed and 
generous ; no one, irrespective of patty, 
ever called on him for assistance in 
vain. His circle of acquaintances, both 
in and out of the State, is large ; and 
no one in tliis section is better or more 
favorably known than he to the many 
tourists who annually visit the White 


Hon. Hosea B. Carter. 

Hills, and no one stands higher as a 
man, a citizen, and a gentleman, among 
his friends and intimates. 

He was married December 25, 1S70, 
to Lizzie I. Merrill, and their home is 
graced by three daughters, the oldest 
fourteen years of age. Mr. Pitman 
was one of the projectors of the North 
Conway & Mt. Kearsarge Railroad, is 
one of the directors, and is clerk of 
the corporation. 

During the last session of the Legis- 
lature Hon. Harry Bingham represented 
the district in the Senate, receiving 
3,074 votes, a plurality of 697 over his 
Republican antagonist, Joseph M. Jack- 
man, so we may naturally infer that Mr. 
Pitman's chances of election are well 
assured. Mr. Pitman is a genial, whole 
souled citizen, a Mason, an Odd Fel- 
low, and a Knight of Pythias. 


Hosea B. Carter; Democratic candi- 
date for State Senator in District Num • 
ber 21, is a resident of Harapstead, 
where he was born September 5, 1834. 
His education was obtained at the com- 
mon schools, and he was master of a 
good trade when he came of age. Tiring 
of home life he got employment as a 
canvasser, meeting with fair success. 
During the war he was active in helping 
towns fill their quotas, and in 1862 was 
keeping a hotel at Camp Stanton, Box- 
ford, Mass. Thence he went to Can- 
ada in the interests of the secret ser- 
vice, and had the pleasure of attending 
the Peace Conference at the Clifton 
House in 1864. He was at Montreal 
and St. Johns during the rebel raid into 
Vermont, the following year was an im- 
portant witness in the Mrs. Surratt trial 
in Washington. From 1865 to 1870 
he was superintendent of agencies for 
New England for the Singer Sewing 
Machine Co. In 1872 he opened a 
store for a short time in Concord, and 
that same year he became a disciple of 
Ruel Durkee, obtaining active employ- 
ment in the lobby. In 1876 he divided 
the State into councillor and senatorial 
Districts, giving the Republican party 

four of the five councillors and eight of 
the twelve senators. In 1879 he drew 
up the apportionment bill, displaying his 
statesmanship on that occasion, for the 
bill gives the Democratic towns a vote 
in the legislature in off years, while the 
Republican towns are fully represented 
when a United States Senator is to be 
chosen. He was also the author of the 
bill dividmg the State into 24 Districts, 
giving the Republicans sixteen senators. 
In iSSo he was chairman of the Com- 
mittee on Credentials in the Republi- 
can State Convention, and the next day 
held the same ofiice in the Democratic 
State Convention. He was postmaster 
at Hampstead from 1874 to 1879, rail- 
road commissioner for the Boston & 
Maine Railroad from 1876 to 1880. 
He is married and has two children and 
four grandchildren. His wife was Kate 
E. Martin, of Malone, N. Y. He was 
publishing in Haverhill in 1880 when 
he was burned out by the great fire ; 
since then he has represented a St. 
Louis Safe Co. He is remarkable for 
his knowledge of men and figures, and 
if elected to the Senate will be a heavy 

New Hampshire Fire Insurance Company. 




This engraving gives but a slight idea 
of the sound, solid, and substantial fire- 
proof building of the New Hampshire 
Fire Insurance Company at Manches- 
ter. The new building just completed 
is 30 feet front and 100 feet deep, situ- 
ate on the west side of Elm Street, 
nearly opposite the office formerly oc- 
cupied by the Company. The front is 
Nova Sc( tia sandstone lined with brick, 
the facade being of a modified Queen 

Anne style of architecture. The walls 
are of brick, 20 inches in thickness. 
The floors and roof are 12 inches thick, 
and of the most solid description. 
They are built of spruce plank, placed 
side by side and spiked together, and 
both underneath and above this plank- 
ing is a wire lathing and layer of asbes- 
tos paper. The first floor and base- 
ment are leased by a dry goods estab- 
lishment at a rental that pays the Com- 
pany fair interest on the investment. 

The northerly entrance leads by an 
easy flight of stairs to the second story, 
where is found a permanent home for 
the Company. Competent judges pro- 
nounce it one of the best arranged, 
best lighted and ventilated insurance 
offices in the country, specially adapted 
to the growing wants of the Company. 
The ofiice, or working room, is 100 
feet long by 30 wide, 14 feet stud. The 
front is lighted by one plate glass vvin- 
dow, 8x10 feet in size, and two, 5x8 
feet, and the rear in a similar way, and 
supplemented by two large turret sky- 
lights, furnishing the room with a flood 
of light. Four handsomely finished 
fire-places, one in each corner, furnish 
ample ventilation to this story. Over 
these fire-places are handsome mantles 
and large plate glass mirrors. This 
story is also amply supplied with lava- 
tories, closets and coat rooms, most 
conveniently arranged. Upon the south 
wall of the ofiice is«a row of cherry 
casings, 65 feet long and 14 feet high, 
divided into two sections, provided with 
sliding glass doors, and shelves and 
pigeon-holes to accommodate the accu- 
mulation of records and other docu- 


Nathaniel E. Martin. 

ments. The upper section is reached 
1)y means of a narrow balcony provided 
with a hand rail. All of the officers 
and clerks of the Company have desks 
in this room, each department of the 
business being arranged by itself. The 
desk at which the local business of the 
Company is transacted occupies a space 
upon the north side of the building, and 
the other desks are ranged in order in 
the south side of the room. The office 
is finished in whitewood with cherry 
trimmings, and the desks are of solid 
black walnut. The third story room is 
reached from the main office, and will 
be used by the Company for the storing 
of records, etc. This room is 54 feet 
in depth. 

The plans for the building were pre- 
pared by Col. J. T. Fanning, and the 

building has been constructed under 
the personal direction of the architect. 
Head & Dowst were the contractors. 
The building is heated thoroughly by 
steam from a large boiler located in the 
basement. The work throughout is of 
a character to reflect the utmost credit 
upon those by whom it was performed. 
The building in its manner of construc- 
tion is a new departure for the city and 
State, being the first absolutely fire- 
proof structure of the kind to be 
erected. It will undoubtedly mark a 
new era in the construction of the bet- 
ter class of mercantile blocks in New 
Hampshire. Here in their new home 
the Company solicit increased business 
and will gladly welcome agents, patrons, 
members of the insurance fraternity, 
and all who will make a friendly call. 


Nathaniel E. Martin, Democratic 
candidate for Solicitor of Merrimack 
county, is a widely and favorably known 
young lawyer of Concord, whose en- 
ergy, solid legal attainments and faith- 
fulness to the interests of his clients 
have been rapidly advancing him in the 
estimation of the business men of the 
State. He has already built up a very 
extensive and lucrative practice, and 
commands the respect of the whole 
community. His paternal ancestors 
were among the first settlers of London- 
derry. Nathaniel Martin and his son, 
William Martin, migrated from the north 
of Ireland and settled in Londonderry 
in the early part of the eighteenth cen- 
tury. James Martin, the son of Wil- 
liam Martin, was a soldier in the Conti- 
nental army during the Revolution, and 
settled on Buck Street, in the town of 
Pembroke. Gov. Noah Martin was a 

descendant of his. Nathaniel Martin, 
a son of James Martin and grandfather 
of Nathaniel E. Martin settled in Lou- 
don in 1808. 

Nathaniel E. Martin, son of Theoph- 
ilus B. and Sarah L. (Rowell) Martin, 
was born in Loudon, August 9, 1855 ; 
was educated in the common schools 
of his native town and in the Concord 
High School, his family having moved 
to Concord in 1870; read law with 
Tappan & Albin, and was admitted to 
the bar in 1879. 

From the first he has been a perse- 
vering and industrious lawyer, winning 
many friends and keeping them. By 
his brother lawyers he is considered well 
read, and he has one of the finest pri- 
vate legal libraries in the State. He 
has been called upon to settle many es- 
tates, and with his partner, John H. Al- 
bin, Esquire, he enjoys his share of the 

C apt. John McClintock. 


legal business of Concord and Merri- an officer of the Grand Lodge of New 

mack county. Mr. Martin is well read Hampshire. We regret to add that Mr. 

on a great variety of subjects outside Martin is still a bachelor, but that is a 

of his profession, and has developed a fault which we hope may be soon cor- 

taste for historical studies which he is rected, and he need not go outside of 

cultivating. He is an Odd Fellow, a Merrimack county to choose a fair 

Past Grand of a Concord Lodge and bride. 


We cannot but regret the loss of a 
life in youth and middle age, but when 
the allotted span of life is fully com- 
pleted, we bow to the inexorable law of 
nature and lay our loved ones away 
with their kindred, shed tears over their 
graves, and build a monument to per- 
petuate their memory. A man's life, 
however, is but a single link in the fam- 
ily history, in the countless generations 
which have preceded him, and in the 
generations which will live after him. 
His acts and his character make an im- 
pression on his surroundings ; and as 
his forefathers are in great measure re- 
sponsible for his personality, so also he 
impresses and stamps his descendants 
with qualities and characteristics pecu- 
liar to himself. In sketching a man's 
life, therefore, it is but just to give the 
meagre details obtainable of his fore- 
fathers, their surroundings, their actions, 
and their character. 

The origin of the McClintock family 
is lost in antiquity. The coat-of-arms 
of the Irish branch translated means 
that some member of the family went 
on several pilgrimages to the Holy Land 
and was in command of a body of 
horsemen in two or more of the cru- 
sades. The ermine indicates the descent 
of the family from royalty. The motto 
is Virtuie et Lahore. The family is of 
Scotch origin. In the north of Ireland, 

where a branch of the family has been 
settled for over three hundred years, 
there are six distinct families of the 
name enumerated with the English gen- 
try. The best known of this branch is 
Sir Francis Leopold McClintock, the 
Arctic explorer, who discovered the 
traces and fate of Sir John Franklin's 

I. William McClintock, the progen- 
itor of the New England branch of the 
family, was born in Scotland about 1670, 
migrated at an early age to the north of 
Ireland, and was engaged in the mem- 
orable defense of Londonderry in 1689. 
He came to America about 1730 and 
settled in Medford, Mass., before 1732. 
He was an industrious farmer, busy with 
Scotch thrift in increasing his property, 
and not entering into the politics of the 
day. He was married three times be- 
fore migrating, and his third wife ac- 
companied him to New England. He 
was married a fourth time in this coun- 
try, was the father of nineteen children, 
and died at the age of ninety, about 
1760. He belonged to the Presbyte- 
rian church and was the father of the 
Rev. Samuel McClintock, d. d., of 
Greenland, N, H., an ancestor of the 
Rev. John McClintock, d. d., of Phila- 
delphia, and of the New Hampshire 
branch of the family. 

II. William McClintock and his 


Cap/. John McClintock. 

wife, Jane, settled in Medford for a few 
years after their marriage. Upon her 
death he moved to Boothbay, in the 
District of Maine, where he married 
Margaret Fullerton, March ii, 1770, 
the New Hampshire Legislature voted 
"giving leave to William McClintock, 
of Boothbay, in the State of Massachu- 
setts, to export 70 bushels of corn for 
said Boothbay." He died June 3, 
1779, aged 49 years, of yellow fever. 

HI. William McClintock, born in 
Boothbay September 26, 1778, com- 
menced his sea-faring life at the age of 
seventeen and pursued that calling for 
forty years. In i 798 he was mate with 
Capt. Dickey, in the schooner Hester, 
bound to Bristol from the West Indies. 
She was captured August 18 by a French 
privateer and a prize crew put aboard. 
The vessel was recovered by her old 
crew, who overpowered their captors 
and completed her voyage to Bristol. 
The Frenchmen accepted the situation 
so gracefully and behaved so' well that 
the intention was not to deliver them 
up to the authorities, but they were 
found out and lodged in Wiscasset jail. 
While there Capt. McClintock supplied 
the officer with clothing and made him 
as comfortable as possible. On a sub- 
sequent voyage, while master of the 
sloop Hunter, Capt. McClintock was 
overhauled by a French privateer, who 
boarded him in his own boat. The of- 
ficer no sooner stepped on deck than 
he seized the captain, hugged and kissed 
him, and began to inquire for people in 
Bristol. He was his old friend, the 
prize officer of the Hester, who suffered 
him and his vessel to go in peace. 

In October, 1800, while master of 
the sloop Hunter, from the West Indies 
to Bristol, Capt. McClintock providen- 
tially rescued from death a portion of 
the crew of the Galgo, a wrecked Brit- 

ish sloop-of-war. Of 121 but 29 were 
saved. A few days later, October 12, 
the Hunter was hove to by an armed 
vessel under Spanish colors that took 
two puncheons of rum from the cargo, 
robbed the vessel of spare cordage, 
twine, arms and other things, and left 
her. Next day the same cruiser hove 
the Hunter to again and took another 
puncheon of rum, leaving word that if 
he fell in with the vessel the next day 
he would take two more. What the 
real character of this queer craft was 
Capt. McClintock never knew, but he 
was certainly what the sailors call "a 
rum customer." Probably he was one 
of those cruisers that were either priva- 
teer or pirate, as opportunity offered. 
For some years Capt. McClintock sailed 
a sloop packet between Ireland and the 
United States. 

Capt McClintock enjoyed the high- 
est respect and confidence of all with 
whom he was associated in business, and 
was a remarkably successful commander. 
No vessel under his command was 
wrecked or seriously damaged. In the 
intervals of his sea life Capt. McClin- 
tock filled various offices of trust con- 
ferred by his fellow citizens. His pro- 
ficiency in mathematics was such that 
when disputes arose between the pro- 
prietors of Bristol and the settlers he 
was selected as referee, and made a 
survey of the whole town, which quieted 
the differences and marks the bounda- 
ries of lots to this day. He held jus- 
tice commissions from Gov. Gerry in 
1810 and from Gov. Brooks in 1817. 
He was a member of the Massachu- 
setts Legislature in 1809, iSio and 
181 1. When Maine separated from 
Massachusetts in 1820, he was a mem- 
ber of the convention that formed a 
constitution for the new State. He was 
twice a member of the Maine Legisla- 

Capt. John AfcC/intock. 


ture, the last time in 1835. He held a 
commission in the custom house under 
Collectors Farley and McCobb. Capt. 
McClintock was a man of deep religious 
feeling. It was his custcm 'O have 
daily prayers on board his vessel, and 
to discourage profanity and every form 
of irreligion and vice. A man of tem- 
perate life and regular habits, he enjoyed 
vigorous health almost to his latest days, 
and his mental faculties' were strong and 
clear to the last. To such a man death 
could have neither terrors nor pangs.  
In calmness he awaited the hour of dis- 
solution. He died March 18, 1875, in 
his ninety-seventh year. [The above 
account of Capt. William xMcClintock 
is condensed from an article in the Re- 
publican Journal, of Belfast, Me.] 

He was very much interested in his- 
torical subjects, and his retentive mem- 
ory was stored with facts and traditions. 
A delegation of the Maine Historical 
Society visited him after he was eighty 
years of age and gained many impor- 
tant facts from oblivion. With his 
young grandson he would start off for 
a week's cruise over the winding roads 
of the old town of Bristol, and would 
make every moment interesting by sto- 
ries and legends. Old Pemaquid was 
a source of never failing interest to 
him, and all the inlets and points about 
the bay were crowded with memories. 
He always maintained that the settle- 
ment founded at the old fort before 
Jamestown was settled was permanent 
and therefore first in the thirteen colo- 
nies. Many historians and antiquarians 
now believe as he did. The old tomb- 
stone at the fort dated 1694 is of one 
of his ancestors. 

IV. John McClintock, born in Bris- 
tol, Maine, April 9, 1807, died in Chel- 
sea, September 8, 1886. He was the 
second son of William and Francis 

(Young) McClintock, and on his moth- 
er's side a direct descendant of John 
Rogers, the martyr. His boyhood was 
passed on his father's farm and on 
the adjacent ocean, and he was at home 
on either. His education was received 
at the district schoolhouse, and so well 
did he improve his opportunities that 
he taught school seven winters while a 
young man. His natural bent was to 
follow the sea, and soon after he was 
twenty-one he was in command of a 
coaster. In 1833 he bought an interest 
in the Eliza, the first of a long list of 
vessels of which he owned a part. 
There was the Increase, the Mary and 
Susan, Araxene, Briganza, Genesee, 
Narcoochee, Roderick Dhu, Medal- 
lion, Dashaway, Harry Hammond, 
Clara and Hattie — making his last voy- 
age in the latter vessel in 1880, — anal- 
most continuous sea service of fifty- 
three years. During those years he 
had several times circumnavigated the 
globe and has been into nearly every 
foreign and domestic port. He was a 
very fortunate ship master, never hav- 
ing lost a vessel. 

He was a skilful navigator and appre- 
ciated the science of taking advantage 
of winds and currents to help him on 
his way. He was popular with his 
brother sea captains and generous to 
all in distress. He was a very modest 
man, shunning evil, honorable in all his 
dealings, scrupulously honest in all his 
business relations. He was fond of 
music, a game of whist, a good story, 
and good company generally. He was 
deferential in his treatment of ladies, 
his manner being courtly, if a little old- 
fashioned. He reveled in good books. 
The standard authors, from Herodotus 
to Dickens, were familiar to him. He 
found delight in the conceptions of the 
poets, and had such a retentive mem- 


Cap/. John McClintock. 

ory that he would quote page after page 
from his favorite author. His voyages 
up the Mediterranean Sea gave Hfe to 
the ancient writers whose works he ea- 
gerly read from the best translations, 
and he was a critic on classical literature. 
As a matter of course he was an ad- 
vanced student in mathematics. One 
winter, when he was ice-bound, he at- 
tended for several weeks the lectures at 
a Connecticut college, and always re- 
gretted his lack of opportunity to take 
the whole course. 

As a ship master he was kind to his 
men and to his junior officers, helping 
them to become thorough sailors and 
navigators. Young men up the Ken- 
nebec River considered it a great priv- 
ilege to ship for a voyage with Capt. 
McClintock, and sometimes half a 
dozen youths of good families would 
be in his crew. In his prime he was a 
very athletic and powerful man physi- 
cally ; his muscles were of iron. His 
chief officer once said that the captain 
could, single-handed, handle the whole 
crew of a score or more of men. He 
was a very strong man. He was an in- 
defatigable reader as shown by his read- 
ing consecutively the whole of .A.pple- 

ton's Encyclopaedia. As a citizen he 
was highly respected in Hallowell where 
he passed the most of his married life. 
He was liberal to the church, to fellow- 
mariners, to all in need of aid. He 
gave first and made inquiries afterwards. 

In the domestic relations Capt. Mc- 
Clintock was a dutiful and respectful 
son, a brother ever thoughtful of his 
sisters and brothers, a devoted and af- 
fectionate husband, proud of his home, 
considerate in every act, and a model 
father, tender, loving, indulgent and 
forgiving. He gave his children the 
benefit of true counsel and prudent ex- 
ample, and early inculcated in them the 
principles of truthfulness, sobriety, 
manly courage, honor and honesty. 
He placed a good name above riches. 
He encouraged each of them to obtain 
a liberal education. 

He was of high rank in the Masonic 
fraternity, a Knight Templar well skilled, 
and an authority in the usages and in 
several of the mystic rites. For many 
years he was a member of the Metho- 
dist Episcopal Church, but very liberal 
in his creed, believing in the goodness 
and justice of his Heavenly Father. 
(Continued on page 240.) 

In this age of sharp competition, 
when every line of business is crowded 
to its utmost capacity, the merchant 
must not only fill his stores with wares 
calculated to please the people, in both 
quality and price, but he must announce 
his bargains and inducements clearly 
and forcibly to the community from 

which he expects his trade. We try to 
conform ourselves to facts, and when 
we assure our readers that E. W. Wil- 
lard & Co., Concord, have an extra nice 
stock, we speak the plain, unvarnished 
truth. Read their advertisement in this 

The Old Stores and the Post-Office of Groton. 



By the Hon. Samuel Abbott Green, M.D. 

TRAcrnoN has preserved little or 
nothing in regard to the earliest trading 
stores of Groton. It is probable, how- 
ever, that they were kept in dwelling- 
houses, by the occupants, who sold 
articles in common use for the conven- 
ience of the neighborhood, and at the 
same time pursued their regular voca- 

Jonas Cutler was keeping a shop on 
the site of Mr. Gerrish's store, before 
the Revolution; and the following 
notice, signed by him, appears in 
The Massachusetts Gazette (Boston), 
November 28, 1768 : — 


Whereas on the 19th or 20th Night of 
November Instant, the Shop of the Sub- 
scriber was broke open in Groton, and 
from thence was stoUen a large Sum of 
Cash, viz. four Half Johannes, two 
Guineas, Two Half Ditto, One Pistole 
miird, nine Crowns, a Considerable Num- 
ber of Dollars, with a considerable Quan- 
tity of small Silver & Copper, together 
with one Bever Hat, about fifteen Yards of 
Holland, eleven Bandannas, blue Ground 
with white, twelve red ditto with white, 
Part of a Piece of Silk Romails, i Pair 
black Worsted Hose, i strip'd Cap, 8 or 
10 black barcelona Handkerchiefs, Part 
of a Piece of red silver'd Ribband, blue & 
white do. Part of three Pieces of black 
Sattin Ribband, Part of three Pieces of 
black Tafferty ditto, two bundles of 
Razors, Part of 2 Dozen Penknives, Part 
of 2 Dozen ditto with Seals, Part of i 
Dozen SnuflF Boxes, Part of 3 Dozen Shoe 
Buckels, Part of several Groce of Buttons, 
one Piece of gellow [yellow ?] Ribband, 

with sundry Articles not yet known of 

Whoever will apprehend the said Thief or 
Thieves, so that he or they may be brought 

to Justice, shall receive TEN DOLLARS 
Reward and all necessary Charges paid. 


Groton, Nov. 22, 1763 [8 ?]. 

^^ If any of the above mentioned 
Articles are offered to Sail, it is desired 
they may be stop'd with the Thief, and 
Notice given to said Cutler or to the 

On October 21, 1773, a noted burg- 
lar was hanged in Boston for various 
robberies committed in different parts 
of the State, and covering a period of 
some years. The unfortunate man was 
present at the delivery of a sermon, 
preached at his own request, on 
the Sunday before his execution ; and 
to many of the printed copies is ap- 
pended an account of his life. In it 
the poor fellow states that he was only 
twenty-one years old, and that he was 
bom at Groton of a respectable family. 
He confesses that he broke into Mr. 
Cutler's shop, and took away " a good 
piece of broad-cloth, a quantity of silk 
mitts, and several pieces of silk hand- 
kerchiefs." He was hardly seventeen 
years of age at the time of this burg- 
lary. To the present generation it 
would seem cruel and wicked to hang 
a misguided youth for offences of this 

Mr. Cutler died December 19, 1782 ; 
and he was succeeded in business by 
Major Thomas Gardner, who erected 
the present building known as Gerrish's 
block, which is soon to be removed. 
Major Gardner lived in the house now 
owned by the Waters family. 

Near the end of the last century a 
store, situated a little north of the late 


The Old Stores and the Post-Office of Groton. 

Mr. Dix's house, was kept by James 
Brazer, which had an extensive trade 
for twenty miles in different directions. 
'•'It was here that the late Amos Law- 
rence served an apprenticeship of seven 
years, which ended on April 22, 1807 ; 
and he often spoke of his success in 
business as due, in part, to the expe- 
rience in this store. Late in life he 
wrote that " the knowledge of every-day 
affairs- which I acquired in my business 
apprenticeship at Groton has been a 
source of pleasure and profit even in 
my last ten years' discipline." 

The quantity of New-England rum 
and other liquors sold at that period 
would astonish the temperance people 
of the present day. Social drinking was 
then a common practice, and each fore- 
noon some stimulating beverage was 
served up to the customers in order to 
keep their trade. There were five 
clerks employed in the establishments ; 
and many years later Mr. Lawrence, in 
giving advice to a young student in 
college, wrote : — 

*' In the first place, take this for your 
motto at the commencement of your 
journey, that the difference oi%Qvs\gjust 
right, or a little wrong, will be the 
difference of finding yourself in good 
quarters, or in a miserable bog or slough, 
at the end of it. Of the whole number 
educated in the Groton stores for some 
years before and after myself, no one 
else, to my knowledge, escaped the bog 
or slough ; and my escape I trace to 
the simple fact of my having put a 
restraint upon my appetite. We five 
boys were in the habit, every forenoon, 
of making a drink compounded of rum, 
raisins, sugar, nutmeg, &c., with biscuit, 
— all palatable to eat and drink. After 
being in the store four weeks, I found 
myself admonished by my appetite of 
the approach of the hour for indulgence. 

Thinking the habit might make trouble 
if allowed to grow stronger, without 
further apology to my seniors I declined 
partaking with them. My first resolu- 
tion was to abstain for a week, and, when 
the week was out, for a month, and 
then for a year. Finally, I resolved to 
abstain for the rest of my apprentice- 
ship, which was for five years longer. 
During that whole period, I never drank 
a spoonful, though I mixed gallons daily 
for my old master and his customers." * 
The following advertisement is found 
in the Columbian Centinel (Boston), 
June 8, 1805 : — 

James Brazer, 

Would inform the public that having dis- 
solved the Copartnership lately subsisting 
between AARON BROWN, Esq. SAM- 
UEL HALE and the subscriber; he has 
taken into Copartnership his son WIL- 
LIAM F. BRAZER, and the business in 
future will be transacted under the firm of 

They will offer for sale, at their store in 
Groton, within six days a complete assort- 
ment of English, India, and W. India 
GOODS, which they will sell for ready 
pay, at as low a rate as any store in the 

Groton, May 29, 1803. 


"'Squire Brazer," as he was gener- 
ally called, was a man of wealth and 
position. He was one of the founders 
of Groton Academy, and his subscrip- 
tion of ;!^i5 to the building-fund in the 
year 1792 was as large as that given, 
by any other person. In the early part 
of this century he built the house now 
belonging to the Academy and situated 
just south of it, where he lived until his 
death, which occurred on November 10, 
i8i8. His widow, also, took a deep 
interest in the institution, and at her 

* Diary and Correspondence of Amos Lawrence, pages 
24, 25- 

Tlie Old Stores and the Post-Office of Groton. 197 

decease, April 14, 1826, bequeathed to style of the firm being Woods and Bout- 
it nearly five thousand dollars. well. Mr. Woods died on January 12, 

After Mr. Brazer's death the store 1841 ; and he was succeeded by his 

was moved across the street, where it surviving partner, who carried on the 

still remains, forming the ell of Gerrish's store for a long time, even while 

block. The post-ofiice was in the north holding the highest executive position 

end of it, during Mr. Butler's term as in the State. The post-office was in 

postmaster. About this time the son, this building during the years 1839 

William Farwell Brazer, built a store and 1840. For the past twenty- five 

nearly opposite to the Academy, which years it has been occupied by various 

he kept during some years. It was firms, and now is kept by D. H. Shat- 

made finally into a dwelling-house, and tuck and Company, 

occupied by the late Jeremiah Kilburn, During the last war with England, 

whose family still own it. Eliphalet Wheeler had a store where 

James Brazer's house was built on Miss Betsey Capell, in more modem 
the site of one burnt down during the times, kept a haberdasher's shop. It 
winter season a year or two previously, is situated opposite to the Common, 
There was no fire-engine then in town, and now used as a dwelling-house, 
and the neighbors had to fight the She was the daughter of John Capell, 
flames, as best they could, with snow who owoied the sawmill and gristmill, 
as well as water. At that time Loammi which formerly stood near the present 
Baldwin, Jr., a graduate of Harvard site of the Tileston and HoUingsworth 
College in the class of 1800, was a paper-mills, on the Great Road, north 
law-student in Timothy Bigelow's office, of the village. Afterward Wheeler and 
He had a natural taste for mechanics ; his brother, Abner, took Major Thomas 
and he was so impressed with the need Gardner's store, where he was followed 
of an engine that with his own hands by Park and Woods, Park and Potter, 
he constructed the first one the town Potter and Gerrish, and lastly by Charles 
ever had. This identical machine, now Gerrish, who has kept it for more than 
kno%vn as Torrent, No. i, is still service- thirty years. It is said that this build- 
able after a use of more than eighty ing will soon give way to modem im- 
years, and will throw a stream of water provements. 

over the highest roof in the village. It Near the beginning of the present 
was made in Jonathan Loring's shop, century there were three military corn- 
then opposite to Mr. Boynton's black- panics in town ; the Artillery company, 
smith shop, where the iron work was commanded at one time by Captain 
done. The tub is of copper, and bears James Lewis ; the North company by 
the date of 1802. Mr. Baldwin, soon Captain Jonas Gilson; and the South 
after this time, gave up the profession company by Captain Abel Tarbell. 
of law, and became, like his father, a Two of these officers were soon pro- 
distinguished civil engineer. moted in the regimental service : Cap- 

The brick store, opposite to the tain Tarbell to a colonelcy, and Captain 
High School, was built about the year Lewis to a majorate. Captain Gilson 
1836, by Henry Woods, for his own resigned, and was succeeded by Cap- 
place of business, and afterward kept tain Noah Shattuck. They had their 
by him and George S. Boutwell, the spring and fall training- days, when they 


The Old Stores and the Post-Offi,ce of Groton. 

drilled as a battalion on the Common, 
— there were no trees there, then, — 
and marched through the village. 
They formed a very respectable com- 
mand, and sometimes would be drawn 
up before Esquire Brazer's store, and 
at other times before Major Gardner's, 
to be treated with toddy, which was 
then considered a harmless drink. 

David Child had a store, about the 
beginning of the century, at the south 
corner of Main and Pleasant Streets, 
nearly opposite to the site of the Ortho- 
dox meeting-house, though Pleasant 
Street was not then laid out. It was 
afterward occupied by Deacon Jona- 
than Adams, then by Artemas Wood, 
and lastly by Milo H. Shattuck. This 
was moved off twelve or fifteen years 
ago, and a spacious building put up, a 
few rods north, on the old tavern site 
across the way, by Mr. Shattuck, who 
still carries on a large business. 

Alpheus Richardson kept a store, 
about the year 18 15, in his dwelling- 
house, at the south comer of Main and 
Elm Streets, besides Ij^aving a book- 
bindery in the same building. The 
binder's shop was continued until about 
1850. It is said that this house was 
built originally by Colonel James 
Prescott, for the use of his son, Abijah, 
as a store ; but it never was so occu- 

Joseph and Phineas Heraenway built 
a store on the north corner of Main 
and Elm Streets, about the year 18 15, 
where they carried on a trading busi- 
ness. They were succeeded by one 
Richardson, then by David Childs; 
and finally by John Spalter, who had 
for many years a bookstore and binder's 
shop in the building, which is now used 
as a dwelling-house. At the present 
time Mr. Spalter is living in Keene, 
New Hampshire. 

About the year 1826, General 
Thomas A. Staples built and kept a 
store on Main Street, directly north of 
the Union Church. He was followed 
successively by Benjamin Franklin Law- 
rence, Henry Hill, and Walter Shattuck. 
The building was burned down about 
ten years ago, and its site is now occu- 
pied by Dr. David R. Steere's house. 

In the year 1847 ^ large building 
was moved firom HolUs Street to the 
comer of Main and Court Streets. 
It was put up originally as a meeting- 
house for the Second Adventists, or 
Millerites as they were called in this 
neighborhood, after William Miller, one 
of the founders of the sect; but after 
it was taken to the new site, it was fitted 
up in a commodious manner, with 
shops in the basement and a spacious 
hall in the second story. The building 
was known as Liberty Hall, and formed 
a conspicuous structure in the village. 
The post-office was kept in it, while 
Mr. Lothrop and Mr. Andruss were the 
postmasters. It was used as a shoe 
shop, a grocery, and a bakery, when, 
on Sunday, March 31, 1878, it was 
bumed to the ground. 

The brick store, owned by the Dix 
family, was built and kept by Aaron 
Brown, near the beginning of the 
century. He was followed by Moses 

Parker, and after him came and 

Merriam, and then Benjamin P. Dix. 
It is situated at the comer of Main 
Street and Broad-Meadow Road, and 
now used as a dwelling-house. A very 
good engraving of this building is given 
in The Groton Herald, May 8, 1830, 
which is called by persons who remem- 
ber it at that time a faithful representa- 
tion, though it has since undergone 
some changes. 

Near the end of the last century. 
Major Wilham Swan traded in the 

The Old Stores and the Post-Office of Groton. 


house now occupied by Charles Wool- 
ley, Jr., north of the Common near 
the old burying-ground. It was Major 
Swan who set out the elm-trees in front 
of this house, which was the Reverend 
Dr. Chaplin's dwelling for many years. 

Two daughters of Isaac Bowers, a 
son of Landlord Bowers, had a dry- 
goods shop in the house owned and 
occupied by the late Samuel W, Rowe, 
Esq. About the year 1825, Walter 
Shattuck opened a store in the building 
originally intended for the Presbyterian 
Church, opposite to the present en- 
trance of the Groton Cemetery. There 
was formerly a store kept by one Mr. 
Lewis, near the site of Captain Asa Still- 
man Lawrence's house, north of the 
Town Hall. There was a trader in town, 
Thomas Sackville Tufton by name, who 
died in the year 1778, though I do not 
know the site of his shop. Captain 
Samuel Ward, a native of Worcester, 
and an officer in the French and 
Indian War, was engaged in business 
at Groton some time before the Rev- 
olution. He removed to Lancaster, 
where at one time he was town- clerk, 
and died there on August 14, 1826. 

The Groton post-office was estab- 
lished at the very beginning of the pres- 
ent century, and before that time let- 
ters intended for this town were sent 
through private hands. Previous to 
the Revolution there were only a few 
post-offices in the Province, and often 
persons in distant parts of Massachu- 
setts received their correspondence at 
Boston. In the Supplement to The 
Boston Gazette, February 9, 1756, 
letters are advertised as remaining un- 
called for, at the Boston office, ad- 
dressed to William Lakin and Abigail 
Parker, both of Groton, as well as to 
Samuel Manning, Townsend, William 

Gleany, Dunstable, and Jonathan Law- 
rence, Littleton. Nearly five months 
afterward these same letters are adver- 
tised in The Boston Weekly News- 
Letter, July i, 1756, as still uncalled 
for. The name of David Famum, 
America, appears also in this list, and 
it is hoped that wherever he was he 
received the missive. The names of 
Oliver Lack (probably intended for 
Lakin) and Ebenezer Parker, both of 
this town, are given in another list 
printed in the Gazette of June 28, 
1763; and in the same issue one is 
advertised for Samuel Starling, America. 
In the Supplement to the Gazette, 
October 10, 1768, Ebenezer Farns- 
worth, Jr., and George Peirce, of 
Groton, had letters advertised ; and in 
the Gazette, October 18, 1773, the 
names of Amos Famsworth, Jonas 
Farnsworth, and William Lawrence, all 
of this town, appear in the list. 

I find no record of a post-rider pass- 
ing through Groton, during the period 
immediately preceding the establish- 
ment of the post-office ; but there was 
doubtless such a person who used to 
ride on horseback, equipped with sad- 
dle-bags, and delivered at regular inter- 
vals the weekly newspapers and letters 
along the way. In the year 1 794, ac- 
cording to the History of New Ipswich, 
New Hampshire (page 129), a post- 
rider, by the name of Balch, rode from 
Boston to Keene one week and back 
the next. Probably he passed through 
this town, and served the inhabitants 
with his favors. 

Several years ago I procured, through 
the kindness of General Charles Dev- 
ens, at that time a member of President 
Hayes's cabinet, some statistics of the 
Groton post-office, which are contained 
in the following letter : — 


The Old Stores and the Post-Office of Groton. 

Post-Office Department, Appointment Office, 
Washington, D. C, September 3, 1877. 

Hon. Charles Deveks, Attorney-General, Department 
of Justice. 

Sir, — I have to acknowledge the receipt 
of a communication from Samuel A. Green, 
of Boston, Massachusetts, with your en- 
dorsement thereon, requesting to be fur- 
nished with a list of postmasters at the 
office of Groton, in that State, from the 
date of its establishment to the present 

In reply, I have the honor to inform you, 
that the fire which consumed the depart- 
ment building, on the night of the fifteenth 
of December, 1836, destroyed three of the 
earliest record-books of this office; but 
by the aid of the auditor's ledger-books, 
it is ascertained that the office began to 
render accounts on the first of January, 
1 80 1, but the exact day is not known. 
Samuel Dana was the first postmaster, 
and the following list furnishes the history 
of the office, as shown by the old records. 

Groton, Middlesex County, Massachu- 
setts. Office probably established in 

November, 1800. Samuel Dana began 

rendering accounts January i, 1801. 

Wm. M. Richardson, October i, 1804, 
From this time the exact dates are 


Abraham Moore, appointed postmaster Jan- 
uary 31, 1812. 

Eliphalet Wheeler, August 20, 1815. 

James Lewis, September 9, 18 15. 

Caleb Butler, July i, 1826. 

Henry Woods, January 15, 1839. 

George S. Boutwell, January 22, 1841. 

Caleb Butler, April 15, 1841. 

Welcome Lothrop, December 21, 1846. 

Artemas Wood, February 22-, 1849. 

George H. Brown, May 4, 1849. 

Theodore Andruss, April il, 1853. 

George W. Fiske, April 22, 1861. 

Henry Woodcock, February 13, 1867. 

Miss Hattie E. Farnsworth, June 11, 1869, 
who is the present incumbent. 

Each postmaster held the office up to 
the appointment of his successor, but it is 
probable that Mr. Boutwell and Mr. A. 
Wood, although regularly appointed, did 

not accept, judging by the dates of the 
next postmasters. 

As to the "income" of the office, to 
which allusion is made, it is very difficult 
to obtain any of the amounts ; but the 
first year and the last year are herewith 
appended, as follows : — 

(1 80 1) Fiscal Year (1876) 

First quarter, $1.91 
Second ,, 2.13 

Third „ 2.93 

Fourth ,, 5.29 

For the year, $12.26 

First quarter, $314.15 
Second ,, 296.94 
Third „ 3057i 
Fourth ,, 294.28 

Forthey'r, $1,211.08 

Trusting the foregoing, which is believed 
to be correct, will be acceptable to you, I 
am, sir, respectfully, 

Your ob't serv't, 

Acting First Ass't P.M. General. 

It will be seen that the net income of 
the office, during the first seventy-five 
years of its existence, increased one 
hundred fold. 

West Groton is a small settlement 
that has sprung up in the western part 
of the town, dating back in its history 
to the last century. It is pleasantly 
situated on the banks of the Squanna- 
cook River, and in my boyhood was 
known as Squannacook, a much better 
name than the present one. It is to 
be regretted that so many of the old 
Indian words, which smack of the 
region, should have been crowded out 
of our local nomenclature. There is 
a small water-power here, and formerly 
a sawmill, gristmill, and a paper-mill 
were in operation ; but these have now 
given way to a factory, where leather- 
board is made. The Peterborough and 
Shirley branch of the Fitchburg Rail- 
road passes through the place, and 
some local business is transacted in the 
neighborhood. As a matter of course, 
a post-office was needed in the village, 
and one was established on March 19, 

The Old Stores and the Post-Office of Grot on. 

20 1 

1850. The first person to fill the 
office was Adams Archibald, a native 
of Truro, Nova Scotia, who kept it in 
the railway-station. 

The following is a list of the post- 
masters, with the dates of their appoint- 
ment : — 

Adams Archibald, March 19, 1850. 
Edmund Blood, May 25, 1868. 
Charles H. Hill, July 31, 1871. 
George H. Bixby, June, 1S78. 

During the postraastership of Mr. 
Blood, and since that time, the office 
has been kept at the only store in the 

A post-office was established at South 
Groton, on June i, 1849, ^"^^ the first 
postmaster was Andrew B. Gardner. 
The village was widely known as 
Groton Junction, and resulted from the 
intersection of several railroads. Here 
six passenger-trains coming from differ- 
ent points were due in the same station 
at the same time, and they all were 
supposed to leave as punctually. 

The trains on the Fitchburg Railroad, 
arriving from each direction, and like- 
wise the trains on the Worcester and 
Nashua Road from the north and the 
south, passed each other at this place. 
There was also a train from Lowell, 
on the Stony Brook Railroad, and 
another on the Peterborough and Shir- 
ley branch, coming at that time from 
West Townsend. 

A busy settlement grew up, which was 
incorporated as a distinct town under 
the name of Ayer, on February 14, 

The following is a list of the post- 
masters, with the dates of their ap- 
pointment : — 

Andrew B. Gardner, June i, 1849. 
Karvey A. Wood, August 11, 1853. 
George H. Brown, December 30, 1861. 

William H. Harlow, December 5, 1862. 
George H. Brown, January 15, 1863. 
William H. Harlow, July 18, 1865. 

Th€ name of the post-office was 
changed by the department at Wash- 
ington, from South Groton to Groion 
Junction, on March i, 1862 ; and sub- 
sequently this was changed to Ayer, on 
March 22, 187 1, soon after the incor- 
poration of the town, during the post- 
mastership of Mr. Harlow. 

The letter of the acting first assist- 
ant postmaster-general, printed above, 
supplements the account in Butler's 
History of Groton (pages 249-251). 
According to Mr. Butler's statement, 
the post-office was established on Sep- 
tember 29, 1800, and the Honorable 
Samuel Dana was appointed the first 
postmaster. No mail, however, was 
delivered at the office until the last 
week in November. For a while it 
came to Groton by the way of Leom- 
inster, certainly a very indirect route. 
This fact appears from a letter written 
to Judge Dana, by the Postmaster- 
General, under date of December 18, 
1800, apparently in answer to a request 
to have the mail brought directly from 
Boston. In this communication the 
writer says : — 

It appears to me, that the arrangement 
which has been made for carrying the mail 
to Groton is sufficient for the accommoda- 
tion of the inhabitants, as it gives them 
the opportunity of receiving their letters 
regularly, and with despatch, once a week. 
The route from Boston, by Leominster, to 
Groton is only twenty miles farther than 
by the direct route, and the delay of half 
a day, which is occasioned thereby, is not 
of much consequence to the inhabitants of 
Groton. If it should prove that Groton 
produces as much postage as Lancaster 
and Leominster, the new contract for carry- 
ing the mail, which is to be in operation on 
the first of October next, will be made bj 


TJie Old Stores and the Post-Office of Groton. 

Concord and Groton to Walpole, and a 
branch from Concord to Marlborough. 

I am, respectfully, sir, your obedient 
servant, jos. Habersham. 

The amount of postage received from 
the office, after deducting the nec- 
essary expenses, including the post- 
master's salary, was, for the first year 
after its establishment, about twelve 
dollars, or three dollars for three 
months. In the year 1802 it was 
thirty-six dollars, or nine dollars for 
three months, a large proportional in- 
crease. At this time the mail came 
once a week only, and was brought by 
the stage-coach. 

