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Full text of "Grape culture, wines, and wine-making. : With notes upon agriculture and horti-culture."

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GRAPE CTJLTUEE, 



WOES, AND WINE-MAKING. 



WITH NOTES UPON 



AGRICULTURE AND HORTICULTURE. 



A. FARASZTHY, 



0011MI8SI0UEE TO EEPOET ON TIIK IMPROVEMENT AND COLTUUE OF THE VINE EN 
CALIFORNIA. 



iBitli liuniBrntts SlliiBtrfltintis. 



NEW YORK: 

HARPER & BROTHERS, PUBLISHERS, 
FRANKLIN SQUARE. 

18 6 2. 

H 






Entered, according to Act of Congress, in the year one thousand eight hundred 

and sixty-two, by 

HARPER & BROTHERS, 

In the Clerk's Office of the District Court of the Southern District of New York. 



PREFACE. 



I SUBMIT this work to tlic kind indulgence of the people of Cal- 
ifornia. 

The short time allowed me to complete a work of such magni- 
tude and importance will, I hope, serve as a partial excuse for its 
defects. 

To make a tour through a large portion of Europe — examine 
and collect information — select vines and trees — write the follow- 
ing work, with many of the extracts translated from eminent for- 
eign authors and reports of scientific committees, I was allowed, 
including my journey to Europe and my return, but seven months 
and twenty-five days. 

The task was augmented by extensive and necessary corre- 
spondence with government officials, scientific societies, and emi- 
nent writers. 

During this time I have allowed myself little time for rest or 
recreation ; and if I have succeeded in fulfilling my duty to my 
State and to her people, I shall feel myself amply rewarded. 

I plead for a lenient judgment on the work on account of my 
defective English, being a native of Hungary, although a natural- 
ized American citizen, which will, I hope, fully explain this una- 
voidable defect. That my readers will understand my meaning 
without difficulty is all that I dare hope. 

The translations contained in the work were, in most cases, nec- 
essarily literal, and therefore presented difficulties not easily over- 
come. 

With these explanations, the author presents his work to the; 
agricultural public, sincerely hoping that future experience may 
not belie present promises, but that the matter upon which it treats 
may prove a valuable and an enduring source of wealth to the 
American horticulturist and farmer. A. H. 

BuENA Vista, Sonoma Counti/, CuHfornia. 



REPORT. 

To the Honorahle the Senate and Assembly of the State of California: 

In accordance with a joint resolution of the Assembly, adopted 
March 2d, 1861, and concurred in by the Senate, April 1st, 1861, 
authorizing and requesting his Excellency the Governor to ap- 
point a commission to report to the next Legislature upon the 
ways and means best adapted to promote the improvement and 
culture of the grape-vine in California, I have the honor respect- 
fully to report as follows : 

Having been appointed by his Excellency the Governor, J, G. 
Downey, upon said commission, I first considered the best mode 
of fulfilling the duties imposed by the above resolution. 

It became evident to me that the objects of the Legislature 
would be best secured by an examination of the different varieties 
of grapes, and the various modes of making wine, in the wine- 
growing countries of Europe, and I communicated this view to 
the Governor, and offered my services to proceed to Europe, if he 
should think it desirable. He approved my suggestion, and sanc- 
tioned the enterprise, and I at once proceeded on my journey. On 
my way I stopped at Washington, and was supplied by the Hon. 
W. H. Seward, Secretary of State for the United States, with a cir- 
cular letter, directing the diplomatic agents of the United States 
in Europe to afford me such assistance as lay in their power in 
this important mission. 

On my arrival in France, I opened a correspondence with the 
different imperial agricultural and horticultural societies, request- 
ing them to furnish such information and letters of introduction 
as would facilitate my object. They responded with cheerfulness : 
and I was received with distinction, and afforded every opportu- 
nity for obtaining the information I required ; in fact, I met with 
general courtesy wherever I went. 

I visited various parts of France, the Netherlands, Holland, 
Rhenish Prussia, Bavaria, Nassau, Baden, Switzerland, Spain, It- 
aly, and England. Various examinations confirmed my previous 
conviction that California is superior in all the conditions of soil, 
climate, and other natural advantages, to the most favored wine- 
producing districts of Europe, and that it actually has yielded con- 



xvi REPORT. 

siderably more per acre. All this State requires to produce a 
generous and noble wine is the varieties of grapes from which the 
most celebrated wines are made, and the same care and science in 
its manufacture. This conclusion is the result of a thorough in- 
vestigation, and frequent consultations with many eminent men in 
Europe, who assured me that the quality of the grapes governs, in 
a great measure, the quality of the wine ; a fact proved by many 
scientific experiments, showing that, even in the least favored lo- 
calities, where common wines were ordinarily made, the finest and 
most costly wines had been produced by planting the best varie- 
ties of grape. 

Having provided myself with analyses of the soil of California 
from various locations, it was not difficult to obtain a correct esti- 
mate of its average capacity as a wine-producing State. From all 
the information I have been able to get, our climate and soil are 
greatly in our favor. 

In view of all these facts and the purpose of my mission, I de- 
termined to make arrangements to purchase a quantity of vines, 
and also to examine every celebrated wine-making establishment 
within the limits of my tour, so as to learn and describe the new- 
est and best methods of making wine. I did not limit my obser-' 
vation and study to the manufactories alone, but procured the re- 
ports of scientific committees, appointed by different governments 
to investigate the subject by means of practical experiments, con- 
tinued through a series of years. I also obtained the proceed- 
ings of the Congress assembled, by order of the government of 
France, for the purposes of comparison and consultation, and which 
was composed of the most scientific chemists and practical wine- 
makers. I availed myself of the reports of similar assemblies 
held annually in Germany, and of the newest and best works in 
various languages, written by able men, who had spent their lives 
in the business of vine culture and wine-making. 

It is proper to remark here that I discovered that the countries 
through which I traveled possessed a lucrative trade by making 
raisins, drying figs and prunes, raising almonds, cultivating mul- 
l:)erry -trees for the sustenance of silk-worms, and, above all, pro- 
ducing sugar at enormous profits from the Sorgho, Imphee, and 
tlie sugar-beet; and I therefore thought it advisable to add to 
the more strict duties of my mission an investigation into these 
branches of industry, and to procure the best and newest works 
concerning them. 



REroRT. xvii 

I was gratified to find that of all the countries througli wbich 
I passed, not one possessed the same advantages that are to be 
found in California ; and I am satisfied that even if the separate 
advantages of these countries could bo combined in one, it would 
still be surpassed by this State when its now dormant resources 
shall be developed. 

California can produce as noble and generous a wine as any in 
Europe ; more in quantity to the acre, and without repeated fail- 
ures through frosts, summer rains, hailstorms, or other causes. 

The quantity of raisins, currants, figs, almonds, olives, and 
prunes which we could raise would surprise the most sanguine 
of our people. The mulberry and the silk- worm would occupy 
and give support to many industrious females, who have now no 
remunerative employment, in the rural districts ; would aid the 
small farmer in his efforts to raise and educate a growing family, 
aifd would add largely to the wealth and revenue of the State. 

In my opinion, no country can surpass this in raising the sugar- 
beet, Sorgho, and Imphce. There is no part of the world, ex- 
cept perhaps Africa, which can produce the same quantity of these 
commodities to the acre. The present mode of making sugar from 
these products is so simple that every farmer, at an expense of 
$30 for machinery, can manufacture enough for his own use, and 
have a considerable overplus each year for the market. The cap- 
italist, too, may safely invest his money in this lucrative business, 
and enrich himself as well as the State. 

The countries I visited in which these products were cultivated 
and manufactured derive from them a considerable revenue, as 
their statistics show ; and there is no substantial obstacle to pre- 
vent the agriculturists of California from engaging in all the en- 
terprises I have mentioned. The high price of labor here is more 
than counterbalanced by the greater value of land, and the enor- 
mous taxes on these productions in Europe. The development 
of these branches of industry would not only add to the wealth 
of the State, but it would also lead to a large immigration from 
Europe. Men conversant with these businesses have not hitherto 
migrated to California because they had no hope of suitable em- 
ployment. Capitalists, ignorant of these resources of the State, 
have not considered the advantages they present for investment. 
Manufacturers who have grown wealthy in the older countries, 
having sons or junior partners, would gladly open branch-houses 
here as soon as it was known that they could purchase an ade- 

B 



xviii REPORT. 

quate supply of the raw material in this State. But it would be 
impossible to enumerate all the benefits which this State would 
derive from such an increased application of her agricultural ca- 
pacity. Kesidents of California who have visited our plantations, 
vineyards, and farms, and who have attended our district and 
county fairs, may be able to appreciate these just anticipations. 

European governments, well knowing the importance of agri- 
culture and horticulture, appropriate large sums every year, in 
various ways, for the encouragement of these most important 
branches of their wealth. Agents are sent to all parts of the 
world to collect information, to report on new inventions and 
ameliorations, and to purchase new varieties of vines, trees, seeds, 
etc. Botanical or experimental gardens are kept, where the plants, 
vines, or fruit-trees are propagated, and then sold to the people 
for cost price, or given free of charge to each and every communi- 
ty, according to population, for distribution among its landhold- 
ers. Scientific and practical men are employed at high salaries 
as officers of agriculture and horticulture, whose duty it is to make 
experiments in all their various branches. The magnificent agri- 
cultural and horticultural schools, with their experimental gar- 
dens, costs some States hundreds of thousands of dollars per an- 
num, and their statesmen frankly admit that money could not be 
more profitably expended. It can also be shown by statistics 
that those States which have expended most money in the en- 
couragement of these departments of industry are now the wealthi- 
est and most powerful, and their people the least in want. I would 
respectfully recommend that a law be passed appropriating money 
for the purchase of land for a propagating and an experimental 
garden, and creating the office of director to supervise the garden; 
and also the appropriation of a sum to purchase, from year to 
year, seeds, vines, etc. ; and for other necessary expenses in main- 
taining said garden. In this connection, I would respectfully 
draw your attention to the fact that, by late treaties with Japan 
and China, an opportunity is presented to us to penetrate into 
those countries, which have been secluded for centuries. It is 
well known that many fruits and plants are raised there which 
might be of great advantage if introduced into this State. A 
thorough examination of those countries would probably bring to 
light some products which have not been thought of here. To 
leave such inquiries to private enterprise would be a tardy mode 
of realizing the object. I doubt if half a century would accom- 



REPORT. xix 

plish, by private mccans, what might speedily be attained by offi- 
cial investigation. No private individual, however wealthy, would 
have the same faeilitics to investigate and procure seeds and plants 
as an agent authorized by his government. This is the case in 
civilized Europe. How much more necessary is such a prestige 
in semi-civilized countries ? The passage of a law for the above 
purposes may be opposed on the ground that we have a national 
garden at "Washington, but it is well known that the few shrubs 
and seeds we receive from thence are too often dry and useless. 

California ought to propagate only such vines, fruits, seeds, etc., 
as are congenial to her soil and climate, and in large quantities, 
so that our citizens can be promptly supplied. The Patent Office 
represents too varied interests, climates, and soils, to do much good 
to US here. One might as well say that California needs no Gov- 
ernor, Legislature, or Judiciary, as that our public affairs might 
be administered from Washington ; and, in fact, it would be easier 
to govern us from Washington, than for the Patent Office to sup- 
ply what we want for the speedy development of our agricultural 
and horticultural resources. 

In my travels I endeavored to induce capitalists to come among 
us and establish business places, to purchase the grapes from the 
small producers as in Europe, and to erect manufactories for 
making wine and extracting sugar from Sorgho, beet-root, and 
Imphee. I also urged the formation of a joint-stock company, 
with a capital of a million dollars, for the planting of vines, olives, 
almonds, mulberries, etc., in the southern pact of the State. The 
prospect for the consummation of these enterprises is favorable, 
and especially if the apprehensions of a foreign war should sub- 
side. 

Whenever there was an opportunity to get an article about Cali- 
fornia and its immense resources in an influential newspaper, I 
embraced it, and many government journals heralded our advant- 
ages by publishing the letters your commissioner had written to 
their officials. Permit me to say here that in no way can the ob- 
ject of rapidly populating our State be more effectually accom- 
plished than by authorized agents traveling in Europe, not for the 
direct purpose of inducing emigration, but of noting the progress 
of agricultural and manufacturing pursuits. These agents would 
come in contact with all classes of persons ; questions would be 
eagerly asked, and opportunities be thus afforded to publish the 
advantages California possesses. Coming from an official source, 



XX KEPORT. 

the information -would be credited, newspapers wonld refer to it, 
and, with the aid of the reports of our " State Agricultural Soci- 
ety" (which I was fortunate enough to possess), these authorized 
statements would be authenticated by the enumerated premiums 
and descriptions from visiting committees. It excited surprise 
that a State so young and so isolated should have already such 
wealth of agriculture and horticulture as I proved ; and this sur- 
prise among Europeans is not so wonderful, as California was there 
known principally for its gold. Even our Eastern brethren were 
astonished when I showed from our reports the extraordinary 
productiveness of our soil and the salubrity of .our climate. The 
appropriations made by the Legislature for the printing of the 
proceedings of the " State Agricultural Society" have, and will 
continue to bring back many times their amount. It would be 
well to distribute these evidences of our resources in such a man- 
ner as would reach more directly the people in the East and in 
Europe. Books sent to other agricultural societies generallj^ fail 
to reach the public, being mostly retained in their libraries ; but 
if they were sent to the editors of prominent newspapers, they 
would receive a much wider circulation. 

I have purchased in different parts of Europe 100,000 vines, 
embracing about 1400 varieties ; small lots of choice almonds, 
olives, oranges, lemons, ligs, pomegranates, and Italian chestnuts 
— enough to propagate from by grafts. The majority of the 
grape-vines I have engaged I have seen bearing. From those 
countries which I was unable to visit I ordered, through our con- 
suls (to whom I remitted the necessary funds), such products as I 
thought necessary, and I have no doubt they will be forwarded 
in time to be dispatched from Havre with the others. My con- 
tracts were made, in all j^laces, in presence of the United States 
consul, leaving the money with him to be paid when the vines, 
etc., were delivered, and instructing the consuls to send them, so 
as to arrive in Havre on or a few days before the 1st of December, 
1861. A gardener whom I employed will attend to their proper 
shipment, take charge of them on the voyage, and repack them in 
New York, where arrangements have been made with Wells, Far- 
go, & Co., for their farther transportation to San Francisco, under 
the care and supervision of the gardener. All necessary precau- 
tions have been taken, and I am confident they will arrive in the 
very best order. They are expected to reach San Francisco by 
the steamer due on the 23d of January, 1862. As I do not know 



REPORT. xxi 

the exact freight and expenses, I am not able to state the amount 
of cost and charges to your honorable body, but will do so as soon 
as possible. 

It may not be irrelevant here to mention the fact that in Cali- 
fornia, as well as in the Eastern States, the public mistrust the pu- 
rity of California made wines in the hands of merchants. Wheth- 
er merchants do or do not adulterate the wine, such doubts injure 
its character, and restrict its sale greatly. Therefore, to insure 
confidence, and prevent such adulterations, I would respectfully 
submit whether it might not be a wise policy to pass an act ap- 
pointing a general agent for the State, who should reside in San 
Francisco, and to whom the wine-producers could send their wines 
to be sold ; the agent to sell the wine at the prices fixed by the 
manufacturer, with the proprietor's label on the bottles, or, if in 
barrels, with his name attached thereto. This agent, so appoint- 
ed, to receive from the owners of all wines or brandies sold a com- 
mission, to be fixed by law, and not to exceed the commissions 
usually received by merchants ; the agent to defray the expense 
of ofiice and cellar out of the commissions he may receive. The 
law creating said office might also impose heavy fines and confis- 
cation of the liquor belonging to any individual who should send 
for sale adulterated articles. Such an ofiice would be r^o burden 
to the State nor to the wine-growers, as it would be optional with 
them to send their wines to this officer or dispose of them in any 
other way. Every producer, however, would find it to his advant- 
age to avail himself of this medium, as he would meet a ready 
sale, and pay no more than the usual commissions, while he would 
aid in preventing frauds, and thus create confidence in the genu- 
ineness of our wines. The agent would have to be strictly im- 
partial. All the samples should be indifferently exposed and ac- 
cessible to purchasers, who could select the wines best suited to 
their tastes. The agent should be required to give ample bonds 
for the faithful and impartial performance of his duty, and for the 
prompt payment of all receipts on account of sales. 

This plan would, I believe, restore confidence, and be at least a 
check upon poisoning our people by our own productions. 

His Excellency the Governor has directed me to propagate the 
vines expected to arrive here from Europe at Sonoma, and hold 
them and the increase subject to the future disposition of the Leg- 
islature. 

I have the honor to annex to this report a condensed statement. 



xxii REPORT. 

whicli will serve to show the contents of a work I propose to pub- 
lish, and which will contain a full account of what I personally 
observed and inspected in Europe, with extracts from foreign 
works, reports of committees, eminent writers, practical vintners, 
farmers, horticulturists, manufacturers. 

As soon as this work is completed, which will be, I think, be- 
fore the adjournment of the Legislature, I will furnish a printed 
copy to each branch of your honorable body. 

Not having been able, since my recent return, to learn any thing 
of my colleagues and their labors, I respectfully submit this as 
my report, and I have the honor to be, with distinguished respect, 
your obedient servant, 

A. HARASZTIIY, 

Commissioner on the Improvement and (Jrou'lk of the 

Grape-vine in Cali/orniu. 



CONTENTS. 



CHAPTER I. 

FROM SAN FRANCISCO TO PARIS. 

Appointment as Commissioner. — Preparations. — Departure from California. — Cir- 
cular Letter from Mr. Seward. — Voyage to Europe. — Arrival at Paris.— My Son. 
— Correspondence. — Departure for Dijon Page 33 

CHAPTER II. 

THE BURGUNDY WINE DISTRICT. 

Start for Dijon. — Observations on the Road. — Arrival at Dijon. — Professor Ladrey. 
— Aged Vines. — The Market. — Inferior Fruits. — The Botanical Garden. — Its 
Vines. — Visit Gevrey. — Prices of Vineyards and Wines. — Manufacture of Red 
Wines. — The Pineau Vineyards. — Vineyards of Chambertin. — Wine-vaults at 
Morey. — The Fermenting-room. — The Press. — The Gamai Vineyards. — Beaune. 
— Casemates used as Wine-cellars. — Clos Vougeot. — Wine-presses 754 years old. 
— The Press-house. — Mode of testing Wines. — The Cellars. — Quality of Burgundy 
Wines. — The Cote d'Or. — The Vineyard of Clos Vougeot. — The Pineau and the 
Gamai Grapes. — Mode of laying out a Vineyard. — Experiments in Planting. — 
Treatment until bearing. — Three-bud Pruning. — Aspect of the Vineyards. — Ouv- 
ries. — Manuring Vines. — Keeping close to the Ground. — Pruning for large and 
small Crops. — Burgundy Vines must be cultivated as at Home. — The Vintage. — 
Fenced Vineyards. — Unfenced Vineyards. — Laws regulating the time of gathering 
Grapes. — The Laborers. — Small Proprietors make inferior Wine. — The fewer the 
Grapes the better the Wine. — Return to Paris 30 

CHAPTER m. 

FROM PARIS TO FRANKFORT ON THE MAINE. 

Ball at the Chateau des Fleurs. — The Emperor's Fete-day. — The Illumination and 
Fireworks. — Orderly Conduct of the People. — Departure for Germany. — Observa- 
tions on the Way. — Ems. — The Casino. — Gambling. — The Promenade. — Dr. 
Precht. — Donkey and Mule Riding. — The Valley of the Swiss. — Count Stein's 
Tomb. — Grist-mills. — The Water-wheels. — Silver Mines. — Condition of the Peo- 
ple. — The Theatre. — Letters and Visits. — Coblentz. — Difficulty with Bankers. — 
Start for Frankfort. — Letters of Credit preferable to Cash, — Conversation with 
Passengers. — Notes by the Way. — Arrival at Frankfort. — Letters of Introduction. 
— Americans in Frankfort 53 

CHAPTER IV. 

HOCHHBIM, STEINBERG, AND JOHANNISBERG. 

Hochheim. — Mr. Dresel. — The Champagne Manufactory. — Mr. Lembach. — His 
Cellar. — His Method of Wine-making. — Different Wines from the same Grape. — 
The Barrels. — Sulphuring the Barrels. — Price of Wines. — Regulations for Gather- 
ing the Grapes. — Visit to the Champagne Manufactoiy. — Mr. Hummel. — Wies- 



xxiv CONTENTS. 

baden. — Professor Medicus. — The Kurhaus. — The Gambling Rooms, — Dr.Thoma. 
— Biberich. — The Chief of the Steinberg Vineyards. — The Steinberg Vineyards. 
—Mode of Cuhivating the Grape. — The Farm-yard.— Eberbach.— The Wine 
Cellars. — Tasting Wines. — Bouquet of Old and New Wines. — How to taste fine 
Wines. — Assorting the Grapes. — Manufacturing the Wine. — Large and small 
Barrels. — Requisites for making good Wines. — The Presses. — Visit to Johannis- 
berg. — The Soil of the Region. — Vineyards not Sold. — Their Value. — Palaee of 
Johannisbcrg. — The Vineyard. — The Cellars. — The Johannisberg and Steinberg 
Wines. — Rivalry between them. — The Superiority sometimes accidental. — A 
lucky Stroke. — Prices the same. — Last Glasses of Johannisberg. — Geisberg. — 
The Experimental Gardens. — Results of Experiments. — High Trimming and low 
Trimming of Vines. — The School of Agriculture. — Exchange of Seeds. — Depart- 
ure for Frankfort. — Report of Wine Auctions at Eberbach Page 61 

CHAPTER V. 

GERMANY, THROUGH SWITZERLAND, TO ITALY. 

From Frankfort to Mayence. — The Russian Lady and her Maid. — Her extra Bag- 
gage. — Our Talk about California. — European Ideas of our State. — Hints for the 
Press of California. — W^asli dirty Linen at Home. — Chronicle on Normal Progress 
rather than on exceptional Crimes. — Mayence to Heidelberg. — Tobacco. — Heidel- 
berg. — Nursery at Wiesloch. — Carl Brunner. — His Nursery, Gardens, and Vine- 
yard. — His Wine-press. — The great Tun at Heidelberg. — Start for Basle. — Notes 
by the Way. — Hemp. — Manuring by Burning. — From Basle to Geneva. — Neuf- 
chatel. — The Swiss and American Lakes. — Geneva. — Passports for Italy. — Amer- 
icans in Geneva. — Departure for Italy. — The Road and the Country. — St. Jean 
de Moreno. — The Tunnel. — Crossing the Summit. — The Descent. — Arrival at 
Turin 77 

CHAPTER VI. 
Italy: — avine and silk. 
Turin. — Passports. — Leave for Genoa. — Vines and Mulberries. — Plowing. — Grain 
Crops. — Manuring. — Asti and its Wines. — Reach Genoa. — The Birthplace of 
Columbus. — Narrow Streets. — Professor Isnard. — Procure Vines. — Nova. — The 
Silk ^lanufactory. — Jealousy of Visitors. — Scanty Information. — Raising Silk- 
worms. — Return. — Effects of Asti Wine. — Return to Genoa. — Wine-making in 
Italy. — No Berths for Civita Vecchia. — Leave for Marseilles. — The Voyage. — 
Laying by. — Extra Charge for Board. — Arrival at Marseilles 90 

CHAPTER VIL 
the bordeaux wine district. 
Leave Marseilles for Bordeaux. — Agricultural Notes. — ^Vines, Olives, Almonds, and 
Mulberries. — Montpellicr. — Frontignan. — Cettc. — Manufacture of spurious Wines. 
— Carcassonne. — New Vineyards. — Wheat and Maize. — Toulouse. — The Canal du 
Midi. — Montauban. — Prunes. — Agen. — Reach Bordeaux. — Botanic Gardens. — 
American Ships. — Steel-plated Vessels. — M. de Luze. — His Wine-vaults. — Price 
of Wines. — Corks and Capsules. — Barrels. — The Fruit Nursery. — A Bird Fan- 
cier. — Prune Establishment of A. Dufour and Company. — Drying and packing 
Prunes. — California as a Fruit Country. — Dinner with M. dc Luze. — Visit to 
Chateau Margaux. — The famous Vineyard. — The Store-room. — The Press-room. 
— Manufacturing the Wine. — Chateau Rauzan. — A bad Year. — Victor Rendu on 
the Wines of Bordeaux : The different Sorts, — Wines of the Medoc. — The Vines. 



CONTENTS. XXV 

— Mode of Cultivation. — The Manufacture of Wines. — Quantity produced. — Clas- 
sification of Medoc Wines. — The chief Vineyards. — Prices of Wines. — Prices of 
Vineyards. — The ChamjiaKnc District. — The Vineyards. — The Grapes. — Cultiva- 
tion of the Vines. — The Vintage. — Manufacture of Champagnes. — Chissification 
of Champagnes. — Quantity of Champagnes produced. — Markets. — Departure for 
Spain Page 98 

CHAPTER Vm. 

JOURNEY THROUGH SPAIN: WINE, RAISINS, AND OLIVES. 

Departure for Spain. — Delay for Passports. — Country between Bordeaux and Bay- 
onne. — Sliepherds on Stilts. — Bayonne. — Loading Revolvers. — Napoleon at 
Hand. — Start by Diligence for Madrid. — The Diligence. — The Driver and the 
Mules. — The Postillion. — On Spanish Frontier. — Ascent of the Pyrenees. — Des- 
olate Aspect of the Country. — Breakfast. — Water and Towel. — Another Inspec- 
tion of Baggage. — A Municipal Misunderstanding. — Burgos. — The Railway. — 
Passengers bound for a Bull-fight. — Delay. — Train full. — Passengers left behind. 
— Change Cars. — Delay again. — Refreshments. — virrival at Madrid. — Our Hotel. 
— Compassionate Waiter. — The Fair. — The Royal Palace. — The Prado. — The 
Fountain. — General Description of the Countiy traversed. — Product. — Execrable 
Wines. — Leave Madrid for Malaga. — Delay. — Difficulty about Baggage. — Final- 
ly settled. — Off at last. — Stopped again. — One Passenger too many. — A Discus- 
sion. — The extra Child. — A Night Ride. — Morning. — Beggars. — Vines appear. 
— Ordinary Spanish Wines very poor. — The Boy again. — Building a Railway. — 
BaiTen Country. — A beautiful Valley. — Dinner at Victoria. — Arrival at Granada. 
— See the City. — Our Carriage. — The Sights of Granada. — Beggars. — Start for 
Malaga. — Notes by the Way. — Malaga. — Wine and Raisins. — Making Raisins. — 
The Drying-grounds. — Picking and Packing. — Malaga Wines. — Vinegar-making. 
— Fig Culture. — Horse-fight. — Apprehensions of Damages. — Manufacture of Ol- 
ive Oil. — Cotton and Iron Manufactories. — Buy Plants. — Goat-milk. — Passports 
again. — Depart for Alicante. — Aspect of the Coast. — Alicante. — Barcelona. — 
Wine-making. — Leave for Paris, via Marseilles and Lyons. — Arrival at Paris. — 
Give up Project of visiting Greece and Egypt. — Start for Home, via England. — 
Arrive in America > 115 

CHAPTER IX. 

GRAPES AND WINES IN CALIFORNIA. 

The Author's Experience.— Climate.— Site.— Soil.— Plowing.— Laying out a Vine- 
yard.— Digging Holes.— Planting.— Cultivating.— Pruning in different Years.— 
Summer Pruning.— Crushing.— Cost of Planting a Vineyard.— The Author's Ex- 
penditure on One hundred Acres. — Quality of the Author's Wines. — Mi-. Szemere's 
Pamphlet.— Adulteration of Wine in Europe. — Quantity of Wine produced in 
France.— The Wines of Hungary.— Prospects of Wine Culture in California. — 
Statistics of Wine Culture in Europe. — Good and bad Years in Europe. — The 
Advantages of California as a Wine Country 142 



xxvi CONTENTS. 



APPENDIX A. 

JOnANN CARL LECCHS ON WINES. 

I. Constituent Parts of the Grape. — II. Hungarian Wines. — III. Rhino Wines. — 
IV. Franconian Wines. — V. Other German Wines. — VI. Italian Wines. — VII. 
Spanish Wines. — A''III. Portuguese Wines. — IX. ]\Iadeira Wines. — X. Cape 
Wines. — XI. Greek Wines. — XII. Grape Culture in Turkey, Persia, etc. — XIII. 
Grape Culture in Africa, America, Russia, etc Page 161 

APPENDIX B. 

JOHANN CARL LEUCHS ON -WINE-MAKING. 

I. Fermentation. The After Fermentation. — II. Implements used in Wine-making .- 
The Thermometer. Table of Scales of different Thermometers. The Areometer. 
The Acid Scale. — III. Mannfucturing Grape Wines: General Observations. Gath- 
ering the Grapes. Crushing and Pressing. Fermentation. Filling in the Must. 
Making Sweet Wine. Making Frozen Wine. Making new Wines a])pear old. — 
IV. Classification of Wines. — V. Drawing off the Wine. — VI. Treatment of bot- 
tled Wines. Filling up and Wasting. — VII. Clarifying Wines. — VIII. Giving 
Color to Wines. — IX. Mixing and judging of Wines. — X. T/ie principal Diseases 
o/' J r/ne5; Sudden Changes. Souring. Becoming Glutinous. Woody, mouldy, 
and bitter Taste. Cloudiness and Muddiness. — XI. Adulterations of Wines. — 
XII. Uses for the Husks and Sediment.— XIII. The Cellars, Casks, Bottles, and 
Implements. — XIV. Wine Measures of all Countries 193 

APPENDIX C. 

DR. L. GALL ON I.MPROVEMENTS IN WINE-MAKING. 

I. Grape-sugar. — II. The Grape and its Components. — III. ^feihods of Picking 
Ci-apcs: At Castle Johannisberg. ]\Ir. J. A. Ackermann's Method. Mr. S. Hiir- 
tcr's Method. Messrs. Buhl, Jordan, and Wolff's ilethod. IMethod usednn To- 
kay and Syrmia. Relative Value of perfectly Ripe Grapes. Benefits from Se- 
lecting. Benefits from perfect Maturity. — IV. Progress of Wine-making to the 
Middle of this Century, illustrated by Examples. — V. Principal Contents of the 
drape necessary for the Fabrication of Wine : Water. Sugar and the Must-Scale. 
Artificial Grape-sugar. Acids and tiie Acid-Scale. Salts. Gummy Parts. Col- 
oring Matter. Nitrogenic Parts. Flavoring Matters. Extractive Matter. — VI. 
Wine Fabrication since 18.50 : Gall's Procedure and Improvements. VII. Gall on 
Reformations in Wine-making. — VIII. Preparations for the Vintage. — IX. Oc- 
cupations in the Press-house: Manner of Extracting. Improving the Natural Prod- 
uct. — X. Diibrunfaut and Petiot's Method of increasing the Quantity of Wines. 
Gall's E.xpcriment on Petiot's System. Application of the Extractor to Petiot's 
Method. — XI. Fermentation and its Products : In a high Temperature. Close Fer- 
mentation. The Alcohol. The Vajiorimeter. Carbonates. Ether. Acetic Acid. 
Barrel Yeast. XII. Husk Wine Fabrication according to Cadet de Vaut and Gall. 
— XIII. Careo/Wi7ics, and their Diseases: MtnM. Slimincss. Sourness. Cloud- 
iness. Woody and Mouldy Taste. — XIV. Supplementary Remarks 235 

APPENDIX D. 

F. RUBENS UPON THE VINE AND ITS TREATMENT. 

I. The Vine and its Propagation. — II. The Vineyard. — III. Care of a Bearing 
Vineyard. — IV. Preserving and Shipping Grajjcs. — V. Diseases of the Grape- 
vine. — VI. Choice Varieties of Grapes for Wine-making. — VII, Average Pro- 
duction of Wine in Europe 301 



CONTENTS. XXVI i 

ArrENDIX E. 

J. BETRE ON THE MANUFACTURE OP SPARKLING WINES. 

How the Sparkling is prbJured. — TIow to rcpiilatc tlic Sparkling. — The CEnometer. 

— Manufacture of Sparkling Wine. — Double Faucet. — The Bottles. — Caillct's 
Cleaning Api)aratus. — The Corks. — Lcroy's Corking Machine. — Maurice's Cork- 
ing Machine. — Fastening the Strings. — Fastening the Wire. — Filing the Bottles 
— Storing the Wine. — The Aphrometer. — Flacing Bottles. — Removal of Sediment. 
— Boiled Liquors for the English Market. — Cold Liquors for the English Market. 

— Mosbaeh's F''unnel. — Cameaux's Charging Machine. — Machet Vacquant's 
Charging Machine. — The Liijuor. — Filtering tiie Liquor. — Sealing Mixtures. — 
Jaunay and Maumene"s Improvements in the Manufacture of Sparkling Wines. — 
Generating Carbonic Acid. — Adulteration of Wines. — Explanations of Flates. 

Page 323 

APPENDIX F. 

E. LUCAS ON DRYING FRUITS. 

General Rules. — The Drying-room. — Drying in Ovens. — In heated Rooms. — In the 
Air and Sun. — Drying Quinces, Plums, and Cherries. — Expenses of Fruit-drying 
in Germany. — Apples and Prunes 3C3 

APPENDIX G. 

A. ZIEGLER ON THE CULTURE OF THE SILK-WORM. 

Introductory Note on Silk Culture in California. — Advantages of the Culture of the 
Silk-worm. — The Breeding of the Caterpillars. — The Breeding-room. — The Eggs 
and their Development. — The Food and Feeding of the Caterpillars. — The differ- 
ent Periods in the Life of the Silk-worm. — Air, Light, Warmth, and Space. — 
Cleaning the Crates. — Putting up the Spinning-bushes. — Diseases of the Silk- 
worm. — Enemies of the Silk-worm. — Propagation of the Caterpillar, and obtain- 
ing the Eggs. — Taking off and assorting the Cocoons. — Killing the Cocoons. — 
Converting the Cocoons into Money. — AVinding and Winding Establishments. — 
The Floret Silk.— The Magnaries 36i) 

APPENDIX H. 

p. W. PHILIPPI ON POTATO-STARCH AND GRAPE-SUGAE 389 

APPENDIX I. 

K. J. EBERT ON BEET-SUGAR. 

The Beet and its Culture. — Estimating the Saccharine Matter. — Manufacture of 
Beet-sugar. — Cleaning the Beets. — Extracting the Juice. — Pressing. — Macera- 
tion. — Boiling. — Preservation of the Juice.— Defecation of the Juice.— The Con- 
centration, Filtration, and Preparation of the "Spodium." — Evaporating Appa 
ratus. — The First Evaporation. — The First Filtration. — The Second Evaporation. 
— Second Filtration. — Animal Coal. — Boiling in. — Crystallization. — Operations 
of the Filling-room 395 

APPENDIX K. 

H. S. OLCOTT ON THE SORGHO AND IMPHEE. 

Introductory Note. — First appearance of the Sorgho and Imphee in Europe. — Vari- 
ous E.Kperiments. — Mr. Leonard Wray. — Introduction of the Sorgho into Amer- 
ica. — History of Sorgho in the Southern States. — Soils required. — Yield of Seed 
and l^odder. — Making Sugar or Sirup on a small Scale. — Boiling and Clarifying. 
— Reducing to Sugar. — Mr. Wray's Patent ' 407 

Report to the Legislature of California xv 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS, 



Page 

1. Hilton's Instrument for drawing off Wines * 211 

2. Occhsle's Must- Scale 257 

3. Otto's Acid-Scale 263 

4. Geisler's Acid-Scale 264 

6, 6. Grape Baskets 273 

8. Crushing Apparatus 273 

9. The Extractor 276 

10-16. Diagrams of Extractor 277, 278 

17. The Vaporimeter 289 

18. Vine Shoots 301 

19. VineBud 302 

20. Vine Slip 302 

21. Vine Cutting 302 

21. Training Layers 303 

22. Layer in Basket 303 

22-24. Methods of Budding 304 

25. Head Pruning 309 

26. Bush Pruning 309 

27-29. Training on Trellis 310 

30. Transplanting Shoots 311 

31-39. Pruning Knives and Shears 312-314 

40. Improved Safety Faucet 350 

41. Christian's Safety Cock 350 

42. Oechsle's Must-Scale 351 

43. Acid-Scale 350 

44. Fermentation Tube 350 

45. Closed Fermentation Tub 351 

46. Ebullioscope, or Alcohol-Scale 351 

47-48. Separator 351 

49. Gas Generator 352 

50. Fermentation Vat 352 

51-52. Sulphurating Apparatus 352 

63. Auguer's Hydraulic Bung 353 

54. Masson Toux's Hydraulic Bung 352 

65. Maumene's Bung 352 

66. Siphon 352 

67. Apparatus for drawing off Wine 353 

68. Apparatus for producing Carbonic Acid Gas 353 

59. Payen and Maumene''s Tannin Apparatus 353 

60. The CEnometer, or Must-Scale 354 

61. Double Faucet for Bottling Wines 354 



XXX I^IST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. 

62. Caillet's Cleaning Apparatus 334 

63. Frames for holding Bottles 354 

64. Leroy's Corking jMachine 354 

65. Maurice's Corking Machine 355 

6G. Piling Bottles 355 

67. Cellar for storing Wine 356 

68. The Aphromcter 356 

69. Bottle Stand 357 

70. Packing Bottles 356 

71-73. Removing the Dregs 357 

74. Mosbach's Funnel 355 

75. Cameaux's Charging Machine 357 

76. Machet Vaquant's Charging Machine 358 

77. Tub and Pestle 360 

78. Jaunay and Maumene's Apparatus 359 

79-83. Parts of Jaunay and Maumene's Apparatus 360 

84. The Sorgho Plant 408 

85. Residence of the Author Frontispiece. 



GRAPE CULTURE, 



WINES, AND WINE. MAKING, 



GRAPE CULTURE AND WINE-MAKING. 



CHAPTER I. 

FROM SAN FRANCISCO TO PARIS. 

Appointment as Commissioner. — Preparations. — Departure from California. — Cir- 
cular Letter from Mr. Seward. — Voyage to Europe. — Arrival at Paris. — My Son. 
— Correspondence. — Departure for Dijon. 

Having received from his Excellency the Governor, J. G. 
Downey, the appointment of "Commissioner npon the Ways and 
Means best adapted to promote the Improvement and Growth of 
the Grape-vine in California," I proceeded to Sacramento to lay 
my plan before the Governor, and received his sanction to go to 
Europe for the purpose of collecting information, and such vines 
and trees as in my judgment were best adapted for our State. 
The Legislature not having made any appropriation for the pur- 
pose of defraying the necessary expenses, I had to make use of 
my own means, which I cheerfully did, having been assured that 
my traveling expenses and money "laid out for the purchase of 
the vines and trees would be refunded by the next Legislature. 
The Press in various parts of the State approved the mission, and 
spoke in favorable terms of the same ; in fact, the general senti- 
ment of the people favored and encouraged me in the under- 
taking. 

Accordingly, I soon made my preparations, and on the 10th 
day of June, 1861, 1 started from San Francisco on the steamer 
Golden Age. The passage was pleasant and quick. Arriving in 
New York on the 4th of July, I rested for two days. I then 
proceeded to Washington to procure my passport. I was pre- 
sented by Messrs. Latham and M'Dougal, United States Senators 
from California, to the Honorable William H. Seward, Secretary 
of State, who gave me a circular letter to the United States di- 
plomatic agents in Europe, which reads as follows : 

C 



31 GRAPE CULTUEE AND WINE-MAKING. 

"To the Diplomatic Agents and Consuls of the TTnited States in 
Foreign Countries. 

, ^^ Department of State, Washington, Gth July, 1861. 

" Gentlemen, — Mr, A. Ilavaszthy, the bearer of this communica- 
tion, has been appointed by the government of the State of Cahfor- 
nia to proceed abroad for the purpose of collecting information in 
regard to wine-producing countries, and reporting the results of his 
observations and inquiries to that government. 

" I will consequently thank you to extend to him any facilities 
which may be necessary for so important an object. 
" I am your obedient servant, 

" William H. Sewakd." 

Having been furnished with the above letter and my passport, 
I returned to New York and embarked on the Hamburg steamer 
Hammonia for Southampton on the 13th of July, The passage 
was agreeable, the weather being fine. We arrived in port in 
the morning of July 26th. 

After landing, we procured a carriage and drove into the sur- 
rounding country, examining several farms and manufactories. 
Returning to town in the evening, we took at midnight a French 
steamer for Havre, where we arrived next morning at 11 o'clock. 
The Custom-house officers very civilly passed our baggage with- 
out inspection. After partaking of a good breakfast at our hotel, 
we strolled through the town, and at 5 o'clock in the afternoon 
started in the extra train for Paris, where we arrived at 11|- 
o'clock that night. 

We took lodgings in the Hotel de Louvre. The next day I 
saw my son Arpad, to whom I had telegraphed from Southamp- 
ton, My son had been four years at school in Paris, and latterly 
in the Champagne districts, where he is now learning the manu- 
facture of Champagne and other wines. He proved a great as- 
sistaruje to us during our stay in Europe ; he acted as my secre- 
tary, my correspondence with scientific societies increasing daily, 
as well as with prominent officers of different governments. He 
copied also my journal entries, in which duty, however, he had 
the assistance of my daughter, as he was not able alone to copy 
both letters and journal. 

The first day of our arrival being Sunday, we enjoyed a good 
rest, whicb was much needed after our long journey. The fol- 
lowing day I called upon the United States minister, Mr, Dayton. 
This gentleman, being so much occupied in getting up his dis- 
patches, was unable to receive me. Finding through his secre- 



FROM SAN FRANCISCO TO PARIS. 85 

tary that it ■would be several days before be would be able to sec 
me, and it being doubtful whether he could aid me much in the 
way of introductions to presidents of horticultural and agricultural 
societies, I determined to write to them myself, inclosing a copy 
of my commission. This course was adopted for two reasons : 
first, because my own time was very limited, and, secondly, in 
order not to trouble the minister too much. 

It was now the beginning of August, and every body who 
could do so was leaving Paris. We found the presidents gone 
with the rest to the country. We ascertained this fact several 
days after our letters had been written. Meantime we visited 
the vineyards and farms around Paris. Having ascertained the 
whereabouts of the officials, we started to Dijon, August 6th. 



36 GRi:YPE CULTURE AND WINE-MAKING. 



CHAPTER II. 

THE BURGUNDY WINE DISTRICT. 

Start for Dijon. — Obser^^ations on the Road. — Arrival at Dijon. — Professor Ladrey. 
— Aged Vines. — The Market. — Inferior Fruits. — The Botanical Garden. — Its 
Vines. — Visit Ge^Tcy. — Prices of Vineyards and Wines. — Manufacture of Red 
Wines. — The Pineau Vineyards. — Vineyards of Chambcrtin. — Wine-vaults at 
Morey. — The Fermenting-room. — The Press. — The Gamai Vineyards. — Beaune. 
— Casemates used as Wine-cellars. — Clos Vougeot. — Wine-presses 754 years old. 
— The Press-house. — Mode of testing Wines. — The Cellars. — Quality of Burgundy 
Wines. — The Cote d'Or. — The Vineyard of Clos Vougeot. — The Pineau and the 
Gamai Grapes. — Mode of laying out a Vineyard. — Experiments in Planting. — 
Treatment until bearing. — Three-bud Pruning. — Aspect of the Vineyards. — Ouv- 
ries. — Manuring Vines. — Keeping close to the Ground. — Pruning for large and 
small Crops. — Burgundy Vines must be cultivated as at Home. — The Vintage. — 
Fenced Vineyards. — Unfenced Vineyards. — Laws regulating the time of gathering 
Grapes. — The Laborers. — Small Proprietors make inferior Wine. — The fewer the 
Grapes the better the Wine. — Return to Paris. 

August 6. — Left Paris for Dijon. Tlie country tlirongli wliicli 
we passed was chiefly undulating liills planted with the sugar- 
beet, which looked very fine. In the distance could be seen sev- 
eral sugar manufactories, with their tall chimneys and fine out- 
buildings. All along the railroad the land was parceled out into 
very small lots, eight or ten feet wide and two hundred feet long. 
To one accustomed to the broad fields of America, it is very 
strange to see so many strips of land, all belonging to different 
persons. Of course, these lots arc all planted according to the idea 
of the owner ; therefore, as you whirl rapidly by, you will see 
first a patch of vineyard, then oats, wheat, barley, etc., creating a 
very curious effect, till you know how valuable land is in this 
densely-populated part of the world. On my way I also saw sev- 
eral fine meadows planted with clover, or what we Californians 
call alphalfa. The strips of land are plowed in a curved shape 
on the hill-sides and in very low land. The reason of this is, that 
if the water were to run through a straight furrow it would be so 
rapid that the soil would be washed away. The lands are from 
four, five, to six feet, and thrown up by the plow, but it is done 
most beautifully regular. I have seen several men plowing very 



THE BURGUNDY WINE DISTRICT. 37 

finely in spite of their plow, wliicli is a primitive machine for this 
enlightened age. It is furnished with a wheel on the side of the 
beam. 

Grain is now ripe, and they are beginning to harvest it. Men, 
women, and children may be seen in the fields, with sickles, hard 
at work. This is very singular to the eyes of a California farmer 
who finds the Reaper a slow machine which cuts from sixteen t(j 
twenty acres in the day, and requires binding, heading, and stack- 
ing ; therefore he lays it aside for the Header, which cuts, thrash- 
es, and bags his grain all in the same day. However, this ma- 
chine could not be used in this part of Europe, where the land is 
subdivided into so many parcels, and the owners have enough help 
to pick the head ofi" every stem, if it is necessary, with the hand ; 
and, i^a head should fall from the wagon, it is picked up with all 
care ; so you may guess there is not much chance for herds of cat- 
tle in this part of France. 

The grain docs not grow to a great height here. The barley 
and oats are about eighteen inches or two feet, and the rye about 
two and a half feet high. On this route I did not see any wheat. 
For carrying the grain the inhabitants generally use a donkey. 
They pack on him the grain, straw, etc., whatever it may be. The 
wealthier class use a two-wheeled cart, which has a rack on both 
sides ; in front and rear there is a fork, which resembles the fin- 
gers of an American cradle. To this is attached a rope, by which 
the rack may be lowered or raised. In this manner the cart is 
easily and well packed. Those who are too poor to keejD a don- 
key carry the scanty produce upon their backs to their homes, 
which generally are four or five miles distant. From this the 
reader can well imagine that not eveQ a blade of grass is allowed 
to be wasted. 

The color of the ground in some places is white, but in general 
is a pale red, and very much exhausted. There are but few fruit- 
trees, and they are yerj badly attended to : they look very wretch- 
ed. The vines are very small, and in the vineyards may be seen 
many yellow sprouts, which is a sign of decay. 

We crossed several roads, all of which excited my greatest ad- 
miration by the fine order in which they are kept. They are 
smooth and hard as a billiard-table. All along their borders, at 
a distance of twenty yards, are piled up fine small stones : in case 
a hole should be made in the road, the inspector need only take a 
handful or two of these stones to fill it up immediately. This 



4# 



38 GRAPE CULTUKE AND WINE-MAKING. 

prevents it from becoming dangerously large ; and both man and 
beast may travel all over France with perfect security and with 
pleasure. The meadows are generally shaded by poplars, planted 
in rows. The banks of the river and canal are also ornamented 
in the same manner, which has a very pleasing effect on the eye. 
We passed through many small villages, where there are some 
very ancient cottages built of gray stone, or still having the thatch- 
ed roof. In the distance can be generally seen some chateau, 
peeping from beneath innumerable shade-trees. 

The town where the train stops has several sugar manufactories 
surrounding it. After leaving this town the country begins to be 
hilly. The strata on the soil is lime and a mixture of magnesia 
cement. The whole is planted with vines, even the steepest hills, 
which a person ascends with difiiculty. The vines here also show 
very yellow leaves and sprouts. Across the meadow, which is 
about two miles wide, on the left side of the road, the ground rises 
again into hills, all of which are planted with vines. 

During our journey we passed through several tunnels of dif- 
ferent lengths, but the last, about twenty miles from Dijon, was at 
least five or six miles long. 

At six o'clock we arrived in Dijon ; went to the Hotel de la 
Cloche, where, after washing off the dust that almost buried us, 
we took dinner at the table d'hote. It was the finest dinner I 
have eaten since the beginning of my tour. There were more 
than a dozen dishes neatly served up and delicately cooked. 
After dinner we went out to look at the city. Walking through 
its principal streets we saw the City Hall, which is a fine, ancient 
stone building. The Cathedral, a time-honored edifice, with finely- 
proportioned columns and 'many Bible scenes carved in stone, 
may also be seen. 

After taking a cuj:) of coffee we returned home and addressed 
a letter to Professor Ladrey, and inclosed the letter I received to 
him from the editor of VEcIio du Pacific. I requested the favor 
of a personal interview. After dispatching this letter we retired, 
well satisfied with the city, dinner, and excellent bed. 

I arose at seven o'clock, after passing a sleepless night. The 
whistle of the night-trains, the rolling of the omnibuses to and 
from the stations, kept me awake the whole night ; and in the 
morning the chattering of men and women, the notes of a musical 
donkey immediately under my window, the shrill voice of the 
venders of fruits, vegetables, etc., deprived me of my morning's 



THE BURGUNDY WINE DISTRICT. 39 

nap. After dressing we went through several of the squares or 
rolondes of the city (there arc none of any regular form). There 
arc to bo found several fine fountains, and in the east half square 
a group of well-exeeutcd statues. There is a monk on the sum- 
mit, supported by the figures of monks, popes, etc. The repre- 
sentation wc could not make out. From these we went and in- 
spected the interior of the Cathedral, the market, etc. 

During our walk I saw several vines trained up to the second 
story windows of a house, and very heavily laden with grapes ; 
a fair estimate would be seventy to eighty pounds to the vine. 
But what surprised me was that the grajDe-vine was planted so 
close to the house that the wall must rest upon half of its root, 
while on the other side are laid the heavy stones of the pavement, 
which must have rested there already many years. This is a 
positive proof that after a certain age a vine can live and bear a 
quantity of fruit without being hoed, or the ground loosened 
around its roots. These vines must be at least fifteen, twenty, 
or perhaps fifty years old. The leaves and fruit are large and 
healthy -looking. Upon pointing out the above to Arpad, he told 
me that a man named Eose had paved his vineyard as an experi- 
ment, but his successor, laughing at the idea, had the stones taken 
up, so that the experiment was never made. When I return 
home I will try it with vines of different ages. If it should suc- 
ceed it would be a great economy, and the grapes resting on stone 
would be clean, and could not impart a ground taste to the wine 
from the quantity of dust which sometimes is ujDon them. 

From these we went to the market. Here we found women 
sitting on both sides of the street selling fruit, vegetables, earthen- 
ware, etc. Leaving this noisy, and, I must eoiifess, dirty -looking 
street, we turned into a covered market, where the women sell 
butter, cheese, etc. At the end of this market is a very , large, 
ancient building, also filled with female venders of meats, fish, 
vegetables, etc. Here the noise reached its height, and resembled 
the hoarse roar of the Niagara Falls. Driven out by the old 
cheese and various other perfumes, we left to seek a more quiet 
and cleaner place. 

I here found with astonishment that the fruit was inferior to 
that of California. The markets of San Francisco, Sacramento, 
Marysville, even the mining towns, produce a finer display of fruit 
than these large venerable towns. The reader must not suppose 
that I am influenced by partiality for my own State when I make 



40 GRAPE CULTURE AND WINE-MAKING. 

my remarks. The object of my travels is especially to note down 
every tiling in wLich tlie Europeans surpass us, and afterward 
lay them before the citizens of the United States. This task I 
will fulfill to the very best of my judgment. 

At half past ten we returned to our breakfast, which did not 
prove inferior to our dinner of the preceding day. Indeed, it 
seems as though the landlords of Dijon are determined to fatten 
their guests at the shortest possible notice by administering to 
them the most delicate viands. The wine (which we added extra 
to our meal) was excellent. I say "added extra," because-every 
guest is given a bottle of wine to his meal ; and I will taste all 
the wines raised in the places through which I travel, as I wish 
to know whether the exported wines are worse or better than 
those which are common at home. 

To-day Professor Ladrey called on us. During the conversa- 
tion he promised to come in the evening, as, it being examination- 
day, he was occupied. He also offered his services for the next 
eight days to show us the surrounding vineyards, nurseries, or- 
chards, etc. The professor is the editor of La Bourgogne, a 
monthly magazine on the culture of wine, and president of the 
Dijon wine district. He is also author of several chemical works 
on wine, etc. He seems to be a very gentlemanly and accommo- 
dating man. "We met Monsieur Ladrey at seven. He spake 
very ably concerning the wine culture, and informed us that 
there was a fine botanical garden in the city. After leaving him 
we went through it, and also the old Cathedral, which boasts of 
a few fine oil paintings. There is also an aqueduct here worthy 
of notice ; it extends four leagues from the city. By this means 
Dijon is well watered. 

August 10. — This morning we went with Monsieur Ladrey 
through the botanical garden. The most interesting to me were 
the grapes, of which there are six hundred varieties. Partly 
planted at the foot of a high wall, they are trained over a net- 
like wire fastened to the wall. Some of these vines are twenty 
years old, and do not present a very inviting aspect, their leaves 
being withered, and mildew having attacked them and the grapes. 
The best and finest arc the Persian Seedlers, which are transjDar- 
ent, with a beautiful healthy color, but a little late in the season. 
The Chasalas Fontainebleau looks thrifty and healthy, but the 
Palestine mammoth grape is poor, and most of the berries are 
dried up. The gardener ascribes this to the cold and changeable 



THE BURGUNDY WINE DISTKICT. 41 

weather tlicy have had this year. The Catawba, Isabella, and 
Scrapanay arc among the varieties. The vineyard, placed on a 
small gravelly knoll, is doing much better than the above-named 
trellis-work. This may be on account of the vines not being so 
old, as some are only two and six years old. On being told their 
age, I was much surprised to see how small and feeble they were 
in wood, and backward in bearing. I was told that they were 
also manured. This is the first time many of them bear, as even 
the acclimated vines do not produce fruit until they arc five years 
old, and very little then. After thanking the director, we agreed 
to enter into correspondence, and exchange all varieties of vines, 
seeds, etc., which the one does and the other does not possess. 
This institution is supported by the city of Dijon. It does not 
sell any of its roots, but exchanges with societies and individuals. 

Upon leaving the garden we started for Gevrey, a small vil- 
lage half an hour's travel by railroad from Dijon, and which is 
surrounded by the most celebrated vineyards in this district. As 
the cars do not pass Gevrey, we stopped at Chambertin, took an 
omnibus, and proceeded to Gevrey; having letters from M. Ladrey 
to the overseer of a gentleman's vineyard. His absence from 
home enabled us to take our breakfast before starting out. Dur- 
ing the preparation of our meal, we endeavored to ascertain from 
the talkative landlady whether a vehicle could be obtained. She 
did not know ; but her husband, upon our assuring him we were 
not aristocratic, comforted us with the remote hope of procuring 
us a coach to drive to some of the neighboring vineyards. "We 
were not able to get the promised conveyance till twelve o'clock. 
Therefore we took a stroll through the village, which, like all 
French towns, is irregular in its construction, and composed of 
stone houses two stories high. The whole village has an air of 
comfort and prosperity about it, which proves that even here the 
cultivation of the vine is quite remunerative. At last our man 
arrived. I put a series of questions to him, and gained the fol- 
lowing information. 

Gevrey is inhabited chiefly by peasants, either possessing vine- 
yards in fee-simple, or renting for a period of time vineyards al- 
ready planted, or warrant-lands which they have planted them- 
selves. The rent of five acres of vacant land for planting a vine- 
yard is 250 to 800 francs, payable annually, the term of the: lease 
being from 20 to 30 years. No allowance is made for..the time 
the vines are not bearing. Planted vineyards pay a rent of from 



42 GRAPE CULTURE AND WINE-MAKING. 

350 to 500 francs per five acres. The price of a vineyard, when 
for sale, varies with its location. The first class Pineau vineyards 
are worth from 40,000 to 60,000 francs per hectare ;* the second 
class Pineau vineyards, 30,000 to 40,000 francs per hectare. The 
first class Gamai vineyards, 30,000 to 40,000 francs per hectare; 
the second class, 15,000 to 25,000 francs per hectare. The price 
of the wine is also very variable. For instance, wine raised in 
1846 from a first class vineyard sold at 2000, 3000, and even 4000 
francs per barrel, which contains 60 American gallons. In usual 
vintages, wine of the first class, when through the first fermenta- 
tion, sells from 1000 to 1500 francs per barrel, sometimes even 
more ; the second class, from 500 to 1000 francs. The wine made 
of the Gamai in celebrated years will sell for 800 to 1500 francs ; 
in common years, 250 to 400 francs. Nearly all wines made here 
arc red. The few white wines arc not at all celebrated. 

The mode of making the red wine is very much the same in the 
whole district. The grapes arc picked by men, women, and chil- 
dren, from September to the 10th of October. They are placed in 
baskets, and carried to wooden tubs with leather straps on each 
side. There are several of them scattered in different parts of the 
vineyard. When these tubs are full, a man passes his arms 
through the straps, lifts the tub to his back, and carries it to the 
large trough which is placed in a central part of the vineyard. 
He empties the grapes into the trough, where the jncn crush them 
with their feet. The crushed grapes, juice and all, are then car- 
ried in a donkey-cart to the village, where they are thrown into a 
large fermentiug-vat. The people do not live in their vineyards, 
but have their cellars generally in the village. The fcrmenting- 
vat is about 4|- feet high, and holds from 10 to 20 or even SO bar- 
rels of wine. When they have remained in this tank from 24 to 
40 hours, the fermentation will send the stems and seeds to the 
top of the vessel, forming a hard mass. Then, according to the 
size of the tank, from four to ten men, stripped of all their clothes, 
step into the vessel, and begin to tread down the floating mass, 
working it also with their hands. This operation is repeated sev- 
eral times, if the wine does not ferment rapidly enough. The rea- 
son given for this, in my eyes, rather dirty work, is that the bodily 
heat of the men aids the wine in its fermentation ; but this object 
might be gained by throwing in heated stones, or using pijDCS filled 
with steam or hot water. 

* The hectare is two and a half American acres. 



THE BURGUNDY WINE DISTRICT. 43 

After the above-named operation is completed, the wine is left 
to ferment two and a half to three and a half days longer, or four 
or five days from the time when the tank was filled. If the 
weather is warm, four days and nights are sufiicicnt ; if it is cold, 
it requires five days. In rare cases, the cellar is heated with 
stoves. The wine, after its fermentation, is drawn from the tank 
by a siphon, incased by a tube made of willows, with a wicker- 
wprk across the end, which is plunged through the seeds and stems 
to the bottom of the tank. If the end of the siphon was not cov- 
ered by the wicker-work, it would soon be choked up by the 
stems and seeds. The clear juice flowing from the siphon is taken 
in tubs to the cellar, and emptied into barrels already in their 
places. These barrels are filled but two thirds full. When the 
tank has given up its clear juice, the stems, etc., are taken out, and 
put into a j)ress, where the remainder of the juice is forced out, 
With this juice the barrels are filled to within two inches of the 
top. This wine remains quiet for about a month, when the barrel 
is completely filled and bunged up. 

In the month of March these barrels are emptied into others, 
where the wine is cleared with eggs ; then it is again drawn off in 
this first year of its existence. Many, in this district, draw off 
their wine as often as three times in the year. In years when the 
rains are heavy, or when from any cause the grapes are deficient 
in saccharine matter, sugar made from potatoes, known as " grape 
sugar," is added, to the amount, often, of thirty pounds to each 
sixty gallons. This is thrown into the vat where the wine is fer- 
menting. 

After a short conversation with the overseer, we were agree- 
ably surprised to see a vehicle drive up to the gate. It was fur- 
nished with a good horse and driver, and was, moreover, a good 
example of the love of comfort cherished by the ancients, for that 
carriage has surely witnessed the rise and fall of many dynasties. 
Our landlord mounted the box with the overseer. The driver, 
on closing the door, asked our |)ermission to place a lad of fifteen 
years in the box behind, where in good old times the servant took 
his place. Of course we had no objection, as it added to our aris- 
tocratic appearance, and the horse did not belong to us. 

On leaving Gevrey, which is situated on rather high ground, 
we passed vineyard after vineyard, until we came to the elevation 
where are planted the Pineau grapes, which produce the cele- 
brated red wines. The ground rises slowly to the top of the hill. 



44: GRAPE CULTURE AND WINE-]\IAKING. 

and is of a red color, thickly strewn witli gravel. The vines are 
planted two and two and a half feet apart, and not very regularly. 
The stems are not thicker than from three fourths to one and one 
and a half inches. The shoots are from three to three and a half 
feet high, where they are topped. They are tied to oak or locust 
sticks three and a half feet in height, and from one half to three 
fourths of an inch in thickness. The vines are tied either with 
straw or twigs. These vines, which we have imported, bear very 
small bunches, and also small berries. The clusters are more 
round than long in their form, and the berries are crowded so 
closely together that one overlies the other. The Pineau vine- 
yards will give from eight to twelve barrels of wine to the hec- 
tare. This is generally a very productive year, but not a good 
wine season. The Pineau vines have only from one quarter to 
one and a half pounds of grapes ; indeed, many vines did not have 
as much as a berry upon them. 

We also examined the celebrated vineyards of Chambertin, the 
wine of which has a well-deserved and extensive rejDutation. At 
a short distance from there is a small village called Morey, which 
contains a fine cellar forty feet below the surface of the ground. 
It is all arched, is forty feet wide in the centre, and is supported 
by pillars of solid stone. The barrels are placed in three rows, 
two barrels high ; but if the vault is much crowded, as many as 
four tiers are piled u-p. This cellar is furnished with four tanks, 
each capable of containing ten barrels of wine. These tanks 
have a door on the side, so as to enable a man to enter and clean 
the interior. To prevent leakage, the door is screwed tight to the 
side. Above this cellar there is still another one, arranged in the 
same way, which contains the young wines. We tasted many, 
and found them yerj good. Thence we went to the fermenting- 
room, where we saw the vats, press, tubs, etc., in excellent order. 
The fermenting-tanks, which hold fVom ten to eighteen barrels, 
are built of oak, with iron hoops to hold them together. The 
press, instead of having a screw from the top and pressing the 
juice out in that way, is made like a large square box, three sides 
of which are composed of thick wooden bars, about a quarter of 
an inch apart, so that the wine, but not the seeds and stems, may 
escape upon the large platform underneath the press, the bottom 
of which is also a lattice-work of strong bars. This platform is 
bordered by a scantling an inch and a half thick to prevent the 
juice from running over. The box above the platform is fur- 



THE BURGUNDY WINE DISTRICT. 45 

nished witii one solid oak slide, which is pushed toward the farther 
end by a couple of iron screws fastened in the planks on the one 
end. The other end has a cast-iron wheel, and each of the screws 
is furnished with one also, which in turn is driven by a still small- 
er wheel, on an iron bar which is attached to a fly-wheel worked 
by hand. When this is moved it starts the close-fitting solid slide 
of the box, and this presses the substance against the three open- 
work sides with such force as to extract every particle of juice 
from the stems and seeds deposited there for that purpose. The 
wine so pressed is carried in tubs to the cellar, and disjDoscd of as 
before described. 

Five days is generally sufiicient for the fermenting of wine in 
this part, unless it is cold weather, when the overseer sends his 
men in a couple of times more in their costume d VAdam to cre- 
ate the necessary warmth. The wine of this vineyard sells from 
600 to 1500 francs, according to the excellency of the vintage. 

We then went to examine the Gamai vineyards. We found 
that in color, size, and form the fruit very much resembled the 
Pineau grape ; but the bunches are much larger, and the vines 
bear three times as much as the Pineau. I was told that a tract 
of land originally planted with the Pineau, which made an ex- 
cellent wine, was replanted with the Gamai vine, which produced 
in this celebrated situation much less, and inferior wine to the 
vineyards of the first class Gamai in the plain. If this be a fact, 
it shows that the quality of wine depends greatly upon the grape, 
and not entirely on the soil. However, I will examine this the- 
ory more thoroughly, and compare it with the practical knowl- 
edge acquired by persons who have tried the same experiment. 

After seeing every thing here, we returned to the village, dis- 
charged our driver, and took the cars for Dijon, where we arrived 
at six o'clock, very tired and hungry. However, we partook of 
white wine that evening, as the process through which the red 
wine goes did not serve to increase our longing for the ruby-col- 
ored liquid. 

August 11. — This morning we started with M. Ladrey for 
Beaune, where the Professor L. is well acquainted. We were 
not very fortunate in our time, as it was Sunday, and almost 
every one was out. However, we at last found a clerk of a large 
commercial house which buys up the produce of the neighbor- 
hood. This gentleman took us into the vaults or cellars of his 
establishment. These cellars are the casemates of the ancient 



46 GRzVPE CULTURE AND ^\^NE-:MAKING. 

fortress wliicli in olden times had its fortifications around the 
town. These casemates are now used by the inhabitants as wine- 
cellars. After descending a steep flight of steps about sixty feet 
below the surface of the earth, an immense vault met our aston- 
ished eyes. It was filled with barrels piled one upon the other. 
We were led from vault to vault, which now contain but 4000 
barrels of wine, but they are capable of holding 12,000. There 
are also a few large hogsheads, which will hold forty-two bar- 
rels of wine. The thickness of these walls are forty feet. Of 
course, no private individual could build such a wall without its 
costing him a million of dollars. Little did the founders of this 
fort dream of the use to which their casemates would be put by 
the succeeding generations. The vaults in Beaune are now the 
best in the empire of France. 

Having visited all the places of note, we stopped at a book- 
store and purchased the map of the surrounding vineyards, with 
the produce of the district marked ; also two books of the dis- 
trict containing statistics of wine-making, the number of acres 
planted, their price, etc. After having freely conversed with the 
overseers who make a great deal of wine, I shall be able to judge 
whether the authors are theoretical or practical men. The maps 
are very valuable, as they give the quality of the vineyards as 
well as the nature of the soil, 

"We then started again for Dijon. The whole surrounding 
country is planted with vines — the hills with the Pincau, and the 
plains with the Gamai. Beaune is in the Prefecturate. It con- 
tains about 4000 inhabitants, who are generally wealthy and well 
to do. Much commerce is here carried on with foreign countries. 

August 12. — This morning we took the cars for Clos Yougeot. 
We arrived there at noon, and immediately proceeded to the vine- 
yard of the Clos. The steward very kindly gave us all the de- 
sired information. He told me that those vineyards and houses 
formerly belonged to the priests, who, finding that the vine did 
well, planted the whole neighborhood. They also built the wine- 
presses which he now uses. " These presses, four in number, were 
erected in the year 1117 A.D., and have defied the ravages of 
time. Their massive beams are sixty feet long, four and a half 
feet thick, and three feet wide, with a large wooden screw about 
eighteen inches thick and twelve feet high, still standing firm, 
and promising to last many years more. 

There are in the press-house 86 tanks, containing 825 barrels, 



THE BURGUNDY WINE DISTRICT. 47 

or 495,000 gallons of wine. The fermentation here lasts the same 
length of time as in other vineyards, namely, four or five days 
in warm weather, and six, or even twelve, in cold. When the 
weather is cold, tlic men arc sent into the wine as often as three 
times in the day. As it is a most delicate operation to have the 
exact quantity of heat, the overseer informed me that he some- 
times tested the wine three and four times in the day, either with 
a wine alcometer and thermometer, or with the palate. "When 
the test is made with the alcometer, he takes portions from the 
different parts of the barrel — the top, centre, and bottom — and 
mixes them well together before testing. 

"We were also taken into the cellars, which are lined with hogs- 
heads of 2400 gallons each. They are three and four hundred 
years old. They were also built by the priests, and are now kept 
in splendid order. The vineyards are planted with the Pineau 
and the Noirier half and half. The wine sells out of the ferment- 
ing-tub for 600 francs per barrel. 

Burgundy wine was in ancient times considered the noblest 
and most generous of wines, except the Tokay ; the wines from 
this district were often presented by the Princes of Burgundy to 
kings, princes, and chief nobles of foreign countries, as a great 
favor. No banquet was given without the genuine Burgundy; 
and even in the present age this fine wine holds its own with 
connoisseurs, and all lovers of a good glass. Industry and science 
have in modern times elevated the Bordeaux, and have made it 
a wine more generally used, on account of its mildness, as a table 
wine ; but, nevertheless, the Burgundy is sought for by all nations, 
and the extensive district planted with its vines can not supply 
the wants of the trade. 

That portion of the district which produces the finest wines is 
called the Cote d'Or, " Golden Hills." This is a range of hills 
from Chalons sur Saone to Dijon, running from north-northeast 
to south-southwest, about eighty miles in length. The height of 
these hills is from two hundred to three hundred feet ; the soil is 
red and gravelly, containing a good deal of limestone, similar to 
our Sonoma soil, which also exists in almost every county in Cali- 
fornia by millions of acres. These hills, with the exception of 
small spots where the red rock comes to the surface, are planted 
with vines, the vineyards reaching almost to the top of the hills. 
The reason why they do not extend to the very crest is that no 
soil exists on the rocks toward the very top. The first quality 



48 GRAPE CULTURE AND WINE-MAKING. 

of the wine is produced on the heights. The redder the soil, the 
better the wine. 

I have mentioned that I visited the celebrated vineyard of Clos 
Yougeot, containing one hundred and eighty acres, surrounded 
with a solid stone wall. In the middle stands the ancient abbey, 
which once had more than one hundred monasteries tributary to 
it. It is a well-preserved edifice, and is now owned by a j)rivate 
family who spend a portion of the time on this domain. 

The first-class vineyards plant exclusively the Pineau grape- 
vines, a black grape with a small berry and a small bunch, which 
produces from a half to one and a half pounds to the vine. This 
gives the generous and widely famed Burgundy wine. 

The second-class vineyards contain the Gamai grape, black in 
color, considerably larger as to berries than the Pineau, and more 
prolific, but giving an inferior wine. 

The third class are at the foot of the hills, sometimes extending 
into the valleys. They are planted with Gamai and several other 
vines, producing blue and white grapes. 

The various experiments made with the fresh -pressed juice 
from the Pineau showed ninety-six degrees of sugar and the 
greatest weight ; while the Gamai, raised alongside, proved to be 
only eighty-four degrees. In this province, when a vineyard is 
planted anew, the work is as follows: The ground is laid out 
with ditches five feet apart and one and a half feet deep ; the 
ground is thrown between the ditches, making a ridge ; the 
ditches are partially filled with good ground manure ; the cut- 
tings, eighteen inches long, are placed half a foot apart, bending 
toward the ridge; the soil is then drawn over the cutting and 
trampled down by the feet, leaving two buds out. The ridge is 
planted with potatoes, beans, beets, or cabbages. The first and 
second year, during the summer, these vines receive two or three 
hocings. The first year these plantations do not receive any 
pruning, but are left to grow as bushy as nature will allow. The 
second year, in the spring, they are pruned to two buds, and more 
soil is drawn over, covering the plants up to the cut. Manure is 
also applied in the rows. In the third year the vines arc pruned 
to two branches, each cut to two buds, and furnished with a stake 
from four to five feet long. During the fourth, or sometimes dur- 
ing the fifth year, small ditches are made from the vines toward 
the middle of the rows. The vine then is drawn in this ditch, 
the root remaining, with one branch, in its original place. The 



THE BURGUNDY WINE DISTRICT. 49 

Other branch is bent to the centre of the row, and two buds are 
left out of ground. The ridges which existed between the rows 
become, by this operation, leveled, and the whole vineyard now 
stands planted, two and a quarter feet apart, with vines. During 
the summer but one vine is allowed to grow up ; all the other 
sprouts are rubbed off. 

Many experiments were made by digging up the ground two 
feet deep, then taking an iron bar, and making a hole, and plant- 
ing the cutting. This mode succeeded as well as that just de- 
scribed ; that is, the vines grew and flourished well ; but it was 
found that, after a certain number of years, the vineyards thus 
planted yielded but little ; so that this mode is now abandoned, 
and the old ditching and laying system is now in use. 

When the vines begin bearing, which is the fifth and sixth year, 
each retains but one stem, which is cut above the ground to three 
buds. This mode of cutting to three buds is repeated every year ; 
that is, year after year the wood which possessed the three buds 
is left, and the new-made wood is cut to three buds. Proceeding 
thus, in from eight to ten years the vine will be raised to the 
height of from two to three feet. It becomes, therefore, necessary 
to bring these vines nearer to the ground, and by this means to 
renovate and rejuvenate them. This may be done in the follow- 
ing manner : As soon as the vintner sees that a vine is growing 
too high, he will, in the month of February or March, dig a ditch 
a foot deep and six inches wide toward a vacant place, without 
any reference to the line. The vine now is uncovered from the 
dirt on all sides, and drawn into this ditch. The hole (or ditch) 
must be just as long as the old stem of the vine, so that when laid 
horizontally the old stem will reach the end. The yearling branch 
at the end of the old stem is then bent up, the ditch filled with 
manured soil, and the yearling branch cut to three buds above 
the ground. About one tenth of the vines are annually so laid, 
consequently every vineyard is renewed once in ten years. By 
this operation, of course, all lines are destroyed, the vines standing 
every way like beans sowed broadcast ; but, inasmuch as cultiva- 
tion is carried on entirely by hand, it creates no inconvenience. 

The vineyards are generally divided into ouvries (land of a 
day's work). Such an ouvrie is 8645 square feet, in which ten 
to fifteen vines are to be laid every year by the hired vintner as a 
part of his regular duty, the payment being included in his wages ; 
but if it should exceed the above number of vines, he is paid one 

D 



50 GRAPE CULTURE AND WINE-MAKING. 

SOU for cacli extra, vine. The usual wages for working an acre 
for the year, excepting the packing of the grapes and making ^he 
wine, is from eighty to a hundred francs per acre. Many pro- 
jDrietors give their lands on half shares, as I have already men- 
tioned. 

The practice of manuring the vines is a necessary evil. It is 
a well-understood fact that vines produced on soil not manured 
will be more durable, and clear better, and are, consequently, 
sooner ready for market. 

The general conviction in this district is, that the closer the bud 
to the main stem, the stronger the wine it will produce ; that is, 
the first bud from the old wood will give grapes less in size than 
the second and third buds, but it will be a better wine. It is also 
demonstrated that the toj) bud will produce wood which is much 
more prolific in bearing than the wood of either of the other buds. 

The reader will understand that by cutting the vine to three 
buds it will make, of course, three branch vines. The sprouts 
must be rubbed off, so that these three vines will grow vigorous- 
ly, and enable the grapes to grow to perfection. 

It is generally admitted by all the vintners and French writers 
that, the closer the vines are kept to the ground, the better the 
grapes will ripen, and they will contain more saccharine and col- 
oring matter. It is also agreed unanimously by all reports on 
this subject, that when vines are pruned for large crops many 
buds will be left on the vines, which will produce many grapes, 
but they will be neither as sweet nor as dark colored as the grapes 
from the moderate-bearing vines, besides making an inferior wine 
without the proper bouquet. In the district of Burgundy the 
practice of three-bud pruning is in general use. The vineyards 
being renewed every ten years, as described above, are, of course, 
kept in splendid condition. We were told that the Burgundy 
vines exported to foreign countries, and not cultivated in the man- 
ner above described, in fifteen or twenty years ceases to bear en- 
tirely, or, if at all, in very small quantities. 

The vintage is conducted as follows : Those proprietors of vine- 
yards which have stone walls around them, called " des Clos," are 
allowed to gather their grapes whenever they please ; consequent- 
ly, they will begin the vintage whenever their grapes are in the 
very best condition. This accounts for the fact that the wine 
from fenced vineyards is better in quality, and commands a high- 
er price in the wine market than that of others. 



THE BURGUNDY WINE DISTRICT. 51 

Those vineyards not fenced, and the largest portion, arc subject 
to the following rules: Three commissioners on vineyards — one 
proprietor, one merchant, and one vintner — are appointed by the 
prefect, for the purpose of examining the vineyards from time to 
time, and reporting to the sub-prefect. When in their judgment 
the vineyards are fit for the vintage to begin, they report the fact. 
At the receipt of this report, the sub-prefect issues his order, set- 
ting the day recommended by the commissioners for the work to 
begin. On this day every body is compelled to commence the 
vintage ; but, as their work is performed in a few days, the cus- 
tom is to order a certain day in one village ; in an adjacent one a 
few days later, and so on, so that sufficient hands can be procured 
to perform the necessary labor. If this were not done in districts 
where several hundred thousands of acres are planted with vines, 
it would be impossible to get the labor necessary, all at the re- 
quired time. 

The laboring men, women, and children, at such appointed time, 
come from far and near, and collect at the market-place ; here they 
are hired by the vintners, according as they are needed. They 
are paid more or less, accordiog as the number of laborers are 
greater or fewer. The gathering is described elsewhere. 

The possessors of small vineyards usually sell their grapes to 
wine-dealers, who come to the vineyards. They either jDurchase 
by the measure, or take the whole produce of the vineyard in a 
lump. The owner of the vineyard invariably has to gather and 
deliver the grapes to the purchaser, and to pick and select them 
according to the desire of the merchant. 

Those proprietors who have but small vineyards, and do not 
sell their grapes, but make them into wine, produce, without ex- 
ception, an inferior quality ; not on account of the locality or soil, 
but for the reason that they do not or can not select their grapes, 
but throw all together, good and bad — the amount of grapes be- 
ing too small to make different qualities of wine ; the consequence 
is, that their wine brings indifferent prices. 

It is believed, and we think with good reason, that the fewer 
the grapes on the vine the more perfect they will be, and will re- 
ceive from nature the full aroma natural to the species, and which 
makes the wine so celebrated for its bouquet. 

Having examined the district of Burgundy in every direction, 
collecting all useful information, and engaging several thousand 
cuttings of its celebrated varieties, we prepared to return to Paris. 



52 GRAPE CULTURE AND WINE-RIAKING. 

But, before leaving Dijon, I must here acknowledge my heartfelt 
thanks to Professor M. C. Ladrej for the kind attention we re- 
ceived at his hands, and for the valuable information, books, re- 
ports, etc., which he presented to me. To his accomplished lady 
and family our gratitude likewise is due. We had the pleasure 
of partaking of a magnificent entertainment with them. 

After bidding farewell to our new acquaintances, we started at 
midnight by the train for Paris. As it was night we could see 
nothing, so that we had to spend the time as best we could. 



FROM PAKIS TO FRANKFORT ON TUE MAINE. 53 



CHAPTER III. 

FROM PARIS TO FRANIvFORT ON THE MAINE. 

Ball at the Chateau dcs Fleurs. — The Emperor's Fete-day. — The Illumination and 
Fireworks. — Orderly Conduct of the People. — Departure for Germany. — Observa- 
tions on the Way. — Ems. — The Casino. — Gambling. — The Promenade. — Dr. 
Precht. — Donkey and Mule Riding. — The Valley of the Swiss. — Count Stein's 
Tomb. — Grist-mills. — The Water-wheels. — Silver Mines. — Condition of the Peo- 
ple. — The Theatre. — Letters and Visits. — Coblentz.— Difficulty with Bankers. — 
Start for Frankfort. — Letters of Credit preferable to Cash. — Conversation with 
Passengers. — Notes by the Way. — Arrival at Frankfort. — Letters of Introduction. 
— Americans in Frankfort. 

August 1-1. — Arrived in Paris at six o'clock in the morning, aft- 
er having traveled almost the whole night. I was busily engaged 
the whole day in writing answers to my correspondents. In the 
evening, hearing that a public ball was to be given at the Chateau 
des Fleurs, I determined to see what such a thing was in Paris. 
The ball was given in the open air, in a garden most beautifully 
illuminated with lamps of all colors and descriptions. Some were 
shaped like flowers, and, as such, were scattered profusely among 
the shrubbery ; others represented garlands, and were festooned 
among the trees, creating a perfect blaze of light. Then there 
were gas-lights nestling in among the flowers, glittering like so 
many dew-drops. At the farther end of the avenue was a fine 
pagoda for the music ; this was also most brilliantly illuminated. 
The whole, when viewed from an elevated platform, had a most 
entrancingly beautiful effect. But the company was not such as 
we would like our families to associate with. Most of the females 
were grisettes^ each of whom, at the tones of the inspiring band, 
seemed to forget for the moment her cares and troubles, and to 
have but one idea — that of excelling her rivals in the dance. 
After gazing for a time upon this scene of wild gay ety, I returned 
home much fatigued. 

August 15. — To-day I intended to leave Paris ; but as it is the 
Emperor's fete-day, and there will be grand illuminations in the 
city, I have determined to remain over one day. 

Evening has arrived. Carriages have been forbidden to go to 



54 GRAPE CULTURE AND WINE-MAKING. 

the Champs Eljsues; the Eue de Eivoli leading to it is in a 
blaze. Millions and millions of lights decorate public and pri- 
vate houses. The garden of the Tuileries has been transformed 
into fairy-land. Sceptres and crowns, blazing with lights to rep- 
resent the finest rubies, diamonds, topazes, and emeralds, are scat- 
tered all over. Down the main avenue may be seen, at a distance 
of every ten or twelve feet, immense chandeliers of wire support- 
ing hundreds of lights. The ponds are encircled with lamps. 
From the Tuileries we could see the principal public buildings, 
all of which were encircled with a double row of small gas-lights, 
which resembled a crown of brilliants. All the columns were 
wound around w^ith lamps of all sizes and colors. Among the 
numerous designs was that of the Legion of Honor, It was ele- 
vated above the house-top, and the imitation of precious stones 
of which it is composed was elegant. The Eiver Seine was also 
festooned all along with garlands upon garlands of lamps. In 
the Champs Elysces was a square, containing four Chinese towers, 
composed of different-colored lamps. Circle was within a circle, 
till you thought you could see almost into futurity. These four 
pagodas were connected with triple garlands of lamps of all col- 
ors, caught up at equal distances by bunches of lamps of different 
forms. The Invalides, however, was the most beautiful, but it 
requires a more skillful pen than mine to give a description of 
the decorations. Near the Invalides were also the fireworks, 
which were magnificent. Fountains, rockets, wheels — in a word, 
every thing that art could produce in that line, was there exhib- 
ited that evening. As for the spectators, there must have been 
at least one million present. Men, women, and children all 
thronged to sec the fireworks, and for hours the principal street 
was nothing but a sea of heads. 

There were guards and policemen placed at different points, 
and, notwithstanding this almost incredible number of people, 
there were no fights, no picking of pockets, no disturbance. All 
was quiet and well arranged. Every one seemed to enjoy the 
sight, without having before his eyes the continual fear of being 
robbed. The free approval and calm behavior of the people 
showed that they are accustomed to such grand sights. What 
struck me as strange was, that the Emperor was not in Paris at 
this grand celebration, but remained at his country seat at St. 
Cloud. 

August IG. — This evening at five o'clock we left Paris for Cob- 



FROM PARIS TO FRANKFORT ON THE MAINE. 55 

lentz. Daylight lasted but three and a half hours, so I saw but 
few of the villages through which wc passed. There are inai;iy 
stonc-quarrics on the way between Coblentz and Paris. From 
these quarries the stone is transported to Paris cither by rail, riv- 
er, or canal. 

In this district the soil is much richer than in Dijon, but the 
wine is not celebrated, as the ground is entirely planted with grain, 
and the laborers raise only enough grapes for their own use. 

I noticed that a great deal of hemp is cultivated in this part. 
It looks very well, as also do the clover-fields, which one and all 
are in splendid condition. Poplar-trees are planted in great pro- 
fusion, and afford a fine shade. The grape-vines on the hill-sides 
looked very luxuriant, and were devoid of the red spots which I 
noticed in the districts of Dijon and Beaune. We went too rap- 
idly to judge as to the quality of the crop. 

We passed village after village till dark, when we composed 
ourselves quietly for a nap, but an undisturbed slumber was not 
attained. No sooner had I fixed myself comfortably, and was al- 
ready in my first doze, when a stentorian voice demanded " les 
billets^ Arousing myself with difiiculty, I fumbled in every pock- 
et, until, by chance, I reached the right one which contained the 
tickets, which the conductor glanced at and returned. This pro- 
cess was renewed every hour, till finally I was worked up almost 
to desperation. But fortunately this, as all troubles, had an end, 
and we reached Cologne, where we changed cars for Coblentz. I 
forgot to say that, upon reaching the Prussian borders, we were 
hustled out into the Custom-house, where we were very civilly 
treated by the officers, only going through a pretense of examina- 
tion. 

August 18. — I took a carriage, and went to Ems with my fam- 
ily. The road leading there winds along the banks of the river, 
and is at the foot of the mountains, which •are all planted with 
vines ; but the whole mountain being nothing but slate, every few 
rods there are high rock walls which form a sort of platform, and 
on these are planted vines, which look well, but the wine is infe- 
rior, as the soil is slate-rock and sand. We passed several large 
iron factories on the road -to Ems, where we arrived at half past 
nine o'clock. 

Ems is the property of the Duke of Nassau, and yields him an 
annual income of two millions of dollars. Every thing is very 
finely arranged, and not costly for a bathing-place. 



56 GRAPE CULTUKE AND WIXE-JIAiaNG. 

We took a promenade after dinner, and passed into tlie Casino, 
where there are two lui'ge gaming - tables, around which were 
crowded numerous spectators and betters, among whom I observed 
several ladies, throwing down their coins on the red or black. I 
was told that, a short time since, a count lost all he had and blew 
his brains out, while a more lucky individual broke the bank and 
won 52,000 thalers. But I soon left, as I did not expect to be 
lucky like the latter, nor want to fare like the former. 

August 19. — A beautiful strain of music awoke me from a most 
pleasant sleep to a most beautiful morning. The band, composed 
of forty musicians, paid by the Duke, plays every morning from 
six to eight o'clock. Hastily putting on my clothes, I went upon 
the promenade, which was crowded with genuine patients, and 
pretty patients who washed to attract attention by their apparently 
dehcate health, but in reality showed themselves to make a good 
match. I was much amused by the various manoeuvres of, the 
mammas, who were on the qui vive not to let their inexperienced 
daughters make a blunder. 

The day was passed in visiting the grounds and neighborhood, 
and in forming acquaintances. We met here our sincere and good 
old friend. Dr. Precht, with whom an appointment had previously 
been arranged by telegraph. He was accompanied by his lady. 
Our meeting jDroved a mutual gratification. After partaking of a 
good dinner, accompanied by a few bottles of the best wine the 
cellar of the Duke could furnish, we passed the remainder of that 
day admiring the beautiful promenades, rapt sometimes in the en- 
ticing charms of music, or beholding with admiration the loveli- 
est beauties of all nations who gather here. 

August 20. — In the morning, at six o'clock, wo were all up to 
take a donkey-ride and see the surrounding country. The custom 
here is to ride donkeys. Those destined for ladies have on them 
a kind of arm-chairieaddle, well wadded, open on one side, and 
with a back on the other. The color of the cover is a gay red, 
and the whole concern is very convenient. This is placed on a 
small donkey, hardly larger than a Newfoundland dog, who trots 
off with his burden with the greatest seeming ease. The ladies 
were delighted with their long-eared chargers and their easy gait. 

Each donkey has a driver, who remains close behind the ani- 
mal to quicken its speed or guide it. This latter operation is done 
by twisting the donkey's tail to the right or to the left, just as he 
is wished to go. Our party was composed of three ladies, myself, 



FROM PAKIS TO FRANKFORT ON THE MAINE. 57 

and Arpad. Wc men rode mules, whicb, in my estimation, ■were 
not as good as the donkeys, inasmuch as these, with the ladies, 
were always ahead of us, and it was only with the continual exer- 
tion of our heels and the application of the driver's stick that we 
could catch up with them. 

Our drive was toward a valley called the " Valley of the Swiss." 
The road ascends to the top of a well-timbered mountain, and then 
descends into the above-mentioned valley. On the side of the hill, 
before descending into the Swiss valley, is the family vault of 
Count Stein, minister of the King of Prussia, and a celebrity of 
the time of Napoleon the First. This vault, which also holds sev- 
eral members of the family, is of stone, and is a building of simple 
construction. It is surrounded by a small garden containing sev- 
eral pine-trees, and which itself is encircled by a stone wall. A 
woman came and opened, first, the gate of the wall, and then the 
iron door of the vault. After we had seen all that was to be seen, 
which was a couple of sculptures and as many inscriptions, we left 
the resting-place of the dead, and wound our way down the nar- 
row path into the valley. 

The path was so steep and so narrow that we were obliged to 
dismount and descend on foot. On our way down we passed 
several small grist-mills, whose working force was given by a 
small stream. The water runs along in a ditch, and is brought 
in a wooden trough, one foot wide and about six inches deep, 
over a bucket- wheel. I examined one of these wheels : it was 
twenty-eight feet high and one foot wide ; its bucket holds about 
a gallon and a half of water. The water running was but one 
and a half inch deep and twelve inches wide. The stones and 
inside arrangements are all very primitive. As for the construc- 
tion of the wheel, round the axle is built a cog-wheel, the cogs 
being on the side, and turning a small spindle with seven hori- 
zontal rods, this spindle, in its turn, turning the stone. Much 
improvement might be made in the stone and all the other ar- 
rangements. I was informed by the miller that he makes about 
ten bushels a day. The flour is bad, and would not be market- 
able with us. 

"We passed several silver mines; they are being worked with 
good advantage to the proprietors. I intend to visit at least one 
of the smelting establishments. Perhaps they contain some new 
improvements by which Washoe might derive some benefit. 

We at last arrived home, much pleased with our donkey-ride, 



58 GRAPE CULTURE AND WINE-iMAKING. 

but less so with the information wliich I gathered ; the land is 
poor, the people poor; the mountains are not even fit for the 
vine culture. The country gives but meager earnings to its in- 
habitants, and, were it not for this bathing-place, they would fare 
still worse. Ems brings together thousands of people each year 
from far and near, either for pleasure or to partake of its mineral 
waters, whose healing virtues have a wide reputation. The tax 
on agricultural lands in the Duchy of Nassau is six dollars on the 
thousand. Mechanics pay a much larger tax. 

We went this evening to the theatre. The acting was pretty 
good. There was present a fine array of ladies. The diamonds 
sparkled, the pearls, rubies, etc., rivalized with each other, but the 
captivating eyes of the ladies were above all the diamonds and 
pearls. 

August 21. — Long before the beautiful band of music began to 
j^lay I was up writing letters to my correspondents in Europe, and 
then continued my journal. Having not much to write from the 
doings of yesterday, I finished in the forenoon, and then received 
several visits. ■ Having been invited to dine with Dr. Precht, my- 
self and family went to dinner. During the day I sent some let- 
ters and papers to Count Wass, also to Mr. Grisza. In the even- 
ing I received Mr. Ordody, a Hungarian nobleman, and his lady. 
During the evening we received several other visits, after which 
we went for an hour to the ball. Ecturning from the ball, I read 
some books on wine and wine-growing, after which I prepared for 
my departure to the upper parts of the Rhine. 

August 22. — I started in the morning for Coblentz with Dr. 
Precht and Arpad. Arrived in Coblentz, I called on the banker 
to whom I had a letter of credit, but, to my surprise, he informed 
me that he had received no notice from Hentsch and Lutscher, 
consequently he could not pay me any money on my letter of 
credit. What was to be done? I had but three florins in my 
pocket, and a bill for five days' living for myself and fimiily in 
Ems. I at once telegraphed to Frankfort, where the same letter 
of credit was addressed to another banking-house. From this 
house I received the answer that they had been notified from 
Paris, and so I at once started for Frankfort. 

From Coblentz to Frankfort by railroad it takes five hours 
fifteen minutes, and the fare in the second class is two and a half 
thalers per scat. In Germany only the nobility and higher class- 
es, or, to use a colloquial term, the Big-lugs^ travel in the first 



FROM PARIS TO FKANICFORT ON THE MAINE. 59 

class. The railway carried iis past many celebrated vineyards; 
but, as the money was at loio tide, in our pockets, we were forced 
to delay our investigations till high tide, which we hoped would 
take place, as usual, in twenty-four hours or less. 

This money affair would have been more annoying than it real- 
ly was had it not been for Dr. Prccht, who furnished me with twen- 
ty-five florins to proceed on my way to Frankfort. It was alto- • 
gether brought on by the carelessness of the corresponding clerk 
of the house Hcntsch and Lutschcr. I purposely put this little ac- 
cident in my report to warn my fellow-citizens who travel never 
to let their purse run down low enough to prevent themselves 
from reaching the next-named place on their letter of credit. A 
letter of credit, in traveling, is preferable to cash, as this may be 
lost or be stolen ; besides, the constant change of money in the 
different countries constitutes a certain loss, not taking into con- 
sideration that changers are never over-honest people. Not only, 
then, is a letter of credit safer, but also much more preferable. 

On the road from Coblentz I opened a conversation with a 
clergyman, who gave me some information on vines and their va- 
rieties. I also had a conversation with the proprietor of a vine- 
yard, who is himself manufacturing wine. He recommends to 
me in very high terms the hydraulic press, to press out the juice 
from the pulp of the grapes. He added that this new press, only 
introduced five years ago, works admirably well, and that all those 
who make any progress in wine manufacturing introduce it into 
their establishments. I asked him why they had abandoned the 
cylinder crushers, and again adopted the old method of stamping 
with the feet or with wooden pieces ? I was answered that cylin- 
ders crush more or less of the stems, which, containing a bitter 
juice, communicates the flavor to the wine, destroying some of 
its bouquet, and making it less palatable. In regard to nurseries, 
the general answer I receive is, that there are none of any conse- 
quence in the neighborhood. The trees on the road have no fruit 
at all. Some attribute this to the frost, others again to the last 
year's crop, which was extraordinarily heavy, and consequently 
spoiled this year's. I told them that in America we had a mode 
of regulating, to some extent, the bearing of our trees by root- 
pruning them. They listened attentively, but I saw by their 
smiles, which were hardly suppressed, that they very much doubt- 
ed my statements. The people here, in general agricultural knowl- 
edge, are much behind ours of the same class. We arrived in 



(30 GRAPE CULTURE AND WINE-MAKING. 

Frankfort at half past ten in the night, where we took a beef- 
steak, and then went to bed. 

August 23. — I, as usual, wrote my journal in the morning. 
After nine o'clock I went with Arpad to my banker Metzler, who 
paid me the required money, and kindly offered me his services 
and letters of introduction to several proprietors of large vine- 
yards — among others, one at Johannisberg. I accepted his offers 
with thanks. 

From here we went to the American consul general, Mr. Bick- 
er. Inquiring about Mr. Eoss Browne, I found that he was ab- 
sent, traveling in Norway, but was expected back daily. From 
the consul's we went and took a walk around the city for half an 
hour, then returned to the hotel to write our correspondence, etc. 
We were not long thus occupied before Mr. Howard, son of Gen- 
eral Volney Howard, of San Francisco, called upon us. This 
young man is studying medicine in Europe. I invited him to 
dine, and after dinner he went with us to HocJiheim by railroad. 



HOCHnEIM, STEINBERG, AND JOHANNISBERG. 61 



CHAPTER IV. 

HOCHHEIM, STEINBERG, AND JOHANNISBERG. ' 

Ilochheim. — Mr. Drcscl. — The Ch.impagne Manufiictory. — Mr. Lembach. — His 
Cellar. — His Method of Wine-making. — Different Wines from the same Grape. — 
The Barrels. — Sulphuring the Barrels. — Price of Wines. — Regulations for Gather- 
ing the Grapes. — Visit to the Champagne Manufactory. — Mr. Hummel. — Wies- 
baden. — Professor Medicus. — The Kurhaus. — The Gambling Rooms. — Dr. Thoma. 
— Biberich. — The Chief .of the Steinberg Vineyards. — The Steinberg Vineyards. 
— Mode of Cultivating the Grape. — The Farm-yard. — Eberbach. — The Wine 
Cellars. — Tasting Wines. — Bouquet of Old and New Wines. — How to taste fine 
Wines. — Assorting the Grapes. — Manufacturing the Wine. — Large and small 
Barrels. — Requisites for making good Wines. — The Presses. — Visit to Johannis- 
berg. — The Soil of the Region. — Vineyards not Sold. — Their Value. — Palace of 
Johannisberg. — The Vineyard. — The Cellars. — The Johannisberg and Steinberg 
Wines. — Rivalry between them. — The Superiority sometimes accidental. — A 
lucky Stroke. — Prices the same. — Last Glasses of Johannisberg. — Geisberg. — 
The Experimental Gardens. — Results of Experiments. — High Trimming and low 
Trimming of Vines. — The School of Agriculture. — Exchange of Seeds. — Depart- 
ure for Frankfort. — Report of Wine Auctions at Eberbach. 

In an hour's travel we arrived at Hocliheim, where, after going 
to an inn and having onr clothes brushed, we set out to see Her- 
man Dresel, Esq., Director of the Champagne manufactory of the 
Joint-stock Association. The American consul had furnished me 
with a letter of introduction to Mr. Dresel. He received me 
kindly, and conducted us through the whole establishment, to de- 
scribe which, at first sight, would be impossible. This is one of the 
largest establishments in Germany. It employs eighty men, and 
makes daily three thousand bottles of Champagne. The capital 
invested is 1,000,000 guldens (about $rtOO,000).* It makes very 
good sparkling wines, and imitates excellently the French Cham- 
pagnes. Some of the imitations are really much better than the 
brands they pretend to imitate. The establishment makes money. 
Mr. Dresel, who took great pains to show and explain to us each 
branch separately, invited me to come to-morrow for a closer ex- 
amination and farther inspection. This gentleman is the brother 
of Mr. E. Dresel, resident and proprietor of a fine vineyard in So- 
noma. I was ignorant of this until I asked the gentleman if he 

* The gulden (plural guldens) or florin is equal to about 40 cents. 



62 GRAPE CULTURE AND WINE-MAKING. 

was not related to a Dresel in California. His answer that he 
was a brother only brought us closer together in our relations, 
and we conversed as old acquaintances. The cordial and gentle- 
manly manner of Mr. Dresel I shall not soon forget. 

After siDcuding a couple of hours in the establishment, and 
tasting some sparkling wine, we returned to our inn. Mr. Dresel 
joined "us at our supper, and we spent an agreeable evening. In 
fact, we were up until half past eleven, which for a village is a 
pretty late hour. Parting with Mr. Dresel, with the promise of 
seeing each other next day for a thorough inspection, I went to 
bed well contented with to-day's travel and the result of the in- 
spection. I was also contented with the wines we had drunk, for 
they were very good. 

August 24. — After completing my journal of yesterday, we went 
to take a cup' of coffee, then started out with our host, Mr. Lem- 
bach, who is a cooper as well as inn-keeper. He has the sujDerin- 
tendencc of several cellars belonging to persons who do not reside 
here. We went to a press-house, where we saw two presses with 
screws; one screw received its resisting point from below, the 
other from above. Neither of these presses are desirable for 
imitation. 

From here he led us to his own wine-cellar, where he has about 
seventy st'dch^ or pipes, each holding about two hundred and fifty 
gallons of wine. He gave us to taste wings of three successive 
years, coming from the same vineyard, forming eleven different 
wines. These wines were made purely from the Eiesling grape ; 
no other variety of grape was in them. The bouquet was fine ; 
the wine clear and excellent. We tasted each wine separately, 
then compared one with the other. The difference from year to 
year was remarkable — so great that I was able to distinguish each 
year. He had first and second quality from the same wine. His 
mode of making wine is as follows : The grapes are gathered 
after the dew has dried up, and are carried to the press-house, 
where the bunches are separated into three, and in some cele- 
brated vineyards into five classes. Each bunch of the first class 
is carefully divested of the rotten berries, dust, or other impuri- 
ties. These classes, once formed, arc worked separately and al- 
ways kept apart. The grapes, once separated, are thrown into a 
crusher, where they run through two cast-iron cylinders. When 
once through this instrument they are put into a small vat, where 
they ferment six, eight, and even sixteen hours, but are carefully 



IIOCIIIIEIM, STEINBERG, AND JOIIANNISBERG. G3 

pressed down whenever the stems or seeds show themselves on 
the top. 

This mode of fermenting for several hours is not adopted with 
blue grapes; it is onl}-- used for white grapes, and for making white 
wine from them. To make white wine from blue grapes, jou 
must not ferment them, for that will immediately color it. 

The grapes, having fermented for the above-mentioned time, 
are put in a mass and pressed. In a good year, that is, when the 
grapes are perfectly ripe and almost raisins, the second or last run 
makes the best wine. When the grapes are not wholly ripe, the 
first run, or first pressed juice is thought to make the best wine. 
The reasons given for this are, that when the grapes are ripened 
to raisins they contain but little juice, and it is only extracted by 
a very powerful pressure, and this pressure only comes at the 
end ; but when the grapes are full, and retain all their fluid, the 
first pressure gives the finest juice, as after it the pressure becomes 
greater and crushes the seeds and stems, which then discharge 
some of their bitter contents, which injures the wine. In the first 
instance, when the grapes are almost raisins, the stones or seeds 
are also crushed, but they are dry, and are totally void of juice. 

The juice is then run into barrels, in the cellar, of one stiick 
(250 gallons) each. These barrels, of course, are only in small 
vineyards, as in larger ones tuns, containing from two to five 
thousand gallons, are employed. These vessels, large or small, once 
fihed, remain for a time covered with a clean rag on the bung- 
hole. They remain thus until March, when they are drawn ofii" 
into clean barrels. These barrels, if possible, are sulphured a day 
before being used. If there is a deficiency of barrels, those must 
be employed which have already been used, but only after having 
been thoroughly washed and sulphured. The first year the wine 
is drawn off into new barrels four or five times. It is first drawn 
off four or five weeks after it is put into barrels, then in two 
months after, then in three, then in four. In the second year 
twice will be sufiacient ; in the third year, once ; then once in two 
years ; and after that it may remain in the same barrel until it is 
bottled. The greatest care should be taken never to leave a va- 
cant space in any barrel holding wine. As our host quaintly 
said, " You should sooner forget to kiss your wife on returning 
home than to leave a vacancy in your barrel." 

When any barrels are empty, immediately wash them out thor- 
oughly ; for each barrel take a sulphur strip, one inch wide and 



64 GRAPE CULTURE AND WINE-MAKING. 

four long, and burn it in the barrel ; then bung it up well, and 
place it where it will be neither too dry nor too wet, as either 
extreme will injure it. Three months after, open theT^arrel, burn 
half as much as before, then bung it up, to begin again three 
months after. This is done on all the empty barrels. This op- 
eration serves to keep the barrel ffood and sweet. Should any 
acid or mould creep into the barrels, take a handful of quick-lime, 
put it in, pour hot water on it, and wash the barrel well. The 
price of a new barrel of 250 gallons is 40 guldens or florins ($16). 

The cleanliness of all the wine-cellars in this country is admi- 
rable and most difiicult to describe. The vine}' ards in good bear- 
ing years in Hochheim will produce one stiick per mor^e/i (some- 
what less than an acre). The wine per stiick sells at from 500 to 
3000 florins ($200 to $1200). The wines are splendid, and really 
delightful to drink. 

The authorities are so jealous of the reputation of their wine 
that no man is permitted to gather his grapes before the time for 
the vintage is decided by a council. To prevent imprudent men 
from plucking in the morning, when the dew is still on the grapes, 
it is forbidden to begin gathering before the large bell of the town 
has sounded. The same bell also sounds the hour of quitting the 
vineyard, when every one must cease to gather. Besides these 
regulations there are many others, as, for instance, a man planting 
a vineyard has to plaat his vines three and a half feet apart, this 
being considered the best distance for the Eiesling grape. Other 
varieties have different distances allowed to them ; the Oestreicher, 
for instance, must be planted four feet apart, being a grape which 
produces more wood. 

After having examined all the wines, and listened to much val- 
uable information from our good host, we went to the manufac- 
tory of sparkling wines to see Mr. Drcsel, with whom I had made 
an appointment. This time I made arrangements to procure all 
the varieties of vines grown in the neighborhood, and each kind 
of implement used in the manufacturing of sparkling wine. We 
once more went through all the cellars and warehouses, Mr. Dresel 
having introduced me to Mr. H.J. Hummel, superintendent of the 
wines and cellars. This young man has risen through all the 
branches of the art until he reached the position which he now 
occupies. He is a very intelligent man, and, as I am told, is a per- 
fect master of his art. I spoke to him of coming to California to 
put up for me a similar establishment, if not so great in extent, at 



HOCIIHEIM, STEINBERG, AND JOIIANNISBERG. 65 

least producing as good wines. Uc promised to consider the mat- 
ter, and, if the company gives its consent, lie will do so. We spent 
no less than four full hours in this mammoth establishment, after 
which we returned to our inn, where Mr.Dresel soon rejoined us. 
After dinner we parted, Mr, Iloward going to Frankfort, myself 
and Arpad to Wiesbaden, being furnished with several letters of 
introduction from Mr. Drescl. 

We arrived at about five o'clock P.M., and immediately set out 
to see Professor Medicus, who is a professor in the government 
School of Agriculture for the education of youth in agricultural 
knowledge. The professor was absent from town, so we took a 
stroll in front of the Kwhaus, where a band of music was playing. 
The promenade was full of gay people. This bathing-place is 
larger than Ems, has splendid buildings, promenades, parks, fount- 
ains, etc. It also belongs to the Duke of Nassau, who resides here 
in winter. The waters are considered very good for curing sev- 
eral diseases. 

Following a steady stream of people, we soon found ourselves 
in a splendid saloon, magnificently decorated, possessing no less 
than seven immense chandeliers hanging from different parts of 
the saloon, besides hundreds of other gay burners, all ornamented 
with ground glass globes. The richness of the furniture was in 
harmony with the rest of the decorations. The saloon has galler- 
ies where the music plays when balls and concerts are given. At 
the west end of the gallery and building there is a large place 
decorated with red velvet and gold trimmings for the use of the 
Duke and family. 

In this vast saloon there is a gambling -table, surrounded by 
men and women, who are players or spectators. From here to the 
left open three more large saloons, also magnificently furnished 
and decorated. In the centre of each there is a gambling-table, 
occupied by players. At two tables they played at rouge et noir, 
and at the other two at roulette. These places are open to the 
public, and ladies and gentlemen come in for amusement to play 
or see the players. They seat themselves around in the rooms on 
arm-chairs or well-cushioned sofas. Liveried servants are in at- 
tendance. No smoking or loud talking is allowed, and hats must 
be removed from the head. From the last of the three gambling- 
rooms you enter into a fine large reading-room, where the prom- 
inent periodicals and newspapers published in Europe are to be 
found. 

E 



66 GRAPE CULTUEE AND WINE-M^iKING. 

TVc spent a quarter of an hour in the last plajing-room, where 
we watched a gentleman, who, with the greatest coolness, put up 
and lost from twenty to forty napoleons ($80 to $160) at a time. 
"We at last went to our hotel, where, after supper, we went to bed. 

Aiirjust 25. — Being Sunday, nothing could be done in the morn- 
ing except to send a letter to the director. Professor Dr. Thoma, 
chief of the Giesberg Agricultural Establishment, of which I have 
already made mention. At three o'clock I received an answer 
that the director would receive us at four. We accordingly went 
at that hour, and were received very cordially. After showing 
my commission, etc., the doctor kindly offered to conduct us to 
the Institute. He also said it would be better for us to go with 
him to Biberich, where the Duke is residing, and where also the 
chief of the wines and cellars is at present. Accordingly, we took 
a carriage and drove over to the Eesidence, which is about a mile 
and a half distant. Arriving there, we were presented to the 
chief, who was surrounded by gentlemen engaged in the agreea- 
ble occupation of drinking wine. The chief is an old gentleman 
over seventy -five years, unable to walk on account of the gout ; 
still, he received us kindly, and readily gave me all the informa- 
tion I desired. He appointed that to-morrow I should go with 
his deputy (as he can not leave the house) to the different vine- 
yards and cellars. 

In the evening we returned from Biberich, but not before 
taking a walk in the gardens of the Residence of the Duke of 
Nassau. The Burg is of ancient architecture, large, standing on 
the banks of the Rhine, being surrounded on three sides by a fine 
park containing grccn-houscs, exotics, etc. The trees are old and 
luxuriant. The town itself is built around the park. It has some 
fine buildings, but it does not equal Wiesbaden. 

August 26. — As I was writing the above, the Director Thomii 
was announced. He came prepared to accompany me to the va- 
rious places which the day would permit us to visit. I was much 
pleased at last to come to a place where the people are punctual, 
and ready to go to work at seven o'clock. We drove to Bi- 
berich. Here the old gentleman received us at the door of his 
receiving-room, having been assisted there by his valet. He put 
at our disposal his deputy. With him we proceeded to the cele- 
brated vineyard of Steinberg. This vineyard disputes the supe- 
riority of the Johannisbcrg, and, of course, of the whole Rhine 
country. It contains 10-i morrjen. Its soil is rocky, and com- 



HOCHHEIM, STEINBERG, AND JOHANNISBERG. 67 

posed of a bluish clay, though the substrata is gravel. The vines 
are only Riesling ; the distance at which they are planted is three 
feet in the rows, and four feet between the rows. The vineyards 
last about thirty years, when they arc cut out, and the land rests 
for three years. During the first of these three years they haul 
some of the manured blue clay, and spread it over the vacant 
ground about a foot thick. This is done during the summer. 
Then it is plowed over several times, and clover raised upon it 
during its years of rest. The average yield of this vineyard is 
40 stiick, or 10,000 gallons. 

Adjoining this vineyard is a farm-yard, which is leased for a 
period of time, with all the land, to a farmer ; but he is obliged 
to furnish so many loads of manure annually, as it is indispensa- 
ble to the Steinberg vineyards. I also saw his milk-house, and 
his cattle, which are not allowed to leave the stable even for wa- 
tering. He considered his stock very fine, but I have seen much 
better in California. 

