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Fl 70 


Arnold Arboretum 

Harvard Univerrity 













W: If, m'f 




Copyright, 1$J08, by 


Bntkkkd at STATioMvaa' Hall, I^ondon 

W.P. 24 




Akalttical Ket to the Families 9 

TABUXfAB View or the Families 28 

Summary bt Divisions, Classes, etc 27 



Othbr Abbreviations and Signs employed ...,». 31 

Descriptive Flora 88 

Glosbabt 87fi 

Indsx 885 


Izr bringing Dr. Asa Gbay's well-known Manual to date and into 
accord with modem views of classification and nomenclature, the 
present editors have found it necessary to rearrange it throughout, 
rewrite considerable portions, modify at least slightly nearly all the 
descriptions, and adopt certain principles of nomenclature (notably 
the one relating to the first specific name) somewhat at variance with 
Dr. Gray's practice. Although these changes have been numerous 
and in some respects fundamental, it is believed that they are all in 
thorough accord with the liberal spirit of progress which character- 
ized his own successive publications. Wherever possible and in all 
cases of doubt, the wording of the sixth edition, prepared by Dr. 
Sebeno Watsok and Professor John Mbrlb Goulteb, and pub- 
lished in January, 1890, has been retained. 

In the arrangement of the plant-families and in grouping them 
in orders, the admirable system of Eichler, in recent years much 
elaborated and perfected by Engler and Prantl, has been followed 
with a few deviations of minor importance. 

The term order, used by Dr. Gray as synonymous with family, is 
here employed, according to the recommendation of the International 
Botanical Congress at Vienna, to designate a group of superior rank ; 
the same, in fact, which has sometimes been called a cohort. Orders, 
in this sense, are not capable of sharp definition in the manner of 
species, genera, or even families, nor is it to be supposed that one 
order begins in development where the preceding ends. They are 
rather to be conceived as representing somewhat parallel and long- 
disconnected lines or tendencies in evolutionary development. The 
grouping of the families into orders is shown in the tabular view on 
pages 23^27. 

To cover a more natural floral area and to make the Manual con 

venient for a greater number of users, some alterations have beei. 

cnade in the geographic limits adopted in the sixth edition. These 

changes result in (1) the exclusion of the territory at the west between 

the 96th and 100th meridians, a region now known to include a con- 



siderable percentage of plants oharacteristio of the Great Plains and 
not harmonions with the flora which the present work is especially 
designed to treat; and (2) the inclusion of the Canadian provinces 
of Nova Scotia^ Prince Edward Island, New Brunswick, and the 
greater part of Quebec and Ontario. As thus modified the limits 
are as follows : on the north, the 48th parallel from the Gulf of St. 
Lawrence to Lake Superior, and the international boundary thence 
to the northwest corner of Minnesota; on the west, the western 
boundary of Minnesota and northwestern Iowa, thence southward 
along the 96th meridian; on the south, the southern boundaries of 
eastern Kansas, Missouri, Kentucky, and Virginia. 

In the preparation of this edition valued assistance has been 
received from Professor A. S. Hitchcock of the United States 
Department of Agriculture, who has elaborated the Oramineae; 
Mr. Oakes Ames, Assistant Director of the Botanic Garden of 
Harvard University, who has treated the Orchidaceae; President 
Ezra Brainerd of Middlebury College, who has revised the genus 
Viola ; Mr. A. A. Eaton of the Ames Botanical Laboratory, who 
has treated the technical genera Equisetum and IsoStes; Dr. J. M. 
Greenman of the Field Museum of Natural History, who has 
revised Senecio; Mr. W. W. Eogleston, who has revised the exceed- 
ingly difficult genus Crataegus; and Miss Mary A. Day, Librarian 
of the Gray Herbarium, who has given much clerical and biblio- 
graphical assistance throughout the preparation and proof reading 
of the text. Many of the older figures, formerly grouped in plates, 
have been redrawn and for greater convenience placed in the text, 
and to these have been added a much larger number of new ones 
drawn chiefly by Mr. F. Schuyler Mathews, but in part also by 
Professor J. Franklin Collins of Brown University and Mr. P. 
B. Whelpley. All the illustrations of the Ordiidaceae have been 
not only skillfully executed but generously contributed by Mrs. 
Oakes Ames. The fact that it has been possible thus to extend the 
illustration of the Manual has been due in great part to the interest 
and liberality of the VisiTiNa Committee op the Gray Herba- 
rium. Many botanists throughout the country, notably the members 
of the New England Botanical Club, have furnished specimens and 
notes which have been exceedingly helpful in determining the geo- 
graphic range and limits of variation. To all who have thus in 
diflferent ways aided in the preparation of the present work, the 
editors wish to express their sincere appreciation and cordial thanks. 

At the International Botanical Congress, held at Vienna, June, 


1905, it was fortunately possible to reach a substantial agreement 
on the oontroyersial subject of nomenclature. Some mutual con- 
cessions were necessary, but it is believed that they will be cheer- 
fully made by those who are really seeking harmony in this matter. 
The editors have, therefore, scrupulously endeavored to bring the 
nomenclature of the Manual into accord with the Vienna agreementy 
in order that American botanical nomenclature may be freed as 
speedily as possible from peculiarity or provincialism and assume 
the form which has received international sanction. The most im- 
portant change in this respect which characterizes the present edition 
in distinction from the previous editions is the adoption of the earliest 
specific name instead of that specific name which was first combined 
with the correct generic name. With this change it becomes more 
important to trace the previous use of specific names under other 
genera, and^ to facilitate this, it seems wise to adopt the double 
citation of authorities. In the capitalization of specific and varietal 
names, it has been thought best to adopt the custom of many promi- 
nent botanists from Linnaeus himself to the distinguished editors 
of the Index Kewensis. The chief change in this respect from the 
usage of previous editions consists in the decapitalization of geo- 
graphic adjectives, such as canadensis, americana, and the like. In 
regard to these words it should be borne in mind that they are not 
English and therefore not subject to the rules of English grammar. 
They are a part of an international system of Latin nomenclature, 
which should not be modified by different nations by introducing 
peculiarities of their several languages. Many generic and other 
names, which were in use prior to 1753, were adopted by Linnaeus 
and his followers. These names are indicated in the Manual by 
brackets inclosing the name of the pre-Linnean author; thus, Poly 
podium [Tourn.3 L. 

In the treatment of the ever increasing number of foreign plants 
which have been recorded within our range, it has seemed desirable 
to include in the Manual only those which have given some evidence 
of self-dissemination and shown some tendeficy to become permanent 
members of our flora. Waifs, ballast-weeds, and plants persisting 
locally after cultivation have in general been omitted. 

During the last twenty years there has been an unprecedented 
activity in the characterization of new species and varieties within 
our range. The present editors have considerably delayed the 
issue of this work in order to examine these new propositions 
and give them recognition in all cases where their merit could be 


demoiifltrated In a few inBtancesy bowe^er, it has been impossible 
from lack of material or data either to inolude as valid or to reduce 
definitely to synonymy such species and varietiesi and it has accord 
ingly seemed best not to mention them. It is not thereby meant 
that they are not of value, but merely that evidence of their distinct- 
ness has not been available. 

Botanical names, being in many instances latinized forms of 
geographic, aboriginal, or personal designations, are not always 
capable of easy or consistent pronunciation. From long-established 
custom they are usually pronounced in English-speaking countries 
according to the pronunciation of Latin after the English method, 
exceptions being frequent in such names as Michauxiana, which is 
commonly pronounced meshOI&nfl, or by others m^shOziana, to avoid 
the awkward pronunciation which the word would have according 
to the English rules. The subject is one into which considerations 
of taste, convenience, and custom enter to such an extent that it is 
most difficult to lay down definite principles free from pedantry 
However, as a general guide, the names in this, as in previous edi 
tions, are marked with accents, — the accented syllable being detec 
mined as far as possible by the well-known rules of Latin quantity. 
In cases of doubtful quantity, in such names as Berlandiera, Palmeriy 
BacopOf etc., it has seemed best to treat the penultimate vowel ai^ 
long, according to the usage of most British and Continental writers. 
Two accents are used, the grave C) ^ indicate the long English 
sound of the vowel, the acute (') to show the shortened or other 
wise modified sound. For aid in determining the accented syllable, 
the editors are in several instances indebted to Dr. A. S. Pbask. 

In consideration of recent differences in nomendatorial practice, 
and with a wish to make the Manual as convenient as possible foi 
all users, synonyms have been inserted freely to show the equivsr 
lence of different names, especially of those permitted by thk 
Bochester and American Codes but not sanctioned by the Interna- 
tional Rules. It has been necessary to make these citations exceed- 
ingly brief, the specific' name, when the same, being omitted ; €.g. 
under Banuncuhis Oymbaiaria Pursh, the synonym Oxygraphia Prantl 
means that the species has been treated by Prantl under the identL 
oal specific name {Oywbalarid) in Oxygraphia, a genus not maintained 

in the present work. 

B. L. B. 
U. L. V. 


(Carried out, in some cases, to sabfamilies and genera) 

Division L PTERID(5pHYTA 

Fem-like, moss-like, rash-like, or aquatic plants without true flowers. 
Beproduction by spores (without embryos). 

▲. Floating plants with small 2-ranked leaves; sporocaips borne on 

the nnder side of the stem SALYiMiACEAa, fiQ 

▲. Terrestrial or sabmersed plants, not floating B. 
B. Stems oonspicnonsly Jointed, their nodes covered by toothed 
sheaths; sporangia on the scales of terminal dry cone-like 
spikes EQxnsBTACBAE, 8; 

B. Stems without conspicuous sheathed joints C. 
C. Leaves closely imbricated or very narrow; sporangia sessile, 
Stem short, conn-like; leaves elongate, awl-shape or linear, 

in a rosette Iso&tacbab, 08 

Stem elongate, creeping (sometimes underground) or branch- 
ing; leaves very short, crowded or imbricated. 
Sporangia of two kinds, some containing many minute 
spores (microspores), others bearing few (usually 3-4) 
much larger macrospores Sblaoinbllacbab, 57 

Sporangia bearing uniform minute spores Ltcopodiacbab, 64 

C. Leaves (fronds) not closely imbricated; if narrow, without 
axillary sporangia D. 
D. Leaves (fronds) 4-foliolate, clover-like ; sporocarpe (inclosing 

the sporangia) stalked from the creeping stem Mabsilbaobab, 49 

D. Leaves (fronds) not 4-foliolate, simple or variously cleft; spo- 
rangia not inclosed in basal sporocarps E. 
£• Fertile fronds, or fertile portions of the fronds conspicu- 
ously unlike the sterile F. 
F. Slender twining or climbing plant, the frond with alter- 
nate paired and stalked palmately lobed divisions Lygodium^ 46 
F. Neither twining nor climbing G. 
G. Sterile fronds linear-filiform, tortuous; the fertile fili- 
form, tipped by a 1-sided short (3-9 mm. long) 
pinnate fertile portion Schizaea, 45 

G, Sterile fronds (or segments) broader H. 
H. Sterile segment of the frond simple; the fertile a 

long-stalked simple spike Ofhioolossacbab, 47 

H. Sterile and fertile fronds or segments more or less 
Cleft L 



L Rootstock almost none, the solitary (rarely 2) fronds appear- 
ing to rise from a cluster of fie&hy roots ; lower segment 
sterile, upper fertile and bearing 2-rowed globular 
sporangia Botrychium, 41 

I. Rootstock well developed, elongate or stout, the roots 
fibrous; fronds numerous or the fertile and sterile 
clearly distinct J. 
J. Fertile fronds or segments scarcely or not at all leaf-like, 
the sporangia globose or in bead>Iike rows. 
Sporangia naked, globose, thin-walled, 2-Yalved, densely 

crowded, not *2-ranked Osmund ace a b, 46 

Sporangia inclosed in pod-like or berry-like 2-ranked 

divisions of fertile frond Onoclea, 45 

J. Fertile fronds or segments green and leaf-like, at least 

above ; the sporangia not globose Poltpodiacbae, 33 

£. Fertile fronds or segments essentially like the sterile. 

Sporangia sessile at the base of a bristle-like receptacle and 
surrounded by a cup-like involucre ; frond of a single layer 
of cells Hymrnophtllaceae, 3» 

Sporangia stalked, with no bristle-like receptacle; frond of 

more than one layer of cells Poltpodiaceab, 33 


Plants with true flowers containing stamens, pistils, or both. Reproduc- 
tion normally by seeds containing an embryo. 

Subdivision I. GYJ^INOSP^RMAE 

Ovules not in a closed ovary. Trees and shrubs with needle-shaped, linear, 
or scale-like mostly evergreen leaves, and monoecious or dioecious flowers K. 

K. Flowers themselves catkin-like or borne in catkins, which be- 
come cones or berry-like Pinacbab, 62 

K. Flowers solitary, axillary; seed solitary, more or less enveloped 

in a pulpy disk Taxacbab, G2 

Subdivision IL ANGIOSPfeRMAE 
Ovules borne in a closed ovary, which at maturity becomes the fruit. 


Stems without central pith or annular layers, but having the woody fibers 
distributed through them (a transverse slice showing the fibers as dots scat- 
tered through the cellular tissue). Embryo with a single cotyledon, the 
early leaves always alternate. Parts of the flower usually in threes or 
sixes, never in fives. Leaves mostly parallel-veined. Our species, except 
in the genus Smilax^ herbaceous L. 

L. Small lens-shaped, ellipsoidal, or flask-shaped free-swimming 

aquatics without true leaves Lemnacbab, 259 

L. Plants with stems and leaves (sometimes scale-like) M. 
M. Perianth free from the ovary or none N. 


N. Perianth wanting or of scale-like or bristle-form divisions O. 

O. Flowers inclosed or subtended by imbricated husk-like 

scales (glumes); grass-like plants with jointed stems, 

sheathing (mostly narrow) leaves, and l-seeded fruit. 

Stems round or flattened; leaves of vegetative shoots 

2-ranked, sheaths usually split; anthers attached by 

the middle Graminbab, 86 

Stems usually more or less triangular, solid ; leaven 3-ranked , 

sheaths not split; anthers attached at the base Gypbbackab, 171 
O. Flowers not inclosed in husk-like scales (though sometimes in 
involucrate heads) P- 
P. Immersed aquatics, branching and leafy, the upper leaves 
often floating. 
Flowers perfect Xajadaceab, 69 

Flowers monoecious or dioecious. 
Flowers in globose heads Sparoaniacbab, 68 

Flowers axillary, solitary Najadaceab, 69 

P. Terrestrial or marsh plants Q. 
Q. Leaves petioled, the blade net-veined Aracear, 257 

Q. Leaves linear or sword-shaped , parallel-veined, not petioled R. 
R. Flowers monoecious or dioecious. 

Flowers in cylindrical spikes Typhaceab, 67 

Flowers in heads. 
Heads spheroidal, pubescent, involucrat<e Eriocaulaceae, 260 
Heads globose, glabrous, not involucrate Sparoaniacbab, 68 
R. Flowers perfect. 

Flowers in a dense spike, this borne on the margin 

of a 2-edged scape ; root aromatic Acorus, 258 

Scapes or peduncles cylindrical. 
Ovaries 3-6, separating at least when ripe Juncaoinacear, 79 
Ovary single, 3-carpeled Juncaceae, 267 

N. Perianth always present, herbaceous or colored, neither scale- 
like nor bristle-form S. 
S Pistils numerous in a head or ring Alibhaceae, 80 

S. Pistil one, compound (cells or placentae mostly 3) T. 
T. Stamens 3. 

Moss-like, aquatic ; flowers solitary Matacacbab, 263 

Rush-like marsh or bog plants ; flowers in spikes, racemes, 
or heads. 
Flowers racemose or spicate Juncaoinaceae, 79 

Flowers in dense scaly heads Xtridacrab, 262 

T. Stamens 4 Maianthemum, 291 

T. Stamens 6 U. 
U. Stamens all alike and fertile. 

Gray scurfy mos»-like epiphyte Broubliaceae, 265 

Not epiphytic. 
Ovary of nearly separate carpels Juncaoinaceae, 79 

Ovary (often angled or lobed) not deeply cleft. 
Divisions of the perianth alike or nearly so. 
Perianth woolly Haemodoracbae, 296 

Perianth not woolly. 
Plant rush-like; perianth small, greenish or 

purplish brown Juncacbae, 267 


Plant not nuh-like Liuacbab, 279 

Divisions of the perianth anlike, 3 screen sepals and 

3 colored petals. 
Stem-leayes ovate or oblong, 3 in a whorl TrUlium, 293 

Stem-leaves linear or nearly so ; flowers nmbeled 


U. Stamens dissimilar, or only 3 with fertile anthers. 

Perianth of 3 herbaceous sepals and 3 colored ephemeral 


Perianth tabular, 6-lobed Pontbdbriackab, 266 

M. Perianth present, adnate to the ovary V. 
V. Stamens 1-2 ; flowers irregular. 

Anthers 2-celled ; seeds many Obchioacbab, 304 

Anthers 1-celled ; seeds solitary Marantacbab, 20i 

V. Stamens 3 or more ; flowers mostly regular or nearly so W. 
W. Climbing plant with net-veined ovate leaves Dioscobbacbab, 297 

W. Not climbing; leaves parallel-veined. 

Perianth woolly, only partially adnate to the ovary 

Habhodoracbab, 296 
Perianth not woolly, adnate to the whole surface of the 
Aquatics ; flowers dioecious or polygamous Hydrocharitacbab, 80 
Terrestrial; flowers perfect. 
Stamens 6 Amabtllidacrab, 297 

Stamens 3. 
Leaves 2>ranked, equitant; stamens opposite the 

outer segments of the perianth Iridacbab, 299 

Leaves not 2-ranked, the cauline scale-like; stamens 
opposite the inner segments of the perianth 



Stems formed of bark, wood, and pith; the wood forming a zone between 
the other two, and increasing, when the stem continues from year to year, 
by the annual addition of a new layer to the outside, next the baik. Leaves 
net-veined. Embryo with a pair of opposite cotyledons. Parts of the 
flower mostly in fours or fives (rarely in threes or sixes) X. 

X. Corella none ; calyx present or absent Y. 
T. Flowers monoecious or dioecious, one or both sorts in catkins Z. 
Z. Only one sort of flowers in catkins or catkin-like heads. 

Fertile flowers in a short catkin or catkin-like head Urticacbab, 344 

Fertile flowers single or clustered; the sterile in slender 
catkins (except in Fagiu). 
Leaves pinnate ; fertile flowers and fruit naked Juglandacbab, 330 
Leaves simple ; fertile flowers 1-3 in a cup or involucre Faoacbab, 337 
Z. Both sterile and fertile flowers in catkins or catkin-like 
heads a. 
a. Ovary many-ovnled ; fruit many-seeded. 

Ovary and pod 2-ce1led : seeds not tufted Liquidambarf 453 

Ovary and pod 1-celled ; seeds hairy-tufted Salxcacbab. 32P 


fk Oyary 1-2-oelled; cells l-oynled; frolt l-aeeded. 

Pansitic on trees ; fruit a berry Lokakthaobab, 861 

Trees and shnibs, not parasitic. 
Calyx regular, in fertile flower suoonlent in fruit Ubtioacbab, 344 
Calyx none or radimentary and scale-like. 
Style and stigma 1, simple. 
Leaves palmately angled or lobed Platan acbab, 464 

Lbaves oyate or oblong, entire LbithxbiacbaEi 890 

Styles or long stigmas 2. 
Fertile flowers 2 or 8 at each scale of the catkin Bbtulacxab, 332 
Fertile flowers single under each scale; nutlets 

naked, waxy-ooated, or drupe-like Mtricacbab, 329 

V« Flowers not in catkins b. 

6. Ovary or its cells containing only 1-2 (rarely 3-4) ovules c. 
e. FisUIs more than 1, distinct or nearly so. 

Stamens inserted on the calyx ; leaves with stipules Rosacbab, 464 

Stamens inserted on the receptacle. 
Leaves punctate with transparent dots Zanthozylum, 637 

Leaves not dotted. 
Calyx present, usually colored or petal-like Rakunculacxab, 892 
Calyx none; flowers spiked Pipbbagbab, 320 

(3L Pistil 1, simple or compound d, 
d. Ovary free from the calyx, which is sometimes wanting e. 
e. Stipules (ocreae) sheathing the stem at the nodes. 

Tree ; calyx none Platanacbab, 464 

Herbs; calyx present, commonly corollsrlike Poltgokacbab, 363 
ۥ Stipules not sheathing the stem, or none /. 
/. Herbs g. 
g. Aquatic, submerged or nearly so. 

Leaves whorled, dissected ; style 1 Ceratophtllacbab, 389 
Leaves opposite, entire; styles 2; ovary 4-oelled 

Callitbicracbab, 649 

ff. Not aquatics h. 
h. Styles 10; ovary and berry lOcelled Phytolaccacbab, 374 
A. S^le, if any, and stigma L 

Flowers unisexual ; ovary of the fertile flowers 

1-celled Ubticacbab, 344 

Flowers perfect; pod 2-celled, 2-seeded Lepidium, 426 

h* Styles 2-3 or branched; ovary 1-4-celled i. 

i. Leaves palmately lobed or divided Canna&ineae, 344 

i. Leaves not palmately lobed or divided j. 
S' Ovary and pod 8<s6lled ; juice usually milky. 
Flowers in basal spikes; stamens 4; fila- 
ments thick, flattened Buxacbab, 660 
Inflorescence various, not of basal spikes; 
stamens l-oo , rarely 4; fllaments not con- 
spicuously thick EUPHORBIAOBAB, 640 
i* Ovary not S-celled ; juice not milky k, 
ft. Flowers in numerous small involucrate 

heads; fruit a 3-angl6d achene Eriogonum, 363 

k*\ Flowers not involucrate. 

Leaves covered at least beneath with stel- 
late hairs; emOr^o straight Eupbobbiacbab, 640 



Illecbb&acbak, 376 

Amaranthacbab, 371 

LMTes without stellate fettln; embryo enrred or 

Stipules scariouB Ili^bcxbracxab, 371 

Stipules none. 
Leaves opposite. 
Plant fleshy Salieomia, 309 

Not fleshy. 
Flowers in heads or spikes, these often 

panicled ; anthers 1-celled Amaranthacbab, 371 
Flowers sessile in forks of 
Leaves alternate. 
Flowers and bracts scarious 
Flowers small, chiefly greenish ; ho scarious 

bracts Cubnopodiacbab, 364 

/• Shrubs or trees. 

Leaves small, linear or scale-like; low heath-like shrubs 

Ekpbtbacbab, 559 
Leaves oblong to orbicular; never heath-like. 
Leaves opposite. 
Fruit 3-celled, not winged 
Fruit 2-eelled, a double samara 
Fruit 1-celled, a single samara 
Leaves alternate. 
Ovary 3-celled 
Ovary 1-2-celled. 
Styles and stigmas 3 
Style and stigma 1. 
Anthers opening lengthwise 
Anthers opening by uplifted lids 
d. Ovary inferior or so closely and permanently invested by the 
calyr OS to appear so. 
Parasites on the branches of trees 
Aquatic herbs 
Herbs with calyx colored like a corolla. 
Leaves opposite, simple 
Leaves alternate, pinnate 
Leaves alternate, simple 
Shrubs or trees. 
Leaves scurfy 
Leaves not scurfy, opposite 
Leaves not scurfy, alternate. 
Style 1, stigmatic down one side^ flowers solitary, in 

pairs, or in umbel-like clusters Ny88a, 625 

Style 1, short; stigma terminal; flowers racemose Pyrularia^ 360 
Styles 2 Ham amblidaceab, 462 

k. Ovary or its cells containing many ovules I, 
I. Calyx none ; ovary and fruit naked. 

Aquatic herb Podostbmacbab, 441 

Tree or shrub Uaxamblidacbab, 462 

I. Calyx present fh, 
m. Ovary superior. 

Rhamnacbab, 660 

acbracbab, 667 

Olbacbab, 690 

Rhamnacbab, 660 

Ubticaceab, 344 

Thtmblabacbab, 689 
Laubacbab, 413 

lobanthacbab, 361 
Halobaqioacbab, 602 

Ntctagtnacbab, 376 

Sanguisorba, 494 

Comandra, 360 

Elabagnacbab, 690 

Nestroniaf 350 


Ovaries 2 or more, separate Ranunculackab, 392 

Ovary single. 
Ovary fi-celled, 5-beaked ; leaves scattered Penthorum, 442 

Ovary 3-^5-celled ; leaves opposite or whorled Aizoacear, 377 

Ovary 1-2-celled. 
Leaves oompouDd Ranunculacrak, 392 

Leaves simple. 
Calyx of separate sepals Cabtophyllacbab, 377 

Calyx 5-toothed or -cleft Olaux^ tA7 

Calyx 4-toothed Ltthracbab, 591 

m. Ovary and pod inferior. 

Ovary 6-celled ; stamens 6-12 Abistolocuiacbab, :i6l 

Ovary 4-celled ; stamens 4 LudvigiOt 594 

Ovary 1-celled ; stamens 8-10 Chrysospleniutn^ 448 

X. Both calyx and corolla present n. 
n. Corolla of aeparate petals o. 
o. Stamens namerons , at least more than 10 (rarely 9-10 in Polanisia) , 
and more than twice as many as the sepals or calyx-lobes p* 
p. Calyx entirely free and separate from the pistil or pistils q. 
q. Pistils several or many, wholly distinct or united at base into 
a strongly lobed or severaJ-beaked ovary r. 
r. Aquatics with peltate leaves Nymph abaobab, 389 

r. Terrestrial plants, or, if aquatic, with leaves not peltate. 
Leaves alternate Mbmspbrmacbab, 410 

Leaves opposite Clematis, 402 

Not climbing. 
Filaments united into a tube Malvacbab, 566 

Filaments not united. 
Leaves opposite, entire Caltcakthacbab, 409 

Leaves alternate. 
Stamens on the calyx Rosacbab, 454 

Stamens on the receptacle or disk. 
Trees or shrubs. 
Sepals and petals imbricated Maonoliacbab, 408 

Sepals and petals valvate Anonacbab, 410 

Pistil 1, deeply 3-6-lobed Rbsbdacbab, 439 

Carpels distinct or united at base Ranunculacbab, 392 
q. Pistils strictly one as to ovary ; the styles or stigmas may be 
several s. 

8. Leaves punctate with translucent dots Hypbricacbab, 571 

9. Leaves not punctate t. 
U Ovary simple, 1-celled. 

Ovules 2 Rosacbab, 454 

Ovules many. [Ranunculacbak, 3921 

Leaves 2-3-ternately compound or dissected 
Leaves peltate, lobed Podophyllum, 411 

t» Ovary compound. 
Ovary l-ce11ed. 
Sepals 2 (rarely 3), caducous ; juice milky or colored ; 

placentae parietal Papavbracbab, 414 

Sepals 2; juice watery; placentae central Portulacaobab, 387 


SepaU 4 ; Jalce watery ; plaeeDlae parietal Gapparioackab, 438 
Sepals 3 or 5, perststent; juice watery; placentae 

psrietal Cistacbax, 076 

Orary sereral-ceUed. 
Calyx Talyate In bod. 
Herbs or rarely shrubs; stamens united; anthers 

l-oelled MaiiTAOBAJB, 006 

Trees ; anthers 2-oelled Thjacbab, 666 

Calyx imbricate in bud. 
Shrubs ; stamens on the base of the petals 


Aquatic or marsh-dwelling herbs. 
Leaves tubular or trumpetFshaped ; placentae in 

the axis Saiulacbniacbaji» 430 

Leayes (when mature) flattish, never tubular or 
trumpet-shaped; ovules on the partitions of 
the ovary NvMPKAJtAOBAB, 3d9 

p. Calyx more or less adherent to a compound ovary. 
Ovary 7--3(M)elled. 
Cells many-ovuled ; aquatic herbs Ntmphabaobab, 389 

Cells 10, each 1-ovuled ; trees or shrubs Ametanehier, 450 

Ovary 6-oelled Atarvm^ 852 

Ovary 1-0-oelled. 
Fleshy-stemmed, without true foliage ; petals many Cactacbab, 088 

Leaves present. 
Sepals or calyx-lobes 2^; ovules arising from the base of a 

1-celled ovary Pobtuijlcacbab, 387 

Sepals or calyx-lobes more than 2. 
Leaves opposite ; stipules none SAzxraAOACBAB, 444 

Leaves alternate. 
Stipules present Rosacbab, 4M 

Stipules none. 
Herbs with rongb-pubesoent leaves Loasacbab, 088 

Trees or shrubs Sttbaoacbab, 649 

o. Stamens not more than twice as many as the petals u. 
tt. Stamens of the same number as the petals and opposite them. 

Ovaries 8-6, separate ; woody vines MBNurBBKACBAB, 410 

Ovary only one. 
Ovazy 2-4-ceIled. 
Calyx-lobes minute or obsolete ; petals valvate YrrAOBAX, 062 

Calyx 4-0-clef t ; petals involute Rhamvacbab, 060 

Ovary 1-celled. 
Anthers opening by uplifted lids Bbrbbridacbab, 411 

Anthers not opening by uplifted lids. 
Style 1, unbraached ; stigma 1 Prdculacbab, 643 

Styles, style-branches, or stigmas more than 1. • 
Sepals or calyx-lobes 2 Portulacacbab, 387 

Sepals or calyx-lobes 3-0. 
Flowers monoecious CroUmopsUt 042 

Flowers perfect Plumbaoikacbab, 643 

«. Stamens not of the same number as the petals, or if of the same 
number alternate with them v. 
V. Calyx free from the ovary, i.e. ovary wholly superior is* 


10. Ovaries 2 or more, wholly separate or somewhat united x. 
X. Stamens united with each other and with a large thick stigma 

common to the 2 ovaries Asclepiaoacbab, 663 

X. Stamens free from each other and from the pistils y. 
y. Stamens on the receptacle, free from the calyx. 

Leaves punctate with translucent dots Rutaceae, 637 

Leaves without translucent dots. 
Trees or shruhs ; leaves pinnate. 
Low shrub ; leaflets mostly 5 Zanthorhiza, 408 

Tree; leaflets 11 or more AUanthus, 538 

Leaves fleshy Cbassulacbae, 441 

Leaves not fleshy. 
Ovaries or lobes of the ovary 2-5, with a common style. 
Ovary 2-<$-lobed Limnanthacbar, 561 

Ovary 5-lobed Qbkaniacbab, 534 

Ovaries with separate styles or sessile stigmas 

Ranukculacbab, 392 
y. Stamens inserted on the calyx. [Crassulacbab, 441] 

Plant fleshy ; stamens just twice as many as the pistils 
Plant not fleshy ; stamens not twice as many as the pistils. 
Stipules present Rosaceab, 464 

Stipules none Saxifraqacbab, 444 

w. Ovary 1 z. 
z. Ovary simple with 1 parietal placenta. 

Leaves peltate, lobed Podophyllum^ 411 

Leaves not peltate, simple or compound Legu minus ab, 499 

z. Ovary compound, as shown by the number of its cells, placentae, 
styles, or stigmas A. 
A Ovary l-celled. 

Corolla irregular. 
Petals 4; stamens 6 Fukariacbae, 416 

Petals and stamens 6 Violacbab, 679 

Corolla regular or nearly so. 
Ovule solitary. 
Trees or shrubs Anacabdiacbab, 552 

Herbs Crucifbrab, 418 

Ovules more than one. 
Ovules at the center or bottom of the cell. 
Petals not Inserted on the calyx Cartophtllacbab, 377 

Petals inserted on the throat of a bell-shaped or 

tubular calyx Ltthracbab, 691 

Ovules on 2 or more parietal placentae. 
Leaves punctate with translucent dots Hypbricacrab, 671 

Leaves beset with gland-tipped bristles Droseracbab, 440 

Leave., neither punctate nor bristly-glandular. 
Petals 4. [Capp aridac b a k , 438] 

Stamens essentially equal ; pod usually stiped 
Stamens unequal, 2 being shorter than the other 4 ; 

pod sessile Crucifbrab, 418 

Petals 3 or 5. 
Ovary stiped Passifloracbab, 587 

Ovary sessile. 

o&at's manual — 2 


OaKyz Mobed or of 5 equal sepAls SAzmtAOJuOHAJi, 44A 

Calyx of 3 eqaal or 5 very unequal eepals Gibtaobas, 076 

A. Oyary 2-fleyeral-oelled B. 
B. Flowers irregular G. 
G. Anthers opening at the top. 

Anthers 6-8, 1-celled Poltoaxjlcsas, 588 

Anthers 10, 2^ell6d Rhododendron^ 681 

C. Anthers opening lengthwise. 

Stamens 12 and petals 6 on the throat of the gibbons calyx OttpJua, 093 
Stamens 5-10 and petals hypogynons or nearly so. 
Ovary 8^!elled; trees or shmbs Ae9eulu8,0B9 

Ovary 5-celled ; herbs Baxsakikacbab, 660 

& Flowers regular or nearly so D. 

D. Stamens neither Jnst as many nor twice as many as the 
Trees or shmbs. 
Stamens fewer than the 1 petals Olbacbab, 600 

Stamens more numerous than the petals Acbbacbab, 557 

Petals 5 Hypbbioaobab, 571 

Petals 4 CanoirB&AB, 418 

IX Stamens Just as many or twice as many as the petals E. 
£. Ovules and seeds only 1 or 2 in each cell. 
Flowers monoecious or dioecious Eupbobbiacbab, 540 

Flowers perfect and symmetrical. 
Cells of the oTary as many as the sepals. 
Ovary 2-3-06Ued LmNAinHACBAB, 551 

Ovary 5-celled Gbbahxacbab, 534 

Gells of the ovary twice as many as the sepals. 
Leaves abruptly pinnate Zygophtixacbab, 536 

Leaves simple Linacbab, 531 

Shrubs or trees. 
Leaves compound. 
Leaves 8-foliolate, ponetate Ptelea, 537 

Leaves pinnate, not punctate Sapdidacbab, 500 

Leaves simple. 
Leaves palmately veined AoBBArBAB, 557 

Leaves pinnately veined. 
Leaves alternate. 
Climbing shrub Celaairus, SBl 

Erect shrubs or treea 
Flowers racemose Ct&illaobab, 553 

Flowers solitary or cymose Aquifoliacbab, 554 

Leaves opposite Gblastbaceab, 556 

X. Ovules, and usually seeds, several or many in each cell F. 
F. Leaves compound. 

Tree or shrub Staphtlbacbab, 557 

Herbs; leaves alternate, or all radical. 
Leaflets 3, obcordate Oxalidacbab, 532 

Leaflets more numerous, pointed Astilhe, 444 

F. Leaves simple 

Btipulea present between opposite leaves XBlatihagbab. 07il 


StipaleB none when the leaves are opposite. 
Stamens 5, united at base into a 10-toothed 

cnp or tube ; leaves all radical Oalax, 642 

Stamens free from each other. 
Style 1. 
Stamens free from the calyx Ebicacbab, 625 

Stamens inserted on the calyx Ltthracbab, 591 

Styles 2-5, or splitting into 2 in fruit. 
Stamens free from the calyx; leaves 

opposite Caryophyllacbab, 377 

Stamens inserted on the calyx Saxifbagacbab, 444 
V Calyx-tube adherent to the ovary, at least to its lower half 6. 
6. Tendril-bearing and often succulent herbs Cucurbitacbab, 764 

6. Not tendril-bearing H. 
H. Ovules and seeds more than 1 in each cell. 
Ovary 1-celled. 
Sepals or calyx-lobes 2 ; ovules borne at the base of the 

ovary Portulacacbab, 387 

Sepals or calyx-lobes 4-5 ; placentae 2-3, parietal Saxifraoacrab, 444 
Ovary 2-maDy-celled. 
Anthers opening by pores at the apex Mblastomacbab, 593 

Anthers not opening by pores. 
Stamens inserted on or about a flat disk which covers 

the ovary Gblastracbab, 556 

Stamens inserted on the calyx. 
Style 1 ; stamens 4 or 8 (rarely 5) Onaoraceab, 594 

Styles 2-3, distinct ; stamens 5 or 10 Saxifbagacbab, 444 

H. Ovules and seeds only 1 in each cell. 
Stamens 5 or 10. 
Trees or shrubs. 
Leaves simple, not prickly Crataegus^ 460 

Leaves compound, or prickly Araliacbab, 605 

Fruit dry, splitting at maturity ; styles 2 Umbellifbrae, 607 

Fruit berry-like; styles 2-5, separate or united Araliaceae, 606 
Stamens 2, 4, or 8. 
Style and stigma 1 ; fruit a drupe Gorvacbab, 623 

Styles or stigmatic branches or sessile stigmas usually 
more than 1 : fruit not drupaceous. 
Shrubs or trees Hamamelidacbab, 452 

Style 1 ; stigma 2-4-lobed Onagracbab, 594 

Styles or sessile stigmas 4 Haloragidacbab, 602 

n. Petals more or less united I. 
I. Stamens more numerous than the lobes of the corolla J. 
J. Ovary 1-celled. 

Placenta 1, parietal Leouhinosab, 499 

Placentae 2, parietal Fumariaceae, 416 

Placenta at the center or base of the ovary Sttracaceae, 649 

J. Ovary 2-celled ; cells 1-ovuled Poltgalaceae, 538 

J- Ovary 3-oc-celled K. 

K. Stamens free from the corolla. 

Style 1 ; leaves simple Ericaceae, 625 

Styles 5; leaves 3-foliolat6 Oxaudaceae, 532 


K. StameoB attached to the base or tube of the corolla. 

Saprophytic herbs without green foliago Monotropoideae, 626 

Not saprophytic; foliage green. 
Trees, shrubs, or uudershrnbs ; anthers mostly 2-coUed. 
Filaments united into 1-5 groups. 
Ovary superior Tbbnbtrobmiackab, 570 

Ovary at least partly inferior Styracacbab, 649 

Filaments free from each other. 
Style 1 Ebicacbab, 625 

Styles 4 Ebbkacbab, 048 

Herbs; anthers 1-celled. 
Filaments united into a tube Malyacbab, 666 

Filaments distinct, 2 at each notch of the corolla Adoza, 761 

I. Stamens not more numerous than the corolla-lobes L. 
L. Stamens of the same number as the corolla-lobes and opposite them. 
Corolla appendaged with scales inside ; ovary 5-ceIIed ; trees 

or shrubs Safotacbab, 645 

Corolla not appendaged with scales inside; ovary 1-celled; 
Style 1 ; fruit a several-many-eeeded capsule Prihulacbab, 643 

Styles 5 ; fruit a 1-seeded utricle Pluubaoinagbab, 643 

L. Stamens alternate with the corolla-lobes or fewer M. 
li. Ovary free from the calyz-tube (superior) N. 
N. Corolla regular O. 
O. Stamens as many as the corolla-lobes ?. 
P. Ovaries more tlian 1, or, if 1, deeply lobed Q. 
Q. Ovaries 2, or, if 1, 2-homed. 

Stamens united Asclbpiadacrab, 663 

Stamens distinct. 
Stipules or stipular membrane or line between 

opposite leaves; ovary 2-homed Looakiacbab, 6S2 

Stipules none ; ovaries 2. 
Leaves kidney-shaped, alternate Dichondra^ 669 

Leaves not kidney-shaped, chiefly opposite 

Apogtkacbab, 661 
Q. Ovary deeply 4-lobed. 

Leaves alternate BoRAoiyACBAB, 679 

Leaves opposite Labiatab, 690 

P. Ovary 1, not deeply lobed R. 
R. Ovary 1-celled. 

Seed 1 ; corolla scarions Plantaoikacbab, 743 

Seeds several-many. 
Leaves entire, opposite Obwtianacbab, 654 

Leaves toothed, lobed, or compound. 
Whole upper surface of corolla white-bearded ; 

leaflets 3, entire Menyanthe$, 660 

Corolla not conspicuously bearded; leaves, if 
compound, with toothed leaflets 

Htdrophtllagbab, 676 
B. Ovary 2-10-celled. 

Leafless twining parasites Cu9cuta, 671 

Leaves opposite, their bases connected by a stipular 

line Logan lACBAB, 668 



Plaxtaoinaceab, 743 

boraginacbab, 679 

(rarely in) Breweria, (169 


Htdrophtllacbab, 676 

LeaT6s alternate or if opposite with no trace of stipnlei. 
Stamens free from the corolla or nearly so. 
Style 1 Ericacbab, 626 

Style none Aquifoliacbab, 654 

Stamens in the notches of the corolla ; style 1 Diapbnsxacbab, 642 
Stamens on the tube of the corolla. 
Stamens 4. 
Leafy-«temmed ; leaves opposite ; corolla petaloid 

Vbrbbnacbab, 688 
Acaulescent; corolla scarious 
Stamens 5 or rarely more. 
Frait of 2 or 4 seed-like nutlets 
Fruit a few-many-seeded pod. 
Styles 3 
Styles 2. 
Pod few (mostly 4)-seeded 
Pod many-seeded 
Style 1, often branched. 
Branches of the style (or at least the lobes of 
the stigma) 3. 
Not twining Polbmoviacbab, 673 

Twining Ipomoea, 670 

Branches of the style or lobes of che stigma 2 
or rarely 4. 
Seeds few, mostly 4 
Seeds jnany 
O. Stamens fewer than the corolla-lobes. 
Stamens with anthers 4, in pairs. 
Orary 2-celled ; cells several-seeded 
Ovary 2-4-celled ; cells 1-seeded 
Stamens with anthers only 2 or rarely 3. 
Ovary 4-Iobed 
Ovary 2-celled, not 4-lobed. 
Acaulescent; corolla scarious Plantaqinacbab, 743 

Leafy-stemmed ; corolla not scarious Veronica ^ 726 

Trees or shrubs Olbacbab, 660 

N. Ckirolla irregular S. 
S. Stamens with anthers 6. 

Stamens free from the corolla; anther-cells opening at the 

convolyulacbab, 668 
Solakacbab, 712 


Vbrbbnacbab, 688 

Lycopus, 709 

Stamens inserted on the corolla. 
Ovary deeply 4-lobed around the style 
Ovary not deeply lobed, many-ovuled. 
Filaments or some of them woolly 
Filaments not woolly 
8. Stamens with anthers 2 or 4. 

Ovules solitary in the 1-4 cells. 
Ovary 4-lobed ; style rising from between the lobes 
Ovary not lobed ; style from its apex. 
Ovary 1-celled ; fruit turned downwards 
Ovary 2-4-celled ; fruit not turned downwards 
Ovules 2-many in each cell. 

Rhododendron, 681 

Echium, 688 

Verbascum, 719 
Hyoeqfamue, 716 

Labiatab, 690 

Phrtmacbab, 743 
Vbrbenacbae, 688 


Ovary imperfectly 4-6-ceUed Habttviacbab, 741 

Orary 1-2-celled. 
Ovary 1-celled. 
Parasites without green foliage, terrestrial ; stamens 4 

Obobanchaceab, 739 
Not parasitic, chiefly aquatic or mud plants ; stamens 2 

Lbktibcjlabiacbab, 736 
Ovary 2-cel1ed. 
Trees or woody climbers ; placentae parietal Biononiacbab, 740 
Herbs, rarely trees; placentae in the axis. 
Seeds (mostly numerous) not borne on hooks 

Scbophulabiacbab, 717 
Seeds (2-12) borne on hook-like processes of the 

placen tae Ac anthac ea b, 742 

M. Ovary adherent to the calyx-tube (inferior) T. 

T. Tendril-bearing herbs; anthers often united CucuBBrrACBAB, 764 

T. Tendrils none U. 
U. Stamens separate Y. 

V. Stamens free from the corolla or nearly so, as many as its 

lobes ; stipules none : juice milky Campanulacbab, 765 

V. Stamens inserted on the corolla. 

Stamens 1-3, always fewer than the corolla-lobes Valbbianacbab, 761 
Stamens 4-5 ; leaves opposite or whorled. 
Ovary 2-5-ce]led, 
Leaves opposite or perfoliate, but neither whorled 

nor provided with true stipules Caprifoltacbab, 754 

Leaves either opposite and stipulate, or whorled and 

destitute of stipules Rubiacbab, 749 

Ovary 1-oelled. 
Shrubs or trees; flowers in compound cymes; fruit a 

drupe VihUmum, 758 

Herbs; flowers in dense involncrate heads; fruit an 

achene Dipsacacbae, 763 

U. Stamens united by their anthers; these joined in a ring or tube 

Flowers separate, not iuvolucrate ; corolla irregular Lobbliaceab, 768 
Flowers in an involncrate head GoHPoarrAB, 770 



Obdbss, Familibs, ro. 


L FxuoAi 
Warn. 1. HjmeaopbjIUeMe 

** 9. PoljpodlMMM . . 

** 8. flulilMtiiioio • . . 

"* A, OmiuidMMM . . 

*• 6b OphloffloMaoeM . 

** A. Man0flM6M . . . 

** T. SalTtnlaoeM . . . 
Opi* n. Sqvbbtalm 

VuB. 8b BqQiMteceM . . 
Ovd. III. Ltoopodiaum 

Vm/L 9. I^aopodlaoeM • . 

** 10. SeliglBelUicete . . 

" 11. iBOAtaOMM . . . 





Ord. I v. OonirsRAun 
18. Flni 

SoBDiTiBioir II. Anoiohpbrmab 

Old. Y. PAirvAKAun 

f^MB, 14. TjrphMMa 

" 15l Bptgmalfteeae 

Old. YL Kajadaus 

fWiull N^fsdMSM 

** 17. JPIMMIgtMC— 

^ 18. AHuBMate 

** 19. HydroeharitaoeM .... 
Ml. YIL Okamihalm 

Ym. 98. OTBiiilB«ae 

** 91. Qxp«nM6M 

Ord. YIIL Abalm 

f^iii.9S. Arawe 

" 88. LamoMMe 

Old. IX. Xtbidaus 

FkouSi. SrioMolMaae , 

■" 8& XjrrldMMM , 

** 98. MayaeaoeM , 

** 97. CommeUnMaaa 

** 98. BroraeliaoeM 

■* 88. PoDtaderlMeM 





































YAsntrtu amd 
Named Fobms. 
















Ord. X. LiLiALM 
Fun. 80. JaooioeM 
" 81. LJltMeM . 
*" 8S. HMmodoi 
** 88. DioMoreaoaM 
** 84. AmarylUdMeM 
** 85. IridaoMM . . 
Ord. XI. SoiTAMnrALKS 

Fun. 86. MuftntaMM 
Ord. XII. Obohidalm 
Fam. 87. BonnannlMM* 
" 88. OrebldaeeM . , 

SubeloM /. ArMchlamydeae 


Fun. 88. PIperaeeM 

Ord. XIV. Bauoalm 

Fam. 40. Balleaoeaa 

Ord. XV. If TEiOAiM 

Fam. 41. Mjrrlcaoeaa 

Ord. XVI. LimnuiiALBS 

Fam. a. Laltneriaoeaa 

Ord. XVII. JiroLAHDALsa 

Fam. 48. Juglandaeeaa 

Ord. XVIII. Faoalm 

Fam. 44. Betnlaoaaa 

45. Fagacaaa 


Fam. 46. Urtkaeeaa 

Ord. XX. SAirrALALis 

/am. 47. BaotalaooM 

** 48. Loranttaaeeaa 

Ord. XXI. Abxvtoloobialm 

Fam. 49. Arlttolocfalaocaa 


Fun. 50. PoljrgODaoeae 


Fam. 61. Cbenopodiaoeaa 

62. Amuantbaoeaa 

68. Phytolflceaoeae 

54. Nyotaginaoeaa 

55. IllecebraeMo 

56. Atzuaoeae 

Ord. XXIV. CARYornYLijtLis 

Fam. 57. Caryopbyllaoaae 

" 58. PortulaciOMd 

Ord. XXV. BAjrvifouLALBS 

Fam. 69. CeratopbyllaeMa 

60. Njmpbaeaoeae 

" 61. BaanDCDlaoeae 

** 69. Mafrnolluaaa 



• 4 



























Vaubtim axd 
Nambd Foana. 









7 • 








































































YAumnm awd 
VAkid Fokmb. 

OiDna, VunuM, aio. 







luLtt. CM^oanthMeM 



** 64. AnooMeaa ...••••• 



** 6S. MwilspMIIUMSflM • • • • ■ 



•* «L BarberidMaM 



** 6T. LftonoeM 



Oid.ZXyi. Papatbsauh 

Ekil68. FapftTerMeM 






** 49. FonuHrlMeM 






** TO. CrndteM 







■■ Tl. CappuMMeM 




** 7S. H«MdMeM 



OtC. XXYII. Sassaobitialbb 

Fun. T8. BarraoenlaMM • 




** Tl. DroMnoeM 




Oid.XZyiIL RotALM 

fkm.T5. PodoateniMM* 



** T6. OraMolMMa 





" TT. 8axlfl««MeM 





** T& HanMuneHdAoeM 



** T9. PkUnaoeM 



•* 80. SonoeM 







" 81. hfgamiaoMB 







Old. XXIX. Obbaxialm 

FIUII.8S. lAjMnnft 





** 68. OzaUdaoMM • • • • • • 




** 84. CkcmnlAoeM 





** 86. Zygophylkoate • • . • . 



«• 86* BatMMM 






** 8T. 8iiiianibM6M 



** 88. PolTgalMeM 




** 88. Eaphort>IaMM 





<" 90. OdUtrlehMeM 



Old. XX.X. Bapxkdalm 

Fmh. 91. BvxMOM 



" 98. EmpetnweM 






** 94. AoMtrdlMaM • . . . . 




•• 90. CTTflkoate 



«• 9«. AqoifoBMflM 




** 9T. CelMtnoeM 




" 98. BtopbylewMM 



" 99. AeeneeM 




** 100. BaphidaoeM 






<• 101. BalsamlnaoeM 




Fkm. 102. BbamnMeaa 





•* 108. yitM«e 




Old. XXXII. Maltalm 

Fmo. 104. TOteoeM 



** lOB. KaWaoeM 






Tim. 106. TTPatroemlaeeae .... 





Ordxbb, Familiss, xtc. 

Fam. 107. 

Old, XXXIV. 

Fam. 118. 

Orf. XXXV. 

Fam. 114. 

" 116. 

•• 11«. 




Ord. XXXVI. 

Fam. 190. 







Hypeiicaoeae . 
Elatlnacoae . . 
CItitaoeae . . 
Vtolaoeae . . 
Pasalfloraeeae . 
IiOfflnarrao . • 


Ccctaoeae . . 
Thymelooeae . 
Elaeagnaceae . 
Lytbraoeae . . 
Onagraceae . . 


Araliaoeaa . . 
Umbelltferae . 
Coraaceafl . . 

Subclass II. Metachlamydeae 

Ord. XXXVII. ExioALBa 

Yarn. 128. Ericaceae 

** 184. Dlapenslaceae 

Ord. XXXVIII. Pbimulalbs 

Fain. 120. Plnmbaffinaoeae .... 
" 126. Prlmulaoeao 


Fam. 12T. Sapotaceae 

" 188. Ebenaceae 

" 129. Styracaceae 


Fam. 130. Oleaceae 

" 181. Loganfaoeae 

" 188. Oentlanaoeae 

** 188. Apoc}'naceae 

" 184. ABclepladaoeae . . . . 
Ord. XLI. PoLRMoifiALxa 

Fam. 180. Convolvulaoeae .... 

** 186. Po1emon1ac«ae .... 

187. Hydrophyllaoeae .... 

188. Boraglnaceae 

189. Verbenaceae 

140. LabUtae 

141. SoUtnaoeae 

142. Serophnlariaceae .... 
148. Lentibulariaceae .... 

144. Orobanehacea« .... 

145. Bignoniaceoe 

146. Martyniaceae 

147. AeaDthac(«e 

148. Phrvmaceae 




























































Vakibtibb am» 
Nambd Kokmh. 






































Oedbra, Famiuba, xtc. 




Nambd Forms. 








Fain. 149. PlantAfclnaceae 


Fam. 150. Rubtaceae 

*' 151. Capiifoliaoeae 

" 102. ValerUnaceae 

** 168. Dipsacaoc^e 

Ord. XLIV. Campakulalbs 

Fhm. IM. Cucurbitaoeae 

** 136. Cain pan nlaceae 

'* 1M. Lobeltaeeae 

** 157. Compoaitae 




























PlTISIOR, Cl.Aflft, XTC. 

Pteridopbyta . . . 

Bpenostophjrta . . . 

Ojmooapemiae . . 

Angioepennae . . 



A rehieblamydeae 




















Namri) Forms. 







FamfHes 16T 



native 821 

introdaoed .... 180 

native 8418 

Introdaoed .... 666 

Varieties, named 
forms, etc 



native 766 

introdaced .... 40 

total 806 

Whole number of diflisrent plants (species, varietlea, and named ibrms) treated In 




A, £r. — Brann, Alexander. 
Adans. — Adanson, Michel. 

A. DC.-^Dt CandoUe, Alpbonae. 
ilir.— Alton, WUliam. 

AU.f. — Alton, William Townsend. 

^Z/.— Allioni, Carlo. 

Ander$. — Anderaaon, Nils Johan. 

Andr. — Andrewa, Henry C. 

Andrz. — AndnejowaU, Anton Lukiano- 

^rd.— Ardoino, Pietro. 
Am. — Ainott, George A. Walker. 
^«eA. — Aacheraon, Paul. 
Axist. — Anatin, Goe Finch. 

B. A H, — Bentham, George, and Hooker, 

Joseph Dalton. 

Baft.— BaUngton, Charles Cardale. 

Baill, — Baillon, Henri Ernest. 

Ba/di0. —Baldwin, William. 

Bam, — Bameoud, F. Marias. 

Bart/. — Bartllng. Friedrich Gottlieb. 

Bartr.— Bartram, William. 

BeauD. — BeauYoia, A. M. F. J. Palisot de. 

Benn.— Bennett, Arthur. 

Benth. — Bentham, George. 

Bemh. — Bemhardi, Johann Jacob. 

Bess. — Beaaer, Wilhelm 8. J. G. von. 

Bieb. — Bieberatein, Friedrich August, 
Marschall von. 

Bigel, — Bigelow, Jacob. 

B/onzjrr. — BjomatrSm, Friedrich Jo- 

B, Juss. — Juasien, Bernard de. 

Boeckl. — Boeckeler, Otto. 

Boenn, — Boenninghaoaen, C. M. F. yon. 

BoerA.— Boeihaave, Hermann. 

BoUs. — Boiaaier, Edmond. 

Borkh. — Borkhaoaen, M. B. 

Br., A. Br, — Bxann, Alexander. 

Br., P. Br. — Browne, Patrick. 

Br.f R. Br. — Brown, Robert. 

Bracik.— Brackenxidge, William D. 

Briq. — Briqnet, John. 

BSP, — Britton, Nathaniel Lord, 8teni% 
E. £., and Poggenberg, Justus F. 

Bxirm, /. — Barman, Nikolaus Laurens. 

C A S. — Chamlaso, Adalbert von, and 
Schlechtendal, D. F. L. von. 

C. A, ifey.— Meyer, Carl Anton. 

Can*. —Caxxidie, £lie Abel. 

Ccutp. — Caapary, Robert. 

Cau. — Caaaini, Henri. 

Cav, — CaTanlllea, Antonio Joa^ 

6elak. — SelakoTSky , Ladislav . 

C'erv.— Cerrantea, Vicente. 

Cham. — Chamiaao, Adalbert yon. 

Chapm. — Chapman, Alvan Wentworth. 

Chois. — Choiay, Jacques-Denis. 

C7ay t.-Clajrton, John. 

CouU, — Coolter, John Merle. 

Ct^ri/Z.- Cizlllo, Domenico. 

BaW.— Darlington, William. 

Bavenp.— Dayenport, George Edward. 

DC. — De CandoUe, Augustin Pyramna. 

DC, A. DC. — De CandoUe, Aiphonse. 

Dene. — Decalane, Joseph. 

Detf. — Deafontainea, R^n^ Louicfae. 

Desr. — Deaioaaseaox. 

Dew. — Deayaux, Augustin Nicaiae. 

Btetr.- Dietrich, Albert. 

Dill. — Dillenlua, Johann Jacob. 

Dougl. — Douglas, Dayid. 

Dufr. — Datreane, Pierre. 

BuAam.— Da Hamel da Moncean, H. L. 

Dumont, — Da Mont de Coarazt, G- L. M 

Btimort.'^Damortier, Barth^emy C. 

Dur. — Doxieu de Maiaonneays. 

J?at.— Eaton, Amos. 

J?ArA.— Bhrhart, Friedrich. 

^U.— Elliott, Stephen. 

J?;id/.— Endlicher, Stephan lAdislans. 

J^n^e/m. — Engelmann, Gtoorge. 

iTscA.— Eachacholtz, Johann Friedrich. 

FUch. —Fischer, F. E. Ludwig von. 

Forst. — Porater, J. R. and George. 

Fimg. — Poogevonz, Auguste Denla. 




^b«m.— Fminiier, Bogtae. 

Fre9iu — FTMeniiw, J. B. G. W. 

Froel, — FroeUch, JoMph Aloys. 

Qiurtii. — OMrtncr, Joseph. 

&a2.—Galeotti, Henri. 

Quud. — Oaadichand>Beaiipr6y Gluiriee. 

G, F, W. Mey.'-^llByn, Georg Fried- 

rich Wilhelm. 
fff£t6.— OlUbert, Jean Emmaniiel. 
&me{.— GmeUn, Samuel Gottlieb. 
OmeL, J. F, Omel. — Omelln, Johann 

Cfmei., J, Q. 6nM2. — Gmells, Johann 

Chdr, — Godzon» Dominique Alexandre. 
Q9od. — Ooodenongh, Samuel. 
Qrab. — Gnbowski, Heinrioh Emanuel. 
Qraobn, — Graebner, Paul. 
Gfren.— Qxenier, Charies. 
Greo, — Greyille, Robert Kaye. 
Grimb. — Oriaebach, Helnrich B. A. 
ffrofioo.— GxonoTins, Jan Fredrik. 
GFwm, — Onnnerua, Johann Ernst. 
Gun. — Oossoni, Giovanni. 
H. ^ A, — Hooker, William Jaekson, and 

Arnott» 6. A. Walker. 
ffacJb. — Hackel, Ednard. 
Hartnu — Hartman, Carl Johan. 
EoBsk. — Hasskarl, Justus Carl. 
ir<nc<fA;.~Eanaslmecht, Carl. 
iSTaw.— Eawofth, Adrian Hardy. 
flfiiT.— Humboldt, F. Alexander von, 

Bonpland, Aimtf, and Knnth, C. S. 
Hepe/.«*Hegelmaier, Friedrich. 
^Tets^.— Heister, Lorentz. 
Berd.^Hetbert, William. 
IRfcAc— Hitchcock, Albert Spear. 
J70j(fm.— Hoffmann, Georg Franz. 
iTooifc.^ Hooker, William Jackson. 
Bbol;./.— Hbol»r, Joseph Dalton. 
FofiMm.— >Honiemann, Jens Wilken. 
Hudt. ~ Hudson, William, 
/ocf.— Jacquin, Nicolaus Joseph. 
/. D, 8m. — Smith, John Donnell. 
/. F. Omel. — Qmelin, Johann Friedrich. 
/. O, G'me^-'Gmelin, Johann Georg. 
/. G, Sm. — Smith, Jared Gage. 
J. 8fn, — SmitiL, John. 
Jonf.— Joidaa, Alexis. 
JtBU. — Juasdeu, Antoine Laurent de. 
JiiM., B. Jims.— Jnssien, Bernard de. 
JTanf. — Karston, Hermann. 
Kr9ek, — Krocker, Anton Johaon. 

JTtoe. — KoAtie, Otto. 

Z. — Linnaeus, Carolus, or Linn6, Carl 

L.f. —Linai, Carl von (the son). 
Laestad* — Laestadlno, Lars Levi. 
La^.— Lagasca, Mariano. 
J^oZ/. ~ Ave-Lallemant, J. L. E. 
Lam. ^Lamaxck, J. B. A. P. Monnet. 
Lam&. — Lambert, Aylmer Bourke. 
Lot, — Latoniette, M. A. L. 
Xeovento.— Leavenworth, Melines C. 
Ledab. — Ledebonr, Carl F. von. 
Lehm, — Lehmann, J. G. C. 
Le^,S 77i^v.'Lespinao80,Gustave,aiid 

Th^veneau, A. 
Less. — Lessing, Christian Friedrich. 
L'^tfr.^L'H^ritier de Bmtelle, C. L. 
•i^^/^C/".— Lightfoot, John. 
Lindl. — Llndley, John. 
Lodd. — Loddiges, Conrad. 
Loefl. — Loefling, Pehr. 
LoUel. — Loiseleur-Desloiigcliamp«« J 

L. A. 
Loud. — Loudon, John Claudius. 
Lotir. — Loureiro, Juan, 
ifocif.— KacMillan, Conway. 
Marsh. — Marshall, Humphrey. 
Maxim, — Maximowics, Carl Johann. 
Medic. — Medicue, Friedrich Casimir. 
Meisn. — Meisner, Carl Friedrich. 
Merr. — Merrill, Elmer D. 
Mett. — Mettenius, Georg Heinrich 
Mey. — Meyer, Ernst Heinrich F. 
Mey.t O. A, 3fey.— Meyer, Carl Anton. 
Mey., O. F. W. Mey. — Meyer, Georg 

Friedrich Wilhelm. 
ificA.— Micheli, Pier' Antonio. 
Michx. — Michaux, Andr^. 
Michx, f. — Michaux, Francois Andr^. 
ift/Z.^MiUer, Philip. 
Moq. — Moquin-Tandon, Alfred. 
Muell. ul9^. — Mueller, Jean (of Aar- 

Jfi«cnc/k.— Muenchhauten, Otto Freiheif 

ifuAr— Muhlenberg, G. H. E. 
iftirr.— Murray, Johann Andreas. 
Ifeck. — Necker, Noel Joseph de. 
Ifees—JXwB von Esenbeck, Christian 

Nees A Eberm. ^TXets von Esenbeck, T 

F. L., and Ebennaier, K. U- 
JTsiom.— Vewman, Edward* 



Kutt. — Nattall, Thomas. 

Pali. — PallM» Peter Simon. 

Par/.— ParUtore, Filippo. 

P. Br. — Browne, Patrick. 

Pers. — PerMon, Christian Hendrik. 

Peterm. — Petermann, Wilhelm Ladwig. 

Planch. — Planchon, Jules Emile. 

Plum, — Plamier» Charles. 

P<nr. — Poiret, Jean Louis Marie. 

Poll. — PoUich, Johann Adam. 

B. A P.— Rois Lopez, HipoUto, and 
PavoQ, Josef. 

R. AS. — Roemer, J. J., and Schnltea, 

Rc^f. — Ralinesqae-Schmalts, C. 8. 

R. Br. —Brown, Robert. 

i2etcAen6. — Reichenbach, H. 6. L. 

Retz. — Retsius, Anders Johan. 

Richards. — Richardson, John. 

Ro€m. — Roemer, M. J. 

Roatk. — Rostkovins, F. W. G. 

Rottb. — Rottboell, Christen Fries. 

Rapp. — RappittS, Heinrich Bcmhard. 

Rupr. — Rnprecht, Franz J. 

i?^d6.— Rydberg, Per Axel. 

5a/i>6.— Sallsbary, Richard Anthony. 

Sarg. — Sargent, Charles Sprague. 

Sch. Bip. — Schnltz, Karl Heinrich (dis- 
tinguished as Bipontinus, i.e. of 
Zwei bracken). 

Schleich. —Schleicher, J. C. 

Schleid. — Schleiden, Matthias Jacob. 

Schrad. — Schrader, Heinrich Adolph. 

Sehreb. — Schreber, Johann D. C. von. 

Sehwein. — Schweinitz, I^ewis David de. 

Scop. — Scopoli, Johann Anton. 

Scribn. — Lamson-Scribner, Frank. 

Ser, — Seringe, Nicolas Charles. 

5^ii<r/io. — Shottleworth, Robert 

Sibth. — Sibthorp, John. 

Sieb. A Zucc — Siebold. P. P. too, and 
Zoccaiini, J. Q. 

fifm. —Smith, James Edwatd. 

Sm., J. i9m.— Smith, John. 

8m. t J. D. 8m, — Smith, John DonneB 

8m. t J. G. iSm. — Smith, Jared Gage. 

Soland. — Solander, I>aniel. 

Spreng, — Sprengel, Kurt. 

<Stern6.— Sternberg, Caspar. 

Steud. — Steudel, Ernst Gottlieb. 

Stev, — Steven, Christian. 

St, BU. — St. HUaire, Auguste de. 

5tt/ao. — SuUivant, WUliam Starling. 

5to.— Swartz, Olaf. 

T, A O. — Torrey, John, and Gny, Aam 

Thtmb. — Thunberg, Carl Pehr. 

Torr, — Torrey, John. 

7our/i. — Tournefort, Joseph Pitton de. 

7>e/. — Trolease, William. 

Treo.— Treviranus, Christian Ludolf. 

7*nn.— Txinins, Karl Bernhard. 

Tuckenn, — Tuckerman, Edward. 

Tt/rcz. ^Torczaninow, Nicolaus. 

Underw. — Underwood, Lucieu Marcus. 

Fat//. — VaUUnt, SiSbastien. 

Vent. — Ventenat, Etienne Pierre. 

Ft//. — Villars, Dominique. 

iraA/6.— Wahlberg. Pehr Fred rik. 

TFaA/enfr.- Wahlenberg, Georg. 

Waldit. A /Tt^ — Waldstein, F. A. von 

and Kitaibel, P. 
IFa/Zr.- Wallroth, K. F. W. 
IFa/p.-Walpers, Wilhelm Gerhard. 
H^a/^— Walter, Thomas. 
ITan^.— Wangenheim, F. A. J. von* 
TFaff.- Watson, Sereno. 
ITg^^ff^— Wettstein, Richard von. 
Willd. — Willdenccw, Carl Ladwig. 
Wimm, — Wimmer, Friedrich. 
TTtrA.— Withering, William. 
Wormsk. — Wormskiold, M. von. 
irtt<^.— Wnlfea, Franz Xavier. 


(The cnstomary and well known abbreviations for the states of the Union and 
months of the year are omitted from this list) 

Jdv^ adventlve, l.e. as yet oniy casual 

and sporadic. 
4/r., Africa. 
Alb., Alberta. 

Am.f America or American. 
Jnina., Assiniboia. 
jiuffr., Australia. 
auth., authors. 
B. C, British Columbia, 
em., centimeter (or centimeters)* the 

hundredth part of a meter, » about 

two-fifths of an inch. 
oogmop; cosmopolitan, 
ffu^r., distributed. 
dm., decimeter (or decimeters), the tenth 

part of a meter, » about four inches. 
e., east or eastern. 
tastw., eastward. 
Bu,, Europe. 

Kwra9ia, Europe and Asia. 
/., filius, son, or the younger. 
17., flowers or flowering. 
Fr,^ fruit or fruiting. 
Qneni,, Greenland. 
Aids. B., Hudson Bay. 
/., island. 
hOrod., introduced, i.e. brought in inten- 

tSooally, as through horticulture, etc. 
I. T.y Indian Territory. 
J«., lake. 
Xdb., Labrador. 
^ /., Long Island, New York. 
m., meter (or meters), ■■ about 89} 

Jfon., Manitoba. 
If as». ed. ff, Sixth edition or Gray'b Han- 

oal of Botany. 
, Mexico. 

mm., millimeter (or millimeters), m 
about one twenty-fifth of an inch. 

rat., mU,, mountain, mountains. 

ft., north or northern. 

N. A., North America. 

nat., naturalized, i.e. thoroughly estab 

J^. B., New Brunswick. 

n. e., northeast. 

Nfd., Newfoundland. 

no., number. 

northto,, northward 

N. 8., Nova Scotia. 

n. 10., northwest. 

Okla., Oklahoma. 

Ont., Ontario. 

P. JS. I., Prince Edward Island. 

Que., Province of Quebec. 

R., river. 

$., south or southern. 

8. A., South America. 

8a»k., Saskatchewan. 

f. «., southeast. 

Siber., Siberia. 

Bouthw., southward. 

Bubtrop., sub-tropicaL 

B. to., southwest. 

Temp., temperate. 

Trqp,, tropics or tropksaL 

10., west or western. 

toBBtw^ westward 

W. I., West Indies. 

ti (pronounced mu). A micron, the mfl* 
lionth part of a meter, a measure 
nsed in microscopic studies. 

• Figures or words connected by the 




short dash indicate the extremes 
of variation, as "fi--12 mm. long, 
few-many>flowered/' i.e. varying 
from five to twelve millimeters in 
length and from few to many flow- 

§ section. 

oo Of indefinite number, nsnally many. 

I A mark of affirmation or anthentica 

? indicates donbt. 
^Bearing stamens or antheridia but 

neither pistils nor archegonia. 
9 Bearing pistils or archegonia but 

neither stamens nor antheridia. 
X oroMed with, the oign of a hybrid. 

too Millimeters 

1 1 














10 Centimeters 

yio Meter, or 1 Decimeter 


Division L PTERID6pHYTA 
(Ferns and Fern Allies) 

Male generative cells (spermatozoids) spirally coiled motile bodies, 
not developing into a tube. Plants with more cr less distinct alter- 
nation of generations. The sexual stage, a small thalloid body ; the 
asexual provided with vascular tissue and (with rare exceptions) 
differentiated into stem and leaves (fronds), some of these modified 
to bear asexual reproductive bodies or spores (without embryo), 
which again give rise to the sexual generation. — Often called 
Yasonlar Cryptogams or Higher Flowerless Plants. 

HYMXNOPHyLLACEAS (Filmt Fbrn Family) 

Deiicaie ferns tioith lender often filiform creeping rooMocks. Fronds 
pellucid, of a single layer of cells. Sporangia sessile on a bristJe-like receptacle 
within a cup-shaped, tabular, or bivalvular involucre, from the apex of a vein, 
the ring transverse and complete. Chiefly tropical, inhabiting damp places, 
often epiphytic. Fronds drcinate in vernation. 

1. TSICH(}]KAinDS L. Filmt Fbbn 

Involucre tnbular-funnel-shaped, the month nearly or quite truncate. Spo- 
rangia bursting vertically. — Ours a small creeping fern with much divided 
fronds. (An ancient Greek name for some fern.) 

1. T. Boschiinnm Sturm. Fronds oblong-lanceolate, 1-2 dm. long, 12-86 mm. 
wide, bipinnatifid ; rhachis narrowly winged ; pinnae triangular-OTate, the divi- 
sions toothed or s^gsin lobed ; capillary receptacle often much exserted. ( T. rod- 
ieans Man. ed. 6, not Sw.) — On moist and dripping sandstone cliffs, Ky. to 

FOLTPODlACBAE (Fbbn Family) 

Lettfif plants (ours herbaceous), with creeping rhizomes. Spores home in 
sporangia (spore-cases), these collected in dots, lines, or variously shaped* clusters 
(sort or fruit dots) on the hack or margins of the frond or its divisions, cellular- 
reticulated, stalkedy the stalk running into a vertical incomplete many-jointed 
ring, vfhieh hy Straightening at maturity ruptures the sporangium transversely 
M the inner side, discharging the spores. Fruit dots often covered (sX least 

OBAT*« MAirUAL — 8 RS 


when young) hy a membrane called the indusium (or less properly the Involucre), 

growing either from the back or the margin of the frond. 

a. Induatuin nooe or abortive and obscure &. 
h. Sterile fronds simply pinnatifld (the segments rarely toothed or lobed). 

Fertile fh)Dds similar to the sterile, Hat and leaf-like .... 1. Poltpodium. 
Fertile fronds much contracted ; segments pod-like . . . .18. Omoolxa. 
5. Sterile fronds 2-4-pinnate or -pinnatifld. 
Sterile fronds green on both surfaces. 

Fertile fronds similar to the sterile, leaf-like 2. Puegoptbris. 

Fertile fronds much contracted ; B^^ents pod-like . . .18. Onuolea. 

Sterile fh>nd8 whitened beneath S. Nutholaena. 

O. Indusium present o. 
0. Indusium formed entirely or In part by the rerolnte edge of the ftt>nd d. 
d, Sori clearly distinct. 

Indusium single, covering the sorus ....... 4. AniAifrnif. 

Indusium double, cup-like or 2* valved 17. Dickson i a. 

d, Sori soon confluent as a more or less continuous marginal band. 

Stipe stout (iM mm. in diam.), commonly solitary .... 6. Ptbria. 
Stipes filiform (0.5-1.3 mm. in diam.), clustered. 
Segments of the sterile frond glabrous. 
Qreen or greenish. 
Segrments petiolulate or articulated at conlate or rounded base 7. Pbllava. 
Segments of sterile frond cuneate at sessile unarticulated base 8. Cryptooramm a. 

Ohalky-white beneath 3. Notholabna. 

Segments of the sterile frond pubescent 6. Oubilamtueh. 

o. Indusium not continuous with the edge of the frond e. 
6, Indusium peltate or laterally attached, covering the sorus when young /. 
/. Sori more or less elongated. 

Sori parallel to the midrib 9. Woodwardia. 

Sori parallel to the obllaue lateral veins. 
Yeins free; fronds l-S-pinnate. 
Sori separate, straight or horseshoe-shaped • . . .10. Asplbnicm. 
Sori linear, confluent in pairs (appearing like single sori 

but with indusia on both sides) 11. Scolopexdriuh. 

Veins reticulated : fh)nds simple, rooting at the tip . • . 12. Camptoborus. 
/I Soil orbicular or renifbrm g. 
g. Indusium evident at least when young ; fertile ih)nds leaf like h. 
h. Indusium fixed by the center. 

Indusium orbicular-peltate, without a sinus . . . .18. PoLrsTicnvM. 
Indusium renifnrm or if orbicular MTith a narrow sinus . . 14. Aspidium. 

h. Indusium attached at the side 15. Cy6toptkbi9. 

g. Indusium obscure, lunate; fertile segments much contracted, 

pod-like 13. Onoolba. 

•. Indusium inferior, cup-like or involucre-like. 

Indusium 2- valved, cup-like 17. Dioksowia. 

Indusium cleft into narrow segments 16. Woodbia. 

1. POLYPdDIUM [Toum.] L. Polypody 

Fruit dots round, naked, arranged on the back of the frond in one or more 
rows each side of the midrib or central vein, or irregularly scattered, each borne 
in our species on the end of a free veinlet. Rootstocks creeping, branched, often 
covered with chaffy scales, bearing scattered roundish knobs, to which the stipes 
are attached by a distinct articulation. (Name from iroXi^, many, and iro6s,footf 
alluding to the branching rootstock.) 

1. P. vuIglLre L. Fronds evergreen, oblong, smooth both sides, 8-40 cm. 
high, simple and deeply plnnatifid ; the divisions linear-oblong, obtuse or some- 
what acute, remotely and obscurely toothed ; veins once or twice forked ; 
fruit dots large ^ midway between the midrib and the margin. — Rocks ; common. 
July. (Eu., etc.) Variable. Some of the more noteworthy forms have been 
distinguished as : Var. attenuXtum Milde, with segments attenuate-acuminate, 
serrulate toward the end. Var. aurItdm Willd., with the lowest segments auri- 
cled. Var. oImbricum (L.) Willd., with the segments more or less strongly 
toothed or pinnatifld. Var cristAtum Moore, with segments 1-several times 
forked at the ends. 

2. P. polypodioides (L.) Hitchc. Frond evergreen and coriaceous, oblong, 
6-26 OHL high, grayish and very scurfy underneath with peltate scales^ simply 
pinnatifld ; the divisions oblong-linear, obtuse ; fruit dots rather small, near the 
marain; veins forking, free in the N. American plant I (P. incanum Sw.)— 
Rocks and trunks of trees, Va. and O. to la., and south w.; reported on 
Statenl.. N Y. (Trop.) 


2. PHE66PTERIS (Presl) F^. Beech Fern 

Fruit dots small, round, naked (no indusiuni), borne on the back of the veins 
below the apex. Stipe continuous with the rootstock. — Our species have free 
veins and bright green meiiibranaceous fronds, decaying in early autumn. 
(Name composed of ^17765, an oak or beech^ and irr^pty, fern.) 

♦ Fronds twice pinnatifid ; pinnae all sessile, adnate to the winged rhachis, 

1. P. polypodioides F6e. Fronds triangular, longer than broad (8-26 cm. 
long), hairy on the veins, especially beneath ; pinnae linear-lanceolate, the 
loxoest pair dejlexed and standing forward ; their divisions oblong, obtuse, entire, 
the basal decurrent upon the main rhachis ; fruit dots all near the margin. (P. 
Phegopteris Underw.) — Damp woods, Nfd. to N. Y., ** Va.," Wise., la., Wash,, 
and Alaska. (Kurasia.) 

2. P. hexagon6ptera (Michx.) F6e. Fronds triangular, usually broader than 
long (14-:i0 cm. broad), slightly pubescent and often finely glandular beneath : 
pinnae lanceolate ; upper segments oblong, obtuse, toothed or entire, those of the 
very large lowest pinnae often elongated and pinnately lobedy basal ones very 
much decurrent and forming a continuous many-angled wing along the main 
rhachis ; fruit dots near the margin ; some also between the sinus and the mid> 
rib. — Haiher open woods, centr. Me. to w. Que., w. to Minn., and south w. ; 
common. — Larger and bioader than the last, which it often closely resembles. 

* * Fronds temate, the three divisions petioled; rhachis mngless. 

3. P. Dry6pteris (L.) F^e. (Oak Fern.) Fronds smooth, broadly triangular 
(1-1.6 dm. wide), the three triangular primary divisions all widely spreading, 
1-2-pinnate ; segments oblong, obtuse, entire or toothed ; fruit dots near the 
margin. — Rocky woods ; common northw. (Eurasia.) 

4. P. Robertiina (Hoffm.) A. Br. Fronds minutely glandular and some- 
what rigid, dull green ; lowest inferior pinnae of the lateral divisions smaller in 
proportion than in the last species. (P. calcarea F^e.) — Shaded limestone, 
'^ Lab.*' and Anticosti to N. B., la., and Man. ; rare. (Eu.) 

8. NOTHOLA&NA R. Br. Cloak Fern 

Fmit dots roundish or oblong, placed near the ends of the veins, soon more 
or less confluent into an irregular marginal band, with no proper involucre. 
Veins always free. Fronds of small size, 1-4-pinnate, the lower surface almost 
always either hairy, tomentose, chaffy, or covered with a fine waxy white or 
yellow powder. (Name from y6dos, spurious, and Xatva, a cloak, the woolly 
coating of the original species forming a spurious covering to the sporangia.) 

1. N. dealbMa (Pursh) Kunze. Fronds triangular-ovate, 3-8 cm. long, 
3-4-pinnate ; rhachis and branches straight, black and shining ; ultimate pin- 
nules ovate-oblong, scarcely 2 mm. long, white and powdery ou the lower surface. 
(xV. nivea, var. Davenp.) — Clefts of dry calcareous rocks. Mo., Kan., and 
30Uthwe8tw. July, August. 

4. ADIANTUM [Toum.] L. Maidenhair 

Fruit dots marginal, short, borne on the under side of a transversely oblong, 
crescent^haped or roundish, more or less altered margin of a lobe of the frond 
reflexed to form an indusium ; the sporangia attached to the approximated tips 
of the free forking veins. — Main rib (costa) of the pinnules none (in our species) 
or at the lower margin. Stipes black and polished. (The ancient name, from 
a- privative and Sialvcjy meaning unwetted, the foliage repellinjr rain-drops ) 

1. A. pedlitum L. Frond forked at the summit of the upright slender stalk 
(2-6 dm. high), the recurved branches bearing on one side several slender 
spreading pinnate divisions ; pinnules numerous, short-stalked and obliquely 
triangular-oblong, entire on the lower margin, from which the vines all proceed, 
and cleft and fruit-bearing on tiie other, — Rich moist, woods. July. 


2. A« Caplllas-Vlnerifl L. Fronds (1-6 dm. high) with a corUinwnu main 
rhachiSf ovate-lanceolate^ often pendent, 2-3-pinnate at the base, the upper third 
or half simply pinnate ; pinnules wedge-obovate or rhomboid, 16-32 mm. long, 
deeply and irregularly incised ; vein lets flabellately forking from the base ; invo- 
lucres lunulate or transversely oblong. — Moist rocky places, s. N. Y. (f) ; 
8.e. Fa. to Ky. and Fla.; also S. Dak. and southwestw. (Widely distr.) 

6. PTArIS L. Brjlkb or Braoken 

Sporangia In a continuous slender line of fructification, occupying the entire 
margin of the fertile frond, and covered by its reflexed narrow edge which forms 
a continuous membranaceous indusium, attached to an uninterrupted transverse 
vein-like receptacle connecting the tips of the forked free veins, with or without 
an obscure inner indusium. Fronds 1-3-pinnate or decompound. TThe ancient 
Greek name of Ferns, from irrepdw^ a toing, on account of the prevalent pinnate 
or feathery fronds.) 

1. P. aquilina L. ^Common Brake.) Frond dull green (2-0 dm. wide), 
temate at the summit oi an erect stout stalk (2-0 dm. highV the widely spread- 
ing branches twice pinnate ; pinnules oblong'lanceolate ; the upper undivided ; 
the lower more or less pinnatind, with oblong obtuse lobes, margined all round 
with the indusium, which is really double in this species. {Pteridiwm Kuhn.) 
— Thickets and hillsides, common. Aug. (Widely distr.) Var. psbudogau- 
dJLta Clute is a form with many of the pinnules^ especially the terminal ones, 
narrow, entire^ and mttch elongated, — >Mas8. to N. J., southw. to Fla. and Tex. 


Sporangia borne on the thickened ends of free veinlets, forming small and 
roundish distinct or nearly contiguous marginal fruit dots, covered by a mostly 
whitish and membranaceous, sometimes herbaceoos, common indusiunif formed 
of the reflexed margin of separate lobes or of the whole pinnule. — Low, mostly 
with 2-8-pinnate and hairy or chaffy, rarely smooth fronds, the sterile and 
fertile nearly alike, the divisions with the principal vein central. Some species 
with continuous indusium connect this genus very closely with the next. (Name 
composed of x«^^'« margin^ and di^of, a flower^ from the marginal sori.) 

* Fronds smooth^ or at most hairy, 

1. C. alabam^nsis (Buckley) Kunze. Fronds smooth^ chartaceous (7-20 cm. 
long), ovate-lanceolate, bipinnate ; pinnae numerous, oblong-lanoeolate ; pin- 
utiles triangular-oblong, rather acute, often auriculate or lobed ; indusium con- 
tinuous^ rather broad^ pale, and of firm consistence, — On rocks, mts. of Va. to 
Ky., southw. and westw. (Mex. ) 

2. C. lanbsa (Michx.) Watt. Fronds (1-4 dm. high) lanceolate-oblong, 
hirsute, as are the brown and shining stipes, with straightish prominewUy ariicu- 
lated rusty hairs, twice pinnate ; pinnae rather distant, triangular-ovate ; pin- 
nules oblong, crowded (4-8 mm. long), more or less incised, the ends of the 
roundish or oblong lobes reflexed and forming separate herbaceous involucres, 
which are pushed back by the ripened sporangia. (C vestita Sw.) — Clefts of 
rocks, Cu to Minn., Wyo., and southw. 

• * Fronds woolly or tomentose, 

8. C. toment^8a Link. Fronds (1.5-6 dm. high) lanceolate-oblong, densely 
tomentose with slender and entangled whitish obscurely articulated hairs, thrice 
pinnate ; primary and secondary pinnae oblong or ovate-oblong ; pinnules dfo- 
tinet, minute (1-2 mm. long), roundish-obovate, sessile or adnate-decurrent, the 
upper surface less woolly, the reflexed narrow margin forming a cowtinw>us 
somewhat membranaceous indusium, — Mts. of Va. and Ky. ; thence w. and 
southw. — Stipe and rhachis rather stout, brown, covered with narrow chaffy 
scales and whitish hairs. (Mex., W. I.) 

4. C. Fedi Moore, i^tipes slender, at first hairy, black or brown, shining ; 


fronds (8-17 cm. high) ovate-lanceolate, woolly with soft whitish distinctly 
articukUed flattened hairs, becoming smoother above, twice or thrice pinnate; 
pinnae (8-12 mm. long) ovate, the lowest distant, the others contiguous ; pin- 
nules crenately pinnatifldt or mostly divided into minute and roundish densely 
crowded segments (1-2 mm. long), the herbaceous margin recurved and forming 
an almost continuous indusium, (C lanugiiiosa Nutt.) —In dense tufts, on 
dry rocks and cUfEs, Ul. to Minn., thence w. and south w. 

7. PSILAAA Link. Cliff Brake 

Sporangia in roundish or elongated clusters on the upper part of the free 
veins, distinct, or confluent laterally so as to imitate the marginal continuous 
line of fructification of Pteris, commonly covered by a broad membranaceous and 
continuous (rarely interrupted) general indusium^ which consists of the reflexed 
and altered maigin of the fertile pinnule or division. — Small ferns, with 1-^ 
pinnate fronds, the fertile ones with narrower divisions than the sterile, but 
otherwise similar. Stipes generally dark-colored, smooth, and shining. (Name 
from xcXX^, dusky, alluding to the stipe.) 

1. P. atropnrpirea (L.) Link. Smooth, except some bristly-chaffy hairs on 
the midribs and especially on the dark purple and polished stalk and rhachis, 
1-6 dm. high ; fronds coriaceous, pale, once or below twice pinnate ; the divi- 
sions broadly linear or oblong, or the sterile sometimes oval, chiefly entire, some- 
what heart-shaped or else truncate at the stalked base ; veins about twice forked. 
—Dry calcareous rocks, '*N. H.^* and Vt. to R. I., Ga., and westw. ; not common. 
July. Yar. cristXta Trel. is a form with dichotomously forked pinnae, somewhat 
crowded toward the summit of the frond. — Eureka, Mo. (6^. Pauls), 

8. CRTPTOGRAmMA R. Br. Rock Brake 

Wraft dots roundish or elongated and extending far down on the free forking 
veins. Margins of the fertile segments herbaceoas or more or less scarious, at 
first reflexed and meeting at the midrib, at length opening out flat and exposing 
the confluent sporangia. — Low ferns, with smooth 2-3-pinnate tufted fronds, 
the fertile ones taller than the sterile, and with narrower divisions. (Name 
from jrpvxr^f, hidden, and ypafifdj, a line, alluding to the lines of sporangia 
at fint concealed by the reflexed margin.) 

* Bevolute margins of t?ie fertile frond hearing a distinct scarious indusial 

border; ultimate segments of the sterile fronds lance-linear, acute, 

1. C. d^nsa (Brack.) Diels. Fronds not very dissimilar, 8-20 cm. high ; 
stipes purplish brown ; segments of the sterile fronds lance-linear, very acute, 
incisely serrate. (Pellaea Hook.) — Calcareous or serpentine walls of ravines, 
etc, Mt. Albert, Gasp^ Co., Que. ; Grey Co., Ont. ; and in the far west. 