Samuel Dana, the first postmaster, 
was a prominent lawyer at the time of 
his appointment. He was the son of 
the Reverend Samuel Dana, of Groton, 
and bom in this town, June 26, 1767. 
He occupied a high position in the 
community, and exerted a wide 
influence in the neighborhood. At a 
later period he was president of the 
Massachusetts Senate, a member of 
Congress, and finally chief- justice of 
the circuit court of common pleas. 
He died at Charlestown, on Novem- 
ber 20, 1835. 

Judge Dana kept the post-office in 
his own office, which was in the same 
building as that of the Honorable 
Timothy Bigelow, another noted lawyer. 
These eminent men were on opposite 
sides of the same entry ; and they were 
generally on opposite sides of all im- 
portant cases in the northern part of 
Middlesex County. The building stood 
on the site of Governor Boutwell's 
house, and is still remembered as the 
medical office of the venerable Dr. 
Amos Bancroft. It was afterward 
moved away, and now stands near the 
railway-station, where it is occupied as 
a dwelling-house. Judge Dana held 

the office during four years, and he 
was succeeded by William M. Richard- 
son, Esq., afterward the chief-justice of 
the superior court of New Hampshire. 
Mr. Richardson was a graduate of Har- 
vard College in the class of 1797, and 
at the time of his appointment as post- 
master had recently finished his pro- 
fessional studies in Groton, under the 
guidance of Judge Dana. After his 
admission to the bar, Mr. Richardson 
entered into partnership with his former 
instructor, succeeding him as post- 
master in July, 1804; and the office 
was still kept in the same building. 
During Judge Richardson's term, the 
net revenue to the department rose 
from nine dollars to about twenty-eight 
dollars for three months. He held the 
position nearly eight years, and was 
followed by Abraham Moore, who was 
commissioned on January 31, 1812. 

Mr. Moore was a native of Bolton, 
Massachusetts, where he was born on 
January 5, 1785. He graduated at 
Harvard College in the class of 1806, 
and studied law at Groton with the 
Honorable Timothy Bigelow, and after 
his admission to the bar settled here as 
a lawyer. His office was on the site of 
the north end of Gerrish's block, and it 
was here that the post-office was kept. 
During his administration the average 
income from the office was about thirty- 
three dollars, for the quarter. In the 
summer of 18 15, Mr. Moore resigned 
the position and removed to Boston. 

Eliphalet Wheeler, who kept the 
store now occupied by Mr. Gerrish, was 
appointed in Mr. Moore's stead, and the 
post-office was transferred to his place 
of business. He, however, was not 
commissioned, owing, it is thought, to 
his poUtical views ; and Major James 
Lewis, who was sound in his politics, 
received the appointment in his stead. 

The Old Stores and the Post-Office of Groton, 


Major Lewis, retained Mr. Wheeler for 
a short time as his assistant, and during 
this period the duties were performed by 
him in his own store. Shortly afterward 
Caleb Butler, Esq., was appointed the 
assistant, and he continued to hold 
the position for eight years. During 
this time the business was carried on 
in Mr. Butler's law office, and the 
revenue to the government reached the 
sum of fifty dollars a quarter. His 
office was then in a small building, — 
just south of Mr. Hoar's tavern, — which 
was moved away about the year 1820, 
and taken to the lot where Colonel 
Needham's house now stands, at the 
comer of Main and HoUis Streets. It 
was fitted up as a dwelling, and subse- 
quently moved away again. At this 
time the old store of Mr. Brazer, 
who had previously died, was brought 
from over the way, and occupied by 
Mr. Butler, on the site of his former 

On July I, 1826, Mr. Butler, who had 
been Major Lewis's assistant for many 
years, and performed most of the duties 
of the office, was commissioned post- 

Mr. Butler was a native of Pelham, 
New Hampshire, where he was bom on 
September 13, 1776, and a graduate of 
Dartmouth College in the class of 
1800. He had been the preceptor 
of Groton Academy for some years, 
and was widely known as a critical 
scholar. He had previously studied 
law with the Honorable Luther Law- 
rence, of Groton, though his subsequent 
practice was more in drawing up papers 
and settling estates than in attendance 
at courts. His name is now identified 
with the town as its historian. During 
his term of office as postmaster, the 
revenue rose from fifty dollars to one 
hundred and ten dollars a quarter. He 

held the position nearly thirteen years, 
to the entire satisfaction of the public ; 
but for political heresy was removed on 
January 15, 1839, when Henry Woods 
was commissioned as his successor. 

Mr. Woods held the office until his 
death, which occurred on January 12 
1 841 ; and he was followed by the 
Honorable George S. Boutwell, since 
the Governor of the Commonwealth 
and a member of the United States 
Senate. During the administration of 
Mr. Woods and Mr. Boutwell, the 
office was kept in the brick store, 
opposite to the present High School. 

Upon the change in the administra- 
tion of the National Government, Mr. 
Butler was reinstated in office, and 
commissioned on April 15, 1841. He 
continued to hold the position until 
December 21, 1846, when he was again 
removed for political reasons. Mr. 
Butler was a most obliging man, and 
his removal was received by the public 
with general regret. During his two 
terms he filled the office for more than 
eighteen years, a longer period than 
has fallen to the lot of any other post- 
master of the town. Near the end of 
his service a material change was made 
in the rate of postage on letters ; and 
in his History (page 251) he thus com- 
ments on it : — 

The experiment of a cheap rate was put 
upon trial. From May 14, 1841, to Decem- 
ber 31, 1844, the net revenue averaged one 
hundred and twenty-four dollars and seven- 
ty-one cents per quarter. Under the new 
law, for the first year and a half, the reve- 
nue has been one hundred and four dollars 
and seventy-seven cents per quarter. Had 
the former rates remained, the natural in- 
crease of business should have raised it to 
one hundred and fifty dollars per quarter. 
The department, which for some years 
before had fallen short of supporting itself, 
now became a heavy charge upon the 


The Old Stores and the Post-Office of Grot on. 

treasury. Whether the present rates will 
eventually raise a sufficient revenue to 
meet the expenditures, remains to be seen. 
The greatest difficulty to be overcome is 
evasion of the post-office laws and fraud 
upon the department. 

Like many other persons of that 
period, Mr. Butler did not appreciate 
the fact that the best way to prevent 
evasions of the law is to reduce the 
rates of postage so low that it will not 
pay to run the risk of fraud. 

Captain Welcome Lothrop succeed- 
ed Mr. Butler as postmaster, and 
during his administration the office was 
kept in Liberty Hall. Captain Lothrop 
was a native of Easton, Massachusetts, 
and a land-surveyor of some repute in 
this neighborhood. Artemas Wood fol- 
lowed him by appointment on February 
22, 1849 ; but he never entered upon 
the duties of his office. He was suc- 
ceeded by George H. Brown, who had 
published The Spirit of the Times — a 
political newspaper — during the pres- 
idential canvass of 1848, and in this 
way had become somewhat prominent 
as a local politician. Mr. Brown was 
appointed on May 4, 1849 i ^^^ during 
his term the office was kept in an ell of 
his dwelling-house, which was situated 
nearly opposite to the Orthodox meet- 
ing-house. He was afterward the post- 
master of Ayer. Mr. Brown was fol- 
lowed by Theodore Andruss, a native 
of Orford, New Hampshire, who was 
commissioned on April 11, 1853. Mr. 
Andruss brought the office back to Lib- 
erty Hall, ajid continued to be the in- 
cumbent until April 22, 1 86 1, when he 
was succeeded by George W. Fiske. 
On February 13, 1867, Henry Wood- 
cock was appointed to the position, and 
the office was then removed to the 
Town Hall, where most excellent ac- 
commodations were given to the public. 

He was followed on June 11, 1869, 
by Miss Harriet E. Famsworth, now 
Mrs. Marion Putnam ; and she in turn 
was succeeded on July 2, 1880, by Mrs. 
Christina D. (Caryl) Fosdick, the widow 
of Samuel Woodbury Fosdick, and the 
present incumbent. 

The office is still kept in the Town 
Hall, and there is no reason to think 
that it will be removed from the spa- 
cious and commodious quarters it now 
occupies, for a long time to come. 
Few towns in the Commonwealth can 
present such an array of distinguished 
men among their postmasters as those 
of Groton, including, as it does, the 
names of Judge Dana, Judge Richard- 
son, Mr. Butler, and Governor Boutwell. 

By the new postal law which went 
into operation on the first of last 
October, the postage is now two cents 
to any part of the United States, on 
all letters not exceeding half an ounce 
in weight. This rate certainly seems 
cheap enough, but in time the pub- 
lic will demand the same service for 
a cent. Less than forty years ago the 
charge was five cents for any distance 
not exceeding three hundred miles, and 
ten cents for any greater distance. 
This was the rate established by the 
law which took effect on July i , 1 845 ; 
and it was not changed until July, 1851, 
when it was reduced to three cents on 
single letters, prepaid, or five cents, if 
not prepaid, for all distances under 
three thousand miles. By the law 
which went into operation on June 30, 
1863, prepayment by stamps was made 
compulsory, the rate remaining at three 
cents ; though a special clause was in- 
serted, by which the letters of soldiers 
or sailors, then fighting for the Union 
in the army or navy, might go without 

Beacon Hill Before the Houses. 205 


By David M. Balfour. 

The visitor to the dome of the Capi- from its side, supporting an iron pot. 

tol of the State, as he looks out from The mast was placed on cross-timbers, 

its lantern and beholds spread imme- with a stone foundation, supported by 

diately beneath his feet a semi-circular braces, and provided with cross-sticks 

space, whose radius does not exceed serving as a ladder for ascending to the 

a quarter of a mile, covered with up- crane. It remained until 1776, when 

ward of two thousand dwelling-houses, it was destroyed by the British ; but 

churches, hotels, and other public was replaced in 1 790 by a monument, 

edifices, does not in all probability inclosed in a space six rods square, 

ask himself the question: " Wliat did where it remained until 181 1. It was 

this place look like before there was surmounted by an eagle, which now 

any house here?" When Lieutenant- surmounts the speaker's desk in the 

Colonel- George Washington visited hall of the House of Representatives, 

Boston in 1756, on business connected and had tablets upon its four sides 

with the French war, and lodged at the with inscriptions commemorative of 

Cromwell's Head Tavern, a building Revolutionary event?. It stood nearly 

which is still standing on the north side opposite the southeast comer of the 

of School Street, upon the site of No. reservoir lot, upon the site of No. 82 

13, where Mrs. Harrington now deals Temple Street, and its foundation 

out coffee and "mince "-pie to her cus- was sixty feet higher up in the air than 

tomers. Beacon Hill was a collection the present level of that street. The 

of pastures, owned by thirteen propri- lot was sold, in 181 1, for the miserable 

etors, in lots containing from a half to pittance of eighty cents per square 

twenty acres each. The southwesterly foot ! 

slope of the prominence is designated Starting upon our pedestrian tour 

upon the old maps as " Copley Hill." from the comer of Tremont and Bea- 

We will now endeavor to describe con Streets, where now stands the 

the appearance of the hill, at the com- Albion, was an acre lot owned by the 

mencement of the American Revolu- heirs of James Penn, a selectman of 

tion, with the beacon on its top, from the town, and a mling elder in the 

which it took its name, consisting of a First Church, which stood in State 

tall mast sixty feet in height, erected in Street upon the site of Brazer's Build- 

1635, with an iron crane projecting ing. The parsonage stood opposite, 

2o6 Beacon Hill Before the Houses. 

upon the site of the Merchants Bank stands upon it. Having reached the 
Building, and extended with its garden summit of the hill, we come abreast of 
to Dock Square, the water flowing up the five-and-a-half-acre pasture of Gov- 
nearly to the base of the Samuel Adams ernor John Hancock, the first signer 
statue. Next comes a half-acre lot of the immortal Declaration of Ameri- 
owned by Samuel Eliot, grandfather can Independence, extending from 
of President Eliot of Harvard Univer- Mount Vernon Street to Joy Street, and 
sity. Then follows a second half-acre northerly to Deme Street, embracing 
lot owned by the heirs of the Reverend the Capitol lot, and also the reser- 
James Allen, fifth minister of the First voir lot, for which last two he paid, in 
Church, who, in his day, as will be 1752, the modest sum of eleven hun- 
shown in the sequel, owned a larger dred dollars ! It is now worth a thou- 
portion of the surface of Boston than sand times as much. For the remainder 
any other man, being owner of thirty- of his possessions in that vicinity he 
seven of the seven hundred acres which paid nine hundred dollars more. The 
inclosed the territory of the town, upper part of Mount Vernon Street, the 
His name is perpetuated in the street upper part of Hancock Street, and 
of that name bounding the Massachu- Deme Street, were laid out through it. 
setts General Hospital grounds. Som- Then, descending the hill, comes Ben- 
erset Street was laid out through it. jamin Joy's two-acre pasture, extending 
The Congregational House, Jacob from Joy Street to Walnut Street, and 
Sleeper Hall, and Boston University extending northerly to Pinckney Street ; 
Building, which occupies the former forty-seven dwelling-houses now stand- 
site of the First Baptist Church, under ing upon it. Mr. Joy paid two thou- 
the pastorship of the Reverend RoUin sand dollars for it. At the time of its 
H. Neale, stand upon it. Next comes purchase he was desirous of getting a 
Governor James Bowdoin's two-acre house in the country, as being more 
pasture, extending from the last-named healthy than a town-residence, and he 
street to Mount Vernon Street, and selected this localty as " being country 
northerly to Allston Street; the upper enough for him." The upper part of 
part of Bowdoin Street and Ashburton Joy Street was laid out through it. 
Place were laid out through it; the Now follows the valuable twenty-acre 
Church of Notre Dame des Victoires, pasture of John Singleton Copley, the 
formerly Freeman-place Chapel, built eminent historical painter, one of whose 
by the Second Church, under the pas- productions (Charles the First demand- 
toral care of the Reverend Chandler ing in the House of Commons the 
Robbins, and afterwards occupied by arrest of the five impeached members) 
the First Presbyterian Church, the is now in the art-room of the Public 
Church of the Disciples, the Brattle- Library. It extended for a third of a 
square Church, the Old South Church, mile on Beacon Street, from Walnut 
and the First Reformed Episcopal Street to Beaver Street, and northerly 
Church ; so that the entire theological to Pinckney Street, which he purchased 
gamut has resounded from its walls; in lots at prices ranging from fifty to 
the Swedenborgian Church, over which seventy dollars per acre. Walnut, 
the Reverend Thomas Worcester pre- Spruce, a part of Charles, River, Brim- 
sided for a long series of years, also mer. Branch Avenue, Byron Avenue, 

Beacon Hill Before the Houses. 


2o8 Beacoji Hill Before the Houses. 

Lime, and Chestnut Streets, Louisburg ervoir lot about twenty feet, and Louis- 
Square, the lower parts of Mount Ver- burg Square about fifteen feet. The 
non and Pinckney Streets, and the contents of the excavations were used 
sotitherly part of West Cedar Street, to fill up Charles Street as far north as 
have been laid out through it. Copley Cambridge Street, the parade-ground 
left Boston, in 1774, for England, and on the Common, and the Leverett- 
never returned to his native land. He street jail lands. The territory thus 
wrote to his agent in Boston, Gardner conveyed novv embraces some of the 
Greene (whose mansion subsequently finest residences in the city. The 
stood upon the enclosure in Pemberton Somerset Club-house, the Church of 
Square, surrounded by a garden of two the Advent, and the First African 
and a quarter acres, for which he paid Church, built in 1807 by the congre- 
thirty- three thousand dollars), to sell gation worshiping with the Reverend 
the twenty-acre pasture for the best Daniel Sharp, stand upon it. 
price which could be obtained. After Bounded southerly on Copley's pas- 
a delay of some time he sold it, ture, westerly on Charles River, and 
in 1796, for eighteen thousand four northerly on Cambridge Street, was 
hundred and fifty dollars; equivalent Zachariah Phillips's nine-acre pasture, 
to nine hundred dollars per acre, or which extended easterly to Grove 
two cents per square foot. It is a singu- Street ; for which he paid one hundred 
lar fact that a record title to only two pounds sterling, equivalent to fifty 
and a half of the twenty acres could dollars per acre. The northerly parts 
be found. It was purchased by the of Charles and West Cedar Streets, and 
Mount Vernon Proprietors, consisting the westerly parts of May and Phillips 
of Jonathan Mason, three tenths ; Har- Streets, have been laid out through it. 
rison Gray Otis, three tenths ; Benja- The Twelfth Baptist Church, formerly 
min Joy, two tenths ; and Henry Jack- under the pastorship of the Reverend 
son, two tenths. The barberry bushes Samuel Snowdon, stands upon it. Pro- 
speedily disappeared after the Copley ceeding easterly was the sixteen-and- 
sale. The southerly part of Charles a-half-acre pasture of the Reverend 
Street was laid out through it. And the James Allen, before alluded to as the 
first railroad in the United States was greatest landowner in the town of 
here employed. It was gravitation in Boston, for which he paid one hundred 
principle. An inclined plane was laid and fifty pounds, New-England cur- 
from the top of the hill, and the dirt-cars rency, equivalent to twenty-two dollars 
slid down, emptying their loads into per acre. It bounded southerly on 
the water at the foot and drawing the Copley's, Joy's, and Hancock's pas- 
empty cars upward. The apex of the tures, and extended easterly to Temple 
hill was in the rear of the Capitol near Street. Anderson, Irving, Garden, 
the junction of Mount Vernon and South Russell, Revere, and the easterly 
Temple Streets, and was about sbcty parts of Phillips and Myrtle Streets, 
feet above the present level of that were laid out through it. Next comes 
locality, and about even with the roof Richard Middlecott's four-acre pasture, 
of the Capitol. The level at the corner extending from Temple Street to Bow- 
of Bowdoin Street and Ashburton Place doin Street, and from Cambridge Street 
has been reduced about thirty feet, to AUston Street. Ridgeway Lane, the 
and at the northeast corner of the res- lower parts of Hancock, Temple, and 

Beacon Hill Before the Houses. 


Bowdoin Streets, were laid out through 
it. The Independent Baptist Church, 
formerly under the pastorship of the 
Reverend Thomas Paul ; the First 
Methodist Episcopal Church, built in 
1835 by the parish of Grace Church, 
under the rectorship of the Reverend 
Thomas M. Clark, now bishop of the 
diocese of Rhode Island ; the Mission 
Chapel of St. John the Evangelist, 
which was erected in 1830 by the 
congregation of the Reverend Lyman 
Beecher, just after the destruction of 
their edifice by fire, which stood at the 
southeast corner of Hanover and (new) 
Washington Streets, stand upon it. 
Next comes the four-acre pasture of 
Charles Bulfinch, the architect of the 
Capitol at Washington, also of the 
Massachusetts Capitol, Faneuil Hall, 
and other public buildings, and for 
fourteen years chairman of the board 
of selectmen of the town of Boston, 
extending from Bowdoin Street to Bul- 
finch Street, and from Bowdoin Square 
to Ashburton Place, for which he paid 
two hundred pounds, New-England 
currency, equivalent to six hundred and 
sixty-seven dollars. Bulfinch Street 
and Bulfinch Place were laid out 
through it. The Revere House, for- 
merly the mansion of Kirk Boott, one 
of the founders of the city of Lowell ; 
Bulfinch-place Church, which occupies 
the site of the Central Universalist 
Church, erected in 1822 by the con- 
gregation of the Reverend Paul Dean ; 
and also Mount Vernon Church, 
erected in 1842 by the congregation 
over which the Reverend Edward N. 
Kirk presided, stand upon it. Then 
follows the two-acre pasture of Cyprian 
Southack, extending to Tremont Row 
easterly, and westerly to Somerset 
Street. Stoddard Street and Howard 
Street were laid out through it. The 
Howard Athenaeum, formerly the site 

of Father Miller's Tabernacle, stands 
upon it. Then follows the one-and-a- 
half-acre pasture of the heirs of the 
Reverend John Cotton, second minister 
of the First Church, extending from 
Howard Street to Pemberton Square, 
which constitutes a large portion of 
that enclosure. And lastly, proceed- 
ing southerly, comes the four-acre 
pasture of William Phillips, extending 
from the southeasterly comer of Pem- 
berton Square to the point of beginning, 
and enclosing the largest portion of 
that enclosure. The Hotel Pavilion, 
the Suffolk Savings Bank, and Hough- 
ton and Button's stores, stand upon it. 

Less than a century ago Charles River 
flowed at high tide from the southeast 
comer of Cambridge Street and Ander- 
son Street across intervening streets to 
Beacon Street, up which it flowed one 
hundred and forty-three feet easterly 
across Charles Street to No. 61. When 
Mr. John Bryant dug the cellar for that 
building he came to the natural beach, 
with its rounded pebbles, at the depth 
of three or four feet below the surface. 
It also flowed over the Public Garden, 
across the southem portion of the 
parade-ground, to the foot of the hill, 
upon which stands the Soldiers' Monu- 
ment. A son of H. G. Otis was 
drowned, about seventy years ago, in a 
quagmire which existed at that spot. 
It also flowed across the westerly por- 
tion of Boylston Street and Tremont 
Street, and Shawmut Avenue, to the 
comer of Washington Street and Groton 
Street, where stood the fortifications 
during the American Revolution, across 
the Neck, which was only two hundred 
and fifty feet in width at that point, and 
thence to the boundary of Roxbury. 
A beach existed where now is Charles 
Street, and the lower part of Cambridge 
Street, on both sides, was a marsh. 

Less than a century ago, land on 

210 Beacon Hill Before the Houses. 

Beacon Hill was as cheap as public ward compelled by the town to fence 

documents. Ministers are enjoined not in his vacant land, he conveyed back 

to be worldly minded, and not to be to the town, for thirty pounds, all but 

given to filthy lucre. But the Reverend the six-acre lot at the corner of Beacon 

James Allen would furnish an excellent and Spruce Streets, and extending 

pattern for a modern real-estate specu- westerly to Charles River, and northerly 

lator. In addition to his pasture to Pinckney Street, where he lived 

on the south side of Cambridge Street, until 1635, when he removed to Rhode 

he had also a twenty-acre pasture on Island, and founded the town which 

the north side of that street, between bears his name. 

Chambers Street and Charles River, It will thus be perceived that the 
extending to Poplar Street, for which he portion of Beacon Hill, included be- 
paid one hundred and forty pounds, tween Beacon Street, Beaver Street, 
New-England currency, equivalent to Cambridge Street, Bowdoin Square, 
four hundred and sbcty-seven dollars. Court Street, Tremont Row, and Tre- 
equal to twenty-three dollars per acre, mont Street, containing about seventy- 
He was thus the proprietor of all the three acres, was sold, less than a century 
territory from Pinckney Street to Poplar ago, at prices ranging from twenty- two 
Street, between Joy Street and Chambers to nine hundred dollars per acre, aggre- 
Street on the east, and Grove Street gating less than thirty thousand dollars, 
and Charles River on the west ; for It now comprises the ninth ward of the 
which he paid the magnificent sum of city of Boston, and contains within its 
nine hundred and sixty-seven dollars ! limits a real estate valuation of sixteen 
It was called "Allen's Farm." The millions of dollars. Its name and fame 
Capitol lot, containing ninety -five are associated with important events 
thousand square feet. Was bought by and men prominent in Amepcan annals, 
the town of Boston of John Hancock Upon its slopes have dwelt Josiah 
(who, though a devoted patriot to the Quincy, of ante - Revolutionary fame, 
American cause, yet in all his busi- and his son and namesake of civic 
ness transactions had an eye to profit), fame ; and also his grandson and name- 
for the sum of thirteen thousand sake, and Edmund, equally distin- 
three hundred and thirty-three dollars ; guished ; Lemuel Shaw, Robert G. 
only twenty times as much as he gave Shaw, Daniel Webster, Abbott Law- 
for it ! The town afterward conveyed it rence, Samuel, Nathan, and William 
to the Commonwealth for five shillings, Appleton, Samuel T. Armstrong, Mrs. 
upon condition that it should be used Harrison Gray Otis, J. Lothrop Motley, 
for a Capitol. In 1846, the city of William H. Prescott, Charles Sumner, 
Boston paid one hundred and forty-five John A. Andrew, John C. Warren, Mrs. 
thousand one hundred and seven dollars Sarah J. Hale, Lyman Beecher, William 
for the reservoir lot containing thirty- E. Channing, and Hosea Ballou. La- 
seven thousand four hundred and eighty- fayette made it his temporary home in 
eight square feet. In 1633, the town 1824, and Kossuth in 1852. During the 
granted to William Blackstone fifty acres present century, the laws of Massachu- 
of land wherever he might select. He setts have been enacted upon and pro- 
accordingly selected upon the south- mulgated from its summit, and will 
westerly slope of Beacon Hill, which probably continue so to be for ages 
included the Common. Being after- to come. 





'Devoted to Literature, T^iographv, History, ami State Progress. 

Vol. IX. - AUGUST, r8S6. No. 8. 



The Prohibition party of the State of of Representatives from 1807 to 18 10, 

New Hampshire in convention assem- in 1812, 1814 and 1815, was in the 

bled, in July, 1886, duly chose as their State Senate in 18 18, 18 19 and 1820, 

candidate for governor of the common- and was one of the Presidential electors 

wealth Colonel Joseph Wentworth, of in 18 16. He died in Dover January 

Concord. 28, 1826. Abigal Cogswell, his wife, 

The Prohibition party, like the anti- died February 14, 1828. Their daugh- 
slavery party of ank bellum days, is ter, Lydia C, above named, was born 
composed of men who are banded to- in Dover, May 30, 1793, and died in 
gether to enforce a great moral reform, Concord, N. H., August 24, 1872. 
the suppression of the liquor traffic. His paternal great grandfather. Judge 
They see on every hand the evil of in- John Wentworth, presided at the Rev- 
temperance, the curse of rum, more olutionary Convention in New Hamp- 
baneful and fatal than slavery. The shire. His grandfather, John Went- 
rank and file of the party have been re- worth, Jr., was a member of the Con- 
cruited from both of the great political tinental Congress, 
organizations, from among men of all His father, Paul Wentworth, was born 
creeds ; and they are determined to per- in Dover, N. H., April 22, 1782; was 
severe in a course they think to be married March 30, 18 14. He was a 
right until they are finally successful in successful merchant for several years at 
enforcing their ideas. Dover, but soon after his marriage he 

Col. Joseph Wentworth was born in removed to Sandwich, N. H., where he 
Sandwich, N. H., January 30, 1818. had eight children born, four of whom 
His parents, Paul and Lydia C- Went- now survive, to wit : Hon. John Went- 
worth, were both descendants of Ezek- worth, of Chicago, Joseph, aforenamed, 
iel, son of Elder William Wentworth. Samuel H. Wentworth, attorney-at-law 
His maternal grandfather, Col. Amos in Boston, and Mrs. Mary F. (Went- 
Cogswell, served through the entire war worth) Porter, of Boston, 
of the Revolution. He represented He was representative in the Legis- 
Dovcr in the New Hampshire House lature from Sandwich in 1831, 1832, 


Col. Joseph WentwortJi. 

1833, 1S34. 1839, 1840, and 1841. In 
1844 he removed to Concord, N. H., 
and died August 31, 1855. 

Col. Joseph VVoiitworth, the subject 
of this sketch, is a descendant of no- 
ble ancestry. No better blood courses 
through the veins of any man in the 
(Jranite State. Me took his first Lessons 
in life among the ha'rdy sons of that 
mountainous region. He was educated 
at the Academy at New Hampton in 
1835, at Hopkinton in 1836, and South 
Berwick in 1837. He was a successful 
merchant thirty years in his native town, 
not only conducting a general country 
store and a large farm, but dealing 
largely in cattle and horses. He was 
town clerk, selectman, and representa- 

'J : i J 

tiyetothe Legislature in 1844 and 1845, 
delegate from Sandwich in 1850 to the 
convention called to revise the Consti- 
tution of the State, and from Concord 
to the Constitutional Convention in 
1876. He was aid to Gov. John Page, 
with the rank of colonel, and was quar- 
termaster several ' years ^ \\\ the New 
Hampshire Horse Guards. He \yas 
register of deeds for Carroll county two 
years, high sheriff for same county five 
years, and for fifteen years was post- 
master. He was also for many years 
President and chief owner of Carroll 
County National Bank. '_'^" ^ 

Xx^ i3;7.P, he gave the old homestead 
to his son Paul and removed to Con- 
cord, where he bought the residence o^ 
the late President Pierce, on Main Street' 
and other property adjoining amount- 
ing to some $26,000, and went into 
mercantile business for a while, after 
that, into banking. He was elected two 
years as assessor of taxes, apd. yvas rep- 
resentative, to the State Legislature in 
1878. He married, May 7, 1845, Sa- 
rah Payson Jones, of Brookline, Mass. 
They had^born in Sandwich six children, 

two sons and four daughters, all of 
whom survive. The two sons, Paul and 
Moses, were three years at the Academy 
at Andover, Mass., entered Har\ard 
College the same day, graduated the 
same day in 1868, just one hundred 
years after the graduation of their great 
grandfather from the same college : ami 
from their high rank in their class both 
were assigned a part on graduation day, 
the records of the college showing no 
other such case of two brothers. The 
daughters are Sarah C, wife of W. F. 
Tha\er, of Concord, Lydia C, wife of 
George S. Hoyt, of Sandwich, Susan J. 
wife of Charles W. Woodward, of Con- 
cord, and Dolly F. Wentworth, who re- 
sides with her parents. 

He was nominated in July, 1886, as 
a candidate for governor of the State 
by the prohibition party, and is drawing 
many voters to the ranks by the moral 
and religious sentiment he inculcates in 
his lectures as he canvasses the State. 
He is a good speaker, of commanding 
personal appearance, being six feet 
three inches in height, and of unblem- 
ished character. He is a man of brains, 
pluck, and of great activity. He has 
by industry and sobriety (never having 
used tobacco or intoxicating drinks in 
any form) accumulated a plenty of this 
world's goods, generously disposing of 
portions of it to his children and to 
benevolent objects, as they have from 
time to time favorably come to his no- 
tice. He possesses executive abilities 
of the highest order and excellent judg- 
ment. His opinions upon important 
matters both private and public are fre- 
quently sought for. - Weighing, as he 
doeS; every question in his own even 
scales of justice, he usually arrives at a 
correct verdict. ' -c •■'■.:-::.• 'ffii 

And last and besl't'f al Tie iG^astrotig" 
believer in the verities of the Bible, 

Col. Joseph IVentwortJi. 


having those truths early instilled into eternal future. If the Prohibition party 

his youthful mind by the pious teach- is successful in the contest with its two 

ings of a beloved father and mother, opponents and elects Col. Wentworth 

anil is at present a constant attendant for the next governor of New Hamp- 

of Rev. Dr. Crane's church of his shire, the citizens of the Slate will have 

adopted city. On the sacred teachings a governor in whom tliey w.ll take pride. 

o( the holy scriptures he, when a young He will honor the office and do his 

man, founded his taith, and on thai whole duty, 
faith he is perfectly willing to rest his 

While the outside world are being 
slowly enlightened as to the advantages 
to be secured by using '' The Concord 
Harness," the Standard Harness of 
America, manufactured only by the old 
and reliable firm of James R. Hill & 
Co., of Concord, New Hampshire, the 
people of our own State should fully 

appreciate the advantages of having in 
the most central location in the com- 
monwealth a firm which caters so di- 
rectly to the welfare and peace of mind 
of the travelling i)ublic as to furnish 
a harness that can be depended upon 
implicitly under any and all circum- 

Constant Reader. Of course it is Hampshire, you would do well to call 

so. We try to have only the best stores at their store and see if it is not just as 

represented in our advertisements, and they say. Read their advertisement in 

when E. W. Willard & Co. say they this number, 
have the best line of garments in New 

.TiVi . 


Book Notice. 


I"ki,i,()W-Traveli,krs: a Story. l>y Ed- 
ward Fuller. 

\\\\\ Mr. P'uller should have taken 
the pains to style his book a " story," 
we surely have not the least idea. No 
one would be likely to mistake it for an 
epic, a drama, or a philosophical treat- 
ise. We do not understand Mr. Fuller's 
object. Possibly he objects to the word 
"novel," or "romance," and uses 
" story " in preference as a milder or 
humbler term. It is certainly mild 
enough, — the story, we mean. Dish- 
water couldn't well be weaker. One 
needs a bottle of ammonia while reading 
it, to keep awake. It is a combination 
of Sue and Professor Ingraham (not the 
author of the " Prince of the House of 
David," but his son), much diluted. It 
has the insi})idity of Ingraham and the 
tiresome narration of Sue. Is it, in- 
deed, a "story"? In our opinion, 
" Fellow-Travellers " bears the same 
relation to a story, which a Turkey 
carpet bears to a picture. There are 
colors in the Turkey carpet of which a 
picture might be made. So are there 
words in Mr. Fuller's book, which, when 
disjiosed in certain orders and combi- 
nations, would make an excellent story ; 
but, as they now stand, they make only 
a vague, wearisome, rambling composi- 
tion. — • a rhapsody, without plot, char- 
acter, painting, strong situations, or 
graphic description of any sort. He 
should have written a " strange story," 
or "an uncommon story : " that would 
have expressed something. 

We really did our best to read the 
" story," but the dulness on every page 
exacted a vast expenditure of nervous 
energy before we finished it. The 
characters are ordinary, commonplace 
people. We do not believe there are 
half as many inane, wearisome people 
in all Salem (the locale of the story) as 
are in this book. Miss Mira Damon has 
the most flesh and blood ; but she evi- 
ently is not the author's favorite, for he 
makes the hero, Winslow Carver, marry 
Grace Winthrop. There is a breath of 
the Puritans in the names ; but the 

breath is very faint, and the maidens 
are no more Puritans than they are any 
thing else. 

The dialogue is uniformly tame and 
uninteresting' Very little is said to for- 
ward the movement of the " story." 
The following is a very good illustration 
of Mr. Fuller's style : — 

" ' I wish people made less talk over 
us young people,' the girl continued. 
' They always fasten one to — to the 
wrong one.' 

" ' Oh ! ' 

" ' I think he liked Grace Winthrop 
very much.' Mrs. Elsmore pursed uj) 
her lips. She would feel bitterly toward 
Grace, in case Winslow never married 

" ' Oh, she is not at all the girl for 
him ! She is too young, and not at all 
his style.' " 

Other portions remind us of the 
dialogue in a " New-York Weekly " 
detective story. The following is a 
sample : — 

" ' Whew,' whistled Jonder. 'So you 
know Ike Damon ? ' 

" ' I didn't say I knew him.' 

"'Wal, I do.' 

" ' I ran across him in New York. 
He has lived there several years, you 

" ' How do New York folks take to 

" How do Posett folks take to 
him ? ' retorted Murse with a sinister 

Does this not read as if taken right 
out of the columns of " Steve's Pard ; 
Or, the One-handed Detective of Five 
Points " ? 

And so we go on over three hundred, 
or, to be exact, three hundred and forty- 
one pages, until Mr. Fuller tells us that 
we are fellow-travellers no longer, with 
a seeming tone of regret that few will 
appreciate. To us it was a most pleas- 
ing declaration ; and if, we are ever 
again "fellow-travellers" with Mr. Ful- 
ler, we trust that the skies will be fairer, 
and the summer woods more green 
than ever. F. M. C. 

Colonel Albert A. Pope. 


"" ' mm 



In the minds of Americans the name 
of Colonel Albert A. Pope is insepara- 
bly connected with the introduction and 
manufacture in this country of bicycles 
and tricycles. Outside of a large circle 
of personal friends, however, his career, 
already crowned with brilliant success, 
his manly attributes and his splendid 
character are unknown. He won his 
rank on the field of battle ; he is one 
of the heroes of the Union army ; facts 
entitling him to honor and recogni- 
tion aside from his remarkable business 
prosperity. Energy, sagacity, executive 
ability and tenacity are among his per- 
sonal characteristics, contributing to his 
good fortune. Good sense, and not 
good luck, has been the cause of his 
victory in the strife for fame and riches. 

Albert A. Pope was born in Boston 
May 20, 1843. ^^ sprang from good 
stock. His father, Charles Pope, of 
Boston, still vigorous at the age of sev- 
enty-two years, has been an active and 
stirring business man. His grandfather, 
Frederick Pope, Jr., of Dorchester, was 
one of the most enterprising merchants 
and builders of that town at the open- 
ing of this century, and had the sagacity 

to open a branch of his lumber business 
in eastern Maine. His great grand- 
father. Colonel Frederick Pope, was a 
prominent citizen of Stoughton, repre- 
sentative to the General Court, and a 
gallant officer in the Revolutionary 
army. The father of this first American 
Colonel Pope of whom record appears 
was the greatly beloved Dr. Ralph Pope, 
one of Stoughton's pioneers, son of 
Ralph Pope, husbandman, a well to do 
citizen of old Dorchester, whose father, 
John Pope, first appears in the records of 
that oldest plantation of the Massachu- 
setts Bay Colony in 1633. The John 
Pope, Senior, who is mentioned in the 
records from 1634 onward, and named as 
a selectman in 1 63 7, and who was one of 
the signers of the covenant with Rev. 
Richard Mather in 1636, is presumed 
to have been the emigrant ancestor of 
the Pope family of Dorchester. The 
mothers of the line have been well con- 
nected, bringing in the qualities of wor- 
thy families, Neale, Stubbs, Cole, Clapp, 
Blake, Pierce, and others, Puritan or 
Pilgrim, of English descent. 

Albert A. Pope's mother was a lady 
of rare discernment and quiet decision 


Colonel Albert A. Pope. 

of character, one of the best of moth- 
ers, a daughter of Captain James Bog- 
man of Boston, an enterprising ship- 
master and a commander in the 
U. S. Army during the War of 1812. 
Sons often owe much of their inner 
quahty and merit to their mother ; 
certainly it was a great element in the 
make-up and progress of Colonel Pope's 
career to be the child, and so long 
under the influence of that peculiarly 
clear headed, true hearted, Christian 

In 1846 the family removed to Brook- 
line. In April, 1852, his father having 
failed in business, young Pope, then in his 
ninth year, applied to a farmer for work 
and obtained employment in riding a 
horse to plough. This he continued af- 
ternoons until the summer vacation, 
when he devoted all his time to working 
on the farm ; and for the next three years, 
during about six months of the year after- 
noons, in the summer time late into the 
night. His vacations also were all 
spent in farm work. 

In the summer of 1856 he com- 
menced buying fruit and vegetables of 
the farmers and selling them to the 
neighbors, carrying them in baskets on 
his arm. The next year he was able to 
hire a horse and wagon for the whole 
season. Early in the morning he was 
on the road to Boston, arriving at Quincy 
market before light, where he made 
purchases of vegetables ; then he would 
drive home to deliver part of them on 
orders before going to school and the 
balance in the afternoon. This work 
he continued to do during that season 
and the next and during a part of the 
summer of 1858, going to school all 
the time and keeping up in his studies 
with the average of the boys of his own 
age in the school. He had a good 
memory, learned easily, was quick of 

comprehension, and stood well in his 
classes. As a boy he developed a re- 
markable business ability, and was ad- 
mired for his enterprise and pluck by 
his schoolmates, for whom he frequently 
found employment in gathering crops 
which he had purchased in the field or 
in the orchard. During these years of 
his early youth he had very little time 
to play, for he had not only the care of 
his own horse but the care of the horse 
and cow belonging to his father ; and 
besides he did all the chores around 
the place. 

In the late fall of 1858, when he was 
fifteen years of age, young Pope went 
to work for Mr. Harrington in Quincy 
market, and all winter long had to ride 
from Brookline to the market with him 
in an open wagon before daylight. To 
show the severity of this experience it 
is recorded that during the winter three 
mornings in succession the thermome- 
ter indicated twenty-two, twenty-three 
and twenty-four degrees below zero. 
Late in the winter he gave up his place 
in the market and was employed by the 
firm of Brooks & Mecuen, dealers in 
shoe findings, shoe machinery, leather, 
pegs, etc. Their store was on the cor- 
ner of Blackstone and Shoe and Leather 
Streets. He used to walk from Brook- 
line during the summer and walk home 
at night, five miles each way, to save 
eight cents car fare. He carried all 
that he had to eat during the day, and 
when he got home at night he was fre- 
quently so tired that he could hardly 
eat the frugal supper that was ready for 
him. His wages were four dollars a 
week, half of which he paid for his 
board ; from the balance he used to 
save money. His old account books, 
which he kept with great care, show 
that one month he spent fourteen cents 
and another month twenty-eight cents. 

Colonel Albert A. Pope. 

21 7 

While in the employment of Brooks 
& Mecuen he had to do the work that 
porters do now ; shovel the sidewalks, 
wash the windows about once a week 
winter and summer, lift heavy machin- 
ery, carry bags of pegs amounting to 
three bushels from the store to the cor- 
ner of Milk and Kilby Streets, and sev- 
eral times a week carry on his back 
bales of thread weighing one hundred 
pounds many blocks away. In those 
days he had to do work that no one 
now would think of imposing upon a 
full grown man. 

When the mutterings of the Rebellion 
were first heard in the land the young 
man was imbued with patriotic and mili- 
tary ardor, and devoted all his spare time 
to studying the tactics and army regula- 
tions. He joined the Zalimac Zouaves, 
was sergeant in a battery of artillery, a 
section of which he used to drill to be- 
come familiar with artillery practice, 
and was a captain in a company of 
Home Guards. In the meantime the 
firm which employed him moved up to 
107 Milk Street. He had a gun in the 
store, business then was very dull, the 
neighboring clerks frequently dropped 
in, and whenever he could he drilled 
them in the manual of arms. 

In the summer of 1862 President 
Lincoln called for three hundred thou- 
sand volunteers for three years or for 
the war ; and in response to the call the 
Thirty-fifth Regiment, Massachusetts 
Volunteers, took the field. One com- 
pany was from Newburyport, one from 
Chelsea, one from Haverhill, one from 
Weymouth, one from Roxbury, the bal- 
ance from eastern Massachusetts towns. 
The Roxbury company, K, illustrates 
the character of the regiment. One 
hundred and fifty volunteers offered 
their services. Of the one hundred 
and one who were accepted, eighty were 

between twenty and thirty-five years of 
age, and about one half of the company 
were married men. All signed their 
names in a clear, legible hand writing. 
In this regiment of one thousand and 
thirteen men, Albert A. Pope, at the age 
of nineteen years, was commissioned 
second lieutenant, being the junior, and 
joined his command at Camp Whipple, 
on Arlington Heights, in the neighbor- 
hood of Washington, early in Septem- 
ber. Before the close of the war it 
happened that in an important engage- 
ment the junior officer had command 
of the regiment. 

The history of this regiment, the 
Thirty-fifth Massachusetts Volunteers, 
has been ably and carefully written by 
a committee of the survivors, and from 
it one can trace not only the perils and 
hardships of the organization as a whole, 
but of the individual soldiers and offi- 
cers. Of the original members one 
hundred and twenty-five were killed or 
died of wounds in the service ; sixty- 
four died of disease or accident in the 
service ; three hundred and thirty-seven 
were discharged for disability from dis- 
ease or wounds ; one hundred and ten 
were transferred to the Veteran Reserve 
Corps and other organizations ; and 
only three hundred and thirty-two vet- 
erans were mustered out at expiration 
of service at the close of the war in 

The regiment participated in the Bat- 
tle of South Mountain with but slight 
loss, but at Antietam it was terribly cut 
up, losing in the two days fight seventy- 
eight killed and one hundred and sev- 
enty-five wounded. Less than three 
hundred men reported for duty the fol- 
lowing morning, including five line offi- 
cers. These first battles made men of 
boys, soldiers of recruits ; the ensuing 
campaign made every soldier a veteran. 


