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Full text of "Graphology; how to read character from handwriting; studies in character reading, a text-book of graphology for experts, students and laymen"

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GRAPHOMETER 



Copyright, Hugo von Ha gen, 1919. 





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[ETER 



Copyright, Hugo von Hagen, 1919. 




KLINOMETER 



Copyright, Hugo von Hagen, 1919. 



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PACHOMETER 



Copyright, Hugo von Hagen, i<)i<). 



GRAPHOLOGY 

HOW TO READ CHARACTER FROM HANDWRITING 

Studies in Character Reading" 

A TEXT-BOOK OF GRAPHOLOGY FOR 
EXPERTS, STUDENTS AND LAYMEN 



BY 



HUGO J. VON HAGEN, PH.D., M.Tn.D. 

President "American Graphological Society" and member of 
" Societe Graphologique " 



With illustrations including reproductions of 

writing from the earliest ages to the modern 

penmanship, showing the growth and progress 

made in the art of handwriting. 



NEW YORK 

ROBERT R. ROSS, PUBLISHER 
1919 



COPYRIGHT, 1919, 
by Hugo von Hagen. 
All Rights Reserved. 



DEDICATED TO MY FRIEND 
GEORGE W. BREFFIT 



CONTENTS 

GRAPHOMETER Frontispiece 

KLINOMETER . . . . . . '. . . . Frontispiece 

TELEMETER . . . . . ... . . . Frontispiece 

PACHOMETER Frontispiece 

PAGE 

SCIENCE OF READING CHARACTER FROM HANDWRITING ... 1 

HISTORY OF GRAPHOLOGY * . . 4 

GENERAL POINTS 7 

GRAPHOLOGICAL PORTRAIT OF ABRAHAM LINCOLN 8 

GRAPHOLOGICAL PORTRAIT OF EMILE ZOLA 10 

GRAPHOLOGICAL PORTRAIT OF LORD ROSEBERRY 11 

GRAPHOLOGICAL PORTRAIT OF CARMEN SYLVA ...... .12 

GRAPHOLOGICAL PORTRAIT OF GENERAL WILLIAM BOOTH ... 13 

SIMPLIFIED GRAPHOMETER 15 

MARGIN ON PAGE ............. 17 

LINES .24 

HEIGHT OF WRITING 30 

SLOPE OR SLANT OF WRITING 36 

WORD ENDINGS . . ' 44 

ROUND AND ANGULAR WRITING . 50 

PLAIN AND FANCY WRITING 54 

REGULAR AND IRREGULAR WRITING ........ 62 

WIDE AND NARROW WRITING 68 

THIN AND THICK WRITING . . . . . . . . . 73 

SEPARATE AND CONNECTED LETTERS 81 

FIRST STROKES OF LETTERS . . So 

LAST OR END STROKES OF LETTERS 94 

UPPER AND LOWER PARTS OF LETTERS 101 

PUNCTUATION . ..-.'. 105 

SIGNATURES 107 

HISTORICAL SIGNATURES 120 

UNUSUAL WRITERS 135 

FAMILY RESEMBLANCE 140 

GRAPHOLOGICAL ALPHABET . . . . 147 

SPECIAL LETTERS OF THE ALPHABET . 187 

DEVELOPMENT OF WRITING FROM EARLIEST TIMES TO PRESENT DAY, 

INCLUDING GRAPHOLOGICAL SKETCHES ...... 189 

INDEX TO CHARACTERISTICS . . . 318 



ACKNOWLEDGEMENT 

MY DEAE DOCTOR, 

You have been kind enough to dedicate to me your new 
book on Graphology, and, in thanking you for this token 
of friendship, I wish to add that the subject is especially 
interesting to me, as through all my life I have been fasci- 
nated with the study of handwriting, and I have never 
ceased to be astonished at the immense variety met with. 

Every day there appear fresh proofs of the truth of 
your deductions, but what strikes me most forcibly is that 
the formation of written letters is so frequently symbolical 
of the physical and psychic characteristics of a writer. This 
leads me to advise the student of Graphology to seek for 
peculiarities of this nature and thereby enlarge his own 
field of observation and deduction, to the ultimate benefit 
of this branch of science. 

Having had the privilege of reading this book in manu- 
script, I have been greatly impressed with the simplicity of 
its arrangement, and I feel sure it will be found by all 
readers to be of practical value in business, social and other 
walks of life. 

In past years you have often pointed out tendencies to- 
ward certain characteristics in individuals which, though 
not apparent at the time, sooner or later became evident. 
In particular, I remember the case of that young clergyman 
charged with murder, a delineation of whose character from 
his handwriting you gave me, indicating that he would do 



and say certain tilings all of which actually occurred dur- 
ing his trial. 

The excellent examples you have reproduced of the 
earlier stages of the Art of Writing cannot fail to be of 
interest to all lovers of literature. 

With my earnest hope that your book will meet with the 
popularity it deserves, 
I am, 

Sincerely yours, 

GEOKGE W. BEEFFIT. 
New York City, 

4 January, 1919. 



PEEFACE 

" Surely people must know them- 
selves, so few ever think about any- 
thing else. Yes, they think what they 
have, what they shall get, how they 
shall appear, what they shall do, per- 
chance now and then what they shall 
be, but never, or hardly ever, what 
they are." Guesses at Truth. 

IN 1902 I wrote a volume on GRAPHOLOGY, THE SCIENCE OF 
READING CHARACTER FROM HANDWRITING, which was so well 
received that a second edition was published in 1903, which 
also was soon exhausted. 

The many requests by my friends for another volume 
on so interesting- a subject finally induced me to launch 
the present book to fill the demand of a constantly growing 
number of students of graphology. 

Entirely new illustrations are now used and the arrange- 
ment has been improved, making this book more helpful 
to the student and more interesting to the general reader. 

I have moreover added about fifty rare reproductions 
illustrating the history of the Art of Writing which will 
interest graphologists as well as others. 

To the many friends who have so kindly, directly or 
indirectly, contributed specimens of their handwriting, I 
express my hearty thanks and the hope that in this external 
analysis of self they will learn to detect unerringly the 
internal reality. 

HUGO J. VON HAGEN, Pn.D. 
Atlantic City, N. J. 

January, 1919. 



WHEN you have read and studied this book, you are qualified to 
go further in the study of the Science of Graphology. 

For your particular benefit, a correspondence course, consisting 
of twenty lessons, is being prepared. This course will consist of 
written lectures and include practical work under the supervision 
of expert graphologists in making character delineations from speci- 
mens of handwriting. Students will also have the privilege of 
submitting their individual graphological problems. This book is 
used as the text. 

The period of instruction will cover about four months. On 
completion of this course, an examination will be held and students 
securing satisfactory grade will be awarded a certificate of pro- 
ficiency by the American Graphological Society. 

The Publisher maintains a staff of expert Graphologists and 
would be pleased to receive requests from readers for Character- 
Delineations to be made from specimens of handwriting. 

Character-Delineations 
Vocational Guidance 
Credit-Character Analysis 
Disputed Signatures 
Identification of Documents 
Forgeries 
Anonymous Letters 

For information as to terms, etc., address 

ROBERT R. Ross, 

110 West 40th Street, 

New York, N. Y., U. S. A. 



GRAPHOLOGY: THE SCIENCE OF READING CHAR- 
ACTER FROM HANDWRITING 

A PERSON'S HANDWRITING IS A PHOTOGRAPH 
OF HIS CHARACTER 

As long as we are studying penmanship in school or at 
home it is a merely mechanical operation ; we simply follow 
the copy-book or the blackboard letters written by the in- 
structor, but after we have mastered the art of penman- 
ship, we become independent and write and form letters 
of the alphabet to suit our personal taste and ability. 

Our hand then becomes the unconscious instrument of 
our brain and merely transcribes into letters, words and 
sentences, the active thoughts as they are formed. 

Having become used to writing the various letters of the 
alphabet, our hand ceases to record our thoughts, which 
is really done by the ever-active, thinking brain. 

Our individual personality will therefore unconsciously 
form letters greatly at variance with the school copy-book, 
by changing some letters either through the addition or 
the omission of strokes which, in the school-room, we were 
taught to make. 

We find just as many different kinds of handwriting as 
there are people. Just as no two human beings in the 
world are exactly alike, so no two handwritings are similar 
in every detail. 

Through brain-activity we express unconsciously in our 

1 



2 HOW TO BEAD 

handwriting, our feelings, our desires and our will. If 
we even tried, when writing, to conceal them, we could not 
do so, for we cannot change our character overnight and 
a master of this science can easily detect, by a single 
analysis, the real thought, feeling or will-effort dictating 
its obvious counterfeit. 

Graphology, if not absolutely infallible, is at least most 
reliable as a means of self-knowledge and self-develop- 
ment in business and in private life, revealing, as it were, 
from moment to moment, in one's self and in others in all 
his various relations with them, controlling influences that, 
by its application, lead to salutary development or dis 
cipline, corresponding to their nature and intensity. 

Parents may thus discover in the handwritings of their 
young and growing children, characteristics, the culture or 
elimination of which may be of vital importance in their 
future lives. To cultivate the good, generous and noble 
qualities of children and to help them to guard against evil 
inclinations is a religious duty, and the early revelation of 
such tendencies is indispensable to parents, for upon it 
principally depend health or disease, success or failure, 
happiness or misery for the home and its inmates. 

Employers can, by studying the handwriting of their 
employees, guard against laziness, deception, gambling and 
dishonest tendencies, for an analysis of their handwriting 
will surely reveal these, if present. 

Physicians and other healers also may be frequently 
assisted in their diagnoses by a study of their patients' 
handwriting. Obviously, if a physician can detect in his 
patient's handwriting indications of a threatened nervous 
relapse, or an athletic heart, he can, with greater accuracy 
and confidence, treat and possibly prevent an actual attack 



involving the nervous system, the heart, or even produc- 
ing insanity. 

Lastly, the study of Graphology will, by its engrossing 
nature and its wide applicability to the details of daily 
life, public and private and without regard to age, sex, 
profession or occupation, amply repay the moments of 
habitual observation and analysis devoted to its pursuit 
whether for pleasure or from a scientific point of view. 

My more than thirty years' experimental and scientific 
analysis and study of over ten thousand specimens of the 
handwriting of men, women and children of all nationali- 
ties, classes and conditions, ranging from emperors, kings 
and other rulers of men, through millionaires and pro- 
tagonists in all fields of human industry and achievement 
down to hod-carriers and criminals, have unerringly and 
convincingly indicated the certain rules and methods of 
interpreting and reading character which have subsequently 
withstood successfully further exhaustive tests, and are 
now therefore recorded and presented in this book for 
public use and approval. 



HISTORY OF GRAPHOLOGY 

IT may not be generally known that investigations for 
drawing conclusions as to character from handwriting, 
reach back into the first century. The Roman historian 
Suetonius is supposed to be the first writer on record to 
have pointed out a handwriting peculiarity. Suetonius 
writes in A.D. 76 that the Roman Emperor (Octavius) 
Augustus, always connected closely the letters of the last 
word on a line, in order to get the complete word on the 
line. This trait, or graphological sign, indicates economy, 
and a practical mind, which historians all agree were two 
characteristics of the Emperor Augustus. 

As the art of writing gradually ceased to be a monopoly 
of the professional writers of the Middle Ages, and entered 
into general use, we find that a corresponding interest was 
taken in handwriting peculiarities. In the year 1622, 
Doctor Camillo Baldo of Bologna published a small book 
entitled "Trattato come da una lettera missiva si cognos- 
cano la natura e qualita des-crittore." (How to judge the 
nature and character of a person from his letter). A trans- 
lation of his book into Latin was published in 1664 in 
Bologna. 

France came next in taking up this interesting subject 
and during the reign of Louis XIV a graphologist in 
Versailles gave readings of character from handwriting. 
Among these was a remarkable presentment of the gallant 
Grand Monarque, as indicated by a specimen of his hand- 

4 



CHARACTER FROM HANDWRITING 5 

writing furnished by a lady of his Court who was quite 
ignorant of its royal source, and in which the King's foibles 
and vices were so faithfully pointed out and identified that 
the graphologist was imprisoned for a time and even came 
near losing his head. 

The Poet Goethe, in 1820, wrote a small pamphlet on 
graphology, which was much used in later years. Lavater, 
Goethe's intimate friend, also wrote a booklet on grapho- 
logical readings, in which he discussed the more logical 
deductions of characteristics from handwriting. So did 
the Abbe Flandrin while Georges Sand also took much 
interest in the subject. 

The German, Adolf Henze, was one of the best known 
graphologists and handwriting experts of his time 1860 
to 1866 but his delineations were more the result of intui- 
tion than of logical deduction. 

A practical system, however, based upon psychical and 
psychological foundations, was for the first time worked 
out by Abbe Michon and Crepieux-Jamin, both French, in 
the year 1881. About the same time the French Jesuit 
Martin, wrote a pamphlet on a system of graphology. All 
these, however, fell short of laying down any fixed and 
definite system, or method, consisting of rules for deduc- 
tions from habitual peculiarities of handwriting. Never- 
theless, Abbe Michon 's system did evolve a set of logical 
deductions in writing and as this was the first undertaking 
of the kind, he might, notwithstanding his many inaccura- 
cies, be regarded as the father of graphology. His en- 
thusiasm on the subject started others, and in France to- 
day there are perhaps more graphologists than in any other 
country. On September 26, 1885, the Paris paper, 
" Figaro," in its literary columns, published graphological 



character-readings of the principal candidates for high 
office and these delineations greatly assisted its readers in 
making their selections. 

Hans Busse of Bavaria, and J. J. Dilloo and L. Meyer 
of Germany, also have contributed largely to the success 
of graphology in Europe. 

In Paris the "Societe de Graphologie" and in Berlin the 
''Bureau der Graphologie," which teach only graphology, 
keep up the general interest in this practical and useful 
science and train its members and students as handwriting 
experts and graphologists for the law courts. 

In the United States the "American Graphological 
Society" with headquarters in the "World Tower Build- 
ing" in New York City, has but recently been organized, 
and it is hoped that the society will soon have its own 
club house and graphological journal for the use of its 
members. 



GENERAL POINTS ON GRAPHOLOGICAL CHAR- 
ACTER DELINEATION 

THE writing to be analyzed should be preferably written 
in ink on plain paper. It is better to have a specimen of 
handwriting which was not written expressly to be analyzed. 
Intimate and personal letters are better than those of a 
formal and official character. Business letters, aside from 
their signatures, are not so good for the purpose. 

It is desirable when analyzing, to consider separately, 
each one by itself with its respective indication, all the 
habitual peculiarities of the specimen; after which to take 
a general view and consider them together as a single 
unit, and draw a general deduction covering all character- 
istics. 

This book is written in a plain and simple manner so 
that a layman and beginner may at once take up the study 
and in a short time be able to draw accurate deductions 
and make a complete analysis of a writer's character. 

The diagrams in the frontispiece illustrate some of the 
appliances used by graphologists. A, is a graphometer 
for measuring the slopes of letters, the numbers being the 
degrees above or below the line as the case may be. B, a 
klinometer, is used for measuring the slope of the lines. 
C, is a telemeter for measuring the height of the letters 
above or below the line. D, is a pachometer to measure the 
thickness of the strokes. 

To assist the beginner I give five readings which show 

7 



8 HOW TO READ 

the manner of making analysis. The first is a handwriting 
specimen of Emile Zola, the French author, critic and poet. 
The second is the writing of Lord Rosebery, one of the 
prime ministers of England. The third is the writing of 
Carmen Sylva, Queen of Roumania, famous as poetess and 
author. The fourth is that of the late General Booth, of 
the Salvation Army. 

In addition to these, I give a character delineation of our 
martyred President, Abraham Lincoln. 

ABKAHAM LINCOLN 

The graphological reading of Lincoln was made from 
the letter reproduced, and is of interest to the student 
of graphology, who can compare the historical sketch with 
the graphological reading and see how closely one resembles 
the other in the familiar characteristics of the great martyr 
President, Abraham Lincoln. 

The principal characteristics, which stand out promi- 
nently in Lincoln's handwriting, are : 

Activity Idealism 

^Estheticism Individuality 

Aggressiveness Levelheadedness 

Ambition Love of Family Life 

Carefulness Love of Justice 

Cautiousness Love of Outdoor Life 

Clearness Memory, good 

Common sense Mental depression 

Combat iveness, not openly Modesty 

Concentration Nobility of purpose 

Courage of his convictions Perseverance 

Deduction Persistence 

Diligence Plainness 

Eccentricity Prudence 

Economy Reserve 

Energy Resisting power, strong 

Enterprise Sadness 

Exactness Sensitiveness 

Faithfulness Simplicity 



*/. 



/ 





CHARACTER FROM HANDWRITING 9 

Forethought Spirituality 

Geniality Suavity 

Harmoniousness Suffering 

Humor Versatility 

Humility Will-power, strong 

From these we deduce, that his versatility and ability 
to adapt himself to whatever conditions arose, added power 
to his acts, for long before his opponent had finished pre- 
senting a matter, Lincoln had definitely decided what he 
should do regarding it. He rarely changed his opinion 
and almost never expressed it until he had had time to 
think it over, for his long forceful t dashes extending far 
ahead of the t, indicate not only energy, enterprise and 
protectiveness, but deep thinking and precision. 

There was little conceit in Lincoln; there are no fancy 
flourishes or unnecessary strokes. There was no preten- 
sion and almost no expression of enthusiasm, for the 
downward signature is an indication that he was inclined to 
depreciate his own achievements, to be pessimistic, perse- 
vering, however, with a determination not easily lessened. 

While Lincoln possessed and used a fair amount of 
logic, it was largely his "looking ahead" and not the ques- 
tion of the immediate future that decided his actions, for 
in each word is shown by the various slants, pressure of 
the pen, the immense amount of energy he applied. 

Economy was a pronounced trait; this seems to have 
been interlinked with his lack of independence in regard 
to unnecessary expenditure. Wliile independent in affairs 
of the nation, of public interest, his writing shows sensitive- 
ness and a tendency to shrink from any resemblance to an 
argument in personal matters. Secretive to some extent 
and yet an able, influential talker, especially when prompted 
by what he thought was duty. 



10 HOW TO READ 

Lincoln was keenly appreciative of music, his biographers 
say, but in his handwriting more than love of music, was 
musical inclination, and undoubtedly, had there been any 
development along this line, Lincoln would have produced 
pleasing results. 

GRAPHOLOGICAL, CHARACTER READING or EMILE ZOLA 
Author. Born in 1840 in Paris; son of an Italian engineer. 




Many-sided brilliancy. Gifted, harmonious, philosophical 
mind. Highly idealistic : Enthusiastic toward all noble, 
beautiful and great thoughts in his own life, in others and 
in nature. Clear observer; allowed little to escape him. 
Oratorical gifts; eccentric and steadfast in his own way, 
proud and above others. A nature which is either one way 
or the other. Decisive. A proud heart. Either desires to 
be immensely happy, or desperately miserable, and the 
latter he has been frequently by the choice of his nature. 

Dependent upon others. Denies his own originally great, 
beautiful nature. Quarrels with God and Fate. Merciless 
critic, especially of all religious ideas. Pities all people. 
Angry with himself. Curses the day on which he was 
born. Refuses arbitration; remains angry; pledges to re- 



CHARACTER FROM HANDWRITING 



11 



venge his fate; fights in sharp attacks; bitter, fanatical, 
diabolical; stabs with doubly sharpened tongue; full of 
hatred, and all this from mere self-pity, perhaps on account 
of unreturned love, just because things did not occur ac- 
cording to his way of thinking. Obstinately nervous, some- 
times losing control of his temper. 

LORD ROSEBEEY 

Born in 1847 in London. Son of Lord Dalmeny, British 
Prime Minister. 

High above others; unapproachable; a God upon earth. 
Takes for granted that he will find in others absolute obedi- 
ence and subservience. Looks after interests of his friends 




and servitors. Spendthriftily generous. Likes himself afi' 
patron and philanthropist. Coldly polite and courteous; 
polished in manners. 

Strategical; always at the front. Woe to evildoers. Is 
a collector of curios; farsighted, makes sacrifices; aggres- 
sive and cannot be scared when attacked. Good investiga- 
tor ; makes others follow him. Practical ; denies the means 



12 HOW TO READ 

more than the end or aim. Determined equanimity and 
coolness. Will and nerve-power ; influence over others. 

Poetical taste; sense of the beautiful in Art and Nature. 

Clean, critical, logical reasoner. Seeks and uses light 
and truth in order to obey. 

Converses with his God. Willing to listen to others but 
impatient. Lives with a clear conscience. Knows what 
he wants and must do. Works sincerely and with pleasure. 
Thinks and acts without caring for opinion of the world. 
Needs room for his own expansion. Rules a great world 
of thought and ideas. 



CABMEN SYLVA 

Queen of Roumania, born in 1843 as Ottilie Luise Eliza- 
beth. Princess of Wied; married 1869 to King Charles 
of Roumania. Poetess, under name of Carmen Sylva. 




13 

Hothouse plant; very sensitive, nervous nature. Runs 
with head against wall and pities the wound thus made. 
Cannot adapt herself to circumstances but wants circum- 
stances to adapt themselves to her. Eternally desiring; 
never satisfied. Artistic soul. Never understood by others, 
as she does not care to understand them. Influenced by 
impressions and sentiments. Must be handled carefully 
with gloves. Loves to be worshipped. Wants to be ad- 
mired and sought, but seems outwardly indifferent and 
cold, although most anxious to be found. Admires her- 
self. Pities herself in a rough, coarse world. Sighs dream- 
ingly. Undertakes large and wonderful things in thought, 
but comes down considerably when executing them. Puts 
blame upon others, demands perfection in others but can- 
not see faults in herself. Desires to direct others and 
make them subservient to her. Hysterically inclined. En- 
forces her way in all seeming humility. Never gives up 
a wish or desire once made. Loves warmly and sincerely 
as long as she can be the only queen of the heart she loves 
at the time. 

GENERAL WILLIAM BOOTH 
Salvation Army Head. 




Severe, hard, despotic, autocratic over earth. Pleased with 
himself, self-loving, self-justified, feels his power, desires 
to climb still higher. 



14 CHARACTER FROM HANDWRITING 

Naked, practical character. Likes himself in his posi- 
tion; lost himself in it. Rather narrow, one-sided, pedan- 
tic; constructive and executive power. Inventive mind, 
loves intrigues, possessed with ideas. Sensational; with- 
out taste and no harmony. Hard upon himself and others. 
Never has enough. Holds fast what he has. Enlarges his 
successes. Does not let his right hand know what his left 
hand does. Plays two numbers at same time, that is, he 
always has two strings to pull on same matter. Always 
sees two yolks in his egg. Shrewd and careful, reserved, 
never loses his place in argument. Untiring nerve and 
working power. Soul built up at cost of body and mind. 
Afraid of his own real character. 

"And if I talked with tongues of men and angels, but 
had not charity, I would be as sounding brass or a tinkling 
cymbal. ' ' 



THE GRAPHOMETER 

To make a thorough analysis of a specimen of handwriting 
it is well to use the simplified graphometer as illustrated 




L/NE 



<Ju.ra.tlt.rt*lccs 'of 

5 



of 



here, which shows the various degrees by which the slant 
or leaning of letters or words can be judged; helping, in 
conjunction with the other signs, to form a complete index 
of the writer's characteristics. 

Hypnotized persons, w r hen writing, will generally assume 
the character of the individual they picture themselves 
to be and will change their handwriting accordingly. For 
example, a dry goods clerk, of a weak physical nature and 

15 



16 



CHARACTER FROM HANDWRITING 



writing a thin, weak hand, as in illustration Fig. 6, will, 
on being hypnotized, and told to assume the character of 
Napoleon I, write a strong, energetic hand, as in illus- 



tration Fig. 7. 



r 
**' 




Normal writing of subject. 




After being hypnotized. 



Graphology is, of course, very useful in court proceed- 
ings, in libel cases, forgery of wills and other documents 
and many other matters, as it is easy for a graphologist 
to discover from a sample of his usual handwriting whether 
a person has written a particular script. No matter how 
careful a forger is, he will always unconsciously put into 
the forged instrument some of his own habitual strokes or 
marks by which he can be detected and convicted. 



GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS 
MARGIN ON PAGE 

WHEN observing a specimen of writing, one of the first 
peculiarities to be noticed is the margin the writer has left 
on each page. This is really of more value to the hand- 
writing expert than to the graphologist as not many psy- 
chological characteristics are found in the margin. 

There are margins, of course, on top, below, to the left 
and to the right of the page. 

No margin at all, as shown in specimen Fig. 8, in order 
to utilize all the paper, indicates great economy in the 
writer. No matter how cheap' the paper used, a close- 
fisted miser or stingy person always tries to save and 
economize space and further emphasizes this character- 
istic by writing his words and lines very close together. 

/&rw&fc^ Qv+^i- C t 



h fc- <& 



17 



18 HOW TO READ 

Very wide margins, like Fig. 9, therefore, indicate the 
opposite to the very narrow, namely: liberality and gen- 




C^f. 




erosity, also observance of social usage, with tendency to 
waste and extravagance. 

The graphologist will naturally differentiate, when ana- 
lyzing a specimen, between a formal business letter and a 
friendly and intimate note. 

Very evenly kept margins are quite rare; they indicate 
persons who love careful order and precision and who pos- 




C/U^C^ TV?*- y$/0 ^^ f*^> 





to 



CHARACTER FROM HANDWRITING 



19 



sess great evenness of mind and temper. See the next 
illustration, Fig. 10, which is the usual handwriting of a 
charming gentleman, one of America's best living writers 
and poets. 

Very uneven margins, as in illustration Fig. 11, especially 
on the left of the page, indicate irregularity, unevenness 
in thought and action, carelessness, a changeable character 
and fickleness. Sometimes, if extremely uneven and ir- 
regular, we have great nervous unrest; and if such ex- 
ceedingly uneven margins are made suddenly by persons 
who previously never used them, we have signs of a coming 
nervous breakdown and prostration. 




^ 



If the left margin begins narrow and grows wider toward 
the bottom of the page, as in Fig. 12, especially with the 
lines growing smaller and narrower, we can be sure that 
the writer wishes to control his natural tendency toward 



20 



HOW TO READ 



generosity and spending, but that this tendency will break 
out sooner or later. 




The opposite to this last is found in the space being very 
wide at the top of the page and then narrowing down to a 
very small or almost no margin at the bottom of the page, 
as in Fig. 13. Such writers are likely to play "big" among 



outsiders, but they are very "small" 
spend thousands as "a good fellow" 



at home; they will 
or in liberal charity 




CHARACTER FROM HANDWRITING 



21 



donations, but they actually suffer pain and are grouchy 
if forced to give a few pennies for their regular household 
expenses. Wives have hard work getting household allow- 
ances to pay grocery and butcher bills from husbands who 
write thus. 

Frequently we find the margin small at the top of the 
page, widening toward the center, and then growing smaller 
again toward the bottom, as in Fig. 14. Such writers are 
by nature careful and economical; finding themselves in 
some way spending more than they ought, they stop to 
consider, they think matters over and form new resolu- 
tions; they reform and thus begin to save again and be- 
come thrifty. 




14 



22 

The opposite to the foregoing is seldom found; Fig. 15 
however is an illustration of this style. Such writers act 
outwardly quite liberally, they start however to save, cut 
down and economize, become rather over-careful, on ac- 
count of their natural tendency to do so ; then they remem- 
ber perhaps their social or business standing, and again 
display liberality. 




If the margin on the right hand side of the page is used 
up carefully, as in Fig. 16, intermittent economy is indi- 




/ '7*~+ 




23 

cated, just as if the writer was afraid his money would 
not hold out. The Roman Emperor Augustus wrote thus. 

It is very interesting to notice how a poor struggling 
person, who, through some change of fortune, suddenly 
becomes wealthy, at once, unconsciously, as it were, en- 
larges the margin on the page of his letter in "sympathy" 
with his suddenly acquired riches, while a spendthrift who 
is by circumstances forced to economize, will simultane- 
ously narrow down the margin of his letter. 



LINES 

WHEN analyzing handwriting, specimens are always pre- 
ferred which are written on paper without lines, as im- 
portant characteristics of the writer are found in the align- 
ment of a page. Of course, there are persons who seem 
to be unable to write at all, except on lined paper, or with 
a heavily ruled paper underneath; nearly all such writers 
may at once be set down as being rather weak, helpless and 
dependent natures, who like to lean upon others for sup- 
port and advice. 

