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Full text of "Graphology : how to read character from handwriting, with full explanation of the science, and many examples fully analyzed"

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2747 Glenview Ave. 


Digitized by tine Internet Arciiive 
in 2010 




Clifford Howard 

Author of "Curious Facts," &c. 



2747 Glenview Ave. 


The Penn Publishing Company 


Copyright 1904 by The Penn Publishing Company 



Graphology is the art of reading character 
from handwriting. That there is a relationship 
between character and style of penmanship has 
long been recognized, but until recently little has 
been done to formulate the principles upon which 
this relationship is based. Enough has now been 
accomplished in this direction, however, to make 
it possible to lay down definite rules for deter- 
mining one's disposition, aptitude and nature by 
the peculiarities of his handwriting. 

As a matter of pastime the author took up a 
study of this interesting subject several years 
ago. Finding it so full of entertainment and use- 
fulness and realizing that there exists at present 
no popular treatise on the subject, notwithstand- 
ing the wide-spread interest and curiosity 
invariably aroused by an exhibition of ability to 
read character from handwriting, he has gath- 
ered together the results of his studies and 
experience, in the hope that the information 
here set forth may serve as a source of enter- 


4 preface 

tainment to the general reader and as a means 
of aiding those who desire to acquire a prac- 
tical knowledge of graphology. 

C. H. 

Washington^ D. C, 1904. 


When we receive a letter from a friend it is 
not necessary to open it in order to know from 
whom it comes. A glance at the address on the 
envelope is suflBcient. The style of the hand- 
writing tells us at once who the writer is. "We 
recognize him by his penmanship as readily as 
we would by his voice. 

This shows us very convincingly that there 
must be some sort of connection between the 
style of handwriting and the personality of the 
writer. Another familiar evidence of this is the 
fact that no two persons write exactly alike, not- 
withstanding that hundreds of thousands of us 
learned to write from the same copy-books and 
were taught to form our letters in precisely the 
same way. 

Now, if handwriting bore no relationship to 
personality and was not influenced by the char- 
acter of the individual, we would all be writing 
the beautiful Spencerian copperplate we were 
taught in our school-days. But, as it is, not one 


6 (3tapbolO0S 

in fifty thousand writes in this manner five years 
after leaving school. 

Each one of us has modified the copy-book 
style in accordance with his individual character. 
Each one has unconsciously adopted a style of 
handwriting that is best suited to his tastes and 
inclinations, and has consequently given to it a 
distinctive character. 

Like speech or gesture, handwriting serves as 
a means for the expression of thought ; and in 
expressing our thoughts we give expression to 
ourselves. When once the art of writing is 
learned we are no longer conscious of the mental 
and manual effort required to form the letters. 
It becomes as it were a second nature to us. We 
do it mechanically, just as we form our words 
when talking, without realizing the complex 
processes of mind and muscle that it involves. 

It is plain, therefore, that a person's handwrit- 
ing, or chirography, is really a part of himself. 
It is an expression of his personality and is as 
characteristic of him as is his gait or his tone of 

How many persons are there who are able to 
answer off-hand the following questions regard- 
ing their own handwriting ? 

fntro^uctfon ? 

Do you close your a's and o's at the top or leave 

them open ? 

Do you end the final letter of a word ab- 
ruptly, or do you add a final stroke ? 

If you use terminal strokes to your final let- 
ters, do these strokes ascend, descend or extend 
in a straight line ? 

Do the letters of a word remain uniform in 
size throughout the word, or do they diminish or 
increase toward the end of the word ? 

Unless a person has made it a point to analyze 
his writing, there is not one in a thousand who is 
able to answer the foregoing questions. In 
order to do so he will be obliged first to ex- 
amine some of his own writing. And these 
are but a few of a score of questions that might 
be asked in reference to the characteristics of 
handwriting about which the average person is 
entirely ignorant. This goes to show very 
plainly that many of the constituent features of 
a handwriting have been unconsciously adopted ; 
and although they may appear insignificant in 
themselves, they are nevertheless all very signifi- 
cant as indications of the writer's personality, 
and are among the most important guides in 
the reading of character. 

8 (?rapbolo0is 

Unless, as just stated, one has made it a 
point to study his penmanship, he knows really 
very little about it beyond its general appear- 
ance. It is for this reason that handwriting 
experts are able to detect forgeries and disguised 

When a man attempts to change his style of 
handwriting he simply alters the principal features 
of it. If his writing normally slopes to the right, 
he will probably adopt a backhand. He may also 
use a different kind of pen ; may cliange the size 
of the writing, alter the customary formation of 
certain letters, and add certain unfamiliar flour- 
ishes. But knowing nothing about the many 
minor characteristics of his natural writing he 
unconsciously repeats them, notwithstanding his 
best efforts to veil the identity of his chirography. 
In this respect he resembles the actor, who, while 
he may assume all the outward characteristics of 
another individual, still retains certain personal 
peculiarities of which he is himself unaware and 
which render it impossible for him to completely 
disguise his own individuality. 

There are some who believe that difference in 
handwritings is largel}'^ due to difference in styles 
of pens. It is true that pens have much to do 

■ffntroiJuctlon 9 

with the appearance of the chirography, but the 
choice of a pen is one of the elements involved 
in the individuality of handwriting. 

Each one of us chooses a style of pen that best 
suits hira, and hence it allows him to write in 
the manner that is most natural to him. But it 
is a mistake to suppose that it is the pen that de- 
termines the peculiarities of a handwriting. It 
may be awkward for a person who is accustomed 
to a stub pen to use a fine-pointed pen, but it 
will not alter the distinguishing characteristics 
of his chirography any more than it destroys his 
personality to wear a suit of clothes that does 
not fit him. 

There are also many who claim that their 
writing is changeable ; that they never write 
twice alike. This is true to a certain limited ex- 
tent. Probably no one can produce three speci- 
mens of his own signature that are absolute fac- 
similes. But the differences are purely super- 

The style of handwriting varies no more from 
day to day than does the outward appearance of 
the individual. A change of emotion will produce 
a corresponding change in the expression of the 
face. A different style of hat, a change in the 

10 <5rapbol08i5 

mode of wearing the hair, the shaving oif of a 
beard or any alteration of a like character will 
produce its effect, but the individuality of the 
person is not affected thereby. In a similar man- 
ner our penmanship is superficially modified by 
our feelings, our physical condition, by the kind 
of ink we use, the style of pen, the kind of paper, 
etc., but its individuality remains unaltered. 

Of course, the style of handwriting does not in 
every case remain the same throughout the en- 
tire life of a man or woman. A man at fifty 
may not write the same hand that he did when 
he was eighteen or twenty, and if he lives to be 
eighty or ninety it will in all probability show 
further indications of change. This fact only 
emphasizes the relationship between handwriting 
and personality ; for it will always be found that 
where there is a change in the style of penman- 
ship there is a corresponding change in the per- 
son himself. Very few of us retain the same 
character, disposition and nature that we had in 
youth. Experience and vicissitudes do much to 
modify our natures, and with such modifications 
come alterations in our handwriting. Iri some 
persons the change is very slight, while in others 
it is noticeably evident. 

■ffntro&uctlon 11 

Without pursuing the subject further it must 
be evident to every thoughtful mind that hand- 
writing does bear a very close and definite rela- 
tionship to the personality of the writer. We 
see that every one has a style of writing 
peculiar to himself, and it is only reasonable to 
suppose that each feature of his writing reflects 
some personal trait or tendency ; otherwise, why 
is there such a variety of features in handwrit- 
ings ? What would cause these various distin- 
guishing characteristics of penmanship if it is not 
the individuality of the writers themselves ? 

But aside from all argument or speculation, it 
is only necessary to add that careful and scientific 
investigation has conclusively shown that there 
is a direct correspondence between the various 
features of a handwriting and the character of 
the penman. It has clearly demonstrated that 
one's nature and disposition may be accurately 
determined by his chirography. 

The studies and investigations of the author, 
in conjunction with those of other students of 
the subject, have revealed the fact that every 
feature of a handwriting is indicative of some 
particular personal characteristic, and it is the 
object of this volume to point out these relation- 

12 ©rapbolosB 

ships; to show the characteristic features of 
handwritings and their corresponding personal 
indications, and, generally, to present the subject 
in such form as to make it readily possible for 
any one to demonstrate to his own satisfaction 
the relationship of character to chirography. 


I. Preliminary Remarks. How Hand- 
writings are Classified 17 

II. General Features 21 

III. Special Features 63 


I. The Working Basis of Graphology. 
The Logic of the Relationship Be- 
tween the Various Features of 
Handwriting and Their Represent- 
ative Personal Characteristics . . 117 

14 Contentg 

II. Method of Delineating Character from 
Handwriting. Specimen Delinea- 
tions 136 


Specimens of Handwriting and 
Their Analysis 161 

Index to Personal Characteh- 
iSTios 209 

The Principles of Graphology 


preliminary "Kemarfts. 1bow fjanDwrltlngs Bre 

It would be as difficult to find two handwrit- 
ings that are exactly similar as it would be to 
find two persons who are precisely alike. Yet at 
the same time we often see handwritings that 
resemble one another, either in their general ap- 
pearance or in certain particulars, and we find 
upon investigation that while the chirography of 
no two persons is exactly alike, there are never- 
theless certain general styles or types of hand- 
writing, to some one of which every specimen of 
penmanship can be assigned as containing certain 
features peculiar to that particular type of hand- 

The first requisite, therefore, in the study of 
graphology is to classify the different types or 
kinds of handwritings. This will enable us to 
tell not only wherein certain handwritings re- 
semble one another, but also to distinguish the 
differences between the chirography of one per- 


18 (Srapbologg 

son and that of another, for it very frequently 
happens that although we realize there is a differ- 
ence between two handwritings we are unable to 
tell in just what particular features the difference 
exists ; so that we see at once the necessity for 
adopting some method of classification as a basis 
for the proper understanding of the subject. 
The study of botany depends primarily upon a 
system of classifying plants, and in natural his- 
tory, or zoology, very little profitable work could 
be accomplished were it not for a method of 
classifying the various animals. The same prin- 
ciple holds good in graphology, where we have a 
great variety of types and kinds to deal with. 
But this does not mean that we are to cumber 
our minds with an elaborate or intricate system 
of classification. On the contrary, it is very 
simple and very plain, for it is built up on certain 
definite lines that make it at once obvious and 

In the first place, handwritings are distinguish- 
able by their general appearance. Some are 
small and some are large ; some are heavy and 
others light. Here is one that is easy to read 
and there is another that is almost undecipher- 
able. In short, we find that handwritings in 

Orapbologis 19 

their general appearance, without taking into ac- 
count any of their details, are subject to quite a 
variety of differences which are recognizable at 
once. It is only necessary, therefore, to classify 
these various differences in appearance that dis- 
tinguish one kind of handwriting from another, 
and then ascertain what these particular varieties 
of styles indicate as to personal characteristics, 
for each general style of handwriting has its 
corresponding significance. 

Our first classification, then, is made up of the 
General Features of handwriting. 

Our second classification consists of the Special 
Features, as revealed in the various details of 

It not infrequently happens that a number of 
different handwritings will very closely resemble 
one another in their general appearance, for they 
may all possess the same general features ; but 
upon examination it will be found that they differ 
from one another in certain details or special 
features. In one of them, perhaps, the fs are all 
crossed very heavily and firmly ; in another they 
are crossed very lightly and in a third the crosses 
may be entirely absent. 

Now, although these differences may seem very 

20 (3rapboloflB 

trifling in themselves, they are nevertheless of 
importance to the graphologist, for each of them 
has its special significance as to the character of 
the writer. And what is true of the example 
just cited applies to all of the various special 
features to be found in handwritings. These 
special features, consisting as they do of partic- 
ular details, are not so readily discernible as the 
general features, and it is, therefore, our purpose 
not only to classify these various details and to 
assign to them their respective significances, but 
to point them out and explain them, in order that 
they may be easily identified in the analysis of 
any particular handwriting. 

Having thus defined the two classifications 
necessary for a systematic study of graphology, 
we shall now take them up in their order for the 
purpose of learning what the various types and 
features of handwriting indicate. 

General ^features 

Handwriting considered as a whole. Personal characteriatics 
indicated by the various styles of penmanship. 

We find that all handwritings may be divided 
into two general types: The Angular and the 

Every handwriting is either angular or rounded 
or combines the two. 

The angular handwriting is that in which the 
letters are all more or less pointed. They are 
sharply formed. Their general appearance is 
that of straight lines and angles. There is a 
marked absence in the writing of curves or 
rounded strokes. The specimens shown in plates 
1, 7 and 16 are good examples of angular writ- 

In the rounded hand the letters are formed for 
the most part of curved lines. The writing as a 
whole presents a rounded, flowing appearance. 
There is a scarcity of straight lines and angular 


22 (BrapboloflB 

formations. The specimens given in plates 2, 4, 
8 and 15 are distinctively rounded hands. 

Each of these two general or fundamental 
types has its particular significance. 

(i) The Angular Hand 
(Plates 1, 7 and 16.) 

Angular writing always indicates activity. It 
is associated with nervous, quick and energetic 
dispositions. It betokens a person of mental 
alertness and physical restlessness. 

Writers of an angular hand are natural 
workers. They are not happy unless their brains 
or hands are busy. Whatever they do is done 
with energy and enthusiasm. Their tastes turn 
to the practical affairs of life, and they have a 
natural aptitude for work requiring manual skill. 

They are apt to be emphatic, precise, positive 
and aggressive. They are generally self-reliant 
and industrious. 

(2) The Rounded Hand 

(Plates 2, 4, 8.) 

In general, the personal qualities represented 
by the rounded hand are the opposite of those 
shown in the angular hand. 

(Btapbologg 23 

"Writers of round hands are fond of the 
pleasures, the beauties, the comforts, the luxuries 
of the world. Work for work's sake does not 
appeal to them. They are not naturally in- 
dustrious. They are lovers of peace, rest and 
enjoyment. They do not like to be disturbed. 
Their natures are more or less passive. 

As a rule, they are benevolent and kind- 
hearted and have loving dispositions rather than 
affectionate or ardent. Their natural desire is 
to go through life as easily and as comfortably 
as possible, and hence they are careful to avoid 
all unnecessary burdens. 

Remark. — It must be borne in mind that the 
significations given to the angular and the 
rounded types of handwriting are merely the 
general personal characteristics indicated by 
these two broad classes of penmanship. They 
are subject to modification by other important 
features, as will be shown later on ; so that these 
two primary types — the angular and rounded — 
should be regarded not as specific indications, 
but rather as broad foundations on which to 
build character delineations. 

A second division of handwritings is that 
which is determined by the slope of the writing. 

24 (Brapbologis 

In this division there are three styles of penman- 
ship : 

{a) The Forward Hand, or writing that slopes 
to the right. 

(h) The Vertical Hand. 

{J) The Back Hand, or writing that slopes to 
the left. 

(3) The Forward Hand 
(Plates 1, 2, 3.) 

Nearly all handwritings have the forward 
slope, varying from the almost vertical to an ex- 
aggerated slant. Ninety per cent, of all who use 
a pen write a forward hand. It may readily be 
seen, therefore, that taking this as a style by 
itself it can have but little individual significance, 
since it is employed so universally. 

At the same time, however, it has its significa- 
tion, as distinguished from the vertical and the 
back hands. Broadly speaking, it indicates a 
personality in which the emotions, the feelings, 
the sympathies, constitute the natural governing 
element. It shows susceptibility to sentiment. 
The natural tendency of a writer of a forward 
hand is to be guided by his impulses. 

The more the writing slopes to the right the 

©rapboloflB 25 

more predominant are the emotions and the im- 
pulses as controlling factors in the personality of 
the writer. 

"Where the slope is very marked, as we see it 
in the specimen given on plate 3, the writer is 
governed very largely by her sympathies and 
feelings. Such a writer is extremely affection- 
ate; kind and sympathetic; generous and self- 
sacrificing ; inclined to be impulsive, animated 
and demonstrative ; capable of intense love and 
passion; easily pleased, and readily stirred to 

The average forward hand, however, cannot 
be regarded as a specific indication of character, 
beyond the fact that as the forward hand is the 
natural style of handwriting, it shows that those 
who use it are in a general sense amenable to the 
common influences of life; but the effects pro- 
duced by these various influences will, of course, 
depend upon the individuality of each person. 

(4) The Vertical Hand 

(Plate 4.) 

The writers of this style are not so readily 

susceptible to the influences of their environment 

or their emotions, as are those who write a for- 

26 ©rapboloflg 

ward hand. Their natures are not necessarily 
calmer or more evenly balanced, but they en- 
deavor to conduct themselves more deliberately. 
Judgment and reason and self-interest enter into 
their motives and into their actions. They are 
not apt to become very enthusiastic, nor are they 
inclined to be ardent in their attachments. 
Whatever they do is tempered with self-restraint 
and deliberation. They do not like to be 
hurried ; they are generally slow, and do not 
arrive at decisions very readily. 

When this style of writing is rounded and well 
formed, as shown in plate 4, it indicates simplicity 
of taste, deliberateness of thought and speech, and 
outward calmness. We say outward calmness, be- 
cause the writers of such a hand are not always 
naturally calm, arid often subject themselves to re- 
pression of feeling and emotion. They are apt to 
talk slowly and act with much deliberation and pre- 
cision. They do not like to do anything hastily or 
on, the spur of the moment. Everything must be 
given due consideration and attention. Their af- 
fections may be deep, but are not often intense or 
demonstrative. As a rule, however, they are sin- 
cere, constant, and loyal. They usually take a 
practical, common-sense view of life, and are not 

readily disturbed in their purposes and be- 

In the signature of Longfellow, Avhich is given 
on plate 14, we find this style of handwriting — 
vertical and rounded ; indicating a deliberate, 
dignified person ; a lover of the beautiful ; a man 
of careful habits and simple tastes ; a person of 
self-control and balance. These are the very 
traits we would logically look for in this poet, to 
^,udge him solely by his works. There is a calm- 
ness, a finish, a clearness about his poetry that con- 
trasts strongly, for example, with the involved, 
impetuous and rugged style of Browning, who, as 
we see by his signature — shown in plate 14 — wrote 
an angular, forward hand. Longfellow's poetry 
is never impassioned nor highly dramatic, nor is 
it ever mystical or elusive as is that of most of 
the great poets. He was always careful to have 
his poetry in perfect form ; its meter and rhythm 
are faultless ; a characteristic due to his love of 
order and detail, w^hich is one of the qualities in- 
dicated by a vertical handwriting. 

(5) The Back Hand 
(Plate 5.) 
Reason and self-interest are the governing mo- 

28 ©rapboloflB 

tives of those who write back-hand. While sen^ 
timent or susceptibility to sentiment is not lack- 
ing in these writers, it is rarely permitted to in- 
fluence their actions or their decisions, if it is 
likely to interfere with their comfort or plans. 

Back-hand writers are natural reasoners and 
schemers. Their personal interests come first in 
the decision of all questions. Their sympathies 
are held in check. They do not often have very 
deep or lasting affections. They think more of 
themselves than they do of anybody else. 

A back-hand writer is nearly always self-con- 
scious. It is seldom that he does anything im- 
pulsively or without first thinking of the conse- 
quences. He has a dread of appearing in a false 
light to others, or of creating an impression un- 
favorable to himself. As a result of this quality 
he is inclined to be artful and insincere. 

As a rule the writers of this style of handwrit- 
ing are persons of ability, originality and much 
self-reliance. This latter characteristic is often 
very strongly marked. They are usually unortho- 
dox in their beliefs and are seldom enthusiastic or 
deeply interested in the general affairs of the 
world. They are not the kind of persons who en- 
gage in charitable work or philanthropic enter- 

©capbologg 29 

prises. They are not bound to principles of mo- 
rality and good behavior because of any religious 
regard for such principles, but if they are good 
and moral it is simply because they choose to be 
so as a matter of self-interest. They have a 
natural aptitude for executive and administrative 
work. They make good leaders, but poor fol- 
lowers ; as they have but little regard for au- 
thority. Back-hand writers are generally quiet 
and reserved, and do not easily become excited 
nor enthusiastic. They are rarely demonstrative 
in their affections. 

It may be contended that the indications 
given for the backhand style of penmanship 
are not applicable to the writing of left- 
handed persons, for the reason that persons Avho 
write with their left hands naturally Avrite a back- 
hand. This is a mistake. Left-handed persons 
do not naturally write backhand simply because 
of the fact that they are left-handed. The au- 
thor is acquainted with a number of persons who 
are ambidextrous — that is, they can use either 
hand, — and they all write a forward style of 
chirography with one hand as well as the other. 

It is true that a right-handed person who nat- 
urally writes a forward hand will write a back- 

90 (3rapbolods 

hand when obliged to use his left hand ; and 
curiously enough, he will write forward if his 
natural right-hand style is back-hand. In other 
words, an}^ one who is obliged to use his unac, 
customed hand will slope his letters in the direc- 
'' tion opposite to that of his natural chirography. 
These facts go to demonstrate that it is useless 
to attempt to correctly read a person's character 
from his handwriting unless the writing is in his 
natural style. Graphology makes no pretense of 
detecting false or unnatural styles of chirography. 
It lays claim simply to showing the correspond- 
ence between handwriting and character in their 
natural relationship. 

(6) Small Writing 
(Plates 5, 6, IT and 18.) 

The size of a handwriting has a decided bear- 
ing upon its significance. This feature, of course, 
admits of great variation ; ranging from the 
enormous to the microscopic ; but by classifying 
the various sizes into small and large and repre- 
senting each by its extreme, we shall be able to 
gain an approximate estimate of the value of size. 

The specimen given on plate 6 will indicate 
what is here meant by small writing, as com- 

©rapbologis 31 

pared with the average size. The other speci- 
mens noted above all fall within the classification 
of small writing, but No. 6 is especially illus- 

Small, neat writing indicates, as a general rule, 
intellectuality, good reasoning powers, culture, 
and originality of ideas. 

The writers of small hands are usually persons 
capable of concentration, both mental and phys- 
ical. They are natural brain workers and can 
endure a large amount of fatigue. 

They are persons of individuality and force of 
character. Their mental powers are above the 
average and their general abilities and capacities 
are correspondingly pronounced. They are nat- 
urally versatile, well-informed, acquisitive of 
knowledge, and good thinkers and reasoners. 