Colonel Albert A. Pope. 

The regiment participated in the at- 
tack on Sulphur Springs and the battle 
of Fredericksburg in 1862; the siege 
of Vicksburg and Jackson, Mississippi, 
in 1863; the invasion ^f eastern Ten- 
nessee and defense of Knoxville ; the 
Wilderness campaign and the siege of 
Petersburg ; the charge into the crater 
of the Mine ; the bombardment ; and 
the pursuit of the remnant of Lee's 
army towards Appomattox. The regi- 
ment was the first to enter Jackson, 
Mississippi, after seven days fighting, 
and captured more prisoners than they 
had men in their command. 

After the fall of Chattanooga and the 
deliverance of East Tennessee fi-om the 
Confederates, Captain Pope was ordered 
home for a short time on recruiting ser- 
vice, his duty being to take detach- 
ments of recruits from Boston to the 
front. After about two months of this 
service Captain Pope was ordered to 
join his regiment, then fighting with the 
Army of the Potomac in the campaigns 
of Grant. He was directed to take 
about six hundred recruits on the 
steamer United States from Boston Har- 
bor to Alexandria on his way, a duty he 
performed without the loss of a man. On 
his arrival in Washington the city was 
threatened by the enemy and he was or- 
dered to headquarters to report for duty. 
The task of organizing a regiment of artil- 
lery men from the convalescent camp 
inside of thirty-six hours was assigned 
to him. Fifteen officers reported to him, 
and in less than twelve hours he had a 
regiment of eight hundred men organ- 
ized, armed, equipped, and ready to 
march. With this regiment he relieved 
the garrisons at Forts Slocum and Ste- 
vens and was assigned command of 
these important posts. When the im- 
mediate danger was over he was relieved 
and served a few days on court martial, 

then joined his regiment before Peters- 
burg. At one time he was temporarily 
in command of Fort Hell, a most im- 
portant position on the line, where his 
men were under fire continuously and 
where the Federal and Confederate 
picket posts were only fifteen yards 
apart. It was a proud moment for Col- 
onel Pope when he rode into Peters- 
burg at the head of his regiment. 

After he had been in the regiment a 
little over two years he was the only orig- 
inal officer in the line left with it ; and at 
one time there was no line offtcer serv- 
ing with the regimect who was even a 
commissioned officer when he was a 

Colonel Pope was commissioned first 
lieutenant of Company K March 23, 
1863. He was commissioned captain 
of Company I November 15, 1863. He 
was commissioned brevet major and 
lieutenant colonel March 13, 1865, for 
meritorious conduct before Petersburg. 
He was mustered out with the regiment 
June 9, 1865. He served continuously^ 
in the field save for the short time in 
the summer of 1864 when he was de- 
tailed on recruiting service, and returned 
to civil life a veteran at the age of twen- 
ty-two years. His clerkship before the 
war had been his preparatory school ; 
his army life was his college course ; he 
was graduated with high honors. 

During his three years service he im- 
proved all his leisure moments by study. 
The science of war received his atten- 
tion first ; art, physical science and liter- 
ature came next. 

At the close of the war he returned 
home and applied for employment with 
the old firm. They had signed a pa- 
per in common with other merchants 
that the clerks who went to the war and 
who lived to come home should have 
as good a place provided for them as if 

Colonel Albert A. Pope. 


they had not gone. They offered him 
seven dollars a week to go to work for 
them, which, inasmuch as he had led a 
regiment in battle and commanded a 
regiment of artillery, seemed to be 
rather a come down. He finally went 
back at the solicitation of one of the 
firm, and stayed there a few weeks. 
When he left the firm were liberal 
enough to pay him ten dollars a week. 
Having left the old firm he went into 
business for himself with a capital of 
nine hundred dollars which he had 
saved and the first year, notwith- 
standing his old employers said he 
would not earn his salt, he made nine 
thousand six hundred dollars. Every 
year since then his business has been 
constantly increasing. It was but a 
very few years before he did a very 
much larger business and made a great 
deal more money than the firm of his 
old employers. The watchword of his 
regiment, "promptly, " became a busi- 
ness motto with him. 

Soon after entering business for him- 
self he began to take on extra personal 
expenses in helping his father's family. 
He assumed the care and expense of 
his brothers and sisters, one after an- 
other, educating his two sisters for the 
medical profession, later on his brother 
for the ministry, and within a ver}' short 
time assummg the entire expense of the 
household, which consisted of his fa- 
ther and mother, three sisters and two 
brothers, and his older brother's two 
children, who fell to his care at his 
brother's death. His business grew 
and prospered each year until the Bos- 
ton fire, when, like many others, his 
losses were large, — more than sixty 
thousand dollars, — yet this did not in- 
terfere or cripple him in his business, 
for he paid everything he owed to every- 
body within two weeks after the Boston 

fire. A dozen years of successful com- 
petition in the commercial world gave 
him the experience needed to inaugurate 
and conduct a great business enterprise 
in the manufacture and sale of bicycles, 
an undertaking which required great 
foresight, good judgment, the executive 
ability of a commanding general, the 
skill of an engineer, the courage and 
pluck of a brave soldier, and financial 
genius. These qualities were happily 
combined in Colonel Pope ; he seized 
the command ; the public recognized 
the justice of his claim to lead, and 
have never asked for his removal from 

In 1863 Pierre Lallement, a work- 
man from a velocipede factory in Paris, 
conceived the idea of applying cranks 
to the forward wheel for propulsion, 
made one on this principle and rode it 
in the streets of New Haven to the as- 
tonishment of the public, and took out 
a patent in November, 1866, in con- 
nection with an enterprising na- 
tive of New England. In 1868 the 
manufacture of velocipedes was com- 
menced in a small way in this country. 
The following year there was a craze on 
the subject, rinks and riding schools 
springing up in every city and large 
town while the fever lasted. The 
spring and summer of 1870 demonstra- 
ted in every quarter that the machines 
were not adapted for use on the high- 
ways and therefore practically useless 
except as toys at rinks. The velocipede 
for men was completely abandoned in 
this country as a total failure, but the 
English mechanics would not give up the 
idea and worked away at it until they 
developed the modern bicycle, using to 
advantage the inventions of American 
mechanics. The most important 
changes introduced were the round rub- 
ber tire, the suspension wheel with its 


Colonel Albert A. Pope. 

wire spokes and steel rims, the tubular 
frame work, the enlargement of the 
forward wheel, the decreasing in size of 
the rear wheel, the leg guard, the bi- 
furcated fork over the rear wheel, 
besides other improvements of less 
importance. The first bicycles pub- 
licly exhibited in this country were 
shown at the Centennial Exhibition in 
Philadelphia in 1876. 

After twelve years of business at the 
head of the shoe-finding house, Col- 
onel Pope retired from that to take 
charge of the bicycle business, which 
he had just commenced under the name 
of The Pope Manufacturing Co., which 
belonged to him and which he had or- 
ganized into a company some time be- 
fore for the purpose of conducting the 
air pistol business. 

In the summer of 1877 Mr. John Har- 
rington, an English gentleman, was a 
guest at his house, spending several 
months with him, and he was so 
enthusiastic over the bicycle that in or- 
der to show what it was and its practica- 
bility he had one made. On that Colonel 
Pope learned to ride, and having learned 
he began to think, as did his English 
friend, that the bicycle was worthy of the 
attention of the American public. Mr. 
Harrington went home in September and 
Colonel Pope told him to send over a few- 
bicycles, but he delayed sending them 
and later in the season Colonel Pope 
ordered eight bicycles through his Eng- 
lish correspondent in Manchester. They 
arrived here about the first of January. 
After he had received and examined 
them he made up his mind that there 
would be enough in the business to 
warrant a proper outlay of capital, and 
decided to go into it. 

Believing that if there was much to 
do in bicycling we should have to man- 
ufacture in this country, early in the 

year 1878 he interested the Weed Sew- 
ing Machine Company in the manufac- 
ture. After getting them started on the 
way he went over to Europe to study 
up the manufacture and to see what 
hold it had upon the English people, 
and also to determine whether he should 
be justified in making the large outlay 
that would be necessary in order to 
make it a successful business. He re- 
turned in the sumi«er well satisfied and 
fully convinced in his own mind that in 
process of time the bicycle interest in 
this country would equal that in Eng- 
land, The first lot of fifty was made 
and sold in the summer and fall of 1878. 
Suddenly there arose a small army of 
owners of patents demanding royalties, 
for more than a thousand inventions for 
the improvement and perfection of the 
velocipede had been patented. Emi- 
nent counsel was employed and all 
claims were carefully investigated. 
Eventually more than forty patentees 
had to be conciliated, and royalties 
ranging from %\ to $10 each had to be 

Colonel Pope's policy from the first 
was to secure the control of the most 
important inventions, for he foresaw the 
future of the bicycle business and real- 
ized the necessity of being in command. 
He was obliged to invest large amounts 
of money in patents. 

It was a great and hazardous under- 
taking to embark capital jn the bicycle 
business when the public was so preju- 
diced against them, remembering the 
total failure of the velocipede craze of 
earlier days. With one hand he had to 
create a demand and with the other cre- 
ate the supply ; with no material "at 
hand suitable for the work, with no me- 
chanics familiar with bicycle construc- 
tion, — all having to be educated and 
trained to the business. There was no 

Colonel Albert A. Pope. 


rolling mill in the country that would 
at first undertake to roll the steel rims, 
and it was only by giving a large order 
far in excess of the demand that at last 
a rolling mill would consent to under- 
take to roll the felloes. He had the 
same difficulty with back bones, forks, 
rubber tires, and almost everything else 
that entered into the construction of the 

At last, having overcome all difficul- 
ties, he put on the market a bicycle en- 
tirely the product of American industry, 
which modestly he considers equal if 
not superior to the best that has ever 
been made. With its introduction 
arose several legal points ; even its right 
to be used on highways had to be es- 
tablished. All these points have been 
satisfactorily adjusted. 

Since its organization Colonel Pope 
has been at the head of the Pope Man- 
ufacturing Company, which under his 
management ha'- become one of the 
most flourishing and best organized of 
corporations for the production and dis- 
tribution of fine machinery. It has a 
large factory at Hartford, stores and 
shops in Boston, New York and Chi- 
cago, and some four hundred agencies 
in the large cities and towns, and it 
controls nearly one hundred patents. 
The manufacture of tricycles it has 
more recently converted into a great 

This sketch, however, is a personal 
account of the founder of the business 
rather than of the business itself. A 
gentleman of fine executive and finan- 
cial ability, Colonel Pope's attention 
has not been confined to the manufac- 
turing of bicycles and tricycles alone, 
for he is largely interested in other bus- 
iness enterprises of magnitude, and is 
President and Director in several cor- 
porations. He is a member of several 

social clubs, and all organizations en- 
couraging athletic sports have his good 
will if not membership. 

For two years after returning from 
the war he made his home in Brook- 
line ; since then in Newton until very 
lately he has taken up his residence on 
Commonwealth Avenue, in the city of 
Boston, to be nearer his place of busi- 
ness. A view of his house in Newton, 
his home for many years, accompanies 
this article. His Boston residence is a 
model for convenience and elegant ap- 
pointments. Here is displayed the fine 
artistic taste of its Qwner. The walls 
of the spacious rooms are hung with 
paintings of great merit — the produc- 
tion of home and foreign talent. 

In politics Colonel Pope is an In- 
dependent, one of the original mem- 
bers of that growing party, and has 
always favored civil service reform. 
He has never had time to accept office 
from his fellow citizens, except a minor 
town office in Newton, and has shunned 
publicity except in the way of business. 

In his domestic relations Colonel 
Pope has always been a kind and con- 
siderate son to his parents, a good 
brother, a father to his orphaned nephew 
and niece, a devoted husband, and a ten- 
der parent to his own children. To his 
own family he has been more than gener- 
ous, — he has been lavish. He is very 
hospitable and enjoys company at his 
home. He has a large, kind heart, is 
modest, liberal towards charitable ob- 
jects, good natured, fond ofa joke, full of 
fun in his hours of relaxation, unselfish, 
generous, not quarrelsome, true to his 
friends, kind to his employees, although 
a strict disciplinarian, and a good off- 
hand, after-dinner speaker. He is far- 
seeing in business, patient of results, 
with remarkable business and executive 


Colonel Albert A. Pope. 

Eesidence of Col. Ai Ai Pope, Newton, Mass 

He cherishes the most tender mem- 
ories of his mother, who died in 1885. 
To him she was the noblest and truest 
woman who ever lived. She was 
a woman of large intelligence, 
reading on all subjects that her chil- 
dren were interested in, always progres- 
sive, and ready to discuss any subject 
of interest to them. She taught habits 

of economy and taught him to be ord- 
erly and methodical. To her he attrib- 
utes his success in life. 

He was married September 20, 1871, 
to Abbie Linder, of Newton, whose fa- 
ther, George Linder, was one of the 
well known merchants of Boston. Four 
children, three boys and one girl, bless 
their home. 


"The Story of a Timid Brave " is a 
very exciting and thrilling one. The 
scene is laid at the far West, on the very 
frontier of civilization, and is a very vivid 
and graphic description of life among 
the Indians and cowboys and first set- 
tlers. It brings out in glaring light the 

wrongs and iniquities practiced upon 
the Indians at some of the Agencies of 
the Government. It sheds not a little 
light on the Indian question, and the 
origin and cause of some of our Indian 
wars. It is a story of thrilling inter- 

The First Schoolmaster of Boston. 223 


By Elizabeth Porter Gould. 

When Agassiz requested to go down and in 1643, while receiving this salary, 

the ages with no other name than his name is sixth in the list of planters 

"Teacher," he not only appropriately and their estates, his estate being valued 

crowned his own life-work, but stamped only at twenty pounds. In the year 

the vocation of teaching with a royalty following, his salary was raised to thirty 

which can never be gainsaid. By this pounds a year. This probably was an 

act he dignified with lasting honor all actual necessity, for his family now 

thosf to whom the name "Teacher," consisted, besides himself and wife, of 

in its truest meaning, can be applied, a son Samuel, five years old, and a 

In this work of teaching, one man daughter Mary of four years. Ezekiel, 

stands out in the history of New England bom two years before, had died . This 

who should be better known to the son, Samuel, it may be said in passing, 

present generation. He was a bene- was graduated at Harvard College in 

factor in the colonial days when educa- 1659, and was settled as a clergyman 

tion was striving to keep her lamp at Marblehead, Massachusetts, where he 

burning in the midst of the necessary died at the age of eighty-five, having 

practical work which engaged the been universally esteemed during his 

attention of most of the people of that long life. 

time. His name was Ezekiel Cheever, Besides being the teacher of the 

When a young man of twenty-three new colony, Mr. Cheever entered into 

years, he came from London — where other parts of its work. He was one of 

he was born January 25, 16 14 — to the twelve men chosen as "fittfor the 

Boston, seven years after its settlement, foundacon worke of the church." He 

The following spring he went to New was also chosen a member of the Court 

Haven, where he soon married, and for the plantation, at its first session, 

became actively engaged in founding and in 1646 he was one of the depu- 

the colony there. Among the men ties to the General Court. It is sup- 

who went there the same year was a posed that during this time he wrote 

Mr. Wigglesworth, whose son, in later his valuable little book called The Acci- 

years, as the Reverend Michael Wiggles- dence. It passed through seventeen 

worth, gave an account of Mr, Cheever's editions before the Revolution. A copy 

success in the work of teaching, which of the eighteenth edition, printed in 

he began soon after reaching the place. Boston in 1785, is now in the Boston 

" I was sent to school to Mr. Ezekiel Athenaeum. It is a quaint little book 

Cheever, who at that time taught school of seventy-two pages, with one cover 

in his own house, and under him in gone, and is surely an object of interest 

a year or two I profited so much through to all loving students of Latin. A copy 

y« blessing of God, that I began to of the tenth edition is found in Har- 

make Latin & to get forward apace." vard College, while it has been said 

Mr. Cheever received as a salary that a copy of the seventh is in a pri- 

for two or three years twenty pounds ; vate library in Hartford, Connecticut. 


The First Schoolmaster of Boston. 

The last edition was published in Boston 
in 1838. In a prospectus, containing 
commendations of the work from many 
eminent men of learning, the Honor- 
able Josiah Quincy, ll.d., president of 
Harvard College, said of it : "A work 
which was used for more than a century 
in the schools of New England, as the 
first elementary book for learners of the 
Latin language ; which held its place 
in some of the most eminent of those 
schools, nearly, if not quite, to the end 
of the last century; which has passed 
through at least twenty editions in this 
country ; which was the subject of the 
successive labor and improvement of a 
man who spent seventy years in the 
business of instruction, and whose fame 
is second to that of no schoolmaster 
New England has ever produced, re- 
quires no additional testimony to its 
worth or its merits." A copy of this 
edition is now in the library of the 
Massachusetts Historical Society. Dr. 
David W. Cheever, of Boston, a de- 
scendant of the schoolmaster, also has 
one in his possession. 

There is another old book in the 
Boston Athenaeum, published in 1757, 
containing three short essays under the 
title of Scripture Prophecies Explained. 
The first one is " On the Restitution of 
All Things " ; the second is " On St. 
John's First Resurrection " ; and the 
third, " On t'he Personal Coming of 
Jesus Christ, as Commencing at the 
Beginning of the Millenium described 
in the Apocalypse." These were written 
by Mr. Cheever, but at what time of 
his life there seems to be some doubt. 
They indicate his religious zeal, which 
at this time in New Haven was put 
forth for the good of the church. 
Although he was never ordained to the 
ministry, yet he occasionally preached. 
In 1649, however, he dissented from 

the judgment of the church and elders 
in regard to some cases of discipline, 
and for some comments on their action, 
which seemed to them severe, they 
brought charges against him. Two of 
the principal ones were : " i. His un- 
seemly gestures and carriage before the 
church, in the mixed assembly ; " and 
" 2. That when the church did agree to 
two charges (namely, of assumption and 
partiality), he did not give his vote 
either to the affirmative or the negative." 

As showing some of the phases »of a 
common humanity, the reading of the 
trial is interesting. Mr. Cheever, who 
was then thirty-five years old, was de- 
sired to answer these charges of un- 
seemly gestures, which his accusers had 
brought down to a rather small point, 
such as holding down his head into the 
seat, "then laughing or smiling," and 
also " wrapping his handkerchief about 
his face, and then pulling it off again ; " 
and still another, " that his carriage was 
offensively uncomely," three affirming 
" that he rather carried it as one acting 
a play, than as one in the presence of 
God in an ordinance." 

In his answer to these, Mr. Cheever 
explained his actions as arising from 
violent headaches, which, coming upon 
him usually " on the Lord's day in the 
evening, and after church meeting," 
were mitigated by winding his handker- 
chief around his head ' as a fillet.' As 
to his smiling or laughing, he knew not 
whether there was any more than a nat- 
ural, ordinary cheerfulness of counte- 
nance seeming to smile, which whether 
it be sinful or avoidable by him, he 
knew not ; " but he wished to humble 
himself for the •* least appearance 
of evil, and occasion of offence, and 
to watch agamst it." As to his work- 
ing with the church, he said : " I 
must act with the church, and (which 

TJie First Schoolmaster of Boston 


is uncomfortable) I must either act 
with their light, or may expect to suffer, 
as I have done, and do at this day, for 
conscience' sake ; but I had rather suf- 
fer anything from men than make a 
shipwreck of a good conscience or go 
against my present light, though erro- 
neous, when discovered." 

He then went on to say that, while 
he did not wholly free himself from 
blame as to his carriage, and as to his 
" want of wisdom and coolness in or- 
dering and uttering his speeches," yet 
he could not be convinced as yet that 
he had been guilty of " Miriam's sin," 
or deserved the censure which the 
church had inflicted upon him ; and he 
could not look upon it "as dispensed 
according to the rules of Christ." 
Then he closed his address with the 
following words, which will give some 
idea of his Christian spirit : " Yet I 
wait upon God for the discovery of 
truth in His own time, either to myself 
or church, that what is amiss may be 
repented of and reformed ; that His 
blessing and presence may be among 
them and upon His holy ordinances 
rightly dispensed, to His glory and 
their present and everlasting comfort, 
which I heartily pray for, and am so 
bound, having received much good 
and comfort in that fellowship, though 
I am now deprived of it." 

At about this time of his trial with 
the church he was afflicted by the death 
of his wife. Three more children had 
been bom to them — Elizabeth, Sarah, 
and Hannah. Soon after this, in 1650, 
— and, it has been said, on account of 
his troubles, — he removed to Ipswich, 
Massachusetts, to become master of the 
grammar school there. His services as 
teacher in New Haven must have been 
valued, if one can judge by the amount 
of salary received, for, in the case of the 

teacher who followed him, the people 
were not willing " to pay as large a sal- 
ary as they had done to Mr. Cheever," 
and so they gave him ten pounds a 

After Mr. Cheever had been in 
Ipswich two years, Robert Payne, a 
philanthropic man, gave to the town 
a dwelling-house with two acres of land 
for the schoolmaster; he also gave a 
new schoolhouse for the school, of 
which this man was the appreciated 
teacher; for many neighboring towns 
sent scholars to him, and it was said 
that those who received " the Cheeve- 
rian education " were better fitted for 
college than any others. 

In November of this same year he 
married Ellen Lathrop, sister of Captain 
Thomas Lathrop, of Beverly, who two 
years before had brought her from Eng- 
land to America with him, with the 
promise that he would be a father to 
her. While living in Ipswich they had 
four children, Abigail, Ezekiel, Nathan- 
iel, and Thomas ; two more, William 
and Susanna, were bom later, in 
Charlestown. Their son Ezekiel must 
have lived to a good old age, at least 
seventy-seven years, for as late as 173 1 
his name appears in the annals of the 
village parish of Salem, where he be- 
came heir to Captain Lathrop's real 
estate ; while their son Thomas, born in 
1658, was graduated at Harvard Col- 
lege in 1677, was settled as a minister 
at Maiden, Massachusetts, and later at 
Rumney Marsh (Chelsea), Massachu- 
setts, where he died at a good old 

After having thus lived in Ipswich 
eleven years, Mr. Cheever removed, in 
1 66 1, to Charlestown, Massachusetts, to 
become master of the school there at 
a salary of thirty pounds a year. The 
smallness of this salary astonishes and 


The First Schoolmaster of Boston. 

suggests much to the modem reader; 
but when he is informed that the 
worthy teacher was obliged during his 
teaching there to petition the selectmen 
that his " yeerly salarie be paid to him, 
as the counstables were much behind 
w* him," the whole matter becomes 
pathetic . Mr. Cheever also asked that 
the schoolhouse, which was much out 
of order, be repaired. And in 1669 he 
is again before them asking for a " peece 
of ground or house plott whereon to 
build an house for his familie," which 
petition he left for the townsmen to 
consider. They afterward voted that 
the selectmen should carry out the 
request, but as Mr. Cheever removed 
in the following year to Boston, it is 
probable that his successor had the 
benefit of it. 

When Mr, Cheever entered upon his 
work as head master of the Boston 
Latin School, in 1670, he was fifty-seven 
years old ; and he remained master 
of this school until his death, thirty- 
seven years later. The schoolhouse 
was, at this time, in School Street (it 
was not so named by the town, however, 
until 1 708) just behind King's Chapel, 
on a part of the burying-ground. It has 
been said that the building was of two 
stories to accommodate the teacher and 
his family. This seems probable when 
we read that Mr. Cheever was to have 
a salary of sixty pounds a year, and 
the " possession and use of y' schoole 
house." But if he lived in the building 
at all, it was not very long, for he is 
later living in a house by himself; and 
in 1701 the selectmen voted that two 
men should provide a house for him 
while his house was being built. The 
agreement which the selectmen made 
with Captain John Bamet with reference 
to this house is given in such curious 
detail in the old records, and suggests 

so much, that it is well worth reading. 
It is as follows : — 

"That the said Bamet shall erect a 
House on the Land where Mr. Ezekiel 
Cheever Lately dwelt, of forty foot Long 
Twenty foot wide and Twenty foot stud 
with four foot Rise in the Roof, to make a 
cellar floor under one half of Sd house and 
to build a Kitchen of Sixteen foot in 
Length and twelve foot in breadth with a 
Chamber therein, and to Lay the floors 
flush through out the maine house and to 
make three paire of Stayers in ye main 
house and one paire in the Kitchen and to 
Inclose sJ house and to do and complete 
all carpenters worke and to find all timber 
boards clapboards nayles glass and Glaz- 
iers worke and Iron worke and to make 
one Cellar door and to finde one Lock 
for the Outer door of said House, and also 
to make the Casements for Sd house, and 
perform Sd worke and to finish S^ building 
by the first day of August next. In con- 
sideration whereof the Selectmen do agree 
that the Sd Capt. Bamet shall have the Old 
Timber boards Iron worke and glass of 
the Old house now Standing on Sd Land 
and to pay unto him the Sum of one hun- 
dred and thirty pounds money, that is to 
say forty pounds down in hand and the 
rest as the worke goes on." 

Then follows the agreement for the 
" masons' worke " in all its details. 
Later on, in March, 1702, there is some 
discussion as to how far back from the 
street the house should be placed. But 
in June of that year the house is up, 
for the worthy dignities order that 
"Capt. John Barnard do provide a 
Raysing Dinner for the Raysing the 
Schoolmasters House at the Charge 
of the town not exceeding the Sum of 
Three pounds." This was done, for 
later they order the "noat for three 
pounds, expended by him for a dinner 
at Raysing the Schoolmasters House," 
be paid him. 

After Mr. Cheever's house had re- 

The First Schoolmaster of Boston. 


ceived all this painstaking attention 
of the town, it was voted that the 
selectmen should see that a new school- 
house be built for him in the place of 
the old one ; this to be done with the 
advice of Mr. Cheever. The particulars 
of this work are given in as much 
detail, and are interesting to show the 
style of schoolhouse at that day. They 
are as follows, in the "Selectmen's 
Minutes, under July 24, 1704 " : — 

"Agreed w* M' John Barnerd as fol- 
loweth, he to build a new School House 
of forty foot Long Twenty five foot wide 
and Eleven foot Stud, with eight windows 
below and five in the Roofe, with wooden 
Casements to the eight Windows, to Lay 
the lower floor with Sleepers & double 
boards So far as needful, and the Chamber 
floor with Single boards, to board below 
the plate inside & inside and out, to Clap- 
board the Outside and Shingle the Roof, 
to make a place to hang the Bell in, to 
make a paire of Staires up to the Chamber, 
and from thence a Ladder to the bell, to 
make one door next the Street, and a 
petition Cross the house below, and to 
make three rows of benches for the boyes 
on each Side of the room, to find all Tim- 
ber, boards. Clapboards shingles nayles 
hinges. In consideration whereof the sd 
Mr John Barnerd is to be paid One hun- 
dred pounds, and to have the Timber, 
Boards, and Iron worke of the Old School 

Some interesting reminiscences are 
given, by some of his pupils, of these 
school-days in Boston. The Reverend 
John Barnard, of Marblehead, who was 
bom in Boston in 1681, speaks of his 
early days at the Latin School, in 
his Autobiography, which is now in 
the Massachusetts Historical Society. 
Among other things he says : " I 
remember once, iu making a piece of 
Latin, my master found fault with the 
syntax of one word, which was not 
used by me heedlessly, but designedly. 

and therefore I told him there was a 
plain grammar rule for it. He angrily 
replied, there was no such rule. I took 
the grammar and showed the rule to 
him. Then he smilingly said, 'Thou 
art a brave boy; I had forgot it.' And 
no wonder: for he was then above 
eighty years old." President Stiles of 
Yale College, in his Diary, says that he 
had seen a man who said that he "well 
knew a famous grammar-school master, 
Mr. E. Cheever, of Boston, author of 
The Accidence ; that he wore a long 
white beard, terminating in a point ; 
that when he stroked his beard to the 
point, it was a sign for the boys to 
stand clear." 

Judge Sewall, in his Diary, often re- 
fers to him. He speaks of a visit from 
him, at one time, when Mr. Cheever 
told him that he had entered his eighty- 
eighth year, and was the oldest man in 
town ; and another time, when he says : 
" Master Chiever, his coming to me 
last Saturday January 31, on purpose 
to tell me he blessed God that I had 
stood up for the Truth, is more comfort 
to me than Mr. Borland's imhandsome- 
ness is discomfort." He also speaks 
of him as being a bearer several times 
at funerals, where, at one, with others, 
he received a scarf and ring which were 
" given at the House after coming from 
the Grave," A peculiarity of the 
venerable schoolmaster is seen where 
Judge Sewall says : " Mr. Wadsworth 
appears at Lecttire in his Perriwigg. 
Mr. Chiever is grieved at it." In 1708, 
the judge gives in this Diary some 
touching particulars as to the sickness 
and death of Mr. Cheever. They are 
valuable not only for themselves, but as 
preserving in a literary form the close 
friendship which existed between these 
two strong men of that day. Hence 
they are given here : — 


The First Schoolmaster of Boston. 

''Aug. 12, 1708. — Mr. Chiever is abroad 
and hears Mr. Cotton Mather preach. This 
is the last of his going abroad. Was taken 
very sick, like to die with a Flux. Aug. 
13. — I go to see him, went in with his son 
Thomas and Mr. Lewis. His Son spake 
to him and he knew him not ; I spake to 
him and he bid me speak again ; then he 
said, Now I know you, and speaking cheer- 
ily mentioned my name. I ask''d his Bless- 
ing for me and my family ; He said I was 
Bless'd, and it could not be Reversed. 
Yet at my going away He pray'd for a 
Blessing for me. 

"•Aug. 19. — I visited Mr. Chiever again, 
just before Lecture ; Thank'd him for his 
kindness to me and mine ; desired his 
prayers for me, my family, Boston, Salem, 
the Province. He rec'd me with abun- 
dance of Affection, taking me by the hand 
several times. He said. The Afflictions of 
God's people, God by them did as a Gold- 
smith, knock, knock, knock ; knock, knock, 
knock, to finish the plate ; It was to perfect 
them not to punish them. I went and told 
Mr. Pemberton (the Pastor of Old South) 
who preached. 

''Aug. 20. — I visited Mr. Chiever who 
was now grown much weaker, and his 
speech very low. He call'd Daughter! 
When his daughter Russel came, He ask'd 
if the family were composed ; They apre- 
hended He was uneasy because there had 
not been Prayer that morn ; and solicited 
me to Pray ; I was loth and advised them 
to send for Mr. Williams, as most natural, 
homogeneous ; They declin'd it, and I went 
to Prayer. After, I told him. The last 
enemy was Death, and God hath made that 
a friend too ; He put his hand out of the 
Bed, and held it up, to signify his Assent. 
Observing he suck'd a piece of an Orange, 
put it orderly into his mouth and chew'd it, 
and then took out the core. After dinner 
I carried a few of the best Figs I could get 
and a dish Marmalet. I spake not to him 

"Aug. 21. — Mr. Edward Oakes tells me 
Mr. Chiever died this last night." 

Then in a note he tells the chief facts 
in his life, which he closes with, — 

" So that he has Laboured in that calling 
(teaching) skilfully, diligently, constantly, 
Religiously, Seventy years. A rare In- 
stance of Piety, Health, Strength, Service- 
ableness. The Wellfare of the Province 
was much upon his spirit. He abominated 

"Aug. 23, 1708. — Mr. Chiever was 
buried from the Schoolhouse. The Gov'r, 
Councillors, Ministers, Justices, Gentlemen 
there. Mr. Williams made a handsome 
Latin Oration in his Honour. Elder 
Bridgham, Copp, Jackson, Dyer, Griggs, 
Hubbard, &c., Bearers. After the Funeral, 
Elder Bridgham, Mr. Jackson, Hubbard, 
Dyer, Tim. Wadsworth, Edw. Procter, 
Griggs, and two more came to me and 
earnestly solicited me to speak to a place 
of Scripture, at the private Quarter Meet- 
ing in the room of Mr. Chiever." 

Cotton Mather, who had been a 
pupil of his, preached a funeral sermon 
in honor of his loved teacher. It was 
printed in Boston in 1 708, and later in 
1 774. A copy of it in the Athenaeum is 
well worth a perusal. Some of Mr. 
Cheever's Latin poems are attached to 
it. Cotton Mather precedes his sermon 
by An Historical Introduction, in which, 
after referring to "his great privilege, he 
gives the main facts in the long life of 
the schoolmaster of nearly ninety-four 
years. In closing it, he says : " After 
he had been a Skilful, Painful, Faithful 
Schoolmaster for Seventy years ; and 
had the Singular Favours of Heaven 
that tho' he had Usefully spent his Life 
among children, yet he was not become 
Twice a child but held his Abilities, 
with his usefulness, in an unusual Degree 
to the very last." Then follows the 
sermon, remarkable in its way as a 
eulogy. But the Essay in Rhyme in 
Memory of his "Venerable Master," 
which follows the sermon, is even more 
characteristic and remarkable. In it 
are some couplets which are unique and 

The First Schoolmaster of Boston. 


" Do but name Cherver, and the Echo straight 
Upon that name, Good Latin will Repeat. 

"And in our School, a Miracle is wrought: 
For the Dead Languages to Li/e are brought. 

" Who serv'd the School, the Church did not forget, 
But Thought aiid Prayed & often wept for it. 

" How oft we saw him tread the Milky IVay 
Which to the Glorious Throne of Mercy lay! 

" Come from the Mount he shone with ancient Grace, 
Awful the Splendor of his Aged Face. 

" He Liv'd and to vast age no Illness knew. 
Till Times Scythe waiting for him Rusty grew. 

" He Liv'd Ttai Wrought ; His Labours were Immense, 
But ne'r Declined to Praeter-perfect Tense." 

He closes this eulogy with an epitaph 
in Latin. 

Mr. Cheever's will, found in the Suf- 
folk probate office, was offered by his 
son Thomas and his daughter Susanna, 
August 26, 1708, a few days after his 
death. He wrote it two years previous, 
when he was ninety-one years old, a 
short time before his " dear wife," whom 
he mentions, died. In it his estate is 
appraised at £Zt^ 7:19:6. One handles 
reverently this old piece of yellow paper, 
perhaps ten by twelve inches in size, 
with red lines, on which is written in a 
clear handwriting the last will of this 
dear old man. He characteristically 
begins it thus : — 

"In nomine Domini Amen, I Ezekiel 
Cheever of the Towne of Bostoa in the 
County of Suffolk in New England, School- 
master, living through great mercy in good 
health and understanding wonderful! in my 
age, do make and ordain this as my last 
Will & Testament as FoUoweth : I give up 
my soule to God my Father in Jesus Christ, 
my body to the earth to be buried in a 
decent manner according to my desires in 
hope of a Blessed part in ye first resurrec- 
tion & glorious kingdom of Christ on earth 
a thousand years." 

He then gives all his household 
goods *' & of my plate ye two-ear'd Cup, 
my least tankard porringer a spoon," 
to his wife ; "all my books saving what 

Ezekiel may need & what godly books 
my wife may desire," to his son Thomas ; 1 
£\o to Mary Phillips; £20 to his 
grandchild, Ezekiel Russel; and ^5 
to the poor. The remainder of the 
estate he leaves to his wife and six 
children, Samuel, Mary, Elizabeth, 
Ezekiel, Thomas, and Susanna. 

One handles still more reverently a 
httle brown, stiff-covered book, kept in 
the safe in the Athenaeum, of about 
one hundred and twenty pages, yellow 
with age, on the first of which is the 
year " 163 1," and on the second, 
" Ezekiel Cheever, his booke," both in 
his own handwriting. Then come 
nearly fifty pages of finely- written Latin 
poems, composed and written by him- 
self, probably in London; then, there 
are scattered over some of the remain- 
ing pages a few short-hand notes which 
have been deciphered as texts of Scrip- 
ture. On the last page of this quaint little 
treasure — only three by four inches 
large — are written in English some 
verses, one of which can be clearly 
read as, "Oh, first seek the kingdom 
of God and his Righteousness, and 
all things else shall be added unto 

Another ms. of Mr. Cheever's is in 
the possession of the Massachusetts 
Historical Society. It is a book six 
by eight inches in size, of about four 
hundred pages, all well filled with Latin 
dissertations, with occasionally a mathe- 
matical figure drawn. One turns over 
the old leaves with affectionate interest, 
even if the matter written upon them 
is beyond his comprehension. It cer- 
tainly is a pleasure to read on one of 
them the date May 18, 1664. 

Verily, New England should treasure 
the memory of Ezekiel Cheever, the 
man who called himself " Schoolmas- 
ter." for she owes much to him. 

230 The Old Taverns and Stage-Coaches of Groton. 


[From " The Transcript."] 

It lies before me. A bright tress of hair 

That once, lang syne, thy young, proud head didst bear 

To its adornment. Yet I have no need 

Of relic fond or token, e'er to lead 

My memory back to thee. Thou wast and art 

The dearest, aye, and nearest to my heart ; 

And though from Death I rescued only this 

Of thee, for loving look and reverent kiss, 

Yet impotent is he to touch or rive 

Our souls' sure bond, v/hose viewless, mystic gyve 

From the unseen doth hold thee close to me 

In presence sweet with gentle ministry. 

Oh, precious souvenir ! With tenderest care 
I treasure this soft, shining lock of hair. 

D. A. Kellogg. 


Bv THE Hon. Samuel Abbott Green, M.D. 

It has been said that there is nothing ers," — the innkeeper of that period 
contrived by man which has produced being generally addressed by the title 
so much happiness as a good tavern, of landlord. I do not know who sue- 
Without granting or denying the state- ceeded him in his useful and important 
ment, all will agree that many good functions. 

times have been passed around the The next tavern of which I have any 

cheerful hearth of the old-fashioned knowledge was the one kept by Captain 

inn. Jonathan Keep, during the latter part 

The earliest tavern in Groton, of of the Revolution. In "The Independ- 
which there is any record or tradition, ent Chronicle" (Boston), February 15, 
was kept by Samuel Bowers, jun., in the 1781, the Committee of the General 
house lately and for a long time occu- Court, for the sale of confiscated prop- 
pied by the Champney family. Mr. erty in Middlesex County, advertise 
Bowers was born in Groton, on Decem- the estate of Dr. Joseph Adams of 
ber 21, 1711; and, according to his Townsend, to be sold " at Mr. Keep's, 
tombstone, died on "the Sixteenth innholder in Groton." This tavern has 
Day of December Anno Domini 1 768. now been kept as an inn during more 
Half a hour after Three of the Clock than a century. It was originally built 
in y« Afternoon, and in the Fifty Eight for a dwelling-house, and before the 
year of his age." He kept the house Revolution occupied by the Reverend 
during many years, and was known in Samuel Dana ; though since that time 
the neighborhood as "land'urd Bow- it has been lengthened in front and 

The Old Taverns and Stage-Coachcs of Groton. 


otherwise considerably enlarged. Cap- 
tain Keep was followed by the brothers 
Isaiah and Joseph Hall, who were the 
landlords as early as the year 1798. 
They were succeeded in 1825 by 
Joseph Hoar, who had just sold the 
Emerson tavern, at the other end of 
the village street. He kept it for nearly 
twenty years, — excepting the year 
1S36, when Moses Gill and his brother- 
in-law, Henry Lewis Lawrence, were 
the landlords, — and sold out about 
1842 to Thomas Treadwell Famsworth. 
It was then conducted as a temperance 
house, at that time considered a 
great innovation on former customs. 
After a short period it was sold to 
Daniel Hunt, who kept it until 1852, 
and he was followed by James M. Col- 
bum, who had it for two years. It then 
came into the possession of J. Nelson 
Hoar, a son of the former landlord, 
who took it in 1854, and in whose 
family it has since remained. Latterly 
it has been managed by three of his 
daughters, and now is known as the 
Central House. It is the only tavern 
in the village, and for neatness and 
comfort can not easily be surpassed. 

In the list of innholders, near the 
end of Isaiah Thomas's Almanack, for 
1785, appears the name of Richardson, 
whose tavern stood on the present site 
of the Baptist church. It was originally 
the house owned and occupied by the 
Reverend Gershom Hobart, which had 
been considerably enlarged by addi- 
tions on the north and east sides, in 
order to make it more suitable for its 
new purposes. Mine host was Captain 
Jephthah Richardson, who died on 
October 9, 1806. His father was Con- 
verse Richardson, who had previously 
kept a small inn, on the present Elm 
Street, near the corner of Pleasant. 
It was in this Elm Street house that 

Tynothy Bigelow, the rising young 
lawyer, lived, when he first came to 
Groton. Within a few years this build- 
ing has been moved away. Soon after 
the death of Captain Jephthah Richard- 
son, the tavern was sold to Timothy 
Spaulding, who carried on the business 
until his death, which occurred on 
February 19, 1808. Spaulding's widow 
subsequently married John Spalter, who 
was the landlord for a short time. 
About 1 81 2 the house was rented to 
Dearborn Emerson, who had been 
a driver of a stage-coach, as well as the 
owner of a line. He remained in 
possession of it for a few years. 

During the War of 181 2 it was an 
inn of local renown ; and a Lieutenant 
Chase had his headquarters here for a 
while, when recruiting for the army. 
He raised a company in the neighbor- 
hood, which was ordered to Sackett's 
Harbor, near the foot of Lake Ontario. 
The men were put into uniforms as 
they enlisted, and drilled daily. They 
were in the habit of marching through 
the village streets to the music of the 
spirit-stirring drum and the ear-piercing 
fife ; and occasionally they were invited 
into the yard of some hospitable citizen, 
who would treat them to " the cups 
that cheer but not inebriate," when 
taken in moderation. William Kemp 
was the drummer, and Wilder Shep- 
ley the fifer, both noted musicians 
in their day. Sometimes his brother, 
Moses Kemp, would act as fifer. Wil- 
liam is still alive, at the advanced age 
of nearly ninety-five years, and gives 
many reminiscences of that period. He 
was born at Groton on May 8, 1789, 
and [began to drum in early boyhood. 
His first appearance in the public ser- 
vice was during the year 1805, as drum- 
mer of the South Company of Groton, 
commanded by Luther LawTence, after- 


The Old Taverns and Stage-Coaches of Grotou. 

ward the mayor of Lowell. He has 
been the father of nine children, and 
has had thirty grandchildren, thirty- 
three great-grandchildren, and one great- 
great-grandchild. Mr. Kemp can even 
now handle the drumsticks with a 
dexterity rarely equaled ; and within 
a short time I have seen him give 
an exhibition of his skill which would 
reflect credit on a much younger per- 
son. Among the men enlisted here 
during that campaign were Marquis 
D. Farnsworth, Aaron Lewis, William 
Shepley, and John Woodward, of this 
town ; and James Adams, and his son, 
James, Jr., of Pepperell. 