Others again, even if forced by circumstances to use 
lined or ruled paper, do not follow the printed lines but 
write above, between or below them. Such writers possess 
an independent character which enables them to cut out 
their own way in life or to use an Americanism: "they 
paddle their own canoe." 




CHARACTER FROM HANDWRITING 



25 



Writers who always write a straight and steady hori- 
zontal line, even without lined or ruled paper, as in illus- 
tration Fig. 17, are as a rule steadfast characters who pro- 
ceed on their daily way with an equanimity that is not 
disturbed by commonplace events ; they are generally trust- 
worthy and sincere. 

We execute centrifugal movements in writing whenever 
we make upward or rising lines, pen-strokes or word-end- 
ings. Such upward or rising tendencies, as in illustration 
Fig. 18, especially when noticed throughout a whole page, 
indicate great diligence, confidence, activity, hopefulness, 
enthusiasm, and ambition, and when combined with strong, 
well marked pen-strokes, show courage and daring also. 




Downward movements, in pen-strokes, word-endings and 
lines, similar to the next illustration, Fig. 19, are executed 
by the writer through centripetal movements. They ex- 
press the opposite psychic characteristic to the upward or 
rising lines and strokes. Psychic and physical depression, 
anguish and weariness, discouragement, lack of enterprise, 
laziness and cowardice, are some of the characteristics of 
such writers, especially when in addition to downward 



26 



HOW TO READ 



lines they write a very thin round hand. Many such writers 
carry themselves, even when Walking on the street, in an 
unsteady, weak way, with body bent forward. 




19 



Others write upward and downward on the same line, 
causing a "wavy" line, similar to Fig 20. Careful study 




20 




&L^ 



/ 



/ - 



20a 



CHARACTER FROM HANDWRITING 27 

and weighing of other signs are necessary when analyzing 
such wavy-line writers. Wavy lines when accompanied 
by round, fine, thin or w r eak pen-strokes, indicate weak- 
ness, uncertainty and lack of independence. 

When such wavy lines are written with regular, even- 
pen-strokes, as in Fig. 21, we can be quite sure that chief 
among the writer's characteristics, are not only cunning, 
hypocrisy, diplomatic ability, power of deception, but also 
adaptability, smoothness and suavity of speech and manner. 




21 



// lines are made in upward curves, as in Fig. 22, we 
have a character who may have to use great effort to start 
new undertakings or perform duties, but who will surely 
carry out and fulfill them, no matter at what cost. 




22 

// the lines form a downward half -circle that is, open 
below as in Fig. 23, which was written by one of Amer- 
ica's foremost statesmen, we find characteristics opposite 



28 



HOW TO READ 



to those of the previous writer. There is always much 
passing interest and enthusiasm shown in matters of labor, 
enterprise, love and duty by such writers, but little real 
will-power an denergy. They always begin with great am- 
bition many more enterprises than they are able to com- 
plete, see also Fig. 24. So-called " hustlers" who seem 



23 




A 




24 



always very busy, but in reality accomplish very little, are 
in this class. 

Many writers are so easily impressed that they write 
their lines and word-endings upward when they have heard 




zs 



CHARACTER FROM HANDWRITING 29 

good news, and downward when bad news has been re- 
ceived. See illustration Fig. 25. Others, again, have a ten- 
dency to change suddenly their usually even or upwardly 
slanted lines to a strong downward line when becoming ill 
or when facing a sudden sorrow or trouble. 

I have among my own friends a score of writers who 
have thus given premonitions of impending illness, es- 
pecially of liver and kidney troubles, several days or even 
weeks before actual medical treatment, by a progressing 
tendency to write their lines and word-endings with a down- 
ward tendency. They unconsciously return to their former 
and usual style of writing after convalescence. 




News of the sudden death of a dear one usually causes 
a temporary tendency to downward strokes and lines. The 
specimen of 25-a was the abnormal result of such a cause, 
the normal handwriting of the writer being quite different. 



HEIGHT OR SIZE OF THE WRITING 

WE call a writing, or penmanship specimen, "large" when 
both the capitals as well as the small letters are broad and 
long. It is called "small" or "fine" when both capitals 
and small letters are narrow and short. If the small let- 
ters are longer than usual, the specimen may be considered 
" large"; when not so, it may be considered "small." 

A large hand, similar to Fig. 26, Fig. 26-a and Fig. 26-b, 
is characteristic of royal and other personages, the aris- 
tocracy, and noble-minded men and women. Accordingly 
a large, elegant handwriting is frequently called "aristo- 
cratic." 




26 



CHARACTER FROM HANDWRITING 



31 





26 B 



The suddenly rich also develop a tendency to large hand- 
writing soon after the turn of the wheel of fortune. They 
seem all at once to be obsessed with a desire to employ 
and exercise authority and power, which they manifest 
by a corresponding physical enlargement and elegance of 
handwriting. Specimens of writing of such newly rich 
persons taken ''before and after" are most interesting to 
the graphologist. Fig. 27 was written by a mining man 



32 



HOW TO READ 



when he was a " Captain" of a Prairie Schooner in the 
West, w y hile Fig. 28 was written by him in a letter to the 
author after he had amassed a fortune of many millions 
of dollars. The contrast between his old and his new life 
is most faithfully reflected by the respective specimens. 




28 



Extremely large letters, similar to illustration Fig. 29, 
are used frequently by fantastic persons, by many poeti- 
cally inclined natures and by the affected and conceited 
writer whose estimate of himself far exceeds that of his 
acquaintances, and who depends for success in life, rather 
upon "luck" or bluff than upon real ability. This style 
of handwriting is also affected by so-called "over-edu- 
cated" persons, and extreme egotism bordering on and 
eventually developing into real insanity, is often preceded 



CHARACTER PROM HANDWRITING 



33 



and indicated by an enlarged and extremely sloped hand- 
writing, years previous to an actual outbreak. 




A large and at the same time an elegant hand, indicates 
a desire to be someone of consequence or importance, and 
it is a mark of pride, self-consciousness, love of power and 
glory. Writers who use this style in a natural way gen- 
erally have a wide and broad horizon, and look at life as 
a whole unit, never caring much for details. 

Small writing, as in Fig. 30, naturally indicates the op- 
posite to the large. Those who are much preoccupied with 



34 HOW TO READ 

details, for example jurists, professors, literary and art 
critics, teachers and others who are habitually segregated 
from their fellowmen, often write a small hand; as do eco- 
nomical and parsimonious persons. A sudden change from 
a large to a small hand may frequently indicate a tendency 
to affection of the brain. 

Nearsighted persons often write a small hand, but as a 
complete analysis includes the consideration of all indi- 
cated characteristics it is easy to distinguish this condition. 

Small writing, when plain and without any loops and 
other fanciful unnecessary decorations, similar to specimen 
Fig. 31, stands for simplicity, modesty, preference for 
family life, economy, little desire for power; a well de- 
veloped faculty of observation, but limited horizon. Ladies 
whose handwriting is of this kind, delight in home work, 
like lacemaking and embroidery. 




If only the capital or first letters of a word are very 
large but the other letters very small, as in Fig. 32, so 
that the contrast is made prominent and obvious, vanity, 
egotism, selfishness and affectation will be surely found. 



CHARACTER FROM HANDWRITING 



35 



Hence, snobs and creatures whose only title to superiority 
is limited to their own belief, are easily detected by this 
"earmark." 




32 



THE SLOPE OR SLANT OF THE WRITING 

THE observation of the slope of handwriting is essential. 
The graphometer (Fig. 5) is taken from my book: "Graph- 
ology," published in 1902. The correctness and value of 
the instrument have been repeatedly tested and finally es- 
tablished so that it is now used universally by grapholo- 
gists as the acid test of the real inner, or soul-life of the 
writer. This feature is indispensable to experts in cases 
of forgery where abnormal variation of slope or slant in 
the forged instrument has convincingly proved the offense. 
Illustration Fig. 33 shows a " strong slanting hand"; Fig. 
34 an upright, almost vertical writing, and Fig. 35 illus- 
trates a backhand writing. 






35 

Graphologists have proved that the greater the slope 
or slant, the more sensitive, nervous and irritable the 



CHARACTER FROM HANDWRITING 



37 



writer. Women and girls as a general rule, write more 
slantingly than males. Suffragettes are no exception and 
even students of vertical handwriting incline toward slant- 
ing their letters. 




The psychological explanation of this sex difference in 
regard to handwriting consists in the fact that the female 
generally has the stronger and more sensitive feeling and 
temperament. The above specimen, Fig. 36, indicates that 
the writer has a fair amount of sensitiveness, but little 
passion. 

The nexi specimen, Fig. 37, with a slant of about 30, 
indicates great sensitiveness, in fact, a nervous irritability; 




37 



38 



HOW TO READ 



intolerance of contradiction, which, followed by argument, 
finally ends in tears. If such slanting writing consists also 
of strong, regular and heavy pen-strokes, as in the next 




specimen (illustration Fig. 38), not only sensitiveness, but 
a strongly passionate nature are indicated. The writer 
will not tolerate contradiction : his will must prevail, other- 
wise tears, hard words, or even blows will ensue- 
When the slope or the slant of the writing becomes less 
than 25 as in Fig. 39 then we look for sickly-soul con- 
ditions and a pathological irritability, especially if the 




CHARACTER FROM HANDWRITING 39 

writing is very thin, sharp and angular. Such writers 
have no control over their feelings and change quickly with 
surroundings hysterically inclined persons are similarly 
characterized and indicated. Writers who are able to keej 
cool and control their feelings, both in business and in 
private affairs, make a rather straight slant say from 
70 to 80, as in specimen Fig. 40, similar to that found 
in the next specimen. They make good business men and 




40 

business women. They reason deliberately and fully be- 
fore allowing their hearts to run away with or even qualify 
their judgment. They are cool natures who completely 
repress sentiment. 

An even, almost vertical hand like Fig. 41 and Fig. 42 
rather neat and round, without many angular, left and 
backhand strokes, indicates politeness and courtesy to 
strangers and natural good heartedness. Such writing is 




4I 



40 



HOW TO READ 




frequently adopted by ladies in middle life with "histories" 
behind them. See Fig. 43. 






These naturally become more distant and reserved, as 
is indicated not only in their writing but also by their 
facial expression. 








43 *, 




41 

When the slant is backward as in Fig. 43-a we may be 
sure of the writer's deceitfulness and hypocrisy. I have 
never in my 30 years' graphological experience, found a 
single case of backhand writing where the writer did not, 
sooner or later, conform to my graphometer. Such writers 
are untrustworthy and unreliable, with a streak of deceit, 
hypocritical cunning and willingness to stab their best 
friend in the back, in business or in love. 





The above specimens, Fig. 44 and Fig. 45, are those of 
two co-partners in a law firm; both pleasant, sociable fel- 
lows under certain circumstances; both smooth and over- 
polite when occasion demands; yet both succeeded for sev- 
eral years, in deceiving their best friends with hypocrisy 
inspired by criminal selfishness. 

When analyzing backhand specimens, the graphologist 
must always make due allowance for naturally left-handed 
writers and librarians who have perhaps honestly con- 
tracted a vertical style. See illustration Fig. 46, written 
by a librarian of 30 years' experience. 



42 



HOW TO READ 




If, in a writing, letters of a line or of a word vary from 
backhand and straight to slanting as illustrated in the 
next specimen, Fig. 47 a constant conflict between the 
heart and the brain is indicated. Many persons write thus 
who do not live under congenial conditions. 





JL, 





i 



47 




If the vertical letters of a script are more frequent than 
the slanting letters, as shown in specimens Fig. 48, Fig. 
49 and Fig. 50, it may be taken for granted that reason 
and self-control are in the saddle ; but if the slanting letters 
are more numerous, then passion, anger and touchy irri- 



CHARACTER FROM HANDWRITING 



43 



tability predominate. Exclamation-points and question- 
marks must be similarly read. Quick-tempered and pas- 
sionate persons generally slant these very much, as is 
shown in the third illustrated specimen. 






/ 



46 




49-50 



WOEDS WITH LARGER AND SMALLER ENDINGS 

Children will generally write the letters of a word, es- 
pecially one of two or more syllables, longer and larger 
toward the end of the w r ord than at the beginning, some- 
what like the next specimen, Fig. 51. 




In spite of the frequency or severity of correction, chil- 
dren will always resume this habit until it is outgrown. 

If we find such writing in cases of adults, we may safely 
put them down as persons with small and backward minds 
who nevertheless are likely to have positive, but narrow, 
childish views and ideas. Simple-minded people write in 
this manner, also elderly men and women with incipient 
dotage. This simply means that the persons are in their 
second childhood, able to reproduce with wonderful ac- 
curacy what they did in their early years, while their mem- 
ory fails to serve them in regard to how they did things 
later in life. The last illustration, Fig. 51, is that of a 
seven year old child, the next two are those of men over 

44 



CHARACTER FROM HANDWRITING 45 

seventy-five years of age who, when ten years younger, 
wrote an even and correct hand. See Fig. 52 and Fig. 52-a. 
Forgetfulness has now become a characteristic. 




52 





52a 

Such writers are garrulous and tedious in company, 
while it may be added, a person of middle age or younger 
who thus writes, and who may seem bright, active and 
cultured, will probably be a victim of paresis Or paranoia 
at no distant day. 

The next illustration, Fig. 53, is taken from a letter 
written by Oscar Wilde, when he was in his 28th year. It 
shows strong individuality, loquaciousness and imagina- 
tion, self-consciousness and unconventionality, bordering 
en abandon, and a desire to overstep liberty and conven- 
tion ; also a very active nervous system, or what the French 
call: "Une nature toujours vibrante." The script also 
reveals aesthetic sensuousness and a lack of resistance- 
power; a dreamer, to whom work is repugnant. View the 
next specimen, Fig. 54, written by him ten years later and 
observe how the weak sides of his character have become 



4(5 



HOW TO READ 



more pronounced than the few strong characteristics he 
evinced when he wrote the first letter. Excitement per- 
vades the whole writing. His sensuousness has developed 




considerably with a strong propensity to abandon him- 
self to his proclivities, most unconventional and unnatural. 
The opposite to the increasing is the diminishing endings 
of words and lines. Shrewd, cunning, ' ' smart ' ' people and 



CHARACTER FROM HANDWRITING 47 

many diplomats write thus. The next three specimens il- 
lustrate this point fully, see Fig. 55-a, Fig. 55-b and Fig. 
55-c. This writing creates the impression that the writer 
is actuated by the desire to retain possession, as it were, 
of the last syllable of his words or the endings of his sen- 
tences. This brings to mind the case of diplomats, who 
exemplify this constant effort to retain, or conceal, thoughts 
when ostensibly parting with, that is, expressing them. 
This means that they expressly conceal by their language, 
and retain buried deep in their souls that which they pro- 
fess to openly express. 




55 a, 
/^C^C^L^ 




55 b 




55 c 

If words or syllables end with a horizontal dash or line 
uniformly and not here or there throughout the script, 
as in Fig. 56, we may safely include among the charac- 



48 



HOW TO READ 




56 

teristics of the writer, secretiveness and ability to disguise 
real feelings with the mask of an outward smile. Such 
people employ great cunning in their dealings. 

// word-endings diminish only slightly and do not any- 
where run out into a horizontal line, as in Fig. 57, prudence 



*^* 



57 

and reserve are indicated, as in the case of worldly-wise 
characters who never tell all they know at one time, and 
who learn quickly through experience. 

When we find in the same specimen both increasing and 
diminishing word-endings, as shown in illustration Fig. 58, 




CHARACTER FROM HANDWRITING 49 

the writer is reserved and secretive as well as open and 
conscientious. 

Larger growing word-endings finishing with a heavy, 
thick, downward pen-stroke, which sometimes crosses the 
other letters of a word, as in Fig. 59, indicate energy and 



< 




ambition; also violence and passion. Such writers never 
stop to contemplate the consequences of their acts upon 
others, whom they hardly ever consider. 






Whenever we find words with letters of an even length 
or height, as in Fig. 60, growing neither larger nor smaller, 
we may always feel safe in giving the writer a clean bill 
of health as to morals and conscience. 

They are as a rule trustworthy and upright. 



ROUND AND ANGULAR WRITING 

All handwritings are either round or angular. It is easy 
for even a layman to understand that a jovial person of 
easy going habits, with smooth conversational ability and 
a peace-loving nature, will write a round, smoothly flowing 
hand, somewhat like the next specimen, Fig. 61. Con- 




61 

versely, the energetic, serene, stern, cold and hard-hearted 
person would naturally make rather angular letters with 
many sharp corners and points, like the following illus- 
tration, Fig. 62. 



62 

60 



CHARACTER FROM HANDWRITING 



51 



If handwriting of rounded and curved letters consists 
of thin, weak pen-strokes with the lines having downward 
tendency, similar to the specimen Fig. 63, we may safely 




analyze it as that of a very easy going and lazy person 
who possesses little or no physical or moral courage. 

A distinct graphological sign of love of justice and fair- 
ness is found in sharp or angular writings that end at each 
word with the last pen-stroke forming a right angle, similar 
to Fig. 64. Such handwriting indicates persons who are 




generally most sincere, honest and good-hearted; they are 
the soul of justice and fairness, and they generally express 
themselves with a frankness which is bordering on rude- 
ness. 



52 HOW TO READ 

Cruelty, brutality and animal instincts are expressed in 
angular handwritings, where all edges and corners of the 
various letters look like sharp, prickling thorns, as in Fig. 
65. All cruel natures write thus. I have examined per- 



*^*^^^^*^<A^^rv^ 







haps five hundred specimens of the handwriting of pris- 
oners who were confined for murder, manslaughter, homi- 
cide. rape, and assault. Very seldom did I find this char- 
acteristic missing in these cases, perhaps in not more than 
1%. When the final strokes of such writing are excep- 
tionally sharp, thick and large, as in illustration Fig. 65-a, 





65 a. 



we have also great inconsiderateness, tyranny and use of 
power for cruel and selfish ends. 

Members of the female sex who habitually use very an- 
gular letters and no round or curved strokes at all are 



CHARACTER FROM HANDWRITING 



53 



best let alone. (See specimen Fig. 66.) They invariably 
develop into undesirable spinsters or old maids and never 
into good wives or mothers. They never tire of complain- 
ing that 'they have "such hard work to get along" with 
their neighbors and their family. 

They seldom make or keep friends. They must always 
have the last word, whether right or wrong. It is there- 
fore advisable for both men and women to select as friends 
or life partners persons whose handwriting is composed 
of an equal number of round and angular letters or pen- 
strokes, for this proportion will insure the combination of 
the good, severe qualities with amiability, sociability, 
adaptability and courtesy. 




PLAIN AND FANCY WRITING 

Plain writing consists of letters made without any un- 
necessary strokes or fanciful additions. See illustration 
Fig. 67. 



&**^ 



-c <*0+^ ~^*<>-c 




Persons of a strong and powerful intellectuality gener- 
ally write a very plain and simple hand. They have no 
time to think of how they write but only of what they are 
writing. They produce, as a rule, clear, easily read chiro- 
graphy. 

Plain writing indicates clearness and level-headedness, 
while intermixed and interwoven letters and pen-strokes, 

54 



55 

like Fig. 68, signify either a muddlehead or a cunning, 
tricky mind. 




Persons who write very plain, pointed capital letters, as 
in Fig. 69, or the first letters of whose words throughout 
their writing are plain and pointed, always have much love 
for art and the beautiful in nature; they see at once only 
the beauty and goodness of their environment before even 
noticing the unpleasant side. 




fe 




9 



tl 




56 



HOW TO READ 



They have good taste in general and a desire to be cor- 
rect and exact as well as plain in their daily life; they 
rarely care much for outward show. There are not many 
women of this class; when you find one, cultivate her. 

One's occupation is frequently very plainly indicated in 
his handwriting. The writing of persons with large coarse 
hands, who are obliged to do manual labor, is generally 
heavy and clumsy, while others with delicate, thin taper- 
ing fingers, generally write in daintier style. The latter 
can, if required, make heavier strokes, but the heavy, 
clumsy or vulgar person cannot very well write an elegant 
hand. 




70 

Musicians frequently indicate their profession in their 
handwriting by unconsciously making letters similar to 
musical notes and cleffs. Fig. 70 is the signature of Pad- 
erew T sky, the well-known pianist 

Many musicians make marks like violin bows or note- 




CHARACTER FROM HANDWRITING 57 



keys as part of their signatures. Illustration Fig. 71 is 
the signature of the famous tenor, Caruso, and Fig. 72 
that of the violinist, Fritz Kreisler. Fig. 73 is the signa- 




ture of the opera singer, Geraldine Farrar. All plainly 
show their musical proclivities in their handwriting. 

Professors and students of Latin, Greek and other dead 
or oriental languages frequently make in their writings 




letters that originated in the ancient alphabets and which 
are similar to Greek letters. Fig. 74 is the signature of a 
professor of Latin and Greek. 

Physicians and druggists often fashion certain of their 
letters to resemble chemical signs, just as employed when 
they are writing prescriptions. Figs. 75, 76 and 76-a are 



58 



HOW TO READ 



specimens of chemists and assayers ; Fig. 77 that of a promi- 
nent and successful physician and Fig. 77-a of a student of 
biology. 




76 



J~* X_-/CA^O- > 



76a 



77 




77a 



The same characteristic holds good with regard to teach- 
ers of mathematics and to accountants. They very often 
make letters single or combined with others that much re- 



CHARACTER FROM HANDWRITING 



59 



semhle figures. The signatures Fig. 78 and Fig. 79 are 
those of a railroad accountant and a comptroller. 



^Vt-v->. 



<*./.;/ 

/kA/JL^ 




When one's writing, especially that of a female, shows 
sudden thickening of various down strokes, similar to Fig. 
80, we may safely interpret this peculiarity as a yearning 
for someone to love. Many spinsters write thus, and the 




60 



HOW TO READ 



further they plod through life, the more do they emphasize 
this sudden thickening of the downward strokes of one or 
more letters of a word. Such writers attach much impor- 
tance to outward show and to etiquette. They love to fondle 
and caress little children and members of the opposite sex. 
Tendency to vanity and a desire to please are among their 
characteristics. Of course there are also many men, espe- 
cially in professional and student life, and widowers, who 
write in this style; friends often call them "fussy." (See 
Fig. 81.) 




81 



A very plain copy-book hand, like Fig. 82 such as many 
clerks, bookkeepers and professionals write is of little value 
for analyzing character. It is better to get an intimate let- 
ter from such a person. If however, he always uses such 
a regular school-hand, even in his friendly and love letters, 




CHARACTER FROM HANDWRITING 61 

we may deduce that he has little or no originality, ingenuity 
or intuition, nor should it puzzle him to explain why he 
never attains a higher position in life than that of a clerk 
or bookkeeper. 

There are "dirty" handwritings, like the specimen Fig. 
83 ; that is to say, we receive such an impression with our 
first look at the specimen. For instance there are exceed- 
ingly heavy penstrokes combined with ink-spots and finger- 
marks scattered here and there, just as if greasy finger- 
tips impressed the paper; little or no care is taken to 
preserve margin or space; all of which imparts to the 
whole letter a soiled appearance. Such writing we would of 




course at once ascribe to persons of careless, even un- 
cleanly habits, in their daily life; they frequently allow 
their clothing to be without buttons; their finger-nails and 
other parts of their person manifest an innocence of soap 
and water, and they display indifference to comeliness, 
cleanliness, and order. 



SPECIMENS of handwriting which are regular throughout, 
similar to Fig. 84, indicate a steady, constant character. 
Persons who love to pursue "the even tenor of their way" 
in life; whose views and thoughts and ideals are not 
changed quickly by any chance misadventure of the mo- 




ment, write thus; their letters maintain from beginning 
to end a uniform width and length. 

Of course, if we happen to find writings where the regu- 
larity of the letters, the margins on the left of the page, 
the distance between the lines, and especially the placing of 



^\r^Okr-oCcxJoofr-^>. <w_j-s3C/Vv. "$CvO^- 



CHARACTER FROM HANDWRITING 



63 



commas, periods and question marks and exclamation- 
points, seem rather systematic and deliberate similar to 
Fig. 85 we conclude that one of the principal character- 
istics of the writer is pedantry, with scarcely any power of 
adaptability. Such a person must generally have his own 




way in everything or be unhappy. There are others, again, 
who write a very regular hand, but now and then vary 
and make slight departures from their usually stiff and 
formal letters, as in Fig. 86. These people are at least 
open to conviction and are more considerate of other people. 
Whenever handwriting is irregular and varies as to the 
letters as shown in specimen Fig. 87, it indicates an eccen- 









64 



HOW TO READ 



trie or fickle character. Such irregularity however may be 
very limited, in which case it may simply denote activity 
and love of change and diversion. 

Fickleness in love affairs is frequently found in such 
writers like that of Fig. 88 yet I have known several 




88 



persons of both sexes, who were each of them according 
to their viewpoint, absolutely in love with two persons of 
the opposite sex at the same time, and who were actually 
true and faithful to both. Their nature simply seemed to 
demand a change from the one to the other idol, but never- 
theless enough character remained to preserve the worship 
of the old and first love. 



65 




Nervous, whimsical people who have little or no sense of 
order or time, often make strong, irregular changes in their 
handwriting. Observe specimen Fig. 89. 

// such changeable handwriting is composed of very thin 
and fine pen-strokes, as in Fig. 90, casually made and with- 




o 



90 



out any fixed plan, the writer is very easily influenced by 
others. 



66 



HOW TO READ 



When we find such a very irregular hand, especially if 
very thin and fine, and at the same time rather broad and 
wide, similar to Fig. 91 and Fig. 92, with frequent omis- 




sions of strokes, we have indications of superficiality. 
These are writers who are very indulgent in extenuating 
their own pleasant vices and those of their immediate 
families, especially in regard to laws of morality, but they 




are unmerciful in their denunciation of strangers who vio- 
late the moral law. 

Now and then we come upon handwriting where a cer- 
tain forced irregularity of letters is very obvious and plain. 



CHARACTER FROM HANDWRITING 67 

(See Fig. 93 and Fig. 94.) Such specimens are written 

4 LJL*^*, ~fa^L L~* ^ - 

-/^L-^rtA/-\_ 

J^L 




cu/.- 



while the person was exerting all his will power in order 
to suppress bodily pain or nervous weakness so that he 
could do his duty or some task he had undertaken to do. I 
have accordingly seen many notes written by wounded or 
dying soldiers and therefore under terrible nervous strain 




94 

and yet their writing was far more regular and even than 
if penned under normal conditions. 



WIDE AND NARROW WRITING 

All writing at first glance, seems to be either wide or 
narrow. It is easy to analyze the broad, wide writing as 
that of a person, free, and more liberal and generous than 
of a person whose writing is smaller and tapers toward the 



S-^f v , 




end of each line and page. Just as the liberal, generous 
person, who needs more room for himself in his daily life, 
is also freer with the use of a sheet of paper when writing 
like Fig. 95 in the same manner and to the same extent 




CHARACTER FROM HANDWRITING 69 

in the opposite direction does the close-fisted, very economi- 
cal person skimp in paper, similar to Fig. 96. He crowds 
all letters closely together and he leaves hardly any space 
between the lines and seldom any margin. The careful, 
saving person, although compelled to conform to society's 
laws and leave a fair margin on the left side of the pages 
of his letters, will always make up for this by completely 
filling the right margin of the page. 

Mean, stingy, avaricious and miserly people write still 
more skimpily, somewhat like Fig. 97 and Fig. 98. They 
leave no margin as a rule, make hardly any end strokes 




97 

to their words and use sharp and rather vertical letters. 
Incidentally, these characteristics are an additional grapho- 
logical symptom of egotism and selfishness. 



v 






98 



"" CUtAMtJ <ht&S* 
*~* ~ ~^ * 



Sometimes we find a rather narrow handwriting like Fig. 
98, with rounded and curved pen-strokes. The writer while 



70 



HOW TO READ 



thrifty, economical and saving, is also generous, and is 

entitled to be called generous in spite of thrift and economy. 

A large, round and wide hand, which is never backhand- 

like Fig. 99 indicates liberality; often long end strokes are 



X? 

&*-<+&(. J^-^c 




found, but the writing as a whole looks rather orderly and 
regular. 

If however, the foregoing characteristic is combined with 
very irregular margins and extremely long end-strokes, or 
words with letters very wide and large and round, written 




quickly and often at an angle, of 40 degrees or less, as Fig. 
100, we may be safe in interpreting it as the writing of an 
over-liberal person. 