From there we went to the old Convent of Eberbach, which is 
at present partly a state Penitentiary, and the remainder is the 
cellar of the Duke of Nassau. The deputy master of the cellars 
opened them, the coopers belonging to the cellars entered, and 
in about a quarter of an hour we were invited to go in. Upon 
coming into the cellar a beautiful sight lay before us. Hundreds 
of lights illumined the room. There were two rows of barrels of 
250 gallons each, and upon the end of each was a sperm candle 
lighted. The barrels being of an equal size, the effect was very 
fine. This first cellar is about 100 feet long, 40 feet wide, and 
25 feet high. It contains several rows of barrels, of which only 
the two in the centre were lighted. From this we reached a still 
larger cellar, built square, with the arches resting upon a fine col- 
umn in the centre. The barrels are placed in a circle, leaving a 
large space of about thirty feet vacant. Each barrel bore a light- 
ed candle, which added still more to the grandeur of the effect. 
Around the central column is a table, on which were placed about 
forty glasses for tasting the wine. From this cellar there is still 
another, which also was lighted. It is about 100 feet in length. 

Upon returning to the middle cellar we stopped at the table 
before-mentioned ; the deputy then ordered wine to be brought 
from the year 1822 to 1859 : beyond this year the wines are not 
presentable. The reader may imagine with what caution we put 
ourselves to the task of tasting. To describe the wines would be 



68 GRAPE CULTURE AND WINE-MAKING. 

a work sufficient for Byron, Shakspeare, or Schiller, and even 
those geniuses would not do full justice to them until they had 
imbibed a couple of glasses full. As you take a mouthful and 
let it run drop by drop down your throat, it leaves in your mouth 
the same aroma as a bouquet of the choicest flowers will offer to 
your olfactories. 

The older a wine becomes, the less grows its bouquet, but it 
grows more and more delicate. A young wine of four years old 
has this bouquet in a very great degree ; but as it becomes older 
it loses it, gaining instead a more delicate but more penetrating 
taste ; it now communicates to the palate slowly but surely its 
perfume. 

After having tasted many, we finally concluded by drinking a 
couple of glasses of the finest wine mortal can imbibe. I may 
here remark to those who are not initiated in the manner of iasi- 
ing wine, that you do not drink it, but take a few drops on your 
tongue, and if it is old, let a few drops trickle slowly down your 
throat. If the wine is of little value, you keep it a few moments 
in your mouth and then throw it out. The reason of this is that 
a fine old wine will, by a few drops, give you the entire taste, 
whereas it is necessary to take a large mouthful of the inferior 
wine in order to be able to judge of its quality. The Duke ev- 
ery year causes a public auction to be held ; then wines of three 
and four years old are sold. Older wines are not sold at public 
auction, but have a fixed price, which would astonish some of my 
readers. Again, there are wines which can not be bought ifor 
any price. 

The wines grown on different parts of the domain are kept in 
this cellar. The grapes are picked by women and children, who 
have wooden tubs with leathern straps, so that they may be car- 
ried on the back. "When these tubs are full, they are taken to a 
place where there are persons who classify the grapes ; that is, 
they take all the finest bunches and lay them on one side, then 
the next finest, and so on ; from these latter sorts the second and 
third class wine is made. From the first class grapes (which are 
allowed to become like raisins before they are picked), the finest 
berries are cut out and placed in a large earthenware dish ; from 
these selected grapes is made the first class wine called the Auslcsc 
(" Select"). These grapes are trodden out with boots made for 
that purpose. They are pressed in a press of their own, so that 
no other juice may be mixed with theirs. The juice is then put 



HOCHHEIM, STEINBERG, AND JOHANNISBERG. 69 

into a clean barrel and left for fermentation. The bung-hole is 
covered with an earthenware funnel, which is half filled with wa- 
ter, so that the gas bubbles up through the water, but lets no air 
reach the wine. This precaution is used with all wines, none be- 
ing fermented with bung-holes open. 

The first class bunches, from which the finest berries have al- 
ready been picked, are then trodden, pressed, and produce the sec- 
ond quality. To this is also put that juice which is pressed from 
the best of the second and third class bunches ; that is, from each 
of the bunches the finest berries are cut out, as from the first class. 

Seeing in the cellar barrels containing but 170 to 250 gallons 
each, I asked whether they considered the wine better in a small 
barrel or in a large one, say of 2000 gallons. 

The answer was that the wine is much better in a large barrel, 
as the fermentation then is more uniform. But they are troubled 
to fill one of the large barrels with wine of the first quality. The 
Steinberg vineyard of 10-i morgen will, in a very good season 
(which is once in about ten years), fill with first class wine one 
stiick, or 250 gallons. In other years it is with difficulty that they 
can fill a half stiick. 

It is now admitted by every one here that fine wine-making 
depends as much on the careful selection and classification of the 
grapes and their quality as upon the climate and soil. Even in 
places where very inferior wine was raised formerly, now, by 
careful selection of grapes, care, and attention during the ferment- 
ation, fine wine is made, which frequently sells for 1500 to 2000 
guldens per barrel. The above has been proved by the experience 
of the veteran officer of the cellars, who some time ago celebrated 
the fiftieth year in the service of his government, exclusively in 
the superintendence of vineyards and vines. Having begun as 
cup-bearer, he rose by degrees to his present position. With re- 
gard to the fermentation, I was told that the wine will ferment 
from ten to twelve days. The warm or cold weather has much 
to do with the length of time required for the fermentation. 

The grapes are generally picked at the end of November and 
beginning of December, often when the snow is two, and even 
three inches thick on the ground ; but if they are caught by 
snow or rain, they lose much of their beauty, and the wine its 
flavor. 

In the press-house there are about thirty presses. They con- 
sist of a simple screw, which has two rings to put in the lever end. 



70 GRAPE CULTURE AND WINE-MAKING. 

This lever is a long oak pole, within fifteen feet of the press. 
There is an upright on a pivot. This upright has holes made 
through, long enough to receive levers to turn the same. It acts 
altogether like a capstan on a vessel. The presses are simple, 
and susceptible of great improvement. After inspecting every 
thing in the cellar and press-house, we went to take a country 
dinner in the cooper's room. It was served up by a rosy-cheeked 
girl. After giving her two thalers, and the cooper who served 
the wine in the cellar five thalers, we left for Johannisberg, the 
palace of the Prince Metternich. 

The palace of the prince is about two hours' drive from Eber- 
bach. The country lying between these two celebrated vine- 
yards gradually rises from the Eiver Ehine. With the exception 
of Steinberg and its immediate vicinity, the soil is a very red clay, 
heavily intermixed with gravel. This is the same soil as Sonoma 
possesses by thousands of acres, and in other parts of California 
there are millions. Of course, every spot of earth is planted here ; 
and so economical are they with the ground, that the walks are 
not more than three or four feet wide. The vineyard lots are 
small, from a quarter of an acre to two acres. I asked the di- 
rector the price of one morgen. He answered that they have no 
price, as it is all owned by rich people of all countries, none of 
whom will sell. For many years there has been no instance of 
a sale. If a division takes place among heirs, and the vineyard 
is so small that it can not be divided, the morgen is valued at 
20,000 guldens, and the retainer of the vineyard has to pay over 
to the other heir his part of the money. 

After passing several prosperous villages, we arrived at last at 
the palace. The courteous steward received us very kindly. Mr. 
Joh. Herzmansky has been for many years the manager of this 
beautiful property. The palace is about three miles from the 
Eiver Ehine, and is situated upon an elevation. As you step 
upon the terrace in front of the palace, a grand and beautiful view 
meets your gaze. The Prince may boast of the view from his 
palace, as I can from my ranch in Sonoma ; or, rather, I may boast 
of having scenery equal to that of the Prince Metternich. It is 
true that I have no Eiver Ehine, but in its place there lies the St. 
Pablo Bay. 

The vineyard encircles the palace and contains sixty-five mor- 
gen. Some spots arc newly planted; some lie fallow, as here 
also the vines will produce for thirty years only, when they are 



IIOCIIIIEIM, STEINBERG, AND JOHANNISBERG. 71 

cut out, and the ground sufTercd to rest for three or four years, 
well manured, and then replanted. 

Here the vines look very well, having a good healthy color, 
and are kept clean, no grass being visible. The grapes show 
signs of ripening. They are all of one kind — the Riesling. There 
are several varieties of table grapes in the yards and around the 
walks in the garden, but in the vineyard there are no varieties. 

We were then invited to walk into the cellars, which are under 
the palace. After going down thirty feet we entered the first 
cellar, which was lighted in the same manner as that of the Duke 
previously described, with the exception that it is not round.- 
The vaults are all about forty feet wide and twenty high, arched 
with stone. This domain originally belonged to the priests, and 
was a monastery, but Napoleon drove out the monks and pre- 
sented their abode to Kellerman, one of his generals. After the 
deposition of Napoleon the Congress of Vienna presented Prince 
Metternich with this domain for his services. The deceased and 
the present prince have spent much in beautifying this truly 
royal domain. 

We tasted many wines, which must be tasted to know their 
magnificence, for it is beyond the power of description. These 
wines, like those of the Duke of Nassau, are occasionally sold at 
public auction, but at such exorbitant prices that we poor repub- 
licans would shudder as much to drink such costly liquid as if it 
was molten gold. There is a pardonable rivalry existing between 
the ofiicers of the Duke of Nassau and those of Prince Metternich. 
Those of the Duke contend that the Steinberg gives the best wine, 
whereas those of the Prince say the Johannisberg is better. This 
divided opinion is held all over the country among the citizens. 
Both vineyards have the same kind of grape, the Riesling, so it is 
but the location and the soil which can be in favor of the one or 
the other. The mode of making the wine is the same, but the 
grapes are not always picked at the same time ; for instance, Mr. 
Herzmansky, in 1849, plucked his grapes a week earlier than the 
master of the cellars of the Duke. During that week some snow 
fell, which watered the Duke's grapes, and, though he made mag- 
nificent wine, still it is not considered as good as that of Johannis- 
berg. This lucky stroke of his superintendent benefited the owner 
of Johannisberg many thousand guldens. From the first-selected 
berries they made one barrel of 175 gallons, for which they re- 
fused 12,000 gulden. The wines are here sold after being four 



72 GRAPE CULTURE AND WINE-MAKING. 

days or three years old. The prices are almost the same as those 
at Eberbach. 

Beyond the first cellar is another, built in the same shape as the 
first. We did not enter it, as it is only used for fermenting the 
new wines, and of course it is at present empty. The cellars ex- 
tend all around the large palace. After we had finished tasting 
the wines, our host made us empty a couple of glasses to the pros- 
perity of the vine culture in California. After doing this it was 
with difficulty that we could leave our courteous host, who insist- 
ed upon our drinking still more ; but I summoned up virtue to 
decline, though I am afraid it will be many a long year before such 
precious nectar will again moisten my lips. The general opinion 
is that wines will attain their greatest excellence in from five to 
ten years, and after that they lose mu.ch of their splendid and ac- 
quired bouquet. 

On leaving the cellar, and presenting the cooper with sixteen 
thalers, we entered the carriage and drove toward home, passing 
Biberich, where we left Mr. Victor. "We arrived in Wiesbaden 
quite late in the night, after having had the honor of tasting the 
finest wines in Europe, for to my palate there are no finer than the 
above-named. 

August 27. — This morning Mr. Thoma called, and stated that 
he had ordered the list of sales for the last three years to be made 
out. And now he was ready to take me to Geisberg, where the 
agricultural Experimental Gardens are located. Here there is a 
vineyard of about 800 kinds of grapes which are tested. The 
principal care is used in testing the mode of pruning, and raising 
the vines low or high, setting them in rows or squares, staking 
them, or training them over wires in trellis form, and the like. 
Many experiments are made upon the vines. Each row is kept 
apart, raised, pruned, trimmed separately. The progress of the 
vine and grape is closely watched by experienced chemists ; the 
leaves, wood, and grape are chemically analyzed to see what dif- 
ference is made by the difibrent modes of cultivation. The grapes 
are gathered on the same day, divided into three classes from each 
row ; then they are equally tested, from time to time, with the 
alcomcter. In this way, from year to year, this systematic exper- 
imenting goes on. I was told that, so far, the low trimming, or, 
in other words, vines raised just high enough to prevent the 
grapes from hanging on the ground, is the best mode of raising 
them. This proves the truth of my experience with regard to 



IIOCHIIEIM, STEINBERG, AND JOIIANNISBERG. 



73 



California vines, with the cxeeption that we need not fear to have 
our grapes upon the ground, as there are no summer rains with us. 
In the garden hops, grains, and vegetables are planted. The 
Agricultural School is supported by the State. It possesses mod- 
els of all utensils invented here, a fine agricultural library, and 
collections of grains, seeds, and objects of Natural History. 

I presented the Director with two volumes of our State agricul- 
tural reports. I found here a copy of the Patent Office reports of 
184:6. I promised to send some later numbers, and I also made 
arrangements to exchange seeds, etc., with the Institute. After 
examining every thing, and taking down the names of various 
books on wine culture, I returned to my hotel, where I wrote a 
letter of thanks to Director Thoma and the chief master of the 
cellars. I thanked them in the name of our government ; for it 
was to California I owed the distinguished reception I met as her 
commissioner. I then packed up my things, and, after parting 
with my new acquaintances, and especially from Director Thoma 
— to whom I would here again express my sincere thanks for his 
courtesy, and the information he so freely and kindly furnished — 
I took the cars for Frankfort, having previously dispatched my 
son to Ems to escort his mother and sister to Mayence, where I 
expected to meet them. 



SALES OF WINE BY AUCTION AT EBERACH. 

[The quantity in the barrel is given in Maase^ the price in Florins. The Maas is -j^ of an Ameri- 
can gallon — two and ^ Maasc equaling a gallon. The Florin is worth 40 cents.] 

SEPTEMBER 7, 1858.— VINTAGE OF 1857. 
No. Vintage. Quantity. Price. Purchaser. 

5 Hattenheimer COO 1070 P. Espenschied, iJuc^esAeiw. 

7 " 606 1430 Frz. Miillev, Eltville. 

9 " 605 1365 Walther, Brothers, il/avence. 

11 " 598 1555 Frz. MuUer, £fei7/e. 

13 " 603 1660 " " 

15 " 593 1495 'Feist, Frmlc fort. 

17 " 603 1805 Deinhard, Fordan, CoWen<2. 

20 Grafenberger 296 1000 M. Muller, Eltville. 

21* " 296i 1045 C. de la Roche, ^a^en^ewi. 

23 Marcobrunner 590 2000 Miehels, Cologne. 

25 " 601 2105 Deinhard, Fordan, Co6?ente. 

27 " 606 2905 P. Espenschied, ^WesteVn. 

29» " 293 2205 Gogel Koch, i^m«Aybr^ 

31 Steinberger 592 1800 C. Lantern, il%e«ce. 

33 " 595 1960 Deinhard, Fordan, CoWente. 

35 " 600 2000 Miehels, Cologne. 

37 " 693 2685 Masbach, Brothers, il%ence. 

41 " 596 2825 Fost, Rudeslieim. 

43 " 697 2625 H. Becker, £?7is. 



GRAPE CULTURE AND WINE-MAKING. 



So. 


Vintage. 


Qiuintitif. 


45 


Steinberger 


604 


47 


(1 


585 


49 


it 


690 


61 


(( 


608 


53 


(( 


601 


55 


(( 


695 


57 


<( 


C04 


59 


« 


606 


61 


(( 


599 


63 


11 


606 


65 


n 


601 


67 


(( 


605 


69 


(C 


698 


71 


(( 


697 


73 


(( 


699 


75 


(( 


693 


77 


(( 


580 


79 


(C 


696 


81 


<( 


606 


83 


(( 


699 


85 


<( 


600 


87 


(C 


600 


92 


(( 


304 


93 


<( 


600 


94* 


(( 


290 


98* 


u 


293 


99* 


(t 


296 




Steinberger 


295 




(.Vint. 0/1846.) 






APRIL 12 


Ao. 


Vintage. 


Quantity. 


1 


Steinberger 


660 


2 


a 


600 


3 


u 


594 


4 


(( 


600 


6 


(C 


690 


6 


<( 


594 


7 


<( 


599 


8 


« 


585 


9 


(( 


605 


10 


(( 


605 


11 


(( 


589 


12 


11 


692 


13 


t( 


693 


U 


u 


600 


15 


<( 


602 


16 


(C 


596 


17 


(( 


690 


18 


(( 


692 


19 


(( 


698 


20 


(( 


600 


21 


<( 


692 


22 


(( 


605 


23 


(( 


587 


24 


(( 


591 


25 


<( 


295 


26 


Grafcnberger 


290 


27 


" 


300 


28 


Hattenheimer 


603 


29 


(( 


590 


30 


(( 


686 



Price. Purchaser. 

2220 Ch. Giessen, Cologne. 

2715 Deinhard, Fordan, Coblentz. 

2920 Valkenberg, Worms. 

3250 F. Bertram, Wiesbaden. 

3225 Feist, Frankfort. 

3935 P. A. Mumm, Cologne. 

3305 Behrends, Brothers, Frankfort. 

32G0 F. Berthold, Frankfort. 

3710 C. de la Roche, Uattenheim. 

3510 Volkenbach, Worms. 

3715 Sachs, Coblentz. 

3450 F. Muller, Eltville. 

3705 Deinhard, Fordan, Coblentz. 

3770 Michels, Cologne. 

3G00 Dilthey, Rudeshehn. 

3810 M. Muller, Eltville. 

4050 Lantern, Mmjence. 

4155 M. Muller, Eltville. 

4220 Dubois, Mayence. 

3595 C. A. Giessen, Frankfort. 

3815 B. Meier, Mayence. 

4500 Manskopf, Frankfort. 

2475 Lobus, Geisenhcim. 

5470 P. A. Mumm, Cologne. 

2130 Gogcl Koch, Frankfort. 

3090 Manskopf, Frankfort. 

2710 B. F. Mayer, Mayence. 

6000 The King of Hanover. 



18G0.— VINTAGE OF 1858. 
Price. Purchaser. 

660 M. Muller, Eltville. 

560 f... G. Birlenbach, Wiesbaden. 

805 H.Bertram, Wiesbaden. 

635 Lautern & Son, Mayence. 

770 M. Ilansemann, Bonn. 

805 Menges & Schmitz, i/a^fence. 

850 Hurter, Coblentz. 

815 Menges & Schmitz, il/a^/ence. 

910 Abreich, Mayence. 

810 Lautern & Son, Mayence. 

950 M, Muller, £/a'«7/e. 

900 " " 

1035 Menges & Schmitz, Mayence. 

990 Pabstmann, Castcl. 

900 M. Muller, Eltville. 

1035 Deinhard, Fordan, Coblentz. 

1050 Liebrecht, Ruhrort. 

1225 Manskopf, Frankfort. 

1250 Fost, Rudesheim. 

1155 Eiscnberg, Castel. 

1240 F. Muller, Eltville. 

1260. Vnlkcnberg, Worms. 

14G5 M. 'M.nWcr, Eltville. 

1485 

1015 H. Holler, Ilochheim. 

630 J. Friedmann, Afayence. 

720 Anthes, Wiesbaden. 

980 Eisenberg, Castel. 

1010 P. Muller, Eltville. 

1210 Pung, Rudesheim. 



IIOCimEIM, STEINBERG, AND JOIIANNISBERG. 



i'O 



No. 


Vintage. 


31 


Ilattcnhcimcr 


32 


(( 


33 


Marcobrunncr 


34 


(( 


No. 


Vintage. 


1 


Ilattenheimcr 


2 


(( 


3 


(( 


4 


(( 


5 


Marcobrunncr 


6 


(( 


7 


11 


8 


Steinberger 


9 


11 


10 


11 


11 


(1 


12 


(1 


13 


(1 


14 


11 


15 


11 


16 


It 


17 


11 


18 


11 


19 


11 


20 


(1 


21 


11 


22 


11 


23 


It 


24 


(1 


25 


It 


27 


It 


28 


If 


29 


(1 


30 


(t 


31 


tf 


32 


It 


33 


11 


34 


(1 


35 


<i 


36 


11 


37 


11 


No. 


Vintage. 


1 


Steinberger 


2 


It 


3 


(t 


4 


(1 


5 


(1 


6 


(1 


7 


(1 


8 


(( 


9 


11 


10 


11 


11 


It 


12 


11 


13 


11 


14 


Fiillwein 


15 


Hattenheimer 



Quantity. Price. Purchaser. 

597 1325 Hoffman, Mayence. 

G03 1510 Valkenbcrg, Worms. 

COO 1 205 P. Wilhelm, Wiesbaden. 

695 1415 B, F. Mayer, J/oyence. 

FROM THE VINTAGE OP 1857. 

quantity. Price. Purchaser. 

C05 9G0 M. Mullcr, Eltville. 

592 1395 Deinhard, Fordan, Cohkntz. 

598 12G0 King, Brothers, Biberirh. 

689 1705 Deinhard, Fordan, Cobkntz. 

598 1500 r. Wilhelm, Wiesbaden. 

694 2080 Manskopf, i'VaH^/or/. 

592 2420 Valkenberg, Worms. 

699 IC:^ Lautern, Maijcnce. 

698 1950 F. S. Crass, Erback. 

605 1690 W. Kroschcl, Ilochheim. 

GOO 2135 Eisenberg, Castel. 

692 2015 Walker, Brothers, Mayence. 

594 2170 Lautern, Mayence. 

690 2335 Abreich, Mayence. 

696 2380 Brucker, Frankfort. 

600 3005 H. Bertram, Wiesbaden. 

696 2430 F. S. Crass, Erbach. 

690 2415 Mmsko^i, Frankfort. 

589 2655 " " 

692 3105..!,.!.!!!..'. F. MuUer, Eltville. 

686 2710 Lautern, Mayence. 

596 2505 W. Kroschel, Hochheim. 

595 3015 Y.UuWcr, Eltville. 

596 2570 F. Jann, Geisenheim. 

605 3 190 Mumm, Frankfort. 

597 3480 Manskopf & Falkenburg. 

303 1710 W. Kroschel, Hochheim. 

292 1800 Pabstmann, Castel. 

294 1810 Hurter, Sohn, Cobkntz. 

290 1810 Wallot, Brothers, Oppenheim. 

293 1855 " " " 

290 2360 Lautern, Sohn, Mayence. 

292 2415 G. Philippi, Breslau. 

294 2465 H. & J. Espenschied, Cohlentz. 

308 2705 Manskopf, Frankfort. 

297 3000 Mumm, Frankfort. 

MAY 14, 1861.— VINTAGE OF 1858. 

Quantiti/. Price. Purchaser. 

607 1360 J. Strauss Sohne, il/a?/ence. 

588 960 J. B. Hartmann, Wiesbaden. 

596 1000 J. Liebrecht, Buhrort. 

694 1 100 Specht, Mayence. 

698 1180 J. Liebrecht, T^M^m-i. 

602 1330 Leyenthal and Mosler, Cobkntz. 

600 1505 H. & G. Hirsch, Mayence. 

600 1505 F. Jann, Geisenheim. 

585 1460 Gebr. Walther, Mayence. 

693 1850 Rosenstein, Wiesbaden. 

587 2060 J.Bertram, " 

605 2065 S. W. Krausser & Co. , Mayence. 

696 2900 Manskopf & Sarasin. 

590 1300 Gebr. Feist, Frankfort. 



76 



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GRAPE CULTURE AND WINE-MAKING. 



Quantity. Price. Purchaser. 

592 1450 F. Jann, Geisenheim. 

296 1000 Potthof & Sohne, Krmtznach. 

297 1155 Manskopf, Frankfort. 

294 1230 Gebr. Masbach, Frankfort. 

590 2005 Dubois, /Vrt»Z/o?-/. 

297 1235 F. Miiller, Ellville. 

284 1320 Valkenberg, Worms. 

296 ICOO Ricd, Frankfort. 

FROM THE VINTAGE OF 1859. 

Quantity. Price. Purchaser. 

292* 480 Sarbach & Gntmann, Mayence. 

598 1120 Menges & Schmitz, i/a^e?jce. 

595 1110 Rehms, Zcy<r/i7. 

605 1415 ♦.... Manskopf, Frankfort. 

695 2010 Biermann, Biele'fkld. 

600 2290 Menges & Scliniitz, Mayence. 

600 2550 S. ]M. Seligmann, Frankfort. 

595 2650 Sarbach & Gutmann, Mayence. 

606 1480 C. Ettinghaus, Ilatlenhcim. 

596 1 100 P. F. AVerner, Neudorf. 

595 910 F. Jann, Geisenheim. 

600 900 M. Hansemann, J5o?zn. 

604 1100 Valkenberg, Worms. 

601 985 Cantor & Sohn, Mayence. 

694 1310 Kiccvavcn, Mai/ence. 

601 1420 Lc ycnthal & Masler, Cohlentz. 

595 1205 C. Ettingliaus, i/a«e?j//em. 

600 1 1 30 Diehl, Marjence. 

596 1485 C. Ettinghaus, Hattenheim. 

607 1150 Gebr. Masbach, 3/aycnce. 

608 1670 Gebr. Feist, Frankfort. 

605 1465 Jann, Geisenheim. 

594 1420 Beckhardt& Sohne, Kretiznach. 

594 1455 Deinhardt & Fordan, Cohlentz. 

605 1275 Biermann, 7?if/e/e/c/. 

600 1420 FMffer, Heidelberg. 

588 1320 Jann, Geisenheim. 

685 2005 Manskopf, Franlfort. 

697 1670 Gebr. Feist, Frankfort. 

598 1000 Crass, Erbach. 

692 1890 H. & C. Espcnschied, Cohlentz. 

600 2405 Bicrmaim, Bielefeld. 

597 1755 Gebr. Bchrcnds' /<Vrt«Z/or^ 

694 2345 Deinhardt & Fordan, Cohlentz. 

600 2080 W. Biirkcrt, Biherirh. 

685 2425 Cantor & Sohn, Mayence. 

694 2780 Manskopf, Frankfort. 

598 2705 Gebr. Masbach, Mayence. 

591 2570 Deinhardt & Fordan, Cohlentz. 

606 3115 Gebr. Bchrends, Frankfort. 

602 3415 Manskopf, Frankfort. 



GERMANY, TlIliUUGlI SWITZERLAND, TO ITALY. 77 



CHAPTER V. 

GERMANY, THROUGH SWITZERLAND, TO ITALY. 

From Frankfort to Maycnce. — The Russian Lady and her Maid. — Her extra Bag- 
gage. — Our Talk about California. — European Ideas of our State. — Hints for the 
Press of California. — Wasli dirty Linen at Home. — Chronicle on Normal Progress 
rather than on exceptional Crimes. — Mayence to Heidelberg. — Tobacco. — Heidel- 
berg. — Nursery at Wiesloch. — Carl Brunner. — His Nursery, Gardens, and Vine- 
yard. — His Wine-press. — The great Tun at Heidelberg. — Start for Basle. — Notes 
by the Way. — Hemp. — Manuring by Burning. — From Basle to Geneva. — Neuf- 
chatel. — The Swiss and American Lakes. — Geneva. — Passports for Italy. — Amer- 
icans in Geneva. — Departure for Italy. — The Road and the Country. — St. Jean de 
Moreuo. — The Tunnel. — Crossing the Summit. — The Descent. — Arrival at Turin. 

August 27. — On entering the cars at Frankfort for Mayence, I 
was much amused witli a lady from Russia, in the same car with 
me, returning from the baths at Wiesbaden. Her servant-girl, not 
speaking a word of German, soon got into trouble about the innu- 
merable boxes, packages, bundles, umbrellas, parasols, and many 
other things placed in her charge, all of which were to be taken 
into the cars, as this formidable pile contained but a few little ex- 
tras to be kept near at hand. The main and heavy baggage, to 
the amount of fourteen tickets, which I saw, was already in the 
baggage-car. The bundles had to go into the car, and after the seat 
and the net-work on the top were filled, in came the mistress her- 
self, laden with a goodly number more, which she piled up above 
her and in her lap. The conductor rushed forward, telling the 
maid to go in. She gesticulated, and talked to him in Russian, 
he not understanding a word of her language. She was at last 
put in the place she was to occupy, the conductor taking her by 
the arm and shoving her into the car. This started the lady her- 
self, who at best knew but few German words, A rush was made 
by both mistress and maid for the luggage which still lay at the 
door of the car. The first whistle sounded. The conductor en- 
deavored to close the car door, seeing that the ladies were almost 
crazy. Having had enough amusement already,! took pity on 
the strangers, and told the conductor that these/ezy traps belonged 
to them, and that they wished to take them in the car. He look- 



78 GRAPE CULTURE AND WINE-MAKING. 

cd very much puzzled, and asked me wlietlier they belonged to an 
opera troupe traveling to some interior town. Time was scarce. 
He looked into the car, calculating how many seats the luggage 
would occupy. Finding that, even if one half the car was vacated, 
there would be scarcely room enough, he put the two ladies into 
the car, and, with the help of two of his companions, who came to 
see what was the matter, gathered up the packages and bundles, 
and threw them into the post-wagon. The whistle sounded, and 
away we went. 

I knew from my travels in old times that Russian ladies were 
fast talkers, but I never had the least idea of the rapidity exhib- 
ited by these two ; and I believe that as Russia is improving rap- 
idly in all its movements, these two ladies endeavored to imitate 
the speed of the telegraph. The mistress accused the maid of 
slowness in not taking in the bundles quick enough, saying, " Now 
all is lost, and never will be recovered again." The maid defend- 
ed herself, saying how impossible it would have been to have 
taken them all in, adding, " I told you so, madam. How lucky 
it was that young master sent the greater portion of the baggage 
as freight, by steamer, up the Rhine !" This remark by the maid 
raised a smile on my countenance which I could not suppress. I 
told the lady not to be worried, that the baggage was all safe, 
that the conductor had put them in the post-car, and when they 
stopped all would be delivered to them. This information seem- 
ed to relieve them. 

I wanted to ask her how many years she had spent in this part 
of Germany. This question the reader would justify if he had 
seen the number of boxes and packages, the fourteen tickets for 
trunks, and had heard the remark of the maid that her young 
master had sent the bulk of the baggage as freight. The lady 
kindly informed me that she came for her health to the several 
watering-places, and had been here for two months, and was now 
returning home. I congratulated her on her speedy recovery of 
health, as she looked a picture of good health. But she differed 
very much with me in that respect, stating that she was very del- 
icate, and continued so much so that she even refused to go with 
her brother to Paris, though she did need dresses very much. She 
was a widow. 

Thanking mc for my aid in making the conductor understand 
their embarrassment, she asked me what part of Germany I was 
from. My answer that I was a Californian seemed to astonish 



GERMANY, TIIllOUGII SWITZERLAND, TO ITALY. 79 

her. Every body in the car looked at me, and I became the lion 
of the time. My fair neighbor asked me many questions about 
the gold ; how long I had lived in California, and so on. I told 
her eleven years. " "Why," she said, " and you have not been 
killed ! IIow have you cseaped so many years without having 
been murdered? But," she added, "may be you had a strong 
guard around you." I told her that, living in the country, far 
from any neighbors, my doors were never locked niglit or day. 
She heard all this with great surprise, asking how it was that 
newspapers gave so many accounts of murders in America, par- 
ticularly in California. The gentlemen passengers sitting in the 
cars, with inquiring looks, evidently desiring to hear my reply 
to this question, I explained to her that whenever a murder is 
committed the local paper will chronicle it, and neighboring pa- 
pers in the towns and cities repeat it, so that it appears to the 
foreigner that each announcement refers to a different murder. 
I remarked, too, that we had no more murders than other nations, 
but that with us every murder, suicide, or railroad accident is 
published far and wide, whereas in European countries no such 
thing is done. I asked her whether in St. Petersburg, Moscow, 
etc., the dead houses are ever em-pty ? whether it is not often the 
case that ten or fifteen persons are lying in these places, stretched 
out by the hand of murder or suicide? whether this is not the 
case even in the best governed, politest city in the world — Paris, 
never a day passing that dozens are not found in the Seine ? But 
who hears of these casualties ? Nobody save he who is in search 
of one lost, or some stranger who goes to see them, led by curiosity. 
This seemed to satisfy the lady as well as the rest of the company. 
But now to the gentlemen of the press of this State a few lines, 
which I hope they will take kindly. It is concerning the prac- 
tice of copying accounts of murders, suicides, and robberies from 
other papers ; of re-echoing, multiplying, and, in fact, spreading the 
facts as far and wide as possible, so doing great injury and injus- 
tice to our young State. Some of our papers are not satisfied 
with such occurrences in our own State, but they will take these 
accounts from the papers of Oregon, "Washington Territory, and 
"Washoe. These places are not known in Europe, but California 
is well known ; consequently, these publications are at the ex- 
pense of our State alone. This is even the case in the Eastern 
States. For instance, a San Francisco paper states : ""We extract 
from the Portland Courier" (or whatever the name may be) such 



80 GEAPE CULTURE AND WlNE-MAKlNG. 

and such an account of a murder. The reader in Europe or in 
the Eastern States does not know where Portland is ; he has read 
it in a San Francisco paper, and therefore thinks it in Cahfornia. 
But the zeal and energy of newspaper men does not end here. 
Some will carefully register all crimes committed, and publish 
them quarterly, half yearl}'-, or annually. Others go still farther. 
The divorce cases, lawsuits, names of bankrupts, are summed up 
and published half yearly or yearly. If this collection of our 
vices, so carefully collected, which we send broadcast to the world, 
is intended to scare off emigration, no better method could be in- 
vented. It is certain that the press does not desire this, but pub- 
lishes without considering what effect it may have on the other 
side of the world. I suppose the intention is to chastise, mortify, 
and expose these crimes to our own people. This would be very 
well if other countries did the same to their own people ; but, as 
Napoleon said, when a row was kicked up about an illegitimate 
child in the family of a noble and the case was brought before 
him, " The husband of the wife must be the father of the wife's 
children before the world. Dirty linen must be washed in the 
family." If, then^ other nations wash their dirty linen in secret, 
and we do it openly, other nations will have considerable advant- 
age over us in the eyes of the world. This was by no means the 
only time while traveling in Europe that I heard mentioned the 
immense number of crimes which occur in California. In fact, it 
is only known for its gold and its crimes. 

Why do not the papers chronicle with the same minuteness ac- 
counts of our material and commercial progress. Give the sta- 
tistics of our agriculture and manufactures. They would then 
astonish the civilized world with the unparalleled wealth, pros- 
perity, industry, and energy of our really wonderful people. If 
the press will bestow the same labor in statistical reports as they 
do in reporting crimes, I warrant that, in a short time, California 
and its great and various wealth will be truly known all over Eu- 
rope ; and as no country on the face of the globe can really offer 
the same advantages in so many and various ways to men of in- 
dustry and of wealth, soon a population will flow in, from all parts, 
of all professions and occupations, filling our cities, tilling our val- 
leys, mountains, and plains. Who. has read "Robinson Crusoe," 
and has not desired to travel and see the world ? Where is the 
man who has read descriptions of London, Paris, or Rome, and 
does not desire to visit them ? But how can a man desire to em- 



GERMANY, TIIKOUGII SWITZERLAND, TO ITALY. 81 

igratc to a country from wliicli he Las heard nothing but tales 
of crime, of which he knows only the bad side ? But I will leave 
this topic and return to my journey. 

August 28. — At one o'clock we left Maycnce for Heidelberg. 
Immediately upon leaving Maycnce we saw some vineyards ujDon 
very steep hills. The ground was walled up. After proceeding 
along for some miles, we entered a large, wide plain. It is very 
well cultivated, and divided into very small lots, well planted 
with fruit-trees. The grain is all harvested, but the stubble shows 
barle}'-, oats, and wheat. There are 3^et potatoes, hemp, and occa- 
sionally a patch of tobacco. The closer we approached Manheim 
the thicker grew the tobacco-plots. After leaving the ancient 
city of Manheim, the ground was principally planted with tobac- 
co, which is small,, not being higher than about eighteen inches 
to two feet. I saw but two qualities, the long-leaved or Hunga- 
rian tobacco, and the round-leaved, or what we call the Kentucky 
seedling. Judging from the size of the plant, I hardly think that 
more than 600 pounds can be raised here to the acre. 

At four o'clock P.M. we arrived at Heidelberg. I hear there 
is a nursery in the vicinity ; and as it is the first one I have found 
since I left America, I will reserve this treat for my birthday. 

August 29. — This day was spent in arranging my correspond- 
ence and bringing up my journal. This evening we took a walk 
to see the celebrated Heidelberg ruins, which are still in a tolera- 
ble state of preservation ; but, as it was no part of my mission 
to examine and describe old ruins, I pass them by. 

August 30. — Having traveled almost all over Germany, and 
considerably out of my way, to find a nursery, I am at last to be 
gratified. At three o'clock we started for Wiesloch. Upon ar- 
riving there, we immediately went to Mr. Carl Brunner, the per- 
son recommended to us by Director Thoma. We found him at 
home. Upon telling him my erxand, he immediately took me to 
his nurseries and vineyards, located at some distance from town. 
The nurseries are in small strips ; for here, as almost all over Ger- 
many, every man has his laud in several places and in small 
strips. For instance, Mr. Brunner has over sixty morgens, and 
in about eighty different pieces. This is very troublesome busi- 
ness, and has but one advantage — that when a hail-storm comes, 
as it is only in streaks, it does not take the whole of any one 
man's land. We examined many of his nurseries and a part of 
his vineyards. His catalogue contains over 400 varieties of 

F 



82 GRiVPE CULTURE AND WINE-MAKING. 

grape-vines, but I selected only sucli as are raised in this neigh- 
borhood, amounting to 100 varieties, according to the catalogue. 
The vineyards showed but a poor crop, or, in fact, no crop at all ; 
as the frost so killed the vines in the spring that a morgen with 
4600 vines will not give fifty gallons of wine. But still these 
people do well ; for when there is a good year, it pays them well 
for all their trouble and expense during the bad ones. 

After visiting the vineyards, we went to see the venerable Mr. 
Brunncr, who has written a valuable book upon the grape and 
the making of red wine. For fifty years he has been engaged in 
collecting the most celebrated varieties of vines from all coun- 
tries, but in later years he has given his nursery and collection 
up to his son and retired, only retaining the business of buying 
and selling wine. 

The old gentleman is a learned man, and well merits the esteem 
he possesses of the larger part of Germany. He is a great ama- 
teur of roses and flowers in general, and he has a garden of con- 
siderable size, where he has collected over one thousand varieties 
of roses. In this favorite place of his we found the old man. lie 
is lively, pleasant, cheerful, and content. He showed us his gar- 
den, and opposite it a vineyard which is thirty years old, and has 
several varieties of vines planted, but each in a separate lot. 
Here, as elsewhere, the frost has destroyed this year's crop. The 
vines are raised on a trellis, not tied to stakes; but small sticks 
are driven down about five or six feet ^)^Ti ; then other sticks, 
mostly split from poplar, are tied to the upright stakes. This 
makes a kind of trellis. In some parts, where wood is more dis- 
tant, and consequently costlier, the cross-pieces, instead of being 
wood, are wire ; and it is to this that the grape-vines are tied. 
This trellis-work is about three to three and a half feet high. The 
opinion in respect to this mode is divided. Those districts which 
raise their vines on sticks contend that their method is the best. 
Those that have trellises are in favor of their own mode. One 
thing is clear to me — that the vines raised on straight sticks are 
easiest to work ; for when you are in a row of trellised vines, you 
are obliged to go to the end before you can enter another row; 
besides, the shade on the trellis must be more than on the other. 

August 31. — The vineyard of the old gentleman is on a side 
hill, quite steep, but not so much so as to prevent a person climb- 
ing it without steps. The soil is red, containing much gravel — 
is volcanic. Clay is its general characteristic. There is a great 



GERMANY, THROUGH SWITZERLAND, TO ITALY. 83 

deal of red wine made here, but more white. The wines have a 
good reputation, but arc not classed as " Number One." 

The fermentation of the white wine is the same as already de- 
scribed. The vineyards being small, and belonging to poor peo- 
ple, the selecting of grapes is very little practiced ; and this is the 
reason why no such fine wine is here made as in Hochheim, Stein- 
berg, Johannisberg, etc. Still, even here the people pick out the 
rotten grapes, leaves, and un ripened bunches, as they would great- 
ly injure the wine. 

Mr. Brunner also showed me his wine-press, upon which he 
prides himself, it being more compact and occupying less space 
than the usual presses. It is furnished with one large iron screw, 
which is turned at the top with two levers which reach to the out- 
side of the press-box, so that the operator may walk around the 
box pushing or pulling the levers. The advantage lies not so 
much in the screw as in the mode of filling the press, which is 
done in the following manner : The box is filled about one foot, 
when the screw is turned hard down on the mass. When this is 
well pressed the screw is raised, and another foot is placed upon 
the first mass and also pressed. The wood pieces upon which 
the screw presses are then taken up, but the plank with holes 
bored through, which forms the top piece on the mass, is left, and 
on this is placed a tier of stems, seeds, and grapes, to a thickness 
of a foot; and upon this, again, a wood piece is placed on which 
the screw presses, and the operation is carried on as before. Thus 
every particle of juice is pressed out of the lower mass, which is 
then taken out, and the upper mass takes its place. 

After examining every thing sufficiently, we started again for 
Heidelberg, where we arrived at 11 o'clock A.M. The whole day 
was occupied in continuing my correspondence. In the evening 
I went to see the great tun of Heidelberg — the largest in the 
world. I extract the description of it from the guide-book : 

"This tun was built by the cooper John Jacob Engler the 
younger, in the year 1751. It is said to have cost the enormous 
sum of 80,000 florins, and was often filled with costly wine of the 
Palatinate. It is 32 feet long, 22 feet in diameter at the ends, 
and 23 in the centre. Its 127 staves are 9f inches thick, and its 
circular bung-hole from 3 to 4 inches in diameter; 18 wooden 
hoops, 8 inches thick and 15 inches broad — the different rafters 
of which are bound together with iron hoops and screws, but the 
hoops at the two extremities are 18 inches in breadth. Of the 
hoops that now remain there are only eight, and it is not known 



84 GllAPE CULTURE AND WINE-MAiaNG. 

at the present day how the rest have disappeared. From the front 
as well as the back ends of the tun, bent in toward the interior to 
meet the pressure of the liquid, it is each time held in toward the 
centre in its concave form by four strong rafters, the ends of which 
are fastened to the bottom and to the staves by iron hoops and 
screws. The tun reposes upon 8 very strong wooden supporters, 
beautifully carved, and raised several feet from the ground. The 
height of the whole work is, from the floor of the cellar to its 
highest point, 26 feet 5 inches; and on the top, in front, there is 
a shield surmounted with the electoral cap on an azure field, and 
the initials in gold of Charles Theodore. This mighty tun sur- 
passes in size all its predecessors, for it can contain 230 fuders, or 
283,000 large bottles of fluid in its colossal space. It has been 
three times filled with wine — in 1753, 1760, 1766. There are still 
to be seen in the cellar the compasses, plane, gouge, and timber 
mark which were used for its construction. The compasses are 
8 feet 6 inches long — some verses are carved upon them; the 
plane is 7 feet long, lOf inches broad, and 4|- inches thick, with 
the name of the head workman carved upon it. On the top of 
this tun is constructed a flooring, 27 feet 7 inches above the floor 
of the cellar, where a numerous company may assemble to enjoy 
the pleasures of the dance. The vat is filled by a vertical open- 
ing in the top of the vault. There is a small iron pump over the 
cellar by which the tun may be emptied. In the cooperage there 
is another tun which holds 47 fuders. In its time of sj^lcndor this 
cellar is said to have contained 12 such barrels." 

tSeptemher 1. — "\Ye started from Ileidelberg at ten o'clock for 
Basle. The road follows the foot of the mountains and the banks 
of the Rhine, which here flows into an extensive plain, which ex- 
tends far beyond the reach of the eye. To the left of the railroad 
are high mountains rising up gradually. On their sides, about 
one third up, vineyards are planted all the way, which are healthy 
in color, and bear a good crop for this country. The mountain 
tops are covered with forests. Here the Schwarzwald begins. 
We passed many thriving villages. The plain is generally culti- 
vated with tobacco, hemp, Indian corn, millet, hops, potatoes, and 
beans ; but the largest portion is meadow, which is irrigated from 
time to time by flood-gates, which let in or keep off the water. 
Poplar-trees are planted around each lot in the meadow. Fields 
which are more elevated are planted with plums, prunes, apples, 
and walnuts. The latter predominates, and may be get down as 
one third of all the trees here planted. 

The hemp, in all parts where it is planted, when ripe, is pulled 
out by the roots, spread upon level ground, and kept there for a 



GERMANY, THROUGH SWITZERLAND, TO ITALY. 85 

couple of montlis. Then it is crushed with a simple wooden ma- 
chine, and thus divested of the woody substance, leaving only 
the hemp. Some good wine is raised here ; but as no particular 
care is taken in its manufiicture, it has attained no celebrity. 

Upon approaching Basle I noticed the old-fashioned way of 
manuring the ground by burning it. The mode is simple, and 
not costly where wood is cheap. The land is first plowed deeply 
in furrows about twenty feet apart ; a small pile of wood is made 
of limbs, roots, etc., which is then covered with dust, and lighted 
like charcoal, and is kept burning slowly, now and then air-holes 
being made to prevent the fires going out. The people here are 
so expert that they do not lose the wood, but make it into char- 
coal ; so they not only manure their land well, but also have the 
additional gain of a quantity of charcoal. At six o'clock P.M. 
we arrived in Basle — a picturesque old town, situated upon the 
banks of the Ehine. 

September 2. — At nine o'clock we started with the cars for Gre- 
neva. The railroad runs in a narrow valley about one mile wide. 
The hill-sides are cultivated as grain farms, and there is only now 
and then a vineyard. In the valleys are meadows, irrigated by 
flood-gates as above described. The farm-houses are large, and 
built of stone; many of them are situated almost at the top of the 
mountain. Prunes, apples, walnuts, wheat, barley, oats, and rye 
are raised; also potatoes, beans, hemp, and some Indian corn. 
The mountain sides are well cultivated, and often large stone 
houses can be seen on the summit of the mountains. At Beel we 
changed cars, and seemingly country too, for from here the vine 
seemed to be the exclusive cultivation. Every foot of ground, 
even three fourths up the mountains, is planted with vines, which 
are looking well, and have a good crop. The soil is yellow clay, 
much intermixed with rocks and gravel. In many j^laces rock 
walls are built up to hold the soil. Where the vines are grow- 
ing, much labor is bestowed upon redeeming land enough to hold 
fifty to one hundred vines, planted three and a half feet apart, 
and the rows two and a half feet. In California such a piece of 
ground would hold only seven or nine vines (as we plant them), 
and would cost about $400 to make it. 

"We soon came to the end of the lake, where lies Neufchatel. 
This lake, with its mirror-like smoothness, its limpid waters, and 
surrounding scenery, can not fail to draw the admiration of the 
traveler. Still, however grand its beauty may be, it can not 



86 GRAPE CULTURE AND WINE-aiAKING. 

equal the wild grandeur of the lakes of Wisconsin or Minnesota 
before the hand of civilization robbed them of half their beauty. 
Those thousand lakes, lying calm, peaceful, under a cloudless sky ; 
that solemn stillness ; the deep dark foliage of a thousand differ- 
ent tints and shades in autumn — all this, when once seen, can 
never be forgotten, and the lakes of Switzerland lose half their 
beauty by the comparison. 

At the village of Neufchatel we changed cars for Geneva. 
Near this place the soil is reddish, and its wine has some renown. 
The cultivation of the vine is carried on with great industry, but 
the soil is poor, and requires a great deal of manure. The vine- 
yards lie three fourths up of the side of the mountains ; beyond 
them are the fruit-trees, and near the top are either bare rocks or 
dense forests. We arrived in Geneva after traveling eight hours 
continually among vineyards from one mile to three and a half 
wide. Not a spot as large as an ordinary brick-yard was left un- 
cultivated, with the exception of where the old vines have been 
cut out to give the ground the necessary three years' rest. 

Upon our arrival at this ancient town, celebrated for its watch- 
es, we were obliged to drive around some time before we could 
obtain lodgings, as at present there is a convention here of minis- 
ters of all Protestant denominations. At last, however, we found 
rooms and a good supper, to which we did ample justice. 

Sepiemler 8. — Having taken a carriage, we drove around the 
city and along the shore of the lake which lies at its side, on the 
mirror-like surface of which floated dozens of swans. The bridge 
across the river at the lower end of the lake is a great work of 
art. The neighborhood of the city is picturesque ; the bold, tow- 
ering rocks, always capped with everlasting snow, inspire the 
traveler on a September day to wish himself in one of those crev- 
ices, where he might breathe an atmosphere rather lower in tem- 
perature than 85°. After seeing all the sights, we drove to the 
hotel, discharged the driver, and started to have our revolvers 
cleaned up and reloaded, as we had to cross the Alps. From 
thence we went to the United States Consul to have our passports 
vis(^d ; not that it was required, but to avoid the annoyance of 
running to the Consulate, perhaps not finding the Consul in, and, 
above all, paying your tribute of one dollar for his signature. 

Coming from the Consul we met Mr. Samuel Brannan and his 
lady. Mrs. Brannan, with lier children, live here, in a very fine 
villa, surrounded by extensive grounds, adjoining the town; a 



GERMANY, THROUGH SWITZERLAND, TO ITALY. 87 

more desirable residence could hardly be wished. Mr. and Mrs. 
Brannan kindly invited me to remain some time at their villa ; 
but this offer I was obliged to decline, as my duty called me to 
work in other parts. Mr. Brannan visited me at the hotel, and we 
together went to visit Mrs. Ilitchcock. On arriving at her resi- 
dence we found that Mrs. 11. was absent, but were received by 
Miss Hitchcock. With this young lady's graceful reception and 
accomplished manners we were very much struck. But time pre- 
vented us from enjoying long the pleasure of her company, as we 
were obliged to make haste to take the cars, which conveyed us 
to St. Jean de Moreno. 

The road runs a long time on the banks of the Eiver Rhone, 
and at the foot of a range of hills, which are planted thickly with 
vines. I noticed that some of them were planted four feet apart, 
and without sticks, as mine are in Sonoma. The vines were not 
pruned, and were well filled with grapes for this country. Occa- 
sionally I saw some staked vineyards, as if opinions differed as to 
the best mode ; but the unstaked were the most prevalent. 

On reaching the French line we were stopped, and got out to 
have our trunks and passports examined ; but as I passed the ofiS.- 
cial without even giving him a look, he allowed me to go on with- 
out a question. The trunks of my i^arty were merely brought in 
and taken out without the slightest investigation. This being 
the limit of the Sardinian territory lately annexed by Napoleon 
to France, we soon saw something of the Italian mode of culti- 
vating the vine, which is planted by a small tree, and allowed to 
run entirely over it, making it resemble a diminutive haystack. 
The rows are about 100 to 120 feet apart. In this space is plant- 
ed grain or Indian corn, of which much is here raised. On the 
lake side vines are extensively raised in the manner before de- 
scribed. Mulberry-trees also begin to make their appearance, 
sometimes with grapes running over them, and sometimes fur- 
nishing food for the si Ik- worm. 

Night soon set in, and nothing could be seen but a few lights 
dancing about on the towering mountains at whose base we pass- 
ed. At half past eight o'clock we arrived at St. Jean, which is 
the terminus of the present railroad. The hotel at which we 
stopped was only a few minutes' walk from the station, but the 
town itself is a quarter of an hour's walk. 

September 4. — Early this morning I went to hire a carriage to 
take us across the Alps. I succeeded, and we started at seven 



88 GRAPE CULTURE AND WINE-MAKING. 

o'clock, keeping along the banks of the rapid stream. The scen- 
ery is thoroughly grand : high mountains covered with the state- 
ly pine ; huge rocks towering above us, as if on the eve of falling 
to crush the intruders ; thousands of waterfalls, which resembled 
from a distance a silver ribbon ; in the far-off distance, mountains 
clad with perpetual snow. There are many coal-mines on the 
road, and villages which seem above the clouds. The land from 
one rod up to five rods is all worked, but without oxen, mule, or 
horse, as the inhabitants work their small property with spades. 
Only a few vines may be seen now and then. 

Septemher 5. — The tunnel which is now being constructed will, 
when finished, connect Italy and France, and will be four and a 
half leagues in length. They are now pumping air into it, as the 
workmen suffer much from its want. We passed within half a 
mile of it, but as it was not connected with my commission I did 
not visit it. After riding four miles more we stopped at a small 
village and took our dinner. The mountains begin to show more 
' and more snow ; still, right under these snow-banks may be seen 
houses, and herds of cattle grazing. Terrace upon terrace is built 
from five to eighteen feet, according to the steepness of the hills. 
This flat of ground is gained by walling up the side of the mount- 
ain, and then carefully filling the space with sifted ground gravel, 
and the manure which the poor peasant treasures up with great 
care during the whole 3-car. The crops raised on these patches 
of land are brought down on the backs of men and women. 

On this road is the Fort St. Albert ; the old one was blown up 
by Napoleon. The mountains began to become more and more 
distinct with their masses of snow. The cascades were more and 
more numerous. At last we arrived in the village, where we were 
to remain all night. Next morning, on the arrival of the stage, 
I found that the poor travelers were almost frozen with cold, 
which was intense during the night in the valleys and deep ra- 
vines of the snow-clad mountains. 

At seven o'clock we started. Four mules were placed to the 
carriage, as here the road begins to rise from the plain to the 
mountain. The road winds so gradually around the mountain, 
and is in such excellent order, that one hardly feels the gradual 
rise. It was constructed by Napol#on, and the French side is 
kept by that government ; the Italian by Victor Emanuel. At 
a distance of every half mile there are men who water the road 
from morning till night from a small ditch which runs alongside. 



GERMANY, TIIBOUGII SWITZERLAND, TO ITALY. 89 

and which is supplied with water by the thousands of natural 
falls. The man on the road is furnished with a huge wooden 
shovel resembling a ladle ; with this he throws the water over 
the entire way. 

When about one fourth up the mountain I got out of the car- 
riage, and walked across the summit of the Alps, arriving on the 
opposite side at a tavern about ten minutes sooner than the car- 
riage. Near this tavern is a small lake, on the border of which 
Napoleon had some breast- works built. There is also the old hos- 
pital which he erected for his wounded soldiers. 

We soon continued our journey at a slow trot, never fatiguing 
the horses. The reader may judge how gradual is the descent 
when I say the small ditch at the side of the road runs steadily 
at a rate of four miles an hour, ^t two o'clock we arrived at 
Susa. At the gate a custom-house officer mounted on the car- 
riage, and took us to the railroad station, where is also the cus- 
tom-house. The officers politely passed our trunks without open- 
ing them, and informed us that we could leave them there with 
perfect security. Therefore we went to a hotel, took an excellent 
dinner, and, at five o'clock, started for Turin, where we arrived 
at seven. 

After taking rooms we went out for a stroll, passing the King's 
palace, where there were several carriages in waiting. The salons 
were all finely lighted up, and, as the windows were open, we 
were enabled to see some large oil paintings. However, as we 
were very tired, we soon returned to our rooms, and sought our 
beds. 



9Q GKAPE CULTUKE AND WINE,3iIi\.KING. 



CHAPTER VI. 

ITALY :— WINE AND SILK. 

Turin. — Passports. — Leave for Genoa. — Vines and Mulbemes. — Plowing. — Grain 
Crops. — Manuring. — Asti and its Wines. — Eeach Genoa. — ^The Birthplace of 
Columbus. — Narrow Streets. — Professor Isnard. — -Procure Vines. — Nova. — The 
Silk aianufactory. — Jealousy of Visitors. — Scanty Information. — Raising Silk- 
worms. — Return. — Efiects of Asti Wine. — Return to Genoa. — Wine-making in 
Italy. — No Berths for Civita Vecchia. — Leave for Marseilles. — The Voyage. — 
Laying by. — Extra Charge for Board. — Arrival at Marseilles. 

September 6. — Finding that nothing in the way of wine or silk 
raising can be done in Turin, I started this day for Genoa, through 
the town of Asti, where the best wine of modern Italy is said to 
be made. Before leaving Turin I thought it would be better to 
have my passport vised by the Pope's embassador, therefore I 
sent it to that officer, but was surprised to hear that I must first 
go to the American minister, as he had officially requested him 
and all other ministers not to vise any American passports unless 
first seen and vised by himself. I then sent the servant to the 
American minister, who requested me to call upon him. This 
annoyed me considerably •, but still, as it had to be done, and as I 
intended to call upon the minister anyhow, I went, and was re- 
ceived kindly. lie apologized for putting me to so much trouble, 
but such were his instructions with regard to all. He signed our 
passports without charge ; and, thanking him, we bowed ourselves 
out, and went to the Pope's embassador, who made no farther 
trouble. 

Turin is the present residence of Victor Emanuel. It is a hand- 
some city, the houses being built in modern style, the streets wide 
and clean. Some fine public squares adorn the city, also some 
fine fountains ; but, above all, it is very conveniently built for a 
hot climate. Its side-walks are almost all arched over, so that 
one may go almost all over the city without being exposed to the 
sun or rain. 

At three o'clock we left Turin. Here the country is rolling 
bills, more yellow clay than sand. On these hills are planted 



ITALY :— WINE AND SILK. 91 

grape-vines ; in the valley, fields ; and the fields arc surrounded 
by mulberry-trees, of which, each year, the growth of the last is 
trimmed off, so that there shall be new and more tender leaves for 
the food of the silk-worm. As the tree is low, the leaves do not 
spread, and are easily gathered. The production of silk here is 
very extensive and profitable. "When I reach Genoa I shall ex- 
amine this subject thoroughly. 

The vines on the hills are planted in two different ways — some 
by trees, and allowed to run over them ; the others by trellis- 
work. Both seem to do well ; the vines hang full of grapes. 

The plowing in the plains is done with the limb of a tree shod 
with iron, and drawn by a yoke of oxen. It is wonderful how 
with this ancient Roman plow they can strike such beautiful fur- 
rows. They are now summer-fallowing for putting in wheat, and 
they do it beautifully. But it is very difi&cult, and but little can 
be plowed in the day. 

The wheat, which they thresh with flails, is all the bearded red 
kind, known in California as the "Mediterranean wheat." It is 
a sure crop, and never mildews or rots. Much Indian corn is 
raised here; it is the deep-yellow corn, almost red. Millet for 
consumption is also raised in large quantities. Now and then a 
small patch of sugar-cane can be seen, but I suppose that is more 
for fancy than profit. Will my readers believe that these people 
are so far back in improvements that they have no fanning-mill, 
but, as in olden times, clean their grain by throwing it against the 
wind, and then sweeping it together, so that the husks not taken 
off by the wind are swept off by the broom ? 

I also observed that they plant poplar-trees in the meadow 
around the small lots, so that the falling leaves shall manure the 
ground. I likewise noticed that burned earth was brought from 
some other part of the property, and laid upon the ground for 
amelioration. It is said to increase the crop by one half 

, The town of Asti, from which the wine of that name comes, is 
situated in a rolling country, the hills being small, none being 
higher than Telegraph Hill of San Francisco. The soil is yellow 
clay, with no gravel. It is about one third sand. The wine here 
raised is by no means considered generous, but it is cheap and 
pleasant, as it has not the bitter taste of the French or Hungarian 
wines. It is light, and excellent to drink in a hot climate. I 
emptied a bottle with good will, and almost at one draught. The 
wine had no intoxicating effect upon me. It is principally red 



92 GKATE CULTURE AND WINE-MAKING. 

wine. The white is not so good, being more sweet and stronger. 
Champagne is also made from these grapes. 

Leaving Asti, the land continues to be undulating, and the vine- 
yards are the same until Solero. Gelezzano has the same wine 
as Asti in the plains, but mulberry-trees and grain are the chief 
produce ; still, the vines never fail, and abundantly remunerate 
the planter. Not the slightest attention is paid to the selection 
of grapes or their fermentation. I understand, however, that there 
is a gentleman who has attended to wine-making, and that he was 
successful in making a generous wine. I will return to Asti, dis- 
cover his whereabouts, and get as much information as possible, 
for the Asti vines will improve on our red soil. 

After leaving Solero we entered a large plain, extending as 
far as the eye can reach. This plain is all planted with mulber- 
ry-trees. We passed the strong Fort Alexandria and several 
small villages ; but darkness soon set in, and I could see nothing 
of the country. We also passed through several tunnels, some 
of them four or five miles long, judging from the time it took us 
to pass through. 

At half past nine in the evening we arrived in Genoa, and 
were taken to the ancient building now occupied by the Hotel 
Feder. The apartments are truly fine, from thirty to thirty -five 
feet square, and finely arched, the ceiling being twenty feet high 
in the centre. It is also frescoed, and the walls are painted in the 
same. The cornices are finely gilded, and the rooms contain 
niassive ancient furniture. 

Sei^temher 7. — After writing my journal I began to make in- 
quiries as to where I could see silk manufactories and where con- 
tract for vines. The accommodating host promised to furnish me 
to-morrow with all the necessary introductions, so there was noth- 
ing left to do but to roam through this old city, the birthplace 
of Columbus. 

It has a fine inclosed harbor, where lie hundreds of small craft 
trading on the coast. The wharves are scenes of busy confusion. 
Men half naked are here employed from morning till night in 
loading and unloading vessels, and drawing heavy weights on a 
car on low wheels. They do immense labor ; still, their earnings 
are very small. 

From tlie quay I turned my steps to the interior of the city, 
which I found beyond description — the streets about six to eight 
feet wide, very irregular; the houses on each side five and six 



ITALY:— WINE AND SILK. 93 

stories liigli, dark and dirty-looking, and from tlio windows of 
the bouses the neighbors may reach over and shake hands. A 
person may imagine that such a street has not the sweetest odor 
in the world. No wagons can go in the streets, nor are there 
many used, as men do the work of horses and mules. Still, there 
are a few of the latter seen sometimes. When they are loaded 
with a bulky substance, a person meeting one finds himself in a 
very precarious situation in the narrow streets; and if there is 
not a doorway or a cross-street near by, it is a question whether 
he or the donkey will remain master of the field. The shops in 
these streets are dark, and the mechanics work almost continually 
by the light of a lamp. There are a few openings in this city, 
which can not be called squares, but only spaces of 100 feet, in 
the most irregular form possible. I found several no-shajped 
places, where they sell vegetables and fruit. These were fresh, 
and excellent. The almonds, oranges, and lemons look very fine ; 
the white fig is delicious. 

September 8. — I took a carriage and started out with Professor 
E. I. Isnard to a neighboring village, and, after examining the 
vines and fruit-trees in the nursery, I engaged a person at Rivara 
to pack -and send to me at Marseilles the following varieties of 
vines: Boseo, 3felea, Blanchetto^ Verinentino, Bois, Nehwioj Bianco 
de Asii, Malvoisea. The above vines ^re all native to this section 
of Italy. The grapes are excellent. I engaged cuttings as well 
as rooted vines. After this we started for home, which we reach- 
ed after a very dusty ride. When it came to paying the hack- 
man, he asked double the price of what I had agreed to pay ; but 
as I had no time to argue, I gave what he asked and left him. I 
made an arrangement with Professor Isnard to start to-morrow 
morning at five o'clock to the small town of Nova to see some 
silk manufactories. 

September 9. — We reached Nova at eight o'clock, when we took 
breakfast, and immediately started for one of the principal silk 
manufactories. After much difficulty we were at last admitted, 
as the overseer thought me French, of whom they are very jeal- 
ous, for fear they will learn something of their silk manufactory. 
With great mystery and suspicion they showed me the cocoons, 
which they had in a lofty magazine. They were spread upon 
cane mats, placed one above the other, upon racks made for that 
purpose. From this place I could look down to where the wom- 
en, about 120 in number, were at work unwinding the cocoons. 



94 GRAPE CULTURE AND WINE-MAKING. 

These are placed in Tvarm water, and the end of the thread being 
found, it is wound upon a wheel driven by a steam-engine. Each 
woman has a wheel and an iron box before her ; in the latter are 
placed the cocoons. 

The overseer took great care that I should not see much from 
my stand; he urged me into the next room. I soon bid him 
good-by, telling him that I did not care much to see his ma- 
chinery, as* I had used the same thirty years ago, with the ex- 
ception of the steam-engine ; and in regard to that I told him that 
at any time America can send him machinery so complete that 
he would not need the women. The man looked astonished; 
but, as I was offended by his making so much mystery about 
nothing, I left him. We went to another man ; but here also 
we met with the same difliculty. He was willing to show us all 
the cocoons, but nothing else. To my inquiries as to how many 
hands are required for 100 trees from six to ten years old, or how 
much silk is made from 100 pounds of leaves, the man gave me 
such unsatisfactory answers as showed that he either wished to 
mislead me, or he did not know any thing about it; conse- 
quently, I started off in search of some plain farmer who would 
give me the desired information. 

At last we found a place where there were three hundred trees, 
which were thirty years 0I4, according to the statement of an old 
lady, her son, and daughter, who all answered me at once. Im- 
agine me in an Italian peasant's house, surrounded by the four 
inhabitants and many others, who were wondering what the 
strangers wanted; why they examined the mulberry - trees so 
closely, and so forth ; and you will understand that it required a 
little patience to wait for the answers of these people. I asked 
the old lady how many pounds of cocoons she makes from the 
trees ; at what price she sells the same ; how many ounces of 
eggs and seeds she uses ; how much labor, etc. The whole fam- 
ily at once kindly answered all questions but the two last, which 
seemed to strike them with astonishment. The idea that they 
should know how much labor is necessary, or how many leaves 
are used to an ounce of eggs, seemed something preposterous. 

I was obliged to have recourse to the most roundabout ways 
in the world to ascertain that in some years they get 1000 francs, 
in others 2000, and sometimes as many as 4000 francs from the 
800 trees. The labor takes about four to five weeks, when it is 
all finished. The family do it all themselves, and even the four 



ITALY:— WINE AND SILK. 95 

are not kept busy the wliolc clay. When the leaves begin to 
grow in spring, and wlien they have attained their full size, they 
put a certain quantity of eggs under the mattress upon which 
they sleep : the bodily heat hatches the eggs. Then some leaves 
arc cut up very line and put in a dish. Several whole leaves are 
then put above the young worms, who creep upon them. They 
are then laid in the dish, and begin to cat. As they grow, the 
leaves are cut up less fine, and the worms arc placed in larger 
dishes, until they are placed on cane mats suspended from the 
ceiling. They must be regularly fed, and a great deal. 

Kain-storms, or much lightning, will sometimes kill a whole 
brood. When the worms are ready to wind themselves, some 
dry weeds are stuck in the mats ; the mature worm ascends and 
spins himself in. This is all the information I gathered from 
these people, who kindly and willingly told me all they could. 
Still, I should never have been able to understand them if I had 
not known the whole operation before ; for I raised silk-worms 
on a large scale, and in the most approved manner, on my domain 
in Hungary. But I was willing to give my readers the manner 
in which these people raise the worm. I will give a more de- 
tailed description, as I intend to investigate the matter fully in 
the silk-growing districts in the south of France. After present- 
ing the lady with a five-franc piece, I took my leave of her, but 
not before showing her a piece of quartz, and telling her that gold 
was found in such stones in California. Her astonishment it 
would be impossible to describe. 

I hurried to the depot in order to be in time for the steamer 
in Genoa, which was to arrive from Marseilles, and go to Civita 
Vecckia. I would here stop with my journal, and only continue 
it from Genoa, but I must make a statement, which, though per- 
sonal, gave me a piece of information concerning the wines made 
here. 

As I before stated, upon our arrival at Nova we had taken 
breakfast and a bottle of wine, which was Asti white wine. We 
between us emptied about half the bottle, as it was very sweet, 
sparkling like Champagne. It had a fine bouquet, but was made 
without care or system. 

Soon after starting with the train I felt a terrible pain coming 
upon me. I suffered intensely. I could not imagine from what 
it originated. I had eaten no fruit, caught no cold, and my break- 
fast was cold chicken and potatoes. My sufferings were intense; 



96 GRAPE CULTURE AND WINE-RLA.KING. 

at last I fainted -when the train stopped. After I liad recovered 
a little, the Consul General of Holland, who was in the train, and 
who kindly assisted me in my agony, asked me what I had eaten. 
As soon as I told him 1 had taken some Asti, he said that was 
the cause of my illness, and that it had the same effect upon all 
strangers, as it is badly fermented, and frequently the peasants 
put honey in to make it sweet. Therefore I warn all my readers 
never to drink Asti wine, and then journey in the cars. 

Much weakened and fatigued, I arrived in Genoa, when, to my 
annoyance and sorrow, I found that the steamer for Civita Yec- 
chia had not another berth, and that even the next steamer, which 
will start only in five tlays, is not certain to be able to accommo- 
date us with berths. The season advances rapidly; the grapes 
will be picked in a few days in the south of France and in Spain ; 
therefore I have resolved to leave Eome and NajDles un visited, 
as I can, through friends, order the cuttings and trees. This is 
all I can do for my readers and those who have engaged vines ; 
for as to making wine as these jDcople, God forbid ! They are as 
far back in this art as are the Mission Indians in California. I 
have resolved to embark with the first steamer for Marseilles, and 
from there go on to Spain and Portugal, where I will be in season 
to see the curing of the raisins, which is very essential knowledge 
for California, as this will form a large profit to it. 

Septemher 10. — I went to engage my passage for Marseilles, and 
here again I met with difficulty about my passport ; for, notwith- 
standing that it was vised by the minister at Turin, it was nec- 
essary to have it vised by the Consul at Genoa. I was obliged 
to submit, and took my passport to the Consul, Mr. Paterson, who 
received us cordially, and vised it without charge. He is ex- 
pecting his successor daily. 

Before I leave Genoa I will add that this was the ancient seat 
of the pirates, who lived here in perfect security, accumulating 
immense wealth. To quiet their conscience, they put much of it 
in churches and church ornaments. There are a great many 
churches here, built of the most beautiful marble, having richly 
frescoed walls, and gold and silver vessels innumerable. Traces 
of magnificent palaces still exist. This place suffers much on ac- 
count of our troubles. The people seem content with their pres- 
ent ruler, Victor Emanuel. 

Seplewher 11. — At six o'clock this evening we embarked for 
Marseilles. During the night some wind arose, and when I went 



ITALY:— WINE AND SILK. 97 

upon deck I found wc were heading in for land. I inquired the 
reason of this movement, and whether we were to land at some 
port. The captain replied no. But as the wind continued to 
blow fresh, he ran the boat under shelter, and dropped anchor. 
The sky was clear, the day fine, but I thought that he might know 
certain signs which indicate a storm on this sea, Wc had anchor- 
ed at the small village where Napoleon made his landing after 
escaping from Elba. 

We lay there from eight o'clock A.M. till eight o'clock P.M. 
The wind was moderate, the weather clear ; all the passengers, as 
well as myself, wondered why the captain did not raise anchor, 
when we had seen several large vessels pass us with sails full set. 
Still, I did not feel vexed, as my previous rapidity in traveling 
left me but little time to read my books upon wine, silk, etc., 
which I must finish, so as to be posted when I reach those coun- 
tries where they are produced. I was quite at ease, as I thought 
that the captain had to board us until we land. In the evening 
the wind died away, and we started. 

There were more than eighty steerage passengers, men, women, 
and children, all huddled together like so many swine. As these 
people had with them provisions only for twenty-four hours (in 
which time the steamer should make the trip), the poor children 
suffered a great deal. 

September 12. — We arrived at half past twelve o'clock, but be- 
fore we left the steamer the steward brought me a bill of twenty 
francs, and so to the other passengers, stating that the company 
gives us but two meals, a breakfast and dinner, and we had had 
one meal more. We objected, stating that we had asked when 
we paid sixty-two and a half francs apiece for our tickets, wheth- 
er the board was included, and the oflEicers replied that it was. 
Consequently, the company was obliged to board us ; besides, 
there was no earthly reason for lying by, as the wind was not 
more than required for a sail-boat. Our arguments were vain, 
and, to avoid farther parley, we paid what was charged. 

We did not disembark at a wharf, but were obliged to go ashore 
in a yawl. After waiting a long time in the custom-house for our 
baggage, it at last arrived. The ofl&cers politely passed it without 
opening the trunks. 

Marseilles is a large, busy sea-port town. There are innumer- 
able large, fine iron steamers in the inclosed harbor. 

a 



98 GKAPE CULTURE AND "VNTNE-MAKING. 



CHAPTER VII. 

THE BORDEAUX WINE DISTRICT. 

Leave Marseilles for Bordeaux. — Agricultural Notes. — Vines, Olives, Almonds, and 
Mulberries. — Montpellicr. — Frontignan. — Cette. — Manufacture of spurious Wines. 
— Carcassonne. — New Vineyards. — Wheat and Maize. — Toulouse. — The Canal du 
Midi. — Montauban. — Prunes. — Agen. — Reach Bordeaux. — Botanic Gardens. — 
American Ships. — Steel-plated Vessels. — M. de Luze. — His Wine-vaults. — Price 
of Wines. — Corks and Capsules. — Barrels. — The Fruit Nursery. — A Bird Fan- 
cier. — Prune Establishment of A. Dufour and Company. — Drying and packing 
Prunes. — California as a Fruit Country. — Dinner with M. de Luze. — Visit to 
Chateau Margaux. — The famous Vineyard. — The Store-room. — The Press-room. 
— Manufacturing the Wine. — Chateau Rauzan. — A bad Ycai-.-^Victor Eendu on 
the Wines of Bordeaux : The diflerent Sorts. — Wines of the IMcdoc. — The Vines. 
— Mode of Cultivation. — The Manufacture of Wines. — Quantity produced. — Clas- 
sification of Mcdoc Wines. — The chief Vineyards. — Prices of Wines. — Prices of 
Vineyards. — The Champagne District. — The Vineyards. — The Grapes. — Cultiva- 
tion of the Vines. — The Vintage. — Manufacture of Champagnes. — Classification 
of Champagnes. — Quantity of Champagnes produced. — Markets. — Dejiarture for 

Spain. 

• 

September 13. — At eiglit o'clock we started on our way to Bor- 
deaux from Marseilles. From this city to Rognac the country is 
planted with olive-trees, vines, and almonds. The olive is pre- 
dominant, and is of a dwarfish kind. The almond-trees are trim- 
med as dwarfs. Some part of the country is rocky. The vines 
are planted in two rows, about two feet apart, and these are sep- 
arated from the next two by a space of about ten feet. From this 
place to St. Chamas the country was poor and rocky in the ex- 
treme, but, wherever there was a place to plant, were found al- 
mond, olive, and mulberry trees. To Miramas the lands are plant- 
ed with olives, mixed much with mulberries. Silk is here raised 
in large quantities. To Aries the country is a large jDlain, very 
rocky, and almost a desert. No trees, no grass can there be seen ; 
all that meets the wearied eye is, from time to time, a sheep-house, 
but there are no sheep visible, as the scanty tufts of grass must be 
sought far and wide. The whole country has the aspect of an an- 
cient river-bed. It is about twenty-five miles across. We after- 
ward came to a region which was a little more fertile. It had 



THE BORDEAUX WINE DISTRICT. 99 

now and then some olive and more mulberry trees, but bay was 
the principal product. We saw some well-loaded fruit-trees, and 
in the distance some mountains which exclusively produce fruit, 
almonds, and vines. Till Secoloux there were more or less mul- 
berry-trees and vines. There was some grain, but the soil was very 
inferior, being of a poor gray color. At Talasco we changed cars. 
The land and cultivation are the same as above until Mandeuil. 

A^lsjyies. — To the right the country was rolling, and planted with 
mulberry -tregs. There were many young plantations. The olive- 
trees extend for miles and miles. We now and then passed some 
almond-trees. On the left side the country was more planted 
with grain. There were, however, many mulberry and olive trees 
in the same fields, either in rows or on the edges. After passing 
the Ehone vines are almost exclusively planted. Sometimes there 
are olive or mulberry trees having vines between them, but the 
practice is not general. I saw a plow, by which land was sub- 
soiled, drawn by five mules, at the last place. Wherever the soil 
was red, vines were cultivated. The table-land this side of Talas- 
co, as far as the eye can reach, is planted with vines, olive-trees, 
and mulberry-trees. 

Milhaud. — Plantations of vines, with olive-trees between. The 
species of vine is the blue grape. 

Ucliaud. — On the right-hand side are rolling, rocky, low hills, 
planted with vines and olives. On the left is a plain. It is well 
elevated, and planted with olive and mulberry trees. The vint- 
age has already here begun, and goes on speedily. 

Vergere. — On either side, for miles and miles, there extends a 
plain, planted with vines, olives, and some mulberry trees. 

Galargues. — The land is similar in aspect to that above. 

Lunel. — This place is famous for its sweet wine, which is made 
in the same way, and is the rival of Frontignan wine. The soil, 
wherever vines are planted, is red. Its aspect is the same as above. 

We arrived at Montpellier, where we stopped to see the sur- 
rounding country and the method of here making wine. Imme- 
diately on our arrival we set out to visit the olive-presses. We 
staid here over night, and started at eight o'clock for Bordeaux. 

Villeneuve. — There were vines on each side of us, and all culti- 
vated in the same way as mine in California. There were few 
olives and mulberries. 

Vice-Merval.—^h.Q valley has been getting narrower. We pass- 
ed through vines and some meadows which were well loaded. 



100 GR^VPE CULTUEE AifD WINE-MAKING. 

Frontignan. — The vines are here much loaded. This is the 
place where the famous Frontignan wine is made. There are two 
varieties of grapes in the vicinity, the red Muscat and the white 
Muscat, of which the latter is the most in cultivation. The vine- 
yards generally give ten per cent, on the value of the land. An 
acre is estimated at from fifteen to twenty thousand francs. 

Cette. — Here we changed cars, the ones we were in going to 
Perpignan. The railroad runs through shoals of the sea from 
Frontignan to Cette. Every where that a foot of ground can be 
redeemed from them, it is done, and the spot is planted with vines ; 
these, all along the sea-coast, were doing excellently. Cette is the 
great manufacturing place for spurious wines, millions of gallons 
of imitations being here made, of every brand in existence, and 
sold to all parts of the world, a few drops of the genuine being 
used to give the taste of the different qualities. So perfect are 
some of these imitations, that it is with difficulty you can distin- 
guish the S23urious wines from the genuine. The country around 
being flat and the soil sandy, the wine is very poor, and, as the 
vines yield largely, the wine is almost as cheap as water. The 
manufacturers buy up these wines, and, by their chemical prepa- 
rations, fix them up, and sell them, mostly to the American mar- 
ket, for good prices. Such are the wines we drink as Chateau 
Margaux, Lafitte, Chambertin, etc., etc. 

Adge. — The vines were planted still nearer the shore, and were 
looking well. 

Narbonne. — Here we breakfasted. The whole country is one 
wide plain, and planted with vines. The soil is of a grayish color. 

Capcndu. — The country reaching up to this place varies from a 
plain to rolling ground, and has on all sides vineyards. Now and 
then may be seen some olive and almond trees raised in hedges. 

Carcassonne. — Some of the land is planted with grain ; the prin- 
cipal part of it is still planted with vines, however. There are 
hundreds of acres which have been turned into vineyards since 
the last twenty -five years. It seems to pay better than any thing 
else, as there is an extreme demand for common wines, which are 
used to correct other wines wanting color, strength, or body. 

Rames. — The vineyards diminish and almost disappear. Wheat 
is the principal product. The plowing is done by oxen. 

Castelaundrey. — The land is cultivated with grain, and appears 
pretty rich. There is a great quantity of Indian corn raised. It 
is topped to the corn-ears. 



THE BORDEAUX WINE DISTRICT. 101 

Yillofranche cle Lauregais. — The valley is exclusively composed 
of farming lands. The hills on cither side are planted with vines. 

Toulouse. — We here caught the first sight of the great Canal 
de Midi. It did quite a good business formerly ; but, since the 
inauguration of the railroad, its importance has much diminished. 
The vine is predominant, 

Orisales, — The country is rolling; produces some wine and 
much corn. 

Montlariier. — Vines on one side of the road, and grain, mixed 
with vines, on. the other. 

Montauban. — A large Protestant town, and famous in the his- 
tory of the Huguenots. Vines are planted on each side of the 
road. 

Casiel-Sarrasin. — The vines are here planted in rows three feet 
apart, and these separated by a distance of forty to sixty feet, 
which is occupied by grain. 

Marsac. — Vines are on either side of the track. The Eiver 
Tarn flows along the valley. 

Malouse. — The plum or prune cultivation begins to increase. 
On the hills, which are of moderate height, vines are planted. I 
saw many patches of cane, which is used for the drying of the 
plums. 

Valence. — The country is cultivated with vines, grain, and 
fruit-trees. 

St. Nicolas. — The cultivation is the same as above. The rail- 
road runs for a length of time on the banks of the canal. 

Agen. — A large place, famous for its dried plums, of which 
there are sometimes only thirty -six to a pound. After passing 
Agen night came on, and I could make no farther observations. 
We arrived at Bordeaux at twelve o'clock, well worn out with 
our day's journey. 

September 15. — As it was Sunday, all that could be done was 
to walk around the city and write correspondence. Bordeaux is 
a very fine city. It possesses large shady walks, promenades, 
and squares. It has a good safe harbor in the Eiver Garonne. 
Its botanic gardens, with their beautiful ponds, in which hund- 
reds of gold-fish swim, and upon which swans extend their white 
and graceful forms, contribute in no small measure to the beauty 
of the city and the pleasure of the promenading community. 
Many ships from our own country sweep the harbor with their 
airy forms. High above all the others is unfurled to the winds 



102 GRATE CULTURE AND WINE-MAKING. 

the beautiful Star-spangled Banner. In beholding the flag of m}'^ 
country, I felt rush into my heart a thrill of pleasure and pride. 
Even without the flag, it was easy to recognize at once our Amer- 
ican ships. Their high masts, towering far above the forest around 
them, their sharp-cut bows, their finely -moulded lines, pronounced 
them American. 

I saw building in the harbor two iron gun-boats. The steel 
plates were being put on ; they were five inches thick. These 
boats are meant for the protection of the harbor ; they are an- 
chored at the entrance, and defend its passage. There were also 
building men-of-war. Several were completed ; they were all 
steel-plated. The stone bridge across the Garonne is a very fine 
work of art. Bordeaux possesses several fine public buildings, 
of which the theatre is the principal. It is the finest and largest 
in France. What is most remarkable in it is the architectural 
beauty of the interior. 

SqAeriiber 16. — The first thing I did this morning was to visit 
the house of Mr. Alfred de Luze — the largest wine-dealing estab- 
lishment in Bordeaux, as it also is the most recommendable one. 
Monsieur de Luze is also consul of Frankfort and of the Grand- 
duchy of Hesse. The stately old gentleman received us with 
great cordiality, offering his services for any information or let- 
ters of introduction that we might need. Offered in the gracious 
manner that it was, and coming from such a source, I of course 
accepted it with pleasure, well knowing that it would be the 
means of making a thorough investigation in this vicinity. 

'Before leaving the ofi&ce, M. Francis de Luze, son and partner 
in the house, kindly invited us to visit the vaults. Accordingly, 
myself and my son Arpad followed our polite conductor. We 
came to the cooper's shop, where a dozen or more men were at 
work repairing the barrels. Good wine is never put into new 
barrels. It is a universal custom in Bordeaux, in well-conducted 
houses, to use for first quality wine barrels which have already 
contained wine, which has taken out the astringent taste of the 
wood. These barrels, however, are taken completely apart and 
thoroughly cleansed, piece by piece. The barrels which wc saw 
were intended for shipment. 

Leaving the shop, we entered the vaults. Going from one to 
the other, we saw each filled with wine-casks four and five tiers 
high. Our steps led us through vault after vault, and each suc- 
cessive one became larger. Some of these vaults had six to eight 



THE BORDEAUX WINE DISTRICT. 103 

rows of barrels five to six tiers high. Rows, not against the walls, 
arc composed of two barrels touching each other at one end, and 
having the other on a little alley which separates them from the 
next row. Mr. do Luze made us taste all the principal wines of 
the establishment. I need hardly say that they were delicious. 
Never had I before tasted such Bordeaux or Sauterne, though of 
each I had previously known excellent brands. 

From this scries of vaults wc were taken through a series of 
smaller ones. They were narrow and long, being the place where 
the wine in bottles is kept. On each side the bottles are piled 
up to the roof, and each side is composed of one row four bottles 
deep. These vaults c'ach contain several hundred thousand bot- 
tles, which have been here for many j^ears awaiting their term 
of maturity. The contents of the cellars in bottles and barrels 
at the present time can not fall short of half a million of gallons. 
It took us two full hours to visit this grand establishment. 

The custom of this house is only to buy in good years, and then 
largely. Last year being a bad one, no wine was bought except 
for the consumption of the laborers of the establishment. 

The price of the wine depends upon the age and upon the 
year, coming from the same growth. The price of a barrel of 
sixty gallons is from 300 to 2000 francs, and sometimes even 
more. The bottled wines cost from three francs to eight francs 
apiece ; but, of course, they are only sold at wholesale. 

I am particular in describing this establishment, that my read- 
ers, who have flattered themselves that they have bought good 
Bordeaux in San Francisco at $40 and $50 a barrel, or at $4 to $5 
a case, have been most egregiously deceived. Their Bordeaux 
was nothing more nor less than a miserable imitation. No good 
wine can be sold even here at any such price. "Where, then, is 
the cost of transportation, insurance, interest, and duty, to say 
nothing of profits ? 

I may here mention the curious fact that this family has car- 
ried on the wine trade during four generations. This is very sin- 
gular to us Americans, who change business so often in life, and. 
sometimes in a year, 

"When we had seen every thing, and tasted all the noble wines, 
we took our leave, not, however, before receiving and accepting 
an invitation to dinner the next day, and a drive in the environs. 
After leaving Alfred de Luze's establishment, we visited several 
other manufactories of little importance ; among these was one 



104 GIUPE CULTURE AND WINE-MAKING. 

whicli makes the capsules to place on the cork, and stamps them. 
The capsules, all stamped, cost twenty francs a thousand. 

Making the necessary arrangements for to-morrow's work, we 
afterward went to dinner, then wrote, and then went to bed. 

September 17. — At seven o'clock, according to appointment, 
Francis de Luze called with his carriage. We drove out several 
miles from Bordeaux, inspecting the vineyards, orchards, barrel 
manufactories, etc., etc. I was informed by M. de Luze that the 
barrels meant to contain fine Cognacs were made from Kussian 
oak. The reason given for this is, that other wood gives an un- 
pleasant taste to the brandy. New barrels made from Russian 
oak, holding sixty American gallons, having four iron hoops and 
the rest wooden, cost from twenty to twenty-two francs. 

Leaving the cooper's shop, we drove to the largest nursery at 
Bordeaux, where M. de Luze left us. We examined this exten- 
sive establishment, and made our selections in fruit-trees from the 
fruit which we saw. We here found the very nicest and finest 
fruit that we had yet seen in France. After making and com- 
pleting my contract with M. Catros-Gerand, I went home to com- 
plete my journal and write up my correspondence. On our way 
home we saw a bird-fancier who had some very fine pheasants, 
and a large variety of very rare birds. He asked sixty francs a 
pair for his pheasants, and ten francs for some fine pigeons. I 
was really sorry that I was not on my way home, else I would 
have bought the pheasants and other rare fowls. 

In the afternoon we were taken by a nephew of M. de Luze to 
the establishment of A. Dufour & Co., whose business consists in 
packing and putting up dried prunes for exportation. We were 
politely shown round by the proprietor, and visited the whole es- 
tablishment. It is situated in a large five-story house, each story 
having its special operation. The prunes, after having been 
bought from the producers, have again to be prepared by dry- 
ing ; for, to make them weigh more and appear larger, the pro- 
ducers do not dry them thoroughly. This operation is repeated 
.only when the prunes are destined for distant lands and for long 
keeping. When they are not sent from France they may be put 
up as they are, after the selections have been made. The largest 
and best prunes are put into glass jars; the second best are put 
into paper boxes tastily prepared. Our guide showed ns boxes 
thus prepared which were to be sent to Havana, the box itself 
costing twenty sous, while the prunes in it only cost eleven sous. 



THE BORDEAUX WINE DISTRICT. 105 

Thus tlic good people of Havana pay tliirty-onc sous for what 
they might have had for cloven. See •where a taste for pretty 
things leads people. There is a still cheaper box which goes to 
the United States. The third sort goes in tin boxes, round or 
square. The fourth sort is put into barrels, and is meant for home 
consumption. Great system is employed in the whole matter. 
The house now employs eighty-five women and twelve men. 
Before the war in the United States broke out it employed two 
hundred and eighty women and thirty-five men. There are many 
other establishments in this vicinity which are fully as large as the 
above. 

Many of my readers will be astonished at the magnitude of this 
trade ; I myself was surprised at its great extent. I knew before 
that it was carried on on a large scale here, in Hungary, and in 
Germany, but I never dreamed that it was so extensive. 

Why do not we Californians and brother planters try this trade ? 
Our soil is much richer than that of Europe, and the method of 
drying the prunes is comparatively easy. We might, with the 
greatest ease, furnish all America, North and South. Why bring 
our goods from afar when we can procure them at home ? When 
I have thoroughly made my investigation, I will give, at some fu- 
ture day, the modes of preparing these prunes as practiced here 
and in other parts of Euroj)e. 

Having fully investigated this house, we went to the chateau 
of M. de Luze. It is within half an hour's walk from his ofiice. 
The chateau is an old family residence, lately repaired and orna- 
mented under the direction of the old gentleman, who prides 
himself on such things, and displays very good taste. Surround- 
ing it is a very fine park, which procures him all the pleasures 
of a country residence. The furniture of the chateau is all in 
the style of Louis XIV. and Louis XY., and is in the very best 
taste. We had a very good dinner, and a still better wine. We 
were here again made to drink of all the best years and of the 
best growths. The old gentleman lives in an elegant style, show- 
ing that the wine business is much better, in way of revenue, 
than that of many ducal estates. We left our kind host late in 
the evening. To-morrow we will visit Chateau Margaux. 

September 18. — This morning we hired a carriage, and, accom- 
panied by M. de Luze's nephew, we went to see the wine country. 
We stopped at the village of Margaux, about eighteen miles from 
Bordeaux. This is the wine district which has the greatest rep- 



106 GRATE CULTURE AND WINE-MAKING. 

utation in all France. It is here that the renowned "Chateau 
Margaux" is made. The soil is gravelly, and intermixed with a 
great quantity of pebbles. It is of a gray color, some clay, but 
more sand. The grapes near the village are small and blue. 
The vines are kept low, being on trellis- work only two feet high. 
They are three feet apart each way. The vines are nearly all 
sulphured. The didium rages here. The frost in the beginning 
of the spring did much harm. 

After having breakfasted we went to the Chateau Margaux, 
which is on the borders of the village. It consists of about eighty 
hectares, and belongs to the Marquis Aguado, The regisseur re- 
luctantly gave his consent to us to see the place. However, he 
sent us to the head cooper, who was to show us around. We 
entered a long room, supported by pillars in the centre. There 
were but a few barrels here. In bad years it is here that the wine 
is kept. In good years the wine is sold immediately upon com- 
ing from the tanks or fermenting-tubs, or but a short time after- 
ward. The country being all flat and near the river, no cellars 
arc made. We were led into the room where the wine in bottles 
is kept. It is about sixty feet long, narrow, and very well ar- 
ranged to pile up bottles. The divisions are of stone, and each 
contains about 200 bottles. 

The press-house is also very well arranged. There are seven- 
teen large fermenting-tubs on one side of the room. The other 
contains four large stone vats, one foot deep and twelve feet 
square. In the middle of two of these there are two round press- 
es. The sides of these are composed of jDerpendicular slats two 
to three inches wide, and as many thick. They arc placed wide 
enough apart to let out the juice, but not the seeds and skins. 
In the centre is an iron screw, which is worked from above. 

The grapes, when brought from the vineyard, are thrown upon 
tables whose bottoms are made of slats crossing each other at 
right angles, and permitting the grapes to pass between. As soon 
as they arc on these tables, the workmen, with the flat of the hand, 
rub them against the bottom. The berries by this operation fall 
through the slats, and the stem remains. It is immediately pick- 
ed out and thrown in a tub placed for that purpose. 

The fermentation lasts from seven to ten days. Then the wine 
is taken off, the residue put into the press and pressed. This forms 
the second quality wine. When tlie second quality has been 
made, the matter pressed is again thrown into a large fermenting- 



THE BORDEAUX WINE DISTRICT. 107 

tub and fermented, after water has been poured upon it. This 
latter wine forms the drink of the workmen of the establishment. 
There are about 400 barrels made per annum. 

We visited one more domain, Chateau Rauzan, with its vine- 
yards, presses, etc. It was about the same thing as the former, with 
the exception that the tanks were not in such good order, and 
that the slatted tables were over the fermenting-tubs instead of 
on the tanks. The grapes arc thrown upon the tables by shov- 
els. When rubbed from the stems then fall into the fermenting- 
tubs, where they arc stamped by men. The rest of the wine- 
making establishments are conducted in nearly the same way. 

I was really astonished how they could make any wine at all, 
the vines were so much affected by disease. Sulphuring must be 
very costly. Many vineyards will not makfe a single barrel of 
wine this year for the reason which I have already stated, that 
the frost killed faearly all the vines in the beginning of spring. 
The whole district of Cognac will not this year produce ten bar- 
rels. The proprietors, however, take it very coolly^ saying that 
they will make it all up next year. 

The land lying between Chateau Margaux and Bordeaux is in 
many parts sandy, and large tracts lay idle, not even producing 
grain. Other parts of these sandy tracts are planted with pitch 
pine. The older parts of these plantations yield turpentine. We 
returned in the evening much fatigued. 

The following extract from Victor Eendu's Am^elogra'pliie Fran- 
gaise will give a more correct idea to the reader of the country 
and its wines ; 

THE WINES OF BORDEAUX. 

The wines bearing the general appellation of Bordeaux wines, 
because they grow in the country surrounding this celebrated em- 
porium, and are shipped to all parts of the world from its harbor, 
are divided into four principal classes : 

1. Vms de Medoc. — Wines of the Medoc district. Of these we 
shall treat in detail hereafter. 

2. Vins de Grave. — Wines growing on the gravelly soil in the 
immediate neighborhood of Bordeaux, and on both sides of the 
rivers Dordogne and Garonne, within a certain distance of their 
confluence.* 

* Of the red wines grown on this soil the most renowned are those of Chateau 
Haut-Brion. Of much less note are the wines of Merignac, Carbonnieux, and Leo- 
gnan. Among the white wines the most popular are the Sauternes, the Barsae, the 
Preignac, and the Bommes. Again, among these, the most superior is the white 
wine of Chateau Iquem, in the parish of Sauterne, which has been sold up to 1200 
francs per tun. 



108 GRxVPE CULTURE AND WINE-MAKING. 

8. Tins dcs Cotes. — 'Wines growing on the range of liills at the- 
right side of the Garonne, from Ambares to Saint Croix du Mont. 
Also on the right side of the Dordogne, between Bourg and Fron- 
sac. Of these wines, the most celebrated are those of St. Emilion. 
Less choice are those of St. Laurent, St. Hippolyte, St. Christophe 
de St. Georges, and of Pommerol. The soil in these vineyards is 
generally a combination of lime and clay, with a subsoil of hard 
rock. They generally decline toward south and-west. 

4. Yins de Palus. — Wines growing on the bottom-lands of the 
Garonne, near Bordeaux. These are less distinguished than the 
above, although they are wines of a fine color and a good deal of 
spirit. The best of them are grown in the communes of Queyries 
and Montferrand. 

Wines of the Medoc District 

The small peninstila formed by the Eiver Gironde on its east- 
ern side and the Atlantic on the western, is generally allowed to 
contain some of the finest vineyards in the world. This is the re- 
nowned Medoc district. It offers itself to the eye as a softly -un- 
dulating plain, with gentle declivities all along the river, and sandy 
downs, frequently interrupted by marshes and lagoons, along the 
sea-side. It is principally on those slopes above the Gironde 
where the famous Bordeaux wines are raised in their greatest per- 
fection. The general formation of the soil consists here of a com- 
pound of quartzose fragments with clay, strongly impregnated 
with oxide of iron. This uppermost stratum rests either on a bed 
of pure sand, or on a conglomerate of gravel with clay, and a 
strong admixture of iron oxide, which composition — very hard in 
some cases, and soft and crumbling m others — goes by the local 
name of " alios." 

This diversity of the soil, or, rather, the great variation in the 
mixture of its component elements, is the principal cause for the 
great diversity of its productions. As a proof of this, we find, in 
many instances, wines of inferior quality in the close neighbor- 
hood of the very best vineyards, and, vice versa, streaks of good 
soil amid poor vineyards, giving a much better wine than the sur- 
rounding grounds. The culture of the vine in the Medoc dis- 
trict varies more or less from the methods used in other parts of 
France ; but the training of the vines on laths or on trellises near 
the ground is a characteristic not to be found any where else but 
here. 

The most extensively cultivated grapes in the Medoc are the 
Cabemet-Sauvignon, the Franc-Cabernet, the Meilot, the Malbec, 
and the Verdot ; but it is especially the Cabemet-Sauvignon which 
forms the basis of the Medoc vineyards, and, in fact, is to the great 
Medoc wines what the Pincau is to the wines of the Cote d'Or in 
Burgundy. This unsurpassed grape is the chief ingredient of the 
celebrated wines of Panillac, St. Julicn, and Margaux; and about 



THE BORDEAUX WINE DISTKICT. 109 

five eighths of the plantations of Lafitte, Mouton, Latour, Lcoville, 
Margaux, Kauzan, etc., belong to the same. The wine made of it 
is of a splendid color and an exquisite bouquet. A little tart at 
the beginning, it requires to be kept in wood for four years, and 
then for two in the bottle, to arrive to its full maturity. It gains 
in excellence up to its fifteenth year, and preserves all its quali- 
ties till the twentieth ; beyond this it loses gradually some of its 
smoothness, and becomes more and more dry. 

The method of cultivation is uniform all through the Medoc 
district, and does not present any striking difference from the 
methods pursued in other parts of France. The vines arc gen- 
erally planted from April to June. The distance observed is one 
metre and ten centimetres between the vines on one and the same 
line, and only one metre between the rows. In the second year 
the vine is pruned to two or three eyes ; in the third it begins to 
be trained on a trellis by tying two sprigs, each with two or three 
eyes, to the lath. The pruning commences usually in November 
and lasts till January. 

In the Medoc district the vine is in blossom in the middle of 
June, and the grape ripens, in favorable years, about the middle 
of September. In such years the vintage begins on the 20th of 
September and lasts to the 1st of October. If it takes place alto- 
gether in this month, the year is pronounced to be middling or 
bad. Every body may gather his grapes when he pleases, as there 
is no time fixed by statute for this purpose in the Department of 
the Gironde, to which the Medoc district belongs. 

The grapes are carefully picked, and cleaned of green or rotten 
berries before they are taken to the press-room. Here the wine- 
presses stand, generally three of them, ranged on one side, and the 
vats along the opposite wall. The berries are all plucked from 
their stalks, which is done either with rakes or an instrument 
called an egraiypoir. After this they are trodden down in tubs, 
which generally have a hole in the bottom through which the 
must escapes. This is taken to the vat, which is scrupulously 
cleaned and sponged with brandy. The vat being once full, must 
be left perfectly quiet until the wine is formed, which may take 
some four or five days, or even longer, according to the tempera- 
ture, weather, ripeness of the grapes, etc. As soon as the must 
has lost its sugary taste, and has turned fairly into wine, it is drawn 
carefully into casks, during which operation great care is taken 
not to let any foreign matter be mixed with the pure juice of the 
grape. The filling of the casks must be done as quick as possi- 
ble. During the first month they must be filled up every four or 
five days ; the. second month, once in eight days ; and subsequent- 
ly once in fifteen, until the wine is drawn off. This has to be 
done three times during the first year, viz., in January or Febru- 
ary, in June, and in September, In the following years it is suf- 
ficient to draw off only twice. Ordinarily, the Medoc wines are 



110 GRAPE CULTURE AND WINE-MAKING. 

left four years in the cask before tliej are bottled; and in two 
years more they will be perfectly mellow and ready for the market. 

The Medoc district contains about 20,000 hectares of wine-land. 
The average produce is at the rate of two tuns (say 18 hectoli- 
tres and 2I litres) per hectare, amounting in all to 40,000 tuns. 
Of this quantity about 4500 belong to the first class wines, an 
equal quantity to the second but still superior class, and the bal- 
ance to ordinary wines. 

The superior wines of the Medoc arc classified in the Bordeaux 
commerce into five different qualities. The first class contains 
only three wines, which are ranged as follows : 

1. Chateau Margaux, 100-110 tuns per year. 

2. Chateau Lafitte, 120-150 tuns per year. 
8. Chateau Latour, 70-90 tuns per year. 

The vineyard of Chateau Margaux contains 80 hectares. The 
soil consists of a gray gravel, with a substratum of "alios." The 
greater part of the vineyard looks toward east and west, but the 
best part of it inclines to south and north. The Cabernet-Sau- 
vignon vine occupies about one half of this celebrated vineyard. 
In a first-rate year the wine of Chateau Margaux surpasses by far 
eyery other Bordeaux wine, even Lafitte and Latour not excepted ; 
but in less favorable years these two wines are superior to their 
great rival. The chemical composition of the soil of this famous 
vineyard is as follows : 

Oxide of iron 3.341 

Alumina 1.590 

Magnesia 0.2G3 

Soluble silicates 0.380 

Phosphoric acid 0.147 

Potash 1.291 

Carbonate of lime 0.891 

Organic matter 6.670 

Insoluble residue .' 85.427 

100.000 

The vineyard of Chateau Lafitte contains 47 hectares. Its sit- 
uation is various, but mostly northerly. The soil, and especially 
the subsoil, is very rich in quartz pebbles. Chateau Latour con- 
tains only 42 hectares. Its soil is very gravelly, and inclines 
mostly toward south and north. 

The second class of Medoc wines comprises the following vine- 
yards : 

De Branno-Cantenac 45 hectares, 

Cos-l)estourncl 28 " 

Duport dc Vivens 32 " 

Gruaud-Larossc 61 " 

Lascombe 21 " 

fLascases 65 " 

Lcoville -' Poyfero 30 " 

(Barton 25 " 

Mouton Rothschild 52 " 

Prichon dc Longueville 50 " 

Ranzan-Rauzan 51 " 



60 to 60 tuns per annum. 


60 " 70 




30 " 35 




100 " 120 




15 " 20 




80 " 100 




40 " 50 




25 " 70 




120 " 140 




100 " 120 




70 " 80 





THE BORDEAUX WINE DISTRICT. HI 

To the third class belong the following vineyards : 

Issan 43 hectares, 50 to 70 tuns per annum. 

Dcsmirail 14 " 30 " 40 " " 

Pliilippc-Dubignon 13 " 15 " 20 " " 

Beau-Caillon 35 " 100 " 120 " " 

Fruitier 38 " 60 " 70 " " 

Ganot 16 " 20 " 25 " " 

Giscourt 45 " 80 " 100 " " 

Kirwan 24 " 35 " 40 " " 

Lagrange 122 " 120 " 150 " " 

Langod-Barton 70 " 100 " 120 " " 

Pouget et Chavaille 11 " 25 " 30 " " " 

Lacotonie ct Malcscot 50 " 70 " " 

In the fourth class are reckoned 

Talbot 69 hectares, 70 to 80 tuns per annum . 

Bevcherelle 40 " 100 " 120 " » 

Calon-Lcstapis 55 " 120 " 160 " " 

Garnet 52 " 100 " 120 " " 

Casteja, or Milon 30 " 60" 70 " " 

Dubignon 12 " 15 " " 

Duluc,aine 60 " 80 " 90 " " 

Verrieres 8 " 10 " 15 " " 

Eochet 22 " 30 " 40 " " 

LaLagune 36 " 40 " 50 " " 

Solberg 30 " 25 " 30 " »" " 

Pages au Prieure 11 " 25" 30 " " " 

Palmer 85 " 50 " 60 " " 

St.PieiTe] 9 '' r ^^ " 70 " " 

Lastly, the fifth class contains, among others, 

Batailly 34 hectares, 60 to 80 tuns per annum. 

DeBedout 17 " 50 " 55 " " " 

Canet-Poutet 67 " 100 " 120 " " " 

Cantemerle 91 " 120 " 130 " " 

Jurine 40 " 100 " 120 " " " 

Ducasse 33 " 80 " 90 " " " 

Le Grand Puy 52 " 50 " 60 '• " 

Montpelouss-Casteja 14 " 25 " 30 " " 

The prices of all these wines vary, of course, according to the 
years and the demand. They arrived at their maximum in 1844, 
when Lafitte was sold at 4500 francs the tun, Haut-Brion at 8000, 
Mouton at 2500, Lagrange at 1900, Kirwan at 1850, Giscourt at 
1800, Langod-Barton at 1600. In ordinary years the second 
quality wines are sold at from 1200 francs to 1400 francs the tun ; 
the third quality at from 800 to 1000 ; the fourth for only little 
less ; and the fifth, on an average, at 600 to 700. The first qual- 
ity of Chateau Margaux have been contracted for nine years at 
the price of 2100 francs per tun, but the princely Chateau Lafitte 
generally sells at a much higher rate. Of the inferior wines, the 
better class {Bourgeois superieurs) are worth 400 to 500 francs a 
tun ; the second class {Bourgeois ordinaires\ 350 to 400 ; and the 
third {Paysa7is), 300 to 325 francs. 

The best customers for the Medoc wines are the English, the 



112 GRAPE CULTURE AND WINE-MAKING. 

Dutch, and the Russians. Those exported to England are gener- 
ally qualified for the British palate by being mixed with stronger 
wines, and especially with the red wines of the Ermitage district. 

M. Franck, who has published an elaborate work on the great 
Bordeaux wines, quotes the following prices at which some vine- 
yards of the Medoc have changed hands. 

Chateau Margaux (80 hectares), bought, in 1804, for 651,000, 
was sold in 1836 to M. Aguado for 1,300,000 francs. 

Malescot (Margaux), in 1853, for 280,000 francs. 

Gruaud-Larosse (St. Julien, 51 hectares), in 1814, for 350,000 
francs. 

Langon (St. Julien, 40 hectares), in 1851, for 650,000 francs. 

Beycherdle (St. Julien, 40 hectares), for 650,000 francs. 

La Grange (St. Julien, 122 hectares), in 1832, for 650,000 francs; 
in 1842, for 775,000 francs. 

Lafitte (Panillac, 67 hectares), in 1803, for 1,200,000 francs. 

Mouton (25 hectares), bought, in 1853, by M. Kothschild for 
1,125,000 francs. 

Baije, for 300,000 francs. 

Balailly (34 hectares), for 150,000 francs, 

Calon (St. Est^phc, 55 hectares), for 600,000 francs. 

Du Bosq (St. Estephe), for 190,000 francs. 

Chateau cVIssan (Cantenac, 43 hectares), sold, in 1825, for 
255,000 francs, was, in 1859, adjudged to the heirs of the Blanchy 
estate for 470,000 francs, 

Lacheney (Cussac), for 150,000 francs. 

Laujac (Begadan), for 400,000 francs. 

Haut-Brion (Pcrsac), for 525,000 francs, 

Giscourt (Labarde, 45 hectares), for 500,000 francs. 

Cos-cV Estournel (St. Estephe, 28 hectares), for 1,150,000 francs. 

Palmer (Cantenac, 85 hectares), for 425,000 francs, 

Chateait cVAgarsac (Ludon), for 891,000 francs. 

The same author, speaking of the Champagne and its wines, 
says: 

The wine-growing country of the Champagne district may be 
properly divided into two topographical arteries : First, the hills 
on the River Marnc ; and, second, the mountain of Rheims. The 
first is again ramified into three different ranges : 1. The northern 
side of the river, with the hill-sides looking due south, and to which 
belong the distinguished vineyards of Ilautvillers, Disy, Ay, and 
Mareuil. 2. The opposite side of the river, which includes the 
vineyards of Epernay, of Moussy, Pierry, and Vinay. 3. The range 
of Avize, running in a southeasterly direction, parallel with the 
cote of Epernay, and containing the vineyards of Cramant, Avize, 
Oger, Mcsnil, and Vertus, 

The second general division of this great wine-district embraces 
all the vineyards in the environs of Rheims, and is subdivided 
into two zones : 1. The hilly part, containing Vcrzy, Verzenay, 



THE BORDEAUX WINE DISTRICT. 113 

Sillery, Mailly, Londes, Chigny, and Rilly ; 2. The flat zone, with 
St. Thierry, Marsilly, Ilermonville, and others. Besides these 
there is a small intermediate traet between the plain and the 
mountain, where the gentle declivities of Bouzy and of Ambon- 
nay are to be found. 

Most of the noted vineyards of the Champagne are situated on 
a formation of limestone and chalk, covered by a generally very 
superficial structure of vegetable mould. The soil may be said 
to contain fully four fifths of carbonate of lime, and only one fifth 
of cla}^, silicious and other matter. Oxide of iron also enters into 
its composition in several instances. 

The vines mostly cultivated belong to the family of the Pineau, 
and generally bear dark grapes. They vary, however, to some 
extent from the original Pineau (or Pinot) of the Burgundy dis- 
trict, probably on account of the diversity of the soil in these wine- 
districts. 

The cultivation of the vineyards is nearly uniform through all 
the province, but it may be said that at Ay it has been brought 
to its highest perfection. December is the best month for planta- 
tion, although it may be continued even to the end of March. 
The ground is always manured at the time of planting. The 
young plant, generally a rooted vine two or three years old, is 
dug round four times during the first year. In the second year 
it is pruned down to one or two eyes, according to the vigor of 
the plant, and the soil is worked up again four times in the course 
of the year. In the third year a certain proportion of the most 
vigorous plants are used. When in bearing order the vine is 
generally kept low, and tied to a stick. 

The vines are in blossom about St. John's Day, and are carefully 
freed from all new sprouts {gourmands) after this time. The 
grapes arrive at their full rii^eness in September, and the vintage 
begins, in favorable years, in the middle of this month ; in less fa- 
vorable ones at the beginning of October ; and in bad years not 
before the middle of the same month. Every body is at liberty 
to gather his grapes when he pleases. The grapes are carefully 
picked by women, and cleaned on the spot from all spoiled ber- 
ries, leaves, etc. Then they are carefully selected according to 
their ripeness and perfection, and sent to the press-house. 