It was about the year 1815 that 
Dear,bom Emerson left the Richardson 
tavern, and moved down the street, 
perhaps thirty rods, where he opened 
another public 'house on the present 
site of Milo H. Shattuck's store. The 
old tavern, in the meantime, passed 
into the hands of Daniel Shattuck, who 
kept it until his death, which occurred 
on April 8, 1831. The business was 
then carried on during a short time 
by Clark Tenny, who was followed by 
Lemuel Lakin, and afterward by Francis 
Shattuck, a son of Daniel, for another 
brief period. About the year 1833 it 
was given up entirely as a public house, 
and thus passed away an old landmark 
widely known in those times. It stood 
well out on the present road, the front 
door facing down what is now Main 
Street, the upper end of which then 
had no existence. In approaching the 
tavern from the south, the road went 
up Hollis Street and turned to the left 
somewhere south of the Burying- 
Ground. The house afterward was cut 
up and moved off, just before the 
Baptist meeting-house was built. My 
earliest recollections carry me back 
faintly to the time when it was last used 

as a tavern, though I remember dis- 
tinctly the building as it looked before 
it was taken away. 

Dearborn Emerson married a sister 
of Daniel Brooks, a large owner in the 
hne of stage-coaches running through 
Groton from Boston to the northward ; 
and this family connection was of great 
service to him. Jonas Parker, com- 
monly known as " Tecumseh " Parker, 
was now associated with Emerson in 
keeping the new hotel. The stage 
business was taken away from the 
Richardson tavern, and transferred to 
this one. The house was enlarged, 
spacious barns and stables were erected, 
and better accommodations given to 
man and beast, — on too large a scale 
for profit, it seems, as Parker and 
Emerson failed shortly afterward. 
This was in the spring of 18 18, during 
which year the tavern was purchased 
by Joseph Hoar, who kept it a little 
more than six years, when he sold it to 
Amos Alexander. This landlord, after 
a long time, was succeeded in turn by 
Isaac J. Fox, Horace Brown, William 
Childs, Artemas Brown, John McGil- 
son, Abijah Wright, and Moses Gill. 
It was given up as a hotel in 1856, and 
made into a shoe factory ; and finally 
it was burned. Mr. Gill had the house 
for eight years, and was the last land- 
lord. He then opened a public house 
directly opposite to the Orthodox 
church, and called it The Globe, which 
he kept for two years. He was suc- 
ceeded by Stephen Woods, who re- 
mained only one year, after which time 
this also was given up as a public 

Another hostelry was the Ridge Hill 
tavern, situated at the Ridges, three 
miles from the village, on the Great 
Road to Boston. This was built about 
the year 1805, and much frequented 

The Old Taverns and Stagc-Coackcs of Groton. 



by travelers and teamsters. At this 
point the roads diverge and come 
together again in Lexington, making 
two routes to Boston. It was claimed 
by interested persons that one was 
considerably shorter than the other, — 
though the actual difference was less 
than a mile. In the year 1824 a guide- 
board was set up at the crotch of the 
roads, proclaiming the fact that the 
distance to Lexington through Concord 
was two miles longer than throu2;h 
Carlisle. Straightway the storekeepers 
and innholders along the Concord 
road published a counter - statement, 
that it had been measured by sworn 
surveyors, and the distance found to be 
only two hundred and thirty-six rods 
further than by the other way. 

The first landlord of the Ridge Hill 
tavern was Levi Parker, noted for his 
hospitality. He was afterward deputy- 
sheriff of Middlesex County, and lived 
in Westford. He was followed, for a 
short time, by John Stevens, and then 
by John H. Loring, who conducted the 
house during many years, and was 
succeeded by his son Jefferson. After 
him came Henry L. LawTence, who 
kept it during one year; he was fol- 
lowed by his brother-in-law, Moses Gill, 
who took the tavern in April, 1837, 
and kept it just five years. When 
Mr. Gill gave up the house, he was 
followed by one Langdon for a short 
time, and he in turn by Kimball Farr 
as the landlord, who had bought it 
the year previously, and who remained 
in charge until 1868. During a part 
of the time when the place was man- 
aged by Mr. Farr his son Augustus 
was associated with him. Mr. Farr 
sold the tavern to John Fuzzard, who 
kept it for a while, and is still the owner 
of the property. He was followed by 
Newell M. Jewett; the present land- 

lord is Stephen Perkins, a native of 
York, Maine, who took it in 1880. 
The house had been vacant for some 
years before this time. A fair is held 
here regularly on the first Tuesday of 
every month, for the sale of hoi'ses, and 
buyers are attracted from a long dis- 
tance. At one time this property was 
owned by Judge Samuel Dana, who 
sold it to John H. Loring. 

As early as the year 1798 there was 
a tavern about a mile from the Ridges, 
toward Groton. It was kept by 
Stephen Farrar, in the house now 
standing near where the brook crosses 
the Great Road. Afterward one Green 
was the landlord. The house known 
as the Levi Tufts place in this neigh- 
borhood was an inn during the early 
part of this century, conducted by Tilly 
Buttrick. Also about this time, or 
previously, the house situated south of 
Indian Hill, and occupied by Charles 
Prescott, — when the map in Mr. But- 
ler's History was made, — was an inn. 
There was a tavern kept from the year 
1812 to 1818 by a Mr. Page, in Mr. 
Gerrish's house, near the Unitarian 
church in the village. There was also 
a tavern, near the present paper-milis 
of Tileston and Hollingsworih, kept 
for many years (1825-55) by Aaron 
Lewis, and after him for a short time 
by one Veazie. It was originally the 
house of John Capell, who owned the 
sawmill and gristmill in the immediate 
neighborhood, Amos Adams had an 
inn near Squannacook, a hundred years 
ago, in a house now owned by James 

Just before and during the Revolu- 
tion a tavern was kept by George 
Peirce, in the south part of the town, 
within the present limits of Ayer, 
This landlord was probably the inn- 
holder of Littleton, whose name appears 


The Old Taverns and Stage-Coaches of Groton. 

in The Massachusetts Gazette, of 
August 8, 1765. The house was the 
one formerly owned by the late Calvin 
Fletcher, and burned March 25, 1880. 
It was advertised for sale, as appears 
from the following advertisement in 
The Boston Gazette, September 27, 
1773: — 

To be Sold at PUBLIC VENDUE, to 
the highest Bidder, on Wednesday the 3d 
Day of November next, at four o'Clock in 
the Afternoon (if not Sold before at 
Private Sale) by me the Subscriber, A 
valuable FARM in Groton, in the County 
of Middlesex, pleasantly situated on the 
great County Road, leading from Crown 
Point and No. 4 to Boston: Said Farm 
contains 172 Acres of Upland and 
Meadow, with the bigger Part under 
improvement, with a large Dwelling House 
and Barn, and Out Houses, together with 
a good Grist Mill and Saw Mill, the latter 
new last Year, both in good Repair, and 
on a good Stream, and within a few Rods 
of the House. Said Farm would make 
two good Livings, and would sell it in two 
Divisions, or together, as it would best 
suit the Purchaser. Said House is situ- 
ated very conveniently for a Tavern, and 
has been improved as such for Ten Years 
past, with a Number of other Conveniences, 
too many to enumerate. And the Pur- 
chaser may depend upon having a good 
warrantee Deed of the same, and the bigger 
Part of the Pay made very easy, on good 
Security. The whole of the Farming 
Tools, and Part of the Stock, will be sold 
as above-mentioned, at the Subscriber's 
House on said Farm. 


Groton, Aug. 30, 1773. 

The gristmill and sawmill, men- 
tioned in the advertisement, were on 
Nonacoicus Brook. In the Gazette, 
of November 15, 1773, another notice 
appears, which shows that the tavern 
was not sold at the time originally 
appointed. It is as follows : — 

The Publick are hereby Notified that the 
Sale of the FARM in Groton, which was 
to have been sold the 3d Instant on the 
Premisses, at the House of Mr. George 
Peirce, is adjourn'd to the house of Mr. 
Joseph Moulton, Innholder in Boston, 
where it will certainly be Sold to the 
highest Bidder, on Wednesday the ist 
Day of December next, at 4 o'Clock, 

The following advertisement appears 
in The Independent Chronicle (Bos- 
ton), September 19, 1808; the site oi 
the farm was near that of Peirce's inn, 
just mentioned. Stone's tavern was 
afterward kept by one Day, and subse- 
quently burned. 

A FARM— for Sale, 
CONTAINING 140 acres of Land, situ- 
ated in the South part of Groton, {Mass.) 
vnth a new and well-finished House, Barn, 
& Out-houses, and Aqueduct, pleasantly 
situated, where a Tavern has been kept 
for the last seven years ; — a part of the 
whole will be sold, as best suits the pur- 
chaser. For further particulars, inquire of 
THO's B. RAND, of Charlestown, or the 
Subscriber, living on the Premises. 

Sept. 12. JESSE STONE. 

About a generation ago an attempt 
was made to organize a company for 
the purpose of carrying on a hotel in 
the village, and a charter was obtained 
from the Legislature. The stock, how- 
ever, was not fully taken up, and the 
project fell through. Of the cor- 
porators, Mr. Potter and Mr. Smith still 
survive. Below is a copy of the 
act : — 

An Act to incorporate the Groton Hotel 

Be it enacted by the Senate and House of 
Representatives, in General Court assem- 
bled, and by the authority of the same, as 
follows : — 

The Old Tavertis and Stage-CoacJies of Groton. 


Sect. i. Luther F. Potter, Natlianiel 
P. Smith, Simeon Ames, their associates 
and successors, are hereby made a cor- 
poration, by the name of the Groton Hotel 
Company, for the purpose of erecting, in 
the town of Groton, buildings necessary 
and convenient for a public house, with all 
the powers and privileges, and subject to 
all the liabilities, duties, and restrictions, 
set forth in the forty-fourth chapter of the 
Revised Statutes. 

Sect. 2. Said corporation may hold 
such real and personal property, as may be 
necessary and convenient for the purposes 
aforesaid, not exceeding in amount twenty 
thousand dollars : provided, that no shares 
in the capital stock of said corporation 
shall be issued for a less sum or amount, 
to be actually paid in on each, than the 
par value of the shares which shall be first 
issued. And if any ardent spirits, or in- 
toxicating drinks of any kind whatever, 
shall be sold by said company, or by their 
agents, lessees, or persons in their employ, 
contrary to law, in any of said buildings, 
then this act shall be void. {Approved by 
the Governor, May 2, 1850.] 

In the spring of 1852, a charter was 
given to Benjamin Webb, Daniel D. R. 
Bowker, and their associates, for the 
purpose of forming a corporation to 
carry on a hotel at the Massapoag 
Springs, in the eastern part of this 
town, but the project fell through. 
It was to be called the Massa- 
poag Spring Hotel, and its capital 
stock was limited to $30,000. The 
act was approved by the Governor, 
May 18, 1852, and it contained similar 
conditions to those mentioned above 
in regard to the sale of liquors. These 
enterprises are now nearly forgotten, 
though the mention of them may revive 
the recollections of elderly people. 

During the first half of the present 
century Groton had one characteristic 
mark, closely connected with the old 
taverns, which it no longer possesses. 

It was a radiating centre for different 
lines of stage-coaches, until this mode 
of travel was superseded by the swifter 
one of the railroad. During many 
years the stage-coaches were a dis- 
tinctive feature of the place ; and their 
coming and going was watched with 
great interest, and created the excite- 
ment of the day. In early times the 
drivers, as they approached the village, 
would blow a bugle in order to give 
notice of their arrival; and this blast 
was the signal at the taverns to put the 
food on the table. More than a gen- 
eration has now passed away since 
these coaches were wont to be seen in 
the village streets. They were drawn 
usually by four horses, and in bad going 
by six. Here a change of coaches, 
horses, and drivers was made. 

The stage-driver of former times 
belonged to a class of men that has 
entirely disappeared from this com- 
munity. His position was one of 
considerable responsibility. This im- 
portant personage was well known along 
his route, and his opinions were always 
quoted with respect. I can easily 
recall the familiar face of Aaron Corey, 
who drove the accommodation stage to 
Boston for so many years. He was 
a careful and skilful driver, and a man 
of most obliging disposition. He would 
go out of his way to bear a message or 
leave a newspaper; but his specialty 
was to look after women and children 
committed to his charge. He carried, 
also, packages and parcels, and largely 
what is to-day entrusted to the express. 
I recall, too, with pleasure, Horace 
George, another driver, popular with 
all the boys, because in sleighing-time 
he would let us ride on the rack behind, 
and even slacken the speed of his 
horses so as to allow us to catch hold 
of the straps. 


The Old Taverns ajtd Stage-Coaches of Groton. 

Some people now remember the 
scenes of life and activity that used 
to be witnessed in the town on the 
arrival and departure of the stages. 
Some remember, too, the loud snap of 
the whip which gave increased speed 
to the horses, as they dashed up in 
approved style to the stopping-place, 
where the loungers were collected to 
see the travelers and listen to the 
gossip which fell from their lips. 
There were no telegraphs then, and 
but few railroads in the country. The 
papers did not gather the news so 
eagerly, nor spread it abroad so 
promptly, as they do now, and items 
of intelligence were carried largely by 
word of mouth. 

The earliest line of stage-coaches 
between Boston and Groton was the 
one mentioned in The Columbian 
Centinel, April 6, 1793. The ad- 
vertisement is headed " New Line of 
Stages," and gives notice that — 

A Stage-Carriage drives from Rabbins' 
Tavern, at Charles-River Bridge, on Mon- 
day and Friday, in each week, and passing 
through Cojicord and Groton, arrives at 
IVymari's tavern in Ashley [Ashby?] in 
the evening of the same days ; and after 
exchanging passengers there, with the 
Stage-Carriage from Walpole, it returns on 
Tuesdays and Saturdays, by the same 
route to Ro b bins'' s. 

The Charlestown Carriage drives also 
from Robbins'' on Wednesday in each 
week, and passing through Concord, arrives 
at Richardson'' s tavern, in Groton, on the 
evening of the same day, and from thence 
returns on Thursday to Robbins\ 

Another Carriage drives from Richard- 
son's tavern in Groton, on Monday in each 
week, at six o'clock in the morning, and 
passing by Richardson''s tavern in Concord 
at ten o'clock in the forenoon, arrives at 

Charlestown at tliree o'clock in the after- 
noon. From Charlestown it drives on 
Tuesday and Thursday in each week, at 
three o'clock in the afternoon, and returns 
back as far as Richardson's tavern in 
Concord — and from that place it starts at 
8 o'clock in the mornings, of Wednesday 
and Friday, and runs again to Charles- 
town. From there it moves at six o'clock 
on Saturday morning, and returns to 
Richardson'' s tavern in Groton, in the 
evening of the same day. 

It was probably one of these "Car- 
riages " to which allusion is made in 
Mr. Winthrop's Memoir of the Hon- 
orable NathaaAppleton,* as follows : — 

At early dusk on some October or 
November evening, in the year 1794, 
a fresh, vigorous, bright-eyed lad, just 
turned of fifteen, might have been seen 
alighting from a stage-coach near Quaker 
Lane.f as it was then called, in the old 
town of Boston. He had been two days 
on the road from his home in the town of 
New Ipswich, in the State of New Hamp- 
shire. On the last of the two days, the 
stage-coach had brought him all the way 
from Groton in Massachusetts ; startiiig 
for that purpose early in the morning, 
stopping at Concord for the passengers to 
dine, trundling them through Charlestown 
about the time the evening lamps were 
lighted, and finishing the whole distance 
of rather more than thirty miles in season 
for supper. For his first day's journey, 
there had been no such eligible and 
expeditious conveyance. The Boston 
stage-coach, in those days, went no 
farther than Groton in that dii-ection. His 
fathers farm-horse, or perhaps that of one 
of the neighbors, had served his turn for 
the first six or seven miles ; his little 
brother of ten years old having followed 
him as far as Townsend, to ride the horse 
home again. But from there he had 
trudged along to Groton on foot, with 

* Proceedings of the Massachusetts Historical Soci- 
ety, V, 249, 250. 

t Now Congress Street. 

The Old Taverns and Stage-Coaches of Grot on. 


a bundle-handkerchief in his hand, which 
contained all the wearing apparel he had, 
except what was on his back. 

It has been said that the first public 
conveyance between Boston and 
Groton was a covered wagon, hung 
on chains for thoroughbraces : perhaps 
it was the "Charlestown Carriage," 
mentioned in the advertisement. It was 
owned and driven by Lemuel Lakin, 
but after a few years the owner sold 
out to Dearborn Emerson. 

The following advertisement from 
The Columbian Centinel, June 25, 
1800, will give a notion of what an 
undertaking a trip to Boston was, at 
the beginning of the century : — 

The subscriber respectfully informs the 
public that he drives the Stage from Boston 
to Groton, running through Lexington, 
Concord, and Littleton, to Groton : Starts 
from Boston every Wednesday morning, at 
5 o'clock, and arrives at Groton the same 
day ; Starts from Groton every Monday 
morning, at J o'clock, and arrives at Bos- 
ton the same day at 4 o'clock. Passage 
through, 2 dols. per mile, 4^ 


Seats taken at Mr. Silas Button's in 
Royal Exchange Lane. Newspapers sup- 
plied on the road, and every attention paid 
to conveyances. 

The given name of Emerson was 
Dearborn, and not "Danborn," which 
is a misprint. Two years later he was 
running a stage-coach from Groton to 
New Ipswich, New Hampshire, and 
on the first return trip he brought three 
passengers, — according to the History 
of New Ipswich (page 129). Emerson 
was a noted driver in his day ; and 
he is mentioned, with pleasant recollec- 
tions, by the Honorable Abbott Law- 
rence, in an after-dinner speech at the 

jubilee of Lawrence Academy, on July 
12, 1854. Subsequently he was the 
landlord of one of the local taverns. 
It is advertised in The Massachu- 
setts Register, for the year 1802, that 

GROTON Stage sets off from J. and S. 
Wheelock's [Indian Queen Inn], No. 37, 
Marlboro'-Street [now a part of Washing- 
ton Street, Boston] , every Wednesday at 
4 o'clock in the morning, and arrives 
at Groton at 3 o'clock in the afternoon, 
same day ; leaves Groton every Monday 
at 4 o'clock in the morning, and arrives in 
Boston at 6 o'clock in the afternoon, same 
day. (Pages 19, 20.) 

It seems from this notice that it took 
three hours longer to make the trip 
down to Boston than up to Groton, — 
of which the explanation is not clear. 
In the Register for 1803 a semi- 
weekly line is advertised, and the same 
length of time is given for making the 
trip each way. 

About the year 1807 there was a tri- 
weekly line of coaches to Boston, and 
as early as 1820 a daily line, which 
connected at Groton with others ex- 
tending into New Hampshire and 
Vermont. Soon after this time there 
were two lines to Boston, running in 
opposition to each other, — one known 
as the Union and Accommodation 
Line, and the other as the Telegraph 
and Despatch. 

One of the drivers for the Telegraph 
and Despatch line was Phineas Har- 
rington, known along the road as 
" Phin " Harrington. He had orders 
to take but eight passengers in his 
coach, and the trip was made with 
remarkable speed for that period. 
"Phin " was a man of small size, and 
the story used to be told of him that, 
on cold and stormy nights, he would 
get inside of one of the lamps fixed to 


The Old Taverns and Stage-CoacJies of Groton. 

his box in order to warm his feet by the 
Hghted wick ! He passed almost his 
whole life as a stage-man, and it is said 
that he drove for nearly forty years. 
He could handle the reins of six horses 
with more skill than any other driver in 

William Shephard and Company ad- 
vertise in The Groton Herald, April lo, 
1830, their accommodation stage. 
" Good Teams and Coaches, with care- 
ful and obliging drivers, will be pro- 
vided by the subscribers." Books were 
• kept in Boston at A. M. Brigham's, No. 
42 Hanover Street, and in Groton at 
the taverns of Amos Alexander and 
Joseph Hoar. The fare was one dol- 
lar, and the coach went three times 
a week. 

About this time George Flint had 
a line to Nashua, and John Holt 
another to Fitchburg. They advertise 
together in the Herald, May i, 1830, 
that "no pains shall be spared to 
accommodate those who shall favor 
them with their custom, and all business 
intrusted to their care will be faithfully 
attended to." The first stage-coach 
from this town to Lowell began to run 
about the year 1829, and John Austin 
was the driver. An opposition line 
was established soon afterwafrd, and 
kept up during a short time, until a 
compromise was made between them. 
Later, John Russ was the owner and 
driver of the line to Lowell, and still 
later, John M. Maynard the owner. 
Near this period there was a coach 
running to Worcester, and previously 
one to Amherst, New Hampshire. 

The following is a list of some of 
the old drivers, who were well known 
along their respective routes. It is ar- 
ranged in no particular order and by no 
means complete \ and the dates against 
a few of the names are only approx- 

imations to the time when each one 
sat on the box : — 

Lemuel Lakin was among the earli- 
est ; and he was followed by Dear- 
born Emerson. Daniel Brooks drove 
to Boston during the period of the last 
war with England, and probably later. 

Aaron Corey drove the accommoda- 
tion stage to Boston, through Carlisle, 
Bedford, and Lexington, for a long 
time, and he had previously driven the 
mail-coach. He was succeeded by his 
son, Calvin, the driver for a few years, 
until the line was given up in 1850. 
Mr. Corey, the father, was one of the 
veterans, having held the reins during 
thirty-two years; he died March 15, 
1857, at the age of seventy-three. 

Isaac Bullard, 1817-30; WilHam 
Smart, 1S25-30 ; George Hunt, Jonathan 
Buttrick, Thomas A. Staples, Obediah 
Kendall, Albert Hay den. Charles Briggs, 
Levi Robbins, James Lord, Frank Brown, 
Silas Burgess, Augustus Adams, William 
Dana, Horace Brown, Levi Wheeler, 

Timothy Underwood, Bacon, 

Horace George, 1838-45 ; Lyman W. 
Gushing, 1842-45, and Joseph Stewart. 
These drove to Boston. After the 
stages were taken off, " Joe " Stewart 
drove the passenger-coach from the 
village to the station on the Fitchburg 
Railroad, which ran to connect with the 
three daily trains for Boston. The 
station was three miles away, and now 
within the limits of Ayer. 

Among the drivers to Keene, New 
Hampshire, were Kimball Danforth, 
1817-40; Ira Brown, Oliver Scales, 
Amos Nicholas, Otis Bardwell, Abel 
Marshall, the brothers Ira and Hiram 
Hodgkins, George Brown, Houghton 
Lawrence, Palmer Thomas, Ira Green, 
Barney Pike, William Johnson, Walter 
Carleton, and John Carleton. There 
were two stage routes to Keene, both 

The Old Taverns and Stage-Coaches of Groton. 


going as far as West Townsend in com- 
mon, and then sejja rating, one passing 
through Ashby, Rindge, and Fitzwil- 
liam, while the other went through 
New Ipswich and Jaffrey. 

Anson Johnson and Beriah Curtis 
drove to Worcester ; Addison Parker, 
Henry L. Lawrence. Stephen Corbin, 
John Webber, and his son, Ward, drove 
to Lowell ; the brothers Abiel and 
Nathan Fawcett, Wilder Proctor, and 
Abel H. Fuller, to Nashua ; Alicah Ball, 
who came from Leominster about the 
year 1824, drove to Amherst, New 
Hampshire, and after him Benjamin 
Lewis, who continued to drive as long 
as he lived, and at his death the line was 
given up. The route to Amherst lay 
through Pepperell, Hollis, and Milford. 

Other drivers were John Chase, Joel 
Shattuck, Wilham Shattuck, Moses 
Titus, Frank Shattuck, David Coburn, 

Chickering, Thomas Emory, and 

William Kemp, Jr. 

The sad recollection of an accident 
at Littleton, resulting in the death of 
Silas Bullard, is occasionally revived by 
some of the older people. It occurred 
about the year 1825. and was caused 
by the upsetting of the Groton coach, 
driven by Samuel Stone, and at the time 
just descending the hill between Little- 
ton Common and Nagog Pond, then 
known as Kimball's Hill. Mr. Bul- 
lard was one of the owners of the 
line, and a brother of Isaac, the veteran 

Besides the stage-coaches the carrier 
wagons added to the business of 
Groton, and helped largely to support 
the taverns. The town was situated on 
one of the main thoroughfares leading 
from Boston to the northern country, 
comprising an important part of New 

Hampshire and Vermont, and extend- 
ing into Canada. This road was 
traversed by a great number of wagons, 
drawn by four or six horses, carrying to 
the city the various products of the 
country, such as grain, pork, butter, 
cheese, eggs, venison, hides ; and 
returning with goods found in the city, 
such as molasses, sugar, New-England 
rum, coffee, tea, nails, iron, cloths, and 
the innumerable articles found in the 
country stores, to be distributed among 
the to\vns above here. In some sea- 
sons, it was no uncommon sight to see 
forty such wagons passing through the 
village in one day. 

In addition to these were many 
smaller vehicles, drawn by one or two 
horses, to say nothing of the private 
carriages of individuals who were 
traveling for business or pleasure. 

For many of the facts mentioned in 
this paper I am indebted to Mr. Moses 
Gill, an octogenarian of Groton, whose 
mind is clear and body active for a man 
of his years. Mr. Gill is a grandson of 
Lieutenant-Governor Moses Gill, and 
was born at Princeton, on March 6, 
1800. He has kept several public 
houses in Groton, already mentioned, 
besides the old brick tavern situated 
on the Lowell road, near Long- 
sought-for Pond, and formerly known 
as the Half-way House. This hotel 
came within the hmitsof Westford, and 
was kept by Mr. Gill from the year 
1842 to 1847. In his day he has 
known personally seventy-five landlords 
doing business between Davenport's 
(opposite to the celebrated Porter's 
tavern in Cambridge) and Keene, New 
Hampshire ; and of this number, only 
seven are thought to be living at the 
present time. 


Capt. John McClintock. 


(( '(lilt iimcd I'nmi \y.\\l^' I'.i 1.) 
Seplcmbcr 26, 1 .S4 1 , he married Mary 
Bailey Shaw, of Winthrop, Maine, who 
bore him six children, four of whom sur- 
vive. During one of his long voyages 
round the workl she departed this life, 
Oct. 25, 1866. Rev. C. C. Mason thus 
writes of her in the Zlou's Herald: 

" Hy the death of this sister the 
church sustams a great loss, for she was 
a constant friend and exemplary mem- 
ber. Tilt: poor and afflicted will re- 
member her as a sympathizer and 
helper, for she endeared herself to all 
by her active yet gentle and uuostenta 
tious exertions for the good of others. 
I do not pen an untruth or write unde- 
served praise when I say that few women 
have a record so full of lovely remem- 
brances as Sister Mary McClintock. 
She was a woman of superior gifts, gen- 
erous and true, earnest and hopeiul, 
consistent and faithiul in her chrirtian 
life. Her piety was distinguished by a 
firm and cheerful trust in her God. 
Seldom was she cast down or disc]uieted. 
In September last, Willie, the next to 
the eldest son, was smitten with typhoid 
fever, and for weeks that affectionate 
mother watched every symptom, at- 
tended to every want, and by her ten- 
der, watchful care he was restored to 
health. Ere Willie recovered, John, 
the eldest son, was prostrated by the 
same fever, and to-day lies hovering be- 
tween life and death. The mother was 
compelled to resign the care of this 
dear son to others and seek her own 
couch to lie down and die. Ttie min- 
isters of the Maine Conference will re- 

member her rare .nd solicitude for 
their good, and thai incmorv will shine 
upon their weary ]xuliway like moon 
light when the sun lias set, leaving a 
sweet and tender radiance. Her house 
with its many comforts vvas the frequent 
and welcome home of the itinerant. 
With her generous and warm-hearted 
husband she was a weeklv visitor at the 
parsonage, and its orcu[)ants this year 
will miss a devoted fricml. In her do- 
mestic circle she was very affable and 
queenly, almost idolized by her fond 
and confiiing husband and affectionate 

The death of the mother broke up 
the family circle, the boys struck out 
for themselves, and the father passed the 
last years of his life with the son, " Wil- 
lie," at Chelsea, Mass. His declining 
years were amidst pleasant surround- 
ings, where he had every care and at- 
tention, but toward the last his mind 
wandered and he lived over again 
scenes in his stormy life. His crew was 
mutinous as of old. Robbers were at- 
tacking him. Lawyers were his dread 
and terror, especially the English spec- 
iuien. The wind was blowing a gale, 
or he was becalmed in a bad current. 
His end was very peaceful and he was 
laid to rest by the side of his only wife 
in a peaceful graveyard in Winthrop, 
overhung by elms and commanding a 
view of a beautiful little lake. They 
are in the midst of her kindred. 




Tfrcoted to Literature, 'Biography, History, and State Progress. 
Vol. IX. SEPTEMBER, 1886. No. IX. 


By Hon. Charles H. Bell, LL.D. 

The subject of this sketch does not Several of them, including Jonathan 

owe the estimation in which he is held Sawyer, the youngest, became manufac- 

to the doings of his ancestors. He has turers. Jonathan was fortunate in ob- 

eamed his own position in the world, taining an education in the high school 

Yet he cannot fail to feel an honorable of Lowell, and afterwards at the great 

pride in the fact, that he is sprung from Methodist institution in VVilbraham, 

a line of energetic and ingenious work- Mass. Then he learned the business 

ers, who made themselves useful and of a dyer in a woollen-mill in Lowell, 

respected in their generations. and subsequently had charge of a 

Charles H. Sawyer is a lineal de- similar establishment in Watertown, 
scendant of John Sawyer, a farmer of N.Y. In 1850 he took up his abode 
Lincolnshire in England, three of whose in Dover in our own State, and entered 
sons emigrated to this country about into the manufacture of flannels. He 
the year 1636. One of them, Thomas, is still a principal and active pro- 
settled in 1647 ^t Lancaster, Mass.; prietor of the Sawyer Woollen Mills, 
where in 1708 he (or possibly a son in the enjoyment of health, compet- 
of his, bearing the same name) was ence, and the respect won by a life 
captured by the Indians and taken to of honorable exertion and spotless in- 
Canada, and purchased his deliverance, tegrity. 

and that of several fellow-captives, by Charles H. Sawyer, the eldest son of 

building for the French governor a Jonathan and Martha (Perkins) Sawyer, 

saw-mill; the first, it is said, in that was bom in Watertown, N.Y., March 

region of country. 30, 1840. At the age of ten, he was 

Phineas, the great-great-grandson of brought by his father to Dover, and 

Thomas, and the grandfather of Charles acquired the basis of his education in 

H. Sawyer, bought in Marlborough, the excellent public schools of that 

Mass., a century later, a water privilege place. When he became seventeen, 

and mills, to which he afterwards added his father, who designed him for the 

a cotton factory ; a difiicult and hazard- hereditary calling of manufacturing, 

ous undertaking at that early day. He placed him in the flannel-mill as an 

operated it for some years, about the ordinary hand, to enable him to form 

time of the last war with England, but a practical acquaintance with the vari- 

probably with more public spirit than ous and complicated processes required 

private advantage, and died in 1820, to transform the rough fleece into the 

leaving a widow and twelve children, finished fabric. Here he supplemented 


Col. Charles H. Sawyer. 

his book-education by the education 
of work, observation, and experience. 
Step by step he rose to the higher 
grades of employment, mastering every 
detail of the business as he went, until 
at the age of twenty-six, he was ap- 
pointed superintendent of the estab- 
lishment. Meantime, the proprietors 
of the mills had greatly extended their 
operations, and had adapted the ma- 
chinery to the manufacture of fine cas- 
simere cloths and suitings. In 1873 
they were incorporated by the name of 
the Sawyer Woollen Mills, and Col. 
Sawyer became a part owner and agent ; 
and in 1881, on the death of his uncle, 
Francis A. Sawyer the senior proprie- 
tor, he was chosen the president. 

The Sawyer Woollen Mills Corpora- 
tion is now a large and prosperous con- 
cern, employing somewhere about five 
hundred operatives, and turning out a 
quality of cloth which has acquired 
a high reputation in the market for 
beauty, durability, and uniform excel- 
lence of workmanship. None but the 
best materials are used, and the best 
class of help is employed. " Live and 
let live " is the motto of the managers. 
The employees have mainly grown up 
with the business, the changes having 
been very few; a great part of them 
have been in the employ of the con- 
cern for twenty years or more. They 
are paid liberal wages, and are com- 
fortable and independent. They are 
large depositors in the savings-banks ; 
and many of them own their own 
houses, purchased with their earnings. 
As may be inferred, they are, as a body, 
temperate, industrious, and orderly. 
They feel that their interests are iden- 
tified with those of their employers ; 
and no strikes or other labor troubles 
have ever disturbed the harmonious 
relations between them. 

The Sawyer Woollen Mills have in- 
troduced one new feature into their 
business, which commends itself to the 
good sense of all. Instead of employ- 
ing commission houses to dispose of 
their goods, as the former practice was, 
they now make their own sales. They 
thus reduce the chances of loss to the 
minimum ; and there being no middle- 
man's profit to pay, they can better 
afford employment to their hands in 
times of depression. 

For a number of years past, the ac- 
tive management of the entire business 
— buying, manufacturing, and selling — 
has fallen upon Col. Sawyer; and it 
has been so conducted, that the credit 
of no other establishment stands higher. 
As a business man, alert, sagacious, and 
successful, the colonel has no superior 
in the State ; and that is saying a great 
deal at this day, when the brightest of 
our New-Hampshire boys are finding 
employment at home. 

The sterling business qualities which 
Col. Sawyer displayed in the conduct 
of his own affairs have naturally led to 
his being selected upon the board of 
management of other enterprises. He 
is a director of the Strafford National 
Bank, and a trustee of the Strafford 
Savings Bank ; a director of the Dover 
Gas-light Company, and president of 
the Dover Horse-Railroad Company ; a 
director and member of the Executive 
Board of the Granite-State Insurance 
Company ; a director of the Portsmouth 
Bridge Company, and president of the 
Eliot Bridge Company ; and a director 
in the Portsmouth and Dover, in the 
Portsmouth, Great Falls, and Conway, 
and in the Wolfeborough Branch Rail- 
roads. These various and important 
trusts, numerous as they and his pri- 
vate engagements are, receive his care- 
ful attention ; and it is safe to say that 

Col. Charles H. Sawyer. 


the opinion of no one concerned in 
their administration carries more weight 
than his. 

Col. Sawyer has too great an interest 
in pubhc alitairs to be without decided 
pohtical convictions. He cast his earU- 
est vote for Abraham Lincoln, and has 
ever since been unswerving in his alle- 
giance to the Republican party. His 
experience in the service of the pubUc 
has not been inconsiderable. After hav- 
ing served with credit in both branches 
of the city council of Dover, he was 
chosen a representative in the State 
Legislature in the years 1869 and 1870, 
and again in 1876 and 1877. His 
ability and standing in that body are 
indicated by the fact of his assignment 
to the important committees on the 
judiciary, railroads, manufactures, and 
national affairs. His last political ser- 
vice was that of delegate at large to 
the National Republican Convention at 
Chicago, in 1884. The military title 
by which he is known. Col. Sawyer 
derived from his appointment upon the 
staff of the Governor of the State, in 
1 88 1. It is the barest justice to him 
to add that he is no office-seeker. 
Modest and unassuming in a remarka- 
ble degree, the public positions he has 
held have come to him through no 
longing or efforts of his own ; in his 
case it is emphatically true that "the 
office has always sought the man." 

Col. Sawyer is a member of the 
Congregational Society in Dover, and 
a liberal contributor to its support, a^s 
well as to every worthy object of charity 
and scheme of benevolence that is 
brought to his notice from whatever 
quarter. Though his manner is re- 
served, his heart is warm, and his sym- 
pathies are quick and wide ; and his 
generosity and helpfulness in a good 
cause are not limited by place or creed 

or nationality. He is a consistent tem- 
perance man, and a firm upholder of 
the prohibitory law. Every work for 
the improvement of the city or the 
public benefit finds in him a hearty 
supporter, grudging neither money nor 
more valuable personal effort to pro- 
mote its advancement. For years he 
has been a zealous member of the Ma- 
sonic fraternity. He was twice elected 
to the chair of the Strafford Lodge of 
Free and Accepted Masons ; and for 
the past seven years he has been the 
Eminent Commander of the St. Paul 
Commandery of Knights Templar. 

Though so diligent a man of affairs, 
Col. Sawyer finds the time for mental 
cultivation. His library contains the 
best books of sohd value, and he has 
made himself acquainted with their 
contents. On all subjects of public 
interest and practical importance he 
keeps thoroughly informed, and has 
well-considered opinions. Naturally 
somewhat reticent, he never obtrudes 
his views ; but when they are sought 
for, they are found to go straight to the 
mark, and to have behind them all 
the force of rare sagacity and careful 
thought. He makes no pretentions to 
oratory, yet orators might well envy 
the impression which his plain, con- 
vincing statements command. In the 
recent panic caused by the withdrawal 
from the State of foreign insurance 
companies, it was mainly Col. Sawyer's 
calm and clear demonstration of the 
feasibility of a manufacturers' mutual 
system of home insurance that quieted 
the needless feelings of alarm. 

It has been truly remarked of Col. 
Sa\v}'er, that " Nature made him on a 
large scale." His great interests he 
wields easily, and carries his broad 
responsibilities without fatigue. His 
remarkable executive ability never 


Col. Charles H. Sawyer. 

seems to be taxed to its full ca- 
pacity ; there is always an appearance 
of reserve strength beyond. He has 
a large way of estimating men and 
things. No petty prejudices obscure 
the clearness of his vision, or weaken 
the soundness of his judgment. He 
has the courage of his convictions, and 
does not shrink from telling an unpal- 
atable truth when necessary ; but he 
has the rare faculty of giving no need- 
less offence. In the wide round of 
his occupations he must needs have 
caused some disappointments ; but his 
character for justice and square dealing 
is so universally understood, that cen- 
sure finds no vulnerable spot to fasten 
on. Few prominent men are so free 
from enemies. 

The imperturbable poise of charac- 
ter which Col. Sawyer exhibits is one 
of his distinguishing features. Nothing 
throws him off his balance. He keeps 
entire control of his temper ; he allows 
neither success to elate him, nor failure 
to depress him. As the western peo- 
ple say, he is " a man to tie to." This 
is the result of natural equanimity, sup- 
plemented by careful self-discipline. 
His powers are so cultivated that they 
are evenly developed ; his character is 
matured, well-rounded, and symmet- 

Moreover, he is, in the expressive 
phrase of the day, a " clean " man. 
His life has been soiled by no mean or 
sordid action. Amidst many tempta- 
tions to self-indulgence, he has pre- 
served himself pure and unspoiled. 
In the several relations of son and 
husband and father, of friend and of 
citizen, he has been faithful and true 
to his duty. At twenty-five years of 
age he married Susan E., daughter of 
Dr. James W. Cowan. Their home is 
on the bank of the stream whose waters 

turn the wheels of Sawyer's Mills. It 
is the unostentatious abode of genuine 
comfort and refinement. It is there 
that Col. Sawyer finds, in the society 
of his wife and children, rest from the 
cares of his business, and the truest 
enjoyment of his Hfe. 

For several years past those who 
knew Col. Sawyer best have felt that 
he was destined ere long to fill the 
chief executive office in the gift of the 
people of New Hampshire ; and when, 
a few months since, his name was pub- 
licly mentioned for the gubernatorial 
nomination by the Republican party, 
it was received with enthusiasm by 
people in all parts of the State. The 
Convention, when assembled, ratified 
what appeared to be the popular voice, 
and nominated him as their candidate 
for the governorship by a vote of nearly 
three-fourths of their whole number. 

Gratifying to the nominee as this 
spontaneous mark of the confidence . 
of his party must have been, his recep- 
tion by the people of his city, without 
distinction of party, must have been 
even more so. He was met on his 
return from the Convention to Dover, 
by a great procession, civic and mili- 
tary, of men of all opinions and callings, 
and escorted to his home amid cheers 
and music and illuminations all along 
the way. It was an ovation that testified 
more eloquently than words to the high 
estimation in which his character is 
held by his neighbors and townsmen. 

Col. Sawyer is yet in his prime. It 
is probable that one-half of his adult 
life is still before him. The qualities that 
have already made him one of our fore- 
most men will guide and govern him 
throughout the remainder of his career. 
And all that he has thus far accomplished 
is not unlikely to prove but the vestibule 
to the noble edifice of his completed life. 

Hon. Jacob H. Gallingcr. 



Since July, 1879, when a sketch of 
Hon. Jacob H. Gallinger appeared in 
The Granite Monthly, at which time 
he was president of the New- Hamp- 
shire Senate, he has not been idle. At 
this time, when he is a candidate for 
re-election to Congress, a few addition- 
al facts may be of interest to the read- 
ers of The Granite Monthly. Allen J. 
Hackett, a well known political writer, 
contributes the following : " Dr. Gallinger 
had long been an active and influential 
member of the Republican State Cen- 
tral Committee, and in September, 
1882, he was made its chairman. The 
campaign which followed was one of 
exceeding bitterness, and beset with ex- 
ceptional difficulties. The tidal wave, 
which, two years later, carried the 
Democratic party into power in the Na- 
tion, had already set in. New York, 
Pennsylvania, and even Massachusetts 
chose Democratic governors, and a 
Democratic Congress was elected. In 
addition to these general discourage- 
ments, the Republicans of New Hamp- 
shire were called upon to face serious 
obstacles of their own, which are well 
known to all ; and which, therefore, 
need not be discussed here. It is only 
just to say that, with a less adroit man- 
ager at the head of the Republican 
organization, the Republican victory 
which followed would have been im- 
possible. Dr. Gallinger was re-elected 
to the chairmanship in 1884, ^^id again 
demonstrated his especial fitness for 
the place. 

" In the Second District Convention, 
held at Concord, Sept. 9, 1884, Dr. 
Gallinger was nominated for member 
of Congress, receiving on the first bal- 
lot 171 out of a total of 329 votes. 
The nomination was subsequently made 

unanimous. His competitors were 
Hon. Daniel Barnard of Franklin, and 
Hon. Levi W. Barton of Newport, two 
of the ablest men of the State. He 
was elected in November following, 
running several hundred votes ahead 
of his ticket. 

" Dr. Gallinger has been prominent 
in politics otherwise than in an official 
capacity. He is one of the most pop- 
ular and successful campaign orators 
in the State. As a speaker, he is rapid, 
direct, and practical ; has an excellent 
voice, and always commands the close 
attention of his audience. He is also 
a facile and effective writer. He has 
frequently prepared the resolutions for 
State and District Conventions, and 
has written to a considerable extent 
for the daily press. He has also per- 
formed considerable literary labor of 
a general character. He has frequent- 
ly lectured before lyceums and other 
literary societies ; and Dartmouth Col- 
lege has conferred upon him the honor- 
ary degree of master of arts. 

" Dr. Gallinger is slighdy above the 
medium height, and is somewhat portly. 
He has always been strictly temperate 
in his habits, and the happy results of 
his abstemious life are apparent in his 
cheery and healthful countenance. He 
has a fine presence, a cordial, hearty 
manner, and a pleasing, winning ad- 
dress. His rare social qualities, abun- 
dant good nature, keen sense of hu- 
mor, and excellent conversational power, 
make him a most agreeable compan- 
ion ; and few men in the State enjoy a 
higher degree of personal popularity." 

