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GRAPHIC 
PRESENTATION 



WILLARD C. 8RINTON 



1939 



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From Frontispiece of Book by WILLIAM PLAYFAIR, An Inquiry Into the 
Permanent Causes of the Dechne and Fall of Powerful and Wealthy Nations, 

London, 1805. 



M 



Dedicated 

IN HONOR 
of 

WILLIAM PLAYFAIR 

FIRST EXPONENT OF GRAPHIC CHARTS 
FOR GENERAL USE 

Born at Benvie, Scotland, 1 759 
Died in London, England, 1823 

DRAFTSMAN-ENGINEER With James Watt 1780 

MANUFACTURER 

AUTHOR: 

THE COMMERCIAL AND POLITICAL ATLAS. 1st ed., 1786; 2nd ed., 
1787; 3rd ed., 1801 

TABLEAUX D'ARITHMETIQUE LINEAIRE DU COMMERCE, 1789 

LINEAL ARITHMETIC, 1798 

STATISTICAL BREVIARY, 1801 

AN INQUIRY INTO THE PERMANENT CAUSES OF THE 
DECLINE AND FALL OF POWERFUL AND WEALTHY NATIONS. 
1st ed, 1805; 2nd ed., 1807 

STATISTICAL ACCOUNT OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA 
By D. F. DONNANT. Translated From the French By WILLIAM 
PLAYFAIR. Chart and Preface Also By WILLIAM PLAYFAIR. 1805 

A LETTER ON OUR AGRICULTURAL DISTRESSES, 1st ed., 1821; 
2nd ed., 1822; 3rd ed., 1822 

CAN THIS CONTINUE?, 1822 

The above titles by William Playfair are all, thus far 
located, which contain graphic charts. The total number 
of books by William Playfair is perhaps one hundred. 



TOPICAL INDEX (1st Half) J ' 

Place rif^ht thumb on triangle, finders inside back cover. 
Spin pa^es to desired chapter. , 

9-15 Preface — 1- — 



16-23 1. Introduction 



25- 32 2. Graphic Narrative 
33- 42 3. Tabulation 



43- 52 4. Classification Charts 



53- 58 5. Geneology and Genetics Charts 

59- 67 6. Organization Charts 

68-72 7. Relationship Charts 

73- 80 8. Flow Charts 



81- 91 9. Sector Charts 



92- 97 10. 100% Bar Charts 

98-105 11. Comparison of 100% Bar Charts 
106-114 12. Multiple Bar Charts 



115-120 13. Contrasting Bar Charts — 

121-131 14. Pictorial Unit Bar Charts 



132-141 15. Comparison of Component Bar Charts 

142-148 16. Bilateral Bar Charts 

149-152 17. Area Bar Charts 



1 53-1 60 18. General Use of Maps 

1 61 -1 69 19. Guide and Route Maps 

170-177 20. Relief and Aerial Maps 

178-186 21. Crosshatched and Colored Maps 

187-193 22. Dot and Pin Maps 



194-199 23. Maps with Circles and Sector Charts 
200-207 24. Maps with Bar Charts 



208-210 25. Maps with Curve Charts 

211-215 26. Maps with Symbols 

216-230 27. Flow Maps 

231-237 28. Contour Maps 

238-242 29. Distorted Maps 

243-246 30. Rating Charts 



(For 2nd Half of TOPICAL INDEX, See Page 247) 



MAGIC IN GRAPHS 



■■■HERE is a magic in graphs. The profile of a curve reveals in 
"J "J a flash a whole situation — the life history of an epidemic, a 
Mfelp^nic, or an era of prosperity. The curve informs the mind, 
awakens the imagination, convinces. 

Graphs carry the message home. A universal language, graphs 
convey information directly to the mind. Without complexity 
there is imaged to the eye a magnitude to be remembered. Words 
have wings, but graphs interpret. Graphs are pure quantity, 
stripped of verbal sham, reduced to dimension, vivid, unescapable. 

Graphs are all inclusive. No fact is too slight or too great to 
plot to a scale suited to the eye. Graphs may record the path of an 
ion or the orbit of the sun, the rise of a civilization, or the accelera- 
tion of a bullet, the climate of a century or the varying pressure of 
a heart beat, the growth of a business, or the nerve reactions of a 
child. 

The graphic art depicts magnitudes to the eye. It does more. 
It compels the seeing of relations. We may portray by simple 
graphic methods whole masses of intricate routine, the organization 
of an enterprise, or the plan of a campaign. Graphs serve as storm 
signals for the manager, statesman, engineer; as potent narratives 
for the actuary, statist, naturalist; and as forceful engines of 
research for science, technology and industry. They display 
results. They disclose new facts and laws. They reveal discov- 
eries as the bud unfolds the flower. 

The graphic language is modern. We are learning its alphabet. 
That it will develop a lexicon and a literature marvelous for its 
vividness and the variety of application is inevitable. 

Graphs are dynamic, dramatic. They may epitomize an epoch, 
each dot a fact, each slope an event, each curve a history. Wher- 
ever there are data to record, inferences to draw, or facts to tell, 
graphs furnish the unrivalled means whose power we are just be- 
ginning to realize and to apply. 

HENRY D. HUBBARD 

National Bureau of Standards 
Washington, D. C. 



GRAPHIC 
PRESENTATION 



By 

WILLARD COPE BRINTON, S. B. 

Consulting Engineer 

Member, American Society of Mechanical Engineers; Organizer and Chair- 
man, Joint Committee on Standards for Graphic Presentation, Formed 1914 
Through Am.Soc.M.E., as Sponsor. Fellow, American Statistical Associa- 
tion; Vice President, 1919. Author Graphic Methods for Presenting Facta, 
1914, McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc. 





^VWx^. Q,, \\^^ 



BRINTON ASSOCIATES 

New York City 
1939 



This book was planned with the hope of inspiring more and 
better factual presentation. If proper credits are given, any rea- 
sonable portion of this book may be quoted without further 
consent. However, to copy any materials here credited to 
others, care must be exercised to secure permission from the 
original sources. 

Copyright, Brinton Associates, 1939 
First Edition 



Also by Willard C. Brinton 

GRAPHIC METHODS FOR PRESENTING FACTS. 1914 

Published by McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc. 

New York City 



Printed in the United States of America 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 



When a chapter name or number is given as a reference, turn to 
the Topical Index, either on Page 1 or Page 247, and spin pages to 
the desired chapter. 



Chapter Page 

Preface 9 

1. Introduction 16 

Brief History of Development of Graphic Methods. 

2. Graphic Narrative 25 

Early Drawings. Picture Comparisons. Sequence Pictures. Pro- 
cedure Charts. Sports Stories. Basic English. 

3. Tabulation 33 

Tallying. Methods of Tabulating. Graphic Tabulation. Machine 
Tabulation. 

4. Classification Charts 43 

Use of Arrows and Brackets in Classification. Time-Period Clas- 
sification. Block Classification. 

5. Genealogy and Genetics Charts 53 

Standard Symbols. Trait-Tracing Charts. Family Tree. Pedigree 
Charts. Genealogical Chart Sheets. Other Uses for Genealogy 
Charts. 

6. Organization Charts 59 

Geographical Divisions. Government and Business Organization. 
Functional Charts. 

7. Relationship Charts 68 

Interrelations. 

8. Flow Charts 73 

Source and Distribution Chart. Traffic Chart. Activity Chart. 
Cost-Accounting Chart. Cosmograph. 

9. Sector Charts 81 

Area and Angle Comparisons. Subdivided Sector Charts. Cumu- 
lative Charts. Charts Showing Assets and Liabilities. 

10. 100% Bar Charts 92 

Single Bars. Bar Chart Stamp. Percentage Distributions. 
Cumulative Charts. 

11. Comparison of 100% Bar Charts 98 

Groups of Bars. Distribution and Percentage Comparisons. 

12. Multiple Bar Charts 106 

Value Comparisons. Bars on an Illustration. 



GRAPHIC PRESENTATION 

Chapter P««e 

13. Contrasting Bar Charts 115 

Variation in Shadings. Crosshatchings, and Colors. Optical 
Illusion. 

14. Pictorial Unit Bar Charts 121 

Rows of Figures. Visual Captions. 

15. Comparison of Component Bar Charts 132 

Divided Bars Comparing Values. Comparison of 100% Bars and 
Component Bar Charts. Stair Charts. 

16. Bilateral Bar Charts 142 

Profit and Loss Data. Deviations from Normal. 

17. Area Bar Charts 149 

Area Comparisons. 100% Square. 

18. General Use of Maps 153 

Source of Maps. Base Maps. Map Projection. Borgia Map. 
Orange-Peel Map. 

19. Guide and Route Maps 161 

Proposed Routes. Transmission Lines. Maps Showing Sourcfe of 
Materials. Geographic Organization Charts. Comparisons of 
Geographic Areas. Pictorial Maps. 

20. Relief and Aerial Maps 170 

Oldest Known Map. Bird's-Eye View Maps. Diagram Maps. 
Statistical Relief Maps. Block Diagrams. Azimuthal Projection. 

21. Crosshatched and Colored Maps 178 

Comparison of Ben Day Shadings and Colors. Sampling Maps. 
Density Maps. Mechanical Intensity Shading Map. 

22. Dot and Pin Maps 187 

Map Marking Devices. Slave Maps. Bell System Map. 

23. Maps With Circles and Sector Charts 194 

Scales for Areas of Circles. Census Data. Distribution. Migration. 

24. Maps With Bar Charts 200 

Traffic Charts. Historical Maps. Map from New York World's 
Fair, 1939. 

25. Maps With Curve Charts 208 

Moving Averages. Precipitation. 

26. Maps With Symbols 211 

Quantitative and Qualitati«ve Data. Pictorial Units. 

27. Flow Maps 216 

Flow of Goods. TrafRc Maps. Weather Maps. Hurricane Maps. 
Traffic Time.-Zones Map. Chart by M. Minard. 

28. Contour Maps 231 

Topographic Maps. Weather Maps. Before and After Comparisons. 

29. Distorted Maps 238 

Rectangular Maps. Population. 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 

Chapter Page 

30. Rating Charts 243 

Tabulation Form. Mental Development. Safety Records. 

31. Chronology Charts 248 

Time Analysis and Time Studies. Chart for Assigning Vacations. 

32. Progress Charts 256 

Time Studies. Material Control Board. Production Progress 
Chart. Gantt Charts. 

33. Curve Charts 263 

One Curve on a Grid. Visual Captions. Historical Labels. Stair 
Charts. Deviation from Normal. 

34. Comparison With Two Curves 275 

Cumulative Curves. Causal Relationships. High-Low Curves. 
Lag. 

35. Comparisons With Curves 286 

Progressive Average and Moving Average Curves. Normal Trend. 

36. Component Parts Shown by Curves 294 

Component Parts in Curve Form. Percentage Charts. Band 
Charts. Use of Brackets. 

37. Index Numbers Shown by Curves 301 

Comparison of Index Charts with Numerical Value Charts. Mul- 
tiple Axis Graph. 

38. Frequency Charts 310 

Frequency Distribution. Bell-Curve Chart. Distribution in a 
Circle. Optical Illusion. 

39. Correlation Charts 320 

Relationships Between Variables. Scatter Charts. Standard 
Deviation. Break-Even Charts. 

40. Ogive and Lorenz Charts 331 

Probability Paper Charts. 

41. Ratio Charts 339 

Comparison of Ratio and Arithmetic Scale. Key for Selecting 
Ratio Scale. Method of Ruling Ratio Paper. Index Numbers 
Curves. Cumulative Curves. 

42. Three-Dimensional Methods 354 

Models. Perspective Drawings. Photographs. Isometric Block 
Diagram. Isometric Protractor. Trilinear Chart. 

43. Composite Charts 360 

Methods of Combining Various Types of Charts. 

44. Suggestions for Making a Chart 367 

Helpful Techniques. Sources of Materials. Methods of Lettering. 
Ink Colors. Crayons. Colored Papers. 

45. Standards for Time Series Charts 381 

Abstracts from Time Series Charts. A Manual of Design and 
Construction, 1938, Prepared by Committee on Standards for 
Graphic Presentation, under Procedure of American Statistical 



GRAPHIC PRESENTATION 

Chapter Page 

Association, with the American Society of Mechanical Engineers 
as Sponsor Body. 

46. The Camera and Its Use 397 

Photographic Effects. Color Photography. Photomontage. 

47. Lantern Slides 405 

Projectors. Slides. Screens. Suggestions for Placing Charts on 
Slides. Microfilm. 

48. Preparation of Illustrations 410 

Types of Illustrations. Preparation of Copy. Reproduction 
Media for Art Work. Handling Photographs. Shading Mediums 
and Shading Films. Halftone Screen Tints. Colors Used in This 
Book. 

49. Color and Its Use 423 

Discussion of Hue, Value, Chroma. Color Top. How Colors 
Appear to the Color Blind. 

50. Methods of Reproducing 429 

Gelatine Process Duplicating Machines. Blue Prints. Photostats. 
Mimeograph Process. Fluid Process Duplicator. Lithoprints. 
Multilith. 

51. Methods of Printing 435 

Relief, Planographic, and Intaglio Printing. Typesetting. Type 
Sizes and Styles. Photoengraving, Electrotyping, and Line Plates. 
Proofreaders' Marks. 

52. Selection of Paper 443 

Types of Paper. Considerations in the Selection of Paper. Bulk- 
ink Table. 

53. Binding Techniques 449 

Types of Binding. Binding Specifications. Imposition. 

54. Graphic Charts in Advertising 454 

Various Types of Graphic Charts in Advertising Material. 

55. Quantitative Cartoons 464 

Various Types of Graphic Charts in Cartoons. 

56. Quantitative Posters 475 

Various Types of Charts in Poster Form. Magazine Covers. 

57. Displays and Exhibits 486 

Mechanical Exhibits. Scale Models. Display Fixtures. Turn- 
tables. New York World's Fair Exhibits. 

58. Dioramas 494 

Dioramas in Process of Construction. Dissolving Diorama 
Exhibit. New York World's Fair Exhibits. 

59. Graphic Charts in Conference Rooms 497 

Board Rooms. Use of Projectors in Conference Rooms. 

60. Glossary 501 

Graphic Methods Vocabulary. 

Index 506 



PREFACE 




TWENTY-FIVE years have passed since the publication of Graphic 
Methods for Presenting Facts in 1914. The continuing demand for 
Graphic Methods without revisions in a quarter century now incites curiosity 
as to the causes of that demand. So many excellent works relating to graphic 
charts or containing chapters on graphic presentation have appeared since 
1914 that I had felt the field well covered without another book from me. 
This, in spite of the fact that I have published nothing regarding activities of 
my own relating to the 1914-1918 World War period. 

Probably the feverish demand for prompt and reliable data during war 
times did more to stimulate the use of graphic chart technique than anything 
that has happened since 1920. Without realizing what was happening as the 
war flared, I found myself advising the executives of large corporations, gov- 
ernment departments, etc. World trade was disorganized, and the uncertainty 
of material supply 
required quick anal- 
ysis of all available 
data. For instance, 
in 1916, a New York 
silk manufacturer 
and I went to China 
and back again on 
the same steamer to 
determine the feasi- 
bility of building a 
new plant in Shang- 
hai to employ five thousand. 

For one of my age at that time, it was a great privilege to have the oppor- 
tunity to develop some theories and put them in practice day by day with 
experienced executives whose decisions were so vital in those hectic war years. 
Establishing, in a Broadway office building, control methods for quicker 
"tum-arounds" of eighty-five ships chartered by the Belgian Relief Commis- 
sion had little relation to strategy in the president's office of a steel company 
with twenty thousand employees in Pittsburgh, or scheduling, at New Haven, 
Connecticut, two thousand tool makers scattered in shops throughout New 
England to assist in producing the light Browning machine gun by a company 
already working twenty-two thousand employees at the New Haven plant. 
During that period "Z" chart methods and unit card curve records were 



^^^^ v/ay/zz^yy? 



Signature of William Piayfair from a Letter to Thomas 
Jefferson Dated March 20, 1791 



10 



■I" 



GRAPHIC PRESENTATION 



developed for use in fields much more specialized than would be of interest 
here. Also short map pins with spherical heads were created and placed on a 
quantity production basis. Through all the research of the World War period, 
the need was constantly evident for standardization so that graphic charts 
could be made and interpreted without possibility of misunderstanding. For 
general use, graphic charts must be simple. It is not, however, always easy 
to determine what is the utmost simplicity. Much depends on the method 
of approach. A semi-logarithmic chart may not be puzzling if you call it a 
ratio chart and make no 
mention of mathematics. 

Since the close of the 
World War, other activi- 
ties have crowded into 
the background my in- 
terest in graphic charts 
and human reactions to 
them. It was impossible, 
however, to resist tearing 
from magazines and 
newspapers thousands of 
examples of particularly 
interesting or especially 
erratic graphic charts. 
These were added to ex- 
amples which had come, 
in what Hollywood would 
call "fan mail," from 
readers of Graphic 
Methods. As recently as 
twenty months ago there 
was still no expectation 
of my ever writing an- 
other book on the sub- 
ject. 

Although I had been 
in Los Angeles many 
times and had passed the 
Huntington Library on John Playfair, the Brother of William Playfair 

numerous occasions, I in his Inquiry, 1805, William Playfair stated that his 

had never found time to brother taught him "that whatever can be ex- 

visit it Then after pressed in numbers, may be expressed by lines." 

,, / . . , J To the "best and most affectionate of brothers," 

months of mtensive study ,,,.„. ™ , . 

William Playfair owed "the invention of these 

Charts." 




ill 



■I" 

PREFACE 

of some problems in Los Angeles in which graphic presentation had proved 
particularly effective in crystallizing opinion on a complex situation. I visited 
the Huntington Library on the last day before starting North and East. 
While observing some unusually fine types of early bookbinding and the 
repairs made to the bindings on some of the Library's most precious volumes, 
it occurred to me to ask the Librarian, Dr. Leslie Bliss, what books the 
library had by William Playfair, to whom this book is dedicated. In a few 
minutes there was brought to us the only one they had listed under William 
Playfair: 



STATISTICAL ACCOUNT OF THE 
UNITED STATES OF AMERICA 

by D. F. DoNNANT 

• 

Translated from the French 
by William Playfair 

With an Addition on the Trade to America, 

For the Use of Commercial Men, 

By the Sanie. 

• 

London 
1805 



As we looked through this book, I exclaimed to Dr. Bliss, "Here is the 
earliest example of a sector chart," and then noticed beneath the one illustra- 
tion the inscription, "This Newly invented Method is intended to shew the 
Proportions between the divisions in a Striking Manner." See Page 81. 

I was also much struck by the fact that the subject matter of the book 
referred to industry, commerce, and finance in the United States, that the 
preface by William Playfair mentioned conversations between himself and 
Thomas Jefferson, that the book was inscribed to Jefferson, and that twenty- 
five copies had been sent to him. 

When I wrote Graphic Methods in 1914. I had never heard of William 
Playfair. Two years later a friend in Pittsburgh sent me a marked catalogue 
of a London bookseller listing a book Lineal Arithmetic, 1798, by William 



11 



ill 



12 



GRAPHIC PRESENTATION 

Playfair. Out of curiosity. I wrote asking that the book be reserved and that 
a price quotation be sent. A few weeks later, upon returning from out of the 
city, I was astonished to find the EngHsh book seller's bill for ten shillings, 
six pence. Elsewhere in my accumulated mail was the book itself. On the 
title page the publisher's price is printed, "Price 10s. 6d." Neither the New 
York Public Library nor the Library of Congress had this book. Each of 
these libraries has since photostatted my volume for inclusion with the few 
examples of other Playfair works which they own. About 1916, I had various 
photostats made from these Playfair books, but had never followed up clues 
on Playfair, the man. The Playfair search has widened since the chance 
inquiry made at the Huntington Library a year ago. Questions still continue. 

With all that Playfair did to show the effectiveness of graphic chart 
methods from his first book, published in 1786 at the age of twenty-seven, 
till his death in 1823, why have not graphic charts become more thoroughly 
established as a universal language? Another interest was aroused as to the 
part which engineers have played in the development of the graphic lan- 
guage, since I noted in California that William Playfair was apprenticed in 
Scotland as a machinist and later became a draftsman for James Watt before 
writing on a wide variety of subjects. There are about 100 titles by Playfair 
on record. The story of William Playfair, still developing, may yet have large 
gaps. Location of those writings relating to graphic charts, however, appears 
to be fairly well completed. 

This book is another contribution from the engineering profession, although 
written for general use rather than the technical field, on much the same 
general ideas as expressed in Graphic Methods in 1914. The 1914 book was 
written largely to disclose some of the fallacies that occur when graphic 
charts are used loosely without the basis of accuracy essentially associated 
with the work of people with an engineering background. 

Until the last decade or so, the use of graphic charts seemed to be progress- 
ing sanely and fairly rapidly with no more guidance than resulted from the 
extremely brief preliminary report of the Joint Committee on Standards for 
Graphic Presentation, published in 1915. In recent years, some weeds seem 
to have sprung up to retard the growth of the more cultivated graphics which 
had been developing strongly with numerous offshoots since the World War 
stimulus. As in a garden where there is sometimes the policy of deciding in 
the early stages which are weeds and which are plants that will be productive, 
it has not been easy to find a method for defining good graphic charts as 
compared with poor or downright obnoxious charts. What is believed to be 
a satisfactory method was found in the old story of the blind men who 
reported on the characteristics of an elephant. Good graphic presentation 
should be susceptible to only one interpretation. 

Recently even official government documents have been using a type of 
graphics which found its first major use in European countries having a low 



PREFACE 



13 



percentage of literacy. When the same European methods have been pushed 
on a commerciaHzed basis in America, little attempt has been made to follow 
existing American standards or trends toward the development of an ultimate 
universal language. The tendency has been to use stock symbols over and 
over again because they are cheaper to reproduce than special drawings 
designed for each particular problem of presentation. 

The first part of this book up through page 366 deals with "How to Read a 
Chart." The section from page 366 to page 452 treating the subject "How to 
Make a Chart," is necessarily condensed, and gives suggestions rather than 
detailed instructions. 

The illustrations in this book have been selected from the standpoint of 
interesting subject matter as well as to show representative types of graphic 



AND All h^ere in the ivrong! 




Good Presentafion Should Be Susceptible to Only One interpretation 

It was six men of Indostan The Fourth (knee) "Is very like a tree!" 
To learning much inclined, 

Who went to see the Elephant 
(Though all of them were blind.) 

That each by observation 
Might satisfy his mind. 



The Fifth (ear) "Is mighty like a fan!" 



The Sixth (tail) "Is very like a rope!" 



The First (side) "Is very like a wall!" 



The Second (tusk) "Is very like a spear!" 



The Third (trunk) "Is very like a snake!" 



And so these men of Indostan 

Disputed loud and long, 
Each in his own opinion 

Exceeding stiff and strong 
Though each was partly in the right. 

And all were in the wrong! 



From John Godfrey Saxr. "The Blind Men and the Elephant". CIrvrr Slnrin nl Many Natir>n> R^-ndrred 
in Rhime. 1865. 



14 



■I" 



GRAPHIC PRESENTATION 

charts. Words are carefully studied before they are qualified for admittance 
in a dictionary. No one knows how many distinct types of graphic charts are 
already in established use. 

Beneath the majority of the illustrations included here, there is a notation 
of "SCALE" to indicate the percentage reproduction of the original. In judg- 
ing the effectiveness of any presentation it should be clearly kept in mind 
that, as here reduced, the illustration can not be as effective as in the size 
originally published. Also in the process of photographing, particularly in 
those charts taken from newsprint paper, the illustration is less clear. Half- 
tones which here appear too black have been photographed from previously 
printed halftones rather than from original photographs. 

If the subject matter of any illustration is of special interest to the user of 
this book, a reading glass may be used to enlarge the detail. 

Because a frame around the chart may be interpreted falsely as a zero line, 
or base line, the liberty has been taken to remove frames from many illustra- 
tions. Changes have also been made in lettering or other details, when neces- 
sary, for reproduction in reduced sizes. 

It should be clearly understood that this book would not have been feasible 
except for the photo offset process of reproduction and color printing. 

The use of color has been a gamble— many of the charts here shown in 
color were originally black and white. It was impossible to foresee results 
obtained from hundreds of lay-outs sent to the printer. Changes may seem 
obvious in the final printed form. 

Designs at the top and bottom of color pages may appear incongruous 
with some of the color combinations in the body of the page. Varied color 
designs were inserted with the thought that the user of this book might gain 
from our experiments and select certain effects appropriate for his own par- 
ticular problem. 

In order to test whether color is worth while in graphic presentation, color 
has here been literally splashed on. In folding printed sheets for sewing into 
bookbinders' signatures, every other pair of pages evolve from one side of the 
printed sheet of paper. Thus, if color is printed on only one side, a reader 
finds color on every other pair of pages in the book. In this way it is possible 
for the reader of this book to judge the effect of color on the varied types of 
charts shown in the 60 chapters simply by turning the pages two at a time. It 
is believed the evidence is conclusive that to get maximum results in graphic 
presentation the question is not "Can one afford to use color?" but "Can one 
afford to omit color.?" 

This book Graphic Presentation results from the work of many people. It 
would not have been possible except for the charts produced by the indi- 
viduals and organizations to whom credit is given under many of the 676 
illustrations. The illustrations were selected from thousands of clippings 



■■■ 

PREFACE 

which I could not resist saving during the 25 years that have elapsed since 
publication of Graphic Methods for Presenting Facts in 1914. 

The chapter on selection of paper was prepared by Mr. W. B. Gibson, of 
the Mead Sales Corporation, in consultation with officers of various trade 
associations. My wife, Laura M. Brinton, did practically all the work in 
preparation of Chapter 46, "The Camera and Its Use"; Chapter 47, "Lantern 
Slides," and Chapter 49, "Color and Its Use." Miss Audrey W. Zeigler, of 
Newburgh. New York, made all the drawings used as the headings of chap- 
ters. Mr. R. R. Lutz, of the National Industrial Conference Board, made 
valuable suggestions in the early stages of planning the book, particularly 
regarding the possibilities for the use of color. Mr. Roy S. McElwee, and 
numerous others read manuscript and contributed suggestions as the book 
progressed. In planning the printing, many helpful ideas were given by Mr. 
Edward N. Mayer, Jr., of Gray Photo Offset Corporation. The cooperation 
of the entire staff of that organization is appreciated. Personally I regret that 
frequent absences from the city have prevented that close contact which I 
should have preferred to give to such fascinating subject matter. 

Methods of graphic presentation and new types of charts will continue to 
evolve through processes of human ingenuity as need arises. There is need 
for classification and comparison of types noting the advantage of each type 
and making all types available for general use internationally. Nomenclature 
alone is deserving of careful attention far beyond the range of any one indi- 
vidual. 

In the discussion of these matters in Washington, D. C, during the past 
year the Honorable Kent E. Keller, member of the House of Representatives 
from Illinois, and Chairman of the House Committee on the Library of Con- 
gress, has been of great assistance in exploring the possibilities. Mr. Keller's 
unusual range of knowledge and experience in education, medicine, law, 
engineering, publishing, and mining, coupled with residence in Europe and 
Mexico, served in determining potentialities for not only a central file of 
graphic charts by types, but also a comprehensive file of graphic material 
arranged for quick reference and classified according to subject matter. 

William Playfair, from his first book in 1786 throughout his writings to his 
death in 1823, mentioned the possibility that a graphic language could be an 
international language assisting in better relations between nations of different 
tongues. As this is written, with international conditions throughout the 
world unsettled and getting worse, there seems more than ever before a need 
for such a common graphic language as William Playfair envisioned. 

WILLARD COPE BRINTON. 
New York City 
Sept. 6, 1939 



15 



1 16 



Chapter 1 
INTRODUCTION 



Wh 



hy have graphic methods been so tardy in developing? 
Three things in combination are necessary before visual methods 
of presentation can be adequately used. 

1. Accurate factual data readily available. 

2. Competent drafting talent to chart the data on a standard- 
ized basis. 

3. Equipment and organization for reproducing the charted 
data at a cost not too high compared to the printed word. 

Until mankind developed reasonably cheap paper, there was no 
convenient method for preserving quantitative data. The study 



"One hundred rumors are not comparable to one look." 

An Old Chinese Inscription 



of statistical records and the developing of policies from facts had 
to wait until records gradually accumulated. The making of paper 
and the preserving of records developed rapidly after the invention 
of loose-type printing about 1450. 

At the time William Playfair wrote his first book on graphics in 
1786, the word "statistics" had not come into general use. The word 
itself is derived from "state." The state first had to keep records 
of tax rolls, collections, and various government activities. Playfair 
lamented the inadequacy of historical data in a number of his 
writings; for instance, in Commercial and Political Atlas of 1801: 
"Had our ancestors represented the gradual increase of their com- 
merce and expenditures, if it had not been an object of utility, it would 



INTRODUCTION 



17 



at least have been one of curiosity; but had records, written in this sort 
of shape [plotted curves] and speaking a language that all the world 
understands, existed at this day, of the commerce and revenue of 
ancient nations, what a real acquisition would it not have been to our 
stock of knowledge! In place of which, a few detached facts are col- 
lected and brought forward as the only criterion from which we can 
judge of the manners and wealth of the ancient world. 

"It is not only of importance that this species of information should 
be handed down, but also that it should go down in such a form and 
manner as that any person might, even though a native of another 
country, understand the nature of the business delineated. 

". . . If we could have a copy of the custom-house books of Carth- 
age or Tyre for a hundred years, what value might not be set on them! 
These charts [Playfair's] will be for future nations the same thing that 
the ancient records we so much desire would be for us now. . . ." 

If we search into the past for factual data, we naturally think 
of libraries. If we could now examine the libraries as they existed 
at intervals of one hundred years, say one, two, three or four cen- 
turies back, what would we find? Probably very little factual 




Courtesy of American Chicle Company — Makers of Dentyne Gum 

The First Agricultural Report 



18 



GRAPHIC PRESENTATION 

information. Even books in our grandfathers' attics, if classified, 
would be short on factual material and long on abstruse discussion 
of theories, most of which were of a religious nature or perhaps 
vaguely astronomic or otherwise theoretical considerations of the 
universe. 

The development of printing and the gradual cheapening of 
paper resulted in people of Europe and this country being exposed 
not to pictures but to more and more words, words not only from 
the printed page but from ministers of the gospel who, being of 
the educated class and able to read, obtained their inspiration from 
the printed material which came to them. 

Let us consider bookmaking in the early days from the stand- 
point of cost. There would seem to be little reason why illustra- 
tions should not be generally used. Books were made from wooden 
blocks even before the use of movable metal type. Illuminated 
manuscripts and early books of similar pattern used illustrative 
methods which today we would think prohibitive from the cost 
standpoint. Labor must have been relatively cheap, especially in 
monasteries or other religious institutions which in those days pro- 
duced so much of the literary output. Probably there was nothing 
whatever to prevent the development of illuminated graph charts 
long before the days of William Playfair except lack of reliable 
factual data from which to make the charts. People of those days 
must have found out, just as we find out so often now, that if we 
start to chart our facts, we are frequently stopped by the startling 
insufficiency of the data, the annoyance that the data may have 
a single gap in its continuity, or that the data have not been kept 
on a uniform basis over the period of time under consideration. 

Organization of data on a rectangular field would appear to be 
so obvious that it might have been done fairly early by scholars 
in different countries, if they had had much data to study. The 
printed page with its lines of words proceeding from left to right 
is in itself a coordinate field, the lay-out of which required careful 
thought from those who produced the illuminated manuscripts or 
books which are so fascinating to us now. Descartes in 1637 pub- 
lished his works on geometry which firmly established the method 
of rectangular coordinates when used for mathematical formulas. 
Those who are interested in the history of graphic presentation 
will find the sequences well brought out in a paper of one hundred 
and thirty- five pages by H. Gray Funkhouser, published in Osiris, 
Volume Three, Part One, 1937, available through the Carnegie 
Institution of Washington, D. C. Funkhouser dates the use of the 
coordinate field to astronomers and surveyors as far back as 140 



:fBWK?!W5r.« 



INTRODUCTION 



19 



B.C. when points in the earth's surface were located by means of 
their longitudes and latitudes. Oresme in 1350 in his Tractitus de 
Latitudinibus Formarum endeavored to represent graphically how 
an empirical curve might behave. As Funkhouser states, "If a 
pioneering contemporary had collected some data and presented 
Oresme with some facts to work on, we might have had statistical 
graphs four hundred years before Playfair." 

Leonardo da Vinci antedated Descartes 77 years. Leonardo's 
genius in the natural sciences and as an engineer was so far in 
advance of his time that it would seem that he might have been 
familiar with rectangular coordinates. Recent examinations of his 

notebooks, though not very con- 
clusive, seem to indicate that in his 
experiments regarding gravitation, 
his records of the velocity of fall- 
ing bodies were analyzed on a 
rectangular coordinate basis. See 
Volume M, Verso 40, Manuscripts 
of the Institute of France. He used 
horizontal distances to express 
time and vertical distances to show 
the space covered by falling balls 
when two were dropped together 
or one following the other. Leon- 
ardo, however, left no group to 
carry on his engineering works, 
which were little understood by 
his immediate contemporaries and 
successors. 
The American Statistical Association, formed in 1839, now cele- 
brating its one hundredth anniversary, is the earliest specialized 
scientific organization in this country. The American Philosophical 
Society, organized by Benjamin Franklin in Philadelphia, was, of 
course, earlier but its activities cover such a wide field as to put it 
in a different class. The American Society of Civil Engineers 
founded in 1876, was followed by the American Society of 
Mechanical Engineers in 1880 and then by numerous other en- 
gineering and scientific societies. The presentation of their papers 
in edited transactions has resulted in rapid advance in varied chart 
techniques. 

In spite of all that Playfair pointed out a century and a half 
ago, and the interest shown by a few college instructors during 
recent years, there is still insignificant use of graphic presentation 




Early Work on Books Was Done 
Monasteries 



GRAPHIC PRESENTATION 

methods in the field of education. Educators themselves do rela- 
tively little to analyze the methods for transmitting facts and ideas. 

At present most educators are graphically illiterate. An educator, 
or person with a message to give is referred to as : lecturer, speaker, 
orator, preacher, narrator, reciter, etc. These words generally imply 
the conveyance of a message through the ear without reference 
to the eye. Until the cinema was equipped with sound there was 
a move to use the word "optience" instead of "audience." Although 
the moving picture now combines perception through both the eye 
and the ear, the messages generally conveyed today by the motion 
picture are descriptive rather than quantitative. The moving pic- 
ture projector has not thus far been a great influence for intro- 
ducing the type of graphic presentation indicated in this book. 
Lantern slides, and more recently, slide films, have been important 
factors. 

There are interesting possibilities if educational institutions 
would seriously study the methods for presenting ideas and facts, 
and then, as their instructors qualified in the new technique, 
designate each by the term "Presentor." In a similar way, a student 
might be called a "Perceivor." Each of these terms implies re- 



•iiSf'45 




H. Gray Punkhouser. "A Note on a Tenth Century Graph." OSIRIS. Vol. I. 1936. 

A Tenth Century Graph That Forms a Part of a Manuscript Discovered by Sigmund 
Sunther in 1877 

According to the article by Dr. Funkhouscr, from which this illustration was taken, the 
graph was meant to represent a plot of the inclinations of the planetary orbits as 
a function of the time. 



INTRODUCTION 



21 



sponsibility for results. These terms are not limited in their scope 
to the field of education. Anyone planning a conference, conven- 
tion, committee, discussion, assembly, council, etc., might do well 
to consider the method for presenting the subject matter. How 
many of these meetings today are just talk? If each participant 
would consider himself as a Presentor of data or ideas that he is 
especially qualified to contribute to the group, there would be less 
misunderstanding and more conclusive action. 

We are still expressing ourselves in meetings by the traditional 
methods the old patriarchs used to pass on the folklore of the tribe 
— by word of mouth. While the newspaper, the movie and the 
radio are being used to present descriptive material to secure 
public approval, quantitative presentations are relatively rare in 
publicity campaigns. The introduction of quantitative expression 
in every phase of life can lend itself to great future progress. There 
has been some discussion of the effectiveness of graphic methods 
to convey facts and ideas, but no comprehensive analysis has thus 




Rene Descartes, 1596-1650 



22 



GRAPHIC PRESENTATION 



DEATH AFTER DARK 

)930 1931 1932 1933 1934 1935 1936 1937 



25.000 
24.000 
23.000 
22.000 
21.000 
20.000 
19.000 
)6.000 
17.000 
16.000 
15.000 
14.000 
13.000 















/ 














/ 














/ 















r 












































y 


\, 












y 


\X 












j/- — 


^ 


\^ 


-^^^ 






^^^^ 


' — " 




\ 








^^'^^ 






\ 


DAYLIGHT 











How Charts Ought Not to Be Made 



The omission of the zero line in this chart gives a false impression of the relative 
values of the number of accidents during the hours of darkness and 

during daylight. 



far been made measuring results from organized material carefully 
prepared and presented graphically. 

The question is sometimes raised as to how you can present in 
graphic chart form, abstruse ideas which have not yet been reduced 
to words. Engineers and other people who are accustomed to using 
graphic methods are likely to approach the problem thinking 
graphically. They are apt to list the factors involved and then try 
different types of organization charts, etc., to work out the rela- 
tions and size of the different factors. 



■m}ft^?i(:i'f'WfS!i:iii,-m 



INTRODUCTION 



23 



I 




1911 l*M !«• l«tO I9tl l»ll IttS IM4 Ittt l»t« t*tl Its* I9I* I«SO t«SI t«9t 1993 19S4 I99S t9SS I9S1 



Ratio Chart Showing Prices of Non-Ferrous Metals in the United States fronts 1917 
to 1937. 

The above chart was reduced from one transmitted by Western Union automatic telegraph, 
showing that, as machines are installed, graphic charts may be sent from one city 
to another. Service is now available only in New York, Buffalo, and Chicago. Other 
cities will be added. 



Graphic charts present unusually comprehensive data in con- 
densed form for analysis and interpretation. Major libraries should 
contain a division of graphic charts. Filing most of the material 
could be easily done by placing material in the usual letter vertical 
files. Provision should, of course, be made for cross references. 
Probably it would be desirable to have two sections, one for sci- 
entific and technical data, the other to contain all other material. 
To aid those studying graphic presentations, larger libraries would 
do well to have a separate file classified according to types of 
graphic charts, irrespective of the subject matter. 



.a!(«K«««sws-^AS '.j'Sa 



24 



GENERAL REFERENCES 



HISTORY OF GRAPHIC METHODS 

Funkhouser, H. Gray, "Historical Development of the Graph- 
ical Representation of Statistical Data," Osiris, Vol. Ill, Part 
I, 1937 

Walker, Helen M., Studies in the History of Statistical Method, 
Williams & Wilkins Co., Baltimore, Md., 1929 

GRAPHIC METHODS 

Arkin, Herbert, and Raymond R. Colton, Graphs: How to Make 
and Use Them, Harper & Brothers, New York City, 1936 

Brinton, Willard C, Graphic Methods for Presenting Facts. Mc- 
Graw-Hill Book Co., Inc., New York City, 1914 

Brown, Theodore H., Richmond F. Bingham, and V. A. Tem- 
nomeroff. Laboratory Handbook of Statistical Methods, Mc- 
Graw-Hill Book Company, Inc., New York, 1931 

Chaddock, R. E., Principles and Methods of Statistics, Hough- 
ton Mifflin Co., New York City, 1935 

Croxton, Frederick E., and Dudley J. Cowden, Applied General 
Statistics, Prentice Hall, Inc., New York, 1939 

Crum, William L., Alson C. Patton, and Arthur R. Tebbutt, In- 
troduction to Economics Statistics, McGraw-Hill Book Co., 
Inc., New York City, 1938 

Haskell, Allan C, Graphic Charts in Business, Codex Book Co., 
Norwood, Mass., 1928 

Karsten, Karl G., Charts and Graphs, Prentice Hall, Inc., New 
York City, 1923 

Riggleman, John R., and Ira N. Frisbee, Business Statistics, Mc- 
Graw-Hill Book Co., Inc., New York City, 1938 

Riggleman, John R., Graphic Methods for Presenting Business 
Statistics, McGraw-Hill Book Co., Inc., New York City, 1936 

PREPARATION OF ANNUAL REPORTS 

Selvage, James P., and Morris M. Lee, Making the Annual 
Report Speak for Industry, Compiled by National Association 
of Manufacturers, McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc., New 
York City, December 1938. 



25 



Chapter 2 
GRAPHIC NARRATIVE 



I 



Oynonyms for graphic narrative are: ideographic drawings, pic- 
tograms, figurative symbols, pictographic charts, and hieroglyphs. 
Graphic narrative may involve the keeping of records, quality of 
materials, time, or quantities. 




Walker Engraving Corporation, New York. SCALE .7 

A Stone Age Man's Painting of a Bison. 

1. Long before a written language had evolved, man recorded his actions and accom- 

plishments in stone carvings and paintings. 

2. Although it is not certain that the picture above is one of a bison which the painter 

has slain, it is probable. 

3. This early recognition of the value of a painting in preference to a verbal description 

is the forerunner of the use of illustrations in modern textbooks. 



26 



GRAPHIC PRESENTATION 



CHARACTERISTICS OF GRAPHIC NARRATIVE CHARTS 

1. A picture is more universally understood than a word de- 
scription. 

2. Graphic narrative is adaptable for poster use and has a great 
deal of popular appeal. 

3. There are few rules for, or restrictions on, the use of graphic 
narratives. 

4. Quantitative data may be shown or suggested in graphic 
narrative form. The picture may stand alone or may be 
accompanied by comments of explanation. 

BASIC ENGLISH 

Basic English is a system of 850 words and five simple rules for 
putting them together, which was the invention of Mr. C. K. Ogden 
of the Orthological Institute, Cambridge, England. It will do the 
work of 20,000 words of English for the normal purposes of trade, 
science, and everyday living. Special lists for general science and 
for any special science put the number of words up to 1,000, with 




Liberty Magazine, April 13, 1929. 



SCALE .9 



The Pig Woman's Story of Her Movements and Observations on the Night of the 
Hall-Mills Murder. 

This form of graphic narrative may be used to accompany fiction as well as fact. It is 
very simple in idea — it gives the story in time sequence. 




GRAPHIC NARRATIVE 



27 



the addition of which the international signs of chemistry, for ex- 
ample, may be made to do their work at the expert level. Its 
interest for the writer of this book is that graphics — the interna- 
tional language of the eye — may be made completely international 
if Basic English is used where any words are necessary. 

Basic may be learned in a month by a quick learner, working 
privately, or in a year or less in school. To the eye and ear it is not 
different from normal English, and it takes only a very short time 
to get the trick of writing and talking in it. 

Of 1,500 living languages, only seven are used by more than sixty 
million persons. Of these seven, English is by far the commonest. 
It is the natural, or government language of six hundred million, 
it has for a long time been the second language of the Far East, 
and is now learned in schools in all parts of the earth. It is the lan- 
guage of the seas, of trade, to a great degree of science, of the mov- 
ing pictures and radio. Basic English is an international form of 
this most international of living tongues. 

This account of the system is in Basic English. 

Further facts about Basic English may be had from the Payne 
Fund, 1 Madison Avenue, New York City, or the Orthological 
Institute, Cambridge, England. 




THE TEXTILE COMMUNITY - 



occupies 880,000 homes 



owns 700.000 automobiles 



spends $3,000,000 on movies annually 



owns 300,000 mechanical refrigerators 
eats 3,500,000 tons of food annually 



Textile World. October m38, Part of an Editorial on Public Relations Entitled "Textiles a Source of 
Purchasing Power." 

An Analysis of the Textile Community. 

Without representing the pictorial items quantitatively, this form of graphic picture gives 
a concise analysis of the textile community. It was used effectively as an illus- 
tration for a public relations editorial. 




28 



GRAPHIC PRESENTATION 



l900rn^pT1T 





"STREAMLINED STANDARDS OF LIVING 
CREATED BY MACHINE TOOL INDUSTRY 



United States News, Washington, D. C, June 20, 1938. SCALE .6 

A. The Story of American Efficiency in the Machine Tool Industry. 

Here is a vivid story of the changes that have taken place in history. It is purely a quali- 
tative analysis: — the wagon has been replaced by the truck; the broom by the 
vacuum cleaner. 



THREE-FOURTHS OF PIGS GO TO MARKET BY TRUCK 




/^^^•kLi^ 



Automobile Manufacturers Association "Automobile Facts!' September l').}8 

B. A Graphic Presentation of the Fact That Three-Fourths of the Pigs in the United 
States Go to Market by Truck. 

The use of pictures to represent 3 out of 4 or 7 out of 10 or 4 out of 5 has been used for 
many years. It is still an effective method of presenting percentage analysis. 



GRAPHIC NARRATIVE 



29 



Opponents 




mAHHATTAn'S 
REVERSE Run 



no3 <><ksscs s*t.L 

TO NO* art FAKt 
SPIN 



Nrw York Journnl and American. SCALE S 

A. Famous Football Plays: Manhat- 
tan College Reverse Run. 

An explanation of a football play, either 
before a game or after a game, is 
a well-known form of graphic nar- 
rative. Players on each side are 
indicated by squares, circles, or 
other distinctive symbols, and the 
movements of the various players 
are indicated by arrows. 



The HHarvard-Yale Game of 1937. 
The Score Was 13 to 6 in Favor 
of Harvard. 

After the "game," spectators often 
would like to have a picture of 
the various plays before them so 
that any confusion as to what 
actually did occur may be seen 
at a glance. 

The work sheets from which the above 
chart was made were of heavy 
cardboard and easy to handle at 
the game. It may be possible that 
standards for this type of chart 
will evolve in the future. 



FIRST HALF 

O lO 20 30 40 so 40 30 ZO 10 G 




SECOND HALF 

« ID 20 30 40 so 40 30 20 lO G 



^ 






H 



■V^-N ^^^ v•^^ Sk^sJs/V« 



ff^fcf <L 



P 



^-^ 






1 



%. 



% 






^fH'i 



««l 






f<ZAP>< 



X^ 



(oity 






u 



• MA(?VARO O YALE CfOc^JH 
Victor O Jones, Sports Editor, Boston Globe. 



30 



GRAPHIC PRESENTATION 



Compare the charts in this chapter With those in "Pictorial Unit 
Bar Charts," pages 121-131. 





Redrawn from Fortune Magazine, February 1932. 

The Use of Segments of Fruit to Represent Quantities. 

With the modern emphasis on novelty, the use of segments of fruit to represent quantities 
should be an effective one. A quarter segment of a lemon to represent the produc- 
tion by the United States of a fourth of the world's lemons, or a half segment of 
grapefruit to represent the production by the United States of half the world's 
grapefruit, vi\>uld be much more vivid than the same information presented in 
verbal form or even bar-chart form. 




GRAPHIC NARRATIVE 



^f'^m-'^intn 



V** cl»*«t* *k« ^l«f tm4 pl*m fm want t«w ■••k • I«*a- . . . TK« l< 



. TK« l*fld»f. miwrvd. pr«.i4*t (K« < 



t 



FHA tpptmwti k «i<*ii il rMf .•!«•«• h 
Ymc Wwm mitt* fMmtm t% •M«iili«l 




®- 



Tk« ^nifn mnl b« .'ck.lK)»f<ll, ••u«<l riadil, uUabU 



How to get an FHA-insiired 
mortgage — f^raphically told 
in words, pictures and charts 



31 




T1i« coMtrw«t*eM fiiMt b« 90«d. r««titi»9 w*«rh«r «nd t 




T>.« pi»f m^n* b« prcctic*! (I«ft). not 




*****, 




vS 



Eqwpivivnt mwit b« appropriat* to kcuM a^d na>9kb«r^o«d 

Hou»f and Garden, June 1938 SCALE 6 

The Procedure for Securing a Federal Housing Adnninisfration-lnsured Mortgage in 
the United States in 1938. 

Stories have been told by pictures since prehistoric times. Here the story was told 
graphically but the verbal narrative was also included. The pictures attract atten- 
tion; the words make sure that the picture is understood; and the combination 
of the two results in the reader remembering the procedure for securing an 
FHA-insured mortgage. 




^^ GRAPHIC PRESENTATION 

Transparent material on which pictures and words may be 
printed has made possible a new type of book. It is literally a 
book, but a book that builds up a given idea, subject, or problem 
step by step as the pages are turned. By the use of transparent 
pages and an ingenious pictorial scheme, a complete story is spread 
out before the individual as a complete whole. The book is planned 
so that it can be read from front to back or back to front with the 
story differing according to which way the book is read. After the 
subject is built up, it may be reversed from the other angle. Since 
the page is transparent, the subject matter is carried through the 
page, presenting the other side of the same material. 

Educators, advertisers, science, and industry may use this new 
tool to unfold an object, lesson, or product in a practical, pictorial 
manner where the spoken or written word is often misinterpreted 
or misunderstood. It greatly simplifies the presentation of any 
object, and produces a vivid mental picture which is easily retained. 
Sources: 

Offset Gravure Corporation, Long Island City, New York 
S. Theo Jonas, 10 West Jackson Boulevard, Chicago, Illinois 

When You're mil/N^lAlO/\/C- 
Think About '-^LOlLINf; OU£R/ 

25 Miles an Hour 






50 Miles an Hour 



'^ ■-'wi..X-'i--''--'-"--t'^^ 

75 Miles an Hour 

Travelers Insurance Co., Hartford, Conn. 

Graphic Presentation of the "Turnability" of an Automobile Traveling at Three 
Rates of Speed. 



33 



Chapter 3 
TABULATION 



ATTRACTIVENESS can be a characteristic of statistical tables. 
, Adherence to certain simple suggestions will improve their 
appearance. Designing is an integral part of every table and should 
be carefully planned. The actual form which any table takes 
depends upon the data to be presented. 

For suggestions relative to setting up tabulation for reproduc- 
tion, see the Vari-typer in Chapter 44 and the material about type- 
setting in Chapter 51. 



CLASSIFICATION 




TOTAL 
COUNT 


Engines 


// 


2 


Coal Cars 


// 


2 


Mail Cars 


/// 


3 


Baggage Cars 


nil 


4 


Coaches 


•HU II 


7 


Diners 


III 


3 


Pullmans 


-HUI 


6 


Observations 


III 


3 



A Simple Method of Tallying. 

1. The above method of tallying, while simple, lends itself to practically all counting pro- 

cedures. 

2. Often, rather than count everything there is to count, one "sample" count or several are 

taken. The average of the total of these samples, if chosen according to a logical 
plan, will give the same result as would be obtained if all were counted. 



34 



GRAPHIC PRESENTATION 



REFERENCES 

Day, E. E., "Standardization of the Construction of Statistical 
Tables." Journal of the American Statistical Association, Vol. 
17, March 1920. This issue of the Journal is so limited that 
the American Statistical Association cannot sell it. However, 
it is available in most libraries. 



/.UJ P.m. 



/■ J.? P. M.. 



t.j.9-r>»t. J_^ f.j j-fi^ j /Ljw '"•t J" '/.'i i7^«<. y.j.rP.H 



UJ^U^ 



wmmm 



.AjlE<JJL*jlJ^ / tt*.U*.uXZ. -V' AkAM«^«^ . £ — c / *. J-*f 



4. /3"a. /«. 



Of 

Hi' 



7.10 

■wtmmm 



M— ■■■■■— —M—W 



£' 



CU»,^L,4^^ / ¥-^ / f30- /^t<-»^<^ 



_3>J!L/c ,.j,\t~ .^w>-«^u.> -a-cAaa*.4-^^/v ■«*. ' .. <. C »y «.».^^r 5t»-C~ 



/«.rr/.t 










■IBMI 



1 1 



Three Methods of Tallying the Barking of Dogs. Data for Use in a Lawsuit, scale s 

Since intelligent planning preceded the tallying of this information, there was no need to 
record it in the form of tables. 



TABULATION 



35 



Mudgett, Bruce D., Statistical Tables and Graphs, Houghton 
Mifflin Company, Boston, Mass., 1930 

U. S. Department of Agriculture, Bureau of Agricultural Eco- 
nomics, The Preparation of Statistical Tables, 1937. A 
pamphlet distributed free of charge. 

Walker, Helen and Walter Durost, Statistical Tables: Their 
Structure and Use (Bureau of Publications), Teachers Col- 
lege, Columbia University, New York City, 1936 



/■d;>uIii«oii 

WMhingt.m. D. C..' 486,860 

Clicvy CliMc, Mil 8,000 

Takoiim I'ark, Md 6,415 

Silver Spring. M<1 5,000 

UyalUville, M.l 4,264 

Mt. Rainier, M«l 3,832 

Ktlovatt-hourt < 

1929 354,9.32,330 

1930 400. 20S, 431 

1931 43.S, 360. 3S1 

1932 - 464, 108,604 

1933 495,013,756 

1934 . 602, 832,609 

I r.nmj tfiienii-l for th« Wtshlnrloo Railway A Klntrlc ComiMDy 
b D<it inclu<Jcd Id IheM n^ros. 

Federal Power Commission. National Power Sur- 
vey, Cost of Distribution of Electricity 1936. 

SCALE .7 

A. Population of the Principal Cities 
Served by the Potonnac Electric 
Power Company in 1934, and 
Trend. of Service Growth from 
1929 to 1934. 

These are simple tables arranged accord- 
ing to magnitudes and chronologi- 
cally. Note that the arrangement 
is from the top down. 





MAINE 

IN 
SEPT. 


THE 
NATION 
IN NOV. 


1900 


^ 


m 


1904 


w 


m 


1908 


m 


m 


1912 


m 


>r 


1916 


#p 


V 


1920 


m 


m 


1924 


m 


m 



B. As Maine Goes So Goes the Na- 
tion? 

This diagram shows that Maine, the state 
which had its election first, fore- 
casted the result of the presidential 
election with approximate accu- 
racy. The forecast has been 
"wrong" three times up through 
1936. In 1940, however. Maine 
will hold its election at the same 
time as the other states. 




Adapted from The Philadelphia Evening Bulletin. 



36 



GRAPHIC PRESENTATION 



MANUFACTURES. 

Tabls M.-DrrAILBD eTATKMBirT FOB TIB TmiTBD ■TATm. 



< m lunrMPm 



CI 



'sm 



■Mi. i. 



■ ^UJi ' " 



GENERAL TABLBB. 

BT OBOOIUPHIO DIYIBIOirS AND BTATK8: lilt 



TtSii, 
•uu. 



•Mfftf 















Table 53- 


- Dktaiixd Statemkmt 


roa THB Unitxd Statb 


Di.nin. 


Num. 

•■■ 

■tiM-n 


PuMun Emuun m tltiiur^cTVdiia lii»ovf«ia | 


ToUl 


rravncton utd OAruli 




Ann«r NubIim o( W.|e Bwwi 




CkrL 


.Hr. 


~ l«U Dkr W - ~ 1 




Tutd 


Pre- 

Pir. 


ricl 
cm irf 
pura- 


Uxt- 

Mu- 

•4im 


Mak 




T>UI 


ud onr 


Vmia l« 


M«lk 


Italk 


M*k 




U»k 




Mali 


■ab 





































BT GEooRAPiiir Divisions and States: I9I0. 



Capital 


F.mpaMa 


Valwo< 
Pk4>c4> 


Vai» 

AiMad 

by 

MaMlK- 
tan 


te 


Salanr< an.l Wa«r< 


Par 
CoKlrart 

Wurk 


R^'nl and Jam 


ParMaltTiah 


OCnab 


Clrrki. 
rlr. 


Earnfn 


Rral 
Parlarj 


Taw., 
Prrtrral. 
Slalr. 

Co..tr. 

aKi 
LonI 


TaUl 


Pri.npal 
Malwtab 


Pwl 
aad 

■mIW 
Pbmt 





























Bruce D. Mudgett. "Statistical Tables & Graphs," Houghton Mifflin Co., 1030. SCALE .7 

Two Methods of Boxing to Show Coordinate and Subordinate Relationships. 

1. The use of single and double lines, as shown in the two upper tables, fails to maintain 

coordinate and subordinate distinctions. The width of line in the lower two tables 
reinforces the boxing arrangement to show coordinate and subordinate relationships. 

2. The caption headings have also been changed to aid reading. 



TABULATION 



37 



■Value of VtiUic-lluildinn and HifihtvayConatrtution Awards Financed 
If holly From Slate Funds ' 



Otocraphio division 



All divisions. 



New Kii?liinil 

Middle .Mliintir 

K.Bst North ('nntral.. 
West Niirtli Oiitral. 
South .Mliiiitu- 



East South rentral.. 
West South Central. 

Mountain 

Pacific 



Value of awards for public building ' 



June 1038 May 1U38 June 1037 



$1. 70^748 



I0:<.8II 

v:»y. 1177 

431. 47'.' 

:is. us.') 

29. 15(i 



15l»,853 
6,500 



$U3M. Jll 



4. J.-.-i 

4;ti.(i:i7 

■«.M.i):t2 

i.r.'io 

lOS. 471' 



23, (HM) 
IS, 02.5 



$<..'.02,4fi7 



H74 

4.1. .'.;:< 

3S4. i'2H 
:t77. 401 

3. '.tiy 

402. (KK) 
lO'.i. OGU 
9.'. -.112 
8:i, 800 



Value of awards for highway con- 
struction 



June 1938 May 1038 June 1037 



tl2,230,009 




$13,571,006 



42J.t.71 

3. 7.14, 975 

2. 930, "t-H 

074.012 

920.816 

l,(m. 135 

1,303. 3V4 

4. 147 

2. 4.S3, 148 



I 



18,621,883 



614,837 
1.821.320 
2,479.513 
1,008.710 

388. 732 

191. 2J2 

876, .143 

161. 123 

1. 079. 853 



' Preliminary, subject to revision. 

' Data for building projects which were located in the cities reporting to the Bureau are included also in 
tables 1, 2,3,5, 7, 9, and II. 

U. S. Def)artment of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics. 

A. A Tabulation Showing the Total for All Divisions as the First Item Rather Than 
As the Last. 

1. The total of a column may be put at the top of a table, as shown here, instead of at the 

bottom. 

2. The use of notes to clarify box headings should be encouraged. 



SUMMARY OF MEN DISPATCHED FROM CENTRAL HALL 



REGISTERED MEN DISPATCHEC 








NONREGISTEREO MEN DISPATCHED 






Loo,. 


Tnidun 


ToMi 


PcrC*nl 


Longshoremen 


Trucker* 






Truck. 


CoiMlt 


FlMten 


Casualt 


Floatera 




No. 


Par 
Cent 
of 

Loncih 


No 


Per 

Cant 

of 

Lon(in 


No 


Par 
Cant 
of 

Truck 


No 


Par 

Cant 

of 

T.w.ck 


1Q7J 


55.070 
70.663 
74.724 
74.992 
84.705 
87,304 
89.425 
96.496 
85.475 
80.271 
60.965 
72.508 


25.210 
29.702 
31.248 
33.044 
34.467 
32.033 
39.442 
39,424 
31,146 
24,798 
21,505 
22.289 


80.280 
100,365 
105,972 
108,036 
119.172 
119.337 
128.867 
135.920 
116.621 
105.069 
82.470 
94.797 


'69 


^1 


















1923 


70 30 

71 29 
69 31 
71 29 
73 27 


















1924 














\i.6 

14.6 
5.7 
2.4 
2.2 
4.2 






1925 










1926 . 













1927 








1928 

1929 

1930 

1931 

1932. 

1933 


69 
71 
73 
76 
74 
76 


31 

29 
27 
24 
26 
24 


2.886 

5.912 
2.743 
1.237 
339 
1,075 


3.2 
6.1 
3.3 
15 
6 
1.5 


492 
472 
160 

35 
6 

62 


.55 
.49 
.19 
.04 
.01 
.09 


4.894 

5.746 

1.785 

602 

469 

929 


2.976 

1.955 

708 

50 

27 

255 


7.5 
5.0 
2.5 

.2 

,:1 


6 Year 
Average--- 


80.856 


29.767 


110.623 


73 


27 


2.365 


2.9 


204 


.25 


2.404 


8.1 


995 


3.3 



F. P. Foisie. "Decasualizing Longshore Labor and The Seattle Experience," Waterfront Einployers of 
Seattle. Feb. 1, 1934. SCALE .7 

B. A Tabulation Showing the Sunnnnary of Longshore Labor Dispatched from the 
Central Hiring Hall in Seattle from 1922 Through 1933. 

1. The good points of this tabulation are that the lettering is clear and easy to read, and 

the figures are distinct. 

2. It might have been better to use wide lines to maintain the various divisions rather than 

the double lines. See 36. 



38 



GRAPHIC PRESENTATION 





Af >Kcir Avcroqc Hourly Woqcs J 


AMfftlCAN 


BELGIAN 
I6« 


GERMAN 
29< 


ENGLISH 
34)4* 


JSI^M 18 


Minulo 

156 


Minutes 

89 


M.nutal 

45 


jljrf^^ 


12 


116 


38 


20 


t^y\h 


5 


20 


27 


7 




26 


244 


116 


51 


EoorliJ 


236 


120 


75 


MilKIOH 


37 


8 


21 




7 


3 


3 


5u40r.|lk 


-J 


42 


29 


8 


IbtalAboM 


94 


858 


430 


230 



American Iron and Steel Institute, "Ste«l Facts," 
May 1P37. SCALE .7 

A. A Tabulation of the Length of Time 
American and Foreign Steel 
Employees Must Work to Buy 
the Same Amount of Typical 
Foods. 



lit 



Si 



.^ 



TOTAl. POPULATIOM 


mtntat oul-v 


«» atPfTlDUlY 


TOT«i. MO MCms 




•UVCO 


CCHeUfPTOU 


COM»Ui»TlOM 


CITv(CauMTV 


»rr 


i^.OOO 


SIM 


117 


ei.ioe 


nn 


4M.0O0 


MCI 


ll» 


04.67? 


on 


^o^.«9S 


SSI9 


II? 


87.829 


1390 


517,674 


MM 


II& 


90.08? 


IMI 


^74.&0» 


^7J0 


K» 


80,888 


am 


S27,40l 


S4 7S 


104 


88.707 


nas 


S28.SM 


34 70 


IW 


90,M? 


mt 


A30.2I6 


»7.406 


loe 


91.9% 


SM 


»i7.000 


^s.^67 


101 


94.651 


1936 


^i^ 978 


4» ^0 


:0 


96.746 



City of Cincinnati, "Municipal Activities." 1Q36. 

SCALE .5 

B. Water Consumption of the City 
of Cincinnati from 1927 
through 1936. 

The only difference between this and 
straight tabulation is that the stub 
headings are presented pictorially 
as well as verbally. 



CONSUMER BUTING HABITS AT BEAVER DAN, WISCONSIN 




,i 


Of r»u % rk. ;. 


rw /. WIm, 


|.^ Thul$Wlmt 




Tku 1, rw. 




i 


irkr,Tki,a, 


1 


rmmw.0. 


1 

lii 


-H-fab Colv." 0. 


1 


ra*rtirvWt(b 


J 
1 


i 
2 


i 


i 


i 


1 


i 
1 


1 

4 


1 


i 
i 




1 


AiTTD Scmiu 


i< • 


M 1 


U 1 




M 9 


a s 


U 4 




so s 


71 S 


IS 4 




SO T 


u s 


TS 




GaocwH 


« • 


71 


II 1 


II t 


M 1 


•0 « 


•0 




IS 


100 






II S 






IMt 


Lmna 


> • 


n 1 


10 1 




M 


7t 


U 




14 T 


100 






IS 7 


loe 






Da DM 


U 1 


>7 1 


a 1 


l« s 


S7 1 


SO 


IS 


U 


n 1 


lOO 






14 S 




IM S 




HasowaU 


II 1 


M 1 


a 1 




H 7 


SO 


70 




10 > 


40 


40 




SO s 


49 


ST 




DsT Goon 


M • 


TO 


90 




10 


17 1 


M a 




U 


77 1 


a s 




U 


IS 


SO 




Jkwblbt 


« • 


•7 1 


II 1 




U) 


71 


U 




r s 


100 






II 4 


100 S 






ZiMtmic^L GooM 


II > 


M 1 


•9 • 




•7 S 


SS 9 


so 7 




10 4 


100 






M 


U S 


TS 





ZlMC RBf«MnUT\<« 


fl i 


100 






7t 


100 






•> 


too 















Ramo 


• 1 


90 


70 




SO 


SS s 


so 7 




SO 


SS 9 


so 7 




40 


U 


TS S 





Mbm-* Cumnto 


M 9 


T< 


M 




SO 


7S 4 


10 I 




IS 


100 






4< 


so 1 


W S 





Caiu>'* CLanmQ 


U t 


M 


SI 




II 1 


SO 


40 




14 1 


»4 I 


19 S 




47 1 


SI s 


SS S 





Womsm's CurrmtmQ 


M ; 

M • 


n 1 

•1 1 


II 7 
II I 




10 7 

•> 4 


n 1 

•1 I 


IT 7 
II 1 




41 4 
U 1 


04 4 

100 


4 4 




M 
II 4 


TO S 

T« 4 


W 1 
M S 





BfMMT 


10 t 


M I 


41 1 


• I 


a 4 


so 


40 




41 1 


71 4 


14 1 


14 I 


li 4 


SO 


SO u 




Nurcbnai 


II 7 


15 1 


1 1 


t 7 


I i 


100 






47 1 


IS I 


IS 7 




H S 


SS 




14 i 


Sum AMD Pud 


7 • 


M I 


IS 9 




7( 


u s 


44 4 




IS 7 


100 






S 1 


ISO 






Poutrma 


II 1 


>l 7 


W S 




u s 


W 


W 




n I 


so 


400 




MO 


44 S 


SS s 





American Business, May 1Q38. SCALE .6 

C. An Analysis of Consumer Buying Habits at Beaver Dam, Wisconsin, in 1937. 
The wide lines between the boxes emphasize the relationships among the various columns. 



TABULATION 



39 







r*uiiv BUDcrrs 




1^ 


*^ 


CMUMf ink) Mid f Ml 




U 1 Siil 


I76< II7« }7« 
14% 13X iK 
Kjv« to t)u<ff»t •»« Kv n*c »tt>t«\ Kjw« mof* Itfl tor 


32 7* 


^^^ 


m 


II 


■1 


1*1 


^ 


UNirco 


rRANCE 


INCIANO 


IIAIY 


ROLAND 


f,r MWor IV».rf. 


J 


?7 


:j 


109 


1 7(14 


11 


B 


■ V 

■ ^ 


HI 


■ 


^^ 


Miairro/'/Wpl. 


UNIItD 

SIAItS 

5 


OtNMARK 
6 


UNHID 
KINGDOM 

7 


RUSSIA 
90 


BULGARIA 
354 


f 


H 


■ V 

■ ^ 


■ 


II 


H 


3L 


UNIKD 

STATtS 

8 


DENMARK 
10 


UNITED 

KINGDOM 

20 


FRANCE 
33 


RUSSIA 
200 


WATtB CONSUMPTION ,:.. , . ,.,■ ,,r-r,n ,.. H.,, 




142 


47 


43 38 


30 




CAW'; 


LONMN B{Rli" AMSTIBWU | 


•FkilSr»nlu<«coi 


ninm 




1 



Literary EHgrst. AuRUSt 29. 1936. 



SCALE .5 



A. A Comparison of Living Standards of the United States and Foreign Nations in 
1936. 

The use of visual titles in tabulating material to be read by all nations is an almost sure 
guarantee that the tabulation will be understood. Although this graph was published 
in an American magazine, it would be equally comprehensible to people of other 
nations. 

Table 1 : Temperatures 



Temp. 
Fahr. 


Pressure 
lbs. Atmos 


Sp.Vol. 
cu. ft. 
per lb. 


Density 
lbs. per 
cu. ft. 


Heat 
of the 
liquid 


Latent Total 
heat of heat of 
evap. steam 


Internal Energy 

B. t. u. 
Evap. Steam 


Entropy 
Water Evap. Steam 


Temp. 
Fahr. 


t 


P 


— 


V or s 


i/» 


h or q 


Lorr H 


1 or p E 


n or « 1/ T or r/ T N or "^ 


t 


280° 


49.18 


3.347 


8.64 


0.1157 


249.0 


924.3 1173.3 


845.9 1094.8 


0.4098 1.24% 1.6594 


280' 


?.«1 


49.97 


3.401 


8.51 


0.1174 


250.1 


923.5 1173.6 


845.1 1095.0 


0.4112 1.2470 1.6582 


281 


WW 


50.77 


3.455 


8.38 


0.1192 


251.1 


922.8 1173.9 


844.3 1095.2 


0.4126 1.2443 1.6569 


282 


283 


51.58 


3.510 


8.26 


0.1210 


252.1 


922.1 1174.2 


843.5 1095.4 


0.4140 1.2416 1.6556 


2a3 


284 


52.40 


3.566 


8.14 


0.1228 


253.1 


921.3 1174.4 


842.7 1095.6 


0.4154 1.2389 1.6543 


284 


285^ 


53.24 


3.623 


8.02 


0.1246 


254.2 


920.5 1174.7 


841.9 1095.9 


0.4168 1.2363 1.6531 


286° 


286 


54.08 


3.680 


7.90 


0.1264 


255.2 


919.8 1175.0 


841.1 1096.1 


0.4181 1.2337 1.6518 


286 


287 


54.93 


3.738 


7.79 


0.1283 


256.2 


919.1 1175.3 


840.3 10%.3 


0.4195 1.2311 1.6506 


287 


288 


55.79 


3.797 


7.68 


0.1302 


257.2 


918.4 1175.6 


839.5 1096.5 


0.4209 1.2284 1.6493 


288 


289 


56.67 


3.856 


7.57 


0.1322 


258.3 


917.6 1175.9 


838.6 10%.7 


0.4222 1.2258 1.6480 


289 


290' 


57.55 


3.916 


7.46 


0.1341 


259.3 


916.9 1176.2 


837.8 1097.0. 


0.4235 1.2232 1.6467 


290' 


291 


58.44 


3.977 


7.35 


0.1360 


260.3 


916.2 1176.5 


837.0 1097.2 


0.4249 1.2205 1.6454 


291 


292 


59.34 


4.038 


7.24 


0.1380 


261.3 


915.4 1176.8 


836.2 1097.4 


0.4262 1.2179 1.6441 


292 


293 


60.26 


4.100 


7.14 


0.1400 


262.4 


914.7 1177.1 


835.4 1097.6 


0.4276 1.2153 1.6429 


293 


294 


61.19 


4.163 


7.(H 


0.1421 


263.4 


914.0 1177.4 


834.6 1097.8 


0.4290 1.2127 1.6417 


294 


oncl S Marks and H 
Suptrhcatcd Steam 


arvcy 

." Lon 


N. Davis, "Tables and Diagrams of the Thermal Properties of Saturated anc 
gmanj. Green and Co., 1909. 



B. A Tabular Arrangennent. 

Note the grouping of the rows of figures into fives. The type was selected to aid the reading 
of the figures. These two improvements have, according to the authors, made the 
tables much more legible than they were in previous editions. 



40 



GRAPHIC PRESENTATION 



MACHINE TABULATION 

Punched card tabulating machines have proved a great aid in 
sorting and accumulating data. The information need not be 
purely statistical. Cards such as the one shown below are the basis 
of the punched card plan. Each card is a general-purpose record 
for one item, one customer, one salesman, or one person, etc. 

Holes are first punched in pre-determined positions on the cards 
according to the data registered. 

A sorting machine is used to group the cards according to the 
information punched in them. The cards are guided automatically 
into receiving pockets according to the position of the punched 
holes in the vertical columns. The automatic sorting is made on 
one column at a time. It is apparent, therefore, that to arrange a 
group of cards in numerical sequence according to the data 
punched in a three-column field, the group of cards is passed 
through the sorting machine three times. 

The third step in mechanical tabulation is the automatic com- 
pilation of the punched data. This is done in the tabulator. In 
a non-printing tabulator, the information is merely accumulated 
in dials. In another type of machine, the data may be automatic- 
ally added and printed. 

Machines for mechanical tabulation are built by International 
Business Machines Company, New York City, and Remfngton 
Rand, Inc., New York City. Tabulating work is done on a service 
basis in various cities throughout the country. 



s«ns tmittis c«n 




International Business Machine Co., New York City. 

Punched Card for Use in Machine Tabulation. 

1. Tabulating cards arc made of paper stock carefully processed to permit of extremely 

rapid actuation of all three machines — the punch, the sorter, and the tabulator. 
The card size is 7W x 3'/i". 

2. Cards may be punched for each item or classification on a customer's invoice show- 

ing, for example, customer number, salesman, district or territory, trade class, 
complete item identification, and amount. 

3. All cards may be balanced to a control and at any time can be sorted and tabulated 

to prepare various analyses. 



TABULATION 



41 



»^nti— —— ■*w«i lis • IL. 



K 



^^ 



a; 
ff5 



CO — =^r:: 









a 

< 



43 



^ mm:?:^ 




■^nr 



-X 









^^\n 



I 

« ili'.lilll 



11 



I 

liiiiii 



lil] 



+^ 



t ' - 1 , 



■tt 



11 ji 



^^iliSiii 



imi 



BBUhhiHF 






•-"irx 



ifi-H 






WWE 



'M 



'H-L 



xt 



niiii. 









Jill! 

llilll 



:;±tLS: 



Em 



til', 
ili 

m 



III 

iljii 



iL'Uii 






•€ 

16 

e 

o 
c 

•a 

9 

e 
o 



0> n 



2 



« 

a> 



- C7» 



2 *^ 

K E 

i! < 

2 > 



2 -c 



^ o 



as 



c 5 o- 
-5 ^ li 

a: '^ ■:; 



(0 — 



42 



GRAPHIC PRESENTATION 



MILES ri5 ^ 35 ' 45 ^ si ^ 65 

PER HOUR. JMILES PfR HOUR MllfS PER HOUR MILES PER HOUR MILES P£R HOUR MILES PER HOUR 

D.u.'s (/DM.) , (2D.aj (3DMJ (5auj , (vau.) 




Vi QT. 
.13^ 



IQT 
.25< 



l%QTs 3QTs AViQVs 
43^ i .75C i $1.13 




50 GAIS. 55 GALS. 60 GALS. 69 GALS. 80 GALS. 



GASOLINE 



$8.75 



$9.63 i $10.50 



$I2.08 



♦14.00 



$1.50 ' $3.00 H.50 i $7.50 $10.50 



TIRES 




MAI NTf NANCE 
TOTAL COST 

COST 
PER MILE 



$4.00 $500 i6.60 $10.00 $13.00 



$14.38 $17.88 
\A^4 \ U9ff 



$22.03 $30.33 $38.63 
2.2 fi 3j03^ 386^ 



S/>eec/ //jc/iease 



Coffper/OOOm^ 



7/meSaye(/ 



Chs//)erMfurSoyei/ 



35 to 45 



$4.15 



6.4 Hours 



$.65 



35 io 55 



$12.45 



10.4 Hours 



$l.20 



35 to 65 



$20.75 



13.2 Hours 



$1.57 



45 to 55 



$8.30 



4.0 Hours 



$2.08 



45 to 65 



$16.60 



6.8 Hours 



^2.44 



55 to 65 



$8.30 



2.8 Hours 



$2.96 



The Travelers Insurance Company, Hartford, Connecticut. "Lest We Regret," 1939. SCALE .9 

Graphic Tabulation Showing the High Cost of Speeding in the United States. 

This table is based on a 1000-mile journey, with an average car, average roads, and an 
average driver. It does not include the economic cost of accidents, which rises in 
proportion to the speed at which the car is traveling. 



43 



Chapter 4 
CLASSinCATION CHARTS 



IN a Classification chart the facts, data, etc., are arranged so 
that the place of each in relation to all others is readily seen. 
Quantities need not be given, although a quantitative analysis 
adds to the value of a classification chart. Brackets and arrows are 
effective tools to use in a classification chart. 



REFERENCES 

Karsten, Karl G., Charts and Graphs, Prentice-Hall, Inc., New 

York City, 1923. 
Riggleman, John R., and Ira N. Frisbee, Business Statistics, 2nd 
edition, 1938, McGraw-Hill Book Co., Inc., New York City. 



Man o" War 



WAR ADMIRAL, br. c, 1934 

Fair Play T , c 

■^ I * Fair 

Mahubah 



y Gold 



ftrushup 



Hard TacW 



{» Rock Sand 
♦ Merry Token 

e /Ben Brush 

Sweep 1 n- 1 n 

'^ IPink Domino 

» »k 1/ J Harry of Hereford 
i * Bathinq birl 



Swing On 



{ 

5EABISCUIT, b. c, 4933 

f w ■ vA/ / Pair Play 

I Man War A .. , .1 

J IManubab 

It a L / * Rock Sane 
U"^'""'^ I Teas Over 

/ Broomsl 
I Audicnci 



{ 



Wiskbroom 
2d 



Balance 






ick 



belais 
Balancoire 



• Imported. 

War Admiral bred by SO Riddle 
Scabiscuit bred by Wheailey Stable, 
(Mrs H.C. Phipps). 



The Pedigrees of the Race Horses 
War Admiral and Seabiscuit. 

1. This chart shows the use of brackets 

in classification of data. The orig- 
inal was in newsprint. 

2. The subject matter of this chart is the 

geneology of two race horses. (The 
pedigrees of War Admiral and 
Seabiscuit show that they are both 
descendants of Fair Play and also 
of Rock Sand.) 



Redrawn from New York Herald Tribune, Nov. 
1, 1938. 



44 



GRAPHIC PRESENTATION 




ilttAtlAMt AMO PATMMt 



lOucAnoMAi 

OtAAMlZATlTMl 



otMta aTa»« 



IMfttfMU O* Cmc AMD OTMH *tOUP| 



U. S. Department of Interior, Office of Education, "School Life," February. 1938. SCALE .6 

The Office of Education in the United States and Its Relationships. 

This chart is especially interesting because it shows graphically that to study one section 
of the myriad of groups in the government of the United States, that area must be 
"magnified." 



CLASSIFICATION CHARTS 



45 



Mr 




I 



-♦- 

-O 

-^ 
'E 

0) 



O 



c 

10 



> 

< 

c 
a> 



> 
Jli > 

•^ _ 
i! <« 



III *^ *r 



9- IS 

Z o 

« c 

c '^ 



§ E 
— « 



— • c 
o 



'•^ o 






46 



GRAPHIC PRESENTATION 



—— IllMENIAIr OnTftlCT 

JUNIO« HIGH SCMOd WSIKICT 

ffift ilEMENTAHV SCHOOL 

n ■ ■ I II JUNIO* HIGH SCHOOL 

fP^ UNIOII HIGH SCHOOL 

I^P?I JUNIO« COllEGi 




WHO WOdltS 

THROUGH KrAKTMENT HtAOS. 

miNCIfALS.ANO TtACHtKS 




U. S. Dcpartmrnt of Interior, Office of Education, "School Life," February, 1938. SCALE .6 

An Organized City or County School System in the United States in 1937. 

Arrows emphasize and here show the relationship between the "people" and the school 
system. 



CLASSIFICATION CHARTS 



47 



r—4 

llfOITt 


W»rl4 l**af> 

Aff*<llil« 

food 
IXrODTS 




W«rl4 l«*iitf 

AffoctUf 
food 

IMrORTS 


H94 

IMPOITt 


t41l.4ll.(M 








Normal 

Rra War 

Rtrtod 

M14,HI.0M 








*" 




..-uj 






Docttotod 


We>W Woi Sloftt 




WoridWarSnm 


Www 

War 

tl.lM.tU.OM 


Wo. 0.<i..i 






Worid War 

Rorwd 

$7*(.t27.l>00 






«»-. 

u 


LJH^^ Rwilion Ravotwi'on 




Irtcomo Toi Modt I090I ■■ 
S EolOrtWo. J.I.. 


Anmlko-Wo. Endi 




Aimilho - Wo. Endl 

I8lh Amtndmont v— w 
Rtconilruction loom f '^ 
10 Eu>op« I j , 


{w«Op«OA 
RvCOAIIVVCtiOII 

-U S FM4<Wa<W 
$I,779,IJ14M 


Ewopo tur> U i 'oodi 




' US 
Real Wo. 


(^^^^^1 iMOAttruction 




..Ui 


Boom 
l1.M2.Ut.0OO 


W. 




«..y 


U S foil Wor 
O.p.,..ion 

{•}$.077.0OO 


RvpOfotioni 
Poymvntt 




U S. To.iH loc.ooiod ■! 


Notisal 
r<Mt War 

SM7.f23.aM 








U. S. Roil Wo. 

Sacondor/ 

'Boom 

tl.122.443,000 


G«rinan Inflation 




Gorman InflatioA 


MS-. 




or. 


'«.,,. 




u 






J»J*. 


PoHci«i ttvdwc* 

f urop*an Purrhnimr) 










Slock Morkot Oath 


Worid 

rcfiod 
S2U.3UMe 


Engkiftd OH Gold 
Jopon Takci Manchuria 

Europton Banks Fail 

ShangKai Wor 


QQ 


U S ToriH Inciooitd 


u s 

D«p.tswon 

SSM.23t.000 




Englaod OH Cold 
Eufopeon Bonht Foil 




British Empire Trod* M 
AgrecmenI H 
U S Banki Foil - a: 
U S OH Gold. Crop Control 
AAA Proccilinq Toi 
Repeal 


^*^M Naticnot Sociolitm 












Procoiting Toi Invokd ***• 
AAA In.olid Q 


u s 

Recovery 
SM2.4t7.000 


U $ t«<ipfocol TfodeTreot)«t 
Spontjh R«b«ll>on 




Wmld Trod« Increoio ^* 


Sr">bol Colo. 
LEGEND: ^p Eipom B^ Ro» food Malet.uli 

f j Impom 1 1 Manufocluixl Food 



Food Industries. October, 1938, Part of an Editorial on Public Relations Entitled, "World Trade Makes 
Food Prices." SCALE .6 

Analysis of Food Expor+s and Impor+s of the United States from 1910 to 1936. 

1. The years presented in this chart are divided into 5 world time-periods and 7 United 

States time-periods with notations of historical events. 

2. The analysis of exports and imports shows a comparison of our exports and imports for 

any one time-period, the percentage distribution of the imports for any one time- 
period into raw food materials and manufactured food products, and the same for 
total exports for any one time-period. 

3. In the original copy the sections labelled "raw food materials" were orange in color. 



48 



GRAPHIC PRESENTATION 



Hailway 

hxjUlPMENT 

Division 



Tank 
Link 



Order and Shipping 
Division 



( >p»TBUon . 



I Maintenance. .4 



rHocords 

J ( ",Hr mil«Mjge and equaliralion accounts 

C StHllslicB 
I ( '.Hr distribution 
I Ix-asing of cars 

Equipmpnt and force 
Miscdlaneous upkeep 
I'ainting 
Home shops ^ fOutJet valves 

J Safety valves 
I Air brakes 
I Car tanks 



{ 



Tests 



Railroad 
repairs. 