• • Revolute margins of tJie fertile frond scarcely modified; ultimate segments 

of the sterile fronds broader, 

2. C. acrostichoides R. Br. Fronds markedly dissimilar ; segments of the 
fertile linear (6-10 mm. long), of the sterile ovate-oblong, obtuse, serrulate ; 
stipes straw-colored, scaly especially toward the base. — Crevices of rocks, 
Arctic Am. to L. Huron, L. Superior, Col., and Cal. 

3. C. Stelldri (Gmel.) Prantl. Fronds markedly dissimilar; segments of 
the fertile linear-oblong to lance-linear; those of tJie sterile ovate to obovate- 
flabelliform, crenulate, decurrent at their cuneate bases. {Pellaea gracilis 
Hook.) — Shaded chiefly calcareous rocks. Que. and N. B. to Vt, Ct, n. Pa., 111., 
and northwestw. ; local. (Asia.) 

9. WOODWARDIA Sm. Chain Fern 

Fruit dots oblong or linear, arranged in one or more chain-like rows on trans- 
verse anastomosing veinlets parallel and near to the midrib. Indusium fixed by 


its outer margin to the fruitful veiiilet, free and opening on the ffide next the 
midrib. Veins more or less reticulated, fite toward the margin ol the frond. — 
Large ferns, with pinnatitld or pinnate fronds. (Named for Thomas »/. Wood- 
ward^ an English botanist.) 

§ 1. ANCHISTfeA (Fresl) Hook. Sterile and fertile fronds alike ; veins fom^ 

ing only one row of meshes {areoles), 

1. W. virglnica (L.) Sm. Fronds (6-14 dm. high) pinnate, with numerous 
lanceolate pinnatifid pinnae ; segments oblong ; veins forming a row of narrow 
areoles along the midrib both of the pinnae and of the lobes, the outer veinlets 
free ; fruit dots oblong, one to each areole, confluent when ripe. — Wet swamps. 
N. S. to Fla., La., Mich., and Ont. Rootstocks creeping, often 2-3 m. long I 

§ 2. LORINSfeUIA (Presl) Hook. StenU and fertile fronds unlike; veins of 

the sterile fronds forming many rows of meshes. 

2. W. areoUta (L.) Moore. Fronds pinnatifid ; sterile ones (2-6 dm. high) 
with lanceolate serrulate divisions united by a broad wing ; fertile fronds taller, 
with narrowly linear almost disconnected divisions, the areoles and fruit dots 
(8-10 mm. long) in a single row each side of the secondary midrib ; rootstocks 
creeping. (W. angustifolia Sm.) — Wet woods, s. Me. to Fla. and Tex. ; also 
Ark. and Mich. ; rare. Aug., Sept. 

10. ASPLAnIUM L. Splbenwort 

Fruit dots oblong or linear, oblique, separate : the straight or rarely curved 
indusium fixed lengthwise by one edge to the upi)er (inner) side of the fertile 
vein ; — in some species a part of the fruit dots are double, the fertile vein bear- 
ing two indusia placed back to back. Veins free in all our species. (Name 
from a- privative and o-irXi^p, the spleen, for supposed remedial properties.) 

§ L EUASPLfeNIUM (Kndl.) Klotzsch. Indusium straight or slightly curved, 
attached to the upper side of the vein, rarely double ; mnnll evtrgreen ferns ; 
stipes filiform or nearly »o, with vascular bundles separate and peripheral or 
if united toward the summit forming a Innate bundlf ; urates of the rhizome 
and stipes narrow, of firm texture and with thick-walled cells. 

* Fronds pinnatifid, or pinnate only near the base. 

1. A. pinnatlfidum Nutt. Fronds (7-20 cm. long) lanceolate, pinnatifid or 
pinnate below, tapering alxjve into a slender prolongation^ ** the apex sometimes 
rooting " ; lobes roundish-ovate, obtuse, or the lowest long-acuminate ; fruit 
dots irregular, those next the midrib often double, even the slender prolongation 
fertile ; stipes brownish, becoming green above, and so passing into the broad 
pale green midrib. — On cliffs and rocks, Ct. to Mo., and south w. ; very rare. 
July. — Resembles the Walking Leaf (Camptosoriis), but the veins are free. 

X A. ebenoides R. R. Scott. Fronds (l-*ii dm. high) broadly lanceolate, ptn- 
natifid, below pinnate, the apex prdionged and slender; divisions lanceolate 
from a broad base, the lower ones shorter, often proliferous, as is the apex of 
the frond ; fruit dots much as in the last ; stipes black and polished, as is the 
lower part of the midrib, especially beneath. — Limestone cliffs, Vt. (Miss Wool- 
son, Miss Smith) to Mo., and southw. ; very rare. A noteworthy hybrid be- 
tween A. platyneuron and Camptosorus rhizophyllus ; its origin early suspected 
iy M. G. Berkeley and recently demonstrated by Miss Margaret Slosson. This 
fern is more abundant and probably self-perpetuating in Ala. 

* * Fronds narrow, linear-oblong to oblong-lanceolate, pinnate, with numerous 

pinnae ; these entire to serrate or rarely incised. 

-•- Pinnae not auricled. 

2. A. yiride Huds. Fronds (6-13 cm. tall) tufted, linear in otUline, pale 
green, softly herbaceous; pinnae roundish-ovate or ovate-rhomboid, short- 
stalked, crenately toothed (4-9 mm. long)* the midvein indistinct and forking ; 


the denderBi(pe brownish and passing into a green herbaceous rhachis, '^Shaded 
timestone ; Nfd. to n. N. K., w. and northw , rare. (Widely distr.) 

3. A. Trichdnuuies L. Fronds (8-22 cm. long) in dense spreading tufts, 
linear in outline, dark green and more rigid; pinnae roundish-oblong or ovai 
(3-7 mm. long), entire or crenulate, rarely incised, unequal-sided, obliquely 
wedge-uuncate at base, attached by a narrow point, the midvein forking 
and evanescent; the thread4ike stipe and rhachis purple-brown and shin- 
ing. — Shaded rocks. July. (Widely distr.) Forma inc^sum Moore with 
deeply pin natlfid pinnae has been reported from Yt. {Miss GroxUy Mrs, Horton). 

1- •*- Pinnae more or less auricled. 

4. A. pAnrulum Mart & Gal. Fronds upright (1-25 dm. high), narrowly 
linear-oblanceolate ; pinnae (4-12 mm. long) rigid and thickish, mostly opposite, 
nearly sessile, somewhat deflexed, oblong, obtuse, entire or crenulate, auricled 
on the upper or both sides ; sori rather few, as near the margin as to the continu- 
ous midvein ; stipe and rhachis black and shining. (A. resiliens Kunze.) — Mts. 
of Va. to Kan., and southw. — Intermediate between the last and the next. 

6. A. plat3niieiiron (L ) Oakes. Fronds upright (2-5 dm. tali), linear- 
oblanceolate in outline, fertile ones much the taller; pinnae (1-3 cm. long) 
^rmly membranaceous, mostly alternate, sessile, spreading, oblong or oblong- 
linear, finely serrate or even incised, the base auricled on the upper or both sides ; 
sori many, nearer the elongated midvein than the margin ; stipe and rhachis 
blackish-purple and shining. (A, ebeneum Ait.) — Rocky open woods, s Me. 
to Col., and southw. (W. I., S. Am., Afr.) Var. skrrXtum (E. S. Miller) 
BSP. is a form with at least some of the pinnae deeply jagged-seiTate. Var. 
iNcisiTM (E. ('. UowtO Kobinson has very brittle stipis and the pinnae deeply 
pinnaiitid. (A, ebentum, Yar. Mortonae Davenp.) — Vt. to Md., Mo., and 
"Ark.'' ; rare. 

6. A. Bradldyi D. C. Eaton. Fronds oblong-lanceolate (4-20 cm. tall); stipe 
blackish and somewhat shining ; pinnae membranaceous, rather numerous, the 
lower ones no larger than the middle ones, all short-stalked, oblong-ovate, obtuse, 
incised or pinnatijid into oblong toothed lobes. — On rocks, e. N. Y. to Ky., 
" Mo.," and southw. ; rare. 

« « « Fronds ovate-lanceolate to deltoid, ^S-pinnate or -pinnatifid, 

7. A montAnum Willd. Fronds ovate-lanceolate from a broad base (5-13 
cm. long), subcoriaceous, pinnate ; pinnae ovate-oblong, the lowest pinnately 
cleft into oblong or ovate cut^toothed lobes, the upper gradually simpler ; rhachis 
green, broad and flat; stipe brown at base. — QMfSa and rocks, from Ct. to 
0., Ky., "Ark," and southw. July. 

8. A. Rikta-mur&ria L. Fronds deltoid-ovate (3-7 cm. long exclusive of the 
green stipe), subcoriaceous, laxly 2-3-pinnate at base, the pinnae alternate; 
ultimtUe segments few, stalked (3-14 mm. long), from narrowly cuneate to 
roundish-obovate, toothed or incised at the apex ; veins forking ; sori 2-4 on a 
segment; rhachis and stipe green. — Limestone cliffs, Vt. to Ont., Mich., Mo., 
and southw. ; scarce. July. (Kurasia.) 

§ 2. ATHYRIUM (Roth) J. Sm. Tndusium straight or more often curved, fire- 
quently crossing the vein; fronds tall, strictly herbaceous ; the stipes green 
or greenish not filiform, the bundles concentric and uniting above into a 
S-4-armed central bundle; scales delicate, of thin-walled cells. — Athyrium 
Hoth as redefined by Miide. 

• Fronds simply pinnate ; indusium straight or but slightly curved. 

9. A. angustifblium Michx. Fronds 6-12 dm. high; pinnae (8-12 cm. 
long) numerous, short-stalked, linear-lanceolate, acuminate, entire or crenulate, 
those of the fertile frond narrower ; fruit dots linear, 20-40 each side of the 
midvein ; indusia slightly convex. (Athyrium Milde.) — Rich woods, w. Qu«. 
and N. II. to Minn., and southw. Sept. 

• • Fronds bipinnatifld ; indusium straight or slightly curved. 

10. A. aciostichoides Sw. Fronds (6-11 dm. high) pinnate ; pinnae deeply 


pinnati/ld, linear-lanceolate (7-13 cm. long) ; the lobes oblong, obtuse, mtnntely 
toothed, crowded, each bearing 3-6 paii-s of oblong fruit dots, some of them 
double. (A, thelypteroides Michx. ; Athprium acrostichoides Die]8.)^Rich 
woods, N. S. to 6a., Ala., and Minn. ; not rare. (Asia.) 

« • « Fronds bipinnate ; indusia at least in part reniform or horseshoe-shaped. 

11. A. Filiz-ttmina CL.) Bemh. (Lady Fbbn.) Fronds (4-10 dm. high) 
ovate-oblong or broadly lanceolate, twice pinnate ; pinnae lanceolate, nnmeroos ; 
pinnules confluent on the secondary rhachis by a narrow margin, oblong and 
doubly serrate, or elongated and pinnately incised with cut-toothed segments ; 
fmit dots sliort, variously curved, at length confluent. {Athyrium Roth.) — 
Moist woods ; common and presenting many varying forms. July. (Cosmop.) 

11. SCOLOPiNDRIUH Adans. Hart*s Tonouk 

Fruit dots linear, elongated, almost at right angles to the midrib, contlffuoiu 
by twos, one on the upper side of one veinlet, and the next on the lower side oi 
the next superior veinlet, thus appearing to have a double indusium oi>ening 
along the middle. (The ancient Greek name, employed because the numerous 
parallel lines of fruit resemble the feet of the centipede, or Seolopendra,) 

1. S. Tulgire Sm. Frond oblong-lanceolate from an auricled-heart-shaped 
base, entire or wavy-margined (12-45 cm. long, 2-(5 cm. broad), bright green. 
(PhyllUis Scolopendrium Newm.) — Shaded ravines and under limestone cliffs; 
Woodstock, N. B. ; Qrey and Bruce Cos., Ont. ; centr. N. Y. ; and Tenn. ; very 
rare. Aug. (Mex., Eurasia.) 

12. CAMPTOSdRUS Link. Walkivo Leaf 

Fruit dots oblong or linear, as in Asplenium, but irregularly scattered on 
either side of the reticulated veins of the simple frond, those next the midrib 
single, the outer ones inclined to approximate in pairs ^so that their two indusia 
open face to face) or to become confluent at their enos, thus forming crooked 
lines (whence the name, from Kafirrdt, flexible, and a<ap6s, for fruit dot). 

1. C. rhizophyllus (L.) Link. Fronds evergreen, subcoriaceous, growing in 
tufts, spreading or procumbent (1-3 dm. long), gradually narrowed from a 
cordate or auricled base to a long and slender acumination, which often roots at 
the end and forms a new plant — Shaded, especially calcareous rocks; centr. 
Me. to Ottawa, thence to Minn., and south w. to Kan. and Gra. — The auricles 
are sometimes greatly elongated, and even rooting ; in another form they are 


Fronds tufted at the end of a stout rootstock, chieflv of firm or leathery 
texture, evergreen ; stipes and rhachises chaffy. Sori orbicular, opening on aU 
sides of the circular peltate centrally attached indusium. (Name from iroXd^, 
many, and frrlxot, row, the sori of some species being in many ranks.) 

* Fronds narrowly oblong or lanceolate, simply pinnate, the pinnae sometimes 

again cleft. 

•»- Upper {spore-bearing) pinnae of the fertile fronds much contracted. 

1. P. acrostichoides (Michx.) Schott. (Christmas Fern.) Fronds 2-5 dnL 
long, the scaly stipe 5-15 cm. in length ; pinnae linear-lanceolate, half-halberd' 
shaped at the sligiitly stalked base, serrulate with appressed bristly teeth ; the 
smaller upper pinnae bearing two rows of sori, which in age becoming conflueni 
cover their entire lower surface. (^Aspidium Sw.) — Common in rocky woods. 
Var. SoHWBiwiTzii (Beck) Small {Aspidium acrostichoides, var. incisum Gray) 
is a variable form with larger fronds, toothed or pinnatifid pinnae, the fertile less 
reduced and the sori less confluent, chiefly near the tips of the pinnae. — Not rare 

-*- "*- Upper {spore-bearing) pinnae similar to the others. 

2 P. Lonchitis (L.) Roth. (Holly Fern.) Fronds linear-lanceolate, yer^ 


diort-Btalked, rigid (1-6 dm. long) ; pinnae broadly lanceolat&'§eiythe-^haped^ 
acute, the ImoeH shart-triangular, stronffly aorioled on the upper side, «pintt/o«e- 
denlate ; sort biaeriate, at length aabconfluent. {A^idium Sw.) — Rocky (calca- 
leons) woodB, Gulf of St. Lawrence ; and from Niagara Falls, Ont,, to L. Superior, 
westw. and north w. (£u.) 

• ♦ Fronds hipinnate. 

3. P. Bradnii (Spenner^ F^. Fronds ovaU- or oblong-lanceolate (4-9 dm. 
long) tapering to a very snort-stiped base ; pinnules ovate or oblong, obtuse, 
tnincate and almost rectangular at base, short-stalked, or the upper confluent, 
sharply toothed, beset with long and soft as well as chaffy hairs. lAmidium 
acMleatumy yar. D511.) — Rich, mostly upland woods, Nfd. to N. T., and 
L Superior. (£u.) 

14. ASPfDIUX Sw. Shield Fbbk. Wood Fxbh 

Fronds tufted, 1-3-pinnate ; veins simple or branched. Sori orbicular, borne 
on the back of the scarcely modified fertile frond. Indusium renlform or, if 
orbicular, exhibiting a distinct narrow depression or sinus at one side, although 
centrally attached. Stipes not articulated at the base. (Name from davldtowf 
a small shield, from the shape of the indusium.) Nbphbodiux Rich. 

«• YeiDA dmple or ODoe forked ; ftonds not evergreen ; stipes and slendo: 
rootstocks nearly naked. 
Loweat pinnae scarcely smaDer fhan the middle ones. 

Fertile veins onoe forked 1, A. ThUvpUrU. 

Fertile reins simple 9, A. Hmuimim, 

Lower pinnae gradually decreasing in size, the lowest very small . 8. A. no9ebor<ie€n$§. 
& Veins, at feast the lowest, more than once forked ; fironds mostly ever- 
green ; stipes and rootsto^s scaly b, 

h. Pinnae 40-40, small, 4-8 mm. broMd 4L A. frngrant, 

6. Pinnae fewer, 12-90 mm. broad c. 
& Frond blpinnatUld or blplnnate (or snb-trlpinnatiAd near the base). 

Bert marginal 6. ^. marginaU. 

Sori not marginal 
Baaal scales lanoe-Unear, candate-attennate . d. A, FiUob^mcu. 

Basal scales ovate-oblong to deltoid. 
Basal scales firm, shining, dark chestnnt-colored , 1. A. Oddianum, 

Basal scales thin, dull, membranous, light brown. 
Indusium jriandular-puberulent. 
Lobes of frond with incurved teeth; sori 1.0-1.8 mm. 

in diameter (9) A. erUtaium, var. CUnionUinMm, 

Lobes with spreading teeth ; sori 1-1.2 mm. in diameter. 8. A, JBooUU, 
Indusium glabrous. 
Frond conspicuously narrowed at the base . . 9. .^. erUtaiwn, 

Frond scarcely or not at all narrowed at the base. 
Lobes incurved-serrate. .(9) A. criUat-woi^ -nx. CUwkmiafywn, 

Lobes spinulose-dentate 10. .^. 9pinulo»um. 

e. Fronds Mpinnate or triplnnatlfld d. 
#. Fronds triplnnatlfld. 

Basal scales large, lance-oblong, dark brown (10) A. 9pinvi&tum, var. dUaUthim, 
Basal scales small, deltoid-ovate, light brown. 

Indusium glandless (10) A, apinwlomm. 

Indusium gUtndular-pabemlent (10) A. apimtUmim^ var. intermedium, 

d. TtonAA tripinnate (10) A. ^plnohimim, var. eoneordiawum. 

1. A. Thelypteris (L.) Sw. Fronds pinnate, lanceolate in outline ; pinnae 
horizontal or slightly recurved, linear-lanceolate, deeply pinnatifld ; lobes 
oblong, entire, obtuse or appearing acate when in fruit from tiie strongly revo- 
lute margins; veins forked, bearing the (numerous and soon confluent) fruit 
dots near their middle ; indusium minute, smooth and naked. (Nephrodium 
Strempel; Dryopteris Gray^ — Marshes; common. Aug. (Cosmop.) Forma 
PcFvkBAB (A. A. Eaton) Robinson is a form with pinnae variously forked 
at the Up. 

2. A. simnlitum Davenp. In habit similar to the preceding; veins simple; 
fruit dots few (8-10 on each lobe) ; indusium glandular-ciliolate. (Dryopteris 
Davenp.) — Boggy woods, etc., Me. to Vt. and Md. ; reported from Mo. 

3. A. noveborac^nse (L.) Sw. Fronds pinnate, lanceolate in outline, taper^ 
iMff bo^ ways from the middle ; pinnae lanceolate, the lowest 2 or more pairs 


gradually shorter and d^flexed; lobes flat, oblong, basal ones often enlaiiged 
and incised ; veins simple, or forked in the basal lobes ; fruit dots distinct, near 
the margin ; indusium minute, the margin glanduliferous. (Dryopteris Gray.) 

— Rich woods ; common. July. — Frond pale green, delicate and membrana^ 
ceoos, hairy beneath along the midribs and veins. 

4. A. frkgrans (L.) Sw. Fronds (1-^.5 dm. high) glandular and aromatic, 
narrowly lanceolate, with linear-oblong pinnately-parted pinnae ; their crotc<led 
divisions (2-A mm. long) oblon;;, obtuse, toothed or almost entire, nearly 
covered beneath with the very large thin imbricated indusia, which are orbicu- 
lar with a narrow sinus, the margin sparingly glanduliferous and often ragged. 
(N^ephrodium Richards. ; Di-yopteris Schott.) — Chiefly on limestone clifits, N. B., 
and n. N. E. to Minn., Alaska, and Greenl. (Caucasus, Asia.) 

6. A. marginAle (L.) Sw. Frond evergreen, smooth, thickish and almost 
coriaceous, ovate-oblong in outline (3-7 dm. long) ; pinnae lanceolate, acumi- 
nate, slightly broadest above the base ; pinnules oblong or oblong-scythe-shaped, 
crowded, obtuse or pointed, entire or crenate ; fruit dots close to the margin, 
{Nephrodixtm Michx. ; Dryopteris Gray.) — Rocky hillsides in rich woods; 
common, especially north w. Aug. Var. ^leqans J. Robinson is a form with 
large fronds (2-2.5 dm. broad) which have the pinnules or most of them toothed 
or lobed. 

0. A. Filiz-mAs (L.) Sw. Frond lanceolate (3-11 dm. long) ; pinnae 
linear-lanceolate, tapering from base to apex ; pinnules oblong, very obtuse, 
serrate at the apex and obscurely so at the sides, the basal incisely lobed, dis- 
tinct, the upper confluent; fruit dots nearer the midvein than the margin^ 
usually confined to the lower half of each fertile pinnule. {Dryopteris Schott.) 

— Rocky woods, Nfd., N. S., n. Vt., L. Huron, L. Superior, Dak., Ariz., and 
northw._ (Cosmop.) 

7. A. GoIdUnum Hook. Frond broadly ovate, or the fertile ovate-oblong 
(6-10 dm. long) ; pinnae (1.5-2.3 dm. long) oblong-lanceolate, broadest in 
the middle, pinnately parted ; the divisions (about 20 pairs) oblong-linear, 
slightly scythe-shaped (2-3 cm. long), serrate with appressed teeth ; veins pin- 
nately forking and bearing the fruit cUjIs very near the midvein ; indusium very 
large, orbicular, with a deep narrow sinus, smooth and without marginal glands. 
(iVipp/^rodtum Hook. & Grev. ; Dryopteris Gray.) — Rich woods, centr. Me. to 
Minn., la., and N. Car. 

Var. c6lsum (Palmer) Robinson. Fronds more narrowly ovate-oblong, sliglitly 
firmer, the lowest pinnae on rdther long stalks ; pinnules subremote, (Dryopteris 
(roldieana, subsp. Palmer.) — On cypress knees and decaying logs, Disnial 
Swamp, Va. (Palmer). 

8. A. Bo6ttii Tuckerm. Scales of the eiipe pale-brown ; fronds (4-6.5 dm. 
long) elongated-lanceolate in outline, somewhat narrowed at base ; lowest pin- 
nae triangular-ovate, the upper longer and narrower; pinnules oblong-ovate, 
sharply spinulose-serrate or the lower pinnatitid ; indusium minutely glandular. 
(Nephrodium Davenp. ; Dryopteris Underw.) — Low wet thickets, etc. — Many 
differing forms have been referred to this species. Plants corresponding to the 
original material have been seen only from N. H., e. Mass., Ct., and e. Pa. 
'1 hey are suspiciously intermediate between A. cristatum and A. spinulosum, 
var, intermedium, 

9. A. cristAtum (L.) Sw. Frond linear-oblong or lanceolate in outline (3-6 
dm. long) ; pinnae (5-8 cm. long) triangular-oblong, or the lowest nearly tri- 
angular-ovate, from a somewhat heart-shaped base, acute, deeply pinnatifid ; 
the divisions (6-10 pairs) ohlnng, very obtuse, finely serrate or cut-toothed, the 
lowest pinnatifid-lobed ; fruit dots as near the midvein as the margin ; indusium 
round-renlfonn, the siims mostly shallow, smooth and naked. (Nephrodium 
Michx.; Dryttpteris CiT^y.) — Swamps, etc. ; common. July. — Stipes and the 
stout creeping rootstock bearing broad and deciduous chaffy scales. (Eu. ) 

Var. ClintonUnum 1). C. Eaton. Frond in every way much larger (4-13 dm. 
long) ; pinnae oblong-lanceolate, hrotuhst at base (8-15 cm. long, 2-5 cm. broad), 
deeply pinnatifid; the divisions i^H-M) pairs) crowded or di.stant, linear-oblong, 
obtuse, obscurely serrate or cut-toothed, the basal sometimes pinnately lobed ; 


♦eins p!nnate1y forking, the lowest anterior veinlets bearing the fruit dots near 
the midvein; indusiuni orbicular with a shallow sinus, smooth and naked. 
{Dryopieris criatala, var. Underw.) — Swampy woods, N. H. to N. C, and westw. 
to Wise July. — Kootstock stout, creeping, chaffy (like the stipes) with large 
brighi'brown scales. Appears to hybridize with A, margincUe, as does also the 
typical form of the species. 

10. A. spinul58um (O. F. Mttller) Sw. Stipes with a fe'w pal&-brown deeiduom 
scales; frond ovate-lanceolate, twice pinnate; pinnae oblique to the rhachis, 
elongated^riangulary the lower pairs broadly triangular ; pinnules set obliquely 
on the midribs, connected by a very narrow wing, oblong, acute, incisely serrate 
or pinnatifid with spinulose-toothed lobes ; indusium smooth and without mar- 
ginal glands. {Nephrodium Strempel ; Dryopteris Kuntze. )— Rich woods, 
Nfd. to Va., Ky., and north westw. (Greenl., Eu.) A. piTTspoRofeNSB (Slos- 
8on} Eastman, a supposed hybrid with A. marginale, occurs in Vt. and on Staten 
I., N. Y. 

Var. intermedium (Muhl.) D. C. Eaton. Scales of the stipe few, hrovon tcith 
a darker center ; frond broadly oblong-ovate, tripinnatifid ; pinnae spreading^ 
oblong-lanceolate^ the lower unequally triangular-ovate ; pinnules crowded, 
ovate-oblong, spreading, pinnately cleft; the oblong lobes spinulose-toothed at 
the ai>ex ; margin of the indusium denticulate and beset with minute stalked 
glands. {Nephrodium spinulosumy var. Davenp. ; Dryopteris spinulosa, var. 
Underw.) — Woods, common. 

Var. dilatitum (Hoffm.) Hook. Scales of the stipe large, brown with a dark 
center; frond broader^ ovate or triangular-ovate in outline, tripinnatifid; pin- 
nules lance-oblong, the lowest often much elongated ; indusium glandular- 
ciUolate. (^Nephrodiitm spimilosum, var. fructuosum Gilbert). — N. S. to Va., 
and N. Y. (Eu.) Forma anadenium Robinson is in all respects like var. dila- 
latum, but with the indusium destitute of glands (the var. dilatatum of Am. 
auth. chiefly, not Hook.) — Common, chiefly in rocky upland woods. (Asia.) 

Var. concordiAnum (Davenp.) Eastman. Fronds tripinnate: pinnules (of 
the M order) small (4 mm. long), elliptical, spinulose-denticulate ; indusium 
glandnlar-puberulent. — Concord, Mass. (^Purdie). 

15. CYST6pT£RIS Bemh. Bladder Fern 

Fmlt dots roundish, borne on the back of a straight fork of the free veins; 
the delicate indusium hood-like or arched, attached by abroad base on the inner 
8i<ie (toward the midrib) partly under the fruit dot, early opening free at the 
other side, which looks toward the apex of the lobe, and is somewhat jagged, 
soon thrown back or withering away. — Delicate ferns with 2-3-pinnate fronds ; 
the lobes cui^tootlied. (Name composed of iciJ<rrts, a bladder, and irrdpis, fern, 
from the inflated indusium.) 

1. C. bulbifera (L.) Bemh. Frond lanceolate, elongated, attenuate (*i-Q 
dm. long), 2-pinnate ; the pinnae lanceolate-oblong, pointed, horizontal ; the 
rhachis and pinnae often bearing bulblets underneath, wingless; pinnules 
crowded, oblong, obtuse, toothed or pinnatifid ; Indusium short, ti-uncate on 
the free side. (Filix Underw.) — Shaded ravines, chiefly on calcareous rocks. 

2. C. frigilis (L.) Bernh. Frond oblong-lanceolate (1-3 dm. long, besides 
the brittle stalk which is fully as long), 2-3-pinnate; the pinnae and pinnules 
ovate or lanceolate in outline, irregularly pinnatifid or cut-toothed, mostly 
acute, decurrent on the margined or winged rhachis; indusium tapering or 
acute at tlie free end. {Filix Underw.) — Shaded cliffs, rocky woods, etc.; 
common and varying greatly in the shape and cutting of the pinnules. July. 

le. W06DSIA R. Br. 

Fruit dots round, home on the back of simply forked free veins ; the very thin 
and often evanescent indusium attached by its base all around the receptacle, 
«iic2er the sporangia, either small and open, or else early bursting at the top into 



irregular pteoes or lobes. —Small and tufted pinnately divided fema. (Dedl- 
catM to JoMph Woods^ an English botanist.) 

* 8talk9 ob$curelv artictUaied some distance from the base ; fronds ehqfy or 
smoothj n^ver glandular; indusium divided nearly to the center ink) slender 
hairs wMch are curled over the sporangia. 

1. W. ilT^nsia (L.) B. Br. Frond oblong^anceolate (6-15 cm. long, 2-4 
cm. wide), smoothish and green above, thickly elolJied underneath as well as the 
stalk with rusty bristle4ike chaff, pinnate ; Uie pinnae crowded, oblong, obtuse, 
sessile, pinnately parted, the numerous crowded segments oblong, obtuse, 
obscurely crenate ; the fruit dots near the margin, somewhat confluent when 
old. — Exposed rocks ; arctic Am., s. to K. E., the Great L. region, and in the 
mts. to N. C. June. (Eurasia.) 

2. W. alplna (Bolton) S. F. Gray. Frond narrowly oblong-laneeolate (4-13 
cm. long, 6-^ mm. wide), smooth above, sparingly paleaceous-hirsute beneath, 
pinnate ; tlie pinnae triangular-ovate, obtuse, pinnately lobed, the lobes few and 
nearly entire; fruit dots rarely confluent (TT. hyperborea B. Br.) — N. B., 
Que., n. Vt., n. N. Y., Out., and north w. ; rare. (Eurasia.) 

3. W. glabella B. Br. Smooth and naked throughout ; frond linear and 
very delicate (4-16 cm. high), pinnate ; pinnae roundish-ovate, the lower ones 
rather remote (3-9 mm. long), obtuse, crenately lobed ; fruit dots scanty ; the 
hairs of the indusium fewer than in the last two species. — On moist mossy rocks, 
Nfd. to n. N. E., N. Y., Minn., and northw. to Alaska and Greenl (Eurasia.) 

* * Stalks not articulated; fronds never chaffy, often glandular^ubesceni. 

4- Indusium of a few broad segments, at fret covering the sorus completely. 

4. W. obtAsa (Spreng.) Torr. Frond broadly lanceolate, minutely glan- 
dular-hairy (2-5 dm. high), pinnate or nearlv bipinnate ; pinnae rather remote, 
triangular-ovate or oblong (2-6 cm. long), bluntish, pinnately parted ; segments 
oblonff, obtuse, crenately toothed, the lower pinnatitid with toothed lobes ; veins 
forked, and bearing the fruit dots on or below the minutely toothed lobes ; indu- 
sium at lengtii splitting into several spreading jagged lobes. — Bocky banks and 
clifEs, *' N. 8.,** and centr. Me. to Ga., and westw. Var. avoiJsta Peck is a form 
with very narrow fronds (35 cm. long and 4 cm. wide) and pinnae. — High- 
lands, N.Y. 

4- <•- Indueium entirely concealed beneath the sorus, divided into very narrow 

segments or reduced to minute hairs, 

5. W. orsg&iiA D. C. Eaton. Glabrous; fronds bright green, soft in texture, 
narrowly lance-oblong (12-23 mm. wide), bipinnatifid, pinnae triangular-oblong, 
obtuse; the segments oblong or ovate, obtuse, crenate-serrulate, the teeth or 
margin nearly always reflexed. — Limestone cliffiB and ledges, Bic, Que. ; s. shore 
of L. Superior (Robbins), northw. and westw. 

6. W. Cathcartiina Bobinson. Finely glattdular-puberulent ; fronds (2-3 
dm. high) rather dull green, of firm texture, lanceolate (25-55 mm. broad), 
bipinnatifid ; pinnae oblong, the lower distant ; segments usually separated by 
wide sinuses, oblong, denticulate. (W. scopulina Man. ed. 6, not D. C. 
Eaton.)— Bocky river banks, w. Mich. (Wheeler), and n.e. Minn. (Miss Ellen 

7. W. sconrnlna D. C. Eaton. Loosely hispidulous voith minute white hairs^ 
and finely glandular-puberulent ; segments approximate, crenate-serrulate. — 
Limestone cllfb ; Gasp6 Co., Que. ; 8. Dak. ; Bocky Mts., etc. ; reported from 
Minn, and n.w. la. 

17. DICKSdNU L*H^r. 

Friiit dots small, globuUr, marginal, each placed on the apex of a free vein 
or fork ; the sporangia borne on an elevated globular receptacle. Inclosed in a 
membranaceous cup-shaped indusium which is open at the top, and on the 
outer side partly adherent to a reflexed toothlet of the frond. (Named for 
James Dickson, an English cryptogamio botanist.) 



1. D. pnnctildbiilA (Michx.) Gray. (HAT-eoBHTBDEBRw.) Fronds minately 
g^mndaUr and hairy (5--10 dm. high), ovate-lanceolate and acuminate in onUine, 
pale green, very thin, with strong chafBess stalks rising from slender extensively 
creeping naked rootstocks, mostly bipinnate ; primary pinnae lanceolate, pointed, 
the secondary pinnatifld into oblong and obtuse cnt-toothed lobes ; fniit dots 
minate, each on a recurved toothlet, usually one at the upper margin of each 
lobe. (i>. pilo9iu8Cula WlWd. ; Denrutiiedtia punctilobula Moore.) — Common 
in moist and shady places, N.S. to Ala., rarer westw. to Minn. — Frond sweet- 
scented especially in drying. Forma oribtXta (Maxon) Clute has the pinnae 
eristate-forked at tip. — Mass. and Vt. Forma schizofrylla Clute has fronds 
often more deeply forked and the ultimate segments incised. — Mass. and Ct. 

18. ONOCLftA L. 

Sporangia borne on elevated receptacles, forming roundish sori imperfectly 
covered by very delicate hood>shaped indusia attached to the base of the re- 
ceptacles. Fertile fronds erect, rigid, with contracted pod-like or berry-like 
divisions at first completely concealing the sporangia, and ' at last, when dry 
and indurated, cracking open and allowing the spores to escape. Sterile 
bonds foliaceous. Kootstocks creeping and constantly forming new plants. 
(Name employed by Dioscorides for some probably boraginaceous plant) 

§ 1. EUONOCLiSA Hook. Fertile fronds bipinnate, 

1. 0. senafbilis L. (Sbksitive Fbrn.) Fronds scattered; the sterile ones 
long-stalked, the lamina IS dm. long, deltoid-ovate, pinnatifld into a few 
oblong-lanceolate shiuately lobed or nearly entire segments ; veins reticulated 
with fine meshes; fertile fronds contracted, closely bipinnate, the pinnules 
rolled up into berry-like bodies. — Moist meadows and thickets, very common. 
(E. Asia.) Sports are frequent, especially bipinnatifid foliaceous fronds with 
rounded lobes, free veins, and sometimes abortive sori, — the so-called var. 
obtcsilobXta (Schkuhr) Torr. 

§2. STRUTHI6PTBRIS Mett. Fertile fronde pinnate. 

2. 0. Stmthidpteris (L.) Hoffm. (Ostrtoh Fbrk.) Fronds growing In a 
crown ; sterile ones short-stalked (6-30 dm. high), broadly lanceolate, narrowed 
toward the base, with many linear-lanceolate pinnatifld pinnae ; veins free, the 
veinlets simple; fertile frond shorter, with pod-like or somewhat necklace- 
shaped pinnae. (Matteticcia Todaro. ) — Alluvial soil, Nfd. to Va., and north- 
westw. July. — The rootstock sends out slender underground stolons, which 
bear fronds the next year. (Eurasia.) 

SCHIZABACEAS (Curlt Grabs Familt) 

Stertteflronds tufted and linear-flliform {8chiziua) or resembling a twining 
aerial stem with alternate paired palmately lobed leaves ( Lygodium) . Sporangia 
borne in double rows on narrow fertile segments, ovate, sessile, having a com- 
plete transverse ring at the apex, and opening by a longitudinal slit. 

1. SeUsaea. 8t«ril« fronds rigid, simple or diohotomously branched. Plant dwarf, not 

1 LyfOdivBi. Fkonda with paired alternate stipltate leaf-like segments. 

1. SCHIZAAA Sm. Curlt Grass 

Sporangia large, ovoid, striate-rayed at the apex, opening by a longitudinal 
cleft, naked, vertically sessile in a double row along the single vein of the nar- 
row divisions of the pinnate (or radiate) fertile appendages to the slender and 



simply linear, or (in foreign species) fan-shaped or dichotomoosly many-cleft 
fronds (whence the name, from <rx^i^^^ to split). 

1. S. posilla Pursh. Sterile fronds linear, very slender, flattened and 
tortuous ; the fertile ones equally slender (0.5 ram. wide), but taller (5-12 cm.) 
and bearing at the top the fertile appendage consisting of about 5 pairs of 
crowded pinnae (each 2-8 mm. long). — Low grounds, pine barrens of N. J. ; 
N. S. ; very local. Sept. (Nfd.) 

2. LYGdDIUM 8w. Climbing Fern 

Fronds twining or climbing, bearing stalked and variously lobed (or com- 
pound) divisions in pairs, with mostly free veins ; the f nictilication on separate 
contracted divisions or spike-like lobes, one side of which is covered with a 
double row of imbricated hooded scale-like indusia, fixed by a broad base to 
short oblique vein lets. Sporangia much as in Schizaea, but oblique, fixed 
to the veinlet by the inner side next the base, one or rarely two covered by each 
indusium. (Name from XvyibS'nst flexible, ) 

1. L. palmAtum (Bemh.) Sw. Very smooth ; stalk-like fronds slender, 
flexile and twining (3-10 dm. long), from slender running rootstocks; the short 
alternate branches or petioles 2-forked ; each fork bearing a round-heart- 
shaped palmately 4-7 -lobed frond let ; fertile frond lets above, contracted and 
several times forked, forming a terminal panicle. — Low moist thickets and open 
woods, s. N. U. to Fla., Tenn., and Ky. ; local. Sept. 

OSMUNDAcEAS (Flowurino Fern Family) 

Le^fif plants (ours herbaceous), with creeping rhizomes. Sporangia nakedy 
globose, mostly pediceled, reticulated, with no ring or with mere traces of one near 
the apex, opening into two valves by a longitudinal slit. Stipes winged at the 

1. OSM^DA [TooriL] L. Flowering Fern 

Fertile fronds or fertile portions of the frond destitute of chlorophyll, very 
much contracted, and bearing on the margins of the narrow rhachis-like 
divisions short-pediceled and naked sporangia ; these globular, thin and reticu- 
lated, large, opening by a longitudinal cleft into two valves, and bearing 
near the apex a small patch of thickened oblong cells, the rudiment of a trans- 
verse ring. — Fronds tall and upright, growini; in large crowns from thickened 
rootstocks, once or twice pinnate ; veins forking and free. Spores green. 
{Osmunder, a Saxon name of the Celtic divinity, Thor.) 

* Sterile fronds truly hipinnate. 

1. 0. regilis L. (Flowering Fkrn.) Very smooth, pale green (0.3-1.6 m. 
high) ; sterile pinnules 13-25, varying from oblong-oval to lance-oblong, finely 
serrulate, especially toward the apex, otherwise entire, or crenately lobed 
toward the rounded, oblique and truncate, or even cordate and semi-auriculate 
base, sessile or short-stalked (2-5 cm. long) ; the fertile racemose-panicled at 
the summit of the frond. (O. sppctabilis Willd.) — Swamps and wet woods, 
common. The cordate pinnules sometimes found here are commoner in Europe. 
May, June. (Eu.) Forma orbiculXta Clute has narrow fronds and few 
(3-7) roundish crowded pinnules on each pinna. — Hartland, Vt. (Buggies), 

* * Sterile fronds once pinnate ; pinnae deeply pinnatifld; the lobes entire. 

2. 0. Claytoniilna L. Clothed with loose wool when young, soon smooth ; 
fertile fronds taller than the sterile (M-12 dm. high) ; pinnae oblong-lanceolate, 
with oblong obtuse divisions ; some {2-b pairs) of the middle pinnae fertile , these 
entirely pinnate ; sporangia greenish, turning brown. — Low grounds, common. 
AUy. — Fruitui|( as it uofolds. (Himala,yas.) Var. dCbu Grout is a pecoliai 


form with tbe pinnules of the sterile frond widely separated, the outer ODes 
enlaiged and pinnatifid, in s. Vt. {Grout). 

3. 0. cinnam6mea L. (Cinxamon Ferh.) Clothed with rusty wool when 
young; sterile fronds tallest (at length 0.8-1.6 m. high), smooth when full 
grown, the lanceolate pinnae pinnatifid into broadly oblong obtuse divisions ; 
fertile fronds separate, appearing earlier from the same rootstock and soon 
withering (2-9 dm. high), contracted, twice pinnate, covered with the cinna- 
mon-colored sporangia. — Swamps and low copses, common. (Eurasia.) Var. 
FRONi>6sA Gray is an occasional state in which some of the fronds are sterile 
below and more sparsely fertile at their summit, or rarely in the middle. Var. 
rffclsA J. W. Huntington is a form with the inner pinnules of souie of the 
pinnae more or less cut or pinnatifid. 

Var. glandulbsa Waters. Rhachis and lower surface of the sterile frond 
permanently glandular-pubescent. — R. I., N. J., and Md. 

OPHIOGLOSSACEAE (Addkr^s Tonoub Family) 

Leftfy and often somexohat fleshy plants; the leaves (fronds) stfnpte or 
branched^ of ten fern-like in appearance, erect in vernation, developed from under- 
ground buds formed either inside the base of the old stalk or by the side of it, and 
bearing in special spikes or panicles rather large subcoriaceous bivalvular spo- 
rangia formed from the main tissue of the fruiting branches. Prothallus under' 
ground, not green, monoecious. — A small family, separated from Ferns on 
account of the different nature of the sporangia, the erect vernation, etc. , 

1. Ophioglouimi. SponiDgla cohering In a simple spike. Veins reticulated. ; 

2. Botiycbiwn. Sporangia in pinnate or oompoand spikes, distinct. Teins flnee. 

1. 0PHI0GL6sSUM [Toum.1 L. Addbr^s Tonoub 

Rootstock erect, fleshy and sometimes tuberous, with slender fleshy roots 
whicb are sometimes proliferous; bud placed by the side of the base of the 
naked stalk ; fronds with anterior and posterior segments as in Botrychium, 
but the coriaceous sporangia connate and coherent in two ranks on the edges 
of a simple spike. Sterile segment fleshy, simple in our species; the veins 
reticulated. Spores copious, sulphur-yellow. (Name from tf^if, a serpent, and 
y\wff<ra, tongue.) 

1. 0. Ytlghinm L. Fronds from a slender rootstock, 6-42 cm. high, 
mostly solitary ; sterile segment sessile near the middle of the plant, ovate or 
elliptic-oblong (6-9 cm. long), rounded or obtuse at the apex; midvein indis- 
tinct or none ; principal veins forming a loose network, the meshes nearly free 
from secondary veins. — Meadows and pastures, rarely on dry slopes; not 
common. June- Aug. (Eurasia.) 

Var. minus Moore. Smaller; fronds often in pairs, the sterile segment 
slightly fleshy, yellowish-green, attached usually much below the middle of the 
plant. (O. Orayi Beck, ace. to Moore ; O. poiyphyllum A. Br. ; O. arenarium 
E. G. Britton.) — Sandy ground, N. H. to w. N. Y. and N. J. (Ku., n. Afr.) 

2. O. Engelm^nni Prantl. Habit of the preceding species ; sterile segment 
thicker, cuspidate ; secondary veins numerous, forming a flue but readily dis- 
eemibie network within the meshes of the principal oues. — **Va.^'; Mo. 
{Bush), Tex., and Cal. 

2. BOTS'i'CHnTM Sw. Moonwort 

Rootstock very short, erect, with clustered fleshy roots; the base of the 
sheathed stalk containing the bud for the next year's frond; frond with an 
anterior fertile and a posterior sterile segment ; the former mostly 1-S-pinnate, 
Ihe contracted divisions bearing a doable row of sessile naked snorangia ; these 


distinct, rather coriaceouBi not reticulated, globular, without a ring, and open^ 
ing transversely into two valves. Sterile segment of the frond temately or 
pinnately divided or compound ; veins all free. Spores copious, sulphur-KM>lor. 
(Name a diminutive of fiSrpvt, a cluster of grapes, from the appearance of the 

f 1. EUBOTRi'CinUM Milde. Base of the stalk (containing tJie bud) completely 
closed; sterile segment more or less fleshy ; the cells of the epidermis straight. 

* Sterile segment sessile or on a short petiole (less than 1 em, long). 

1. B. Lttniria (L.) Sw. Very fleshy (8-18 cm. high) ; sterile segment sub- 
sessUSf borne near the middle of the plant, oblong, simply pinnate with 6-15 
lunate or fan-shaped very obtuse crenate, incised, or nearly entire, 
fleshy divisions, more or less excised at the base on the lower or 
on both sides, the veins radiating from the base and repeatedly 
forking; fertile segment panicled, 2-3-pinnate. — Open places, 
e. Que. to Vt., n. O., L. Superior, and north w.; rare. (Widely 
distr.) Fio. 1. Also on wooded cliffs near Syracuse, N. Y., where 
tending to a more slender form with decidedly stipitate sterile 
segment and subremote more narrowly cuneate 
pinnae (B. onondagense Underw.). 

2. B. simplex £. Hitchcock. Fronds small 
(5-10 or rarely 25 cm. high) ; sterile segment 
short-petioled from near base, middle, or sum- 
mit of the stalk, thickish, simple, and roundish, 
or pinnately 3-7-lobed; the lobes roundish- 
obovate, nearly entire, decurrent on the broad 
and flat indeterminate rhachis, the terminal 
one usually emargiiiate ; t?ie veins all forking 
from the base; fertile segment simple or 1-2- 
pinnate. (B. tenebrosum A. A. Eaton.) — N. S. 
I to Md., Ont., Minn., and Rocky Mts. ; rare. 

If (^u.) Fio. 2. Var. comp6situm Lasch. Sterile 2. B. simplex. x%, 

Jb »»» segment binate or temate; the divisions pin- 
J9^y. natifld. — Occurring with and clearly passing into the typical form. 

^^A^V* 3. B. lanceolitum (Gmel.) Angstroem, var. angus- 

1. B. LaDtrlA. tisegm6ntum Pease & Moore. Fronds small (1-2.5 
'^ ^ dm. high) ; the sterile segment closely senile at the 

top of the long and slender stalk, scarcely fleshy, 
triangular, temately twice pinnat(fld; the acute lobes lanceolate, 
incised or toothed; veinlets forking from a continuous midvein; 
fertile part 2-3-pmnate. — N. 8. to N. J., O., and L. Superior. 

July, Aug. Fio. 8. The typical European 
form has the segments of the sterile frond 
broader and more approximate. 

4. B. ram^sum (Roth) Aschers. Fronds 
small (1-2.5 dm. high) ; the sterile segment 
nearly sessile at the top of the long and 
slender common stalk, moderately fleshy, 
oivaZe or triangular, varying from pinnate to 
bipinnatifid ; the lobes oblong-ovate and 
obtxue; midvein dissipated into forking 
veinlets ; fertile part 2-3-pinnate. (B. ma- 
tricariaefolium A. Br.; B. neglectum Wood.) 

ft R un« - -«. w«^ — R>ch soil, e. Que. to Md., and westw. 
s. B. knc, y. ang. x %. j^„^^ j^jy ' (Eurasia.) Fig! 4. 

• • The sterile segment on a long petiole (2-16 cm. in length). 

5. B. obllquum Muhl. Subcoriaceous (1-4 dm. high), sparsely 
hairy or glabrous; sterile segment long-petioled, springing from 4. b. nuno- 
near the base of the plant, broadly triangular or somewhat pen- g um! x %. 


bgonal, temaw Hid mlaaAj decompoDnd with atalhed dlvlelODfl, (A<ie ovot*- 

obtonff, Mcutith, OButilj twg or tbree times a« long as broad, CKHate-BemilUe, 

obUqaelf cordate or lobcoitUtte ; fertile erg- 

ment erect, 2-4-piimate. (3, ternatum, var. 

vbliquw* Milde.) — Futorea «nd open woods, 

N. B. to Ont, Mlsn., knd aoatbw. Fia. 6, a. 

Poljmorphons. The chief terms are : Var. 

DREiDfinsK (GUbeK) Waten. Fio. 5. b. Ulti- 
mate divisions broadly oblong, rounded at the 

apex, crenulate-fierralate. — Vt.(JfiM Qilman) 

to centr H. Y. (GUberl, Baberer), etc. Var. 

TiXDirdi.iL'11 (Underw.l Gilbert. Dlvieiona 

tew, usoallj 9, thin ; otberwiae much like the 

Ijpical form.— N. Y. (ace to Oilbert); Mo. 

(SiuA). and southw. to the Gulf. Var. aLon- 

cAtcx Gilbert A. Ilaberer. Fia. 5, c. DJTision* 

lanceolate, elongated, acute. -- Mass. to centr. 

S. Y, and D. C. Var. disb&ctum (Spreng.) 

Clnte. Fio. 6, d. Divisions itciselj maay- 

toothed.— OftenwiththetypicE^formiDN.E., 0. B. obUqnum ud *iin. x%. 

M.Y., andO. 
4. B. tenUttua (Thonb.) Sw., Tar. int«rmUiam D. C. Eaton. Stout, 

decidedly fleshy, loosely pubescent to subglabrous, 1.6-.4 dm. high ; habit and 
fertils segment as la the preceding ; sterile segmetit becoming 
large (sometimes 2 dm. broad), its ttUimalt diviaiom nuii>«r- 
oiM, ovate or obooate, commonly snbcnneate or aemlcordate 
at the base, crenulate and more or less lobed, nsually obtose 
or rounded at the apex. (Including var. australe D. C. 
Eaton, as to Am. plant.) — Sandy soil, pastures and open 
woods, common, N. E., N. Y., and (?) n. Mich. Fio. 6. 
Passing Insensibly into yar. BOTABrdLioi (A. Br.) D. C. 
Eaton. Mora slender, rarely over 1.7 dm. high ; sterile 
segment commonly about 5 cm. broad, its divisions few, 
broadlyovate, the lowest EUblunate. {B. Matritariat^'pnaig. ; 
B.rul<K«um8w.) — Nfd-tos. N. K., and n. Mich. (Enresla.) 
{2. 0SMUND6pTERTS Milde. Bate of the ttalk ieojaain' 

tB.tsni.,v.iBiaa. ing tht tud) open along one tide; ^erile »egment mcm- 

"'^ hranactout; the eetli of the tpidermit flexuout. 

7. B. Tiigliiilnnm (L.) Sw. (Rattlesnake Frrh.) Frondt 3-0 dm. tall, 

ample ; iterile vtffment tei»ile above the middle of the pianC, broadly triangular, 

thin and membranaceous, lerrtaie; the sbort-stalked primarv divisioHS once or 

lurfcfl pinnate, and then once or twice pinnatifld ; the oblong lobes cut-toothed 

toward the apex i tetntjorking from a midvein; fertile part 2-3-pinoate. — 

Rich woods, odflUDoa. June, July (Widely distr.) 


Pavnnial ptantt rooted in mud, having a ttender creeping rhitome and either 
fUform ori-partedlong-petioUdleavee; VieiomewhateTuataeeoug leveral-telled 
tforocarp* borne on peduncle* tehieh rite from the rhiiome near the leafstalk*, 
or are more or Itt* contotidatei %fith the latter, and contain both mocrogioref 
and M/cro^Mtne. 


into 2 valves at nistiuity, and emitting an elastic mtd or bud of lisioe, whlol 


1 1. EUEQUISiiTDH Sadebeck. Stenu annual, mottljf with regular vtrtiefU 
q/ branchet; tpiket not apieulate ; HomaCa in one or turn broad bandt in 
eath groove, their lurfaces overlaid vrith a Mex plate that beart a vertiaU 
tlU In lAe eenler. 

1. E. aTTiDH L. 

brancliea In wet places ; Bterlle Btenis proBtraK o 
0.6-^ dm. bigh, 10-14-fuiTowed, variously bnnched ; 
Bilex in punctifonn doU; bmiiclitB 3~-4-angIed, niosU; 
simple, sulid, winged, Lbe leeiii of their sheatliB triangu- 
lar-lanceolate, with ebarp erect acumiiiau points; root- 
elocka tuberiferouE, felled ; centrum i-) tbe total diameter 
of the Bletn. — Common. (Widely dbitr.) Fio. 7. 

2. S. piaUnae Ehrh. Sterile and flnallj feKile 
Btema developing simple borizonial Iriangnlar branchea 
whoae flnt Internodea do not exceed the stem-aheatba ; 
teeth of braacb-aheatliB deltoid, acute; Btema 2-3 dm. 
high, 8-20- ridged, beset wiLb dat spinea of allez, uranged 
In tfarees; centium )- tlie total diam- 

I. E. VTBDH. Cn>M- 

er.— Allurial aoil, N. 8. and Que. 

to Alaaka, aouthir. to w. Haaa., N. J., 

and la., chiefly in calcareous re- 

gloDi. April, May. (Eurasia.) Fias. 


8. B. ■flTitlaun L. Stems O.T-4..^ 

dm. high ; boti) kinda developing com- 
pound bnnobee ; centrum halt the 

diameter ; lidgea 8-U, flat, with a row . e nnwnw 

ef recurved aplDulea on each Bide; cmw-MoUon ( E.pnt«iH. Epl- 

iheatha green, with the papery brown afit*aixii. dwmiixii. 

teeth coherent ; primary branches 

4-6-aiigled, tbe secondary Singled. — Damp, shady places, Nfd. to Alaska, 
Boulhw. to Va., O., and la.; com- 
moil north w. May, June. (Eura- 
sia.) FlOB. 10, 11. 

i. £. palAstre !<. Rootatocks 
shilling, black, .wild at center; 
alemB 2.5-tt dm. high, deeply 6-HV 
gTouved ; ridges narrow, shnrply 
elevated ; sheaUia Widfnpd up- 
ward ; leaves centrally grooved ; 
teeth lance -subulate, black, with 
broad white margins; silex in 
li"f m™ ji'ia"' cross-bands; centrum \ the total 
diameter ; branches hollon, 4-7- 
Alaska, southw. to Ct. (Grave»), III. (Hrendrl), 
June-AUg. (.t.uTaaia.j r'los. 

It, 1.1. 

5. E.litorlleKdhlewein. Stems 

diHiise to erect, simple to densely 

branched, 'J-K dm. high, 6-18- 

erooved j centrum i~j the total 

diameter; vallecuiarhiiles present; 

sheaths s1it:hi)y spreading; teeth 

dark brown, acnie. coherent in 

groups; brunches 25-l.'>cra. long, 

S-5-angle(l, winged, often solid, 

similar to those of E. arvense; 

spUui uBuall; abortive. — Wet, 


sandy shores, N. B. to Pa., Minn., and westw. May, June. (En.) ^Possibly 
a hybrid. Figs. 14, 16. 

n. E. llavU- 
16. E. lltorale. "Vs^ _ _^ tile. Cross- 

CroBS- section teotion of 

14. E. Utormle. Cross- of stem near Id. E. flavlatlle. Cross- stem near 

aeetton of stem x 12. ftpez x 12. section of stem x 18. ftpez x 18. 

6. B. fluYiitile L. (Pipes.) Stems erect, 3-15 dm. high, with 10-30 shal- 
low grooves, simple, or branched in the middle ; centrum \ the total diameter ; 
Tsdlecnlar holes absent except at bases of largest stems; branches 2.&-16 cm. 
long, 4-6-angled, hoUow, not winged, horizontal, with erect tips ; sheaths ap< 
prised ; teeth dark brown, narrow, acute, rigid, distinct. (^. limoium L.) 
— Shallow water and mud- banks, common. June, July. (Ku.) Fios. 10, 17. 

f 2. HIPPOCIIAfeTE Milde. 8tem» mostly evergreen^ simple or becoming 
sparingly branched, mostly rough; spikes apiculate; atomata {in ours) 
in a single regular row on each side of the groove, overlaid by the 
siliceous coat of the stem, having access to the air through an irregular 

7. E. laeyigAtum A. Br. Stems mostly annual, diffuse and rough or erect 
and nearly smooth, 1-12 dm. long, simple or with few to many rough branches ; 
centrum | the diameter of stem; sheaths widened up- 
ward, green with narrow black limb ; teeth of the stem- 
sheaths mostly deciduous, leaving black triangular bases, 
those of the branches persistent ; leaves flat above, ridged 
below ; green parenchyma continuous under the keels, 
separated by the vallecular bast. — Alluvial soils, 0. to 
B. C. and Tex. June-Aug. Fig. 18. 

8. £. hyemAle L. (Scouring Rush.) Stems erect, 
mostly simple, 8 to dm. high, the ridges slightly grooved 
on the back with a row of tubercles on each side ; 
sheaths longer than broad, tight, with two black rings 
separated by an ashy one ; teeth mostly deciduous ; ^^' ^* l»«^l^t""»- ^J?'*" 
centrum usually | the total diameter; green paren- aecuon of stem x la. 
chyma continuous over the vallecular holes, separated by the bast under the 
ridges. — Eu. 

Var. intermddimn A. A. Eaton. Stems evergreen, simple, erect, 3-12 dm. 
high, smoothish or rough with cross-bands of silex ; sheaths widened upward, 
the lower with basal and terminal black rings separated by an ashy band, all 
limilarly marked the second year; green parenchyma continuous over the 
vallecular holes, separated by the carinal bast. — Moist sandy soils, Ct, 
N. T., and Mich, to Tex. and Cal. May- Aug. — Often confused with H. 
laevigatum. Fio. 19. 

Var. alfliie (Engelm.) A. A. Eaton. Differs from the type only in having the 
ridges rounded instead of biangulate. — Can. to Mex. ; common in N. E., leas 
common than the next further west. 

Var. robdstum (A. Br.) A. A. Eaton. Mostly stout, 12-80 dm. high, 6-18 
Qim. thick ; ridges rounded ; sheaths nearly as broad as long ; leaves with a 
central and two lateral ridges ; teeth mostly persistent. (^E. robustum A. Br.) «- 


Hd. to Micb., soiitbne«tw. sod weatw. ; me eaat of the Miw. B. (Hi 
Fioa. 20, 21. 

d. B. variegitnm Schlcfcb. SteiiM tufted, ascending, 1.5 tn A 
slender, 5-10-groove<l ; ridges with broad C«Iiml grooves 

total dlamet«r ; greenparencbymacontliiiioDsundertlie beets. Interrupted in the 
grooves ; sbeatbs luoBe, green below, black-girdled above ; leaves 4-carlnale ; 
teeth black, wllb broad hyaline white borders, persistent, with long flUform 
deciduous ilpa. — Lab. to Alaska, southw. to Me., N. Y., and W70. ; rare. 

Var. jMftpl A. A. Eaton. Stems ascending or erect. 2-4 dm. high, I0-12< 
furrowed ; ridges with slight central grooves ; centrum 1-j the total diameter ; 
carinal biut cutting the parenchyma, the vallecular sniall ; sheaths green, with 
black limbe, becoming ashy with black bases ; teeth brown-centered, wblte-bor- 
dered, with fleruoua persistant awn-points, often becoming papery and withering. 
— Que. and OnL, Bouthw. to Ct. and 111. 

Var. ITelsAnt A. A, Eaton. 8t«ms annual, tufted, slender, 1.5-4 dm. high ; 

angles rounded; sheaths ampliated, green, with nimiw black limb, becoming 

dusky; teeth centrally grooved, with dark centera and broad 

# white borders, bearing deciduous awn-polnts; centrum } the 

total diameter of stem ; hast similar to the type. — N. T. to Mich. 
and 111. 

_ „ _. I, 10, E. aclrpoldea Michi. Stems many in a tuft, filiform, 0.75 

Cre'iMSH^f to 1 .5 dm. high, fleiuous and curving, solid at the center, 6-ridged 
■iMD x i» " through the deep grooving nf the 3 angles ; sheaths with 3 per- 
sistent hyallne-borderi'd filiform-lipped teelii. — Moist evergreen 
woods and low fields; Lab. to Pa., 111., and northwestw. (Eurasia.) Fio. 22. 

LTCOPODliCEAK (Clcb Hoss Fanilt) 

Low plants, lauallji of mo»a-Uke atpeet, THith elongated and often mueh 
braaeJted »tem» covered vitlh tmall lanceolate or Mvliulate, TiTrly oblong or 
Toundtd, ptT^ittnt entire leavet; the sporangia IS-celled, solHary in the axil* 
of the leatet, or on their upptr mrfar^, when ripe opening into two or three 
valvtt, and theddlng the numerous yellow spores, which are alt of one kind. — 
The Ffttnily, as here defined, consists mainly of the large genus 

1. LTCOpAdIUM 1- Clcb Hoss 

the form of a copious sulphur-colored iufiammable powder. — IVrennials, witb 
evei^reen one-nerved leaves imbricated or crowded in 4-HI ranks. (Name 
compounded of Mrot, a wolf, and wait, foot, from a fancied rexemblance.) 


A. 8poff« fmmm n tlie szAb of ordinary dark-frreen shiningr !••▼••, not finmi- 
In^ A wil marked terminal spike ; gemmae oomraonly present. 

Leaves uniform m 1. L, Selaqo. 

lisaves in zones, alternately shorter and longer 9. X. ludaulum, 

9. Spore eases only in the axils of the upper (bracteal) leaves, forming a 
sptte b. 
h, Bbnacteal leaves scarcely or not at all modified in form or texture. 

Braeteal leaves lance-linear or linear, scarcely broader at the base . 8. L. cUopeeuroidM. 
Bracteal leaves linear-attennate trom a distinctly broadened ovate 

base . 4. L. inundtUmn. 

b. Braeteal leaves scale-like, yellowish, very different from those of the 
sterile parts of the stem o. 
0. Bterile branches convex and uniformly leafy on all sides. 

Free part of leaves 4-8 mm. long ; fertUe branches mostly 1.5- 
SJ^dm. high. 
Fertile branches leafy up to the spikes. 
Creeping stem deep in the ground, the upright branches 

repeatedly forked, tree-like . . (7) A. obtourum, r. dendrotdnum. 

Creeping stem on or near the surface of the ground, its 
numerous erect branches mostly subsimple or sparingly 

forked 0. Z. annoiinutn. 

Fertile branches modified beneath the spikes into scaly pe- 
duncles 6. X. clavahim. 

Free parts of the leaves 1-8 mm. long ; fertile branches usually 

5-18 cm. high 8. Z. tUehsnte. 

& Sterile branches flattened or concave beneath, the leaves usually 
reduced or modified on the lower surlkoe d. 
d. Fertile branches leafy essentially to the spikes . . . . 7. Z. obtcurum, 
d. Spikes borne on scaly peduncles e. 

a. Peduncles terminating upright leafy branches. 

Fertile branches usually 5-10, rarely 15 cm. high ; fk-ee part 
of lateral leaves linear-subulate, spreading, nearly or quite 

as long as the adnate part 9. X. •abiiM^oHv/m 

FertUe branches usually 1.5-8 dm. high ; f^e part of lateral 
l^ttves deltoid-subulate, scarcely more than one third to 
oil 3 half the length of the adnate part. 
Bnnning stems deep in the ground: branches narrowly 
linear, 1.8-1.8 mm. broad, their divisions very numer- 
ous and crowded 12. X. triHachpum, 

Snnning stems at or near the surfhce of the ground ; 
branches 2-4 mm. broad, more loosely and openly 

forked 11. X. complanatum. 

^ Pedandes springing directly flrcm a short horizontal rootstock 10. X. oaroliniaHttm, 

1. L. SelAgo L. Stems erect and rigid, dichotomous, from a short slender- 
rootstock^ forming a level-topped tuft (0.5-2.5 dm. high) ; leaves ujUfonn, 
innce-^tenuate, crowded, ctscending, glossy, pale green or yellowish, aharp- 
pointed, entire or denticulate ; sporangia in the axils of unaltered leaves. — 
Crevices of exposed or cold rock, chiefly alpine ; Greenl. to Alaska, s. to N. E., 
L. Superior, Mont., and Wash., and on the higher Alleghenies to Va. (Widely 
distr.) — Commonly gemmiparous in the upper axils. Var. APPatssuM Desv. 
Leaves closely crowded, appresscd. — Usually more abundant, extending s. to 
N. C. 

Var. piLtens (Beau v.) Desv. Leaves linear-aUenuate and wide-spreading, 
dark green. — Cool calcareous cliffs. Que. and n. Vt. 

^. L. lacidulum Michx. Stems assurgent, the old elongate bases very per- 
sistent; leaves pointed, toothed, at first spreading, then deflexed, distinctly 
f^^ader above the middle^ arranged in alternate zones of shorter and longer 
kaves, the shorter leaves more frequently bearing sporangia in their axils ; 
proliferous gemmae usually abundant but caducous. — Cold, damp woods ; Nfd. 
10 Ont., Minn., la., Ind., and south w. in the Alleghenies to S. C. 

Var. pordphilum (liloyd & Underw.) Clute. Leaves lance-linear, attenuate, 
narrowed from base to apex, nearly or quite entire. (L. porophilum Lloyd & 
Underw.) — Mts. and cold ravines, local ; Nfd. and e. Que. to Wise., s. to S. C. 
and Ala. 

3. L. alopecuroides L. Stems stout, very densely leafy th.oughout; the 
sterile branches recurved-procumbent and creeping ; the fertile of the same 
thickness, 13-33 cm. high ; leaves narrowly linear-awl-shaped, spinulose-pointed, 
spreading^ conspicuously bristle-toothed below the middle ; those of the cylindri- 
cal spike vnth long setaceous tips. (X. adpressum Lloyd & Underw., in 


part.) — Pine-barrens and sandy swamps, Nantucket (Mrs. Owen, Dame^ 
Floyd) f L. I., and southw. Aug., Sept. — Stems, including the dense leaves, 15 
mm. in thickness ; the comose spike, with its longer spreading leaves, 18-22 mm. 
thick. (S. A.) 

4. L. Inondiitam L. Dtoarf; creeping sterile stems forking, flaccid, 3-10 
(rarely 16) cm. high, bearing a short thick spike ; sporophylls usually toothed 
near the ovate base, their attenuate tips herbaceous, loosely spreading ; leaves 
lanceoliUe or lance-awl-shaped, acutCj soft, spreading, mostly entire, those 
of the prostrate stems curving upward. — Sandy shores and in sphagnum, Nfd. 
to N. J., and north westw. to Alaska. (Burasia.) Var. Bioel6vii 'fuckerin. 
Taller (the fertile branches 1-3 dm. high) ; sporophylls more incurved or 
appressed, commonly somewhat stramineous, mostly entire, (L. adpressum 
IJoyd & Underw. in part) — Sandy shores, e. Mass. to Md. 

6. L. anndtinmn L. Much branched ; stems prostrate and creeping (3-12 
dm. long); t^ ascending branches similar (1-2.5 dm. high), sparingly forked 
sterile ones making yearly growths from the summit ; leaves equal, spreading, 
in about 6 ranks, rigid, lanceolate, pointed, minutely serrulate (pale green ^; 
spike solitary, thickish-cylindrical. — Open woods, Nfd. to Ct., Minn., Col., 
Alaska, and Greenl. (Eurasia.) In exposed and alpine situations replaced by 
var. Fi^NGEirB Desv., a form with short thick more rigid leaves which are 
3-4 mm. long and erectish. — Nfd. to n. N. Y., and northwestw. (Eurasia.) 

0. L. claT&tam L. (Combioit C.) Stems creeping extensively, with similar 
ascending short and very leafy branches ; the fertile terminated by a slender 
peduncle (1-1.6 dm. long), bearing about 2-4 slender cylindrical spikes ; leaves 
linear-awl-shaped, incurved-spreading (light green), tipped, as also the bracts, 
^Hth a fine bristle, — Dry woods ; common especially north w. July. (Cosmop. ) 
Var. momostXchton Grev. & Hook. Spike solitary on each pedui>:;lc com- 
monly of larger size (sometimes 8 cm. long). — E. Que. to Ct. and northwestw. 
Var. bbbvispicXtum Peck. Spikes solitary or in pairs, very short (1.8-2.4 
cm. long), thickish, blunt; peduncles 8-5 cm. long. — Wallface Mt., N. Y. 
(Peck). A sterile form with greatly elongated peduncles is sometimes found : 
Taconic Mts., w. Mass. (Harrison), and Green Mts., Vt. (Kent). 

7. L. obsc^rum L. Rootstock cord-like, subterranean, bearing scattered 
erect tree-like stems dividing at the summit into several densely dichotomous 
spreading branches ; leaves linear-lanceolate, decurrent, entire, acute, 8-ranked, 
those of the two upper and two lower ranks smaller and appressed, the lateral ones 
incurved-spreading ; spikes 1-3, erect, essentially sessile ; bracts scarious-mar- 
gined, broadly ovate, abruptly apiculate. — Kich woods, N. £. to Va. — Passing 
imperceptibly into 

Var. dendroideum (Michx.) D. C. E&ton. Leaves equal, erect or Incurved ; 
branches scarcely or not at all dorsiventra), usually erect and crowded ; spikes 
1-16. (L. dendroideum Michx. ) — The more common form, in woods or on open 
hillsides, Nfd. to N. C. and L. Superior. 

8. L. sitch^nso Rupr. Glaucous ; rootstock long, nearly superficial ; stems 
short, numerous, erect, divided from near the base into numerous erect sub- 
simple crowded branches (3-7 cm. high), equally leafy all round ; leaves equal, 
few-ranked, ascending, about 2 mm. long, slender, very acute ; spikes on short 
but usually distinct scaly peduncles; sporophylls green with scarious erose 
margin, the tip spreac^ing. — Coniferous woods, e. Que. and n. Me ; Mt. Katah- 
din; Mt. Washington, N. H. (Eggleston); Adirondack Mts., N. Y. (Peck); 
n. shore of L. Superior ; Alaska. 

9. L. sabinaefdliam Willd. In habit similar to the preceding; branches 
5-10 cm. long, flexuous, dorsiventral ; the leaves on the lower surface smaller; 
peduncles 2-3 cm. long. — Dry woods, e. Que. to Vt. ; Staten Isl., N. Y. (Buck- 
heister) ; and L. Superior (Q. S. Miller). 

10. L. caroliniiLnam L. Sterile stems and their few short branches entirely 
creeping (leafless and rooting on the under side), thickly clothed with broadly 
lanceolate acute and somewhat oblique 1-nerved lateral leaves widely spreading 
in 2 ranks, and a shorter intermediate row appressed on the upper side ; also 
sending up a slender simple peduncle (7-21 cm. long, clothed merely with 


small bract-like and appressed awl-ahaped leaves) bearing a single eylindrieal 
spike. — Wet pine-barrens, N. J. to Va., and southw. 

11. L. complan^tum L. Bootstock nearly superficial; stems erects irrega- 
larly branched or forked, the branches very flat, more or less glaucous, few- 
forked, the divisions (0.5-1.5 dm. long, 2-4 mm. wide) erect or but slightly 
spreading, all clothed with minute imbricated-appressed awl-shaped leaves in 4 
ranks wiUi decurrent a^lnate bases, the lateral with tooth-like tips; peduncles 
(about 3 cm. long) bearing 1-3 erect spikes. — Diy coniferous woods, Nfd. to 
Me., Ida., and Alaska. (Eurasia.) 

V&r. lUbellif6nne Fernald. (Gboukd Pine.) Brighter green ; the branches 
severaLforked and spreading in a fan-like manner, the terminal divisions 
0.5-4 cm. long and 1.5-3 mm. broad ; peduncles (averaging 7 cm. long) mostly 
4-6piked. — Dry woods, N. S. to W. Va., Ky., la., and Minn.; common. Van 
WiBBEi Haberer is a form with peduncles only l-spiked. — N. Vt. and centr. 
N. Y. 

12. L. tristichynm Pursh. Very glaucous; rootstoek deep (5-12 cm. 
below the surface) ; stems erect, the branches numerous, crowded, erect, 1-2 
mm. broad ; peduncles (8-12 cm. long) with a few scattered attenuate bracts 
and bearing 1-5 (mostly 4) spikes. {L. Chamaecyparissus A. Br. ; L. compla- 
natum^ var. Chamaecyparissus Milde.) — Dry sandy soil, n. Me. to Del., and 
L. Superior; southw. in the mts. to N. C. (£u.) 


Leafy plants^ terrestrial or rooted in mud, never very large ; stems branchr 
ing; leaves small and 4-6-rotoed/ sporangia one-celled, solitary, axillary or 
home on tfie upper surface of the leaf at its base and enunrapped in its margins, 
some containing large spores (macrospores) and others small spores (micro- 
spores). The macrospores are in the shape of a low triangular pyramid with a 
hemispherical base, and marked with elevated ribs along the angles. In ger- 
mination they develop a minute prothallus which bears archegonia to be fer- 
tilized by antiierozoids developed from the microspores. 

1. SELAGINAlLA Beauv. 

Fnictillcation of two kinds, namely, of minute and oblong or globular spore- 
cases, containing reddish or orange-colored powdery microspores; and of 
mostly 2-vaived tumid larger ones, filled by 3 or 4 (rarely 1-6) much larger 
globose-angular macrospores ; the former usually in the upper and the latter in 
the lower uils of the leafy 4-ranked sessile spike, but sometimes the two kinds 
on opposite sides all along the spike. (Name a diminutive of Selago, an 
ancient name of a Lycopodium, from which this genus is separated, and which 
the plants greatly resemble in habit and foliage.) 

* Jjeaves all alike and uniformly imbricated ; those of the spike similar, 

1. S. seUginoides (L.) Link. Sterile stems prostrate or creeping, small and 
dender ; tTie fertile thicker, ascending, simple (3-8 cm. high) ; leaves lanceolate, 
acutCj spreading, sparsely spinulose-ciliate. {S, spinosa Beauv.) — Wet places. 
Nfd. to N. H. (Pursh), Mich., L. Superior, Col., and northw. ; rare. — Habit of 
I^fcopodium inundatum. Leaves larger on the fertile stems, yellowish-green. 

2. S. rnp^stris (L.) Spring. Much branched in close tufts (2-6 cm. high) : 
Uaves densely appressedrimbricated, linear-lanceolate, convex and with a grooved 
keel, minutely ciliate, bristle-tipped ; those of the strongly quadrangular spike 
rather broader. — Dry and exposed rocks, somewhat local but not rare. — 
Qrayish-green in aspect, resembling a rigid moss. (Eurasia.) 



* * Leaoes shorter abow and belovoj sHpute-iike ; the lateral larger^ Cranked. 

3. S. hjfua (L.) Spring. Stems tufted and prostrate, creeping, mudh 
branched, flaccid ; leaves pellucid-membranaceous, the laiger spreading hori- 
zontally, ovate, oblique, mostly obtuse, the smaller appressed, taper-pointed ; 
those of the short spikes nearly similar ; larger Bpore-<»8es copious at the lower 
part of the spike. — Low, shady places, s. Me., south w. and westw. — A delicate 
little plant, resembling a Moss or Jungermannia, (S. A.) 

ISOftxACBAX (QuiLLwoRT Family) 

(Revised bt A. A. Eatok.) 

Small aquatic or palnatrine herbs of grass-like or rush-like aspect. Stem 
shorty thick, and corm-like, crowned voith numerous subulate leaves. Spores of 
two kinds in distinct axillary solitary sporangia, — A single genus ; the species 
similar in habit and to be distinguished with certainty only by the aid of the 
compound microscope. 

1. ISdBTBS L. Qdillwort 

Stem fleshy, more or less depressed, the roots arising £rom the 2-5-lobed 
base, the flattened top bearing the leaves from a central bud or crown. Leaves 

dilated and imbricated at base, rounded or somewhat 
angular above, orbicular in section, traversed by four 
air-tubes that are separated by cross-partitions, bearing 
a bast-bundle in the center and often 4 or more in the 
periphery. Stomata none or in narrow 
bands over the air-cavities. Sporangia 
in excavations of the dilated bases of 
the leaves (more or less covered by the 
velum, formed from the thin edges of 
the excavation), attached by their backs, 
orbicular to ovoid, plano-convex, trav- 
ersed internally by transverse threads, 
i8. lBo«tM(diaffniiiimatio). ^^^eir thin integumente often bearing 
Inner sarfboe of leafbMo. small dark sclerenchymatouB cells. 

Spores dimorphous, the female or gyno- 
spores large (260-1000 /n or more in diameter), spherical, with 
Bn elevated ridge (equator) around the middle and three others 
(commissures) arising from this and meeting at the summit of 
the upper hemisphere, the surface variously beset with siliceous 
elevations, rarely smooth ; the male or androspores in separate 
sporangia, mostly in alternate cycles with the female, very 
minute (20-45 /i long), obliquely oblong, triangular in section. 
The trunks of all our species but /. Tuckermani and /. saO" 24. i. riparia, Rbow- 
charata, var. Amesii are habitually bilobed. (Name used by infr generic haUt 
Pliny, presumably for a house-leek.) Figs. 2«3, 24. x v&. 

1 1. Sabmersod ; leaven cylindrical, fleshy, withoat bast-bundles or stomata. 
— AquXticab a. Br. a. 
a. Leaves stout, rigid, erect. 

Oynospores honeyoomb-reticniated below 1. /. maoroapora. 

Oynospores with distinct or anantomosing crests (1) /. mctcrotpora, ▼. Aetsrotpifra, 

a. Leaves mostly slender and spirally spreading or recurred b. 
b. QynoBpores with thin Jagged honeycomb-reticulated crests. 
Leaves 1 mm. or less in diameter. 
Leaves reddish or olive, often with a few stomata ; spores 000 p^ 

or lesA in diameter 8. 7. TiuikHfnani^ 

Leaves green, recurved at end, not spiral; spores averaging 

650 ^ in diameter ...... (2) /. Tuekermani, v. borealU, 

Leaves 2.5-8 mm. in diameter .... (2) /. Tuckermani, v. ffarvspi^ 

b. OynosporeswiththiokTermifonn free or anastomosing ridges . . 8. I. hieroglyph tea 
S 2. Plants of inundated shores or tidal flats, fhiltlng as the water recedes ; 
with stomata but oobastpboiidlea. — AMPHiiiLMB A. Br.c 


0. Lmvm rtddteh or oUre-green. 

Ojmotpores averaging 440 fi In diameter, with small pita . 4. J.ff>f>6olata, 

OjooBDorea aver^^ng 510 f& In diameter, with tnin Irregnlar 

walla (4) I./o9€olaiat r. plmtotpora. 

Cm Leftvea green d, 
d. Gynoaporea with Jagged crests. 

Ojnosporea avenging 600 si In diameter; oresta tall, mostly 

aimple 6. /. riparia, 

GjnoBpores averaging leas than fiOO ft lii diameter ; crests low, 
aimple or reticolated. 
Leaves 1-2.5 mm. In diameter ; trunks 8-lobed . . . 6. /. aaeeharaia. 

Leaves 1-1.5 mm. in diameter; trunks 8-6-lobed (6) /. aaeeharaia, v. AmsHi 

dm Oynosporea with slender or Jbigged spines. 

Leaves short, stout, spreaaing 7. /. schinospora. ▼. Braunii. 

Leaves long, fine, spiral (T) /. echinoapora, v. murieakk 

1 8. Plants of the extreme edges of ponds or streams, emersed most of the 

summer, with stomata and bast-bundles. — Pal^tbbb A. A. 

Eaton ». 

4. Bast-bundles 4, one at each front angle and one at each end of the 

doni-ventral partition /. 

X- Polygamous ; androsporangia rare ; gynospores appearing abortive. 

Bast-bundlea often absent; gynospores with labyrlnthlform 

ridges 8. /. JMofU, 

Bast-bundles always present; gynospores with truncate col- 

nmns 9. /. Graveaii, 

/, Monoecious. 

Gynospores with coarse Irregular crests. 

Crests loose ; sporangia slightly spotted 10. 7. DodgH. 

Cresta crowded ; sporangia densely spotted • . (10) /. Dodgei^ v. RotfbinHi. 
Gynospores reticuiateil. 
Plants of medium size; androspores smooth . • . 11. I. Rnqtlmanni. 

Plants large ; aodrospores splnulose . . . {^\) I, Kng^manni^y,talida, 

i. Bast-bundles 4, with accessory ones In the periphery. 

Monoecious; gynospores crested, somewhat reticulated (11) 7. Eng^manni^ w./antana. 
Polygamous ; gynospores small, smooth or with low tubercles or 

wrinkles 12. 7. mtlanopoda. 

1 4. Flanta of dry situations ; leaves setaceous ; bast-bundles 4 ; stomata 

many ; velum none. — Tbkr&stkks A. Br 18. 7. BuiUri. 

1. L macrdflpora Dar. Leaves 10-80, 2 mm. in diameter, erect, round, dark 
green, rather blunt; velum covering | of the unspotted sporangium ; gynospores 
600-800 ft in diameter, the upper faces traversed by thin parallel 

walls, the lower hemisphere reticulated ; androspores 86-47 /i 
(average 42 fi) long, smooth. — Qasp6 Co., Que., and Me. to 
(Int. and Minn. Fio. 26. 

Var. heterdspora A. A. Eaton. Leaves 50-150, 2 mm. in 
diameter, 5-8 cm. long, rigid, erect, tapering to a sharp point; 
sporangia spotted ^-} indusiate ; gynospores 540-075 fi (some 
abnormally 1100-1134 ;*) in diameter, densely covered with 
thick jag$:ed convoluted crests, often reticulated below ; andro- ^ '• macrospora 
spores 30-40/4 (average 85 m) long, dark brown, papillose. ^J^oB]^onxi^ 
(/. heterospora A. A. Eaton.) — Jordan Pond, Mt. Desert, Me. 

2. I. TnckermAni A. Br. Trunk often 8-lobed, small ; leaves 10-40, 1 mm. 
or less in diameter, 4-15 cm. long, reddish or olive green, sometimes with a 
few stonaata but no bast-bundles ; sporangia small, rarely spotted, ^ or more 
covered by the velum; gynospores 460-750 /n (average 600/*) in diameter, 
parallel-walled or reticulated above, more or less reticulated below; andro- 
spores 25-38 /£ (average 80 /a) long, slightly rough. — Sandy ponds, Me. to Ct. 

Var. boreilis A. A. Eaton. Trunk bilobed ; leaves 10-100, 8-26 cm. long, 
1-1.5 mm. thick, green or reddish, straight or recurved ; stomata none ; 
gynospoi-es 600-786 /£ in diameter, more coarsely reticulated ; androspores 42 /a 
long, finely spinulose. — N. Y. to N. H. and Lab. 

Tar. Harvdyi (A. A. Eaton) Clute. Trunk 2-lobed, 1.6-3 cm. in diameter; 
leaves 60-140, purple-bronze, 2.5-3 mm. in diameter, 5-6 cm. long, strongly re- 
curved ; stomata none ; sporangia unspotted, ^\ covered by the velum ; gyno- 
spores 526-648 /i (average 560 /a) in diameter ; androspores 80-89.6 /i (average 
34 il) long. (/. Harveyi A. A. Eaton.) — N. Y. and M?ss. to Nfd. 

8. I. Ueroslyphica A. A. Eaton. Leaves 10-20, 6-7.5 cm. long, 1-2 mm. in 
diameter, blunt, recurved ; sporangia not spotted, ^ covered by the velum ,* 

60 isoBtaceae (quillwobt family) 

gynospores 486-720 ii (average 600 y^ in diameter, sparinfrly covered with thick 
^rmiform subcooiiuent or reticulated ridges except just beneath the equator; 

androsporea 31-44 /i (average 2h /x^ long, verrucose. — Fonda 
and lakes, N. S., Que., and Me. Fig. 26. 

4. I. foyeoUta A; A. Eaton. Polygamous ; leaves 60>160, 

5-15 cm. long, 2 mm. in diameter, round, pinkish or olive- 

gi*een ; sporangia thickly dark-spotted, J-J covered by the 

86. 1, hierogiyphica. ^^j^^^ . gynogpores 380-560 a* (average 440 m) in diameter, 

oynosporo ^^^ lower surface covered with little holes, the upper a 

little more open ; androspores 22-^ /i long, reticulated or 
papillose. — Ponds and river borders ; N. H. and Ct. Fio. 

Var. plen^spora A. A. Eaton. Leaves 30-110, 1.6 mm. 
87 1 fovetjUu. Gyno- ^" diameter, 20-40 cm. long ; sporangia thickly dark-spotted, 
spore X 15. i"} covered by the velum ; gynospores white or ashy, 460- 

oOO II. (average 610 m) in diameter, covered with tall thin 
mostly honeycomb-reticulated walls ; androspores 27-33 /u long, finely granular 
or tuberculate. — Gravelly shores of ponds in a thin layer of silt, s. e. Mass. 

5. I. ripiLria Engelm. Often polygamous; leaves 10-30, 1-3 mm. in diam- 
eter, 10-25 cm. long, erect, dark green ; sporangia densely spotted, \-\ covered 
by the velum ; gynospores 450-756 /a (averaging 570 fi) in diameter, covered with 
high isolated, united, or reticulated jagged crests ; androspores 28-32 /a (average 
20 fi) long, sparingly tubercled. — Tidal shores of Del. R., in gravel. — A species 
misinterpreted in the past, and seemingly of restricted range. 

6. I. sacchar&ta Engelm. Leaves 10-30, 1-2.5 mm. in diameter, 8-25 cm. 
long, spreading or recurved ; velum very narrow to half covering the thickly 
spotted sporangium ; gynospores 42(M310 m (average 480 /a) in diameter, covered 
with low granules, reticulated walls or tall rough crests ; androspores 22-30 /a 
(average 28 /bi) long, sparingly papillose. — Fresh- water tidal flats, n. arm of 
Chesapeake Bay and Del. R. — Very variable and closely approaching the last in 
some of its forms. 

Var. Am&sii A. A. Eaton. Trunks 2-5-lobed ; leaves 8-30 cm. long, 1-1.5 mm. 
in diameter, slender, finely pointed, quadrangular ; sporangia with few spots, 
\-\ covered by the velura ; gynospores 420-(>00 /x (average 510 m) in diameter, 
marked with fine granules and thin short often reticulated walls; androspores 
28-32 M long. — Gravelly shores overlaid by fine silt, chiefly in shallow water, 
8. Mass. to N. Y. 