CHARACTER FROM HANDWRITING 



71 



All spendthrifts write in this style and if bank-tellers and 
cashiers have a tendency to write thus, it is always a safer 
and wiser course to discharge them, for sooner or later, 
when the right opportunity presents itself, with the tempta- 
tion at hand, such natural spendthrifts are very likely to 
yield. They often repent, 'tis true, but only when too late 




(X <^L 

"v^ns AAjJ^Aj^ 

\lf- 

r^XT^ 




101 



to retrace their steps, to make amends or to undo the past, 
to wipe out the stain and loss of character. 

A strong, broad hand, such as is illustrated in specimen 
Fig. 101, indicates liberality as well as adaptability. A 
wide and broad hand, somewhat like Fig. 102 means that 
the writers live outside their own little world; they have 




72 CHARACTER FROM HANDWRITING 

many-sided interests, are versatile, polite and courteous to 
strangers. 



IQZ a. 

A very narrow hand would naturally indicate none of 
the preceding characteristics but rather the opposite ones. 
Such writers feel more at home when revolving in their own 
narrow circle than when thrown into general intercourse 
with their fellow-men; they are more apt to be stiff and 
formal than free and easy, while at the same time courteous 
and respectful. They have not what the French term 
" savoir faire." (See Fig. 102A.) 



THIN AND THICK WKITINO 

Heavy down strokes of the pen in letters is considered 
thick writing, while thin and fine down strokes, made with- 
out much pressure of the pen, is called thin writing. Of 
course, graphologists, when analyzing a specimen of writ- 
ing, always ascertain and consider what kind of a pen 
whether fountain or stub, hard, soft or sharp was used, 
also what kind of ink, thick or thin. Fig. 103 illustrates 
thick writing and Fig. 104 is a fair specimen of thin writing. 




103 



As a general rule, materialists who have strong passions, 
write a thick hand, while the fine hand is used more by the 
idealistic, spiritual-minded and passionless natures. Speci- 
mens written with pencil are of little value for estimating 



73 



74 



HOW TO READ 




105 






CHARACTER FROM HANDWRITING 75 

the thickness or thinness of writing. Specimens Fig. 105, 
Fig. 106 and Fig. 107 illustrate these points. 






JJVs^ ^NJs^O^^oOUj,/ 




107 



A very sloping, thick hand, like Fig. 108 and Fig. 108- A, 
in which the loops of the letters 1, t, g, b, y and f, are gen- 
erally closed or filled out with ink, and where the i dots are 






ros 





108 a 

heavy and set low, this indicates a strong passion for the 
other sex, sensuousness, and a fondness for the luxuries of 
life, especially the pleasures of the " table," and little desire 
or ambition to stick to a job or position where discomforts 
and hard work are necessary. Such writers will often take 



76 



HOW TO READ 



trouble and even suffer great discomfort to please a friend, 
but this they do hoping that at some future day they will 
be amply recompensed, even should the reward be only 
transient. 

There are also thin handwritings, well illustrated in Fig. 
109, which indicate great sensuousness, affording no indica- 
tion of energy, steadfastness or perseverance. Such writ- 
ing always inclines at a very sloping angle on the line, with 
the lines running downward. Such writers have very little 




power of resistance to sexual excitement and temptation. 
They yield easily on account of this weakness and are apt to 
lapse into sexual excesses and degeneracy. 

// in addition to the preceding features we find very large 
and wide curving loops of the lower parts of the letters g, 
y, f and z, as show T n in the specimen Fig. 110, we detect great 
sexual desire; a dangerous passionateness which, if not 




X 



,A**JL*J> 



CHARACTER FROM HANDWRITING 77 

gratified, may frequently lead to pathological and criminal 
cases in later life. 

Very energetic, courageous and initiatively active per- 
sons often make both the up and down strokes of letters 
heavy and with even pressure, as in specimen Fig. 111. 




\\\ 



On the other hand, the hesitating, diffident and bashful 
person, generally intuitively, makes hardly any heavy 
strokes ; his pen just glides over the paper, as in Fig. 112. 



7 



/z? 
' 



Then again we find specimens of handwriting where here 
and there a down stroke is made very thick and heavy, in 
striking contrast to the previous or subsequent strokes of 
perhaps the same letters, as illustrated in Fig. 113. This 




/O~<^^ 



78 



HOW TO READ 



peculiarity we can interpret as characteristic of a person 
who has energetic inclinations at intervals, but no con- 
tinuity. 

Where the up and down strokes of the various letters 
are made deliberately plain and distinguishable, and the 
whole hand is strong, steady and even, and not too sloping 
similar to Fig. 114 a very strong passionate nature, 
which is however always under control, is indicated. 




114 



Strong-willed men and women of great force and desire 
write thus. They have acquired control of their feelings 
and desires, but have not completely suppressed or sub- 
dued them. 

It is also found that persons who write a strong, thick 
hand which stands out in bold relief from the paper, some- 
what like Fig. 115 and Fig. 116, generally like heavy, bright 
and deep colors in their surroundings and, on the other 








U5 



CHARACTER PROM HANDWRITING 79 





ff 



J 




hand, persons who write a fine, thin hand like Fig. 117, 
always prefer light and delicate colors. 









l\7 



89 CHARACTER FROM HANDWRITING 

When strong, heavy and thick writing also shows com- 
mon inharmonious forms, especially in its capital letters, 
as in Fig 118, we can safely contend that the writer, al- 
though a gourmet, yet loves loud, glaring, contrasting 
colors, and has little good taste in general. 




SEPARATE AND CONNECTED LETTERS 

As a general rule indorsed by all graphologists, people 
who connect all their letters and sometimes even their words, 
as in illustrations Fig. 119 and Fig. 120, are practical, logi- 








1 20 



cal thinkers and reasoners. Such writers have good memo- 
ries and easily seize and assimilate the ideas of others, but 
they are stubborn, more set in their ways and harder to 
convince than writers who disconnect their letters and keep 

81 



82 HOW TO READ 

them separate, as in Fig. 121 and Fig. 122, and sometimes 
even divide the parts of each letter. These writers have 




J2I 



little or no logic, but are generally quite intuitive and per- 
ceive and apprehend quickly. Persons who are naturally 
inclined toward occultism, astrology and clairvoyance write 
their letters with separate strokes. I have often discovered 




and denounced palmists and astrologists as fakers and 
mountebanks because their handwriting gave no indication 
of intuitive ability; they posed as professors of the occult 
merely as a money-making business and their professional 
capital was strictly limited to a general knowledge of the 
rules of palmistry. In making analyses we, of course, come 
upon handwriting where letters are partly connected and 
partly separated. In such cases we must make our own 
deductions. If, as in the specimen illustrated here, Fig. 123, 
the connected and separated letters are equally divided, in 



CHARACTER FROM HANDWRITING 83 

number or quantity on a page, we have a character in ideal 
equilibrium. The writer has the ability to organize his own 
ideas and thoughts into valuable units as well as to seize 
what is valuable in other people's ideas and utilize it. We 
have here idealism and realism, observation and judgment, 
adaptability as well as psychic independence. 





123 



When more letters are separated than connected, as in the 
next specimen shown, Fig. 124, the writer is more intuitive 




&s 



V / 

184 



than deductive. He has his own ideas of matters ; likes to 
occupy himself, now with this and now with that plan or 
undertaking, but lacks the logical or deductive ability to 
profit by comparing them. 

Practical persons generally connect more letters than 



84 CHARACTER FROM HANDWRITING 

they separate in their writing, as shown in specimen Fig. 
125. A strong sense of the practical and useful has con- 



tracted, but not entirely minimized, in such writers their 
desire for speculation and theory, and they are often fooled 
by the glib, smooth talk or "slick" plans of designing per- 
sons. Many letters and even words are often connected or 
strung together, that is to say, they are written in one pen- 
stroke, as appears in the next illustration, Fig. 126. They 




12* 

who write thus ha?e very little ability or initiative to origi- 
nate ideas, but they excel in adopting those of others and in 
even utilizing them more successfully than the originators, 
and they often do this quite intuitively. 

Writers who always keep the first letter of a word sepa- 
rated while the rest of the letters of the word are connected, 
as in Fig. 127, have a fine sense of direction and locality; 




127 



they are careful to pause and determine " whether a bridge 
is safe or not before they attempt to cross it." They are 
close observers and able to form correct judgment of per- 
sons and conditions. 



There are many different ways of making the first stroke 
in writing or forming a letter of the alphabet. Some writ- 
ers use a long straight line; others use a curved stroke; 
still others use no first stroke at all, but start right in with 
the body itself of the letter. Writers who do not make a 
first or initial stroke, in which case the formation is started 
at once with a downstroke, as in Fig. 128, generally have a 




128 



positive nature ; they can, as a rule, concentrate . their 
thoughts quickly and grasp immediately the point in ques- 
tion or at issue; they have therefore little love for pre- 
liminary details, which they generally consider unnecessary. 
It is consequently not surprising to find that such writers 
are very efficient as fighters in war or business. 

Long horizontal initial strokes, when combined with angu- 
lar and sharp writing, similar to Fig. 129, indicate con- 
siderable spirit in opposition, in argument, in debate or any 
matter in which the \vriter takes part. He -may be depended 
upon to take the opposite view on every question and is 

85 



86 



what the French term 
terms with. 



HOW TO READ 

difficile" or hard to be on good 



'&*><s&---r^7**^ 




If these long initial strokes are found in conjunction with 
round and curved writing, as in No. 130, a milder form of 
opposition is indicated an opposition which is more born 




130 



rather of the social enjoyment of a discussion and a genuine 

desire for enlightenment, than of pugnacity or coarseness. 

If we find that the last stroke of letters is very sharp, 




131 



CHARACTER FROM HANDWRITING 



87 



ending in a fine point, as in specimen Fig. 131, especially 
where the first strokes of letters are long and horizontal, 
we rest assured of discovering among the writer's char- 
acteristics a pronounced inclination to oppose or contradict, 
at the risk even of affecting sincerity of the writer and of 
sacrificing his honest convictions, and there is also a strong 
desire, and often the ability, for effective general criticism. 
Round and curved first strokes, somewhat like Fig. 132 
indicate jollity, humor, wit and the ability to entertain. 



132 

In addition to the preceding large pen-strokes, consisting 
of big curves, many carefree, easy-going, sanguine persons 
with fertile imaginations, frequently make bows and half- 
circles, especially when beginning their capital letters and 
signing their names, as in Fig. 133. 




// these curves and half-circles are very large throughout 
a writing, the writer is inclined to be talkative and prefers 
a certain kind of rather desultory, " small-talk " or social 



88 

chat, which does not require much mental endowment or 
energy. 
A well-defined curve of the first stroke of capital letters, 




154 



if pleasing to the eye and not inharmonious, generally be- 
ginning well under the letter itself, like the specimen shown 
in the next illustration, Fig. 134, indicates oratorical ability. 




135 

The more elegant the curve, the greater the eloquence. A 
more "witliin-itself" curved first stroke, like Fig. 135, is 
made by many actors, on and off the stage. It denotes a 




J36 



89 

talent for imitating', for mimicry and acting. If this initial 
line consists of several curves or circles within each other, 
like that in the two illustrations, Fig. 136 and Fig. 136-a, 




then a disposition for quarreling, avarice and envy is indi- 
cated. 

Another kind of initial stroke which is generally seen 
combined with sinking lines, illustrated in Fig. 137, is the 




137 



so-called "line-cut-through-life." It more frequently oc- 
curs in capital letters. Persons who are depressed through 
misfortune or death or sorrow ; whose careers, prospects or 
hopes have been blighted, write in this manner. So do 
many others of both sexes, who have been disappointed in 
love or whose " course of true love" has not "run smooth." 
A sharp right-angled heavy hook, similar to the specimen 
Fig. 138, means a dangerous combination of envy, jealousy 
and brutality. When the pen-stroke of the letters starts 



90 



HOW TO READ 



with a round point or period, as illustrated in the next 
specimen Fig. 139, you may be sure of finding in the writer 
the ability to earn and to keep what he earns and to remem- 




19* 

ber and use what he learns. He is generally wise and care- 
ful, which is often indicated by his habitual pose, when 
writing, of pausing, looking downward with an expression 




159 



of deep thought, and with his pen still in hand resting 
on the paper, thus picturing deep consideration before 
action. 

Backward turned first strokes, like Fig. 140, are gener- 




CHARACTER FROM HANDWRITING 91 

ally made by writers who 'always endeavor to conceal their 
past history public or private. They try to have someone 
else "pull their chestnuts out of the fire." Double-tongued 
and double-faced persons use this stroke very often. 

First strokes of letters, especially capital letters, curved 
once within themselves, as shown in Fig. 141 and Fig. 142, 





142 

generally indicate a love of family and home life; if they 
are well-rounded they are evidence of amiability and 
courtesy. Combined with the foregoing round-point pen- 
stroke, they indicate flattery and the sort of amiability 
which looks forward to a reward of some kind. 

Adaptability to circumstances is found in the softly made 
curves of the first stroke as shown in the next illustration, 
Fig. 143. Writers of this style yield very quickly to opposi- 
tion and are easily influenced by others. 

Business ability is always indicated by the curved hooks 



r 

(43 



92 



HOW TO READ 




of the first letters, somewhat like Figs. 143-a and 144, and 
many successful merchants and salesmen will be found to 
use them. 

Secretiveness, cunning and shrewdness are often revealed 
by a small dot, or circle, or letter enclosed within a capital 





K4 

letter like the two specimens shown here, Fig. 145 and 
Fig. 145A. Self-praise, conceit, and egotism are also indi- 
cated here. 




93 

Dreamers, fantastic persons and many poets, authors 
and artists use a very long and curved capital, like Fig. 
146; such writers are inclined to soar into the upper air; 




146 



to be builders of air-castles. See the two specimens shown 
here, Fig. 147 and Fig. 148. 




147 




THE LAST OR END-STROKES OF LETTERS 

These end-strokes of letters, while not absolutely neces- 
sary to form a letter, are however, of great importance to 
graphologists and handwriting experts. Forgers are more 
quickly discovered by the end or last strokes of a letter 
or word than by the first or starting stroke of the pen. 

Frequently there are no end-strokes at all, like Fig. 149 ; 
this indicates thrift, saving and economy. 




If the last strokes are very heavy and clublike, as in Fig. 
150 and Fig. 150A, great lack of consideration for the 
feelings of others is indicated a nature completely 
wrapped up in self. This is always more or less accom- 
panied by violence and brutality. Of course, in analyzing, 
it should be said that we must not fail to consider all 




CHAEACTER FROM HANDWRITING 



95 



characteristics ; we must not jump at conclusions based upon 
merely one or two of them. See also Fig. 150-b. 



^VE^l*v 




150b 



Endings which gently curve upwards like the ones shown 
in the next illustration Fig. 151, symbolize courtesy, polite- 
ness and an amiable nature. On the other hand, if such 



151 

rounded endings of letters and words curve downward, as 
illustrated in Fig. 152, they indicate an internal unhappi- 
ness and discontent which the writer tries to conceal. 



96 



HOW TO READ 



Little hooks combined with a small curve of the last 
stroke of a letter, as shown in the specimen Fig. 153, indi- 
cate always more or less egotism and also a love of flattery 
and praise. 



far M 






153 



Long, straight end-strokes of words, as in Fig. 154, com- 
bined with writing that is, in general, large, indicate liber- 
ality and generosity, provided all the words have such end- 
strokes, and the whole of the handwriting is broad and 




154 

round, careful persons, wiseacres and those who are dis- 
trustful of others, generally make a large end-stroke on the 
last word of each line, as in Fig. 155, as though they feared 




''55*156 



u&^L 

i I T 



CHARACTER FROM HANDWRITING 97 

someone might write additional words on the line or above 
their signature. To prevent this, they are careful to fill up 
all available space. 

When all word-endings consist of short, horizontal 
strokes or dashes, as shown in Fig. 156, with rather pointed 
endings, they indicate exclusiveness, reserve and power of 
resistance ; combined with straight regular writing and even 
and horizontal lines, as in Fig. 157, these short horizontal 
dashes will indicate a love of fairness and justice; and if 





157 

they are heavy, they indicate concentration upon one idea 
single-mindedness. 

Whenever the last stroke of a word looks like a circle or 
curve turned inward, as shown in this illustration, Fig. 158, 
it indicates that the writer is inclined to be "a regular Tar- 



158 

tar" and tyrant at home and rather vain in small matters. 
Very long and sharp endings, like Fig. 159, indicate a 



159 



98 HOW TO READ 

critical mind and an inclination toward positive expression. 
Whenever such long, sharp endings rise upward but end 
with a daggerlike point, as illustrated in specimen Fig. 160, 
then we may add quarrelsomeness to the writer's char- 
acteristics. 



Gsvv 



160 

All gently rising end-strokes, similar to Fig. 161, indicate 
the same as upward slanting lines, namely, activity, enthu- 
siasm and also more or less love of a life full of fun and 
joy. If the strokes end with small hooks, we have in addi- 





161 

tion, perseverance, considerable "sticktoittiveness" and 
contrariness. When heavy clubs are added to the end- 
stroke or rather, when the ending of a letter runs into and 
finishes with a heavy club-like end-stroke, as in Fig. 162 5 
we find energy, with brutality and violence. If these club- 




162 



CHARACTER FROM HANDWRITING 



99 



like end-strokes are small, as shown in Fig. 163, it merely 
indicates that the writer has little or no consideration for 
others but is inclined to always look out for himself ex- 
clusively. 




/- 



163 



A weak-looking, downward-curving stroke, something like 
the end-stroke in the next illustration, Fig. 164, seems to 




164 



indicate a certain sad, depressed feeling in the writer, if 
il is a thin, fine stroke. But if, however, it is heavy and 
strong, as in Fig. 165, it may be safely translated thus: "I 
am very busy and must not be disturbed." This type of 




165 



100 

man is very persistent in the prosecution of his plans, and 
combative and pugnacious in all his undertakings. Gruff- 
ness and harshness alike to friend and foe, are also among 
his characteristics. Observe closely the illustration Fig. 
166, one ^f Napoleon's signatures. 




(66 



THE UPPER AND LOWER PARTS OF A LETTER 

The rule which, after rigid testing, has been generally 
adopted by graphologists is, that if in a specimen of hand- 
writing the upper parts of the small letters f, p, g, y, are 
longer than the parts of such letters below the base line, as 




167 

in Fig. 167, this indicates in a general way that the writer 
possesses more psychic and spiritual inclinations and more 
mental ability than those who write the lower parts longer, 
as shown in the next illustration Fig. 168. The latter are 
supposed to have greater inclination for practical matters, 
for athletics and bodily exercise. 




102 



HOW TO READ 



Specimens of writing in which both upper and lower 
parts of those letters are fairly well and evenly balanced 
and developed, as in Fig. 169, indicate a well rounded char- 
acter, in which organizing and executive ability and physi- 




169 

cal activity are in perfect equilibrium with mental energy 
and achievement. 

When upper or lower parts of letters do not stand out 
clear, but mix and jumble and run into each other through- 
out a page, as shown in the specimen Fig. 170, it is evident 



-cr 




^t ^M-C_ 



CHAKACTER FROM HANDWRITING 103 

that the writer is unable to think clearly and even finds it 
difficult to express himself clearly or correctly and cannot 
differentiate or decide quickly. 

We must, of course, at the same time bear in mind that 
this characteristic becomes emphasized in proportion to the 
increase in the mixed and jumbled condition mentioned. 

Those who carefully write down each word separately 
and whose letters do not slope too much or too little, like 
Fig. 171, are characterized by level-headedness and clear- 



171 



thinking, with ability to distinguish and differentiate, and 
with aptitude for business. 

Persons who are very dependent upon the judgment and 
advice of others; who have little or no initiative or exe- 
cutive ability, and who hardly ever attain positions of con- 
sequence, generally write a school-copy-book hand, like Fig. 
172. Their writing may look pretty and correct but it 
shows no independence, no character. 



104 



CHARACTER FROM HANDWRITING 




Wherever the lower parts of the letter are made ex- 
tremely long, something like the next illustration, Fig, 173 
we have an infallible indication of vanity and egotism 
combined with a love of the practical and a liking for ath- 
letics and other sports. Self-praise and desire for the 
praise of others are also indicated. 



OM 



oJLs*J<s^+ <L~~4 l*w~fa 



173 



PUNCTUATION 

Wlien we find periods and commas frequently omitted, as 
in Fig. 174, we may deduce forgetfulness, lack of concen- 
trative power and sometimes carelessness. Carefulness in 



fc^_ 



o/ kt fc^^^ 




174 

making all i dots, commas and periods and other punctua- 
tion signs, indicate order, system, promptness and attention 
to detail. 

Characteristics can also be deduced from exclamation 
points and question marks. A thin and very sloping writ- 
ing, like Fig. 175 and Fig. 175A, as a whole, denotes sensi- 




175 



105 



106 CHARACTER FROM HANDWRITING 




I75A 

tiveness, which is pictured in bold relief by leaning and 
sloping exclamation points, provided they are thin and fine. 
Nearly all mediums, clairvoyants, psychics and occultists 
are indicated by such handwriting. 

Upright, strong, heavy exclamation points, such as are 
shown in the next illustration, Fig. 176, connote energy 
and self-control. 



I 



176 



When such heavy and strongly marked exclamation 
points are made sloping similar to those shown next, in 
Fig. 177 they add to the writer's characteristics, anger, 
quick temper and explosiveness of speech under excite- 
ment. 




177 



SIGNATURES 

Many persons add to their signatures every time they 
write them, unnecessary and superfluous strokes. These 
additions are sometimes straight, sometimes curved, as 
seen in the signatures Fig. 178 and Fig. 179. This habit 




is indulged in by kings and emperors and exalted per- 
sonages in common with persons of humble station, such 
as laborers, and even by thieves and murderers. No satis- 
factory explanation has yet been discovered; nevertheless 
the various forms of these strokes can be safely inter- 

107 



108 HOW TO READ 

preted. On the one hand many men who have played most 
prominent roles on the world's stage have not deigned thus 
to adorn their handwriting, while on the other hand, just 
as many equally celebrated contributors to the historical 




Ift! 




record of achievement have unhesitatingly and liberally 
adopted it. Among these are the Emperor Napoleon 1st, 
Fig. 180, Munkacsky the painter, Fig. 181, and President 
Woodrow Wilson, Fig. 182. 

Some persons use one style of signature for business or 




CHARACTER FROM HANDWRITING 



109 



official letters and another style for social and intimate 
letters. It is therefore better to make character readings 
from the latter. 

An illegible signature like Fig. 182A stands sponsor for 
hypocrisy, deceit and intrigue. 

A plain signature without underlining or other pen- 
strokes, and even without a dot at the end, shows great 
independence or pride in natural endowments and gift of 
mind and body. 




185 




/S4 



A small, plain signature indicates modesty, and simplicity 
of speech and demeanor, while frequently a very large and 
heavy signature reflects faithfully pride and vanity. 



185 



110 



HOW TO READ 



^3i 



y 



oo. 



186 



IS7 



A peiiod and dash placed behind the signature indicates 
that the writer is fairly freighted with precaution and care- 
fulness, creating the impression of fear that someone may 









188 




189 



190 



CHARACTER FROM HANDWRITING 111 

add to Ms signature. Periods made after the date of a letter 
also indicate precaution. 




191 






Sometimes we find a period in front of a signature. This 




92 



indicates still greater caution. Such writers, as well as 
those who make two or more periods behind their signature 
are always suspicious of others and often so much so that 
they easily slide into the practice of self-protection against 




193 



fraud by priority of use. They thus become unscrupulous 
and dishonest. 



112 




195 




196 



A straight line underneath the signature indicates family 
pride, also egotism and a fondness for domineering. 



CHARACTER FROM HANDWRITING 113 




197 




The same characteristic, only more developed, is indi- 
cated by a straight line above the signature. 
This may indicate diplomacy also. 




199 




200 



HOW TO BEAD 

A sharp, downward-ending stroke to the signature indi- 
cates combativeness, courage, aggressiveness, especially if 
the lines have a decidedly upward tendency. 




201 



Yours 




20* 



If the lines run downward, however, and especially if the 
last stroke tends downward, we find depression and dis- 
couragement, creating the feeling that the w riter fears that 
he and his work are not sufficiently appreciated. 



CHARACTER FROM HANDWRITING 



115 



A wavy and curved signature indicates adaptability, also 
much doubt of one's ability to succeed. 




203 




204 



Circular or coil-like loops are frequently attached to their 
signatures by men and women who are conscious of their 
charms. These loops also indicate, shrewdness, cunning, 
secretiveness and coquetry. 




205 




206 



116 



HOW TO BEAD 



A signature with a strong upward slope proclaims ambi- 
tion, aggressiveness and push. 




Z07 




A curve around a signature, similar to the next illustra- 
tion, indicates a strong sense of family life, also family 




209 



pride and family egotism and fondness for protectiveness. 



itj 







210 



A wavy line underneath the signature indicates adapta- 
bility, also shrewdness and humor. 





213 



118 HOW TO READ 

Several wavy curves show greater humor and jollity. 






216 



A signature with a double line which returns with a sharp 
point is used by many careful but also quick-acting, and 
aggressive persons. They always " carry a chip on their 
shoulders." 



CHARACTER FROM HANDWRITING 






Zigzag lines underneath signatures indicate violent and 
combative characters. 

When analyzing a writer's character, it is of course 
understood that an opinion should not be formed from the 
signature alone, but from the whole writing, detecting and 
interpreting each and every mark and characteristic by 
itself; after doing which, to combine and interpret the 
specimen as a whole. 

The following are reproductions of fifty signatures of 
historical and literary characters, a study of which will be 
very interesting to the layman, and others, as well as to 
graphological students. These specimens faithfully reveal 
the characters which correspond to the several graphologi- 
cal indications and which have been confirmed and verified 
by history. 



SOME INTERESTING SIGNATURES OF WELL- 
KNOWN HISTORICAL CHARACTERS 




219 

PRINCE BISMARCK 
Germany's Iron Chancellor, the man who ruled his King 




EMPEROR WILHELM I OF GERMANY 
The King who was ruled by his Chancellor. 




121 

DR. KARL PETERS, THE AFRICAN EXPLORER 

130 



CHARACTER FROM HANDWRITING 121 




222 



MAJOR HERMANN VON WISSMANN 

Both African explorers and travelers but unsuccessful in 
managing natives. Why? Look at the rawhide, whip-like 
dashes over their signatures. 




223 



POPE LEO XIII 

Who could fathom the reserve and intrigue of the lines 
under his signature? 





// 



POPE ALEXANDER VI 

Of all the other rulers of his age he is considered by his- 
torians as the most brutal and sensuous. Observe his heavy, 
thick writing. 



122 



HOW TO READ 




EMILE ZOLA 
The noted French novelist. 




226 

CHOPIN 
The celebrated Polish composer. 




227 

JOSEPH JOACHIM 

The celebrated violinist and composer, with a violin bow 
under his signature. 




228 



QUEEN VICTORIA 

With the long stroke of the first letter, as if she wishes to 
take the whole world under her protection. 




123 



ALEX ANDRE DUMAS (PERE) 

The noted French dramatic author and novelist ro- 
mantic and critical. 




230 

FIELD MARSHAL COUNT VON MOLTKE 
Quiet, unassuming whose strategy won the War of 1870. 




231 

RICHARD WAGNER 
The celebrated operatic composer. 



124 



HOW TO READ 




232 



FELIX MENDELSSOHN BAKTHOLDY 

The distinguished composer and musician whose signa- 
ture looks, or rather sounds, like one of his symphonies. 




233 



MUEAT 

One of the leaders of the French revolution, whose bru- 
tality and cruelty are plainly expressed. 



23+ 



ROBESPIERRE 

The celebrated French Revolutionist, whose cruelty 
stands out in his long sharp dash. 



CHARACTER FROM HANDWRITING 



125 




235 




WM. McKiNLEY, PRESIDENT U. S. A. 
Wide-open letters show the nobility and frankness of his 
character. 




.236 



WM. R. SHAFTER, MAJOR GENERAL U. S. A. DURING 
SPANISH- AMERICAN WAR 

Indecision and lack of energy well indicated here. 




237 



NELSON A. MILES, GENERAL U. S. A. 
A remarkable signature of the old Indian fighter who won 
his way up from a private in the ranks. 