They are apt to be self-contained and patient, 
with a natural reticence concerning their per- 
sonal affairs. They are not apt to make a dis- 
play of feeling in public. They have the gift of 
keeping silence, and biding their time. Re- 
serve, quietness and dignity are often associated 
with this style of handwriting. Writers of small 
hands are usually self-sufiicient. They may enjoy 
society and the companionship of their fellows, 

32 Orapbologis 

but they seldom crave it or find it essential to 
their well-being. They are usually best con- 
tented when alone with their, own thoughts and 

Many literary persons, scholars, statesmen, 
philosophers and persons of mental refinement 
generally, write small hands. No person of or- 
dinary intellectual qualities ever writes a de- 
cidedly small hand. 

If the writing, in addition to being small, is 
well formed and even, it indicates a person of 
methodical ways ; neat, self-reliant and thorough. 
It indicates also executive and business qualities, 
in which perspicacit}^, judgment and sometimes 
shrewdness play important parts, for writers of 
this style of hand seldom do anything hastily or 
ill-ad visedly, but are governed always by well 
trained faculties. Specimens of small, neat writ- 
ing, exemplifying the personal traits above cited, 
are shown on plates 6 and 17. 

Where the writing is very small and the words 
are written close together, giving the writing a 
compact, crowded appearance, it shows cunning 
and suspicion. But the cunning of such a writer 
is always that of a diplomat. What would be de- 
ceit and treachery in a person of less trained men- 

(3rapbo[odi3 33 

tality, is with this writer finesse and diplomacy. 
He is wary and alert, dilficult to convict, clever 
at plausible arguments and evasions, and always 
careful to provide a loophole for escape from any 

To sum up its various indications, small writ- 
ing, as a general rule, denotes intellectuality, lit- 
erary and business ability, educational culture, 
reservedness, diplomacy, self-containment, pa- 
tience, industry, quietness, thoughtfulness, mental 
energy, perspicacity, and judgment. 

(7) Large Writing 
(Plates 7, 12 and 23.) 

When writing is above the average in size it 
signifies a character devoted more to the prac- 
tical, material affairs of life, than to the intellec- 
tual or the spiritual. 

The writers of such a hand are inclined to be 
outspoken, frank and talkative, and possess but 
little tact. They express their feelings without 
reserve. Their natures are close to the surface 
and are easily seen, for they make little or no ef- 
fort to conceal their emotions or opinions. They 
are apt to be critical and to find fault ; although 
in the great majority of instances, their bark is 

34 (Bcapbolods 

worse than their bite. While they are quick to 
take others to task and to cast aspersions upon 
the conduct of their friends and acquaintances, 
they are seldom deeply in earnest, and their com- 
ments generally should be taken with due allow- 
ance for their impulsiveness and lack of re- 

They have but slight power of concentration. 
Their thoughts are diffuse and fly readily from 
one subject to another. They find it difficult to 
I'emain long at one task. They are naturally 
restless and unsettled, and hard to satisfy. 

Their emotions are quickly aroused. They 
are extremely sensitive to their surroundings. 
They are naturally generous and sympathetic, 
particularl}'- those w^hose writing is rounded. 
Their pride is readily wounded, and they are 
quick at retaliation. 

They have but little reserve force. They ex- 
pend their energy extravagantly. They are, in 
fact, inclined to be extravagant in all ways — in 
the spending of money, in the expression of opin- 
ions, in their charities, and in their vocabularies. 
As a rule, they talk and laugh noisily. 

Where flourishes and deliberate shading con- 
stitute a feature of large writing, we find a per- 

<5rapbolofiB 3& 

son who is egotistical and pompous, and much 
given to boasting. 

If the large writing is angular, as in plate 7, it 
denotes ardor, zeal and enthusiasm. Such a 
writer becomes readily animated or excited and 
is always vivacious and spirited. 

Writers of large hands are usually fond oi 
that which is small or dainty. They observe de- 
tails and particularities very quickly and often 
give themselves much concern over them. 

They are usually very entertaining talkers, 
although their talk is almost invariably aboul 
themselves or about their personal affairs or ex- 
periences. As a rule they insist upon having 
things their own way, and it matters but little to 
them whether it suits others or not. In thig 
respect they are apt to be extremely selfish and 

Remark. — Medium-size writing has, in itself, 
no specific signification. Handwritings that fall 
between the small and the large must be treated 
in accordance with their proximity to either one 
or the other extreme. Where they occupy an 
approximate middle position as to size the oppos- 
i'lg qualities indicated by the two extremes are 

36 (5rapbolO0S 

The size of a handwriting, therefore, is not of 
much value from a graphological point of view 
unless it is distinctively small or large. 

(8) Heavy Writing 
. (Plates 8 and 12.) 

Heavy writing is of varying degrees. In some 
handwritings it is very pronounced, as in the 
specimens shown on plates 8 and 12, where the 
letters are all formed of thick, black strokes. 
These represent extreme examples, and between 
this style and the writing composed of fine, deli- 
cate strokes, there is a large range of styles. 

Where the writing is as heavy as in the exam- 
ples cited it denotes assurance, aggressiveness 
and a general lack of delicacy, especially where 
this feature is shown in writing that is above the 
average in size, as the two specimens are. 

In a man's chirography, heavy, black writing 
indicates roughness and boldness of manner. 
Such a man is overbearing, a braggart, and in 
all probability a bully, though this latter trait is 
not necessarily denoted unless it is corroborated 
by other features of the chirography. He is pos- 
sessed of strong passions and animal appetites. 
He is usually muscular, fond of physical exercise, 

<5tapbologi5 37 

and with desires confined largely to the gross 
and the material. He is usually of a pugnacious 
disposition, and most of his successes in life are 
due solely to assurance and aggressiveness, for 
such a writer is unacquainted with modesty in 
respect to asking or demanding favors ; and 
where others would hesitate by reason of good 
taste or propriety he forges ahead and grasps 
whatever lies within his power. 

In a woman's hand these traits are more or 
less modified. A woman who writes a heavy 
hand, where the strokes are all thick and black, 
is of a domineering and exacting disposition. 
"While education, circumstances and the natural 
delicacy of her sex may do much to moderate the 
force of the qualities shown in the man's writing, 
she nevertheless possesses them in a greater or 
less degree. They are probably not as much in 
evidence as in the case of the masculine writer, 
but are ready at any time to manifest themselves. 

Writers of heavy hands, whether men or 
women, are nearly always intensely selfish and 
conceited and have but little regard for the feel- 
ings of others. They are inclined to be deceitful 
and revengeful and will not hesitate to resort to 
trickery to accomplish their purposes. They are 

88 ©rapbolofifi 

always ready to boast of their exploits and their 
accomplishments, whether real or imaginary. 

Their good qualities lie in the fact that they 
are masterful, self-reliant and frequently possess 
much ability. Some of the other traits cited 
above are not infrequently turned to good pur- 
pose ; for aggressiveness and self-assurance, for 
example, may often be used to good and worthy 
purpose when applied with discretion. And it 
must also be borne in mind that the character- 
istics cited in connection with this style of hand- 
writing, as well as all others, are all subject 
to modification b}^ other features of the chi- 

(9) Shaded Writing 
(Plates 2, 7, 10 and 11.) 

Shaded writing differs from heavy writing in 
the fact that the latter is formed of heavy, thick 
or blurred strokes throughout, as in plates 8 and 
12 ; whereas in shaded writing the heavy strokes 
occur only at intervals. 

Sometimes the shading is done for effect, as in 
the specimen on plate 10. In this case it be- 
tokens affectation and egotism and a common- 
place personality. Shading of this kind, where 
it is done consciously with a view to adding 

©tapbolofls 39 

to the effect of the penmanship, is nearly always 
an indication of small education, and lack of 
culture and ability. 

But the shaded writing shown on plates 2, 7 
and 11 is distinctly different from that just re- 
ferred to. In these examples we see that the 
shading is confined largely to the cross of the fs 
and to the terminal strokes of certain letters. 
Wherever it appears it bears evidence of having 
been done unconsciously or without design on 
the part of the writer. This sort of shading 
indicates an insistent nature, and the more pro- 
nounced the shading is, the more insistent and 
emphatic the writer is apt to be. This feature 
denotes, also, natural executive ability, coupled 
with a fondness for and an appreciation of phys- 
ical pleasures. Those whose chirography con- 
tains this style of shading are likely to be fond 
of luxury and good living. They are usually 
persons of distinctive personality, with well de- 
fined tastes. The chief signification, however, is 
insistence and determination. 

(lo) Fine Writing 
(Plates 3, 4, 18.) 
"When a handwriting is composed of delicate 

40 (3tapboIodis 

strokes or there is a marked absence of shading 
or pressure on the pen, as we see in plates 3, 4, 
16, 18, etc., it is a general indication of a person 
of quiet, modest tastes, and with a disposition 
that tends toward complaisance and simplicity. 

There are so many whose writing has this char- 
acteristic of unshaded strokes that no particular 
indications can be given for it. We must con- 
tent ourselves with the general signification 
above given, except that where this feature of 
chirography is very distinctive, as, for example, 
in plate 3, where the letters are all formed of 
very fine strokes, we ma}'^ take it for granted 
that the writer is a person of refined and delicate 
sensibilities, temperate in habit, quiet and unob- 
trusive, and with little if any desire for the vo- 
luptuous pleasures or luxuries of life. 

(n) Conventional Writing 
(Plates 10 and 21.) 
By " conventional " writing we mean that 
style of handwriting which is popularly regarded 
as the standard form of good penmanship — the 
copperplate style and the kind that is contained 
in the copy-books, — where the letters are all 
formed precisely and distinctly, according to rule. 

It very frequently happens that when a person 
is told that his character can be read from his 
handwriting he is wont to exclaim : " Oh, but I 
write such a poor hand that it certainly can't 
signify anything good about me." As a matter 
of fact, however, the so-called " poor " writers 
are usually those whose chirography indicates 
the greatest amount of character, while the 
good penmen — those who write the fine, legible, 
copperplate hands — are generally persons pos- 
sessing but little individuality. 

It may be set down as a rule, that the more 
nearly a handwriting approaches the copy-book 
standard, the more commonplace is the person- 
ality of the writer. 

The man or woman who writes a so-called 
" copperplate " hand is one who lacks individu- 
ality. Such a person has no distinctive char- 
acter. His ideas and his capacities are limited. 
He has but little, if any, originality. He is 
merely a copyist, an imitator, bound by rules 
and conventionalities. He has no ideas of his 
own ; tnere is nothing about him, mentally, that 
raises above the dead level of the commonplace. 
He is merely one of thousands. Whatever he 
does he may do well, but no better than others. 

42 0rapboloflT3 

His accomplishments are limited and are never 

Clerks, teachers, bookkeepers — all whose life 
is devoted to routine duties calling for strict ad- 
herence to rules — are apt to write more or less 
conventional hands. Plates 10, 15 and 21 are 
examples of this style of writing. 

Where good penmanship includes what is 
known as " fancy " writing, which abounds in 
flourishes and. supposedly graceful curves that 
do not belong to the letters necessarily, we have 
a sign of a person who is much impressed with 
his own importance and who is consequently 
egotistical and conceited. The specimen on 
plate 10 is a mild example of this style of writing. 
It is, however, quite tame compared with many 
examples that might be shown, in which the 
capital letters are ornamented with scrolls and 
the chirography throughout is adorned with 
fanciful strokes and artistic shading. 

The more wonderful and elaborate such pen- 
manship is, the more insignificant is the person 
who is responsible for it. This does not prevent 
his having an excellent opinion of himself, how- 
ever. He is often affected in his manner and 
endeavors to have it believed that he is really of 

importance. He is inclined to be headstrong 
and opinionated, and to lay much stress on 
trifling matters of form and style. 

(12) Inartistic Writing 
(Plate 9.) 
The opposite of the affected or good writing 
is what may be termed plain or inartistic writ- 
ing. Plate 9 affords an example of this style— 
the so-called " schoolboy " hand. It is often 
awkward in its formation and anything but 
beautiful. At the same time, however, it is legible, 
unaffected and distinctive in its simplicity. No 
hand displays better or more desirable qualities 
than this, from the standpoint of inherently good 
character. In such a writing we have modesty, 
frankness, truthfulness and sincerity. The 
writer is unassuming, honest and trustworthy, 
and guided always by motives of integrity. He 
has no patience with deceit and rises superior to 
affectation. He does his duty and is careful at 
all times to do what he thinks is right, regard- 
less of what others may say or think of him. 

(13) Neat, Uniform Writing 
(Plates 1, 6 and 15.) 
Writing that is neat and uniform in its general 

44 ©rapbologg 

appearance, or where the letters are carefully 
and distinctly formed, is always an indication 
of corresponding neatness, precision and careful- 
ness on the part of the writer. 

Such writing denotes a personality that is 
tactful, methodical, painstaking and generally 
well balanced. 

The writer of a neat, clear hand, as shown in 
plate 1, 6 or 15, is systematic ; likes to do things 
according to system and to do them well and 
thoroughly. Such a writer has good business 
instincts, and is thrifty, prudent, economical and 
painstaking. Good managers and organizers 
often write this style of hand, as do also 
capable clerks and men and women of responsi- 
ble positions. 

(14) Uneven Writing 
(Plates 9, 13.) 
Where the writing simply shows a lack of 
precision in its formation or a general uneven- 
ness of appearance, as we see in plate 9, it 
betokens a greater or less degree of carelessness 
on the part of the writer. Such a person is not 
naturally methodical or systematic, is often care- 
less about little things, and is inclined to be 

(5rapbolO0S 45 

indifferent as to engagements or business af- 

Straggling and untidy penmanship, in which 
there is a marked lack of unformity, as in plate 
13, denotes a weak, vacillating character; an 
absence of judgment, method or discretion. 
Such a writer has but little self-control ; is apt to 
be flighty and irresponsible, and to lack poise 
and mental balance. 

(15) Hasty and Indistinct Writing 
(Plates 3, 11 and 22.) 
We use the word " hasty " in connection with 
" indistinct," in order to distinguish between the 
indistinctness that is often found in an unedu- 
cated person's hand and the same quality in the 
chirography of a person of education. In the 
former case there is never that appearance of 
hastiness and quickness that is to be found in the 
latter style of writing, for an uneducated person 
cannot write fast, and consequently his writing 
is without the feature of hastiness that belongs 
to rapid writers. 

What is here meant by indistinctness, there- 
fore, is that kind of chirography in which many 
of the letters are only partially formed or con- 

46 ©rapbologg 

sist simply of mere, unformed strokes, as the 
result of evident haste in writing. The speci- 
mens shown on plates 3, 11 and 22 will il- 
lustrate this feature better than can be de- 

By examining plates 11 and 22 it will be seen 
that many of the words contain letters that are 
scarcely formed. We only know by the context 
what they are intended for. If they were to be 
cut out of the word and isolated, it would be next 
to impossible to tell what they are. Take, for 
example, the word bring on plate 11. It is the 
second word on the seventh line. Here we see 
that the h and r are the only letters of the word 
that are recognizable. The rest of the letters, 
i, n and g, consist simply of a continuous straight 
stroke. See, also, the word for in the third line 
of plate 22 ; it is the second-last word on the 
line. Were it not that we know from the con- 
text that it is meant for for, it is doubtful 
whether we would be able to decipher it. The 
entire word consists simply of a loop and a 
curlicue — a mere hieroglyphic. 

Taken in its entirety, such chirography as we 
have cited presents the appearance of haste and 
quickness and a general lack of distinctness. It 

©rapbologs 47 

is the sort of writing that must be read quickly 
and in jumps if we are to read it at all. 

As might naturally be supposed, this style of 
writing indicates quickness and hastiness, as well 
as impatience, vivacity and animation. Writers 
of this kind of chirography are usually good talk- 
ers and very entertaining ; they possess much 
ability and are nearly always accomplished in one 
direction or another. They have a good deal of 
originality, and put the stamp of their individual- 
ity upon whatever they do or say. They have 
but little patience with rules or humdrum work. 
They are apt to be insincere and they do not al- 
ways intend that what they say shall be accepted 
literally. Dissimulation and artfulness are al way s 
present, in one form or another, and conscien- 
tiousness is not usually one of the strong points 
of such writers. 

They seldom bother themselves with details. 
They do things in a hurry and do not stop to ask 
whether they are in accordance with the fixed 
rules of their neighbors. They have no time for 
commonplace, little affairs, and such duties as 
they have to perform are accomplished in the 
quickest manner possible, it making no difference 
to them whether it is according to rule or not. 

48 ©tapbologg 

There is another style of hasty writing, how 
ever, which must be distinguished in some partic- 
ulars from that upon which we have just been 
commenting. The specimen in plate 3, for ex- 
ample, while coming under the head of hasty 
and indistinct writing, is not characterized by 
the same sort of indistinctness as is that on plate 
11 or plate 22. It will be seen that in this case 
the writer has not failed to form her letters and 
has not slurred them over as in the other two ex- 
amples, but the indistinctness of the chirography 
lies in the fact that the writer does not distinguish 
one letter from another. Each letter is separately 
formed, but it is difficult to tell the different letters 
apart as they are all made so nearly alike. Take, 
for instance, the first word in the specimen on 
plate 3. No doubt there are many who will not 
be able to tell at once that this word is Cousin. 
Not one of the letters is missing nor is any one 
of them simply indicated by a mere stroke, as in 
the other specimens referred to, but each one is 
almost precisely like the other. Were it not for 
the i dot there would be really no clue to the 
identity of the word. 

Indistinctness due to this cause denotes a char- 
acter in many particulars like the one we first 

(SrapboloflB 49 

considered. It shows quickness, animation, vivac- 
ity, much hastiness and intolerance of details, 
and an inherent inability to do things according 
to plan or order. The writer is impulsive and in- 
sists always in doing things agreeably to her own 
notions; she will not follow recipes nor rules, 
nor will she submit to dictation. Such a writer 
usually lacks the ability or aptitude for practical 
work. There is wanting the necessary patience 
to follow directions or to remain steadily at any 
one task. 

But this sort of indistinct writing does not de- 
note dissimulation, finesse, diplomacy or lack of 
frankness, as is shown in the kind of indistinct- 
ness peculiar to the specimens given on plates 11 
and 22. 

It will be seen, therefore, that hasty and indis- 
tinct writing admits of division into two varie- 
ties, which should be carefully distinguished when 
considering the traits of character last enumer- 

(i6) Crowded Writing 
(Plate 13.) 
Where the words and lines are crowded well 
together and where the writing has the appear- 

50 (BrapboloQS 

ance of being crowded on the page, it shows, gen- 
erally, a saving disposition. The writer is inclined 
to worry and to be particular about little things. 
There is also a tendency on the part of such a 
writer to be close or to take narrow views of life. 
It frequently happens, too, that such writers have 
suspicious natures. This is especially so if the 
writing is crowded along the right-hand margin 
of the paper so that some of the words look as 
though they were being squeezed, in order to get 
them onto the line, rather than divide them and 
carry the syllables over to the succeeding 

As a whole, crowded writing denotes a person 
who is naturally secretive, saving and suspicious ; 
one whose nature is cramped and often warped. 

Such writers usually fill up every available 
bit of space on a sheet of paper ; squeezing the 
words in at the corners and filling up the space at 
the head of the letter rather than use another 
sheet. It is due to an instinctive desire to save 
paper, although they do not do it consciously ; 
but it serves, nevertheless, to exemplify the qual- 
ity of economy, closeness or parsimony that is 
almost invariably associated with a chirography 
of this style. 

(3rapbolog)2 51 

(17) Diffuse Writing 
(Plates 2, 7 and 16.) 

At the opposite extreme to crowded writing, 
we have a style of chirography that spreads itself 
over the page, occupying a large amount of space 
with comparatively little writing. It is this style 
to which we give the name of diffuse writing. 

It is recognizable at once by the ample space 
between the words and between the lines. The 
specimens shown on plates 2, 7 and 16 are good 
examples of this kind of handwriting. As a rule 
it is associated with large hands ; it is not often 
that a small writing exhibits this characteristic. 

Those who write diffuse hands are naturally 
generous or extravagant. They find it difficult 
to save. They are intolerant of restraint. They 
wish to be left free to do what they please and 
to spend as much as they please. They are 
neither economical nor thirfty, unless circum- 
stances should make it necessary. As a rule 
they are not methodical nor systematic, and as 
they dislike drudgery of any soi't they are often 
merely superficial in their accomplishments and 
education. Fortunately, nature usually endows 
persons of these traits with quick and ready 
minds and with inherent talents, so that they 

52 (3rapbolodis 

can often accomplish much without great effort. 
They do things in a hurry, because they want to 
get them out of the way as quickly as possible, 
and consequently they are often hasty and care- 

They are inclined to be thoughtless and im- 
prudent ; to say and do things that ought not to 
be said or done. They are usually lacking in 
judgment. Their ideas, like their chirography, 
are diffuse and not easily concentrated. 

They are often of sociable disposition, fond of 
the company of their fellows, and enjoy enter- 
taining and being entertained. They relish the 
good things of life ; prefer extravagance to 
plainness ; know how to dress well, and are gen- 
erally up to date in the modes and fashions. As 
a rule, the writer of such a hand, if a woman, 
would rather do without her dinner than be 
obliged to preside at a table that was not 
fashionably perfect as to its appointments and 

But the style of diffuse writing just considered 
must not be confounded with that style of 
writing in which the words are straggling and 
spread out, as w^e see in plate 13. Here, although 
the writing, as a whole, is crowded, we see that 

the words themselves arc formed diffusely. The 
letters are spread apart and give the words an 
unnecessary amount of space, causing them to 
look weak and inflated. 

This sort of loose writing betokens slovenli- 
ness with more or less mental weakness accord- 
ing to the other features of the chirography. 
Weak-minded persons, as a rule, write their 
words loosely. This is a characteristic of the 
writing of lunatics. The specimen referred to, 
plate 13, is the writing of a woman now in the 
insane asylum. 

Whenever, therefore, we see a chirography 
that exhibits this feature, we may take it for 
granted that the writer is not a person of strong 
mentality, though it does not necessarily follow 
that he is weak-minded. In itself it shows 
simply lack of mental vigor, which may perhaps 
be only temporary and due to illness. Its actual 
significance in any given case can only be 
determined by the nature of the other features 
in the handwriting. 

(i8) ^Vell Spaced Writing 
(Plates 5 and 6.) 
Between the extremes of the crowded writing 

54 (3rapbo[ogis 

and the dififuse writing, there are man}^ grada- 
tions and varieties, each of whicli must be 
determined as to its indications by its proximity 
to the one or the other extreme. Midway be- 
tween them we find the variety that is neither 
crowded nor diffuse, and in which the writing is 
carefully and uniformly spaced. By referring to 
the specimens on plates 5, 6 and 17 it will be noted 
that the letters of the words are well spaced, 
the words themselves are well spaced in relation 
to one another, the lines are all approximately 
even in their spacing, and each line is confined to 
itself ; that is to say, none of the loops or down- 
strokes of the letters in one line come down to 
the next line. 