The manufacture of wine has been raised to the projDortions of 
a particular art or science in the Champagne district during the 
last fifty years, and forms a special industry, frequently entirely 
separated from the culture of the vine. Nearly all the wine pro- 
duced in this district is made into sparkling wine ; and the former- 
ly celebrated brands of dry Champagne wines — namely, the red 
wines of Sillery, of Bouzy, Verzenay, and Mailly — scarcely exist 
any more in commerce. The same black grape which was the 
mother of these dark wines yields at present the juice for the pale 
wine, which, in its sparkling state, ranks uppermost in the estima- 

H 



114 GR^U'E CULTURE AND WINE-MAIvING. 

tion of the ■wine-consuming public. In some vineyards in this dis- 
trict, however, white grapes are planted in preference to the black 
ones, and it has been ascertained that if judiciously mixed (say one 
eighth to one quarter of white, the balance of black grapes), the}'' 
add to the excellence of the wine, made into sparkling Champagne. 

The grapes must be passed very rapidly through the wine- 
press, to avoid all fermentation in the berries, and all coloring 
of the must. The must is not immediately barreled, but left for 
from twelve to twenty-four hours in vats, so that it may deposit 
all its coarser dregs ; then it is drawn into scrupulously cleaned 
and sulphured barrels. In these the wine generally ferments un- 
til Christmas. If rich in sugar, this fermentation will progress 
very slowly, and w'ill be the more rapid the less sugary particles 
the must contains. In the second half of December the wine is 
drawn off for the first time, without taking any notice of the par- 
ticular state of the atmosphere. Now is the time to test the qual- 
ity of the wines, and to mix the different qualities, or, in some 
cases, wines of different vineyards and localities judiciously to- 
gether, so. as to obtain the most perfect mixture. After this op- 
eration the wine is cleared with gelatine, and then drawn off again 
through a double sieve of hair and silk which is placed on the 
funnel. By this the entrance of all foreign matter will be avoid- 
ed. Generally, very little gelatine is used ; but in most cases 
a little tannin in the liquid state is added to the wine as a pre- 
servative against various maladies. In this condition the wine 
remains till the month of April, when it is drawn off again for 
the purpose of being manufactured into sparkling Champagne.* 

The white wines of Champagne are classified into the " Great 
Sparkling Wine," Grand Mousseux ; the "Ordinary Sparkling 
Wine," Mousseux ordinaire ; the " Half Sparkling Wine," Demi- 
Mousseux^ or Gremant; the "Non-sparkling," or "dry" Cliam- 
pagne, Non Mousseux ; and a very light, weak, sweet, and slightly 
sparkling quality, called Tisane de Ghamixirjne. The sparkling 
wines attain their full maturity in the third year after being bot- 
tled, and will lose nothing of their sparkling quality within a 
dozen years. The half sparkling wine, if of a good source, is con- 
sidered by connoisseurs as the king of all white Champagne wines. 

In first-rate years the Champagne district will produce not less 
than fifteen million bottles of white wine, and the average produc- 
tion may be rated at seven millions per annum. This commerce 
has been rapidly increasing for about forty years. The principal 
markets for it are England, Germany, and Russia ; and the names 
of the great manufacturers, Moet, Cliquot, Euinart, Roedcrer, 
Piper, Perier, Dinot, are well known all over the world. 

Having completed our observations on the famous wine dis- 
trict of Bordeaux, we prepared to take our departure for Spain. 

* A minute description of the modns operandi in the most renowned factories of 
the Champagne district is given in another part of this work. 



SPAIN: WINE, IIMSINS, AND OLIVES. 115 



CHAPTER VIII. 

JOURNEY THROUGH SPAIN: WINE, RAISINS, AND OLIVES. 

Departure for Spain. — Delay for Passports. — Country between Bordeaux and Bay- 
onne. — Shepherds on Stilts. — Bayonne. — Loading Revolvers. — Napoleon at 
Hand. — Start by Diligence for Madrid. — The Diligence. — The Driver and the 
Mules. — The Postillion. — On Spanish Frontier. — Ascent of the Pyrenees. — Des- 
olate Aspect of the Country. — Breakfast. — Water and Towel. — Another Inspec- 
tion of Baggage. — A Municipal Misunderstanding. — Burgos. — The Railway. — 
Passengers bound for a Bull-fight. — Delay. — Train full. — Passengers left behind. 
— Change Cars. — Delay again. — Refreshments. — Arrival at Madrid. — Our Hotel. 
— Compassionate Waiter. — The Fair. — The Royal Palace. — The Prado". — The 
Fountain. — General Description of the Countiy traversed. — Product. — Execrable 
Wines. — Leave Madrid for Malaga. — Delay. — Difficulty about Baggage. — Final- 
ly settled. — Off at last. — Stopped again. — One Passenger too many. — A Discus- 
sion. — The extra Child. — A Night Ride. — Morning. — Beggars. — Vines appear. 
— Ordinary Spanish Wines very poor. — The Boy again. — Building a Railway. — 
Barren Countiy. — A beautiful Valley. — Dinner at Victoria. — Arrival at Granada. 
— See the City. — Our Carriage. — The Sights of Granada. — Beggars. — Start for 
Malaga. — Notes by the Way. — Malaga. — Wine and Raisins. — Making Raisins. — 
The Drying-grounds. — Picking and Packing. — Malaga Wines. — Vinegar-making. 
— Fig Culture. — Horse-fight. — Apprehensions of Damages. — Manufacture of Ol- 
ive Oil. — Cotton and Iron Manufactories. — Buy Plants. — Goat-milk. — Passports 
again. — Depart for Alicante. — Aspect of the Coast. — Alicante. — Barcelona. — 
Wine-making. — Leave for Paris, via Marseilles and Lyons. — Arrival at Paris. — 
Give up Project of visiting Greece and Egypt. — Start for Home, via England. — 
Arrive in America. 

Septemher 19. — We ■were very much annoyed by tlie trouble 
we had in getting our passports vis^d. Our consul shuts up his 
office at three o'clock, and if an unfortunate American should not 
arrive at that hour, no matter who he be, there is an end of it, 
he has to wait twenty -four hours longer, for none of the other 
consuls will vise his passport before seeing that of the American 
consul. At eleven o'clock we went to our consul's office, but 
found him absent. The lad in attendance told us that he was 
maybe sick, and at his house. We persuaded the lad to stamp 
our passports, that we might afterward take them to the consul 
and have them signed. This he did, and then asked us for eleven 
and a half francs, which is more than we had ever given. We 
went to the consul's house, where, after knocking and ringing vio- 
lently, the door was opened by some invisible hand ; we walked 



116 GRArE CULTURE AND WINE-MAKING. 

into a hall and through several empty rooms ; at last we discov- 
ered a little girl, who was the consul's daughter. She informed 
us that her father had left for his office in the morning ; that if he 
was not there she did not know where he was. This was very 
disagreeable news to us ; for, had it not been for our passports, we 
could have started at six o'clock in the morning, but we were de- 
layed by this for the two o'clock train, and, from all appearance, 
would be liable even to miss that, and be left here over-night. 
This was uselessly wasting time, which was most precious to me, 
to say nothing of extra expenses. Keturning to the office, and 
not finding the consul, I suggested to the lad to sign it himself, 
and state the absence of the consul. This was not legal, nor had 
the boy any authority whatever to do it ; but, thinking the whole 
affair a fuss, and that the principal part was passed — namely, of 
taking the eleven and a half francs, I saw no harm in making the 
fiiss bigger. The lad, after some hesitation, signed ; we then pro- 
ceeded to the Spanish consul, who, after stamping and signing, 
asked us for ten francs. We arrived just in time for the cars. 

We were traveling eight hours from Bordeaux to Bayonne, 
and a more desolate and dreary country I have not seen since 
my arrival in Europe. It consists of immense plains, which are 
sandy, and only now and then possessing some pitch pine. Even 
these trees are of recent plantation. They are employed in mak- 
ing turpentine. These landes, as they are called, produce a kind 
of chapparal, but it is only from a foot to eighteen inches high. 
On these plains there are now and then seen some miserable 
sheep, guarded by men or women on stilts. As their flesh is so 
poor, what must their wool be ? They resemble very much our 
Mexican sheep, only they are not so large nor so good-looking. 
But of all that is here seen, it is the stilts of the shepherds that 
is most noteworthy : they are from four to five feet high, and 
their owners remain on them the whole day without getting 
down. From this height they are better able to see their sheep 
in the bushes, and walk through the mud when there is any. 

We arrived at the hotel at ten o'clock, and soon turned in. 

Sept. 20. Bayonne. — In the morning we took a walk through 
the city. We visited its monuments and markets ; in the latter 
the vegetables were very fine, and the grapes good and sweet. 
We ascertained that very little wine was raised in this vicinity. 

In the River Gave, which runs through Bayonne, were an- 
chored several large vessels. The two parts of the town arc join- 



SPAIN : "SVINE, RAISINS, AND OLIVES. 117 

ed by a very fine bridge, newly built. The fortifications that lie 
on both sides of the river seem quite strong. After exchanging 
our money for Spanish coin, wo went and engaged our places in 
the diligence office for the capital. Here we learned that the 
stage was to leave at six o'clock. Among several other items of 
disagreeable news, we were informed that it would take two nights 
and two days to reach Madrid, and, what was as bad, very little 
time was allowed to us for our meals. Besides this, we were told 
by every one whom we questioned that the roads were bad. 

At ten o'clock a most sumptuous breakfast was served up. It 
by far surpassed many of our holiday dinners at home, if not in 
cooking, at least in variety. 

After breakfast I wrote up my journal, some correspondence, 
then set out in search of a gunsmith to load my Colt's revolver, 
for I feared that I might have some use for it in Spain. The 
ticket-seller told me that it was pretty safe ; but, as I read on my 
ticket, " Tlie Company is not responsible for any effects taken hy 
armed force ^'' I thought "discretion the better part of valor," and 
had my pistol well loaded. With an eight-inch " Colt," I thought 
I might meet on pretty equal terms quite a considerable " armed 
force." 

The Emperor Napoleon is at this moment in the bathing-place 
of Biarritz, about twenty minutes' drive from here. To-day he is 
expected to pass by Bayonne on his return to Paris, and all along 
where he is to pass the road is decorated with flags, flowers, gar- 
lands, and arches of triumph. Great enthusiasm is every where 
shown, and, from all I here saw, he is very much loved in this 
part of France. 

Precisely at six in the evening we started with the diligence. 
There were about twenty passengers, and a quantity of large 
trunks, some of which would hold the whole household furniture 
of six families living out West. Besides these immense trunks 
there were several dry-good boxes belonging to some merchant 
passenger, whicH attained still greater dimensions. With all this 
weight, the six powerful horses hitched to our diligence took us 
along at a good sharp rate. At the first station we again took six 
horses. When I speak of a diligence, let not my readers imagine 
an American stage ; it difiers in every respect. 

The wheels are large and hea\'y ; the box, which is painted in 
a tasty manner, is divided into four divisions, each having its own 
entry and its own price. These divisions, naming them by the 



118 GRAPE CULTURE AND WINE-MAKING. 

order of their rank and price, are the Berline, Inierieur, Motonde, 
and Coujie. In the Berline there are three places, all fronting the 
horses, having each a window in front, and the two .side places 
one on the side. After the Berline, which is in the front of the 
diligence, comes the Interieur. It has six places, three toward 
the front and three opposite. The four side places have each a 
window. Like the Berline, the Interieur has two entries, one on 
each side. Tlie Ilotonde possesses four places, two on each side 
of the carriage, and parallel to it. Behind each place there is a 
window, and the entry is from behind. In front, on a level with 
the top of the diligence, is the driver's seat. Right behind this is 
the Coupe. It has four places, one for the conductor, and three 
for passengers. It is covered by a thick covering of leather, of 
the exact shape of an old American buggy. Behind this was the 
roof of the diligence, on which the baggage was put ; and, after be- 
ing firmly lashed on, covered over with a thick covering of leather. 
Sometimes it happens that all the space under this covering is not 
taken up by the baggage ; it is then used to stow away passengers 
who travel as fifth class. The only light, the only air these poor 
fellows get, steals itself through the little hole behind the con- 
ductor's seat, which also serves as door. They have not even a 
bench to sit upon. It is useless to say that this is the cheapest 
place. The Coupe, in price, comes after the Rotonde. We chose 
our seats in the Coupd. At the end of oar journey, far from re- 
penting of our choice, we found that it was a most happy one ; 
for, while the other passengers were half suffocated from dust and 
the want of air, we sufi'ered from neither. The only objection of 
our seats was the difficulty to get out and in : this difficulty was 
much heightened by a woman who had a child in her lajo, and 
who occupied the third place in the Coupe. 

At the next station they hitched on thirteen mules, and away 
we went, full gallop up and down hill, the driver hallooing, shout- 
ing, yelling, and cracking his whip. His yells would have done 
honor to an American savage. What, however, most astonished 
me was the driver's descending and mounting to his seat while 
the mules were in full gallop. It was at least ten feet above the 
ground. When his mules would not pay any more attention to 
the cracks of his whip or to his voice, he would quietly descend, 
and, after whipping them from the last to the first rank, all the 
while uttering the most unearthly sounds, he would climb qui- 
etly up to his scat again, although the whole equipage might 



SPAIN: WINE, RAISINS, AND OLIVES. 119 

be on a full run. No sooner would be be in his scat than he 
would recommence his yells, and ply his whip most vigorously. 
There is on the leading mule or horse a postillion, whose only 
duty is to halloo to wagons and carts which arc met to turn out 
of the road. It is a curious sight thus to see twelve to sixteen 
mules, in two or in three rows, going along with all their speed, 
the two last only having lines, the others tied one to another by 
their halter-strings. The postillion has a control only over his 
own mule and the one beside it. Such a scene is as hard to de- 
scribe as it is curious. Although the postillion only controls the 
first two mules, and the driver the last two, they dash away at 
the greatest speed, plying their whips, shouting, yelling, bawling. 
"When the driver gets down to whip the mules, the conductor 
takes his place, whips unmercifully all those he can reach, and 
screams at those he can not reach. When an unaccustomed trav- 
eler sees himself carried along at such a rate, on the brink of 
precipices from two hundred to six hundred feet, by twelve to 
sixteen mules without reins, he involuntarily shuts his eyes, and 
recommends his soul to its Maker. 

We arrived at about ten o'clock in the evening at a place where 
we were asked for our passports by the French authorities, who 
scarcely gave them a glance. We crossed a bridge and were in 
Spanish territory. Here we got out to have our baggage thor- 
oughly examined, as well as our passports, by the Spanish author- 
ities. For having the latter again vised we were obliged to pay 
once more. We might have dispensed with their vise, but they 
could not have done without our reals^ for they were a most hun- 
gry-looking set. 

After uselessly spending two hours here, we resumed our course, 
drawn on by sixteen mules. It was a fine moonlight night, and 
I could see the country all around. We were ascending the Pyr- 
enees. In the ravines was planted Indian corn. The hills are 
barren, and have few, if even any trees on them. Soon it began to 
rain, and I could no longer see out. At twelve o'clock we arrived 
at St. Sebastien, where we were nearly upset in trying to get 
through a gate. The string of mules was so long that they could 
not give the proper turn, and the gate was so narrow that we ran 
up against one of the posts. At last, after a few moments of hal- 
looing and whipping, we got through. We changed mules and 
continued our way, which ran along the sea-shore for about half 
an hour, then left it for good. 



120 GRAPE CULTURE AND WINE-MAKING. 

Sejjtemher 21. — TVe traveled the whole night in the same way 
as above-mentioned. The morning brought to our view a mount- 
ainous and unimproved country. It was as wild as the Eocky 
Mountains. The ravines were the only part of the country which 
was cultivated, and they were planted wifh Indian corn and chest- 
nut-trees. 

The houses of the villages are all of stone, but they have a most 
wretched and miserable appearance. Poverty, dirt, and laziness 
are every where to be seen. The fields are not cultivated with 
the same care as in Switzerland. Here and there you meet patch- 
es of turnips, some of which are hoed by women, but this must be 
considered so much work thrown away, as they generally are not 
hoed at all. 

At eight o'clock we arrived in a village where we expected to 
have a good breakfast, and, after such a ride, by all means a good 
wash. To our great disappointment, we had neither the one nor 
the other. Water there was plenty in the well ; and as for the 
good breakfast, it reduced itself down to a cup of chocolate and 
something which we were told was coffee. We did not choose to 
experiment, so we chose the chocolate, which was in a little cup, 
two inches in diameter and three deep. These measures were 
reckoned on the outside of the cup, not on the inside. For this 
they charged us the moderate sum of ten reals. It is such an un- 
accustomed thing, without doubt, to see persons wash in this coun- 
try, that they thought if we could wash we could pay. 

After this sumptuous breakfast we went on again, and about 
eleven o'clock we reached the valley. It is large, extensive roll- 
ing ground, having no trees and looking like a desert. There is 
some grain grown, which consists of oats, barley, and a little wheat, 
but no corn. The grain is all planted in rows, and hilled up, like 
corn out West, only on two sides, not all around. The planting 
is done by dropping the seed after the plow has raised wp the 
ground. I could not ascertain what an acre yielded, for no one 
either in the stage or in the village could inform me. 

At one o'clock we arrived at Vittoria, where we got a kind of 
dinner. We even had the luxury of getting one towel for eight 
of us. Happy was he who found a clean corner ! Thirty min- 
utes after, we were again on the way through this dreary, dcscrt- 
looking country. It is uninteresting, altogether without trees, and 
has not even a sign of cultivation. There are no houses on the 
plains ; the villages are small, dirty, and miserable-looking ; the 



SPAIN : WINE, RAISINS, AND OLIVES. 121 

houses have no windows to them except some few ; the means of 
transportation is by mules, donkeys, and miserable two-wheeled 
carts. The cart-wheels arc made wholly of plank, and then an 
iron tire is put on. AVc saw neither carriages nor wagons, but 
we met now and then a large two- wheeled car, with eight to six- 
teen mules hitched on, one in front of the other, stretching out a 
long way. 

On our left I saw men working on the railway which is eventu- 
ally to go from Bayonne to Madrid. Even this enterprise is car- 
ried on by Frenchmen. 

We sped on at the expense of the lungs and whip of the driver 
and conductor. Neither the one nor the other were spared. I 
thought that the whip bill would be very dear to the company, 
but I learned that the driver furnishes his own whip. We ar- 
rived in a dirty little town, where, to our great astonishment, we 
were told to get out to have our baggage again inspected. I tried 
to ascertain the reason for twice inspecting your baggage in the 
same country, but I was unsuccessful. "It must be done;" that 
was all I could learn. After inspecting us as well as our trunks, 
they permitted us to go on. We almost got ourselves in trouble 
before leaving this place ; for, as we were going along its street at 
a sharp walk, up jumped a man of authority telling the driver to 
stop, and accusing him of trotting in the street. The conductor, 
driver, and postillion all protested against this false accusation. 
A dispute arose ; high words ensued ; and then the man of au- 
thority threatened to sue the conductor, driver, postillion, and 
even the passengers. Hearing this, and foreseeing the little chance 
of justice here, I suggested to the conductor to put an end to all 
lawsuits by driving on, and this time at full speed. He took the 
hint, and away we went, scattering all the men of authority right 
and left, none venturing to stop us. That was putting an end to 
a lawsuit pretty quick, and for once again we were out of trouble. 
The country through which we passed was just the same as I have 
already described above. 

September 22. — ^We arrived at Burgos, at the railway station, at 
four o'clock in the morning. Here our whole diligence, baggage 
and all, except passengers, was hoisted upon a car, and fastened to 
it. We were furnished seats in the cars. I was very much as- 
tonished at seeing such a great number of people at the station, 
and especially so, because Burgos did not seem large enough to 
furnish so many travelers. There was an immense mass o£men, 



122 GRAPE CULTURE AND WINE-MAiaNG. 

women, and children, all crowding toward the ticket-office. When 
the doors were open, there was a general rush and scramble for 
seats. The enigma was soon explained to me. It was not Bur- 
gos alone that produced all this people, but the whole country 
around ; they were all bound for Valladolid, where there was to 
be a bull-fight lasting four daj^s. 

"We were unable to get the least thing to eat at Burgos. At 
the next station all the extra cars were put on, but they were 
hardly sufficient to hold all the people here, who were also on 
their way to the bull-fight. 

The master of the train, conductor, and other officers ran right 
and left, swore, cursed, blasphemed, thus making the confusion ten- 
fold greater and the delay much longer. The consequence of all 
this was that we only got off one hour and a half later than we 
should have done by the regulations. The train at last started, 
but, being more than the locomotive could easily draw, our prog- 
ress was slow. At the next station hundreds were waiting to be 
taken in, but the master of the train only went slow enough to 
tell the chief of the station that there were no more places, as all 
was full. Though the cars were in motion, no sooner was this 
heard than there was a general pursuit, some succeeding in scram- 
bling into the cars or gaining the top. This was followed by a 
general groaning and cursing from those who were unsuccessful, 
and loud cheers of hurrah from those who had succeeded in get- 
ting in or climbing on tojD of the cars. 

I pitied the poor ticket officer. As I turned round my head in 
that direction I saw already a crowd forming round him, making 
most violent gesticulations — no doubt asking back their money, 
with damage and interest for bets which they never would have 
made. If physiognomy shows the workings of the human mind, 
that of the poor fellows who were left evinced the most bitter dis- 
appoinment. Napoleon witnessing the burning of Moscow could 
not have looked as deplorable as these poor people who were 
left. 

"We traveled six hours in the railway, after which we again got 
into the diligence, to which fourteen mules were put, and off we 
went. At ten o'clock P.M. we arrived at another railway station, 
where we learned that we were one hour too late. Our conduct- 
or swore at the manager, and the manager swore at the conduct- 
or, each blaming the other. At last they came to terms. It was 
mutually agreed that it would not happen again till next time ; 



SPAIN; WINE, RAISINS, AND OLIVES. 123 

and we were made to understand that a merchandise train would 
carry us to Madrid. 

The passengers at first seemed to like the delay, for they had 
had nothing to eat for sixteen hours, and they thought it would 
be a fine opportunity to refill their empty stomachs. We all ran 
to the depot like so many famished wolves. But what was our 
disappointment when they informed us that the station was quite 
new, and that there was nothing eatable to be had. After a long 
hunt, we found, in a corner, a woman who sold aguardiente and 
some bad water. 

Dear reader, you ought to have seen the faces of the Johnny 
Bulls, the Johnny Crapauds, your Yankee commissioner, and his 
starved secretary. The scale had turned ; the chevaliers of the 
bull-fight would have burst into a laugh had they seen our ludi- 
crous expressions. How we did "bless" the conductors and man- 
agers in general, and ours in particular! We walked up and 
down the yard in a rage, dining on the dust our feet kicked up, 
and having the beauty of the moon for dessert. At last the Span- 
ish hour arrived which is marked two on my watch, and we were 
packed into the baggage train. Our diligence was along with us. 
The whistle blew, and we started. 

Our train got in at the Madrid station at one o'clock in the 
morning. Here we again got into our diligence, and were wheel- 
ed to the ofiice of the company in the city. The Custom-house 
oflicers detained us for a while, after which, to our great relief, 
we were allowed to go. 

We went to the Hotel des Ambassadeurs. Of course, every 
one was asleep. We managed, however, to get a room, and the 
waiter, seeing our forlorn looks, brought us a bottle of wine, and 
then, with great mystery, drew from his pocket two cakes, called 
ladies' fingers^ from their size, no doubt, and, putting them beside 
the wine, told us that no charge would be made for them. Fa- 
tigued with our fifty-six hours' ride, we crawled into our beds, 
sure that we would not have the nightmare from an overcharged 
stomach. 

Septemher 23. — After ten o'clock A.M. we took a carriage and 
drove to the residence of the American minister, but found that 
he, his family, and secretary were at Lagrange, the summer resi- 
dence of the queen. From here we drove round the city, visit- 
ing the palace, the gardens, the promenades, the Prado, etc. We 
also visited the fair, which was being held on the continuation of 
the Prado, on the edge of the city. 



124 GRAPE CULTURE AND WINE-MAKING. 

In tliis fair is offered for sale every thing which can be ima- 
gined used for household or domestic economy, from a spoon to 
a stove, a canary-bird to a hare, a needle to a dress, a ring to a 
diamond, a sheet of paper to a library, a knife to a plow ; and, in 
fact, every thing which is made use of in domestic economy, as 
well as many that are not. I found nothing worthy of note here, 
and, in fact, I may say that Madrid fell far below my expecta- 
tions. There are many provincial cities in EurojDC which are 
much handsomer. 

The royal palace is large and very good-looking. It is very 
plain, having little ornament and no statues. The statues round 
the circular garden in front of the palace are none the better for 
wear. They are hewn out of some sandstone instead of marble, 
and represent the ancient kings and queens of Spain, besides 
some of its heroes. The garden itself is pretty handsome. The 
palace is on a splendid elevation at one end of the city, but what 
a dreary, barren waste is seen from it ! This waste commences 
almost under the walls of the palace. There is nothing to relieve 
the eye; no green, no meadows, no woods, no gardens, no cha- 
teaux — not even farms. All that is seen is stubble-fields, and 
now and then a brick-manufactory. Even the queen's garden is 
of little consequence, and looks most sadly neglected. The streets 
are not better, if even as good as those of San Francisco, The 
world-renowned Prado has miserable old stumpy trees, half de- 
cayed, ill kept, and possesses dust enough to frighten any man 
who has black boots. 

However, Madrid has one advantage over all Europe and Amer- 
ica, and that is its fountain, which plays in the middle of the 
square of the city. It has no ornaments whatever, simply a basin, 
which is 100 feet in diameter, in the centre of which is an iron 
pipe about four inches in diameter. This sends out a stream of 
water which rises to 170 feet. Seen from a distance, it looks like 
snow curling up from the ground. The Botanic Gardens are in 
progress, and promise well. 

But I have neglected to give an account of the country through 
which we traveled. It was a wide plain, cultivated with wheat, 
barley, and oats. The people live in villages; therefore from 
one town to the other there is nothing to break the monotony of 
the plain — no haystack, house, or even pile of rocks. The vil- 
lages in the plains consist of low and miserable houses. In the 
streets there are probably one or two shops, the whole value of 
the place being $500, if so much. 



SPAIN : WINE, RAISINS, AND OLIVES. 125 

We passed one village, which, with a few exceptions, was built 
in the ancient style of the renowned city of Petra, in Arabia; 
only, instead of being hewn in the rock, the houses, or rather cel- 
lars, are dug in a clay hill. Ilcrc in the cellars, without win- 
dows, the people live. In the rear of these habitations is a hole 
which serves for a chimney. • 

On the plains of New Mexico, famous for their numerous squir- 
rels, their holes are called villages ; but what shall I call this ? 
my English is too defective to give it an appropriate name. 

On approaching Valladolid, I saw some few vines planted, 
but without stakes, and allowed to grow as they pleased, having 
about five to eight feet distance between. They are plowed by 
a yoke of oxen ; afterward the ground is piled up around them. 
Corn and potatoes are also planted. The soil is sandy and yel- 
low ; and the wine I tasted was most rascally stuff, being made 
worse by being kept in hide bags made of calves' skin. Vines 
continue to be planted in spots almost all the way to Madrid. 

At eight o'clock in the evening we started from Madrid, on our 
way toward Malaga. We were drawn to the railroad depot by six 
fine gray horses. Here we all got out, and, to my great astonish- 
ment, the hundred buckles holding up the baggage were undone, 
and all taken off and put into the cars. The distance from the 
diligence ofl&ce to the railway station was only from ten to fifteen 
minutes' ride, and I could not make out why all that trouble was 
taken to put on our baggage, when it had to be taken off again 
so soon. Why not give the passengers a rendezvous at the sta- 
tion? Much time and trouble would be saved them. To all my 
inquiries no one could give an answer. They have few practical 
ideas here at present. When all the baggage was removed the 
diligence was taken back to the city, where the horses will re- 
main a day and a half idle. 

After some whistling, backing, etc., we started, and soon lost 
sight of Madrid. The moon was beautiful, and, as I lay in my 
seat looking out of the window, I imagined myself back in 
New Mexico traveling in cars. There was, in fact, some resem- 
blance, except that on the Plains we sometimes pass a cotton- 
wood-tree ; here not a bush could be seen. Passing several vil- 
lages, all desolate and uninviting, we at last came to the place 
where we had again to take the diligence. It was two in the 
morning. When the baggage came into the baggage-room there 
was a general rush, each passenger laying his hands upon any 



126 GRAPE CULTURE AND WINE-MAKING. 

thing that came witbin reach, whether his own or not. When 
his hands were full, he hunted for the person who had his own, 
and then reclaimed it, making a mutual exchange. The scene 
was highly comical, and worthy the pencil of Cruikshank, or 
Cham, or M'Lenan. When all had reclaimed their effects, there 
was found to be one package unreclaimed. Here a long parley 
ensued between the conductor and the railroad officers. They 
counted and recounted all the luggage, but to no effect. The 
passengers were all called up, to see if any one would claim the 
package. I was very much amused at the occurrence, as I felt 
satisfied that mine was all right, having watched it during every 
change from Madrid to this place. When the little struggle took 
place for the baggage, I heroically withstood several fierce attacks 
on my little valise and carpet bag. Not being able to find an 
owner for the package, it was laid down, and there took place — a 
stand-still. 

We walked up and down an hour waiting for something to 
turn up. All this time the mules were hitched to the diligence 
upon which was the luggage ; but, to our astonishment, no order 
was given us to mount. At last the cold atmosphere had its ef- 
fect upon the brains of the passengers, who became uneasy, and 
they began questioning each other as to the reason for not start- 
ing. As no one could answer, impatience soon turned to anger, 
and one person stepped up to the conductor, who was musingly 
leaning against a pillar, and asked him for an explanation. He 
answered that it was on account of this package, for which he 
was responsible ; he was certain it belonged to some one in the 
diligence, and he could not take it out of the depot until some 
one claimed it ; then, again, if he left it behind, the company were 
responsible for it to the owner, and he did not wish to get him- 
self into trouble. His answer was cool and philosophical. It was 
in vain the passengers grew angry; his calmness did not desert 
him. 

So matters stood when the passengers gathered together again, 
and consulted vehemently on the subject. At last, when their 
indignation was fully aroused, they determined to go to a fellow- 
passenger who was a Delegado, and rouse his energy to action. 
This important person was calmly seated on a sofa, wrapped up 
in a warm cloak, thinking of his greatness, or, perhaps, whether 
Mexico should or should not be again annexed to Spain. In his 
dream of great things he had altogether forgotten little ones, and 



SPAIN : WINE, RAISINS, AND OLIVES. 127 

had not even noticed our delay — thanks to his comfortable coat. 
The passengers delegated him to represent them to the conductor. 
The Delcgado was so much taken by the gravity and importance 
of the position, that he walked up to the conductor and demanded 
an immediate start. The demand was followed by the desired 
effect. A consultation was opened, and thus concluded : " Since 
every passenger present apparently had his baggage, and since 
every passenger in the diligence denied being the possessor of the 
package in question, it was decided that the named package did 
not belong to any of the passengers ; therefore, if left, the com- 
pany would not be responsible for it." 

This decision was received with applause, and soon we were 
galloping away. This delay, caused by these disputes, occupied 
two and a half hours. Of course, myself and son, being the only 
foreigners in the diligence, kept quiet. One reason for our not 
interfering was the fact that we were Americans, who are held in 
great dislike in this country. Even the deputy's face beamed 
with smiles when we at last, started. 

"We had made but a few hundred yards when we were stopped 
and counted head by head. Yankee-like, I stuck my head out 
of the window to see what now was in .the wind. I saw the con- 
ductor, driver, postillion, and an aid gathered around the door of 
a house, disputing violently. In the door were two men — one a 
gendarme, with his carbine ; the other with a paper in his hand. 
The latter said, firmly, that we could not be allowed to proceed, 
as we had one more person in the diligence than the law allows. 
All wanted to speak at a time, so that a confusion ensued in which 
none understood what the other said. Finally, the conductor suc- 
ceeded in "getting the floor" alone. He remonstrated, saying 
that the person who was too much was a young child sitting on 
his mother's lap, and could not be separated from her; besides 
this, as she had her husband, it would be cruel to separate them 
from one another. Notwithstanding this eloquent ajDpeal to hu- 
manity, the man with the paper remained inflexible. Nothing 
could move him, until one passenger, far away from the boy, de- 
clared that the child was very small, did not occupy any place, 
since he was on his mother's lap, and that he was not at all 
troublesome. At this declaration, and its unanimity (namely, one 
man), the official yielded, and we went on. 

However, doubts soon arose in my mind whether the person 
who so generously pleaded the cause of the boy had not better 



128 GRAPE CULTURE AND WINE-MAiaNG. 

change seats with me, at least for a time. The little fellow went 
to sleep leaning his head and whole body on me. Now, as the 
road was not over smooth, the diligence sometimes gave a jerk on 
one side, sometimes on the other, and the child followed its move- 
ments. Imagine what a pleasant position I w^as in. I would 
much rather have been on a " grizzly" hunt. Three nights pre- 
vious I had not slept. However, I consoled myself with the idea 
that all my pains would be remunerated by a sweet smile from 
the daughter of " a hundred dons of old renown" when daylight 
came. I awaited daylight with impatience. At last it came, and 
I found the senora of my dreams not very ugly, not very old, but 
very dirty. 

Near seven o'clock the conductor announced to us that we were 
to breakfast in the village which we were then entering. No 
sooner had our feet touched the ground than we were surrounded 
by about thirty beggars. They really besieged us. Eesistance 
was out of the question. In the first place, it would not look 
well to attack a lot of old men and women, all blind, lame, or 
diseased; then they were in greater number than we. I was 
struck by an idea : putting my hand in my pockets, I pulled out 
a handful of copper coin and threw it among the crowd. The 
move was most successful ; there was a general scramble, in which 
the lame walked and the bhnd saw. While they were still scram- 
bling for the money, we gained the inn by the road which they 
had left open to us. Once in the tavern, we were safe, unless we 
approached the door, when they began making a piteous noise, 
begging in the most moving language. This invariably happen- 
ed whenever we approached the door, and we as invariably made 
a hasty and disorderly retreat to the interior. 

A couple of miles on the other side of Balde Pengas the vine 
plantations begin again. The soil is either of sand or clay, or a 
mixture of the two. The wine is fermented in large clay jars 
from six to eight, or even ten feet high. The wine has a peculiar 
and disagreeable taste, which makes it almost impossible to drink 
it after it has once come in contact with the palate. This comes 
from the hides which the wine is put in. They have no barrels. 
Every ordinary wine that I have yet drank in Spain has in it 
cither aguardiente or alcohol ; this renders them unfit for common 
use, for tlicy naturally are very strong already. 

The fifteen minutes allowed for breakfast over, we huddled in 
again to our places. The little boy, being tired of sitting on his 



SPAIN: WINE, RAISINS, AND OLIVES. 129 

mother's lap, took half of his mother's seat and half of mine, which 
was already not too large before. However, I managed to squeeze 
myself some way. The heat was intense, and the dust intolera- 
ble, for it was as line as it was penetrating. Away we went, fol- 
lowed by four or five little girls and boys, who ran alongside of 
the diligence begging. The girls gave up in about three fourths 
of a mile ; the boys held out longer, and one of them ran for at 
least four miles. We had thrown out to them some coppers from 
time to time. Neither the girls nor boys wore shoes. 

Our way led us near to the railway which was being built ; we 
saw hundreds of men and women working on it. They all of 
them had on their backs a basket hardly holding four to five gal- 
lons ; they would creep snail-like to where the dirt was found, fif- 
teen to twenty yards off, leisurely fill the basket, and then return 
in a manner so slow that the slowest man in America would be- 
come desperate. When they arrived at the place where the load 
was to be deposited, they threw it down, but always in the most 
careful manner. These railway contractors seem not to have the 
least practical idea ; had they one, they would have all this trans- 
portation done by machinery. We passed several other places 
where they were also working, but all in the same snail-like way. 

The mountains are all barren ; not a tree can be seen. Now 
and then we passed a miserable village filled with beggars. You 
can not walk, stand, or sit any where without being besieged by 
them. It is the most annoying thing that can be imagined ; they 
will not be contented with a simple refusal, but will obstinately 
follow you up wherever you go. 

We at last reached the top of the mountain, where we found a 
table-land. It was here that we saw the ancient Moorish town 
of Carolina. It is a thriving village, and surrounded, as far as 
the eye can reach, by olive-trees ; these furnish a most pleasing 
contrast with the barren country through which we had passed 
since we left Bayonne. 

We were several hours passing through this really beautiful 
country, when we arrived at the place where we were to dine. 
Victoria, I believe, was the name of the place. I succeeded, in 
spite of their numbers, in making my way through the beggars, 
and coming to the kitchen. I seized upon the first thing which 
fell under my hands and looked like a wash-bowl. After wash- 
ing my face, I was lucky enough to find a clean corner to wipe it. 
Our dinner was a Spanish one. What was wanting in dishes 

I 



130 GRAPE CULTURE AND WINE-MAKING. 

was made up in charges. The conductor did not leave us much 
time to dispute the charges, but hustled us into the diligence, and 
away wc went. Our road still led us through many beautiful 
olive and vine plantations. The boy settled the right to the seat 
by taking up the largest half of it. Night soon set in and veiled 
the scenery from our view. As darkness came on, the boy re- 
turned to his mother's lap, to my great relief, for when he went 
to sleep I only had to support half of him. Arrived at Jean, sev- 
eral passengers left us, and the lady with her little boy went into 
the Kotonde. . Her place was taken by a gentleman, and from 
here we enjoyed a little more comfort. 

We entered Granada at ten o'clock in the morning. It is an 
old Moorish town, has quite a considerable population, and, from 
what I could see, was quite thriving. Its produce is olives, oil, 
wine, hemj), and lead. This latter article is found in quite large 
quantities in the neighborhood. The hotels are miserable, and 
their prices exorbitant, as myself and fellow-passengers can all 
testify. 

Sepiemher 24. — We were informed that the stage would only 
leave at seven in the evening, so we would have time to see ev- 
ery thing. I went to a hotel, engaged a guide, and ordered him 
to get me saddle-horses to see the celebrated Alhambra. He soon 
returned, informing me that he could not get saddle-horses, but 
that he had engaged a carriage for three dollars. Informing me 
that the stable where the carriage was lay on the way to the Al- 
hambra, I thought that we might walk to it. He advised me to 
do so, saying that it would save time. This phrase " save time" 
sounded pleasantly in my ear, for it was so long since I had last 
heard it. It did not astonish mc, for our guide, who was a young 
Spaniard, had lived some time in America. 

What was our astonishment and indignation on seeing our car- 
riage, which was no more or less than a very old two-wheeled 
Spanish cart, without springs. It had two boards on the inside 
for seats, with rags for cushions, held up on the sides by ropes. 
After some grumbling we got in. The concern was drawn by a 
large bony mule, led by the driver, who walked alongside, and 
occasionally gave him a poke in the ribs with the butt of his 
whip, which had a nail in its end. As we rode in the streets we 
looked out to sec if any one was looking at us, but no one paid 
any attention to our "carriage," so we came to the conclusion 
that it was the customary mode of traveling here. 



SPAIN: WINE, RAISINS, AND OLIVES. 131 

We continued our way slowly through the narrow, winding 
streets until we came to the garden gates. In due time we ar- 
rived at the Generalife. It was here that we perceived how finely 
our guide had taken us in. In the first place, the walk through 
the streets would have been much more agreeable than the hor- 
rible shaking and jolting of our cart ; secondly, the distance was 
very short; and, lastly, the walk would have been a most agree- 
able one through all the beautiful and shady alleys. 

I will not attempt a description of this beautiful palace, which 
is considered the finest the world ever had. For that I refer my 
readers to Washington Irving. Only he has done justice to the 
beautiful palace, magnificent view, gardens, and legends. Read 
his "Legends of the Alhambra," and you will be here. 

When I had sufficiently admired the scenery and all the beau- 
ties of the palace, I started down on foot, not caring to rub off the 
small part of skin still remaining on my shins. My son, how- 
ever, thought to make the most of a bad thing, and so went in the 
carriage to the Cartuja, celebrated for its interior architectural 
beauty, and the mad-house, which was an ancient convent, built 
by Ferdinand and Isabella, in accordance with a vow which they 
had made to that effect while reducing Granada. 

I inspected several manufactories, but none of them had any 
thing worth mentioning to my readers. I returned home and 
wrote up my journal. 

I found much difiiculty in reaching home on account of the 
beggars, who were not only in great numbers, but also very im- 
pertinent. They would cry out, " For God's sake, look at me, sir ; 
I am old, sick, and in want." In looking at them I was often as- 
tonished how they could use such terms when they looked so 
well, and were neither old nor badly dressed. It seems to have 
passed into a habit with Spanish people. I really think that one 
third are beggars. Some Spanish gentlemen informed me that it 
was not considered as derogating from one's dignity to beg. 

We left Granada in full speed at seven o'clock, and almost ran 
down a dozen soldiers who were drilling. They were marching 
in double file toward the road. The conductor thought that they 
would halt, and the captain thought that the diligence would stop, 
and so both continued, until the men, seeing their danger, broke 
the ranks and fell back, no doubt thinking that they would be 
safer farther off than under the wheels. What the captain thought 
I don't know. The conductor did not stop to ask his opinion on 
the subject. 



132 GRAPE CULTURE AND WINE-MAKING. 

Our seats were pretty comfortable, they Laving placed us into 
the Berline, as they call it here. We tried in Madrid to get the 
same seats which we had in coming from Bayonne, but they had 
already been taken. 

I could not judge of the appearance of the country, as it was 
dark and cloudy. When daybreak came we were on high mount- 
ains, planted from the valleys to their very tops with grape-vines. 
The soil is red and rocky. The appearance of the country was 
very picturesque, as on the tops of the mountains, on their sides 
and in the ravines, houses were built. This was the first time I 
witnessed in Spain an idea of practical life. This is certainly far 
better than huddling themselves together in dirty little villages. 
Not only is it more healthy, more comfortable, but it is also more 
profitable. 

The mountains are very steep, so the cultivation must be done 
by hoes ; the work, however, is not overdone. It does not rain 
for seven or eight months during the year, consequently but little 
grass grows. Even if it did rain, the weeds would not come up 
very fast in such poor ground. 

The wine of the mountains has the taste and look of dark 
sherry, and, if care was taken in making it, it would become an 
excellent wine. The people here seem to make no improvement 
whatever; their wine is still made in the same manner that the 
Eomans employed when masters of the country. 

Our road still wound up the hill for some time, and vineyards 
were planted from the foot to the top of the mountains. Arriving 
at last on the top of the mountain, we had a magnificent view of 
Malaga and its fertile valley. The prospect was beautiful, and 
for a moment I forgot all my road troubles in looking on the 
scene which lay before me. All was smiling to me ; the large 
plantations of olive-trees, vines, oranges, and lemons; Malaga 
with its manufactories; the old Moorish citadel and its cathe- 
dral — all present a most pleasing view, which called out admira- 
tion when from the town you turned your eyes toward the sea, 
sprinkled here and there with white sails. My pleasure in be- 
holding this scene was not a little enhanced by the thought that 
at last my traveling by diligence would end. 

Descending the mountain, we passed several raisin-making es- 
tablishments. They are very numerous around Malaga. 

We soon reached the city, and proceeded to the Alameda Ho- 
tel, which proved to be an excellent one. After having well 



SPAIN : WINE, RAISINS, AND OLIVES. 133 

washed ourselves and breakfasted, wc were but too glad to lie 
down and take a sleep of several hours. We needed it after the 
six or seven days or nights that wc had passed in the diligence. 

When our dinner was taken wc went to the Alameda, or prom- 
enade, where there was to be music. Ilere wc saw all the fashion- 
able people promenading up and do^yn, among wh'6m were many 
dark-eyed scnoritas. After listening for some time to the music, 
which was very good, I returned to the hotel to write, and my 
son Arpad went to the theatre. 

September 27. — In the morning w^e hired three horses, two for 
ourselves and one for our guide. Our steeds proved to be fine 
ones of the Andalusian race. Wc first proceeded to the dwell- 
ing of a nurseryman, but, not finding him at home, we went to the 
vine plantation of Don Luis Arra de Breka. This vineyard is 
200 fanegas in extent. It makes 5000 boxes of raisins, 15,000 
arohas of Malaga wine, and 300 arohas of vinegar. A box of 
raisins weighs twenty-five American pounds, and a barrel one 
hundred pounds. An aroba contains twenty-two bottles of wine, 
and a fanega of land contains fifteen hundred vines. These sta- 
tistics were furnished by the overseer, who readily gave us all the 
information we desired. The establishment employs sixty men 
in selecting, drying, and packing the raisins. 

The drying-grounds consist of an elevation whose surface makes 
an inclination of forty-five degrees, whose length is sixty feet, and 
width twelve. It is built out of brick when a natural elevation 
can not be found. The drying-grounds are separated from each 
other by bricks stuck into the ground. These bricks are about 
eighteen inches long, one and a half inches thick, and six wide. 
The floor is a clay soil, overspread naturally or artificially with 
small loose pebbles. It resembles somewhat a threshing-floor, 
only is not so hard. The grapes, when ripe, are brought and 
placed on these drying-grounds, which are invariably built facing 
the noon sun, that they may receive the greatest possible heat. 
It is to obtain this effect that these grounds are inclined forty-five 
degrees, for it is at this inclination that the heat is the greatest. 

The grapes, laid simply on the ground as above mentioned, will 
naturally become dusty, or have some particles of dust ; therefore 
I asked why they did not spread them on a canvas or on straw 
mats. The answer I received was, that neither canvas nor straw 
received as much heat as the ground, and, consequently, the latter 
would dr}^ the grapes much quicker than the former. With all 



134 GRAPE CULTURE AND WINE-MAKING. 

this, I believe that many improvements might be made in their 
manner of making raisins. Asphaltum, well mixed with sand, 
being black, would receive a very great amount of heat from the 
sun. 

The drying-grounds are every evening covered over with 
boards, one overlaying the^ other, so that no rain or dew may 
reach the grapes during the process of drying. The grapes are 
left on the grounds eight, ten, and twelve days, according to the 
weather and their progress in curing. But, inasmuch as the size 
and ripeness of the grape comes in for a large part, they do not 
dry all at once ; and so, when the attendant sees some which are 
ready, three or four men are put to work at the lower ends, to 
pick out those which are cured, gradually proceeding upward. 
They arc seated on a plank resting on the separating bricks, and 
have on their laps small boxes which hold about eight pounds of 
raisins. These raisins are afterward taken into the adjoining 
pack-house, where a person with a pair of scissors cuts out all the 
rotten or inferior grapes. It is then passed to the Selector^ who 
selects all the fine large grapes, and puts them in a box beside 
him, of the same dimensions as the former. The other raisins are 
left in their own box, and filled up afterward from the second 
quality of succeeding boxes. The first class is passed, when the 
box is full, to the weigher, who fills up what is wanting, and takes 
out what is too much ; each must hold exactly six and a quarter 
pounds of raisins. It then goes to the pacJicr, who upsets the 
raisins into a box of the same dimensions lined with paper ; aft- 
erward he puts them in a transporting box, which contains four 
such small ones, and weighs twenty-five pounds. Each six and 
a quarter pounds is separated from the other by the above-named 
paper. If the paper is taken by the corners, the raisins may be 
taken out six and a quarter pounds by six and a quarter pounds 
without disturbing them or their order. In fine large raisins these 
four layers of paper are absolutely necessary to each twenty -five 
pounds, as they absorb the must of the grapes, which, to preserve 
their size, have not been completely dried, as that would shrink 
them up considerably. The second quality is treated in the same 
manner in every respect as the first. The only difference between 
them is their size. 

The berries which were cut out by the scissors are all throM'n 
into a barrel, and then taken to the press-house ; there they are 
trodden by men with shoes ; then the pressed juice runs from the 



SPAIN: WINE, RAISINS, AND OLIVES. 135 

press into a large vat-like hole, made out of bricks and plastered 
with Eoraan cement. It is dipped out from here with buckets 
like water from a well, the juice being almost as thick as tar. 
Then it is taken to large vats or barrels. In large establishments 
the barrels or vats are made of oak, but in smaller establish- 
ments there are large earthen jars holding from ten to two hund- 
red and fifty gallons. 

When the juice is poured into these jars or tanks, to each ten 
gallons of juice one gallon of aguardiente or brandy is put. It is 
then left to ferment slowly, no more care being taken of it for six 
months, when it is drawn into a new barrel. As is well known, 
the Malaga wine requires six to eight years to make it good and 
marketable. It is very heavy, and extremely sweet. Not much 
is used by Americans; England and Kussia consume the most 
of it. 

The residue — skins, stems, seeds, etc, — after being thoroughly 
pressed, is put into a large cemented vat ; a large quantity of wa- 
ter is thrown on, washing it thoroughly. This artificial juice is 
let run down into a well made of bricks and cement, where it is 
left to form itself into vinegar, and, when ready, it is drawn off 
and sent to market. 

Besides the above-described drying-plots of forty-five degrees, 
there are here also twenty to thirty drying-plots which are almost 
level. The floor is similar to the ones described. The width is, 
however, twenty-five feet, and, instead of being covered in the 
night or rainy days with boards, a canvas is used, so arranged 
that it can be brought on or off the ground by drawing a cover 
across a pole. This seems to be the better method, as much labor 
is required to lift the boards, which must be done by two men, 
and piece by piece. 

There are two drying-places in the vineyard and two packing- 
houses, to one of which is attached the wine-house and press. 
There are no cellars, the wine being kept in a large room in a 
stone house. 

In the same place are raised and dried fifteen to twenty thou- 
sand pounds of figs, which are dried in the same manner and 
upon plots as the grapes ; only instead of being lightly pressed 
into the bags and boxes, they are solidly pressed ; for the more 
they are pressed, the more saccharine they become. Figs require 
ten to fifteen days in curing. The pressure must be just heavy 
enough to flatten the figs without smashing them. The fig-trees 



136 GRAPE CULTURE AND WINE-MAKING. 

are planted promiscuously, whereas the almond-trees, of -which 
many are raised, are planted in avenues. 

The vines are planted two vafras apart. They are kept low to 
the ground, and are trimmed to one size. According to the thick- 
ness and strength of the vine, it has four to eight shoots. The 
vine is pruned every year to one eye, and forms a kind of knob 
or head. The shoots are not staked, but left to run on the ground. 
Afler the month of June the ground is gathered up around the 
vine as we hill potatoes. This is done to permit the sun to fall 
on the roots and draw the heat to the grapes. The vines are 
thrifty, and the soil is red and gravelly. 

"We arrived at a packing-house ; the servant took our horses 
and tied them separately. As I was taking notes I heard a ter- 
rible stampede. Eunning out to see the cause, I found that one 
of the horses had pulled off the bridle and "pitched into" the one 
standing next him. The third one, also wishing to have a hand 
in the matter, broke his bridle, and the fight went on lustily. 
The third, being somewhat inferior, soon gave up, after receiving 
several kicks and bites, but the others fought like tigers. We 
tried to stop the fight, but no whip, stone, or pole could separate 
the combatants. A score or more of men surrounded them, but 
in vain. One of the men threw a stone at one of the horses, but 
it missed its mark, and landed in the stomach of my son, almost 
knocking him down. At last they were separated ; but what a 
sight! They were bleeding every where, and the bridles and 
saddles were all in pieces. I contemplated the scene before me, 
and the figure of my landlord rose up before my vision like the 
ghost in Hamlet. I saw in imagination a long paper with a fear- 
ful column of figures, the sum total at the bottom being quite 
too long to be read. 

After patching up our bridles and saddles, we remounted for 
the city. I was hungry, having started without breakfast, but 
my appetite was considerably decreased by the vision of the com- 
ing bill. At last we arrived, and rode to the stable. I watched 
my man. He looked at his horses, shook his head, told me he 
must send for a veterinary surgeon, etc. This calmness foreboded 
no good. It showed diplomacy, which I determined to meet with 
the same. I went to our consul, Mr. Hancock, an excellent gen- 
tleman, by the way. I told him my suspicions about breakers 
ahead. The consul immediately sent his clerk to the Civil Regis- 
ter's office to have our names registered ; this would make the 



SPAIN: WINE, RAISINS, AND OLIVES. 137 

matter more complicated for the stable-man to get an exorbitant 
judgment for damages. So the matter rests; and so I must retire 
without knowing how far my pocket will be drained. 

Septemher 28. — At seven wc started again with the same An- 
dalusian steeds, who were oiled, and the bridles patched up. 
The owner and I exchanged no words. After riding five miles 
wc arrived at the residence of General Concha, the military gov- 
ernor of Granada. On this property there are many olive-trees, 
also an olive-mill, which is very simple, consisting of a round 
stone basin with a conic stone in the middle, which is pulled by 
a horse or mule. The stone crushes the olives; the olives are 
then put into a screw-press. By this means the oil is extracted 
and runs into the stone basin, and from there through a trough 
into a barrel. The Spaniards do not refine their oil like the 
French or Italians, and it sells for less, though it is really finer. 
It is used with all the sediment. This makes it disagreeable in 
cooked dishes. Sixty olive-trees are planted on one fanega of 
land ; grain or vines are raised between. The olive-trees, being 
planted near to the sea, do not do so well as in the district of 
Cordova, where the average production is twenty -five pounds of 
oil to the tree. Here not more than half as much is yielded. 
One aroba of oil is sold for fifty-eight to sixty reals — about three 
dollars. 

On our road we passed a cotton manufactory, where cloth is 
made by a New Orleans company. We saw an iron or smelting 
establishment, also owned by foreigners, but of what nation I did 
not learn. To the right and left of the road there is a great deal 
of sugar-cane, which is ground by a mill in Malaga. 

After examining the trees and the olive gathering, which is 
now beginning, we returned to the city, having engaged from a 
nursery-man in the office and presence of our consul several thou- 
sand of raisin-vines, olive, pomegranate, pepper, orange, fig, lem- 
on, and other trees. I visited several prominent merchants, to 
whom I was introduced by Mr. Hancock. 

As I was leaving my hotel I saw a herd of goats. Their owner 
was hallooing ^^ Leche! Lecher loud enough to wake the dead. 
As he was screaming, people ran from the houses with pails. 
These he took, set down by the goats, and milked the pail full, 
received his money, and satisfied his customers. This is a certain 
way of getting unadulterated milk. This was not entirely new 
to me, as I saw it tried by a Frenchman with cows in San Fran- 



138 GRAPE CULTURE AND WINE-MAKING. 

Cisco, but lie gave np the business on account of having no cus- 
tomers. 

After a good dinner with the consul we made our arrange- 
ments for departure to-morrow by the steamer for Alicante. I 
found that no steamer goes to Portugal, as they would have to 
stay in quarantine, as the yellow fever has broken out in the south 
of France. I was disappointed, as I intended to visit Oporto; 
but then the vine disease is universal, and I may have introduced 
it into our state. 

Septemher 29. — After paying our bills, which were very high, 
we started for the steamer. Mr. Hancock accompanied us, but 
before sent his clerk, Don Luis, to the police-office and French 
consul, to have our passports go through all the annoying formal- 
ities ; but, as Don Luis had no breakfast, and not finding the con- 
sul at home, he gave the passports to the porter. He returned 
in a short time, and found that the porter had taken a trip in the 
country, taking the passports with him. This annoyed Don Luis; 
but, like a prudent general, he made out two others, had them 
vised, and came down just in time for the consul to sign them, 
Mr. Hancock " blew up" Don Luis for leaving the passports, bade 
us adieu, and we jumped into the boat just in time. The many 
attentions I have received from Mr. Hancock will ever keep him 
in my remembrance. 

I may here mention that all the harbors in the south, as Genoa, 
Marseilles, Malaga, etc., have no wharf, but you are obliged to 
embark in small boats. This makes it very inconvenient, partic- 
ularly for ladies. The shipping is very close together, and in 
passing along one is often inundated with slop-water. It is really 
astonishing how little progress these people are making. We 
started at twelve o'clock precisely in an iron steamer, the Paris. 
"We kept close to the shore, passing the fertile valley of Malaga, 
and sailed by her high mountains, all covered with vines and vil- 
las. Soon, however, steep, rocky, barren mountains took the place 
of the beautiful fertile vaUeys. Night set in, and with it a furi- 
ous wind, which kept increasing so much that nearly all the pas- 
sengers were sea-sick, and the steamer was delayed full ten hours, 
arriving at Alicante at eleven o'clock at night. 

October 1. — The steamer remaining two days, it gave me an 
opportunity of examining the neighborhood, and engaging such 
vines and trees as the country possesses. First I went to the 
market, where I found some grapes which I do not yet possess. 



SPAIN : WINE, KAISINS, AND OLIVES. 139 

From there I presented myself to tlic American consul, Mr. Leach, 
and made arrangements with him to send to Havre the vines I 
had purchased. After visiting the neighborhood, which is not 
very inviting, we returned to the steamer, which lay anchored in 
the harbor. 

October 2. — This morning was fine and clear. At nine o'clock 
the cargo arrived, and was speedily hoisted into the steamer, which 
then left. We passed several valleys planted with olives, figs, 
vines, etc. They all looked very well, but the valleys are few, 
and there are numerous high, barren, rocky mountains. 

October 3. — This morning opened calm and pleasant, but we 
were out of sight of land. As we neared shore, we met thou- 
sands of fishing-boats, with " shoulder of mutton" sails. The fish- 
ing trade is extensively carried on at Barcelona, Alicante, and 
other villages on this coast. The fish are caught in large quanti- 
ties, and packed in olive oil. The coast is well populated. Nu- 
merous villages are scattered over the hills and valleys. Figs 
and olives are the principal produce. This part of Spain — Cata- 
lonia — is the richest in produce and manufactures ; the people are 
more industrious. 

We arrived at Barcelona at twelve o'clock. The steamer re- 
maining four hours, we took a small boat and landed. The city 
is a busy commercial town. The shops are fine ; the goods come 
from all countries ; but the streets are narrow, as in all towns of 
Southern Europe. It has several fine public buildings, monu- 
ments, promenades, and squares. The population was stated to 
me at 160,000, but I doubt the number. There are large and 
numerous manufactories here of cotton, iron cutlery, woolen, etc. 
The harbor is full of vessels; the wharf full of grain, peas, corn, 
oats, fruit of all descriptions. The grain is put loose in the ship- 
holds, and when it is to be moved it is put into bags, taken ashore, 
emptied into a pile, then again put in bags to be taken away. 
This is a very awkward way of doing business, particularly as 
there are linen manufactories, and linen is cheap. The sardine 
fishery is in full operation now, and the packing requires a great 
number of men. 

I made some inquiry as to the making of the wine, which is not 
agreeable to drink ; but a great deal is taken to Brazil, England, 
and even North America. Many varieties of grapes are mixed 
together, crushed with the feet, put into a vat ; a good portion of 
lime is added, with which it ferments. The lime gives it a dark- 



140 GRAPE CULTURE AND WINE-MAKING. 

er color. The wliole is fermented in a vat built of stone and ce- 
mented. The fermentation lasts from two to four days ; is very 
strong, as the lime aids it. When the fermentation stops, the 
whole is drawn off and put into barrels, and often leather bags 
made of hogs' or calves' skins. At the same time, one third or 
one quarter of alcohol is added. The wine is used the same year, 
but when alcohol is plenty it will keep for any length of time. 
The same process is used in all the vineyards. 

At five o'clock we left for Marseilles. The weather was fine. 
We arrived October 4th. At ten o'clock we took the train for 
Paris. Being night, I could see nothing. In the morning, how- 
ever, we stopped at Lyons, the great silk manufictory of France. 
The adjoining country is well cultivated. The people were busy 
sowing wheat. The grain-lands extend to Villafranca, then vines 
begin to predominate. Around Macon are planted all vines. 

Tours and Chalons have partly vine and partly grain planted. 
From Chalons to Dijon the whole country is planted with vines. 
But I have already given a description of this country. 

October 5. — Having arrived in Paris, I found letters awaiting me 
there which demanded my immediate return home. Having vis- 
ited all the prominent wine-growing countries except Hungary, 
my return was at once resolved upon. It is true that my orig- 
inal intention was to visit Greece and Egypt ; but, finding that 
the plague had broken out in Syria, and I would have to remain 
in quarantine for forty days, even if I escaped the sickness, I, 
of course, decided not to go. Even if I had gone, I could have 
thus done no service to the State, as the wine-making is still car- 
ried on in those countries according to the old plan. The vines 
and cuttings I procured through the American consuls. 

My determination to speed home was farther strengthened by 
the fact that the Legislature would meet in the beginning of Jan- 
uary, and would very likely be in session but a short time ; and, 
as I was required by the joint resolution to report before this 
body, my preparations were soon made. 

Ootoher 14. — I went to Havre to make the necessary arrange- 
ments there to receive the vines from all parts as already stated. 
The vines were all to be directed to the American consul. Hav- 
ing made the arrangement with the consul and Messrs. William 
Isilin & Co., we returned to Paris the next day, packed up our 
traps, bade good-by to our new acquaintances, parted with our 
family, whom we left behind partly because a stormy passage was 



SPAIN: WINE, RAISINS, AND OLIVES. 141 

expected, and partly on account of my son, who is studying prac- 
tically the manufacture of Champagne in Europe, and has been 
so engaged for the last year and a half, and whose apprenticeship 
will be out in the spring. 

On our arrival we gave our attention to the drainage of lands. 
Went to London, thence to Liverpool. There we embarked on 
the English steamer Europa. After a stormy voyage of fifteen 
days, arrived in Boston ; from thence to New York, and finally 
arrived in California December 5th. 



142 GKAPE CULTURE AND WINE-:MAK1NG. 



CHAPTER IX. 

GRAPES AND WINES IN CALIFORNIA. 

The Author's Experience. — Climate. — Site. — Soil. — Plowing. — Laying out a Vine- 
yard. — Digging Holes. — Planting. — Cultivating. — Pruning in different Years. — 
Summer Pruning. — Crushing. — Cost of Planting a Vineyard. — The Author's Ex- 
penditure on One hundred Acres. — Quality of the Author's Wines. — Mr. Szemere's 
Pamphlet. — Adulteration of Wine in Europe. — Quantity of Wine produced in 
France. — The Wines of Hungary. — Prospects of Wine Culture in California. — 
Statistics of Wine Culture in Europe. — Good and had Years in Europe. — The 
Advantages of California as a Wine Country. 

Having given the mode of planting and treating vineyards in 
different parts of Europe, we deem it necessary to say something 
of the mode of planting and treating vineyards in California. 

It will be apparent to practical men, who have cultivated vines 
in this country, that for us to practice many of the systems in 
use in Europe would be unprofitable, either on account of the 
difference in climate, or the high jorice of labor in California. On 
this head, however, we do not anticipate any difl&culty to our in- 
telligent and reflecting planters, for they will soon determine 
which mode of cultivation is best adapted to our soil, climate, 
and price of labor. But, for a guide to beginners, we will give a 
few extracts from an essay written by the author for the State Ag- 
ricultural Society in 1858. It should be remarked, however, that 
a farther experience of four years j)roves that some of the in- 
structions laid down in this essay require modification. We 
have arrived at this conclusion by careful observation of our 
own, having a vineyard of some four hundred acres, which, to 
the best of our belief, is the largest in the United States. "We 
frankly confess that the result of careful experiments, made on 
similar soils, has changed some of our opinions, and our error was 
clearly proved by observations on our late European tour. We 
hold that confessing an opinion formed to have been erroneous 
is not only proper, but a duty we owe to science. 

Whenever, in the extract from the e.ssay, a difference of opin- 
ion between what we then held and what we have since formed 



GRAPES AND WINES IN CALIFORNIA. I43 

occurs, \vc will note it, giving our present experience on the sub- 
ject. 

Climate. — The California climate, with the exception of the sea- 
coast, especially where the prevailing western winds drive the 
fogs over the locality, is eminently adapted for the culture of 
grape-vines, and it is proved conclusively that no European lo- 
cality can equal within two hundred per cent, its productiveness. 
The oldest inhabitants have no recollection of a failure in the 
crops of grapes. The production is fabulous ; and there is no 
doubt in my mind that before long there will be localities dis- 
covered which will furnish as noble wines as Hungary, Spain, 
France, or Germany, ever have produced. Vineyards planted in 
various counties, beginning at San Diego up ^to Shasta, have 
given magnificent results, and leave no doubt in the mind that 
the north is as favorable and productive as the south. 

Site. — In California site is not so material as in European coun- 
tries, especially where, during the summer season, a good deal of 
rain falls ; and if the vineyard is not exposed during the whole day 
to the sun, the rain will rot and damage the grapes. California, 
having an even temperature, is warm and without rains in sum- 
mer. Almost any locality will do ; but if a western gentle slope 
can be obtained, by all means it should be taken. 

Soil. — "When the planter resolves to plant a vineyard, he should 
determine whether he is planting to produce grapes for wine or 
for market. If for the former, he must look for a soil which is 
made by volcanic eruptions, containing red clay and soft rocks, 
which will decay by exposure to the air. The more magnesia, 
lime, or chalk the soil contains, so much the better. This kind 
of soil never cracks, and retains the moisture during the summer 
admirably. Such a soil will produce a wine that will keep good 
for fifty or one hundred years, and improve annually ; is not lia- 
ble to get sour, or, when exposed to the air after one year old, to 
get turbid, and change color in the bottle or glass. 

If such soil can not be found on the ground desired to be laid 
out for a vineyard, the second best may be taken, which is a shell- 
mound. There are many localities in this State, even as high as 
the mountain tops, where acres of land consist of decayed shells. 
Such soil will give a good wine in great abundance. The next 
best to the above soil is a gravelly clay, slightly mixed with sand, 
so that it will not crack. If it can be, red color or dark black ; 



144 GKAPE CULTURE AND WINE-JIAiaNG. 

but avoid gray claj, wliicli bakes in summer. The last of all 
which may be used for the production of wine is a light sandy, 
gravelly soil. This will give an abundance of wine, but it will 
not keep for any length of time. It will soon change color and 
become sour when exposed to the air ; and the only mode of 
keeping this kind of wine for years is by adding to it brandy or 
alcohol, which, of course, deprives it of its purity, and makes it 
injurious to the health of the consumer. 

The soils described above are recommended for producing wine, 
as just stated ; but for producing marketable table grapes, the 
planter should select a piece of ground which is a rich black 
gravelly or sandy loam, exceedingly mellow, as most of the allu- 
vials are ; and if well-rotten manure from sheep or cattle corrals 
can be obtained, it will pa}^ well to haul it on the ground. To 
be prepared for the grape-vines, it should be moderately moist, 
though not too moist. In this State deserted Indian villages are 
often found. In such localities the soil is exceedingly rich. A 
bucketful of it in the hole of a vine will astonish the planter by 
its effect. Such soil as just now described, either made by nature 
or artificially, will produce magnificent bunches of grapes, with 
large berries, in an immense quantity, which, of course, will please 
the eye and palate, as the bulb or skin is thin, and consequently 
the best qualified for table use. 

Plowing. — The best mode to plow the land is with the so-called 
" deep-tiller ;" for with it, by putting three horses abreast, you can 
plow twelve inches deep, except the soil should be very rocky. 
Follow this plow, in the same furrow, with a common shovel-plow, 
or, as it is called in some places, bull-tongue. This simple instru- 
ment, with two horses attached to it, will tear up and pulverize 
the earth ten or twelve inches more in depth. There are various 
designs of subsoil plows, but most of them require a great mov- 
ing power, and will not answer after all. The above-named "bull- 
tongue" is successfully used by many planters in Sonoma and 
Nape Valleys. But it matters very little what plows or subsoil - 
ers the planter uses, as long as he plows and subsoils hi-s land from 
twenty to twenty-four inches. 

Layinrj out the Vineyard. — It is sufficiently proved, by close ob- 
servations in Europe and California, that the vine planted eight 
feet apart is the best mode, especially in California, where land is 
yet cheap and labor high. Vines planted at this distance can be 
worked with the shovel-plow and one horse. Eight feet is as 



GRAPES AND WINES IN CALIFORNIA. I45 

close as persons ought to plant. If planted closer, the vines, -when 
five or six years old, will branch out considerably, and in the 
months of May, June, and July, all the tender vines would be 
broken by using a horse and shovel-plow. The planter would 
be therefore compelled to employ hands with hoes, and this would 
cost, in the first instance, ten times as much as horse-power ; and, 
secondly, it would not do as good work, for no man will hoe as 
deep as a shovel-plow goes. Persons laying out vineyards must 
not be miserly, but leave wide roads — say twelve feet ; at least 
one road every fifteen rows, which would be one hundred and 
twenty feet apart. Otherwise, when the vines bear and the grapes 
are picked, the person picking them must carry a heavy basket a 
long distance, to the road where the cart stands to haul it to the 
press-house. In reality, no person will lose any thing in the 
crops on account of the road, for the rows adjoining each side of 
the road will bear more, as they have an additional four feet of 
ground to feed on. No planter should, under any circumstances, 
plant trees of any description in a vineyard. A vineyard must 
be a vineyard, and nothing else. I need not waste room here to 
direct how to lay out the rows. Every man knows that, and has 
his own mode for it ; but a straight row in every direction is es- 
sential to a prosperous cultivation. 

Digging Holes. — When the land is laid out as above recommend- 
ed, and a stick staked at every point where a vine is to be plant- 
ed, a hole must be dug twenty inches square, a]^d about two feet 
deep. The ground from the hole is to be laid out as follows : 
the top ground to your right, the second ground to your left, and 
the third in front of the hole. Then the bottom of the hole should 
be well dug up with the spade, leaving the last ground in the hole. 
The earlier the holes are thus finished before planting, the better ; 
then, the longer the earth is exposed to the atmosphere, the more 
it will be fertihzed. Before you begin to plant your vines, have 
the holes filled — for rooted vines to about six inches from the 
top, if for cuttings about ten inches. 

[In regard to the distance between vines, we would observe 
that, for CaHfornia, our opinion in regard to the space of eight 
feet has not changed ; but we,have some hesitation in express- 
ing a recommendation for the same distance after having seen 
the fine Burgundy Pineau and the world-renowned Eiesling plant- 
ed so closely. Whether these grapes will give the same gener- 
ous wine, with that exquisite bouquet, if planted eight feet apart, 

K 



146 GRAPE CULTURE AND WINE-MAKING. 

remains to be proved by experiments. Our doubt originates 
from the generally established facts that, when vines are pruned 
for quantity^ the quality will suffer. This fact is proved by sci- 
entific observation. The question which arises in our mind is, 
whether vines planted eight feet apartj^roducing eight pounds 
of grapes, pruned to the very minimum of the Californian jaeld, 
or whether sixteen vines, planted on eight feet of ground, produc- 
ing one fourth of a pound of grapes to each vine, would make a 
better wine. It is true that one vine has, in the first case, as 
much soil to live on as sixteen vines in the other, but whether 
the sixteen vines do not possess more roots, leaves, and power to 
extract from the atmosphere more congenial elements for the de- 
velopment of that fine quality and bouquet they should have, is 
a question which we are not prepared at this time to answer. It 
is our intention to make experiments on this subject in future, 
and it would be well if other planters in different localities would 
do the same.] 

The ground to your right, being the top ground, is thrown into 
the bottom of the hole, then that to your left. This done, you 
proceed to 

Planiing. — There are two ways o^ planting— one with cuttings, 
and the other with one-year-old vines. There is a good deal of 
difference of opinion among good and practical vine-planters. 
Some argue that if a cutting is properly planted at once orf'the 
spot of its destination, it will be more advanced in its third year, 
and, consequently, it will bear in that year more than the rooted 
vine, which is first set as a cutting in the nursery, and the next 
year transplanted on its destined spot. It is reasonable to sup- 
pose this to be the case ; but it still leaves a doubt in the mind 
whether a large tract of land can be, or will be, as well worked as 
a small one. In a nursery, by good care, the cuttings can be root- 
ed four times as strong as in a large field; besides, in the latter 
case, whether the vine has good roots or not, it is left where first 
planted ; but when the rooted vines are taken out of the nursery 
for transplanting, the planter will select only those having fault- 
less roots. But the greatest advantage of the nursery is, in my 
opinion, the fact that if a planter intends to plant one hundred 
acres of vineyard with cuttings, he will have to cultivate one 
hundred acres during the summer ; but if he plants his cuttings 
for this one hundred acres in a nftrsery, two acres of ground will 
be enough to raise sixty-eight thousand rooted vines, the number 
required for one hundred acres. Now, to cultivate these two 
acres in the nursery, it wiU require ten days' labor with one horse ; 



GRAPES AND WINES IN CALIFORNIA. 147 

while, on the contrary, for one hundred acres, during the months 
of March, April, May, June, and July (after that time no more 
plowing is required), 3'^ou need two men and four horses — equal 
to two hundred and sixty days' work, and double that for the 
teams. Then the board of the men, and feed for the horses dur- 
ing that period. However, this is a matter of opinion, and each 
planter will follow his own idea, or will accommodate himself to 
surrounding circumstances. But now to the planting. 

When the holes arc filled as above described, if you plant cut- 
tings, have them two feet long; bend the cuttings ten inches deep 
in the hole, near to a right angle, the lower part of which is laid 
horizontally ort the bottom, and the upper part on the side wall 
of your hole, the top of it to be above the ground three inches. 
Then fill the hole from the ground surrounding the hole, which, 
of course, is top ground ; then tramp the earth fast on your cut- 
ting, that no vacancy shall remain in the hole. Otherwise foul air 
will gather in said vacancy, and the cutting become mouldy, and 
will not live. But if you plant rooted vines, your holes will be 
filled to six inches. Now take your rooted vine, spread the roots 
on the bottom, and throw from the surrounding top ground on 
the roots ; shake it well, so that the pulverized ground shall get 
among the roots. Then tread gently with your foot round the 
root. It is still better if you prepare, from one part of fresh cow 
manure and three parts of black earth with water, a mud mixture 
of the consistency of tar. Put, before planting, your rooted vines 
in the same, and when so dipped, turn them in the bucket round 
and round. By this every root and fibre of the vines will be sur- 
rounded with this tar-like stuft', and prevent it from becoming 
mouldy under ground. After this, the ground in the front of the 
hole, taken out the last of the same, is to be leveled about the 
vine so as to leave a dish-like excavation around, as a receptacle 
and conductor of moisture to the roots. Be careful never to plant 
your vines too deep. It is better — if you make a mistake — to 
have them too shallow than too deep. 

Cultivating. — The vines having been planted — either as cuttings 
or as rooted vines — in the month of January, the ground being 
recently plowed, not many weeds will be visible before the month 
of March. But this month it will be time to commence, either 
on account of weeds, or that the ground has already hardened 
around the vines, and requires stirring and pulverizing, so that 
the atmosphere may penetrate freely to the roots ; for this pur- 



148 GRAPE CULTURE ^V2fD WINE-MAKING. 

pose the -well-knowii sliovel-plow is the best and most simple in- 
strument, commonly used in the "Western States to cultivate In- 
dian corn. This requires one horse and a man. This plow can 
go within an inch of the vines, and will consequently destroy all 
weeds. First the plowman plows one way ; and then, when done 
with the field thus, he plows crossways, by which operation any 
weed escaping the first plowing will be destroyed without using 
a hand-hoe. In this way, one man with two horses (one horse in 
the forenoon and the other in the afternoon) wiU comfortably plow 
three acres a day, on an average, in twenty-six working days of 
the month. All plantations of vines one or more years old ought 
to be plowed twice a month, as above described, to keep weeds 
down, and stir up and pulverize the ground, by which means 
you will charge it with nitrogen. This exposure of alternate 
stratas of earth to the action of the sun, air, and rain, fertilizes the 
soil incredibly. Moreover, the weeds plowed under ground by 
their rotting enrich the soil, and impregnate it with ammonia and 
humors. Then, a mellow ground is much more adapted to attract 
moisture from the atmosphere than a hard-caked one. 

Pruning^ First Year. — When the last plowing at the end of July 
is done, nothing more in the way of cultivation is necessary until 
the end of December or beginning of January— the time for prun- 
ing. Your vines, if planted as cuttings, will have but small shoots ; 
but if rooted vines, those shoots will be strong, and several of 
them. In either case you cut the vine back to two eyes, being 
always careful that all ground-shoots shall be clean cut away from 
the main stem. Your pruning-knife must be sharp ; or, still bet- 
ter, use the grape-vine scissors, which are far superior to the knife, 
and can be procured at the seed or hardware stores in San Fran- 
cisco. 

When the vine sprouts, which is about the month of March — 
and sooner in this country — the planter must carefally inspect 
his new vines, and break all sprouts out from the vine except 
the two coming from the two eyes left for that purpose. This 
done, the planter must again put his shovehplow to work, and 
cultivate the soil precisely in the same way as last year, described 
above. 

Pruninrj^ Second Year. — Again, at the end of December, the 
pruning begins, there having been two vines raised on each stem. 
The one the most feeble or crushed is cut off; the other is left to 
the length the planter wishes to raise his vine-stem. 



GRAPES AND WINES IN CALIFORNIA. 149 

[After several experiments, made on a large scale with vines 
pruned high and staked, and witli vines pruned close to the 
ground, we have become convinced that low pruning close to the 
ground is the better mode in California; it gives better grapes, 
and ripens them a fortnight sooner. In consequence of these ex- 
periments, I left off, some years ago, high pruning and staking. 
My travels in Europe have proved to me the correctness of my 
experiments. There is but one view, that the closer you can keep 
the grapes to the ground the better they are. It would not do, 
however, to let the branches lie on the ground, as the summer 
rains would rot them ; but in Call brnia and the south of Spain 
the grapes may and do lie on the ground, and on that account 
are sweeter.] 

Pruning, Third Year. — ^The grapes having been gathered, the 
pruning will begin again in December or the beginning of Janu- 
ary. This time there are three stems on the main stem. Two 
of these vines must be cut to two buds each, for making wood (for 
so-called water-branches or vines), to become the next year the 
bearing vines, and the third one of these vines cut to four buds, 
which will be quite sufficient to bear grapes; but if the main 
stem is quite thrifty, you may leave five buds. 

[It has been before observed that where quantity is desired it 
is detrimental to the quality of the grape ; therefore he who in- 
tends to make superior wine will do well to prune his vines to 
two buds instead of four and five. But if only ordinary table 
wine is desired for home consumption, the recommendation of 
five-bud pruning may be practiced.] 

Pruning^ Fourth and Suhseqiieni Years. — Many and various are 
the opinions in pruning bearing vines. Some assert that the old 
way, to cut the vine back to from six to ten spurs, and on each 
spur to leave two or three buds, is the best; but on mature re- 
flection, considering that the stem so cut has to make all the 
wood, besides to produce and ripen grapes, it is not reasonable to 
believe this mode to be correct, and, in fact, experiments in differ- 
ent countries and climates have proved this doctrine false. It is 
a well-established fact that the best mode of pruning is to cut the 
stem to three spurs each, with two buds, and leave three vines, 
each two or three feet long, according to the strength of your 
stem. The three spurs will grow this year wood for the next 
year's bearing, and the three long vines will grow the grapes. 
Next season the old three vines which have borne grapes this 
year are cut off to spurs with two buds each, and the three long 



150 GRAPE CULTURE AND WINE-MAKING. 

vines originating from the last year's spurs are left to bear grapes 
this year, and so on alternately from year to year. This mode 
of pruning will insure a large crop every year, and will not ex- 
haust the vine. 

[The above paragraph will stand true in several wine-growing 
countries in Europe, especially on the Rhine and in some parts of 
Hungary ; but in California, the vines pruned three or four feet 
long will bear so enormously that the wine will prove inferior ; 
and if the vine bears the blue grape it will hardly become blue, 
but remains a pale pink, and will not give proper color to red 
wine.] 

Summer Pruning. — The native Californians never used to prune 
vines in the summer, but let them grow any length they pleased. 
This is erroneous. Every person, on reflection, can at once see 
that the sap required to grow and produce vines ten, and often 
twenty feet long, may be better used if it is forced into the grapes. 
Undoubtedly the berries and bunches will be larger if moderate- 
ly trimmed ; besides, this trimming is a great advantage when the 
grapes are gathered, as the picking is so much easier than in an 
untrimmed vineyard, where every thing is tangled up. The best 
mode is to cut the tops of the vines to the height of five or six 
feet from the ground, in the month of July for the first time, and 
the second time in the middle of August. This operation is done 
easily, and pretty quick. One man with a sickle tops off about 
two thousand five hundred a day. Besides the above-named ad- 
vantages, there is one more, viz., when the top is cut off, every 
where small vines will spring out and form a dense leaf on the 
ends of the vines, keeping the grapes growing underneath in a 
moderate shade, and making them thus more tender, juicy, and 
sweet. It is therefore a great mistake, practiced often by new 
comers from modern Europe, that they will break out the so-call 
ed suckers ; that is, little branches starting out behind the leaf, 
and growing feebly up to the length of a few inches. These, in 
the northern parts of Europe, are broken up, but not in Italy 
Greece, Smyrna, etc. Now California having a warmer climate 
the vines need more protection against the sun than elsewhere 
and experience shows that where some bunches of grajoes are ex 
posed, without the shelter of their leaves, to the rays of the sun 
the berries remain small, green, hard, and sour. 

Crushing. — "When the picked grapes are brought to the press 
house, they ought to be crushed immediately, and not left stand 



GRAPES AND WINES IN CALIFORNIA. 151 

ing in tubs overnight or the next day. The crusher is a simple 
machine. There are three cast iron cylinders ; two of them, of 
even size, roll against each other ; the third one is on top of the 
two lower ones, and is fluted, for the purpose of taking hold of 
the bunch and pressing it down to the two lower ones. These 
latter have very small projections, like a waffle-iron, so as to crush 
the grapes; but not the grape-seed', which would be injurious to 
the taste of the wine. I have one of these crushers, made to 
crush apples for cider, and it answers admirably. Two men 
crush easily with it five thousand pounds of grapes in a day. 

[Opinions vary much in Europe with regard to crushing or 
stamping grapes with the feet. Our opinion is, that cylinder 
crushing is as good as treading, if it does not crack the seeds of 
the grape. Two wooden rollers, eighteen inches in diameter and 
two feet long, with a hopper on the top into which the grapes are 
poured, will crush grapes enough to make fifteen hundred gallons 
per day, with two men in attendance.] 

Cost of Planting a Vineyard. — This, of course, will vary with the 
price of labor, locality, and soil ; but to give an idea to persons 
who have no practical knowledge, I will give here a correct ac- 
count of the planting of a vineyard of one hundred acres. This 
was actually expended on the same in labor and money, as I kept 
a strict account of every thing. The soil is red clay, intermixed 
with volcanic rocks, partly decayed and partly in the process of 
decaying. The land had been previously cultivated for grains. 
This hun,dred acres was planted in January, 1858. 

FIRST TEAR. 

Six men (with 9 horses for deep tiller, and 6 horses for shovel- 
plow), 20 days each, = 120 days, $35 per month wages, and 
$15 for board: = 120 days, at $1 93 $231 60 

Horse-hire 50 cents, feed 25 cents per day : 15 horses, 20 days 
each .'.. 225 00 

Blacksmith's bill, wear and tear of hanicss 30 00 

Eighteen men laying out, staking, and digging holes, 21 days 
each, = 378 days ; and 6 men planting, 23 days each, = 138 
days: wages $30, and board $15 per month, =516 days, at 
$1 73 892 68 

Thirty-two days' work was spent in digging the rooted vines in 
the nursery; their cultivation during the summer brought 
their cost to one quarter of a cent each: 68,000 vines, at 
$2 50 per 1000 170 00 

Sundry expenses 55 36 

Total cost of planting $1604 64 

First summer's expense of cultivation, 260 days' work, 
with board, $50 per month $500 00 

Horse-hire and feed for 5 months 205 00 

Blacksmith's bill, and wear and tear of harness 15 00 

Pruning, first year, in January 25 00 745 00 

Total first year's expenditure $2349 64 



152 GKATE CULTURE AND WINE-MAKING. 



SECOND TE^VE. 



Replanting vines which died out from the year's planting and 

sprouting 60 00 

Summer cultivation and fall pruning, as last year 745 00 

Second year's expenditure $805 00 



THIRD TEAR. 



Sprouting and additional expenses for pruning, as this goes 

slower this year 120 00 

Summer cultivation as above 745 00 

Total third year's expenditure $865 00 

Total expenses of 100 acres up to bearing $4019 64 

Here we may state that wine raised on my vineyard, of tlie 
vintages of different years, was taken by me to Europe to be test- 
ed by connoisseurs of wine, and for its quality and fitness to stand 
the ocean trans^Dortation. It was found by the best judges to 
stand the voyage well, and was pronounced eminently adapted 
for the manufacture of Champagne. On our return we visited 
Kohlcr & Co.'s California wine establishment in New York, and 
found their wines very good. 

Many of our people are of the opinion that wine-producing 
may be overdone in California and in the Atlantic States. This 
fear is totally unfounded ; as a proof of which, I will refer the 
reader to the valuable pamphlet of Mr. B. de Szemere, ex-minis- 
ter of Hungary, and a resident of Paris since' 1859. He gives 
the number of acres planted in France at 5,000,000, and the pro- 
duce at 750,000,000 gallons of wine ; in Hungary, 3,000,000 of 
acres planted, producing 860,000,000 gallons. 

M. de Szemere classifies France as the first of the wine-produc- 
ing countries of the world, and still it imports largely from for- 
eign countries ; and, furthermore, it is an undeniable fact that 
millions of gallons of wine arc manufactured without the aid of a 
single grape. 

The exact words of the author on this subject are as follows: 

"But there are other, and, indeed, culpable methods of adulter- 
ation very injurious to health. The marvelous discoveries which 
are daily made in chemical science arc continually and skillfully 
applied, not only to improve, but to adulterate the wines. In 
this manner do the Germans sweeten their wines; in this manner 
they saturate them with sulphur, with a view to neutralize their 
natural propensity to become acid, not only in casks, but even in 
bottles ; in this manner they give them the artificial, but to con- 
noisseurs disgusting flavor of Muscat. This trade of spurious 
wines is carried on in France on a still larger scale. All is false 



GRAPES AND WINES IN CALIFORNIA. I53 

in the ■wines ; the color, the strength, the flavor, the age — even the 
name under which they are sold. There are wines which do not 
contain a drop of grape-juice. Even science is impotent to dis- 
tinguish the true from the false, so complete is the imitation. 
You may every day see advertised in the French newspapers the 
Seve de Medoc, of which a small flagon, costing three francs, is de- 
clared sufficient to give flavor to 600 litres. 

" Paris and Cette arc the principal seats of this fraudulent 
adulteration. It is practiced in both places on the most colossal 
scale. Certainly one half of the Parisian population drink, un- 
der the name of wine, a mixture of which there is not one drop 
of grape-juice. The police are unable to prevent this adultera- 
tion ; but the laws punish it with great severity. Every week do 
the newspapers publish judgments against wine-merchants and 
grocers, in execution of which their wines — twenty, thirty, eighty 
hogsheads at once — are poured into the gutters. But this dis- 
honest art is now so perfect that even clever chemists can with 
difficulty distinguish the true wine from the false. Such was the 
case in a very recent trial. The chemist, after reporting every 
ingredient of which the wine was composed, observed that if one 
of them were in less quantity he would have been unable to dis- 
tinguish it from the natural wine. The prosecuted wine-mer- 
chant, who was present, listened attentively to the chemist's re- 
port, and at last asked him which ingredient it was. The chem- 
ist very imprudently told him, and the accused immediately 
answered, "I am very much obliged, sir; and I don't regret now 
my forty hogsheads of wine which will be destroyed,.because now 
I am certain of my business. 

" The quantity of the French home consumption is exactly 
known. Taking, as an example, the year 1857 : France pro- 
duced 85,410,000 hectolitres ; she imported, besides, foreign wine, 
626,000 hectolitres ; total, 36,026,000 hectolitres. Of this quan- 
tity, in France was consumed: as wine, 17,142,000 hectolitres; as 
spirit, 2,453,000 hectolitres ; as vinegar, 222,000 hectolitres ; total 
of the French consumption, 19,817,000 hectolitres. We see that 
what is left for stock and exportation is not too much, and still 
less if we consider such years as 1854, 1855, 1856, in which the 
total production was only 10,000,000, 15,000,000, and 21,000,000 
hectolitres, instead of 35,000,000, as it was in 1857. If, there- 
fore, France itself, in 1857, consumed more than she can produce 
in some years, is it unreasonable to doubt whether she would al- 
ways be able to export natural and unadulterated wines ? In 
any case, can one believe that under such circumstances old 
French wines could be found any where but in private cellars?" 

About Hungary and its wines he says : 

"1. With the exception of six counties, the vine is cultivated 
in all Hungary (in France eleven departments have no vines, and 



154 GRAPE CULTURE AND WTNE-MAKING. 

twcnty-five departments produce only common wines unfit for 
exportation). Every wine lias its name, derived from a town, a 
county, a mountain, or a lake. Some large districts are celebrated 
for their wines ; but even in small and less-known localities ex- 
cellent wines are to be found, concealed like treasures wliick only 
wait to be discovered. The most renowned wines are : 



LIQUEUK WINES 

White. 
Tokay. Soprony. 

Baszt. Szent Gyocrgy. 



Red. 

Menes. Villkny. 



Eger. Kkrloviez. 

TABLE WINES, 

£rmellek. Menes. Szerednye. Villany. 

Bakator. Eger. Neszmely. Visonta. 

Somlyd. Szegszard. Kcebanya. Karlo\'iez. 

Balaton. Badacsony. Borsod, etc. Nograd, etc. 

Buda. Magyarlit. 

"Numberless are the varieties of wines, for they vary in every 
respect : in color, from dark to pale red, from green to golden-yel- 
low ; in strength, they are light or strong ; in taste, dry or sweet, 
with more or less flavor. It may be that one or another may not 
suit one's taste, but it is impossible that every body should not 
find among these different wines one agreeable to him. What is 
necessary is to try all, and afterward choose the most suitable. 

"2. The Hungarian wines are generally stronger than the 
French or the Khine wines. The reason of this may be sought 
in the kind of grape, in the properties of the soil, in the peculiar 
climate of the country, and finally, I think, in the fact that in Hun- 
gary the vineyards are commonly situated upon elevated hills, I 
dare even call them mountains. The Hungarians, knowing the 
old Latin proverb, Bacchus colles amat (" Bacchus loves the hills"), 
have followed the advice ; they even now laugh at and despise 
the wines growing in the low plains, which is the case with most 
French wines. 

" And this is not all. Two contrary tendencies are very per- 
ceptible in the two countries. The demand for French wines be- 
ing great, the French cultivators, for thirty or forty years past, 
have left the finest wines out of account ; they prefer the inferior 
sorts at a low price to the finer at a high price ; they plant the 
vines close together, thus depriving the fruit of sun and air ; they 
choose a rich soil, which gives a more abundant but an inferior 
produce ; they, with the same object in view, make too much use 
of manure, which injures the quality of the wine (a practice once 
forbidden by laiv) ; in a word, the French wine has lost in flavor 
what it has gained in fecundity ; quality has been sacrificed to 
the quantity. 

" But in Hungary the contrary still prevails — that old system 
under which the quality is the principal object in view, under 
which a favorable exposure is tue all-important consideration; 



GRAPES AND WINES IN CALIFORNIA. 



155 



and the poor, light, stony, granitic land, from whence alone the 
choicest and the most highly-flavored wines can be obtained, is 
preferred to a rich, manured soil, insuring an abundant, but, in 
quality, far inferior return. 

"Nothing is grander or more beautiful than our mountains, 
crowned either with shady woods or with vines of exuberant veg- 
etation. Where you see a mountain, there you will find our vine- 
yards. The superb Badacsony mountains form a high semicircle 
around the majestic Lake of Balaton, covering a surface of one 
hundred and twenty-five English square miles. The arid mount- 
ains of Mcnes or Vilagos overlook proudly the rich plains of Ba- 
nat, the holy Canaan of Ilungary. The mountain called Tokay 
rises, in an another large plain, like a lofty pyramid. It has the 
form of Vesuvius, and, indeed, its existing but silent crater, its 
volcanic formation, shows evidently that it was once a fire-spread- 
ing mountain. The cultivation of such a soil is very difiicult and 
expensive, the produce obtained but little ; but then the latent fire 
of this volcanic mountain is what we call Tokay wine. 

"Now I do not mean to say that the best wine is that which 
contains the most alcohol ; this is only one of its elements ; and 
other qualities, as delicacy, taste, flavor, are equally essential. My 
intention is to establish that, as the Hungarian natural wine is 
stronger than the Ehine, French, or even Spanish or Portuguese 
wines (taken without the usual addition of brandy), we may rea- 
sonably presume, first, that the Hungarian wine is particularly 
adapted to the English climate, and then that it will, more than 
any other light wine, facilitate to the English consumer the tran- 
sition from the spirits and brandied wine to natural ones, which 
are undoubtedly more beneficial to the human health. 

" It is a fact universally known, that to all wines exported to 
England is added more or less brandy (and in most cases not 
Cognac, but what is quite another thing, corn, fig, sugar-brandy) ; 
thus the Ehine wines receive an addition of 2-5, the French 4-7, 
the Spanish and Port wines 8-15 per cent, of alcohol. 

" This practice is in Hungary quite unknown. Notwithstand- 
ing the mentioned addition of brandy, the Ehine wines never 
mark above 10-14 degrees (of Sykes), and the lest clarets, like 
Chateau Lafitte, do not reach 18 ; whereas the quite pure and 
natural Hungarian wines, when examined by the Custom-house 
Test Office in London, gave the following results : 



Buda, red table wine 21.1 

Eger 21.5 

Szegszard 22.8 

Menes, 1842 23. 



Neszraely, white table wine 19.1^^ 

Balaton 20.6 

Bakator 20.6 

Tokay dry 23.6 



" But I think there could be found inferior wines not surpass- 
ing eighteen degrees ; consequently their introduction (at the shil- 
ling duty) would be very advantageous to the great mass of the 



English consumers. 



156 GRAPE CULTURE AND WINE-IMAKING. 

"3. In the tliird place, I -will say that if there be a country 
where real old wines (from 1811 to 1855) are to be found, it is 
Hungary. This important fact has its reason : first^ from this cir- 
cumstance, that Hungary, like England, is the land of large es- 
tates. There are landowners producing yearly from 1000 to 
20,000 hogsheads of wine. Beautiful and enormous cellars, cut 
in rocky mountains, widely extend their ramifications, like laby- 
rinths or catacombs, where the wines are ranged year after year. 
It is a kind of aristocratic and family glory to have a full and 
rich cellar. The grandchildren can drink the wine produced by 
their ancestors, and gratefully remember the past old times. Some 
of them would not sell their wines, even if they could do it ; but 
that is not an easy matter in Hungary. Why ? Because, and 
that is the second reason, the internal consumption with us is very 
small. In Hungary the ladies never drink any thing but water; 
the men of the higher classes are temperate from principle and 
habit ; the lower classes from necessity and custom. Therefore, 
in proportion to the number of inhabitants, little wine, and scarce- 
ly any wine brandy, is consumed ; so that, I dare say, Hungary, 
with France, the richest wine-growing country in the world, is at 
the same time the most temperate. 

" Is not this fact an argument to show that the light and nat- 
ural wines are the most efficacious and surest preservatives against 
the use of fiery, intoxicating brandies ?" 

The above extracts will satisfy the skeptic that where com- 
merce exists and transportation is easy, there need be no fear of 
overdoing the business of vine-raising. California possesses the 
commercial advantages, as well as facility of communication, be- 
tween producer and merchant. The merchant can send his wine 
to foreign markets after it is one year old without adding a drop 
of brandy, as our wine will, as I stated before, bear transportation, 
and even improve beyond expectation. The time so spent on 
the sea is not lost, for the wine gets older and better, and will, in 
consequence, meet a better sale. 

"We give below a table of the wine produced in Europe, the 
quantity reduced from morgens to acres. Our statistics were ex- 
tracted from a work by Gustavo Rawald. Also the price and 
yield per acre of wine calculated in dollars. These calculations 
were made by ourselves from the figures given in the above work. 



GRAPES AND WINES IN CALIFORNIA. 



157 



THE AVEUAGE WINE PRODUCTION OF EUUOPE KEDUCED TO AMERICAN ACRES AND 

GALLONS. 



Austria and her Provinces 

Greece and tlie Grecian Lslands.. 
Ionian Islands (for raisins, ) 
over 42,000,000 lbs.)t ) ■" 

Italy 

Switzerland and Belgium 

France 

Spain 

Portugal 

Total 



Acrcfl. 
2,085,950 
41,781 

35,812 

2,887,970 
7G,400 

5,013,774 
955,004 
238,751 



11,935,442 
Germany. 



Gallons. 
714,000,000* 
8,100,000 

1,224,000 

1,275,000,000 

2,550,000 

884,000,000 

144,500,000 

25,500,000 



3,054,934,000 



Gallons 

per Acre. 

2050 

195^5 

34 i 

441 i 

332 

17Gf 

lOG^ 



^10 (T 



Saxony 

Prussia 

Bavaiia 

Wirtemberg . 

Baden 

Hesse 

Nassau 



Total. 



Acres. 


Gallons. 


Gallons 
per Acre. 


5,945 


340,000 


57^ 


.53,719 


7,225,000 


134^ 


125,344 


20,400,000 


102 J 


05,050 


10,200,000 


155^ 


05,050 


7,140,000 


1081 


23,875 


4,250,000 


178 


10,143 


2,550,000 


2371 


350,338 


52,105,000 


1483^% 



The aggregate number of acres under wine culture in Europe is 12,285,780. 
The total average yield per year in Europe is 3,107,039,000 gallons. 

The wines of Germany would bring, at 25 cents per gallon $13,020,250 

And those of the other countries, " " " 703,733,500 

Together $770,759,750 

In Germany the average income per acre would be thus $37 18i 

In the Other countries, taken together, per acre would be thus 03 981 

But, taking each county or state separately, their wines would bring, upon the 
above average price of 25 cents per gallon, as follows : 



Etiropean Countries. 



Austria and her Provinces 

Greece and the Greciaia Islands , 

Ionian Islands 

Italy 

Switzei'land and Belgium 

France 

Spain 

Portugal 

Total 



Total Amount. 

$178,500,000 

2,040,000 

300,000 

318,750,000 

037,500 

221,000,000 

30,125,000 

0,375,000 



German States. 



Saxony 

Prussia 

Bavaria 

Wirtemberg 

Baden 

Hesse 

Nassau 



Total. 



$703,733,500 



Total Amount. 
$85,000 
1,800,250 
5,100,000 
2,550,000 
1,785,000 
1,002,500 
037,500 



$13,020,250 



Per Acre. 


$00 


40 


48 


82 


8 


54 


110 37 


8 


34 


44 07 


37 


92 


20 


70 


Per Acre. 


$11 


79 


33 


02 


40 08 


38 


83 


27 


18 


44 50 


59 


33 



• Of these 714,000,000 gallons, Hungary produces some 450,000,000. 

t Cephalonia exports annually 4,200,000 lbs. of raisins ; Thiaki, 350,000 lbs. ; Zante, 8,000,000 lbs. 



153 GRAPE CULTURE AND WINE-MAKING. 

We have taken a low estimate, according to present prices, 
but still it amounts to the enormous sum of $776,759,750. This 
amount the producer receives ; so that it would be safe to calcu- 
late that the merchants receive from the consumers double this 
sum. 

Italy shows the highest yield to the acre, and yet does not come 
up to the California yield within 100 per cent. 

It is well known that California has within its boundaries at 
least 5,000,000 acres of land well adapted for the vine culture. 
This land, even though it yield no better than Italy, will still 
amount to $551,858,208 33. This large sum may astonish the 
most sanguine ; nevertheless, in another generation California will 
produce this result. 

Below we give an abstract of the Wine Chronicle of Germany, 
taken from the Eecords of the Agricultural Society in Wirtem- 
berg. These Records, dating from the year 1246, are from that 
time up to 1420 very meagre and much interrupted, but from 
1420 up to 1852 quite complete and correct. During those 432 
years there were, as to quality of the wine, 

Those eminently distinguished only 11 

Very good years for a good wine 28 

Pretty good ones " " 118 

Middling quality wines 76 

Inferior " " 199 

Total 432 

Concerning the productiveness, there have been 

Years of ample yield 114 

" middle " 18 

" poorer " 99 

" failures, or yields not paying expenses 201 

Total 432 

This statement gives a clear view of the disadvantages under 
which the culture of the grape is to be carried on in such a north- 
em locality as are most of the States of Germany. While we 
have in California no year of failure on record, or by the tradition 
of our oldest settlers, cold Germany has her vine crops killed or 
seriously injured, upon an average, three years out of four. This 
simple fact evinces the superior advantages of California for the 
production of grapes and wine. 



APPENDIX A. 

WINES AND THEIE VARIETIES. 



EXTRACTED FROM JOHANN CARL LEUCHS' TREATISE ON WINES AND WINE-SIAKING 
iWJEIXKUNDE): Nubembeeg, 1847. 



APPENDIX A. 

JOHANN CARL LEUCHS ON WINES. 

I. Constituent Parts of the Grape. — II. Hungarian Wines. — III. Rhine Wines. — 
IV. Franconian Wines. — V. Other German Wines. — VI. Italian Wines. — VII. 
Spani.sh Wines. — VIII. Portuguese Wines. — IX. Madeira Wines. — X. Cape 
Wines. — ^I. Greek Wines. — XII. Grape Culture in Turkey, Persia, etc. — XIII. 
Gi'ajje Culture in Africa, America, Russia, etc. 

I. 

CONSTITUENT PARTS OF THE GRAPE. 

Since unadulterated wines are made from grapes, it will be here 
not superfluous to enumerate the constituent parts of the latter. 
They contain, besides water, tartaric acid, saccharine matter, gum 
and other slimy substances, wax, tannic acid, albumen, resinous 
coloring matter, fibrin, odoriferous matter, coloring matter, astrin- 
gent substance, tartar, sulphate of potash ; chloride, sulphide, phos- 
phate, and citrate of calcium ; and more or less impurities adher- 
ing to the surface, such as particles of the soil and the like. Of 
these ingredients, the acids, the slimy substances, and the astrin- 
gent matters are chiefly found in the green grapes, but disappear 
more or less w^ith their progressive ripening, being by the work- 
ing of nature transmuted into sugar. These enter also into the 
must, but to a great part separated during the fermentation, viz., 
the fibrin, the wax, some coloring matter, a part of the albumen, 
the resinous matter and slimy substances, with the earthy and 
other impurities, which settle as lees on the bottom of the barrel, 
together with the tartar, a part of which incrusts also the sides of 
the vessel, 

1. Water constitutes*the principal part of wine, for the best ones 
contain at least sixty per cent, of it, the poorer wines eighty and 
even ninety per cent. The grapes will be more watery, and con- 
sequently the wnne more weak, in wet years; or if they grow in 
a moist soil ; or if rains predominate shortly before or during the 
vintage. 

2. Tartaric acid is found in the stems, in the tendrils, and in the 
green grapes themselves — partly free, and partly combined with 
potash. 

3. The saccharine substance is formed by the ripening of the 
grapes, and this takes place the more successfully the more the 
grapes enjoy the heating influence of the sun. The saccharine 

Li 



1(52 GRAPE CULTURE AND WlNE-MAiaNG. 

matter is decomposed by the fermentation and transmuted into 
alcohol. 

4. The gum and other slimy matters are not injurious to the 
wine except by impeding the clarifying process. 

5. Wax and resinous coloring matter are found in the husks of 
the grapes. 

6. Tannic acid and other astringent matters give to the red 
wines a tart and harsh taste if fei'mented too long upon the stems. 

7. The albumen found is only in a moderate quantity in the 
grapes, and settles easy with the lees. 

8. The odoriferous substance is in some kinds of grapes more 
copious, for instance, in the Eiesling and in the Muscats ; and if 
these are mixed in a certain proportion with the others'less odo- 
riferous, a fine bouquet is imparted to the whole mass. 

9. The coloring matter has its place on the inner side' of the 
husk, from which it is disengaged during fermentation ; there- 
fore the longer the red wine is left in the fermenting-tub on the 
husks, the deeper will become its color. 

10. Most of the above-mentioned neutral salts will also settle 
with the lees, and partly crystallize out of the wine the older it 
becomes. 



II. 
HUNGARIAN WINES. 



1. We will here mention the most celebrated wines of Hunga- 
ry. The first is the world-renowned Tokay, Of this there are 
four kinds — three sweet, and one so-called table wine. Of the 
sweet wines the first is the " Essence," which is collected in ves- 
sels put under baskets containing the half-dried grapes [Troken- 
heere\ the juice of which drops by its own weight partly out. 
The second quality is the so-called " Ausbruch," made in the fol- 
lowing way : when the above grapes do not yield more " Essence," 
they arc taken out from the baskets and put into some flat vessel, 
and there, by treading, converted into a pulpy mass, which is then 
transferred into an open barrel, and the proper quantity of good 
must added (to eighty measures of the pulp, one hundred and fif- 
ty measures of must), and well stirred up. As soon as the mass 
is fermenting the whole is again well stirred, and then put into a 
loose sack and squeezed out, then filled into clean barrels to fin- 
ish the fermentation. The third quality is called Maszlas (pro- 
nounced Maslash), made from the squeezed pulp in the above- 
specified way. The fourth kind is made from the ripe grapes in 
the common way. 

2. The wine of "Mdnes" {Menesh) is also a sweet wine, not much 



JOHANN CARL LEUCHS ON WINES. 163 

inferior to tlic Tokay, but red in color, while the Tokay is yellow. 
There the blue grapes are handled in the same way as the white 
ones are for the Tokay. 

3. The wines of Sirmia. The sweet wines of this province, as 
well as the others, are also of eminent quality, though they are 
sold mostly under the name of Karlovizian wines ; those of other 
places in this district are entitled to no less credit for their excel- 
lent virtues, as, for instance, those of Illok, Suscg, Cheslevitz, Be- 
oscin, Rakovatz, Kamenitz, and Peterwardein. The red Sirmian 
wine is sweet, very aromatic, dark red, and mild. The white wine 
is too spirituous to be drank by itself, and is used to improve poor- 
er wines. Besides those wines they prepare the so-called "I)rop- 
wermuth," named from the process for collecting it from linen 
filters, which, being suspended in a very heated room, the must 
falls from the filters in drops into the vessels beneath. This half- 
fermented must remains in small casks for several months sweet, 
and has some similarity to the Champagne. Another kind of wine 
there manufactured is the so-called "Rascian Wermuth." The 
barrels are nearly filled with half-dry blue grapes, without stems, 
and then a good old red wine is poured over them, with some 
wormwood and spices. 

4. The wines of Buda (Ofen) are also celebrated for their fine 
qualities^r-especially the red ones of Buda and its environs, and 
the white ones of Pesth, in the same county — and called " Stein- 
brucher." 

5. The wines of St. Endree are also very fine, agreeable to 
drink, spirituous, and aromatic. Here are also sweet wines made 
from dry grapes. 

6. Sekzardy wines may successfully compete with the best Bur- 
gundy. 

7. Petshy (Fiinf kirchen) produces good table wines, all of white 
grapes. 

8. Villanyer wines remain sweet even when many years old. 

9. Neszmely furnishes one of the best table wines known, the 
peculiar aromatic taste of which can not be found in any other 
wine. It attains its maturity in from three to four years. It is 
a pity that the spots where these magnificent grapes grow are so 
limited in circuit. The average product of this wine amounts 
yearly only to ten thousand barrels, a gallon of which sells com- 
monly for from fifty-five to sixty cents, while other common ta- 
ble wines can be bought in Hungary for four to five cents. 

10. A rival to the Neszmely is another white wine, namely, that 
of Shomlo. Some even prefer its aromatic taste to that of the 
Neszmely, though quite of another bouquet, and many consider it 
the best wine for the table. Its grapes grow upon a basaltic hill 
of limited size ; the average yearly product is about 25,000 barrels. 

11. Rust and (Edenburg have also excellent sweet dessert 
wines, well-flavored and spirituous. 



IQ4: GRAPE CULTURE AND WINE-MAKING. 

12. Besides many others of first-rate quality too numerous to 
mention, there arc also of prominent notoriety the wines of Vi- 
sonta, Erlau, Presburg, Ratchdorf, St. George Posing, Modern, 
Gruan, Limbach, Tyrling, Shenkvitz, Ducova, Nusdorf, Neustadt, 
etc. 

13. Among the wines of Croatia is the Moslavina, equal to the 
Burgundy ; the Babulek and Bukovetz, the most prominent for 
their rich aromatic savor and strength. 

14. The wines of Banat, in Lower Hungary, are also generally, 
on account of the warm climate, very spirituous, mild, and spicy. 
The best of them is furnished by Vershitz, near the Turkish 
boundar}^, and Weiskirchen. 

To give a slight insight into the enormous wine production of 
Hungary, I will here mention only a few instances : Promontory, 
a single hill, 55,000 barrels a year; Teteny, a village, 65,000 bar- 
rels yearly; St. Andree, a village, 70,000 barrels; Menesh, 470,000 
barrels; Petsh, a town of considerable extent, 500,000 barrels; 
Tolna County, 700,000 barrels. In this county the village of 
Seksard alone averages }■ early 250,000 barrels, and the county 
of Pest 255,000 barrels. Hungary may be therefore rightly class- 
ed among the first vine-growing countries, her wine produce be- 
ing neither in quality nor quantity second to any other country 
upon the globe. Francis Schams, in his celebrated work, esti- 
mates the yearly average yield at 30,000,000 barrels. One thir- 
ty-second part of the cultivated lands in Hungary is planted with 
grape-vines, 

[For an account of the wine products of France the reader is 
referred to other portions of this volume. — A. H.] 