7. L echindspora Dur. Leaves 10-30, 5-15 cm. long, 1.5-2 mm. broad, 
dark green, finely pointed ; velum about one half covering the sporangium ; 
gynospores 350-560 /a (average 500 /a) In diameter, covered with simple or 
forked spinules; androspores 20-30 ^ long, smooth. — Eu. — A species repre- 
sented in America by the following varieties. 

Var. Braiinii (Dur.) Engelm. Differs from the type in having stomata on 
the leaves, a broader velum, spotted sporangium, and not rarely broad jagged 
crests on the gynospores. (Var. rohusta EngCim.; /. Boottii 
A. Br.) — Muddy or sandy river and pond borders, Gasp^ JHHfe. jtflW 
Co., Que. to B. C, s. to Cal. and Pa. ; variable. Fig. 28. »S ^BB 

Var. muricita (Dur.) Engelm. Submersed leaves 10-30, iQBf ^m^ 
flaccid, spiral, 15-40 cm. long, 1 mm. in diameter; emersed ^^ . ecblnosDora. ▼ 
ones 5-8 cm long, slender, recurved ; sporangia pale-spotted, ^^^^^ Oyioapare 
*-} mdusiate ; gynospores 400-020 m (average 510 /a) m ^ j^ 
diameter, covered with slender round spines and fiat, blunt, 
or retuse lamellae; androspores 25-31 /a long, smooth or slightly granular. — 
Firm soil in shallow waters, mostly submersed ; N. S. to n. Me. and N. J. 
— Grades into the last. 

8. I. Sat6ni Dodge. Polygamous; leaves 30-200, 40-70 cm. long, 3-4 mm. 
in diameter, flat above; stomata abundant; bast-bundles u.sually present; 
velum very narrow ; sporangia densely light-brown spotted, not filled by spores ; 
gynospores round below, upper half depressed, 300-450 m (average 390 a*) in 
diameter, with labyrinthiform-convolute ridges; androsporangia very rare. 


iiBaally scattered among the gynosporangia, the spores 25-dO ^ (.arerage 28 fi) 
long, minutely tuberculate. — Borders of ponds and streams, 8. N. H. to N. J. 
— Our largest species. 

9. I. Grayisii A. A. Eaton. Polygamous; leaves 20-160, 12-^ em. 
long, 2-3 mm. in diameter, erect, reddish or dark green ; sporangia with an 
ahundauce of light brown cells, }-) covered by the velum ; gynospores S51- 
405 ft in diameter, the upper hemisphere depressed, covered with short truncate 
single columns ; androspores 22-30 fi (average 26 fi) long, high-cristate or tuber- 
Calais. — Mass. to Ct. 

10. L D6dgei A. A. Eaton. Leaves 10-75, the submersed 20-45 cm. long, 
1.5-2 mm. wide, erect or spiral; emersed 10-15 cm. long, interlaced; stomata 
many ; bast-bundles usually present ; si>orangia sprinkled 
with light cells, ^ covered by the velum ; gynospores 
500-675 ft (average 560 ft) in diameter, sparsely beset with 
irregular often anastomosing walls ; androspores 22-44 m 
(average 32 /*) long, wrinkled. (/. riparia^ var. canadensis ^ ,^ ^^ ^ 
Engelm. ; /. canadensis A. A, Eaton.) — Firm sou, borders apore x 15. 

of ponds and streams. Me. to B. C, south w. to Fa. Fig. 29. 

Var. Robbinsii A. A. Eaton. Leaves 15-30, 10-38 cm. long, 1-1.6 mm. wide, 
dark green, rigidly erect, fine-pointed ; sporangia ^i indusiate, covered wiUi 
brown cells; gynospor^ 460-600 /a (average 500 /u) in diameter, thickly beset 
with anastomosing jagged walls ; androspores 28.7-32.8 fi long, rough or slightly 
papillose. (/. canadensis, var. Bobbinsii A. A. Eaton.) — Borders of i>onds 
and streams, s. Mass. to N. T« 

11. I. Engelminni A. Br. Leaves 10-40, 1-4 dm. long, 1-2 mm. in diame- 
ter, light green ; sporangia unspotted, } or less indusiate ; gynospores 350^570^1 

(average 450 /i) in diameter, honeycomb-reticulated with 

thin walls ; androspores 24-29 ft long, smooth. — Ponds, 

streams, and ditches, mostly in clay, N. H. and Vt to Pa. 

and Mo; mostly near the eoast. Fio. 80. Var. orAoilis 

80. L Kn0«iniAnni Eugelm. is su attenuate form in shade or deep water. 

Gyno^tTx 15 ^^^' v^lida Engelm. Plants larger ; leaves 60-100, 3-6 dm. 

^^ * tall, 2-3 mm. wide, often with 6 bast-bundles ; sporangia 

}-} indusiate ; gynospores 320-570 /i (average 480 /i) in diameter , androspores 

24-30 Ai (average 28 /i) long, blunt-spinulose. — N. J. to Va. 

Var. fontAna A. A. Eaton. Trunk 1-2 cm. in diameter; leaves 80-60, 
15-20 cm. long, 2 mm. wide, erect, with many stomata and six large and sev« 
eral small bast-bundles , velum narrow ; sporangia sparingly spotted with light- 
Inown cells ; gynospores 40(^-750 ft (average 500 /jl) in diameter, covered with 
coarser more or less broken alveolations ; androspores as :n the type. — Pa. and 
Va. ; locaL 

12. I. melandpoda J. Gay. Polygamous; leaves 15-60, 1.6-8.5 mm. broad, 
12-45 cm. tall, chestnut or black at base, with numerous peripheral bast- 
bundles ; sporangia less than ( indusiate, thickly spotted ; 
gynospores 250-400 /» ^average 830 ;i) in diameter, nearly 
smooth or with low often confluent tubercles; androspores 
23-30 ft (average 25 /i) long, spinulose. — Inundated fields and 
shallow ponds. 111. and la. to Okl. and Cal. Fio. 31. Variety 8i. 1. meianopodA. 
PALLIDA Engelm. of the Southwest, occasionally found mixed Gynospore x i». 
vith the tyx>e in our range, differs only in having pale leaf-bases. 

13. I. Bntldrl Engelm. Dioecious ; leaves 8-60, r.6-22 cm. long, 0.6 mm. 
in diameter, rigid, triangular-setaceous, with wide dissepiments, narrow air- 

^^ canals, and four stout bast-bundles ; sheaths granular on the 

iS^ backs ; velum none or very narrow ; sporangia mostly spotted ; 

^^ gynospores 400-630 a* (average 570 /i) in diameter, roughened 

M T R rt rf ^^ ^®^ *™*** ^^'^^ *^' fragmentary crests ; androspores 28-34 ^ 

i^ ';f ™7: long, coarsely tubercled. — Moist hillsides and shallow depres- 

*iyiiospore X lo. gjo^jg, Ill.and Kan. toTcnn. and Okl. Fio. 32. Var. immaculXta 

Engelm. Is a form without spots on tho sporangia, growing with the typical 

form of the apeciet. 


(Seed-Plants, Phanbbogamia, or Flowering Plants) 

Male generative cells (with rare extra-limital exceptions) passive, 
developing an elongated tube. Flowers with stamens, or pistils, 
or both. Normal reproduction by seeds containing an embryo or 

minute plant. 

TAXACEAE (Yew Family) 

Trees or ahrubSf ours with evergreen linear leaves^ and dioecious (or more 
rarely monoeciovm) flowers (borne on short scaly peduncles) , the sterile globular, 
formed of a few nahed stamens with anther-cells under a shield-like somewhat 
lobed connective, the fertile consisting of an erect ovule, which becomes a bony- 
coated seed more or less surrounded by a large fleshy disk (or scale). Now gen- 
erally treated as a family distinct from the Pinaceae, 

1. TAxUS [Tourn.] L. Yew 

Annular disk of the fertile flowers cup-shaped, globular, at length pulpy, 
red, and berry-like. Cotyledons 2. — Leaves flat, mucronate, rigid, scattered, 2- 
ranked. (The classical name, probably from rify)v, a bow, the wood anciently 
used for bows.) 

1. T. canadensis Marsh. (Ambricak Y., Ground Hemlock.) A low strag- 
gling bush ; stems diffuse (or rarely arborescent and 2 m. high); leaves linear, 
green on both sides. — Evergreen woods, Nfd. to Va., la., and Man. 

PINACEAE (Pine Family) 

Trees and shrubs, with resinous juice, mostly awl-shaped or needle-shaped 
entire leaves, and monoecious or rarely dioecious flowers borne in or having the 
form of scnly catkins, of which the fertile become cones or berry-like. Ovules 2 
or more at the base of each scale. Mostly evergreen. In the following treatment 
the term catkin (or ament) is retained as the most convenient designation for 
the catkin-like aggregates of scales bearing or inclosing cither stamens or ovules. 
The morphology of the coniferous inflorescence is still doubtful. It seems proba- 
ble that the staminate catkin is a single flower, but paleophytological evidence 
suggests that the ovule-bearing cones are inflorescences. 

Tribe I. ABlftTBAB. Fertile flowers consisting of Dumerous open spirallj Imbriciited carpels 
in the form of scales, each scale in the axil of a persistent bract ; in (hilt forming * cone. 
Ovules 2, adherent to the base of each scale, Inverted. Seeds winged. Cotyledons 8-16. 
Anthers spirally arranged upon the stamineal column, which is subtended by involucral scales. 
Bads scaly. Leaves linear to needle-shaped. 

* Leaves in bundles of two or more. 

1. Pinna. Leaves 2-5 in each bundle, evergreen. 

2. Larix. T..eaves many in each cluster, deciduous. 

♦ • Leaves solitary. 
4~ Loaves keeled on both snrfkoes (tetragonal) ; scales of the cone persistent upon the axta- 
8. Pieea. leaves not 2-ranked. 

■•- "♦- Leaves flattJsh, whitened along two lines beneath. 
4. Abiee. Cone large (5-10 cm. long), the scales tailing a way before the axis. 
b. Ttnga. Cone small (12-85 mm. long), the scales peraistlng on the axi»^ 


Tzibt II. TAXODtBAB. Fertile flowers of MTeral spirally orrsn^ tmbrioated soales without 
t>ncts, becoming a globular wooAy eoDe. Ovoles 2 or more at the base of each scale, erect. 
£«aTes linear, alternate ; leaf-buds not scaly. 
€. Tazodinm. Seeds 2 to each scale. Leaves 2*ranlced, deciduous. 

Tribe m. CUPS6SSBAB. Scales of the fertile flower few, decussately opposite or ternate, becoo?- 
Ing a small closed cone or sort of drupe. Ovules 2 or more in their axils, erect. Cotyledons ii 
(rarely more). Leaves decussately opposite or ternate, usually scale-like and adnate, the earlier 
free and subulate ; leaf-buds not scaly. 

* Monoecious ; fruit a small cone ; leayes opposite and more or less 2-ranked. 

Y. Chamaecyparis. Ck>ne globose ; scales peltate. Seeds 1 or 2, narrowly winged, 
t. Tbaja. Cone pendulous, ellipsoid, of 8-12 imbricated scales. Seeds 2, 2-winged. 

^ * Dioecious ; fruit berry-like, with bony ovate seeds. 

t. Jmipenu. Fmlt-seales 3-8, eoalescent. Foliage not 2-ranked. 

I. PtNUS [Tourn.] L. Piwb 

Filaments short ; connective scale-like ; anther-cells 2, opening lengthwise. 
Pollen of 3 united cells, the 2 lateral ones empty. Fruit a cone formed of 
the imbricated woody scales, which are persistent, spreading when ripe and dry ; 
the 2 nnt-llke seeds partly sunk in excavations at the base of the scale. Cotyli'- 
dons S-12, linear. — Primary leaves thin and chaff-like, merely bud-scales ; from 
their axils immediately proceed the secondary needle-shaped evergreen leaves, 
in fascicles of 2 to 6, from slender buds, some thin scarious bud-scales sheathing 
the base of the cluster. Leaves when in pairs semicylindrical, becoming chan- 
neled ; when more than 2 triangular ; their edges in our species serrulate. 
Blossoms developed in spring; the cones maturing in the second autumn. 
(The classical Latin name.) 

Leaves 5 in a fkadde ; oone-soales thin ........ 1. P. Sirolnu, 

Leaves 2-S in a fascicle ; eone-scales thickened at the end. 
Cone-scales unarmed. 

Leaves 9-16 cm. long; sheafh 8-21 mm. long 10. P.reainoaa. 

Leaves 4.5-6 cm. long ; sheath 2-5 mm. long ; resin-ducts In each leaf 

oumerous, peripheral or nearly so 9. P. sylveBirU. 

Leaves 1.5-4 cm. long ; resin-ducts mostly 2, deeply embedded in the leaf- 

tlsaoe 7. P. BankHana, 

Cone-scales armed with a sharp dorsal spine or prickle. 

Cone verr Urge, 15-25 cm. long 11. P. paluUHs. 

Cone S-12 cm. long. 

Bplneofeone-scttles stout, 6-6 mm. long 5. P.pungens, 

Bplne of eone-scales smaller, 1-8 mm. long. 
Leaves somewhat rigid, 1.8-S mm. broad. 
Leaves in 2*s, 1.5-4 cm. long ...•••.. 7. P. Bankttiana. 
Leaves in S's, 5-12 em. long ........ 8. P. rigida. 

Leaves in 8*s, 15-25 cm. long • , 4. P. Mrotina» 

Jjomres flaccid. 0.7-1.5 mm. broad. 
Old eones when open snbeyllndrle-OTold, about 10 em. long, usually 

shining 9. P. Ta&da. 

Old eones when open broadly ovoid, 4-7 cm. long, dull. 
Spine of cone-scale 2-3 mm. long ; leaves in 2's, 4-8 cm. long . 6. P. virginiana. 
Spine of cone-scale minute, about 1 mm. long ; leaves in STs or 

8's, 7-18 cm. long . • • 8. P. echinata. 

1. P. Stx6bii8 L. (White P.) Tree 20-50 m. high ; haves in S*8, very 
slender, glaucous ; sterile flowers oval (8-10 mm. long), with 6-8 involucral 
scales at base ; fertile catkins long-stalked, cylindrical ; cones narrow, cylindri- 
cal, nodding, often curved (1-1.6 dm. long); seed smooth; cotyledons 8-10. — 
Nfd. to Pa., along the mts. to Ga., west to Man. and e. la. 

2. P. Tadda L. (Loblolly or Old-Field P.) Leaves long (14-23 cm.), in 
3^B or sometimes 2^s, with elongated sheaths^ light green ; eone-scales tipped 
wUh a stout incurved spine. — Wet clay, or dry sandy soil, s. N. J. to Fla., near 
the coast, thence to Tex. and Ark. — A tree 15-46 m high , staminate flowers 
■lender, 5 cm. long, usually w«tb 10-13 invglucral scales i seeds with 9 strong 
cough ridges on the under ^do. 


8. P. rigida Mill. (Pitch P.) Leaves (5-12 cm. long) dark green, flrom 
ihort sheaths ; cones ovoid-conical or ovoid (3-0 cm. long), often in clusters ; 
scales vnth a short stout generally recuiioed prickle. — Sandy or barren soil, 
K. B. to L. Ontario, e. Tenn., and n. Ga. — A tree 10-26 m. high, with very 
rough dark bark and hard resinous wood ; sterile flowers shorter ; scales &-8. 

4. P. 8er6tina Michz. (Pond or Marsh P.) Similar to the last but readily 
distinguislied by its much longer leaves (15-25 cm. in length) and sheaths^ as 
well as the short more deciduous prickles of the cone. — Coastal swamps, Va. 
{Harper) to Fla. 

5. P. pilngena Lamb. (Table Mountaii? P.) Leaves stout, short, in 2*8 
or 3^s (8-6 cm. long), crowded, bluish; the sheath short (very short on old 
foliage); the scales armed with a strong hooked spine, — Allegheny Mta., N. J. 
and Pa., to Ga. and Tenn. — A rather small tree (6-18 m. high) ; cones long- 

6. P. virginiAna Mill. (Jbrset or Scrub P.) Leaves short (4-8 cm. 
long), in 2^s ; cones sometimes curved, the scales tipped with a straight or re- 
curved awl-shaped prickle. (P. inc^ Ait.)— Barrens and sterile hills, L. I, to 
8.C., Ala., and s. Ind. — A straggling tree (5-12 ni. high), with spreading or 
drooping branchlets ; larger westward. Young shoots with a purplish glaucous 

7. P. BanksUna Lamb. (Grat or North krn Scrub P.) Leaves in 2*s, 
very short and thick (usually 2-3 cm. long), ohliqucy divergent; cones conical, 
oblong, usually curved (4-6 cm. long), smooth, the scales pointless, or with a 
minute obsolescent prickle. (P. divaricata auth.) — Barren, sandy, or rocky soil^ 
N. S. to n. N. Y., w. to n. 111., Minn., and northw. — A low tree, usually 5-10 
(rarely 20) m. high. 

8. P. echinita Mill. (Yellow P.) Leaves in 2*8 or 3*s, slender, mostly 
about 1 dm. long, with long sheaths ; cone-scales with a minute weak prickle. 
(P. mitis Michx.) — Usually dry or sandy soil, Staten L to Kan., and southw. — 
A straight tree (15-30 m. high), with dark green leaves more soft and slender 
than the preceding. The western form has more rigid leaves and more tubercu- 
late and spiny cones. 

9. P. SYLvtsTRis L. (Scotch P., Scotch Fir.) Leaves in 2*8, dark green ; 
cones 4-6 cm. long, the thickened rhombic scales with central tubercle but not 
spinous. — Much cultivated, and thoroughly naturalized at some points on the 
N. K. coast. — A valuable long-lived tree attaining considerable height, but the 
trunk rarely straight, the bark gray. (Nat. from £u.) 

10. P. resindsa Ait. (Red P.) Leaves in 2^8, dark green; cones ovoid- 
conical, smooth (about 5 cm, long), their scales slightly thickened^ pointless: 
sterile flowers oblong-linear (12-18 mm. long^, subtended by about 6 involucral 
scales which are early deciduous by an articulation above the base. — Dry woods, 
Mass. to n. Pa., Mich., and Minn., and northw. — A tall tree, with reddish ratlier 
smooth bark and hard wood, not very resinous. 

11. P. paldstris Mill. (Long-leaved, Yellow, or Georgia P.) Leaves in 
8*s from long sheaths, very long, crowded at the summit of very scaly branches ; 
sterile flowers 6-8 cm. long, rose-purple ; cones large, cylindrical or conical- 
cy lindric, the thick scales armed tvith a short recurved spine, ( P. australis Michx. ) 
— Sandy soil, s. Va. to Fla. and Tex. — A large tree, with thin-scaled bark and 
exceedingly hard and resinous wood. 

8. lArIX [Toam.] Adans. Lakcb 

Catkins lateral, terminating short spurs on branches of a year*s growth or 
mora, short or globular, developed in early spring ; the sterile from leafless buds ; 
the fertile mostly with leaves below. Anther-cells opening transversely. Pollen- 
grains simple, globular. Cone-scales persisteiit. — I^eaves needle-shaped, soft, 
deciduous, very many in a fascicle, developed in early spring from lateral scaly 
and globular buds. Fertile clitkins crimso*3 or red in flower. ^The ancient 


1. L. laricina (DuHoi) Kocb. (American or Black L., Tamarack, 
Hackmatack.) Leaves 1-2.5 cm. long; cones o?oid, 1.2-2 cm. long, of few 
rooDded scales. (Z. americana Michz.) — Chiefly in cold swamps. Lab. and Nfd. 
to XL Fa., n. 111., centr. Minn., and far northw. — A slender tree (8-30 m. high), 
wiib hanl and very resinous wood. 

2. L. DBciDUA Mill. (A. eurupaea DC), with longer leaves and larger cones, 
is often cultivated, and occasionally established, as in Cu (Bisaell), (Introd. 
from Eo.) 

8. PfCBA Link. Sprucb 

Sterile flowers on branchlets of the preceding year ; anthers tipped with a 
rounded recurved appendage, their cells opening lengthwise. Cones maturing 
the first year, becoming pendulous ; their scales thin, not thickened nor prickly- 
Upped, persistent. — Leaves scattered, needle-shaped and keeled above and below 
(4-6ided), pointing every way. Otherwise nearly as in Pinus, (The classical 
Latin name of a pine. ) 

1. P. canadensis (Mill.) BSP. (White or Cat S.) BranchleU glabrous; 
leaves slender, pale or glaucous ; cones cylindrical^ about 6 cm. long, deciduous^ 
the thin scales with an entire edge. (P. a/&a Link.) — N. S. and N. B. to N. Y.^ 
L. Superior and northw. — A handsome tree (15-45 m. high), in aspect resem- 
bling the Balsam Fir. 

2. P. rdbra (DuRoi) Dietr. TBed S.) Branchlets pubescent; leaves 
mostly slender, 12-15 mm. long, usually acute or acutish, dark green or yellowish 
green ; cones elongated-ovoid, mostly S-4 cm. long, clear brown or reddish brown, 
the scales rounded, entire or slightly erose. (P. rubens Sarg. ; P. australis 
Small.) — Rocky upland woods, Nfd. to Pa., s. in the Alleghenies to 6a., w. to 
Minn., and northw. — A valued timber tree, 20-35 m. high. 

3. P. mariAna (Mill.) BSP. (Black or Boo S.) Branchlets pubescent; 
leaves short and thickish, mostly 6-10 (rarely 13) mm. long, pale bluish green, 
with strong whitish bloom ; cones short-ovoid or subglobose, 2-3 cm. long, dull 
grayish brown, persisting for several years ; the scales more decidedly erose, 
rounded or often somewhat narrowed toward Uie apex. (P. nigra Link ; P. 
brev^olia Peck^) — Cold bogs and mountain slopes, Nfd. to N. J., along the Great 
Lakes and northw. — Chiefly a low tree (8-12 m.) rarely attaining 30 m. in 

4. P. Abibs (L.) Karst. (P. excelsa Link), the Norway S., often cultivated 
as a shade tree, and now established (ace. to Bissell) at several places in Ct., 
lias subglabrous branchlets, slender sharp-pointed dark green glossy leaves, and 
large cones (1-1.5 dm. long). (Introd. from £u.) 

4. Abies [Toum.] um. Fm 

Sterile flowers from the axils of last year's leaves ; anthers tipped with a 
Imob, their cells bursting transversely ; pollen as in Pinus. Cones erect on the 
upper side of spreading branches, maturing the first year; their thin scales 
and bracts deciduous at maturity. Seeds and bark with balsam-bearing vesicles. 
— Leaves scattered, sessile, flat, with the midrib prominent on the whitened 
lower surface, on horizontal branches appearing 2-ranked. (The classical Latin 

1. A. balsHmea (L.) Mill. (Balsam or Balk-of-Gilead F.) Leaves 
narrowly linear, obtusely pointed or retuse (1-3.2 cm. long) ; cones cylindrical 
(d-10 cm. long ; 2-3 cm. thick), at first violet-colored ; the bracts obovate, serrulate, 
tipped with an abrupt slender point, shorter than the scales. — Damp woods and 
mt. swamps, Nfd. to Pa., along the mts. to Va., w. to centr. la., and northw. — 
A slender tree or at high elevations a low or prostrate shrub. 

2. A. Frasdri (Pursh) Poir. Leaves narrowly linear, commonly retuse ; bracts 
of the cones dentate or erose-lacerate on the margin, often emarginate and 
bearing a slender cusp at the apex, longer than the scales. — Mts. of Va., 
and N. G* 

okat's manual^ 5 


i. TStlTGA (Endl.) Carr. Hsmlock 

Sterile flowers a subglobose cluster of stamens, from the axils of last year's 
leaves, the long stipe surrounded by numerous bud-scales ; anthers tipped witb 
a short spur or knob, their confluent cells opening transversely ; pollen-graint 
simple. Cones on the end of last year's branchlets, maturing the first year, 
pendulous; their scales thin, persistent. — Leaves scattered, flat, whitened 
beneath, appearing 2-ranlced. (The Japanese name of one of the species.) 

1. T. canad6nsi8 (L.) Carr. Leaves petioled, short-linear, obtuse, 8-13 mm. 
long; cones ovoid, 1.6-2.6 cm, long, the scales suborbictUar. {Abies Michx.) — 
Mostly hilly or rocky woods, N. B. and N. S. to Del, and along the mts. to Ala., 
w. to Minn. — A tall tree, with light and spreading spray and delicate foliage, 
bright green above, silvery beneath. 

2. T. caroliniAoa Kngelm. Zeav€s petioled, linear, 15-18 mm. lona ; cones 
ovoid, 2-;i.6 cm. long; scales oblong^ in age loosely imbricated^ widely ami 
imgularly spreading.-^ Mts. of Va. to Ga. 

6. TAZdDIUM Kichard. Bald Ctfrbss 

Flowers monoecious, the two kinds on the same branches. Sterile flowers 
spiked-pan icled, of few stamens ; filaments scale-like, shield-shaped, bearing 
2-5 anther-cells. Fertile catkins oVoid, in small clusters, scaly, with a pair of 
ovules at the base of each scale. Cone globular, closed, composed of very thick 
and angular somewhat shield-shaped scales, bearing 2 angled seeds at the base. 
Cotyledons d--9. — 'I>ees, with light green deciduous leaves ; a part of the slender 
leafy branchlets of the season also deciduous in autumn. (Name compounded 
of rd^of, the yeWy and tWof, resemblance, the leaves being yew-like.) 

1. T. distichum (L.) liichard. Leaves linear and spreading; also some 
awl-shaped and imbricated on flowering branchlete. — Swamps, s. Del. to s. IlL, 
Mo. and Tex. March, April. 

7. CHA]IA£C^ARIS Spach. White Cedar. Cypress 

Flowers monoecious on different branches, in terminal small catkins. Sterile 
flowers composed of shield-shaped scale-like filaments bearing 2-4 Anther-cells 
under the lower margin. Fertile catkins globular, of shield-shaped scales de- 
cussate in pairs, bearing few (1-4) erect bottle-«haped ovules at base. Cone 
globular, firmly closed, but opening at maturity ; the scales tliick, pointed or 
bossed in the middle ; the few angled or somewhat winged seeds attached to 
their contracted base or stalk. Cotyledons 2 or 3. — Strong-scented evergreen 
trees, with very small and scale-like or some awl-sliaped closely appressed- 
imbricated leaves, distichous branchlets, and exceedingly dunible wood. (From 
Xa^ia/, on the ground, and Kinrdpia-ffoi, cypress.) 

1. C. thyoides (L.) BSP. (White Cedar.) Leaves minute, pale, often 
with a small gland on the back, closely imbricated in 4 rows ; cones sinali 
(6-9 mm. in diameter) of about 3 pairs of scales; seeds slightly winged. (C 
sphaeroidea Spach.) — Swamps, s. N. H. to Fla. and Miss. — A tree 10-25 m. 
high, resembling Arbor Vitae. Doubtfully indigenous in N. S., and said to have 
been originally collected in Canada bv Kalm. 

8. THtfJA L. Arbor Vitab 

Flowers mostly mor.oecious on different branches, in very small terminal 
ovoid catkins. Stamens with a scale-like filament or connective, bearing 
4 anther-cells. Fertile catkins of few imbricated scales (fixed by the base) each 
bearing 2 erect ovules; dry and spreading at maturity. Cotyledons 2. — Small 
evergreen trees, with very flat 2-ranked spray, and closely imbricated small 
appressed persistent leaves; these of two sorte, on different or successive 
branchlets ; one awl-«haped ; the other scale-like, blunt, short, and adnate to 
the branch. {QvLa or 8</a, the ancient name of some resin-bearing evergreen.) 


1. T. ecMeatklia L. (Arbor Vitas, Whitb Cisdar.) Leaves appressed- 
imbricated in 4 rows on the 2-edged brancblets ; scales of the cones pointless ; 
seeds broadly winged all round. — Swamps and cool rocky banks, e. Que. to 
Pa., along the mts. to N. C, west to Minn, and Man. — A tree 10-20 m. high, 
with pale shreddy bark, and light, soft, but very durable wood. 

9. JUNIpBRUS [Tonm.] L. Junipxr 

Flowers dioecious, or occasionally monoecious, in very small lateral catkins. 
Anther-cells 3-6, attached to the lower edge of tiie shield-shaped scale. Fertile 
catkins ovoid, of 3-6 fleshy coalescent scales, each 1-ovuled, in fruit forming 
a sort of berry, which is scaly-bracted underneath, bluish-black with white 
bloom. Seeds 1-3, ovate, wingless, bony. Cotyledons 2. — Evergreen trees or 
shrubs. (The classical name.) 

§ 1. OXYCEDRUS Spach. Catkins axillary; leaves in whorls ofZy free and 
jointed at base^ linear^subulate^ prickly-pointed, channeled and white* 
glaucous above. 

1. J. communis L. (Common J.) Arborescent, 2-4 m. high ; leaves thin, 
straight, long and relatively narrow (12-21 mm. in length, 1.6 mm. broad at 
the ^ise), widely spreading, grayish beneath, needle-pointed ; berry subglobose, 
5-8 mm. in diameter. — Dry soil, e. Mass. (where rare) to Pa., Man., and 
south w. in the mts. to N. C. and N. Mex. (Eu.) 

Var. depr^ssa Pursb. Decumbent, forming large mats, 3-10 dm. high and 
often several m. in diameter ; leaves 8-13 mm. long, straight or nearly so, sharp- 
pointed and with a white stripe beneath ; berry 6-10 mm. in diameter. (J. coin- 
munis, var. canadensis Loud.; var. «?pina Man. ed. 6, in part.) — Common in 
poor, rocky soil, pastures, etc., Nfd. to Ct., along the Great Lakes and 
north westw. 

Var. montAna Ait. Very depressed and trailing ; leaves short and relatively 
broad, curved, subappressed, 6-9 mm. long, 1.6-2 mm. broad, short^pointed, 
with a conspicuous white stripe beneath. (Var. alpina Gaud. ; <X nana Willd. ) 
— Exposed rocky places, coast of n. Mass. (where doubtful) to Nfd. ; also in the 
Rocky Mts. and Ala^a. (Eurasia.) 

§2. SABtNA Spach. Catkins terminal; leaves mostly opposite, sometimes 
awl'Shaped and loose, sometimes scale-shaped^ appressed-imbricated and 
crowded, the latter with a resiniferous gland on the back. 

2. J. horizontal is Moench. A procumbent^ prostrcUe, or sometimes creeping 
shrub ; scale-like leaves acutely cuspidate ; berry on short recurved peduncles, 
WO mm. in diameter. (</. Sabina, var. procumbens Pursh.) — Rocky or sandy 
banks, borders of swamps, etc., Nfd. to N. E., N. Y., n. Minn., and northw - 
J. S<Mna L., the Savin of Europe, has its scale-like leaves obtuse and more 
closely appressed. 

3. J. yirginijkna L. (Bed Cedar or Savin.) From a shrub to a tree 
15-26 m. high, pyramidal in form ; scale-like leaves obtuse or acutish, entire; 
berries on straight peduncles, about 6 mm. in diameter. — Dry hills or deep 
swamps, s. Me., westw. and south w. — Bark shreddy, and heart^wood red and 

TTPHACBAB (Cat-tail Family) 

Marsh or aquatic herbs, with nerved and linear sessile leaves, and monoeeious 
Jlowera an a spadix, destitute of proper floral envelopes. Ovary 1-celled, with 
persistent style and elongated 1 -sided stigma ; cell 1-ovuled. Fruit nut-like. 
Seed suspended, anatropous; embryo straight in copious albumen. Boon 


L TtPHA [Tonrn.] L. Cat-tail Flag 

Flowers in a long and very dense cylindrical spike terminating the stemi 
Che upper part consisting of stamens only, inserted directly on the axis, and 
intermixed with long hairs ; the lower part consisting of stipitate 1-celled ova- 
ries, the stipes bearing dub-shaped bristles, which form the copious down of 
the fruit. Nutlets minute, very long-stalked. — Spathes merely deciduons 
bracts, or none. Rootstocks creeping. I^eaves long, sheathing the base of 
the simple jointless stems, erect, tbickish. Flowering in summer. (Ti^iy, the 
old Greek name.) 

1. T. latifblia L. rCoMMow Cat-tail.) Stout and Ull (1-2 m. high), the 
flat sheathing leaves 9-23 mm. broad, exceeding the stem ; the staminate and 
dark brown pistillate parts of the spike (each ^15 cm. long or more) uaucUlp 
eontiguouSf the latter at length 2.6 cm. in diameter ; pistillate flowers withotU 
braetlets; stigma rhombic-lanceolate; pollen-grains in fours, — In marshes, 
throughout temperate N. A. (Cosmop.) 

2. T. angnstifblia L. leaves narrower (6-12 mm. broad), somewhat con- 
vex on the back ; pistillate and staminate parts of spike usually separated by a 
short interval, the fertile portion becoming 10-12 mm. in diameter; pollen- 
grains simple; pistillate flowers with a linear stigma and a hair- like bractlet 
slightly dilated at the summit. — S. Me. to N. C. and westw., less frequent than 
the preceding, and mainly near the coasU (Eurasia, etc.) 

SPARGANlACBAE (Bur-rbbd Family) 

Marsh or aquatic plants vHth alternate sessile linear ^-ranked leaves and 
monoecious flowers in globular sessile or pedunculate heads. Upper heads bear- 
ing sessile 3-androus naked flowers and minute scales irregularly interposed. 
The lower heads consisting of numerous sessile or shortly pediceled pistillate 
flowers with a calyx-like perianth of 3-6 linear or spatulate scales. Ovary 
1-2-celled. Fmit obovoid or spindle-shaped, l-r2-seeded. 

1. SPARGAnIUH [Toum.] L. Bdr.bebd 

Heads scattered along the upper part of the simple or sparingly branched 
leafy stem, the bracts caducous or the lower persisting and leaf-like. — Perennials 
with fibrous roots and creeping horizontal rootstocks. Flowering through the 
summer. The fertile heads becoming bur-like from the divergent beal^, bat 
the pistils at maturity falling away separately. (Name ancient, probably from 

dp7aivF, a bandf in allusion to the ribbon-like leaves.) 

Fertile flowers eloaelv sessile ; ttnlt broadlj obovold . . • • * !• 8» «uryearpum. 
Fertile flowers shortly oedicellate ; firuit faslform. 
Beak of fruit loug and slender ; stigma linear. 
PistiUate heads strictly axillanr. 

Matare fraits dull ; stigma 1-2 mm. long %. S, amerieanwm. 

Mature fruits lustrous ; stigma 2J&-4 mm. long & A lucidum. 

One or more of the pistillate heads supra-axillary. 
Erect plants of muddy shores ; leaf-blades translucent and reticulated 4. S. dictraifoUwn. 
Distinctly aquatic ; leaves with loiif? floating opaque blades. 
Acbenes rather abruptly slender-beaked ; luaf-blodes 1.5-4 mm. 

broad; stigma rarely over 1.2 mm. long ti, 8.angu$Uf6limik 

Acbenes gradually acuminate ; leaf-blades 4-9 mm. broad ; stigma 

IJWJ mm. long ft. 5. Hmpleoi, 

Beak of fruit stouter and Ihlcate or short and conical or none \ stigma oroid or oblong. 
Fruiting heads 2 cm. In dlam. ; beak gladiate-flilcate .. . . .7. S.JIuetuans, 
Fruiting heads 1 cm. in diam. 

Beak short, conical B, 8. minimum. 

Beak none, stigma sessile 9. <SL kynerboreum. 


2-fleededf 7-8 mm. long when matnre, with a broad and depressed or retuse turn' 
mU abruptly tipped in the center, — Borders of poods, lakes, and rivers, N. S. and 
Me., southw., and westw. to the Pacific, chiefly at low altitude. 

2. S. americAnimi Nutt. Stoutish, 3-7 dm. high; leavee thin and eoft^ 
t-l2 mm. broad; bracts divaricate or arcuate-ascending; inflorescence strictly 
simple ; pistillate heads all axillary, sessile or nearly so, in fruit 1.8-2.6 cm, in 
diameter; fruit dull, the beak 2.5-4 mm. long, (6'. simplex, var. Nuttallii 
Engeliu.) — Bogs and muddy shores, N. B. to la. and Va. (E. Asia.) 

Var. andrdcladum (Engelm.) Fernald & Eames. Iii/lorescenc^ bearing 
from its lower axils 1-2 weak branches. {8, simplex^ var. Engelm.) — Similar 
piaces, Nfd. to Minn., Mo., and FJa. 

a. S. liicidttm FemaLd & Eames. Similar, bat taller (7.6-0 dm. high) ; 
leaves firmer^ strongly carinate, much overtopping the simple or forking inflo- 
rescence ; pistillate heads in maturity 3 cm. or more in diameter ; fruU lustrous^ 
the beak 5-7 mm. long. — Muddy shores, Mass. to Pa. ; also 111. and Mo. 

4. S. diyersifbliom Graebner. Erect, stoutish, 3-6 dm. high ; leaves delicate, 
eelMar-reticulated, 4-9 mm. wide, with a broad scarious margin toioard the 
hose; heads chiefly ses&ile at least the lower supra-axillary, in fruit 2-2.5 cm. in 
diameter. (8, simplex Man. ed. 6, in great part.) — E. Que. to Ct. and S Dak. 

Var. acaole (Beeby) Fernald & Eames. Dwarf, 1-3 dm. high; pistillate 
beads smaller, 1.5-2 cm. in diameter, mostly crowded* (Var. nanum Graebner.) 
—Nfd. to la. and W. Va. 

5 S. angustifblium Mlchz. Slender aquatic; stems 8-12 dm. long; leaves 
exceedingly long and narrow, opaque ; inflorescence simple ; heads somewhat 
Bupra-azillaryf the lower ones often peduncled, in fruit 1.3-2 cm. in diameter. 

— Ponds and slow streams, Nfd. to N. E., westw. and north w. to Ore. and 

6. S. simplex Huds. Coarser and in America distinctly aquatic; stems 3-10 
dm. long; leaves 4-0 mm. broad; inflorescence simple, elongated ; heads mostly 
supra-axillary, the lowermost long-peduncled, in fruit 2-2.5 cm. hi diameter. — 
Nfd. and n. N. E. to 6al., and north w. (Eu.) 

7. S. fldctuans (Morong) Robinson. Of medium size for the genus, 0.5-1 m. 
high ; leaves 7-12 mm. broad ; inflorescence branched ; each of 2 or 3 branches 
bearing 3-5 heads, usually but 1-8 of the lowermost fertile ; these at maturity 
2 cm. in diameter ; nutlets with outer coat of firm texture, beaked by a persistent 
gladiate-faleate style, tipped with a short ovoid or oblong stigma, (8. androcla- 
dum, vsLT.Jluctuans Morong, at least in part ; 8, simplex^ var. fluUans Engelm.) 

— Margins of cool lakes, usually at a depth of about 1 m., n. N. B. and adjacent 
Que. to Pa. and Minn. 

8. S. minimnm Fries. Slender, 1-4 dm. high ; leaves graas-like, flat, thin, 
Qsually floating, 2-4 mm. broad ; inflorescence simple ; heads mostly sessile, the 
fertile at length 1 cm. in diameter ; the nutlets smooth, conically narrowed to a 
9hort but slender straightish beak tipped with a short ovoid or oblong stigma. — 
Cold shallow water, N. B. to Pa., Mich., Col., Wash., and northw. (Eurasia.) 

0. S. hyperbdreum Laestad. Slender, flexuous, 2-4 dm. high ; leaves 1-4 mm. 
broad, the canline somewhat Baccate at the base ; inflorescence simple ; the 
k>wer heads usually peduncled, in fruit 8-10 mm. in diameter; nutlets obovoid, 
rounded at the summit and tipped with a sessile short-oblong stigma. — Cape 
Breton (ace. to Macoun) and northw. to Greenl. (N. Eurasia.) 

NAJADAcSAB (Pondwbbd Family) 

Marsh or mostly immersed c^uatic herbs, with stems Jointed and leqfif^ leaves 
theathing at base or stipulate, and flowers perfect or unisexual, often spatha^ 
eeous, with perianth of ^ or Q herbaceous distinct valvate segments^ or mem- 
branous and tubular or cup-shaped, or none. Stamens 1, 2, 4, or 6, with 
extrorse antbexB, Ovaries 1-0, distinct, l-eelled, usoally 1-ovuied, in irult 


* Flowers perfect, Bpiked or elastered ; anthers 4 or 2, sessile ; leares sitenwta. 

1. Potunoseton. Spike peduocled . Sepsis 4, herbaceous. Anthers 4. Ovaries 4, sessfla. 

2. RnpptA. Flowers on sa Inclosed spadlx, at length long-ezserted, without perianth. A:lth«^ 

cells 4, distinct. Ovaries 4, becoming stipltate. 

* * Flowers monoeeloas or dioedoas, axillary, naked, naonandroas ; leaves opposlto (alternalf 

In n. 4). 

8. ZaiinlchelUa. Monoedoas. PIstUs (2-5) ttom a cop-shaped Involucre or sheath. 

4. Zottera. Pistils and stamens alternate in 2 vertical rows on the inner side of a leaf-like In- 

closed spadlx. Stigmas 2, linear. Stem creeping. 

5. NaJftB. Dioecious. Pistil solitary, naked. Stamen indoeed In a Dembnoooa QMrtba. 

Stems floating, with opposite or temate leaves. 

1. POTAMOGiTON [Tourn.] L. Pondwbbd. 

Sepals 4, rounded, valvate in the bud. Stamens 4, opposite the sepals; 
anthers 2-ceUed. Ovaries 4 (rarely only one), with an aiscending campy lotro- 
pous ovule ; stigma sessile or on a short style. Fruit drupe-like when fresh, 
more or less compressed; endocarp (^seed) crustacous. Embryo hooked, 
annular, or cochleate, the radicular end pointing downward. — Herbs of ponds 
and streams, with jointed mostly rooting stems, and 2-rauked leaves, which are 
usually alternate or imperfectly opposite ; the submersed ones pellucid, the 
floating ones often dilated and of a firmer texture. Stipules membranous, more or 
less united and sheathing. Spikes sheathed by the stipules in the bud, mostly 
raised on a peduncle to the surface of the water. (An ancient name, composed 
of irora/i^f, a river^ and yelrufy, a neighbor, from the place of growth.) — By 
fruity the full-grown fresh or macerated fruit is intended ; by seed, that with 
the fleshy outer portion or epicarp removed. All measurements are from dried 
specimens. The month mentioned indicates the time of ripening of the fruit. 

a. Leaves of two sorts ; floating ones more or less coriaceous, with « 
dilated petioled blade, dtfl'erent in form fl'om the thinner sab- 
mersed unes b. 
h. Submersed leaves filiform or very narrowly linear, at most 2 mm. 
wide c 
e. Spikes all alike, cvUndrical d. 
d. Blades of floating leaves 2.5 em. or more long, mostly shorter 
than the elongate petioles ; spikes 1.5 cm. or more long. 

Seed with a depression on each side 1. P. natant* 

Seed with plane sides, not at all impressed . . . 2. P. OeUt^tfianut. 

d. Blades of floating leaves less than 1 .5 cm. long, equating or longer 
than the petioles; spikes less than 1 cm. long. 
Fmlt compressed, distinctly keeled, tipped by the curved 

style 27. P. VaMyi, 

Fruit plump, slightly grooved on the sides, but not keeled ; 

stigma nearly sessile 20. P, lateralia. 

C Spikes of two kinds ; one emerse<1, cylindrical, and many-flowered, 
the other submersed, globular, and few-flowered. 
Peduncles of the submersed spikes e<iualing or exceeding the 

spikes 82. P, hyhridwi. 

Pedundes shorter than the submersed spikes . . . . .88. P. dimorphu9. 
b. Submersed leaves lanceolate to ovate, ifllnear more than 2 mm. wide e. 
e. Submersed leaves linear and ribbon-liko, with a broad coarsely 

cellular-reticulate space each side of the midrib . • 4. P. epihydrut. 

e. Submersed leaves broader^. 
/. Principal floating leaves heart-shaded at base. 

Fruit 8-4 mm. long, compressei, and distinctly 8-keeIed . . 7. P. puleher. 
Fruit 1.5-2 mm. long, plump, and obscurely 8-keeIed . . 8. P. polygonifoliu* 
f. Floating leaves ronndM or tanering at base, not heart-shaped g, 

g. Floating leaves 30-50-nervea 8. P. ampHfoHun. 

g. Floating leaves with fewer nerves A. 
h. Mature fruit 2.5 mm. or more long U 

i. Mature spikes 4-5.5 cm . long (If rarely shorter, with floating 
leaves lS-24- nerved). 

Submersed leaves mucronate 11. P. angustifoHuM 

Submersed leaves merely acuminate. 
Submersed leaves broadly lanceolate or oblong-elllpti- 

cal; fruit tipped by the prominent style . 9. P. iUinowMit. 

Submersed leaves narrowly lanceolate ; fruit tlpi)ed bv 

the nearly sessile stigma . . ' 6. />. amerieanuM. 



i. Mfttnre spikes 1.5-8.6 cm. lonfl^ (if imrefy longer, with floftt^ 
tag lesTSs 10-18-nerved). 
Foliage and spikes Btrong-ly sulTbsed witk red ; 8 or 4 

carpels of each flower nsaally ripeningr . . fi. P. 

Foliage and spikes grranish ; 1 (rarely 2) carpels ripening 10. P. 

h. Mature i^aitlJ^tf mm. long S, P. 

1. Leaves all sabmersed and similar J. 
J. Learee lanceolate, oblong or broader k. 
k. LeaTM sessile or short-petloled, not clasping I. 

L Leaves finely and sharply serrulate 

L Leaves entire, but sometimes with puckered or undulate, not 

serrulate, margins m. 
m. Mature spike 8.8-^5 cm. long. 

»uit distinctly 8-keeled 

Fruit with rounded, scarcely keeled sides • • . . 
m. Mature spike shorter n. 
fi. Spike more than 1 cm. long. 

Foliage and spikes strongly suffused with red ; 8 or 4 car- 
pels of each flower usually ripening .... 
FoHage and spikes greenish ; 1 (rarely 2) carpels ripening 

n. Spike 4-7 mm. lone 

k. Leaves clasping or half-clasping o. 

o. Leaves half-clasping, elongate, with rounded cucullate tips; 

stipules conspicuous and persistent ; fruit sharply keeled 
o. Lea 708 cordate-clasping, if elongate with tapering plane tips; 
stipules inconspicuous or soon reduced to shreds; fruit 
rounded on the oack or obtusely keeled p. 
p. Leaves undulate or crisped, with 8-7 prominent nerves ; fruit 
8..'3-4.5 mm. long. 
Stipules 1-2 cm. long, persisting as shreds; leaves lance- 
attenuate 14. P, 

Stipules short and inconspicuous ; leaves from suborblcular 

to oblong-lanceolate 15. P, 

p. Leaves flat, scarcely crisped, with 1 prominent nerve; fruit 
2.6-S.2 mm. long; stipules, when developed, short and 

inconspicuous 16. P. 

^. LMves Unear to setaceous q, 




18. P. erUptm, 








18. P. pra6longtt6. 

.. Leaves ribbon-like, 2 mm. or more wide, with a broad coarsely 

cellular-reticulate space each side of the midrib . . . . 4. P. 
q. Leaves narrower, if occasionally 2 mm. wide, without a broad 
cellular-reticulate space r. 
r. Leaves free teom the stipules, or, if slightly adnate to them, 
bearing globose subsessile or short-stalked spikes lii their 
axils «. 
«. Fruit flat, oochleate ; the globular spikes borne in the axils of 
the principal leaves. 
Peduncles equaling or exceeding the spikes • . . . 82. P. 

Peduncles shorter than the spikes 88. P. 

a. Fruit piump; spikes terminal or borne on the uppermost 
branches t. 
t Principal leaves more than 1 mm. broad u. 
u. Leaves with verv many fine nerves. 

Spikes many-flowered, in fruit 1.5-8 era. long . . 19. P. 
Spikes 4-8-flow6red, in fruit 5^ mm. long • . .20. P. 
u. Leaves with 8-7 nerves «• 
9. Mature fruit 8.5-4.5 mm. long. 

Stipules 0.5-1 cm. long; leaves acute; spikes capitate 
Stipules 1.2-2 cm. long; leaves obtuse, mucronate; 

spikes subeylindric-ovoid 

«. Mature fruit 2-8 mm. long to. 







21. P.milii. 


22. P. 


Vf. Bases of the leaves l)earing translucent glands ; fruit 
plump, obscurely or bluntly keeled. 
Leaves 5--7-nerved ; stipules 1-2 cm. long . . 28. P. 
Leaves 8-nerved ; stipules le»s than 1 cm. long . 25. P. 
to. Bases uf leaves glandless ; fruit flattened, with a thin 

keel or crest (80) P.folioms^y.ntagarentU, 

t. Principal leaves less than 1 mm. broad a. 
X. Plant bearing winter-bnds formed by the hardened ends of 
branches closely Invested by imbricated leaves and 
stipules y. 
y. Winter-buds bone primarily on very short axillary 
Leaves of the winter-buds widely divaricate . . 26. P. 
Leaves of the winter-buds looselV ascending . . 27: P. 
y. Wtuter-buds borne at the tips of elongate branches. 
Leaves bristie-form, with very fine slender tips . 
Leaves flat or revolute. acute or short-acnininate. 
Leaves rigid, revolute ; winter-buds l-*z cm. long , 24. P. 
Leaves soft ; winter-buds about 1 cm. long . . 25. P. 


28. P. gemmiparus. 



m. Plant without wfnter-bndii. 
Leaves bi-glandalar at base. 

Stipules 1-2 cm. lunip, persistent 90. P. ruUlut. 

Stipules less than 1 cm. long, scarcely persistent . 25. P. puHUug, 
Leaves ^landless at base. 
Spikes shurt-ped uncled, axillary; leaves broader than 

the diameter of the stems ..... 80. P./olio9U%. 
Spikes loiig-ped uncled, terminal ; leaves narrower than 

thedinmeter of the stems 81. P. eoi^€r9oid«^ 

r. Btipnles united with the sheathing base of the leaf; spikes inter- 
rupted 0. 
», Leaves at most 8 mm. wide, entire. 
Stignia broad and depressed, sessile. 
Stigma nearly central, the vc>ntral Ikoe of the fruit curved ; 

leaves filiform, taper-pointed 84. P.fiU^ormUn 

Stigma nearly in line witn the straightlsh ventral Dmo of 
the fruit ; leaves uarrowly linear, with blunt or rounded 

tips 85. P. ifUeri&r. 

Btiffma capitate, tipping the definite style. 

Fruit not keeled 8ft. P. pectin tttwt. 

Fruit prominently keeled . 87. /*. inUrruptuM. 

m. Leaves 4-8 mm. wide, cillaie-serrulate 88. P. RoObitudU 

1. P. nutans L. Stem simple or sparingly branched; floating leaves 2.5-1€ 
om. long, elliptical or ovate, somewhat cordate at base, obtuse but with a binnr 
point, 2i'-29-nerved, flexible at base, as if jointed to tlie petiole; upper sub- 
mersed leaves lanceolate, early perishing, the lower (later in the season) ver> 
slender (7-18 cm. long, barely 2 mm. wide) ; upper stipules very long, acute; 
peduncle about the thickness of the stem; spikes d-6 cm. long ; fruit obliquelv 
obovoid; sides of the turgid seed with a small deep impression in the middle; 
embryo coiled into an incomplete elliptical ring. — Ponds and quiet streams, 
common. July-Sept. (Widely distr. in temp, and subtrop. regions.) 

2. P. OakesUnus Bobbins. Stem more slender, much branched; floating 
leaves smaller (2-5 cm. long), ovate- or oblong-elliptical, obtuse, fewer (17-23)- 
nerved ; lowest submersed ones capillary ^barely 1 mm. wide), continu- 
ing through the flowering peason ; spikes shorter {l.5-3 cm. long), on peduncles 
miich thicker than stem' ;'ruit smaller and more acute ; sides of the seed not at 
all impressed f curvature of the embryo nearly circular, its apex directed to a 
point above its base. — Ponds, and especially pools and quiet streams, local, 
Anticosti to n. N, Y. and N. J. July-Sept. 

3. P. polygonif51ius Pourret. Stem slender, freely creeping, and sending up 
short leaty branches ; floating leaves elliptic-lanceolate to cordate-ovate, rather 
thin, 2.6-9 cm. long, 1-4 cm. broad, ll-3ii-nerved, not apparently jointed to the 
petioles ; submersed leaves (when present) lanceolate, short, mostly exceeding 
the petioles ; stipules blunt, 2-4 cm. long ; spikes 2-4 cm. long, very slender ; 
fruit plump, 3-keeled, 1.5-2 mm. long. — Shallow pools, Sable L, N. S. and Nfd« 
Aug. (Greenl., Kurasia, Afr., Austr.) 

4. p. epih^drus Kaf. JStems compressed, often simple from the creeping 
rootstocks ; floating leaves chiefly opposite (3-7.5 cm. long, 1-2.5 cm. broad), 
1 l-27-ncrt>^rf, oblong, tapering into a short petiole, the lower gradually narrow- 
ing and passing into the submersed ones, which are very numerous and approxi- 
mate, conspicuously 2-ranked (5-13 cm. long, 2-6 mm. vside), ^7 -nerved, the 
lateral nerves slender and nearly marginal, the space within the inner nerves 
coarsely cellular-reticulated; stipules very obtuse; spikes numerous, about the 
length of the thickened peduncle ; fruit round-obovoid, flattish, 8-keeled when 
dry, 2.5-3.5 mm. long; seed distinctly impressed on the sides; curvature of the 
embryo transversely oval. (P. perlsylvanicus Willd. ; P. NuttallH C. AS.) 
— Still or flowing water. July-Sept. 

Var. cayug^nsis (Wiegand) Benn. Stouter ; ^oa^m^ leaves 6-8 cm. long, 
2-3.5 cm. wide, ^^-AA-nerred ; submersed ones less distichous, 1.2-2.2 dm. 
long, 0.5-1 cm. wide, \^-V^-nerved ; fruit 3.5-4.5 mm. long. — N. B. and Que. to 
Wash., s. tocentr N. Y., Mich., and la. (Japan.) 

5. P. alpinus Balbis. Stern.s mostly simple ; floating leaves (often wanting) 
3.5-8 cm. long, rather thin, tcpdge-oblancenlate, narrowed into a short petiole, 
31-21-nerved: submersed leaves almost sessile^ lanceolate and lance-oblong, 


smooth on tlie margf n, fewer-neryed ; stipules broad, hyaline, obtuse, upper ones 
icominate ; spike 1.6-8.5 cm. long, often somewhat compound ; fruit oboYoid, 
lenticular, pitted When immature, with an acute margin and poiuted with the 
rather long style ; embryo incompletely annular. (P. ntfescena Schrad.) — In 
streams or pobds, Lab. to Alaska, s. to Mass., N. J., Mich., Minn., Utah, and Cal. 
July-Sept. (Greenl., Eurasia.) 

X P. Fax6ni Morong from Ferrisburg, Vt, and x P. rbctif6liu8 Benn. 
from Chicago, 111., are infertile hybrids of nos. 6 and 6. 

6. P. americinus C. & S. Stem often brandling below ; floating leave$ thin" 
aisA, lance-oblong or long-elliptical^ often acute, long-petioled^ 4-11 cm. long, 1-8 
cm. wide, 17-28-nerved ; suhmeraed leaves very long rO.8-3 dm. long, 0.4-2.6 
cm. wide), lanceoUUe and lanee^inear, 7-16-nervea, coarsely reticulated ; 
peduncles somewhat thickened upward ; fniit obliquely obovoid, obscurely 
3-keeled when fresh, and distinctly so when dry, the middle keel winged above 
and sometimes with 8-5 shallow indentations ; the rounded slightly curved face 
sormounted by the short style ; seed with the sides scarcely impressed ; upper 
part of the embryo circularly incurved. (P. fluitana Man. ed. 6, not Roth ; 
P. lonchites Tuckerm.) — In streams or rarely in ponds, N. B. to B. C. and 
Bonthw. Aug., Sept (Eurasia, n. Afr., W. l.^ 

Var. novaeborac^Dsia (Morong) Benn. Floating leaves lai^ and thick, 
broadly elliptic, rounded or obtuse at apex and base, 2.5-4.6 cm. wide. — Ct. 
to Wise. (Eu.) 

7. P. pdicher Tuckerm. Stemsimple(veryrarely branched), black-spotted ; 
leaves of three kinds; floating ones becoming very large (4.5-11) cm. long, 
2-7 cm. wide), roundish-ovate and cordate or ovate-oblong, 25-37-nerved, all 
alternate; upper submersed ones (3-5) usually laneeolatCj acute at base and 
very long-acuminate, 10-15-nerved, very thin, cellular each side of the midrib, 
cndulate, short-petioled ; lowest (2-4 near the base of the stem^ thicker, plane, 
oval or oblong with a rounded base, or spatulate-oblong, on longer petioles ; 
peduncles thicker than the stem ; spikes 2-4 cm. long ; fruit with a rounded 
back and anguhur face, pointed, distinctly 3-keeled when fresh, sharply so when 
dry ; seed with two deep dorsal furrows, and a sinus below the angle in front ; 
sides flat; embryo circularly much incurved above. — Ponds, locc^, s. Me. to 
Fla. ; and near St. Louis, Mo. June, July. 

8. P. amplifblius Tuckerm. Stems simple, of very variable length ; floats 
ing leaves (sometimes wanting) large, oblong, lance-ovate or broadly elliptic, 
abruptly acutish, 30-^-nerved, on rather long petioles; submersed leaves often 
very large (0.8-2 dm. long, 2.5-7 cm. broad), lanceolate or oval, acute at each 
end, usually much recurved* undulate, mostly on short petioles ; stipules very 
long and tapering to a point, soon becoming loose ; peduncles thickened upward, 
in deep water much elongated ; spikes 8.5-8 cm. long; fruit very large (4-5.5 
mm. long), rather obliquely obovoid, ^keeled, with a broad stout b^k ; seed 
slightly impressed on the sides ; upper part of the embryo curved into a ring. — 
Ponds and rivers, N. S. to B. C, s. to N. J., Ky., Kan., and Cal. July-Sept* 

0. P. illino^nsis Morong. Stem stout, branching towards the summit; 
floating leaves opposite, oval or elliptic (0.5-1.5 dm. long, 4-9 cm. broad), 
19-27-nerved, rounded or narrowed at base, with a short blunt point, on short 
petioles ; submersed leaves oblong-elliptical, acute at each end, usually ample 
(1-2 dm. long); stipules coarse, obtuse, strongly bicarinate (5-7 cm. long); 
peduncles often clustered at the summit, thickening upward ; spikes 4-^ cm. 
long ; fruit roundish-obovate ^3.5-4.5 mm. long), 8-keeled on the back, middle 
keel prominent ; seed flattenea and slightly impressed on the sides, obtuse or 
pointed at base ; apex of embryo directed transversely inward. — Sti*eams and 
ditches. 111., la., and Minn. July, Aug. 

10. P. heteroph^Uus Schreb. Stem slender, very branching below ; floating 
leaves mostly thin, variable, but with a short blunt point, 9-17-nerved, 1.5-7 cm. 
long, 0.5-2.5 cm. wide; submersed ones lanceolate, oblanceolate or linear- 
lanceolate, acuminate or cuspidate, narrowed toward the base, somewhat stiffish, 
2.5-8 cm. long, 0.2-1.3 cm. wide, about 7-nerved on the stem and 3-nerved on 
the branches ; upper ones petioled, lower sessile ; stipules obtuse, loose ; pcdun- 

T4 kajadagbab (pond weed family^ 

cl68 somewhat thickened upward, mostly less than 1 dm. long ; frait small (2.5-3 
muL long), roundish, comprMed, scarcely keeled; embryo annular above.— 
Still or flowing water, common. July-Sept. (Greenl., Eurasia.) — Varies ex- 
ceedingly in its submersed leaves, peduncles, etc. Forma ohaximifolius 
(Fries^ Morong. Stems much elongated and less branched, and the flaccid 
linear-lanceolate submersed leaves 0.5-1.6 dm. long, 2-6 mm. wide ; spikes 1.5-^3 
cm. long. Forma longipedukculXtus (Merat) Morong. Subsimple, the inter- 
nodes very elongate (the uppermost 1^ dm. long) ; submerged leaves lanceo- 
late; peduncles 1-2.6 dm. long. — Nfd. to Ct., Mich., and westw. Forma 
MTRiopHYLLus (Robbius) Morong. Sending up from running rootstocks many 
short repeatedly dichotomous and densely leafy stems ; fertile stems very slen- 
der; floating leaves small, delicate, lance-oblong, on long filiform petioles; 
submersed stem-leaves larger, early perilling; those of the branches (deep 
green) linear-oblanceolate, very small (1.5-3 cm. long, 2-4 mm. wide), acute; 
spike slender, loosely flowered, 1.2-2.5 cm. long. — N. E. Forma mAximus 
Morong. Floating leaves 0.0-1.6 dm. long, 1-3 cm. wide, very acute ; sub- 
mersed leaves 0.5-1.6 dm. long, 0.6-1.6 cm. wide, 5-0-nerved. Forma TBRRies- 
TRis Schlecht. Freely creeping in exsiccated places, producing numerous very 
short branches wliich bear tufts of oblong or oval coriaceous leaves but no 
fruit. — Que. and N. £. 

11. P. angustifblios Berchtold & Presl. Resembling P. lucens, but smaller, 
slender, much branch^ at base ; upper leaves coriaceotia or aubcoriaceous^ lona- 
petioled and sometimes emersed, 0.4-1 dm. long, 1-2.5 cm. wide, 13-21-nerved; 
the others subs^sile, all usually numerous, lanceolate or oblanceolate, mucrth 
nate, undulate and crisped, shining, 0.5-1.5 dm. long, 0.5-3 cm. broad, 7-17- 
nerved ; stipules obtuse, 1.5-4 cm. long ; peduncle elongated ; JHtit distinctly 
S-keeled, 3-4 mm. long. (P. Zizii Mertens & Koch.) — Lakes, rarely streams, 
local, Mass. to Mich., westw. and southw. June-Sept. ( W. I., Eurasia, Afr.) 
Var. coMNECTicuT^ifsis (Robbins) Benn. Larger throughout ; leaves all suIk 
mersed; fruit 4-4.5 mm, long. (P. lucens, var. Robbins.) — Lakes, Vt., Ct., 
and e. N. Y. 

X P. 8pathabf6rmis Tuckerm. (P. spathulaeformis Morong) in Mystic 
Pond, Medford, Mass., is an infertile hybrid of nos. 11 and 10. 

12. P. lAcens L. Stem thick, branching, sometimes very large ; leaves ail 
suhmersed and similar, more or less petioled^ oval or lanceolate, mucronate, 
often crisped, frequently shining, 6-20 cm. long, about 13-nerved ; peduncles 
often elongated ; fruit roundish and compressed, with obtuse margins, scarcely 
keeled; embryo circularly incurved above. — Ponds, local, N. S. to Fla., w. to 
the Pacific Aug.-Oct (Mex., W. L, Eurasia, n. Afr.) 

13. P. nraeldngus Wulf. Stem vshite, very long, branching, flexuous; 
leaves brignt green, lance-oblong or lanceolate (0.5-3 dm. long), half-clasping, 
obtuse with a boat-shaped cavity at the extremity, thence splitting on pressure ; 
stipules white, scarious, very obtuse, 1.5-8 cm. long ; peduncles very long (some- 
times reaching 5 dm.) ; spikes rather loose-flowered ; fruit obliquely obovoid, 
compressed, sharply keeled when dry, 4-5 mm. long; style terminating the 
nearly straight face; curve of the embryo oval and longitudinal. — Ponds and 
lakes, N. S. to B. C, s. to Ct., N. J., the Great Lakes, la., Mont, and Cal. — 
Fruiting in June and July, withdrawing the stems to deep water to mature the 
fruit. (Eurasia.) 

14. P. Kichaidsbnii (Benn.) Rydb. Stem branching ; leaves long-lanceolate 
from a cordate-clasping base, acuminate, wavy, pale bright green, 3-1 1 cm, 
long, 13-28-nerved ; stipules conspicuous, at least as shreds ; peduncles thicks 
ened upward, of somewhat spongy texture, elongating sometimes to 1 dm. 
or more; spikes 1.5-3.5 cm. long; fruit irregularly obovoid, distinctly beaked, 
obscurely 3-keeled, 4 mm. long, the green epicarp puckered in drying. (P. 
perfoliatus, var. lanceolatus Bobbins.) — Quiet water, Que. to Mackenzie and 
B. C, s. to N. E., N. Y., the Great Lake region, Neb., etc. July-Sept. 

15. P. perfoliitus L. Similar ; leaves orbicular, ovate or lanceolate from a 
cordate-clasping base, usually obtuse and crisped, 2-6 cm. long, 15-27-nefN7e<2; 
stipules rarely developed, less than 1 cm. long; peduncles spongy and thieki^ 


%^4 cm, long; apikea 2-2.6 em. long; frait similar.— Ponds and slow streams, 
local, N. E. to the Great Lakes. Sept., Oct. (Bo.) 

16. P. bupleuroides Fernald. Veiy slender, branching ; leaves orbicular to 
lanceolate^ obtuse^ flat, not crisped, drying blackish green or bronze, 1-3.5 cm. 
long, 7~n -nerved; stipules rarely developed, appressed and inconspicuous ; 
peduncles slender, scarcely spongy, 2-6 cm. long; spikes 0.7-2 cm. long; fruit 
narrowly oboYoid, 2.5-3.2 mm. long, the sides flat and deeply pitted, the back 
rounded, ^ighUy 3-keeled ; style slender and prominent ; the olive or brownish 
epicarp closely investing the seed. (P. perfoliatus Man. ed. 6, in part, not 
L.) — Bracldsh, occasionally fresh, ponds and quiet streams, Nfd. and e. Que. 
to Fla», rarely inland to w. N. Y. and Mich. July-Sept. 

X P. irlTENS Weber and plants closely simulating it in America are infertile 
and appear to be hybrids of no. 10 with no. 14, 15, or 16. 

17. P. mysticus Morong. Stem very slender and irregularly branching. 
Dearly filiform ; leaves oblong-linear (1.6-4 cm. long, 4-tt mm. wide), 6-7- 
nerved, finely undulate and entire, obtuse or bluntly pointed, abruptly nar- 
rowing at b<ise, sessile or partly clasping; spikes few, capitate (4-6-llowered), 
on erect peduncles; fruit (immature) obovoid, small (less than 2 mm. long), 
obscurely S-keeled on the back, a little beaked by the slender recurved style. — 
Locally in brackish ponds, Mass. and Md. — Infertile, and probably a hybrid of 
DOS. 16 and 25. 

18. P. cafspus L. Stem compressed ; leaves linear-oblong, sessile or half- 
clasping, obtuse, serrulate, crisped-ioavy, -i-^-nerved; fruit long-beaked; upper 
portion of the embryo incurved in a large circle. — Fresh or bi'ackish waters, 
Mass. to Ont. and Va. June, July. — Propagating chiefly by bur-like winter- 
buds formed by hardened abbreviated branches and indurated bases of leaves. 
(Nat. from £u.) 

19. P. Z08terif61ias Schumacher. Stem branching, wing-flattened; leaves 
linear and grass-like (0.5-2 dm. long, 2-4 mm. wide), abr^tptly pointed, with many 
fine and 3 larger nerves; stipules oblong, very obtuse ; spikes cylindrical, 12-15- 
flowered, not half so long as the peduncle; fruit obliquely obovoid, 3.5-4.5 mm. 
long, somewhat keeled and with slight teeth on the back, the sides not im- 
pressed, the face arching and terminated by the short style ; summit of the 
large embryo lying transverse to the fruit. — Still and slow-flowing waters, N. B. 
to B. C, s. to N. J. , the Great Lake region, la., etc. June- Aug. — Freely propa^ 
gating by large winter-buds, ^urasia.) 

20. P. acutifblius Link. Similar; leaves many-nerved, sharp-acuminate; 
npikes globose, 4-8-;f owcrcd ; fruit conspicuously crested, the sides flat. — Col- 
lected at Lancaster, Pa., by Muhlenberg nearly a century ago ; not since found 
m Am. July, Aug. (Eurasia, Austr.) 

21. P. Hfllii Morong. Stem slender, widely branching, flattish; leaves 
linear, acute (2.5-6.5 cm. long, 1-2.2 mm. wide), S-nerved, the lateral nerves 
delicate and near the margin ; stipules whitish, striate, obtuse ; spikes capitate 
(3-6-fruited), on short spreading or recurved peduncles ; fruit as in the last, but 
the sides rounded. — Lakes and ponds, Ct. to Pa., Mich., and Ont. July, Aug. 

22. P. obtosifblins Mertens &Koch. Stem flattened, very branching; leaves 
linear, tapering toward the base, obtuse and mucronate, 1.5-3.6 mm. broad, 
^rarely 5 or l)-nerved, bearing 2 large translucent glands at base ; spike con- 
tinuous, 5-8-flowered (8-24-fruited, most of the carpels maturing), about the 
length of the peduncle; fruit ovoid, apiculate with the style, not keeled when 
fresh, upper portion of embryo coiled inward and lying transverse to the fruit. — 
Clear streams and ponds, e. Que. to Athabasca, s. to e. N. Y., Pa., Mich., 
Wise. , Minn. , and Wyo. July-Sept. — Freely propagating by large winter-buds. 

23. P. Fridsii Rupr. Resembling no. 25 ; stem more flattened and less 
branching; leaves broader (l^ mm. wide), b-1-nerved; winter-buds abundant; 
stipules conspicuous, white-hyaline ; glands small and dull; spikes interrupted, 
in fruit 0.8-1.6 cm. long. (P. mucronatus Man. ed. 6, not Schrad.?) — Local, 
P. Efl. to B.C., 8. to Ct.. N. Y.. Mich.* Wise., Minn., and N. Dak. July, Aug. 



24. P. strlctifblioa Beon. 8tem8 slender, udry^ simple below, freely and 
8t\ffltj branched above^ the ascending branches mostly tipped by large winter^ 
buds; leaves spreading-asceuding, very rigid^ 2-8.5 cm. long, 0.4~1 mm. wide^ 
revolute, :}-nerved, the central nerve prominent ; stipules as long as the upper 
iutemodes, appressed and veiny; peduncles rigid; spikes slightly interrupted, 
6-10 mm. long, 8-8-fruited ; fruit obliquely ellipsoidal, 2 mm. long, plump and 
rounded on tbe back, the style nearly in line with the straightish ventral face. 
(P. ptisillus, var. pseudo-rutiltis Benn.) — Que. to e. Mass., and Mich. July- 
Sept — Perhaps a variety of no. 25. 

25. P. pusllluB L. Stem slender^ flattish or nearly cylindrical, often very 
branching; leaves narroto-linear, acute or subacute, 2-6 cm. long, 0.5-1.6 mm. 
wide, fi-nervedy furnished with translucent glands on each side at the base ; win- 
ter-buds occasional ; stipules at first obtuse, soon deciduous ; spikes interrupted 
or capitate, 2-10-flowered, on rather long (0.5-3 cm.) peduncles; fruit obliquely 
ellipsoid, acarcWy keeled^ 1.5-2 mm. long; apex of embryo incurved and directed 
obliquely downtoard. — Pools, ditches, and ponds, generally distr. July-Sept. 
(Kurasia, Trop. Am.) Passing freely to the following varieties. 

Var. tenuissimiis Mertens & Koch. Leaves setaceous, 0.2-0.5 mm. wide, 1- 
3-nerved. — Kange of species. 

Var. polyphyllns Mon)ng. A dwarf bushy-branched sterile plant, bearing 
very abundant winter-buds. — Ponds, Me. and Mass. 

Var. capititns Benn. lute modes very long, mostly much exceeding the 
leaves; peduncles elongate, mostly 3-6 cm. long. — P. £. I. and N. S. to Sask., 
B. C, and Ore. 

Var. Sturrdckii Benn. Leaves obtuse, pellucid ana bright green, 0.8-2 mm. 
broad ; fruit smaller than in the species. — Gaspid Co., Que., to Ct. 

26. P. lateralis Morong. Plants of two sorts, only the fruiting producing 
floating leaves; stem filiform, branching; floating leaves elliptical (0.8^1.2 cm. 
long, 2-4 mm. wide), with 5-7 nerves deeply impressed beneatli, tapering into a 
somewhat dilated petiole ; submersed leaves linear^ acute (2.5-7 cm. long, 0.2- 
0.9 mm. wide), l-3-nerved, the mid nerve with fine veins or cellular reticular 
tions on each side, bi-glandular at base ; stipules short, deciduous ; peduncles 
widely spreading €U maturity, sometimes even recurved, often thicker than the 
stem ; spikes often interrupted (2-4-flowered) ; fruit obliquely obovoid (hardly 
2 mm. long), the back much curved, with two fine grooves upon it ; embryo 
oval in its curve, the apex nearly touching the base.-* Mass. and Ct. to 
Mich. ; rare. July, Aug. — l7ndeveloped specimens resemble no. 25. Propagated 
by winter-buds on short lateral branches. 

27. P. Vasdyl Bobbins. Similar ; very delicate ; stem almost capillary ; 
floating leaves obovate (0.7-1.4 cm. long, 3-6.5 mm. wide), the length of their 
filiform petioles, with 5-9 nerves deeply impressed beneath, cross-veins distinct : 
submersed leaves filiform-linear, very attenuate (2.5-5 cm. long, 0.1-0.5 mm. 
wide) and acute ; stipules scarious, long, acute ; spikes all emersed, few, in- 
terrupted-cylindric, 3-5-fiowered, on a thickish peduncle ; fruit oblique, round- 
obovoid, compressed, slightly sharp-margined, tipped with a distinct recurved 
style, the sides impressed and face acute ; upper portion of the embryo cir- 
cularly incurved, its apex transverse to the fruit. — Me. to Ont., s. to Ct., N. Y., 
O., 111., and Minn., local. June-Aug. — The fruiting form, with floating leaves, 
rare ; the submerged form, bearing winter-buds, apparently much more abun- 

28. P. gemmipanis Bobbins. Stem filiform, branching, terete, varying 
greatly in height; leaves hair-like, sometimes not as broad as the stem, often 
with no apparent midrib, tapering to the ft nest point (1.5-8 cm. long), bl-glan- 
dular at base; stipules 1.2-2.5 cm. long, obtuse,^ early deciduous; spikes few (3- 
6-flowered), interrupted^ on long filiform peduncles ; trinter-buds very numeP' 
ous; fruit like that of P. pusillus, hut flattened and impressed on the sides, very 
rare. — Slow-moving streams and still water, centr. Me. to R. I., local. Aug., 

ls9. P. riitilns Wolfgang. Stems very slender, simple or slightly branching 
at base ; winter-buds usuaUy wanting ; leases erectf narrowly linear, atUnuaU^ 


^arp-<Kuminate^ soon revolate, 3-5-neiTea, the praminefU midfib often com- 
puuDd, bi-glandular at base ; stipules 1-2 cm. long, €tcuminate^ scariouB and 
strongly nerved, persistetU; peduncles l.:^-3.6 cm. long; spikes elongate, 6-8- 
flowenKl ; f niit narrowly oblique-obovoid, about 2 mm. long, the erect style 
nearly in line with the straighttsh ventral face. — Gasp^ Co., Que., to Hudson 
fiay, 8. to Me., Vt., Mich., and Minn., local. (Eu.) 

30. P. folidisus Raf. JStem filiform^ flattish and very branching; leaves 
narrowly linear (2-^ cm. long, 0.3-1 mm. wide), acute, obscurely S-nerved; 
stipules obtuse; spikes capitate, l~4(usually 2yjlowered^ on shoit club-shaped 
peduncles ; fruit roundish-lenticular, the back more or less crested; upper por- 
tion of the embryo incurved in a circle. (P. pauci/lorus Pursh.) — Still waters, 
N. B. to B. C, and south w. July-SepU 

Var. niagar^nsis (Tuckerm.) Morong. Stem often longer; leaves larger 
(4-0 cm. long, 1-2.4 mm. wide), 3-6-nerved at base, very acute and mucronate, 
narrowed to the subpetiolate base. — Running water, Me. to Ont., and south w.; 
abo in Cal. 

31. P. confervoldes Reichenb. Very slender and delicate from a creeping 
rootstock, of a fine light green ; stem fUiform with several short and repeatedl5 
dicbotomous leaf-bearing branches ; leaves flaccid, thin and flat, but setaceovi 
and tapering nearly to the fineness of a hair (2.6-6.5 cm. long, 0.1-0.6 mm. 
wide), obscurely 1-3-nerved, with a few coarse reticulations ; stipules rather 
persistent below, 5 mm. long, obtuse ; peduncle solitary, very long (0.5-2 dm), 
rather thickened upward ; spike iS-flowered, in fruit continuous, cylindrical; 
fruit thick-lenticular J obscurely 3-keeled ; seed slightly impressed on the sides; 
epicarp thick and hard; embryo nearly annular. (P. Tuckermani Robbins.) — 
Cold ponds, local. Me. to N. Y., N. J., and Pa. June-Aug. 

32. P. hybridns Michx. Floating leaves (when present) oval to lance-oblong 
(the largest 2.6 cm. long, 1.2 cm. Vfride), often acute, longer than the filiform 
petioles, with about 5-7 nerves beneath deeply impressed ; submersed leaves 
very numerous, almost setaceous (2-7 cm. long, 0.1-0.5 nmi. wide) ; stipules 
obUzse, adnate to the base of the lower leaves ; emersed spikes 0.5-1.5 cm. long ; 
submersed spikes 1-4-flowered, their peduncles frequently recurved ; fruit about 
1 mm. long, about S-toothed on the margin, the lateral keels smooth ; embryo 
coiled IJ turns. (P. diversifolius Raf.) — Shallow quiet waters, Me. to Fla. ; 
also Mich, to Mont, and Tex. July-Sept. (Mex., W. I.) Var. multi-denticu- 
lItus (Morong) Asch. & Graebn. Fruit 12-toothed on the margin, the lateral 
keels 6-8-toothed. — Ct. to Fla. and La. 

3.3. P. dim6rphu8 Raf. Coarser ; blades of the floating leaves with rather 
dilated petioles, with 5-many nerves beneath deeply impressed ; upper submersed 
leaves either with or without a lance-oblong or broad-linear proper blade ; the 
numerous lower ones narrow-linear, tapering toward the obtuse apex (2-4 cm. 
long, about 1 mm. wide); stipules early lacerate ; submersed fiovoers 1-4, on very 
short erect peduncles; fruit with the back either winged and with 4-5 distinct 
teeth or wingless and entire; embryo coiled 1| turns, (P. Spirillus Tuckerm.) 
— N. B. to Ont., s. to Va., W. Va., and Mo. June-Sept. 

34. P. filifdrmis Pere. Stems from elongate tuberiferous rootstocks, filiform, 
branching at base, low and very leafy ; leaves pale, filiform, less than 0.5 mm, 
wide; peduncles much elongated and overtopping the leaves (in one form 
shorter); spikes of 2-5 whorls, the lowest whorls 0.6-1.5 cm. apart; fruit 
2.5-3 mm. long, globose-obovoid, not keeled upon the rounded back, tipped with 
the broad sessile stigma; embryo annular, (P. marinus auth., not L. ?)-^ 
Shallow water in calcareous regions, e. Que. to Alb., s. to n. Me., n. Vt., w. 
N. T., Mich., and the Rocky Mts. July-Sept. (Eurasia, Afr., Austr.) 

36. P. interior Rydb. Coarser; the comparatively stout stems flattened, 
freely branching above, elongate ; leaves dark green, narrowly linear, 0.5-2 mm. 
wide ; peduncles of various lengths ; spikes of 4-0 whorls, the upper whorls 
crowded, the lowest 4-9 mm. apart ; fruit compressed, narrowly (tblii/ne-obovoid. 
the ventral face straightish. (P. flliformis, vars. Macounii and occidentalii 
Morong.) — Mostly in brackish water, P. E. I.; Huds. B^ to Assina. and 
Athabasca, s. to Neb., Col., and Nev. July-Sept 


86. P. pectiniltiui L. Stem JUiform^ repeatedly dichotomoas , Uanea «ef> 
narrowly linear or setaceous ^ attenuate to the apex^ l-uerved with a few trans- 
▼erae veins ; pedancles filiform ; spikes of 2S remote whorls ; fruit obliquely 
hroad-obovoid, compressed, 3.5-4.6 mm. long, rounded on the back, obscurely 
ridged on the sides ; embryo spirally incurved. — Chiefly in brakish water, e. 
Que. toB. C, s. along the coast to Fla., and in the interior to Fa., the Great 
Lake region, Kan^ Col., etc. July-Sept. (Cosmop.) 

37. P. interrdptna KitaibeL Similar; leaves usually broader (0.5-2 mm, 
wide) ; edges of the stipules less scarious ; fruit more compressed, sharply keeled, 
— Coast of e. N. B. ; Mich. ; probably of wide distrib. July-SepU (Eu.) 

38. P. Robbinsii Oakes. Stem ascending from a creeping base, rigid, very 
branching, invested by the bases of the leaves and stipules ; leaves crowded in two 
ranks, recurted-spreading, narrow-lanceolate or linear, 7-12 cm. long, acuminate, 
ciliate-serrulate with translucent teeth, many-nerved; stipules obtuse whea 
young, their nerves soon becoming bristles ; spikes numerous, loosely few- 
flowered, on short peduncles ; fruit oblong-obovoid, keeled with a broadish wing^ 
acutely beaked ; embryo stout, ovally annular. — In quiet water, N. B. to B. C, 
B. to DeL, Pa., Ind., Wyo., Ida., and Ore. ; rarely fruiting. July-Sept. 

2. RtrPPIA L. Ditch Grass 

Flowers 2 or more (approximate on a slender spadlx, which is at first Inclooed 
in the sheathing spathe-like base of a leaf), consisting of 2 sessile stamens, each 
with 2 large and separate anther-cells, and 4 small sessile ovaries, with solitary 
campylotropous suspended ovules ; stigma sessile, depressed. Fruit small ob- 
liquely ovoid pointed drupes, each raised on a slender stalk which appears after 
flowering ; the spadlx itself also then raised on an elongated thread>form 
peduncle. Embryo ovoid, with a short and pomted plumule from the upper end, 
by the side of the short cotyledon. — Marine herbs, growing under water, with 
long and thread-like forking stems, and slender almost capillary alternate leaves 
sheathing at the base. Flowers rising to the surface at the time of expansion. 
(Dedicated to H, JB. Ruppius, a German botanist of the 18tb century.) 

1. R. maritimA L. Leaves linear-capillary ; fruit obliquely erect ; fruitine 
peduncles capillary (1-3 dm. long) ; stipes 0.5-4 cm. long. — Shallow bays and 
streams, along the entire coast ; also occasionally m saline places in the interior. 

8. ZANmCH^LLIA [Mich.] L. Horned Pondweed 

Flowers monoecious, sessile, naked, usually both kinds from the same axil ; 
the sterile consisting of a single stamen, with a slender filament bearing a 2-4- 
celled anther ; the fertile of 2-^ (usually 4) sessile pistils in the same cup-shaped 
hivolncre, forming obliquely oblong nutlets In fruit, beaked with a short style, 
which is tipped by an obliquely disk-shaped or somewhat 2-lobed stigma. Seed 
orthotropous, suspended, straight. Cotyledon taper, bent and colled. — Slender 
branching herbs, growing under water, with mostly opposite long and linear 
thread-form entire leaves, and sheathing membranous stipules. (Named in 
honor of O, G. Zannichelli, a Venetian botanist) 

1. Z. paldstrifl L. Style at least half as long as the fruit, which is flattish, 
somewhat incurved, even, or occasionally more or less toothed on the back (not 
wing-margined in our plant), nearly sessile ; or, in var. peduncclXta J. Gay.» 
both the cluster and the se^Murate fruits evidently pedunded. — Ponds and slow 
streams, chiefly brackish, throughout N. A. July. (Cosmop.) 

4. ZOSTARA L. Grass Wrack. Eel Grass 

Flowers monoecious; the two kinds naked and sessile and alternately ar- 
ranged in two rows on the midrib of one side of a linear leaf-like spadix, which 
is hidden in a long and sheath-like base of a leaf (spathe) : the sterile floweni 
ponsisting of single ovate or oval 1-celled sessile anthers, as large as the ovaries. 


vad containing a tuft of threads in place of ordinary pollen ; the fertile of single 
ovate-oblong ovaries attached near their apex, tapering upward into an awl- 
shaped style, and containing a pendulous orthotropous ovule ; stigmas 2, long 
and bristle-form, deciduous. Utricle bursting irregularly, inclosing an oblong 
longitudinally ribbed seed (or nutlet). Embryo short and thick (proper cctyle- 
don almost obsolete), with an open chink or cleft its whole length, from which 
protrodes a doubly curved slender plumule. — Grass-like marine herbs, growing 
wholly under water, from a jointed creeping stem or rootstock, aheathed by the 
bases of the yery long and linear obtuse entire grass-like ribbon-shaped leaves 
(whence the name, from ^AMrri^p, a belt). 

1. Z. marina L. Leaves obscurely S-6-nerved. — Shoal water of bays along 
the coast, Nfd. to Fla. ; Pacitic coast. (Eurasia.) 

6. NAjAS L. Naiab 

Flowers dioecious or monoecious, axillary, solitary, and sessile ; the sterile 
consisting of a single stamen inclosed in a little membranous spathe ; anther at 
first nearly sessile, the filament at length elongated. Fertile flowers consisting 
of a single ovary tapering into a short style ; stigmas 2-4, awl-shaped ; ovule 
erect, anatropous. Fruit a little seed-like nutlet, inclosed in a loose and sepa- 
rable membranous epicarp. Embryo straight, the radicular end downward. — 
Slender branching herbs, growing under water, with opposite and linear leaves, 
somewhat crowded into whorls, spinulose-toothed, sessile and dilated at base. 
Flowers yery small, solitary, but often clustered with the branch-leaves in the 
axils ; in summer. (Ncu'ds, a icater-nymph.) 

1. N. marina L. Stem rather stout and often armed with broad prickles ; 
leaves broadly linear (2 mm. broad), coarsely and sharply toothed, the dilated 
base entire ; fruit 4-& mm. long ; seed very finely lineate, oblong, slightly com- 
pressed. — Marshes and salt springs of w. N.Y., Mich., and Minn.; Fla.; Utah to 
Mex. — Teeth of one or more brownish cells upon a many-celled base. (W. I., 
Eurasia, Austr.) 

Var. gracilis Moron^. Internodes long (5-8 cm.) and nearly naked, with 
only a few teeth above ; leaves very narrow (0.6 mm. wide) with 8-12 teeth 
on each margin, the dilated base also toothed ; fruit smaller. — Canoga marshes, 
w. N. Y. ; Fla. 