A writing that is well spaced in this manner 
denotes, primarily, a person of good judgment; 
one whose mind is well ordered and who may be 
depended upon in matters calling for circumspec- 
tion and prudence. Such a writer rarely acts 
hastily in matters of business, and he is not 
readily flustered or convinced against his better 
judgment. He is naturally a good manager, 
careful and conservative, with the instincts of a 
business man. 

(Srapbologs 55 

(19) Writing That is Not Well Spaced 
(Plates 2, 9.) 

Writing that is not well spaced may be divided 
into two varieties : That in which the letters of 
one line collide with the letters in the line be- 
low, and that in which the lines are unevenly or 
irregularly spaced in relation to one another. 

An example of the first variety is to be found 
in the specimen on plate 2. It will be seen here 
that the loops of the letters/, g.'p, y, etc., extend 
from one line into the next line, and even be- 
yond it in some instances. This peculiarity is 
also noticeable in the specimens on plates 15 

and 23. 

This feature is usually associated with persons 
of more or less carelessness in certain directions. 
It is not necessarily the carelessness that is 
shown in matters of dress or personal appearance, 
but may be, and usually is, the kind of careless- 
ness that manifests itself in indifference to en- 
gagements or duties or minor proprieties. It 
denotes a tendency to flightiness or lack of poise. 
Such writers are not naturally methodical or 
systematic, and their judgment in affairs of im- 
portance is not often to be relied upon. They 
are themselves not always to be depended upon. 

56 vBrapbolofiB 

for they change their minds quickly, and, many 
times, without apparent cause, so that it is not 
usually an easy matter to make any definite pre- 
dictions regarding their decisions or plans. Their 
decisions are always more or less unstable, while 
their plans are liable to sudden alteration, due 
perhaps to some change of mood or to some un- 
expected circumstances, whatever may be the 
real value of its bearing on the matter. 

Such writers, though they may have practical 
ability, have but little taste for routine business. 
In financial affairs they are likely to be rash and 
imprudent. They prefer, as a rule, to make 
money by speculation, rather than by investment 
or work. 

The second variety of handwriting that is not 
well spaced is exemplified in the specimen shown 
on plate 9. Here, although the lines do not in- 
terfere with one another to the extent shown in 
the other examples given, it will be noticed that 
they are not evenly or regularly spaced. The 
same is also true of the specimens on plates 3 
and 10. 

This indicates, merely, a person who is not 
naturally gifted with methodical or business in- 
stincts. It is indicative also of a tendency to 

(Brapbologs 57 

carelessness and lack of precision. Upon the 
whole, however, its significance is not so com- 
prehensive nor so pronounced as is that of the 
feature that distinguishes the first variety of this 
style of writing. 

Another point to be considered in connection 
with the general features and styles of hand- 
writing, is the direction or position of the lines. 

When writing is on unruled paper, the lines 
will be either straight across the page, or they 
will slope toward the upper right-hand corner or 
toward the lower right-hand corner. We shall 
classify them, therefore, as straight lines, ascend- 
ing lines, and descending lines. Each of these 
directions of writing has its significance. 

(20) Straight Lines 
(Plates 1, 3, 6.) 

When the writing is in straight, even lines, it 
shows perseverance and will power, and more or 
less firmness of character. The degree to which 
these traits are applicable in each case will de- 
pend very much upon the other features of the 

It must be borne in mind, also, that what is 
here meant by a straight line, is not merely 

98 (Brapbologis 

one that goes across the page without sloping up 
or down, but one that is even throughout. It 
will very frequently be found that the words 
constituting a line are not strictly on the line 
throughout its length. Some are above and 
some below, although taking the line as a whole 
it may appear straight. A typical example of 
this feature may be seen in the specimen on plate 
23. An examination of this specimen will show 
that not only are the words uneven as to their 
position on the line, but the words themselves 
are so formed as to make an uneven edge at the 
bottom. In other words, some of the letters of 
a word are not on the line. 

When we find lines of this kind, therefore, 
they cannot properly be included under the 
heading of straight lines. This peculiarity of 
uneven lines makes such chirography subject to 
the rules governing in the case of uneven writing 
(Section 14) and writing that is not well spaced 
(Section 19). 

(2i) Ascending Lines 
(Plate 11.) 

If the lines have a tendency to run up hill it 
signifies an ambitious person ; one who is natu 

<5rapbologB 59 

rally hopeful, not easily discouraged, and pos- 
sessed of much good nature, especially if the 
writing is rounded. Such a person takes a cheer- 
ful view of life. He is optimistic by nature. 
He may be cast down one time after another, 
but he is always ready to try again. 

In addition to the qualities of optimism and 
buoyancy of spirit, the writer of ascending lines 
usually possesses ambition and determination to 
succeed. He never feels satisfied with what he 
has accomplished, for there is always more he 
wants to do and more that he feels capable of 
accomplishing. He is constantly pushing ahead. 
He has ideals and aspirations. He always has 
something to which to look forward. He thinks 
more of the future than he does of the past. 

When the upward slope is very marked it 
shows exaggerated ambition. Such a writer is 
more ambitious than practical. He is likely to 
be visionary and to have extravagant aspirations. 

(22) Descending Lines 
(Plate 13.) 
"Writing that droops toward the lower right- 
hand corner of the paper, indicates, generally, a 
lack of initiative or a lack of active ambition. 

60 ©rapbologg 

Persons in whose chirography this feature occurs 
may be ambitious, but they have not the neces- 
sary vigor or steadfastness of purpose to accom- 
plish it. In fact, in most cases they make no 
attempt to attain it, for there is usually wanting 
in such writers the feeling of self-reliance or 
hopefulness that is essential to the successful ac- 
complishment of any purpose or desire. 

Such writers are very apt to be pessimistic. 
It takes but little to discourage them. They are 
easily put out of humor, and they have a habit 
of worrying and fretting. They take it for 
granted that the worst is always going to happen. 

They are subject to morbid prejudices. They 
are often suspicious and are likely to take offense 
very quickly. They have a way of misconstru- 
ing what is said or done by others, and they fre- 
quently take uncharitable and unreasonable views 
of tlieir neighbors and misinterpret the motives 
of their friends. Thej^ are moody and subject to 
fits of depression ; happy and in high spirits one 
hour and in the depths of gloom or discourage- 
ment the next. 

It sometimes happens that the writing of those 
who usually write in straight lines will be found 
to show a downward tendency. This is always 

(Srapbologs 61 

a sign of depression or ill-health ; a diminution 
of mental vigor. It is not an easy matter for 
one who is sick to write in a straight line. The 
writing will either be uneven or will droop. 

(23) Margins 

The amount of space left on each side of a 
sheet of writing is significant in some small de- 
gree. The majority of persons, however, leave 
very little if any margin on either side. But 
there are cases in which a wide margin is reserved 
and there are others in which the filling up of the 
margins is uniisuall}'' pronounced. Considering 
the two extremes, therefore, we have wide mar- 
gins and no margins. 

Where ample margin is allowed on each side, 
and especially on the left-hand side, we have an 
indication of a person of artistic tastes, in the 
sense that he is fond of whatever is neat and har- 
monious. The writer, most likely, is also self- 
conscious, and studies appearances. He is in- 
clined to be fussy over little things and to bother 
with trifles. 

The entire absence of margins is a character- 
istic so closely allied to the crowded writing, 
that it is useless to attempt to differentiate it. It 

82 (Brapbologis 

is always one of the incidents of a crowded writ- 
ing. The comments given under Section 16 will, 
therefore, apply whenever a specimen of chi- 
rography is found in which the margin on both 
sides is absent. 


Special ^features 

Personal characteristics indicated by various details of band- 
writing. The significance of the different letters of the alpha- 

In the preceding chapter our attention was 
confined to the features presented by handwrit- 
ings viewed as a whole. These are the general 
features of handwriting, as distinguished from 
the special features, which pertain to the details 
of chirography. These special features relate to 
the manner in which the letters of a word are 
put together and to the manner in which the 
individual letters themselves are formed. 

We will consider first the peculiarities «»m- 
braced in the manner of constructing words, or 
putting the letters together. 

Upon comparing a number of specimens of 
handwriting it will be found that in some of 
them the letters of each word are well joined to- 
gether, while in others the letters are more or 
less separated. "We have, therefore, under the 


64 (Brapbolodis 

heading of this special feature, two kinds of hand- 
writing: Connected letters, and disconnected 

(24) Connected Letters 
(Plates 4, 8 and 16.) 

Where the letters of a word are well joined — 
that is, where each word is written without tak- 
ing the pen from the paper — we have an example 
of connected letters. An examination of the 
specimens on plates 4, 8 and 16 will explain what 
is meant by this feature. 

A person whose chirography exhibits this 
feature is generally of a practical turn of mind. 
He is instinctively careful and prudent and does 
not make up his mind hastily on matters of im- 

Such a person is a natural reasoner. He takes 
very little for granted, and is inclined to ask 
questions; for he must know the why and the 
wherefore. This quality tends to make him 
argumentative, with a corresponding tendency 
to question the statements and opinions of others. 
He is skeptical of whatever he does not at once 
understand ; he accepts very little on faith, and 
consequently is likely to be opinionated and to 

hold very decided views. Facts must be proved 
to him according to his principles of logic and 
reason ; otherwise he will dispute them or decline 
to accept them as true. 

This feature of connected letters is very often 
seen in the chirography of business men, and 
especially of lawyers. In fact, there are com- 
paratively few lawyers whose handwriting does 
not exhibit this characteristic to a greater or less 
extent. This exemplifies very strikingly the 
significations ascribed to the feature of handwrit- 
ing under consideration, for the legal profession 
is one in which the reasoning and argumentative 
faculties are essentially predominant. 

It not infrequently happens^ that such a writer 
joins his words together as well as his let- 
ters. An example of this is shown on plate 8, 
where it will be noted that the writer has a 
tendency to keep right on writing without rais- 
ing his pen from the paper, with the result that 
two and three words are strung together at a 

This peculiarity accentuates the personal qual- 
ities above enumerated. It shows a person of 
very decided convictions, great argumentative- 
ness and deep prejudices. He is hard to con- 

66 (Brapboloflg 

vince ; is very tenacious of his opinions, and in- 
sists upon full and definite understandings in all 
business matters. His actions are governed al- 
ways by judgment and reason ; he never permits 
his intuitions or his feelings to influence him in 
the practical a£fairs of life. He rarely jumps at 
conclusions. His views on any subject are all 
fortified by reason, facts and argument. He does 
nothing without cause, and subscribes to no tenet 
or belief without assuring himself that it accords 
with his judgment. In matters of business such 
a man is keen, shrewd and exacting. It is a 
difficult matter to overreach him. 

(25) Disconnected Letters 
(Plates 7, 15 and 22.) 
By disconnected letters we do not necessarily 
mean the direct opposite of connected letters, 
wherein all the letters of a word are unjoined. 
It is in fact very rare to find a handwriting in 
which none of the letters are connected. By 
the term " Disconnected Letters," we mean sim- 
ply that feature of handwriting in which there 
is a failure, to a greater or less extent, to write 
each word with a continuous stroke as is done in 
the case of connected letters. The words have 

(5rapbolofli2 67 

the appearance of being broken, due to the fact 
that here and there the writer has not joined 
certain letters. A reference to plates 15 and 22 
will indicate more clearly what is meant. 

In these specimens we see that there are very 
few words in which the letters are all joined 
from beginning to end. We find that there is a 
break in almost every word ; some of them are 
broken in two or three places, as, for example, in 
the word wanting on plate 22 (the first word on 
line 5), where we note that the writer took her 
pen from the paper three times while forming 
this one word. 

This feature of disconnected letters is found 
much more frequently in the handwriting of 
women than of men. It is essentially a feminine 
characteristic. There are, in fact, comparatively 
few women who write every word with a con- 
tinuous stroke of the pen. 

The simplest manifestation of this feature is 
seen in the failure to connect a capital letter with 
the balance of the word. Many writers who join 
their letters well together in all other respects, 
have a habit of allowing all capitals to stand 
alone. We have examples of this in plates 1, 11 
and 19. This peculiarity has but slight signifi- 

68 GrapboIoflB 

cance, aside from the fact that a writing in which 
it is exhibited cannot properly be classed under 
the heading of Connected Letters, while at the 
same time it does not come in for a full share of 
the significations ascribed to Disconnected 
Letters, though it partakes of them to a limited 

The primary significance of disconnected let- 
ters is intuition. The writers jump at conclusions. 
They make up their minds quickly. They arrive 
at their decisions instinctively. Their judgment 
of matters and people is dictated by their inner 
consciousness rather than by any process of 
deliberate reasoning. 

Such writers are quick of comprehension, 
observant and critical. There is little that 
escapes their notice. They are generally good 
judges of character. Their likes and dislikes are 
formed on the spur of the moment. They are 
guided largely by their impressions. Their first 
impressions are likely to prove the most trust- 
worthy and the most nearly correct. They usually 
find that it is better for them to be guided by 
these impressions than to attempt to convince 
themselves differently by arguments or rea- 

©rapboIoflB 69 

These writers are nimble-witted and possess ex- 
cellent insight. It is not a very easy matter to 
deceive them, for they are quick to detect the 
real motives underlying words or actions. They 
grasp problems readily, because they jump at 
once from the premises to the conclusion. For 
this reason they are apt to be superficial in their 
knowledge and accomplishments. Their beliefs 
and opinions are based upon faith rather than 
upon logic. They believe as they do because 
they feel it is right, but are not able to say why 
it is right or upon what process of reasoning 
their beliefs are founded. Consequently they 
are not fond of argument, and they resent any 
criticism or analysis of their opinions by others. 
They are satisfied with their opinions and their 
decisions and do not think it necessary to have 
to fortify them with arguments or explanations 
simply to convince the skeptical. Such persons 
are naturally religious. They are ready to ac- 
cept as true whatever appeals to their sentiment 
or ideas, and their leanings are nearly always 
toward the spiritual, the occult, or the mysterious 
rather than the materialistic. 

Where the separation of letters is very marked 
(see, for example, the signature of Oscar Wilde 

70 GrapbolofiB 

on plate 14), the qualities cited above are ac- 
centuated. Such writers are usually idealists. 
Their intuitions are the dominant controlling 
force of their lives. They are guided almost 
wholly by their imaginations, their impressions, 
their subconsciousness. Their acts and words are 
largely inspirational. Students of the occult 
often write in this manner, and this peculiarity 
is characteristic of persons gifted with psychic 
powers — mind-reading, mediumship, clairvoy- 
ance, etc. They are very rarely practical or 
logical. If any one claiming to be an adept in 
occultism or spiritualism writes a hand indicative 
of business instincts or logical reasoning powers, 
he or she may be set down as an impostor, so far 
as true pyschic powers are concerned. 

The feature of disconnected letters is a dis- 
tinguishing characteristic of artists, poets, 
musicians — in short, of all those whose work is 
essentially inspirational or emotional. The 
handwriting of nearly every man of genius in 
the realm of art, poetry, music, oratory, etc., 
exhibits to a greater or less degree this peculiar- 
ity of disconnected letters. See, for example, 
the signatures of Longfellow, Browning, Wilde, 
Millais and Poe, plate 14. 

0capbolo0B 71 

(26) Increasing Size of Letters 
(Plates 4 and 9.) 

A careful analysis of a handwriting will some- 
times show that letters increase in size toward the 
end of a word ; that is, the last letter will be rel- 
atively larger than the first. This feature 
is not very often found, but when it is, it may 
be relied upon as a sign of conscientious- 

Persons in whose chirography this feature oc- 
curs are naturally honest, straightforward, and, 
above all, conscientious. In fact, they are usually 
over-conscientious. They do more than their 
duty, in the fear that they may not be doing 
enough. It causes them often to be fussy over 
trivial matters of propriety or honesty. They are 
apt to exaggerate the importance of their duty in 
respect to fulfilling obligations or living up to 
their principles of right. They set high standards 
for themselves and will allow nothing to swerve 
them from their adherence to these standards, 
though they are often unreasonably exacting. 
They place an exalted value upon consistency and 
allegiance to principles. They endeavor always 
to be consistent in their views and conduct, and 
their decision upon any question is determined 

72 (5rapboloflB 

always by the principle involved, whatever may 
be the circumstances of the case. 

This feature of handwriting is very prominently 
shown in the specimen on plate 9. It will be 
noticed, for example, how disproportionately large 
is the letter d in the word ^pleased on the second 
line; and in the word success, on the last line, 
each letter is larger than the preceding one, until 
we reach the final 5, which is almost twice the 
height of the initial s. 

Plate 4 also contains examples of increasing 
size of letters in a word, but they are not so pro- 
nounced as those in plate 9. At the same time, 
however, this specimen exhibits this feature more 
uniformly throughout the writing than does the 
other specimen, for it will be found that it occurs 
to a greater or less extent in nearly every word. 

(27) Decreasing Size of Letters 
(Plates 2, 12 and 22.) 
This is a characteristic much more frequently 
observed than the one commented upon in the 
foregoing section. In this case the characteristic 
is just the reverse of the other ; the letters de- 
crease in size. Instead of remaining the same 
throughout the word, or increasing in size toward 

(Brapbologs 73 

the end, they grow smaller and give a word the 
appearance of tapering oflP. 

Each one of the words in the second line of 
plate 2 is a typical example of decreasing size of 
letters. Note in the word write how much smaller 
is the letter e than the letter w^ and in the word 
and we find that the entire d is smaller than the a. 
In plates 12 and 22 the difference in size between 
the initial and the final letters is more abrupt ; 
the words do not taper as evenly as in plate 2. 
The signification, however, is practically the same. 

Broadly speaking, this peculiarity of hand- 
writing denotes lack of frankness. Persons in 
whose chirography this feature appears possess 
qualities that are approximately the reverse of 
those exhibited by writers of the increasing size 
of letters. They may not be lacking in conscien- 
tiousness, but it is never obtrusive and is never 
allowed to interfere with the plans or wishes of 
the writers. They may have high ideals of right 
and duty, but they do not feel themselves neces- 
sarily bound by them. Expediency is to them a 
more important point of consideration than con- 
sistency or adherence to principle. They are al- 
ways ready to concede that circumstances alter 

74 ©rapboloflB 

As a result of the traits just enumerated, such 
writers are usually diplomatic, tactful or shrewd. 
They are often selfish and are not always to be 
depended upon. They are likely to be capricious. 
It is frequently difficult to understand them. 
They rarely express themselves unreservedly and 
have a natural reluctance to exposing their true 
feelings. They are lacking in directness and 

"When this feature of decreasing size of letters 
is very marked, as, for example, in plate 11, where 
some of the final letters dwindle into mere hori- 
zontal strokes — see the n, in John^ on the first 
line — the personal characteristics pertaining to 
this feature of chirography are correspondingly 

(28) Variable Size of Letters 

(Plates 12 and 23.) 
This feature is demonstrated in handwritings 
where the letters forming a word are of varying 
sizes — some small and some large. It differs from 
the features considered in the two foregoing sec- 
tions in that there is no uniformity in the varia- 
tion of the size. In Section 26 we considered such 
examples of handwriting as show a uniform in- 

(Brapbologfi 75 

crease in size, while in Section 27 we dealt with 
letters that show a more or less uniform decrease 
in size from the beginning to the end of a word. 
In the present section, however, we have to deal 
with letters that are of different sizes throughout 
the word. The words enclose and version on plate 
12, and indeed and kind on plate 23 are examples 
of this peculiarity of handwriting. 

It indicates generally a person of versatility ; 
one who has the natural ability to do many things 
well. Such a person is apt to lack poise and to 
be rather changeable. Writers of this kind are 
subject to whims and fancies. 

Having now considered the most important 
special features of handwriting pertaining to the 
formation of words and the size of letters, we 
come to a consideration of the individual letters 
of the alphabet and the personal characteristics 
represented by them according to the manner in 
which they are made. 

We shall turn our attention first to the capi- 
tal letters. It is not essential to take them up 
one by one, in alphabetical order, as we shall do 
for the most part in the case of the small letters, 
for the peculiarities incident to them are very 
largely collective and apply equally to all of them. 

78 Orapboloflc 

(29) Plain Capitals 
(Plates 2, 6, 18.) 

It may be set down as a general rule that the 
more simply capital letters are made the more 
convincingly does it denote taste, refinement, 
modesty and simplicity. 

Persons of quiet, artistic temperaments nearly 
always form their capitals modestly and with 
decided simplicity. We have an excellent illus- 
tration of this in the signature of Longfellow, on 
plate 14. We note that the capitals are rela- 
tively small, and there is an absence of any at- 
tempt at ornamentation. The signature of 
Browning on the same plate presents the same 
feature even more strikingly, for neither the R 
nor the B rises above the general line of the 
writing, and each of them is made with the ut- 
most plainness. This simplicity in the forma- 
tion of the capitals is characteristic of many men 
of genius, for it is always an indication of artis- 
tic refinement and ability. It does not of course 
follow that all great men write their capitals in 
this way, for the greatness of many of them is 
not dependent upon the personal qualities just 

Literary men, as a rule, however, as well as 

(SrapboloflB 77 

deep thinkers and philosophers, generally make 
their capitals very plain. They are often simply 
nothing more than enlarged small letters or imi- 
tations of printed letters. The capital B in the 
specimen on plate 6 is an example of this type of 

In short, it may always be taken for granted 
that small, plain capitals indicate persons of inher- 
ent ability and mental culture. They are rarely 
egotistical or conceited, but, on the contrary, are 
usually very modest about their own accomplish- 
ments. Their tastes are simple and refined ; 
there is no ostentation of manner, no affectation 
of deportment or speech, no assumption of quali- 
ties or virtues unpossessed, but simply the quiet 
dignity or the ingenuous frankness of true merit 
and worth. 

(30) Large and Ornate Capitals 
(Plate 10.) 
When capitals are conspicuously large or orna- 
mental they denote a writer who is essentially 
egotistical. The primary significance of large 
and showy capitals is egotism, conceit, affecta- 
tion, love of display, and pride. 

As a rule, the larger and more ornate are the 

78 ©rapboloflB 

capital letters of a handwriting, the more insig 
nificant is the writer, except in his own estima- 
tion. He is usually a person who places great 
store by his own importance and gives undue 
weight to trivial personal matters. His talents 
and accomplishments are usuall}'' mediocre and 
he is not a person of intellectual depth. 