III. 
THE RHINE WINES. 



Both banks of the Rhine, from its outlet, several hundred miles 
in circumference, up to the city of Bonn, display to the eye, with 
but little interruption, their innumerable vineyards. All the 
wines which are made in these districts should properly bo called 
Rheinwines ; but, for the purpose of each particular wine being 
the more easily distinguished from that of any other, the name 
of the particular district where each kind is produced is com- 
monly adopted as the title of the wine, namely, Elsasser, Seawine, 
Marggriiffer, Aarblischer, Zaardtwinc, and Naahwine. 

Those wines only which are called " Rheingaus," and those 
made in the vicinity of Maycnce and on the left bank of the river, 
are by custom designated by the especial name of " Rheinwines ;" 
and, indeed, these sorts are eminently entitled to this mark of dis- 



JOHANN CARL LEUCIIS ON WINES. 165 

tinction, as they possess, more than any of the others, those pecul- 
iar qualities which distinguish the Kliine wines. After a few 
hours' travel from Mayenec on the right bank of the River Rhine, 
you begin to enter upon the more favorable regions for the culture 
of the vine — the so-called " Rheingau." Here the most celebrated 
wine districts arc the following: Asmannhausen, Riidcsheim, Geis- 
enheim, Johannisberg, Markobrunn, Steinberg, and Ilochheim, 
which lies toward the east. 

Next in quality to the wines produced in these districts you 
may class with perfect certainty those made on the left bank of 
the river : e. g., those of Scharlachler, Ingelheim, Laubenheim, 
Bodenheim, and Nierstcin, all of which places are in the vicinity 
of Mayence, and whose wines are not unfrequently found to give 
satisfixction even to the ablest connoisseurs ; for, even if the 
stringency and spiciness of the first-named class of wines can not 
be attained by these other kinds, yet these districts have afforded 
wines which, by their sweetness, bouquet, and strength, have ob- 
tained for them a considerable degree of public estimation. 

The vineyards also toward the south and southwest afford un- 
exceptionable wines. Nature, however, has not provided in ev- 
ery part of this wine-country a soil so congenial to the culture of 
the grape as she has in the Rheingau. There the soil attains its 
highest perfection for the production of choice wines ; there 
flourish the richest vineyards, which produce the most generous 
wine, the vines themselves growing generally in stony ground or 
in the clefts of rocks. On the southerly side of these tracts the 
sun shines the whole day long; its ra3^s warm the stones to the 
greatest intensity, and, by the radiation of heat therefrom, the 
grape is ripened by the solar influence to an equal perfection with 
those which are fully exposed to the direct blaze of the sunbeams. 
A high degree of vinous essence is consequently developed in 
these grapes — an element which would be sought for in vain in 
any other part of the Rhine. The fact is announced to you from 
a distance by the smell of the air, which is impregnated with the 
sweetness and spicy odors arising from the vineyards. Besides 
the districts above enumerated, whose vintages take the pre-emi- 
nence of all others in the Rheingau, there are many other places 
which, in a greater or less degree, are suited to the growing of 
vines of various varieties. 

All the wine districts on the Rheingau, with the exception of 
the Burgundy vines, from Asmannhausen, produce only white 
wines. Opposite the Rheingau, on the left bank of the river, 
red wines are produced also, as at Ingelheim and Lorch, near 
Mayence, and several other places. The latter place, like the 
Asmannhausen, in the Rheingau, affords Burgundies of superior 
strength and piquancy, but never excels in sweetness or purity. 
The finest Rhine wine comes indubitably from the mountainous 
regions of Riidesheim and Hinterhaus, The variety of grape 



166 GKAPE CULTURE AND WINE-MAKING. 

cultivated in these mountain sites is called the Orleans or Ilart- 
hengst : these differ from all the native grapes of the Rhine. 
They are very large in size and exceedingly aromatic, and in fa- 
vorable seasons they become extremely sweet. This accounts 
amply for the fact that, in the year 1822, four thousand Rhenish 
florins were paid for one pipe (about 280 gallons) of Riidesheimer 
wine — about $l-i 28 per gallon. In the year 1815, 1200 such 
pipes of wine were raised in Riidesheim, and 14:00 pipes in the 
year 1819. This wine is appreciated for its strength and pleasant 
flavor. It differs from the mountain wines made from the Or- 
leans grape, of which the average yearly product is fully 150 
pipes. The Oberfelder and Riesling grape also produce from 400 
to 500 pipes, and Hinterhaus yields annually from 10 to 12 pipes. 
In the year 1809, the price of a pipe of these wines was 3000 
Rhenish florins in Riidesheim ; in 1800, 1800 florins ; in 1804, 
750 to 900 florins. 

Almost equally esteemed are, first, the wines of Steinberg and 
Johannisberg ; next, those of Rothenberg ; next, Geisenheim ; 
fourthly, those of Markobruun and Griifenberg, near Kiederich. 
All these wines are produced from a grape called the Riesling. 
This grape is inferior to none in bouquet, fineness, and sweetness. 
One pipe of the Steinberg vintage was, in the year 1822, sold 
for the sum of 5000 florins ($7 14 the gallon). The vineyard 
belongs to the estate of the Duke of Nassau. All these wines 
have, as we mentioned before, obtained, from their remarkable 
spiciness and odor, their exquisite flavor and piquancy, an espe- 
cial public preference, so that the wine-growers will readily make 
an outlay of thousands of dollars in a vineyard of this descrip- 
tion. 

The best fruit for the production of this wine is grown in the 
upper regions of the mountains, where it is protected by the cha- 
teau. The next in quality of this wine is produced from the 
grapes cultivated in the central parts of the mountain heights. 
The most inferior kinds are produced from vineyards at their 
base. The soil consists of slate. 

During the process of the vinous fermentation, the bung-hole 
of the cask is covered with a patch of paper, upon which is placed 
a brick. After the fermentation has ceased, the barrel is replen- 
ished, and a bung with a valve is put on, so that, in case of a sec- 
ond fermentation occurring, the carbonic acid gas evolved by that 
process can readily escape. 

During the first year the wine is drawn off three times; in the 
course of the second year once or twice, so as to clarify it suffi- 
ciently ; and it is only after a period of four or five years that the 
wine becomes sufficiently ripened for the final operation of bot- 
tling off, after which it can be kept for a period of twenty-five 
years or oven more. To prevent any sediment, the wine has, in 
the first place, to be cleared. When the wine is drawn off, it is 



JOHANN CARL LEUCIIS ON WINES. 167 

pumped into troughs, wliich conduct tbe stream till it flows into 
the bung-hole of the cask, by which process the whole volume of 
wine becomes more thoroughly mixed. 

Here the wine is never carried in buckets, or poured from them 
into the barrels, because, by exposure to the atmosphere, wines 
made from the juice of rotten grapes would be turned into a brown 
color, which discoloration, although it will partially disappear in 
time, yet the body of the wine itself will, notwithstanding, be al- 
ways of a darker tint than usual. 

During the first, second, and third years the valve-bungs are 
affixed to the wine barrels. These are shaped like an ordinary 
bung, but they have a small perforation through the centre, which 
is closed up by the insertion of a cork, adjusted by a steel spring, 
which apparatus affords a free escape for any evolution of gas. 

On the 17th, 18th, 19th, and 20th days of October, 1831, the 
work of picking the grapes began( continuing from noon until four 
P.M. On the southerly sites, where the grapes had become rot- 
ten-ripe, the gathering of the balance was commenced on the 27th. 
28th, 29th, and 30th of the same month, and was continued until 
the 5th of the following November, when the picking was finish- 
ed. On the 27th and 28th the two best vine3^ards were selected, 
and their choice fruit picked separate and kept apart from the 
rest. This work, although slow in being performed, paid for it- 
self well ; for, after fermentation, the must remained as thick as 
Malaga, and before the processes of making the wine were com- 
pleted it sold for no less than 10,000 guilders the pipe, or $14 28 
the gallon. 

The Cassel vineyard contains 63 morgens, the annual produce 
of which is 25 pipes; each pipe contains 1300 bottles, worth 24,000 
florins. In the year 1818 they raised 47, and in 1819 52 pipes 
of wine. 

This wine contains a large proportion of spirit, and is verv 
palatable. It ranks in quality with the best wines extant. It is 
made from the Riesling grape. These grapes are left to ripen 
thoroughl}^, and not until the wine is a year old is it drawn off 
the lees. 

The following years have produced good vintages ; 1794, 1802. 
1804, 1811, and 1822. In 1819 the price per bottle of first class 
wine was four florins, of second class three, and of third class one 
and a half. At Hochheim (one hour's ride from Ma3^ence) the 
vines grow on an elevated table-land, which verges toward the 
main, and covers an area of 1200 morgens. Its site is exposed 
fully to the sun, but has little protection from the north winds : 
and it is, therefore, to the vicinity of the river that this wine owes 
its excellence. 

The price of one morgen (a little over half an acre) of vineyard 
near Mayence is 2000 florins ; toward the centre of the heights, 
1000 ; and on the tops, 500 florins. The most preferable locality 



1(38 GliAPE CULTURE AND WINE-MAKING. 

lies in the direction of tlie Decbanci, and the choicest spot there 
is what is called the " Church Piece." It lies contiguous to the 
church itself, which probably shelters it from the northerly winds 
on one side, and radiates the light and heat of the southerly sun 
on the other. 

In good seasons a barrel of Rhenish wine realizes the sum of 
5000 florins. 

Here the owners of extensive vineyards pick their grapes as 
soon as they begin to rot, and the gathering of such clusters as 
are not found in this condition is deferred to a later period, till it 
arrives. The berry must be of a light-brown color and opaque, 
not green and transparent ; the kernels brown and not white ; the 
fruit itself of a sunburnt and sweet taste to the palate ; the vine- 
stem must be in a dry and sapless state. 

The entire bunches of the Riesling grape are deposited in a 
treading-tank, and are crushed>by the feet of the laborers. By 
this operation the bouquet (which originates from the part of the 
inner side of the husk) will be easier extracted, and the wine 
much more flavored ; still more so if the must thus gained re- 
mains undisturbed for twenty-four hours. After this interval, 
the husks are thrown into the ordinary wine-press. The ferment- 
ing process is carried on in the barrel, the bung-hole of which is 
covered either with a vine-leaf or an inverted bung. The bungs 
used for this purpose are eight or nine inches long, which are 
plunged to half their length in the wine. By this means the 
bungs are constantly soaked by the wine, which causes them to 
swell and fit better to the vent of the barrels. 

In Eelfeld, the largest town in the Rheingau, situated close upon 
the River Rhine, the vintagers pick the rotting grapes first. 

The crushing of the berry is seldom performed by the wine- 
mill, but, for the most part, is done in the tread-tub, as the bou- 
quet is by that means more readily extracted. The press is gen- 
erally used, however, immediately after the treading by the foot, 
when the fruit is very ripe ; but in less ripe grapes an interval of 
twenty-four hours is suftered to elapse before the mechanical press- 
ing operation is performed. The fermentation is carried on in 
separate barrels, which are hermetically sealed by water. It is 
not considered that the wine itself is benefited by this mode of 
treatment, but it is adopted rather for the sake of security to the 
work-people, as it prevents the escape of the carbonic acid gas 
into the vaults where they arc employed. 

Steinberg — a quarter of an hour from the convent of Eberbach 
— produces, by its skillful management, an excellent kind of wine. 
It yielded in the year 1819 eighty-four pipes. Here the grapes 
are gathered as late in the season as possible, and they are never 
cleared off from the vines at once, but in two or three different 
pickings, as they become fit for use. The work is done here two 
or three weeks later than in the Rheingau, and care is taken never 



JOHANN CARL LEUCHS ON WINES. 169 

to gather the fruit wliile there is any dew on it. Here also the 
grapes arc crushed by the feet, and tlie grinding-mills arc no 
more in use. In a season of fuilure the fruit is put through the 
press as soon as it is brought in from the field ; but in good sea- 
sons it lies for twelve or eighteen hours before it is pressed, so that 
the saccharine matter may become fully developed. Separating 
the berries from the stems, which was formerly done, is now dis- 
pensed with, as of no account and expensive; for the stems at so 
late a vintage are too dry to impair the quality of the wine. 

The red wines of Asmannhausen,in the Rhcingau, arc also of a 
very valuable description. In strength they excel all others made 
on the Rhine, not excepting even Burgundy itself They possess 
a peculiar spicincss which is rarely met with. The narrow limits 
of this tract, however, permit the cultivation of but few vineyards. 

The prejjaration of the wine, as practiced in the Duke's cellars 
at Rlidcsheim, is as follows : The grapes are pounded together 
with a must-club, and then conveyed to Riidesheim ; there they 
are thrown en masse into a square trough with a flat bottom of 
wire gauze, underneath which is another vessel mto which the 
berries are swept with a stiff besom, passing through the wire 
sieve, and falling into the vessel beneath. After this operation, 
they are mashed together with wooden pounders until the whole 
is pounded into a pulpy mass. 

The fermenting of red wines is conducted thus : Tubs are placed 
veftically, in which a faucet is inserted at the lower edge ; over 
this hole a perforated little board or tin is nailed, to prevent the 
husks from entering the faucet and obstructing the passage of the 
wine. Thus the wine will run freely through the faucet without 
being clogged up by the pulp of the grapes. Into these tubs, thus 
fitted up, the conglomerated mass of mashed grapes is put so far as 
to fill them up to within a quarter part of the top. Then a cover, 
perforated with small holes, is fastened with some three or four 
props over the mass, so that, when the same commences to fer- 
ment, and consequently rises, nothing but the carbonic acid gas 
and the fluid part of the mass can penetrate through those small 
holes, of which the former two will virtually prevent the atmos- 
pheric air from mixing with and souring the husks, which, on 
their part, would communicate this sourness to the wine. After 
the above precaution is taken, a well-fitting cover is inserted and 
luted air-tight. Into this cover a curved tin or glass pipe is in- 
serted, the upper end of which is put into a small vessel filled with 
cold water. The water will absorb the carbonic acid gas, so del- 
eterious to human life ; but the water, becoming saturated with 
the gas, must.be renewed daily. Thus the whole is left until the 
fermentation is complete, which commonly will take place within 
three weeks. After this the fluid part is decanted through the 
faucet ; the cover, together with the perforated board, is removed, 
and the husks properly pressed, each kind of the juices being fill- 



170 GRAPE CULTURE AND WINE-MAKING. 

ed by itself into barrels; tlie former making a wine of the first 
qualitj, ^Yllilc the press wine is of an inferior grade. Red wines 
are generally drawn off in the March following the vintage, and 
sold in four or six weeks after. What stock remains on hand is 
drawn off again in the following October. 

It is to be remarked that, b}^ an excellent arrangement, the 
must wine can be conveyed by hollow tubes directly from the 
press-house to each cask in the cellar. The method above de- 
scribed is the best that can be adopted for the making of red 
wine. All other modes are attended with the disadvantage of a 
too long exposure of the must to the open air, which gives it an 
acidity. The above process totally obviates such a tendency, as 
all contact with the atmosphere is excluded by the water. The 
red wines of Ingelheim, though lighter in qualit}^, nevertheless 
keep better than those of Asmannhausen. They raise a good deal 
of wine here — one ohm fetches from five to six carolins^ whereas 
the genuine Asmannhausen costs at least ten carolins. 

Scharlachberg, near Bingen, produces white wines which com- 
mand a good price ; they do not, however, attain so high a figure 
as the choice Rheingaus, as they lack the strength and bouquet 
of the latter sort. In good years, fifteen hundred florins per bar- 
rel are paid for the very best Scharlachberger wine. 

Nierstein has been long famous for its wine, which is celebrated 
for its good and wholesome qualities. A great quantity of it is 
made, and the best Niersteiner fetches one thousand florins ^er 

The wines of Bodenheim and Laubenheim are in general twen- 
ty per cent, lighter in quality than the above, and they are thus 
proportionately cheaper. There are some exceptions, however ; 
nor is it surprising that, throughout the genuine wine districts of 
the Rhine, some superior sorts should be found ; and more es- 
pecially will this be the case when once it becomes a general rule 
to make their wines only from choice and very ripe fruits, and to 
divest the berries of every particle of green stalk. Already has 
this method been practiced for years past by the more intelligent 
wine-growers, and their success has set a good example, inasmuch 
as by adopting this plan the advantage is gained of its not being 
found necessary to lay up the wine in barrels for years in order 
to render it mild ; but, on the contrary, it soon becomes fit for 
consumption, and, finding a speedy market, there is a quick re- 
turn of the capital invested, which is not suffered to lie idle. 

Formerly it was customary to draw the wine off into large hogs- 
heads, but now they select their different kinds of grape ibr their 
several sorts of wine, and draw it off into small-sized barrels. 

The wines from the left bank of the Rhine possess, generally, 
less body than those of the right, but they are finer in quality, 
contain more alcohol, and have a most excellent bouquet. Rhein- 
hessen transports from Worms to Bingen several kinds of very 



JOHANN CARL LEUCIIS ON WINES. 171 

good wine ; e. g., in the year 1818, fifty thousand pipes ; in 1819, 
ninety thousand half pipes. 

We shall here enumerate the best wine districts, and describe 
the various methods of making wine therein, founded upon Brou- 
ner's system. 

Karlebach. Here the wine is made in the same manner as at 
Hardt, with the difference only that the grapes are mashed with 
pounders instead of in the tread-tank with the feet ; and in many 
instances the wine-makers crush the fruit with rollers for the sake 
of expedition, as one man, in the same time, will crush with the 
roller as much fruit as three men can mash with the pounders. 

Worms produces the Liebfrauenmilch, and also those wines of 
somewhat lighter quality — the Katcrloch and Luguisland. These 
are the most celebrated wines. The wine-presses in use here are 
of small size. 

The Liebfrauenmilch is an excellent wine, made from grapes 
which grow on the site of the very battle-field where, in the year 
1689, Louis XIV. completed his murderous design — in the sub- 
urbs of Mayence. The best in quality of this wine is raised on 
the plantings which lie in contiguity with the monastery of what 
is supposed to be the Liebfrau Order. In 1822 this wine brought 
fifteen hundred florins per pipe. Its superior qualities appear to 
be owing to the protection afforded to this particular site by the 
church building from the north and northwesterly winds, also by 
the genial warmth produced by the shelter of its walls. The soil 
is red clay with gravel intermixed. The wine is fermented in 
the barrels, which are slightly covered. It is first drawn off the 
lees at Christmas time, and again in the following autumn. 

Westhofen. Ilere they draw off the new wine twice, once in 
April and again before the next vintage. 

Osthofen, Bechtheim, Dienheim, Oppenheim. At these places 
they draw off the wine three times in the year. They also train 
vines on treliis-work, but the wine they yield is bad, on account 
of the height of the fruit from the ground. The wine made from 
the fruit which is grown aloft in these arbors is worth only three 
hundred florins per barrel, while that which is raised on low rails 
will fetch five hundred florins. 

Nierstein has been already mentioned. Here the soil consists 
of red decayed slate clay. The site is very good, particularly that 
portion of it which faces the southern side of Krauzberg, called 
Klek. This clay soil imjDarts a high color to the wines much re- 
sembling those of the Scharlachsberger, Nakenheim, Bodenheim, 
Laubenheim, Guntersheim, Petersberg, Ingelheim, Bingen, and 
their vicinities. The renowned Scharlachsberger grows on red- 
dish slate clay. 

Kreuznach. Here the grapes are crushed partly with pound- 
ers, and partly in grinding-mills between two revolving rollers. 
The work is also done in tread-tanks whose bottoms are perfo- 



172 GR.\JPE CULTURE AND WINE-MAKING. 

rated with small holes. When the fermentation commences, a 
tube shaped like a bended leg is fitted into the bung-hole perfectly 
air-tight, the larger end being inserted therein, and the taper end 
plunged a few inches deep into a vessel of water. Many people 
iill these vessels with must instead of water, and every two hours 
empty their contents into the barrel, for the purpose of adding 
to the must therein the spirit which has been absorbed by the 
must in the external vessel. When the rapid effervescence sub- 
sides the tubes are removed, and a bung is placed sideways over 
' the vent ; and when there is no longer any sound of effervescence 
emitted, the barrels are filled quite full, and the bung driven in 
tight. From this period the barrels continue to be replenished 
every fortnight until the first drawing-oflf takes place, which is at 
the end of February or the beginning of March ; the barrels are 
then again refilled, and the operation is repeated at the stated in- 
tervals until the time of the second drawing off, which takes place 
a short time previous to the blossoming of the vines. 

All Rheinwines are completely fermented, and are, therefore, 
a little tart. They are valued especially for the gayety and buoy- 
ancy of spirit which they impart by reason of the etherial rapid- 
ity with which they pervade the system more than any other 
wine ; and while they exhilarate the frame, they do not molest 
the head. Age improves them more and more. Of all wines, 
their good qualities are the most difficult to counterfeit, though a 
wine very similar to the Rhenish can be manipulated from the 
French by the following recipe : Three parts sugar, one part cream 
of tartar, three parts good brandy, to which add of wine lees 
enough to create a good fermentation. 

To make Rhcinwinc artificially out of sugar or fruit, much acid 
matter must be added by the use of cream of tartar, or, what is 
better, tartaric acid. The proportions of these ingredients will be 
as follows: Of acid, an excess; of saccharine matter, a minimum; 
and of wine lees, a sufficient quantity to induce thoroughly the 
fermentative process. 

The most certain way of obtaining genuine wines is for the 
purchasers to pay a visit to the wine countries themselves; when 
there they will be sure to obtain the most genuine and excellent 
productions of the respective districts. All the best vintages arc 
chiefly in the hands of owners, who rarely sell a single barrel, 
but they put their whole crops up at auction, or dispose of them 
in the gross by private sale to foreign wine-merchants. 

The stranger, however, will every where readily find an agent 
at hand, who knows perfectly well every cellar in the place and 
its owner, together with his weak points and his private affairs. 
Through such an agent great bargains can be obtained of the 
choicest wines at a much cheaper rate and of a purer quality 
than can ever be procured from foreign winc-mcrchants. Wine 
can also be purchased to great advantage of the wine-merchants 



JOHANN CARL LEUCIIS ON WINES. 173 

themselves in the Ehcingau, and the neighboring cities of May- 
ence and Bingen. Moreover, these dealers have also, in many 
respects, greater facilities of transport than any negotiator in a 
foreign country can possibly command, by which it results that 
they can allbrd to sell at lower rates and in smaller quantities 
than any others; which latter is an advantage totally unknown 
in liheingau, where sales are effected only at wholesale in entire 
hogsheads, each of which contains from 1300 to 1400 bottles of 
Rheingau measure, or 1176 litres. 

In Maycnce the wine measure is as follows, viz. : the ohm con- 
tains 20 quarters; the barrel, 8 ohms, or 160 quarters; the ohm, 
180 Frankfort bottles. The measure contains 94 cubic inches 
French; 100 measurcs = 160^ Berlin quarts. The ohm contains 
140, the barrel 1050 litres, French measure. 



lY. 

FEANCONIAN WINES. 



The Franconian wines in Bavaria, especially those of Werth- 
heim, Wiirzburg, Kitzingen, Marktbreit, Marksteft, and Ochsen- 
furt, are similar to the Ehine wines, but of lighter and poorer qual- 
ity, less acid, and in some respects more wholesome. The best 
kind of this wine is that styled " Leistenwine ;" so named from a 
place on Frauenberg, near Wiirzburg, and it is grown on a plot 
of about sixty morgens. This wine, when of a certain age, Js su- 
perior to the other German wines, and perhaps to all other kinds, 
from its more pleasant flavor, its spirit, bouquet, and its salubri- 
ous qualities. Next in order is the " Steinwine," which is raised 
in Steinberg, near Wiirzburg, on a plot of about 490 morgens. 
It is more fiery than the former kind, but is never so palatable 
nor so fine flavored, being often of a hot and alcoholic nature. 
There is a third sort of this wine, called the Calmuth. It derives 
its name from a mountain ridge which lies between Lengfurth and 
Homberg, belonging chiefly to the Duke of Lowenstein-Wertheim. 
The Schalsberger wine is also much appreciated. 

The Wiirzburger and Werthheimer wines are the two principal 
kinds of Franconian wine which are known extensively in com- 
merce. 

The Wiirzburger is generally raised near Wiirzburg, Kitzingen, 
Marksteft, Marktbreit, etc. It is a light wine, of a yellow color, 
•and of a poorer quality than the Rhine wine, possessing greater 
acidity, and is therefore not so pleasant to the taste, and is even 
inferior to the Werthheimer. When the wine is intended for the 
Saxony market it is generally colored of a darker hue than nat- 
ural by means of burnt sugar. 



174 GRAPE CULTURE AND WINE-MAKING. 

The "Wertliheimer wine is raised on the mountain sides on the 
right shore of the River Main. The vine)' ards commence at the 
village of Urphiir, and extend to Hasloch, Next to the Stein, 
Leisten, and the Calmuth wines, this sort is considered the best 
of the Franconian wines. The most superior in quality are raised 
opposite to the cities of Werthheim, Remberg, Kaffelstein, and 
Wetterburg. These regions lie entirely open to the sun from his 
rising to his setting, and the soil itself is of the very best of its 
kind, called Leber-erde (" Liver-earth"). The plantations are gen- 
erally set out with " white grapes," and the vines of the finest 
species, like their kindred sorts of the Riesling, CEsterreicher, and 
Elblinger. 

Of all the Franconia wines, the Werthheimer most resembles 
genuine Rhine wine ; in flavor they are alike, and, if not so fiery, 
yet they are somewhat sweeter and more palatable. Many pre- 
fer this wine, as more wholesome than the Rhine wine ; and it is 
resorted to medicinally in hemorrhoidal affections. 

On account of the eminent qualities of these wines, we will di- 
vide them into three classes, viz. : 1. The Remberger and Wet- 
terburger ; 2. The Kaflfelsteiner ou Sand ; 3. The Haslocher. 
The last-named is more pleasant to drink than cither of the oth- 
ers, because it sooner attains its maturity in the barrel, but the 
two former are preferable for long keeping. 

The Werthheimer wines, on account of the rich soil, are heavy, 
and their essential qualities become developed only in the course 
of six or eight years ; therefore they are drawn off three times 
during the first year : first, in Carnival time ; secondly, near St. 
John*s day ; and, thirdly, in autumn. In the second year they 
are only drawn off twice, and in the third and fourth years only 
once ; which depends upon whether the wine is the produce of a 
good season or a middling one, and whether it is raised in a rich- 
er or poorer soil. If kept in good cellars and good barrels, the 
old wines can be preserved a long time without being drawn off; 
but the barrels must be refilled regularly. Like the Rhine wines, 
they are improved by age. A genuine Werthheimer wine is 
readily distinguished by its richness, and its glow in the mouth 
without biting the tongue ; by its pleasant bouquet ; and by the 
circumstance that, if it be drank in excess, it will not sour the 
stomach. 

Klingberg ou Main, about six hours below Werthheimer, ex- 
ports good dinner-wines, especially in a favorable season, which 
may also be said of the wines of Grosshcnbach. 

The process of wine-making in Franconia is as follows : 

The grapes arc selected where it is necessary ; then pounded 
with a pronged stick ; then the whole mass is thrown into a wire- 
sieve, so that, by riddling, the juice and berries may be sifted 
through, and the stalks remain behind ; then water is poured 
upon the strained pulp, and, after standing for twenty-four hours, 



JOHANN CAUL LEUCHS ON WINES. 175 

it is well pressed. This produces a wine of light quality, called 
Lancr, or " drinking wine." The process of fermentation is rather 
retarded than hurried on, because by slow fermentation better 
wine is produced. In order to effect this object, the barrels for 
containing the must arc twice fumigated with brimstone, or char- 
red with burning alcohol. 

In general, the crushed berries are put into a vat and covered 
with an oaken lid. The mash is stirred up four times a day, and 
the crust pushed down into the wort. After the first fermenta- 
tion is over the clear liquor is drawn off', and the residuum in the 
vat is again put through the press ; and the whole, being inter- 
mingled, is poured into the barrels already prepared by brim- 
stone or alcohol. The vent is then closed with a bung long 
enough to be plunged into the wine, which is perforated with two 
iiolcs of about a finger's thickness : these are fitted with two corks. 
As long as the fermentation is active one of these vents remains 
open, and after it has ceased both apertures are closed with the 
cork-spiles. Every fortnight each barrel is refilled through one 
of these apertures, which is again closed, and the other is left 
open so that the gas can escape. The refilling is done every fort- 
night for three years. 

If the wines are warmly housed in the vaults they are drawn 
off in May for the first time, and again on St. Bartholomew's day ; 
but if they are in a cold atmosphere, the first drawing-off" is de- 
ferred to the latter end of September, and the second till the end 
of November. Should fermentation ensue when the roses are in 
bloom, then one of the small spile-holes is opened. In the first 
year the barrel into which the wine is to be drawn must be pre- 
viously burned out with half an ounce of brimstone, and one eighth 
of an ounce is to be burned on the surface of the wine. This is also 
done to the wine which is made from the lees, if they are in good 
condition. During the second and third years the wine is drawn 
off" twice, and only half the quantity of brimstone is used. In 
the fourth year the barrels are filled up every fourth week ; and 
if the liquor is to be sold, the stock of it is clarified and drawn 
off. If, however, it is not intended to be brought to market, it is 
not necessary to clarify it. 

A light, drinkable wine can readily be made by separating the 
must which runs off first, and pouring it into a barrel which has 
been burned out the day before with half an ounce of brimstone 
lighted at the bung-hole. In about twenty -four or thirty-six hours 
afterward it is drawn off into another barrel, which has been burn- 
ed out with spirit of wine, during which time a considerable por- 
tion of the lees have settled. In cold weather hot must should 
be added, and the barrel bunged up as above described. 

In the middle of December have ready a barrel burned out with 
half an ounce of sulphur, and draw off* the new wine into it. 
Clarify it in January with a quarter of an ounce of isinglass ; and 



X76 GKAPE CULTURE AND WINE-MAKING. 

in eio-lit days after, burn one eiglith of an ounce of sulpliur in the 
vacuum caused by first drawing off some few gallons to make an 
empty place for the sulphur fumes. Then draw off again into an- 
other barrel, inside of which a quarter of an ounce of brimstone 
has been burned. Repeat this for a third time shortly before the 
roses are in bloom, and again for a fourth time at Bartholomew, 
using a less and less quantity of sulphur each time. During fer- 
mentation in the summer-time one of the small s\n\e holes is to 
be left open. If the wine after September is pretty clear, then 
the refilling of the barrels is only necessary once a fortnight. 



V. 

OTHER GERMAN WINES. 



The Affenthaler wine, from Affenthal, near Biihl, in Baden, is 
a thick, strong, and much-prized red wine. The Ahr wine, from 
Ahr, in Rhenish Prussia, is red, or of a reddish color. It is a light, 
pleasant wine, and fit for use when six months old, but it will 
not keep over three or four years. From Wallporzheim and 
Bodendorf they export the best kinds. 

Bacharacher wines — both white and red Rhine wines — are 
somewhat sweet and racy, and highly esteemed. 

Bohemian wines, both white and red, are generally of a light 
quality. The red Melnikcr is the best sort; next the Aussiger, 
and a few others from Lentmerizer and Bunzlauer districts. 
Throughout all Bohemia are only raised 26,000 casks of about 
fourteen gallons. 

Griinberger, from Griinberg, in Silesia. The exports here 
amount to from 20,000 to 80,000 casks. Both the white and red 
wines are of inferior quality, and sell for eight thalers per cask of 
fourteen gallons. 

Harrdt wines, from Rhenish Bavaria and the Palatinate. This 
is the name given to the wines which are made on the Harrdt 
Mountains. Nearly all of them are white wines, pleasant to the 
palate, but not equal to the better kinds of Rhine wine. 

Rhenish Bavaria contains 83,048 morgens of vineyard planta- 
tion, and cxpoVts annually from 70,000 to 80,000 fudcrs (tlic fader 
is about seventeen gallons) of wine, the most preferable of which 
are worthy of note. 



JOHANN CARL LEUCHS ON WINES. 177 

VI. 
ITALIAN WINES. 

These wines are mostly used for home consumption. Having 
a very imperfect preparation, they will bear neither transporta- 
tion nor long keeping. Upper Italy produces a considerable 
quantity, but exports only a few pipes. Such is also the case with 
the Eomagna and Naples. Sicily exports yearly some 25,000 
barrels (somma), worth $75,000. Savoy produces 200,000 hecto- 
litres (about 4,760,000 gallons), mostly for home consumption. 
Nizza produces 68,640 hectolitres, and Piedmont 1,400,000 hecto- 
litres, which remain in the country, becoming vinegar if kept over a 
year. Parma, Prazenza, 445,000 hectolitres. Tuscany, 1,257,000 
hectolitres, Elba, 85,000 hectolitres. Sardinia exports some 
wine. 

The Italians let their vines run up on mulberry and elm trees, 
where the shade prevents a perfect ripening, to the great injury 
of their wines, which, though sweet when new, sour to vinegar 
in a short time. The best kinds of grapes grow at Albano, eight 
hours' ride from Eome, with the exception of "Lacrima Christi" 
(the tear of Christ), the best wine of Italy. 

Brescia. The wines from Eiviera and the so-called Toscolano 
are light and agreeable to the taste. In the Upper Eiviera the 
vines are trained upon olive-trees ; in Lower Eiviera on fences six 
feet high. 

Chambery has very good red wines, the best in Savoy. 

Elba. This island furnishes two distinguished wines: Ale- 
atico, made of boiled must, rum, and wormwood, and Muscat. 
Both are white wines. All the others are very inferior kinds. 

Falerno is a Neapolitan wine, high red, thick, and somewhat 
sweet, but fiery. 

Genoa exports some red wine of a middle quality, mostly from 
Tortosa, Novi, and Voghera. One barilla contains 7 4 ^Vo litres 
(French measure). One mezzarolla two barillas. 

Griante, on the Lake of Como, has a light but savory wine. 

The Lipari Islands produce, besides many raisins which are ex- 
ported, the so-called Malvasie^ an amber-colored wine, savory, and 
leaving in the mouth a sweet after-taste. The choicest grapes 
are selected, and left spread in the sun from eight to ten days be- 
fore being pressed. But there are only some two thousand bar- 
rels produced. The other kinds, although of a less noble quality, 
are nevertheless not devoid of spirit, are of a pleasing taste, and 
bear keeping for years. Though some keep the must in tarred 
skins, the wine loses after a while, in the barrels, the smell con- 
tracted from the skins. 

Milan has, on Lake Como, at Belaggio and Brianza, pretty 

M 



178 GRAPE CULTUltE AND WINE-MAKING. 

good wines ; around Pavia but poor ones, witli tlie exception of 
an effervescent wine resembling, in a measure, the Champagne. 
All the produce of Milan is not quite adequate for home con- 
sumption. The quartero contains nearly six litres, the mina two 
quarteros, the stare four, and the harilla twelve. 

Marsala, in Western Sicily, produces a similar, but inferior wine 
to that of Madeira, and exports a great deal to America under 
the name of Madeira. 

Modena produces very dark wines, tolerably good, but poor in 
spirits. The best of this kind is produced at Rubina and Sapolo. 

In Tuscan}^, the Monte Pulciano is a strong, spirituous, red wine. 

The wines of Naples are mostly sweet. On the Mount Vesu- 
vius three kinds of wine are made : 1. Lacrima Christi — the best 
sweet wine of this country — of a fine red color, and of an excel- 
lent taste and bouquet. Very little of it is made, and this goes 
mostly into the cellars of the king; therefore that in trade is 
mostly spurious. 2. Muscat, of an amber color, with a line taste 
and bouquet. 8. Greek, a kind of Malvasie. Puzzuolo and Baja 
have white and red sweet wines, which often sell for Malvasie. 

Calabria produces good Muscat wines, mostly at Carigliano and 
the environs of Tarento. The wine-measure is the barilla of for- 
ty-two and a half litres ; twelve barillas make one hotia, or about 
one hundred and twentj^-two and a half gallons ; two bottas, one 
caveo. 

Piedmont produces keen, but sweet and dark-colored red wines, 
which mostly sour in August or September, turn next year into 
vinegar. But some wines form an exception to this general rule, 
where more careful wine-growers observe a judicious procedure. 
The best wines are made in Asti and Chaumont. Alba has also 
some good, but not strong wines. Gatinara, Masserano, and the 
red wines of Biella keep better. Montferrat has distinguished 
white and red wines, mostly those of Casal, fifteen leagues east of 
Turin. There the ruho has about two gallons, the hrenta six ru- 
bos, and the carro (a wagon-load) ten brentas. 

Puzzuolo, a village in Naples, raises red wines similar in taste 
to the inferior qualities of Bordeaux ; but it bears transportation 
by sea, and finds ready markets in Holland, Hamburg, America, 
etc. 

In the Romagna, the grape-vines are trained upon elm-trees ; 
and, for this reason, they do not ripen always ; and, by careless ' 
preparation, the wines are bad, and keep rarely over a few months. 
The wines from Albano and Orvieto are exceptions. The latter 
place produces a tenable red wine, and a white Muscat with a 
good bouquet and a balsamic perfume, but of not long keeping. 
Farnese and Terni have also some good wines. At Rome, the 
barilla has about eleven gallons English, and the botta sixteen 
barillas. 

Sardinia sends her wines mostly by Cagliari. She has Malva- 



JOIIANN CARL LEUCIIS ON WINES. I79 

sie of Sorso, Posa, Algbiera, Kasco, ambcr-colorcd, with a fine bou- 
quet; Giro, sweet, but not spirituous, somewhat resembling the 
Tinto of Alicante. The wines of Bosa, Saffari, and Ogliastra are 
dark red, and pretty strong ; as a general rule, they are more like 
the wines of Spain than those of France. Cannoao, Monaco, and 
Garnaccia send their wines, under the name of Malvasie, to Hol- 
land, and other northern places. The best wines are kept in earth- 
en 'vessels, containing about five or six gallons English. 

Sicily keeps her common wines, but sends some of her sweet 
ones abroad. Syracuse supplies good red and white wines, of 
sweet, aromatic taste. The first is pale red, and the white one 
amber-colored. Mascoli and Mazara have quite good red wines; 
Catanca has strong ones of a tarry taste, which are consumed 
mostly at home. The wines of vSicily are of a first-rate odor and 
good taste, but are from the beginning badly managed, and there- 
fore do not keep long. The grapes begin to ripen in June, and 
the vintage commences in September. One thousand vines give 
from one and a quarter to four pipes of wine. There are culti- 
vated for wine-making only nineteen species of grapes, of which 
the best are the Cibibbo, Carmola, Greek Muscat — the dry and 
the winter grape. In the Lipari Islands the vines are kept high, 
as in Sicily ; they cut the clusters at the end of August, keep the 
grapes spread in the sun for from six to eight days, sprinkle them 
over with ley to neutralize the acidity, and then pack the dry rai- 
sins for exportation. 

Tuscany has, in general, the best Italian wines. The red ones 
are somewhat thick and dark, and resemble the Bordeaux wines 
of inferior quality ; but the white ones are dainty and aromatic. 
One of the best sorts is the Aleatico, which is sweet, well colored, 
and has a good bouquet. It is exported in small bottles via Flor- 
ence. They make also Aleatico in the island of Elba and in the 
Roman District. In the environs of Sienna, at Monte Pulciano, 
and other places, good sweet wines are manufactured, and export- 
ed from Florence in bottles of about one quart each. The barilla 
contains about from nine to ten gallons. The fiascone, in Flor- 
ence, about two and a half quarts. 

Fabrioni describes in his work, "Arte di fare il Vino," the 
method used for making the red and dark wines of Tuscany, as 
the Carmignano and Monte Pulciano; and the white ones, viz., 
the Trebiano, Topazio, and Malvaglia. The Carmignano is raised 
on the hills of Carmignano ; the vintage is from the last days of 
September to the 10th of October. A few days previous the 
grapes are spread on mattings and often turned, to get some dry 
grapes (raisins). The other ones are bruised, and worked well 
every twelve hours in the seven first days, with forks or the feet. 
In about a fortnight the fermentation ceases, and the husks and 
stems are only from time to time pressed down. After the lapse 
of twenty days the vats are covered, and when the wine becomes 



180 GRAPE CULTURE AND WINE-MAKING. 

clear it is decanted into barrels, to which, for each barrel, a cer- 
tain quantity of the above dried grapes, well smashed, is added, 
and well mixed with the mass. A new fermentation then takes 
place, which commonly lasts from six to eight days. In Monte 
Pulciano (considered by them the king of wines), the vintage is 
retarded as long as the weather will admit ; then one tenth part 
of the must is condensed by boiling and mixed with the other. 
Trebiano makes her white wine from white grapes. This is of 
superior qualit}''. They draw the fluid mass from the husks as 
soon as the fermentation commences ; then again, in about fifteen 
days, from the dregs (settlings) ; in a month later a third time. 
The Topazio takes its name from the color resembling a topaz; it 
is made in the same way as the Trebiano. The Malvaglia is 
pressed from grapes which are soon made dry by twirling their 
green stems ; the must is then heated to nearly the boiling point. 
Toscolano has light but well-colored wines of an agreeable taste, 
which keep well for twenty-five years. At Brescia the measure 
zerla contains about thirteen gallons of ours, and twelve to fifteen 
zerlas make one caro. 

Vino Santo (Holy wine) is a sweet wine from Castiglione and 
Lonato, five leagues from Brescia. It is a golden-yellow wine, 
sweet, mild, and of good flavor generally, if three or four years 
old. This wine is made from well-assorted grapes, which are 
spread on scaffolds, and kept there as long as December. They 
compare it with the Tokay, and prefer it to the wines from Cy- 
prus. Piacenza exports, under the name of Vino Santo, a mix- 
ture of several species to Milan and Genoa. 

The wines of Vicentia are less spirituous than those of Priuli ; 
but they are recommended to sufferers from the gout. In Vi- 
cenza and Padua the grape-vines are raised on walnut-trees, which 
impart an odor and taste to them not suited to every palate. 

Zara, though not renowned for more than middling quality of 
wines, has distinguished brandies and wine vinegars. 



YII. 

SPANISH WINES. 

Spain has several wines of the choicest kind, and exports a 
great deal. The greatest marts are Alicante, Malaga, and Xeres. 
Malaga raises annually some 80,000 "arobas" (about 350,200 
gallons), of which more than one half is exported. Catalonia 
furnishes annually about 600,000 pipes (of 425 litres), or about 
63,600,000 gallons ; Valencia, 3,000,000 cantaros (36,000,000 gal- 
lonsi and some 6,000,000 pounds of raisins. 

Tne Spanish wines are nearly all made of thoroughly ripe 



JOHANN CARL LEUCHS ON WINES. 181 

grapes and condensed must. They have caldrons holding near- 
ly one thousand gallons. They boil the must until three quar- 
ters, of it has evaporated, skimming off the froth when it rises. 
This sirup is then added to the unboiled must in different pro- 
portions, according as more or less sweet and strong wines are re- 
quired. For the white wines no sirup is used ; but more or less 
brandy is added, which prevents an entire fermentation, and con- 
sequently these wines retain some sweetness. 

Andalusia produces several exquisite wines, which she exports 
via Cadiz, Kota, and Santa Maria. The choicest ones are the fol- 
lowing: 

At Rota the best red wine of Andalusia is made. When new 
it is dark red, but loses color by age. The Spaniards call it, there- 
fore, Tintilla, or Tinto de Rosa. It is a sweet wine of much fire, 
elegant taste, and aromatic bouquet. It shows some similarity 
with the Alicante, without its astringent property. Its color, 
nevertheless, is darker, and its taste sweeter, improving rather 
than losing by age. 

Xeres de la Frontera, seven leagues from Cadiz, has three sorts 
of spicy white wines, viz., Paraxete, sweet, of agreeable taste, and 
odorous ; Vino Seco, dry and bitter, but, nevertheless, good-tasting 
and aromatic ; and Abocado, holding a middle position between 
the two former. They make also " Pedro Ximes" wine, which 
some persons prefer to Malaga, and also Muscat — pretty good, 
but inferior to that of St. Lucar. Among their red wines they 
have also some Tintilla, but not of so good a quality as that of 
Rota. Xeres produces yearly 860,000 arohas (about 1,440,000 
gallons), of which 200,000 are exported to England and France. 
In England an artificial sherry is manufactured out of Cape wine, 
to which some extract of bitter almonds is added. 

The monastery of Paraxete, one and a half leagues from Xeres, 
furnishes also the above-named three kinds of white wine, and of 
still better quality than that of Xeres, which bring also higher 
prices. 

Moguro has also some reddish wine of good quality, and much 
of inferior quality is exported to the colonies. 

St. Lucar de Barameda has red and white wines, which gain by 
age, and are mixed in Xeres with others. 

Negro Rancio is the name of a very dark wine, of a dry, pasty 
nature, more keen and prickling than sweet. It is a great deal in 
demand for mixing with other wines which are deficient in these 
qualities. They make the same in Rota, Xeres, and some other 
places. 

Seville produces a great deal of wine from must, of which a part 
is condensed by boiling. This is very dark, but without bouquet. 

The aivha contains in Andalusia IS^pj^y litres, not quite four 
gallons ; and the hoita 28 arobas. 

Aragon produces much dark-colored tasteful red wines, which 



182 GRAPE CULTURE A]^D WINE-MAKING. 

would be more valuable if tlie grapes were not in so many in- 
stances planted on a too rich soil. Exquisite are the " Grenacbe" 
from Sabajes and Carignena — reddish, sweet, of an agreeable fla- 
vor, with a good deal of spirit ; and a white sweet wine from Bor- 
ja. Saragossa is the chief market-place. The cantaro contains 
about two gallons and one and a half quarts ; a nieiro or carga 
about 38 gallons. 

Biscay has very poor wines, mostly green, tart, and sour, which 
do not bear keeping. The only exception is a wine from the en- 
virons of Vittoria, called Pedro Ximenez. 

Estremadura furnishes, besides some good wine, Tinto, which, 
nevertheless, has little similarity with that of this name from Ali- 
cante. It is a mild wine, has a good color and spirit, a fine taste, 
and agreeable bouquet. It is the only Spanish wine which will 
bear comparison with the best French wines of the second class. 

Gallicia produces very little. The best of her wines come from 
Eibadavia and Tuy. Of both some is exported. The common 
measure is named cantaro, holding IGt^f^o litres — about four gal- 
lons three quarts. 

Grenada has only two distinguished places for good wines : the 
territory of the city of Malaga, and Velez Malaga, five leagues 
from Malaga. Upon the mountains around the former city grow 
the grapes which give those exquisite wines known in France and 
Germany under the name of Malaga, in England under that of 
Mountain wine. They distinguish seven varieties of it : 1. Pedro 
Ximenez — sweet, delicious, with a great deal of bouquet, but infe- 
rior to that from Xeres. 2. Vino Tintorio — when young, dark 
amber-colored and very sweet ; with age it loses some of its sweet- 
ness, and becomes more spirituous and aromatic. This is the 
kind that comes, under the name of Malaga, to the various coun- 
tries. It bears keeping over one hundred ^^ears. Its price in- 
creases with its age ; and while the hotta (440 litres) of a new wine 
sells for 150 francs, the hotta of the oldest one will bring 5000 
francs and more. 3. Muscat; of which there are two kinds, Mal- 
aga Muscat and Drop or Tear Muscat. These have a yellowish 
color and much bouquet, especially the latter, which is also clear- 
er and finer. 4. Cherry, made of common wine with which sour 
cherries are macerated, the taste of which the wine adopts. 5. The 
dry white wine, near in quality to the Sherries, and sold under 
that name. 6. Malvasie, similar to that of Sihes, which will, how- 
ever, keep but a very short time. 7. Tinto, of a dark color, sweet 
and keen. 

Velez Malaga, five leagues east of Malaga, furnishes also a great 
deal of wine, which is sold for genuine Malaga, although of a little 
inferior quality. The main product of Velez is raisins. 

Minorca produces, in the environs of Aleyor, a very good dark 
red wine, of excellent taste, which nevertheless does not bear ex- 
portation, losing its good qualities in a few days by a sea voyage. 



JOIIANN CARL LEUCHS ON WINES. I33 

Alba Flora, a white wine, fine, spirituous, and of a good bouquet 
and taste, is also of some repute. 

Catalonia has mostly red wines, little tenable, losing in a short 
time their color and taste. 

Majorca produces, near Pallcnzia, a valuable kind of Malvasie. 

Murcia furnishes only thick and tart wines, though those of 
Carthagena attain sometimes the quality of inferior Alicante. 

Navarre exports but small quantites. Around Tudela, sixteen 
leagues from Pampeluna, they make joretty good wines, approach- 
ing inferior qualities of Burgundy. Near Peralto, two valuable 
wines are produced: the Rancio, similar to the Paraxete, and a 
sweet wine, delicious and spirituous. The staple place for these 
wines is Pampeluna. 

New Castile has wines in La Mancha and Valdagenas, which 
are less colored and less strong, but have nevertheless a more 
agreeable taste than most of the other Spanish wines. The better 
ones arc compared with the middle wines of Burgundy. They 
have fineness, spirit, and even some bouquet. In the second class 
we may count those of Manzanares, Albacete, and Ciudad Real, 
though most of them are sent to Madrid in skins, from which they 
contract an odor and strange taste. Fuencarol, near Madrid, has 
a celebrated Muscat wine, sweet, of good taste and bouquet. 

In Valencia, the vineyards are partly on hills and partly in the 
valleys ; therefore they difter in quality. The graj)es on the 
plains are mostly made into brandy, of which from 500,000 to 
600,000 cantaros are distilled. Alicante, thirty leagues from Va- 
lencia, produces the celebrated Tinto. This wine bears long keep- 
ing, with a continual improving ; is very tonic, and therefore much 
valued for a stomach-invigorating beverage. It is of a dark red 
color, which in course of time covers the bottles with a layer. It 
is very sweet, warming, of an agreeable bouquet and taste. They 
also make here a pretty good sweet white wine. Benicarlo, twen- 
ty leagues from Valencia, and Viueroz, produce dark red wines 
of first quality, preferable to the common Alicante. The caniaro 
contains lOf quarts, the botta from 103 to 117 gallons. 



VIII. 

PORTUGUESE WINES. 



Portugal has an important vine-culture, producing mostly red 
wines, and exports yearly over 100,000 pipes. The prominent sta- 
ple place is Oporto, with an exportation of about 80,000 pipes, 
the pipe worth from sixty to eighty dollars. The wines of Por- 
tugal are inferior to those of Spain, being of less strength, and re- 
quiring, therefore, an addition of alcohol to enable them to keep 
and bear a sea- voyage. 



184 GRAPE CULTURE AND WINE-MAKING. 

Of wbitc -wines, those of Carcavellos are nearly alone exported, 
under the name of Lisbon j. This is sweet, spirituous, and of a 
good bouquet. Next to it is that of Setuval, which place pro- 
duces a sweet and a common wine, both of a good quality. 

Buccllas, six leagues from Lisbon, has white wines which, to 
enable them to bear keeping, are mixed with alcohol. 

Oporto has Vinos de Fectoria and Vinos de Kamo. The for- 
mer are the better ones ; but, in order to enable them to keep or 
stand a sea- voyage, one twelfth part of brandy is added after the 
first fermentation is over. This is the kind which is exported un. 
der the name of Port wine. Pego de Regua furnishes the best 
Vino de Fectoria. The pipa (pipe) holds about 104 gallons. The 
wine district of the tapper Duoro commences about fifty miles 
from the harbor of Oporto, and consists of a range of hills on 
both shores of the river, well exposed to the sun, and consisting 
of a loose soil JDeculiarly adapted to the growth of the grape-vine; 
but the best ones grow where the upper stratas consist of weath- 
er-beaten clay slate, as in the case of the district of Axarquia, 
which, under the surveillance of a privileged company, not only 
limits the price of the different kinds of wine, but also prescribes 
within what boundaries the vines are to be planted. 



IX. 

MADEIRA WINES. 

Madeira, to which the vine was transplanted in 1421 from 
Candia, produced formerly some 80,000 pipes ; but at present only 
about 20,000 pipes of common wines and about 500 pipes ofMal- 
vasie, of which about the half goes to England, North America, 
and the West Indies ; the balance is consumed on the island itself. 
The vinQS are mostly planted upon sandy and stony soil; and 
some vine-trunks can be seen there which the extended arms of 
three men are unable to compass. They have three kinds of 
wine: l.Malvasie; 2. Dry white; and 8. Tinto. 

The Madeira Malvasie, from the variety of Candian grapes, is 
the most exquisite sort of Malvasie, sweet, very delicious, and full 
of a balsamic fragrance. It occupies a prominent place among 
the first-class wines. It becomes with age more pleasing, and 
sells, at the place of its growth, for $200 per pipe ; but, in order 
to enable it to hold out a sea-voyage, alcohol or brandy must be 
added. 

The Dry Madeira, or Madere sec, is still more dry than the white 
Burgundy, though without having the piquantncss of the Rhine 
wines. This is amber-colored, spirituous, aromatic, and often of a 
walnut taste. 



JOIIANN CARL LEUCIIS ON WINES. 185 

The Red Madeira (Tinto) has a great deal of astringent matter, 
and can not be used alone without injury to the health. 

In the interior of this island they raise the vines on trees, un- 
der the shade of which the grapes attain so little of maturity that 
they must be subjected to a crushing process in order to press out 
the juice ; but this, of course, gives only a watery, poor wine, that 
does not bear keeping. 

The Dry or Harsh Madeira is often mixed with the Tinto, and 
thus exported. It improves by passing the equator ; and English- 
men ship it and re-ship it for this purpose to the East Indies and 
back. But now the same result is attained in Madeira by keep- 
ing such wines in heated rooms, where they will become, in a few 
months, as good as if kept in a cellar for five or six years. They 
have had in Madeira, for some fifty years, such apartments, of 
enormous sizes, heated with large stoves and heat-conducting 
tubes, filled with barrels and hogsheads, for the above purpose. 



X. 

CAPE WINES. 

The Cape of Good Hope produces three sorts of wine, which 
are commonly designated Cape Wines. The most celebrated is 
the Constancia, so called from a mountain of the same name two 
leagues from the promontory. It may be classed among the first 
quality wines, second only to the Tokay. This is sweet, spirit- 
uous, very agreeable in taste, and exquisitely spicy. The white 
one is a little less sweet than the red one. In former years only 
some 900 hectolitres, or about 22,950 gallons, have been produced, 
which was sold at the place of its growth for 80 and 120 cents 
the bottle, while the common one is sold for one cent. The 
grapes are left on the vines till they become shriveled. After 
the Constancia follows, in quality, the Muscat, which is grown on 
the False and Table Bay. In Europe it sells under the name of 
Constancia, notwithsLanding its inferior merit. The best kinds 
of this wine are those of Beker and Hendrik. The third sort of 
Cape wine is the Stone wine ; though dry, it has a good taste. 
It is raised in the districts of Gerlen, Drachenstein, and Stellen- 
bosch. The red wines are there known under the name of Rota : 
they are somewhat like the Spanish wine of this name. They are 
dark, of good body and spirit, and a pleasant odor. Recently the 
quality of the Cape wine has been impaired, because the wine- 
growers look more for quantity than for quality. In 1806, only 
6909 pipes were exported ; while in 1817 there were 12,000 pipes, 
and in 1822, 23,000 ; and since then a constantly increasing 
amount has been sent abroad. 



186 GRATE CULTURE AND WINE-MAKING. 

XI. 

GREEK WINES. 

The islands in the Mediterranean are eminently fit, on account 
of their dry and sunny hills, for the cultivation of grapes ; and if 
the -wine-making were more skillfully attended to, most excellent 
sorts could be produced. 

Candia has strong, but few wines. In former times the culture 
of vines was of much more importance than toward the end of 
the sixteenth century. Candia exported annually to Italy about 
200,000 barrels. 

Cyprus, Samos, Scio, and Tenedos produce yearly 600,000 ocas, 
or about 220,000 gallons ; and Santorin 1,000,000 ocas, or 375,000 
gallons. ]\Iiconi and other isles of Greece export, also, some wines. 

The Ionian Islands produce good wines, which are sent to Ita- 
ly, Trieste, etc. Saint Maura exports from 7000 to 8000 barillas^ 
119,000 to 136,000 gallons. Cephalonia 15,000 barillas, 255,000 
gallons of red, and 12,000 barillas, 201,000 gallons of white, and 
8000 barillas of Moscatello. Corfu exports annually from 200 to 
300 loads, and Zante 4000 barillas, 59,500 gallons. Thiaki, for- 
merly Ithaca, exports yearly 875,000 pounds of raisins. 

The continent of Greece — the modern kingdom — has exquisite 
situations for vine culture, but hitherto little wine has been pro- 
duced, and this badly attended to. The greater part is produced 
in the Morea. Patras, the Monastery of Megaspilon, and Pyrgos 
produce some 100,000 barillas, 1,700,000 gallons ; Shiron, Argos, 
Megara, Arcadia, and Tripolizza, 15,000 barillas, 255,000 gallons. 
Mesenteu and Laconia have Malvasie. 



xn. 

GRAPE CULTURE IN TURKEY, PERSIA, CHINA, ETC. 

Vine culture in Turkey is not of much consequence, because 
the Mohammedan religion does not allow the drinking of wine ; 
but for the Jewish, Greek, and Armenian inhabitants, in some 
places wines are produced. In Moldavia, between Cotnar and 
the Danube, a very good white and red wine is made, and some 
of it is exported to Russia. The best one has a greenish color, 
which becomes brighter by age ; the wine also improving, being, 
after the lapse of three years, as strong as brandy. But it is oft- 
en drawn from its settlings, which would otherwise improve its 
strength. From Wallachia some goes to Eussia and Poland. The 



JOIIANN CARL LEUCHS ON WINES. 187 

wines of Piatra have a slight similarity to the Tokay. Bosnia, 
Servia, Turkish Dalmatia, and Bulgaria do not export any. 

The wines of Asiatic Turkey arc but little known in Europe. 
Anatolia has some export, especially of Mondania, a pretty good 
white wine. Syria exports more ; and her wines are somewhat 
similar to those of Bordeaux. The best one is from Libanon, 
named the Gold Wine. They make there, also, wine from must, 
condensed by boiling. Palestine herself produces not a great 
deal of wine, but the environs of Jerusalem give a good white 
wine. In Mesoj)Otamia the wines of Bajazet are the best. In 
Arabia the grapes are raised more for raisins than for wine. 

Throughout the whole of Persia the grape-vine is cultivated. 
Notwithstanding that most of her inhabitants profess the religion 
of Mohammed, they drink wines in secret, as they formerly did 
publicly. They raise from ten to fourteen kinds of grapes — white, 
blue, black, and red. The most distinguished of them is a white 
variety, with pretty large berries, of a sweet and agreeable taste, 
like our Muscats. In Ispahan the vines are trained upon trellises, 
and bear profusely — about ten times as much as those treated in 
the common way. Being a country of a warm climate, the grapes 
are ripe and gathered toward the end of August. In the region of 
Shiraz a great deal of wine is produced, especially the renowned 
Shiraz, made from a red grape. Besides this latter, there is still 
another distinguished grape, called Kischbaba, which has no seeds, 
and its berries are large, white, very sweet, and of a fine taste. 
The wines of Shiraz are partly made of must, previously con- 
densed by boiling, and partly of half-dry grapes. In Erivan tra- 
dition has it that Noah planted his first vines. 

In China the grape culture was much in vogue nineteen centu- 
ries ago, and the provinces of Chausi, Chensi, Petchely, Chantong, 
Honan, and Hougnana, then produced plenty of wine. But at 
present these people prefer their tea, and a warm beverage, made 
- like our beer, but from rice instead of barley. The grapes raised 
at Honan, Chantong, and Chansi are now made into raisins of su- 
perior quality. 

The district of Hanir, northwest from China, exports very fine 
and sweet raisins. 

In Japan grape-vines are abundant, but no wine is made from 
them. 

In the East Indies vine culture exists in some places. In the 
province of Lahore very good wines are made. 

In Cochin China wild grapes are common, but they are not 
used for wine-making. 

In Australia recently some satisfactory experiments have been 
made in cultivating grapes. 



188 GK.VPE CULTURE AND WINE-MAKING. 

XIII. 
GRAPE CULTURE IN AFRICA, AJ^IERICA, RUSSIA, AND ENGLAND. 

In Africa tlie culture of the vine is not very extensive. Egypt, 
in the times of the Komans, furnished excellent wines, but at 
present only few. The same is the case with Abyssinia. 

In the Barbary States vines are found in some places. At the 
southern extremity of Africa is the Cape of Good Hope, of the 
wines of which we have already spoken. 

The Cape de Verd Islands export no wines. The Canary Isl- 
ands produce a large quantity. Teneriflfe produces yearly 40,000 
pipes, or about 4,400,000 gallons. They make from grapes trans- 
planted from 4ihe Morca a kind of Malvasie wine, of agreeable 
taste, sweet and spirituous ; and Yidogne^ which, though keen and 
tart when new, gains by age. The wines of the Palma Island, 
though inferior to those of Teneriffe, are more tasty. Madeira 
has been already mentioned. 

Of the Azores, St. Michael produces about 5000 pipes, and Pico 
from 15,000 to 30,000. Both are pretty good wines. Fayal ex- 
ports much of the same, and of her own growth, which is very 
good. 

In the northern parts of America the wine culture at present is 
very limited. Canada has one kind of wild grape, which is, nev- 
ertheless, made only some use of at Montreal. The United States 
have also some wild grapes. In the environs of Philadelphia, 
Cincinnati, and Herman, considerable progress is already made in 
this line. California produces wines much resembling those of 
Madeira.* 

In Spanish America the grape culture was formerly much lim- 
ited by the action of the mother country. Mexico exports already 
from El Paso del Norte quite good wines to the surrounding 
countries. Peru produces much of it. Those of Lucumba, Pisco, 
Sucamba, and Arequipa are much valued. The wines of Chili 
have some similarity with those of Alicante. She exports about 
270,000 arohas to Buenos Ayres and Paraguay, and some 800 
arobas to Peru. Near the city of Moqucgna, in South America, 
a good deal of wine is made. It is mostly like that of Spain. It 
is somewhat strange that they do not sell the wine by measure- 
ment, but by weight. Fifty Uhras of wine (two arobas) cost from 
eight to nine piastres. These wines are kept in goat-skins. The 
use of barrels is nearly unknown. 

Eussia produces wines in her southern provinces. The wine 
from the Crimea resembles somewhat the Hungarian. The best 
of it is made about Sudak and Kos ; annually about 510,000 gal- 

* [This view of the \-ine culture of the United States was written some years 
ago. Since that time it has vastly increased. — A. II.] 



JOHANN CARL LEUCUS ON WINES. 189 

Ions. Astracan has very good wines. The German colonists 
on the rivers Sarpa ana Volga also produce good wines. In 
some parts of the Caucasus grapes prosper, as they also do in 
Mingrclia, without cultivation ; so that this region resembles an 
extensive vineyard. The wines arc still better than those of the 
Crimea. In Georgia also grapes grow wild, and the wine made 
from them kccjis not over a year. In Daghestan we find also ex- 
quisite grapes. Here they condense the must, and mix it with 
rose-water. In Derbent the grapes are very sweet, and they give 
a good light red wine. In Grusia all the hills and mountains are 
covered with vineyards, the vines sometimes forming hedges, and 
sometimes climbing up on mulberry, j)omegranate, and walnut 
trees. The wine is not kept over a year. In Shirwan some wine 
is made, which is the best on the Caucasus. 

In England a great deal of wine was formerly made by the 
monks, but the grapes did not come to maturity every year. Now 
a little is made by the farmers in Sussex, from grapes which climb 
upon the walls of the houses ; in Derbyshire also some is made ; 
but these are of very inferior quality, and hardly worthy of notice 
as to quantity. 



APPENDIX B. 

THE MANUFACTURE AND TREATMENT 
OF WINES. 



EXTRACTED FROAI JOHANN CARL LEUCHS' TREATISE ON WINES AND WINE-MAKING 
(,n'ETXKU\DE): Nuremberg, 1S4T. 



APPENDIX B. 

JOHANN CARL LEUCHS ON WINE-MAKING. 

I. Fermentation. The After Fermentation. — 11. Implements used in Wine-making: 
The Thermometer. Table of Scales of different Thermometers. The Areometer. 
The Acid Scale. — III. MunvfacturiiHj Grape Wines: General Observations GatL- 
cring the Grapes. Crushing and rressing. Fermentation. Filling in the Musi. 
Making Sweet Wine. Making Frozen Wine. Making new Wines appear old. — 
IV. Classification of Wines. — V. Drawing off the Wine. — VI. Treatment of bot- 
tled Wines. Filling up and Wasting. — VII. Clarifying Wines. — VIII. Giving 
Color to Wines. — IX. Mi.xing and judging of Wines. — X. The principal Diseases 
o/" TFtnes; Sudden Changes. Souring. Becoming Glutinous. Woody, mouldy, 
and bitter Taste. Cloudiness and Muddiness. — XI. Adulterations of Wines. — 
XII. Uses for the Husks and Sediment. — XIII. The Cellars, Casks, Bottles, and 
Implements. — XIV. Wine Measures of all Countries. 



FERMENTATION. 

In the process of fermentation, carbonic acid is produced by a 
cbemical process which is explained in all l^ooks upon chemistry. 
In the formation of carbonic acid caloric is liberated, and the fer- 
menting liquid becomes heated. The more active the fermenta- 
tion, the greater is the amount of heat produced. When large 
quantities of grape-juice are fermented together, care must be taken 
that it is carried on at a reduced temperature, otherwise the heat 
would become too great. The general rule is, that if a vessel 
containing five hectolitres requires from 25° to 28°, one contain- 
ing ten hectolitres requires from 15° to 20°, and one containing 
thirty or more hectolitres requires from 12° to 15°.* The heat 
of fermentation appears to be mainly produced by the formation 
of the carbonic acid, as it is in ordinary combustion, in which this 
gas is likewise developed and heat produced. In fermentation, 
however, the increase of temperature is not so perceptible as in 
combustion, for the process goes on but slowly, and the heat de- 
veloped is dispersed by radiation and conduction ; and, moreover, 
a considerable part of the heat becomes latent by the evaporation 
of the water contained in the juice. When large quantities of 
juice are fermented together, the increase of temperature, howev- 
er, becomes quite perceptible. It decreases as the fermentation 
lessens, and also when the larger part of the sugar is decomposed. 
It has been calculated that, in the fermentation of a mash of malt 

* The degrees of temperature given here, as elsewhere in this treatise, are those 
of Reaumur, whose thermometer is generally used in Germany. These may be con, 
verted into their equivalents of Fahrenheit and Celsius by the table on page 196. 

N 



194 GRAPE CULTURE AND WINE-MAKING. 

liquor, when the highest degree of heat has been attained about 
nine tenths of the sugar has been decomposed. 

When the sugar has been decomposed, or the fermentation be- 
gins to subside on account of the lack of yeast or its inefficiency, 
the formation of air-bubhles decreases, as less sugar becomes resolved 
into carbonic acid and alcohol. These bubbles, -which had formed 
a kind of foam upon the surface, gradually disappear by bursting, 
and are replaced by few new ones. The falling of the foam now 
begins by the formation of air-holes and rents ; and also the burst- 
ing of the surface, as the solid parts, which had hitherto been kept 
floating by the foam, now follow the law of gravit}^, and sink back 
into the fluid. At the same time the decrease of heat begins, as a 
natural consequence of the lessened development of carbonic acid. 
The cessation of the inner commotion soon follows; in consequence 
of which, the heavy parts of the liquid are precipitated to the bot- 
tom, while the lighter ones swim on the surface. These latter 
consist mainly of the yeast, a part of which had been used up in 
the fermentation, while a part had been formed during the process 
from the gum and vegetable albumen contained in the juice. 

The result of these various processes is the clearing of the fluid, 
especially of the middle portion of it. This clearing may be con- 
sidered as a sure proof that the fermentation of the must has been 
properly conducted. 

Meanwhile only a part of the sugar has been decomposed, and 
only a part of the yeast, or the glutinous substances which may 
form yeast, even if these have been separated from the portions 
which have been precipitated, or which still swim on the surface. 
The fermentation, therefore, still continues ; the yeast and gum 
yet present, combining with the air, go on converting the remain- 
ing sugar into alcohol and carbonic acid until all the sugar is 
consumed. 

This fermentation is called the After Fermentation. It goes on 
very slowly, frequently requiring years to complete it if the wine 
is kept in close vessels in a cool place. It may be known by the 
wine becoming richer in alcohol, less sweet, and specifically light- 
er. If this fermentation is comparatively vigorous, and the cask 
is air-tight, the wine wnll effervesce when the cask is opened, or 
may even burst the vessel if a great amount of carbonic acid has 
been generated. 

If favored by a high temperature, or if the liquid contains a 
large amount of undecomposed sugar or yeast, this after ferment- 
ation may present more or less of the characteristics of the first 
fermentation. This is generally prevented by clearing it off, cool- 
ing, sulphurization, etc. 

If the yeasty parts remain in the liquid, the fermentation shows 
itself in a different way. The yeast, settling down to the bot- 
tom, decomposes the saccharine parts near it, together with the 
alcohol. Air-bubbles then rise, indicating the commencement of 



JOIIANN CARL LEUCIIS ON WINE-MAiaNG. 195 

the acetous fermentation. The liquid begins to effervesce, flocu- 
lent particles swim about in it, heat is generated, oxygen is at- 
tracted from the atmosphere, and the fluid is changed into vin- 
egar. 



11. 

IMPLEMENTS USED IN WINE-MAKING. 

The principal implements used in the manufacture of wine 
are the Thermometer and the Areometer. The former is used to 
measure the temperature during fermentation ; the latter to meas- 
ure the saccharine matter of the must and the alcohol of the wine. 
Besides these, there are other implements used to ascertain the 
acids and the quantity of carbonic acid forming. 

The Thermometer. 

The thermometer is used to measure the variations of tempera- 
ture. The principle upon which it is constructed is that matter 
expands, or increases its volume, when heated, and contracts when 
cooled. Thus a given quantity of mercury occupies more space 
when warm than when cold. For many reasons, it is found con- 
venient to use mercury for the construction of thermometers for 
common purposes ; though for scientific jDurposes, where extreme 
accuracy is required, other substances are employed. The mer- 
curial thermometer, however, is sufficiently accurate for the pur- 
pose for which it is required in wine-making. There are three 
kinds of mercurial thermometers used in different parts of the 
civilized world. The principle of all is the same. They consist 
of a bulb containing mercury, to which is attached a glass tube 
with a very small bore. As the mercury in the bulb expands by 
heat, it rises in the tube, the height to which it reaches at various 
temperatures being marked on a scale attached to the tube. The 
only difference between the thermometers in use is the number 
of degrees by which this expansion is marked on the scale. 

In Keaumur's thermometer the point at which water begins to 
freeze is marked ; that at which it boils is marked 80 ; and the 
intervening space is divided into 80 equal degrees, marked from 
to 80. 

In Celsius's thermometer the freezing point is marked 0, the 
boiling point 100 ; the intervening space being divided into 100 
degrees, marked from to 100. 

In Fahrenheit's thermometer, (or zero) indicates a tempera- 
ture much below the freezing point of water, which is marked 32, 
while the boiling point is marked 212. The space between the 
freezing and boiling points is therefore divided into (212—32) 
180 parts. 



196 



GRAPE CULTURE AND WINE-MAKING. 



Thus the space between the freezing and boiling points of wa- 
ter is divided by Eeaumur into 80 parts, by Celsius into 100, and 
by Fahrenheit into 180 parts. The following table will enable 
any one readily to convert the degrees of temperature as marked 
by one thermometer into those of either of the others. 

" The degrees below zero in each are indicated by the sign — 
[lyiinus). 

COMPARATIVE TABLE OF THE THERMOMETERS OF REAUMUR, 
CELSIUS, AND FAHRENHEIT. 



Reaumur. 


O^Isius. 


Fahrenheit. 


Reaumur. 


Celsius. 


Fahreuheit. 


llteaumur 


Celsius. 


Fahrenheit. 


80 


100.00 


212. 


42 


52.50 


126.50 


4 


5.00 


41.00 


79 


98.75 


209.75 


41 


51.25 


124.25 


3 


3.75 


38.75 


78 


97.50 


207.50 


40 


50.00 


122.00 


2 


2.50 


36.50 


77 


96.25 


205.25 


39 


48.75 


119.75 


1 


1.25 


34.25 


76 


95.00 


203.00 


38 


47.50 


117.50 





0.00 


32.00 


75 


93.75 


200.75 


37 


46.25 


115.25 


- 1 


- 1.25 


29.75 


74 


92.50 


198.50 


36 


45.00 


113.00 


_ 2 


- 2.50 


27.50 


73 


91.25 


196.25 


35 


43.75 


110.75 


- 3 


- 3.75 


25.25 


72 


90.00 


194.00 


34 


42.50 


108.50 


- 4 


- 5.00 


23.00 


71 


88.75 


191.75 


33 


41.25 


106.25 


- 5 


- 6.25 


20.75 


70 


87.50 


189.50 


32 


40.00 


104.00 


- 6 


- 7.50 


18.50 


69 


86.25 


187.25 


31 


38.75 


101.75 


- 7 


- 8.75 


16.25 


68 


85.00 


185.00 


30 


37.50 


99..'-.0 


- 8 


-10.00 


14.00 


67 


83.75 


182.75 


29 


36.25 


97.25 


- 9 


-11.25 


11.75 


66 


82.50 


180.50 


28 


35.00 


95.00 


-10 


-12.50 


9..50 


65 


81.25 


178.25 


27 


33.75 


92.75 


-11 


-13.75 


7.25 


64 


80.00 


176.00 


26 


32.50 


90.50 


-12 


-1.5.00 


5.00 


63 


78.75 


173.75 


25 


31.25 


88.25 


-13 


-16.25 


2.75 


62 


77.50 


171.50 


24 


30.00 


86.00 


-14 


-17.50 


0.50 


61 


76.25 


169.25 


23 


28.75 


83.75 


-15 


-18.75 


- 1.75 


60 


75.00 


167.00 


22 


27.50 


81.50 


-16 


-20.00 


- 4.00 


59 


73.75 


164.75 


21 


26.25 


79.25 


-17 


-21.25 


- 6.25 


58 


72.50 


162.50 


20 


25.00 


77.00 


-18 


-22. .50 


- 8.50 


57 


71.25 


160.25 


19 


23.75 


74.75 


-19 


-23.75 


-10.75 


56 


70.00 


158.00 


18 


22.50 


72.. 50 


-20 


-25.00 


-13.00 


55 


68.75 


155.75 


17 


21.25 


70.25 


-21 


-26.25 


-15.25 


54 


67.50 


153.50 


16 


20.00 


68.00 


-22 


-27.50 


-17..50 


53 


66.25 


151.25 


15 


18.75 


65.75 


-23 


-28.75 


-19.75 


52 


65.00 


149.00 


14 


17. .50 


63.. 50 


-24 


-30.00 


-22.00 


51 


63.75 


146.75 


13 


16.25 


61.25 


-25 


-31.25 


-24.25 


50 


62.50 


144.. 50 


12 


1.5.00 


,59.00 


—26 


-32..50 


-26..50 


49 


61.25 


142.25 


11 


13.75 


56.75 


-27 


-33.75 


-28.75 


48 


60.00 


140.00 


10 


12. .50 


54.50 


-28 


-35.00 


-31.00 


47 


58.75 


137.75 


9 


11.25 


52.25 


-29 


-36.25 


-33.25 


46 


57.50 


135..'50 


8 


10.00 


50.00 


-30 


-37..50 


-35.50 


45 


56.25 


133.25 


7 


8.75 


47.75 


-31 


-38.75 


-37.75 


44 


55.00 


131.00 


6 


7.50 


45.50 


-32 


-40.00 


-40.00 


43 


.'S3. 75 


128.75 


5 


6.25 


43.25 









77ie Areometer, or Must-Scale. 

"When a solid body is put upon a fluid, it will press it out of its 
place ; and if it be heavier than the fluid, will sink to the bottom ; 
but if it be lighter, it swims upon it. The swimming body itself 
pushes, however, more or less parts of the fluid out of their place ; 
sinks more or less deep into it. The depth of this sinking is dif- 



JOIIANN CARL LEUCIIS ON WINE-MAKING. 197 

ferent, according to the nature of the fluid. One that has more 
particles in the same space will offer more resistance, and conse- 
quently allow the body to sink less deeply. For instance, water 
in which salt or sugar has been dissolved has, of course, more par- 
ticles than pure water, and will consequently not allow the body 
to sink so deep into it. 

Of this property of matter use has been made to determine the 
proportion of solid parts in a given fluid, or the quantity of light- 
er fluids mixed with it. An instrument for this purpose is called 
an Areometer^ or, according to its various purposes, a Hydrome- 
ter (Water-Scale), an Alcoholometer (Spirit-Scale), a Must-Scale, a 
<S'acc/io?^o?72(?/'er (Sugar-Scale), an ^Zca/mieile?- (Alkali-Scale), etc., etc. 

The main parts of such an instrument are, a stem, with a hol- 
low ball at its foot, to make it swim, with a weight beneath, to 
keep it in a perpendicular position. The stem is divided into 
equal parts (degrees), and determines by them the weight of the 
fluid, or its contents of solid or spirit jDarts. The kinds named 
after their inventors, Beaume's, Cartier's, Tralles's, Richter's, and 
those for especial purposes, as for sugar, salt, malt liquor, are the 
most in use. 

Of Beaume's Areometer we have two kinds : one for fluids that 
are heavier than water, the other for lighter ones. In the former 
kind, the point at which the stem sinks into pure water is marked 
by 0, and the one at which it sinks into a solution of 10 parts of 
salt in 85 parts of water by 15 ; the intervening space, therefore, is 
divided into 15 parts, and the entire stem is likewise divided into 
degrees of similar length. Each degree thus indicates 1 per cent. 
of salt. In the latter kind, the point at which the stem stands in 
pure water is marked by 10° ; the one at which it stands in a so- 
lution of 10 parts of salt in 90 of water by ; and the entire stem, 
up to its upper end, is divided into 60 and more equal degrees. 

Cartier's areometer differs but little from this latter. It sinks 
in pure water to 10° ; in pure alcohol to 42°. The higher degrees 
only differ somewhat. For instance, 14° C. are =13.47° B. ; 18° 
C. =17.73° B. ; 25° C. =25.2° B. ; 30° C. =30.53° B. 

Eichter's alcoholometer sinks in water to ; in pure alcohol 
to 100°. The number of degrees to which it sinks in a fluid com- 
posed of water and alcohol indicates how many parts by weight 
of alcohol of the specific gravity of 0.792 are contained in 100 
parts by weight of the fluid to be tested. Thus, if in a distilled 
malt liquor, the instrument sinks to 50°, it indicates that this con- 
tains 50 parts of alcohol and 50 parts of water. 

Tralles's alcoholometer indicates the contents in the same man- 
ner by measure. Whisky of 30° T. contains, therefore, in 100 
parts, 30 parts of alcohol and 70 parts of water by measure. 

Beaume's areometer is the most in use. In order to weigh 
fluids that are heavier than water, such as malt beer, sirup, sugar 
solution, etc., 60°, measuring downward from 0, is usually taken 
as the point at which it stands in pure water. 



198 



GRAPE CULTURE AND WINE-MAKING. 



In determining specific gravities, water is assumed as the unit, 
its weight being denoted by 1, or, for convenience of notation, by 
1000. If the areometer indicates the specific gravity of a fluid 
to be more than 1000, it is by so much heavier than water ; if 
less than 1000, it is by so much lighter. Thus, if a solution of 
sugar in water has a specific gravity of 1010, we understand that 
if a certain number of cubic inches of water weighs 1000 ounces, 
the same quantity, by measure, of the fluid weighs 1010 ounces : 
such a solution contains 1000 parts of water and 10 parts of sugar. 

In comparing the degrees indicated by Beaume's areometer in 
fluids containing sugar with their specific weight, the following 
table will be found useful : 



Dejjrees 


Specific 


Degrees 


Specific 


Degrees 


."Specific 


Degrees 


Specific 


Degrees 


Specific 


Beaume. 


Gravity. 


Beaume. 


Gravity. 


Beaume. 


Gravity. 


Beaume. 


Gravity. 


Beaume. 


Gravity. 





1000 


11 


1081 


21 


11G7 


31 


1267 


41 


1386 


1 


lOOG 


12 


1090 


22 


1176 


32 


1278 


42 


1400 


2 


1013 


13 


1100 


23 


118G 


33 


1289 


43 


1413 


3 


1020 


14 


HOC 


24 


1195 


34 


1301 


44 


1427 


i 


102S 


15 


1114 


25 


1205 


35 


1312 


45 


1441 


5 


1035 


16 


1125 


26 


1215 


36 


1324 


46 


145G 


6 


1042 


17 


1132 


27 


1225 


37 


1336 


47 


1470 


7 


1050 


18 


1140 


28 


1235 


38 


1349 


48 


1485 


8 


1058 


19 


1148 


29 


1246 


39 


1361 


49 


1500 


9 


1065 


20 


1157 


30 


125G 


40 


1374 


50 


1515 


10 


1073 



















By the aid of this table it will be easy to calculate how much 
sugar is contained in any solution. For instance, if a solution 
shows 15° B. (=1114 specific gravity by the table), we have to 
ascertain how many cubic centimetres of sugar are contained in 
a given quantity, say 1000 centimetres. Now sugar has a specific 
gravity of 1600 ; that is, one cubic centimetre weighs 1600 grains, 
while one cubic centimetre of water weighs 1000 grains. We 
will indicate the unknown quantity, the amount of sugar, by x. 
Then, 

_ (1114-1000)xl000 _ 114,000 _ 
'^~ 1600-1000 ~ 600 ~ 
That is, 190 cubic centimetres of sugar were contained in 1000 
cubic centimetres of the fluid. Consequently, there were in the 
1000 centimetres of fluid, 

Sugar 190 cubic centimetres. 

Water ^810 " 

1000 " " 

The above are the quantities by measure ; by weight they are, 

Water 810 cubic ccntimctrcs=810 grains. 

Sugar (11U-810)=314 " " _314 " 

1114 " 

For practical use, it is, however, more convenient to have the 
stem of the areometer graduated in such a manner as to indicate 
the quantity of a body dissolved in a certain quantity of the fluid. 



JOHANN CARL LEUCIIS ON WINE-MAKING. I99 

The point to which the stem of the areometer sinks in pure water 
is marked 1000 ; that one to which it rises if, at a temperature 
of 14° li., 5 parts of sugar are dissolved in 1000 parts of water 
by weight, is marked 1005 ; the point to which it rises when 10 
parts of sugar are dissol^d in 1000 parts of water, by 1010, and 
so on. Each of these intervals may also be divided into five de- 
grees. The areometer will then indicate, if standing in a fluid 
of 1020 containing sugar, that in 1000 parts of it 20 parts of sugar 
are dissolved. 

The same mode of indication can be adapted to measure as well 
as to iveight. Thus, the point where the stem stands, when one 
pound of sugar is dissolved in a certain quantity of water, may 
be marked by 1, that where it stands when two pounds are dis- 
solved by 2, and so on. Most saccharometers and must-scales are 
made after this manner. Some, however, have a different prin- 
ciple. In these, the point where they sink in pure water is mark- 
ed by 0, and small weights are then placed upon a little plate 
fixed to the upper end of the stem, in order to press this down 
to into the fluid, in which it will not otherwise sink thus far. 
Now suppose we have to add to a certain must 50, to another one 
70, to a third 90 of such small weights, in order to make the scale 
sink down to 0, the proportion of the specific gravity of these 
musts to that of pure water (the water being taken at 1000) will 
be, that of number 1, as 1050 to 1000; that of number 2, as 1070 
to 1000 ; that of number 3, as 1090 to 1000. This is generally 
expressed thus: "The must number 2 is by 20 degrees better 
than number 1 ; the must number 3 is by 40 degrees better than 
number 1." 

Of this construction are the Baumann-Kinzelbach Wine-must 
Scales and those of Ilahn. The first may also be used to determ- 
ine the specific gravity of fermented old wines by the degree 
marked by the number on the scale in the stem down to which 
the instrument sinks in the wine. This scale ranges from to 
10. For instance, if the instrument sink down to the number 6, 
the specific gravity of thq wine will be 1000 less 6, or -TiTiro of 
the weight of water ; if it sinks to 9, the weight of the wine will 
be =1000 less 9, or iVcnr of the weight of the water. This latter 
wine is consequently better than the former, because the value 
of old wine is determined by the alcohol in it, and the less it 
weighs the better it is. 

The must-scale used exclusively by the "Company for Improv- 
ing the Grape Culture" in Saxony indicates by degrees, 1 to 80, 
how many half ounces of sugar are contained in one can, Dresden 
measure, of must (1 English gallon =4.85 cans). Of course, we 
can not assume that if a must-scale indicates that a must is =10 
or 20 degrees heavier than water, the excess in weight is nothing 
but sugar. There may also be portions of salts, mucilage, acids, 
and so forth. Sugar, however, forming the main part of the must, 



200 GRAPE CULTURE AND WINE-MAiaNG. 

and large parts of acids and salts being indicated by the taste, and 
the mucilage weighing but little, the greater weight of the must 
may be taken as a sure sign of the ^-reater quantity of sugar in 
it ; consequently, of its greater value. To ascertain this correctly, 
the must has only to be still sweety and ncft made cloudy by earthy, 
yeasty, and thready parts, as these may hinder the proper sinking 
of the instrument. The fluids we wish to weigh must also have 
an equal degree of temperature, as heat expands bodies ; and a 
like quantity consequently weighs less if warmer than a colder 
one of the same contents. 

Mr. Berg says of the must of Wiirtemberg grapes that such as 
weigh 1060 or less make a bad wine ; that of 1065 an inferior, but 
drinkable ; and heavier, up to 1080, a better and better quality. 

If the specific gravity of the must amounts to 1060 or 1070, 
the sugar gets, at the first proper fermentation, so dissolved that 
the taste can hardly discern it. If the specific gravity rises to 
1075, or still higher, the wine is only a little sweet ; if it rises 
still more, to 1085 or 1090, a great quantity of sugar remains in 
an undissolved state after the first fermentation, which is not 
changed until later into alcohol by a continued still fermentation ; 
the wine not only getting by it more durable, but also stronger, 
provided it is kept in good casks. 

Besides the sugar, the other matters contained in the sweet 
must, such as vegetable acids, mucilage, tannic acid, etc., seem 
to add but little to its weight. As soon as the first turbulent 
fermentation is passed, the specific gravity of the must sinks to 
that of water, and grows lighter the more alcohol has been form- 
ed. The weight of such alcoholic wines is usually only by 0.010 
or 0.012 larger than that of water mixed in the like proportion 
with alcohol. 

The Wine-Scale serves also to prove old wines under certain 
precautions. Wines of equal color and the same vintage are 
usually the richer in alcohol the lighter they are. Neckar wines, 
for instance, of the vintage 1825, showed, after eight months, 

Specific gravity 993, alcoholic par.ts 11.2 per cent. 
" " 994, " " 10.8 " " 

" " 997, " " 7.0 " " 

" 999, " " 6.4 " " 

Old wines have in proportion frequently a larger specific gravity 
than newer ones, also dark colored ones more than light colored. 
The alcohol is closely united to the other parts of the wine, and, 
in order to obtain all of it out of a wine, usually more than two 
thirds of the must has to be distilled over again. 

The Acid-Scale, 

This is constructed similar to the vinegar-scale. A narrow 
tube, closed at its lower end, has near the bottom (which point is 
marked by 0) division lines marked 1, 2, 3, etc. It is filled with 



JOHANN CARL LEUCHS ON WINE-MAKING. 201 

wine, whicli is colored red by a tincture of litmus. A weak al- 
kaline or nitrogenic solution is then added drop wise until the 
red color changes into blue, the sign that the acid has been neu- 
tralized. The more of this solution it takes, the more acid is con- 
tained in the wine. That which is specifically the heaviest, and 
therefore richest in sugar, has usually the least proportion of 
acids. 

The Fermentation^ or Carbomc Acid Scale. 

This consists simply of a tube, the bore of which is marked off 
into cubic inches, in which the carbonic acid produced in fer- 
mentation is caught. The principle of its use is this : One grain 
of sugar, according to Dobreiner, produces y^ cubic inch of car- 
bonic acid. The quantity of the sugar, and consequently the 
quality of the must, can therefore be ascertained by the quantity 
of carbonic acid which it develops. For instance, if -^ cubic 
inch of must gives 1-J- cubic inches of carbonic acid, IfVV grain 
of sugar must consequently have been contained in it (7r-^ = l-nnr)- 

One grain of sugar gives, farthermore, during the fermentation, 
xoV grains of alcohol ; or, when f^ cubic inches of carbonic acid 
are formed, -^ grains of alcohol are at the same time produced. 
If, therefore, -^ cubic inch of must has by fermentation develop- 
ed 4y'^ cubic inches of carbonic acid, it contained 5 grains of 
sugar {P:l%=6 grains), and has formed out of it 2^— (5 x 0.51 = 
2.55) grains of alcohol. 

For this purpose serves a tube, divided into cubic inches, into 
which the developing carbonic acid is caught. 



III. 
MANUFACTUEING GRAPE WINE. 

General Observations. 



So many different causes influence this that hardly two casks 
of the same sort of wine are exactly equal in all their points. 

If the wines are filled in casks or bottles after the must has 
gone through the first fermentation, and before all the sugar has 
been dissolved by the after fermentation and the yeast secreted 
they will continue to ferment more or less strongly, and to devel- 
op a great deal of carbonic acid, which may burst the casks if 
quite filled. The gas rises in a multitude of small bubbles, spout- 
ing up when the casks are opened, in case they withstand the 
pressure. Such wines are called effervescent. The kind most 
known of them is the Champagne. 

If the fermentation is allowed to go to its full end, so that all 



202 GRAPE CULTURE AND WDfE- MAKING. 

the sugar gets dissolved, the so-ealled "cZr?/" or ^^sour''^ wines are 
obtained. 

If, on the contrary, a large part of sugar is still contained in it, 
the wine is called "sit'ee^." These usually re-ferment. 

Those sweet wines that are at the same time of a thick juice 
are called " liqueur winesy Such are mostly produced in warm 
climates, as the must of the grapes grown there contains too 
much sugar and too little water and yeast, and, therefore, does not 
completely ferment. In an artificial way they are produced by 
allowing the grapes to dry on the bush or in the sun, or by add- 
ing lime to the must, or by boiling down a part of it. These lat- 
ter are called ^^ boiled loines.''^ 

In colder climates the wine is sometimes made stronger by let- 
ting the watery parts freeze out, thereby giving them also a pe- 
culiarly agreeable taste. These are sold as ^^ frozen ivines^ 

The peculiar agreeable flavor of wines is styled the bouquet 
{^^blume,^^ in German). It is especially found in fine qualities. 

The method of making wine differs in almost all countries, even 
in particular districts, though each of them adheres to its own as 
the best, or, in fact, the only good one. Some of the principal 
methods we shall describe hereafter. 

The Time of Gathering the Grapes. 

It ought to be a policy always to undertake this only when 
they have attained their highest state of maturity, as it is well 
known that they are the richer in sugar the riper they are, and 
produce the more alcohol the more sugar parts are contained in 
them. Even over-maturity, rottenness, and frost do not harm 
them, as they will also get sweeter by them ; and the must made 
of such grapes will give a wine richer in alcohol and aroma. 
The rottenness, however, it may be premised, must not take place 
when the grapes are unripe, as this would destroy the little sweet- 
ness already contained by them. 

It is not always possible to let the grapes get over-ripe — some- 
times not even ripe — on account of the unfavorable state of the 
temperature and weather. In such cases, an increase of the sugar 
and an improvement of the must may be obtained by the follow- 
ing means : 

1. The grapes, with their pedicles left on them, are spread upon 
mats, or fiat vessels, and exposed for maturing to the influence 
of the sun, air, light, and dew. This is frequently done in Spain. 

2. They are placed upon layers of straw, and allowed to ripen 
in warmed rooms. This method is used in Germany with the 
so-called " straiv ivine^ 

3. They may be put uncrushed into vats, and left three or four 
days in them, for the same purpose. 

4. They are, when gathered, exposed to a moderate cold, but 
immediately pressed when beginning to thaw. 



JOIIANN CARL LEUCUS ON WINE-MAKING. 203 

5. Boiling them by steam. 

The maturity of the grapes is indicated by the berries attain- 
ing their perfect color and clearness, and beginning to get wrin- 
kled ; by their skin getting thin, the stones loosening easily, and 
becoming darker in color ; by the pedicles darkening, wrinkling, 
and letting the grapes droop. 

The gathering of the grapes can be done at all hours of the 
day, and in all kinds of weather. If done on rainy days, more, 
but weaker wine, and less well colored, will be produced. If the 
production of the best wine be an object, the grapes must not be 
gathered until the dew has dried off. If the grapes are very 
sweet, however, this makes no difference ; likewise if effervescent 
wines are the object. 

The most profitable way is to have wooden tubs that will not 
let the juice escape, and to be careful to cut the grapes off with a 
pair of scissors, so that no berries get wasted. 

If the quality of the wine be no especial consideration, all the 
grapes, no matter whether ripe or not, are crushed together. It 
is different, however, if a good wine is wanted. In this case they 
must be picked out, and the more carefully the better the wine 
is required to be. 

As the stalks give the wine an unpleasant harsh taste, it is well 
to separate them from the berries before the pressing. Only in 
such cases it is desirable to leave them if the grapes have too lit- 
tle acid and sour parts, but many mucilaginous ones. If the wines 
are destined for the fabrication of cognac, nothing is taken off, as 
all the parts make alcohol, and the acid matter does no harm to 
it, remaining in the still. 

There are different modes of picking off the grapes : 

1. By the hand only, 

2. By a wicker frame, with small holes through which the pick- 
ed-off berries fall into the tub. 

3. By the fork, which is of wood, 17 to 24 inches long and 
three fourths of an inch thick, parting in the middle into three 
branches. This instrument is moved about in the tub filled with 
grapes, holding it with one hand by the handle, with the other 
by one of the three prongs. The stalks are thereby separated 
from the berries and taken out. 

Crushing and Pressing the Grapes. 

The first is usually done in the vineyard, in a tub placed in a 
slanting position, by " treading'^ them with the feet, or by crush- 
ing with a wooden pestle. In the first case, wooden shoes, well 
cleaned, are put on. 

If the juice is to be directly separated from the stones and 
skins, the tub must have holes in the bottom to let it flow out, 
leavmg those inside. In the Ehine district the treading method 
has been generally adopted, because the aroma, being mostly held 



204: GRArE CULTURE AND WINE-MAKlNG. 

by the skins, is better developed in this manner, and -wines so 
produced have a much stronger bouquet than if made by any oth- 
er method. 

The tubs have a lid which covers the vat underneath, in order 
to shut the air out from it. This lid or board has a large round 
hole, surrounded by a wooden hoop one inch high, within which 
the upper tub is put so as to be immovable. It has likewise a 
small flap, through which one sees if the tub is filled, and also 
may push the husks back that rise in the middle. 

If the must, however, is to ferment with the skins and pedicles, 
the whole mass is left together, and is pressed off from the husks 
when the fermentation has more or less advanced. 

In the 2^^'css-house the mass is either pressed at once, or allowed 
to ferment with the skins and stalks, or with the first only. In 
the latter case, the wine gains in color, taste, flavor, and spirit, as 
the husks always contain sweet and spicy parts that get freed by 
the fermentation. It gets also sooner drinkable, as the acid and 
tannic parts of the berries effect a quicker secretion of the yeast. 
But it is also sourer and more acid ; therefore it is frequently pre- 
ferred to leave the skins and stalks aside. 

This is done by the 2>'>'<^ssing 2irocess, to which the whole mass is 
subjected in a fresh-crushed state, or in that of a more or less ad- 
vanced fermentation. The juice first coming out here is that of 
the most ripe grapes; consequently it is the sweetest, and gives 
the best wine. After this it contains more and more acid and 
sour parts, and makes only inferior wines. From this the names 
of "wine of the first, second, third press" are given, as also ^)mne, 
press, and hiisk wine. ' If the grapes have but little water, warm 
or cold water is poured on the pressed-out busks, which are then 
pressed again. 

The husks on the sides of the tub are not exposed to an equal 
pressure with those in the middle. They are consequently cut 
off and pushed toward the centre after each pressing. In Wiir- 
temberg the common broad-axe of the carpenters is used for this 
purpose. In other districts they have particular implements for 
the same object. 

Only the must of grapes gathered and pressed at the same time 
must be put into one vat, as otherwise the fermentation would be 
unequal and the wine less good. 

Fermentatio7i. 

The must is now left to ferment : in northern climates usually 
in cellars ; in southern, under sheds. If it is in large tubs or 
vats, its own heat is generally sufficient to get it into proper fer- 
mentation even at a low temperature ; but if this should not be 
the case, artificial warmth must be applied. The cellar, in that 
case, if covering with warm blankets will not answer, is warm- 
ed by a coal fire, or some of the must itself is warmed and pour- 



JOHANN CARL LEUCIIS ON WINE-MAKING. 205 

ed into the vats tbrough a long funnel, that it may get to the bot- 
tom. 

The fermentation may take place in covered, in partially covered, 
or in open tubs or vats. 

The must may furthermore be allowed to ferment above or he- 
low ; that is, the vats may be so constructed that the must ejects 
above all the slimy, thready, and yeast parts which arc driven up- 
ward. This may easily be caused by keeping the tubs all the 
time so well filled that the crust is ejected over the border; or 
these parts may remain in the fluid and settle on the bottom to- 
ward the end of the fermentation, in which case it takes place be- 
low. The wines made by the first manner are usually sooner 
drinkable, but also of less body. 

When the fermentation subsides the bungs must not be closed 
at once, but only lightly covered, as carbonic acid still develops 
itself, and, when the temperature changes, the fermentation fre- 
quently commences again. 

A disadvantage of the fermentation in open vats is that the sur- 
face of the must comes too much into contact with the air, gets 
cold by this, sour, and gives the wine a disagreeable taste. In or- 
der to prevent this, it would be wiser to close the vat entirely, and 
let the air escape by a crooked pipe whose mouth lies under wa- 
ter. By this construction the outer air is perfectly shut out from 
the must, and all fermentation of acetic acid is prevented. A part 
of the carbonic acid and the alcohol evaporating with it is like- 
wise retained by the water. 

The advantages of this method are farther : 

1. That the fermentation takes place more quietly, consequent- 
ly with less inner heat, though slower. 

2. The result will be not only more wine, but also one richer 
in spirit. 

3. The red wine especially gets a finer color, as the air does not 
extract the coloring matter. 

4. The wine is less exposed to danger of changing suddenly 
and getting sour. 

.5. A fluid is got in the receiving water containing carbonic 
acid and alcohol, which may be profitably used for making vine- 
gar or alcohol by distillation. It has also been used for bathing 
and drinking purposes. 

Filling in the Must. 

The time of the fermentation depends greatly on the tempera- 
ture, the nature of the must, and the quality of wine that may be 
wanted. In warmer climates it is frequently done in twelve 
hours ; in others it takes from four to fifteen days, and even four 
weeks. Wines of but little sugar must be filled into casks before 
the visible fermentation ceases, as they are much exposed to sud- 
den changes. Wines that came out of a slow fermentation are 



206 GRAPE CULTURE AND WINE-MAKING. 

always more durable than those of a quick one. In such too 
much alcohol escapes. It may, however, be retarded by decreas- 
ing the warmth, or by burning sulphur in the vats. 

The greatest possible cleanliness is absolutely necessary during 
the process. The edges of the bungs have to be frequently clean- 
ed ; and care must be taken that no parts changed by the air re- 
enter the wine. 

When filling it into the casks all the husks must be left out, as 
these are pressed over again, either to give an inferior quality of 
wine or to make vinegar. The casks are filled up to the bung ; 
but if the wine be subject to a strong after fermentation, only up 
to within several inches below the bung-hole. The bung-hole 
must only be lightly covered by a leaf or a stone. Every second 
day the cask must be filled up again. 

The finishing of the first after fermentation may be known 
when no more air-bubbles arise, and the stone on the bung-hole 
does not become moist any more. "When this is the case, the hole 
must be closed tighter. The filling up must, however, be contin- 
ued every eight days at first ; later, every fourteen days ; and still 
later, every four weeks. 

As the young wines, especially if they contain many slimy 
parts, deposit a great deal of yeast, they must be draivn off from 
this from time to time. The rules about this are, however, differ- 
ent in all the grape countries. 

The Malcing of Sweet Wine. 

Wine is called sweet in which only a part of the sugar parts 
are decomposed, and, consequently, the fermentation is not en- 
tirely finished. This might be attained by filling the young wine 
into closed casks before it has fermented out, and checking this 
latter process by an addition of salt, mustard, etc. The wine 
would then, however, not get clear, but would easily relapse into 
fermentation. It is, therefore, better to take must containing much 
sugar and but few yeast parts. As this will not be sufficient to 
decompose all the sugar, a part of it will remain undissolved in 
the wine. The grapes of warm countries generally have these 
conditions by nature, and consequently produce sweet wines. 

They are still made richer in sugar by boiling down a part of 
the must and adding this to the rest ; or the yeast parts are re- 
duced by boiling and scumming the must, or adding gypsum that 
decomposes the cream of tartar. An addition of sugar would 
likewise tend to the first end, and a filtering through charcoal to 
the second. 

In Portugal they add spirit (that makes a part of the yeast in- 
capable of fermentation) to produce the celebrated Angelica or 
Gcropica wine. Sweet wines need, for the most part, an artificial 
clearing. 

In Alsatia they select the best and ripest grapes ; leave them as 



JOHANN CARL LEUCHS ON WINE-MAKING. 207 

long as possible on the bushes until the stalks become dry. They 
gather them on a warm, clear day, and lay them on straw (there- 
fore the wine is called slmw wine)\ or hang them up on rafters 
or poles provided for the purpose, taking care, however, that the 
stalks where they are cut look downward, in order to give the 
berries more room to stand off from one another, since if they 
were close pressed they would be apt to rot. The room in whica 
the drying is done must be airy, not too warm, and closed against 
strong cold. For the first days the windows are left open ; after- 
ward opened at least once in every few days. The more the 
grapes dry, the more delicate against cold they get. In this room 
they leave them until March or April, frequently picking out the 
rotten berries. Then they take them down, and pick the berries 
off singly, and crush and press them. The juice is then at once 
put into a tub, not quite filling it. The fermentation proceeds 
very slowl}^, frequently lasting five to six weeks. If the tem- 
perature be somewhat cold, it is advisable to place the tub in a 
room of about 12° to 14° R. After the fermentation is over, the 
tub is filled up by a quantity left for the purpose. This wine re- 
mains very sweet indeed for a long time, and grows finer by age, 
choicer, and more delicious. Its cloudiness always clears off again 
by its own action. It will never turn sour as long as it may be 
kept. 

The husks of these grapes serve very well to improve ordinary 
wines if thrown into the casks of the latter, stirred up from time 
to time, left in them a few days, and then the wine is drawn off 
and mixed with other. A new fermentation commonly sets in, 
producing a highly improved wine. 

3faking Frozen Wine. 

The wine freed of part of its water by the process of freezing 
not only gains by it in strength, but gets, also, the appearance of 
an old wine and a peculiarly agreeable taste. For these reasons, 
it has been for a long time a custom in Franconia, on the Rhine, 
and in Moldavia, to improve young wines in this manner : 

The wine is put into small barrels, not quite full, or into tubs, 
and exposed to the winter cold. The ice-crust formed is in the 
beginning broken until sufficient water is frozen out, and the re- 
maining wine filled into a freshly -sulphurized cask. If the crust 
gets into compact masses, these must be broken up by a red-hot 
iron. After the dropping off, the ice contains nothing but some 
cream of tartar and impure matters. This procedure is, however, 
not recommendable with red wines, neither for efiervescent ones. 

Making Young Wines appear " Old." 

1. Take a new cask with stout hoops, wash it well out with 
yeast liquor, and fill it three fourths with must. This will soon 
get into fermentation, and must, after this is past, be drawn off 



208 GRAPE CULTURE AND WINE-MAKING. 

into an old wine-cask, and may be repeated over again until 
spring comes. 

2. Mix a little lime-water ■with it. This will make it mild. 

8. Let it freeze. 

4. Throw red-hot flint-stones into it, one after another, and draw 
the wine off in about six weeks. The slimy matters will settle 
on those stones. 

5. Put some oak wood into the cask. This will give the wine 
color, and removes slime. It is, however, not very recommenda- 
ble. 

6. Take it, in good casks, to a warm place — for instance, to a 
warmed room. A few weeks will suffice. 

7. Put it into a cask in which old wine had been contained. 

8. Mix it with a little wine-ether. 



IV. 

CLASSIFICATION OF THE WINES. 

JULLIEN puts them into^^ye classes. The first comprises the 
fine wines, of the prime superior quality, only produced in small 
quantities. The second, the fine wines of a really good quality, 
made in a larger quantity, and generally confounded with the 
former. The third, the fine and middle-fine ones. The fourth, 
the ordinary ones, commonly called of first quality. The fifth, 
those of the second and third quality, and the most inferior ones. 

According to this system, he classified the most superior wines 
as follows : 

I. Eed Wines. 

First Class. 

Of Burgundy. — Romance - Conti, Chambertin, Eicheburg, Vou- 
geot, La Tashe, St. Georges, Gorton. 

Of Bordeaux. — Lafitte, Latour, Ghateaux-Margeaux, Ilaut-Brion. 
Ilermitage : First quality, Of the Vendee. 

Second Class. 

Of Champagne. — Verzy, Verzenay, Mailly, St. Basle, Bouzy, St. 
Thierry. 

Of Burgundy. — Bosne, Nuits, Ghambolle, Volnay, Pomard, Sa- 
vigny, Beaune, Marey, Meursault, Olivates, Pitry, Perriere, Gbai- 
nette, Migrenne, Auxerre. 

Hermitage : Second quality, the Gote-Rotie of Lyons. 

Of Bordeaux. — Rozan, Gorse, Leoville, Larosc. 

Goteaux-Brul(:^ of Avignon, Turancon and Gan of Beam. 

Of Rousillon. — The Vagnals, Gasperon, Gollioure, Terrats. 



JOIIANN CARL LEUCIIS ON WINE-MAKING. 209 

Third Class, 

Of Champagne. — Ilautville, Marcuil, Disy, Picrry, Epcrnay, Tai- 
sy, Ludcs, Cbigny. 

Of Bordeaux. — The Pauillac, Margaux, Pcssac, St. Julien. 

Of Burgundy. — The Gevrcy, Chassagne, Aloso, Llagny. 

OfLauguedoc. — The Chuzelan, Tavel, St. Geniez, Lirac, Ledenoa, 
Cornac, Cante-Perdrix. 

Fourth and Fifth Class. 
All others, too numerous to be mentioned. 

II. White Wines. 

First Class. 

Of Champagne. — Sillery, Ay, Mareuil, Hautviller, Pierry, Dissy, 
Clozet. 

Of Burgundy. — Montrachet. 

Of Bordeaux. — The dry wine of St. Bris, Carbonnieux, Pontac. 
Sauternes, Barsac, Beaumes, and the Preignac. 

The Hermitage, and the Chateau-Grillet. 

Second Class. 

Of Champagne. — Cramet, Avise, Ogne, Le Menil. 

OfAlsatia. — Gebweiler, Turkheimer, Riqueville, Thanner, Pfaft"- 
enheimer, Rufacher, Kaisersberger, Molsheimer. 

Of Burgundy. — Perriere, Combotte, Charmes. 

Of Franche-Comte. — Chateau-Chalons, Arbois, and Pupillin. 

The Condrieux, Department du Ehone ; Langon, of Bordeaux : 
Montbasillace, St. Nessons, and Sance, of Pdrigord ; St. Peray and 
St. Jean, of Languedoc. 

Third Class. 
Some sorts of Burgundy and of Bordeaux. 

HI. Liqueur Wines. 

First Class. 

Tokay, from Hungary ; Lacrimse Christi, from Napolis ; Mus- 
cat, from Syracuse ; Commandery Wine, from Cyprus ; Constan- 
tia, from the Cape of Good Hope ; Rivesalter, from Roussillon : 
and several straw wines from Alsatia, and that of the Hermitage. 

Second Class. 

Frontignac, Lunel, and other Muscat wine, from Languedoc : 
Grenache, from Rousillon ; and the Maccabee, from the Pyrenees : 
the better sort of Alicante and Malaga ; Grenache, from Aragon : 
those of Setuval, Carcavellos, and Bucellas, in Portugal ; the sweet 





210 GRAl^E CULTURE AND WINE-MAiaNG. 

wines from Vesuvius, from Syracuse, tlie Lipari Islands, Albauo, 
Monte Fiascone, etc., etc. ; the Cbiras, from Persia ; Muscat and 
Eota, from the Cape of Good Hope ; Madeiras and Teneriffes. 

Third Class. 

Several white Alicante wines ; several from Upper Italy ; the 
straw wine of Wiirzburg, and the Calmuth wine of Aschaffenburg ; 
the wine of Chiavenna ; the Karlowitzer ; the second quality of 
the Muscat of Languedoc ; the Picardan. 

IV, Dry Wines. 

First Glass. 
Johannisberger, Eiidesheimer, Deidesheimer, Badenweiler. 

Second Class. 

The first qualities of the Rhine wines, principally Ilochheimer, 
Laubenheimer, ISTierensteiner, Brauneberger ; the Ruster, Menes- 
cher, the Karlowitzer ; the dry Xeres, Paraxeta, Olivenza ; Port 
wine. 

Third Class. 

The wines from the Upper Rhine ; the better sorts of Franconia 
wines ; some from Bohemia and Wiirtemberg. 



V. 

OF DRAWING OFF THE WINE. 



The purpose of this is to separate the wine from its yeasty parts. 
It must, consequently, be principally done at times when influ- 
ences of the weather dispose it to ferment again. The seasons are 
when the grape-bush shoots anew in the spring ; when it blooms 
in the months of May and June ; in August, and when the grapes 
mature in September ; and in the beginning of winter, when rainy 
weather lasts for several days. It ought to be a rule to draw off 
before such influences set in. Against those of very stormy weath- 
er the wine may be partially protected by closing the doors and 
windows of the cellar in which it is kept. If fermentation, how- 
ever, takes place, it is better to loosen the bungs to give the air 
free egress, and let it go on, or to check it by sulphurization. 