CK. \\. K. interchange rules 
I A. IV A. lank car specifications 
• ( )wniTs deft'cUs 
I Carriers liability 
I Railroad repair bills 

Stock supplies at U^rniinaLs. bulk plants, and warehoasos 
Allocation of orders for shipment of sUxk from and to refineries 

Buy-out points, terminals, bulk stations, warchoasus, etc. 
Designation of mode of transportation— Rail, water, truck, et*-. 
( 'onsolidat<- or pool orders 



Tariff and Hati. 
Division 



( IliNKllAL am> 
\dmimsthativi; 

DiMSION 



.\verage demurrage, credit, and weight agrwenents 
Claims — Overcharge, loss, and damage 
Diversion and reconsignmcnt 
Freight bills — checking and revising 

rMarkcting territories 
Rate surveys. .« Plant lo<-ations 

^Competitive comparisons 
Male adjustments — Informally with railroads 
Rule iinil route tables 
I. C. C. practice and procedure 
Routing (technical, applicable rates, etc.) 
Servici- -c|uol)ilions to sales and purchasing departments 
Tariir and cliLssilicalion lilcs 
'rru<'king and marine arrangements (local) 
Tracing and cx|)editing 






Voduction 
1 ■ . .u I Purchasing 
encral servK-.- U, other J M„„„f„,.if.ring 
departmenU 1 /Whol.-sale 

^saies. ^^^^^^^^ 

Diilact with trade and traflic iLs.so<'iatioiis 
iMipcrution with carrier ollicials 
i PrrsoillK'l ^ 

'Distribution of stinks (physical) 
Rureaii of exi)lusiM's regulations 
Clearance rules 
Misi I'lliineoiis 4 Railroad leases, side-track agreements, etc. 

'rriins|M)rl .ser\ ill — rail, water, truck, etc. 

Riiutiiig - DLstribiiliiin iiml allotment of trallic as lM>twe<-ii carriers 
Pas.srnger trans|Kirta(i(iii \ ia rail, air, and water 



Metropolitan Life Iniurance Company, "Functiont of the Traffic Manaier," 193 7. 



SCALE .6 



Traffic Department of a Large Company. 

The brackets in this classification were retouched. Since the important thing in such a 
presentation is to show relationships, the tool used, that is, the brackets, should be 
emphasized. Otherwise, the purpose is lost. 



CLASSIFICATION CHARTS 



49 



I WASHINGTON 

z MAi&ftCHusrrw 

3 NEW NORK 
A CflLIPORNtA 

5 COOJECncUT 
b OHIO 

7 NtW JERStY 

6 tLLINOli 

9 COLORADO 

10 iNDtANA 

1 1 RHooe. l6uv^i0 

12 VEPMONT 



CMIL- |6CK>0i.|tynMK 
K(N IN PLANT PtP 
SOWOlI ICMltD 




I 



r;;;/^^;^///^i 



\yyyyyy/A\ 



JL 



\Vyy///AV/////A\ 



II w/////Ay//////AVAy//A\ \mmy///m 



13 WCW HAMRSHIRE ^ 

14 UTAH W^^//AV/////AV;y//A^AV/////AV/////AV/yy//A\ 

15 OREGON 
10 MONTANA 
17 MICHIGAN 
« N DAKOTA 
19 IDAHO 

TO Minnesota 

21 IOWA 

IZ MAINE. 

d3 PENNSYLVANIA 

« KAN6A5 







\/M^,m\y//'-^/, \y/y///A\w/jr//A ^/ 







V//////At 



\yjy///Ay//////xmw^/A 



is, NEBPA5KA 
2b 5 DAKOTA 
ex NEVADA 
28 Wi6CON^lM 
IS> WYOMING 

30 ARIZONA 

31 OKLAHOMA 
52 MISSOURI 
35 W VIRGINIA 

34 FLORIDA 

35 DELAWARE 

36 MAFTTLAND 

37 TENNESSEE 

38 TEXAS 

39 LDUt5LANA 

40 NEW MEXICO 

41 VIRGINIA 

42 KEKfTUCKY 
A5 ARKAN6A& 

44 GEORGIA 

45 MI&^'-^^PP' 

46 Nl CARCXINA 
^ 6. CAROL\NA 
48 ALABAMA 



Brinton, "Graphic Methodi," McGraw-Hill, 1914. 

Rank of Each of the United States in Ten Educational Features in 1910. 



i\ \yArAM\y/x////.\ 



I |.v;%^/// \y//////.\ 



\^/M/-/A' ■- W///M\ 



Wiv/ ^:\:mf^'\^;>m^\ 



I I V4y////A 



\m;m/A/. -// 



YMf^/^W/Z/M 



\/Y./m\ 



I \W>.yM\ 




SCALE .9 



1. In making a block classification chart it is important that shadings ranging from white 

(or light) to black are chosen to correspond to correct gradations of value. 

2. The states are arranged according to their total ranking in all twelve educational 

features; thus Washington State which ranked among the first 12 states in all but 
one feature is listed first, and Alabama which ranked among the lowest 12 states in 
all 12 features is listed last. 



50 



GRAPHIC PRESENTATION 



METALS 



DAYS EXPOSURE 

MICH TEST 

GASOLINE 

LOW TEST 

CASOLINE 

BENZOL 

91^. HKIM TEST 

9% ANTI-KNOCK 
«4» LOW TEST 
16% ANTI-KNOCK 
97% HIGH TEST 

]% ANTI- KNOCK 
S0% HIGH TEST 
50% BENZa 
ANTI -KNOCK 



1 1 


ALUMINUM 


ZINC HATE 


SHEET STEEL JTERNEPLAIll TIN PLATE <SHaT OOPPOtl SHEET BAASSlcOOOVEAfUTE 

1 1 


SPIEOELITl I 


IS 


57 


145 


15 


57 


145 


15 |57|l45|l5 57|l45il5 !57|u5]l5 IS7 


145 


I5|57|I45J15|57|m5 


.5|57 


145 














wm m H 




Ir-^ H-L 














/'JBl rr 




1-- ! B - 














r ^ . WT 




I ^i B ' 










^^1 HH 1 1 ^H 


!J>i B! ' 








rr 




k-UU-i -: ■ ' il 


mum !■ . 












zoni . . Ebi 


■■■■ H . 












^t^Sm^ ■■■BW ^^ 












-^T'S ■■ 1 ' ■■■■"■ ^ 1 


_ 



Fj NOT AFFECTED ^p SOMEWHAT AftKIEO ^| BAOLT AFFCCTtO 



Automotive Industries, March 23, 1922. 



SCALE 8 



A. The Effect of "Doped Fuels" Upon fhe Fuel System of an Engine in the Presence 
of Moisture. 

Here again a block chart is used to present a gradation classification. It is based on the 
results of an investigation made by the Material Section of the Engineering Divi- 
sion, War Department, Air Service, McCook Field in Dayton, Ohio. It may be 
observed that the metals which stood up better than the others are aluminum and 
zinc plate. 




Standard Statistics, Inr , N. Y. C. SCALE .9 

B. Raw Material Resources of the Leading Countries of the World in 1936. 

1. The value of this type of chart is that a quantitative analysis which is not actually 

shown on the chart can be compared with other analyses. That such an analysis 
was made is shown in the titles of the four classifications at the bottom. 

2. Compare this chart with 51. 



CLASSIFICATION CHARTS 



.Su 



c< 



T3 S 








a 



IB 1 



1 1 

1 1 

1 

1 f • : - 1 r 1 : • 


■ 
1 

■ 

1 ' 1 1 • 1 




>- 


cr 






z 


CO 


Ul 

2 




i 


!< 


< 


oc 




< 


to 


UJ 


^ 


cc 


=) 


o 


o 


u. 


QC 






tc 



E 



— o 



o o 

Q- Q. 

^ E 

<D — 
0) -•- 

0Z 



•G 2 



E£ ^ 



^ i£ 



^"^ 



M X 



2 XI .t: 

c 



*- C 
(9 



cK .a 

■5 * 

H Z 



C-— CO 
T3 ^ 



►5 w < 



t-i »* fO 



GRAPHIC PRESENTATION 



1 

2 . 

3 ^ 

4 : 



DT CHART CF 



. „., . ^. ATOMS -nK'h^ 

TIm AiMM Cnmfi Acraram« l« tW NumWot oI OuUr I V*Imk* I ClKlroM PWntUry i Ii lIi mi 

I II III V Vi Vi^ ym::it"T^tt4->7 

Z2 997HU4.}^IK. 2&97|H ZtUX IB :il U2 «§[ J106 , ■ 3J.45? 39S-i4H 'I^J _:_ - 

Cui 

37 IT |77 iT^ I Wo QM. D i'lluiT?h(|rPd| 

JLpQ »IM.UZ-<' ift ll4.76llll&.oT^ 12I76|| 1276l|l26S2 , . 11U_M t^,:; i'^ 
' Kb I 223^ ■l226-> ■22a' ■l2W ■ 2JI ■tzj&e? ■ 




2 8 i<j!a 




'i>K 71 lUr* E>r«W 



II 40131 

^1 



|lSa43Bh I62X> ■ 



|l^ IklWa ll i<24i(|i r63j||KU4||. l«M|tl7XM ||- 17l«| 



11 Wilri> «li.1 », I 



Compiled by Henry D. Hubbard of the U. S. Bureau of Standards; Publiihed by W. M. Welch Manu- 
facturing Company, Chicago. SCALE: Greatly Reduced 

A. Chart of the Atoms. 

Concise information on atomic structure as well as 40 different characteristics of the atoms 
is given in this chart. The original is lithographed in six colors, and all routine 
information is printed in large type. It can be obtained in two sizes, 42" x 64" and 
22" X 30". 





Compiled by Henry D. Hubbard of the U. S. Bureau of Standards; Published by W. M. Welch Manu- 
facturing Company, Chicago. 

B. A Reproduction of One Unit of the Chart of the Atonns, and the Key Used fo 
Interpret All of the Graphic Illustrations on 52A. 

The right side is a reproduction, in one color only, of the unit which represents the element 
Potassium. The left side appears as a key at the lower right of each chart. 



53 



Chapter 5 
GENEOLOGY AND GENETICS CHARTS 



eneology and Genetics Charts are known chiefly as means for 
tracing ancestors. Synonyms for geneology and genetics charts 
are: pedigree charts, genealogical charts, ancestral charts. 



I 



SAMPLE PCOieRCE CHART SHOWINO THE MANNER OF CONSTRUCTION, AND THE USE 
OF STANDARD AND SPECIAL SYMBOLS. 



iCir6 6 




C^ 







_ _ if i * 6' 6irik' 6 d ti iikd^ x 

K tXPLAWATKIII Of ITMIOLI 

D'MQle,- O'^e""!!*; 0'3tT\n\ln>owi\., A-StiU-biiiW or M>scoima^e,X"CKi\irtT\— numbtr oi\4 sex -unVnown; OO'TwmSj 

Roman SnuTT's v> \h». U^V mditoX*. (^mtrotionv l\rQkM ^^urti \oca\e miwidMois, (\V«u4 ffl.T i» tt\« >\ovit\^ mon m \V«. >*iir4 
qtntTo\ion who mornti >u^ countx). 

31« ^oWtwnnfl Vttttr*, p\ate<i in or anMnd W»t i»dr(\4ua\') vtdv^rti S'^mbd), or* i\oi\4or4. ^or ttrtQ\r\ \roi\» R. a^toVvolit; B, blm4i 
ttdtaS. E. epi>«^ic, F, VtiWemmitdj I, \T»ant, Mj[m'\qr(i\ritou^;N,'norwa\ nv rtStrnvc* \t XmM Mtv4tr tQt\v4«ro.\xOT»j Nt, T»wrdl\t; 
P. pQr<i\x\>C; ^T, ^txuaAA)^ \mmort^, S.VtThMiC/ X tubtrtu\ouV H wanitrtr. 

■ 9* 5«cct%iSu\ \to4«ri \n pa)M^c^■ O© • Ei\Ta tt\>onD on rM^W hani. Ul'H\<)hV\^ ^«^.t^^Su\ ou^Hor. L.s "VjIRt or no oMWi^ 
in \>)tr«r\^ iS<or1«,. ■#'^ui)Cr\or m volo\ »nuvt. B© » Mtdmrrv oWoinmenV. m MOtoV wuvc. 

To Vit \ti* fiar\>cJar SaR«\^ on4 Xro\\» (wHt>h«r pht^vtal.intntat or Uinp»Tamin*o\; qoo4 ftrVxkd) un4tr tOivMitroV^jn, vn««nt 
?ptcio\ Sumbol^. or ^t\ti:\ ^ptooN \««iri(\rv adi\>nn No \rvan* ^«n4ar<lii«A \in4«T (oi obwtl \ft bi '^AUti vnS'nm or ntar VWt. 
paHiiuloT tn4lM^4uo\'^ p*4iv<t ^>(>>M, W in4ico\c p«T<icu\or \rovti an4 Vtwr dtt^rce a\ dtvOeprntnt- 



SCALE .9 



Eugenic* Record Office, Cold Spring Harbor, Long Island, N. Y. 

Pedigree Chart ShowIr>g the Manner of Construction and the Use of Standard and 
Special Symbols. 



54 



GRAPHIC PRESENTATION 



•'tf 
, 4rd 6 d e' D* ti d o' □" 

-. i Jo' rf Cf4'd do* n'b'da d'ei'd B'dV J^'Jd'a o" 



■ dddddddd'ddn'dn'd'DdB'^d'ddoy'ed'Hd 



d ^. 



/ ^/ *^m tmtJmm C* Um^'l, nw%_^ W. 




Eugenics Record Office, Cold Spring Harbor. Long Island, N. Y. SCALE .7 

A. A Geneology Chart Showing the Actual Pedigree of Pre-Senile Lamellar 
Cataract. 

1. Following the practice of tracing only one trait on one pedigree chart, this chart traces 

the trait of pre-scnile lamellar cataract. All individuals of the family tree are 
plotted even though all do not show the trait. 

2. It would be fairly easy to construct a chart tracing the family distribution of a trait 

by following the principles exemplified in the above diagram. 



1 

n 

ID 



I 



■ • Wh.K Forclotk 

DO Nc Wh.H FcfloiK 



I 1 1 



t? 



V ■ • o 



s 



fy^ ^ ^ 



Ti 



9-r9 



OB D D O 

« 7 S « 10 



h 



II. the firii recorded ancestor liavinn a white forelock. H-l, liis son inherited the while fore- 
lock And married a woman without it. ill. of their five sons three inlierited tlic white torek>ck 
and two did not. IV. ««howinn the four daug-hters of one son, III-J, tliree ilaiiRhters havinn 
inherited the white forelock and one lias not. V. sliowinf; the children of these four daugliters 
who married men without a white forelock : some of the cliildren of each of the three mothers 
possessing the white forelock have inlierited it but none of the children of the other tuotlier not 
possessing it have the white forehnk. 

Lyle Fitch "Inheritance of a White Forelock," The Journal of Heredity, Novemtwr, 193 7, American 
Genetic Auociation, Washington, D. C. SCALE .9 

B. Five Successive Generations Showing Donninant Inheritance of a White Forelock 
in the Logsdon Family. 

Explanations below a geneology chart are helpful and should be used frequently. 



GENEOLOGY AND GENETICS CHARTS 



55 






< o 




o, 









In several places in this cliart the inheritance sinuilates tliat of a sex-linked dominant charac- 
ter, but tlie pedigree as a whole proves that the apparent association with sex is purely fortuitous. 
The largest sector in which sex-linked inheritance is suggested is bracketed with a dotted line. 



Mablr R. Walter. "Five Grnrrations of Short DiRits," The Journal of Heredity, April, IQ38, American 
Genetics Association, Washington. D. C. 

Pedigree Chart Showing Five Generations of Short Digits. 

1. Deformed individuals are represented by solid symbols. 

2. The use of a circular heredity chart is helpful when the number of persons in the fourth 

or fifth generation would necessitate too long a chart. 



56 



GRAPHIC PRESENTATION 




Codex Book Co., Inc., Norwood, Mats. 

A. A Genealogical Charf Sheef. 

1. This sheet is 8'/2" x 11" and its purpose is to show graphically the genealogy of a 

person or the pedigree of an animal. In the central space numbered "1," the name 
of the individual is written. In the spaces of the concentric bands, the names of 
the ancestors are placed, each band representing a generation. The figures in the 
spaces may be used as reference numbers. 

2. The fan-shaped pedigree chart, while it eliminates the difficulty of spreading over too 

much space, is less easy to read than 57. 



Theories of 
sound " finance 



Desires of rentiers 
with &xed money in- 
comes 



Poor 
harvest.^ 



Undue pessi- 
mism of busi- 
ness men 



Seasonal 
depression 



Foreign 
tariffs 



E>eflation 



f'r 



Trade de- 
pression 



L 



Rigid wages 
and prices 



Other (e.g. 

banking) 
conditions 

constant 



More unemployment 

r 



Fall in 

the 

(money) 

cost of 

living 



I 

Rise in 

pnce of 

fixed 

interest 

securities 



I 



More poor relief Higher insurance contributions 



Higher rates and taxes 



Additional public loans 



p. Sargrnt Florrnce, "Thr Statistical Method in Economics and Political Science," 1929, Krgan Paul fli 
Co., London. 

B. Genealogical Presentation of the Theory of Unennploynnent. 

1. The lines in the original of this chart were undoubtedly set in type, not drawn. The 

lines have been retouched and thickened. 

2. This chart illustrates the point that there is more than one reason for unemployment. 



GENEOLOGY AND GENETICS CHARTS 



57 




I 



Ancestral Publuhing H Supply Co., Chicago, 111. 

A Columnar Anceitral Chart. 

The left to right rather than top to bottom arrangement makes it possible to get in a great 
deal of information. The horizontal rather than circular arrangement makes the 
chart easy to read. Compare this form with 56 A 



58 



GRAPHIC PRESENTATION 




EIrctronicsi Octobrr, 1938. Part of an Editorial on Public Relations for Industry. 

The Family Tree of the Thermionic Tubes. 



SCALE .7 



Although the term "family tree" does not necessarily mean a '■tree." the "tree" form of 
heredity or family chart is a well-known one. The "tree" here presented is in reality 
a chronological statement of events, all of which have contributed to the existence 
of the "thermionic tubes." 



59 



Chapter 6 
ORGANIZATION CHARTS 



I'krsonnki. 

DiRECTOn 



E 



SuptTvisor of Technical 
Kmploymcnt and Training 



Medical 
Director 



SuptTvisor of 
Traitiinp 



Supervisor of 
Insurance and Benefits 



Supervisor of 
Research 



Metropolitan Life Insurance Company, •Functions of the Personnel Director," 193 7. 

A. Organization Chart of the Headquarters Staff of a Personnel Director Whose 
Company Has Units in Various Parts of the Country, 



.^Ji 



Personnrl 
Director 



r 



Supervisor of 
Employment 



Supervisor of 
Compensation 



Supervisor of 
Sales Personnel 



Supervisor of 
Training 



t: 



1 



Supervisor of 
Employee 
Helations 



Supervisor of 

Manufacturing 

Personnel 



Supervisor of 
OITice Personnel 



Metropolitan Life Insurance Company, "Functions of the Personnel Director," 193 7. 

B. An Organization Chart Showing That an Organization Which is Engaged in 
Manufacturing Also Has Special Staff Men for Both Functional and Depart- 
mental Problems. 



60 



GRAPHIC PRESENTATION 



I 



z • 
E 






il 



'il 




< 



Mil 



' IMlill 






mrz 






^Hl 



-f 



•I 







mwwm 



ih 



'ii!'ji'ilii!'L 

mm 



jii 






o 



o 

>- 

Z 






3 O 

S t 

. o 



u. o 



c c 
j< 2 



s -s 

^ C 



HI c o 



c y 



jj c 



^ o ^ 



I o ; 

> — o 



O jC 

2 H 



z ir ^ 



ORGANIZATION CHARTS 



61 



A. Diagram of the Organization of 
the CCC made by President 
Roosevelt in 1933. 

The most complex and widespread organi- 
zations may begin from just such 
crude drawings as this one. 



<^//i:, 

"/ 









[a^ \u^ 



?/j, p^ ^' ^"^ ^ « 




Newtr>aper of the Civilian Coniervation Corpt, 
"Happy Dayt." April 2, 1938. SCALE .4 



PURCHASING 



ZIZ 



PLANTATION 
(Owner or Generol Monoger) 



MARKETINC 
(0«n«r O' Monog»r) 



STORE OR 
COMMISSARY 

(S><yt w fvm U4O 



CONNECTION 
*1TM CREDIT 
INSTITUTIONS 

(O.ntf) 



Ode 



*tNiN' fAQMS 



WPA. Diviaion of Social Rrtearch, "Landlord and Tenant on the Cotton Plantation," 1936. 



SCALE .6 



B. Organization of Enterprises on the Large and Closely Supervised Cotton Plan- 
tation in the United States. 

The organization chart starting with the top and then branching downward to small division 
at the bottom is perhaps the best known form of organization chart. How the 
branching will be done depends a great deal upon the organization. 



62 



GRAPHIC PRESENTATION 



I. Ho O«0£raphlcal 
SobdlTlBlons 



ovrici 



ill rincera 




II. 



Centnllied Geographical 
SubdiTlBlone 




Short Arms 
Long Fingers 



The Field 



III. 



Decentralized Geo- 
graphical SubdlTlfllons 




Long irns 
Short Fingers 



The Field 



Luther Gulick and L. Urwick, "Papcri on the Science of Administration." Institute of Public Administra- 
tion. N. Y. C. 1937. SCALE .6 

Three Types of Geographical Division of Work. 

The practical application of these forms of organization may be found in government. 
A detailed explanation of each is in the book from which this chart was taken. 



ORGANIZATION CHARTS 



63 



NATWMAL fcLlCTRIC 
POWtR COMPAffY 



wm 




«»% ^ fft-ff 



■■■ MOtfUl* COWMWr 

■^^^ oftttrrmt co—P«Ht 
j < M rix*o tMOf* /v r ' • 



Hew York Times, Dccrmhrr H, 1QJ2. 




JlRliY Antral 

NWt«»ll«NTCO 

.1 

<C JllIB^ 

tetrrtt M»MO¥t» 



StABiARD 
fUMKUtVICtCt 

: "J 

loetHiiftnjnfft 
in MU>mms 

24 COMMNII i 
ftte B) 



IU1I0NALPU5IIC 

srtvict cow 

MUHICIHL 
)ttvic| COM 



Kfsiufiimmo 

a COMMMitS 



(31 e 0) 
SCALE .6 



A. An Organization Chart Showing How Holdings of the Eastern Insull Utilities 
Were Pledged. 

In order to differentiate, cross hatchings and shadings may be used effectively in an organi- 
zation chart. A variety of shapes as well as shadings distinguishes the divisions. 




I V- 

1 


1 


1 1 


— 



\m{ 



T 




r 




— 1 


'."7 




c_,..,. 












1 




T JU, 





r 




— 1 




IT. 




*'rSl..'' 




1 




__J 






1 






. 


'""" 


1 



Induttrial Managcmrnt, June, 1917. 



SCALE 1 



B. Organization Chart of the Shell Plant in Erie, Pennsylvania, of the American 
Brake Shoe and Foundry Company. 

A circular form is seldom used in organization hierarchy, probably because it is difficult 
to indicate hierarchy in a circle. 



GRAPHIC PRESENTATION 



if i >ih 



^ METER OIV. 



J^!.^ 



SWITCHGEAR OIV. 
2441 




ADVERTISING 
16 



SALES /| ENGINEERING SI 
2098 // 304 

MINISTRATION I ACCOUNT 

15» 1519 

OFFICERS 

It 



riNG 



SM 



DIRECTORS 
16 




Wettinuhouif Electric & ManufacturinR Co . PittsburRh, Pa.. 'WestiiiRhousc Industrial Relations." 1937. 

The Westinghouse Family Tree in 1937. 

This is an effective and leKitimate use of the structure of a tree. It is an organization chart 
superimposed upon a "family tree." Compare this form with 58. 



ORGANIZATION CHARTS 

( ELECTORS ) 



65 



/^PUBLIC SAFETY^ 
DIRECTOR 

POLICE- FIRE -BUILDINGS 
WELFARE & W0RKMCXJ5E 
MARKETS, WEIGHTS & 

V MEASURES J 



^ LAW ^ 

DIRECTOR 

LESI5LATI0N-ASSES3MENTS 
LEGAL COUNSEL-REAL ESTATE 
MUNICIPAL COURT ; 




I 



f PUBLIC WORKS A 

DIRECTOR 



HIGHWAYS • SEWERS RE CORDS 
MUNICIPAL GARASEPBOPERTV 
acHIGMWAY MAINTENANCE 
v^WASTE COLLECTION J 



/^PUBLIC UTILITIES^ 

DIRECTOR 



TRANSPORTATION TRAFnC 

STREET LISHTIN6 
^v AIRPORT 



'water works^ 

SUPERlNTCNPgNT 

DISTRIBUTION 

SUPPLY 
COMMERCIAL 



1. Nine members elected bi-annually. 

2. Selected by Council from its membership. 

3. Appointed by Council. 

4. Appointed by the Mayor. 

5. Three members — 1 each appointed by the Mayor, Board of Education, 
and University Directors. 

6. Five members — 3 appointed by the Mayor, and 1 each by the Board of 
Education and the Park Board. 



Annual Report of the City Manager, Cincinnati, Ohio. 1937. 

Organization Chart of the City of Cincinnati. 



SCALE .9 



GRAPHIC PRESENTATION 



THE ELECTORATE 









S§^ 


CITY 
ATTORNEY 






POLICE 
COURT 














CITY 
PROStXUTOR 






SPECIAL 

AUDITOR 







m LEGI SLAT IVE IL 

^uQARO or CJZS^AlBC^XDB^Ij 




1 GENERAL GOVERNMENT 










CIT Y 
CONTROLLER 






CITY 
TREASURER 














ASSESSOR 






PURCHASES 
4 SUPPLIES 














PUBLIC 
BVILPINQ^ 






EMPLOYMENT 






BUREAU 



, PROTECTION TO PERSONS k PROPERTY 



POLICE OEPT 



BUILDING 
DEIPT 



FIRE DEPT 



EMERGENCY 

HOSPITAL 



BOARD 
OF REVIEW 



MISCELLANEOUS 



PRINTING 
DEPT 



CIVIC 
AUDITORIUM 



CROWN CITY 
RANCH 



SANITATION k CLCANLINESS 



ENGR, DEPT 
REFUSE DiSPQSAU 



ENGR.DEPT 
LOT CLEANING 



5EWAGC 
THEATMDfT PLANT 



STREETS « HIGHWAYS '' 











ENGR.DEPT 
STS. A. HIGHWAYS 






STREET 

LIGHTING 







RELIEF k SOCIAL SERVCE 



1 PARKS k RECREATION | 










PARIV DEPT 






DEPT OF 
RtCPEATION 







PUBLIC UTILITIES 



LIGHT & POWERF 



WATER 



HEALTH DEPT. 



Annual Report of the City Manager, Paiadena, California, 1937. 

Organization Chart of the City of Pasadena. 

Compare this type of organization chart of a city-manager form of government with 65. 



ORGANIZATION CHARTS 



67 




o 



o 



c 



o 



I 





E 


. 


t 


r 


« 




o. 


.2 


4» 


CS 


n 






CO 


-♦- 


u 


3 


iS 


U 


• 




.J 


U 




o 


o 


c 




c 




o 


v 


o 


3 




PQ 


a> 






U 


-♦- 


a 


*♦- 


^ 


o 


^ 


c 





o 


t' 


t^ 


1 


S 


1 


c 


a 




c5 


1. 

O 



68 



Chapter 7 
RELATIONSHIP CHARTS 



A "RELATIONSHIP CHART" is a diagram in which facts, in- 
formation, etc., are arranged to emphasize their relation. It 
differs from a classification chart in that relationships may be 
shown without any classification of the material used. 



GEOGRAOhfy 

i^iuoootooy; 




.V^vif O (? 



CCONOM>CS 




From "An Outline of the Principle! of Geology" 
by R. M. Field, Copyright 1938. Used by 
Permitiion of the Publithert, Barne* & Noble, 
Inc. SCALE .6 

A. The Relations of Geology To and 
Its Interrelations With Other 
Divisions of Knowledge. 

1. This diagram suggests that geology is 

not an isolated thing, but is bound 
up with many branches of study. 

2. The divisions immediately adjacent to 

the center of this chart are the 
ones most closely related to the 
science of geology. Those divisions 
on the outer edges are related to 
geology through the intermediate 
subjects. 



From "An Outline of the Natural Re»ource» of 
the United State*" by R. M. Field, Copyright 
1936. Used by Permission of the Publishers, 
Barnes H Noble, Inc. SCALE .6 

B. Relation of Natural Resources to 
Hunnan Activities and Interre- 
lations With Other Branches of 
Study. 

Although similar to the preceding chart, 
this diagram differs in that rela- 
tionships around the circle are in- 
dicated as well as from the center 
outward. 



RELATIONSHIP CHARTS 



69 



SPECIAL W*R WORK ON— 

MILITARY MAPPING 

Making progr«itiv« miliUry indei map of United States 
SURVEY OF SITES. 

Balloon fields 

Ordnance proving grounds 

Artillery sites 

Areas near cantonments 

Aviation fields 

ROUTE MAPS. 

Airplane routes. 

Motor truck routes 
ENGINEER REGIMENTS. 

Contributing 110 officers. 

Contributing 164 men. 

Training officers and enlisted men 

Training school for topographers. 

PURCHASE AND SHIPMENT OF INSTRUMENTS 

NEW AIRPLANE CAMERA. 

CONFIDENTIAL MILITARY DATA. 

Orientation manual. 

GENERAL TOPOGRAPHIC INFORMATION. 
TOPOGRAPHIC DRAFTING. 

Artillery instruction maps. 

Danger poster for hydroplane. 

French conventional signs. 

Base maps to scale for miscellaneous surveys 



'.^ 



>^' 



C'^v\\'vv'>V 



CONTRIBUTED TO- 

WAR DEPARTMENT. 

' General SUff. 
Corps of Engineers. 
> Ordnance. 

'^' . Artillery. 



IcT .-V-:' 



I 



. Quartermaster. 

' Signal Corps. 

■ Aviation. 

'Surgeon General's Office. 
I Departmental commanders. 
' Any officers requesting. 
, NAVY DEPARTMENT. 

■ Marine Corps. 

.COUNCIL OF NATIONAL DEFENSE. 

■ FRENCH MISSION. 



U. S. Department of Interior. "Thirty-ninth Annual Report of the U. S. Geological Survey." 1918. 

SCALE .8 

Relationship Chart Showing the Contributions to War Service by the Topographic 
Branch of the U. S. Geological Survey. 

1. In this chart, the fact that one government department cooperates extensively with 

others is brought out with force. 

2. It would not be wise to use this form to show too many interrelationships, however, as 

all detail would be lost. 



T 



LajL 



nn 

m 



w 



GRAPHIC PRESENTATION 



Pl'RPOSE AND PROCESS SLBDI\ ISIONS |\ 0R(;ANIZATI0N 



PrIVBi* ••crstarlac 



lh4««k off lear 
AaeottBtut* 

r^fiifcMlM •ttumr 



•vitebboa^ operator 



Hoiorlt*d ••mo« 



g 'I 



^ r 



AfttilMii •BBarlaMaAaali 



Pr|v«t« ••er«tart«« 

ni* clvrkt 
Cl«rk* 



1>«««I offte«r 



Laboratory aoilvtaatt 



Olaoorocs %oaeb*r» 
•paelal toactaora 
LlkTarlaaa 
taeroatlOB laWlar* 
Plufgroaad mparrlat 



traffle auporvlaor 



ftvlkabbeard oparator 



UoiorlMd aarrli 



PCLia nvanar 



AcolitoAl Chlof* 



frtvaia oacroiarlaa 
Itaaecrapbaro 
ril* elarko 
CTarka 
Haoiawart 



la4cat off 1 oar 
iCoouniaBto 
^rehaali^ effioar 



CrUa laboratoT7 ataff 
Pellea •ehooj ttaff 



Valtormmd tore* 

Traffle foraa 
Jail ttaff 
Hountad feroa 



Hotorisad Borrloa 

V 



iattotMt Ot^loctoM 



Prlvata ■aeratarla 
llaaecraptera 
nia elorka 
Clortt 



BBd«at effioar 
ipcoulaate 

fttfcha«t4C off 
•tatlttlclMU 



h 

rill 



iBClMara 

irehltact* 
Laadacapa otaff 
Bapalr forea 
Jaaltora 



Plaat laboratory ataff 



Traffic foroa 



lae staff 

Tatarlaarlaa 
•vitebbeard operator 



Heterliad aarrlea 



IS 3 



RlaiL nriwork - Puipoer dt-panmrnu 
RrtI network - Fiiicm drparlinrnu 

Luther Gulick and L. Urwick, "Papers on the Science of AdminUtration," Iiwtitute of Public Adminiitra- 
tion, N. Y. C, 1937. SCALE .6 



The Interrelationships of the Purpose and Process Subdivisions in Organization. 

Four sample city departments are presented vertically, each divided into its functions and 
workers. A considerable number of workers are common to all or to several depart- 
ments. These are indicated by the horizontal red network. Thus when an organiza- 
tion has both purpose and process departments, interrelationships are essential, in 
fact, impossible to escape. 



RELATIONSHIP CHARTS 



71 



Sue^raArta 




Paooucra 




1 Acofakior\y&g 




Acit taldal\yd9 


1. 


t Acof>c actd 


Acatic odd 


2 


X Ac«fOOC9ttC ocU 


Acefoacvflc add 


3 


4. Acorona 


Acaton» 


4 


4 AC9fon^<iicorbojeylic ocni 


Aceton« -dicorbayrllc odd 


5 


C Acmtyl citrbmot 


Acetyl carblnol 


C 


7. Acarjflmvrhjfl corbinol 


Acolylmolhyl corblr>ol 


7 


* Aery loldahjrde 


Acryloldohyde 


& 


9. Outyl olcoho/ 


Butyl alcohol 


a 


KX 3,3-bufjHenr glycol 


2,3butylon» glycol 


IQ 


II. butyric ocid 


Butyric acid 


11 


IZ. Caproic octd 


Coproic odd 


12 


IX Coprylx: odd 


Capryhc Ofld 


13 


M Carbon diotido 


Carbon diOMldw 


14 


IS. Cirric acid 


Citric odd 


15 


le. Oihydrtuy ocefone 


Oihydrojry acotonv 


IC 


IT Cthyl alcohol 


Ctl\yl alcohol 


17 


/a. ethylene glycol 


Cthylenv glycol 


16 


IS. rormic acid 


Formic add 


19 


20. fumorlc acid 


rumaric acid 


20 


21. Gluconic ocid 


Gluconic ocid 


2t 


22. Clyceroldohyde' 


Glyccroldehyde 


22 


?3 Glyceric acid 


Olycoric ocid 


23 


24. Clyce-rol 




Glycerol 


24 


2S Clycolaldtr^hyde 


Gly c ololdo hydo 


25 


2C Glycolllc Odd 


Olycollic add 


2C 


27 Olycuror>,c ockI 


Glycuronic acid 


27 


2& ClyOMylic acid 


OlyOJrylic acid 


2a 


29 Hydro^m 


Hydrogen 


29 


yO f3 hydroiry butyric oCd 


^-hydroxy butyric odd 


3Q 


31 laobulyr'c ocid 


laobutyrlc add 


31 


32. Isopropyl o/cohol 


laopropyl alcohol 


32 


33 Kero -g/ucoriic ocid 


Hefo- gluconic acid 


33 


34 Lactic acid 


Lactic acid 


34 


35 Molic ocKi 


^S 


Malic ocid 


35 


3€ Molornc ocid 


Malonic acid 


36 


37 Mandelic ocid 


Mondelic ocid 


37 


3& Mtrthyl glyoral 


t^ethtyl glyojrol 


30 


39 Ouialooftic acid 


Oxolace-t'C ocid 


39 


4Q Ojralic acid 


OjroliC oc id 


40 


41. Propioriic Odd 


Propionic acid 


41 


41 Propyl okohol 


Propyl olcol^ot 


42 


43 Propylene glycol 


^^^ 


Propylene glycol 


43 


44 Pyruvic acid 


Pyruvic acid 


44 


45 Succinic odd 


Succinic acid 


45 


4C Tarfor/c ocid 


Tartaric acid 


4G 


47 Trimefhylcnc glycol 


Trimethylene glycol 


47 


4& Volvric ocid 


Valeric ocid 


40 



Industrial and Engineering Chemistry, November, 1930. 



SCALE .8 



The Fermentative Interrelationships of the Micro-Biological Dissimilation Products of 
the Carbohydrates. 



GRAPHIC PRESENTATION 




— T3 

O ^ 

5 

o> ° 

^ •) 

E « 

o «i 



O 






"U o 

SI E 

> w» 



11 



0) u 



o o 

4) _c 



52 

t .5 

Q. C 






3 

o 

■- V 

« 5 

u *^ 

** C 

£ - 



« C 
O u 

a <c 



a „ 



0) jy 



'5 ■« 



73 



Chapter 8 
FLOW CHARTS 



low charts present a graphic explanation of the movement of 
materials, printed forms, etc., through an organization or struc- 
ture. "Cosmograph" is the trade name for a type of flow chart 
presenting numerical information or percentages by means of 
black and white strips of paper, showing source contrasted with 
destination. 



I 



Materials From the Wide-world 

For A World-wide Product 




Electric Storage Battery Co. Philadelphia, "Ezide-IroocUd Topic*." May. 1933. 



SCALE .5 



How Charf Showing Source of Materials for Manufacture and Distribution of the 
Completed Product. 



74 



GRAPHIC PRESENTATION 



Month of MovCMeiR 
-1919- 




bastd upon Ovfbound Ship Tonnajt. 1913. 1 * J 



Jamet R. Bibbins and Bion J. Arnold, "Our National Transportation System," Proceedings of New York 
Railroad Club, April, 1923. SCALE .9 

A. Railroad Traffic Flow Diagram. 

The similarity between this flow chart and a simple balance sheet with "amopnts received" 
and "amounts paid out" is quite pronounced. Compare with 79. 



M«nufK~1urui|[ IVpanmrn 



Uiion DvptnmctiL 




Weekly Average Net Paid Circulation 1,910.282 



Drawn Under the Direction of Willard C. Brinton in Consultation with a Firm of Certified Public 
Accountants. SCALE .5 

B. Method of Displaying Proof of the Circulation for a Weekly Magazine. 

This chart resulted from a survey made by a firm of certified public accountants. Since the 
formation of the Audit Bureau of Circulations in Chicago, any survey like this would 
not be necessary. 



FLOW CHARTS 



75 



COOPERATING AG&NCIES 



N 



N 



N 



I'MTONAt. COOfctT NinvCt 



STATt ( INTtRMATt 

UI4MMI/AV COMWIVMON 



I 



COUNTY 4 Rt&IOMAL 

COUNTY PlANNINKi OTX 
PArjK BOARD -COOPtn- 
ATIN& WITH STAT6 AND 
CITY PLANNING BOAROl 



LOCAL 1 
METROPOLITAN 

CITY Pl.ANNINfc COMMIIMON 

Planning tbCTiONt Of- 

PARK 4 ICUOOL BOAAOS 



NATOMAIPADK tCQVCL 
NATtONAL COntST »tffV>C4 
U > QiCXO&CAt luRVtV 



CONitnvATON COMM 

MIGUWAV COMMltMON 

COOPtrJATiNG LCX.AL 

ACtNOtJ 



JL_1 



COUNTY PAPlC BOARD 

BOAfJDOC lUPtaviKDni 

CCX)PtOATIN& LOCAL 

ACCNCitS 



CITV PARK BOAAO 
AND PATJIt DtPTV 
iCWOOL BOAaD\ 



I 



f 



I 



NATIONAL PARK itOVCt 
NATIONAL COQtlT VtnVKt 

u s BOLO&tCAL iuavtv 

VTATl CONitUVAnON COM 



I 



CON\taVATlON COMM 
WlGUWAY COMMimON 
CCX)PCr5ATiNG LOCAL 

A&ENCiES 



i 



N 



COUNTY 

PAn< ooAnD\ 



1 



PAHK DtPAnTMtNT» 
ICMOOL OOAnOi 
ntCRtATlON COMM. 



1 



ECDCnAL AGtNClCSTO 
CONTROL AND PntJtnvt 
AntAS Ot NATONAL 
IMPOOTXiMCt 



PQiMtVAL AQ^At 
ntttAfXU AOtAS 
NATONAL POntJT} 
NATIONAL PAJIICV 
WilLDLlCt MANGMTAQtAt 

HiiTonictAncw. htk^ 

iCCNC AOCA^ 
M^-NVAV^ AND PARKW/tt^ 



I 



iTATt AGtNCitS TO ACQUint 
DtVtLOPAND MAINTAJN 
CAClLlTltS TO ADCQUATt- 
LY MttT RtQuiRtMtNTi 
Of iTi PtOPLQ COO iN\Plf> 
ATOKNATunt tDUCATON 
AND ACTIVt OtCntATION 
NOTOTHtTNI/Ht PnOvlDCD 
ITATt fOQESTS 
JTATt PAnnS 
r»EStr3VATlC5N\ 
<WLD LIFt nCFUGtS 
ROADSIDt DtVtLDPMtNTJ 
PARitWAVS 
LAHtS AND nnEAMS 
GAMl MANAClMlNTAAlAt 
WliTCniCiCtNC lOthfTlfIC 



DtVtLOPMCNT AND OPCn- 
ATlON Of ATJtAS AND 
PROJtCTS OEVOND THE 
JCOPt OP LCXAL UNIT^ 
NOT WIDESPREAD ENOUGH 
TO JUlTltY HATt 
CONTROL 

COUNTY PARK.S 

PARKWAYS 

PRESERVES 

LAICtS 

PAIRGROUNDS 

tTC 



^r^ 



LOCAL AGtNCItS TO 
ACQUIRE, DEVELOP AND 
MAINTAIN PAClLlTltS 
PRIMARILY POR LOCAL 
UiE 

NtlGWDOnwOOO AND 

SCWOOL PLAYGROUNDS 

PLAYPlELDS 

NEIGWBORMOOD AND 

•IN TOWN* PARICS 

LARGE PARKS 

PRESERVES 

PARK. WAYS 

ETC 



J 



PUBLIC RtCRtATION PACILITICS 
POR ALL TM& PEOPLE 



1 



National RctourcFt Board, "State Planning," 1Q35. 

A Plan for Public Recreation In Iowa. 



SCALE .8 



The arrows indicate the "flow" of activity from four groups of cooperating agencies towards 
the attainment of public recreation facilities for "all the people." 



GRAPHIC PRESENTATION 



Ooial SJcpmno* 



J» h t v J m* tMt6o iitrm* atLJUM futttlr, 

t 



Ufi* CQsi of m4tititiit'^ /^e slor^ 
in s cond't/ot of rutjintii Kr jjas 
Cf^e nni» ittmt of ttpttta it ilot 
cUuificition art Rani. fu*l. Inter 
f%i on ii>u»»/m»mi Dtfirecntion on 
frxrurn a»a e^uipmmnl. rvpaira, a por- 
tion ofuj*9f dfoiud io —sinttnnnce 



LfA* cos^ of iiouM^ m*itAan^)n tkru 
/Ac processti of tkt biainrss CSt^wd 
tr)d itlliJici) <yf» IO*'* itmms ofttp%u» 
mUiii cUm trt. fioti cf U* itUrm* 
andimjiai, Aavrlnmd, daiirtr^ 
ofiantlioni. supplimt, Mywioae 



Oitt codt/ tk, credit function. 
<Ji* m*m tAmtatj or egp mt $» it 
ikii cUsjificthon art oH» coni of 
account ltd or boaikaaputd, coIk/xn 



ntinienAnce itd rfovemenc 
aown into kuK) smaller pooli 




LKpensc <«re cjitn broken, 
on the diffarenl haaes of- 

DiMct3iMoc*iiam. 



WmtDt^. 






jhtie pools art Chnrocd li. 
IKt liemi sola— * 




"yiiis poof /a cliar^md to tht ittt 
on th^ basis of dollars cjf a*ks. 



jftii pool on 
the 6dsis of 
an cilaiJishtd 
doJIar mainlen ■ 
ance etpensrper 
JolLrcl iJti pro 
n/rt^d to ittms 



iMrtct //lis pool on 
the t)Jiisaf the 
ai>0rade muentory 
inuescme/ir in the 
/naiYidual item 
in the drrxcri/ 
cJtt*artmtnt 



Zfhesc pools gre chardecf fo inn>4 
On the l>isis of frt^^ncif of mslu 




U. S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce, March, 1934. 



SCALE .9 



The Commodity Cost Accounting Method Employed in a Survey Made by the 
Domestic Commerce Division of the U. S. Bureau of Foreign and Domestic 
Commerce. 

1. Flow charts to indicate accounting methods are well known. 

2. Similar charts are used to indicate terminology to be applied to certain classifications. 

For example, in a foreign trade chart cf this type, it could be indicated by means of 
boxes and arrows that the term "domestic imports" applies to those products which 
are exported by ut in raw material form and then imported in another form. 



FLOW CHARTS 



n 



MRVATI MAWI10WCI 



PUMX MMMTOVI 



MIMIC MAMTINANO 
AND ■•TAW* 

t«M,eM,Me 




lailroo^f, StTMt ^1^3. 
Railwoyt ft Subwoyt 
(400.000 000 



Pip* lin*f. (Ml •! 
tl5.000.000 



o* Production 
>d Oittribution 
(75.000.000 



ph 



ghwoyt ft lrld9*l 
.315.000.000 



T*l«phono ft T«l*9 
$145,000,000 



I 



CONSTIUCTION coiiv*m privat* tavia^t into pro4o<tlv« strwrtvrct and witfc public Mvinqi raitvt commaiilty 
«tM<«rd i •< liviaq. It pr«d»c»» tk* >tr»ct»r«i that pravidc our tkclter. traiiip*rtatieii, cemnmBicotioii, drf«BM, 
p«w(r. li^t. k*«t. water, watt* di>p«>«l. rocrratioa, coairrvatiea and dcvclopmeirt of ewr aatioiial re>ourc*<. 



Bngineerinc Newi Record, October, 1938, Part of an Editorial on "The Conatniction Indiutry, What It i»— 
What It Doe*.- SCALE .7 

The Wide Range of Construction in the United States. 

Here again is a simple balance sheet, with the emphasis on the places from which the money 
for construction came, and the places to which it went. 



78 



GRAPHIC PRESENTATION 





International Butineti Machines Corp., N. Y. C. 

A. The Use of a Cosmograph to Make a Flow Chart. 

1. The "Cosmograph" is a flow chart made by using the device shown above. One thousand 

strips of paper are set on edge to represent 100%, and are separated into com- 
ponent parts of 100%. 

2. These two illustrations give two steps in making a "Cosmograph." The first shows the 

process of locating and firmly clamping the strips of paper into position. The second 
shows wedge spacers and bar spacers being inserted between groups of strips of 
paper. 





Tha Ant Of nagoliva phottMlohc prim 
of Ih* Cotmogroph M(-up ot tho lofl. 

International Butinrts Machines Corp., N. Y. C. 

B. The Completed Cosmograph. 

1. Border guides are placed in position to block out excess ends of the paper strips and the 

Cosmograph is ready for photostatting. 

2. The negative photostatic print appears at the right. Note that all black portions of the 

device fail to reproduce. Of the one thousand strips of paper, twenty are red and 
are set at each 5% mark. In the negative photostat, these red strips of paper repro- 
duce as white. 



FLOW CHARTS 



79 



u 

o 
o 

z 

o 

z 
g 

D 

m 
a. 

</) 

o 



111 

< 

o 

q: 

hi 

o 
u 

z 




§ 8 



*- .o 






I 



:5 1 i n 






E -^ v2 



E .2 « 



Q. 

o 






tS J 8 

^ o 

.!! « ii 

O ^ « 

0» a - 

c -f •» 

i - = 



O c 

< H 



80 



GRAPHIC PRESENTATION 




International Butinest Machine* Corp., N. Y. C. 



SCALE .6 



A. Cosmograph Showing Distribution of German Reparation Payments. 

1. The left side of the chart shows the total amount of reparations, and the countries by 

which they were received. The center of the chart shows the amounts retained by 
each country, indicated by the broken portions of the branches. The right side of 
the chart shows the amounts paid in turn by the several countries to the United 
States. The extreme right shows the total amount received by the United States. 

2. The effect of the broken branches is obtained by sliding the paper strips backward until 

their ends lie at the center of the chart. The remaining strips are held in position 
at the center by the insertion of wedges. 




ll'TTtUit 



International Butineti Machines Corp., N. Y. C. SCALE .6 

B. Cosmograph Showing Simple Income and Outgo. 

1. In setting up such a chart, the center trunk is clamped in the usual manner. The income 

side of the chart is set up and clamped, the board is turned and the expenditure 
side is arranged and clamped. 

2. A short strip of black paper is pasted across the trunk to provide a white block on the 

negative photostatic print. The total money value is noted in type on this white 
block. 



81 



Chapter 9 
SECTOR CHARTS 



A SECTOR chart presents data in the form of a circle. The 
circle is divided along its radii so that the angle of each sec- 
tion is proportional to the factual data it represents. Other terms 
used for sector chart are: pie chart, divided circle. In practically 
every instance in which material is presented in a sector chart, the 
same information might also be presented in bar charts. See 
Chapters 10 and 12. 



I 




From D. P. Donnant, "StatUtical Account of the United State* of America," 1805, Oeeenland Ai Nofria, 
London. The Chart Wa« Made by William Playfair. SCALE .5 

Statistical Representation of the United States of America in 1805. 

1. This, so far as is known, was one of the first sector charts. William Playfair, the man 

who invented the method, called it a "divided circle." 

2. In Statiatical Breviary, 1801, William Playfair presented a group of circles whose areas 

were equal to the areas of the countries they represented. The circle representing 
the Turkish Empire was divided into 3 sections. Since this preceded the illustration 
above in point of time, it may have been the first sector chart. 



82 



GRAPHIC PRESENTATION 




A. Employment and Unemploymenf 
Experience of 129 Displaced 
Hand Cigar Makers in Man- 
chester, N. Y., as Recorded 
Five Years After the Lay-off. 

1. Divisions within divisions are possible 

in the sector chart. Here two cate- 
gories, employed and unemployed, 
are further divided so that the 
circle is in reality divided into 
four parts. 

2. Shading pieces of the sector chart 

makes the chart easier to read. 



Works Progress Administration, National Re- 
search Project, "Summary of Findings to 
Date," March, 1938. SCALE .5 



INTEREST, RENTS. OTMER 
SMALL SOURCES 
il3.SS2,T85,000 




DIVIDENDS FROM OTHER 
CORPORATIONS 
$2.a9C,041.000 
(1%) 



Factory Management and Maintenance, October, 1938, Part of an Editorial on Public Relations Entitled, 
"How a Company Can Make Simple Reports to Its Employees." SCALE .8 



B. Sources of the Total Income of Manufacturing Industries for the Period 1929- 
1935. Total $330,709,960,000. 

The sector chart gives an angle and area comparison. The relative merits of the sector chart 
and the 100% bar chart in presenting the same facts arc disputed. 



SECTOR CHARTS 



83 




TO EMfLOYCCS IN SALARIES 

(mt inclu^in^ ttltrm •( cMsptny •ffici 

% 11.034,050,000 

(1«.5%) 



TO OWNERS AS DIVIDENDS 

i U,904.C02,000 

(19 2'/.) 



TO MANAGEMENT 

talirits of company offictri 

$ «,209. STC.OOO 

(8V.) 



Factory Managrmrnt and Maintenance, October, 1Q38, Part of an Editorial on Public Relations Entitled, 
"How Much Employee!, Management, and Owners Got." SCALE .6 

A. Total Paid Employees, Management, and Owners for the Period 1929-1935 in 
Manufacturing Industries. 

1. In all three of the sector charts presented , the largest component part has been 

placed on the top section of the circle. For artistic balance and eye appeal this may 
be the preferred practice. But to aid in making comparisons between any two of 
these, it probably would have been better to arrange the sections as shown in 88B. 

2. Expenditures and income of the manufacturing industries are shown in this chart and 

83B. 



SNNT 
F*r Mirctt and Rant 

tt.in,a:.o«« 
(i.«%) 




SffNT 
I «f PiMt aMt ^ylplMIlt 
S<1.«*«.TS«,0M 



Far T»«a 
}t.4«0,IM.SS0 



AVAILABLE 
Far EmploYtti, Manaqamcnt, Ownara 

i7e.M2,)*4.«e« 

(tl.2%) 



Factory Management and Maintenance, October, 1938, Part of an Editorial on Public Relations Entitled, 
"How a Company Can Make Simple Reports to Its Employees." SCALE .6 

B. Disposition of Total Income of Manufacturing Industries for the Period 1929- 
1935. Total $330,709,960,000. 

1. When it is impossible to place the titles for the compyonent parts of a sector chart in a 

horizontal position within the section, the above method exemplifies good practice. 

2. Expenditures and income of the manufacturing industries are shown in this chart and 

83A. 



84 



GRAPHIC PRESENTATION 



1927 



1930 





$787,000,000 
1932 



$850,000,000 
1934 





$699,000,000 



Real 
estate 



Personal 
property 



Gasoline 



$608,000,000 

Automobile f -^others 
licenses 



O' 



U. 8. Department of Agriculture, Bureau of Agricultural Economics. 

Sources of the Farm-Tax Dollar in the United States for the Years 1927, 1930, 1932, 
and 1934. 

The general rule regarding the arrangement of the component parts of a sector chart is that 
the divisions should be arranged according to magnitudes clockwise with the 12 
o'clock mark as the starting point. This rule, however, is a flexible one. It should 
be noted that the 192 7 circle follows the general rule and establishes the arrange- 
ment of shadings which is adhered to in the other circles. 



SECTOR CHARTS 



85 



MIDNIGHT 



A. Comparison of Crimes Against 
Persons By Time Periods in Cin- 
cinnati in 1937. 

This is a comparison of areas rather than 
angles as can easily be seen by 
comparing the section labelled 
18.3% with 9.9%. a ratio of about 
2 to 1. The distance along the 
radius for each does not appear to 
be as 2 is to 1. 




(M^OOW 



Cincinnati, Ohio, "Municipal Activitiet." 1037. 

SCALE .5 



1888 



1938 



Carpantsr 


HOURS WORKED 
A.M. ,1 J^i P.M. 


HOURS WORKED 
A.M. uJL\ PM. 




Bricklayar 


II " 1 





Common Laboror 


# 


uj^ 




Shovel Operator 








Engineering New* Record, October. 1938. Part of an Editorial on Public Relations Entitled, "The Con- 
struction Industry, What It Is — What It Does." SCALE .9 

B. A Comparison of the Hours Worked in New York City on Various Construction 
Jobs in 1888 and 1938. 

The average number of hours worked in each of the two years, 1888 and 1938, is actually 
plotted on a clock so that not only the number of hours but the time of day involved 
can be seen. For instance, in 1888, an hour was allotted for lunch. In two categories 
in 1938 only half an hour is allotted for lunch. 



86 



GRAPHIC PRESENTATION 



scanrr rtvo — St 



M«rr) OrVAJC 
>WTtfm» 

CnrvrnM 




Leonard P. Ayrci. "The War With Germany," 
Government Printing OflFice, 1919. 

A. Deaths of American Soldiers by 
Principal Diseases in the World 
War. 

This chart illustrates the position of a 
miscellaneous item when compo- 
nent parts are presented. Although 
the percentage of soldiers who died 
from diseases other than those 
listed is second to the percentage 
of those who died from pneumonia, 
it is placed last in the clockwise 
arrangement. 





Power. October. 1938, Part of an Editorial on 
Public Relations Entitled "Man's Power Part- 
ner." SCALE .8 

B. Distribution of Industry's Dollar in 
1937. 

1. One distinctive feature about this chart 

is the use of a black background 
which emphasizes both the grey 
and blue sections. 

2. By alternating light and dark, it is 

possible to make two colors do 
the work of four. 
Jnrrrtm^ifomi rtotocutrwi 



v^Tmow 'iimtac 

U. S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor StatUtict, "Labor Information Bulletin," October, 1936. 

SCALE .4 

C. Total Cost of Direct Labor and Materials on PWA Construction Projects, 1933- 
1936. 

1. The use of many circles and the arrangement of each one makes this an interesting 

group of charts. 

2. In order to aid in comparing one circle with another, it might have been better to have 

a common starting point, that is, to have the black section of each circle start at 
the top center as in 84. 

3. Note that the numbers beneath the circle give the amount of money spent for each 

purpose, but have no bearing on the size of the circles. 



SECTOR CHARTS 



87 



SALES DOLLAR 




INVESTED DOLLAR 



I 



4.3« Profit 



During the period 1923-1934 (latest figures available) the average 
profit in the manufacturing industries was equal to 4.2$ for each 
sales dollar, or 4.3( for each invested dollar 

Factory Management and. Maintenance. October, 1938, Part of an Editorial on Public Relationt Entitled, 
"A Program for Public-Relation*." 

Percentage of Profit from a Sales Dollar and an Invested Dollar. 

1. The use of a dollar or other coin in place of a circle adds to the effectiveness of a sector 

chart. 

2. It might have been better to place the section labelled "Profit" at the 12 o'clock mark. 

The difTcrence between 4.2 and 4.3 is so slight that the eye has difficulty in noting 
it. Because the sections are centered on the 6 o'clock mark, it is even more difficult 
to sec the difTcrence. 



88 



GRAPHIC PRESENTATION 



NET IMPORTS 



NET EXPORTS 





U. S. Department of Agriculture, Bureau of Agricultural Economics. 



SCALE .7 



A. Average World Trade in Apples by Countries for the Five Year Period from 
1928 to 1932. 

1. The lettering on this chart, the method of division, and the arrangement of the sections 

should be commended. Although labels usually are kept on a horizontal plane, the 
small size of the sections may make it impossible to follow this method even by the 
use of arrows. 

2. These data might be more clearly shown by a 100% bar chart. 



I9I0-I9I4 



1924-1929 




AV. PRODUCTION 

2,614,000,000 BUS. 



AV. PRODUCTION 

2,610,000,000 BUS. 



U. S. Department of Agriculture, Bureau of Agricultural Economic*. SCALE .7 

B. Distribution of Corn in the United States for the Two Periods 19 10- 1 9 14 and 
1924-1929. 

1. This chart presents the best method of dividing the circle and labelling its parts. 

2. The chart is marked clockwise in magnitudes with the first line beginning at 12 o'clock. 

3. The lettering of the sections is on a horizontal plane so that it is not necessary to turn 

the chart to read the labels. 



SECTOR CHARTS 



89 




I 



American Society of Mechanical Engineers, N. Y. C, "Mechanical Engineering," February, 1921. 

SCALE .5 

A. Average Annual Net Expenditure of the Federal Governnnent During the Period 
1910 to 1919, and for the Same Period Exclusive of War Cost. 

1. If you think of this type of chart as two sector charts, one larger than the other with 

the smaller on top, it is much easier to understand. 

2. It would have been impossible to put the titles of the segments on a horizontal plane 

in this sector chart. Care has been taken, however, to make the lettering clear. 




American Atiociation of State Highway Official!, 'American Highway*." April. 1938. SCALE .5 

B. Distribution of the Total Federal Budget for 1937 and 1939, 

Since the budget for highways was the point of emphasis, public works, of which it ia « 
part, was placed at the center top. Note that public works only was subdivides) to 
allow for this emphasis. 



90 



GRAPHIC PRESENTATION 




A. Assets and Liabilities of the Elgin 
National Watch Company in 
1937. 

This differs from the sector chart below 
in that the dividing line between 
the assets and liabilities is a ver- 
tical one rather than a horizontal 
one. 



LIAMLITICS 



Elgin National Watch Co.. Elgin, Illinois, "Let's 
Look at the Record of 1937." 




South Manchuria Railway Co., "Contemporary Manchuria," a Bimonthly Magazine, Japan, September, 
1938. 

B. Distribution of Assets and Liabilities of the South Manchuria Railway Company 
in 1938. 

Half of this circle represents the assets of the South Manchuria Railway Company and the 
other half the liabilities. Each half equals 100%. 



SECTOR CHARTS 



91 



M Oc 
in l»l« 



7.0e 
in ISIC 



IS.Ic 
in 19IC 



S.Sc 

in l»IS 



4.4c 

in 1916 



l.lc 
in ISIC 



U.»c 
in 1»I6 






For Labor 



For Locofnotiv* Fuel 



For other Matariali and S 



For Loat and Danrtafe, Injuri** 
to Parsons, Insurancs, Pensions, 
Ospraciation and Retirements 



For Tax 



For Equipnrtcnt and Joint 
Facility Rentals 



Balance Rentaininf (Net 
I Operating Income) as 
on the Capital Invested 
Property 




For each Dollar of Operating Revenues Received, the Railways 
had $4.90 Invested in their Properties in 1916 and $6.37 in 1936. 



S.9056 
in 1916 




When the foregoinf Pannies of 
Net Railway Operating Income 
were divided among the Dollars of 
Investment, each Dollar received 
this Return 




J.S956 

in I93C 



Committee on Public Relations of the Eastern Railroad. N. Y. C, "A Yearbook of Railroad Informa- 
tion." 1937. 

A Comparison of the Distribution of the Average Dollar of Operating Revenues 
Received by Class I Railways in 1916 and 1936. 

This might be called a cumulative sector chart. Note that in each circle the total of all 
that has been presented above it is represented by a shaded section, while the part 
to be added is in black. 



Chapter 10 
100% BAR CHARTS 



A 



one hundred per cent bar chart is one in which a single bar 
represents 100% and the divisions of the bar represent percentages 
of the whole. Synonyms for 100% bar chart are: percentage bar 
chart, relative bar chart, component parts bar chart. 

CHARACTERISTICS OF A 100% BAR CHART: 

1. A straight bar is easy to divide into parts representing ap- 
proximate percentages, and is more convenient to use than a 
sector chart. 

2. The sections may be shaded or colored for contrast. 

3. Groupings of the parts are possible by using brackets or 
engineering dimension lines. 

4. A percentage scale outside the bar is more easily read. 

5. To aid in using the chart for reference purposes, the actual 
value of the bar and its component parts should be given. 

6. To eliminate any need for turning the bar, the labels should 
read from left to right horizontally wherever possible. 

7. The bar should be wide enough to allow for differentiation, 
and yet not so wide that the facts presented are distorted. 



I T p i T T ;i >l H I I I H I T I I I M t H I ' 1 I [ I I I I [ ' I I H I I I I I H I I I I I I H ' I I I I I I I H I I I I I I I T I |l r ' ' [I I I I I I I I n I M n 

%e lO to >0 40 M CO 10 to M ioo% 



A 100% Bar Chart Stamp. scale .8 

1. A rubber stamp in the form of a 100% bar chart with the percentages marked may be 

secured from stores handling graphic chart material or from makers of rubber 
stamps. 

2. When a bar chart is wanted in a report, all that is necessary is to allow two inches 

height and six inches length in the manuscript. The chart may then be placed in 
this space. 

3. These rubber stamps may be secured in other sizes, but they are usually six inches 

long. Paper on which five 100% bars have been printed is also available. This illus- 
tration may be used as copy for making a rubber stamp. 



100% BAR CHARTS 



93 



ALL RAILWAYS 



WATERWAYS 



HI6HWAY9 flPCLINES 



MILLIONS OF TONS 



"The Ffdcral Chart Book." Prepared by the Central Statistical Board arid National Reiource* Committee, 
January, 1Q38. SCALE .8 

A. Estimated Tonnage in the United States Originated by Principal Types of Car- 
riers in 1932. 

1. In this chart a comparison of weights is given rather than amounts or percentages, and 

the scale is separated from the 100% bar. 

2. The value of this chart would have been increased if the tonnage for each of the four 

divisions had been given. 

3. The choice of shadings was unfortunate, since at the point where the two sections, 

"waterways" and "highways," meet, the bar seems to sag. 

4. The Federal Chart Book is an experimental publication and does not stand as a docu- 

ment for general use. As a result, the illustrations are in a tentative and not neces- 
sarily final form. 



E 



HEART DISEASE 



NFUJIH2A a TUKI- I LoiABCTES MELLITUS 
PMUMONU CmOSS l-AUTOMOeiLE ACCIDENTS 



AtL OT 



"The Federal Chart Book." Prepared by th^ Central Statistical Board and National Resources Committee, 
January. 1938. SCALE .6 

B. Percentage Distribution by Selected Causes of Deaths in the United States in 
1935. 

1. The 100% bar chart is a classification chart with percentages graphically presented. It 

gives the component parts of the total along a straight line. By making the line a 
bar, the component parts are more easily identified and compared. 

2. Note that the percentage for each of the seven divisions is given within each section. 

3. The use of connecting lines to identify small sections of a 100% bar chart with its title 

is here demonstrated. 



OCPAXTHCNT 



40% 00% aoX noX 



-FOOO STO«£S 



Z0% 



40% 

GEN MERCHANDISE 
STORES 



' AUTOMOTIVE 
GROUP 



•OX 

■ All otmcr stores 



"The Federal Chart Book," Prepared by the Central Statistical Board and National Reaoureca Committee, 
January. J 938. SCALE .7 

C. Distribution of Sales by Types of Retailers in the United States in 1935. 

1. The use of brackets or engineering dimension lines to show groupings of the parts of a 

100% bar chart is often useful. In this chart the titles of the individual sections 
are given above the bar, while the titles of the groupings indicated by brackets are 
given below the chart. 

2. The inclusion of the percentages within each section is a decided advantage. 



94 



GRAPHIC PRESENTATION 





^neTaxe3-2ai^A 



^rantportation 
«nd Marketing 

WioninaRefi"''^ 

Costs-zaz*/' 



Automobile Manufacturers Association, ' Auto- 
mobile Facts and Figures," 1938. 

A. Distribution of the Cost of Gaso- 
line in the United States in 
1936. 

The use of objects which can be divided 
into percentages is a common 
practice. In this chart, a gallon 
can is very appropriate to illus- 
trate the distribution of the cost 
of gasoline. 



B. Cost of a Ton of Finished Sheet 
Steel at a Lake Port in the 
United States in 1931. 

1. The amounts to the left of the bar 

are cumulative: each one is a 
total of all those below it on the 
right hand side. 

2. It might have been better to include 

either a percentage scale or per- 
centages within each division. As 
it is now, percentages of the total 
may be computed, though they 
are not given. 




ib0 65— I 
24 Gauge 
Sheet Cost 

before 
Interest or 
Depreciation 



♦26.65—1 
Sheet &ar 
Cost 



^20 15 — 
Ingot Cost 



^14.15 - 

Pig Iron 

Co»t 






i 



iiilM 



rr 



(t:^ 



SEE 












■^^ 



iiiivh'rui 



Drprcciation 
$4.00 



Interest on 

Investment 

6.00 



Scrap Loss 



Fuel Supplies 

Overhead 

3.00 

Repairs and 

Maintenance 
4.00 



Direct and 

Indirect Labor 

15.00 



Scrap Lo« 


•y> 


Rolling Sheet Bar 


1.50 


Scrap Lots 


•v> 


Rolling BiUet 


1.00 


Scrap Lots 


1.50 


Rolling Bloom 


1.50 


Fluxes Alloys 


1.00 


Opcn-Hcarth 




Operation 




5.00 




Blast Furnace Operation 


I.JO 


IJmestonc 


•45 


Coal -Coke 




450 





Iron Ore 
8.00 



Fortune Magazine, September, 1931. SCALE .8 



100% BAR CHARTS 



95 





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K ° 



go 

- 2 
a Z 

« a 



CS 



u 



C2 J= 
c 

cc tJ 

u U 

O — 

a V 

E •£ 

o % 

Z c 
o 

t > 

O .2 



^ < ^5 



96 



GRAPHIC PRESENTATION 



Wage ossistonce - 29 9 %-■ 



Emergency relief -65 3%- 



Cotegoficol relief - 4 8 %■ 




Oih«r Works Program vogM 

W.PA WOflM 



Civil Works WOQM 



CCC wogts ond subsistence 



Emergency work relief 



Soeciol progrom relief 



Direct emergency relief 



Aid to the oged, to the blind, 
and to dependent children 



$5,375,000,000 



WPA, Division of Social Research, "Trends in Relief Expenditure," 1937. 

A. Percentage Disfribution of Total Expenditures for Public Relief and Wage As- 
sistance in the United States for the Years 1933-35. 

1. The vertical 100% bar when divided into small sections is much easier to label than if it 

were horizontal. 

2. It also lends itself readily to grouping by sets of brackets to show such items as total 

fixed charges, total operating expenses, etc. 



100% BAR CHARTS 



97 




lUM ntANSmssiON 



"CCtlvlHO SUSSrtTlON 



Prderal Power Commiition, "National Power Survey," 1936. 



SCALE .7 



Elements of Costs in the Supply of Electricity to Residential Customers In the United 
States in 1935. 

1. By illustrating each of the elements of cost in the supply of electricity to residential 

customers in the United States, meaning is given to such terms as "utilization 
expense" and "return on investment." This form of chart would be appropriate for 
an annual report. 

2. In this illustration, no figures are shown. When a chart is to be used in a report, figures 

should be given and correct relative proportions maintained. 



98 



Chapter 11 
COMPARISON OF 100% BAR CHARTS 



THE CHARTS in this chapter are the same type as those shown 
in the preceding chapter. The 100% bars are grouped for com- 
parison purposes. 

1. Since it is difficult to determine the approximate height or 
length of any one of the sections of a bar, it might be better 
to put the percentage scale at both left and right, or top and 
bottom. 

2. The shadings should follow the general rule that when no one 
thing is to be emphasized, the darker shadings should be next 



100% 



100% 



All Ort.«r 

t Uso ure as 

, rOttMr Loons 
and 
Discounts 




Savings 
Ranks 



Loon ond A|| 

ComlJo'n... B<'"'*» 
13,116,830 ^57,24^131 





100% 






n-7 


AllOthflf 
Asstfhs 

Policy 
Loana 

oblicUtilHy 
&ond« 

vemnwnt 
Bonds 

rorm ond 
Oth«r 

Railrood 
ondt and 


18-^ 


9^ 


6.5 


dS^ 


LiF* Injuranc* ComponiM 
4 20. 7501 OOa 000 

T,f,lAsitft.C>0c3l,l932 



American Aasociation of Automobile Manufacturer!, New York City. 



SCALE ,8 



Percentage of Total Resources or Assets of Banks and Life Insurance Companies in 
the United States Invested in Various Types of Securities, Loans, or Other 
Assets in 1932. 



COMPARISON OF 100% BAR CHARTS 



99 



to the zero line. A section to be emphasized should be the 
darkest shade. 

3. Connecting lines from one bar to the next aid the reader. 








1909 
TOTAL 949,338 



1919 
993,597 



1929 
951,015 



WPA. National Research Project, "Summary of Findings to Date." March, 1938. 

Percentage Distribution of Wage Earners Employed in the Mineral Industries In the 
United States in 1909. 1919, 1929, and 1935. 



GRAPHIC PRESENTATION 



49 MILLION 


ANNUAL 


TOTAL 


INCOMES 


PCRSONS 


IN DOLLARS 



93 BILUON DOLLARS 
TOTAL 
INCOME 



>IOOO AND UNDER 



•I000TO2000 




'2000TO5000 



.5000 TO )5000 



•ABOVE I5000< 




S. S. Wycr, "LivinR Together in a Power Age," Association Pres^, New York, 1936. 8CALK .9 

Distribution of the Income of the People in the United States in 1929. 

1. The method of reading this chart is as follows: the people in the United States whose 

incomes are $1000 or under comprised 40% of the population and contributed 12% 
of the total national income in 1929; the people in the United States whose incomes 
are from $1000 to $2000 conrprised 40% of the population and contributed 31% of 
the total national income in 1929. 

2. The use of arrows and distinctive gradations of shadings aid in reading this chart. 



COMPARISON OF 100% BAR CHARTS 



101 



CHARACTERISTICS OF BAR CHARTS: 

1. Bar charts may be adapted to fit almost any application. 

2. The height of each bar is easily compared. 

3. There should be some order for arrangement: 

a. Time-series 

b. Magnitudes 

c. Geographical 

d. Alphabetical 

4. The actual amount which each bar represents should be 
given. 



ITEMS 



ORDERS 




ORDERED ONCE 
IN A SIX 
MONTHS 
PERIOD 



ORDERED MORE 
THAN ONCE BUT 
LESS THAN 10 
TIMES 



ORDERED 10-24 
TIMES 

ORDERED 25-50 
TIMES 

ORDERED more: 
THAN 50 TIMES 



Redrawn from a Chart by U. S. D«partmrnt of ARriculture, Bureau of Agricultural Economicf. 

Frequency of Orders of Ten Selected Candy Plants in the United States in 1930. 

When none of the various shading films arc available to provide cross hatchings on a chart, 
rulings such as these may easily be put in by hand. Care should be taken not to 
create weird effects such as those in 93A and 115A. 



102 



GRAPHIC PRESENTATION 



Tolol 
wiuia cMioi 

Untli>ll«4 



■Hi Vtoffting ^ u*uol toc*o-«conomic Oo\t 

p^^ Worlitng M 0IA«f thon utuol ucio-«conom*c ctOH 

Ptfccnl 
20 40 «0 

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 r 



::;:.::::.::-:.xx.:v::::::::v:vX^^^^ 



80 



ii /mrTT» » I 



■r^ I ■ ' > 



3. 



:S±2iS2±S5^ 



31 



3 



---^-'-■^^ I 



fEMAUE WORKERS 
Totol 

Wh.lt COllOf 
SkillM 
Scm.tlitlltd 



WPA, Division of Social Research, "Urban Workers on Relief," 1936. SCALE .6 

A. Proportion of Employed Workers on Relief in Jobs of Their Usual Socio-Economic 
Class in the United States in May, 1934. 

The inclusion of the "total" bar in each of the two classifications adds to the value of this 
chart. 



PERCI 

100 r 


= NT 








r-1 




m i 




««1 




n — r 


T"- — r 


T 1 










:= 


PER 


CENT 

n 100 


90 - 






--^- 


— 


- 


/ 


/ $751-1000 


/ 


^ — ' 


/ 


- - 




- 






- 




90 


«o - 

7ft - 


""^^ 


\, 






/ 


' 


/~1TT 

^$501-73 





J 


f\ 


\ 




— 










SA 




\ 


/ 


/ 






' 


00 
7ft 


CA - 




\ 


-' 


/-^ 


/ 


;g== 


:: 




--= 


.— ' 


500 • 





\ - 


\ 










" 


/U 




^ 


1 








— . 




/ 




DKft & 




- 




\ 





60 

50 
- dn 


40 - 
30 - 




\ 


:-:=. 


=-T- 


) 


^/ 


/ 




~ Ukl 








s^ 


/ 







- 













- 








\ 


^_ 


30 


20 





- 












- 












- 




- 




- 




20 


10 - 
- 





- 












- 












- 








- 




10 
. 



1925 1926 1927 1928 1929 1930 1931 1932 1933 1934 1935 1936 1937 

Automobile Manufacturer! Association, "Automobile Facts and Figures," 1938. 

B. Percentage Distribution of the Wholesale Price of Cars in the United States fronn 
1925 to 1937. 

1. Connecting lines facilitate the reading of this chart. 

2. When percentages for each section of each bar are not given, it is better to put the per- 

centage scale on both sides of the series. 



COMPARISON OF 100% BAR CHARTS 



103 



A. Average Migratory, Employment, 
and OfF-Season Periods of 500 
Migratory-Casual Workers in 
the United States for 1933 and 
1934. 

Each of these bars represents one year or 
52 weeks. As a result, "weeks" 
arc used for the scale, rather than 
percentages. 



All. «0>«fM 



m^ 



_uiiiii 




I 



WPA. Division of Social Research. "The Mi- 
gratory-Casual Worker." 1937. SCALE .6 



PCHC£NT 
100 




PERCENT 
100 



IturuiTlO ruu. TiMC 



1037 

NCUPVOTCO 



WPA. National Research Project. "Recent Trends in Employment and Unemployment." December. 1Q37. 

SCALE .7 

B. Employment Status of Employable Persons As Revealed in the Philadelphia Un- 
employment Sample for the Years 1929-1937. 

Notice that the hachures are arranged according to relative darkness. See Chapter 9. 



GRAPHIC PRESENTATION 



t " ' ] No emptoymen* Of public oid 
t¥:»3 Relief ond o«her ♦ 
{■'■■'■■yj ReseHlemeni client 



K*i?x^ Nonognculturol employment only 
Aqriculturol employment only 
Works Progrom end ott>«r ** 



lOOr 



90 



eo 



70 



60 



S 50 



40 



30 



20 



10 



nlOO 




MONTANA SOUTH WISCON 
DAKOTA SIN 



WEST NORTH GEORGIA 
VIRGINIA CAROLINA 



* Including tfiose wt>o hod relief only ond relief ** Including those with Works Progrom employment 

combined with pnvote employment, but not including only, Works Program and private employment, orul 
those with relief ond Works Progrom employment Works Progrom ond relief. 



WPA. DivUion of Social RcMarch, "EfTectt of the Works ProKram on Rural Relief." 1938. 

Relief and Employment Status of Heads of Rural Households In the United States, 
in December, I 935. 

When it is not possible to give complete information within the chart itself, footnotes similar 
to these may be utilized. The footnotes here give a great deal more detail than 
would have been possible in the legend itself. 



COMPARISON OF 100% BAR CHARTS 



105 



Direct r«<ief 



'■•'■ -•! work relief 



Work relief 



TOTAL 



COLORADO 



June 
October 



October 





June 


IOWA 






October 




June 


KANSAS 






October 




June 


MONTANA 






October 




June 


NEBRASKA 






October 



NORTH DAKOTA 



OKLAHOMA 



SOUTH DAKOTA 



October 



June 
October 



October 




I 



WPA. Division of Social RcMarch. Relief and Rehabilitation in the Drought Area, 1937. SCALE Q 

Types of Relief Granted by the Federal Emergency Relief Adnninistration in Eight 
Drought States in June and October, 1935. 

Here again is the application of the 100% bar chart to periods of time. Compare this with 
103A. 



106 



Chapter 12 
MULTIPLE BAR CHARTS 



ach of the bars in the charts shown in the two preceding chap- 
ters represent 100%. Another use of the bar form is to have the 
length of the bars indicate values. The following are synonyms for 
bar charts when they are in a vertical position: column chart, 
"pipe-organ" chart, "pipe-of-Pan" chart. "flute-of-Pan" chart. 




Federal Reserve Aeent. New York. "Monthly 
Review," Sept. 1. 1935. SCALE .6 

A. Estimafed Total Cash Income of 
Farmers in the United States 
from Agricultural Marketings 
Including Payments by the Agri- 
cultural Adjustment Administra- 
tion, for the Years 1929-1935. 

1. Simple comparisons are easily repre- 

sented in bar form. The yearly 
comparison is best when presented 
in vertical form, the bars forming 
a curve. 

2. The addition of the actual amounts 

which each bar represents would 
facilitate the reading of the chart 
and aid in its use for reference 
purposes. 



V ■vr.M - '/noooooto 

■t?ff. n Prrcfnt 
Iron *w Sfff ' 'Xf6. 900. 000 

as ftrrctnf 

><>.-« ^ry- t^Ji 700 000 

7 flrrcenf 

'-^3fxyftfw r^ifyryw' - 'Og 10(1000 

l95Plrrcmt 



/»nw«m«w - 'fSd, 000.000 

U. S. Department of Labor. Bureau of Labor 
Statiitics, "Labor Information Bulletin." Oc- 
tober, 1936. SCALE .8 

B. Value of Orders Placed for Mate- 
rials Used on PWA Projects for 
the Period 1933-1936. 

1. The total of the lengths of all the bars 

beneath the first one is equal to 
its length. 

2. It should be noted that there is no 

difference between the width of 
the "total" bar and the others. 



MULTIPLE BAR CHARTS 



107 







WPA. "Report on ProgrcM of the Works Program." December, 1937. SCALE .7 

A. Estimated Total Cost of Works Progress Administration Projects Placed in 
Operation from May 6, 1935, Through September 30, 1937. 

1. The material here is arranged arcording to the magnitude of the bars. 

2. Its presentation horizontally eliminates the possibility of the eye seeing a curve which 

would be undesirable. 

3. Since stubs only are used in the vertical rulings, it might have been better to include 

actual figures to facilitate reading the chart. 



I 



$ PER UNIT 



800 
700 
600 
500 
400 
300 
200 
100 



















♦ 702 


































«SS7 


■■■ - 














^426 


- 


" ^ " 


DEC. I9S7 


'AVtRAGE 


1S79^ 


AiT« 


— »S44-- 


- 


< 






4l9« 






o 
z 


♦ 113 


♦mi 


- 


- 





OLOtK 
MODELS 



\<tv 



l<)S2 



19U 1934 

-YEAR, MODEL - 



1435 



1936 



^ PER UNIT 
800 

700 

600 
500 
400 
300 
200 
100 



1937 



Automobile Manufacturers Association, "Automobile Facts and Figures," 1938. 

B. The Average Used Car Price in the United States in 1937, 

The method of reading this chart is as follows: the selling price of a used car, 1930 model, 
in December 1937 was $113. while the selling price of a used car. 1935 model, was 
$426. The average price of all used cars in December 1937 was $379. 



108 



GRAPHIC PRESENTATION 



No schooling 

Partial grade school only 

Completed grode schoo< only 

Portiol high school only 

Completed high school only 

College 



10 



20 



Percent 
30 



40 



50 



60 




total of alt bars • 100% 



WPA, Division of Social Research, "Farmers on Relief and Rehabilitation," 193 7. 

A. Grade AHalnment of Heads of Open Country Households on Relief In the 
United States. October, 1935. 

As is indicated, the total of all the bars in this chart equals 100%. Compare this chart 
with 106A and I08B. 



17.4 
7.9 

12.0 
9.8 
3.8 
5.3 
3.4 
7.2 
1.1 
.9 

SI. a 



AUTOMOTIVE 



:itiiii»n:w 



RAILROADS 



METAL CONTAINERS 




MACHINERY 

OIL, GAS, MINING 
AGRICULTURE 



HIGHWAYS 
SHIPBUILDING 



ALL OTHERS 




20 



as 



30 



5 10 15 

17S7 DI3TBIBUTION OF nNISHED STEEL PBODUCCO IN THE U. S., BT CONSUMING CBOUPS 

The American RolIinB Mill Company, Middletown, Ohio, "37th Annual Report," 1937. SCALE .8 

B. Distribution by Consuming Groups of Finished Steel Produced in the United 
States in 1937. 

Probably for variety, the titles of these bars were placed within the bars and the per- 
centages were placed to the left. This arrangement aids in ascertaining whether or 
not the total was 100%. 



MULTIPLE BAR CHARTS 



109 




m 



O 



C o 



o ^ 



c £ SI 

V a 

> 



I 



00 



&£ 



.2 •> 



u «g O 
a > « 



^ £ 



« 

O 

13 2 






c b 



*3 <J 



C 3 



c C S 



a a> 



GRAPHIC PRESENTATION 




Georgio 
New Mexico 
South Ookoto 
Maine 
Utah 
Montane 

Woshington 

Maryland 

Arizona 

Idaho 

Connecticut 

New HarDpshire 

Vermont 

Oregon 

Rhode Island 

Wyonning 

Delowore 

Nevodo 



WPA, Diviiion of Social Research. 'Rural Youth on Relief," 1937. 