Capitals that are simply large, but without any 
attempt to ornament them with scrolls or un- 
necessary flourishes, while they indicate egotism 
and pride to a certain extent, are to be consid- 
ered more as an indication of boldness and ag- 
gressiveness, self-reliance and masterfulness. 

It not infrequently happens that persons of 
talent and general culture and ability write 
large, ornamental capitals, and even indulge in 
flourishes and shading. Nevertheless, such writ- 
ers are naturally vain and egotistical. They are 
either conceited and boastful in their talk or 
quietly self-appreciative and fond of approbation. 
In one wa}^ or another they exhibit the trait of 
self-importance, according to the personality rep- 
resented by the writing in general. 

In determining the value to place upon large 
and ornamental capitals very much depends upon 
the chirography in other respects. It will some- 

(Srapbologis 79 

times be found that a person who writes a quiet, 
modest, unassuming hand will indulge in grand 
capitals. In such a case the signification to be 
given to this peculiarity is comparatively slight, 
for its effect is largely counteracted by the other 
features of his chirography. In all probability 
it would signify a certain eccentricity of char- 
acter, for any inconsistent feature of this sort 
occurring in a person's writing is always indica- 
tive of eccentricity or originality, 

(31) Cross-Cut Capitals 
(Plates 12 and 22.) 

"When the initial stroke of a capital cuts across 
the body of the letter it is what is designated as 
a "Cross-cut Capital." A typical example of 
this feature will be seen in the capital M on the 
first line of specimen 22. This peculiarity occurs 
most frequently in N and Jf, but is met with in 
other letters as well ; as, for example, the capital 
/ on plate 12. 

Cross-cut capitals always signify egotism. The 
person in whose chirography this feature appears 
always entertains a good opinion of herself, 
either in regard to her accomplishments or her 
personality. It does not necessarily follow that 

80 Grapbolofis 

this trait is obtrusively evident, for, as a matter 
of fact, it will generally be found that this pe- 
culiarity is associated with a style of chirography 
indicative of cultivation and ability, so that the 
egotism of the writer is rarely baldly pronounced 
or evident, though it is never a difficult matter 
to discover it. Such a writer is always self-ap- 
preciative, has much self-reliance, and is very 
intolerant of adverse criticism. 

This particular feature of chirography occurs 
almost exclusively in the writing of women. 

(32) Tall-Stroke Capitals 
(Plate 4.) 

This feature is applicable only to the M and 
N. It consists of giving to either of these cap- 
itals a disproportionately tall first stroke, as 
illustrated in the specimen on plate 4. In the 
words Norman and Monday it will be noted that 
the first upward stroke of each of the capitals is 
decidedly higher than the other strokes of the 

This peculiarity denotes a person who is am- 
bitious for the success or Avelfare of those dear 
to them. It is an indication of pride in others, 
as that of a mother for a child, or a wife for a 

©capboloflfi 81 

husband. It is what might be called egotism 
once removed. 

It sometimes happens that the last stroke of 
the capital M is taller than the first two. This 
is by no means common, and it is just as well that 
it is not, for it is a sign of an unbalanced mind. 
Not that the writer is necessarily crazy, but he is 
invariably of a nervous, eccentric, unreasonable 
disposition; exacting in his demands upon 
others, thoughtless of their comfort or capabili- 
ties, and possessing generally a disposition that 
is both trying and wearing to all those with 
whom they have anything to do. An example 
of this style of M is shown in plate 17. 

Having considered the significant peculiarities 
of capital letters, we are prepared now to 
consider the small letters. These we shall take 
up individually or in groups, as their significa- 
tions are too varied to be treated collectively as 
in the case of the capitals. 

Although, upon first thought, it would not 
seem that there could be much opportunity for 
any marked difference in the formation of the 
individual letters of the alphabet, for their lines 
of formation are so simple and they must neces- 
sarily be made according to a fixed standard, yet 

83 Grapbologg 

nevertheless there is a sufficient difference i^ 
enable us to draw some very clear distinctions 
between the letters of one writer and those of 

Every letter of the alphabet may be said to 
have its special significance according to the way 
it is made. For all practical purposes, however, 
it will be necessary only to consider those that 
are of relative importance ; and in this connec- 
tion it will be seen that a number of them serve 
as types for others; for what is true of one 
letter will be equally true of others having the 
same general formation, as for example g, j, and 
y, m and 71, etc. 

Taking them in order, the following letters are 
of special significance in graphology, and it 
is to these that we shall give our particular at- 
tention, viz. : a, h, d, /", g, h, % j, k, l, m, w, 0, jt?, 5, 
t, and y. 


The significance of this letter lies in the fact 
of its being either closed or open at the top. 
An examination of a number of handwritings 
will show that in some of them the a's are left 
open and in others they are closed. Accordingly 

(5rapbolO02 83 

we have two varieties of this letter, each of 
which has its special indication. 

The letter o comes under this classification 
also, and what is here pointed out with reference 
to the a is equally applicable to o. 

(33) a When the Letter is Closed 
(Plates 8 and 21.) 

When the a and in a handwriting are all 
well closed at the top it signifies reserve, lack of 
frankness, and the desire as well as the abil- 
ity to keep one's own counsel. The writer in 
whose chirography this feature occurs is not in the 
habit of taking others into his confidence. He 
or she knows how to keep a secret. Such a 
person is naturally tactful, cautious and discreet. 

When the letters are closed with a loop, as 
they are in specimen on plate 8, it betokens se- 
cretiveness and a very reserved, uncommunicative 
disposition. Such a writer rarely talks about 
himself or his affairs, and it is a difficult matter 
to draw him out on any subject or to ascer- 
tain definitely what his opinion is on a given 
subject, for he is careful not to commit him- 

84 (Srapbolods 

(34) a When the Letter is Open 

(Plates 11 and 18.) 

Failure to close the a and is shown in speci- 
mens on plates 11 and 18, which will illustrate 
what is meant by this feature. 

As a general rule, it may be said that this 
feature denotes the reverse of that indicated by 
the closed letters. The writer is usually a frank, 
outspoken person, who does not hesitate to ex- 
press his opinions or feelings on a subject, is 
generally ready to talk and to have a word to 
say on any subject that is brought up. 

It is difficult for such a person to keep a secret. 
His or her tendency is to take others into per- 
sonal confidence regarding family matters or 
domestic affairs. Such a person is seldom 
reserved, but, on the contrary, is inclined to be 
communicative. His remarks are often ill-timed 
or indiscreet, for such a writer usually has but 
little tact. 

c h 

There are three peculiarities in the style of 
making the letter 5 that are significant, and 
these peculiarities and their significations apply 
also to the letters h, I, h and t. 

(5rapbolOfli3 85 

(35) b When the Letter is Cross-Cut 
(Plate 7.) 

A reference to plate 7 will explain the mean- 
ing of this definition. In the word he for ex- 
ample, line 2, it will be noted that the initial 
stroke of the h cuts across the body of the letter. 
This feature is perhaps better shown in the 
letter t in the word to^ on the first line, and the 
word trust on the second line. 

The signification of this peculiarity is akin to 
that mentioned under the heading of Cross-cut 
Capitals, Section 31 ; for whenever this feature 
occurs it will be found to be in a handwriting 
that exhibits capital letters made in that manner. 
It signifies, therefore, a person who is egotistical, 
self-appreciative, proud and self-reliant. 

(36) b An Initial Hook 
(Plates 3 and 11.) 

Instead of making the upper part of the 
letter in the form of a loop, some writers con- 
tent themselves with merely a hook on the left 
side of the up-stroke. 

The word hring on the seventh line of plate 11 
shows the h made in this fashion, and on plate 3 

86 (3rapbolofiB 

we find nearly all the fs and Vs made that way, 
as well as the h^s. 

This initial hook is an unfailing sign of 
talkativeness. The writer is fond of conversa- 
tion, and, given the opportunity, always has 
much to say and is usually a rapid and animated 

(37) b When the Letter is Unlooped 
(Plates 6 and 22.) 

The conventional or standard h, h and I consist 
of a well-defined loop for the upper formation 
of the letter. Some writers, however, dispense 
with this loop and use instead a mere stroke. 

Examples of this will be found in the speci- 
mens shown on plates 6 and 22. 

As a rule, it signifies a person of conciseness 
and practical ideas and abilities. It is also an 
indication of originality or distinctive individual- 
ity. Such a writer is not usually common- 

This sign also is often associated with de- 
cisiveness. The writer has firm convictions 
and does not hesitate to carry them out. 

(This letter is without any special significance.) 

This letter furnishes a number of significa- 
tions, as it admits of quite a variety of distinctive 
formations, and is consequently of much impor- 
tance to the graphologist. 

(38) d When the Upper Portion is High 
(Plates 9 and 23.) 

In the specimens referred to — plates 9 and 23 
— it will be noticed that the stroke forming the 
upper portion of the letter d is above the 
standard height relative to the other letters. 
Normally, the height of the d should not equal 
that of the ^, A, or h ; but in the examples 
pointed out the d is not only equal in height to 
the other letters mentioned, but overtops them 
in som3 instances ; thus constituting what is 
known to the graphologist as a high d. 

A. d oi this kind signifies pride and self-respect. 
It is necessary to explain, however, that these 
traits must not be confused with conceit and 
vanity, for, as a matter of fact, the writers of 
such a style of d are rarely conceited or vain in 
the usual meaning of those terms. The writer 
of the specimen on plate 9, for example, is 
naturally inclined to be retiring and self-depre- 

88 ©rapbologs 

ciative, but he has at all times, nevertheless, a 
high regard for his dignity and self-respect. 

Writers in whose chirography this feature ap- 
pears are likely to be proud of their family, their 
ancestry or their connections. It does not nec- 
essarily follow that they are boastful on the sub- 
ject or make any display of it, but it is a source 
of satisfaction to them and forms a part of their 

The pride of such persons, therefore, consists 
of pride of person or of family ; an inherent 
dignity and respect for one's self. These persons 
never condescend to anything that will com- 
promise or demean their standard of personal 
quality. They have a high sense of honor, which 
at times is almost fanatical in its strictness. 

(39) d When the Upper portion is short 
(Plates 2, 8 and 15.) 
"When the upper stroke of the letter is rela- 
tively short, as is exemplified in the specimens 
referred to — plates 2, 8 and 15, — it indicates not 
necessarily a lack of self-respect, but the writers 
of such a d have not that same regard for their 
personal dignity as is manifested in the high d. 
They may possess much personal pride, but they 

©rapbologs 89 

are willing, in a pinch, to waive it in favor of 
some personal gratification or profit. It does 
not form an essential part of their nature. It is 
put on and taken ofl' to suit the conditions in 
which the writers find themselves. They have 
not that same high sense of honor that dis- 
tinguishes the writers of the tall d. Their con- 
sciences are more elastic and their standards 
are not so clearly defined. They allow them- 
selves more scope for action without compromis- 
ing their dignity or their morals. 

(40) d When the Upper Part is Curved 
(Plates 6, 18 and 22.) 

The conventional method of making a c^ is to 
form the upper portion with two strokes of the 
pen, one going up and the other coming down, 
the two strokes either blending into one or form- 
ing more or less of a loop. There are many 
writers, however, who do not make the return 
stroke on their final <i's, but simply the up-stroke, 
which is allowed to terminate either in a more 
or less graceful curve, as in plate 6, or in the 
form of a little hook, as in plates 5, 18 and 22. 

This style of d will nearly always be found in 
the writing of literary persons. Either they 

90 ©rapbologs 

have literary tastes, or are writers or critics. It 
is a sign of scholarly attainments, literary dis- 
crimination and a nicety of taste in the culti- 
vated arts. They are usually persons of ability 
and are more or less accomplished, particularly 
in the domain of literature. 

"When the curve is decidedly toward the right, 
however, so that the letter has the appearance of 
leaning forward, it is an indication of a coquet- 
tish nature, especially when associated with large 
or diffuse writing. The writer of such a. d is in- 
clined to be gay, fun-loving and fanciful with a 
tendency to be flirtatious. 

(40a) When the Curve is Backward 
It sometimes happens that the curved upper 
portion, instead of tending toward the right, as 
in the examples cited in the foregoing paragraph, 
is turned backward, toward the left. An in- 
stance of this will be found in the specimen on 
plate 19. In this case the stroke is turned back- 
ward very decidedly. 

This peculiarity indicates an analytical as well 
as a critical mind. The writers of this style of d 
have a tendency to analyze their thoughts and 
feelings, as well as the motives and actions of 

©rapboloflB 91 

those about them. They are apt to be sensitive 
and easily prejudiced. Their nature is largely 
introspective ; their inclination is to draw within 
themselves. They do not care for the indiscrim- 
inate society of their fellow-beings. They would 
rather be isolated than be obliged to associate 
with those who are not congenial. 

(41) d When the Upper Part is Looped 
(Plates 13 and 17.) 

The return stroke of the upper portion of the 
d is sometimes so widely separated from the up- 
stroke that it forms a loop, instead of the stand- 
ard straight line. The examples alluded to, on 
plates 13 and 17, are typical of this style of mak- 
ing the d. 

Primarily, this feature signifies sensitiveness. 
The pride of the writer is easily wounded, and 
his feelings are readily hurt. He takes offense 
quickly, and often at mere trifles. It takes but 
little to make him feel that he has been wronged 
or insulted. 

An exaggeration of this feature, in which the 
loop is disproportionately large and inflated, 
shows extreme morbidness on the subject of one's 
pride and rights. It is a peculiarity often seen 

92 ©rapbologg 

in the writing of lunatics, and invariably denotes 
unreasonable sensitiveness and a generally mor- 
bid condition of mind. 

(42) d When Stroke Descends Below the Line 
(Plate 16.) 

"When the return stroke of the upper portion 
of the d is brought below the line of writing, as 
is done in the handwriting shown on plate 16, 
we have a sign of a person who is strongly opin- 
ionated. This feature is always an indication of 
decided views, strong convictions, and usually 
narrow prejudices. Obstinacy is nearly always 
present in the writer's make-up, and wilfulness 
is usually indicated also. Such a writer clings to 
his or her opinions through thick and thin, and 
the more they are opposed the more determined 
becomes the writer to hold on to them. 

(43) d When the Loop is Opened or Closed 
The loop forming the lower part of the letter 
is sometimes left open at the top, and sometimes 
Ave find it tightly closed. An example of the 
first form is seen on plate 11, while on plate 23 
we have an example of the opposite form. 
These features have the same signification as is 

6rapbolodis 93 

attached to the a and in this distinguishment 
of their formation, and the reader is accordingly 
referred to Sections 33 and 34. 

(This letter is without any special significance.) 


The manner of forming the lower portion of 
the letter f constitutes the chief significance of 
this letter. The lower part is either looped or 
consists simply of a single stroke. We have, 
therefore, two varieties of formation to consider. 

The letters g, j^ y and z also come under this 
classification, and the significations set forth in 
relation to the f apply equally to the other let- 
ters mentioned. 

(44) / When the Letter is Looped 
(Plates 2, 11 and 23.) 
When the lower portion of the letter is made 
in the form of a loop, according to the conven- 
tional manner of making the letter, it indicates, 
broadly, a person of conventional ideas and tastes, 
with a natural inclination to whatever appeals to 
the fancy or the emotions. 

94 ©tapbologg 

It is only when the loop is prominent by rea- 
son of its size or some unusualness of its forma- 
tion, that it may be counted upon as an influen- 
cing indication. In that case it shows clever- 
ness, a lively imagination and a quick and vivid 
fancy. The person who makes his/'*, ff^s,fs, y^s 
and z's with long and well rounded loops is fond 
of poetry, music or art — whatever appeals to the 
imagination — and is more or less dominated by 
his impressions and fancies, as opposed to the one 
who is guided by strict reason and principles of 
business and order. 

Where the loop is so long that it extends into 
the line below, as we see in plates 2 and 23, it 
is a sign that the writer is inclined to be romantic 
and notional and to hold rather unconventional 
ideas on many subjects. 

This peculiarity of long, sweeping loops that 
collide with the letters in the line below is found 
more frequently in the writing of women than of 
men. When it occurs it may be taken for granted 
that the writer is fond of novelty and originality. 
Whatever is odd appeals to her at once. She is 
a lover of fads, especially such as are supposed to 
be fashionable, for she is always abreast of the 
times in styles and notions, and quickly adopts 

©rapbologg 95 

v/hatever " society " endorses as the proper 
caper, and drops it as soon as it is no longer re- 
garded as good form. She is apt to be extrava- 
gant in her mode of living, as she is not really 
content unless in style in matters of dress and 
household appointments. She is not usually much 
of a business woman, being too venturesome and 

The disposition of such writers is usually rest- 
less and calls for frequent change and variety. 

When the loop is made after the manner of the 
loop in the Vetter ^, as we see in plate 11, it is an 
indication of hastiness ; a desire on the part of 
the writer to get through v/ith his tasks as rapidly 
as possible, in order to have them off his hands. 

(45) / When the Letter is Not Looped 
(Plates 6, 14 and 20.) 
Where the lower half of the letter is made with 
a single stroke, and not looped, as we see in plates 
6 and 20 and in the signatures of Longfellow and 
Lord Wolsely on plate 14, it shows conservatism 
of ideas, practical and methodical traits ; a good 
deal of firmness, will power and self-reliance. 
Fancy and imagination, while often present in 
abundance, are held in check ; they are not al- 

96 (Brapbolods 

lowed to carry the writer beyond the bounds of 
reasonableness or utility. Such writers are util- 
itarian in their tastes and ideas rather than ideal- 
istic or fanciful. 

When the stroke forming the lower portion of 
the letter is heavy, as in the signature of Wolsely, 
it denotes much firmness and determination. 
Such a writer is inclined to be obstinate and hard 
to convince against his wishes. The more firmly 
and the more heavily the stroke is made, the more 
clearly are these traits evidenced. 

(See letter y, Sections 44 and 45.) 

(See letter h, Sections 35, 36 and 37.) 

The manner of dotting the i determines the sig- 
nificance of this letter. 

(46) / When the Dot is Placed to the Right 

(Plates 1, 3 and 16.) 
The majority of persons dot their i\s to the 
right of the letter, so that this feature has little 

©rapbologg 97 

or no significance unless the dot is placed unusu- 
ally far to the right. We find typical illustra- 
tions of this peculiarity in the specimens on plates 
1 and 16. 

When the dot is placed far to the right and 
well above the letter it is an indication of quick- 
ness, vivacity, animation, impulsiveness and im- 
patience. As a rule, however, this sign simply 
confirms the characteristics shown in other fea- 
tures of the handwriting, so that it is not often 
the graphologist is obliged to consult it. 

(47) / When the Dot is to the Left 
(Plats 13.) 

In this specification must be included the writ- 
ing in which the i dot is placed directly above the 
letter as well as to the left of it, as there is a close 
relationship between the two features, differing 
only in degree. 

Where the dot is directly over the t, as we see 
in the specimen on plate 4, it is a sign of deliber- 
ation and slowness, with a tendency toward pro- 
crastination. These traits are accentuated when 
the dot is actually placed to the left side of the 
better, with the additional characteristic that the 
writer finds it hard to make up his mind or to 

98 (SrapboloflB 

carry out his purposes. He lacks steadfastness 
and continuity of mental effort. His mind and 
his actions do not always work in harmony. He 
allows his impulse often to govern him, not be- 
cause he is naturally impulsive, but because he 
cannot get his mind to determine for him. The 
specimen on plate 13 contains examples illustra- 
tive of this characteristic. 

(See letter/, Sections 44 and 45.) 

(See letter 5, Sections 35, 36 and 37.) 

m, n 

The only significance of these letters lies in the 
cross-cut formation, commented upon under the 
letter 5, Section 35. The signification there given 
applies equally to m and n. 


(See letter a^ Sections 33 and 34.) 

The letter j^? admits of only one distinctive fea- 

<3tapbolodi2 99 

ture that is of any special value to the graph- 
ologist, and this is 

(48) / When the Lower Part of the Letter is 


(Plates 2, 7 and 8.) 

The letter^ contained in the specimens on the 
plates referred to — 2, 7 and 8 — is decidedly long 
in each case. This denotes physical agility; a 
love of exercise ; of athletics ; of outdoor sports. 
The persons who make their p's in this fashion 
are usually good dancers and of good muscular 
development. Sports and recreation of all kinds 
calling for physical exercise appeal to them. 

When the lower portion of the letter is looped, 
as in plate 2, its significance, in addition to the 
personal characteristics mentioned in the forego- 
ing paragraph, is the same as that ascribed to 
the loop formations of f, g, j, etc., Section 44. 

q r 

These letters are without any special sig- 


The letter s is of but small value, except in one 

100 (irapbolO0s 

peculiarity of its formation. This peculiarity is 
the tight closing of the lower portion of the 

(49) s When the Letter is Tightly Closed 
(Plate 8.) 

It is only when this feature is markedly promi- 
nent that it is to be relied upon as an indication. 
Many writers close their s^s well and carefully, 
but it is necessary, in order, to be of significance, 
that the letter should be closed as it is in the 
specimen on plate 8, for example. Here it will 
be noted that the writer has virtually tied the 
letter shut at the bottom, either by a decided 
loop or by a final stroke brought well beyond the 
body of the letter. 

When we find an s made in this fashion we 
may conclude that the writer is not a person of 
candor ; and while it is always a delicate matter 
to ascribe untruthfulness to any one, such an s is 
always prima facia evidence of a disposition to 
dodge the truth on occasion. 

The other features of the chirography will do 
much to confirm or modifiy the signification of 
this peculiarity ; but in itself it may be relied 
upon as indicative of a person whose assertions 

<5rapbolog« loi 

must be accepted with allowance and who can 
rarely be depended upon to be perfectly frank 
and straightforward in his business dealings. 


Of all the letters of the alphabet the t is the 
most comprehensive in its indications. It is sub- 
ject to a greater variety of significant formations 
than any other letter ; and these differences of 
formation pertain almost wholly to the manner 
of crossing the t. 

The individuality of the writer is very clearly 
expressed in this apparently trivial feature, and 
it will perhaps prove surprising to learn how 
many different ways there are of crossing the t. 
In the following sections eight distinctive styles 
are considered, each of which has its special indi- 
cation of character. 

(50) / When the Letter is Carefully Crossed 
(Plates 4 and 9.) 