Rhine and other sour wines are generally drawn off three times 
during six years, at the above-mentioned times; then they are 
left undisturbed for three years, being only looked after from time 
to time, and the bung-cloth changed. 

Frequent connection with the air often injures the wine, as a 



JOHANN CARL LEUCIIS ON WINE-MAKING. 211 

great quantity of spirit evaporates cacli time, and it thereby gets 
weaker, especially if clone on warm days. To prevent this as 
much as possible, the opening ought always to be done on cool 
days, when the north wind blows, never during a south wind. To 
prevent the combination with the outer air, various methods are 
recommended, some of which we will here describe. 

The drawing off is usually performed as follows: A hole is 
bored into the cask at a certain height from the bottom, where it is 
supposed that the wine may no longer be clear ; through this hole 
the wine runs out by means of a tube or pipe. In order to let 
the air enter the cask, the bung is opened, or a small hole bored 
through one of the staves. When the clear wine is all out, the 
cask is lifted up until the thick or muddy portion runs out. This 
is then filled into another cask. 

A better method is that with a leather pipe, four to six feet 
long, one end of which holds a tube. This is placed tightly into 
the bung-hole of the cask to be filled, the other end being attach- 
ed to the fiuicet of the cask to be emptied, which must stand high- 
er. The wine runs through this pipe to the other cask until it is 
half filled. Now the attendant must blow into the upper cask 
through a bellows having a leather cap over its mouth to prevent 
the air from re-entering it, and drive the remaining wine out of 
it through the pipe. 

The mode of drawing the wine off by means of a siphon has 
the advantage that the connection with the outer air may be al- 
most wholly avoided. The siphon is filled with wine, and the 
short arm is placed in the cask to be emptied, the long one into 
that to be filled. The contents of the first barrel then pass into 
the second. The use of the pump for drawing off wine is mostl}'' 
confined to Champagnes. 




UILTON'8 lnstecmekt. 



Preferable to this is, however, the method of drawing off by a 
" Hilton's Instrument," which offers the advantage of its being 
quickly done, without allowing the wine to communicate with 
the air. A shows a cask filled with wine. B is a cask into which 
this wine is to be transferred. C and D are faucets screwed into 



212 GRM'E CULTURE AND WINE-MAKING. 

the casks about one and three quarter inches from the bottom. 
F is a crooked piece of pipe preventing the air from passing over 
with the last of the wine. At G two glasses are placed, allowing 
the condition of the wine to be ascertained. H is a sucking-pump 
with a conical screw, which is screwed into the bung-hole of cask 
B. After opening the faucets C and D, screwing in the pump 
and starting it, a partial vacuum is formed in the cask, and the 
pressure of the atmosphere drives the wine immediatel}' over out 
of A into B. As soon as it has sunk to near the bottom, the fau- 
cet D is closed, and the cask A carefully lifted. The wine is thus 
drawn off without muddying it by the yeast. Below, the pump 
has a hole (at I) through which the air escapes, which is closed 
when this is done. 

Filling the Wine into Bottles. 

This is usually done by means of a faucet, from which it runs 
into the bottles through a funnel. It comes, however, less in con- 
tact with the air if let off by a siphon, but mixes itself with the 
yeasty parts stirred up in the cask. An improvement in the con- 
struction of the former instrument preventing the first cause of 
complaint, seems to make the simple old fashion more preferable. 

As a rule, wines must not be bottled until their fermentation 
is completely over, otherwise many bottles would likely burst. 

White wines may be bottled without danger after a year or 
eighteen months ; so, too, liqueur wines or light red wines. Oth- 
ers of a heavier body (as, for instance, the Chambertin, the Gorton) 
must not be bottled before three or five years. Bordeaux and 
Ehine wines are best left eight to ten years in the casks. 

The bottling should be done in cool weather. In the district 
of Champagne, in France, the time of the full moon in the month 
of March is preferred for effervescent loines; for others, the waning 
of the moon. 

The bottles must only be filled to within two inches of the 
mouth, so that, after corking them, a small vacuum remains be- 
tween the cork and wine. This is done to prevent bursting. 



YI. 

TREATMENT OF BOTTLED WINES. 

A CHIEF condition for the preservation of such is to keep the 
bottles always in a level position, so that the cork is covered by 
the wine. If not, mould will soon cover and make it sour. 

In the course of time, however, they secrete a sediment, of 
which they must be freed before they can be used or sent off. If 
it be clean and sand-like, it is only cream of tartar, and may re- 



JOHANN CARL LEUCHS ON WINE-MAKING. 213 

main. The filling from one bottle into anothei: is simply done 
by leaving the sediment back. 

Filling uj) and Wasting of Wines. 

Even in tlic best-made casks an evaporation of the spirit and 
watery parts of the wine takes place, escaping through the seams, 
forming, consequently, by the diminution of it, a vacuum above 
it. This is called "the wasting" of the wine. No remedies 
against it have proved effective ; the only thing to be done is the 
timely filling up of the casks, for the air, coming into contact with 
the wine, would otherwise spoil it. A younger wine, though 
similar in quality or taste, is generally taken for this purpose. 
Before it is done, the air must be blown out of the cork by a pair 
of bellows, or the empty space be sulphurized. If wine has been 
freshly drawn off, it must be filled up within the first twenty -four 
hours, especially if the casks are new, for these draw a great deal 
of fluids in ; again in about eight or fourteen days ; later, in three 
or four weeks, and so on. 

In case the wine should be mouldy, it must be filled up by 
means of a pipe laid under its surface, so as not to drive the mould 
under it. When the cask is full, this must be taken off with a 
spoon. If the mould should be mixed already with the wine, 
this must be drawn off through a faucet whose mouth is covered 
by a piece of gauze. 

In case there should not wine enough be left to fill a cask suffi- 
ciently up, the empty space in it must at least be sulphurized 
every four to five days, and fresh air blown into it. The bung- 
cloths must at every filling up be well washed or renewed, as 
they easily tend to make it sour. 

Of late it has been recommended to put glass bells upon the 
bung, thereby greatly facilitating the filling-up process. These 
are fixed by cork stoppers, by boring a conical hole, of the thick- 
ness of the lower part of the tube of the glass bell, through a piece 
of cork. The tighter this is let into the bung-hole, the more se- 
cure will be the result. It will be well, however, before letting 
it in, to dip the cork into hot water for several minutes. After 
all this is done, the glass bell is turned into the hole of the stopper 
to about two thirds of the tube, so that it is felt sticking tightly. 
It is then filled with the same kind of wine as that in the cork, 
and the upper mouth of it closed by an ordinary stopper. A few 
days after it is filled up again, until the wine has settled, and it 
will then be seen that it remains in the bell. The farther filling 
up may be repeated every two or three weeks. These bells must 
be from three to six or eight inches wide, and the six to ten-inch 
long tubes have an upper mouth one and a half inches wide. 

The advantages presented by this method are : 1. That no mould 
can be formed ; 2. It results in much less sediment or yeast ; 3, 
The wines, if once clear, need less drawing off. 



214 GKAPE CULTURE AND WINE-JIAKING. 



YII. 
CLARIFYING WINES. 

In most wines clarification results from tlieir own action, as 
the yeast parts settle down as soon as the fermentation is over. 
Especially is this the case with dry wines, i. e., such as have per- 
fectly fermented out, and these need no artificial help. 

It is, however, different with sweet and oily wines, in which the 
still undissolved sugar contains a great deal of yeast in an unde- 
composed state ; and the slimy and extractive parts do not easily 
settle. With these it is necessary to add a slimy body, that mixes 
itself with them, then coagulates, and in this state absorbs all those 
parts. 

Such substances are animal jelly and albumen {ivhite of an egg). 
They arc both dissolved in water, and stirred into the wine. The 
gelatinous matter coagulates, in conjunction with the tannic acid, 
into an insoluble substance. Consequently, it can only be used 
for clarifying such wines as contain tannic acid ; or, if not, the}' 
must be made to contain it by a decoction of oak shavings or 
catechu poured into it, or by putting the shavings themselves 
into the cask. The white of an egg also forms a similar insolu- 
ble connection with the tannic acid, but coagulates by heat or 
strong spirit, and satiates a small portion of the vinous acids. It 
may, therefore, be used for wines that have no such tannic acids, 
if they are only strong in spirit. The wines that are to be clari- 
fied are usually not sulphurized. 

The most convenient time for the operation are cool, pleasant 
days. Old wines are closed up after being mixed with the sub- 
stance ; young ones, generating much carbonic acid, are left with 
a small opening during the first day to allow this to escape. 

The white of the egg is best stirred up with water before add- 
ing it to the wine. Three eggs will generally suffice for about 
160 bottles of red wine. If not, it will be better to repeat the ex- 
periment than to take at once a greater number. In young wines 
a little salt may be safely added. 

The clearing by isinglass is done by beating this material first 
with a hammer, then tearing it into small pieces and putting them 
into a vessel containing wine. This is poured off in about eight 
hours, and new ones added. After twenty-four hours a jelly will 
be formed, to which hot water must be added ; then the mass is 
kneaded with the hands to accelerate the dissolution, strained, 
and beaten, with the addition of a little more wine, for about a 
quarter of an hour. In this condition it is mixed with the wine 
in the cask. One litre of isinglass will sufiice for about 240 or 
260 bottles of white wine. In Germany one half to two ounces 
of it are taken, according to circumstances, to one fuder ; in France, 



JOHANN CARL LEUCIIS ON WINE-MAKING. 215 

half an ounce to 80 or 100 bottles of wine. Two or three weeks 
after the clarifying with isinglass the wine may be drawn off. It 
is mainly used for Muscadine, Luucl, Frontignae, Malaga, and all 
the various "liqueur wines." 

Clarifying with bone jelly is performed in a similar manner. 
The substance is previously soaked in water for a few hours and 
beaten. It is preferable to the former, as, once settled down, it 
does 'not easily rise again to mix with the liquid, being heavier 
than other kinds of glue. Five grammes of it will do the same 
work as the white of four eggs. Especially for red wines it is 
recommendablc. One pound of bone jelly is sufficient for 25 
hogsheads of it ; in liqueur wines one pound is taken for 15 hogs- 
heads. 

If clearing with milk is tried, this must be boiled, and skimmed 
off to remove all the fat parts, and one maas of it mixed with 150 
bottles of wine. 

Sheep's blood may also be used by taking half a maas of it 
(when fresh) to 150 bottles. In France it is sold for this purpose 
in a dried and powdered state. 

In clarifying with resin, this substance must be finely powder- 
ed, and thrown over the whole surface of the wine after taking a 
few bottles of it out of the cask by a siphon. This must be filled 
in again in a fortnight. The resin is dissolved gradually, and 
sinks to the bottom, clearing the wine, which must be drawn off 
afterward. One ounce of resin is sufficient for 400 bottles. 

"Dyer's Clarifying Powder," patented in England in 1835, is 
composed of dried blood, dried white of eggs, dried bones of 
young animals. When used the powder is stirred with water, 
left standing for eight hours, and then mixed with the wine. Mr. 
Dyer dries the blood and white of eggs in the air. 

With blotting-paper : This is put into the wine rolled up in 
such a manner that, gradually unrolling, it expands itself, and, 
settling down, carries all the muddy parts with it to the bottom. 
This method is, however, not very effective. 

By red-hot stones : Gradually introducing them through the 
bung-hole, and leaving them for about six weeks in the cask. 
For young yeasty wines this mode is of advantage, as it makes 
them milder, richer in spirit, and of improved taste and color. 
After the wine is drawn off the stones will be found covered by 
a thick slime. 

Clarifying with coal is done by using half a pound or a pound 
of powdered charcoal to one eimer of wine, and leaving both for 
eight days in connection. 



216 GRAPE CULTUKE AND WmE-MAIUNG. 



VIIL 
GIVING COLOR TO WINES. 

This is principally done with red wines. In Bordeaux the 
whortleberry {Vaccinium myrtiUus) is mainly used. By boiling 
them a decoction is made, and a little cream of tartar added to 
this, then strained, and, with some alcohol, filled up in bottles for 
use. 

The following substances are also used to give color to wines : 
the berries of the elder-bush ; Brazil-wood ; red beets ; the flow- 
er-leaves of the mallow {AUhcea 7-osea); the berries of the scarlet- 
berry {Phytolacca decandra) ; black cherries ; the yeast of red 
wines ; and very highly-colored red wines. 

Weak wines are usually not well colored, because the coloring 
matter is mainly dissolved in the alcohol. In this case they must 
be mixed with spirit, 8 to 15 maas to the cask. 

White wines receive an artificial yellow color by a solution of 
burnt sugar. Take 1 lb. of powdered white sugar, add a \ lb. of 
water, and stir it over a fire until it gets a dark brown color. 

If red wines have a brown color, this is caused by the presence 
of too much lime or alkali. An addition of any kind of acid will 
remedy it. 

White wines frequently get by age an unpleasant brownish 
color. Sulphurizing them, an addition of powdered charcoal or 
of chalk., will help here (one ounce to the eimer). 



IX. 

MIXING AND JUDGING OF WINES. 

Mixing frequently proves of great advantage, as the jDromi- 
nent qualities of the one will effectually cover the lacks of the 
other. All, however, depends on the wines themselves, and no 
certain rules can be given. In France, those of the south, rich in 
sugar and alcohol, are mostly used to improve those of the north, 
or of inferior vintages. But even in the south thcj/- mix their 
wines with alcohol, to make them stronger and give them a 
clearer color. 

Wines that are too thick or slimy must be mixed with light 
red or white ones. As the bouquet usually disappears by this 
proceeding, wines that are rich in it ought not to be mixed at all. 

A really good wine must have the following qualities : 

Its color must be bright and transparent, no matter of what 
shade it be. Young wines have it generally very light ; the more 



JOHANN CARL LEUCIIS ON WINE-MAKING. 217 

of age they become, the more this changes into dark. The dark- 
er, the more oily and earthy parts they contain. 

The Jiavor must be agreeable and strengthening, the more so 
the finer the wine. 

The taste must be a little sourish-sweet, and touch the tongue 
without acidity, much less contract it. 

The impression upon the tongue should last for some time, 
and be without any earthy or other by-taste. 

The strength and fire characterize it mainly, insomuch that, even 
if intoxicating, it docs not effect or leave a heavy drowsiness, heat, 
headache, and thirst. 

It must, farthermore, be volatile and penetrating^ quickly open 
its own way, and disappear again. When poured into a glass a 
whizzing noise must be heard, and the wine must leap up in a 
multitude of small pearls. 

It must have gone through ^ perfect fermentation. 

In trying different qualities of wines, it is always well to take 
the sample (if it be from a cask) from the middle of it, and the 
examining person must take care not to eat, shortly previous to 
or during the occupation, any spiced or salted things, such as 
cheese, sausages, and so forth; nor sweet ones, as honey, coffee, 
etc. 



X. 

THE PRINCIPAL DISEASES OF WINES. ' 

Sudden Changes. 

The cause of sudden changes in wines may be, 1. Too large a 
quantity of yeast matter^ especially in sour wines not rich in sugar, 
where they continually try to change, first, the sugar into spirit, 
and this, then, into vinegar. 2. A renewal of the slow fermentation. 
If this sets in and is neglected, it may become very detrimental 
to the wine. This ought, therefore, to be several times drawn off 
from the yeast sediment in the cask. 3. A change of temperature. 
The wine drops, at a temperature of 4 to 8 degrees above 0, many 
firm parts from the decomposition, and its inner fermentation stops 
almost entirely. But at a contrary temperature of 14 or 15 de- 
grees above 0, many of these get dissolved, and impart to the wine 
an unpleasant taste and more acids. 4. Motion of the wine in the 
casks. By this, the sediment and yeast matter get again mixed 
up with it, and the warmer the temperature, the more detrimental 
it becomes. A thunder-storm may also affect the wine on ac- 
count of the influence of the electricity. 5. Connection ivith the air, 
and an empty space in the casJcs. These ought consequently to be 
avoided as much as possible. 

The most efficient remedy against all these causes is to give 



218 GKArE CULTURE AND WINE-MAKING. 

the wine always something whereby it may form alcohol : a sweet 
siibstauce, for instance, such as boiled grape-juice, grape-sugar, or 
honey. Besides this, a good bed, quiet, and as little access of air 
as possible. 

Of sweet mixtures used for this purpose, and also to give inferior 
wines a better taste and more body, we mention the following : 

1. Prime Spanish raisins, without stalks and stones, are boiled 
with water; the decoction is strained, and mixed with alcohol 
(one maas to one pound of raisins). In the fall, this is mixed 
with four or five times its quantity of good must ; let them fer- 
ment together, draw it oft' from the }' east, and preserve it in bot- 
tles. One maas of this strong juice is sufficient to improve one 
eimer of young red wine. But if this be sour, it must be made 
right again previously by an application of powdered chalk or 
coal. 2. Good must, mixed with the tenth part of its own weight 
of crushed sugar and the eighth part of its quantity of pure alco- 
hol. 3. Selected grapes are allowed to get to perfect maturity in 
the sun, or in a heated room, and to dry. Their juice is then 
pressed out and boiled a little, or mixed with sugar and cream 
of tartar if too watery. In this manner it serves very well to 
improve weak wines. 4. One part of honey and two parts of old 
French wine are warmed over a small fire, and skimmed. Four 
maas are sufficient for one hogshead. 5. Shoots of the grape-vino 
are boiled in wine. This is good for such wines as have but lit- 
tle taste and color. 6. One ounce of cream of tartar boiled with 
six maas of water until it is dissolved ; then one pound of barley 
to be added, and boiled till it bursts ; then four pounds of honey 
added, stirred, and so much water put to it that the quantity 
amounts to six maas, and the whole used for a cask of wine of 
fifty cans. 7. In France, often nothing but ^^ grape-sugar''^ is used, 
especially for wines destined for sale in the northern countries. 

Souring. 

This takes place if a part of its spirit changes into vinegar. 
In order to do this, it needs a stuff inducing a sour fermentation, 
and free access of the air. Water favors it, and alcohol mixed 
with a great quantity of water is, by the mere combination with 
the air, transformed into vinegar. The mould is a forerunner of it. 

If the wine, therefore, has but few watery parts and fermenta- 
tion matters, and is kept shut out from the air, there isbut little 
danger of its turning sour. Likewise if it still contains many 
undissolved sweet parts. Eeduction of the water, removing the 
yeasty matters, and preventing the air from coming into contact 
with it, are consequently the most available remedies. Souring 
takes place most readily with wine kept in badly-constructed cel- 
lars, or at the times of great changes of the atmosphere, and vio- 
lent electric shocks. 

For the purpose of reducing the quantity of water, an addition 



JOHANN CARL LEUCIIS ON WINE-MAKING. £19 

of strong wine, of sugar, alcohol, or gypsum, is available. To pre- 
vent the detrimental influences of the air, the casks must be not 
only filled full, but also kept so, and closed well. Sulphurizing 
the wine serves also, and the fermenting of the must already in 
closed tubs. To reduce the bad influences of the yeast parts, all 
movements or shaking of the casks must be carefully avoided, as 
well as the changes of temperature. 

If the wine should be just beginning to get sour, it will be suf- 
ficient to draw it off into another sulphurized cask, and to clear 
it with the white of an egg. If it be already more advanced, fine- 
ly-powdered charcoal must be mixed with the wine (4 ounces to 
1 eimer), and then drawn off, after a while, and clarified. The 
same effect is produced by roasted nuts (4 to 25 bottles). 

If it is very far advanced, nothing is left but to satiate the wine 
with potassa (i to ^ oz. to 1 eimer) or with powdered chalk (2 
oz). It must then, however, be used soon. 

Ehine wines that get sour are usually cleared by a mixture of 
10 lbs. of honey and 8 quarts of skimmed milk. Strong red wines 
are mixed with sugar or boiled grape-juice. 

A preventive against mould are long bungs that enter deeply 
into the wine. 

Becoming Glutinous. 

This is a disease to which weak wines are especially subject, 
which have fermented but little, and consequently contain many 
slimy parts, or those in which the yeast has not been properly 
separated. Frequently it also happens to wines whose grapes 
were grown on a highly-manured soil. The remedies are such 
as will promote fermentation and strengthen the wine : 

1. It must be drawn off in time into another cask in which new 
wine has been, and some alcohol or good new wine addefl. — 2. 
Eed-hot flint-stones may be thrown into the cask, and the wine be 
drawn off after four to six weeks. — 3. Take 12 to 14 ounces of 
cream of tartar and the like quantity of brown sugar ; dissolve 
these in four maas of wine ; put this mixture, when hot, into the 
wine ; close the bung of the cask, shake it for five or six minutes, 
tighten the bung, shake the cask for one or two days more ; and 
after four or five days (when it has got clear), draw the wine off 
into another cask. — 4. If the evil be not considerable, it may be 
sufficient to expose the bottles or casks to the free air ; or, 5. To 
shake the bottles, and then open them to let the air escape, or to 
shake the casks. — 6. If it happens to be at the time of the vintage, 
the wine may be allowed to ferment over again, with the same 
proportion of must. — 7. Bed wines are perfectly restored by a 
mixture with tartaric acid, about one oz. to the hectolitre. 

By the addition of salt (|- lb. to 1 eimer) to the must toward the 
end of its fermentation, we may prevent the formation of glutin- 
ous matters. Sulphuric acid tends to the same purpose. 



220 GRAPE CULTURE AND WINE-MAKING. 

Woody, Mouldy, and Bitter Taste. 

If the taste should not prevail to a great extent, it will be found 
satisfactory to draw the wine off into a new cask, and to sulphur- 
ize it well, or to suspend medlar-fruits by a thread in the cask. 
Fine wines, however, are better clarified by the white of an egg, 
and then drawn off after a month. In case the taste be very no- 
ticeable, fresh W-burned charcoal, well washed, is best stirred into 
the wine, which should be afterward drawn off. In white wines, 
a mixture with lime-water destroys also the bitter and woody 
taste. 

This taste may likewise be disguised by suspending such ma- 
terials as powdered peach-stones, bitter almonds, w41d sage, elder- 
flowers, sassafras, raspberry-sirup, cinnamon, tied up in a bag in 
the cask. 

Wines of an acid taste are mixed with a good old one, or with 
wine-yeast or pure brandy, and afterward cleared. Powdered 
charcoal may also serve. The casks themselves may be purified 
of their sour taste by being washed well out with lime-water or 
the ley of ashes. Against the woody taste Mr. Lajuinais recom- 
mends to scrape off the inner sides of the casks and put oil of ol- 
ives on them. 

Cloudiness and Muddiness. 

"Wine is not clear as long as the yeast matter has not yet set- 
tled down, and it gets cloudy when these mix with it again. In 
sweet wines that have not fully fermented they remain very long, 
and must be removed in an artificial way. 

This is done by clarifying. In a very simple way this may be 
achieved by putting boiled beech-wood shavings into a cask, 
drawi^ig the wine into this, and off again after a little while, with 
the addition of a little salt, which induces the separation of the 
yeast matter. Some time after, the wine must be drawn off again 
into a new cask and sulphurized. 

In case, however, wines remain cloudy that should have per- 
fected their fermentation, this is a sign that they have not done 
so. Sugar may then be added, and means be employed which 
favor the fermentation ; for instance, warmth : a mixture of w\arm 
must, an addition of red-hot stones, shaking the casks, or stirring 
up the yeast, and an addition of chalk or lime if too much acid 
should be contained. 

If wines kept in a badly-constructed cellar get troubled by fre- 
quent shakings of the casks and influences of the air, they must 
be repeatedly drawn off from the yeast, cleared, and sulphurized. 

Red wines are generally cleared, when getting cloudy, by a mix- 
ture of rain-water, a handful of salt, and the whites of eight eggs. 

The spoiling of cloudy (muddy) wines may be prevented by an 
addition of sugar or boiled must. 



JOHANN CARL LEUCUS ON WINE-MAKING. 221 

XI. 

ADULTERATIONS OF WINES. 

Adulterations with poisonous substances, sucli as arsenic, 
lead, and copper, deserve especial consideration. 

The sulphur used in curing the wine sometimes contains ar- 
senic. The most simple way of ascertaining the presence of ar- 
senic in the wine is as follows : Pour some of the white wine 
upon a piece of white paper, and draw through it with a piece of 
caustic stone {lapis infernalis). If the paper turns yellow the 
wine contains either arsenic or a phosphoric salt. If the color 
turns brown after a few minutes, or if the line appears harsh to 
the touch of the finger, the arsenic is certainly in it ; if the color 
changes into a dirty green, there is nothing but the latter salt. 

Lead and copper get into the wine if these metals were allowed 
to come in connection with it ; for instance, by keeping it in cop- 
per vessels, or the presses having leaden parts, or not keeping the 
brass faucets clean. The lead is sometimes added to the wine by 
unscrupulous persons in order to improve it. This ought never 
to be done. Its presence is easily detected by the method of Mr. 
Hahnemann. He takes 4 parts of burned lime and 4 of sulphur 
(both finely powdered and conglomerated in a crucible over fire), 
dissolves them in 120 parts of pure water, and adds 3 parts of 
cream of tartar. In about a quarter of an hour the fluid turns 
milk-white. Now he adds a few drops of muriatic acid, and pre- 
serves the whole in closed bottles. It indicates the lead, even if 
there be only 1 part of it in 5800 parts of wine. The lead gives 
a black sediment. 

Copper is found out in the wine by putting a bright piece of 
coin into it. If it contains copper, this will get metallically de- 
posited on it. 

Eed wines are sometimes adulterated by the application of 
alum. It may be indicated by mixing the wine with kalium. 

The earths and metallic salts fall to the bottom and remain. 
If the sediment is rubbed with a little grease, this gets metallic 
by this process, except in the case of arsenic, which evaporates, 
and makes itself known by a smell of garlic. The earths remain, 
and are cognizable by a solution in pure acetic acid. If this pro- 
duces a salt of a bitter taste, it serves as a sign of the presence of 
lime parts ; a salt of astringent taste shows argillaceous earth 
(clay). If it dissolves in reduced sulphuric acid, and gives a bit- 
ter salt, it contains magnesia. 

Vitriolic acid is sometimes used for adulterating red wines. It 
may be known by their strong sour taste, or if their acids are 
satiated with lime-water, and the residue (or sediment) is greased. 
If it is cream of tartaric acid lime, it will become like burned 



222 GRAPE CULTURE AND WINE-MAKING. 

lime ; if it is gypsum, it will be indicated by tlic smell of rotten 
eggs. 

Frequently the wines contain mixtures of water, alcohol, sugar, 
honey, or a decoction of grapes or raisins. These are not detri- 
mental to the health if the wine, after being mixed with them, 
has been allowed to remain quietly for some time, until a perfect 
combination has taken place. Wines of heavier body want two 
to three years, lighter ones a shorter period, but may be acceler- 
ated by warm cellars. 

It is said that a mixture of sugar may be detected in a wine, if 
made shortly before, by turning an opened bottle of it over into a 
tumbler half filled with water. If it contains a sugar solution, 
this will transfer itself to the water and sweeten it. If the wine 
is sweet by nature, this is not the case. 

Also the mixture of alcohol is indicated in this way : that if 
the wine is distilled, the alcohol changes already at 200° Fahr., 
while the natural alcohol will not before 212° Fahr, 

The adulterations of the red wines are the most common. They 
are even frequently entirely fabricated in an artificial manner. 
The artificial coloring is generally in use even in the most renown- 
ed wine districts. For instance, Bordeaux imports yearly many 
thousands of dollars' worth of whortleberries solely for this pur- 
pose. Besides these. Brazil-wood is extensively used, the berries 
of the elder-tree, red beets, and flower of mallows. 

According to Mr.Vogel, the natural red wine gives a greenish- 
gray sediment, that colored by elder-flowers and Brazil-wood an 
indigo-blue, by red beets a red sediment. An application of lime- 
water colors natural red wines yellowish-brown ; those colored by 
Brazil-wood it changes into a reddish-brown ; those by whortle- 
berries and elder-flowers into green ; those by red beets into a 
yellowish-white, but again into red by adding an acid. 

An astringent taste is artificially given to the red wines by oak- 
wood-shavings or walnut-shells. In England they have a fashion 
of shaking a bottle with a decoction of Brazil-wood and cream of 
tartar to crystallize on its sides, in order to give artificial red wines 
the appearance of natural ones. The lower end of the cork stop- 
per is also colored red. 

Very common is a mixture of the grape wine with apple wine 
(cider). If it be good it can do no harm whatever, and is not eas- 
ily recognizable. 



JOUANN CARL LEUCHS ON WINE-MAKING. 223 

XII. 

USES FOR THE HUSKS AND SEDIMENT. 

After the wine has been produced, there are remaining certain 
parts of the grape which may be turned to use. They may be 
classed as the husks and the sediment. 

The Husks. 

The husks consist of the pedicles and twigs of vines, and skins 
and stones of the grapes. 

The pedicles and skins contain many astringent and acid parts, 
and have always more or less juice left in them after the crush- 
ing process has been gone through. They may consequently be 
used for making brand//, for vinegar, for food for animals, and as 
manure upon the fields. The stones may be used to make oil for 
tanning purposes, for coloring, and also instead of coffee. 

If the husks are wanted for brandy they must be kept out of 
connection with the air, as by this they soon get sour and rotten ; 
they must also be worked up soon. In the south of France they 
are put into large square copper kettles, that have a cooling-tube 
attached, and are put over the lire, when the brandy is formed. 

Mr. Audouard recommends, however, not to distill them at all, 
but to extract the brandy by filtration, thereby gaining one tenth 
more in quantity, and an article of more strength and better taste. 

The husks of 24 hogsheads of wine are put into three square 
stone vats, each of which has a faucet, and 24 barrels of water, 
each containing 200 kilogrammes, are added ; and an hour later, 
the fluid is drawn off and distilled. It gives 72 kilogr. of alcohol 
of 22°, and a quantity of weaker spirit. Immediately after, the 
same quantity of water is again put to the husks, and the weak 
spirit added ; an hour later, this fluid is again drawn oflp into the 
vat No. 1, and the same water put to them for the third time, 
which is drawn off into vat No. 2. The husks will then be found 
exhausted. Fresh husks are now filled in and extracted, (1.) by 
the fluid of vat No. 1, which then gives by distillation 100 kilo- 
grammes of spirit of 22° ; (2.) by the fluid of vat No. 2, which is 
then to be filled into vat No. 1 ; (3.) by pure water filled upon vat 
No. 2, and so on. 

Vinegar is formed if the husks are moistened a little and left to 
ferment in closed tubs until the alcohol has been transformed into 
vinegar. This must then be drawn off from above by filtration. 

If used for food fox animals the husks must be thoroughly dried. 
Sheep like them exceedingly ; poultry will especially thrive on 
them. 

In making potash out of the husks, ten pounds will be the prod- 
uce of 500 pounds of the husks. 



22J: GKAPE CULTUKE AND WINE-IVIAKING. 

If the stones are wanted to make oil of, tliey must be separated 
from the husks directly after being pressed, dried, cleaned by siev- 
ing, and then pressed; 100 lbs. of stones will give =10 to 12 to 
20 lbs. of oil. The oil-cake forms an excellent food for hogs. In 
Italy, for instance, the single province of Verona manufactures 
yearly about 6000 cwt. of oil from these stones. They may also 
be used for tanning purposes, as they contain a great deal of the 
matter. 

The Sediment. 

The yeast matters that get deposited during the fermentation 
or later, contain, besides the yeast, mainly vegetable threads, cream 
of tartar, and other substances, as alcoholic and sweet ones. They 
may consequently be turned to profit by distilling brandy out of 
them. If burned, they make ashes very rich in alkali : 8000 
pounds of dry wine yeast will give 500 pounds of ashes, which 
will yield 250 pounds of good potash. 

The salts which are found deposited on the sides of the casks, 
especially of those containing old wines, are sold as "crude cream 
of tartar." 



XIII. 

THE CELLAKS, CASKS, BOTTLES, AND IMPLEMENTS. 
The Cellars. 

Much depends on the condition of these. A good cellar should 
1. Lie ioivard the 7iorih, because it is then less warm and less ex- 
posed to the changes of the temperature. — 2. Be dcej), to keep the 
influence of the outer air from it as much as possible. — 8. Be a 
little moist, but not too much so. In such cellars a cask of 250 
bottles will probably not lose more than one tumblerful a month, 
while in dry cellars frequently two bottles of wine and more will 
be lost. — 4. Have a moderate light. If the light is too strong, it 
dries too much ; if light is entirely shut out, mould is induced. — 
5. Not he subject to shaldrtrj, because each concussion injures the 
wine. — 6. Not be surrounded by a soil that contains rotten or 
mouldy parts, as these will fill it with bad vapors affecting the 
wine. — 7. It must not serve at the same time to keep vegetables, 
green ivood, or vinegar, cheese, etc. 

A cellar that has not these required qualities may be improved 
by artificial means in the following manner: 

1. If it is too u-arm, by planting trees about it where the sun 
shines upon it, or by fixing double doors at some distance apart, 
the inner one of which is not to be opened before the outer one 
has been closed. 2. If it is too damp, by putting the casks upon 



JOIIANN CARL LEUCIIS ON WINE-MAKING. 225 

a higher bed, and frequently sweeping the ground beneath them ; 
or by making more air-holes ; or by strewing fresh blacksmith 
cinders over the floor, and taking them out again after two or 
three days : these will absorb a great deal of moisture. 3. If it 
is too d)-i/, by reducing the number of air-holes ; by bringing in 
moist sand, or vessels filled with water. 4. If it is too cold, by 
warming it. This is especially advisable for red wines. 

A cellar should have at least a height of six to ten feet, and be 
covered with six feet of earth. Cellars dug out of a gypsum rock 
can not be used during the first two to four years, as this evolves 
a vapor which might spoil the wane in the casks. Air-holes are 
indispensably necessary, and must, during the summer heat, be 
lightly covered over with straw, as also during the cold of the 
winter. 

In order to get the carbonic acid, so detrimental to the health, 
out of a cellar, some slackened lime must be introduced, besides 
keeping up a good draught of air. If a person has business in 
such a cellar, a lighted candle ought always to be taken along, 
and held low. When it goes out of itself there is danger of suf- 
focation. This may be in some measure prevented by holding a 
sponge dipped in ammonia before the mouth and nose. 

The Casks. 

Large casks are preferable to small ones. The fermentation 
takes a more even and perfect course in them ; the air has less 
influence on the wine, which is not so liable to sudden changes, 
on account of the greater thickness of the staves. After they are 
filled they are to be closed air-tight by bungs, made best of ash- 
wood, and have a small hole left in the middle, which serves to 
fill the wine up through. The bung of this hole has a hook to 
facilitate its lifting. 

According to experiments made by Mr. Lignieres, the wine in 
ordinary barrels loses, in the first year, from 8 to 10 per cent. ; 
but in large casks, on the contrary, only 1^ per cent. Besides 
this, there are other advantages offered by large casks. They 
cause a saving of room and of labor. 

In olden times large casks were constructed, where frequently 
single cloisters and seigneuries had occasion to bring the rich har- 
vests of entire districts into their cellars. The most widely-known 
of them were : 

1. The great cask of Koenigstein, in Saxony. It is 17 ells long, 
its depth is 12 ells at the bung and 11 ells at the bottom. It was" 
constructed in the year 1725, and has 157 staves, each one 8 inch- 
es thick. It holds 3709 Dresdener eimer of wine. The wine 
with which it was filled the first time cost 20 kreutzers per maas ; 
altogether, 50,000 guldens. 

2. The great cask of Heidelberg, in Germany. This is 36 feet 
long, 24 wide, and 21 high. A staircase leads up to a small danc- 

P 



226 GRArE CULTURE AND WINE-MAKI<2s^G. 

ing-room. The iron hoops weigh 110 cwt. It was constructed 
ill the year 1664, and holds 2040 eimer of wine — 236,000 bottles. 
In the same cellar is shown, as a contrast to this leviathan, a very 
small keg, onl}^ holding a few drops. 

3. The big cask of Nikolsburg, in Moravia. It holds 2000 
eimer, and has 22 iron hoops, each of which weighs 7 cwt. It 
was constructed in the year 1643. 

4. The cask at Tata or Dotis, in Hungary. This holds 1500 
eimer ; is 24 feet long, and 14 high ; has staves 6 inches thick, 
and enormous iron hoops, held together by iron screws as thick 
as one's arm. By means of a ladder the bung-hole is reached. 
The cellar in which it is placed holds 50,000 eimers of wine, and 
one may drive about in it with a coach and six. 

5. The cask of Kloster Neuburg. This holds 999 eimer. Be- 
sides these, the bung-hole holds a full eimer. 

6. The cask in the castle at Tubingen, which is 24 feet long 
and 16 high. Constructed in 1548. 

7. The casks on the island of Meinau, in the Lake of Constance. 
The largest one holds 184,320 bottles. Besides this there are 
100 others, each one capable of holding 5000 bottles. 

8. The cask at Groeningen, constructed by Michael Werner, 
who built also the one at Heidelberg. It consists of 93 oak staves, 
each one 80 feet long, and 8|- inches thick at its end. Each bot- 
tom is 18 feet and 1 inch high, and has 3 bars. Each hoop is 9 

finches thick, made of oak, with iron bands and screws. On all 
the hoops are 316 pairs of bands, and 955 iron screws, which 
weigh together 123 cwt. 99 lbs. It is said that the weight of the 
cask itself is 636 cwt. 18 lbs., and that it holds 161 fuder and 16 
viertel, or 28,672 stiibchen of wine. Its cost, without including 
the value of the timber, was 6000 thalers. 

The Bottles. 

In order to clean the bottles, common lead shot is usually used ; 
but this may become detrimental to the health, because every 
time they are used some lead remains on the glass, and even sin- 
gle shots, that get dissolved and poison the wine. To extract 
such pieces there is an instrument called the "lead extractor," 
This consists of a steel rod with a handle, and at its lower end a 
crooked or bent point to loosen the shot with ; and a little above 
this, a hook to extract the pieces of cork that may be in the bot- 
tle. It is, however, better to use common coarse sand or small 
iron chains for the purpose of cleaning bottles. 

Bottles that have been used before must be cleaned very care- 
fully before they are filled anew. If there has been pitch or wax 
on them, these must be removed by a knife, or an instrument call- 
ed the ^'' pilch remover y This is formed by two teethed steel jaws, 
movable in a hinge, and held by a handle with one hand. This 
is pressed asunder in order to get the neck of the bottles between 



JOHANN CARL LEUCIIS ON WINE-MAKING. 227 

the jaws, and tTic instrument is then turned round. The pitch 
now falls directly off. In about half an hour it can clean 100 bot- 
tles, that would otherwise occupy two or three hours. 

The filled bottles are placed in the cellar either upon sand or 
laths, one above another, three to five feet high, in a horizontal 
position, so that the cork shall be always covered by the wine. 

Corks and Corlcing. 

It ought to be a rule always to take only the softest, most equal 
corks, and those that have the fewest holes. For wines that are 
to be kept for a long time new corks must be taken. The lower 
end of the corks, before putting them into the bottles, must be 
pressed a little. 

Sealing and Capping. 

Sealing is generally preferred for fine wines. The neck of the 
bottle is for this purpose dipped into the molten sealing-wax or 
pitch, and then put upright to let this get cold. In France they 
usually make this wax by melting together two pounds of pitch, 
one pound of Burgundy pitch, half a pound of yellow bees'-wax, 
or six ounces of tallow and half a pound of red mastic, which is 
sufficient for 300 bottles ; or two pounds of white pitch, one pound 
of rosin, and a quarter of a pound of bees'-wax. 

The putting of lead or tin foil over the corks is not quite as ad- 
visable a manner as the foregoing. 



XIY. 

WINE MEASURES OF ALL COUNTRIES. 

[The following Wine Measures hai'e been reduced to Parisian cubic inches and decimal 
parts. — Cub. denotes cubic inches.^ 

Aachen (Aix-la-Chapelle) has the Prussian measure. The old 
wine-can (kanne) = 1066 litre. 

Alessandria (Sardinia). — 1 caro = 10 brente = 360 pinte = 720 
bocali=1440 quartini=: 28.400 cub. =8795 Bavarian eimer=564 
litre. 

Alicante. — 1 tonnelade=2 pipes =80 arobas=100 cantaras= 
54.400 CM&. = 1079 litre =16.8 Bavarian = 15.7 Prussian = 18.6 Vi- 
enna eimer. The cantara=8 medios = 16 quartillos. 

Altenburg. — 1 eimer =40 cans =80 maas=160 n6ssel= 8419.9 
cub. = 67 litre = 1057 Bavarian = .987 Prussian = 1169 Vienna 
eimer. 

Altona. — 1 ahm=4 anker =5 eimer =20 viertel=40 stiibchen 
=80 kannen = 160 quartier=320 oessel. 

Amsterdam. — French measure: the vat =100 litre. 



228 GRAPE CULTURE AND WINE-MAKING. 

AiKoy^a. — 1 soma = 48 boccali = 3455 cuh. =z .9977 Prussian 
eimer. 

Appenzell. — 1 eimer=32 maas=2112 C2<Z). =41.8 litre. 

Arau. — 1 saum of unclear measure = 108 maas; 1 of clear 
measure = 100 maas; 1 saum = 100 maas = 2245 Bavarian eimer 
= 144 litre =31.706 gallons =1898 Leipsic, or 2096 Prussian, or 
2482 Vienna eimer. 

Baden (Grand Duchy). — 1 olim = 10 stiitzen = 100 maas or 1000 
glasses ; since 1810 French measure. 

Barcelona. — 1 carga=16 cortanes = 32 c]^uarteros = 128 cjuartos 
=5505 ciib. = 109 litre. 

Basle. — 1 saum = 3 ohm = 96 old=120 new maas = 7404 cuh.=z 
146 litre= 1.014 Hamburgh ahm. 

^fn^a/'/a (Kingdom). — 1 schenk-eimer=60 shenkmaas = 3235.53 
a<i. = .4283 French litre = .4283 Danish ahm = .4429 Hamburgh 
ahm = .8455 Leipzic=.9336 Prussian eiraer=5.0523 Eussian we- 
dro = .40S2 Swedish ahm = 1.1055 Vienna eimer. 

Bern. — 1 landfass = 6 saum = 24 brenten = 600 maas; 1 saum = 
4 brenten = 100 maas=400 viertel = 167.12 litre=505.13 cub. 

Bilbao. — 1 cantara (aroba-major) = 8 acumbres=32 quartillos = 
794 a<6. = 15.7 litre. 

Bologna.— I corba = G0 boccali = 240 fogliette = 3720 cub.=7Z.7 
litre = 1.15 Bavarian = 1.074 Prussian eimer. 

Bordeaux (France). — 1 tonneau=4 barriques = 6 tierces = 128 
veltes; 1 barrique = 228 litre = 3555 Bavarian = 3319 Prussian = 
3931 Vienna eimer. 

Braunschiveig (Brunswick). — 1 fuder = 4 oxhoft = 240 stiibchen 
= 960 quartier=1920 noessel; 1 oxhoft=llll cw&.=22 litre= 
,343 Bavarian = .32 Prussian eimer. 

Bremen. — 1 ahm =45 stiibchen = 180 quarts. 

Cassel. — 1 ohm = 80 maas = 8033 cMi, = 2.1 Leipzic cimer=l.l 
Hamburgh ahm = 159 litre = 35 gallons = 2.31 Prussian eimer. 

Constantinople. — 1 alma=264 cm6.=5.2 litre = l.l gallon = ,09 
Vienna eimer. 

Corwina. — 1 mojo=4 canadas=16 alias =68 acumbres=272 
quartillos=5440 oncias=6749 C7<Z>. = 133.8 litre =.924 Hamburgh 
ahm =2.087 Bavarian eimer. 

Cracoiv.—l bezka = 34 garnico = 144 kwart= 6883 n</A = 2.128 
Bavarian = 1.799 Leipzic =1.987 Prussian eimer =30.06 gallons 
= 136.5 litre. 

Darmstadt. — 1 ohm = 20 viertel = 80 maas = 320 schoppen = 
8065.9 cw5. = 2.49 Bavarian=2.1 Leipzic=2.328 Prussian eimer 
= 35.2 gallons=160 litre. 

Debreczin (Hungary). — 1 big ezeber = 100 Hungarian ize = 
4201 «</;. = 83.3 litre = 1.908 Leipzic eimer; 1 small czcber=50 
Hungarian ize = 41.6 litre. 

Denmark (Kingdom). — 1 fass = 7^ ahm = 30 anker; 1 fuder= 
6 ahm = 24 anker = 240 stubchen=465 cans = 930 pots = 3720 



JOHANN CARL LEUCIIS ON WINE-MAKING. 229 

pale; 1 alim=7548.5 cm6.=32.9665 gallons = 149.73 litre=2.1794 
Prussian cimer. 

Dresden. — 1 eimcr = 63 cans = 126 nocsscl = 50-i quarticr = 2973 
cub. = 1.01Q Vienna eimcr. 

England. — 1 imperial gallon = 4 quarts = 228.974 cm5. = .0708 
Bavarian eimerz= 4.5-1 litre = .0GG1 Prussian eimer. 

Ferrara. — 1 mastello = 8 secchie=4128 cw&. = 18.02 gallons =81 
litre =1.079 Leipzic eimer. 

Florence.— 1 barile=20 fiaslii=40 mezzetti=2298 cwZ>. = 10.03 
gallons =45.5 litre. 

France.— 1 kilalitre = 1000 litre = 50412 cuh. ; 100 litre = 
5041.24 c?^5. = 1.5590 Bavarian = 1.3182 Leipzic = 1.4555 Prussian 
= 1.7236 Vienna eimer = .6678 Danish ohm = 22.0566 gallons. 

Frcmlfort on the Mam. — 1 ohm = 20 viertel = 80 old maas = 320 
old sehoppen = 7230 cich. = 2.0S Prussian = 2.47 Vienna eimer = .95 
Danish ohm = 31.57 gallons = 143 litre = .99 Ilamburgh ahm; 1 
stlick ohm=8 ohm and 1 viertel = 19.9 Vienna = 18 Bavarian = 
16.8 Prussian eimer=1154 litre = l fuder = 6 ohm. 

Freiburg (Switzerland). — 1 fass = 16 brente = 400 maas = 1600 
sehoppen = 1970 cub. =zS9 litre = .515 Leipzic eimer. 

Fulda. — 1 ohm = 2 eimer =80 maas = 320 schoppen = 7282 cuh. 
= 146 litre = 1.009 Hamburgh ohm. 

Geneva. — 1 char=12 setiers = 576 pots = 27648 cm&. = 548 litre. 

Genoa. — 1 mezzarola = 2 bariles = 200 pintes = 7484 cz(&. = 148.4 
litre = 32.68 gallons = 1.025 Hamburgh ahm. 

Glarus. — 1 eimer =4 viertel=30 kopf=60 maas=240 stozen = 
5382 cu&. = 106.7 litre. 

Gratz.—l startin = 28533 cub.-9.im Vienna=8.82 Bavarian 
eimer =566 litre = 3.9 Hamburg ahm. 

Hamburgh. — 1 ahm = 7300.05 c?<&. = 2.2576 Bavarian eimer= 
.9670 Danish eimer=31.8815 gallons = 1448 litre = 2.1077 Prus- 
sian eimer; 1 fuder = 6 ahm = 24 anker=30 eimer=120 viertel 
=240 stiibchen=480 cans=960 quartier=1920 oesel; 1 fass of 
wine = 4 oxhoft = 6 tiercen ; 1 oxhoft of brandy = 60 stiibehen. 

Hanau. — 1 ohm = 20 viertel = 80 raaas = 320 schoppen; 1 ohm 
old measure = 7522 cuh.^ new measure = 6488 cub. 

Hanover. — 1 fuder=4 oxhoft = 6 ahm = 15 eimer =24 anker = 
240 stubcheri=480 cans=96 quartier=1920 ndssel; 1 ahm= 
7840 cm6.= 155.5 litre. 

Lausanne. — 1 char =400 pots =23444 cu&,=465 litre =6.769 
Prussian = 7.25 Bavarian eimer. 

Leii^zic. — 1 oxhoft of Freneh wine = 2f eimer; 1 fuder = 2.4 
fass=12 eimer=24 ahm; 1 eimer=63 cans=126 n6ssel=504 
quartier= 3824.1 cm&.= 16.7009 gallons =75.85 litre =1.1041 Prus- 
sian eimer. 

Leraga. — 1 ohm = 108 cans = 7851 cub. 

Lubeck.— l fuder = 6 ahm = 120 viertel = 240 stiibehen = 480 
cans =960 quartier =1920 planken = 3840 ort. The ahm is equal 
to that of Hamburgh. 



230 GR-tVTE CULTURE AND WJNE-jNIAKING. 

Lucerne. — 1 saum = 8^ oliin = 100 maas=:4:00 sclioppeii=4000 
priineii=8712 ciib. — 112.^ litre =38.0i gallons =2.515 Prussian 
eimer. 

Madrid. — 1 moja=16 cantaro; 1 pipe =27 cantaros; 1 rotta= 
80 cantaros. 

Mahon. — 1 carga=26 quarteras = 5096 cid). — 101 litre. 

Mailand. — 1 somma=10 miue = 100 pinte=1000 koppi = 100 
French litres. 

Malaga. — 1 pipe de Pedro Ximenez wine has =354 litres =6.1 
Vienna eimer = 5.52 Bavarian eimer =78.01 gallons = 2.447 Ilam- 
burgh ahm =5.157 Prussian eimer. 

Messina. — 1 salma = 8 quartari = 12 quartucci = 4416 cub. = 
87.59 litre = 1.509 Vienna eimer. 

Kajjolis. — 1 parile = 2109 cu&. = .751 Vienna =.634 Prussian 
eimer =43. 6 litre = 9.6 gallons. 

Neufchatel (Switzerland). — 1 muid=5 gerle = 12 setiers = 192 
hot =13047 ci<6. =250.8 litre =4.035 Bavarian eimer. 

Oedenhnrg. — 1 ako = 84 Hungarian halbe = 3529 cub. =70 litre 
= 1.2 Vienna=1.09 Bavarian = .92 Leipsic = 1.019 Prussian eimer. 

Oldenburg (Grand Dukedom). — 1 anker=26 cans=40 quartier 
= 1924 cub. 

OsnabrucL — 1 ahm = 6887 cub.; 1 fudcr=6 ahm = 168 viertel 
= 672 cans=2688 ort=10752 helshen. 

Oviedo. — 1 cantaro=925 cub.=:18.S litre=.316 Vienna eimer. 

Pulma (Island of Majorca). — 1 carga=26 quarteros=5096 cub. 
= 101 litre. 

Poland. — 1 beczka=25 garniec=100 kwarti=100 French litre. 

Portugal (Kingdom). — 1 fuder = 2 pipas (batas) = 52 almudes = 
104 alquieras (potas) = 624 canhados=2496 quartilhas= 43888 
cui. = 12.671 Prussian eimer=191.67 gallons=870.5 litre=6.012 
Hamburgh ahm = 15.005 Vienna eimer. 

Presburgh. — 1 eimer=64 Hungarian halfs = 2689 a<&. = .776 
Prussian = .831 Bavarian eimer=11.74 gallons=53.3 litre = .368 
Hamburgh ahm. 

Prussia (Kingdom).— 1 cimer=60 quart=3463.42 cub. = 1.0111 
Bavarian eimcr=15.1258 gallons=68.70 litre = .4744 Hamburgh 
ahm=.9056 Leipzic cimer=1.1841 Vienna eimer. 

Rome. — 1 botta=3 brente=9 barili=40^ rubbi=228 boccali 
= 1152 fogliette=20649.7 c?/Z/.=409.6 litre = 7.06 Vienna eimer; 
1 barilo=4-^ rubbi = 32 boccali = 128 foglietti=512 cartucci= 
2294 cM&. = 10.02 gallons =45.5 litre. 

Rostolc. — 1 ahm =4 anker =5 eimer =20 viertel =40 stubchen 
=80 cans=160 pot=.999 Hamburgh ahm; 1 fudcr has =4 ox- 
hoft or 6 ahm. 

Russia. — 1 fass=13-|- anker=49 wcdro = 160 tschetwcrki = 368 
osmuschki or kuschki. The wedro has 640 cwi. =2.7950 gallons 
= 12.69 litre = .1847 Prussian eimer. 

St. Oallen. — 1 eimer =4 viertel =32 maas = 128 schoppen=2576 



JOHANN CARL LEUCHS ON WINE-MAKING. 231 

cub.=:51 litre=.88 Yienna=.796 Bavarian = .743 Prussian eimer. 
The must cimcr has 36 raaas. The fuder=7^ saum or 30 eimer. 

Sdiaffliausen. — 1 saum— 4 eimer = 16 viertel = 128 maas=:2120 
cub. 

Siehenhiirgen. — 1 ur=:570.6 cuh. = ll.^ litrc=.16-4 Prussian ei- 
mer. 

Soloilmrn. — 1 saum = 100 maas = 8033 cub. 

Sweden (Kingdom).—! ahm = 71)20 cuJ. =2.4493 Bavarian = 
2.2867 Prussian =2.0710 Leipzic eimer =34.5892 gallons =157.50 
litre =1.0849 Hamburgh ahm = 12.3754 Russian wedro = 1.0492 
Danish ahm; 1.25 Swedish tuns=2.7079 Vienna eimer; 1 fuhre 
of wine is =2 pipen=4 oxhoft=6 ahm = 12 eimer =24 anker = 
360 cans = 720 stoop. 

Tokay (Hungary). — 1 fass = 2f Presburg eimer = 176 Hungary 
halfs = 7395 cui. =2.528 Vienna =2.287 Bavarian = 1.933 Leipzic 
= 2.135 Prussian eimer =146.6 litre =32.29 gallons. 

Trieste.— 1 orna=36 boccali=3310 ct^6. =65.6 litre =1.13 Vien- 
na eimer. 

Tyrol. — 1 ihre=12 pezeiten; 1 pezeite=4J maas; 1 maas= 
4seidel; 1 ihre=2240 czi6.=.646 Prussian = .765 Vienna eimer 
= 9.78 gallons =44.4 litre. 

Valencia. — 1 carga=15 arobas (cantaras)=60 accumbres= 
8594.8 cmZ). =2.938 Vienna=2.658 Bavarian =2.481 Prussian ei- 
mer =170.49 litre = 37.53 gallons. 

Venice. — 1 biconzia=^ amphora=2 conzi = 128 boccali= 7995.8 
cm6. = 158.6 litre. 

Vienna. — 1 eimer =41 maas =2924.7 cw5. =.9044 Bavarian eimer 
= 12.773 gallons = 58.01 litre = .4006 Hamburgh ahm =.7648 
Leipzic =.8444 Prussian eimer =4.5698 Russian wedro = .3692 
Swedish ahm. 

Wallachia.—l viadra=10 oka =713.34 cm&. = 14.15 litre =.2439 
Vienna eimer. 

Weimar. — 1 eimer=80 maas=3695 cw5. = 73.3 litre. 

Wiesbaden. — 1 ohm =20 viertel=80 small maas =2.113 Bava- 
rian =1.073 Prussian eimer =6824 cub. 

Wuriemburg (Kingdom). — 1 eimer (hellisch-maas)=160 maas= 
14817 CM&. =4.582 Bavarian = 3.874 Leipzic =4.278 Prussian ei- 
mer=293.9 litre = 64.71 gallons=5.066 Vienna eimer. The fu- 
der has 6 ohm or eimer; 96 immi=960 maas, 3840 schoppen. 

Zurich. — 1 saum=l^ eimer =6 viertel; 1 viertel=8 kopf=16 
maas =32 quartli=64 stozen ; 1 eimer (clear measure) =4 viertel 
= 60 maas =120 quartli=240 stozen =5520 «<&. = 109.5 litre. 

Old Roman Wine Measures. — 1 cubeus = 20 amphora (or 513-| 
litre); 1 amphora=2 urnas=8 congius; 1 congius = 6 sextarius 
= 12 hemina=24 quartarius=48 acetabulum =72 cyathus=208 
ligula (=3i litre). 



APPENDIX C. 



IMPEOVEMENTS IN WINE-MAKING. 



EXTRACTED FROM DR. L. GALL'S "DIRECTIONS TO IMPROVE THE QUALITY AND 

INCREASE THE QUANTITY OF AVINES; ALSO, TO MAKE GOOD WINES 

FROM THE HUSKS OF GRAPES."— Teiee, 1S61. 

WITH ILLUSTRATIONS. 



APPENDIX C. 

DR. L. GALL ON IMPROVEMENTS IN WINE-MAKING. 

I. Grape-sugar. — II. Tho Grape and its Components. — III. Methods of Picking 
Grapes: At Castle JohannisbcrR. Mr. J. A. Ackermann's Method. Mr. S. Iliir- 
ter's Method. Messrs. Buhl, Jordan, and Wolft"'s Method. Method used in To- 
kay and ISjTmia. Relative Value of perfectly Ripe Grapes. Benefits from Se- 
lecting. Benefits from perfect Maturity. — IV. Progress of Wine-making to the 
Middle of this Century, illustrated by Examples. — V. Principal Contents of the 
Grape necessary for the Fabrication of Wine : Water. Sugar and the Must-Scale. 
Artificial Grape-sugar. Acids and the Acid-Scale. Salts. Gummy Parts. Col- 
oring Matter. Nitrogenic Parts. Flavoring Matters. Extractive Matter. — VI. 
Wine Fabrication since IS.'SO : Gall's Procedure and Improvements. VII. Gall on 
Reformations in Wine-making. — VIII. Preparations for the Vintage. — IX. Oc- 
cupations in the Press-house : Manner of Extracting. Improving the Natural Prod- 
uct. — X. Diibrunfaut and Petiot's Method of increasing the Quantity of Wines. 
Gall's Experiment on Petiot's System. Application of the Extractor to Petiot's 
Method. — XI. Fermentation and its Products : In a high Temperature. Close Fer- 
mentation. The Alcohol. The Vaporimeter. Carbonates. Ether. Acetic Acid. 
Barrel Yeast. XII. Husk Wine Fabrication according to Cadet de Vaut and Gall. 
— 'Kill. Care of Wines, and their Diseases : 'M.owlA. Siiminess. Sourness. Cloud- 
iness. Woody and Mouldy Taste. — XIV. Supplementary Remarks. 

t 

GRAPE-SUGAR. 

At an exliibition of different grape wines, held at the city of 
Karlsruhe in the year 1849, a cask of the vintage of 1847, from 
the celebrated cellar of Baron de Babo, was unanimously .declared 
the finest of that year's growth, although the Board of Commis- 
sioners were well aware of the fact of its superiority being main- 
ly attributable to the employment of "(7/ia/jtoZ's method of improv- 
ing the must'^ (the so-called ^^Chaptalizing method'''')] «". e,, a mix- 
ture of sugar before the fermentation takes place. 

At the same time, it was no longer a secret that, in France, such 
a mixture of sugar was not only actually customary, but also the 
almost exclusive use o^ artificial " grape-sugar," which, being only 
half as dear in price, is, moreover, considered better than common 
sugar, because of its chemical composition being the same as that 
of the natural grape-sugar. This procedure of Mr. de Babo hav- 
ing been openly acknowledged, the firm of Messrs. Best Bros., at 
Osthofen, on the Rhine, were induced to erect in the same year, 
1849, their first manufactory of grape-sugar after the French meth- 
od. In the year 1850 I published, for the first time, my essay on 
the method of producing a very good quality of medium wines 
from grapes yet unripe, since known as Gall's method. 

The main feature of the difference between GalVs and ChaptaTs 



236 GRAPE CULTURE AND WINE-MAKING. 

methods lies in the first requiring twice, or even three or four 
times cOS much sugar as the latter, producing, however, from the 
same quantity of must, from ten to fifteen, or even a hundred per 
cent, more wine, and that of much better quality, and especially 
more durable and more agreeable to the taste. 

The splendid success attending the first enterprise of Messrs. 
Best Bros, induced Mr. Fricdrich Wohl, of Neuwied, to erect, in 
the year 1852, another establishment, on a still larger scale, at 
Neuwied ; and as early as 1853 several others followed, by vari- 
ous parties, all of them enjoying a high reputation for their ar- 
ticles, and commanding a ready and profitable sale of them. Since 
then, year by 3^ear, other similar establishments have been found- 
ed, and now there are no less than seventeen in successful opera- 
tion. 

We have to refer here to two circumstances : 1. That the first 
grape-sugar factory had to be enlarged in 1825, after Gall's meth- 
od had become known prior to the fall of 1850, the poorest vint- 
age on record of the century in regard to quality of the wine 
itself; which method, requiring an addition of water to reduce 
the acids of the " must," makes also a larger portion of sugar nec- 
essary than Chaptal's method. 2. That the founders of all the 
following establishments were only induced to the enterprise by 
the great success of the former, and the demand for " grape-sug- 
ar" grew successively from year to year. 

From this it appears that the grape-sugar factories prove, by 
their very existence and the history of their founding, that, 1. They 
were called to life by the scientific advances made in the fobrica- 
tion of wines. 2. That the improved system of wine fabrication 
has gained ground from year to year. 8. That the results of the 
same have given entire satisfaction to the grape-growers and wine- 
dealers. 4. That these have considered it most useful, after the 
experiments made from 1850 uj) to 1856, even in 1857 and 1859, 
to improve, by an addition of artificial means, partially even of 
nothing but sugar, what Nature had fixiled to make good in quality. 

In this way, the advancing science in the fabrication of wine 
has, in its onward march through the grape-cultivating districts 
of Germany, built up evident monuments of its pacific conquests 
which would put to shame even its most inveterate enemies. 

The firms of these " Grape-sugar factories" are : 

In Prussia: Fricdrich "Wohl, Eemy & Wohl, and N. Rcinhardt, 
at ISTeuwied ; H. T. Bertog, Lohburgcr Fabrik, and Jaehling & Co., 
at Magdeburg ; A. Rammelberg, at Wolmirstcdt ; C. J. Knoelke, 
at Frankfort on the Main ; Baron von dcr Dcken, at Dziewentline, 
in Silesia. In Rhenish Hesse: Tobias Diesz & Co., at Offstein ; N. 
Iloffmann, at Ingenheim; Fritz Muth k Weisheimcr, at Neu- 
muehl. In Baden : Albert Glock, at Karlsruhe. In Wiirtemburg : 
Adolfsfurter Fabrik, at Oehringen. In Austria : Carl Ilesse, at 
Primislaw, Bohemia ; Carl Ilenn, at Hochenegg, Styria. 



DR. L. GALL ON IMPROVEMENTS IN WINE-MAKING. 237 

II. 
THE GRAPE AND ITS COMPONENTS. 

The general appearance of the grape being universally known, 
it needs no farther description in this chapter. We shall there- 
fore confine ourselves to show which of its interior parts contrib- 
utes most to produce a palatable and durable wine. 

As all-wise Nature has provided every species of plants with 
constituent parts, whereby they are enabled to germinate, grow, 
and draw their necessary nourishment, so the fruit contains cer- 
tain elements which arc required for the first support of the fu- 
ture plant ; these, therefore, are not only useful, but indispensable 
to their own offspring, though not always so for the application 
to man's taste and purposes. For instance, each grain of barley 
contains, besides starch, albumen, sugar, gum ; also oil, water, phos- 
phate of lime, and mucus ; and all of these matters are eminently 
necessary for the jDroduction of the roots, stalk, leaves, flowers, 
and fruits of the new barley plants. But for producing the bev- 
erage called beer, man only uses the three first ingredients ; and 
for the fabrication of malt whisky or alcohol out of barley or any 
other species of grain, absolutely no other is of any value but the 
starch. In the same manner, man only makes use of the sugar 
matter which he draws out of the sugar-beet for the making of 
the sugar itself, leaving aside all the other ingredients contained 
in the plant. 

The same may be said of the grape. Of its perhaps twenty 
different ingredients, some — if the fermentation of the must takes 
place in a fully-filled cask — will be cast out at the very beginning 
of the fermentation ; others while it is going on ; and others in a 
shorter or longer period afterward ; and some will even " settle" 
after a number of years have passed. These ingredients, there- 
fore, do not belong properly to the main produce of the grape — 
the wine. They form no constituent part of it ; they were only 
necessary for the nourishment of the new plant emanating from 
the seed. 

Therefore it is evident that only the grape itself is a product of 
nature. The wine, however, or the art of making it — be the qual- 
ity good or bad, according to that of the grape, or his knowledge 
to prepare its juice — is one which only an accident could teach to 
man ; to improve which, only other accidental observations, re- 
flections, and various alterations could lead him. 

Only very lately, however, after groping about in the dark for 
more than a thousand years, man — guided by the hand of pro- 
gressing natural science — has discovered that it was his own fault 
if he could only produce from grapes not yet fully ripe another 
but very inferior quality of wine. It only depends on him to 



238 GRA.PE CULTURE AND WINE-MAKING. 

make tlic best possible wines out of grapes fully ripe, after throw- 
ing out the unripe and damaged ones ; the same as it does on him- 
self to produce from grapes not seasonable yet a wine of very good 
quality, by adding such ingredients as are necessary to the fabri- 
cation, comparing them to those of the ripe fruit. 

The grape-fruit, from its blossoming to maturity, has to go 
through three distinct terms : 

1. The Formation. 

2. The Growth. 
8. The Maturing. 

During the last the formation of the sugar stuff takes place, 
which afterward produces, by the wine-making process and fer- 
mentation, the alcohol — the spirit that gives the juice its strength 
and fire. 

In some very favorable years may still be added, 
4, The Refining. 

This, however, is but seldom attained by all berries of a grape, 
and never by all the grapes of one and the same bush, except by 
the application of artificial means. 

The refining period takes j^lace at the expiration of the life of 
the berries, when the small pedicles which unite them to the main 
one dry up, and do not allow any farther circulation of the sap. 
Then begins a partial evaporation of the watery elements, the sug- 
ar element in the mean time remaining unchanged. The juice, 
hereby excluding farther sugar formation, gets, by concentration, 
sweeter — therefore improving. The same result is achieved in 
France, Spain, Portugal, and Italy, where it is even customary, by 
giving the pedicles or stalks of the grape a full twist at the time 
of maturing, and allowing the grapes to hang on the bush after 
this as long as possible. 

Still another point needs remark, tending to show the policy of 
leaving the grapes hanging — the longer the better. The better 
to appreciate the importance of it, however, we shall have to look 
a little closer into the structure of the berries. 

Take, for instance, a healthy berry ; open the inside by a cross- 
cut, and you will seemingly behold a sort of jelly surrounding the 
seeds. By a closer look, however, we see distinctly fibres^ which 
cross each other in different directions. These fibres form the 
partitions between numerous small cells. In the berries not yet 
matured, various acids, as acids of apples, wine, grapes, etc. ; bitar- 
trate of potassa ; some traces of salts, albumen, and water, form 
the entire contents of these cells. By the maturing process of the 
fruit, "grape-sugar" is formed from the elements of the fibres 
and a part of the superabundant acids and water. 

This change first takes place on the surface of the berry, under- 
neath the skin, and develops itself, on account of the exterior 
warmth which causes the maturing, only gradually toward the 
centre. Ilerc we have the reason why the juice of berries not 



DR. L. GALL ON IMPROVEMENTS IN WINE-MAKING. 239 

yet fully ripe tastes sweet on their surface below the skin, while 
toward the centre the grape contains a jelly more or less sour, 
according to the state of maturity. 

Besides what wc have now seen — the partial formation of the 
sugar from acids — the inner structure of the berry may also teach 
us the manner to obtain the sweet juice suitable for wine-mak- 
ing, separated from the sour and bitter stuffs. 

It is a well-known saying that a wine without acids is neither 
palatable nor durable ; but every thing must be confined in a cer- 
tain measure, and this measure we find the best in the natural 
combined state of sweet and sour stuffs within the completely 
ripened grape. Witness those wines, known as " Selected Grape 
Wines" of the Palatinate, that brought, even in 1852, which was 
considered as only a medium year, from 5000 to 8000 guilders 
per cask — being pressed from " selected herries.^'' Witness the " Jo- 
hannisberg Cabinet "Wines," that fetch as high as 11 guilders per 
bottle — made up from ^^ selected berries ^ 

If, therefore, the berries, selected with the greatest care, already 
contain a sufiicient quantity of acid and sour stuffs to produce the 
most costly and durable wine, it seems clear that the grapes pick- 
ed in a mass, of the best year's growth, contain too much acid ; 
and in order to produce as good a wine as the quality of the grape 
permits, it appears necessary not to mix the must of the last press- 
ure with that of the former even during the pressing process. 
Nature itself shows us this in retaining the impure juice, only apt 
to spoil the sweet pure one, so tenaciously by the meshes of the 
cells, and the texture of .the skins and pedicles of the berries. 

We have, indeed, to .acknowledge the want of a definite stand- 
ard — so long as it was not generally understood that the value of 
the middle loines chiefly depended on a certain quantity of acids 
— by which to regulate the mixture of the must of the different 
pressures. Formerly, also, it was not understood how to dispose 
of the sour juice of the last pressure in conjunction with the good 
must ; but now we claim to know these standards. 

No experienced wine-grower ought to be unacquainted with 
the " Essays" of Dr. Liidersdorf, who gave us, as early as 1841, the 
important hint, that the '■'■good quality^ state of flavor^ and price of 
the loines depends infinitely more on their not too large amount of 
acids, than on a high grade ofalcohoiy 

In even the most favorable years the state of perfect maturity 
is but seldom attained, and in inferior and middling years the 
sugar process is never entirely interrupted during the continua- 
tion of vegetation. Considering, therefore, that the good quality 
of the grapes — i. e., their aptitude for wine-producing — is more 
based upon a certain medium quantity of acids than upon a large 
quantity of sugar, and that this same sugar is partially formed by 
the acids already contained within the berries, without their be- 
ing too much reduced thereby; that evidently with each addi- 



240 GRAPE CULTURE AND WINE-MAKING. 

tional day the grapes are allowed to hang on the bush, the sweet- 
ness increases while the acid diminishes, it must clearly aj^pear, 
even to those not interested in practical grape-growing, that the 
best and true policy would be always to wait for the highest pos- 
sible state of maturity to gather in the grapes, provided that the 
state of the weather be favorable enough. 

It seems rather singular that while every one breaking off 
fruits always selects for his choice principally the most luscious 
ripe ones, leaving the remaining cherries, apples, etc., to mature, 
yet ill regard to grapes — this superb fruit, whose culture is so te- 
dious and expensive, whose thriving and sale affects materially 
the welfare of entire populations — it has almost remained custom- 
ary to gather together bad and good, ripe and unripe, and throw 
them all in one heap. 

No other fruit, however, matures so irregularly as the grape. 
The difference of soil, the declination, the temperature, the kinds 
of seed, the treatment, the site, and the age of the stock, affect 
more or less the period of maturity. Even on one and the same 
bush the grapes will ripen the sooner the nearer they are to the 
ground ; and even in the same cluster one finds berries in differ- 
ent states of maturity. 

In what manner, therefore, shall we proceed in gathering the 
grapes — a labor which Nature has imposed uj^on man — in order, 
at least, to produce as good a wine, even in inferior years, and 
this without any mixture, pure as nature gives it, as the best years' 
vintages may enable us to produce ? 

This question we will answer in the next chapter by a few il- 
lustrations, which, although long known, are yet but little re- 
garded. 



III. 
METHODS OF PICKING GRAPES. 



I PROCEED to describe the means of producing wines of prime 
quality, even from inferior vintages, without the aid of artificial 
means, beginning with a few examples of the mode of picking the 
grapes, as practiced in celebrated vineyards. 

Method jpracticed at Castle Johannisherg. 

Here the gathering of the grapes begins as late in the season 
as possible, in order to give them plenty of time to attain their 
fullest maturity. It takes place usually in November, frequently, 
however, not before the first fall of snow, and only in very good 
years in the month of October. The care expended upon the 
vintage itself, and the treatment of the wine, is undoubtedly one 
of the main causes of the superior quality of the article. The 



DR. L. GALL ON IMPROVEMENTS IN WINE-MAKING. 241 

gatherers employed arc strictly forbidden to cat of the grapes, un- 
der penalty of instant dismissal, but they receive double wages 
during the time of vintage. None but absolutely matured grapes 
receive the honor of being thrown under the press, and many a 
bush is not emptied until the fourth turn. Warm and dry weath- 
er is considerea essential in the fall. 

For the finest " Select Wines" {Auslese Wei7i) only the most lus- 
cious grapes are picked out, and from these the best-matured ber- 
ries are cut out singly by the scissors. After " musting" them 
for 2-4 hours they are taken to the press. 

Since the vintage of the year 1800, have been produced at the 
Castle Johannisberg, 

18 times wine of inferior quality ; 
16 times wine of good quality ; 
7 times wine of prime quality ; 
5 times wine of superior quality. 

The "superior" wines were of the vintages 1811, 1822, 1881, 
1834, and 1846. The wine of 1831, however, bears off the palm 
from all others. In 1817, the wine was absolutely bad; in the 
year 1816, the grape-bushes were killed by the frost, so that no 
vintage took place. The richest yields were those of 1811, when 
46 acres of vineyard produced 50 casks ; of 1819, when 45 acres 
produced 52 casks ; and of 1833, when 55 acres produced 57 casks 
per acre. On an average, from the year 1800 to 1849, 50 acres 
of vineyard were annually under cultivation, and the produce of 
each acre during this period was 34 casks. One cask of wine is 
equal to 80 Prussian maas, or 160 French litres. One acre is 
about equal to three fourths of a Prussian morgen. 

The wine of remarkably superior vintages is sold by the bot- 
tle ; the other qualities are generally sold by the cask, at public 
auction. The highest prices paid were as follows : 

In 1802, for one cask of the vintage of 1777, 5,000 florins. 

" " " " 1780, 4,500 " 

" « " " 1781, 4,000 " 

« « " " 1794, 3,500 " 

" " " " 1798, 2,700 " 

(c « u u 1791^ 2,200 " 

» «' " " 1793, 2,000 " 

1805, " " " 1825, 6,500* " 

" " " " 1825, 9,100t " 

1832, " " " 1822, 12,500t " 

The ^^ Cabinet Wine,''^ i. e., the kind sold only in bottles, brings 
the following prices, according to the Price-current of 1847 : 

Vintage of 1822, sealed with gold wax, 17/., 32 kr. 

" 1831, " silver " 7 " 

" " " green " 4 " 

" 1834, " gold " 7 " 

• To Mr. Von Eothachild. t To the King of Bavftria. t To the King of PruBsi*. 



242 GRAPE CULTURE AND WINE-MAKING. 

Vintage of 1834, sealed with red wax, 4^. 



" " " yellow 

" 1842, " gold 

♦< .. << red 

" " " blue 

" " (Ausbruck) blue 



30 kr. 

4 " 

4 " 

2 " 

11 " 



Professor Yon Liebig subjected the wine of Castle Johannisberg 
to a chemical analysis, of which the following shows the results : 

vintufTP Per Cent, of Alcohol. Sugar and Not-volatile 

'' By Measure. By Weight. Contents, in 100 Tarts. 

1822 13.63 10.80 3.300 

1831 13.63 10.80 2.692 

1834 14.39 11.40 2.654 

1889 15.90 12.90 3.470 

1842 15.90 12.60 3.755 

1845 15.90 12.60 6.030 

Method of Mr. J. A. Ackermann. 

Mr. Ackermann, at Nackenheim on the Main, never allows his 
grapes to be gathered so long as they are wet by the rain or dew, 
believing that ripe grapes already contain all the requisites, includ- 
ing water, in their due proportions. He also allows the grapes 
to remain on the bush as long as possible ; but has the perfectly 
ripe ones gathered as often as necessary, thereby avoiding loss 
by rottenness. He permits no eating of grapes, either in the 
press-house or in the vineyard, under penalty of instant dismiss- 
al and loss of the whole wages ; to compensate for this, he pays 
twice as high, and pays even if the unfavorable state of the weath- 
er should allow but a few hours of labor. 

By these simple means Mr. Ackermann produced, in the vint- 
age of 1828, one cask of wine which formed the nucleus of admi- 
ration of the whole district, and realized a price of 2000 florins. 
At the same time, his neighbors could not sell theirs higher than 
250 florins. Besides this, he produced two and a half more casks 
which did not fetch more than 550 florins, the wine being made 
of less ripe grapes. On the whole, he received for his three and 
a half casks 2550 florins, while his neighbors, for their three and 
a half casks of best quality of wine, only cleared 875 florins. By 
his superior intelligence, whereby Mr. Ackermann understood 
how to aid Nature, he netted a sum three times higher than the 
others, and gained over them 1675 florins. Nay, even more ; for 
the actual cost of production to Mr. Ackermann's neighbors 
amounted to about 500 florins ; therefore their three and a half 
casks left them a net balance of 375 florins, while Mr. Ackermann, 
even allowing his expenses to be 50 florins higher than theirs, 
had a surplus of 2000 florins — five times more than the others. 
And if we take, as with his neighbors, only 375 florins as net ex- 
penses of his vineyard, the rest of the four and a half times as 
large amount of 1625 florins was the well-merited fruit of his 
higher intelligence. 



DR. L. GALL ON IMPROVEMENTS IN WINE-MAKING. 243 

Results of Mr. J. HUrter. 

This gentlemfin, the author of " The Rhenish Gro.pe CuUure,^^ 
gained by the same proceeding, in the year 1825, from his vine- 
yards at Damscheidt and Perscheid, two fuder of bouquet wine, 
for which he received 1240 tholers^ and four fuder of good table 
wine, which sold for 800 thalers — 2040 thalcrs in all ; while his 
neighbors could not sell their wines higher than at 230 thalers 
per fuder ; therefore for six fuder they received 1380 thalers. 
His higher intelligence netted, therefore, to Mr. Hcirter, 660 tha- 
lers more than his neighbors received from their vineyards, in- 
cluding their labor. 

Results of Messrs. Buhl, Jordan, and Wolff. 

To further show the incalculable results of a careful picking, 
let us look at the following : 

At their vintage of 1852, Messrs. Buhl produced a wine for 
which, in the same year, 5000 florins per cask were offered. They 
sold one quarter cask of Deidesheimer {Prima Auslese) for 1500 
florins ; the whole cask, therefore, was worth 6000 florins. Mr. 
Wolff, at Wachenheim, sold one cask of Wachenheimer of 1852 
for 2500 florins, and asks for one cask of " 1852 Prima Auslese'^ 
8000 florins. 

Method used in Tokay and in Syrmia, Hungary. 

The foundation of the so-called " Tokay" Hungarian wines is 
the dry berries {Trochenheeren), which, hanging on the bush, have 
almost been turned into raisins. The finest and most reliable 
season of the year in that country is the latter part of summer 
and the fall. The grapes ripen by the end of September, but, in 
order to obtain good ^^Ausbruch,''^ they must become over-ripe. 
The vintage is therefore retarded till November, and frequently 
to the first frost ; so that, by the progressive drying up of the sap 
in the stalk, the most matured berries shrivel together into raisins, 
losing their transparency, and turning into a kind of blue color. 

As soon as these begin to show themselves the vineyards are 
opened, and from day to day, at first, only the best of the dry ber- 
ries are gathered. The main vintage, however, is retarded as 
long as possible. When this takes place, the men and women 
form into a line, advancing uniformly, each person carrying, be- 
sides a wooden basket to hold the gathered grapes, another one 
about the waist, into which they throw the single berries which 
they break from out of the clusters. An inspector, whose chief 
duty it is to watch that none are eaten, orders from time to time 
another man to carry these picked dry berries to a vessel placed 
for the purpose, and keeps, in general, an eye upon all hands that 
they do not lag in their work, and are careful in picking. To pre- 
vent any possible negligence or oversight in this, even the green 



244 GRAPE CULTURE AND WINE-MAKING. 

grapes are subjected to an overhauling before they are transported 
to the press-houses. This is done upon tables placed near by, on 
which children spread the grapes, and pick out all the dry ber- 
ries, and throw away the rotten ones. 

The care taken throughout the whole proceeding insures a no- 
ble and superior article of wine, which, however, sells at a remark- 
ably low figure. The antal, =44 Wiener maas,'t)r 55f Prussian 
quarts, fetches scarcely 80 ducats ; therefore, the highest price 
paid for one fuder of this wine would not be more than 2460 flor- 
ins (=1500 Prussian thalers; 1 fuder =872 quarts, bringing 470 
ducats per fuder) ; while the wines produced in the Palatinate 
and the Rheingau, by a similar careful arrangement, sell readily 
at from 8000 to 12,000 florins. 

Relative Value of perfectly Ripe Grapes. 

The well-known vinologist, Ilorter, tells us, as a result of nu- 
merous direct observations, that during the vintage-time, on an 
average, the twentieth grape is eaten. These would give us 5 per 
cent, of the whole amount. Little enough it would seem, and yet 
a great loss and waste. 

This 5 per cent, would form, in good years perhaps 10, in bad 
years perhaps 50 per cent, of all the ripe grapes ; and, for the 
most part, the very finest berries are chosen for the mouth, and 
thus lost to the production of the most noble of all beverages. 
Considering what an amount of money-value the article bears, it 
is really to be looked upon as so much gold which is lost to the 
community of the district. The greatest possible care ought, 
therefore, to be taken to prevent the waste. 

Benefits derived from Selecting. 

Mr. B. Kolges proves to us that, from year to year, the method 
of picking out the berries finds more favor with the wine-makers, 
inasmuch as sufficient trials have undeniably shown that, if from 
three casks made of grapes that grew on the same piece of ground, 
two are from picked berries, these two will eventually fetch more 
than if all three casks had come from mixed-up grapes. 

Benefits f-om a perfect Maturity of the Grapes. 

The Count de Odart, a rich vineyard proprietor, near the city 
of Tours, in France, says, in his " Observations sur le Moment des 
Vendages,^^ that, since the year 1833, he has not only confined 
himself to the careful picking of the berries, but he exposes after- 
ward these selected ones to the air, spread out on hurdles. The 
sugar getting more concentrated by this process, he makes a wine 
that sells at three and four francs per bottle. The same quality 
he sold before at three and four sous. 

We have now seen that, at this day, it has become an acknowl- 
edged fact that it is possible to produce from inferior vintages, by 



DR. L. GALL ON IMPROVEMENTS IN WINE-MAKING. 245 

a well-regulated management of the separated half-ripe and un- 
ripe grapes, a wine of better quality than results in medium years 
from the total mass of the grapes. 

The chief object should be to produce, 1. Even from the very 
best vintages, still finer natural wines than before ; 2. Even in the 
most unfavorable years, good wines, approaching in value these 
superior ones. 

The very simple means to attain this are the following — pro- 
vided, of course, the weather, as it is and is like to be, will permit 
their use : 

1. To leave the grapes as long as possible on the bush. 

2. To abolish the wasteful eating of grajDes on the part of the 
gatherers by compensation in pay. 

3. To pick frequently, in order not to lose the ripe grapes by 
rottenness. 

4. To do at least one primary picking. 

5. To select during the main vintage, (a), the most matured 
grapes ; and, (i), from these those kinds mostly fit to make " bou- 
quet wines," such as Eiesling, Traminer, Muscat. 

6. To press, and treat all of them separately. 



IV. 

PROGRESS OF WINE-MAKING UP TO THE MIDDLE OF THIS 

CENTURY. 

We began our well-meant hints as to the means of gaining a 
lasting remunerative produce from our grape culture by show- 
ing that we may annually realize superior natural wines of the 
greater market value however little of material, i. e,, 'perfectly ma- 
tured grapes, Nature condescends to give. This it does annually 
with more or less bounty ; all the rest of the work belongs to 
man. But also to produce each year, at least partially, superior 
wines, we are solely enabled by not deteriorating what Nature 
has made good, in mixing it up with inferior stuff, i. e., with 
grapes that are not able to make good wine. As even the most 
unfavorable seasons produce ripe grapes, so likewise grapes are 
to be met with in a very unadvanced state of maturity even in the 
most favorable ones, and this in a larger quantity than may gen- 
erally be thought. 

To press ripe and unripe grapes mixed up together would, how- 
ever, turn out a mistaken policy. Grape-growers of a thoughtful 
mind have therefore, always since an accident taught them the 
first rudiments of the art of wine-making, exerted themselves to 
find means to obtain a palatable wine, even if the " must" should 
have turned out of inferior quality from Nature's workshop. 



246 GRATE CULTURE AND WINE-JMAiaNG. 

Thus, in remote antiquity, Aristfeus taught the method of ame- 
liorating the must by an addition of honey. Others tried this by 
adding different substances, salt, sea- water, ashes, chalk, gypsum, 
raisins, and, later yet, of potassa, brandy, and water. Some of 
these are still in use in our own days, especially the most natural 
and useful of them — water and sugar. And these have gained 
favor at this time in France, after such men as the honorable min- 
ister and eminent chemist, Count de Chaptal, and the eminent nat- 
uralist, Cadet de Vaux, and others, began to teach and warmly to 
recommend those means to improve greatly even the most infe- 
rior quality of must. 

Up to their time it was the general policy of the wine-dealers 
acquainted with these "arfe" to keep them jealously concealed 
from the great mass of the small producers, only transferring them 
as a sort of valuable family secret to their own kindred, in order 
not to be interfered with in their immense gains. The promul- 
gation of the knowledge by the above-named savans checked this 
system effectually, not, however, without first doing battle to the 
combined fraternity of those privileged few, who ridiculed it, and 
gave out to the world that it was all nonsense, and that Nature 
alone could and would produce the true generous beverage. 

We propose to give here some extracts from the principal 
works of some of these eminent men upon this subject. 

Frenchmen. 

Maupin. — This estimable chemist, in 1768, in his essay, The 
Art of Increasing Wines hy TFafer, recommended to reduce by the 
addition of water the musts of the South, which contained too 
much sugar; by which process he said that he had always ob- 
tained, not only a greater quantity of wine, but also that which 
was richer in "spirit." He failed, however, to give instruction as 
to the proper regulation of the quantity of water, or to extend it 
to the treatment of sour musts. 

Lenoir {Traite de la Culture de la Vigne et de la Vinification, 
1828) says : I believe it was Mr. Delaveau that had the courage, 
notwithstanding the derision heaped upon him by the blockheads, 
to recommend the method of adding water to the overcharged 
must to make it more ready to ferment and produce more alcohol 
in the wine. He also, to the same end, recommended to add wine 
or beer yeast to such must. 

Add so much water as will be found necessary to reduce the 
must to a density of ten degrees by Beaume's scale. In cold 
weather the water has to be sufficiently warmed, in order to im- 

fart to the must the most favorable temperature for fermentation, 
t has, indeed, even answered to mix equal parU; of water with 
must very rich in sugar, and the wine produced thereby proved 
superior to that made of like must not watered at all. 

The reason for not speaking of reducing the overcharge of acid 



DR. L. GALL ON IMPllOVEMENTS IN WINE-MAKING. 247 

may be found in the circumstance that this happens very seldom 
in France, and, in case it docs, in sucli small quantity that wine 
kept during two years ■will secrete all that is superfluous by its 
own action. 

Chaptal (Count, Minister, and Peer of France), author of the 
celebrated essa}'', TlieArt of Making Winc^ says: 

In case the grapes have not attained their maturity, add to 
them the wanting ingredient. Mix sugar with them until the 
must has attained the sweetness of the perfectly ripe grape. 

To give an example: Magnet added to must of picked unripe 
grapes, of the vintage of 1776, sugar, until it had the taste of a 
tolerably good and sweet must. In October, 1777, the wine made 
from it proved to be not only perfectly clear and fine, but also 
very sparkling, palatable, and fiery — in a word, just like a wine 
made of a good vintage, and raised on good soil. 

Bouillon had about fifteen to twenty pounds of sugar per hogs- 
head added to the must of his vineyard of Bellejames, and obtain- 
ed a wine of excellent quality. This proves that by adding a 
proper quantity of sugar, a wine of required grade may be ob- 
tained, no matter of what quality the must may be ; except that 
the must which contains too much sugar is to be reduced by 
water. 

Claude Dumont says, in his essay Afoyen de douhler, de tripler 
meme le Ra2:)port de nos Vignohles : France furnishes to her popu- 
lation hardly eighty litres of wine annually per head, and even 
this moderate quantity is not consumed. England, on the con- 
trary, produces two hectolitres of beer to the head, and consumes 
it. This proves that England brews a very good article of beer, 
while France only makes very inferior wine. We possess, how- 
ever, a very simple, yet very effective means to produce good 
wines even in the least favorable seasons, and to augment the 
quantity of good wines in better years. Here he goes on to say : 

For instance: In order to produce one barrique (barrel) of 
wine of 32 veltes, it requires 800 pounds of grapes. These are 
put into a tub holding about 1000 litres after mashing them well. 
When the must attains a density of nine degrees of Beaume, add 
500 pounds of water, in which previously 100 pounds of sugar 
and 10 pounds of cream of tartar have been dissolved. This has 
now to ferment, and the result may be vouched for. 

Suppose the price of a barrique of wine be 100 francs, we shall 
now have two instead, in value 200 francs. The original cost of 
these may be put down as follows : One barrique of wine, 100 
francs ; 100 pounds of sugar, 60 francs ; 10 pounds of cream of 
tartar, 2 francs; total cost, 162 francs: the net gain is, therefore, 
38 francs. And besides this, these wines will be much more pal- 
atable and durable than by neglecting this advice. 

By the calculation of these sugar prices, it appears that this 
treatise appeared m 1815 or 1816 — (it bearing neither the name 



248 GRAPE CULTURE AND WINE-MAKING.' 

of the place nor tlie year in which it was printed on its title-page) 
— at a time, therefore, when factories of grape-sugar were yet un- 
known in France, and cassonade (raw) sugar was mostly used for 
improving the must. The wholesale price of this, according to the 
then market value, was 60 francs. Now the expense for " grape- 
sugar" in Dumont's calculation would not amount to above 80 
francs, thereby leaving a net gain of 68 francs. 

Pa YEN, Professor of Chemical Sciences at Paris, says : The main 
ingredient of the juice of the grape is the grape-sugar, whose quan- 
tity augments by the maturing process, while the quantity of acids 
decreases, though not in the same rate. The grape-juice, as a mat- 
ter of course, is, in inferior seasons, poorer in sugar and richer in 
acids than in more favorable ones. By adding sugar, especially 
sugar of starch — that, however, has to be free from acids and pure 
— it is therefore possible to obtain a good wine from inferior vint- 
ages. This wine may not attain the standard of the best seasons' 
growth, but with proper management will turn out better than 
one without such a mixture. 

In the Revue des Deux-Mondes of September 1st, 1856, the same 
savan expressed his firm conviction, in a treatise on the " Grape 
Sickness" and its influence on the French wine culture, that an 
addition of water to the must would be the sole means to prevent 
future want of wine. 

Englishmen. 

M'CuLLOCH, in his work entitled The British Wine-maJcer, Lon- 
don, 1835, says : In France, for a number of years, trials have been 
made with grapes that had not yet matured (green) and sugar, and 
always with the best success. This induced me to try the same 
myself, with equal success, and repeatedly, under various modifi- 
cations. The result, varying according to these, turned out a prod- 
uct in wines that were similar to the Champagne, the Graves, the 
Rhine and Moselle wines, of such an excellent quality, also, that 
connoisseurs even could not tell their difference from the above- 
mentioned originals. The grapes may be used for wine-making, 
no matter how unripe they are. The procedure satisfies perfect- 
ly, let them be even not more than half ripe or totally hard. The 
greenest grapes will give a wine of the quality of the White Her- 
mitage when adding three pounds of sugar to the gallon, and, con- 
sidering the value of the product, the costs are but small indeed. 
The rich and particular " bouquet" (flavor) of the original wines 
characterizes just as strongly these imitations. 

In relation to the degree of maturity of the berries, the propor- 
tion of those ingredients which serve for the formation of wine 
must greatly differ. A large part of their salt, sour, and gum 
contents changing into sugar during the process of maturing, it is 
evident that, measure for measure, more of these parts are con- 
tained by the unrijje than by the ripe berries. 



DR. L. GALL ON IMPROVEMENTS IN WINE-MAKING. 249 

To produce, therefore, a, must of a quality resembling that of 
ripe grapes, water has to be added to the must of unripe ones, to 
reduce it and the proportions of those salt parts that would other- 
wise leave to the wine a disagreeable astringcncy. In order to 
obtain a wine similar to the Champagne or White Bordeaux, I 
would advise to mix the juice of half- ripe grapes with equal parts 
of luater. If they are more advanced, the quantity of grapes has 
to be increased ; if less, reduced. 

Egberts says : I am in the habit of taking, in a good season, 
fifteen pounds of grapes to one gallon of water (therefore — one 
gallon of water weighing about nine pounds, and fifteen pounds 
of berries giving twelve pounds of juice — three parts of water to 
four jjarts of juice). I pick the berries from the pedicles and mash 
them, then mix them well with the water. After this, taking a 
sample, I filter it through a piece of linen, and test it by the must- 
scale, and cover up the tub. Next morning the fluid has to be 
well stirred, and a second sample to be tested and weighed. The 
must will now be found heavier (denser). These examinations 
have to be continued every morning and evening until the densi- 
ty no longer increases. Now the must has to be drawn off from 
the husks (remains of grapes) ; these are to be pressed, and a little 
water added, to extract from them every remaining particle of sub- 
stance useful for the wine-making ; then re-pressed once more, 
and this juice added to the must. The must has now to be weigh- 
ed by the must-scale to find out the required amount of sugar. 
The greater the specific gravity, and therefore of the natural sug- 
ar of the must, the less sugar need be added. A proportion of 
two pounds of sugar, for instance, to one gallon of the mixture, 
will produce but a light wine. Three pounds to one gallon gives, 
however, a wine equal in strength to the best qualities of Cham- 
pagne. 

Germans. 

Baron L. Yon Babo {Die Erzeugimg unci BeJiandlung der Trau- 
hemveines nach neueren Erfahrungen^ Frankfurt, 1848) says : There 
are three ingredients of the wine, by whose increase or decrease 
a natural improvement of the wine may be attained in the must 
itself. 

1. The Sugar. 

2. The Acids. 
8. The Alcohol. 

A genuine improvement of the wine is not to be called an 
adulteration of it, so long as it remains confined to those ingredi- 
ents which are homogeneous to the constituent parts of the grape, 
and the production of which in them in larger quantity only de- 
pends on the accidental state of temperature. But as in the wine 
a certain relation of sugar, alcohol, and its other ingredients must 
of necessity prevail, so is it the duty of the wine-maker to regu- 



250 GRAPE CULTURE AND WINE-MAKING. 

late the addition of sugar as far as possible according to the quan- 
tity of other parts. 

It is, indeed, very much to be regretted that as yet we know 
but little of this. Each season changes here the proportion. 
Wise would it therefore be to consider the weight of must in 
good seasons, and to regulate the adding of sugar by the must- 
scale. 

Various observations show to us that the standard of acids of 
the wine frequently affects its price more than that of the sugar 
and alcohol. In a southern climate, where the larger amount of 
sugar covers more the small quantity of vegetable acids, a mis- 
proportion of these ingredients is rarely thought of. In north- 
ern climates, however, the acids frequently prevail, for the simple 
reason that the cool and damp weather of the summer, with but 
little heat from the sun, retards the sugar formation. In very 
unfavorable seasons, therefore, the inferior wine is, apart from the 
main ingredient the water, chiefly composed of acids ; and these 
predominate in such a degree over sugar and alcohol that, after 
extracting the acids from the wine, almost nothing remains. By 
such action on these wines, nothing, therefore, is to be gained. 
Different would it be if, in a must with predominating acids, suf- 
ficient sugar be contained (no matter whether formed by vegeta- 
tion or artificially added). Here a reduction of acids always op- 
erates to benefit. This may be done, 

1. By deadening with chalk, or, 

2. By properly unsliming (purifying) the must at the right 
time, this slime containing, as it seems, mainly those unperfected 
acids that rise in connection with the slimy particles. At least, 
observations have proven that, by acting thus, such a reduction 
of acids takes place that the skimmed wine thereby improved 
considerably. 

The quantity of the acids to be reduced can not be exactly 
given, as it has always to remain in proportion to the other wine 
ingredients. 

At an exhibition held in 1849 by the "Badensche Landwirih- 
schafdiche Verehi^ (Association for Agricultural Purposes), a wine 
improved by this method by Mr. Von Babo was acknowledged to 
be the finest of the white wines of the season ; and says this gen- 
tleman about his proceeding : 

I added so much sugar to the must (before the fermentation) 
until the scale of Oechslc showed 98 to 100 degrees. The sugar 
used was pure white loaf. That such a procedure does not im- 
pair the durability of a wine, I might prove by a sample of supe- 
rior wine of the vintage of 1847, which stood the test perfectly 
up to the present time (1860). 

I had also to defend myself against many charges of having 
given, too much publicity of the secret to the uninitiated, which 
might lead to misuse. The addition of sugar, known as " Chap- 



DR. L. GALL ON IMPROVEMENTS IN WINE-MAKING. 251 

taVs ineihod,^^ is well understood, and, true cnougli, frequently ap- 
plied in a very improper manner, I, liowcvcr, believe it to be 
good poliey, in order to break down the misuses, to search into 
and publish the results as much as possible. 

In a good season, and by the sun-heat of a warm summer, all 
the dilFcrcnt elements of a grape necessary to form the taste of the 
juice attain, as a rule, their perfection as well as the sugar, de- 
pendent on site and soil of the vineyard. But if, in inferior 
seasons, the perfection of the sugar in the grapes does not take 
place, so it is with the other parts, and the acids originally con- 
tained in the grapes remain predominant. Of those ingredients, 
we only know the grape-sugar as sweetening and alcohol-forming 
stuff; concerning the rest wc arc still greatly in the dark. If 
we have no substitute for these, we know, at least, that the grape- 
sugar may be replaced by an exactly similar artificial article ; and 
although we may not be able to give by it a wine of a certain 
known locality, with all its peculiar flavor, yet we may produce 
a sweeter and more palatable article. 

Somewhat different it turns out in regard to red wines. These 
contain usually less taste-forming parts, and these, in good sea- 
sons, very like to those in inferior ones. But the sugar, and, 
therefore, alcohol contents, as well as the sweetness of the wine, 
are subject to remarkable changes. By adding the like quantity 
of sugar in inferior seasons as in good ones, the results will alwaj^s 
be an agreeable red wine. I produced from a must of the vint- 
age of 1849, from a medium locality, at a weight of 86 degrees of 
Oechsle's scale, by adding sugar up to 96 degrees, a very palata- 
ble wine not inferior to that of 18-18. 

I will, however, here say that this addition of sugar should only 
be carried up to the must standard of good seasons ; more ought 
to be classed as adulteration. 

Professor Balling- {Die aUgemeine Galirungs-Ghemie, und die 
Bereitung des Weines^ P^g, 1845) says : In inferior seasons and 
localities we find usually the must with very little sugar contents ; 
these, however, relatively larger of cream of tartar {WeiiisteirC) 
and free acids. 

Such a must can be improved by adding the sugar that is nec- 
essary for the production of a good wine. To do this, add to the 
weak must so much grape-sugar as will be found necessary to 
give it the desired concentration. By not using too much sugar, 
the must contains sufiicient yeast (ferment) to effect the ferment- 
ation perfectly, and it will produce a more durable wine and rich- 
er in alcohol : 100 pounds of must of 14 per cent, by the saccha- 
rometer (or 57° of Oechsle) require 7-| lbs. of dry artificial grape- 
sugar (starch-sugar) ; this will give 107^ lbs. of must of 20 per 
cent, saccharometer (83° Oechsle). The contents of cream of tar- 
tar and free acids is in this way distributed in a larger quantity 
of fluids, and their relative proportion in consequence lesser, and 
the wine richer. 



252 GRAPE CULTURE AND WINE-MAKING. 

"It would be extremely desirable to abolish all the prejudices 
that still exist against this method." 

Dr. DoEBEREiNER, in his Gaehrungs-Chemie, Jena, 1822, says: 

1 recommend the following English method : Take one gallon of 
water to each gallon of white grapes ; crush them, and let them 
stand for one week without stirring; then draw off the juice. 
Add to each gallon 8 lbs. of loaf sugar ; put the whole into a bar- 
rel, but take care not to close the bung until the mass has whiz- 
zed out. After six months' time the wine may be drawn off into 
bottles. 

Again he repeats the same counsel in 1843, in his Privilegirte 
Jenaische WochenhUiiler^ 1813 : Take to 1 eimer (64 Prussian 
quarts — about 17 gallons) of must of half-ripe grapes, 1 eimer 
(17 gallons) of good river or rain water, 20 lbs. of loaf-sugar, and 
half a quart of beer-yeast, and let the whole ferment in a moder- 
ate temperature. According to my strictest observations, 20 lbs. 
of sugar will give, during the process of fermentation, 10-| lbs. of 
alcohol (wine-spirit), and it will produce a wine at least equal to 
the French. 

In his Adtere unci Neuere Erfalirungen ueher die Fabrication und 
Yerhesserung der naiurlichen und kilnstlichen Weine, Jena, 1850, 
he counsels : In case the must contains a great quantity of free 
acids (acids of apples and wine), it will be prudent to mix it, be- 
fore the fermentation sets in, with about one per cent, of its weight 
of slightly burned and finely-pulverized chalk, and increase its 
sugar stuff by an addition of grape-sugar. The juice of unripe 
grapes produces only, by reducing its acids in the prescribed 
manner, a drinkable wine, then by adding sugared water (in equal 
parts according to the weight), and fermenting it by a very little 
beer-yeast. It will do to take to 17 gallons of such must 17 gal- 
lons of water, 30 to 40 lbs. of grape-sugar, and 1 lb. of beer-yeast 
(bung-yeast). There may also be added to the whole mass 1 or 

2 lbs. of crushed grape-seeds. 

G. C. Bartels {Kurze Anweisung zur recliien Behandlung deut- 
scher Weine, Diisscl thai, 1843) expresses himself as follows: Every 
wine is partially produced by Nature and partly by Art. It is the 
produce of a chemical process, by fermenting juices, guided by 
man to a certain point, where he has to interrupt it in order to 
make it tvine, and not let it turn into vinegar by allowing it to 
continue its natural course. 

Pure icines are such as are produced by a well-regulated fer- 
menting process. Imjtroved wines differ from natural ones by the 
latter being produced without man's help, while the former be- 
came, by a regulated treatment, what Nature ought to have made 
them. 

I proceed now to show in what manner to produce a palatable 
and ncaltliy wine even out of inferior must, or that of positive 
bad quality. The principal condition is reducing the acids in the 



Dli. L. GALL ON IMPROVEMENTS IN WINE-MAKING. 253 

must of sour grapes. To do this effectually we have a very sim- 
ple and cheap means — pulverized chalk. A too watery must re- 
quires an addition of sugar, otherwise the wine will turn out 
weak and not durable. Good care ought, however, to be taken 
not to use too much sugar. The best plan is to take so much as 
would be required to obtain the strength of a medium season. 

Dr. F. IIUBECK, Professor of Agricultural Sciences, says (in his 
Essay on the Grape Culture in Lower Styria) : Wc have three ways 
to improve the sugar-contents of grapes, viz. : 

1. By keeping them on layers to mature. 

2. By boiling the must. 

3. By a direct addition of sugar. 

We have three kinds of sugar : cane or beet sugar, grape or 
potato sugar, and "slime sugar" {saccharum mucosum). Consider- 
ing that, according to the results of the French, who have attain- 
ed such a high degree of perfection in the art of wine-making, 
the potato-sugar is the most adapted to this purpose, we have the 
conviction that the potatoes are one of the chiefest means to im- 
prove and procure an extended market for the wines of a country. 

J. C. Leuchs ( Yollstaendige Weinkunde^ 1847) says : For im- 
proving the too watery must we have three excellent methods, 
viz. : 

1. The boiling of the must. 

2. The addition of must boiled down to the consistency of mo- 
lasses. 

3. The addition of sugar-sirup (which is, in effect, sugar and 
water — for sugar-sirup is but sugar dissolved in water), starch or 
grape sugar, cane-sugar, or honey. 

To must that, besides water, contains much acids, an addition 
of these bodies (sugar or honey) is preferable to boiled must. Es- 
pecially recommendable are the grape-sugar and cane-sugar. 

Improving the too acid and sour must : These parts may be es- 
sentially reduced by increasing the siveet ones ; therefore by add- 
ing boiled must or sugar. Unripe grapes may be allowed to fer- 
ment with their skins and pedicles. Care must be taken not to 
crush the seeds. The addition of sugar and water differs accord- 
ing to the acid and asLringency of the grapes. 

Dr. C, E. Fresenius {Chemiefilr Landwirthe, Wiesbaden, 184:9) 
says: Addition of sugar to Must. — The wine-producers increase the 
specific gravity of their must, in seasons whose unfavorable tem- 
perature did not allow a perfect formation of the sugar stuff in 
the grapes, by an addition of sugar up to the standard of good 
seasons, and obtain thereby a wine richer in spirit and more pal- 
atable than from like must without this addition. 

Professor J. Von Liebig {Annalen der Chemie und Pharmacie) 
says : Young wines contain, among other parts, sugar that, by 
keeping, gradually disappears, and some yet very little known 
gum-like stuffs, that, in boiling the wine, very easily get a brown- 



254 GRATE CULTURE AND WINE-MAKING. 

isb color. The existence of these is apparently principally effect- 
ed by the quality of the soil and the locality of the vineyard in 
which the grapes grow ; and it is self-evident that the sugar can 
not replace the qualities that are dependent on those other parts. 
For instance, it will be possible to produce at Diirkheim, in me- 
dium or inferior seasons, a wine much better in quality by an ad- 
dition of sugar, and yet it will always be but a better Uurkheim 
at Worms a beitei- Liehfrauenmilch^ in Weinheim a better Hubberger, 
but never a Sieinberger^ a R'ddesheimer^ or any other different spe- 
cies of wine. 

Fully conscious of the contradiction of many wine-producers, 
yet I have the full belief that, twenty -five years hence, during in- 
ferior seasons, this method of improving the must will be generally 
adopted. 

Dr. EiTTER ( ^Vei7lIehre, Mayence, 1817) saj^s : The main want of 
the German must, in medium and inferior seasons, lies in the de- 
ficiency of sugar stuff, and an overcharge of free acids. A ridic- 
ulous prejudice took this deficiency to be an essential quality of 
the Ehenish wines, which, however, is contradicted by the but 
seldom happening seasons in which the grapes attain their full 
maturity. Connected with this overcharge of acids is generally 
the want of sugar, for which reason the wine contains but little 
spirit. 

It would therefore be a great advantage to introduce into Ger- 
many a method to remedy both evils. This method (in France 
in use even with greatly richer must) would be, boiling the must 
in a kettle up to 70° Eeaumur, and then reducing its acids by a 
mixture of chalk. Must very poor in sugar has to be improved 
by the addition of sugar. 

An opinion expressed by a medical commission, installed by 
order of the royal Prussian government at Coblentz in the year 
1844, in a controversy about the practicability of " Chaptal's meth- 
od," runs in the following words : The proper chemical analysis 
was neither directed upon the contents of sugar nor that of spirit 
(alcohol), inasmuch as neither one, when added before the ferment- 
ation takes place, is discoverable by chemical means from that 
sugar or alcohol which is contained in the grapes, and which de- 
velops itself only by a fermentation. The cane-sugar added 
changes, during the fermentation, into grape-sugar, and leaves no 
difference w^hatever. The spirit of wine or alcohol is, however, 
contained in every species of wine, and by its nature not distin- 
guishable, whether formed by patural grape-sugar, or cane-sugar 
changed into it. 

By this published opinion, the method of improving wines by 
sugar or spirit addition was therefore ofl&cially acknowledged and 
recommended. 



DR. L. GALL ON IMPROVEMENTS IN WINE-MAlilNU. 255 



V. 

THE TRINCIPAL CONTENTS OF THE GRAPE NECESSARY FOR THE 
FABRICATION OF WINE. 

In the foregoing chapters we have cliiefly spoken of the sugar, 
acids, and water as parts of the grape-juice, rroperly speaking, 
these form the main ingredients from which the wine results, and 
that produce a wine of as good quality as any given species of 
grape is able to furnish from the particular site of the vineyard in 
which it grew, provided those main constituent parts were con- 
tained in a right proportion, or their relation to one another were 
rectified in the must before the fermentation took place. But it 
now becomes necessary to look closer into those principal agents 
of wine-producing, as water, sugar, and acids, as also a few oth- 
ers, that merit consideration solely because of their not belonging 
to the wine, in order to manage properly those grapes that are 
not fit for producing a wine of superior quality, or to know the 
most profitable way of turning the residue of the grapes to the 
best possible profit. 

The Water. 

The water which is contained in the must is essentially the same 
as that falling from the clouds. It contains the grape-sugar and 
the other parts of the must in solution, just as sugar-water con- 
tains the sugar dissolved therein. By distilling a quantity of must 
we get, however, perfectly pure water without any taste. 

We have soft and hard water according to its being impreg- 
nated by minerals sucked up by running through them. Green 
vegetables will not get soft when boiled in hard water ; and, to 
reduce the must, none but soft water should be used. The hard 
water may be charged with gypsum or lime, according to the 
kind of rock through which it runs, and differs from soft water 
by getting cloudy when a few drops of soap-spirit (soap dissolved 
in alcohol) are poured into a tumblerful of it, while soft water re- 
tains its clearness. To know whether it is charged with lime or 
gypsum, it must be boiled and left to cool : if with gypsum, it re- 
mains cloudy ; if with lime, it will turn clear again. By boiling 
limy water, therefore, and leaving it to settle, it may, by this pro- 
cess, be turned soft, drawing it off from the bottom residue. The 
objections to using hard water to improve wines are the following; 

1. If it contains lime particles^ (a) the lime combines with a part 
of the wine acid of the must, forming cream of tartar, settles down 
as such, and is therefore lost for the formation of wine, and this 
may retain less acid than desirable ; or, {b) bottles cleaned out 
with water highly charged with lime parts, and filled in a yet wet 
state with wine will instantly get covered by a thin coating of 



256 GILVPE-CULTURE AND WINE-MAKING. 

wine-acid lime, forming itself to a residue in case they remain 
standing upright, or are laid down after being corked up. 