Estimated Number of Rural Youth on Relief in the United States in October. 1935. 
Compare with 109. 




MULTIPLE BAR CHARTS 



111 



WAGES AS ftR CfNT Of VAi ui 0> runn 



AAILAOAO R[»Ain SHOPS, STIAM 
FOUNDAltS 

Mositny 

LUMBCM AND T1MMK MIOOUCTS 

BOOTS ANO SHOES 

FUDNITURt • 

CLASS - 

WOOLtN WOVCN cooos _—..... — . 

PMINTINC ANO PUBLISHING, BOOK ANO JOB- 
COTTON MANUfACTUMCS 

CLOTHING. MEN'S, YOUTHS', ANO BOYS* 

MACHINE SHOPS 

STIEL WORKS ANO MOLLINC MILLS 

MACHINERY 

AGRICULTURAL IMPLEMENTS 

MOTOR-VEHICLE BODIES ANO PARTS 

ELECTRICAL MACHINERY. APPARATUS, ETC 

BREAD ANO BAKERY PRODUCTS 

WORSTED WOVEN GOODS 

DRESSES, WOMEN'S 

NONFERROUS METAL ALLOYS AND PRODUCTS 

LEATHER. TANNED AND FINISHED 

REFRIGERATORS — 

RUBBER TIRES AND INNER TUBES— 

BOXES. PAPER 

COATS AND SUITS. WOMEN'S. ETC. 

PRINTING ANO PUBLISHING. NEWSPAPER. ETC. 

PAPER 

CONFECTIONERY - - 

LIQUORS, MALT - 

CHEMICALS 

CANNED AND DRIED FRUITS . VEGETABLES, ETC. 

TIN CANS AND OTHER TINWARE-- 

MOTOR vtHrCLES 

COKE-OVEN PRODUCTS 

CAS. MANUFACTURED - 

PAINTS AND VARNISHES - 

DRUGS AND MEDICINES -- 

PETROLEUM REFINING ~ 

MEAT PACKING, WHOLESALE 

FOOD PREPARATIONS 

BLAST-FURNACE PRODUCTS " 

FEEDS. PREPARED 

SUGAR REFINING. CANE- - 

BUTTER - 

FLOUR ANO GRAIN-MILL PRODUCTS 

COPPER. SMELTING ANO REFINING 

CIGARETTES - - 

SHORTENINGS (OTHER THAN LARD), OILS. ETC 



:^ 



I2.0| 
I0.«| 




1 






ALL MANUFACTURING 
INDUSTRIES. 1899-1935 



I 



National Induitrial Conference Board. Inc., February 18, 1938. SCALE 7 

The Percentage of Value of Products Which Is Expended for Labor in \A(ages in Fifty 
Leading Manufacturing Industries in the United States in 1935. 

The inclusion of the value at the end of each bar, while it eliminates the necessity for two 
eye movements, visually decreases the length of the bars. It might have been better 
to put the values in a column on the left. 



112 



GRAPHIC PRESENTATION 



Woshmglon, D C 
New York, N Y 
Scronlon, Po 
Peono, III 
Stou« Foils, S Doh 

Milwoukee Wis 
St Louis, Mo 
Son Froncisco, Coht 
Boston, Moss 
Minneopoiis, Mmn 

Nework, N J 
Cincinnoli, Ohio 
Atlonlo, Go 
Pittsburgh, Po 
Chicago, III 

Philodelphio, Po 
Omoho, Nebr 
Norfolk, Vo 
Richmond, Vo 
Bridgeport, Conn 

Cieveiond, Ohio 
Albuquerque, N Me« 
Boltimore, Md 
Binghomton, N Y 
Rochester, N Y 

Detroit, Mich 
Foil River, Moss 
Memphis, Tenn 
Tucson, Ariz 
Dollos, Tex 

Providence, R I 
Buffolo, N Y 
Butte, Mont 
Houston, Tex 
Louisville, Ky 
Wmston-Solem, N C 
Knoxville, Tenn 
Oklohomo City, Okia 
Denver, Colo 
Portlond, Mome 

Cedor Ropids, lowo 
Indionopolis, Ind 
Columbia, S C 
Jocksonville, Flo 
Konsos City, Mo 

Los Anqeles, Co lit 
New Orleons, La 
El Poso, Tex 
Solt Loke City, Utoh 
Clorksburg, W Vo 

Columbus, Ohio 
Monchester, N H 
Little Rock, Ark 
Spokone, Wosh 
Seattle, Wosh 
Birminghom, Alo 
Wichita, Kons 
Mobile, Alo 
Portlond, Oreg 



20 



40 



60 



Percent 
80 



100 



120 



140 160 



^ 



nr 



-ZML 



^ 



m 



^=3 



■=:f 



E 



^ 



WPA, Division of Social Research, "Intercity Difference* in Cost of Living — 59 Cities," March, 1935. 

Relative Rents for a 4-Person Manual Worker's Family in Each of 59 Cities in the 
United States, March, 1935. 

1. The 100% line here gives a good measuring rod for comparisons. 

2. The chart would be read as follows: the four cities, Detroit, Michigan, Fall River, Massa- 

chusetts, Memphis, Tennessee, and Tucson, Arizona, may be described as average 
cities so far as rent for a 4-person manual worker's family is concerned. Rents are 
relatively much higher in Washington, D. C, and New York City, and relatively 
much lower in Mobile, Alabama, and Portland, Oregon. 



MULTIPLE BAR CHARTS 



113 



Abstracts from Time Series Charts. A Manual of Design and 
Construction. 1938, prepared by Committee on Standards for 
Graphic Presentation, under procedure of American Standards 
Association, with The American Society of Mechanical Engineers 
as sponsor body. 



TIMC-SniES CCXUAAN CHAHn 

A. DCFINITION Column choti art graphic prnaniotions wh«r*in 
fHiffl«ncol values or* r«pr«j«nt9d by lh« length ol vertical bars or 
caluemt. 

6. THE COIUMN CHART IS PART1CULA81Y EFFECTIVE, 

I. To emphobie comparisons ol amounts in o single time series. 

2 For popular presentation. 

3 To show components lor o rekjtivelv few lolols. 

4 To picture "penod' doto as ogomst "point" doNi. 

5 For s>iowir^ o rar>ge of volues or deviations from a normal or 
bogey. 

C THE COIUMN CHART IS NOT THE BEST FORM: 

1. For comporing several times senes 

2. For lime series over an eilended period with many plottings 



1. LAYOUT AND DESIGN A chon consisting of o few columns should 
generoify be higher than wide, for more than a few columns a wider- 
thon-high chort is preferoble 

2 GRIDS. T)>e field or grid used for column charts may be a completely 
ruted coordirtote surfoca. Usuolly. however, il is not necessary to 
lrtd<ose all the rulirigs which would normally be shown on o line 
chon. A complete grid outline is usually not reauired The columns 
It^ew s ehre s generally moke vertKol rulings unnecessory. Moreover, 
(ewer )>ori2ontol rulings may be needed since column chorts ore more 
gerwrally used for popular presentation thon are line chorts. Often 
horizontal rulir>gs may be incomplete, being extended through only 
that portion of the field occup«d by the columns. 

3. SCAIE SELECTION In column chorts the interest is generolly in a 
comparison between amounts os of different dotes. These amounts 
ore proportionote to the height of the columns This means Ihot the 
zero line, when it is ifie prir>cipot hne of reference, should olwoys be 
iTKluded in a column chort. It follows, too, that the omouni scoles should 
no* be broken, but mode continuous from the reference Ime. While 
normoffy the full length of the column should be shown, when it rep- 
resents on abr<ormally lorge value the column may be broken at the 
lop ond ttie omount irKitcoted. 

Columns should be spoced occording to their proper position on the 
time scale. SVhen time intervals between volues are not equal, columns 
should be spoced occordingfy. 

4. SCALE DESIGNATIONS Ptocmg of scole numerals ond captions on 
coKimn chorts is less conventior^olized than on line charts. As the grid 
rulings ore ohen irKomplete, the verticol scole volues generally are 
ploced on the s*de where tfie rulif^gs ore complete (For exomple, if 
the tollesi columns ore at the right, the scole designations moy be 
shown on the righihond SKie only | 

Tifite Scale Desigrxitions are nornHslly centered ur>der tf>e columns, 
reodtng fiorizontally . in column chorts for popular presentotion fttfier 
or both omount and time designations may be ploced obove the 
columns 

& COLUMNS The eAeclive appeoronce of o column chart requires 
ipecol core m the design of the columns When there are only a lew 
cohrmrts H<ev should be norrower thon tl<e white spoce between, when 
there ore mony cohniuu the reverse should be trve 



COLUMN DESIGNATIONS It is generally more difTKult to lobcl 
segmented or grouped columns than curves because tfie columns 
themselves take up so much more of the spoce Segment labels should 
be placed ocross several columns il procticobte However, the space 
about labels should be reduced as much as possible and too much 
controst with the tone of the column ovoided so os not to distort the 
impression of the relative lengths of the columns ond segments Where 
labels cannot be placed on the columns, orrows may be used A 
key or legend should be used only when improcticoble to lobel 
directly. 

COIUMN CHART DESIGNATIONS Column chart titles con often 
be ploced most effectively occordmg to the distribution of the columns 
rather than in a fixed position ol the top Ithe usual cose with line 
chortsl. 



I 



Not* An •mpir<ol rtloliOns^'P b*»w—n column ond ipoc* it IXtMAtsd in 

ih« Chon b*iow. boMd on on octuoJ )Mt o( cHom qI root-two propofttont 

ond vOf'Ovi numb«f| o* columns, onm Ml wndOf -thon-hioh ond onoHlV 
high«r -than- wtd«. 




To space columns equoHv dong the titne scale, divide the ovoikibte 
horizontal spoce mio twice as mony spaces os there ore to be columns. 
Then center the columns on every other division mark begmnirtg with 
the First from either end. 



114 



GRAPHIC PRESENTATION 



























— _ 




Ll 








ItiATIONAI IKirOMFl 






frn 






( 




1 




1 


i 


n 


1 

^^ 




1 

6)6 


1 


1 






r.au"C» «» or dcc 3> 1 





Magazine of Wall Street, January 29, 1938. 



SCALE .5 



A. National Income of the United States in Billions of Dollars from 1929 Through 
1937. 

When superimposing a bar chart upon a picture, care should be taken to choose a picture 
which does not have smokestacks or other such buildings which take on the appear- 
ance of a bar. The eye automatically compares heights. Superimposing when done 
correctly is very effective. 

PASSENGER CARS MOTOR TRUCKS 

iOO 99 




1928 '30 "31 32 '33 '34 '35 '36 

Federal Re»erve Agent, New York, "Monthly Review 



•29 '30 '31 '32 '33 '34 '35 'S* 
October 1. 1936. 



A. Production of Passenger Cars and Motor Trucks in the United States During the 
First Eight Months of 1928-1936. The First Eight Months of 1929 Equal One 
Hundred Per Cent. 

1. The time series comparison of index numbers in bar form is here supplemented by 

actual figures. Thus anyone consulting it is able to quote figures without computing 
the various heights. 

2. However, the figures placed at the top of each bar add to its visual length, resulting in 

a false visual comparison. A better position for the figures would be between the 
date and the bottom of the bar, or in the form of a data table below the chart. 

3. For explanation of index numbers, see 30 1 A 



115 



Chapter 13 
CONTRASTING BAR CHARTS 



ONE VARIATION of the type of bar chart shown in Chapter 
12 is to differentiate the bars by using hachures. or shadings. 
Charts in which this technique is used are called contrasting bar 



charts. 



Green Giant brand peas 



Other Peas 



1937 



Green Giant pack 
increased 400% 
over 1930. 

Selling price ot 
Green Giants de- 
creased 12 1/3% 
since 1930. 1932 

Advertising cost on 
Green Giants per 
case decreased 29% 
since 1930. 



Minnrtota Valley Canning Company, Beaver 
Dam , Wis., "Annual Report for the Fiscal 
Year Ended March 31, 1938." 

A. A Comparison of the Shipmenf of 
One Brand of Peas and the 
Shipment of All Others by the 
Minnesota Valley Canning 
Company in the Years 1932 
and 1937. 

The reason for including this chart is to 
illustrate an optical illusion which 
is seldom seen and which should 
be avoided. Note how the bars 
are distorted to the left because 
of the cross hatchings. 



OISAIUNC INJURKS 


1 


p r 


1 












MAN- HOURS WORKIO 


1 












FRCQUiNCY RATCS 


V 


r r 


1 








i 



I 



WPA, "Report on Progress of The Works Pro- 
gram," December. 193 7. SCALE .5 

B. Relation of Man-hours Worked to 
Disabling Injuries Incurred in 
Works Progress Administration 
Project Work for 1936 and 
1937. 

1. Bar charts with contrasting units are 

used chiefly to differentiate vari- 
ous bars. Here one type of hachure 
is used for the year 1937 in each 
of three charts and another for 
1936. 

2. Since neither complete vertical rulings 

nor numerous stubs are used, it 
might have been better to include 
the actual figures. 

3. Note that in horizontal bars the latest 

year is usually at the bottom so 
that the reader looks down from 
the top rather than up from the 
bottom. 



116 



GRAPHIC PRESENTATION 



Abstracts from Time Series Charts. A Manual of Design and 
Construction, 1938, prepared by Committee on Standards for 
Graphic Presentation, under procedure of American Standards 
Association, with The American Society of Mechanical Engineers 
as sponsor body. 



Specific column designs or shadings ore recommended os follows: 

Id) Black IsolidI for general use for narrow columns. However, a 
series of long narrow columns filled in solid may cause an un- 
pleasant optical effect. In segmented column charts, black is 
good for the bottom segments if they are not too large. 

(b| Vertical Line Shading is recommended for general use as pleasing 
In appearance and easy to construct. 

Id Diogonal Line Shading is useful only in small segments as optical 
illusion results if any appreciable length of column is shaded with 
this design, as illustrated at the right. 

Idl Horizontal Line Shading has limited usefulness and is not generolly 
recommended. 

(el Crosshatch Shading (diagonal! is recommended in place of 
black for wide columns. Crosshatch shading mode by crossing 
verticol and horizontal lines is not recommended. 

If) Dotted Shading (pebbled or stippled) is sometimes effective for 
columns of medium width and particularly for small segments for 
charts in which a third or fourth distinguishing shading is needed. 

(g) Hollow columns, if distinctly wider or narrower than the space 
between and outlined with a heavy line. 

Columns may present undesirable optical illusions unless slight cor- 
rectives are applied. A white or lightly shaded segment on top of a 
column may appear to spread unless the column outline is tapered 
about the width of a line; a block segment may appear more narrow 
than the rest of the column unless it is widened about the width of 
o line; a tall column may appear to be thinner in the middle unless 
the lines ore bowed out slightly. 



ftl 






i-|l 




OIACONAL SMAOINC 

MAT 'KNO' iXADINO MAT AfFCCT 

TMC COLUMNS APPAACHT WIDTH 

Effscts of improper use of shoding 



£20 

8 



^B SIIF MflNOCNT 
EZ3 Of KNMNT 



\WTm 



^_L 




CUtMNT 
lAININCS 



SAVINCS 
SICMITin 



SOCIAL 
OTHII SICUdTT 

ifsouica ACT 



OTHII 

SOCIAL rillNDS ot 

AdNCIIS (ILATIVIS 



Dun't Review, June, 1938. 



A. Means of Support of Persons 65 Years of Age or Older Living in the United 
States in April. 1937. 



CONTRASTING BAR CHARTS 



117 




Dun's Review, April, 1938. 

A. Adver+ising Expenditures for Newspapers, Magazines, and Radio in the United 
States from 1929 to 1937. 

1. It might have been better to include actual figures in this chart. 

2. Note the groupings, the spacing between groupings, and the narrowness of the bars. 



I 




134.8% 



n 

Iwlcz of PriCM* 



Indcs of M«l( Hourly £«nuii(i 



1929 - 100% 



Armstrong Cork Company, Lancester, Pa., "Annual Report," December 31, 1937. 

B. A Comparison of Weighted Average Selling Prices of All Armstrong Cork 
Company Products and Average Male Hourly Earnings in the Company for 
the Years 1929. 1936, and 1937. 

Rather than merely state that the year 1929 was equal to 100%, this chart visually repre- 
sents both index of prices and index of male hourly earnings as 100% bars. 



118 



GRAPHIC PRESENTATION 



FREQUENCY RATES 



SEVERITY RATES 



Dliabhnq iniurlci 


1 per 1.000.000 man h 


All Indu.»r,.» 


^H i3es 


Tobocco 


1 7. IS 


C*m«n4 


1 - 


laundry 


1 662 


T«»+.le 


1 7.67 


StMl 


1 651 


Print and Pub 


III Q.IO 


Nonftrroui M«tal fbbricofing 


PI ''^8 


Rubber 


■ 9.}e 


Class 


■1 9.77 


Chemical 


■ 10.73 


Automobile 


■ I0.S7 


Public UtHity 


In 11.04 


Mochinery 


■11 11.70 


Electro. Refining 


H 11.34 


Quarry 


■ 11.77 


Tanning and ItotHer 


^1 17 68 


Non-metal Mining 


WM 17.44 


Nonterrous Smtlting 


^H 13.04 


Petroleum 


■Pl '^^0 


Ore Milling 


|H I5.2S 


Sheet Metal 


■11 '^'^^ 


Misc. Metal Products 


Im 16.07 


Tronsit 


■B 16.36 


Food 


^H 16.79 


Metol Mining 


pHI 1667 


Wood Working 


■B iroe 


Paper and Pulp 


PH 16.45 


Marine 


HB 1977 


Cloy Products 


■■■ 7106 


Construction 


^^1 71.96 


Foundry 


■■■ 7S.63 


Meot Pocking 


■■■ 76.79 


Refrigeration 


■BH ^^^'' 


Bituminous Cool 


^HHI 3777 


lumbering 




Anthrocite 





Dayi loil per 1.000 man hourt 




All Industries 


m 1 ^6 




Tobacco 


1 007 




Laundry 


1 040 




Textile 


1 0S7 




Print, ond Pub. 


1 O.M 




Gloss 


|0.b7 




Automobile 


1 0.74 




Tanning and leother 


|o.e7 




Mochinery 


1 094 




Wood Working 


■ I.OB 




Sheet Metal 


1 1.17 




Misc Metol Products 


■ i.is 




Cloy Products 


1 1.19 




Rubber 


■ 1.70 




Tronsit 


■ 1.71 




Food 


■ 1-74 




Chemicol 


■ 1.79 




Meot Pocking 


■ 1.39 




Non ferrous Metol Fobncoting 


■ •.S3 




Foundry 


B '-^^ 




Petroleum 


B '<>'' 




Public Utility 


■ l.71 




Poper Pulp 


!■ 1.97 




Retrigerotion 


■i 703 




Steel 


^1 707 




Construction 


■■ 7S1 




Quorry 


|BB 7.60 




Non-ferrous Smelting 


^Hi 7 91 




Morine 


■■ 3.11 




Cement 


)BM 2<4 




Electro Retining 


pHH 3.70 




Ore Milling 


^HIH 4.S9 




Lumbering 


PBiM ^ <>^ 




Metal Mining 




I776 


Bituminous Cool 




■ 690 


Non metol Mining 




H 900 


Anthrocite 







EnginrerinK and Mininn Journal, Octobrr, 1938, Part of an Editorial on Public Relations Entitled, "What 
Mining Means to the United States." SCALE .7 

Frequency Rates and Severity Rates of Industrial Accidents in the United States with 
Special Reference to Certain Ones. 

The bars in blue arc the "special reference" industries. The magazine in which this chart 
appeared was interested chiefly in those bars colored blue, and used the simple 
method of color for emphasis. 



CONTRASTING BAR CHARTS 



119 



COST OF LIVING 

INOCX NUMBCRS. l«2« • 100 



UMiTtO IMNGOOW 



rilANCE (PAKiS 



JA^AN (TOi>»0 



MHO 5TATIS 



SWlTZtBLAMO 




WHOLESALE PRICES 

INOO NUMBOS. i«;< = 100 



"■'• . ^"X 



UNiriD STATtS 



UNITED niNCOOM 



CZtCMOSLOVAr 



NCTMtRLAND- 



I 



National Induitrial Conftrence Board, Inc., October 23, 1936. 



Cost of Living and Wholesale Prices in the United States and Specified Foreign 
Countries for 1929 and 1936. 



Compare this method of presenting two groups of facts with 144 A. 



GRAPHIC PRESENTATION 



0«n«ri ^^^^ Ttnonli 

Hundrtd doHors 



United States 

New England 
Middle Atlantic 
East North Central 
West Nortti Central 
Soutti Atlantic 
Eost Soutti Central 
West Soutti Central 
Mountain 
Pacific 

Seven Cotton States 
Alobamo 
Arkonsos 
Georgia 
Louisiana 
Mississippi 
Nortti Carolina 
Soutti Carolina 




WPA. Diviiion of Social Research, "Landlord and Tenant on the Cotton Plantation," 1936. SCALE ,9 

Median Value of Farm Dwellings by Tenure in the United Sta+es in 1930. 

Divisions and subdivisions are possible in the bar chart as demonstrated in this one. The 
median value for the United States as a whole is first given, then for each of nine geograph- 
ical divisions, and finally a separation of the "Seven Cotton States" is made. 



121 



Chapter 14 
PICTORIAL UNIT BAR CHARTS 



IN A pictorial unit bar chart comparisons are made by using a 
number of symbols, each of which represents a specific value. 
Synonyms for pictorial unit bar charts are pictogram, pictograph. 
The advantage of the pictorial unit chart over a chart in which large 
and small units are used is that there is a variation in one dimen- 
sion only. 

One R9«ire-2,000 Mi K owitm 

mmmmimm -•' 



1929 



in2 



7.738 



1933 



1934 



1935 



1934 



iiii 

mm 

iumm 



8.072 
8.000 



A Millionaire Is 
Defined Here as a 

Person WHt) an 
Annual Income of 
$50,000 or More 



10.502 



18.196 



Chicago Tribune. The 1038 Chart Book." 

Number of Millionaires in the United States in Selected Years. 

1. The reason for classifying this as a bar chart is readily seen. The rows of men create 

bars. 

2. Since fractions are difficult to present in this form, the numerical value of each row of 

figures is given. 

3. It might have been better to leave more space between the 1929 row and the 1932 row, 

since all the others are consecutive years. 

4. As it appeared in the original, the 1936 row was at the top and the 1929 row at the 

bottom. Because it is general practice to read years from the top down, the rows 
were reversed. 



122 



GRAPHIC PRESENTATION 



SEPTEMBER 
5251 



OCTOBER 
6618 



NOVEMBER 
6360 



OECEMBEP 
4967 



JANUARY 
3372 



FEBRUARY 
2631 



MARCH 
2524 



APRIL 
2768 



MAY 
2702 



JUNE 
1918 



JULY 
1059 



AUGUST 
1023 



m 
m 



EACH FIGURE REPRESENTS 
250 HEN 



W. Sanford Evans. "Statistical Examination — GrorKian Bay Canal." Ottawa, Canada, 1916. SCALE ,9 

Maximum Number of Trainmen and Yardmen Employed on Grain Trains on the Mani- 
toba, Saskatchewan and Alberta Divisions of the Canadian Pacific Railway 
in Each Month of the Crop Year I9I3-I9I4. 

1. This was one of the first pictorial unit bar charts to appear, 

2. Note that the numerical value of each row is given directly beneath the month. Com- 

pare this form with 121, 123B, and 124A. 



PICTORIAL UNIT BAR CHARTS 



123 



IN 
1913 



IN 
1916 



14 AUTOMOBILES I30 HOUSES 
56 AUTOMOBILES 63 HOIkSES 



From '"Humaniiinf the Greater City'i Charity" by Bertrand Brown, Department of Public Charities, City 
of New York. 1017. 

A. Comparison of the Means of Transporfation Used in the Department of Public 
Charities of New York City in 1913 with 1916. 

1. The distinctive feature of this chart is that it is a 100% bar chart. Each row represents 

100% and each figure represents 12'/^%. 

2. It would be read as follows: in 1913 one out of eight, or 12V2%, of the transportation 

used in the Department of Public Charities in New York City, was by automobile 
and the rest by horses. In 1916, four out of eight, or 50% of the transportation, 
was by automobile and 50% was by horses. 

Number of 

TRACTORS 

per one thousand farm families 

Number per 
1000 farms 



Successful 
Farming Families 



357 



"Heart" 
Farmers 



246 



u s 

Farmers 



138 



Meredith Publithing Co.. Des Moines, Iowa, "Successful Farming." 



SCALE 5 



B, A Comparison of the Number of Tractors Per One Thousand Farm Families in 
Three Groups of Farmers in the United States. 

1. The "heart" referred to in this chart means a group of states that form the heart of the 

farming industry, as estimated by the Meredith Publishing Company. 

2. The date to which this comparison applies is not definite: the sources listed for the 

information given were dated 1930 and 1935. 



124 



GRAPHIC PRESENTATION 



-ooo I4.59I.OOO 
•*" ONE MILE 



1911 



32.837,000 
ONE MILE 



TT'TT'TT'TT'TT'7T'7t'7T"7T'7T'7T'7TTT7T7T"7v'7^'Tr 



Brinton. "Graphic Methods," McGraw-Hill, 1914. 



SCALE .9 



A. Comparison of fhe Average Number of Passengers Carried Per Mile on United 
States Railroads in 1899 and 1911. 

1. The theory behind pictorial unit bar charts is that there are more or less units rather 

than larger or smaller units. A pictorial unit bar chart consists of rows of symbols 
rather than large and small symbols. 

2. In this chart, each figure represents 2000 passengers. 




NOPOmCdAISED 





6.128 LBS OF POWC HAISED 



IN 

ni6 _ =.==„„^ 

IZm LBS OF POR.K. RAISED 

From "HumanizifiK the Greater City'i Charity" by Bertrand Brown, Department of Public Charitie*, City 
of New York, 1917. 

B. Increase in Poric Production at the Sea View Farms fThe New York City Farin 
Colony) from 1913 to 1916. 

Apparently the basis on which the pigs were placed inside the fences was this: one pig 
was added for each 6000 pounds of pork raised. 

CHARACTERISTICS OF PICTORIAL 
UNIT BAR CHARTS: 

1. They are effective for popular presentation of educational 
matter. 

2. They are effective to attract attention, and for publicity, ad- 
vertising, and propaganda. 



PICTORIAL UNIT BAR CHARTS 



125 



A. Fire Losses in the City of Cincin- 
nati from 1927 to 1936. 

1. This is a unique and cfTective form in 

which to present fire statistics. 

2. The inclusion of the numerical values 

adds to its usefulness. 



FIRE L055E5 



— ^"S^ 



^^ ... 



M^ 



City of Cincinnati, "Municipal Activitiet," 1936. 

SCALE .6 

If Our Ptopl0-And Thtirs- Should Pack Up And Hovt By Molor Car, Tomorrow — 
How Many Would Havt To Walk? 



ITALY 

1 MIOCS.aO WALK 



BERMANY 

I RIOCS.IOVAtR 






ussw. 

1 RIOCt.lSO ••LN 




ALL moc 



d^^^^B^ Jf^^^^B^ ^^u^^^ ^^^^^^ 



tart Ma. fclaat. 10 »..al» Walfclaa 



Tht Flaurtt lucluit »m»*% » Truclit 



From "Our Country, Our People, and Their*" by M. E. Tracy, 1938. By Permittion of The Macmillan 
Company, Publi»her«. N. Y. C. SCALE .5 

B. A Picture of Automotive Transport Facilities in Italy, Germany, Russia, and the 
United States in 1935 and 1936. 

It should be noted that although each man afoot represents ten people walking, each figure 
in the automobile represents one person. 



GRAPHIC PRESENTATION 




Relative Size of Oceangoing Vessels from the "Savannah" in 1819 to the "Super- 
Cunard" in 1935. 

1. The universality of the graphic chart language is here illustrated. This chart was taken 

from a French magazine. 

2. Compare with 13 IB. 



PICTORIAL UNIT BAR CHARTS 



127 



fAITII TUINOVII IIINOI MOII ftOMI ON ADVIITIIIO tlANOI 






^-^ rr?:? 









iflT;-'^ 



TC '■' 



Sale* ManoRcmfnt. Oct. 1, 103 7. 



SCALE 6 



A. Comparison of Stock Turnover for Advertised and Unadvertised Brands of Goods 
in the United States in 1936. 

According to this chart, people in the United States are influenced more by advertisements 
for headache cures than they are by food advertisements, and are influenced by 
advertising in proportion to the unfamiliarity of the product advertised. 




I 



National Re«ources Board, "State Planning," 1935 SCALE .7 

B. The Growth in Number of Hunters and Fishermen in Missouri from 1910 to 1934. 

1. Although the height of the man and the size of the state may not represent the exact 

numerical value of each, the fact that there were too many hunters and fishermen 
in 1934 for the size of Missouri is quite apparent. 

2. This chart illustrates the point made in 124 Al relative to larger units or more units. 



128 



GRAPHIC PRESENTATION 




A. Adaptability to Training of 2,031 
Patients Examined at the New 
York City Children's Hospital 
and School in October 1916. 

This is not a true pictorial unit bar chart, 
but is rather two 100% bar charts 
filled in with drawings of people. 



1UIMU MTINIS 



OiSKXM. BOUHlfliat 
WUTi IKTONHB 



From "Humanizing the Greater City't Charity" 
by Bertrand Brown, Department of Pubhc 
Charitiet, City of New York. 1917. 




A Dou.A«'s WORTH Of Milk 
Feb is. 1029 



hmmmL 
mmNs 



A Doijjms WORTH Of PtJ>n Bttr 



res a, 1029 

FEaiS.1933 

rcB ie.i937 



<^^..^^^^ 



<^^-^ 



A DOIXAWS WORTH Of BUTTCR | 


fee IS. 1929 


«ff^^ d^^ 


rtB 14.1933 




rtB I«.I937 




rulS.1938 





Retail Food Phici3. 1929-38 

BOB.AAS or Lams 9rj(rxmc« 



Rttproduo«d tiom "Labor Inroraatlon 

BuIlatlB", April 199. Dspftrtsftnt 

of L«bor, WaahlnctOD, 0. C. 



ADOIXAR^S WORTH Of /^wrofj ] 


mi5.S29 


^ f .? 


ru.is.i933 


f f f f 


rcBMie37 


f f 


res IS. 1938 


t f f 1 



A Dot-LAirs WORTH or Bmcao 



rcais.Msak^ 



A Doll 

rCB IS. 1929 


Kvn WORTH Of Corrce 


ftB IS 1933 


@@@s 


rcB )e.is37 


@s@@ 


FIB IS,l93e 


@ @^ 3 



A OoLLARTs Worth or Cesi 1 


re* 1^1039 


mm 

■9 »eitm 


rulMS33 


mmmm 

, 4^ tettm 


Fca le.iesT 


mmm 


rcB is.i93a 


mmmm? 



U. S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce, "Domestic Commerce." June 
10, 1938. SCALE .6 

B. A Comparison of How Much a Dollar Will Buy in Terms of Retail Food Prices 
in the United States for the Years 1929. 1933. 1937, and 1938. 

1. The pictorial unit bar chart is of particular value for popular appeal. It attracts atten- 

tion even when it does not convey facts. 

2. The inclusion of the actual amounts below each row of items in this series of charts 

makes it valuable not only as a poster but also for research and reference purposes. 



PICTORIAL UNIT BAR CHARTS 



129 



PROVIDKD 



SI'KNT 







«/• 


FlHf 




HloMII 


toiCAtlOli 


1/1 


Pouci 




1/1 


HiCHWAVt OD 


t/« 


Srwrak *m> Stw«ci 
UisrosAL 


1/» 


»>l»tlC HiALTH AKO 

So.rAL Siitictt 


t/T 


HUUMN 




1/1 


riiiLK 


AsSISTASCt 


t/1 


Apmin 


5TIAT10W 


M. 


Oiiifi 


Sxivicu 


IM. 



County Boroueh of Reading, England, Borough Accountant's Dept., "General Statistics and Epitome of 
the Corporation's Accounts," 1935. 

How Each Pound Was Provided and Spent in the British Sovernnrient During the 
Year Ended March 31, 1935. 

1. Bar charts with visual captions may be our salvation from the preponderance of "little 

men" charts. 

2. The pictorial caption aids in making them universally understood. 

3. They have a popular appeal, and yet present facts as clearly and accurately as possible. 



130 



GRAPHIC PRESENTATION 



E.X«»tNOITU»«t PL« CAPITA PtR WEEK IN CENTS 
40 60 80_ 100 




MISCELLANEOUS 
FOODS 



U. S Department of Labor, Burcnu of Lat>or Statistics, "Labor Information Bulletin," July 1938. 

Food Expenditures of Wage Earners and Lower-Salaried Clerical Workers af Suc- 
cessive Economic Levels in New York City for the Winter Quarter of 1934- 
1936. 

This would be much more informative if the total annual income at each economic 
level had been given. 



PICTORIAL UNIT BAR CHARTS 



UI 



67% 



^ r. ) 

CITIES OVER* 
10.000^ POPULATION 




RURAL AND CITIES 
UNDER 10,000 POPULATION 



PfOESTRlAN 



OTHER 
AAOTOR VEHICLE 



OTHER VEHICLE 

llNClvDmO MM TM*IM\ 
\ C STMtCT CAM I 




NON- 
COUISION 



Automobile Manufacturers Aitociation, "Automobile Facts and Figures," 1938. 

A. Types of Motor Vehicle Deaths in the United States In 1937. 

Pictures representing rural and urban districts are fairly well understood. The few strokes of 
the pen which were necessary to create these two captions were well worth the time. 



"^ 


-n — ^1 1 1 '•^f 1 1 1^1 1 1 1^1 1 1 r'l 1 1 r'l 1 1 1" 

III 1 


1 M 'Tl 1 1 iTl 1 1 'T' 1 1 \\ 




J^ii-L.l.i — - 


IJ^:-I 




■iPiiMii^^ 


^^-" L_ « 












Q-iTf "i 


H 
« 




J-t \U- J i l"' 


;>, 


' • IM ' ^KV : 7 


. .1. •. J (JJii. ^.^ 


"4 


i 1 W \ i\' AA II ' ^ - 


2 * S _^ 15 -^ 




i 1 i.. . , . /l* - '^''JsIS, ^ . at i . '' if.^ 


ixil ?- 1« 






'^t-— i--i 








111 w ^ ^Jp U r J L ' ta 


1 


5 '^- 


■ ■ ■ t * ■ ■ ' « "1 : . . 




» ». - * * * ** -i 


^-■==5.._.,^___ Z% 


* 


. . " t ■ . . 


" J 


k 


' . 1 ' ■ ! i ! •' • 




^ " 




• L I ' 


fi ., 


: X -_ -I- I '\ 


■ t~. ^ » 


7 , 




It j !_:!.:"-:=_ ±± i! 


> „ 


^ I 




i1 ■ 


1 1 


"" • ~- '3 


i» _ 


i '. 1 


" » 


1 _^ 




_ - 3 


^. 


.1 > . ..... 1 . . 1 i I .. 


: ___±:_: :_:? 



I 



>IacElwee 8s Crandall. Inc . N Y C SCALE .4 

B. The Trend In Length, Breadth, and Draft of North Atlantic Passenger Ships from 
1830 to 1940. 

1. The purpose of this chart was to determine the trend in length, breadth, and draft of 

passenger ships so that docking facilities might be planned for the future. 

2. As the newer ships were placed upon the chart, it was found that the calculation of the 

trend was unbelievably accurate. 



132 



Chapter 15 
COMPARISON OF COMPONENT BAR CHARTS 



X he term "component bar" may refer to any bar which has been 
divided into parts. The charts in Chapters 10 and 11 are com- 
ponent bars in which each bar represents 100%, and the compari- 
son of the component parts is the important item. In this chapter, 
divisions of the bars are made without reducing all bars to the same 
length. 



Of DOtXARS 



pueuic WORK 



PRIVATE WORf 




Federal Reserve Agent, New York, "Monthly 
Review," Feb. 1, 1937. SCALE .7 

A. Total Value of Building and Engi- 
neering Contracts in Thirty- 
seven of the United States, 
Showing the Proportion of Pri- 
vate and Public Construction 
from 1932 to 1936. 

1. Here the component parts arc labelled 

in percentages, facilitating the 
reading of the chart. 

2. Since there are so few horizontal rul- 

ings, it might have been better to 
give the numerical values of each 
bar. 




Federal Reserve Agent, New York, "Monthly 
Review," Nov. 1, 1936. SCALE .8 

B. Comparison of the Gold Holdings 
of the Central Banks and Gov- 
ernments of 51 Other Countries 
and the United States in July 
1931. and October 1936. 

1. To prevent the reading of the top 

figures as the items for the 51 
other countries, there should be a 
third set of figures placed in a 
position similar to the item for 
the United States. 

2. Since both the vertical scale and the 

labels are put to the left of the 
bars, it may be more difficult to 
read the chart than if one or the 
other were placed to the right. 



COMPARISON OF COMPONENT BAR CHARTS 



133 



torAt, 



(hAMUo IN oMOcn or size or socio economic cmout in itso) 



11 



ill 



i 




i 



^ MEN 
m WOMCN 



'^ "i III i 

nil 



iii 

ill 



i 



i 




StUISKILLED 


CLERICAL 


SKILLED 


UNSKILLED 


DOMESTIC 


PROPRIETX)RS. 


PROFESSIONAL 


VirORKERS 


WORKERS 


WORKERS 


WORKERS 


SERVANTS 


MANAGERS 


PERSONS 



WPA, Nationnl Research Project. "Recent Trends in Employment and Unemployment in Philadelphia." 
December IQJ?. SCALE .7 

A. Ex+ent and Character of Changes in fhe Types of Employment In Philadelphia for 
the Years 1910. 1920. and 1930. 

Since there are no horizontal rulings, it might have been better to include the value of 
each bar as well as percentages of each component part. 



I 




^555,077,000 



^96 0,227.4^5 



^525,770 795 '278,999,555 



Expended for public schools in 1914. 

Increase over 1914 chargeable to decrease in purchasing power of dollar. 



||H||jll||!l[y| Increase over 1914 chargeable to increased attendance. 
I I Increase over 1914 chargeable to increased services. 

National Education Association. Washington. D. C "Research Bulletin," May 1038. 

B. Estimated Causes of Increase in School Costs in the United States from 1914 
to 1930. 

This simple classification of reasons for the increase in school costs shows a great deal of 
study and forethought. A verbal statement would not have been half so effective. 



134 



GRAPHIC PRESENTATION 



MILLION 
10 IS 



20 



25 



URBAN 



RURAL NON-FARM 



— \ 1 1 1 — 1 






TOTAL 24 1 

1 




^m 


^^^H 1930 POPULATION 


TOTAL 9 8 


^^^^ '930 TO 1955 INCREASE 
^^^^^ (ESTIMATED) 




WMM 


V^H 1955 TOTAL 



RURAL FARM 



TOTAL 14 
WPA and U. S. Bureau of Agricultural Economics, "Rural Poverty." February 1938. 



SCALE 7 



A. Estimafed Increase in Male Population fronn 18 to 65 Years of Age by 1955 in 
fhe United States. 

The inclusion of practically all the data in the chart makes it useful for research and refer- 
ence purposes. 



WAGES AND SALARIES 



COMPANY 
OFFICERS' 
SALARIES 



DIVIDENDS 



SURPLUS 




m 




■ 4.r 
lor 

•Shows percenloge o/ lolol expended lot woqes so/ones, and drvidends thai hod ro be wiihdrown Irom surp/us 

Factory Manacrmrnt and Maintenance. October 1938. Part of an Editorial on Public Relations Entitled 
A Program for Public Relationi." SCALE .9 

B. Distribution of Income of the Manufacturing Industries in the United States from 
1929 to 1935. 

1. The chief significance of this chart lies in the arrangement of component parts of the 

bars so that there is a common starting point for each classification. 

2. The omission of a scale or some indication of the numerical value of each row of bars 

was unfortunate. 



COMPARISON OF COMPONENT BAR CHARTS 



135 



FOR tVtRY tlOO SPtNT BY FAMILIES IN THE MEDIAN 
(tl ?40 »l.«t») INCOME GROUP OTHER GROUPS SPEND 



INCOME GROUP 

$^00- $ 749 PER YEAR 




MIOIAN 


BAtI 






roODS 




) 


4i« 


CLOTMINC 






111 


»U«Nr$MlNO» 






tl 


»UtOMO«IL( 






IIT 


Pf nSONALCADf 






)• 


••IC«t»110N 






>1 






& ^ 



1.500- 1.749 

1.750- 1,999 
2,000-2 499 

rOCD CLOTHING 

Salrt Managrmrnt, Feb. 1, 1438. 

A. Comparison of the Disfribution of the Income of People in the United States on 
Seven Income Levels in 1936. 

This chart should be read as follows: while the median group spends one dollar for food, 
the income group receiving from $500 to $749 per year spends sixty-two cents, and 
tK» tonno to $2400 group spends $1.23. 



SCALE .6 



POUNDS 

(MILLIONS) 



150 



QUANTITY or TOBACCO RETAINED FOR 
HOME CONSUMPTION 



100 



50 




I 



1919 



1921 



1923 I92S 1927 1929 1931 1933 1935 1937 



U. S. Department of ARriculturc, Bureau of Agricultural Economics. 



SCALE .5 



B. A Comparison by Sources of the Amount of Tobacco Consumed in the United 
Kingdom from 1919 to 1937. 

1. Because basically this chart seems to be a series of bar charts whose vertical rulings have 

been eliminated, it can present slight differences which would not have been ap- 
parent had the "staircase" been plotted as a curve. 

2. Charts of this type are occasionally useful to give variety. 



136 



GRAPHIC PRESENTATION 



Oollors 
600 800 



1000 1200 



1400 



Wo»hington, C. »I4I4?4 

Soo FroflCijco, Calif 1389 87 

Minmopohs, Minn. 1367 79 

NtwYork. NY. 1375.13 



Cbicogo, 1 11 
Milwoukce.Wis. 
Boston, Moss 
Ciev*lond, Ohio 
St Louis, Mo. 

Detroit, Micti. 
Scronton, Po. 
Cincinnoti, Otiio 
Piltsburgti, Po 
Los Angeles, Colif. 

Nework, N J. 
Baltimore, Md. 
Albuquerque, N Me« 
Phiiodelptiio, Po 
Bridgeport, Conn. 

Sioui Foils, S Ook 
Roctiester, NY. 
Tucson, Ariz. 
Butte, Mont. 
Portlond, Maine 

Peofio.lll 
Foil River, Mass. 
Atlcnto, Go 
Rictimond, Vo. 
Buftolo, NY. 

Averoge, 59 cities 

Omoho, Nebr 
Monchester, N. H. 
Norfolk, Vo 
Denver, Colo. 
Konsos City, Mo. 

Providence, R I 
Binghomton, N Y. 
Soil Loke City, Utoh 
Seattle, Wosh. 
New Orleans, Lo. 

Spokone, Wosh. 
Winston- Solem, N C 
Portlond, Oreg 
Memphis, Tenn. 
Louisville, Ky. 

Oklahoma City, Okia 
Jacksonville, Flo 
Houston, Ten 
Indionopolis, Ind. 
Coltmbio, S C. 

Clorksburg, W.Vo. 
Dallas, Te«. 
Cedar Rapids, lowo 
Columbus, Ohio 
Birmingham, Alo. 

KnoKville, Tenn. 
El Poso. Te. ■ 
Little Rock, Ark. 
Wichita, Kons. 
Mobile. Alo 




Food Clolhing, Housing Household Miscel- 

clolhing upkeep, operation loneous 

ond personal core 

WPA. Division of Social Research, "Intercity Difference* in Costs of Living — 59 Cities, " March 1935. 

Annual Costs of Living, by Mdjor Budqet Groups, of a 4-Person Manual Worker's 
Fannily in Each of 59 Cities in the United States in March 1935. 

Note the inclusion of the numerical values of the bars in the column at the left and the 
inclusion of the average for the 59 cities enumerated in this chart. 



COMPARISON OF COMPONENT BAR CHARTS 



137 



m 




cl Jon Apr 



1933 1934 

WPA. Division of Socinl Research. "TrpnHs in Rrlicf Ex()fn(liturfs 



Oct Jon Apf Jul Ocl Dec 
1935 



SCALE .7 



A. Percentage Distribution of Monthly Expenditures for Public Relief and Wage 
Assistance in the United States for the Period fronn January 1933 to Decem- 
ber 1935. 



1. This chart and 137B present the same information, except that this gives percentages 

while 137B gives numerical values. 

2. When component parts are given in a chart, the information should be presented in both 

these forms if possible. 



■ Works Progr om 

in operation 




I 



WPA. Division of Social Rcsfarch. "Trends in Relief Expenditures," 1Q37. 



SCALE .7 



B. Trend of Monthly Expenditures for Public Relief and Wage Assistance in the 
United States for the Period fronn January 1933 to December 1935. 



138 



GRAPHIC PRESENTATION 



NATIONAL INCOME 
PHODDCED AND PAID OUT 



INCOME PRODUCED AND PAID OUT 
MINING AND QUARRYING 




I9W (950 1951 I9J2 I95J I9i4 



INCOME PRODUCED AND PAID OUT 
METAL MINING 



INCOME PRODUCED AND PAID OUT 
NON-METAL MINING 




19J0 1951 



INCOHr 
PAID OUT 



ETI3 



BUSINESS SAVINGS 



NEGATIVE 
BUSINESS SAVINGS 



EnRincrrinR and MininE Journnl. Ortobrr 1038, Part of an Editorial on Public Rrlationt Entitled "What 
MiimiK Mfani to the United Slates." SCALE .8 

Income Produced and Paid Out in the United States with Special Reference to Cer- 
tain Industries from 1929 to 1934. 

The classification "negative business savings" means, no doubt, "losses." 



COMPARISON OF COMPONENT BAR CHARTS 



139 



roannnc nsHMC «no mmmc 



JM^aiCULTURC 



fH 






:i 




U. S. Dppartmfnt of Commerce. Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce, "Construction Activity in 
the United States 1915-1937." 1938. 

A. Percentage Distribution of Gainful Workers in the United States by Occupations 
from 1870 to 1930. 

This chart is a scries of 100% bar charts, but is included here because of its relation to 
139B. 



H(CM«MCAi. Dcusnacs 



rooo AMO Aixco MOusmcs 



OMniucnoM M>u$T*«s 




I 



U. S. Department of Commerce. Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce, "Construction Activity in 
the United States 1915-1937," 1938. 

B. Percentage Distribution of Gainful Workers in Manufacturing, Mechanical, and 
Construction Industries in the United States from 1870 to 1930. 

Note that in 139A above, the division at the very top is labelled "Manufacturing, Mechani- 
cal and Construction." This chart is a further break-down of that one component. 
In the same way each of the component parts of 139A could be divided. 



140 



GRAPHIC PRESENTATION 




— LEG END — 

I I Unshaded areas show supplemental KVAXVVj Available watar for soil havioq 

■ ' water re^uirod Kr/ii\wiiM nfiltration capoci^Y o* OS ifKh per do^ 

IHHH "^ter required- laches permoolh. t^^t^y>^ Do liocb per day 

I. ./' "l Actual roirifoll t '.'/.tS'/W^ Oo 1 5 inches per day 



National Resources Board, "Report of Water Planning Committee, Part III," 1Q34. 



SCALE .7 



Supplemental Water Required to Provide 18 Inches Total Water for Crop Use Per 
Day from May to October on Soils Having Various Infiltration Capacities in 
Atlanta, Georgia, and Bismarck, North Dakota, from 1930 to 1932. 

1. These cities were only two of several for which this analysis was made. 

2. The necessity for reservoirs and dams is clearly shown in an effective form. 



COMPARISON OF COMPONENT BAR CHARTS 



141 



•^te 




...» \i, ^ 






-S 



I- 

I. 

1.-" 

1-3 



M.OCM TOTAL 










<«t*g r^wLT wCDwt wa howtw 





O iliOO'lt ntClaT«4i 0> BIT 



AytBAti rAKLY Mirr h» womtm 



$SI •« 



Land Utilization Comiriittfp. New York Building Congress, Arthur C. HoUlfn, Chairman. SCALE .8 

Sources of Income and Ratio of Rent to Income for Families in Block 2007 in New 
York City in 1936. 

1. Seldom does one find a chart in which so much information is given. While it may seem 

formidable at first glance, the key at the right simplifies it. 

2. This amount of information in words and figures only would require many pages of text 

and could not make evident the interrelations clearly shown in chart form. 



I 



CHARACTERISTICS 



1. Both actual amounts and percentages should be given. 

2. When there is one bar to represent the total of all the others, 
it should be the same width as the others. 

3. The amount scale may be placed at both the left and the right 
of the chart, or it may be placed on the side of greater sig- 
nificance. 



142 



Chapter 16 
BILATERAL BAR CHARTS 



■HE TERM bilateral may refer to a curve or line chart as well 
as to a bar chart. In a bilateral bar chart the bars extend 
both up and down or both to the left and to the right of a 
common line. 

This results in a comparison of the distances from the line to the 
ends of the bars rather than from the bottom or line at the left. 

Bilateral bar charts are especially adapted to the presentation of 
profit and loss data or of deviations from normal. 

The following are synonyms for bilateral bar charts: two-way 
bar chart, two-directional bar chart. 




CLASS 1 
RAILROAOS 




oenciT 12 


17 


13 




m 


II 


i 


IT 


l»J9-32 39 36 


I92« 32 -ii -36 


ia2a -32 3i 


36 


IS29 32 3» -36 


l92«-32 -15 -36 


19M 32 -35 -36 


l«2« 32 '3i -J« 


CHCMICAL 
& ORUC 


FOOD k 
FOOD PRODUCTS 


OIL 




STORES 


TOBACCO 
108 


ALL 
INDUSTRIALS 


UTILITIES 
EXCEPT TEL COS. 




Federal Rcstrve ARrnt at New York, "Monthly Review." April 1, 1Q37. 



SCALE .7 



Annual Net Profits or Deficits of 727 United States Industrial and Mercantile Con- 
cerns, Class I Railroads, and 62 Public Utility Companies Other Than Tele- 
phone Connpanies, During 1929, 1932, 1935. and 1936. 1929 Equals 100%. 

1. In a bilateral bar chart, the zero line while still a base line is not the bottom line. 

2. In this chart the bars below the zero line are a minus quantity and those above are a 

plus quantity. 

3. It should be noted that in each group of bars, the 100% bar is always the same height. 

4. It might have been better not to have the numbers at the end of each bar, since the 

bar is lengthened and the visual differences are decreased. 



BILATERAL BAR CHARTS 



143 



1 PMr«t« i >ll«r»«t. 






Cav^aj lalai 



Dun's Rrvicw, April 1Q38. 



SCALE .5 



Hypothetical Use of the Regional 
Trade Barometer of Dun's Re- 
view in a Comparison of In- 
creases or Decreases of a Com- 
pany's Sales from Month to 
Month in Each Sales District. 



Trade Barometers for 29 Regions 
in the United States in Which 
the Indexes of November 1938 
Are Compared With the In- 
dexes of November 1937 in 
Percentage Reductions or In- 
creases. 




21 SAN FtANCISCO 
29 LOS ANCCLtS 



Dun's Review. February 1939. 



SCALE .7 



144 



GRAPHIC PRESENTATION 







PRESENT 




1 


RECOMMENDED 




I 1 1 1 

1 PBIVATC {IM0U5T«,AL| 


















1,1 ' 

1 PRIVATE (rAKM WOODl •.NOI 


^H^m^mm- 




1 1 rEOERA:_ 




^^H^^^^^H^tf"^""* 


J 


H 


5TOTM 
1 


I 
STA- • 


' 












COUNTY 

1 

MUNICIPAL 

1 

:rwi3E accounted for 







300 2S0 ZOO 



loo so o so lOO 

MILLIONS or ACRES 



ISO zoo 2 SO 300 



From "An Outline of the Natural Resources of the United States" by R. M. Field, Copyright 1936. 
Used by the Permission of the Publishers, Barnes 6t Noble. Inc., N. Y. C. 

A. Ownership of Forest Land in the United States in 1934 and as Reconnnnended 
by the National Resources Board. 

1. This chart does not present plus and minus quantities, but is, however, in bilateral bar 
chart form. 
It should be noted that the sum of the lengths of the bars on one side of the zero line 
is equal to the sum of the lengths of the bars on the other side. As a result, the 
scale might represent either percentages or "millions of acres." 

Percent 

40 20 20 40 60 80 100 



2. 



1929 
1930 
1931 
1932 
1933 
1934 






^ 






.^^ 










^ 






%%%%%W?ft«???J*??J9X"i' 



y!Vj»!%»Iwt»X«l«*»!%'!«t*t«WS?5Tl*X*^ 



l%*:!l:$:$:$:«:»: 






Speciol 
ollowonces 



1935 

Privote I General public 

WPA. Division of Social Research. "Trends in Relief Exix'nditures," 1Q3 7. 

B. Percentage Distribution of Relief Expenditures from Public and Private Funds In 
120 Urban Areas in the United States fronn 1929 to 1935. 

The total length of each bar if measured on the per cent scale would be 100%. Thus 
this chart is merely a rearrangement of 100% bar charts. The reason for presenting 
it in this way was to emphasize the relation between public and private relief. 
Compare with 102 A and 14 SA. 



BILATERAL BAR CHARTS 



145 




1929 I9K) 

Dun's Review. April 1Q38. 



193$ 



A. Profit-and-Dividend Status of 348 Corporations in the United States for the 
Period from 1929 to 1935. 



Here again is a group of 100% bar charts. 

Note that the two types of crosshatchtngs below the zero line are in the classification 
"unprofitable" while the two above the zero line are in the classification "profitable." 
The zero line might well be heavier to emphasize this division. 



Typical 

1. Paring knives 
priced at 
^ 0.72 per 
doz. Right 







1 






fl 






66 ITEMS 








^ 
















i 














r 


v, 










TOO HIGH 4- 


h 












K 


y// 












Jy^ 


y/A 




E.R.P. 






f7//< 


^ 


VM 


y///A 


y//A 


y///A 


y/j^ 






y/M 


y///A 


y///y 


V/Z^ 


^ 






VM 


Wf^. 


y/z^ 


iT^ 








V/Z/a 


v//^ 


f^ -TOO LOW 






Z////r 


v^ 












'^^ 















I 



Price was 

2. Carving sets: 
^7.bO each. Right 
Price was ^6.00 



Churchill EnKinrrrinK Corporation. N. Y. C. 

B. The Distortion in Prevailing Prices of Sixty-Six Itenns of Cutlery Manufactured 
by One Company as Determined by the Churchill Engineering Corporation. 

E.R.P. in this chart means "Economic Right Prices." Fifty of sixty-six items analyzed, 
according to this corporation, were below E.R.P., while sixteen were above. 



146 



GRAPHIC PRESENTATION 



•ILLIONS or OOLLAMS 

INVESTMeNTS 

0. i coy, 
OTHER DIReCT LOANS 

TOTAL INVISTMCHTS 0«uC iMf ON SCCUKITIIS 



• I 



S.« 



LOANS 

COMMJRCIAL 


LOAMS 


RIAL 
tSTATt 

LOANS 


TOTAL 
Zt.I 




12 « 




a. 2 


•NOC« 








NUUSlKi 

i»«><oa 



^^^^^^^^^^^^^M 


2.S 





I92« l«30 1931 1932 1933 1934 I93i 1929 1930 1931 1932 1933 1934 1933 

LOANS INVESTMENTS 



National Industrial Conference Board, Inc., N. Y. C, February 7, 1936. 



SCALE .7 



Loans and Investments of the Member Banks of the Federal Reserve System from 
1929 to 1935. 

1. The insertion of figures in each of the component parts facilitates the reading of the 

chart. 

2. The curves which supplement the chart give a great deal more detail than could be given 

in one form of chart alone. 



BILATERAL BAR CHARTS 



147 



MILES OF LINE 



NET INCOME PER Mil 



«».t*« 



lft.49* 



it^»» 



»>,ieo 



B SWEDEN 



S4,tt4 



L 

IaustraliaH 

I -fa 



DEFICIT PER MILE OF LINE 



'■■■l ISTATt, ^$296 



M,M* 



INDIA 
I93i* 



I 
I 



a»,Me 



*fiiC*L rt*ti 




NationnI lndM«lri.il Coiifrrrnce BonrH. \nc . N Y C . April 22. 19.18. 



SCALE .7 



Net Income or Deficit of Governmentally Owned or Operated Railways for Various 
Foreign Countries in 1935 or 1936. 

1. The point of interest in this chart is the net income or deficit of the various railroads. 

Tlic number of miles of line were probably included to show that there is no evi- 
dent relationship between the length of the railroad and profit or loss. 

2. The dividing line between the two groups of bars in this chart is not a zero line with 

plus and minus quantities to right and left, since miles are the quantity on one 
side and dollars the quantity on the other. 

3. Thus the arrangement of the bars alone makes this a bilateral bar chart. 



148 



GRAPHIC PRESENTATION 



Female 

Percent 
60 50 40 30 20 10 

I 1 1 \ 1 r 




Agriculture 
Forestry and Fishing 

Extraction of Minerals 

Manufacturing and 
Mechanical Industries 

Transportation and 
Communication 

Trade 
Public Service 

Professional Service 

Domestic ond 
Personal Service 

Clericol Occupotions 



Male 

Percent 
20 30 40 50 60 




Relief 1934 
Census 1930 



WPA, Division of Social Rcsr.-irch, "Urban Workrrs on Rclirf." 1036. 

Usual Occupation of Unemployed Workers on Relief in 1934 and Gainful Workers 
in 1930 in the United States. 

The method of reading tfiis chart is as follows: according to the 1930 census about 42% 
of male gainful workers were in the manufacturing and mechanical industries. In 
1934 about 52% of the men on relief designated manufacturing and mechanical 
industries as their former place of employment. This latter fact does not seem so 
startling in view of the first statement. 



149 



Chapter 17 
AREA BAR CHARTS 



THE BASIS of comparison in an area bar chart is the area of the 
bar rather than the length of the bar. Other terms appHed to 
this type of chart are, 100% square; 100% block. 



M CXNTt Nl HCMM 



AVIMAM BUIIIIIi g a 
IN CINIt ff« MOU* 



AVCMASC FOa AU TYKt 



KKSKT Of TOTAL HOUK OH WMKM MTMCKT WAS tAUD 
lOO % s I, *7*, 000,000 HOUM 



WPA. "Report on Progrpss of the Worki Program." December 1937. 

Average Hourly Earnings of Persons Ennployed on Works Progress Administration 
Projects, by Types of Projects for the Period from January through October 
1937. 

1. As both the percentage of the total number of hours and the earnings per hour are 

given, it is possible to compute from this chart the actual amount of expenditure 
for each type of project. 

2. The chart indicates without computation in which projects earnings are above the 

average and which ones fall below. 



150 



GRAPHIC PRESENTATION 



•f 140 
•f 110 

•f I to 

♦ MO 

••> I 00 

-♦-9 

+ 00 

•♦• 70 

•♦• 60 

-♦■ SO 

•(- 40 

•(- 10 

•I- 20 

+ I 
J.R.H. CORP. 

». 

••RIGHT PRICE'* 

- I 

- «0 

- 10 

- 40 

- 50 































































































































PRI 


:vAi 


UNC 


PRIC 


ES TOO HIGH 












































































































































11^ 


ji 


1 


J.R.H. CORP. 


■IHIIIII 


!■ 






"RIGHT PRICE** 


II 


«....- 












1 












IpREVAILING PRICES TOOLOw| 




















I 


E 





















10 20 10 40 SO 60 70 80 90 100 



PERCENT OF SALES VOLUME 



Churchill EnginrrrinK Corporation, N. Y. C. 

The Distortion in Prevailing Prices of Seventeen Itenns of Roofing Products Manu- 
factured by One Connpany in the United States as Determined by the 
Churchill Engineering Corporation. 

Weighting the bars by showing volume as well as price gives a more accurate picture than 
a simple bilateral chart would Rive. However, a representation of volume is not 
always necessary. 



AREA BAR CHARTS 



151 



CHARACTERISTICS OF AREA BAR CHARTS: 

1. Useful in presentinj; material which ^ivcs parts of a total. 

2. They show in one view two independent {groups of facts. 



■(M"M 

foci 






'•L 



U«NU>^*C TURING 

&N0 UCCHANICAL 29 4 
INOUSTBll J 



INOUSTBUS 

AND scnviccs 



TDANSPOATATION 
ANO 
COMMUNICATION 



OOMISTIC 
AND PCDSONAL 

scnvicc 



acbicoltuhe. 
fisminc, and 
^oblic siBvice 



M.» 





4t.4 



91.* 




I 



National Industrial Confcrcncr Board, Inc. N Y. C, February 11. 1937 SCALE 7 

Proportion of the Working Population Covered by the Old Age Provisions of the 
Social Security Act in the United States, Using the Distribution of Occupa- 
tions of the 1930 Census. 

1. Not only the percentage covered or not covered by old-age provisions of the Social 

Security Act is presented, but also the percentage of the total working force of each 
of the types of labor. 

2. If only the percentage covered in each type of industry were given, the representation 

would be obviously false. 



152 



GRAPHIC PRESENTATION 




Massachusrtts Institute of TechnoloRy, "The. Technology Review." February 1933. 

Occupational Distribution in 1930 of 134 MIT Graduates of the Classes of 1917 to 
1929 Inclusive. 

1. This chart is in reality a group of 100% bar charts. It was placed in this chapter 

because of its resemblance to the preceding charts. 

2. The emphasis on the area for "Major Executive" tends to make the comparison a 

vertical one, resulting in area comparison. 



CHARACTERISTICS OF AREA BARCHARTS: 

Area bar charts may take one of two forms: 

a. They may have one dimension in percentages of a total 
and the second dimension in numerical values. 

b. They may have both dimensions in percentages of two 
different totals. They then become 100% squares or 
blocks. 



153 



Chapter 18 
GENERAL USE OF MAPS 



DOTS, circles, bars, curves, symbols, etc., may be placed on a 
base map to give the geographic location of statistical data. 
When used in this way, the general term "statistical map" may be 
applied. Synonyms for statistical map are cartogram, map chart. 

GENERAL REFERENCES 

Paullin, Charles O., Atlas of the Historical Geography of the 
United States, Carnegie Institute of Washington and Ameri- 
can Geographical Society of New York, 1932 

Raisz, Erwin, General Cartography, McGraw-Hill Book Co., 
Inc., New York City, 1938 




I 



Encyclopedia Americana. 

Outline Sketch of Borgia Map of the Fifteenth Century, A. D. 

1. Man's earliest maps consisted of simple drawings. The map shown above is in a more 

advanced form. 

2. Long before the Christian era, people living in Egypt and Mesopotamia constructed 

maps. For an early Mesopotamian map, see 170. 



154 



GRAPHIC PRESENTATION 





Encyclopedia Americana. 

Maps Drawn on Orthographic and S+ereographic Projection on the Plane of a 
Horizon, 

1. When the discovery was made that the earth was round, map-makers were faced with 

the problem of how to present on a plane a picture which was best presented by a 
globe. 

2. This involved transforming the lines of latitude and longitude on the earth into planer 

magnitudes. 

3. The projections above illustrate two of many solutions to this problem. 



BASE MAPS 

Base maps to be used for presenting quantitative data may be 
secured from the following companies: 

American Map Co., New York, N. Y. 

Educational Exhibition Co., Providence, R. I. 

C. S. Hammond ^^ Co., New York, N. Y. 

Rand-McNally Co., New York, Chicago, Washington, D. C, 
San Francisco, and Los Angeles 

Maps may be ordered in many different forms: paper; cloth- 
mounted; sized surface; washable surface; wooden rollers; spring- 
roller case; pin-map board; cork carpet for pins; framed and 
braced. 

In making graphic representations of different sections of a city, 
it is often difficult to secure base maps of a suitable scale. Fre- 
quently maps can be obtained from the various city departments, 
or from public utility companies covering the area of special 
interest. 



GENERAL USE OF MAPS 



155 



""^JjENERAL information about United States government 
^^^m maps may be secured from Map Information Office, North 
H^H Interior Department Building, Washington, D. C. Aerial 
photographs are card-indexed, as well as other maps. This enables 
the Map Information Office generally to state whether or not an 
area has been photographed, and if so. from what source prints 
are procurable. The following are important government mapping 
agencies from which maps may be obtained directly: 

Geological Survey, U. S. Department of Interior. Basic topo- 
graphic maps of approximately one-half the United States. Key 




wo* 160* wo* 120* lOO' 80* 60* *0 20' o" 20* 40* 60* 80* ICO* 120* 1*0' 160' l«0* 

-«*— — ■ J<7C/P L/NtS JHOV¥ ACTUAL POSmONS Of IamO Af^O iVArCff A^fAS. 

^^A-^ Dotrco Aff£AS Sffotv rne posfrio»fs Acco/foiMC ro MefrcATOffS MAPOf /SM. 

Encyclopedia A.nfricana. 

A Map Drawn on Mercator Projection, A "Developed" Projection. 

1. The term "developed" is derived from' the method: a cylindrical or conical surface is 

substituted for the plane of projection and then is "developed" or rolled out in a 
plane. The two types of projection most commonly used today are the Mercator 
and the polyconic. 

2. The Mercator projection was first introduced in 1568 by Gerardus Mercator. a Flemish 

lecturer on geography and astronomy. In the Mercator projection a tangent 
cylinder is employed. The meridians and parallels of latitude cut each other at 
right angles and are represented by straight lines. 

3. The polyconic projection employs an infinite number of tangent cones. The starting 

point for these cones is at the middle parallel or latitude of the area mapped. 

4. See 267. 



^^^ GRAPHIC PRESENTATION 



|e 




Kcuffel H Essrr Co , New York City. 

Map Measuring Device. 

This instrument is used to measure lines and distances on a map. The small wheel follows 
the line and the distance is recorded on the dial in inches or centimeters. 

maps made for individual states and distributed without charge 
are used in ordering specific sections. Geologic maps for many 
sections of the United States and Alaska. 

Coast and Geodetic Survey, U. S. Department of Commerce. 
Navigational charts of the coasts of the United States and its pos- 
sessions. Air route maps covering the entire United States. 

General Land Office, U. S. Department of Interior. Wall map 
of the United States showing the national parks, national monu- 
ments, and other useful information. Maps of the 29 public-land 
states, Alaska, and Hawaii. 

Hydrograpfiic Office, Bureau of Navigation, U. S. Department 
of ttie Navy. Maps and charts required in navigation in foreign 
waters and on high seas. 

Corps of Engineers, U. S. Army, Engineer Reproduction Plant, 
Fort Humpfireys, D. C. Special topographic maps of areas of mili- 
tary importance. Some topographic maps not covered by the 
Geological Survey. 

Forest Service, U. S. Department of Agriculture. Geographic 
maps of national forests. Topographic maps of portions of them. 

Bureau of Reclamation, U. S. Department of Interior. Topo- 
graphic maps of many federal irrigation projects. 

Office of Indian Affairs, U. S. Department of Interior. Portions 
of the Indian reservations. 

Mississippi River Commission, Vicksburg, Missisippi. Profile 
of the river and topography along the shores. 

International (United States-Alaska-Canada) Boundary Com- 
mission, Washiington, D. C. Topographic maps of the United 
States-Canada boundary line and east boundary of Alaska 

Lake Survey, Patrol of Lakes and Coasts, U. S. Department of 
Commerce. Hydrographic charts of Great Lakes. 

See 160 



GENERAL USE OF MAPS 



157 






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158 



GRAPHIC PRESENTATION 




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GENERAL USE OF MAPS 



159 




Courtesy of Commission of the Government of the Commonwealth of Australia From Exhibit at New 
York Worlds Fair, 193Q 

Inclined Rotating Globe So Balanced That Only Support Is Half-Inch Tube Contain- 
ing Electric Wires. 



1. Land with the exception of the British Empire is shown in brilliant blue celluloid, raised 

above the aluminum surface. The British Empire is in red celluloid with the area 
for Australia cut out and illuminated from within so that the red of Australia 
shows more brilliantly than the rest of the British Empire. The sphere is over six 
feet in diameter, made from individual discs of plate aluminum, about 30 inches in 
diameter, spun to the correct spherical curvature. Discs were cut and welded to 
build up a continuous surface, the joints practically invisible. 

2. Special feature of this globe is that it is supported by a half-inch diameter tube and rotated 

by internal mechanism so balanced that the axis of the earth is inclined in the 
proper relation. Celluloid of Australia is removable as a man-hole cover so that 
a small workman may go inside if necpssary. Mirror below assists in accenting the 
southern polar region relative to Australia. 



160 



GRAPHIC PRESENTATION 




Ford Motor Compnny. 

Globe Used in the Ford Exhibit in the Rotunda Building in Dearborn, Michigan. 

This relief globe docs not Rive the names of countries or cities, hut the character of the 
land and its relation to sources of supply and distribution of product are strikingly 
shown. 

See 155 and 156 



Bureau of Chemistry and Soils, U. S. Department of Agriculture. 
Maps showing the character of soils. 

Soil Conservation Service, U. S. Department of Agriculture. 
Maps compiled from aerial photographs. 

Bureau of Public Roads, U. S. Department of Agriculture. Maps 
of the United States showing the federal aid system of highways. 
Maps of some of the states. 

Bureau of Agricultural Economics, U. S. Department of Agri- 
culture. Various maps relating to agricultural economics. 



161 



Chapter 19 
GUIDE AND ROUTE MAPS 



o 



ne purpose of guide and route maps is to show details which 
might be helpful in planning moves from one point to another. The 
form of guide and route maps is well known, and may be used for 
classifications as well as for routes. 

REFERENCES 

National Resources Committee, Suggested Symbols for Plans, 
Maps and Charts, Washington, D. C. A free pamphlet, sent 
on request. 

U. S. Geological Survey, "Standard Symbols Adopted by the 
Board of Surveys and Mays," a sheet 18^" x 30". Price 40c 
from U. S. Geological Survey, Washington, D. C. 



Map Printed on a Posf Card +o Show 
by a Dotted Line the Advan- 
tage of a Parkway Crossing 
Croton Dam in Westchester 
County, New York. 

1. This map in convenient form was of 

great assistance in securing adop- 
tion of the route now called the 
Briarcliffe - Peekskill Parkway 
which includes 2300 acres of forest 
reserve. 

2. The line of dashes, purposely made 

heavy, indicates a direct route 
which is the natural extension of 
the Sawmill Valley Parkway. 

3. Words alone would have presented a 

less striking argument. 



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e 



Orisinal at Pror>otcd by Willard C. Brinton in 
1921. SCALE .7 



162 



GRAPHIC PRESENTATION 





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A. Anatolia and Arabia Superinnposed 
on the United States to Illus- 
trate Their Relative Areas. 

Seldom is a verbal explanation of the 
difference in area of two countries 
satisfactory. Presented in this 
form, the difference is readily 
seen. 



Itsiah Bowman, "The New World," World Book 
Co.. N. Y. C. 1930. SCALE .7 








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J- HARBOUB 





Toronto Indiutriiil Commi'ision. "Cnii.idn** National Market," IQ.'^S. 



SCALE .9 



B. Transportation Facilities of Toronto, Canada, in 1937. 

The inclusion of a detail of a large map clarifies and explains. In this map, the detail in 
the lower right corner made it possible to designate the city Toronto merely as a 
circle in the larger map. 



JuguSStmi 



GUIDE AND ROUTE MAPS 



163 




Eastern Air Lines. N. Y. C. 



SCALE .8 



A. A Comparison of the Air Line Routes in 1928 and in 1938 of What Is Now the 
Eastern Air Lines in the United States. 

1. A "then" and "now" comparison is easily made on two maps. 

2. Note that a great deal of black ink was used and that as a result the routes and the 

names of the cities are easily seen. 




I 



SCALE .8 



B. Connparison of the Areas of the United States and Europe. 
Compare the effectiveness of this with 162 A. 



164 



GRAPHIC PRESENTATION 




National Rrsourcrs Board. "Rrnort of the Watrr PlanniiiR Committrf, Part III," 1934. 

Main Electric Transmission Lines in the United States in 1933. 

1. In the original of this map. the whole of the United States was given. 

2. In order not to reduce the map and thus lose much of its detail, a section only is 

reproduced. 



GUIDE AND ROUTE MAPS 



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166 



GRAPHIC PRESENTATION 




..., iJCCUTU> QOUTU 

Nnlional Rt-sourcc» Board. "Statf PlanninR." 1035. SCALE .5 

A. Existing Routes of Midwestern Airways and Routes Suggested by the Iowa State 
Planning Board. 

1. Because its state planning board prepared this map, Iowa is emphasized. 

2. The inclusion of states other than Iowa makes it clear why the new air routes are 

suggested. 




EnginrrririK Nrw« Record. October 1Q38. Part of an Editorial on Public Relations for Industry. SCALE .6 

B. States from Which Materials and Equipnrient for the Construction of Boulder 
Dam Were Secured. 

This type of map, whether it includes one continent or the whole world, is effective in 
explaining the interdependence of peoples. For the construction of Boulder Dam, 
materials had to be secured from forty-six states. 



GUIDE AND ROUTE MAPS 



167 




I 



American Aviation. May 1. 1Q38. 

Pictorial Map of the Route of Eastern Air Lines In 1938. 

1. A pictorial map attracts and teaches. 

2. Compare this with 163A. 



SCALE 6 



GRAPHIC PRESENTATION 



Kit A en U»l T T < 



■ffljnf C/imfiinf 
uiamondmU *^ 




National Rrsourcrs Board, "State Planning," 1935. 

Recreation Facilities of the State of Rhode Island In 1935. 



SCALE .7 



By means of numerous line drawings, a base map could easily be converted into a pictorial 
map similar to the one shown above. 



GUIDE AND ROUTE MAPS 



169 



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170 



Chapter 20 
RELIEF AND AERIAL MAPS 



AERIAL MAPS, whether actual photographs, drawings, or 
photographs of models give a bird's-eye view of buildings, 
roads, trees, mountains, cities, etc. Relief maps are best 
known for their use in showing elevations and surface undulations 
of a country, but may be used effectively also in presenting statis- 
tical data. 

Talley, Capt. B. B., Engineering Applications of Aerial fir* Ter- 
restrial Photogrammetry , Pitman Publishing Company, New 
York City 




The Amrricnn SrhooU of Oririitnl Rcicnrch. Nfw Havrn. Connrcticut. 

Clay Map from Mesopotamia, Dated About 2500 B. C. 

This is perhaps the oldest known map. On it are marked positions of cities, indicated by 
circles; mountains, indicated by scales; and rivers, indicated by wavy lines. 



RELIEF AND AERIAL MAPS 



171 



REFERENCES ON MAP PROJECTION 

Hinks. A. R., Map Projections, Cambridge University Press, 
England. 1922 




Wnrrrn H ManniiiK. A National Plan Study Brief." Landsca()« Architecture. July 1923. American 
A»iociation of Land»cape Architects. Cambridge. Mass. 

Relief Map of the United States. 

1. The purpose of this type of relief map is to aid the study of the geographical features of 

the nation. 

2. Relief maps emphasize rivers, lakes and harbors. They are therefore especially effective 

for depicting facilities for water transportation. 



GRAPHIC PRESENTATION 







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RELIEF AND AERIAL MAPS 



173 




Salei Managrmrnt. N. Y. C. 



SCALE .4 



A. A Relief Map Showing How the United States Would Look If Each State Were 
on a Level Proportionate to 1937 Federal Tax Collections. 

1. The percentage of the total which each state contributes to the federal government is 

indicated on each state. 

2. Such things as population density, sales density, and wealth density can be presented 

in this form. 




Federal Power Commission, National Power Survey, "Cost of Distribution of Electrkily," l'J35 SCALE .5 

B. Essential Parts of a Complete Electric Power System. 

1. In this diagram of the essential parts of a complete electric power system, a hypothetical 

land lay-out is used, since the important point is to include the information in the 
smallest possible space. 

2. An attempt was made in this drawing to give the effect of a "bird's-eye view" 



174 



GRAPHIC PRESENTATION 




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RELIEF AND AERIAL MAPS 



175 




N.-ition;.! Rc^ourrri Board. -State Hlaiiiimi; 1 '7 t -. SCALE .7 

Bird's-Eye View of the Passamoquoddy Tidal Power Project in the State of Maine. 

1. This is an example of a pictorial map suggesting contours and character of the region 

represented. 

2. For popular presentation, this combines the qualities of the pictorial and relief types 

of map. 



176 



GRAPHIC PRESENTATION 



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SCALE .7 



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SCALE .5 

A Map Drawn on Azimu+hal Projection with New York as the Central Point. 



RELIEF AND AERIAL MAPS 



177 




WPA. Division of Social Research. "Landlord and Tenant on the Cotton Plantation." 1936. SCALE .7 

A. The Average Cotton Plantation in 1934, 

Even the most elementary sketches are more effective than none at all. No attempt is 
made in this drawing to make it appear real, yet a clear idea of an average cotton 
plantation is obtained. 




I 



Reprinted by Permission of the Editors of "Fortune." 

B. Diagram of Large Scale Logging Operations. 

Here again the drawing is hypothetical. Compare with 173B. 



SCALE .6 




Chapter 21 
CROSSHATCHED AND COLORED MAPS 



X he variety of cross hatchings available and the use of several 
colors are great aids in making statistical maps. Cross hatched and 
colored maps are especially adaptable to the presentation of fre- 
quency distribution data. For suggestions relative to the use of 
gradations of cross hatchings and colors, see Chapter 44, "Sugges- 
tions for Making a Chart." 




Not* Connecticut ond Motsoctiustttt 
lompltd by townships 



WPA. Division of Social Research, 'Trends in Rrlicf Expenditures," 1037. SCALE .7 

Distribution of 385 Sample Counties and Townships Represented in the Rural-Town 
Relief Study in the United States. 

This map accompanied a very extensive study on rural-town relief. The validity of the 
conclusions drawn from that study may depend upon its method of sampling. 




CROSSHATCHED AND COLORED MAPS 




Courtesy of The Pint National Bank of Boston. Mass . August 1Q.18. 



SCALE .8 



A. Federal Expenditures for 1929 and 1937 Represented as Inconne of Two-Thirds 
of the Population of California and as Income of Thirteen States, Respectively, 

1. Although federal expenditures have increased vastly since 1929, the presentation of that 

information in this form distorts the facts. 

2. The basis for coloring the states was according to the income of the population of those 

states. Since the income in the United States is not distributed uniformly through- 
out the United States, an area comparison is not valid. 

3. This would be a true presentation of facts only if the area of each of the states were 

in uniform proportion to its wealth. 



LEGEND 




■ Proporuon of Municipal 
area lax delinQuent for 
one or more years 

□ Balance of Kjiral Land 

■i urban area < not covered 
by survey i 

[S No information 

Note Tax aeiiooueni lono 
include} DCHn orcxJerty (Win- 
oueni (or one a more veors 
ano property xM lor laxei 
wim tax iifns (liner puciictv 
or privBieiv new 



I 



New Jersey State Planning Board, "Rural Tax Delinquency in New Jersey," 1938. SCALE .6 

B. Tax Delinquent Rural Land in a Section of New Jersey as of January, 1936. 

1. There are many kinds and types of cross hatchings and shadings. In this map, three 

very simple types are used. 

2. In choosing shadings be sure they are distinctive. 




180 



GRAPHIC PRESENTATION 




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CROSSHATCHED AND COLORED MAPS 



181 



1810 



NUMBER OF 

PEOPLE PER 

SQUARE MILE 

E2a Under Z 

^2-6 

Over 6 





I 



U S Department of Agriculture, Bureau of Agricultural Economic*. 

Population of a Section of the United States in 1810 and 1920. 

1. A comparison of these two maps shows at a glance the sections in which the greatest 

growth of population had taken place in a period of 110 years. 

2. In view of the 1920 map, see 179A. 



182i 



GRAPHIC PRESENTATION 




5^ 



\5< Bev 

National Association of Motor Bus Operators, Washington, D. C, "Bus Facts for 1938." 

A. Rafes of Gasoline Tax Per Gallon in the Various States as of January I, 1938. 



Compare this method of presenting gasoline tax information with the method used in 
195A. 




WPA, Division of Social Research, 

B 



Dollors 
CD Less Ihon20 
^20-30 
■130-40 
40 ond more 



'Landlord and Tenant on the Cotton Plantation," 1936. 



Per Capita Amount of Obligation Incurred by Each of the States for Ennergency 
Relief for Thirty-three Months — January 1933 to Septennber 1935. 

The appearance of this map indicates that it was made on a "mechanical" intensity 
shading map, a device developed by the graphics section of the Works Progress 
Administration. "State pieces" of the desired shading are placed in "state compart- 
ments" of an aluminum base map of the United States. These state pieces are 
interchangeable, and there are six sets of shadings from which to choose. 

The time required to prepare such a density map, photographing included, is about one 
hour, compared with eight hours if the shading had been done by a draftsman. 




CROSSHATCHED AND COLORED MAPS 



183 




N Y 
New York Hrrald Tribune, September 20, 1938. 

A. Racial Minorities in Western Czechoslovakia in 1938. 



SCALE .7 



The variety of shadings given in this map is particularly interesting, as well as the 
arrangement of the legend. 



jAPAMtse rftmrogv 




The Seattle Star, March 4, 1938. 

B. The Division of the Pacific 



SCALE .6 



This chart shows a good device in enclosing within black and shaded lines the minutely 
visible territorial possessions of the United States and Japan respectively. 



184 



GRAPHIC PRESENTATION 




National Rriourm Board. "Statf Planning, '" 1935. SCALE .7 

Regional Plan for Washington, D. C, and Its Environs. 

As a plan for Washington, D. C, and the surrounding country, this map ncccsarily includes 
a great deal of information. Its value here lies not as a map for study, but rather 
as an example of what can be done on a map in the way of regional planning. 



CROSSMATCHED AND COLORED MAPS 



185 







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1861 



GRAPHIC PRESENTATION 




MOKSt 


Povvr... ^ 


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4.000.000 - 


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LESS THAN 


9AO0 



SCALE .7 
Brinton, "Graphic Methods," McGraw-Hill Book Co., Inc., New York City, 1914. 

1. This is an example of the contrasts in shading made possible by the Ben Day me- 

chanical processes of engraving. Nine contrasting shades increasing in darkness are 
used here with absolute distinctness. The small numbers in the circles are used to 
identify the shadings. 

2. The illustration below presents the same information in color. 




HO»«f 
7.000.000 - 


.owr« \ 

t.oooooo' 


4.ooo,eoo — 


7.000,0 


t.ooo.ooo — 


4.000^000 


t.000.000 - 


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ISAOM 


•o.oeo - 


•eoioo* 


LtM THAN 


».—• 



Potential Water Power in the Different States of the United States, as Estimated 
in 1914. 