A careful and precise crossing of the t''s^ is, in 
general, an indication of a careful and painstak- 
ing person. It signifies good will power and 
constancy of purpose. 

It is essential, however, for the fulfilment of 

102 ©rapboloflB 

these signijQrations that the fs throughout the 
writing should all be well stroked, and not only 
here and there. The specimen on plate 4 con- 
tains a good example of what is here defined as 
a carefully crossed t. 

The person whose chirography exhibits this 
feature is naturally methodical, conscientious and 
more or less deliberate. He likes to do things 
right and according to rule, and it is not likely to 
relinquish a task until it is properly completed. 

/51) / When the Letter is Heavily Crossed 

(Plates 1, 8 and 17.) 

When the letter is crossed with decided firm- 
ness, irrespective of whether it is done carefully 
and methodically as in the examples referred to 
in the preceding section, it denotes firmness, and 
much will power and determination. If the 
strokes are made carefully, then the qualities 
enumerated under that classification are also 

In itself, however, this feature denotes a per- 
son of great determination, much aggressiveness, 
assurance and self-reliance. He insists upon hav- 
ing his own way, and is possessed of that force of 
character that generally accords him that right. 

OrapboloflB 103 

He is positive in his views and determined in his 

Generally speaking this manner of crossing 
the fs is a sign of force and energy, strong 
will, physical courage, daring and persistence of 

When the cross, in addition to being firm and 
heavy, is also large, as in plate 8, it adds emphasis 
to the qualities just cited. Such a writer goes 
ahead boldly and with much assertiveness. He 
permits nothing to daunt him, and is often de- 
fiant in his manner. 

(52) / When the Letter is Weakly Crossed 
(Plates 15, 20 and 21.) 

A weak crossing of the t is one in which the 
cross is insignificant in size and strength or where 
it is absent to a greater or less degree throughout 
the writing. In the specimens on plates 15 and 
20 we have examples of weak and indifferent 
cross-strokes. They lack firmness and size ; and 
are without definite character, especially those 
shown on plate 15. In the specimen on plate 21 
we have an example of writing in which many of 
the fs are not crossed at all. 

A weak crossing of the t, as just defined, repre- 

104 0tapbolo0)5 

sents in its general significance a lack of strong 
will power. Persons in whose chirography this 
feature occurs are usually without much force of 
character. They lack firmness and decision. 
They are not likely to be steadfast in their aims 
or purposes, unless their pathway is smooth and 
easy. They are easily dissuaded, vacillating, ir- 
resolute and are wanting in continuity of energy. 
They have not the self-reliance of those who form 
their cross-strokes firmly, nor have they the per- 
sistence and determination that characterize the 
other class of writers. 

This feature is rarely found in the writing of 
persons who hold responsible positions in life, 
where assurance, determination, firmness and con- 
stancy of purpose are requisite qualities. Nor is 
it usual to find it in the chirography of per- 
sons of marked ability. It belongs essentiall}'' to 
those of mediocre and commonplace capabilities, 
those who hold the minor places in business and 

While these commentaries may seem unjustly 
severe, it must be borne in mind that they pertain 
only to certain specific features considered by 
themselves and without relation to other features 
or circumstances. It must not be sapposed, therr 

©rapboloflis 105 

fore, that if a person exhibits un-crossed fs in his 
writing he is necessarily to be judged as lacking 
in all the good qualities of manliness. The graph- 
ological feature under consideration is only one 
of a score of others that must be taken into ac- 
count and which may greatly modify or even 
annul the significations thus baldly set forth in 
relation to this particular peculiarity of hand- 

(53) f When the Stroke is Placed to the Right 
(Plates 3, 12 and 18.) 

Sometimes the cross-stroke, instead of crossing 
the t at all, is placed to the right of the letter. 
This peculiarity will usually be found associated 
with writing that indicates hastiness, impulsive- 
ness, quickness, animation, etc. It is, therefore, 
a confirmatory sign of these traits of character. 

When the stroke flies off from the letter, with- 
out touching it, it is generally a sign of impatience, 
and if the writing is angular it betokens a person 
of quick temper. Such writers are intolerant of 
reproof or restraint. They are often nervous and 
irritable. Their remarks are stinging when an- 
noyed or angered, for they are impulsive and 
quickly lose their tempers. 

106 ©tapbolofls 

(54) ^ When the Stroke is Placed to the Left 
(Plate 1.) 

If the stroke does not cross the ^, but remains 
on the left of it, it is a certain sign of procrasti- 

An example of this manner of stroking the t is 
seen in the specimen on plate 1, where it will be 
noticed that several of the fs are not crossed but 
that the stroke only comes up to the main stem 
and stops. The word beautiful, in this specimen, 
affords a good illustration of this peculiarity. 

The writers in whose chirography this occurs 
have a natural tendency to put off work from 
day to day ; they prefer waiting to doing ; they 
are rarely on time ; they often miss their engage- 
ments, and cannot be depended upon to fulfil 
their promises, however well meaning they may 
be. In short, they are procrastinating. 

(55) ^ When the Cross is Downward 
(Plates 2 and 20.) 
Whenever the t is crossed with a downward 
stroke, as on plate 20, or as in the word unfortu- 
nately on plate 2, it is a sign of obstinacy. 

Persons who stroke their €s this way are us- 
ually self-willed, and insist upon having their 

©rapboloflis 107 

own way and holding to their own convic- 

(56) / When the Cross is Upward 
(Plate 5.) 

An upward crossing of the t is not often met 
with. "When it does occur, however, it is a sign 
of a hopeful person, who is inclined to be imagi- 
native and fanciful. He is generally ambitious 
and has many irons in the fire. He thinks more 
of the future than either of the past or the 

(57) f When the Cross-Stroke is Above the 

(Plates 3 and 16.) 

When the cross-stroke is placed above the jJ, 
as is shown very prominently on plate 16, it is 
an indication of absent-mindedness, as well as of 
a lively imagination. Such writers are often 
highly aspirational, and are fond of building air- 

Having now considered the several distinctive 
methods of crossing the ^, we come to a considera- 
tion of three or four other features pertaining to 
the formation of this letter. 

108 ^rapbolod)? 

(58) / When the Letter is Cross-Cut 
(Plate T.) 

The significance of this is the same as that de- 
scribed in connection with the letter 5, Section 
35. Briefly, it betokens conceit or egotism. 
(See Section 35.) 

(59) ^ A.n Initial Hook 
(Plates 3 and 11.) 
This feature is treated under the letter J, Sec- 
tion 36, to which the reader is referred. Briefly, 
it indicates talkativeness. 

r6o) / When the Letter Descends Below the 
(Plates 16 and 23.) 
The specimen on plate 16 will illustrate what 
is meant by this feature, where, in the case of the 
final Vs, it will be seen that a portion of the 
letter is brought below the line of writing. This 
indicates opinionatedness and obstinate convic- 
tions. For a full treatment of this feature, see 
Section 42, under the letter d. 

(61) / When the Letter is Looped 
(Plates 8 and 13.) 
Sometimes the upper portion of the t is made 

(5rapbolOflB 109 

in the form of a loop instead of a single stroke 
according to the conventional form. The speci- 
men on plate 8 affords a good example of this 

It denotes a sensitive pride. The writer of 
such a ^ is not necessarily sensitive in the usual 
meaning of that term — that is to say, his feel- 
ings are not necessarily easily wounded ; — but 
he is quick to resent any reflection upon his 
personal conduct or any adverse criticism of 
whatever to him is a matter of importance or 

-w, -y, w, X 

(These letters are without special significance.) 

(See letter /, Sections 44 and 45.) 

(62) Terminal Strokes 
(Plates 1, 12 and 16.) 

The manner in which a word is brought to an 
end is significant. Some writers stop abruptly at 
the last letter, giving the word the appearance 
of being chopped off, while others terminate it 
with a stroke or flourish of more or less size. It 
is only when this terminal stroke is noticeably 

110 ©rapboioais 

evident and abundant throughout the writing 
that it is of value to the graphologist. 

On plate 1 we have a good example of this 
sort of terminal stroke. Nearly every word, it 
will be observed, terminates with a pronounced 

This feature denotes a natural tendency to 
give, to give out, to throw off. It is difficult to 
define it more specifically in its broad applica- 
tion, for its particular indication in each case will 
depend upon the other characteristics of the writ- 
ing. If we find it associated with a chirography 
denoting kindliness, quick sympathies, etc. (as on 
plate 3), it is an indication of generosity and self- 
sacrifice — a giving out of one's self for the sake 
of others. In a hand indicative of more selfish 
traits, as on plate 12, for example, it denotes ex- 
travagance, a willingness to spend freely, a readi- 
ness to give abundantly, not necessarily for the 
sake of others, but for the satisfaction of one's 
self in one way or another. 

(62 a) When the terminals incline upward as 
on plates Y and 10, it is a sign of a good-natured 
disposition — candid and outspoken. A down- 
ward tendency, as on plate 8, betokens secretive- 
ness and a general lack of candor. 

(Brapbolofls 111 

(63) When Terminal Strokes End with a Hook 
(Plates 2, 7 and 8.) 
This feature denotes determination and obsti- 
nacy, and is especially evident when the termi- 
nal strokes have a downward tendency, as in 
the specimen on plate 8. Such a writer is opin- 
ionated, perverse in his convictions, and insis- 
tent upon his own ideas. He has his special 
way of doing things and will tolerate no dic- 

(64) Absence of Terminal Strokes 
(Plates 5, 14 and 20.) 

A marked absence of terminal strokes signifies, 
generally, the opposite qualities to those indicated 
by pronounced terminal lines. 

Persons in whose writing this peculiarity is 
exhibited are usually self-contained, they are not 
given to extravagance either in the spending of 
material goods or of their emotions. They may 
be generous and sympathetic, but never extrava- 
gantly so, nor to the sacrifice of their own wel- 
fare. They exercise discrimination in their 
generosity and kindness, which cannot be said 
in all cases of those who indulge in terminal 

112 Orapbolofig 

(65) Signatures 
(Plate 14.) 

A person's signature is always the most ex- 
pressive example of his chirography, for having 
written it so much more frequently than any 
other combination of letters, it represents an al- 
most entire absence of conscious effort. In con- 
nection with a specimen of his writing his signa- 
ture is, of course, simply confirmatory of the 
characteristics shown in his handwriting as a 
whole and is therefore of no special value to the 
graphologist, except in one particular. This is 
where the writer underscores his signature with 
a stroke or a more or less pronounced flourish of 
some kind. 

Where this peculiarity consists of a mere 
stroke, as in the signature of the artist Millais, 
plate 14, it betokens a love of approbation. The 
writer is appreciative of praise. He likes to 
have his talents recognized. If the stroke is very 
large or pronounced the love of praise and ap- 
probation is more strongly in evidence, com- 
bined with more or less egotism and a high ap- 
preciation of one's own merits. When the stroke 
gives place to a flourish, conceit and egotism 
come to the fore very prominently, and when it 

©rapboloflB 113 

Rssumes the proportions of that shown in the 
signature of Edgar Allan Poe we have an evi- 
dence of inordinate self-esteem. 

The absence of a stroke under the signature is 
of negative significance. It might be supposed 
that it indicated opposite traits to those described 
in the foregoing paragraph, but this is not neces- 
sarily the case, for it frequently happens that per- 
sons possessing much self-esteem or egotism do 
not indulge in any underscore of the signature. 


The Practice of Graphology 


The Application of the Principles of Graph- 
ology to the Delineating of Character 
from Handwriting 


Jibe *GClojftln0 JSasis of ©rapboloes. Zbc Xogic of 
tbe TRelationsblp J6ctvveen tbc Darlous features 
of ManDwdtlng anD ^betc TRepresentattve per* 
gonal Cbaracterlstics 

In the foregoing pages we have considered the 
various features of handwriting, both general 
and special, with their corresponding personal 
characteristics. These constitute the principles 
or the working basis of graphology. With a 
knowledge of these principles at our command 
we are prepared to undertake the delineation of 
any person's character as revealed in his pen- 

Before proceeding, however, to the method of 
applying these principles to the practice of 
graphology, it may be well to stop for a moment 
to consider a question that may naturally be 
raised at this point. This question pertains to 
the relationship between the various features of 
handwriting and their corresponding personal 
characteristics. It is very frequently contended 


118 (5rapbolo0i5 

that, taking for granted that the relationships as 
set forth in the preceding pages are correct, 
there is no logical basis for these various rela- 
tionships; to all appearances they are purely 
arbitrary and offer no guide to the student for 
associating them with their respective significa- 
tions. Assuming this to be so, the student is 
under the necessity of committing to memorj'' all 
the various peculiarities of handwriting as enu- 
merated, with their corresponding personal indi- 
cations, with nothing to help him in the event of 
coming upon features of handwriting not spe- 
cifically cited. 

Fortunately, however, this is not the case. 
The principles of graphology have a logical and 
reasonable foundation. In this respect graph- 
ology differs essentially from palmistry, phren- 
ology and other kindred methods of reading- 
character. It rests upon a truly scientific basis, 
inasmuch as it admits of rational analysis. This 
cannot be said of palmistry, for example. What- 
ever may be its merits as a guide to the reading 
of character — and no one who is acquainted with 
it can deny that it is of real value in this respect 
— it must be admitted by all those who are 
versed in it that there is no logical relationship 

©rapbologg 119 

between the shape of the fingers, the mounts, 
the lines, etc., and the personal qualities they 
signify. While it is true, for example, that a 
person with protruding knuckles is naturally 
methodical, or that a well-developed mount of 
mercury betokens ingenuity and inventive tal- 
ents, there is no explanation of why it is so. "We 
simply accept it as a matter of truth because ex- 
perience has demonstrated it. 

Graphology, on the contrary, is ready with 
explanations for all of its rules and declarations. 
"We must remember that handwriting is some- 
thing created b}'^ the individual himself, and in 
drawing deductions from the various features 
of it we are dealing directly with a conscious 
and deliberate manifestation of the writer's per- 
sonality, whereas in palmistry or phrenology the 
deductions are drawn from purely physical 
peculiarities over which the individual himself 
has no control and in the formation of which he 
cannot possibly have had any conscious or un- 
conscious personal influence. 

In other words, the individuality of a person 
is the result of his particular physical peculiar- 
ities, and it is from this side that palmistry and 
phrenology apply their methods; while or th# 

120 ©rapboIoflK 

opposite side, the peculiarities of a person's 
handwriting are the result of his particular in- 
dividuality. We see, therefore, that the 
materials with which the graphologist deals are 
actual products of personality. Certain features 
of handwriting are the direct result of certain 
features of character. Cause and effect are 
represented in every instance. There is a reason 
for every distinctive feature of handwriting. 

This fact can best be demonstrated by showing 
the logical relationship between some of the more 
important features of chirography and the 
significations ascribed to them. But aside from 
thus merely demonstrating an interesting fact, 
it is of value to the student in aiding him not 
only to more readily remember the many features 
touched upon in the first part of the book, but 
also to draw for himself the natural conclusions 
necessary when confronted with some peculiarity 
not specified in this work. With a rational basis 
to work from, it makes it possible for him to 
comprehend the meaning of the various features 
of chirography without having to resort con- 
stantly to his memory or to the book, as would 
be unavoidable were the relationships purely 
arbitrary and without rational explanation. 

©rapboloflg 121 

Taking up the features in the order set forth, 
we find that an angular chirography indicates 
activity, quickness, etc. The relationship here is 
obvious. The letters are sharp and show quick- 
ness in their formation ; they are clean-cut, 
pointed and decisive ; the writing as a whole 
presents an appearance of keenness. All these 
qualities, inherent in the chirography itself, 
logically and naturally express the very traits of 
character that this style of writing indicates. 

The rounded hand, by its very formation, 
shows that it is written with more ease than the 
angular. It lacks the sharpness and the evi. 
dence of haste that distinguish the opposite 
style of chirography, and hence, with no other 
guide than a mere theory we would naturally say 
that it was the writing of a person possessing in 
general personal traits the reverse of those be- 
longing to writers of the angular hand. 

As to the slope of the letters, we find that the 
forward hand is the natural or standard style of 
writing. The deduction is therefore clear that 
the writer of such a hand is guided largely by 
his impulses ; he allows himself to be governed 
by his natural inclinations. The vertical hand, 
being a conscious departure from the natural, 

122 (BrapbolOflB 

conventional style, at once suggests a personality 
inclined to question and deliberate ; while the 
back hand, showing a decided opposition to the 
usual forward hand, would of itself logically 
suggest a person of corresponding disinclination to 
be governed by impulse or authority, wdth the 
resulting qualities of character ascribed to the 
writers of this style of penmanship. 

Passing to the relationship between the size of 
the chirography and the writer, it is not difficult 
to understand why a small hand should betoken 
a person of self-containment, reserve and mental 
culture. In the first place the writing is itself un- 
obtrusive ; it is compact, concentrated, held 
within bounds in an orderly and concise manner. 
In the second place, it covers a small space with 
much material; there is an evident desire to 
avoid display ; what is written is written unosten- 
tatiously and quietly. These and many other 
characteristics that will occur to the reader are all 
obviously expressive of the personality which such 
a writing indicates. 

It is scarcely necessary to dilate upon the very 
evident relationship between the features of 
large writing and the personal characteristics de- 
noted by them. They are, upon the whole, the 

OrapboloflS 123 

reverse of those shown in the small writing, and, 
as will be remembered, the personal qualities in- 
dicated by them are the counterpart of those 
ascribed to the opposite style of writing. Briefly 
stated, large writing is obstrusive, unrestrained, 
diffuse, with comparatively little to show for the 
amount of space occupied. When, therefore, we 
learn that the writer of such a hand is superficial, 
unreserved, restless and thoughtless, together 
with the various traits incidental to these quali- 
ties, we are but confirmed in the opinion which 
the waiting gives us from a purely logical and 
theoretical point of view. 

In the features represented by heavy writing 
and fine writing we have further instances of 
the obvious association of the traits of penman- 
ship with the traits of personality. In the first, 
the chirography has a bold dominating appear- 
ance. It is coarse, obtrusive, ungenteel, deter- 
mined, assertive. It shows an expenditure of 
unnecessary force. With these characteristics 
before us it is hardly necessary to remember 
that the writer of such a hand is aggressive and 
domineering, strong willed, masterful, exacting, 
sensuous, etc. He has embodied himself in his 
writing. The writer of the fine hand reveals 

124 ©rapboloflg 

himself with equal clearness. When we see his 
writing, with its delicate strokes, its lack of 
material force, its unassertiveness, we are quite 
ready to admit that it indicates a character in 
Avhich the qualities represented by the heavy 
writing are generally lacking. 

The shaded writing may not perhaps at once 
suggest so obvious a relationship ; but will be 
found in this case as in all others, that an analy- 
sis of the feature in question will quickly reveal 
the association between it and the personal traits 
indicated by it. Considering the style of shaded 
writing shown on plates 2, 7 and 11, where the 
shading consists of a heavy stroking of the t 
or a pressure of the pen on some of the terminals, 
we realize after a moment's examination that 
this feature occurs spasmodically throughout the 
writing. Every little while the writer has 
pressed on her pen — sometimes on the stroke of 
a t, and sometimes on the final stroke of a 
word. It is done, as it were, to give emphasis 
to her writing. Now, as a matter of fact, we 
find that this feature signifies a person of em- 
phatic and decided views. This feature, we 
would say, also shows a tendency toward the 
heavy style of writing; it crops out here and 

(Srapboloflg 125 

there. Naturally, therefore, we are ready to 
infer that it signifies a corresponding tendency 
on the part of the writer toward the character- 
istics of the writers of the heavy hand, and this 
we find to be the case, for, as is pointed out in 
Section 9, this kind of shading betokens a love of 
luxury, an appreciation of physical pleasures, and 
a determined and insistent nature. 

With the shading that is done designedly for 
the sake of effect, it is not difficult to understand 
why that should denote egotism and love of dis- 
play. The shading is done with obvious intent 
at display ; it is put on for the purpose of adding 
to the attractiveness of the penmanship. We 
would naturally assume, therefore, that a person 
who would indulge in an affectation of this sort 
must be instinctively conceited or lacking in the 
niceties of refinement and culture. It indicates 
a desire to draw attention to oneself through ^ 
cheap or meretricious means, and hence the rela- '* 
tionship between this feature and its correspond- 
ing personal characteristics is quite clear and 

In the case of the conventional style, we have 
another clear example of the natural connection 
between the writing and the writer. A more or 

126 (BrapbolOflB 

less conventional hand means simply a more or 
less conventional person ; one who has relatively 
little originality or initiative, who does things ac- 
cording to rule and custom, and whose opinions 
are the reflections, largely, of others' ideas. 

In the inartistic or unaffected writing we have 
a chirography that shows all absence of attempt 
at affectation or style or conventionality. The 
writing is simple, unaffected and modest, free 
from display or ostentation. These character- 
istics express at once the very traits that we find 
ascribed to the writer of this style of penman- 

Passing on to the writing that we have termed 
neat and uniform Ave see that in this style the 
chirography is neat, even, well spaced, method- 
ical, well-balanced, and uniform. It is perfectly 
natural, therefore, that this writing should indi- 
cate a person who is neat, methodical, systematic, 
etc. It requires no rule to tell us that these are 
the personal qualities to be expected from such a 
handwriting. It is its own interpreter of the 
writer's character in these particulars. 

Uneven writing is also a self-evident interpre- 
tation of the writer's personality as concerns his 
lack of method or system, his carelessness, etc., 

(3rapbolofls 127 

for such a style of chirography manifests in itself 
these very characteristics. 

Kasty and indistinct writing presents in itself 
the appearance of quickness, impatience, hurry, 
carelessness. Many of the letters are only half 
formed or are wanting altogether, or they have 
no distinctive formation one from another. The 
whole effect of the writing is that of dash and 
scurry, haste and vivacity, a desire to get through 
as quickly as possible ; to write the words with the 
least possible effort and without regard to rules 
of penmanship. What more natural or reason- 
able, therefore, that this style of writing should 
denote a person who is quick and impulsive, 
hasty, vivacious, animated, intolerant of restraint 
or rules, talkative and original, careless of exact 
facts or statements, and emotional ? Does it not 
follow as a matter of course that these traits be- 
long to this style of chirography ? 

When we come to a specimen of crowded writ- 
ing we note that it is cramped on the page, the 
words and lines are crowded together, as though 
to save space and paper, and with no other fact 
to guide us we would naturally conclude that the 
writer of this style of hand was of a saving dis- 
position ; close, secretive, introspective, narrow. 