At the meeting of the State Commit- 
tee and Delegates on the evening of 
Sept. 13, 1886, to form a plan for the 
organization of the Republican State 


Hon. Jacob H. Gallingcr. 

Convention for the following clay, Dr. 
Gallinger presided ; and, in response 
to an urgent call, gave an address 
which, from its wisdom and appropri- 
ateness, might well be termed an 
oration. Every hearer in his large au- 
dience, composed of the leading Re- 
publican politicians of New Hampshire, 
were, under his generalship, brought 
under one banner, and united for a 
hard fight and a victory in the coming 

On the afternoon of Sept. 14, Dr. 
Gallinger was renominated by accla- 
mation for member of Congress from 
the second district. "The Concord 
Monitor" says, — 

" It is conceded on all hands that Dr. Gal- 
iinger's speech accepting the renomination 
for the member of Congress was one of the 
most graceful speeches of acceptance ever 
heard in this State. 

" The nomination of Congressman Gallin- 
ger, for a second term, by acclamation, while 
it was in accordance with a long established 
custom, yet had a significance peculiarly its 
own ; for the reason that the result would 
have been the same if the proceedings had 
been different. Dr. Gallinger has been one 
of the ablest and most faithful representa- 
tives that his district has ever had. His initi- 
ation into the practical duties of congressional 
life have been very rapid. He has an ex- 
ceedingly happy facility in adapting himself 
to any position in which he finds himself 
placed. This quality has enabled him to dis- 
charge the functions of the numerous State 
offices which he has held, with readiness and 
unusual success ; and it stands him in good 

stead in the higher office which he now fills. 
He has not found it necessary to serve a long 
apprenticeship of timid silence. He has 
served but half of his first term in Congress, 
but he has already been "heard from," and 
in a way creditable to himself and gratifying 
to the people of his State. He has success- 
fully participated in the debates, and his 
speech on the silver question was one of the 
ablest of the session. He has faithfully rep- 
resented the interests of his constituents, and 
has cheerfully responded to all demands 
which they have made upon him. 

"There should be, and indeed there is, no 
doubt of his re-election by a very large ma- 
jority. Two years ago he ran several hun- 
dred votes ahead of his ticket. To the per- 
sonal popularity to which that result was due, 
he can now add an excellent public record, 
and the voters of the second district will 
doubtless show their appreciation of his ser- 
vices by giving him a generous support at 
the polls." 

Dr. Gallinger's congressional record, 
as above outlined, is one of exceptional 
brilliancy. Rarely, if ever, has the 
State had a representative who, during 
his first session, gained so prominent a 
a place in Congress as he. Industrious, 
faithful, and aggessive, his reputation is 
already established as a congressman 
of great oratorical power and rare ex- 
ecutive ability. His future career will 
be carefully watched by the people of 
the State, who to-day look upon him as 
one of the few men in New Hampshire 
who can properly look forward to the 
probability of further preferment in the 
political field. 

The firm of James R. Hill & Co. 
of Concord, the manufacturers of the 
Concord harness, the standard harness 
of America, to whom the attention of 
the readers of The Granite Monthly 
has been frequently called in past years, 
have continued to sustain and increase 
the reputation of their goods until, not 
only in name but in fact, they are 
at the head in this country in their 
line. They furnish from their factory 
all classes of harnesses, from the one- 
thousand dollar set for fancy coaches 

to the common buggy and freight har- 
ness used by teamsters and farmers ; 
adapting their prices to the demand of 
every community, but insisting on fur- 
nishing reliable goods to their custom- 
ers. They now employ about one 
hundred and fifty skilled operatives. 

They have lately issued an advertising 
chart of their various kinds of harnesses 
which will prove an ornament to every 
counting-room, where its occupants take 
an interest in the horse or in its ac- 

Harry G. Sargent. 249 


Harry G. Sargent, Esq., the Repub- connection with Hon. W. L. Foster 

lican candidate for Sohcitor of IMerri- and Hon. A. W. Silsby. From the first 

mack County, is a young lawyer of he has been successful. He brought 

Concord, who has already won an envi- to the profession a level head, sound 

able rank in his chosen profession ; and, common sense, and a good constitu- 

in the opinion of his many friends, is tion. He is very energetic. What he 

bound to rise higher. has to do, he does with all his might. 

He is the son of Samuel M. Sargent, His discharge of official duties is done 

for many years an engineer on the in the most conscientious manner, and 

Concord Railroad, and Cyrene M. Sar- with the most painstaking care. He 

gent. He was born in Pittsfield, N.H., cannot be bought or influenced by 

Sept. 30, 1859; and after residing in promises or threats. With a deep 

Hooksett and Bow, N.H., a few years, voice, clear and full, his speaking is 

while still a lad, removed with his pa- impressive and earnest. His untiring 

rents to Concord, where he has ever energy, physical strength, and mental 

since resided ; receiving the advantages activity make him a force before the 

of the excellent schools of the city, and courts. 

graduating from the High School with He has already been employed in 

honor in 1878. many important cases; he has been 

He immediately commenced the administrator of several estates ; he 
study of the law in the office of W. T. has been the assignee of several firms. 
& H. F. Norris, where he remained His chief reputation at the bar, how- 
one year, when he entered the Law ever, has been gained during the past 
.School of the Boston University, and two years, while he has been engaged 
continued his studies there for another in the important duties attached to his 
year. On his return to Concord, he office of county solicitor, to which he 
entered the office of Hon. John Y. was elected in 1884. He has proved 
Mugridge, and there finished his pre- himself an able lawyer, a strong and 
paratory course of reading ; being ad- forcible advocate, skilful in argument 
mitted to the bar at the September and in the conduct of cases, and a 
term, 1881. In the rigid examination close law-student, 
to which the applicants were subjected. Socially he is good-natured, a pleas- 
Mr. Sargent, the youngest of the thir- ant companion, fond of witnessing the 
teen successful candidates who passed '''national game," temperate, dignified, 
the ordeal, stood third; ranking above and popular. He married, Dec. 14, 
six of the eight applicants who had re- 1881, Elizabeth Dudley of Concord, 
received the advantage of a college and their home is blessed by a lovely 
education. child, Margaret Dudley Sargent. 

For a few months after his admission In the coming contest Mr. Sargent 

he occupied a part of the office of will prove, as in the last election, a very 

Jackman & Larkin, after which he en- strong candidate, and one hard to de- 

tered the office of Mr. Mugridge, feat in a county where he is so well 

where he continued until the latter's and favorably known. He will at least 

death, and which he still occupies in receive a full party vote. 


Book Notices. 


Scott's "The Lay of the Last Minstrel." 
An entirely new edition of this famous and 
popular poem, from new plates, with nearly 
one hundred new illustrations by leading 
American artists. Elegantly and appropri- 
ately bound, with full gilt edges. In box. 
Cloth, $6.00. Padded-calf, tree-calf, or an- 
tique morocco, $10. Crushed Levant, $25. 
Ticknor & Co., publishers, Boston. 

"The Lay of the Last Minstrel" is the 
swan-song of the age of chivalry and romance, 
and breathes from every stanza the thrilling 
sentiments of those halcyon days when honor 
and valor and beauty ruled the world. The 
critics of three generations have lavished 
upon it their pasans of praise, from the care- 
ful essays of Jeffrey and Wilson down to the 
scholarly and erudite reviews of the foremost 
essayists of the present day. The poem was 
published in 1805, and met with an imme- 
diate and astonishing success; and has ever 
since been a high favorite among all lovers 
of noble sentiment and melodious verse. 

The scene is laid mainly at the old Border 
stronghold of Branksome Hall : — 

" The Scots they rade, the Scots they ran, 
Sae starkly and sae steadilie! 
And aye the o'er-word o' the thrang 
Was — ' Rise for Branksome readilie.'" 

So, appropriately, the cover of the new Bos- 
ton edition is emblazoned with the arms of the 
Duke of Buccleuch, the Lord of Branksome, 
and with the towers and battlements of a feu- 
dal fortalice. The large size of the volume, 
which exceeds very considerably its prede- 
cessors, " Lucille,'^ " Marmion,'' etc., favors the 
rich display of these emblems, which go to 
make up a beautiful parlor-table book. 

The paper on which the text is printed is 
of a fine dead-finish, like old English hand- 
made paper, remarkably firm and thick, and 
free from the unpleasant reflections so no- 
ticeable in calendered paper of high polish. 
This paper was made expressly for the book, 
and takes the impressions of the most deli- 
cate cuts with efficiency and good results. 

Among the more conspicuous of the illus- 
trations we may note the beautiful full-page 
frontispiece, " She gazed upon the Inner 
Court," after W. St. John Harper's drawing ; 
and the many vigorous figure-pieces, in which 
appear fair Margaret, the Knight of Delo- 
raine, the Goblin Page, Dark Musgrave, and 
all the other characters of this mighty song 
of Border wars and noble loves. Even more 
noticeable are the landscape pictures and re- 

productions of famous localities of the poem. 
Newark's stately tower, Naworth Castle, 
Branksome Turrets, fair Melrose, Liddes- 
dale, the Eildon Hills, Yarrow's Stream, dark 
Ruberslaw, Kelso Abbey, Carlisle's Wall, 
Roslin Castle, and other beautiful and le- 
gend-haunted localities of the Scottish Bor- 
der Marches. 

Confessions and Criticisms. By Julian 
Hawthorne. I vol. i2mo. $1.50. Bos- 
ton : Ticknor & Co. 

A series of very delightful essays and pa- 
pers, with reminiscences and other memora- 
ble papers, prepared by one of the most 
skilful and interesting of American authors, 
and calculated to attract and keep the atten- 
tion of all readers. It includes a great va- 
riety of valuable miscellany, and several papers 
that have already become classic among peo- 
ple of cultivation and acumen. 

The first essay is a piquant description of 
how the author came to write "Garth," 
" Bressant," and " Idolatry," and the well- 
known " Fortune's Fool," with descriptions 
of how their plots grew into shape. The 
second essay is entitled " Novels and Agnos- 
ticism," and speaks of Thackeray, Turgue- 
nieff, Zola, Henry JameS, and Howells, and 
their methods and peculiarities. Next comes 
a paper on " Americanism in Fiction," begin- 
ning with Cooper, Irving, and Poe, passing 
onward by Hawthorne, Emerson, and Long- 
fellow, and brightly touching the newer men 
of to-day. " Literature for Children " is a 
monograph of great value for parents and 
friends of children. 

"The Moral Aim in Fiction" is a subtle 
speculation as to the true relations of art and 
morals to each other. " The Maker of Many 
Books" is a very delightful personal and bio- 
graphical reminiscence of Anthony TroUope, 
with whom Mr. Hawthorne became acquainted 
in 1879. I" Mr. Mallock's " Missing Sci- 
ence " there is a quaint little skit at democ- 
racy, socialism, and other modern isms. 
Theodore Winthrop's writings will deeply 
interest any one who has read "John Brent," 
or " Cecil Dreeme," or who feels interest in 
the mesozoic period of our literature. " Em- 
erson as an American" is a grand and elo- 
quent essay on the Puritans of Plymouth and 
of later Concord, with vivid characterizations 
and illustrations of Emerson's patriotic traits. 
The remaining papers in this singular and 
valuable book are full of the Hawthorne 
spirit, and must find many profoundly inter- 
ested readers. 

Robert R. Livingston. 



15v James Hughes Hopkins. 

Robert R. Livingstox, the great \\'illiam Smith, the future historian of 
Chancellor Livingston of our fathers' the Colony of New York, young Living- 
time, is forgotten. Time has dealt un- ston devoted himself to the study. of 
kindly with his memory. The man law with such assiduity and success, 
who entered public life as a member of that soon after his admission to the 
the committee that framed the Decla- bar he was appointed to the honorable 
ration of Independence, and closed a and lucrative position of recorder of 
long diplomatic career spent in patri- New - York City. His success as a 
otic services of his country with the lawyer, notwithstanding the advantages 
purchase of Louisiana, deserved a high derived from his connection with a 
place on the roll of American states- distinguished family, was remarkable, 
men. "The National Picture Gallery," New York, before the Revolution, had 
a publication accessible to few but dili- not yet begun that marvellous growth 
gent students of our national history, which has finally made it the great 
contains a brief sketch of Livingston commercial city of the new continent, 
and his family. Such is fame. A few and afforded no alluring hopes of suc- 
pages of an ephemeral magazine con- cess to a young barrister, who began 
stitute the tribute of American historical practice at a bar distinguished by the 
writers to the memory of the statesman, efforts of the great Colonial lawyers, 
jurist, and scholar, who in his time was Duane, Egbert Benson, Robert Troup, 
the friend of emperors, the rival of and Melancthon Smith, and in after 
presidents, and the head of a family years by the successes of Jay, Kent, 
that at his behest might easily have Hamilton, and Burr, 
destroyed a nation. Eminent, however, as was his future 

Descended from the great Livingston career as a lawyer, Robert R. Living- 
family that for fifty years had exercised ston early gave indications of a fitness 
a powerful influence in the public af- for the duties of a position that would 
fairs of New York ; the son of a judge of call into action those qualities that had 
the Supreme Court, who, as a member won for him a high place as a brilliant 
of the famous Stamp Act Congress of advocate and learned jurist. As early 
1765, draughted the address to the king as 1765, "The New- York Gazette," in 
adopted by that body; and already commenting on his oration at gradu- 
noted at his graduation from King's ation from King's College, had stated 
College, in 1765, for "the sublimity of that "many of the audience please 
his sentiments, the elegance of his themselves with hopes that the young 
style, and the graceful propriety of his orator may prove an able and zealous 
pronunciation and gesture," — young asserter and defender of the rights and 
Robert may well be said to have been liberties of his country, as well as an 
born great. The only path to distinc- ornament to it." The early promise 
tion then open to young men of talent was not unfulfilled. The father and 
and ambition was through the legal grandfather were both active in the 
profession. Entering the office of Judge cause of liberty; and the removal of 


Robert R. Livingston. 

the grandson in 1775 from his position 
as recorder of the city of New York 
speaks louder than words of the attach- 
ment of the youngest member of the 
Livingston family to the popular cause. 
A delegate from Dutchess County to 
the New-York Provincial Convention 
of 1775, his abilities and influential 
family connection led that body to ap- 
point him, though hardly twenty-nine 
years of age, one of its delegates to the 
Second Continental Congress, — a posi- 
tion that the necessities of his native 
State, invaded by British soldiery, al- 
lowed him to hold but a few months. 
Chosen by ballot a member of the fa- 
mous committee that draughted the 
Declaration of Independence, Living- 
ston began public life as an associate 
of Jefferson, Adams, Franklin, and 
Sherman. To Jefferson belongs the 
honor of draughting, and to Adams 
'hat of supporting the Declaration on 
the floor of Congress. But the knowl- 
edge that the representative of the 
most powerful family in the Colonies, a 
man who had every thing to lose and 
little to gain from a successful revolu- 
tion, gave his hearty approval to so 
radical a measure, won for that act the 
votes of members whom the eloquent 
words of John Adams could not influ- 

The social and political system of 
Colonial New York, that allowed young 
Robert Livingston and other great 
landed proprietors to exercise a dom- 
inant influence in all public and social 
life, was peculiar to the time. Unlike 
the New- England Colonies, which were 
ruled by the yeomanry, New York, with 
its great population of farmers and 
traders, had from the earliest times 
supported an aristocracy not unlike, in 
many of its characteristics, that of Vir- 
ginia. A few great families, the Van 

Rensselaers, the Cortlandts, the Living- 
stons, and the Phillipses, had received 
from the Crown vast grants, embracing 
thousands of acres of the best land of 
the Colony. Indeed, the manorial sys- 
tem of England in its entirety was 
transferred to this portion of the New 
World. The manor of Livingston, 
farmed out to a numerous tenantry, was 
entitled to three representatives in the 
Assembly. Allied by marriage with the 
most distinguished families of the Col- 
ony, and endowed with wealth, social 
influence, and political power by inher- 
itance, it is not surprising that the 
youngest member of the Livingston 
family became a leader in the Sec- 
ond Continental Congress, and was 
looked upon as representing the ruling 
and aristocratic families of his Colony ; 
a position, however, which none but a 
man of brilliant intellect and versatile 
talents could have long maintained in 
a delegation that numbered such men 
as James Duane, the learned lawyer ; 
John Jay, the friend, and afterwards 
successful rival, of Robert R. Living- 
ston ; George Clinton, the great gov- 
ernor ; and Philip Livingston, the signer 
of the Declaration. 

The exigencies of his native State, 
and the protection of his own home 
and family, demanded his presence ; and 
Livingston left Congress, to take a seat 
in the Provincial Congress of New 
York, — thus depriving himself of the 
privilege of signing the immortal Dec- 
laration of Independence, but not of 
the honor of having supported in com- 
mittee the act that gave birth to a 
nation. Of his participation in the 
stirring events of those years of war, 
it is unnecessary to speak at length. 
That he was a leader, is apparent. His 
position as a member of nearly every 
committee appointed by the New- 

Robert R. Livingston. 


tork Congress exacted the most un- 
tiring devotion and labor. His name 
appears as an associate with Jay and 
others on the secret committee for the 
obstruction of the Hudson ; he was a 
member of the committee that reported 
the first constitution of the State of 
New York, and indeed had a large 
share in draughting that instrument ; he 
was also a member of a committee to 
report a plan for a council of safety ; 
and a month or two later his services 
were required as a member of a com- 
mittee of twelve to co-operate with 
Gen. Schuyler against Burgoyne. Fi- 
nally, the 3d of May, 1777, Living- 
ston was commissioned chancellor of 
the State of New York, an office since 
abolished, but not before the services 
of Livingston, Lansing, and Kent ren- 
dered the office one of world-wide 

Notwithstanding the duties of his 
judicial position, Livingston continued 
active in public affairs. In October, 
1779, he became a special delegate to 
the National Congress, and a few weeks 
later was appointed a member of a 
council to govern the southern districts 
of New York as fast as recovered from 
the enemy's possession. Again chosen, 
in 1781, a special delegate to Congress, 
lie was elected by that body secretary of 
foreign affairs, and entered upon the 
duties of his office the 20th of October, 
1 781, serving in that position till the 
end of the war. 

The diplomatic correspondence of 
the Revolution affords ample testimony 
to the ability with which our foreign 
correspondence was conducted by Rob- 
ert R. Livingston. Upon him fell the 
duty of corresponding with our minis- 
ters in foreign countries, a task which 
our unpleasant relations abroad made 
ioubly difficult. Congress was abso- 

lutely unable to meet accming obliga- 
tions at home, much less those arising 
abroad. To this task of preserving 
friendly relations, and especially to the 
negotiation of the preliminary treaty 
of peace, Livingston devoted much of 
his time. His letters still attest his 
abilities as a diplomatist, for the duties 
of which profession he was especially 
fitted by long experience in legislative 
bodies, his learning as a jurist, and par- 
ticularly by tact and suavity of manner. 
To the varied duties of diplomacy was 
added the task of organizing a depart- 
ment that owes much of its present 
efficiency to the wisdom and care of 
the first secretary. 

Forced by the laborious duties of 
his position to seek relief, and unable 
longer to remain in an office the salary 
of which was entirely inadequate to pay 
the expenses of his family, the great 
chancellor retired from office in 1783, 
and returned to the less laborious and 
more congenial duties of the chancel- 
lorship, which was again bestowed by 
his native State. Unfortunately, his 
judicial decisions, which at the time 
were described as exhibiting great 
learning, sagacious judgment, and vig- 
orous language, have not been pre- 
served ; and his reputation as a jurist 
must rest on the tributes of his con- 
temporaries. On the authority of his 
successor, Chancellor Jones, it has been 
said that the august tribunal whose jus- 
tice he dispensed, though since covered 
with a halo of glory, never boasted a 
more prompt, more able, or more faith- 
ful officer. 

The next great service for which 
Chancellor Livingston must ever receive 
the gratitude of all lovers of their coun- 
try was in the convention that finally 
gave the assent of the people of New 
York to the Constitution of the United 


Robert R. Livingston. 

States. The vote of New York was 
not technically necessary to the adop- 
tion of the constitution ; but practically, 
without the adhesion of the powerful 
Empire State, that might well claim the 
title of " Keystone State, " our Union 
could not long have continued. The 
struggle in that convention was of his- 
torical importance. Against the Con- 
stitution was thrown the mighty influence 
of George Clinton, then supreme in the 
political contests of the State ; while for 
the Constitution stood Alexander Ham- 
ilton and Robert R. Livingston. Others 
there were to whose fidelity all praise is 
due, but the chief burden of the debates 
was sustained by Hamilton and Chan- 
cellor Livingston. Hamilton's brilliant 
presentations of the arguments for union 
were the admiration of his hearers ; 
but the clear, earnest, logical efforts 
of Livingston carried conviction. For 
days the contest seemed hopeless. 
Clinton was a formidable antagonist, 
and did not willingly allow his empire 
pass to the control of other States. To 
be first man in New York was a much 
easier task than to become chief of a 
united confederacy. Then it was that 
the Livingstons threw the whole family 
influence into the contest. Wealth, 
social position, culture, and influence 
were potent where eloquence and bril- 
liant logic were futile. Without Ham- 
ilton, the Constitution might have been 
adopted ; without Livingston, no earthly 
power would have availed to save the 
precious charter. Destroyed a nation? 
Yes, easily could George Clinton and 
Robert R. Livingston have founded an 
empire. Who can conjecture the re- 
sults had Hamilton been less eloquent, 
or Livingston less powerful? Had 
Hamilton's eloquence not touched men 
already half persuaded by Livingston's 
example ? 

To Robert Livingston fell the pleas- 
ant duty of aiding in the inauguration 
of the first President. Proud must he 
have been, when, after administering 
the oath of office, he turned to the 
audience assembled to witness the cere- 
monies, and, waving his hand, cried in 
a loud voice, " Long live George Wash- 
ington, President of the United States ! " 

The beginning of Washington's ad- 
ministration marks a turning-point in 
Livingston's career. His friendship 
with Washington began in the early 
years of the war. During the cam- 
paigns in New York, Washington was 
a frequent and welcome guest at the 
house of Margaret Beekman, mother 
of the chancellor ; and the mutual 
friendship existing between the two 
families never appeared stronger than 
during the first few months of the new 
administration. Within a few years of 
the first inauguration, an estrangement 
had taken place ; and the chancellor, 
withdrawing from the Federal party, 
threw his immense influence against 
the administration. The reason of this 
political revolution cannot now be de- 
termined. Popular feeling of the time 
ascribed the change to the chancellor's 
disappointment at not receiving one of 
the great ofiflces of State under the new 
government. That Livingston very 
much desired the position of chief jus- 
tice of the United States, and failing 
to receive that would have been con- 
tent with the Treasury Department, is 
evident from the correspondence still in 
existence ; but that this disappointment 
was any more than one of the incidents 
leading to the change is doubtful. In 
1794 the position of minister to France 
was tendered by Washington to the 
chancellor, and immediately declined 
by the latter. Unfortunately for Liv- 
ingston's aspirations, New York had 

Robert R. Livingston. 255 

two eminent statesmen whose claims The continued opposition of the Liv- 
for the leading positions of the govern- ingstons suggests that their political 
ment were not lightly to be set aside, conduct was actuated by something 
To Jay, the friend of Livingston, the more noble than mere personal ani- 
companion of his early years, his asso- mosity. Against the ratification of Jay's 
ciate in many public positions, and his treaty, the Livingstons used every in- 
relative by marriage, was assigned the strument in their power. The chancel- 
chief-justiceship of the United States ; lor ; his younger brother Edward, author 
to Alexander Hamilton, whose services of the famous Louisiana code, then a 
in the New- York Convention, and abil- young member of Congress ; and the 
ities as a statesman, as well as his long talented, versatile Brockholst Living- 
friendship and association with the new ston, judge of the Supreme Court, — left 
President, naturally deserved recogni- no stone unturned in their efforts to 
tion, was given the Treasury ; and to defeat the hated treaty. A most skil- 
Livingston, who declined any subordi- ful exposition of the faults of the new 
nate position, was offered in later years, treaty appeared in the letters of " De- 
as already indicated above, the mission cius," ascribed by John C. Hamilton to 
to France. Robert R. Livingston, and by Mrs. 
Very likely the growing popularity of Martha Lamb, in her history of New- 
Hamilton, a young foreigner, advanced York City, to Judge Brockholst Living- 
to the highest office of state over the ston. A letter of Chancellor Livingston 
head of the Livingstons, may have ex- to Washington in the year 1795, detail- 
cited the jealousy of that distinguished ing at some length the objections to 
family. Political gossip of the day as- the treaty, is so like in sentiments to the 
serted that the chancellor summoned expressions contained in the letters of 
the family to his house one evening, and " Decius," that one can hardly suppose 
that ever afterwards the family stood the latter the work of Judge Brockholst 
united against the Federalists. How- Livingston. The ratification of the 
ever that may be. Chancellor Living- treaty was a bitter disappointment to 
ston soon made apparent his opposition the Republicans of New York, and the 
to Hamilton and his doctrines, and in animosities excited by the struggles of 
the senatorial election of 1 79 1 espoused that eventful period seem to have left 
the cause of Burr against that of Schuy- their traces through all subsequent po- 
ler, the father-in-law of Hamilton. The litical campaigns. From this period 
triumphant election of Burr reminded may be dated the estrangement be- 
the Federalists that a reconciliation with tween Chancellor Livingston and John 
the Livingstons was the only hope of Jay. The hitherto friends became 
their party supremacy in the Empire rivals for the leading office of their 
State. Accordingly the next year the native State. 

nomination of governor was tendered Jay, the most popular member of 
Livingston, and a year or two later the the Federalist party, received the Fed- 
ministry to France was offered, in the eral nomination for governor in 1798. 
hope of placating the supposed dis- Against the popular, genial Jay, the 
pleasure of the chancellor at his neg- Republicans presented the powerful, 
lect in the distribution of the great talented Livingston. Jay was elected 
offices of state. by a large majority. Livingston seems 


Robert R. Livingston. 

always to have regarded his defeat with 
mortification and shame. Yet the con- 
test strengthened the growing Repub- 
lican party ; and when, in 1 800, the 
Republicans sought a candidate whose 
power and popularity would insure vic- 
tory, the name of Livingston was the 
first considered, and but for his deaf- 
ness (a misfortune that rendered his 
nomination impossible) Chancellor Liv- 
ingston would have occupied the posi- 
tion that fell finally to Aaron Burr. 
The three factions in New York were 
led by Clinton, Burr, and Robert R. 
Livingston. Livingston aside, the nom- 
ination for the vice-presidency lay be- 
tween Clinton and Burr, and was finally, 
through the all-powerful influence of 
the Livingstons, bestowed upon Burr, 
a man whom the Livingstons most cor- 
dially hated, but preferred to their 
more formidable opponent, George 

With the accession of Jefferson, who 
acknowledged the potent aid of the 
Livingstons, — and well he might, for 
Chancellor Livingston might easily 
have turned the Republican victory into 
a Federal triumph, — the Livingstons re- 
gained the dominion which for a num- 
ber of years Jay and the Federalists 
had wrested from them ; and Chancellor 
Livingston felt that at last the disgrace 
of his defeat by John Jay, in 1 798, was 

After refiising the secretaryship of 
the navy, Livingston finally was in- 
duced to accept the position of minis- 
ter to France as a reward for his 
faithful service in the cause of Republi- 
canism. Other members of his family 
were rewarded ; indeed, a majority of 
the political offices of the state passed 
into the hands of the Livingstons. 
Morgan Lewis, a brother-in-law of the 
chancellor, became chief judge of the 

Supreme Court ; Smith Thompson, 
whose wife was a Livingston, was ap- 
pointed judge ; Thomas Tillotson, bro- 
ther-in-law of the chancellor, received 
an appointment as secretary of state ; 
and John Armstrong, a relative, was 
elected to the United - States Senate. 
The young, yet able, Edward Livingston 
received a district-attomeyship ; while 
Brockholst Livingston became an asso- 
ciate justice of the United States. 

Robert R. Livingston, after resigning ' 
his position of chancellor of the State 
of New York, an office which he had 
filled with great honor for nearly a 
quarter of a century, in 1801 sailed for 
France. His private correspondence 
indicates that he accepted that position, 
which was to prove the crowning glory 
of a great career, with reluctance. 

The leaders of the Republicans never 
fully accepted Livingston as a member 
of their party. Federalists and Repub- 
licans alike honored him, desired his 
support, and feared his ambition. A 
growing feeling of opposition to the 
landed proprietors was developing in 
the population of the fast developing 
city of New York ; and Jefferson, shrewd- 
ly separating his fortunes from those of 
the Livingstons, removed the great 
rival of the Clintonians and Burrites by 
the tender of a foreign mission. A 
short quotation from a letter of Gouv- 
erneur Morris to his friend in Paris in- 
dicates the progress of party affairs in 
1802, immediately after the departure 
of Livingston for France : " The Clin- 
tonian faction will, I believe, prepon- 
derate ; and their powerful adherents 
will be flattered, if not respected, until 
the Burrites shall be disposed of. 
When you return, you will be able to 
give many of your friends good advice ; 
but whether you can give them so much 
of your experience as may induce them 

Robert R. Livingston. 257 

to follow that ach-ice, is not certain, patrician dignity of bearing gave added 

You will all discover some time or force, said, — 

other, that, in leaving the mother *• We have lived long, but this is the 

church of Federalism, you have brought noblest work of our whole lives. From 

yourselves into reprobation. I hope this day the United States take their 

you will not have reason to say with the place among the powers of the first 

•^o^\., facilis est descensus ," t\.c. rank; the English lose all exclusive 

Again Morris writes : " It is well for power and influence in the affairs of 

you who desire a position in public life, America. Now one of the principal 

that you are in a position not to take causes of European rivalries and ani- 

immediate part either way. The only mosities is about to cease. The United 

danger is that your interest should be States will re-establish the maritime 

compromised by the zeal of your rights of all the world, which are now 

friends." The gossip of Gouverneur usurped by a single nation. These 

Morris, perhaps, deserves little respect ; treaties will be a guaranty of peace and 

and yet the reader of his letters to Liv- concord among commercial states, 

ingston cannot help entertaining the sus- The instruments we have just signed 

picion that the complications of political will cause no tears to be shed ; they 

affairs at home, during the first months prepare ages of happiness for innumer- 

of Jefferson's administration, caused able generations of human creatures. 

Livingston to indulge certain aspirations The Mississippi and Missouri will see 

for the presidency that succeeding events them succeed one another and multiply, 

rendered futile. truly worthy of the regard of Providence, 

The glorious event of Livingston's in the bosom of equality, under just 

career as minister to France was the laws, freed from the errors of supersti- 

acquisition of Louisiana. Of the his- tion and the scourges of bad govem- 

tory of that transaction much has been ment." 

written, and the bitter controversy as While in Paris, Livingston formed the 
to whom the honor of that purchase acquaintance of Robert Fulton, the in- 
should be given is not yet ended. The ventor of the steamboat, and shared 
details of the negotiation are interesting, the struggles of that famous inventor to 
and the importance of that treaty by introduce his steamboat. Livingston 
which the immense territory west of willingly advanced the money to com- 
the Mississippi was added to our coun- plete the inventor's steamboats, and 
try can never be overestimated. The secured the exclusive privilege of navi- 
words of Livingston, after the signature gating the waters of New York for him- 
of the treaty of cession, are peculiarly self and Fulton. To untiring and 
significant of the importance which the patient efforts Fulton owed his success, 
chief actor in that memorable event but none the less does Robert R. Liv- 
attached to his deed, and are deserving ingston deserve praise for his foresight 
of our respect and admiration. Mr. in aiding the needy inventor at a time 
Marbois, one of the three ministers, when, but for the wealth of Livingston, 
thus quotes the words of Livingston, his inventions would have proved futile, 
who rose at the close of the negotia- Of Livingston's interest in art, educa- 
tions, and in clear, impressive tones, tion, and agriculture ; of his abilities as 
to which his tall and graceful figure and a writer, orator, and essayist ; of his 


But a Sup. 

published works on farming, sheep rais- 
ing, and agriculture ; and of his benefac- 
tions to the American Academy of Fine 
Arts, which was established through his 
efforts and aid, — space prevents our 

His death occurred in 1813, at the 
end of a career nearly fifty years of 
which had been passed in the service 
of his native State, and the Union which 
his efforts had established. Judged by 
ability, education, and the success of 
his life, Robert R. Livingston belonged, 
perhaps, to the class of statesmen of 
which John Jay, John Marshall, and 
John Adams were representatives. It 
was not his fortune, like Hamilton and 
Jefferson, to establish a great political 
party, nor like Washington to become 
the idol of all future generations ; but 
estimated by the great results which his 
influence helped to bring about, Living- 
ston deserved a rank not far below that 
of Washington, Jefferson, and Hamilton. 

The statesman who was a member 
of the committee to frame the Decla- 
ration of Independence, the secretary 
of foreign affairs during the Revolution- 
ary war, the draughter of the first con- 
stitution of New York, and the first 
chancellor of his native State, deserved 
the gratitude of mankind. But Robert 
R. Livingston did more than that. To 
his efforts we owe the very existence 
of our Union ; to him the Republican 
party of his time was indebted for its 
first success, for its first induction into 
the offices of government ; Chancellor 
Livingston we must thank for our vast 
territory beyond the Mississippi ; and 
perhaps not the least of the great ser- 
vices for which he deserves our lasting 
gratitude was his introduction of steam 
navigation on the waters of the Hudson. 

" May the name of Robert R. Living- 
ston be rescued from the oblivion that 
now impends ! " 

Provincetown, Mass., 1885. 


A GIANT precipice, whose rugged face bold 
fronts the lashing sea, 

Which writhes and roars, and strives to mount, 
but then perforce must flee ; 

Stolid and grand, forever it stands with many 
a ghastly tear, 

Where fearlessly the sea-birds build, and ser- 
pents make their lair ; 

At its foot a raging, seething cauldron, boil- 
ing with briny foam, 

Darksome and deep and doleful, seems of 
fiends a fitting home ; 

But, above, the rugged monster slopes to a 
sweet and gent''? lea, 

Bedecked with bright and blooming flowers, 
beloved of bird and bee. 

O'er all bends the smiling blue-arched heav- 
ens, picked out with feathery white. 

Towards which the screaming sea-birds re- 
joicing wing their flight. 

Poised fearlessly on its highest peak, great 
God of mercy ! stands 

A laughing, prattling infant boy, a bright moth 
in his hands. 

There stands the babe in breathless, boyish 

glee, his trophy in his clasp. 
Nor knows, nor fears, that ghastly Death longs 

his fair form to grasp ; 
And just beyond, the frighted mother kneels, 

her heart with anguish numb. 
Pleading the while, with pretty wiles, that to 

her arms he'll come. 

From beneath his golden curling lashes his 

sparkling blue eyes peep. 
Watching to see if "weal and tue " his mother 

dear doth weep. 
His smiles are flown, his tiny bosom heaves, 

his feet scarce touch a flower. 
And he is in his mother's arms, saved ! and 

by love's sweet power. 
Thus upon life's precipice we dally, nor fear 

Death's chilling stream. 
We chase the pleasures of the hour, and little 

do we dream 
It were but a step to tide us o'er to that great 

and unknown land ; 
But the loving great God holds us i' the hol- 
low of his hand. 

Local Self-Governvient. 259 


By R. L. Bridgman. 

" The right of local self-government " sisted to the last that it was an inva- 
is a common expression. Believers in sion of local rights. 
that " right " are numerous and influ- Apparently it is a common doctrine, 
ential in politics, from the ancient accepted without question by most of 
democrat who insists upon a narrow our people, that there is inherent in 
limitation of the powers of our national municipal corporations an indefeasible 
government, to the local leader who right to rule themselves in local mat- 
asserts that his towTi has an exclusive ters. A recent pamphlet by Mr. James 
right to manage its own affairs. They M. Bugbee of Boston says, — 
maintain this " right " as apohtical prin- " How jealously the people guarded 
ciple, no matter if the local manage- their 7-ights of local self-government 
ment injures seriously the adjoining against the encroachments of the cen- 
municipalities, and practically brings tral power, is shown in the refusal of the 
the law of the State into contempt. inhabitants of Watertown to pay a tax 

The recent enactment by the Massa- of eight pounds " for fortifications in 
chusetts Legislature of a law vesting in Cambridge ; and their pastor and elders 
the governor the power of appointing said : " It was not safe to pay moneys 
the Boston Police Commissioners, em- after that sort, for fear of bringing 
phasized in the public mind by pro- themselves and posterity into bond- 
longed hostile filibustering under the age." 

lead of Boston members, has revealed The writer of to-day, and the local 

a public opinion concerning the rights leaders of two hundred years ago, evi- 

of local self-government which involves dently agree that the local government 

a serious misapprehension of the real had rights not to be restricted by a 

right of towns and cities to rule over higher power. 

their own affairs. Not until the agi- Professor Edward Channing of Har- 
tation had proceeded for weeks, did vard University, in a pamphlet in the 
the difficulties involved concerning the Johns Hopkins historical series, con- 
rights of self-government become set- trasting New England with Virginia, 
tied in the minds of the majority ; and says, — 

it was doubtless true that the position " In New England, on the contrary, 

maintained throughout by the minority the mass of the people, from the very 

was at first held in common by most earliest time, seized the control of 

of the members. Abundant press com- affairs, and fiercely resented any en- 

ment also. Republican and Democratic, croachment on what they considered 

both within and without the State, was their rights.^^ 

to the effect that the law was a direct Professor James K. Hosmer, in an- 

blow at the city's right of self-govern- other pamphlet of the same series, 

ment, and hostile to the principles of remarks, — 

democracy. Some journals which even " At the time of the colonization of 

advised the enactment of the law in- America, the old self-government of 


Local Self-Government. 

the people had been in England, in 
great part, lost. The responsibility 
. . . rested, to some extent, on the 
people themselves, who forgot their 
birthright: ' 

In Lieber's " Civil Liberty and Self- 
Government," the essence of our demo- 
cratic system is thus expressed, — 

" Anglican self-government requires 
that every institution of local self-gov- 
ernment shall have the right to pass 
such by-laws as it finds necessary for 
its own government, without obtaining 
the consent of any superior power. . . . 
The character of self-government is, 
moreover, manifested by the fact that 
the right of making by-laws is not de- 
rived by any grant of superior power, 
but has been ever considered in the 
English polity as inhering in the local 
community, — the natural 7-ight of free 

Perhaps the writers quoted would 
not maintain the doctrine to the extent 
to which it has recently been carried ; 
but they coincide apparently with the 
popular belief that local communities 
can draw a line beyond which the cen- 
tral government must not go, and can 
say to it, " You have no right to inter- 
fere with our affairs. It is our right to 
settle this matter by ourselves exclusive- 
ly, — a right which inheres in us, and 
can never be lost, or rightfully taken 

Recent historical studies have set 
forth in a clear light the great part 
played in Teutonic and English history 
by the village communities and by the 
local governing bodies, which have man- 
aged their affairs so admirably that they 
have made this country what it is. 
Deserved eulogy of the community- 
government, frequent mention of its 
successful management of local con- 
cerns, honest admiration for the conflicts 

and triumphs of these communities in 
defence of their integrity, have led to 
the present popular belief that there 
is a right of local self-government in 
the same sense in which there is a 
right of freedom of thought. It is an 
idolized belief. It has come to be 
associated with Plymouth Rock, with 
democratic institutions wherever they 
are successful, and with the integrity 
and perpetuity of the government. 
Over and over again every year is it 
reiterated upon the political stump that 
the salvation of the nation depends 
upon the healthful life of the local 
democratic governments ; and this un- 
doubted truth carries the erroneous 
conclusion, that, therefore, a town has 
rights of its own, inherent and inalien- 

But this belief cannot bear the strain 
which comes in the halls of legislation, 
or when the executive department finds 
obstacles in the way of enforcing the 
laws. The radical difficulty underlying 
this conception of a right of local self- 
government is that it ignores the larger 
community of which the city or town 
forms a part. It fixes the attention 
upon a small circle, and does not see 
the relation in which that circle stands 
to the larger. Theoretically one doc- 
trine is held, but another is actually 
practised. In all state legislation the 
supremacy of the whole body politic 
is tacitly admitted on every hand ; and 
this admission is made in respect to 
the relations of the national government 
to the States as truly as it is in respect 
to the relations of the States to the 
cities and towns incorporated by them. 
If towns have the right to regulate their 
own conduct, then the State has no right 
to compel them to follow a prescribed 
course. Yet interference by States with 
town governments is constantly occur- 

Local Self -Government. 261 

ring ; and in practice, — and in justice, hinderance ; and it would be wrong in 
too, — a town has no more the right of the central authority to permit a con- 
self-government than has a person a tinuance, due regard being given to the 
rio-ht to do as he pleases regardless of precedent to be established, 
people about him. While this position is tacitly held by 

Indeed, the right of self-government most men at the very moment when 

is much the same, whether personal or they are insisting upon " the sacred 

municipal. It is right that both the principle of local democracies ; " while 

person and the town should do what is no town can put its finger upon a cer- 

for the good of the one and of the tain class of acts (either its control 

whole. It is their duty to do these of roads, or fire apparatus, or sanitary 

right things. Doing them better than measures, or schools, or its poor), and 

they can be done othenvise, it is their say : " Here I am sovereign ; here I 

right that they should be protected in a have absolute power, and here you have 

continuance of their action. But their no right to enter," — yet it is in the 

right to protection is a consequence of power of any town to establish a strong 

their fitness and purpose to act for their presumptive right to self-government ; 

OUT! good and for the good of the com- and here is where the worth of local 

munity. If the self-government of a democracies can be most thoroughly 

town were such that justice were denied demonstrated. So long as the towns 

to the weak within its borders, if there manage any department of government 

were systematic persecution of any class better for the good of the whole people 

by vexatious by-laws, or if there were than it can be managed by the central 

chronic mismanagement and confusion, authority, just so long it is right that they 

there would clearly be no right inherent should have the management. Were it 

in the town to continue such a mockery certain that insane people could be best 

of government. Its continuance would cared for by institutions under town 

re-act to the injury of neighboring mu- management, then the State would need 

nicipalities ; and the larger community to provide for only those persons who 

would have the right and duty to inter- have no settlement. Were there no 

fere, and restore a proper observance doubt that the towois neglected their 

of justice and good order. poor shamefully, from some fault in their 

The issue needs only to be clearly government which they would not rem- 

presented to show that there is no right edy, and that the State would do better 

of local self-government apart from the for the unfortunates, then it would be 

ability to meet well the responsibility right to take from towns the oversight 

of governing efficiently. This ability of their poor. 

varies with the intelligence and political Now, good government in a town is 

activity of the towns ; but the practice best obtained by thorough participa- 

of local self-government is undoubtedly tion in its affairs by all its citizens, 

a matter of expediency, and not a matter That constant interest in public busi- 

of right. Given an efficient, upright ness which brings all the voters to the 

local government, it is right that it polls ; that discussion in town meeting 

should continue. Given a local gov- in which every man may state his 

emment weak and corrupt, it is clearly opinions ; that exposure to question and 

not right that it should exist without ridicule which' only the right side of 


Local Self-Govermnent. 

an issue can endure ; that familiarity 
with pubhc debate and pubHc concerns 
which broadens the mind and makes 
its action more intelHgent ; that per- 
sonal responsibihty which is put upon 
every man to vote understandingly ; that 
watchfulness against cunning schemes ; 
that meeting of combination by coun- 
ter-combination ; that jostle, stir, and 
freedom which are always found in 
a thorough democracy, — all tend to 
make the participants better citizens 
and better managers of their local 

It is equally true that failure to take 
part in the local meeting results in a 
disuse of the political faculties, which 
in turn is an added temptation to fur- 
ther abstention. So, instead of having 
the right to manage its own affairs be- 
cause it can manage them best, the 
degenerate town may either drag along 
under its own misgovernment, or the 
State may step in, as a matter of self- 
protection, and insist upon a more vig- 
orous administration. 