187 



Chapter 22 
DOT AND PIN MAPS 



o 




ne well known use of dot and pin maps is to present geo- 
graphic distribution data. In this form, the dots or pins represent 
numerical values and effectively show geographic location. The 
placing of the dots is an important item. If the exact geographic 
distribution of the data is known, the placing of the dots is no 
problem. However, when the data is in the form of general geo- 
graphic distribution, such as data for an entire state, the dots are 
distributed throughout the whole state although one section may 
have contributed the total amount. 




Each dot 

represents 

one plantation 



I 



WPA, Diviaion of Social Rrscarch, "Landlord and Tenant on the Cotton Plantation," 1936. 

Distribution of the Plantations Which Were Enumerated in the Study of the Cotton 
Plantation Made by the Works Progress Administration. 

When the number of samples is small, the location of each may be shown on a map as was 
done here. Compare with 178. 



188 



GRAPHIC PRESENTATION 




WPA. National Rrtearch Project, "ChanRcs in Technology and Lalx)r Requirements in Crop Production — 
Potatoes," 1938. SCALE .8 

A. Potatoes Produced for Sale in the United States in 1929. 

1. In a dot map it is important to know whether the dot has been placed in its exact 

geographical position or whether the dots are distributed within a county or state 
irrespective of the exact location. 

2. In this case, there is little doubt but that the dots were placed where the potatoes were 

produced. 




WPA. Division of Social Research. 'Rural Youth on Relief." 1037. 



SCALE 8 



B. Rural Rehabilitation Cases Receiving Advances of Capital or Goods in the 
United States in 1935. 

1. Note the square of dots in the state of South Dakota, as well as in other states. This 

indicates that the distribution of the dots was by counties; that is, statistics for each 
county were secured and the dots were distributed in each county irrespective of 
the exact geographical location. 

2. Compare with A above. 



DOT AND PIN MAPS 



189 




Eoch dot represents $ 1,000 or fraction ttiereof 




I 



WPA. Divition of Social Rctfarch, "Landlord and Tenant on the Cotton Plantation," 1936. 

Amount of Emergency Crop and Feed Loans Extended by the Farm Credit Admin- 
istration, by Counties in the United States in 1932 and 1933. 

1. The distribution of the dots in this chart is definitely by counties. 

2. The shift from the Dakotas in the one year period is quite pronounced. 



190 



GRAPHIC PRESENTATION 



Sidewalk 



17 



30 



3 



-f 

PRIVj 



Private 
driveway 



A. Graphic Distribution of Position 
at the Time of the Accident of 
50 Pedestrians Who Were Hit 
by Automobiles in Hartford, 
Connecticut, During the First 
Six Months of 1927. 

This chart should be read as follows: in 
Hartford, Connecticut, during the 
first six months of 1927, 30 per- 
sons were hit by automobiles at 
street intersections, 17 were hit 
while crossing the street in the 
middle of the block, and 3 were 
hit by cars coming out of private 
driveways. 



National Automobile Chamber of Commerce, 
1927. SCALE .7 




Toronto Infliistri.il Commission. "Canada's National Market." 10.T8. 



SCALE .6 



B. Concentration of Buying Power of Canada's National Market Within a Radius 
of 100 Miles of Toronto. 

1. Although no key accompanied this chart, according to another map in the same pam- 

phlet, the dots represent population. The numerical value of each dot was not 
given. 

2. The important feature about this map is the use of color to emphasize the circle around 

Toronto. 



DOT AND PIN MAPS 



191 




I 



U. S. Department of Af(riculturr. Bureau of Aftricultural Economics. 

Number of Slaves In the United States In 1790 and In I860. 



SCALE 8 



1. These two maps are the first and last of a group of six. Space does not allow all six 

to be shown here. 

2. The use of these two maps in a history lesson would clarify and simplify the slave 

problem of 1860. This material in tabulated or verbal form would be formidable. 

3. Only a section of each map is reproduced here. 



192 



GRAPHIC PRESENTATION 




Brll Telephone Laboratories. Inc., New York City. 



A. Exhibit of the Bell System at the New York World's Fair, 1939. 




Brinton, "Graphic Mclhodi," McGraw-Hill, 1014. 

B. Residence of the Men of the Class of 1907, Harvard University, Six Years After 
Graduation. The Bead Wire for Boston Includes All Men Living Within Twen- 
ty-five miles of the City Hall. 

1. Rather than have a pin for each individual stuck in the map around the city in which 

he Hved, a bead was put on a wire for each person in the same city. 

2. Every tenth bead on a wire is white to aid in counting the beads. 



DOT AND PIN MAPS 



193 



Series 1 
500 I 



on 

Senes 
600 I 



®0 

Seri«9| 
5400 



Series I 
5000 



The M o • I Kor < ionftrnlril 
C'.onininn M<c Map* <ir rliiiriK 
iiwit I* llilK mikI holriliiR KT- It fllH>ti III Ihi 
oiihcrlrul lif:nl rliory or miii 

|iln. roril In I'lnrr II niiinul roiiic ii\:\n 

iim' Ihln |>lM. olT. 



<ilaiiii Spot l-'nunirl Sp<ii 

rin I hi' npoi or "KliiK I'lii " 

■JlKil In rniim- 

liciiil III Itic |ilii rli'fl 



r li I N 
mill llir iilii.'M 
•|K>I |>ln |ilii>- 
iiiRniiili nil a 
rItiK. 



Sorie si Special 
5000 Workings 



Knamrl Spot* 
mil 1(0 ftir- 
II I K h r (I hm n 
I) A H H or 
iltoss If <|i- 
iilrrcl. 




@ 



5eries4500 



® 

5ene3.,,.^55G Q 

(iU Series 650 




II. 



c. 



oil WrII Pin. Shii|>o 
rr»'nilil<-» oil woll ilrr- 
rlrk ("iiii Im' Niiiipllril 
wllh iwiHcolort'd lioiid 



Map RInft. ('olori-<l 
rilliilolil rlMK for sllii- 
pliie ovrr hi-:iil of pin 
lo Indlciilr aititllloii;il 
f:ict. 



^ 



PIni and Deads 



A 



C2 

Series I 
6300 



An 

Series | 
6100 I 



Dnn 



Series | 
6400 I 



6200 



Trlanitular or Square Head |ilns arc iiso<l whorp Ihc IT. 
rolorK do no! furnish siifflrlcnt varloly. They also help riilor- 
bllnd users These plus show distlnollve shaiKSs when 
pholoKraphed whereas sonic colors pholoRraph the same. 



°ooo 



BF.An.S are used lo show nrrumiilallun al 
one iiolni. Nine eusiomern In or.e clly would 
he Hhown as In Illustrations A or ('. Heads 
are also used with the |ilns to show two fnels 
at one iwilnt, as In the cut at the left. The 
color of the heads shows one type of fact and 
the color of the pin another. Thus; 

Heads 

Hed Machine No. I 

(ireen Machine No. 2 

Yellow Machine No. 3 

Pins 

Red Consumer 

C'.rccn Retailer 

Hlue Jobt>er 

A red pin and n red bead mean that a No 1 
machine was sold to a customer, etc. Where 
several cuctomers are In one town or city 
hulldlne. alternate lar>;e and small heads are 
|ille<l on a lont; |iln. Sec Illustration (li). 




Serlies 
34.150 



Glass Head Pins 




Series 
3900 
Celluloid Tacki 



Pins and Tacks with Writinit Surface. Rough surface claits head pins and roii(?h surface celluloid 
lacks are convenient because you can write data on them with pencil or with India Ink. Pencil can be erased with 
ordinary erasers and Ink washed off with water and a little soap, so that pins can be iLsed acaln and again. 

Educatiotial Exhibition Co., Providence, Rhode Island. 

Map Marking Devices. 

1. A very effective method of using beads is to string them either on a long pin or on a 

drill rod of small diameter, and then place them upright on a map. See 192B. In 
selecting drill rods, the largest size that will go through the hole of the bead should 
be chosen. Beads for this purpose may be obtained at any variety store. 

2. Beads on pins have been used very effectively on a map showing intended civic improve- 

ments. Red beads indicated assessed valuations on buildings, while green repre- 
sented assessed valuations on land. Each bead represented a certain number of 
dollars and each pin represented an individual property. The wide adaptability 
of this material is evident. 



■ 



194 



Chapter 23 
MAPS WITH CIRCLES AND SECTOR CHARTS 



THE chief advantage of placing circles and sector charts on maps 
is that the geographic location of the information is given. The 
general rules for sector charts in Chapter 9 may be followed here 
also. 

1. A white line separating overlapping circles prevents any con- 
fusion. 

2. Actual amounts and percentages for each geographic division 
should be given. 





25,000 

50,000 

100,000 


— 


liJ 

»- 
bJ 

< 


THOUSANDS 


200,000 
350,000 
500.000 




50 




/ /^ ^ \ 


750.000 






1.000.000 




30 




1 /^ ^ ^ 








2,000,000 




10 


\\ ( (^ ^ ) // 








3,000,000 




1 






^^^^^ ^iJ^ 




4,000,000 






5,000,000 


DIAMETER 







Two Mefhods of Making a Scale to Indicate What the Area of a Circle Represents 
by Measuring Its Dianneter. 

Since it is difficult to determine the relative areas of circles, a very clear and concise scale 
should be given. The two methods above give the measurement of the diameters 
which would correspond to given area representations. 



MAPS WITH CIRCLES AND SECTOR CHARTS 




195 




Each diac rapi 



American Petroleum Institute, N. Y. C , "Petroleum Facts and Figures," 1937. 

A. Gasoline Tax Rates in the United States as of Novennber I, 1937. 



SCALE .7 



Compare this as a method of presenting gasoline tax information with the method shown 
in 182A. 




IIMiatt. aao aooi pn 



Nofs tnd pork 
\C»iil: ctlvt 
' b**/. and vaa/ 
-SAaap. /ani6«, 
snd wool 



I 



U. S. Department of Agriculture. Bureau of Agricultural Economics. 



SCALE .5 



B. The Average Cash Income Received fronn Meat Aninnals. Meat, and Wool Sold 
by Farmers in the United States in the Period from 1929 to 1933. 

Two sets of data arc presented on this map. The percentage comparison of the sectors 
shows the distribution of cash income among the three categories at the lower left. 
The areas of the circles show the amount of cash income. 



196 



GRAPHIC PRESENTATION 




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MAPS WITH CIRCLES AND SECTOR CHARTS 



197 



Migration From State COLORADO 

1*10 



Migration To State 

1910 





KANSAS 




NEW MEXICO 



I ILLINOIS 
2UI530imi 
lOHIO 
4 INDIANA 




WPA, Divition of Social Rtiearch, "The People of the Drought State*." March 193 7. 

Study of Migration To and From Four Drought States, Based on Place of Residence 
in 1910. 

1. The four maps on the left show the states to which native white migrants have gone, and 

the four maps on the right show the states from which residents of the four states in 
1910 have come. 

2. Although a general idea of the amount of migration to and from these four states is 

obtained by glancing at the maps, to secure the actual amount would be quite a task. 



I 



198 



GRAPHIC PRESENTATION 



/■•■ -\.'r^: 






■#::;-^i.>^'--> 



•^...--^ 


















'1 .* ; 






. ::^ , 



ncreate of to 30y, 








?^ y Increase of 30% or More 
■rr\ POPULATION SCALE 




National Rciourcri Committcp. "Our Citift." June 103 7. 



SCALE .7 



Urban Places in the United States Which Have Had an Increase of to 30% and 
of 30% or More in Population from 1920-1930. 

A section only of the original map is shown to illustrate the method of putting a white 
border around black circles which necessarily fall on top of each other. 



MAPS W 




ND SECTOR CHARTS 



J 



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£ 




1- 




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200 



Chapter 24 
MAPS WITH BAR CHARTS 



B 



ars superimposed on a map allow a great many comparisons 
not possible with one cross hatched map. Time-series bars may 
be placed on a map. A comparison of several items rather than 
the presentation of just one item may be obtained. The practices 
commended in the chapters on bar charts, pages 92-152, should 
be adhered to when bars are placed on a map. 




"The Federal Chart Book," Prepared by the Central Statistical Board and National Resources Committee, 
January 1938. SCALE .7 

Geographical Shift in Cof+on Manufacturing in the United States from 1923 to 1937. 

1. Bar charts may be used as effectively as sector charts in presenting information for 

geographical divisions. 

2. Note the method of outlining in black the section of the United States to which specific 

groups of bars refer. 

3. See 93 A 4. 



MAPS WITH BAR CHARTS 



201 




"The Frdrral Chart Book," Prepared by the Central Statistical Board and National Resources Committee. 
January 1938. SCALE .7 

A. Population and Area of the United States by Regions in 1900, 1930, and 1935. 

1. When the United States is divided in this way, the horizontal hars seem to fit into the 

spaces very well. 

2. See 93 A 4. 




U. S. Department of Agriculture, Bureau of Agricultural Economics 

B 



SCALE .5 



I 



Percentage of All Farmers Buying Cooperatively in the Various States in 1919, 
1924. and 1929. 

1. All the various types of charts shown in the bar chart section are applicable to maps. 

2. When it it impossible to put the bars on top of the state, such as is the case with Rhode 

Island and New Jersey, arrows connecting the bars with the state aid in reading the 
chart. Compare with 202A. 



202 



GRAPHIC PRESENTATION 




U. S. Department of Agriculture, Bureau of Agricultural Economics. SCALE .4 

A. Average Sales Per Farm Through Cooperative Associations for Each of the 
United States in 1919. 1924, and 1929. 

1. While this same material could be presented in a series of groupings with a common 

horizontal base, superimposing the bars upon a map not only condenses the 
material but also gives the geographical distribution. 

2. Note the use of arrows to connect tht bars with the states. Compare with 2 IB. 



■ R«ilro>d5 

I Rapid Transit 

■ Trollei^kWhicIn 



NuMeta or PensoMs 




n )\ 



ikri:- 



i-fl-i* 




Regional Plan Attociation. Inc., N. Y. C. "Information Bulletin No. 11," Jan. 30. 1933. SCALE .6 

B. The Number of Persons Crossing 59th Street South Bound in New York City, by 
Railroads, Rapid Transit, Trolleys, and Vehicles for a Typical Business Day in 
1932— (24-hour Period). 

A traffic study of a particular street is perhaps best presented in this way rather than as 
a flow map with the width of the lines proportional to the traffic. 



MAPS WITH BAR CHARTS 



203 



LEGEM D 

1924 Persons 
^m 1932 Persons 

TOTALS 

1934 -2.217,353 
1932 - 2.709430 




nP 




556 556 16.1% 




1.137.755-513% 



1,384.555-51.1% 



Regional Plan Aatociation, Inc.. N. Y. C, "Information Bulletin No. 11," Jan. 30, 1933. 

Number of Persons Entering the Borough of Manhattan, New York City, During 24 
Hours on a Typical Business Day in 1932 and in \91A. 

1. The inclusion of numerical values and percentages in this map is particularly good. 

2. Compare with 22 7. 



I 



204 



GRAPHIC PRESENTATION 



EXPLANATION OF MILITARY HISTORY SFRIES 



Bntrsh and Brftnh-Coionul forcn m Cokmal 
W*n, UnKed SUtn lorcn x\ RmoMnnary, 
1812. ind Mexiun Htn. Teuns m Tojn 
Cimpaicns. 3nd Federals m On4 War 



Frmdi and S(Mnali torctt « Cotonal Man; 
Bntnii m RawlMtenan and 1112 Wrni. 
Miucam n MaxcM Vnr and 1mm tei- 
pH^; Coniadirato m Civd Wv. 



X 


Battta ...__..„_ 


■X 


X 


Drawn Battle 


X 


• 


FHNnt oaup«d 


• 


9 


F>oint occupied and later abandoned 


o 


o 


Pouit taken against resistance 


o 


V* 


Unsuccessful ste(e 


w 


O 


F^nt taken after ittft 


O 


■,..- 


Blockade 


%,, 


H fl 


Headquarters 


HO. 


rtO 


Winter quarters 


«» 


5 


Surrender 


9 


e 


Evacuation 


e 



P (Starting point of military movement con- -^ 
~tJ I tinued Ifom preceding map of a series li 

s Stege 5 

«^^.. Approximate route. ma|or advance ^^^^ 

, Approximate route, minor advance , 

__«^ Approximate route, ma|or retirement .*»»• 

Approximate route, minor retirement .^_ 

Dales ot tjatlles. etc . are shown in the colof of the suaesslul force, dates on which unsuccessful 
siege operations tKgan m color of tiesieging torce and on which the siege was raised in color of 
besieged tofce: dates o( evacuations m color of enemy of evacuating force. 

Symtjols tor contemporary oi closely consecutive operations are connected. 

for eiample. ^^ might show a siege initiated and abandoned by the United States force 

whose line of march is indicated by the blue line Symbols representing earlier routes are broken 
so as to appear to pass beneath those representing routes or other operations ol later date Successive 
occupations, sieges etc . ol the same place are shown by concentric circles or semicircles, the inner 
ones representing operations of earlier date For example 



might snow place ili at first held by United Slates force. (21 later taken after siege by enemy 
lofce B and i3i subsequently reoccupied by United States force "A" 

Route symbols m general show approximate rather than precise routes and are sometimes arbitrarily 
made to cross one another m order more graphically to bring out the sequence ot events 



Charica O. PauUin. "Atlas of the Historical Geography of the United States," Carnegie Institute of Wash- 
ington and American Geographical Society of New York, 1932. 

Legend for the Two Maps on Page 2 5. 

This legsnd was used for a series of military history maps, but it applies here only to the 

two following maps on the Civil War. 
The symbols of the original were in red and blue. 



MAPS WITH BAR CHARTS 



205 



r^J 



N' ifl64 1865 



•M«<Mrl<aal y*' 




JLJ). 







I 



Charlr« O. Paullin. "Atla* of the Hittorical Geography of the United States," CarncKie Institute of Wash- 
ington and American Geographical Society of New York, 1932. SCALE .5 

Two Historical Maps Showing the Progress of the Civil War from 1863 Through 1865 
and a Resume of the Entire War. 



The bars and war lines in the originals of these two maps were in red and blue. 



206 



GRAPHIC PRESENTATION 




r 








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MAPS WITH BAR CHARTS 



207 




Map of Great Britain's Merchant Marine at the New York World's Fair, 1939. 

1. The models of the ships represent Great Britain's merchant marine. 

2. The map and models are not built to the same scale. 



In the Arctic Exploration Building of the U.S.S.R. at the New 
York World's Fair, 1939, there is an exhibit in which the whole 
Arctic region at the center of a hemispherical dome is painted with 
luminous paint. As ultra-violet lights go on and off in short cycles, 
the paint shows up routes of recent exploration. 



I 



mir 



.gfaJMIiift&i^* 



208 



Chapter 25 
MAPS WITH CURVE CHARTS 



THE three statistical maps in this chapter, all of which deal with 
precipitation, demonstrate the value of showing the location 
of data for geographic regions. While other maps may show that 
there was rainfall, these maps show the actual amount of precipa- 
tation. See "Flow Maps," pages 216-230. Although curve charts 
have not been discussed up to this point, maps with curve charts 
are included here in order to keep the map section intact. 



> -4 3 ^J. 






^•Ht^^K^v"^!.: 





LEGEND 

Monthly Runoff for Maximum Year 

Average Monthly Runoff for Period of 
Record 

Monthly Runoff for Minimum Year 

Outline of Drainage Area tributary to 
station for which hydrograph is 
shown. 

Ordinates show mean annual discharge for 
maximum year, period of record, and mini- 
mum year, respectively, in cubic feet per 
second per square mile. 




National Rfsoiirrcs Board, "Rci>ort of thr Watfr PlanninR Committee, Part III," 1034. 

Characteristics of Runoff from Typical Drainage Areas in the United States. 
Only a section of the original map is shown. 



MAPS WITH CURVE CHARTS 



209 







0- 0) 



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u « 



0. .ii 
. Q. 



^ § 



a O 

to s 

w 1- 

2 5! 

K < 

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S .E 

2 > 

I I 



210 



GRAPHIC PRESENTATION 




< 



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t 5' ^ 


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Chapter 26 '''* ^"'"^ '*'°'''''' "■'' 

I93Q. 

MAPS WITH SYMBOLS 



QUANTITATIVE material may be presented in the form of 
symbols by increasing the number of symbols as in "Pic- 
torial Unit Bar Charts" on pages 121-131. A variation in the type 
of symbol may also indicate a quantitative difference. 




WPA, Divbioa of Social Rrtcarch. "The Micratory-Catual Worker," 1Q37. 



SCALE .8 



State of Principal Employment for 100 Migratory-Casual Workers in 1933 and 1934 
in the United States. 

1. From this map, it can be seen that certain states ofTer relatively more casual employ- 

ment to the migratory worker than others. 

2. Note the relationship between this map and 230. 



I 




212 



GRAPHIC PRESENTATION 



£ 



•a/'; 



...lill" 






1 



fn'^ 



«li* '1)1,1' 



A MJUOUC ROUC . N Ht • 



CM4»L0TTt KC , 



"Ml 



M 



iiiiiiiiii, 



"Mil 



"llli , 



\, J 

''"•Ill 



^^ , 

ll '^Ill>""'>llllllll,, I 

"0 



WPA. E>ivision of Social Research. "Urban Workers on Relief," 1936. SCALE .7 

A. Principal Occupations in Selected Cities of the United States in 1936. 

No quantitative data is presented in this map. It is merely a device to show the principal 
occupations in certain cities of the United States. 



.'X^-^'"' 



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C|c; 



^^■^^ Hawaiian Islands 



'*-,. r-al Standard t,- 



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Canton Islands 




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Beginning of total V- ^ • /2)^ ^ ./,,7^ / (^ (Q) (^ ^^ ^ End ofsjotal 
Eclipse at Sunrise I- ► .. ' ■■ • '^ -iu- Eclipse at Sunset 



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SOU/TH 
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SCALE .6 



The National Geographic Society. Washington. D. C. 1937. 

B. Map of the Eclipse of the Sun June 9th and 8th. 1937. 

By the use of symbols, a time-analysis of the eclipse of the sun is made. The "date line" 
showing the change from Wednesday to Tuesday is particularly interesting. 



MAPS WITH SYMBOLS 




National Rrtourcr* Board, "State Planning." 193S. SCALE .7 

Metallic Ores and Rare Minerals in Maine, August 1934. 

The purpose of this symbol map is to show the geographic location of metallic ores and rare 
minerals in Maine. No quantitative data is presented. 



214 




SSAPHfe^PSEgffiWATiw^ 



SCALE .8 



National Rrtourcrt Board, "Statr Planning," 1935. 

Industrial Distribution in the State of New Hampshire in 1932. 

By increasing the size of the symbol, a quantitative as well as a location analysis is made. 




215 



Aekansas/T^nnessm. 

\\\ \ 

\ ' AUADAAM< ' 



SCALE .6 



American Iron and Stcrl Inititute, N. Y. C, 1937. 

A. Steel Ingot and Finished Steel Capacity of the United States in 1937. 

This combination of circles and squares gives a concise statement of two sets of data: steel 
ingot capacity and finished steel capacity in the United States. A section only of 
the original map is shown. 




Alcmandcr Hamilton Institutr, Bureau of Butinesi Conditiont, "Butineti Conditions Weekly," July 33. 1938. 

SCALE .5 

B. Map of Credit and Sales Conditions in the United States in July 1938. 

Since interest is chiefly in the "active-and-up" cities, the choice of a solid black symbol 
to represent them was a logical one. 



I 




216 



Chapter 27 
FLOW MAPS 



Jflow maps may be used to show both qualitative and quantita- 
tive flow of goods, persons, automobiles, etc. When a flow map 
is used to indicate the number of persons or automobiles on streets 
and highways, it is generally called a traffic map. 

See Cosmographs in "Flow 
Charts" on pages 73-80. cy^ r' 



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National Resources Board. "Report of Water 
Planning Committee, Part III," 1934. 

SCALE .8 

A. Generalized Spring and Autumn 
Stornn Paths in the United 
States. 

1. Although spring and autumn storms 

may not always follow these paths, 
it is more than likely that they 
will. 

2. The use of a flow map to show the 

path of a storm is not an uncom- 
mon one. 

3. The lines here show the center path 

and the outlying borders. For com- 
parison see 216B and 218. 




American Mutual Liability Insurance Co., Bos- 
ton, Mass., "Watch," 1939. SCALE .6 

B. A Map of Hurricanes Which Have 
Occurred Between September 
16 and 30 During the Last Fifty 
Years in the Eastern Part of the 
United States. 

1. During the half-century ten hurricanes 

have struck inland in the latter 
half of September. 

2. Hurricanes usually originate off the 

northern coast of South America, 
move west from Africa, and travel 
toward the West Indies and Flor- 
ida, moving about 300 miles per 
day. 

3. The hurricane of 1938 moved 750 miles 

in 12 hours from Cape Hatteras, 
North Carolina, to Burlington, 
Vermont. 



FLOW MAPS 



217 





National Rftourcct Board. "Rfport of the Water Planning Committee, Part III," 1934. SCALE .8 

A. Prevailing Winds in January and in July in the United States. 

1. Arrows to show the course of the wind on a weather map are often seen in daily weather 

repKJrts. 

2. These two maps shows the prevailing winds for two months in the year. 




vmoiNiA 



National Re«ourcet Board, "State Planning," 193S. 

B. Origin and Ports of Destination of Cargo Shipments of Bituminous Coal from 
the Great Lakes in the United States in 1932. 

The tonnage of the various shipments of coal is given at the end of each line. 



I 



218 



GRAPHIC PRESENTATION 




American Telephone and Tflfgraph Company, N. Y. C. SCALE .6 

Map Showing Where the Hurricane of I9?8 Hit Hardest in the United States. 

This map of the path of the 1938 hurricane appeared in an advertisement of the Bell 
Telephone. Compare with 216B. 



FLOW MAPS 



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220 



GRAPHIC PRESENTATION 




National Rrsourcrs Board. "State Planning," 193S. SCALE .5 

A. Migration Into and fronn North Dakota for the Period from 1920 to 1930. 

1. In the original of this map, the migration from North Dakota was indicated in red ink. 

2. The two groups of figures in each state give the inflow and outflow. The top figure 

represents the outflow to North Dakota, the bottom figure the inflow from North 
Dakota. 

3. While there is no scale to give the exact proportion of the width of the lines to the 

number of people, the width of the lines gives some indication ot this. 




Amrrican Petroleum Institute. N. Y. C, •Petroleum Factt and Figurei," 193 7. SCALE .8 

B. Directional Flow Map of Crude Oil and Gasoline Pipe Lines in the United States 
in 1936. 

There is no quantity representation in this map. It is purely a directional flow. 



FLOW MAPS 









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222 



GRAPHIC PRESENTATION 




National Re«ourc«i Board, "State Planning," 1935. 



SCALE 7 



Average Daily Traffic on Michigan Trunk Line Highways Based on the Years 1930 
and 1931. 

1. The legend for this traffic map might have been better if a scale for the widths of 

line had been given. 

2. The inclusion of the names of the cities is an advantage. 



FLOW MAPS 



223 




Jamct R. Bibbint and Bion J. Arnold, "Our National Transportation System," Proceedings of New York 
Railroad Club, April 1923. 

Flow Diagram Showing the Rush Hour Passenger Traffic Outbound fromi One-Mile 
Zone on the Surface Lines in Chicago. 

Because this was reproduced from a photostat, much of the detail is lost. The important 
feature, the use of circles to show the mile zones, is effectively shown even in this 
reduced scale. 



224 



GRAPHIC PRESENTATION 





J. R. Bibbint, and Bion J. Arnold, "Our National Transportation System," Proceedings of New Yoric 
Railroad Club. April 1923. SCALE .6 



B. Suburban Passenger Rush Hour 

Car Movement to and from 

Chicago Terminals from 5 to 
6 p.m. 

Comparison of the routes taken by two groups of passengers is made in these two traffic 
maps. 



A. Main Line Passenger Rush Hour 

Car Movement to and from 

Chicago Terminals from 7 to 
8 a.m. 




Each line represents 10 nrullion dollars' worth of petroleum products 



American Petroleum Institute, N. Y. C, "Petroleum Facts and Figures," 1937. 

C. Petroleum in United States Export Trade in 1936. 

1. The representation of volume in this map is correct in that the general idea that Europe 

receives most of the petroleum products of the United States is obtained. 

2. As a method of graphic presentation it is incorrect in that two lines, or 20 million dollars, 

is visually about three times as wide as one line, or 10 million dollars. The error is 
greater when there are just a few lines. 



FLOW MAPS 



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226 



GRAPHIC PRESENTATION 




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227 




North Jersey Transit Commisiion, "Summary of 1926 Report, Rapid Transit for Northern New Jersey," 
January IS. 1926. 

Diagram Showing Routing and Density of New Jersey Passenger Traffic to and in 
New York City in 1924. 

1. A great many people commute to New York City from New Jersey. Few persons 

realize the number. Although this is a 1924 analysis, a later study has not 
superseded it. 

2. Note again 203. 



I 



GRAPHIC PRESENTATION 



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IS 



UMITOrttMC 

uMTT ormc 



LEGEND 

— tS MMUn MWt ■WITT. -«UT5lOt LHWT OT ] 

^ SOiMUTtzoMC-ftHAjQ-ovniOC LMwr or] 



o«an t»— W T anc mu. Odnnca rwM sr*n mouoc. 

Prom "A Report on the Street Traffic Control Problem of the City of Boston" Prepared under the Direc- 
tion of the Mayor'* Street Traffic Advisory Board by Albert Russel Erskine Bureau of Harvard 
Uaiveisity, 1928. 

Time Zones on Seventeen Highway Routes to and from Corner Parle and Trennont 
Streets in Boston During the Morning and Evening Rush Hours from June to 
September 1927. 

While most of the traffic maps give the amount of traffic, this map gives the length of time 
it takes to get into Boston from outlying districts. 



230 



GRAPHIC PRESENTATION 




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231 



Chapter 28 
CONTOUR MAPS 



_ ontour maps may be used to show lines of erosion, precipita- 
tion, climatic conditions, as well as the topography of the land. 
Gradations of shading and cross hatching may be used on contour 
maps to differentiate. For suggestions relative to the arrangement 
of shadings, see "Suggestions for Making a Chart," pages 367-380. 

GENERAL REFERENCES 

Raisz, Erwin, General Cartography, McGraw-Hill Book Co., 
Inc., New York City, 1938 




Robert Waril. Cliiiiatts of tht Umtrcl States. " Ginn & Co., Boston and Nrw York, I'liS. 

Average Annual Number of Rainy Days in the United States. 

1. While the contour map is best known for its use in uivinn the topography of land, it may 

also be used to show preci(>itation. temperatures, and erosion. 

2. Since no key for the shadinus was nivin with this map. it is rather ditlicult to read 

accurately. 



232 



GRAPHIC PRESENTATION 




Robert Ward. "Climates of the United States," Ginn St Co.. Boston and New York, 1925. 

A. Average Annual Minimum Temperatures in the United States. 

1. Because "contour" means "outline," lines may be used to outline the major temperature 

sections of the United States. 

2. Comparison with a topographic map would reveal no doubt, a relation between the 

elevation of the land and the temperature. 




if/mcM/ 



JEK 



ieh: 



The New York Timei, March 19, 1939. SCALE .6 

B. Weather Map of the United States at 7:30 p.m. E.S.T. March 18. 1939. 

1. The reports on this map arc for exactly the same time; that is, although it was 7:30 p.m. 

Eastern standard time, it was several hours earlier by the clock on the Pacific Coast. 

2. Compare this method of indicating rain with the method shown in 234A. 



CONTOUR MAPS 



233 




National Resources Board. "State PlannioK." 1035. 



A. Topographic Map of Colorado, Showing Contour Lines af Intervals of 2000 
Feet. 

The combination of a topographic map and a profile section makes this a valuable map. 




MacElwee 8i Crandall. Inc.. N Y C. 



SCALE .4 



B. Connparative Dates on Which the Chance of Killing Frost Falls to Ten Per Cent 
in the Spring in the United States. 



I 



234 



GRAPHIC PRESENTATION 




ARROWS INOlCtrE WIND DIRECTION 



OIC*TE PREClPITATlPH 

—2 :us£^ 



National Resources Board, "Rejxjrt of Water Planning Committee Part III," 1934. 

A. Weather Map for the United States at 8:00 a.m., February 2. 1934. 

1. Weather reports rather than weather maps are most often consulted in daily newspapers. 

However, for an over-all view of the United States, this type of weather map is 
good. 

2. Note particularly the use of shaded areas to indicate rain. 




□ Erosion unimpo'toni, 
•icept locolly 

a Moderate sheei and gully erosion, 
serious locoliy 
k/)Si qii wind erosion, 
tlUmode'Oie sheel ond gully erosion 

■ Moderate to severe wind erosion, 
some gullying locally 
■ Moderate lo severe erosion includes 
mesas, mountains, canyons ond bodlonds 

^M Severe sheet and gully erosion 
WPA, Division of Social Research. "Landlord and Tenant on the Cotton Plantation," 1936. 

B. General Distribution of Erosion in the United States in 1936. 

This map reveals that the South suffered as much from soil erosion as the mid-West. 



CONTOUR MAPS 



235 




Original 
forest regions 




V ^ t>RE5ENT rORC3T ARl 

10^^ 100 iOO S00MIH3 



merci 
timber 



Warren H. ManninR. "A National Plan Study Brief." Special Supplement to Landscape Architecture, 
July \m3, American Association of Landscape Architects. Cambridge. Mass. 

Original and Present Forest Areas In the United States. 

Before and after comparisons arc always interesting. These two maps tell the story of the 
vanishing forest. 



236 



GRAPHIC PRESENTATION 




National Reiourcps Board, "State Planning." 1Q35. SCALE .7 

Average Annual Precipitation in the State of Utah. 

Since a key to the shadings is given in this map, it is much easier to read than 231. 



CONTOUR MAPS 

1870 1910 



237 




1890 





1930 




LEGEND 

INHABITANTS PER SOUARC MILE 



I I FEWER THAN 2 ^^ 2-5 JH 6 - 17 Q IS - 44 ((45-89 



90 AND MORE 



WPA, Division of Social Rrsrarrh, "The People of the DrouEht States." March 1037. 

Density of Population in the Drought Area in the United States for the Years 1870, 
1890. 1910, and 1930. 

While the lines for 1870 and 1890 seem to follow natural contours, the lines for 1910 and 
1930 are definitely county lines. 



238 





Chapter 29 
DISTORTED MAPS 



IN A distorted map, geographic location of data is maintained by- 
making the area of states, countries, etc., proportional to the 
quantitative data. 

Distorted maps are sorhetimes called proportional maps. 

GENERAL REFERENCES 

Raisz, Erwin, General Cartography, McGraw-Hill Book Co., 
Inc., New York City, 1938 




Litpr.iry Diurst. A|)ril 23, 1021. 

Relative Size of Each of the United States If Based on Electrical Energy Sold for 
Light and Power in 1921, 

The theory beliind the construction of a distorted map is to represent the area of each 
state as proportional in size to some value other than land area. Thus the geo- 
Kraphical position of tlie state is maintained, and the new area values can be com- 
pared. 






DISTORTED MAPS 




2A^) 




SWEDEN NORWAY 



Electrical Worki. January 6, 1Q23. 



SCALE .7 



A. Comparative Size of Leading Nations If Area Is Based on Total Amount of 
Electrical Energy Consumed. 

The form of this comparison map eliminates the greatest fault of the distorted map: that is, 
changing the shape of the country, or state. 




The Dartnell Corp.. ChicaKO. Ill . 1031. SCALE .4 

B. The United States With the Area of the States Proportional to the Urban Population 
of 1930. 

This map represents a popular form of distorted map. 



I 





240 



GRAPHIC PRESENTATION 




Power Plant Engineering, New York City, 1933. 

A. Horsepower Map of the United States in 1933 With the Area of Each State 
Drawn Proportional to the Amount of Horsepower Installed in the State. 

Horsepower is one of many things which a distorted map may present. 

'Mour\t«in Wost North Ewt North 
4* $621/ Central C«nti»l 

7.2^^ »3.Z78 31 7-».^ $14.383 




Weat South East South 

Central Central 

4 2'. $1914 3 3*. $1,496 

Buiine»» Week, June 12, 1937, New York City. SCALE .6 

B. The United States With the Areas of the States Proportional to Their Manufac- 
turing Output in 1935. 

1. Rather than attempt to maintain a semblance of the map of the United States, this map 

presents all the states in rectangular form. In so doing, it seems to lose some of 
its attractiveness as a distorted map. 

2. The inclusion of the percentages for each state and for each section as demonstrated 

should be encouraged. 



DISTORTED MAPS 



241 



niAL 0» L(y>N) AND ONANT^ iM ThC UNiTIO MIkTtS. (94. 926. 7*3 

9yX)X TO H StATeS A* SMOWN OtlOW 

H*^ tMAN IT. TO fACM O^OTMCa ^TATCS 



t' B^K-. 



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r * 

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OKCG 



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MINN. 



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MISSOURI 

I Ml 

1411,460 



«1K 



MICHIGAN 

ll.730.4S6 



ILL- 

l.T»» 



NEW YORK 

• r? J2.e04 



OHIO 

3.B4t 
12.676.247 



NEBRASKA 



33.77y. 



131,919.572 



KAN. 



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\7.7ir. 

(1^303.300 



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TCNNCSSK 

7.45V. ♦ 7,044.112 



MISS. 



ALABAWA 
2.6?*/. ♦2.481 .7 2 b 



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6A , _ 



VIRGINIA 

I 7»% 
«l.»kO.034 



NORTH 
CAROLINA 

* 3.743.300 



SOUTH 
CAROUNA 

9. 36'/. 
♦ 8.852.000 



R 



FLORIDA 

U0% il.i>«.<l5 



Public Utilities Fortnightly, February 3, 1938, Washington, D. C. 

How Each State Shared in PWA Allotments for Non-Federal Power Projects as of 
July I, 1937. 

Only a slight attempt was made to maintain the geographical location of each of the 
states. 



When a chapter name or number is given as a reference, turn to 
the Topical Index, either on Page 1 or Page 247, and spin pages to 
the desired chapter. 




GRAPHIC PRESENTATION 





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243 



Chapter 30 
RATING CHARTS 



IN RATING charts, the "rank" of items is presented in graphic 
form. The arrangement of the material is determined by the 
quantitative value of each item. 



^ SAFETY SCORE BOARD ik 



1 . Tobacco 

2, Comen-f 
5. Laundry 




nl 



Anirriran Iron & Steel Institute. New York City. 'Safety in Steel." Deiember 10.18. 

The Safety-Record Rating of the Steel Industry In the United States Fronn 1934 to 
1937. 

The ratinK chart is a relatively sin-.ple kind of Rraphic chart and may take a variety of 
forms. This chart merely i;ives the position of "Steel" on a safety score board in 
1-2-3 order. 



I 



244 



GRAPHIC PRESENTATION 




S H 3 i« Ti r n E( il T? iS 

From "CoUtctcd Studies of the Dionne Quintuplets" by W. E. Blatr et al., St., George's School for Child 
Study, University of Toronto, 1937. Reproduced by Permission of the Authors. 

A. A Comparison of the Records of Each of the Dionne Quintuplets in Mental 
Development From 12 to 35 Months of Age. 

1. Converted into this form, the progress of each of the quintuplets in comparison with 

the others is easily followed. 

2. Compare this form with 243 and 245. 



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IV 































Automotive Industries, June 12, 1910. 



SCALE .5 



B. Pre-War Status of Automobile Shipments to Forty Principal Nations in the 
World. 

1. This tabulation-form of rating chart is not as clear as other forms. 

2. It is read as follows: taking the column under Canada, the United States shipped over 

8,000,000 automobiles to Canada, while the United Kingdom was the only other 
country among the 40 principal nations that shipped any to Canada. 



RATING CHARTS 



245 



wro 




MoDtuia. 
Idaho . . 
DakoU. . 
Arixuna.. 
Wyoming 



Rank 

• NrwYork 
t Prno. 

3 IlliniiU 

4 Ohio 

5 Miiiouri 

• Trial 
T Ma.t. 
A Iniliaoa 
9 Mi< hiftaa 

10 I«wa 

11 ('•rorfoa 
It Krnturky 

13 Witniniin 

14 Trnnr^MT 

15 N r»r<.lina 

16 Nrw Jrrwy 

17 Virginia 
■A Alabama 
!• Minnr«ota 
>0 Miviisiippi 
ai fBlifornia 
21 KariMi 

23 lyouMaoa 

24 S. f arolin* 
2B ArkaDsai 

26 Mnrylaod 

27 NVbraika 
20 W Virginia 
Z9 rnonrcticut 

30 Maine 

31 (olurado 

32 Floriila 

33 WHslimKton 

34 Rhoh I^l'od 
3B(>rrK'>n 
3«N Hanipsb'e 

37 S Dakuta 

38 Oklahoma 
3* Indian Ter. 

40 Vermont 

41 N. DakoU 

42 Dut. di C. 

43 I'Ub 

44 Montans 
4»N Mexico 
4« Delaware 
47 Idaho 

40 Hawaii 
40 Arizona 
■eVN'yuming 
Bl Alaaka 



W. C. Brinton. "Graphic Methodi." McGraw-Hill. 1914. 



SCALE 9 



Rank of States and Territories in Population at Different Census Years From the 
Civil War to the Beginning of the Twentieth Century. 

The column at the left gives the key number for each state, while the column at the right 
gives the rank of the state in 1900. 



I 



246 



GRAPHIC PRESENTATION 



Share of 


r. 

c 

c 


a 




&I 


C 


u 

-5 


3 

s 


a 


3 
3 


3 

10 

«. 
C 
o 


rruK'iB.v III exports of 

in imports of 






* 




* 
* 


* 


+ 


• 




• 


( 'oloiiibKi in exports of 

ill imports of 






• 
• 






* 




* 




* 


Kpthcrlandfl in exports of 

\V»^t Indips in imports of 






* 




• 


• 
* 




+ 

« 




+ 


Ii>'li:» in exports of 

in imports of 


+ 




* 
♦ 


— 


• 
* 


* 
* 




• 




* 


Spain in exports of 

ill imports of 






* 
• 




* 






* 


+ 


* 


Swodon in exports of 

in imports of 






* 


■1- 


+ 


* 




- 




• 


Nenezuclrx in exports of 

ill imports of 






* 
* 




• 
■I- 


• 
* 




* 




• 
* 


DtrmiMrk in exports of 

in imports of 


+ 




4 




• 
* 


» 
* 




* 




* 


NoiwMV in exports of 

in imports of 




+ 


» 




* 


* 
* 




• 




* 
» 


I'ortiiKiil in exports of 

in imports of 






» 




* 


• 




* 




' 


Trinnla.l m exports of 

in imports of 




« 
* 


* 
» 




* 
* 


* 




* 




+ 

4> 


All otliir^ jii exports of 

in inipiirfs of 


+ 
+ 


- 


+ 
+ 


+ 


- 


+ 


- 


_ 


+ 
+ 


4- 



* Not umoni; tun leading trading nations. 



Increases ( -f-) Decreases ( — ) 



Clianilirr of Commerce of U. S . ForeiRn Conimercr DepI , WashinRton, D. C "South America's Trade." 
1').18. 

Increases and Decreases in the Share of Important Trading Nations in the Trade of 
Each South American Republic From 1936 to 1937. 

This chart is read as follows: from 19.?6 to 19.? 7, the exports of Paraguay to Uraguay 
decreased, as indicated by the minus sign, while the imports of Paraguay from Ura- 
guay increased, as indicated by the plus sign. 



In this book, an illustration occupying a full page is referred to 
by page number. When there is more than one illustration on a 
page, each is identified by a letter of the alphabet. When there is 
more than one footnote beneath an illustration, each is numbered. 
Thus the cross reference 267B2 means page 267, illustration B, 
note 2. 



TOPICAL INDEX (2nd Half) ^47 

Place ri^ht thtiiiib on tri<m^lc, /infers irisidc back cover. 
Spin pu^es to desired chapter. 

248-255 .U. Chronoiogy Charts ^ 

256-262 32. Progress Charts < 

263-274 33. Curve Charts ^ 



275-285 34. Comparisons witli Two Curves 
286-293 35. Comparisons with Curves 



294-300 36. Component Parts Shown by Curves 

301-309 il . Index Numbers Shown by Curves — 

310-319 38. Frequency Charts -^ 

320-330 3^). Correlation Charts 



331-338 40. Ogive and Lorenz Charts 
339-353 41. Ratio Charts 



354-359 42. Three-Dimensional Methods 
360-366 43. Composite Charts 



367-380 44. Suggestions for Making a Chart — 

381-396 45. Standards for Time Series Charts 

397-404 46. The Camera and Its Use 

405-409 47. Lantern Slides 



410-422 48. Preparation of Illustrations 
423-428 49. Color and Its Use 



429-434 50. Methods of Reproducing 

435-442 51. Methods of Printing 

443-448 52. Selection of Paper 

449-453 53. Binding Techniques 



454-463 54. Graphic Charts in Advertising 

464-474 55. Quantitative Cartoons 

475-485 56. Quantitative Posters 

486-493 57. Displays and Exhibits 

494-496 58. Dioramas 



497-500 59. Graphic Charts in Conference Rooms 

501-505 60. Glossary 

506-511 Index 



(For 1st Half of TOPICAL INDEX, See Puge 1) 



248 




Chapter 31 
CHRONOLOGY CHARTS 



X he practice of showing time as a straight line is utilized in mak- 
ing chronology charts. Often the line is widened to make it pos- 
sible to shade sections. Both quantitative and qualitative data may 
be presented. 



O 



VACATIOnS POH TRI YTAR 



So 1th 

Coop«r 

Brown 

Harris 

iThlte 

Jonee 

Dale 

Johaaon 

rratt 

Black 

Rogers 

Doe 

Carson 

Honry 

C'Bara 

Jackson 

SulllTsr 

Orey 



14 21 20 
Ipril 



5 12 19 26 
May 



9 16 23 

JXMC 



14 21 

July 



11 la 

Aug. 



£6 1 



16 22 29 
Sept. 



Brinton, "Graphic Methods." McGraw-Hill, 1914. 

Chart for Assigning Vacation Periods in a Large Office. 



SCALE .9 



With such a chart, one can see at a glance just how many persons from an office will be 
gone at the same time. This form is valuable in planning vacations so that two 
persons doing the same type of work will not be on vacation. 



CHRONOLOGY CHARTS 



249 

























u 
.J 

< 
u 

(0 


s — Showing 
Iving Relics 

that item is 
nimals lived. 


25 

si 

d 

^° 

to 
< 

:^ 
<: 

o 

< 


C E N Z I C 

60,000,000 YEARS 


o 

a: 






Q 


Q 






>. 

k. 

a 

>, 


ic 

n 

H 
£ 

< 

u 


IX 

u 
c 

ij 

t> 


Q 


E 




« 1 


servative 
f Are "L 

»nd when 
cinds of a 
age. 


'3 


O 






Radicals, Conservatives, and Ultra-Con 
annmals Belong to Another World. The> 

line for the beginning of each new item, i 
the periods of time during which different 1 
e that graphic charts can be a universal langi. 


C 

u 
o 






o 


1 

_ o 


CO _ 

ad 

tQ - 
> 


CO I 
° 1 

o 1 


c 
<u 
o 
o 

o 
o 
.3 
o 

d 

(V 

o 
o 
UJ 

o 
o 

c2 


JO 

< 








^ 1 

> 1 
:: 1 

■ 


■0 1 

Itl ■ 


Q 

< 

■txi— 


G 






> ^ 


< ■ 


Animals — 
•Laying K^ 

tart a new 

illustrate 

demonstrat 


U4 
CO 

O 


W 1 <o 

CO 1 ^ 


asses of 
and Egg 

we often s 
are used to 
r clear and 


CO 

U4 

P 

Dm 

UJ 

k: 

U. 
O 

LU 
O 
< 


M E 5 Z I C 

1 40,0 0,00 YEARS 


3 

8 

o 




1 






G 5 


stence of Three C 
That the Opossums 
sozoic," 

me as a straight line, 
le stops. Here lines i 
IS make the titles mor< 


o 
to 


ir> 


1^ 


•Si 


io 

to 




li ! 
^ 1 


;ngth of Ex' 
Graphically 
from the Me 

hinkiog of ti 
ended the lir 
visual captioi 
























w 



I 



250 



GRAPHIC PRESENTATION 




F. P Fi>itir. "Drrn'iiifili/ini' Lniii-shorr L.iluir ;iiiil the Sciittlt- Exp<-rirnr<-." W;ilrrfront Eiliploycrs of 
Sriiltlr. Wiish.. Fctiruiiry 1. I'l.M. SCALE .7 

Exact Hours and Days Worked in 1929 by the Highest-Earnings Holdnnan in Oregon 
Ports. 

Till- fxtrenu- irrcj^iilarity of the work of lonj;shorf labor is shown in this study. The black 
scctiorjs show the number of hours worked per day accordln^; to the scale at the 
left, and the scale at the bottom shows the days. 



CHRONOLOGY CHARTS 



251 



I 




F. P Foisir. "DrrHsiiali/inK L<inK%h(>rc- Liilxir hikI thr Sriitllr ExptiKiu' 
Sriittlr. W;i»h . Ftl.riiary 1. I'I.I4 



Walrrfrciiil Employers iif 
SCALE 7 



The Working Year of Pacific Lighterage Corporation Deep Sea Gangs by Days for 
1932, Showing Analysis of Broken Working Tinne and Leisure Time. 

Prfsi-nti-d aloHK a horizontal line instead of in a circle, this stiuly would have taki-n a 
Urcat deal more space. In this form it is concise and adequate for the purpose. 



252 



GRAPHIC PRESENTATION 



9^ 


^^l 


1 

X 


X 


ff ** 


25_ 


'"^^- 


t3 




A. Three Cross Sections of a Chart 
of Civilizations. 

The original of this chart is 14'/4 by 54 
inches, in nineteen colors, and 
shows history of civilization from 
3500 B.C. to date. 



Courtesy of M. F. Gelletly. Baltimore, Md. 

SCALE .8 




Frank J. Root. "An Illuitratrd Handbook of Art History." Macmillan Co.. New York City. 1937. 

SCALE .6 

B. Chronological Developnnent of Painting During the Renaissance in Italy. 

1. Most people are familiar with the blackboard illustration showing how the lives of 

writers, philosophers, or rulers overlap, with time represented as a straight line. 

2. This chart shows the influence of Italian painters during the Renaissance upon others, 

as well as the chronological place of each painter. 



CHRONOLOGY CHARTS 



253 



4000BC AO 



i i i 1 i i i I i i » r I < i i ■ i i g I 




mn m anumi « ■•■ Ma fo •ouit iw itmm mtota » nc orriMin onauvM 



I AD-OME 




'::r iwdo v i 



■CD* V nc Mimic noinaior M o«tii«(>i 



Frank J. Roo«, "An Illustrated Handbook of Art History," Macmillan Co., New York City, 1Q37. 

SCALE 6 

Chronological Development of Art Periods From 4000 B.C. to 1937. 

The shading of the bars indicates gradations in the development of art, and thus gives 
meaning to art periods named beneath the bars. 



254 



GRAPHIC PRESENTATION 




Li U 



I 



r 


I 


C7> 


d: 


D 


-J 




Z 




1 


-C 








0) 


7 


z 










*• 


JC 




q: 


a: 










c QJ 


^ 


^ 


- > 



o ^ 





B£ 


X 




c 




. 


^^ 


T3 




c 


11 


o 
o 


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a 








,.>if 




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.»-«♦- 



S 2 £■ 

^ o ^ 



C C 

o r. 



-c — 



"t ™ 



W - 



£ U 



CHRONOLOGY CHARTS 



255 











-- 










" 


T SHtrVlELO FARMS CO - 


28 TM ST 


- 


nit 


w. 


















1 L 


OI*T)liavTION Of Tl 


M tLCMCNT IN MILK OCLIVIKT - OCTQU 








1 

•OUTt T 


m 


r I r I i I I 1 I 1 1 

l« MOD M MOON 1 (tullO II tTO*> 1 1 1 






























lum 




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r 






- 




1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 


CtiQN 0< 


■ 


■ 


m 


m 


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r^ 


— 




All 

1 


moult in 


H NCWV 




■ 


r 


m 


m 


■ 


M-. 
















■ 


' •mm 


I^D] 
























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■ 


»»0 C^i"- '"'*- .1 JOM,(\ 4l^'l><•^ 










in 1 




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1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 


























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1 1 1 1 1 1 ' 1 








































■mi^^ii 












' I i I 1 1 

1 IVAKO tLCCTmc *2awiri.ti SIJTOCS 




: 1 ' 








I L. . _. 








1 MUNNING TO OD rllO« CLCCTIIIC CAMAic 
1 1 1 1 1 1 1 




I 




1 1 1 I 1 1 ! I 

0<>« HO*Jt W»<iON lOOOMlLtS Ji$TO»>» | 








^ KA*r«SS ANO HiVcM UP on vice VtKiA 










i J 1 1 1 












: 


^ 






1 


^ LOADi'nC O* UNLOAOIlic 

I 1 1 1 1 


















































^ aurMiNC TO on foou DouTC 

1 III 
















































'3 T»AV LLINCONNOU+t 

"■ 1 III 












1 














HOWNS 


■ 




■ 




9 TMAfriC OtLAT 

r 1 ) 1 « 




■ STANDING ON MAUTC 

r 1 .'o 1 .'. 


1 


, 


1 





I 



Elfctric Storagr Battery Co.. Philadelphia, "Exide-Ironclad Topics," May 1Q33. 

A. Study of the Time Spent Delivering Milk on Seven Different Routes. 

The purpose of this chart is to compare the length of time spent delivering milk by horse- 
wagon with the time spent delivering milk by electric truck. 




■I IDLE CD Townrw Omtuoat gg -powiMS Uomtch ^^ Running uoht g^TXniNO Wattw FxICoauw 
W. C Brinton. "Graphic Methods," McGraw-Hill, 1914. 

B. Operations of Three Tug-boats in New York for Twenty-four Hours. The 

Boat Represented by the Lower Bar is in Service for a Twelve-Hour Shift Only 

.\ morkinK rhart nf this kind wotiKl iisuully Ix- ina<lo on a lory? strip of co-onlinalc paper. The illustration 
na.s <lniwn rnlin-ly \>y hnml lo show the possibilities of han<l cross-hatching for bringing out information 
ordinarily shown in several colors 



256 



Chapter 32 
PROGRESS CHARTS 



l3 ynonyms for progress charts as used in this chapter are schedule 
charts, Gantt charts, procedure charts, process charts, production 
control charts. 

REFERENCES 

Clark, Wallace, The Gantt Chart. A Working Tool of Manage- 
ment, The Ronald Press Co., New York City, 1922. 

Gantt, H. L., "Organizing for Work," Industrial Management, 
Vol. LVIII, August 1919 (Now Factory Management and 
Maintenance). 




Induitrial Management, December 1918. 

A Material Control Board 



SCALE .9 



The dotted lines represent orders received. The straight lines represent materials received. 
The dotted lines beneath the straight lines represent orders on the factory depart- 
ments. The full lines represent completion of that number of pieces. 



PROGRESS CHARTS 



257 



PRODUCTION PROGRESS CHART 



UNIT VALUE tA\% 



ORDER NO. XOOI ENTERED DEC. IB 19- SHIPMENT DESIRED MAY IV 19- 



APPARATUS 3000 K-V^- TURBO OCNCRATOR 



ITEM 



Aritfiur* Fl*n ^€ 
Afiwtur» 5fi dcr 

Cotia 



J>nu»ry | ftbru^ry | Mfcrcl 



tPR. — 



April 



'^^i — i — \t „ 



19 



IS to rr 




I 



Factory. December 1919. 

A Production Progress Chart. 



SCALE .9 



1. The solid black lines represent the schedule, while the dotted lines represent the progress 

made to date. 

2. Note the percentage schedule per week and total at the bottom of the chart. This indi- 

cates that the job has progressed faster than schedule. 



258 



GRAPHIC PRESENTATION 



^^ 




Organication to arriral In Franoe 
▲rrlTal In France to entering line 



Entering line to aetire battle service 
Service aa aotive oonbat AlTislon 



Leonard P. Ayrc». "Thr War With Germany." Government PrintinR Office, 19)9. 

A Time Study of the Various Divisions of the United States Arnny During the World 
War. 

It would be interesting to liave an analysis of the reasons why certain divisions, although 
they arrived in France before others, did not enter the line until long after and 
sometimes did not enter the line at all. 



PROGRESS CHARTS 



259 



A. Progress Chart for a Catalog 

Production Job. 

1. While each company may have its own, 

some form of proRrcss chart 
aids in determining where certain 
jobs are, how far they have pro- 
gressed, and how much more has 
to be done before the job is com- 
pleted. 

2. The use of colors makes a progress 

schedule valuable for display. 





. A 




mx 


■ DEPT ^ 




<r'"vor- •|»|C-L. __. :.. .-"- 






U.^r..^ , ! , 


• 1 








1 




L"..- J 1 V » -, • 1 


i 


■ U. 


o 


a' •• ♦ ^ V • 


J 


■ {^l 


o 


(T 1 ' ;' ♦ \ \ 


i 


' rv; 


o 


a 1 : ■ ♦■ v 


» 


• 




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i? . ■ . . • . " 


• 


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Oj. . . ..#, * 


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o 


o 


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0) 


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- w5 








o 


o 




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JO 


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o 




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<D 




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^ 





I 



Joifph R. Bolton. "Grt the Cataloe Out on 
Time." Printcn' Ink, November l.S, 1Q17. 

SCALE .6 




Eneincerinc New»-Recor<l. February .V 1917. SCALE .6 

B. Progress Schedule. 

Duririf; tht- proRrcss of the job. the horizontal lines in color, represented the quantity of 
work done. 



260 



GRAPHIC PRESENTATION 









/f 






\ 



5 




lltiijl:. .i|_ 



t\, »»> 



PROGRESS CHARTS 



261 




i-i « 



h w ^ 









O 


V eg 






I 


















►J M 






3 


« .5 






o> 


& >. 






c 


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a> 

> 

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^ 




n 




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1 






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m » 


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U. 



i . , /TV/'/ 



262 



GRAPHIC PRESENTATION 




Widlh of ii»ilv «|i.i<i' rrpri'iiriits niiiouiit of 

%tork th.'it slioiiM linve boon iloni' in a d«/. 
Amount of work nrtually done in n d»y. 
Tiino t.'ikrn on nork on nliirli no eatim.ile is 

av:iil:iblc. 
Wcoklv total of operator. Roliil line for o»ti 

niatitl work; broken line for time apent ou 

work not eslimuted. 
Weekly total for group of operators. 
Wi-ekly total for department. 



The portion of the daily upaee tliroucb wliieli no line 
drawn Rhown hoiv niucli the man has faUeti behind what \ 
cipwtcd of him. 



Rc.vsoNS roR K.M.LiNo Behind 



Abneiit 



ti — (".reen operator 
I — Lurk of inntruetions 
L — Slow o|>i*rator 
M — Material trouble* 

When tliere is more than 



R — Rep.'iirs neisled 

T— Tool troubles 

V— Holiday 

Y — Smaller lot than estimate 

u basi'd on. 
reason for failure to do the 



work in estimated time, the reason enteriil on ehart is deter- 

minetl by nskiuK questions in the follow inj; order; 

R — Was the maehine in f^ood eonditionf 

T — Were the tools and fixtures in gooil eondition' 

1 — Was the op<-rator i;i\eii proper instructions .-ind 

snfHeient information? 
M — Was trouble experienced with material.' 
G — Was the operator too (jrivn to do the job? 

L — Was the opi'rator loo slow ? 

V — W;is the lot smaller than estimate is basiwl on? 



Wallacf Clark. "The Gantt Chart — II." Management Engineering. September 1921. 

A Gantt Man Record Chart 



SCALE .7 



This chart is one type of those identified as Gantt Charts, developed by the organization 
of the late Henry L. Gantt. 

REFERENCES 



Knoeppel, Charles E., Graphic Production Control, McGraw- 
Hill Book Co., Inc., New York City, 1920. 

Smith, W. H., Graphic Statistics in Management, McGraw-Hill 
Book Co., Inc., New York City, 1924. 



263 



Chapter 33 
CURVE CHARTS 



I 



Xhe curve charts in this chapter are only those having one curve 
on a grid. This includes those having visual captions. The chap- 
ters up through page 366 cover other types of curve charts. 

REFERENCES 

Karsten, Karl G., Charts and Graphs, Prentice-Hall, Inc., New 

York City, 1923. 
Riggleman, John R., and Ira N. Frisbee, Business Statistics, 2nd 

edition, 1938, McGraw-Hill Book Co., Inc., New York City. 






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19*27 '74 *7b '7B '50 *57 'i4 "ib 'id 



Electronics, October. 1938. 

Number of Radio Sets and Radio Receiving Tubes Built In the United States from 
1922 to 1937 

1. The curves in these charts illustrate the plotting of a curve on a grid. 

2. The points are plotted on the vertical rulings and a connecting line is drawn through 

each point. 

3. In plotting a curve, there are two variables, the independent and the dependent. In 

these curves, the time scale indicates the independent variable, and the amount 
scale the dependent variable. 



264 



GRAPHIC PRESENTATION 











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•38 





A. Sulphuric Acid Prices in the United 
States From 1924 to 1938. 

Often a curve chart takes the appearance 
of a stair chart when prices which 
remain stable over a long period 
of time are presented. This should 
not be confused with such charts 
as 1358. 



Standard Statistics. Inc.. N. Y. C, "Standard 
Trade and Securities." March 4, 1Q38. 

SCALE .6 

Abstracts from Time Series Charts. A Manual of Design and 
Construction, 1938, prepared by Committee on Standards for 
Graphic Presentation, under procedure of American Standards 
Association, with The American Society of Mechanical Engineers 
as sponsor body. 

TIME-SERIES LINE CHARTS 

The "time-series line chart" is the type in which values of a 
time series are plotted on a coordinate surface ond the points 
joined together successively to form a continuous line or 
"curve." The line chart has a wide range of application and 
in most cases is relatively easy to construct and maintain. 

A. THE LINE CHART SHOULD GENERALLY BE USED: 

1. For series where there ore many successive values to be 
pictured. 

2. Where several series ore shown for comparison on the 
same chart. 

3. For close reading or interpolation. 

4. When the emphasis should be on the movement rather 
than on the actual amounts. 

5. When the chart is to be used for the projection of trends. 

B. THE LINE CHART MAY NOT BE THE BEST TYPE: 

1. Where there are relatively few plotted values in the series. 

2. Where the emphasis should be on the change in amounts 
rather than on the movement of the series. 

3. To emphosize the difference between values or amounts 
on different dotes. 

4. When the movement of the doto is extremely violent or 
irregular. 

5. When the presentation is designed for popular appeal. 



CURVE CHARTS 



265 



B«i*d Upon Av*««4« U S. ftic»% •« R»porf sd by tht U. S. Butmu of Ubor Statitttct 




I 



Chicneo Trihunr. The l')J8 Chnrt Book. " Fclnunry 22. 1Q38. 

A. The Cost of +he "Market Basket" in the United States Calculated From Gov- 
ernment Prices From 1929 Through 1937. 

It is not possible to compare the curve in this chart with the chart B below since the 
content of the "market basket" as listed is not the same. 



7jOO 



B«f*d Upon Avvraq* U. S. Pricat »t R*pert*d by th* U. S. Bureau of Labor Statittici OOOAXS 

7JM 




JFMAMJ JASOND JFMAMJ J A SON J F MAM J J AS ON J FMAM J J A SON D JFMAM J J A SON 

1914 1915 1916 1917 1918 

L«tt«r« Abova Ara kwKal* of MeirHu: J for January, F for Fabmary, Etc 



Chicago Tribune. "The 1938 Chart Book." February 22, 1938. SCALE 8 

B. The Cost of the "Market Basket" in the United States During the World War. 

1. When the zero line is omitted, this is one method of indicating its absence. It might 

have been better if the line had been more wavy so that in reduction the irregu- 
larity would not be lost. 

2. The visual caption used in this chart is very effective. By cutting an appropriate pic- 

ture from a magazine or newspaper apd using it in this way, a chart is easily 
"dressed up." 



266 



GRAPHIC PRESENTATION 



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The Goodyear Tire and Rubber Co., Akron, Ohio, "Annual Report to Stockholders," 1037, SCALE .5 

A. Yearly Oufpul of Goodyear Pneumatic Tires for Motor Vehicles. 

1. The uj.e of an illustration in the upper left corner is effective. 

2. The small table at the bottom is read as follows: the Goodyear Tire and Rubber Com- 

pany took 43 months to produce its first fifty million tires. The last report of 
production indicates that twenty-five million tires were produced in 15 months. 

































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William Playfair. "Tableaux d'Arithmetique Lineaire." Paris, 1780. SCALE .3 

B. Expenditures by England for Ordnance From 1720 to 1786. 

1. This is one of the first graphic charts. 

2. No doubt realizing that the three humps in the chart would raise a question, William 

Playfair included at the top of the chart black lines indicating "time of war." 



CURVE CHARTS 



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National Rrtourcrs Board. State Planning, 1935. 

Kansas Oil Production From 1900 to 1935. 



SCALE .8 



The use of illustrations on a curve chart adds to its appeal and gives some indication of 
the material presented. It is no problem to include a picture similar to the 

one shown here in a chart. A clipping from a magazine or a newspaper will suffice. 
See 265B. 



GRAPHIC PRESENTATION 



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Patadcna, California, "Annual Report of the City ManaRrr. 1036-37." SCALE .8 

Assessed Valuation of the City of Pasadena Fronn 1887 to 1936. 

The inclusion of the notations about the annexes aids in reading this chart, since some 
explanation for sudden rises and falls is needed. 



CURVE CHARTS 



269 



Excess Reserves of New York City 
Central Reserve Banks Fronn 
1934 to September 1937. 

This chart presents weekly averages of 
daily figures. 




I 



Federal Reserve Bnnk of New York. "Monthly 
Review," October 1, 1937. SCALE .6 




-Improved carbon 
filament lamp 
costing $1.60 



Squirted ] 
tungsten { 
♦ straight — Drawn tungsten vwire ■ — 
filament straight filament vacuum 
vacuum 



Ho\u research on lamps has reduced the 
cost of electric lighting .This chart is based 
on the lumens of light produced by nevu 
eOviJatt bulbs per \uatt of electricity 
consumed. 

Da fa furnished by Wtstinghouit Elecfric Mfg Co 

Draiwi 
tungsten 
Drawn tungsten — — wire re 



\wire coiled fila- 
ment gas filled 




Average cost 
of lamp 75(t 



Due to greater manufacturing 
precision 



Due to 
research 



Ol I I I ' ' ^ ' I I I I I I I I ' 



J I I I'll 



— — — — — oldr^ccJ 



CM •* vD ao 
»0 ro Kl to 

0> <J> O o> 



Product Engineering. October 1938. Part of an Editorial on Public Relations Entitled "Research in 
America — the Key to Belter Living " 

B. The Effect of Research on the Price and Quality of Light From 1904 to 1938. 

Supplementing the information given here with further details, it is estimated that if the 
iillumin«tion of 1937 had been attempted with the lamps of 1900, it would have 
cost two billion dollars more for electricity alone at present power rates. 



270 



GRAPHIC PRESENTATION 








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CURVE CHARTS 



271 



A. Cost of Rubber Per Pound in New 
York From 1838 to 1937. 

When data over a long period of time is 
plotted in curve form, it is usually 
necessary to allow a great deal of 
space horizontally, or to condense 
the years so that a trend only is 
indicated. This method of break- 
ing a series of years into four 
parts solves both these difficulties. 



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U- S. Department of Commerce. Bureau of For- 
eign and Domestic Commerce, "Domestic Com- 
merce." July 20. 1938. SCALE .8 




Science Service Inc. Washington. D C. "Science News Letter." February 20 1Q32. SCALE .7 

B. The Deviation From Normal Temperature in Iowa From 1873 to 1931. 

In this chart a normal was first decided upon and marked as zero. The departures from 
this normal, or average, were then plotted above and below the zero line. The 
deviations below normal are distinguished from those above normal by color. 



2^2 GRAPHIC PRESENTATION 

Abstracts from Time Series Charts. A Manual of Design and 
Construction, 1938, prepared by Committee on Standards for 
Graphic Presentation, under procedure of American Standards 
Association, with The American Society of Mechanical Engineers 
as sponsor body. 

FUNDAMENTAL CONVENTIONS OF FORM 

1. A TimoS«ne$ Chort is one of severol types of bi-numericol scole 
cherts. A binumericol scole chort is based on the conception of two- 
dimensionol movement in o single plane. 

2. The field or coordinate surfoce on which the voloes ore located is 
formed by intersecting verticol ond horizontal rulings located ot 
measured intervols from the two principal axes. 

3. It is the convention that positive values are measured upword from 
the horizontal oxis and to the right of the verticol axis and negative 
values ore measured downward from the horizonlol axis and to the 
left of the vertical axis. 

4. In o time-series chart the vertical or Y axis measures amount, ond 
the horizontal or X oxis meosures time. 

5. Time values In o time-series chart ore usuoily represented as positive 
and move from left to right on the horizontal or time scale. 

6. Every plotted point in o time-series chart has two values: An amount 
volue meosured on the verticol oxis ond o time value measured on 
the horizontal axis. 

7. The horizontal oxis, zero line or other line of reference, should be 
accentuated so os to indicate that it is the bose for comparison of 
volues. There is no such bose of comporison for the time scale in a 
lime-series chart, however, there being no beginning or end of time. 

8. In o time-series chart the plotted points ore generolly joined consecu- 
tively by straight lines to form o continuous line movement which is 
conventionally spoken of as o curve. The points of volue con be indi- 
cated by means of other grophic forms such os columns or surfoces, 
but the fundomentol principle is the some. 

9. The values on the omount scale should be continuous,- and points 
on the scale with their corresponding horizontol rulings should 
reflect the actual intervals on the scale. 

10. Time should be regarded os continuous with vertical rulings used to 
indicate only certain intervals of time. Equol intervals of time should 
be indicoted by equal space intervols on the scale. 




Mathematical graph 



CURVE CHARTS 



273 



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APB r>»» jun JUL AM XP1 OCT nov PCC jam Ftt nw APR 

191B 1919 



Leonard P. Ayres, "The War With Germany." Government Printing Office, 1919. 

Hours Spent in the Air by American Service Planes at the Front During the World 
War. 

1. The historical labels marking three important attacks of the World War and the 

Armistice give meaning to the curve. 

2. Note the method of indicating the year, the month, and the day. 



In this book, an illustration occupying a full page is referred to 
by page number. When there is more than one illustration on a 
page, each is identified by a letter of the alphabet. When there is 
more than one footnote beneath an illustration, each is numbered. 
Thus the cross reference 267B2 means page 267, illustration B, 
note 2. 



274 



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275 



Chapter 34 
COMPARISONS WITH TWO CURVES 



HE types of curve charts covered in this chapter are simple 
comparisons of two curves, cumulative curves, causal rela- 
tionships and high-low curves. 



REFERENCES 

Arkin, Herbert and Raymond R. Colton, Graphs: How to Make 
and Use Them, Harper & Brothers, New York City, 1937. 

Croxton, Frederick E., and Dudley J. Cowden, Applied General 
Statistics, Prentice Hall Inc., New York City, 1939. 




49 



30 



20 



■ 








^"X^ 






1/ 


\^^ 






r::: 


n::^ 




V--^ 








weeMy salary 


of teachers 






——Average 


weeltly salary 


of unsKiiled labor 






1900 



1905 



1910 



1915 



1920 



1925 



1930 



1935 



1940 



National Educational Association. "Rcsfarch Bulletin, " May 1938. 



SCALE .9 



Trends in Teachers Salaries and Wages of Unskilled Labor in the United States fronn 
1 900 to 1937. 

1. When more than one curve is put on a grid, it is necesary to make some differentiation 

between the curves. A dotted line is one solution. 

2. The grid of a chart may be omitted to great advantage in some cases. Since the 

omission often hinders the reading of the chart, the practice should not be en- 
couraged. 




276 



GRAPHIC PRESENTATION 



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ft 

* 4 00.000 

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I9t« 19*7 19*8 1999 I9M> 1991 t93t 19SS »9S4 I93S 19S6 1997 



i 



Annual Review Number of Iron Age Magazine, January 6. 1938. 



SCALE .7 



A. Comparison of the Record of Automobile Production and Steel Ingot Pro- 
duction in the United States from 1926 Through 1937. 

1. If this material had been plotted on a grid with one scale, it would have resulted in 

too large a chatt. When a common grid is thus used for two scales, care should be 
taken to put the zero of each at a common starting point. 

2. Note the lag of the automobile curve as compared with the steel ingot curve. 



THOUSAND 
OOUARS 



High and Low Pric* of a Membership on th* N. Y. Stock Exchange, 1900-1937 



THOUSAND 
OOUAKS 



660 

MY) 


















^ 


^ 




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igh 


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600 
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Chicago Tribune, "The 1938 Chart Book," February 22, 1938. SCALE .8 

B. The Price of Memberships on the New York Stock Exchange from 1900 to 1937. 
Compare this method of presenting high-low data with 28 SB. 



COMPARISONS WITH TWO CURVES 




1920 



•30 '35 1920 25 

I93e DATA ARE PRELIMINARY 



U S Drpartmcnt of Agriculture, Bureau of AKricultural Economics. SCALE .8 

Production and Farm Prices of Strawberries in the United States from 1918 to 1938. 

This chart shows an effective way of comparing two curves. Note the combination of the 
shaded curve and the dotted-line curve. 



278 



GRAPHIC PRESENTATION 



THOUSANDS OF PERSONS 
2500 




1920 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 



J2 33 34 35 



WPA. National Research Project. "Summary of Findings to Date," March 1938. 

A. Movement to and from Farms in the United States from 1920 to 1935. 

This information is also given in B below. Here the emphasis is on the population move- 
ments to and from the farms. These two charts illustrate the technique of shading 
different sections of the same chart for different emphasis. 



1 1 1 1 1 

LEAVING FARMS FOR 
CITIES AND VILLAGES 

NET MOVEMENT 
TO FARMS 




U S Department of ARriculture. Bureau of Auriculfural Economics. 

B. Movement to and from Farms in the United States from 1920 to 1937. 

The interest in this chart is centered on the number of people who came to the farms, 
causing an accumulation of farm population. As a result, the section labelled 
"arriving on farms" is shaded darker than the "net movement from farms." 




1"! 



COMPARISONS WITH TWO CURVES 



279 



g 


t»OM Nwnx» JO toNWtOKi 

! ! ! S 


s 


s 




Nrw York Worlds Fair. 1039. Treasury Division. Methods and PlanninR Drpt. SCALE 6 

Three Cumulative Curves Shov.ing the Thousands of Column-Inches Which the Nev^ York World's Fair Received in Out- 
of-town Daily and Weekly Newspapers from January 1937 to March 1938. 


he month for each of the 
n inches from the first o 
•hes for the year is given 


"^ 


v 


X^ 


V 










1 

g: 

r 

1 

1 

1 




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I for t 
colum 
mn inc 






\ 


s 


\ 




1 1 


jary, the tota 
al number of 
umber of colu 






\ 


\l 












\ 


\ 








of Jan 
the to 
total n 




\ 


\^ 


•v 






e end 
ruary, 
7, the 




A 


\ 




1 


At th 
of Feb 
)cr 193 


X"^ '^1 


■\ 


L « 




\ 


nches is zero. 

At the end 

nd of Decemt 




\\ 


i 


\ 




\ 






C 3 o 

E Si f 


\ 


\ 


\ 


of CO 

on tht 
rth. At 




1 


i 


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plotted 
so fo 




^ 


L 


y 1937, the 
sifications is 
s plotted, anc 




^ 


'v 








Beginning Januai 
three clas 
January i 



i 




280 



GRAPHIC PRESENTATION 



Abstracts from Time Series Charts. A Manual of Design and 
Construction. 1938, prepared by Committee on Standards for 
Graphic Presentation, under procedure of American Standards 
Association, with The American Society of Mechanical Engineers 
as sponsor body. 

MULTIPLE AMOUNT SCALES 



SOLID 

HOLLOA 

SHADED 

DASH 

0ASH-HOLU3W 

DOTTED 

LINE AND DOT 
DOT DASH 

BALL AND LINE 

LINK 



A/' 



.1 M 

• • • 

• • • 




Curv* pottamt 



Principles 

1. The purpose of multiple omounl scoles is to compere the movements 
of two or more series differing considerably in magnitude. 

2. Multiple omount scales can be effectively used for comparing on the 
same grid two or more series not measured in comporable units (e.g., 
dollars and tons}. 

3. In general, the use of multiple amount scales should be restricted and 
regarded as a device for special cases. 

Procedures 

1. LIMITED NUMBER DESIRABLE. Multiple scales should normolly be lim- 
ited to two, as more ore likely to be confusing. 

2. SAME RULINGS FOR BOTH SCALES. Scales should be so selected 
that all horizontal rulings for both scales will coincide. 

3. ZERO VALUES SHOULD APPEAR. The zero lines of both scales should, 
if possible, be included on the chart and should coincide. 

4. WHEN ZERO IS OMITTED. If the zero lines of the two scales cannot 
well be shown on the chart, the scales should be so adjusted that the 
zero lines would coincide if the scales were extended to zero. This 
procedure, illustrated at the right, will present the curves in their cor- 
rect relationship. 

5. CONTROLLING CURVE MOVEMENT. Scales should be selected which 
will ovoid undue emphosis of any one curve. iSo selected that the 
relative movement of the various curves will be comporoble. It is not 
permissible to enlarge the movement of one curve orbitronly while 
minimizing the movement of the other.) 

6. WIDE SEPARATION UNDESIRABLE. Scales should be selected that 
will bring the curves in close enough proximity for ready comparison. 

7. THE SCALE RATIO. If possible, scole intervals of one scale should be 
in even multiples of the intervals of the other scale so as to facilitate 
comparisons of relative magnitude. 

8. LOCATION OF SCALE DESIGNATIONS. Normolly, it is best to des- 
ignate one scale at the left and the other ot the right. 

9. ALTERNATIVE METHOD OF PRESENTATION. The difficulties of mul- 
tiple scale presentation may be avoided by converting both series 
to a common base leg., index numbers, per cent of overage for pe- 
riod, etc.). 



CURVE PAHERN 

1. Curve patterns should be so selected that the curves can be distin- 
guished readily from each other. 

2. In general, the simplest patterns ore most effective and most eco- 
nomical. 

3. In selecting curve patterns, it Is well to bear In mind the drafting diffi- 
culties and disturbing optical effects of complicated patterns. 



COMPARISONS WITH TWO CURVES 



281 



















y 


y 


m 
















y 




m 




itn 

1935 

I9M ■ 










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1928 — — 

193S 

I9M 










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y 








w 
























90 








r 
















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I 



Standard Stattitici Co . Inc , N. Y. C , "Standard Trade and Securitiei," May 29, 1936. 



SCALE .7 



A. Building Contracts Awarded for Residential, Commercial, and Industrial Use in 
the United States for 1928. 1935, and 1936. 

For explanation of cumulative curves, sec 2 79. 



930 
900 
250 
700 
ISO 
100 
SO 




= 




:=:; 









^ 




fN 




























1^ 
























N. 
































































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i 


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n\ « 


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m H 


n6M 


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t\ li 


MM 


niM 


W 


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r 



National Aitociation of Motor Bus Operators. Washington, D. C, "Bus Facts for 1938." SCALE .9 

B. Comparison of the Number of Cities Using All-Rail Transportation, Combined 
Rail and Bus Transportation, and All Bus Transportation in the United States 
from 1912 to 1937. 

1. In this chart, as the number of cities using rail and bus transportation increased, the 

number using only rail transportation necessarily decreased, since the number of 
cities included in the study varies little over a period of years. 

2. In more recent years, as those using buses only increased, the number of cities using 

the combination system decreased. 

3. This type of record would be affected by any change in the total number of cities within 

the three classifications. Similar charts might be based upon 100%. See 298A. 



282 



l"t 



GRAPHIC PRESENTATION 



^ 


















80 






1 ■ 




I'rice 

Cent* Per Pound 


' 






60 




T 




60 


40 


r 


^-x. 


1 


-.'V-. 


W 1 v/ 1 

T • » 


40 




'^v-.. 




j\ 


Wo 

\ 


rid's Visible Supply 

Miuand Long Tons 


^ 




20 


y 




20 











V, 


K, 


y^ 


^ - 









1931 


1932 


1933 


1934 


1935 


1936 


1937 


1938 





Standard Statistics Co., 'Standard Trade and Securities." March 4. 1QJ8 

A. The Price of Tin Per Pound in the United States from 1 93 I to 1 938. 

1. The inverse relationship chart is an especially interesting one. If there is a causal 

relationship, a rise in one curve may cause a fall in the other. 

2. The causal relationship between supply and demand and its effect upon price is well 

known and is presented in this chart. As the "world's visible supply" of tin goes 
down, the price per pound goes up, but not necessarily at the same rate. 

3. One of the most common forms of inverse relationship is that as production increases, 

unit costs usually decrease. 







































A 




















A 
































/l 


















/ Y-'^SO^VEMCY 'NDEX 
























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U.INO 


iX 


F lUSINEM 


ACTIVITY 








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I9IS ino 

Dun's Review. February 1<)J') 



ins )>M 

SCALE .7 



B. Twenty-five Year Comparison of Dun's Insolvency Index and the Cleveland Trust 
Company Index of Business in the United States. 

1. Compare with A above. 

2. Obviously the records of insolvency show an increase during periods of lessened business 

activity. 




i"r 



COMPARISONS WITH TWO CURVES 




283 



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284 



GRAPHIC PRESENTATION 



sua 


— 




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1 1 












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1 
















l**1 








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iMi 



A. Maximum, Average, and Minimum 
Prices of 2 Grades of Eggs in 
the State of Utah from 1924- 
1936. 

In the chart from which this was re- 
drawn, the colored section was 
dotted. In the process of photo- 
statting, some of the dots were 
lost, with the result that uni- 
formity of shading was lost. For 
that reason the chart was re- 
drawn. 



1tt4 •« 1* 27 l* •« M 11 •« JJ »« »S St 



Redrawn from U. S. Farm Credit Administration, 
Cooperatives Division, "Business Analysis of 
the Utah Poultry Producers Cooperative As- 
sociation," E>ec. 1937. SCALE .6 



STATE & FEDERAL GASOLINE SALES TAXES 

SHOWN IN CENTS PER GALLON 

SH^LC WtKACC or SAL£S TAJC* 
SHOWN tern CACH TtAII 



AVERAGE U S 
rirTr ntFKCMNTATivi citics 



eoM 


ooe* 


OSM 


aoM 


oo*i 


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MM 


a»> 


M«i 


M04 


OMO 


oin 


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. 


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MOTC-rUCAM. TAB 



I CUT CrtCIIVC A<« tl lUA OMITMNM. </t C«MT f nCCTlVt JUM I'.IUA ■/• CCHT «IT 1 « »,l— l JIMUMW I, t»f 



Joseph E. Pogue, "Economics of the Petroleum Industry," March 1939, The Chase National Bank of the 
City of New York. 