128 (3tapbolo0s 

As will be seen in Section 16 these are in reality 
the very traits belonging to the writer of such a 
style of chirography. 

In the diffuse writing the opposite character- 
istics are shown and as a consequence we infer 
logically that this represents a personality very 
much the reverse of that denoted by the crowded 
specimen of penmanship. We would instinct- 
ively look for extravagance, superficiality, lack 
of reserve, etc., from a writing that is spread 
out, diffuse, extravagant in its spacing and the 
amount of paper used, and wanting in concen- 

Between the well spaced writing and the writ- 
ing that is not well spaced it is not difficult to 
define the contrasts of character. The constitu- 
ent features of each of these styles of writing 
are self-explanatory of the personal qualities de- 
noted, and in view of the many examples already 
given do not require special comment. 

Considering now the slope of the writing, it 
may be supposed that we have here certain fea- 
tures of handwriting that are not subject to the 
rational analysis that we have been able to give 
to the others ; but we will find that they are as 
readily amenable to logical explanation as any 

(Srapbologg 129 

other characteristics of handwriting. In the first 
place we have the ascending lines — the writing 
that goes uphill. We see at once that such a 
writing presents an appearance of buoyancy ; it 
gets away from the level and insists upon rising. 
When we learn that the writer of such a hand 
has a hopeful, optimistic, ambitious and generally 
buoyant nature, does it not but confirm what we 
instinctively infer from this peculiarity of hand- 
writing? Is not the relationship between the 
chirography and the personality of the writer 
perfectly clear and rational ? 

In the light of what we find exemplified by 
the ascending lines we are very quick to perceive 
the relationship between the peculiar descending 
lines and the personal traits denoted by it. Here 
the writing falls ; it departs from the level and 
sinks. The writing is depressed, borne down, it 
lacks vigor or strength. The reasonable conclu-i 
sion is, that the writer of such a hand has a dis- 
position quite the reverse of the writer of 
ascending lines, and we find this to be the case, 
as a reference to Section 22 will show. 

In this hasty resume of the more important 
general features enough has been shown to make 
clear the fact that there is a logical relationship 

130 (Brapbologis 

between such features and the corresponding 
characteristics of personality. But it may be 
contended that while these general features are 
obvious enough in their significations, the same 
reasoning will not apply to the special features, 
where mere details are considered as against 
handwriting as a whole. If this contention were 
correct graphology could not maintain its claim 
to be recognized as a science, and in order to de- 
termine its right to this claim let us consider 
some of the leading special features with a view 
to determining whether they, like the general 
features, admit of rational explanation in regard 
to the personal qualities attributed to them, in 
their significations. 

Taking up the special features in the order as 
given, let us analyze a specimen of handwriting 
in which the letters are connected. This feature 
shows us very clearly that the writer forms his 
words without taking his pen from the paper; 
perhaps he even joins several words together in 
the same manner. The writing, therefore, pre- 
sents an appearance of continuity ; it has no 
breaks, no gaps in it ; there are no jumps from 
one letter to another ; each one follows as a 
natural and actual continuation of the preceding 

©rapboloflB 131 

one, so that each simply forms a link in the 
chain. It is unnecessary to go any further in the 
analysis. We already see the direct and logical 
connection between these traits of penmanship 
and the traits of personal character that are 
ascribed to a chirography containing this feature. 
We learn from Section 24 that the writer of con- 
nected letters is a natural reasoner; his mind 
works methodically and in continuity of thought ; 
he does not jump at conclusions ; there are no 
gaps or breaks in his chain of reasoning or in his 
judgment. He accepts nothing in the way of 
belief or conviction unless it presents to him a 
complete and unbroken line of facts and reasons 
from one end to the other. 

The feature of disconnected letters presents 
traits of penmanship that are essentially opposite 
to those displayed in the connected letters, and as 
a consequence we conclude that they stand for 
corresponding differences in the traits of the 
writer, which we find is the case. Such a writ- 
ing shows lack of continuity ; the words are 
broken and split up ; the letters, many of them 
stand apart; the writer takes his pen from the 
paper and jumps from one letter to another. All 
these characteristics are expressive. They natu- 

132 (3rapbolo0g 

rally lead us to conclude that the writer lacks 
continuity of thought and action ; that he jumps 
at conclusions; that he does not depend upon 
logical and definite reasoning for his opinions. 
All this is true, as a matter of fact, and hence we 
see that in this case, as in all others, there is a 
logical reason for the personal characteristics 
ascribed to certain chirographical features. 

It would be useless and a waste of time to take 
up each of the special features enumerated, for 
the purpose of demonstrating in each specific in- 
stance what must already be clearly proven to the 
most skeptical. It may not be amiss, however, 
before dismissing the subject, to touch upon some 
of the characteristics shown in the manner of 
forming the individual letters of the alphabet, in 
order to show that even these minute details are 
not without their rational and inherent signif- 

In the letter a, for example, when the writer 
fails to close it at the top, we see a writing that 
is what may be termed " open." The failure to 
close the letter is not necessarily a sign of mere 
carelessness on the part of the writer, for the 
chirography as a whole may present a very neat, 
careful appearance; so that it gives evidence 

(BtapbOlOflB 133 

merely of indifference in the writer to bring the 
ends together and shut the letter up. Hence we 
may logically infer that this feature denotes an 
open, disinterested nature ; one that does not 
naturally find it e&sy to be reserved or close- 

Then in the letters /, g, y, etc., when we see 
them made with long and sweeping loops they at 
once suggest fancy, extravagance, generosity, 
easiness, a departure from the conventional — all 
naturally significant of the personal traits that 
are attributed to this feature of handwriting; — 
while, on the contrary, the straight or unlooped 
stems show us a lack of those particular traits. 
They suggest firmness, practicality, determina- 
tion ; which we find are the personal attributes 
of the writer of this style of letter. 

The letter t, for a final example, is logically 
characteristic in all of its varieties of formation. 
The well-formed cross-stroke shows firmness and 
carefulness in itself. The heavy cross-stroke is 
its own interpreter of firmness and insistence and 
emphasis. The absence of the stroke naturally 
indicates the absence of the qualities shown by 
the firm and well made stroke. The downward 
stroke suggests a wilful morbid firmness, while 

134 ©rapboloflB 

the upward stroke, pointing to the sky, speaks of 
hope and aspiration. The looped formation of 
the upper part of the letter shows an unnatural 
coming back on itself of the stroke that should 
descend with the up-stroke, and hence we conclude 
that the writer has a habit of allowing his 
thoughts or his emotions to be reflected back 
upon himself, with the result that he is sensitive 
and readily hurt in his pride. 

From the foregoing examples the truth is 
clearly demonstrated that the principles of graph- 
ology have a rational and logical basis and that 
there is an inherent and manifest relationship 
between the features of a handwriting and their 
respective significations. Aside from this, how- 
ever, it has been the aim of the author in this 
chapter to suggest a rational method of learning 
the various personal qualities ascribed to the dif- 
ferent styles and peculiarities of chirography. 
Knowing that each of the features of handwrit- 
ing contains within itself its own interpretation, 
renders the study at once comprehensible and 
comparatively easy. And more than that it 
places at the command of the graphologist a 
means of interpreting any unusual or untabulated 
peculiarity of handwriting that he may encounter. 

(3rapboIogi5 135 

With the rationale of the science thus explained 
and with a knowledge of the significations of the 
various styles and features of handwriting, we are 
in position now to put the principles of graph- 
ology to practical test. 


/IBetboD ot Dcllneatdig Cbaracter from f)an&writlnfl. 
Specimen Delineations 

The first requisite in the delineation of char- 
acter from handwriting is a careful analysis of 
the chirography. Until we have analyzed the 
specimen of handwriting, until we have dissected 
it and classified its various features, we are not 
prepared to arrive at any definite conclusions. 

In undertaking to analyze a specimen of hand- 
writing we are at once impressed with the fact 
that it contains features which are apparently 
contradictory and that many of its features do 
not seem to fit definitely under any of the speci- 
fied classifications. This, of course, must be taken 
for granted. When we remember that no two 
persons in a million write exactly alike, and 
when we consider what an infinite variety of 
handwritings there are, we cannot reasonably ex- 
pect that every specimen we examine will contain 
features that conform definitely and absolutely 
vyrith those described in the foregoing pages. 


©rapboloflTS 137 

It must be remembered that the examples 
given in this work are based upon certain definite 
features, which we have taken as our guide or 
standard. These specimen features are, of course, 
subject to all degrees of variation, and naturally 
their indications vary accordingly. In some hand- 
writings it will be found that the features as de- 
fined here are exaggerated or emphasized, in 
which event the significations are correspondingly 
emphasized. Again, on the other hand, features 
will be found that have only a tendency toward 
those described, and in that case the indications 
are less pronounced than those given in the ex- 

But whatever the features of a handwriting 
may be or however varied they appear, it will be 
found that they are all subject to classification 
and that the specimen will contain no feature that 
is not either approximately like its standard or 
that is not capable of ready interpretation by 
reason of its own expressive character. 

That which may prove most puzzling at first is 
the presence in the same handwriting of peculiar- 
ities that seem to contradict one another or a lack 
of consistency or uniformity in the features. The 
specimen, for example, may contain fs that are 

138 ©rapboIoflB 

crossed in four or five different ways, or a band- 
writing indicating in its general style a person of 
quickness and promptness may contain here and 
there certain features indicative of slowness or 
procrastination. As a matter of fact a very large 
number of handwritings present these inconsistent 
features. It is rather rare to find a chirography 
that is consistent throughout in all its features 
and details. 

If it were not that handwritings present in 
themselves so many varieties of feature and such 
a tendency toward the blending of one feature 
into another or the contradiction of one peculi- 
arity by another, the art of graphology would be 
as simple as rolling off a log. If every specimen 
of handwriting presented definite, uniform and 
consistent features throughout, a delineation of 
the writer's character would call for nothing 
more than a mere reference to the significations 
given in the first part of this book and the work 
would be accomplished. 

But to delineate character from handwriting 
requires a little more ability than that, for the 
skill of the graphologist consists not only in his 
ability to analyze a handwriting and acquaint 
himself with its various constituent features, but, 

(Srapbologg ' 139 

most important of all, to give these various fea- 
tures their respective values in accordance with 
their relationship one to another. It is in this 
latter respect that the true value of graphology 
lies. To determine what significance to give to 
a feature in accordance with its relation to the 
standard of that feature and what effect one pe- 
culiarity has upon the value of another, consti- 
tutes the real art of reading character from hand- 
writing. The thoroughness and nicety Avith 
which this can be done determine the measure of 
ihe graphologist's ability. 

It must of course be evident that where a hand- 
writing is made up of a number of varied or con- 
flicting features, one feature may often alter or 
modify the significance of another, so that the 
specific indications given in the foregoing pages 
are all subject to modification according to their 
relation with other features in the same specimen 
of handwriting. 

The question of determining the extent of 
these modifications is a more simple matter than 
might at first be supposed ; nor will it be found 
a difficult matter to determine the effect of the 
presence of contradictory or inconsistent features 
in the same specimen of handwriting. The exer- 

140 Orapbologs 

cise of common sense and the ability to put two 
and two together are all that are required, in 
conjunction with a little practice, to enable any 
one to arrive at correct results after he has ac- 
quainted himself with the principles of the sub- 
ject as set forth in the first part of this book. 

As stated in the beginning of this chapter, the 
first and chief requisite in undertaking to deline- 
ate a character from handwriting is to analyze 
the handwriting ; and the first thing to do in this 
connection is simply to pick out the leading or 
salient features of the specimen. This will reveal 
at once the leading characteristic of the writer ; 
and with this as a groundwork it will be found 
that the significations of the other features will 
naturally adjust themselves to one another and 
to the primary or leading characteristics of the 
writer's personality. The degree of minuteness 
to which the delineation may be carried will of 
course depend upon the pains taken by the de- 
lineator to study the combinations of the differ- 
ent features and work out the results. 

It is well to have the specimen on unruled 
paper; otherwise, it affords no clue as to the 
writer's method of spacing or his tendency in the 
matter of the slope of the lines. For the purpose 

©rapboIOQB 141 

of obtaining good results the specimen of hand- 
writing should consist of at least five lines, so 
that a sufficient variety of letters may be studied, 
and in order to gain a proper view of the chirog- 
raphy as a whole. It is hardly necessary to add 
that the writing should be with ink. A pen is 
always more expressive from a graphological 
point of view than a pencil, for the reason that 
it responds more readily to pressure and remains 
uniform throughout, whereas a pencil may be- 
come blunt or may be blunt to start with, and 
thus give the writing a heavy appearance, for ex- 
ample, when, as a matter of fact, the writer may 
naturally write a very light or fine hand. 

In addition to the actual graphological signs as 
given in the first part of the book, every specimen 
of handwriting presents certain characteristics 
outside of the penmanship itself that are of value 
as hints or suggestions to the graphologist. For 
instance, the kind of paper used by the writer is 
suggestive, especially if it happens to be in any 
way out of the ordinary. The manner of ad- 
dressing the envelope is sometimes another guide 
as to the personality of the writer. Then, too, 
the manner in which a letter is worded or spelled 
is indicative of the writer's culture or lack of 

149 (5rapbolOdS 

culture, as the case may be. All these incidental 
features are worthy of notice, as they tend to im- 
press the writer's personality upon the delineator. 
More explicit and more extensive directions for 
reading character from handwriting might be 
given than tliose set forth above, but as practical 
examples are always worth more than tedious 
rules, it has been deemed best to give no more 
than the general directions already cited and 
allow their practical value to be demonstrated 
by applying them to one or two actual delinea- 
tions of character from handwriting. Accord- 
ingly, two specimen delineations are here sub- 
joined. Each of them is written in an explana- 
tory manner, in order to illustrate the manner of 
applying the principles of graphology as set forth 
in the preceding pages, and as a demonstration 
of the method of reading character from hand- 

Delineation of Character 

Bepresented in the Handwriting Shown on the 
Following Page. 

(The numbers in parentheses refer to the par- 
ticular sections in Part I describing the features 

Taking up the analysis in the order given in 
the preceding pages, we find, first, the following 
general features : 

Angular writing (1). A forward hand (3). 
The writing is without shading and is compara- 
tively fine (10). It is carefully formed (13). 
The lines are straight (20). These constitute the 
salient general features of this handwriting. 

Considering now the special features, we find 
that there is a tendency to separate the letters 
(25) ; that the letters increase in size toward the 
end of a word (26) ; that the capitals are very 
plainly made (29) ; that the a's and o's are closed 
(33) ; that the/'s g's and y's are made with a long 
loop (44) ; that for the most part the cross-stroke 






©rapboIoflB 145 

of the ^remains on the left-hand side of the letter 
(54) ; and that there are terminal strokes (52). 

We have now completed the analysis of the 
handwriting before us, and having in our posses- 
sion its various characteristic features we proceed 
to consider the personal qualities and peculiarities 
indicated by these features. 

The angular form of writing, combined with 
a decided forward slope, tells us that the writer 
is an active, energetic woman, governed very 
largely by her feelings and affections. She 
exhibits these latter qualities more frequently in 
action than in words, which we judge from the 
fact that she closes her a^s and d's and forms her 
letters carefully and distinctly. "Were it not for 
these features she would be very demonstrative 
and be inclined to give free verbal expression to 
her emotions ; but these features exercise a re- 
straining influence and confine her natural 
impulsiveness and quickness within more serious 
and practical bounds. In other words, she is 
self-contained ; and self-containment in a nature 
that is instinctively active and emotional must 
necessarily result in a high-strung temperament ; 
so that we are safe in saying that the writer is 
inclined to be nervous. 

146 ©rapbologs 

We find, also, that Her natural impatience 
and quickness are restrained by her painstaking 
disposition (shown in the careful and precise for- 
mation of the writing) and by her extreme con- 
scientiousness (increasing size of letters). So 
that while her impulse is always to push ahead 
rapidly she is constantly held in check by these 
restraining qualities, which, coupled with her 
perseverance (straight lines), impels her to do 
thoroughl}'' and well whatever she undertakes, 
no matter how trifling it may be or how tedious 
it may become. We may, therefore, say with 
certaint}^ that she has a nervous, worrying 
disposition as the result of these conflicting 
qualities in her character. 

Passing on to a more direct and definite delin- 
eation, we see that she is energetic ; that she is 
fond of doing ; that she is always engaged upon 
some work or the planning of work. This is 
shown by the angular and forward writing. 

Her manner of stroking the fs shows her to be 
procrastinating. This feature of her character, 
however, is largely offset by her conscientiousness, 
which will not permit her to fail to keep an 
engagement on time or perform a promised task 
within the specified period ; but in matters con- 

(SrapboloflB 147 

cerningonly her own comfort or convenience she 
is apt to procrastinate ; that is, she will put off 
from time to time the work she has planned to do. 

Judging alone from her rare conscientiousness 
we are certain that she is thoroughly honest, 
sincere and truthful, straightforward and trust- 
worthy. She would never wilfully deceive or 
break a promise. She has a high sense of duty 
and of loyalty, and is extremely particular in the 
matter of obligations. She is a true and con- 
stant friend ; always to be relied upon, not only for 
her loyalty but for her confidence, as she never 
betrays a secret nor repeats unkind gossip. She 
is, therefore, a woman who makes many warm 
friends. She is always frank, ingenuous and sin- 
cere ; yet never blunt nor impulsively outspoken, 
for her natural delicacy and sympathy (combined 
with an instinctive reticence, as shown by the 
closed «'s and o's) temper her expressions of 
opinion with thoughtfulness and tact, so that she 
is at no time guilty of wounding the feelings of 
others by impetuous or inconsiderate remarks. 

She is intuitive (separation of letters), though 
her sense of the practical does not allow her to be 
governed very largely by mere intuition or im- 
pulse. This intuitive faculty, however, gives her 

148 (Srapboloas 

quick perceptions and a ready comprehension; 
it enables her to make up her mind quickly, so 
that she is rarely at a loss how to act in case of 
an emergency. In conjunction with her practical 
nature it gives her ingenuity; ability to devise 
and plan. 

While she is practical (careful and precise for- 
mation of writing), she is at the same time artis- 
tic and gifted with a ready fancy and a love for 
the arts, as indicated by the long loops of thefts, 
g^s, etc. Combining the practical with the artis- 
tic we have a person of talent, and one who puts 
the arts to practical, sensible use. Hence we 
may say that the writer is accomplished in music 
or in art or in literature ; but while her work in 
any of these branches would be delicate and sym- 
pathetic, it would never be highly imaginative 
nor strikingly original. The combined qualities 
of the artistic and the practical make her a very 
capable woman, but she is too painstaking, too 
conscientious, too careful in the following of 
rules, ever to be very brilliant. Nevertheless 
she is extremely versatile, and whatever she does 
she does well and with thoroughness. There is 
little she cannot do and will not do if she so de- 

(5rapbolofli2 149 

Her practical and conscientious qualities make 
her systematic and methodical. She is not care- 
less nor slipshod. Slie is exact and precise in 
her statements and is inclined to enter into un- 
important details when making explanations or 
narrating a circumstance. She is careful, also, 
to follow minutely the prescribed rules or direc- 
tions when performing an allotted task. 

She has a very affectionat*. nature (decided 
forward hand), but is never demonstrative. Sh( 
is capable of very intense emotion, but through 
her habit of self-restraint she gives but moderate 
expression to her feelings. She is genei-ous 
(terminal strokes), charitable and sympathetic, 
unselfish and self-sacrificing in her love and 

But though she is generous and ever ready to 
assist others she is never extravagant nor un- 
reasonable in her charities. Her thriftiness and 
sense of economy (careful, neat writing) prevent 

She is without conceit or pride. Her tastes 
are plain, quiet and unextravagant (shown in the 
general simplicity and unaffected style of her 

She is inclined to take life seriously and ear- 

150 (Bcapbologg 

nestly. At the same time she has a hearty ap- 
preciation of pleasure and enjoyment ; for her 
sympathies, her affections, her sentiment give to 
life a glow and color that relieve it of the auster- 
ity of a purely practical nature. 

Our second delineation deals with the hand- 
writing of a man, and in this connection it may 
be well to state that there is no definite rule by 
which the chirography of a man can be distin- 
guished from that of a woman. As a matter of 
^,act, however, it is usually not difficult to dis- 
tinguish the sex in the handwriting, for the 
writing of women is as a rule characteristic and 
is generally recognized by any one. But it does 
frequently happen that a woman writes like a 
man and that a man will write a feminine hand. 
When this occurs it is largely a matter of guess- 
work to tell the sex of the writer. If it were a 
matter of importance it might be worth while to 
endeavor to formulate some method of distin- 
guishing the writing of one sex from the other, 
but as a matter of fact it makes but little differ- 
ence to the graphologist so far as the general 
character of the writer is concerned ; though at 
the same time it is always well for the delineator 
to know the sex of the writer, as it enables him 

<3rapbolO0is 151 

to give more definite details and to give the 
proper modification to the significances of the 
features according to whether they apply to a 
man or a woman. 

Delineation of Character 

Represented in the Handwriting Shown 07i the 
Following Page 

(The numbers in parentheses refer to the par- 
ticular sections in Part I describing the features 

An analysis of the handwriting gives us, first, 
the following general features : 

Rounded writing (2) with angular modifica- 
tions (1). Forward writing (3) with vertical 
modifications (4). A tendency to heavy writing 
(8), uneven writing (14). Crowded words (16), 
but a tendency to diffuse writing (17). Writing 
not well spaced (19). Decided margin (23). 

So much for the general features. Continuing 
the analysis we find the following special fea- 
tures : 

Disconnected letters (25), but with instances 
of connected words (24), decreasing size of letters 
(27). The letters a and o are both closed (33) and 
open (34). The letter h is unlooped (37). The 


©tapboloflg 153 

154 ©rapbologig 

jetter d is curved (40) ; it is also looped (41) and 
in one instance it descends below the line (42). 
The letter f is looped (44). There is one instance 
of the letter s being tightly closed (49). The 
general stroking of the t is above the letter (5^). 
It has a tendency to loop (61). There is a gen- 
eral absence of terminal strokes (62). 

From this analysis it will be seen that we have 
before us in this specimen a handwriting ^vhose 
features lack uniformity and consistency. It 
affords us a good example of a mixed hand. The 
delineation to be drawn from it must be deter- 
mined largely by the result of the combination 
of its varying features. There is scarcely one 
feature sufficiently definite or sufficiently pro- 
nounced to be depended upon for a determinate 
characteristic. It is such an example as this as 
puts the skill of the graphologist to the test. 