A more lamentable catastrophe to 
the State than the loss of the virility of 
the town democracies cannot be im- 
agined. If in all the towTis there is a 
synchronous growth of the disinclina- 
tion to take part in affairs, then the 
State has no material at hand with which 
to procure the enforcement of good 
laws in the towns. Political strength 
has been lost by disuse. That constant 
exercise in which lies the only safety 
of the political body has been discon- 

tinued, until flabbiness has succeeded 
firmness, indecision has supplanted a 
fixed purpose, ignorance and inexperi- 
ence have taken the place of thorough 
familiarity and trained skill. A few 
managers will control politics for their 
own advancement. Watchful corpora- 
tions and keen business- men will pro- 
cure the election of their creatures to 
the legislature. Laws will be enacted 
for the benefit of the few to the loss 
of the many tax-payers, and bad will go 
to worse, until the conscience of the 
community is at last awakened, and 
there is a political reformation. 

Wherever the town democracies have 
maintained their right of self-govern- 
ment by making it right that they 
should govern, this political deteriora- 
tion has not made progress. It cannot 
begin as long as the governing faculty 
is constantly exercised. Dr. Edward 
Hitchcock, head of the department of 
physical culture in Amherst College, 
says to his students : " Young men, you 
cannot exercise enough on Saturday 
afternoons to last you a week." It is 
with the political faculties of a self- 
governing community as it is with the 
muscles of the body. Frequent exer- 
cise is necessary for their highest 
efficiency ; and the time spent in that 
exercise, and its cost as reckoned in time 
taken from money- making work, is the 
most economical outlay of the year. 
This is the practical corollary to the 
true proposition regarding the right of 
local self-government. 

Lieut. -Gen. Sir William Pepperrell, Bart. 



By Daniel Rolluns. 

The subject of this sketch was born 
at Kittery Point, Maine, June 27, 1696. 
The Colony was then under the juris- 
diction of Massachusetts : both being 
subject, of course, to the Crown. 

His father came from Tavistock par- 
ish, in the county of Devon, England. 
The following is the Pepperrell coat- 
of-arms : Arg. a chevron gu. between 
three pine-apples or cones-vert, with the 
augmentation of a canton of the sec- 
ond, charged with a fleur-de-lis of the 
first. No crest : it being an ancient 
coat, before crests were used. 

Mr. Usher Parsons, in his admirable 
life of Sir William, says, " His boyhood 
was passed at the village school, where 
he learned to read, \vrite, and cipher. 
Under a private instructor, he was taught 
the art of surveying land, and of navi- 
gating a ship, and acquired some 
knowledge of geography. . . . His 
chirography was beautiful, which ren- 
dered him very useful to his father. 
When not more than ten years old, he 
assisted in writing his father's Justice 
Docket, in copying his letters, and 
keeping his accounts, and probably 
soon after acted as clerk in his store. 
. . . His education was therefore prac- 
tical, and imparted an early and close in- 
sight into human character, and brought 
him into the ways and means of suc- 
cessful trade and financiering." Still, 
even this instruction in the rudimentary 
branches was almost a liberal education 
for those days. 

In 1 7 1 5 John WheelwTight of Wells, 
Lieut.-Col. William Pepperrell of Kit- 
tery (father of Sir William), Charles 
Ffrost of Kittery, and Abraham Preble 

of York were appointed judges of the 
court of common pleas. Sir William, 
while a minor, served as clerk of this 

His father had built up a large fishing 
and trading business, and sometimes 
had over a hundred sail of ships on the 
Grand Banks. But we must bear in 
mind that the vessels which went under 
the dignified name of ships at that time 
were but little larger than fishing-craft 
of the present day. 

It is not surprising that Sir William 
became a soldier ; for he was bom dur- 
ing the troublous Indian times, and was 
so early accustomed to the use of arms, 
that he did patrol duty at the age of 

On attaining his majority, he was 
commissioned a justice of the peace, 
and also captain of a cavalry company. 

The Pepperrells, father and son, were 
now in partnership, and had extensive 
business connections in Boston, which 
brought the latter into the best society 
of this city. It was then not ^nly the 
business centre of New England, but 
virtually the Colonial capital of the 
country. This was of great advantage 
to him, for by means of it he acquired 
the courtly manners and easy address 
for which he was afterwards noted. Bos- 
ton society yet retains many of its old 

It was as famous then for its pretty 
women as it is to-day ; and among the 
many fair ones whom Pepperrell met 
during his frequent visits here was the 
beautiful Mary Hirst, daughter of Grove 
Hirst, esquire, deceased, a rich mer- 
chant. She was a granddaughter of 


Lieiit.-Gen. Sir WilUavi Pepperrcll, Bart. 

the celebrated Judge Sewall of the su- 
preme court. She had many attrac- 
tions, not the least of which was a fine 
education. He soon fell in love with 
her, and, after a short but assiduous 
courtship, they were married March 1 6, 


A.D. 1726 he was chosen to repre- 
sent the town of Kittery (it also then 
included Elliot), and the next year he 
was appointed a councillor. He was 
re-appointed to the latter office for 
thirty-two years, until his death. He 
was president of the board during 
eighteen years. 

In 1729 he added to some purchases 
of land he had made several years be- 
fore, on the banks of the Saco River : 
and he thus became the owner of the 
greater part of the towns of Saco and 
Scarborough. The mill privileges made 
the property especially valuable. 

During the past few years, he had 
been made successively a captain, major, 
lieutenant-colonel : and he was commis- 
sioned a colonel on reaching the age of 
thirty years. This rank gave him the 
command of all the militia in Maine. 

In 1730 Gov. Belcher, "my own and 
my father's friend," as he affectionately 
describtd him in one of his letters to 
an acquaintance, appointed him chief 
justice of the court of common pleas ; 
and he held this high office until his 
death in 1759. 

He now appears to have had quite 
enough for such comparatively young 
shoulders to bear. There were his offi- 
cial duties as a justice of the peace, 
chief justice of the court of common 
pleas, member of the governor's coun- 
cil, and colonel of a regiment. His 
business also demanded much of his 
time, to say nothing of his family cares. 

Although their home was in Kittery, 
Col. Pepperrell and his wife spent much 

of their time in Boston, as his duties 
often called him here. 

France declared war on the 15 th of 
March, 1 744 ; and about six months 
prior to that. Gov. Shirley sent a let- 
ter to Col. Pepperrell, desiring him 
to hold his regiment in readiness to 
protect the frontier against the Indians. 
He accordingly sent copies of it to 
each of his captains, and also added 
the following spirited sentence : "I 
hope that He who gave us our breath 
will give us the courage and prudence 
to behave ourselves like true - born 

Having glanced at Col. Pepperrell's 
early history, let us now turn to the 
great act of his life, which will hand 
his name down to posterity, — the cap- 
ture of Louisburg, the " Gibraltar of 
America." It was the leading event in 
our Colonial history ; but it was followed 
so closely by the Revolution, that it is 
somewhat obscured in the light of that 
great struggle. The town of Louisburg, 
named after " le gratid monarque,^'' is 
situated in the south-eastern part of 
Cape Breton Island, adjoining Nova 
Scotia, and controls the entrance to the 
Gulf and River St. Lawrence. It com- 
manded the fisheries by its position. 
The island also produced large quanti- 
ties of excellent ship timber. That ripe 
scholar, the Rev. Jeremy Belknap, in 
his exhaustive description of its capture, 
says the town of Louisburg " was two 
and a half miles in circumference, for- 
tified in every- accessible part, with a 
rampart of stone from thirty to thirty- 
six feet high, and a ditch eighty feet 
wide. . . . On an island at the entrance 
to the harbor, which was only four hun- 
dred yards wide, was a battery of thirty 
cannon, carrying twenty - eight pound 
shot ; and at the bottom of the harbor, 
directly opposite to the entrance, was 

LiciU.-Gcn. Sir William Peppcrrcll, Bart. 265 

the grand or royal battery, of t\venty- it to say that the place capitulated after 
eight forty -twos, and two eighteen- a seven-weeks arduous attack by land 
pound cannon. . . . The entrance to and sea. The cross of St. George had 
the town was at the west gate, over a supplanted the lilies of France. On 
drawbridge, which was protected by a the 17th of June, 1745, Gen. Pepperrell 
circular battery of thirteen twenty-four- marched into the town at the head of 
pound cannon. These works had been his troops, and received the keys : al- 
twenty - five years in building, and, though Commodore Warren had vainly 
though unfinished, had cost France not flattered himself that he or one of his 
less than six millions of dollars." It is officers should have the honor of re- 
worthy of notice that only New-Eng- ceiving the surrender of the place. He 
land troops took part in the siege. Col. had even gone so far as to send a letter 
Pepperrell was selected to command the to the French governor, ordering him to 
forces, with the rank of lieutenant-gen- deliver the keys to some one whom he 
eral. He already occupied the next should afterwards designate. Gen. Pep- 
highest post to that of the governor ; perrell did not know of this action at the 
viz., president of the council. He time ; and he probably never learned of 
was also very wealthy and popular, and it, as they continued to be good friends, 
likely to draw soldiers to his stand- Very likely he knew of Warren's desire 
ard, as indeed proved to be the case, to assume the glory ; for this was the 
^^ Nil desperandiim Chris to duce,'^ was general opinion among the people of 
the motto of the invaders. Col. Pep- New England at the time, and, indeed, 
perrell advanced five thousand pounds feeling ran very high on the subject. 
from his own fortune, and threw himself Dr. Chauncey expressed their senti- 
into the work of preparation with all ments when he wrote the following to 
the impetuosity of his nature. Gen. Pepperrell. He said, " If the high 
The West India squadron under admiral of England had been there, he 
Commodore Warren, which was to co- would not have had the least right to 
operate with the New-England troops, command an>"where but aboard his own 
failed to arrive at the appointed time : ships." A good instance of the Amer- 
but they set sail without them on March ican spirit thirty years prior to the 
24, 1745, and after a short passage Revolution. 

reached Louisburg, and began at once Smollett says, "The conquest of 

to disembark and invest the town. On Louisburg was the most important 

the 24th of April, Warren and three of achievement of the war of 1744." 

his men-of-war joined them, and others Ward, in his edition of " Curwen's 

arrived later. It appears that they took Journal of the Loyalists," says, "That 

part in the bombardment to some ex- such a city should have yielded to the 

tent, but most of the work had neces- farmers, merchants, and fishermen of 

sarily to be done by the land forces New England, is almost incredible, 

with their heavy siege-guns. The ships The lovers of the wonderful may read 

also served to good purpose in prevent- the works which contain accounts of 

ing re-enforcements and supplies from its rise and ruin, and be satisfied that 

entering the harbor. But space will not truth is sometimes stranger than fic- 

permit a detailed account of the capture tion." 

of the " Dunkirk of America." Suffice He received a letter from the Duke 


LicJit.-Geii. Sir Williavi Pcppcrrell, Bart. 

of Newcastle, dated at ^Vhitehall, Aug. 
lo, 1745, acquainting him that his maj- 
esty had sent a patent from Hanover 
creating him a baronet of Great Britain, 
— an honor never before conferred on 
a native of America. Commodore War- 
ren was also promoted to the rank of 

A trophy of the capture of Louis- 
burg lies almost at our own doors. The 
visitor, on approaching the massive and 
stately building known as Gore Hall, 
at Cambridge, may see a gilded cross 
over one of its doors, which was taken 
from a French church and eventually 
found a resting-place there. The gran- 
ite pile stands for learning and progress. 
The cross may well remind the students 
and all friends of the university of its 
motto, " Christo et Ecclesiae," that its 
meaning may never be forgotten in our 
onward march. 

Sir William embarked in Admiral 
Knowles's squadron for Boston, Sept. 
24, 1 746, and arrived diere on the 2d 
of October, after a stormy passage. 
The ships then dropped down the har- 
bor, and anchored in Nantasket Roads. 
Many of Knowles's men having de- 
serted here, he thought that Boston 
should make up the deficiency. He 
accordingly sent press-gangs — an in- 
famous practice sanctioned, or at least 
submitted to, in those days — to the 
merchantmen and wharves, and carried 
off many poor fellows, including a few 
landsmen. A mob of several thousand 
people soon collected at the head of 
King (now State) Street, and even threw 
missiles into the windows of the Province 
House. Speeches were made from the 
balcony by Sir William, and also by 
Gov. Shirley ; and the former, by his 
tact and popularity, avoided any fur- 
ther trouble (as Knowles agreed to 
release the citizens), but the cowardly 

Shirley had meanwhile taken the pre- 
caution to go to the castle in the har- 

On Dec. 9, 1746, the Province 
House (now the Old State House) 
took fire, and all but the walls were 
consumed. It was rebuilt shortly after, 
and still stands in the heart of our busy 
city, a fitting link between all that was 
noteworthy in our Colonial history, and 
all the good that has been accomplished 
since we became a nation. The lion 
and the unicorn represent the puissant 
British race from which we sprung; 
while the Indian, facing to the west, 
illustrates the onward march of our 
great Republic. 

Sir William set sail for London in 
September, 1 749, and was cordially re- 
ceived at court by his Majesty King 
George II. He was also the recipient 
of many attentions from the -Prince of 
Wales and Lord Halifax. The mayor 
of London waited on him, and pre- 
sented him with a set of plate in honor 
of his distinguished services. Sir Wil- 
liam was a man of fine appearance, 
somewhat inclined to be portly, and 
his dignified and elegant bearing made 
him noted, even at the Court of St. 
James. A description of the dress 
which he wore when presented has not 
come down to us, but he ordinarily 
dressed in the rich apparel customary 
for gentlemen in his day ; viz., a suit of 
scarlet cloth trimmed with gold lace, 
silk stockings, and silver shoe-buckles, 
and the usual powdered wig. He also 
wore lace rufiles at his wrists, and the 
long vest then in fashion. There is 
extant a full-length portrait of him by 
the gifted Smibert in the Essex Insti- 
tute at Salem. It belongs to, and was 
formerly in, the Portsmouth Athenaeum, 
where it should have remained. 

He lived in great style at Kittery, 

Lietit.-Gen. Sir William Pepperrell, Bart. 


and kept open house for all his friends, 
although he was choice in his acquaint- 
ance. His library was the best in that 
part of the country, and was much con- 
sulted by scholars, especially the clergy. 
His large and substantial house was hung 
with beautiful paintings and costly mir- 
rors. His cellar was filled with rare 
old wines, — not to mention the highly 
prized New-England rum, that had been 
mellowed by its voyage to the Indies 
and back. His park was stocked with 
deer ; he kept a coach-and-six, and also 
had a splendid barge, manned by six 
slaves in uniform. 

In March, 1751, Sir William and 
Lady Pepperrell met with a severe 
affliction in the death of their son 
Andrew, who died from the effects of a 
severe cold contracted while crossing 
the Piscataqua River late one night, 
after attending a party at Portsmouth. 
He was a young man of much promise. 
They had three other children ; namely, 
Elizabeth, William, and Margery, but 
the latter two died in infancy. Andrew 
was born Jan. 4, 1726, and, after a care- 
ful preparatory course, graduated at Har- 
vard College in 1 743. He of course had 
the best social advantages that Boston 
afforded, and was very much of a favor- 
ite in society. He never married. 

The name of Pepperrell, that was a 
power fn the eighteenth century, is now 
extinct ; and but one or two of his de- 
scendants, if any, are living. There 
are, however, several collateral relatives 
of the baronet in New England. 

Having seen something of Sir Wil- 
liam in his official capacity, let us now 
look at him for a moment in his higher 
character, — that of a man. Perhaps 

the best thing that can be said of him 
is that he had deep religious convic- 
tions, and always followed the Golden 
Rule. His benefactions were many and 
large. Among other public gifts was 
that of a four-acre lot to the town of 
Saco, for a church. He also gave a bell 
to the town of Pepperrell in Massachu- 

Pie owned immense tracts of land in 
Maine : and it is said that he could 
travel from Portsmouth to Saco River, 
a distance of thirty miles, all the way 
on his own soil. All these vast estates 
were confiscated during the Revolution. 

Still another honor awaited him ; for 
he received a commission of lieutenant- 
general in the royal army, bearing date 
Feb. 20, 1759, giving him the command 
of all the forces engaged against the 
French and their savage allies. But 
the old veteran could not take the field, 
for his health was failing ; and he died 
on the 6th of July, 1759, in the sixty- 
third year of his age. His remains 
were placed in the family tomb on his 
estate at Kittery Point. There he 
sleeps in a quiet spot overlooking the 
restless, changing sea, — fit burial-place 
for his ambitious soul. The same winds 
play over his tomb that brought his 
argosies from foreign lands. The waves 
still break upon the shore. But his 
tide had ebbed into the great sea. He 
was brought up to beUeve that his duty 
consisted in being a loyal subject of 
the British Crown. Had he Hved un- 
til the stormy days of the Revolution, 
would he have led the colonists, or 
would he have been a royalist, and man- 
fully supported his king, who had so 
trusted and honored him ? 


The Harrisburg Convention of Decetnber, l8jg. 


By C. S. Si'AUlding. 

It was customary for many years 
among politicians to charge that Mr. 
Henry Clay was defrauded of the nomi- 
nation for the presidency at the Harris- 
burg convention, by the devices of cer- 
tain personal opponents, and that his 
election in the following year would have 
been as certain as any future event can 
be that depends upon the contingencies 
of politics. This was the language of 
political declaration ; and the quiet, 
discerning men among the Whigs, who 
knew better, were generally silenced by 
the concurring averments of Mr. Clay's 
adherents. On both these points the 
opinion of Mr. Clay amounted to con- 
viction ; and he went to his grave with 
the sincere conviction and belief that 
he was defeated at Harrisburg by un- 
worthy trickery, and that his electoral 
majority would have fully equalled that 
of Gen. Harrison. That impression 
prevailed generally throughout the 
country for many years ; and I am in- 
clined to think that it is still entertained 
by those who are old enough to re- 
member the circumstances attending 
the presidential election of 1840, and 
the political condition of the country 
during the three or four preceding 

It is due to the memory of those men 
who composed the Harrisburg conven- 
tion, that certain facts and circum- 
stances, tending to show that the public 
mind has been greatly abused on this 
subject, should be recalled, and the 
considerations which led to the nomina- 
tion of Gen. Harrison fairly stated ; and 
as preliminary to this, and in order to 
a correct understanding of the situation, 

it is necessary to glance hastily at the 
political condition of the country dur- 
ing the presidency of Mr. Van Buren. 
The financial revulsion of 1837 had led 
to the overthrow of the Democratic 
party in several large States, where its 
ascendency had been almost perpetual, 
and notably in New York, Ohio, In- 
diana, Maine, and several other States ; 
and it had come to be generally sup- 
posed that the Whigs would be able to 
carry the election in 1840. There 
seemed to be no doubt that Mr. Clay 
would be the candidate ; and under 
that expectation the Democrats had 
regained the power in Ohio, Indiana, 
Maine, and several other States, and 
the party had gained largely in New 
York ; and then there was the unexpect- 
edly large vote for Gen. Harrison in 
1836, when he was brought forward 
irregularly and partially, with no effec- 
tive organization of his supporters, and 
no hope of his election. These things 
conspired to direct the attention of 
sagacious Whigs to the question of the 
expediency of nominating him as a 
stronger man with the people than Mr. 

With the exception of some of the 
adherents of Mr. Webster, the delegates 
were generally anxious to elect a pres- 
ident irrespective of any personal con- 
siderations. The feelings of jealousy 
and rivalry which had for some time 
subsisted between Messrs. Clay and 
Webster, and which culminated in an 
open rupture in 1841, were shared to 
some extent by their friends. But Mr. 
Webster was not a candidate before the 
convention, and therefore there was no 

77/1? Harrisburg Coiivoition of December, ^^39- 


competition between them ; but the 
more pronounced and zealous of his 
supporters were the persistent and 
efficient advocates of Gen. Harrison's 
nomination, and the result of the pro- 
ceedings of the convention was owing 
in a large measure to their address, per- 
severance, and determination. Scott 
had a few earnest supporters in the 
convention, mostly from New York : 
but evidently they had no hope of 
nominating him, and were inspired 
chiefly by their dislike of Clay ; and 
when he was defeated, they came 
readily and heartily into the support of 
Gen. Harrison. 

It was ascertained before the conven- 
tion was organized that a majority of 
the delegates had been chosen to sup- 
port Mr. Clay; and it was easily seen 
that, if an informal per capita vote 
should be taken in advance, his nomi- 
nation was inevitable. It was im- 
portant, therefore, that this should be 
prevented ; and Peleg Sprague, who 
had been a member of the Senate from 
Maine, having served from 1829 to 
1835, ^'^^ ^ warm partisan of Mr. 
Webster, before any other steps could 
be taken offered a plan for the action 
of the convention, which was adopted 
by a small majority against the earnest 
opposition of the friends of Mr. Clay. 
It was substantially as follows : That 
there should be no vote of preference 
taken in the convention, until the follow- 
ing questions should have been deter- 
mined by the delegations of the several 
States, each sitting as a committee, to 
wit : First, Can the state be carried for 
the Whig candidate for the presidency ? 
Second, If yes, who is the strongest 
man to nominate? Third, Can the 
vote of the State be given to Mr. Clay ? 

A very animated debate sprang upon 
the resolution, and it only prevailed by 
a small majority ; where upon the con- 
vention adjourned for the day. As the 
delegates were leaving the hall, Benjamin 
W. Leigh of Virginia, who had been 
in the Senate from 1834 to 1837 from 
that State, and a persistent supporter of 
Henry Clay, remarked to John Tyler, 
who was one of the vice-presidents of 
the convention, " Clay is surely beaten. 
That sharp black-eyed Yankee has 
stolen a march upon us, and Harrison's 
nomination is certain." Mr. Tyler ex- 
pressed his apprehensions about the 
result, but did not consider the game 
as wholly lost. 

The deliberations of the delegations 
ran through several days, and every 
hour's delay darkened the prospects of 
Mr. Clay. Consultation and compari- 
son of views ascertained the fact that 
Gen. Harrison was the strongest man 
with the people ; and there was never 
a moment, after the adoption of Mr. 
Sprague's resolution, that the nomination 
of another candidate was at all probable. 

The delegates generally were moved 
by a common feeling. The desire to 
break down the Van Buren dynasty was 
the all - important consideration, and 
personal feeling was compelled to give 
way before it. 

Whether any other candidate could 
have been elected is a question ; but 
there is every reason to suppose that, 
had Mr. Clay been nominated, he would 
have been defeated. 

It is said that John Tyler cried when 
Harrison's nomination was announced 
to the convention, and Horace Greeley 
said that the whole Whig party had 
reason to cry when John Tyler became 


Protection vs. Free-trade. 


The October meeting of the Liberal 
Union Club was held at Young's Hotel, 
Saturday, Oct. 31, 1885, when Senator 
Morrill of Vermont made some very in- 
teresting remarks. In the course of his 
address he said, — 

" I understand, gentlemen, that there are 
here Republicans and Democrats, protective 
tariff men and free-trade men, and, in the clas- 
sic language of the newspapers. Mugwumps. 
If I am to say any thing at all to you to-night, 
I must speak my honest sentiments. I have 
been long suspected of being somewhat in fa- 
vor of a protective tariff, and of being a pretty 
stanch Republican; and while it has been 
my effort heretofore to always speak what I 
believed, if it should run contrary to some of 
your views, it may be useful in creating a lit- 
tle effervescence in your stomachs not to be 

" I ought, perhaps, to say that I feel almost 
as much love and admiration for Massachu- 
setts as one to the manor born: for near 
here I found my wife, and she claims Mas- 
sachusetts as the State of her birth ; and here 
from 1824 to 1850 I found the great tariff 
authority was Daniel Webster, the authority 
not only in Massachusetts, where his name 
ought to be immortal, but throughout the 
country. It may have been my misfortune 
that I have not had the later guides and phi- 
losophers of some of your learned institu- 
tions ; but I must frankly confess, that, while I 
have some respect for standard English lit- 
erature, I have none at all for the standard 
English political economy. 

" Let me say that, that free-trade economy 
may be good enough for Great Britain, for 
England, but it don't do anywhere else. It 
won't do even for Ireland, and certainly not 
for America. It may be that some of your 
learned professors, who are sometimes politi- 
cians, are greater men than were Webster 
and Choate, or than are our Hoar and Dawes ; 
but, I beg your pardon, up in Vermont we 
don't think so. 

" They say, however, that we must have rev- 
enue reform. Cui bono .'' For whose benefit ? 
For they assent that if we should reduce the 

tariff a good deal lower, we might collect the 
the same amount of revenue. Suppose that 
that were to be admitted, it is evident then 
that we should have to import a much larger 
amount of foreign merchandise, and also 
should have to furnish a market for a much 
less, a correspondingly less, amount of Amer- 
ican productions. It strikes me that the 
statesmanship that only seeks to create a mar- 
ket for foreign productions is un-American, 
and in my judgment the advocates of that 
policy have a legitimate claim upon the Brit- 
ish Parliament for their services. 

" The Lowells, the Appletons, the Law- 
rences, the Lymans, and the Bigelows, by plant- 
ing manufactures on the sterile soil of Massa- 
chusetts, — and they were the contemporaries 
of such men as Webster and Choate, and of 
honest John Davis, and of Winthrop, — and 
thus developing and multiplying the employ- 
ments of your people, giving every man of 
your State an opportunity to do his best, have 
secured its growth, its prosperity, and its 
reputation the world over. 

" Without this policy, the farms of Massa- 
chusetts to-day would not bring one-half of 
their present valuation. It is through this 
policy that the rich endowments of your col- 
leges have taken place. It is by this policy 
that you have established broadcast your 
common schools. Without it, one-half, more 
than one-half, of the pulpits of your churches, 
and the church-going bells, would to-day be 
silent. Without this policy, your State to-day 
would not have one-fourth of the present 
magnitude of its population. And yet some 
of these men, if they could carry out their 
policy, if they could be successful, in my judg- 
ment, in a very short time, would be nothing 
but tramps in the streets. 

" The protective tariff is not a local ques- 
tion. Its beneficence touches the foot as well 
as the hand, the heart as well as the head. 
Its example, the example of Massachusetts, 
may be as safely followed in the South as in 
the North, in Virginia and Georgia as in 
Pennsylvania and New York, in the States 
beyond the Mississippi as well as in Illinois 
and Ohio. In fact, our great wheat-fields of 
the West, unless they can find a great and 
steadfast home market, will soon find that 

Protection vs. Free-trade. 


they have no attraction to emigrants for their 
magnficent productions. 

" A foreign market is a will-o'-the-wisp. The 
only sure props of our great Western wheat 
and corn growing territories is a tariff and 
cheap transportation. 

" But it is said that we must have reve- 
nue reform. And what is that ? Why, it is a 
Mugwump gravitation downward toward free- 
trade. The effect of it will be, whether de- 
signed or not, to cheapen labor, and to deprive 
labor of some of its present comforts and orna- 
ments. Its effect will be to send more of our 
children barefoot into the fields and into the 
workshops, and less to the common schools. 

" I may say that the free-traders would emas- 
culate the Declaration of Independence; they 
would not leave us enough manhood to sup- 
port any thing more than a government of the 
police, not enough to enable us to chose our 
own avocations. I trust, however, that we 
shall have enough of that ancient heroic in- 
dependence to show that we intend now and 
forever, in peace or in war, to make our own 
coats and shirts (in homely phrase), to make 
our own dresses and blankets, to make our own 
shoes and stockings, to make our own dinner 
plates and knives and forks, above all to make 
our own ships and cannon ; and finally that we 
shall have enough to demand a little Ameri- 
canism in our colleges. It strikes me that it 
would be well, and I don't wish to boycott 
them, but life is too short for our young men 
men to learn and unlearn theories that have 
no root anywhere except upon aristocratic 
soil, upon the soil of England. And I think 
that I am in favor of an e.xtension of civil 
service reform ; and, while I won't do any 
thing to injure any educational institution, 
God forbid, yet if any vacancies should hap- 
pen in their staffs, I would subject the can- 
didates to a proper civil service examination 
as to their qualifications." 

On the same occasion Hon. William 
D. Kelley of Pennsylvania made a strong 
appeal for high tariff. A few of his re- 
marks are of especial interest to all. 

" Now, as to foreign markets ; for, as I 
say, I came not as a propagandist, not as a 
missionary, but because I had been invited, 
and was glad to come. On the subject of 
foreign markets, let me ask you where they 
are to be be found. Are you ready to enter 
Congo, the Congo country, the Congo Free 

State ? What could you sell there ? What 
can our generation, or your generation, — for 
I have passed beyond it, — trade with in Con- 
go ? We cannot enter the British markets. 
British industry has never been more paral- 
yzed. Manufacturers were never producing 
goods with less certainty of profits on the 
British Islands than now. You cannot hope 
to get into France. They simply confiscate 
raw goods ; as, for instance, in the matter of 
cutlery, drugs : whatever is not free, or put at 
a fixed dutiable rate, is confiscated, and the 
party bringing it in is put under penalty. You 
cannot find markets there. You cannot beat 
the French people in producing that which is 
elegant. You cannot beat them in cheapness. 
You cannot beat the Swiss. There is nobody 
there to buy any thing. Where can you find 
a market in which you can compete success- 
fully with Germany, with France, with Eng- 
and, with Switzerland, unless you bring your 
laboring people to live as unhappily as the 
British laboring people are now living, as I 
have shown you the Swiss people are living, 
as the German peasants are living ? You 
can't do that. You can't maintain a republic 
with a starving laboring population. You 
can't promote the welfare and strength of the 
country, and the safety of capital and society, 
by degrading the laboring people, and making 
them feel that they are under the heel of op- 
pressors instead of co-operating fraternally 
with their countrymen, and hopeful in seeing 
others of their countrymen rising from poverty 
to wealth as they pass from youth or young 
manhood to graver maturity. We require sym- 
pathetic action with our laboring people. . . . 
" I live where manufacturers are concen- 
trated in power and authority as they are, I 
think, in no other Congressional district in the 
country. My district is a set of homes. A 
larger per cent of the population of Philadel- 
phia live in houses owned by the head of the 
family, or which have descended from him to 
his widow and heirs, than in any other com- 
munity in the world. We have gone through 
a very severe pressure. But it does not come 
from either free trade or protection. The 
United States, protected as they are, have 
felt it. England, free trade as she is, has felt 
it on a higher, a broader, a keener degree. I 
think that the depression will continue, with 
little waves of apparent prosperity, so long as 
the nations struggle to show the Almighty 
that he was wrong in making two metals which 
might be used as money." 

272 Grototi Plantation. 


The description of the original grant Of the first hne, about three-quarters 

of Dunstable has been twice printed, of an inch is gone, and near the mid- 

but with so many inaccuracies and in- die of the edge probably an inch and 

terpolations, that I am constrained to a quarter is also gone. Without at- 

print it again for the third time. ' The tempting to supply the missing letters 

original copy, in the handwriting of or words, I have placed brackets thus 

Jonathan Danforth, surveyor, is found [ ] to indicate them, which in 

on the first page of the earliest book some lines are very evident. The fol- 

of Dunstable town records, now in the lowing copy was made by me with 

possession of the city of Nashua. The much care on June 5, 1885, and it is 

leaf on which it is written is much here given line for line with the 

torn and worn near the front edge, original : — 


It Lieth on both sids merimack Riuer on the n[ ] 

Riuer it is bounded by Chelmsford on the south by[ ] 

partly by Cuntry land the Line runing from the boun[ ] 

du north Ten mile untill you Come to Souhegon Riuer [ ] 

Called dram Cup hill to a great Pine ny toy'' said Riuer: a[ ] 

of Charlstown Scoole farm bounded by Souhegon Riuer 
North and on the east Sid merrimacke: It begins at a great che[ ] 

corner of 
which was supposed to be near the northern M'' Brintons land 

and from thence it runs sou south east six miles to a Pine [ ] 

with : F : standinge within sight of Beauer Broke 

It Runs two degres west from the tits south four mile and ouer [ ] 

which reached to the tc=lhc=iC=iJie south side of henery [ ] 

ffarme at Jeremies Hill then from y*^ South-East angell of [ ] 

it runs two degres and a quartor westward of the south [ ] 

of the long Pond which lieth at y^ head of Edward Co[ ] 

And thus it is Bounded by the said Pond and the head of th[ ] 

Takeinge in Captaine Scarlets farme to that bou[ ] 

All which is sofficiantly Bounded and described [ ] 

danforth Suruayer : 3*?: 1674: 


The map of Old Dunstable, between have tended to confuse the author's 
pages 12 and 13 in Fox's History of ideas. The southern boundary of Dun- 
that town, is very incorrect, so far as it stable was by no means a straight line, 
relates to the boundaries of Groton. but was made to conform in part to the 
The Squannacook River is put down as northern boundary of Groton, which 
the Nissitissett, and this mistake may was somewhat angular. Groton was 

' From The Boundary Line of Old Groton, by Hon. Samuel A. Green, M.D. Groton, Mass., 1885. 

Groton Plantation. 


incorporated on May 25, 1655, and 
Dunstable on Oct. 15, 1673, ^"^ no 
part of it came within the limits of this 
town. The eastern boundary of Groton 
originally ran northerly through Massa- 
poag Pond, and continued into the 
present Hmits of Nashua, N.H. (pp. 
17, 18.) 

A brief statement of the boundary 
question between Massachusetts and 
New Hampshire is here given. 

During many years the dividing line 
between the two Provinces was the 
subject of controversy. The cause of 
dispute dated back to the time when 
the original grant was made to the Col- 
ony of Massachusetts Bay. The char- 
ter was drawn up in England at a 
period when little was known in regard 
to the interior of this country ; and the 
boundary lines, necessarily, were some- 
what indefinite. The Merrimack River 
was an important factor in fixing the 
limits of the grant, as the northern 
boundary of Massachusetts was to be a 
line three miles north of any and every 
part of it. At the date of the charter, 
the general direction of the river was 
not known, but it was incorrectly as- 
sumed to be easterly and westerly. As 
a matter of fact, the course of the Mer- 
riiT^ck is southerly for a long distance 
from where it is formed by the union 
of the Winnepesaukee and the Pemige- 
wasset Rivers, and then it turns and 
runs twenty-five or thirty miles in a 
north-easterly direction to its mouth : 
and this deflexion in the current caused 
the dispute. The difference between 
the actual and the supposed direction 
was a matter of little practical impor- 
tance, so long as the neighboring ter- 
ritory remained unsettled, or so long 
as the two Provinces were essentially 
under one government ; but as the 

population increased, it became an 
exciting and vexatious question. Towns 
were chartered by Massachusetts in 
territory claimed by New Hampshire, 
and this action led to bitter feeling and 
provoking legislation. Massachusetts 
contended for the land " nominated in 
the bond," which would carry the line 
fifty miles northward into the ver)^ heart 
of New Hampshire ; and, on the other 
hand, that Province strenuously opposed 
this view of the case, and claimed that 
the line should run east and west three 
miles north of the mouth of the river. 
At one time, a royal commission was 
appointed to consider the subject, but 
their labors produced no satisfactory 
result. At last the matter was carried 
to England for a decision, which was 
rendered by the king on March 5, 
1 739-40. His judgment was final, and 
in favor of New Hampshire. It gave 
that Province not only all the territory 
in dispute, but a strip of land fourteen 
miles in width, lying along her southern 
border, mostly west of the Merrimack, 
which she had never claimed. This 
strip was the tract of land between the 
line running east and west three miles 
north of the southernmost trend of the 
river, and a similar line three miles 
north of its mouth. By the decision 
twenty- eight townships were taken from 
Massachusetts, and transferred to New 
Hampshire. The settlement of this 
disputed question was undoubtedly a 
public benefit, although it caused, at 
the time, a great deal of hard feeling. 
In establishing the new boundary, Paw- 
tucket Falls, situated now in the city 
of Lowell, and near the most southern 
portion of the river's course, was taken 
as the starting-place ; and the line 
which now separates the two States was 
run west, three miles north of this 
point. It was surveyed ofificially in the 


Groton Plantation. 

spring of 1741, with reference to the 
settlement of this dispute. 

The new boundary passed through 
the original Groton Plantation, cutting 
off a triangular portion of its territory, 
now within the limits of Nashua, and a 
very small corner of Mollis, and went 
to the southward of Groton Gore, leav- 
ing that tract of land wholly in New 
Hampshire, (pp. 37-39.) 


No town in Massachusetts has a more 
loyal son, or one who has done more to 
illustrate her history, than Groton has 
in Dr. Samuel A. Green. His numer- 
ous publications, designed to preserve 
the perishable records or memories of 
the past, have been true labors of love, 
and have left nothing to be desired as 
respects thoroughness of research and 
accuracy of statement. The latest of 

his Groton monographs deals with the 
original boundaries of the town, and 
with the repeated partitions of the 
township, by which her area has been 
reduced to a mere fraction of what it 
was two centuries or more ago. His 
narrative is clear and succinct, and is 
made perfectly intelligible to every one 
by three excellent plans. The value of 
the publication is greatly enhanced by 
the very large number of petitions and 
legislative orders, which are now printed 
for the first time ; and it is only fair to 
add that it is just what such a publica- 
tion ought to be. It will make every 
reader impatient for the time when Dr. 
Green shall gather his materials into a 
well compacted history of Groton. 

\_The Boundary Lines of Old Groton. 
By Samuel A. Green, M.D. Groton, 
Mass., 1885. 8vo, pp. 105.] 


We wish to call the attention of our 
readers to our advertising pages. It 
will be noticed, in glancing over the 
list, that our patronage has been lib- 
eral, and from the leading houses in 
their several lines in Concord, Boston, 
and New York. We seek advertising 
only from firms whose standing is high 
in the commercial world ; and it would 
be a favor to them and to the pub- 
lisher of this magazine, if, in com- 
municating with them, mention should 
be made of this publication. To those 
who receive this number of the maga- 
zine, whose names are not already on 
the subscription list, we wish to state 

that we offer to give eighteen months' 
subscription for $1.50, — an offer open 
until Jan. i, 1887, — subscription^ to 
commence with July, 1886. We wish 
to add a thousand names to our list 
this fall, and embrace this opportunity 
to do it. 

Styles, Qualities, Prices. Three 
things every one should consider when 
buying goods. With this in mind, we 
recommend the fine dry-goods store of 
E. W. Willard & Co., Concord, and call 
attention to their advertisement in this 
number of The Granite Monthly. 




Devoted to Literature, Biography, History, and State Progress. 

Vol. IX. OCTOBER and NOVEMBER, 1886. Nos. X & XL 


By Hon. John H. Goodale. 

On the headwaters of Suncook River, 
in the central region of New Hamp- 
shire, is the town of Pittsfield. It is 
hmited in extent, undulating in surface, 
rich in the quality of its soil. Its ear- 
liest settlers were sturdy farmers, men 
and women who from infancy had been 
accustomed to the hardships and priva- 
tions of pioneer life. 

Among these settlers was Josiah 
White, who, with his wife of Scottish 
origin, in the spring of i 775 took up his 
abode in the outskirts of an unbroken 
forest. Years of hard labor followed, 
which at length brought to him and his 
family the comforts of a rural home. 
Of his sons, Jeremiah White, the father 
of the subject of this sketch, succeeded 
to the homestead. He was born March 
4, 1775, ^^d' passing his life amid the 
scenes of his earlier days, died Decem- 
ber 5, 1848. He is still remembered 
by the older residents of Pittsfield as a 
citizen who was useful, influential, and 
respected. Of great personal activity 
and tact in business, genial and gen- 
erous, an enterprising farmer of the 
old school, a safe and sagacious ad- 
viser, his departure left a place difficult 
to fill in the business affairs of the 

Jeremiah Wilson White was bom 
in Pittsfield, September 16, 182 1. The 
active habits and pure atmosphere of 
his early rural life laid the foundation 
of a sound physical constitution. His 
opportunities for education during child- 
hood were limited to a few months at a 
distant district school. At the age of 
fifteen he entered the Pittsfield Acade- 
my, under the instruction of James F, 
Joy, a graduate of Dartmouth, and in 
later years well known as president of the 
Michigan Central Railroad. Pittsfield 
village had a thrifty and vigorous popu- 
lation, and among her ambitious and 
talented young men were several who 
have since been conspicuous in public 
life. One became United States sena- 
tor ; three, judges of the supreme court 
in their respective States ; and one, 
founder of the system of public instruc- 
tion now in successful operation on the 
Pacific coast. Remaining at the Acad- 
emy two and a half years, Mr. White, 
then in his seventeenth year, decided 
to prepare himself for mercantile and 
active business life. Adopting the plan 
which appeared most feasible, he went 
to Boston and entered upon an appren- 
ticeship in a drug-store. Forty years 
ago a mercantile apprenticeship in that 


Jeremiah IV. White, Esq. 

city was not a sinecure position. But 
the young man was not averse to toil, 
and by assiduous and systematic atten- 
tion to his duties was preparing the 
way for future success. Added to his 
other duties he began the study of 
medicine in all its branches, and con- 
tinued it for several years after, until he 
was qualified for, and, if occasion had 
required, could have entered upon, 
professional service. 

Finishing his engagement at Boston, 
he engaged as clerk to Luther Angier, 
postmaster and druggist at Medford, 
Massachusetts, with the agreement that 
with proper notice he could leave to 
engage in business for himself. Early 
in the summer of 1845, Mr. White be- 
lieved that that time had arrived. He 
had never visited Nashua, but had heard 
of its reputation as a growing manufac- 
turing town. A few hours' inspection 
settled the question, and before leaving 
he hired the store which he afterwards 
occupied for nearly thirty years. 

Mr. White, in engaging in trade for 
himself in Nashua, was aware that a 
young man and a stranger must en- 
counter severe difficulties in entering 
upon mercantile life. Many before him 
succumbed to the obstacles which he 
was now to encounter. He did not 
hesitate. Laying out his plan of busi- 
ness, he examined into the most minute 
details of its management. He was 
never idle. No man was more thor- 
ough and painstaking in the discharge 
of obligations to his customers. His 
labors often extended far into the night. 
In fact, he lived in labor, and thought 
no plan complete till its execution was 
secured. With these habits, added to 
sound business judgment and foresight 
and a rare knowledge of men, the 
record of the business life of Mr. White 
has been an uninterrupted success ; and 

it is in this department of consistent 
and persistent effort that his example 
is worthy of imitation. 