B. Trend of Average Retail Price of Gasoline in Fifty Representative Cities in the 
United States by Months, 1919-1938, Showing Incidence of Gasoline Sales 
Tax. Courtesy of The Texas Company. 



COMPARISONS WITH CURVES 



285 



SS4?= 



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E 



Frdrral Retcrvr Bonk of Nfw York. "Monthlv 
Review," November 1. 1^38. SCALE .6 

A. Daily Range of High and Low 
Quotations for Sterling Ex- 
change at New York in Sep- 
tember and October, 1938. 

1. The range bar chart is a form of the 

high-low chart. 

2. Daily fluctuations are presented here 

and in C below, while a monthly 
range is given in B. 



Federal Reterve Bank of New York, "Monthly 
Review," December 1. 1938. SCALE .6 

B. Monthly Range of High and Low Quo- 
tations for Sterling Exchange at 
New York from 1931 to De- 
cember 1938. 
When the bars are adjacent to each other 
as they are in this chart, the simi- 
larity between the bar form and 
the curve form of high-low chart 
is more pronounced. See 276B. 



IS18SS!BMBBIiV««a 




1 938- 



-19 3 9- 



y- 



\n 



— lao 

2IS 
" 



: 70 INDUSTRIALS 



mi, 



^E?? 



gffte 



ws^ 



30 RAILROADS 



& = 53' 



New York Herald Tnbune. March 13. 1939. 



SCALE 6 



C. Trend of Prices on the New York Stock Exchange Market from 1929 to March 
1939. 



Note the method of changing the scale to give monthly data for recent periods of time. 



286 



ill 



Chapter 35 
COMPARISONS WITH CURVES 



^^^H types of curve charts covered in this chapter are simple 
comparisons of more than two curves, progressive average curves, 
moving average curves, and normal trend curves. 

REFERENCES 

Croxton, Frederick E., and Dudley J. Cowden, Applied General 
Statistics, Prentice Hall Inc., New York City, 1939. 

Karsten, Karl G., Charts and Graphs, Prentice-Hall, Inc., New 
York City, 1923. 



PERCENT 
60 




National Association of Motor Bui Operators. Washington, D. C., "Bus Facts for 1938." 



SCALE .7 



A Comparison of the Percentage of Sales of Five Types of Motor Coaches in the 
United States from 1929 to 1937. 

1. The total of the percentages which the lines represent is one hundred. 

2. One way of differentiating a large number of curves plotted on one grid is shown here. 

3. It might have been better to connect the labels to the lines with arrows, eliminating the 

necessity for putting them at an angle. 



ill 



lit 



COMPARISONS WITH CURVES 



287 



OTOttr 

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•«»« 



Pcdrral Rcifrve Bank of New York. Monthly 
Review." July 1. 1937. SCALE .6 

A. Daily Average Production of Pas- 
senger Automobiles and Trucks 
in the United States in 1929, 
1932. 1936. and 1937. 

1. By using a monthly scale, the curves 

for several years may be plotted 
on the same grid with clearness 
and a saving of space. 

2. When letters only are used to indicate 

the months of a year, by noting 
the position of JASON in the line, 
it is easy to determine whether 
the year begins with January or 
June. 

*V CtHT 



























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19V 


1933 


lii4 


«35 


•93^ 


i45? 



Federal Reserve Bank of New York, "Monthly 
Review." April 1. 1937 

B. Money Rates in the New York 
Market from 1931 to 1937. 

This line chart has taken the appear- 
ance of a stair chart because 
.•noney rates do not fluctuate a 
great deal from week to week ex- 
cept under unusual conditions. 
Compare with 135B and 264A. 




I 



Dun's Review. November 1938. 



Scale -6 



C. Failures by Federal Reserve Dis- 
tricts in the United States from 
1936 to September 1938. 

1. This arrangement of curves enaMes 

one to put a great many on one 
grid in a very small space. 

2. Note that the zero line of each curve 

is the top line in the one below. 
Compare with 271A. 



\\\ 



288 



GRAPHIC PRESENTATION 



^Arrtiiiiiuiiiuiuiiiiii'iiiuuu 




; 1 1 ;i j a 1 9 > II { s J ; ; 1 1 s .1 1 2 s .8 s } ? Iji 11 ! .: 1 



Brinton, "Graphic Methods." McGraw-Hill, 1914. 



SCALE .5 



A. Yearly Average of Revenue Tons per Train Mile on the Pittsburgh and Lake 
Erie Railroad. 

1. The dotted line in this chart is a progressive average, or an average of all the items 

shown. 

2. The numbers along the top of the chart give the value of the points on the plotted 

curves. 

3. When space does not allow the dates to be put in full, the method shown here identifies 

each vertical line, and accents the decades. 

4. Note the position of the scale designation in the upper left corner for both the scale and 

data figures. 




1930 



U. S. Department of ARriculture, Bureau of Agricultural Economics. SCALE .8 

B. Annual Yield and Nine-Year Moving Average Yield of Rye Per Acre in the 
United States from 1 866 to 1930. 

A moving average, often used in graphic charts, is obtained in this way: the sta- 
tistics for a number of years are averaged and the result is plotted at the half-way 
mark. Thus if the data for the 9 years from 1890 to 1898 had been averaged, the 
result would be plotted at the year 1895. 



COMPARISONS WITH CURVES 



289 




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15 i 



290 



IIE 



GRAPHIC PRESENTATION 




Active File 

...... Inflow of Appliconts 

^^— Outflow of Applicants 



Excess outflow of appliconts over 
inflow. 

Excess inflow of applicants over 
outflow. 



U S Employment Srrvirc "Survey of Employmrnt Service Information." Fetiriinry I9J8. 

Effect of Outflow and Inflow of Applicants in the U. S. Employnnent Service on the 
Active File from April 1934 to January 1938. 

1. Whereas each of these three curves minht have been presented separately, the com- 

bination of the tliree presents a picture not otherwise possible. 

2. Notice how a solid section in the two lines at the bottom is rcHected in the upper one. 




3IE 



COMPARISONS WITH CURVES 



291 



FftCSHMEN 



1912 1913 19W 1915 1916 1917 

6,000 

5,000 



SOPHOMORES 

JUMIORS 
SENIORS 




I 



4/XX) 



3,000 



2.000 



Engineering Nfw«-Rccord, Novfmber 29, 1917. 

A. Enrollment in Engineering Schools in the United States from 1912 to 1917. 

1. This chart presents the effect of the draft and enlistments for the World War on the 

enrollment in enginering schools. 

2. The dotted line gives the numbers of students enrolled as freshmen, sophomores, etc. 

The other line by linking these lines shows the history of the classes from the time 
the students entered as freshmen. 

3. Thus in 1914, over 6,000 students enrolled as freshmen to be graduated in 1918. The 

enrollment of this class in 1917 at the beginning of its senior year had dropped to 
a little over 2.000. 





•40 SO 






so 






70 








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90 






1900 








« 








20 








1950 




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MARIETTA, OHIO 


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ST. PAUL. MINNESOTA 








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fOB TEN TEARS ENDING 



National RftourcM Committee, "Report of Water Planning Committee, Part III," 1934. 



SCALE .7 



B. Ten-Year Moving Averages of Annual Precipitation for Marietta, Ohio, and St. 
Paul, Minnesota, from 1 840 to 1931. 

This chart differs from 288B and 289 in that it is a moving average "for ten years ending" 
rather than for ten years "centered." 



Ill 



292 



GRAPHIC PRESENTATION 








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COMPARISONS WITH CURVES 



293 




I 






Brinton, "Graphic Methods." McGraw-Hill. 1Q14. 



SCALE .9 



A, Chart Showing by Months the Average Total Daily Water Consumption In 
Boston, and by Months the Average Daily Per Capita Water Consunnption. 
Also the Yearly Average of Daily Consunnption Stated in Total and Per 
Capita. 

1. In this illustration, the curves may be read from either of two different sets of coor- 

dinate rulings. Using the horizontal ruled lines, we may read from the curves the 
average total consumption per day. By reading from the slanting lines, the same 
curves may be interpreted as the average consumption per capita per day. 

2. The scheme of using two sets of coordinate rulings is a valuable one. The scale for 

"million gallons per day" should, however, have been shown only at the left, with 
the slanting line scale for "gallons per capita" placed in the right-hand margin for 
the sake of clearness. 

3. The scale for "gallons per capita" is shown in the second vertical zone of the grid. 




Exhibit of thf Metropolitan Life Iniurance Company at the New York Worlds Fair, 103<) 

B. Curve in Neon Lights on a Glass Grid Placed in Front of Three Related Curves 
Painted on a Wall Surface. 

1. Tubular form of the neon light lends itself particularly well to the making of illuminated 

curve charts without limit in size. Colors are available to give contrast in super- 
imposed curves. Consideration should be given to glare as lights may be too brilliant 
for easy reading. 

2. On the glass-ruled grid for the neon lights above it is unfortunate that the zero line of 

the death rate was omitted. 

3. For other methods of display, see "Displays and Exhibits," pages 486-493. 




294 



Chapter 36 
COMPONENT PARTS SHOWN BY CURVES 



IN THE chapters on "100% Bar Charts." pages 92-105, and 
"Component Bar Charts," pages 132-141, the method of show- 
ing component parts in bar chart form is illustrated. The charts in 
this chapter present the same type of information in the form of 
curves. 

Other terms used for charts in which component parts are shown 
by curves are percentage charts, band charts, 100% band charts, 
percentage band charts, and surface charts. The terms "100% band 
chart," "percentage chart," and "percentage band chart," designate 
only those charts in which material is presented qn the basis of 
100%. See 297B, 299B. and 300. The terms "surface chart" and 
"band chart" may be used when referring to either of the two 
charts shown on page 300. 





Pfdfral Rfservc Bank of New York. "Monthly 
Review," July 1. 1037. SCALE .7 

A. Reserve Balance of Banks in the 
New York Federal Reserve Bank 
District from 1932 to 1937. 

1. In a curve chart, showing component 

parts, it is possible to plot the 
totals of several groups of figures 
and the parts of which the total 
is composed. 

2. In order to show rulings in a solid 

black or cross-hatched area, white 
ink is extremely useful. The white 
lines may be drawn after the area 
is completely filled in with ink. 



Alexander Hamilton Institute. N. Y C . ' Busi- 
ne<.s Conditions Weekly." July 2S. 1').18 

SCALE 6 

8. Employment and Unemployment in 
the United States from 1929 to 
1938. 

1. Because it probably was desired to em- 

phasize the unemployed, the divi- 
sion of the total supply of workers 
representing the unemployed was 
put in black ink. 

2. Note that the total supply of workers 

increases each year, due no doubt 
to the increase in population 






COMPONENT PARTS SHOWN BY CURVES 



295 




1900 



1910 



1920 



1930 



1940 



U S Department of ARriculturc. Bureau of Agricultural Economics. SCALE 8 

Approximate Acreage of Crops Harvested and of Pasturage to Feed Horses and 
Mules in the United States from 1900 to 1936. 

Brackets may be utilized for grouping in a number of ways. Compare this with 96A. 





296 



GRAPHIC PRESENTATION 




WPA and Bureau of Agricultural Economici, "Rural Poverty." 1938. 



SCALE .8 



A. Expenditures for Direct Rural and Town Relief in the United States from 1932 
to 1937. 

1. Because the CWA and WPA reduced the number of persons receiving direct relief, ex- 

penditures during these two periods were affected. 

2. The division of the total into parts shows that public relief has been reduced since the 

beginning of 1935, and that another form of direct relief has increased. 




"The Federal Chart Book," Prepared by Central Statittical Board and National Resources Committee, 
January 1938. 

B. Population in the United States by Size of "Conrimunity" from 1890 to 1930. 

1. Each incorporated place is a separate "community." The use of a heavy line to repre- 

sent the total emphasizes the fact that the lines below it arc merely divisions. 

2. See 93 A4. 



COMPONENT PARTS SHOWN BY CURVES 



297 



MILLIONS OF PERSONS 
50 



AO — 



}0 ' 



20 




^O' * o ^--^^'c 

-,, ^\>-r--^vv\^^v 

,-^ V X -■ Cmp/oyeea in Distribution Sarvice .^ t x ." o ;" • c>\; ,-' ^ ^"^>. 




1929 1930 I9?i I9?2 19?? I9M 1935 19)6 I9?7 19^8 



I 



U. S. Dfpartmcnt of Commfrcc. Division of Economic Resrarch, "Survfy of Current Business," July 1938. 

A, Total Non-Agricul+ural Employment in the United States from 1929 to 1938. 

1. When the labels for the various sections of a component-part curve chart are indicated 

within the section, an attempt should be made to keep the labels on a horizontal 
plane. 

2. Note the position of the label for the "total" line. 




Dun's Rrview. August 1938 

B. Percentage Distribution of Strike Issues in the United States from 1927 to 1937. 

The 100% band chart is similar in principle to the charts which contain a series of 100% 
bars. See 102B. 



298 



GRAPHIC PRESENTATION 



^IRCKNT 

100 
80 

60 
50 
40 

20 



*■ 




— 






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^^ 






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- 


fc. 




























RA 
RF 


rFi 


}AD 
5T,5 








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KIICtNT 

100 
80 

60 
50 
40 

20 



^ WI6 'tT 18 W 20 "21 "22 "23 '24 75 26 "27 28 "29 '30 31 32 '33 '34 '35 '36 1937 
Automobile Manufacturers Association, "Automobile Facts and FiRures," 1038. 

A. Comparison of the Percentage of Receipts from Marketing Livestock by Truck 
and by Railroad in the United States from 1916 to 1937. 

The reason for including this chart in this chapter was to show a hundred per cent chart 
in another form. In any one year the total of the values of the two curves is 100%. 
See 299A. 

Abstracts from Time Series Charts. A Manual of Design and 
Construction, 1938, prepared by Committee on Standards for 
Graphic Presentation, under procedure of American Standards 
Association, with The American Society of Mechanical Engineers 
as sponsor body. 

SURFACE CHARTS CAN OFTEN BE USED SUCCESSFULLY: 

1. To add emphojis to a chart which might appear weak as a line 
chort. 

2. To emphosize "omount" as against "ratio." 

3. To picture "point" data as distinguished from "period" data Isee 
definitions — poge 9). 

4. To show components of o total, especially a percentage distribu- 
tion. 

5. To present a general picture as ogoinst exoct measurement. 
SURFACE CHARTS NORMALLY SHOULD NOT BE USED: 

1. Where accurate reading of values is desired, in the case of more 
than one component. 

2. For coses where irregular layers will unduly distort the contours 
of the others aL>ove it. 

3. Where chonges in the series are abrupt, causing opticol dis- 
tortion of the width of the slroto. 

Construction 

1. LAYOUT AND DESIGN In generol, the principles and procedures 
ore the same as for line chorts. 

2. GRIDS As o surface chart is rarely used for the accurate determino- 
tion of values, few horizontal rulings ore necessary. They generally 
serve merely os bases of comparison. Surface charts ore generally 
more effective with relatively few vertical rulings. Minor time divisions 
can, in such coses, be indicated by means of stubs on the horizontal 
Kole. 






COMPONENT PARTS SHOWN BY CURVES 



299 



A. Percentage Distribution of Three 
Types of Gasoline Feed in En- 
gines fronn 1910 to 1918. 

The total of the figures at the right-hand 
edge of the chart is 100%. as 
commented in 286. 




I 



"Automotive Induitrict," January 3, 1418. 

SCALE 6 



Abstracts from Time Series Charts. A Manual of Design and 
Construction, 1938, prepared by Committee on Standards for 
Graphic Presentation, under procedure of American Standards 
Association, with The American Society of Mechanical Engineers 
as sponsor body. 

3. SCALE SELECTION. Since surfaces ore built up (rom the zero line 
or other line of relerence, the oitiount scale should never be broken. 
Multiple amount scales ore not opplicoble to this type of presentation. 

4. SCALE DESIGNATIONS. In general, the principles ond procedures 
ore the some as lor line charts. 

5. SURFACES Surloces should be so shoded os to present a pleasing, 
even tone. In stroto charts the layers should be so shoded as to be 
easily distinguished. The weight and spocing of the lines and dots of 
the shading ore important; both should be determined from a con- 
siderotion of the size of the areas to be shoded end amount of reduc- 
tion intended Proiected surfaces may be indicated by lighter shoding 
of the some type as illustrated at the right. 

THE FOLLOWING SHADINGS ARE SUGGESTED: 

lal Block (solid) for generol use for purposes of emphosis. It should 
be used with discretion, however, and usually not for large 
oreos. In stroto charts the lowest layer should be the most im- 
portoni and therefore generally requires the heaviest shading 
(usually block). 

Ibl Crosshotch Sfiodmg* of o relatively dork lone, is often used in 
place of block for large oreas. A light Crosshatch is often useful 
for small layers of o strata chart. 

(c) Parallel Line Shading* may be used lor large or small surfoces. 
The lines should not porollel any opprecioble length of the curves 
end vertical or horizontal shading is not recommended as it may 
be confused with grid rulings. 

(dl Doited Shading (pebbled or stippled) is particularly useful for 
narrow layers of a stroto chart. 

6. SURFACE DESIGNATION. Lobels should generally be pieced entirely 
within their respective surfaces If the surface is too smoH to permit 
this, o lobel may be placed entirely outside ond related to the sur- 
foce by meons of on arrow. Keys should not be used if direct lobielmg 
is possible. However, the spoce about labeU should be reduced as 
much OS possible to ovo<d loo great contrast. 

7. SURFACE CHART DESIGNATIONS. In general, the principles ond 
procedures ore the same as for line charts. 



* Crosshotch ond oorolt«t line shod<ng should b« drown ot o 45 d«ore« 
ongi« Shoding constructed with v«rticol or horizontal lines is rtot recom* 
mended lo< surlocc chorts. 






300 



GRAPHIC PRESENTATION 



TOTAL B T U EQUIVALENT CONSLKtO 




»^^ 2» ■?« -x 



PERCENT OF TOTAL B T U EQUIVALENT CONSUMED 




<m 1* at 10 



WPA, National Research Project, "Fuel Efficiency in Cement Manufacture," April 1938. 

Total Energy Consumed in Hydraulic Cennent Manufacture by Types of Energy in 
the United States from 1909 to 1935. 

When component parts are presented in curve charts and if space will allow, it is desirable 
to use two charts, one showing quantities and the other showing percentages. The 
above charts illustrate the reason. 



301 



Chapter 37 
INDEX NUMBERS SHOWN BY CURVES 



in a chart showing index numbers, 100 is used as the basis of 
comparison. In computing index numbers, one item or the average 
of several consecutive items is represented as 100. All other items 
are expressed as percentages of the base. 

Index numbers are computed and published by the U. S. Bureau 
of Labor Statistics, the Federal Reserve Board, the U. S. Depart- 
ment of Commerce, Dun and Bradstreet's, and many other statis- 
tical organizations. 

REFERENCES 
Brown, Theodore H., Richmond F. Bingham, and V. A. Tem- 
nomeroff, Laboratory Handbook of Statistical Methods, Mc- 
Graw-Hill Book Company, Inc., New York, 1931 




»!••» -21 11 13 14 IS •» -27 ■» •» -JO ^l -il -JJ -M-JJ 1* 



Fcdrral Rctervc Bank of New York, "Monthly 
Review," January 1, 1937. SCALE .6 

A. Index of General Production and 
Trade in the United States from 
1919 to 1936. 1923-25 Aver- 
age Equals 100%. 

In index numbers, one figure is selected at 
100% and all others are expressed 
as percentages of that figure. In 
this chart the average for the years 
from 1923 through 1925 was se- 
lected as the base figure or 100%. 




1929 1930 1931 1932 1933 1934 1935 1936 



Federal Reserve Bank of New York, "Monthly 
Review," March 1, 193 7. SCALE .7 

B. Indexes of Volume of Agricultural 
and Non-Agricultural Exports in 
the United States from 1929 to 
1936. 1923.25 Average Equals 
100%. 

It is better to have both the 100% line 
and the zero line heavier than the 
others in an index-number chart. 



302 



GRAPHIC PRESENTATION 



-i — I — r—i — I — I — I — I — i — I — r 



-I — I — I — \ — \ — I — I — I — ' — I — r- 
Price Barometer of Profits 

(1910= 100) 



Income 




Alexander Hamilton Institute. "Business Conditions Weekly." July 2J. 1<»38. 

A. Price Barometer of Profits in the United States from January 1937 to July 1938. 

The crossing of two lines often creates areas which can be labelled. Compare the shadmg 
of these two areas with 283. 




* SEASONAL AVERAGE PRICE TO CKOIVERS 



U S Department of ARricuIture. Bureau of ARricultural Economics SCALE b 

B. Comparison of the Indexes of Production, Total Value, and Price of Seventeen 
Vegetables for Fresh Market in the United States from 1919 to 1936. 

In curve charts, when a number of curves are plotted on the same grid and when a num- 
ber of curve patterns are used, it is better to have the curves labelled as they are 
here than to have a boxed legend or key to identify them. 






INDEX NUMBERS SHOWN BY CURVES 



303 



INIXX XUMBtM Ivn-KK) 




l«M l»» l»V >9yi nfi !?>« I«» r»>6 l»)7 



U S Drpnttmfiit of Commerce. Division of Eco- 
nomic Rrscarch, "Survey of Current Busi 
nr%5 June l'»38 SCALE <> 



A. Indexes of Income Paid Out by 
Type of Paynnent in the United 
States from 1929 to 1937. 1929 
Equals 100%. 

1. Till' thfcjry of index numbers is clearly 

demonstrated in this chart. Since 
the hgurcs for 1929 are equal to 
100%, every curve begins at the 
same point in 1929. 

2. In choosing a base year, care should 

be taken to select one which is rep- 
resentative, and devoid of "high 
peaks" or "low valleys." 

3. For another method of presenting this 

material, sec 114A. 



I 



Per Cent 



105 






▲ 
















100 


^ 


^ 


/> 


«N 


^ 


^^ 


















•^ 


k 


^ 


>V 




95 














1 


^ 
























90 






^ 




^^^ 






____^ 




_^ 



Quarters 



100 Per Cent 



3 4 

1914 



2 3 
1915 



2 3 
1916 



Leonard P Ayrcs 

B. Method Developed in Washington, D. C, During the World War to Keep 
Track of British Ship-Building. 

The blue lines going up show the new tonnage built in each three months' period. The 

black lines going down show the tonnage sunk. Thus at the end of any quarter. 

it was possible to ascertain the gains and losses, as well as the total remaining. 
One hundred per cent equals British seagoing steam vessels at the beginning of the war. 

This consisted of 18.892,089 gross tons, plus 72S.500 seized from the Germans and 

Austrians. 






304 



GRAPHIC PRESENTATION 




I9t6 1917 I9te 1919 1920 1921 r922 1923 1924 I92S 1926 1927 1928 1929 1930 1931 i932 r933 1934 1935 r93( t937 



The Magazine of Wall Street, November 20, 1937. 

A. Changes in Major Connmodity Price Group in fhe United States from 1916 
to November 1937. 

The technique of putting the detail for the last year under a magnifying glass is good. 



eso 








PncM 


tfht 












ISO 

1 

100 
80 












\ 




r- 


Piot 


■Old 






- 




J 




yiT' 


> 


^ 


f^ 
















} 


• 


r 














. . 













250 














ISO 

1 

100 

90 



















"T" 


Pnew 































WPA ,Tnd Bureau of ARricuIturnl Economics. 'Rur.nl Poverty." 1038. SCALE .7 

B. Prices Paid and Prices Received by Farmers in the United States 1910-1937. 
For Prices Paid the Average Year August 1 910- 1 9 14 Equals 100%. For 
Prices Received the Average Year August 1909-1914 Equals 100%. 

Since the chronoloRical scale from 1910 to 1937 is by years and the scale for 1937 is by 
months, the latter is presented as if it were a separate chart. Compare this with 
304A and 285C. 



INDEX NUMBERS SHOWN BY CURVES 



305 



•((.LIONS 
V OOLLAM 



TOTAL EXPORTS 




I 



"The Federal Chart Book," Prepared by Central Statistical Board and National Resources Committee. 
January 1938. SCALE .7 

Total Exports and Imports of the United States Compared with the Index of Physi- 
cal Volume of Exports from 1919 to 1937. 

1. To add meaning to numerical values, a comparison with index numbers is often useful. 

The insertion of the small index number chart in the space at the upper right 
shows one method of accomplishing this. 

2. Note the method of breaking the grid to indicate an omission of a period of years. 

3. See 93 A4. 



306 



GRAPHIC PRESENTATION 




WPA. and Burrau of Acncultural Economics. "Rural Poverty." l')38. 



SCALE 7 



A. Trends of Expenditures for Relief in the United States fronn 1932 to December 
1936. 

When a broad line is used for a curve, the point in the middle of the line is the plotted 
point. If great accuracy is desired, a thin line should be used. The advantage of 
a thick line is that it is easily seen from a distance. 



\w 








































ISO 


12$ 


















A 
















1 




125 








k. 




/ 


[A 




I 


\ 


A _* 




Noi 


^ -^ 






J 


1 






m 






10? 


7»' 




ii 


A 


'W 


w 


V ^ 


^ 


V* . 


-1 


t 


1 


1 




J 


r 






7S 


iW 


1 J 


f 




V 












\ 


\ 




i 




1 


V 








M 


2S 


V 


1 


















\ 


\. 






W 










2S 


.v„ 
























Vl 


1 












,x 




•21 


•22 


•2.1 


•24 


•a 


•26 


•27 


•28 


•29 


•30 


•.11 


•32 


•.XI 


•.1 


14 


•3."; 


•36 


•37 


•38 





B. Steel Production in the United States from 1921 to 1938. 1926 Equals 100%. 

This chart shows concretely that the average for the base period actually averages 100% 
on the chart. Sec also 302B. 






INDEX NUMBERS SHOWN BY CURVES 



307 



MOCX NUMBint, HI6H MONTH Of i«s;>ioo 




I 



National Industrial Confrrcnoc Board. Inc , November 2S. 1038 



SCALE 7 



Depression and Recovery in the United States for the Years 1937 and 1938. 

1. The most interesting feature of this chart is that the high month of 193 7 is equal 

to 100% in each of the six charts. The result is that each curve has a different 
base figure. 

2. The lowest point from that date to the date when the data were last available was 

designated the end of the depression period. As a result, there is a variation in 
the date at which the depression period supposedly ends in each of the six charts. 






308 



GRAPHIC PRESENTATION 



m-i 






/v. ,.-^'r\i 


r1 


\ 










-1 




.^ 


^ 


/ 


* — « 


V 












\ 


f\ 


Lf^ 


m 


\ 


M 


f 


















v. 


\/i 


r 


' V 




0. 













































































































m mt m m nonnnBHniKTononifaonaifatifuitstnimt 

U. S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor StatUtici, "Labor Information Bulletin," April 1936. 

A. Physical Volume of Industrial Production in the United States fronn 1919 to 
1936. 1923-25 Average Equals 100%. 

Compare with B below. 



INDUSTRIAL PRODUCTION 

(PER CAPITA) 




Magazine of Wall Street, January 29, 1938. 



SCALE 7 



B. Per Capita Industrial Production in the United States fronn 1875 to 1938. 
1923-25 Average Equals 100%. 

This silhouette is different from most m that the grid above the plotted line is eliminated. 
Compare this chart with A above and 2 73. 



INDEX NUMBERS SHOWN BY CURVES 



309 



Yearly Output of Four Important 
Industries in the United States 
from 1919 to the Middle of 
1936. Relative to 1923-25 Aver- 
age. 

Noti- the- use of iirruws lo imlu-ntr tin- 
scale applii'iiblr tu tlic ilata. 

The reas«)ii (or prisj-ntmj; this mate- 
rial in 'his form was no doubt to 
avoid crossing the curves. Com- 
pare tJus nuthoil with .U)JA. 




Fr.lci 



Kurtvr Blink of New 
w ■■ Aiimi»t 1. l'JJ6. 



York, ••Monthly 



I 



INDCXtS or INDUSTRIAL PRODUCTION 

MCTAL INDU5TRIC3 




1921 l^^^ nzi I9^■^ i925 l^^6 isz' on i929 i9J0 



Brown Bineham. ami TrmnomrroH. ' Laboratory Handbook of Statistical Methods/' McGraw-Hill, 1931. 

B. An Example of a Multiple Axis Graph. 

1. It has been noted that when a multiple scale is used on an arithmetic chart, all scales 
must have a common zero line. When the data are chant; ed to index numbers, it 
is possible to arrange the curves on a multiple axis; that is, each curve fluctuates 
around its own base, or 100, and can be moved farther from or closer to other 
curves without distorting the facts presented. 

2 The purpose of this arrangement is to facilitate comparisons of the time and ampli- 
tude changes in the curves. 



310 ■ 



■|i 



■|| 



Chapter 38 
FREQUENCY CHARTS 



■ HE charts in this chapter present data showing frequenoy dis- 
tribution. The most common bases of classification or arrange- 
ment are according to kind, size, location, or time of occur- 
rence. Other terms that may be applied to this type of chart are 
histogram, distribution chart, and block diagram. When the curve 
in a frequency chart assumes the shape of a bell, it may be called 
a bell curve chart. 



250 



200 







2 


5 


to 


to 


to 


2 


5 


8 



8 II 14 17 20 23 26 29 32 35 

to to to to to to to to to end 

II 14 17 20 23 26 29 32 35 mort 
Income in tt^ousonds of dollars 



WPA Division of Social Rrscirrh. "L.Tndlortl and Tenant on ttif Cotton Plantation." IQJ6. 

Distribution of Total Gross Income of 645 Cotton Plantations in the United States 
in 1934. 

A frcqiit'ncy chart is a distribution accordinn to certain catcnorics. In this chart the cate- 
Horifs arc income groups. The first bar represents the number of cotton plantations 
in the United States with an income less than $2,000 a year, while the last bar 
represents the number of plantations with an income of $35,000 or more. 



Ill 




Ill 



III 

FREQUENCY CHARTS 

MACHINE OPERATORS 

PERC£NT or TOTAL PCRCLNT OF TOT AL 



III 



311 




16-19 20-24 25-34 35-44 45-54 55-64 

AGE GROUPS 



HAND CIGAR MAKERS 



PERCENT OF TOTAL 
35 



PERCENT OF TOTA L 
135 




20-24 25-34 35-44 45-54 55-04 85 AND 

ON/FR 

AGE GROUPS 

WPA National Rrsrarrh Projcrt. CiKar M;ikrr» — Aftrr thr Lay-off." Dfccm»>*r 1Q37 SCALE 9 

Age of Machine Operators in Cigar Factories and Hand Cigar Makers in the 
United States as of July 1931. 

1. A comparison of these two frequency charts indicates that machine operators are rela- 
tively much younger than hand cigar makers. 

i. The notation of the median age means that there are as many men younger than 26 
working as machine operators as there arc men older than 26. 



Ill 



III 



312 



GRAPHIC PRESENTATION 



Male 



Female 




WPA, Diviiion of Social Rcsfarch. "Urban Workers on Relief," 1936. 



SCAI.E 9 



Duration of Unemployment Since Last Non-Relief Job of Unemployed Workers on 
Relief in May 1934 by Socio-Economic Group of Usual Occupation in the 
United States. 

Note that the total of the bars representing any one group, such as female unskilled work- 
ers, is equal to 100 per cent. 



FREQUENCY CHARTS 



313 




400 
350 
300 
250 
200 
150 

too 

50 


400 
350 
300 
250 
200 
150 
100 
50 




I 

















>• 












m 












Frequency polygor 
1 from data ^ 


1^ 


P^ 


ft. 


Curve obtained fro 
first smoothing 






















f 




\ 
































/ 








\ 






























/ 










\ 




























/ 












\ 


























/ 












1 


V 




(Jurve obtained from 
y' second smoothing i 






J 


^ 
















^ 


c 
















^ 


4' 


















V- 





















































1 1 1 1 
Curve obtained from 


yf 


<g 


N 






fornr 


all 


reqi 


lenc 


y cu 


rve 








second smoothing J 
1 1 i» 1 / 


7 




\yr' 
















7/ 






y 


V 




























// 








N 


^ 








































\ 


V 
























/y 
















\ 
























/ 
















\ 


\ 


















^ 




















^ 




_ 









UN0ER2 4-5 



89 1213 16 17 20-21 24 25 28 29 32 33 36 37 
COUNTIES YIELD-PER-ACRE GROUPS.IN BUSHELS 



U S. Dcparttiwnt of Acriculturc, Burrau of Acricultural Economics. 



SCALE .8 



Distribution of 2,412 Counties in the United States Into Wheat Yield-per-acre 
Groups. 



This shovwT the three steps in securing a frequency curve. 



314 



II 



III 

GRAPHIC PRESENTATION 



■|i 



HUMDRCDS 
OF CARS 




MAY JUNE JULY AUG. SEPT. OCT. 

Rrtlrawn from n Chart liy Biirrnu of AKririiltural Economic*. U. S. IDcpt. of ARriculturc. SCALE 8 

Average Weekly Carload Shipments of Peaches in the United States by States. 

1. The average is of the years 1927-19.^0. 

2. The copy from which this was redrawn was a photostat, and it was redrawn because 

the base lines of some of the charts were wavy. After the chart was finished, it 
was found that there was a definite optical illusion. When the chart is viewed 
from a distance, notice that the base lines seem to hump at the point where the 
bars arc the highest. 



Ill 



ill 



III 



Ill 



III 

FREQUENCY CHARTS 



■|i 



315 



40 

30 

20 

10 


30 

20 

- 10 

c 

^ 30 

20 

10 


30 

20 

10 



16-17 
- ytort o» og« am- 

— ■Iili 



18-19 I 

ftOfi of 09« ■ 



20-21 
yeort o( oge ' 



^■ti 



I 



■ ■ ■ I 



22-24 
yeors of oqe ' 



LLt 



[ 



JLJL-M. 



II 



12 



htow 1-3 4-5 6 7 8 9 10 
Grode school and high school 

OPEN COUNTRY - Grode completed 



2 3 
College 



10 



16-17 
years of oge 



6-17 ■ 

rs of oge ■ 

zidtulxx^ 



30 

18-19 
20 [- yeors of oge 



■ 1 ■ I l^-rrl 



30 

20 
10 



20-21 
years of oge 



1_I_I 



Jml 



22-24 
yeors of oge 



T^ITI 



i 



!_■_& 



I 



None 1-3 4-5 6 7 8 9 10 II 12 
Grode school and high school 

VILLAGE - Grode completed 



40 

30 

20 

10 


30 

20 

10 


30 

20 

10 


30 

20 

10 



■^ ^0 

30 



12 3 4 
College 



WPA. Divifion of Social Research. "Rural Youth on Relief." 1037. 



SCALE 9 



Grade Completed by Out-of-School Rural Youth on Relief, by Age and by Resi- 
dence, in the United States, October 1935. 

This may indicate a lower percentage of college graduates on relief, or only a lower per- 
centage of college graduates in the community. 



Ill 




316 



GRAPHIC PRESENTATION 



St o 






5!? 



r^ 



H ^ 








0) 


a: 


"o 


CO 






E 


^ 


u 


c 






V 


CD 


•V 


V 


c 
u 




u 

a> 


C 
> 


c 

3 


Xi 




O 


VI 




C8 




_ 


bC 


C 
<D 

u 

be 


CD 


73 




>> 




JZ 






0) 




^ 


>> 




0) 


C 


JZ 


u 




—> 




u 


E 


OD 




Z 


3 


tC 


•o 




^ 


u 
a 

n 




E 


c 


c 


T3 


00 










c 




V 




a> 
u 

c 


00 
CD 






in 

O 



« ^«2 u 



u a> 

< ■? 

6 IS 

i « 

5 -O 



1 :? 



d) u 



2 CL 

o Of 

^ u 

C 0) 






o -^ 



^ ^ 



o 


>.- 


O 


3 

E 


■^ 


o 


tN 


ni 




(/» 


"a 


^ 




o 


^ 


QO 


0) 




in 


3 


V 

















m 




CD 


^ 


m 



z: J3 



^ 2- 



i; 2 -. J= 






>2 " "5 z: 

., « CD (/» 



*> 3 



•C i 



Q - 



FREQUENCY CHARTS 



317 



HALF-YEARLY INTERVALS. JULY 1933 -JULY 1935 




0f^ y<Kt 0Ot)o«ort 

0P(ftittrl»On« ©Oijlnel o( Colun*w ©Aiobomo 
@Wnl Virqmio @Aikcnsos 

(|)Ncrin Co'Dii'va 

®Sg>k>> Conttno @Oiar>oma 

WPA. Division of Social Research, "Trends in Relief Expenditures. 1910-1935." 1937. 

Percent of Population Receiving Relief, by States, fronn the General Relief Pro- 
grann, F.E.R.A., from July 1933 through July 1935. 

1. If this chart is turned so that the left side becomes the base line, the similarity be- 

tween it and other frequency charts is more easily seen. 

2. The shaded areas and the use of numbers to give a key to the states are good tech- 

niques. 



318 ■ 



III 

GRAPHIC PRESENTATION 



■!■ 



■■ UCDIAN, BWKAU OF STAHOAffOS 
• SM-A^y or Ott Of HJODC IMXvmMLS 

ontp cu»f3i tA/tm^Gs or CNc»€)a»c auaMJB, auLUVN a 



ISOOO 



14000 



13000 



12000 



IIOOO 



10000 



90O0 



aooo 



7000 



5000 



4000 



3000 



2000 



lOOO 









i! 




t 
/ 




















/ 

i 














k 


fl 


II 


/ 














ii 


f 


/ 


















A 


'f 
















/ 


// 


















r 

/ 


















1 


' / 


/ 




y 










— 


f 

1 


/ 




*^ 


• 










1 

1 ' 


f 


■^ 


• • 


o 


• • 


• 


• 




^■■^ 




i 


''] 


• * ^^ 


• • 

; • 




'^—^m 


• • 


• 

^orumiiuiL 


Mzsficf>a 


MT 


1 




^ 




o 

• 


• 


1 
^{JPP£H BOUNDAffir Of It 


• 


'CPCCMT 








t 


• 


• • 






1 




r 









































to 15 20 25 30 

YEARS AFTER GRADUATION 



35 40 45 30 



WaihiriKton, D. C Section of the A.S.M.E., "The Economic Status of Enninecrs in the Federal Service," 
Mechanical EngineerinK, February 1930. 

Comparison of the Salaries of the Professional Staff of the National Bureau of 
Standards in August 1928 With the Salaries of Persons Holding the Same 
Type of Position Outside the Federal Service. 

The 5 curves labelled as follows: "lower boundary of maximum 10 per cent," "lower 
boundary of maximum 25 per cent," "median," "upper boundary of minimum 25 
per cent," and "upper boundary of minimum 10 per cent" refer to the distribution 
of persons in a similar occupation outside the Federal Service. Only the heavy 
line represents salaries in the Federal service, as indicated by the key. 



■Il 



III 

FREQUENCY CHARTS 



■!■ 



319 



A. Distribution of the Causes of Ac- 
cidents in Hartford, Conn. 

Compare this method of showing the dis- 
tribution of the causes of acci- 
dents with that used in 190A. 




I 



Travelers Insuranrr Co . Hartford. Conn 

SCALE 7 




Burni. "The Decline of Competition." McGraw-Hill, 1936 (Source: Federal Trade Commitsion Price 
Baies. Inquiry). SCALE .7 

B. Net Yields on the Sale of 2.350 Carloads of Cement to Five Minneapolis Line 
Lumber Companies at 2 1 Destinations in Minnesota, Iowa, and North and 
South Dakota Between July I, 1927 and June 30, 1929. 

1. Each dot represents one carload of cement. Dots in the area marked "one price sys- 

tem" represent sales at prices yielding to the mill its "then current maximum mill 
net price." 

2. Dots in successive outer zones represent sales yielding less than the mill's maximum 

mill net by an amount within the range of cents indicated within each zone on 
the chart. The guide for cents per zone is shown in the South Dakota section. 



320 



Chapter 39 
CORRELATION CHARTS 



THE purpose of correlation charts is to indicate the degree and 
type of relationship between variables. One form of correlation 
chart, the scatter diagram, also called the gun-shot or shot-gun 
chart and buck-shot chart, sometimes indicates that there is no 
relationship between two variables. See the chart below. 



( 4tfir tu^Kidtf t 



IT" 



vuit votuui itn - TMOtnANM of ook.iu\ 



Dun't Review, August 1938. SCALE .7 

The Increase or Decrease of Sales for the Period 1935-37 for Individual Retail 
Stores in the United States According to Sales Volunne in 1935. 



1. 



According to the comments in Dun's Review, the wide scatter of individual cases 
indicates a "growth tendency in favor of small concerns" rather than indicating 
that "all large stores had built sales volume more rapidly than the small ones." 

It should be noted that the vertical rulings are logarithmic. 

The limited number of vertical and horizontal rulings was intentional -that is, they 
were limited to make it easy for the reader to notice the lack of pattern of the dots. 



CORRELATION CHARTS 



321 



. The Development of Electrical Ad- 
vertising as Revealed by the 
Number of Watts Usea per 
Inhabitant in 143 Cities in the 
United States in 1922. 

This scatter chart is supplemented by 
an average hne secured by com- 
putation. 

The lack of pattern here indicates that 
there is little correlation between 
the two variables. 

Aggregate population of the 143 cities 
was 6,300,000. The average of 
3 1/3 watts per inhabitant was 
weighted according to population, 
not according to the number of 
cities. 





■Hill 












~i" 




































" 














































• 






















r 




































._llil«k 




' • 


• 


. . 


. 


•1 








" ' 


• .• 




• '. 


;< 












.^^ 


L • 








• , 










* 


roruLATio, 


1 1 

« o» c 


' 






r 


" 



I 



National Electric Light Association Bulletin, Feb. 
1923. 



CENTS 

PER 
BUSHEL 



150 



100 



50 








'28 



PRICES ADJUSTED FOR LEVEL OF INCOMES OF 
INDUSTRIAL WORKERS (l924-29= tOO) 



300 320 340 360 380 400 420 

PRODUCTION PLUS NET IMPORTS OR MINUS NET EXPORTS 

(BUSHELS. MILLIONS) 

U S Department of Agriculture. Bureau of Agricultural Economics. SCALE .9 

B. The Relation of Adjusted Farm Price of Potatoes to Production in the United 
States from 1921 to 1936. 

1. Since the scattered dots form a pattern, the relation of production to price can be 
determined. As the production of potatoes increases, the price per bushel goes 
down. 

2. Compare this way of presenting relationships with the form shown in 282A. 



322 ■ 



III 

GRAPHIC PRESENTATION 



■|| 



90 






(/)rgrrr> Fahrrnhelt : tnchr$t 












ANNUAL 












■ 






•d 








8S 





o 




. 


60* 


















' 


















, 


7rf 


















TOT 




°o o 


X 










XI 


w 






*o'x 


A 




* 




X 




2 erf 




AA 


♦ A 


X 






erf 


t 

hi 




A o * A x* X O 

« "^A A^ AA»« X 
A A A ^♦X. x"" 


8 






5rf 






*• • i w >. 


**. A 










50' 




AA 
Ox A 


ivj** 


x"^*/ 




* 






4rf 




ft 

'*3 O 


/ /a 


X ♦ * 
X 


X 






4rf 






o oo 




















XAX OA, 


^ 


















" X * 














1/^ 




.if-* ' 




1 




1 






^ 



10 IS 20 



PRECIPITATION 



eu 




O I 




I ■ ■ 




1 






(two months 
o 

o 


A 
A 




*■ Hifh. 20 bushtis tnd orw 
X Supvior 140-199 buthtlt 
A Modtl 10 0-I3 9buthtlt 
O loir unOtr 100 bulhUl 


- 


70* 

eo' 










o ° 

o 

o 

O o 
O 

♦ 


O 

AA* 

O X 

A° t A 

a' 


"A 
O 

A O 
,aO o Of < 

^* Avi 

A VC^^'^ ♦ » 
♦^JAO^W"-* 


' A " 

A . A» , g 4 

* A^X +°°xx , 

O X 

If X , 


X 

* 

o 


X 


■ 


1 


: .*f f • 


" A 
X +' * 

X^ A X 

• 

1 


X A 

A ♦ 

X 

1 


X 



;?°' 



PRECIPITATION 



Stanford University. Palo Alto, California, "Wheat Studies of the Food Research Institute," March. 193 7 

SCALE .7 

Distribution of 209 World Wheat Areas According to Annual and Pre-Harvest 
Precipitation and Tennperature. 

I. The most strikinR feature of this chart is the concentration of "high" and "superior" 
yields of wheat within the middle ranges of annual and pre-harvest precipitation 
and of annual temperature. 

1. Of the 60 areas characterized by an annual precipitation of less than 20 inches, only 
18 had long-time average yields of wheat above 14 bushels. These 18 are dry- 
farming areas in Canada and the western United States. 



•Il 



III 

CORRELATION CHARTS 



■|| 



323 



a: 
< 



o 
o 



> 

UJ 

o 
o 

< 



(/) 



300 — 



FOUR SMALL CITIES IN OREGON AND WASHINGTON 

FOOD HOUSING 




^50 600 750 1000 

AUTOMOBILE 




ZOO 400 6O0 




— 300 



123 250 373 SOO 

RECREATION 




50 100 130 200 



FOUR COUNTIES IN PENNSYLVANIA AND OHIO 
PERSONAL CARE HOUSEHOLD OPERATION 





50 100 150 aoo 



MEAN IN DOLLARS 

Dorothy S. Brady. "Variations in Family LivinK Expenditures." Journal of thr American Statiitiral 
Association. Junr 19J8. 

Standard Deviations of Fannily Expenditures in Relation to The Mean in Four Small 
Cities in Oregon and Washington, and Four Counties in Pennsylvania and 
Ohio, 1935-1936. 



324 



GRAPHIC PRESENTATION 



CENTS 

PER 
BUSHEL 



140 
120 
100 

80 
60 
40 



(A) 




25 














,A 


V 
















\ 


















• 
•27 














f 
















•34 

• • 
•31 '33 


















••32 





20 



30 40 50 60 70 80 90 

PRODUCTION OF SWEETPOTATOES ( MILLIONS OF BUSHELS) 



100 



DEVIATION 
FROM A 

20 

-20 
-40 
-60 
-80 



(B) ' 














^' 




















^^23 




■27 


• 




28 






• 
•30 






1924 

• 










• 
33 




• 
•31 


'34 












• 
32 











280 



300 320 340 360 380 400 420 

PRODUCTION OF POTATOES ( MILLIONS OF BUSHELS) 



440 




90 100 no 120 130 140 150 

INDEX OF FOOD PRICES (AV. JULY-JUNE; I9IOI9I4'IOO ) 



160 



SCALE 8 



U. S. Department of ARriculturc, Bureau of AKricultural Economics. 

The Relation of Sweetpotato Prices to Sweetpotato Production, Potato Production, 
and to Index of Food Prices in the United States from 1924 to 1934. 

1. The small number of dots in these charts makes it possible to put the year which 

each represents beside the dot. 

2. Note that the center chart shows deviation from the data in the first one, and the 

last one shows deviation from the center one. 



CORRELATION CHARTS 



325 



WAGE EARNER FAMILIES OF — 
CHICAGO DENVER 




3D 








On 


im 










_^ 










^y 


y 








j^ 


y 








,'^ 


^ 








y^ 


y^ 








too 








T»ir2« 


ItZX 













y 










^ 










y 


/^ 




100 





y 


r* 






/ 


r^ 




y-27 

1 


4- I02X 



CLOTMINO 




I 



PCRSOMAL CA,RE 











•y 










^ 










y 








y^ 


'^ 






y 










y 








y 










y 








y 






Y. 8+. 


>I7 X 


-^ 






V- 6 + 


oirx 




OirTS AMD TAXES 



KOO JOCO 40CO KOOO 1000 tOOO 

rCAHiy INCOME 















tto 
























^ 


ISO 












' 








^ 






lOO 

to 

o 






'^^^^ 






^ 






Y» 


-2I+04IX 






D. H. Kaplan, "Expenditure Patterns of Urban Families, 
ciation. March 1938 



Journal of the American Stmtiitical Asso- 
SCALE 8 



Straight Line Fitted to Average Expenditures in Relation to Family Income in 
Wage-Earner Families of Chicago, Illinois, and Denver, Colorado, in 1935- 
1936. 

1. Because wage levels generally run lower in Denver, the data for Denver wage earners 

stops at $3,000 while the data for Chicago runs to $5,000. Approximately thirty 
families were sampled for each dot or income band on the charts. 

2. The method of reading these charts is as follows: in Chicago, a wage-earner family 

whose income was in the $1,000 to $1,200 income band would spend about $420 
for food, while in Denver, a family with the same income would spend about $390. 
While $420 was spent by the Chicago family for food, only $90 was spent for 
clothing. 



326 



GRAPHIC PRESENTATION 



txKPtoiTimes 

in OOLLtRS 

s,ooo 



ex^MoiTimes 

IN DOLLARS 
3,000 



4.000 - 



SfiOO 



t.ooo - 




4,000 



t.ooo 3,000 

INCOME n OOLLA/tS 



- 3,000 



A. D. H. Kaplan. "Expenditurr Patterns of Urban Families," Journal of the American Statistical Asso- 
ciation. March 1938. SCALE .9 

Expenditure Pattern of Wage-Earner Families in Chicago, Illinois, in 1935-36. 

1. It should be noted that these lines are cumulative. The line numbered 5 represents 

on the expenditure scale the amount spent for 5, 4, 3, 2, and 1. The difference 
between 4 and 5 is the amount spent for "fuel, light, and refrigeration." 

2. If line 17 is above 16, the families in that income band were not in debt at the end 

of the year; if line 17 is below 16. the family income did not cover expenditures. 



Ill 



III 



III 




Ill 

CORRELATION CHARTS 




327 



100 



90 



80 



t 



70 



V) 

K SO 

< 

O 50 

I- 

bJ 

I- 

E 
< 30 



20 



ID 










\ 


\ 






-. 


^ 


/ 










<^ 


N^^ • 




m 


// 












"■'■■■ 




y 


V- 












• • "• ! 


' .. '.rii- 




% 


\ 










: '. : : : 








j 


:> 


V.^ 








• 




/ 


^ ■j/' 






\\ 


\, 


yT 


/ 








"■/ 


7 


/% 


• 




^ 


\ 






/ 


' 


/ 


;,;':'- 








\ 




/ 


- 


^ " ■i\.- 




v:;;-;;;!;! 




> 




\ 


^ 












* 













I 



B 



io 



20 



30 40 50 60 

English Marks - 



7o eo 9o too 



iHUa oj W. (iamtU <n the Journal of the Koyal SlallsHcal Society. 1910 



Brinton. Graphic Methods.' McGraw-Hill. 1014 SCALE Q 

Examination Marks Obtained by 9,396 English School Girls in English and Arithmetic. 

1. Each girl is represented by one dot showing the grade in English and the grade in 

arithmetic. The dots are arranged uniformly inside squares formed by co-ordinate 
lines spaced ten units apart. 

2. The straight diagonal line drawn from zero shows equal ability in the two studies. 

The heavy wavy line is drawn through points having an equal number of dot^ 
on cither side of the line. Its position indicates that girls generally have more 
ability in English than in arithmetic. 



Ill 




328 



GRAPHIC PRESENTATION 



r 
ii: 



. - r 


■Bsa^'- 


V 










: 


















It* AttAMliC wcr>ON 
I '"' ^'g...... Hi 



!, 





»«. 




TIO~ 






MW 


















I. 


1 


j^'o7r^*<Sti*' 














r 
1' 






















L 


1 


i 1 








^ r^^ — 1 — 1 




•a ■• 


•• M 


m» ..0 


•• >M» tOM 




<eoo toou >ooo 40 


CO MM two 



U S. Dcpartmfnt of Commerce. Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce. 



SCALE .5 



A. Ratio of Estimated Market Value of Property January I, 1934, to Average 
Annual Family Income for 1933, by Income Classes in Four Geographical 
Divisions of the United States. 

1. Five geographical divisions which were included in the original group have been 

omitted. 

2. The method of reading these charts is as follows: in the Pacific section, represented 

by the four cities listed, the property of a family with an annual income of about 
$1,200 would be equal in value to about three times the income. 




200 40O aoo aoo ifoo vmo 

Sales Volume i-n Thousapds of Dollare 

Prior Sinclair, ' BudKetinR " The RohhIJ Pre»» Co.. N. Y C . 1937. 

B. Profit Realization Chart. 

V The profit realization chart is often referred to as a "break even" chart or a "profit- 
graph." 

2. The relation between sales volume and profit and loss is plotted in this simple profit 
realization chart. The diagonal line shows the profit or loss in dollars at various 
sales volume levels. The break-even point is at $1,200,000. 



CORRELATION CHARTS 



329 



SAltS SCAU IN PlRCtNIACC 




4*0 5SA M6 710 

SCALt OF PERCENTAGES 

Prepared hy E. S. La Ro«e, 1Q31 Year Book of the National Association of Cost Accountants, N. Y. C. 

SCALE ,7 

A. Profit Chart Showing the Relation of Sales and Profit. 

1. This is a detailed version of 328B. 

2. The two lines around which the others are plotted are the ones labelled "A" and "B" 

at the lower left, which represent total income from sales and total cost of sales, 
respectively. So long as "B" is above "A" there is a loss. 



I 



kl - IMlOOO 
>. ' 140000 . . 

°{ noooo. 
o tooooo. 

2 O 
O 2 

^ _ )M00O 

u ^ I400OO. .* 

G 5 

£ tioooo 
a o tooooo 

it '°°°° 

J - 40000. 

< ^ 



_.i.. 




;r w*40ow cnspiAY cm 

vLAYB m tAcH OF THE;i-iit>OKKirieY 

Its- : . : . : : ! -:: 

r i:t IIQW fuE ACIUKO. eiR 
i*CH or TWt LAROlUlTOItigci ■ 
! ES FRDMTHl! TRCUIUI II»t 

:v;iNt otPBEJl MTca BY 'pit 



1 .' 




The Advertising Research Foundation. New York City. 1937. 



SCALE .5 



B. The Average Daily Circulation of the Number of Window Displays Required 
to Obtain Normal Distribution in Various Cities. 

The dots represent actual average daily window display circulation passing the normal 
number of displays in each of the cities studied. It has been estimated that to 
produce normal display distribution, the average daily window display circulation 
passing a display should equal 50% of the population of the market. The curve 
represents that theoretical 50%. 



330 




III 

GRAPHIC PRESENTATION 




[ I r UMABSORBEO INVESTMENT 

( I . ABSORBED INVESTMENT 

pTH »C0NCt8SI0NAIRt'S CLEAR PROFIT 
f^—^ ' CONCEStlONAIRE'S TOTAL PARTICIPATION 
in* FAIR PARTICIPATION 
^H < OPERATING COSTS 



CRO*5-0V(R AT 
19 MILLION 
ADMIf SION0 




14 MILLION 
ADMISSIONS 



28 MILLION 
ADMISSIONS 



40 MILLION 
ADMISSIONS 



New York World's Fair. l')3Q, Treasury Division, Methods and Planning Dept. 

A. Break-down of Receipts in Percentages of the Ice Cream Stand at the New York 
World's Fair, 1939. 

1. This includes also soda fountains, and carbonated beverages. 

2. The Fair participation basis is 11V4% at 14 million admissions, 20% at 28 million 

admissions, and 35% at 40 million admissions. 













71 






















> 
















?^ 








*A 


/ 












fA 


f 






", 


/■ 








• 


y 


^ 












/ 


..'■ 




. 


'^ 


M 




J 










'? 




V 


^ 


r^ 


















/ 


^ 























!?» 

1 100 

•& 

3 "50 

8 

S LOO 
S OM 



2000 4000 MOO 80OO ICtOOO I7M) M^OO (^ WIOO XtOOO 17000 NOOO lUOO 
NUMBER or WELLS 

Joiei>h E PoRUc. "Eronomics of the Petroleum 
Industry. •■ March IQ.JO. The Chase National 
Bank of the City of New York. SCALE .6 



B. Correlation Between Weighted Aver- 
age Price of Crude Oil and (a) 
Nunnber of Dry Holes Drilled 
and (b) Number of Oil Wells 
Drilled. Data Are by Years, 
1915 to 1935. 

The relation between the average price of 
crude oil and the number of dry- 
holes drilled may be used as an 
index of wildcatting. The rela- 
tion between the average price of 
crude oil and the number of oil 
wells drilled may be used as an 
index of development effort. 



Ill 




Ill=l|l=l|l=l|l=l|l33, 

Chapter 40 
OGIVE AND LORENZ CHARTS 



X he Ogive chart is also called a cumulative frequency curve. Its 
definition is as follows: a frequency distribution in which "more 
than" or "less than" data are presented. One scale of the grid 
represents percentages and the other scale represents "more than" 
or "less than" values. 



NUMftER OF 
FAMILIES 

90,000,000 



20,000,000 



10,000,000 



NUMftER OF FAMILIES RECEIVIN6 INCOMES OVER SPECIFIED AMOUNTS 



I 






<Z 



Rrdrawn from Advertising and Selling, January 1917 

Number of Families Receiving Incomes Over Specified Amounts in the United 
States in 1916. 

1. In reading the above chart the amount of the income is read by the scale at the 

bottom of the diagram. The number of families is indicated by the scale at the 
left-hand side. 

2. If you wish to learn how many families are receiving an income of $1,500 and up- 

wards, it is shown by the point where the curve crosses the middle vertical ruling 
between the $1,000 and the $2,000 lines. This is found to be at 3,750.000 accord- 
ing to the scale at the left. There are, therefore, approximately 3,750,000 families 
that are receiving an annual income of $1,500. In the same way it is possible to 
estimate that there arc 5,150,000 families that are receiving an income of $1,200. 



lll = lll=lll=lll=lll 



332 



GRAPHIC PRESENTATION 



A Lorenz chart gives frequency distribution when both the vari- 
able and invariable quantities are reduced to percentages. The 
curve is plotted on a grid on which both the horizontal and the ver- 
tical scales represent 100%. 



100 
90 
80 
70 
60 
50 
40 
30 
20 
10 













'V 


^ 
















/ 


/ 


















/ 


















I 


1 










— 








11 
11 


















It 




















1 


















ll 


% 


^ 
















i 


•< 
















J 

















5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 
Waqe ner Week ,in Dollars 



A. Actual Wage Distribution of 381.- 
575 Workers in the United 
States in 1917. 

1. The dotted line in this chart repre- 

sents the normal wage distribution 
based on the average wage for 
1917. 

2. An "ogive" chart is better known as 

a "more-than, less-than" chart. 
Cumulative frequency data is 
presented in such a curve. 



Charles N. Young, "Creative Ability and Its 
Compensation," Industrial Management, Janu- 
ary 1920. 



PER CENT 
or TOTAL 
PRODUCTION 
Oft RUNS 
100 





















































































^ 


" 






- 
























y 


k* 


y 




































^ 


y 


A 


UN 


. TC 


ST 


LL 


S 




























y 


/ 
















-" 


^ 




- 


- 






^ 










J 


/ 










^ 


^ 


^ 




























/ 


/ 




/ 


y 


y 


^' 
































/ 




/ 


/ 


p 


50 


»uc 


TIO 


>j 




























/ 


/ 


/ 








































/ 


/ 













































I 2 J 4 $ 6 T e <) 10 II 17 13 14 IS 16 n 18 19 20 21 n U 
NUMBER OF COMPANIES 



Joseph E. Pogue, "Economics of the Petroleum Industry," March liJiQ, The Chase National Bank of 
the City of New York. 

B. Concentration of Production and Refining in the United States in 1937; Chart 
Showing Cunnulative Percentages of National Totals Represented by Largest 
Units. 



OGIVE AND LORENZ CHARTS 



333 




Henry S. Dfnniton. "ManBBrmcnt and the Buiinets Cycle." Journal of the American StatUticnl Asso- 
ciation. Washington. D C . March 1922. SCALE .8 

A. Relation of Disbursements to Receipts from Sales in the Upward Swing of 
the Business Cycle. 



E 




Brown. BinKham. and Tcmnomeroff . "Lafioratory Handbook of Statistical Methods." McGraw-Hill. 1931. 

B. An Ogive Curve Plotted on Probability Paper to Determine the Probable Dis- 
tribution of 100,000 Shirts According to Neck Measurements. 

1. When an ogive curve is plotted on "probability" paper, assuming that the frequency 

curve is symmetrical, the curve is in the form of a straight line. For this reason it 
is possible to construct the curve for any particular problem with a small number 
of observations. 

2. For explanation 6f this chart, see 335. 



111=111=111=111=111 

334 ■ ^^^.,^.^ ■ 



GRAPHIC PRESENTATION 



TABLE A. 
Neck Measurements of White Troops at Demobilization 



Neck 

Measurements, 

Centimeters 


Number 
of Men 


Upper Limit 
of Class 
Interval 


Cumulative 
Frequency 


Cumulative 

Frequency, 

Per Cent 

of Total 


28.5-29.49 


55 


295 


55 


0.06 


29-5-30.49 


219 


30.S 


374 


0.29 


30.5-31-49 


314 


315 


588 


0.62 


31.5 32.49 


1. 133 


32.5 


1,721 


1.81 


32.5-33-49 


4,286 


335 


6,007 


6.32 


33-5 34-49 


".353 


345 


17,360 


18.25 


34-5-35-49 


20,094 


35-5 


37,454 


.^9-38 


35-5-36.49 


22,628 


36.5 


60,082 


63.18 


36.5-37-49 


18,047 


37-5 


78,129 


82.15 


37-5-38.49 


10,051 


38.5 


88,180 


92.72 


38.5-39-49 


4,426 


39-5 


92,606 


9738 


39-5-40.49 


1,716 


40.5 


94,322 


99.18 


40.5-41.49 


492 


41.5 


94,814 


99-70 


41.5-42.49 


147 


42.5 


94,961 


99-85 


42.5-43.49 


52 


43-5 


95.013 


99.91 


43-5-44-49 


23 


44-5 


95,036 


99-93 


44-5-45-49 


22 


455 


95,058 


99-95 


45-5-46.49 


17 


46.5 


95,075 


99-97 


46.5-47-49 


16 


475 


95,091 


99-99 


47.5-48.49 


5 


48.5 


95,096 


99-99 


48.5-49-49 


6 


49.5 


95,102 


100.00 




95.102 





Source: Reports of the Medical Department of the United States Army in the World War, 
Vol. 15, Part I, page 538. 

TABLE B. 

Shirt Sizes 

H. E. Mann, Incorporated 



Shirt Bands, 


Shirt Bands, 


Shirt-band Length 

Less 3 

Centimeters 


Range of Neck 
Sizes for Given 


Inches 


Centimeters 


Shirt Sizes, 
Centimeters 


13 


3302 


30.02 


29.4-30.69 


I3h' 


34-29 


31.29 


30.7-31.89 


14 


35-56 


32.56 


3i-«^33.i9 


14V2 


36.83 


33-83 


33.2-34.49 


15 


38.10 


35-10 


34-5-35-69 


15 W 


39.37 


36-37 


35-7-36.99 


16 


40.64 


37.64 


37.0-38.29 


16' 2 


41.91 


38.91 


38.3-39.49 


17 


43.18 


40.18 


39-5-40-79 


17'2 


44-45 


41.45 


40.8-42.09 


18 


45.72 


42-72 


42.1-43.39 



Brown, Bifii;hiiiii. uiul Tcninomcroff, "Lal>oriitory HandtKwk of Statiitical Mcthodt," McGraw-Hill, 1431. 



lll=lll=lll=lll=lll 



OGIVE AND LORENZ CHARTS 



335 



TABLE A. 

Determination of Number of Shirts 

H. B. Mann, Incorporated 



Shirt 


Upper Limit of 


Normal Cumula- 
tive Frequency 
Reading, Percent 
of Total* 


Normal Non- 
cumulative 


Number 
of Shirts 


Bands, 


Shirt Band Range 


Frequency, 


Basis, 


Inches 


Centimeters 


Per Cent of 


100,000 






Total Centered 


Shirts 


»3 


30.7 




o.at 


200 


13M 


319 


I.O 


o.5t 


500 


14 


33-2 


5-4 


4-4 


4,400 


14H 


34-5 


19.0 


13.6 


13.600 


15 


35-7 


441 


25.0 


25,000 


15H 


370 


72.1 


28.0 


28,000 


16 


38.3 


90.6 


18.5 


18,500 


i6i.i 


39-5 


98.0 


8.4 


8,400 


17 


40.8 




i.ot 


1,000 


17H 


42.1 




o.3t 


300 


18 






o.it 


100 




43-4 






100,000 



I 



* This column has been read from graph. 

t Frequencies at extreme ends of the curve cannot be determined from this probability 
paper. Marked values have been roughly estimated to make the total approach 100%. 

Brown. Bingham, and Temnomeroff, ■Laboratory Handbook of Statistical Methods," McGraw-Hill. lOJl. 

The three tables on this page and page 334, and 333B were used in a hypothetical case 
to figure out how to distribute 100,000 shirts according to neck sizes. The column 
at the extreme right of the table above gives the distribution as determined by the 
use of probability paper. 

333B was plotted from the information in the extreme right column of the table 334A. 
The third column (the one labelled "Normal Cumulative Frequency Reading, Per 
Cent of Total) in the table above was read from 333B. 

REFERENCES ON PROBABILITY PAPER 

Haskell, Allan C, Graphic Charts in Business, Codex Book Co., 

Inc., New York, 1926. 
Karsten, Karl G., Charts and Graphs, Prentice-Hall, Inc., New 

York, 1923. 
Whipple, George C, "The Element of Chance in Sanitation," 

Journal of The Franklin Institute, July and August, 1916. 



lll=lll=lll=lll=lil 



336 



GRAPHIC PRESENTATION 



PERCENT 



100 



80 



60 



40 



20 







)ALE5 


















•1 

• 1 

• 1 

• / 

r 1 






4^ 


• 

f 






<:.<^ 






i 




/ 
/ 

/ 






/ 


1 
• 

• 
• 
• 
• 




^ 







20 40 60 80 100 

PERCENT NUMBER FIRMS 



Redrawn from United States Department of Commerce. SCALE .9 

Distribution of Wholesale Sales by Size of Firm for the United States According 
to the 1930 Census. 

1. The "line of equal distribution" is drawn in this Lorenz chart. The distance between 

the curve and the diagonal indicates the degree to which the data is removed from 
a perfectly uniform distribution. This feature statisticians call dispersion or scat- 
teration. 

2. If all firms for which data had been gathered were of the same size, the curve would 

appear as a diagonal line. The degree of concentration among the large firms is 
shown by the departure of the plotted curve from the diagonal, which is in this 
case quite marked. 



OGIVE AND LORENZ CHARTS 



337 



IWV 
























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Housotonic " 
3onnec+iCLrt " 
/Vesrl-field 1 
at.John " , 










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^ 



Number of Months 

Engineering News-Record. March 20. 1919. 

Distribution of Annual Run-off of Seven New England Rivers in a 12-Months' Period. 

The method of reading this curve chart is as follows: at the end of six months, or 50% 
of the time period, there had been 82% of the total annual run-off of the St. John 
River. If the distribution was the same for every month, at the end of six months 
50% only would have run off. 



REFERENCES: 

Lorenz, M. O., "Methods of Measuring the Concentration of 
Wealth," Publications of the American Statistical Asso- 
ciation, Vol. IX, 1905. This issue of the Journal is so 
limited that the American Statistical Association cannot 
sell it. However, it is available in most libraries. 



338 



i|i=iii=iii=iii=i|i 



GRAPHIC PRESENTATION 




PERCENT OF TOTAL NUMBER OF STORES 

U. S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of ForeiRn and Domestic Commerce, "Small Scale Retailing," 
1938. 

Correlation of Proprietors and Nunnber of Retail Stores in the United States in 1933. 

1. Because this chart is plotted on probability paperj the "line of equal distribution" 

assumes an "s" shape rather than a straight line. 

2. It is clear from this chart that the number of proprietors of retail stores correlates 

closely with the number of stores. The figures and curves show that nearly 33 per 
cent of all stores are operated by nearly 35 per cent of the proprietors — who 
operate stores of less than $3,000 annual volume. 

When certain series of observations showing frequency data are 
plotted on arithmetic probabiHty paper, the points do not fall in a 
straight line, but in a curve. Plotted on probability paper with a 
logarithmic scale as the ordinate, the points may fall approximately 
in a straight line or a gentle curve. In order to benefit from the use 
of probability paper, it is not necessary that the plotted points fall 
exactly in a straight line. If the curve is so gentle and uniform that 
it may be extended beyond the limits of the plotted points, it will 
usually be found sufficient. 

Sources of Arithmetic and Logarithmic Probability Paper: 
Codex Book Co., Norwood, Massachusetts. 
Educational Exhibition Co., Providence, Rhode Island. 



ili=ili=ili=ili=ili 



RATIO CHARTS, for idrnlifirr 
Cro«« lmr« i|>iii-r rloirr 
As you l(M>k hichcr. 



Chapter 41 
RATIO CHARTS 




339 



^^ ratio chart is designed to indicate rate of change rather than 
arithmetic change. Although in many instances the spacing of the 
ruHngs clearly indicates to an experienced reader that the chart is 
plotted on ratio ruling, it is frequently desirable to indicate the 
ratio basis as shown in 345 and 346. This is especially necessary if 
the chart covers a comparatively short range of scale since the 
reader might not notice the difference in spacing of horizontal 
lines on the grid. 

Synonyms for ratio chart are logarithmic chart, semi-logarithmic 
chart, rate-of-change chart. 

The term "ratio chart" is short and expressive. There is need 
for a corresponding term equally expressive to designate charts 
planned on the usual arithmetic basis. 



lOO.OOO.OOO 

lO.OOO.OOO 

I.OOO.OOO 

lOO.OOO 

lO.OOO 

I.OOO 

lOO 

lO 

I 




A. Arithmetic Scale and Ratio Scale. 

1. On the arithmetic scale, equal vertical 

distances represent equal numeri- 
cal differences; that is, the dis- 
tance from 1 to 2 is the same as 
the distance from 2 to 3 and from 
3 to 4. 

2. On the ratio scale, equal vertical dis- 

tances represent equal percentage 
differences; that is, the distance 
from 1 to 2 is the same as the 
distance from 2 to 4 and from 4 
to 8. 



B. Key for Assistance in Selecting the 
Proper Scale for Three - Deck 
Ratio Paper. 

1. If the figures of the data to be plotted 

on 3-deck ratio paper fall within 
the range of any one of these six 
brackets, the four figures within 
that bracket indicate the scale to 
be placed at the 4 points of the 
3-deck paper. 

2. A similar key could be made for 4- 

deck and 5-deck ratio paper. 



340 



GRAPHIC PRESENTATION 



REFERENCES: 

Bivins, Percy A., The Ratio Chart in Business, Codex Book 
Co., Norwood, Mass., 1926. 

Fisher, Irving, "The 'Ratio' Chart for Plotting Statistics," 
Journal of the American Statistical Association, Vol. XV, 
June, 1917. (May be obtained from ASA for 75c.) 



SCALE 
2000 

ISOO 

1000 
900 
800 
700 
600 
500 
400 

300 
200 



100 
90 
80 
10 
60 
50 
40 

iO 
20 



10 





















































r 






















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J 




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CRUDE OIL PRODUCTION IN U.S. 


/ 




-A 




















>^ 


/ 


••CRUDE OIL 

.•'PRODUCTION IN 

.•'WORLD EXCL U.S. 

.-'MILLIONS OF BARRELS 


















/ 


















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A 




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, U.S. POPULATION 




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MILLIONS OF PERSONS^ 


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/• HUNDREDS OF THOUSANDS 


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"M 


V' INDEX OF INDUSTR 

f^PROOUCTION (STAN 

oTAT.) 1926=100 


lAL / 

7 













1875 1880 1885 1690 1895 1900 1905 1910 1915 1920 1925 1930 1935 1940 



Joteph E. PoRUc. "Economics of the Petroleum Iiifliutry." March 193Q. The Chase National Bank of 
the City of New York. 

Rate of Growth of Crude Oil Producfion in the United States, and In the Rest of 
the World by Years. 1876-1938, Compared With Other Significant Indexes. 



RATIO CHARTS 



341 



I S t« i - t og ar ^ t ni* i c tctlal 
NUMBER CONSUMED PER CAPITA 



1.00 













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900 










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CIGARETTES-^ 


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1111 


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1 1 I 1 



I 



1900 1905 1910 1915 1920 1925 1930 1934 

WPA, National Rcicarch Project. "Cigar-Malcert — After thr Lay-off," December 1937. 

Per Capita Consumption of Cigars and Cigarettes in the United States fronn 1900 
to 1934. 



Compare this chart with 342B. 




lllHlllHlll 

GRAPHIC PRESENTATION 





1910 1915 1920 1925 1930 

WPA, Division of Social Research, "Trends in Relief Exjjenditures. lQlO-1935," 1937 SCALE .8 

A. Expenditures for Public Outdoor Poor Relief in Indiana from 1910 to 1931. 

1. The broken lines indicate that thrf data were not available, or not available in 

comparable form for these years. 

2. Since there is no zero line on a rate-of-change chart, there is no difficulty in pre- 

senting on the same grid two groups of data which have different scales. Com- 
pare with 276A. 























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ar. 


an< 


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lATM 


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Review of Reviews and World's Work, June 1934. 



SCALE .7 



B. Cigar and Cigarette Consumption in the United States fronfi 1801 to 1933. 

Although different scales may be used on the same chart, the same cycle must be used. 
That is, if a cycle two inches high is used for one scale, a cycle two inches high 
must be used for the other scale. It would not be possible to compare the "cigar 
consumption" curve in this chart with the "cigarette" curve in 341. 



RATIO CHARTS 



l|lHl|l 



343 



REFERENCES: 

Karsten, Karl G., Charts and Graphs, Prentice-Hall, Inc., 
New York City, 1923. 

Wenzel, J.. "Graphic Charts; the Use of the Logarithmic Scale 
for Charting Statistics," Scientific American, 1917. This 
issue of Scientific American is so limited that copies are 
not for sale. However, it is available in most libraries. 













T - r — — 




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POWCM STATWHS 1— 














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ywcioMT M.wvict 




roi#«« or coAi. rcN 
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PASSENG€R StRVICt 




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WPA. National Rfscarch Project, "Summary of Frndmss to Datf." March 1938. 

Progress of EfRciency in the Consumption of Fuel by Large Industrial Consumers 
in the United States. 



Because all of these charts arc plotted on the same logarithmic cycle, they are comparable 
even though the scales are different. 



344 



GRAPHIC PRESENTATION 




Dun's Review. Fcl>ruary 193Q. 

Failures by Industrial Groups and Size of Liabilities in the United States from 1935 
to Decennber 1938. 

There is a definite corollary to be derived from these two charts. In the upper one indus- 
tries labelled "retail trade" have the largest number of failures. In the lower one. 
those industries whose liabilities are under $25,000 have the largest number of 
failures. From these two facts, it may be deduced that the retail trade is in that 
category "under $25,000." 



RATIO CHARTS 



345 



CWA in 

op«ralion 



Wofkt Program 
in optrolion 



Work* Progrom 
in operation 



UNITED STATES TOTAL 




■ Semi(ogorilhn>ic scol« 
\ \ -< I 1 




I 



1933 



1934 



1935 



1933 1934 

== Obligotions 



1935 



•^^— Cases = 

WPA Divuion of Social Research. •Trend* in Relief Exf)enditure», 1910-1Q3.S," J937 

Trends of Relief Cases and of Obligations Incurred for Relief Extended to Cases 
in the United States from July 1933 to December 1935. 

The horizontal line running through each pair of curves represents the average month, 
July to December 1933, for both cases and obligations. 



346 



lllaalllHlllailll 

GRAPHIC PRESENTATION 



■ ■ 




1910 



1915 



1920 



1925 



1930 



1935 



Note Broken lines mdicote doto not ovoiloble or 
ool ovoiloble in comporoble form for these yeors 

WPA. Division of Social Rcsrarrh, •■Trctxls in Rtlicf Ex|>rndituret, iqiO-IQ3.S," 1937. 

Trends of Expenditures for Public Outdoor Relief in Selected Areas from 1910 to 
1935. 

The scale may be omitted, as it is here, with only a notation that the chart is plotted on 
a rate-of-change scale. The curves have been moved toKcthcr even though the 
scales do not coincide. 



RATIO CHARTS 



347 



A. Growth of Business Based on Re- 
search, Showing Industrial Con- 
tributions of Research and 
Invention in the United States 
from I860 to 1930. 

The oriKinal of this was black with the 

lines and lettering in white. By 

revcrsinR the original, black on 
white was obtained. 



14000 


C=| 


F= 


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F= 


F= 


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p= 


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1- BASED ON RtSCARCMt— 




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1 



IB6O IBTO 1880 1990 NOO 1910 1910 nSD 

Eltctronirs. October 10.18. P.Trt of an Editorial 
Entitled "Why a Public Relations ProRram?" 
(Source: National Industrial Conference Board). 





























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Dun't Review. December 1938 (Source: Textile Economics Bureau. Inc , N. Y. C.. "Rayon Organon"). 

SCALE 7 

B. Textile Fiber Consunnption in the United. States fronn 1925 to Novennber 1938. 

Index numbers may be plotted on rate-of-change paper, especially when there is a growth 
as great as rayon consumption. 



348 



GRAPHIC PRESENTATION 



Abstracts from Time Series Charts. A Manual of Design and 
Construction, 1938, prepared by Committee on Standards for 
Graphic Presentation, under procedure of American Standards 
Association, with The American Society of Mechanical Engineers 
as sponsor body. 

RATE-OF-CHANGE CHARTS 

A. DEFINITION. The rate-of-chonge chart ("rotio" or "semi-logarithmic" 
chart) is a type used for picturing the percentage or relative change 
in values of a series over a period of time rather than the change 
in absolute amounts as shown by the arithmetic chart. 

1. The picture of rate of change is achieved through the use of 
logarithms. Rate-of-change curves can be constructed either by 
plotting the logarithms of the values on an arithmetic scale or by 
plotting the actual values on a logarithmic scale. The latter is the 
more usual procedure. 

2. The effective use of rate-of-change charts requires an appreciation 
of their limitations as well as their possibilities. 

B. WHEN TO USE RATE-OF-CHANGE CHARTS: 

1. When the interest is in relative movement of a time series and not 
in the differences between amounts. 

2. When it is desired to compare the relative movements of several 
time series. 

3. When the readers are likely to be familiar with this form of chart. 

4. When the usual arithmetic chart would present a misleading pic- 
ture of movement. 

5. For occasions when there are no minus figures included in the time 
series. 

Note; If it is desired to present a complete picture of both rote of change 
end amount of chonge the dato con be presented on componion charts, 
one with a logarithmic amount scale and the other with the usual arith- 
metic scale. 















' 
























/ 


















/ 


r- 












1 






/ 




















/ 




/ 
















/ 


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/ 


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1 


r 




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^x 



Secondory scale of uniform rotes of 
change 



SCALE SELECTION. Logarithmic amount scales should be so selected 
that the curves will be well placed on the grid. As 

there is no zero line to serve os a base for comparing trends, con- 
siderations of the zero line ore not applicable to rate-of-change 
charts. 

In rote-of-change charts, it is often helpful to provide a secondary 
scale indicating uniform rates of change. Such scales are constructed 
by means of straight diagonal lines radiating from some point of 
origin las shown in the illustration at the right). 

Multiple amount scales are more appropriate for rate-of-change 
charts than for arithmetic charts because in the former the movement 
of the curves is compared and not their position relative to a base. 

Note: in order to take full advantage of the scale range, the verticol scole 
numerals usuolly printed on a chart sheet may be multiplied by any con- 
stont foctor but integers should be chosen so that the scale subdivisions 
will not indicate inconvenient fractions. 























'A 


ht; 


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^ 




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f 



















Meaning of curve shapes on 
Rale-of-change charts 



RATIO CHARTS 



349 



50.000 
45,000 
401000 
35.000 
30.000 
2S.000 

20.000 

15,000 
12.000 

\0.000 
9.000 
6,000 
7.000 
6.000 
5.000 
4,000 

3.000 

2.000 

1.000 
1915 16 17 'W 19 10 t1 tl IS M IS 16 t7 la 19 10 '31 1i 13 I9<4 

Automobile Manufacturers Association. "Automobile Facts and FiRures." 1035. SCALE .9 

A. Average Life of a Car as Shown by Two Cumulative Curves. 

Two cumulative curvt-s are plotted on the same logarithmic grid. The horizontal distance 
between the two lines thus gives the average life of the car. A cumulative curve 
may be shown on logarithmic scale as well as arithmetic. See 2 7 9. 




E 



Abstracts from Time Series Charts. A Manual of Design and 
Construction, 1938, prepared by Committee on Standards for 
Graphic Presentation, under procedure of American Standards 
Association, with The American Society of Mechanical Engineers 
as sponsor body. 



CURVES. The plotting on rate-of-change charts requires consider- 
able care because of the peculiar character of the logarithmic spacing. 
Where special grids are prepared without intermediate rulings, it is 
desirable to use a logarithmic plotting scale which may easily be made 
from printed commercial paper of the proper dimensions. 

In general, rate-of-change charts call for simple lines connecting 
the points of value. Columns or surfaces, of course, should not be 
used to indicate values on a rate-of-change chart. Columns and 
surfaces may be used on an arithmetic chart to indicate changes in 
ratios, however. 



350 



GRAPHIC PRESENTATION 



' 1 

1 i 

1 1 -" 




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pi 



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9 

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pi 

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9 

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01 

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m 

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5 

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pi 


Annual Review Number of -Iron Age." January 6. 1938 SCALE 7 

An Arithmetic Chart Showing Prices of Non-ferrous Metals in the United States from 1917 to 1937. 


"o 

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RATIO CHARTS 



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352 



GRAPHIC PRESENTATION 



Total 
RarcB 




1926 



1928 



1980 



1982 



1984 



1986 



19S8 



Textile Economics Bureau. Inc.. N Y C. "Rayon OrRanon," June 1Q38. SCALE .7 

World Rayon Yarn and Staple Fiber Production. 

This chart shows a number of interesting items, among them the ranking of the principal 
nations of the world in the production of rayon. 



RATIO CHARTS 



353 




SCALE 8 

A. A Method of Ruling Logarithmic Paper. 

1. When logarithmic paper with cycles of the proper height is not available, it is fairly 

easy to rule paper using a cycle bigger or smaller than the space allotted. In the 
illustration above, a cycle from logarithmic paper is used for scale reduction. 

2. A statistician's scale may be an easier method. 



/ |iiii|iiii|iiii|i;iMii!l |^i|i|ii|i^ipi^i^;^j^^TT7 



Ue« 



rj 



PARAGON 

M75 P 

STATISTICIAN'S SCALE 




Keuffel & Esscr Co , New York. 

6. l3t edge, 2 complete logarithmic scales, one 25 cm. long, one 4J cm. long. 