By going about it systematically, however, it 
will be found to be a simpler task than might at 
first be imagined. So much depends upon merely 
knowing how. 

Looking at the first two or three general 
features in combination, we would say that the 
generally rounded hand with a vertical tendency 
was an indication of a person who was naturally 

(Brapbologs 155 

inclined to be deliberate and indolent ; to take 
life rather easily ; working when necessary but 
rarely for the mere love of doing something. 
The presence, however, of angular formations 
here and there, introduces an element of activity. 
While there are not enough of them to make the 
writing angular, they are nevertheless suffi- 
ciently abundant to conclude that while the 
writer is naturally deliberate, as suggested by 
the rounded feature, his nature contains a cer- 
tain amount of energy and nervousness. Com- 
bining these two features, therefore, we should 
say that the writer was a person of a restless dis- 
position. His moods are often uncertain and in- 
definite ; he wants to be doing and he doesn't 
want to be doing. A.t times he will work in- 
dustriously and determinedly and with great 
energy and vigor, and again he has neither the 
inclination nor the energy to turn his hand to 
anything practical. 

The rounded hand reflects his aesthetic nature; 
his love of the beautiful, his artistic sense, which 
qualities are confirmed by the imagination and 
fancy shown in the method of stroking the ^, and 
in the good-sized loops of thefa,ndp. In these 
respects he is essentially poetical, and were ibe 

156 OrapboloflB 

features that are significant of this characteristic 
sustained throughout the writing we could set 
him down as a man of decided genius as a poet. 
But we find in the angular writing and in the 
tendency to join his words together an element 
of the practical nature, with a tendency toward 
the material, as evidenced by the decided shad- 
ing here and there. These offset to some extent 
his idealistic temperament and indicate that he 
is to some degree practical and capable as a man 
of business, and with a certain degree of fond- 
ness for the material pleasures of life. 

But to whatever extent he may be practical, 
he lacks method and systematic plans. This is 
shown by the absence of good spacing and by 
the feature of disconnected letters. Nor has he 
the faculty of concentration necessary for long- 
continued, methodical work, as shown in the 
diffuse writing. He is too easily diverted ; his 
mind is too restless, too susceptible to the influ- 
ence of his surroundings, too impatient of logical 
and tedious reasoning (disconnected letters). 

It becomes evident, therefore, that the intui- 
tive, artistic, and spiritual elements of his nature 
outweigh the practical and material in their 
importance. Combined as they are makes it 

(Brapbologg 157 

easily possible for him to turn his artistic talents 
to practical use. His genius, in whatever line it 
may manifest itself, is not so far above earth as 
to be blind to the snares and pitfalls that lie in 
wait for the unwary inventor or author or other 
product of undiluted genius, who knows nothing 
of business or practical affairs. The writer has 
enough of the practical insitinct to know how to 
look out for his personal welfare and is suffi- 
ciently shrewd, as shown in the crowded letters, 
decreasing size of letters and lack of terminal 
strokes, to drive a good bargain in any financial 

He is determined and often obstinate, as shown 
in the down stroke of the d^ the unlooped y, and 
the downward tendency of the terminals, though 
at the same time he lacks continuity of purpose 
and perseverance in most respects, as indicated 
by the uneven lines. 

He is naturally secretive and is not often ready 
to take others into his confidence. This is shown 
by the tight closing of his s and by the crowded 
letters. For this reason he does not like to be 
asked questions about his plans. He has neither 
a confiding- nor a trustful nature. He is inclined 
to be suspicious about his personal affairs of im- 

158 (Srapboloflfi 

portance for fear that others may take advantage 
of him should he disclose his purposes too soon. 
In other respects he is frank and outspoken, as 
indicated b}'^ the open a^s and o'^s. 

He is inclined to be opinionated and is rather 
intolerant of argument, as denoted by the dis- 
connected letters, and this feature indicates also 
that he is intuitive, jumps at conclusions, and is 
mentally alert and active. But in making up his 
mind on matters of business or on matters affect- 
ing his personal interests he is often very slow 
and uncertain, due to the presence of the logical, 
reasoning faculty shown in the joining of two 
of his words and the general uncertainty or in- 
decision that characterizes many of his moods, as 
pointed out in the opening paragraph. Con- 
sequently he is sometimes unreasonably perverse 
in coming to a decision. His judgment and his 
intuition clash ; the one dictates one action and 
the other an opposite course. 

The general unconventionality of his writing, 
together with the unlooped h, tells us that he is 
a man of originality ; he is not commonplace nor 
a person of mediocre talents. The curved d 
would suggest that his talents lie in the direction 
of literature in one form or another. Whatever 

(3rapbologi2 159 

the particular form, whether as playwright, 
novelist, poet or critic, — his work possesses in- 
dividuality and fancy, and is always artistic, as 
shown in the general lack of characteristics in- 
dicating practicality and the wide margins. 

His nervous temperament would naturally 
make him fussy and often unreasonably irritated 
over trifles — a trait which is also denoted by the 
wide margins. 

He is sensitive on matters touching his pride ; 
his sensibilities are easily affected (looped t and 
dh\ and he is apt to take prejudices and bear 
malice toward those who he thinks have wronged 
him or offended him. 

The general unevenness of the writing and the 
varying slopes of the letters show, in a person of 
this character, versatility and thoughtlessness. 
There is little he cannot do if so inclined ; his 
mind is quick and keen ; rapid of comprehension ; 
grasps principles intuitively, and is capable of 
ready understanding and mastery of any subject, 
though it is doubtful whether he has the patience 
or the industry to devote himself undividedly to 
any one subject except as a matter of necessity. 


Specimens of Handwriting, and Their 


PI.ATB 1. 

(3rapboiog]g 163 

Analysis of Handwriting — Plate i 

( WoKTiaii's Writing?^ 

Angular, forward hand — activity, quickness. 
Rounded tendencies — love of pleasure. Neat, 
uniform writing — methodical, careful, tasteful. 
Well spaced writing — prudence, good judgment. 
Straight lines — perseverance, firmness of char- 

Connected letters — reasoning faculty, logical, 
argumentative ; careful in business affairs. Open 
a's and o's — frank, outspoken, candid, confiden- 
tial. Cross-cut capitals — self-appreciation and 
egotism, tempered by good-judgment, balance, 
taste, and reason, as shown by uniform writing, 
good spacing and other analogous features. 
Looped d — sensitive pride, dignity. Long loops 
to /'« and y's — cleverness, lively imagination, 
fondness for poetry, music, etc. ; fancifulness, 
tempered by good judgment, carefulness and 
taste, as indicated by other features noted above. 
Letter ;p long and looped — fond of physical ac- 
tivity, dancing, sports, outdoor exercise ; graceful. 
Letter t well crossed, crossed above the letter, 
and not crossed — firmness, deliberation and con- 
scientiousness, modified by imaginativeness and a 
tendency to vacillation. Long terminal strokes 
— generous, extravagant ; sympathetic. 



dec 'A^hU^ , U^^f-^-y^O 

UzZc/ica. AjL,f^J^U</ OuJjL^ 


£ryU 3 

Plate 2. \ 

<3tapbolOflfi 165 

Analysis of Handwriting — Plate 2 

( Woman^s Writing.) 

Kounded hand — pleasure-loving, easy-going. 
Forward hand — controlled largely by emotions 
and desires. Shaded writing — insistent and em- 
phatic ; natural executive ability ; love of luxury 
and good living. Diffuse writing — lack of thrift- 
iness ; unsystematic. Writing not well spaced — 
changeable, notional, speculative; lack of busi- 
ness methods. 

Connected words — skeptical, argumentative; 
logical reasoning, modified by indifference, as 
shown in other features, and by a tendency to 
disconnected letters, showing hastiness of 
thought, quickness of perception, intuition, and 
the rapid arrival at conclusions. Decreasing size 
of letters — tactfulness, lack of candor ; unconfi- 
dential, secretive. Plain capitals — modesty, lack 
of conceit ; good taste. Closed a''s and o''s — con- 
firmation of characteristics shown in decreasing 
size of letters. Long loops to /"'s, ^'5, p^s and 
2/'s — originality, fondness for fads and novelty ; 
love of music, poetry, etc. ; unconventional ideas. 
Long letter^ — love of physical exercise, outdoor 
sports ; graceful. Letter t crossed firmly and 
with downward tendency — will-power, firmness, 
insistence, obstinacy. Terminal strokes and 
hooked — extravagance and perverseness. 

166 OrapbolcaiS 

Plate 3. 

©rapbologg 167 

Analysis of Handwriting — Plate 3 

( Wo7na7i^s Writing.) 

Combination of angular and rounded hand — 
activity, quicl^ness and energy, modified by love 
of ease. Decidedly forward band — susceptibility 
to emotion and sentiment ; controlled largely by 
feelings ; affectionate and demonstrative. Fine 
writing — quiet and modest tastes ; gentleness. 
Hasty and indistinct writing — impulsive, ani- 
mated, vivacious; impatient, intolerant of rules; 
original. Straight lines — perseverance modified 
by traits indicated in preceding feature. 

Connected letters — practical, prudent, logical ; 
but these traits are almost entirely overcome by 
impulsiveness, originality and susceptibility to 
sentiment as shown in other features, which 
dominate the writing. Plain capitals — modesty, 
lack of conceit. Tall-stroke capitals — ambitious 
for the welfare of others. Open a''s and o^s — 
frank, candid, outspoken. Initial hook on letters 
h, m, t, etc. — talkative ; good conversationalist. 
IJnlooped y^s — natural determination and insist- 
ence, modified largely by impulsiveness and 
sentimentality. Cross-stroke of the t placed to 
the right of the letter — impatience, quickness, 
etc. Terminal strokes — ready sympathies, gen- 
erosity ; self-sacrifice ; kindness. 

jgg ©tapboloflie 

Aft Ct vO-vJcio CV^UO^ CVYVJL-^ 

"ti, (^ A^ "tS-o • t) ^'^ 



Plate 4. 

0rapbo[O0c 169 

Anal5^is of Handwriting — Plate 4 

( WomnarCs Writing^ 

Rounded and vertical hand — easy-going, delib- 
erate, slow, thoughtful ; gentle. Fine writing — 
quiet tastes; temperate. Neat, uniform writing 
— methodical, careful, prudent ; everything done 
according to rule and system. Lines have a slight 
downward tendency — tendency to be discouraged 
in her plans or purposes. 

Connected letters — practical, prudent, logical, 
argumentative. Plain capitals — modest, lack of 
conceit or egotism ; self-depreciation. Tall-stroke 
Jf and N — ambitious for the success or welfare of 
others. Closed a^s and o's — uncommunicative on 
personal affairs ; careful in the matter of confi- 
dences. Not secretive nor lacking in candor or 
frankness, for the increasing size of letters, show- 
ing conscientiousness, outweighs these customary 
significations of closed ah and o's. Tendency of 
the i dot to be placed to the left of the letter — 
procrastination ; slowness. Letter t crossed firmly 
— will-power, firmness, perseverance. Unpro- 
nounced terminal strokes — regulated generosity ; 
sympathies controlled by reason or prudence. 

^ <^ 

*jo I'list*! \ v^ • 

Plate 6. 

Orapboloae I7i 

Analysis of Handwriting — Plate 5 

{Mmi's Writing.) 

Back hand — self-interest ; sentiment controlled 
by reason and personal considerations ; ability, 
originality ; shrewd, diplomatic. Small hand — 
individuality of character ; unconfidential ; indus- 
trious, thoughtful, capable; self-reliant; quiet. 
Neat, uniform writing — good judgment and busi- 
ness instincts, modified by lack of aggressiveness, 
as shown in the small and comparatively fine 
writing, and by the tendency to separate the 
letters of a word, showing an inclination to 
jump at conclusions hastily. Lines slope upward 
— ambition and hopefulness. 

Occasional disconnected letters — tendency to 
2orm hasty conclusions and to be impatient of 
rules. Phiin capitals — lack of conceit ; artistic 
sense. Closed a'sand o's — uncommunicative ; re- 
served ; lack of candor. Letter d made with 
curved and hooked upstroke — literar}' tastes and 
abilities. Letters/* and g made with and without 
loops — fancy and imagination combined with 
practical ideas. Letter jy very short — indifference 
to athletics or outdoor sports. Letter t stroked 
upward — hopefulness and optimistic disposition ; 
fanciful, ambitious, scheming, inventive. General 
absence of terminal strokes — selfish ; uuextrav- 




Plate 6. 

©tapboloflfi 173 

Analysis of Handwriting — Plate 6 

{Mmi^s Writing.) 

Hounded hand with angular modifications — 
f*leasure-loving, fond of luxury and ease, combined 
with energy, quickness and alertness. Small 
writing — industrious, capable, cultured ; faculty 
of concentration and much work ; well-trained 
mind. Heavy writing — aggressive, insistent; 
fond of material pleasures in a quiet and temper- 
ate way. Neat, uniform writing — methodical, 
good business man ; prudent ; careful, systematic. 
Writing well spaced — good judgment, conserva- 
tive. Straight lines — will-power, perseverance. 

Connected words and letters — argumentative, 
logical, not easily convinced against his judg- 
ment. Plain capitals — modest as to his own abil- 
ities; artistic sense. Open it's and o\s — frank, 
straightforward, trustworthy. Letter h made with- 
out loop — confirms other features showing prac- 
tical nature, and indicates individuality. Letter 
d made with a curved up-stroke — literary tastes 
and abilities. Letters /*, g and y formed without 
loops, and heavy — practical nature, fancy and 
imagination held within practical and reasonable 
bounds ; determination and firmness. Letter t 
both stroked and unstroked — firmness and delib- 
eration, offset to a slight extent with baste. 



^ ^ 




©rapbolOflB 17S 

Analysis of Handwriting — Plate 7 

( Wo7ncm^s Wv'iting.) 

Angular, forward and large hand — energy, 
quickness, animation, industry, love of activity ; 
impatience, quick temper, impulsiveness ; quick 
sympathies. The feature of the large writing in 
itself shows diffuseness of thought, lack of con- 
centration, restlessness, desire for change ; ready 
expression of opinion or feelings. Tendency to- 
ward heavy writing — love of pleasure, good liv- 
ing and luxury ; aggressive and insistent. AVrit- 
ing comparatively well spaced — practical dis- 
position, methodical. Diffuse writing — largely 
confirms characteristics shown by the size of the 
writing ; offsets to some extent the methodical 
trait indicated by good spacing. 

Disconnected letters — intuitive ; quick at con- 
clusions ; impatient of argument or reason ; crit- 
ical. Letters f and y made with long loops — 
fanciful, good imagination, lively, unconventional. 
Letter j9 long — fond of physical recreation ; en- 
joys outdoor sports and pleasures generally. 
Letter t cross-cut and made with initial hook — 
egotistical and self-centred ; good talker, lively 
and animated conversationalist ; loquacious. 
Terminal strokes and hooked — extravagance, 
generosity, determination, insistence and obsti- 



©rapboloflB 17t 

Analysis of Handwriting — Plate 8 
{Mati's Writing.) 

Rounded forward hand — pleasure-loving ; fond 
of the good things of life. Large writing — super- 
ficial, critical, extravagant, lack of mental culture 
or refinement. Heavy writing — aggressive, as- 
sertive, bold, rough ; gross in his tastes and pleas- 
ures ; material in his ideals and desires ; overbear- 
ing, as emphasized by the downward terminals 
with hooked ends, and conceited, opinionated and 
self-important. Writing not well spaced, and 
diffuse writing — hastiness, lack of business 
methods. Straight lines — will-poAver, persever- 
ance, firmness. 

Connected letters and words — argumentative, 
skeptical, hard to convince; shrewd in financial 
affairs. Tightly closed a's and o's — secretive, 
uncommunicative ; lack of candor and frankness. 
Letter d formed with short up-stroke — lack of 
principles, artfulness, self-interest. Letters /", g 
and y formed with long loops — lively fancy, un- 
conventional views. Letter p formed with long 
stroke — physical agility, fondness of athletics 
sports, etc. Letter t stroked firmly and heavily 
— firmness of will, determination. There is a 
general absence of terminal strokes, but those that 
are present are heavy, downward and hooked — 
perverseness, insistence, obstinacy and overbear- 
ing determiuatiou. 

I'JS Gtapbolofle 

Plats 9. 

©rapboloflB 179 

Analysis of Handwriting — Plate 9 
{Mail's Writing.) 

Combination of angular and rounded hand — 
natural love of ease associated with a disposition 
toward quiet industry. Irregular forward hand 
— lack of decisive inclination in most matters. 
Fine writing — quiet tastes and temperate de- 
sires ; natural refinement and gentleness. Inar- 
tistic writing — trustworthiness, unaffected man- 
ners, naturalness, moral courage. Uneven 
writing — lack of method ; unsystematic, careless. 
Diffuse writing — uneconomical ; generous. 

Connected letters — reasoning faculty ; con- 
servative ; conclusions based upon judgment 
rather than sentiment or intuition. Increasing 
size of letters — decided conscientiousness, strict 
adherence to principles. Plain capitals — modest, 
unassuming ; lack of conceit. Open a's and o'* 
— candor and frankness. Letter t stroked on the 
left-hand side — procrastination, which, in con- 
junction with the indicated traits of a rounded 
hand, renders the writer slow and deliberate. 
Unpronounced terminal strokes — regulated sym- 
pathies and generosity. 





Plate 10. 

(Brapbologg 181 

Analysis of Handwriting — Plate lo 

{3faiis Writing.) 

Round, forward hand — easy-going, pleasure- 
loving, kindly ; general lack of quickness or 
energy. Writing shaded for effect — ostentation, 
pride, egotism ; mediocre talents. Conventional 
writing — lack of distinctive individuality ; 
ordinary attainments ; good oenman, teacher, 
clerk or bookkeeper. Neat, uniform writing — 
methodical, painstaking, neat ; careful to follow 
rules. Crowded writing — attentive to trifles and 
trivialities ; conservative in his views, inclined to 
be narrow-minded and suspicious of the mo- 
tives of those about him. Writing not 
well spaced — indifferent judgment ; unstable 
decisions. Downward tendency of the lines-, 
lack of special ambition ; easily discouraged. . 

Ornate capitals — assurance and egotism ; self- 
importance. Closed a's and o\s / uncommunica- 
tive about his own affairs. Letter j»> formed with 
long loop — fond of physical exercise. Letter t 
stroked in a variety of ways — lack of definite 
will power and of perseverance ; vacillating, 
changeable. Light terminal strokes — generosity, 
sympathy, a ready giving out of his feelings 
and opinions. Underscored signature — love of 



Plate li. 

0rapbolo0i5 183 

Analysis of Handwriting — Plate ii 
( Woman^s Writing.) 

Angular, forward hand, with rounded modifi- 
cations — quickness, activity, animation, energy, 
tempered with love of pleasure, the enjoyment 
of comforts and luxuries, and an artistic temper- 
ament. Shaded writing — emphatic, insistent, 
determined ; also confirmatory of fondness of 
luxury, etc. Writing not well spaced — lack of 
method ; unsystematic ; careless ; unconventional. 
Hasty and indistinct writing — impulsive, hasty, 
capable, original, good talker, entertaining, 
gifted, tactful, insincere. Ascending lines — am- 
bitious, optimistic, bright ; not easily dis- 

Disconnected letters — intuitive^ mentally alert 
and keen, quick at forming conclusions, which 
characteristics are markedly emphasized by the 
qualities shown in the feature of hasty and indis- 
tinct writing. Decreasing size of letters — tact- 
fulness, lack of frankness, etc. Letters a and o, 
both open and closed — impulsive conjfidences 
with a natural desire to be uncommunicative. 
Letters h and t formed Avith initial hook — talka- 
tive. Letters y and g formed with long loops — 
fanciful, romantic, unconventional. Letter t 
heavily stroked — firmness, determination, will- 
power. Stroke placed on the right of letter — 
impatience,quickness, etc. 

184 ©rapboloflB 

Plate 12. 

(5rapbolO0B 185 

Analysis of Handwriting — Plate la 

( Wornan^s Writi7ig.) 

Angular, forward hand — activity, animation, 
energy, practical nature. Large writing — super- 
ficiality, restlessness, changeableness, extrava- 
gance, lack of reserve force. Heavy writing — ex- 
acting disposition, dictatorial, material tastes and 
desires, assertive, aggressive, determined, selfish. 
Writing not well spaced — carelessness in some 
directions ; indifference, non-concern ; unde- 
terminate decisions ; judgment not to be de- 
pended upon. Straight lines — will-power, per- 

Disconnected letters — intuitive, rapid con- 
clusions, mental alertness and cleverness. Vary- 
ing size of letters — versatility, brightness ; 
changeableness and uncertainty. Cross-cut capi- 
tals — egotism, conceit, self-appreciation, and 
jealousy ; this latter trait being the result of 
egotism and a strong affectionate nature as in- 
dicated by the angular, forward hand. Closed 
0*8 and o''s — lack of candor and trustfulness ; se- 
cretiveness. Letters/* and y unlooped ; the lower 
stroke being heavily made — determination and 
firmness. Letter t stroked heavily and to the 
right — will power, insistence, and impatience. 
Long terminal strokes — extravagance, persistence, 
and a desire to attract attention. 



^ 't^^-^L-c-i-e/^ CC^-T-^^-^X. ^rv.d-w<^^ 

^^^-O-V^--^ £X^«*>rtJc^ ^iij^c^^aSik^ 
Platb 13. 

©rapboloflB 187 

Analysis of Handwriting — Plate 13 
( Wommi's Writing.) 

Rounded, forward hand — lack of energy, love 
of ease, indolence ; these traits being especially 
indicated by reason of the combination of the 
rounded form with the straggling and weak ap- 
pearance of the writing as a whole. Heavy 
writing — material nature ; animal appetites ; 
assertive, selfish, exacting. Uneven writing and 
writing that is not well spaced — unsystematic, 
careless, flighty, lack of poise or balance ; little 
or no power of concentration of mind ; vacilla- 
tion, unreliableness. Crowded writing — suspi- 
cious, close, secretive, narrow-minded. Descend- 
ing lines — morbid imagination, pessimistic nature ; 
lack of energy or ambition. 

Letters both connected and disconnected — 
mixture of argumentativeness and indifference. 
Letters a and closed — lack of candor. Letter 
d made with large loop — extreme sensitiveness ; 
morbid suspectibility to offense ; easily insulted 
or wronged ; this trait being confirmed and 
emphasized by the looped fs in the writing. Let- 
ter t stroked, for the most part, on the left — 




Plate 14. 