2. If it contains gypsum jMrticks, it will, being used to the must, 
impart to the produced wine a disagreeable taste. 

It hardly needs mention that neither water from still-standing 
ponds nor from foul wells should be used. In a very wet fall, 
the quantity of dew or rain-water entering the must depends 
greatly on the form of the grapes. "We shall look a little closer 
into the quantity and the effect of this water. For instance : a 
grape, if plucked on a warm day, and accurately weighed after 
this, then put into a vessel filled with water for a few minutes 
and weighed over again, will show a gain of 8 to 12 per cent, 
water, according to the distance of the berries from one another. 
If, therefore, the vintage takes place after a rain or a heavy dew, 
from 8 to 12 per cent, of water is transferred to the tubs by the 
grapes themselves : 100 pounds of grapes, on an average, how- 
ever, giving not more than 70 pounds of wine, it is evident that, 
as all the added water remains in the must, this 8 or 12 per cent, 
of the weight of the grapes forms from ll-j to 18 per cent, of the 
weight of the wine. In case such a must, as is usual in rainy 
seasons, holds besides a sugar content of 16 per cent., this will be 
reduced in the first case to 13, in the latter to 12 per cent., and 
produce in both but an inferior quality of wine ; while, if the 
clouds have opened upon the fall, it will be but necessary to add 
but 3 or 4 per cent, of grape-sugar to produce not only a wine 
equally as good as without rain, but really a much better article, 
because more palatable and mild, and, besides, from 11 to 17 per 
cent, more in quantity. Greatly increased will this quantity of 
water be if the gathering takes place on a rainy day, because then 
the rain falls also into the open receiving-tubs. 

Knowing by experience that the perfectly -matured grapes pos- 
sess all the ingredients necessary for the production of the most 
superior wines, in proportions that suffer no change whatever, 
and learning by the exterior form of the grape that to attain this 
required end the most matured ones must only be gathered dur- 
ing sunny, warm days, a gathering, during a rain, of only half- 
ripe grapes will therefore, in one point, only tend to profit by the 
misproportion of the too much prevailing acid to the water and 
sugar being at least improved, however not regulated — a mispro- 
portion vastly more annoying than that of a low content of sugar. 

We might therefrom long ago have drawn the lesson to add 
ourselves the wanting water to the acid must whenever the clouds 
fail to send it. 

Sugar contained in the Orape, and the Must-Scale. 

The sugar contained in the grapes in a dissolved state appears 
in the raisins in the shape of white grains, essentially being the 
same kind as that crystallizing in the honey when it dries up. 



DK. L. GALL ON IMPROVEMENTS IN WINE-MAKING. 



257 



From the common cane or beet sugar it only differs by being 
found, when in a natural dry state, in irregular shape. Many oth- 
er plants contain the same kind, as apples, pears, figs, wherefore 
it is frequently called ^'■fruit-sugary Its taste is less sweet than 
that of common sugar, insomuch that two and a half ounces of 
the first will only give the same degree of sweetness as one ounce 
of the latter. In water it dissolves less freely, one ounce of water 
being only able to receive two thirds of an ounce of it, while it 
readily will receive three ounces of cane-sugar. In boiling wa- 
ter, however, no difference is perceptible. 

The spirit (fire) of the wine is due to the sugar parts of the 
must forming alcohol during the fermentation. Both kinds of 
sugar produce it nearly equally. 

The richest contents of sugar observed in our climate (Germany) 
in the finest kinds of grapes, such as Kiesling, Eulaender, Trami- 
ner, etc., amount, in the best localities and the warmest seasons, to 
28 or 80 per cent., while in southern climates not seldom to 50 
per cent. Dr. Walz observed, during the month of August, 1846. 
a daily increase of 0.4 per cent, of sugar in the juice of Trami- 
ner grapes. 

The science of chemistry has given us various instruments and 
means to measure very accurately the sugar parts contained in the 
grape-juice. Of these, Oechsle's Must-Scale is considered the best. 

Oechsle^s Must-Scale. 

A {Fig. 1) is a glass tube, or, instead of this, 
a common tumbler, filled nearly to the brim 
with must, into which the scale B is inserted. 
The scale consists of the float o, the gravity 
point 5, and the stem c. The stem is divided 
by lines into degrees from 50 to 100, as shown 
in the cut. Before inserting the instrument 
into the must (which is to be filtered through 
a piece of linen), draw the " scale" through 
the mouth to wet it a little. After allowing 
it then sufficient time to get steady, find out 
down to which line it has been sinking, press 
it down a little more, and, after then steady- 
ing itself again, it will show the specific grav- 
ity of the sugar parts marked by degrees. 

The following table, compiled by actual 
minute observations, will be a tolerably reli- 
able guide, although it may not prove equally 
correct for the must of all the different kinds 
of grapes of different parts of the world, their 
contents of extract too widely varying. It 
will, however, be found quite sufficient for 
places, as we know at our day that the general value of the 

K 




most 



258 



GRAPE CULTURE AND WINE-MAKING. 



wines depends more on a certain part of alcohol (therefore sugar 
of the must) than on a medium part of acids. 

NEW TABLE FOR THE USE OF OECHSLE'S MUST-SCALE. 



III 


100 Pounds of 
such Must 
contain Sug- 
ar, 


o 


III 

Q 


100 Pounds of 
such Must 
contain Sug- 
ar, 


o 


.a -* 

■•J r-t 

O e8 S 

if! 


100 }^und3 of 
such Must 
contain Sug- 
ar, 


100 Litres of 
such Must 
weigh, 




Pounds. 


Pounds. 




Pounds. 


Pounds. 




Pounds. 


Pounds. 


41 


8.0 


206 


64 


14.0 


210 


87 


20.2 




42 


8.3 


(( 


65 


14.2 


<( 


88 


20.4 


215 


43 


8.6 


<( 


66 


14.4 


(t 


89 


20.7 


'• 


44 


8.9 


u 


67 


14.7 


211 


90 


20.9 


" 


45 


9.2 


(( 


68 


15.0 


(1 


91 


21.2 


>■' 


46 


9.4 


(( 


69 


15.2 


u 


92 


21.4 


u 


47 


9.7 


207 


70 


15.5 


" 


93 


21.7 


216 


48 


9.9 


it 


71 


15.8 


a 


94 


21.9 


" 


49 


10.2 


a 


72 


16.1 


212 


95 


22.2 


i( 


50 


10.5 


(1 


73 


16.3 .. 


(( 


96 


22.5 


u 


51 


10.8 


208 


74 


16.0 


" 


97 


22.7 


'• 


52 


11.1 


" 


75 


16.9 


" 


98 


23.0 


217 


53 


11.4 


" 


76 


17.2 


" 


99 


23.2 


" 


54 


11.7 


" 


77 


17.5 


213 


100 


23.4 


" 


55 


11.9 


u 


78 


17.8 


li 


101 


23.7 


a 


56 


12.2 


(( 


79 


18.0 


" 


102 


23.9 


" 


57 


12.5 


209 


80 


18.3 


u 


103 


24.2 


218 


58 


12.7 


a 


81 


18.5 


" 


104 


24.5 


" 


59 


13.0 


" 


82 


18.8 


214 


105 


24.8 


a 


60 


13.2 


•' 


83 


19.1 


" 


106 


25.0 


" 


61 


13.4 


a 


84 


19.4 


" 


107 


25.2 


(( 


62 


13.6 


210 


85 


19.7 


a 


108 


25.4 


219 


63 


13.9 


u 


86 


20.0 


(( 


109 


25.7 


a 



In order to avoid possible variations, it will be well to bring 
the must up to a temperature of 14° Eeaumur by putting the ves- 
sel containing the must for a few minutes into warm water. 

Artificial Grape-sugar. 

A good must of 20 per cent, weight of sugar parts contains, on 
an average, 76 per cent, of water, and leaves, after this has evap- 
orated, about 24 per cent, as an extract, holding all the not vola- 
tible ingredients of the grape-juice. The sugar, however, as long 
as it is dissolved in water, holds the same relation as reducing 
medium of the acids in regard to the room which it occupies in 
the fluid as the water itself, united to which it forms the sugar- 
water. This proves that a good grape must, in the proper propor- 
tion to the acid, not only contains 76 per cent, of water and 20 per 
cent, sugar, but 96 per cent, sugar- water; these, however, will be 
found, according to the more or less fiery wine (strength of alco- 
hol), composed of more sugar and less water in the first case, and 
in the latter of more water and less sugar. 

Grape-sugar is made by artificial means of the starch of pota- 
toes, therefore frequently called starch or jwiato sugar. It received 
the name of grape-sugar because of its not only being similar to 



mi. L. GALL ON IMPROVEMENTS IN WINE-MAKING. 259 

the article produced by the grape, but in all respects alike. It is, 
therefore, the better adapted to improve the must, as its price al- 
ways, even at very high market value of the potatoes, ranges from 
25 to 80 per cent, lower than common cane or beet sugar. The 
artificial, as well as the natural grape-sugar, is, in its dry state, a 
combination of six atoms of oxygen, six atoms of carbon, arfd five 
of hydrogen ; while the common cane-sugar contains, in its dry 
state, five atoms of oxygen, six of carbon, and five of hydrogen. 

As an article of merchandise, we find the artificial grape-sugar 
in the following forms : 

1. Thick liquid, or " sirup," of various sugar contents, and 
therefore more or less thick and transparent ; white or clear as 
water, light yellow to brown. 

2. Consistent, but, when fresh, more or less wet, about like very 
dry soap, from milk-white to light yellow, put up in barrels or 
boxes, in form of lumps. 

8. In the shape of sugar-loaves, very hard, and from white to 
yellowish color. 

4. Dry, (a) finely pulverized and snow-white, as flour-sugar, (b) 
crumby, milk white. 

5. Crystallized sugar, an invention of the eminent chemist Mr. 
Anton, of Prague. In this form it is principally used for the fab- 
rication of Champagne wines. 

The relative value of the different kinds of sugar depends nat- 
urally on their real sugar parts. In 100 pounds of water-free 
sugar are contained of these : 

Of cane or beet sugar 90-93 lbs. 

" dry grape-sugar 89-90 " 

" consistent grape-sugar 80-84 " 

" wet (fresh) " 75-80 " 

Considering the sinq:>, this may be casilj' and accurately de- 
termined by the saccharometer of Balling. The saccharometer 
is a balance-scale (similar to the must-scale) that indicates by its 
more or less deep sinking into solutions of pure sugar how many 
parts of sugar such a solution contains. For instance, if it sinks 
in a sirup warmed to 14° Eeaumur down to the degree-line of 75, 
it contains in 100 pounds 75 pounds of pure sugar. 

In order to examine in this manner hard grape-sugar, it is nec- 
essary to dissolve 10 ounces of it in 90 ounces of hot water, to 
weigh the same over again, and add so many ounces of water as 
are wanting to make up the 100 ounces ; and now the saccharom- 
eter has to be sunk into the solution. Had 10 ounces of per- 
fectly dry sugar been dissolved in 90 ounces of distilled water, the 
instrument would sink down to the tenth degree-mark ; i. e., it 
would mark 10 degrees of sugar parts. If it shows, however, but 
8 degrees, it becomes evident that the 10 ounces of hard but still 
wet sugar held only 8 (8173-) ounces of dry, or the examined grape- 
sugar was composed of 82 per cent, sugar and 18 per cent, water. 



260 GRAPE CULTURE AND WINE-MAKING. 

Sirups of a darker color than light yellow can only be used in 
the fabrication of red wines. 

The Acids of the Must. 

Those contained in the grape-juice are part/ree, part combined 
with earths and alkalies, with which they form bitter as well as 
neutral salts. Only the free and the hitter salts can be detected 
by the taste, and proved in their total quantity in the wine. 

The acid parts, besides deciding the palatable taste of the wine 
present in proper proportions, also determine and influence, ac- 
cording to general belief, the existence of many different combi- 
nations, and by these the formation of the aroma (flavor). 

To prove this supposition, it is said by many that principally 
those wines that contain a great deal of acids develop a rich bou- 
quet^ while this is almost entirely wanting in the southern wines 
holding less acids. It seems, however, that in asserting this, the 
bouquet is confounded with the wine-smell appertaining to all the 
wines of a larger acid content than the southern have. In this 
connection, also, that part of .acids can only be considered as con- 
ditioning the development of the wine-smell that is- proper to those 
wines in the best season, because otherwise the over-acid wines 
of inferior seasons would have to show the strongest wine-smell. 

Hence follow the consequences of this in favor of a reduction 
of the contents of acids of a more than ordinary sour must upon 
them in good seasons, the more properly, as we know that for a 
long time various articles, as chalk, lime, potassa, etc., have been 
used to reduce those acids. Ilowever, the real relation of these 
free acids remained a secret until that eminent chemist, Dr. Ltj- 
DERSDORF, Supplied this want, and gave thereby a firm and secure 
foundation to the art of wine fabrication. He recognized the fact 
that the most esteemed wines (in other respects of equally good 
qualities) were more valued by their quantity of medium contents 
of acid than that of alcohol. This induced him to examine in the 
year 1841 about eighteen different sorts of wines of the vintage 
of 1834, and to publish those results in Erdmann^s Journal for 
Chemistry^ which may be seen in the table on the next page. 

It will not be amiss to add a few remarks here for such as have 
no farther knowledge of the science of chemistry. ^ ■ 

Acids and alkalies are characterized by their capacity of neu- 
tralizing each other's qualities. For instance, acids change the 
blue color of litmus tincture into red; now to this red fluid add 
a sufficient quantity of an alkali, and the blue color will be re- 
stored, the acid being neutralized. The point at which this takes 
place is called the satiating point. The greater the quantity of 
acid (say vinegar or wine) which had been added to the litmus 
tincture in order to recover it, the more alkali will be required to 
change the color back to blue. Now, as a certain quantity of al- 
kali is required to neutralize a definite amount of a particular 



DR. L. GALL ON IMrKOVEMENTS IN WINE-MAKING. 



261 



acid, tbc amount of acid can be ascertained by the quantity of al- 
kali which was required to satiate it. This calculation will, how- 
ever, be perfectly accurate only when the fluid — for instance, 
vinegar — contains only one kind oi acid. It is different in regard 
to wine. This contains different Icinds of acids, as wine-acid or 
cream of tartar, apple, grape, and acetic acids, and each of these 
requires a little different quantity of the same alkali for its satia- 
tion. It is therefore impossible to determine with perfect accu- 
racy the quantity of the acids contained in a wine or must except 
by a very difficult analysis, which is at the same time qualitative 
and quantitative. 



Names of the examined Wines. 



Haut-SaiUerne .... 

Haut-Bommes 

Medoc-Bourgcois . 

Haut-Cerocs 

Oppenheimer 

Ungsteiner , 

Forster-Riesling . . . 

Neuberger 

Viersteincr 

Brauneberger 

Markobrunner 

Pisporter 

Leistenwein 

Zeltinger 

Roedelser 

Griinebei-ger 

Naumburger 

Tokaier 



Contents of 


Contents 


Contents 


Acids count- 


of Alco- 


of Ex- 


ed as Acetic 


tiol in 


tract in 


Acid in 1000 


100 


100 


Parts. 


Parts. 


Parts. 


4.8 


9.7 


2.1 


4.8 


9.5 


1.7 


5.3 


7.4 


1.9 


6.8 


8.5 


2.0 


4.4 


9.8 


i.n 


4.5 


6.7 


1.9^ 


4.8 


9.0 


1.7 


4.9 


6.7 


1.9 


5.2 


8.8 


1.9 


5.2 


7.8 


1.5 


5.3 


7.8 


2.U 


6.5 


6.7 


1.7 


5.7 


7.2 


1.9 


5.7 


7.3 


1.7 


6.1 


8.5 


1.9 


7.8 


6.5 


2.H 


8.3 


6.4 


2.2^ 


5.5 


12.1 


10.62 



J'ricc per 
Uottle in 

Berlin, in 
Silber 

grosclien. 



Reduced 

into 
Dollars 

and 
Cents. 



36 

25 

15 

17i 

30 

30 

25 

25 

25 

20 

60 

15 

30 

12^ 

15 
7^ 
7* 

45 



81 
57 
34 
40 
69 
69 
57 
57 
57 
46 
38 
34 
69 
29 
35 
18 
18 
04 



In a purely scientific essay, like the one published by Dr. Lii- 
dersdorf on his examinations, he could, therefore, not say, as it 
has been done in the foregoing table, that the examined wines held 
such a portion of their weight in acids, but only, using as means 
to neutralize a solution of ammonia., what quantity of this 'proof 
fluid was required to satiate the acids of each of the wines he ex- 
amined. The uninitiated, however, not understanding these re- 
marks, it was deemed, better to substitute the numbers contained 
in the third column of the table, expressing the calculated acid 
content, as acetic acid, i. e., the acid of vinegar. These remarks 
may not be scientifically accurate, but they are sufficiently accu- 
rate for practical use. The main point being this : that the same 
quantity of a neutralizing agent that satiates 11.4 pounds of acetic 
acid, will satiate 12.7 pounds of apple acid, or 14.25 pounds of 
wine acid ; and so a quantity of sugar- water that will sweeten to 
a certain point of taste 14.25 pounds of wine acid, will bring to 
the same degree of sweetness only 12.7 pounds of apple acid, or 
11.4 pounds of acetic acid. Instead, therefore, of expressing the 



262 



GIUPE CULTURE AND WINE-MAiaNG. 



result of our examination of a must or wine by saying, "It con- 
tains so many thousandth parts of free acid," we should, in strict 
correctness, say, " It requires such a quantity of the proof-fluid to 
satiate its acids, according to Otto's Acid-Scale." 

By comparing the foregoing table, we find that wine-consumers 
estimate as good wines only those whose contents of acids do not 
much exceed 6 parts in 1000. 

Dr.LUdersdorf's examinations would have been still more sug- 
gestive if extended upon a larger assortment of wines of a higher 
content of acids. This has been done for Styria by Dr. Hlubeck, 
who gives a table of twelve kinds of wines, of vintage 1841, ex- 
amined by him. These examinations show evidently that the 
influence of the acids upon the price of such wines is so very un- 
favorable that, for instance, the one of No. 5 is not able to com- 
pensate for the contents of acid only 0.7 per cent, higher, although 
it is If per cent, higher in alcohol than No. 6. 



Names of the Examined Wines. 



Brandncr 

Wiseller Drenowezer .... 

Murberger 

Radkersburger 

Johannisberger Pickerer 

Kerschbacher 

Sandberger 

Wiseller Johannisberger 

Pettaner Stadtbcrger 

Sauritscher 

Marburger Possnicker... 
'• Koschacker.. 



Contents 

of Acids 

in 100 

Parts. 


Contents 

ofAlcohol 

in 100 

Parts. 


Pi'ice per 
Eimer at CO 
Quarts, in Sil- 
ber groschen. 


Reduced 
into Dol- 
lars and 
Cents. 


5.0 


9.8 


240 


$5 52 


6.0 


9.5 


202 


4 65 


5.9 


8.3 


202 


4 65 


6.2 


8.4 


192 


4 42 


6.4 


7.9 


187 


1 90 


7.1 


9.5 


168 


3 86 


7.5 


8.9 


161 


3 70 


8.3 


8.9 


144 


3 31 


8.8 


9.3 


137 


3 15 


9.1 


10.2 


132 


3 03 


11.6 


6.7 


103 


2 36 


12.0 


6.7 


98 


2 25 



As a proof that it is not the quality ov peculiarity of some of the 
acids which constitutes their influence upon the quality of the 
wines, but principally the proportion of their entire quantity to 
the other main constituent parts, we have the experiments of Mr. 
Maguer, mentioned by Chaptal, who produced superior wine from 
unripe grapes. 

For practical wine fabrication it sufiices perfectly to know with 
certainty : 

1. That by the maturing-process of the grapes their sugar con- 
tents increase, while the acids decrease ; that we therefore have it 
in our power to improve them doubly by leaving them as long as 
possible on the bush. 

2. That all the wines, in order to bo estimated as good and 
palatable, must contain at least 4^ pro mille (thousandth parts) of 
free acids (counted as vinegar acid), and not more than 6|. 

3. That all must containing more than 6 thousandths of free 
acids must be considered as having not enough water in proportion 
to its acids. 



DR. L. GALL ON IMPROVEMENTS IN WINE-MAKING. 



263 



Fior. 2. 



4. That experience has tauglit us, for more tlian ten years, in 
all the different German grape districts, that a proportionable ad- 
dition of water and sugar forms the means to produce, oven from 
the most sour must, as drinkable and as good a wine as is other- 
wise produced in good medium seasons. 

A remarkable attribute of the acid of wine lies in the fact that, 
reduced by a great deal of water and mixed with but little alco- 
hol, it will, in the course of time, change into acetic acid, which 
explains the little durability of the weak wines of inferior seasons. 
Acetic acid is not contained in rp-aj^es ; it is merely oxydized alco- 
hol, and can only be formed after this is previously produced by 
fermentation. 

Acid Scales and their Use. 

The first instrument of this kind, invented by Mr. 
Otto, which, being based upon the principle that the con- 
tents of acids are estimated as those of vinegar, proved 
very useful, and was generally adopted. We have at this 
day, however, another newly-invented one, in Otto's Acetic 
Acid Scale {Fig. 2). This is composed of a glass tube, ten 
or twelve inches long and half an inch wide, closed at the 
bottom. This is filled with blue litmus tincture up to the 
line a. After this, the must, previously filtered, is added 
up to the line 0, taking care that it is not in a state of fer- 
mentation. By the action of the acids in the must, the 
litmus tincture, which would retain its hlue color if mixed 
with water, turns red or rose color. Now if to this fluid a 
solution of ammonia be added, the tube being in the mean 
time shaken gently to promote the mixing, it will be found 
that the red color changes to an onion-red or violet-hlue, ac- 
cording to the greater or less quantity of the neutralizing 
agent. This, as before stated, shows the perfect satiation 
of the acids, and the degree line of the fluid in the tube 
shows the contents of acids of the must by whole, half, 
and quarter per cents, of weight. The lines 1, 2, 3 mark 
the whole percentage, and the lesser divisions the quar- 
ter per cent. 

This highly valuable instrument needed but a more . 
commodious contrivance to adapt it better still to general 
use. This has been effected by giving to it (as shown in Fig. 3, 
on the following page) a little smaller diameter, but at the same 
time an exactly half as large again cubic space to all its divisions. 
By this it becomes possible to divide each per cent, into tenths 
instead of fourths ; the whole space above 0, therefore, is divided 
into thousandths, and gives to each /)ro onille the same space — i. e., 
the same space from one dividing line to another — as the former 
instrument offered for the quarter per cent, lines. The only evil 
was, that by the turning over and shaking of the glass tube to 



264 



GRAPE CULTUEE AND WINE-MAKING. 



promote tlie mixing, a little of 
the contents will adhere to the 
skin of the thumb that closes 
the orifice, which might easily 
amount to one half pro mille. 

This fault is remedied by a 
new scale, invented by Mr. Geis- 
ler, the patentee of the Vapori- 
meter, used to determine the al- 
coholic contents of wine. Figs. 
■i, 5, and 6 represent Geisler's 
Scale. It is composed of three 
pieces, all of glass, put up in a 
box. The price is two and a 
half Prussian thalers. Besides 
these pieces, three small vials 
are required in the process of 
examination. One of these con- 
tains tincture of litmus, anoth- 
er a solution of sal ammoniac 
(1.369 per cent.), and the third 
holds some of the wine or must 
to be tested. The parts of the 
Acid-Scale are these : 1. A Bu- 
rette, or Graduated Tube (Fig. 4), 
which rests upon a small wood- 
en stand to hold it erect ; 2. A 
Flash {Fig. 5) ; and, 3. A Pipette, 
or Suction Pipe {Fig. 6). 

The manner of examination 
is as follows : 

Bringing first the must to the 
normal temperature of 14° R., 
and the litmus tincture also to 
the same ; put then of both, by 
means of the pipette, exactly the 
necessary quantity into the flask 
by alternately filling the pipette 
at first up to the division line A 
with the litmus tincture, and 
then, when this has run out into 
the flask, with must up to the 
line B. To fill the pipette, hold 
its orifice into the glass with the tincture or must, and suck, by 
applying the mouth to it, the fluid up to a little above the proper 
division line ; then quickly close the upper orifice by the thumb, 
and allow, by alternately closing and opening the orifice, the tinc- 
ture or must to enter the glass until the tincture stands exactly 




Geuler's Acid-Scalo. 



DR. L. GALL ON IMPROVEMENTS IN WINE-MAKING. £65 

on tlic line A, or the must on B. In the introduction of these 
fluids into the flask, the last drops must be ejected by blowing 
into the pipette. Then, with the right hand, place the thinner 
tube of the burette into the phial containing the solution of am- 
monia, and, applying the orifice of the wider tube to the mouth, 
fill it by sucking exactly up to the division line of the scale ; 
then take the flask between the thumb and second finger of the 
right hand, placing the smaller tube of the burette into the mouth 
of the flask, which is to be shaken continually ; put the solution 
of ammonia, drop by drop, into the flask, from the burette, until 
the red color of the fluid begins to change to blue, or until it has 
assumed the deep hluisli-red of the onion. This appearance shows 
that the acids have been satiated. This having been ascertained, 
hold the burette perpendicularly and see how much ammonia has 
been consumed, that is, to what division line of the scale the bu- 
rette has been emptied. The acid contents of the examined must 
are in relation to the quantity of the proof fluid consumed in this 
manner, that the larger division lines which have the numbers 1, 
2, 3, etc., indicate so many thousandth parts, and the smaller lines 
indicate ten thousandth parts. 

Before getting used to the handling of this instrument, it will 
be well to make examination of the must by litmus paper. To do 
this, when the mixture in the bottle begins to turn blue, thrust 
the end of a small slip of blue litmus paper about half an inch 
deep into it, and let immediately after the inserted end glide be- 
tween the thumb wetted with water and the second finger. So 
long as the acids are not perfectly satiated, the inserted end of the 
paper will appear more or less reddish; and the satiating point is 
not attained until the proof-paper remains blue immediately after 
the cleaning. 

In examining red must, the proceeding is to be modified in 
the following manner : Instead of litmus tincture, fill the pipette 
with ivaier up to the line A, and bring this into the flask. After 
adding the necessary quantity of must, pour dropwise, shaking it 
from the very outset, four 2}ro milks of solution of ammonia into 
the mixture, and prove it, as well as after each successive neces- 
sary addition of ammonia, with litmus paper, until it no longer 
reddens when cleaned. A few trials will, however, suf&ce to 
make one quite proficient in the use of the instrument. 

As it has, however, frequently happened that an addition of 
water has been made ad libitum, it may be well to give yet an- 
other manner by which one may tolerably well rely on the taste 
of the tongue. This needs nothing but two glass bottles, each 
one holding a little more than two and a half quarts, and marked 
A and B, in order not to confound them. Farthermore, a few 
tin measures, one of which must hold one quart, the other one 
half, and the third exactly one twentieth of a quart, each having 
a handle and a spout ; also two small tin funnels, one for each 



266 GRAPE CULTURE AND WINE-MAKING. 



• 



bottle. "When the acids of a must are to be examined, one quart 
of must, previously filtered through linen, is to be measured oft' 
into each bottle (it would be well if' the must was freshly pressed). 
After this, add cold water to it in both bottles, in small, exactly 
equal portions, until, shaking the mixture in the bottle marked A 
before each new addition, and then proving, the acid be found 
reduced to the right proportion, i. e., agreeable to the taste. For 
adding the water, use the one-twentieth-quart vessel; take the 
proofs only out from A, and only so much as is necessary to 
taste it. 

The acids of the must being sufficiently reduced, the contents 
of bottle B must be accurately measured, by which it becomes ev- 
ident how much water has been added to the must, and exactly so 
much sugar-ioater has to be added to the must in wholesale that 
is to be improved. If, for instance, the mixture in B is l-j^ quarts, 
then to each quart of must t% quart of sugar- water is to be added ; 
60 quarts of sugar- water, that is, to 100 of must. 

Now we have still to deal with another question, " Of how 
much sugar and how much water has the sugar-water to be com- 
posed?" 

To answer this, we must ascertain the weight of 100 quarts of 
must or water. The following table will aid to find this out : 

100 pounds (ZoUp/und) are equal to 

33 maas of Baden, 50 kans of Holland, 

50 " Bavaria, 29 maas of Nassau, 

54 quai"tier of Brunswick, 25 " Austria, 

28 maas of Frankfort, 43 quarts of Prussia, 

50 litres of France, 32 visii-kans of Saxony, 

51 quartier of Hanover, 33 maas of Switzerland, 
25 maas of Electoral Hesse, 60 halbe of Hungary, 

29 " Hesse-Darmstadt 28 hellaichmaas of Wiirtemburg. 

We have farther to determine the contents of sugar of the must 
by Oechsle's Must-Scale and table. For instance, if this shows 68 
degrees, the sugar contents, according to the table, will be 15 per 
cent. If it is to be brought up to 20 per cent., we have to add 
5 pounds of sugar to every 100 pounds of must, and to every 200 
pounds of must, therefore, 10 pounds of sugar. Of water (or, more 
properly, sugar- water), as we previously have shown, must be add- 
ed 60 maas, or 120 pounds. Because this must contains 20 per 
cent, of sugar, therefore in 120 pounds of this will be contained 
24 pounds of sugar. In the whole, therefore, 100 Bavarian maas 
of must require 31 jDOunds of sugar. These, deducted from tlie 
120 pounds of sugar-water which must be added, it is evident 
that, of ivater^ we have to add 86 pounds, and the sugar-water is 
therefore to be composed of 31 pounds sugar and 86 pounds (or 
43 Bavarian maas) of ivater. 

The Salts. 
All combinations of acids with a " basis" are called salts. By 



DR. L. GALL ON IMPROVEMENTS IN WINE-MAKING. 207 

dissolving such a combination (for instance, common salt, or cream 
of tartar) in a fluid, and leaving it quietly in a warm place until 
this has evaporated, it will be a salt remaining in small crystals. 
The salts dissolved in must and wine are, however, very different, 
according to the ingredients of the soil on which the grapes grew. 
Besides cream of tartar, we know now yet sulphate of potassa, 
soda, tartrate of potassa, of alumina, tartrate of iron, chlorate of 
magnesia, and phosphate of magnesia. One and the same spe- 
cies of grapes can therefore, according to its native soil, con- 
tain, besides cream of tartar, also salts of different kinds, in a 
greater or smaller proportion. This furnishes another proof that 
no one of all forms a necessary ingredient of a good wine. A 
strong content of salts depends always on a very salty soil or the 
employed manure. A very detrimental influence upon the taste 
of wines have the salts of grapes that grew on a soil rich in ni- 
trate of potassa, nitrate of lime, magnesia, and ammoniacal salts. 
The must of those ought always to be brought up to a sugar con- 
tent of 28 to 30 per cent., in order to exclude a larger part of the 
injurious salts by increasing the alcoholic contents of the wine. 

The main usefulness of some salts, as, for instance, cream of 
tartar, common salt, the bitter salts, is their imparting to the wine 
a softeningj opening quality. 

The Oummy {Slimy) Parts. 

Their presence in the wine retards only their clearing off, where- 
fore it will always be prudent to remove them as much as possi- 
ble before the fermentation by clearing off the slime from the 
must, thereby removing, at the same time, many other stuffs not 
destined by nature for the producing of wine, also the dirt and 
dust that may have fallen into it. 

The same may be said of the ^'■gelatinic acicV Fortunately, it 
is partly removed by the fermentation, partly settling itself in the 
wine with the superfluous Tcali (potassa) and alkaline earths (lime), 
with which it enters into indissoluble combinations. By the 
cleaning process it is, for the most part, removed. 

T'hc Coloring Matter. 

Only one kind of grapes is known that has a red-colored juice 
— the " Faerber grape." All others, whether red, blue, or black, 
have the red coloring matter only in their skins. Its nature is 
rosin, and therefore indissoluble in must as long as no fermenta- 
tion of alcohol in it has taken place. For this reason, the red, 
blue, or black grapes produce only white wine if the skins are 
thrown out before the fermentation. If these, however, are al- 
lowed to share the fermentation, the alcohol forming during it will 
dissolve the coloring matter. This it does the more effectually, 
and the wine gets the darker, the more sugar the must contained 
(the more alcohol was formed). Besides this, the wine will turn 



268 GRAPE CULTURE AND WINE-MAKING. 

out the darker the less acids it holds, because these change the 
deep reddish-hlue into red. 

A not too large addition of water (with a corresponding of sug- 
ar) will therefore not reduce the color of the wine, but make it 
frequently appear darker. 

By frequent connection with the air the coloring matter oxy- 
dizcs, turns brown-red, and separates itself by-and-by from the 
wine. The filling of red wines from one cask into another ought, 
therefore, always to be attended with great care. By adding a 
little cream of tartar, the change of color may, however, be stop- 
ped, or itself renewed. 

The green color of the white or yellow grapes is formed by a 
coloring matter, contained as well in the juice as skin, called 
"leaf green," or " chlorophill." The reason why, out of green 
must, wine of more or less light or dark yellow color is produced, 
lies in the larger or smaller contents of lime of the soil that those 
grapes grew on. 

The Nitrogenic Comhinaiions and the Ferment. 

These (vegetable albumen, etc.), perfectly dissolved in the must 
as well as wine, attain, under particular circumstances, the faculty 
of originating the fermentation by whose action (and this is about 
all we know) the must changes into wine. A great many of the 
yeast stuffs, not being consumed, remain, however, and our white 
wines especially appear to be apt to retain them in so much, often 
that, even after being kept for years, they will work again, and 
form anew a kind of fermentation. The red wines retain consid- 
erably less. The yeast stuff remaining in the wine effects, after 
all the sugar is dissolved, the alcohol in the same manner as the 
former, so that, as this by combination with oxygen forms the 
yeast, the alcohol with oxygen forms the acid of vinegar. 

The Flavor Matters. 

Besides the particular agreeable ivine smell shared by all grape 
wines, some of them have still another flavor, similar to that of 
the grape blossom, generally called " aroma, jloioer, bouquet.'''' It 
only develops itself during the fermentation, and the more and 
stronger the richer the grapes were in sugar. It is probable that 
the alcohol of the wine effects greatly the so-called bouquet stuff 
(though this itself is as great a secret), as we know the more sug- 
ar in the must the more alcohol is formed. 

The Extractive Matters. 

These comprise all those parts of the wine that are not vola- 
tile ; that is to say, the remaining parts of the wine after all oth- 
ers have evaporated, as water, alcohol, acid of vinegar, etc. The 
value of the wine is not affected by them, or only to a very small 
degree. 



DK. L. GALL ON IMPROVEMENTS IN WINE-MAKING. 269 

After tlius examining the composing parts of the grape-juice 
and their main features, we justly conclude that none of them but 
the acids, the sugar, and the water are indispensable for the fabri- 
cation of wine, the others merely aiding. 



VI. 

PROGRESS OP WINE FABRICATION SINCE 1850. 

In France we see a lady, Mrs. Cora Millet, a landed proprie- 
tress, taking the lead in adapting a rational manner to increase 
the quantity of the wine by more than five per cent, without 
harming its quality. Soon others, convinced by the good results, 
followed in the wake. In the year 1856 a distinct class was 
founded at the Eoyal College at Dijon, the capital city of the rich 
Burgundy district, for the instruction of students in the applica- 
tion of chemistry to the culture of the grape. 

In this the diiBferent newly-invented methods of making and 
increasing the wine are clearly discussed and taught, inasmuch as 
they are based upon proportionate additions of sugar and water. 
A similar class was founded at Rheims, the capital of the Cham- 
pagne district. 

OalVs Procedure and Improvemeyits. 

The main principles upon which my system of making very 
good medium luines, even from unripe grapes^ is founded, are : 

1. All grapes have within themselves the materials necessary 
to produce wine. 

2. These materials are sugar, water, and free acids. 

8. Only perfectly ripe grapes have them in proper proportions. 

4. All grapes less ripe contain too little water and sugar in 
proportion to their acids. 

5. Must of not fully ripe grapes can be improved by adding the 
deficient water and sugar. 

6. The other parts of the juice are always present in sufficient 
quantity. 

7. The price of the wines is, in general, more regulated by a 
medium degree of acids of no more than six, and not less than four 
pro milles, than by a higher degree of alcohol than eight per cent. 

The art of producing from grapes 7iot fidly matured a wine 
equally as good and of increased quantity as from fully ripe ones 
of the same locality and species, is therefore mainly founded upon 
the method of bringing the sugar, water, and acids of the must 
into the relations in which they would be in fully-matured grapes 
of one and the same kind and locality in a superior season. 

It may not be out of place to review once more the feasibility 



270 GRAPE CULTURE AND WINE-MAKING. 

of the recommended method of improving and increasing the wine. 
As a main point, we have to bear in mind that we are obUged to 
calculate or find out the weight of the must and the water, be- 
cause we can not otherwise determine the quantity of sugar and 
the acids. Let us now take, for instance, two kinds of must of 
different quality as an illustration : 

The good one shall be composed of 262 pounds of sugar, 5.9 
pounds of acids, and 732.1 pounds of water. The inferior one of 
110 pounds of sugar, 9 pounds of acids, and 881 pounds of water. 

We have here a wide difference in the three main materials, the 
latter must, compared to the former, containing too little sugar 
and apparently too much water, also by far too large a quantity 
of acids. In order to bring it up to the standard of the good must, 
and to know how much sugar and other substances we have to 
add, let us try to find out by a simple calculation : 

(a.) Query. — If in a good quality of must 5.9 pounds of acids 
require 732.1 pounds of water, how much water need the 9 pounds 
of acids of the inferior ? 

Answer. — 5.9 : 732.1 = 9 : 1116.76 ; or, leaving out the fraction, 
1117 pounds. 

{b.) Query. — If a good must holds 262 pounds of sugar to 5.9 
pounds of acids, how many pounds of sugar do the 9 pounds of 
acids of the inferior require ? 

Answer. — 5.9 : 262 = 9 : 399.65 ; or, leaving out the fraction, 400 
pounds. 

In order, therefore to be qualitatively equal to the good must, 
the raw one must be composed of 

1117 lbs. Water, 400 lbs. Sugar, 9 \hs.Acids. 

It contains _881 " " 110 " " _9 " " 

Andmeds "236 " " 290 ~ 

Making an increase of 520 pounds to the must, or more than 52 
per cent. 

A natural must of 72° Oechsle's Scale =16 per cent, of sugar, 
and 5 per cent, of acids, may safely be considered the most proper 
standard by which to regulate the main materials of the inferior 
ones. Such a standard must has 
160 pounds of sugar. 
6 " acids. 
835 " water. 
lUOO pounds. 



DR. L. GALL ON IMPROVEMENTS IN WINE-]VLA.KING. 271 

VII. 
GALL'S REFORMATIONS IN WINE-MAKING. 

Having devoted, says Dr. Gall, considerable time and pains 
to experimenting on wines, and different methods of making and 
ameliorating them, I came, in tlic year 1828, upon the idea to try 
whether I could not produce a drinkable wine without using any 
grapes at all for the purpose ; and, verily, I succeeded far beyond 
expectation. I took nothing but grape-twigs chopped into pieces, 
ancl allowed them to ferment with half an ohm of sugar-water. 
The result was a very palatable wine. This experiment proved 
to me that even toialhj unripe grapes have not only too much 
acids, but too little water and too little sugar in proportion to their 
acid parts, and that it would be an unwise policy to extract acids 
from a too sour must, but that water should be added instead, just 
in the same way as it is to be added to a must very rich in sug- 
ar to reduce its acids, and to make the wine produced from it 
drinkable. I believed, therefore, also, that the acids of the grapes 
were a very valuable part of them, especially in unfavorable sea- 
sons. 

In subsequent years I madere peated experiments by adding 
sugar-water to musts, thereby not only increasing this in quan- 
tity by 20 and 80 per cent, but also improving their quality. In 
the district of Leutesdorf (which only produces in most of its sites 
a very inferior grape) I had, in the year 1831, six casks to exper- 
iment on. 

I numbered them from A to F, their cubic space differing but 
slightly. A was filled with 6 ohm of must, pressed from grapes 
without selection : the sugar parts of it amounted to 15^ per 
cent. ; B with 6 ohm of selected ripe grapes, with sugar parts of 
17|- per cent. ; C with 5^ ohm of must of selected ripe grapes, with 
an addition of 50 lbs. of grape-sugar : after this became dissolved 
in the must its sugar contents were 19^ per cent. ; D with 6 ohm, 
made of the selected rotten and half-ripe grapes : its sugar part 
13 per cent.; E with 5J ohm of the same quality of must as the 
latter, with an addition of 100 lbs. of grape-sugar : sugar contents 
18 per cent. ; F with 5 ohm of the same must, with an addition 
of f ohm of water and 125 lbs. of grape-sugar : sugar contents 18 
per cent. 

After the fermentation was over, all the casks were filled up 
with wine of the same quality as that of A. 

The next public sale demonstrated the benefits derived from 
this process. The following tables show the prices brought by 
the wines prepared by these processes, the gain actually realized, 
and that which would have accrued had all been similarly treated. 
The sums are expressed in Prussian thalers. 



272 GRAPE CULTURE AND WINE-MAiaNG. 

A. Natural wine 53 

B. Wine of ripe and sound grapes 87 

C. The same, with 50 lbs. of sugar lOl 

D. Of raisin-iike and half-ripe grapes 26 

E. The same, with 100 lbs. of sugar 68 

F. The same, with 125 lbs. of sugar and J ohm of water 82 

417 
From this are to be deducted, for the picking out of the ripe grapes, for 275 lbs. 
of sugar, and for divers labor 30 

Leaving for the G casks of wine 387 

To which must be added the price of about i ohm of must saved by the addi- 
tion of sugar .". 10 

The total proceeds of the G casks were therefore 397 

If these improvements had not been added, the G casks would have been like 

that of A, bringing (53xG) 318 

The net gain, by improving the must, was therefore, in Prussian thalers 89 

This gain would have been considerably larger if these im- 
provements had been employed on all the grapes, as the follow- 
ing calculation shows : 

For A, if treated in the same manner as F, at least the same price ; an addi- 
tion of. 29 

For B, if mixed with 50 lbs. of sugar, the same price as for C ; an addition of.. 14 

For D, if treated as F, the same price, an addition of. 56 

For E, on the same supposition 14 

Besides, 1 ohm of must would have been saved at A, i ohm at B, 1 ohm at D, 
and 2 ohm at F • three ohm in all, which, by the same treatment as at E, 

would have given 49 

Total increase 162 

Deduct from this the price of 500 lbs. of sugar that would have been added 46 

And there would have been a gain of. 116 

Add to this the former gain of 89 

And there would have been a net gain, by applying the improvement to all the 
G casks, of Prussian thalers 205 

This would have been still farther considerably increased if 
the acid parts had been reduced to their proper proportions ; but 
of this I had at the time no idea. It was not until the year 1850 
that I published my essay " 0)i the Manne?^ of Malcing very good 
medium Wines even from um-ipe Qrapes,^^ and had afterward the 
satisfaction of receiving numerous written acknowledgments from 
many societi|^ and individuals of its entire practicability. 



YIII. 

PREPARATIONS FOR THE VINTAGE. 

Knowing that Nature does not in all seasons allow the fullest 
state of maturity to be attained by the grapes, and therefore the 
proper formation of the sugar parts, it becomes our policy to try 
at least to gain all of these out of them as far as possible. Better 



DR. L. GALL ON IMPROVEMENTS IN WINE-MAKING. 273 



Fig. 7. 




Fig. 8. 




Fig. 0. 




274 GRArE CULTURE AND WINE-MAKING. 

than by pressing, which always leaves a certain proportion within 
the grapes, we obtain this end by extracting it by water. 

The simple apparatus for this purpose we find represented in 
Fig. 10 (page 276), in a perpendicular j^rofile. In its main fea- 
ture it is composed of a barrel standing upright, whose inner space 
is partitioned off by inlay-bottoms. These divisions are filled 
with musted grapes up to four fifths of their height, after which 
die must is let in under the sink-bottom A, through the tube iv, u\ 
that is connected with the funnel x, and so allowed to enter the 
interstices of the crushed grapes. After the barrel, which may be 
called the "-Elr/roctor," has been filled in this manner with must 
up to the height of the proof-tube o, water is passed to the must 
through the funnel, and this latter fluid will be pressed upward 
through the intervals of the grape residue and the proof-tube by 
the action of the water, that, without being able to mix itself with 
the must, takes its place in the same proportion as this flows out. 
Immediately after the last drop of the must has been driven out, 
the first drop of water will appear. 

"We will now see what farther implements have to be prepared 
in order to be fully in readiness to make the most profit out of 
the vintage : 

One or more wicker baskets, to hold the gathered berries {Figs. 
7 and 8). 

One or two tubs (A, Fig. 9), to crusli the grapes in. 

Some ivooden pestles (C, Fig. 9). 

A copper or iron kettle, to boil the water in and dissolve the 
grape-sugar. 

A chopping-form and a cutting-knife, to cut the grape-sugar 
that may be found in hard lumps. 

A decimal-scale. 

Baskets with two handles, and numbered, to hold the cut sugar. 

Tin buckets, skimmers, and dippers. 

Two small hand-tubs, to carry the sugar solution to the barrels. 

A portable ladder, with five or six steps, to be placed on the 
tubs. 

A whip to stir and beat the sugar solution into the must. 

The necessary number of fermentation-tubes {Fig. 13, and u, 
Fig. 10). 

A thermometer. 

A must-scale {Fig. 1, page 257). 

An acid-sco,le {Fig. 3, page 264). 

A spirit lamp, with a small tin pan to heat the must whose 
acids are to be examined. 

After all these instruments are properly cleaned, and the nec- 
essary barrels put in their places, these are numbered A, B, etc., 
and a book is made with a separate leaf for each barrel to hold 
the respective notices thereon. 



DR. L. GALL ON IMPROVEMENTS IN WINE-MAKING. 275 

IX. 

THE OCCUPATIONS IN THE PRESS-HOUSE. 

Here we have the task of transforming the grapes which we 
receive from the vineyard into the most adapted state for produ- 
cing wine. Three principal operations will be wanted to bring 
the grapes to fermentation in either a crushed state, as "wcwA," 
or their juice only as "must:" 

1. The picking off' the berries from their pedicles. 

2. The crushing of the grapes. 

3. The pressing^ which is either done before or after the fer- 
mentation, to gain as much as possible of the wine, in the first in- 
stance as "must," in the latter as "young wine." 

Dr. Gall says : I am of the opinion that the picking off of the 
berries ought always to be done, if the skins and seeds are to share 
the fermentation in the employment of a sugar and water addi- 
tion. I also consider it prudent to allow the " combs" to ferment 
only partially, and to draw off the young wines from the husks 
not later than fourteen days after the main fermentation has set 
in. Experience has shown that wines that had fermented with 
the "combs" left when still green, kept, even for a year after, a 
peculiar taste, owing, it seems, to a particular bitter, not easily 
soluble matter therein contained, besides the usual tannic acid. 
Many wine districts do not crush their grapes at all, but bring 
them directly from the vineyard to the press. Under all circum- 
stances, it seems, however, preferable, and especially recommend- 
able if the crushed grapes are to ferment in closed vessels. 

The manner of crushing the berries differs a little in regard to 
white and red ones, and according as one wants to produce only 
juice wine, or also husk wine. We will here only consider the 
management of the white grapes. 

The " crushing apparatus" [crusher], Fig. 9, page 273, is composed 
of the " crushing-tub''^ A, of about 3 feet diameter and 20 inches 
high, whose bottom is perforated by about 150 holes, each 2 inch- 
es wide. These latter have to be burned out with a red-hot iron 
to an upper width of 2^ inches, and a lower of 4. inches. The 
tub rests upon two blocks (&, h) above the ^'- juice-tuV (B), upon 
which, on both sides of tub A, foot-boards (o, c) are placed for the 
man that has to crush the berries by the aid of a wooden pestle 
(C), avoiding, however, as much as possible the breaking of the 
seeds. 

If only the juice of the grapes is wanted, it needs but to bring 
the vineyard into the receiving-tubs, and from these into the 
crushing-tub, in such portions as are wanted. After the grapes 
have been crushed, the husks are taken from the bottom and car- 
ried to the press. The juice here produced is then put into the 



276 



GRAPE CULTURE AND WINE-MAKING. 



Fig. 10. 




-IU£ EXTBAOTOB. 




DR. L. GALL ON IMPROVEMENTS IN WINE-MAKING. 277 

barrels destined for it, and cither mixed at once witli the sugar 
necessary to improve it, or, which appears better, this may be 
done after the main fermentation is finished. In both cases, each 
barrel has to be provided with {x fermeniation-iuhe^ and left to its 
action. 

Otherwise the husks can be trodden into their respective barrels 
as soon as a portion is crushed out. It is also well to do this at 
once, because if it is well done they will keep for several months, 
and yet make a good husk wine. 

The Manner of Extracting. 

A different method is employed in cases when from white 
grapes not only juice wine is to be made, but the husks also used, 
when still fresh, to produce husk wine. 

We will first give a little closer description of the already-men- 
tioned apparatus {Fvj. 10) necessary for this : a a are the sides of 
the barrel in profile ; Z>, its lower, c, its upper bottom. The four 
Fig. 11. upper hoops are connected by screws 

{Fig. 11). By loosening these four 
screws a little, j,. ^^ 

the staves sepa- 
rate so far that 
the upper lid, c, may be easily taken out and 
readjusted. Fig. 12 represents a section of 
the lid, c, and of the staves, a. When the 
edge of the lid has been placed in the groove, 
e, of the staves, a slip of gutta percha about 
two inches wide is inserted in the joint so 
as to close it effectually, and the screws are 
tightened. 

The inner space of each extracting barrel is divided into three 
compartments {Fig. 10, 1, II, III) by four movable bottoms (A, 
B, C, D). The upper sides of three of these inlay bottoms are 
shown in Figs. 15, 16, 17, the letters corresponding with those of 
Fig. 10, p. 276. Fig. 15, A is a sunk bottom, with six sticks, 
round or square, fixed therein. These sticks are one inch thick, 
and from twelve inches to twenty inches high, according to the 
size of the barrel (//', g g\ and g" g"), by which this bottom is 
held at the distance of two inches above the natural bottom, and 
at the same time the middle bottom {Fig. 16), composed of two 
halves, B and B, gets support. The sticks g and g', as well as g" 
and g'"^ are therefore united to one another by the small boards 
h li'. Each of those two parts, B and B, has three sticks, z^, i"^ i"\ 
and h'^ k"., h'"^ fixed into it, in order to support the bottom C, 
which also has four sticks, ?, ?, ?, /, for supporters of the lid D, 
Fig. 17. This latter only serves to keep the husks that, after the 
fermentation begins, are apt to rise, steeped in the fluid. For this 
purpose D has also four sticks inserted, w, m', m'\ m'" (these, 




278 



GRAPE CULTURE AND WINE-MAKING. 



Fig. ir 



Fig. IC. 





however, being but one sixth part 
of the inner height of the barrel) ; 
n is an orifice closed by a bung, 
in order to allow a hand to pass 
through to get hold of the bot- 
tom a, either to take it out or re- 
place it. At there is a proof- 
tube, in equal height to the upper 
level of the Fig. i4. 

lid. Fig. U 
shows the 




Fig. 13. 




same on a 

larger scale : j5 is a faucet-shaped hollow tube, with a tenon, g. 
Into a second opening of the lid c a perforated 
bung is fixed (r), into which the two-shanked fer- 
mentation-tube E (shown in Fir/. 13 enlarged) is 
I inserted, with its longer part, s, having the shorter 
one, i, dipped into the vessel u, filled with water; 
V is a small iron rod soldered to the angle of the 
part 5 of the tube, serving the purpose, if necessa- 
ry, to drive by blows the tube faster into the bung r; iv is the 
extraction-tube, of strong sheet iron, one and a quarter inches 
wide, and furnished with a funnel ten inches wide, which enters 
the extraction-barrel with its angle-shaped end below the sink- 
bottom A, and serves to extract the ley of the husks in a shorter 
time, and more efficiently than it could be done without it ; y is 
an iron rod like v. The funnel x contains inside a sieve with 
many small holes, to keep back the particles of the husks. Z is a 
wooden faucet ; F is the support of the extraction-barrel, twelve 
to fourteen inches high. 

We will now proceed to the manner of extracting itself The 
first business would be to place the barrels so that the bung-holes 



DR. L. GALL ON IJMrilOVEMENTS IN WINE-MAKING. 271» 

arc turned to the front. After a })ortion of the grapes are crushed, 
the remains of them have to be thrown upon the sink-bottom A. 
and this is continued until the first partition is filled to about four 
fifths of its height. Then bring the inlay-bottom, B' B'', with its 
upward tending sticks, upon the sticks of sink-bottom A, un- 
screwing the hoops a little. After these tightening again, con- 
tinue the introduction of crushed grapes to the height of four 
fifths of the second division. Now bring also up the must con- 
tained in the juice-tub B, Fig. 9, so much into the barrel through 
means of the extraction-tube, iv, as will be necessary to fill the 
part I entirely. When the partition III has been filled in the 
same manner as I and II with crushed grapes, and the lid D been 
placed, insert also the natural bottom c, and fix the gutta percha 
slip into the seam of the barrel, in order to tighten it; tighten the 
screws, place the fermentation-tube, and fill the vessel with water. 

Not before all this is done may the extraction -barrel be filled 
with the necessary quantity of must, w^hich is done by pouring it 
into the funnel of the extraction-tube, while the proof-tube o re- 
mains open until it appears in this latter, which after this must 
be closed. 

After about two hours' time it may be opened again, in order 
to draw off into buckets about one tenth part of the must through 
the faucet. When this is now closed again, the drawn-off must 
is re-filled through the extraction-tube lo into the extractor, and 
now the must may be entirely drawn off into those barrels in 
which it is destined to ferment, either in its natural state, or with 
the necessary addition of sugar and water. 

We proceed now to the extraction of the gra]ie remains by the 
application of water. To show how this may be done in the 
most practical manner, let us change the proof-tube o for a brass 
faucet f wide (eXtract-cock), and place beneath this a receiving- 
tub. After this, we fill the extraction apparatus with clean water. 
in the same manner as was before done wnth the must, by pour- 
ing it into the funnel until it appears as a clear fluid in the ex- 
tract-cock. When this has been sufficiently done, stop the cock, 
and bring the produced extract to the must in the barrel. The 
first operation, of introducing the must and water below and draw- 
ing it off above, may be called " extraction by removal ;" the lat- 
ter, by bringing the fluid to be used for extracting into the appa- 
ratus at the top of it and drawing it off' at its foot, the " extraction 
by filtration," 

Eeturning to our operations, we have, after acquiring the nec- 
essary quantity of extract by two or three manipulations, know- 
ing the apparatus still to be filled to the cock, to repeat the ex- 
periment in order to gain the remaining fluid by continuing to 
fill water into the funnel x. This extract we put, however, into 
a separate barrel, and add directly about six per cent, of grain oi- 
dissolved suo-ar. The still full extraction-barrel remains so for 



280 GRAPE CULTURE AND WINE-MAKING. 

six or eigbt hours, until we take a proof from the faucet as well as 
the cock. If there is no difference in the taste of these, we may 
draw the fluid off bj the faucet ; otherwise we have to repeat the 
filling, and not until then to draw off by the faucet, and to put 
this, according to its quality, either to the husk-wine extract, or 
to keep it in a separate barrel, to be used, instead of water, for 
subsequent extractions. The remaining husks themselves arc of 
no farther use. 

Besides the manifold advantages offered by this method of ex- 
traction, by means of an upward removal and pure water only, 
the following may be considered : Its allowing a rapid gain of 
the juice ; the extraction of all the valuable ingredients of the 
grapes ; that, of the sugar to be added, nothing can remain in 
the husks nor in the yeast, because it is not mixed with the young 
wine before the first draw off. 

After the performance of this labor, the principal object is to 
determine the quantity of the sugar and acids of the grape-juice, 
which can be done either directly or indirectly. 

Directly it is done by proving the fresh must itself by means 
of the scale. It is, however, better to do it indirectly by allowing 
the must first to ferment, and to find out the weight of the alco- 
hol after the first draw from the yeast by means of the '■^vapori- 
meter^'' and from this to determine the sugar quantity, counting 
each per cent, of alcohol as two per cents, of sugar. As, howev- 
er, either Geislerh Vaporimeter or Tallerons Alcoholometer might cost 
too much for most grape-growers, the best plan would be to weigh 
once a day, during the time of the vintage, the juice of the grapes, 
to note this down regularly, and to adopt the average number of 
these notices as the quantity of sugar parts for the season. 

The quantity of acids is best calculated on one and the same 
day of all the produced must. Of this about a quarter of a pound 
is to be heated to the boiling point in a small tin pan, in order to 
evaporate the oxygen originated by the fermentation, and then to 
be cooled down again to 20° E. 

Imjjroving the Natural Product. 

This is best undertaken after the first main fermentation has 
taken place. The fermented must has to be quieted still more for 
several days, to allow the yeast matters to settle perfectly, which 
may be accelerated by burning sulphur in the vacant space of the 
barrel. Now the grape-sugar has to be reduced to its true sugar 
iceight, and to add to this tlie wanting quantity (for instance, 20 
pounds to 100 pounds of lump sugar, 12 pounds to 100 pounds 
of grain, and 8 to 100 pounds of pulverized). If this latter, or 
grain sugar, is to be used, it only needs to put the calculated quan- 
tity of water, sugar, and must into the barrel, and leave it to fer- 
ment. If lump sugar is used, it must first be dissolved in a part 
of the water to be mixed with the must, by boiling this (about 



rri • e /11)20X14.2\ „„„„,,, 

Ihcre IS of siisar ( ) =2/2.04: lbs. 

1000 / 

>Q V ft 

jicids f^^r^l = 1G.32 " 288.9G 



DR. L. GALL ON IMPROVEMENTS IN WINE-MAKING. 281 

one pound to tlircc pounds of sugar) in a kettle, and throwing the 
sugar in little by little. 

As the mixture of sugar and water may be done ad lihilura be- 
fore or after the main fermentation, we will, in our calculation, 
here prefer the first. Suppose we have taken book-notices of the 
quantity of sugar and acids of the must in all the barrels. By 
these we see now that, for instance, the barrel A has a cubic space 
of 1000 litres, and, in order to leave a vacant space of 40 litres for 
fermentation, we had filled it with 960 litres or 1920 pounds of 
must, of 14.2 per cent, of sugar, and 8.5 pro millcs of acids : 

The barrel containing in all 1920 lbs. 

(- 

/in20x8.rA 

V 1000 ) 
Leaving of water and indifFcrent matters 1631.04 " 

"Wishing now to have wines of 5 per cent, acids and 8 per cent, 
of alcohol (=16 per cent, sugar), and such a wine having in 1000 
pounds of must 160 pounds of sugar, 5 pounds of acids, 885 
pounds of water, the questions arise : How many pounds of water 
do 16.32 pounds of acids require, if 5 pounds of these presume 
835 pounds of the former? Ansiver: (5 : 835 = 16.32 : a;) = 2.725.4 
pounds of water ; and. How many pounds of sugar to the like 
quantity of acids, 5 pounds of acids requiring 160 pounds of sugar? 
Ansioer: (5 : 160 = 16.32 : a:)=522.25 pounds oi sugar. 

The acids of the must in the barrel A 

therefore require 2725.40 lbs. oiicater, 522.25 lbs. of sugar. 

The must already contains 1G31.04 " " 272.G4 " " 

There is therefore to be added 1094.36 " " 249.61 " " 

In case lump sugar is used, which contains only 80 pounds of 
dry sugar in 100, and 20 pounds of water, we have farther to as- 
certain. How many pounds of it are necessary to compensate for 
249.61 pounds? Ansicer : (80 : 100 = 249.61 : a:) = 312 pounds. 
Against the calculated 249.61 pounds of dry sugar w^e want there- 
fore of lump sugar 61.39 pounds more. As 312 pounds of this 
contain, however, the same quantity of water too much as too lit- 
tle of sugar, it becomes necessary to add so much less water, viz., 
61.39 pounds. We have therefore virtually to add 1032 pounds 
of water and 312 pounds of sugar. The result will be : 

The barrel A containing already of must 1920 lbs. 

Water to be added 1032 lbs. 

Sugar 312 " 1344 " 

This will give of improved must 3264 " 

By measure, therefore, we shall have : 

Must already in the barrel 960 litres. 

Water to be added, 1032 lbs. (2 lbs. = l litre), 516 litres. 

Sugar " " 312 " (3 lbs. = 1 litre), 104 " 620 " 

Requiring a cubic space of 1580 " 



282 GRAl'E CULTURE AND WINE-MAKING. 

But, as we have to leave a space of -iO litres free in the barrel 
for fermentation, we have now to calculate how much must we 
have to take from it to gain the room w\anted for the sugar and 
water additions. As 1580 litres of improved must are to be pro- 
duced from 9G0 litres of the original must, how much of the lat- 
ter is to be left in the cask? Ansioer: (1580 : 960 = 960 : 583.30) 
=583 litres, to be left; and as the barrel contains 960 litres, we 
must take away 377 litres. And again : If 960 litres of must re- 
quire 516 litres of water, how much will 583 litres require ? An- 
swer: (960 : 583=583 : 312.60) = 313 litres. And farther: K 960 
litres of must require 312 pounds of sugar, how much will 583 
litres require ? Answer : (960 : 312 = 583 : 189.38) = 64 litres. In 
our note-book we have to make the following entries : 

Of the contents of barrel A 9C0 litres. 

"We have to take out 377 " 

Remaining 583 " 

To this is to be added, w.itcr 313 " 

'• " " sugar 64 " 

The barrel will therefore again contain 960 " 

It will, however, be found more advantageous to make this im- 
proveiftfent after the main fermentation. In this case we have to 
begin with putting the sugar-water into another barrel, and to add 
it to the young wine (in the above example 583 litres) at the 
drawing off of the yeast. The yeasts remaining in the various 
barrels are put into one barrel, mixed with an equal quantity of 
sugar- water (of 20 per cent, sugar parts), and left to ferment. The 
wine coming out of this is best adapted for filling-up purposes. 

The next draw-off of the improved wines takes place best when 
they begin to clear off. The barrels, as soon as they may be 
safely bunged, must be kept full by regularly filling up : in the 
first year, three times ; in the second, twice ; and every subsequent 
one drawn off from their sediments. 

The most efficient substance used for clearing red and white 
wines is a gelatinous composition known and extensively used in 
France under the name of " Gehtine-LaimJ'' Its efQcacy is in- 
deed surprising. 



X. 

THE METHOD OF DUBRUNFAUT AND VtVlOT TO INCREASE THE 
QUANTITY OF WINE. 

The eminent technician, Mr. Diibrunfaut, promulgated, for the 
first time, in the year 1854, in France, his opinion, based upon 
many trials: 

Tliat an addition of sugar-water to the must, regulated accord- 



DR. L. GALL ON IMPROVEMENTS IN WINE-MAKING. 283 

ing to tlic quantity of its acids, will be the unfailing means to 
produce from every vintage, no matter of what locality, always 
wines of like quality as those of the best seasons, and to quintu- 
ple their quantity if necessary. 

The proposition of Diibrunfaut was carried out in the largest 
measure the year following by a Mr. Abel Petiot de Chamirey, a 
large vineyard proprietor in Burgundy, and an essay on the man- 
ner employed and its results was handed by him to the Imperial 
Society of Agriculture. In this the gentleman says : 

At the vintage of 1854 I was fully convinced that one may at 
least double the quantity of wine by adding sugar-water to the 
must or husks equal to the quantity of grapes. That farther, this 
article must be durable, because of its having all the substances 
necessary for keeping it so, and less of those that might tend to 
sjDoil it. 

I commenced my experiments, and found the results surpass 
my expectations. Of a quantity of grapes that by way of ordi- 
nary procedure would probably not have given more than 60 
hectolitres of wine, I received 285 — almost five times more. 

I proceeded as follows : After the grapes had been crushed, 
and still before the fermentation, I drew off all the fluid that 
could run off without being pressed, and got a white, very good 
must indeed. In this manner I drew off 45 hectolitres. This 
juice weighed 13 degrees by Chevalier, and, to give the sugar 
mixture an equal density, 19 kilogrammes (38 pounds) of refined 
sugar were required per hectolitre (200 pounds) of water. I re- 
placed now the 45 hectolitres of juice by 50 hectolitres of sugar- 
water in the tub, left it to ferment, and drew off three days later 
50 hectolitres of splendid red wine. In order to try the experi- 
ment still farther, I renewed it several times. At the second 
time I replaced the 50 hectolitres by 55 hectolitres of sugar-water 
at 22 kilogrammes, and drew the same quantity off after the fer- 
mentation was over, only two days later. At the third trial I 
took 55 hectolitres of sugar-water at 23 kilogrammes; the ferment- 
ation lasted hardly two days, after which, pressing the grapes, they 
gave 60 hectolitres of wine. The remaining husks I put anew 
into the tub with 35 hectolitres of sugar-water, left them to fer- 
ment, and made 39 hectolitres. Finally, I put the first natural 
ivhiie wine into barrels only half full, and filled them uj) entirely 
twelve hours later by water sugared to 18 kilogrammes. Those 
different fluids resulted in — 

Fermentation. — At the four operations with sugar-water ver}^ 
strong. The first lasted the longest, and the last the shortest. 

Color. — The third tub had the most, and the fourth, made of 
the husks, the weakest. 

Alcohol. — The natural wine held 12 per cent. ; the sugar-water 
wine, of 18 kilogrammes sugar, 13 per cent. ; that of 22 kilogram- 
mes, 15 per cent. ; and that of 25 kilogrammes sugar, 17 per cent. 



284 GRAPE CULTURE AND WINE-MAKING. 

Taste, Bouquet. — The wine produced by tlie aid of sugar-water 
was less acid, and had more flavor (bouquet) than the natural 
wine ; in short, it was better. 

Durahilitij. — In all respects satisfactory. I sent of this same wine 
to Kew Orleans, and it arrived there in a clear and perfect state. 

Of the vintage of 1855 I made, instead of 285 hectolitres of 
wine, 5000 by this manner of operation. Sometimes I varied this 
slightly. I renewed on certain tubs the mixture of sugar-water 
eiglU and nine times, viz., two operations with ivhite wine before 
the fermentation, two with fermented red wine, and four or five 
with more or less colored white wine. The fermentation was al- 
waj^s sufficient to let the sugar-water of ten degrees quickly fall 
to the point. When this takes place, all the sugar is changed 
into alcohol, and the drawing off must begin. 

GaJTs Experiment on the System of Petiot. 

. . . After receiving the information of this splendid success at- 
tained by Mr. Petiot by the aid of his system, I concluded to give 
it myself a trial. I bought, therefore, in the Koncn district, fa- 
mous for the quality of its red wines, a quantity of husks from 
one of the best sites which had gone already through the ferment- 
ation, wnth but a small portion of pedicles mixed, the air having 
been excluded. At the drawing off of the juice, it resulted in 168 
quarts of clear wine of 8.8 per cent, of alcohol and 6.1 ^9?'o mille 
of acid parts, and I supposed that about 30 quarts remained in the 
husks. I had now to these 220 quarts of a solution of sugar of 
24 per cent, added (grape-sugar of 84 per cent, of dry sugar). The 
fermentation set in immediately in a cellar of twelve degrees tem- 
perature. In the month of March the wane was drawn off and 
the husks pressed ; the result was 248 quarts. The husks retain- 
ed, therefore, after the first drawing off, 28 quarts ; consequently, 
there had been produced. 

Grape wine (168 + 28) 190 quarts. 

Sugar-water wine 220 " 

Total Tig " 

The acids, which must have been reduced to exactly three per 
cent, by the sugar solution, proved to be four j^ro milk; conse- 
quently only one pro mille was still received from the husks. 
This same wine, after keeping it for about two years, required 
such an exquisite aroma, fine taste, and brilliant color, that it 
struck every body as quite extraordinary. 

Ajyplicatiou of the '■'■Extractor'''' to Petiot s Method. 
The "extractor" may serve as "fermentation-tub" when red 
grapes are worked up by Pdtiot's system, to produce four times 
more wine. To this end, our drawing shows it with a fermenta- 
tion-tube and a water-vessel. Its inner construction has to be 
slightly changed for the purpose, so that the distance between A 



DR. L. GALL ON IMrROVEMENTS IN WINE-MAKING. 285 

and B be one fifth, from B to C one fifth, from C to D one fifth, 
and from J) to the upper lid c, two fifths of the total inner height 
of the tub. 

If the juice only of the red grapes is required in a pure uncol- 
ored state, they must only be j^resscd, not crushed. The residue 
is taken to the extractor, and its three divisions are filled to three 
fourths of their height, and the lid (c) put up. At the same time, 
the must gathered in the juice-tub is put into its destined barrel 
and measured. An entry must be made in the book "of how much 
juice has been produced from those grapes whose husks are in 
the extractor. The same quantity of sugar-water of like per cent- 
age has now to be put into the extractor through the tube tv. 
Next measure exactly by a stick thrust through the bung-hole n 
in the lid what height the fluid has atttained. On the same level 
with this a hole must be bored through the staves, into which the 
sample-cock o is inserted, closed by its stopper. 

After the main fermentation is over (which may be known 
when no more gas-bubbles rise through the water in the vessel), 
a sample must be taken at the sample-cock. In case the color of 
the young wine satisfies, draw it oft', and put it directly into a bar- 
rel. If it be wished darker, open the bung {n), insert a funnel 
with a perforated mouth, and draw about half of the fluid oft" by 
degrees and return it to the tub, thus producing a cleaning or 
washing out of the coloring matter in the grape residues. 

Then the wine is all to be drawn off and put into barrels, as 
second product (the Jirst was the colorless juice). The extractor 
is now refilled through the tube iv by sugar-water (the second in- 
fusion) of the like sugar per centage as the first up to the sample- 
cock, and after the fermentation, which begins at once, has sub- 
sided, operate just as before ; draw the wine oif (as third product), 
and put it into barrels. Likewise a fourth may be gained, but it 
would be wise to keep this apart. The husks can then be taken 
from the extractor and pressed in the usual way, and the wine 
thus produced be mixed in equal parts with the second and third 
product. 



XI. 

FERMENTATION AND ITS PRODUCTS. 

Fermentation in a High Temperature. 

Of Fermentation but little more is known than its action and 
its effects. We see and follow its progress while it begins to op- 
erate at a medium temperature of 10° E. in the room, when the 
wine gets cloudy, turbulent, and finally loses its sweet taste, pro- 
ducing by the process of change a spirituous, intoxicating fluid. 



286 GRAPE CULTURE AND WINE-MAKING. 

But very few know besides that during its action originate two 
distinct new agents from its sugar parts that had not been pres- 
ent in the must, viz., alcohol^ remaining in the product and impart- 
ing to it its strength, and oxygen^ which chiefly evaporates. But 
the real cause that transforms the sugar parts into these — or, rath- 
er, in the case of grape fermentation, into v:inc — is still a profound 
•secret. 

In the following paragraphs Dr. L. Gall proposes to give some 
contribution to the knowledge of the conditions under which those 
actions take place in the most perfect way, if by them wine is to 
be produced : 

The fermented must becomes wine not before all those parts 
have been secreted that do not properly belong to the latter and 
peril its durability. It does this, indeed, by itself in the course 
of time; but it must be a main object of modern industry to pro- 
duce such an end not only ivell^ hut also cheaply ; i. e., avoiding as 
far as possible the expenditure of capital, material, time, and labor. 

A mean temperature of 10° or 12° R. was formerly generally 
considered sufficient for the whole period of the fermentation of 
must. Numerous facts prove, however, that this can not be con- 
sidered as a proper standard, as it has been observed, as Chaptal 
mentions, that, according to exj)eriments made by Mr. Poitevin, 
the heat originating in a certain quantity of grapes increased with- 
in five days to 26f per cent., and the fermentation ceased after 
fourteen days at 22 per cent. 

From this we may draw the following consequences : 

1'. That larger quantities of grapes, very rich in sugar, attain a 
heat of 26f per cent. ; this temperature, consequently, has to be 
taken as the most favorable for fermentation. 

2. That as the heat of the fermenting must originates by the 
changing of the sugar into alcohol and oxygen, thereby develop- 
ing warmth, this necessarily must reduce itself by degrees as less 
sugar remains to decompose. 

3. That it is policy to aid the natural fermentation toward its 
end by gradually increasing the temperature of the fermentation 
room (locality), and, on the contrary, protect it from cooling off. 

Many experiments by Dr. L. Gall and others have settled it 
that: 

1. The mash of red grapes of 18 to 25 per cent, sugar heats it- 
self (when the outer air is excluded), at a temperature of 14° to 15° 
of the mash-room, up to 20° to 23° R. ; the must of vMte grapes 
of like sugar per centage only to 20° or 21° R. 

2. That the fermentation falls oflP as soon as, at an equal exte- 
rior temperature, the warmth of the fermenting mass sinks 2° or 
3° ; but after two or three days (so long as all the sugar is not 
yet decomposed) begins anew, continuing for several days more 
if the secreted mash is stirred up again with the whole mass. 

3. That the fermentation appears to finish sooner, and all the 



DR. L. GALL ON IMPROVEMENTS IN WINE-MAKING. 287 

sugar to bo dissolved, if, from the second or third day after the 
audible fermentation sets in, the temperature of the fermentation 
room is gradually increased to 22° for must and 20° for masJi^ and 
kept at this degree until the former dies off. 

This procedure effects sufficiently the secretion of the so-called 
^^ yeast matters''' in an oxydized state as ^^ yeast,^^ and other ingre- 
dients not properly belonging to the wine, in a shorter space of 
time, and more perfectly, than they would otherwise for them- 
selves (frequently not before years). 

We know it is our main object to free the wine as soon and as 
well as possible of all the albuminous matters that it contains, 
partly in the shape of "?/c«s/," partly as ^^ yeast ???«Wer." It might, 
therefore, be highly advantageous to interrupt the heating process 
for a couple of days, in order to give the yeast time to settle suffi- 
ciently, then to draw the wine off from this into another barrel, 
and increase the heat again to its former point. A new portion 
of matter has now been transformed into yeast, whose operation 
will soon be visible by a new fermentation, after the quieting 
down of which a considerable sediment will be found in the barrel. 

It would be recommendable to leave as long as possible that 
temperature to the fermenting fluids which they obtain by them- 
selves during the main fermentation, or we should at least take 
care to prevent the cooling off of the fermenting-tubs by the ac- 
tion of the surrounding colder air. To do this, the interval be- 
tween the supporting blocks and the floor and the bottom of the 
tubs are to be well filled out by straw, and the tubs themselves, 
being filled with the crushed grapes, wrapped round with straw- 
cords about the thickness of an arm, besides being clothed over 
with straw to the thickness of half a foot, tied by strong twine. 
The upper lids ought likewise be covered with straw or mats of 
this material. The doors of the fermenting-room ought only to 
be opened when necessary, and the windows closed for the night 
by straw bundles. 

[These remarks have particular reference to a cold climate like 
that of Dr. Gall's country.— A. H.] 

Advantages of dose Fermentation. 

Acetic acid is not to be met with in its natural state in any 
gra]^e-juice. We find it, however, contained in all icines. How, 
then, does it originate in them? The simple answer we have in 
the fact that whenever the alcohol of the fermenting must comes 
into contact with the air, it attracts oxygen from it, and so trans- 
forms itself partly into acetic acid, which consequently spoils or 
destroys the taste of the wine. And by what is this combination 
allowed to take place? We answer. By the custom of allowing 
the fermentation of grape-must in uncovered tubs. This simple 
fact speaks for itself Witness only the procedure by which vin- 
egar is manufactured. The same relation it bears to the wine. 



288 GRxU'E CULTURE AND WINE-MAKING. 

To prevent, therefore, as mucli as lies in our power, this possibil- 
ity'", we should principally employ open or uncovered tubs for the 
fermentation. Besides, two more advantages are connected with 
it : We guard against loss in quantity and quality ; the first by 
evaporating (being sucked in by the outer air), the latter by get- 
ting insipid. The adapting of a tub for this purpose is very sim- 
ple indeed. The whole apparatus needs but a tub (or barrel) put 
upright (like the one in Fig. 10), with the fermentation-tube (viz., 
same as in Fig. 10). 

This latter is indispensable, because it makes it possible to pro- 
ceed with the fermentation in air-tight space 'without jjeril. The 
oxygen gas emanating from the sugar would likely burst even 
the strongest barrel, if an outlet were not provided. This it finds 
now through the tube s t, while the water in the vessel ti hinders 
the outer air from entering into the barrel in the reversed way 
through t and s. In order to ferment red grapes in an air-tight 
barrel, no more is therefore wanted but a top-bottom (lid-cover) 
like D {Fig. 17) and a fermenting-tube, E {Fig. 13). 

We will now proceed to acquaint ourselves with the products 
of the fermentation, ?". e., the wine, and those parts of it that were 
not yet contained in the must, and were only originated during its 
fermentation. These are, AlcoJiol, Carhoiiates, and Acetic Acid. 

The Alcohol. 

This forms one of the chief ingredients of all spirituous bever- 
ages, out of which it may be secreted, by distillation, as a clear 
fluid, very volatile and combustible, of rather pleasant smell, and 
an acid, burning taste. It is lighter than water (791 pounds of 
alcohol occupy but the same space as 1000 pounds of water). 
Taken in small quantities, it may safely be considered as rather a 
stimulant to the body. It has the quality of crippling and sup- 
pressing the fermentation ; so much so, that highly-concentrated 
alcohol will prevent the yeast from creating or keeping it up. The 
best ally of the yeast is loarmth ; and in the same degree that this 
leaves it, it has to yield before its enemy. This fact should be 
another hint to us to aid the yeast in its battling with the alcohol 
by the application of outer warmth. 

The strong acids contained in the wine decompose it in process 
of time, at least partially, or combine with the alcohol, making it 
still more volatile, and the base of the spicy flavor of the wines. 

We have now to answer the question. What degree of alcohol is 
required hy a good quality of wine "^ 

A fact undisputable is that, although alcohol forms not the chief 
factor of the value of wines, yet, in case of equal bouquet and acids, 
those of the same locality, grape species and vintage, are always 
the most praised that contain the greatest amount of alcohol, or 
arc the most fiery. As the composition of the perfectly-matured 
grapes has already taught us to leave to our wines at the utmost 



DR. L. GALL ON IMPROVEMENTS IN WINE-MAKING. 289 

6 per cent, of acids, so it should also admonish ns to give them 
at least 24 per cent, of sugar, and by this about 12 per cent, of al- 
cohol. We should, however, never go beyond 14 per cent, of it. 
Quite sufficient for the greater part of the home-consumed wines 
is 8 per cent. 




The Vaporimeter. 



The Vaporimeter. 

This instrument is invented by Mr. Geisler, an eminent optician 
at Bonn. The accompanying cut shows it in one third of its size. 
Its four main parts. A, B, C, D, must be put together, when want- 
ed, in the manner represented in Fig. 1. A is a small steam-boil- 
er standing upon three feet, half filled with water, and heated by 
the spirit-lamp (e) underneath. BB is a double-bended glass tube, 
which is fixed upon an angular brass plate {m\ together with a 
scale belonging to it. This plate can be moved upon the vessel 
A, and fixed on it. C is a strong glass vessel called the quicksil- 

T 



290 GRAPE CULTURE AND WINE-MAKING. 

ver cylinder, filled with tliis material up to the division line a ; its 
conical-shaped neck (i, c) fits so exactly and tightly over the end 
(S) of the glass tube B, that it can be moved upon it to the divis- 
ion line Z), and connected in such a manner with the inner hollow 
of the tube B, that the contents can onhj enter from C into tube 
B. Fig. 4 shows the cylinder also in full })rofile, as well as a small 
angular elevator, E. 

I) is a brass cylinder of double sides, having in its upper part 
a very sensitive thermometer (/). This cylinder fits air-tight and 
steam-tight over a brass ring soldered to the foot-plate of the part 
B, and, when the instrument is used, is placed over the upward- 
tending ring. Its object is to take into its inner hollow the steam 
rising from the vessel A, and to keep them in connection from all 
sides with vessel C. 

The space between the double sides serves to prevent the cool- 
ing off of the vapors that finally find an outlet through two open- 
ings in the upper part of the inner sides, and escape by means of 
the tube g. The thermometer / has only 5° of the 100° scale, 
viz., from 97 to 101, subdivided into ten parts, so that the rising 
of the quicksilver can be observed to one tenth of a degree. In 
order to show the manner of experimenting on it, let us make a 
trial with water. 

We first lift the brass cylinder D, with the thermometer fixed 
to it, off from the steam boiler, and put it on one side. After this 
we loosen the part {Fig. 2), and take it off, holding it perpendicu- 
lar, but without taking the quicksilver cylinder C previously off. 
Now we put our left hand underneath the foot-plate m, take hold 
with our right of the quicksilver cylinder C, and turn the whole 
round in such a manner that the tube-end S (in our drawing point- 
ed upward) gets a perpendicular downward position. In this we 
draw the cylinder off from S, and take it into our left hand, hav- 
ing laid aside part 2. 

C is filled up to a with quicksilver. AVhen used, we fill the 
space between a and h with the fluid we wish to prove. For this 
purpose we have the small elevator E {Fig. 4). 

We fill now the boiler A half full of water, and light the lamp 
(e), and while this boils rearrange the instrument. By degrees 
steam will evaporate from the water in vessel D. This steam, 
shut in by the cylinder C^ now presses upon the quicksilver, and 
pushes gradually so much of it out from it into the tube BB as is 
necessary to find room for itself. This point is indicated by the 
division line of the scale. When the quicksilver has attained 
this, it will not rise any more. A quantity of pure alcoJiol, equal 
to that of water which we have put into the cylinder, requires a 
still larger space to expand itself into steam. It drives, conse- 
quently, the quicksilver higher than the steam of water. 

Upon this power to expand is based the applicability of the 
vaporimetcr to determine very exactly by per cents., even one 



mi. L. GALL ON IMPROVEMENTS IN WINE-MAKING. £91 

tenth and one twentieth per cent, of the real alcohoHc parts of 
certain fluids (as wine, beer, vinegar). The scale at the tube BB 
is therefore divided into one per cenA and one tenth per cent, 
lines, bearing the numbers 1, 2, 8, 4 , 5, etc. When the quicksilver 
rises to the line 5, we know, consequently, that the fluid contains 
in every 100 parts by weight 5 such parts of alcohol free from 
water. 

As wine always contains carbonates, and the action of this might 
tend to drive the quicksilver higher, it is better to free it, there- 
fore, from these previous to examining. To do this, we put a tea- 
spoonful of burned and finely-pulvcrizcd lime into a small, wide- 
mouthed glass vial, and fill this with the wine, cork it, and shake 
it about a minute, then filter it through a glass funnel and filter- 
paper. 

Carbonates. 

A part of the elements of the sugar change during the act of 
fermentation into carbonates. A part of it escapes by its gaseous 
nature, carrying away with it from the must some part of the 
alcoholic fluid. Another part remains, however, dissolved in the 
wine, and gives it that peculiar prickling taste, and to the effer- 
vescing wines the peculiarity of foaming. The quantity of it de- 
pends on the temperature of the wine ; the less this is, the more 
carbonate. 

In the same degree as the wine afterward increases its temper- 
ature, a part of the carbonates also escape, and in this lies the rea- 
son of the turbulency of such wines (in the warmer season) as 
contain no more undissolved sugar. In the course of time it dis- 
appears almost entirely. The carbonatie air emanating from the 
fermenting must may become very injurious; in rooms where 
many tubs are kept, it will frequently concentrate so much that 
a lighted candle will not burn. Great care ought always to be 
taken when entering or bending over a tub. By putting fresh- 
made lime upon the floor of the room beneath the tubs, much 
harm may be prevented. 

Ether. 

This is a thin, very combustible fluid substance, of agreeable, 
penetrating smell, that forms itself in the wine by the influence 
of the acids upon the alcohol. Besides the " Oenanth" we find 
also "oxygen-ether," formed by the oxydation of a part of the 
alcohol, and "vinegar-ether." All these are to be charged to the 
account of the alcohol ; and as the wine consequently thereby 
loses some of its strength, we ought to give the wines, at their 
making, so much alcohol as they would have attained if the grapes 
had been perfectly ripe. 

Acetic Acid. 

This never forms a part of the grape-juice, but invariably orig- 



292 GRAPE CULTURE AND WINE-MAKING. 

inates in the wine itself, if proper care is not taken to keep it out. 
Common policy requires, therefore, to ferment the must in closed 
tubs. It forms and increases, also, when by negligence an empty 
space is left in the casks between the bung-hole and the wine. 
This ought never to be suffered, but the casks be filled iqj every 
eight days. 

Barrel Yeast. 

This name is given to the sediments which are formed while the 
wine rests in its barrels. The question, "When, how, and how 
frequently shall wine be drawn off from them ?" has often been 
raised. The best policy is to draw off the first time a few days 
after the main fermentation is over, and to repeat this at least two 
or three times before the warmer season sets in. 



XII. 

HUSK WINE FABRICATION. 
1. According to Cadet de Vaux. 

Says this eminent French savant, in his book {Tlie profitable 
Employment of different Fruits.^ Paris, 1811): In order to make use 
of our unpressed husks of grapes for producing wine, let us make 
a trial : 

Oar crushed red grapes in the tub shall produce 15 hectolitres 
of wine. After the fermentation is over, we draw off 12^ litres, 
and leave 2| hectolitres in the husks. These we mix with 2|- 
hectolitres of water of 15° R,in which we have before dissolved 
25 pounds of grape sirup. We now cover the tub, and the fer- 
mentation will set in anew in about two or three hours, and cease 
after 36 hours. We then draw the wine off from the tub, put the 
husks into the press, and mix the wine out of this with the for- 
mer, gaining in this manner 1\ to 3 hectolitres more, of a very fair 
quality and with very little cost. 

2. According to Dr. L. Gall. 

By the foregoing article we see tliat, fifty years ago, husk wine 
was made and recommended ; but it was not known then that the 
value of medium wines mainly depended on a certain medium 
acid per centage ; neither was it clearly understood how much al- 
cohol is formed by a certain quantity of sugar ; neither was the 
grape-sugar made/;'om starch then known. To-day we know all 
this and more. 

Frequent experiments have shown the following method to be 
practicable : 

1. After the grapes are crushed and pressed, bring the press- 
must to that in the juice-tub. 



DR. L. GALL ON I IMPROVEMENTS IN WINE-MAKING. 293 

2. Tlicn fill the Extractor {Fig. 10, page 276), that is, every par- 
tition of it four fifths high, with the husks. 

3. After the hoops have been tightly screwed, the must in the 
juice-tub must be measured, and the like quantity of water put 
upon the husks in the Extractor by letting it enter from below 
through the tube lu lu. 

4. lialf an hour later, pour half as much again in the same way 
into the Extractor. 

5. After again half an hour, draw half the contents of it off, and 
put into it again from above, in order to wash the husks off. This 
operation is to be repeated a few times, and then the extract is to 
be drawn off into a barrel. The husks may then be pressed out, 
and the fluid from them mixed with the former. 

6. When this is done, leaving a space free in the barrel for the 
sugar solution, this has to be added. 

This much in respect to the husks of white grapes. If wine is, 
however, to be made from unpressed red grapes, the sugar mixture 
of 20 to 2-1 per cent, is to be added from the very start; and the 
young wine must be left for two or three weeks upon the husks 
after the main fermentation, because the coloring-matter is not dis- 
solved before the alcohol has been formed by the sugar, and the 
more gets extracted the longer this remains in connection with the 
husks containing it. 



XIII. 

CARE OF WINES, AND THEIR DISEASES. 

Separation of the Wine from the Matters not properly belonging to it. 

We know already that the wine has two main enemies against 
whom it needs protection : 1. The yeast matters contained in it 
after the fermentation in a dissolved state, that impair its durabil- 
ity ; and, 2. The atmospheric air. No matter how well the bungs 
may be closed in the casks, this latter will find ways to enter and 
connect itself with the former, thereby forming sediments. To 
guard as much as we can against these two dangers becomes our 
duty. Hoiu this may be done, Von Babo advises in the following 
words : If we can not avoid the yeast matters, and their efforts to 
combine themselves with the oxygen of the outer air, why should 
it, then, not be advantageous to offer to the wine, right in its youth, 
the oxygen that it requires for its oxydation ? I think yes. Let 
us therefore draw it off about eight days after the main ferment- 
ation is over, by means of a perforated mouth-cover fixed to the 
' faucet, in order to bring it into the utmost possible connection with, 
the air. 

This w.ine we must, however, take care to fill into a cask not 



294 GRAPE CULTURE AND WINE-MAIQNG. 

sulphurized {in whieli no sulphur has been burned), because a vig- 
orous second fermentation is now wanted, which otherwise might 
be impaired. This drawing off must be repeated three or four 
times before the warm season sets in, viz., the second in the month 
of January, the third in February into shghtly-sulphurized casks, 
and the fourth in May by means of a hose and bellows, because 
now the air has to be kept secluded. For this last time the casks 
have to be strongly sulphurized. After the second drawing these 
may be loosely bunged. The now developing carbonate protects 
the wine sufficiently against the entrance of air. After the third 
drawing the casks must be filled up to the bung, and frequently 
looked over, that they remain so. A fermentation -tube to the 
bung would prove very useful. In autumn it is advisable to ap- 
ply an improvement to the wine — according to the kind of wine, 
either by the white of an egg, isinglass, gelatine, gum-arabic, milk, 
etc., etc. The two first must be dissolved two or three days pre- 
viously. By adding ten to twelve ounces of salt the efficacy of 
each of these materials will be considerably increased. After this 
the wine may be refilled into a but 5%/i^/2/-sulphurized cask, eight 
or ten days later, by means of the hose and bellows. 

Diseases of the Wine. 

1. Mould. — One of the most common is the " mould" (kahm). 
It affects all wines except those fabricated by a mixture of the 
grape-juice and sugar- water. The reason for this may probably 
be found in the fact that the detrimental substances were partly 
reduced by the water already, partly extracted by the repeated 
drawing off during the first year. The mould forms itself upon 
wines if these remain in the casks for a length of time without 
being refilled. A thin skin is first seen, which, growing thicker, 
gradually appears as a fleecy scum, a sure sign of the beginning 
of the vinegar formation, and weakening the wine by transform- 
ing the alcohol into acid of vinegar. To counteract its progress, 
the cask must be refilled with wine to the bung by means of a 
funnel penetrating the mould skin. This flows off through the 
bung-hole by its being raised by the wine. Before this is done it 
will be well to knock repeatedly on the outside of the cask, in 
order to loosen the mould sticking to the inside of the staves. 
The inner parts of the bung-hole have then to be cleaned with a 
brush, and a little more wine poured in. 

2. tSliniiness. — The wine loses by this its clearness and trans- 
parency, and gets thick like oil, even in well-corked bottles. It 
originates from a part of dissolved vegetable glue. In very cool 
cellars it frequently settles of itself, without any help at all. The 
most efficient remedy consists in a mixture of tannic acid, which 
combines closely with the glue, and sinks it to the bottom of the 
cask. The seeds of grapes contain such acid, and it would, there- 
fore, be wise always to keep a quantity gathered on hand. Six- 



DR. L. GALL ON IMPKOVEMENTS IN WINE-MAKING. 295 

teen ounces of seeds of red grapes, or twenty-four ounces of white, 
that have not been in the fermenting tub, are sufficient for one 
hectohtre of wine. To extract the acid from them, pour upon 
these sixteen or twenty-four ounces one half litre of boiling wa- 
ter, and leave them therein for twenty-four hours ; then rub them 
between the fingers to break their skin, and put all together into 
a clean copper kettle, which again is placed in a larger one filled 
with water, and heat it until the water in the latter has boiled for 
about two hours. All the tannic matters are then dissolved in 
the water, and it only needs now the filtering of the solution 
through linen. In applying it to the wine, mix it with two litres 
of this to the hectolitre ; put it in small portions into the barrel, 
and stir "the wine well up. In case the disease is merely begin- 
ning, it answers to fill the wine a few times from one cask into 
another by means of the funnel with a perforated covering. In 
all cases, the wine, after being mixed with the tannic acid, must 
be cleared by isinglass or gelatine, etc., etc., and after its clearing 
be drawn off into a sulphurized cask. 

3. Sourness. — This consists in the progress of the transformation 
of the alcohol into acid of vinegar, as soon as this has been allowed 
to appear : 

a. — Principally^ if the casks have not been properly or not at 
all closed by their bungs. 

h. — If they remain for a longer period in warm cellars not per- 
fectly filled, and sulphurized, and bunged. 

c. — If they are filled up with wines that already contain the 
poison. 

In its first stage it may be kept in bounds by a mixture of 
honey or three or four per cent, of sugar, this producing a new 
fermentation, whereby the alcohol of the wine increases, and is 
able to resist for a time longer the inroads of the acid of vinegar. 
But if the wine is already perfectly sour, all remedies will be tried 
in vain, and it would be best to let it turn perfectly into vinegar, 
and sell it as such. 

4. Cloudiness. — No matter what the cause may be, it is almost 
sure to yield to a properly applied melioration. But it needs to 
draw the wine off into another strongly-sulphurized cask, and to 
bring it into close combination with the sulphur as well as the 
remedy. To this end, burn first half only of the required sulphur 
in the cask, fill one third of the cloudy wine into it, add the half 
of the improving article (isinglass, gelatine, gum-arabic), and roll 
the cask about. After this, burn another one fourth of the sulphur 
in the empty space of the cask, put another one third of the wine 
in, and the other half of the clearing material, and mix all thor- 
oughly. Finally, burn the last one fourth of tlie sulphur, put the 
balance of the wine in, whip it all well, and put the bung tight 
into the cask. Wines treated in this manner that do not clear 
off within fourteen days must be filtered. 



296 GR.\TE CULTURE AND WINE-MAKING. 

6. Woody and Moiddy Task. — These are, for the most part, tes- 
timonies of an unwarrantable negligence. A remedy we have in 
the following : Fill the wine over into another perfectly clean 
cask ; add to one hectolitre of it six pounds (to one Prussian eimer 
about four pounds) of fresh and well-charred coals, and stir them 
well into it. Gradually this will settle to the bottom with the 
yeast yet remaining in the wine. Now take a sample and filter 
it through soft paper. If the taste has not abated yet, repeat the 
experiment, but with less charcoal. When it is found of sufficient 
good taste, draw it off into a sulphurized cask ; clear it by means 
of the above-mentioned articles, and treat it as usual. 



XIV. 
SUPPLEMENTARY REMARKS. 



Dr. Maumene says, in his work Sur le Travail des Vins, in re- 
gard to Petiot's method : The results of it are clear ; no enlight- 
ened man can gainsay them. Nobody will be surprised by the 
number of repeated fermentations, because we know that theyer- 
ment may dissolve enormous quantities of sugar into alcohol and 
oxygen. The bouquet also preserves itself better, as well as a de- 
volution of the coloring matter takes place in such a degree as to 
leave hardly a difference between the results of more than one 
fermentation. Only the cream of tartar is reduced in those wines 
that may properly be called "grape-sugar wines." This reduc- 
tion may, however, be rather considered as iin advantage to them 
than detrimental, because they increase in good qualities the more 
the tartaric acid disappears ; and for this very reason Mr. Petiot's 
resemble so much the old wines in their agreeable and full taste. 

The future of the grape-sugar wines is indeed extraordinary. 
This method wall tend to increase immensely the products of the 
grape culture, prevent their scarcity in bad seasons, and benefit 
especially the poorer class of industrious wine-raisers. 

Speaking of Dr. L. Gall's method, Mr. Von Babo says : I take it, 
indeed, to be the most rational. The alcohol formed from the 
grape-sugar affects also the taste of a wine by combining itself 
with free acids to ether, and connected with this, forming the aro- 
matic flavor — the bouquet. The wine taste remains unaffected, 
so that such artificially-made wine could not be distinguished by 
it from natural ones. Remarkable results have shown that by 
his method, even from pure husks, containing not above 10 per 
cent, of juice and 90 per cent, of sugar- water, a wine is made infi- 
nitely superior to that from sour must. 

Dr. Gall himself says : I only named a tenfold net result from 
the grape agriculture by a proper application of my reformed meth- 



DR. L. GALL ON IMrROVEMENTS IN WINE-MAKING. 297 

od (repeated picking out of the grapes, assorting them, etc., and 
"Gallizising" of the inferior balance) ; and Mr. Von Babo gives the 

proof that it may even be brought up to a twenty -fold one 

In regard to the produce of the vineyard "Salem:" Ilere, says 
he, according to an average of the last fourteen years, the produce 
of the vintage of one morgcn (f acres) is 9f ohm, and their price 
17 florins 40 kreutzers. 

The average yearly income per 1 morgcn, therefore, were 167 fl. .'50 kr. 

The expenses per 1 morgcn (excluding interest on capital invested)... 91 " IB " 

The surplus per 1 morgcn consequently amounting to 70 fl. 35 kr. 

Or, counting the stock capital at 1800 florins per morgcn, and these at 

4 per cent, interest 72 "00 " 

A net gain resulted per morgen of 4 fl. 35 kr. 

Suppose now of the average yield of 9|- ohm of wine only 5 
of the most inferior quality had to be "Gallizised," and thereby 
their value increased by 7^ florins, consequently raised to 25 flor- 
ins ; then we shall have the following calculation : 

After separating 5 ohm of the inferior quality, a price of 30 florins 
Avould have been realized on an average per ohm, consequently, for 

4^ ohm 135 fl. 00 kr. 

And for 5 ohm Gallizised wine at 25 florins 125 " 00 " 

Total 260 fl. 00 kr. 

Deducting the expenses and interest on capital 163 " 15 " 

We would realize a net gain of each morgen of 96 fl. 45 kr. 

Consequently, 20 times more than by adopting the old-fashioned method. 

NOTE. 



1 Prussian morgen is e( 


:|ual 


to .63 Engli 


sh acre. 


1 Baden " 


(( 


.88 " 


IC 


1 litre (French measure) 


" 


.22 " 


gallon. 


1 hectolitre (French measure) 


(I 


22.3 " 


gallons. 


1 Baden maas 


(t 


1.50 " 


litre. 


1 " 


(( 


.33 


gallon. 


1 fuder 


(( 


6 eimer. 




1 Prussian quart 


(( 


.25 English gallon. 


1 ohm 


(I 


160 Prussian quarts. 


1 hectolitre (French measure) 


(( 


1 litre (F 


rench). 


1 Prussian thaler 


(( 


09 1 cents 


(American). 


1—1 


It 


30 silber i 


gi-oschen. 


1 florin of Baden 


(( 


40 cents ( 


American). 


1 " 


*' 


60 kreutzers (Baden). 



APPENDIX D. 

THE VINE AND ITS TKEATMENT. 

EXTRACTED FROM THE WORK OF FERDINAND RUBENS. 
WITH ILLUSTKATIONS. 



APPENDIX D. 



F. RUBENS UPON THE VINE AND ITS TREATMENT. 

I. Tlie Vine and its Propagation. — II. Tlie Vineyard. — III. Care of a Bearing 
Vineyard. — IV. Preserving and Sliipping Grapes. — V. Diseases of the Grape- 
vine. — VI. Choice Varieties of Grapes for Wine-making. — VII. Average Pro- 
duction of Wine in Europe. 

I. 

THE VINE AND ITS PROPAGATION. 



Fig. 1. 



The Grape-vine {Vitis vinifera), on account 
of its climbing propensities, must be helped in 
the vineyards, either directly or indirectly, by 
training it on poles or trellises, and by prun- 
ing, etc. The roots of the vine will expand 
much and far. The soil should be loose. The 
duration or age of a vine depends much upon 
its well-developed trunk. The vine has shoots, 
which are distinguished as those which will 
produce fruit and those which do not produce 
fruit. Those which produce fruit grow out 
from the last year's wood ; the others sprout 
from old wood or the trunk of the vine. 
Side shoots are represented in Fig. 1. 

Propagation of the Grape-vine. 

1. Through Seed. — This is a plan not much 
adopted, since the plants take from six to eight 
and ten years before they produce fruit. Sel- 
dom will the seed produce the same quality as the original. 
Through this mode, however, very choice varieties have frequent- 
ly originated, which will be more identified with the local cli- 
mate, and for this reason more hardy. Most of the early varie- 
ties are produced from seeds. Experiments have proved that 
grapes from seedlings ripen more early than the originals. The 
seed may be planted jjbout two or three inches apart, and one inch 
deep. The seedlings will grow, by good care and on rich soil, 
from one and a half to two feet high during the summer. The 
best shoot is cut down to two buds, and the rest nicely .pruned 
off. The following year the vines are pruned down to two buds 
again. From this time they are treated the same as planted cut- 
tings. 




502 



GRAPE CULTURE AND WINE-M2VIUNG. 



2. Through Buds. — This metbocl of propagation is excellent for 
choice vines which are required in quantity, Sound and strong 
buds are cut from vines early in spring, before the sap is in the 
wood. These buds contain about half an inch of wood on each 
side. The separate buds may be planted so, yet it is better to 
split the vine without injuring the bud ; through this the roots 
are enabled to start more easily. These buds must be planted on 
carefully-prepared soil, or better in hot-beds, so that the bud is 
covered with half an inch of pulverized soil. It may be well 
to put a little straw, moss, or fine leaves over the soil. It must 

not be neglected to keep the soil moder- 
ately moist. The buds will start soon, and 
where otherwise leaves would start, roots 
V\ /iFx'^^ will make their appearance, i^/^. 2 repre- 

sents such a bud. After a few months the 
buds will have started on two feet if treat- 
ed with care. Such vines may grow in 
the first year from four to five feet shoots, 
and produce bearing wood. 

3, Through Cuttings. — This mode consists in planting slips of 
vines. Well-matured vines with many buds are always the best, 
represented by Fig. 3. It 

is best to take only the ^ —- <^^^~=-:r::— .^^^ 

lower part of a vine, and, 

if possi- 




Fig.4. 





ble, with some of the last year's wood; then 
from this wood the strongest and the best roots 
will start. When the cuttings have been made, 
they may be put in bundles of twenty to thir- 
ty, and covered from two to three inches un- 
der ground. If the cuttings arc made in the 
spring, it is best to place them in water from 
six to eight inches deep, and plant them when 
the buds have started about half an inch. If 
the cuttings are planted to produce rooted vines 
[Fig. 4), it is best to plant them on tolerably 
moist and rich land ; and if the season is very 
flry, it is advisable to irrigate them. The finer 
roots of the year-old vines are more apt to grow 
successfully than older and stout roots of two 
years old. 

4, Through Side-shoots <^ Layers. — For this 
method a well-matured branch of a healthy and 
stout vine is taken, placed in the ground so that 
it will be from eight to twelve inches deep, and 
have two to four buds above the ground. The 
bend must Idc made gradually and carefully, so 
that the vine is not injured. The rooting of the 



F. RUBENS UPON THE VINE AND ITS TREATMENT. 



OAO 




rig 5. vine will be promoted 

if the vine, where it is 
covered with ground, 
is twisted like a wil- 
low (.%. 5). This lay- 
er will grow excellent- 
ly during the summer, 
and produce an abun- 
dance of fruit. 
Another plan to pro- 
duce layers on every place required is attained through a method 
Fig. 6. used on the Ehine {Fig. 6). 

Little baskets, of oval form, 
one and a half foot long, one 
foot high and broad, are used 
for this purpose. In spring 
this basket is placed about 
one foot from the old vine, 
deep enough to cover it. The 
intended layer is led through 
this basket, and allowed to 
have two buds above the 
ground, which are well taken 
care of during the summer. 
If it is intended to remove 
this layer, it is separated from 
the mother plant, and taken 
out with the basket and placed 
in the intended place. Eoot- 
ed vines produced in such a 
manner are much to be preferred, as they bear fruit one year aft- 
er planting. 

Another method is by leading a vine through a flower-pot 
which is filled with rich soil. If the soil is kept moist during the 
summer the vine will throw out beautiful roots. In autumn, when 
the grapes are ripe, the vine below the flower-pot is cut from the 
mother vine, the pot carefully taken oft', and this shoot transplant- 
ed. To promote the formation of roots, the vine may receive a 
cut immediately below a joint, and then be split up a couple of 
inches, whicb split may be kept open by a little wedge. 

Improvement of the Grape-vine. 

There are different ways of improving the vine. The grafting 
may be above the soil or below. To graft upon the trunk of the 
vine, under the soil, is the method chiefly in use in Hungary. The 
method is the following: The vine tp be grafted is early in the 
spring laid bare and freed of the fine top roots. Three inches 
above the main roots the trunk is cut off with a saw about six 




304 



GRAPE CULTURE AND WINE-MAKING. 



Fig. T (-7). 




inches below the surflice. The remaining trunk is split with a 
sharp knife from one to one and a half inches deep. To prevent 
the stem from splitting altogether, it is well to tie something tight 
above the roots {Fig. 7, a). If the vine is 
stout, two grafts may be taken ; if not, one 
will answer. This graft {Fig. 7, h) must have 
two healthy buds above the split, and the 
lower bud must touch, or must be upon the 
trunk of the grafted vine {Fig. 8). If many 
vines are to be grafted, the following plan 
may be adopted : One person will lay the 
vine bare to a depth of six to eight inches, 
and clear off all fine roots to a depth of five 
inches; a second person will saw the vine 
off at a depth of four to six inches, and make 
the split in the trunk ; a third person will place the graft and fill 
the hole, so that one bud is even with the surface, or barely cover- 
ed with the soil. By working in such manner, several hundred 
old vines may be grafted during a day's work. 

Another method is represented by Fig. 9, a, h. 
A cutting destined for the graft is taken — one 
with four buds ; one part, between the two buds 
or middle, is trimmed on both sides, to present the 
appearance of a wedge. The trunk of the vine is 
cut off horizontally, then split in the centre, and 
on each side of this trunk a graft is placed in the 
split, so that two buds are above the trunk and 
two are below. Vines grafted in this manner suc- 
ceed well. 

The lower part of this graft will invariably start 
roots, which will favor its success. This plan 
may be carried out on any part of the vine above the ground, if 
the lower part of the graft is placed in a bottle filled with water. 
If it is required to graft above the ground, the following plan may 
be adopted : Ripe year-old wood is trimmed down and split be- 
tween two joints. The graft is taken of wood of the same thick- 
ness, its end cut nicely in the shape of a wedge, and placed in the 
split in such a manner that the bark of both will be filled exactly, 
which is then bound to keep it in place. 




II. 
THE VINEYARD. 

In laying out a vineyard particularly to be regarded are, 
1. The Location. — In general, an exposure toward the south, 
sheltered from cold winds, and having a pure air, is the best place 



F. RUBENS UPON THE VINE ANT) ITS TREATMENT. 305 

for grape-vines. An exposure toward the north is the least fa- 
vorable ; toward the east considerably better, especially if western 
mountain ridges afford protection, or a plain exists upon wliicli 
the winds may be warmed, A western exposure is yet poorer 
than an eastern, unless certain causes should act favorably upon 
it. Local considerations must be taken into account. 

2. The Soil. — The grape-vine loves to have a loose and mellow 
soil, more light than heavy, not too rich, but warm. Generally a 
vineyard is judged by its surface soil ; but the bottom soil is also 
of great importance, as the roots will extend largely. That is al- 
ways the best which gives the least hinderance to the expansion 
of the roots, and, without being wet, contains sufficient moisture. 
A knowledge of the bottom soil is then of eminent service, if 
poorly-productive soil is to be improved. A greater influence 
upon the development of the grape-vine than the bottom soil has 
the surface soil, because this will come in a greater contact with 
the plant. The main point, if the vines are to thrive well, is that 
the soil should be mellow, so that the roots may expand without 
any hinderance to seek nourishment, and the heat penetrate easily, 
and no superfluous moisture will gather. For which reason, soil 
containing many and different ingredients will prove the most 
beneficial for vines ; as, for instance, decomposed granite, lava, etc., 
upon which the vines will thrive beautifully, and are not liable to 
the different diseases. Silicious and calcareous earths, if predom- 
inant, are best adapted for grape culture, especially if mixed with 
some clay. If these ingredients are entirely deficient in the soil, 
they may be supplied by manure. If clay is predominant, the soil 
"will be heavy and binding ; will retard the expansion of roots, 
and Avill receive the water tolerably easy, but will be long moist, 
through which the soil will get cold. To improve such land ar- 
tificially would prove too expensive. 

8, Selection of Vines. — This is often very difficult, as not only the 
locality and soil has to be regarded, but the nature of the vine 
and the quality of the product raised must be taken into consid- 
eration. The following may serve for a guide : 

In districts of hot and southern exposure, the white Eiesling 
commands the first place, which combines all qualities to produce 
a first class wine. 

Should the soil be too rich in such location, and the Eiesling, 
through a rank growth, impair the quality of its product, the red 
Traminer {Auvernas rouge clair) may be taken, which will produce 
a first class article. In the same category comes the spice Trami- 
ner, This variety is, in regard of locality, more easily affected, 
and will invariably require a warm and sheltered place. For a 
second class location as regards soil and place, and commanding 
attention for their early ripening and the quantity of the produce, 
the Rulander {Oris commun), the black Clavner {Morillon noir), 
and Sylvaner, are recommenclable. The Eulander will produce a 

U 



306 GRAPE CULTURE AND WINE-MAKING. 

sweet, pleasant, spirituous wine. This variety will thrive best 
upon low, level, and a little moist soil. 

The black Clavner {Morillon noir) will thrive best upon clayish 
soil, if this is loose and not too moist. This plant is very hardy, 
and produces much fruit. The Clavner is chiefly used for the 
manufacture of red wines ; but much white wine is also made of 
it, which will distinguish itself through its pleasant and beautiful 
bouquet. Sparkling wines are mostly made from the must of 
these grapes. 

The Sylvaner is satisfied with a less favorable location, and even 
a colder place and poorer soil than the Clavner. In districts 
where only a poorer quality of wine is produced may be recom- 
mended the Chasselas blanc and the Chasselas croquant. They re- 
quire a heavy and moist soil ; in sandy land, if it is well manured, 
they will thrive very well. The wine is mild and pleasant, and 
will be so in a poor season, as these varieties contain but little 
acid. The vines are lasting, and produce well every year. 