Var. recurv&ta Dudley. Stems short, inclined to be dichotomously branched, 
recnrved-spreading ; leaves usually recurved, the teeth prominent, 2-7 on each 
mai^in, the dilated base with a projecting tooth each side. — N. Y. ; Utah and Ariz. 

2. N. fl^zilis (VVilld.) Rostk. & Schmidt. Stems usually very slender ; leaves 
very narrowly linear (less than 1 mm. wide), very minutely serrulate, tapering 
gradually to the serrulate base; fruit 2.5-3 mm. long, narrowly oblong; seeds 
lance-oval, smooth and shiniig. — Ponds and slow streams. Lab. to B. C., s. to 
S. C- and Mo. — Teeth on the margins of the leaves 1-celled. (En.) Var. 
BOB^STA Morong. Stem stout, few-leaved, sparsely branching, elongated ; leaves 
flat, strongly ascending, linear-tapering. — Mass. to Mich, and Tex. 

3. N. guadalup^nsis (Spreng.) Morong. Similar; leaves with 20-46 very 
minnte teeth on each margin; iruit 2 mm. long; seeds dull, conspicuously 
reticulate. (N". microdon A. Br.) — Pa. to Neb., and south w. (Trop. Am.) 

4. N. gracillima (A. Br.) Magnus. Branches alternate; leaves very nar- 
rowly linear, nearly capillary, straight, serrate, the rounded lobes of the sheath- 
inff base spinulose-eiliate ; fruit linear, impressed-dotted between the numerous 
ribs. (N, indica, var. A. Br.) — Local, e. Mass. toe. N. Y., N. J., and Pa. ; Mo. 
— Teeth of 3 cells each. 

JUNCAGINACBAE (Arrow Grass Family) 

Marsh plants, voith terete bladeless leaves. Flowers perfect, spicate or 
rttcemose, with herbaceous ^{rarely S)'lobed perianth. Carpels 3 or 6, more 
or less united, separating at maturity. Seeds anatropous; embryo straight. 
FruU follicular or capsula''. 


1. SctaencliferiA. Ovaries 8, nearly distinct, at length direi^nt Flowers bracteate, In a Io<m« 

raceme upon a lealjr stem. 
8. Triglochln. Ovaries 8-ft, united ontil maturity. Leaves radioaL Flowers braoUess, In a 

splke-like raceme terminating a Jolntless scape. 


Sepals and petals oblong, spreading, nearly alike (groeniah yellow), but the 
latter narrower, persistent. Stamens ; anthers linear. Ovaries 8, globulu*, 
slightly united at base, 2-d-ovuled, bearing flat sessile stigmas, in fruit forming 
8 diyerging and inflated l»2-8eeded pods, opening along the inside. — A low bog- 
herb, with a creeping jointed rootstock, tapering into the ascending simple stem, 
which is zigzag, partly sheathed by the baaes of tlie grass-like conduplicate 
leaves, and termimated by a loose raceme of a few flowers, with sheathing 
bracts ; leaves tubular at the apex. (Named for Johann and Johann Jacob 
Scheucfizer^ distinguished Swiss botanists early in the 18th century.) 

1. S. paltistris L. — Peat^bogs, and wet shores, e. Que. to N. J., westw. 
acrobs the continent. June. (Kuraaia.) 

8. TRIGLdCHIN L. Abrow Grass 

Sepals and petals nearly alike (greenish), ovate, concave, deciduous. Sta- 
mens 8-6 ; anthers oval, on very short filamenta. Pistils united into a S-6- 
celled compound ovary ; stigmas sessile ; ovules solitary. Capsule splitting 
when ripe into 8-6 carpels, which separate from a persistent central axis. — 
Perennials, with rush-like fleshy leaves below sheathing the base of the wand- 
like naked and jointless scape. Flowers small, in a spiked raceme, bractless. 
(Name composed of rpett, three, and 7Xwx'>'i pointy from the three points of the 
ripe fruit In no. 8 when dehiscent.) 

fVult thicker than lonff 1. T.ttrUita, 

ftult longer than thicK. 

Fruit (with a-0 carpels) ovoid-prismatlc, about twice as long as thick . • 2. 7*. marUima. 

Fruit (8-carpelled) clavate- or linear-prlsmatlo, 8-5 times as long as thick . • 8. T. palu9trU» 

1. T. strUta R. & P. Scape (8-84 cm. high) and leaves slender ; flowers 
very small ; sepals and stamens 3 ; firuit globose-triangular^ or when dry 
3-lobed. (T. triandra Michx.) — Salt marshes, near seashore, Md. to Fla. and 
La. (S.A.) 

2. T. mkrltima L. Scape (1.5-7.5 dm. high) and leaves thickish; fmit 
ovoid or sJiort-prismatic, acutish ; carpels 8- (more often) 6, rounded at base 
and slightly grooved on the back, the edges acutish. — Salt marshes near the 
coast, Lab. to N. J., and in saline, boggy, or wet places across the conthient. 
(Eurasia., n. Air.) 

8. T. pal^tris L. Scape (5-50 cm. high) and leaves slender ; stamens ; 
&uit linear-club-shaped: carpels when ripe separating from below upward, 
leaving a triangular axis, atol-pointed at base, — Marshes (usually brackish) 
and bogs, Greenl. to the coast of s. Me. ; also inland along the St^ John and 
St. Lawrence B., Great Lakes and north westw. (Eurasia.) 

ALISMACEAB (Water-plantain Family) 

Marsh herbs, xcith scape-like stems, sheathing leaves, and perfect, monoecious^ 
or dioecious flowers ; perianth o/ 3 herbaceous persistent sepals and as manff 
{often conspicuous) white deciduous petals, which are imbriccUe or involute in 
bud; stamens 6 or more, included; ovaries nttmerous, distinct, l-celled and 
mostly \-ovuled, becoming achenes in fruit (in our genera) ; seeds erect, cam- 
pylotropous. — Roots fibrous ; leaves radical, petiolate and strongly nerved with 
transverse veinlets, the earlier sometimes without blade ; flowers long-pedlaellatoy 


fflosUy Teiticillate, in a loose raceme or panicle, with lanceolate Bcarious bracts 
lilghtly connate at base. 

1. SftfittarU. MonoedoaB (or dloedoas), lower (first developed) flowers pistillate^ the nppw 

(later) ones Btamlnate. Staiaens Indefinite, mostly numeroas. Cupels strongly flattened. 

In a dense head. 
f, Lopbotocarpos. Polygamons ; lower flowers perfect, the npper staminate. Stamens 9-lfi. 

Carpels strongly flattened, in a dense head. 
8. ScUaodOfiis. Flowers all perfect Stamens 6-21, mostly definite. CSarpela somewhat 

turgid, in a dense head. 
4. AHiinui Flowers aQ perfect Stamens nsnaDy 0. CSsrpels strongly flattened, In a single rii^. 

L SAGIXXAfilA L. Abbow-hsad 

Sepals loosely spreading or reflexed In fruit. Petals imbricated in tbe bod. 
Ovaries crowded in a spherical or somewhat triangular depressed head on a 
S^bular receptacle, in fruit forming flat membranaceous winged achenes.— ^ 
Marsh or aquatic, mostly perennial, stoloniferous herbs, with milky juice; 
the scapes sheathed at base by the bases of the long cellular petioles, of which 
tbe primary ones, and sometimes all, are destitute of any proper blade (i,e. are 
pbyllodia) ; when present the blade is arrow-shaped or lanceolate. Flowers 
prodaced all summer, whorled in threes, with membranous bracts. (Name 
^m sagitta, an arrow, from the prevalent form of the leaves.) 

a. Beak of the achene erect or nearly so b. 
h. Beak long, usually half to three-fourths the length of the body. 
Leaves habituslly sagittate, the basal lobes nearly or quite as 
long as the terminal portion of the blade. 

Stout ; leaf-blades broadly ovate-oblong 1. 8. iongirottra. 

Blender ; leaf-blades linear S. S. EngelmannUma, 

Leaves lanceolate to elliptieal, the bassl lobes when present 

much shorter than the terminal pcnrtlon . . • . 8. A het^rophylla, 
h. Beak very short, not one-fourth the length of the body. 
Leaves all or most of them sagittate, ovate. 
Lowest bracts 0.5-1.5 cm. long; leaf-blades 8-18 cm. long • 4. 8> arifolia. 
Lowest brscts 2-4 cm. long ; leaf-blades 2.5-6 dm. long . . 5. & brwirastra. 
Iieaves never sagittate. 

Fruiting pedicels thicklsh, recurved 11. 5. tubulaUi, 

Fruiting pedicels slender, ascending or spreading . . , 10, 8. Urea. 
a. Beak of tbe adkcne strongly Incurved, almost or quite norlzontal o. 
c. Leaves habitually sagittate, the basal lobes nearly or quite as long 

aa the terminal portion , , , %, 3. lat^dia, 

e. Leaves linear to elliptic-ovate, entire or rarely sagittate at the base, 
the basal lobes when present much shorter than the terminal 
portion of the blade. 
Fertile pedicels thickened, recurved ; western • • . . 12. A plaij/phytta. 
Fertile pedicels slender, ascending or spreading. 
Filaments thickened at the base, short . . . . , 9. 8, graminea, 
Flhments slender, longer than the anthers, pubescent • . 6. ^. land folia, 
FUaraents slender, longer than the anthers, glabrous . » 1, 8, amhigua* 

• FilametUs numpvous^ narrow^ as long as or longer than the linear-ohlong 

anthers; bracts 3, distinct; fruiting heads large, 

1. S. longir6stra (M. Micheli) J. 6. Sm. Robust, 3-6 dm. high, monoecious ; 
leaves broadly ovate-oblong, obtuslsh, sagittate with broad basal lobes ; fertile 
whorls 2-4 ; fertile pedicels about 1 cm. long ; body of the mature achene obovate^ 
winged all round, 3 mm. long, the beak nearly erect from the 

izmer angle, 1.6-2 mm. long, — About springs, etc., Ct. (^Hargery 
N. J., and Pa. to Ky., Del., and Ala. Fio. 33. 

2. S. Iatif61ia Willd. Glabrous ; scape 1-9 dm. high, angled, 
with one or more of the lower whorls fertile ; leaves ovate, acute, 
almost always sagittate, the basal lobes triangular, acute ; pedi- 
cels of the fertile flowers at least half the length ot the sterile 
ones ; petals wholly white ; filaments glabrous, nearly twice the 88. S. longlrostra 
length of the anthers; achenes obovate (about 2 mm. long), aohe^a)c8. 

ORATES MAvn^i*— £ 


winged on both margins, with a curved usually horizontal beak, (^8, variabUU 
Rngelm.) — In water or wet places, very common; exceedingly yariable as to 
leaf-contour. Fio. 34. The following forms, although ill defined, 
_ inC/|^f\ ^1*6 In most instances recognizable: Forma OBTtSA (Muhl.) 
\Jm] Kobinson. (5. obtusa Muhl.) Leaves very broad, sagittate, ob- 
[■r/ tuse. Forma hastXta (Pursh) Robinson. {S, hastala Pursh.) 
jV^ Ijcaf-blades and their basal lobes oblong-lanceolate, acute. Forma 
^ GRiciLis (Pursh) Uobinson. (iS.^ract'/M Pursh.) Leaf -blades and 

■A A I fif II ^^^ basal lobes narrowly linear. Forma pivbrsifolia (Engelm.) 
iuLne xS Robinson. {S. variabilis, van Engelm.) Leaf-blades partly sagit- 
tate and partly lanceolate or elliptic without basal lobes. 
Var. pnb^scens (Muhl.) J. G. Sm. Robust, pubescent^ broad- 
leaved; bracts shorter than in tlie other forms, 6-9 mm. long, 
broadly ovate, obtusish, and very pubescent* — N. J. and Fa. to 
N. C. 

3. S. EngelmAnniAna J. G. Sm. Slender; lobes of the 
lagittate leaves very narrowly linear (1-3 mm. wide) ; achene 
narrowly cuneate-obovate (4 mm. long), the beak elongated, erect 
or recuro^W, the sides usually strongly l-3-cre8ted. {S. variabilis, ^ ^ Emcel- 
var. gracilis Engelm.)— About ponds, etc., **N. H." and Mass. minnUna^ 
to Del. Fio. 35. Achene x's. 

4. S. arifdlia Nutt. Monoecious, glabrous; scape 2-4 dm. 

high, HJmple or rarely branched ; fertile whorls l-(rarely)3 ; fertile pedicels 
5-1 1 mm. long ; leaf-blades sagittate-hastate, ovate, acute ; achenes winged all 
round, bearing at the upper inner angle a minute erect beak. — 
Que. to centr. Me., Vt., Ct., Mich., Kan., Dak., and westw. — 
When in deep water producing lance- linear phyllodia at the baae 
and developing elongated petioles of the blade-beariog leaves 
{8. cuneata Sheldon). Fio. 36. 
«A A rir K 6. S. brevirdstra Mackenzie & Bush. Very stout ; scape 6-12 

A^' X 8 ^™' ^^^^ * leaf -blades all sagittate, basal lobes ovate-lanceolate, 
^^^ ' acute, about as long as the terminal portion ; inflorescence simple 
or slightly branched, 2-5 dm. long ; bracts lanceolate, attenuate ; fruiting pedi- 
cels 1-2 cm. long ; fruiting heads 2-3 cm. in diameter; achenes cuneate-obovate, 
with dorsal wing prominent; beak suberect, but little surpassing the wing at 
the summit. — Sloughs and bottoms, Ind. to Kan. 

6. S. lancifblia L. Scape 8-15 dm. high, with several of the lower whorls 
fertile ; leaves lanceolate or lance-oblong, rarely linear, all with a tapering base^ 
thick or coriaceous (1.5-4.5 dm. long on a long and stout petiole, never sagittate), 
the nerves mostly arising from the very thick midrib ; bracts ovate, acute or acu- 
minate ; pedicels slender, the fertile scarcely shorter than the 
sterile ones ; fllaments pubescent ; achenes falcate, winged on the 
back, pointed with an incurved beak. — Swamps, Md. to Ky., Mo., 
and south w. (W.I.) Fio. 37. 

7. S. ambigua J. G. Sm. Scape 4-6 dm. high ; leaves as in „ ^ . .. ,. 
the preceding; raceme simple ; pedicels 1.5-2.5 cm. long; bracts a^ „ x a 
lanceolate, small (8 mm. long) ; filaments glabrofis ; achenes *°* 
with a short incui^ed beak, scarcely winged. — Borders of ponds, etc., Kan. 
and souhtw. 

« * Filaments very short, with enlarged mostly glandular base ; anthers ovate or 
short-nhlong ; fruiting heads small ; bracts more or less connate; leaves verf^ 

rarely sagittate. 

8. S. heterophylla Pursh. Scape weak (1.5-^ dm. high), 
at length procumbent ; leaves lanceolate or lance-oval, entire, 
or with one or two narrow basal sagittate appendages ; brads 
roundish, obtuse; flowers of the lowest whorl fertile and almost 
sessile ; the sterile on long pedicels ; filaments glandular- 
8S. S). h^terophyllfl. pubescent ; achenes narrowly obovate with a long erect beak. — 
4eb6De x8. N. E. to FU., w. to Minn, and Mo. — Varies as to foliage, the 



ieaves being broad (yar. ELLfpTiCA Engelm.), or rigid, narrowly lanceolate and 
acate, unappendaged at the base, and with stout petioles (var. rIgidjl (Parsh) 
Engelin.), or nearly linear (var. akoubtif6lia Engelin.). Fig. ^^8. 

9. S. graminea Michz. Scape 0.8-5 dm. high ; phyllodia flat^ mostly 
broad-linear^ acuminate; leaves ovate-lanceolate to linear, on long slendei 
petioles, sometimes reduced to the petiole merely ; bracts rather 

obtuse ; whorls of flowers often few, all staminate or the lower ^ 

fertile ; pedicels slender, spreading^ nearly equal ; flowers white ^ 

or roseate ; filaments 1(>-13 ** -20," glandular-pubescent ; acliene 
small (1 mm. long), narrowly obovate, almost beakless, toinged 89. s. pramine*. 
on tKe back, fiat and scarcely costate on the sides. (^8, Eaioni '^*^'*®"® ^ *• 
J. G. Sm. J — Nfd. to Ont., s. to the Gulf ; very variable. Fio. 39. S. cristXta 
Engelm. is apparently a form of this species with achenes somewhat wing- 

10. S. tdres Wats. Phyllodia terete^ very acutely attenuate upward, 0-34 cm, 
long, very rarely bearing a narrow blade ; scape 1-5 dm. high ; bracts connate 

at base ; pedicels in 1-3 whorls, all very slender and spreading, 1 or 
2 fruiting, 1-3 cm. long; filaments 12, dilated, pubescent; achene 
obovate, 2-2.4 mm. long, with an erect beak, the margins and sideF 
erenately several-crested, (S. isoUiformis J. G. Sm.) — In shallow 
water, Cape Cod, Mass., and L. I. to Fla. — Phyllodia usually very 
f-jj- '^•- strongly nodose. Fig. 40. 

AciMDe x». 11. s. subulita (L.) Buchenan. Usually dwarf; leaves linear, 
strap-shaped, obtuse or acutish, 3-20 cm. long, equaling or shorter than the scape, 
very rarely with a narrow blade ; pedicels in 1-3 whorls, only 1 or 2 fruiting, 
stouter and recurved; bracts connate or spathe-like; filaments 6-8, glabrous; 
achene obovate, short-beaked, 2 mm, long, the margins and sides erenately 
crested. (S. nalans, var. lorata Chapm. ; S, pusilla Nutt.) — In mud or shal 
low water, near the coast; Ct. to Fla. — In the South often becoming more 

Var. (?) gradllima (Wats.) J. G. Sm. Scape and the almost or wholly 
bladeleas leaves very slender and greatly elongated (6-12 dm. long, 2 mm. wide) ; 
pedicels all elongated, in usually distant whorls, the lower pistillate, slender and 
spreading ; fruit unknown. {8. natans, var. Wats.) — In deep water of streams 
in e. Mass. (Hitchings, Boott, C. E, Faxon, etc.), R. I. {J. F. Collins), and Ct. 
{Bisgell). — Wholly submerged, only 1 or 2 flowers appearing at a time, floating 
on Uie sorface. The fruit has not yet been collected. 

12. S. platyphylla (Engelm.) J. G. Sm. Scape 2-6 dm. high ; 
leaver elliptic-lanceolate, acute at both ends, rarely biauriculate 
at the base, 9-11-nerved ; fertile whorls usually 2 ; fertile pedi- 
cels about 2 cm. long, soon recurved ; stamens about 20, the broad 
boM of the filament pubescent, (8, graminea, var. Engelm.) — 41. 8. piatypbylla. 
River sloughs, s. Mo. and Kan. to Tex. Fig. 41. Achene x8. 


S. LOPHOTOCArpUS Th. Durand 

Sepals strongly concave, erect and appressed to the fruit. — Perennials with 
babit and carpels much as in 8agittaria. (Name from \64ms, a crest, and Kapwht, 
fruit, not veiy applicable.) Lophiocarpus (Kunth) l^Iiquel, not Turcz. 

* Chiefly maritime ; leaves mostly thick spongy phyllodia, the blades when 
present small, lance-oblong, entire, or ovate and sagittate, the auricles 
relatively small, linear-oblong, divergent, 

1. L. spongiftsns (Engelm.) J. G. Sm. Low (1-S dm. high) ; leaf-blades 
0.5-2.5 cm. broad ; the thick spongy petioles septate-nodulose ; scapes 4-15 cm. 
high, recurved, bearing mostly 2 whorls of flowers ; head of carpels 7-10 mm. 
in diameter. {L, spatulatus J. G. Sm.; Sagittaria calycina, var. Engelm.) 
— On tidal mud of brackish estUHries, etc., N. B. (Fowler) to Dei. ; rarely 
tDland, Mo. (L. depauperatus J. G. Sm., at least in part). 



^^ 8p66te8 of the interior; leaf-blades relatively lurge^ mgatau with broad 

triangular auricles, 

%. L. calyclntiB (Engelm.) J. O. Sin. Taller (1.5-4 dm. high) ; leaf-blade* 
deeply sagittate, thin, l(^l&^nerved, 4-8 cm. broad, the aaricles triangular, 
acute, nearly or quite as long as the terminal portion of the blade ; stipes re- 
curving or procumbent, 1-4 dm. long, usually bearing 3-4 whorls of flowers ; 
head of carpels about 1 cm. in diameter. {Sagittaria Engelm.) — Muddy banks, 
Mich, to Dak. and southw. 

Var. miximiis f Engelm.) Robinson. Leaf-blades verv lai^ge (3 dm. wide), 
18-21-nerved, considerably broader than long, the aurfcles almost divaricaie ; 
inflorescence stout, sometimes branched. {Sagittaria calgcina, var. Engelm.^ 
— O. {Moseleg) aadsoutliw. 

8. ECHINdDOSUS Rioharl 

Petals imbricated in the bud. Stamens 6-21 or more. — Mostly annuals, with 
the habit of Sagittaria, the naked stems sparingly branched or simple, and the 

flowers on rather short pedicels, in whorls of 3-6 or more. 
Fl. summer and autumn. (Name from ix^Pf^n^, prickly^ 
or from iyfi^os, and 6op^^ a leathern bottle, applied to the 
ovary, which is in most species armed with the persistent 
style, so as to form a sort of prickly head of fruit. ) 

1. E. ten^Uus (Martius) Buchenau. Scapes 1.5-10 cm. 
high; shoots often creeping and proliferous; submersed 
leaves laiice-line:*r phyllodia, emersed leaves petiolate with 
a lanceolate blade^ acute (1-3 cm. long) ; umbel single, 
2-8-flowered ; pedicels refiexed in fruit ; flower 6 uim. 
broa^. ; stamens 9 ; styles much shorter than the ovary ; 
acnenes beakless, 8-ribbed, reddish brown, without glands. 
(^Alisma Martius; BeUanthiutn Britton; E, parvulue 
Engelm.) — Submersed or on mud, e. Mass., Mich., Minn., and 
•outhw. (8. A.) Fio. 42. 

2. K. oordif61itts (L.) Griseb. Scape erect, 1-6 dm high, 
longer than the leaves ; leaves broadly ovate, cordate or truncate 
at base, obtuse (the blade 2-11 cm. long) ; umbel proliferous, 
in a branched panicle ; flower 8-10 mm. broad ; stamens 12 ; 
styles longer than the ovary ; achenes with a conspicuous erect 
beak. (E. rostratus Engelm.) — Borders of ponds and ditches, HI. to Kan., 

8. Cal., and Fla. Fio. 43. Var. lahceolItus (Engelm.) 

...^ Mackenzie & Bush is a low form which has the leaves 

jaB|k lanceolate with an acute base. — 111., Mo. 

jB|K ^ 3. S. radicans (Nutt.^ Engelm. Stems or scape prostrate, 

j^^^P M creeping (6-12 dm. long), proliferous, bearing many whorls 

^^■^^ ' of flowers ; leaves somewhat tmncately heart-shaped, obtuKe 

^ (5-20 cm. broad), long-petloled ; flowers 12-20 mm. broad; 

tf ^ stamens about 21 ; styles shorter than the ovary; achenes 

44. B. nMlkMOB. with a short incurved beak, the keeled back denticulate. 

a. Fr. X 1. —About ponds, etc., UL to N. C. and FU., w. to Kan. and 

&.AobeiMxa. Tex. Fio. 44. 

48. E.teoenuft. 
n. X 1. 6. Fr. X 1. 
0. AcheneS. 


48 B. oofdllbH as. 
Aebene x 8. 

4. ALfSKA L. Water Plahtain 

Petals involute in the bud. Ovaries many in a simple circle on a flattened 
rsoeptacle, forming flattened coriaceous achenes, which are dilated and 2-3- 
keeled on the back. — Scape with whorled panicled branches. Flowers small, 
wtdte or pale rose-color. (The Greek name ; of uncertain derivation.) 

1. A. PUntigo-aquitica L. Perennial by a stout proliferous corm ; leavei 
long'petioled, ovate or oblong, acute, mostly rounded or heart-shaped at base, 
8-9-nerved ; scapes 1 or 2; panide loose, pyramidal, 8-6 dm. long, much overtop- 


^nff the leaves, with vertioils of 2 or 8 orders ; rays and slender pedicels ascending 
at an angle of about 46°; sepals 10-striate, the hyaline margins whitish ; petals 
2-4 mm. long, white, with yellowish claw ; stamens twice as long 
as the carpela ; these furrowed along the back^ not meeting at ^Kt^ 

the center of Uie disk. — Shallow water and ditches, across the fmm 

•ontinenL (Eurasia.) Fig. 45. ■ 

2. A. Geyeri Torr. Scapes 2-4, the shorter overtopped by 45. a. Plant. -aq. 
the lottg-petioled linear-lanceolate to elliptic leaves ; panicles Fralt x 1. 
uAUAJly less diffuse, the verticils in 1 or 2 orders ; the thickish 
peticels strongly divergent in fruit; sepals 10-I4-8triate, the margins rose-color ; 
petals 1-2 mm. long, rose-color, with yellow basal spot ; stamens about equaling 
the carpels ; these ridged on the hack^ meeting at the center of the disk. — Locally 
from N. T. to N. Dak. and the Pacific. (Eurasia.) 


Aquatic herbs, with dioecious or polygamous regular flowers, sessile or on 
scape-like peduncles from aspathe, and simple or double floral envelopes, which 
in the fertile flowers are united into a tube and coherent with the IS-celled 
otary. Stamens 3-12, distinct or monadelphous ; anthers 2-celled. Stigmas 9 
9r 6. Fruit ripening under water, indehiscent, many-seeded. 

1. Blodea. Stem elougated, eabmerged, leafy. Spathes small, sesafle. 
S. ValtisnenJL SteroleM. Leaves uairow, elongated. SiMtthes pedunoalate. 
S. Umnobiom. Stem rery ahort. Leaves crowded; blades broad and spongy. Bpathes 

1. ELODAA Michx. Water-weed 

Flowers pnlygamo-dioecious, solitary and sessile from a sessile tubular 2-cleft 
axillary spathe. Sterile flowers small or minute, with 8 sepals barely united at 
basp, and usually 8 similar or narrower petals ; filaments short and united at 
base, or none ; anthers <1-0, oval. Fertile flowers pistillate or apparently per- 
fect ; limb of the perianth 6-parted ; the small lobes obovate, spreading. Ovary 
1 -celled, with 3 parietal placentae, each bearing a few orthotropous ovules ; thb 
capillary style coherent with the tube of the perianth ; stigmas 3, large, 2-lobed 
or notched, exserted. Fruit oblong, coriaceous, few-«eeded. — Perennial slender 
herbs, with pellucid yeinless l-nerved sessile whorled or opposite leaves. 
The stamiiiate flowers (rarely seen) commonly break off and float on the sur- 
face, where they expand and shed their pollen around the stigmas of the fertile 
flowers, raised to the surface by the prolonged calyx-tube. (Name from i\<a8ris, 
narshy. ) 

1. S. canadensis Michx. Leaves varying from linear to oval-oblong, minutely 
serrulate ; stamens 9 in the sterile flowers, 3 or 6 almost sessile anthers in the 
fertile. {Anacharis Planch. ; Philotria Britton.) — Slow streams and ponds, 
common. July. (Nat. in En.) 

9. VALLISKARIA [Mich.] L. Tape Grass. Eel Gbabs 

Flowers dioecious ; the sterile crowded in a head, inclosed in an ovate at 
length 3-valved spathe borne on a short scape ; stamens mostly 3. Fertile 
flowers solitary and sessile in a tubular spathe on an exceedingly lengthened 
scape. Calyx 3-parted in the sterile flowers ; in the fertile with a linear tube 
coherent with the 1 -celled ovary, but not extended beyond it, 3-lobed (the lobes 
obr)vate). Petals 3, linear, small. Stigmas 3, large, nearly sessile, 2-lobed. 
Ovules very numerous, scattered over the walls, orthotropous. Fruit elongated, 
cylindrical, berry-like. — Long linear leaves wholly submerged or their ends 
floating. The staminate flower-buds themselves break from their short pedicels 
and float on the surface, were they shed their pollen around the fertile flowers. 


irhich are rained to the sarfaoe by sadden growth at the same time ; afterwards 
the thread-form scapes (6-12 dm. long) coil up spirally, drawing the fruit 
under water to ripen. ( Named for Antonio Vallisneriy an early Italian botanist. ) 
1. V. spirilla L. Leaves thin, ribbon-like (0.3-2 m. long), obscurely serru- 
late, obtuHe, somewhat nerved and netted-veined. — Common in slow wateiB, 
N. 8. to Fla., w. to Minn, and Tex. (Eurasia, Austr.) 

S. LIMlf6BIUlf Richard. American Froo's Bit 

Flowers dioecious (or monoecious?), from sessile or somewhat pednnded 
spathes ; the sterile spathe 1-leaved, producing about 3 long-pediceled flowers ; 
the fertile 2-leaved, with a single short-pediceled flower. Calyx 8-parted or 
^left ; sepals oblong-oval. Petals 3, oblong-linear. Filaments in the sterile 
flowers entirely united in a central solid column, bearing 6-12 linear anthers at 
unequal heights ; stamens in the fertile flowers 3-6 awl-shaped rudiments. 
Ovary 6-9-celled, with as many placentae in the axis, forming an ovoid many- 
seeded berry in fruit ; stigmas as many as the cells, but 2-parted, awl-shaped. — 
Floating in stagnant water and proliferous by runners. Leaves round-heart- 
shaped, spongy-reticulated and purplish underneath. (Name from \itip6fitiot. 
living in pools. ) 

1. L. Sp6ngia TBoec) Richard. Leaves 2.5-5 cm. long, faintly 5-nerved ; 
peduncle of the sterile flower about 7.5 cm. long and fllifonn, of the fertile only 
2.5 cm. long and stout. — Stagnant water, N. J. to Fla. ; also L. Ont. to IlL, 
Mo., and Tex. 

GRAMfNEAS (Grass Familt) 

(Revised bt A. S. Hitchcock) 

Herbs (shrubs or trees in Bambuseae) with usually hollow stems (culms) 
closed at the nodes^ and i-ranked paralleUveined leaves these consisting of two 
parlSy the sheath and the blade, the sheath enveloping the culm with the mar- 
gins overlapping or rarely grown together; at the junction of the sheath and 
blade, on the inside, is a membranaceous hyaline or hairy appendage (the 
ligule) rarely obsolete. Flowers perfect (rarely unisexual), very small, 
without a distinct perianth, arranged in spikelets consisting of a short- 
ened axis {jhachilla) and 2-many distichous bracts, the lowest two of which 
(the glumes) are empty (rarely 1 or both obsolete) ; in the axil of each succeed- 
ing bract (the lemma) is borne a single flower, subtended and usually enveloped 
by a (normally) 2-nerved bract or prophyllum (the palea), with its back to the 
rhachilla ; at the base of the flower, between it and the lemma, are usually 2 very 
small hyaline scales (the lodicules), rarely a third lodicule between the flower 
and the palea; stamens 3 (rarely 1, 2, or 6), with very delicate filaments and 
2-celled versatile anthers ; pistil, one, with a 1-celled 1-ovuled ovary, 2 (rarely 
1 or 3) styles, and mostly plumose stigmas. Fruit a caryopsis with starchy endo- 
sperm and a small embryo at the base on the side opposite the hilum. Grain 
usually inclosed at maturity in the lemma and palea, free or adnate to the palea. 
The lemma with its palea and flower constitute the floret. The lemma may be 
variously modified ; and may be sterile or neuter, that is, containing a palea or 
rudiment of one, without a flower, or empty ; or may itself be rudimentary (as 
in some of the Chlorideae) ; in such cases the spikelet contains at least one per- 
fect floret ; the sterile or modified lemmas, one or more, above or below it. The 
palea is rarely obsolete. Spikelets arranged in spikes, racemes, or panicles, the 
branches of which are bractless. 


Subfamily I. PANICOfDEAE 

Spikelets 1-, rarely 2-flowered, when 2-flowered the terminal flower perfect^ 
the lower staminate or neuter ; rhachilla articulated below the glumes, the more 
or len dorsally compressed spikelets falling from the pedicels entire, singly, in 
gronpe, or together with joints of an aiticulate rhachis. 

This first grand division of the Oramineae is based upon two characters in 
eombinatlon, the articulation of the pedicels just beloio the spikelets or cluster 
of spikelets and the single perfect Jlotoer, which may or may not have a staminate 
or imperfect flower below it. The lemma of the imperfect flower is similar to 
the glumes in texture in PatUceae and like the fertile lemma in the other tribes. 
In a few genera the first glume is obsolete, but in these cases the articulation 
below the dorsally compressed spikelets indicates their relation. 

Txibe I. MA'tDBAB. Ptstillste aDd staminate spikelets in different infloresoeooes or in different 
parts of the same inflorescence ; awnless ; glomes indurated. 

I. Tripsacmn. Staminate spikelets above the pistillate, in pairs at each Joint of a spike-like 

raceme ; pistillate single, imbedded in the Jointed rhachis. 

Tribe IL AHDROPOG^NBAB. SplkeleU in pairs or threes on the nsaally arttcakte rhachis of s 
aptke like raceme, one sessile and fertile, the other pediceled and perfect, staminate, neuter oi 
rudimentary ; glumes more or less indurated ; lemmas smaller and hyaline, that of the fertile 
flower nsoally awned. 

5. BottboelUa. Ebachls naked ; pedieoled splkeleta nenter, often mdimentary; ftrtlle spikelets 


3. Srianthas. Bhachls hairy ; spikelets all perfect and fertile, awned. 

4. Androposon. Bhachls hairy ; pediceled spikelets sterile, often rudimentary ; fertile spikelets 

& SorgliastniliL Racemes rednced to one or two Joints, on slender peduncles, arranged In 
open panicles ; second splkelet reduced to a pedicel. 

Tribe in. PAHf CBAB. Spikelets all perfect (in our genera) in racemes or panicles ; glumes mem- 
branaeeooa, unequal, the flrst usually small, sometimes obsolete; a lemma of like texture, 
empty or with a hyaline palea, rarely inclosing a staminate flower, subtends the perfect floret 
and simiilates a third glume; fertile lemma and palca indurated, firmly clasped together, 
Incloalng tho flree grain, awnless (pointed In Schinochloa). 

* Spikelets without an involucre of bristles. 

•^ Lemm* leathery-indurated with hyaline margins not Inrolled; spikelets lanceolate; flrst 

glume sometimes wanUng. 

6. Digltaria. Spikelets in slender splke-Uke racemes, aggregated toward the summit of the 

T. LeptolonUL Spikelets long-pedioeled in a diffuse panicle. 

■♦- -t- Lemma chartaoeous-indurated ; margins not hyaline, Inrolled except in AmphioarpoH, 

** Olumes and lemmas awnless. 

8. AmpllicarpOB. Spikelets of 2 kinds, one In terminal panicle, not fhiitfhl ; the other sub- 

terranean, perfecting fruit ; margins of lemma not Inrolled. 

9. Paspalum. Spikelets all alike, plano-convex, sessile or nearly so, solitary or in pairs in 9 

rows on one side of a flattened rhachis ; flrst glnme obsolete (rarely present) ; spikelets 
placed with back of fertile lemma toward the rhachis. 
lOt Azonopns. Spikelets all alike, compressed, biconvex, sessile, solitary In 2 rows on one side 
of a flattened rhachis ; flrst glume obsolete ; spikelets placed with the back of the fer- 
tile lemma from the rhachis. 

II. Paaiciim. Spikelets all alike, biconvex, in panicles (rarely racemes) ; flrst glume present ; 

«p<*nnd (rlnme snd sterile lemma similar. 
IS. Saociolepit. Spikelets all alike, in splke-like panicles; second irlume saccate at base, 
ll-narred ; sterile lemma flat, 8-^nerved. 


** ** Sterile lemine awned or pointed ; fruit eeaminate ; ptlee not Included et the raoimM. 
18. Bchlnochloa. Spikdeta crowded in one-elded racemes, these amnged in a panicle. 

* * Bplkelets with an Inyolncre of bristles. 

14. Setaria. Bplkelets In a dense eyllndrleal splke-Ilke panicle ; bristles persistent 

15. Cenchnu. Splkeleta (1^ together) inclosed in a globalar spiny bar-like Involucre; tliH 

iiftUing with spikelets inclosed. 

Subfamily II. POACOtDEAB 

Spikelets 1-many-flowered, the imperfect or rudimentary floret, if any, nso* 
ally uppermost, rhachilla usually articulated above the glumes whidi are persist* 
ent on the pedicel or rhachis aSter the Jail of tfie florets; when 2-many-flowered 
a manifest internode of the rhachilla separates the florets, and is articulated below 
them ; spikelets more or less laterally compressed (except in Milium). The 
spikelets are articulated below the glumes in Oryzeae^ Alopeeurus^ Cinna, Poly* 
pogofiy HolcuSy SphenopholiSf Spartina, and Beckmannia; these are distin- 
guished from Subfamily I by the laterally compressed spikelets. 

Tribe !▼. ORTZRAB. Spikelets nnlsezual or perfect. In loose panicles ; rhachilla articalated b«- 
low the gluuies ; glumes often wanting ; stamens often A. 

Itf. ZlMnia. Spikelets nnlsezual, nnlike in appearance; panicle pistillate abore, stamlnate 

17. Zisaniopsis. Spikelets nnisexnal, much alike in appearance, intennixed in the same paalcie. 

18. Leersia. Flowers perfect, spikelets much flattened laterally ; lemma earinate, awnJees ; pa^ 

lea 1-keeled. 

Tribe Y. PHALASfOBAB. Spikelets laterally compressed, 1 (rarely 8) -flowered; two sterOe 
lemmas below the fertile floret, and Iklling attached to it, usually empty and unlike the fertile 
lemma, sometimes reduced to bristles, or sometimes with a stamlnate flower In IHervchioi; 
fertile lemma with a I-2-uerved or nerveless palea and a perfect flower. 

19. Phalarll. Sterile lemmas rery narrow, much shorter than the indurated fertile lemma, 

which is much exceeded by the equal glumes. 
M. ABthozABthliiii. Sterile lemmas dorsally awned, larger than the slightly indurated fertile 

lemma ; glumes very unequal. 
fl. Hierochloi. Sterile lemmas larger than the fertile lemma, indurated. Inclosing a 3>nerTed 

paiea and nsually a stamlnate flower; glumes subequal, scarcely exceeding the florets. 

fllbe VI. AOROSTfDBAB. Spikelets 1 -flowered ; rhachilla sometimes prolonged behind the 
palea into a naked or plumose bristle; glumes subequal, usually equaling or exceeding the 
lemma ; palea 2- nerved, rarely nerveless or wanting (I -nerved in one s|)ecies of Oinna). 

* Lemma Indurated. 

••- Spikelets awnless ; callus none ; margins of lemma inrolled. 

IS. Mlliam. Spikelets dorsally compressed. 

4> •«- Spikelets with a terminal awn ; margins of lemma not inrolled ; a callus at base.— flrivbuA 

28. Oryzopsia. Awn simple, deciduous ; callus short, obtuse. 
21. Stipa. Awn simple, persistent; callus usually acute. 
to. Aristida. Awn d-fld, the branches divaricate ; callus acute. 

* * Lemma membranaceous. 

•«- Lemma awned (torn the tip or mncronate, closely infolding the gn\n ; oallaa aente. 

26. Mublenbergia. Rhachilla not prolonyred behind the palea : lemma pointed or awned. 

tr. Brachyelytrnm. Rhachilla prolonged into a bristle behind the palea , lemma long-awned. 

■t- *- Lemma awnless or dorsally awned, loosely embracing the groin. 

*4> Glumes conspicuously compressed-earlnate ; spikelets In dense spike-like panicles. — PHLclrvAS. 

28. HeleochloS. Lemma membranaceous like tbe glumes, awnless ; glumes not arlstate : oaoi- 
cle partly included, ovofcl. 


V. PUeun. Leininft hyaline, awnless, glumes abrnptly aristate ; pantcle exserted, cylindrical. 

80. Alopecurns. Lemma hyaline, awned below ^e middle; palea none; glamea not ariatate; 

panicle ezserted, cylindrical. 

*♦ **- Olomea not eonsptcnously compre&8«<l ; hpikelets In open or narrow panloles. — AorostInab. 
— I^mma 1 (rarely 8) -nerved, awnless ; pericarp readily separating from the grain. 

81. ^oiobolns. Lemma as long as or longer than the glumes ; culms wiry or rigid. 

» — Lemma 3-5-nervod, awned or awnless ; pericarp adherent to the grain. 
a. FUiret not stipitate ; palea 2-nerved ; stamens 8. 
b. KhacbillA not prolonged behind the palea. 

82. A^rostls. Glumes longer than the floret, awnless ; panicle asnally open. 

88. Poljrposon. Glumes longer than the floret, awned ; |»anlole spike-like. 

84. Calamovilfa. Uluuies shorter thuti the floret, awnless. 

b b. Uhochilla prolonged behind the palea, bristle-Uke. 

85. Calamagrottis. Perennial ; panicle loose or contracted ; prolonged rhaehilbi and callas with 

long haii-A ; leuuna short-awned below the middle. 

86. AmmophilA. Perennial ; panicle dense and spike-like ; prolonged rhachilla and callus with 

short hairs ; lemma awnloss. 

87. Apera. Annual ; panicle loose ; the prolonged rhachilla naked ; lemma long-awned below the 

bifid apex. 

a a. Floret stipitate ; polea 1-2-nerved ; stamen L 
8S. Cixma. Siilkelets in a loose panicle. 

Tribe VII. AV&NEAE. Spikelets 2-several-flowered, panicled ; rhachilla prolonged behind the 
polea of uppermost floret except in Aira; glumes usually longer than the first floret; 1 or 
more of the florets awned on the bock or from the teeth of the bifid apex (or usually awnless in 
SphenopAoHs and Koeleria) ; the callus and usually the rhachilla-Jolnts hairy. 

^ Rhachilla not prolonged l>ehind the palea of uppermost fioret; splkelets 2-flowered, both perlbct. 

89. AinL Flivets approximate ; glumes broad, boat-shaped. 

* * RhachUhi prolonged behind the palea of uppermost floret ; splkelets 2-seyeraI-flowered. 
<•- Artlcalation below the glumes ; splkelets falling entire or the glumes and lowest floret together. 

••-•■ Glumes much exceeding the two florets. 
•fO. Rolens. Lower floret stipitate, awnless, upper with a hook -like awn. 

•M- *-¥ Glumes exceeded by upper floret. 
41. Spbeiiopholis. Glumes dissimilar, the second oboyate; florets usually awnleas. 

•f- *■ Articulation al>oTe the glumes. 
** Awns wanting or but a mncronate tip. 

43. Koeleria. Glumes nnequal, exceeded by the upper floret 

•«• ■«• Awns present. 
— Awns dorsal, not flattened. 
a. Splkelets 2-«eTeral-flowered ; florets all perfect or the uppermost Imperfb 
b, Splkelets less than 1 cm. long ; grain free. 

48. TTisetiun. Lemma keeled, bidentate, awn arising from above the middle. 

44. Descbampsia. Lemma convex, awn fVom the middle or below. 

b b. Splkelets more than 1 cm. long ; grain adherent to the palea. 

4.3. Avena. Florets approximate, exceeded by the striate glumes. 

n a. Splkelets 2-flowerod ; lower floret staminate, ujjper perflact. 

4fi. Anheiiatbenim. Lower floret longawneti, upper usually awnless. 

— — Awns from between the teeth of the bidentnte npex of the lemma, flattened, twisted. 

47. Dantbonia. Florets several, not closely approximate, glumes eonaling or exceeding the 


Tribe ym. CHLORfDBAB. Splkdeto l-eerenl-flowered. In l-sided splkoe whkdi are digitate m 

pftniculate, BometimoB Bolitary. 

* SpikbletB an alike. 

4- Spfkelota BtiicUj l-flowered, no storOe lemm^ 

** Rbaehilla articulated below the glumea. 

48. Spartlna. GlnineB narrow, nneqnaL 

49. Becknuumia. QlomeB broad, boat-shaped, inflated, equal 

«♦ ** RhachiDa artleulated above the glnmei. 

60. Cynodon. Spikes digitate ; planta eztensiyely creeping. 
51. Schedomuudni. Spikea paniculate ; planta caespitose. 

*■ •*- Splkeleta with more than 1 floret. 

** Perfect floret 1, additional floreta stamlnate, neuter or rudimentary. 

* Lowest floret perlbct 

n. Gjnnnopogon. Bptkeleta remote, appressed. 

(18. Chloria. Spikcleu Imbricated; fertile lemma 1-awned or awnleea; apikea mora or leit 

whoried or digitate. 
C4. Bonteloaa. Spikeleu imbricated ; fertile lemma S-awned ; spikes raoemoae. 

— -» Loweat floreta neuter, third perfect. 

60. Cteniain. Spike solitary ; second glume bearing a stout divergent dorsal awn. 

«♦ ** Perfect florets 2 or more. 

— Spikes Ibw, stout, digitate. 

06. Dactylocteninm. Bhachla of apike prolonged beyond the spikelets ; second glume and at 
least lowest lemma cuspidate. 

67. BtenslBe. Bhachls of spike not prolonged beyond the spikelets, neither glumes nor i*»w»wrif 


— — Spikes numerous, very slender, racemose. 

68. Leptochloa. Spikelets not crowded, often slightly pedlceled. 

* * Spikelets unisexual, dissimilar ; plants dioecious or monoecious. 

60. Bvclilo6. Staminate spikes exserted, racemose ; pistiUate Bplkeleta nearly capitate, partiany 
Included In broad ahoaths. 

Tribe IX. FBSXt^CBAB. Spikelets 2-many-flowered, usuany perfect, pedicellate in racemea or In 
loose or den^e panicles; glumes shorter than the lowest floret; lemmas l-several-nerved, awn- 
less or with l>several atraight awns, terminal or borne just below the apex. 

* Rhachilla clothed with long silky hairs, exceeding the florets. 

60. Pbragmitef. Lowest floret staminate, the others perfect. 

* * Rhachilla naked or with hairs much shorter than the floreta. 
*- Callus and nerves of lemma densely bearded (not cobwebby). 

61. Trident. The three nerves or only the middle one excurrent between the acute lobea of (b« 

lemrna ; palea not cUiate-Mnged. 
68. Triplaeif. Midnerve excurrent between the truncate lobes of the lemma ; palea oonaplea- 
ously cillate-fHnged ; floreta remote. 

•*- •!- Csllus and nerves glabroua or cobwebby, or callus sparsely bearded. 
♦4- Lemma coriaoeona, smooth and shining, without a scarlous margin. 

— Spikelets dioecious. 

dS. DUticUie. Splkeleta large, compressed, in a small crowded panicle. 

— — Spikelets perfect. 

67. Uniola. Lower 1-4 lemmas empty. 

66. DUrrhenA. Upper 2-4 lemmas empty. 

** -M- Lemmas membranaceous, or if subcoriaoeous having a scarlous margin. 

•>-> Lemmaa 8-nerved. iKoeleria might be looked for here, but the upper glume about cquda 

the lower floret.) 

68. Bngroetit. Spikelets S-manv-flowered. 


Ml CatabroM. Bpikelets S-flowarvd. 

— i — LenimaA ft-maoy-Denred (neiTM often obsoare In BHta). 
a^ Spikeleto nearly sessile In dense 1 -sided dusters at the end of the few jianicle-branchea. 
TO. Dtctylis. gplkelets flattened ; glumes and lemmas keeled, the keels hispid-eUiate. 

a ». Spikelets not in dense 1-alded clusters. 
(. Spikelets as brood as long, somewhat heart-shaped. 
69. Brisa. Florets crowded in the spikelets, almost horizontal ; lemmas boat-shaped or Tentrioost^ 
h 6. Spikelets much longer than broad, not heart-shaped. 

0. Lemmas keeled. 
XL Poa. Base of florets often cobwebby. 

e 0. Lemmas oonrez or keeled only at the summit. 

d. Uppermost lemmas shaped like the lower, fertile or sterile. 

e. Nerves of lemma prominent* parallel. 

T8. Glycexla. Spikelets eompressed-cylindrieal or little flattened ; lemmas scarions at somidit 

e €, Nerves of lemma not prominent. 
/. Lemmas obtuse, awnless. 

XL PoccinellJa. Glumes much shorter than the lowest lemma; callus not hairy; nerves not 

T2. Scholoctaloa. Qlumes nearly as long as lowest lemma ; caUns hairy ; one or more nerves of 

leuiuia excurrent. 

//. Lemmas acute, often awned. 

T5b Pestnca* Lemmas entire, often awned firom the apex. 

YC Bromas. Lemmas 2-toothed, usually awned Just below the apex ; grain adherent to the 

palea, pubescent at the summit. 
(5u Melica. Lemmas awned Just below the apex, grain free, glabrous. 

d d. Uppermost lemmas brood or cucullate, convolute, forming a club-shaped mass. 

65. Melica. Lemmas subcoriaceous with a scarious maigin, obtuse. 

Mbe Z. h6RDSAB. Spikelets (l-several-flowered, with uppermost floret imperfect) sessile on 
opposite sides of a zigzag Jointed channeled rhadiis, forming a spike ; glumes sometimes abor- 
tive or wanting, often placed together in frost of the spikelet ; leaf-blades bearing at base a 
more or leas well-marked pidr of auricnlate appendages. 

* Spikelets solitary at each Joint of the rhachls. 

••- Spikelets 1 -flowered, flUllng attached to Joints of the disarticulating rhaehia. 

78. Leptnnis. Spikelets awnless ; low branching annuals. 

*• -^ Spikelets 2-many-flowered. 

n. LoUttm. Spikelets placed with one edge to the rhachls. 

79. Agropyron. Spikelets placed with the side to the rhachis. 

*^ Spikelets 2 or 8, rarely solitary, at each Joint of the .*hachls, placed with the florets dorse 

central to the rhachis. 

4- Spikelets not all allko. 

W. Hordeom. Spikelets l(rarely 2-8)-flowered, In 8*a at each Joint, the lateral pair pedleeled, 
usually abortive ; glumes awn-IIke. 

4- ■»' Spikelets ^1 alike, !MS-flowered. 

81. Blyiiiiis. Glumes usually equaling the florets ; spikes mostly dense. 

8S. Hyttriz. Glumes reduced to short bristles, one or both often obsolete ; spikes very looso. 

Tiibe ZI. BAMB^SBIB. Tall woody reeds ; the flat bUkles with a short pe«;;lole articulated with 
the sheath ; spikelets few-many-flowered, flattened, in panicles or racemes. 
81 Anudiaaria. Lemmas rounded on the back, many-narved, aeuminate or bristlo-pointed ; 
gliunea Tory smalL 



1. TSfPSACUM L. Qkux Grass. Sbsams Gkam 

Splkekty uuisexoal, 
tinuoaa rhachk above ; 

a. T. dActjloldei. 

9 Spiketot embedded x 1. 
^ 8§iJUUi X 1. 

azfllary spikes solitary 
Aug. Fi«. 4d. 

the staiuinate spikelets in pairs at the joints of the oon- 
the pistillate spikelets solitary, embedded in each oblong 
joint of the carUlaginoos thickened articulate rhachia 
l)eluw in the same iiiHurescence, which terminates the 
culm or its branches ; glumes of the staminate spikelet 
subcoriaceous, the first dorsally flattened, the second 
boatrshaped; the first lemma often empty, membrana- 
ceous with a hyaline palca, like the second which 
incloses a staminate flower; first glume of pistillate 
spikelet ovate, at length cartilaginous and closing the 
recess in the rhachis, second boat-shaped, coriaceous ; 
floref:s 2, tho lemmas and paleas hyaline, the lower 
sterile, the upper pistillate. — Tall stout perennials from 
Very thick creeping rootstocks, with broad flat leaves, 
and terminal and axillary spikes separating spontanea 
ously into joints at maturity. (Name from Tplfieiw^ lo 
rub^ perhaps in allusion to the polished spike.) 

1. T. dactyloides L. Culms 1-2.6 m. high ; leaves 

3 dm. or more long, 1.5-<3.5 cm. wide; spikes 2-^ 

together at the summit, when their contiguous sides 

are more or less flattened, or solitary and terete ; 

. — Moist soil, Ct. to Kan., s. to Fla. and Tex. July, 

3. rotxbo£llia L. 1 

Spikplets in patts In the excavations at the nodes of a cylindrical articulated 
axis ; one sessile and perfect, the other pediceled, sterile, with its pedicel adnata 
to the rhachis ; glumes of the perfect spikelet awnless, the 
first coriaceous and covering the excavation in the rhachis, ^jl^ 
the second thinner, boiit-shaped ; sterile lemma empty or m^^ 
with a rudimentary flower, and, like the lemma and palea, 
hyaline ; glumes of sterile spikelet membranaceous. — Peren- 
nials with flat narrow leaves, and single cartilaginous spikes 
which disarticulate at maturity, terminating the stem and 
branches ; chiefly subtropical. (Named for Prof. C, F, JtoU- 

boell^ an excellent Danish botanist, who wrote 

much upon Gramineae^ Cyperaceae^ etc. ) 

1. R. mgbsa Nutt. Culms tufted, com- 
preued, 6-12 dm. high ; sheaths flattened ; 
leaves 6-10 mm. wide; gpikes 2-7 cm, long, 

1 if the lateral one$ on short clustered branches in 
m m the axils, often partly included in inflated 
■ Q| sheaths ; first glume of fertile spikelet trans- 
• ^ versely rugose, ( Manisuris Ktze. ) — Low pine 

barrens. Del. and south w., near the coast 

Aug., Sept. Fig. 47. 

2. R. cylindrica (Michx.) Torr. Culms 
terete from a short rootstock ; leaves 2-3 mm. 

sa B. eylindrica ^^^^ \ spikes slender, usually curved, 6-15 cm. long, terminating 
xs. the culm, on elongated axillary peduncles; sterile spikelet rudi- 

mentary ; first glume of fertile spikelet obscurely pitted longi- 
iudinally. (Jfa»i#urw Ktze.) — Prairies, Mo. and south w. June-Aug. F:g. io. 

t, ERIAnTHUS Michx. Woolly Bkaro Grabs 

Spikeieta in pairs, one sessile, the other pediceled, along the articulate and 
reiAdil> disjointing rhachis, both alike, perfect ; glumes subequal, firm-membra' 
naceous, the first dorsally flattened, more or less bicarinate, the second keeled 
above ; sterile lemma empty, hyaline, awnless ; fertile lemma with an awn 1-2 cm. 

47. B. nigofts. 
Base of infloretoenM 

P&rt of MiDO with fer- 
ttW tad pedleel«A 
•terlle spikelet ae^ 
anted x2. 

Fertile spikelet x 9. 

Its flower 

Lemma x 8. 


kag ; p«lM mbinM, nerreleBi. — Tall and stoat reed-IIke perennlaU, wtUi elon- 
gated flat leaves, ntceinee crovrded In a p&nlcle and clothed wltb long allky baira, 
especlaUy In a tuft around the baae of each spikelet (whence ibe uame, (roni 
Ipitr, wool, and itdoj, flower'). 

* Aieit tfrele, slraigkt, 

'-Hairs at bate ei/$pikflPt* copious, as long ai the glumes or longer ; panicle-axk 

and upper part of culm densely appreued-viUouK. 

-• Panicle loote and open; halre longer than the glumes. 

1. B. saccharoldea Michi. Culm 1-2 m. hEgh, usually nkh a dense ring of 
appreesed hairs at the nodes ; leaves 1-2.5 cm. wide, villous ; panicle lawny or 
parple. — Moist groand, N. J. and soatbn., rare. 

SepcOct. Fio. 49. 

*••• Panicle dense and compact ; hairs about as long 
as the glumes, 

2. S. compfctnB Nnsh. Culm 1-3 m. high, villona 
at tbe nodes; blades 6-12 mm. wide, nsually villous 
only oa the upper surface near the base ; panicle 
taway. — Moist ground, N. J. and aouihw. Aug., 

t- — Hairs at base of tpikeleCi rather sparse or want- 
ing, shorter than the glumes; culm and axis of ^_ e. uiKtunitdei x i^. 
panicle ylahmus or sparsely villous. 

3. K. brevibiibis Michx, Culm 1-2 m. high, sparingly villous at the nodes; 
sheaths glabrous ; blades 0-10 mm, wide, scabrous ; panicle purple, narrow, the 
branches sppressed, sparingly silky, appearing striate from the stiff straight 
awns. — Moist ground, Del and soulhw. Sept., Oct. 

•• Aien flattened and tieisted, 
•~ Panicle pale, axis very villuus; basal Jiairs copious, exceeding the glumes. 

4. E. diTaricitna (L.) Hitcbc. Culm 1.6-3 m. high, nodes and upper portion 
■ppressod-villoua ; sbealbs glabrous ; leaves 1.&-2.5 cm. wide ; panicle loose, Billcy. 
(E. alopecuroides Ell.) — Moist ground, N. J. to Ga,, w. to Ky. and a. Mo. Sept. 

— — Pantde dark, axis sparsely villous; basal hairs rather sparse, scarcely 

as long as tht glumes. 

5. E. COnUltns Baldw. Culm 1-2 m. high, nodes soon glabrous ; sheaths 
glabiuus; leaves 5-ir> mm. wide; panicle narrow, less silky than in the preceding. 

— Liow meadows, Va. to Ky., and eoutbw. 

4. AHDROPdGOH [Koyen] L. Beahd Gram 
Spikelets in paira (one sesaile and perfect, the other pediceied, sterile, often 
' rndiuientary) at each joint of the articulate rhachia ; glumes of fertilB spikelet 
BuiMsqual, indurated, the lirel dursally flattened, with a strong nerve near each 
margin, the midnerve faint ; Becond glume keeled above ; first lenimii empty, 
hyaline; fertile lemma membranaceous or hyaline, awned ; palea hyaline, 
aomeiimes obsolete. —Tall tufted perennials ; spikes lateral and lermiiial, the 
rhachia and usually the pedicels long-villous with silky hairs (whence the name, 
composed of iti/p, man, and riiywr, beard.") 

EKwnsBBoriUirxiJoljitaoflherliMliUctaratt 1. .^. loopartufc 

EMcniiHln lkid(ic«(>fa-«; lolDUortlierhKhlanatsliinU. 
Pcdkwilite aplkalet redgccd to Ihfl pBdItxl or th« ElumM onlf ; ncsins* 
naiuJI]' anbundeii l>/ ■(OUaccoiis apMhe (tliB Dppar ibatli); rhocbl*. 
Jf^Dta T«i7 alender. 
Kuanma DDtboBer Ihan the apatlie, vbtch Incloica the commnQ pedunrle. 

BnnduH of laftorwceiico Bcnttered »long iho culma . . V. A, cirDlaicKt. 

"a^iKMh?'ntoSd?™e^.TLi^itrrt«^.«^^^^^ ■ i;-^-^JIi*^ 

F«dk^^aplkelet>tsmlii*M,wltti«luDiwiDdI<)BuuM' ',.'.'. i, a1 fltroatm*. 



00. A. Boopariuft. 
Twoeplkelets xl^. 

1 1. SCHIZ ACH^RIUM (Nees) Trin. Bacemea BolUary ; joints of the rhaekk 


1. A. soopArius Michx. Culms tufted, 4-12 dm. high ; 
branches single or in pairs from the upper sheaths ; sheaths 
glabrous or hairy ; blades often hairy above near the base ; 
racemes slender, 2-6 cm. long, joints and sterile pedicels 
hairy on the mareins ; sterile spikelet a single awn-pointed 
glume, 2-4 mm. long ; fertile spikelet about 7 mm. long ; 
awn bent and twisted. — Dry ground, N. B. to Sask., and 
southw. July-Sept. Fio. 60. 

Var. littorilis (Nash) Hitchc. Culms in large tufts ; the 
innovations and lower sheaths strongly compressed, glaucous. 
{A. litioralis Nash.) — Sand dunes along the coast, N.Y. and 

§ 2. CAMPYLOMf SCHUS Foum. Bacemes in fascicles of 2-6 ; JoifUs of ths 

rhachis not davate. 

* Pedicellate pikelet sterile^ consisting of 1-2 glumes or reduced to a pedicel. 

•^ Spathes equaling or exceeding the racemes; sheaths keeled, 

2. A. glomerJttns (Walt.) BSP. Culms stout, 0.5-1.6 m. high, leafy; sheatlis 
nsnally sparsely hirsute; infiorescence bushy-branched at the summit of the rnha, 
spaihes very scabrous; racemes 2; the slender joints of the 

rhachis and the sterile pedicel clothed with long silky hairs. 
(A, macrourus Michx. ; A. corymbosus Nash.^ — Sandy 
ground near the coast, Mass. and southw. Sept., Oct. 

3. A. Tirglnicns L. Culms rather slender, 6-12 dm. high, 
sparingly branched above: sheaths smooth or somewhat hir- 
sute on the margin ; blades usually hirsute above near the 
base; spathes smooth; racemes 2 or 3, slender; hairs long 
and silky. — Open ground, Mass. to 111., Fla., and Tex. 
Fig. 61. 

^t^BacemeSp or some of them, on peduncles exserted beyond 

the spathes. 

4. A. Blli6ttii Chapm. Culms in tufts, flattened at base, 
&-10 dm. high; lower sheaths and leaves appressed-birsute 
or becoming nearly glabrous, upper sheaths aggregated atid 
much enlarged; racemes usually 2, very slender, Jlexuous, 
softly and loosely silky; spikelets 4 mm. long. — Dry sandy 
or gravelly soil, DeL to Mo., and southw. Sept., Oct. 

6. A. temirins Michx. Culms some- 
what stouter and taller than in the pre- 
ceding ; sheaths usually smooth, the upper .^ . T. 
sheaths not crou>ded nor enlarged (or the ^^j^ BpUwtoto^Sli, 
upper one only somewhat enlarged) ; ra- 
eemes 2 or 3, stouter, more strict, densely silky; spikelets 
6 mm. long. {A. argyraeus Schultes.) — Dry sandy soil, 
Del. to Tenn., and southw. Aug.-Oct. 

* • Pedicellate spikelet staminate ; racemes 2-6 on a long 
exserted peduncle; rhachis-joinis stout. 

6. A. farcitns Muhl. Culms robust, in large tufts, 
o2. A. furcatus X 1%. ^"^'^ *"• ^^^h, branching from the upper nodes; sheatha 

glabrous ; blades elongated, 4-8 mm. wide, scabrous on the 
margins and often hirsute on the upper surface near the base ; racemes 6-12 cm. 
long, stout, usually purplish ; rhachis-joints and pedicels hairy on the sides and 
at the summit ; sessile Rpikelets 8-9 mm. long ; staminate spikelet slightly longei; 
— Dry open ground, Me. to Sask.. and southw. Fio. 62. 



Spikeleto sessile at each joint of the slender rhachis of the peduncled racemes, 
which are reduced to 2 or 3 joints, the sterile spilcelets re<laced (in our species) 
to hairy pedicels; glumes indurated as in Andropogon; sterile lemma thinly 
hyaline, the fertile lemma reduced to hyaline appendages to the strong awn : 
palea obsolete. — Perennial grasses with tall stout culms, the racemes arranged in 
open panicles. (Named from its resemblance to Sorghum.) 

I. S. nlltans (L.) Nash. (Indian Grabs, Wood Grass.) Culm simple, 
1-2 DL high ; leaves 6-10 mm. wide, scabrous, glaucous ; sheaths 
smooth ; panicle narrowly oblong, at first open, contracted after 
flowering, 1-3 dm. long ; the spikelets lanceolate, at length 
drooping, yellowish or reddish brown and shining, clothed, 
especially toward the base, with fawn-colored hairs ; the 
twisted awn longer than the spikelet. (Andropogon L. ; Chrygo- 
pogon Benth.) — Dry soil, Me. to Man., and south w. Fio. 6^>. 

S6RGHUM HALEP^NSB (L.) Pcrs., JoHNSON Grass, a mOFC 
robust plant, is found as an escape or a weed, chiefly alon^ 
the southern border of our range. It differs from Sorghastrum 
in having two pediceled spikelets (of the group of three) stanii- ^ 8.nutaiift x% 
nate or empty ; and in having a more spreading panicle and a ' * 
firmer lemma. This is thought by some to be the original of the cultivated 
sorghums. (Introd. from Eu.) 

6. DIGITArIA Scop. Finger Grass 

Spikelets 1 -flowered, lanceolate-elliptic, sessile or short-pediceled, solitary 
or in 2*8 or 3^s, in two rows on one side of a continuous narrow or winged 
rhachis, forming simple slender racemes which are aggregated toward the summit 
of the culm ; glumes 1-3-nerved, the first sometimes obsolete ; sterile lemma 
&-nerved ; fertile lemma leathery-indurated, papillose-striate, with a hyaline mar- 
gin not inroUed, inclosing a palea of like texture. — Annual, mostly weedy 
^Trasses, with branching culms, thin leaves, and subdigitate inflorescence. 
(Name from digitus^ a finger.) Stntherisma Walt. 

* Bhachis of racemes with angles wingless ; first glume obsolete ; culms erect, 

1. D. filif^nnis (L.) Koeler. Usually tufted, branching and leafy at the base ; 
culms slender or almost filiform, 2-7 dm. high ; lower sheaths hirsute; blades 
0.5-2 dm. long, 4 mm. or less wide (rarely wider), hirsute or glabrous on the 
lower, scabrous on the upper surface ; racemes 1-6, unequal, £-10 cm. (rarely 
15 cm.) long, very slender; spikelets 1.7 mm. long, mostiy in 8*s, appressed, 
the second and third on slender fiexuous pedicels ; glume and sterile lemma 
densely or sparsely villous between the nerves with white gland-tipped hairs; 
the glume shorter and narrow, exposing the dark brown acute fertile lemma. 
{Panicum L.) — Sterile or sandy soil, N. H. to Mich., I. T., and southw. 

2. D. villftsa (Walt.) Ell. Similar to the preceding, usually taller, less slen- 
der and ^nore densely and constantly hirsute on the sheaths and on both surfaces 
of the blades ; racemes 2-8, more distant (sometimes 3 cm. apart), 5-20 cm. 
long, murh interrupted tovjard the base; spikelet-clusters usually rather dis- 
tant; pikelets 2.25 mm. long; the glume and sterile lemma densely matted- 
viUous between the nerves with gland-tipped hairs, — Sandy soil, Va. to Mo., and 
foathw. July-Oct. 

* * Bhachis of racemes with lateral angles winged; culms spreading. 

•«- Pedicels terete ; first glume obsolete, 

3. D. RUMirtrsA Pers. Glabrous ; culms 1.5-4 dm. high, much branched 
below, ascending or nearly prostrate ; leaves 2-10 cm. long (rarely longer), 3-fl 
mm. wide; racemes 2-6, aggregated, divergent, often curved. 3-10 cm. long; 


tpikeUU solitary or in 2*8, 2.2 mm. Jong ; the glume and tterile lemiiMi equai^ 
densely Bhart'Villous bettceen the nerves, as long as the dark brown fertUe lemma. 

{Panicum lineare Krock ; P. glabrum Gauil.) — Cultivated an6 
A waste ground, N. S. to S. Dak., and south w. Aug^OcU (Nai. 

B from Eu.) Fio. 64. 

W 4. D. 8er6tina Michz. Extensively creeping, forming dense 

X mats ; the crowded sheaths pilose; blades 2--8 cm. long, 4-7 mm. 

lu n 1. lA. wide, pilose on both surfaces; racemes 8-8, at the apex of 

SDlketotV!"' Mc«nding branches (1-3 dm. high), ft-lO cm. long; spikeleU 

mostly in 2*s, 1.(5 mm, long, sparsely pubescent between the 

nerves; the glume scarcely I as long as the pale fertile lemma. (Panieum 

Trin.) — Low sandy ground near the coast, s. Pa., Del., and south w. June-Aug. 

*- •«- Pedicels sharply angled; first glume present, minute, 

6. D. samouinXlis (L.) Scop. (Crab Grass.) Culms erect or ascending 
from a decumbent often creeping base, 3-12 dm. long ; 
nodes and sheaths more or less papillose-hirsute ; bladea 
lax, 5-12 cm. long, 4-10 mm. wide, scabrous, often more 
or less pilose ; racemes 3-12, subfasciculate, 5-18 cm. 
long ; tpikelets in pairs, 3-3.5 mm, long, usually appressed- 
pnbescent between tlie smooth or scabrous nerves ; second 
glume about } as long as the pale or grayish fertile lemma. 
{Panicum L. ; Syntherisma fimbriata Nash.) — Cultivated &a. d. uuifiilnalift. 
and waste grounds, throughout our range, and south w. Pu-tofinfloretoanoex^ 
Aug.-Oct Very variable. (Nat. from £u.) Fio. 65. 8plkttou mS. 

7. LSPT0L6mA Chaoe 

SplkeletB 1-flowered, fusiform, solitary on long capillary S-angled pedicels ; 
first glume obsolete or very minute, the second 3-nerved, nearly as long as the 
5-7-nerved sterile lemma ; fertile lemma cartilaginous-indurated, papillose, with 
a delicate hyaline margin not inroUed, inclosing a palea of like texture ; grain 
free within the lemma and palea. — Tufted perennials, with flat leaves and very 
diffuse terminal panicles, which break away at maturity and become tumble- 
weeds. (Name from Xcirr^f, delicate, and XcD/ao, border, in reference to thii 
hyaline margins of the lemma.) 

1. L. cognitum (Schultes) Chase. ^Fall Witoh Grass.) Pale green, much 
branched at the base, erect or geniculate below, very brittle, 3-7 dm. high ; 
lower sheaths pilose, the upper usually glabrous ; ligule membranaceous, 1 mm. 
long ; blades 5-8 cm. long, 4-6 mm. wide, rather rigid, usually glabrous, scabrous 
on the mai^ns ; panicle \-\ the entire height of the plant, short-exserted, very 
diffuse, as broad as lorig or broader ; the capillary scabrous subflexuous 
branches at first ascending, soon widely spreading, naked below, pilose in the 
axils; spikelets on scabrous pedicels, 1-4 cm. long, acuminate, 2.7-3 mm. long; 
glume and sterile lemma with a stripe of oppressed silky pubescence between the 
nerves and on the margins^ or the hairs becoming loose and spreading especially 
on the margins, very variable in the same panicle ; fruit acuminate, chestnut, 
the margins of the lemma white. {Panicum Schultes; P. autumnale Bosc.) 
—Dry soil and sand hills, N. H. to Fla. ; 111. to Minn., soathw. and south westw. 

8. AMPmciSPON Konth 

Spikelets 1-flowered, of 2 kinds, one in a terminal panicle, perfect tmt nof 
fruitful, the other subterranean, cleistogamous, on slender leafless stems at the 
base of the culm ; the first glume of the atrial spikelets variable in size or obso- 
lete ; the second and the sterile lemma subequal ; lemma and palea indurati^ 
xiArgins of lemma neither hyaline nor inroUed : cleistogamous spikelets muek 



taufer, glames many-nerved ; sterile lemma subrigid ; 
fertile lemma and palea much indurated, acuminate, 
margins of lemma neither hyaline nor inroiled. — Erect 
annuals or peretmials with flat leaves. (Name from 
i/i^Uapircs, doubly fruit-bearing.^ 

1. A. Pikshii Kunih. Annual ; culms erect, branch- 
bg* 3-6 dm. high ; sheaths and blades coarsely hispid ; 
terminal panicle contracted ; spikelets about 4 mm. long ; 06. A. PurshU. 

fertile spikelets solitary, about mm. lon^, at the ends stertle spikelet dosDd x i. 
of the slender subterranean branches. {Milium Amphi- Same wide open x 2. 
carpon Pursh ; A. Amphicarpon Nash.) — Moist sandy Basal feruie spikelet, 
pme barrens, N. J. to Fla. Sept. Fio. 66. P*rUy open x2. 




Spikelets 1-flowered, plano-convex, nearly sessile, solitary or in pairs, in 2 
rows on one side of a continuous narrow or dilated rhachis, forming simple spike- 
like racemes ; spikelets placed with the back of the fertile lemma toward the 
rfaachis ; first glume obsolete (rarely present) ; lemma and palea chartaceous- 
indurated, margins of the lemma inroiled. — Perennials, with iHseveral racemes 
digitate or racemose at the summit of the culm and branches. (Ilaa-irdXos, a 
Greek name for millet) 



A. Racemes l-Mveral. 1 terminal and often 1 or more lateral b. 
b. Khacbis membranaceous, 2 mm. or more broad. 

Spikelets 1.5 mm. long, elliptical, pubescent .... 

f^plkelets 2 mm. long, oval, glabrous 

Bhacbls narrow, not membranaceous, less than 1 mm. broad 
(except in P. Botcianum) c. 
c AzUlarj peduncles 1 or more ttom uppermost sheath ; leaves 
dilate on the margin d. 
d. Splkeleta 2 mm. long e. 

tf. Leaves glabrous on both surfkces 

e. Leaves pubescent on one or both surftces /. 
/. Spikelets glabrous. 

Leaves densely long-pubescent. 

Culm hirsute below raceme 

Culm glabrous 

Leaves puberulent and sometimes sparsely villous . 
/. Spikelets pubescent ; leaves shurt-pubesceut. 

Culms erect 

('Ulms prostrate 

Splkeleta \A mm. long. 

Spikelets glabrous 

Spikelets pubescent 

c AziQary peduncles none ff, 
g. Spikelets glabrous h. 
A. Spikelets singly disponed so as to appear in 1-2 rows. 
Spikelets 2.5 mm. long. 
Plants glabrous or sparingly pilose. 
Leaf-blades of culm 1-2 dm. long , racemes 8-^ 

cm. long 

Leaf-blades of culm 2-4 dm. long ; racemes 8-10 

cm. long 

Plants with pubescent sheaths and blades . 
Splkeleta 8 mm. long; sheaths papillose-hirsute . 
Spikelets 4 mm, long. 
Leaf-blades less tluui 1.6 dm. long .... 

Leaf-blades 2-4 dm. long 

A. Spikelets in pairs so as to appear in four rows. 

Spikelets stramineous at maturity 

Spikelets dark brown at maturity 

g. Spikelets dilate ......... 

A fiaeemes a pair at the summit of the culm 

1. P. muoronatum 
9. P.disMetum. 

5. P. eiHatifoUum. 

8. P, pubeMcens. 

7. P. MuhlenbergM, 

8. P. ttiramintwn. 

9. P. Bu9hii. 

10. P. ptammophilum. 

8. P. longip€dunculaiur% 
4. Pt setaceum. 

11. P. kf9€, 

12. P. anffU9tifoUum, 
18. P. plenipilum^ 

14. P. circulare. 

16. y. diffarm^. 

15. P»floridanum» 

17. P. laeviglume» 

18. P. BoHcianum, 

19. P. dilaUitum. 

20. P. diMchum. 

* Bacemes with a broad, thinrmembranaceous, orfoliaceous and keeled, rhachis, 
2 mm, wide or more, the incurved margins partly inclosing the small ^-rowed 
spikelets. {Aquatic or nearly sOy decumbent or floating.) 

1. P. mncronAtum Muhl. Sheaths papillose-hirsute or nearly smooth, in- 
flated ; blades lanceolate, 2.5-15 cm. long, 6-14 mm, wide, scabrous ; racemes 
W-M. finally spreading ; rhachis extending beyond the ^ikelels^ which are ellip- 



Mcah about 1-5 mm. long, sparsely pubescent wUh minutely glandular haitB 
(P. fiuUans Ell.) — In water or mud, Va. to Okla., and south w. 

2. P. dissMum L. Sheaths glabrous ; blades 1-5 cm. long, 2-4 mm. wide ; 
racemes 3-7 ; spikelets ovaU glabrous^ 2-2.8 mm. long. (P. membranaceum 
Walt. : P, Walteriattum Schultes.) — Wet places, N. J. to s. 111., and soathw. 


* * Hacemes with a narrow wingless rhachis; sheaths compressed* 

•*- One raceme terminal^ often Iseveral lateral. 

^ One or more naked raceme-bearing branches from the uppermost sheath; 
culms tufted, often reclining ; racemes slender, often curved; spikelets in 
pairs, 1.6-2 mm. long, broadly oval or obovale; leaves ciliate on the margin. 

= Spikelets 1.5 mm. long. 

3. P. longipedunculitam Le Conte. Culms reclining, 3-5 dm. long ; leaves 
mostly near the base, 3-9 cm. long, 4-6 mm. wide, midnerve and margins ciliate ; 
Hheaths pilose at the throat ; racemes 1 or 2, 3-0 cm. long, usually curved, on 
long slender peduncles ; spikelets glabrous. — Sandy soil, Ky. and south w. 

4. P. setJLceum Michx. Culms slender, erect or ascending, 4-6 dm. high, 
smooth ; sheaths hirsute, especially the lower ones ; blades about 1-2 dm. long, 
2-0 mm. wide (upper reduced), densely pubescent; racemes slender, usually 
single, long-peduncled, 5-10 cm. long ; spikelets ovate, finely pubescent and 
glandular-spotted. — Dry sandy fields and pine barrens, N. U. to Neb., Fla., and 
Tex. Aug.-Oct. 

= = Spikelets 2 mm. long. 

a, Spikelets glabrous. 

5. P. ciliatifbliam Michx. Erect, 4-8 dm. high ; leaves 0.7-2.5 dm. long^ 
0-15 mm. wide, glabrous; racemes u-sually single, 5-10 cm. long; spikelets 
about 2 mm. long, glabrous, green. — Sandy soil, Md. to Fla., and Miss. 

0. P. pub^scens Muhl. Culms slender, erect, 4-8 dm. high, hirsute below 
the racemes; sheaths usually glabrous; blades 1-2 dm. long, 3-0 mm. wide, 
long-pubescent on both surfaces ; racemes usually single ; spikelets 2 mm. long, 
glabrous. — Fields and dry woods, N. Y. to Del., Miss., and Tex. Aug., Sept. 

7. P. Muhlenb^rgii Nash. Culms more robust than in the preceding, 
spreading or reclining, glabrous ; sheaths pubescent or nearly glabrous ; blades 
hardly 2 dm. long, 7-10 mm. wide, long-pubescent on both surfaces; racemes 
usually single ; spikelets 2 mm. long, glabrous. — Fields and sandy soil, N. H. to 
Mo., south w. to Fla. and Tex. Aug.- Oct. 

8. P. stramineum Nash. Culms spreading or prostrate, 2-8 dm. long; 
sheaths ciliate on the margin, otherwise glabrous or the lowest pubescent ; blades 
about 1 dm. long, crinkly on the ciliate margin, finely pubescent, often trith a 
few scattered long hairs; racemes 1-3 (mostly 2), 4-10 cm. long; spikelets 
straw-colored, 2 mm. long, orbicular, smooth. — Sandy soil, Neb. to Mo. and 
southw. July-Sept. 

a a. Sjpikelets pubescent. 

9. P. Bdshii Nash. Culms erect. 8-10 dm. high ; lower sheaths pubescent, the 
upper pilose on the margin only ; blades 5-20 cm. long, 5-15 mm. wide, softly 
and densely pubescent on both surfaces ; racemes 2 or 3, 10-12 cm. long ; 
spikelets 2-2.2 mm. long, oval, densely pubescent. — Dry soil. Neb. to Mo., and 
Tex. Aug. 

10. P. psamrndphilum Culms prostrate ; similar to P. stramineum 
but sheaths, both surfaces of the blades, and the oval spikelets srftly and densefy 
pubescent; leaves averaging a little longer. {P. pro stratum Nash., not Senbn. 
i Merr.) — Sandy soil, s. N. Y. to Del. Aug., Sept. 

f* ♦* No lateral peduncle ; culms stout and often taU* 
= Spikelets obtuse, glabrous, 
a. Spikelets singly disposed. 

11. P. ladye Michx. Culms spreading or prostrate, 3-6 dm. long; plant 


glabroDS, or the upper surface of the leaf-blades (1-2 dm. long) with a few hairs ; 
racemes 2-3, 3-^ cm. long; spikelets about 2.5 mm. long. — Sandy soil, Md. to 
Fla. and Tex. Fio. 67. Var. aijstrXle >ia8h. Leaves hairy 
on the upper surface, sheaths hirsute on the margin. — Va. to 
Fla. and Miss. 

12. P. angustifblium Le Conte. Culms erect or spreading, 
glabrous, averaging taller than the preceding ; sheaths glabrous 
or somewhat pilose, especially on the margin ; blades elongated 
(2-4 dm.), often sparingly pilose on upper surface; racemes 3-5, 
longer than in the preceding, &-10 cm. long, spreading. — Sandy 
soil, Md. to Fla., Kan., and Tex. 

13. P. plenipilum Nash. Resembles P. laeve; but usually 
taller (5-10 dm.), erect cr spreading; anc^ pilose on sheaths 
and blades ; racemes 2-4, 4-8 cm. long. (P. praelongum 57. p. laeve x %. 
Nash.) — Fields and open ground, N. J. to Fla., Ala., and Mo. Bpikelets x2^. 

14. P. circnlire Nash. Culms 5-10 dm. high ; sheaths 

tparsely papillose-hirsute uoith ascending hairs; blades 2-8 dm, long^ 5-8 mm. 
wide, sparsely hirsute on the upper surface, usually glabrous on the lower ; 
racemes 2-4, erect or ascending, 6-10 cm. long ; spikelets orbicular, about 3 mm. 
long, — Open moist ground, N. Y. and Mo., southw. 

15. P. floridinum Michx. Culms robust, 1-2 m. high, from a stout scaly 
rootstock, glabrous ; sheaths hirsute ; blades 3-6 dm. long, 6-10 mm. wide, 
hirsute on both surfaces; racemes usually 2-4, stout, erect or ascending, 7-12 
cm. long; spikelets about 4 mm. long. — Low ground, Va. to Fla. and Tex. 
Var. glabrXtum Kngehn. Glabrous and often glaucous ; racemes often 4-7. 
(P. arundinaceum Poir.) — Del. to s. Kan., and southw. 

16. P. diff5rme Le Conte. Similar to the preceding, less robust, glaucous ; 
culms 5-10 dm. high, leafy at the base ; sheaths often papillose-hirsute near the 
summit; blades 12-15 cm. long, 6-10 mm.wide (the uppermost much reduced), 
glabrous or sparsely hirsute ; racemes 2-3 (rarely 4), ascending, 3.5-8 cm. long; 
pikelets 3-3.5 mm. long. — Low sandy ground, N. J. to Fla. and Tex. 

a a, Spikelets in pairs, appearing 4-seriate; sterile lemma b-nerved; culms 
usually geniculate and rooting at the lower nodes. 

17. P. laeyigliime Scribn. Culms stout, 5-15 dm. high, nodes pubescent; 
dieaths usually pilose on the scarious margin, otherwise glabrous ; blades 1-3 
Jm. long, 1-1.5 cm. wide, glabrous or with a few haii-s at base ; racemes 4-8, 
3-10 cm. long ; spikelets 3 mm. long, obovate, stramineous. — Moist fields and 
wood-borders, Md. and Ky. to N. C. and Tex. Sept., Oct. 

18. P. Bosciinum Fliigge. Culms stout, 5-12 dm. high ; sheaths lax, gla- 
brous, or the lower pubescent; blades 1.5-4.5 dm. long, 6-12 mm. wide, gla- 
brous or hfrsute near base ; racemes numerous, 2-6 cm. long, with a winged 
rfaachis 2 mm. wide ; spikelets 2 mm. long ; glume and sterile lemma brownish; 
fntit dark brown. — Low woodlands, and along ditches, Va. to Fla. and Tex. 
Aug., Sept 

= = Spikelets acute, ciliate, 

19. P. dilatitum Poir. Culms stout, 5-17 dm. high, growuig in clumps ; 
glabroas throughout except the densely crowded spikelets; leaves elongated, 
4-10 mm. wide ; racemes 2-10, 5-10 cm. long, somewhat spreading ; spikelets 
3 mm. long, ovate ; glume and sterile lemma long-ciliat,e. — In meadows, waste 
ground, and along ditches, Va. to Fla. and Tex. 

•t"*- Racemes a pair at the summit of the culm. 

20. P. distichum L. Creeping and rooting at the nodes, with ascending culms, 
1-6 dm. high ; leaves short, usually crowded, sometimes sparsely hairy on the 
margins; racemes 3-5 cm. long; spikelets singly disposed, 2.5-3 mm. long, 
ovate, acute, sparsely pubescent ; first glume occasionally present. {Digitaria 
paspalodes Michx.) — Ditches and muddy or sandy shores, Va. to Fla., and 
irestw. June-OcU 



Spikelets 1-flowered, compressed bi-convex, sessile, eolitai-y in two rows on otie 
side of a flattened rhachis (which is naked in oars), placed with the back of the 
fertile lemma tamed from the rhachis, forming simple spikes ; first glame obso- 
lete ; lemma and palea indurated but less so than usual in JPaspalum, margins 
of the lemma inroUed. — Perennials with 2-several slender spikes digitate Ok 
sub-digitate at the summit of the culm. (Name from d^wy, axU; and wo6s^ 
foot.) Anastrophus Schlecht. 

1. A. forcitus (Flttgge) Hitchc. Tufted, soft, 8-10 dm. high, with long 
creeping leafy stolons ; leaves obtuse ; racemes a pair at the summit of the culm^ 
7-10 cm. long ; spikelets acute, nearly glabrous, about 4 mm. long. {Foupalu$ 
Flttgge ; P. EUioUii Wats.) — Low moist ground, Va. to Fla. andfTex. 

IL PlmCUM L. Pakio Gbasb 

Spikelets 1-flowered or rarely with a staminate flower below the terminal 
perfect one, in panicles, rarely in racemes ; glumes very unequal, the first often 
minute, the second subequal to the sterile lemma which often Incloses a hyaline 
palea and rarely a staminate fiower ; fertile lemma and palea chartaoeous-in- 
durated, nerves obsolete, the margins of the lemma inrolled ; grain free withbi 
the rigid firmly closed lemma and palea.-— Annuals or perennials of various 
habit (An ancient Latin name of the Italian millet^ Setaria Ualicaf of uncer- 
tain origin and meaning.) 

0. Annaals b, 
b. 8pikel«t« toberoolftte •••••••• .S. P. vemMMtum. 

&. SpikoleU smooUi e. 

0. PUkota glabrous ,•.••. 8. P. dichotom{/lorumk 

C PlantB more or less hispid d. — Oapillabia. 
d. Panicle erect, spikelets not over 8.5 mm. long « 
e. Pftnlde more than half the length of the entire plant 

Panicle diffuse ; spikelets 2-2.5 mm. long . . • • 8. P. captUare* 
Panicle narrow ; spikelets 8-8.5 mm. long . . . .5. P.Jl^eiU. 
4, Panicle not o^er one third the length of the entire plant 

Culms stout ; blades about 1 cm. wide 4. P. Oatting&ri. 