126 



HOW TO READ 




238 



CAPT. RICHMOND P. HOBSON 

The U. S. Naval Officer who blew up the U. S. Collier 
Merrimac in an attempt to block Santiago Harbor. 



Y , 

I 0-\ V~XA 




239 



ROBERT Louis STEVENSON 

Observe the small hand of the author of " Treasure 
Island." 




240 



JOSE M. HERNANDEZ 

The Venezuelan revolutionist who lost his right arm in 
ousting President Cipriano Castro. 



CHARACTER FROM HANDWRITING 



127 





241 

LEO TOLSTOY 

The famous Russian novelist and social reformer, and 
religious mystic. 




EMPRESS EUGENIE 

The beautiful Empress of France whose ambition made 
her an Empress and unmade her. 




243 

CAPTAIN VON PAPEN 

The German military attache in Washington, who was ex- 
pelled from the United States. Observe his tapering signa- 
ture. 



128 



HOW TO READ 




244 

GENERAL VON KLUCK OF GERMANY 

Who almost reached Paris. Scan well the hook at the 
beginning and end of his signature. 




245 



MARSHAL FOCH OF FRANCE 

The strategical fighter who directed and won the battles 
for victory. 



Very truly yonre 




246 



MAJOR GENERAL JOHN J. PERSHING, U. S. A. 

Our American "Black Jack" Pershing who cooperated 
with Marshal Foch. 



CHARACTER FROM HANDWRITING 



129 




247 



EMPEROR NAPOLEON I 

A signature of Napoleon after the Battle of Waterloo 
showing much discouragement. 




EDITH CAVELL, THE BRITISH NURSE EXECUTED AS A SPY 
Written the day before her execution, the signature shows 
remarkable composure. 



240 



CARDINAL GIBBONS, OF BALTIMORE 
Shows the energy of this Roman Catholic prelate. 



130 



HOW TO READ 




250 



ABRAHAM LINCOLN 

The martyr President simple, strong, sincere and ener- 
getic. 




J. WILKES BOOTH 
The signature of the man who shot Lincoln. 




2.5Z 



GEORGE WASHINGTON 
The signature of the first President of the U. S. A. 



CHARACTER FROM HANDWRITING 



131 




253 



BENJAMIN FRANKLIN 

The signature of the American diplomat and inventor- 
witty and energetic. 




254 



W. M. THACKERAY 
An unusual signature of the celebrated English author. 




z&s 



SAMUEL GOMPERS 

The signature of this leader of the American workingmen 
shows energy and persistency in the sharp strokes. 



132 



HOW TO READ 





Major General Commandant* 

256 

MAJOR GENERAL GEORGE BARTLETT 
The fighting commander of the U. S. Marines. 




257 



POPE Pius X 

A remarkable signature of the Pope in which he uses his 
given name in a confidential letter to a friend. 




25ft 

E. VENIZELOS 

The Greek Statesman and revolutionary leader, now 
President of Greece. 



CHARACTER FROM HANDWRITING 133 





259 



JOHN D. ROCKEFELLER 

Signature of the organizer of the Standard Oil Company, 
one of the greatest business systems in the world. 




JOHN D. ARCHBOLD 

Mr. Rockefeller's associate and late president of the 
Standard Oil Company. 




261 



W. LLOYD GEORGE 

The signature of the British Premier a fighter and 
organizer. 



134 CHARACTER FROM HANDWRITING 



262 



QUEEN ALEXANDRIA 
Great Britain's "queen mother" a rather artistic hand 



showing love for music and art. 




262 



U. S. GRANT 

General of the Federal forces at the close of the Civil 
War. 




264 



BUFFALO BILL 

The signature of Col. W. Cody, known throughout the 
world by the name of Buffalo Bill. Generous to a fault, 
loyal to his friends and always courageous and without 
fear. 



UNUSUAL WEITEKS 




Fig. 266 is a specimen of the handwriting of Lord Nel- 
son, Great Britain's naval hero, written with his right hand, 
and the next illustration, Fig. 267, shows a specimen of his 
handwriting after he had lost his right arm. 




267 

The next specimen was written with the mouth by a man 
who was born without arms and legs. 

135 



136 



HOW TO READ 




68 



Handwriting of a bank director who writes equally well 
with either hand and who wrote the next two specimens 
for me. 





269 



270 




The portrait painter Aimee Rapin, born without arms, 
wrote Fig. 271 with her foot, with which she also paints her 
world-famous portraits. 




271 



CHARACTER FROM HANDWRITING 137 

The next signature was written for me by a very pleasant 
lady who used either hand equally well but who wrote 
habitually with her left hand. 



777 



^ 



Q 





272 



What can be done by unfortunate cripples is shown in 
the two following specimens of a French soldier who gave 






Z/ 



, t.,*C> G 



cu. 

//> Or AoJ (** ott^/ - 
<y^' ' 

^ l&a&mv 

V 
'' 



3* <*~ 
<AA4#T*c* 









73 



both arms to his country in the World War. Fig. 273 was 
written by him before he entered his country's service. 



138 



HOW TO BEAD 



Fig. 274 was written with his new artificial hand and seems 
to be clearer writing than his former penmanship. 




27* 



CHARACTER FROM HANDWRITING 139 

Another unusual and very interesting handwriting is the 
following by a prominent railroad director who writes 






X 



e 

I 



275 



equally well and habitually with both hands, whichever is 
more convenient for him at the time. 





275 a / 



A comparison of the following specimens of handwriting 
afford an interesting object-lesson to illustrate the accu- 




27* 




/ ^ 



277 

140 



141 

racy with which resemblances of character between mem- 
bers of the same family English in this case can be 
detected from an analysis of corresponding resemblances 
in their handwriting. 




4ATTM-- /-*X 



278 



Fig. 276 is the handwriting of the grandmother at the age 
of 87, and Fig. 277 that of the grandfather since deceased 
written at the age of 46. Fig. 278 is their son's writing, 
at the age of 64. It is very similar to that of his father. 
He the son married the lady who wrote Fig. 279. Their 
oldest son, now a Major in the British Army, when 30 years 




142 



HOW TO READ 



old, wrote Fig. 280, and their youngest son, 12 years old, 
wrote Fig. 281. 




(LiLtfCUM *K></L 
Q 






280 







til 



The other children of Fig. 276 and Fig 277 are two sons, 
and two daughters, whose handwritings are here shown. 
The sons' handwritings are Fig. 282, at 27 years of age, and 
Fig. 283 at 51 years of age. 




CHARACTER FROM HANDWRITING 143 




263 






/ 




264 




285 







286 



144 

The daughters' handwritings are Fig. 284, written at 62 
years of age, she being a spinster, and Fig. 285, a specimen 
of the other daughter at the age of 48 years, who married 
Fig. 286, age 53 years, whose son wrote Fig. 287. 



x-^* 




t/3 

267 

Clearness, love of order, logic, sincerity and optimism, 
are shown in all these specimens, which also reveal culture, 
courtesy and refinement of characters, all corresponding ex- 
actly with the physical peculiarities of their handwriting. 



THE LETTERS OF THE ALPHABET 

No two persons write the letters of the alphabet alike, 
even should their copy-book, school and teacher have been 
identical. 

As children grow older and begin to think independently, 
conceiving their own ideas, in school and at home, and as 
they commence to write letters without closely following the 
black-board or writing-book, they begin limited variations 
of their own which is the introduction leading to that asser- 
tion of personality as it were, which gradually becomes 
fixed and permanent and develops an inter-relation of heart 
and hand which the author has elaborated and systematized 
into the science of graphology. 

It is decidedly interesting to watch the development of a 
boy's handwriting, and to be able to classify and distinguish 
those characteristics which are merely transient indications 
of an embryonic formation of character, from others that 
are fundamental and destined to become essential consti- 
tuents of the warp and woof of his real and permanent self, 
until having fully played his part, he makes his final bow 
and retires from the stage of life. 

From childhood to middle age man gradually becomes a 
definite and ultimate unit by the winnowing of the fleeting 
from the fixed, and it is therefore logically unsound to make 
a definite and final estimate of his character from partial 
indications derived from an isolated specimen of his hand- 
writing. Furthermore, a graphologist must always weigh 

145 



146 CHARACTER FROM HANDWRITING 

the majority of the indications found in an entire specimen 
of handwriting as a unit and not allow the suggestions of 
single letters to influence or prejudice him because they are, 
perhaps, as it were, obvious and insistent. 

Following are the letters of the alphabet, large and small, 
in many-sided variations, with indications as to the writ- 
er's characteristics. 



THE ALPHABET AND ITS GRAPHOLOGICAL SIGNS 



3 

288 



1. Closed secretiveness, economy. 

2. Open frankness, loquaciousness. 

3. Inside loop open at top loquaciousness, and at the 

same time secretiveness. 

4. Inside loop and closed at top shrewdness and 

cunning. 

5. Second stroke pressed together exclusiveness. 

6. Open at bottom hypocrisy, deceitfulness, dishonesty. 



147 



148 HOW TO READ 




T/~ 



8 9 9 

I ' 

289 

7. Second loop forming loop exaggeration, and if fre- 

quent, and connected with other letters, prevari- 
cation. 

8. Long strokes and open imagination, activity. 

9. Small with cross stroke originality. 

10. Connected with next letter activity with energy 
and logic. 

a 
01, Us GL^ &s / 

, z 3 4 5 6 7 

90 

1. Closed secretiveness, economy. 

2. Open frankness, loquaciousness. 

3. Inside loop and open at top loquaciousness, and at 

the same time secretiveness. 

4. Inside loop and closed at top shrewdness and 

cunning. 

5. Second stroke pressed together exclusiveness. 

6. Open at bottom hypocrisy, deceitfulness, dishonesty. 

7. Second stroke forming loop exaggeration, and if 

frequent and connected with other letters, prevari- 
cation. 

8. Greek letter culture, education, professional life. 



CHARACTER FROM HANDWRITING 149 



B 





291 

1. Upper part bent though fully formed deep inward 

sorrow, suffering. 

2. Upper loop closed ability to keep secrets. 

3. Upper loop open talkativeness, conversationalism. 

4. Typographical literary inclinations, order, good 

taste, influence. 





5T 6 7 8 9 

292 

5. Narrow capital economy, meanness. 

6. Wide and broad generous, a gastronome, an epicure. 

7. Broad with bottom open artistic form, good taste, 

originality, pleasantness, elegance. 

8. First stroke very high ambition, inclination to over- 

self-confidence. 

9. Loop to left good memory, faithfulness in keeping 

promises. 



150 HOW TO READ 



r ^ / -<r . 



293 

1. Knot or bow closed "close-fisted," perseverance, 

secretiveness. 

2. Lower loop open frankness, generosity. 

3. Upper part bent, though formed deep inward sor- 

row, suffering. 

4. Upper loop closed ability to keep secrets. 

5. Upper loop open talkativeness, conversationalism. 

6. With loop at end reserve, egotism. 

C 




I i J 4 

a 94 

1. Wide strong, self-confident. 

2. With long under-stroke self -flattery, self-praise. 

3. High and narrow bashfulness, modesty, seclusive. 

4. Sharp with angles economy, perseverance. 

5. High and bending over nervousness, approaching 

illness, self-consciousness. 
c 

c- c- ^ t 

i la, 1 3 

295 

1. Wide strong, self-contident. 

2. With long under stroke self-flattery and self-praise. 

3. Sharp with angles persevering. 



CHARACTER FROM HANDWRITING 151 
D 




i i 3 4 

296 

1. End loop curved upward weakness in yielding to 

others, leaning upon others, dependence. 

2. Long loop upward fantastic ideas, narrowness. 

3. Very large fantasy, wild imagination; ought to be 

under physician's care. Garrulous. 

4. Little hook at top criticism, contrariness. 

5. Lower loop above line coquetry, vanity, gaudiness. 

6. Closed at top and narrow carefulness, economy. 




7. Open at top liberality, frankness. 

8. Wide open great generosity. 

9. Open and large loop Gastronome, epicure, gourmet. 

10. Several loops and circles in upper stroke obtrusive, 

opiniated, "Sir Oracle." 

11. Lasso at top monomaniac. 

12. With turned down upper stroke of loop egotism, 

selfishness. 



152 HOW TO READ 




298 



13. With large backward loop imperious. 

14. Sharp under-stroke self-conceited, culture. 

15. Weak, small upper loop, especially in unsteady writ- 

ing sickness, sorrow. 

16. Connection with next letter strong deduction, logic. 

17. First loop above line strong self-consciousness, af- 

fectation (if very marked, first sign of impending 
paranoia). 




Z99 



1. Loop open frankness, liberality. 

2. Closed at top economy, secretiveness. 

3. Very narrow closed loop meanness, stinginess, 

avarice. 

4. Under loop open conversationalism, talkativeness. 

5. Plain up-stroke instead of loop individuality. 

6. Loop at top of stroke sharply upwards aggressive- 

ness, arrogance, obstreperousness. 

7. Spread out and backward " windy, " self -flattering. 



CHARACTER FROM HANDWRITING 153 



J 
d 




300 



8. Sharp vertical ending p.ositiveness, averseness to 

strangers. 

9. End loop curved upward weakness in yielding to 

others, leaning upon friends, dependence. 

10. Long loop upward fantastic ideas, narrowness. 

11. Very large loop bordering on wild imagination, 

ought to be under physician's care; garrulous. 

12. Loop connected with next letter logic. 

13. Loop formed on backward stroke despotism, unre- 

strained intolerance of environment. 



E 




301 

1. Wide open conversationalism, loquaciousness. 

2. Closed and sharp reserve, exclusiveness, resistance, 

coldness. 

3. Long end-stroke self-admiration, self-flattery. 

4. Well-formed artistic ability, symmetry, good taste. 

5. Greek letter form education, culture, literary 

ability. 

6. Hooks and loops on upper loop pretentiousness. 



154 HOW TO READ 



t / t- 

, 2 3 4 4* 5 

30E 

1. Closed ability to keep secrets, reserve. 

2. Wide open conversationalism, loquaciousness. 

3. Closed and sharp reserve, exclusiveness, resistance. 

4. Heavy end stroke passionate nature. 

5. Long end-stroke self-admiration, self-flattery. 

6. Well formed artistic ability, symmetry, good taste. 

7. Smaller than other letters suspicious nature. 

8. Greek letter form education, culture, literary taste. 

9. Hooks and loops on upper loop pretension. 



F 




303 



1. Middle stroke crosses back resistance, perseverance. 

2. Middle stroke ending club-like stubbornness, oppo- 

sition. 

3. With well curved harmonious end-loop harmony, 

artistic ability, love of art. 

4. Wavy under-stroke morality, diplomacy, tact. 



CHARACTER FROM HANDWRITING 155 




5. Under-stroke wavy, upwards humor, shrewdness. 

6. Well formed and harmonious love of art, good judge 

of color and harmony in painting and music. 

7. Long top-stroke protectiveness. 

8. Wide open independence, self-confidence. 

9. Typographical culture, simplicity, order. 




1. Middle stroke crosses back resistance, perseverance. 

2. Middle stroke ending club-like stubbornness, oppo- 

sition. 

3. Both loops closed reserve, coldness, secretiveness. 

4. Both loops open conversational powers. 

5. With large middle loops proud achievement. Self- 

made. 

6. With well curved harmonious end-loop harmony 

and artistic ability, love of art. 

7. Wavy understroke morality, diplomacy, tact. 



156 HOW TO READ 




8. Under-stroke wavy upwards humor, shrewdness. 

9. With sharp curved under-loop self-willed, ceremoni- 

ousness, particularly about dress. 

10. Well formed and harmonious love of art, good judge 
of color, and harmony in painting and music. 



G 





307 

1. Closed at top secretiveness, economy. 

2. Lower stroke single concentrative power ; precision, 

order. 

3. With large under loop sybarite. 

4. Closed under-loop taciturnity. 

5. Lower loop bent and here and there with pressure- 

illness, bodily and mental weakness. 

6. With lower loop ending horizontal domestic tyranny 

and domineering. 

7. Inner additional curve in upper loop of capital 

strong sense of domestic life. 



CHARACTER FROM HANDWRITING 157 





8. Well rounded top-loop amiability and domestic life. 

9. Well rounded top-loop beginning with period self- 

seeking courtesy and amiability, hypocrisy, flat- 
tery, coquetry. 

10. Curved beginning of loop mercantile ability, busi- 

ness ideas. 

11. Sharp first stroke with loops combination of mer- 

cantile sense with shrewdness, critical mind and 
love of family. 

12. Well formed letter love of harmony, color and en- 

vironment. 

13. With small turned down loops small vanity and 

pride. 

14. Large lower loop sybaritic, epicurean. 




309 

15. Broken or short under-strokes athletic heart. 

16. Upper loop open frankness, conversationalism 

17. Wavy strokes adaptability, lack of power of re- 

sistance. 



158 HOW TO READ 

18. Closed and narrow economy, meanness. 

19. Wide capital with stroke in middle impudence, arro- 

gance, self-consciousness. 

20. Plain good common sense, plainness. 

21. Fancy loops gaudiness, petty vanity. 




1. Open at top frankness, openness, generosity. 

2. Closed at top secretiveness, economy. 

3. Upper loop open at bottom hypocrisy, dishonesty. 

4. Lower stroke single concentrative power, precision, 

order. 

5. With large under-loop sybaritic, epicurean, luxuri- 

ousness, gastronome. 

6. Under-loop very long imagination. 

7. Closed under-loop taciturnity. 

8. Lower loop open frankness, versatility, conversa- 

tionalism. 

9. Lower loop long with heavy but uneven pressure 

sensuality, morbid passion. 



CHARACTER FROM HANDWRITING 



159 




10. Lower loop bent here and there with pressure ill- 

ness, bodily and mental. 

11. Lower loop ending horizontally domestic tyranny 

and domineering. 

12. Fancy sharp loop vanity, pride, self-consciousness, 

self-centered, and self-pride. 

13. Broken lines signs of heart failure. 

14. Broken lines with very long under-loop athletic 

heart. 

15. Broken line now and then palpitation of heart, ill- 

ness ; if frequent heart disease. 

16. Closed and narrow economy, meanness. 

17. Very sharp very cold and harsh nature. 

18. Plain good common sense, plainness. 

H 




1. With curved first stroke and dot earning capacity. 

2. First stroke above line arrogance, insolence, self- 

consciousness. 

3. Middle stroke connected with next word deduction 

and logic. 



160 HOW TO READ 

4. Middle stroke like knot power of resistance, per- 

severance and positiveness. 

5. Middle stroke like loop pride of family and achieve- 

ment. 

6. Strokes close together shyness, simplicity. 

7. Long downward end-stroke will-power, energy. 




1. With curved first stroke and dot earning capacity. 

2. First stroke above line arrogance, insolence, self- 

consciousness. 

3. Consisting of two strokes intuition, eccentricity, 

physical weakness. 




1. Turned back first stroke circumspect, precaution, 

provident, to cover one's retreat the use of others 
as a "cat's paw." 

2. Fancy and complicated loops vanity, affectation. 

3. Turned back first stroke into sharp loop disappoint- 

ment, depression, unfortunate in love affairs. 



CHARACTER FROM HANDWRITING 161 

4. Crossed first stroke more or less selfish. 

5. Typographical education, culture. 

6. Sharp corners severity. 



2.34 56789 

3IS 

1. Dot left out carelessness, forgetfulness. 

2. Dot exact over letter order, exactness, precision, 

promptness. 

3. Dot before letter carefulness, caution, forethought 

4. Dot after letter great enthusiasm, idealism. 

5. Dot rather high enterprise, enthusiasm, ambition. 

6. Dot dash-like energy, activity, versatility, extrava- 

gance, liveliness. 

7. Dot upward curved openness, frankness, generosity. 

8. Dot downward when combined with sign for hypoc- 

risy, dishonesty, deceitf ulness and prevarication. 

9. Sharp and dot-like meanness, stinginess. 



v* I* 'C' ^ -ts */ 

IO (t ti 13 14- 15 16 



10. Round and dot high liberality, good fellowship, 

amiability. 

11. Blot-like dash passionate and sexual nature. 



162 HOW TO READ 

12. Dot very heavy and low materialism, passion, sensu- 

ousness. 

13. Dot club-like and heavy positiveness, energy and 

courage. 

14. Dot sharp dash criticism, shrewdness. 

15. Dot sharp and behind letter active, critical, deduc- 

tive. 

16. Dot connected with next letter prudence, concentra- 

tion of thought and adaptation of ideas to talent. 

K 







1. Plain typographical self-control, plainness, order. 

2. Plain, but with hooks stubborn and persistent com- 

bined with amiability. 

3. With many bows and made in one penstroke cun- 

ning, shrewdness, sharp dealing. 

4. Connected with previous letter splendid, concentra- 

tion, a combination of ideas and plans. 



z 
313 



1. Plain typographical self-control, plainness, order. 

2. Plain, but with hooks stubborn and persistent, 

though amiable. 



CHARACTER FROM HANDWRITING 163 




1. First loop above line coquetry, vanity, self-con- 

sciousness. 

2. Wavy main stroke affectation, snobbishness, false 
pride. 

3. Long sharp last stroke harshness, reserve, coldness. 

4. Long sharp first stroke critical mind, sarcasm. 

5. Plain and simple letter quiet sober nature, little 

idealism. 

6. Large and with loops loud, boasting nature, fantastic 

ideas. 




7. Turned in upper loop cunning, shrewdness, com- 

bined with love of domestic life. 

8. Loops closed reserve, secretiveness. 

9. Loops open conversationalism, frankness. 

10. Sharp strokes concentration, perseverance, exclu- 
siveness. 



164 HOW TO READ 




1. Wavy main stroke affectation, snobbishness, false 

pride. 

2. Long sharp last stroke harshness, reserve, coldness. 

3. Long sharp first stroke critical mind, sarcasm. 

4. Loops closed reserve, secretiveness. 

5. Loops open conversationalism, frankness. 

6. Sharp strokes concentration, perseverance, exclu- 

siveness. 

7. No end-stroke perseverance, quick decision. 



M 




1. First stroke high leadership, pride, aristocratic, 

family-pride, self-consciousness, independence, in- 
clination to despise others. 

2. Second stroke higher than first modesty, subordi- 
nation, subserviency. 

3. First and second strokes of even height contented- 

ness, evenness. 



165 

4. Even strokes but with look at beginning hypocrisy, 

deceitfulness. 

5. Second stroke higher than first and third strokes 

arrogance, false pride. 

6. Separate strokes activity, liveliness, imagination, 

eccentricity. 




323 

7. Last stroke very heavy energy, strength. 

8. First stroke starts with period love of possession, 

ambition and acquisitiveness. 

9. Long, small step-like stroke bashfulness, combined 

with pride and sensitiveness. 

10. Wavy lines of strokes artistic taste, amiability, en- 

thusiasm. 

11. Long ending loop underneath love of domestic life. 

12. Bounded below and open like letter u u" great ami- 

ability, friendliness, generosity. 



m w 97? 

13 * ( 



'6 ,7 I8 

32* 

13. Down strokes looped friendliness, talkativeness, 
makes friends easily. 



166 HOW TO READ 

14. Short first cross-stroke dry humor, slow wit, com- 

bined with selfishness. 

15. Wide, broad and round jollity, sybaritic, epicurean, 

frankness. 

16. Narrow and sharp perseverance, energy, closeness. 

17. Closed and roof-like at top great reserve, difficulty 

in making friends, stubbornness. 

18. Very round at top hypocrisy, deceit. 



m 



3 

315 



1. Second stroke higher than first modesty, subordi- 

nation, subservience. 

2. Bottom of stroke rising desire to rise in life, ambi- 

tion. 

3. First and second strokes of even height contented- 

ness, evenness. 

4. Second stroke higher than first and third strokes- 

activity, liveliness, imagination, eccentricity. 

5. Separate strokes intuition, nervousness, excitability. 

ambition and acquisitiveness. 

6. Last stroke very heavy energy, strength. 

7. First stroke starts with period love of possession, 

ambition and acquisitiveness. 



89 10 ii 12 (3 , 

326 

8. Long, small, step-like stroke baslifulness, combined 

with pride and sensitiveness. 

9. Strokes of wavy lines artistic taste, amiability, en- 

thusiasm. 

10. Rounded below and open like letter "u" great ami- 

ability, friendliness, generosity. 

11. Down stroke looped friendliness, talkativeness, gen- 

erosity. 

12. Wide, broad and rounded jollity, sybaritic, epicu- 

rean, frankness. 

13. Narrow and sharp perseverance, energy, economy. 

14. Closed and roof-like at top great reserve, difficulty 

in making friends, stubbornness. 

N 




1. Well curved first stroke with club-like ending great 

ability to earn and possess, eager to get what's 
due; energy. 

2. Last stroke long and horizontal energy, concentra- 

tion, ambition. 

3. All strokes wavy and wide affectation, vanity, co- 
quetry. 



168 HOW TO READ 

4. Long curved upward end-stroke enterprise, ambi- 

tion, daring, imagination. 

5. Inwardly bent first stroke humor, wit, but also 

selfishness. 

6. First stroke very long and curved faithfulness, good 

memory. 

7. Narrow and sharp steadfastness, quick decision. 



n 




32S 

1. Well curved first stroke and club-like ending 

covetousness ; energy. 

2. Last stroke long and horizontal energy, concentra- 

tion. 

3. All strokes wavy and wide affectation, vanity. 

4. Long curve upward and end-stroke enterprise, am- 

bition, daring, imagination. 

5. Inwardly bent first stroke humor, but also selfish- 

ness. 

6. First stroke very long and curved faithfulness, good 

memory. 

7. Narrow and sharp steadfastness, quick decision, 



169 








5 
329 





1. Plain oval methodical - thinking, reason , love of 

mathematics. 

2. Open above clearness of expression, conversational 

ability, frankness. 

3. Closed on top secretiveness, reserve. 

4. Hook or dash on capital criticism. 

5. Open with ringed loop disposition to rule, tyranny. 

6. Open below hypocrisy, deceitfulness, frequently dis- 

honesty. 

7. Looped in oval egotism, inclination to insincerity. 

8. Loops run together reserve. 

9. Open at left hypocrisy, deceit. 



170 HOW TO READ 

o 



-''f r ' 0~ -6* O '-6~ 0* 




_ - p 

1. Plain oval methodical thinking, reason, love of 

mathematics. 

2. Open above clearness of expression, conversational 

ability, frankness. 

3. Closed on top secretiveness, reserve. 

4. Hook or dash criticism. 

5. Open with ringed loop disposition to rule, tyranny. 

6. Open below hypocrisy, deceitfulness, frequently dis- 

honesty. 

7. Looped in oval egotism, inclination to insincerity. 

8. Loops run together reserve. 

9. Open at left hypocrisy, deceit. 




1. First stroke or loop connected with upper loop- 

affectation, snobbishness. 

2. Wide open liberal spender, fond of the table, and of 

pleasure. 

3. Narrow with small rolled upper first stroke bashful- 

ness, strong desire to earn and save money. 

4. Consisting of several parts deceit, prevarication; 

desire to appear better than the writer really is. 



CHARACTER FROM HANDWRITING 171 

5. Last stroke rolled inwardly secretiveness. 

6. Special last strokes individuality 

7. Typographical good taste, order. 




8. Looped first stroke moderate stubbornness. 

9. Composed of two special strokes pretentiousness, 

imagination, originality. 

10. Large long loop originality. 

11. Plain, like pointed letters order, method, plainness. 

12. Well formed and artistic love of art and music, 

harmony. 

13. Twisted, mixed loops, first stroke short great activ- 

ity and versatility, diplomacy. 

14. Very long first stroke liveliness. 




333 

1. Last stroke rolled inwardly secretiveness, hypocrisy. 

2. Typographical good taste, order. 

3. Looped first stroke moderate stubbornness, ob- 

stinacy. 

4. Very long first stroke liveliness, versatility. 



172 HOW TO READ 



334 

1. Open on top talkativeness, open-mindedness. 

2. Narrow and sharp narrow-minded, mean, stingy. 




1. Open on top talkativeness, open-minded. 

2. Large and rounded generosity, frankness. 

3. Narrow and sharp narrow-minded, mean, stingy. 



CHARACTER FROM HANDWRITING 173 
R 





336 



1. Much shortened at end impatience, nervousness. 

2. Upward eccentric strokes individuality, looseness 

of sense of moral obligation. 

3. Bent, narrow timidity, amiability, weakness. 

4. Well looped cunning, vanity, clumsiness. 

5. Close and short quickness, rapidity in action, but 

also superficiality. 

6. Typographical culture, taste, harmony, simplicity, 

will-power. 