2ud edge, 3 complete logarithmic scales, one 12 J cm. long, one 10 cm. long, one 6^ cm. long. 
3rd edge, 30 centimeters, subdivided to millimeters. 
4th edge, 12 inches subdivided to 40ths of Inches. 

This scale is for the statistician. 



r — 



zs::: 



WlUf 



a^^^MM^^ 



J^ 



Wk 



C. Triangular Scale, Engineer's, 

div. 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60 parts to the inch. 



Keuffel 8» Esser Co.. New York. 



354 



Chapter 42 
THREE-DIMENSIONAL METHODS 



EY MEANS of three-dimensional models, similar to those 
shown in 354, 355A, and 355B, it is possible to present three 
variables in the form of curves rather than the usual two. 
Other methods of showing three dimensions are illustrated in the 
isometric block diagram in 356A and in the trilinear chart in 359B. 




Commonwrallh Edison Company. Chicago. Ill SCALE .6 

Three-Dimensional Curve of the 1935 Load of the Commonwealth Edison Company. 

1. Thrcc-ply bass wood was used in the construction of this three-dimensional model. 

Each curve is a board which, before it was cut. measured Yt x 17 x 11 inches. 

2. The Klass case is ruled with a scale of kilowatts on the sides and with the 24-hour 

period from midnight to 12 midnight on each end. The third dimension is by days, 
the scale for which is on the base. 

3. The exhibit is about 5 feet long and weighs approximately 300 pounds. 



THREE-DIMENSIONAL METHODS 



355 




Pacific Gas and EIrctric Company, San Franrlsco. California. 



SCALE 4 



A. Three-Dimensional Curve of the 1935 Load of the Consolidated System of the 
Pacific Gas and Electric Connpany. 

1. Dimensions of the model, excluding base, are 12" x 24" x 12" high. 

2. The front black section represents a load curve showing variation from day to day 

throughout the year for the last half hour of each day. The clefts between the 
tifty-two sections are Sundays. Additional clefts are the holidays. 



I 




The Detroit Edison Company, Detroit, Michigan. SCALE .5 

B. Three-DImensional Curve of the 1935 Load of the Detroit Edison Company. 

Apparently the data for the entire year were gathered before this model was started. The 
load for the first half-hour of each day for the entire year was then cut out, and 
for each half-hour after that, making 48 curves. Compare this with 354 in which 
the load for each day was plotted, making 365 curves. 



356 



GRAPHIC PRESENTATION 



1 


i Specific Structural unm5 of the Basic Fopmula | 




\ 


W fl('f(M)vOJKM-O0S3M't207iI 


^trnm 


P 




Basic Formula 




■■^■■■■■HiSBc! 


j^^^^^^^^^B 


m 


^\n*'^<^i-m^c fi 


^1 ^^ 


W 


K^KfcC'^^^* ^^^-^' 



Harry H. Laughlin, Department of Genetics, Carnegie Institution of Washington, Cold Spring Harbor, 
Long Island, N. Y. SCALE .7 

A. The Mathematical Model for the Specific Formula of Heredity. 




W. D Johnston. Jr., and T. B. Nolan, "Isometric Block Diagrams in Mining Geology." Economic Geology. 
August 1937, SCALE .5 

B. Block Diagram of a Large Mine Drawn by the Isometric Method. The Original 
Drawing Is Eight Feet Long. 

1. The mine layout, shown isomctrically in conjunction with contour lines of the surface 

areas adjacent, serves the general purpose of a three-dimensional model with huge 
saving in space and cost. 

2. For fully illustrated description of methods, reference should be made to the Johnston- 

Nolan paper. 



THREE-DIMENSIONAL METHODS 



357 




I 



W. D. Johnston, Jr., and T. B. Nolan, "Isometric Block Diagrams in Mining Geology," Economic Geology, 
August 1937. 

A, Isometric Protrac+or. 



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KeufTel 8l Esser Co., New York. 

B. Isometric Cross Section Paper. 

A drawing on isometric paper combines the principles of mechanical and perspective draw- 
ing. The principal lines are drawn vertically, horizontally, and 30 or 60 degrees to 
the horizontal. As a result all parallel lines of an object are drawn parallel and 
three faces of the object are shown. 



358 



GRAPHIC PRESENTATION 



INCOLARVM OCiCKIPTIO 

M ARE5 pVl VIVl NATl 5VNT 

ET 

5VPER.mTE5 PER. yeXATEi DEiCKIPTI 

IVXTA. CENLSV5 IN JVECIA HABITOJ 

AB AN MDCCLAD MDCCCLXXV 

LINL« 
^TATVM • JVUVTITVM IIOMMICiC CtMUTOtyu 




ITALl/C REGNVM TABVLARIVM CEN5VALE ROM/E AN MDCCCLXXX 



Journal of the Royal Statistical Socifty of London. Jubilcf Volume — 188.S. Chart by Luiri Perozzo in 
1870. SCALE .5 

Three-Dimensional Model Showing the Growth of the Population of Sweden from 
1750 to 1875. 

The picture of this model which appeared in the Journal of the Royal Statistical Society 
of London was in a brown half-tone with black, red, blue, and j-reen lines. The 
three dimensions are the years from 1750 to 1875, the number of persons, and the 
age of the persons. 



In this book, an illustration occupying a full page is referred to 
by page number. When there is more than one illustration on a 
page, each is identified by a letter of the alphabet. When there is 
more than one footnote beneath an illustration, each is numbered. 
Thus the cross reference 267B2 means page 267, illustration B, 
note 2. 



THREE-DIMENSIONAL METHODS 



359 



A. Triangular Coordinate Graph 
Paper. 

The trilinrar chart was fust used for in- 
vrstigation on strength of con- 
crete mixtures. This form lends 
itself to the demonstration of prob- 
lems involving a mixture of three 
ingredients, such as alloys con- 
taining three metals and food ra- 
tions containing three dietetic ele- 
ments. 




Krufffl (k Ejifr Co , N Y. 



v(Oiopside) 




*PDt«s?i Feldspar 
(PolaihTeWspar) WT. PER CENT 



«»7* 

17/3" 



J F Sfhairrr and N L Bowcn. 'Thf SyHrm. Lruritr — Diopiidc — Silica." Amfrican Journal of Scicncr. 
IQ38 Groi>hy«ical Laboratory CarnrRif Institution of Washington 

B. Equilibrium Diagram of the Ternary System, Leucite — Diopside — Silica. 



360 



Chapter 43 
COMPOSITE CHARTS 



Jb o present a more complete picture it is often desirable to com- 
bine several different types of charts. The charts in this chapter 
illustrate different methods of combining various charts. 



NET INCOME IN MILLIONS OF DOLLARS 



z - « 



li 




200 
175 
150 - 

m - 
100 

75 



75 - 

too 



1975 197b 1977 1978 1979 1930 1911 1957 19JJ 1914 



NET INCOME OR DEFICIT 








1975 


1976 


1977 1978 1979 I9J0 


1951 


1957 


1955 


1954 






NET INCOME OR DEFICIT | 


160 


- 
















" 


170 


- 






Vef Income - -^^^^^^^ 










- 


80 


- 
















- 


40 


- 


1^ 














" 


40 




1 


1 


Deficit- - -^^^ 

1111 


« 


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1 


1 


- 



700 
175 
ISO 
I7S 

too 

IS 
SO 
25 



75 
100 



160 

no 

80 

40 


40 
80 



Engineprins and Mining Journal, October 1938, Part of an Editorial on Public Relations Entitled "What 
Mining Meant to the United State*." SCALE .9 

The Number of Mining Corporations in the United States Which Are in the "Net 
Inconne" and "No Net Inconne" Groups, Their Respective Incomes and 
Deficits, and the Net Results for Both Groups From 1925 to 1934. 

These three charts give the complete picture of corporation income-tax returns in the 
metal-minirig industry. They indicate that all mines are not "bonanzas." In fact, 
many mining corporations re(>ort no net income each year. 



COMPOSITE CHARTS 



361 



INDEX 
SCALE 



INDLX 
SCALE 

/•Labor Cost IjieO 
' '.Per *100 Value. 
(^ Gross- 
>/vlncomc ■ 

no 
108 
0(> 




-84 

82 
60 



9^t 

Guttav R. Stahl, J. T. Trenholm & Co.. N. Y. C 



f75ah7 



957 r9?3 



A. EfFect of Walk-Oufs in the United States on Business From 1936 to June 1938. 



^^ 



"«!* 



:% 




■^ate^ 











,A 


«r 




/ 










n M0«3 


^ti^ 


^ate^ 



Federal Reserve Bank of New York, "Monthly Review." August 1. 1936. 




SPOT 
, COTTON . . . . 

*e»-tOA i«is IBM 



SCALE .7 



B. Movennents of Prices of Leading Agricultural Commodities With Range of 
Prices for 1929-34 and Weekly Quotations Subsequently. 

A change in the type of data resulted in this chart with range bars from 1929 to 1934 and 
a curve from 1934 to June 1936. 



Ill 



362 






■■|1- 

GRAPHIC PRESENTATION 



III 






CENTS 

PER 
BUSHEL 

150 



100 
50 



50 

WINNIPEG 

-25 



BUSHELS 

(MILLIONS) 




"1 r 



MinneapoUs ,'v 

No. 1 . D. Northern p ^ 

Spring 



— Winnipeg 
No. 3. Manitoba 




i.l.i.l-i.l.i.l.i.l.i.l.i.l.l.l.l.l.i-l-'-l-i-l ■l.l.l.l.l.l.l 



- Tariff level -^^^ 



^ PRICE MARGINS AND TARIFF LEVEL ' ^ 




^- Minneapolis over 
~ Winnipeg 

. I ■ I ■ I ■ I ■ I ■ I .1 . 1 ■ I ■ I ■ I . I ■ I .1 ■ I . I . I .1 . 1 .1 ■ I ■ I ■ I . I ■ I ■ I . I ■ I . I . I ■ I 







1 — r 



-I 1— 



HARD RED WHEAT, IMPORTS FOR 
CONSUMPTION, FULL DUTY PAID 



ii 



- ILJ 



_lA.i 




1922-23 



'26-27 '30-31 

YEAR BEGINNING JULY 



'34-35 



U S. Drpartmrnt of Aerirulturr. Burrau of Acrirultural Economiri. 



SCALE 8 



Prices, Price Margins. Tariff Level, and Imports of Wheat in the United States From 
July 1922 to July 1937. 




COMPOSITE CHARTS 




363 



COST or LIVING 
INMX NUMMMt,l92«-IOO 




REAL" WEEKLY EARNINGS 
INDEX NUMBERS, 1929^100 



tclepmones and TELECBAPHS 

Electric light and power 

AND manufactured GAS - ■ 

Class i railroads 

Electric railroads and motorbuses 
crude petroleum producing 

metalliferous mining __ 

YEAR-ROUND motels 

ALL MANUFACTURING _ 

DURABLE GOODS 

NONDURABLE GOODS 

LAUNDRIES 

WHOLESALE TRADE 

RETAIL TRADE _. 

GENERAL MERCHANDISING- 

OTHER THAN 

GENERAL MERCHANDISING 

QUARRYING AND NONMETALLIC MINING- 
DYEING AND CLEANING _ 



I 




National Industrial Confcrrnrr Board. Inc.. N. Y. C. June 17. 1938. SCALE .6 

Cost of Living and "Real" Weekly Earnings in the United States From 1929 to 1938. 
Curves, bars, and a sector chart combined give a clear, concise picture of a problem. 



I 



II. 




I 



III 



364 



GRAPHIC PRESENTATION 



BY CLASS OF SERVICE. 1929. 1933. 1937 



ROAD MSSENCen ENGINEERS 
ROAD rnElCHT ENGINEERS 
ROAD PA&SENCER CONDUCTORS 
ROAO FREIGHT CONDUCTORS 
YARD ENGINEERS 
ROAD PASSENGER FIREMEN 

YARD CONDUCTORS 

ALL TRAIN AND ENGINE 
SERVICE LABOR 

ROAD FREIGHT FIREMEN 
ROAD PASSENGER BRAKEMEN 
YARD BRAKEMEN 
ROAO FREIGHT BRAKEMEN 
YARD FIREMEN 



UNSKILLED LABOR 



||i^^ >«l l»| | t8«.09 



l»5V. e i| **« «t leo.se 



unsL 



• 4«.0t 1S0.23 



(47t» t49.00 




*i»t»: SSS.if 









COMPARISON 


WITH OTHER UTILITIES AND 
INDEX NUMBERS, 


WITH MANUFACTURING 

914 • 100 


191 


4-1937 






















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ALL HACC 

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2S MANUFACTURING INDUSTRIES 

1 1 (tLl ilALCil 1 1 






•< 


UOi.A 

1 


Vf. 


">° l»T4 IS 


•16 


•|7 


°I8 


•19 


•20 


'21 


•22 


•23 


24 


•25 


•26 


•2 7 


'26 


•29 


•30 


•31 


•32 


•33 


•34 


•3S 


•36 


•3 7 





National Industrial Conference Board, Inc., September 10, 1937. 



SCALE .7 



Weekly Earnings of Workers in Class I Railroads in the United States in 1929, 1933, 
and June 1937. 

An index number comparison with wage earners of other utilities and with manufacturing 
from 1914 to 1937 gives a more complete picture than would be possible with the 
bar charts alone. 



COMPOSITE CHARTS 



365 



PASSENGER CAPACITIES OF SURFACE STREETS 



60 R. Poy»m»nf 

3 Lonct EacK Direction 

No Pardinq 

AulomobiUl Only 



Auloi A But*> 



k 



Autos & Street Cort 



IN AUTOS 



IN AUTOS 



IN AUTOS 



IN BUSES 



IN STREET CARS 



COMPARATIVE PASSENGER CAPACITIES 
OF MAJOR TRANSIT AND 
TRAFFIC IMPROVEMENTS 






One express-local subway will 
carry 100,000 passengers per 
hour in one direction on two 
tracks. Twenty-one four-lane 
elevated highways would be 
required to carry the same 
load in autonnobiles. 



It everyone came to work by 
private automobile, each office 
building would need a garage 
of the same size for the storage 
of vehicles. 




Transit Journal, September 26, 1938, Part of an Editorial Entitled "Transit's Job 
Masses." 



Moving the 
SCALE .7 



A Picture of the Transit Problem in the United States. 

1. The first chart presents graphically passenger capacities of surface streets. 

2. The second one gives comparative passenger capacities of major transit and traffic im- 

provements. 

3. The third shows the amount of space that would be needed for garage if everyone came 

to work by private automobile. 



Ill 






"lll" 



III 



GRAPHIC PRESENTATION 



I 




1899 



1914 



1925 



1937 



* Electrical horsepower in factories 



Elrctriral World. Ortobrr 8. 1938 Part of an Editorial on PuMic Rrlations Entitled What Elcrtririty 
Mrant to Amrrira "' SCALE .6 

A Comparison of the Status of Labor in the Electrical Industry and the Increased 
Production in That Industry in 1899. 1914. 1925, and 1937. 

1. The implication of this chart is that with the increase in use of electrical horsepower in 

factories, average wages per hour go up and average hours per week go down. 

2. Note that the two curves and the bars have a common zero line, but the scales arc 

different. 



I 



III 



I 



III 



I 



III 



Ill 



I 



III 



I 



III 



I 



367 




Chapter 44 
SUGGESTIONS FOR MAKING A CHART 



I HE FIRST problem in producing a chart, assuming that the 
data have been gathered, is in the choice of materials to be 
used in drawing it. Often the materials at hand in the office or 
drafting room are sufficient. It is also possible to plan the produc- 
tion of a chart, basing all the plans on the materials at hand. 

PAPER 

The test for the selection of paper on which to draw is to try the 
drawing medium upon it; that is, the ink, pencil, paint, or crayon, 
and see the result. Cross section paper drawing materials may be 
secured from the following companies: 
SOURCES: 

Codex Book Co., Norwood, Massachusetts. 






Educational Exhibition Co.. Providence, Rhode Island. 

Rectangular Coordinate Graph Paper. 

1. The number of lines drawn on graph paper and the spacing of the lines may quite often 

indicate the use to which the paper will be put. For that reason, a wide choice 
of printed graph paper is offered the draftsman. The use of printed graph paper 
saves time and is comparatively inexpensive. 

2. One type of rectangular coordinate paper, called utility paper, is shown above. It has 

52 spaces on the long edge to represent one year by weeks, or 4 years by months. 
The 36 spaces may be used to represent one month by days, 3 years by months, or 
one year by months taking every third space. 

3. This paper is so spaced that it may be put in the typewriter and the lines of type will 

fit into the space; that is, on the standard typewriter there are six lines of type to 
the inch, and on this utility paper, there are six spaces to the inch. 



I 



III 



I 



■ ■I 



I 



III 



368 



GRAPHIC PRESENTATION 



Educational Exhibition Co., Providence, Rhode Island. 

Eugene Dietzgen Co.. New York City (and various other cities). 

Keuffel & Esser Co., New York City (and various other cities). 

Rubber cement is a "must" in the drafting room and copy room. 
It does not wrinkle paper and may be used for a temporary joining, 
as well as for a permanent one. 

Transparent materials may be used to great advantage in com- 
paring curves, bars, or other types of graphic charts. The charts 
are drawn directly on the transparent material. When placed over 
each other, a clear comparison is possible. 

SOURCES OF TRANSPARENT MATERIALS: 
Celluloid Corporation, Newark, New Jersey. 
E. I. Dupont De Nemours &> Company, New York City. 
Eastman Kodak Company, Rochester, New York. 
Monsanto Chemical Co., St. Louis, Missouri. 





Eugene Dietzgen Co., New York City. 

A. Ratio or Logarithmic Chart Paper. 

Logarithm ic paper is obtainable with the 
log scale in both horizontal and 
vertical rulings or with the log 
along only the ordinate. 

Log paper is obtainable in vari- 
ous sizes and with various cycles 
or decks. 



Kcuffcl & Esser Co.. New York City. SCALE .6 

B. Percentage Protractor. 

The percentage protractor is of particular 
value to anyone making graphic 
charts, since it can be used in the 
construction and measurement of 
sector charts and similar graphs. 



SUGGESTIONS FOR MAKING A CHART 



369 



A. Triangles, T-Square, and French 
Curve. 

1. The triangle on the left is 30 x 60 de- 

gree, while the one on the right is 
a 45 degree triangle. 

2. French curves are available in a great 

many shapes and forms. The one 
shown here is one of the simplest. 

3. These drawing instruments arc part of 

the equipment for a standard 
drawing board. 




Eugene Dietzgen Co., New York City. SCALE .5 



Us (9) 


HE (m^ 4H fm\ 


' 4C /•) 


1 


i 413 <¥> n en 

i ' ' ' 


3C' <"•> ' 2t\ (V) 
1 \ / , \ .J 

i i 


-<•> 


! 

2c (mj 


jt^. <v> 


/ — \ 

SI-; <0 


. <i> 


ELDOPADO 
GRADE CHART 


9H 



I 



Jotcph Dixon Crucible Co., Jertey City, N. J. 

B. Grade Chart for the Lead of Drawing Pencils. 

1. This chart gives the difference in the grades of lead in drawing pencils as seen from the 

end of the pencil. 

2. In choosing a drawing pencil, the depth and width of line desired are among the various 

criteria. 



■■■■ ■ ■ ■■■ ■ ■ ■■■■ 

370 I ■ 

GRAPHIC PRESENTATION 

REFERENCES 

Arkin. Herbert and Raymond R. Colton. Graphs: How to Make 
and Use Them. Harper & Brothers. New York City, 1937. 

Brinton. Willard C. Graphic Methods for Presenting Facts, 
McGraw-Hill Book Co.. Inc.. New York City, 1914. 

Brown. Theodore H.. Richmond F. Bingham, and V. A. Tem- 
nomeroff. Laboratory Handbook of Statistical Methods, 
McGraw-Hill Book Co., Inc., New York City, 1931. 

Haskell. A. C, Graphic Charts in Business, Codex Book Co., 
Inc., Norwood, Mass., 1928. 

Karsten, Karl G., Cliarts and Graphs, Prentice-Hall, Inc., New 
York City, 1923. 

CRAYONS 

If you do not have crayons of the desired color on hand, try your 
nearest art dealer. If you are unable to secure the materials that 
you want there, write to the manufacturers. They will put you in 
touch with your nearest dealer. 

A wide variety is offered. There are colored pencils, wax crayons, 
pressed crayons, water crayons, etc. If when using a wax crayon, 
the color tends to smear, scrape the surface with a razor blade. The 
excess crayon is thus removed. Lumber crayons may be used for 
extremely heavy color work. 
Makers of crayons: 

American Crayon Co., Sandusky, Ohio, New York City. 

Art Crayon Co., Inc., Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Binney &" Smith Co., New York City. 

Joseph Dixon Crucible Co., Jersey City, N. J., New York City 
(and various other cities). 

Ea^le Pencil Company, Inc.. New York City 

Eberhard Faber Pencil Co.. Brooklyn. N. Y. 

Koh-I-Noor Pencil Co., New York City. 




E.-ii;lr Pencil Company. Inc . New York City 

Pencil Lengthener. 

1. The pencil lengthener is used with a pencil stub. This makes it possible to use the 

entire pencil and yet not be uncomfortable while using the small length. 

2. The pencil lengthener may also be fitted with a pencil which is made short especially 

for use in a lengthener. 



.ill , ill , ill 



Ill 



I 



■■ll" 



III 



SUGGESTIONS FOR MAKING A CHART 






371 




Charirt M HigRins Ik Co . Inc . Brooklyn. N Y. SCALE 8 

Inks for Drawing and Lettering. 

A good drawing ink should be smooth flowing and quick drying as well as permanent and 
waterproof. The stopper is usually equipped with a quill to be used in Tilling 
drawing and ruling pens. 



2. 



3. 



PASTED COLORED PAPERS 

The problem of putting color on a graphic chart is further sim- 
plified by the use of colored paper. 

1. Plain colored paper may be pasted on with rubber cement. 
Colored paper with a gummed back may be obtained either 
in tape form or in sheets. 

Colored paper with a back which adheres to any clean, 
smooth surface and which requires no water may be obtained 
in a variety of widths and colors. 

Sources: 

Dennison Manufacturing Co., Framingham, Mass., New York 

City (and various other cities). 
Industrial Tape Corporation, New Brunswick, N. J. 
Minnesota Mining &' Manufacturing Co., Chicago, New York 

City (and various other cities). 
Poster Products, Inc., Chicago, New York City, 
Van Chef Bros., Chicago, New York City. 



.1. 



..I. 



Ii. 



372 



GRAPHIC PRESENTATION 



ERASERS 

Erasers are necessary implements in the drafting room. They 
may be classified into the following types: 

1. velvet — for erasing pencil 

2. sandpaper — for erasing typewriter type 

3. scrubbing — for erasing smudges, charcoal, pencil, etc. 

4. roll-off — for cleaning up drawings 

5. kneading erasers — for cleaning pencil, etc., from walls 

6. ink erasers and ink eradicators 

7. erasing machines 

Sources : 

Joseph Dixon Crucible Co., Jersey City, N. J. 
Eagle Pencil Company, Inc., New York City 

Eberhard Faber Pencil Co., Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Weldon Roberts Rubber Co., Newark, N. J., New York City 

Erasing Machines: 

Chicago Wheel & Manufacturing Co., Chicago. 
Charles W. Speidel &> Co., Philadelphia. 




Illllll 



No. 00 1 2 3 4 5 6 7N 8N 9 10 12 14 

Kcuflrl S Esser Co . N<-w York City. 

Leroy Let+ering Pens and Width of Letters. 

While these pens are designed primarily for use with the scriber and lettering guide shown 
in 373 they may also be used for free-hand lettering and line drawing. A special 
socket which fits into an ordinary pen holder is necessary for this. 



SUGGESTIONS FOR MAKING A CHART 



373 



INK 

A good waterproof permanent ink is essential. Colored inks such 
as red and green are often standard equipment in an office. These 
may be used to color graphic charts and maps. See 371. 

If there is a choice of colored inks, the following order of choice 
is recommended: 

1. black 

2. carmine red or scarlet 

3. green 

4. blue 

5. yellow 

6. brown 

7. orange 




I 



KeufTrl H Esscr Co.. New York City. 

Leroy Lettering Guide and Scriber. 

1. This lettering guide is of three-ply construction, two white sections, with one blacic 

center section. The letters arc cut only in one white section, revealing the black 
one underneath. 

2. There are two types of scribers: the adjustable one that produces both vertical and 

slanting letters, and the fixed scriber that produces vertical letters only. 



374 



"III-. 



-I|i 



GRAPHIC PRESENTATION 



•I' 




Wood Rrgan InsUumcnt Co.. New York City. SCALE .6 

A. Wrico Lettering Pen and Lettering Guide. 

1. Tubular points on this pen prevent ink from getting on the edges of the openings of 

the guide. Steel needles regulate the flow of ink and prevent the points from 
becoming clogged with ink. 

2. The under side of the guide is grooved so that ink will not be smeared when the 

guide is moved from one character to another. The guide is placed directly 
over the portion of the paper on which the lettering is to be done. 



Thro. Altcnrdrr Qi Sont. Philadelphia, Pa. 

B. Ruling Pen of the "Hinged" Type. 

1. The hinge arrangement of this pen makes the pen easy to clean. Ruling pens are avail- 

able in a variety of sizes and shapes. This is the actual size of the pen. 

2. The firm from whose catalogue this illustration was taken also handles a helpful device 

called a "Spacing Divider." This instrument consists of 11 teeth, numbered from 
to 10, and so designed that they always divide the extreme setting of the 
dividers into 10 equal parts. 



I 



III 



I 



III 



I 



III 



Ill 



I 



■I" 



III 



SUGGESTIONS FOR MAKING A CHART 



I 



375 




I 



Poster Products, Inc., Chicago, and Tablet Sl Ticket Co., Chicago. 

Cut-Out LeHers. 

1. Another method of lettering a chart is to secure cut-out letters and (inures and then 

to put them on the chart. The letters come in a variety of styles and sizes and 
may be secured cither with a gummed back or a back wliich adheres to any clean 
smooth surface and which requires no water. The latter are both removable and 
reusable. 

2. The letters "OSNX" are K^in^i^^<l-t'3<^l< a"d come in sizes from 'g to 2 inches in height 

(Tablet & Ticket Co.). The letters ■■W2" require no water. A white backing 
protects the adhering surface and is stripped off just before using. These letters 
come in sizes 13 16 to 9 inches in height (Poster Products Inc ). 

3. A third company making letters from 1 inch to 18 inches in height is The Rcdicut 

Letter Company, Los Angeles, California. 



I 



III 



I 



III 



I 



■ nil 



376 



GRAPHIC PRESENTATION 





lip 



PACRAtti or TYHE 



m^' 



ASSORTED FURNtTURt 



The Kclsey Company. Meriden, Conn. 

A. Small Portable Printing Press and Outfit. 

1. The small press shown above prints a type space 6 x 10 inches. A downward pressure 

on the lever gives the impression. Ink is spread on the ink table, which may be 
removed for cleaning. From 600 to 2000 sheets may be run through per hour. 

2. These small presses are available in a number of sizes. 

Pica— No. 1 (10) 

This is a sample of writing with 
No. 1 Pica type, the style most 
used for general correspondence. 
123456789 10 

Elite No. 6 (12 or 10 Special) 

ILITE. Is used largely for personal 
correspondence. Much matter in small 
space without crowded appearance. 

L. C. Smith Typewriter Co., New York City. 

B. Pica and Elite Typewriter Styles. 

1. Graph paper may be inserted in the typewriter so that the lettering and numbering 

may be typed. A standard typewriter makes a legible chart. The most commonly 
used type styles are the pica and elite. 

2. There are ten letters to the inch on the pica type and six lines of type to the inch. 

On the elite type there may be either twelve or ten letters to the inch. 

3. A large variety of type styles are available on typewriters today. A new machine makes 

it possible to use several styles of type on the same typewriter. See 379. 



SUGGESTIONS FOR MAKING A CHART 



377 



OROrrH Of Trg ILfCTHIC LIOUT AHP rOfIR HCDUSTBT -- 190? TO 19^ 

y^wi or vuHT ahh ijuipmimt 

la MlUloQ. of Dollar. 



XliL 

1937. . 
1932. . 
1927. . 
1922. . 
1917... 
1912. . . 
1907. . . 
1902. . . 



Million' 

3 T 5 5^ 



-2_I — "i 1 1 * «• ■ 
7 8 9 10 11 



13 Ik 



TTTTlTm 



umim 



ummi 



nmuE 



r 



mnuR 



nmmLUR 



ummni 



zzzz 



zzzz 



zzzz 



zzzz 



zzzz 



zzzz 



zzzz 



zzzz 



zzzz 



ZZZZ2ZZZ 



zzzz 



B 



mLUR 



zzzz 



zzzz 



zzzz 



mLTULUR 



TnLmLnminL 



JUL 



TEL 



TEL 



mi 



TRL 



m 



JUL 



zza 



XttL 

1937... 
1932. •• 
1927. . . 
1922. . . 
1917... 
1912. . . 
1907. . . 
1902. . . 



anRQT agyiRATiD— BUUOMs or tiLowArr-HOUHg 



B 1 1 1 i a t of k 1 1 w a t t - h tt r « 
10 20 30 50 50 50 fo 10 fO 100 110 120 



77777 



ZZZZZ 



ZZZZIZZZZZ 



ZZZZZ 



ZZZZZ 



7773 
H 



jmLmmmmmR 



ma 



mmmiL 



mR 



zzzffizzzzLznzz 



ZZZZZ 



ZZZZLZZZZL 



ZZ3 



ZZZZL 



ZZZZZ 



ZZZZZ 



77777 



mmmmwu 



ma 



mR 



mR 



ZZZZZ 



ZZ3 



Rmmmm 



I 



International Business Machinrs Corp , Nrw York City. SCALE .7 

Two Bar Charfs Made on a Typewriter. 

1. For the employee in a business office, lacking the tools and the skill in drawing and 

lettering of a draftsman, the typewriter offers an opportunity for quick and easy 
preparation of graphic presentation of data through charts and diagrams. It solves 
the problem of lettering and asures that vertical and horizontal lines will be at 
right angles without the use of a drawing board and T-square. 

2. Making bar charts is a simple process. By letting one space on the machine represent 

a unit quantity, the character selected for a given bar can be struck the correct 
number of times to represent any specified amount. There are several characters 
which when written so that one row exactly touches the next one will make a very 
attractive "all over" pattern. 



378 



■I' 



•!■ 



GRAPHIC PRESENTATION 



■ ■ 



DisT«noTio>r OF ncH dolus 



LXSS COST or MATP I AU) 




International Businrss Machines Corp., New York City. SCALE .5 

A Sector Chart Made on a Typewriter. 

A sector chart can be made quickly -and easily on a typewriter by the following method: 

1. Draw the circle of convenient size with any ordinary school compass. 

2. Indicate the division of the circle into its parts by a protractor and draw the dividing 

lines in ink. 

3. Type in the names of the sectors. 

4. With the compass set as it was to draw the original circle, draw another circle exactly 

like it on a sheet of thin typewriter second paper. By running the sharp point of 
the compass around the circle several times on the thin paper, the circle will drop 
out and leave a hole in the second sheet. 

5. Place the copy in the machine with the second sheet over it so that all of the copy 

excepting the circle itself is covered. 

6. Roll the copy up in the machine and place a strip of second sheet along one of the 

dividing lines and another strip along the adjacent dividing line. The two strips 
of paper will cross at the center of the circle and will cover all of th* circle 
but one sector. 

7. Beginning at the bottom of the exposed sector, make rows of the desired character to 

make the "all over" pattern for that sector, allowing the rows to extend beyond 
the edge of the sector a few spaces. The excess typing will fall on the second 
sheets and a very sharp edge of the pattern will appear on the copy. Adjust the 
strips of paper each time to expose one sector and fill in each sector, running the 
pattern carefully around the lettering. 

8. It takes as long to describe it as it does to do it. 



I 



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I 



III 



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-III 



SUGGESTIONS FOR MAKING A CHART 






379 




I 



The Varl- Typer Electric Composing Machine Is •*nuf *c tured by the Ralph C. Coxhead 
Corporation, with their main office at 17 Park Place, Mev Tork City, II . T. 



Vari-Typer, an Electric Typewriter with Interchangeable Type 

The Vari-Typer Electric Composing Machine is used to "cut" stencils and 
to compose the master copy for reproduction by Photo— Of f set . The 
machine features Interchangeable Type, Horizontal Spacing Control, 
Vertical Spacing Control, Uniform Impression Control, Bold Face Repeat 
Key, Margin Justification Mechanism, Open End Carriage, Standard 
Keyboard and Shadow Light. The machine is simple to operate. 

The above was typed on the Vari-Typer. 



I 



III 



I 



III 



I 



III 



380 



GRAPHIC PRESENTATION 



GRAPHIC 

GRAPHIC 

GRAPHIC 

GRAPHIC 

GRAPHIC 



GRAPHIC 

RAfHllG 









MiPiHin© 



Martin J Weber, New York City. 

Photographic Method of Securing Various Types of Lettering Effects. 

1. All the above letter eFfects were made photo-mechanically by a special device on a 

camera from the same original line. The original is the top line of the left column. 

2. The letters can be made to slant either to the right or left. 

3. In addition to altering the letter effects, this process invented by Martin J. Weber, 

New York artist, will produce variations of the original which will register perfectly 
with that original for color registration work. 



Green and red as favorable and unfavorable originated with rail- 
road signals which were based upon the idea of red for danger and 
green for safety. Today, red and green are used in traffic signals 
for stop-and-go. 

When there is to be a gradation from dense to least dense there 
is a question as to how the gradations should be crosshatched. 
Generally, black represents the unfavorable and white the favor- 
able. Since the question is one of interpretation, the decision should 
be made relative to the particular problem. 



381 



Chapter 45 
STANDARDS FOR TIME SERIES CHARTS 



o 



n the following pages are abstracts from Time Series Charts. 
A Manual of Design and Construction, 1938, prepared by the Com- 
mittee on Standards for Graphic Presentation under the pro- 
cedure of the American Standards Association, with the American 
Society of Mechanical Engineers as sponsor body. 

Other abstracts from this report will be found in the following 
chapters: 

Chapter 12. MULTIPLE BAR CHARTS 

Chapter 13. CONTRASTING BAR CHARTS 

Chapter 33. CURVE CHARTS 

Chapter 34. COMPARISONS WITH TWO CURVES 

Chapter 36. COMPONENT PARTS SHOWN BY CURVES 

Chapter 42. RATIO CHARTS 

Chapter 51. METHODS OF PRINTING 

The pamphlet number of this report is ASA Z15.2 — 1938. It 
may be secured for $1.25 from the Publications Department of the 
American Society of Mechanical Engineers, 29 West 39th Street, 
New York City. 

The Committee on Preferred Practice for Time Series Charts, 
with Arthur H. Richardson as Chairman, prepared the report Time 
Series Charts. It is a subcommittee of the Committee on Stand- 
ards for Graphic Presentation. Within the next year, it is expected 
there will be a report by the subcommittee on Engineering and 
Scientific Graphs, of which W. A. Shewhart is Chairman. 



382 



GRAPHIC PRESENTATION 



DESIGNATION OF CHART COMPONENTS 



GENERAL 
NOTE 



REFERENCE 
SYMBOL 



HORIZONTAL 
RULINGS 



LABELS 

(curve 

captions) 



AMOUNT- 
SCALE 
NUMERALS 



AMOUNT- 
SCALE 
PTION 




/Vye of 
Paper 



REFERENCE 
NOTE 



BASE LINE 
(ZERO LINE) 



TIME 
DESIGNATIONS 



The arrow and designation "Edge of Paper" have been added to the original in order to 
indicate that the outside hne is not a frame. The author beheves it is undesirable 
to put a frame hne around a chart because of the possibihty of that hne being 
falsely interpreted as a zero line. 



STANDARDS FOR TIME SERIES CHARTS 



383 



GRIDS 

Grid Structure ploys a controlling port in interpreting the 
facts. However, grid specifications should seldom if ever be 
determined without tokmg the scales into consideration. In 
the matter of influencing the behavior of the curve, the two 
are of equal importance. 

The proper construction of a grid involves more than sim- 
ply covering a convenient space with cross rulings. As in 
the matter of general layout, the nature of the doto ond 
purpose of the presentation must be considered. A grid un- 
suifed to the doto moy be not only lacking in effectiveness 
but may actually be misleading. 

GRID DIMENSIONS 

1 . Grids should be so proportioned as not to distort the facts. 

2. Grid proportions should not be rigidly standardized. 

3. Grids should be of pleasing proportions. 

FREQUENCY Of VERTICAL RULINGS 

1. The number of rulings should be sufficient to indicate the frequency 
of plotting. 

2. There should be a sufficient number of rulings to facilitate the read- 
ing of time values on the horizontal time-scole. 

WEIGHT OF VERTICAL RULINGS 

1. Vertical rulings should be of sufficient weight to guide the eye readily 
to the time-scale designations. 

2. The weight of vertical rulings should be varied so as to indicate 
clearly the nature of the time intervals or the subdivisions of time for 
which data ore shown. 

FREQUENCY OF HORIZONTAL RUUNGS 

1. Horizontal rulings should be so drawn as to meet the requirements of 
their two-fold purpose: To assist in reading values on the vertical 
scale and to provide a series of horizontal bases of comparison 

2. The number of horizontol rulings should vary according to the close- 
ness with which it is desired to read values of the vertical scale. 
Rulings should not be so frequent as to imply a greater accuracy of 
the data than actually exists. 

3. In general, there should be no more rulings than ore necessary to 
guide the eye to on approximate reading of the curve values. 

WEIGHT OF HORIZONTAL RULINGS 

1. Horizontal rulings should be sufficiently heavy to guide the eye to the 
amount scale without conscious effort. 

2. Horizontal rulings should be heovy enough to serve os supplemen- 
tary "boses" of comparison for the curves. 

3. Horizontal rulings should be light enough to contrast sharply with 
the curves. 




F«w plotting* 




Many plottings 




Emphasis on chonge 



I 




Indkotlng omUsion of rulings 



Infrequent rulings generally 
desiroble 



384 



GRAPHIC PRESENTATION 



ROOT-TWO 


DIMENSIONS 








Short Long 


Short Long 


Short 


Long 


Short 


Long 


Short 


Long 


1.0 1.4 


3.0 4.2 


5.0 


7. 1 


7.0 


9.9 


9.0 


12.7 


1. 1 1.6 


3.1 4.4 


5. 1 


7.2 


7. 1 


10.0 


9. 1 


12.9 


1.2 1.7 


3.2 4.5 


5.2 


7.4 


7,2 


10.2 


9.2 


13.0 


1.3 1.8 


3.3 4.7 


5.3 


7.5 


7.3 


10.3 


9.3 


13.2 


1.4 2.0 


3.4 4.8 


5.4 


7.6 


7.4 


10.5 


9.4 


13.3 


1.5 2.1 


3.5 4.9 


5.5 


7.8 


7.5 


10.6 


9.5 


13.4 


1.6 2.3 


3.6 5.1 


5.6 


7.9 


7.6 


10.8 


9.6 


13.5 


1.7 2.4 


3.7 5.2 


5.7 


8. 1 


7.7 


10.9 


9,7 


13.7 


i.e 2.6 


3.8 5.4 


5.8 


8.2 


7.8 


1 1.0 


9,8 


13,9 


1.9 2.7 


3.9 5.5 


5.9 


8.3 


7.9 


1 1.2 


9.9 


14,0 


2.0 2.8 


4.0 5.7 


6.0 


8.5 


8.0 


li.3 


10.0 


14. 1 


2. 1 3.0 


4. 1 5.8 


6. 1 


8.6 


8. i 


11.5 


10. 1 


14.3 


2.2 3.1 


4.2 5.9 


6.2 


8.8 


8.2 


11.6 


10.2 


14.4 


2.3 3.2 


4.3 6.1 


6.3 


8.9 


8.3 


1 1.7 


10.3 


14.6 


2.4 2.4 


4.4 6.2 


6.4 


9. 1 


8.4 


1 i.9 


10.4 


14.7 


2.5 3.5 


4.5 6.4 


6.5 


9.2 


8.5 


12.0 


10.5 


14.8 


2.6 3.7 


4.6 6.5 


6.6 


9.3 


8.6 


12.2 


10.6 


15.0 


2.7 3.8 


4.7 6.7 


6.7 


9.5 


8.7 


12.3 


10.7 


15. i 


2.8 4,0 


4.8 6.8 


6.8 


9.6 


8.8 


12.4 


10.8 


15.3 


2.9 4.1 


4,9 6.9 


6.9 


9.8 


8.9 


12.6 


iO.9 


15.4 




In preparing a chart to be 


of root-two 


p ropo rt 


ons select 


one of the pairs of dimensions Indicated above fc 


r a 


bordering rectangle and fit 


the material within 


It as 


:o»- 


pactly as practicable. 










Measure the short dimension 


and if the 


CO rr esp( 


>nding 


ong 


dimension from the table Is 


grea.ter than 


the Ion 


g dimension 


of the layout, expand the latter to correspond 


If 


the 


long dimension from the 


table Is less than 


the 


ong 


dimension of the layout, find the short dimen 


lion CO rre- 


spending to the latter and 


expand the 


short d 


mension 


of 


the layout to correspond. 











The proportions of o chart should be such that when reproduced or 
displayed it will fit harmoniously the medium of presentation. 

PROPORTIONS FOR LEHER SIZE. The ratio of 1 (short side) to 1.414 
(long side) is particularly appropriate for correspondence size sheets 
(nominally 81/2" X 11"). 

Note: A rectanflle of this proportion is Icnown as a "root-two" or "hypote- 
nuse" rectangle, the long side of which is equal to the diagonal of a square 
constructed on the short side. This rectangle possesses the unique character- 
istic that when divided in half width-wise, each resulting rectangle is also of 
root-two proportions; a characteristic useful in grouping charts on a page. 



STANDARDS FOR TIME SERIES CHARTS 



385 



IMPORTANCE OF PROPER SCALE SELECTION 



EFrECT OF SCALE ALTERATION - CHART SHOWING MOVEMENT 



OAiCINAL SCALC 
ARnANCCUCNT 



* 


/ 


--n/ 


n 



*rf 


ONTIUCTIMC TIMC tCALt 




.1 


/\ 


J 


_. 





2 

J 







COMTHACTIMC 


AMOUNT SCALC 






























1 














I 














* 




















/ 












^ 


X 








n 















w 






OMMDIMC TIUI 


SCALI 












,/ 


^^ 


^"^ 


y 





















I 






♦ 
















^j,^ 


n 




f^ 



EFFECT OF SCALE ALTERATION - CHART SHOWING TREND 



0«ICINAL SCALE 
AARANCCMCNT 








COMTIIACTINC 


, 


uc 


JCALt 


2 

I 




IXPANOINc/luOUMT JCALC 


2 

1 




1 


H 
.««, 


THACTIN 
OIHC Ak 


C 
<0 


TIU 
JH1 


C 
9 


■*•€ 

ICA 


L» 






























I' 


/ 










/ 


f 
























J 






















/ 


r 




















/ 


r 










/ 


' 




_ 


















I 

























CSNTItACTINC AMOUNT SCALC 



CIMNOINC TlUC SCALC 















A 









1 

4 


























p 
























\ 
































^ 


.^^ 












_^ 












^,1— 




^ 










^^ 






_— —■ 


"^ 


0^ 
















--^ 1 





386 



GRAPHIC PRESENTATION 



RELATION OF TIME SCALE TO AMOUNT SCALE 

1. The relofion between the time scale and the amount scale has a de- 
termining influence on the movement of time-series curves. 

Note: The movement of o curve ij here understood to meon the o'opf^ic 
effect of the progressive chonges in the quantity considered The trend is 
the graphic effect of the overoil changes in the quontity considered 

2. Selection of both scales should be made to convey the correct im- 
pression of the trend and movement of the series. 

3. Manipulating the scales so as to picture a movement contrary to the 
facts is never justiPied. 



True picture 



.L 



Distortion fMultino from oinitslon of 
zero value 



20 










W 




























40 

?0 










1 


















(b) 












Methods of Indicating omluion of 
zero volue 



J 

•00 1935 1935 

Effect of altering grid proportions 



INCLUSION OF PRINCIPAL POINT OF REFERENCE 

Principle 

1. The amount scale should normally include the zero value or other 
principal point of reference. Departure from this rule should never 
be made except where there is a special reason for so doing. 

Procedures 

1. WHEN NECESSARY. The zero line or other base of comparison should 
never be omitted when the interest is in relative amount of change 
between points on the same curve. 

2. WHEN NOT NECESSARY. When the interest of the reader is in the 
absolute amount of change rather than in the relative amount of 
change, it may be safe to omit the principal point of reference and 
the accompanying horizontal line. 

3. OMISSION SHOULD BE INDICATED. When the zero value or other 
principal point of reference is omitted the fact should be clearly indi- 
cated in a manner that will attract notice. 

Note: Since It Is generolly token for granted that the base line is the zero 
line, it is not sufficient merely to show the bose line as a light ruling instead 
of the customary heavy ruling. 

4. EFFECTIVE METHODS OF INDICATING the omission of the zero 
point and line: 

(a) A wavy line across the bottom of the grid, 
(bl A straight line waved at each end. 



STANDARDS FOR TIME SERIES CHARTS 



387 



RANGE AND SPACING OF AMOUNT SCALE 



Principl*! 

1. Since the omount scole has a controlling effect on the movement 
oi the curves it is highly important that a scale be selected which will 
result in a true picture of the facts. 

2. The amount scale should be divided in a manner that will facilitate 
accurote reading of the curve values. 

Procedures 

1. FULL RANGE DESII^ABLE. Generally the amount scale should begin 
at zero. It should extend continuously to a point somewhat beyond 
the greatest value, to avoid crowding the grid. In cases of marked 
upward trends, curves generally should not point obove the upper 
right-hond corner of the grid. 

2. AVOID WASTE SPACE Unnecessary extension of the scale range 
should be avoided if blank space which serves no useful purpose is 
thus added. 

Noie Eoendino 't<e scole range reduces the fluciuotion and separation of 
Curves When this is desirable it mov be belter accomplished by reducing the 
Koie dimensions i( the resulting chorl con still be made ol the desired pro- 
portions. 

3. "FREAK" VALUES. Where a series contains a few widely divergent 
points lunless they ore really significant) it is often better not to 
attempt to select a scale that will include them all. Inclusion of these 
points will tend to depress the fluctuations of the rest of the curve. 

4. DIVISION OF SCALE. It is desirable to select a scale range that is 
divisible into convenient scale intervals. 

lal For reading SCALE VALUES it is generally well to subdivide the 
scale into intervals that are familiar and easy to visualize leg., 
5, 10, 15, 20). 

(bl For reading CURVE VALUES for purposes of interpolation or read- 
ing between the main points on the scale, it may be desirable to 
divide the scale into even units rather than odd, as the eye can 
more readily divide the space into even ports than into odd. 

5. "BREAKING" AMOUNT SCALE. Although the amount scale should 
generally be continuous, it is sometimes permissible to omit on inter- 
mediate portion 111 when the curves on the grid ore widely seporoted 
and it is desired to compare them more closely, or (2| to magnify 
the fluctuations of the different curves which may be widely separated 
on the amount scale. 

6. INDICATING BROKEN SCALE. When there is any break in the amount 
scale or any intermediate portion is omitted, the fact should be clearly 
indicated by some accepted convention. 

7. SPACING BROKEN SCALE When the amount scale is broken, spac- 
ing in both resulting portions of the scale should remain identical. 




Ploclng the curve 




Method of showing "freok" values 




I 



Division of amount scale 



^H 



Breaking amount scale 
(Se« procedures 6 and 7) 



GRAPHIC PRESENTATION 



LOCATION OF AMOUNT-SCALE DESIGNATIONS 

Principle 

1. Amouni-scole designations iiiould be ploced where they con be read 
most easily in coniunction with the curves. 

Procedures 

1. AT BOTH SIDES: 
In general 

la) To provide for any reading requirement. 

(b) To give balance to the chart. 

Especially 

Ic) When the grid is extremely wide. 

Idl When the horizontal rulings are dose together. 

2. AT RIGHT SIDE OF GRID ONLY: 

lal When interest is definitely centered of the right, 
(bl When a noturol reading of the chart requires reading the curve 
before the scale. 

Noie The theory of plocing 'he scole oi the right is ihoi o oerson will 
normolly read the chort trom let' to right (thoi is. from the curve to the 
scole ro'her thon (rcn 'he scole lo the cu'vel. 

3. AT LEFT SIDE OF GRID ONLY: 

lal When interest is definitely centered at the left. 
jbl When interpretation of the chart requires reading the scale before 
the curve. 

4. NEITHER SIDE It is sometimes feasible to place amount designations 
adiacent to the plotted values on the curve. iThis treatment is most 
effective when grid Imes ore omitted, and is especially suited to charts 
for popular appeal ) 



AMOUNT-SCALE NUMERALS 

1. Amount-scale numerals should be so written and placed that they will 
clearly and easily indicate the value of the horizontal rulings. 




Scales both sides o*rierolly 
recommended (See proceduie 1 1 



Interest ot right 



Interest at left 



STANDARDS FOR TIME SERIES CHARTS 



389 



AMOUNT SCALE CAPTIONS 

1. A scale caption should always accompany the amounl-scole numerals 
unless the character of the scale units is otherwise indicated. 

2. Amount-scale captions should be located where they will most effec- 
tively mdicate the units of value. 



TONS 
400 



I. 



I.. 



CopMon 

above 

numerali 



Caption 
at the 
tide 



»io 



RANGE AND SPACING OF TIME SCALE 



1. The time scale should correspond to the characteristics of the data 
both in regard to the span of time covered and the frequency with 
which values ore recorded. 



$e — 



Caption combined with numerals 



I 



RELATION OF TIME SCALE TO VERTICAL RULINGS AND PLOHED 
POINTS 

Note: Time icale^ consist of a series of successive equally spaced points of 
time Idates. time of doy, etc.) ; the intervals between such points representing 
periods of time. 

"f^INT DATA" are values in a time series as of specific points of lime 
"PERIOD DATA" ore volues in o time series for periods of time. 

1. IN THEORY, vertical rulings should always indicate specific points of 
time on the time scale. 

|a| Point data should be plotted on such point-of-time rulings, 
lb) Period data should be plotted midway between point-of-time 
rulings. 

2. IN ACTUAL PRACTICE, however, this principle may often be disre- 
garded in showing period data. 



1 1 








1 -►OiNT 0*TA* 1 

|isr or c*o« MOfrral ^ 


^ 


^ 




y 




1 -«•«« 0«T»- {I 
|fO« MONTMJ KOTCOJI 









JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN 



Point doto on verticals. Period doto 
midway between 




Theory followed in showlr>g period 
doto on verticals 



GRAPHIC PRESENTATION 

LOCATION OF TIME-SCALE DESIGNATIONS 
Principle 

1. Time-scale designations should be placed where they con be read 
most easily in conjunction with the curves. 

Procedures 

1. USUALLY AT BOnOM OF GRID BECAUSE: 

lol The bottom o( the chart is the conventional location. 

(b) The base line is ordinarily the principal line oi relerence to which 

the eye travels lor a basis of comparison. 
|cl In many coses, the curve starts near the bottom of the grid, eg., 

growth curves starting near the base line. 
(dl The scale designations at the bottom odd to the appearance of 

the chart in balancing the weight ol the composition. 

2. SOMETIMES AT TOP AND BOHOM— 
(al When the grid is unusually high. 

(bl When the vertical rulings are so numerous as to cause difficulty 

in following them to the scole at the bottpm. 
Icl When a considerable portion of the curve lies near the top of the 

grid. 

3. AT TOP ONLY, IN SPECIAL CASES— 

la) When it is desired to emphasize the time periods in conjunction 

with the title, 
lb) When the space at the bottom is insufficient. 
|c) When the principal line of reference lies near the top of the grid. 

4. WITHIN THE GRID. In very simple charts it is sometimes effective- to 
place time designations within the grid directly under or over the 
plotted points. (This treofment is well suited to advertising or publicity 
charts, especially when the curve is shown without grid lines.) 



1932 1933 1934 1935 1936 




1925 1926 1927 1928 1929 



Usual location of time-scale 
designation 




1936 



Procedure for unusual coses 



STANDARDS FOR TIME SERIES CHARTS 



391 



ARRANGEMENT OF TIME-SCAIE DESIGNATIONS 



l»2S l»M IMT ins l«2« WM It3l W33 




Arrong«menl for yoort 



1930 1931 1932 1933 1934 1935 

Arrongemenl for quarters 



Principle 

I. Time-scale designations should be so arranged as to focilitote the 
reading of time values lor all plotted points on the curves. 

Procedures 

1. DESIGNATION FOR EACH RULING. A time designation should 
normally accompany each vertical ruling. 

2. OMISSION OF DESIGNATIONS. When vertical rulings ore so 
numerous that designations cannot be shown in legible size lor each 
ruling, it is well to omit some of them; e.g., every other ruling. 

3. PLACING. Time designations should be centered under the vertical 
grid rulings or spaces to which they relate. 

4. READING POSITION: 
la) Designations should, if possible, read horizontally. 
(b| When there is insuFTicienf space to place time designations in a 

horizontol position, it is generally desirable to place them in a 
vertical position reading upward. 

Note In some cases where it is important to retain horizontal reading it 
is possible to "stogoer" captions. 

5. SUBDIVIDED TIME PERIODS. When major divisions on the time scale 
ore divided into minor divisions, it is normally desirable to indicate 
both, by means of primary and secondary scale designations. 
Major divisions should be indicated by captions placed under the 
minor designations to which they apply. 

Note: Dropping secondory designations As a means of retaining hori- 
zontal reading, designations for minor time divisions con often be dropped 
entirely where interest lies in the general trend rather than in specific points 
on the curve, eg, for time series plotted weekly it is often sotisfactory to 
show only monthly captions under the weekly rulings. iSee illustration at 
the right I 

6. DESIGNATION FOR EACH PLOHING. For series containing irregu- 
lar time intervals, it is sometimes effective to designate on the time 
scale only those points for which there ore plotted values. 

7. TIME-SCALE CAPTIONS. If necessary to on understanding of time . Arrongemenl for weeks 

. . ■ .. I J ■ • . •• L ij u I _i (Oindicotes beginning ond end ot 

characteristics of a series, a descriptive caption should be placed ^ montt»i) 

below the time designation; e.g., "end of each month." 






■ 



1933 1934 

Arrongemenl for monlhi 



JAN ^ r(B t^AII API! UAV .lUN 



392 



GRAPHIC PRESENTATION 



ABBREVIATION OF TIME-SCALE DESIGNATIONS 



SUN MON TUE WED THU FRI SAT 

Abbreviations for days of the week 



JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN 



JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC 
Abbreviations for months of the year 



I I I I I I 



Principles 

1. It is desirable to abbreviate time designations whenever the complete 
designations v^ould be too crowded or require o size of lettering too 
small to be legible. 

2. Only stondord or recognized obbreviations should be used. 
Procedures 

1. IN GENERAL, time-scale designations should not be abbreviated until 
the possibilities of other methods have been considered Isuch as stag- 
gering or placing verticollyl. 

2. DAYS. The days of the week should conform to the usual method of 
abbreviation except that Tuesday and Thursday should generally be 
written '"Tue" and "Thu" in order that all may be of equal length and 

emphasis. 

3. MONTHS. Months also should generally conform to three-letter ab- 
breviations in order that all months may be of equal length. 

Note: If it is importoni to retain horizontal reodino but sufTicient space 
lor stondord obbreviolion is not ovoiloble, the initio! letters of the month 
con sometimes be used: JfMAMJJASOND. This form is not 
recommended for generol use. 

Another oliernolive sometimes used to retain horizontal reading is to 
indicate months by numerals: I 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12. This is not oen- 
eroMy recommended becouse many people do not readily associate month 
numbers with month names. 

4. QUARTERS. Designation of quarters can be 1, 2, 3, 4, or 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 
4th, with the word "quarter" below, or, if space permits, first quailer, 
second quarter, etc. 

5. YEARS. Where possible, years should be written out in full, whether 
horizontal or vertical, but if abbreviated, should be shown as — '28, 
"29, '30, etc. When abbreviations are used, it is well to have some of 
the years written out, as follows: 

1920 '21 '22 '23 '24 1925 '26 '27 '28 '29 1930 



1925*26 "27 •28 '29 1930 "31 
Abbreviated yeorly designoilont 



STANDARDS FOR TIME SERIES CHARTS 



393 



CURVE WEIGHT 

Noi*^ Proctlcet rec6mm«nd*d In Ihli tecllon apply primarily to lolld lin* 
curvai. 



Principlet 

1. Corves should be sufficiently heavy to attract immediate attention and 
to impress a visual image on the mind of the reader. 

2. In general, time-series curves should be heavier than is the practice 
in the case of engineering and scientific charts. 

Procedures 

1. RELATION TO WEIGHT OF RULINGS. Curves should be sufficiently 
heavy to be distinguished readily from the co-ordinate rulings. 

2. RELATION TO WEIGHT OF REFERENCE LINES. Single curves should 
normally be heavier than the zero line or other principal line of refer- 
ence. Multiple curves should normolly be no lighter than reference 
lines. 

3. RELATION TO NUMBER OF CURVES. Curves usually should be heov- 
ier when shown singly than when several are shown together Iper- 
haps decreasing % for each additional curvel. 

4. RELATION TO CHARACTER OF CURVES. Irregular curves should nor- 
mally be lighter than relotively smooth ones (the greater the irregu- 
larity the lighter the curvel. 

5. RELATION TO OTHER COMPONENTS. Curves should not be so 
heovy as to appear crude or to overpower the other elements of the 
chort. 

6. GENERAL PICTURE vs. CLOSE READING. The weight of curves should 
vary according to the use — from relatively heavy lines in charts for 
popular appeal to very light lines in charts used for close reading of 
values. 

7. VARIATION OF WEIGHTS on the same chart: 
la) To distinguish one curve from another. 

(b) To indicate the relotive importance of curves. 

8. OVERLAPPING CURVES. The more curves intersect or overlap on the 
same grid, the greater should be the contrast in weight las well os 
pattern). 




Curve 5 limes Curve 2 to 3 times 
grid rulings grid rulings 



I 





















J 




X 




















f 






(TtTAtl/ 






1 












y 


^ 


f 


/ 




y 


- 


> 




/ 


/ 




^ 


^ 


•^ 


/ 


s 




y 


> 






^ 




— 


/ 













"Total" curve 5 times grid rulings 

"component" curves 

2 to 3 times grid rulings 



394 



GRAPHIC PRESENTATION 



LABELS 

1 . labels should be brief. 

2. Labels should be of sufficient size to be easily read. 

3. Labels should be placed where they will clearly identify the curves 
to which each relates. 

4. Labels should be so placed as to assist in effecting a balanced com- 
position. 





TITLE 




I 


mm 


















3 
O 

a 

< 












































































TIUI 












Ke 


y 


n$ 


d< 


> C 


rit 


i 






* 



fifffe of Papt 



J 



I I I I I 



KEY 
WHEAT 
CORN 
OATS 
BARLEY 
ALL OTHER 



Arrongement of identifying coplions 





TITU 

arKING(Mi)COMPAKCD WITH PALL(^a) 
































































TITLE 

^■WMCAT C3CO*N aBOATS 
CmSAKLIT ^AU. OTMtM 


1 






























I 






_J 




_ 








^ 






^ 


_ 





Suggested arrangement when 
obove grid 



KEYS 

Definition; A key In the case of a curve chort I] o device for identifying 
curves by means of labeled "samples" of the curves ploced opart from the 
curves themselves. 

Principle 

1. Keys should be so constructed and placed as to permit ready iden- 
tification of the curves. 

Procedures 

1. KEY WITHIN GRID. If space permits, the key should be placed within 
the grid (but separated from the curves so as not to intrude upon the 
picture). 

When the key is placed within the grid if should be placed apart 
from the curves in such a way as not to interfere with the profjer 
reading of the curve values on the scale. 

Scales and keys should be located in respect to each other so as 
not to interfere with the easy interpretation of the curves. 

2. KEY OUTSIDE GRID. If the key is placed outside the grid, it may be 
either above or below, the choice depending upon which location 
permits easier reading in conjunction with the curves. 

When placed above the grid, it is often feosible to incorporate the 
key in the main title. (See illustration at the left.) 

3. ARRANGEMENT. Items in the key ore normally placed one above the 
other in column arrangement. 

When the available space is not suitable for column arrangement, 
items may be placed one after the other in horizontal lines. 

4. ORDER OF ITEMS. Items in the key should follow a definite order; 
either the order in which the curves should be read or some natural 
order suggested by the data. 

5. CURVE SEGMENTS. It is better to illustrate the curves referred to by 
showing sample segments rather than by merely describing them 
(e.g., is better than the description "dotted curve"). 

The curve segments should normally precede the designations. 

It is permissible to enlarge the curve segments slightly to identify 
the design more easily. 

The curve segments should be of sufficient length to show at least 
one complete unit of the design. 

6. USE OF COLOR. Where color is used for curves it is effective to let- 
ter the curve designations in the same colors. 



The arrow and designation •'EdKc of Paper" have been added to the original in order to 
indicate that the outside line is not a frame. See 382. 



STANDARDS FOR TIME SERIES CHARTS 



395 



RELATION OF CURVE TO PIOHED POINTS 

Not* Quesiions on this subieci arise mainly in coses of very heavy curves 
where the difference >n volues of the upper and lower sides of the curves 
ore sufTiciently Qreat to give sionificanl differences of interpretation. Where 
extreme occurocy is required heovy or wide curves should not be employed. 

1. Curves should be so drown as to depict accurately the trends and 
relative values of the plotted points. 

2. A uniform procedure should be followed in locating the curves in 
relation to the plotted points. 



MCOUUINOCO 


NOT HCCOMUCNOCO 


-■v/p /v/'- 


f 


\ 


V 


\ 


/ 


s 


/ 


% 



Relation of elements of curve design 
to plotted points 



irriES 



1. The main title should undertake to give the reader a quick understand- 
ing of what the chart is about. 

2. Titles should be so worded as to be readily understood and so exe- 
cuted as to be pleasing to the eye. 

3. Material serving to complete or supplement the main title should be 
placed in a sub-title. 

NOTES 

1. Explanatory notes should be included when they ore necessary to a 
clear and accurate understanding of the chart. 

2. The content of a note should anticipate questions which might arise 
in reoding a chart. 

REFERENCE SYMBOLS 

1. The purpose of a reference symbol is to assist in associating a par- 
ticular part of the chart with a reference note. 

2. Reference symbols should be so constructed that they will stand out 
clearly from the material to which they ore related, and be dis- 
tinguishable from one another. 



^& 


t 


1 


PHINTCBJ 

STuaoLS 


1 




mSm 

lsiMH.irico fO« 

D«»rTI»c U5t) 


t 


• 


• • 

LtTTtK 
STMBOLS 


• 
• 


• 
• 


NUUSCO ^^^ 1 


• 


• 


CCOMCTRIC H| 

srusOLS ■! 


♦ 


A 



I 



Suggested reference symbols 



396 



GRAPHIC PRESENTATION 




INCLUSION OF DATA 



Supplementary dota Inserted 
the grid 











i 


f</3 


1' 


of 


Paper < 




TITLE 




1 

a 




















X 
J 














% 
i 


















/ 


S 


^ 


/ 


— 


r 


s 




/ 
















• 


V 










TIM( 





Actual figures for points of speclol 
Interest 



Note: In chart prepcrotion It must be borr>e in mind that many people ot% 
noi fully "grophic minded" end would prefer the focts in tobular form. 
Moreover, there ore many occasions when supplementary figures will im- 
prove the value of o chart for everyone; and often the effectiveness of the 
presentation itself can be enhanced by the proper use of figures. 

Principles 

1. When figures are added, they should make some definite contribution 
such as — 

(a) To provide the actual figures for the values shown in the chart, 
(bl To provide data supplementing the values shown in graphic form. 

(c) To give actual figures for points of interest in the chart 

(d) To emphasize amounts and differences shown on th6 chart. 

2. The inclusion of figures on a chart should be done in conformity with 
the accepted principles of preferred practice in tabular presentation. 

Procedure 



INCLUSION OF SUPPORTING OR SUPPLEMENTARY DATA. A com- 
mon method of including supporting data is to place the figures in the 
form of a table above or below the grid opposite the vertical rulings, 
reading upward as shown in the chart at the top of the page. This 
method has the advantage of closely relating figures to the plotted 
points. 

TABULAR INSERTS. Supplementary or supporting data can often be 
shown as a tabular insert placed within the grid where adequate 
space is available. This procedure is particularly good where it is 
desired to include figures but at the same time subordinate them to 
the graphic picture. 

COORDINATE TABLE AND CHART. Where the tabular presentation 
is of equal importance to the graphic, it is frequently a good plan to 
construct a separate chart and table, placing them side by side. 

4. SIGNIFICANT DATA ONLY. Data added to clarify the picture should 
generally be restricted to the items in which the reader is most likely 
to be interested, such as high or low points on fluctuating curves or 
the values for recent dates. In coses where such values ore included 
directly on the curves, the principles outlined under "Curve Designa- 
tions," pages 52 and 53, should be observed. 

5. A Grid with frequent horizontal rulings may often make the reading 
of amounts sufficiently precise to obviate the need for actual data. 



The arrow and designation "Edge of Paper" have been added to the original in order to 
indicate that the outside line is not a frame. See 382. 



397 







E Lcitr, Inc . Nfw York. 

A. Leica Camera. 



Cnniliil Cnnirra Corp ol 
Amrrica, Chicngo. III. 

B. Perfex 44. 



Chapter 46 





Carl Zciii, Inr . New York, 

C. Contax Camera. 



THE CAMERA AND ITS USE 

REPORTS, publicity, etc., now consist largely of photographs 
and graphic charts. A camera is a necessity and some knowl- 
edge of photographic possibilities imperative. 
For the inexperienced, a reflex such as E, below, showing a full 
size image in the focusing finder, is desirable. Imported miniature 
cameras like A and C above, of high quality, have interchangeable 
lenses and attachments covering the whole photographic field — if 
expertly handled. American miniatures are cheaper but only the 
Perfex 44, B above, approaches the Europeans in quality and flexi- 
bility. 

For contact prints cameras of the Speed Graphic or Linhof type, 
D and F below, are widely used by reporters and professional pho- 
tographers. Made in several sizes, they use film pack, cut film or 
plates, and can be fitted with lenses of different focal lengths. 



Folmer Graflrz Corp. 
Rochritrr. N Y 

D. The Speec 
Graphic. 



Burleigh Brooks. Inc. 



New York, N. Y 

E. The Rolleiflex. 



F. The Linhof. 




398 




Dcvin Coloruraph Co., New 
York. N. Y. 




Thomas S Curtis Lab . HuntinRton Park, Cal. 

B. The Curtis Color Scout. 



A. Devin Tricolor 
Camera. 



OPTICAL SYSTEM OF 
DEVIN TRICOLOR CAMERA 

A portion o* iho Ughl possmo I'lrough itip lens is retlecled by 
iho Iranspoieni pellicle minor lAI lo blut> Tliei Ibl. All colors e«- 
(epting blue ore Tillered oui and Ihis blue light posst-s on lo 
opusu a pluio ICI. thus (orming the blue record 

The light romommg ofter passing through the Tirst mirror is ogain 
reflecti-d bv tie second minor 101 lo the red filler (El, thence lo 
the plata IFI, to form the 'red record ' 

Tho residual light posses lo the rear of Iho comervi. iind through 
tiie ore» n hlter iGi lo lonii Iho greon record ' at IMI 



Tricolor cameras come «n 
and makes. 




TWO METHODS of color photography are in general use. One 
requires a tricolor camera. A and B above, making simulta- 
neously by one exposure three separate negatives on panchromatic 
plates, using color filters and mirrors. Process plates are prepared 
from these for three-color halftone or offset printing, or one of the 
photographic color printing processes such as Carbro or Wash-Off 
Relief. The other method uses color film or plates in an ordinary 
camera. Kodachrome and Dufay film. Lumiere and Finlay plates 
are examples. When developed they show the image as a color 
transparency which must be viewed by transmitted light, directly 
or by projection. For printing, three-color separation negatives are 
made from them by contact or enlargement. The Kodak exhibi- 



'HE CAMERA AND ITS USE 



39 



tion at the New York World's Fair, 1939, shows Kodaclirome 
35mm. film l" x 1^4" projected to 17' x 22' with perfect color ren- 
dering, clear definition, no grain, and a remarkable three dimen- 
sional effect. It is obtainable in 35mm. rolls and several sizes of 
cut film. Development at the Eastman plant in Rochester, New 
York, is included in the price. "Dufay color film, in both roll and 
cut film types may be used with almost any camera and developed 
anywhere. Lumiere and Finlay plates are used chiefly in lantern 
slide size or larger and are not difficult to develop. 

Films and plates for black and white photography are too nu- 
merous and varied to mention. The manufacturer or an experi- 
enced photographer should be consulted as to the one best suited 
to your work. . 

• 3.Smm. Kodachrome him is also developed 
at Kodak, Ltd., Wealdstone. Middlesex, 
England: Akt. Fabrik, Friedrirhshapener 
Strasse 9. Kopenick, Germany; Kodak- 
Pathe, S.A.F., Avenue Victor Hugo, 
Sevran, France. 



A. How Various Lenses Are Con- 
structed and the Approximate 
Speeds That Result. 

1. It is easy to see why the price in- 

creases with the speed. 

2. The illustration does not indicate the 

greater size of a fast lens, but it 
does suggest the added weight. 



Eastman Kodak Co., Rocheiter. N. Y. 

The lens is the camera. In choosing a lens, sharp definition and 
good color correction are important. High speed is of value for 
only a few special uses. A set of lenses with different focal lengths 
is most advantageous. 

Portable dark rooms, daylight loading developing tanks, and 
compact and efficient enlargers make it possible to do most photo- 
graphic work in a drafting room or store room boasting hot and 
cold water. Opaque curtains or a wall board screen may be drawn 
when necessary to exclude light. Portable equipment appears in 
400A. 





ELEMENTS 


RELATIVE 


LENS 


OF LENS 


SPEED 


MENISCUS 


I 


1 


DOUBLET 


( ) 


1/2 


F.7.7 


II 


4 


F.6.3 


III 


6 


• F.4.5 


«l 


II 


F.3.5 


III 


18 


F.2.8 


Ml 


28 


F.2.0 


(CH 


56 



400 



GRAPHIC PRESENTATION 



^^^JE^ 




I — Vorking lopa Urge eooH^ to t*ke four (4) tUndard traft. 

2 — Sptec for Irimmer, blotun, tquMigM pUlM, etc. 

J — Four (4) driwrn for paper*, filnu, Degttive*. etc. 

4 — Foldind doora 6tled with lock and key. 

S — Section for storage bottle*, chemicala, meaauring glaaa, etc. 

6 — S«fivcl caatorv. 

G Grniicrt. New York. N Y. 

A. Portable Darkroom. 



USING a variety of photo- 
graphic techniques will 
add interest to a record or re- 
port. Photomontage, as seen 
in 401 A, effectively presents 
much information in a small 
space by combining several 
negatives or parts of negatives 
in one print. Photomosaic is 
somewhat similar but combines 
several prints or portions of 
prints, drawings, etc., by cut- 
ting and pasting, using either 
photographic or other back- 
grounds. 

Lines may be thickened as in 40 IB. Figures, lettering, models, 
etc., may be made to look taller or wider by photographic methods. 
Shading, bas-relief, etc., may be added photographically in copy- 
ing quite simple designs as indicated in 380. Distortion can be prac- 
ticed in photographic cartoons. Pagano, Inc., Ray Albert, and 
Martin J. Weber, all of New York, N. Y., specialize in this work. 

A photograph of present conditions may be strikingly contrasted 
with a drawing of future plans or possibilities as in 402A and 402B, 
or a drawing made on the actual photograph of existing conditions 
may indicate the effect of suggested changes as shown in 404A and 
404B. 




Simmon Bros.. Long Island City, N. Y. 

B. Omega Enlarger. 



THE CAMERA AND ITS USE 



401 




Analyzing the Facts 



Walter P. Burn Ai Aisociatet, New York, N. Y. 

A. Photomontage — "Analyzing the Facts." 




Martin J Wcbrr. New York. N Y 



B. 



Lines Thickened by Photographic 
Reproduction. 

This method is valuable in reproduc- 
ing charts in which the lines are 
too fine as originally drawn. 



LARGE collections of charts, 
maps, plans, etc., may be 
photographed on 35mm. film 
in either black and white or full 
color and stored in a small 
space. All government census 
records are being reduced to 
this form. Rare and valuable 
original documents, prints, 
maps, etc., in private or public 
collections may be copied and 
recorded in this way at small 
expense and with great accu- 
racy. Ancient documents 
copied on infra-red film are 
often more legible than the 
original. 



402 




GRAPHIC PRESENTATION 




From o BoDklrt o( thr Civic Crntrr Union Station Coniinittrc of Los Ant;rlrs. Califurnia, I') .17 

A. Panorama Made from Three Separate Photographs Taken from One Location, 
New Union Railroad Station, Los Angeles. 




From a Booklet of the Civic Ccntrr Union Station Committee of Lo» Angclej, California, 1Q3 7. 

B. Architectural Perspective Drawing Accurately Representing the View That 
Buildings in A Above Should Be Removed and Minimum of Landscaping 

1. The method of using three photographs as in A is one that can be applied anywhere 

2. Though the Civic Center Buildings were mostly completed, an oblique aerial photo- 

majestic buildings so well as the perspective drawing looking upward rather than 




Kf: '^'■■:f^i'i^. 



THE CAMERA AND ITS USE 



403 




Will.ird C Bnriton ContullmR EiiKinrrr 

Showing Buildings Blotting Out the Civic Center When Viewed fronn Site of 



I 




Willard C Brinton, Coniulting Enginrrr. RrndcrifiK hy Aintm Wiltlr^py, Anhitrrt P.ts.nlrn.i C.tl. 

Could Be Had from the New Union Railroad Station of Los Angeles if 
Added. 

without special eq-jipment. The street, really straight, appears to be elbowed, 
graph could not have illustrated the possibilities for an impressive vista toward 
downward. 



404 



GRAPHIC PRESENTATION 




New York Cily Tunnel Authority. 

A. New York City from the Bay, Governors Island on the left. 




New York City Tunnel Authority. 

B. The Same View as Above with Superimposed Sketch Showing Proposed Bridge 
from New York to Brooklyn as It Would Appear, Cutting Off Most of the 
View of Lower New York as Seen from the Bay. 

1. This is a somewhat different technique from that shown in 402A and 402B. 

2. The possibility of exaggeration is always present in the use of this and similar tech- 

niques. 



REFERENCES 

Eastman Kodak Co., Rochester, N. Y. How to Make Good Pic- 
tures. Clear and concise. 

Morgan and Lester, The Leica Manual. Wide technical and sci- 
entific field. 

Scacheri, Mario and Mabel, The Fun of Photography. The best 
yet. 



Chapter 47 
LANTERN SUDES 



405 





B. Kodaslide Ready - Mount for 
Ready-Mount Changer. 

Red bordered side faces screen wl>cn 
in projector. 



Eattman Kodak Co.. Rochcitrr. N Y. 

A. Kodaslide Projector With Ready-Mount 
Changer in Place. 



I 




C. 



Kodaslide Ready - Mount 
Metal Franne for Use 
Other Projectors. 



n this movie-minded world, 
photographic projection shows 
constant improvement in materials 
and methods. The rapid rise of 
color film for both moving pictures 
and lantern slides has brought projectors such as the Kodaslide 
in A above and the Spencer Delineascope in D below, with lenses 
and illumination corrected for accurate rendering of color. Sev- 
eral of the less expensive models give good results with audiences 
up to two hundred while the 750-watt Leica and Spencer machines 
are effective for two thousand. The Spencer is equipped to handle 

all sizes of slides. ^ . , 

Li ghtness 

and conveni- 
ence is push- 
ing the 2" X 2" 
slide ahead of 
the 3i>4"x4" 

D. Spencer Auditorium Color 
Slide Delineascope — 750 
Watts. 

Equipped to use any sue slide. 



] 



4i% 

Sprnccr I"" r^ B- ff .1 ■ N V 



GRAPHIC PRESENTATION 




A. The Selectroslide. 

1. Holds 48 Klass-mounted 2" x 2" slides. 

2. May be operated by remote control. 
J. Can be equipped for continuous automatic 

operation. 
Sptndlcr fli Sauppe, Inc., San Francitco. Cal. 

Standard American lantern slide and the 3%" x 3%" used in Europe, 
Lightest of all is the cardboard Ready-Mount shown in 405 B, 
now included in the development charge for Kodachrome film. Fifty 
of these in the Kodaslide Changer in 4 0.S A are moved into posi- 
tion by working a small plunger. Glass-covered slides are mounted 
B. 800 Foot Con+inuous 



Projection 
nnent for 
Film. 



Attach- 
1 6 mm. 



t .It 



I i( II 



1 w <,■ 



I / r 1 1 I <■ c tors 
. itli. I \<. i!h or witliiiut 

With sound runs 22 niin. 

without I cpt'.itin^; 
Sil>nt pKSMitat ii-'n l.')sts 

J,i mjn. 




Bell & Howrll, ChicaKO. Ill 



with tape or metal bindings. Projectors similar to the Selectro- 
slide in A above require a glass-covered slide or one with a metal 
frame. 

The recognized value of moving pictures and lantern slides for 
the effective presentation of facts and ideas has recently produced 
several easily operated machines for projection by remote control 
or continuous automatic action. Some of these are illustrated — 
the Selectroslide in A above, the Kodaslide in 405A, the Bell 8g 
Howell automatic machines in B and C, and the Contimovie in 
407A. For advertising, exhibitions, and educational work some 
equipment of this type is almost a necessity. 




Bell (k Howell. ChifttKo. Ill 



C. 600 Foot Continuous Projection 
Attachment in Sound-Proof Case 
with Shadow Box and Screen in 
Place. 



.1. 




LANTERN SLIDES 



407 



Sources of Screens 

Da- Lite Screen Company, Chicago, Illinois. 

Motion Picture Screen &> Accessories, Inc., New York City. (See 

C below) 
Raven Screen Corporation, New York City. 
Sasco Photo Products, Los Angeles, California. (See B below) 

Eighteen Kodachrome films in Ready-Mounts 2" x 2" cost $2.2 5, 
about 14 cents each if there are no failures. Glass-covered black 
and white slides of the same size may be made for about the same 
price. Some other types and larger sizes are higher. It is as easy 
now to use color as black and white, but the slides are not so dura- 
ble. Heat and concentrated light affect color, especially the yel- 
lows, though the dyes are improving in this respect. 



A. The Contlmovie. 

1. Can fic ust(! w.ith any 

pf<)jti"ti>r uith or \».ith- 

out Sound 
2 16 mm. SOti-.^OOO fet-t. 
35 mm. SOO-.iOOO (cet. 
3. iOOO f( < » \t\ mm. runs 

for Hilt hour without 

rt ptdtion. 




Conlimovir Salrs Co . New York 



^^^^"TT^ 



I i. L 



^ 
5^^ 



Satco Pholo Product! Lo« Angrlrt Cal 

B. The Sanders Screen. 

28 X 42 . - 28 X 50 




Motiun Picturr Scrcrn fii Arrr»- 
»oric4 Co . Inc . New York. 



C. Britelite - Truvislon 
Crysta I Beaded 
Screen. 

30 X 40 and other sizes. 



408 



GRAPHIC PRESENTATION 




"Engineering and Scientific Charts for Lantern 
Slidet," Prepared by Sulicommittee of Com- 
mittee on Standards for Graphic Presentation. 
Sponsored by The American Society of Mechan- 
ical Engineers, New York City. 1932. 



Desig- 
nation 



Size of Letters 



Sample Letters 



Approx. 

Height, 

inches 



HI ABCDE 175 

H-2 ABCDE 0.140 



H-3 ABCDE 



Same Source as A Above. 



0.120 



B. 



Key to Letfering for Lantern Slides. 

Valuable 
slides may be damaged if left 
on the screen too long. The 
Lynhoff Laboratories, Roches- 
ter, N. Y., makes a heat-re- 
flecting glass, either clear or 
diffusing, which may be placed 
between the slide and the light 
source in the projector. As a 
further precaution, irreplace- 
able slides may be copied in 
full color at no great expense 
and with satisfactory results. 
Cardboard Ready-Mount Ko- 
dachrome slides are light and 
thin. They may be filed 19 to 
the inch, and are easily packed 
for mailing. The boxes in 
which they are returned, 18 to 
the box, fit well in a 3" x 5" 
card index file. 



A. Chart Reduced to Lantern Slide 
Size. 

1. The original chart wat 6f^" x 9" in- 

cluding margins. 

2. The cut from which this illustration 

was taken was standard lantern 
slide size 3Vi" x 4", one-third re- 
duction. The illustration above 
was reduced Va from that to about 
the 2" X 2" slide size. 

3. Directions on the right of the illus- 

tration refer to the dimensions of 
the original drawing. 

Line Width of Letters 

Approx. 
Desig- Width, 

nation Sample Line inches 



W-1 

iV-2 
W-2 



0.025 

0.017 
0.017 






'^. 




/ 




A 








'W 


\, 






Ov^^ 






\v 






.:^ 


/M^;^; 


^ 


j^ritr^ 





^ 



Potiiion of 
Slide Number 

Lib«l 
(Thumb Spot) 



Gnd Rulintt Break at 
Labels and Symbols 



Oosed Symbols for 
Observed Points 



Same Source as A Above 

C. Suggested Practices for Charts for 
Lantern Slides. 

1. Reduced '/i from oritjinal cut. 

2. Cut was reduced from drawing 6 x 

^Va", including margins. 



LANTERN SLIDES 




Science Service, Inc., Washington. D. C. 

Microfilm Reader. 



photo- 



Reading by projection is of 
increasing importance in the 
larger public libraries, universi- 
ties, scientific institutions, and 
business organizations where 
research is carried on. A typi- 
cal machine for this purpose is 
illustrated at the left. 

Through the cooperation of 
the more important libraries 
throughout the world, immense 
resources are rapidly being 
made available to the research 
worker by this cheap and con- 
venient method. Prices vary 
somewhat but complete books 
may usually be copied for from 
one to three cents a page. 
Work in color is slightly more 
expensive, but sometimes in- 
valuable. The photographing 
of old documents and manu- 
scripts on infra-red film fre- 
quently brings to light erasures, 
changes, and sometimes for- 
geries hitherto unsuspected. 

The American Documentation Institute, Washington, D. C, in 
cooperation with the United States Department of Agriculture, 
public libraries, and other research institutions, acts as a clearing 
house for much of this Bibliofilm Service. 

Publication by this film method is also coming into use for re- 
search material which does not require a large edition. The econ- 
omy and convenience of this can easily be seen. The use of Micro- 
color film by Bibliofilm Service adds to the scope and value of 
research extract copying, since colored specimens and objects as 
well as illustrations may be reproduced and used either for indi- 
vidual reading or projected on a wall screen for class or lecture use. 