Onlms delicate ; blades not orer 6 ram. wide . . • . 6. P. philad^lpMcum 

d. Panicle drooping ; spikelets 5 mm. long 1, P. miUaceum, 

a. Perennials /. 

/. Spikelets short-pedioeled along one side of a rhachis forming spike- 
like racemes .1. P^hemUomwmm 

/. Spikelets in panicles g. 
ff. Basal leaves similar to calm-Ieayes, not forming a winter ro- 
sette I culms simple or sometimes producing panicles Anom the 
upper nodes h. 
h, Spikelets long-ijedioeled.—yriiGlTA. 

Branches of panicle spreading • . . . . . • 11. P. virgafum. 
Branches of panicle ascending. 
Spikelets 4.5 mm. long ; leaves crowded at base of culm • 9. P. amarum, 
Spikelets 6 mm. long ; leaves not crowded at base of culm 10. P. amaroidsi. 
h* Spikelets short-pedlcoled along the main branches of the pan- 
icle {, — AOBOSTofoiA.. 

- i, Rooutocks present 18. P. aneept. 

i. Rootstocks absent ; plants compressed at the leaty base. 

Fruit stipitate ; spikelets conspicuously secund . . 14. P. MUpiUUwm, 

Fruit not stipitate : spikelets not conspicuously secund. 
Spikelets 2 mm. long, crowded ; a few long hairs on the 

pedicels 18. P. agro9toide^ 

Spikelet<t 2.5-8 mm. long ; no hairs on the pedicels. 
Panicles few-flowered, branches spreading . . IS. P. longjfoUunt, 

Panicles densely flowered, branches erect . 15. P. condsnsum, 

9. Baaal leaves usually dfstlnctlv different ft-om the culm-leaves, 
forming a winter rosette ; cutms simple in spring but usually 
much branched later in the season ; secondary panicles smaller, 
less exserted than the primary J. — Dioii6toma. 
/. Spikelets 8 mm. or more long t. 
A. Xeaves Uoear^longated, not over S mm. wide ; secondary pan- 
icles at the base only, 

Spikelets pointed IT. P. dipaup 

Spikelets blant 18. P.perlangvm. 


k, Lnvw obloDff-UiiioeolAto to ovate-lanceAlftte, more than 5 mm. 
wide, or if narrower not conspieuoasly elongated I. 
L Biades more than 1.5 cm. wide m. 
m. SpikeletsS mm. long ; at least the lower sheaths paptllose-blspld 71. P. eland ettiHum. 
m. Splkelets 8.5-4 mm. long. 

Nodes bearded ; plants often pubescent. 
Blades lanceolate, thick, glaSrous above, densely paplllose- 

pabescent beneath 65. P. RatentUi, 

Blades ovate-lanceolate, thin : pubescence when present 

soft .......... 72. P.BoMU, 

Nodes not bearded ; plants gbbrous or nearly so. 
Panicle spreading; blades 8.5 cm. or more wide . . 78. P. itit\foHwn, 
Panicle narrow ; blades rarely over 1.8 cm. wide . , W, P. xanthophynan, 
L Blades not over 1.5 cm. wide ». 
n. Panicle narrow ; blades erect. 

Planta glabrous or nearly so W. P. xanthophytum. 

Plants papillose-hispid. 

Splkeleto not over 8 mm. long Vl. P. Wilonaianunh 

Splkelets 4 mm. long 64. P. Lsibergii. 

n. Panicle spreading, about as wide as long o. 
o. Splkelets 8 mm. long ; blades 1.2-2 dm. long. 

Blades cUiate. glaucous, smooth 60. P. mutahilB, 

Blades not ciliate, green, scabrous 70. P. aeuUaiwm, 

C. Spikefets SA-A mm. long ; blades not over 1 dm. long. 

Nodes bearded ;liffule 8-4 mm. long 65. P. SavenaUi. 

Nodes not bearded ; ligule 1-2 mm. long. 
Splkelets obovoid-turgid, blunt; pubescence spread- 
ing 68. P. Seribnerianum. 

Splkelets narrowly obovoid, subaonte; pubescence 

appressed 62. P, oligoaanthe*, 

f, Spfltelets leas than 8 mm. long p. 
p, Splkelets glabrous q. 
q, Splkelets not over 1.5 mm. long. 

Planta pubescent 22. P. Hrigotrum. 

Plants glabrous, except bearded nodes 81. P. microcarpon. 

q, Splkelets 2-fiA mm. long r. 
r. Splkeltits 2 mm. long. 

Splkelets obovoid-turgid ; culms crlsp-pnberulent . . 60. P. tancearium. 
Splkelets elliptical ; culms glabrous. 
Autumnal state erect, branched like a little tree; second 

glume shorter than the fruit and sterile lemma . . 27. P. diohotomum. 
Autumnal state topheavv-reclining ; fruit covered by 

second glume and sterile lemma 28. P. barbulatvm. 

Autumnal state widely trailing; second glume and 

sterile lemma shorter than the fruit . . . • 80. P. lueidum. 
f*. Splkelets 2.5 mm. long. 

Culms i-4 dm. high; second glume and sterile lemma 

equaling fruit 26. P. BieikntUii. 

Culms 5-12 dm. high; second glume and sterile lemma 

forming a point beyond the friut 29. P, yadJUnwue. 

p, Splkelets pubescent «. 

«L Blades elongated, not over 5 mm. wide ; seoondazy panicles 
from the base only, or none. 

Sheaths glabrous 20. P. Wem^ri. 

Sheaths pilose. 
Splkelets tui^gld, binnt; panicle-branches ascending; 

eulms few In a tuft \H. P. perlonffitm. 

Splkelets subacute; panicle-branches spreading; culms 

numerous in a tuft 19. P, Unsarifolium. 

9. Blades usually not conspicuously elongated; seooodAiy 
panicles not at the base t. 
t, Splkelets obovate-tuiigid, blunt, attenuate at base. 

Splkelets 2 mm. long 90. P. aolotUare. 

Splkelets 2.5 mm. long. 
Splkelets not papillose : culms glabrous . . . 26. P. BidbnellU. 
Splkelets rugose-papillose : culms pubescent, at least below. 
Nodes bearded : panicle branches ascending . . . i4. P.eonnangutneum, 
Nodes not bearded ; pnincle-branches spreading . . 28. P. anf/uetifolium, 
t. Splkelets not attenuate at base u. 
u. Sheaths oonspicnously retrorse-pilose ; culms simple, form- 
ing soft tufts * 21. p. eealap&n90. 

fltw Sheaths not retrorsely pilose «. 
«. Sheaths, or all but the lowest, glabrous to. 
«o. Ligule 2-5 mm. long. 

Splkelets 2.2 mm. long 47. P. seoparloides. 

bplkelets 1.5 mm. long. 
Pfcnlde not more than half as wide as long; 

splkelets elliptic 85. P. tprMum. 

Ffenlole about aa wide as long ; splkelets obovold 86. P. Li/ndheitntH, 



«o. LIffale feM ttuLU 1 mm. long as. 
X. Blades velvety on both aorfkces ; noder bearded . 84. P. anntUum. 

flk Blades not velvetr ; nodes not bearded y. 

p. Calms crlsp-paberalent . • 68. P. AtheL 

y. Calms elabroas a. 

«. Bpikelets 1.5-1.8 mm. long^. 

Calm-blades not over 2 em. lonir ; splkelets elliptical 54. P. etui^/btimm, 
Oolm^blades 6-90 cm. long; spikelets spheroidal. 
Panicle not more than half as wide as long ; blades 

strongly nerved 56. P, pdyanthss. 

Panicle nearly as wide as long; blades not 

strongly nerved 65. A »pha&roearponi, 

m. Spikelets 2.2-2.8 mm. long. 

Blades cordate, 1.2-3 cm. wide 67. P. oommutatum 

Blades not cordate, 0.6-1 .2 cm. wide. 

. Blades erect : firalt covered 8S. P. b&reftU. 

Blades spreaalng ; frnit exposed at summit . . 88. P. maUamu*kseUms> 
0. Sheaths pabescent a. 
a. Sheaths pubernlent, not pfloee. 

Sptkeleto ellipticaJ, 2.6 mm. long 66. P. Athel. 

Bpikelets obovoid-torgid, 2 mm. long. 
Plants erect or spreading; blades glabroas above . . 60. P. laneeariun^ 
Plants prostrate or creeping ; blades puberulent on both 

Burnoes 61. P. patulum. 

A Sheaths spreading- or appressed -pilose or velvety 5. 
b. Plants graylsh-velvetv throughoat. 

Bpikelets 2.6 mm. long 68. P. nroparium, 

Bpikelets 1.8 mm. long . . . • . . . . 44. P. lanuginonum. 
Spikelets 1.3-1.4 mm. long, very targid . . .45. P,auburtie. 

5. Plants not velvety o. 
c Spikelets 2.7-8 mm. long. 

Blades papillose-hlrsate on both sarfkoes . . » CI7. P. Wilcootianufft, 
Blades glabroas or siiarselv Allky above . . . . 49. P. oraU, 
c Spikelets less than 2.5 mm. long d, 
d. Spikelets ovate, pointed ; blades 1 5-2.5 dm. long ; pani- 
cle 1.2-2.5 dm. long 60. P. 9cahritt9culum. 

d, Spikelets obovate or elliptical, blant; bbides and panicle 
shorter e. 
#. Pubesc<>noe spreading /. 
/. Spikelets 2.2-2.4 mm. long. 

Plants very villous ; autumnal state prostmte • 48. P. vUloHMimum, 
Plants paplllose-hiitpid on sbeaths and ((|»Ar8ely 

hispid on blades; autumnal state erect . . 47. P. kcoparioides. 
f, Spikelets 1.8-1.9 mm. long g. 
ff. Blades stiff, glabroos above or with a few hairs . 43. P. (enne»0tens4. 
§. Blades pubescent above, or if glabrous lax A. 
A. Upper surface of blades with erect hairs 8-^ mm. long. 
Culm*i branching very early; spikelets 1.^ 

1.9 mm. long 46. P. praeeooiu9. 

Culms branching after matnrlty of primary 
pantrlo ; spikelets nat over 1.5 mm. long. 
Axis of pantile long- pilose . . . . 30. P. impUeatwn, 
Axis of panicle nearly glabroas . . .40. P. mrridioHaU, 
h. Upper surihce of blades with short or some* 
what appre»Md pubescence. 
BladQS stiff ; spikelets obovate . . .88. P.hitacfiueae. 

Blades lax; spikelets elliptical (88) P. huachueat^ v. Mvicola. 

A Pubescence not spreaalng 4. 

i. Culms cristD-puberulont or crlsp-pabescent ; ligule 
nearly oosolete. 
Spikelets 1.9 mm. long ; blades 5-6 cm. long ; 

plants blae-greeo 52. P. tttugetorwm. 

Spikelets 1.7 mm. long ; blades 8-5 cm. long ; 

plants gray-green 68. P. columbianwn, 

i. Calms with short or long appressed pubescence J, 
J. Ligule obsolete or nearly so. 

Bpikelets 2.5 mm. long . . . . 60. P. Camfnan*ianwm 

Bpikelets 2-2.8 mm. long . . . • 51. P. Atlduonii. 

J, Ligule 2-3 mm. long. 

Pubescence on lower sheaths spreading . . 40. P. msHdionaU, 
Puboi^ccnce on lower sheath.s a{>pn*».<MMl. 
Blades gUbrons on upper Burtace ; spikelets 

1.2 mm. long 211. P, Uucoihrix, 

Blades pabescent on npper surface; spikelets 
1.5-1.9 mm. long. 
Bpikelets 1.5 mm. long; panicles not over 

8 cm. long 41. P. orioola. 

Bpikelets 1.9 mm. k>ng ; panicles 8-5 cm. 

loag 42. P,9ubvUlo9um, 


I L PASPALOIDEA Nash. Spikelets acutej glabrous, subsessile in one-sided 

racemes^ these racemose on an elongated axis. 

L P. hemltomum Schultes. Culms thick, 0-12 dm. long, rooting and 
branching at the lower nodes ; sheaths loose, glabrous or hairy on the 
margins ; blades 1-2 dm. long, about 1 cm. wide ; panicle 1-2 dm. long, very 
narrow, the remote racemes appressed, spikelet-bearing to the base ; spikelets 
2.8 mm. long, lanceolate ; fruit less indurated and rigid than in true Panicum ; 
palea not inclosed at the apex. (P. Curtisii Chapm.; P. digitarioides Car- 
penter.) — Ponds, Del. to Fla. and Tex. 

1 2. EUPANICUM Gren. & Godr. Spikelets disposed in more or less spread- 
ing panicles ; palea included at the summit. 

* Vsbrdg6sa. — Spikelets tuoerculate ; branching annuals^ rooting at the lower 


2. P. yeiracbsiim Muhl. Glabrous ; cnlmB slender, spreading or ascending, 
3-6 dm. high; leaves 1-1.5 dm. long, 4-6 mm. wide, shining; panicle diffuse, 
few-flowered, 0.7-2.5 dm. long (reduced panicles often pro- 
duced from the base), branches capillary, spreading, spikelet- 
bearing towturd the ends ; spikelets 1.5 mm. long, subacute ; 
first glume about one fourth as long as the faintly nerved 
venrty second glume and sterile lemma ; fruit apiculate. — 
Moist sandy soil, Mass. to Fla. ; also in Ind. at the s. end og. p. veimooBam 
of L. Michigan. Fio. 58. Spikekt x 9. 

• « CapillXria. — Branching annuals, hispid as a whole ; panicles diffuse ; spike- 

lets glabrous, strongly nerved ; first glume about one half the length of the 
second, broad, clawing the base of the spikelet, acute ; second glume and 
sterile lemma slightly or greatly exceeding the elliptical smooth and shining 

3. P. capUUre L. (Old- witch Grass.) Culms stout, sparingly branched, 
ascending; sheaths and usually the leaves (5-15 mm. wide) copiously papillose- 
hispid ; panicle very large and diffuse, often half the length of 
the entire plant, included at base until maturity ; spikelets 
2-2.5 mm. long ; second glume and sterile lemma acuminate, 
exceeding the fruit. — Sandy soil, and as a weed in fields, N. S. 
to B. C, and southw. Aug. -Oct. — At maturity lower panicle- 

- - ,,, branches diverge and the panicles break away and act like tumble 

^ * 4. P. Gattingdrl Nash. Culms widely spreading or decum- 

bent, sometimes as much as 1 m. long, branching at all the nodes, the branches 
again branching ; the numerous exserted panicles oval, smaller and less diffuse 
than in the preceding ; spikelets more turgid; leaves less hirsute. (P. capillare. 
Tar. campestre Gattinger.) — Moist open ground. Me. to N. C, 111., and Mo. — 
Depauperate plants forming very small prostrate mats occur in N. E. and N. Y. 

5. P. fl£xile (Gattinger) Scribn. Slender, erect, 3-6 dm. high, with a few 
erect branches at base ; leaves 1-2,5 dm. long, 2-6 mm. wide, rarely wider, some- 
times nearly glabrous, erect ; panicles usually one half the length of the entire 
plant, narrowly oblong with ascending branches; spikelets 8-3.5 mm. long, 
solitary at the ends of the branchlets ; the long acuminate second glume and sterile 
lemma one third longer than the fruit. — Moist sandy soil. Pa. and Mich., southw. 

6. P. philad^lphicum Bernh. Slender, erect or ascending, usually decum- 
bent at base, freely branching, zigzag, 1.5-4 dm. high ; leaves less than 1 dm. 
long, 2-6 mm. wide ; panicle about one third the entire height of the plant, 
rather few-flowered, spikelets in 2^8 or sometimes solitary, at the ends of the 
divergent flexuous branchlets, 1.7-1.8 mm. long; second glume and sterile 
lemma acute, barely exceeding the fruit. (P. minus Nash, according to descrip- 
tion ; P. minimum Scribn. & Merr.) — Dry woods, clearings, and sandy shores. 
He. to I. T., and south w. 


7. P. MiLiXoBUM L. (EuBOPBAN MiLLBT.) Culms 2-6 dm. btgh, erect of 
decumbent ; sheaths papillose-hispid ; leaves 1-2.6 dm. long, 2.6 cm. or lees 
wide ; panicle denae^ drooping at maturity; itpikeleta ovoid^ 6 mm. long^ turgid, 
•—Waste places, Me. to Pa., westw. to Neb. (Adv. from Ea.) 

* * * DiOHOTOMiPLdRA. — Branching annual, glabrous throughout. 

8. P. dichotomiflbnun Michx. Culms compressed, thick, suc- 
culent, spreading or ascending from a decumbent base, 8-18 dm. 
long ; leaves 2-4 dm. long, 8-16 mm. wide, scabrous above ; pan- 
icles 1.2-4 dm. long, diffuse ; spikelets short-pediceled, mostly 
secuud toward the ends of Uie branchlets, 8 mm. long, acute : 
first glume obtuse, second and sterile lemma pointed beyond 
M B ^ru • I ^® fruit. (P. proliferum Am. auth. not Lam.) — Low waste 
flonSC grounds and cultivated fields. Me. to Neb., and southw. July- 

BpikAlet X 8. ^^^' — Slender, depauperate, erect or prostrate specimens occur 
In sterile ground. Fio. 00. 

* * ^ * ViroXta. — Stout simple mostly glabrous perennials^ with long-pediceltd 

ipikelets and stout creeping rootstocks. 

0. P. amimm Ell. Glaucous, caespitose in large bunches, 6-16 dm. high; 
leaver crowded at the base, involute, the uppermost exceeding the contracted 
panicle, which is 4-8 dm. long, the long slender branches erect; pikelets 4.6 
mm. long; first glume }-} as long as the spikelet, second glume and steriW 
lemma pointed bsyond the grayish fruit. — Sandy seashores, Va., and southw. 
Aug., Sept — Foliage bitter. 

10. P. amaroides Scribn. & Merr. Glaucous; culms 6-8 dm. high, scattered 
from a stout creeping rootstock ; leaves IS dm, long, flat or somewhat involute ; 
panicle 1.6-4 dm. long, very narrow, the short branches appressed ; spikelets 6 
mm. long; first glume ) as long as the spikelet or more. (P. amarum, var. 
minor Vasey & Scribn.) — Sandy seashores, Ct., and southw. Aug., Sept. 

11. P. yiigitam L. (Switch Grass.) Tufted, from strong creeping root- 
stocks, 0.0-2 m. high, sometimes glaucous; leaves elongated, flat; panicles 1.&- 
6 dm. long, nearly as wide, the branches ascending or spreading, 
naked at the base ; spikelets 4-4.6 mm. long; the second glume _ |\,N 
and sterile lemma spreading and pointed, exceeding the fruit. — 
Low open ground or salt marshes along the coast, also on prairies 
in the interior, Me. to Man., and southw. — Very variable ; leaves 
sometimes pilose above near the base ; marsh plants often very 
luxuriant, with panicles 6 dm. or more long. Fig. 61. 

Var. obtiksum Wood. More slender, 1 m. high or less; leaves •J^ J- ▼tnr«tuin. 
not over 8 mm. wide ; panicle 1.6 dm. long or less, rather nar- ^pikeieu x8. 
row; spikelets 3 mm. long; the second glume and sterile lemma bluni and 
scarcely exceeding the fruit. (P. virgatum, var. breviramosum Nash.) — Sand 
barrens, N. Y., N. J., and southw. 

• * • • • AoRosTofDiA. — Erect perennials; spikelets lanceolate, pointed, short' 
pediceled along the elongated main branches of the panicle; fruit narrowly 
elliptical, exceeded by the second glume and sterile lemma. 

^Rootstocks absent; plants tufted from a short caudez^ compressed at the leqfy 

base, glabrous. 

12. P. longif61iam Torr. Culms slender, 6-10 dm. high ; leaver flat or invo- 
lute toward the ends, the uppermost often equaling the panicle, 3-6 mm. wide; 
panicle purplish, 1-2.5 dm. long, rather few-flowered; branches solitary or in 
2's, remote, very slender, finally spreading, naked at the base ; spikelets 2.8-3 
mm. long ; first glume ) as long as the second which exceeds the sterile lemma, 
— Moist sandy ground, Ct. to I). C, and southw., mostly coastal. July-Sept. 

13. P. agrostoides Spreng. Culms 4-10 dm. high, rather stout; sheaths 
Soose ; blades 2— *J.5 cm. long, flat, 0.r>-i cm. wide ; panicle often purplish, oblonp- 
ovate, 1.6-3 dm. long, the stiff branches ascending, naked at the base, with 


inergeni densely Jlowered braneklets moiUyfrom the lower side; epikelete^ mm, 
loHff^ crowded; a few long hairs on the short pedicel; second glume and sterild 
lemma subequal. — Wet meadows and shores, Me. to Minn.« 
and soutbw. Aug., Sept. Fio. 62. 

14. P. stipitAtom Kash. Similar to the preceding ; leaves 
and panicles commonly dark purple, the latter narrower and 
closer ; lateral panicles short-peduncled from the upper nodes ; 
tpikelets narrower, more pointed, distinctly secund upon the 
^nchlets ; second glume longer than the sterile lemma ; fruit ^« !*• agrostoides. 
SUpUaU: no hairs at base of spikelets.^ Moist soil, N. J. to 8plkelotx5. 
Ky., and south w. 

15. P. cond^nsum Nash. Culms stout, 0.8-1.3 m. high, sometimes geniculate 
below ; leaves 2.5-6 dm. long, 8-12 mm. wide, flat or folded ; panicle \-S dm. 
long, narrowly oblong, the densely flowered branches erect ornarrowly ascending^ 
the lower ones naked at the base ; smaller long-peduncled panicles often 
produced from the upper nodes; spikelets 2.5 mm. long, rather turgid ; second 
glume and sterile lemma subequaU the points usually spreading at maturity. — 
Borders of streams and wet places, Fa. (^Porter) ; Alexandria Co., Va.; S. C. 
and south w. 

•*--*- JPtantsfrom stout scaly rootstocks, not conspicuously compressed at base. 

16. P. Anceps Michx. Erect or ascending, 6-12 dm. high ; sheaths subcom- 
pressed, glabrous or sparsely pilose ; blades 1.5-5 dm. long, 6-10 mm. wide, flat ; 
panicles 2-5 dm. long, very loose and open, the slender remote branches spread- 
ing ; small long-peduncled panicles produced from the upper nodes ; spikelets 
more or less secund, 3.5 mm. long ; the acuminate second glume and sterile 
lemma curved ai the apex, about ^ longer than the fruit which bears a minute 
tu/t of hairs <U the apex, (P. rostratum Muhl.) — Moist sandy soil, R. 1. to 
Kan., and southw. July-Sept 

••••*• Dich6toma. — Perennials producing simple culms in the spring lohich 
later branch more or less profusely, this autumnal state often strikingly 
different in habit from the spring state; winter rosettes of basal leaves per^ 
sistent in spring and usually different in shape from culm-leaves ; primary 
panicles produced in spring or early summer seldom perfecting seed, the 
secondary panicles smaller, often much reduced, the latest included in the 
shenths, usually cleistogamous and fruitful ; the secondary leaves ttsually 
much reduced, often crowded by the dwarfing of the lateral internodes, 

t- 1. Depauperata, — Culms tufted, slender, sparingly branching at the base, 
simple above ; leaves long-linear, scabrous above, the basal ones shorter but 
not forming a distinct flat rosette in the autumn ; the reduced secondary 
panicles, produced from short branches from the lowest nodes, more or less 
concealed in the leaves at the base; ligule a ring of hairs about 0.5 mm, 

17. P. depauperiltttm Muhl. Erect or ascending, 2-4 dm. high ; nodes 
ascending'pubescent ; sheaths except the lowest shorter than the internodes, 
giabrons or pilose ; blades 6-15 cm. long, 2-5 mm. wide, often involute in dry- 
ing ; panicles not much exceeding the leaves, 4-8 cm. long, few-flowered, the 
lather strict remote branches ascending: spikelets 3.2-3.8 mm. long, glabrous 
or sparsely pubescent, strongly nerved ; nrst glume J-J the length of the spike- 
let, subacute ; second glume and sterile lemma acuminate, extending in a point 
beyond the fruit which is 2.3 mm. long. — Sterile woods, Me. to Minn., and 

18. P. perl6ngnm Nash. Similar to the preceding, more strict in habit, 
usually papillose-pilose ; blades averaging longer and narrower (sometimes 2.5 
dm. long), pubescent on the lower surface; panicles smaller, narrow, the branches 
nearly erect; spikelets 2.7-3 mm. long, oval, blunt, 8parinj]:ly pilose, strongly 
nerved ; first glume }-J the length of the spikelet ; second glume and sterile 
lemma equaling the fruit at maturity, obtuse; fruit 2.4 mm. long; secondary 
panicles usually more numerous than in the last, Rometimes produced from the 
second node. — Frairies and dry soil, Mich, and S. Dak. to Tex. 


19. P. lineaxifbliimi Scrlbn. Densely tafted, 2-4.6 dm. high ; culm$ verf 
slender, erect, spreading or almost drooping at the summit; sheaths usually 
equaling or exceeding the internodes, sparsely to densely papUlose-pUose ; blades 
1-3.6 dm. long, 2-4 mm. wide, usually exceeding the panicle until maturity, 
often pubescent below ; panicles finally long-exserted, 5-10 cm. long, rather few- 
flowered, the remote flexuous branches spreading ; tpikelets 2.4-2.7 mm. long, 
subacute, sparsely pilose ; first glume \-\ the length of the spikelet, triangular- 
ovate ; second glume and sterile lemma equaling the fruit at maturity; fruit 2 
mm, long, — Woods, Me. to Md., w. to Mich, and Kan. 

20. P. Wemdri Scrlbn. Similar to the preceding ; in small tufts, glabrous 
except for a few long hairs at the nodes and base of blades; culms strict; leaves 
firmer, 1.5 dm. long or less, 3-6 mm. wide ; spikelets 2.2-2.3 mm, long, nearly 
or quite glabrous; secondary panicles usually wanting. — Sterile woods and 
knolls. Me. to Ont., Pa., O., and Mo. — In the field resembles P. depauperatum. 

4- 2. Laxifldra, — Plants in soft tufts, light green ; culms slender, simple or 
rarely branching from the lower nodes; basal leaves short, in a dense soft 
tuft, but not distinctly different from culm-leaves in shape; spikelets obovate^ 

21. P. xalap^nse HBK. Ascending or spreading, 1-4 dm. high ; culms lax, 
glabrous; nodes bearded; sheaths papillose-pilose with reflexed hairs; blades 
mostly 8-12 cm. long, 7-11 mm. wide, sparingly pilose or nearly glabrous except 
the ciliate margins; panicle finally exserted, 6-10 cm. long, lax, the capillary 
flexuous branches spreading or drooping, few-flowered; spikelets 2 mm. long; 
first glume glabrous ; second glume and sterile lemma villous, the glume shorter 
than the fruit which is 1.5 mm. long and minutely umbonate. (P. laxiflorum 
Am. auth., not Lam.) — Low woods, Md. to Mo., and south w. 

22. P. 8trig68um Muhl. Erect or ascending, 2-4.6 dm. high ; culms pilose; 
sheaths and blades long-pilose, clustered at the bMe, 4-8 cm. long, 6-9 mm. wide, 
upper blades reduced; panicle finally long-exserted, 4-10 cm. long, the axii 
pilose, the capillary branches ascending, with numerous long-pediceled glabrous 
spikelets (l..%-1.6 mm, long) ; second glume and sterile lemma equal, as long ai 
the fruit. — Sandy woods, se. Va. to Tenn., and southw. 

••- 3. Angustifdlia. — Mostly grayish-green, caespitose; primary culms with 
elongated leaves (tapering to each emf) and long-exserted few'ftowered 
primary panicles ; blades conspicuously striate-nerved ; ligulea ring of stiff 
hairs less than 1 mm. long; autumnal state repeatedly bushy-branched 
above, often geniculate-decumbent ; spikelets obovoid, turgid, attenuate at 
the base, pubescent {rarely glabrous) ; first glume \-nerved ; second glume 
and sterile lemma equal, 1-9-nerved; fruit broadly ellipsoidal. 

23. P. angustifdlium Ell. Culms slender, erect or spreading at the top, 3-8 
dm. high, appressed-pubescent ; nodes not bearded; sheaths shorter than the 
internodes, papillose-pilose, lower commonly purplish ; blades ciliate toward the 
base, 8-15 cm. long, ii^\ mm. wide, somewhat spreading, the lower shorter and 
often broader ; panicle 4-9 cm. long, the slender flexuous branches widely spread-' 
ing, sometimes drooping, bearing a few long-pediceled spikelets about 2.6 
mm, long ; first glume obtuse, glabrous, \ the length of the spikelet or less ; 
second glume and sterile lemma obtuse, short-villous, equaling the fruit, which 
is minutely pubescent at the obscurely umbonate apex. Branching state lean- 
ing, not prostrate ; leaves reduced, very varrow, flat, or involute on the margins 
only. — Low sandy woods, Del., Va., and southw. — Variable in the amount of 

24. P. consangulneum Kunth. In the simple state similar to the preceding, 
but spreading or ascending, more softly and densely villous; nodes bearded ; 
the leaves often conspicuously longitudinally wrinkled; panicles smaller, the 
branches narrowly ascending; spikelets more turgid, more densely villoua 
Branching state decumbent; the numerous leaves soft and fiat, rarely over 5 cm 
\ong. (P. villosum KU.) — Low sandy woods, se. Va., and southw. 

25. P. acicttUre Desv. Ascending-pilose ; culms at first ascending or pprear) 


hg, S-^ dm. high, very slender ; sheaths nsually less than half as long as the 
tntemodes ; hiades mostly spreading, flat or involute above, 4-8 cm. long, 4 mm. 
wide or lees, the lower wider ; panicle 3-5 cm. long, ttie flexuous branches 
spreading ; spikelets 2 mm. long ; first glume \ the length of the spikelet, 
rounded ; second glume and sterile lemma densely pubescent, equaling the fruit 
which is minutely pubescent at the apex. In the branching state forming dense 
prostrate mats, tritA very numerous crowded short involute-cetaceous often 
falcate leaves. (P. filirameum Ashe; P. neuranthumot Britton^s Man., not 
Griseb.) — Sandy soil, mostly near the coast, se. Va., and south w. 

26. P. Bickii6Ilii Nash. Culms usually stiff, erect or ascending, 2-4 dm. 
high (rarely higher) ; nodes and lower part of the sheaths and margins sparsely 
hairy ; blades 7-14 cm. long, 8-8 mm. wide (rai*ely wider), ciliate at the base, 
rather rigid, spreading, flat, the uppermost usually the longest ; panicles 5-8 
cm. long, the stiff slender branches bearing Kfew long-pediceled t^ikelets; these 
2.5 mm long; first glume loose, | the length of the spikelet ; second glume and 
sterile lemma sparsely pilose or rarely glabrous, equaling the fruit or very slightly 
exceeding it Autumnal state ascending or erects rather sparingly branching 
from the upper nodes with numerous long rather stiff leaves overtopping the 
reduced panicles of long-pediceled spikelets. (P. nemopanthum Ashe ; P. 
BushU Nash.) •*- Sterile open woods and hillsides, Ct. to N. C, and Mo. 

♦- 4. Eudichdtoma, — Culms solitary or in small tufts, slender, at first simple^ 
with lanceolate leaves and open terminal panicles; later profusely branch- 
ing, often leaning or decumbent ; basal leaves short, forming flat rosettes 
in the autumn; ligule a ring of hairs less than 0.5 mm. long ; spikelets 
eUipticai-oblong, not turgid; second glume and sterile lemma 7-nerved^ 

^ Spikelets glabrous. 

27. P. dich6tomum L. Glabrous, often purplish ; culms 8-5 dm. high, erect 
from short knotted rootstocks ; sheaths less than half the length of the inter- 
nodes, rarely ciliate on the margins; blades spreading, 5-11 
cm. long, 4-% mm. wide ; panicle 4-0 cm. long, the flexuous 
branches spreading, spikelet-bearing toward the ends ; spike- 
lets 2 mm. long, rather faintly nerved ; the second glume 
shorter than the fruit, exposing its summit at maturity. 
Branching state erect, bushy-branched at the top, like a little 
tree ; the leaves crotoded and spreading, more or less involute. 63. P. dichotomnm 
— Woods, Me. to Mich., Fla., and Tex. — Spikelets or lower Spikelet x 5. 
sheaths rarely minutely pubescent. Fio. 63. 

28. P. barbulMum Michx. In the simple state resembling large speci- 
mens of the preceding, in larger tufts ; culms sometimes 8 dm. high ; lower nodes 
often sparsely bearded ; sheaths usually with a puberulent ring at the summit ; 
blades 6-10 cm. long, fiUlO mm. wide ; panicles 6-11 cm. long, as wide or wider, 
ihe lower branches drooping at maturity, spikelet-bearing at the ends ; spikelets 
2mm. long ; second glume and sterile lemma equal, covering the fruit at maturity. 
Autumnal state diffusely branched, forming veiy large top-heavy reclining 
bunrhes, the slender branches recurved. — Rocky woods and hillsides, Ct. to 
Mich., Mo., and southw. 

29. P. yadkin^nse Ashe. Similar to P. dichotomum ; culms taller (some- 
times 1 m. high) and stronger; sheaths usually bearing pale glandular spots; 
blades 9-13 cm. long, 8-11 mm. wide; the basal and rameal leaves correspond- 
faigly larger than those of P. dichotomum ; panicle about 10-12 cm. long, the 
slender branches rather strict ; spikelets 2.5 mm. long, acute ; second glume and 
sterile lemma equal, exceeding the fruit, forming a slight beak beyond it. Au- 
tumnal state leaning, not profusely branched. — Moist woods and thickets, Pa. 
and D. C. to Ga. ; and III. 

30. P. lucidum Ashe. At first resembling P. dichotomum, but bright green, 
shining, and with erect leaves; the weak culms soon becoming decumbent, 
sometimes rooting at the nodes ; sheaths usually ciliate on the margin ; blades 
4-7 cm. long, spreading in the decumbent state ; panicle fewer-flowered ; spikelets 
2 mm. long; nerves more prominent than in P. dichotomum: second alume an4 


KterUe lemma both shorter than the fruit. In late eummer the delicate culms are 
almost creeping and vine-iik?, repeatedly branching, the branches elongated and 
diverging at a wide angle^ not fascicled; the u>axy Jlat leaves 2-4 cm. long. — 
Wet woods and sphagnum Bwauips, N. J., D. C, and southw. 

31. P. microcirpon Muhl. Culms at first erect, in large clamps; nodes 
swollen, densely bearded with reflezed hairs; sheaths less than half as long an the 
internodes, ciliate on the margin, the lower sometimes pilose ; blades 10-12 cm. 
long, 10-12 mm. wide, thin, spreading or deflexed, ciliate at base, otherwise 
glabrous; basal leaves shorter and broader; panicles long-ezserted, 10-12 cm. 
long, branches ascending, with numerous spikelets 1.6 mm. long; second glume 
slightly longer than the fruit. Becoming diffusely branched, reclining orpro^ 
trate, with densely croioded small flat leaves and numerous very small panicles. 
(Muhl. in £11., not Muhl. Gram., which is P. polyanthesSchu\UB;P» barbulatum 
Am. auth., not Michx.) — Wet woods and swampy places, Biaaa. to 111., a. to 
Fla. and Tex. — Spikelets rarely sparsely pubescent. 

** •*•* Spikelets pubescent 

82. P. boreikle Nash. Culms 3-5 dm. high, slender, erect, or in weak forma 
geniculate at base ; nodes sometimes with a few hairs ; sheaths often overlapping, 
oiliate on the margin, glabrous, or the lower sparsely pubescent; blades 6-12 
cm. long, 7-12 mm. wide, erect, sparingly ciliate toward the rounded base, other- 
wise glabrous (rarely puberulent beneath) ; panicle 6-10 cm. long, hardly as 
wide, loosely flowered, the slender branches ascending or spreading ; spikelets 
2.2 mm. long, obtuse ; first glume } as lorg as the subequal second glume and 
sterile lemma, which are as long as the fruit. Sparingly branched from all the 
nodes in late summer ; leaves and panicles not greatly reduced, — Moist open 
ground or woods, Nfd. to Out, s. to N. E., N. Y., n. Ind., and Minn. 

«33. P. mattamuskeet^nse Ashe. Often purplish ; culms 0.4-1 m. high, erect 
or geniculate at base, glabrous ; nodes puberulent ; sheaths loose, short, upper 
glabrous except on the margin and sometimes the summit, lower usually softly 
pilose ; blades 0-0 cm. long, 0-12 mm. wide (upper and lower smaller), spread- 
ing, often reflexed, glabrous ; panicle 6-10 cm. long, the flexuous branches 
spreading, spikelet-bearing almost to the base; spikelets 2.3 mm. long; second 
glume and sterile lemma subequal, both shorter than the subacute fruiL 
Remaining erect, branching from the middle nodes in late summer, the Lranchea 
rather appressed ; rameal leaves stiffly ascending. (P. Glutei Nash.) — Sandy 
borders of cran))erry bogs and swamps, Mass., N. J., and Houthw. 

3i. P. innulum Ashe. Purplish ; culms erect, 5-7 dm. high, in small clumps ; 
nodes densely bearded ; sheaths glabrous or the lower softly pubescent ; blades 
6-12 cm. long, 7-13 mm. wide, spreading, velvety-pubescent on both surfaceSj 
margins ciliate toward the base ; panicles 5-9 dm. long, open ; spikelets 2 mm, 
long ; second glume slightly shorter than the fruit. Erect and sparingly branched 
from the upper nodes in late summer, soon dying to the ground, — Dry woods, 
N. J., Pa., and D. C. to Ga.; apparently rare. 

«-6. SprHa, — Plants mostly glabrous or at least not spreading-pilose ; blades 
firm; ligule dense, 2-6 mm, long; spikelets densely pubescent, 1.6 mm. 
long or less, 

35. P. sprdtum Schultes. Culms erect or slightly decumbent at base, glabroua ; 
nodes swollen, usually naked ; sheaths loose, shorter than the internodes, usually 

ciliate on the margin above, otherwise glabrous, or the lower 

Av fy< sparsely pubescent; liaule 2-3 mm. long; blades 7-10 cm. long, 

mU milj^ 4-8 mm. wide, ascending, often reflexed, sparingly long-ciliato 

H^ SW &^ base, otherwise glabrous ; panicle 8-12 cm. long, less than 

¥ ' half as wide, rather dense, the fascicled branches ascending or 

6i. P. tpretum. Oppressed, short spikelet-bearing branches at the base of the 

Bplkeleu x5. fascicles; spikelets 1.5-1.6 mm. long, elliptic, obscurely pointed ; 

second glume and sterile lemma equal, slightly exceeding the fruit, 

Bomewhat reclining in the autumnal state, the tufted branches shorter than the 

9lonaated prinviry internodes; tite leduoed crowded leaves often cooduplicate. 


soBMifaDes mfaintely pubescent on the lower surface. (P. nittdum of recent 
aath., not Lam. P. EaUmi Nash ; P. paucipilum Nash. } — Moist, usually sandy 
Bofl, Me., and southw. near the coast ; and in Ind. near L. Michigan. Fig. 64. 

36. P. Liadheimdri Nash. Culms stiffly ascending or spreading, 5-10 dm. 
kng, glabrous or pubescent below ; nodes swollen ; sheaths less than half as 
long as the elongiOed internodes, ciliate on the maiKin, otherwise glabrous, or 
the lowermost pubescent : ligtde 4-6 mm. long^ blades 6-8 cm. long, 6-8 mm. 
wide, ascending, often renexed when old, with a few hairs on the margins at 
base, glabrous on both surfaces, or minutely pubenilent below ; panicle i-7 cm, 
longy nearly as wide, branches ascending or spreading, loosely ftoxoered; spike* 
let»\.b mm. long, obovate, obtuse; second glume shorter than the fruit. Culms 
elongated and radiating-prostrate in the autumn, earlier branches long, the later 
ones in fibort tufts, all appressed ; leaves much reduced. Involute-pointed ; the 
haiTB at base often conspicuous. — Sandy woods and open ground, Ct. to Fla., 
w. to m. and CaL 

37. P. ]eiic6tliriz Nash. Light olive green, or often imiplish ; culms 2.5-4.6 
dm. high, erect, appressed-papillose, the hairs on the sheaths more spreading; 
tigule 8 mm, long: blades ascending, 2 6-4.6 cm. long, 8-7 mm. wide, papiUose- 
dliate at the rounded base, velvety beneath: panicle 8-6 cm. long, 2-4 cm. wide, 
rather densely flowered^ axis appressed-puoescent, with tufts of long hairs In 
the azfls of the ascendhig branches ; spikelets 1.2 mm. long, obovate-elliptic, 
densely papfHose-pubescent ; second glume and sterile lemma equal, barely cov* 
ering the obscurely pointed fruit. Branching state erect or nearly so, branches 
mosUy from the lower nodes, not in fascicles; leaves and panicles not greatly 
reduced. — Low sandy ground, mostly pine land, & N. J., and southw. 

«• 6b Lanugindsa.'^ Hants pilose at least on culms and sheaths; Ugule%^ 
mm. long irately less) ; spikelets pubescent* (P. pubescens Am. authors, 
not Lam.) 

88. P. hnachilcae Ashe. Plants typically stiff, with copolus spreading papil- 
lose pabescence, harsh to the touch, commonly olivaceous, often purplish ; culms 
2-6 dm. high, erect or nearly so ; nodes bearded with spreading hairs ; blades 
frm, erect or ascending, 4-8 cm. long, 6-8 mm. wide, veins inconspiciiousj upper 
iurfaee copiously short-pilose especiidly toward the base, lower surface densely 
pubescent ; Ugule 8-4 mm. long ; panicle 4-6 cm. long, nearlv as wide, rather 
densely flowered, the axis and often the branches pilose ; the nexuous fascicled 
branches ascending or spreading, short spikelet-bearing branchlets at the base 
of the fascicles ; spikelets 1.6-1.7 mm. long, obovate, obtuse, turgid; first glume 
\A as long as the spikelet ; second glume and sterile lemma papillose-pilose, 
subequal, dightly shorter than the obscurely apiculate fruit. Stiffly ascending 
or spreading in the autumnal state ; culms and sheaths sometimes papillose 
only, the branches fascicled, the reauced crowded leaves ascending. (P. un- 
ctphyUwn of recent Am. auth«, not Trln.) — Prairies and open ground. Me. to 
IJUnn., and southwestw. — A variable 8i)ecies, apparently intergrading with the 
f<Aowing and with P. implicatum. 

Yar. silvloola Hitchc. & Chase. Taller and more slender, brighter green, less 
densely pubescent; blades thin, lax, and spreading, 5-10 cm. long, 6-10 mm. 
wide, upper surface less densely pilose, lower surface appressed-pu^scent, with 
a satiny luster; panicle 5-8 (rarely 10) cm. long, the branches more spreading 
spikelets the same length but elliptical and less turgid, with shorter pubescence. 
More or less decumbent in the autumnal state, the numerous fascicled branches 
shorter than the primary internodes, at least late in the season, the reduced 
spreading leaves sometimes nearly glabrous above except for a few long hairs 
near the base. (P, lanuginosum as described by Scribner & Merrul, not 
En.)— Woods and clearings, range of the typical form, but more common 

89. P. ImpUcitoin Scribn. Erect, 2-5.5 dm. high; slender culms and 
sheathapapillose-pUose ; Ugule 4-5 mm. long ; blades 8-6 cm. long, 3-6 mm. wide, 
rather mm, erect or ascending ; upper surface pilose vjith erect hairs 8-4 mm. 
Umg; lower surface appressed-pubescent ; panicle 8-5 cm. long, nearly as wide. 


the aaSis long-pilose^ the very fiexuous branches often tangled^ the lower iwicaf2| 
drooping; spikelets 1.5 mm. long,, obovate, obtuse, papillose-pilose; second 
glume and sterile lemma equal, as long as the fruit. In late summer ascending 
or spreading with fascicled branches from the lower nodes, the crowded reduced 
leaves pilose as in the simple state. — Wet meadows, bogs, and wooded swamps, 
N. B. to Minn., s. to D. C. 

40. P. meridionile Ashe. Differs from the preceding as follows : more 
slender, not over 4 dm. high ; upper intertiodes and sheaths minutely appressed^ 
pubescent only ; panicles not over 4 cm. long, axis nearly glabrous ; branches 
ascending or spreading ; spikelets 1.3-1.4 mm. long. The slender culms becom- 
ing geniculatendecumbent, with slender fascicled branches at all the nodes ; leaves 
not greatly reduced. (P. filiculme Ashe, not Hack.) — Sandy or sterile woods 
or clearings, Ct. to Ind., N. C, and Ga. 

41. P. oricola Hitchc. & Chase. Grayish or purplish, densely tufted, spreading^ 
early branching and prostrate^ forming dense mats; culms 1-3 dm. long^ appressed- 
or ascending-pilose, the hairs on the nodes spreading; sheaths rather loose, 
appressed-pilose ; ligule 1-1.6 mm. long; blades 2-5 cm. long, 2-4 mm. wide, 
firm, erect or ascending ; upper surface covered with hairs 3-5 mm. long^ becom- 
ing sparse on the later leaves; lower surface appressed-pubescent, a few long 
hairs intermixed ; panide^ short-exserted, 1.8-3 cm, long, 1-2 cm. wide; spike- 
lets 1.5 mm. long, rounded-obovoidy very turgid, pubescent with short spreading 
hairs ; first glume abruptly pointed, ^ as long as the equal second glume and 
sterile lemma, which are barely as long as the fruit. Leaves and panicles not 
greatly reduced in the branching state. — Sands along the coast, Mass. to Va. — 
Most readily distinguished by prostrate and early branching habit, and small 
panicles of rounded spikelets, large in proportion to the panicle. 

42. P. 8abYill68um Ashe. Slender, 1-3.5 dm. hi^h, leaJif at the base, widely 
spreading ; culms and sheaths sparsely ascending-pilose ; nodes short-bearded, a 
glabrous ring below; ligide 1 mm. long, with a ring of hairs 8-4 mm. long above 
it ; blades firm, ascending, i-6 cm. long, 4-6 mm. wide ; both surfaces pilose, 
the hairs on the upper 3-5 mm. long ; panicle long-exserted^ 3-6 cm. long, rather 
narrow, the lower branches ascending or oppressed, rather densely flowered, axis 
pubescent or pilose ; spikelets 1.9 mm. long, obtuse, turgid; first glume about 
\ as long as the spikelet, acuminate ; second glume and sterile lemma sub- 
equal, the glume slightly shorter than the fruit. Widely spreading and branched 
from the lower nodes in autumn ; leaves and panicles not greatly reduced ; leaves 
less pilose than the earlier ones. (P. unciphyllum, forma pilosum Scribn. & 
Merr., not P. pilosum Sw.) — Dry woods and sandy ground. Me. to Minn. ; and 
in n. Ind. 

43. P. tennesse^nse Ashe. Bright green, often purplish ; culms 2.5-6 dm.high, 
slender, stifily spreading ; internodes and sheaths papillose-pilose with spreading 
hairs, or the upper sometimes nearly glabrous ; blades firm, ascending or suberect, 
6-9 cm. long, 5-3 mm. wide (upper much smaller), with a thin white carti- 
laginous margin, often sparsely ciliate at base ; veins conspicuous ; upper surface 
glabrous or with a few long hairs at the base, appressed-pubescent or nearly 
glabrous beneath ; ligule dense, 4-6 mm. long ; panicle purplish, 4-7 cm. long, 
nearly as wide, rather densely flowered, the Zotocr branches ascending ; spikelets 
1.0-1.7 mm. long, obtuse, turgid; first glume about \ as long as the spikelet, 
glabrous ; second Rlume shorter than the fruit at maturity. Autumnal state widely 
spreading or decumbent and with numerous fascicled branches as long as or longer 
than the primary internodes ; leaves much reduced, usually ciliate at base. — 
Open rather moist ground and wood-borders. Me. to Mich., s. to N. C. and Tex. 

44. P. Ianugin6sam Ell. Grayish olive-green, velvety-villous all over ; culma 
4-6 dm. high, slender, spreading ; leaves 5-10 cm. long (uppermost much smaller), 
thickish but not stiff, margins sometimes, long soft hairs inter- 
mixed with the velvety pubescence on the upper surface ; ligule 8-4 mm. long ; 
panicle 5-11 cm. long, about as wide, loosely flowered, the filiform branches 
finally wide-spreatling ; spikelets 1.8 mm. long, obovate-elliptic, obtuse, villous 
with soft spreading hairs ; first glume J as long as the spikelet ; second glume and 
sterile lemma equal, slightly shorter than the subacute fruit. Decumbent and 


repeatedly branching in the autumn, branches much exceeding the internodes^ 
leaves much reduced, usually ciliate. — Moist sandy woods, mostly near the 
eoast, N. J. to Fla. and La. — Resembling P. scoparium in color and pubescence, 
but smaller and much more slender. 

45. P. anb^me Ashe. Similar to the preceding but smaller in all its parts, 
tarly becoming diffusely branched and decumbent ; upper surface of the blades 
with copious long silky hairs intermixed toith the velvety pubescence ; primary 
^niele short-exserted, 3-4 cm. long, about as wide, axis velvety with long silky 
hairs intermixed^ branches spreading ; spikelets 1.3-1.4 mm. long, obovat.e, very 
turgid, densely papillose-pubescent ; first glume ^-^ as long as the spikelet, 
second glume and sterile lemma equal, covering the fruit. — Sandy pine and oak 
woods on the coastal plain, N. J. to Fla. 

46. P. prae<^>citt8 Hitchc. & Chase. Culms very slender, wiry, early branch- 
ing, 1.5-4 dm. high, soon becoming geniculate and somewhat spreading, copi- 
ously pilose toith weak spreading hairs 3-4 mm. long, as are the sheaths, which 
are much Sorter than the long internodes ; ligule 3-4 mm. long ; blades rather 
firm, 5-8 cm. long, 4-6 mm. wide, those of the branches as large as the primary 
blades, often involute toward the end, long-pilose on both sides; the hairs on the 
yipper surface erect, 4-5 mm. long ; primary panicle 4-6 cm. long, nearly as wide, 
loosely flowered, axis pilose, branches spreaiding or ascending ; secondary pani- 
cles numerous, appearing before the maturity of the primary one; spikeletk 
1.8-1.9 mm, long, obovate, turgid, long-pilose with weak sprearding hairs ; first 
glume |— J as long as the spikelet ; second glume and sterile lemma subequal, the 
glume slightly shorter than the fruit. — Dry prairies and clearings, Mich, and 
IIL to Okla. and Tex. — Scarcely has a simple state, branches appearing often 
before the primary panicle is expanded. 

47. P. scoparioides Ashe. Culms erect, papillose-hispid, a glabrous or 
papillocie ring below the bearded nodes ; lower sheaths distant, the upper some- 
times overlapping on the shortened internodes, papillose-hispid (rarely nearly 
glabrous) ; ligule 2-3 mm. long ; blades firm, ascending or spreading, 7-10 cm. 
long, flU7 mm. wide, papillose-pubescent beneath, sparsely hispid above; panicle 
pale, rather densely flowered, sometimes included at the base, 4-7 cm. long, 
about ] as wide.; branches ascending or spreading ; spikelets 2.2-2.3 mm. long, 
obovate, obtuse, papillose-pubescent, strongly nerved ; first glume about \ as 
long as the spikelet, second barely as long as the fruit. Autumnal state with 
short branches at the middle and upper nodes, the reduced blades involute-pointed, 
mach exceeding the panicles. — Dry gravelly or serpentine soil, Ct. to Del. ; 
apparently rare. 

48. P. yillosfssimum Nash. Olive-green ; culms 2.5-4.6 dm. high, erect or 
ascending, slender, villous loith spreading hairs 3 mm. long, as are the sheaths ; 
ligule 4-5 mm. long; blades rather firm, especially those of the branches, as- 
cending, 6-10 cm. long, 5-10 mm. wide, often subinvolute toward the end, pilose 
on both surfaces, hairs of the upper surface appressed, long and less copious; 
primary panicles often equaled by the uppermost leaf, 4-8 cm. long, about as 
wide, loosely flowered ; spikelets 2.2-2.5 mm. long, oblong-elliptic, obtuse, papil- 
Icse-pubescent ; first glume J-^ as long as the subequal second glume and sterile 
lemma which are scarcely as long as the subacute fruit. Culms in autumnal 
state widely spreading, often with geniculate nodes and arched internodes; 
late in the season prostrate, leaves of the fascicled branches appressed, the clump 
having a flat combed-out appearance, a character conspicuous in the field but 
less so in the herbarium ; blades not much reduced. (P. atlanticum Nash ; 
P. haemacarpon Ashe ; P. xarUhospermum Scribn. & Mohr.) — Sandy or sterile 
Boil, open woods and hillsides, Mass. to Minn., s. to Fla. ; common. 

49. P. orAle Ell. Light olive-green; culms 2-4 dm. high, erect or ascending, 
rather stout, villous with ascending or appressed long silky hairs ^ nodes densely 
bearded with spreading hairs; sheaths nearly as long as the mternodes, the 
i^pper sometimes overlapping, villous like the culm, or upper rarely nearly gla- 
brous; ligule 2 mm. long; blades 6-10 cm. long, 5-0 mm. wide, firm, ascending, 
rounded at base, more or less appressed-pilose toward the margins and base 
nbove^ appressed-pubescent below ; panicle usually short-exserted, 5-8 cm. loni^ 


3-6 cm. wide, rather looiiely flowered, branches somewhat contracted aft^ 
flowering ; sptkeleU 2.7-2.9 mm. long, oblong-elliptic, obtuse, ▼illous with 8ilk> 
hairs ; first glume S-nerved, ^-^ as li>ng as the equal second glume and sterile 
emma whicli barely cover the obtuse fruit. In late summer the stiff ascending 
or erect culms bear numerous short crovoded branches with firm sometimes nearly 
glabrous blades, but little reduced. {P. ovale KU. as to specimen so labeled in 
Elliott herbarium and of description in part. The author confused a puberulent 
narrow-leaved P. commutatum with this species, and his description is made to 
cover both. Not P. ovale of Smairs Fl.) — Dry sand, N. J. to Fla. ; and about 
L. Mich, in Mich, and Ind. 

«- 7. Columhihna. — Culms rather stiff, appressyid-pubescent at least below; 
blades firm, thick, ascending, cartilaginous-margined, appressed-puberulent 
on lower surface, usually glabrous on upper surface; sheaths apprestred- 
pubescent; ligule less than 1 mm., usually about 0.6 mm, long; spikelett 
obovate, turgid, pubescent; the first glume f-} ^ ^^^9 ^' spikelet. Habitatj 
sandy soil. 

60. P. Commonsiinmn Ashe. In large tnfts ; culms ascending or spreailing; 
densely apprensed-pilose, as are the sheaths ; blades flat, 6-10 cm. long, 6-6 mm. 
wide (the upper and lower smaller), at least the lower appressed-pilose beneath ; 
panicle 4-8 cm. long, about as broad, the branches spreading, usually with 
few spikelets (2.6-2.7 mm. long) ; the first glume rather remote, i as long as the 
9pikclet, narrow, acute; second glume and sterile lemma equaling the fniiu 
Branching state often purple, widely and stiffly spreading, fiat on the sand, with 
short-fascicled branches mostly from the upper nodes^ and crowded stiff sabln- 
volute leaves. — Dunes and sandy woods, mostly near the coast, Ct. ; s. N. J. 
and southw. 

61. P. Addisbnii Nash. Often purplish ; culms stout, rigid, 2-4 dm. high, 
erect or ascending, densely long-appressed-pubescent, the pubescence on the 
sheaths shorter ; blades 6^7 cm. long, 4-0 mm. wide, glabrous above (or a 
few hairs near the margin) ; panicle S-6 cm. long, 2-3 cm. wide, rather 
densely flowered, branches ascending; spikelets 2-2.2 mm. long; first glume 
about half as long as the spikelet; second glume and sterile lemma barely 
equaling the fruit. In late summer ascetiding or spreading, with short oppressed 
branches from Uie middle and upper nodes, the reduced blades involute toward the 
summit. — Sand barrens, Ct. to N. C. 

62 P. tsugetbrum Nash. Bluish green, sometimes purplish; cttlms slender^ 
2.5^ cm. high, ascending or spreading, often geniculate below, crisp-appressed- 
pubescent, as are the sheaths ; blades 5-4$ cm. long (rarely longer), 4-7 mm. wide, 
glabrous above or with a few long hairs near the base and mai^ins; panicle 
3-6 cm. long, about as wide, rather loosely flowered, branches ascending or 
spreading; spikelets 1.0 mm. long; first glume about | as long as the spikelet; 
second glume and sterile lemma equaling the fruit. More or less spreading In 
autumnal state, freely branching from middle nodes, branches ascending ; 
leaves not greatly reduced, scarcely involute. — Sandy woods, N. Y. and N. J.; 
iJso about the Great Lakes. — Some forms hardly distinguishable from the next. 

63. P. columbiAnum Scribn. Culms rather slender, erect or ascending, 2-4 dm. 
high, ascending-crisp-pubescent, as are the sheaths ; blades 6 em. long or }«•«, 
4-6 mm. wide, mostly glabrous above ; panicles Anally long-exserted, 3-6 cm. 
long, somewhat narrower, branches ascending or spreading; spikelets 1.7 mim. 
long ; first glume {-} as long as the spikelet; second glume and sterile lemma 
equaling the fruit. Widely spreading but not decumbent in the autumnal state, 
repeatedly branching from the middle nodes, the branches erect; the reduced 
leaves involute-pointed, glabrous above. (P. psammophtlum Nash.) —Dry sandy 
soil, N. E. to Ala., mostly near the coast. 

Var. thinium Hitchc. & Chase. Like small specimens of the species in the 
simple state, but branching earlier and more profusely, decumbent, forming denee 
mats; the small leaves (1-2 em, long) with scattered long hairs on the nppef 
surface: spikelets 1.3-1.4 xdml long.— With the species, dry sanda» M. J. 
and DeL 


^S. Bnaffblia. — Delicate^ densely tnfted, mostly glabrous; spikelets not ovet 

1.6 mm, long ; ligule obsolete. 

64. P. ensifblium Baldw. Culms 2-3.6 dm. high, glabrous, ascending oi 
spreading, /rom dense tufts of ascending basal leaves; these S-7 cm. long^ 4-6 mm, 
tpt(f«, remaining green throughout the summer ; sheaths glabrous, much shorter 
than the long internodes ; culm-blades 0.7-2 cm, long^ 1-2 mm, wide, spreading, 
asuaily pubemlent beneath; panicle 1.6-8 cm. long, nearly as wide, rather few- 
flowered ; spikelets 1.6 mm. long, obovate-elliptic, turgid at maturity, densely 
puberulent; second glume slightly shorter than the obtuse fruit. Branching 
from the upper nodes in the autumnal state, culms usually decumbent, branches 
short, not very numerous. (P. Brittoni Nash.) — Boitlers of cranberry bogs, 
B. N. J., and low pine lands south w. 

P. TtNUB Muhl. (P. uneiphyllum Trin. ; P. albo-marginatum Nash) has been 
collected in the Great Dismal Swamp, Va. {Chase), This is characterized by 
the larger and firmer leaves clustered at the base of the culms and having, 
especiaUy when dry, conspicuous cartilaginous white margins. 

»- 9. 8phaeroc6,rpa, — Bather stout, glabrous; blades firm, cordate at base, 
scabrous on upper surface, margins cartilaginous; ligule nearly obsolete; 
spikelets obovoid-spherical, puberulent ; second glume and sterile lemma 
l-nerved, equaling fruit at maturity. Sparingly branched or nearly simple 
in autumn, 

55. P. sphaerocirpon £11. Dull green ; culms 2-6.6 dm. high, usually widely 
spreading, nodes appressed-pubescent ; sheaths nearly as long as the internodes 
or overlapping, loose toward the summit, ciliate on the margin ; 
Uades 6-10 cm, long, 7-14 mm, toide (uppermost smaller^, thick, 
ttcending, stifif-ciliate toward the base, nerves inconspicuous; 
panicle long-ezserted, 6-10 an, long, nearly as wide, rather 
loosely flowered, with viscid spots on the axis and ascending 
brawJ^es ; spikelets usually purple, 1.6-1.8 mm. long ; fruit china- 65. P. sphaero- 
whlte. Sparingly branching from the lower nodes late in the carpoD. spike 
season ; leaves and panicles not much reduced. — Sandy ground, let x i. 
Mass. to Kan., and southw. Fio. 66. 

66. P. poly&nthes Schultes. Light green, erect ; cnlms 8-9 dm. high, node^ 
glabrous ; edieaths very long, usually overlapping, margin finely ciliate ; blades 
12-23 cm. long, 1.6-2.6 cm, wide (uppermost not smaller), strongly nei'ved, 
eiliate toward the base ; panicle 8-25 an, long, not more than half as wide, 
densely flowered, lower branches nearly erect, often distant; spikelets green, 
1.6-1.0 mm. long; fruit stramineous. Culms simple or very sparingly 
branched from the lower or middle nodes late in the season. (P. micro- 
^rpon Mahl. Gram., not Ell.) — Damp ground, woods and openings, N. Y. 
to L T., and southw. 

I- 10. Commutcita, — Stout, erect, glabrous or puberulent only; leaves cordate, 
over 1 cm, wide (^sometimes less in P, Ashei) ; ligule nearly obsolete ; panicles 
open, loosely flowered ; spikelets oblong or elliptic, not turgid, pubescent, 
2.6-3 mm, long; second glume and sterile lemma strongly 7 -nerved, 

67. P. commutAtnm Schultes. In large or small clumps ; culms 4-7 .6dm. high, 
Qsually stiff, erect and glabrous, nodes puberulent ; sheaths glabrous or puberu* 
lent toward the summit, a pubescent ring at the junction with the blade, margin 
ciliate; blades rather firm, spreading or ascending, 6-12 cm, long, 1.2-2 cm, 
wide (rarely longer or wider), glabrous on both surfaces (rarely puberulent), 
margins ciliate toward the base ; panicle 6-11 cm. long, as wide or wider ; spike- 
lets 2.6-2.8 mm. long, oblong>elliptic, obtuse ; second glume and sterile lemma 
eq[aal, barely covering the minutely nmbonate fruit. In autumnal state culms 
ascending or spreading, with somewhat divaricate simple branches from the 
middle nodes: the leaves crowded but hardly reduced. (P. subsimplex Ashe ; 
— Woods ana copses, Del. to Fla., w. to 111. and Tex. 

6& P. Ashei Pearson. Usually purplish, in loose clumps from a knotted 
tnvn : euims 2.6--6 dm. high, erect, stiff, wiry, densdn erU^^vberulent : 8heatl»« 



less densely puberulent, short-ciliate on the margin ; blades often approximate 
toward the summit, 5-8 cm. long, 6-12 mm, wide, rigid, spreading or ascending, 
ciliate at the subcordate base, otherwise glabrous ; panicle 5-10 cm. long, hardly 
as wide ; spikelete 2.0 mm. long, oblong-elliptic, obtuse ; second glume and sterile 
lemma subequal, obtuse or withering to a point, slightly exposing the minutely 
umbonate fruit. In autumnal state the culms bearing widely divergent branches 
from all or sometimes from only the upper nodes ; the crowded leaves rigid, widely 
spreading: plants often top-heavy and reclining from repeated branching; 
leaves little reduced except those of late autumn. — Dry, especially rocky, 
woods, Mass. to Ga., w. to Mich, and Mo. 

59. P. mutAbile Scribn. & Smith. Blue green, almost glaucous, erect, rather 
slender, 5-8 dm. high, solitary or few in a tuft; culms glabrous or crisp- 
puberulent below ; sheaths ciliate, otherwise glabrous ; blades 8-12 cm, long, 
1-1.6 cm, wide, horizontally spreading, conspicuously ciliate, especially the 
wider basal ones, otherwise glabrous ; panicles 8-10 cm. long, about as wide ; 
spikelets purple, 3 mm, long, elliptical ; first glume i-J ^ ^^"S ^ ^^ spikelet, 
the second barely as long as the fruit. Internodes much elongated in the 
autumnal state, culms somewhat spreading, early branches elongated, later 
ones short and somewhat crowded. — Sandy soil, mostly in shade, se. Va. 
to N. C. and Miss. 

•♦- 11. Lancehria, — Densely tufted ; olive-green; culms slender, wiry, puberu- 
lent; blades short, flat, firm, the thin cartilaginous margins papillose-ciliate 
toward the base; ligule obsolete or nearly so; spikelets pyriform^ turgid, 
stronglg nerved, 

60. P. lanceArinm Trin. Culms erect or geniculate at base, often reddish^ 
1.5-4 dm. high, crisp-puberulent as are the short sheaths; blades ascending or 
spreading, 2.5-4.5 cm. long, 3-5 mm. wide, usually ciliate for \-\ their length, 
puberulent beneath, glabrous above ; panicles short-exserted, loosely flowered, 
3-5 cm. long, }-| as wide, the few very fiexuous branches spreading or droop- 
ing, spikelet-beanng from the base ; spikelets 2 mm. long, I mm, wide ; first glume 
about \ as long as the glabrous or puberulent subequal second glume and sterile 
lemma, the glume scarcely covering the fruit, which is obscurely pubescent at 
the apex. Autumnal state decumbent, ascending at the ends, with short fasci- 
cled branches from the upper nodes * the densely crowded leaves reduced, involute- 
pointed. (P. Hashianum Scribn.) — Low pine lands near the coast, se. Va. to 

61. P. pitulum (Scribn. & Merr.) Hitchc. Culms lax, prostrate, 2-6 dm. long ; 
sheaths and both surfaces of the blades softly pubescent ; the blades thin, spread- 
ing, 4.5-8 cm. long, 5-8 mm. wide, often ciliate nearly to the apex ; panicles 
4.5-7 cm. long, hardly as wide, the slender branches spreading, spikelet- bearing 
from near the base ; spikelets 2 mm. long, 1.3 mm. wide; first glume about \ as 
long as the densely papillose-pubescent second glume and sterile lemma, the 
glume scarcely covering the fruit, which is obscurely pubescent at the apex. 
Autumnal state widely spreading, almost vine-like, the numerotis branches slen- 
der and elongated; leaves and panicles not greatly reduced. (P. Nashianutn^ 
var. Scribn. & Merr.) — Moist sandy soil, se. Va. to Fla., near the coast. 

■•- 12. OUgos&nthia. — Culms stout, erect; blades firm, rarely over 1.5 cm. voidef 
usually narrower; ligule from nearly obsolete to 3 mm, long ; spikelets ob^ 
ovate, turgid, usually papillose-hispid, 3-4 mm, long, 

62. P. oligos&nthes Schultes. In small tufts ; culms 3-8 dm. high, often par^ 
plish, appressed-pubescent below ; sheaths rather loose, ascending-papillose-pubeS' 
cent; ligule 1-2 mm. long, with long hairs intermixed' blades stiffly spreading or 
ascending, 6-10 cm. long, 5-8 (rarely 10) mm. wide, sharply acuminate, glabrous 
on the upper, harshly pubenilent on the lower surface ; panicles 6-10 cm. long, 
nearly as wide, loosely flowered, branches ascending; spikelets 3.5-4 mm. 
long, narrowly obovate, subacute, sparsely pubescent; first glume less than | 
the length of the second glume, which is shorter than the fruit. In the autum- 
nal state somewhat sprea^ng, branching sparingly from the lower nodes, and 


profusely from the upper, the short biranches aggregated at the summit; the 
crotsded leaves widely spreading. (P. pauciflorum £11., not R. Br.) — Sandy 
soil, Dei. to D. C, and southw. ; and in n. Ind., near L. Michigan. 

0S. P. Scribneriliiiain Nash. Similar to the preceding, usually in larger 
clompe; culms not so tall, usually less pubescent; sheaths papillose-hispid or 
Bometimes nearly glabrous; ligule about 1 mm. long; blades 
ascending or erect, averaging wider (6-10 mm., rarely wider), 
QBoally cUiate toward the subcordate base ; panicle short- exserted, 
4-7 rarely cm. long, about as wide ; ispikelets 3.2-8.3 mm, long^ 
wry turgid^ obtiise^ sparsely pubescent or nearly glabrous ; second 
glome slightly shorter than the minutely apiculate fruit. Branch- 
ing late, mostly from the lower nodes, forming short tufts. 
(P. scaparium Wats. & Coult., not Lam.) — Sandy soil or dry 
prairies. Me. to Ont., and westw. to the Pacific, s. to Va. and ^' **• ««**l>neri- 
Ter, Fig. 66. anuo. Spike- 

64. P. Leib«rgii (Vasey) Scjibn. Culms 8-8 dm. high, '^^'***' 
scabrous, at least below the nodes ; sheaths strongly papillose-hispid, with spread- 
ing hairs; ligule very minute ; blades ascending, 8-15 cm. long, 8-12 mm. wide, 
papillose-hispid on both surfaces, often sparsely so above ; panicle 8-15 cm. long, 
less than \ as wide, the branches narrowly ascending ; spikelets 4 mm. long, less 
tn^d than in the last, papillose-hispid with long spreading hairs ; first glume 
over ) as long as the spikelet, acuminate, second equaling the fruit. Sparingly 
branched from the lower nodes in late summer, the branches mostly simple, 
erect; blades not much reduced. — Prairies, O. and Mich, to S. Dak. and Mo. 

65. P. RaTendlii Scribn. & Merr. Erect or ascending ; culms S-^ dm. high, 
densely papillose-pubescent with ascending hairs; nodes short-bearded; sheaths 
distant below, the upper overlapping, pubescent like the culm ; ligule 3-^ mm, 
long; blades thick, ascending, 8-15 cm. long, 1-1.5 mm. wide, rai*ely wider, 
cHiate nearly to the apex, densely pubescent beneath, glabrous above ; panicle 
sfaort-exserted or included at base, 7-10 cm. long, about as wide, branches finally 
spreading ; spikelets 4 mm. long, broadly obovate, very turgid, sparsely pubes- 
cent ; first glume about | as long as the spikelet, second glume slightly shorter 
than the fruit. Autumnal state more or less spreading, bushy-branched above ; 
the crowded leaves ascending. — Sandy or gravelly soil, Md. and D. C, southw. 

66. P. zanthophysmn Gray. Yellowish green ; culms ascending, in small tufts, 
3-6 dm. high, scabrous; sheaths loose, at least the lower overlapping, sparsely 
papillose-pilose, bearded at the summit ; ligule minute ; blades erect or nearly so, 
rather thin, strongly nerved, 1-1.5 dm, long, 1-1.8 cm, wide, narrowed to the 
TOianded cUiate base, otherwise glabrous; panicle finally long-exserted, 0.5-1.2 
dm. long, very narrow, few-Jlowered, the branches erect ; spikelets 4 mm. long, 
broadly obovate, very turgid, pubescent, rarely glabrous ; first glume nearly \ as 
long as the spikelet, pointed, second scarcely covering the fruit. Branching in 
Biidsummer from the second and third nodes, branches erect, mostly simple ; 
the large erect leaves making the plant appear very leafy in the middle. — Dry 
soil. Me. to Man., and Pa. 

67. P. WilcoziAnam Vasey. Culms erect, 1-2 dm. high, copiously papillose- 
pilose as are the usually overlapping sheaths (rarely nearly glabrous) ; ligule 
about 1 mm. long; blades erect, 5-6.5 cm. long, 3-5 mm. wide, densely long- 
pQose on both surfaces; panicle finally exserted, 2-4 cm. long, about half as 
vide, rather densely flowered, branches ascending; spikelets 2.7-3 mm. long, 
oUong-obovate, pubescent ; first glume about ^ as long as the spikelet, second 
hardly covering the fruit. Autumnal state branching from all the nodes, form- 
mg bushy tufts with rigid erect leaves much overtopping the reduced panicles. — 
Prairies, la. to S. Dak. and Kan. 

•- 13. Scoparia. — Culms tall and stout, finally toide-spreading ; blades flat, 
elongated, not over 1.5 cm. wide; ligule short; spikelets abruptly pointed, 
strongly 7-9-nerved. 

68. P. scopilrinm Lam. Grayish olive-green, velvety-pubescent all over except 
WMnoied; cuudb 8-13 dm. high, erect or ascending^ often geniculate at base. 


modeM bearded with reJUxed hairs, a glabroms vtsM ring below; abeaths aboai 
) M long as the intemodea, the veltetjf pubeacettee wanting on the back toward 
the eummit, the naked surface visdd when fresh; ligule 1 mm. long; blades 
rather thick, HpTeading, often reflezed in age, lJS^-2 dm. long, 1-1.6 cm. wide, 
uppermost reduced ; panicle 1-1.5 dm. long, nearly as wide^ many-flowered ; 
oxif, branches and pedicels with viscid blotches ; branches spreading or ascend- 
JVigf spikeleubearing to the base ; spikelets 2.6 mm. long, obovate, turgid, papil- 
lose-pubesceiU ; second glume shorter than the apiculate fniit. Culms leaning or 
spreading in the autumnal state, repeatedly branching from the middle nodes, 
tbe fascicles of branches usually fan-shaped and shorter than the very long 
intemodes, or elongated and scorpioid ; sheaths swollen above, constricted 
at the throat — NVet ground, N. J. to I. T., and south w. 

09. P. scabriiisciilam Ell. Culms 1-2 m. high, roughened at least below the 
nodes, often puberulent ; sheaths loose, constricted and bearded at the throat, 
densely papillose-hispid to nearly glabrous, often spotted ; ligule minute, mem- 
branaceous, usually a ring of hairs above it ; blades stti&y ascending or spreading, 
often reflexed, 1.5-2.0) dm. long, 0-12 (rarely 15) mm. wide, usually harsh- 
pubescent beneath and glabrous above; panicle 1.2-2.5 dm. long^ about ] as 
wide, rather densely flowered, the lower branches ascending, axis, branches and 
pedicels prominently viscid-spotted, branches spikelet-bearing to the base ; spike- 
lets *2A mm. long, ovate, acuminate, minutely puberulent; first glume }•} as 
long as the spikelet, second glume and sterile lemma exceeding the fruit. Autam- 
nal state leaning or widely spreading, repeatedly branching from the middle 
nodes ; branches erect, later ones short ; the crowded reduced blades often 
harsh-pubescent on both surfaces. — Swamps, W. Va., Va., and south w. 

70. P. Acnleitam Hitchc. & Chase. Resembles the preceding ; ctiinM slender, 
In very large clumps, scabrous, harsh-pubescent below; sheaths not so loose as 
m the last, papillose-hispid with stiff sharp-pointed hairs, appermost usually 
glabrous; ligule minute, membranaceous, ciliate; blades stiffly ascending or 
spreading, 1.2-2 dm. long, 0-15 mm. wide, very scabrous on the upper surface 
and toward the apex beneath ; panicle 8-12 cm. long, about as wide, few-flowered, 
axis and branches not viscid or with a few spots only^ lower branches spreading ; 
spikelets 3 mm. long, elliptical, minutely pubescent ; first glume }-) as long as the 
spikelet, second glume and sterile lemma slightly exceeding the fruit Autum- 
nal state somewhat spreading, branched from the middle nodes, tbe branches 
divaricate, not much crowded. — Swampy woods, D. C. and N. C; appar- 
ently rare. 

•- 14. Latifblia. Culms erect, stout ; blades 2 cm. or more wide, cordate-clasp- 
ing at base, strongly nerved, acuminate; ligule minute; panicle open; spike- 
lets 3-4 mm. long, pubescent, strongly nerved. 

71. P. clandestinum L. Usually in very large clumps, 5-12 dm. high ; culms, 
nodes and shetUhs strongly papillose-hispid, or the upper nearly glabrous ; blades 

ascending, 1-2 dm. long, 1.8-2.5 cm. wide, scabrous toward 

the ends; panicle exerted, 1-1.5 dm. long, about as wide, 

rather densely flowered, the fascicled branches ascending ; 

spikelets 3 mm, long, elliptic, second glume shorter than tbe 

subacute fruit. Autumnal state with appressed branches with 

shortened intemodes, the overlapping sheaths usually more 

strongly papillose-hispid than the earlier ones, the later brancli- 

«7 p cUndAAtinnm ^®^ ^^^ short, the Icaves crowded at the summit, the panicles 

ciosM and open entirely inclosed in the sheaths. (P. decoloratum Nash.) — 

fipikeiot x3 Moist ground, Me. to Minn., and southw. Fio. 67. 

72. P. B6scii Poir. Culms 3-7 dm. high, minutely pubes^ 
cent or glabrous, at least the lower ntnles bearded with reflexed hairs ; sheaths 
puberulent, a dense ring of pubescence at the summit ; blades 8-12 cm. \onfi 
lJ.5-3 mm. wide, rarely wider, pubescent beneath, sparsely so (rarely glabrous) 
above, short-ciliate un the margins toward the base; panicle 6-10 cm. \anfz 
usually nearly as wide, the lower branches spreading or ascending; spikelets 
4-4.5 mm. lona» obovste ; iii-st glume i-J as long as the spikelet, seoond glume 


tnd sterile lemma scarcely equaling the fruit which is minutely puhesoent at 
the apicolate tip. More or leiis spreading in the autumnal state, branching from 
ihe middle nodes, the upper leaves of the branches crowded and spreading. 
(?. latifolium Am. auth., not L.) — Woods, Me. to Minn., and south w. 

Var. m6Ue (Vasey) Hitclic. & Chase. Usually not so tall, downy-puhe9ceiU 
ikTOughotU, (P. IcU^oUum, var. Vasey; P. pubifolium Naish.) — Commoner 

73. P. latif 51iam L. Like P. Boscii^ but usually taller ; culms and sheaths 
(except the ciliate margin and pubescent ring at the summit of the sheaths) 
glabrous or rarely pubescent below^ nodes glabrous; blades commonly 1.5 dm. 
long, 3 cm. wide, sometimes wider, ciliate toward the very broad base, otherwise 
glabrous, rarely minutely pubescent ; panicle 8-15 cm. long, the long fexo-ftowered 
brawls ascending; spikelets 3.5-3.8 mm. long, obovate-elliptic, the apiculate 
tip of the fruit usually glabrous. Autumnal state as in P. Boscii, (P. macro- 
tarpon Le Conte.^ — Rocky woods and sand dunes, Me. to Wise., and southw. 

STBnrcHfsiiA H^AKS (Ell.) Nash, a lax perennial with narrow flat leaves and 
terminal tmnicles with spreading branches naked at base, and crowded spikelets, 
the pcUea of the sterile lemma subinduratedj enlarged and forcing the spikelet 
opeiif baa been collected in se. Mo. {Bush) ; common in the South. 

12. SACCI6lSPIS Nash. 

Second glume gibbons at the base, 11-nerved, equal to the 3-5-nerved sterile 
lemma (which incloses a large palea and often a staminate flower), about twice 
wloDg as the slightly stipitate fruit ; lemma thinner at the apex, the palea free 
at the tip ; spikelets otherwise as in Panicum. Semi-aquatic perennials with nar- 
row spike-like panicles. (Name from adKKos^ bag^ and Xeirfs, scale^ alluding 
(0 the saccate second glume.) 

1. S. striata (L.) Nash. Perennial, stoloniferous ; culms erect from a creep- 
in*? base, 3-9 dm. high, branching ; sheaths hirsute, at least on the margins ; 
blades 0.8-2 dm. long, about 1 cm. wide, flat, glabrous ; panicle 10-15 cm. long, 
oontracted, spike-like ; spikelets 3.5 mm. long, lanceolate, acute. {Panicum gib- 
hum £11.) — Low wet ground, Va. to I. T., and southw. 

13. ECHIN6CHL0A Beauv. 

Spikelets l-flowered, sometimes a staminate flower below the perfect termi- 
nal one, nearly sessile in 1-sided racemes ; glumes unequal, spiny -hispid, mucro- 
oate ; sterile lemma similar and awned from the apex (sometimes mucronate 
only), inclosing a hyaline palea ; fertile lemma and palea chartaceous, acumi- 
Date ; mu^ns of the glume inrolled except at the summit, where the palea is 
not includ^. — Coarse annuals with compressed sheaths, long leaves and termi- 
nal panicles of stout racemes. (Name from €X(K>t, a hedgehog, and x^^^i grass, 
in allusion to tlie bristling awns. ) 

1. B. crusoAlli (L.) Beauv. (Barnyard Grass.) Culms stout, rather 
roeculent, branching from the base, ascending or erect, 3-18 dm. high ; sheaths 
and blades glabrous; panicle dense, l-::3 dm. long, of numerous 
erect or spreading racemes, very variable, deep purple to pale 
green, erect or drooping ; spikelets long-awned or nearly awnless, 
densely and irregularly crowded in H or 4 rows, about 3 mm. 
long. (Panicum L.) — Moist, chiefly manured soil and waste 
ground, river banks, etc., common throughout, except in the 
extreme North. Aug.-Oct, (Nat. from Eu.) Fio. (58. 

E. prumentXcka (Roxb.) Link (Panicvm Roxb.), Japanesk 
Barittard Millet, or Billion-Dollar Grass, is an occasional *^- ?/?''"*% 
escape from cultivation. It is distinguished from short-awned ^piK«ietx3. 
forms of the preceding chiefly by the more compact panicles with short often 
incurred branches. 

2. E. Waltdri (Pursh) Nash. Resembling the preceding, Ufnipjly taller, aL 
least the lower sheaths coarsely papillose-hispid; panicle usually long, more 

118 orahiheab (^obass pahiltj 

drooping; tptkeltU loag-atentd. th« am KomelimtM as mtifh at 6 em. lo»ff.-~- 
iPanicum Pureb ; P. hispidum Mubl.) — Morabes Knd ditches chieay near tlw 
coaat, S. K, to FIa. ; and In w. Oau and n. III. Au^.-OcL 

3. E. COldna (L.) Lint. {Ji:nqle Rich.) Tufted, erect or ascending, 8p«r- 
ingly branched, S-S dm. high; sheaiba and blades smooth; panicle of 6~10 
dense racemrt (1-0 cm. lon^) ralherdutant and raeemote along the axis; spike- 
lew about 3 mm. long ; gluma and sterile lemma pubencent, mvcronat^poltUtA 
btU nDtaaned. (^Panieum L.) — Ditcbeaand low ground, Va,andKan^Bauthw, 
(Warm regions generally.) 

14. SETAbIA Beaav. Bbibti-t Foxtail Grass 

SplkeleU as in Panirum but surrounded by few or many persistent kwd. 
like branches which spring from the rhachis below the articulation of the 
spfkelels. — Annual introduced weeds in cultivated or manured grounds, or 
native perennials, with linear or lanceolate flat leaves and cylindrical spike- 
like panicles. (Name from aeta, a bristle.) CiuieroOHt.OA Scribn. 

BnitlM S or mora 1. & fflanaa. 

[>owi«u^lj bu-bfd .... . . . 8. & 9*r U e iB a t a. 

Upwtnliji turbed. 
I jTTiinn rujruM: pinicle Dot eleeeillne Ijtdm. In Imctli. 

SplkeleU SniDi. Iodic *■ S. rirUU. 

Bplkflsttgium. lonir h. S.itaUai. 

LemnuB uuooUi mMA ah\.a\nfi ; pAolcls 2-4 dm. looff • . . . t, & noffta. 

1. S. imUrbls R. & S. Culms more or less eaespttose, S-T dm. high, slendwr, 
compresaed, erect or ascending, often geniculate at base ; sheaths overlapping, 
compressed, glabrous ; blades 1-3 dm. long, 3-T mm. wide, attenuate towanl 
the apex ; panicle 2-Gcm. long, nearly 1 cm. thick, exclaslve of bristles ; ftrlftles 
8-12, 6-1(1 mm. long, pale yellowish, sometimes purplish, upwardly scabmua ; 
spikeleU i mm. long ; first plume about j as long at the sjitkelel. second 1- j a* 
long, acate, 6-T -nerved, the midnerve eicurrent ; sterile lemma eqtiaiing the 
elliptical-ovate acute striate trantitersely rugose fertile lemma, 
— Moist soil, Ct. to Kan., and souttiw. ('IVop. Am.) 

Var. perinnis (Hall) llitchc. Culms scarcely ttifted, very 
slender, wiry, H-Vi dm. high ; blades long and narrow; pani- 
cles 2-T cm. long, more slender; eplkelets and bristles usually 
purplish, {Chaeliichloa verei'eolor Bicknetl.) — Brackish 
rnardhes along the coast, Ct. to Fla. ; and In saline soil, Kan. 
and I. T. June-Sept. — Intergrades with the species. 

2. S. OLA^CA (L.) Beanv. (Koxtail, Pioeoh Grass.) 
Annual ; culms branching at the base, compressed, erect or 
a I? I i' "wh" h- ascending, 3-12 dm. high ; leaves flat, linear-lanceolate, glau- 
ui»l*nK briittei coa8;pa"'''le2-IOc'n. long, about 1 cm. thick; bristles i-8 mm. 
BMnBopen.ibow- '<>"?• upwardly scabrous; siiitelets 3 mm. long; Jtrsl glume i, 
ing foTille und tceimd j as long as the striate undalate-riigose fertile lemma. 
Bipuinl flower xK. —Cultivated ground and waste places, common throughout. 

(Nat. from Ku.) Fio. »B. 
3. 8. VEBTicii.i.llTA (L.^ Beauv. Annua], tufted ; culms 3-0 dm. high ; 
leaves 11 near- lanceolate, scabrous ; panicles green, 6-10 cm. long, 
somewhat compound, interrupted at hose, tapering above ; bristles 
stout, douinieardly barbed, :i-tt mm. long ; spikelets 2-2.6 mm. long ; 
first glume ) as long as the second which equals the sterile lemma 
and slightly exceeds the abruptly aplculate obscurely Iransverse- 
nigose fertile lemma. — Near dwellings, widely distributed in 
eastern U. S. (Nat. ffim Eu.) Fio. 70. 

*. S. vfnmifi (L.) Beauv. (Grkex F., Borrr-B Grass.) to. 8.v«tlt» 
Annual, tufted ; culms 2-9 cm. bigh ; leaves 0.6-2.6 dm. long, uu. 8pkk* 
4~10 rara. wide, scabrous on the margins; panicles lather Uilck, Igtxfc 



rhocftiff ffillotu; MsUes slender, upwardly barbed^ usually 7-12 mm, long; 
spikelets 2 mm. long ; second glume and sterile lemma equal, covering the obtuse 
striate faintly wrinkled fertile lemma. — Cultivated grounds and 
waste places, throughout. (Nat. from Ku.) Fig. 71. Var. iire- 
▼iBBTA (Doll) Hitchc. Bristles scarcely longer than the spikelets. — 
Sterile soil, n. Me. and adjacent Que. 