7. Connected with next letter steadfastness. 



*L 4 

' 337 

1. Wide and broad, correct as per copy-book loqua- 

cious, conventional, circumventive. 

2, Typographical culture, taste, harmony, simplicity, 

will-power. 



174 HOW TO BEAD 



S 






338 



1. Connected with, next letter method, symplicity, de- 

duction. 

2. Plain wavy stroke culture, independence, especially 

of mind. 

1. Long end-strokes eagerness to protect, love of 

4. Close to copy-book little independence and no in- 

dividuality. 

5. End-stroke well looped ability to keep one's " coun- 

sel," as well as ''cents." 

6. Typographical aesthetic taste. 

7. Very sloping but other letters more vertical great 

impulsiveness at first which, however, is soon con- 
trolled by reason. 

8. End-stroke turned back carefulness, foresight. 



CHAKACTEE FROM HANDWRITING 175 





10 II 12. 

339 



9. Sharp steadfast character. 

10. Sharp corners at loops little adaptability, indepen- 

dence, rudeness, individuality. 

11. Sharp ending stroke caution, shrewdness. 

12. With very long and sharp upward first strokes good 

memory and excellent hearing; cannot bear such 
sounds as scraping of pencil, friction of rusty 
door-hinges, etc. 

13. Sharp lower stroke, connected with next letter quick 

of speech, deduction, rapid reasoning. 

14. Small and simple modesty in speech and dress. 

15. Sharp downward last stroke quickness, haste, sharp- 

ness. 



176 HOW TO BEAD 




* s 

2 3 4 5 6/7'8 9/io .11 
340 



1. Connected with next letter method, simplicity, de- 

ductive. 

2. Plain wavy stroke culture, independence, especially 

of mind. 

3. Like the figure 3 methodical mind. 

4. Close to copy-book little independence and no in- 

dividuality. 

5. Typographical aesthetic taste, orderly. 

6. Very sloping but other letters more vertical great 

impulsiveness at first, which, however, is soon con- 
trolled. 

7. Antique or eccentric originality. 

8. End-stroke turned back carefulness, foresight. 

9. Sharp steadfast character. 

10. Sharp corners at loops little adaptability, inde- 

pendence, rudeness, individuality. 

11. Sharp ending stroke caution, shrewdness. 



CHAEACTER FROM HANDWRITING 177 



'2- '3 13 a. 14. / is 

341 



12. With very long and sharp upward first strokes good 

memory and excellent hearing cannot bear such 
sounds as scraping of slate-pencil, etc. 

13. Sharp lower stroke, connected with next letter 

quickness of speech, deduction, rapid reasoning. 

14. Small and simple modesty in speech and dress. 

15. Sharp downward last stroke quickness, haste, sharp- 

ness. 



T 




342 

1. With long curved upper strokes humor, wit, jollity. 

2. Bounded end-stroke amiability, friendliness. 

3. Plain, only two strokes good taste, harmony, art and 

music-critic. 

4. Dash to the right enterprise, enthusiasm, initiative, 

ambition (if long). 

5. Dash to the left indecision, hesitancy, disappoint- 

ment. 

6. Broken dashes mental depression. 



178 HOW TO READ 




343 



7. With long double loops pride in past successes. 

8. Dagger-like and sharp at end gossip, brutality. 

9. Dash is club-like at end great energy, but also vio- 

lence and temper. 
10. Typographical culture, good taste. 




t 



1. With long curved upper strokes humor, wit, jollity. 

2. Small upper stroke, upper part of letter open re- 

serve, conversational ability, modesty, eloquence. 

3. Rounded end-stroke amiability, friendliness. 

4. Plain, only two strokes good taste, harmony; art 

and musical critic. 

5. T. dashes in same writing varying fickleness, energy 

changeable. 

6. Dash to the right enterprise, enthusiasm, initiative, 

ambition (if long). 

7. Dash to the left indecision, hesitancy, disappoint- 

ment. 

8. Broken dashes mental depression. 



179 




/* IS 

34.5 



9. With long double loops pride in past successes. 

10. Dagger-like and sharp at end gossip, brutality. 

11. Connected with next letter logic, perseverance. 

12. Double triangle, dash rounded mischief, malicious- 

ness. 

13. Dash club-like at end great energy, but also violence, 

temper. 

14. Zigzag dash irregular character, easily angered and 

quick-tempered. 

15. Hook at end of dash perseverance, energy. 



a/ 
346 ** 

16. Claw-like hooks at each end of dash contrariness, 

stubbornness. 

17. Upward dash combativeness, enthusiasm. 

18. Downward dash, thin easily depressed, sadness, 

weakness. 

19. Triangular upward dash individuality, but intoler- 

ance of others' opinions. 

20. Two plain separated strokes executive ability, 

despotism. 



180 HOW TO BEAD 

21. Downward club-like ending stubbornness; hard to 

convince. 

22. Short and thick dashes concentration, decision, will- 

power. 

23. Sharp erding dashes prone to indulge will-power 

and energy. 

24. Dash in centre and short subservient humility. 






34-7 



25. Long thin dashes activity, little power of resistance. 

26. Little hook attached to letter nervousness, irrita- 

bility. 

27. Dash low on letter obedience. 

28. Dash high above letter high ideals, love of domi- 

neering, political ability. 

29. Typographical good taste, culture. 

30. Knots in dash persistence, perseverance. 

31. Dash left out with thin writing lack of energy. 




32 35 

348 



32. Heavy curved dash humor, wit. 

33. Rounded-off dash and connected indecision. 



u 



u 





' 2. 3 4. 5 

349 



1. "Wide and round liberal spender, generosity. 

2. Narrow and sharp close in money matters, reserved. 

3. Plain strokes simplicity, clearness. 

4. Long first stroke with round letters love of discus- 

sion and argument. 

5. Long first stroke with sharp letter spirit of oppo- 

sition. 



u 



350 



1. Wide and round liberal spender, generosity. 

2. Narrow and sharp close in money matters, reserved. 

3. Plain strokes simplicity, clearness. 

4. Long first stroke with round letters love of discus- 

sion and argument. 

5. Long first stroke with sharp letter spirit of oppo- 

sition. 



182 HOW TO BEAD 



Vv ' v 

w l *^k *3 





351 



1. Long, upward, sharp end-stroke protection, enter- 

prise, ambition. 

2. Round and broad liberality, amiability. 

3. Sharp and narrow closeness, quietness. 

4. Fancy loops vanity, coquetry, pride. 

5. Wavy down-strokes hypocrisy and deceit. 

6. Club-like end-strokes desire for power, changeable, 

envious. 

7. Hook on top of last stroke aggressiveness, criticism. 



tr y y- 

2 3 4 1 

352 



1. Long, upward, sharp end-stroke protection, enter- 

prise, ambition. 

2. Round and broad liberality, amiability. 

3. Sharp and narrow closeness, quietness. 

4. Hook on top of last stroke aggressiveness, criticism. 



CHARACTER FROM HANDWRITING 183 
W 




3S3 



1. Long end-strokes eagerness to protect, love of 

family life, family pride. 

2. Hook on first stroke selfishness. 

3. Wide open liberality, frankness, loquaciousness. 

4. Sharp and narrow economy, reserve. 

5. Very small and narrow stinginess, meanness. 

6. Rounded fancy strokes circumlocution, forgetful- 

ness. 

7. Plain strokes simplicity, order. 



w 




a 3456 

354 

1. Lond end-strokes eagerness to protect, love of 

family life, family pride. 

2. Hook on first stroke selfishness. 

3. Wide open liberality, frankness, loquaciousness. 

4. Sharp and narrow economy, reserve. 

5. Very small and narrow stinginess and meanness. 

6. Plain strokes simplicity, order. 



184 HOW TO READ 

X 




' 2. 

355 

1. In cross-strokes precaution. 

2. In loop-strokes talkativeness, annoyance. 

x oc 

* 

356 

1. In cross strokes precaution. 

2. In loop strokes talkativeness, bothersomeness. 




1. Typographical-border, good taste, decision. 

2. Regular form plainness, simplicity. 

3. Large under loop good-eater, pleasure-lover. 

4. Narrow close-fisted, narrow-mindedness. 

5. Special curve in lower loop eccentricity, cere- 

monious. 

6. Break in lower loop nervousness, heart-trouble. 



CHARACTER FROM HANDWRITING 185 





,2345 6 

356 B 

1. Typographical order, good taste, decision. 

2. Regular form plainness, simplicity. 

3. Large underloop good-eater, pleasure-lover. 

4. Narrow close-fisted, narrow-mindedness. 

5. Special curve in lower loop eccentricity, cere- 

monious. 

6. Break in lower loop nervousness, heart-trouble. 



Z Z 



357 

1. Made of two strokes enthusiasm, geniality. 

2. Typographical artistic sense, orderly, activity, sim- 

plicity. 

3. Shortened lower stroke rapidity in thought and act. 

4. Second stroke curved to left egotism, eccentricity. 

5. Capital letter in inside of word originality, gener- 

osity. 



186 CHARACTER FROM HANDWRITING 



355 



1. Made of two strokes enthusiasm, geniality. 

2. Typographical artistic sense, orderly. 

3. Shortened lower stroke rapidity in thought and act. 

4. Second stroke curved to left egotism, eccentricity. 



SOME SPECIAL LETTEKS OF THE ALPHABET 

Methodical, sober-minded and imaginative persons, such 
as teachers, mathematicians, and other professional men 
frequently write letters which look like figures, making it 
easy to diagnose their characteristics. 



J3 



3S9 



4- 



1*1 

360 



3 



H-4- .p 3 

361 



2 



362 

187 



HIERATIC WRITING 

ABOUT 2500 B.C. 
BIBLIOTHEQUE NATIONALE, PARIS 

THIS specimen is from the ''Oldest Book in the World." 
The Egyptians used the most elaborate system of hiero- 
glyphics but at the same time developed a script which 
could be easier written than the pictures of the hiero- 
glyphics. 

This particular specimen of hieratic writing was prob- 
ably written by an Egyptian priest during the time of the 
builders of the Pyramids and records the regrets of an old 
man that times are not what they once were. 



189 



190 CHARACTER FROM HANDWRITING 







ASSYRIAN TABLET 



ASSYRIAN TABLETS 

750 B.C. 
BRITISH MUSEUM 

THESE tablets belong to the most extraordinary lot of 
documents of all the rare treasures in the British Museum. 
The writing was executed with some sharp instrument on 
brick-clay, after which it was baked. This accounts for the 
splendid state of preservation in which these tablets were 
found. They are old, for they were inscribed in about the 
year 750 B.C. and the specimen reproduced here is the elev- 
enth tablet of the famous Babylonian creation-epic The 
Story of the Deluge (Gilgamesh). The story is told by 
Ut-Naphistim and seems to have set at rest many of the 
doubters of the Bible version of the Deluge. 



191 



192 



CHARACTER FROM HANDWRITING 




BRITISH MUSEUM 

A VERY curious reproduction of a Chinese book of picture 
writing from Moso, in the Province of Yunan, China. It 
it written on native paper, similar to that used in Thibet. 
Its age is unknown. 

Painting being the most prominent art of China, and 
intimately connected with writing, it is not to be wondered 
at that the latter should also be deemed a fine art, demand- 
ing a similar skill and power in the use of the brush. When 
we bear in mind that the Chinese painter insists upon his 
picture suggesting a poetic idea rather than upon repro- 
ducing material objects; when it is considered that the 
phrase: "A picture is a voiceless poem," has long ago 
passed into proverbial speech in China, we will easily 
understand how it happens that in the origin of writing, 
Chinese differs from European, and even from Oriental 
languages. As an almost invariable rule, writing originates 
in symbolic representations of speech. 

In China, however, the development of spoken and 
written speech began at a very early day to diverge and 
differ. Very little, indeed, is recorded concerning the evolu- 
tion of the Chinese language; so we have no means of 
knowing how it was spoken or pronounced in ancient times. 

The Chinese Script is, indeed, as the lawyers say sui 
generis. It is unique ; it is positively fascinating even when 

193 



194 CHARACTER FROM HANDWRITING 

the brush, instead of the usual pen, is manipulated by the 
hand of the humble, patient, industrious celestial laundry- 
man. Do we not, as we view him so engaged, have a feeling- 
somewhat akin to the charm and admiration that we feel for 
another artist, who wields his brush on the canvas? Has 
the present-day Chinaman not come honestly by this talent? 
It is his by inheritance, for although the universal rule 
derives all writing from pictures, yet in Chinese alone of 
all living languages, these original pictographs survive, 
while they were at a very early stage of evolution, first 
transformed into hieroglyphics and ultimately absorbed 
into the alphabet of other existing languages. 

There are one or two myths current with the Chinese 
concerning the origin of their script, two of which may be 
appropriately mentioned. One origin is ascribed to a 
mythical emperor, Fu-Hsi, 3000 B.C., who is said to have 
been inspired with the idea of a system of written char- 
acters by the marks on the back of a dragon-horse a 
legend which induces one to suspect an ingenious attempt 
thus to account for the adoption of the dragon as an im- 
perial emblem. Another origin of script is assigned to a 
sort of demigod, a being of fabulous powers whose inspira- 
tion was derived from the "foot-prints" so to speak, of a 
bird's claws upon the sand. The former explanation seems 
to be the more probable. 



TAX RECEIPTS FROM THEBES 

210 B.C. 
BRITISH MUSEUM 

THIS specimen is of very early origin, being one of the 
collection of Greek writing on papyrus recovered in Egypt 
and is for the payment of tax on land and was issued by 
Hermocles, son of the collector of taxes in Thebes. Written 
in demotic character on a long sheet of papyrus attached 
to the deed of sale of a piece of land. 

Those which are actually dated range between 275 B.C. 
and A.D. 680, a period of more than 900 years. These dis- 
coveries have given us a very fair knowledge of the 
writing of the Second and Third Centuries B.C., but not of 
the First Century, and we have an abundant and almost 
uninterrupted series of documents for the first 250 years 
of the Christian Era. 

The first discovery of Greek papyri was made during the 
excavation of Herculaneum in 1752, but we are chiefly in- 
debted to Egypt for other discoveries. 

The first Egyptian discovery of Greek writing was in 
1778, consisting of about fifty rolls of papyrus, after which 
there was no find of any consequence until 1820, when the 
well-known Second Century B.C. documents were found at 
Memphis, on the site of the Serapeum. Subsequently came 
the period of literary papyri dating from the last book of 

195 



196 CHARACTER FROM HANDWRITING 




CHARACTER FROM HANDWRITING 197 

Homer's Iliad, called the Bankes Homer in 1821, down 
to the funeral oration of Hyperides discovered in 1856. 

A large and extensive discovery of papyri was made 
during the excavations in the later part of the Nineteenth 
Century, all of which are now in London, Paris, Oxford and 
Berlin. The greatest and most important find however 
occurred in 1896-97, during excavations conducted by Gren- 
fell and Hunt for the Egypt Exploration Fund at Behnesa 
the ancient Oxyraynchus. The material recovered here 
amounted to several thousands of papyri and includes the 
Logia or Sayings of our Lord, and some parts of the Gospel 
of St. Matthew and of classical authors ; and covers the first 
seven hundred years of the Christian Era. 

There have been other smaller groups of discoveries, the 
most interesting of which is that of W. M. Flinders Petrie 
in 1889-90, taken from mummy-cases found in the Necrop- 
olis of Fayum . This find was important in that it supplied 
samples of writing of the Third Century, thus extending 
our knowledge of ancient Greek writing to another period. 

The changes that occurred from time to time in the Greek 
writing in Egypt, correspond with the changes in the politi- 
cal administration of the country. The Ptolemaic style is 
clearly marked in the writing practiced during the Ptole- 
mies from 323 to 30 B.C., which includes the specimen in 
question. Then followed the period of Roman rule dating 
from Augustus and extending to the reign of Diocletian 
A.D. 284, which is characterized by the distinctive Roman 
hand. Lastly, when Egypt was placed under the Byzantine 
administration, down to the conquest by the Arabs A.D. 640, 
there was a third change characteristic also of the ruling 
element and distinguishable as the Byzantine style of 
writing. 



198 CHAEACTEE FROM HANDWRITING 



tO ' * 

Uw - '^ 
> ,C- 



' 


















DEED FKUAI ARS1NUE 



A.D. 30 

BRITISH MUSEUM 

A COPY of a receipt in Greek for produce of land, as rent 
in kind, paid by Petantis, Pethis and Maries, farmers, to 
Chaeremon, dated the 30th of the month of Caesarius (Sep- 
tember) in the eighth year of Tiberius (A.D. 20). Written 
in rough uncials of generally normal shapes. 

The most fruitful source of Greek papyri from Egypt are 
the excavations which were made near the end of the last 
century. These are even now in progress, but a large find 
was uncovered in 1877 on the site of Arsinoe, and evidently 
of a late date the Byzantine period. Unfortunately, 
although the documents were abundant, they were not in a 
sound condition, being fragmentary and not of a literary 
character. 

The period covering the history of Greek writing begins 
with the Second Century B.C. and extends to the Fifteenth 
Century. As far as we are able to discover from the Greek 
MSS. which have survived, writing passed through two 
stages, exemplified by the uncial or large letters, running 
from the earliest specimens to the Ninth Century; and by 
the minuscules or small letters, from the Ninth Century to 
the discovery of printing. 

199 



200 CHARACTER FROM HANDWRITING 




THE OLDEST GREEK BIBLE, EXTANT 

FOURTH CENTURY A.D. 
BIBLIOTHECA VATICANA, ROME 

THIS Bible has been in the Vatican Library at Rome since 
1448, for it is entered in the Catalogue compiled by Pope 
Nicholas VI. 

It was written, probably in the Fourth Century, on fine 
vellum in triple columns of 42 lines and on 759 leaves, each 
10 Yz by 10 inches. It is well preserved for a handwritten 
book 1,600 years old. 

To the Hellinistic Jews of Alexandria, we are indebted 
for the Septuagint, the earliest Greek Bible. 

The word "Septuagint" was intended to apply only to 
the Pentateuch, but was afterwards extended in its appli- 
cation to the other books as they were translated. This 
version was accepted as Scripture by the Jews about the 
First Century A.D., when it was also accepted as such by the 
Christian Church. 

It was not long however before the authority of the Sep- 
tuagint was questioned. This resulted partly from the 
early disputations that arose between the Christians and 
the Jews, but principally from the disagreements that arose 
between it and the Hebrew version, which had been estab- 
lished by Rabbi Akiba and his school. This questioning of 
authority led to the introduction of three new versions 

201 



202 HOW TO READ 

Symmachus, Aquila and Theodotion (Second Century A.D.). 
Aquila's version was favorably accepted by the Hellenistic 
Jews and soon superseded the old Septuagint, but unfortu- 
nately no trace of it has come down to us. The only part 
of the Septuagint* version which has been preserved is a 
manuscript of the Book of Daniel. 



CHARACTER FROM HANDWRITING 203 




v gfe f r^^^;^'^t ; ? AK - 

. . i . i f t 



GREEK LETTER 



GREEK LETTER 

350 A.D. 
BRITISH MUSEUM 

THIS letter, written in Greek, is from Actius to his "lord 
and brother" about a shipment of a supply of corn, oil and 
hides. It was on papyrus, measuring 9% by 4 inches, 
written in an upright, cursive hand in mixed uncials and 
minuscules. 



204 



205 




GRANT TO THE CHURCH OF RAVENNA 
SEVENTH CENTURY A.D. 

LIBRARY OF THE EARL OF CRAWFORD AND 
BALCARRES 

THIS document, written on papyrus, early in the Seventh 
Century, shows a part of a grant from Captain Johannes 
to the Church of Ravenna. It was in the form of a roll, 
five feet four inches long and twelve inches wide. The 
writing is medium-sized Roman cursive. Some letters are 
joined to those following, but b, d, h, i, m, n, w, x, are never 
joined, but stand out separately. 

In this grant to the Church at Ravenna, which was during 
the period of Roman rule, the writing is characterized by 
roundness of style, in strong contrast to the stiffness and 
rigid linking of the Ptolemaic hand. Curves take the place 
of straight strokes in the individual letters and even liga- 
tures are formed in pliant sweeps of the pen. This transi- 
tion from the stiff to the flexible, finds something of a 
parallel in the development of the curving charter-hand of 
the Fourteenth Century from the rigid hand of the Thir- 
teenth Century; following, it would seem, the natural law 
of relaxation. Roundness of style is characteristic of Greek 
cursive writing in the papyri of the first three centuries of 
the Christian Era, however much individual hands, or 
groups of hands, might vary. 

206 



CHARACTER FROM HANDWRITING 207 

After the Third Century of the Christian Era, if we may 
judge from the meager material that has been recovered, 
there appears to have been a reform of the Roman hand 
which marks the entry of Greek writing into the new phase 
of the Byzantine period. The characteristic features of 
the new style are its large scale and its formality a de- 
liberate calligraphic effort which culminated in the bold 
or artificial hand of the Sixth and Seventh Centuries. 



208 CHARACTEE FROM HANDWRITING 




THE KORAN 
EIGHTH CENTURY 
BRITISH MUSEUM 

THIS is part of a page from a fragment of a manuscript 
copy of the Koran made in the Eighth Century A.D. It is 
written on vellum in an easy, flowing style. The part repro- 
duced here tells of the advice Mohammed gave to "the 
faithful," to the effect that they must beware of poets as 
deceivers. 

The principal feature of the Koran may be said to be 
Mohammed's claim that it was sent down to him by God, 
and that this "sending down" was not done at any one or 
at any particular time, but at different times and in dif- 
ferent pieces or "revelations." One of these pieces, like 
the entire collection, was called "Kor'an" or "recitation" 
hence the familiar term applied to the book. 

Like other oriental visionaries, who had led austere and 
ascetic lives, whose nervous systems therefore had been 
made acutely sensitive and responsive to an emotional and 
imaginative temperament, Mohammed was thoroughly 
qualified for spasmodic visits from angels bearing to him 
messages from Heaven and commanding him to reveal them 
as the "word of God." 

It is believed that Mohammed never recorded anything in 
writing but that he had, through the services of others at 

209 



210 HOW TO READ 

Mecca, where the art of writing was more widely practiced 
than at Medina, started the written record of his "reve- 
lations." 

The subject matter of the Koran varies widely. We have 
in some parts pious moral reflections, not very unlike those 
of Marcus Aurelius, though more primitively expressed, 
interlarded with the detailed manifestation of the omni- 
potence, the goodness and righteousness of God in Nature, 
in His inspired messengers and especially in Mohammed. 
Then there are vivid pictures of celestial paradise, the tor- 
tures of Hell, and the arraignment and judgment of the 
world on the "last day." Nor does he fail to propound 
large instalments of religious and moral instruction accom- 
panied by solemn warnings and threats to sinners, and the 
unfaithful, not neglecting to prove to and convince the un- 
believer that "Allah is Allah and Mohammed is His 
Prophet." Other parts of the book are devoted to laws 
for the regulation of various religious and social cere- 
monies, in which Mohammed's harem is included. 

At the time of Mohammed's death, the Koran existed in 
different pieces of material which were widely scattered. 
The Calif-Abu-Bekr under the persuasion of Omar, com- 
mitted to one of the prophet's amenuenses, Zaid, the task 
of collecting these parts into one whole, of which he 
wrote a fair copy and gave it to Abu-Bekr. From him it 
descended to Omar, his successor, who again bequeathed it 
to his daughter Hafsa, one of the widows of the Prophet. 
This copy, however, was not received with entire favor so 
that the Calif Othman (A.D. 650-651) intrusted this work to 
Zaid, the compiler of the former collection, and he prepared 
a canonical edition of the work, dictating to three associates 
from the copy he had previously made. These three manu- 



CHARACTER FROM HANDWRITING 211 

scripts, according to tradition, were sent as standard copies 
to the metropolitan cities, Basra, Kufa and Damascus, and 
a copy was retained at Medina. There have been other 
manuscripts, but they have all been derived from these four. 



212 CHARACTER FROM HANDWRITING 



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BEOWULF 



BEOWULF 

A.D. 1000 

BRITISH MUSEUM 

THE Epic of Beowulf forms parts of a single MS. written 
about 1000 A.D. and is a remarkable relic of old English 
literature. This poem, which is remarkable for its lucidity, 
skill of construction and for the vivid imaginative and nar- 
rative power of its author, tells of the prowess, daring and 
physical accomplishments of Beowulf, a Scandinavian hero 
who, with fourteen companions, went over to Denmark and 
delivered its king from the ravages of a terrible monster, 
Grandel, that rendered his hall uninhabitable. Beowulf 
returns to his native land and becomes its king. After 
reigning many years, his country is ravished by a fiery 
dragon. Beowulf, in spite of his now being an aged mon- 
arch, goes forth, with eleven chosen warriors, and gives 
battle. Beowulf is almost overpowered when Wiglat, a 
mere youth, inexperienced in arms, saves him. The dragon 
is killed, Beowulf receiving a fatal wound. 

Episodes are introduced which have no relation what- 
soever to the hero, apparently for the purpose of including 
and preserving Germanic myths and traditions. 

This work is obviously a poetical blending of fact and 
fable ; of myth and history ; of the mythical Beaw with the 
historical Beowulf, the former a Scandinavian fiction, the 
latter an English personage. 

213 



214 HOW TO READ 

The existing MS. is written in the West-Saxon dialect, 
but the prevailing opinion is that it was transcribed from 
an Anglican that is, from a Northumbrian or Mercian 
original. 



CHARACTER FROM HANDWRITING 



215 




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DOMESDAY BOOK 

1086 A.D. 
EXETEE LIBRARY 

A PART of a page of the "Exon Domesday," written on 
vellum. The handwriting changes frequently in a single 
page, where several scribes made their entries, showing a 
narrow cramped hand with last strokes drawn to a point 
and also rounder forms of writiDg with shorter vertical 
strokes. 

The Domesday Book no doubt suggested itself to William 
as a means of ascertaining and determining the King's 
fiscal rights after such a political upheaval as the Norman 
Conquest and the wholesale confiscation of estates that 
resulted from it. This record contained not only the names 
of the new landholders, but an estimated annual valuation 
of all the land subject to assessment first, at the time of 
King Edward's death, second, at the time when the Norman 
successors received it, and, third, at the time when the 
survey was made. 

On account of its very early date, the "Domesday" is not 
generally interesting except as a relic of the past; on this 
account it is unintelligible to all but the archaeologist. It 
however was frequently invoked as testimony in the middle 
ages, and is, at this day, used for this purpose but with no 
appeal from its record, to which circumstance its name 

316 



CHARACTER FROM HANDWRITING 217 

11 Domesday" or " Doomsday" is due. Another interesting 
feature connected with this ancient register is that it 
records the list of landowners by their Christian names 
only, thus failing to serve the pretentious claims of families 
whose "origins" date from the Conquest. 



218 CHARACTER FROM HANDWRITING 



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TIRONIAN LEXICON 



TIRONIAN LEXICON 
TENTH CENTURY 
BRITISH MUSEUM 

THIS plate represents the Notae Senecae, a lexicon of the 
Tironiaii shorthand signs, as invented by Marcus Tullius 
Tiro, the freedman of Cicero. This Tironian system was 
apparently partly alphabetic, partly ideographic and partly 
arbitrary. 



219 



220 CHARACTER FROM HANDWRITING 





PU 



PIPE ROLL 

A.D. 1130 

PART of the Great Roll of the Exchequer, or Roll of the 
Pipe, for the thirty-first year of Henry I, i.e. from Michael- 
mas 1129 to Michaelmas 1130. Written in a bold official 
hand, guided by ruled lines, with many large letters, many 
of which are stilted. 

There were two sources in England for the derivation of 
a national hand the Irish monasteries in the north and the 
Roman missionaries, who taught their style of writing in 
these monasteries. The former prevailed throughout 
Britain and was finally adopted as the national hand after 
receiving the distinctive marks as such from the English 
scribes. 

The first stage of English writing was the round hand of 
which there were two kinds bookwriting of a very beau- 
tiful character of which the Lindisfarne Gospels or "Dur- 
ham Book" is a fine specimen. This style of hand prevailed 
in the north. In the south a less pretentious and plainer 
style was employed. The next stage, that of the more con- 
venient pointed hand, was reached about the Eighth Cen- 
tury, and continued during the Ninth and Tenth Centuries, 
when the foreign minuscules became a controlling element 
in English writing. From this time the evolution of the 
national hand in the progressive changes of the pointed 
style can be easily traced in the Facsimiles of Ancient 
Charters in the British Museum and in the Facsimiles of 
Anglo-Saxon MSS of the Rolls series. 