In many of the business enterprises 
of Nashua Mr. White has taken an ac- 
tive, and in some of them a prominent, 
part. Engaging in the transportation 
and sale of coal on his arrival, he has 
always been the leading dealer in the 
trade. After the close of the war he 
originated the project of, and gave his 
attention to, the construction of the 
large block of stores on Main Street, 
known as the " Merchants' Exchange," 
retaining for himself and son the corner 
store, which he still occupies. Early 
in 1875 l"*^ conceived the idea of estab- 
lishing a new national bank, and in the 
April following obtained a charter. The 
people of Nashua and vicinity, believ- 
ing in his financial ability, immediately 
subscribed for the stock and elected 
him president, a position he continues 
to hold to the satisfaction of the stock- 
holders and the advantage of the insti- 

In addition to the presidency of the 
Second National Bank, Mr, White is 
now recognized by the public as a sa- 
gacious and influential railroad manager. 
Since 1876 he has been prominendy 
connected with the affairs of the Nashua 
& Lowell Railroad as a director and 
large stockholder. For many years this 
road had been connected with, and used 
by, the Boston & Lowell Railroad cor- 
poration, and, as Mr. White clearly saw, 
on terms greatly disadvantageous to the 
stockholders of the Nashua & Lowell 
company. The stock had gradually 
declined much below par. To resist so 
great and powerful a corporation re- 
quired pluck and energy. To be suc- 
cessful ag-ainst such odds demanded a 
leader daring, prompt, aggressive. Mr. 
White was the man for the emergency. 

Jeremiah IV. White, Esq. 


How well his measures succeeded is 
realized not only by every stockholder, 
but in all railroad circles throughout 
New England. 

In the transaction of business Mr. 
White is not only methodical but posi- 
tive. He reaches his conclusions 
quickly and acts upon them with the 
utmost directness. Having decided 
upon a measure, he engages in it with 
all his might, bending all his efforts to 
make sure of the desired end. Select- 
ing his agents, he accomplishes the 
whole work while many would be halt- 
ing to determine whether the project 
was feasible. A man of so pronounced 
opinions and prompt action naturally 
makes some enemies ; but he has no 
opponents who do not accord to him 
the credit of an open and honorable 
warfare. In a word, he is essentially a 
business man in the full sense of that 
term. Not only in occupation, but in 
taste and aptitude, he is a representa- 
tive of that class of American citizens 
who have won a world-wide reputation 
for practical sagacity, enterprise, and 

Mr. White is in no sense of the word a 
party politician. Of Whig antecedents, 
his first vote was cast for Henry Clay, in 
1844, for President. Before leaving his 
native town his liberal tendencies had 
been quickened by witnessing the un- 
warranted arrest, in the pulpit, of Rev. 
George Storrs, who was about to deliv- 
er the first anti-slavery lecture in Pitts- 
field. The event justly occasioned an 
unusual excitement, and was the begin- 
ning of that agitation which reached 
every town and hamlet in the Union. 

Since the organization of the Repub- 
lican party, Mr. White has supported it 
in all national issues ; but is one of the 
independent thinkers who does not hes- 
itate to exercise " the divine right of 

bolting " when unfit men are put in 

In the winter of 1861, Mr. White and 
his family left on a southern trip, and 
reached Charleston, South Carolina, the 
last of February, not long after the 
United States troops under Major An- 
derson were shut up in Fort Sumter 
by the rebel forces. Mr. White had 
letters of introduction to several citi- 
zens of the city, high in authority, who 
received him kindly and, learning that 
he was a business man and not a politi- 
cian, were anxious to learn from him 
the state of feeling among the business 
men and the middle-class of citizens at 
the North. While the statements of 
Mr. White were far from gratifying, 
they continued their friendly relations. 
Previously he had written to his friend, 
Captain J. G. Foster, second in com- 
mand at Fort Sumter, of his intended 
tarry at Charleston. He w^as desirous 
of an interview with him. Applying to 
the Confederate authorities for a pass 
to Fort Sumter, it was granted him — a 
privilege not allowed to any other civil- 
ian during the siege. 

On the following day, March 5, he 
went on the steamer Clinch to Fort 
Johnson, to which point Major Ander- 
son was allowed to send his boat under 
a flag of truce for the daily mail. Here 
a new obstacle was encountered, for the 
boat was forbidden by Major Anderson 
to bring any person to the fort. But, 
with the restriction that he should re- 
main outside with the boat till Captain 
Foster could be notified, he was per- 
mitted to go. The interview was a 
great surprise as well as gratification. 

Reaching'Washington before the bom- 
bardment of Fort Sumter and the begin- 
ning of actual hostilities, Mr. White was 
taken to the war department and inter- 
viewed by General Scott as to the deter- 


Hon. Josiali Gardner Abbott, LL.D. 

mination and strength of the Confed- 
erate force at Charleston. Mr. White 
thought it would require a force of ten 
thousand men to relieve Fort Sumter, 
and said so. General Scott laughed hear- 
tily, and told him that two thousand men 
would be ample for the purpose. In 
common with most of the leading men at 
the capital, General Scott underestimat- 
ed the pluck and strength of the rebels. 
In 1846, the year after coming to 
Nashua, Mr. White was united in mar- 

riage with Miss Caroline G. Merrill, 
of his native town. Of their two chil- 
dren, the eldest, Caroline Wilson, died 
in infancy. The son, James Wilson 
White, born June 10, 1849, died in 
Florida, January 27, 1876. Mrs. White, 
having survived her children, died sud- 
denly of apoplexy in 1880. 

In April, i88t, Mr. White was mar- 
ried the second time to Mrs. Ann M. 
Prichard, of Bradford, Vermont. 


By Colonel John Hatch George. 

The Honorable Josiah Gardner 
Abbott, the subject of this biographic 
sketch, traces his lineage back to the 
first settlers of this Commonwealth. 
The Puritan George Abbott, who came 
from Yorkshire, England, in 1630, and 
settled in Andover, was his ancestor on 
his father's side ; while on his mother's 
side his English ancestor was William 
Fletcher, who came from Devonshire 
in 1640, and settled, first, in Concord, 
and, finally, in 1651, in Chelmsford. 
It may be noted in passing that Devon- 
shire, particularly in the first part of the 
seventeenth century, was not an obscure 
part of England to hail from, for it was 
the native shire of England's first great 
naval heroes and circumnavigators of 
the globe, such as Drake md Caven- 

George Abbott married Hannah, 
the daughter of William and Annis 
Chandler, whose descendants have 
been both numerous and influential. 
The young couple setded in Andover. 
As has been said, ten years after the 
advent on these shores of George 
Abbott came William Fletcher, who, 
after living for a short time in Concord, 

Vol. I.— No. III.— A. 

settled finally in Chelmsford. In direct 
descent from these two original settlers 
of New England were Caleb Abbott 
and Mercy Fletcher, the parents of the 
subject of this sketch. Judge Abbott 
is, therefore, of good yeomanly pedi- 
gree. His ancestors have always lived 
in Massachusetts since the settlement of 
the country, and have always been 
patriotic citizens, prompt to respond to 
every call of duty in the emergencies 
of their country, whether in peace 
or war. Both his grandfathers served 
honorably in the war of the Revolution, 
as their fathers and grandfathers before 
them served in the, French and Indian 
wars of the colonial period of our history. 
In his genealogy there is no trace of 
Norman blood or high rank : but 

"The rank is but the guinea's stamp, 
The man 's the gowd for a' that." 

In this country, while it is not nec- 
essary to success to be able to lay 
claim to an aristocratic descent, it is 
certainly a satisfaction, however demo- 
cratic the community may be, for any 
person to know that his grandfather 
was an honest man and a public-spirited 

l^eu-opDliia.ii FuiiUciuiLg SEagrOTint Co Ne\N'YoTK. 

Ho7t. Josiah Gardner Abbott, LL.D. 


Judge Abbott was born in Chelms- 
ford on the first of November, 1814. 
He was fitted for college under the 
instruction of Ralph Waldo Emerson. 
He entered Harvard College at the 
early age of fourteen and was graduated 
in 1832. After taking his degree, he 
studied law with Nathaniel Wright, of 
Lowell, and was admitted to the bar 
in 1837. In 1840, he formed with 
Samuel A. Brown a partnership, which 
continued until he was appointed to the 
bench in 1855. 

From the very first, Judge Abbott 
took a leading position in his profes- 
sion, and at once acquired an extensive 
and lucrative practice, without under- 
going a tedious probation, or having 
any experience of the " hope deferred 
which maketh the heart sick." In 
criminal cases his services were in 
great demand. He had, and has, the 
advantage of a fine and commanding 
person, which, both at the bar and 
in the Senate, and, in fact, in all situ- 
ations where a man sustains the rela- 
tion of an advocate or orator before the 
public, is really a great advantage, 
other things being equal. As a speaker, 
Judge Abbott is fluent, persuasive, and 
effective. He excites his own intensity 
of feeling in the jury or audience that 
he is addressing. His client's cause is 
emphatically his own. He is equal to 
any emergency of attack or defence. 
If be believes in a person or cause, he 
believes fully and without reservation ; 
thus he is no trimmer or half-and-half 
advocate. He has great capacity for 
labor, and immense power of applica- 
tion, extremely industrious habits, and 
what may be called a nervous intellectu- 
ality, which, in athletic phrase, gives him 
great staying power, a most important 
quality in the conduct of long and sharply 
contested jury trials. After saying this, it 

is almost needless to add that he is full 
of self-reliance and of confidence in 
whatever he deliberately champions. 
His nerve and pluck are inherited traits, 
which were conspicuous in his ancestors, 
as their participation in the French and 
Indian wars, and in the war for Inde- 
pendence, sufficiently shows. Three of 
Judge Abbott's sons served in the army 
during the war of the Rebellion, and 
two of them fell in battle, thus showing 
that they, too, inherited the martial 
spirit of their ancestors. 

Judge Abbott had just reached his 
majority, when he was chosen as repre- 
sentative to the Legislature. In 1841, 
he was elected State senator. During 
his first term in the Senate he served 
on the railroad and judiciary com- 
mittees ; and during his second term, 
as chairman of these committees, he 
rendered services of great and per- 
manent value to the State. At the close 
of his youthful legislative career he 
returned with renewed zeal to the 
practice of his profession. His ability 
as a legislator had made him conspic- 
uous and brought him in contact with 
persons managing large business inter- 
ests, who were greatly attracted by the 
brilliant young lawyer and law-maker, 
and swelled the list of his clients. 

At this period General Butler was 
almost invariably his opposing o! 
associate < ounsel. When they were 
opposed, ii is needless to say that their 
cases were tried with the utmost 
thoroughness and ability. When they 
were associated, it is equally needless 
to say that there could hardly have 
been a greater concentration of legal 
abihty. In 1 844, Judge Abbott was a 
delegate to the National Democratic 
Convention at Baltimore, which nomi- 
nated James K. Polk as its presidential 
candidate ; and he has been a delegate. 


Ho7i. Josiah Gardner Abbott , LL.D. 

either from his district or the State at 
large, to all but one of the Democratic 
National Conventions since, including, 
of course, the last one, at Cincinnati, 
which nominated General VVinfield S. 
Hancock. His political prominence is 
shown by the fact that he has invariably 
been the chairman of the delegation 
from his State, and, several times, the 
candidate of his party in the Legislature 
for the office of United States senator. 
Judge Abbott was on the staff of 
Governor Marcus Morton. In 1853, 
he was a delegate to the Constitutional 

volved in this selection ; a compliment 
which was fully justified by the courage 
and ability which Judge Abbott mani- 
fested as a member of that commis- 
sion. It should have been mentioned 
before, that, in 1838, Judge Abbott 
married Caroline, daughter of Judge 
Edward St. Loe Livermore. After 
what has been said, it is scarcely neces- 
sary to give a summary of the promi- 
nent traits of Judge Abbott as a man 
and a lawyer. The warmth and fidelity 
of his friendship are known to all such 
as have had the good fortune to enjoy 

Convention, which consisted so largely that friendship. He is as conspicuous 

for integrity and purity of character as 
for professional ability. As a citizen, 
he is noted for patriotism, liberality, 
and public spirit. As a politician, he 
is true to his convictions. As a busi- 
ness man, he has brought to the aid 

of men of exceptional ability. In the 
debates and deliberations of this con- 
vention, he took a conspicuous part. 
In 1835, he was appointed judge of 
the superior court of Suffolk County. 
He retired from the bench in 1858, 
having won an enviable reputation for of the large railroad and manufacturing 
judicial fairness and acumen, and suav- 
ity of manner, in the trial of cases, 
which made him deservedly popular 
with the members of the bar who 
practised in his court. In the year 
following his retirement from the 
bench, he removed his office from 
Lowell to Boston, where he has since 
resided, practising in the courts, not 
only of this Commonwealth, but of the 
neighboring States and in the Supreme 
Court of the United States. In 1874, 
he was elected a member of Congress, 
from the fourth congressional district 
of Massachusetts. He was chosen by 
his Democratic colleagues of the 
House a member of the Electoral 
Commission, to determine the contro- 
verted result of the presidential elec- 
tion. When the gravity of the situa- 
tion, and the dangers of the country at 
that time, are taken into account, it is 
obvious that no higher compliment 
could have been paid than that in- 

interests, with which he has long been, 
and is still, connected, large intelli- 
gence, great energy, and sound judg- 
ment. His physical and mental powers 
are undiminished, and it may be 
hoped that many years of honor and 
prosperity are still in store for him. 


[i. George Abbot, the pioneer, bom in 1615, 
emigrated from Yorkshire, England, about 1640, 
and was one of the first settlers and proprietors of 
Andover, in 1643. His house was a garrison 
for many years. In 1647, he married Hannah 
Chandler, daughter of William and Annis 
Chandler. They were industrious, economical, 
sober, pious, and respected. With Christian 
fortitude they endured their trials, privations, and 
dangers. He died December 24, 1681, aged 66. 
She married (2) the Reverend Francis Dane, 
minister of Andover, who died in February, 1697, 
aged 81. She died June 11, 1711, aged 82. 

2. Timothy Abbot, seventh son and ninth 
child of George and Hannah (Chandler) Abbot, 
bom November 17, 1663 ; was captured during the 
Indian War in 1676, and returned in a few months 
to his parents ; was married in January, 1690, to 
Hannah Graves, who died November 16, 1726. 
He lived at the garrison-house, and died Septem- 
ber 9, 1730. 

Esoteric Bicddhistn. — A Review. 


3. Timothy Abbot, eldest son of Timothy 
and Hannah (Graves) Abbott, was born July i, 
1663 ; lived with his father in the garrison-house ; 
was industrious, honest, useful, and respected. He 
married in December, 1717, Mary Foster, and died 
July 10, 1766. 

4. Nathan Abbot, third son and sixth child 
of Timothy and Mary (Foster) Abbot, was bom 
January 18, 1729 ; married, in 1759, Jane Paul. 

5. Caleb Abbot, son of Nathan and Jane 
(Paul) Abbot, married, in 1779, Luc-y Lovejoy, who 
died February 21, 1802 ; he married (2) Deborah 
Baker; he died 1819. 

6. Caleb Abbott, son of Caleb and Lucy 
(Lovejoy) Abbot, was born November 10, 1779; 
settled in Chelmsford; married Mercy Fletcher 
(daughter of Josiah Fletcher), who died in 1834; 
he died December 5, 1846. 

7. Josiah Gardner Abbott, second son 
and fourth child of Caleb and Mercy (Fletcher) 
Abbott, was bom November i, 1814. In 1838, he 
married Caroline Livermore, daughter of the 
Honorable Edward St. Loe Livermore, and grand- 
daughter of the Honorable Samuel Livermore, of 
New Hampshire. Their children are : — 

I. Carohne Marcy Abbott, born April 25, 1839 ; 
married April 19, 1869; and died in May, 1872, 
leaving one daughter, Caroline Derby, born in 
April, 1872. 

II. Edward Gardner Abbott, bom in Lowell. 
September 29, 1840 ; was killed in battle August 9, 

III. Henry Livermore Abbott, born January 21, 
1842 ; was killed in battle May 6, 1864. 

IV. Fletcher Morton Abbott, bom February 18, 

V. William Stackpole Abbott, born Novemlier 
18, 1844 ; died May 6, 1846. 

VI. Samuel Appleton Browne Abbott, bom 
March 6, 1846 ; married October 15, 1873, Abby 
F'rancis Woods, and has four children. 

(a) Helen Francis Abbott, born July 29, 1874. 

(b) Madeline Abbott, bom November 2, 1876. 

(c) Francis Abbott, born September 8, 1878. 
{d) Caroline Livermore Abbott, born April 25, 


VII. Sarah Livermore Abbott, bom May 14, 
1850 ; married October 12, 1870, William P. Fay, 
and has three children. ^ 

(a) Richard Sullivan Fay, born in July, 1871. 
(^) Catherine Fay, born in September, 1872. 
(c) Edward Henry Fay, born in 1876. 

VIII. Franklin Pierce Abbott, bom May 6, 1842. 

IX. Arthur St. Loe Livermore Abbott, born 
November 6, 1853 ; died March 28, 1863. 

X. Grafton, born November 14, 1856. 

XI. Holker Welch Abbott, bom February 28, 
1858. EDITOR.] 


By Lucius H. Buckingham, Ph.D. 

Those who have read Sinnett's 
Esoteric Buddhism will probably agree 
on one point, namely : that, whether the 
statements of the book be true or false, 
the book, as a whole, is a great stimulant 
of thought. The European world has 
looked upon Indian philosophy as mere 
dreams, idle speculations, built only 
on a foundation of metaphysical subtle- 
ties. Here comes a book which, going 
down to the root of the whole matter, 
claims that, instead of resting on mere 
imaginations, this whole structure of 
Buddhistic philosophy has, as its corner- 
stone, certain facts which have been 
preserved from the wrecks of a time 
earlier than that which our grandfathers 

ascribe to the creation of the world, 
and handed down without interruption 
from eras of civilization of which the 
earth at present does not retain even 
the ruins. Such a claim of antiquity 
rouses an interest in our minds, were 
it only for its stupendous contempt 
of common belief. 

There is one direction in which the 
book so harmonizes with one's specula- 
tions that it makes upon us a very 
peculiar impression. It carries out the 
theory of human development, physical 
and metaphysical. Darwin's idea of 
the origin of the human animal, in 
connection with the doctrine of the 
survival of the fittest, might, if one had 


Esoteric Buddhism. — A Review. 

the time to make it all out, be shown 
to be the sufficient basis for a belief in, 
and a logical ground for anticipating, 
the progress of man toward moral and 
spiritual perfection. A healthy man 
is an optimist. Pessimism is the pro- 
duct of dyspepsia ; and all the interme- 
diate phases of philosophy come from 
some want of noimal brain-action. 
Following out the Darwinian theory, — 
supported as it seems to be by the facts, 
— one must believe that the human 
race as a whole is improving in bodily 
development ; that the results of what 
we call civilization are, increase of sym- 
metry in the growth of the human body, 
diminution of disease, greater perfec- 
tion in the power of the senses, in short, 
a gradual progress toward a healthy 
body. Now, a healthy body brings 
with it a healthy mind. The two can- 
not be separated. Whatever brings the 
one will bring the other ; whatever im- 
pairs the one will impair the other. A 
sound mind must bring, in time, a sound 
moral nature ; and all, together, will tend 
toward the perfection of humanity in 
the development of his spiritual affini- 
ties. Such has been, roughly sketched, 
my belief regarding the progress of 
man. It has left all the men of the 
past ages, all of the present time, all 
of many generations yet to come, 
in a condition, which, compared with 
that which I try to foresee, must be 
called very immature. This has never 
been a stumbling-block to me ; for I 
hold that the Lord understands his own 
work, the end from the beginning ; and 
that, if "order is heaven's first law," 
there is a place for every soul that is 
in it, and a possible satisfaction of the 
desires of every one. Dr. Clarke ex- 
presses the thought that, however much 
any being may have gone astray, the 
soul reconciled at last to God, though 

it can never undo the past, or be at 
that point it might have reached, will 
yet be perfectly content with its place 
in the universe, and as much blessed 
as the archangels. That consideration 
has satisfied my mind when I contem- 
plated humanity, seeming to stop so 
far short of its perfection. My regrets 

— if I can use such a term — came, 
as I believed, out of my ignorance. 

Now comes a book which claims to 
give us the key of the whole problem 
of human destiny — a book containing 
some assertions regarding occult science, 
belief in which must remain suspended 
in our minds, and some points in cos- 
mogony which conflict with our Christian 
convictions — yet a book making state- 
ments about human history which, 
though in the highest degree startling, 
are not contradicted by anything we 
know of the past, but are rather an 
explanation of some of its dark passages 

— a book developing a system of 
human growth which cannot be dis- 
proved and which makes plain some 
of the riddles of destiny. 

Perhaps the most remarkable feature 
of the book is its tremendous assump- 
tion. " All that have hitherto written 
on this subject have been only half- 
taught. They have not been admitted 
to the real inner doctrine. Here is 
the first putting-forth, to the world, of 
the real teaching, as the Buddhists 
present it to those who have been ini- 
tiated into occult science." Such is, in 
substance, the author's claim. We may 
believe just as much of this as we can. 
I, for my part, knowing nothing about 
the matter, choose, just now, and for 
our purpose, to assume that the doc- 
trines of Esoteric Buddhism are what 
Sinnett says they are, because they 
suggest to my mind so many attractive 
avenues for my imagination to wander in. 

Esoteric Buddhisvi. — A Review. 


There are two main points in this 
book which give it its chief interest : 
(i) "The past history of the human 
race as now hving on this planet ; " and 
(2) "The manner in which, and the 
circumstances under which, any in- 
dividual man works out his own salva- 
tion." But before entering upon 
these, we should say a word about the 
Buddhist statements regarding the 
nature of man. 

Seven is the sacred number in the 
Buddhist system. As there are seven 
worlds in the planetary chain, seven 
kingdoms in Nature, seven root-races 
of men, in like manner man is a seven- 
fold being, continuing, through untold 
millions of years, his existence as an 
individual, yet changing, one knows 
not how many times, many of his com- 
ponent elements. As the Buddhist sees 
the mortal body to be dissolved into 
its molecules, and these molecules to 
be transferred with their inherent vital- 
ity to other organisms, so some of his 
higher elements, among them his 
" astral body," his impulses and de- 
sires, under the name, as our author 
gives it, of animal soul, may separate 
from the more enduring parts of his 
composition, and become lost to him 
in Nature's great store of material sub- 
stance. As there is an anitnal sotd, 
the seat of those faculties which we 
possess in common with the lower 
beings about us, so there is a human 
soul, the seat of intelligence ; and, 
higher still, a spiritual soul, possessing 
powers of which as yet we know but 
little, yet destined to give us, when it 
shall be more fully developed, new 
powers of sense, new avenues for the 
entrance of knowledge, by which we 
shall be able to communicate directly 
with Nature, and become as much 
greater than the present race of men, 

as that is greater than the lowest 
brutes. Above all these elements of 
man, controlling all, and preserving its 
individuahty throughout, is " spirit." 
Yet even this, when absorbed into 
Nirvana, is lost in that great whole 
which includes all things and is Nature 
herself. Lost, do I say ? — yes, lost 
for inconceivable ages upon ages, yet 
destined to come forth again at some 
moment in eternity, and to begin its 
round through the everlasting cycle of 

Here, you will say, is materialism. 
As the intelligent man of early ages 
looked out upon the world, he felt the 
wind he could not see, he smelt the 
odor that he could not feel, and he 
reasoned with himself, I think, as fol- 
lows : " There is somewhat too subtile 
for these bodily senses to grasp it. 
Something of which I cannot directly 
take cognizance brings to me the light 
of sun and stars." These somethings 
were, in his conception, forms of matter. 
He saw the intelligence and the moral 
worth of his friend, and then he saw 
that friend a lifeless body stretched 
upon the ground, and he said some 
thing is gone. This thing was again to 
him only another and m.ore subtile form 
of matter. We, with all the aids of 
modern knowledge and thought, are 
absolutely unable to say what distinc- 
tion there is between matter and spirit. 
The old philosopher was logical. He 
could find no point at which to draw 
his hne. Therefore he drew no line. 
He recognized only different manifesta- 
tions of one substance. In terms of 
our language, he was a materialist. So 
is the modern scientist; yet I cannot 
help thinking that the Buddhist stands 
much nearer to truth than the material- 
ist of to-day. The various faculties of 
human sense and human intellect are 


Esoteric BuddJiism. — A Revieiv. 

so many molecules forming, by their 
accretion, the animal and the human 
soul. As, at death, the molecules of 
the body separate and are, by-and-by, 
absorbed with their inherent vitality 
into new agglomerations, and become 
part of new living forms, so the ele- 
ments of the human soul may be torn 
apart, and some of them, being no 
longer man, but following the fortunes 
of the lower principles, may be lost to 
us, while other elements, clinging to the 
spiritual soul, follow its destiny in the 
after-life. I know a thinking man who 
believes in nothing but matter and 
motion ; add time and space, and we 
have the all in all, the Nature, of 
Buddhism. Yet the Buddhist believes 
in a state of being beyond this earthly 
life : a state whose conditions are de- 
termined absolutely by the use which 
the human soul has made of its oppor- 
tunities in the life that now is, and my 
friend says he does not. Truly, Bud- 
dhism is better than the materialism of 

Let me now turn to the history of 
humanity as revealed to us in our book. 
Every monad, or spirit-element, be- 
ginning its course by becoming sep- 
arated from what I conceive as the 
great central reservoir of Nature, must, 
before returning thither, make a cer- 
tain fixed round through an individual 
existence. If it belongs to the plan- 
etary chain, of which our earth is the 
fourth and lowest link, it must pass 
seven times through each of the 
kingdoms of Nature on each one 
of the seven planets. Of these seven 
planets. Mars, our Earth, and Mercury, 
are three. The other four are too 
tenuous to be cognizable by our present 
senses. Of the seven kingdoms of 
Nature, three are likewise beyond our 
ken or conception ; the highest four are 

the mineral, the vegetable, the animal, 
and man. Our immortal part has 
therefore passed already through six of 
the kingdoms of its destiny, and is, in 
fact, now near the middle of its fourth 
round of human existence upon the 
earth. One life on earth is, however, 
not sufficient for the development of 
our powers. Every human being must 
pass through each of the seven branch- 
races of each of the sub-races of each 
of the root-races of humanity; and 
mtist, in short, live, or, as our author 
expresses the idea, be incarnated about 
eight hundred times — some more and 
some less — upon this planet, before 
the hour will come when it will be 
permitted to him, by a path as easy 
of passage for him then, as is that 
followed by the rays of light, to visit 
the planet Mercury, for his next two 
million years of existence. 

Through each of these eight hundred 
mortal lives, man is purifying and 
developing his nature. When, at the 
end of each, his body dies, his higher 
principles leave the lower to gradual 
dissolution, while they themselves re- 
maining still bound in space to this 
planet, pass into Devachan, the state of 
effects. Here, entirely unconscious of 
what passes on earth, the soul remains, 
absorbed in its own subjectivity. For a 
length of time, stated as never less 
than fifteen hundred years, and shown 
by figures to average not less than 
eight thousand, the soul, enjoying in its 
own contemplation those things it most 
desired in mortal life, surrounded in its 
own imagination by the friends and the 
scenes it has loved on earth, reaps the 
exact reward of its own deeds. Wherr 
Nature has thus paid the laborer his 
hire, when his power of enjoyment has 
exhausted itself, the soul passes by a 
gradual process into oblivion of all the 

Esoteric Buddhism. — A Review. 


past — an oblivion from which it returns 
only on its approach to Nirvana — 
and waits the moment for reincarnation. 
Yet it comes not again to conscious 
Hfe, unaffected by the forgotten past. 
Karma, — the resultant of its upward 
or downward tendencies, — which has 
been accumulating through all the 
course of its existence, remains ; and 
the new-born man comes into visible 
being with good or evil propensities, 
the balance of which is to be affected 
by the struggles of one more mortal 
phase of existence. Thus we go on 
through one life after another, each 
time a new person yet the same human 
soul, ignorant of our own past lives, yet 
never free from their influence upon 
our character, exactly as in mature life 
we have absolutely forgotton what hap- 
pened to us in our infancy, yet are 
never free from its influence. In 
Devachan, which corresponds, says our 
author, to what in other religions is the 
final and eternal heaven, we receive, 
from time to time, the reward of our 
deeds done in the body, yet still pass 
on with all our upward or downward 
tendencies until, many millions of years 
in the future, during our next passage 
through life on this planet, we shall 
come to the crisis in our existence 
which shall determine whether we are 
to become gods or demons. 

Let me now turn back the page of 
history. A little more than one million 
years ago this earth was covered, as 
now, with vegetable forms, and was the 
dwelling of animals, as numerous, per- 
haps, and as various as now ; but there 
was no humanity. The time was come 
when man, who had passed already 
three times round the planetary chain, 
and was nearly half way through his 
fourth round, should again make his 
appearance on the scene. Nature 

works only in her own way, and that 
way is uniform. The first man must be 
born of parents already living. As 
there are no human parents, he must 
be born of lower animals, and of those 
lower animals most nearly resembling 
the coming human animal. Darwin 
has told us what the animal was, yet the 
new being was a man and not an ape, 
because, in addition to its animal soul, it 
was possessed also of a human soul. We 
all know that man is an animal. Those 
modem students of science, who affirm 
that that is the whole truth of human 
nature, take a lower view of their own 
being than the Indian philosophers. 
Man is an animal plus a human and 
a spiritual soul. 

Behold, now, the earth peopled by 
man. Through seven races must he 
pass, each with its various branches. 
Yet these races are not contempo- 
raneous ; for Nature is in no hurry. 
One race comes forAvard at a time, 
reaches the height of its possibility, 
then passes away during great physical 
transformations, and leaves but a wreck 
behind to live, and witness, in some 
new part of earth, the coming of 
another race. These races and branch- 
races and sub-branch races are to be 
animated by the same identical souls. 
Hence, one race at a time ; at first, 
even, one sub-race only, for the next is 
to be of a higher order. After each 
root-race has run its course, the earth 
has always been prepared by a great 
geological convulsion for the next. In 
this convulsion has perished all that 
makes up what we call civilization, yet 
not all men then living. Since some 
souls are slower than others, all are not 
ready to pass into the second race, 
when the time for that race has come. 
Hence fragments of old races survive, 
kept up for a time by the incarnation 


Esoteric Buddhism. — A Review. 

of the laggard souls whose progress has 
been too slow. Thus, we are told, 
although the first and second root- 
races have now entirely disappeared, 
there still remain relics of the third and 
fourth. The proper seat of this third 
root-race was that lost continent which 
Wallace told us, long ago, stood where 
now roll the waters of the Pacific and 
Indian Oceans, south and southwest of 
Asia. Here we have, in the degraded 
Papuan and Australian, the remainder 
of the third race. Degraded I call 
him, because his ancestors, though 
inferior to the highest races of to-day, 
were far in advance of him. So it must 
always be. Destroy the accumulations 
of the highest race of men now living, 
and the next generation will be bar- 
barians ; the second, savages. 

The fourth root-race inhabited the 
famous, but no longer fabulous, Atlantis, 
now sunk, in greater part, beneath the 
waters of the Atlantic. Fragments of 
this race were left in Northern Africa, 
though perhaps none now remain there, 
and we are told that there is a remnant 
in the heart of China. From the relics 
of the African branch of this root-race, 
the old Egyptian priests had knowledge 
regarding the sunken continent, knowl- 
edge which was no fable, but the 
traditionary lore and history of the sur- 
vivors of the lost Atlantis. 

Such is, in brief, an outline of the 
nature, history, and destiny of man, 
as the Buddhist relates it. How has 
he obtained his knowledge ? By means 
which, he says, are within the reach 
of any one. First, of the history : 
it is said to be well - authenticated 
tradition. Of the actual knowledge 
of former races, the Egyptian priests 
were the repositories, inheriting their 
information from the Atlantids. Of 
human nature and destiny the Bud- 

dhist would say : Here are the 
facts, look about you and see. From 
a theory of astronomy, or botany, or 
chemistry, we find an explanation of 
facts, and these facts explained, con- 
firm and establish the theory. So, too, 
of man, here is the view, once a theory, 
but now as firmly established as the law 
of gravitation. Besides, by study and 
contemplation, the expert has devel- 
oped, in advance of the age in which 
he lives, his spiritual soul, and this 
opens to him sources of information 
which place him on a higher level in 
point of knowledge than the rest of 
mankind, just as the man with seeing 
eyes has possibilities of information 
which are absolutely closed to one 
born blind. 

Let me stop here to explain more 
fully what is the spiritual soul. I should 
call it, using a term that seems to me 
more natural to our vocabulary, the 
transcendental sense. In the reality 
of such a sense I am a firm believer. 
It was once fashionable to ridicule 
whatever was thought, or nicknamed, 
transcendental. Yet transcendentalism 
seems to me the only complete bar to 
modern scepticism. Faith, in the 
highest Christian sense, is transcend- 
ental. We know some things for which 
we can bring no evidence, things the 
truth of which lies not in logic, nor 
even in intellect. The intellect never 
gave man any firm conviction of God's 
being. Paley's mode of reasoning 
never brought conviction to any man's 
mind. At best, it only serves to con- 
firm belief, to stifle doubt, to silence 
logic misapplied. Faith is the action 
of the spiritual sense — or, as the 
Buddhist says, the spiritual soul. It 
seems to me that it is a fair statement, 
that every man who has a conviction of 
the being of God, has that conviction 

Esoteric Buddhis7n. — A Review. 


from inspiration. Many people have 
it. or think they have it, as a result of 
reasoning, or it has been, they say, 
grounded and rooted in their minds by 
the earliest teaching. There are those, 
perhaps, who have no other reason than 
this tradition, for their supersensuous 
ideas. Such people, as soon as they 
come to reason seriously on or about 
those ideas, begin to doubt and to lose 
their hold. But others have a convic- 
tion regarding things unseen, that no 
reasoning can shake, except for a 
moment ; because their belief, though 
it may have been originally the result 
of early teaching, is now established on 
other foundations. One can no more 
tell how he knows some things, than he 
can tell how he sees ; yet he does know 
them, and all the world cannot get the 
knowledge out of him. The source of 
this knowledge is transcendental. It is 
a sixth sense. It is what the Buddhist 
calls an activity of the spiritual, as 
distinct from the human, soul. By his 
animal soul man has knowledge of the 
world around him ; he sees, he hears, he 
feels bodily pain or pleasure ; by his 
human soul, he reasons, he receives the 
conceptions of geometry or the higher 
mathematics ; by his spiritual soul, he 
comes to a conception of God and of 
his attributes, and receives impressions 
whose source is unknown to him because 
his spiritual soul, in this his fourth 
planetary round, is, as yet, only imper- 
fectly active. The reality of the spirit- 
ual soul, the v^icle of inspiration, the 
source of faith, is the only earnest man 
has for this trust in the Divine Father. 
It is not developed in us as it will be in 
our next round through earthly life, 
when, by its awakening, faith will 
become sight, and we shall know even 
as we are known. Yet some there are, 
say the Buddhists, who have, by effort. 

already, pushed their development to 
the point that most men will reach 
millions of years hence, when we shall 
return again, not to this life — that we 
shall do perhaps in a few thousand 
years — but to this planet. 

It will be seen that the Buddhist idea 
of spirituality is very unlike our Chris- 
tian idea. The thought of man's 
higher sense striving after the Divine, 
the whole conception, in short, of what 
the word spirituality suggests to modern 
thought, is impossible in a system of 
philosophy which has no personal God. 
To apply the term religion to a scheme 
which has no place for the dependence 
of man upon a conscious protector, is 
to use the word in a sense entirely new 
to us. Buddhism — notwithstandmg its 
claims to revelation — is a philosophy, 
not a religion. 

I have sketched, as well as I can in 
so short a time, what seem to me the 
main points in the book under review. 
There are many things unexplained. 
Of .some of them, the author claims to 
have no knowledge. Others he does 
not make clear ; but, " take it for all in 
all," the book will probably give the 
reader a very great number of sug- 
gestions. I am heterodox enough to 
say that if the idea of a personal God, 
the Father of all, were superadded to 
the system (or perhaps I ought to say 
were substituted for the idea of absorp- 
tion into Nirvana), there would be 
nothing in Buddhism contradictory of 
Christianity. What orthodox Christians 
of the present day and of this country 
believe with regard to eternal punish- 
ment is a question about which they do 
not altogether agree among themselves. 
Whether the so-called heil is a place 
of everlasting degradation, is a point 
on which those who cannot deny to 
each other the name of Christian are 


Esoteric Buddhism. — A Review. 

not in accord. Why, then, should it 
be thought heretical to maintain that 
the future world of rewards is also not 
eternal? I believe that the Christian 
Scriptures use the same words with 
reference to both conditions — 

" Tb Tzvp TO aiiivcov: — elg ^uijv al6viov." 

The Buddhist denial of the eternity of 
the condition next following the separa- 
tion of soul and body cannot, I think, 
be pronounced a subversion of Chris- 
tian doctrine by any one who will admit 
that the Greek word al^viog may mean 
something less than endless. 

Of the antiquity of Buddhistic philos- 
ophy, I have already spoken indirectly. 
Buddha came upon the earth only 
643 B.C. But he was not the founder 
of the system. His purpose in re- 
incarnating himself at that time was to 
reform the lives of men. Doubtless 
he made many explanations of doctrine, 
perhaps gave some new teaching ; but 
the philosophy comes down to us from, 
at least, the times of the fourth root- 
race, the men of Atlantis. 

However we may regard a claim to 
so great age, a little reflection will con- 
vince us that the Buddhistic view of 
what may fairly be called the natural 
history of the human soul is very old, 
for it seems to have been essentially the 
doctrine of Pythagoras, who was not its 
founder, but who may have got it 
either from Egypt or from India, since 
he visited and studied in both those 
countries. If, as Sinnett asserts, the 
true Chinese belong to the fourth root- 
race, as appears not improbable, did 
not the system come into India from 
China? Plato was a Buddhist, says 
our author. Quintilian, perhaps get- 
ting his idea from Cicero, says of Plato 
that he learned his philosophy from the 
Egyptian priests. It is much more 
probable that the latter received it from 

the Atlantids — if we are to believe in 
them — than that it came from India. 
Indeed, when we seem to trace the 
same teachings to the Indians, on the 
one side, and to the Egyptians on the 
other, putting the one, through Thibet, 
— the land, above all others, of occult 
science, — into communication with the 
true Chinese, and the other, through 
their tradition, with the lost race of the 
Atlantic, the asserted history of the 
fourth root-race of humanity assumes 
a very attractive degree of reasonable- 

That Cicero held to the Buddhist 
doctrines at points so important as to 
make it improbable that he did not 
have esoteric teaching in the system, 
any one will, I believe, admit, who will 
read the last chapter of the Somnium 
Scipionis. And Cicero's ideas must 
have been those of the students and 
scholars of his day. He puts them 
forward in a manner too commonplace, 
too much as if they were things of 
course, for us to suppose that there was 
anything unusual in them. On this 
subject of the wide extension of that 
philosophy which in India we call 
Buddhism, I will make only one other 
suggestion. It is the guess that it lay 
at the foundation of the famous Eleu- 
sinian Mysteries. 

Let me now come back to the idea 
that the succession of human races 
upon this earth is, like that of animal 
races, a development. Sinnett tells us 
that what we recognize as language 
began with the third root-race. I 
imagine that the preceding races had, 
in progressive development, some vocal 
means of communication ; for we find 
that even the lower animals have that, 
and the lowest man of the first race was 
superior to the highest possible animal, 
by the very fact that he had developed 

Esoteric BiiddJusni. — A Review 


a human soul. Now, we are told that 
the home of the third race was on the 
continent " Lemuria," which stretched 
across the Indian Ocean. I imagine 
the Tasmanians, the Papuans, and the 
degraded races of that part of the 
world to be fragments of the third race. 
Query : Is the famous click of the Zulu 
a remainder of the gradual passage 
from animal noise to human articula- 
tion in speech? 

Again, the true Chinese belong to 
the fourth root-race. They have 
reached the height of their possible 
intellectual advance. They have been 
stationary for untold centuries. Query : 
Does this account for their apparent 
inability to develop their language 
beyond the monosyllable? 

There are, have been, or will be, 
seven branches to each of the seven 
great races. These branches must 
originate at long intervals of time, one 
after the other, though several may 
be running their course at the same 
moment. For instance, the second 
race could not come into the world, 
until some human souls had passed at 
least twice, as we are told, through " the 
world of effects." This would occupy 
at least sixteen thousand years, accord- 
ing to our author's calculation, though 
he does not claim to have on this point 
exact information. He says, only, that 
the initiated know exactly the periods 
of time : but they are withheld from 
him. Now, according to a French 
savant, geological investigation proves 
that the Aryan race — branch-race, 
I will call it — was preceded in Europe 
by at least three others, whose remains 
are found in the caves or strata that 
have been examined. Of these the first 
has entirely disappeared : no represen- 
tatives of it are now to be found in any 
known part of the world. The second 

was driven, apparendy, from the north, 
by the invasions of the ice, during the 
glacial period and spread as far, at 
least, as the Straits of Gibraltar. With 
the disappearance of the ice, they also 
traveled toward the pole, and are now 
existing in the northern regions of the 
earth, under the name of Esquimaux. 
Following them came a race, the frag- 
ments of which were powerful within 
historic days in the Iberian peninsula, 
— the Iberians of the Roman writers — 
the Basques of to-day. Then came 
from the east the Aryan race, hitherto 
the highest form of humanity. These 
races do not, of course, begin existence 
as new creations. They are developed 
from — their first members must be 
bom from — the preceding race. 
Query : Is a fifth race now in the 
throes of nativity? Have the different 
sub-races of the Aryan branch sent 
their contingents to the New World, 
that from the mixture of their boldest 
and most vigorous blood the fifth sub- 
race might have its origin? " Westward 
the star of empire takes its way." 

Buddhism gives a peculiar explana- 
tion of the disappearance of inferior 
races. Since the object of the incarna- 
tion of the human soul is its progress 
toward the perfect and divine man ; 
since every human soul must dwell on 
earth as a member of each one of the 
sub-races, the time must come when 
all shall have passed through a given 
stage. Then there can be no more 
births into that race. There is, at this 
moment, a finite number of human souls 
whose existence is Hmited to this planet, 
and no other planet in our chain is at 
present the abode of humanity. For 
the larger part of all these souls — at 
least nine hundred and ninety-nine 
in a thousand — are, at any one instant, 
existing in "the world of effects," in 



Esoteric BiiddJnsni. — A Review. 