6. S. itXlica (L.) Beau v. Annual; panicle compound, inter- 
rapted at base, thick, nodding, 8-20 cm. long, but in escaped speci- 
mens smaller, yellowish or purplish ; bristles 2 or 3 in a cluster, 
longer than the spikelets. — Cultivated under the name of Millet, 
German Millet, or Hungarian Grass, and rarely spontaneous, as 
Is also Var. oebmXnica (Mill.) Richter, Golden- Wonder Millet, ^ „ ^..' .. 
which is more slender and has bristles shorter than the spikelets. 8piteit."x4* 
(Introd. from Eu.) 

6. S. mAgna Griseb. Probably perennial ; culm stont, erect, 1-3 m. high ; 
sheaths loose, spreading, compressed, margins densely ciliate near the summit ; 
blades 3-6 dm. long, 1-3 cm. vnde, attenuate, scabrous ; panicles usually inter- 
rupted below, 2-5 cm. thick, tapering to both ends ; rhachis densely pilose ; 
bristles 8-11 mm. long, upwardly scabrous; spikelets 2 mm. long; first glumn 
broad, about j as long as the second, which equals the sterile lemma and with 
it covers the acute apiculate smooth and shining (not striate nor rugose) fertilf 
iemma. — Low grounds and marshes, Del., Va., and south w. (Trop. Am.) 

15. CiNCHRIJS L. Sandbur. Bur Grass 

Spikelets 1 -flowered, acuminate, 2-6 together, subtended by a short-pediceled 
ovoid or globular involucre of rigid connate spines which is deciduous with them 
at maturity ; glumes shorter than the lemmas ; sterile lemma with a hyaline 
palea, fertile lemma and palea less indurated than in Panicum, falcate-acuminate, 
the lemma not inrolled at the margins. — Our species annual, with simple racemes 
of spiny burs terminating the culm and branches. (An ancient Greek name of 
Setaria italica.) 

1. C. caroUniJlnus Walt. Culms flattened, much branched, ascending or 
spreading, .i-S dm. long ; leaves flat ; racemes of 8-20 involucres, about 8 mm. 

thick, the 6-8 pubescent divisions spine-pointed, 

spines spreading or reflexed ; spikelets 2-3. ( C. 

tribuloides Am. auth., not L.) — Sandy soil, on river 

banks, etc., s. Me. to Fla., and westw. across the 

continent. Aug. (Trop. regions.) Fio. 72. 

2. C. tribuloides L. Culms more robust, often 

ti C earolfnianus X 1^ extensively branching or trailing, 3-9 dm. long; 

CloB«d involacre, «t left Lonpi- sheaths loose, usually hirsute along the margins, 

todlnalBectlon of same, at right, ligule conspicuously ciliate; blades more or less 

Open splkelet. In middle. involute ; racemes usually included at the base ; 

involucres 12-14 mm, thick, densely long-pubescent ; 
the stout spines spreading or ascending, (C. macrocephalus Scribn.) — Sands 
ftlong the coast, N. J. and southw. 

16. ZIZANIA [GronoY.] L. Water or Indian Rice 

Spikelets unisexual, 1-flowered, the pistillate linear, awned, articulated and 
tardily deciduous on club-shaped pedicels on the appressed upper branches, 
the staminate lanceolate, earl}'^ deciduous, on the expanded lower branches of 
the same panicle ; glumes none in the pistillate spikelet ; lemma closely clasp- 
ing the palea by a pair of strong lateral nerves, a long hispid awn from the sum- 
mit ; first glume of staminate spikelet 5-, the second 3-nerved ; stamens 6 ; grain 
cylindrical, 1.5-2 cm. Umg, closely enveloped in the membranaceous lemma and 
S^neived palea. — A tall aquatic grass with long leaves and large terminal pani- 
flea. (Adapted from j^il;Apiojfp the ancient name of some wild grain.) 



1, Z. palibtris L. (Indian Rice, Water Oats.) Annaal ; culms 2-3 m 
high ; leaves flat, 5-10 dm. long, 1.6-^c m. wide. (Z. aquatica of auih. not Ii.) — 

Swampy borders of streams and in shallow water; common, 
especially north westw. July, Aug. (Asia.) Fio. 73. 

2. Z. aquAtica L. Culms about 1 m. high ; leaves nar- 
rower (less than 1 cm. wide) ; pistillate portion of panicle 
more appressed. — Me. to Bfinn., and nortbw. 

17. ZIZANI6pSIS D511 & Asch. 

Splkelets unisexual, the pistillate above, the stamlnate below 

on each branch of the panicle, much alike in appearance, 

laterally compressed ; glumes subequal, membranaceous, the 

lirst glume of the pistillate spikelet with a short terminal awn, 

the lemma acute, palea none ; glumes and lemma of staminate 

Xs, Z. Aquatica x 1. spikelet acute, nerveless, palea none ; stamens ; grain ovoid, 

^ spikelet. ^'ith a chartaceous easily separable pericarp, loosely inclosed 

9 spikeleu in the glumes. — A tall aquatic grass with long leaves and 

FistU with scales, long narrow terminal panicles. (Name from Zizania and 

0^(f, appearance^ from likeness to the preceding genus.) 
1. Z. miliicea (Michx.) D511 & Asch. Perennial by a creeping rootstock; 
culms 1-4 m. high, geniculate at the lower nodes; leaves flat, 3-10 dm. loog, 
1-3 cm. wide. {Zizania Michx.) — Swamps, Va., (>., and southw. May. 

18. LEArSIA Sw. Cut-grass. White Grass 

Spikelets 1 -flowered, flattened laterally, perfect, but those In the open panic! 
usually sterile, those inclosed in the sheaths cleistogamous and fruitful ; glumi 
none, lemma boat-shaped, somewhat indurated, awnless, 
clasping the palea by a pair of strong marginal nerves ; palea 
of like textui-e, much narrower, 1-nerved; stamens 1-6. — 
Perennials of moist ground, with rough leaves and short 
racemes of imbricated spikelets arranged in open panicles. 
TNamed after Johann Daniel LeerSj a German botanist of 
the 18th century.) Uomalocenchrus Mieg. 

• Spikelets narrowly ohlong^ rather loosely crowded. 

1. L. 


yirglnica Willd. (White Grass.) Culms weak, 
, ascending, with clustered scaly rootstocks ; panicle 

74. L. vlrglnlea, 

A bit of lnfloreaceno0 

simple, the slender branches sti^y spread- 
ing; spikelets 2.5-3 mm, long, closely ap- 
pressed ; lemma hispid on the keel ; stamens 
2. — Wet woods, Me. to Ont., and southw. Spikelet x 6. 
Aug. Fig. 74. 

2. L. oryzoides (L.) Sw. (Rice Clt-orass.) Culms rather 
stout, branched, ascending from a decumbent base with slender 
creeping rootstocks; leaves very rough; panicle diffuseif 
branched^ lax ; spikelets 4-5 mm. long ; lemma hispid, strongly 
bristly ciliate on the keel. — Swamps or stream borders, ditches, 
etc., Nfd. to Ont, and southw. Aug., Sept. (S. A., Eurasia.) 
Fig. 75. 

* • Spikelets broadly oval, imbricately covering each other. 

75. Lf. orvzoides. 
Inflorescence X Vs- ^' ^' ^^DtiCUliris Michx. (CatcH-PLY GraSS.) Culuih 

A bit of same x%. nearly simple, erect or decumbent at base, with scaly root- 
Oi»€n spikelet x >. Stocks ; sheaths and blades sometimes nearly 8n)Ooth ; panicl» 

nearly simple ; Bpikelets very flat, 5 mm. long, strongly brifiUy. 
ciliate. — Low grounds, Va. to Minn. , and south w. 



19. PHAlARIS L. Canary Grass 

Splkelets 1-flowered, laterally flattened; glumes equal, boat-shaped, much 
exceeding the florets ; sterile lemmas small aud narrow, appearing like hairy 
scales attached to the fertile floret ; fertile lemma indurated and shining in fruit, 
inclosing a faintly 2-nerved palea. — Annuals or perennials, with flat leaves and 
dense spike-like panicles. (The ancient Greek name, ^aXap/f, alluding presuma- 
bly to the crest-like inflorescence.) 

§ 1. EUPHAlaRIS Godron. Panide very densst spike-like; glumes 



1. P. CANARiisNsis L. (Canart Grass.) Annual, 8-8 dm. high 
oral, 2-^ cm. long ; spikelets broadly obovate^ 5-0 mm. long, imbricated 
white iciCh green veins^ the keel entire ; fertile lemma brown. — 
Waste places and roadsides. (Adv. from £u.) 

P. M Inor Retz. has been collected at St. John, N. B. {Fowler) 
and on ballast at Camden, N. J. {Pollard), The spikes are 
oblong and the glumes are narrowed at the pointed apex, the 
exposed portion of the keel being somewhat toothed. 

§ 2. DIGRAPHIS (Trin.) Eiidl. Panicle branched, the clusters 
open in anthesis ; glumes not winged on the back. 

2. P. anmdiniLcea L. (Rred C.) Perennial, 6-15 dm. 
high ; leaves flat, 6-10 mm. wide ; panicle 6-15 dm. long ; 
spikelets lanceolate, 5 mm. lojig, pale ; sterile lemmas reduced 76. p. arundlotoflA 
to minute hairy scales. — Wet grounds; common, especially ' x2. 
north w. June, July. Fio. 76. Var. pfcxA L., the leaves splkelet; aanM 
striped with white, is the familiar Ribbon Grass of the garden. withKiamessep* 
(Eurasia.) arated. 

20. ANTHOZANTHUM L. Sweet Vernal Grass 

Spikelets 1-flowered ; glumes very unequal ; sterile lemmas 2-lobed, halryt 
Soisally awned, longer than the fertile floret and falling with it ; fertile lemma 

truncate, awnless, inclosing a faintly 1-nerved palea and per- 
fect flower ; stamens 2. — Aromatic plants with flat leaves 
and narrow spike-like panicles. (Name compounded of 
di^ot, flower, and (ap^6f, yellow.) 

1. A. odorXtum L. Perennial; culms slender, erect, 
2-6 dm. high; leaves rough above; panicles 3-8 cm. long; 
spikelets brownish green, 8--10 mm. long, spreading at flower- 
ing time; glumes sparsely pilose ; first sterile lemma shorts 
awned below the apex, second bearing a strong bent scarcely 
ezserted awn near its base. — Meadows, pastures, and waste 
places, throughout, especially eastw. May-July. — Sweet- 
scented. (Nat. from Eu.) Fio. 77. 

2. A. PcjiLii Lecoq & Lamotte. Smaller, annual; pani- 
••. A. oaoniium. cJ^s 1-4 cm. long ; spikelets whitish green, 6-7 mm. long: 

iniioreMence x ^. ^^^ glabrous glumes narrower than in no. 1 ; the long-exsertea 

Bpfkefet; Mine with oton blackish at base. — Dry fields and waste places, N. E. 

gimnea separsted to Ont. and Pa. ; sometimes cultivated westw. and southw; 

xi^ (Nat. from Eu.) 

T7. A. odoratum. 

21. HIERdCHLOE [Gmel.] R. Br. Holt Grass 

Splkelets 3-flowered, the terminal flower perfect, the others staminate or 
empty; glumes subequal, about the length of the spikelet, boat-shaped, shining; 
sterile lemmas nearly as long as the glumes, boat-shaped, indurated and hairy, 
nch inclosing a 2-nerved hyaline palea and a flower of 3 stamens ; fertile lemma 
timilar bat smaller, inclosing a 1-nerved palea and perfect flower with 2 stamens. 



— Fragrant perennials, with flat leayes and tenninal panicles. (Name from UpAs, 
Mcred^ and x^^i ffrass; these sweet-scented grasses being strewn before church- 
doors on saints' days in the North of Europe.) Sayastama Schrank. 

1. H. odorita (X.) Wahlenb. (Vanilla or Senbca Grass.) Calms 3-6 dm. 
high, from a creeping rootstock ; leaves short, lanceolate, scab- 
rous or smoothisli ; those of the sterile shoots long and sccibrous ; 
panicle pyramidal, 4-12 cm. long, usoally compact but some- 
times loose, the slender branches drooping ; spikelets 6 mm. 
long, brownish ; staminate lemmas hispid-ciliate on the margifis 
and below the apex on the keel, awnless; fertile lemma hairy 
at the apex. (H. borealis R. & S.) — Moist meadows, chiefly 
north w., near the coast, and along the Great Lakes. May-July. 
(Eurasia.) Fio. 78. — The looee-panicled form, Savastana 
Nashii Bicknell, is not specifically distinct. 

2. H. alplna (Sw.) R. & S. Culms 1-4 dm. high, tufted ; 
upper sheaUis inflated ; blades very small, the lowest and those 
of the sterile shoots long and linear, smooth; panicle con- 
tracted, 2-5 cm. long; spikelets 7-8 mm. long, olivaceous; 
staminate lemmas ciliate on the margins, the first short-avoned 
below the apex, the second with a longer (5-8 mm,) bent awn 
from below the middle ; fertile lemma mucronate. — Alpine regions, N. E., N. Y., 
and north w. July, Aug. (Eu.) 

78. H. odorato. 
Cl086d spikelet ; 
Mme opened and 
with glnmee sep- 
•nted x2. 

28. MfLIUM [Toum.] L. Millbt Grass 

Spikelets 1 -flowered, rhachilla articulated below the floret ; 
gHumes equal ; lemma slightly shorter, shining, indurated, the 
margins inroUed over a similar palea; grain inclosed within the 
lemma and palea, free. — Our species perennial with flat leaves 
and open panicles. (The ancient Latin name of the millet — 
which, however, belongs to a different genus — of uncertain 

1. M. effiksum L. Smooth ; culms rather slender, simple, 
1-1.5 m. high ; leaves 1-3 dm. long, 8-15 mm. wide ; panicle 
1-2 dm. long, the slender branches in remote pairs or fascicles, 
widely spreading or drooping, spikelet-bearing from about the 
middle; spikelets 3-3.5 mm. long ; glumes minutely scabrous. 79. M. eftisuin. 
— Cold damp woods and mountain meadows, N. 8. to 111., Pert of paniele x ^ 
and north w. — The fruit (mature floret) resembles that of Closed end open 
Fanicum. June-Aug. (Eu.) Fio. 79. epikeietexs. 

8S. ORTZdPSIS Michx. Mountain Ricb 

Spikelets 1-flowered, in narrow few-flowered panicles ; glumes rather brtwd, 
obtuse or abruptly acute ; floret with a short obtuse callus ; lemma (not over 
1 cm. long) convolute, somewhat indurated, including the rather large palea and 
perfect flower, terminating in a deciduous simple slender awn ; grain obloncr- 
ellipsoid, tightly included in the indurated lemma. — Tufted perennials. (Nain-^ 
composed of Spv^a, rice, and tnpii, appearance, from a fancied resemblance f) 
that grain.) 

* Spikelets, excluding avm, 3-4 mm, long. 

1. 0. p&igens (Torr.) Hitchc. Culms densely tufted, 2-5 dm. high, erect. 
Blender, simple ; sheaths usually crowded at the base, smooth or slightly scabrous ; 
blades involute-filiform, the basal ones sometimes as long as the culm, usually 
half its length, those of the culm short ; panicle 3-6 cm. long, branches erect or 
ascending ; glumes suhequal, obscurely 5-nerved ; lemma usually as long aa 
the glumes, appressed-pubescent ; awn 1-2 (rarely 5) mm. long, sometimea 
wanting ; palea as long as the lemma. ( O. canadensis Man. ed. 6 ; O. Juncea 
BSP.) —Dry rocky or sandy soil^ X^b. to N. Y., and westw. 



\A / 

80. O. asperlfoltii 

Bplkelet (below). 
Floret (above). 

91. O. racemosa. 
Spikelet X 1. 

* * SpikeletSy excluding awn^ 6-9 mm. long. 

8. 0. aspeiifblia Micbx. Culms tufted, 2>7 dm. high, erect or geniculate at 
the lowest node ; sheaths usually crowded at the base ; blades erect, scabrous 
especially on the glaucous loxoer surface^ those of the base 
often exceeding the culm, 5-8 mm. wide, flat or involute on 
the margins, attenuate; culm-leaves usually less than 1 cm. 
long; panicle contracted, 6-12 cm. long^ the branches simple, 
erect; spikeletSy excluding awn, 6-8 mm. long ; glumes subequal, 
shon^iliate at the apiculate summit ; lemma nearly or quite as 
long as the second glume, sparingly pubescent ; awn 6-10 mm. 

long ; lodicules } the length of the palea. — 
Wooded hillsides, along waterways, etc., Nfd 
to B. C, 8. to Pa., Minn., and N. Mex. June. 
Fig. 80. 

3. 0. racembsa (Sm.) Kicker. Culms tufted, 
erect, 8-12 dm. high, leafy to the summit; leaves 
1-3.6 dm. long, 4-16 mm. wide, flat, narrowed 
toward the base, taper-pointed, scabrous beloWj 
pubescent above ; panicle 7-26 cm. long, branches 
nearly simple, usually ascending ; spikelet, excluding awn, 7-0 mm, 
long ; glumes equal, acute ; lemma somewhat shorter, pubescent, 
becoming black in fruit; awn 1.5-2.5 cm. long; lodicules minute. 
(Milium Sm. ; O. melanocarpa Muhl.) — Rocky woods, Me. to 
Ont., southw. to Del. and la. June-Oct. Fig. 81. 

24. SXtPA L. Feather Grass 

Spikelets 1-flowered, in terminal panicles ; glumes narrow, acute or bristle- 
tipped ; floret with a bearded usually sharp-pointed callus ; lemma convolute, 
indurated, including the small palea and perfect flower, terminating in a simple 
strong persistent geniculate twisted awn ; grain cylindrical, tightly Included 
in the indurated fruiting lemma. — Rather large tufted perennials yrith involute 
leaves. (Name from aT&wm^ tovf, in allusion to the flaxen appearance of the 
feathery awns of the original species.) 

* Glumes 4-12 mm. long. 
••- Callus blunt; awn 1 cm. or less long. 

1. S. canadensis Poir. Culms tufted, fiS dm. high ; leaves 4-12 cm. long, 
narrow, involute, scabrous ; panicle loose, 6-12 cm. long, the opposite few- 
flowered branches ascending ; glumes subequal, oblong, subacute, 4 mm. long, 
slightly exceeding the pubescent oblong lemma ; awn 6-10 mm. long. (6'. 
Bichardsoni Man. ed. 6, not Link ; S. Macounii Scribn.) — Woods and thickets, 
N. B., Me., N. H., N. Y., n. shore of L. Superior, Saflk., and north w. 

•I- ••- CaUtis acute; avtn more than 1.6 em long. 

2. S. Tirldnla Trln. Culms clustered, 6-10 dm. high, 
sparingly branched; basal sheaths overlapping, the long 
usually scabrous involute or sub-involute blades elongated, 
upper blades shorter, mostly setaceous; panicle narrow, 
erect, 1-2 dm. long, the branches mostly in pairs, erect, 
rather densely flowered from near the base ; glumes 7-0 mm. 
long, acuminate-setaceous, exceeding the pale appressed- 
puhescent lemma ; awn 2-4 cm. long ; callus usually rather 
jftoft. — Prairies and meadows, w. Minn., the Dakotas, and 
aoQthwestw. July, Aug. — Variable. 

3. 8. ayenilcea L. (Black Oat Grass.) Culms tufted, 
slender, erect or ascending, 3-10 dm. high, leafy at the base ; 
sheaths shorter than the intemodes ; blades 1-1.5 mm. wide, 
OBoally Involute, the basal ones ^ the length of the culms. 

82. S. avenacea X 1^ 
Flower and glumes* 



tboee of the cuini 4-10 cm. long; panicle loose, 1-2 dm. long, the slender 
branches in pairs, lax^ finally spreading ; glumes often purplisli, 8-10 mm. long, 
acute^ about equaling the dark-brown lemma, which is smooth beloio^ scabrous 
above and bears a fringe of short hairs at the summit; awn 4-7.5 cm, long; 
callus acuminate, covered with dense brownish hairs. — Dry woods, Mass. to Fla., 
w. to Wis. and Tex. May, June. Fio. 82. 

♦ * Olumes 2 cm. long or more, 

4. S. comlLta Trin. & Rupr. Culms erect, simple, 2-12 dm. high ; sheaths 
mostly crowded at the base, the upper often loose and inclosing the bctse of the 
panicle; basal blades usually about \ the length of the culm, mostly involute- 
filiform, those of the culm 0.6-1.6 dm. long, 2-4 mm. wide, 
f flat or involute ; panicle loose, 1-4 dm. long, branches distant, 
f / erect or somewhat spreading, naked below ; glumes 2-2.8 cm. 
\ LI ^^^^ tapering into a slender fragile awn^ much exceeding the 
Un sparsely pubescent lemma ; awn 10-24 cm. long, pubescent to 
'W B the geniculation, scabrous and curved beyond; callus acute. — 
\w£ Dry plains and hills, la., and westw. June, July. 
^T# 6. S. spdrtea Trin. (^Porcupine Grass.) Culm rather 

stout, simple, 0.6-1.2 m. high; sheaths mostly overlapping; 
blades usually involute, basal ones ) the length of the calm, 
those of the culm 1-3 dm. long ; panicle finally exserted, narrow, 
68. S. Bpartea x%. i_^ ^jm i^^^g, branches erect, naked below ; glumes 2.8-3.6 cm. 
Floret and base of long, attenuate^ exceeding the brownish lemma, which is ap- 
awD. Olumes. pressed-pubescent below, and nearly or quite glabrous above ; 
awn 11-20 cm. long, rigid, scabrous, minutely pubescent below; callus acuminate, 
very sharp-pointed, densely clothed with silky appressed hairs. — Plains and 
prairies, Mich, to Mo., and westw. Fig. 83. 

25. ARfSTIDA L. Tbiplb-awned Gbass 

Spikelets 1-flowered, in usually narrow panicles ; glumes unequal, narrow, 
acute or acuminate ; a hard obconical hairy callus below the floret ; lemma 
somewhat indurated, convolute, including the thin palea and perfect flower, ter- 
minating in a trifid awn ; grain elongated, tightly included in the lemma. 
— Tufted annuals or perennials with narrow leaves. (Name from arista, a 
beard or awn.) 

Awns separmte to the base. 
Latent awns maoh shorter than the middle ODe. 
Middle awn oolled at base. 
Olumes 7-8 mm long' . . . • 
Qlnmes 12-14 mm. long .... 
Olumes 15-20 mm. long .... 
Middle awn not coiled at oase, horizontal 
Lateral awns not much shorter than the middle one. 
Olumes T-9 mm. long : awns 1.4-2.2 cm. long 
Olumes ^0-8U mm. long ; awns 8.5-7 cm. long 
Awns united below in a long twisted neck 

Awns S^IO cm. long 

Awns not over 8 cm. long. 

Sheaths glabrous 

Sheaths woolly ...••,. 

1. A. diehoioma, 

%• A, basirofHsa. 

8. A. rtunoHJUtima, 

4. A. graeilU. 

0. A. intermsdia. 

5. A. oUganiha, 

7. A, tuS^reuiotz. 

8. A. purpurea. 

9. A.purpura$49ens. 
10. A, lanosa. 

1. A. diclidtoma Michx. (Poverty Grass.) Culms tufted, wiry, mach 
branched at the base and usually forking at every node, but in depauperate 
specimens sometimes nearly simple, 1-0 dm. high ; sheaths loose; blades mostly 
involute; panicles few-flowered, simple, narrow, the lateral ones often seeaile 
and partially mclosed in the sheaths ; glumes subequal, 7-8 mm. long, cuspidate ; 
lemmas about mm. long, excluding the awns ; lateral awns reduced to minuti 


trad teethy middle awn 3^ mm. long, horizontal, coiled at the base in maturity. 
•—Sterile sandy or gravelly soil, Me. to Mo. and south w. Aug.-€tot. Fio. 84. 

Var. Cnrtissii Gray. Differs in being less freely branched ; panicles looser; 
flumes unequal^ the second 10-12 mm. long, the first }~] as 
long; lemma 7-10 mm. long, excluding the awns. — va. to 
Mo., and southw. 

2. A. iMLsirimea Engelm. Resembling A. dickotoma, fteely 
branching at the base; culma sparingly branched; leaves aver* 
aging longer ; panicles looser, the terminal often partly included 
In the upper sheaths, small panicles commonly borne in the 
basal sheaths ; glumes acuminate^ unequal, second 12-14 mm. 
long, the first about I as long ; lemma about 1 cm. long, exclud- 
ing the awns ; lateral awns 2-7 mm. long, erect or spreading, g^ ^ dichotoma 
middle awn 1-2 cm. long. — Dry soil and prairies, III, to 8pikeietx2^4 
Minn, and Neb. Aug., Sept. 

8. A. ramoslssima £ngelm. Culms tufted, wiry, repeatedly branching, the 
branches divergent ; leaves mostly setaceous; panicle loose, few-flowered ; glumes 
1.5-2.5 on. long^ owned from a bifid apex, unequal, the second equaling the 

lemma (exciuding the awns) ; lemma 2-2 3 cm, long ; 
lateral awns minute, erect, middle awn 2-8 cm. long^ 
refiexed by a loose spiral at base, — Dry prairies, Ind. 
and 111. to Tenn. and Mo. Aug., Sept. 

4. A. griicilis £11. Culms slender, in small tufts or 
solitary, branched at the base, simple or sparingly 
branched above, 1.6-5 cm. high ; sheatfu not loose; blades 
2 mm. or less wide, usually involute in drying ; spikelets 
mostly in a slender raceme (if a panicle, the branches 
rarely bearing more than 2 spikelets), rather distant below, 
often crowded above ; glumes unequal, the second equal' 
ing thefioret ; lemma about mm, long, usually moUled ; 
8Bw A ffradlia middle awn horizontal, 8-16 mm. long, lateral awns erect, 

Spikel^xs ^"® '"™* ^°"P- — Sandy soil, N.H. to Mo., and southw. 

Sept. Fio. 85. 

5. A. intennddia Scribn. & Ball. Similar to the preceding but much larger ; 
culms 3-7 dm, high, more freely branching, often geniculate at base ; leaves 
5-15 cm. long, rigid, involute ; panicle 2-4 dm. 
long, slender, branches short, appressed ; 
glumes attenuate-aristate, subequal or the 
second longer, 7-0 mm, long, scabrous, slightly 
shorter than the floret ; lemma scabrous above 
the middle, sometimes mottled; axons all 
spreading, the middle one 18-22 mm. long, 
lateral ones 14-17 mm, long, all variable. — 
Dry soil, la. and Kan. to Miss, and Tex. Aug., Sept. 

6. A. oligAntha Michx. Culms tufted, wiry, branched 
at base and at all the nodes, 3-6 dm. high ; sheaths loose ; 
blades long, usually involute ; panicle or raceme few-flowered, 
the axis often flexuous and spikelets spreading; glumes unequal, 
long-owned from a bifid apex, exceeding the floret, the second strongly 
7-nerved ; lemma 17-20 mm. long, scabrous above ; awns nearly equal, 
divergent, 3.5-7 cm. long. — Dry sterile soil, N. J. to Neb., and southw. 
Fio. 86. 

7. A. tubercal6sa Nutt. Culms branched below, 1.5-5 dm. high, 
tumid at the Joints; leaves long and involute; panicles rigid, loose, 
the branches in pairs, one short and about 2-flowered, the othei 
elongated and several-flowered ; glumes 2.5 cm. long, including 
fcheir slender-awned tips ; lemma 12-15 mm. long, the twisted ^<). a. oitgantha 
base of the awns of equal length ; awns divergent, subequal, P pikelet x %. 
B).5-5 cm. long. — Dry sandy soil near the coast, Mass. to Mi&s. ; and about thi 
Great Lakea. Aug.-Oct. (Mex.) Fio. 87, 



8. A. pnrpArea Nutt. Culms simple, 8 dm. high or leas, densely tufted, 
spreading ; leaves involate and fliiform ; ligule pilose ; panicle loose, of rathex 

few slender-pediceled spikelets; glumes 1-nerved, the first 
about half the length of the second, which is 1.5-2 cm. long , 
awns 5-10 em, long. — Drj^ prairies, Minn, southw. and westw. 
0. A. purpur&scens Poir. In small tufts, glabrous, 8-6 dm 
high ; culms erect, simple or sparingly branched ; leaves 1-2 dm. 
long, 1-4 mm. wide, usually involute toward 
the ends; panicle purplish^ very slender^ 
\-i the entire length of the plant, loosely 
or rather densely flowered ; glumes 10-12 
mm. long, l-nerved, scabrous, the first slightly 
the longer, attenuate-aristate, the second 
aristate from a bidentate apex ; lemma 
fT. A. taberculosa. ^7 mm. long ; awns divergent, not twisted, 
Spikelet X %, 1.5-3 cm. long, the middle somewhat longer 
than the lateral. — Sandy or gravelly soil, 
Mass. to Minn., and southw. (W. I.) Fio. 88. —Variable ; a 
very delicate, apparently annual, form occurs in wet sands 
and drying sloughs in n. Ind. 

10. A Unbsa Muhl. Culms stout, erect, simple, 6-12 dm. 
high ; sheaths (at least the lower) woolly ; blades Jlat, «^^-6 dm, 
long, 8-6 mm. wide ; panicles nearly half the length of the 
entire plant, narrow, rather loosely flowered, nodding ; glumes 
subequal, 1-1.4 cm. long, the first slightly the longer, acumi- 
nate, the second mucronate from a bidentate apex ; lemma 
spotted, about 1 cm. long; lateral awns 10 mm. long, the 
divergent middle awn 1.5-2 cm. long. (A. lanata Poir., not Forsk.) — Dry pine 
^rrens, mostly near the coast, Del. to Tex. and I. T. Sept., Oct 

96. MUHLBlfBtRGIA Schreb. 


A. parpanuMsetia. 
Spikelet X 1. 

Spikelets 1-flowered, in 
barbate callus below the 
membranaceous, 3-nerved, 
grain closely enveloped by 
rootstocks, flat or involute 
Dr. Henry Muhlenberg, a 

contracted (rarely open) panicles; a short usually 
floret ; glumes thin, often aristate ; lemma narrow, 
awned or awnless, inclosing a thin subequal palea ; 
the lemma. — Our species perennial, often with scaly 
leaves and small spikelets. (Dedicated to the Reo. 
distinguished American botanist, 1758-1815.) 

a. Panide more or less contracted, not dlfnise ; culais branched ; leaveb fl»t b. 
b. Olanies at least one-half aa long as the floret e. 

e. Olamea broadly ovate, more or less clasping, one-balf to two-thirds as 
long as the floret 
Splkmets 1.&-2 mm. long: lemmas awnlesa . . . 

Spikelets 8-4 mm. long ; lemmas awned 

e. Olames lanceolate, acute to arlstate-polntod. 
Olnmes not longer than the lemmas. 
Panicles linear or filiform, spikelets not crowded .... 
Panicles oblong or cylindrical, long-ex serted, spikelets crowded, 

Siore or less glomerate 

Plaololes ovoid or subpyr^midal, namerous, Bhort«zaflfrtod or par- 

tially included 

Glomes much exceeding the awnless lemmas 

Qlumes not more than one-fourth as lon^^ as the florets .... 

1. M. Mhnfiftra, 
%. M. tenufjtora^ 

8. M. 9ylvaUca. 
4. M.foUf^m 

5. M, mtaticana 
9t. M. raesfno»ti, 

7. M. SehrebeH. 

8. M. capiUari* 


0. Panicle dtlTuse ; culms simple ; leaves Involute 

§ 1. KUMUHLENBfeRGI A Dalla Torre & Harms. Panicles contracted or glom- 
erate, on branching culms usually from scaly creeping rootstocks; leaves flat. 

* Glumes at least | as long as the floret, scabrous on the keel ; all the species with 

clusters of scaly rootstocks. 

^ Olumes broadly ovate, }-} as long as the floret, which is often conqf>ieuoust$ 

hairy at base. 

1. M. BObolffera (Muhl.) Trin. Culms erect or ascending, sparingly branched, 
4-8 dm. high, scalrrous below the glabrous nodes^ leafy toward the summit. 


lower leaves distant ; blades 8-12 cm. long, 4-^ mm. wide, spreading, scabrous; 
panicles very slender, usually loose-flowered, 1-1.5 dm. long (lateral panicles 
if present much shorter); spikelets 1.6-2 mm. long ; the acute or abruptly cus* 
pidate glumes }-| as long as the scabrous acute lemma. — Rocky woods, N. E. 
to Minn., and south w. Sept., Oct. 

2. M. tenuifl6ra (Willd.) BSP. Similar to the preceding; cvIriM often taller, 
rOrorsely puberulerU^ at least below j nodes pubescent ; patiicle 1.5-3 dm. long^ 
loosely flowered ; spikelets 3-4 mm. long; the glumes abruptly acuminate, sea- 
brousy )-} as long as the floret, ihQ first very broad, clasping: lemma tapering 
into a slender awn 5-10 mm. long. (^. Willdenowii Trin.) — Rocky woods 
aod ravines, Mass. to Ont., Minn., and south w. Aug., Sept. 

*■ •*- Glumes lanceolate^ acute or aristate-pointed. 

*^ Glumes not longer than the lemma ; culms more or less compressed, retrorsely 
strigose belovo the glabrous nodes; leaves scabrous, ascending. (These three 
species are exceedingly variable ; each has an awned and an awnless form, 
'llie length of the glumes, which are acuminate to aristate, is an unstable 
character, often varying to the extremes in the same panicle.) - 

3. M. syly&tica Torr. Culms erect or ascending, 6-9 dm. high, freely branch- 
ing, leafy ; leaves 5-18 cm. long, 2-0 mm. wide ; panicles usually short-exserted, 
1-2 dm. long, linear or filiform; spikelets not croioded, on rather long erect 
hToncheSy usually green or stramineous, 2.5-3 mm, long; glumes acuminate, 
sometimes aristate, shorter than the scabrous lemma, which is mucronate or 
tipped with a slender awn as. much as 6-12 mm. long. — Moist rocky woods and 
wooded banks, N. B. to Ont, la., and southw. Aug.-Oct. 

4. K. foli^ Trin. Similar to the preceding in size, habit and foliage ; pan- 
ides long-exserted, 8-15 cm. long, oblong or cylindrical, glomerate; spikelets 
more or less densely crowded on the rather short ascending or oppressed branches, 
vswUly purple; glumes mucronate or aristate, nearly or quite as long as the 
awned or avraless lemma. (-3f. ambigua Torr.) — Swampy 
gnmnd, Me. to Ont., S. Dak., and southw. Sept. 

5. K. meziciina (L. ) Trin. Similar to M. foliosa, often branch- 
ing at the base ; the culms decumbent and rooting at the lower 
Jioda ; panicles numerous, 6-10 cm. long, ovoid or subpyramidal, 
terminal on the culm and its many rather short branches, usually g^fee^ixs"*^ 
partly inclosed within the upper sheath; glumes acuminate or ^ 
aristate, about as long as the acute, acuminate or awned lemma which is 
sometimes smooth. {M. polystachya Mackenzie & Bush.) — Sandy and gravelly 
stream-banks and waste ground, N. B. to Ont., S. Dak., and southw. Aug., 
Sept. Fig. 89. 

•*-«• ** Glumes aristate, much exceeding the awnless lemma. 

6. H. racembsa (Michx.) BSP. Culms erect, 3-9 dm. high, simple or spar- 
ingly branched ; blades 5-12 dm. long, scabrous ; panicles 5-10 cm. long, dense 

and spike-like, or interrupted at base ; spikelets 4-6 mm. long ; 
the aristate glumes subequal, much exceeding the acute lemma. 
(M. glomerata Trin.) — Moist meadows and low ground, Nfd. 
to N. J., and westw. Aug.-Oct. Fig. 90. 

* * Glumes not more than J t?ie length of the floret; no clusters 

of scaly rootstocks. 

SpikeletxS. 7. M. Schfebdrl J. F. Gmel. (Drop-seed, Nimble Will.) 

Culms SS dm. long, erect or ascending from a decumbent base, 
often rooting at the lower nodes, diffusely much branched ; blades 3-8 cm. long, 
2-4 mm. wide; panicles 5-15 cm. long, numerous, slender, the erect branches 
mher densely flowered ; spikelets (excluding the awi?) 2 ram. long ; first glume 
obsolete Of nearly so, the second minute, truncate ; lemma tapering into a slendei 
awn ^-b mm. long. (itf. difusa Schreb.) — Dry woods, hillsides and waste 
places. Me. to Onu, Minn., and southw. Aug., Sept. 



Var. paldstris Scribn. Similar to the species ; ew/nw tecliniog or aaoendiDg; 
fferif slender or almost JUi/orm ; leaven 2-4 cm. long, 2--3 mm. wide ; pauiclee 
5-10 cm. long, very slender, more loosfly /lowered; spikeleis (exclading the 

awn) 2.5 mm. long, usual/if purple; glumen aruie, unequal^ 
the first about |, the second about \ the length of the bidentate 
owned lemma; awn flexuous, 4-6 mm. long. (Jf. palustris 
Scribn.) — Swampy ground, D. C. and lU. Sept., Ocu 

§ 2. TRICH6CHL0A (Beauv.) Trin. Panicle very loose and 
open, the long branches and pedicels capillary; leaves tiarrow, 
often eonvoltUe-bristle-form. 

8. K. capilliria (Lam.) Trin. (Hair Grass.) Caespitose, 
erect, with simple rigid culms, 6-10 dm. high ; sheaths overlap- 
ping; blades 1^] dm. long, involute^ rigid; panicle about \ the 
entire height of the plant, its spreading capillary brant^es loosely 
flowered; spikelets purple, 4 mm. long (excluding the awn) ; 
glumes subequal, acute, or the second aristate-pointed, about ) as 
long as the lemma which bears a delicate awn 5-20 mm. long. — 
91. M. cftpauH*. ]>ry sandy or gravelly soil, Mass. to Fla., west to Mo. and Tex. 
BplkaletxS. Fig. 01. 


Splkeleta 1-flowered, in a few-flowered narrow panicle; glumes minute, 
unequal ; floret with a short callus, the rhachilla prolonged 
behind the palea into a slender naked bristle ; lemma firm, 
narrow, 5-nerved, terminating in a long straight awn ; palea 
firm, nearly as long as the lemma ; grain oblong, inclosed in 
the lemma and palea. — Perennials, with simple culms from 
short knotty rootstocks. (Name composed of /3paxi/ft shorty 
and fXvrpor, husk, from the minute glumes.) 

1. B. er^ctnm (Schreb.) Beauv. Culms erect, 5-10 dm. 
high ; sheaths sparsely retrorse-hispid ; blades 8-15 cm. long, 
1-1.8 mm. wide, lanceolate, very scabrous, pilose on the 
nerves beneath ; panicle narrow, 1-2 dm. long ; spikelets 1 cm. 
long (excluding the awns), on capillary pedicels; first glume 
often obsolete, second sometimes aristate ; floret scabrous. 
(B. aristatum Beauv.) — Rocky woods, Nfd. to Minn., and 98. B.er6etain. 
southw. July, Aug. Fig. 02. Bplkeleu x 1^ 

28. HELE6CHL0A Host 

Spikelets 1 -flowered, flattened, in dense oblong-ovoid spikfr* 
like panicles ; glumes awnless, shorter than the 1 -nerved lemoua 
which subtends a palea of nearly equal length. — Low caespi- 
tose branching annuals, the numerous spike-like panicles 
partly included in the inflated sheaths. (Name from (\as^ 
a meadow, and x^^^i grass.) 

1. H. 8Choeno1de8 (L.) Host. Usually almost prostrate ; 

98. H. Mhoenoides. leaves rather rigid, tapering to a sharp point ; spike 1.5-4 cm. 

InfloreMeoM x %. long. — Waste places, N. Y. to Del. and e. Fa. ; also Chicago, 

Spikal^ X8. m. (Be56). (Adv. from £u.) Fig. 03. 

89. PHLBim L. 

Spikelets 1-flowered, flattened, in dense cylindrical splke-like panicles; 
fhunea eqoaL cUiate on the keels, and abruptly awn*pointed, longer than Uie 


broftd tnmcate 5-Der7ed hyaline lemma : palea nearly equal, 
narrow. — Erect simple perennials, with flat leaves and terminal 
spike-like panicles. (From 0\^wr, a Greek name for a kind 
of reed.) 

1. P. PRATisNBB L. (Timothy, Herd's Grass.) Culms 
4-10 dm, highj from a swollen base ; panicle long-cylindrical .• 
own of glumes 1 mm, long — Meadows, commonly cultivated 
for hay. (Nat. from Eu.) Fio. 94. 

2. P. alpinnm L. Culms 2-6 dm, high; panicle narrowly M. P. prfttenw. 
ellipsoid or short^lindrieal ; aton of glumes 2 mm, long, — Floret niaed fh>Di 
Alpine zegions of N. £. and northw. ; also Upper Mich. (Eurasia.) th« flames x a. 

80. ALOPBCtTRUS L. Foxtaii, Grass 

Spikelets 1-flowered, flattened, falling from the axis entire, in slender spike- 
Kke i>anicles ; glumes equal, awnless, usually connate at the base, dilate on 
the keel, the broad S-nerved obtuse lemma nearly equal in length, with a 
slender erect dorsal awn from below the middle ; margins connate near the 
base; palea none. — Branching perennials with flat leaves and soft dense 
spike-like panicles. (Name from dX(6xi9^, fox, and o^pd, toil, from the shape 
of the spike.) 

1. A. prat^vsis L. (MbadowI*.) Erect, glabrous; culms 8-0 dm. high, 
from short creeping rootstocks; sheaths loose, the upper usually inflat^; 

leaves scabrous ; panicle 6-10 cm. long ; spikelets 6 mm, long ; 
the lemma equaling the acute long-cUiate glumes; awn usually 
exserted about 5 mm, — Meadows and pastures, eastw. May. 
(Nat. from Eu.) 
I 2. A. geniculJLtns L. (Floating F.^ Glabrous or nearly 

I so ; culms slender, decumbent and brancned at base, then erect 
^ or ascending, 1.5-6 dm. high ; leaves slightly scabrous ; pani- 
1 1 cles slender, 2.6-7.5 cm. long ; spikelets about 8 mm, long ; 

\J lemma shorter than the obtuse long-ciliate glumes; avm bent^ 

the exserted portion usually twice as long as the glumes, ^^ 
Moist meadows, banks of streams and ditches, Kfd. to B. C, 
and throughout U. S. June-Aug. (Eurasia.) Fio. 96. 

Var. aiistulAtus Torr. Spikelets slightly smaller, awn very 
slender and scarcely exserted. — In water and wet places, 
common. June-Aug. — In the Western States these two forms 
ML A tenktafl. *®®™ inseparable and indigenous, but in the eastern portion of 
j_^ "f" -. our range the former appears to be Introduced and is easily 
^ofsMwxi distinguished by its longer awns and usually geniculate or 
ftiikel6tuidlflmm» ci^^pins ^Bse, The variety appears to be the same as A. fuVms 
x8. Sm. of Eurasia. 

8. A. AORtsTis L. Glabrous; culms erect or decumbent at 
base, 3-6 dm. high ; leaves scabrous; panicle rather slender, 8.5-10 cm. long; 
spikelets 6-7 mm. long ; glumes very sbort-ciliate on the keels, connate for \ their 
lengthy sUghHy shorter t?Mn the lemma ; awn twice the length of the glumes or 
more. — Waste places and ballast, Mass., N. J., Pa.; and on Pacific coast 
(Adv. from Eu.) 

3L 8P0R6B0LUS R. Br. Drop-seed. Rush Grass 

Spikelets 1-flowered, awnless, in narrow and spike-like, or loose and spreading, 
often partly included, panicles ; lemma as long as or longer than the usually 
unequal glumes, 1-nerved ; palea equaling or exceeding the lemma, often splitting 
between the strong nerves at maturity ; grain readily falling from the spikelet, 
pericarp loosely inclosing the seed, often thin and evanescent — Annuals or 
perenniala with involute or flat leaves. (Name from aropd, seed^ and fidXkeiPj to 


Vnloies eoDtraetea 
R(K>utock8 short or ■lendw or none ; eulins tufted or aMtmrf* 
PaniclA oot more tbiui on4»-tUnl the entire belght of the puot 
Splkelets 5 mm. long or more ; panlole dense. 
Floret sppressed-pubesoent below. 
Lemma two-thirds as long as pale* . . ...LA ekmd^fMnmB, 

Lemma and |>alea sabequil 9, A oanovirena. 

Floret glabrous . , , , S, S. (uper. 

Splkelets not over 4 mm. long; panicle Interrupted. 
Culms smooth ; llgule 0.b mm. long . . . A, S. br§9ifoUu», 

Culms minutely roughened by septae ; llgule 2 mm. long 6. ^\ Biehardwnit^ 

Splkelets 4 mm. long ; lemma pubescent 0. S. voffini/torua, 

Splkelets 8.5-8 mm. long ; lemma glabr»us . 1. S, negUetus, 

Pftniole one-third to one-half the entire height of the plant . 8. ^9. indieut, 

Bootstocks stout, extensively creeping .... 9. & virffinieuB, 

Panldes open (often contracted in no. 10). 
Olumes very unequaL 
Splkelets %J^ mm. long ; glumes ovate or lanoeolato. 
Sheaths beanled at the throat ; bhKles flat . • . • 10. & cryptoiufrM. 

Sheaths not bearded ; btedes Involute 11, 8. Juneeus, 

SplkeleU 4-6 mm. long ; first glume awl-shaped 1%. 8, heUroUpis. 

Olumes subequaL 
Plants compressed at base ; leaves condufdloate . • • 18. & eomprt9»u9. 

Plants not compressed : leaves flat ...... 14. i& «M(/SonM. 

1. 8. cUndestintu (Spreng.) Hiteho. Tafted culms 4-12 dm. high; lowBt 
teaves long, subrigid, the margins and involute-JUiform tips scabrous; panicle 
6-15 cm. long, often partially inclosed in tlie upper sheath ; spikelets 
6-8 mm. long; glumes unequal, acute, the first i the length of Uie 
acute lemma, the second ^ that of the long-acuminate pointed paiea ; 
lemma and palea appressed^pubescent totoard the base, the lemma | 
the length of the palea. {S, asper Man. ed. 6.) — Sandy flelds ana 
dry hills, Ct to 111. , Mo. , and south w. Sept. Fio. 96. 

2. S. candyirens Nash. Similar to the preceding but smaller ; 
the shorter leaves hirsute near the base ; panicle smaller ; spifceleU 
about 6 mm. long, lemma and palea acute, subequal, — Sandy soil, 
Tenn., Mo., and south w. 

3. 8. iisper (Michx.) Kunth. Culms stout, 8.6-10 dm. high ; 
M. S. dand. gheaths overlapping ; blades nearly as long as the culm, the upper 
Splkeletxs. exceeding the panicle, pilose above at ihefiu base, the long involnte- 

fiUform tip scabrous; terminal panicle 8-26 cm, long, partly in-- 
duded in the inflated upper sheaths, lateral panicles small, usually hi(^den in 
tAe sheaths, or none; spikelets 6-6 mm long; glumes unequal, obtuse or sub* 
acute, the first about ^ as long as the floret ; lemma and palea glal^ous^ the 
lemma slightly the longer, (8, longifolius Wood.) — Dry 
sandy soil. Me. to S. Dak., and southw. Fio. 07. 

4. 8. brayifblius (Nutt) Scribn. Tufted culms 8-4 dm. 
high, very slender ; leaves involute- filiform ; ligule 0.5 niYTi. long, 
erose-truncate ; panicle very slender, loosely flowered, 6-10 cm. 
long ; spikelets about 4 mm, long ; glumes acuminate, subequal, 
} as long as the short-euspidcUe lemma^ which slightly exceeds 
the palea. {8 cuspidatus Wood.) — Dry open ground, Wis. ^^ s. asper. 
to Mo., and westw. Splkelet xS.' 

6. 8. Richardsbnis (Trin.) Merr. Similar to the preceding, 
2-^ dm. high ; culms erect or ascending from a slender horizontal rootstock, 
minutely roughened by septae ; ligule 2 mm, long, acute; panicle 1-6 (rarely 10) 
cm. long ; spikelets somewhat crowded, 3 mm. long , glumes acute, less than 
i as long as the cuspidate lemma {the cusp about 1 mm, long) which exceeds 
the palea. (S cuspidatus, in part, and 8. depauperatus Man. ed. 6; 8, brevi* 
folius Nash, as to description, not Scribn.) — Meadows and along rivers, N. B 
and Me. ; Neb., and in the far West. Aug. 

(f. 8. vaginiflbrus (Torr.) Wood. Tufted culms 2-6 dm. high, slender, 
erect to widely spreading ; leaves about 2 mm. wide, involute towajrd the end ; 
oasdcles numerous, partially included in t?ie inflated sheaths, or the terminal 


puiicle exserted, 2-4 cm. long ; gpikelets 4 mm. long; the aouminate glumes 
osoallj subeqaal, nearly as long as the acuminate scabrous mintitely appressed- 
puhetcent Zemnui, which is exceeded by the sharp-pointed palea. — Sterile fields 
and waste places, s. Me. to S. Dale., and south w. Sept. 

7. 8. negUctus Nash. Similar to the preceding, usually more slender ; the 
pauicles smaller, more completely inclosed ; spikelets 2.6-3 mm. long ; glumes^ 
lemma, and palea ad subequah aeute^ thinner in texturej glabrous, white 
and shining. — Sterile or sandy soil, N. B. to S. Dak., s. to Va. 

and Tex. Fig. 06. 

8. S. fNDicus (L.) R. Br. (Smot Grass.) Tufted culms 
3-10 dm. high, erect, wiry ; leaves 1(M0 cm. in length, long- 
attenuate ; panicle }-} tJie entire height of the plant ; spikelets 
2 mm. long, shining, crowded on the slender erect branches; 
glumes obtuse, unequal, the second \ as long as the acuminate 
lemma which is slightly longer than the obtuse palea. — Waste 
ground and fields, Va. to Ark,, and southw. Aug., Sept. — ^g « ' . . 
Panicle frequently affected with a black fungus, hence the com- gpjkoi^ x 4 " 
mon name. TNat^ from trop. regions.^ 

9. S. wginicus (L.) Kunth. Glabrous; culms erect, 1.6-6 dm. high; 
sheaths overlapping; blades firm, involute^ conspicuously distichous on the nu- 
merou» sterile shoots ; panicles ezserted, 3-6 cm. long ; spikelets 3 mm. long ; the 

glumes unequal, the second exceeding the glabrous floret. — 
Sandy shores, Va. to Fla. Aug., Sept. (Trop. regions.) 

10. S. cryptindrus (Torr.) Gray. Tufted, 4-7 dm. high; 

culms rather stout, erect or somewhat spreading ; sheaths over- 

V>n/ lapping, ciliate on the margin and conspicuously bearded at the 

\^r\^ throat; blades 6-12 dm. long, 8-6 mm. wide, flat, scabrous; 

^^ panicle lead-colored, usually open, 12-20 cm. long, included at 

^^ base In the upper sheath, or sometimes contracted and wholly 

ft. 8. erypteD^riia. included ; spikelets 2-2.6 mm. long; first glume about ) as long 

open spfkeietwith ^g ^)jg second; lemma acute, longer than the palea. — Sandy 

giQinM detMched g^ij^ especially on the coast and about the Great Ukes, N. E. to 

* " Minn., s. to Pa. and Tex. Aug., Sept. (Mex.) Fio. 09. 

11. 8. i&BLCena (Michx.) Kunth. Tufted, glabrous, 4-7 dm. high; culms 
wiry, erect, leafy at the base, naked above ; the involute-setaceous basal haves 
12-24 cm, long, spreading ; panicle purplish or chestnut, the short verticillate 
branches spreading ; spikelets 3 mm. long ; first glume about } the 
length of the second, which is as long as the glabrous subacute 
equal lemma and palea. (S, gracilis Men*. ; S, ejuncidus Nash.) 
— Dry sandy soil, Va. to Fla., w. to Tex. Aug. Fig. 100. 

12. S. heterdlepis Gray. Tufted, 6-9 dm. high ; culms rather iaa g •« ^ 
8tout> wiry, erect; basal leaves about J as long as the culm, 8nikilet"x8* 
involute-setaceous ; pa mcZe« 7on^-ea»ere€(2, 7-25 cm. long, branches 
ascending; spikelets 4-6 mm. long; first glume about }-| the length of the 
floret, tlK" second acuminate, often cuspidate (varying in length in the same 

panicle), exceeding the glabrous obtuse or subacute equal 
lemma and palea; grain very large, pericarp shining, indu- 
rated, splitting the palea. — Dry soil and prairies, w. Que. to 
Man., s. to Ct., Pa., Mo. and Tex. Aug., Sept. — Strong- 
scented. Fig. 101. 

13. S. comprissns (Torr.) Kunth. Perennial from short 
scaly rootstocks, flattened at base ; culms 3-6 dm. high, leafy 

SrtkereTxS ^ ^^® ^^^ ' ^^^ sheaths overlapping; leaves conduplicate ; 
^ ' panicle J-J the length of the entire plant, loosely flowered; 

spikelets 2 mm. long; the acute glumes shorter than the striate scabrous lemma 
which equals the palea. (S. Torreyanus Nash.) — Bogs in pine 
barrens, L. I. and N. J. Sept. — Spikelets rarely 2-flowered. A 

14. S. uniflbrus (Muhl.) Scribn. & Merr. Rootstocks very ^ 

dlender ; culms deluate, tufted, erect, 2-4 dm. high ; leaves io2. s. unifloras 
1-2 mm. wide ; panicle ^} the length of the culm, loosely Spiketet h9l 



flowered, branches BoUtary, maoh divided ; splkelete I.S mm. long; the obtOM 
or eroee glnmes about i u long as the eqaal filabroua obtuBs lemma and pale*. 
(8. aeroHniM Gray.) —Bogs and wet aandj ioll, Me. to H. J. and Mich, Aug., 
Sept. Fio, 102. 

M A0B6STIS L. Bbrt Oiih 

Splkelets l-Oowered ; gliuues subequal and acu(«, longer than the broad ob- 
Hlm lemma which ie awnfess or doraall; awned ; palea hyaline, shorter than the 
lemma, orobHoleta; grain li>o«ely inclosed In the lemma. — Annuals or peren- 
nials with usually flat scabrous leaves, membranaceous Ugules and open or con. 
tncted panicles. (Name from iypit, a^Id, the place of growth.) 

PtiM M 1«ut ont-tulr u longii tha Jsmmi, S-nsrred. 

CnlmacnetordKDmtHDttt bMa I. A. alia. 

Cnlnii pMutriU, nallng «t iha DodM (1) ^. o/fai, t. marMma. 

PdH mloDte ud narrakegt or wuUog. 

AWD laof ud nrj dallaU i. A. XltioMama. 

holela dlffuH, tnogho lODg »nd opUlur i. A. hyrmalU. 

Fuleh ■pradlKK bnt nol dlffnu. 
Lamgu ivnlau • . 4. A. pTt^nant. 

aplkataU ! mn. taof t. A, taitlma. 

SplkglgUStnni. losr t. A. bortall: 

1. A. ilb*L. (FiOBiKorWatTB B., RBitTop.) Bootttoek* erteptng or ito- 
toniferoHt; culms 8-10 dm. high, often decumbent at base; leaves flat, stiff 
and upright to las and spreading, the ligule 4-^ mm. long ; panicle 5-30 cm. 

long, contracted after fjonering, greenish, purplish, or brown- 
ish, the branches alightl; rough ; lemma nearly equaling the 
glumes, S-nerred, rarely sburt-awned, the palea i-f at lonff. — 
Meadows and fields ; a valuable grass naturalfzMl from En. 
and native northn. und westw. Var. vt'LoXais (Wtlb.) 
Tburb. (Red Top, Hekd'9 Grass of Pa., etc.) Culmslowec, 
more slender, with narrow leaves ; panicle smaller and more 
divarical«, not contracted afltr fiowering ; ligule short and 
truncate. {A. ci((?arf» With.) — Dry knolla and hills, (Nat. 
from Eu. and cultivated, also perhaps indigenous.) Fto. 103. 
— One form {A. ttolonifera auth., not L.) la cnldvated aa a 
lawn graas under the name Cbeispino Bext. A teratolc^cal 
form (due to the presence of oematodes In the abortive 
ovaries) with floral parts elongated (^4. aylvatCea L.), occurs 
to N. E. 

Var, ariaUta Gray. Culms slender and strict, with small 

in A ■ibi V loif "P*" panicle i lemma aiened from near the base. (_A. Urieta 
'puiieieKti. Willd.) — Open ground. Me. to Va, — In habit reaembling 
BnlkaJei xt ^- f^nina, with which it is often confused. 

Var. maritima (Lam.) 0. F. W. Mey, Culnu densely 

tufted, proitrate, rooting at the nodea; leaver montly ghort and apprened; 

panicle contracted, dense, ah'>ut 1 dm, long. (A. coarclala Ehrh.) — Brackish 

meadows or wet sands alon); the coast, Me. to Del. (Eu.) 

2. A, Elllottilna SchiilifS. Cvlmt delicate, 1-i dm. high; leaves very slen- 
der ; panicle open, teeak, and drooping ; glumes nearly ec[ual, roughish on the 
kee: and margins, the lemma shorter, with 2 minute bristles at the truncate apex; 
avm 5 mm. lonfr; palea minute. — In dry soil. Mo. to Ky., Tenn., and S. C 

3. A. hyemilis (Walt.) BSP. (Raib Gbass.) Culms very slender, erect, 
S-S dm. high ; leaves short and uamw, the tufted basal ones toon involute, the 
upper 2-7 cm. long, less than 2 mm. wide; panicle purplish, the uAorled 
teabroKt branches splkelet-bearing at the ends; spikelets 1.6-2 mm. long; iemma 
awnless or rarely short-awned on the back, shorter than the rather unequal 
very acute glumes; palea obsolete. (X scabra Willd.) — Dry or moist open 
woodland, sandy low land, rocks, etc., common, Joue-Aug. — A form with 



ftwned lemmas ocean from Me. to Teim.» and especiaJly in the White Mountains ; 
at higher altitudes this and also the awnless form tend to he more tufted, with 
Qomeroos short radical leaves. (^Trichodium morUanum Torr. ; A. laa^/lora, 
▼ar. moiiiana Tuckerm. ; A, acabra, var. motUana Man. ed. 6.) 

4. A. periniuuis (Walt) Tuckerm. (Thin Grass.) Culms erect or some- 
what decumbent, varying from weak and lax to stout and tall, 8-10 dm. high; 
leaves numerous, 1-2 dm. long, 1-6 mm. wide ; panicle ovoid-subcylindric, the 
tiender ascending branches dividing and spikelet-bearing from about the middle^ 
the pedicels often divergent; spikelets 2-3 mm. long; lemma 
shorter than the acuminate unequal glumes. (A. intermedia 
Scnbn.) — Low open ground or damp shaded places, Me. to 
Minn., and southw. Sept., Oct. — Variable in habit; in deep 
shade the culms weak and decumbent, the panicles more open 
with fewer branches, conspicuously divaricate. Flowers later lot. a. perannuia. 
than any other species of Agrostis in the eastern states. Fio. gpiketet x 8. 
104. Var. eiAta (Pursh) Hitchc. Differs in having more 
slender and elongated culms, but particularly in the crowding of the spikelets at 
the ends of the branches, giving them a more drooping appearance. (A, elata 
Trin. ; A, altissima Tuckerm. ; Comticopiae altissima Walt is doubtrul, prob- 
ably A, alba L.) Swamps near the coast, N. J. to Miss. 

6. A. canIna L. (Brown Bent Grass.^ Culms 2-6 dm. high, erect, slen- 
der ; basal leaves involute-setaceous, those of the culm flat and broader ; panicle 
at first loose, contracted in fruit ; spikelets 2 mm. long ; glumes subequal, acute ; 

awn inserted about Vie middle^ longer than the glumes, bent, — 

N^ Meadows, sparingly naturalized eastw. ; cultivated as a lawn 

kSdiJ grass under the name Rhodb Island Bent. (Nat. from Eurasia.) 

mKby 6. A. borelilis Hartm. Culms tufted, 1-4 dm. high ; leaves 

VS^ tufted at base, few on the culm ; panicle open, the lotoer branches 

I whorled and spreading; spikelets 2.&-3 mm. long; awn ezserted 

10& A boTMOift. ^"^ ™™' beyond the glumes, rarely short or obsolete. (A, rubra 

Sifteiet X 8^ &uth., not L. ; A. caninay var. alpina Cakes ; A. novae-angliae 

*^ ^' Vasey.) — Lab. to Alaska and mts. of N. E. and N. Y. ; also 

Bean Mt, N. C. (Eu.) — Dwarf forms of high altitudes and latitudes approach 
dwarf forms of A. hyemalis. Some of these have been referred to A» rupestris 
All., which seems not to occur in N. A. Fio. 10& 

88. POLTPOGON Desf. Bbabd Gbabs 

Spikelets l-flowen>d, in a dense spike-like panicle ; glumes subequal, entire or 
S4obed, bearing a straight awn from the apex ; lemma much 
shorter than the glumes, broad, emarginate or bifid at the 
Apex, awned ; palea smaller than the lemma ; stamens 1-8. — 
Annuals, with flat leaves. (Name composed of roXt^f, much, 
and r^iip, beardA 

1. P. MONSPBLiENsis (L.) Desf. Culms 2-6 dm. high, erect 
from a decumbent base, usually tufted ; blades linear, scabrous ; 
panicle 3-10 cm. long, dense, interrupted, pale, and soft silky, loe. P. moniip. 
often partly included in the uppermost sheath ; spikelets 2.6-8 inflonsoeoee x Vi 
mm. long. — Waste places. Me., and southw., mostly near the Bpikeiet floret,and 
coast. Jane-Sept (Nat. from Eu.) Fio. 106. glnmas x «. 

84. CALAMOVtLFA Hack. 

Spikelets 1-flowered, awnless ; callus densely bearded ; glumes rather firm, 
oneqnal, acute ; lenuna 1 -nerved, acute ; palea as long as the lemma, broad, 
deeply furrowed between the strong nerves. — Rather tall rigid perennials, with 
horizontal rootstocks and loosely spreading panicles. (Name from icdXafwt, a 
reed, and Vilfa, a name applied to a genus of grasses by Adanson.) 

1. C. breyipilis (Torr.) Hack. Culms 6-12 dm. high, tirfted, from a short 
horizontal rootstock; the basal sheaths indurcOed and keeled; blades long, linear, 


neariy flat or involate ; panicle paipllsh, 1-2 em. long, puramtddl^ the slender 
bntnclieii asceuding ; pedicels hairy at the summit; spikelets 6 mm. long; glumes 

Sorter than the floret, mucronate ; ccdlus-hairs less tnan half 
tiie length of the scabrous lemma and palea, which are Mstly- 
biMtrded along the keels. {CalamagrosHs Beck.) — 8andy 
swamps, pine-barreus of N. J. and N. C, rare. 

2. C. longifblia (Hook.) Hack. Culms solitary^ 6-18 dm. 
high, from running rootstocks, stout ; sheaths usnally pubescent, 
at least on the margins ; leaves elongated, inTolate above and 
tapering into a long threadrlike point; panicle pdle^ 1.5-4.5 
ifrr n ia ^fiiwiu ^*'*' ^^^9t ^(ii^ow, the slender smooth bninchf s erect or ascend- 
fl iir* 1 •\I!i K 7* '"8J I spikflets 6-7 mm. long; glumes acute, the second equal to 
^^TrfiimM »t ^^ exceeding the floret; callus-hairs more than half the lengU 
^ of^e smooth lemma and pdlea. (CcUamagrostis Hook.) — 

Sandy shores, Ont. to Rocky Mts., south w. to III. and Kan., and south westw. 
Jnly-SepL Fio. 107. 

S6 CALAKAGRdSTIS Adans. Rbbd Bsirr Grass 

Spikelets 1-flowered ; rhachilla prolonged behind the palea into a hairy brlsUe 
or pedicel ; glumes subequal, usually longer than the floret. ; lemma awned on 
the back, usually from below the middle, surrounded at base with copious long 
hairs; palea shorter than the lemma, faintly 2-nerved. — Tall often reed-like 
perennials, with running rootstocks, simple mostly erect culms and many- 
flowered panicles. (Name compounded of xdXa/iot, a reed, and iyfMans^ a 
grass.^ A difficult genus in which the awns and callus-hairs, although furnish- 
ing the most used diagnostic features, are exceedingly variable. 

kvrn bent, azMrted moro or lesa. 

Sheaths not beftrded ftt the sammlt "L C PidbtHngU. 

ShMths bearded »t the rammlt 
Palee about m long m the lemma; callas -hairs one fourth to one third 

as long • • • m % O. Port&ri, 

Palea and osnus-hairs three fourths as long aa the lemma . . • S. {X p^rpUata. 
Awn straJffht, Included. 
Panicle UK>se and open, eyen after flowering. 

Spikelets 8-^.5 mm. long I. O. canadenHs. 

dpikelets &-6 mm. long 6. C Langwdoffw, 

Panicle oontrscted, strict, the short branches erect or appressed after 
Rudiment nalry throughout. 
Psnlde dense, more or less splke-llke ; leaves biToIuta. 

Leaves smooth, soft : rootstock slender %, C» n^gUeUu 

Leaves ronghisb, rigid ; rootstocks stouter 7. C. hyp0H>oT9a^ 

Panlde looser, the branches spreading at flowering time ... 8. CI iiM0/M»fMa. 
Rudiment with copious long hairs at the tip 9. £7. einnoid€4. 

* Awn Strongly benty exserted more or less ; callus-hairs usually much shorter 

than the lemma. 

1. C. Pickerineii Gray. Culms solitary or few, 3-5 dm. high, somewhat 
rigid, scabrous below the panicle ; sheaths smooth ; blades flat, 4<-l0 cm. long^ 
i-5 mm. wide, erect ; panicle purplish, 7-12 cm. long, the branches erect or 
ascending ; spikelets 4 mm. long ; glumes acute, exceeding the obtuse scabrous 
lemma, which bears a short stout bent {not twisted) awn from below tbi 
middle; callus-hairs ^ the length of the lemma, wanting at the back. (C 
bretfiseta Soribn.^ — Mts. of N. Y. and N. £. to Nfd., and north w. ; locally a4 
Andover^ Mass. (j. Bobinson). Aug.-Sept. 

Var. Ucdstris (Kearney) Hitchc. Culms taller (5-10 dm. high); rootstocks 
stouter ; leaves more or less involute ; panicle usnally longer ; callus-hairs |-{ aa 
long as the lemma. — Mts. of N. E., and along the Great Lakes to Minn. 

2. C. Portiri Gray. Culms slender, 0-12 dm. high; blades 1.6-3 dm. lonff^ 
4-8 mm. wide, flat, taper-pointed, very rough, bearded on the sides at the base ; 
Ugnle 4-5 mm. long ; panide narrow^ 8-10 cm. long, raUier loosely flowered^ tk^ 


fkoft hmnehet erect ; spikelets 4-6 mm. long ; glumes acute^ alightly exceeding 
<he floret; lemma obsoorely dentate, avon twisted below; palea about as long 
as the lemma, caUus-haiis scanty, ^| as long. — Dry woods, N. Y. and Pa. 

3. C. perpUza Scribn. Similar to the preceding, slightly glaucous ; panicle 
oblong-lanceolate, contracted, 1-1.5. dm. long, the slender fascicled branches 
erect or ascending^ densely flowered ; spikelets 3.6-4 mm. long; glumes acumi- 
nate ; awn slightly twisted below ; pcUea and copious callus-hairs { the length 
of the lemma, (C. nemoralis Kearney, not FhilippL) — Rocky woods, Me. and 
w. N. Y., local. 

** Awn straight or nearly so, included; callus-hairs usually not much shorter 

than the lemma. 

^ Panicle loose and open, even after flowering ; tfie mostly purple-tinged or 
lead-colored strigose-scabr^us glumes not closing in fruit ^ copious callus^ 
hairs abotU equaling the lemma, not surpassed by those of the rudiment; 
awn delicate, 

4. C. canadensis (Michx.) Beauv. (Blue-joint Grass.) Culms 6-15 dm. 
high, clustered ; leaves 1.5-4 dm. long, flat, involute in drying, glaucous ; panicle 
1-^ dm. long, the slender fascicled branches ascending or 

spreading; spikelets 3-8.6 mm. long; glumes equal, acute, 
scarcely exceeding the thin erose-truncate lemma ; awn incon- 
spicuous; callus-hairs copious, about as long as the floret. — 
Wet places, e. Que. to N. J., and westw. June, July. Fio. 
106. Var. acuminata Vasey. Glumes 4-5 mm. long, attenu- 
ate, exceeding the acute lemma ; awn less delicate and longer. — log. c. oanadensia. 
Lab., Nfd. ; White Mts., N. H. ; Roan Mt., N.'C. ; and in Splkeletxs. 
Rocky Mts. 

6. C. Lang8d6rfli (Link) Trin. Similar to the preceding ; panicles usually 
smaller; spikelets 6-6 mm, long; glumes acuminate, somewhat exceeding the 
dentate lemma; awn as long as the floret, less delicate than in C canadensis, — 
Moist meadows, Lab., mts. of N. £., L. Superior, and north westw. Aug. 
(Greenl., Eurasia.) 

— «^ Panicle contracted, strict, its short branches appressed or erect after 
flowering; the scabrous glumes mostly closed; lemma less delicate^ somC' 
times as firm in texture as the glumes; awn stouter. 

6. C. negUcta (Ehrh.) Gaertner, Meyer & Scherbius. Bootstock slender; 
culms slenaer, 4-6.5 dm. high ; leaves soft, 1-3 cm. long, smooth; panicle nar- 
row, glomerate and lobed, &-10 cm. long; spikelets about 4 mm. long ; glumes 
acute ; callus-hairs a little shorter than the floret, and as long as those of the 
rudiment; awn from the middle of the thin lemma or lower, barely exceed- 
ing it. (C stricta Man. ed. 6, not Trin.) — Wet shores and mountains, n. 
N. E., L. Superior, north w. and westw. (Eurasia.) 

7. C. hyperbbrea Lange. Culms and rootstocks stouter than in the preceding ; 
culms tufted, 4-10 dm. high ; leaves involute, rigid, roughish ; panieles 7-15 cm. 

long, dense ; spikelets 4-4.5 mm. long ; glumes acute, exceeding 

^^h^ the floret ; callus-hairs |-} as long as the lemma. (C. lappo- 

jKr ^^^ Man. ed. 6, not Hartm.) — Moist meadows and calcareous 

^jf cliffs, Greenl. to Alaska, s. to e. Que., n. Vt., "Pa.,*' Minn. ; 

^r and in the Rocky Mts. 

A 8. C. inexpiinsa Gray. Culms solitary or few, slender, 

jM. C. iDezpftnsa. 7"^^ ^°^* ^^S^ t leaves 1.5-3 dm. long, 3-5 mm. wide, scabrous 
ftpfkelet with de- ^^"^^^ ^^^i often involute in drvin^ ; panicles pale^ 1-2 dm. 
taebfld glauieA x 2. long, less densely flowered than others of this group ; spikelets 

4 mm. long ; glumes rather rigid, sharp-pointed, about | longer 
than the toothed lemma ; awn scarcely exceeding the lemma ; callus-haii-s 
^ shorter than the lemma (C confinis Man. ed. 6, not Nutt.) — Swamps and 
^w prairies, N. Y. and N. J. ; Minn, to Mo. and westw. July. Fio. 109. 


9. C dnnoidM (Mahl.) BartoiL Glanooiu ; onfms stooti 
1-1.8 m. high, solitary or few, erect or leaning; leayes very 
BcabtouB, sometimes sparingly hirsate, 1.5-8 dm. long, 5-10 mm. 
wide (those of the innovations shorter, narrow) ; panicles S-17 
cm.long, tapering to summit, usually much contracted ; spik^^ 
lets 0-7 mm. long; glumes keeled, very scabrous, acuminate^ 
aristate, the tips usually curved outward^ exceeding the acuminau 
lemma which is awned above the middle : callus-hairs ahont 
\ the length of the floret, those of the ntaiment copious, eat^ 
110. G. dnnoidM. flned to Uis tip, almost equaling the lemma. (C Nuttal* 
ipikdet with de- Uana Steud.) — Moist ground, Me. to O. and sonthw. Fia% 
iMhad giamM x 8. HQ. 

M. AMM6pHILA Host 

Splkelets 1-flowered, large, awnless, crowded in a long spike-like panicle ; 
chacnilla prolonged behind the palea into a hairy bristle ; glumes firm, subequal, 
oompressed-keeled, acute ; lemma of like texture, surrounded 
at baw with short hairs, 2-toothed at the apex and mucronate 
l)etween the teeth ; palea nearly as long, rather firm, the two 
nerves dose together. — A coarse perenxiial with creeping root- 
stocks, ridd culms and involute leaves. (Name from dAvcos, 
sand, and 0iXe(F, to love,) 

1. A. areniria (L.) Link. (Sea Sand-bbbd, Pbaxma, 
Makbam, Bbach Grass.) Culm stout, 0.5-1 m. high, branch- 
ing at the base, from firm running rootstocks ; leaves long, 
floon involute ; panicle 1-4 dm. long ; splkelets compressed ; 
fflumes and lemma scabrous. (A. arundinacea Kost.) — Sandy iii. a. sreoarla. 
beaches, along the coast, N. B. to N. C. ; and on the Great Lakes. Infloraioenoe k V» 
Aug., Sept. (£a.)«-An Important sand-binder. Fio. 111. BpUtetotoxL 

87. AP^RA Adans. 

I Spikelets 1-flowered ; rhachilla prolonged behind the palea 

/ Into a minute naked bristle : glumes thin in texture, subequal, 

/ and slightly exceeding the lemma which bears a slender awn 

/ from just below the apex ; palea nearly as long as the lemma, 

vMjf 3-toothed. — Annuals with fiat leaves and difiuse panicles. 

^v (Name from di-ifpor, unmaimed ; application obscure.) 

l^k^ M LA spioA-ytNTi (L.) Beauv. Culms slender, 8-7 dm. 

Vy high, tufted, erect or geniculate at the lower nodes ; blades 

Y linear: panicle 1-3.5 dm. long, the very slender branches 

* yerticillate, spikelet-bearing near the ends ; spikelets 2 mm. 

lis. A. spkM^rsatL long, shining ; lemma scabrous, awn 5-7 mm. long. — Spar- 

Spikdet with d*- ingly naturalized eastw. Jane, July. (Nat. from Eu.) Fio. 

tMtodshimaBxa. 112. 

S8. CfHNA L. Wood Rebo Grass 

Spikelets 1-fiowered ; rhachilla articulated below the glumes, forming a short 
naked stipe below the floret, and prolonged behind the palea into a minata 
bristle ; glumes narrow, hispidulous on the keel ; lemma 3-5-nerved, with a short 
awn from between the minute teeth of the bifid apex ; palea 1-nerved, or 2-nenred, 
the nerves close together ; stamen 1. — Tall perennials with flat leaves, conspicu^ 
ons hyaline llgules, and many-flowered nodding panicles. (From Klrpo, a name 
used by Dioscorides for a kind of grass.) 

1. C. amndinicea L Culms 0.5-1.5 m. high, erect, solitary or few together ; 
trades 2-3 dm. long, 1 cm. or less wide (rarely wider), slightly scabxoos ; panlole 


1.5-8 dm. long, the iiender ly^anches {taeendingj tomewhai eotUraeied (tfUr 
lowering; 9pikeUt8 6 mm. long; glumes scabrous, unequal, the second as long 
as the scabrous lemma which bears a minute awn or is 
sometimes awnless; palea \-neroed. — Moist woods and 
shaded swamps ; N, S. to Ont. and south w. Aug., Sept. 
Fio. 118. 

8. C. lAtifi^liA (Trey.) Onseb. Similar to the preced- 
ing; blades 1.5-2.0 dm. long, 1-1.5 cm. wide, rarely nar- 
rower, scabrous; panicle 1.6-3.5 dm. long, the flexuoua 
eapiHarp branchee epreadina or drooping; epikelete 4 mm. ^^ ^ •rundinwj*^ 
long ; glumes scabrous, subequal, and about equaling the gWeietA x 2^ 
scabrous short-awned lemma ; palea 2'nerved, the nerves 
close together. (G. pendula Trin.) ->-Damp woods, Nfd. to B. C, 8. to N. B., 
9. 7., the Great Lake region, and westw.; also on mts. of K. C. (Eo.) 

89. AtRA L. Hair Grass 

SpOcelets 2-flowered, both flowers perfect ; glumes thin, somewhat scariocn, 
Bub^jual, acute, awnless, longer than the approximate florets ; lemmas bidentate, 
awn<Ml on the back or the lower awnless ; palea a little shorter than the lemma ; 
grain included in the slightly indurated lemma and palea, and usually adherent 
to them. — Delicate annuals. (An ancient Greek name for Darnel.) 

1. A. CARTOPHTLL^A L. Culms Solitary or few, slender, erect, 8-i30 cm. high ; 

Uades short, setaceous; panicle open, the silvery shining pikelets clustei^ed 

. I toward the ends of the spreading capillary branches, S mm. 

\ / J ^ong^ nearly as broad ; lemma of both florets tioith a geniculate 

\km^ n^ ^^'^ ^"^ ^^* ^^^fffi'f^^ 5e2oto the middle, the teeth of the apex 
^^ar 4U ^taceous. — Waste places, Nantucket to O., and south w. 

^T^ \ June. (Nat. from Eu.) Fio. 114. 

. ^ 2. A. capillXris Host. Similar to the preceding ; panicle 

fi ikTt** a °*°'® diffuse; spUcelets scattered at the ends of the branches, 

l^TO x*4% ^"^ °*™' ^°°^ ' lemma of lovoer floret awnless or with a minute 

^ awn Just below the apex, the teeth of which are short; lemma 

of upper floret bearing a geniculate awn 3 mm. long from below the middle, teeth 

of tapex, setaceous. — On &e coast, Va., and southw. May, June. (Nat. from £u.) 

3. A. PRA^cox L. Culms tufted, 0.5-20 cm. high, slender, erect or lower 
nodes geniculate ; sheaths slightly inflated ; blades setaceous ; panicle narrow 
and dense, the short branches erect, 1-3 cm. long; spikelets yellowish^ shining, 
8.5-4 mm. long ; lemmas of both florets bidentate at apex, and bearing a genicu- 
late awn 2-4 mm. long from below the middle, the awn of lower floret shorter 
than that of the upper. — Sandy fields, N. J. and DeL to Va. May-July. ^Nat. 
from Eu.) 

40. H6Lcns L. 

Spfkelets 2-floweied, articulated below the glumes ; the lower floret perfect, 
raised on a curved stipe, awnless ; the upper floret staminate (rarely perfect), 
its lemma bearing a dorsal awn from below the apex ; glumes 
thin, subequal, compressed, boat«haped, longer than the 
florets ; lemmas somewhat indurated, boat«haped ; paleas 
thin, nearly as long as the lemmas. — Perennials with flat 
leaves and densely flowered terminal panicles. (A name used 
by Pliny for a kind of grass, from 6X«r6r, attractive.) 

BL lanXtus L. (Velvet Grass.) Entire plant grayish, 
telvety-pubescent ; culms erects 3-6 dm. high; leaves 15 cm. 
long or less, rarely longer, 6^10 mm. wide ; panicle purplish, 
&-10 cm. long, narrow ; spikelets 4 mm. long, nearly as broad ; V^' ^*n»^'i»« 
glumes villous, hiraute on the nerves, the second broader than ^P'^®'®* ^ *p- 
the first, 3-nerved ; lemmas ciliate at the apex ; awn of second "® op«n«i 7» 
floret hooklike. — Moist meadows, N. 8. to HL, and southw. June, July. 
T^at. from En.) Fio. 115. 


41. SPHEN6pH0LIS Scribn. 

8pikelet8 2--3-flowered, the pedicels jointed just below the glomes ; rhachllla 
prolonged behind the upper palea in a slender pedicel, articulated between the 
florets, the glumes and lower floret with joint of pedicel tardily falling together ; 
glumes subequal, exceeded by the uppermost floret, the first narrow, the second 
much broader, usually obovate, becoming subcoriaceous in fruit, S-nerred ; 
lemma chartaceous, nerves obscure, awnless or awned below the summit, awn 
usually straight or divergent ; palea hyaline, narrowed toward the base ; grain 
inclosed within the rigid lemma, free. — Slender perennials with usually flat 
leaves and narrow terminal panicles. (Name from v^w, a wedge, and ^Xlt, a 
scale, referring to the broadly obovate or wedge-shaped second glume. ) Eatovia 
Endlicher and later authors, not Kaf. 

Spikeletn ftvrnless or with the Beeood floret short-ftwned ; f^lames diasfmiUu-, the 
first linear, aeoond obovate, becoming chartaceous. 
Panicle narrow, densely flowered ; second ([Inme as broad as long, sabeacollate 

in fralt. 1. £ obhtsattB, 

Panlde lax, branches more or less upreading, at least In flower. 
Glames sobeqnal, second broadly oboyate, obtuse ; florets obtoae, the second 

rery scabrous i. & niHda. 

Glomes unequal, first shorter than the narrowly obovate second one ; florets 

mostly acute, glabrous 8. & patienM, 

Bpiketota awned ; glumes similar. 

Lower floret usually awnless . 4. & paluHHs, 

Both floreU awned ... H) S. palustris^r.Jt^antomM. 

1. S. obtnaJtta (Michz.) Scribn. Culms slender to rather stout, 3-10 dm. 
high ; sheaths pubescent to nearly glabrous ; leaves 4-1 o cm. long, glabrous ; panicle 

6-18 cm. long, often glomerate; spikelets 2.5-3 mm. long; 

glumes subequal, the second stibcueullate, the broad chartaceotu 

margins smooth and shining; lemmas similar or the second a 

little scabrous. — Dry soil, Ct. to Fla., westw. to Mo. and Tex. 

June, July. Fig. 116. Var. PUBiscENS (Scribn. & Merr.) Scribn. 

Sheaths and sometimes culms and leaves pubescent. — Ct. to 
116 8 obtnsato ^^^^' ^^^ southw. Var. lobXta (Trin.) Scribn. Sheaths and 
Bpi^letxa. leaves scabrous, not pubescent; panicle cylindrical, sometimes 

interrupted below ; pikelets densely crowded on the short appreM9^ 
branches, — Dry soil, and prairies, Me. to Fla., westw. throughout the U. S. ; 
the commoner form in the North. 

2. S. nitida (Spreng.) Scribn. Culms slender, 3-6 dm. high; sheaths pubes- 
cent; leaves 3-6 cm. long, 2-6 mm. wide, pubescent; panicle 5-20 cm. long, 
loosely flowered, widely spreading in flower, finally erect ; spikelets 3 mm. long, 
cuneiform ; glumes subequal, the broad second glume rounded or abruptly apic- 
ulate; lemmas oblong, obtuse, rarely short-awned just below the apex, second 
lemma scabrous especially near the tip and keel. {Eatonia Dudleyi Vasey.) — 
Woods, Vt. to Mich., and southw. May, June. Var. olXbba (Nash) Scribn. 
Sheaths and leaves glabrous. — Va., and southw. 

3. S. pAilens (Spreng.) Scribn. Culms 3-10 dm. high, usually slender; 
sheaths usually glabrous, sometimes pubescent ; leaves 5-20 cm, long, 4.6 mn^, 
wide, scabrous on the nerves, sometimes sparsely pilose above ; 
panicles lax, nodding, 8-20 cm. long; spikelets 3-4 mm. long, 
oblong-lanceolate; glumes unequal, scabrous on the keels, the 
first linear, \-\ as long as the broadly oblanceolate usually acute 
second glume; lemmas lanceolate, acute, glabrous except on the 
keel near the apex, the second projecting beyond the second iit o ^^ 
glume, sometimes awned below the apex. {Eatonia pennsylvanica svikii^xt^ 
Gray.) — Me. to N. C, w. to Wise., Kan., and Tex. — In the 
Mississippi Valley this species occurs on prairies, and has a denser panicle ; in 
the Atlantic States, especially southward, it occurs in meadows and along 
ditches, and has a more lax panicle. Fig. 117. Var. mXjor (Torr.) Scribn. 
Panicles narrowly lanceolate or oblong, rather densely flowered, the first glome 
nearly equaling the rather narrow second one. (Eatonia intermedia Bydb.) — 
Nfd. to Wash., s. to UL, Col., and Ariz. 


L S. pali&stris (Michx.) Scribn. Culms 6-10 dm. high; fiheaths and leaves 
gUbroQS, or lower sheaths sometimes pubescent ; leaves &-12 cm. long, S-6 mm. 
wide, scabrous ; panicles 10-20 cm, long^ narrow ; spikelets 
6-7 mm. long ; glumes similar, lanceolate, acute, subequal ; 
lemmas lanceolate, the first acute or acuminate-pointed, awn- 
less, rarely short^vmed; the second bearing a slender divergent 
awn below the acute or 2-toothed apex ; awn 4-5 mm. long. 
{Trisetum pennsylvanicum Man. ed. 6, not Avena pennsylvanica 
L; T. palustre Trin.) — Low grounds, Mass. to 111. and 
south w. Var. FLExr68A Scribn. Culms 4-6 dm, high ; panicles 
8-12 dm, long, open, the flexuous branches widely spreading at 
least in Jlower; spikelets 4-6 mm, long, the first floret usually lis. 8. jmi.. v. flex. 
owned. — Del. {Commons), Fa. {Heller), Fig. 118. 8pik«letx8. 

48. KOEL&RIA Pers. 

Spikelets 2-4-flowered ; rhachilla prolonged into a naked pedicel behind the 
upper palea ; glumes unequal, slightly shorter than the florets, membranaceous, 

acute, the lirst 1-nerved, the second 3-nerved ; lemma char- 
taceous-membranaceous, the margins scarious, faintly 8-5- 
nerved, acute or mucronate ; palea hyaline ; grain loosely 
inclosed within the subrigid lemma, free. — Tufted perennials 
with narrow leaves and densely flowered terminal spike-like 
panicles. (Named for Prof, G, L. Koeler, an early write'' 

119. K.eristotex2H. ^^ F^S^'^ •m.x^. /t\t> oi ^. o a a t.*v 

SDikelet. Lower part ^* ^' c^istiLta (L.) Pers. Culms erect, 8-6 dm. high, 
of tomma spnuA. ^^^fy &^ ^^^ ^<^^ I sheaths retrorsely pubescent, at least the 
op^Q, lower ; blades flat or becoming involute ; panicle cylindrical, 

4-15 cm. long, often interrupted at base, pale and shining ; 

q>ikelet8 4-6 mm. long ; the glumes and lemmas scabrous. — Dry soil, Ont. and 

0. to B. C, and soathw. ; introduced in N. E. (Eurasia.) — Very variable. 