221 



222 




THE ANGLO-SAXON POEM OF CAEDMON 
ELEVENTH CENTURY 
BODLEIAN LIBRARY 

A PAGE of the poems in Anglo-Saxon which bore Caed- 
mon 's name. The Saxon minuscules are rather square but 
change toward the end. It was probably executed by 
Ailfivine, Abbot of New Minster or Hyde Abbey at Win- 
chester A.D. 1035. 

All that we know of Caedmon, the earliest English Chris- 
tian poet, is derived from Baeda, "The Venerable Bede," 
who informs us that Caedmon was a herdsman and that he 
received his call as a poet in a dream. Having failed, 
from lack of ability, to comply with a request, which was 
made upon him on a particular occasion, to sing to the harp, 
he went to bed and fell asleep. He then had a dream in 
which some one appeared to him and requested him to sing 
" of the beginning of created things." He objected, alleg- 
ing inability, but was compelled to obey, and found himself 
uttering verses that he had never before heard. 

Baeda has given a prose paraphrase of this song, but tells 
us that it represents the sense only, not the words them- 
selves nor their arrangements ; in fact, not the poetry, be- 
cause, of course, no poem can be rendered in a foreign 
tongue without losing much of its beauty. Upon awaking, 
all the verses of the poem that Caedmon had sung in his 

223 



224 HOW TO BEAD- 

dream came to him, to which he made additions. He told 
all this to his employer, who thereupon took him to a neigh- 
boring monastery at Streanaeshalch, now called Whitby, 
where the Abbess discovered that Caedmon had received the 
divinus afflatus from Heaven. She tested him by proposing 
certain portions of sacred history for poetical treatment. 
He complied, fulfilled his task and took up his abode at the 
monastery, where thenceforth the learned monks expounded 
to him scripture history and Christian doctrine, all of which 
he rendered into exquisite poetry. He reproduced The 
Creation and The Fall of Man, The Departure from Efiypt 
and The Entrance into the Promised Land, The Immaculate 
Conception, The Passion, The Resurrection, The Ascension 
of the Savior of Mankind, The Coming of the Holy Ghost' 
and The Teaching of the Apostles. He also wrote many 
songs of the terrors of the coming judgment, of the horrors 
of hell, of the sweetness of Heaven and of the mercies and 
judgments of God. 

The song which Caedmon is said to have composed in his 
dream, is still extant and is preserved in the poet's own 
dialect in a MSS. of the Eighth Century. It is the only one 
of his abundant works that can be identified with certainty. 



CHARACTER FROM HANDWRITING 



225 



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RICHARD I 

A.D. 1189 

BRITISH MUSEUM 

THIS document is from the charter of King Richard the 
First and confirms to his steward Alured de S. Martin 
certain lands in Eleham and Bensington in Oxfordshire. 
The deed is written in court hand, with plenty of capitals 
and flourished letters. 

This is a specimen of the second stage in the evolution 
of the British national handwriting, which, as has been 
stated in the preceding article on the Pipe Roll of the 
Exchequer, A.D. 1130, was reached in the Eighth Century 
and developed during the Ninth and Tenth Centuries, when 
it was superseded by the foreign element resulting in this 
pointed style of the national hand. 



226 



GRANT TO MARGAN ABBEY 

A.D. 1329 
TALBOT CHARTER 

THIS is a grant from William la Zouche, Lord of 
Margan, and Alianora, his wife, to Margan Abbey of cer- 
tain lands. It is dated at Hanley, 18th of February, in 
the third year of the reign of Edward III (A.D. 1329), and 
is written on vellum, measuring 11 by 8 inches. Written 
in a court hand of transitional character, advancing from 
the round toward the later, angular style. 

This is a specimen of the English cursive, charter- 
hand, that was developed side by side with the more 
formal book-hand of the Middle Ages. From the Twelfth 
Century, distinct and clean-cut, cursive styles of hand- 
writing were started in the various countries, and these 
styles can be easily identified with corresponding politi- 
cal periods. The changes in the cursive hand were, how- 
ever, subject to the same laws of organic development 
that governed the evolution of the book-hand. 

With regard to the court-hand or charter-hand, which 
had been introduced into England after the Norman Con- 
quest, in the Twelfth Century, it is characterized by 
exaggeration in the strokes above and below the line a 
legacy of the old Roman cursive. There is also a tend- 
ency to form the tops of tall, vertical strokes, as. in b, h, 

227 



228 




O 



1, with a notch or cleft. The letters are well made and 
vigorous, though often rugged. As the century advanced 
the long limbs are brought into better proportion; and 
early in the Thirteenth Century, a very delicate fine-stroked 
hand comes into use, the clearing of the tops being now a 
regular system, and the branches formed by the cleft fall- 
ing in a curve on either side. This style remains the writing 
of John and Henry III. 

Towards the latter part of the Thirteenth Century, the 
letters grow rounder, there is generally more contrast of 
light and heavy strokes, and the cleft tops begin, as it were, 
to shed the branch on the left. In the Fourteenth Century 
the changes thus introduced make further progress, and the 
round letters and single-branched vertical strokes become 
normal through the first half of the century. Then, how- 
ever, the regular formation begins to give way, and irregu- 
larity sets in. 



230 CHARACTER FROM HANDWRITING 



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MANDAEAN PRAYER 



MANDAEAN PRAYERS 

A.D. 1329 
BODLEIAN LIBRARY 

WRITTEN on paper about 5 by 4 inches, in Howaiza on 
the Tigris in the year 1329. This is the oldest dated 
Mandaean Manuscript in Europe or America up to the 
present time. . 

A most interesting, as well as remarkable, fact concerning 
the Mandaeans, or St. John's Christians not to mention, 
Sabians or Nasoreans, by which they are also known is 
that their religion is the only surviving composite of Chris- 
tian, Jewish and Pagan constituents, based upon the amal- 
gamation of Greek philosophy, oriental theosophy and 
speculative Christianity, called Gnosticism. 

Our knowledge of the Mandaeans dates only from the 
first Christian missionaries among them in the Seventeenth 
Century, but we have recent accounts of their manners and 
customs derived from a converted Mandaean and published 
by M. M. Siouffi in 1880. Our knowledge of their religious 
doctrines is obtained entirely from their sacred books, con- 
sisting only of ancient fragments of a still more ancient 
literature. The largest of these is the Sidra Rabba (Great 
Book) comprising two parts, the larger of which is called 
yamina (to the right hand), and the smaller s-mala (to the 
left hand). The former is for the use of the living, and 

231 



232 CHARACTER FROM HANDWRITING 

the latter contains only prayers for the burial service of the 
priests. The date of these books may be fixed as early as 
between A.D. 600 and 900, but the MSS. are not older than 
the Sixteenth Century. 

In the religious system of the Mandaeans, the origin of 
all things is Pira, with whom are Ayar ziva rabba "the 
great shining ether" and Mana rabba "the great spirit of 
glory." Mana rabba called into being the highest of the 
aeons properly so-called Hayye Kadmaye "Primal Life," 
who is the Mandaean God, and every prayer, as well as 
every section of the sacred books, begins by invoking him. 
The number of Mandaeans existing in the Eighteenth Cen- 
tury was about 20,000 families, but at the present day there 
are only about 1,200 souls. 

They have a peculiar death-bed rite, consisting first of a 
warm bath and afterwards a cold one ; the body is clothed 
in a shroud of seven pieces, the feet directed to the north 
and the head to the south facing the pole star. 



DANTE 

A.D. 1379 

BRITISH MUSEUM 

THIS is part of one of the pages of the Divina Commedia 
of Dante with interlinear glosses. It was written at Fer- 
rara. The document is written in set Italian minuscules, 
regular at first but more or less carelessly written toward 
the end. 

The pivot upon which the life of this immortal poet 
turned was the love of Beatrice Portinari, who for thirteen 
years was his beacon light and whose death in 1290 was the 
purification of his later life and the inspiration of his 
poetic revelations of Paradise. He first met her when he 
was only nine years old and she of the same age. ' ; At that 
moment, ' ' he says, ' ' I saw most truly that the spirit of life 
which hath its dwelling in the secretest chamber of the 
heart began to tremble so violently that the least pulses of 
my body shook therewith." Beatrice, however, married 
another Simone de' Bardi, for which Dante, when a pris- 
oner and an exile, consoled himself by reading the Book of 
Boetius and Tully's treatise on friendship. This must have 
caused him to recover from the shock of her death for in 
1292 he married Gemma, daughter of Marietta Donati, by 
whom he had two sons and two daughters, but whom he 
never mentions in his Divina Commedia. 



234 



HOW TO READ 



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DANTE 



CHARACTER FROM HANDWRITING 235 

Dante soon after commenced to take part in politics. He 
held public office and became one of the leaders of the 
Bianchi or Whites, as against the Neri or Blacks two 
political factions who contended for power in Florence in 
the Thirteenth Century. The Blacks were victorious and on 
January 27th, 1302, Dante was charged with "baratteria" 
or corrupt robbery and speculation while in public office. 
Not appearing he was fined 5000 L. and sentenced to be 
burned alive if found. The charge was preposterous be- 
cause of his well-known poverty, but the sentence was not 
formally reversed until 1494 by the Medici. 

Ultimately Dante, sick with the petty quarrels of the 
contending factions, eagerly looked for the coming of a 
universal Monarch who should unite all men and countries 
under institutions best suited to them, should do the work 
for which they were best fitted and thus promote their 
welfare and happiness. This was the dream of the 
poet, a dream that lasted to the end of his days, and, 
so far as his mother country was concerned, was fully 
realized 500 years after in the United Italy of modern 
times. Dante's great epic, the Divina Commedia, is sym- 
bolical from commencement to end, illustrating the "con- 
version" from the sinful life, the judgments and punish- 
ments for sin and path to earthly Paradise, where Beatrice 
appears and leads him through the various spheres of which 
Heaven is composed to the Empyrean or Seat of God, 
where, for an instant, he has an "intuitive vision of Deity 
and the comprehension of all Mysteries, his will is wholly 
blended with that of God, and the poem ends." 

The writing in the manuscript indicates, especially in the 
marginal references, much intuition and vision, combined 
however with logic and humor. 



236 CHARACTER FROM HANDWRITING 




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uiijid fern wui/cts t^iirc ft(2fi)|c as 



WYCLIFFE'S BIBLE 



WYCLIFFE 'S BIBLE 

A.D. 1390 
BRITISH MUSEUM 

THIS is a part of the earliest Wycliffe translation of the 
Bible, and was owned by Thomas of Woodstock, Duke of 
Gloucester, youngest son of Edward III, who was put to 
death by Richard II in 1397. The inventory of his goods 
contained this Bible. It is written in bold English Minus- 
cules. Wycliffe 's Bible prose is the earliest classic middle 
English. 

Wyckliffe's claim to the title of "founder of English 
prose-writing" is entirely due to political causes; to a 
question agitated between Church and State; the question 
of the jurisdiction and power of the Church over man's civil 
rights and its right to receive and hold temporal endow- 
ments. Two serious but futile attempts were made to 
punish Wyckliffe for his political writings, which were 
directed against the folly and corruption of the clergy, 
and ultimately developed into a systematic attack upon the 
" whole established order in the Church." It was, there- 
fore, not the dogmatic but the political policy of the papacy 
that came under the lash of his criticism in his treatise De 
Civili domino, or "civil lordship." 

In this propaganda he for the first time boldly and bpenly 
proclaimed that "righteousness is the sole indefensible title 

237 



238 CHARACTER FROM HANDWRITING 

to dominion and to property; that an unrighteous clergy 
has no such title, and that the decision as to whether the 
property of ecclesiastics should be taken away, rests with 
the civil power." Wyckliffe's agitation and propaganda 
had hitherto been rather academic. He determined to make 
it popular, and inaugurated the institution of his * ' poor ' ' or 
"simple" priests to preach his doctrines throughout the 
country, and he undertook the translation of the Vulgate 
version of the Bible into English. This, together with the 
translation of his other works of the same character, fully 
entitle him to the claim as the founder of English prose- 
writing. In addition to this, Wyckliffe can be justly 
awarded the credit of having convinced his countrymen, at 
least, of their dependence upon God alone, requiring no 
mediation of priest or sacrament of the Church; and, even 
more than this, of having, through the effort of his cele- 
brated disciple, John Huss, raised his, Wyckliffe's doctrine, 
to the dignity of a national religion in Bohemia. 



LETTER OF HENRY IV 

A.D. 1400 

BRITISH MUSEUM 

A LETTER in Latin of Henry IV of England, dated Febru- 
ary 20th (A.D. 1400). Written in an official court-hand with 
angular letters, but compact and upright. 

The handwriting employed in this letter is derived from 
the same source as the more leisurely and formal book- 
hand used in copying MSS., namely the "Caroline Minus- 
cule ' ' of the Ninth and Tenth Centuries and is found in 
English documents from the conquest 1066 to A.D. 1500. 

Both types acquired their distinctive features about the 
Tenth Century, the court-hand attaining its greatest grace 
and beauty about the latter half of the Thirteenth Century 
and deteriorating rapidly during the next two centuries. 
The earlier, curved form of handwriting was replaced by a 
smaller hand, somewhat oblique. 

Strokes are much emphasized and thickened, especially 
in the tail of g and s, and in marks of abbreviation. Diag- 
onal downstrokes, such as that of d and v are on the whole 
thicker than vertical downstrokes and the head of b, I and h 
show an increasing tendency to split and to become flor- 
eated. This last tendency brings about an increase in the 
thickness of the downstrokes which gradually become 
wedge-shaped while the writing as a whole increases in size 

239 



240 






i "i * '] 

^ - * 



I Hi I'll if 

w/ ^""""^3 ? f ^v *K ^-. 




CHARACTER FROM HANDWRITING 241 

towards the end of the Thirteenth Century. Particularly 
characteristic of this period is the "S" with a greatly en- 
larged tail and a very small head more or less resembling 
an M and very easily mistaken for it. The old story of 
Sumpsimus for Mumpsimus is a case in point. 

In the Fourteenth Century, the exaggerated, horizontal 
strokes disappear and the writing at first becomes more 
vertical, giving it a much neater appearance : the wedge- 
shaped downstrokes persist but gradually come to be flor- 
eated or split at the top, a plain hook being substituted. 
The accent which preceded the dot is more regularly placed 
over the i, the single i being now quite usually so marked. 
As time goes on, the writing becomes both rounder and 
clumsier, so that a bad hand of this date is sometimes super- 
ficially like a bad hand of a hundred years before. After 
the middle of the century a certain angularity begins to 
appear in the letters, especially in those with looped heads 
and this forms the transition to the writing of the following 
century. 



242 CHARACTER FROM HANDWRITING 



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SLAVONIC GOSPELS 

FIFTEENTH CENTURY 

BRITISH MUSEUM 

THIS reproduction is part of a page of the Fifteenth Cen- 
tury copy of the Gospels in Slavonic, written on vellum. 
It illustrates the uncial and cursive forms of the Cyrillic 
Russian Alphabet. This early Russian script was used 
almost exclusively for ecclesiastical purposes. 

The ecclesiastical history of this period plays an im- 
portant part in tracing the evolution of the Slavonic script 
and language, for it is simply the record of the means by 
which the Slavonic nations became converted to Chris- 
tianity. 

We know that in 861 A.D. Rostislav of Moravia, fearing 
the influence of the Latin missionaries, applied to Byzan- 
tium for teachers who might preach the Gospel in the 
vulgar tongue. The Emperor sent two brothers for the 
purpose, one of whom, Constantine, changed his name to 
Cyril. He was a scholar, philosopher and linguist. He and 
his brother Methodius, not only taught letters and the 
Gospel, but translated the necessary liturgical books. This 
attempt to set up the Slavonic liturgy was strongly op- 
posed. Pope Nicholas I sent for the brothers but when 
they arrived at Rome the Pope was dead. His successor, 
Adrian II, received them warmly and accepted their trans- 

243 



244 HOW TO READ 

lations. Constantine died, and Methodius was tried and im- 
prisoned by the German Bishop. Subsequently Pope John 
VIII, in 873, liberated him and permitted Slavonic service. 
The Pope openly supported him and restored to him his 
archbishopric in 880. 

Upon the death of Methodius in 886 his suffragan, 
Wiching, a German, succeeded him and through the aid of 
the new Pope Stephen VI, the Slavonic service-books and 
those that used them were driven out and took refuge in 
Bulgaria. 

In spite of this expulsion, it does not appear that the 
Slavonic Liturgy was suppressed in the West. It lingered 
in Moravia until the Magyars overran the latter; and it 
appears to have secured a foothold during the ministration 
of Methodius in Bohemia, Poland and Croatia. The Latin 
Church, however, ultimately prevailed in those places and 
thus became permanently separated from the orthodox Bul- 
garians, Russians and Servians. It would seem therefore 
that Cyril did invent a Slavonic alphabet, "translated at 
any rate a Gospel lectionary, perhaps the psalter and the 
chief service-books into a Slavonic dialect and it seems that 
Methodius translated the epistles, some part of the Old 
Testament, a manual of the canon law and further liturgical 
matter." But we do not know for certain who invented 
Cyrillic, or the date of Cyril's earliest translations, or what 
people used his dialect ; that is, the language we call the 
Old Church Slavonic, 



CHARACTER FROM HANDWRITING 245 



V 1 



( 



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f ^ i vT\ ,?^>f t t * f K 

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THE CHURCH SLAVONIC ALPHABET 

ABOUT 1700 A.D. 
BRITISH MUSEUM 

A VERY curious document, in the form of a roll of paper 
16 feet 6 inches long and 8% inches wide. It gives the 
various cursive forms of the Church Slavonic Alphabet 
with ornamental variations. This alphabet was the basis of 
the alphabets adopted by the Russians, Bulgarians and by 
the Illyrian division of the Slavs. It originally contained 
48 symbols. 

The Slavonic languages employ three alphabets, corres- 
ponding to three respective religious rituals : the Latin for 
those requiring Latin services, the Cyrillic, which is used 
by the orthodox Slavs and is simply the liturgical Greek 
uncial of the Ninth Century with certain ornamentations, 
and the Glagolitic or form used in old Slavonic documents, 
which has survived in places where the Roman Church 
liturgy prevails, and in Montenegro. 

Peter the Great caused a version of the Cyrillic alphabet 
to be made for Russian use, which is also largely employed 
by Bulgaria. 

The first among the Slavs to adopt an adequate system of 
writing were the Czechs, and their alphabet has been 
adopted by other Slavonic peoples who use Latin letters. 

The Oldest Slavonic writing to be found is a Cyrillic 
inscription of the Tsar Samuel of Bulgaria, A.D. 993. 

246 




BRITISH MUSEUM 

THIS letter was written by Montaigne while Mayor of 
Bordeaux to the Marechal de Matignon, dated Bordeaux, 
May 22nd, 1585. 

This celebrated French essayist was born at the Chateau 
Montaigne near Bordeaux (as he is very particular in 
informing us) between 11 A.M. and noon on February 28th, 
1533. He appears to have been the subject of great solici- 
tude and care, both as to his health and his education. He 
was put out to nurse with strong, robust peasant women, 
and he was provided not only with a German tutor but 
with servants who were skilled Latinists. It is even said 
that the delightful and fanciful method was employed of 
waking him by the ''concord of sweet sounds" and soft 
music, also a novel and mechanical arrangement for teach- 
ing him Greek was tried but without success. We must 
however always bear in mind that almost all that we know 
about Montaigne has come from himself. 

After a life of mixed activity as a courtier, a counsellor 
of parliament and a soldier, he retired to a life of study, 
contemplation and learned ease at Chateau Montaigne. 

His fame rests upon his essays. He is credited with hav- 
ing perfected a style all his own. It may be safely con- 

247 



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tended that the essay, such as he originated and perfected, 
has no modern predecessor, or ancient prototype. His style 
and language are modelled after Plutarch, but with an inde- 
pendence that makes him perfectly original in his ease and 
flexibility. 



250 CHAEACTEE FEOM HANDWEITING 

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MICHELAGNIOLO BUONARROTI 

DATE 1508 
BRITISH MUSEUM 

THIS plate shows part of a letter from Michelangelo in 
Rome to his father, Lodovico di Buonarroti Simoni, and 
was written in June 1508. 

It is perhaps fortunate for posterity that genius often 
fails at first to realize, or even to suspect, the existence of 
its greatest natural adaption, thereby forcing upon others 
the opportunity of doing for some that which they had 
seemingly been unable to do for themselves namely detect 
the particular excellence or greatness for which nature has 
destined them. 

A striking example of this is the case of Michelangelo 
who was easily the protagonist among the matchless 
painters who flourished during the revival of learning in 
the Fifteenth Century. Indeed it is well known that his 
" natural inclination turned his attention and efforts origi- 
nally to sculpture." A living proof of his excellence in this 
field is his colossal statue of "David the Giant." Again, 
he is also said to have confessed that painting was not his 
"business" not his "metier" as the French term it. 

It was left for Pope Julius to select Michelangelo and 
therefore to detect in him the abnormal, artistic ability for 
the execution of the greatest scheme of painting perhaps 
ever conceived. Such a work was the series of fresco-paint- 

251 



252 CHARACTER FROM HANDWRITING 

ings with which Pope Julius, by decree, intended to embel- 
lish the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel at Rome and which he 
intrusted to the magical brush of the great Florentine 
painter. It was not without much misgiving and lack of 
confidence that Michelangelo entered upon the undertaking, 
especially as the scheme, originally confined to the apostles, 
was subsequently enlarged to the more ambitious effort of 
reproducing the whole of the Mosaic Cosmogony and Fall 
of Man from the Creation to the Flood, together with the 
accessory personages of prophets and sibyls dreaming on 
the new dispensation of Christ. The whole was to be in- 
closed and to be divided by a framework of painted archi- 
tecture with a multitude of nameless human shapes sup- 
porting its several members or reposing among them; the 
shapes meditating, as it were, between the features of the 
inanimate framework and those of the great and prophetic 
scenes themselves. 

We are now concerned with the personal characteristics 
that are made to stand out, in bold relief, in Michelangelo 's 
handwriting. These are: imagination, an imagination, 
daring, limitless, exalted, sublime; Spiritual grandeur, 
nobility, power and character, enthusiasm, transcendental- 
ism and piety combined with philosophical speculation con- 
cerning human destiny. 



MARTIN LUTHER 

DATE 1509 
BRITISH MUSEUM 

THIS letter, in Latin, was written by Martin Luther to his 
friend Georgius Spalatinus, a noted German Reformer. It 
is dated Wittenberg, November 8th, 1519. 

Soon after taking holy orders and commencing to lecture, 
the careful thinking imposed by his spiritual obligations, 
gave birth to those doubts which ultimately crystallized 
and conflicted with the scholastic theology of his early days. 
His first point of attack was the sale of Indulgences, which 
raised the question of the Pope's supremacy in spiritual 
matters. Luther thus became the champion of the ortho- 
dox priesthood which led to his excommunication and the 
opening of the first Diet at Worms in January, 1521. 
Though Luther suddenly disappeared, the natural revolt 
against Rome the Lutheran movement had been organ- 
ized and was spreading rapidly and peaceably, when inter- 
rupted by the Peasants' War. This was crushed by the 
ruling classes and with Luther's active aid one of the few 
mistakes of his life. The natural movement then became 
an ecclesiastical one, splitting into three parts, of one of 
which, the Evangelical churches, Luther became the leader. 

In the course of the conflict, the Diet of Speyer (1529) 
deprived the Protestant churches of any share of the 

253 



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CHARACTER FROM HANDWRITING 255 

revenues of the Medieval church, regarding which they pro- 
tested, thereby becoming historically known as Protestants. 
Then followed the conference of Luther with Zwingli, 
resulting in the cortinued effort to crush Protestantism, 
the League of Protestant Princes, the retirement of Luther, 
the succession of Melanchthon, and the reorganization of 
the Evangelical Church. 

Luther now suffered ill-health, but devoted himself to the 
task of preventing the Roman Curia from regaining its grip 
on his country. He was assisted in this by the Evangelical 
Princes, which accounts for his sanctioning the bigamy of 
Philip of Hesse. In 1546 he went to Eisleben. While there 
in a sermon he stated : 1 1 This and much more is to be said 
about the Gospel, but I am too weak and I must close here." 
This was on February 14th, he died on the 18th. 

Luther has been accused of profligacy and intemperance 
in eating and drinking. It must be admitted that he was 
fond of liquor and extremely convivial, so much so that 
he has been described as a "joyous, frolicsome companion." 
It is also true that his conversation, his lectures, even his 
sermons often contained unsavory expressions, and stories. 

We must, however, bear in mind that the standard of be- 
havior and of morality in those days was very low; that 
intemperance was habitual and treated with indulgence, 
that conversation and writing was frequently vulgar, and 
that other offences were immune from condemnation. 

Luther was, however, a devoted husband and father, and 
found his greatest happiness in his serene and peaceful 
home which, with his loving wife, he regarded as God's best 
gifts. Although an earnest exhorter and promoter of cheer- 
fulness, he was himself subject to frequent fits of de- 
pression and melancholy. He nevertheless devoted him- 



256 CHARACTER FROM HANDWRITING 

self to the enormous labors of his life with great fervor, 
unremitting attention and courage, and with such indiffer- 
ence to personal sacrifice as to indicate a striking and fear- 
less personality. 



TORQUATO TASSO 

A.D. 1588 
BRITISH MUSEUM 

THIS reproduction is from a volume entitled, "Toris- 
mondo, Tragedia del Signor Torquato." It is an autograph 
copy in a vellum binding. 

Tasso was, indeed, an " infant prodigy." He was born 
in 1544 in 1552 he was attending a school kept by the 
Jesuits at Naples, where his precocious intellect and re- 
ligious fervor attracted attention and admiration. At this 
age 8 years he was already famous; He became a 
handsome and brilliant young man with a most auspicious 
start in life. Success and happiness seemed certain, but 
they never came. In their stead he found only disappoint- 
ment, ill-health, insanity and premature death. 

It is true that for a short time from 1565 to 1570 he 
enjoyed the only happy period of his existence. He was 
then, young, handsome, accomplished, accustomed to the 
society of the great and learned, illustrious by his published 
works in verse and prose and he had become the idol of the 
most brilliant Court in Italy the Court of Cardinal Luigi 
d'Este, destined to be for him the scene of a short-lived 
happiness and of much suffering. It was there that he 
became on terms of familiar association with the Princesses 
Lucrezia and Leonora d'Este, with the latter of whom there 

257 



258 CHARACTER FROM HANDWRITING 




CHARACTER FROM HANDWRITING 259 

was the old, old story of love. Both sisters however un- 
doubtedly wielded great influence in the promotion of his 
interests, and it is therefore a matter of regret that he 
should have allowed a certain tactless freedom of speech 
to betray him into a difference with his patron. 

It was at this time that he produced his "Aminta" and 
completed his "Gerusalemme Liberata." He was only 
about 31 years old, but it appears that his most excellent 
work had been given to the world and with it went his last 
days of sunshine and good fortune. It would seem as if 
some malign influence led him into error from which his 
judgment should have recoiled. He actually sent manu- 
script copies of his famous poem to a number of literary 
notables for the purpose of securing their criticism and 
suggestions, which he expressed his willingness to follow 
if they should differ from him. Of course they differed and 
he unfortunately played directly into their hands. Instead 
of publishing his poem as he had conceived it ; instead of 
launching it upon the world with the touch of his genius 
upon it, he deliberately sacrificed himself to the critical 
theories of others. From this time his troubles began. 
His poem was laid aside. His health began to fail, his mind 
yielded to delusions and he was in constant fear of being 
denounced by the Inquisition and of being poisoned. In 
fact Tasso if not actually insane was now so far men- 
tally deranged that he was of no service to himself and 
was a burden to his friends. Nevertheless, the Duke of 
Ferrara, with whom he had quarreled, invited him to return 
to his court provided he would consent to a course of medi- 
cal treatment for his malady. Tasso accepted this friendly 
welcome and at first improved but his malady reappeared 
and he again went away and after wandering hither and 



260 

thither, he was finally sent to a lunatic asylum at St. Anna. 
During his confinement he composed numerous philosophi- 
cal and ethical dialogues, but little poetry. Part of his 
' ' Gerusalemme " was also published; and shortly after- 
wards the whole poem. In six months seven editions of it 
were issued. 