REFERENCES: 

Morgan. Willard D., and Henry M. Lester, The Leica Manual, 
Morgan & Lester, New York City, 1937. 



1. For reading books or records 

graphed on 35 mm. film. 

2. Turning the handle changes the pages 

either backward or forward. 

3. The image is magnified 12 diameters. 

4. The Reader may also be used as a 

projector for ordinary screen. 

5. It may also be used as an enlarging 

printer, making enlarged paper 
print copies of any microfilm ma- 
terial. 



410 



Chapter 48 
PREPARATION OF ILLUSTRATIONS 



THE preceding chapters have shown the many ways in which 
information may be presented in graphic chart form as well as 
information on how to read a graphic chart. Choice of the form in 
which material will be best presented, while an important step, is 
not always the first or last step. The following chapters will show 




Bausch 6t Lomb Optical Co., Rochester, N. Y. 

A Reducing Glass. 

1. The diameter of this glass is three inches. It will reduce in the ratio of about two to 

one. The reducing glass is made with a double concave lens of white ophthalmic 
glass, protected by a wide chromium rim. 

2. A criterion in reducing an illustration might be that an area measuring about 3 " x 6 " 

is about all the eye can hold at one time. 



In planning page lay-outs, a reducing glass may be used to determine whether reduction 
to fit a given space will cause loss of detail. It is possible to sec how an illustration 
will appear when it is reduced by adjusting the distance between the illustration and 
the glass until the correct ratio between the original and the reduced image is obtained. 



PREPARATION OF ILLUSTRATIONS 



411 



some of the problems involved in the actual presentation of the 
chart. 

When presenting material in a pamphlet or book, it is possible 
and sometimes a good policy to use only graphic charts. Illustra- 
tions of other types may be included and many times should be 
included. The choice of illustrations will depend upon a number of 
factors. The material to be presented will be the most important 
criteria. 





E W, Pikr S Company Cranford N J 

SCALE 8 

A. Illuminaied Hand Magnifiers. 

Any nnagnificr may be used to secure an 
idea of the appearance of an illus- 
tration when jt IS enlarged. The 
same method suggested in 410 
may be used for this also. 



SIZE OF COPY 



t^ 



n 

u 



SIZE OF 



*^ FINISMED CUT 

5 



B. Scaling Copy. 



Since the ori^mal drawing or photo- 
graph seldom fits the allotted 
space, it is necessary to "scale the 
copy," that is, to figure out the 
height and width it will be when 
one side is reduced or length- 
ened. 

A diagonal line drawn from corner to 
opposite corner will be the di- 
agonal of a larger or smaller illus- 
tration made from that copy. Use 
a tissue overlay paper for drawing 
the diagonal. 

A slide rule is also a useful device to 
determine the reduction of a pho- 
tograph or drawing. 



412 



GRAPHIC PRESENTATION 



A photograph which is to be printed or reproduced should never 
be rolled. If it is absolutely necessary, roll the photograph with the 
picture outside. Then if the surface should crack the cracks may 
close up when the photograph is flattened out. 

Instructions written on a photograph or picture will often appear 
in the halftone. A paper clip often cracks the photograph and 
appears in the finished picture. Writing should never be put 
directly on a photograph or drawing. Instructions should be writ- 
ten on a separate piece of paper and folded over the margin. 



Steel Industry 




Wrong Way to Make Crop Marks. 
See 413 for remarks. 



PREPARATION OF ILLUSTRATIONS 



413 



To determine whether a cut is already a halftone, look at it 
through a small magnifying glass. If the shaded portions appear 
as many dots, it is a halftone. Halftone screens are designated as 
fine or coarse, depending upon the number of lines of dots to the 
inch. 

A rotogravure illustration when looked at through a small magnify- 
ing glass appears as many small squares, less clearly than a half- 
tone. 




E 



Right Way to Make Crop Marks. 

Put crop marks in the margin of a photograph or drawing. If you MUST mark the copy, 
use a China marking pencil for this purpose. The reason for this is simple:— crop 
marks drawn on the photograph oblige the engraver to make the plate smaller 
than the size indicated by them. 



414 



GRAPHIC PRESENTATION 



Reproduction Media for Art Work 



Amt 

MUIUM 

IViiiil. Charcoal. Pailcl. 
Clulk. Square Slick, or 
l.illiiiKr;i|>h Prim. 



K»:pR(H)i'(.TloN MtvilinM 
Usi'Ai.i.Y Employki) 

I Highlight or rrgular fine- 
I screen copper halftone re- 
I quired ID secure fine grada- 
tion of tone. If to appear 
on nou-»print, use a coane- 
scrccn halftone. 



I't'iiancl'liik. Wood Cut, 
Vraitli Hoard. Reverie 
Drawuig. or Black Crayon 
on Pebbled Board, or Proof 
(rom Coarv Screen Half- 
tone 



Line engiavmif: on copper for 
very fine work, or long runs, 
on line where work is nut 
extremely fine in shading, 
and run is rehitivelv short. 



UnSUIIABLE KKPRlimiCTlUN 

MrtHom 



Line engraving not suited un- 
less tones are solid, showing 
no gradation. 



Halftone is uniuited. as it 
"breaks up" the solid black 
lines and areas. 



CklMMKNTS 



If technique is bold, coanc 
screen can be used. 



If later to be duplicated by 
electro, stereo, or mat. spec- 
ify when the original plate 
is made. 



Dry Brush. .Vir Brush. Wash 
Drawing. 



Walrr Color or Oil P.ainting 
to reproduce in Black-and 
White. 



Combination Line and "Flat" 
lones (i.e.. tones which 
Ikixc no >^adalinn of v.ilur) 



Print from "Dry Point" or 
.\cid-Bilten Etching. 



l'hoirif>rjpli. Photo-Montage. 



Oilored Drawings. Water 
Oilor .ind Oil Painting. 
Colored Photos, Crayon or 
Pastel Drawing (to be re- 
produced in color). 



Drawint^ ol more than one 
fo|f>r. ii*in(; solid color 
;irras or sli.i(ling\ done with 
lin<^ or lion 



Highlight or regular fine- 
screen coppr) hdlllont if to 
Im' um'cI on smooth paper: 
co.irv'-Mrecn halftone if on 
Mt-wsprini. 

Highlight or regular fine- 
screen ( tipper hnlflotir if to 
bo iiscti on smo<iih paper; 
coarsc-strcen halfloiir if on 
newsprint. 

Line engrailing used with Ben 
Day. or other shading me- 
dium for flat toned areas 



Line engraving will not re- 
produce tone values. 



Where lines and tone etlects 
(as in meMOlint) :ire fine, 
use a fine-xrreen nipper 
halflone. 



Halflone: Coarse screens for 
rough papers: fine screens 
on copper for smooth 
papers. 



Two-, three-, four-, five-, etc., 
color process, dejiending 
upon ttature of copy and 
fineness of work required. 



line engraviiif^i for caih of 
the 2. J. or more colors will 
produce a grc.ii variety of 
tones by overprinting of 
areas, either solid or shaded 
to different decrees 



Line engraving will not re- 
produce tone values. 



Halftone is unsuite«l as it 
would make a "pattern." 
Line engraving .ilone un- 
suitcd unless time is on 
original art work by use ol 
Bourges screiiis. Craf-tint, 
Prcs-.i -Tin t . or other 
iiiclhod. 

Line engraving unsuited un- 
less technique is quite bold 
and simple. 



If use of dry bnuh produces 
solid black stippled dots, 
line engras itig ran l)e used. 



In certain cases, use of color 
filters is required to pre- 
serve tonal relations of 
original. 

Stippling or ruling can be 
done by hand, rather than 
by a mechanical shading 
method. 



Use coarse ■ screen halftone 
only if to be used on nesvs- 
print or rough paper. 



Line engraving will 
produce tones 



Line engraving will not re- 
proiluce tones. 



If photograph shows only 
solid areas of black-and- 
white, or lines and no 
tones, a line engraving may 
be used. 

Color process plates mav be 
used in < on junction with 
additional flat tints for spe- 
cial effects. 



Halftones unsuited, as they 
form an iMulesirable "pat- 
tern" and hre.ik up the 
solid areas 



(iosts can often be reduced 
by having an artist make a 
separate black ■ and - white 
drawing on tissue (so as to 
secure register) for each 
color. Separate line engrav- 
ings are then made from 
each. 



The Colton Press, New York City, "Production Yearbook," Vol. V, 19.19. 



Reproduction Media for Art Work. 



SCALE .7 



PREPARATION OF ILLUSTRATIONS 



415 







I 



Lawrrncr W I>rapKfr. "The Art of Linoleum Cutting. " 1Q38. Publithed by Government Printing Office 
Apprentice School, Washington, D. C. 

A Linoleum Block Cut. 

1. Linoleum or wood blocks may be used for the actual printinj;. In fact, the first printed 

letters were wood-cut type carved into pictorial wood-cut blocks in explanation 
of the picture. Its wide use and the ease with which it is cut have made linoleum 
one of the best known and best liked materials in the reproduction of decorative 
designs, silhouettes, and the simpler illustrations. 

2. In a great many printing plants, linoleum blocks, which are supplanting wood, are cut 

for tint blocks, second-color plates, for use in graphs and charts, for indicating 

zones or routes on maps, and for all kinds of work ranging from advertising 

blotters to letterheads. The block prints best on an antique finish paper, and inks 
of a heavy body should be used. 



416 



GRAPHIC PRESENTATION 




MACHINE FINISH PAPER 



SCREEN 



Photo-Engravrn Board of Trade, New York City. 

Halftone Screen Tints. 

The purpose of the half cirrles in this illustration and the one on page 417 is to indicate how 
curves will appear when the various screens are used. 



PREPARATION OF ILLUSTRATIONS 



417 




SCREEN 



110 



SCREEN 



MACHINE FINISH PAPER 





PIS 


^"""""^ ( iik 




> »> 


-^ 


^ C=l^ 


mmmk\\% 
G 


A C E 



SUPER PAPER 




I 



SCREEN 

Photo-Eneraver* Board of Trade. New York City. 

Halftone Screen Tints. 



There were eight halftone screen tints in each of these series, but only every other one 
is reproduced here. 



418 



GRAPHIC PRESENTATION 



1 Vz V4 1 Vz 'A 1 % V4 




The "1" indicates a full color value. 

"'/a" a half screen and "54" * 

quarter screen. 
Those colors that are checked (r ) 

are the ones used generally in this 

book. 
Because of the possibility of patterns, 

the colors marked x" have not 

been used. 
The small areas of color between the 

combinations of color are helpful 

in determining the colors and 

color values that are combined in 

adjoining sections. 



Colors and Possible Combinations of the Colors Used in This Book. 

Because enough tints and shadings of color may be obtained by using half screen and 
quarter screen colors, the combinations of colors shown above that would require 
a double screen have not been used in this book. 



For an example of color combinations, see 186. 



PREPARATION OF ILLUSTRATIONS 



419 



When color is used in printing a pamphlet or book, "tints' of the 
color or colors may be used to secure shading instead of using cross 
hatchings. However, because the areas for color tints usually are 
irregular in shape and require more skill in applying them, the cost 
of color tinting may be greater than the cost of the halftones. 

One definite problem arose regarding the use of the color "green." 
As shown opposite, green may be secured from a combination of 
full yellow and full blue. If this "combination" green were used, 
both blue and yellow color plates and an extra press run would 
have been necessary, whenever green was wanted. As a result, a 
green ink was used instead of the "combination" green in some 
chapters. 

The subject "Color and Its Use" is discussed on pages 423 to 428. 





DS-25 



DT-60 



Transograph Corporation, New York City. 

Shading Film. 

1. A transparent film on which cross-hatchings and halftones are printed in ink has been 

developed by several firms. This shading film is placed over the original drawing 
on those sections to be shaded and a photograph is taken of the combination. 
The halftones available in this film are those used for newspaper work, that is, 
from a 2S-linc to a 60-line screen. Perhaps in the future, they may also be made 
with a finer screen. Film is made for light or dark background. 

2. A modification of the transparent film is also available in the form of illustration 

board, which when treated with a chemical solution brings out the shadings in the 
desired sections. A screen as fine as 80-line may be secured in this form. This 
may be secured from The Craftint Manufacturing Company, Cleveland, Ohio. 

3. Other companies from which a similar film may be obtained are as follows: 

Arthur Brown flk Bros.. New York City. (Artist Improved Shading Sheet.) 
Grafa-Tone Co.. New York City. 
Zip-A-Tone , Chicago, Ulinois. 



420 



GRAPHIC PRESENTATION 




i 



i!ili!!l 



;,lhl:,|.' 



iiiillilii!! 



Courteiy of Ch;ii; Company, Philadelphia. 

A. Drawing Boards for Securing Halftone Effects. 

1. These drawing boards and many others may be used to secure halftone effects. Before 

a pencil is applied to the board, it is perfectly white with slight indentations on 
the surface. The pencil touches only the high spots, and the effect desired is thus 
secured. 

2. A charcoal drawing on rough paper also secures a halftone effect. 

3. Whenever any drawing material which may smudge is used, spray of liquid "fixative" 

will prevent any possibility of smudging. 




No. 523.— 9I4X 14J4. 



No. 509. — 9^4 X i4'4. 



No. 526.— 9 J4 X 14^4. 




No. 512.— 7 X 7. 



Xo. 5iS.—bHx7'/2 



No. 527.— 9I4 X 14I4. 

Courtesy of Ben Day. Inc., New York. 

B. Ben Day Shading Films. 

1. The Ben Day process is used to make crosshatchings and shadings on charts, maps, 
and pictures. The shading medium consists of a transparent film stretched taut 
upon a wood frame. This film bears a design in relief on the outer side. The 
work is done on the drawing, on the negative, or directly on the plate before it is 
etched for printing. If done on the negative, the finished plate will show the tint 
in reverse as to black and white. When a particular shading and the sections in 
which it is to appear have been decided upon, all other sections are protected by 
French folio paper, gum, or gamboge (a semi-transparent solution). The inked 
film upon which the particular pattern appears in relief is then placed face down 
upon the drawing, negative, or plate. The top side of the shading medium is 
rubbed with a stylus or rubber roller, and the pattern is thus transferred to the 
copy. 

2. Various shadings are available, as well as textile tints. 

3. See 419 and 422 for other methods of securing shadings. 



PREPARATION OF ILLUSTRATIONS 

Photoengraving and Electrotyping 

by Otto Kleppner 



421 



Si-n i>K Arioss 


Ciiirr \\n K>ixm.v. 




Ciiirr l.iMir»ri<.vN 


CtlMMrST . 


Halllont St-rrenf 

50. 35. hO. 65. 


1 IVint* no nv»< iLnk nn r»>l«<l |»»»~« 


Kill 


\ «>nly '!»• *»'> .onr««.l •vrMn* .an 

U .~.l |u. <r....k> hn 

|«K««I Iwpar 
B Tka (in.. Ik. -.^.n r,.l.n(. llx 

r.n«r Ik. .I.I..I 
I* TT*. .^larwr Ik. .|«.alilr "f Ik. 

pfinltng IMIwr. tk. titarwr ik. 

>r..n ruf.n. F,n. Mtam k.ll 

t..n«« ar. apl l<> kll u|> an.l .mu.!*. 

..n r....tk •••rla.T.I pai>.r. 


1 Vt 
Pai 

II \uh- 

III llj'r'i.. 

all, n., 
..II a. 




■■\_ 




n«« ..wrwr ikan Km.lin 
1.1. rtn ain.. Untf wM.alK 
n. |4al.« tann..! Iw r. 
lk*M* tna.1. ..n ...pfivr 




8S. 100.110, 


IVinl* «• MM^IM tMk, MPW. MM 

rowr. and «««l«<il •fork. 

1 


:in"^ 


120. 133. 






150. 175. 


PnntB ttn finml p«p«n rm\\ 







Line Plates 



ClIlM \|.\>SH<.t^ I ClIlKl I.IMlTAnOVS CoMMKM 



Bl \(;k \\i> > """r * "••""•'•- •""•■ i- - ••••'>•' I. Tw -~i fr„,„.„ii, .-d („,, 

.' i'mn U ina.l« .lui. kl. kUrk bne. or maaava. ara.ini 

Wm TK ". I an fc. u..nl«l .m an, itadr i.ap.1 iif^i H Cannat r.|i.,«J>..^ pkuloftaiA- II Make UJd .«»cl. .n irl IJa. k uuaaibtr 

. , , ,.d.d r^l.,ln» in ua. <lo.< not l.nn> .a>k <ira>>n(. ... nainlmc III U.ualK ol l.n. . U-k.n m.n>il. .kuH f 

(Also KIUXMI a> knra 1... .k— l...rlkrr '" '« •••'■I- t^<' " ""a-l. "n .^tpr.. 

■'LineCul"> ; 



ItFV nW I- P »»»i J .- mon liMtr ail lifc lo a Una a«b- A. "Larina" Ben llay rkaranl aslra. I* All ikal la na>«a.arx « f4aar arawint 

'"^■^ I'.-ll ^^1 B. Coally Ir ui«< rilmai.aly >ilkin I oilb in.ln'alion «k.va Ban l)at ia ■■. 

(In \arioUS StvlcS I : App~ack». a haKloac in apvaarancT. , a«. pUla. , I ,, !'"'"■*'« ■ i , 

, I Ih.! r.Uin> ..•.(■ilnna of lin. iJal. ,1 \ ».v fin. pall.tn. p.inl i-K.fl. on II Sfmiall. i^-ifarv.! .Irawinca - ar. In 

.IS Sno»n III paltt'rn •, t.uall> l..> .>p.nuv. in »•. ikan kan.l .^wirw pap.r> ' qaanlly rcMuirrd fiir Ik. qy<-l a.l.aaia 

l„„,L , .Ira.n au.l.n< ».»li *'"•• "•<• nf Brn lla. 



Srmn inrnm ol Ben l>a. linl ihouM 
Iw arW.-lr.f nilk »amr Ikougkl of pa|iar 
a».l p..aawo.fc a* fn. kalflnn.a 



(•f\t i \0 ItFV r^4\' |«..p.n...r (■•rni of .itk*r r.iM-oduction LimiUlioaa aimilar to Ihoaa of abov* I I. Oriainal illuatralioa ia aaat la «a<ra 

•UHJK tJt^ l}\t <- lilal... in bUck and .hila. wilb color adMm. 

PLATES I „ ""^•-•'J 



II. Allraclivc alTacU in 2. .^. and 4 colon >aa 

br okuinad raadily. 
Ill No linitalion to lb. numUf of color, 
ikal ran U ut.] 



From "Production Yearbook." Adapted from a Chart in "Advertising Procedure," by Otto Kleppner, 
Copyright 1938 by Prentice-Hall, Inc. 

1. Duplicates of the original plates may be made either as electrotypes — a direct process — 

or as stereotypes — an indirect process through the use of mats. 

2. Three forms of electrotypes are copper wax molds, steel wax molds (both of which can 

be made from type setups, cuts, or combinations of these), and lead or steel molds. 
The copper wax mold is the least expensive of the three. 

3. Stereotypes are plates made by pouring melted type metal into a paper mold called a 

"mat." 

Wotman illustration board is available at almost any art supply 
house in the following four surfaces: 

1. Hot-pressed — pen and ink drawings, water colors, and pas- 
telles. 

2. Cold-pressed — water colors and pastelles. Pen and ink may 
be used, but best results are obtained on hot-pressed. 

3. No. 1 Rough Surface — rough illustrations. 

4. Rough — drawings where detail is not essential, such as land- 
scaping. 



I 



422 



GRAPHIC PRESENTATION 



Charles T. Bainbridge and Sons, Brooklyn, New York, make a 
Coquille Bristol that may be used in the same way as the board 
illustrated in 420A. This company also makes an illustration board 
for general artwork and a board that is used for work requiring fine 
detailed drawings. Samples may be secured upon request. 

Sunray scratchboard, handled by the Steiner Paper Company, 
New York City, may also be used in the same way as the board 
illustrated in 420A. 

Chicago Cardboard Company, Chicago, Illinois, manufactures a 
colored art poster board calendered so that both lettering and 
printing may be done on it. 

REFERENCES 

Wallace, C. E., Commercial Art, McGraw-Hill Book Co., Inc., 
New York City, 2nd edition, 1939. 




U. 8. Drpartnicnt of Afirirulturr, Bureau of Agricultural Economic*. 

A Series of Density Distinctions. 

1. These cross -hatchings were made on sheets of paper by the Bureau of Agricultural 

Economics. It is possible for any individual using a great many hachures and 
desiring a large variety, to design several and have sheets of them printed. 

2. To secure the greatest variety in shadings, every fourth or fifth one beginning with 

black might be selected. 



COLOR AND 



Recent years have seen the dawn of a new era in the use of color. 
An outline of certain color facts and theories may prove helpful. 



B. 



C. 



D. 




The above colors arc approximate. The correct hues, vermilion, emerald green, pale cad- 
mium yellow, and light ultramarine blue, may be obtained generally in high grade 
tempera or show card colors. 

A. The Primary Colors as Used and Described by Early Ariists. 

Color study was based on human vision alone until Newton made the first physical analysis 
of liRht about 1672. 

B. The Primary Frequencies of Vibration in the Radiant Energy Called Light. 
Young. 1773-1829; Hclmholtz, 1821-1894; Maxwell, 1831-1899. and Konig, 1832-1901, 

proved these three frequencies of light vibration can produce all light colors. 

C. The Primary Colors in Pigments as Taught During the 18th and 19th Centuries. 

1. Green was considered a secondary color during this period. 

2. The pure emerald green of Leonardo da Vinci and other early artists, however, cannot 

be produced by mixing pigments. 

D. The Two Pairs of Primary Color Sensations in Human Vision. 

Hering. 1834-1918. based his color studies and theory on color sensations in the human 
brain instead of on the physical properties of light. 

E. The Three Primary Frequencies of Light and the Four Primary Color Sensations 

Which They Produce in the Human Brain. 

1. Through studies in color blindness, Ladd Franklin in COLOR AND COLOR THE- 

ORIES. 1929, showed that color vision has developed from the power to see yellow 
and blue only, into the ability to differentiate red and green from the yellow rays. 

2. It was clearly shown that for normal human vision, the three primary color frequencies 

of light produce four primary color sensations. 

3. This reconcile* apparent contradictions in earlier theories and is now generally accepted. 



424 



GRAPHIC PRESENTATION 




A. Maxwell Discs of Slit 
Paper or Cardboard. 




s the idea of the spectrum band of colors 
invaded the field of practical use, it was made into 
a circle by adding the purple hues between blue 
and red. for which there is no spectral wave 
length. Scientists and artists divided this circle of 
hues to suit their needs, usually at regular inter- 
vals around the circle, with complementary colors 
opposite each other. Complementary colors are 
those producing neutral gray when mixed in cor- 
rect proportions. Unmixed they tend to intensify 
each other. 



R /(4/u 



7 



A A 



70 BG 



Allcolor Company, New York City, "An Explanation and U«e of 
Allcolor Paperi." Courtesy of Munscll Color Company. 

C. The Horizontal Scale of Chroma. 

1. This shows the practical advantage in numbering 
chroma steps beginning at gray. 

2. Hues differ in the number of their chroma steps. 

3. As new pigments of greater intensity become avail- 
able, new chroma steps can be added. Some hues 
have acquired four new chroma steps since tliis sys- 
tem came into use. 



Millon Bradlry Co. New York 
City 

B. Color Top. 

1. Maxwell discs of slit paper or cardboard, for studying primary 
and other color relations, can be obtained with small color 
tops, and larger color wheels, from Milton Bradley Co. 
and the Abbott Educational Co., New York City. 

I. These discs arc easily made from water-color paper painted 
with tempera or show card colors. They should be slit 
from the edge to the center, so that they can overlap as 
desired when superimposed. 

3. When spinning rapidly, the colors of the overlapping discs 

metgc. 

4. Light reflected from the surface of revolving discs creates \\\v 

scnsation of colored light, not colored pigments. Light 
ultramarine blue and pale cadmium yellow spun together 
look almost pure white, not green. Vermilion and true 
emerald green produce a darkish yellow, not neutral gray. 




D. Contrasting Colors In 

Even Balance. 

Strongly contrasting or comple- 
mentary colors, repeated in 
equal quantities, are confus- 
ing and hard on the eyes. 



COLOR AND ITS USE 



425 



These diagrams illustrate the Munsell System of Color Notation, 
and are reproduced through the courtesy of the International Print- 
ing Ink Corporation from Three Monographs on Color, a publica- 
tion of unusual interest and beauty. 

The countless hues, and their modifications, 
used in science, art. and industry required orderly 
arrangement, and some method of accurate iden- 
tification. This need produced several color sys- 
tems, of which A. H. Munsell's A System of Color 
Notation is the most widely used commercially. 



A. 1. Hue indicates the spectral wave length of a color 

and its position in the color circle. 
2. In Munsell's notation, hue is indicated by its initial 
letter. 

B. 1. Value, or brightness, indicates a color's approach to 

white or black. 
2. In this system, it is indicated by a number written 
above a diagonal line. 

C. 1. Chroma, intensity, saturation, are here shown as a 

number of steps away from neutral gray toward full 
chroma, on the hue at its greatest intensity or satu- 
ration. 

D. 1. The three qualities of color, hue, value, and chroma, 

are clearly shown in this diagram. 
2. R 4/14 indicates a brilliant, intense red, and G 8/13 
a light, gray green. 




grttn 



A. The Hue Circuit. 



Wh,u 

9 



Another version of these 
relationships is found in 42 7B. 




Bhck 



B. The Value Scale. 



I 



Blu* grtm 



C. Chroma Steps. 



D. Correlation of Three Dimensions of Color. 



SCALE .8 
International Printing Ink Corporation. New York City. "Color ia 
U*e" No. 3 of a Scric* of 3 Monograph* on Color, 193S 



426 



GRAPHIC PRESENTATION 



VISIBILITY 



VISIBILITY 



VISIBILITY 



VISIBILITY 



VISIBILITY 



VISIBILITY 



VISIBILITY 



VISIBILITY 



VISIBILITY 



VISIBILITY 



VISIBILITY 




1 


VISIBILITY 


2 


VISIBILITY 






3 


VISIBILITY 






4 


VISIBILITY 






5 


VISIBILITY 






6 


VISIBILITY 






7 


VISIBILITY 






8 


VISIBILITY 






9 


VISIBILITY 




^^^^H^^^^^^^^^^^^ 


10 
11 
12 
13 
14 


VISIBILITY 



Adapted from Whiting-Plover Paper Co., Stevent Point. Witcontin, "The U»e of Color," Founded on 
Studiet Originally Published in "Le Courrier du Livre." 

RELATIVE VISIBILITY OF COLORS AT A DISTANCE 
A. To the Color Blind. B. To Normal Sight. 

1. Dr. Edward A. Ayers says ir» "Color and Color Blindness," Century Ma/iaxine, April 

1907, that one man in twenty and one woman in about two hundred are unable to 
see red and green normally. 

2. The use of black on yellow for motor road signs and for advertising in poorly lighted 

telephone booths may be traced to this investigation. 



COLOR AND ITS USE 



427 



mill 11 /I III 

ax ceo / :>is> 

AD /CD 
IZ3 1456 



I r 



These colors differ in hue. 



I I 

^ I 



These colors differ in value. 



Grace Cornfll. "■Color." Carter's Ink Company, 
Boston. Mass.. 1934. 

A. Use of One Color with Black and 
White. 

The use of red for emphasis on a black 
and white page is effective be- 
cause of brightness, intensity and 
high contrast combined with a 
wave length on which the eye can 
focus easily at about reading dis- 
tance. 






These colors differ in chroma. 

George Welp. "Color for Packaging." 1938 Cour- 
tesy of International Printing Ink Company. 
New York City. 

B. All Colors Differ in These Three 
Ways. 



A very fine summary of Ostwald's (1853-1932) color theory and 
system appeared in "The Science of Color," More Business, * 
November, 1937, written by Egbert G. Jacobson, President, Asso- 
ciation for Color Research. The interrelation of hues is beautifully 
shown throughout the color solid with unusual accuracy and rich- 
ness. 

Faber Birren follows Ostwald with modifications, using a 13-26 
hue circle instead of Ostwald's 12-24. or Munsell's 5-10 circles. His 
chart gives the natural intervals between hues as seen by the human 
eye. Printing inkstand tempera colors^in these hues are available 
commercially. All color charts are good if used intelligently. 

♦Published by American Photo-Engravers Association, Chicago, Illinois. 

t General Printing Ink Corporation, New York. 

t E. William Berg. 5510 Warwick Avenue. Chicago. Illinoit. 



428 



GRAPHIC PRESENTATION 




The Allcolor Company, Inc., New York City. 

A. The Allcolor Cabinefs Containing Colored Papers of 362 Hues. 

Each paper shows its Munsell Notation number on the back; also the number of the Inter- 
national Printing Ink Corporation's ink with which it was printed. 

A yellow green is the brightest color in a dim light. Yellow green 
light is used in photographic dark rooms whenever possible. In a 
large garden, light blue flowers can be seen against a dark green 
background farther than any other color. A light yellow is next in 
visibility. Green and blue look brighter in a dim light than orange 
or red, which require full illumination. 

Effective color schemes may be composed of black and white and 
another color, different values of one color, adjacent colors in the 
color circle, near complements rather than exact complements, a 
color and split complementaries — that is the colors on each side of 
its complement in the color circle, triads or three colors equally 
distant in the color circle. 

REFERENCES 

Birren, Faber, Monument to Color, McFarlane, Ward, McFar- 

lane, New York City, 1938. 
Luckiesh, Matthew, Color and Colors, D. Van Nostrand Co., 

Inc., New York City, 1938. 
Sargent, Walter, The Enjoyment and Use of Color, Charles 

Scribners Sons, New York City, 1923. 
Others also are referred to in the text. 



429t 



Chapter 50 
METHODS OF REPRODUCING 



THE materials on hand may be used in some instances, but in 
others the work must be done outside the office. If you have 
only certain equipment, your process of publication is limited 
by the need for other equipment. 

Carbon paper is one of the simplest methods of securing a num- 
ber of copies. If the original is made by hand (pencil or ink), a 
special type of carbon paper should be purchased. Best results will 
be obtained by using a pencil with hard lead, or a manifold pen. 

Tracings in pencil or ink may be made by placing tracing paper 
over the copy. Thin paper can be used for small tracings, while for 
large ones a tracing cloth, which comes in a larger size than the 
paper, should be used. 



|P^F^ 


3 


■g^ 


■ 


^1 


^ 
^ 




Dautco Producti Co , Nrw York City, and Oitto, Inc., Chicago. 

Gelatine Process Duplicating Machines. 

1. These duplicators are equipped with continuous bands or films of gelatine duplicating 

material. The original or master copy may be prepared either by a typewriter or 
may be drawn with pen and ink or a copy pencil. 

2. The process of duplicating is very simple. The master copy is placed face down on the 

moistened surface of the film for two minutes. Blank sheets of paper one at a time 
are then put on the film from which the master copy has been removed. From 50 
to 100 copies may be made from one master copy. A turn of the handle brings a 
new gelatine surface. 

3. The machine on the right is a jjortable that can easily be carried around if necessary. 

It will copy a sheet as large as 8',i by 14 inches. 



430« 



flRAIH I g IRII 



ENTATION 




A. Arc Lamp. 

Today it is possible to secure a continuous 
blue printing, washing, developing, 
and drying machine with either elec- 
trically heated or gas dryer. 



The C. F. Prasr Company. Chicago. Illinois, and 
NfW York City. 




Charle* Bruning Co , Inc , New York City. 

B. Developing Machine for Making a Whife Print. 

1. After the print, whether black and white, blue line, or a blue print, has been exposed 

in a blue print machine, the print must be developed in a developing machine. 
The machine shown above develops a positive black and white print. 

2. The Ozalid Corporation, New York City, makes a machine which exposes and dry- 

develops a positive print from a positive original. 



METHOD 



fWf 



EPRODUC 



ING 



'431 



The principle of the blue print, white print, and blue line print 
machine is that chemically treated paper is first exposed to a chem- 
ical light action, which prints the design. The print is then devel- 
oped, that is. treated so that the design will appear clear and 
remain semi-permanently. The first method of exposure was by 
means of blue print frames placed in the sunlight. The next step 
in the development of the present machines was the use of a single 
arc lamp. Later a bank of arc lamps placed side by side was em- 
ployed. Since the convenience of operation seemed to fit into the 
reproduction field, mercury vapor tubes were utilized. It was later 
found that such tubes did not compare with arc lamps in the 
efficiency of printing. 

Makers of Blue-Print Machines: 

The C. F. Pease Company, Chicago, Illinois, and New York 

City 
Paragon Revolute Corporation, New York City 
Shaw Blue-Print Machine Company, Newark, New Jersey 




I 



Photcntat Corporation. Providrncf. Rhodr Itland. 

Photostat Machine with Engineering Board. 

1. The Photostat is a machine designed for the rapid production of copy by means of 

photography. 

2. The subject matter is photographed directly upon sensitized paper without the inter- 

vention of any plate or film negative. Printed or written documents, drawings, blue 
prints, records, maps, fabrics, small tools, machinery parts, etc., may be copied in 
a few minutes at the cost of a few cents. 

3. In addition to copying at original size, enlargements or reductions may be made in any 

desired size. If enlargements required are larger than the maximum size sheet of 
the Photostat used, they may be made in sections and pieced together. Transfer 
negatives for reproduction by other processes are easily made on this apparatus. 
Standard models produce, on a single sheet, prints up to 18" x 24 ". 



432 



GRAPHIC PRESENTATION 




A. B. Dick Company, Chicago. 



A. Mimeograph Machine. 

1. MimeoKraph stencil duplicating can 

reproducr large numbers of copies 
in black ink or colors at a low 
cost. This process is widely used 
for reproducing graphic material 
of many kinds. 

2. When enlargement or reduction of an 

original chart or graph is neces- 
sary to effect conformity with 
Mimeograph duplicating size lim- 
itations, Mimeograph photochem- 
ical stencils will be found useful. 
The photochemical stencil is fre- 
quently used where graphic struc- 
tures are too complex to be con- 
veniently drawn with a stylus on 
a stencil sheet. 




Standard Mailing Machines Co., Everett, Maai. 

B. Liquid or "Fluid" Process Duplicator. 

1. The original or master copy for this duplicator is made with a "spirit" hectograph car- 

bon in such a way that a reverse or negative impression is made. This master copy 
is inserted in the drum. While proceeding through the machine the copy paper is 
moistened with a thin film of an alcoholic duplicating fluid. When this inserted 
copy paper is brought in contact with the negative impression of the master copy, 
it dissolves sufficient dye to produce a copy. This process will make from 200 to 
300 clear copies from one original. 

2. Type of copy may be printing, handwriting, or typewriting. 

3. The master copy can be stored and reused if less than the maximum number of copies 

is made from the original. The life of the master copy is from ten to fifteen years. 



METHODS OF REPRODUCING 



433 



A. Mimeoscope for Illuminated Draw- 
ing Board. 

1. With the aid of the Mimeoscope and 

•tyli, both straight and curved 
lines, either broken or soHd. are 
obtainable. Thus, ruled forms 
specially designed to suit current 
needs can be quickly and econom- 
ically produced on the Mimeo- 
graph duplicator. 

2. Triangle guides, beam compasses, and 

circle guides, manufactured espe- 
cially for the preparation of Mim- 
eograph stencils, are also avail- 
able. 




A. B. Dirk Company, Chicago. 




I 



Lithoprint Company of New York. Inc. 

B. Two Steps in the Lithoprint Process. 

The lithoprint process is a simplified form of lithography. A plate coated with special 
composition replaces the lithographer's stone and the copy is obtained by a simple 
process of contact printing. Lithoprint reproductions duplicate the original draw- 
ings. 



434 



METHODS OF REPRODUCING 




AddmsoKraph-Multigraph Corp., Cleveland. Ohio. 

A Multilith Plate for Use in a Multilith Machine. 

1. The Multilith process is "offset" in miniature. The paper-thin Multilith plates may be 

placed in the typewriter. By using a special typewriter ribbon, typing can be done 
on the plate just as it is done on paper. Writing, lettering, or drawing may be done 
directly on the plate with a special type of crayon having a grease content. 

2. However, the photographic method of transferring an image from the copy to the plate 

is usually used. The photographic film is placed in contact with a sensitized Multi- 
lith plate and the negative image is "burned into" the plate by exposure to light. 



REFERENCES 

Binkley, Robert C, Manual on Methods of Reproducing Research 
Materials, Edwards Brothers, Inc., Ann Arbor, Michigan, 1936. 

Colton Press, New York, N. Y., Production Yearbook, Volumes 
3, 4, and 5, 1937, 1938, 1939. 



435 



Chapter 51 
METHODS OF PRINTING 



THE three basic methods of printing are — relief (raised surface), 
planographic (surface), and intaglio (subsurface). 

In relief printing, also referred to as letterpress, the design 
is raised in relief from the surrounding surface and only the raised 
surface portions print after being inked. Examples — newspapers, 
magazines, booklets, circulars printed from type, electrotypes, 
stereotypes, halftone plates, line cuts, etc. Relief printing is adapt- 
able to all finishes of paper for type work. Where the screen is 
coarse enough it is adaptable on rough-surface papers, but the best 
results for halftone printing are obtained with a fine screen halftone 
on a coated paper surface. 

REFERENCES ON RELIEF PRINTING 

Hoch. Fred W., Handbook for Pressmen, Published by Author, 

New York City, 1937. 
New York Employing Printers Association, Inc., New York City, 

How to Buy Printing Profitably, 1927. 




Hamilton Manufacturing Co., Two River*. Witconiin. 

California Job Case for Type. 

1. In setting type by hand, individual letters of type are picked from a job case and 

placed into a composing stick in which they are arranged and spaced as desired. 
Each line is removed as it is set and placed on a flat tray called a galley. When 
the page is complete, corrected, etc., it is locked up for the printing press. Simple 
corrections are made by removing the letter or whatever is in error and changing it. 

2. The illustration above is a California Job Case, which is the universal case. About 95% 

of the cases used for typesetting by hand are California Job Cases, 



"^^^ GRAPHIC PRESENTATION 

In planographic printing, which includes lithography (both direct 
and offset), the design is in the same plane as the surrounding or 
non-printing portions of the plate. The design, however, is grease- 
attracting, while the non-printing portions are treated so as to 
make them grease-repellent. On the press, the non-printing por- 
tions are dampened with water between impressions to keep them 
in that condition. It follows that when the greasy ink is applied 
by the rollers to the plate only the design takes ink and prints. In 
direct lithography, the design is printed directly upon the paper. 
In offset lithography, the design is printed upon a rubber blanket 
which in turn transmits the design to the paper. Practically all 
lithography is now of the offset type. While both coated and un- 
coated papers are being successfully used for lithographing pur- 
poses, the latter is chiefly used. Blanket resiliency makes it pos- 
sible to secure excellent results in halftones on uncoated (rough) 
stock. Examples — displays, posters, books, book covers, booklets, 
circulars, labels, wrapping papers, calendars, inserts, etc. 

REFERENCES ON LITHOGRAPHY 

Rhodes, Henry J., Art of Lithography, Scott Greenwood & Son, 

London, 2nd edition, 1924. 
Miles, Russell N., The Encyclopedia of Lithography, Published 

by Author, Chicago, Illinois, 1938. 




Intertype Corporation, Brooklyn, New York. 

Slug Cast by a Typesetting Machine of the Line Type. 

1. Type may also be set by composing or typesetting machines. 

2. One of three types of machine is the intertype. It composes with matrices, small brass 

dies, which have the forms of various characters indented in their sides. The indi- 
vidual matrices are assembled in the desired order for each line of the material, 
and a type-high metal slug with the letters in relief is cast in one piece from these 
matrices. 

3. Another typesetting machine which operates on the same principle as the intertype is 

the linotype. 

4. Corrections in linotype and intertype matter are made by resetting the complete line 

in which an error occurs. 



METHODS OF PRINTING '^^^ 

Soderstrom, Walter, Photolithographers Manual, Waltwin Com- 
pany, New York City, 1937. 

Lithographers National Association, Inc., New York, N. Y., 
"Books on Lithography" reprint from Bookbinding and Book 
Production. 

Lithographic Technical Foundation Publications, 220 East 42nd 
Street, New York, N. Y. 

In intaglio printing (also referred to as rotogravure, photo- 
gravure, and sheet-fed gravure) the design is etched into the sur- 
face of a copper plate or cylinder, thus producing sub-surface 
recesses. Ink is applied to the plate or cylinder in sufficient vol- 
ume to fill the recesses following which the surface proper is wiped 
clean. In rotogravure, the surface is cleaned by a thin steel blade 
known as "doctor blade" which fits tightly against the surface of 
the plate as the cylinder revolves. The paper is brought into direct 
contact with the copper plate or cylinder by means of a rubber 
roller. As a result, the ink is lifted out of the recesses thereby 



a**"*^. 






I 



Lantton Monotype Machine Co.. Philadelphia. Pennsylvania. 

Type Set by the Monotype Machine. 

1. The third kind of typesetting machine is the monotype. It casts and assembles indi- 

vidual letters automatically. As soon as each letter is cast, it is moved into the 
proper place in the line of type. When the line is completed, it is moved out on 
the form that holds the lines of type. 

2. On monotype forms, corrections are made by removing the letter or whatever is in 

error, and replacing it from a case of type of the same style. 

3. This illustration shows how the monotype machine may be utilized in making "run- 

arounds." The operator of the machine sets "quads" in the space of each line in 
which the illuatration is to be set. The cut is mounted in position on the quads. 



438 



GRAPHIC PRESENTATION 

transmitting the printed design to the paper. Examples — roto- 
gravure newspaper supplements, magazine inserts, booklets, cir- 
culars, etc., usually printed from copper cylinders at high speed. 
A wide range of papers from the finest grade down to newsprint — 
all from the original roll of paper as delivered by the mill — is used 
for this type of printing. A substantial percentage, possibly two- 
thirds, of the gravure printing being done today is done at news- 
paper speed on both sides of the sheet and folded on the press ready 
for delivery. 

Ttx HoaMrV TjrpMctllnt MmMik mU tyitt in >ll mMauraa up to M piru in ill •!••• Irnm 4 to I* point. Strattkl 
»*tt«r. tabular and int/irat« work, rulad form*. rui« and ficurc work — in fact, all kind* o/ typowttini — ajv dona 
with lUioqualUd facility and apaad. No othar marhina ambodira within th« aoop* ai ila oparation ao wida a raaca ol 

4 Point Modem. No. 8 Seriefl 

Under The Monotype System New Type, Decorative Material. Leads, Rules, Slugs 

and metal furniture are provided in unlimited supply for the use in hand composition 

and at a cost so low that non-distribution becomes an economy as well as a convenience 

6 Point Binny Old Style, No. 21 Series 

The Monotype Typesetting Machine Sets Type In All Measures Up 

to 60 picas wide in all sizes from 4 to 18 point for straight matter work 

8 Point Binny Old Style. No. 21 Series 

Monotype Versatility Is Known By Every Printer Using 
Monotype machines for composing room needs and supplies 

10 Point Binny Old Style. No. 21 Series 

The Monotype Unit System Makes It Possible 
to fit copy accurately to the space to be occupied 

12 Point Binny Old Style, No. 21 Series 

Type-&-Rule Caster Supplies Your Needs 

14 Point Binny Old Style, No. 21 Series 

Cut Mounting Base 

30 Point Binny Old Style, No. 21 Series 

Artistic Designs 

.16 Poinl Binny Old Style, No. 21 Series C_^ 

TYPE FACE 



36H4 Point Kennerley, No. 268 Series 



Lantton Monoty|>r Mitrhinr Company, Philntlrlphia. 

Range of Type Sizes. 

1. These are only a few of the sizes of type available. 

2. The four point type is the smallest that can be set on the Monotype machine, and 

eighteen point ii the largest. Larger sizes may be set by hand. 



METHODS OF PRINTING 



439 



REFERENCES ON ROTOGRAVURE 

Cartwright, Mills H., Photogravure, American Photographic 
Publishing Company, Boston. Massachusetts. 

Bennett. Colin N.. Elements of Photogravure. American Photo- 
graphic Publishing Company, Boston, Massachusetts, 1935. 

GENERAL REFERENCES 

Colton Press. New York. N. Y.. Production Yearbook. Volumes 
3. 4. and 5. 1937. 1938. 1939. 

Hackelman. Charles W.. Commercial Enf^raving and Printing. 
Commercial Engraving Publishing Company, Indianapolis, 
Indiana, 1924. 

University of Chicago Press. A Manual of Style, Chicago, Illi- 
nois, 10th edition— 1937. 



Cvnlurr OldttTl»6l 16 poinl 



6 to 3A poink 



PACK MY BOX WITH FIVEj 
Pack my box with five doz|1234 

Go»»..c No 5A4-26J le point (6 to 36 pent) 

PACK MY BOX WITH FIVEj 
Pack my box with five do|123 



&tr«>T(o*d Bold 474 IS poot 



6 to 72 point (16, 04 to 130 point) 



PACK MY BOX WITH FIVE D| 
Pack my box with five dozen 1 12 34 



Scotch RecHCH 379 16 Bainl 



(6 to 34 point) 



PACK MY BOX WITH FI| 
Pack my box with five cloze|l23 



Bedoni Book 27 18 poiat 



6 to 36 point (42 and 40 point) 



PACK MY BOX WITH FIVE DOZE| 
Pack my box with five dozen jug 1 123 



American Typ* Foundrr*. Elii«b*th. Nfw Jertey. 

Five Different Type Styles. 
For comparison of type stylet, write to American Type Founderi, Elizabeth. New Jer»ey. 



440 



GRAPHIC PRESENTATION 



Abstracts from Time Series Charts. A Manual of Design and 
Construction, 1938, prepared by Committee on Standards for 
Graphic Presentation, under procedure of American Standards 
Association, with The American Society of Mechanical Engineers 
as sfKDnsor body. 



LETTER SIZES 

Elite Type - 12 characters per inch 
Pica Type - 10 characters per 
SMALL GOTHIC - 9 CHARACTER 

LARGE GOTHIC - 9 CHARACTER 
.120" TEMPLATE LETTERING 
J40"TEMPLATE LETTERING 

.175" TEMPLATE LET! 

.240" TEMPLATE 



LINE WEIGHTS 
POINT — ^^— 



4 

3 POINT 
2^2 POINT 
2 POINT 
I '/2 POINT 
I POINT 
3^ POINT 
I/O POINT 



Original Size 

Note: A point, in printer's measure, is opproximately 1/12 of a 
pice, which, in turn is 1/6 of on inch. Therefore, a printer's point 
is opproximately 1/72 inch. 



METHODS OF PRINTING 



441 



LETTER SIZES 

Bllt* Typ* - 12 oharftctars p«r inch 
Pica Type - 10 characters per 
SMALL GOTHIC - 9 CHARACTER 

LARGE GOTHIC - 9 CHARACTER 
.120" TEMPLATE LETTERING 
.I40"TEMPLATE LETTERING 

.175" TEMPLATE LET! 

.240" TEMPLATE 



LINE WEIGHTS 
POINT ^— ^^^— 



4 

3 POINT 
2'/^ POINT 
2 POINT 
I '/2 POINT 
I POINT 
3^ POINT 
1/9 POINT 



Reduced to two-thirds of original size 




Courtesy of The Rrgfrntriner Corporation. Chi- 
ca(o. Illinoit 

A. Relief Printing — Halftone Cross 
Section. 

In relief or letterpress printing, the image 
to be printed is above the surface. 
The raised portions of the plate 
represent the image to be printed; 
they are inked by the rollers and 
give off the ink by contact with 
paper. 



The illustration to the left it a reduction 
of the material on the opposite 
page. 

See key to lettering for lantern slides on 
page 408. 




Courteiy of The Regentteiner Corporation, Chi- 
cago, Illinoia. 

B. Planographic Printing- Lilhographic 
Plate. 

In planographic printing the image is on 
the surface, it is ink attracting, 
while the non-printing areas are 
made chemically ink-repelling. 




I 



Courteiy of The Regeniteiner Corporation, Chi- 
cago, Illinoit 

C. Intaglio Printing- Enlarged Gravure 
Plate. 

In intaglio or gravure printing the image 
is below the surface. 



442 



GRAPHIC PRESENTATION 



PROOF- 
READERS 
MARKS 



It is imperative 
that corrections 
should be marked 
on the margins of a 
proof sheet opposite 
the indicated errors. 
Do not attempt to 
make a correction 
by writing over the 
print or between the 
lines. Errors 
marked in this way 
are in danger of 
being overlooked 
and are generally 
illegible. 

Proofs read by 
authors or depart- 
ment readers should 
be marked to con- 
form to the style as 
illustrated at the 
right. 





9 Period. 




i 


CommA. 




- 


Hyphen. 




I 


Colon. 






Semicolon. 
Apostrophe. 




<^W^ Quotations. 




Id 


Em quadrat. 




Si. 


One-em daah. 






Two-em parallel daah. 




/ 


Push down space. 




o 


Close up. 




• 


Less space. 




A 


Caret— left out, insert. 




9 


Turn to prop>er position. 




# 


Insert space. 


c 


or O 


Move to left or to right. 


n 


or U 


Move up or move down. 




A^. 


Transpose. 


.....or 


xM^t: 


Let it stand. 




^ 


Dele — take out. 




® 


Broken letter. 






Paragraph. 
No paragraph. 




^^ 


Wrong font. 


*^7 or 


^.# 


Equalize spacing. 



Capitals. 
Small capitals. 
Lower-case. 
Superior or inferior. 



:== or S-^^^xO/^ 
s= or /fi-.e.. 

>^or ^ 

nr J:taX. Italic. 

/tyCTyXy. Roman. 

Hj Bracketa. 

f I ) Parentheses, 



Proof-Reader's Marks. 



Use a f{ood black pencil for proofreading and make the marks legible. So far as possible, 
a line of type should break on an idea. For divisions of words, use a dictionary. 



mil 



443 



Chapter 52 
SELECTION OF PAPER 



AFTER the method of copying or printing has been decided 
I upon, paper suitable to the process chosen should be se- 
lected. In some cases a preference for a certain type of paper may 
be a determining factor in the selection of the copying or printing 
method. However, the usual procedure is to decide upon a method 
of reproduction and then to select the paper. For that reason, this 
chapter on Selection of Paper is placed immediately following the 
chapter on Methods of Printing. 

REFERENCES 
Wheelwright. William Bond, "Choosing thcRight Paper. What 
an Author Should Know About Paper." {Paper and Printing 
Digest, Dec, 1939). 
Production Yearbook, The Colton Press, Inc., New York, N. Y., 

Volume IV— 1938. 
The term "paper" covers a great many articles and products and 
no attempt will be made to cover all of them. This discussion will 
be confined to those types of paper which would be used most in 
presenting graphic charts in annual reports, pamphlets, text-books, 
and similar publications. 




The Mead Corporation. Kingi|>ort, Tcnn 



Paper Machine With "Wet End" In the Distance, and Drying Roils, Finishing 
"Stacks," and Reel in Foreground. 



444 



GRAPHIC PRESENTATION 



CONSIDERATIONS IN THE SELECTION OF PAPER: 

1. Reader comfort 

Paper with a minimum gloss and reflectance of light is a factor 
for easy reading. When using the letterpress process, however, a 
high finish or levelness of surface is vital to the sharp reproduc- 
tion of cuts. English Finish and semi-dull Coated papers give 
the maximum of reproduction without objectionable reflectance. 
For the lithographic process high finish is not necessary, but 
again, tends to increase the sharpness of detail. For the gravure 
process the same is true. 

2. Opacity 

Good opacity is desirable, and in the medium and heavy 
weights should be no problem. In the lighter weights much de- 
pends upon the type of paper selected. The introduction of spe- 
cial materials to increase opacity has produced special papers for 
this purpose. 

3. Grain direction 

In all Book paper made on a paper machine, the majority of 
the fibers run in one direction. Hence we have the terms "with" 
and "against" grain. Such paper is stronger when torn cross- 
grain and folds smoother with grain. In general, paper is or- 
dered with the grain running the length of the sheets for all pur- 
poses. In the folder, booklet, or bound book the grain should 
run parallel to the fold or binding. This gives a smoother folded 
edge and the pages, being more flexible, lie flatter. 




B. F Perkins 6t Son, Inc., Holyoke, Mati. 



Perkins Pressure Bulker to Measure the 
Bulk of Sheets of Paper. 

1. The diameter of the pressure foot is 

three square inches and the pres- 
sure is figured in pounds per 
square inch of paper. 

2. There is no fixed standard for the 

amount of pressure. The amount 
is intentionally flexible to meet 
current requirements. 

3. The pressure bulker is used chiefly 

to measure a specified number of 
sheets of paper to ascertain how 
thick a book with that many pages 
would be. The number of inches 
is recorded on the scale on the 
left. 



SELECTION OF PAPER 



445 



4. Physical durability 

The physical strength of paper may best be tested by tearing 
it with and against the grain. 

5. Permanence 

Book papers are generally made of rag, chemical wood pulp, 
mechanical wood pulp, or a combination of these. Chemical 
wood pulp is wood cellulose extracted by chemicals from the 
wood. In the process, gums, resin, and lignin are eliminated. In 
the better grades such fiber has much of the characteristics and 
permanence of rag paper. On the other hand, mechanical pulp is 
merely the crushing of wood into pulp with nothing eliminated. 
These fibers deteriorate in strength and color just as wood does 
under exposure. Mechanical pulp is used only in the cheapest 
grades of Book paper, which are classified as Groundwood 
papers whether they contained a large amount, as in news paper, 
or a small amount. All Book papers free from Groundwood are 
classified as free sheets, indicating that they contain only chem- 
ical wood pulp or rag, or both. In recent years, the improve- 
ment in chemical wood pulps has given us papers of fine strength. 



Trimmed 
ze 



Page S 

4'/4x 6 

4 X 9H 

SVax 7Vg 
5'/ax 83/i 



6x9 

6 X 9'/8 

7^x105/8 

SVixU 

9'/^xl2'/, 



nches 
nches 
nches 

nches 
nches 



or 
nches 

nches 

nches 

nches 



Cuts without 
32, or 64 up 
Cuts without 
or 32 up 
Cuts without 
or 24 up 
Cuts without 
Cuts without 
or 32 up 
Cuts without 
or 32 up 

Cuts without 

up 

Cuts without 

16 up 

Cuts without 

16 up 

Cuts without 



Boolclefs on Book Paper 
waste from 32x44 (128 pages out) when run 4, 8, 16, 

waste from 25x38 (64 pages out) when run 4, 8, 16, 

waste from 25x38 (48 pages out) when run 4, 6, 12, 

waste from 38x50 when run 4, 8, or 16 up 

waste from 32x44 (64 pages out) when run 4, 8, 16, 

waste from 35x45 (64 pages out) when run 4, 8, 16, 

waste from 25x38 (32 pages out) when run 4, 8, or 16 
waste from 32x44 (32 pages out) when run 4, 8, or 
waste from 35x45 (32 pages out) when run 4, 8, or 
waste from 25x38 (16 pages out) when run 4 or 8 up 



1 



Guide In Determining Size of Sheet to Use to Secure a Desired Page Size 

It is desirable that the page sizes of booklets, etc., permit the printer to use standard 
•ixes of paper which are regularly carried in stock. The booklet size should cut without 
waste from such standard size sheets rather than require special size sheets or waste. Much 
depends upon the size of the printing press and the arrangement of the printing form. 
Therefore, the printer can best advise on this question. 



446 



mil 



GRAPHIC PRESENTATION 



color, and permanence. As a result, the majority of Book paper 
today is made from chemical wood pulp. Rag fibers are still used 
in the highest grades for certain characteristics, although it has 
been demonstrated that by using the best chemical wood pulp 
such paper has much of the characteristics and permanency of 
rag paper. No matter what the material used, paper cannot be 
permanent in color and strength unless carefully made, and acids 
or other deleterious materials eliminated. 
6. Type of illustration, or printing process, to be used. 

It is vitally important that the paper be selected with this in 
mind. For the type of paper to use most effectively with various 
line screen halftones, see 416 and 417. 

Machine Finish Book paper has a medium smooth finish suit- 
able for ordinary printing where the cuts used are not too fine and 
the requirements, from a printing standpoint, not too exacting. 

A better grade of similar paper is called English Finish, which, 
having a more level surface, gives a better printing result than 
Machine Finish. 

Both of the above papers are finished on the paper machine, but 
Supercalendered paper is polished after being made, giving a 
higher shine to the surface for sharper reproduction of the details 
in the cuts when desired. However, the polishing of Uncoated 
paper has some effect on color, hence Supercalendered papers are 
not so bright in color as Machine Finish or English Finish and are 
also somewhat lower in bulk. 




Thr Mrad Corporation. Kin|;s|>ort Tciin 



Calender Stacks Which Give Paper a Smooth Finish, and Winding Rol 



mil 



SELECTION OF PAPER 



447 



Other types of paper finished on the paper machine are called 
Antique. Eggshell and Text. These papers have a rough or semi- 
rough finish suitable for use where only type or line cuts are used, 
but have good bulk and color. In general, the terms Antique and 
Eggshell are used for the medium and low grades, and Text is used 
for higher grades. 

The term Offset paper implies paper made for use in the litho- 
graphic process, namely, hard sized or water resistant. Uncoated 
Offset paper has good color, strength, and bulk. The finish varies 
from fairly smooth to medium because the lithographic process 
does not require an absolutely level surface for the reproduction of 
cuts. Almost any paper can be run offset if sufficiently hard sized. 

Coated paper is produced by the application to a special paper of 
a considerable amount of coating material, which is then polished. 
This coating material is generally composed of clay, casein, and 
other materials which will impart brightness or color to the final 
sheet. Either a high glossy finish or a semi-dull finish may be 
secured, depending upon the composition of the coating material 
used. Both are suitable for fine, detailed cuts, and the glossy 
Coated gives sharpness where semi-dull Coated gives softness. 
Coated paper is used for the best reproduction of halftone illustra- 
tions. Good strength and folding quality are implied when the 



BOOK PAPER 

Bulking Table showing ihe Approximate Number of Pages Per Inch of Various Types 
of Papers According to the Various Weights Available 

WEIGHT OF ONE REAM (500 SHEETS) 
25x38 



Supercalendered 

Machine Finish or English Finish 

Antique or Eggshell 

Offset , 



GloHy Coated _ 

Semi-Dull Coated 



40 



670 
640 



4S 



574 
548 



50 



60 



500 
480 



450 
426 



70 



400 
384 



80 



960 


852 


768 


640 


548 


480 


844 


778 


700 


584 


500 


438 






442 


372 


314 


2 74 








534 


466 


400 


60 


70 


80 


90 


100 


120 



334 
320 



The weights of all Book paper, including Offset paper, are figured on the basic weight 
of one ream (500 sheets) size 25x38 inches. Thus, the ternn 80 lb. Book paper is the 
weight of one ream, size 25x38 inches. Note the headings of the columns above. 
Writing paper, known as Bond paper, is figured on a basis of one ream (500 sheets), 
size 17x22. 

In using this table, it should be remembered that the figures refer to pages, not leaves 
or sheets. One leaf or sheet represents two pages. 




448 



GRAPHIC PRESENTATION 



paper is called Folding Coated. Also Coated Offset paper has been 
developed and when so termed is suitable for the lithographic 
process. 

Writing or Bond paper as differentiated from Book paper indi- 
cates a sheet made for hardness, crackle, and strength for letter- 
heads, forms, etc., rather than for printing surface and opacity. In 
other words, Book paper is a "filled" sheet to secure printing qual- 
ity and opacity, whereas Bond paper is not "filled" These quali- 
ties are not as important as the other requirements desired in Bond 
Paper. 

In the selection of paper, samples of various suitable papers 
should be obtained from the printer, who best knows the problem 
and can best advise on the selection. The final appearance of the 
finished job should be determined by the making of a dummy to 
demonstrate bulk, opacity, color, strength, etc. Paper sold under 
the manufacturer's brand implies full value, uniformity, and avail- 
ability. 

A more detailed explanation of the factors in selection of paper 
may be found in booklets published by various paper companies: 
S. D. Warren Company , Boston, Mass., "A Workbook for Plan- 
ning Printing" and "Estimator's Book." 
HammerTnill Paper Co., Erie, Pennsylvania. 
Champion Paper & Fibre Co., Hamilton, Ohio. 
American Writing Paper Co., Holyoke, Mass. 



■' •" f 




4- 


-s^ 


P 


w0^ 


k--> 




mSm 


^1 


■L 




Vb^ 


91 


J 


^^b^ 


L 


^^^1^ 


"^P 


1 



Thf Mrad Corporation, Kingtport, Tenn. 

Examination and Inspection of Each Skid Lot of Paper. 



449 



Chapter 53 
BINDING TECHNIQUES 

THE TYPE of binding to be used for a pamphlet or book de- 
pends not only on the size of the pamphlet, but also on the 
final appearance of the binding. If a permanent binding is not 
needed, a simpler binding than that for a reference book might be 
selected. See 451. 

Whether the binding job is large or small, the following speci- 
fications should be given to the binder: 

BINDING SPECIFICATIONS 

Title Headbands 

Quantity Cloth 

No. Pages Leather 

Plates: Boards 

Single Tips Stamping 

To Jacket 

Tissues 

Maps Wraps 

Whipstitch^ Boxes 

Reinforce \ "- " Deliver to 

Tapes When Required 

Linings Charge to 

Trimmed Size Special Instructions 

Edges 

Round and Back 



■ 






GRAPHIC PRESENTATION 



If the book is to have an edition binding, there are a number of 
features that should be considered. See below. 

1. Imposition. See 452A. The binder should be consulted in de- 
termining whether the imposition should allow for folding in 
16- or 32 -page units (signatures) before the book goes to press. 
From a binding standpoint, it is important that the bulk of the 
paper be considered in determining the method of folding and 
that the grain of the paper run the way of the fold. 

2. Inserts. Pages that are printed on different paper from the 
body of a book, such as illustrations, maps, etc., constitute in- 
serts. They are commonly pasted to the text pages. 

3. Reinforcements. The first consideration for strength in the 
joints of the cover is the end papers (the papers pasted to the 
inside of the cover and forming the first page of the book). The 
strength and durability of the binding depend largely upon the 
tearing strength of this paper. Other means of reinforcing are 
"turned ends," "muslin guards," and "cloth joints." 

To secure "turned ends," the end papers are cut about half inch 
larger in width than usual to allow a quarter of an inch stub. 
These stubs are placed around the first and last signatures and 
then pasted down. In sewing, the threads pass through the 
stubs of the end papers as well as the first and last signatures. 





^ 




A uddle wire 
slitchH book 



A side wire slilched book 
(with cover omiHed) 



A side Singer sewed book A Smyth sewed book 
(cover omilte<l) 



Four Forms of Edition Binding. 

The choice of binding depends somewhat on the size of the book or pamphlet. Pamphlets 
and small catalogs require the saddle wire stitching. Books of 64 pages or more 
require the sewed types. 



Li^^iilii...iil.i...iilii...iil 



III-IIIIII'I'IIIII'IJIIII-I'III 



BINDING TECHNIQUES 



451 



"Muslin guards" arc strips of muslin pasted around the first 
and last signatures. The threads pass through the first and last 
signatures as well as the muslin, preventing the threads from 
cutting through the paper. 

"Cloth joints" are obtained by cutting the end paper in two and 
joining it with a strip of harmonizing book cloth. 

4. Covers. The front and back of a cover (or cases) are made of 
two pieces of binders boards. A strip of manila or bogus forms 
the backbone. These are covered with cloth or leather. When 
paper is substituted for cloth, the style is commonly known as 
"bound in boards." 

5. Stamping. This term covers lettering or finishing the cases. 





Flat Bindings. 

1. The advantage of using this ty(>e of binding is that every page is 100% visible and all 

pages lie flat. 

2. Various sizes and shapes of inserts may be used, and no special imposition of page form 

is necessary. 

3. The binding on the left is metal; the one on the right is plastic. A variety of shapes, 

forms, and styles are available. These two were drawn from samples obtained from 
Spiral Binding Company of New York City and Brewer-Cantelmo Co., Inc., of 
New York City. 



I.I ■ ■.I.I ■ I.!.! ■ l.l.l ■ l.l 



452 



GRAPHIC PRESENTATION 



















s 


« 


c 


3 




a 




a 


« 


■ 


■ 


a 




a 




c 


a 


■ 


9 


r 


i B 


a 




8 


> 


■ 


> 




1 B 

r 


B 




a 


a 


a 


a 


9 




3 




• 


s 


s 


c 


B 




a 




• 


8 


3 


c 


8 


s 


8 




3 



A. Printed Imposition Showing the Position of the Numbered Pages. 

1. The first step in binding is to fold the sheets that come from the printer. Because fold- 

ing techniques vary with the binders, before the printing plates are made or 
planned, an imposition showing the position of the pages on one sheet of paper 
should be secured from the binder. 

2. By a "work and turn." type of imposition, one plate is used to print both sides of 

the sheet of paper. Out of one sheet of paper two groups of the same 64 pages are 
obtained. 



B. 




Folding and Numbering the Page Form lor a Boole or Pamphlet. 



If a printed imposition is not available, a sheet of paper may be folded and numbered by 
the binder. By cutting a "V" through all the folded pages it is possible for the 
binder to number the pages without unfolding the sheet, as shown in the illustra- 
tion. Unfolded you have the imposition of form. The numbering of the pages 
when folded is not necessarily in 1-2-3 order. The binder, therefore, should be the 
one to do the numbering. 



PROBLEMS IN THE CREATION OF THIS BOOK 

Ai thi* hooh may hr rrviKd, any tugBrttioni from thr rradrr friativr to (iOMlhtlill«« for im|>rovr- 
mml. rtthrr in make-up or rontrr«t, arr invited. 

The aim of this hook was to srciirr the Kreateit potsihie numhcr of illuitrationt and to 
reduce the text to the minimum. 

A majority of the charts prrarntcd in thu hook were rrilured to fit our page plan. 
The scale notation should therefore he considered if a chart seems too small to be read 
easily. It may be advisable in some instances to use a readmit ((lass. 

Color has been introduced on many charts in which the original was black and white. 
If this has resulted in an accentuation of a part of the chart not intended by the pro- 
ducers, we hope they will understand our difficulty, since enough charts with color were 
not available. 

In our attempt to secure a book of about 500 pages, we found that by printing 32 
pages on one 25" x 38" sheet of paper — 16 pages on each side — we could secure a book of 
512 pages with a 6' x 9" page. There would be 16 such sheets. 

By printing color on one side of each of these 16 sheets, there would be two pages of 
color alternating with two pages of black print. In order to have more than one color on 
several color forms. 24 colorplates were distributed throughout 16 forms. One form, the 
color form of the 14th sheet (pages 417 to 448) has all four colors. The color form of the 
3rd sheet (pages 65 to 96) has three colors. All the others have either one or two colors. 

The four colors used — red, yellow, blue, and green — were selected as the ones that 
could be used to the best advantage in "dressing up" graphic charts. This necessitated 
colors that were strong enough to be used alone and that could also be combined effectively 
with others. Printing was done by Gray Photo-Offset Corporation, New York City. 

The following offset inks of The Fuchs & Lang Manufacturing Company, 100 Sixth 
Avenue. New York City, were used: Red NY-10876. Green # 4697-A6690. Yellow #41 
Litho Ink, Blue #26 Litho Ink. Domino Black Litho Ink. The ink for the end paper was 
Fuchs fls Lang Offset Brown #60 Litho Ink. 

The paper was furnished by Mead Sales Company, New York City. It is Moist rite 
Offset 70 #. The paper for the end papers is Weycroft Ivory 100 #, manufactured by 
W. C. Hamilton dt Sons, Miquon, Pennsylvania. 

The illustration for the end papers was redrawn from a photostat of the original, 
measuring 195^" x 11". 

The topical index (1st half on page 1. 2nd half on page 247), should be noted. The 
tabs on the pages of the book were planned to overlap in order to give a large thumb 
space and yet divide the topical index into only two parts. Bleed-outs on the outside edge 
of the pages were eliminated in order not to conflict with the tabs. 

The flexible covers are Red #700 Fabrikoid. The stamping on the backbone and front 
cover is in Peerless Gold Leaf. The book was bound in 16-page signatures in order that 
the pages would open as flat as possible. 

The color lines at the top and bottom of the pages were designed to differentiate the 
various chapters and to suggest possible borders for use by anyone reading this book. 

The effect of shading on the borders was secured on pages 34, 35, 42, 43, 92, and 93 
and several others, by using Transograph Shading Film DT-60, manufactured by Transo- 
graph Corporation, 30 West 15th Street, New York City. Transograph Shading Film 
DT-60 was also used in the following charts: 47. 82B. 90A, and 366. 

The first letter of the first paragraph in many of the chapters is in one of the follow- 
ing forms: 

See Page 194 See Page 354 See Page 263 ^See Page 286 

DOTS, cir 1^^ lENER ■T' 

base ma tm maps X he term "c [^^/)ne well 

When used in I 1 Interio divided into graphic distri 

applied. Syn photographs a ponent bars in numerical val 

The following type faces and sizes were used in this book: Credit Line — 6 point Book- 
face, Title Line — 10 point Vogue Bold, Comment — 8 point Bookface. Text — 12 point 
Bookface. The type was set on Intertype machines by Allied Typographers. Inc., New 
York City. 



453 




454 



|l' illli ■■■■' illli 'U 




Chapter 54 



From Lfttcrhrad of Shnrp 
AilvrilisiiiK ARrncy. Srattle. Wash. 



GRAPHIC CHARTS IN ADVERTISING 



l^ince graphic charts present an idea clearly and concisely, their 
use in advertising should be encouraged. The utility of graphic 
charts in advertising is clearly demonstrated in this chapter. 

REFERENCES 

Carlyle. Paul, and Guy Oring. Layouts and Letterheads, Mc- 
Graw-Hill Publishing Co., Inc., New York City, 1938. 
Kleppner, Otto, Advertising Procedure. 
Prentice-Hall, Inc., New York, 1938. 



O Yeah! 




Thp Elfctric Storaer Battery Comiiany. Phila- 
delphia. Pa. SCALE .4 

A. The Use of 100% Bar Charts in 
Advertising. 




Success 






THE tmnwM l MW <rf Ac two coki 
liM m^iMMiii pntUM ot our awnf* cImm 
bcfo«v and *hn otcupvinf lh« w«rrho««» ■• 



Tlvr MOi* Mi«««a in*> «ri»oJ vom« 
houad u. • bu*knj oT ou. d~»i>. 
Tb« wcnM doa no* drpcnd upon "t» 



n d t UwW iy pUiM»*d (o«. "nd M iliUiiiMch 
UUunL Ev«T fcoiu™ tkM long «udr •W «H>"- 
«nn h» pnxn piodl.hU lo ihc cWm ■• put imo 
ihc buUnf . ln«*«T\ti«ddtnKih*f*nonr, ormort. 
.fluiid. iMMinJ idrM dr*»to|»«l (f\«n thr tlirni". 



Bl niwvlN*TU |S« you«ndono br«r».»h*n wni 
Ihnk of h>t«n( u—. ~ c.|»»ding. lK.n con-* 

Moorcs 6 Dunford 

744 Finl National bulk 
CKicago.Ill. 



Moorcs & DunforH. ChicaRO, III. SCALE .3 

B. A Proportion Connparison. 

Since the figures in each individual case 
would differ, these bars have no 
scale, but their heights indicate 
the comparison. The ratio is about 
19 to 7. 



Ill Illli Illli l|||l III 



Il" .III. "Ill" .III. "Il 

GRAPHIC CHARTS IN ADVERTISING '^^^ 



The Story Of Three Little Minks 




This Little Mink Went to Joeclcel 




lome 



This Little Mink Stayed at H« 

■lis Little Mink Got too Much Heat 




and now there is only ONE 




JAECKEL Fur Storage costs no 
more than ordinary storage and 
protects you against every risk 

Telephone BRyant 9-8720 
and w will tall for your furs iimtfdiatmly 

Jacckcl Fur Storagr. New York. SCALE .6 

Graphic Narrative. 

This simple graphic narrative which was printed in a small folder tells its story convincingly, 
chiefly because of the use of the illustrations. 



Ill Mill iih, iiiii III 



456 



GRAPHIC PRESENTATION 




Stevrni Hotel, Chicago, III. 

A Guide Map. 

Note that just enough points of interest are given on this map to locate the hotel 



SCALE .6 



GRAPHIC CHARTS IN ADVERTISING 



457 



WHY 

Any lO-Year Old Locomotive is inadequate 



WHAT HAS HAPPENED TO 

HORSE POWE R 



19 14 



475 H. P. 

p«f drivinf •«!( 



192 4 



575 H. P. 

p«r drivinf txlc 



WHAT HAS HAPPFNED TO 

FUEL CONSUMPTION 



19 3 4- 



OVER 1,000 H. P. 

p«r drivinj axU 



19 14 




6^ LBS. COAL 

p«r drawbar koncpowar 



1924 



5 LBS. COAL 

par drawbar kortapowar 



19 34- 



A 



3 LBS. OR LESS 

par drawbar hooapew* 



DO rapid has been the advance of locomotive design that not a 
single locomotive in this country over ten years old can begin to 
hold its own with the really up-to-date power plant on wheels 
known as the Super-Power locomotive. 

LIMA LOCOMOTIVE WORKS 

JNCORPORATED 




Lima Locomotive Works Inc.. Lima. Ohio. 



SCALE .6 



Volume Representations. 



|l" .Ilia "III" .III. "11 

GRAPHIC PRESENTATION 



OOVfllllMENT P«V ROUS HP! 



UOtER^MEl^I nt RltllR 8T4BIEI 



taati 


m 








/ 
















wtmi 


go 


/ 


\ 


/ 


/ 


8 
1 

10 




























*^ 


/ 


\ 


/ 





JUNI JULT AUC UPT OCT NOV OIC 

CHART B 



PERSPECTIVE 



& 



'HART A appeared in a recent acivcrtisement 
advocating advertising in Washington, D. C. Chart B is our own chart 
based on exactly the same figures. Both arc correct as far as arithmetic 
is concerned. The only difference, but what a difference, is the vertical 
scale. If Chart A went down to zero at the bottom, as does Chart B, it 
would be sixty inches high, but the exaggerated scale makes good adver- 
tising copy. By the same process, even a payroll increase of .oopoi per 
cent could be made to look 'ike the side of the Washington monument. 

The problem is not limited to statistical charts. The scale or 
standard against which one measures events makes a tremendous differ- 
ence. The optimist compares present standards of living with those a 
century ago, and glories in the gains. The next man sets the present 
against 1929, or even 1936, and is subject to moderate melancholia. The 
pessimist takes our potentials as his standard, and weeps over our great 
failures to realize them. Each one starts with the same facts but sets them 
in a different perspective. It is the old struggle against exaggeration or 
deprecation. Perhaps the best one can do is to try to keep always in 
mind which end of the telescope he is looking into. 



U/*^"^ <<■ ^=^^Cr^ 



r 



Dim's Rfvirw for May 1038 

Two Charts Illustrating the Importance of a Zero Line. 



SCALE 5 



III 'III' Hill Mill Hi 



Il" .III. "Ill" .III. "Il 

GRAPHIC CHARTS IN ADVERTISING 



459 




LOOK TO TOUR SALES MILEAGE 



Tha topmott map npnaunit America at il }ooka when ttattt are drawn in proportion to butintu trantacfed. Mulual'i 
•//ectiV* covera0« cu«a (tbown ia bJack) twtlh doubJe in tarmt of tola* — quick yardttick of productive broadcoMting. 



In th* concsntrated area east oi the Missiuippi valley, 40% 
of the country's square mileage yields 80% of the nation's 
business (and encircles 78% of the nation's radio listeners). 
Here, deep in Mutual territory, is by far the richest sale* 
mileage in America. 

The Mutual Broadcasting System is the only ma)or network 
deliberately organized for low-cost coverage of this highly 
profitable area. Mutual is the only network whose basic 
stations are all of super-power and whose station locations 
oMiure freedom from costly over-lapping coverage. 

The resulting economies, for coverage of the richest sales 
mileage in America, explain why advertisers use Mutual, bcih 
alone and in conjunction with other network activities— why 



47 sales-scientists in the past nine 
$1,180,722 in Mutual facilities 



nths have invested 



And Mutual expands at a touch. You may enlist as many, 
or as few, extra stations as you may require for sales em- 
phasis or market extension. 

We shall be glad to tell you of resuIlM achieved by clients 
who have looked to Mutual for Males mileage . . . Costs? 
Mutual's comprehensive planning makes available these low 
basic rates un|}aralleled in major network history: 

One half hour night for 52 weeks $90,000 

Five quarter hours day for 26 weeks .... S75,000 
Three quarter hours night for 13 weeks . . $50,000 
One half hour night for 13 weeks $25,000 



THE MUTUAL BROADCASTING 

America's Newest Major Network 



8TSTEM 



orricss! cmcaoo. tsisumi Towts-wair • 

DITSOIT ■ WIIIDSOS. SADIO S T * T I O ■■ C X 1 W 



IIW Tots 1440 ■SOADWAT-I 
BOSTON. TANKIl N I T W O S K 



S • ClMCIMMATI. SADIO STATIOM WLW 
riTTSSUSOH. SAOIO STATIOM WCAi 



I 



Thr Mutual BroadcastinK Syttrm. 

A Comparison of a Distorted Map and an Actual Map. 



SCALE .6 



III Mill iill, illli III 



460 



GRAPHIC PRESENTATION 



Why Your Electric Light Bills Vary 

The Rruoci Wkr RmmWdIi^ Lifhtinc Bdli 
ar« Higher ia December Uutn in June 




People Ute EJectric Light Nearly Four and One Half 
Time* a* Long in December a* Tliey Do in June 

Thii chart divides the 24 hours of a day into three periods — the 
period of ileep, the period of using Elcctnc Light and the period 
of dajrlight 

Public Service Company of Northern Illinois. 

SCALE .5 

A. A Component Part Chart. 



UPHILL— 

WITH DOWNHILL SPEED! 




Bakers'Helper 

TMi FIRST 



@ 



Bakers' Helper, Chicago. III. 

B. A Growth Curve. 



SCALE .5 



BUSH TERMINAL UnlaUUh^ Its a CITY 

— An Induttriol dty whar* monufacturart ond dltttibuton can cut cost* In hoH orvd wh«r« ainclanclM multiphr MrfM o^porfvnHtM 



IkjO Bush Terminal IS not o butldmg 
' ^ onyWior* than N«w York iio ilreel. 
Imogin* t«n millon iquar« fa*! of floor 
sooc* devoted completely to the mon- 
ufacture, warehousing and distribution 
of m«rchondise M you find it difficult 
to picture that much floor tpac*. Ihmk 
of it OS a twenty-foot 
itrlp of ttoor that 
would r»och o hun- 
dred milM. 

6wth Terminol is not 
a building but a city 
of butldingi . Not ordi- 
nory loftt - but new 
types of (ndustnol 
buildings They may 
w«llb«call«dtndustri- 




al oparimenl houses, for they provide 
economies ond conveniences for man- 
ufacturing or distributing merchandise 
thai ore OS carefully planned and exe- 
cuted as the economiesond convenien 
ces of your dwelling oportment house 
To tell all the story of Bush Terminol 
would be to tell 
hundreds of stories 
about hundreds of 
prominent manufac- 
turers and distributors 
who hove used Bush 



Mom <«»Ii *nd »w*fc w»r«w* M^i and »roill« 



efficiency or enlarged soles. ond efficie 

You ore interested only In your busi- There is no 
ness — your economies — your efficien- your request 
cies and your enlarged soles. Bush billty we will 
Terminal momtams 
a staff of industrial 
engineers who ore 
conjtontly fitting 
Bush Terminal facili- 
iies to individuol 
and specific needs. 
Why not talk obout 
your business to one 



Bush T« 



neel 



hundreds of real 
problems. In each of 
these instances the re- 
sults were economy. 



of these trained men, 
and lei us help you 
determine the eitent 
to which you can 
effect economy 



THESE Wdl KNOWN nOOOCTS 

ore monufoctured or wore- 

hovied ot— or distributed 

from Bush Tenninol 



► cxMirms 

•nCNNUT COffff 

f sncn • tiur oirvis 
Mt MOMTI cofm 
Miaoiss kAnffus 



ncy 

cost, no obligotion. At 
but on Our own responti- 
conduct o free Industriol 
Survey of your 
business. If our 
suggestions ore of 
volue. adopt them. 
if you wish tf not. 
discard them. 
wRiTCKMDcscarTnn 

liKtATUtf on Mon. 
ufacture Ware- 

housing or Oistrlbu- 
hon or set o lime 
at which a Bush 



BUSH TERMINAL COMPANY 

MelropolDon (ocililiei for DISTRIBUTION. WAREHOUSING AND MANUFACTURING 
Ixaoitlva Offkaat 100 tread Str*«t, Naw York 

P<eri, Sldingt. Worehouwi, Truck Depot and Monufocturiog loflt on New Yofi Boy 



ndut 



■ ot exper 



moy trierview you 



Bush Terminal Company. New York City. 

C. An Inverse Relationship Curve. 



GRAPHIC CHARTS IN ADVERTISING 



461 



5 



we're y^/ there's been a DEPRESSION 




H. 



LONE^ST. ytt «rel Hcrr'n why. 
FalliniE mIct ^hakr people up. They're willing 
lo ilo thinf:* differenlly. They'll liolen lo new, 
Mlen-buildini; ideati. 

ir« actually a prat time to iarf;e ahead. 
Some of our cuctomer* have been doinf; ju*t 
that. Ilerr'n how: 

Bv cnrrjul rrarardi lhr> dLwttr the nmi for 

nrt tfUing poinu in thrir product. Thr> re- 

dniffi. fTr arr aiked /or nru and more al- 

troctifr finiahn. A hntrr pmdurt rtnrrffa. 

And a SELLS — tUs today! 

Of course buaineM ri|;ht now i« not all it mi(:ht 

be. But you thould aee the unall order* pour- 

in|[ in here! They're Mmple», really . . . Ki- 

peninent» . . . Progrnal There are good times 

and belter aalea ahead (or thoac people who 

are thmkinf out and wnrkinf out belter way* 

of finixhinf; their pniductt. 



.\re you |;oing lo |tel your *h»rr in the next 
periocl of prosperity? Will vtju he glad for the 
drprcMiion? Maybe we can help you to be. 
Call in tlie nearest Kgyptian man and gel his 
advice. No obligation, of course. It may lum 
the tide for vou. 

"Kpyptian Lacquer" in listnl in the phone 
boiiku of the following cilien: 



\rHNTA 


KANSAS CITY 


BOSTON 


UW ANGELES 


Bl KFAU> 


PHILADELPHIA 


CHICAGO 


PORTLAND. ORF_ 


CINCINNATI 


SAN FR\NCISCO 


CLEVELAND 


SEATTLE 


DALLAS 


SPOKANE 


DjrTRorr 


ST. LOIIS 



In .Veu' York, call ihr Advrrtisinf Drpl. at 
the home iifficr. 