Fig. 119. 

48. TSISftTUM Pers. 

Spikelets 2 (rarely 8-5) -flowered, rhachilla prolonged behind the upper palea 
as a hairy bristle or pedicel ; glumes unequal, the second 
about as long as the florets, keeled ; lemma membranaceous, 
keeM, 2-toothed at the apex, bearing a slender dorsal awn ; 
palea narrow, 2-toothed ; grain smooth, inclosed in the lemma 
and palea but free from them. — Tufted perennials with nar- 
row or spike-like or loose terminal panicles. (Name from 
tres, three, and seta, a bristle.) 

1. T. sipicktam (L.) Richter. Culms slender, erect, 1.5-6 
dm. high ; sheaths and blades more or less puberulent, blades 
2-10 cm. long, 1-8 mm. wide ; panicle shining, spike-like, 3-12 
cm. long, often interrupted below ; spikelets &-6 mm. long ; 
the second glume broader than the first, 8-nerved ; lemma 
minutely scabrous, the awn inserted about \ below the acumi- 
nate-toothed apex, 4-5 mm. long, divergent. ( T. subspicatum 
Beauv. and var. molle Gray.)— Mts. and rocky banks. Lab. ^20. T. spicatum x8. 
to Alaska, s. to Ct., N. Y., the Great Lakes; and along the Spikelet and floret. 

mts. toN. C. (Eurasia.) Fio. 120. 

2. T. melicoides (MIchx.) Vasey. Culm 8-8 dm. high ; 
sheaths and blades roughish ; panicle shining, lax, nodding, 
10-12 cm. long ; spikelets 7 mm. long ; callus hairy ; lemma 
minutely scabrous, bluntly 2-toothed at the apex, awn 1-2 
mm, long, straight, erect. {Oraphephoram Desv.) — Gulf 
of St. Lawrence to the Great Lakes, s. to N. B., Me., 
121. T. meL, y. maj. x 2. and Vt. Var. mXjus (Gray) Hitchc. Lower sheaths 
Bpikalet and floret. pubescent; upper surface of the leaves pilose; lemmas 


•ntftv at (A« acute apex, menUt*. (^Dvpontta CooUvt Gny; Ocip&cpAonMi 
vulieoida, Tar. tiuifor Qny.) — Gravelly or rocky shores, He., V;^ Unt,, and 
Hlch Fia. 121. 

44. DESCRA]D>SIA Beaav. 

Splkeleta S(r&ral7 8)-flowered ; rhachUla haiiy, prolonged behind the upper 
pale* as a hairy bristle ; glumes subequal, thin or scarious ; lemmas thin, t-nerred 
(the miduerre becoming an ann), tmDOBte, 2-4-loothed, bear- 
ing a slender doissJ awn from or below the middle. — Tuited 
perennials (our species) with flat or Involute leaves and sbinfDg 
spikeleU in loose or narrow panicles. (Named for LoUeUw- 
Dalongehamps, a French botanist, 1774-1649.) 

• OlumeBiomeahat shorter than the fiortU. 

1. D. flexniM C^) '^1- (Co>MOH HjitB Obass.) Cnlnu 

erect, 3-8 dm. high, slender, nearly naked above, the numerov* 

tnoolute~telaeeota batal leaveM 6-liO em. long ; ^eath$ toabrtnu ; 

blade* Mlaetoui; panicle 6-12 cm. long, very loose, rather 

few-flowered, the amoolh capillary flexuout hraneht* spikelet- 

bearing near the ends ; splkelets 4-& mm. long ; glumtt acute : 

floTttt approximate, Jetnnwu BCabronM, 4-toolhed, awn Inserted 

near the base, 6-7 mm. long, twisted; pales nearly as long as 

the lemma, scabrous. — Dry placee, Ntd., Unt., Wise., and 

northw., B. to N. C. and Tenn. June, July. (En.) Fio. 122. 

m. D. fleiaou. ^- ^- caespltbsa (L.) Beanv. Culms erect, 6-12 dm. high, 

PvtorpuliilaNH. ■lender; batal leavet fiat or brooming involute, not utaeeoiu, 

Bptkalet ml flont 6-16 cm. long; theaths emooth; blades fiat, scabrous on the 

Ht^. upper sortaoe' panicle 10-20 cm. long, the tahrovs slender 

6ra ncAes spikelel-bfuTing near the ends; spilcelets 4 mm. long; 

glumtt aeute or blunt; itortts tttttant (_rhaehilla half th« length o/ loaer teniig 

fioret) ; lemma* $mooth, eniee-truncate ; awn from near the Iraae, but Utile 

longer than Its lemma, stralgru, taticxtlated at Ms base and 

deelduoai; palea neariy equaling the lemma. — Moist soli, 

moHily along streams, Nfd. to Alaska, a. to N. J. and IIL 

Jnne, July. (En.)— Splkeleta nuely 8-flowered. Fia. 128. 

' • Olume* longer than the JlorttM. 

8. D. atropntpArea (WaUenb.) Scheele. Calms erect, 
1.6-Sdm. high, slender, leafy ; no tiiflt of batal Uave» ; sheaths US. D. oHpiiMa. 

smooth; blades flat, 6-10 cm. long, 3-6 mm. wide, nearly spa«i«txSH- 
l^broos ; panicle 4-10 cm. loug, rather few-Qowered ; the few 
smooth capillary fleiuous branches spreading, sometimes drooping, spikelet- 
bearlng at the ends ; spihelets 6-6 mm. long ; glume* acitmtnale ; florets rather 
distant ; lemmas strigone near the summit, erose-truncate and ehort'CUiate at 
apes ; aton inserted about tlie middle, bent, S-1 mm. long ; palea nearly equaling 
the lemma. — Alpine summits of N, £. and H. T. to Lab. and nfflthvrastw. 
July, Aug. (Eurasia.) 

45. AvtHA [Tonm.] L. Oat 

Splkelets 2-C-flcwered ; rhacbllla bearded below the florets ; slnmea subequal, 
membranaceous, many-nerved, longer than the lemmas, nsiuliy exceeding the 
nppermost floret ; lemmas Indurated except toward iha summit, 6-0-nerTed, 
bidentate at the apex, bearing a long dorsal twisted awn (the awn straight or 
wanting in cultivated forma) ; grain pubescent at least at the eammtt, often ad- 
hering to the lemma and palea. — Annuals or perennials with termUutl p«.rii«W>f 
of large splkelets. (The classical Latin name.) 



* SpiheUU more than 2 cm, long; annuaU, 

1. A. fItita L. Calms 4-12 dm. high, in small tufts, erect, stout ; blades 
toDg, 6-8 mm. wide ; panicle loose and open^ the slender branches ascending ; 
ipikeleis pendulous, 2.2-2.6 cm. long, excluding the awns ; 
glumes smooth, striate, acuminate ; florets approximate ; 
iemmas with a ring of hairs at base and more or less 
appressed-pubescent with long stiff brotonish hairs; awn 
inserted about the middle, bent and twisied, 3 cm. long 
or more. — Fields and waste places, Ont. and O. (rare) ; 
Wise., m., and westw. (Nat. from Ku.) Fjo. 124. 

8. A. STtRiLiB L. (Animated Oats.) Larger than 
the preceding, the spikelets 8.6-4.6 cm. long, excluding 
the awns; lemmas usually more densely hairy; awns 
6-7 em. long. — Occurs sparingly in N. J. and near Phila- 
delphia, Fa. (Adv. from £u.) 

A. BATATA L., the cultivated oat, commonly occurs in 
waste places in cities, etc. (Introd. from Eurasia.) 

* * Spikelets less than 1.6 cm. long; perennials. 

184. A. ftitiui. 
Bpikelet x %. 

8. A. PUBtsoBNS Huds. Culms 6-0 cm. high, in small tufts, erect, slender ; 
sheaths and blades, at least the lower, retrorsely pubescent ; panicle rather nar- 
row, the slender flexuous branches erect; spikelets upright, 1.2-1.8 cm. long, 
excluding the awns ; glumes ^nerved, the nerves scabrous ; florets approximate, 
rhachllla-joints clothed with long white hairs ; lemmas scabrous, a tuft of white 
hairs €U Uie base, a bent and twisted awn inserted about the middle, 2-2.6 mm. 
long. — Fields, Vt., N. J. (Ady. from £u.) 

i6. ARRHSNATHBRUM Beauv. Oat Gbass 

Spikelets 2-flowered, the florets approximate, the lower staminate, its lemma 
bearing a geniculate and twisted awn on the back near the base ; the upper per- 
fect, its lemma short-awned from or near the apex, or awnless ; rbachilla hairy, 
prolonged behind the upper palea Into a bristle ; glumes unequal, acute, thin 

and scarious ; lemmas of firmer texture, 5-7-nerved ; palea 
ciliate on the nerves. — Tall perennials with flat leaves and 
long narrow panicles. (Name from dfi^ijv, masctdine, and 
,^^ dd-Zip, aum, in reference to the awned staminate floret.) 

^^HC^ 1. A. blXtius (L.) Beauv. (Tall 0.) Culms 1 ro. or more 

^^^^ Wgh, erect ; leaves long, linear, 0.6-1 cm. wide, scabrous on 

^ff both surfaces ; panicle pale or purplish and shining, 15-30 cm. 

long, narrow, the short branches verticillate, usually spike- 
let-bearing from the base ; spikelets 7-8 mm. long ; glumes 
minutely scabrous, the second about equaling the florets ; 
lemmas scabrous, the awn of the staminate floret about twice 
the length of its lemma; paleas as long as their lemmas. (A. avenaceum 
Beauv.) — Meadows and waste places, Nfd. to Va., Ont., Minn., etc.; often 
eultlTated. June, July. (Nat. from £u.) Fio. 126. 

185. A.eUtlQB. 

B[;!kelet with gtnines 

detached x 8. 

47. DAHTHONIA DC. Wild Oat Grass 

Spikelets several-flowered ; florets not closely approximate, uppermost imper- 
fect or rudimentary ; glumes subequal, much longer than the lemmas, usually 
exceeding the uppermost floret ; lemma convex, 2-toothed or bifld at the apex, 
with a twisted awn between the teeth ; awo flat, formed by the extension of the 
3 middle nerves of the lemma. — Tufted erect perennials with narrow leaves an(? 
small terminal panicles or racemes. (Named for JStienne Danthoine, a botanist 
of Marseilles.) 



Teeth of tiMlflmiiistriuigiilar, not arlstoto 1. J>. tp^eaia. 

Teeth of the lemms ariatate. 
yiorete not orer 5 mm. hong •••••• .•••!./>. eompreua. 

Florets T-8 mm. long. 
Splkelets oeeriy •eseile, in unall crowded pMileb, porpto • • . 8. />. iatfermetfte 

Sptkeleta In loose peniele, pale green. 

Hbesths and blades riUoos ; lemma silkj-halrjr 4. />. t^ricsa. 

Sheaths and blades glabroas ; lemma pubescent on margins and base 

only fi. />. €pUi4. 

t. D. ipicita (L.) Beanv. Culms 2-7 dm. high tereU; sheaths and involuta 
blades glabrous or sparsely pilose, the numeroas basal leaves often curled, those 

of the culm erect ; panicle few-flowered, the few short branches 

erect or ascending, often reduced to a raceme ; spikelets 

10-12 mm. long, on short stiff pedicels ; glumes acuminate : 

lenimaa 4-6 mm. long, sparsely clothed with stiff hairs, teeth 

triangular^ the awn longer than the lemma. — Dry and sterile 

or rocky soil. June- Aug. Fio. 126. 

y^ j.^ 2. D. comprtesa Aust. Usually taller than the preceding ; 

y^f\ culms flattened^ often decumbent at base ; leaves elongated, 

^ ^ I 2-3 mm. toide^ flat or involute on the margins only; panicle 

more open ; teeth of the It^mma aristate, at least 

2 mm. long. — Dry woods, Me. to N. Y., and 


3. J>. intermedia Vasey. Culms 1-4 dm. high, 
with numerous mostly involute basal leaves; 
culm-leaves 5-15 cm. long, involute ; spikelets 
15 mm. long, rather crovded in a raceme or 
simple feio-flowered panicle ; glumes hroad^ acu^ 
minate, purplish, vnth pale scarious margins; 
lemma 7-8 mm. long, glabrous except at the base 
and margins below ihe middle, the teeth aristate ; 
awn 7-8 mm. long. — Mt. Albert, Gasp^ Co., 
Que. ; n. Mich. {Farwell), and westw. July, 

4. D. serloea Nutt Culms 5-0 dm. high ; sheaths and blades 
villous^ at least the lower ones ; basal blades elongated, mostly 
involute, those of culms flat or involute ; panicle 6-10 cm. long, 
rarely longer, rather loose, the brandies ascending or spreading ; 
spikelets about 1.5 mm. long; glumes narrow^ acuminate, pale; 
lemma densely clothed with long silky hairs, the aristate teeth more 
than \ the entire length of the lemma, awn 12-15 mm, long. — 
Sandy soil, Mass. to Pa., and southw. Fio. 127. 

5. D. ^pilis Scribn. Very similar to the preceding, not so tall ; sheaths and 
blades glabrous ; panicle smaller ; lemma glabrous, except at the base and on the 
margins below the middle. (i>. glabra Nash, not Philippi.) — Sandy soil, N. J., 
and southw., rare. May. — Possibly only a variety of the preceding. 

48. SPARTInA Schreb. Cobd or Marsh Grass 

Spikelets 1-flowered, flattened laterally, sessile and cloBel> imbricated in 2 
rows along one side of a continuous rhachis, forming unilateral spikes which are 
scattered along a common axis ; glumes unequal, keeled, acute or briaUe- 
pointed, the second usually exceeding the obtuse thinner 1-nerved lemma; 
palea equaling or exceeding the lemma. — Coarse perennials "^ith strong creeping 
rootstocks, rigid simple culms, and long tough leaves. (Whence the name, from 
o-waprlni, a cord, such as was mmie from the bark of the Spartium or broom.) 

* Culms stout, usually over 1 m. high; leaves 1 cm. or more wide, flat ot 

nearly so when fresh. 

1. 8. Hichaiudina Hitchc. (Slough Grass.) Culms 1-2 m. hig^; 
leaves 6-12 dm. long, 15 mm. wide or less, tapering to a very slender poim, 

196. D. Hpicata. 
Panicle x ^. 
Bplkelct and floret 

Lemma x 2. 

127. D Mrioea 
Lemma x 4. 



12a. 8. MichAnzlftna, 

Splkelet with glumes 

detached x 2. 

keetod, flat, bat qnickly involute in drying, smooth except the margins ; spikes 
5-20, scattered, spreading, 0.5-10 cm. long ; rhachis rough on the margins ; 
glumes serrulate-hispid on the keel, the first acuminate and 
tquaUng the floret^ the second tapering into an awn 7 mm. 
long; lemma 7-9 mm. long, glabrous except the serrulate- 
scabrous midnerve which abruptly terminates below the 
emarginate or 2-toothed apex. (S, cynosuroides Am. auth., 
Qot Both.) — Banks of rivers and lakes, or on wet prairies, 
N. S. to Aasina., s. to N. J. and Okla. Aug. -Oct. Pio. 128. 
2. S. Gynosnroldes (L.) Roth. (Salt Kebd Grabs.) Culms 
stout, IS m. high, of teu 2 cm. in diameter near the base ; leaves 
1-2.5 cm. wide, flat or nearly so, roughish underneath as well 

as on the margins ; spikes 20-50, forming a 

f dense oblong purplishraceme; glumes barely 

mncronate, the first i the length of the 
lemma,, of which the rough hispid midi'ib 
reaches the apex, (8. polystachya VV illd . ) — Salt and brackish 
marshes, Ct., and south w. Aug.-Oct. — Specimens from 
Dismal Swamp, Va., have only 10-15 spikes. Fig. 120. 
8. S. gUbra Muhl. (Salt Marsh Grass.) Culms 0.6- 
2.4 m. high, leafy to the top; leaves 5-7 dm. long, 1-1.5 cm. 
wide, usually flat, sometimes involute ; spikes oppressed^ 
5-15 cm. long, the rhachis slightly projecting beyond the 
spikelets ; spikelets 10-14 mm. long ; glumes glabrous or 
sparingly scabrous on the keel, the flrst scarcely } the length 
of the second ; lemma 8-10 mm. long. {8. stricta^ var. 
Gray.) — Salt marshes, Va., and south w. — Odor strong 
tnd rancid. Var. pxl6sa Merr. has glumes with scabrous 
keels and lemmas sparingly pilose, thus approaching the 
Buropean S, stricla Roth. — Mass., and south w. Fig. ISO. 
Var. altexnifldra (Loisel.) Merr. Spikes more slender, 
7-12 cm. long, the spikelets somewhat remote, barely orer- 
lapping, the rhachis continved into a more conspicuous 
bract-like appendage ; lemma sparingly pilose ; otherwise 
IS in the preceding form, into which it passes. {8. stricta, 
var. Gray.) — Lower St. Lawrence, and southw. (Eu.) 

1S9. S. ^yoomroldes. 

Spikdet with glumes 

detaelied x8. 

180. 6. glftbra, v. pflosa. 
Part of inflorescence x ^ 
Splkelet X 1^. 
Same displayed x 1^. 

•• Culms slender, rarely 1 m. high; leaves not over 
5 mm. wide, strongly involute when fresh, 

4. S. piLteni (Ait.) Muhl. Culms slender, wiry, 
M dm. high, from long slender rootstocks ; sheaths 
overlapping ; blades 1-3.5 dm. long, involute, spreading; panicle short-^ocserted 
*>r included at base, of 2 to several ascending spikes (2-5 cm. long); rhachis 
imooth ; spikelets 10-12 mm. long ; first glume linear, mucronate, scarcely 

half as long as the lanceolate acuminate second glume, 
which is scabrous on the nerves ; lemma 5-6 mm. long, thin, 
obtuse, slightly emarginate' paJea slightly longer. — Salt 
marshes and sandy coasts, Nfd. and e. Que* to Va. July, 

Var. jiincea (Michx.) Hitchc. Differs from the species in 

its greater size, culms 5-12 dm, high, longer erect or ascend- 

fftt ■ » u, ^^9 leaves, and stouter rootstocks ; panicles exserted ; spikes 

7Z T' P~-' ^; J™"^ nearly erect ; spikelets 7-10 mm. long. {S. juncea Willd.) — 

^Jf II? o •■ Salt marshes and sandy beaches along the coast, N. H. to 

detwdiedxa. Fla.andTex. June-Sept. Fio. 131. 

Tar. caespitbsa (A. A. Eaton) Hitchc. Differs from the species in *'ts tt^d 
habit, no creeping rootstocks, taller culms, and atoned second glume, blaci.Cd 
approximate near the middle of the stem, glaucous above, as much as 6 dm. 
iong, with long involute scabrous points. {8, caetpitosa A. A. Eaton.) — Border 
ot brackish marshes, N. U. and Jdaaa. 



40. BECKUANinA Hoet 

Spfkelets 1-flowered In our species, broad, laterally compressed, closely ImbiL 
cated In 2 rows along one side of a continuous rbacnls, forming short unilateral 
iplkes ; rhachilla articulated below tbe glumes ; glumes subequal, inflated, boat- 
shaped, chartaceous, margin scarious ; lemma lanceolate, 
acuminate, palea nearly as long ; grain free within tbe 
rigid lemma and palea. — A rather tall erect perennial, 
with flat leaves and a terminal elongated narrow nearly 
simple panicle. (Named for Johann Beekmann^ 1739u. 
1811, professor of botany at Goettingen.^ 

1. B. erncaefdrmis (L.) Host. Light green ; culm« 

6-10 dm. high ; i^eaths loose, overlapping ; blades 1-2.6 

dm. long, 6-8 mm. wide, scabrous ; panicle 1-2.6 dm. 

long, the spikes appressed ; splkelets nearly circular, 

1S8. B. eracMfonnts. 8 mm. long ; the glumes transversely wrinkled ; the aca- 

Put of infloMMenoe x >/» minftt® ^P^^ o< the lemma protruding beyond the glumes. 

Put ofaftme x >/•■ — ^^^ ground, Minn., la., and westw.; adv. in O. Fio. 

Bplkatoto lad floral x S. 182. 

60. C^ODON Richard. Bermuda or Scotob Obasb 

Spikelets 1-flowered, laterally compressed, awnless, singly sessile In 2 rows 
along one side of a slender continuous axis, forming unilateral spikes ; rhachilla 
prolonged behind the palea into a blunt pedicel ; glumes un- 
equal, narrow, acute, keeled ; lemma broad, boat-ehaped, 
obtuse, clllate on the keel ; palea as long as the lemma, the 

f>rominent keels close together, clllolate; grain free within the 
emma and palea. — Low diffusely branched and extensively 
creeping perennials, with flat leaves and slender spikes digitate 
at the apex of the upright branchea (Name composed of x^wr, 
a dog, and 6doih, a tooth.) Capriola Adans. 

1. C. DilcTTix>ir (L.) Pers. Glabrous; culms flattened, 
wiry ; ligule a conspicuous ring of white hairs ; spikes 4-6, 
2-6 cm. long ; splkelets Imbricated, 2 mm. long ; lemma longer 
than the glumes. {Capriola Ktze.) — Fields and waste places, iss. o. DmIjImi 
Mass., and southw., where It is cultivated for pasturage. (Nat infloreaoenM xl^ 
from Bu.) — Seldom perfects seed. Fio. 138. SpQulet k4. 


Spikelets 1-flowered, sessile and appressed, alternate and distant along one 
side of a slender triangular rhachis, forming very slender spikes ; glumes narrow, 

unequal, with strong rigid keels, pointed, shorter than Uie 
lanceolate acuminate scabrous lemma; palea nearly as long 
as the lemma; grain free within the subrigld lemma and 
palea. — A low diffusely branching annual with short narrow 
leaves and slender paniculate spikes. (Name from ^^cMr, 
near, and Nardus, from its resemblance to that genus.) 

1. S. panicuUttts fNutt.^ Trel. Culms 8-6 dm. high, erect 
or decumbent at base, leafy below ; sheaths and blades smooth : 
184. s. panicuiatus. panlcle half or more than half the entire height of the pUuitf 
Part of spik« x i%! ^^ ^"^ usually falcate, the spikes solitary and remote, mostly 
Spiketotxs. along the convex side, rigid; spikelets 4 mm. long. (5. fes- 

anuB Steud.) — Ox>en ground and salt licks, 111. to Mont., OoL, 
and Tex. — At maturity the panicle becomes much elongated and decnmbentw 
the axis extending in a large loose spiral. Fio, 184. 


SS. GnmOPOOOH Beanr 

Splkalets with 1 perfsct flower, somellmeB I or 2 neuter or ituDiDftto aubMO- 
de fiorala &bove the perfect one, remote along one BJde of a flllform conttnuow 
rludite, forming slender uull&leitil apikea; rhaohlUa prolonged beyond the floret 
H ft ilender often nwned rudiment ; glumeB narrow, aubeijiul, dgld, Habrouson 
tbeatrong keel, equaling or exceeding Uie florets ; lemma thin, bearing a ilender 
tttaight awD from just below the apex ; palea about ae long 
u the lemma. — Ferennlale, with abort rather broad rigid 
laane and ntunerooa alender apikes, at first erect, at length 
widely divaricate or reflezed. (Name composed of yv/irit, 
aattd, and wiiyttr, a btird, alluding to the reduction ol the 
abortiTe flower to a bare awn.) 

1. G. amblEniM (Michi.) BSP. Culms tnf ted from a short 
rootatodc, rigid, erect or ascending, 2-5 dm. high; aheatha 
orerlapplng, blades often approximate, thick, rigid, spreading, 
1-4 cm. long, 1 cm. or more wide ; tpllcet solitary or In 2*a 
along a etTlat« axis, becoming widely divaricate when exsertrd 
tnm the sheath, gpiteUt-bearing to the bate; awn of fioret 
longer than th» glabrottM lemma; mdimtnt long-owned, jjj_ ^ ,„(,!_„„ 
(e. raeemosut Beanv.) — Sterile sandy or graTelly ground, i„n,^L,^^r7/' 
K. J. to Mo., Fla., and Tex. Aug., Sept. Fio. 136. Bti^MKUA 

S. 6. brevifilllus Trin. Resembling the precediug; culms 
uora slender, from a decumbent base; leaiea 2-4 dm. long, 4-9 mm. wide, 
iQTolate In drying ; tplket usually leas numerous, more distant, ii<iJt«<f of the 
hat, tpikeUt-bearing from about UiemidcUe; aun «Aort«r (Aon tAe hairy lemma; 
one or two sterile floreta sometlmea preaent, rudiment usually awnleaa, — Sandy 
iroood, N. J., and aoutbw. 

BS. CHLdfilS 8w. 

ftdkelets wttta 1 perfect floret, sessile in 2 rows along one ride of a continaoua 
(haelile,lDrming unilateral spikes; rhacbilla prolonged behind the palea and bear- 
ing 1 or more rudimentary awned sterile lemmas ; glumes unequal, narrow, 
acute, keeled ; lemma often cillate on the bach or mai^ins, 
/ 1-4-nerved, tlie mid-nerve nearly always prolonged Into a 

/ alender awn; palea about equaling the lemma; grain free 

V / within the lemma and palea Usually pereoiilal grasses with 

XJ flat leaves and digitate spikes. (Named for ChlorU, the god- 

'Sv deaa of flowers.) 

~ I. C. verticUUU Nutt. Culma 1-* dm, high, erect, or de- 

ISL c <ertieiii»t». *''"^*'*"^ *"<^ rooting at the nodes ; sheaths compressed ; leaves 

Snikdrtxa obtuse, light green; spikes several In 1-3 whorls, slender, 

■^^ 6-10 era. long; splkeleta 3 mm, long, with awns about 6 mm. 

long; Bterile lemma one. — Pmlrtea, e. Kan. and southwestw. June. — At 

KMuity the infloreaoence breaks away and forms a turableweed. Fto. 138. 

H. BOUTELOtTA Lag. HEsqciTK Grass 

^Ikeleta 1-2-flowered, crowded and sessile in 2 rows along one aide of a con- 
tiniUHis flattened rliacbia, which usually projects beyond the spikelets ; rhacbilla 
protonged beyond the perfect floret and bearing a sterile (rarely staminate) 
fhitcl, a aeoond or third rudiment often present ; gtiimes unequal, keeled ; lemma 
broader, 3-6-nerved, 3-5-toothed or cleft, 3 ut the divisions usually awn-polnted ; 
palea about the length of the lemma, bldentnCe, the 2 keelR scabrous; sterile 
Boret sometimefl reduced to tbe awns, rarely obsolete. — Uur species perennial 
with narrow flat or convolute leaves, and unilateral spikes nearly semile along 
a common mIs. (Named for Olavdio BotOelou, a Spantah writer apon florl 
cnlton and agriculture.) 



1M. B. UiHilAk 

f 1. CH0NDR6SIUM (DesT.) Gray. Spikes 1-4, usually curved, o/ 26 of 

more densely crowded pectinate pikelets, 

1. B. oligostichya (Nutt.) Torr. Culms slender, erect, from a short root- 
•tock, leafy at the base, 1.5-6 dm. high ; sheaths and blades glabrous, the latter 

about 2 mm. wide, flat or becoming convolute ; spikes 1-8, 
2-6 cm. long; spikeletn 6-^ mm. long; glumes narrow, the 
first about } as long as the second, which is sparsely papUlfkee' 
pilose on the keel ; fertile lemma pilose, 8-cleft, the diviaiona 
awned ; sterile lemma consisting of 2 tnincste lobes and 8 
divei-gent equal awns with a tujt of long hairs at base, seooiid 
rudiment obtuse, awnless. — Prairies, Wis. and N. Dak. to 
Tex. ; casual eaSbW. (Mex.) July-SepU Fio. 137. 

2. B. hirsiita Lag. Culms tufted, erect, 2-6 dm. high, 

1S7 B oUsostachva. ^^^^1 ^^ ^^® ^^^ » sheaths smooth ; blades about 8 mm. wide, 

Bp&elet with glume. ?»^' sparsely papillosehairye^cially on 

deuehedxo ^^ margins; spikes 1-4, 1.6-6 cm. long; 

the rhachis of the spike produced into a 
prominent point beyond the uppermost spikelets; spikelets 
about 6 mm. long ; first glume setaceous, the second equaling 
the floret, conspicuously tuberculate-hirsute on the back; fer- 
tile lemma pubescent, 3-cleft, the divisions awn-pointed: 
sterile floret of 2 obtuse lobes and 8 equal awns margined 
below, no tuft of hairs at the base. — Handy plains, Wis. to Bpfkel«twltligli 
Mo., and southwestw. to Mex. Jnly-Sept. Fio. 18^. detMb«d x8. 

t 2. ATHEROPOOON (MahL) Gray. Spikes 16 or more^ of 12 or fewer ascend- 
ing spikelets, 

8. B. cnrtip^ndola (Mlcbx.) Torr Culms erect from short running root- 
Itocks, 8-10 dm. high ; sheaths pubescent toward the summit ; blades 1-8 dm. 

long, 8-6 mm. wide, or involute and setaceous toward 
J^^ the end, scabrous above, sometimes pubescent beneath ; spikes 

Jr\^^ fi^it^erous, 8-16 mm. long, spreading or reflexed, in a long 

J^^ n-ostly 1-sided raceme, the rhachis bifid at the extended apex ; 

4^ \^ spikelets 7-10 mm. long ; first glume less than \ the length 
^J^ of the second which is very scabrous on the thicxened keel, 
-^^N exceeding the floret; lemma scabrous^ ending in 8 sbon 
189. B. eortlpendaU. slender awns ; teeth of palea aristate ; sterile lemma with 
Psit of inflorescence ^ acute Inhes and 8 straight awns, the lateral ones much 
x^. shorter than the middle awn. (J3. racemosa l4ig.) — l>ry 

hills and plains, Ct. to Minn., s. to Tex. and Mex. July- 
Sept. —The sterile lemma variable, rarely reduced to a single awn. Fio. 130. 

65. CXiNIUM Panzer. Toothachb Grass 

Spikelets with 1 perfect flower and 2-6 sterile lemmas, 
crowded and sessile, pectinate in l-«ided spikes ; glumes very 
unequal, first minute, second nearly as long as the spikelet, 
bearing a stout horizontally divergent dorsal awu from about 
the middle; first and second lemmas empty or sometimes 
with a hyaline palea, awned below the apex, awn erect or 
ascending ; third lemma similar, containing a perfect flower ; 
fourth awnless, staminate or empty ; a fifth rudimentary 
lemma often present. — Rather tall perennials with solitary 
terminal more or less curved spikes. (Name from icreWor, 
a small e<fmb, from the pectinate appearance of the spike. ) 140. 0. 
Campulosus Desv. loflorMcenea x U. 

1. C. aromAticnm (Walt.) Hitchc. Culms 1-1.6 m. high, spikeiet ic «. 
erect, from scaly rootstocks, old sheaths persistent at the Same with glnoMt 
bsse : blades long, flat or involute, stiff ; spike 0.6-1.6 dm. d«iMh«d xa. 


„. . _. . r mm. long; flnt ^ome warty-tabercuUto on Qt« ntmt; 
floTBta stiffly cillUe on the niar;gins. (C. amerleanKm Spi«ng.) — Wet [duf 
banana, V»., vid soathw, — Tasw vei; pungeut. Fio. lU. 

66. DACTTLOCTinnni Willd. Ckowfoot Gum 
Splkdeta aeTenl-flowered, tlie uppennoet Iniperrect, acmile aad crowded in 
1 rowB xlonK one Bida of & continuouH rhucliut, wbich exlends beyond tbe spike- 
leta in a nMed point ; glumea broad, keeied ; lemmas boat- . 

■haped, cospidaU; pslea equaliu^ the leincna, acute, deeply 
folded between tiie ciliale- winged keels ; grain reddiah brown, 
tbe loose pericarp trsiuveraely wrinkled. — Annual, with mors 
or lew decumbent and creeping base, and 2-^ atout unilateral 
iqHkea digitate attbe apex of the culru. (Name from idjmiXoi, 
linger, and trttla; a liUie comb, alluding to tbe digitate and 
pectinate apikee.^ 

1. D. AKofpTicii (L. ) Richter. Usually glabrous ; culma 
nwtinfc at the lower nodes; spikes 1.5-5 cm, longj glumes 
Kabrona on tbe keel, the second cuspidate ; the awned tip 
of lower lemma itifleied, that of the otbera straight or ul. D. ugyptliim. 
cnned. {D. aeffgpliacvm Wiltd. ; Eleaiine aegyptia Pent.) innnnHeiHwxK, 

— Tards and cullirated iii'lds, N. T., 111., and southw. (Nat. Sp!kel<t xl. 
from tropica of the Old World.) Fio. 141. VnitMS. Be«dx< 

ST. BLBUStnB Oaertn. Ooosi Obass. Tard Orabs 
Spikeleta several-flowered, awnless, florets perfect or uppermost staminate, 
•eidl« and closely imbricated in 2 rows along one side of a continuous rhachis, 
which does not eilend beyond the terminal splkelet; 

flames unequal, shorter than the floret, scabrous on the 
eels ; lemmas broader, with a thickened &-rIbbcd keel ; 
palea shorter, acute, the narrowly winged keels distant ; 
grain black, the loose pericarp marked with comb-like 
lines, free within the subrigid lemma and pslea. — Coarse 
tufted anmiala with stout unilacenil spikes digitate or 
approximate at the apex of tbe culms. (Name from 
MS. E. India. 'e\ewI», the town where Cerea, tlie goddess of barreels, 

fwtof faiior«wno» X H. was wonihiped.) 

iViUt»ld»rf"i " " '■ ^- ''""^* Gnertn. GlabrouH ; culms flattened, de- 

""^ * cumbent at bane ; sheaths lonee, overlappinjt, compressed ; 

^ke« 2-10, 2.6-8 cm. long; spikeletsapprexsed, S-S-flowpred, about 6 mm. inng. 

— Tarda and waste ground, Mass., n. 111., Kan., and southw. CNat. from tropics 
oftbeOld World.) Fia. 143. 

St. LEPT6cHL0A B«auv. 

Splkelets 2-eeTeraI-flowered, the uppermost floret usually 
hnperfect or rudimentary, sessile or nearly so, in 2 rows 
along one side of the slender continuous rhachis ; glumes and 
lemmas keeled, the latter 3-nerve<l, acute, awnhss or shnrt- 
awned, exceeding the palea- — Usually tall annuals wiUi flat 
leaves and elongated simple panicles composed of the namer- 
ons very slender spikes scattered along the main axis. 
(Name composed of \(xtA«, $Undr,T, and x^*"> ffiM, from 
UiB long attenuated spikes.) 

1. L. fllif6rmis (Lam.) Beauv. Culms 4-12 dm. high ; 
•ke<iIJ^rKi;)f//oM-hafrv,-Hplke8 20-40, 6-10 cm. lon^, ascend- Its. L. fiirr>nni,.. 
itig; spikelels about 8 mm. Inng; glumeii more or less IndanKsno* ■ '/u. 
mocronate, nearlg equating the ^-4 aienltai Jlorett. (L. A i»rt of »n>s wit). 
wneronala Kunib : L. aUenaala Steud.)— Fields, Va. U> S xpikeieu ■ 1%. 
IIL. Mo., and southw. Aug. Fio. 142. Sofkri.t u>dflo«i xa. 


2. L. fudcnlJlTU (T^m.) QraT. Smooth; leavea longer than the eTcet m 
genlculue-deeumbent and wsnchlnE culms, the upper sheatbing the bam ot the 
ptuiicle; spikes 8-12 cm. Ions; Bpikeleu slightly pedieeled, T-ll-^loMiered, tht 
fiorets much longer than (Ae lanuolaU ghtma ; leniinaa bairy-margined towatd 
the base, with i small lateral teeth and a short awn In the cleft of the apex. 
(iMplocAne Beauv. ; D. acuminata ajid procumbetu Kash.) — Brackieh meadow*, 
tnxm Mass. southw. along the coaeC ; and from III. sonthw. along tha Miae. B. 
Aug., Sept. 

09. BtfCHLO^ Engelm. Bufpilo Obim 

G^fkeleta anisexual ; plants monoecious or dioecious ; staminate 8plkelets2-S- 
Bowered, sessile In 2 rows along the short 1-sided spikes ; glnmes unequal, 
obtnae ; lemmas lai^r, S-nerred ; palea a little ahoner 
f than the letnma ; pistillate splkeleta l-flowered, in neariy 

capitate 1-«ided spikes which are scarcely exsert«d from 
the broad sheaths of the upper leaves ; glumes indurated, 
trlfld at the apex, nnlt^d at base and resembling an 
Involucre ; lemma narrow, hyaline, Inclosing the 2-nerved 
palea I grain free within the hardened glumes. — A creep- 
ing or Btolonlferons perennial with narrow flat leaves, 
and dissimilar stamlnate and pistillate splkeleta borne on 
tbe same or on distinct plants. (Xame strongly con- 
IM. B. dMtjrlDtdM. traded from ^lifSaJwi, buffalo, and vUti, grau.) 
(f ud$in<i«wiH»xi4. 1. B. dartyloldM (Nutt) Eiigelm. Culms o( the 
jSpikolatudflontMon) giamlnate Inflorescence 1-3 dm. high! the spikes long- 
n'l'jj-. ^^^ . eiaerted; culms of pistillate inflorescence low, niacb 

Mdan^twrriw!"*' speeded by the leaves; sheaths overlapping; blades 
"^ * 2 mm. wide or less ; stamlnate Bpikea 2 or 3. IJ-la mm. 

long; cluster of pistillate spikelets ovoid, 6 mm. long. {Bulbilis K^.} — Plains 
of the Saak. to Minn., Kan., and Tei. — One of the most valuable grasses of tbe 
plains. Seedlings are monoecious, but the stominate aud plstUbte brancbM 
propagate their own kind. Fio. 141, 

60. PHRAOMItES Trin. Rkbd 

unequal, lanceolate, t , 

floret somewhat longer, equaling the uppermost florets, 

empty or subtending a stamlnate flower, the other florets 

Erfect; paleas f-f the length of their lemmas. — Tall reed- 
« perennials with stout leafy culms and large terminal 
panicles. ^Name from ^pvudriit, growing in hedges, appar- 
ently from lla hedge-like growtli along ditches.) 

1. P. COminADfjl Trio. Culms erect, stout, 1.6-i m. 
higlk, from long creeping rootstocka; sheaths overlapping; 
blades 1.6-6 dm. long, 1-6 cm. wide, flat, glabrous; panicle 
tawny, 1.5-1 dm. long, branches ascending, rather densely 
flowered; spikelets 12-15mm. long ; the florets exceeded by 
the hairs of tho rhachilla. (P. vulgarlt BSP. ; P. Fkrag- 
miUa Karst.) — In wet places, edges of ponds, ditches, etc. 
— Rarely perfecting seed, spreading freely from the rootstockg, the leafy stolons 
often running on the surface of the ground tor a distance of 6-10 m. (Eurasia.) 
Pio. 116. 

Ar^ndo t)6i<AX L., the Ruirr RsEn, is cnltlvated for ornament and Is ocea- 
sionally apontaneons southward. ReHfmbling FkragmUtt but taller, epikeleta 
8-4-flawpred ; flowers all perfect; rharhtlla naked; lemma* clothed wUh loMf 
tOJcjl hairt, shorl-aiened from llie bifid apex. 


ei. TStDSKS B. & S. 

SpifcelelB 8-lS4Ioweved In open or striot panidee ; florets perfect or the apper- 
iDOBt Btaminate ; glumes mieqnal, keeled, shorter than the spikelet ; lemma 
rabcoiiaceoiis, convex below, bidentate, 3-neryed, the nenres silky-villoos below 
ud at least the middle one extending in a mucronate point 
between the teeth ; palea broad, the nerves nearly muginal. 
^Perennials with long narrow leaves and termixial panicles. 
(Nsme from tres, three, and dens, tooth.) Triodia R. Br. 

1. T. ILkrvB (L.) Hltchc (Tall Bbd Top.) Culms erect, 
1-2 m. high, viscid in the axis of the panicle and below it ; 
shesths bttiided at the summit, otherwise glabrous as are Uie 
long flat or involute tapering blades; the ahoufp panicUs 
2-4.5 dm. long, almost as vride^ loose and open, the slender i*"- t. Astm x «. 
branehes spreading^ naked below: spikelets purple, 7-8 mm. oJm d^ u m 
long, 5-&-flowered, on long pedicels ; glumes shoHer than lH^^i iSroUai 
the lowest Jlorets, mucronate ; the three nerves of the lemmas 
esenrrent. (^Foa flava L. ; Triodia seslerioides Benth. ; T. euprea Jaoq.) — 
Diyor sandy flelds, Ct. to Mo., and south w. Aug., Sept Fio. 146. 

2. T. Mtxktaa (Nutt.) Nash. Caespitose, 12-14 dm. high ; culms stout, erect ; 
leaves long and rigid ; panicle pale or purplish, dense and spike^ike, IS dm. long ; 
spikelets about 6 mm. long, 5-8-flowered, nearly sessile ; glumes exceeding the 
lower JloretSj muoronate ; only the mid7ierve of the lemma excurrent. ( JYiodia 
9tri€ta Benth.) — Moist soil, i.e. Kan., and southw. July-Sept 

eS. TRfPLASIS Beanv. 

SpflceletB 8-6-flowered, the florets remote, the lowest stipitate, perfect or the 
uppermost staminate ; glumes unequal, keeled, shorter than the florets ; lemmas 
S^eft, the S nerves strongly ciliate, the mldnerve excurrent as a short awn 

between the lobes ; palea Shorter, broad, the nerves nearly 

t^^^^^ marginal and densely long-dliate from the middle to the 

YwJ /f ^V^^' — Perennials with small nearly simple panicles. (Name 
Jyimi/ from Tpiv\datosj thrice as many,) 
^pM jf^ !• T. purpdiea (Walt) Chapm. (Sand Grass.) Culms 
Njy tufted, vndeiy spreading or ascending, wiry, 8-8 dm. long, 
I nodes bearded : sheaths and the small rigid blades scabrous ; 

f^ T «o terminal panicles 8-7 cm. long, the few stiff branches finally 

Bnidii?3^toma ^^^^^^^^i Smaller panicles (partially hidden in the sheaths) 
^^ ' produced at the nodes late in the season; spikelets short- 

pediceled, usually rose<purple, 6-8 mm. long ; the awn of the lemma scarcely 
exceeding the truncate lobes. (^Tricuspis Gray; Triodia Hack.) — In sand, 
Me. to Va., along the coast, and southw. ; also along the Great Lakes and 
Bonthwestw. Aug., Sept — Plant acid to the taste. Fio. 147. 

68. ESA6B6STIS Beaav. 

Spikelets strongly compressed, 8-many-flowered ; the uppermost floret sterile ; 
ihachilla articulated but sometimes not disjointing until after the fall of the 
glumes and lemmas with the grain; glumes keeled, much shorter than the 
spikelets ; lemmas 8-nerved, broad, keeled ; paleas shorter than their lemmas, 
cSten persistent after their fall, the strong nerves ciliate. Annuals or perennials 
with loose or dense terminal panicles. (Name from 9/>, tpring, and dypvTi9, a 

Gii]iiiscN«plii|r; plantapobsamoiu . . • • • . • 1 E.hypnoidst» 

Cnlmt ereet. asoendlng or deoambent ; flowert p«rfeot 
8plkfllet8 i-0-flowered, 1^-8 mm. long. 
Spikelets on long eapUUry pedicels ; oulms brsDohed only st the iMse . 2. g. eapiOarts. 
Wjlkainti on pemcels not over ft mm. loag ; mrime brwiohsd t the nodes 8. 41 /VumW4. 



Splkelets S-many-flowored, mm. or more long. 

Splkeleu not more than 1.5 mm. wide 4. IT. pOoiOm 

dpikeleta %S mm. wide. 
FloreU denaeljr tmbricftted ; rfaMhIUft*Jo<n^AndbMe of florets hidden 5. JP. 
FloreU rather loosely imbrioatad ; rhachUla-Jolnta or base of lloreu 

Tisible 9. E. minor, 


Panicle elongated, the braaehea llezaout . 1. E, tHckcd4$. 

Panicle difftase, the branchea stiff and spreading. 

Pedicels as long sa the splkelets or longer . • 8. f . pectinacsa, 

Pedioels shorter than the appressed splkelets . . . . . 9. E. rtjrada, 

1. B. hypnoldes (Lam.) BSP. J?xten^v«{yer/>e;)tnpr; culms slender, 2-6 dm. 
long, trttA short erect or ascending panicle-bearing branchea 5>12 cm. high ; 
leaves 1-^ cm. long ; panicles nearly simple, of rather few lanceolate-oblong 
splkelets ^or in the more fertile plant almost capitate); tpikeleU VS-Slb-fiottfered^ 
6-16 mm. long, the flowers perfect and fertile, gtaminate or pifAillaU; glumes 

and lemmas acuminate. {E. reptana Nees.) — Gravelly or sandy 

i| shores and ditches, Vt. to Ont., westw. and southw. Aug. 

Y 2. S. capilUris (L.) Nee& Slender, erect, 1.6-6 dm. high, 

* branching at the base, simple above ; sheaths overlapping, spar- 

148. B. capillaris. ^^f^^ pilose or nearly glabrous ; blades long and narrow ; panicle 

fipikeiet X 2. more than half the entire height of the plant, oblong-ovoid, the 

capillary branches spreading, the lower ascending; spikelet9 

2-8 mm. long, on long divergent pedicels; glumes and lemmas acute, the latter 

faintly 3-nerved. — Sandy dry soil, N. E. to Mo., and southw. Aug., Sept. — 

Often lemon-Bcented. Fio. 148. 

3. S. Frinkii (Fisch, Mey. & Lall.) Steud. Erect from a decumbent base, or 
spreading, difftisely branched, 1.6-4 dm. hi^h ; sheaths glabrous ; ligule pUose ; 
blades 6-12 cm. long, 2>4 mm. wide, scabrous above ; panicles oblong, lest 
than half the length of the plant, many-flowered, the short branches spreading; 
splkelets 2-3 mm. long, on more or less appressed pedicels, 
1-6 mm. long; glumes and lemmas very acute, the latter faintly 
3-nerved. — Lrf)w or sandy ground, Mass. to Kan., and south- 
west w. Aug. — The taller sparingly branched forms, with ^ ^(NSIfl 
rather loose panicles, are difficult to distinguish from glabrous vj V ^^9^^ 
specimens of the preceding ; the relative length of the panicle ^ ^^ 
is the best distinction. 

4. S. pilbsA (L.) BeauT. Erect, decumbent at base or "•• K.pilosa. 
spreading, 1.6-4.6 dm. high ; culms slender, diffusely branching 2?!*^"'*** ? ?V 
near the base ; sheaths sparingly pilose at the summit ; blades '^'** •"* lemm» 
8-12 cm. long, 2-3 mm. wide ; panicle diffuse, 0.8-2 dm. lon^', ^ 

lower axils usually sparingly bearded; splkelets b-\%'fiowered, becoming linear^ 

4-9 mm, long, 1-1.6 mm. wide, equaling or shorter than the pedicels; lemmas 

subacute, the lateral nerves faint or rather strong. — Sandy 
or gravelly open ground, Me. to Minn., and south westw. 
July, Aug. (Mez., Eu., etc.) Fio. 140. — Variable, the 
commoner form in the north, with rather appressed splkelets 
(1.6 mm. wide) about equaling the pedioels, is considered 
distinct by some {E, Pttrshii Schrad.), but the characters 
used to distinguish it are very inconstant. 

6. E. meoastXchya (Koeler) Link. Erect or ascending 
from a decumbent base, rather flaccid, freely branching; 
culms 2-9 dm. high ; leaves 5-16 cm. long, 3-^1 mm. wide; 
panicles greenish-lead-color, 5-15 cm. long, rather densely 

160. £. megastaohva. Aowered ; splkelets 5-16 nun. long, 3 mm. wide, 10-40-flow- 
Spikelet x2. ered, the florets closely imbricated; pedicels and kfels of the 

acute glumes and lemmas sparingly glandular ; lemmaa thin, 

scabrous, the lateral nerves prominent.. (E. major Host.) — Waste places, 

common, especially southw. June-SepL — Strong-scented, hence called Stink 

or Snakr Grass. (Nat. from Eu.) Fio. 150. 

6. E. mInor Host. Similar to the preceding, smaller, more slender; panicles 

less densely flowered ; splkelets 6-10 mm. long, 2-2.6 mm. wide, H-20-flowere(i^ 


Ihc fontB Jm9 ibfiM/y tmbrieated^ the ba$es or rhaehilla-joifUs 
viMMe; lemmas nearly smooth. (E. Eragrvstia Karst.)— Waste 
ground, not common, N. £. to Va., and southw. (Nat. from Eu.) 
Fio. 151. 

7. S. tiichMes (Nutt) Nash. Erect, 6-16 dm. high; sheaths 
overlapping, amooth, pilo»e at the throat; blades 1-7 dm. long, 
2-6 mm. wide, rather rigid, involute-taper-pointed ; panicles pale, 

oblong, the lower axils sparingly pilose ; spikelets 
3-10-flowered, 6-10 mm. long, on capillary fieseu- ^^^ g minor 
oua usually long pedicels; glumes and lemmas gpikeiatxs 
acute, scabrous. (E, f«niiM Gray, not Steud.) — 
Sandy soil, O. to 111., Kan., and southw. Aug. -Oct. Fio. 152. 
8. B. pectinAcea (Michz.) Steud. Erect or ascending, 8-8 
dm. high; culms rigid, from short stout rootstocks ; sheaths oyer- 
lapping, sparingly pilose, densely bearded at the throat ; blade« 
ISk B. triehodes. ^'^ ^^' ^^"Si ^^ ™"3' wide, often involute in drying ; panicle$ 
Bpikeletx2. Purple, included at base or exst^ted after the upper spikelets 
have fallen, branches pilose in the axils ; spikelets ^lO-flowered, 
^S mm. long, on stiff pedicels ; glumes and lemmas acute, minutely scabrous. — 
Sandy dry ground, Me. to S. Dak., and southw. July-Oct. Fig. 153. Var. 
spbctIbilis Gray. Sheaths glabrous or nearly so; panicles 
rather more exserted than in the species; spikelets ^Ib-Jtouh 
ered. — Range of the species, but the commoner form toward 
the west. 

0. B. reMcta (Muhl.) Scribn. Erect; culms less stout than 
hi the last, 3-9 dm. high ; sheaths overlapping, glabrous, spar- 
ingly villous at the throat; blades 1-3 dm. long, 2-4 mm. wide, 
nearly smooth ; panicle usually included at the base, the slender 1S8. £. pectinsoem. 
remote branches sparsely pilose in the axils and bearing few Spikelet x 2. 
tkort-pedicded appressed spikelets ^26-Jlov}ered, 6-12 mm. 

long ; glumes and lemmas acuminate, (E. campestris Trin. ; E. pectinacea, 
▼ar. refracta Chapm. ; Poa rtfracta Muiil.) — Sandy open ^ound, Del. and 
Md. to Fla. and Ala. 

61 CATABRdSA Beaar. 

Spikelets nsaally 2-flowered ; glumes unequal, shorter than the lemmas, erose 
at the broad summit ; lemmas subcoriaceous, erose-truncate, strongly 3-nerved ; 
palea as long as the lemma, the strong nerves near the margin. — A creeping 
perennial aquatic with flat leaves and open panicles of small spikelets. (Name 
from KordfipcMns, an eating, referring to the eroded glumes.) 

1. C. aqnitica (L.) Beauv. Smooth throughout, decumbent and rooting at 
the lower nodes, the ascending culms 1-6 dm. high ; the loose sheaths overlap- 
]ring; blades soft, 2-12 cm. long, 2-6 mm. wide; panicle 0.5-2 dm. long, the 
whorled branches spreading; spikelets 3-4 mm. long. — In water or wet places, 
coast of N. B., Nfd., and north w. (Eurasia.) 

65. m£lICA L. Mblio Gbass 

Spikelets S-several-flowered ; rhachilla prolonged beyond the fertile florets, 
and bearing 2 or 8 gradually smaller empty lemmas, convolute together or 
inclosing one another at the apex ; glumes large, unequal, membranaceous, or 
papery, scarious-margined, 3-5-nerved, little shorter than the florets; lemmas 
convex, 7-13-nerved, firm, with scarious margins, awnless or awned below the 
bifld apex ; paleas shorter than their lemmas, the strong nerves nearly marginal 
— Perennials with simple culms, closed sheaths, usually soft flat leaves and 
rather large spikelets in usually narrow panicles. (An old Italian name foi 
Soighnm, from met, honey. "^ 



1 1. BUM&LICA Sorilm. Glumes broad and papery ; eterUe lemmae brood amd 
truneate^ eoniooltUe around each other; lemmas awnless. 

* Glumes stibequal, nearly as long as the 2-fiowered spticelets. 

1. M. mfttiCA Walt. Culms erect from knotted rootstocks, wiry, 6-9 dm. hlg^ ; 
iheaths osoally overlapping, scabrous ; lower blades short, the upper 10-20 cm. 

long, 2-10 mm. wide; panicle O.H-2.6 dm. long, simple, with 

Jlliform ascending branches or reduced to a raceme ; spikelets 

7-10 mm. long, pendulous on short pedicels, florets spreading, 

6-8 mm. long; lemmas scabrous, obtuse^ the intermediate nerves 

vanishing above ; empty lemmas cucullate above, exceeded by 

the fertile ones.— Dry rocky open woods and thickets. Pa. to 

Fla., w. to Wis., la., and Tex. Apr., May. Fio. 154. — From 

Va. southw. occasional specimens have sparsely pubescent 

104. M. modoA. sheaths and the blades somevrfaat pubescent on the lower sur- 

Apikelet displayed face. (M. difftLsa Pursh ; Jf. muHca^ var. diffusa Gray); noi 

X 8. varietally distinct. 

* * Glumes unequal^ shorter than the Z-^fiowered spikelets. 

9. K. nitana Nntt Culfns 8-12 dm. high, erect from a short horizontal 
rootstock ; sheaths overlapping, glabrous; blades 1-2 dm. long, 4-8 mm. wide ; 
panicle 1.6-2.5 dm. long, the slender spreading branches solitary or in pairs, 
simple or sparingly branched; spikelets numerous, 10-12 mm. long, uaaally 
8-flowered, pendulous on short pedicels; lemmas 7-0 mm. long, scabrous, acute ; 
empty lemmas broad at the summit, exceeded by the fertile ones. (M, diffusa 
of recent authors, not Pursh.) — Rocky woods. Pa. to Neb., and southw. May, 

3. M. Portdri Scribn. CiUms erect, slender, 5-7.5 dm. high: sfieaths over- 
lapping, scabrous; blades 12-23 cm. long, 2-6 mm. wide, scabrous; panicle 
1.5-2.5 dm. long; the narrow spikelets pendulous and racemose along the 
slender ascending branches, 4-6flowered, 10-18 mm. long; lemmas 7-8 mm. 
long, subacute, scabrous ; empty lemmas like the fertile ones afid exceeding 
them. (if. parviflora Scribn.) — Bluffs and stony hillsides, la. to Mo., and 

I 2. BROM£lICA Thurb. Glumes narrow, searious-margined ; sterile tern* 
mas similar to the fertile which are awned below the bidentate apex; spike- 
leis b-9-Jlowered. 

4. K. Smithii (Porter) Yasey. Culms 
erect, slender, 7-12 dm. high; sheaths sca- 
brous; blades 10-20 cm. long, 6-12 mm. 
wide, lax, scabrous; panicle 1.2-2.5 dm. 
long, the solitary remote spreading branches 
spikelet-bearing toward the ends ; spikelets ISB. M. BmithiL 
^^flowered, 18-20 mm. long, more or less Bpflulet dtopUjed 
tinged with purplish chestnut ; glumes acute ; x %. 
lemmas glabrous, about 10 mm, long, ex- 
cluding the awn, which is ^^ as long. CAvena Porter.) 
— Moist woodlands, n. Mich, and westw. May-July. Fio. 

5. M. striita (Michx.) Hitchc. Similar to the preoeding, 
usually not so tall and more slender ; leaves narrower ; sheaths 
closed to the summit, the ligule sheathing the culm ; panicle- 
branches ascending or spreading at the ends ; ^rUcelets 2.2- 
2.5 cm. long; glumes broader, conspicuously colored as are 
often the florets which are short-bearded at the base; cnon 
<u long as the lemma or longer. (Avena Michx.) — Rooky 
wooded hinds, e. Que. to Pa.. Minn., and weetw. Fv^ 

IM. U. strtota x 1. 
Bplkelet with garnet 



Spikeleto 8-6-flowered, the uppennoBt florets sterile ; glumes unequal, mnoh 
Bherter than the florets*; lemmas broad, coriaceous, rigid, smootn and shining, 
ocxiTex below, 8-neryed, acuminate or mucronate-pointed ; 
palea firm, 2-keeIed ; stamens 2, rai'ely 1 ; grain large, usually 
exceeding the lemma and palea, obliquely ovoid, obtusely 
beaked, with a shining coriaceous pericarp. — Nearly smooth 
perenniala, with simple culms from a creeping rootstock, flat 
leaves and narrow few-flowered panicles. (Name composed 
of ilt, (100, and dfi^jfp^ man^ from the two stamens.) 

1. D. diAndra (Mich^; Wood. Culms 6-9 dm. high; ^^^ D.diaatoxl. 
leaTes nearly as long as the culm, 1-1.8 cm. wide; panicle gpikelat and fruit 
very simple, 1-2.6 dm. long ; spikelets short-pediceled, 10^16 
mm. long. (Festuca Michx. ; Kbrycarptis Ktze. ; D, americana Beany.) — 
Shaded river banks and woods, O. to 8. Dak., and southw. July, Aug Fig. 167* 

67. UNIOLA L. Spikb Gbass 

Spikelets compressed, 3-many-flowered, the lower 1-4 lemmas empty ; glumee 
compresBed-keeled, acute or acuminate ; lemmas firm-coriaceous, compressed- 
keeled, faintly many-nerved ; palea rigid, the keels broadly winged, 
nearly marginal ; stamens 1 or 8. — Erect perennials, with simple 
culms, fiat or involute leaves and terminid panicles. (Ancient name 
of some plant, a diminutive of unio, unity.) 

* Panicle contracted, wand-like; spikelets few-JUneered 

1. U. Uxa (L.) BSP. Culms slender, 6-12 dm. high, in dumpir 

with knotted rootstocks ; leaves long and narrow; panicles 1.6-4.6 

19S. u. kzA. ^^* ^^"^1 ^^® slender branches erect; spikelets short-pediceled, 

BvikAiet xS ^^-^flowered, 6-7 mm, long; lemmas &-4 mm. long, acuminate, 

spreading at maturity; palea arched, (U. gracilis Michx.) — 

Sandy soil, L. I. to Fla., w. to Ky. and Tex. Aug., Sept. Fio. 168. 

* * Panicle eai^anded, nodding; the pikelets many-flowered. 

2. XT. latifblia Michx. Culms 6-16 dm. high ; sheaths shorter than the Inter- 
nodes, liffule 1 mm. long, lacerate; blades spreading, 10-22 cm. long, 0.6-2 cm. 
wide, often clliate at the base, margins scabrous; panicle 
1-2.6 dm. long, the filiform branches bearing a few pendulous 
broadly ovai spikelets; these 1.6-3 cm. long, 6-12-flowered; 
lemmas d-12 mm. long, hispidulous on the winged keel' 
stamen 1. — Shaded slopes and low thickets. Fa. to Kan., and 
southw. Aug., Sept Fio. 169. 

8. XS. panicnlAta L. (Sea Oats.) Culms stout, 0-16 dm. 
high, with numerous long rigid leaves involute in drying; 
UguU a ring of hairs about 1 mm. long; panicles 2-8 dm. 
Ifrng, the slender branches bearing many short-pediceled oblong^ 
oval stramineous spikelets; these 1-2 cm. long, S-ld-flowered ; 169. u. latifoUiu 
lemmas S-10 mm. long, scabrous on the keel ; stamens 8. — > Splkdet x l. 
Sand hills and drifting sands coast, Ya. to Tex. Sept., Oct Floret and lemma 
(Mex.,8. A.) X8. 

68. DISTfCHLIS Raf. Spike Grass. Alkali Grass 

Spikelets dioecious, 8-16-fiowered, compressed ; glumes 
unequal, firm, keeled, acute; lemmas coriaceous, rigid, 
fainUy many-nerved. — Rigid erect perennials with exten- 
sively creeping rootstocks, involute leaves and small crowded 

ito. D. apicate X 1. panicles of large smooth spikelets. (Name from d(«-rcxot, 

9 Spikelet and floret two-ranked.) 

^fiorat 1. B. Bpicita (L.) Greene. Pale or glaucous; culmfl 


1.5-6 dm. high; sheaths overlapping; blades often oonspicaoosly dIsCtehooi, 
rigidly ascending ; the narrow panicle 2-0 cm. long (rarely longer) ; spikeleCa 
ft-18 mm. long, the florets closely imbricated. Td. marUima Ka!.)— 8alt 
marshes along the coast, N. S. to Tex.; also in alaaline soil in the mtertor. 
(Mex.) Fio. 160. 

69. BKIZA L. Quaking Gbass 

Spikelets few-eeveral-flowered, broad, often beart-ehaped ; florets crowded, 
almost horizontal, the upperiDoet usually imperfect ; glumes snbequal, flrm-mem« 
branaceous, with broad scarious margins ; lemmaft 5>many-nerved (nenres 
often obscure), firm, subchartaceous with a scarious margin, boat-shaped or Ten- 
tricose, heart-shaped at base ; palea much smaller than its lemma. — Annuala or 

perennials with flat leaves and showy terminal panicles. 
(B/>/^i, the Greek name of a kind of grain.) 

1. B. M^DiA L. perennials erect, 4-7 dm. high; »heaUu 
longer than the narrow blades: panicle erect, the stiff capil* 
jj^l lary branches spreading ; wpiicelets nodding, 6-O^owered, 

S^^ 6 mm. lonfft nearly as broad, brown and shining; Ummat 

«M D ^i «iz boat-shaped, — Fields and waste places, Ont. and N. E. June. 
«!lL.lTvr!?r (Adv. from Eu.) Fio. 161. 

Spfk«let tod 6or«t g. B. mInor L. Annual ; culms 1-4 dm. high, often 
branching at the base ; leaves 4-12 cm. long, 4-8 mm. wide ; panicle erect, it? 
slender branches Anally spreading, bearing fascicled branchlets ; spikelets hardly 
nodding, &-6-flowered, pale or plum-color, broadly heart-shaped, 3 mm. long^ 
slightly broader ; lemmas strongly ventricose below. — Waste places, N. J., Va.. 
and south w. June. (Adv. from Eu.) 

70. dACTTLIS L. Orchard Grass 

Spikelets 2-6-flowered, compressed, nearly sessile in dense fascicles, tliese 
arranged in a panicle; glumes unequal, hispid-ciliate on the keel, acute or 
mucronate ; lemmas 6-nerved, ciliate-keeled, short awn-pointed ; paleas a little 
shorter than their lemmas. — Perennial witli flat leaves and 
C^omerate panicles. (Dactylos, a name used by Pliny for a 
grass with digitate spikes, from ddirrvXor, a finger,) 

1. D. olomsrXta L. Coarse, tufted, glaucous, scabrous ; 
culms erect, 9-12 dm. high ; leaves broadly linear; panicle 
6-16 cm. long, the few stiff branches naked below, contracted 
after flowering ; spikelets crowded in dense one-sided clus- 
ters at the ends of the branches. — Fields and waste places les. d. giomenta x t, 
Jane. (Nat. from Eu.) Fio. 162. Bpikeiet displayed. 

CrifostfRus cristXtos L. (Dog's-tail Grass), a slender erect perennial 
4-7 dm. high, with narrow leaves and erect dense spike-like panicles, the spike- 
lets unis^ual, arranged in clusters, the terminal ones fertile, the lower larger 
and sterile, with very narrow lemmas, strongly scabrous on the keel, ooeon 
sparingly in fields and by waysides, Nfd. to Ont. (Adv. from Eu.) 

71. PdA L. Mr A DOW Grass. Spbar Grass 

Spikeleta 2-6-flowered, the uppermost floret imperfect or rudimentary; 
glumes 1-3-nerved, keeled ; lemmas herbaceous or membranaceous, mostly 
Bcarious-tipped, acute or obtuse, keeled, awnless, 6-nerved (the intermediate 
pair of nerves sometimes very obscure), the dorsal or marginal nerves usually 
soft-hairy, often with a tuft of long cobwebby hairs at tlie biwe ; palea 2-toothed. 
— Annuals or perennials, with simple culms, narrow Usually flat leaves ending 
in a cucullate point, and terminal panicles. (B^o, an ancient Greek name to 
'grass or fodder.) 




Florali not webby at tha base ; lemmas dlatinotlj ft-nerred 
Fkratt webby at the base ; intennediats pair of nenres obseore 
Caku from extenstralv creeptn^r rootstocks, not tufted. 
Calms flattened ; epKrieta not over 6 mm. lonf • . 
Cotans t«rete ; apikelets 8 mm. or more long .... 

Calmi tufted. 
Oeepiw rootatoeka preaent 
Paiilde orowded ; calms much exceeding the leares . , 
Panicle diAue ; eulma scarcely exceeding the baaal toarea 
Ho ersepfng rootatoeka, but eulma aometlmes decumbent at baae. 
Lemma ^abroua •.•...... 

Lemma pubeacent at least on the keeU 
Culms upright fh>m a stout crown or caudex ; leaves short and flat 
Culms from a more slender base forming loose tufts, oiten decom 
Culms rarelv over 8 dm. high, with lax leaves, the decumbent 
bases of the culms forming loose tufts ; lemma pubescent 
but very sparsely webbed ; alpine or northern plants . 
Culms taller, or if low, stiff and with acaroely decumbent baaea. 
Lemma not webbed at baae. 
Panicle narrow ; lemma glabroua between the nerves below 
Fanlde apreadlng; lemma pubeacent between the nervea 
below .... 

Lemma webbed at base. 
Marginal nervea glabrona. 
Lunma prominently nerved ; aheatha acabroua . 
Lemma obacnrely nerved ; aheatha amooth • 
Margloal nervea pubescent. 
Intermediate nervea of lemma obscure ; florets acute. 
Fanlcle erect, 0.4-1 dm. long (rarely longer), branches 


Panicle drooping, 1-8 dm. long, branchea apresdinf 
Intermediate nerves of lemma prominent ; florets obtuse 
or acutish. 
Branchea of panicle aplkelet-bearing fW)m the middle ; 

apikeleta 8-4 mm. long 

Branchea of panicle elongated, Bnikelet*bearing only at 
the enda ; apikeleta 5^ mm. long .... 

1. P. annua. 

%. P, Chapmaniana, 

8. P. eomprt9§a, 
4. P. «min«n§. 

10. P. praUn»U. 
n. P. In 

18. P.dMbUU, 
6. P. aipina. 

6. P. laaa. 

7. P. glauca. 

16. P. autumutUU. 

U. P. tHvialU, 
14. P. al9odM. > 

8. P. nmnortMs, 

9. P.trifiora, 

12. P, gylvettria. 
15. P. Wo{fii, 

* Annuals, rarely over 2.6 dm, high, tufted. 

1. P. kwjjk L. (Low Spear Gram.) Culms flattened, decumbent at base, 
aometirnes rooting at the lower nodes ; sheaths loose; leaves very soft; panicle 
pyramidal, 3-8 cm. long, rarely longer ; spikelets crowded, S-6-flowered, about 
4 mm. long ; lemma distinctly 6-nerved, the nerves hairy below. — Cultivated and 
waste grounds, everywhere. Apr. -Oct. (Nat. from Eu.) 

2. P. ChapmaniAnA Scribn. Similar to the preceding but more strict in 
habit; culms terete, erect; sheaths close, mostly at the base; panicle more 
oblong; florets webbed at the base, the intermediate nerves of lemmas very 
obscure, the middle and marginal nerves sometimes hairy below. — Dry soil, 
Va. to B. IlL, and south w. Apr., May. 

* * Perennials. 

'*- Culms from extensively creeping rootstocks, not tufted. 

8. P. coMFRtssA L. (Canada Blub Grass. Wire 
Grass.^ Bluith-green, 2-6 dm. high; culms genlculate- 
asoending, v)iry, flattened; panicles 2-3 cm. long, narrow, 
the usually short branches in pairs, spikelet-bearing to the 
base; spikelets crowded, subsessile, d^(rarely 9)-flowered, 
4-6 mm. long ; lemmas obscurely nerved^ more or less bronzed 
at the summit. — Dry mostly sterile soil, Nfd. to S. C, and 
westw. ; also cultivated as a pasture grass. May-Sept. (Nat 
CromEu.) Fig. 163. 

4. P. dminens J. S. Presl. Glaucous, glabrous, 3-9 dm. 
high; culms stout, erect, terete; sheaths overlapping, clus- 
tered on the sterile shoots ; blades thick, 3-8 mm. wide ; p^iieie x V4. 
panicle heavy, 8-16 cm, long^ contracted ; spikelets 3-6-flow- splkelet and floret x S. 
end, 8-12 mm. long; lanmas 4-6 mm, long, distinctly Lemma x 8. 

168. P. Gumpreaaa, 


nerved (P. glumaris Trin.) — Gravelly seashores, Lower St. Lawrence B., and 
northw.; also Alaska. (E. Asia.) 

•H- 1- CtUms tufted, 
** Alpine or high nortJ^ern plants; culms 4 dm, high or less, 

5. P. alpina L. CtUms erect from a stout crown or caudex^ rather stoat| 
0.6-4 dm. high ; upper blades much shorter than their sheaths, 8-6 mm, wide: 
panicle pyramidal, 3-7 cm. long, the filiform branches spreading^ mostly nake4 
at the base ; spikelets rather crowded^ broadly ovate, 8-6-iiowered, 5-6 mm. long ; 
lemmas 4 mm. long, yillous on the midrib and margins. — Brooksides, open 
mountain slopes, etc., N. 8., Isle Royale, northern shore of L. Superior, and 
northw. Jane- Aug. (Eurasia.) 

6. P. Uza Haenke. Moss-green, /ormfn^Zooae^u/)^; culms slender, 2-4 dm. 
high; blades about 2 mm. wide; panicle 2.6-7 cm. long, simple, often onesided 
and nodding, loosely flowered, the filiform branches erect or ascending, splke- 
let-bearing at the ends ; spikelets 2-4-flowered, about 6 mm. long ; lemma 8-3.5 
mm. long, pilose on the midrib and margins toward the base. — Alpine regionSr 
N. B., n. N. Y., and high northw. (Eu.) 

** ^ Not strictly alpine; culms taller or if low not decumbent at base. 
a Panicle narrow; lemma not loebbed at the base, 

7. P. gladca Vahl. Glaucous; culms strict, rather rigid, 1.6-0 dm. high, 
sheaths crowded at the base ; blades 8-6 cm. long, about 2 mm. wide; ligule not 
over 1 mm. long; panicle 8-7 cm. long, rather compact, the short seabrouB 
branches erect; spikelets often purplish, 2-6-flowered, 6-0 mm, long; glumes 
acute or acuminate ; lemmas 8-8.6 mm. long, villous on the keel and maiginal 
nerves below; intermediate nerves obscure. (P. caesia Sm.) — Rocky shores 
and mts., e. Que. and n. N. E. to n. Minn., northw. and westw. (Euraisia.) 

■■ » Panicle open, branches naked toward the base ; lemma webbed at (he ftoM 

except in no. 10. 

a. Spikelets numerous, more or less crowded, 

b. Marginal and midnerve silky-pubescent. 

S. P. nemorilis L. Grasckgreen, 8-7 dm, high, rarely higher ; culms slen 
der, less rigid than in the preceding, leafy throughout; leaves 

flax, 3-8 cm. long, 2 mm. wide ; panicle 4-10 cm, long, open and 
spreading ; spikelets 2-5-flowered, 8-6 mm. long ; glumes sharply 
acuminate ; lemmas 2-8 mm. long, intermediate nerves obscure^ 
a few webby hairs at base. — Meadows and open woods, Nf d. 
to Pa., w. to Minn., northw. and westw. June-Sept. (Eurasia.) 
IM P. nemonlia. ^'** ^^' — Alpine forms may be low and erect, 1-2 dm. high, 
8p'ik«tot X 8 ^^^^ small narrow panicle, while luxuriant forms of lower alti- 
tude may be creeping at base. 

9. P. triflbra Gilib. (Fowl Meadow Gbass.) CtiZme 8-1 6 dm. Ai^A; sheaths 
rather loose ; ligule 8-6 mm, long; blades 8-16 cm, long, 2-4 mm, 
wide, soft ; panicle often purplish, 1-8 dm, long, pyramidal or 
oblong, Mi^fUiform spreading branches in remote fascicles o/8-lO, 
naked at the base; spikelets 2-4-flowered, about 4 mm. long, 
hardly crowded; lemmas 2.6-8 mm. long, intermediate nerves 
obscure, webby hairs copious. (P. flava Am. auth., not L.; P. 
serotina Ehrh.) — Wet meadows, Pa. to la., and northw; also ^^ p trillonL 
cultivated. July, Aug. (Eurasia, n. A fr.) Fio. 106. SpikeletxS 

10. P. pratlnsis L. (June Grass, Speab Grabs, Kentucky 
Blub Grabs.) Culms 8-12 dm. high, sending out nnmerout 
running rootstocks from the base ; sheaths compressed, overlap- 
ping below, ligvle 1.6 mm. long; blades 1-0 mm. wide, those 
of the culm 6-16 cm. long, the basal ones much longer; panlels 
pyramidal, the slender branches in rather remote fascicles of ft-6, 

iM. P. pratentts. ascending, naked at base ; spikelets crowded, 8-6-flowered, 4-6 
8^1kel«tx8. mm. long; lemmas 8 mm. long, copiously webbed at base; 


tHiermedSat€ nerves ttrong, glabrouB. — Fields and meadows throughoat the U. & 
And B. C, nataralized in the East, indigenoos in the North and West May- 
ivlj. (Eurasia.) Fio. IW. 

b b. Marginal nervee glabroui, 

11. P. tkiviXlxs L. (Rouoh-btalkbd Mbadow Grass.) Culms erect from 
ft somewhat decumbent base, 8-9 dm. high, scabrous below the panicle ; sheaths 
and blades retrorsely scdbroust ligtUe 4-0 mm. long ; panicle 6-16 cm. long, 
resembling that of P. pratensis; spikelets 2-8-flowered, about 8 mm. long; 
lemma strongly nerved, silky-pubescent on the keel only, — Molirt meadows and 
roadsides, e. Que. to S. C. and La., rarely inland. May-Aug. (Nat. from £u.) 

so. Sjpikelets fewer^ scattered on slender pedicels; plants soft and smooth^ 

flowering early, 

b, lakelets 2-4 mm. long ; lemmas broad, obtuse. 

12. P. sylristris Grav. Culms subcompressed, 8-12 dm. high; sheaths 
shorter than the intemodes ; ligule 1 mm. long or less ; blades 2-^ mm. wide, 
those of the culm 3-15 cm. long, the basal ones much longer; panicle 1-2 dm. 
long, oblong-pyramidal, the short flexuous flliform branches spreading or 
reared: spikelets 2-4-flowered, 2.6-4 mm. long; first glume 1-, the second 
S-nerved ; lemmas about 2.6 mm. long, often pubescent below, midnerve pubes- 
cent to the summit. — Rich woods and thickets, N. Y. to Wis., Neb., and southw. 

18. P. d^bilis Torr. Culms terete, weak, 8-10 dm. high ; sheaths compressed, 
much shorter than the intemodes; ligule 1-2 mm. long; blades 2.5-11 cm. 
long, 2 mm, wide or less (rarely wider) ; panicle nodding, 4-12 cm. long, the few 
long capillary branches ascending or spreading at the ends, few-flowered; spike- 
lets 2-4-flowered, 8-4 mm. long ; lemmas glabrous, except the webbed base. — 
fiocky woodlands, e. Que. to Ont., southw. to Pa. and la. May, June. 

b b. Spikelets 6-6 mm. long ; lemmas lanceolate, acute. 

14. P. alsMes Gray. Culms 2-6 dm. high ; sheaths thin, the uppermost elon- 
gated, often sheathing the base of the panicle; blades 1.2-3 dm. long, 2-5 mm, 
wide; panicle 1-2 dm. long, the filiform branches in d*s or 4*s, 
finally spreading, or the lowest whorl ascending ; spikelets 2-8- 
flowered, about 6 mm. long ; lemmas faintly nerved, villous on 
the keel below. — Wooded hillsides and thickets, e. Que. to Minn., 
and southw. May, June. Fio. 167. 

16. P. W61fli Scribn. Culms slender, 4-0 dm. high ; leaves 
mostlf clustered at the base, 2 mm. wide or less, those of the culms -^^ p^ aisodet. 
6-10 cm. long, the b<ual ones much longer; panicle 8-15 cm. long ; gJ^^eiet k 8. 
the spikelets somewhat clustered toward the ends of the ascending 
capillary branches, 2-4-flowered, 5-6 mm. long ; lemmas strongly nerved, the 
marginiu nerves and midnerve villous. — Minn, and 111. to Tenn., rare. 

hbb, Spikelets 6-8 mm. long ; lemmas oblong, conspicuously scarious €U the 

obtuse apex; panicle diffuse, few-flowered. 

16. P. antumniilis Muhl. Culms slender, 8-0 dm. high ; leaves 6-12 cm. 
long, 2-3 mm. wide; panicle 8-20 cm. long, about as broad, the capillary 
flexuous spreading branches with a few spikelets near the ends ; spikelets 4-6- 
flowered, about 6 mm. long ; lemmas pubescent below betvieen the strong nerves, 
not webbed at base. (P. flexuosa Muhl.) — Woods, N. J. and Pa. to Mo., and 
southw. Mar.-May. 

17. P. biAchyphylla Schultes. Culms 8-6 dm. high from running rootstocks, 
2-3'leaved ; the upper leaves 1-5 em. long, the basdl ones about equaling the culm, 
abrupUy cuvpidate-tipped ; panicle 7-12 cm. long, the branches mostly in pairs, 
spreading, spikelet-bearing at the ends ; spikelets 8-4-fiowered ; leanma webbed 
at base, keel and marginal nerves sparingly pubescent, intermediate nerves 
prominent, naked. (P. brevifolia Muhl.) —Rocky or hilly woodlands, Pa., Va.^ 
aud sparingly westw. to Ky. and IlL Apr., May. 



7t. SCOLdCHLOA Link. 

Spikelets 3-4-flowered ; callus hairy ; glames MOle ; lem- 
mas firm, convex below, the nerves unequalf one or more 
ezcurrent as slender teeth ; palea as long as its lemma or 
longer, 2-toothed ; ovary hairy at the summit — Ttdl peren- 
nials with flat leaves and ample spreading panicles. (Name 
probably from aKQXoty a prickle^ and x^^« grasaJ) 

1. 8. fe8tucicea(Willd.)Link. (Sprang lb-top.) Culms 
stout, erect, from thick soft rootstocks, 1-2 ni. high ; leaves 
2-3 dm. long; panicles 1.6-S.6 dm. long, the fascicled 
branches spreading ; spikelet8 6->l2 mm. long ; glumes nearly 
as long as the florets, 8-6-nerved. — Marshes and shallow 
Ipikelet ftod floret x 1. ^i^^gr, la., Minn., and north westw. June, July. Fio. 168. 

iZ. GLYCtUlA K. Br. Manna Grass 

Spikelets few-many-flowered, subterete or slightly compressed, In narrow 
or spreading panicles ; glumes unequal, shorter than the florets ; lemmas oonvez, 
firm, with a scarious margin or apex, and 5-9 strong parallel nerves; paleas 
equaling or a little longer than their lemmas, the strong nerves nearly marginal. -^ 
Usuidly tall aquatic perennials, with simple culms, often partially closed sheaths, 
flat leaves and terminal panicles. (Name from yXvKtfis^ sweety in allosion to 
the taste of the grain.) Panicularia Fabricius. 

1(W. S. festDoaoea. 
fanfcle x >/tr 

Bpikelett t-7 mm. loof, ovate or obloog. 
PftnloU oontnetad, narrow. 
Panicle linear, 1.0-8 dm. lonff ...••• 
Panicle oblong, danae, 7-12 cm. long . . . • . 
Panicle open, lax. 
Splkeleta 8-i mm. wide : lemmas obecarelj nerved. 
Splkeleta orate, O-lO-flowered ...... 

Spikeleta oblong, ft-5-flowcred 

Splioleto not oyer 8.0 mm. wide ; lemmas strongly norred. 

1. O. J brr M f am a . 

8. O. eanadsnsU, 
4. G.la9>a, 

Bocond glome 1 mm. long 
Second glnme 3-S.G mm. long. 
Paniewa ample, many-flowered, 2 dm. or more long 
Panicles narrow, few-flowerod. rarely 1.5 dm. long 
Bplkelots 1-1 cm. long, oompressed-cyllndric. 
Loomia obtuse ; palea aboat the same length. 
Lemma 6 mm. long ........... 

Lemma 8-4.0 mm. long. 
BplkeleU 1.0-4 cm. long, sabMSsOe or nearly so . . . . 

Spikelets 1-1.0 cm. long, on slender pedicels one third to two thirds 
as long .•■......••. 

Lemma acate, mneh exceeded by the palea 

Ow O.n^rvaia* 

8. O. ffrandU. 

T. O.paiUda. 

8. G.JMtan; 

9. 0.—pi4mtHonalU, 

10. O. horeatin, 

11. O. aeiU^U>ra. 

1. O. TonwyAna fSpreng.) Hitchc. Culms solitary or few, erect from a 
running rootstock, &-0 dm. high ; the smooth sheaths closed nearly to the sum* 
mit; blades 3 dm. or more long, 3-6 mm. xeide^ scabrous; panicle linear^ 1.5-3 
dm. long, nodding at the summit; spikelets appressed, 3-4-flowered, about 4 mm. 
long. (G. elongata Trin.) — Wet woods. Que. to Minn, and Pa., and In the 
mts. to N. C. July, Aug. 

2. 6. obtftsa (Muhl.) Trin. Culms stout, erect, 3-12 dm. high ; sheaths dosed 
about half their length, the lower overlapping; blades 2-^5 dm, long, 4-8 
wide, smooth below, rough above; panitU finally exserted, 
oblong, dense, 0-18 cm. long: spikelets 3-7-flowered. 5-6 mm, 
long; the scarious apex of ttie lemma often revolute. — Bogs 
and swampy places, N. B. to Pa., and southw. near the coast. 
July, Aug. 

3. 6. canadensis (Michx.) Trin. Kattlesicakv Grass. 
Culms solitary or few, stout, erect, 6-10 dm. high ; sheaths over- 
lapping below, compressed; blades 1.5-3.5 dm. long, 4-8 mm. 
wide, scabrous; panicle 1.5-3 dm. long, nearly as wide, very 109. G. 
loose and open, the capillary remote branches drooping, nak^ l!^y^l^d^» xft. 


Mow; pikelets 5-l(^flowered, avaU, tumid, Briza-like, 5-7 mm. long ; lemmas 
obtuse or abruptly acute. — Bogs and wet places, Nfd. to Ont. and Minn., a. to 
N.J. and e. Kan. July. Fig. 169. 

4 G. Uxa Scribn. Similar to tall forms of the preceding, 1>1.6 ni. high ; 
blades sometimes 6 dm. or more long ; panicle diffuse, 3-4 dm. long, nearly aa 
wide ; pikelets S-b-Jlotoered^ 4--5 mm. long, 8 mm, wide, oblong; florets Jirm but 
not tumid; lemmas abruptly acuminate; palea nearly as 
long. — Swampy places, Me. to N. J. July-8ept. 

5. G. nerrikta (Wilid.) Trin. Fowl Meadow Grass. 
Ofien in large clumps ; culms erect, 3-10 dm. high ; sheaths 
acatbioos, closed almost to the summit, the lower overlap- 
ping ; blades 1.6-3 dm. long, 4-10 mm. wide, scabrous above ; 
panicle expanded, nodding, 1-2 dm. long, the capillary 
branches drooping, naked below ; spikelets purplish, 3-7- y.^ ^ nerrit*. 
floweied, 8-4 mm. long ; glumes minute, the second about gpu^gj^^ ^^^ flowtx^^ 
1 m». long, ticice as long as the first. — Moist meadows BiweofteDimaxft. 
and wet places, common, Nfd. to Fla., and westw. June. 

(En.) Fio. 170. — A low strict form (var. str/cta Scribn.) occurs from Nfd. 
to a Me., and also in western mts. 

6. 6. grindis Wats. (Heed Meadow Grass.) Culms clustered, stout, erect, 
M.5 m. high ; sheaths loose, the lower rough, ovt rlapping ; blades 1.8-3 dm. long, 
5-16 mm. wide, smooth or slightly scabrous ; panicle 2-A dm, long, very com- 
pound, loose and open, nodding at the summit ; spikelets numerous, with purple 
fi/rets and whitish glumes, 4-7-ilowered, 5-0 mm, long; the palea nearly as long 
as the 7-nerved lemma. {Panicularia americana MacM.) — Banks of streams, 
wet meadows, ditches, etc., e. Que. to Alaska, s. to Pa., and westw. July. 

7. G. pAlUda (Torr.) Trin. Culms slender, 3-10 dm. high, ascending from a 
creeping base; leaves ^15 cm. long, 2-8 mm. wide ; panicles lax, few-flowered, 
7-16 cm. long, the few slender branches ascending or spreading at the ends, 
naked at the base; spikelets pale green, loosely 4-l)-flowered, 6-7 mm. long; 
giumes obtuse; lemmas 7-nerved, scabrous, dentate or erose at the obtuse 
apex. — Shallow water, N. S. to Va., w. to Ont., Ind., and Ky. May. June. 

Var. FemAldii Hitchc. Culms very slender, usually geniculate and spread- 
ing, 2-4 dm. high ; leaves 4-8 cm. long, 2-3 mm. wide ; panicles 5-7 cm. long, 
the fascicled branches lax, flexuous; pikelets Z^-^ftowered, 4-5 mm. long; 
glomes and lemmas obtuse, usually erose at the summit. — Wet places, e. Que. 
to Me. and Minn. July, Aug. 