Tasso was, at the intercession of Vincenzo Genzaga, Duke 
of Mantua, allowed to leave St. Anna in 1586, but he soon 
after went away to Rome feeling himself neglected by the 
Duke and thence he took up his residence at Mantua, where 
he wrote "Torrismondo." 

Then he went to Naples, where he wrote his "Geru- 
salemme Conquistata" in which he reconstructed his pre- 
vious poem, depriving it of its chivalrous and mystical 
elements. Posterity has however reversed his decision, and 
his fame now rests securely on the work of his early life. 
He died at Rome shortly after the laurel crown was con- 
ferred upon him by the Pope. 



GALILEO GALILEI 

DATE 1609 
BRITISH MUSEUM 

PART of a letter from Galileo Galilei to Michelangniolo 
Buonarroti the younger, nephew of the painter. Galileo 
was occupying the chair of Mathematics of the University 
of Padua, when he wrote this letter. It is dated, Padua, 
December 4th, 1609. 

If it had not been for an attack of opthalmia, the world's 
list of remarkable astronomers would have been seriously 
curtailed and the Roman hierarchy correspondingly en- 
riched. Galileo was making rapid and brilliant progress 
in his studies at the Florentine monastery of Vallombrosa, 
when he suddenly manifested a strong inclination for 
religious life and actually joined the novitiate, which con- 
flicted so much with his father's plans for his son's career, 
that the former turned to account a somewhat severe in- 
flammation of the eyes, as a reason for withdrawing Galileo 
from the monastery and entering him at the University of 
Pisa, when he was only 18 years old. Here he displayed 
the same phenomenal talents ; a versatility, a natural apti- 
tude in various intellectual directions that undoubtedly 
would have brought him to the forefront in painting, music, 
invention, or any other of the arts or sciences. 

Again accident interposes, makes Galileo an unpremedi- 
tated listener at a court lecture which causes him to aban- 

261 



262 CHARACTER FROM HANDWRITING 



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CHARACTER FROM HANDWRITING 263 

don the pursuit of medicine, for which his father had des- 
tined him, and follow the calling of Euclid and Archimedes. 

From this moment his progress is one of uninterrupted 
success, so that within three years after leaving the univer- 
sity he writes a treatise on the "Center of Gravity in 
Solids/' which brings him the appointment of lecturer on 
mathematics at the university and the title and reputation 
of ''The Archimedes of his time." 

It will be remembered that at this period the Copernican 
theory of the solar system was not popular ; but this did not 
deter Galileo from adopting it, though he refrained from 
publicly declaring the fact. From this restraint he was, 
however, soon relieved by the invention of the telescope 
which was really due to the genius of Johannes Lippershey, 
an optician of Middleburg. 

Its employment in the study of the heavens, and in the 
dissipation of many hitherto well-established theories in 
astronomy, reinforced by Galileo's courage of conviction, 
brought to a head, as a question of open and deliberate dis- 
cussion, the long suspected conflict between the new theories 
of our solar system and Scripture that had up to this 
moment been only hinted at and carefully avoided. 

Galileo, however, was not to be silenced. And so he 
boldly went to Rome and with his wonted enthusiasm and 
eloquence presented his views to the pontificial court. 

Its theologians rejected them, declaring his statement; 
that the earth revolved around the sun as an immovable 
center to be "absurd in philosophy and formally heretical" 
because expressly contrary to Scripture, and his claim that 
the earth revolved daily on its own axis, to be "open to 
the same censure in philosophy and at least erroneous as 
to faith." 



264 CHARACTER FROM HANDWRITING 

By papal decree Galileo was enjoined not "to hold, teach 
or defend the condemned doctrines " ; to which he promised 
obedience, but he took with him from Rome a written cer- 
tificate to the effect that "no abjuration had been required 
of, or penance imposed upon him," which induced him to 
believe that the papal decree of 1616 would be revoked, or 
at least ignored. It was therefore with no apprehension or 
fear as to his future that he wrote and published his 
famous, but ill-fated work, the Dialogo dei due massimi 
sistemi del mondo. It was received with universal praise, 
throughout Europe and with good reason, for it would be 
difficult to find a work that could pretend to be its rival in 
respect of "animation and elegance of style combined with 
strength and clearness of scientific exposition." This only 
added to its offence, for it was an undisguised, forcible and 
persistent reassertion of Copernican principles, and as 
such, a flagrant flouting of the papal decree of 1616 and a 
violation of Galileo's pledge of conformity. Of course its 
sale was immediately forbidden and Galileo was summoned 
to appear at Rome by the Inquisition when he was con- 
demned as "vehemently suspected of heresy," and sen- 
tenced to imprisonment. The sum and substance of Gali- 
leo's astronomical work consisted in aiding to establish 
mechanics as a science, and this consisted in his being the 
first to "grasp the idea of force as a mechanical agent and 
to apply to the physical world the principle of the invaria- 
bility of the relation between cause and effect. ' ' 



BEN JONSON 

DATE 1609 
BRITISH MUSEUM 

THIS is part of a manuscript by Ben Jonson entitled: 
1 'The Masque of Queenes, cerebrated from the House of 
Fame by the most absolute in all States and titles, Anne, 
Queene of Great Britayne, etc., with her honorable ladyes, 
at White Hall, Feb. 2, 1609." 

Ben Jonson is best remembered by his play Every Man 
in his Humor and he still lives in his Conversations, for 
which we are indebted to the hospitality of the great Scot- 
tish poet, William Drummond of Hawthornden, who enter- 
tained Jonson during his visit to Scotland in 1618 of which 
visit Conversations is a record. The host had here an 
ample opportunity of studying his guest's character, and 
he tells us that he was "a great lover and praiser of him- 
self; a contemner and scorner of others." 

Further confirmation of this leading feature of Jonson 's 
character is furnished by Howell, who states that during a 
supper at the poet's house where the host had almost 
spoiled the relish of the feast by vilifying others and mag- 
nifying himself, Thomas Carew buzzed in the writer's ear 
that ''though Ben had barreled up a great deal of knowl- 
edge, yet it seemed he had not read the Ethics, which among 
other precepts of morality, forbid self-commendation." 

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Combativeness, invariably found co-existing with self- 
conceit, was Jonson's most salient characteristic. Nearly 
the whole of his early life was an unbroken succession of 
quarrels. This pugnacity was of course but too well cal- 
culated to irritate such a gentle and peaceful temperament 
as Drummond's, and to provoke a quiet expression of his 
dissatisfaction. Happily this habitual self-abandonment to 
the indulgence of prejudices acted as a safety-valve, so that 
there was no residue of bitterness, still less of malice in 
Jonson. 

It is therefore not strange that he was very anxious to 
be esteemed for his honesty, and that he well deserved this 
reputation both quite consistent with his ever-present 
self-consciousness and sense of excellence over others. 

It is also claimed on Jonson's behalf that he was impar- 
tial in his opinions, which hardly coincides with his strong 
disposition for likes and dislikes. He was however proof 
against flattery, which again may be received as evidence of 
excellence and no doubt accounts for his utter indifference 
to, if not contempt of, public opinion which he certainly was 
at no pains to cultivate or consult. This independence 
makes him stand out prominently among the master- 
writers of his age. 

His literary style was classical, in which polish and sim- 
plicity predominated. 

His grave is in Westminster Abbey, and on his monu- 
ment England tersely expresses its judgment of him in 
the inscription : 

Rare Ben Jonson. 



268 



CHARACTER FROM HANDWRITING 



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BRITISH MUSEUM 

THIS is part of a Notary's Certificate concerning the dis- 
position of the goods of Franchise Rouseau and signed by 
Moliere and others. Dated January 25th, 1664, in which 
year the celebrated comedian was 44 years old. 

Moliere was not the first nor the only one among promi- 
nent censors of public morals to pay the inevitable penalty 
of gibbeting the social infirmities of his day. Especially 
was this the case when his success as the first true comic 
satirist of contemporary foibles was immediate and im- 
mense with the production of his "Les Precieuses Ridi- 
cules," November 18, 1659, and by his "Le Festin de 
Pierre," February 15, 1665. The nature of the calumnies 
with which his critics and other enemies assailed him, amply 
attest the effectiveness of his satire. He was accused of 
marrying his own daughter and of insulting the King, 
offending the Queen-mother and corrupting virtue 
charges, that, independently of the disproof of direct testi- 
mony, were disposed of finally by the King's acting as god- 
father to his child and the King's adoption of Moliere 's 
company as his servants and pensioning them. 

Further confirmation of his personal worth is contributed 
by his actors, who indignantly repelled the effort of certain 
older companies to entice them away from him. They de- 
clared that they would always share his fortunes. It is 

269 



270 CHARACTER FROM HANDWRITING 

true that when this occurred, Moliere 's successful career 
and position were already well assured, but this was rein- 
forced by his rare genius, the charm of endearing manners, 
high sense of honor and nobility of character. Hence, as 
La Grange, his friend and comrade tells us, his company 
"sincerely loved him", while he enjoyed the patronage of 
a great prince. 

"Le Misanthrope" has been considered his masterpiece. 
True it is that it was not popular nor as well received by 
the public as by the critics but the reason is obvious. It 
was, at that time, something new and even offensive for a 
playwright to substitute the real refinement of a real civi- 
lization for the mock refinement of a false civilization and 
to "subject to its influence the eternal passions and senti- 
ments of human nature". This Moliere did; and was there- 
fore more successful with the critics than with the public. 
In our day the case would be reversed. 

Moliere 's death furnished a striking coincidence. While 
playing the title role in his "Malade Imaginaire", he burst 
a blood-vessel in a fit of coughing and died within an hour 
after. 

A profound detestation of hypocrisy is perhaps the dis- 
tinguishing feature of Moliere 's character, while scrupulous 
honor and refinement run a close second place, followed by 
great generosity and gentleness. 

He has been pronounced the greatest of all social comedy 
writers ; as ranking among the foremost in the literature of 
France, and next to Shakespeare in modern drama. He 
was denied all priestly ministration in his last moments 
and buried without any religious ceremony, without even 
a stone to mark his resting-place. 

"Unknown is the grave of Moliere." 



SIR ISAAC NEWTON 

DATE 1682 
BRITISH MUSEUM 

PART of a letter from Sir Isaac Newton to Dr. William 
Briggs commenting on his "Theory of Vision". Dated 
Trinity College, Cambridge, June 20, 1682. 

Newton's achievements were those of a purely philoso- 
phic genius. His was not the inventive faculty nor the 
intuitive perception of the poet, but the incessant, patient 
and persevering study and labor of the philosopher. His 
mental qualities therefore must not be determined by the 
early period of life at which he plucked Nature's secrets 
from her repository, nor by the rapid succession of his 
discoveries. 

The world has consequently felt itself secure in the pos- 
session of his scientific revelations ; for in these are rooted 
an unparalleled industry and perseverance that have filled 
the human mind with a corresponding confidence and faith. 

Newton was highly favored at birth with a rare and in- 
fallible combination: the faculty of lucid simplicity and 
simple lucidity of statement combined with speculative pro- 
fundity, which is not only confined to his purely scientific 
writings but also beautifies and adorns even his theologi- 
cal treaties. 

Naturally enough then we find observation and experi- 
ment playing an important part in Newton's method of 
investigation, so much so, that certain over-enthusiastic 

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CHARACTER FROM HANDWRITING 273 

worshipers at Bacon's shrine have ascribed Newton's dis- 
coveries to the application of the Baconian method of in- 
duction, but, truth to tell, inductive research was employed 
by many distinguished predecessors of Bacon in the philo- 
sophic field. Newton therefore merely followed in the wake 
of Masters, whose example was also adopted and recom- 
mended in the No rum Organon. 

Newton might have cultivated with success and credit 
some of those eccentricities which are believed by not a few, 
to indicate genius, but his intellectual endowments, his 
modesty and his philosophic sincerity and dignity forbade 
this; in fact made it impossible. He was always "modest, 
candid and affable, suiting himself to every company and 
speaking of himself and others in such a manner that he 
was never even suspected of vanity." 

The key to Newton's character as a man and as a philoso- 
pher is furnished by those memorable words uttered by him 
a short time before his death: "I do not know what I may 
appear to the world, but to myself I seem to have been only 
like a boy playing on the seashore, diverting myself in now 
and then finding a smoother pebble or a prettier shell than 
ordinary, whilst the great ocean of truth lay all undiscov- 
ered before me." 



274 



CHARACTER FROM HANDWRITING 




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JOSEPH ADDISON 

DATE 1699 
BRITISH MUSEUM 

PART of a letter from Joseph Addison to Charles Mon- 
tagu, Earl of Halifax, written while he was on the Conti- 
.nent. Dated, Paris, October 14, 1699. 

Addison is one of the few men of letters of the Eight- 
eenth Century who faithfully reflect the spirit of their day. 
It is therefore unfortunate that he furnishes such limited 
materials for biography. 

Johnson, Steele and Pope are amply provided for in this 
regard, but of Addison hardly any record can be found that 
gives any account of his life and character. The only con- 
temporary source of interest that is open to us is Pope 
Addison 's enemy who is not remarkable for a scrupulous 
regard for truth when wielding his trenchant satiric pen to 
describe an opponent or a foe. Addison 's own writings 
afford no help; his letters and his masterpiece the Spec- 
tator are highly polished formal dissertations; they do 
not touch or concern the author in his early life, conduct 
or intercourse. Such light as is shed upon him, reveals 
a man that commanded the respect and admiration of his 
contemporaries, notwithstanding: the fact that he was natu- 
rally very shy and reserved in his demeanor. 

It must be remembered that chief among these contempo- 

275 



276 HOW TO READ 

raries were such men as Steele, Swift, Pope all of whom 
have "left their mark" upon their age and were altogether 
unlikely to have respected and admired any one unless he 
at least had attained the same level of excellence as they 
had in all essentials of mind and energy of character. 

It is, however, doubtful if Addison could have accom- 
plished the great wo'rk that distinguished his life from that 
of the shining lights of the Eighteenth Century, if he had 
been compelled to rely merely upon elegance and refinement 
as a writer, upon his intellectual power to fascinate other 
intellects that were "haughty and cynical." Addison 's 
great achievement consisted in his having been the "Chief 
Architect of public opinion in the Eighteenth Century" 
a public opinion which "in spite of its durable solidity, 
seems like the great Gothic Cathedrals, to absorb into itself 
the individuality of the architect." The task was a great 
one. The recent Civil Wars had overthrown constituted 
authority, Episcopalianism had been supplanted by Pres- 
hyterianism and the whole population had been torn and 
riven asunder by Civil War. It was these, which are only 
a summary of the apparently unsurmountable difficulties 
under which Addison, with the instrumentality of the Spec- 
tator, restored order out of the chaos of conflict, in matters, 
religious, moral and artistic, which prevailed in the period 
between the Restoration and the succession of the House 
of Hanover. The individuality of the man who accom- 
plished this must have been indeed great, since it pre- 
dominated so largely as to almost completely obscure his 
other characteristics. 



CHARACTER FROM HANDWRITING 



277 




EXTRACTS IN PERSIAN AND ARABIC 

FROM THE KORAN 

1734 A.D. 

A BEAUTIFULLY illuminated manuscript of extracts from 
Persian and Arabic authors, quoting the Koran. The first 
line reads : "Wealth does not escape the hands of an experi- 
enced man." There are no capital letters in Arabic and 
nothing marks the beginning of a sentence as in English. 



278 



CHARACTER FROM HANDWRITING 



279 




FRANCOIS MARIE ARONET DE VOLTAIRE 

DATE 1760 
BRITISH MUSEUM 

PART of a letter in English from Voltaire to George 
Keats, F.R.S., in which he expresses his admiration for the 
freedom of living in England. Dated, January 16, 1760. 

Nothing so adequately measures the genius, the mental 
energy, the all-inclusive universal intellectuality, the fear- 
less intrepidity and earnestness, the telling force of Vol- 
taire's assaults upon the ''persecuting and the privileged 
orthodoxy" of his time, as the virulence, variety, bitter- 
ness and malice of his critics. Foremost among them were 
the orthodox sectarians, who described him as "hell- 
sprung"; as the embodiment of "Satan, sin and death." 
Next we see him attacked by the inevitable type of censor, 
the man so utterly encased in the impenetrable armor of 
self-conceit, of fancied self-superiority, as to be prejudiced 
beyond conceding the possibility of fallibility in himself or 
merit in others in whose opinion infallible of course, Vol- 
taire and Rousseau were so equal in crime that "it would 
be difficult to proportion the inequality between them." 
The evil that such a critic does is in proportion to the 
extent to which he discredits, in the opinion of the average 
man, such genuine and effective social reformers as 
Voltaire. 

380 



CHARACTER FROM HANDWRITING 281 

The principal charge then, the charge in fact which in- 
cludes all those others that are laid at Voltaire's door- 
infidelity. This proceeds from either ignorance and in- 
tolerance or religious prejudice. True that Voltaire at- 
tacked with bitter and crushing force, the popular beliefs of 
his day, but this is quite a different matter from attacking 
religion, which he always respected. It was not religion 
nor even the church as such that Voltaire inveighed 
against. He rather sought to destroy tyranny and the 
superstition that disgraced the church, and indeed this evil 
was incorporated in the corrupt and monstrous system that 
prevailed everywhere, a system all the more dangerous be- 
cause rooted in the conventional orthodoxy that was all 
powerful in his day and crushed under its iron heel all 
opposition to its tyranny and oppression. It was this mon- 
ster not God, not Christ, not Christianity that he de- 
scribed in the phrase that recurs constantly throughout all 
his works even in his private letters ecrasez 1'in fame 
"Crush persecuting and privileged orthodoxy," but Vol- 
taire's own recorded words utterly refute the accusation of 
infidelity. For example "I believe in God," in that be- 
lief, "one finds difficulties." "In the belief that there is 
no God, absurdities." "The wise man attributes to God 
no human affections. He recognizes a power, necessary, 
eternal, which animates all Nature." 

Intellectually considered, Voltaire stands well-nigh alone. 
There is no department of literary work that he did not 
touch not only to adorn but to make it breathe forth his own 
living originality. 

But after all, more important than anything that Vol- 
taire ever thought or wrote no matter how excellent was 
what he did. His true title to fame, to the remembrance and 



282 CHARACTER FROM HANDWRITING 

gratitude not only of his country but of the world, is, that 
he was chief among those who helped to earn freedom for 
man a freedom to think, to speak, to act, according to the 
dictates of conscience; a freedom that imposes no limit or 
restrictions other than those of protecting and assuring to 
our neighbor his rights, and of worshiping God as he wills. 



BENJAMIN FRANKLIN 

DATE 1784 
BRITISH MUSEUM 

A LETTER from Benjamin Franklin, then ambassador to 
France, to Captain and Commodore Paul Jones, about a 
settlement of expenses incurred in Holland. Dated, Passy, 
March 23, 1784. 

If we wish to put our finger accurately, as it were, upon 
the feature which over and above all others sums up the 
many sidedness of Franklin's character, we may well adopt 
the viewpoint of "friend and benefactor to the human 
race." 

When we bear in mind that Franklin's life was lived from 
first to last in the limelight of the world ; that his own and 
subsequent generation have with cordial unanimity given 
him an abiding home in their hearts, which regard increases 
as time goes on, we can hardly fail to be convinced that, 
great man as he was, goodness, even grandeur, of soul, pre- 
dominated. A clear idea of his spiritual excellence is af- 
forded by the fact that although surrounded by intolerant 
religious sects who bitterly attacked each other, he yet lived 
at peace and even in friendship with them all. He could 
have done this only by virtue of a soul that recognized in 
every fellow creature, the presence of the same Eternal 
Principle in spite of opinions and beliefs, even of human 

283 



284 



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CHARACTER FROM HANDWRITING 285 

frailties and errors. His was in fact that godlike tolerance 
of the spirit of Christ which enabled him to spread good 
wherever he went among his fellow men while at the same 
time he served them in public life with unremitting energy, 
and distinction. 

This unparalleled human tolerance was emphasized by an 
utter absence of vanity by a simplicity and modesty that 
distinguished him even after success and public honors had 
crowded thick upon him. It would indeed be difficult to 
find another man in whom self-love was so completely 
repressed. 

Of course, Franklin had faults ; he was only human after 
all, but these faults were, at their worst, essentially super- 
ficial, and so habitually indulged in his day that they hardly 
created a ripple on the moral surface. These were groSsness 
and vulgarity. The severest blame perhaps which has been 
visited upon Franklin is obviously inseparable from that 
narrowness, bigotry and intolerance which, in matters of 
religion or forms of faith, can see no difference between 
impiety and philosophic tolerance. It was the latter, and 
the latter only that explains Franklin's criticism that the 
" popular belief in the divinity of Christ was a beneficial 
error." Consistently with this philosophic indifference to 
orthodox intolerance, we find in him independence of 
thought, and social and political liberality. He was also 
plentifully endowed with strong common sense, a wonder- 
ful talent of homely ridicule of vice and prejudices, and a 
devotion to the practical and the useful in preference to 
the purely ornamental and superficial. 

Domestic purity and affection, cheerfulness, plentiful 
humor and wit, conversational charm, philanthropy, 
scrupulous honesty, firm faith in a Divine omniscience and 



286 CHARACTER FROM HANDWRITING 

omnipotence and in man's immortality all these round out 
a fulness of character in which the owner plainly declared 
his life's purpose to " dedicate himself to virtue and the 
public good." 



ROBEET BURNS 

DATE 1787 
BRITISH MUSEUM 

A LETTEK from Robert Burns to Dr. John Moore telling 
about his own life, dated Mauchline, August 2, 1787. 

All writers reveal themselves to a greater or less extent 
in their works, but Burns has so minutely, so completely 
unfolded his inner self the real man in his writings, that 
in them, we seem to have ever present the living, breathing 
author. He may, indeed, be said to "live, move and have 
his being" in his thoughts, creations and expressions, which 
are poured forth with such simple sincerity, such unself- 
consciousness, such obvious anxiety to declare and estab- 
lish the truth, that he succeeds, as it were, in "wearing his 
heart upon his sleeve." Spontaneity, simplicity and sin- 
cerity lie therefore on the surface of Burns' character. 

With whatever qualities were necessary to constitute a 
great lyric poet, he was most richly endowed. He was 
aglow with a poetic fervor that made luminous every feel- 
ing, every sentiment, every experience, everything in fine 
that was human. He was warm-hearted but at the same 
time saved from sentimentality by a robust manliness, 
which was most harmoniously blended with the most deli- 
cate sensibility to beauty not alone the beauty of the 
female form divine, but of nature in all her moods and 

287 



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CHARACTER FROM HANDWRITING 289 

aspects. She was as dear to him as the ''ruddy drops that 
sometimes visited his sad heart." Not only woman's tear- 
ful eye, or melting voice, but the sufferings of the dumb, 
silent, specimens of God's creative skill came in for a share 
of the "common-blooded affinity of his rich human heart." 

Burns possessed the strong common-sense, the physical 
and mental robustness of his countrymen, and as a result 
he was "strong in thought and intense in emotion." His 
was not the idealistic or contemplative quality of poetic 
temperament, nor could he boast he certainly never even 
claimed for himself scholarship. He was, however, skilled 
in the rapid reading of human thought and character; in 
penetrating to the innermost recesses of secret, hidden 
motives and sagacious and shrewd in judgment of conduct. 

Patriotism is also one of Burns' virtues, and no doubt 
intended to endear him to his countrymen at a time when, 
as Carlyle informs us, this quality was very much at a dis- 
count in the literary world of Scotland. 

Burns shared very largely with Goethe what has been 
termed "a great zest of life," which naturally accounts fo:: 
his social success "the universal charm of his social inter- 
course." 

The rock upon which Burns split was the indulgence of 
his impetuous passions and "jovial compotations in the 
Globe tavern at Dumfries," but above all .things, he pos- 
sessed great honor and nobility of character. As he himself 
says in one of his letters "My beloved household Gods 
are independence of spirit and integrity of soul," confirm- 
ing which Carlyle remarks, "Many poets have been poorer 
than Burns ; no one was ever prouder. ' ' 



290 



CHARACTER FROM HANDWRITING 




3 



FRIEDRICH VON SCHILLEE 
DATE 1802 



PART of a letter from Schiller to Karl Theodor Koerner, 
one of his warmest friends and confidants. Dated Weimar, 
July 5, 1802. 

The literary reputation which Schiller enjoys is almost 
entirely due to the standard that Germany adopts in deter- 
mining the merit and rank of her men of letters. She does 
not estimate them according to the general extent of their 
influence upon the domain of literature, but according to 
the degree in which they have incorporated themselves with 
and molded the literary life of the German people. 

Judged by this standard Schiller undoubtedly well de- 
serves his fame and name as a poet, historian and drama- 
tist. When we give due weight to the unlimited extollation 
which he received from his countrymen, we have an ade- 
quate explanation of his popularity. 

Schiller was blessed with a noble, dignified presence, with 
which his devotion to truth, beauty and freedom harmonized 
completely. He was also a model of the domestic virtues, 
a fond husband and father, and a firm and loyal friend. 
Another element that contributed very largely to his popu- 
larity, was his cheerfulness and hopefulness in spite of 
suffering and poverty, and what may be called his artistic 
conscientiousness which despised mercenary motives. 

291 



292 CHARACTER FROM HANDWRITING 

Regarding Schiller, we have extravagant eulogies from 
Madame de Stael and from Goethe. The former praises 
his virtues which were "as admirable as his talents," and 
his conscience which was his "muse." Goethe in his Epi- 
logue, confirms and reinforces this eulogy which unwit- 
tingly led to a war of words as to the respective genius 
and accomplishments of Schiller and of Goethe himself. 

It happened, therefore, that Schiller was doubtless 
exalted somewhat above his natural and just deserts and, 
indeed, almost canonized as a saint. If we* exclude from 
our considertion the struggle with ill health that he was 
forced to make during his life, there remains nothing that 
justifies any substantial claim to heroism. Nor is he 
entitled to extraordinary praise for his meditative philoso- 
phy and artistic conscientiousness as compared to certain 
others. 

It does not require a very profound analysis to discover 
that Schiller did not possess those sublime creative qualities 
that constitute poetic greatness such as would entitle him 
to a place among poets of the first rank. The truth appears 
to be that he was, as a poet, a rare interpreter and exponent 
of the national instincts and ideals, and that he awoke in the 
hearts of his countrymen vibrations which were largely in- 
dependent of the poet, as poet, and to which the hearts of 
strangers were not attuned. 



JOHANN WOLFGANG VON GOETHE 
DATE 1811 



THIS is part of a letter from the German poet Goethe 
about returning a manuscript, dated Weimar, August 4, 
1811. 

We are as a rule too much disposed to exaggerate the 
part that innate gifts play in human evolution as compared 
to environment and opportunity. As has been often said, 
the mightiest oaks require the richest soils to attain full 
growth. Similarly the natural birth-gifts of Goethe, ex- 
traordinary though they were, could neither have produced 
the intellectual phenomenon that he became, had he lived 
anywhere else than on German soil. The truth is that 
greatness in every field of human effort, depends upon op- 
portunity, and external influence as well as upon inborn 
qualities. It is obvious that we cannot determine the condi- 
tions under which we are born, but we can utilize them ; we 
can enrich them to an extent commensurate with our natal 
endowments and with our susceptibility to development. 

Selecting Goethe for illustration, we easily detect in the 
atmosphere prevailing in Germany during the latter part 
of the Eighteenth Century, the conditions of time and place, 
and in Goethe himself, the qualities of mind and heart in- 
dispensable for the production of his "Werther." Simi- 

293 



294 



HOW TO BEAD 




CHARACTER FROM HANDWRITING 295 

larly, an apparently accidental meeting with the Duke of 
Weimar furnished Goethe with a fresh field of opportunity 
and led to the full revelation and expression of his mighty 
intellect and character. This evolution resulted in an un- 
paralleled combination of every human element and ac- 
counts for his apparently extraordinary contradictions in 
conduct and achievement. On the one hand, his imagination 
attains the highest flights of poetic excellence; he lives in 
the unreal realm of fancy and of dreams, he loses himself 
in the throngs of busy men and in their practical activities. 
On the other hand he rivals a Newton in scientific achieve- 
ment, competes with the surgeon and the jurist in their 
respective fields, and hardly yields precedence to a Talley- 
rand or a Rochefoucauld in knowledge of the world and in 
ability to penetrate the hidden thoughts and motives of 
men. He creates a Faust who barters his soul for mortal 
love and sensual delight, but at the same moment abandons 
both to a mocking and triumphant Mephistopheles. 