OrapbolOflB 189 

Analysis of Signatures — Plate 14 
{The NiLnnbers in Parentheses Refer to the Sec- 
tions Descrihing the Features Mentioned^ 

Long-fellow : Rounded (2). Vertical hand (4). 
Uneven (14). Disconnected letters (25). Plain 
capitals (29). Letters / and y unlooped (45). 

Browning: Angular (1) with rounded (2) 
tendencies. Small (6) disconnected letters (25). 
Increasing size of letters (26). Plain capitals (29). 

Wilde: Rounded (2). Combination of for- 
ward (3) and vertical (4) writing. Straggling 
formation (14). Marked separation of letters 
(25). Plain capitals (29). Heavy, downward 
terminals (62). 

Wolseley : Rounded (2). Forward (3), though 
inclined to vertical (4). Heavy (8). Connected 
letters (24). Increasing size of letters (26). 
Cross-cut capital (31). Letter / without loop 

Millais: Rounded (2). Forward (3). Small 
(6). Disconnected letters (25). Increasing size of 
letters (26). Plain capitals (29). Signature un- 
derscored (65). 

Poe : Rounded (2). Nearly vertical (4). 
Heavy (8). Diffuse (17). Disconnected letters 
(25). Plain capitals (29). Closed a and (? (33). 
Heavy, downward terminal stroke (62). Signa- 
ture heavily underscored (65). 

190 ©rapboloag 

'C^. O-^ cx> -(.ycyt^a-je-. 760 ^n^ -ic 
Plate 15. 

(3rapbolOdS 191 

Analysis of Handwriting — Plate 15 
{Mail's Writing.) 

Rounded, forward hand — love of pleasure, 
easy-going, kindly, good-natured. Writing some- 
what conventional — lack of distinctive individu- 
ality ; commonplace culture and attainments. 
Neat, uniform writing — methodical, tidy, careful. 
Well spaced writing — good judgment, business 
instincts, modified by the characteristics indicated 
by disconnected letters. Straight lines — will- 
power, but largely modified by weak and uncer- 
tain crossing of the letter t. 

Disconnected letters — intuitive ; hasty con- 
clusions ; indifference to rules or reasoning. 
Closed a^s and o's — uncommunicative on personal 
affairs. Relatively small d — indifference to prin- 
ciples ; readiness to waive a principle in favor of 
personal interest. Letter t crossed weakly — lack 
of will-power or firmness ; vacillation, change- 
ableness, indecision, lack of self-reliance. 



©rapboloflfi 193 

Analysis of Handwriting — Plate i6 
( Woman^ Writing?) 

Angular and decidedly forward hand — quick- 
ness, impulsiveness ; energy, activity, industry ; 
affection, kindness of a practical sort. Fine 
writing — temperate tastes ; natural refinement 
of feeling. Writing well spaced — carefulness, 
method, business instincts, neatness, attention to 
affairs ; these traits, however, being somewhat 
modified by a tendency toward diffuse writing. 
Straight Imes — firmness, perseverance, and will- 
power ; — these traits being but a confirmation of 
the characteristics indicated by the writing gen- 

Connected letters — practical, logical, not read- 
ily convinced, argumentative, skeptical. Increas- 
ing size of letters — conscientiousness ; adherence 
to principles ; high regard for duty. Letter/" 
made with long loop — fancy, imagination, live- 
liness of mind, but all within reason and con- 
trolled by judgment and good sense. Letters d 
and t extend below the line of writing — opinion- 
iited ; insistent, determined. Tendency to initial 
hooks on some of the letters — talkativeness; 
good qualities as a conversationalist ; animated 
and emphatic talker. Letter t crossed above the 
main stem — imagination, lively fancy, but tem- 
pered with the qualities of her practical nature. 
Terminal strokes — quick sympathies, generosity, 
readiness to give and to do for others. 

194 ©capboloflB 

Plate 17. 

(StapDOIO0)2 195 

Analysis of Handwriting — Plate 17 
{Man's Writing.) 

Eounded hand with angular modifications — 
love of ease, appreciation of good living and 
luxuries, combined with activity, industry and a 
desire to do. Tendency toward a vertical hand 
— inclined to be more or less deliberate, to weigh 
matters carefully ; lack of impulsiveness or ready 
response to emotion. Small writing — good men- 
tal faculties ; cultured, inclined to be reserved ; 
educated. Tendency to heavy writing — asser- 
tive, determined, appreciation of material and 
physical pleasures. 

There is a tendency to disconnected letters — 
intuitive faculties, quickness of perception, ready 
arrival at conclusions ; critical. Capital JIf made 
with tall third stroke — nervousness, irritability, 
exacting and unreasonable nature in many re- 
spects. Closed 0*8 and o's — lack of candor ; un- 
communicative. Letter d formed with loop — 
sensitive ; easily offended ; morbid prejudices. 
Letter p formed with long loop — physical agil- 
ity ; fondness for sports and outdoor recreations 
generally, and dancing. Letter t stroked firmly 
and heavily — firmness, great will-power and de- 
termination. Tendency to initial hooks on some 
of the letters — talkativeness. Heavy, hooked 
terminal strokes — insistence and determination. 

196 ^rapboloflB 

Plate 18. 

Crapboloos 197 

Analysis of Handwriting — Plate 18 
( Woman's Writing^ 

Angular, forward hand, with rounded modifi- 
cations — activity, quickness and energy in a quiet 
way; sentiment and affection, kindliness and 
sympathy. Writing is a little below the average 
in size — culture, good mental qualities, educa- 
tion, reserve force. Uneven writing — tendency 
to carelessness, lack of business methods. Writ- 
ing not well spaced — confirmation of traits shown 
in preceding feature. Lines have an upward 
tendency — ambition, hopefulness, bright and 
cheery disposition. 

Disconnected letters, Avith connected words — 
intuition and quick perceptions combined with 
reasoning and logical mind. Tendency to cross- 
cut capital M — self-appreciation. Letters a and 
open — frankness, communicativeness ; readiness 
to talk. Letter d formed with curved and 
hooked stroke — literary tastes and abilities. 
Letters y, jp and y made with long loops — lively 
fancy, imagination, original ideas, unconven- 
tional opinions. Letter jp made with long lower 
portion — physical quickness and activity, natural 
fondness for outdoor exercise, recreation, etc. 
Letter t stroked, for the most part, on the right 
of the letter — vivacity, impatience, quickness. 
Initial hooks on many of the letters — talkative- 
ness ; bright and animated conversationalist and 

198 ©tapboloflB 

Plate 19. 

0rapbolO(3i2 199 

Analysis of Handwriting — Plate 19 
( WomarCs Writing.^ 

Rounded and decidedly forward hand — pleas- 
ure-loving, fond of ease and luxury ; appreciative 
of the beauties, the art, the comforts of life; 
sympathetic, affectionate, kind-hearted ; impul- 
sive. Writing not well spaced, with a tendency 
to crowding — lack of business methods or syste- 
matic action ; tendency to carelessness in matters 
of unimportance and trifles ; rather circumscribed 
views and desires ; little taste for general society ; 
a saving, economical disposition. Lines have a 
downward tendency — easily discouraged ; sub- 
ject to moods of depression in an otherwise 
bright and lively nature, as shown by the de- 
cided forward hand and the rounded formation 
indicating love of pleasure. 

Increasing size of letters — conscientiousness ; 
high sense of duty. Tall-stroke capital J/^am- 
bitious for the success of others. Closed a^s and 
d's — uncommunicative ; not generally confiden- 
tial. Letter d formed with backward curve — 
critical disposition ; introspective. Letters/* and 
y made with long loops — lively fancy, original 
ideas, unconventional notions ; fondness for 
poetry, music, etc. 

200 (BrapboIoflB 

Cui.^ oLrxJ^ ^,,^ „:i/<.:c^ 

Plate 20. 

©rapboloflTB 201 

Analysis of Handwriting — Plate 20 

( Womari's Writing.) 

Bounded hand with angular modification — 
love of ease and pleasure, indolence, and lack of 
energy, combined with quickness, desire for ac- 
tivity and a practical disposition. Forward 
hand — affectionate, sympathetic. Shaded writ- 
ing — emphatic, insistent. Neat, uniform writing 
— practical, systematic, methodical, prudent. 
Well spaced writing— clear judgment ; sensible ; 
not easily convinced against her reason. Straight 
lines — will-power and perseverance, but modified 
by the rather weak crossing of the t 

Disconnected letters — mtuitive, good reader of 
character ; alert mind, ready perceptions. Open 
a's and o's — communicative, ready to talk. Let- 
ters / and y made without loops — practical, not 
much fancy or imagination ; determination. 
Letter h made without a loop — originality, prac- 
tical nature, decisiveness. Tendency to form the 
letter j) with long lower portion — moderate love 
of sports, outdoor pleasure, etc. Letter t stroked 
heavily, but weakly as to size ; also, downward 
slope to the stroke— obstinacy, insistence, opin- 
ionatedness; diflficult to convince; perverse. 
Absence of terminal strokes — economical, selfish, 

202 Orapbolofig 

Plate 21. 

(3rapbol09B 903 

Analysis of Handwriting — Plate ai 

( Woman^s Writing.) 

Rounded, forward hand — easy-going, lack of 
energy, love of pleasure, ease, comfort and luxu- 
ries ; appreciative of the good things of life ; 
kindly, good-natured ; quietly sympathetic, and 
loving ; rarely demonstrative, and generally 
about the same from one day to another. These 
traits are indicated also, to some extent, by the 
conventional style of writing, which signifies a 
person of commonplace, ordinary attributes, with 
nothing distinctive one way or another. The 
writing is generally well spaced — methodical, 
careful to follow directions and to do what is re- 
garded as fashionable. The writing has a tend- 
ency to be crowded — economical, saving; pru- 
dent, naturally close-fisted and thrifty. The 
lines have a tendency to ascend — mildly ambi- 
tious, hopeful, optimistic. 

Connected letters — slow thinker ; wants a rea- 
son for whatever is done. The letters are all 
formed conventionally, in keeping with the chi- 
rography as a whole, and are of little individual 
significance. Letter t is not crossed — lack of 
will-power or self-confidence ; a personality with- 
out any decided views or convictions of its own. 
General absence of terminal strokes — not readily 
generous ; self-centred. 

204 OrapboIOfiB 


Plate 22. 


(3rapbolode 205 

Analysis of Handwriting — Plate 22 

( Woman's Writing.) 

Rounded hand, with angular modifications — 
combination of energy, quickness and industry, 
with love of ease, of comfort and luxuries, with 
an appreciation of the esthetic and the beautiful 
in life as distinguished from the practical and 
utilitarian. Irregular foi'ward hand — change- 
ableness, uncertainty of mood, impulsive and 
emotional. Tendency toward heavy writing — 
self-confidence, assertiveness ; love of the phys- 
ical and material pleasures of the world. Hasty 
and indistinct writing — impatience, rapidity of 
thought and action ; originality ; distinctive abil- 
ity. Writing not well spaced — intolerance of 
method or rules; carelessness in many ways. 
Uneven writing — confirms traits indicated by 
preceding feature. 

Disconnected letters — highly intuitive ; hasty 
decisions ; little patience with argument or rea- 
son. Cross-cut capitals — self-appreciation, ego- 
tism. Unlooped letter h — individuality, practical 
ideas. Letter d formed with curved and hooked 
up-stroke — literary tastes and abilities. General 
absence of loops to g, y, etc. — determination. 
Letter t stroked firmly and heavily — will-power, 
insistence, determination. An occasional stroke 
above the letter — imagination, lively fancy ; orig- 
inality of ideas. 



(BtapboloflB 907 

Analysis of Handwriting — Plate 23 

( Woma7i^s Writing.) 

Combined angular and rounded writing — in- 
dustrious, active, energetic, practical, with love 
of ease, appreciation of comfort and luxury, and 
a tendency to take life easy. Forward hand — 
susceptibility to impulse. Uneven writing — in- 
difference to rules or engagements. Writing not 
well spaced — more or less carelessness in certain 
directions ; unstable decisions ; intolerance of 
restraint or dictation. 

Disconnected letters, with the general tendency 
however toward connected letters — critical dis- 
position, observant ; a good reasoner ; logical de- 
cisions in matters of importance. Letters of 
varying size — versatility ; capable of doing many 
things well and perfectly. Open a''s and o^s — 
candor, frankness; outspoken opinions. Tall 
letter d — pride of family or personal dignity. 
The i dot placed well to the right of the letter — 
quickness ; energy. Letter t stroked firmly and 
to the right of the stem — will-power, firmness, 
determination ; impatience, activity. This letter, 
as well as others, descends below the line — insist- 
ence, obstinacy ; hard to convince ; opinionated. 
Letter y made with long loop — fanciful; uncon- 
ventional ideas, fond of fads. 

Index to Personal Characteristics 

(References abk to sections) 


Ability 5 

Absent-mindedness 57 

Activity 1 

Acuteness (mental) 1 

Affection 3 

Affectation 9, 11, 30 

Lack of 10 

Aggressiveness 1, 8 

Agility 51 

Ambition 21, 31 

Lack of 22 

Animation 1> 3, 7 

Ardor 7 

Argumentativeness 6, 24 

Artfulness 5, 15 

Assurance 8, 51 


Benevolence 2 

Boastfulness 8 

Boldness 8, 61 


Calmness 4 


210 (BrapbolOfiB 

Candor 12, 26, 34 

Carefulness - 13, 24 

Carelessness 14, 17 

Charity 3, 62 

Cleverness 15 

Coarseness 8 

Communicativeness 34 

Conceit 8, 11, 30, 35 

Concentration 6 

Lack of 7 

Conciseness 6 

Conscientiousness 26 

Conservatism 45 

Constancy 4, 50 

Critical disposition 25, 40a 

Culture 6, 10, 29, 40 

Lack of 8, 30 

Cunning 27 


Daring 51 

Deceitfulnesa 8, 15 

Decision 51 

Deliberation 4, 47 

Delicacy 10 

Lack of 8 

Demonstrativeness 3 

Determination 45, 51 

Diplomacy 6, 15, 27 

Discretion 33 

Dissimulation 15 

Domineering disposition 8 

fnOey 211 


Economical disposition 16, 61 

Egotism (see Conceit) 7, 9, 30 

Emphatic disposition 1, 9 

Energy 1 

Emotions (susceptibility to) 3 

Enthusiasm 3, 7 

Lack of 5 

Exacting disposition 8 

Executive ability 5, 6, 9 

Extravagance 7, 17, 44, 62 


Fancy 44, 56 

Finesse 15 

Firmness 20, 45 

Frankness , 12, 25, 34 

Lack of 27, 33 


Generosity 3, 17, 62 


Hastiness , 15, 17 

Honesty 13, 26 

Hopefulness 21, 56 

Lack of 22 


Idealism 24 

Imagination 25, 44, 57 

Impatience 15, 53 

Impulsiveness 3, 53 

•212 ®tapbologs 

Industry It 6 

Insight • 25 

Insincerity ■ 5, 27 

Insistence 9 

Intellectuality 6, 40 

Integrity 12, 24 

Intuition 25 

Irritability 52 


Judgment 4, 5, 18 

Lack of 14, 19 


Kind-heartedness S 

Literary tastes 6, 40 

Loving nature 2, 3 

Luxurious tastes ....•" 2, 9 

Laziness 2 

Methodical disposition 6, 13, 18 

Modesty 12, 29 

Morbidness 22, 41 


Neatness 6, 13, 18 

Nervous temperament 1 


Observation 24 

Obstinacy 9, 45, 51, 55, 63 

IfnOcy 213 

Opinionated ness 11, 24, 42, 63 

Originality 5, 6, 37 

Ostentation 29 


Parsimony 16 

Passiveness 2, 4 

Patience 6, 13 

Peacefulness 2 

Perseverance 20, 50 

Lack of 22, 52 

Pessimistic disposition 22 

Poetic tastes 25, 44 

Positivenesa 1 

Practical disposition 1, 4, 13, 18, 20, 24, 45 

Lack of 14, 15, 19 

Preciseness 1 

Precision 13 

Prevarication 27 

Pride 30, 38 

Procrastination 47, 54 

Prudence 13, 18 

Lack of 17 

Psychic qualities 25 


Quickness 1, 15, 46, 53 

Quietness 4, 10 


Reason ^i 24 

Refinement 10, 29 

Lack of ^ 

214 ©tapboloflg 

Reliability 12, 26 

Lack of 27 

Reserve 5, 6, 33 

Lack of 34 

Resolution 50, 51 

Lack of 52 

Restfulness 2 

Eeetlessness 1 

Reticence 6, 33 

Revengefulness 8 

Romantic disposition 25, 44 

Roughness 8 


Secretiveness 16, 33 

Self-consciousness 5 

Self-containment 4, 6 

Lack of 7, 14, 15 

Self-interest 5 

Selfishness 7, 8, 16, 62 

Self-reliance 1, 5, 45, 51 

Self-respect 38 

Lack of 41 

Self-restraint 4, 6 

Lack of 3, 14 

Self-sacrifice 3, 61 

Sensitiveness 41 

Sentiment (susceptibility to) 3 

Simplicity 4, 10, 12, 28 

Sincerity 12, 26 

Slovenliness 17 

Slowness 4, 47, 54 

^ntiex 215 

Suspiciousness 6, 16, 22 

Sympathy 3 

Systematic disposition 13, 18 


Tactfulness 6, 13, 15 

Lack of 3, 7, 34 

Talkativeness 36 

Taste (good) 6, 29 

Temper 53 

Temperate tastes 10 

Tenderness 10 

Thoughtfulness 6 

Thriftiness 13 

Truthfulness 12, 26 

Trustworthiness 12 


Vacillation 14, 52 

Vanity 7, 8, 30, 31 

Vivacity 1, 15, 53 


Wilfulness 9, 42, 60 

Will-power 6, 20, 50 

Lack of 52 

Worrying disposition 16, 22 


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^tllQULTTfe fftere is no passport to good 5oci«^ 
By Agnc* H, Morton like good manners. ^ Even though on« 
possess wealth and intelligence, his suo 
eess in life luay be manred by ignorance of social cu^oms. 
^ A perused of this book will prevent such blunders. It is 
a book for everybody, for the social leaders as weQ as for 
diose less ambitious. ^ The subjecft is presented in a bri^ 
and interesting mannei, -^nd represents the late^ vogue. 

LETTER WRITING Why do mo^ persons dislike to 
By Agnes H. Morton write letters ? Is it not because 

they cannot say the right thmg ii^ 
the right place ? This admirable book not only show^s by 
numerous examples just what kind of letters to write, but by 
dire(5tions and suggeSions enables the reader to become aa 
accomplished original letter writer. ^ There are forms for all 
kinds of business and social letters, including invitations, 
acceptances, letters of sympa*Ky, congratulations, 'sad Iov» 

QUOTATiONS A clever compilation of pithy auota- 
By Agnes H. iVSorton iions, seledled from a great variety ol 
sources, and alphabetically arrangec; 
according £o the sentiment. ^ In addition to all the popular 
quotations in cunent use, it contains many rare bib of pro*e 
and verse not generally found in similar coUedions. ^ One 
important feature of the book is found in the charadleri^c 
fines from well known authors, in which the (aniiliar sayingi 
1^ ©niRirltffwl to »hw orisJna) so*wce»r 

tf^lfAPHS Even deatli has its humorous Aiote, 

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unconscious, but there are times when it is intentional and 
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book contains the be^. It is full of quaint bits of obituarjf 
fancy, with a touch of the gruesome heie and there for a, 

PI^OVE^BS The genius, wit, and spirit of t. nation 
By John t1. Bechtel are discovered in its proverbs, and the- 
condensed wisdom of ail ages and all 
nations is embodied in them. ^ A good proverb that fits 
the case is often a convincing argument. ^ This volume 
contains a representative coiledtion of proverbs, old ai>d new, 
and the indexes, topical and alphabetical, enable one ^ find 
readily ju^ what he requires. 

THINGS WORTH Can you name the colde^ place » 
KNOW NO t^e United States or tell what year.; 

By John H. Bechtel ^^^ 445 days? Do you know 

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MYTHOLOGY ^ythologic?^ subje<a becausf 

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because in it can be found at a glance juft what is wanted. 
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(Feature of the book is the pronunciation of the proper names» 
eoraething found m few other works. 

SLIPS OF SPEECH W:.o does not make them? 
By John H. Bechtel The beft of us do. ^ Why not 

hvoid them ? Any one inspired 
with the spirit of self-improvemcrit may readily do so. ^ No 
necessity .or ^udying lules of grammar or rhetoric when this 
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HANDBOOK OP What is more disagreeable 

PRONUNCIATION than a faulty pronunciation? 

By iohu H. Bechtel No other defed so clearly 

shows a lack ot culture. ^ 1 nis 
ibook contains over 5,000 words on which mo^ of us are 
apt to trip. ^ They are here pronounced in the clearest ano 
ampler manner, and according to the be^ authority ^ k 
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PRACTICAL A new word is a new tooi. ^ TVus 

SYNONYMS t)ook will not only enlarge your vocabu- 
^ Johp M. Bechte.' ^^V' t*"* will siiow you how to express 
C (^ the exadl shade of meaning you have 

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READY MADE SPEECHES Pretty much everybo<^ 
By George Hapgood, Esq. in these latter days, is 

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AFTER-DINNER The dinner itself may Ke ever sol 
STORIES good, and yet prove a failure if there 

By John ' jrison '^ ^® mirth to enlivei the company. 

^ Nothing adds so much zest to ai 
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TREASURY t^e power of skillful and forcible 

By William Pittenger , debate, and no accomplishment 
more readily acquired if the person 
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^ There is also a li^ of over 200 que^ons for debate, with 
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PUNCTUATION Pew persons :an punctuate properly ; 
By Paul Allardyce to avoid mi^akes many do not pundtu- 

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' niles are plainly ^ated and freely illu^ated, /bus furnishing 
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0!vAT(Jf(T Few men ever enjoyed a widet ex«^ 

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^e oratory. 

CONVERSATION Some people are accused of talldnf 
By J, P. Mahaffy too much. But no one is eve< 

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^ Of all the accomplishments of modern society, that of 
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READING The ability to read aloud weD, 

AS A FINE AI^T whether at the fireside or on the 
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^ The work is especially recommended to teachers and 
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SOCIALISM ik)cialism is "in the air." ^ Reierenc<»" 

By oharles H. Oli'* to the subjedl are con^antly appearing 
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JOURNALISM What is news, liow is it obtained, how 
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^ Fully illu^ated.