The green Sylvaner likes a dry and loose soil ; will thrive ex- 
cellently in the poorest soil. 

The Ortlieber is a plant which will produce an immense quan- 
tity of fruit, and in a poor locality will give a sweet and pleasant 
wine. It is satisfied with the poorest soil. 

The early Burgundy, blue or black Burgundy : In a good sea- 
son this variety, in a poor location, will produce a wine which can 
be placed side by side with the finest red wine on the Ehine. 

In what proportion these different varieties should be planted 
can not be exactly determined, as this depends much upon local 
circumstances, of the location, the soil, the required quality and 
quantity of the product required. For hot, hilly, and dry loca- 
tions, the following proportion may be taken as a basis : ^ Eies- 
ling, ^ red Traminer, and ^ green Sylvaner; or, ^ Eiesling, ^ red 
Traminer, and ^ black Clavner ; or, ^ Eiesling, ^ Welshriesling, 
^ spice Traminer, and ^ red Traminer. For hills which are dry 
and not so hot, which have richer soil and a more eastern or 
western exposure, may be taken, ^ Eiesling, |- green Sylvaner, ^ 
red Traminer, and ^ black Clavner ; or, ^ Eiesling, •§■ Sylvaner, i 
spice Traminer, and ^ black Clavner, For a location more hilly, 
cool and rich soil : ^ black Clavner, ^ Eulander, ^ red Traminer, 
i green Sylvaner, and } Chasselas blanc ; or, ^ red Traminer, ^ 
Chasselas blanc, -} green Sylvaner, and ^ black Clavner or early 
Burgundy. For a cold place and good soil : i early Burgundy, 
i green Sylvaner, ^ red Traminer, and ^ Ortlieber. For quite 
cold places and dry soil : ^ green Sylvaner, J- blue Arbst, and ^ 
Ortlieber or early Burgundy. In the distribution of these differ- 
ent varieties, the peculiarities of the separate kinds must be taken 
into consideration, so that each may receive a place most adapted 
to its propensities. 



F. KUBENS UPON THE VINE AND ITS TREATMENT. 307 

Layincj out new Vineyards. 

Preparing of the Soil. — In laying out new vineyards two points 
are particularly to be considered : whether the piece of land has 
never been planted with grape-vines, or whether it is an old vine- 
yard which has to be planted anew. In the first case the follow- 
ing things should be taken into consideration : 

1. Turning of the Soil. — As the grape-vine requires the soil very 
mellow, this is attained by turning the soil from two to three or 
four feet deep. Of the most advantage is it if it can be done after 
the grape-gathering, and remain then in that state until spring. 
The manner in which this is done is not material, only the best 
mode is to have it done by hand and with the spade. To subsoil 
the land with plow will answer nearly the same purpose, should 
hand-labor be too expensive. Should the soil be hard, and not 
allow the water to run off easy, the land should be ditched. Is 
an old vineyard intended to be planted anew, it is decidedly the 
best to rest the land for a few years, to gain certain substances 
which have been exhausted by the vines, unless the bottom soil 
should be decomposed rock. In this case the turning of the land 
will answer. If this is not the case, the land should rest for at 
least three years. Grass or clover may be sown on the same. In 
the third year the grass must be turned under to decay, 

2. Terracing the Ground. — Terraces are made on steep hill-sides, 
to form them into so many pieces of land with a level surface ; 
firstly, to be able to cultivate the vines more easily ; and, second- 
ly, to retain the moisture as much as possible. Stone walls are 
built to form the terraces, which are inclined toward the hill, to 
be able to resist the pressure of the earth. 

Division of a Vineyard. 

What distance to plant the grape-vines from each other depends 
more or less upon the slope of the land, the variety of grape-vine, 
the soil, and the method of training the vines. In vineyards 
where the land is of a gradual inclination, the vines should be 
planted farther apart than on land which is steep ; on level land 
or plains, farther apart than on hill-sides ; vines of rank growth, 
farther apart than those which grow but little wood; in strong 
and rich soil, farther than in poorer soil ; vines trained on trellis, 
farther than those trained after the common vineyard style. 

The vines and the rows must be so far from each other that the 
sun can penetrate to the foot of the full-grown vines, and the air 
be able to strike freely between the rows, so that the grapes may 
attain their full ripeness. 

Planting a Vineyard. 

The spring is the best time for planting, if the soil is very rich 
and heavy. In regard to the selection of vines, the necessary 



308 GR.VPE CULTURE AND WINE-MAKING. 

points Lave been mentioned. The best adapted are year-old root- 
ed vines, then follow cuttings. When rooted vines are planted, 
all the fine roots toward the top of the vine should be trimmed 
off, the remainder trimmed to about four or six inches in length. 
In regard to the age required for rooted vines, opinions differ 
much. Some prefer three and four year old ; but it is generally 
conceded that the finer roots of year-old vines are more apt to be 
successful. It is well to mark the place of each planted vine with 
a little stick, to prevent it from being covered when the ground is 
again cultivated. 

Treatment of young Yhies. 

The main care and object are to have tte vine form a strong 
and healthy head. It has been proved that the stouter and more 
healthy the head of a vine is, the more durable and fruitful are 
the vines. 

To form this head of a vine, the young shoot should be entire- 
ly cut off, or close off to the old wood. By this process the dor- 
mant buds will start, which produce beautiful strong shoots. Dur- 
ing the summer the ground is kept clean and loose, to promote 
the growth of the 3^oung plants. If these vines grow more than 
two or three shoots, the others are broken off. It is better not to 
tie these young shoots, as they will grow stouter when exposed 
to the wind. The third spring the vines are pruned down to one 
or two buds, according to their strength. During the summer the 
ground is kept clean. 

The fourth spring, the vines should be allowed to have about 
four shoots, each of four buds ; a uniformity should be looked to, 
the branches should spread, and, if possible, be of equal height. 

In poorer soil, the forming of a head on a vine is attended with 
more difiiculty. 

Metliods of Training and Pruning Yines. 

The different methods of training vines may be divided into 
three classes : 1. Without any props, or free. 2. Trained on props. 
3. On trellises. 

In the first class come all grape varieties which are trained low 
on the ground, and such as require this system, as Eiesling, red 
Traminer, etc. In the second class, in rich soil, the same varieties, 
the black Clavncr, Rulander, etc. In the third class, varieties 
which grow considerable wood, and require to be pruned long; 
as a few sorts of the Chasselas, Trollinger, and others. 

For vineyard purposes those methods are best in which the 
grapes are brought as near the ground as possible. The more 
this is the case, the more early will the blooming set in, as well as 
the ripening of the grapes; and wine produced from such grapes 
will be heavy and spirituous. The ripening of the grapes de- 
pends not so much upon the direct action of the sun as upon the 



F. RUBENS UPON THE VINE AND ITS TREATiMENT. 309 



Fip. 10. 




heat which the soil tlirows out; for which reason, grapes in the 
immediate neighborhood of the ground, and covered entirely by 
vine-leaves, are often the ripest. Excellent pruning methods to 
accomplish this are the following: 

1. The Head-pruning. — This will form the lowest training of the 
vines. The pruning is very simple, as all shoots with year-old 
wood are pruned off'; and of the new vines, according to the 

strength of the grape-vine, from four to ten 
are left, wliich are pruned so that each shoot 
has one bud left. After the blooming is 
over, the 3'oung shoots may be brought up- 
ward and tied together {Figure 10). It will 
represent almost a balloon form. To pre- 
vent the shoots from bending down under 
their own weight, the end should be cut off 
over the place where they are tied. The 
grapes will hang in the shape of a wreath 
around the vine, and can have all the influ- 
ence of air, light, and sun, through which 
they not only ripen more earl}'-, but they gain in sweetness and 
produce an excellent wine. For level slopes, and for places of a 
light, warm soil, and a sheltered, dry location, this method is to be 
preferred to any other. In districts where wood is scarce or ex- 
pensive, this plan should be followed. 

2. The Bush-pruning. — This method differs from the foregoing 

only in that a few of 
the last year's shoots 
are kept on the vine, 
which are pruned 
down to 2 or 3 buds 
{Figure 11). Should 
the number of young 
shoots amount to 12 
or 14, they are di- 
vided ; some are tied 
together over the 
vine balloon-fashion, 
while others are, as 
represented in Figure 

11, tied together with shoots of a neighboring vine, which is sup- 
ported with a little pole. This method is adapted for richer soil 
and hot localities. 

3. The method of the Landerhach pruning is best adapted for 
steep hills with rich soil, as the vine will be sujpported by a prop. 
The young vines are not tied balloon-like, as by the foregoing 
method; they are spread like a fan, and give the same result 
and advantages as the plans No. 1 and 2, exclusive of the cost of 
the props. The grape-vine has generally two or three branches 




310 



GRAPE CULTURE AND WINE-MAKING. 



one half to one foot long, on wliich young slioots have been pruned 
down to two buds. The young shoots grown during the summer 
are tied with their ends on the prop. Before tying them per- 
manently they are bent down, to prevent them from being in a 
close cluster, and to give free access to the air. 



Fie;. 1-2. 





4. Another method of training vines is to grow three branches 
on the trunk of the vine, and to allow the same to lean over bars 
supported by posts {Figs. 12, 13). The bar is about two and a half 
Fig. 13. feet from the ground. All the 

side shoots of the branches 
growing upward are carefully 
pruned off. The incline of the 
branches lying over the bar is 
toward the south. The grapes 
and the growth of wood will 
lean to the ground, showing 
that the grapes derive benefit from the heat of the soil. The dis- 
tance of the rows is six feet, and the distance of the vines four 
feet. The young will grow during the summer upward, but grad- 
ually, through their own weight, lean down. By adopting this 
plan a great quantity of props may be saved. 

Training the Vines on a Trellis. 

According to the distance from the ground, this method is di- 
vided into the low training and the high training on a trellis. 

p. j4^ The plan of hw training 

{Fig. 14) is very judicious for 
varieties which require short 
pruning and the low system of 
training. This mode requires 
but little wood ; it is a sup- 
porter to all the young shoots, 
and affords to the vines all the advantages of light, sun, and air. 
It is exceedingly well adapted for hills with dry soil. The height 
of the frame is between one and two feet. 

The high mode of training differs from the other only in this, 
that the frame is from two to three feet high. This mode is the 




F. RUBENS UPON THE VINE AND ITS TREATMENT. 311 



most in use, as it will afford more room, and is best adapted for 
vines which grow much wood. 

Training of Vines ivith low Boughs and Layers. 

This mode is excellent, as it can be introduced into any vine- 
yard without any preparatory work. Grape-vines treated after 
this mode produce not only more and better grapes, but, at the 
same time, young rooted vines, which might serve for planting of 
new ground. The method is plain, and the following will illus- 
trate it : After the gathering of grapes, the vines are pruned in 
such manner that the two finest branches are exempted and se- 
lected for layers ; the rest of the good and bearing branches are 
pruned down to two buds. The two branches are bent down in 
a half circle, and the ends of the same are placed from six to eight 
inches deep in the ground. It is well to have one layer toward 
the west and the other toward the east, to give them all possible 
influence of the noon sun. During the next spring these layers 
will grow beautiful roots, and are able to support jDart of the 
grapes on this layer. 

The grapes grown on these layers will distinguish themselves 

through their quality and size, which can be easily accounted for, 

as they receive nourishment from two sources — first from the old 

Pj„ ^5 vines, and secondly from the roots of 

the layer. 

After the gathering of grapes, the lay- 
ers are cut off close from the old wood 
of the vine, and may then be taken out 
of the ground and replanted, or remain 
on the place to be substituted for old 
vines or vacant places. The other 
shoots are treated in the same manner 
as mentioned before. Fig. 15 will serve 
for an illustration. 




III. 

CARE OF A BEARING VINEYARD. 

Young vineyards may, in the first two or three years, be used 
for raising vegetables, but it must not be neglected to keep each 
vine free from influence of weeds. In old vineyards nothing is 
to be allowed to grow besides vines. Even the turning rows 
should be kept free of weeds and grass. Fruit-trees are very inju- 
rious to the vines, as they will stint them of nourishment, sun, air, 
and light, and so retard the development of the grapes. 



312 



GRAPE CULTURE AND WINE-MAKING. 



Pruning of the Vines. 

The pruning of the grape-vine is the most important part of its 
entire management and eulture. It demands knowledge, care, and 
experience. The aim of the pruning should be the forming of 
wood for the coming year, and the forming of fruit in the present. 
This law of Nature must be especially regarded, that the grape- 
vine produces its fruit always on healthy shoots of the year pre- 
vious ; for which reason, all vines which have produced fruit are 
pruned off, and have to make room for young shoots grown dur- 
ing the summer. 

If the grape-vine is not pruned, it will form a mere bush, of 
which the weak shoots will not derive any benefit from the influ- 
ence of the sun, and will produce only small, sour grapes, which 
ripen late. For this reason, all shoots are pruned off which are 
not required for the forming of fruit or reserve wood for the com- 
ing season. A main object should be, that the vine shall produce 
as much fruit as possible without injury to it in the future. Va- 
rieties which grow much in wood, as, for instance, the Muscatel 
or Trollinger, and others, must not be pruned as short as the Ries- 
ling and Traminer. If the soil is rich, and the locality good, the 



Fitr. 10, 




p. RUBENS UPON THE VINE AND ITS TREATMENT. 



313 



vine may Lave proportionally more wood than in light and hot 
soil. 

It must bo observed that the cut is not so close to a bud as to 
prevent the drying out of the wood. Fig. 16 represents a pruning- 
knife ; Figs. 17, 18, and 19, shears which are successfully used. 
For trimming of old and dead wood a little saw should be used, 
Fi'j. 20. ^ 

The time when the pruning should take place depends much 
upon the vine itself, partly upon climate and soil. The pruning 
of the vines after grape-gathering is in many places customary. 
In warm climates, where grape-vines will not suffer from frost, the 
pruning in autumn is certainly preferable. 

Propping the Vines. 

This work should commence immediately after pruning. The 
props should be placed from four to six inches from the vines, in 
order not to injure the roots. As the wood of the vines is most 
tough after a rain, it should be tied then. If vines are pruned in 
autumn, this work is suspended until spring. 

The first Cultivation of the Soil. 

The first cultivation should begin in the spring, when the weeds 
have made their appearance. The intention of this work is to 
loosen the soil, in order that the heat and air may penetrate it. 
The depth of cultivation depends upon the state of the roots. If 
they are deep, it is better to cultivate from eight to nine inches 
deep than only from five to six. The turning of the surface is 
very beneficial, and at the same time will cause the extermination 
of weeds. 

Spring Pruning. 

The time of this work depends upon the development of the 
young shoots. For instance, if they are about four inches long, 
it certainly must be done before the blooming commences. It 
should always be done during dry weather. All young shoots 
which bear no fruit, or are not destined for the next season, are 
broke out. To break off the side shoots is injurious to the vine, 
as well as to the development of the grapes. 



Ringing the Vines. 

Fig. 21. 




This is done sim- 
ilar as with fruit- 
trees. It consists in 
this point, that the 
bark of a grape- 
vine is cut around 
twice, nearly one 
quarter of an inch 
apart, without in- 



314 



GRAPE CULTURE AND WINE-MAKING. 



juring the wood. The bark between tliese two cuts is carefully 
taken out. For the forming of these cuts a certain kind of shears 
are used, represented by Figs. 21 and 22. This work is done about 
six or eight days before the blooming, and always on old wood, 
below a young shoot. 

The second Cultivation of the Soil. 

The turning of the soil should not be very deep, as it is the 
main object to kill the weeds. 

The last Cultivation of the Soil. 

This should be done when the grapes begin to get soft, to im- 
prove the action of the soil. Even upon the poorest and driest 
soil this work will be beneficial. 



The Gathering. 



The time of gathering de- 
pends upon different cir- 
cumstances : the season, the 
variety of grape-vine, etc. 
It is of most consequence 
to have varieties planted 
which may ripen at the same 
time. Again, the different 
varieties should be gathered 
by themselves. In a poor 
season, it is essential to com- 
mence gathering after the 
dew is dried off. Fig. 23 
represents a shears, and Fig. 
24 a knife for taking off the 
grapes. 

Manuring. 

The principal varieties of manure are, 

1. Animal Manures. — These consist of meat, blood, hair, wool^ 
feathers, bones, rags, leather, etc. All these substances cause not 
only the dissolution of the humus, but through their animating 
power they heighten the vegetation. In applying these manures 
to the soil the}'' should be in small particles. 

2. Vegetable Manures. — These consist of decomposed substances 
of the vegetable kingdom. Weeds and grasses belong to this 
class. They have not the same effect as animal manure. In rich 
soil they are to be preferred to any other, as through them the 
soil will be freshened and cooled. An easy mode of manuring is 
to sow lupines between the rows, and after they reach the height 
of a foot, to spade them under ground. In poorer vineyards grass 




F. RUBENS UPON THE VINE AND ITS TREATMENT. 3I5 

may be sown, especially in clayisb, heavy, and little moist soil ; 
throu.<^li it the qualities will enhance much. 

3. Vegetable-animal Manures. — 'These consist of excrements of 
animals. This manure will not act as soon as animal manure; 
it decomposes sooner than vegetable, and is for this reason ani- 
mating. It promotes not only the activity of the soil, but it will 
act upon the decomposition of the humus. The quality will de- 
pend upon the fodder of the animals, and the care bestowed upon 
the manure. The best manure for grape-vines is always that from 
cattle. Horse and sheep manure may be used with advantage. 
For hot soil, manure from cattle is to be preferred ; for cold and 
moist soil, that from horses and fowls may be used. 

4. Mineral Manures. — The best is lime. Marl is excellent ma- 
nure, especially if it contains lime. Sand is the best improvement 
for heavy soils. 



IV. 
PRESERVING AND SHIPPING GRAPES. 

Quality of the Fruit. — Grapes which were grown during a warm 
and dry year, or on a warm and dry soil, will keep longer than 
those which have grown in a cold and wet year. Thickly-clus- 
tered grapes, of a thin skin, and which contain much watery sub- 
stance, are always inclined to decay soon, which makes them unfit 
for preserving. 

Selection of Varieties of Grapes. — Only those grapes of which the 
berries hang loose and have a thick skin should be selected for 
packing. The different varieties of Chasselas are well adapted 
for this purpose, especially the Chasselas de Foniainebleau, Chasselas 
blajic, and Chasselas croquant. The grapes should remain as long 
as possible on the vines. A little frost will not hurt them. 

Different Ways of Preserving Grapes. — (1.) To preserve single 
bunches of grapes, they may be laid on a board, then covered with 
flower-pots, glass bells, etc., and the hole be covered with fine 
sand. (2.) The grapes may be placed in a cellar, and suspended 
on frames without touching each other. The grapes should be 
looked after every week to separate the bad berries. It is well 
to ventilate the place in which they are kept occasionally. (3.) 
Clean barrels may be used, one head be taken out, and the grapes 
packed in the barrel with fine sawdust ; after which the head is 
put on again, and the barrel then placed in a dry cellar of even 
temperature. 

The principal object should be to pack the grapes in as dry a 
state as possible. If the distance is not far, the grapes may be 
packed carefully in boxes, and then covered. Otherwise they 
should be packed in sawdust, and then covered with a lid. 



316 GKAPE CULTURE AND WINE-MAKING. 



V. 

DISEASES OF THE GRAPE-VINE. 

1. The Jaundice. — This disease may be recognized by tlie leaves 
turning yellow on the short shoots, and loose grape bunches with 
small undeveloped berries. It is caused by an unfavorable wet 
season, very deep or low location, often through a general weak 
vegetation of the vines, through age or insufficient nourishment 
in the soil ; and it will affect vines which are not suited for the 
soil. If insufficient nourishment is contained in the soil, it should 
be helped by applying suitable manure. In moist soils drains 
should be constructed. If acids in the soil cause this disease, the 
mixing of ashes with manure will be of service. 

2. Consumplion^ or Wmd'ng Aicay. — This disease is the cause 
of a continual state of jaundice. The only remedy is to apply 
suitable manure, a good cultivation of the soil, draining of the 
land, and separating the injurious substances of the soil, as, for in- 
stance, saltpetre. Decomposed manure should be used. 

3. Mildero ; BUrjht. — When rainy weather alternates with very 
hot, vines are apt to be affected by this sickness. It commences 
around the rim of the leaves, and increases canker-like, until the 
leaves, the stems, and the ends of the young shoots are affected 
by it. This disease will often stop of itself; otherwise there is 
no cure for it. To trim off the ends of the shoots, and cover the 
ground with hay or leaves, is said to prevent this malady. 

4. The Black Mortification. — The black Clavner is principally 
affected by this disease. It may be distinguished by black spots 
on the under side of the leaves, which increase in number until 
the leaf is covered by them. The leaves will gradually die and 
fall off", through which the development of the grapes is retarded, 
especially if the vines are attacked by this sickness early. In 
valleys in which the heat is doubled through the reflection of the 
rays of the sun, and exposed to cool nights and moist fogs, this 
sickness is often cj^uite a plague. Against this evil there is no 
remedy. It may be retarded by planting hardy varieties in such 
places, the summer pruning of shoots with fruit, and by checking 
the too rapid vegetation, and by planting the vines far apart, to 
allow the soil the greatest influence of the sun. 

5. The Dropsy. — The grape-vine affected thus will produce much 
wood and leaves, but only sparely grapes, which will not attain 
ripeness. It is caused by the roots penetrating deep into moist 
and cold soil. It will be checked if the land is drained, some of 
the larger roots cut off", and around the roots a quantity of sand 
and gravel is placed. 

6. Tlie Cancer. — This will happen chiefly to three and four year 
old vines on rich and heavy soil, during a rapid change of cold 



F. RUBENS UPON THE VINE AND ITS TREATMENT. 31 7 

and wet wcatlicr, wliich cause the bark of the vines to burst. As 
a remedy, it is advised to heap the soil on the vines in autumn, 
and to leave it in spring until there is no more danger of cold and 
"wet weather. 

7. Excess of Sap. — If it is noticed early in the season that the 
sap will merely form wood, pruning will help much, or ripping 
the bark off the vines to allow the outflow of surplus sap. 

8. The Sour Rot. — This disease will make its appearance after 
long and cold rains, which cause the undeveloped grapes to rot. 
If the weather does not improve, the entire grape-crop is lost. 
Such sour grapes are to be carefully separated from grapes for 
wine manuflxcture, as these grapes will impart to the wine a very 
unpleasant taste. 

9. The Grape-sichness, O'idium. — This terrible disease has within 
a few years made its appearance in all parts of Europe. The 
sickness aftects the leaves, the young shoots, and the grapes. It 
appears in a variety of fungus, termed Oidium Tucheri, hardly per- 
ceptible at first with the naked eye, presenting a whitish cover, 
which will gradually form a connected crust. During a more de- 
veloped state of this sickness, the entire vines are covered so much, 
that at a distance of twenty steps it may be perceived. If the 
grapes are affected by this sickness early, they will remain hard 
and unpalatable, and seem to be incompetent to develop farther. 
As a remedy, flour of sulphur is used, which, after many experi- 
ments, has proved the best, especially during the first stage of the 
sickness. Road-dust used in the same manner as sulphur is said 
to act well. A remedy is said to be successfully applied in the 
Tyrol : it is, two pounds of gelatine dissolved in one pail of water, 
in which the grape bunches are dipped when of the size of duck- 
shot. 



yi. 

CHOICE VARIETIES OF GRAPES FOR WINE-MAKING. 

Grapes from which the finest "White Wines are made. 

1. White Riesling, Riesling, spice Traminer, etc., Una pusilla, 
etc. The grape-vine is small, the wood is thin, the grape bunch 
is small, thick at times, a little loose, plain, often with branches, 
and short stem. The berry is fleshy, with a thin skin, often a lit- 
tle flat, of aromatic, pleasant, sweet taste, with two kernels. The 
Riesling is in Germany the king of all grape varieties. It de- 
mands a first class location, shelter against cold winds, rather 
heavy than light soil, and requires to be trained low. 

2. Wbite Welshriesling {Meislier de ChampcLgne). The grape- 
vine is small, the wood thin and short ; the berry yellowish green. 



318 GRAPE CULTURE AND WINE-MAKING. 

sweet, aromatic, with a fine skin. The grapes produce a very dur- 
able, heavy-bodied wine, but it has not that beautiful bouquet of 
the Kiesling. This variety ripens late, and requires an excellent 
warm place, thrives well in poorer soil, and must be trained low. 

3. Eed Traminer, Auvernat rouge clair, Gris rouge, E'ormen- 
teau. The vine is small, the grape-bunch small, close, with shoul- 
ders and short stems; the berry gray-reddish, thick skin, juicy, 
very fine flavored. These grapes produce an excellent, pleasant, 
sweet, fiery, and durable wine. The grape will preserve well, 
and for the table a choice article. The Traminer demands a shel- 
tered location. 

4. The spiced Traminer maybe called a cousin of the red Tram- 
iner, which is distinguished through its aromatic taste. 

5. Orleans (Raison et Orleans). The vine is large, the wood is 
long, the berry oval, hard, fleshy, with a thick skin, whitish-yel- 
low, of a fine taste. This vine will produce as much again as the 
Eiesling. The wine requires some time before it attains maturity. 
Mixed with Riesling the wine is elegant. As a table grape it is to 
be recommended. It requires a hot, deep, stony soil, and a hot 
place on a hill-side. 

6. Rulander, Gris commun. The vine is of middle size, often 
small ; the grape-bunch is of middle size ; the berries oval, often 
round, brownish color, very tender. This variety ripens more 
early than any above mentioned. The wine is exceedingly fine, 
and is used for the manufacture of Champagne. The vine will 
thrive almost in any soil, and produce much fruit if manured. It 
is well adapted for covering of low trellises. 

7. Black Clavner or Black Burgundy, Chiovenna, Morillon noir, 
Pineau, Auvernat, etc. The vine is middling large, wood is tol- 
erably long, thin, reddish-brown ; the ends are a little woolly. 
The grape is small, closely clustered. The berry is oval, often 
round, dark blue, with a thin skin, and of a pleasant, sweet taste. 
Of this excellent variety are the finest red wines made in Ger- 
many, for instance, Assmannshausen,Ingelheim,Aarbleichert, etc. 

8. Blue Arbst, Pineau, Auvernat, is a variety of the former. 
First class wines are made in Baden from this vine. In regard 
of culture, growth, and use, it is the same as the Black Clavner. 

Grapes which inoduce a Middling^ mostly light White Wine. 

9. Chassclas blanc or verd. The vine-growth healthy and long 
shoots. The grape is loose, of a long form ; the grape-stem is 
long, thin, and red ; the berries are round, greenish-yellow, with a 
thin skin, transparent, and covered with fine dots. The flesh is 
mellow, juicy, and of a sweet, aromatic taste. This grape will 
produce much, but only a light, mild wine, which is poor in alco- 
nol. As a table grape it commands the first place. 

10. Chassclas croquant. The wine of this variety is of a bet- 
ter quality than of the Chassclas blanc. The grape-vine requires 



F. KUBENS UPON THE VINE AND ITS TREATMENT. 319 

a rich soil and a very sunny place. As a tabic grape it is much 
liked on account of its sweet and hard flesh. 

11. Sylvaner. The vine is of middle size, the wood is short, 
light brown, which is striped and spotted. The grape-bunch is 
middling large, short, very thick. The berries are round, oval, 
yellowish-green, spotted, and have only one kernel. The flesh is 
tender, green, juicy, of an excellent, pleasant, peculiar sugar taste, 
which enhances its value as a table grape. The wine is very mild, 
seldom quite clear, and requires to be consumed very soon. 

12. Morillon blanc, Bourguignon blanc, etc. The vine is of 
middle size and growth, tolerably long wood. The berry is very 
juicy and sweet. It produces a tolerably good wine of middling 
quality ; will thrive almost in every locality sjid soil. 

Grapes of which first-class Red Wines are made. 

No. 7 Black Clavher commands the first place. 

13. Raisin prccoce. Morillon hatif produces an elegant red wine 
at Karlstadt. The grape-vine is small, requires a good location, 
and to be trained low. 

14. The early Magyars is in Southern Germany planted, and 
gives a beautiful wine. The berries are very sweet and tender. 

15. Frangais noir, Liverdon, Plant St. Martin. The vine is 
middling large ; the wood is thin ; the berry dark blue, very juicy, 
sweet, and pleasant. This sort is to be recommended for vine- 
yard purposes. It requires a sheltered place. 

Oi'apes ivhich produce a tolerably good Red Wine. 

16. Blue Raushling. The vine is small, the wood is short. It 
belongs to the better table and vineyard varieties. If the grapes 
are pressed immediately, a tolerably good white wine can be made 
of them. The vine produces considerable fruit ; is suited with 
every location, soil, and the different modes of training. 

17. Meumer, Fa5onne, Morillon tasconi. Has its name from the 
appearance of the leaves, which especially look, early in the sea- 
son, as if they were covered with flour. The grape-vine is mid- 
dling large, the wood is long. The grape is tolerably large and 
thick ; the berry is blue, red-fleshy, juicy, and tolerably sweet. It 
demands a rich, light soil. 



320 



GKM'E CULTURE AND WINE-MAKING. 



YII. 
AVERAGE PRODUCTION OF WINE IN EUROPE. 



GeiTnany produces in Eimer of Wino upon 

Saxoiiv 20,000 

Prussia 425,000 

Bavaria 1,200,000 

Wirtembcrg G00,000 

Baden 420,000 

Other States 400,000 

3,070,000 

The Austrian Empire 42,000,000 

Greece 70,000 

Archipelago of Greece G0,000 

Italy 75,000,000 

Switzerland 150,000 

France 52,000,000 

Spain 8,500,000 

Portugal 1,500,000 

182,350,000 



Morgen of Vineyard. 

10,000 

90,000 

210,000 

110,000 

110,000 

58,000 

588,000 

4,500,000 

480,000 

72,000 

4,800,000 

128,000 

8,400,000 

1, GOO, 000 

400,000 



20,9G8,000 



This number of cimcrs make about 15,500,000,000 bottles of wine of all varieties 
and quality. 



APPENDIX E. 

THE MANUFACTUEE OF SPARKLING 
WINES. 

EXTRACTED FROM THE "WORK OF J. BEYRE. 
WITH ILLUSTRATIONS. 



X 



APPENDIX E. 

J. BEYEE ON THE MANUFACTURE OF SPARKLING WINES. 

IIow the Sparkling is produced. — How to regulate the Sparkling. — The Q^nometer. 

— Manufacture of Sparkling Wine. — Double Faucet. — The Bottles. — Caillet's 
Cleaning Apparatus. — The Corks. — Leroy's Corking Machine. — Maurice's Cork- 
ing Machine. — Fastening the Strings. — Fastening the Wire. — Piling the Bottles. 
— Storing the Wine. — The Aphrometer. — Placing Bottles. — Removal of Sediment. 
— Boiled Liquors for the English Market. — Cold Liquors for the English Market. 

— Mosbach's Funnel. — Cameaux's Charging Machine. — Machet Vacquant's 
Charging Machine. — The Liquor. — Filtering the Liquor. — Sealing Mixtures. — 
Jaunay and Maumene's Improvements in the Manufacture of Sparkling Wines. — 
Generating Carbonic Acid. — Adulteration of Wines. — Explanations of Plates. 

Holu the Sparlding is produced. 

The difference between sparkling and common wine consists in 
the large quantity of carbonic acid contained in the former, which, 
by putting the wine in casks before the vinous fermentation is 
completed, and closing them tight, is thus prevented from escap- 
ing. The fermentation proceeds in the bottles, and the carbonic 
acid which is thus developed mixes with the atmospheric air in 
the chamber of the bottle, and by its pressure on the wine causes 
the gas to impregnate the same, which afterward, at the uncork- 
ing of the bottle, rises to the surface by its expansive force, caus- 
ing an explosion, and producing the sparkling and bubbling. 

As all wines contain carbonic acid, any wine can be made spark- 
ling; but strong and sweet wines, and even such as are somewhat 
astringent, absorb a larger quantity of this gas than dry and sweet 
wines. None, however, is better adapted to produce a sparkling 
wine than that grown in the Champagne district; hence most 
sparkling wines are called Champagne. Moselle, Ehine, Neckar, 
and some light Hungarian wines are also well adapted for the 
purpose. 

The pressure which the gas exercises in the bottles amounts to 
four, five, and even six atmospheres, but infallibly bursts the bot- 
tles when it attains the height of seven or eight atmospheres. 

As to the sparkling capacity of the wine, it is generally the case 
that the kind of wine which explodes loudest sparkles but little 
when standing in the glasses ; whereas, on the other hand, the 
wine which sparkles briskly and lively explodes but with a weak 
sound. This depends on the capacity of the wine to absorb more 
or less carbonic acid, for the less it absorbs the more gas gathers 
in the chamber of the bottle, and the more it must be compressed, 
and consequently the explosion must be stronger and the cork be 



324 GRAPE CULTURE AND ^VINE-]VLAJ^mG. 

driven to a greater distance. By tliis it is apparent tliat the wine 
must be of such a quality that a correct relation exists between 
the gas condensed in the chamber and that absorbed in the 
wine. 

At the opening of the bottle hardly one third of the gas escapes. 
If the same were kept in the wine by pressure only, it would nat- 
urally escape entirely on the removal of the cork but for the ad- 
hesive character of the wine, which is strong enough to require a 
certain mechanical influence to liberate the carbonic acid thus ab- 
sorbed. Also will a piece of sugar, a crumb of bread, or a raisin 
thrown into the wine after it has been poured out, cause a new 
agitation and produce a lively sparkling. 

The temperature the wine is kept in is of no less importance, 
for the higher it is the easier the carbonic acid develops itself 
Champagne that has been placed in ice for a considerable time 
will therefore not foam at all. 

Hoio to regulate the Sparhling. 

It was not till 1836 that H. Fran9ois, of Chalons sur Marne, pub- 
lished a rational method to regulate the sparkling. Maumend, in 
his book on Champagne, for instance, gives us the following items, 
which go to show how little profit the early manufacture of that 
wine rendered: 

" In the year 1746 I bottled 6000 bottles of a wine of very 
heavy body: 120 bottles were all that remained of this lot; all 
the others burst. In 1747 the wine did not contain quite so much 
liquor as the preceding season, but still one third of the bottles 
exploded. In 1748 only one sixth of the bottles burst. In 1749, 
the wine being more astringent, I lost only one tenth ; and in 
1750, when the wine of Jacquelet was still more so, I lost not 
more than one twentieth of my Champagne by the bursting of 
the bottles." 

The method of Mr. Fran9ois, above referred to, consists in the 
following new manner of using the CEnometer, invented by Mr. 
Cadet de Vaux, and perfected by Engineer Chevalier : 

A bottle of wine is, by boiling it down, reduced to four ounces, 
by which process the alcohol is set free, and only the sugar and 
several salts remain. After the crystallization of the tartaric acid 
has taken place, which generally occurs in 24 hours, the degree 
which the (Enometer indicates must be marked. Now when the 
liquid thus condensed shows not more than 5° above zero, the 
wine will not sparkle in the bottles, not even at 20° and 25° C. 
These five degrees represent the specific gravity which the sugar 
and saline particles give to the wine. 

Eight days before the wine is bottled, sugar or liquor of wine 
(one pound of candied sugar to each bottle of wine produces this 
liquor) are added, according to the following table : 



J. BEYRE ON THE MANUFACTURE OF SPARKLING WINES. 325 
At 5° below 0, 7 lbs. sugar or 7 bottles liquor of wine. 



6° 


t( 


C 


(( 


(1 


G 






7° 


i( 


5 


u 


<( 


5 






8° 


(( 


4 


il 


(( 


i 






9° 


" 


3 


" 


<( 


3 






10° 


(( 


2 




(( 


2 






11° 


(( 


1 


<1 


(( 


1 






12^ 


" 





u 


(( 










This tabic is founded on the following observations of Mr. 
Fran9ois : 

1 bottle containing 1 quentchen (gros) of sugar shows only very weak sparkling. 

" " 2 " " " tolerable sparkling. 

" " 3 " " " complete sjjarkling : the foam es- 

ca])es the bottle. 

" " 4 " " " the foam escapes as a stream. 

" " 5 " " " sparkling with great vehemence. 

" " G " " " extraordinary vehemence of spark- 

ling. 

Nearly all bottles which contained six gros (1 gros =72 gram.) 
burst, and those containing five gros are also apt to burst. 

According to these observations, the wine requires an addition 
of 4 gros sugar per bottle, or 900 gros (a little over 7 lbs. — 7.03) 
per cask of 225 bottles. Consequently, when wine that has been 
boiled down as above mentioned shows, on measuring it with the 
OEnometer, only 5°, 7 pounds of sugar must be added. If the 
(Enometer shows 8°, only 4 pounds of sugar have to be added, 
and so in proportion. 

This direction, as given by Mr. Frangois, has been since super- 
seded by the following : 750 grammes of wine, accurately weigh- 
ed, are boiled down to 125 grammes, exactly the sixth part of the 
original quantity. To avoid all errors, it is best to use the ivatcr- 
lath for this process, which we will describe, so as to leave no 
doubt to persons not well acquainted with chemical terms : 

On a trivet, which is placed over a charcoal furnace, a pan is 
put with a cylinder of copper, w^hich cylinder is filled with water 
to three fourths of its contents. On this an evaporating dish of 
porcelain, containing the aforesaid 750 grammes of wine which 
we wish to boil down, must be placed, and in about three hours 
we can reduce them to that quantity we wish to use, viz., 125 
grammes. After leaving the mass standing in a glass cylinder of 
25 centim. in height, and of the same width, to let the tartaric acid 
settle itself, keeping the cylinder well corked for 24 hours, the 
proof by the CEnometer can be obtained. 

The (Enometer^ or Gleuco- CEnometer {Fig. 21), is an instrument 
similar to an Alcoholometer or Areometer. The degrees are ac- 
cording to Beaume, and are obtained in the following manner : 
The instrument is placed in distilled water before the upper end 
of it. A, is closed. Then quicksilver is poured into it till it sinks 
to the middle of the tube A B, at which point is fixed the zero 
of the instrument. Then the instrument is placed in a proof 
vial (which, as well as the instrument itself, must be wiped per- 



326 GRAPE CULTURE AND WINE-MAiaNG. 

fectly dry), containing a solution of 15 grammes of table-salt in 
85 grammes of water, and the point to which it sinks is marked 
B. The space between this point and zero has to be divided 
into 15 degrees, and a like space above zero must be equally sub- 
divided. The first will show the degrees of sugar a liquid con- 
tains, and the latter those of alcohol. 

This is the simplest way to obtain a Gleuco-ffinometer, which 
was first used by Cadet de Vaux. The following is a rectified 
table, which all wine-merchants use as a guide for the manufac- 
ture of Champagne : 

Degi-eL>3 of the boiled-down liquid g ^^ ^ ^^^^^ 225 litres, 

as shown by the Gleuco-(Enometer. " 

5° below 4 kil. sugar, or 8 bottles wine-liquor. 



G° 


' 3.4 " 


" 


6.8 


70 


' 2.9 " 


(( 


5.8 


8=' 


' 2.3 " 


(( 


4.6 


9° 


' 1.7 " 


(( 


3.4 


10° 


' 1.1 " 


(( 


2.2 


11° 


' 0.5 " 


<( 


1.0 


12° 


' 0.0 " 


11 


0.0 



To estimate the quantity of gas which is developed, we will 
only calculate the carbonic acid as produced by the sugar. A 
bottle which has received an addition of 16 grammes sugar (4 kil, 
to 225 bottles) contains, after the fermentation, 8 gr. 234 mgr. car- 
bonic acid developed out of the sugar. The weight of one litre 
of this gas, at a temperature of 15° C, is 1 gr. 88 mgr. ; conse- 
quently, at the same temperature, those 8 gr. 234 mgr. will give 
4 litres, 38 gas. Now, taking it for granted that 100 centilitres 
of wine have the capacity to absorb 99 centilitres, 2384 of gas, we 
find that a bottle which contains 80 centilitres of wine will absorb 
87.39 of gas, and the pressure must amount to 5.4 atmospheres. 
This is exactly the pressure that is sustained by the bottles where 
the wine showed 12° below zero on the Gleuco-CEnometer. 

This method, though a great improvement for the manufacture 
of Champagne, is not perfect yet, for it still occurs that 40 per 
cent, of the bottles burst. 

Another method, which has been in practice for several years 
in the Champagne districts, is this : 

The quality of the wine which is to be bottled must first be as- 
certained by testing it with the Gleuco-CEnometer. Then such a 
quantity of sugar, which is to be carefully marked, is added as to 
make the instrument fall to zero. 

As, at the time of bottling, the wine has lost most of its saccha- 
rine substance by the fermentation in the casks, the Gleuco-ffinom- 
eter stands a few degrees above zero. By adding the sugar, the 
specific gravity of the wine is increased, and equals that of water 
when the (Enometer stands at zero. 

The wine out of w4iich Champagne is made contains always 
from 10 to 12 per cent, of alcohol, and the other mgrcdicnts are 
present in the same proportion, so that, at the testing of the liquid, 



J. BEYRE ON THE MANUFACTURE OF SPARKLING WINES. 327 

the degrees above zero pointed out by the instrument show in 
reality the quantity of sugar contained in the wine ; for the more 
of saccharine substance the same contains, the higher the instru- 
ment will rise in the liquid. By calculation, we find that to re- 
duce a wine which contains from 10 to 12 per cent, of alcohol down 
to zero, the same quantity of sugar is required which in the wine 
that has been boiled down is indicated by 12° below zero on the 
Gleuco-ffinometer. 

This latter method has the advantage over that of Mr. Frangois 
that the evaporating process is avoided ; but then neither method 
is complete, as by none of them the other ingredients of the wine, 
and especially the uncombined acids, can be ascertained. 

According to analyses of the best wines as regards flavor and 
sparkling capacity, the wine ought to be composed of 

1. IG to 18 grammes of siigai* per bottle. 

2. Jj,'-j; to ^-^ of its volume of alcohol. 

3. Uncombined acids to correspond to 3.5 grammes of sulphuric acid. 

Manufacturers of sparkling wine will do well to pay particular 
attention to this analysis, if they wish to obtain a wine of supe- 
rior quality. 

Manufacture of SparJding Wine. 

After it has been shown how much sugar has been added to 
the wine, according to the method practiced in the Champagne 
district, we now proceed to explain the manufacturing process : 

For the manufacture of sparkling wine the blue, grape is gen- 
erally used in the Champagne district, the coloring matter being 
extracted out of the skin of the grapes after the juice has been 
pressed out. I mention this particularly, because in other coun- 
tries none but ivhite grapes are used for this purpose. The blue 
grape is far preferable, however, because its juice has the capacity 
to absorb a larger quantity of carbonic acid, which is the main 
point. 

The young wine (must) is first filled into pipes to settle, and is 
afterward put into hogsheads in the upper cellar, where it remains 
till it is ready for bottling, which should be done in the short- 
est possible time, inasmuch as one day may produce a complete 
change in the wine. It is also advisable to ascertain every morn- 
ing, by means of the Gleuco-CEnometer, the quantity of sugar it 
contains. 

To facilitate the work and do it with greater dispatch, a faucet 
{Fig. 22) with two separate openings may be used, the key of 
which must be so constructed that it opens one opening while 
it closes the other, so that the workman can cork one bottle while 
the other is filling. 

The Bottles. 
These must be selected with the greatest care. The following 



328 GILVPE CULTURE AND WINE-MAKING. 

analysis sliows tlie ingredients of wliicli the glass of a good bot- 
tle that had withstood a strong pressure was composed : 

Silicic acid 58.4 

Potash 1.8 

Soda 9.9 

Lime 18.6 

Aluminum 2.1 

Oxvdc of iron 8.9 

Doubtful 0.3 

100.0 

This bottle contained no magnesia ; but several of the broken 
bottles contained some, viz., one bottle 2.4 per cent., and another 
one 3.6 per cent. Of how great an importance the chemical com- 
position of the Champagne bottles is, the following, incident, which 
occurred in France, will show clearly : A certain glass manufac- 
tory used sulphuric alkalies in the composition of their Cham- 
pagne bottles ; the consequence of which was that the wine dis- 
solved the sulphuric particles of the glass, and a beverage was 
produced which smelled like rotten eggs, and tasted somewhat 
like the mineral waters of Parad, in Hungary. 

The chief properties of a good Champagne bottle are the fol- 
lowing : 

1. It must weigh from 800 to 900 grammes. 

2. The glass must be of an even thickness. 

3. It must never be of a blue or rainbow color, which can be easily detected by 
wetting the bottle and holding it np to the sunlight in a horizontal position. 

4. The glass must be perfectly pure ; if but the smallest particle of flint is nsible 
in it, the bottle can not be used with safety. 

5. The neck of the bottle must be perfectly conical, so as to better hold the cork. 

As it is not advisable to use shot for the cleaning of the bot- 
tles, the smallest particle of lead being sufficient to spoil the wine, 
the cleaning apparatus, which was invented by H. Caillet, is gen- 
erally used for that purpose, the main piece of which is represent- 
ed in Fif/. 23. The bottle is put with its neck in the opening 
gofa flat piece of wood marked o, and by the force of the springs 
r r pressed against another piece of wood marked h. By means 
of a winch which, through the cords c c, moves the double roll 
2), the bottle, which is partly filled with water, is quickly turned 
round; and while a stream of water is washing the outside of it, 
the workman presses the brush marked Ic, which is attached to 
an iron wire marked c^yj against it with his left hand^, holding 
with his right one the brush u x, which cleans the inside of the 
bottle at the same time. This apparatus is a double one, as our 
sketch shows, two bottles moving on the same axle, and from two 
to six of them are generally turned by one cord. Fig. 2-i shows 
the wooden frames on which the bottles are placed during the 
cleaning process. 

The CorJcs. 
The greatest care must be bestowed on the selection of the 



J. BEYRE ON THE MANUFACTURE OF SPARKLING WINES. 329 

corks. They must be perfectly sound, and their elasticity such 
that they can be compressed to the third part of their diameter 
without breaking ; for, should the elasticity of the fibres be not 
uniform, the bottle would not be closed hermetically, as the slight- 
est difference in the cylindrical shape of the cork would cause the 
gas to escape. The best method to avoid great changes in the 
elasticity of the cork by the influence of the carbonic acid of the 
wine is to boil them several times in a solution of tartaric acid, 
and afterward expose them to steam under a certain pressure. 
Corks are generally prepared in this manner, and with good re- 
sults. Corks that have been used once can be used a second time 
— though the iron of the wires and the influence of the wine has 
deprived them, to a certain extent, of their elasticity — by treating 
them with oxalic acid. From two to five kilogrammes of this 
acid are dissolved in 100 litres of water, and the corks soaked in 
it for about a fortnight, after which the whole mass is boiled, and 
finally the corks well cleaned in fresh water. The regular size 
of a cork for Champagne bottles is from fifty to fifty-five millime- 
ters in height, with a diameter of thirty millimeters. 

Machines used for Corking the Bottles. 

The oldest machine of this kind bears the name of its invent- 
or, " Leroy," and is represented in Fig. 25. The horizontal bar 
O O is furnished with a tube of a conical shape, the opening of 
which, in which the cork is placed, and a trifle larger than this, 
has a steel funnel inserted in it, of which the left half is fastened 
to the side of the tube, while the left one is loose, and connects 
with a spring marked T V, the strength of which can be increased 
at will by placing the bar a V under the hammer «, which is mov- 
able. By pressing down the treadle Q, the cylinder F F, and the 
arm, L G, of a bent lever — the other arm of which connects with 
the horizontal piece L D — are moved, and by force of the square 
band L the piece L D is pulled to the left, drawing out the end, 
T, of the spring T V, and the movable piece of the funnel, which 
presses the cork down to the lower end of the tube, and so closes 
it. To prevent the retrograde motion, an iron wedge (which in 
the drawing will be seen right above D) falls by its own weight 
into the tube, and forces itself between the movable piece and the 
upper part of the same. By releasing the treadle Q, the shaft C 
C is pulled down, which again lowers the rammer A, under which, 
and on the cap-like shaped stand H, which moves round a hori- 
zontal axis, and rests on a powerful spring wound round the roll- 
er S, the bottle is placed. By beating the rammer with a mallet, 
the cork is driven into the bottle about 20 to 22 millimeters deep. 
By pressing down the key-board, C, which connects with the 
wedge, this is lifted to its former position, and releases the mov- 
able piece of the funnel, which instantly is drawn back by the 
spring T Y, so that the bottle can be easily removed. This ma- 



330 GRAPE CULTURE AND WINE-MAKING. 

chine works very quick, but, owing to tlie conical sliape of the 
tube, the cork is not always placed quite straight into the bottles, 
and so often is the cause of the escaping of a part of the gas. 

To avoid this, Mr. Maurice constructed another machine, which 
is represented in Fig. 26, by which the cork is pressed through a 
cylindrical tube composed of three or four iron plates. The first 
plate is movable, and forms one of the sides of the machine, E E. 
The second piece is governed by the eccentric wheel P P, which 
is fastened to the axis F, and moves also the third plate by means 
of a side piece in the shape of an inclining plane attached to the 
wheel. By pressing the handle G down to E, the three plates ap- 
proach each other and compress the cork, while by means of a 
treadle like that of the machine Leroy {Fig. 25) the cylinder B B 
is lifted up and the cork driven under the rammer. The balance 
of the bottling process is the same as described in the foregoing 
account of the machine of Leroy. As the sharp edges of the iron 
plates are apt to cut the cork, it is best to have them rounded a 
little. Lately Mr. Maurice has altered this machine considerably, 
and the improvements are such that the cork can be driven into 
the bottle by the same force which serves to fasten the wire over it. 

Fastening the Strings. 

The bottle is placed in a cylinder of leather, which is fastened 
to a trivet attached to a stool on which the workman sits (see Fig. 
27), who, holding the bottle between his knees, places the first 
noose (represented in Fig. 28) over the cork, which is quickly 
drawn together by pulling at both ends, marked a and i, the latter 
of which connects with the ball of twine in the box of the trivet. 
The second noose is like the first, the only difference being in the 
turns of the loop between a and Z^, of which it contains one less. 
A good workman in the Champagne district can fasten in this 
manner from 1000 to 1200 bottles in one day. Before the cord 
is used, it is necessary to dip the same into linseed oil, to protect 
it against the dampness of the cellars, which causes the strings to 
rot, otherwise, in a very short time. 

Fastening the Wire. 

The wire, which must be of the best quality, is brought into the 
market in pieces already prepared for the purpose (see Fig. 29). 
The workman who puts on the wire sits on a similar stool like 
that one represented in Fig. 27, except that the cyhnder in which 
the bottle is placed is a wooden one. The open ends, h, are placed 
around the neck of the bottle, and by pulling the wire over the 
cork, both ends, a and h, are united and twisted by means of a 
pair of shears {Fig. 30), the points of which serve to cut off the 
rest of the wire. 

As it takes from two to three years before the wine is fit for 
the market, and as the strings are apt to rot, Mr. Maurice has pre- 



J. BEYRE ON THE MANUFACTUEE OF SPARKLING WINES. 33I 

pared a wire fastening, of wliicli wc give a drawing in Fi<j. 31. 
This is put on before tlic bottle is corked, as its upper opening is 
large enough to admit the cork, and afterward fastened in the 
manner shown in Fig. 32. This fastening saves th'c labor of put- 
ting on any strings whatever, and in ten hours a good workman 
can cork 1000 bottles and put on the wire at the same time. 

After the bottles have been so corked and wired they are piled 
up from 20 to 25 high, in the following manner (see Fig. 33) : 
The first row of bottles, B ?, rests with the necks on live laths, 
marked /, and those of the second row, B' T, on another lath, mark- 
ed r, which is laid over the lower ends of the first row, and so the 
pile is built up, care being taken that the outside bottles are stead- 
ied by a small wedge of cork. This kind of piles can withstand 
a great pressure from outside, and have the advantage, at the same 
time, that each single bottle can be taken out for examination at 
pleasure. 

Storing the Wine in the Cellars. 

To develop the sparkling, the greatest possible care must be 
taken as to the temperature* in which the wine is kept. Some 
manufacturers keep the bottles in the fermentation-room in a very 
high temperature till the sparkling has fairly commenced, and 
not till then they remove the wine to the cellars. Others keep 
the wine in the cellars, and only bring it into the fermentation- 
room when the sparkling process is going on too slowly. 

There are cellars in the Champagne district in which the tem- 
perature seldom rises above 3° or 4° C, and as many cellars con- 
tain three different stories, which communicate by openings in the 
middle of the "floor that can be hermetically closed, it is easy to 
produce a change in the temperature of the different cellars. 
When the development of the carbonic acid proceeds regularly, 
it is not necessary to expose the bottles to a very low tempera- 
ture ; but when the fermentatiion goes on too quickly, this becomes 
necessary, for the bursting of one bottle destroys at least five or 
six others ; and as as many as 7500 bottles are stored together in 
fifteen different piles in most of the larger cellars, this breaking 
might become very fatal to the whole mass. 

In order to reduce the temperature, which rises to 18° or 20° 
C, fresh water or ice-water is poured over the bottles during the 
coolest time of the day, either before sunrise or after sunset, and 
the cellars are well ventilated. If this does not prove of suffi- 
cient avail, the wine is removed to a lower and cooler cellar. 

Most of the cellars are provided with sinks to carry off the wa- 
ter, as shown by Fig. 3-1. The floor a h, a' h\ m c, m' c', has an in- 
clination of -^. The channels he, he are 80 centimeters broad by 
3 or 4 centimeters in depth, and contain large sinks, marked O, 
at a distance of every 10 meters, in which the wine from the 
broken bottles flows. 



332 GRAPE CULTURE AND WINE-MAKING. 

The Aphro7neter. 

To ascertain the correct time for the removal of the bottles, the 
Aphromter {Fig. 35) is used for measuring the pressure of the gas. 
By means of a hollow screw, which contains a movable cylinder 
1 1, the point of which is called V^ this latter is driven into the 
cork of the bottle after the wire has been removed and the cork 
been cut even. The movement of the cylinder is governed by 
the knob B, fastened to it by a small screw marked F, and by the 
female screw E, in which the male screw of the knob is inserted. 
The gas rises through t into the tube h, /, ?', and, by turning the 
handle y, is admitted into the Manometer, which has been previ- 
ously filled with water, and by another screw, marked G, connects 
with the frame^ h, I, r. This Manometer, which has been invent- 
ed by Bourdin, shows exactly the number of atmospheres the 
pressure of the gas in the bottles amounts to. 

After the fermentation process is completed, the dregs of the 
wine must be removed. For this purpose, the bottles are placed 
on stands of 1 m. 60 in height by m. 90 broad, as shown in 
Fig. 36. Each stand has 10 rows of bottle-holes (6 holes in one 
row), of oval shape, on each side, the largest diameter of which 
measures 10 and the smallest one 9 centimeters. It answers the 
purpose best to place the bottles at an angle of 30° to 35°. Fig. 
37 shows a simpler way of placing the bottles in a position to 
make the sediment of the wine settle on the cork. 

To facilitate the gathering of the dregs, it is necessary to shake 
the bottles a little at different times. As the sediment of the wine 
is often slimy, and sticks to the glass, the following solutions of 
tannin and alum are used to prevent this. ♦ 

1. Solution of Tannin. — 200 grammes of pure gall-nut tannin are dissolved in al- 
cohol of 95° C, so as to give one litre of liquid, which is sufficient to clear IG casks 
of wine of 100 litres each. This is equivalent to 12 grammes ; 5 of this solution for 
one cask, or G2.o for one litre, or 50 milligrammes for one bottle. 

2. Solution of Alum. 

Pure gelatine IG grammes. 

Alum 8 " 

White wine 1 litre. 

The wine is heated, and in a decilitre of it the alum is dissolved, 
and the gelatine in the residue. The whole is mixed when it be- 
comes lukewarm. A quarter litre of this liquid suffices for 200 
litres of wine. The sediment produced by the mixture of gela- 
tine and alum with tannin is always pulverous, does not adhere 
to the glass, and produces a very clear wine. 

Fig. 38 shows the way in which the dregs are removed. The 
workman places the bottle inverted on his left arm. After hav- 
ing removed the wire and strings with the common hook (TvJy.SQ), 
he presses the finger of his left hand on the cork, which he ex- 
tracts by means of pincers {Fig. 40). The foam is let into a small 
cask, marked c, leaning toward the workman, out of which it runs 



J. BEYRE ON THE MANUFACTURE OF SPARKLING WINES. 333 

into a tub, marked ^, 2>, o, having a sieve, /, to keep the sediments 
back. If tlie dregs arc not entirely removed by the force of the 
explosion, the fingers must do the rest of the work. Corks that 
will not give way easily are removed by a simple contrivance, as 
represented in our drawing. The loss of wine caused by this op- 
eration averages about 6 centilitres per bottle. 

After this cleaning process sugar must be added. Formerly 
this was not done ; but now, in a bottle of 80 centilitres are put 
24 and even 26 centilitres of sugar-liquor. The common liquor 
consists of 

150 kilogrammes white candy-sugar. 

125 litres wine. 
10 litres spirit of cognac. 

285 kilogrammes, or 200 litres. 

LiqiLor used for the English Marlcet (1 cash=200 litres). 

Sugar 50 kilogrammes. 

Water 15 litres. 

;^hitewine ) 20 litres. 

(Champagne out of the vat) > 

The sugar is dissolved in warm water and mixed with the wine, 
after which the liquid is boiled down to 50 litres. When the 
liquor is cold it weighs 35°. Then are added, 

Port wine 38 litres. 

Spirits of cognac 10 " 

Common cognac 5 " 

Brown cognac 8 " 

"Fismer" dyeing matter 2 " 

{Sugar, 50 kilogrammes 
White wine, 20 litres 
Cognac, 15 " } 87 
Cherry brandy, 1 " 
Raspberry brandy, 0.1 " , 

200 " 

I/iquor for England, mixed, without being Boiled. 

Common boiled liquor •. 100 litres. 

Pure liquor , 20 " 

Port wine 30 " 

Madeira 8 " 

White wine (Champagne) 10 " 

Spirits of cognac 12 " 

Cognac 12 *' 

Brown cognac 6 " 

"Fismer" dyeing matter 2 " 

200 " 

To each cask are added 2 litres of the following mixture : 

Water 60 litres. 

A saturated solution of alum 20 " 

" " tartaric acid 40 " 

" " tannin 80 " 

200 " 

The Fismer dyeing matter, which yields one litre of liquor, con- 
sists of 



334: GRAPE CULTURE AND WINE-IVIAKING. 

Extract of elder-berries 250-500 grammes. 

Alum 30- 65 

Water GOO-800 " 

The liquor is generally poured into the bottle by means of com- 
mon tin cylinders, with a handle and a pipe of conic shape, the 
opening of which measures 10 or 12 millimeters. This instru- 
ment has been improved by H. Mosbach, of the house of J. Mum- 
mds, as shown by our drawing in Fig. 41. 

H. Cameaux has constructed a machine {Fig. 42) by which the 
work of putting the liquor into the Champagne can be performed 
with great regularit3^ The cylinder P, which is supported by 
B B, C C, E E, and G, contains the chamber of the pump, made 
of glass, and graduated into centilitres. The liquor is pumped into 
the chamber by the lever A" A A', to which the cylinder T is 
fastened, out of a glass or stone jar, ?>, and through a passes into 
the bottle, which is placed on the stand H. The overflowing wine 
runs into the bottle vi' through the tube D D. 

As it is rather difficult to keep this machine clean, and as the 
tube a D D must be made of silver in order not to injure the wine, 
and, moreover, as a great deal of the carbonic acid is set free by 
the pumping operation, it is not recommendable. 

H. Machet Yacquant, of the house of Moet, has invented an- 
other machine which is far preferable. We give a drawing of it 
in Fig. 43. A glass vessel. A, with a cover, which is fastened by 
the screw B C, contains the liquor. F is the measure, which is 
completely filled by the liquor in order to exclude all atmospheric 
air. The stand G is controlled by the treadle li, and the gas can 
be let off by the faucet H. 

We will add a few remarks concerning the preparation of the 
liquor: Liquor that is made without being boiled must be stirred 
often, and the spirits of cognac must not be added before the sugar 
is completely dissolved in the wine. Liquor that is boiled must 
be allowed to become perfectly cool before the other ingredients 
are added — the alcoholic liquids as well as the dyeing matter — as 
these materials get deteriorated in their flavor by heat. The liq- 
uor is strained through a flannel bag lined with calico, and partly 
filled with paper pulp, which must be well mashed. 

Fig. 44 shows the tub out of which the liquor runs into the fil- 
tering-bag, and the cask in which the latter is suspended ; also 
the club used for mashing the paper. Before the wine is put up 
in baskets and sent to market, it should lie for a week or two. 

The mixtures used for sealing the bottles up consist of 

1 kilogr. of white pitch, and 

1 do. of yellow rosin ; 

or, 

2 kilogr. of yellow rosin, and 

1 do. of yellow wax; 

or, 

2 kilogr. of yellow wax, and 
1 do. of turpentine ; 



J. BEYIIE ON THE MANUFACTURE OF SPARKLING WINES. 335 



1 kilogr. of turpentine, 
1 do. of shellac, and 
1 do. of yellow wax. 

These mixtures arc dyed cither with red ochre, ivory black, or 
Prussian blue and chromate of zinc, which gives a fine green col- 
or. They are mixed in the following proportions : 

1 kilogr. of red ochre ; 

OS) of ivory black ; 

0.5 of a mixture of 1 kilogr. of Prussian blue to 2 kilogr. of chromate of zinc. 

Often some mica or gold-dust is added, in the proportion of 100 
to 200 grammes to 1 kilogramme of pitch. Minium, chromate of 
lead, cinnabar, or any other preparation of quicksilver, must be 
carefully avoided. 

Iviprovemcnt in the Manufacture of Sparkling Wine, hy L. Jaunay 
and E. Mauraene. 

The practice of cleaning the wine of the dregs and adding the 
liquor, as described iri the foregoing section, causes a loss of about 
25 per cent, of the wine. This loss is guarded against by the in- 
vention of Messrs. L. Jaunay and E. Maumene of an apparatus 
{Fig. 45) which is so constructed as to prevent the wine from be- 
ing exposed to the atmospheric air and the escaping of the car- 
bonic acid. 

After the dregs have been removed, the wine is poured into a 
ball-shaped vessel, marked S, filled with carbonic acid, which holds 
from 20 to 30 bottles. The bottle B is placed on the stand a, in 
a frame marked c cc c, which moves on hinges. The springs /• r 
press the bottle against the opening of the tube, which connects 
with the vessel S. By turning the frame upward, the equilibrium 
between the gas in the bottle and that in the vessel S, which has 
been previously made to correspond with the atmospheric press- 
ure which the gas exercises in the bottles, is produced, and the 
bottle is placed in a vertical position, so that the wine runs into S 
through the tube t^ which is plated with galvanized silver. As 
the wine flows out the bottle fills itself with gas, the equilibrium 
of which with the gas in the gasometer G is produced by lower- 
ing the frame to its first position. Now the liquor is poured into 
the bottle, and this is then placed under the stopcock E, and filled 
again from the vessel S through the silver-plated copper pipe v E' ; 
the equilibrium of the gas being first produced by turning the 
cock E" of the pipe marked ;;. Then the bottle is corked and the 
wine put on. 

We will now explain the working of this apparatus in all its 
details : After the atmospheric pressure of the gas sustained by 
the bottles has been ascertained by the Aphrometer (represented 
in Fig. 35), the vessel S is filled with so much carbonic acid as to 



336 GRAPE CULTURE AND WINE-IMAKING. 

be equal to that in tbe bottles. The gas is prepared in tbe follow- 
ing manner (see Fig. 46) : 

The cask A is filled witb chalk or carbonate of lime (limestone) 
and water. The opening C is then closed hermetically, and sul- 
phuric acid when chalk, chloric acid when limestone is used, is 
poured through the leaden funnel B into the cask. The carbonic 
acid thus developed is conducted through the pipe D into a small- 
er cask filled with water, marked E, and from there through an- 
other pipe, F, into the glass stand G, filled with small pieces of 
chalk, which hind the last particles of free acids. Through the 
pipe X the pure gas is led into the gasometer G {Fig. 45). This 
is a bell-shaped vessel, of tin or tinned copper, which hangs in a 
vat of the same metal, marked M F, filled with water up to two 
inches from its margin, and is balanced by the weight V. By 
turning the stopcock d the gas is conducted into the gasometer, 
flows through d' into the forcing-pumj) P, while by a third stop- 
cock, marked d'\ the gas returning from the vessel S is admitted 
again into the gasometer. The pipes which connect the different 
cocks are made of India-rubber. The pressure of the gas is meas- 
ured by a small Manometer, marked m. 

By means of the forcing-pumj) P the gas is driven into the con- 
denser A! through the pipe i. This is a copper cylinder plated 
with tin, and holds 1|- hectolitres, the sides being from 3 to 4 mil- 
limeters thick, in order to have sufficient strength to sustain a 
pressure of 20 atmospheres, which is the amount of gas required 
for one day's work. The condenser rests on a board, marked//', 
and is fastened to the wall by means of an iron ring g g^ wound 
round with rope, and is furnished with a stopcock, marked r'\ 
which serves to let off the water that gathers in the cylinder. 
The atmospheric pressure is measured by the Manometer M. 

Through the pipe i' t" r' the carbonic acid is let into the vessel 
S, and the pressure regulated in the following manner : The pipe 
v' v" conducts the gas into a cylinder of India-rubber one centi- 
meter thick, which is closed by two round pieces of the same ma- 
terial, fastened to bronze plates, one of which is fixed, while the 
other is movable, and is pressed down by the gas putting in mo- 
tion the pieces z and y, the teeth of the latter piece, turning the 
wheel, gradually closing the cock r\ through which the gas is let 
into the vessel S. 

By the elasticity of the India-rubber and a spiral wire which is 
wound round the cylinder, the plate is drawn back, and so the 
stopcock opened again ; and by this alternate opening and closing 
of the entrance to the vessel S, the pressure is regulated. To still 
increase the power of the regulator, a spring, Z, is attached to the 
movable bronze plate. 

The VcsspX S (Fig. 45). — By pressing down the treadle ^?, the 
piece/ which is furnished with a spring, is pulled down, which 
moves the ring A, to which the piece lo is attached, so lowering 



J. BEYRE ON THE MANUFACTURE OF SPARKLING WINES. 337 

the stand d d on which the bottle is placed. On releasing the 
treadle, the springs r r press the bottle against a circular piece of 
India-rubber in the middle of c c. Take now the p^ateaw c c, move 
it forward so as to turn it over the body K of the stopcock, which 
forms part of the upper plate c c ; thus the frame c c, c' c' is 
brought in the position indicated by the punctuated lines, and 
the bottle is in B. After this semicircular motion the gas in 
the interior of the bottle is balanced by that in the interior of the 
ball S. 

This is plain if we examine Figs. 47 and 48, in which the stop- 
cock 11 is represented in detail (one fourth size in Fij. 47, one 
half size in Fig. 48, with the same letters in both figures). The 
body E is represented by the letters A B D E. It consists of a 
piece with a plate C F {Fig. 47), and the picee of the cylinder d d', 
furnished with a thread of a screw, fastened by a vice of bronze 
h h\ the use of which is to keep the circular piece of India-rubber 
in its place, against which the head of the bottle V is pressed. 
The lower metallic mass of C D E F contains two round grooves ; 
to the vertical one r r' is screwed a silver pij^e r", at the lower 
extremity of which a flexible pipe r' r" is fastened, long enough 
to reach the bottom of the bottle. The other groove z v^ thrice as 
broad, is intersected by the first at d d' ; it inclines about 40° to 
the left, and extends to the key at v. 

This key of the cock is immovable ; it consists of a long fur- 
row T T' T'', and its conical part has four openings from D to E. 
The first one, ?", terminates the furrow m m\ which is to receive 
the carbonic gas ; the second, G, opens the furrow G II, through 
which the wine runs into the ball S. 

These two openings lie in the vertical plane T z T' ; the two 
other ones are 45° from this place and the centre of the cock m 
{FigA9). 

The one, u, lets the gas escape which entered by m m' ; the 
other, ?/, is the entrance of another branch arm 3/ o, of a second 
furrow o 0, with an opening by the same key, 8 or 4 millimeters 
back of VI m'. This furrow terminates in a second branch arm 
0' y' (a little to the right of point T), and the opening y corre- 
sponds with the furrow y' N, intersected by the stopcock N. The 
furrow m in' shov/s a stopcock O R between T' T". This cock 
has three passages ; the furrow T" connects with the furrow X", 
which lets in the gas from the regulator or condenser. The ver- 
tical furrow ^"' joins the furrow X', which connects with the 
ball S. 

Now the treadle is pressed down, and the bottle, after the dregs 
have been removed, is inserted in the frame. The grooves r r' 
and V z are closed by the key of the cock ; the wine is in a vessel 
which is hermetically closed. The frame is taken off, in order to 
turn the bottle upside down, so as to give it the position v' z'. 
While this is going on the body of the cock first brings the open- 



338 GRAPE CULTURE AND WINE-MAKING. 

ing r before «, and, -without stopping, there is sufficient time to let 
the gas compressed in m m' u enter the flexible pipe r r'". 

The equilibrium of the pressure can thus be brought about in 
the bottle and in the ball; one moment only is necessary for 
it. As soon as the bottle is brought in a vertical position, the 
wine enters at once the ball, without the slightest degree of spark- 
ling. 

When the bottle is emptied, the frame must be moved back and 
kept a little while at the angle of 48°, in which position there 
is a connection between the opening r and the arm y o of the 
branch groove y o, o' y'. 

The object of this proceeding is so plain as not to need any ex- 
planation. The pipe ?/ o, o' y connects with y' tY, a second pipe 
on the gasometer G {Fig. 45). The gas compressed in the bottle 
enters the branch pipe as soon as r is over y. All gas exceeding 
the pressure of one atmosphere enters the gasometer; the remain- 
ing gas fills the bottle completely, and can not expand in the mo- 
ment when it is taken from the frame. A slight motion puts the 
frame back into position B. 

When the bottle has got its dose of liquor it is brought under 
the cock A' {Fig. 45), where it is held, as shown in the illustra- 
tion. It is now wrapped up with wire-cloth. The cock v is all 
the time open. The person that attends to the filling opens the 
cock A", by which the gas enters from the ball, and establishes the 
same pressure of gas in the bottle and in the ball. Then he opens 
the cock R', and the wine at once flows smoothly into the bottle, 
settling above the liquor without any disturbance. As soon as 
the bottle is filled the cock R' is closed and the treadle released, 
the corking quickly done with a temporary cork, and the bottle 
put up for market. 

The construction of the cork A' deserves an explanation for 
itself: d {Fig. 50) represents the extremity of the pipe t' W of 
Fig. 45 ; the gas from the ball flows through this channel into the 
bottle, and enters it at t. The cock R' must be as close as possi- 
ble to the extremity P, whence the wine flows into the bottle. 
This is indispensable, and it is for this reason that the cock has 
the complicated shape shown in Fig. 50. 

The wine flows out of the ball through the pipe v R' {Fig. 45). 
The extremity of this pipe at R' is marked by the letter a, Fig. 50. 
The hollow vice into which the bottle is put in order to press 
against the circular piece of India-rubber is furnished with wings 
{Fig. 51). 

When the vice has' been tightly pressed around the India-rub- 
ber, it becomes necessary to guard against its getting loose. The 
envelope of wire-cloth is suspended to the vice, and it is continu- 
ously moved, first to turn it backward when the bottle is put in, 
then forward when the gas enters the bottle, in order to jorotect 
the hands of the workman in case of bursting. To prevent the 



J. BEYRE ON THE MANUFACTURE OF SPARKLING WINES. 339 

vice from getting loose it is fastened by a check-pin, which is rep- 
resented in Fig. 50. 

By the working of this apparatus no wine is lost. 81,080 bot- 
tles, with an addition of 20 per cent, liquor, put up in this way, 
render 100,000 bottles, which, at a price of 5 francs per bottle, 
gives a surplus of 99,500 francs. 

ADULTERATION OF WINE. 

The following general rules may be observed by any person 
who should wish to prove or to buy wine : 

1. The judge of wine will be principally guided by the smell 
and the taste. 

2. If several wines are to be tasted in succession, it is well to 
rinse the mouth every time, to extinguish the taste of the preced- 
ing wine. 

3. It is well to observe from what part of the barrel the wine 
was drawn. On the top the wine is mild and weak ; in the bot- 
tom it is hard and strong ; in the middle it is the best. 

4. When the wine is to be tasted it must not be too cold or too 
warm ; 8° to 10° E. is the best temperature. At the trial of dif- 
ferent varieties clean glasses should always be used. 

5. It must be considered at what season of the year the wine is 
tasted. In March and April it is generally in motion, and chem- 
ical decomposition happens, which temporarily affects the taste ; 
the same is the case during thunder-storms and strong gales. 

6. If a glass filled with wine is to be tested, we must see if it is 
transparent, if it sparkle, and in what manner. Old wines sparkle 
beautifully ; young wine has more tendency to foam. Then may 
be tried if the smell of the bursting bubbles are pleasant, fresh, 
animate the sensibility, and are delicious or distasteful. A little 
wine may be taken in the palm of the hand, then rubbed, and tried 
by the sense of smelling. 

7. A good wine should have the following qualities : It should 
be transparent, light, bright, shining, not too pale, and be of pleas- 
ant smell and taste. The after-effects upon the tongue must be 
durable. It must not be sour ; at the same time, not quickly in- 
toxicating. Poured in a glass, it should sparkle beautifully ; 
measured with the Areometer, it must never be more heavy than 
water. If chemical reagents be applied to wine, the following re- 
actions, after Mulder, may be observed : 

1. Chlorite of Iron. — It colors the wines blackish, as they contain 
tannin ; on the increase of the blackish color may the quantity of 
tannin be decided. White wines : Bordeaux-Sauterne produce al- 
most no coloring ; Champagne a slight indication ; more percep- 
tible are Teneriffe and Madeira ; the same in Osomorer, Magyar- 
ader, Somlauer ; strongly in Khenish wines, Steinbruch, Szadaer ; 
very dark in Cotes, Bergerac, Muscat, and Lacryma Christi. Red 



3i0 GRAPE CULTURE AND WINE-:MAiaNG. 

ivines : Port wine is the least affected ; more so Tavella, Hermit- 
ao-e, Langlade, Burgundy, Beauue, Erlauer ; the most, Bordeaux, 
Biirgundy-Tommard, Narbonne, Benicarlo, Rousillon, St. George, 
Apszer, Szegszarder, Ofner, Adelsberger. 

2. Ismglasn forms a sediment of tannin. — White ivine: no sed- 
iment of Bordeaux-Sauterne ; hardly perceptible in Teneriffe and 
Madeira ; light sediment in Rhenish wine, Champagne, Muscat, 
Cotes, Bergerac ; strongly in Lacryma Christi. Red loine : the 
leasr'in Port wine ; little more in Burgundy ; more so in Tavella, 
Hermitage ; the most in Langlade, ordinary Bordeaux, St. George, 
Burgundy - Tommard, Narbonne, Benicarlo, Eousillon, Apszer, 
Szegszarder, Ofner, Adelsberger, 

8. Chloric Water will form a sediment and change color. — White 
mine: in Muscat, Bordeaux-Sauterne, Rhenish wine. Cotes, Ber- 
gerac ; but little in Tenerifie, Madeira, and Champagne ; strongest 
in Lacryma Christi. Red ivine: strongest in Tavella, Langlade, 
Port wine ; less affected Burgundy, St. George ; the least in Her- 
mitage, Bordeaux, Burgundy-Tommard. Through the blue sedi- 
ments which have been formed will appear muddy : Benicarlo, 
Eousillon, Narbonne, Tommard, Hermitage, Bordeaux, Burgundy, 
Szegszarder, Apszer, Adelsberger. 

4. Nitrate of oxyd of Silver causes white sediment. — White nine: 
light in Rhenish wines and Champagne ; more in Madeira, Mus- 
cat, Cotes, Bergerac, Bordeaux-Sauterne ; yet more in Teiieriffe ; 
very much in Lacryma Christi. Red ivine : very httle in Bor- 
deaux, Port wine, Hermitage, Tavella, Langlade, Burgundy-Tom- 
mard, St. George; much more in Narbonne, Benicarlo, Rousillon. 
Adding nitric acid to the sediment will dissolve the same again ; 
the most with Tommard, the least with Benicarlo. 

5. Ammoniac. — It changes the color. White tcine : all will ap- 
pear brown ; the least. Champagne, Cotes, Bergerac ; the most dis- 
colored are Bordeaux-Sauterne, Madeira, Teneriffe, Rhenish wine, 
Muscat, Lacryma Christi. Red wine : the fluid part will be brown ; 
the coloring matter will be altered. Port wine and Tavella will 
obtain the color of Rhenish wine. Of dirty brownish-green color 
will be, the least affected. Burgundy ; more so, Hermitage ; the 
strongest, Bordeaux, Langlade, Burgundy-Tommard, St. George, 
Rousillon, Narbonne, Benicarlo. 

6. Oxalic Ammonium forms a sediment.— TFAz'te vnne: the least, 
Champagne; more in the following order: Sauternc, Rhenish 
wine, Muscat, Madeira, Teneriffe, Lacryma Christi, Bergerac ; the 
most in Cotes. Red ivine: the least, Langlade; more in St. 
George, Bordeaux, Burgundy, Port wine. Hermitage, Rousillon, 
Tommard, Narbonne ; the most in Benicarlo. 

Sufjar of Lead forms flocky sediment. All sediment dissolves 
in nitric acid, through which red wine will receive a lively red 
color. While wine: the least perceptible, Lacryma Christi ; more 
in Champagne, Muscat, Bordeaux-Sauterne ; yet more in Rhenish 



J. BEYRE ON THE MANUFACTURE OF SPARKLING WINES. 341 

wine, Madeira, Tcneriffc ; the most in Bergerac and Cotes, Red 
wine: the least in Port wine (dirty brown) ; more in Savclla (dirty 
white) ; yet more. Burgundy, Langlade (both pale blue, violet) ; 
more in Hermitage, Burgundy -Tommard, Benicarlo (dark blue, 
violet) ; the most in Bordeaux, St. George, Narbonne, Rousillon 
(pale blue). 

8. Alum. — In white wine, no change ; in red wine, heightening 
of the red color. An addition of a few drops of a solution of cali 
until some sediment will form, shows, Tavella, dirty sediment; 
the others, a dirty blue sediment (this reaction is uncertain, as 
the color will depend upon the quantity of alum and cali; much 
alum.^ill itself color the sediment violet or pale red). 

The adulteration of wine may be in many forms, according to 
the nature of the different wines. The wines may be divided : 

1. Sweet or liquor wine, with or without a superfluity of sugar, 

2. Sour wine, rich in tartaric acid, poor in sugar, as Rhenish 
wine and Moselle, \ 

3. Wine rich in alcohol, as Burgundy. 

4. Wine which contains much tannin, as most French wines do. 

5. Sparkling wines ; Champagne. 

Port wines contain the most ingredients of alcohol, which orig- 
inated not altogether from the transformation of the grape-sugar ; 
but they always receive an addition of spirits of wine. All liquor- 
wines are, on account of their ingredients of sugar, alcohol, flavor, 
and their color, subject to adulteration. All wines — even the most 
sweet — contain free acid. Free acid of vinegar is found in from 
^ to If thousandths. Tavella contains the least, Madeira the 
most. At the same time, wine contains sulphuric acid. Free tar- 
taric acid is from 2 to 3 thousandths in wine, as well as free p3^ro- 
malic acid. 

All the sugar in the grape-juice is not, daring the fermentation, 
transformed into alcohol. In Rhenish, Moselle, Burgundy, and 
Bordeaux wine, the sugar is not perceptible. By experiment, one 
ounce contains : Sherry, from 4 to 20 grains of sugar ; Madeira, 6 
to 20 grains ; Champagne, 6 to 28 grains ; Port wine, 16 to 24 
grains ; Tokay, 34 grains ; Samos, 88 grains ; Taratte, 94 grains of 
sugar. The red wines would taste unpleasant if they did not con- 
tain about |- per cent, sugar. 

Adulteration iviih Water. 

A chemical conviction is not possible. It may be, for instance, 
that pure wine contains 12 per cent, alcohol, and the wine sup- 
posed to have been treated with water only 8 per cent. ; then the 
taster may rest assured that the supposed adulteration has taken 
place. 

Adulteration with Cider. 
This process is chiefly used with white wine. A small quan- 



342 GRAPE CULTURE AND WINE-MAKING. 

tity of tliis wine forced to evaporate will leave a large remainder 
behind, which, thrown on hot coals, will invariably smell like ap- 
ples or pears. Or sulphuric acid thrown over the sediment will 
cause the same smell. 

Adulteration tvith Alcohol. 

This can not be detected chemically if the alcohol has been 
added some time previous. Adulterers know the quantity of al- 
cohol required in the pure wine, and are not apt to add more than 
required to evade detection. If water and alcohol were added 
at the same time to the wine, the adulteration may be proved by 
comparing the specific weight of this wine with the same of pure 
wine. 

Young Wine ivhich has turned Sour. 

This will often be cured through soda, pipe-clay, gypsum, etc. 
If lime or clay is added to sour wine to neutralize the too much 
concentrated tartaric acid, then will it be impossible to find these 
substances afterward in the wine. The superfluity of the tartaric 
acid will combine with the lime, and gradually settle to the bot- 
tom. Did the wine turn sour from actual formation of vinegar, 
and these substances were applied, they remain suspended as acid 
of vinegar. Oxalic ammonium will form in such wine consider- 
able sediment, and is sufficient evidence that soda, lime, gypsum, 
etc., were used. If potash has been added to sour wine, it will 
remain in the wine, by preceded formation of vinegar, acid of vin- 
egar, etc. 

Happily there are now cheap modes to take away the sour taste 
of wine, and only few adulterers will use litharge ; formerly this 
was much practiced. A considerable addition of sugar will lead 
to suspect that it is intended to cover the sour taste. Through 
distilling the acid of vinegar may be proved ; it must be noticed, 
at the same time, that every wine has free acid of vinegar. 

Through Alum. 

By this the color of red wine will be heightened, and made 
more fiery. The wine will through it be more durable for trans- 
portation. At the same time, alum covers the addition of water, 
and imparts to the wine a Bordeaux-like flavor. To detect alum 
lime-water may be put in wine. It must then remain quiet for 
two days, after which tartaric acid, crystals of lime, are formed 
when no alum is in the wine. The absence of this will prove the 
alum in the wine. 

Lime. 

This is frequently used to clarify, to discolor, and to take away 
the sour taste of the wine. If lime remain dissolved in the wine, 
oxalic ammonium will form a white sediment. 



J. BEYRE ON THE MANUFACTURE OF SPARKLING WINES. 343 

Tannin. 

This is much used to improve the taste and the color, as well 
as to guard against casualties of the wine. The quantity of tan- 
nin may be calculated if a solution of gelatine is so prepared that 
in 100 parts of weight of the same, one part in weight of tannin, 
which was dissolved in 100 parts of distilled water, will settle to 
the bottom. 

Tartaric Acid. 

If free tartaric acid is found in wine, it may be presumed that 
it came there artificially. To be convinced of this, take one part 
of wine, two parts of dissolved chlor-kalium, and the same heated 
under continual stirring to 15° C. If the wine contains tartaric 
acid as suspected, artificially added, in eight to ten minutes a 
white, crystalline sediment of cremor iartari will form. Natural 
wine will only, after an elapse of several hours, 'form a sediment. 
That the crystalline sediment is actually cremor tartaric the fol- 
lowing will prove : this sediment must be dissolved in a very lit- 
tle distilled water, which is heated ; then is added some dissolved 
lime. It will form a new sediment of tartaric lime, which, if a 
little solution of muriate of ammonia is added, the lime will dis- 
solve. 

Manufactured Wine. 

It may be that there is wine in market which contains no grape- 
juice, and in which potatoes have replaced grapes. For such wine 
are taken cider, potato sugar, dissolved with water in a particular 
proportion, left over to ferment, during which a higher tempera- 
ture than at the fermenting of grape-juice is required. Afterward 
this compound is completed through the adding of alcohol, sugar, 
and aromatic substances. To make the deception striking is add- 
ed to the wine cremor tartaric a little sulphuric acid, some free acid 
of vinegar, or pyromalic acid and tannin. 

Imitated Champagne. 

The real Champagne sparkles differently from the imitated; 
one part of the oxygen is dissolved in the Champagne ; it sparkles 
much longer ; and should the bottle stand open some time, the 
wine in it will yet contain much oxygen. With imitated Cham- 
pagne this is not the case ; the oxygen will escape soon. If Cham- 
pagne is evaporated, the real wine will only leave a trifling of sed- 
iment ; the imitated, under the same circumstances, considerable. 

Coloring White Wine. 

A common method to give white wine a beautiful, deep, gold- 
en-yellow color is the adding of burned sugar ; or a small quan- 
tity of nitrate will do the same service. 



344 GliAl'E CULTURE AND ^YINE-iIAKING. 

Coloring Red Wine. 

From experiments made by Mr. Mulders there is in all natural 
red wines but one body of coloring matter. Mr. Mulders has pro- 
duced this substance of color in a pure state. Extracted with 
spirits of wine, it will produce a red tincture. As different colors 
in combination with different acids produce different colors, so is 
it with the color in the husks of blue grapes. Free acid of vine- 
gar, pyromalic acid, sulphuric acid, tartaric acid, give to the wine 
a more light and liery red color. Burgundy, which contains the 
least free acid, has a very dark color. 



EXPLANATION OF PLATES. 



Fig. 1 represents an Imi:)rove(l Safety -Faucet. 1 is the body of 
it without the stopper, seen from above ; 2 is the perpendicular, 
cut by the line a h in fig. 1 ; 3 is the side view of the stopper ; 4, 
the same seen from above. The pin d of this latter turns in a 
circle-shaped furrow of the body, running concentric with the 
openings. In 1 it appears visible by the dotted circle e e, but 
clearer in e e of 2. The stopper can only be put into and taken 
out from the body when the pin d is put in the direction of the 
fold/ and pushed through this. If this pin stands beneath that 
fold, the cock is open and the liquid flows out ; if it gets turned 
off from the place /J it is locked. The perpendicular pin g serves 
as a mark, which, in the first case, appears turned off from the cask; 
in the latter, toward it. When the cock is fixed into the cask, the 
pin in o can only be moved by the key 5, made of bone, hollow 
at its end, and exteriorly triangular. In order to open the faucet 
or to lock it, the key is put upon the pin h and the triangular hol- 
low about it. The body of the faucet and the stopper are made 
of wood ; the pins cZ, </, /z, of brass ; the ring, l\ of iron ; and the 
mouth, represented in 1 and 2 by ??, ?i, are lined with cork. 

Fig. 2 shows the Safety-Cock of Christian, made of metal — I the 
side view; II the cut; III the view from above. On the upper 
end of the plate a is a tube-shaped piece h^ in which c is movable. 
This piece c is pressed against the stopper e by the action of the 
spring cZ, and fits into the screw/ which runs perfectly around to 
a place i in IV, where it gets interrupted by a tooth-shaped part 
of the metal. This tooth i leans against the piece e, and prevents 
the turning. From the other side the stopper e is held fast by a 
pin _/ in III, which leans against the end of a section I. This lat- 
ter is so constructed that the stopper e can make the necessary 
rotary motion if I don't hinder it. The end of e is a screw. In 
order to open the cock, take the key /c, in II and VI, whose hoi- 



J. BEYRE ON THE MANUFACTURE OF SPARKLING WINES. 345 

low is the motlier-scrcw to c, and that draws the piece I back "when 
screwed in, by which action the stopper c gets free, and can be 
turned by its handle. V represents two views of c, the spring d 
of the tube i, into which the cap m is firmly to be fixed after c 
and d are put in. 

Fig. 3. Oechsle's Musi-Scale. — A is a hollow glass cylinder, filled 
almost to its brim with must. The instrument is composed of 
the " float" a, which holds it suspended, and the " point of gravity" 
i, having the purpose of keeping the instrument continually in a 
perpendicular direction. The scale C is divided into degrees, 
from 50 to 100, by lines. After inserting the scale into the must 
a careful observation must bo taken, w^hen it don't play any more, 
to what degree-line it has sunk down. This line indicates by de- 
grees the weight of the must. The instrument, and the mode of 
using it, are described at length in Appendix C, pages 257, 266, 
which see. 

Fig.4i represents the Acid-Scale, composed of three parts : I, the 
" Flask ;" II, the " Pipette ;" III, the " Burette." The object of 
this instrument is to ascertain the quantity of acids in the must. 
The Acid-Scale, and the mode of using it, are described at length 
in Appendix C, pages 264, 265, which see. 

Fig. 5. The Fermentation or Safety Tube. — After filling the cask 
about nine tenths full with must and sugar mixture, this is put 
into it. Its form is a curved tube «, whose longer limb is put air- 
tight into the perpendicularly perforated bung h, and the shorter 
one 2 to 3 inches deep into the vessel c, half filled with water. 
The length of the former must be about 8 inches, the other about 
6 inches, and the upper curving part also 6 inches long. 

Fig. 6. Closed Fermentation Tub. — A represents an ordinary tub 
of optional size, whose upper lid a has a slanting rim, as b a or /a 
show. This lid has two openings 4 inches wide : the one, g, to 
insert the safety apparatus B into ; the other, with the stopper c/, to 
fill the tub through. In order to remove the lid easily, the four 
upper hoops are fastened together by a strong screw, e. By loos- 
ening these a little the staves will part so much that the lid may 
be easily taken out by inserting the hands through both the open- 
ings g and d. T\iq fermentation bottom, K and I, is formed by a 
perforated board, h, of 1 to 1^ inches in thickness, fixed upon two 
lasts, and four wooden sticks, ?*, penetrating these. By means of 
the wooden pins m m, and several perforations of those sticks, the 
bottom k can be put higher or lower, according to option. The 
perforated cock r, whose downward pointed mouth is locked by 
the stopper 0, serves for taking the proofs. Close over the bottom 
p is a tap-hole, into which a tin tube is put when the wine is to 
be drawn off', in place of the cock q. C is a support 12 or 15 inch- 
es high, facilitating this business. 

Fig. 7. '' Fbullioscope," or '' AlcoJiol- Scale of Mr. Gr. Conaty."— 
This is composed of a small kettle, C, of red copper, that may hold 



346 GRArE CULTURE AND WINE-MAKING. 

50 to 60 cubic centimeters of liquid. This goes exactly down to 
the middle of the brass stove T, heated by a spirit lamp. It is to 
be almost filled with wine, covered by the round lid j>, to which 
the thermometer has to be fixed, and to be brought to boiling. 
The degrees up to which the quicksilver rises at the boiling point 
also indicate the alcohol parts in the wine. See, also, the " Vapo- 
rimeter" illustrated, and its mode of operation described, in Ap- 
pendix C, pages 289, 290. 

Firfs. 8, 9. Se])arator for separating the grapes from the stems. — 
A cylinder, C D, composed by wooden sticks lying horizontal 
above the receiving tub, in which the grapes are shaken by means 
of wooden dashers, ah^c cZ, fixed to the axle M G {Fig. 9). A 
box, A B, stands upon this cylinder, into which the grapes are 
thrown. Two cross-sticks put through the hooks c c serve to lift 
the whole apparatus upon the tub. The berries, getting separated 
from their pedicles, fall through the interstices into this latter, and 
are taken out through the door p. 

Fig. 10. An apparatus by which the carbonic acid gas escaping 
during the fermentation of the wine-must may be turned to use. 
The end, /, of a conducting tube, let into the fermentation tub, may 
be so arranged that it is brought into a barrel, e, half filled with 
water. This extracts all foreign vaj)ors out of the gas, which then 
is conducted by a tube, i'^, into a second barrel, C, filled with crys- 
tallized carbonic acid natron. The gas gets absorbed by this salt, 
and settles by being changed into double carbonic acid natron by 
the action of the carbonic acid. From C the gas goes through 
the tube t" into the barrel C, where it undergoes the same change. 
This double carbonic acid natron must then be dried, and will 
form an amply paying equivalent for the trouble of its making. 

Fig. 11. " Fermentation vat of masonry," sometimes used instead 
of wooden tubs. — MM are the upper walls of the vault, through 
which a circle-shaped opening, S, goes with slightly slanting sides. 
Upon these lies a caoutcliouc ring, C C, about 1 centimeter thick, 
serving to close the stone slab, a a, S, air-tight, which has 3 iron 
rings, a a. The screw V, which goes through the iron cross-piece 
F, fixed by clamps let into the slab stones, holds it tightly closed 
against any pressure of the carbonic acid from inside. P H is a 
double door — P the inner wooden door, H the outer one, of cast 
iron ; both are firmly pressed by the screw V. Z is a spout 
through which the sediments are drawn off, and the water used 
for cleaning the vat. I E is a tube to let the fermented wine off; 
t is the tube to let the gas off through ; x another opening, serving 
to screw a third tube into, or to take some wine out from above. 
T is a thermometer. The benefits derived from such vats are 
their holding the warmth better than wooden tubs, allowing the 
fermentation a very regular course, and their capability of being 
heated from outside in cold weather, in order to bring the tem- 
perature of the walls up to 100° C, the most proper for musts of 
low temperature. 



J. BEYRE ON THE MANUFACTURE OF SPARKLING WINES. 347 

Figs. 12, 13. Instrument used in Sulphuratmg wine-casks. — In 
order to do this, a piece of linen is dipped into boiling sulphur and 
allowed to dry. This then, 2 to 3 inches long, is fixed to the 
hook, lighted, and held into the cask. To avoid the dropping off 
of the charred linen into the wine, the following apparatus serves 
well {Fig. 13). C is an earthen vessel, with holes through it, which 
has to be fixed to the bung B by 3 iron wires twisted together 
underneath the rim C and the lower end of the vessel at m. The 
sulphur-cloth is then put into this latter, ignited, and let down 
into the cask. The sulphur burns off, the sulphurous gas escapes 
through the holes into the cask, but of the charred cloth itself 
nothing can fall into it. 

Fig. 14. Sebille Auger's Hydraulic Bung. — This is formed by a 
cone, A B, made of tin, around which runs a plate, C D, filled with 
water. The upper end A is covered with a cap E, having small 
holes through its lower end. After the bung B has been insert- 
ed, it fits tightly by the aid of the small segments below. The gas 
rises in A B, from there into the cap E, where it escapes through 
the lower holes and the water into the air. 

Fig. 15. Masson Toux's Hydraulic Bung needs no farther ex- 
planation, as the figure gives it sufficiently. 

Fig. 16. Maumenc's Bung. — B is an ordinary bung, perforated 
lengthwise, with its uj)per end widened a little to allow the leaden 
valve S to fit into it. The handle m w, of sheet iron, serves this 
latter, and the end of a caoutchouc tube, c c, to hold it. A slight 
inside pressure is sufficient to lift the valve and to let the gas es- 
cape. 

Fig. 17. Si2Jhon used for drawing the wine off from one cask 
into another. It is made of tin, and has at the point of its part 
A a small tube, ^, with a mouth-piece, 5. This tube, i", goes at m 
into the elevating arm. Then the arm C is let into the wine, hold- 
ing the instrument fast by the hand C F. The cock R must be 
closed, and the air drawn from out the instrument by applying 
the mouth to the mouth-piece s. The wine enters the vacant space 
also at m^ and rises through the tube to the mouth. By opening 
the cock E. it flows over, and may be so transferred to another 
cask. 

Fig. 18. Apioaratus for Drawing off Wine from a cask without 
bringing it into connection with the air. T is the full cask, and 
T' the one into which the wine is to be transferred. A faucet 
cock {Fig. D) is put into T ; into this a head of the leather hose 
m is to be inserted. Each head is a hollow wooden cock, 20 to 25 
centimeters long, 6 centimeters thick at its upper, 3 centimeters 
at its lower end, and bearing upon the former a ring to make it 
tightly fit into the hose {Fig. G). Now the cock is taken out of 
T', and the tube h' is driven in by a wooden mallet. When the 
connection has been performed, the stopper on cock C is turned, 
and the half of the wine in the cask T will immediately flow over 



348 GRAPE CULTURE AND "WTNE-IMAKING. 

into T'. The bellows S are then introduced into the bung-liolc 
of T. At the end is a draft tube, k, with a valve inside, opening 
only from above to below. This draft tube is to be put air-tight 
into the bung-hole ; the lantern-shaped end, however, has to be 
fixed to a hoop of the cask by the hook r. The bellows forces 
the air to the surface of the wine without clouding it. The air 
compressed in the cask will then drive, by its pressure, all the 
wine from out of T into T'. When the air enters the hose, indi- 
cated by a piping sound, it must be stopped, the cock at c be closed, 
and the bung of T' carefully put on. 

Fig. 19. Apparatus to produce Carbonic Acid Gas. (See the "Man- 
ufacture of Sparkling Wines.") — The tube F coming out of a cask 
(not represented in the cut) conducts the gas from below to the 
middle of the cask G, which is filled with pieces of chalk, below 
of larger size than above. The upper lid of G has a hole to in- 
sert the copper tube H, which has to be screwed to a gutta-percha 
tube, L, of several yards length. Through this tube the gas gets 
into the cask P. If several casks are to be treated in this manner, 
the one P, filled with the diseased wine, must be taken instead of 
an empt}^ one. The bung is taken out, and the conical bung M 
put in instead, through whose middle a tin tube goes. The car- 
bonic acid gas goes now over into the cask P, filled with wine. 
In this the gas exercises a pressure observable through the tube v 
of the vessel G. This latter is made of glass, and closed by a 
cork stopper in which are two round holes. One of these takes 
in a copper tube, z, glued to the tube H, to conduct the gas into 
the glass vessel. Into the second hole comes a straight glass tube, 
60 centimeters long, which is divided by degree-lines, and enters 
the water 2 centimeters deep, with which the vessel is half filled. 
When this has risen to 20 centimeters, the cock K is opened to 
let the wine off, only so far, however, as to keep the water in the 
glass tube always at the same height. The wine is transferred 
by the vessels S into new well-sulphurized casks. No. 2 : As 
soon as No. 1 is empty, the bung M is taken out, and a large fun- 
nel placed upon its hole ; at the same time, the cock E must be 
closed. Then the bung M is put upon another cask. No. 3, to let 
the wine off. This is poured through the funnel into No. 1, and 
the operation in this manner continued from No. 4 into No. 3, the 
wine of No. 5 to No. 4, and so down to the last into which the wine 
of No. 2 is transferred. 

Fig. 20. An apparatus after the method of Mr. 11. Payen, im- 
proved by Maumend, to produce Tannin Matter from Galls, in order 
to improve diseased foaming wines. Nut-galls are powdered fine- 
ly, and filled into a glass eprouvette N, where it gets fastened by 
a cotton wick. A mixture of alcohol and ether is then filled into 
the globe E, which has to be warmed by water. The vapors rise 
through the tube t, become condensed in the globe B, and fall as 
a liquid upon the nut-galls, extracting them continually in this 



J. BEYRE ON THE MANUFACTURE OF SPARKLING WINES. 349 

way. The vapor not condensing goes over to B' or B", wLosc 
stoppers have safety-tubes going down to the bottom ; s is a lid 
to prevent the water from being thrown out in the tube. Very 
little ether condenses in B', and still less in B", but in case it does 
it may easily be prevented by closing the door of the stove a lit- 
tle, and pouring cold water upon the globe E. The ether in B" 
evaporates immediately, enters B', and thence B. No ether at all, 
therefore, is lost. Two layers of liquids are formed in the globe ; 
the upper one is a solution of gallic acid in ether. This ether is 
taken off and evaporated over a water-bath. The result will be 
the desired product = the tannin. 

The remaining illustrations {Figs. 21-50) are fully described in 
the preceding article on the " Manufacture of Sparkling Wines," 
pages 827-335, which see. Ilcrc is appended simply their sub- 
jects : 

Fig. 21. The (Etiovieter, or Wine Musi-Scale. — See page 327, and 
also Appendix C, pages 257, 266. 

F^g. 22. Double Faucet, for bottling wines. — See page 327. 

Fig. 23. Cailleis Cleaning Aj^paratus. — See page 328. 

Fig. 24:. Frames for holding bottles. — See page 328. 

Fig. 25. Leroijs Corking Machine. — See page 329. 

Fig. 26. Maurices Corking Machine. — See page 330. 

Figs. 27, 28, show the manner of tying the cords. — See page 
330. 

Figs. 29, 30, represent the loires and shears used for securing 
the corks. — See page 330. 

Figs. 31, 32. Maurice^ s Wire Fastening. — See page 331. 

Fig. 33. Piling Bottles. — See page 331. 

Fig. 3-1. Cellar for storing wine. — See page 331. 

Fig. 35. The Aphrometer. — See page 332. 

Fig. 36. Bottle Stancl.—See page 332. 

Fig. 37. Another mode of Packing Bottles. — See page 332. 

Figs. 38, 39, 40. Removing the Dregs. — See page 332. 

Fig. 41. Moshach's Funnel. — See page 334. 

Fig. 42. Cameauxh Charging Machine. — See page 334. 

Fig. 43. Machet Varquant^s Charging Machine. — See page 334. 

Fig. 44. Tub and Pestle. — See page 334. 

Fig. 45. Jaunay and Maumene's Apparatus. — See page 335. 

Figs. 46, 47, 48, 49, 50. Parts of Jaunay and MaumenSs Appa- 
ratus. — See pages 336-338. 



350 GRAPE CULTURE AXD WINE-MAKING. 




APPARATUS FOR WINE-MAKING. 
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351 




352 



GRAPE CULTUIIE AND WINE-MAKING. 

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APPARATUS FOR WINE-MAKING. 
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354. 

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GRAPE CULTURE AND WINE-MAKING. 

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APPARATUS :^0R WINE-MAKING. 



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GRAPE CULTURE AND WINE-MAKING. 




ArrAKATU8 FOR WINE-MAKING. 



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GRAPE CULTURE AND WINE-MAMNG 



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APPARATUS FOR WINE-MAKING. 



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GKAFE CULTURE AND WINE-MAKIXG. 



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APPENDIX F. 

DRYING FPailTS. 

EXTRACTED FROM TIIE WORK OF EDWARD LUCAS. 



APPENDIX F. 



E. LUCAS ON DRYING FRUITS. 



General Rules. — The Drying-room. — Drying in Ovens. — In heated Rooms. — In the 
Air and Sun. — Drying Quinces, Plums, and Cherries. — Expenses of Fruit-drying 
in Germany. — Apples and Prunes. 

General Rules. 

The following may serve as common rules for drying of fruit : 

1. All fruit required for drying must have attained its full de- 
velopment and ripeness to produce a good article. Stunted, un- 
developed, as well as stained fruit, is unfit for this purpose. 

2. Over-ripe fruit is not adapted for drying. An exception are 
few varieties of hard, fleshy pears. 

8. Worm-eaten fruit must not be taken. If prunes and plums 
remain long on the tree, the worm-eaten fruit will fall off, and the 
gathering will be a choice quality. 

4. Sour, as well as pure, sweet kernel fruit produce a poorer 
dried article than such in which sugar and acid are contained in a 
balanced proportion. 

5. All apples intended to be dried should be peeled and freed 
of the core, for these will not become mellow if boiled. Pears 
make an exception in this regard, for which reason they are often 
dried, not being peeled nor the core taken out. 

6. Small and middle-sized apples may be peeled and freed from 
the core, and then dried whole. Large apples are best to be cut 
in four or six pieces. 

7. If peeled fruit is brought immediately into the heated dry- 
ing-room, it will preserve a fine pale color. 

8. Plums should only be taken for drying when fully or over- 
ripe. 

9. Kernel-fruit drying requires, in the beginning, a temperature 
of from 60° to 80° E. ; afterward from 40° to 50° E. will answer 
well. 

Fruits which can boil in their steam, if only for a short time, 
will dry better, and will be more sweet and palatable than that 
which is not steamed. When it is observed that the fruit is 
steamed, the operation should be continued at a more moderate 
temperature. 

10. If fruit is dried very slowly, and at a continual low temper- 
ature of heat, it will be sour. Apples intended to be dried in the 
air should be brought into a heated drying-room first, through 
which they would gain in sweetness. 



3Gi GRAPE CULTURE AND WINE-MAKING. 

11. Xo variety of fruit sLould cool slowly in the drying-room; 
it would lose its appearance and beautiful gloss. The nice gloss 
is attained if tlie fruit is brought hot out of the drying-room, and 
suffered to cool rapidly exposed to the air. 

12. Fruit which is dried several times and allowed to cool 
quickly wall attain more sweetness. 

13. Fruits destined for the drying-room should never be piled 
on top of one another. 

14. If fruit is dried too much it will be tough when boiled. 

15. Stone-fruit must be dried gradually at the commencement 
to prevent the running out of the juice. 

16. Stone-fruit required to be freed of its stones should be par- 
tially dried, at which time the stone will separate from the flesh 
by a light pressure. 

17. Only dry air, which is not impregnated with moist steam, is 
fitted for drjnng of fruit. For this reason, the air must be regu- 
lated so as to answer the purpose. 

18. All fruit coming from the drying-room should be allowed 
to dry a few days in the air before it is packed. 

19. Fruit intended to be packed air-tight does not require to be 
dried so much as that which is to be packed in the common style. 
Fruit packed air-tight often contains one eighth of its weight of 
water. 

20. Dried fruit must never be packed when it is warm. Should 
must or worms affect the fruit, it should be placed in a bake-oven 
after the bread has been taken out, to dry it. If the fruit is kept 
in dry and airy places, it wnll keep from six to ten years without 
losing much of its quality. 

The Drying-room. 

To form a general opinion of the advantage of the different 
drying-rooms, and particularly of the communication of heat, a 
few points may be remarked : 

All drying-rooms have to expel more or less quantity of moist- 
ure out of fruit intended to be dried by the means of heated air. 
Those moist vapors have to be removed from the drying-rooms, 
which may be done if the construction has openings on the top 
for the escape of strongly-heated moist air ; or pipes may be placed 
on the bottom to allow the moist moderately heated air to escape. 

It is proven that kernel-fruit will improve if, at the commence- 
ment of drying, the entire steam is kept in the room, and the fruit 
almost boiled soft in the same. This can only be attained com- 
pletely if there are two separate drying-rooms constructed, of 
which one is entirely closed, and heated from 60° to 80° R., and 
the other ventilated and heated at the highest to 50° R. In Ger- 
many it is acknowledged by all learned men that fruits boiled 
in their own steam dry faster, and will be more savory than that 
dried at a temperature below the boiling point. The required 
heat for drying may be generated by different heating apparatus. 



E. LUCAS ON DRYING FRUITS. 365 

The frames on which the fruit is exposed to dry may be light 
trelHs or wicker-work, with boards a couple of inches high around 
the sides to prevent the fruit from falling off the frames. 

The description of a small drying-room, which contains about 
800 pounds of fruit, and finishes the drying in 24 hours, is as fol- 
lows : It is G feet 6 inches high, 3 feet 8 inches long, and 2 feet 6 
inches wide. The lower part of this construction is the hearth, 
1 foot wide and 6 inches high. It is divided into three parts, of 
which each contains three frames for the reception of fruit. The 
smoke is carried off through a sheet iron pipe, 8 inches by 2:3- 
broad, which goes in snake form under and over these three par- 
titions until it is let out of the top. This will show that the heat 
is pretty equally distributed throughout this drj-ing-room. An- 
other small pipe is placed on the top to promote the escape of 
moisture. 

If it is required to dry fruit in a bake-house, it is essential that 
the heat of this shall not reach that point which is required for 
baking bread, as the fruit would burn. After the bread has been 
taken out of the oven the fruit may be placed in it, when it will 
dry well. Fruit may be dried in heated rooms ; but, as the va- 
pors evaporating are very unhealthy, this mode is not advisable. 

To dry fruit in the air and exposed to the sun is the cheapest, 
but, in every regard, the most imperfect method of any. The fruit 
is threaded on a string, and hung up in the air, and if the weather 
is favorable it requires little or no attention. 

Quinces. — The ripe quinces are peeled, cut into four to six 
pieces, freed of their seeds, and dried at a heat of from 70° to 80° 
R. ; farther they are treated as apples or pears. They will retain 
their beautiful color, and will keep for a number of years. 

Plums and Prunes. — These fruits should attain the highest state 
of ripeness before they are taken from the trees. The gathering 
should be performed ^nly in dry and fine weather. If circum- 
stances do not allow to bring the prunes immediatel}^ to the dry- 
ing-room, they may be kept in a good ventilated place for a length 
of time. It is necessary to spread the fruit as much as possible. 
When the plums are brought to the drying-room, they may be 
dried from five to six hours at a heat of from 85° to 40° E. ; after 
which the heat must be increased, and the escape of air entirely 
prevented. The fruit is taken hot from the drying-room and al- 
lowed to cool in tlie air, by which means it will retain its beauti- 
ful gloss, and will improve in weight and quality. Some prunes 
will contain from 20 to 22 per cent, of water, which does not hin- 
der its preservation. A means of making prunes appear very 
large is this : The fruit is freed of the stones when half dry, and 
a small plum inserted in place of the stone. The drying process 
is then finished. This can only be detected by the most minute 
examination. 

Cherries. — All the different varieties of cherries are well adapt- 



366 GRAPE CULTURE AND WINE-MAKING. 

ed for drying, more especially, however, the hard and fleshy ones. 
Cherries require to dry slowly ; the sun will bo the most valuable 
help ; and, after they have lost considerably in bulk, they may be 
taken to the drying-room to be finished. 

It may be well to remark that all dried fruit should be exposed 
to the air from four to six days after leaving the drying-room. 
That the different varieties of dried fruit are to be kept by them- 
selves is a matter of course. 

Expenses of Fruit-drying in Germany. 