TIIK K<;YfTIAN LAiylKK MKG. tX). 
90 West Slreet . New York Qly 



I 



The Egyptian Lac<)uer Mfg. Co., New York City. 

An Action Curve. 



SCALE 6 



462 



||| .III. ■iiii .III. Ill 



GRAPHIC PRESENTATION 



lii4UA«»0ll« 
Si Louit 

WkhltA 

Clevb 

Albl*4v«fQiiC 

Wlmlow 




iwiiimiiiuiiiiimiiuiimiiiiimmiimiimiiimiiiiiiiuiiiiiii . 



I » I ( I « II 



.nBimnniHHiinmnuiiimiim 
uwimniiiimDiimiuumuiiiimiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiuhinpim^^^ 




Airports — A Market 



EVERYTHING that goes up has to 
come down. So airports are quite 
essentia! to the aviation industry. 
But if you think of an airport as a nice 
muddy field olTering a soft landing spot 
for airplanes, or even if you know what 
an airport really looks like, you ought to 
be interested in the accompanying chart. 
It shows the progress made on a baker's 
dozen of flying fields undertaken by mu- 
nicipalities or ijrivate airport operators. 

A glance at this chart should convince 
almost any manufacturer that the airport 
is a field — not a muddy field, but a field 



for his products — perhaps a field which 
he has completely overlooked in his search 
for new markets. 

Reproduced from "Plane Talk", which 
is published by Transcontinental Air 
Transport, Incorporated, the chart shows 
the various steps all the way from selec- 
tion of site to completed airport. And it 
gives more than an inkling of the airport's 
demands from the manufacturer. Inci- 
dentally, when all the units can be shown 
in black TAT will bepn operations. 

Are you, as a maker of equipment 
adapted to airports, missing any bets? 



Transcontinrntnl and Writtrn Air. Inc.. N. Y. C. SCALE .7 

A Progress Chart. 

Seldom does one find a chart as complicated as this in an advertisement. This one was 
found in a technical journal. 



Ill l|||l lllh lllll III 



|l> .III. Mil' .ill. Ill 

GRAPHIC CHARTS IN ADVERTISING 



463 



TME TREND TODAY IS TO GAS 



fF 



AjiJL 




FOR BROODING CHICKS 




Amrrican Gai Assn., Nrw York City. 



Two Methods of Presenting the Same Trend Curve for DifFerent Types of 
Advertising. 

The curve at the top was used as part of an advertisement for promoting the use of gas 
for brooding chicks. The one at the bottom was used in a beauty shop "ad." 



BLACKBOARDS 

Blackboards may be used to display graphic charts. White 
blackboards on which black chalk is used are now available. 
Swinging panels and easel blackboards also aid in exhibiting infor- 
mation. 

Sources: 

New York Silicate Book Slate Company, New York City. 

Weber Costello Company, Chicago, Illinois. 

White Blackboard Company. Elgin. Illinois. 

Bulletin boards are especially useful since material may be 
tacked up temporarily. Two manufacturers of bulletin board 
material are; 

Armstrong Cork Company, Inc., Lancaster. Pennsylvania. 

The Celotex Corporation, Chicago. Illinois. 



I 



III i||l> illii illli ill 



464 




Chapter 55 
QUANTITATIVE CARTOONS 



raphic charts may be used effectively in cartoons. 



REFERENCES 

Briggs, How to Draw Cartoons, Harper edition, 1926. Garden 

City edition, 1937. 
Byrnes, Gene, How to Draw Comics and Commercial Art, Bridg- 

man, Pelham, New York, 1939. 
Thorndike, Chuck, The Secrets of Cartooning, House of Little 

Books, New York, 1936. 
Thorndike, Chuck, The Art of Cartooning, House of Little 

Books, New York, 1937. 



95.104 



ALL ACCIDENTAL DEATHS /attm.s pate 



(Kl THK OMITtO STA,TtS 

99,300 
96.258 



1928 1929 1950 

American Mutual Liability Insurance Co., Boiton. 




1911 



I9S2 



The Safety Movement Sawing OfF Accidental Deaths in the United States. 



QUANTITATIVE CARTOONS 



465 




"During this period ire couldn^t even afford ireic" 



Copyricht. April 1938. by E»quire-Coronet, Inc. 

A New Low. 



SCALE .7 



466 



GRAPHIC PRESENTATION 



fe 7 e 9 lO n 11 13 14 13 It) 17 16 19 20 11 22 2J 24 



GOOD 



A 



BAD 



AWFUL I 



vV- 








i 


►(^ 


f«^ 








7* 








-- 


"--' 


^ 








-J 


^ 


i 



0, 



^ 




i*^ 



ANinAGRAPH (ANIAVJXD GRAPH) SJ^X-.nSy .'LU LPFECTS <-F BUSINESS rLUCIUAnCNS. ^sS^w- 



Nation's Business, Cartoonist — Charles Dunn. 

A. Ill Effects of Business Fluctuations. 



SCALE .6 




^ <^ %^ 



Rrdi.iwii From N<w Yoikrr. F.Ltii;iry iO. 19.M. Original by Kii hard Drrlcrr. 

B. The Universality of the Graphic Chart Language. 



QUANTITATIVE CARTOONS 



467 




Jtttt iround iKc co<ntt 



Thf Nfw Yorkrr 

A. The Search for Prosperity. 



SCALE 7 



too 



90 



80 



xlO 



acSO 



>40 



30 



zo 



♦ 



^ 



y 



I 



i 




Sufficiency-Curve- 



a 



I 



10 

HAi.rL»AD' 



Bkcu 

B. A "Sufficiency" Curve 



i» 



20 

•Puu. LoAl' 



30 

'Ovt>.L«A»' 



468 



GRAPHIC PRESENTATION 



The Professional "Liberar 




New York Herald Tribune, Cartooniit — Darling. SCALE .8 

How Our Dollar Would Look If Indirect Taxes Were Actually Removed. 



QUANTITATIVE CARTOONS 



469 




I 



New York World-Tflegram, Cartoonist — WiU B. Johnitone. 

Curves of Emotions. 



SCALE 9 



The news item which accompanied this cartoon read: "Emotions mapped by new geography, 
charts of colored lines show likes and dislikes of individuals and groups for each 
other." 



470 



GRAPHIC PRESENTATION 








^ 



' — ' 



m 





Lifr 



SCALE .7 



It's All in How You Look at a Thing. 



QUANTITATIVE CARTOONS 



471 



SPECIME.V AT THE WASHINGTON ZOO 




The Los Ansflfs Times — Cartoonist — Russell. 

A. Big and LiHie Business View With Alarm a New Species of Industrial Curve. 




PERPETUAL MOTION AT LAST 



472 



GRAPHIC PRESENTATION 




^ < 




QUANTITATIVE CARTOONS 



473 



INJURY FRE.QUENCY AND SEVERITY RATES IN 
ALL INDUSTRIES 

noiSKr. ^«»^*•^oo Axes^p;;^ 




1924 



1927 



19 2& 



1929 



I930 



H3I 



1932 



American Mutual Liability Insurance Co. , Boaton . 



A. A Carfoon Showing the Importance of Keeping the Lines Representing "Injury 
Frequency" and "Severity Rates" in Industry Close Together. 




sold anoth«r hcMiborg^r" 

ThJa Week, Cartoonist — Henry Boltinoff. 

B. The Use of Charts in ''Business." 



\ 



GRAPHIC PRESENTATION 




"It's only a crack in the wall, but it looked 
so good I had a frame put around it" lawrfnce iari*r 



CoIIirr't Magazinr. 

The Efficiency Expert. 



Chapter 56 
QUANTITATIVE POSTERS 




475 




LTHOUGH all the charts in this cliaptcr did not appear in 
their original form as posters, the ronstructiou and layf)Ut of 
the charts are such that tliey could be used as posters. 



REFERENCES 

Richmond. Leonard, The Technique of the Poster, Isaac Pitman 
& Sons. New York and London. 1M3.S. 




Sieel Workers and 

Families in the 

UNITED STATES 



UNITED STATES 

TOTAL POPULATION 




FRANCE 



GERMANY 



TOTAL POPULATION I TOTAL POPULATION TOTAL POPUUTION 




American Iron and Strcl Inttitutr. N. Y. C. 

A Quantitative Poster Showing a Comparison of Car Ownership in 1937. 

Quantitative material may be presented in posters with great success. Although the quan- 
titative presentation in this poster is not absolutely correct, the general idea that 
steel workers and families in the United States have more automobiles is easily 
obtained. 



I 



476 



GRAPHIC PRESENTATION 

UNDERWOOD ELLIOTT FISHER SUPPLIES 
Will Speed Your Business — and Reduce Cost 



CO ST of CO R tP P O N D E N C E 

7int Qwalitif Ihbboiu & Garbons 



M)l*i 



PROVEN COST OF 
1000 LETTEflS 

^KtaHon ....WS.OO 

Shorthand 80.00 

OuetheaJ 3 7.53 

SMioneri^ 26.80 

CMa,/,n<f 24.50 

cFi/in^ 6.00 

%Uons & 

Qarboru ...1.60 

$301.63 




This Chart Tells the Story - Look at It NOW! 

Underwood Elliott Fither Company. New York City. SCALE .6 

A Building Used as a 100% Bar Chart. 

The danger in using a building for a 100% bar is that the eye compares volume as well 
as height. Thus while the height of the 41% area in this building is correct in rela- 
tion to the height of the 2 7% area, the volume of the first makes the proportion 
wrong. 



QUANTITATIVE POSTERS 



477 



•r«n4 IU^Mb.M 




United Statn Gypaum Co., Chicago. III. 

A Home Made Bulletin Giving a Connparison of the Accident Rates in Eighteen 
Mills in 1924. 



478 



GRAPHIC PRESENTATION 



IF an accident occurs while your 
car is traveling* under 4oMlLB$ AN HOUR 
there is onlyONt CHANCE (N 44 ffiat 
someoTie iviil be killed 




4afi%. 6>ai^ «afiM^ ffiii^ 



■SH^^ 




^ip"^ fl*"^ <8ap«^ik 9P^^ 

Ir an accident occurs while your 

car is traveling- over 4o MILES AN hour 

there is ONE CHANCE IN 19 l/iat someone 

wi/l 6e killed . . • CT> . , a i 

DEATH /)ecrzns all\0/ 



Triivrlrr* Imtininrr CompHny. Hartford, Conn. SCALE .7 

Death Begins at Forty. 

The combination of color with the automobiles and speedometer make this an effective 
method of presenting the idea that "death begins at forty." 



QUANTITATIVE POSTERS 



470 




DIVERTED 
FROM 
HIS«WAY 
TAXES IN 

1937 



Aiitomoliilr Manufarturrrs Association. New York. 



A. The Use of a Broken Dollar in a Poster to Indicate the Portion of the Dollar 
Which Was Diverted fronn Highway Taxes in 1937. 



HOW NEW VORK CITY U5ES ITS LAND 





BROOKLYN 




QUEENS 

\nOlilfeSIDeMTiML 



(iREATER NLW YORK R ICHMO ND 

\lttSIDlHTIPL ["|,|i ; V <»»yj /INQ CtMCTtnttS \ \ v»CANT t«Hb 



I 



The Nfw York Time*. 

B. How New York City Used Its Land in 1936. 



SCALE K 



480 



GRAPHIC PRESENTATION 



Ordiiuir>- and Kmcrftcnrv Nffd» That Call For an Outlay of Ten Billions Thi» Year and Six Billioae 
Next — The Rrvenues Expected, the Borrowing Required. an<l the F,ffm on the National Debt 




The New York Timet. 

A. Balancing the Budget for the Fiscal Years 1933-34 and 1934-35. 



SCALE .8 




National Folk Festival Aitociation, Wathington. D. C. 

B. A Folk Festival Bulletin. 



SCALE .8 



This map was used in various forms as an advertisement for the fifth annual Folk Festival 
held in Washington, D. C, in May 1938. Twenty-seven states participated. 



QUANTITATIVE POSTERS 

FARM PURCHASING POWER NEARS '29 TOP 



481 




The Chartmnkrrt. Nrw York Cily 

A. Farm Purchasing Power From 1929 Through 1937. 



SCALE .s 




ri 



Ainrn. Ill Iron ,..i,l Sl« < 1 InMiMilr NYC 

B. Educational Preparation of Steel Workers in 1938. 



482 



GRAPHIC PRESENTATION 



INCIUOINO THt HUMOROUS TRIOITION AND FEATURES OF ■ ^ X jL K^^ 




JudRr iiikI Lifr Matsazinr. 

A Mountain Made Out of an Increase. 

A curve chart is easily imagined as a series of hills and valleys. By putting the points in 
a curve, a mountain can be formed as in this cartoon. The original of this cartoon 
was in colors. 



QUANTITATIVE POSTERS 



483 



THE SSZHRDAY 
EVJy 




Rrprodurrd by Sprcial Permission of The Saturday EvcninR Post. CopyriRht 1932. by The Curtis 
Publishing Company 

The New Year Forecasts the Future. 

At a time when the public is thinking in terms of increase or decrease of business, a car- 
toon utilizing curves attracts attention and carries meaning. This drawing capitalized 
on that fact. 



I 



484 



GRAPHIC PRESENTATION 



CHART OF ACCIDENTS 




cfown thisl/ne! 



Amrrican Mutual Liability Insurance Co., Boston, Mass. 

A Simple Curve Used in a Poster. 

The idea that curves represent man's actions is vividly portrayed here. According to correct 
procedure in a poster, there are few details given, and the lines are heavy. The 
original poster was in black, red, and white, and measured 11" by 17". 



QUANTITATIVE POSTERS 



485 



CHARLESTON 

THE PORT OF NO DELy^^^T. 



MINIMUM HOURS OF FOG 




PROXIMITV TO OPEN SEA 



STRATEGIC LOCATION 



HARBOR FREE FROM ICE 



SPECIAL.IZED SERVICE 



AN AVERAGE OF 
ONLY 38 MINUTE9 
OF FOO PER DAY 
POR TEN YEARS 



o 




30 MINUTES 
FROM BAR TO 
BETRTH 



.:di£i 



1 I I I 



lO BO so 

rtro 



SHORTEST AVER- 
AGE OCEAN HAUL 
TO PRINCIPAI- 
KEY PORTS 




TO SHIP THROUGH CHARLESTON - 
15 TO SHIP WITH EXPEDITION | 

Bureau of Forrign Trade and Port Development. Charle»(on, South Carolina. 

A Poster Used in a Campaign to Secure Greater Use of the Port of Charleiton, 
South Carolina. 



486 



'V'f.\ 



Chapter 57 
DISPLAYS AND EXHIBITS 



■fc— I — HEN properly planned, a display becomes a salesman for 
^A/ its sponsor. The value of a good display is tested by its 
,JE_?L-. ability to draw buyers to it and in turn tell them a complete 
and convincing sales story. Graphic charts make an effective tool 
to use as part of a display. 

Interesting problems in large scale displays were brought to the 
fore during the construction of exhibits at the New York World's 
Fair, 1939. The turntable in the Ford Building weighing 152 tons 
with its exhibit was so heavy that a major foundation problem was 
involved. The solution was to float the turntable on a circular 
moat filled with 20,000 gallons of water. The turntable is revolved 
by a two horsepower electric motor. 

The "futurama" of General Motors is the largest scale model 
animated diorama ever constructed. The 35,538 square-foot 
panorama is a conception of America and its highways in 1960 




Gardner Display* Company, Pittsburgh. Pennsylvania. 

Mechanical Exhibit of the National Tube Company. 

This display tells how seamless pipe is pierced from solid steel. The rolling and piercing 
operation is shown in the center of the display. 



DISPLAYS AND EXHIBITS 



487 




Gardner Ditplayt Company, Pittsburgh. Pennsylvania. 

A. Scale Model of a Plant. 

This model of a Bethlehem Steel heat treating plant was built for industrial shows. 
A synchronized voice explains operations of the model. 




Gardnrr Displays Co.. Pittsburgh. Pennsylvania. 

B. Exhibit of the National Cash Register Company at the Business Show of 1938 in 
New York City. 

This small stage was six feet ten inches wide, six feet five inches high, and four feet 
seven inches deep. The characters were approximately twenty inches high. A 
sound mechanism controlled the action and voice of each of the five men. At the 
Business Show, an eight minute playlet was re-enacted. 



E 



488 



GRAPHIC PRESENTATION 




Factory Managemrnt and Maintenance. July 1938. SCALE .7 

A. Big-Scale Model of the Plymouth Motor Corporation Plant at Detroit. 

Even drinking fountains are shown on the big board where Plymouth lays out to scale 
its 1,110,620 square feet of plant. 




New York Herald Tribune 



B. The Use of a Model Fighter to Familiarize British Students at the Royal Naval 
College, Dartmouth, with Sea Terms. 



DISPLAYS AND EXHIBITS 



489 



Luminous paint first used as a medium for magic is now being 
used by industry for display and exhibit purposes. At the New 
York World's Fair. 1939, this paint, which is luminous only under 
ultra-violet light, gives the effect of illumination in the night scene 
in the Perisphere. is on the stars and underground cable lines in 
the Consolidated Edison "City of Light" and illuminates the night 
scene in the General Motors Building. These are just a few of the 
many places at the Fair in which this ultra-violet paint has been 
applied. 

Sources: 

Stroblite Company. New York City 




Baltimore and Ohio Railway Company. Baltimorr. Md. SCALE .6 

Photomural Covering the Entire Wall of the B. & O. Ticket OfRce and Travel Bureau 
in Rockefeller Center, New York City. 

1. This picture is 35 feet long and 16 feet high. It was enlarged from a panoramic 

20 inch negative and required 12 forty-inch strips, each strip 17 feet long in 
order to avoid horizontal seams. 

2. The picture shows B. & O.'s streamline Royal Blue crossing Thomas Viaduct, nine miles 

west of Baltimore, on the route to Washington. In the foreground is the little 
"grasshopper" locomotive — the Atlantic (built in 1832) — hauling the Imlay coaches. 



I 



490 



GRAPHIC PRESENTATION 




A. Schedule Board. 

This display fixture is in production con- 
trol headquarters of the Pneumatic 
Scale Corporation, Ltd., Quincy, 
Massachusetts. Charts are lifted 
out by the production clerk for 
day-by-day posting. 



Factory Management and Maintenance, Febru- 
ary. 1938. SCALE .5 




Installing photomurals in the Ford Rotunda building at Dearborn, Michigan — the largest 
photographs in the world. 



Kaufmann & Fabry Co., ChicaRo. 

B. Photomurals. 



SCALE 7 



Photomurals are enormous photographic enlargements which are hung to walls much in 
the same manner as wall paper. 



DISPLAYS AND EXHIBITS 



491 




Mutlipl" Display Fixliirr Cnmpnny, St. Louis, Missouri. 

A. Wall Pivot Display. 

1. This display fixture has twenty-four display surfaces, each with six-square feet of 

display area. Material may be either fastened to the board, with thumb-tacks or 
posted permanently. 

2. Multiplex displays work on the principle of a loose-leaf book except that the swinging 

wing-panels are considerably larger. Material may be posted on each side. In this 
way charts, graphs, etc., are shown in full. They are smooth, flat, and always 
available for quick reference. 

3. If necessary any display wing-panels may be removed from the fixture, taken to a 

desk where work may be done on the posted material. The entire display is easily 
returned to its place in the fixture. 





S|>rrdway Manufacturing Co . Cicrro. Illinois. 

B. Electric Motor Driven Turntables. 

1. The turntable on the left operates on an A.C. line and has a five-pound capacity. 

The platform measures 11^". 

2. The turntable on the right may be obtained for either A.C. or D.C., and has a 500-pound 

capacity. No platform is provided. 

3. These tables may be used for every type of display. 



I 



492 



GRAPHIC PRESENTATION 




A. Battery-Driven Turntable. 

This turntable when equipped with three 
batteries will turn fifteen pounds 
of display material for 700 hours. 
The table has interchangeable 
discs, one 5' i" and the other 8'/a ". 



Flrisrhrr & Co.. and Aristo lm|>ort Co.. Inc. 
Nrw York City. Di-itritnitnrs 




Diorama Cori>oration of America. Long Island City. New York. 

B. Plastic Relief Map in the Exhibit of the Pan American Union at the New 
York World's Fair. 1939. 

1. This map is constructed of transparent plastic, phenolic resin base, and is lighted from 

beneath. The map is made in twenty-nine individual panels, modeled from United 
States topographical maps. 

2. The size of the map is 27 feet deep and 20 feet wide. It slopes from a height of 10 

feet from the Canadian portion in the rear to 8 inches to South America in the fore- 
ground. 

3. This map was designed to show primarily the interdependence of North and South 

America in regard to transportation and communication. 

4. There is approximately six hundred feet of neon tubing, nine-tenths of which is under- 

neath the map. Over one hundred principal cities are shown by lights. 



DISPLAYS AND EXHIBITS 



493 



T«f tf lIHItll or* 



Iktl wrALL ^ 




Courtrty of RnymoncI Locwy. Drsicntr. Nrw York City. 

A. Sketch of the Service Exhibit of the Eastern Presidents' Conference Division of 
the American Association of Railroads, in the Railroad Building at the New 



York World's Fair. 1939. 



1. This exhibit will be a graphic chart in the form of a huge mirror showing the decline 

of revenues in comparison with rising expenditures of the American Railroads. 
The following title will appear on the chart: "Revenues are constantly decreasing 
and taxes, wages, and overhead are constantly increasing." 

2. Starting at 1922 a neon light will move to the right and up along the face of the 

chart up to 19.18. This line represents the increase in expenditures. When this 
line is completed, pictures will emerge from the back of the mirror in the sections 
marked "transparencies," showing the improvement in services on the railroads. 

3. Following this the contrasting neon line will move down, and two "transparencies" 

will emerge on the face of the mirror — the comparison of old and new service. 



- • « 


^ 


HOW MACHINt TO 




\M 


Xa*^:-JL#| 


"i ' *■ — — — ■ 


BV^-C t-1 




is 





Drsienrd and Buill hy Victor M Clark & Staff. New York City 

B. An Exhibit of the National Machine Tool Builders' Association, Cleveland, Ohio, 
at the Museum of Science and Industry in New York City. 



I 



494 




Chapter 58 
DIORAMAS 



jJQl diorama is a life-like, three-dimensional representation in 
miniature. It is capable of reproducing any scene, sometimes em- 
ploying sound and motion. The general visual effect of a diorama 
is similar to that which the observer gets when looking in or out 
of a window onto the actual scene. 

A diorama, or a series of dioramas, is used principally as the 
focal point of an exhibit, such as a world's fair exhibit, traveling 
display, window or industrial museum. 







The M;irrhan(l Dinramn Cotji , Mt Vrrnon. N. Y. 

Diorama of the Columbia Steel Company, Subsidiary of the U. S. Steel Company, 
Under Construction in the Marchand Studio. 

This diorama was part of an exhibit at the Golden Gate Exposition in San Francisco. 



DIORAMAS 



495 



DIORAMA IN PLACE 



PLATE (3iLA$S 



LINE OF DIRECT IMAGE 
TUNNEL 




U S. Dfpnrlmcnt of Acricultiirc. Bureau of Public Ro;ul». 

A. Sketch Illustrating the Reflecting Device for the Historical Dissolving Diorama 
Exhibit Illustrating 400 Years of Highway Development in America from 1539 
to 1939. 

Eacli of the dioramas is six I'nchcs in dcptli. To secure tlie apjiearance of a third dimension 
in tliis sniall space, the lin'ires were molded on the face of a curved piece of tin. 




Uniird Sl.ntct Stcrl Cori>oration. N< w Y.dk City. 

B. Chart in the Entrance of the United States Steel Subsidiaries' Exhibit at the New 
York World's Fair. 1939. 

1. This chart shows tlie growth in the use of steel per capita in the United States from 

the time of George Washington. In 1789, the use per capita was one-half pound. 
In 19J9. the use per capita is 19,000 pounds or 9', j tons. 

2. The indispensability of steel in modern times is the theme of the huge mural seen in 

the background. Thin sheets of steel were hammered into miniature buildings, 
bridges, tools, horses, tractors, streamliners, airplanes, and automobiles, and were 
mounted on a background of plain blue steel. 



I 



496 



GRAPHIC PRESENTATION 



Dioramas can be constructed to almost any size. The average 
would probably run between four and eight feet in length, two and 
four feet in depth, and four and eight feet in height. The depth, 
therefore, is usually half the length. 

About 3,600 dioramas including cut-outs, models, and other 
forms giving the three dimensional effect were used in exhibits 
at the New York World's Fair, 1939. The price range is from $50. 
to $150,000. 

Due probably to the impetus of business from the New York 
World's Fair, 1939. the diorama business has expanded tremen- 
dously. Two years ago there was one company specializing in 
diorama design and construction. Today there are twenty- five 
active in the field. J 




Consolidated Edison Company of New York, Inc. 

The "City of Light" Diorama at the New York World's Fair. 1939. 

1. This diorama is the exhibit of the Consohdated Edison Company of New York. It is 

almost a city block long and is taller than a three-story building. Four thousand 
buildings with more than 130,000 lighted windows are included. An eight-foot 
space beneath the street level demonstrates the city's network of subways and 
electric, gas, and steam mains. 

2. In the illustration above, the semi-circular wall of the building is quite apparent. It 

was especially constructed to house this diorama. 



Chapter 59 / 




497 



GRAPHIC CHARTS IN CONFERENCE ROOMS 



X he display characteristic of graphic charts makes them valuable 
for use in conference rooms. In some cases, the conference room is 




Automobilr Manufacturer* Association. Washington. D. C, "Automobile Facts." February 1939. 

The Use of a Pin Map fo Indicate Changing Tastes by States in Autonnoblle Colors 
Month by Month ih the United States. 

1. Differences in color preferences over a period of time and in different sections make it 

necessary for color experts to study fashion trends in order to anticipate changing 
demand. 

2. More than 40% of the New England drivers and only 16% of the motorists in the South- 

west elect black cars. 

3. Light hues predominate in California, while Washington and Oregon go in for dark 

tones. 

4. Blue is No. 1 choice in the prairie states, although black tops that color in the states 

immediately to the east. 



I 



498 



■|| 



■|| 



■|| 



GRAPHIC PRESENTATION 



constructed so that graphic charts may become a part of the gen- 
eral plan. In others, the display of graphic charts is made possible 
by means of lantern slide projectors. The display fixtures explained 
in the preceding chapter could well be used in any board room. 





Burroughs Adding Machine Co., N. Y. C, "The Burroughs Clearing House," September 1938. 

Board Room of the Bowery Savings Bank in New York City. 

1. The wall maps show all sections where the Bowery Savings Bank has or will have 

real estate loans. 

2. The projection machine shown in the lower photograph can throw enlarged photo- 

graphs, layouts, charts, and other pertinent information on a large screen placed 
at the far end of the room. 

3. On the west wall of the room is a 35-foot photomural, an aerial photograph of 

J*4ew York City. 



ill 



■ li 



III 



GRAPHIC CHARTS IN CONFERENCE ROOMS ^^^ 




Nrw York Hrrnl.l Trituinr J.inuary 1 l<i.l 



A. Mayor F. H. LaGuardIa of New York City, and Dr. John L. Rice. Health Com- 
missioner, Before a Chart Showing New York City's Death Rate from 1898 
to 1938. 




U S Drpartmrnt of Juiti.r Fnlrr.il Burrau of IiivcsliK^tioii 



B. John Edgar Hoover, Director of the Federal Bureau of Investigation, Before the 
Map of the United States on Which Are Tabbed the Location of the Bureau's 
Investigative Personnel. 



ill 



ill 



ill 



500 



GRAPHIC PRESENTATION 




Copyright by Harris and Ewing, Washington, D. C. 

A. Board Room of the New Federal Reserve Board Building in Washington, D. C. 

The star holders on the walls of this room and the charts that hang on them are a definite 
part of the decoration of the room. 



c^c:^o^c:^c:iC^c:sc^c^c^c^c^c^c^c^^^ 



^ 



^zp^^zp^^^zy^^z^^y^y^n^^ip^ip^y^zp^i? 



O 



B. Sketch of the Lay-out of the General Motors Conference Room Showing the 
Position of the Projector and Screen. 

The solid black line indicates the screen. The projector is directly behind the screen. 

Q c^ o Ci o 



c 



'^ O O C? C7 



C. The Use of Projectors in Conference Rooms. 

The illustration shows the general lay-out for the use of a lantern slide projector in a 
conference room. 



501 




Chapter 60 
GLOSSARY 



SINCE there has been little organized work on vocabulary, the 
wordings in this glossary should be considered as suggestions, 
and not in any way officially sanctioned. 



Absolute Bar Chart. — See component bar chart. 

Aerial Map. — A photograph or drawing giving a bird's-eye view 

of buildings, roads, trees, mountains, cities, etc. 
Area Bar Chart. — A bar chart in which at least one dimension is in 

percentages, resulting in a comparison of the areas of the sec- 
tions of the bar. 
Arithmetic Scale. — An amount scale on a grid with equal numerical 

values represented by equal special intervals. 
Band Chart. — See component curves chart. 
Bar Chart. — Presentation of data in the form of bars whose lengths 

and divisions indicate values. 
Bell Curve Chart. — A frequency chart in which the distribution 

assumes the shape of a bell. See frequency chart. 
Bilateral Bar Chart. — A bar chart in which the bars extend both 

above and below, or both to the left and to the right of, a 

common line. 
Bleed-Out — An illustration on a printed page which extends as 
far as the edge of the page, leaving no white space between the 
edge of the illustration and the edge of the page. 
Buck-Shot Chart. — See scatter chart. 
Carto^ram. — See statistical map. 
Chronology Chart. — The presentation of data with the emphasis 

on time rather than quantity or quality. 
Circle Chart. — Presentation of data in the form of a circle. The 

area may be proportional to the corresponding facts, or the 

circle may be divided into sectors. See sector chart. 

Classification Chart. — A chart in which facts, data, etc., are so ar- 
ranged that the place of each in relation to all is readily seen. 

Column Chart. — A bar chart in which the bars are arranged ver- 
tically. See bar chart. 



502 GRAPHIC PRESENTATION 

Compound Bar Chart. — A bar chart with several contrasting bars. 
See bar chart. 

Component Bar Chart. — A bar chart in which each bar is divided 
into two or more parts. 

Component Curves Chart. — A curve chart in which the total is 
shown graphically divided into parts. 

Contour Map. — A map in which lines indicate the topography of 
the land. The contour method may also be used to show 
erosion, precipitation, climatic conditions, etc. 

Correlation Chart. — A chart showing degree and type of relation- 
ship between two variables, 

Cosmograph. — Trade name for a flow chart made from black and 
white strips of paper, and presenting numerical information 
or percentages. 

Crosshatched Map. — See statistical map. 

Cumulative Curve. — A curve in which each value, except the first 
which is zero, is a total or accumulation of all preceding values. 

Curve Chart — A chart in which a line is plotted on a grid. 

Dependent Variable. — The data presented in a chart or table which 
varies according to a change in the independent variable. The 
amount scale on a time curve chart is the dependent variable. 

Disc Chart. — See circle chart. 

Distorted Map. — A map in which the areas of states, countries, etc., 
are proportional to quantitative data. 

Divided Circle. — See sector chart. 

Dot Map. — See statistical map. 

Extrapolation. — Projection of the data beyond known points. 

Flow Chart. — Graphic representation of movements geographi- 
cally or through an organization or structure. 

Flow Map. — A map in which either or both qualitative and quan- 
titative flow of goods, persons, automobiles, etc., is shown. 

Form. — One side of a printed sheet. 

Frequency Chart. — A chart in either bar or curve chart form show- 
ing distribution of items according to kind, size, location, or 
time of occurrence. 

Gantt Chart. — A specialized type of production chart. See progress 
chart. 

Geneology Chart. — A chart used as a method of showing ancestry 
and heredity traits. 

Genetics Chart. — See geneology chart. 

Graphic Narrative. — A story told by means of pictures. 

Grid. — The surface or field composed of coordinate rulings on 
which data are plotted or graphed. 



__^^^^^__^— ^-^— 503 
GLOSSARY 



Guide Map. — A detailed map on which highways, railroad routes, 
or other methods of transportation are indicated together with 
cities, etc. Sec route map. 
Gun-Shot Chart. — See scatter chart. 

Halftone. — A method of reproducing on a printing plate the de- 
tails of a photograph, drawing, painting, etc.. including all the 
gradations of color. 
High- Low Chart. — A chart in which the difference between two 
curves is the center of interest. 

Independent Variable. — The data presented in a chart or table 
which does not vary because of some influence within the data. 
The time scale on a curve chart is the independent variable. 

Index Numbers Chart. — A chart in which all items are expressed 
as percentages relative to a base figure. 

Interpolation. — Process of locating data between two known 
points. 

Key. — See legend. 

Lag. — The condition that exists when two curves are not concur- 
rent, but one "lags" behind the other to some extent. 

Legend. — An explanation or identification of symbols, etc., used in 
a chart. 

Logarithmic Chart. — See ratio chart. 

Logarithmic Scale — A scale of numbers on a grid so arranged that 
the spacial intervals are proportional to the differences be- 
tween the logarithms of the numbers. 

Lorenz Chart. — A chart giving frequency distribution with both 
the variable and invariable quantities reduced to percentages. 
Both scales represent 100%. See frequency chart. 

Map Chart. — See statistical map. 

Moving Average Curve. — A curve in which each value is the aver- 
age for an overlapping period of time. A moving average for 
a period of time "centered" is the average for half the time 
before the specified date and half the time after the specified 
date. 

Moving Total Curve. — A curve in which each value is the total for 
an overlapping period of time. 

Ogive Chart. — A frequency distribution in which "more than" or 
"less than" data are presented. One scale of the grid repre- 
sents percentages and the other scale represents "more than" 
or "less than" values. See frequency chart. 

10(P/o Band Chart. — See percentage curve chart. 



^^"^ GRAPHIC PRESENTATION 

100% Bar Chart. — A chart in which a single bar represents 100% 
and the divisions of the bar represent percentages of the whole. 

100% Block Chart.— See 100% square chart. 

100% Square Chart. — An area bar chart in which both dimensions 
are in percentages. See area bar chart. 

Organization Chart. — Graphic explanation of the structure of a 
business, government, school, or other unit of operation. 

Percentage Band Chart. — See percentage curve chart. 

Percentage Bar Chart. — See 100% bar chart. 

Percentage Curve Chart. — A component curve chart in which data 
is presented on the basis of 100%. See component curves chart. 

Pictogram. — See graphic narrative, and pictorial unit bar chart. 

Pictorial Map. — See statistical map. 

Pictorial Unit Bar Chart. — A bar chart in which comparisons are 
made by using a number of symbols, each of which repre- 
sents a specific value. 

Pie Chart. — See sector chart. 

Pin Map. — See statistical map. 

Plate. — The composition, whether zinc, lead, etc., which is used to 
make the printed impression on paper. 

Plotting (Plotted). — Placing a curve or other representations on a 
grid. 

Procedure Chart. — A time study by which procedure in production 
may be planned and recorded. See progress chart. 

Process Chart. — A time study by which production may be ana- 
lyzed, planned, and recorded. See progress chart. 

Production Control Chart. — A time study by which production 
may be planned, controlled, and recorded. See progress chart. 

Progress Chart. — A time study by which production and transpor- 
tation movements may be planned and recorded. 

Progressive Average Curve. — A curve in which each value is the 
average of all the items previously shown. 

Proportional Map. — See distorted map. 

Range Bar. — A bar form of high-low chart in which the range of 
prices of stocks or commodities may be indicated. See high- 
low chart. 

Rank Chart. — See rating chart. 

Rate-of -Change Chart. — See ratio chart. 

Rating Chart. — The presentation of the rank of items as deter- 
mined by the quantitative value of each item. 

Ratio Chart. — A curve chart in which the amount scale rather than 
an arithmetic scale is so spaced that a straight line diagonally 



GLOSSARY ^^^ 

across the grid represents a unitorni percentage increase or 

decrease. 
Relationship Chart. — A diagram in which facts, information, etc., 

are arranged to emphasize tlicir relation. 
Relative Bar Chart. — See 100% bar chart. 
Relief Map. — Map showing elevations and surface undulations of 

a geographical unit. Relief maps may also be used to present 

statistical data. 
Route Map. — A map on which point to point movements of ships, 

airplanes, railroads, electricity, etc.. are given. 
Scatter Chart. — A chart on which the data has been plotted or 

distributed as dots on a grid. 

Schedule Chart. — See progress chart. 

Screen. — A cross-lined screen, usually glass, through which copy 
is photographed for reproduction as a halftone. 

Sector Chart. — The presentation of data in the form of a circle 
divided so that each sector is proportional to the correspond- 
ing facts. 

Semi- Logarithmic Chart. — See ratio chart. 

Shot-Gun Chart. — See scatter chart. 

Signature. — A folded printed sheet ready to be assembled with 
other folded sheets to be bound together. A signature usually 
consists of 16 pages, but it may be 4, 8. 32, or even 64 pages. 

Stair Chart. — A chart in which a line plotted on a grid resembles 
stairs. 

Staircase Chart. — See stair chart. 

Statistical Map. — A map on which dots, circles, bars, curves, sym- 
bols, or crosshatchings have been placed to give the geographic 
location in accordance with statistical data. 

Tabulation. — The recording of statistical data in the form of tables. 

Three-Dimensional Chart. — A graphic presentation with three 
variables. Three-dimensional charts may be drawings in per- 
spective or models. 

Two- Directional Bar Chart. — See bilateral bar chart. 

Traffic Map. — A flow map showing the flow of automobiles or 
persons on streets and highways. See How map. 

Two-Way Bar Chart. — See bilateral bar chart. 

Zee Chart. — A curve chart presenting periodic (day, week, or 
month) data, cumulative data, and a moving total on one 
grid. The positions of the curves form a "Z." 



506 




INDEX 



ITO-ITT, 
1<>0, 



501 

\t» 

lliU 

350 

1S6 

15B. I'VJB, 302A 

374B 

t21l>, 4JKA 



Ahlioll KJiiraliaiml Co. MX 

Abtoliilr har rhurl 301 

Addrrtunnraiih Nf nil iicra|ili Ciirp. 434 

Advrrli>iii|c rliarl . 454 

-Idi .rtMinit «nd S.llint 331 

Arra l>ar rliarl It<<l52. 501 

Arrial: 

Map 

I'lioloKraph 
Agririilliiral Kroiininiri, Hiirraii <if 
Air brii»h 
Air rniitr map 
Alriandrr llaiiiillon Inililuir 
Allrfirdrr, Thro. & Son* 
Allrolor Co. 
Aniriiran A>>o<ialion of l.anditrapr Arrhili-rln 171, 235 

Aiiirriran Anaorialion of Slair lliicliwav Ufficiali HVB 

Ami'riean .4 vitit ion .„ „ 167 

Amvrican Hunint'n^ , ., 3HC 

Anirriran (.'ra>on Co. _____________ 370 

Anirriraii Doriiiiiriilalion inaliliilr , 40<* 

Aiiirririiii (^aa .\»>»rialioii ___^ „. 463 

Anirriruii (^i-nrlira A>»urjalioii S4B, 55 

Anirriran Oonraphiral Sorirly of Nrw York . 153 

Anirriran iron & SirrI Inatiluir 3IIA. 215A, 243. 475, 4H1 B 

.-Imciirrin Machinist , „ 1511 

Anirriran Map Co. _ . . 154 

Anirriran Miilual Liability Iniurancc Co 464. 473 A, 4114 

Anirriran I'rirolruiii IiiMi(.ulr _... 19SA 

Anirriran KollinK .Mill Co _ 10KB 

Anirriran SrhooU of Orirnlal Rrtrarch 170 

.\iiirriran Sorirl> of .Mrrlianiral Knginrrri (.S«'i> also 

Timv .SiTii-j (hurls and Coniiiiilire on Kn|;inrrrinK 

and Srirnlifir (irapbil IIVA, 3lH 

Anirriran Slandarda Assorialioii (See Timv Svrivs 

Charts.) 
Anirriran Slalisliral Asaorialion 323. 325. 326. 333A 

Anirriran Trirphonr & Trirgraph Co. 21)1 

Anirriran T>pr Kniindrrt • 439 

Anirriran VI ritinit I'aprr Co 44)1 

Anmlral t'lililisliini: & iSupply Co. 57 

Arra bar rhart 149-152 

Arra roiiiparison (.Si't- ofjo Area bar charl)_ASA, 23H. 457 

Aritio Iniporl Co. ..492A 

Arkin. Hrrbrrt .._ 24,370 



Arniilrung Cork Co> 

Arnold, Bion J. 

Art Oa^on Co, 

Aloiii rharl .. ._ 

Auilralia, Conininnwrallh 
Autoniobilr Maiiiifarlurrri 



117B 

74A. 223 

- - 370 

52A. 52B 

159 

2HB. 94A. 9H. 



/4u(ornurirc lndu$lrie» 

Atrraitr 

Monnn . _ 

PruKmiirc 

Aviation 

Avrri. Dr. F.dward A. 
A»rri, I.ronard I'. _ 
Aiiniulhal projrctioit . 



Attorialioit 
02B. 131A. 29BA. 349A. 479A. *V 

- SO A. 299 A 

107 B 

209, 2116, 28HB. 2»9. 291 B. 503 

. 2H6. 2HHA 

.. 45 

425 

86A, 2SH, 273, 303 B 

. 176 



B 

& Sont 



421' 



Bainbridgr, Cbarirt T 

Bahvr,' Helper 460B 

Balliniorr li Ohio Railway Co. 4H9 

Band rharl JOl 

lOOCc 294. 297B. 503 

Bar rhart 106-114, IIS-120. 363. 364. 464. 501 

Abiolule 501 

Arra 149.152.501 

Bilalrral _ 142-14)1. 501 

Column , 106. 501 



(.niiiponrnl 

Conip d 

Ciiiiiiilativr 
Madr on t>pi 
100% 



99, 132-141. 2VI. Ml 

502 

_ _ _ _ 94B 

377 

51, HH. 92-97. 9)1-105. 123A. 12HA 

132. I37A. 139A. 144B, I45A. 152, 

294. 297B. 454A, 460A, 476. 504 

200 207 

_ - 121-131. 211. 365, .504 
. 505 

2«SA. 2H5H, 504 

505 




Kriiiforrriiirnti 

Snivllir-srwrd 

Stamping 

%irr«lilrhrd 
Bint-linm. Kichmond F.- 

Rinnrv & .Smith Co. 

Birrrn. Kabrr 

BitiiKi, I'rrrv A. 

BIrrd-oul 

Blork claasifiratioii rhart 

Blork rnl: 

l.iliolriiiii 

Wood 

Blork diiiKruill 

Bolicinoff 



.24, 3098, 333B, 334, 335, 370 

370 

427, 42)1 

: 340 

501 

49, 50A. 50B 



Bullun, Joseph R. 

Borgia map .„ 

Boston Gtohe 

Bowrn, M. I.. 

BoMrrt SavinRt Bank... 
Bowman, Isaiah ___ 
Brad>, Dornthy S. __ 

Brrak-rvrn rhart 

BrrMrr-tlanlrlnio Co. . 

Briggs 

Brinton. Vlillard C 



415 
415 

356B 

473B 

259A 

153 

29 B 

359R 

49)1 

162A 

323 

32HB 

451 

464 



.24, 49, 74B, 124A, 161. 1H6. 192B, 
254, 261. 28HA. 293A, 327, 370 

Brooks, Biirlrigh 397 K, 397 F 

Brown. Arthur, & Brolhert 419 

Hro«n. Brrtrand . 123A, 124B. 12HA 

Brown. Throdorr H. 24, 309B. 333B. 334. 335, 370 



Burk-shol rharl 

Burraii of Agrirullurul F.ronomict ,, 

Burrau of Chrmistr> & Soils 

Burrau of horrigii Trade k Horl Oovelopmcnl, 

Charlr.tun, S. C. 

Burrau of I'ublir Koadt 



501 
160 
160 



Burrau o( Krclaiiiation - 

Burn. Walter P.. & Attociatei 

Burns 



485 
...160. 495 A 

156 

_242. 401 A 
319B 



INDEX 



507 



lllirrouilAf ('Irniinn //out 
Riiih Trrniinal i.o. 
Rwiiri. (irnr 



California Job eai* 

C.inrra 

Conlai _ - _ 

('iirlii Color Sroiil 

Drvin Tricolor 

i.rira 

l.inhof 

I'rrfu 

Holl»i(l»« 



4Mi(: 



4.1S 



Sprrd («raphir 
Trirolor 



Candid ('anirra Corp. — _ — _ 

Car!>U, I'aiil 

Carnrnir Inililiilr of WaihlngtOB- 

CarlrrS Ink Co, , 

Cartoiirani ^_— _______ 

Carlooni. c|iianlilalivo 

Carlwriithl. Milli H. 

Caiital rrlalionthip 

Critiiloid (°orp. - ■ .. .., 



397.104 

.lOTC 

^'^■:^ 

______ 397 K 

j«:b 

397 K 

.i<)7n 

— — ^ .'"H 

.197 R 

4.VI 

.1S3, 3S6A. .1S9R 

427A 

SOI 

_______ 464^ 474 

4.19 



_27S. 282 A. 211)1 R 
36H 



24 



109, 



Crnlral Statitliral Board 
(Srr frHrral Charl Book.) 

Chaddofk. H. K. 

Chanibrr of Coiunirrrr of llir United Stale* 

(Thainpinn I'apcr ft F'ihrr (^o. ^_^ 44H 

Chan, iiiiinrilioni for making 367 1110 

Chartmakrri _ _. _ _ 4H1A 

Chatr National Bank 284B. 330B, 332R, 340 

Chrniiilrv ft Soilt. Bureau IftO 

Chirano Cardboard Co. . 422 

Chifago ^rl^un.• 121. 265A. 26SB. 276B 

Chirano U hrri & Manufacluriog Co. .-. - 372 

Chroma (Sre aho Color) 424D. 425C. 427B 

Chronolony chart 248-255. 501 

Churchill Fnitinrrring Corp. 145B. ISO 

Cincinnati. Ohio. City Manager _ 38B. 65, I25A 



Circle chart {See also Sector Chart).. 

On map . .- . - — - 

Civilian ConierTation Corp» _ 

Clark. Victor M.. and Staff 

Clark. Wallace _ 

Clarification chart 

Block 

Coait A Geodetic Surrojr 

Codeii Book Co. 

ColUrr$ 

Color _ _ 

Color*blind .~__«^_.^_.^.. 



251. 501 

194-199 

61 A 

493 B 

262 

43-52. 501 

_ .49, SOA. SOB 

156. 1511 

56A. 367 

. 474 



Collon Preti — 

Colton. Raymond R. 
Columbia Steel Co.— 
Column chart —^ 



-418. 419. 423-428. 453 

^ 426 

414. 439. 443 

24. 370 

494 

106, 501 

439 



Commercial Engraving Publithing Co. 

Committee on Engineering and Scientific Graphs 

381. 40HA, 40HB. 40HC 
Committee on Standards for Graphic Pretentalion 
(Srf Timr Srriet Chartt.) 

Commonwealth Editon Co. 3S4 

Component : 

Bar chart 99. 132-141, 294, 502 

Curve chaH 294-300, 393. 502 

Compound bar chart 502 

Compotile chart .- 16fl-.16A 

Conference roomi. chart! 497-500 

Coniolidated Editon Co 496 

Contai camera „ .^.^__^______^__^____^-_- ._ 397C 

Contimotie Salei Co. 407A 

Contour map 231-237. 502 

Control chart (S«« aiao Pro(r*(» chart) S04 

Cornell. Grace 427 A 

Corpi of Engineora . . 156 

Correlation *•>*■'' 

Cotmograph - 

Covert {Srr alto Binding) 
Cewden. Dudley J. .. _ 

Coihead. Balph C. Corp. 
Craftint .Manufacturing C*.. 
Oayont — 

Crotthatched 



nap 



Creiihatching iSrt alto Skadinf). 
CroM-teclien paper . 



. 320-330. 502 

73. 7IA. 788. 79. 80A. 80B. 502 

451. 453 

24. 286 

379 

419 

- - 370 

.17S-18«. 270. 502 

USA. 178 

367 



lionietrir 

Halin 

Tri...«..l«r r»....lM.«lr 
(rn.lnii. Irr.lrnrk \. 
Cruiii, Vlilliuin 1.. 
(Mininlalivr : 

Bar chart 

Curve chart 2T! 

lrr<|Hrnr> chart 

Srrlnr chart 
Ciirlia Color Seoul Camera 
Curlii. Thoniai S.. Laboratory 
CurtK I'ubliihing Co. 
Curxr chart .- .- 



1S7B 

168 A 

159A 

21. 286 

24 



Hrll 

Coiiipariinni 

(!iinipnnent 

Cnrrrlalinn 

Cumulative 

l-"Tri|Urnf > 

CiintI 



9tB 

279, 281A. 126. H9A. S02 

111. 1JJA 

91 

198 B 

198 B 

483 

261 159. 502 

310. 501 

275 293 

. . 294 300. 391. S02 

_ . _ 320 3.10. 502 

27S. 279, 28IA. 326. 349A. 502 

._ 310 319. 502 

256 262.502 

275. 276B. 285 A. 28SB. 104B. 503 



lligl. lov 

Index number*- .1148, 142. 301 109, 347B, 361. 164. 503 

l.nreni 331338.503 

Moving averaga^ 209. 286. 288B. 289. 291 B. 503 

Moving total S03 

Ogive 331 118. 501 

On map 208-210.261.274 

Percentage .. — 504 

I'ronrenive averag* 286. 28BA. 504 

Ratio 339-353. 504 

Cul-nut letter! 37S 



Darling ___— ^_- 

Dartnell Corp 

DaiKco Product! Co. 

Da\i>. Harvey N.-.- , , „ — 

Da». E. ¥ 

Decker. Richard 

Denniton. Henry S. — . 

Drnniton Manufacturing Co.. 

Dependent variable 

Detroit Ediion Co 

Deviation 

De\in Colorgraph Co_ 
Devin Tricolor camera.. 
Dick. A. B.. Co _ 



-2398 
_ 429 
-398 
_ 34 
-4M8 



333A 

371 

.263, S02 
3S$8 



Diel<|ten. Eugene. Co.. 

Diniensioni 

Diorama Corp. ... 

Diorama! , 

Disc chart _________ 

Displays -.^ 

Dislorird map 

Ditto. Inc. 

Divided circle 

Divine, J. J.. A!!ociate!, In 
Diton. Joseph. Crucible Co.. 

Donnant. D. F 

Dot map ... -. .. 

Draeger. Lawrence W. 
Drawing: 

Roard . 

Instrtiiiient! 

Pencils 



.142. 2718. 324 

398A 

39HA 
.432A. 433A 
368A. 369A 
384 



4928 

494-496 

_ . . . - 502 

__293B. 486-493, 497 

238-242. 459. 502 

429 

SOS 

169 

369B. 370 

81 

1H7-I93. S02 

41S 



_42eA 



-369A 
_369B 



Dunn. Charle! _ 466A 

Dun's Review— 116A. I17A. 141A. 141B. USA. 282B. 

287C. 297B, 120. 344. 147B. 458 

Duplicating machine (.See alto Reproduction) 429 

IHipont De Neiiiour!, E. I., t Co. 368 

Durost. Walter 3S 



Eagle Pencil Co. . 
Eastern Air l.inet 
Eastern Railroad 



370. 372 

163A 

91. 491A 



Eastman Kodak Co. _ -368. 399A, 401. 40SA. 40SB. 40SC 

Eberhard Kaber Pencil Co. 370.372 

Kronon.ic rixht price 14S8, ISO 

Edition binding .. , 4S0 

Educational Eihibilion Co. . 1S4. 193. 367. 368 

Egyptian l.ari|uer Manufacturing C*. .. 461 

ElrrlrUal Borld 239 A. 366 



Electric Storage Batlerx Compaajr- 
Elrttroniet — __ 



-73. 25S. 4S4A 
-S8. 263. 347A 



I 



508 



GRAPHIC PRESENTATION 



al Walcb C*. 



r.lrrlrnltpi 
KUin N.I 

VMlr l»pr 

Knii-nt. Brooks 
Knrtrlopriiia Anirrirar 
Knfiinfrrtng K' Mining 
EnfinrfriniL .V*>u-i Hrro 



tZl 



.IThR 
SI. 20A 
IS.1. IS4. ISS 
IIH. I.1H. 3(iO 
HSB, IhbB. JS4B. 261 
2V1A, .137 
KnKinrrririK & Srirnlinr (^rapha. Coinniillrr .IHl, 40KA 

40HB. 40H(: 
372 
46S 
S3, S4A 
122 
4H6 493 
S02 



Kratrrt 

F.tquirr-C.oronvl. Iiir. 
Kiigrniri KrroriJ Office 
F.vant, 11 . Sanford ^ . _ _ 

KihibiU {S,-i- alto Diaplayt) 
Kklrapolalinn _____ 



Faclory 

f'attotj hi annfrmvnt it 



257 

Miiinlrnanev H2B, K3A, H3B. H7, 

134B. 4HHA, 4<»0A 

Frdrral Riirraii of ln\ rtliftalion 4<'4B 

Fnd^ral Chan Hook 03A4. <>3A. 938. 93C. 270. 296B. 305 

Frdrral I'oxrr Coniiiiittion 3SA. 97, 173B 

Frdrral Rr.rrvr Board SOOA 

Frdrral Krtrrvr. Nrw York lOhA, I I4B, 132A. I32B. 142, 

269A. 2HSA, 2HSB. 2H7A, 2H7B. 3hlB, SOOA 

Firld. R. M. 6«A, 6HB. 72. 144A 

Film (Sfr Canirra.) 

Kodarhronir ._ 399 

Fir»l National Bank of Botloa 179A 

Fithrr, Ir\ing 340 

Fi.alivr 420A 

Flat binding 4S| 

FIritrhrr A Co. 492A 

Florrnrr, I*. Sargent _ S5 

Flow charl 73-80. 215-230. 502 

Flow map 216 230, 502 

Foiiir, F. P 37B. 250, 2SI 



F'olnirr (>raflrs 

Food Industiift 

Foolnotr 

Ford Motor Co. 

Forrst Srrvirr .. 

F'orm (Si-e alio Printing) 

Forlunr Magazine 

Frrnch fur\r 

F'rr€|iirncv : 

BrII charl 

Curvr chart ^ 

Diilribiition . 

Fri.brr. Ira N. 

Fuchi & I.ang Manufacturing Co> 
FunkhouBcr, Gray H ...____ 



397D 

47 

_ 104 

160. 490B 

156 

453. 502 

.30.94B, 177 B 
369A 



310 

310-319. 502 
_101. 11». IKO 
_24. 263. 292 

453 

24 



« Co. 



Ilalllonr 

llaniillon ManliraclnrinK Co 

lUtiiillon. \l . C. S Son*.. 

Ilaininrrniill Paper Co.. 

Maniniond. C. S., & Co. 

Ilarri< & Kwing 

lla.kril. Allan C. 

Ilrrlograph 

llrlinhnllr 

Mrrrdity chart . ._ . „ 

llrring . 

Iliggint, Charlr 

High-low chart 

Hink«, A. K. 

Iliilorical map 

Hoch. Frrd W. 

Holdrn. Arthur C. 

(loovrr. John Kdgar 

//oik.' and Gardvn 

Hubbard. Hrnrt I). 

Hiir (».■ «/«o Color) 

Hiirricanr niap^ 

Htdrographir : 

Map ... 

Office 



113. 416. 417. 419. 420A. 503 

438 

453 

44H 

154 

SOOA 

24. 370 

432 B 

423 

3S6A 

423 

. 371 



27S. 276B. 28SA. 2IISB. 304B. 503 

_ _ _ .. _ 204. 205 

435 

141 

_ _ 499B 

_ _ 31 

2. S2A. S2B 

42SA. 427 B 

218 



Hypotrnuir rectangle 



_ 156 
._ 156 
_ 384 



I 



Illustration board. Wolman 421 

llliislralions. prrparation ._ 417-422 

Impo.ilion (S... aUo Rinding) 450. 4S2A 

Ind.pendrnI variable _ „ 263.503 

Index numbers 1 14R. 142. 301-309, 347B. 363, 364. 503 

India ink . 371 

Induslrinl & En^int'vrinf Ckrmittry _. 71 

Industrial Mana^vmenl .^. ._ 63B 

Ind-itlrial Tape Corporation .. 371 

I nk 373 

India . 371 

Intrrit (>'<>«• aho Binding) 450 

Inlaglio printing . 435. 437. 44IC 

International Boundary Coniniiltion . _ - 156 

International Businrst Machinrt Corp. 40. 7KA. 7HB. 79, 

HOA. KOB. 377. 37K 

Intrrnalional Printing Ink Corp 42S. 427B. 42HA 

Intrrpolation 503 

Inlerty pe : 

Corporation 436 

Machine 436 

Inverse rrlalionahip 282A. 460C 

Iron Age- i76A. 350 

Isometric 356B 

Paper 3S7B 



Protractor 



3S7A 



Gantt chart 
Cantt. Henry I. 
Gardner Dinplai 



Co. 



Gelatine duplicating machine- 

Grnrology chart 

Grnrolngical charl theet 

General Klertric Co. ___ 

General I. and Office 

Genetici churl ._: 

Geographic map 

Geologic map 



Geological Survey 

Georgian Bay CanaL 

Grrard. Dave __^_______ 

Glotiary _ _ 

Goldrn Gair Fxpoiilion 

Coodyrar Tirr & Rubber Co.. 

GoTrrnmrnt mapi 

Gradr chart, pencil 

Grafa-lone Co. .. 

Grain {Sfv alto Paper) 

Graphic narralite __ 

Gravure printing 
Gray. RumcII T.. Inc. 

Grid 

Guide map 

Gulick. I.ulher .._- 

Gun-thol chart 



__ 256, 262, 502 

262 

...486. 487 A. 487 B 

. 429 

53-58. 502 

56A. 57 

472 

156 



S3-S8. 502 

156 

156 

155 

122 

y2 

501-505 

494 

266A 

_1SS. 1S6. 160 

369B 

419 

444 



2S-32. 455. 502 

44 1 C 

72. 471 

_ 383. 386. 502 
.161-169. 456. 503 

62, 70 

503 



Jaeckrl Fur Storage- 
Johnston. W. IJ.. Jr>. 

Jonas. S. Theo ^ 

Jones. Victor O. 



H. 



.3S6B. 3S7A. 469 

32 

29B 



(;. 



Kaplan. A. I). 
KarMen. Karl 
Kaufmann & Fabry Co.. 

Krisry Co. 

KruflTel & F.iier 

Krp . 

Map -. 

KIrppner. Otto 



KnorpprI, Charlei E_ 

Kodachrome film 

Kodak 

Koh-I-Noor Pencil Co.- 
Konig 



325. 326 

24. 263. 286. 343. 370 

490B 

. _ 376A 

.156. 357B. 3S9A. 36HB, 372. 373 

3028. 394. 503 

155 

421. 454 

262 

399 

398 

370 

423 



HackrInian. Charles W.. 



I.add-Franklin 

lag 

l.at.iiardia. Fiiirello H. 

I.anslon Monotype Machine Co.. 

I.anlern slides ______^__ 

l.a Rose. K. S. 

l.aughlin. Harry H. 

Legend _______^__^____ 



__. 394 

423 

.276A. 503 

499A 

—437. 438 
405-409 



329A 

356A 

_302B. 503 



INDEX 



l.rttt : 

Camrr* 

Manual 
I. rill. y.. lat. .- - 
l.rrov trllrrinf prn* 
l.rtlrr. Ilrnr* M. 

IVni 



I'halnirnphK 

l.rllrrpmi prinlin( 

l.rllrtt, riilniil 

Lihrtly Maiiaiinr 

Uh 

Uima l.c»romolivr H orkt, Inr. 

I.inhof mmrra 

l.inolriint lilork 

I.inolM'' 

l.tlrrary IttfrtI 

l.ilhoKraphrri Nalional AMfxialion, Inr. 

I.ilhniiraphir prinlinn 

Lilhonraphir Trrliniral Koiindalton 

i.ilhnprini Compant of Nrx York, Inr. 

lor«.<. KawKond 

l.anarilhtiiir tralr .^_^____,_ 

l.orrni rharl -_____^ 

l.orrni. M. O. _ 

Lo* Angrlri: 

Timrt _^____^___^ 

I'nion Railroad SlalioB ^— ^____^_ 

l.uckirth. Malthrw _^____ 

Luminoui paini ^____ 



. J9:a 

404 

-IOTA 

t::. \:\ 

404. 400 

.riA 

3H0 

LIS. 44 1 A 

375 

2f> 

4T0 

4s: 

.1<»7K 

4IS 

4.16 

39A. :.w 

437 

436 

437 

433 B 

4<»3A 

S03 

331 33H, S03 

337 



471 

-402A. 40JR 

42H 

489 



MarFlwrr & Crandall. In< 

Marhinr labiilalion 

Manaiinr of Ball Strrrt- 

Magnilirr - 

Manninic, barren H 

Map: 

Arrial 

Air route .^_^^______ 

Ba>r 

Chart {Sem mlto Statiatical map). 

Contour 

Crot>halche<l 

Diilorted 

Dot - . 

Flow 



131 B 

40 

.114A. 304A. 30IIB 

- 41 1 A 

171. 23S 



Crographic 
Crologic _ 
Cuidr - _ 
Hitlorical . 
Hurricane 



.160. 170. 177. SOI 

1S6 

1S4 

S03 

- _ 231-237. S02 
_17»-1H6. 270. S02 
-23H-242. 4SV, S02 
_ 1K7-193. S02 

216-230. S02 

1S6 

. 1S6 



H«droKraphie 

Information OBrt 

Kr. 

Mraturinic device „ 

Mechanical inlrnailjr ihadiiiC- 

Navigation 

Orangr-pecl 

Pictorial 

Pin . a_ 

Pro)rrlien (See Prajection.) 

Proporlional . S04 

Relief 170-177. 492B. SOS 

Route 161-169. SOS 

Statistical 1S3-242. SOS 

Topographic . _ _ _ . „ 1S6. ISS. 233A 

TralSr i02B. 219. 222. 223. 224A. 224B, 127. 229. SOS 

« rather 216A. 216B. 217A. 21H. 232A. 232B. 

233B. 234A. 236 



161-169. 4S6. S03 

204. 20S 

218 

1S6 

ISS 

ISS 

1S6 

182B 

. 1S6 

. 1S8 

.167. 168. 169. 480B. S04 
-187-193, 497. 499B. S04 



With bar chart 

Uilh circle chart 

Hilh curre chart —— 

Vilh lector chart , 

«ilh xmboli 

Marchand Diorama ^'^ 

Market batkrt 

Marki. Lionel S 

Maitarhuietli inttiiiHa af Tccboalagy 

Maswell 

Mead Corp. ^_ _ 

Mechanical inlenaitjr (kadioc aap 

Median _ _ . 

Mcrcator, Ccrardaa 



200-207 

194-199 

196. 197. 2t8-210. 263. 274 

194-199 

211 2IS 

494 

J65A. 26SB 

39B 

1S2 

423 

-443. 446. 44a. 4S3 

IM2B 

120. USA 

ISS 



Merralnr prnjeelion 
Mrrediin I'uliliihin* « • 

Mrlropniilan I ifr III. Ill 

Mirrnfiln, 

Mllr.. Kll..e1l \ 
Mllinn ll.a.llr. I n 
Mlii.rnir.pl, ni.rhinr 
Ml>l<eo.c..pe 

Minite.ftia Mining and Maiiiifariiinitg ( 

Miniieatila \'alle% (ianning Lniiipati* 

Mixioippi Hirer Conimiiiinn 

Monol%pe 

Mnnianin Chemiril < ■■ 

Moore, i Dnnfor.! 

Morgan. « ilbr.l l> 

MnlioM I'irli.rr S,rr.,. 

Moving average 

Moting loUl 

Mlldgell. Briire I). 

Mnllihlh 

Multiple Atii eharl 

Mulliplei Diiplat V,Mu{r Co 

Miintell. A. II. 

Mutual Rroailratling (^o. 

N 

National Aanociilinn nf (>i>l ArroiinlanI 
National Amocialiun nf Motor Bui t)p 

nf Com 



4H. S9A, I9B, 



!IN. 2Hb. 2HhB. 2H9, 2V| 



rralori 



ISS 
I23B 
S93B 

4«« 

4)6 

i:iR 
<):a 

43JA 
171 

■ ISA 
IS6 
437 
3hH 

l-.tB 

1. 109 

io:<; 

B. S03 
S03 

IS. 16 
411 

10^ B 

I9IA 

;i. 427 

4S9 



329A 

1H2A 

2HIB. 286 

I90A 

4h:b 

133B. 27S 
480B 
32IA 



Nalinnal Anlnmnbile Chaiiih 
Nalional Ca.h Kegiiler Cn. 
Nalional Kdiiralional Aiinrialion 
Nalinnal Ke*li\al Aiioeialinn 
Nalinnal Kleelric Light Aiioeialinn 
Nalinnal Induilrial Conference Bnard III. 119. 146. 117. 

ISl. 107. 363. 364 
Nalinnal Reinurrei Bnard {Sri- alio Ffd>-ral (hart 

:S. 95. I27B. 110. 16t. 1(,S. l(.hA. 168. 

174. 175. 1114. 1H5. 1»H. IW. JIO. 214. 

219, 222, 234A. 267. 291B 

Conwiiilire (Sv National Re- 



Uook) 



Nalinnal Reiniircei 

iniircei Bnard.) 
Nalinnal Machine Tool Buildrri Aitocialion 493B 

Nalinnal Tube Co. 486 

Naiion't Hutin.,, ._ 466A 

Navigation map ^ _ 156 



Na% igalinnal 



rharl 



1S6 



New Jerse\ Deparlmenl of Indilulioni and Agencies 316 

New Jeriev Stale Planning Bnard—. 179B 

New York Building Congrei. 141 

New York Cilv Tunnel Aulhnrily 404A. 404B 

New Y'nrk l'!niplo«ing Prinleri Aiincialion. Inc. 43S 

New York Federal Heierve lOhA. lUB. I32A, 132B. 112. 

269A. 2H5A. 2K5B. 2«7B. 291A. 

301A. 30IB. 309A. 36IB 

New Ynrk H.rald Trihunr _ 41. 43. 1H3A. 2HSC. 46«, 

488A. 499A 

New Ynrk Journal & Amrriean 29A 

New York Tim.-, 63A. 479B. 480A 

New York K orldTvlrtram _ 469 

New York World'i Fair. 1939 60. 1S9. 207. 279. 29JB. 

330A. 492B. 49JA. 495B. 496 

466B. 467A 

423 

3S6B. 3S7A 

^7 IB 

XM 



Nr'U- Yorker . 

Newinn 

Nnlan. T. V 

Normal, deviation from 

Nnrnial trend _ — 

Norlh Jerie> Transit Coniniiitiaa 



_ J27 



OKre of Indian AITairt 

Olfiel Gravure Corp. 

OITiet : 

Ink ^ 

Printing 
Ogden. r. K. 
Dgive rharl 
I00<~^ band chart 
I00<~( bar chart 



32 



453 

436 
26 
331 33H, S03 
.91. 297 8. S03 
51. 88. 92 lOS. 123A. IJ«A. 132. 
137A. 139A. 144B. USA. 152. 294. 
297B. 4&4A. 560A. S04 



Stamp 
lOCf block chart 
100<^ Kjuare chart , _ _ 
Opacil. (.See alto PaM^)- 
Optical illuaion 



9* 
149. 152. S04 
.149. IS2. 3*4 
444 



314 



510 



GRAPHIC PRESENTATION 



Orsn|tr-prrl map ^. 

Organifilion rharl — . 

Oring. Guy 

Orthonraphic projeclion- 

Orlhological Inilitule 

Odwald 



ISH 

^9-67, 16S, S04 

- 4S4 

1S4 

27 

427 



Projrrlart {Svv alio l.anlrrn tlidrt) 

I'rnofrcadrr't niark> . 

Proportional map „ ____________ 

I'rolrarlor 

Itonirlric 
Public Srrvicr Company of Norlhrrn lllinoit 



49H. SOOB, 500C 

442 

S04 

36«B 

357A 
4bOA 



Pacific Cat I KIcclric Co. ______________ 3SSA 

Paprr: 

Colored 371 

Croii-irclion (Sra alio Croi(>icclion paper) 367 

Machine - 443 

Prriturr bulkrr 444 

Sclrclion of - 443-448 

L'lilily - . . 367 

Paragon Rrvolutr Corporation 411 

Paiadrna, California, City Managrr 'i)>, 2<>H 

Palton. AI«on C. „ _. _. .. . Jl 

Paullin. Charlri O^ IS3, 204. 205 

Pa^nr Fund _ 27 

P»ai». C. v.. Co 430.431 

Prdigrrr chart (Sur aUo Grneology and Cenetict 
chartt) 43 

Pencil lengthjti^r , J70 

Pen. ruling 374B 



Prrcrntagr chart 

Band chart 

Bar chart . 

Curve chart „ 

Perfei camera 



^94, 29HA 

504 

504 

504 

397 B 

444 

35H 

_ 35 B 



I'erkint. B. ¥., & Son*, Inc. 

Peroiio. I.uigi _. . 

Philadelphia Evi-ning Bullvlin .— 

Photo-Kngraveri Board of Trade 416, 417 

Photoengra\ ing _. __ „ - 421 

Photograph, initrucliont for handling 412. 413 

Photomontage 401A 

Photoniural 498, 490B. 49H 

Pica type ..376B 

Piclogram 504 

Pictorial chart n4A. 457. 461 

Bar charl. 121-131.211.365,504 

Map 167. 168. 169. 4H0B. 504 

Pie chart 504 

Pike, E. W.. ft Company 411 A 

Pin 192B. 193 

Map -- _ 187-193,497.4996.504 



Planographic printing 

Platet [Sff alto Printing). .- 

Playfair. William 

Plotting „ 

Plymouth Motor Corp. 

Pneumatic Scale Corp., Ltd.. 

Pogue. Joieph E, 

Polyconic projection 

Potter Products. Inc. 
Potleri. quanlilative- 

Power 

Prinler'§ 
Printing _ 

Cravure 

Intaglio 



/nik. 



~43S. 436, 44 IB 

504 

81. 26bB 

504 

488A 

490A 

.2848, 330B, 332B. 340 

- . 155 

371. 375 

_ 475-478 

86B 

..242. 259A 

435-442 



Letterpreii 

Lithographic _J 

OITiet 

Planographic ._ 
Preii, portable- 
Relief 

Rologravure 



Probability paper 

Procedure rhmrt 

Proceii chart ___________________ 

Product Enfinevring ______________ 

Production control chart _ ._.._.__._ 
Production Yearbook {Set Collen Preil.) 

Profit graph _ ._. 

Progreai chart .^_____.___ 

Progreitive «v»>«g« 
Protection: 

Aiiniuthal 

Map 

Mercator -_________^_____ 



437. 441C 

_43S, 437. 441C 

435. 441 A 

436 

. 436 

_435. 436. 44 IB 

- 376A 

435, 441 A 

437 

333 B. 338 

504 

504 

i69B 

504 



^56-262. 462, 504 
_ 286, 288A, 504 



Orthographic 

Polyconic 

Stercographic 



176 
171 
155 
154 
155 
1S4 



Quantitative cartooni 
Quantitative pottert 



Rai«i, Krwin _ 

Rand McNally & Co„ 

Range bar chart — 

Rank chart _ — 
Rale-of-change chart- 
Rating charl 

Ratio chart _. ._.. 

Paper - — — _ — — 

Reading, Kngland. County Borough of.- 

Kediciit Letter Co. 

Reducing glatft - .^-__« 

Reference symbol _______ 

Regenaleinrr (]orp. 

Re^ionul Plan .Association .^-___ 

Reiiiforcemrntt (St-e alto Binding).-— 

Relationship charl _ 

Relative liar charl 



464-474 
475-478 



.153. 231. 238 
154 



JMSA, 2fl5B. 361 B. 504 

504 

504 



.3h: 



129 

375 

410 

, 305 



Relief Map 

Relief printing ____________ 

Reproduction, methodt 

Rriifu of Wniru'j 

Rhode.. Henri J. 

Rice. John I 

Richardson. Arthur H 

Richmond, Leonard ______ 

Higgleman. John R 

Risl, Charles ._ ' 

Roberts, Wridon, Rubber Co_ 

Rolleiflex camera — 

Root-two 

Ross, Charles *J., Co. _____ ___^ 

Rotogravure printing ____________ 

Route map 

Royal Statistical Society of London.. 

Rubber cement 

Ruling: 
Horizontal ________________ 



_441A, 44IB. 44 1 C 
184. 202B 

450 

68-72. 505 

505 

.170-177. 492B. 505 

441A. 435 

429 434 

342 B 

436 

499A 

381 

475 

24, 263. 292 

283 

^ 372 

397 K 

384 

420A 



.161-169. 505 

358 

368 



Vertical 



Salva \tnnnf(nntg»wai 

Sampling 

Sargent, Walter 

Sasco Photo Products 

Saturday t'.vtninft Pott 

Scucheri, .Mario and Mabel- 

Seale 

Broken _ ______ 



382. 383. 389. 391 



-127A, 135A. 173 

178. 1H7 

428 



For area of circle 

Time 



407 B 

483 

404 

385 

387 

194 

392 

41 IB 

.320. 321A, 321B. 505 

3SXB 

505 



Scaling copy _____ 

Scatter chart 

Schairer. J. F .. 

Schedule charl 

Science Service, Inc. 

Screen 

Seattle Star .._______ 

Sector chart ..._______ 

('umulative 

Made on typewriter- 

On map .. 194-199 

Senii-logarilhmic chart ^ 505 

Shading (^rr ufso Halftone and Crosshatching) 

98. 100. 116, 180. 186. 278A. 278B. 
3S0, 380, 420B. 421. 422 

Shading film 419 

Shaw Blue Print Machine Co. 431 

Shew hart. W. A 381 



._271B. 409 

505 

_ 183B 

-81-91, 363. 505 

91 

378 



Shot-gun charl 

Signature (.See alto PrinllBg). 

Simondt, Frank __— _ 

Sinclair, Prior. — ___^_.^____ 

Slide rule 



U20, SOS 

SOS 

_ . 206 
_ . 328B 
41 IB 



INDEX 



511 



Smith, I.. C, T»pr»«rilrr Cu. 

Smilh. «. II. 

Stnilhrirwrtl l>lll<llli|| 

Sodrtalrniii. % alln 

Soil Ciiiiarrvalian Srrtirr 

South Mmirhiina H*il»a« Co 

Sparinii divijrt 

Sprrd l.taphir ranirra 

Sprrdnat Maniirarliintif ^o. 

Spridrl. Cliarlri « .. ( ». 

SppiM-rr l.rni (!o. 

Spiridlrr t Sauppr, Inr. 

Spiral Hindinii Co. 

Slahl. 4.iiilav K. 

Stall rliarl 

Slampinii I >•<• «/•<> Hindinii) 

Standard Mailing Marliinr Co. . 

Standard Matnlir.. Inr. SOR. l>ri4A. 

Standardt (or tiraphir I'rrtrntati 
IS,;- Timr Srrirt Charuj 

Stanford I nivrrtil* 

SlatitlK-al map 

Slali»tirian** »«alr 

Sirinrr I'aprr Co. 

Strrrographir projrrtion 

Strrrol* pr 

Strvrni Holrl 

Stroblilr Co. 

Sunrav Srratrh board 

Siirfarr rharl 

S%nibol . 

(In map -^^_ 

Hrfrrrnrr _^ 



376R 

?f>2 

I'.n 
ii: 

IhO 
•<UH 
\:il< 

J"<Tlt 

491B 

JT2 

insii 

lOhA 

IS I 

JhIA 

USB. ZMA. 2H7R, SOS 

_ *%\ 

4]:h 

JHIA. 2H2A. 2V2. .lOoU 
Comniilirp 



on 



J22 
IS3-242, SOS 
JS3 
422 
IS4 
421 
45() 

422 
2'»4. 505 

121 

215 
39S 



.211 
.382. 



Tabirt S Tirkri C*> 

Tabulation 

MrrhanKal 

Tackf 

Tallf>. B. B. 

Talhinn 



, __ 375 

33-42, 3V6, SOS 

40 

193 

170 

33. 34 

Trl.buii. Arthur R. - 24 

Trninomrroff. V. A, 24. 309B. 333B. 334. 33S, 370 

Trttilr Kronomict Bureau, '"^ 117 B, 352 

Trtiile It arid 27 

r/iu U rrk 4738 

Thorndikr. Chuck 464 

Thrrr-dimrniional nirthodi 354-3S9. SOS 

Timr >ralr 3'»2 

Time Srrir, Chartt 113. 116. 264. 272. 2H0. 2<»H. 2<<'*. 

3IH. 349. 3H 1-396. 440. 441 

_ _ 1. 247 

ISS. 15b. 2.13A 



Tepiral indrx 

Topoicraphir map _ - 

Toronto Indutlrial ConimUtiaD. 

Trar.. .M. K. 

Traftr chart {Ser olio TraKr map) 

TraSc map - 202B. 219. 222. 223. 224A 



162B. 190B 

_ _ . 125B 

74A 

4B. 227. 

229. SOS 

462 

365 

419. 4S3 

419. 4S3 

32. 36H 



Trantronlinrnlal and Wrslrrn Air. loc. 

Traniil Jouiniil ^ 

Tranfograph Corporation -.^__^.— _-^— 

Trantoxraph thadinn film .._^_— ^ 

TrantparrnI iiiatrrial _ 

Travrlrrt Insurance Company 32, 42, 319A. 47U 

Trend lilB. 275. :H4B. 2KSC, 2S6. 292. 3H5. 463 

Trroholm, J. T.. t Company . _ 3blA 

TrianRlri '. 369A 

TrianKular : 

C»ardirtale papar 3S9A 

Scale 3S3 

Tricolor camera 398 

Tricolor Hrvin camera - 398A 

Tnlincar chart 1 JS9A. 3S9B 

T-».|uarr 369A 

Turntable 49IB. 4V2A 

Two-directional bar '■'">« SOS 

Two-. at bar chart 1 SOS 

T.pc: 

face 4S3 

Siae 4*8. 4S3 

Style 439 

Typcvrilrr 377 

Ucclric 379 

Si; lea 176B 



U 

t'llra tinlrl paint 

I ndrrxond Mli»t ( liber ( ompant 

I moil l<ailrn.id station, l.oi Aniele 

I ni>ri.il< »l < htrago I're.i 

I niird state! (.n«ernnieiil : 

Ariii«, Corpt n( V ngineeri 

lliiirau o( Acririiltiiral Kronoiiiin 

Bureau of (.hrniMlrt and Soili 

Bureau of I'ublic Hoad. 

Bureau of Kerlaiiiatinii 

Citilian t~onter«ation Corp« 

CoatI and t.endrlir Siirvet 

llepnrtiiirnt of Aki iniltiire H4. Hii \ . m.i It. 



Departiiiriil of Con 



Intrtin 
Jllatirr 
labor 



Adii 



Departlnrlil 
Itrparlmrnt 
Drpartiiiriit 

Kmpl. nl 

(arm (redit 
Krdrial linr. 
federal l'o» 
lederal lte.< 
f'orenl Service 

(ieneral I and Office 

(ieologira! Surve> 

I'nited States (.o\ ernnieni— Conlinucd 
Map> 



of IlltrtligMll 
Board 



489 

476 

402A. 402B 

439 

156 

160 

160 

I'lU. I9SA 

IS6 

61A 

'. ISH 

. I > .H. IHI, 

191. |><5. 202A. 27«. 277, 27HB, 

2H«B. 7n'l. .'US. 302B, 313, 314, 

.l.'lll. 321, 362. 422. 495 A 

r 76. i:ilB, I.I9A, I39B, 271A, 

29:A. JOJA. 32HA. JJ6. 33H 

^ .. 44. 46. 69 

. 499B 

i7A. 67, 86L', t06B. UO. 308A 

290 

ion 2H4A 

499 B 

3SA, 97. i73B 

SOOA 

1S6 

1S6 

ISS 



_ISS. 1S6, 160 
National Kraourcet Board (jie« Nalional Kriourcet 
Hoard) 

Affair. 1$6 

I Ser»icc liO 



Office of liidi 
Soil Conierva 
Work. ProKrr 



• Adiiiinitlralion 6IB, 82A, 96. 99, 102A. 

lOIA. iniR. 104, 105, I07A, lOKA, 110. 

IIJ. II3B. UO. IJJA. 134A. 136, 137A, 

1.1:B, lllH, nil. 149, 177A, I7H, IHO, 

III2B, 1117, IHIIA, IHHB, IH9. 211. 230. 

2.HB. 2711. 290A. 300. 304B. 306A, 310. 

311. 312. 315. 317,341, 342A, 343, 34S, 346 

Slatet G>ptuni Company . . 477 



I'n'ilrd Slatrs .\<'u« 

tniled Slalei Steel Conipaoy-. 

Utility paper 



28A 

-494. 49SB 
367 



Value (.Si'f n{jo Color)- 

Van Cleef Broa 

Variable _ .. , 

Dependent -^_»_». 

Independent 

VariTvper 



.42SB. 427B 

. 371 

320 

263. S02 



Vioual caplioni 



263. SOS 

._ 379 

_3HA. 3HB. 39, «. 129, 131A. 249, 
263. 26SA, 265B. 266A. 267, 36S 

w 

\lalker Kngraving Corporation— 2S 

Walker. Ileirn M. ^ _ 24,35 

Ward. Robert _ ^ 231 

Vlarren, 1- . I).. Company 440 

Weather map 2I6A. 216B. 217A. 218. 232A. 232B, 

233B. 234A. 236 

Weber, Martin J. 380,4018 

Welch, U. M., Mauiifacluring Company S2A, S2B 

Uelp, (;eor|;c 427B 

Wen.el, J. 343 

Writinghouie Ktrelrie Manufarluring Campaajr 64 

WheeUrigbt, William Bond 443 



W biting- I'loter I'aper Company 

Wirettllched binding 

*ood block _-__- 

Vood- Began Initrumrnt Compaa; 

Horld'$ Uork .. _ 

\(olnian illuttration b*ar4_^_— _ 
U ricQ lettering pen ■ 

Wycr, S. S. —^-^^—.^—^.^ 



- 426 

- 4S0 

- 41S 
. S74A 
. 342B 



- 411 
. S74A 

- IN 



Young, Charle* M. 



-332A. 423 



Zee chart 

Zeita, (Jarl. Inc. 

Zero line 

Zip-a-Tonc Compaay 



Ml, 3M. 317. 4Sa 

41t 



I 



512 



GRAPHIC PRESENTATION 





f\SVA\UG 






Redrawn. Courtesy of Dave Gerard. Crawfordsville. Indiana 




c/fn old 
Cliinede 

mi 



'On€ Picture IS Worth 
TcN Thousand Words 




to the present Year 1805. 




Uniud %<«u 

of 

Afn«rtc • 



llllliir 




From Frontispiece of Book by WILLIAM PLAYFAIR. An Inquiry Into the 
Permanent Causes of the Decline and Fall of Powerful and Wealthy Nations. 

London, 1805.