Devachan. All will remain linked by 
their destiny to this planet, until the 
moment when all — a few rare, unfortu- 
nate, negligent laggards excepted — 
shall have passed through their last 
mortal probation, in the* seventh root- 
race. Then will the tide of humanity 
overflow to the planet Mercury, and 
this earth, abandoned by conscious 
men, will for a million years fall back 
into desolation, gradually deprived of 
all life, even of all development. In 
that condition it will remain, sleeping, 
as it were, for ages — "not dead, but 
sleeping"; for the germs of mineral, 
vegetable, and animal life will await, 
quiescent, until the tide of human soul 
shall have passed around the chain, and 
is again approaching our globe. Then 
will earth awake from its sleep. In 
successive eons, the germs of life, 
mineral, vegetable, and animal, in their 
due order, will awake ; the old miracle 
of creation will begin again, but on 
a higher plan than before, until, at last, 
the first human being — something 
vastly higher in body, mind, and spirit- 
uality than the former man — will make 
his appearance on the new earth. From 
this explanation of the doctrine that 
life moves not by a steady flow, but by 
what Sinnett calls gushes, it follows, 
of course, that there must come a time 
when each race, and each sub-race, must 
have finished its course, completed its 
destiny. There are no more human 
souls in Devachan to pass through that 
stage of progress. For a long time the 
number has been diminishing, and that 
race has been losing ground. Now it 
has come to its end. So, within a hun- 
dred years, has passed away the Tasma- 
nian. So, to-day, are passing many 
races. The disappearance of a lower 
race is therefore no calamity; it is 
evidence of progress. It means that 

that long line of undevevoped humanity 
must go up higher. " That which thou 
sowest, is not quickened except it die." 
If there be "joy among the angels 
of God, over one sinner that repenteth," 
why not when the whole human race, 
to the last man, has passed successfully 
up into a higher class in the great 
school ? 

I am constantly turning back to a 
thought that I have passed by. Let 
me now return to the consideration of 
Buddhism as a religion. It is evident 
that, viewed on this side, Buddhism is 
one thing «to the initiated, another to 
the masses. So was the religion of the 
Romans, so is Christianity. It is 
necessarily so. No two persons receive 
the formal creed of the same church in 
the same way. The man of higher 
grade, and the man of lower, cannot 
understand things in the same sense 
because they have not the same fac- 
ulties for understanding. Hence the 
polytheism among those called Bud- 
dhists. There could be no such thins 
among the initiated. Religion, then, 
like everything else, is subject to 
growth. Such must be the Buddhist 
doctrine. If, then, Buddhism, or the 
philosophy which bears that name, 
originated with the fourth root-race of 
men, does it not occur to the initiated 
that the fifth race ought, by this same 
theory, to develop a higher form of 
truth? Looking at the matter merely 
on its intellectual side, ought not the 
higher development of the power of 
thought to bring truer conceptions of 
the highest things ? Again, a query : 
Is the rise of the Brahmo-Somaj a step 
toward the practical extension of Chris- 
tianity into the domain of Buddhism? 

This brings to discussion the whole 
question of the work done by mission- 
ary eff'ort among the lower races. I do 

Esoteric Buddhism. — A Review. 


not mean tlie question whether we 
should try to Christianize them, but 
what result is it reasonable to expect. 
And here I imagine that there is a 
strict limit, beyond which it is impos- 
sible for the members of a given race 
to be developed. On the Buddhist 
principle, given a certain human being, 
and we have a human soul passing 
through a definite stage of its progress. 
While it occupies its present body it is, 
except, our author always says, in very 
peculiar cases, incapable of more than 
a certain advance, — as incapable as a 
given species of animal, or tree, or even 
as the body of the man itself is in- 
capable of more than a certain growth. 
I think that any one who has studied 
or observed the processes of ordinary 
school training, must have been some- 
times convinced that he has in hand 
a boy whose ability to be further 
advanced has come to an end. Some- 
times we find a boy who will come 
forward with the greatest promise ; but, 
at a certain point, although goodwill is 
not lacking, the growth seems to be 
arrested. The biologist will explain 
this as due to the physical character of 
the brain. The Buddhist affirms that 
when that human soul last came from 
the oblivion which closes the Deva- 
chanic state, it chose unconsciously, but 
by natural affinity, out of all the pos- 
sible conditions and circumstances of 
mortal life, that embryonic human 
body, for which its spiritual condition 
rendered it fit. 

Some years ago, in conversation with 
a missionary who had spent many years 
in China, I asked him, having this sub- 
ject in my mind, whether he thought 
that his converts were capable of 
receiving Christianity in the sense in 
which he himself held the faith. His 
answer, which he illustrated by in- 

stances, was that the heathen concep- 
tions and propensities could not be 
entirely eradicated ; and that, under 
unfavorable circumstances, the most 
trusted converts would sometimes re- 
lapse into a condition as bad as ever 
they had known. 

It is also a matter of common asser- 
tion that our American Indians, after 
years of training in the society of civil- 
ized life, are generally ready to fall 
back at once to their old ways. What 
we call civilization is to them but an 
easy-fitting garment. 

I do not know what is the belief of 
scholars regarding the comparative age 
of the different minor divisions — sub- 
branches, as Sinnett calls them — of 
the Aryan race. I imagine, however, 
that of the European sub-branches, the 
Celtic is practically the oldest. The 
Italic or Hellenic may have broken off 
from the parent stem earlier than the 
Celtic, but they have not wandered so 
far away, and have not been so isolated 
from the influence of later migrations. 
The Celtic race has mingled its blood 
with the Iberian in Spain and with 
many elements in Gaul and Italy ; but 
in the northwest of Europe, on its own 
peculiar isle, it seems to have re- 
mained, if not purer than elsewhere, at 
least less affected by mixture with later, 
that is, higher, races. 

What is the practical use of all this 
study? Ever since I first read Esoteric 
Buddhism, my attention has been 
turned to the confirmation of its theory 
of human development. As I ride in 
the horse-car, as I walk on the street, 
still more constantly as I stand before 
one class after another in the school- 
room, I am struck with the thought 
that here, behind the face I am looking 
into, is a human soul whose capacities 
are limited — a soul that caunot grasp 


T lie Defence of New York, 1776. 

the thought which catches Hke a spark 
uiion tlie mind of its next neighbor. 
Yet that half-awakened soul is des- 
tined to work its way through all the 
phases of human possibility and reach 
at last the harbor of peace. This 
thought should make one ashamed to be 
impatient or negligent. Why should one 
lose patience with this boy's inabihty to 
learn, more than at the inanimate ob- 
stacle in one's pathway? How can one 
be unfaithful in one's effort, when it may 
be the means of lessening the number 

of times that that poor soul must pass 
through earthly life? 

Do I believe in the teachings of this 
book ? I do not know. So far as the 
doctrine of repeated incarnation goes, 
I hold it to be not inconsistent with 
Christianity ; but rather an explanation 
of Christ's coming upon earth at the 
precise time when he did. I still hold 
the subject of Buddhistic philosophy 
as a matter of very serious and edifying 


By Henry B. Carrington, U.S.A., LL.D. 

[The siege of Boston gave to the Continental Army that instruction in military engineering and that contact 
with a disciplined foe which prepared it for the immediate operations at New York and in New Jersey. (See 
The Bay State Monthly, January, 1884, pages 37-44.) 

The occupation and defence of New York and Brooklyn, so promptly made, was a strategic necessity, fully 
warranted by existing conditions, although temporary'.] 

It is not easy to reconcile the views 
which we take, in turn, through the eye 
and object lenses of a field-glass so 
that the real subject of examination 
will not be distorted by too great near- 
ness or remoteness. 

If we bring back to this hour the 
events of one hundred years ago, it is 
certain that the small armies and the 
smaller appliances of force then in use 
will seem trifling, in contrast with those 
which have so recently wearied science 
and have tasked invention in the work 
and waste of war. 

If we thrust them back to their 
proper place behind the memory of all 
living men, we only see a scattered 
people, poorly armed, but engaged in 

hopeful conflict with Great Britain, 
then mistress of the seas, proudly 
challenging the world to arms, and 
boldly vindicating her challenge. 

In an eftbrt to reproduce that period 
and so balance the opposing factors 
that the siege of Boston and the deliv- 
erance of Washington at Brooklyn and 
New York shall have fair co-relation 
and full bearing upon the resulting 
struggle for National Independence, 
there must be some exact standard for 
the test ; and this will be found by 
grouping such data as illustrate the 
governing laws of military art. 

It has never been claimed that the 
siege of Boston was not the legitimate 
result of British blunder and American 

The Defence of New York, i 'J'j6. 


pluck. In a previous paper, the siege 
itself has been presented as that oppor- 
tunity and training-school exercise 
which projected its experience into the 
entire war, and assured final triumph. 
It has not been as generally accepted, 
as both philosophical and necessary, 
that the fortification and defence of 
Brooklyn became the wise and in- 
evitable sequence to that siege. 

Let us drop a century and handle 
the old records. 

If Great Britain had not called con- 
tinental auxiliaries to her aid in 1776, 
her disposable force for colonial service 
would have been less than half of the 
army of Washington. 

Until the fortification of Brooklyn 
and New York had been well advanced, 
the British ministry had not been able 
to assign even fifteen thousand men for 
that service. General Clinton did, 
indeed, anchor at the New York Nar- 
rows, just when General Charles Lee 
reached that city for its defence, but 
did not risk a landing, and sailed for 
South Carolina, only to be repulsed. 

The British Crown had no alternative 
but to seek foreign aid. The appeal 
to Catharine of Russia for twenty thou- 
sand men was met by the laconic 
resporise, "There are other ways of 
settling this dispute than by resort to 
arms." The Duke of Richmond pro- 
phetically declared, " The colonies 
themselves, after our example, will 
apply to strangers for assistance." The 
opposition to hiring foreign troops was 
so intense, that, for many weeks, there 
was no practical advance in prepara- 
tions for a really effective blow at the 
rebels, while the rebellion itself was 
daily gaining head and spirit. 

The British army, just before the 
battle of Long Island, including Hes- 
sians, Brunswickers, and Waldeckers, 

was but a little larger than that which 
the American Congress, as early as 
October 4, 1775. had officially assigned 
to the siege operations before Boston. 
That force was fixed at twenty-three 
thousand, three hundred and seventy- 
two men. General Howe landed about 
twenty thousand men. With the sick, 
the reserves on Staten Island, all officers 
and supernumeraries included, his en- 
tire force exhibited a paper strength 
of thirty-one thousand, six hundred and 
twenty-five men. It is true that Gen- 
eral Howe claimed, after the battle of 
Long Island, that his entire force 
(Hessians included) was only twenty- 
four thousand men, and that Washing- 
ton opposed the advance of his division 
with twenty thousand men. The 
British muster rolls, as exhibited before 
the British Parliament, accord with the 
statement already made. The actual 
force of the American army at Brook- 
lyn was not far from nine thousand 
men, instead of twenty thousand, and 
the effective force (New York included) 
was only about twenty thousand men. 
As the British regiments brought but 
six, instead of eight, companies to a 
battalion, there is evidence that Wash- 
ington himself occasionally over-esti- 
mated the British force proper ; but 
the foreign battalions realized their full 
force, and they were paid accordingly, 
upon their muster rolls. Nearly three 
fifths of General Howe's army was 
made up from continental mercenaries. 
These troops arrived in detachments, 
to supplement the army which other- 
wise would have been entirely unequal 
to the conquest of New York, if the 
city were fairly defended. 

If, on the other hand, Washington 
had secured the force which he de- 
manded from Congress, namely, fifty- 
eight thousand men, which was, indeed 


The Defence of New York, i "jjG. 

(but too tardily), authorized, he could 
have met General Howe upon terms of 
numerical equality, backed by breast- 
works, and have held New York with 
an equal force. 

This estimate, by Washington him- 
self, of the contingencies of the cam- 
paign, will have the greater significance 
when reference is made to the details 
of British preparations in England. 

While Congress did, indeed, as early 
as June, assign thirteen thousand addi- 
tional troops for the defence of New 
York, the peremptory detachment of 
ten battalions to Canada, in addition to 
previous details, persistently foiled 
every preparation to meet Howe with 
an adequate force. Regiments from 
Connecticut and from other colonies 
reported with 'a strength of only three 
hundred and sixty men. While the 
" paper strength " of the army was far 
beyond its effective force, even the 
" paper strength " was but one half of 
the force which the Commander-in- 
chief had the right to assume as at his 

Other facts fall in line just here. 

At no later period of the war did 
either commander have under his im- 
mediate control so large a nominal 
force as then. During but one year of 
the succeeding struggle did the entire 
British army, from Halifax to the West 
Indies inclusive (including foreign and 
provincial auxiliaries), exceed, by more 
than seven thousand men, the force 
which occupied both sides of the New 
York Narrows in 1776. The British 
Army at that time, without its foreign 
contingent, would have been as inferior 
to the force which had been ordered 
by Congress (and should have been 
available) as the depleted American 
army of 1781 would have been inferior 
to the British without the French con- 

The largest continental force under 
arms, in any one year of the war, did 
not greatly exceed forty thousand men, 
and the largest British force, as late as 
1 781, including all arrivals, numbered, 
all told, but forty-two thousand and 
seventy-five men. 

The annual British average, including 
provincials, ranged from thirty-three to 
thirty-eight thousand men. The physi- 
cal agencies which Great Britain em- 
ployed were, therefore, far beneath the 
prestige of her accredited position 
among the nations ; and the disparity 
between the contending forces was 
mainly in discipline and equipment, 
with the advantage to Great Britain in 
naval strength, until that was supplanted 
by that of France. 

To free the question from a popular 
fallacy which treats oldtime operations 
as insignificant, in view of large modern 
armies and campaigns, it is pertinent to 
state, just here, that the issues of the 
battle-field for all time, up to the latest 
hour, have not been determined by the 
size of armies, or by improvements in 
weapons of war, except relatively, in 
proportion as civilized peoples fought 
those of less civilization ; or where 
some precocity of race or invention 
more quickly matured the operations of 
the winning side. 

If the maxims of Napoleon are but 
a terse restatement of those of Caesar, 
and the skill of Hannibal at Cannae still 
holds place as a model for the concave 
formation of a battle-line, so have all 
the decisive battles of history taken 
shape from the timely handling of men, 
in the exercise of that sound judgment 
which adapts means to ends, in every 
work of life. Thus it is that equally 
great battles, those in the highest sense 
great, have become memorial, although 
numbers did not impart value to the 
struggle ; but they were the expression 

TJic Defence of New York, 1776. 


of that skill and wisdom which would 
have ensured success, if the opposing 
armies had been greater or less. 

If a timely fog did aid the retreat of 
Washington from Brooklyn, in 1776, so 
did a petty stream, filled to the brim 
by a midnight shower, make altogether 
desperate, if it did nol;, alone, change, 
the fortunes of Napoleon at Waterloo. 

If, also, the siege of Yorktown, in 
1 781, was conducted by few against 
few, as compared with modern armies, 
it is well to note the historical fact that, 
at the second siege, in 1861, the same 
ravine was used by General Poe (United 
States Engineers) to connect "parallels." 
and thereby save a " regular approach." 
Numbers did not change relations, but 
simply augmented the physical force 
employed and. imperilled. 

He who can seize the local, inci- 
dental, and seemingly immaterial ele- 
ments which enter into all human plans, 
and convert them into determining 
factors, is to be honored ; but the man 
who can so anticipate the possibilities 
and risks which lie ahead, that the world 
counts as a miracle, or, at least, as mar- 
velous, that which is only the legitimate 
result of faith, courage, and skill, is 
truly great. Washington did it. His 
retreat from Long Island was delib- 
erately planned before he had a con- 
ference with his subordinates ; and the 
entire policy and conduct of his opera- 
tions at and near New York will defy 
criticism. To hold the facts of the 
issue discussed, right under the light of 
that military science (that is, that men- 
tal philosophy which does not change 
with physical modes and appliances), is 
simply to bring out clearly the necessity 
for the occupation of New York and 
Brooklyn by Washington in 1776. 

The mere statement of the British 
forces which were available in 1776 

will show that if Washington knew, in 
advance, exactly what he had to meet, 
then he had a right to anticipate a suc- 
cessful resistance. As early as July, 
1775, he demanded that the army 
should be enlisted "for the war." In 
a previous article, the policy of the 
Commander-in-chief and of General 
Greene was noticed, and the formulated 
proposition, then accepted by both, 
gave vitality and hope to the struggle. 
When the issue ripened at New York, 
and, swiftly as possible, the besieging 
force before Boston became the resist- 
ing force at New York, there was one 
man who understood the exact issue. 
The temper of the British press, and 
that of the British House of Commons, 
was fully appreciated by the American 
Commander-in-chief. He knew that 
General Gage had urged that " thirty 
thousand men, promptly sent to Amer- 
ica, would be the quickest way to save 
blood and end the war." He also 
knew that when John Wesley predicted 
that " neither twenty, forty, nor sixty 
thousand men would suppress the 
rebeUion," the British Cabinet had 
placed before Parliament a careful 
statement of the entire resources which 
were deemed available for military pur- 
poses abroad. As early as May, 1776, 
Washington was advised of the follow- 
ing facts : — 

First, That the contracts at that time 
made with continental States, including 
that with Hesse and Brunswick, would 
place at British disposal a nominal 
strength of fifty-five thousand men. 

Second, That, with all due allowance 
for deficiencies, the effective force, as 
claimed by the ministry, could not 
exceed, but might fall below, forty 
thousand men. 

The debate in Parliament was so 
sharp, and the details of the proposed 


The Defence of New York, 1776. 

operations were so closely defined and 
analyzed, that Washington had full right 
to assume, as known, the strength of his 

When, during May, 1776, the Amer- 
ican Congress sent troops from New 
York to Canada, he sharply protested, 
thus : " This diversion of forces will 
endanger both enterprises; for Great 
Britain will attempt to capture New 
York as weU as Canada, if they have the 
men." He did not believe that they 
would capture New York, if he could 
acquire and retain the force which he 

The point to be made emphatic, is 
this : That, from the date of the call of 
Massachusetts, early in 1775, for thirty 
thousand men, up to the occupation of 
New York, the force which he had the 
right to assume as at his own disposal 
was equal to the contingencies of the 
conflict ; and that, when he did occupy 
New York, and begin its exterior de- 
fences at Brooklyn, the British ministry 
had admitted its inability to send to 
America a force sufficiently strong to 
capture the city. The maximum force 
proposed was less than that which Con- 
gress could easily supply for resistance. 
In other words, Washington would not 
have to fight Great Britain, but a 
specific force ; namely, all that Great 
Britain could spare for that service ; so 
that the issue was not between the new 
Republic and England, but between the 
Republic and a single army, of known 
elements and numbers. In fact, the 
opinion that France had already made 
war upon England had so early gained 
credit, that Washington, while still in 
New York, was forced to issue an order 
correcting the rumor, and thus prevent 
undue confidence and its correspond- 
ing neglect to meet the demands of the 

Thus far, it is clear that there was 
nothing extravagant in the American 
claim to independence ; nor in the 
readiness of Washington to seize and 
hold New York ; nor in his belief that 
the colonial resources were equal to the 

One other element is of determining 
value as to the necessity for his occupa- 
tion and defence of Brooklyn Heights. 
New York was the only base from which 
Great Britain could operate against the 
colonies as an organized State. By 
Long Island Sound and the Hudson 
River, her right hand would hold New 
England under the guns of her war- 
ships, and by quick occupation of 
Chesapeake and Delaware Bays and 
their tributary streams, her left hand 
would cut off the South. 

If the views of Lord Dartmouth had 
prevailed, in 1775, there would have 
been no siege of Boston ; but New 
York would have had a garrison fully 
equal to its defence, while sparing 
troops for operations outside. But the 
prompt occupation of New York, as the 
headquarters of revolution, was a clear 
declaration to the world, and to the 
scattered people of the colonies, that a 
new nation was asserting life, and that 
its soil was free from a hostile garrison. 
The occupation of New York cen- 
tralized, at the social, commercial, and 
natural capital of the Republic, all 
interests and resources, and gave to the 
struggle real force, inspiration, and 

Just as the men at Bunker Hill 
fought so long as powder and ball held 
out, but could not have been led to 
assail, in open field, the veterans whom 
they did, in fact, so effectively resist ; 
and, as very often, a patriotic band has 
bravely defended, when unequal to 
aggressive action, — so the possession. 

The Defence of New York, 1776. 


defence, and even the loss, of New 
York, as an incident of a campaign, 
were very different from an effort to 
wrest the city from the grasp of a 
British garrison, under cover of yawn- 
ing broadsides. 

History is replete with facts to show 
how hopefully men will seek to regain 
lost positions, when an original qapture 
would have been deemed utterly hope- 
less. Poland wellnigh reijained a 
smothered nationality through an in- 
spiration, which never could have been 
evoked, in a plan to seize from the 
Russian domain a grand estate, upon 
which to establish an original Poland. 

To have held but to have lost New 
York, would simply show the defects of 
the defence, and the margin wanting in 
ability to retain, while no less suggest- 
ing how, in turn, it might be regained, 
at the right time, by adequate means 
and methods. The occupation and 
defence of Brooklyn Heights was the 
. chief element of value in this direction. 
It not only combined the general pro- 
tection of the city and post, in connec- 
tion with the works upon Governor's 
Island, but to have neglected either 
would have admitted an inability to 
retain either. 

British troops at Brooklyn would 
command New York. American troops 
at Brooklyn presented the young nation 
in the attitude of guarding the outer 
doorway of its freshly-asserted inde- 
pendence. It put the British to the 
defensive, and compelled them to risk 
the landing of a large army, after a pro- 
tracted ocean voyage, before they could 
gain a footing and measure strength 
with the colonists. It does not lessen 
our estimate of the skill of Washington 
to know that Congress failed to supply 
adequate forces ; but he made wise 
estimates, and had reason to expect a 
prompt response to his requisitions. 

That episode at Breed's Hill, which 
tested the value of even a light cover 
for keen sharpshooters, had so warned 
Howe of the courage of his enenr>y that 
the garrison of Bunker Hill had never 
worried Putnam's litde redoubt across 
the Charlestown Isthmus ; neither had 
the troops at Boston ever assailed, with 
success, the thin circumvallation which 
protected the besiegers. 

At Brooklyn, Washington established 
ranges for firing-parties, so that the 
rifle could be intelligently and effective- 
ly used, as the British might, in turn, 
approach the danger line. All these 
preparations, although impaired by the 
illness and absence of General Greene, 
had been so well devised, that even 
after General Howe gained the rear of 
Sullivan and Stirling and captured both, 
he halted before the entrenchments 
and resorted to regular approaches 
rather than venture an assault. 

If that portion of the proper garrison 
of New York which had been sent to 
Canada, to waste from disease and fill 
six thousand graves, had been avail- 
able at New York, they might have 
made of Jamaica Ridge and Prospect 
Hill a British Golgotha before the Mnes 
of Brooklyn. 

If we conceive of an invasion of 
New York to-day, other than by some 
devastating fleet, we can at once see 
that the whole outline of defence as 
proposed by Washington, until he 
ordered the retreat, was characteristic 
of his wisdom and his settled purpose 
to resist a landing, fight at every ridge, 
}deld only to compulsion, enure his men 
to face fire, and "make every British 
advance as costly as possible to the 

The summary is briefly this : There 
was an universal revolt of the colonies, 
and a fixed purpose to achieve and 
maintain independence. There was, 


The Defence of New York, 1776. 

at the same time, in England, not only 
a vigorous opposition to the use of 
force, but a clearly-defined exhibit of 
the maximum military resources which 
its authorities could call into exercise. 
Imminent European complications were 
already bristling for battle, both by 
land and sea. and Great Britain was 
without a continental ally or friend. 
As the British resources were thus 
definitely defined, so was the military 
policy distinctly stated ; namely, to 
make, as the first objective, the recov- 
ery of New York, and its acceptance as 
the permanent base for prosecution of 
the war. The first blow was designed 
to be a fatal blow. It was for Wash- 
ington to take the offensive. He did 
so, and by the occupation of New York 
and Brooklyn put himself in the atti- 
tude of resisting invasion, rather than 
as attempting the expulsion of a right- 
ful British garrison from the British 
capital of its American colonies. 

Not only did the metal of such men 
as he commanded stand fire on the 

seventeenth of June, 1775, at Breed's 
Hill, but when he followed up the ex- 
pulsion of the garrison of Boston by 
the equally aggressive demonstrations 
at New York, he gave assurance of the 
thoroughness of his purpose to achieve 
independence, and thereby inspired 
confidence at home and abroad. The 
failure to realize a competent field force 
for the issue with Howe, and the cir- 
cumstances of the retreat and evacua- 
tion, do not impair the statement that, 
in view of his knowledge of British 
resources and those of America, the 
occupation and defence of Brooklyn 
and New York was a military necessity, 
warranted by existing conditions, and 
not impaired by his disappointment in 
not securing a sufficient force to meet 
his enemy upon terms of equality and 
victory. It increases our admiration 
of that strategic forethought which 
habitually inspired him to maintain an 
aggressive attitude, until the surrender 
at Yorktown consummated his plans, 
and verified his wisdom and his faith. 




Twenty-six miles northwest from 
Boston, on the banks of the Merrimack 
at its confluence with the Concord, is 
situated the city of Lowell, — the Spin- 
dle City, the Manchester of America. 
The Merrimack, which affords the chief 
water-power that gives life to the thou- 
sand industries of Lowell, takes its rise 
among the White Mountains, in New 
Hampshire, its source being in the 
Notch of the Franconia Range, at the 

ell's fair rival is built ; thence onward 
past Nashua, to the Falls of Pawtucket, 
where its waters are thoroughly utilized 
to propel the machinery of a great city. 

The men are still living who have 
witnessed the growth of Lowell from an 
inconsiderable village to a great manu- 
facturing city, whose fabrics are as 
world-renowned as those of Marseilles 
and Lyons, or ancient Damascus. 

With the dawn of American history. 


base of Mount Lafayette. For many 
miles it dashes down toward the sea, 
known at first as the Pemigewasset, until 
finally its waters are joined by the out- 
flow from Lake Winnipiseogee, and a 
great river is formed, which, in its fall 
of several hundred feet, offers immense 
power to the mechanic. Past Pena- 
cook the river glides, its volume in- 
creased by the Contoocook ; through 
fertile intervales, over rapids and falls, 
past Suncook and Hooksett, it comes 
to the Falls of Amoskeag, where Low- 

VolI.— No. III.— c. 

the Penacooks, a tribe of Indians, were 
known to have occupied the site of 
Lowell as their favorite rendezvous. 
Here the salmon and shad were caught 
in great abundance by the dusky war- 
riors. Passaconaway was their first 
great chief known to the white man, 
and he was acknowledged as leader by 
many neighboring tribes. He was a 
friend to the English. Before the com- 
ing of the Pilgrims a great plague had 
swept over New England, making deso- 
late the Indian villages. Added to the 



terrors of the pestilence, which was Wamesit Falls, on the Concord, the 

resistless as fate to the children of the Musketaquid of the aborigines, were 

forest, was the fear and dread of their first visited in 1647 by the Reverend 

implacable enemies, the fierce Mohawks John Eliot, the Apostle to the Indians. 

of the west. The spirit of the Indian In 1652, Captain Simon Willard and 

was broken. In 1644, Passaconaway Captain Edward Johnson made their 

\ ^ 


renounced his authority as an inde- 
pendent chief, and placed himself and 
his tribe of several thousand souls 
under the protection of the colonial 
magistrates. The Indian villages at 
Pawtucket Falls, on the Merrimack, and 

tour up the Merrimack River to 
Lake Winnipiseogee, and marked a 
stone near the Weirs as the northern 
boundary of the Massachusetts Bay 
Colony. The following year the work 
of settlement swept onward, crowding 


30 r 

in upon the cornfields of the red men ; 
and Eliot, caring for his charges, pro- 
cured the passage of an act by the 
General Court reserving a good part of 
the land on which Lowell now stands 
to the exclusi\e use of the Indians. 

The towns of Chelmsford and Bil- 
lerica were incorporated May 29, 1655. 

In 1656, Major - General Daniel 
Gookin was appointed superintendent 
of all the Indians under the jurisdiction 
of the Colony. By his fair dealing he 
won their entire confidence. They had 

in dread of tlie Mohawks, came down 
the river with his whole tribe, and 
located at Wamesit, and built a fortifi- 
cation on Fort Hill in Belvidere, which 
was surrounded with palisades. The 
white settlers of the vicinity, catching 
the alarm, took refuge in garrison- 

In 1674, there were at Wamesit 
fifteen families, or seventy-five souls, 
enumerated as Christian Indians, aside 
from about two hundred who adhered 
to their primitive faith in the Great 


good friends in Judge Gookin and the 
Apostle Eliot, who were ever ready to 
protect them from encroachments of 
their neighbors. 

In 1660, Passaconaway relinquished 
all authority over his tribe, retiring at a 
ripe old age, and turning over his office 
of sachem to his son Wannalancet, 
whose, headquarters were at Pena- 
cook. Numphow, who was married to 
one of Passaconaway's daughters, was 
the chief for some years of the village 
of Pawtucket. In 1669, Wannalancet, 

Spirit. Numphow was their magistrate 
as well as chief, his cabin standing near 
the Boott Canal. The log chapel pre- 
sided over by the Indian preacher, 
Samuel, stood at the west end of Apple- 
ton Street near the site of the Eliot 
Church. In May of each year came 
Eliot and Gookin : the former to give 
spiritual advice ; the latter to act as 
umpire or judge, having jurisdiction 
of higher offences, and directing all 
matters affecting the interests of the 
village. Wannalancet held his court. 



as sachem, in a log cabin near Paw- 
tucket Falls. 

King rhllip's War broke out in 


1675. Wannalancet and the local 
Indians, faithful to the counsels of 
Passaconaway, took sides with the 
settlers, or remained neutral. Be- 
tween the two parties they suffered 
severely. Some were put to death 
by Philip, for exposing his designs ; 
some were put to death by the 
colonists, as Philip's accomplices ; 
some fell in battle, fighting for the 
whites ; some were slain by the 
settlers, who mistrusted alike praying 
and hostile Indians. 

During the following year, 1676, the 
able-bodied Indians of Wamesit and 
Pawtucket withdrew to Canada, leaving 

a few of their helpless and inhrm old 

people at the mercy of their neighbois. 

Around their fate let history draw the 
veil of oblivion, lest the present 
generation blush for their ances- 

L tors. The Indians of those days, 

like their descendants, had no 
rights which the white men were 
bound to respect. 

During the war the white 
settlers were gathered for pro- 
tection in garrison-houses. Bil- 
lerica escaped harm, but Chelms- 
ford was twice visited by hostile 
bands and several buildings were 
burned. Two sons of Samuel 
Varnum were shot while crossing 
the Merrimack in a boat with 
their father. 

\\\ April, 1676, Captain Sam- 
uel Hunting and Lieutenant 
James Richardson built a fort at 
Pawtucket Falls, which, with a 
garrison, was left under command 
of Lieutenant Richardson. A 
month later it was reinforced and 
the command entrusted to Cap- 
tain Thomas Henchman. This 
proved an effectual check to the 
incursions of marauding Indians. 



When the war was over, Wannalancet 
returned with the remnant of his tribe, 
to find the reservation in possession of 
the settlers. The tribe was placed on 
Wickasauke Island, in charge of Col- 



oncl Jonathan Tvng, where tliey re- 
mained until their last rod of land had 
been bartered awav, when thev retired 
to Canada and joined the St. Francis 
tribe. Colonel Tyng and Major 
Henchman purchased of the Indians 
all tlieir remaining interest in the land 
about Pawtucket Falls. 

During the nine years of King Wil- 
liam's War, which followed the English 
Revolution of 1688, the people of 
Chelmsford and neighboring towns 
again took refuge in forts and garrison- 

in 170 1. It contained twenty-five fam- 
ilies, and was set off from Chelmsford. 
The Wamesit purchase was di\ided 
into small parcels of land and sold to 
settlers. Samuel Pierce, who had his 
domicile on the Indian reservation, was 
elected a member of the General Court, 
in 1725, but was refused his seat on the 
ground that he was not an inhabitant of 
Chelmsford. Accordingly the people 
of the reservation refused to pay taxes 
to the town of Chelmsford until an act 
was passed legally annexing them to the 


houses. Major Henchman had com- 
mand of the fortification at the Falls. 
August I, 1682, a hostile raid was 
made into Billerica and eight of the 
inhabitants were killed. August 5, 
1695, fourteen inhabitants of Tewks- 
bury were massacred. Colonel Joseph 
Lynde, from whom Lynde Hill in Bel- 
videre derives its name, was in com- 
mand of a force of three hundred men 
who ranged through the neighboring 
country to protect the frontier. 
, The town of Dracut was incorporated 

town. The place was afterward known 
as East Chelmsford. 

The year 1729 is memorable for the 
great earthquake which occurred on 
October 29, and did considerable dam- 
age in the Merrimack valley. 

Tewksbury was incorporated in 1734, 
its territory before having been included 
in Billerica. 

At the battle of Bunker Hill two 
companies of Chelmsford men were 
present, one under command of Cap- 
tain John Ford, the other under Cap- 



tain Benjamin Walker; and one com- command of General Lincoln served 
pany composed largely of Dracut men in the western counties, 
was under Captain Peter Colburn. The people of Chelmsford, from the 

earliest settlement, gave every 
encouragement to millers, lum- 
bermen, mechanics, and traders, 
making grants of land, and tem- 
porary exemption from taxation, 
to such as would settle in their 
town. It became distinguished 
for its sawmills, gristmills, and 
mechanics' shops of various 
kinds. Billerica, Dracut, and 
Tewksbury gave like encourage- 
ment. About the time of the 
Revolution* a sawmill was built 
belov/ Pawtucket Falls and owned 
by Judge John Tyng. 

Toward the close of the last 
century the lumbering industry 
on the Merrimack grew into 
prominence ; and, in 1792, Dud- 
ley A. Tyng, William Coombs, 
and others, of Newburyport, were 
incorporated as " The Proprietors 
of the Locks and Canals on 
FIRST CONGREGATIONAL CHURCH, 1840. Merrimack River." This canal, 

Captain Ford had served pre- 
viously at the siege and capture 
of Louisburg, in 1745. When 
the first man in his company 
fell at Bunker Hill, an officer 
prevented a panic by singing 
Old Hundred. When closely 
pressed by the British, and the 
ammunition had been exhausted, 
Captain Colburn, on the point 
of retreating, threw a stone at 
the advancing enemy and saw 
an officer fall from the blow. 

Colonel Simeon Spaulding, of 
Chelmsford, was an active patriot 

during the Revolution and did good which was demanded for the safe con- 
service in the Provnicial Congress. duct of rafts by the Falls, was com- 

During Shays' Rebellion, in 1786, pleted in 1797, at an expense of fifty 
a body of Chelmsford militia under thousand dollars. The fall of thirty- 




two feet was passed by four sets of 

The first bridge across the Merriuiacl<: 
was built, in 1792, by Parker Varnum 
and associates ; the Concord had been 
bridged some twenty years earlier. 

In 1793, the proprietors of the 
Middlesex Canal were incorporated. 
Loammi Baldwin, of Woburn, super- 
intended the construction. The canal 
began at the Merrimack, about *a mile 
above Pawtucket Falls, extended south 
by east thirty-one miles, and terminated 

shire, was made in 1814; the first 
steamboat from lioston reached Con- 
cord in 1 81 9. 

The competition of the Middlesex 
Canal ruined the Pawtucket Canal, as it 
in turn, in after years, was ruined by 
the Boston and Lowell Railroad. Nav- 
igation finally ceased on its waters in 
1853, since which date its channel has 
been filling up and its banks have been 
falling away. 

In 1 80 1, Moses Hale, whose father 
had long before started a fulling-mill in 





at Charlestown. It was twenty-four 
feet wide and four feet deep and was 
fed by the Concord River. It cost 
$700,000, and was completed in 1804, 
— the first canal in the United States 
opened for the transportation of pas- 
sengers and merchandise. For forty 
years it was the outlet of the whole 
Merrimack valley north of Pawtucket 

The first boat \oyage from Boston, 
by the Middlesex Canal and -the Merri- 
mack River, to Concord, New Hamp- 

Dracut, established a carding-mill on 
River Meadow Brook, — the first enter- 
prise of the kind in Middlesex County. 

In 1805, the bridge across the Merri- 
mack was demolished and a new bridge 
with stone piers and abutments was 
constructed. It was a toll-bridge as 
late as i860. 

The second war with England 
stimulated manufacturing enterprises 
throughout the United States ; and sev- 
eral were started, depending upon the 
water-power of the Concord River. In 



1813, Captain Phineas Whiting and In 181 8, Moses Hale started the 
Major Josiah Fletcher erected a wooden ])owder-mills on Concord River. The 
cotton-mill on the site of the Middlesex tbllowing year Oliver M. Whipple and 

• William Tileston were associ- 
ated with him in business. In 
1 82 1, the firm opened Whipple's 
Canal. The business was en- 
larged from time to time and was 
at its zenith during the Mexican 
War, when, in one year, nearly 
five hundred tons of powder were 
made. The manufacture of pow- 
der in Lowell ceased in 1855. 
In 1 81 8, also, came Thomas 
Hurd, who purchased the cotton- 
mill started by Whiting and 
Fletcher and converted it into a 
woolen-mill. He soon enlarged 
his operations, building a large 
brick mill near the other. He 
was the pioneer manufacturer of 
satinets in this country. His mill 
was destroyed by fire and rebuilt 
in 1826. About this time he 
built the Middlesex (Mills) Canal, 
which conveyed water from the 
Pawtucket Canal to his satinet- 
jOHN-STREET CONGREGATIONAL CHURCH. niills, thus affording additional 

Company's mills, and were suc- 
cessful in their enterprise. John 
Gelding, in the same neighbor- 
hood, was not so fortunate. 

The year 18 15 is memorable 
for the most disastrous gale that 
has devastated New England dur- 
ing two centuries ; it was very 
severe in Chelmsford. 

The sawmill and gristmill of 
the Messrs. Bowers, at Pawtucket 
Falls, was started in 1S16. The 
same year Nathan Tyler started a 
gristmill where the Middlesex 
Company's mill No. 3 now stands, power. His business was ruined in 
Captain John Ford's sawmill stood 1828 by the reaction in trade ; and two 
near the junction of the Concord and years later the property passed into the 
Merrimack Rivers. hands of the Middlesex Company. 




The year 18 18 also brought Winthrop 
Howe to town. He started a mill for 
the manufacture of flannels at Wamesit 
Falls, in Belvidere, and continued in 
the business until 1S27, when he sold 
out to Harrison G. Howe, who intro- 
duced power-looms, and who, in turn, 

and Ames was built. The works were 
extended in 1823, and continued by 
them until 1836, when the privilege 
was sold to Perez O. Richmond. 

In 1 82 1, the capabilities of Pawtucket 
Falls for maintaining vast mechanical 
industries were brought to the attention 

Born in Boston, October 20, 1790. Died in Lowell, April 11, 1837. 

sold the property to John Nesmith and 
others in 1831. In the year 1819 a 
new bridge across the Concord River 
was built to replace the old one built in 
I 774. About this time the dam across 
the Concord at Massic Falls was con- 
structed, and the forging-mill of Fisher 

of a iitw successful manufacturers, who 
readily perceived its advantages and 
liastened to purchased the almost 
worthless stock of the Pawtucket Canal 
Company. In November, Nathan 
Appleton, Patrick Tracy Jackson, Kirk 
Boott, Warren Button, Paul Moody, 



and John W. Boott, visited the canal, wide and eight feet deep. The first 
which ihcy now controlled, perambu- mile of the company was completed 
lated the ground, and planned for the and started September i, 1823. The 

first treasurer and agent was 
Kirk Boott, a man of great influ- 
ence, who left his mark on the 
growing village. 

Paul Moody settled in the 
village in 1823, and took charge 
of the company's machine-shop, 
which was completed in 1826. 
Ezra VVorthen was the first super- 
intendent. The founders of the 
Merrimack Company comtem- 
plated from the first the intro- 
duction of calico-printing. In 
this they were successful, in 1826, 
when John D. Prince, from Man- 
chester, England, took charge 
of the Merrimack print-works. 
Mr. Prince was assisted by the 
chemist. Dr. Samuel L. Dana ; 
and together they made the 
products of the mills famous in 
all parts of the globe. 

In 1825, the old Locks and 
Canals Company of 1792 was 
SECOND uNivERSALisT CHURCH. SHATTucK STREET. re-cstablishcd as a separate cor- 

future. February 5, 1822, these 
gentlemen and others were incor- 
porated as the Merrimack Manu- 
facturing Company, with Warren 
Dutton as president. The first 
business of the new company was 
to erect a dam ^cross the Merri- 
mack at Pawtucket Falls, widen 
and repair Pawtucket Canal, 
renew the locks, and open a lat- 
eral canal from the main canal to 
the river, on the margin of which 
their mills were to stand. Five 
hundred men were employed in 
digging and blasting, and six thousand poration, with the added right to pur- 
pounds of powder were used. The chase, hold, sell, or lease land and 
canal, as reconstructed, is sixty feet water-power, and the affairs of the com- 




pany wqre placed in the hands of Kirk 

In 1820, there were in the villages of 
East Chelmsford, Belvidere, and Cen- 
tralville, about two hundred and fifty 
inhabitants. Whipple's powder-mills 
and Howe's flannel-mill were then in 
operation, and there were several saw- 
mills and gristmills. Ira Frye's Tavern 
stood on the site of the American 
House. There was Hurd's mill, a black- 
smith shop at Massic Falls, a few other 
such establishments as a country village 
usually aifords, and several substantial 

Middlesex Mechanics' Association and 
the Central Bridge Corporation were 
incorporated ; the Hamilton Manufac- 
turing Company was established ; and 
the inhabitants of the village of East 
Chelmsford petitioned to be incor- 
porated. The petition was granted, 
and Lowell became a town March i, 
1826, with a population of about two 
thousand. The name of the town was 
adopted in honor of Francis Cabot 
Lowell, a business associate of Nathan 
Appleton, and a promoter of the manu- 
facture of cotton goods in this country. 


dwelling-houses, farmhouses, and cot- 
tages, conspicuous among which was 
the Livermore House in Belvidere. 

The operations of the Merrimack Com- 
pany soon attracted settlers. In 1822, 
a regular line of stages was esta*blished 
between East Chelmsford and Boston. 
In 1824, the Chelmsford Courier was 
established, and became at once the 
organ of the growing community. 
The next year a militia company was 
organized ; the Fourth of July was cele- 
brated with appropriate ceremonies ; the 

The years of 1827 and 1828 were 
marked by great depression in the 
commercial and manufacturing circles 
of the country, but Lowell had a good 
start, and her prosperity was assured. 
The Lowell Bank, the Appleton Com- 
pany, and the Lowell Manufacturing 
Company, were established in 1828, — 
the }-ear the first ton of coal was 
brought to town. The coal was used 
for fuel in the law office of Samuel 
H. Mann. 

In 1829, *^^ Lowell Jnstitution for 




Savings was incorporated, and William j^rojected ; and it was a part of the 
Livingston established himself in trade, original plan to have the cars drawn by 
For a quarter of a century Mr. Liv- horses. The successful operation of 

Stephenson's Liverpool and Man- 
chester Railroad was known to