Apples and Pears. — An experiment made with a drying-room 
containing 50 frames, each 6 square feet, showed the cost of dry- 
ing 80 pounds of apples, for help, at 6 kr., and 30 pounds of pears, 
at 9 kr. 120 pounds of apples required a space of 12 square feet ; 
the same weight of pears required 18 square feet ; it required 1 
pound of wood to evaporate 1.65 pounds of water ; 40 pounds of 
pears lost 32 pounds of water ; the drying of this fruit required 
20 pounds of wood, at 6 kr. A bushel of dried fruit would cost, 
if a bushel of green fruit cost 30 kr. : 

1. 4 bushels of fruit, at 30 kr 2 fl. — kr. 

2. Expenditure of wood " 36" 

3. Hired help " 12 " 

4. Expense for peeling " 48 " 

5. Loss of the peeling " 12 " 

One bushel of dried fruit 3 fl. 48 kr. 

A bushel of dried peeled apples, weight 19 pounds 2 ounces. 
" " " pears, " 27 pounds. 

" not peeled " 29 pounds 8 ounces. 

The worth of the dried fruit is, 

a. 1 pound dried pears, not peeled 8 kr. 

b. 1 " " " peeled 11 " 

c. 1 " " apples of good (juality 14 " 

Per hundred, a. 13 fl. 20 kr. ; b. 18 fl. 20 kr. ; c. 23 fl. 20 kr. 

Prunes. — One bushel of dried plums cos^40 kr. for fire-wood; 
hired help for drying, 15 kr. 3|- to 4 bushels of fresh plums pro- 
duce one bushel of dried fruit, which will weigli from 33 to 35 
pounds. One bushel of fresh plums require 30 square feet space 
in the drying- room. The average price of one bushel of fresh or 
green plums is 30 kr. ; so one bushel of dried fruit costs : 

1. Z\ bushels fresh plumsj at 30 kr 1 fl. 45 kr. 

2. Fuel 45 " 

3. Hired help 15 " 

4. Refuse 10 " 

5. Interest of capital invested 1 " 

3 florins. 

The retail price of 33 pounds, or one bushel, is 4 fl. 24 kr. 

Net 1 fl. 24 kr. 

When pears boil considerably in their own steam at the com- 
mencement of drying, they will be of a beautiful red when cook- 
ed. If they are required to be transparent on the tabic, they are 
not so much steamed at the commencement, and are allowed to 
cool quickly when taken out of the drying-room. 



APPENDIX G. 

THE CULTUKE OF THE SILK-WOKM. 



EXTIIAC TED FROM THE WORK OF ANTON ZIEGLER, INSPECTOR AND DIRECTOR 

OF THE MULBERRY CULTURE AND SILK-WORM BREEDING 

IN BAVARL\. 



APPENDIX G. 

A. ZIEGLER ON THE CULTURE OF THE SILK-WORM. 

Introductory Note on Silk Culture in California. — Advantages of the Culture of the 
yilk-worni. — The Breeding of the Ciiterjiillars. — The Breeding-room. — The Eggs 
and their Development. — The Food and Feeding of the Caterpillars. — The differ- 
ent Periods in the Life of the Silk-worm. — Air, Light, Warmth, and Space. — 
Cleaning the Crates. — Putting up the Si^inning-bushes. — Diseases of the Silk- 
worm. — Enemies of the Silk-worm. — Propagation of the Caterpillar, and obtain- 
# ing the Eggs. — Taking off and assorting the Cocoons. — Killing the Cocoons. — 
Converting the Cocoons into Money. — Winding and Winding Establishments. — 
The Floret Silk. — The Magnaries. 

Introductory Note. 

Silk Culture in California. — This important branch of agriculture, which 
makes every province where it is cultivated prosperous and even wealthy, I have thor- 
oughly examined, and, after comparing the circumstances governing the culture of 
the mulberry-trees, breeding the silk-worms, and manufacturing silk, I am thorough- 
ly convinced that California possesses more advantages for this culture than any oth- 
er country which I have visited. IMany of my readers will at once condemn this 
statement on account of the high price of labor, but this charge I refute by the fact 
that in Europe the high tax on mulberry-trees and land, the very high price of the 
land itself, will more than counterbalance the higher price of labor here, where Chi- 
namen — eminently fit for this purpose — could be got for a trifle. Then, again, in 
Europe the tree grows from five to six years in the nurseries ; then planted in the 
field ; when so planted it takes two years more before it will furnish more than a few 
pounds of leaves ; in fact, a tree must be at least twelve years old that gives a good 
revenue. This is not the case in California. One year in the nursery, then [ilanted 
in the field, will give, when four years old, more leaves than the mulberiy-tree in Eu- 
rope. Sum up the high taxes on land and trees, the valuation of the land and the 
interest on it ; the culture of the young trees, all for eight years more than here, and 
your high price for labor will diminish almost to nothing, and far below the price of 
labor in Europe. Then, again, the all-important fact that in California the silk- 
worm can be raised in the open air — at all events, in open sheds, covered at the top, 
if you please, with corn-stalks, or even straw piled on rails — while in Europe costly 
stone or brick buildings have to be raised, with thermometers hanging in them, and 
even with this precaution a thunder-storm will often destroy the whole brood, losing 
labor and expense, and, in fact, the season, as the trees will not, contrary to nature, 
bring forth new leaves ; but, if the breeder escapes this calamity, the extra care and 
labor he has to take for cleaning and airing his delicate worms is as much more ex- 
pensive as raising oranges and grapes in a hot-house to that of the open air. As we 
have no thunder-storms, we could raise the worm on the tree itself, were it not for 
the birds destroying them. They can be raised here, without doubt, under sheds, 
and what farmer is so poor who could not make a shed of posts and rails, and cover 
it with canvas or straw ? 

I have given reasons enough in the above lines to convince reasonable minds that 
the difference in the price of labor between here and Europe will be counterbalanced 
by the taxes mentioned, the costly buildings, high price of lands, etc., etc. But, for 
argument's sake, admit that, on a large scale, with high labor, silk-raising would not 
be profitable, would this be a good and sufficient argument to throw this enterprise 
overboard ? I say no. It is a well-established fact in California, as well as in the 
Western States, that no farming operation, on a large scale, with high labor, can 
be carried on successfulJv. Everv man who attempted it failed, and was ruined. 

Aa 



370 GRAPE CULTURE AND WINE-MAKING. 

Would any person advise, therefore, to abandon firming in the United States, as a 
business which will not pay, and advocate the importation of seed and breadstuff's 
from foreign countries? I suppose that no man would like to appear before the pub- 
lic with such a ridiculous proposition or argument. 

So it is with silk-raising, as I will demonstrate. Almost everj' fanner's wife will 
raisfe chickens, turkeys, ducks, or geese ; this is considered a recreation, and with 
pleasure and pride does the industrious and good housewife call together her feath- 
ered subjects, showing to her husband and neighbors the little treasure she has cre- 
ated by her industry. I call it treasure, for many a shilling is saved from the hard 
earnings of her husband for the purchase of sugar, tea, coftee, and often dresses, by 
the sale of eggs, chickens, turkeys, etc., etc. 

Now, then, to raise chickens, etc., it requires the care of a whole year; when rais- 
ing silk-worms, twenty-four to forty days will be amply sufficient time bestowed on 
them ; and, again, it is much easier to raise silk-worms than poultry. Every farmer's 
wife can raise the silk-worm successfully without the least difficulty ; it is so very 
simple that every body can comprehend it by reading the mode which I will give 
below. 

I do not for a moment advance the idea of discontinuing the raising of poultry^ 
No ; the housewife can raise poultry and breed silk-worms ; they do not interferP 
with each other any more than her husband's raising wheat and ])otatoes on the farm. 

This will be, too, an additional income to tlie good wife, and a much larger and 
surer one, there being no fluctuations of importance in the price of cocoons, the price 
being fixed according to quality, Nos. 1, 2, and 3 ; not, like poultry, sometimes not 
to be sold at any price, or, if not for cash, for some unnecessary trash in the store. 
Cocoons are in all countries cas/i, and I warrant that it will be so in California. But 
I see my fair reader's inquiring looks for the lines containing the probable jirofits of 
such an undertaking. I will give an approximate estimate from data collected on 
my travels and from celebrated authors. I will here suppose that California will 
give no more encouragement tlian the least favored country in Europe — Bavaria. I 
have taken this northern country as an estimate to be far below the real result which 
must ensue in California, as I am satisfied that this state is better than the best in 
Europe for cultivating the mulberry. Bavaria, in its produce of leaves to tlie tree, 
is 50 per cent, less than the south of France or Italy. A farmer possessing 40 acres 
of land can divide his land in convenient lots, surrounding each lot with a double row 
of trees; this will be no detriment to his crops or farm, but will serve to beautify his 
property very much. If the farmer has means to purchase mulberry-trees from the 
nurseries, it will bo to his interest, as he will gain a year ; if not, he may purchase 50 
cents worth of mulberry seed, sow them in a bed, and raise his own trees. When one 
year old, plant the trees in avenues 12 feet apart; 300 trees, 4 years old from plant- 
ing, will give 10,000 ])0unds of leaves. This produces 125,000 cocoons, which, at 90 
cents per thousand, is $'112 .'JO. This sum one housewife with a child ten years of 
age, without extra help, can save by 40 days' care at the utmost. The price here is 
estimated as in Germany, so 40 per cent, may be safely added. This income will be 
almost doubled every year, until the tree reaches its highest bearing, which is about 
its twenty-fifth year, when, in California, no doubt 400 pounds of leaves will be the 
yield. 

When the happy event occurs that the family increases and grows with the trees, 
then those little creatures will lighten the labor of their parent, even in their tender 
years ; for children eight years of age, for rearing and feeding silk-worms, arc quite 
as useful as older ones. The wojk is more play than any thing else, and therefore 
not detrimental to health. 

Where trees are producing more leaves than the housewife .and her family can at- 
tend, it would be proper to lease such trees to women who have none of their own — 
to wives of mechanics, tradesmen, etc. In Europe, wherever silk-worms are bred, 
every body has them — wives of officers, tradesmen, merchants, etc. Nobody thinks 
it below their dignity to raise them ; so far from it, that ladies enter into competition 
as to who can raise the finest cocoons, and the greatest number, from a certain num- 
ber of leaves. 

Reader, do you not think that something should be done to enable poor but hon- 
est females to earn a living honorably? Not every female is fit to make a house- 
maid. Some have been so unfortunate in life as to have been brought up delicately. 
This class, oven if pride should not prevent them from living out as kitchen-maids, 
have not strength, arc delicate, and would soon compel their employers to discharge 



A. ZIEGLER ON THE CULTURE OF THE SILK-WORM. 371 

them. But the occupation of rearing sillt-worms would enable females to earn suf- 
ficient to live fur at least half of the year, if not the whole. This is done by many in 
Europe, and can be done here. 

The eullure of the mtdberry and the rearing of the silk-worm I would not limit to 
California, but extend it all over the United .States where the trees do not frcQze; 
but, ofcour.se, they can not compete with California, as they have the same difficul- 
ties to contend against as the European breeders ; but they have the very same chances 
as the Europeans, without the high taxation, or tariff on silks, which sets them far 
ahead of their European rivals. I am well aware that I handle a subject which, 
some twenty-six years ago, exploded as a great humbug, and has been a subject of 
ridicule with every one since, and whenever an enterjjrise seems to receive general 
attention, persons are reminded of the iiiorus multicaulis humhxKj ; but I will not shrink 
from advocating a measure which I have carried on in my native country, Hungary, 
with great success, and which, in my recent travels, after the closest examinations, I 
have found profitable every where the tree is planted and can live. 

I am not familiar with the exact reason of the failure of tlie morus mullicmills in 
1835 and 1S3G, but believe it was owing partly to the great money crisis which just 
then depressed the whole country, and partly that eveiy one planted the seeds in nurs- 
eries for sale, and none for going into the business themselves ; or, as is often the 
case with our people, they all started to get rich in one year. No merchant should 
bo frightened wlien his neighbor fails; he should rather examine thoroughly the 
cause of the failure, so that he may avoid falling into the same error ; for it is well 
known that some merchants make money, and that commerce, if laid out by certain 
rules, will make the person following it prosperous; so with the mulberry, if we do 
not overdo it; if we remain in a reasonable boundary, millions will be added from 
this source to the income of our country. 

There are before me, in many languages, elaborate reports to different govern- 
ments, lengthy treatises, books, etc., on the culture of the mulberry and breeding of 
the silk-woi-m, which to treat thoroughly would make this article too voluminous, 
therefore I will give only a short extract from them, more especially from the report 
of Anton Ziegler, Inspector and Director of the Mulberry Culture and Sill^-worm 
Breeding of the Kingdom of Bavaria. A. H, 



Advantages of the Culture of the Silk-worm. 

Instead of giving a lengthy introduction, let us at once proceed 
to our subject by annexing a comparison and calculation of the 
costs and proceeds of a mulberrj^ plantation : 

Suppose we take one " tagwerk'" (parcel of land), suitable for a 
plantation — say, for instance, a hill-side, protected from high north 
winds (as we do not wish to rob the grain agriculture of its more 
fertile fields, not absolutely required by the mulberry). The net 
proceeds of this same piece of ground, by producing grain or other 
cereals, would amount to about 10 florins (1 florin=40 cents.); 
bearing mulberry-trees instead of these, it would, however, result 
in a much larger gain. For let it be about 200 feet long and 200 
feet broad, furrowed by 21 rows of 9 groivn-up trees each, planted 
24 feet apart from each other, and the rows 9 feet, and we shall 
have 189 trees altogether. 

In the intervals we may have shrubs (young trees) of the same 
kind from 6 to 6f feet distant ; in 21 rows, therefore, 504 (allowing 
10 of them to 1 grown tree). This willgive us 249 of the latter 
in the entire plantation. 

Suppose, now, they have been transplanted to their particular 
spot when 6 years old, and their produce will result as the an- 



372 



GRAPE CULTURE AND WINE-MAKING. 



nexed table shows, according to manifold experience, allowing, at 
tlie same time, the highest figure for all expenses and the lowest 
for their produce, and remembering that an industrious man may 
save the most of the former bj the aid of his family : 









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In the foregoing calculation we have purposely omitted the in- 
creasing value of the timber and fruits, as well as seeds of the 
trees. What other culture could be able to show such lasting 
and geometrically increasing gains? If each farm and hamlet 
only would dedicate 3 " tagwerks" to the culture of the silk- 
worm, it might result in an increase of several millions to the 
home production, and consequently to the national riches. 

In order to show the case even in its most minute relation, let 
us suppose that a father plants, at the birth of his child, a 6-ycars- 



A. ZIEGLER ON THE CULTURE OF THE SILK-WORM. 373 

old mulbcrry-trcc, and takes care of it till it gets to be 16 years 
of age. Our table shows us that a tree of 16 years produces 80 
lbs. of leaves ; these give food to 1280 caterpillars, which give 
about 960 cocoons, and these represent a capital of 40 florins (600 
cocoons =1 florin). If this same tree is taken care of for 15 years 
more, it will bear 200 lbs. of leaves, and feeds 3206 caterpillars, 
promising a yearly income of 4 florins = a capital of 100 florins. 
This should induce, in fact, every farmer to plant a certain space 
of his land, at least, with mulberry -trees, and, wherever it be con- 
venient, to line his fields with hedges of them. 

The Breeding of the Caterpillars. 

This begins when the plantation has attained such an age that 
a corresponding quantity of leaves may be relied upon. Prudence, 
however, requires us to make the first trial with only a limited 
number, in order to instruct one's self in all the minute cares and 
details that are required by the business, which may be better 
learned in this way than by at once undertaking it on a larger 
scale. This exact knowledge, only to be obtained by several 
years' close attendance, will be found the more necessary, as with- 
out it a too large expense might easily be incurred for eggs by 
overcalculating the quantity of feeding material, which might 
bring the silk- worm raiser into serious trouble, as he would be 
forced, by the want of the latter perhaps a few days before the 
time of spinning arrives, to sacrifice the majority of his caterpil- 
lars in order to save at least the remaining few. In this way 
time, trouble, and leaves have been frequently sacrificed in vain. 

The breeding of the caterpillars requires a certain amount of 
care and attendance, although the insect may not perish by every 
sudden change of temperature or small want of the former. To 
know how much they may be able to stand, cover one of the trees 
at the time of breeding with a fish-net, to keep the birds off, and 
let a part of the caterpillars creep out on the twigs. Those falling 
off must be picked up and put back to them. 

The Breeding-room. 

This requires, above all, a sunny, dry site, which must be high, 
not exposed to the influence of bad odors, and have a contrivance 
to be warmed. If convenient, it is better situated in the second 
story of a house than on the first. Care must be taken to soften 
the too bright sunshine by window-curtains, and to prevent mice, 
spiders, etc., from getting into it. For the beginner, any such con- 
ditioned room will do in which he may raise a few thousand cater- 
pillars on crates or other fixtures that he may even place upon a 
table. A gradually increasing breeding requires, of course, a pro- 
portionately larger room, and a certain rule in all its necessary 
arrangements. Scaffolds will then be required of the following 
description : According to the locality, posts are put up (inside 



374 GR.VPE CULTURE AND WINE-IMAKING. 

the room), about 5 feet distant, on a straight line, and 2^ feet be- 
hind one another, from the floor to the ceiling high, some feet off 
from the windows. These are connected by a cross lath 2 feet 
apart, so that those nearest to the floor, as well as those to the 
ceiling, are separated also by 2 feet distance from it, in a manner 
that they may serve, at the same time, as support to the crates or 
mats (later to be described). In case more than one such stage 
is made, care must be taken to leave sufficient room between them 
to allow a ladder to be moved about, serving the attendant to put 
the feed upon the upper rows. 

The feed-boxes or crates, whose shape corresponds to that of the 
stage, so that they may be easily taken out and put in again, are 
formed by a frame of laths 2 to 4 inches wide, and of willow or 
cane wicker-work. They may be made, however, of whatever 
material happens to be nearest at hand and cheapest — water-reeds, 
plank-shavings, etc., etc. For cleaning them out, it will be found 
convenient to have them all of the same size, so as to fit in all 
parts of the stages. 

The Eggs and their Development. 

To get good eggs must be a chief object, whether from one's 
own breed, or from other well-reputed plantations if preferable. 
This latter will be found best until some years' experience has 
taught the art of breeding for one's self; and even then it might 
be good 23olicy to exchange from time to time with other breed- 
ers, as it will lead to the imjDrovement of the stock. A negligence 
in this may often produce great disappointments and losses. The 
most reliable sign of good eggs is a light-gray color. Crushed 
upon a finger-nail, they must crack and emit a tough, cloudy liq- 
uid. But only the very creeping out of the young caterpillars is 
convincing proof If healthy, these have a reddish-brown color 
and black head ; if sickly, they appear red or black. 

A careful breeder will finish all his arrangements at the proper 
time, i. e., in the winter months. He will put the eggs into a clean, 
but not air-tight vessel, about three times the size as required by 
the quantity of eggs, and hang them up in a cool dry place (espe- 
cially good cellars), in such a way that no mice can get at them. 
They may also be put upon paper or linen, and this sHghtly roll- 
ed up. From three to four weeks they need looking after, and a 
free access of air while they remain locked up. Those upon pa- 
per, also, must from time to time be rolled the other way. In 
the winter it is well to expose them to the dry cold, for it is known 
that even the most severe cold will not kill them, but will be of 
benefit. Many breeders, for this reason, leave them in the open 
air, only protecting them from the snow. At the coming of spring 
they are taken to cool places, however, until they creep out. 

When the buds of the bushes and mulberry hedges begin to ap- 
pear, the worms must be taken out of the vessel, and put (in par- 



A. ZIEGLER ON THE CULTURE OF TUE SILK- WORM. 375 

eels of two ounces), in low pasteboard boxes, into the not icarmed 
room destined for their breeding. After leaving them so for five 
or six days, one may begin to heat it, and to increase the temper- 
ature of the room, by adding 1° each day, to 16° or 20° R. This 
must now be kept up day and night, but never above 20°, until 
the development of the caterpillars takes place. Shaking the eggs 
lightly every day, the light-gray color will disappear more and 
more, and, after a few days, the lirst young caterpillars will make 
their appearance. Now the heat in the room is to be increased by 
two degrees, and, within three days at most, all the other eggs will 
open to let the insects out. 

As soon as the first ones show themselves, the eggs must be 
covered by a piece of gauze, and thin twigs of the mulberry-tree 
strewn over them, to which the young caterpillars will immedi- 
ately seek to creep. When a sufficient quantity of these is col- 
lected upon them, they are transferred to the paper-covered crates 
by the aid of a pair of small pincers, and arranged in such a way, 
leaving small intervals, that at each succeeding addition a little 
more space may be allotted. The gauze must fit exactly into the 
box, and cover lightly all the eggs. Places where the young cat- 
erpillars lie too thick upon one another have to be covered by 
tender leaves, and the insects creeping on these transferred to an- 
other one. 

The caterpillars are carefully assorted according to their age, so 
that, for instance, those which crept out in the morning are not 
placed together with such as come out in the evening, or those of 
to-day not with those of the preceding day. After three or four 
days the creeping out must cease ; all those that have not come 
out are not farther to be considered. If the breeding comprises 
more than one ounce of eggs, it is advisable not to lay them out 
all at once, but at intervals of several days, thus preventing all 
the caterpillars from becoming ripe enough to spin at the same 
time. Each separate parcel may be called a breed. In this way 
five or six of them may be produced in the same year. 

Tlie Food of the Caterpillars. 

The smaller the quantity of food given to them, but the oftener 
a day, the more it will benefit them. About seven or eight times 
within 24 hours would therefore be the best polic}^, and of these, 
the main meals, in the morning, at 4 to 5 and 10 to 11 o'clock ; in 
the afternoon, at 4 to 5 ;. and at night, at 10 to 11 ; the interven- 
ing meals being given after 7 A.M., 2 P.M., and 8 P.M. At 11 
o'clock P.M. a larger quantity of leaves may be given, and stopped 
during the balance of the night, while the caterpillars have not 
yet shed their skin for the last time. When this, however, has 
been done, they become much more voracious, and must now be 
fed even during the night. 

In the beginning the caterpillars require only very tender 



376 GRAPE CULTURE AND WINE-IVIAKING. 

leaves ; when growing, they want stronger ones ; and before their 
spinning, the stoutest. Before the time of the third shedding of 
the skin, the food has to be cut finely with a sharp knife ; during 
their growing, with a two-edged blade, thicker and thicker. This 
must be done immediately before the meal-time, because otherwise 
the juice would dry up and the leaves would wither. 

After the third shedding of the mandibles, the animals have at- 
tained sufficient strength to chew the whole leaves for themselves. 
These are better collected early in the morning, after the dew has 
dried off, or in the evening, before it begins to wet them ; during 
the heat of the day is not advisable. In case of rainy weathei 
menacing, it is necessary to provide a sufficient quantity to last for 
a few days. If, however, it has been unavoidable to cut the leaves 
during a rain, they must be dried before feeding them. If left on 
the twigs in an airy place, they dry quicker than if broke off. 

Wet food makes the caterpillar apt to sicken ; it is considered 
safer, therefore, to let them rather hunger a short time than allow 
them to eat it. Leaves that have dust on them do no harm ; but 
such as have mildew settled upon them must be washed off and 
dried again. Do not feed the leaves right fresh from the tree or 
the cellar ; but let them, in the first case, evaporate for several 
hours ; in the latter, at least half an hour. For the gathering of 
the leaves clean sacks or baskets must be used, into which the 
twigs must, however, never be pressed. Immediately after, these 
must be taken to a cool place, and protected from the sunshine 
and air-draught. 

About the quantity of leaves to be given there is no certain 
rule. Experience has shown that the caterpillars out of one ounce 
of eggs eat up about 800 pounds of leaves in the manner that the 
first half is allowed until the fourth, the last after the fourth shed- 
ding of the skin takes place. According to this estimate, count- 
ing 12,000 to 15,000 caterpillars to one ounce of eggs, one single 
one would consume during its existence about 1^ to 2 ounces of 
leaves. 

The different Periods in the Life of the Silk-worm. 

The total term of its life comprises not more than 24 to ZQ^ or, 
at the utmost, 42 days, and depends partly on the higher or lower 
state of temperature in which it lives, on the care it enjoys, and 
the quality of the food. 

Its nature forces it to shed its skin at different times. This pe- 
riod is also called the sleep of the caterpillars, because then they 
will remain perfectly unmoved upon their place, without partak- 
ing of any nourishment at all. While in this state they must not 
be fed, nor touched, or troubled ; and if some wake up sooner 
than the rest, it is better not to feed them till all are alive again. 

The shedding process itself is very interesting. At tlie head 
of the caterpillar, which appears very much swollen, a kind of 



A. ZIEGLER ON THE CULTURE OF THE SILK-WORM. 377 

mask is formccl. This is gradually removed, and the insect creeps, 
not without some exertion, out from its old skin, tliat is glued fast 
to a twig somewhere about the hindmost feet. The shedding usu- 
ally takes place four times ; the exceptional cases, however, only 
three times. The closest attention has to be paid by the silk- 
worm breeder to the equal setting in of this process. Each breed 
has therefore to be carefully separated at tlic moment of the creep- 
ing out of the caterpillars, and all the insects must enjoy an equal 
share of leaves, of sufficient room, and warmth. 

With proper care and treatment, the sheddings will take place 
in the following intervals : 1st, on the 5tli day of the age of the 
caterpillar ; 2d, on the 9th ; 8d, on the 15th ; 4th, on the 22d. On 
the 82d day of its life it begins to spin. The term of a shedding 
is usually from two to three days, and shows itself by an increased 
appetite the day previous, which, must be satisfied by sufficient 
food. At each renewed process the color of the head of the worm 
gets lighter. 

After it is over the worms must be fed on twigs sj^read over 
them. At the same time, they are transferred to the other parts 
of the crates by putting the twigs to which they cling upon them, 
and the regular feeding is continued. 

At each shedding, occasion must be taken to classify them ac- 
cording to their size — this producing a better equality in their 
functions, and, finally, in their maturity. 

Special signs of a well-performed shedding are a lively appe- 
tite, quietly remaining in their places, and increasing size of the 
body. On the contrary, a restless running about on their crates 
or their margins indicates always, if maturity has not been attain- 
ed yet, a sickly state of the worms. These, as well as those that 
have not strength enough to strip their skins entirely off, must 
be taken out. 

Air, Light, and Warmth. 

Pure air, a warmth regulated to what we shall see hereafter, 
are, besides the regular feeding, the main points in breeding silk- 
worms. The atmosphere made impure in the room by the evap- 
oration of the worms, the leaves, the manure, or other influences, 
must be removed as soon as possible by frequent airing, taking 
care, however, that no humid air enters from outside, as well as no 
strong draught. Especially is this necessary in the latter stage 
of the life of the worms, and, above all, shortly before and during 
the spinning-time. 

Fresh bunches of icerimith (sage) are very good for improving 
the air, being suspended on the windows ; also roses put in the 
room form an agreeable aroma to the worms. In case the exte- 
rior air has the same degree as that inside, it is better not to let it 
enter. Quick-burning fire of dry straw, or vessels with freshly- 
burned lime placed upon the floor, improve the air. Kitchen salt 



378 GRArE CULTURE AND WINE-IMAKING. 

on a plato ma}^ serve very well as a sign whether the inclosed air 
needs improving by its getting humid. The direct influence of 
the sun's raj-s is very detrimental to the worms ; it must be mod- 
erated by window-curtains made of paper or linen. In regard to 
the w\armth of the room, it must be borne in mind that the worm, 
from its first moment of existence to its spinning in, requires a 
gradual reducing of it ; so that if it needs 22° R at the time of its 
creeping out, it only wants 18° at the spinning in. 

In order to let them properly thrive, it needs that in life they 
are not too much pressed together. For those from one ounce of 
eggs the following spaces are considered sufficient : At their first 
period, 5 square feet ; second, 10 ; third, 23 ; fourth, 55 ; fifth, 
120. If the previously-mentioned crates hold about 12 square 
feet, about 10 of them would suffice for the worms derived from 
1 ounce of eggs. 

Cleaning of the Crates. 

Cleanliness is half the food. Would the breeder keep his 
worms in good health, he must remove in time the waste of the 
leaves, and the easily fermenting manure. This is done in the 
following manner : 

The caterpillars are cleaned for the first time by small twigs 
strewn over them at their first shedding of the skin. The ani- 
mals, collecting thereon, are transferred to clean places by means 
of small pincers, and then fed. After one brood is taken off, the 
act of covering and transferring is repeated over again, until all 
have been cared for. The remaining portions of food and ma- 
nure are removed on the following day, when sure that no worms 
are forgotten. The same manner of proceeding is adopted after 
the second and third shedding. After the fourth, it is repeated 
every second day. Persons perspiring freely at their hands are 
not fit to do this important business. 

The taking off of the worms must be attended with great care, 
as the tender animals are otherwise very easily hurt. The best 
way is to take hold of them close to their head without pressing, 
and to loosen them tenderly from the place they stick on. 

A newer and very excellent method is the following: After 
the third shedding, spread over them a net with meshes wide 
enough to allow the worm& freely to pass through (the nets hav- 
ing the width and length of the crates). They will soon creep 
through and upon it. The nets are now fastened to several small 
sticks provided with hooks, to the right and left of the crates, lift- 
ed up by means of these, and hung upon nails driven into the 
posts for this purpose. Now the crates can be cleaned off, and 
the worms, with the net, let down upon them. In this simple 
manner the cleaning of many crates and worms may be done in 
a very short time. Care has to be taken that the dirt and dust 
of the upper tier of crates does not fall upon those below. 



A. ZIEGLER ON THE CULTURE OF THE SILK-WOllM. 379 

The putting up the Spinning -hushes. 

After the tliird s]icclding process is passed, it is "well to com- 
mence puttmg up the bushes needed by the worms to spin their 
cocoons on. These may either be placed on separate stages or 
scaffolds of boards, or on the crates. In both cases they consist 
of twigs of trees that have neither thorns, nor prickles, nor resin ; 
if possible, of birch. The twigs must be free of leaves, perfectly 
dry, and without any smell. 

In constructing the arrangement, the upper crate has always to 
serve as cover for the bushes beneath it. Thin laths, not quite as 
long as the breadth of the crates, are then taken, having small 
holes bored through them, one inch apart, to let the bushes in. 
These must be about half an inch longer than the distance from 
one crate to another. Bushes tied from small twigs can also be 
used without these laths; care has then only to be taken that 
they are not placed too close together, as in that case the free air 
has not the necessary access. The worms will also sometimes 
use paper bags and other hollow things for spinning places. To 
prevent the falling off of the caterpillars, all twigs extending over 
the scaffold must be cut off. 

The Worm ivhen ready to spin itself in. 

This may be known by the following signs : 

1. It refuses food — even avoids it; creeps about in troubled 
haste, with head erect, especially on the frame of the crate, as if 
hunting for a suitable place. 

2. A thin thread of silk protrudes from its mouth. 
8. The skin of its neck gets wrinkles. 

4. Held against the light, the body ajDpears transparent, and 
feels soft. 

5. The worm, when taken from its place, tries to wind itself 
around the finger. 

When remarking these signs, it is time to bring them to their 
spinning places, as they would otherwise lose too much silk, get 
lazy, and either spin very little or not at all. The right moment 
must be found out. If left too long on the twigs, the worm may 
fix its cocoon either on the sides or corners of the crate, and there- 
by molest the others. If taken off too soon, it is prevented from 
feeding just at a time when it needs the most nourishment. Im- 
mediately before the spinning in, the worms discharge all the ex- 
crements that yet remain in their body. If too many are put on 
the bushes at a time, they will hinder one another in spinning, or 
two of them may spin their cocoons in one ; these not being very 
valuable. Smooth wooden plates are used for transferring them, 
and they are distributed, beginning from the uppermost row along 
the sides of the bushes. 

If the first breed has already spun their cocoons, fresh worms 



380 GRATE CULTURE AND WINE-MAKING. 

must be transferred during three or four days until nearly all the 
ST3ace is taken up. Some worms will return from the bushes to 
their food ; it is therefore advisable to distribute good juicy leaves 
in such a way that they may easily reach them. Those that have 
not begun to spin on the bushes after two or three days are best 
taken out into the open air for a few minutes, and then placed 
upon other branches mixed up with paper bags, wood shavings, 
etc. By covering them up with paper or linen, they will now 
soon be seen spinning. During this work all unnecessary troub- 
ling or shaking them must be avoided. If the weather be fair — 
when the free access of air and sunshine is very advantageous to 
the worms — they will finish their cocoons within four days. 

Diseases ofihe Silk-ivorm. 

The so-called Green Pip is one of their most common and dan- 
gerous diseases. Its signs are, the swelling of the head, a yellow- 
ish color spreading over the whole body, and a yellow moisture 
ejected by the w^orm. It begins ordinarily to show itself not be- 
fore the fourth spinning period is over, and is partly attributable 
to a sudden change of temperature or a too crowded space. 

Another still more dangerous disease is the so-called Calcino or 
Muscardine. The worms appear as if covered with a coat of lime, 
and must be taken off directly, as they will infect others. 

When the excrements of the worms are found to be more moist 
than dry, it will be well to feed leaves of older trees, and stop giv- 
ing those of bushes or hedges. Dead caterpillars are always to be 
instantly removed, and crates upon which sick ones have been ly- 
ing can only be used again after a careful cleaning. 

Enemies of the SiUc-iuorm. 

Of these are indeed many, always making the breeding in the 
open air troublesome, or even impossible. Among them are ants, 
spiders, wasps, mice, chickens, cats, and nearly all carnivorous 
birds. All of these must bo carefully excluded from the breed- 
ing-room. 

Propagation of the Caterjnllarj and obtaining the Eggs. 

After the cocoon has been spun, and the worm inside of it 
transformed itself into a " nymph," this will fifteen or twenty days 
later become a butterfly, which opens the cocoon by means of a 
caustic and softening moisture. This it performs generally in the 
early hours of the morning. The male is recognized by the pe- 
culiar vivacity with which he runs about, by his smaller body, and 
the larger dark brown feelers. The female has a bigger body, 
and is generally quiet, at least moves very slowly. Both do not 
fly, as their wings are as yet too short. 

As soon as the butterflies have attained their perfect form and 
ejected a yellow or reddish moisture, their pairing is accelerated 



A. ZIEGLER ON THE CULTURE OF THE SILK-WORM. 381 

by putting the females upon the crates about one foot distant from 
cacn other, and the males coupled to them. The most experi- 
enced breeders consider six hours sufficient for the act of pairing 
to produce good eggs. Some advise to separate them by force ; 
but this ought not to be done except in case more females than 
males should have crept out, or if the act lasts longer than from 
morning till evening. If it be necessary, they must be separated 
with great care by taking hold of their wings. In case they sep- 
arate by themselves before the proper time, they must immediate- 
ly be reunited. If there are more males than wanted, they must 
be kept in a perforated box, to be used on the following day. 

The female, soon after impregnation, will begin to lay eggs. 
For this purpose, a frame with cotton or woolen stuff tightly 
stretched over it has to be placed in a slanting direction against 
the wall, and the female placed upon it. Slowly crawling upward 
on this, she will have finished depositing the eggs in 2-i to 48 
hours. Now she is to be taken off, because the eggs which come 
later are generally of no account. Those laid within the first 2-i 
hours are the best. The butterflies close their life soon after hav- 
ing fulfilled their earthly destination. The breeding-room itself 
must be kept somewhat dark during their pairing and laying. 

The freshly-laid eggs are of a yellow color, but from ^ay to day 
they grow darker, until, after about three weeks, they appear ash- 
gray. In order to loosen them from their places, on a warm win- 
ter day moisten the cotton in a vessel filled with fresh water, and 
rub the eggs softly with the fingers. They sink to the bottom, 
and are dried in the sun after pouring off the water. 

The persons who breed silk- worms must keep themselves very 
cleanly, and never attend them without previously washing their 
hands. Sick persons, especially those who have fevers, must 
never do it ; they must not even enter the breeding-room. Such 
as incline to perspire freely must neither gather leaves nor feed 
the caterpillars. Smoking is not allowed in the breeding-room, 
and in using a snufi'-box great care is to be taken that no tobacco- 
dust may fall upon the worms or their places. 

Taking off and Assorting the Cocoons. 

The cocoons must not be taken off" before the ninth day. Their 
perfection is indicated by a rattling of the chrysalis when shaken. 
The assorting has to be performed at the same time, and the se- 
lection of the breed-cocoons. This occupation requires great care, 
because the value and quality of the eggs depend on it. The 
whole crop may be divided into five classes : 

1. Breed Cocoons. — Those of the strongest texture, surrounded 
by a rich quantity of flock silk, of a regular shape, must be pick- 
ed out, and especially those that were among the first spinners, 
and show a white color. Their being taken off and freed of the 
flock silk has to be performed with the utmost care. They are 



382 GRM'E CULTURE AND WINE-MAKING. 

then spread over tlie crates in a temperate room, and tlie breaking 
through of the butterflies waited for. The sexes can not be dis- 
tinguished with certainty. It may therefore be well to select an 
equal number of a round and oblong shape, as the first are gener- 
ally believed to contain males, while the others contain females. 

2. After selecting the " breed-cocoons," all those very strong and 
rich in silk, like the first day. 

3. Those of medium qucdity. 

4. All of a iveak and imjjerfect texture. 

5. The double cocoons, distinguished by their larger size and 
coarser texture. 

The breed-bushes must be carefully handled for assorting; the 
cocoons placed very tenderly into the baskets destined to receive 
them, in order to avoid the bursting of the chrysalis and its soil- 
ing the cocoon. 

Killing tJte Cocoons. 

When assorted, the nymphs must be killed to prevent their 
gnawing through and spoiling the silk for the purpose of unwind- 
ing it. It may be done in two ways : 

1. Bg dry heat in the bake-oven. The cocoons are to this end 
put into l!fw wicker-baskets, and placed in the oven, at a temper- 
ature of 30° to 35° R., upon bricks previously arranged. In con- 
sequence of the heat, a noise of the suffocating nymphs will be 
heard. Half an hour later, all is over and the business done. 

2. By steam. A kettle filled two third parts with water is 
placed upon the fire until it boils. Upon it, so as to fit its size, a 
sieve filled wnth cocoons is placed, and this covered over with wet 
clothes to prevent the steam from escaping except through it. To 
see whether all life is extinct, after about a quarter of an hour 
take some of the cocoons and press them between the fingers. 
The movement of the nymph will show if it is not dead. If put in 
an airy place, the cocoons will soon recover their prior elasticity. 

As mistakes in the management of this business might damage 
the article, the greatest care must be taken neither to increase the 
heat in the oven too much, nor to expose the nymphs to bursting 
by keeping the sieve too long over the kettle. 

Not very strong cocoons are better suited for the first manner; 
those, however, whose nymph rattles for the latter. 

Converting the Cocoons into Money. 

To do this as soon as possible, and to the best advantage, must 
be the chief object of the breeder. Waiting too long exposes him 
to a twofold danger: 

1. Of the biting through of the butterflies if not killed; and, 

2. Of losing in weight and value by the drying in. 

To realize the money value, therefore, may also be effected in 
a twofold way : 



A. ZIEGLER ON THE CULTURE OE THE SILK-WORM. 383 

1. By reeling off tlic silk with one's own hands, and occasion- 
ally selling it ; or, * 

2. By selling the cocoons to a reeling establishment for a price 
adapted to the quality of them. 

The price obtained for cocoons varies with the crop. In Ger- 
many the average price per pound is as follows, the florin contain- 
ing 60 kreutzers, being worth 40 cents : 

• For perfectly dried, strong cocoons 1 fl. 

For the second quality 48 kr. 

For double cocoons 30 " 

The unwinding requires an cxpertness only to be obtained by 
a practice of several years, and makes expenses necessary that 
might prove not very advantageous to a single breeder. The 
sale of the cocoons to those establishments may therefore be pref- 
erable. In Italy, for instance, it is the general custom with the 
farmers. 

In case they are to be sent off some distance, they must be care- 
fully packed in baskets or boxes, neither pressed in nor put up 
too high. At the bottom of the barrel or box is for this purpose 
placed some soft paper; upon this, one hand high, the cocoons; 
upon these, again, paper, and another layer of cocoons. When ar- 
rived at their place of destination, they must be directly taken 
out, spread out in an airy place, and protected from insects and 
animals. 

Wmding, and Heeling Estahlishmenis. 

The occupation of unwinding the cocoons may safely be con- 
sidered the chief one of the silk culture. An experienced person 
will produce valuable silk even from middling and bad cocoons, 
while one not expert damages the best, or obtains a silk hardly 
salable. Practice only can teach the necessary manipulations 
and operations required by this seemingly very simple business, 
of which we will here only speak in general outlines. In Italy 
females are usually employed in this occupation ; and five years 
are generally allowed as the term necessary to make a person ex- 
pert in it ; and the product of a known hand is always sold at a 
higher price than that of one less so. 

In order to unwind the cocoons and unite their threads into 
one, they are put into a kettle filled with hot water, 15 or 20 at a 
time. The water must be kept up to a nearly boiling point. 
When the adhesive substance which surrounds the web is suffi- 
ciently softened, the person hunts up the end of the thread by 
brushing the cocoons lightly with a small broom made of rice- 
straw. The threads attach themselves to the points of it. If more 
than the above number of cocoons be taken, or if they are brush- 
ed too roughly, the threads may become entangled, and too much 
of the web may be lost. The person takes those threads in the 
right hand, and endeavors to obtain successively all of them clear 



384 GKAPE CULTUKE AND WINE-MAKING. 

by continually waving them to and fro, and stretching. After 
this they arc given over to the left hand. 

Now the operation begins of winding them on a reel. Accord- 
ing to the stronger or finer quality wanted, 5, 6, 7, frequently even 
10 or 12, and more, such natural threads are spun together into 
one. Of such, two are formed and drawn through a piece of tin, 
pierced by small round holes, that is fixed above the kettle. From 
here they are conducted, by means of wire-pins with eyes, or a 
glass fixture, to the "ree/," after being crossed or twisted a little. 
An equal thickness and strength is the main consideration in a 
thread, and is only to be effected by a strict attention paid upon 
all of the cocoons in the water. At the beginning, as well as at 
the end, each thread tapers off a little ; a new one must, there- 
fore, be added at the right time. 

The closest attention has to be given to the cocoons in the ket- 
tle by the person in charge of the work, and as soon as the thread 
of one is found broken, it must be replaced by another one. It 
will not do to wait until the cocoon has entirely run off; but the 
rest of it, formed of a thin skin, must be taken out in time, pre- 
venting its juncture to the thread, and thereby spoiling it; but 
this must not be done too soon, because too much of the valua- 
ble silk would be lost. 

At the operator's right side a vessel with cold water is placed, 
to cool the fingers from time to time. This water must be river 
or rain water. If well water can not be avoided, it has previous- 
ly to be exposed for several days to the influence of the sun to 
make it soft. 

The unwinding of the cocoons begins soon after the assorting 
is gone through. The room in which it is done must be bright, 
airy, and spacious. It is best to perform the operation in the open 
air under a shed ; but the day must be fine, as rainy weather 
makes the silk not dry well, and lose its lustre. 

Each separate reel has a so-called conductor^ by which, incessant- 
ly moving to and fro, the threads, in strings three or four inches 
wide, arc conveyed to the reel. This causes that, in more than a 
hundred revolutions, the thread gains time to dry off perfectly be- 
fore another one covers it. Those strings should not weigh more 
than three or four ounces, to promote their drying. Before they 
are taken off from the reel, the silk must be cleaned of those stick- 
ing out or broken. The reel is for this purpose first loosened and 
afterward tightened again. A few hours later the silk can be re- 
moved. 

The person that turns the reel has to pay close attention to any 
motion made or sign given to her by the one spinning. A con- 
trivance, by means of which this latter one may cither stop at 
pleasure or start the reel from its position by a pressure of the 
foot simply, is very advisable. A closer description of the whole 
machinery would not be necessary here. 



A. ZIEGLEll ON THE CULTURE OF THE SILK-WORM. 385 

An cstablislimcnt especially employed for reeling purposes in 
every silk-worm-brceding district would do a great deal of good 
to the community, as in it the girls might be instructed in their 
work by competent persons, and the small breeders might find the 
necessary help not to waste or lose a part of their product. In 
Italy there are many such, that also buy from the farmers their 
cocoons at the regular market price, and work them up on their 
own account. 

The Floret {coarse) SiUcj and how it is made. 

For tliis are generally used, 1. Those cocoons that are bitten 
through. 2. The waste silk when the original thread is hunted 
for. 3. The web surrounding the cocoon. 4. The thin skins sur- 
rounding the nymphs and remaining after the unwinding. 

The manufacturing, and its converting into money, claims par- 
ticular attention, but is not profitable to a single breeder. The 
following is the manner used in its making: 1. The cocoons of 
the first description are soaked in warm water for a few days, then 
washed out in river water, dried, and rubbed between the fingers, 
drawn out, and spun on the ordinary reel. 2. The other waste 
silk lots are dried over a coal fire until they become nearly brown, 
then beaten with a wooden stick and torn open by means of a dull 
knife. In order to moisten them again, they are then taken into 
a cellar for a couple of hours, besmeared with oil or lard, and card- 
ed like wool. The extracting of the silk from the cards is done 
with wetted fingers, twisting from right to left. 

It is a remarkable phenomenon that this floret silk, placed upon 
a suffering part of the human body, is an efficient remedy against 
rheumatism and gout. 

The Magnaries. 

The name Ilagnary, derived from ^^ magna" signifying "5i7^- 
worm''^ in the vernacular of the Provengales, is given to an estab- 
lishment in which the breeding of the silk- worms is carried on on 
a large scale. 

The house is generally formed by a suterain and one story, and 
may be constructed from light materials, as the breeding only 
takes place in the summer months. 

In the souierai7i are frequently kept the reeling machines {filan- 
da\ besides the ovens and rooms. It is also used for stripping the 
leaves of the twigs for the food of the worms, and drying them in 
rainy weather. In the upper story we find the caterpillar-room, 
with its scaffolds and stages. The ceiling has several openings, 
through which the impure air can be let out by means of a vent- 
ilator. 

The greatest possible care is taken in these establishments in 
regard to cleanliness, light, and warmth — the three main requi- 
sites for the welfare of the worms. 

Bb 



386 GRAPE CULTURE AND WINE-MAKING. 

Since the manner of warming a house by means of hot air has 
been known, it has also been deemed advisable to introduce it into 
these establishments. The heated air escapes from the stoves, and 
is conducted by pipes to the breeding-rooms. Those pipes have 
round holes five or six inches distant to allow the air to stream 
forth. 



APPENDIX H. 

THE MANUFACTUKE OF POTATO-STARCH 
AND GRAPE-SUGAR 

EXTRACTED FROM THE WORK OF DR. P. W. PHILIPPI. 



APPENDIX n. 

p. W. PIIILIPPI ON POTATO-STARCH AND GRAPE-SUGAR. 

Manufacture of Potato-starch. 

The manufacture of potato-starcli is so simple, and so many di- 
rections have been given for it, that it will be unnecessary to en- 
ter upon the matter fully. Only in regard to the wash or clean- 
ing apparatus for the potato-mash I wish to engage the attention. 

The plain wash cylinders are in every respect excellent. They 
are almost entirely constructed of wood and metallic wire net. 
The cylinder consists of three separate pieces : the axle-tree, with 
an arm made of wood, and the two halves of the cylinder form, 
which are each separately covered on the inside with the required 
number of metallic gauze. The cylinder is divided in 12 parts, 
each division 4^ inches apart, consisting of wire gauze fastened to 
fine wooden hoops in the cylinder. The axle rests upon a wood- 
en;! frame in such a manner as to allow the potato-mash which en- 
ters at one end to come out washed at the other. Under this cyl- 
inder, resting on the same frame, is a box with tolerably high 
sides, not to allow any of the washed substance to scatter. This 
box has a fall of five inches. The rotation of the cylinder is from 
12 to 16 times per minute. The water which is required to wash 
the potato-mash is brought into a pipe lying horizontally and 
above this cylinder. The under side of the pipe is sieve-like, to 
allow the water free egress and fall upon the turning cylinder. 

This process may be repeated, and for that purpose a second 
cylinder may be placed under the first, in such a manner as to re- 
ceive the washed substance without any farther labor or direction. 
It will be advantageous to have the wire gauze of the second cyl- 
inder more fine than that of the first. Number 11 and 15 may 
be used. 

Manufacture of Grape-sugar. 

1. The transformation of Starch-flour to Grape-sugar hy Acid. 
— The first object is to procure the starch as clean as possible. 
Should this be bought for this purpose, it is advisable to try the 
following experiment : Take one pound of it, and dry it from four 
to six hours upon clean paper at a heat of 80° E. After this 
process it must be weighed, and the difference will show the quan- 
tity of water contained in the starch ; or, take a few ounces of 
starch in a small glass retqrt; add some diluted sulphuric acid, 
and boil this from four to six hours. The sediment which re- 



390 GRAPE CULTURE AND WINE-MAKING. 

mains after this process is tlie impurities, wliich will serve to form 
an estimate of the goodness of the starch-flour. 

Steam is used to boil the sugar ; and to complete the fabrication 
of from 1000 to 1500 pounds of sugar, it will require an engine of 
four atmospheres proof. The vessel in which the starch is boiled 
may be of good oak staves, 1^ inches thick, or of pine staves, lined 
on the inside with lead. For the fabrication of 1500 pounds of 
grape-sugar daily, the size of this vessel may be : the height, four 
feet nine inches ; upper width, four feet three ; and the diameter 
of the bottom, the same. The steam-pipe enters the bottom of 
this vat, and is coiled there in a few turns. The upper side of 
the coil is supplied with many small holes for the escape of steam ; 
the end of the pipe is closed. 

The starch, destined for grape-sugar is mixed witli water to a 
thickness of molasses, in a vat used for the purpose. At the same 
time, 18 gallons of water are poured into the boiler. For every 
1000 pounds of starch-flour, 2-1 pounds of English vitriol are added. 

The steam is let on, and when boiling, portions of thinned 
starch, consisting of two gallons, are added slowly. Care must 
be taken that this fluid does not cease boiling, and also that the 
addition of the starcb is done very regularly, to prevent it from 
forming paste ; and also the fluid must not boil too much, for oth- 
erwise it may run over. During the boiling of the substance 4t 
may be often skimmed. 

Starch-flour boiled with vitriol will first form dextrine, and after- 
ward grape-sugar. The complete transformation into sugar will 
require about ten hours. 

2. Neutralization of the Acid and Clarifying of the Sugar. — For 
the neutralization of the acid will be taken carboniferous lime- 
stone, in form of ground limestone. One third of the substance 
required will be put in the neutralization vat ; at the same time, 
put into the vat 24 pounds of ground bone-black. Now the sugar 
solution may run slowly into this vat, and be kept well stirred, 
to help the generation of carbonic acid and the forming of gyp- 
sum. If the lime is exhausted, more must be added, until the 
last of the sugar is drawn off. To know when the process is fin- 
ished, the following experiment may be tried: After the solu- 
tion has been stirred a quarter of an hour, take out a small por- 
tion and filter it. Take strips of blue litmus paper, and moisten 
them with the filtered fluid. If the paper, after being completely 
dry, turns reddish, then the acid is not fully absorbed, and lime 
in smaller quantities may be added, until this process will show 
the litmus paper in its original blue color. 

After the neutralization of acid, it is necessary to free the solu- 
tion of sugar immediately from the gypsum, otherwise the sugar 
would become of a bitter taste, and its color would be dark. 

3. Filtration through Bone-black. — For this work arc required a 
good press and a wooden frame containing about ten small linen 



p. W. PHILIPPI ON POTATO-STARCn AND GRAPE-SUGAR. 391 

filters ; then a wooden filter, of cylindrical form, which is lined 
on the inside with copper sheets, or a copper filter. This filter 
has two copper bottoms, of which one is sieve-like, and fastened 
to the sides. When this filter is used, a moistened cotton cloth 
must be spread on the bottom ; after which, a layer of bone-black, 
about ten inches high, is brought on the same; it is then care- 
fully moistened with pure water, and stamped gently. In this 
manner it will be continued with the bone-black until three 
fourths of the filter is filled. The false bottom is placed firmly 
on this filling, and covered with a cotton cloth moistened. 

The neutral solution of sugar is brought in the linen filter first, 
from which the results will be put in the last-mentioned. The 
sediment remaining in the linen filters may be taken out, mixed 
with a little water, and then put under the press. The cake re- 
maining in the press (gypsum and bone-black) will make an ex- 
cellent manure. The solution of sugar received from this filter 
has lost the improper ingredients contained in it, as gypsum, etc., 
and is ready for steaming. 

4. The first boiling of the Sugar. — The apparatus for this purpose 
vary as much in construction as in efficiency. So much is certain, 
that for this work it is not necessary to use a vacuum apparatus. 

5. Second Filtration through Bone-hlaclc. — This sirup will re- 
quire some pressure to pass through the filter, and apparatus for 
this purpose has been devised. The work of Dr. Philippi con- 
tains drawings of the apparatus used in this manufacture, which, 
however, we do not think it necessary to reproduce. 

6. The last Steaming^ and the concentration of the Grape-sugar. — 
For this purpose a rotary apparatus is preferable. When the sirup 
is concentrated to a consistence of 42° B,, it is drawn off" into a 
cooling- vat, and well stirred for half an hour. The forms to re- 
ceive the sugar now must be invariably of wood, and must be 
moistened with cold water before the sugar is put into them. 
When the sugar has sufficiently hardened not to receive impres- 
sions from the pressure of a finger, it may be loosened in the forms. 
It is now brought into a room heated from 16° to 18° E., and kept 
to dry from 5 to 10 hours, after which the sugar will be ready 
for market. The analysis of Professor Dr. Fresenius, in Wies- 
baden, showed it to consist of 

Diy sugar 87.47 

Water 12.28 

Gypsum 0.25 

The analysis proved farther that the grape-sugar was of an ex- 
cellent light color, and of sweet, pure taste. Dissolved in water, 
it formed a very clear and pale sirup, and was free from dextrine, 
copper, or other metals. 



392 GRAPE CULTURE AND WINE-MAKING. 

Recovery of Bone-black. 

For this purpose an old pipe may be taken, in -which a false 
bottom, with many small holes, might be placed, from 4 to 6 
inches above the original bottom. The bone-black is filled in 
this pipe upon the false bottom, and the steam is let on in the va- 
cant space between the two bottoms. The bone-black is boiled 
some time, by which it will be sweetened. After this process the 
steam is shut off. For 100 pounds of bone-black will 2 pounds 
of calcinated potash be dissolved in water ; with this solution the 
same then merely covered, and boiled by steam for 12 hours. 
The water is drawn off, which will be of dark yellow color. Pure 
water is poured on now to cover the bone-black a foot, and then 
brought to boil, after which the water is drawn off again. Again 
it is filled up with pure water to cover it by a foot ; muriatic acid 
is added until litmus paper is colored light red from this water. 
In this state it must remain a few hours, when the fluid is drawn 
off and fresh water added until the water has no salty taste and 
blue litmus paper is not discolored, after which the bone-black is 
immediately ready for use. 

All the waste which has accumulated during the steaming of 
the sugar, and the water with which the apparatus had been 
cleaned, might be saved, fermented, and distilled. The alcohol 
gained from such refuse is almost free of fusel oil, and of an ex- 
cellent taste and flavor. 

Note. — The reader must understand, however, that sugar made from potatoes is 
of no use for eating or cooking purposes, but is only used for aiding and ameliora- 
ting wines. As the potato-sugar is similar to the grape-sugar, it is by the Germans 
and French called grape-sugar. — A. H. 



APPENDIX I. 

BEET-SUGAR 

EXTRACTED FROM THE WORK OF K. J. EBERT. 



APPENDIX I. 

K. J. EBERT ON BEET-SUGAR. 

The Beet and its Culture. — Estimating the Saccharine Matter. — Manufacture of 
Beet-sugar. — Cleaning the Beets. — Extracting the Juice. — Pressing. — Macera- 
tion. — Boiling. — Preservation of the Juice. — Defecation of the Juice. — The Con- 
centration, Filtration, and Preparation of the "Spodium." — Evaporating Appa- 
ratus. — Tlie First Evaporation. — The First Filtration. — The Second Evaporation. 
— Second Filtration. — Animal Coal. — Boiling in. — Crystallization. — Operations 
of the Filling-room. 

THE BEET AND ITS CULTURE. 

Of all the manifold varieties of the ^'■Beia ci'ela,^^ L., none has 
been more extensively used on the Continent of Europe for the 
purpose of supplying the yearly-increasing consumption of sugar 
than the "White Silesian Sugar-beet — Beta alba. 

Like the rest of the family, and even more than they, this spe- 
cies requires, above all, a soil that is composed of a sandy loam or 
a marl ; the lighter it is, the better, in general, adapted for its cul- 
tivation. Wet or swampy and moory land ought by all means 
to be avoided. A good loosening of the ground by means of 
deep plowing will insure the prospect of a good crop, as the root 
thereby gets a chance to send its main shaft straight down, with- 
out branching off too much. As to manuring the field (if this 
be necessary), great care ought to be taken not to introduce too 
many saline parts (as these will only act detrimentally) into the 
soil by the wrong kind of manure chosen. That of animals, in 
general, should not be used ; broken or pulverized oil-cake and 
bones will, however, produce good results. 

In regard to the size of the beets, this has, in so far, an influ- 
ence upon the quantity of the saccharine matter, that the larger 
they are the more water and other substances they will hold, and 
the less sugar. Those up to 1 and 1^ pounds' weight, generally, 
are found to be the richest in sugar. It is mainly developed dur- 
ing the period of its actual growing until the beet has obtained 
its perfection and stalks are forming. 

In answer to the question " how they shall be kept after being 
dug up from the ground," let it suffice to say that the more care- 
fully they are shut out from the injurious influences of the sun- 
shine, heat, and air, the better they will keep. To cover them 
up about three feet high with ashes will be found highly useful, 
as this will protect them also against the moisture. 

In judging and examining a beet, it must show a small head, 
and be of a long and well-shaped form. It must not be grown 



396 GRAPE CULTURE AND WINE-MAKING. 

bigli out above tlie ground ; and the less its root branclics out 
into small ones the better. Corresponding to the firm meat and 
close texture of the fibres must be its thin and white skin. It 
must break off short and snapping ; must have a sweet and pleas- 
ant taste, but by no means a salt or harsh one. 

Of the density of its juice we can only ascertain by the applica- 
tion of certain instruments, the best of which are "Balling's Sac- 
charimeter" and the "Araeometer," of both of which we shall 
speak hereafter. A very simple way to determine, as nearly as 
possible, the quantity of pure crystallizable sugar matter in the 
beet is given by Mr, Pelouze as follows: "The beet is cut into 
thin slices, and the sugar extracted therefrom by means of alcohol. 
Suppose 100 or 1000 of such slices taken, then the weight of the 
sugar secreting on the evaporation of the alcohol, expressed in 
grains and divided by 10, will give the number of per cents." 

Dr. L. Gall, an eminent chemist in Trtives, proposes to ascertain 
the loss in weight which a liquid of sugar mixed with yeast suffers 
by fermentation. This loss corresponds to the quantity of carbon- 
ic acid formed, because this latter escapes. It will consequently 
be only necessary to weigh the liquid hefore and after the ferment- 
ation, 

IMANUTACTURE OF BEET-SUGAR. 

The sugar-beet is composed of 81 per cent, of water ^ 11 per cent, 
of sugar matter^ 4 per cent, o^ fibrous matter^ and 4 per cent, of va- 
rious other substances. By the subsequent process of fabrication, 
these 11 per cent, of sugar substance will, however, average not 
more than about 7 per cent, of raw sugar^ and again of these only 
5 per cent, of crysiallizahle and 2 per cent, of sirup or not crystal- 
lizable sugar ; or, expressed in another form, 100 pounds of beets 
will result in 7 pounds of raw sugar. 

The manufacturing process requires a number of operations, of 
which some arc merely mechanical, others of a chemical nature. 
The first comprise the cleaning of the beets, the extraction of the 
juice, etc ; the latter, the clarifying of the juice, its concentration and 
filtration^ the boiling and crystallization^ and the I'cfining of the sugar. 

Cleaning of the Beets. 

The reason of this operation is too obvious to need explanation. 
It is conducted in a wooden trough or box, especially made for 
this purpose, with holes in the bottom to let the dirt flow off. This 
must be carefully attended to, the water repeatedly renewed, and 
with hands and liard brooms the soil adhering to the beets re- 
moved. After this, the hard top crust or the head of the beets 
must be cut off by a knife, also the remaining injured parts look- 
ed after, and the superfluous roots trimmed off, and small stones 
taken out that may stick in the skin or meat of the beet, in order 
that they may not injure the pressing machine. 



K. J. EBERT ON BEET-SUGAIl. 397 

Extracting the Juice. 

This is done cither by pressing or maceration. The former pro- 
cess is based upon the principle that the fibrous cells of the beets 
must be torn in order to let the sugar-matter contained by them 
escape. It is done by putting the beets, either singly or in small 
quantities, into a box in which works a cylinder of wood, upon 
which a number of teeth, made of sheet-iron or steel, are fixed in 
such a manner that at each motion or turn of the cylinder they 
press the beets rolling on to them through a feeding-hole against 
another row of steel or wooden teeth fixed at a certain distance 
above them, and in this manner lacerate the fibres. This mass 
falls into another box placed beneath, through the open bottom of 
it, and is thence transferred to the press itself Of these there are 
several in use. The best, however, seems to be the hydraulic press. 

Before this takes place the mass is put upon the so-called 
"press-cloth," or into "press-bags." The former are made of 
hemp, or cotton, or wool, the latter being the best ; but they must 
not be washed in warm water when being cleaned, as then they 
would be apt to get filthy. When spread on such, it is rolled over 
with a wooden mangle and taken to the press, where it comes un- 
der the piston in layers one upon the other as high as convenient. 
Great care must be taken not only in putting the mass on the 
cloth in a solid cake form, but also in placing the various layers 
themselves so in the press that all parts of them are equally brought 
under the powerful action of the machine. After all the " cakes" 
have given up their fluid, they are taken out and others put in ; 
in the mean time, the cloths of the former pressing are thoroughly 
cleaned. 

The " maceration" process differs materially from the first; and 
its principal points are the following : 

The cut and lacerated beets are put into an apparatus where 
hot water is poured over them, which removes the sugar from the 
juice-cells, or absorbs it. If the sugar contained in this liquid 
should not prove concentrated enough, when a reasonable time 
for extraction has been allowed, it must be refilled upon the next 
batch, and so on. 

Besides these foregoing we have still the method of extracting 
the sugar matter by the application of rollers^ atmospheric p)ressure, 
and boiling of the beets. The main features of this last process 
are the following : To boil the washed and peeled beets in a cop- 
per kettle, adding about ten per cent, of their weight of water, 
and then to press the juice out of this mass in bags, which, refil- 
tered through a linen cloth into the newly-cleaned kettle, may be 
directly caused to evaporate to the crystallizing point. In this 
way, says the inventor, the entire liquid (by mixing with the con- 
centrated juice while it is yet hot about 1|- per cent, of its weight 
of powdered crystal sugar) changes, in a warm place, into a granu- 



398 GRAPE CULTURE AND WINE-MAKING. 

lous mass, wbicli it only needs to fill into bags and press it out, in 
order to obtain, in from 14 to 30 days, the entire sugar that had 
been contained in the beets. 

Preserving the Juice. 

As the good result of the entire process depends on two main 
points — cleanliness in all the appertaining actions and instruments, 
and ex23eclition in disposing of the juice to the boiling kettle, it be- 
comes evident that the greatest possible care must be taken in re- 
gard to them. Referring to the latter, it will frequently be found 
inconvenient or impossible to attend to it as quickly as desired. 
In this case, the juice, when running out from under the press, 
which appears first of a clear white color, is conducted to the re- 
ceiving-tub ; it will, however, be found to have changed into red; 
and if left much longer in contact with the air, into hroivn or even 
black — a sure sign that the sugar matter gets rapidly decomposed. 
This is caused by the combination of the oxygen of the air with 
the albuminous matters in the beets, producing acids and forming 
slime, by which the aptitude of the sugar to crystallize is destroy- 
ed, and finally itself entirely dissolved. Various methods have 
been recommended and tried to avoid this evil ; none, however, 
with perfectly satisfactory success. The best of them might be 
to add to the raw juice about two per cent, of the weight of the 
beets of acid sulphurous lime. 

As to the first point, " cleanliness^^'' we may add that immediate- 
ly after one pressing process is finished and another one begins, 
all the implements in the room, without exception — even the floor 
and walls — must be carefully cleaned off, and the refuse and offal 
removed. The wooden instruments have to be washed, first with 
warm and afterward with cold water, and all wood parts of the 
room sprinkled over with lime-water. The bags and cloths must 
be exchanged for fresh ones. 

The Defecation of the Juice. 

This causes the removing of all substances from the juice which, 
being contained in the beets, would in any way act injuriously to 
the sugar by decomposing it, or hindering its perfect crystalliza- 
tion. It is, however, not a mere mechanical operation, but one 
that has to be executed by chemical application. 

The most efiicient agent for this purpose we have in lime ; and 
the apparatus necessary for the defecation is called " the defeca- 
tion kettle." It is generally made of iron or copper, at its lower 
end of half round, and thence upward of more cylindrical form. 
The bottom is a double one. In filling this a space of six or 
seven inches must be left empty to prevent the running over of 
the liquid. 

The principal points of this process are, 

During the Uealing. — To close, after the kettle has been rapidly 



K. J. EBERT ON BEET-SUGAR. 399 

filled, the air-valve, and to open both the steam-valves on it to let 
the steam enter the hollow bottom spaee. The time when the 
lime is to be added depends much on the quality of the beets ; a 
thermometer must be at hand, however, and it might be well to 
appoint it at 60° to 65° E., that is, when the temperature of the 
boiling fluid has attained to that degree. 

During the adding of Lime. — When this is done the steam- valves 
must be closed, and the necessary quantity of the lime dissolved 
in water quickly added, stirring it well into the fluid. After this 
the steam- valve is only partially, but the air-valve fully opened, 
and the foam now forming on the surface of the juice pushed back 
to observe the action of the fluid. Soon the albuminous flakes 
will begin to rise ; the limy foam begins to burst and give way be- 
fore the green scum. More and more this will concentrate, look 
dry, fleecy, and light. Finally, some parts of it will expand them- 
selves considerably, and j uice-fountains burst through them. Then 
the boiling liquid is defecated. 

In regard to the quantity of lime to be taken, f to 1^ pounds 
of it would be quite sufficient for 100 pounds of beets. 

The sediments in the kettle and the foam remaining can be put 
into bags and pressed out again, as they may contain sugar matter 
and sufficient juice to pay for the trouble. 

Treatment of the defecated Juice. 

Clear and transparent, this must be directly taken to the " evap- 
orating pan," or, which is better, conducted to it by means of a 
pipe. Before it enters, it answers well to let it pass through a fil- 
ter, in order to free it of its lime parts. These filters may be con- 
structed from a tin or copper vessel, whose perforated bottom is 
covered with woolen or linen cloth, and a thin layer of bone-black. 
Some also neutralize the lime by the application of carbonic acid. 

The Concentration^ Filtration, and the preparation of the ^^ Spodium." 

The object of these actions is to remove the superfluous water 
mixed with the sugar of the juice, effected by a continued evapo- 
rating process and a filtering over animal coal. The first reduces 
the quantity of the juice to one ninth of its original volume ; and 
as this can not be done by one, it must be so by a second repeated 
evaporation, and the latter takes place after each of these. 

The evajjorating aj^paratus consists mainly of a copper vessel 
resting upon a wooden stand, of a depth equal to about the fourth 
part of its diameter, closed by a wooden lid, leaving only a semi- 
circular opening that also can be closed by a hinge cover, and of 
a conduit, through which the steam formed by the boiling may 
escape. Close by this there is a pipe, extending through the lid, 
with a faucet to let the defecated juice pass into, and another one 
at the opposite side of the bottom to let the evaporated off. One 
of the most important inventions of late years for the purpose of 



400 GRAPE CULTURE AND WINE-MAKING. 

the concentration of tlie beet-juice is the method of effecting the 
evaporation by means of the vacuum. Besides these there are 
several other constructions of pans ; for instance, the one invent- 
ed by Howard, another by Tischbein, and Daneck's apparatus. 

The first evaporation is usually continued until the juice gets 
concentrated to about 10° or 12° of Beaume's scale. The vapors 
arising during it will, by their ammoniacal smell, indicate the pres- 
ence of many azotic parts. The juice is then drawn off by means 
of a siphon, and conducted to the filtering apparatus. 

The first Filtration. — For this purjDosc bone or animal coal is 
preferred. These, being filled into the apparatus, need a first clean- 
ing of adhering dirty parts by cold water ; after this, a second wash- 
ing by w^arm "water. Now the juice is j^ourcd upon them and left 
for about half an hour in connection with them. When it has 
passed through this oijcration, the juice is now subjected to 

The second Evaporation. — It will here be treated in the same 
manner as at the first, and be found much purer and freer of lime 
parts than before. It must be concentrated up to 20° or 22° B., 
and is then allowed the 

Second Filtration in the same apparatus, and a like manipula- 
tion as before. Asa matter of course, the juice, now being con- 
centrated into a thick fluid, penetrates the coals very slowly, and 
must be allowed ample time. 

The Animal Coal, or ^'' SpodiumJ'' — We need say nothing here 
about the manner of making this, as it is a very simple and gen- 
erally -knowm one. Well-charred coals weigh 40 to 42 pounds per 
cubic foot. The net produce of the bones amounts to about 40 
per cent, of their weight when fresh. The coal must have a deep 
black color, a firm texture, and, touched by the lips, stick to them ; 
if so, it may be considered good. Pulverizing it is not advisable. 

Boiling in ofi the refined Juice. 

This is generally effected in two different ways ; the one to be 
called the boiling in to the string or clear proof, and the other 
boiling in to the grain proof, and the boiling in of the sirup. 

In adopting the first, the juice is only concentrated to the crys- 
tallizing point by applying a quick heat and a very careful man- 
ipulation. This tends only to a slow and regular formation of 
crystals, and to the producing of raw sugar in large crystals, that 
still needs refining before it can be brought out for sale. Before 
the mass gets too much concentrated, the kettle must be filled up 
again with fresh juice, and this repeated. 

In the second case, which' will produce grain sugar (mclis) 
merely, a firm and dense texture and small crystals are intended 
in the sugar. The boiling must be continued until this proof is 
attained. It generally turns out a very difficult affair, and must 
be aided "by an addition of already-made crystal sugar at the ap- 
proaching of the crystallizing point of the boiling juice. 



K. J, EBERT ON BEET-SUGAR. 401 

The boiling in of the sirup can only be directed to the pro- 
ducing of raiv, but not of grain sugar. As the sirup boils very 
slowly, an addition of water will be found advantageous. 

The various methods of proving the sugar, when it has attained 
the desired or necessary consistency, cither by the linger or water, 
or the drawing out threads, the perling of the mass, etc., must 
rather be learned by practice, as this alone will show the proper 
moment. There are, indeed, several instruments to determine it, 
but too complicated to be of general use; as, for instance, the 
" Manometer," invented by L, Walkhoff, or the " Vacuum- Are- 
ometer" by Kwiech. 

The Crystallization of the Sugar. 

After the foregoing actions are gone through with, the mass 
has to be immediately taken to the "crystallization forms." The 
temperature of the filling-room must also now be increased to 
from 24° to 30° R, and kept at it. 

The filling of the Forjns in order to get raiv Sugar in large Crys- 
tals. — This requires no other manipulation except to put the mass 
into the forms, in which it is left until the drawing-off process be- 
gins. The quicker it cools off the smaller will the crystals get ; 
the slower, the larger. The shape of the former differs according 
to the wants. The one most in use for raw sugar is that of a box, 
square or round, toward the bottom somewhat narrower, with a 
wire sieve inside, beneath which the separated sirup flows off by 
an especial pipe or tube. It is called " Schiitzenbach's Box." 

The filling the Forms to get Grain Sugar. — In this case the mass 
is put into forms of a particular shape. Formerly they used to 
be made of baked clay, of a conical shape, and placed upon pots 
(of urn shape, with an opening corresponding to the point of the 
former), in order to receive the sirup dropping out. They are 
now, however, preferred of sheet-iron, coated inside and outside 
with varnish, holding 32 pounds of the filling mass. These have 
also an opening at the point of their inverted cone to let the 
sirup off, which, before the filling commences, must be closed bv 
a linen cloth fastened into it by means of a nail. The forms are 
then placed upon lath scaffolds, perpendicular upon their centre 
of the point, in parallel rows, and now the filling-in begins. They 
are left in their places until the next day, and then put upon the 
floor of the room. ' 

The Filling-in of the boiled Sinqy to get the After-product. — This, 
being regularly warmed up, is put into other iron boxes, and left 
quietly to crystallize, which will take considerably more time than 
the former methods. 

Drawing the Sirup off from the Forms. — The time during which 
the whole crystallizing process finishes is of various duration. In 
the Schiitzenbach boxes it will generally be found after 18 hours ; 
in the conical forms somewhat sooner. When the sugar has been 

Cc 



402 GRAPE CULTURE AND WINE-MAKIXG. 

separated from the sirup in firm crystal bodies and cooled off (in 
which state it must fill the whole form out), the openings must be 
cleared by drawing the cloth pieces out, and a pointed iron rod 
introduced through them, penetrating several inches deep into the 
sugar mass. This opens the way for the sirup bound up between 
the crystals, and allows it to flow off. The Schiitzcnbach boxes 
are, for this purpose, put a little upon their sides or edges. After 
from 36 to 48 hours, the sirup of wcU-boiled sugar will generally 
be all run out, and now follows 

The taking out from the Forms. — With the sugar of the first- 
mentioned quality this is simply done by turning the boxes over 
on a table of stout boards, with borders, so that the sugar may fall 
out. The dirty upper parts of it are then taken off, and the pure 
remaining mass broken up by wooden j^estles, to make it dry 
quicker and obtain a clearer color. With the sugar of the second- 
mentioned quality {melis), after the forms have likwise been open- 
ed to free them of the siruj^, which will run out within six or eight 
days, a different manipulation takes place. Being taken off from 
their beds (small boards with round holes in them to hold the 
points of them), the uppermost (broad) layer of the sugar must be 
broken up by a small hand-mattock, and the new surface well 
leveled i^gain by a scraper, so as to leave only a small cavity in 
the very centre of it. After this operation, the forms with the 
sugar yet in them are replaced in their beds. The produce of the 
entire mass of boiled sugar will generally result in 60 per cent, 
after the drawing off of the sirup, or five eighths of its weight of 
crystallized sugar and three eighths as sirup. 

Covering the Sugar with Water. — The refuse of the sugar gained 
in the prescribed way must now be dissolved in pure water, and 
poured over the sugar in the forms. Penetrating this, it drives 
all the remaining sirup parts out, and takes up their places, there- 
by acting as a purifying agent. If the first infusion should not 
suffice, it may be repeated after 24 hours or 86. Frequently a 
third time will be found necessary to make the sugar white and 
nice-looking. Before this is added the surface has to be loosened 
again, to give it a better chance to enter. After this, when the 
last sirup coming out of the opening appears perfectly clear and 
colorless, the sugar can be taken out of the forms. If good, it 
must show a uniform whiteness, no yellow spots or stripes, and 
an equal grain throughout. The raw sugar, as first product, re- 
ceives a similar covering with water, if found necessary, in the 
Schiitzcnbach boxes, placed for the purpose upon stools. The 
after-products from sirup may be covered, according to option, 
either with water or sirup. 

Refining the Sugar.— Those kinds of sugar that are destined to 
go through the process of being refined are broken into pieces, 
and dissolved in water to about 30° concentration. This solution, 
after being warmed up to 50° or 55°, receives an addition of 1 or 



E. J. EBERT ON BEET-SUGAR. ^qo 

2 pounds of animal blood to each 100 pounds of it, must then be 
increased in its temperature to 60<^ or 65° E, and have another 
addition of 4 to 6 per cent, of finely-powdered bone coal, and the 
entire mass be brought slowly to boiling. Soon the sigis of the 
intended refining will show themselves, and be entirely finished 
when the solution appears transparent, clear, and a white foam 
with transparent bubbles, rises up from out of the surface of the 
boilmg substance. This must now be drawn off, and conducted 
over coal filters before it can be farther boiled. In order to re- 
move the coal remnants and other impurities, albumen (white of 
eggs), stirred in water, may bo mixed to it while boiUno- As 
to the rest, it is subjected to the same manipulations as before 
spoken of , 



APPENDIX K. 

THE SOEGHO AND IMPHEE. 

EXTRACTED FROM THE WORK OP HENRY S. OLCOTT. 

New Youk (Sixth Edition), 1858. 



APPENDIX K. 

H. S. OLCOTT ON THE SORGHO AND IMPIIEE. 

Introductory Note. — First appearance of the Sorgho and Imphce in Europe. — Vari- 
ous Experiments. — Mr. Leonard Wray. — Introduction of the Sorgho into Amer- 
ica. — History of Sorgho in the Southern States. — Soils required. — Yield of Seed 
and Fodder. — Making Sugar or Sirup on a small Scale. — Boiling and Clarifying. 
— Reducing to Sugar. — Mr. Wray's Patent. 

Introductory Note. 

[We have reflected much, and from time to time urged, either through the public 
press or in speeches at agricultural fairs before farmers, the necessity of raising such 
articles as less favored countries can not produce. It must be apparent to every per- 
son that with our liigh labor we are not able to compete with our countrymen on the 
other side of the Rocky Mountains in raising wheat, barle}', and oats. Labor for 
some time to come must be high ; in fact, as long as the gold grounds will furnish 
hope to a man of getting rich, he will go there as soon as he has earned enough on 
a farm to keep him a few months prospecting. 

With this circumstance before us, we naturally inquire. What can we plant to make 
a sure living, employ the least part of our land and working stock, implements, etc. ? 
It is positively certain that raising grain will not only pay us nothing, but will make 
us bankrupt. 

To be able to recommend some produce which would pay better than small grain, 
we have made a European tour and diligent searches for a profitable produce. AVe 
started out from home determined to examine the sugar-beet, fields, factories, etc., 
to ascertain the yields per acre, profits, and manufacturing, etc., and the results of 
our inquiries have been given in the preceding pages. It was well known that the 
sugar-beet has been cultivated in France and Germany, and that sugar has been 
manufactured from the same for many years ; that it must have been a paying busi- 
ness there is proved by the increase of the sugar made from the beet. 

We reasoned thus : If raising the sugar-beet where land is fifty or even a hundred 
times as high as in California ; where the land must be manured at a cost of from 
fifteen to twenty dollars per acre ; where all taxes are high ; and, above all, where 
sugar-beets do not grow so well as in California, why, then, should it not pay here, 
and pay well? Therefore we made diligent inquiries while there, and found that 
the culture of beets pays from fifty to a hundred dollars per acre ; the fact that this 
branch of agriculture spread with rapid strides is sufficient proof of its excellency. 
In all the European domains, France, Germany, England, Hungary, Sweden, and 
even into Russia it has extended ; and, with all its increase, the demand for sugar is 
greater and greater every year, and the price, instead of diminishing, increases. 

However, finding that within the last three or four years the Sorgho and Imp/tee 
were introduced into France with great success, and in many places where the sugar- 
beet was planted the Sorgho and Imphee have been introduced instead, and the time 
is not far distant when this latter produce will put away the beet-root altogether, I 
became convinced that the Sorgho and Imphee are superior to the sugar-beet for the 
purpose of making sugar, or for fodder for cattle. 

In order to furnish some idea of the value and importance of these plants to our 
agriculture, I give a few extracts from the valuable work of Mr. Henry S. Olcott, 
"Principal of the Westchester Farm School," ]\Iount Vernon, near the city of New 
York, on " The Sorgho and Imphee." This work contains full information respect- 
ing these plants, the mode of culture, and the processes of making sugar, embodying 
the author's own experience and observation, and the results of the various experi- 
ments made in the various parts of America and Europe. It also contains illustra- 



408 



GRAPE CULTURE AND WINE-MAKING. 



tions of the implements and ajiparatus necessary for the iiroduction of sugar upon a 
large or small scale. The work, being published in New York at a moderate price, 
is easily obtained in California, where I am happy to learn that a large number of 
copies have been sold. Every farmer wiio proposes to cultivate these plants will do 
well to provide himself with a co])y of Olcott's work. The brief extracts which I 
have made are sufficient to show the importance of the subject to the agriculture of 
our State. — A. H.] 




xui; buuuuo. 



II. S. OLCOTT ON THE SOKGllO AND IMi'IIEE. 409 

First Appearance in Europe. 

Its first appccarancc in Eur()})e dates back no farther than the 
year 1851, at which time the Count do Montigny, consul of France 
at Shanghac, in China, sent to the Geographical Society of Paris 
a collection of plants and seeds which he found in China, and 
which he thought would succeed in his own country. Among 
these was the celebrated Chinese yam {Dioscorea batatas) and the 
Holcus saccharatus, under the name of " the sugar-cane of the 
north orChina." Curiously enough, there was received in France 
at about the same time a quantity of seeds of a plant having ap- 
parently the same properties and almost the same appearance as 
the Sorgho, which had been discovered on the southeast coast of 
Africa, in the country of the Zulu Kaffirs, by Mr. Leonard Wray ; 
and upon comparing the plants derived from these widely sepa- 
rate sources, the remarkable fact was made apparent, that in abil- 
ity to yield crystallized sugar, to afford nourishment for stock, 
and in the requirements of cultivation and other peculiarities, they 
were almost identical. 

Various Experimenters. 

Experiments were likewise instituted by members of the Im- 
perial Acclimation Society, but by none were they more zealous- 
ly pursued, nor more successfully carried on, than by the Compte 
de David Beauregard. This gentleman was so confident of its 
value that he made strenuous efforts to increase his stock of seed, 
planted the greatest possible area of land with it, and succeeded 
so completely that it is from his third crop that has been derived 
the major portion of the immense amount that has been planted 
in the United States. In France we find it successively spread- 
ing in the provinces of La Drome, Les Pyrenees Orientales, La 
Haute-Marne, La Gironde, Le Gers, etc., and every where exciting 
the greatest attention among the most distinguished agricultur- 
ists ; and thence it quickly finds its way to Algeria. 

Mr. Leonard Wray. 

Mr. Wray is widely known to the sugar-planters of the world 
from his authorship of the " Sugar-Planters' Companion," pub- 
lished in Calcutta in 1843, and the "Practical Sugar-Planter," pub- 
lished in London in 1848, and republished in French, Spanish, 
Portuguese, and Dutch. In 1850 he left the East Indies for the 
Cape of Good Hope, w^hence he went to Kaffirland, and found the 
Zulu Kaffirs cultivating the Imphee around their huts, not for the 
purpose of manufacturing crj^stallized sugar or obtaining any oth- 
er of its products with a commercial view, but merely for the pur- 
pose of chewing and sucking the stalks. He quickly saw of what 
value such plants were likely to become to Europe and America, 
and applied himself to their study, their culture, and manufacture 



410 GRAPE CULTURE AND WINE-MAiaNG. 

into sugar, etc. After having fully satisfied himself on these 
points, he returned to Europe, and planted patches in England, 
France, and Belgium; applied for patents in various countries; 
addressed the French government through Marshal Vaillant, Min- 
ister of War ; exhibited specimens of sugar and the plants to Mr, 
Buchanan, then American minister at London ; and subsequently 
established the culture of the Imphee in Turkey, Egypt, the West 
Indies, the Brazils, the Mauritius, Australia, and finally in this 
country. The gift that he thus made to our agriculture may be 
estimated when we reflect that we have almost every range of 
climate known in the world, from the torrid and fervent heats of 
the tropical zone to the most rigorous winters of the north ; and, 
his plants requiring in some instances but ninety days to run 
through the whole course of vegetation and ripen their seeds, oth- 
ers of greater saccharine richness requiring a more lengthened 
season than is necessary for the ordinary sugar-cane, he has thus 
given to the farmers of every section of the country the opjDortu- 
nity to select from out his collection of varieties some one pecul- 
iarly adapted to the latitude in which he resides. In the year 
1856, Mr. Wray obtained the large silver medal of the Exposition 
Universelle at Paris for his Imphee sugar, alcohol, seeds, and 
plants; and the French government, moreover, granted to him 
twenty-five hundred acres of land in Algeria, to encourage in that 
colony the establishment of this important cultivation. 

Introduction of the Sorglio into America. 

In the month of November, 185-i, D. Jay Brownj Esq., of the 
United States Patent Office, returned to America from Europe, 
bringing with him a quantity of the seed of the Chinese sugar- 
cane. These seeds were distributed to various persons through- 
out this country ; but the feeling of suspicion with which all new 
things are more or less viewed tended to confine this experiment 
of cultivation to a few of the more enterprising farmers, until the 
formal report, addressed by Gen. J. II. Hammond, late Governor 
of South Carolina, to the Secretary of the Beach Island, South 
Carolina, Farmers' Club, awakened general attention. Upon the 
publication of a circular, containing the experiments of Colonel 
Peters, and the notice of the sirup which was exhibited by him 
at the Fair of the United States Agricultural Society, the general 
excitement upon the subject was at once considerably augmented ; 
and the subsequent appearance of the reports to the French Min- 
ister of War, the experience of American farmers in different parts 
of the country, the excellent pamphlets of Mr. J. F. C. Hyde, of 
Massachusetts, and Mr. Charles F. Stansbury, of Washington, all 
have united in lending this increase to the all prevalent interest. 



II. S. OLCOTT ON THE SORGHO AND IMPIIEE. 411 

History of the Sorglio in the Southern States. 

Mr. D. Ecdmond, Associate Editor of the Southern Cultivator, 
gives the following account : 

In the winter of 1854-5, I obtained per mail, through a seed- 
importing house in Boston, two ounces of what was then denom- 
inated " Chinese Sugar-cane, or Holcus saccharatus." I am not 
aware that any of this seed had been distributed from the Patent 
Office in this neighborhood up to that time, nor had I then any 
other evidence of its value than the newspaper advertisement 
which induced me to send for it. I have since learned, however, 
that the Patent Office distributed a small quantity of seed in the 
spring of 1854 ; and that, prior even to that time, the plant had 
been tested to a limited extent by a few gentlemen in the vicinity 
of New Orleans. Nothing satisfactory, however, was known of 
the plant here at that time ; and wishing to have it thoroughly 
tested, I sent small samples, per letter, to various agricultural and 
horticultural friends in Georgia and the adjoining States, request- 
ing them to communicate to me the result of their experiments 
with it. For myself, I merely planted seven or eight hills, in 
rather poor ground, in my garden, and watched its growth with 
considerable interest. At first I was disappointed, and quite 
ready to rank it among the many humbugs of the day, as it came 
up very weakly, like grass or Egyptian millet, and grew off quite 
slowly. In a few weeks, however, it began to shoot upward with 
great rapidity, and in less than three months attained the height 
of ten feet, with large and well-filled heads of seed. When these 
seeds were nearly ripe, I incidentally cut one of the stalks, peeled 
off the hard outer husk, and was quite surprised to find a solid 
pith or core, of about three fourths of an inch in diameter, crisp, 
brittle, and of an exceedingly sweet and pleasant flavor — entirely 
unlike any thing of the corn-stalk family that I had ever tasted. 
It was, in fact, ready-made candy ; and as soon as the younger 
members of the family and the negroes " got the taste" of it, I 
was obliged to interdict its farther use, in order to save seed. 
When the latter were fully ripe, I cut off the heads and saved 
them carefully, noticing, with some surprise, that the leaves or 
blades of fodder were still as fresh, green, and succulent as ever. 
The stalks were then cut off near the ground, and fed, leaves and 
all, to my horses, mules, and milch-cows, all of which ate of it 
with the greatest apparent relish and avidity. Considering that 
crop disposed of for the season, I paid no more attention to the 
stubble or stumps until I happened to notice that, millet-like, they 
were shooting out anew, and pushing on for a second growth. 
This growth I watched with some interest until the first frosts 
checked it, at which time the stalks were six feet high, full of 
broad and juicy leaves, and with the second crop of seed just 
making its appearance above the "boot." 



412 GRAPE CULTURE AND WINE-MAKING. 

Convinced by tliis time that it was valuable at least for the 
production of soiling forage and dried fodder, I next turned my 
attention to its saccharine properties, and fortunately induced my 
friend, Dr. Robt. Battey, of Rome, Ga., who was at that time pur- 
suing the study of experimental chemistry in the well-known lab- 
oratory of Prof Rooth, of Philadelphia, to test it. As the result 
of his experiments. Dr. Battey sent me three small phials — one 
containing a fine sirup, one a sample of crude brown sugar, and 
the other a very good sample of crystallized sugar. This I be- 
lieve to be the first crystallized sugar made in the United States 
from the juice of the Sorgho sucre; and as Dr. Battey 's opinion 
of its value as a sugar plant fully agreed with the reports of the 
French savans, who had investigated its properties, and with my 
own convictions, I disseminated the seed more widely during the 
year 1856, and planted nearly two acres, for the purpose of rais- 
ing the seed largely, and more fully testing the saccharine prop- 
erty and the ability of the plant to bear repeated cuttings, like 
the Egyptian and other varieties of millet. It was planted very 
late, on thin land, and received but imperfect culture, and yet I 
that year cut it three times^ and saved a late crop of fodder from it 
in addition. The present year (1857) I have cut it four times up 
to the present date, August 26. 

During the summer of 1856, particular attention was called to 
the sirup-making properties of this plant by the Report of Gov- 
ernor Hammond, of South Carolina, whose experiments had been 
most ably and carefully conductetl. 

This Report was read before the " Beach Island (S. C.) Farm- 
ers' Club," and was followed by that of Colonel Peters, of Atlanta, 
and others, all of which were published, and presented such satis- 
factory results that the agricultural community generally were 
aroused to the importance of the new "sugar-cane," and desirous 
of giving it a trial. The largest growers of the plant at this time 
(1856) were Absalom Jackson, Esq., of Montgomery, Ala. ; Col. 
R. Peters, of Atlanta; Dr. Whitten, of Hancock Co. ; Dr.Daniell, 
of Decatur, Ga., and the writer. The seed raised by these persons 
was, we believe, nearly all saved, and very widely disseminated 
over the Union, but principally through the Southern States, 
where, unquestionably, the plant attains its fullest and most per- 
fect development. Twenty or thirty thousand packages of the 
seed alluded to were scattered over the country, and in the South 
alone probably thousands of acres are now growing. A large 
number of the growers are preparing to convert the juice of the 
Sorgho into sirup and sugar ; and if an easy and economical proc- 
ess for crystallizing the latter can be employed, this plant will at 
once become one of our most important staple productions. I 
have, within the past two months, received letters from gentlemen 
in nearly every one of the Southern States, who were raising the 
cane from seed which I furnished, and the terms of praise and 



II. S. OLCOTT ON THE SORGHO AND IMPHEE. 413 

even enthusiasm 'witli wliicli they dwell upon its good qualities 
are truly gratifying to me. Upon the whole, therefore, the Sorgho 
may be considered a dceidcd suecess in the South, and the results 
obtained may be briefly summed up as follows : 

1. An acre of the stalks, properly cultivated, on fair land, will 
yield from three hundred to six hundred gallons of excellent sirup, 
equal to the best New Orleans, and worth, at present prices, from 
forty-five to seventy cents per gallon, 

2. If planted early, it will fully ripen iiuo crops of seed and two 
crops of cane for crushing ; as new shoots are invariably thrown 
out from the roots, and attain full development after the first cut- 
ting, which takes place about the 25th of July, in this latitude, in 
favorable seasons. 

3. From 25 to 100 bushels of seed can be raised to the acre, 
which seed, for all feeding purposes, is at least as valuable as oats. 

4. It bears repeated cutting when green, and is inferior to no 
other plant for " soiling." 

5. The seed and fodder are fully equal in value to an ordinary 
corn-crop, thus leaving the canes and their juice a clear profit to 
the cultivator. 

6. It withstands our long droughts much better than common 
corn, retaining its green color and succulence even after the seed 
matures. 

The various economical uses to which the Sorgho may be ap- 
plied are so fully adverted to in other portions of this work that 
it is unnecessary to enter farther into detail, and I will close by 
expressing the conviction that, wherever the climate is suitable to 
its proper development, this plant will fully realize all its most 
sanguine friends have ever claimed for it. 

Soils Eequired. 

[Mr. Olcott givps full directions for the mode of culture of the Sorgho, with notes 
of the experiment of various persons. Wc quote a few paragraphs.] 

When we say that the Chinese sugar-cane can grow iipon all 
soils on which a fair crop of Indian corn can be raised, we have 
almost covered the entire question, and given the desired informa- 
tion. The experiments which have been made upon it in Alge- 
ria, France, and this country, have proved the fact that the best 
results are obtained on loose, deep soils ; but it has been demon- 
strated that the juices of plants grown upon soils largely composed 
of vegetable detritus is more abundant in fecula, and the sugar 
manifests a somewhat weaker propensity to crystallize than upon 
any others ; but in such cases, as it contains a large quantity of 
fecula, it can be readily converted into alcohol. M. Paul Madinier 
says that for it are especially suitable light, sandy soils and cal- 
careous soils, but particularly those formed from alluvial depos- 
its. That in nearly every case, especially in Algeria and the 
southern part of France, very excellent results will be attained by 



414 GKArE CULTURE AND WINE-MAKING. 

the employment of irrigation during the early stages of its growth, 
and when'it is most rapidly developing itself; but that if employ- 
ed at a later date, when it is approaching maturit}^, it proves dele- 
terious, by impeding the elaboration of the saccharine principle, 
and rendering the canes too watery. M. Hardy, the intelligent 
director of the Government Nursery in Algeria, says that the 
Sorgho flourishes extremely well on soils containing carbonate of 
lime, and he advises frequent liming of such soils as are deficient 
in it. This recommendation finds its explanation in the astonish- 
ing success of the Sorgho on the chalky soils of Champagne, 
where otherwise they obtained very mediocre results ; but, says 
M. Madinier, if calcareous applications seem desirable, it is by no 
means the same of such other saline manures as have been found 
by experience to be unfavorable for the sugar-cane and the sugar- 
beet, Lacoste urges upon his readers to avoid attempting the 
Sorgho culture on soils where the soluble inorganic matters are 
very abundant, because they would thus be exposed to the unde- 
sirable perplexity of producing juice in their plants of a saline 
character, and completely unsuitable to the extraction of sugar. 
Count Beauregard says that the Sorgho will flourish well on al- 
most all soils if they be underdrained and irrigated; but his ex- 
perience shows him what would be supposed by any sensible 
man, that the best results are obtained on soils of the best quality 
that are best cultivated. 

Yield of Steel and Fodder. 

In respect to the yield of seed per acre, the North, says M. d'lv- 
ernois, can not hope to equal the South, where sixty bushels are 
produced. This result was obtained in the neighborhood of lly- 
eres. Colonel Peters, of Georgia, obtained twenty-five bushels 
per acre, of thirty-six pounds per bushel. Governor Ilammond, 
of South Carolina, weighed a peck after three days' drying in the 
sun, and found the weight to be thirty-eight pounds per bushel. 
I have weighed several lots from Vilmorin, Andrieux, & Co., of 
Paris, and Count Beauregard, and found the weight to vary from 
forty to forty-eight pounds. Mr. Hyde says the yield is from 
twenty-five to fifty bushels to the acre. Thus we see that on par- 
tially exhausted wheat soils, or alluvial soils, both of which are 
specially adapted to the Sorgho, instead of a poor yield of wheat, 
we may plant the former, and, not taking any thing else into con- 
sideration, obtain a crop of from twenty-five to sixty bushels of 
seed. Mr. Brown said that nine tons of dry fodder had been cut 
in Kentucky last season : Hon. Marshall P. Wilder, president of 
the United States Agricultural Society, teUs me that he knows 
one instance where 19.844 lbs. of fodder had been obtained, the 
weight taken after a three months' drying. The weight of the 
green stalks varies from seven to forty tons, according to circum- 
stances. The director of the Government Nursery at Hamma, 



II. S. OLCOTT ON THE SORGHO AND IMPIIEE. 415 

Algiers, in his report to the Minister of War, says lie got a result 
of 83,250 lbs. of green forage per acre. Our own Patent Office 
-Report for 1855 says, " Aside from other economical uses, its 
value for feeding to animals alone, in every section of the Union 
where it will thrive, can not be surpassed by any other crop, as a 
greater amount of nutritious fodder can not be obtained so cheap- 
ly in a given space within so short a time; and without wishing 
to present the question in an extravagant light, it may be stated 
that this crop is susceptible of being cultivated within the terri- 
tory of the United States to an extent equal to that of Indian corn, 
say 25,000,000 acres per annum ; and estimating the average yield 
of dry gr cured fodder to the acre at two tons, the yearly amount 
produced would be 50,000,000 tons, which, to keep within bounds, 
would be worth at least $500,000,000, besides the profits derived 
from the animals in milk, flesh, labor, and wool." 

Making Sugar or Sirup on a small Scale. 

[Mr. Olcott gives full instructions for the manufacture of sugar on a large and 
small scale. We quote only his directions for the latter.] 

For the benefit of a large class whose facilities or inclinations 
have induced them only to jDlant a small patch of Chinese sugar- 
cane by way of experiment, 3- et who, nevertheless, are desirous of 
making a trial of sirup or sugar making on their own account, I 
subjoin the following description of a process by which, at a tri- 
fling expense, both sirup and sugar may be manufactured in a 
small way for family use by any farmer or householder M'ho has 
but a few canes growing in his garden, and which may be applied 
to any operation on from five to twenty -five gallons of juice. Of 
course, the first thing is to permit the Sorgho to fully ripen, as in 
that condition it makes the best sirup, and will be free from the 
grass/ flavor complained of in previous experiments. This is 
known by the seeds becoming black and hard. When fully ripe, 
then, with a corn-cutter, a large carving-knife, or, what is better, a 
small hatchet, cut the canes off close to the roots, strip off their 
leaves as far as the joints extend, and chop off the rest of the stalk, 
saving the seeds for future planting if the cane proves to be of 
good quality ; if not, give them to the chickens. 

The next thing is to extract the juice from the stalks or canes. 
This must be done by pressing them between rollers. If there is 
a cider-mill on the premises, it will be all-sufficient. Pass them 
through it just as you would crush apples, catching the juice in 
some clean vessel with as few chips or dirt in it as possible. Now 
build a fireplace with stones, or set up two forked poles, and put 
another across, on which sling your pot, which may be of sheet 
tin, but had better be of cast iron. Let it hold say ten gallons. 
Get a small tin skimmer at a tinsmith's shop, and you are prepared 
to commence boiling;. 



416 GRAPE CULTURE AND WINE-MAKING. 

Boiling and Clarifying. 

Every thing being read}'-, slack a tcacupful of lime, mix it to 
the consistency of cream, and set it by for use. Light your fire, 
with charcoal if you have it, for it makes no smoke, but if you 
have none, use dry kindling-wood. If possible, so arrange your 
rude fireplace as to let the fire reach no more than halfway up 
the sides of the pot. Put five or six gallons of juice into the pot, 
set it on the fire, and, when it becomes milk-warm, add one large 
tablespoonful of the cream of lime, and mix it thoroughly through 
the juice. Now take the whites of two fresh eggs, beat them up 
with a teacupful of the juice from the pot, and when thoroughly 
mixed, pour back, and stir them well through the mass ; bring it to 
the boil as soon as possible ; hut, the moment you see the first sig7is of 
boiling, lift the jMt off the fire, set it on the ground, and let it remain 
quiet for fifteen or twenty minutes. You will have perceived that, 
after adding the cream of lime and eggs, as the simmering went 
on, a thick scum began to rise ; this you must not disturb, but al- 
low to gather on the top, till you take the pot from the fire as di- 
rected, and allow it to settle fifteen or twenty minutes. At the 
end of this time carefully remove the scum, and you will find, if 
3-0U have carefully followed these directions, that the juice has be- 
come clear and bright, ready to boil down to the consistence you 
require, whether of sirup or sugar. ■ Having removed the scum, 
empty the contents of your pot into some clean vessel, which have 
convenient. Fill up your pot again with the raw juice, and pro- 
ceed as before. This is the process of clarifying or defeccding, and 
is absolutely necessary, if you do not wish to have a dark, dirty 
sirup, tasting of cane-stalks, and almost unfit for use. 

After clarifying and skimming the second potful as directed, 
set it back on the fire, and boil down as rapidly as possible. As 
the quantity reduces iDy boiling, keep adding fresh juice from the 
first clarification, so as not to let the sirup get too low in the pot, 
or it will get burned. If any scum rises, remove it with 3^our 
skimmer ; and by following these directions, you can not fail to 
make good sirup. The preceding remarks suppose that you have 
only one jwt to operate with ; but it is very much better to have 
two, as it will save twenty minutes' time, and fuel, with each ket- 
tle of sirup you make ; because, as I have shown, you have to 
wait twenty minutes after taking the pot from the fire to allow 
the scum to rise and settle ; so, if you have not another potful of 
fresh juice to put on, it is so much time and fire wasted. With 
two pots in use, you replace the first on the fire as soon as you 
take the other off, and proceed to boil down. Should you wish to 
make a very extra sirup for table use, get a flannel bag, of almost 
any shape, sufficient to hold two or three gallons, and filter the 
juice through it after you have skimmed it; then boil down as 
before. 



H. S. OLCOTT ON THE SOKGIIO AND IMPIIEE. 417 

It is a matter of importance with those who have never boiled 
sirup to know when the juice is boiled enough. There being noth- 
ing like experiments, I would advise such to procure a cupful of 
molasses, heat it, and, taking up a small quantity on a spoon, to 
watch how it runs down, and when the drops come, how they . 
elongate and break in the middle, the upper half springing back 
with a jerk, and the lower forming a ball and falling into the cup 
again. Three cents in money, and the expenditure of five min- 
utes' time in this way, will go farther in educating the eye to a 
good judgment than an elaborate series of directions. I will give 
one other method, however, of knowing when sirup is cooked 
enough. Dip your skimmer into the boiling liquid ; take it out, 
and allow the sirup to run off it ; a few drops will remain on the 
edge, falling at intervals. If these break with a long string be- 
tween, which at the break jerks back into the dipper again, and 
which, when taken between the finger and thumb, feels like mo- 
lasses^ it is fair to suppose your sirup is sufficiently boiled, and you 
may take it from the fire. 

Reducing to Sugar. 

For making sugar, it will be necessary to boil this same sirup 
down till the steam escapes from it in little pufis, and when the 
skimmer is dipped into it, the falling drops break short and fall 
solid. These simple tests, and perhaps a few failures, will enable 
one to make good sugar. When enough has been boiled, pour it 
into a wooden box or tub to cool slowly, standing it in a warm 
place. Let the box be large enough to allow of the sugar stand- 
ing only 1^ inches deep ; boil another lot, and pour over the top 
of the first, and a third over the top of the second ; mix them all 
together, and allow the contents to cool. If, by the next morn- 
ing, there should be no signs of erj^stals, take a handful of raw 
sugar and stir it in ; in all probability it will start crystallization ; 
but if it should not do so immediately, do not despair, for it may 
stand for an entire fortnight, and then suddenly strike into sugar. 

Mr. Wraj/s Patent. 

Leonard Wkat, of London, England. Letters Patent, No. 17, 713, Dated June 30, 
1857. Patented in Belgium, June 20, 1854. 

To all 7cJwm it may concern : 

Be it known unto all men, that I, Leonard Wray, of the City of 
London, in the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, 
have discovered a new process or method of making crystallized 
sugar, sirup, and molasses from all the African and Chinese vari- 
eties of the "Jw^^/iee" or '■'■Holcus saccliaratus'^ of Linnaeus, often 
denominated " Sugar millet" " Sorghum saccharatum" " Sorgho 
sucre^" etc.; which process is also applicable to the manufacture 
of the same products from the juice of the maize, broom-corn, the 
sugar-maple, etc. 

Dd 



418 GRAPE CULTURE AND WINE-MAKING. 

The process constituting my said invention may briefly thus 
be stated : I take the stalks of the said plants, and obtain the juice 
contained in them by any ordinary and well-known method. This 
raw saccharine juice I then treat with lime, or cream of lime, un- 
til it has lost all trace of acidity, and even becomes sujEhciently al- 
kaline to aSect, in a slight degree, turmeric paper, or other equally 
sensitive test paper, when I at once remove the said j uice into a 
suitable filtering or other apparatus for separating the feculencies 
or coagulated matters from the juice, so as to obtain a clear bright 
liquor or juice, without having subjected it to any heat whatever. 
This clear bright juice or liquor I then put into a suitable vessel, 
and apply heat until the temperature rises from 120 to 180 de- 
grees Fahrenheit, when I treat it with a dilute infusion of pow- 
dered nut-galls, or other substance containing tannin, neutralizing 
any excess of tannin that may have been accidentally given, or 
any acid which may have become liberated, by the addition of a 
little lime, cream of lime, or lime in any other suitable combina- 
tion ; I then urge the heat until the liquor has arrived at the boil- 
ing point, at which it should be kept for a few moments, when the 
heat is withdrawn, and the liquor is again filtered and rendered 
clear. 

This clear defecated liquor is next evaporated, and, if in open 
pans, the scum is taken off as it rises, and the evaporation is con- 
tinued, either in open pans or in any low temjjerature apparatus, 
until the liquor is sufficiently concentrated to permit of its granu- 
lation or crystallization taking effect in proper receptacles, into 
which it is placed for that purpose. If it should so happen that 
the said concentrated juice exhibits a disinclination to granulate 
or form crystals, then the addition of a few ounces of well-grained 
dry sugar may be had recourse to, which will immediately cause 
a granulation of the concentrated sirup. It must be well under- 
stood that I make use of charcoal once^ tiuice^ or thrice^ in the filtra- 
tion and decolorization of the juice and sirup; or, on the other 
hand, I do not use it at all, just as I may see fit and expedient. 
When the new sugar is properly granulated, its molasses is sejDar- 
ated from it by the usual methods now employed. 

It must be distinctly understood that the mere idea of cold fil- 
tration is not unknown, because numerous attempts have from 
time to time been made to filter the raw juice of the sugar-cane 
before applying heat thereto, and small quantities of lime have 
been put into the said raw juice before filtration, in order to pre- 
vent the acidification and fermentation of the juice during filtra- 
tion, and before it could reach the boilers and be boiled ; but my 
distinct and well-proved method is that of adding lime, or cream 
of lime, to the raw juice until it loses all traces of acidity, and it 
becomes sufficiently alkaline to affect slightly the color of turmeric 
paper, or other equally sensitive alkaline test paper. The chem- 
ical principle involved in this process I will now explain, so as to 



II. S. OLCOTT ON TIIE SORGUO AND LMPUEE. 41<j 

demonstrate the very peculiar and distinctive character of my 
treatment, distinguishing it, therefore, from all other methods. 

The juice, as it comes from the mill,l have always found to be 
palpably acid ; the first elTcct of the lime, therefore, is to neutral- 
ize the juice; secondly, to regulate (by a farther addition of lime) 
as large a quantity of the feculencies as possible, by saturating the 
acids which hold them dissolved in the juice. When the lime 
has in this manner combined with the acids, and liberated the 
feculencies, whatever lime may be in excess tends to make the 
juice alkaline, which the turmeric paper immediately denotes, 
showing the necessity of instant filtration, which yields a beauti- 
ful clean, clear bright juice, luitJiout any heat liavimj heen used, leav- 
ing in the filtered juice, besides the sugar and water, only a little 
dextrine, caseine, and saline matter. By this simple process, a host 
of troublesome albuminous, glutinous, gummy, waxy, and muci- 
laginous matters, combined under the general head oi feculencies, 
are got rid of entirely, before they can act injuriously upon the 
sugar contained in the juice, which they infallibly do the moment 
we apply heat to the undefecated mass. Having thus obtained 
this bright raw juice, I next treat it in the manner already speci- 
fied, with heat, infusion of nut-galls (or other analogous substance 
containing tannin), and cream of lime, lime-water, or other suitable 
combination of lime, and then filter, so as to get rid of the dextrine 
and caseine, or as much of them as is possible, previous to subject- 
ing the juice to continuous heat. 

The mere idea of using an infusion of nut-galls or other tan- 
nin substances in sugar-making is not new, inasmuch as these 
substances have been recommended and even been tried by W. 
J. Evans, M.D., of London, in whose work, the "Sugar-Planter's 
Manual" (18-i7), it may be found at page 101 ; but it will be at 
once observed that the manner of employing it or them, as laid 
down therein by Doctor Evans, is entirely different from my 
own method ; for he applies the infusion of nut-galls to the raio 
green juice in the clarifier, just as it comes from the mill, and 
j^revious to any other defecation having taken place; whereas 
I, on the contrary, first defecate the cold raw green juice by means 
of lime, cream of lime, or other suitable preparation of lime (as 
hereinbefore set forth), and then filter the juice so treated, there- 
by getting rid of the great mass of green feculent matter con- 
tained in it, and obtaining a clear, bright, and almost colorless 
juice or liquor, previous to applying any heat whatever, and pre- 
vious to the venturing upon any application of the infusion of 
nut-galls or other tannic substances, thus forming a totally dis- 
tinct method of using and applying the said tannic substances to 
the juice. 

My process, therefore, consists, yz?'5^, in the cold defecation of raw 
juice by means of lime, or other suitable combination of lime, im- 
mediately followed by filtration, as hereinbefore particularly de- 



420 GRAPE CULTURE AND WINE-MAKING. 

tailed ; and, secondhj, the treatment of the clear briglit juice or liq- 
uor resulting from this cold defecation, with infusion of nut-galls 
or other suitable tannic substances, aided by heat in suitable ves- 
sels and subsequent filtration, as hereinbefore described ; together 
making, as a whole, one plain consecutive process, which I have 
herein fully and faithfully explained and set forth, and which 
has never been suggested nor employed by any one else before. 

These comprise the whole of my treatment; and I submit that 
they constitute an entirely distinct and new process, being one 
whereby excellent crystallized sugar has been, and can always be 
made from the plants I have before named. And I therefore 
claim the process as herein set forth, and desire to secure the same 
by Letters Patent. 



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