Thus we may run through the long list of Goethe's vir- 
tues and achievements to find that we have failed to include 
the philanthropist, the tender and self-sacrificing friend, 
the idol of a home where peace and happiness are mingled 
with the worship, love, and homage which he receives from 
the cultivated and the enlightened, as well as from those 
that are near and dear to him. And even after supplying 
this omission, we are confronted with the realization that 
we have not done justice to Goethe by our failure to still add 
the negatives of all that is highest and best in human char- 
acter and thus completely and faithfully reproduce his 
seemingly contradictory nature and personality. 

Having done this we arrive at this summary which has 
been made by those who knew him best. They conclude 



296 CHARACTER FROM HANDWRITING 

that he was the most humane of men, with highly developed 
powers of soul, and physical perfection ; a man whose physi- 
cal life fully retained its independence and thoroughly per- 
meated the spiritual all this uniting in such striking pro- 
portions as to impress those who knew him with the fact 
that they had never before met such a being. 



CHARLES DICKENS 

DATE 1835 
BRITISH MUSEUM 

THIS letter from Charles Dickens to Thomas Fraser was 
in reference to writing a series of articles for the Evening 
Chronicle. It is dated Furnival's Inn, January 20, 1835. 

The secret of Dickens' universal literary popularity is 
that he was endowed by Mother Nature with a combination 
of qualities of mind and heart which demanded neither the 
tempering of experience, nor the evolution of labor and of 
years. These qualities seemed to attain their fullest devel- 
opment in him simultaneously, making it almost impossible 
to single out the predominating one. 

Where, for example, shall we find any other man in his 
sphere of human achievement who was more consummately 
adapted to his special work by special natural endowment, 
or in whom love and devotion to that work was more sin- 
cere in fact, consuming? Among what records, must we 
delve to unearth another human heart that pulsated more 
completely in sympathy with the frailties, the nobilities, 
the aspirations, the joys and sorrows of the human race? 
In what corner of the globe would we look for a mortal 
whose mental or physical eye is as keenly sharp and observ- 
ant, is as acutely microscopic in detecting and revealing all 
that serves to make up humanity in both its private and 

297 



298 



HOW TO READ 




CHARLES DICKENS 



CHARACTER FROM HANDWRITING 299 

public relations ; in all its complexities of character, of con- 
duct and experience; in the mysteries of its purpose and 
destiny? Nor must it be forgotten that in accomplishing 
his wonderful work, he has not sacrificed a single friend, 
wounded a human being or made one actual enemy. On the 
contrary, so completely has Dickens identified himself with 
his fellow-creatures of all sorts and conditions, that he 
may be truly said to have spoken with their tongue, written 
with their pen, felt with their heart ; thus exemplifying the 
dramatists characterization of ''Two souls with but a single 
thought; two hearts that beat as one." 

We therefore find in this remarkable man, the following 
prominent characteristics : boundless imagination exalted, 
noble, sublime, as well as grotesque; fantastic, wild 
imagery; exuberant, frolicsome, cheerful, mirth; laughter 
and fun; open, good-hearted capacity for full and exhaus- 
tive enjoyment of life in all its moods, manifestations and 
pleasures; delight in the enjoyment of home and family; 
intense sympathy with every human emotion and aspira- 
tion; an almost superhuman keenness of observation of 
human character, mannerisms, peculiarities of conduct and 
behavior, with an innate genius for penetrating and sym- 
pathizing with the joys and sorrows, the daily, domestic 
and intimate life of poor, uncultured, humble folk, so that 
he actually succeeded in revealing to them a new world of 
their own better than that they were familiar with, and in 
even inspiring them with a higher purpose. 



300 



CHARACTER FROM HANDWRITING 




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WILLIAM MAKEPEACE THACKERAY 

DATE 1849 
BRITISH MUSEUM 

A LETTEE from Thackeray to Antonio Panizzi, Keeper of 
the Printed Books in the British Museum. Dated, Kensing- 
ton, May, 1849. 

Thackeray's earliest manifestation of literary talent was 
' ' Timbucktoo, ' ' a burlesque of the poem with which his con- 
temporary and life-long friend, Tennyson, carried off the 
Chancellor's prize at Trinity College, Cambridge. His de- 
testation of the genus "snob" also came to the surface at 
the same stage of his career, and increased as time ran on. 

Although no laurels crowned his labors at school or col- 
lege, he was laying the foundation for his subsequent suc- 
cesses by omnivorous reading of the romantic literature of 
the day, which was the mental pabulum for which Nature 
had richly prepared and adapted his brain. 

Thackeray was endowed with the power of acute observa- 
tion and used his eyes to such good purpose that he stored 
up a rich fund of experience which, combined \.dth his close 
association with such men as Liddell, Tennyson, Fitzgerald, 
Kinglake and Monckton Milnes, could not fail to help 
furnish him with the necessary equipment for his subse- 
quent successes. 

Thus equipped, his patrimony dissipated, with no em- 
ployment to fall back upon, it was natural that he should 
seek refuge in the harbor of literature. As Trollope says ; 

301 



302 CHARACTER FROM HANDWRITING 

" It is a profession that requires no capital, no special edu- 
cation, no training. If a man can command a table, a chair, 
a pen, paper and ink, he can commence his trade as a 
literary man." 

Accordingly Thackeray entered this field armed with his 
romantic pen and the irresistible charm and power of that 
breeding and nobility which are the hall-mark of the Eng- 
lish university. 

As we should expect to find, simplicity was one of the 
leading characteristics of the man whose pet aversion was 
snobbery. His diction religiously avoids bombast, pom- 
posity and involved sentences. He was also utterly lacking 
in conceit, so much so that he did not hesitate to make this 
confession: "One of Dickens' immense superiorities over 
me is his great fecundity of imagination," and yet he him- 
self had a liberal amount of imagination. 

Not a few of his friends and admirers Charlotte Bronte 
for example regarded him as a social reformer, whose 
censure proceeded from the heart rather than the head ; for 
he was profoundly sincere. It must be admitted that irony 
and satire were habitual with him, but only as an aid to his 
moral purpose of regeneration. He has been accused of the 
very offense that he gibbeted so fiercely : snobbery, toady- 
ing to the great and repelling his inferiors. In so far as 
objecting to the familiarity of the "Bob Bowstreets" and 
"Tom Garbages" of Grub Street is concerned, this charge 
is no doubt true, for, Thackeray was not only diffident but 
also sensitive qualities that can be easily mistaken for 
pride and brusqueness, and are reconcilable with the fact 
that he was essentially a composite of the sentimentalist 
and the cynic. 




BRITISH MUSEUM 

SPECIMEN reproduced is part of a letter in French from 
Victor Hugo to the publisher Charles Griffin in which he 
declines to correct the proof of the sketch of his life in 
the "Dictionary of Contemporary Biography." It is dated 
Hautville House, March 1, 1860. 

We are told that Victor Hugo came into the world "color- 
less, sightless, voiceless and so poor a weakling that all 
despaired of him except his mother." Life, indeed, ap- 
peared about to erase from its book a child "whose short 
day of existence seemed destined to pass into night without 
a morn." These are Victor Hugo's own words his de- 
scription of himself as he entered upon his long and event- 
ful life from 1802 to 1885. That such an entity should 
have survived; that he should have developed into a phe- 
nomenal protagonist in the loftiest field of man's intellec- 
tual achievement, is convincing proof that nothing is im- 
possible. There must, indeed, have been some purpose in it 
possibly human progress and development through 
Victor Hugo's genius. 

There are few men of note whose inmost nature has been 
more difficult to reach, for the reason that he has no 
doubt unintentionally mystified us in this respect. He did 
this, for example, in his Feuilles d'Automne (Autumn 
Leaves), published in 1831 a work breathing throughout, 
sadness, melancholy, disappointment, grief, suffering. 

303 



304 



CHARACTER FROM HANDWRITING 



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That Hugo should at this period of his life, when his physi- 
cal and mental forces were at their highest, although he 
was but 29 years of age ; when the whole world was before 
him ; when he had just published one of his greatest works : 
"Notre Dame de Paris" ; when his fame and name were 
already established and had brought him distinction and 
hosts of perfervid worshipers; when domestic peace and 
happiness were his ; that he should, at this glorious spring- 
time of his accumulating greatness, have sounded a note so 
plaintive a touching wail of his departed youth is indeed 
strange. The true psychological explanation is not discov- 
erable in his career his external life and can be found 
only in his inherent, temperamental sadness, and it does not 
matter even if in middle life and up to its close, he fought 
bitter enemies, political persecution, with all the hopeful- 
ness, tenacity and courage of a character that knew not 
complaint or despair. 

Forster, the author of a "Life of Charles Dickens", and 
Legouve, French Academician, coincide precisely in praise 
of Hugo as being "in private life what he invariably was; 
unaffected, amusing, full of anecdote and pleasantry." 
Even in later years M. Lesclide,his private secretary speaks 
of the "charm of his conversation which was easy, simple 
yet full of color, and when he was animated, of an ardent 
enthusiasm." De Banville also expresses his admiration 
for Hugo's modesty and urbanity and adds that he was 
"affable, full of welcome, thinking of everyone, forgetful 
of himself and retaining no trace of his aristocratic breed- 
ing, save an exquisite politeness and familiar courtesy. 
When in his house you felt at home, free, happy, at ease, 
and warmed by a pleasant atmosphere of affection and 
tenderness with hospitality of the right kind. 



306 HOW TO READ 

It was after he had reached middle life, and during his 
exile and residence at Guernsey, that he published his great- 
est works. His house there was really a part of himself as 
was Abbotsford of Sir Walter Scott. There, was revealed 
the aesthetic side of his character. For example, at a time 
when blue china, old oak and tapestry were practically 
unknown, Hugo's home was plentifully adorned and embel- 
lished, and one can easily gauge the congeniality of his 
labor, its productiveness, and its phenomenal success. 

Victor Hugo's works give a clear insight into his moral 
nobility. " Les Miserables," in particular, is an open 
record of his abhorrence of the "social damnation creating 
artificial hells in the midst of civilization, and complicating 
destiny with an element of human fatality." It is a won- 
derful contribution to the solution of four problems; "the 
degradation of man through proletarianism, the fall of 
woman through hunger, and atrophy of the child through 
night, and social asphyxia through ignorance and misery." 

In 1864 Victor Hugo returned to France, still the same, 
faithful, loyal friend, companion and confidential comrade 
of his sons, their equal in alertness and activity radiant, 
gay and at all times gracious and good. He was kindness 
itself to his family, and ever indulgent to them, while his 
benevolence and good will extended beyond the sacred walls 
of home to all without its gates. He was something even 
more and greater than "master, pontiff, king," he was the 
"man, the 'kindly relation, the friend, and as each he was 
most lovable." 

Victor Hugo was essentially great in every sense of the 
word; in private life, gentle, simple, kind, genial; in his 
public relations, filled with profound convictions for which 
he was ever ready to fight and to suffer. 



CHARACTER FROM HANDWRITING 307 



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HENEY WADSWORTH LONGFELLOW 

DATED 1864 
BRITISH MUSEUM 

THIS is a letter from Longfellow dated Cambridge, Mass., 
February 1, 1864, to Hiram Corson, the publisher, who 
issued the edition of Chaucer's "Legende of Good 
Women," and for a copy of which Longfellow thanks him. 

If Longfellow had never written a line of poetry, he 
would have transmitted to posterity a fame in no degree 
less lustrous than that which has actually been accorded 
him. 

"Evangeline," commonly considered the best of his 
poems, and "Tine Song of Hiawatha" won for him the ad- 
miration, affection and tender remembrance, not only of his 
countrymen, but of his friends in foreign lands, and caused 
them to cherish him as one of the sweetest, kindest, tender- 
est and noblest of men. 

It is indeed difficult to name a single human virtue that 
was not revealed in Longfellow, and the highest praise that 
can be bestowed upon him as a poet, and the greatest tribute 
that can be paid to his memory is to say that his life itself 
was the best, the noblest of poems. 

To specifically describe his character would be merely to 
sum up almost all that is divine in human nature. It is 
therefore sufficient to conclude with the statement that he 
"united in his strong, transparent humanity almost every 
virtue ; that no man ever lived more completely in the light 
than Henry Wadsworth Longfellow. ' ' 

308 



RALPH WALDO EMERSON 

DATE 1867 
BRITISH MUSEUM 

REPRODUCTION of part of the original manuscript of an 
address read before the Phi Beta Kappa Society, Harvard 
University, July 18, 1867, by Ralph Waldo Emerson. It 
was later published in " Letters and Social Aims" in 1876. 

Emerson sounded the keynote of his character at a very 
early period of his career, when from the pulpit he declared 
his rejection of the orthodox acceptance of the Sacrament 
of the Lord's Supper. He viewed this as intended merely 
as a token of spiritual remembrance and he therefore 
dropped the material elements associated with it. Here we 
have a fearless demonstration of uncompromising, spiritual 
independence and sincerity of character. Not long after, 
he expressed himself sincerely in his address to the grad- 
uating class of the Divinity School at Cambridge in 1838, 
in which he protested against the unquestioning acceptance 
of the personal authority of Jesus. This was obviously 
an attack upon historical Christianity as well as Unitarian- 
ism, and in the very citadel of puritanism, thus affording 
further convincing proof of that independence, self-reliance 
and sincerity that were the foundations of Emerson's char- 
acter. 

Starting with this strong mental and moral equipment, 
he came under the influences of such distinguished con- 

309 



310 



CHARACTER FROM HANDWRITING 




CHARACTER FROM HANDWRITING 311 

temporaries as Carlyle, Swedenborg and Coleridge, result- 
ing in the rare, finished, unique, productions as poet, philos- 
opher, mystic and optimist, his Doctrines crystallizing into 
the philosophy known as Transcendentalism. 

Briefly described, this philosophy taught that man con- 
tained within himself all evil and all good ; that the spiritual 
man has its material counterpart in the external w r orld or 
nature. It therefore follows that the purpose of life is 
knowledge of self, which leads to the most exalted of all 
revelations the God in Man. 

It is true that many fads and extravagancies marked 
Emerson's Concord School of Philosophy, and more or lass 
compromised such distinguished colleagues and followers 
as Doctor Ripley, Bronson Olcott, Theodore Parker, Mar- 
garet Fuller and Henry Thoreau ; but while this philosophy 
identified Emerson with them and subjected him to the 
derision that was indulged at their expense, there was in 
him something peculiar; something which seemed superior 
to all that characterized these other eminent persons, some- 
thing that turned the point of all weapons and made them 
glance harmless from him. This was the impenetrable 
armor of Emerson's most unique personality the very 
atmosphere of his personal presence, marked by imperturb- 
able calm, and serene expression. Then there was his 
placid cheerfulness and trustful repose all indicating that 
he had found the inner "kindly light" leading him to the 
spiritual freedom that completely emancipated him from 
all conventional, earthly restriction and limitations. 



312 



CHARACTER FROM HANDWRITING 



U 5-. 3 




LORD ALFRED TENNYSON 

DATE 1873 
BRITISH MUSEUM 

THIS is part of the original manuscript of the Epilogue 
to "Idylls of the King," addressed to her Majes'ty, Queen 
Victoria. 

"When the news of Byron's death reached Tennyson, it 
was for him "a day when all the world seemed darkened," 
and he straightway went into the woods and carved upon 
a rock : ' ' Byron is dead. ' ' He was then only 15 years old. 
So much for the impression that Byron had made upon him. 

Afterwards, and before he was permitted to leave the 
paternal roof and enter Trinity College, Cambridge, his 
father compelled him to recite from memory the odes of 
Horace, by no means a task, for by this time Tennyson had 
become very productive prematurely so having already 
written an epic of 6,000 lines at twelve, and a drama in 
blank verse at fourteen. 

Tennyson was a great poet at 24 years of age. His 
volume of poems published at the time, proclaimed him a 
finished genius; his "Poems Chiefly Lyrical/' brought out 
in 1830 when he was only 21, revealed "amazing magnifi- 
cence of fancy," "voluptuous pomp of imagery" and 
"wonderful melody." 

The death of Arthur Hallam, Tennyson's intimate friend, 

313 



314 HOW TO READ 

for a time seriously threatened his health and his work. 
On the other hand it caused him to "devote his whole soul 
to the art of poetry," which finally gained for him the title 
of leading poet of his age, this title being coincident with 
the publication in 1842 of a two-volume edition of his 
poems, including "Locksley Hall," "Ulysses" and "Sir 
Galahad." 

Another happening enfeebled Tennyson's health and 
blunted his pen. Through the persuasion of a promoter 
he was induced to invest all he possessed and a part of 
his brothers' and sisters' fortunes in a Patent Decorative 
Carving Company which collapsed and left him penniless 
and a victim of nervous prostration. From the effects of 
this he never recovered completely, although his friend 
Henry Hallam caused Sir Robert Peel to relieve him per- 
sonally with an annual pension of 200. 

With Tennyson's marriage in June, 1850, to Emily Sarah 
Ellwood, came the turning-point in his worldly fortunes and 
domestic affairs. It brought him ample compensation for 
the affliction and misery of his previous years. On the 
death of Wadsworth, he became poet laureate and devoted 
himself almost exclusively to the study of ancient literature, 
especially Homer and Virgil, Milton was also a favorite. 
With each succeeding year Tennyson continued to add 
laurels to his crown until he reached the summit of success 
with his Idylls of the King in 1859, and even in his old age 
he added to his popularity and greatness by his Holy Grail. 

Simplicity is perhaps the most prominent of all his quali- 
ties, a simplicity that despised convention. He was, how- 
ever, extremely sensitive, affectionate and shy, gentle and 
sweet, with a tendency to sadness and melancholy, and was 
keenly alive to the influence of beauty. 



CHARACTER, PROM HANDWRITING 315 

Tennyson certainly ranked among the foremost poets of 
England. He achieved the maximum of excellence with the 
minimum of imperfection, the secret of his popularity being 
in the fact that he was, first of all, an artist. 



316 CHARACTER FROM HANDWRITING 



t 



7 



^L *+ 

** *g Z 



a 




4 



JAPANESE DIARY 



JAPANESE DIAEY 

THE Japanese borrowed their system of writing from the 
Chinese, that is they borrowed rather the characters. 
These characters are much alike in appearance but they are 
so utterly different in meaning that the Japanese to-day 
find it more difficult to learn Chinese than English or 
French. 



317 



INDEX TO CHARACTERISTICS 



to 250 of the characteristics found in the specimens reproduced in this book. 
The number immediately following each characteristc is the corresponding 
number illustrated. Many more may be found by the reader. 



Activity, 18, 169, 323(6) 
Adaptability, 21, 101, 143 
jEsthi-ticism, 338(6), 340(5) 
Affectation, 32, 298(17), 314(2) 
Aggressiveness, 299(6), 352(4) 
Ambition, 18, 59, 128, 325(2) 
Amiability, 326(9), 326(10) 
Argumentative ,297(11), 349(4) 
Aristocratic bearing, 26, 26 (a), 

26 (b), 322(1) 
Arrogance, 322(5) 
Artistic Inclination, 69, 326(9), 

306(10) 

Artistic taste, 323(10), 326(9) 
Athleticism and sport, 168, 173 
Athletic heart, 309(15), 311(13) 
Avarice, 97, 136, 299(3) 

Bashfulness, 112, 294(3), 326(8) 
Boastfulness, 28, 299(7), 319(6) 
Brutality, 65, 138, 345(10) 
Business ability, 40, 308(10), 326(7) 
" Butters-in," 297(10) 

Can-fulness, 189 

Carelessness, 11, 83 

Cautiousness, 191, 314(1) 

Clearness, 67, 349(3) 

Clumsiness, 336(4) 

Closeness, 97, 293(1), 324(16) 

Coldness, 40, 62, 301(2) 

Commercial tendencies, 308(10) 

Common sense, 311(18) 

Combativeness, 346(17) 

Conceit, 145 

Concentration, 307(2), 317(4), 

328(2) 

Confidence, 18 
Conventional, 337(1) 



Constancy, 84 

Contentedness, 322(3), 325(3) 
Contrariness, 162, 299(6) 
Conversational ism, 291(3), 293(5), 

301(1) 

Coquetry, 204, 296(5), 319(1) 
Courage", 111, 199, 316(13) 
Courtesy, 42, 142 
Covetousness, 323(8), 326(7) 
Cowardice, 19 
Criticism, 131, 159, 344(4) 
Cruelty, 65 

Culture, 290(8), 314(5) 
Cunning, 21, 43(a), 55(b), 55(c), 

68, 290(4) 

Deceitfulness, 21, 43 (a), 44, 182 (a), 

324(18) 

Deduction, 298(16), 312(3) 
Despotism, 300(13), 346(20) 
Diligence, 18 
Diplomacy, 21, 305(7) 
Disappointment, 137, 314(3), 342(5) 
Discouragement, 19, 137 
Dishonesty, 65, 182 (a), 330(6), 

288(6) 
Domineering, 196, 297(13) 

Earning capacity good, 312(1) 
Eccentricity, 323(1), 296(3) 
Economy, 8, 14, 30, 31, 149, 288(1) 
Education, 290(8), 301(5) 
Egotism, 32, 97, 293(6) 
Elegance, 292(7) 
Eloquence, 344(2) 
Energy, 22, 62, 111, 128, 326(13) 
Enterprise, 315(4), 342(4) 
Enthusiasm, 18, 161, 326(9), 315(5) 
Envy, 139 



318 



INDEX 



319 



Epicurean, 324(15) 
Exactness, 315(2) 
Exaggeration, 289(7) 
Excitability, 54, 109 
Executive ability, 169 
Exclusiveness, " 288(5), 

301(2) 
Extravagance, 9, 315(6) 



290(5), 



Faithfulness, 64, 292(9), 328(6) 
False pride, 321(1), 322(5), 325(4) 
Fantastic ideas, 296(2), 300(10) 
Fickleness, 11, 87, 344(5) 
Flattery, 141, 153 
Forgetfulness, 52, 315(1) 
Forethought, 315(3), 340(8) 
Frankness, 64, 288(2), 32"6(12) 
Friendliness, 324(12), 326(10) 
Fun-loving, 131 

Geniality, 357(1) 
Generosity, 9, 326(10), 326(11) 
" Good mixer," 324(13) 
Good taste, 9, 69, 95, 154 
Gossip, 343(8) 
Gaudiness, 309(21) 

Harmoniousness, 305(6), 306(10) 

Harsh nature, 311(17), 319(3) 

Heart control, 300(8), 304(8) 

Hopefulness, 18 

House tyranny, 307(6), 311(11) 

Heart trouble, 309(15), 311(13) 

Humor, 132, 324(14) 

Humility, 347(24) 

Hypocrisy, 21, 43 (a), 44, 65, 182 (a) 

Idealism, 123, 315(5) 
Illness, 307(5), 311(10) 
Imagination, 53, 134, 325(5) 
Immoderateness, 109 
Importance, 136 
Impudence, 309(19) 
Impulsiveness, 338(7) 
Individuality, 346(19) 
Inactivity, 170 

Inconsiderateness, 65, 65 (a), 163 
Indecision, 236, 348(33) 
Independence, 123, 183, 322(1) 
Inner sorrow, 293(3) 
Insincerity, 330(7) 



Intrigue, 182 (a) 
Intuition, 121, 122 
Insolence, 312(2), 313(2) 
Intolerance, 346(19) 

Jealousy, 138 
Jollity, 132, 326(12) 

Lack of courage, 91 

Lack of independence, 20, 82, 109 

Laziness, 19, 03 

Leadership, 322(1) 

Level-headedness, 67, 171 

Liar, 65, 289(7), 315 (8 f 

Liberality, 9, 95, 98, 99, 101, 154 

Literary interests, 291(4) 

Literary ability, 301(5) 

Liveliness, 323(6), 325(5) 

Logic, 119, 126, 289(10), 312(3) 

Loquaciousness, 52, 53, 288(2) 

Love of admiration, 309(21) 

Love of flattery, 153 

Love of family life, 323(10), 307(7) 

Love of justice, 64, 157 

Love of dress, 296(5) 

Love of art, 304(6) 

Love of good eating, 291(6), 297(9), 

326(12) 

Love of music, 332(12) 
Love of luxury, 108, 307(3), 308(14) 
Love of outdoor life, 161 
Love of pleasure, 308(14) 
Luxuriousness, 307(3) 

Malice, 345(12) 
Maliciousness, 345(12) 
Materialism, 316(12) 
Meanness, 97, 291(5), 315(9) 
Memory good, 292(9), 339(12> 
Mentality weak, 307(5), 311(10) 
Mental depression, 343(6) 
Mental vanity, 68 
Mercantile ability, 308(10) 
Methodical, 332(11), 338(1), 338(3) 
Modesty, 31, 322(2), 339(14) 
Money-maker, 308 (11) 
Morality, 303(4), 305(7) 
Musical inclinations, 306(10) 
Mischief, 345(12) 

Narrow-mindedness, 296(2), 300(10) 



320 



INDEX 



Nervousness, 89 
Nobility, 235 

Obedience, 347(27) 

Openness, 310(1) 

Opposition, 297(11), 299(6) 

Order, 10, 291(4) 

Organization, 169 

Originality, 289(9), 292(7), 340(7) 

Palpitation of heart, 311(15) 

Passionateness, 38, 54, 65, 110, 114 

Perseverance, 303(1), 326(13) 

Persistence, 347(30) 

Plainness, 309(20), 311(18) 

Poor health, 74, 311(13), (14), (15), 

356(6) 

Positiveness, 128, 139, 300(8) 
Precaution, 188, 191, 355(1) 
Precision, 10 

Pretension, 301(6), 302(9) 
Prevarication, 109, 288(7), 315(8) 
Pride, 308(13) 

Pride of family, 312(5), 322(1) 
Promptness, 315(2) 
Protectiveness, 210 
Prudence, 57, 316(16) 

Quarrelsomeness, 159 
Quick temper, 177, 345(14) 

Reasoning power, 111, 126 
Reserve, 56, 57, 156, 326(14) 
Resisting power, strong, 156, 302(3) 
Resisting power, weak, 300(9) 

Sadness, 346(18) 
Satire, 324(14) 
Sarcasm, 319(4) 
Scolding person, 307(6) 
Secretiveness, 56, 288(1), 290(1) 
Self-admiration, 301(3) 
Self-centered, 311(12) 
Self-consciousness, 29, 54, 322(1) 
Self-control, 176, 317(1) 
Self-praise, 145, 173, 294(2) 
Self-confidence, 204 ( 1 ) 
Selfishness, 13, 68, 97, 145 
Sensitiveness, 36, 37, 109, 323(9) 
Sensuality, 311(9) 
Sensuousness, 53, 54, 108, 109 



Sexual desires very strong, 110, 

316(11) 

Severity, 62, 314(6) 
Shrewdness, 55, 145 (a), 288(4) 
Sharp dealing, 317(3) 
Shyness, 312(6) 
Sickness, 298(15) 
Simplicity, 31, 185, 304(9) 
Sincerity, 17, 60 

Snobbishness, 314 (2) , 319(2), 322(1) 
Sociability, 132, 324(13) 
Sorrow, 291 (1 ) 
Spendthrift ways, 99, 100 
Spirituality, 167 
Stinginess, 8, 97, 315(8) 
Strength, 294 ( 1 ) , 323 ( 7 ) 
Steadfastness, 17, 336(7), 339(9) 
Stubbornness, 303(2), 326(14) 
Suavity, 21 

Subserviency, 322(2), 347(24) 
Suffering, 291(1), 293(3) 
Subordination, 322(2), 325(1) 
Superficiality, 90 
Suspicion, 192, 302(7) 
Symmetry, 301(4), 302(6) 
Sybaritic, 324(15), 326(12) 



291(3), 293(5), 



Tact, 305(7) 
Talkativeness, 

324(13) 
Temper, quick, 343(9) 
Timidity, 336(3) 
Thrift, 14, 30, 149 
Trustworthiness, 17, 60 
Tyranny, 65 

Unscrupulousness, 65, 191, 192 

Vanity, 32, 80, 173, 296(5) 
Versatility, 101, 315(6), 332(13) 
Violence, 59, 150, 343(9) 

Wastefulness, 9 

Wavering, 19 

Weak character, 20, 296(1), 300(9), 

346(18) 

Whimsicality, 109 
Will-power, strong, 114, 336(6) 
Will-power, weak, 109 
"Windy" talkers, 299(7) 
Wit, 132, 348(32) 



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