8. G. flilitans (L.) R. Br. Culms somewhat flattened, erect from a creeping 
base, 6-10 dm, high; sheaths overlapping, closed nearly to the summit, smooth ; 

blades 6-12 cm. long, 4-8 mm. wide; panicle finally exserted, 
2.5-4 dm. long, very slender, the few remote branches appressed 
or finally horizontal, a spikelet subsessile in each axil ; spikelets 
7-12-flowered, 2-2.5 cm. long, nearly sessile ; glumes acute, scan- 
ous and shining; lemmas 7-nerved, scabrous, with a shining 
scarious margin and summit, narrowed above but obtuse, erose ; 
the tip of the palea exceeding the lemma. (Panicularia brachy- 
phylla Nash.) — Shallow water, Gulf of St. Lawrence ; near N. Y . 
City. June-Au^. (Eurasia.) 

0. G. septentrionillis Hitchc. Culms erect, 1-1.5 m. high, 
thick and so/t; sheaths overlapping, loose, smooth, the upper 
171. G. septan- closed nt arly to the summit, ligule 5-6 mm. long, decurrent ; 
tiioB«iifl. blades 1.2-2.r> dm, long, 6-8 mm. wide, nearly smooth, rather 
SpOutot X 1^. obtuse ; panicle 2-2.5 dm. long, the subflexuous branches ascend- 
ing, a spikelet subsessile in each axil; spikelets 8-12-flowered. 
1J^2 cm. long, subsessile or on short pedicels ; glumes obtuse, scarious ana 
ahinhig; Ummas 4-4.5 mm. long, faintly l-nei-ved, hispidulous, with a shining 
Ksrious summit, erose-obtuse, slightly exceeded by the tip of the palea. 
{G. ftuitans Am. auth., not R. Br. ) — In shallow water, N. E. to Va., and 
westw.— Intermediate between Q, fluitans and the following, but usually stotttai 
•nd broader leaved than either. Fia. 171. 


10. O. borelUa (Saah) Batchelder. Similar to G.Jluitatu: the lesTes com. 
monly condnplicate ; panicles 1.5-6 dm. long, often nearly simple, the slender 
branches erect or spreading toward the ends, a pediceled spikelet in each axil ; 
spikeleta fuually more numerous, 7-13-fiowered, 1-1.5 em. long, on slender 
pedicels {-^ as long; glomes subacute; lemmcu 8.5-4 mm. Zon^, thinner, strongly 
f-nenred, minutely scabrous or glabrous, only the nerves hispidulous, obtuse and 
erose at the shining scarious summit, slightly exceeding their paleas, — In wet 
places or shallow water, Nfd. to la., and northwestw. June-Aug. 

11. 6. «catiil5ra Torr. Culms flattened, weak and slender, 8-0 dm. high ; 
sheaths overlapping, the uppermost inclosing the base of the panicle ; blades 
O.ft-1.6 dm. long, scabrous above ; panicle simple, 1.5-8.5 dm. long, the stLS 
branches appresMd or finally spreading ; spikelets subsessile, 6-12-flowered, 2-A 
em. long ; lemmas 6-d mm. long, acute, scabrous, exceeded by the long-aeuf»^ 
nate bicuspidate pdleas. — Wet soil and in shallow water. Me. to Del., w. to O. 
May, June. 

74. PUCCmilXIA Pari. 

Spikelets as In Glyeeria but lemmas firmer, the nerves obscure, often sub- 
acute and minutelv pubescent at base. — Tufted perennials, mostly glancona 

saline species. (Named for Frof, Benedetto Puc^nelli, an 
Italian botanist). 

1. P. marftima (Huds.) Pari. (Goosb Grass, Sea Spbav 
Grass.) Culms erect, 8-5 dm. high, firom slender rootstoeks ; 
leaves flat or involute, acute or pungent ; panicles 8-12 cm. 
long; lower branches solitary or in pain, appressed or ex- 
panded ; spikelets i-10'Jlov>ered, 6-12 mm, long ; lemmss obtuse 
or truncate, S-A mm. long. — Salt marshes and beaches along 
1M o ^1 ^® coast, Mass., and north w. July, Aug. — Somewhat variable 
!r f;"";. in the form of the panicle and size of the florets. (Eu.) 

SSSL'*{"^ Fio. 172. ^ ^ 

^^^^i 2. P. angustita (R. Br.) Band & Redfleld. Culms ereet or 

^' ascending, 1.5-4 dm. high, from very slender rootstoeks: leaves 
very narrow and involute ; liaule long; panicles 8-8 cm, long, narrow, tlie soli- 
tary branches appressed or finally ascending ; spikelets 2-^Jloteered, 8-6 mm. 
long ; lemmas obtuse or subacute, 8 mm. or less long. (P. maritima, var. (f ) 
minor Wats.) — Salt marshes and sandy coasts, Ct, and northw. June, July. 

8. P. distans (L.) Pari. No rootstoeks; culms rather stout, 8-6 doL hi^, 
geniculate below ; leaves mostly flat, short; Ugule short; jMinicIes 6-18 cm. long^ 
the branches in A^s or b'*s, soon spreading and finally deflexed, 
usually naked below; spikelets S-Q-flowered, 8-6 mm. long, 
crovoded; first glume less than half as long as Unoest floret; 
lemmas truncate-obtuse, about 2 mm. long. — Salt marshes along 
the coast and on ballast, Del. to N. B. June-Aug. — Apparently 
much rarer than the last, and perhaps not native. (Eurasia, 
n. AfrO Pio. 178. ^ti. P. dlatua. 

4. P. alroides (Nutt.) Wats. & Coult. Similar in habit to spikdetxs. 
the preceding; blades 5-10 cm. long, often involute; panicle- 
branches ascending or erect or the lowest finally spreading or reflexed ; spikeleU 
2-7-flowered, not crowded; glumes acute or subacute, the first more than half 
as long as the lowest fioret, — In saline soil from the JDakotas southw. and 
westw. ; occasionally eastw. in Minn, and Mich. ; adv. in s. Me. {ParUn), 

5. P. BoRR^Ri (Bab.) Hitchc. Panicle compact, the branches mostly spike- 
let4>earing from base and not deflexed. — On ballast and waste places along 
the coast, from DeL to N. S. (Adv. from Eu.) 

70. FESXtrCA L. Psscua Grass 

Spikelets 3-many-flowered ; glumes unequal, narrow, acute, the first 1-, the 
second 3-nerved ; lemma firm in texture, at least below, usually narrow, convex 
or subcaiinaite, 5-Qerved# acute Cobtuse In 2 species') or tapering into a atraigbt 


awn; palea luaaUj about eqn&ltng the lemma. — Ferenolals or annnala wltti 
KRdiDal p&nldee. (An ancient Latin name of some kind oE graaa, of uncertatn 

(1. AdbuIii ttuiMuiiiinrane. — VfiLPiA(C.O. nni«l.)Be1ch«ib. 
Avamorv Uwa twJc«u lonf u theleiniiiH; nplketeU l-C-floffArtd. 
Tint ^DinA ona third to one halfu j4>nK ha m^ oocaot] , . » 1, X nvwrcv, 

AwB BOI loDger thu lbs IsmmL splkeleti J-13-aanand . , '. », ^, ottofiopa. 

|1 FnDQlali; Muadoig. — LuniTtcxOrlMb. 
LsTctlDTolnte; I«inm>mw]-ska|>iid. uwned orpotntcd. 

1. F. MTtmoa L. Calms erect or geniculate at base, aolltarjr or In small tufu, 
S-6 dm. high ; jAfotAi smooth, overlapping; blades smoolh, linear, inroluCe or 
rarely flat; panicle 7-20 cm. long, narrow, the branches appreesed, the tips 
Buaiewha.t nodding ; spikxleta 4-6-flowercd, 8-1 1 mm. loag ; glumrs verj/ unequal, 
lA« jfrM 1-1.5 mm., the tecond 4-^ mm. long ; lemma line&r-lanceolate, tcabrout 
nbovt, atlenoate into a scabrous awn about twice lis length. — Dry fields and 
Tute places, N. E. to O., and soiithw. June, July. (NaL from Eu.) 

2. F. aciOrea Nutt. Similar to llie preceding, nsnally lower ; panicle erect ; 
tpikfltU 4-b mm. long ; first glume 2 mm., eecond 3.6 mm, long ; lemtna sparsely 
ikort pubeseeat. — Saudy ground, s.e. Va., and southw. May, June. 

3. F. octoflbra Walt. Culms slender, erect, often tufted, 0.5-4 dm. high ; 
thfoths shorter t^an tite irUemodes; blades narrowly linear, Involute or rarely 
Bat, soft, erect or ascending ; partteie narrow, erect, S-12 cm. long, vsuatlg re- 
lucedto a more or lets lecund raceme; splkelels &'12 mm. long; glumes subu- 
late-lanceolate ; lemma lanceolate, attenuate into a srabroas stra^bt awn 1-T 
mm. long. (.P. (en«Ha 'Willd.) — Dry awrile soil, w.Que. to B. C, and through- 
out the U. a., especially southw. Fio. 174. 

i. F. rdbn Ir Culmssolilafyor/etc, erect from creeping rootstoeks,i-9ini. 
ti^ ; sheaths and blades smooth ; panicle 5-20 cm. long, usually cotitracCed, 
the branches erect: splkelela 4-6(rarely 10)-Rowered, mostly 7-i mm. long, 
often paeons-purplish ; glumes smooth ; lemma 5-7 mm. long, smooth or sea- 
bmus toward the apex, terminating In a scabrous aisn usually 
ttboal kalfaslong. — Brackish meadows or low sandy soil, mostly 
near the coast, Lab. to Va. (Eu.) Var. PHOLfFESA l*iper. Floral 
organs abnonnally elongated. — Mta. ot N. E. and Que. Var. 
NEoiBTACHTB Gaudin. Bpikelets 10-12 mm. long. — Que., N. J. 
(En.) Var. MuiTiPLia* (Hoffm.) Asoh, &, Graebn. Blades flat j 
epiKeleta green. — Me. (Eu.) Var. bcbvillAiia Merl. & Koch. 
Spikelets pubescent with short hairs. — Local, e. Que. to N. H. 
{Brlgga) and Vt. (Jones). (Ku.) 

G. F. occidentills Hook. Culms densely tufted, no root- 
Uoeks, erect, slender, glabrous and shining, 6--8 dm. high ; basal 
Itavet numerous, fili/orm-lnvolule, soft ; panicle loose, subeecund, 
Sexuous, 8-20 cm. long ; spikelets loosely S-o-flowered, ft-10 mm. ,^4 y oefoUor* 
l/Mg; ^umes unequal, variable even on the same plant, mostly gpiteigi ^s 
acute or acuminate ; lemma &-6.5 mm. long, nun about as long. 
—Open woods, Keweenaw Co., Mich. (Fancell) ; and in the Northwest. 

H. P. OTlna L. (Sheep's Febcl-k.) Densely tufted ; culniB erect, 1.5-fi dm. 
high ] Uavei pale green, capillary, strongly involute, ^mi, tlie basal ones &-I2 
Cm long, Lbose of the culm often very short ; panicle contracted a^r Uoomifif 

mal'BliAKDAI,— U 


&-10 em. long, branches ascending; spikelets 6-7.5 mm. tong^ 
3-6(rarely 9)-flowered, usually pale ; florets rather close ; lemtnG 
smooth or slightly scabrous, :^{.5 mm. long^ attenucUe int*f an 
aton 1 mm. long or more. — Occurs native in nearly typioal form 
about the Great I^akes and in the White Mts. ; also introduced 
from Eu. Fio. 1 75. — The native form tends to have astrict narrow 
panicle, differing in this respect from the typical European plant 
Var. HispfDULA Hack. Lemmas hirsute, — Sparingly introduced, 
N. Y. and Pa. (Eu.). Var. gafillXta (Lam.) Hack. Lemma 
awnleas; leaves very slender. — Me. to N. J., Mich., and north w. 
(Nat. from Eu.) Var. brevif6lia (R. Br.) Hack. Culms &-10 
cm. high; sheaths closed; blades soft.— Calcareous cli&, Nfd., 
179. F. ovioA. e. Que., Vt., and northw. Var. durii^scula (L.) Koch. Leaf- 
8pikeietx5. blades thick, flattened, 0.7-1 mm. wide. — Sparingly introduced. 
Wis. and la. (Adv. from Eu.) 

7. F. elXtior L. (Taller or Meadow Fescue.) Loosely tufted, often 
with short creeping rootstocks ; culms erect, 5-12 dm.- high, smooth ; blades 
1-6 dm. long, 4-8 mm. wide, scabrous above ; panicle erect, 
1-2 dm. long, contracted after blooming, branches spikelet- 
hearing nearly to the base; spikeletsO-ll mm. long; glumes 
lanceolate ; lemma oblong-lanceolate, scabrous at the summit, 
the scarious apex acute, rarely short^^wned. (^F. pratensis 
lluds.) — Meadows and vraste places, throughout the U. S. 
and s. Can. June-Aug. (Nat. from Eu.) Fio. 176. 

8. F. nAtans Spreng. Culms solitary or few, erect, 4-12 
dm. high ; sheaths glabrous or pubescent ; blades 1-3 dm. . «^ 
long, 4^7 mm. wide, scabrous, sometimes puberulent above ; ].,,' *™**'' ^ i^ 
panicle very loose, 1-2 dm. long, usually subsecund, and »P**^*^'«^ °«»"J^ •«« 
more or less nodding, branches spikelet-bearing near the ?™n«d) """* 
ends, at first erect, finally spreading ; spikelets 3-6-flowered, ^ 

6-7 mm. long ; glumes firm, the first 3 mm., the second 4 mm. long ; lemma 

smooth, oblong-ovate, subacute, the narrow margin hyaline.^ 

Moist woods and copses, N. S. to Minn., and south w. June, 

July. Fio. 177. 

0. F. Sh6rtii Kunth. Similar to the preceding ; panicle more 

compact, the branches spikelet-bearing from about the middle; 

the glumes slightly longer ; the lemma broader, more obtuse. — 

Wet prairies. 111., la., Kan., and south w. 

10. F. oioAMTi^A (L.) Vill. Culms 6-12 dm. high ; blades 
ITT P nutans 1-2-4 dm. long, 6-16 mm. wide, paler and roughened on the 
Siiikelet x 8 'ipp^r surface, margins very scabrous ; panicle 1-4 dm. long, at 

length spreading, somewhat drooping ; spikelets 10-13 mm, long^ 
6-9-flowered ; glumes hyaline-margined; lemma sparsely scabrous, bidentate 
€U the scarious apex, bearing an awn more than twice as long. — Waste places, 
near the coast. Me. to N. Y., rare. (Adv. from Eu ) 

76. BRdHUS L. Brome Grass 

Spikelets few-many-flowered ; glumes unequal, acute, 1-5-nerved ; lemmas 
longer than the glumes, convex or sometimes keeled, 6-9-nerved, usually 
2-toothed at the apex, awnless or awned from between the teeth or just below ; 
palea a little shorter than the lenmia, 2-keeled ; grain furrowed, adnate to the 
palea. — Annuals, biennials, or perennials with flat leaves and terminal panicle» 
of rather large spikelets. (An ancient name for the oat, from fipQ/m, food.i 

Annaals or biennial <*. 
Lemma broadly elliptical : awn wanting or not oyer 1 cm. lon^. 
Awn, If present, fitraifrhU 
Sheaths t^labroti^ ... , . I. B. Meatimu*, 

Sheaths pubciKvnt, 
Awn about at> \ung a» the narrow lemmaa. 
Pianlcle ralber (leuse, erect . • . • 8. A hordsa 


Ftalrle open. 
Lemma less than 7 mm. long. 

Panicle 2-8 dm. lone . . . • &. B, arventis. 

Panicle less than 1 dm. lonf; 8. ^. racemogun. 

Lemma 9-10 mm. long ; panicle drooping 4. B. annmitUitu^. 

Awn abort or none ; lemmas very broaa ^. B. hriMa^onnit. 

Awn b«nt or twiated • • . • 7. i?. Japonictis. 

Lemma narrow ; awn orer 1 cm. long. 
Fknicle open, drooplnff. 
Awn aboat 1.5 cm. long ......•••. 8. B. Uctorum. 

Awii UrS cm. long m , 9. B. aUrilU. 

Panicle comjiact, ovoid, erect ..•.••••• 10. JR. rubent. 
Fanielea lan^e, open and drooping. 
Sheaths shorter than the internodea. 
Lemma sinonih on the back, ciliatti-puboaceiit along the margins . W. B, ciliatus. 

Lemma evenly pubescent all over 12. B.purgaus. 

Bheaths lonfrer than the internodes, much overlapping. 
Sheaths ^{larsely pubescent except a conspicuous ring at summit • 18. B. alti«9imus 

Sheaths densely pubescent lA. B, incanu9. 

Pknieles small, narrow, erect or nearly so. 

First glume 8-nenred 16. J9. Knlmii. 

flrat glome l-nerved 16. ^. €rectu9, 

§ I. EUBBOMUS Godron. Annuals or biennials ; glumes rather broad ; lem- 
mas broadly elliptical. Species all introduced. 

1. B. secalInus L. (Cheat or Chess.) Culms 4-9 dm. high ; sheaths smooth 
and strongly nerved; blades sparingly pilose above; panicle open^ its branches 
somewhat drooping; spikelets 5-15-flowered, glabrous; glumes 
5-7 mm. long; lemma 8-11 mm. long, becoming at maturity 
convex, thick and inrolled at the margins, awns short and 
rather weak. — Fields and waste places, common. — The flop ts 
are somewhat distant, so that, in side view, openings are visible 
along the rhachilla at the base of the florets. (Nat. from £u.) 

2. B. bordbXceus L. (Soft Chess.) Culms 1-6 dm. high ; a ii, i Tx^L 
whole plant more or less pubescent ; panicle erect and con- p^oret^x lU? 
tmcted; spikelets 6-1 0-flowered ; lemma 9-10 mm. long^ softly 

pilose, awn about 1 cm. long. (B. mollis L.) — Fields and waste places, infre- 
quent, N. S. to Va. Var. lept68tachvs (Pens.) Beck. Spikelets glabrous or 
merely scabrous. — Del. to D. C. (Adv. from Eu.) 

3. B. RACEI168US L. Culms 3-6 dm. high ; sheaths pubescent ; panicle short 
(not over 7 cm. long), upright; spikelets 6-8-flowtrcd, glabrous; glumes 6->< 
mm. lonj? ; lemma 7 mm. long^ with an awn about 6 mm. long. — Waste places, 
Que. to Del., rare. (Adv. from Eu.) 

4. B. commutXtds Schrad. Differs from the preceding in having an open 
drooping panicle as much as 1.6 dm. long, and usually longer awns. — Waste 
places throughout, especially in the East. — Florets more closely imbricated tlian 
in B. secalinusy so that in side view no openings are seen at base of florets; 
lemmas thinner and not inrolled at the margins. (Adv. from Eu.) 

6. B. ARvfeNsis L. Culms 3-9 dm. high, erect or geniculate at the base ; 
sheaths pubescent; panicle large, open, with long drooping branches; glinncs 
4.5-6 mm. long; lemma 7-8 mm. long, smooth or minutely scabrous; awn 
about as long, straight or slightly bent. — O. {Stair) and Mo. (Bush). (Adv. 
from Eu.) 

6. B. brizaepArmis Fisch. & Mey. Culms 1-4 dm. high ; panicle open and 
drooping ; spikelets broadly ovate, the larger as much as 2 cm. long and 1.3 cm. 
wide, awnless. — Mass. to Del., Mich., and Ind. (C. P. Smith) ; rare. (Adv. 
from Eu.) 

7. B. JAP<'>NK'i:8 Tlmnb. Culms 1.6-6 dm. high ; panicle open and droopinc. 
one-sided; spikelets linear, 2.5 cm. long, t*»-l 2-tl«) wired ; leniniaK glabrous, » 
mm. long, with a bent or twisted awn about 12 mm. long. (B. patulus Mtrteiis 
4 Koch.) — Near Boston, Mass. {Swan)-, Lafayette, Ind. (Dorner). (Adv. 
from EiL> 



179. B. teotoram. 
Sptkelet X 1. 

J 2. STENOBROmUS Griseb. Annuals or biennials, with narrow gl 

and lemmas and long awns. Introduced. 

8. B. tbct6rum L. Culms slender, tafted, 8-6 dm. high ; sheaths and blades 
pubescent ; panicle broad, rather dense, secund, drooping, 6--15 cm. long; spike- 
lets 13-20 mm. long, nodding ; lemma pubescent ; awn 13-16 mm. 
long. — Waste places, Me. to Ill.i and souths. (Nat from Eu.) 
Fio. 179. 

9. B. BTiaiLis L. Similar to the preceding, sometimes lesft 
pubescent ; culms usually taller and geniculate at base ; panicU 
1-2 dm. long, broad, lax, drooping, the slender branches usuallf 
bearing but one spikelet; spikelets 2.6-^i§ cm. long, drooping; 
lemma scabrous or sc^ibrous-puberulent ; awn 2-3 cm. long, — 
Waste places and river banks, Mass. to D. C, O., and 111.; 
also on Pacific coast. June. (Nat. from. Eu.) 

10. B. RtjRKKs L. Panicle erects compact^ ovoid, usua2l$ 
purplish, 4-7 cm. long ; awns about 2 cm. long. — Waste ground^ 

N. Blllerica, Mass. \8\oan) ; introduced on Pacific coast. (Adv. from Eu.) 

S 8. Z&RN A (Panzer) Ledeb. Short-lived erect perennials, with weak drooping 
panicles and more or less pubescent florets. Nearly all native. 

11. B. ciliAtus L. Culms rather slender, 7'-12 dm. high ; sheaths retrorselj 
pubescent or nearly smooth ; blades 2.5-8.5 dm. long, 1 cm. wide, typic<Ul^ 
sparse pilose on both surfaces, but sometimes almost smooth ; panicle broad 
lax and drooping, about 1.5-2.5 dm. long, branches spikelet-bearing 
near the ends; spikelets b-^-flowered, 1.5-2.2 cm. long; glumes 
narrow, smooth; lemmas 10-12 mm. long, smooth on the back^ 
ciliate-pubescent along the margins, distinctly d-nerved or faintly 
5-7-nerved, obtuse and slightly bifid at the apex ; awn straight, 
8-5 mm. long. — Moist woods and banks, Nfd. to N. Y., w. to 
Man. and Minn. July, Aug. Fio. 180. 

12. B. pdrgans L. Culms rather stout, 7-14 dm. high ; sheaths, 
at least the lower, usually sparsely retrorse-pilose ; blades 1.5-3 dm. 
long, 5-15 mm. wide, pubesceTit on the nerves above or smooth ; 
panicle large, lax, nodding ; spikelets mostly l-W-floxmred, 2-2.5 
cm. long; glumes sparsely pubescent; lemmas 10-12 mm. long, acute or sub- 
acute, densely pubescent all over, distinctly 6-nerved, or another pair of nerves 
rthowing at maturity, emarginate ; awn straight, 4-6 mm. long. (B. cUiatus, var. 
Gray.) — Moist rocky woodlands, w. N. E. to Fla., w. to Wyo. and Tex. 

13. B. altlssimua Pursh. Differs from the preceding in having overlapping 
sheaths, furnished at the summit with a pubescent ring, otherwise sparsely 
pubescent, and in having broader and distinctly 7 -nerved lemmas, the pubes- 
cence more silky and increasing in density toward t?ie base. (B. 
purgans, var. latiglumis Shear.) — Wooded hills, Ct. to Pa., w. to 
Mont, and Mo. 

14 B. inc&nus (Shear) Ilitchc. Similar to the preceding, 
sheaths densely and softly short-pilose; spikelets much as in A 
purgans, but flowering later than that species, with which it is as- 
sociated. (B. purgans, var. Shear.) — Wooded hills, Pa. to Va., 
S. Dak., and Tex. 

15. B. Kilmii Gray. (Wild Chess.) Culm slender, 0.5-1 m. 
high ; sheaths and blades conspicuously or sparingly villous ; pani- 
cle 7-10 cm. long ; spikelets drooping on capillary peduncles, closely 
7-12-flowered, 1.5-2.5 cm. long, densely silky all over; first glume 

distinctly S-nerved, the second ^nfrved ; lemma 8-10 mm. long, 7-nerved, obtuse ; 

awn straight, 2-3 mm. long. — Dry ground, w. N. K. to Pa., Mo., Minn., and 

north w. June, July. Fig. 181. 
16. B. ERfecTus Huds. Culms* erect. 6-9 dm. high, ghihrtnta ; sheaths nearly 

glabrous; blades narrowly linear, sparingly pilose; panicle 1-2 dm. long, with 

few ascending branches ; spikelets narrow ;^r«< glume l-nerved^ second S^nervtd 

ISO. B.c!Uata8 

Spikelet aod 

181. n. Kalmii. 
Spikelet X 1. 



Umma 10-12 mm. long, acuminate^ ^nervedy evefdy <ea6roiw-p«&ew«fit onlnek ) 
ami 6-6 mm. long. — Fields, Me. lo Ont., local (Adv. from En.) 

77. L6LIUU L. Darnel 

Spikeieta seyeTal-flowered, solitary in alternate notches of the contlnaoofl 
ihftchis, one edge of each spikelet placed against the rhachis, the gjome on that 
edge wanting ; second glome rigid, 5-7-nerved, exceeding 
the lowest floret; rhachilla flattened; lemmas convex, 
6-7-nerved, nerves converging above, awned or awnless ; 
grain adherent to the palea. — Annuals or perennials with 
simple erect culms, flat leaves and terminal spikes. (Ancient 
Latin name. ) 

1. L. PBRjfevNB L. (Common D., Pekbnntal Rat or 
Rtb Grass.) Sbort-lived perennial; cnlmsS-Odm. high, 
giabroos; the axis of inflorescence glabrous except the 
angles; leaves usually not over 4 mm. wide, folded in the 
ixid; glume shorter than the S-lO-flowered spikelet^ lemma 

abotU 6-6 mm. long, awnless. — Fields and 

roadsides, ch iefly eastw. June. —This and 

the following are cultivated as meadow 

grasses. (Nat. from Eo.) Fio. 182. 
2. L. multifl6rum Lam. (Italian 

Rtb Grass.") Differs from the preceding 

in having tne upper portion of the culm 

and the convex side of the axis of inflorescence roughened ; 

leaves convolute in the bud ; spikeiets lO-^O-Jlowerpd ; lemmas 

7-8 mm. long, usually at least the upper awned, {L. italicum 
1S8. u temulentniiu R* Br.) — Fields and roadsides. June. (Nat. from £u.) 
Spikeiets x^. 8. L. TEMULtNTUM L. (Bbardbd D.) Annual; culms 

Floret xi%. taller; glume fully equaling the b-l-fiowered spikeiets; awn 

longer or shorter than the lemma, — Grain fields and waste 
traces, rare. (Adv. from Eu.) Fio. 183. 

L. FBSTocXcEUM Link, a glabrous perennial with approximate spikeiets, or the 
lower remote, the glume shorter than the awnless florets, occurs occasioaally on 
ballast and waste groimds in N. J and Wilmington, Del (Adv. from Eu.) 

182. L. perenndi 
Two spikeiets x 1%. 

78. LEPXtTRUS R. Br. 

Spikeiets l-2-floweT9d, awnless, solitary, alternate in ez- 
eanUJons of the articulate rhachis ; glumes equal, placed edge 
to edge in front of the florets, except in the terminal spikelet, 
ooiiaoeous, rigid, 6-nerved, acute ; lemma much smaller than 
the glumes, hyaline, keeled. — Our species a low branching 
annual, with slender cylindrical straight or curved terminal 
spikes which disarticulate at maturity, the joints falling with 
the appressed spikeiets attached. (Name from Xcxr^f, nar- 
rouT, and o^pd, tail, or spike.) 

1. L filif6rmis fRoth) Trin. Tufted, 1-2 dm. high, 
decumbent at base, glaorous ; leaves short and narrow ; spikes 
3-10 dm. long, included at the base in the sheath, joints and 
q^elets 6 nun. long. — Borders of brackish marshes, Md. 
and Va. ; and on ballast north w. ( Adv. from Eu. ^ F:o. 184. 

79. AGROPtRON Gaertn. 

184. L. fllifonnls X 8. 

Part of infloresoenoe 

and spikelet 

Spikeiets d-many-flowered, solitary ^rarely in pairs) in alternate notches of 
ooe continuous v rarely articulate) rhachis, the side of the spikelet placed against 
te rhachis : glumes equal, opposite or placed edge to edge on the outer side 


of the Bpikelet, OBoally sabcorUceous and rigid, sereral-nerved, nsuallj shorUi 
ttian the florets, acut« or awned ; leuiinaa convex or slightly keeled aboTC, &-7< 
nerved, acute or anned from tlie apex ; paka shorter than its lemma, brieily. 
ciliat« on the keels ; grain pubescent at the ftummit. usually adherent tn the 
palea. — Perennials with simple culms and terminal spikes, (Name from d-isii. 
afield, and Tup6j, wheal, t 

Cnlma ■ollttrj or Ifiw, «r 

Lammu fUbnaiC > 
Lhvu ll.t. iMb. wl 

fi lUntljr nerrcd. Iang-*ci 

ibniptlj narrowed lo m nllur blnnl puLnl '!, A. /tunfftut. 

liiiiniflstli^.wldt^nwtaboTethfi middle . i. A. M/lanim. 

Oliiin«nnn. luimwaUVDniM"' Ihamlddls S. A. ttnrrum. 

k«n nbodl I«lcrs the Jenctb of Ih« Itnuat. 

Bplke nod<t1i>E, •ymnHlrlcil . . . . . . . T. A.canlHum. 

Spike ttta, onu->1ded ... 0. A. JticAjinltmUi. 

1, A. Smfthii Itydb. (BLCE-JontT.) Gloacoas i culms rigid. 3~1G dm. 
bigb ; team rigid, bluigh green, scabrous, becoming invii|ui«, 1-2 dm. Inng, 
4-6 mm. wide, basal leaves lon^T; spikes 0.8-1.5 dm. lone; 
splkelcU T-l^flowered, 1.2-2 cm, long, usually somewliat dis- 
tant, glabrous or nearly so, acute, compressed, divergent, some- 
times in pairs ; Rlumee acuminate, J or j as long as spikelet, 
nerves usually faint ; Umma» mueronnle or awn-pointed, h-ird, 
faintly nerved. {A. or^dettlaU Scribn. ; A. sjileatiini Scritrn. & 
J. G. Sm., as to description, not FeUuca tpicata J'urxli.) — 
I'rairies, Mich, to Kan., and westw. July. — RooMtock and 
lower portion of culms pray or tawny, not bright yellow^green 
OS in jI. repeni, Fio. ]Sf>. 

2. A. PuHOBHB (I'era.) R. & 8. Glaucous; culms slender, 
I ri|{id, 0-9 dm. high ; leateg 18-24 cm. long, narrowed intu a 

rigid tanolnte point; spikes 1-1.2 dm. long, flattened parallel 
lo the rhacLEs; the broad compressed npikeleU ahing each side 
of ths rhachia, overlapping, tisaallg allrrnalely diverging to Ike 
right and left, thu» appearing i-ranked, T-ll-flowered,^ 
cm. long ; glumes abniptly narrowed to a 
bluntpoint, 8-9 mui. long; lemmas about 1cm. 
long, acuW, mucmnate or very short-awned. 
( A. tetraglachys Scribn. & J. G. Rm.) — Sandy 
seacoastof Mo. July. (Nat. from Ku.) 

3. A.Rl:pENs(T,.)BeauT. (Couch.Ql 
iw. A. Bmiibfi or QiicK Gh*ks.) Bright green or glau 

BpLteiutxs. it-12dm. hijjh ; sheatlis glabrous or the lower 
sparsely pilose; blades fiat or inroUed, sca- 
brous or spanely pilose above; apikrsO.5-l.5dra. long,slc[idpr ]^ a. rr|wn». 
or stont; spitelels about b-fiowered, 1-1.5 cm. long; giucues srrikriets ji«i 
8-10 mm. long, acuminate or awn-poInU'd, strongly nerved ; Floret x i%. 
lemmas about 1 cm. long, glabrous or more or less scabrous, 
strongly nerved, pointed or terminating in an awn as much as rimm. long. — . 
Fields, roadsides and waste places, common.— The Iniemoiles of ilie long creep- 
ing Tootatock and the lower porrion of the culm are colored bright gre«niab 
yellow; scales of the rooistock liiflianC and often conspicuous. (Sat. from 
Eu.) Fio. 1B6. 

4. A. disysUcbpun (Hook.) Scribn. Resembling the last., glaucous; ttavra 
narrow and often involute ; tlie 5-9-(lowered usually suhteretj! tpikelett drntelf 
d"ir»y-hairg all over except tlie strongly nerved glumes ; leninins thinner with 
scarious niartiina. mostly long-acuniinaie. — Sandy shores of Lakes Huron ajid 
Ulcbigati, anil iiorthw. Aug. 

K. A. bill&ram (brignoli) K. &S. Culmsusually decumbent at base, 3-6 dm. 



■dgb; leaTes often lax, 3-S inm. wide; tpike dense, 5-10 cm 
ioDg, usuallg tiiigfrt Ki'lh purple ; glames codspicuouHly 5-7- 
Derved, the ttiargina tbiii and vtUltned above the middle, ratlier 
tlmptlj/ Harrowed ititn a short aioa ; lemma H-IU iiiiu. long, 
gbbrout or nearly bo, terminating in an awn shorter than itself. 
{A. violaeeum Lange.) — Alpine regions of tlio 
Wblte Mts., L. Superior, northw. and westw. 
June-Sept (Eu.) Fio. 187. 

fl. A. tioerum Vnsoy, Calms erect, 5-10 din 
high, rigid ; leaves subriciid, narrow, flat or invo- 
lute in drying ; spike usually almost cylindrical, 
green or tlraw-color, 1-1.6 dm. long; glumes 
firm, nearly as long as the sptkelet. the ii:arloia 
mnrgia narrow, tapering more gradually into the blfloruni. 

aiened point ; lemma short-awned. — Nfd. to Pa. Sl'lkelct xS. 
and Minn., and common in the far WesL July, Aug. — The 
typical form has eieuder spikes with ratber distant spikeiels, 
wlilch are nearly Inclosed la the gluniea ; this Is common westw 
and extends into Minn. ; also introduced on the 
coast of Mass. (Eaion.) Fic. 188. Passing into 
a form with stouter and deniter spikes and broader 
BpUtetei xB. ' '^"* '^S'^ leaves which exteiida eaatw, to Nfd. and 
N. E. ; this is A. novae-angliae Scribn. aud essen- 
tially A. pgeudorepens Scribn, & J. G. Sui. 

7. A. Miiiiiam(L.)Beauv. (Awned Wheat Grass.) Culms 
erect, S-IO dm. high ; leaves flat, rather lax, 8-20 cin. long, 2-41 
mm. wide, scabrous ; <pfA'e more or leas nodding, at least in fruit, 
mber dense, 7-15 cm. long; spikelcts 1.2-1.5 cm. long exclud- 
ing the awns; glumes point^ or awned; lentmaii S-O-nerved ; 
aims straight or somewhat spreading, /ully twice the length of 
the lemma. — Sparingly naturalized In cultivated grounds and 
meadows ! indigeuous along our northern borders, and westw. 
July-Sept. (Eu.) Fio. 1811. 

8. A. Blchaids&Dii Schrad. Similar to the precedini:; ; culms , 
oually taller and stouter ; spike larger, as much as '2 dm. long, 

ireet, 1-Hded; spikeiels 2 cm. /on?, excluding the awns, which "piwieLxi^ 
■re often as much as 3-^ cm. long. — Prairies and shores, e. Que. : Minn., la-i 
•ad northwestw. June-Sept. 

BO. BdBDBUH [Toam. | L. Barlbt 

■\y 2)'(lowered, 8 together In our species at each joint of the 
flattened articulate rhochis, the middle one sessile, perfect, the 
lateral pair usually pediceled, ofum reduci'd to awns and 
together with the glumes uf the perfect spikelet Bimulatiii); 
a bristly Involucre at each joint of the rhnchis ; rhacliilla 
prolonged behind the palea as an awn, sometimes with a 
rudimentary floret ; glumes equal, rigid, narrow-lanceolate 
subulate or setaceous, placed at the sides of the dorsally cobi- 
pressed floret which is turned with the back of the palea 
against the rhachis of the spike ; lemma obscurely 5-nerved, 
tapering into an awn ; palea siightiy shorter, the 2 strong 
nerves near the mai^n ; grain hairy at the summit, usually 
adherent to the palea at maturity. — Caespitose annuals or 
perennials with terminal spikes which diaarticulate at matu- 
rity, the joints falling with the spikeletn attached. (Tlie 
ancient Latin name.) 

1. H. jubiitum L. {StjiiiRHBi^TATL Grass). Bienntals, 
8-7 dm. higli, erect or geniculate at base ; leaves 5 mm. wide 
or less, scabrous ; spike nodding, 5-12 cm. long, abovt at 

ISO. A. ctuilnuii^ 


aide; Ik(«nl pair of epikeleta each reduced to 1-3 Hpreading kwna; (Awm* d 
perfect splkeleta awn-like, 3-0 cm. long, spTeadiog ; lemma 0-8 mm. long, vcilh 
an awQ as long as the glumes ; all the awoa vety alender, 
scabrous. — Coast, Lab. u> N. J. ; prairies and waaie ground. 
Ont. to 111., Kan., and nestw. June-Aug. — Ottau a trouble- 
some weed. (Eurasia.) Fia. 190. 

2. H. pnaiUum N'utt. Annual, 1-4 dm. high ; leave* 6 cm. 
1 or leaa long, erert, scabrous ; spites erect, 2-7 cm. long, 

1-1.6 em. mide; Inifral pair of apikeleta 
abortive ; first glume of each, and bof/t 
glume* offerCile tpikelet, dilated above the 
ha$e, attenuate into a xlejider awn 8-15 mm. 
long, equaling tbe awned lemma. — I'lains, 
especiall; in saline soil, 0. to Mo., ami 
weslw. ; sparingly introduced, D. C, Va., 
and soutbw. along tbe coast. May, June. 
Fia. 191. 

8. H. nod6sQm L. Similar to tbe pre- 
ceding, osuallj taller; spike 2-6 cm. long, 
i»i. H. pDtiiiDm. gt^uj 16 cm. wide ; all the glame* aien- 
Thnaipikeieti xs. nj^g^ l-i.6mm. long.— Thin dry Boils, Ind., 
HimL, and northw., s. Co Tean. and Tex. (Eurasia.) Fio. 
'**• IK 11 nadocnm. 

4. H. PammiU Scribn. & Ball. Perennial, erect or geni- Th™, .nitiltw xa 
calate at base, «-10 dm. high ; leaves 1.2-a dm. long, 5-8 mm. *^ 

wide, long-acaminate, scabrous; spikes nodding, 8-lT cm. long, 2-3 cm. wide; 
the lateral pair of tpikrlett nearly sessile, perfect ; the middle tpikelet 2-JloxDered 
or often V)lth the rudiment of a third floret; glumes 2.3-3.6 cm. long, subutalt- 
aUenuate into slender avm». — Prairies, 111., la., S. Dak., and Wyo. June- 
Aug. — Intermediate between Hordeum and Elymus; closely related to culU' 
vat«d barley. 

BI. iLTKUS L. Wild Rtb, Lthb Gbass 

Splkelets 2-6-flowered (uppermost florets imperfect). In pairs (sometlnieB soli- 
tary below, rarely in 3's or 4's), sessiie at the alternate notches of the continuous 
rhachisi rhacliilla articulated above the glumes and between the florets ; gliuues 
equal, rigid, narrow, 1-3-aerved, acute or awn-pointed, placed edge to edge in 
front or toward tbe sides of the florets (which are dorso- ventral to tbe rhacbis of 
the spike) simulating an involucre at each Jnlnt of the rhacbis ; lemiuas convex, 
obscurely 5-nGrved, obtuse, acute or awned from the apex ; paleas a little 
shorter than their lemmas ; grain hairy at the summit, adherent to the lemma 
and palea. — Erect tufted perennials with flat leaves and closely flowered 
terminal spikes. (Name bom ^Xihir, to roll up, an ancient one for some 

eioineg u long « tha Bont* or amiij *a. 
Splkeleu aprudlnic 

Awn long Had tprwUnn S. X. atutraUs. 

Awmhorland trecl 1. S. virffliltm^ 

Olnmea idi Indunted below ; rpWe noddli t. 

Splktiufts aad dciHly flowFred thmnghout . . . . i. JT. robtuAH. 
Bplks man alender ud Iih dantel^ flowwed, iDl<rrap(*d 

Leranu hlrsnU S. K. eanadtmntt. 

Ltmnumlnuulv KvbriHU 0. JC. trackyita^t 

Spllitlali uppnsfinl K riiachlt. 

Splkaleu (a pUri . . , S. K. fflaiieiit. 

!^l,\kt\^tt m»atly aullUrr . . . ^. If. M'leounll. 

Ummu iwDlM. ...».«. artmariut. 

aiisuiiwluoKl wabortawu VL S. ait*rttgl^mU 


* Glume* at long a* the lemtaat or neartg to. 
4- GtunieM and lemma* riffid, all or only the laUer meiuA. 
** eiwntM bowed out, lAe batt yellow and indurated for \-2 m 

1-9 mm. wide, scabrous ; spike 4~14 cm. long, \'i mm. thick, 
riiiidlj npiigbc, often Included at the bnae in tlie upper aheatii ; 
■pikdeta 2-S-flo«rered ; tbe leminaa smooth, bearing a scabrous 
«wn4-l8 mm. long, exceeding the lanceolate BLrongiy-nerved 
swB-pointed jrlabratu f/lumet. — ^Rivei banks, moist wood- 
lands, etc., M. 8. to Fla., and wentw. July-Sept. — In the 
tJonean apeeimen tbe spike is ezserted and tbe awn is aboaC 
tbe length of tbe lemma. Fio. 193. Var. RitisuTiaLtiMis 
(Scribn.) Hltchc Qlumet and itrnmat Airrale, glumes some- l*"- K- Tlr^skona. 
■rbat narrower ; spike usually more slender. — Me. to Va. T*" •plkrieu " I- 
uid Neb. Var, iUBMbncuB Hook. I*mma and glumes Bplkrtet wHh glimw* 
kwnless or short awn-pointed, scabrous. — O. to Minn., Kan., -?'^*'*"f " *" 

•* ** Olumei ttratghtf not or but tittle indurated at bam, 
= Culm* itout; tpikes 1-2 cm. thick, 
S. ■. anatriUs Scrlbn. & Ball. Intermediate between E. virglnieu$ and the 
oeit, green; culms 0.7-1.6 m. high, rather slender; leave* 2-4 dm. long. 

- d towardthe bate; tpike exeerted, erect, B-14 cm. long, 1.6-2 cm. thick ^ 

glumes and lemmas hirsute ; awns apreadliiK, oflei 
2 cm. long. — Woods and prairies, Ct. to Mo., and 
Bonthw. — Glnmea slightly Indurated at base. 

S, E. canadensis L. Green or glaucous; culme 
6-15 dm. high ; leaves often 1-2 cm. broad ; tpike 
1-2 dm. long, exserted, soon nodding, looie or inter- 
rupted below; glume* and lemma* hir*ute, with 
long spreading awns. — Sandy soil, N. 8. to Han., 
and southw. Fio. IM. Var. oLAucir6Li[;s(Mubl. ) 
Gray is the very slaucons form but carresponds 
more nearly with the Linnean type. 

4. E. robtlstus Scrlbn. & J. G. Sm. Differs from 

IK. B. csntdaad* x H. (1,b preceding in having a more robust and densely 

Two aplknlru. flowered spike ; tpikelet* closely imbricated, not in- 

9|tt<lM wiib ^nmH dauched. fgrrupted at bate ; the long awns divaricately spread- 

ing. — Low prairies. 111., and westw. 

S. B. brachystachTs Scrlbn. & Hall. Resembles small specimeDB of B. cana- 
im*i*; culms S-9dra. high; leaves 1-2 dm, long, 6-10 mm. wide, often some- 
what invotuie, scabrous ; *plke rather dense, or loone betow, somewhat nodding, 
S-16 em. long ; glume* and flnret* teabriiti* only, not hirsute; aan* divergent. 
— Moist open or shaded grounds, Md. to Mich., S. Dak., and Hex 
" ^ Cnlm» slender, 
a. Spikelet* epreading. 
4. B. rtrUtna WMId. More or less pubescetit; 
culms 5-lOdm. high; leaves 16-20 cm. long, pubescent 
on tbe upper surface ; spike 7-10 cm. long, about 
2,6 cm. thick, dense, usunlly nodding ; splkelets 
'^(rarely S]-fiowered ; glume* awl-shnped, kinpid or 
himtt, 2 or 3 time* tile length of the hirsute floret 
wMeh i» only 6 Bini. long, excluding the capillary awn 
(1-8 em. In length.) — Rocky woods and banks. Me. 

toS. Dak., 8. loN. J. and Ark, July, Aug. Fjo. 105. 1 -. - 

Var. *aK*ssXKrs (Scrlbn. & Ball) Hitcbc. Olumei Splkelei wUh glai 
vul lemma* glabrou* or minuttlji *cabTou*. — Md., la., and souUiWi 


a 0. SpOeeltti apprened to the rhachls, 

7. B. Kacoditii Vase;. Culms 3-8 dm. high; Hbeaths glftbroos or the lovnt 

panely pilose ; blade* 8-10 cm. long, i mm. aide or Um, erect, oft«o idtoIqu 

Id drying, scabrous, the lu^^er usually pilose va 

the appersorfkce ; spikes narrow, t)~10 cm. long ; 

tpUui^t \-^fioamd, the lower golitarj/ and oflt% 

afpareulf ttiUt 3 glumes, tlie mietinff tpikeiet 

being rrdueed to a tingle gtume; glumes liriear- 

Isnceolate, 3-nerved, scabrous, tapering into an 

L awn; lemmas 8-10 mm. long, scahroun above, 

with ft slender awn 6-10 mm. long. — I'rairira, 

UinD., la., and westw. 

8. E. gla&CDS Buckley. Glabrous; culms 6-10 

dn. blgb; Uaef* 1^'i dm. long, 4-6 mm. aide, 

nther diin, flat, scabrous; tpike* tleiiiler, the 

in K — n.rin. wit internodee &-\Q mm, long; ^ikelrU S-O-Jlotrered ; 

Ti>i> iDftcleU. glumet linear-lanceolate, 3-^nerved, smooth or 

Bpikelei vlth f iDDiH deuebsd. scabrous on the nerves, «Aorf-<non«(l, BhorteT 

than the nearly tmoolh lemma lehich beara an 

own twice Ut own lemjCh. — Muisl soil, Ont. to Micb., and wcslw. July, Aug. 

-- — Glumei and lemma* not rigid, aicnleu ; plant* reed-like. 

9. E. areoiriua L. Culms sljiut, 0-12 dm. hiirh, from extenfioely creeping 
TOotMock* ; leaves firm, setaceiius-involate toward the ends, the basal onet 
crowded, 2-3 cm. lon^. the upper shorter ; spike stiQ, dense, S-26 cm. long, 
1.5-2 cm. thick ; spikelets in pairs or solitAry, 3-T-flowered, 2.6-3 cm. long, 
often glaucous ; gtumea and lemmas acuminate or mucronate, Bhort-Tillous. 
IE. moHl* Trin.) — Marftinio sands, Lab. to Me.; and shores of tbe Great 
Lakes. (Eurasia.) Fio. 196. 

• • Gtume* reduced to ihort awn*. 

10. E. direniglflmia Sciibn. ft Ball. Culms stout, 0-13 dm. higb; leavu lax, 
\.h-i.b dm. long, 6-12 mm. wide, scabruua. bctaceous-pointed ; spike loose 
below, 1-1.5 dm. long; spikelets 2-flonered ; 
glumes subulate, scabrous, varying from a mere 
point to 1.6 cm. long in the same spike; florels 
tt-10 mm. long, hirsute, especially toward the 
summit, wiib a divergent awn 2-3 cm. long. — 
Thickets and open noods. Wis., Minn., and weslw. \ 
— Approaches Hi/strix. 

SitIhiok i.oifG]F6Li[.'H J. G. Sm., a western 
tuft<^ perennial 3-6 dm. Uigh, with crowded basal 
sheaths, long spreading upper leaveH, partially 
Included liMMte li)n<;'m]ied disarticulating upikes 
about I dm. lonp, the glumes divided to the base 
Into '2 long divergent awns (»-8cm. long), occurs 19T. B. longlfoUum x %, 

in central Kan. and westw. and is reported from Tto npikeitu. 
central Minn. Fio. 107. 8i>ik«kt wiUiginmHdMMbtd. 

83. H^SIBIX Moench. Bottlb-brdsh Gbibs 

SplkeJcts 2-4-fliiwered, on very sbort pedicels, l-;l togetVier at each joint O* 
the ll.itu.-ued cumhmoiia rhftchiu, facing it »s in Ehjmus, widely divergent at 
maturity ; glumes reduced to short or minute awns, the first usually obsolete, 
both often wantmg in the upper epikcleti) ; kinitiiis convex, rigid, tapering into 
R long awn ; palea strongly :!-keeled ; grain pulH-sci'nt at the summit, free within 
the lemma and palea. — Perennials with simple culms, flat leaves and loosely 
dOweKd aplkes. (Name from uarpif, a hedgehog, alluding to the bristly spike*.) 



19S. II. iMilula. 
Spikelet x 1. 
Floret X 1^ 

1. H. pAtnla Moench. Cnlms 6-12 dm. high ; leaves spreading, 1--2 dm. long, 
^15 mm. wide, tapering to both ends, scabrous ; spike short-exserted or par- 
tially incloded, 6-12 cm. long ; spikelets usually distant, at first 
erect, soon widely diverging, 1-1.5 cm. long excluding the awns ; 
lemmas pubescent at least at the summit or nearly glabrous ; awns 
1.5-4 cm. long. (Asprella Willd. ; IT. Hystrix Millsp.) — Moist 
woods, N. B. to Minn., and southw. June-Aug. ¥iq, 108. 

88. ARUNDINArIA Michx. Cane 

Spikelets 2-many-flowered, perfect or the upper .imperfect, 
iateraliy compressed, in racemes or panicles; glumes unequal, 
shorter than the lemmas, the first sometimes obsolete ; lemmas 
firm, keeled, many-nerved, acute or mucronate ; paleas nearly as 
long as their lemmas, 2-keeled and several-nerved ; lodicules 3 ; 
styles 2 or 3; grain free within the lemma and palea. — Arbo- 
rescent or shrubby grasses with terminal and lateral panicles of large spikelets. 
(Name from arundo, a reed.) 

1. A macrosp^rma Michx. (Large C.) Culms arborescent, 3-10 m. 
high and 1-7 cm. thick at base, rigid, simple the iirst year, bmnching the 

second, afterwards fruiting at indefinite periods; leaves 
lanceolate, 2-5 cm. long, 1.5-3 cm. wide, smoothish or pubes- 
cent, the sheath ciliat<e on the margin, fimbriate at the sum- 
mit ; panicle lateral, composed of few simple unequal racemes ; 
spikelets 3-5 cm. long, 6-15-flowered, purplish or pale, erect. 
— River banks, s. Va., Ky., and southw., forming cane 
brakes. Apr. Fig. 191). 

2. A. ticta (Walt.) Muhl. (Switch C, Small C.) 
Lower and more slender, 1-4 m. high, branching above ; 
leaves 8-20 cm. long, 0.8-i^ cm. wide, more tapering at base ; 
panicles of few aggregated spikelets on long slender branches 
with rather loose sheaths, the blades very minute ; spikelets 
2.5-4 cm. long, 6-10-flowered. {A. macrosperma, var. suffru- 
\ieosa Munro.) — Swamps, moist soil, or in water, Md., s. Ind., 111., Mo., and 
fioathw. — Sometimes blooming several years in succession. 

199. A. macrosperma. 
Spikelet X %. 
Floret X %. 

CYPERACEAS (Sedge Family) 

Grass-like or rush-like herbs, with fibrous roots, mostly solid stems (culms), 
dosed sheaths, and spiked chi^y S-androus flowers, one in the axil of each of 
the glnme-Hke imbricated bracts (scales, glumes), destitute of any perianth, or 
with hypogynous bristles or scales in its place ; the 1-celled ovary with a single 
erect anatropoiis ovule, in fruit forming an achene. Style 2-clef t with the fruit 
flattened or lenticular, or 3-cleft and fruit 3-angular. Embryo mmute at the 
base of the somewhat floury albumen. Stem-leaves when present 3-ranked. — A 
large, widely diffused family. 

y. B. — In this family, unless otherwise noted, the figures representing the 
inflorescence or a portion of it are on a scale of f , while those representing the 
acliene or perigynium are on a scale of 2}. In a few cases a bit of the surface 
of the achene is shown on a scale of 10. 

I. Flowers all perfect, rarely some of them with stamens or pistil abortive ; 

spikes all of one sort. 

Tribe I. SCfSFBAB. Spikeleta mostly many-flowered, with only 1 (rarely more) of the lowei 
scales empty. 

* Scales of the spikelet stiiotly 2-ranked, condupUcate and keeled. 


flow«n dMtitQte of brIsUes Md of beak to the aelieno ; infloreaecnee tanniiML 

1. CypWIU . Spikelets faw-maoy-flowered, usuftlly eloogmted or slender. 
S. KTUinca. Spikelota 1 -flowered (but of 8 or 4 scales), glotoerate in a sessile head. 
•I- ••- Flower fUrnUhed with bristles ; achene beaked ; infloreacenoo axillary. 

8. Dnlichliuil. Spikelets 6-l<y-flowered, slender, clustered on an axillary pedimele. 

• * Scales of the several-inany-flowered spikelet Imbrleated all roand (sabdtstichoas in no. 6). 

*> Aehene crowned with the bulbous persistent base of the style; flowers without inner 

♦♦ Hypogynous bristles (perianth) generally present ; culm naked. 

i. BtoocbariA. Spikelet solitary, tenninating the naked culm. Suunens 9-8. 

••-»• ^ Bristles always none ; culm leafy. 

ft. XHchromeilA. Splkeleta crowded into a leafy-inTolnorate head, laterally flattened, the 

more or less conduplicate and keeled. Many of the flowers imperfect or abortlT*. 
•■ PsllOcaryA. Spikelets in broad open cymes. Style almost wholly persistent 
t. Stenophyllu. Spikelets in an involuerate umbel. Style-base persistent. 

•f- ••- Aehene not crowned by the bulbous base of the styla. 

** Flowers without inner scales. 

— Style-base bulbous,* deciduous ; perianth none. 

•i yisibrlttsrllt. Spikelets in an Inyolncrate umbel. Cuhn leaiy at bass. Btjto whuQy 

— — Style-base not thickened ; perianth-bristles usually present 

9. Scirpnt. Spikelets solitary or clustered, or In a compound umbel ; the stem often leafy al 

base and inflorescence InToluerate. Bristles 1-8, or none. Stanienb 8 or 8. 

10. Brioptaomm. As Seirpus^ but the silky elongate bristles yery numerous. Stamens 1-8. 

•*-•> ** Flower with one or more Inner scales. 

11. FaJronft. Scales of the spikelet awned below the apex. Flower surrounded by 8 stalked 

petal-like scalea alternating with 8 bristles. 
18. HMdcaiplUL Flower with a single Tory minute hyaline sosle next the axis of the spikelet 

Bristles none. 
18. LipocAiplUL Flower Inclosed by S inner scales, one next the axis, the other in fh>nt of the 

airhone. Bristles none. 

rribe n. RT1ICR08P6RSAB. spikelets mostly 1-9-flowered, with i-many of the lower scales 

14. SyaclUMpora. Spikelets terete or flattlsh ; scales convex, either loosely enwrapping or regu- 
larly Imbricated. Aehene crowned with a persistent tubercle or beak, and commonly sur 
rounded by bristles. 
Ifi. CUdiam. Spikelets terete, few-flowered, the scales, etc., as in the preceding. Aehene deatt- 
tute of tubercle. No bristles. 

II. Flowers unisexual. 

Tribe in. SCLBRIBAB. Flowers monoecious ; the Atamlnate and plstllUte In the same or In dlilbr 
ent clustered K|»ikes. Aehene naked, bony or crustaceous, supportnl on a hardened disk. 

16. SddriA. S|ilkes few-flowered ; lower scalea empty. No bristles or inner scsles. 

Tribe IV. CASiCBAB. Flowers monoedons in the same (androfrynous) or In separate aplkas, ot 
sometimes ilifHfvlous. Achene inclosed In a sac {periffjftUum) or spathe. 

17. Kobreeia. Achene in the axil of a spatbe-like glume. 

18. Garex. Achene completely surrounded by the perigynlum, the style protruding throoiph a 

small aperture at the top. 

1. CTPArUS [Tourn.] L. Galinoalb 

Spikelets many-few-flowered, mostly flat, variou.s]y arranged, mostly lo 
cluflters or heads, which are coniinonly dis(>osed in a simple or compound ter- 
minal umbel. Scalea 2-ranked (their decurrent base often forming margins oi 



wtagB to the hollow of the joint of the axis next below), decldnouB when old. 
Stamens 1-3. Style 2^clef t, deciduous. Achene lenticular or triangular, naked 
at the apex. — Culms mostly triangular, simple, leafy at base, and with one or 
more leaves at the summit, forming an involucre to the umbel or head. 
Peduncles or rays unequal, sheathed at base. All flowering in late summer oi 
aatomn. (K^e^wf, the ancient name.) 

i 1. Scales deeldaoiu, rewlUy lUUnr away from the somewhat persistent 
rhaehilla of the liatteDMl spikelet a. 
a. Style 8-cUlt ; achene lenticular, leterally compressed (the edge tarned 
to the rhaohiUa) ; rhachUla narro%v, not winged ; annuals b, 
b* Achenes much shorter than the subtending scales e. 
e. Achenes orbicular, with narrowly oblong superflclal cells . ,"1,0. 
e. Achenes obovate or narrower, the superilcial cells broad d. 
d. Achenes oblong-oborate e. 
e. Splkelets lance-oblong ; scales marked with dark brown or 
purple, or merely greenish. 
Stamens 8 ; style-branches conspicuously exserted . . S. t*. diandruB, 
Stamens 8 ; strle-branohes scarcely exserted . 8. C riwUarU, 

0, Spikelsts lance-nnear; scales oblong, yellow or yellowish- 

brown throughout ; stamens 2 4^0. NuUaUii. 

d. Achenes Unear-oblong or clavate ; scales ovate or oblong. 

Splkelets brownish, 1.5-2 mm. broad 6. 6*. mierodoniu%, 

Splkelets greenish, about 1mm. broad • • • . • 6. c\ OctUtii, 
b. Achenes nearlv as long ss the subtending scales .... 7. C.Jlaaicomtf 
<L Style 8-eleft ; achene trigonous /. 
/. Annuals g, 
Q, Scales tapering to recurred slender tips • • • . . S. (7. ^risto^iie. 
if. Scales without recurved tips A. 

A. Scales 2.5-8.5 mm. long 0. C comprett^u^, 

A. Scales 2 mm. or less long i. 
i* Splkelets in globose heads ; rhachllla wingless or only ob- 
scurely ^nged. 
Splkelets green or wfaltlsh-brown, oblong ; scales acute . 11. C. eumminattu. 
Splkelets reddish-brown or purplish, linear ; scales blunt 

or barely mucronate 18. CfwicuB, 

i. Splkelets In cyllndrlc or elongate heads ; rhachllla bearing 

freely deciduous scale-like wings \9. C» erythrorhUoa. 

f. Perennials, the bases hardened and corm-Ilke or stolonlferous j» 
j. Scales strongly several-ribbed ; achenes 2-8 mm. long. 

Splkelets in oblong or narrowly obovold heads . . .10. C. SchweintUtiL 

Spikeletsin globose or sabglobose heads 84. C.JUiculmiB, 

j. Scales ihintly few-nerved.or nerveless ; achenes less than 2 mm. 
long k, 
t. Culms naked or nearly so, the lower sheath nearly or quite 

bladeless 14. ^. haspan* 

t. Culms leafy below /. 

/. Plant not stoloniferous; rhachllla wingless; stamen 1 . . IS. C, paaudovsgttut 

1. Plant loosely stoloniferous ; scales decurrent on the rhachllla 

as wings ; stamens 8 m. 
«s. Achenes short-obovoid ; scales with free or spreading 

mucronate tips 15u C dmiiaiu*. 

•s. Achenes linear- to oblong-cylindric ; scales sppressed, 
blunt or barely mucronate n. 
•. Scales chestnut-color. 

Involucre shorter than the rays of the umbel, or 1 

bract slightly longer 16. (7. ro(widu», 

Involucral bracts numerous and much overtopping 

the umbel . . • 17. 6*. l/aUH. 

n. Scales straw-color or pale brown 18. C. emtUenttts, 

fi Rhachlllas of the splkelets soon brealcing away from the main rhachis ; 
the scales falling only in extreme age o. 
0. Annuals. 

Flowers remote, the successive scales not reaching the bases of 

the ones above on the same side 21. C, Engelfnofitm/U 

Flowers approximate, the successive scales overbpping the bases 

of those above 20. C./eraa. 

#. Psrennials, with hard eorm-Hke bases p. 

p. Splkelets very strongly flettened 22, O. Mtrigowu. 

p* 8i>tkelets terete, snbterete, or only slightly flattened a. 
q. Splkelets reflexed, in thick cyllndrlc or obovold heaas r. 
r. Gnlms smooth and glabrous. 

Splkelets loosely splcate ; achenes 2..'W} mm. long . Vi, C. r^fractus, 

Splkelets densely splcate and overlapping; achenes less 
than 2.5 mm. long. 
Splkelets 8-6-flowered, 11 near-cvlindric, not rigid . 24. C. Utneatirienwia^ 

Birikelets 1-2-flowered. subuUte, rigid . . '^. C hyttricinut 


iiupteiioatlr « 
(, or odlj- Ui- •— 

boKnrdenHlr ih'rKjlladrtc haul) (. 
a. Beain ■pptMBed. fKti dtittDcUr Dicrlinpltii Aa Mxtsbon: 
iplkfSfU l-4-flo-«iwJ L 
t BHdi motU^ on dtumat nyi; Khrua lltiatr-atil««, (LB 

«. SplkiHcu rni' dfnHlT erawded ud aftriapstoc. 

t{«>d>g1ob<>«arbr«dlrDb<>iold K C. 

tl«di crlludrte ». r. evHxifrtiM. 

s. gplVrlcualkhllf emwdad. tiMtlpaiiicwIlrdlTiiKgDt . so. C (ot^HtKt; 
t, llwli lU HulU Id 1 (luDustuIa ; ■ebcnu elllpaiiU or STcild, 

1 mis. biwd SI. a JLtviu. 

C Pr^lni n<kl appre^Hfd ; <p[k«let« 5 (nrtlj 4>-l&.naw«nd T. 

Bplkclcu In kuH hradi; neb Busccutve mle mir] 

un]rl)i*baMiafUiron«>buT«ontiw»ai*>lde . .._ .... 

r. AehniMirigonom-onilil, ii.oihlnl>MlMi»d»iknig . . 83. C. B-uthioitU. 

1. C. flav£«ceiu L. Culms 0.5-4 dm. high ; liiTolucra 
S-leaved, very oneqiial ; spikeleu 0.5-1,6 cm. long. 
1.5-2.6 ram. broa<l, becoraiDg 
linear, obtuse, clusMred en Ihe 
2-1 very short rays ; tcalet ob- 
ttue, stratr-yetlntD ; ttame>t$S; 
afliene thCntiig, orbicular, iu 
viftrficiai etilt oblong. — Low 
grounds, N. Y. to Mich., 111., 
and eouthw. (Eurasia, Afr., 
Trnp. Am.) Fm. 200. 
win C OaruKnt. ^- C- diindnia Torr. SiniU 

Ur ; tpitelfta lance-oblonjt, 
0.5-1 iTH. Jong, 2-3 mm. broad, rather lootrly finieered, 
ijcatU'tcd or clustered on tlie i-b very abort or unequal fOi. O. dlandma. 

rays ; tcali^t rathfT lyblnir, tvith a nnTTovi pnTptr-bmica 

margin nr mfrfly bruiun-Jlecknl. Ikiii and menibranotu ; aehene 
dull, ohliing-obovatf, the fu[>trflcial cells more or leas <|UailraLe ; 
otherwise much li)(e tiie laHU — Low grounds, N. B. to Uau, 
^h^ - Neb., andsouthw. Fio. 201. 

^Jl^^ -■'■ C. riTnUria Kunlh. Similar; the 
^^B . densflf fiomered tpikeleU moMIjr 1-2 

Q y cm. long ; tcttet firmer, aubeoriareout, 

aligbtly luctd, with broad brown mar- 
gin%, or broieit all over, or rarely pale ; 
style-brant^ei altghtly or not at alt 
siK c riToiari*. <*»"■'"'■ C^- di'aadrut, var. eatianeui 

Torr.) — Low ground, with tbo last or — - 

by iWclf- Pio. 20a. *»- C- KullalllL 

4. C. KuttUlU Eddy. Culms 0.r,-.1 dm. high; eplkeletB lance-llncar, acaU 
and very Aat, 1-3 cm. long, 2-^1 mm. broad, crowded im 
the few usually very short (or some of them obviotis) simple 
rays ; Kalet oblnng, yrllnwitlt-hroten, rather lomte ; ttamma 
2 ; afhene oblong to oblong-obovate (0.6-0.8 mm. broad), 
bluntly pointed, minutely bullale and more or less reticu- 
lated, Hull. — Mostly in brackish marshes, along the coast, 
from Me. to Fla, Via. 20.?. 

5. C. mictoddntus Torr. Culms slender, 1-7 dm. high ; 

leaves and simiewhat spreading elongated bracts of in Tnluct« 

1-4 mm. wide ; spikeleta few ui many on thi' 4-A rays, linear, 

acute, 0.6-3 cm. long. 1.6-2 mm. thick, the rhacliis oftt'D 

voi. c. Diicrodoutiu. bnmcbed ; tcole* thin, ovate or oblong, acute, eloMlo imbri- 

oyperace:ae (sedge family) 175 

Mfd, paU brown ; flUmens 2 ; aehtse tlnear-oblong 
orelataif (0.;!-0.ft mm. broad), «Ao^^poiIl(e<^, grayith 
and minulrtg pitted. (C. polyttachyut, var. lepto- 
ilaehifut Hoeckl.) — Shores, miiRily iiuar the coast, 
N. J. CO Fla. and Toi. Flo. BW. 

0. C. Gattsii Tnrr. Similar; very sletiiler ; leaves 
ind v«ty long atundlng iiwutucral bracts 1-2.5 mm. 

broad; HplkeleU 0.4^1.5 cm. 

long! the oblong scaUs f/reen- 

itli; aclieneBsligbtlysitialler. — 

Low KTounda, Va. to Fla., Ark., 

and Tex. Fm. 206, 

T. C. flaTicomos Michi. Culm atont, 8-9 dm. high; 

leaves of the involucre 8-5, very long ; spikeleta linear, 

0.7-2 cm. long, spiked and crowded on the whole length 

of the brandies ol the several-rayed umbel, spreading; 
< sealei otal, very olitune, yUoiel»h and brnwnUh, aith a 

broad »rariov»whiUahma>giu; stamen* 3; ocAeHf oboeale, 

tnwronale, blackish. — Low grounds, Va. to Fla. Fia. 

8. C. arisUtua Rottb. Dwarf (2-20 cm. high) ; Invo- 
lucre 2-3-leaved ; gpilfUit bri'wn, oblong becoming linear, 7-20-tlowereii, 8-lC 
mm. long, in 1-6 ovoid orsubglobose bentis (sessile and clustered, 
Dt short-peduncieii) ; Kaiea nerved, tapering to a long rrcurved 
point; stamen 1; achene oblong-obovate, obtuse. (C. ir{flexut 
Muhl.) — Sandy wet shoi-es, local, N. B. to 
B. C, and Bnuttiw. — Dry plant with odor 
of Slippery F.lra. Fro. 207. 

9. C. comprtssuB L. CulmsO.C-S.Gdni. 
high, with a simple sessile or a ievt umbeU 
late clusters of oblong to linear tpikelets 
(15-30-flowered and 0.7-2.5 cm. long), 
vilhcrowledttrongly keeled andvery acute ^^ c irliutm 

K-eenish mang-nertred ecates ; stamena 8 ; ' ' 
trigonous. — Sterile fields along the coast, Pa. to Fla. 
uid Tel. Fl<J. 208. 

10. C- Schweinltiil Torr. Perennial, propagating 6y hard cluttered eorms ; 
nln rvagh irii the angles (i-9 dm. high) ; umbel 3-10-raycd, ntya very uuetiual. 
erect; gpiketflt loveely or »omeiehai re- 
m-lelgli-ia-jtoiBerpd,v>llh convex many- 
nervrd green ish-brown acute or acunii- 
nBt« tcalea (3.f)-4.5 mm. lon^) ; joints 
of the rhftchilla narrowly winged. — Dry 
sandy shores and ridges, w. N. T. &n<l 
e. Ont. to Man. and Kan. Fio. 200. 

II. C. acuminitus Torr. & Hook. 
Slender (0.5-3.6 dm, high) ; involucre 
!10. C. acnmUuitniL 2-3-leaved ; spikeleta ovale, becoming 
oblong, l((-30.flowered, jiaie, in globular 
heads ; gi-ales obscurely S-nerved, short- 
(ira"''i," stamen 1 ; achene oblong, pointed 
at both ends, much exceeded by the 
scale. — Low ground, IlL to Dak., and 
Bouthw. Fm. 210. 

J2. C. psendOTigetna Stend. Tall ^ „ n,>,.„„„ „ 
pereimial (O-S-l m. Sigh); culm obtusely *"*■ ^- s*""""'""- 
triangular; leaves and involucre very long, keeled ; umbel 
compound, many-rayed ; gpikelels ovale (.1-fi mm, loniO. 
in niimeroua uinall greenish hernia ; achnies pate, linear. 
ta. C, iMitiluieKclni. on a slender stipe ; scales narrow, aciitidh, obscurely 

often \ §^^ 

a 16- I 


S-DBTved. (C catcaratut Nees.) — Wet places, Del. to Fla. and Tex. ; noitbw. 
in tbe flat country to Mo. and Kan. Pio. 211. 

18. C rtiscus L. Low (l-:i dm. high) ; npiktleU linear, 3-6 mm. long, the 
tAi'n brown sraUa (greenish 
only oji the keel) very faintly 
nerved; HUiiiienD '2; aclienea , 
, equalingtlieBcaleB, — Locally | 

{ on ballast, Mass. to N. J. 

(Adv. from Ku.) Pia. 212. 
14. C. UtHn L. Culms 
Bbarplj angfed (2-8 dm. 
„,„ . ^ high) : leaves linear, often 

sheatba j umbel $preading, thejlli/om ray* noKlg longer 

tAnn the 2-leaved tnvolvcrt ; aplketets narrowly linear; 

Kalet light reddiah-brown, oblong, mucronale, S-ntrved ; „. „ f,^^—^ 

wings of rhachilla pergigtentiy attached ; achenes round- ^^ 

obovoid. — Ponds and dilcliea, Va. to Fla. and Tex. Pto. 213. 

16. C. dentJttns Torr. Ferennlal by slender rootMoob 
and tuber-bearing stolons i culms slender (l-n dm. high); 
leaTBB rigid and keeled ; umbel ereet, shorter than the 3-4- 
leated inrolui^re ; epikeiels &-l.'l-fiuwered ; scales reddifb- 
brown, wilh green keel, ovale, acute, l-nerred, 

the muoronate tips prominent Sandy shores, 

Ms. to N.Y., and souchn. — Rpikeleis often 
abortiTe and ch&nged into leafy tufts. " 

Var. ctenAatachya Pemald. Spikeleu 1 
40-flowered;sca1e-Upaleu prominent. — Mass. , 

m. u umuiiu. 18. C. rotflndua L. (NutGhass.) Peren- ' 

nial by tulM>r-bearlng atolons ; culm slender (1-f) dm. high), longer than tbe 
leaves; umbel simple or slightly compound, about 
equaling the involucre; ihe fevr 
rays each bearing 4-0 d<irk ehe»t- 
nut-jiarple 12-4U-Bowert'd acute 
■ tpikrlet$ (i>.8-2.-'> cm. long) ; aealet 
ovate, closely apprp$ted, nereelegi 
excepton the keel; nclienesiinear- 
iibloiig. — Sandy fleiils, Va. to 
Fiiu and Tei. ; also adv. near 
riiila. and N. T. City. (Trop, and 
subtrop. reRions,) Fio. 210. 

17. C. HiUii Britton. Similar; 
eutta stout, 4-8 dm. high, scareely 
(xceeding the broad (0,5^1 cm.) 
leave* ; umbel compound, the 
t . rotundjs. numerous rayt much exceeded by *'''■ ''■ ™«'''<ntQ»- 

the involueral bractt; spikeiets chestnut-purple, 1-1.5 cm. long; the acntisb 
tcalet di$tinctly nerted. — Kan. to Tex. 

18. C. aacnlintoB L. Similar ; culms (3-9 dm. Ugh) equaling the learea ; 

umbel often compound, 4-7 -rayed, much shorter than tbe lonK Involucre j tplke- 

let» numerous, llyht chettnut or mraacolnr. acutiah, n.&-1.S 

n. long ; tealft ovate or ovate-Moiig, narroicly tcarion*' 

argined, nerved, the acuiiRh Cipn rather loote ; acheof 

, . „ . oblong-obovoid. — Low grounds, along rivers, etc ; spreadr^ - 

•ri«pioii«liT'i"'' e'Wusl'ely by its small nut-like tiibere and loroetni 

beooning a, pest iu cultivated grounds. (Kurasin,) Fii " 

Vv. LHPTO«TaCBTiis BoeoU., with maelets I.8-.1.6 cm. long, la lesi fre 

9ia. 21B. 


19. C. «iTtlirOTU«M Hulil. Annnal ; culm obtowly 

Vumgnliir (I-K dm. high); umbel muiy-rsyed ; bivo- 

lone 4— 5-leaved, Tei? long ; Involuutla bdstle-Corm ; 

ipikiieU very num^roiu, etoirdiMl In oblong or cylindrlc&l 

^«ul7 aesBile heads, Bpreuling borlzonully, linear, fiat- 

•uk (!t-1<l mm. !oJig), bright chesttmt-eolured ; icatft 

lanceolate, muemunlaU. {O.Salri 

Biitton, in pan, not Torr. ) — Allu- 

vIhJ banks. Maas. to Out . Minn., 

and aouLhw. Fio. ^Iti. — Dwarf 

luCted plants are sonietluies aepft- 

rated oa Var. ptMiLUS Eneelm. 

20. C. fltazKlch. Culm alont, SIS.>. 
moitlr low (11.3-6 dm. high) ; ray* 

of the timpU or compound umbel moitly all *hort and 

crowded ; tpikeleU \»-'ifi-floverei, yeUowith-hrown or drab 

St matuilty (0.6-1.8 cm. long), the abort joints of ita aili 

winged witb very broad aoaly margins wbicb embtace the 

no. c ikru ovt^triangviar aehene; the JIrm »cala ovate, obturiih. 

mtrlapptng. (C. tpeciotua Vabl.) — Low grounda and 

•aody teoka. Maw. la Fla., w. to Ont., Minn., and Tex. ; Cal. (Trop, ro- 

^ua.) Pto. 220. 

^1. C.'KDgelmimilBtend. Similar; butthejpft«(«t>fflore>IeiuI«rand terete, 
mneahat remotely ff-lb-JUneercd, tlie zigzatt joinia nt the azla slender and nar- 
rowly winged, and the oblong or oval broadly acariona 
Kale* proporttonttily ihorler, to an to erpo$r a part of the 
Vi» tif taeh joint; aehene oblong-linear, very small. — 
Low grounds, Maai. In Wise., 
BDdsouilin. Fio. 2S1. 

22. C. atrlEbtiia L. Peren- 
nial, witb hard conn-like 
tubers ; culm O.l-l m. high ; 
leaves Sat, soft ; moat of tfae 
I rays of the simple or com- 
pound umbel eloDgated, ibelr 
sheaths 2-bristled ; epikelett jfi. c. tugelumui. 
lefenU-Jlowerrd, 0.7-1.8 cm. 

long, epreadlng, in looie head* ; scales oblong- 

lanceolate, apprewed, several-nerved, much longer 

mt. a ibkmi. than the linear-oblong acliene. — Damp or fertile 

"■"• aoU, Me. to Ont, Minn., sou thw. and weslw, Fio. 

US. — Werf Tartable; dwuf plants wlUi tbe rays scarcely developed are Var. 

BjiPiTXTDt Boeckl. 

Var. robdsUor Konth. Splkelels 2-S cm. long. — Local, 
Mass. to Fla. and Ma 

Var. compdsitna Brltton. Umbel compound ; wpHultt* 0.6- 
1.8 cm. long, In dsme a/UnOric heads. — Local, Mass. to Fla. , 
La., and la. 

Z3. C. refrlctns Engelm. Culm *moo(A, 8-9 dm. high ; 
leaTM soft and flat, 4-8 mm. broad, slightly scabroos ; raji> 
nnally more or less elongated, tmooth ; spikelrtt very slender, 
■cnminate, rubterele, in rather looit kendt, divaricate or more 
or leia rifiexed, 2-6-Jlowered, 1-S cm. long ; scales appreased, 
■everal-nerved, the lower empty and often perslslent after tbe 
tall of the rest ; joints of tbe rhacbilla winged. Inclosing the 
linear acbene. — Dry woods and banks, M. J. lo Ga. and Mo. I 

Fro. 223. I 

24. C. lancastritnsis I'orter. Calm stoullBb, triangular, i 

smooth. 3-8 dm. high ; Uavei rathtr broad (0.6-1 cm.) ; umbel 
of e-A mostly elongated rays ; mikeleU Mr« MNtMrow i» aaa. c. nfrmrtiu. 


ihort-tsUndrtc or oboBoid close htad», soon reflexed, 0J6- 
1.& cm. long, of 3~ti narrow bchIcb, the upper and lower 
euiply, nearly twice the lenEtb of the linear-iibLiiiig 
acliene.— Itich aoil, H. J. wid I'a. to Ua. Fio. 2:M, 

^&- C. liystricinus 
Feniald. Slender; the 
$ntaoih rigid culm 2-6 
dm. tiigli, much exceed- 
ing the itiff narrow (2-5 
mm. broad) smnolh 
have»; omlKl of 8-10 
BL niple tmooth rayn, 
noatl; ehortcr tlinn tlie 
* involucre ; epiktUtt 1-2- 

""""w 3_7 ^^_ j^„^^ densely ' 

crowded in qfiindric or narmfls obnvnid htadt (1-2^ cm. lorpl. stronKl^ 
reflezed. Koldeu-brown at uiitturiiy; scalps closely aiipmsneil. tlie fi-rlile etronRly 
nerved, the terminal invaluie-subulate ; achene Ihicar, 2-'J.(}fnnt. lung. — \>ty 
sand, N. J. to Ga. Fio. 2tb. 

20. C. dipsadfdnnis Femald. Culm gcahroiit, at lenst above, 2.r.-8 dm. 
high ; leai'ii shorter than the culm, gtiiiroua-hisjud al-ote, 4-0 tiim. wUit ; umltel 

4-12-rayed, some of the siiiiwilb rays equaling tin; inv ' 

$pikeleU l-S-llowered, siibulau', ri|."id,6-ll mm.lonti.c 
in cylijtdrio or aubojlindrii: heada (1.5-4 cu. long), r 
dcflezed, yellow-brown at maturity ; fertile 
Hcalea wiUi green midribs ; mhene 3 mm. 
/onii.— Sandy barreus and dry woods, N.J. 
to Ky, and Ga. Fio. 220. 

27. C. retrofrActoB (L.) Torr. Cvlm 
(0.3-1 ui. liiKh) iniimtely downy and r'-'igh 
fit the oblUBi'ilj anglet; learea hairy, abort 
and stiff, 0.4-1 cin. wide, the margins liecnm- 
«• r^ 1, ^, 1 bigrevoluie; wmfrel icifA 4-12 upright usu- m- (. _,r„rr«i„. 
m C, dlp«Hf™ta. ^,fy ,^„i,„,„, ^g „„tly longer than ihe ^ ^' ""■■•™""'- 
hivolucrej spikileti ttender-arel-gliaiied. very numerous In 
turbiaale-ohovoid greenlsb or drab hfodn (1-2.6 cm. long), 
soon ttrongly refiexed, l-2-jIoieT*'(i in the 
middle (5-t) mm. long) , scales usually 4 
.. or 6, the two lowest ovate and enipl>, the 
fertile lanceolalo and pointtil, the upper- 
most involute-awl-shaped , acliene linear, 
J 2.6-3 mm. long. — R.indy or roiky soil, 
N. J. to Fla. and Tex. ; northw in the low 

country to Mo, Fio. 227 „ „ ,_■ 

MS. c orntar... as. C. OTuUria (Michi.) Torr. Culm »». C- "J""-"*"* 

smooth, sharply triangular (2.5-T dm. high) ; am- 
bei l-S-rayed ; tpikdeU (MUIOO) in a gtobutar 
hend, 3-jlowered, oblong, blunt (^1-6 mm. long) ; 
Rcales ovaU', obtuse, a little longer than Uie linear* 
oblong achene. — Sandy dry soil, s. N. Y. to 111., 
Kan., and soutliw. ; rarely on ballast, Mass. Fia. 
22ti. Var. Roii[''9TU!< Boi^ckl. is a form with lai^ 
heads, the spikeletB 3-4-tlowered (7-10 mm. long). 
— 111. to Ark., and southw. 

21). C. cyltndricoB (Ell.) Brilton. Similar to 

the last, but the heads tkvrl-ryliadrieal ; tplkeleU 

nsuallji 2-tloteered. (O. rorrc^J Brittou.) — L. L 

to Fla., w, to Tex- Fin. 229. 

nh c •chiiutu. 30. C. Kbinitua (EU.) Wood. Culm smooUi 




281. C. flavus. 

232. C. Orayit. 

(1.5-6 dm. high), much exceeding the smooth (or scabrooA- 
margiued) flat (2-5 mm. wide) leaves : umbel wiih numer- 
ous ascending rays, the longest half as long as the involucre ; 
heads globose, 1-1.5 cm. in diameter; apikeUU 20-40, 
greenish, rather loosely spreading, lance-cylindric, slightly 
compressed J of 6S membranous veiny ovate-lanceolate scales 
(the 2 lowest and the subulate 
terminal one empty) ; achene ob« 
long, 1.5-2 mm. long.— » Rich 

sandy soil, Va. and Mo., south w. Fio. 280. 
31. C. flXvus (Vahl) Boeckl. Culms sharply 

angl^, smooth and wiry (2-5 dm. high), much exceed- 

ing the smooth fiat leaves; heads 3-0, cylindric (1-1.7 

era. long), sessile in a glomerule; involucral bracta 

divergent or reflexed ; spikelets ci*owded, 2.5-5 mm. 

long, dull, pale brown ; scales thin and veiny, the lowent 

often persistent, — Waste ground, about Thiladelphia. 

(Adv. from the Tropics.) Fio. 231. 

33. C. Griyii Torr. Culm thread-form, wiry (0.5-3 
dm. high) ; leaves almost bristle-shaped, channeled ; 

umbel simple, i-lO-rayed ; spikelets in a loose head, spread^ 
ing; Joints of the axis xoinged; scales rather obtuse, green- 
ish-chestnut-color, barely exceeding the oblong or narrowly 
obovoid achene, — Barren sands, 
Mass. to K. J., near the coast. 
Fig. 232. 

33. C.HoughtbniiTorr. Culms 
obtusely angled (2-7 dm. high), 
much exceeding the smooth nar- 
row leaves; umbel subsessile or 
with a few elongate upright rays, 
mostly shorter than the invo- 
lucre; spilcelets linear-oblong, in 
loose heads, spreading-asceuding; 
rcales roundiah, 8tronj;ly nerved, mucronate^ yellow- 
brown, barely exceeding the broad-obovoid achene, — 
Sandy soil, w. K. E. to Man. and Ore., locally a. to 
Va., Kan., and Ariz, Fig. 233. 

34. C. filiculmis Valil. Culm slender, wiry, often 
reclined (1.5-6 dm. high); leaves linear or filiform; spikelets 
numerous and clustered in one sessile dense head, or in 1-7 
additional looser heads on spreading rays of an irregulax 
umbel, those of the principal glomerules &-12-flowered (1-1.6 
cm. long) ; joints of the axis naked or winged ; scales blunt, 
or the upper mucronate, thin, yellowish-green ; achene 2 mm, 
long. (C. Bushii Britton.) — Dry sterile soil, Mass. to la., 
and south w. ; rare north w. Fio. 234. 

Var. macil6ntu8 Fern aid. Usually low; spikelets 4-8- 
flowered (3-8 mm. long) ; scales firm, greenish ; achenee 
I8&].,v.miicil. shorter. — Me. to OnU, s. to Va., O., and IlL Fio. 236. 

838. C. floughtonll. 

284. C. flllcolmlB. 

8. KYLLfNGA Rottb. 

Spikelets of 3 or 4 two-ranked scales, l-lj-fiowered ; the 
2 lower scales minute and empty ; style 2-cleft and achene 
lenticular ; spikes densely aggregated in solitary or triple sessile 
heads. — Culms leafy at base; involucre 3-leaved. (Named 
after Peder Kylling, a Danish botanist of the 17th century.) 

1. K. pibnila Michx. Annual ; culms 0.5-3 dm. high ; head 
^bular or 3-lobed, whitish-green, 4-8 mm. broad ; spikelets 

m. K-pomilft. 


•trlctly l-flowered ; Qpper tcaJw oTBto, p 
■tylea2; leaTMllnear. — Inw gTonndB, V 
Fio. 286. 

S. DULtCHnjH Pen. 

SpHeletB Unear. fiatteiit^d, sesstle In 2 miksoa pedunclea 
emerglDg from the sheattia of the leaves ; scales lanceolate, 
decarrent, forming flat ninK-likt; margiriB on the Joint below 
Perianth of 0-9 downwanJIy barbed bristles. Stamens 3. 
St;le 2-cleft above. Achene BatteneO, linear-oblong, be^ed 
nilh the long peralitent style, — A perennial herb, with a 
terete simple liollon culm ('i-10 dm. Iiigli)- jointed and 
leafy to the stuumit ; leaves atiurt and flnt, linear, S-raokod. 

C SLBOCHAKIS B. Br. Spike Robb 

Spikelat few-many-flowered. Scales Imbricated tn many (rarely In 2 or 
S) ranks. Perianth of 3-12 (commonly 6) I>riB*les, iiaually rough or liMrbed 
downward, rarely obsolete. Style 2-3-cleft, its bulbuas base pei«lsient at a 
tubercle Jolaied npon tbe apex of the lenticular or triangular achene. — Leaflen 
(rarely with basal capillary leavee), chiefly perennial, with tufted culms sheatbed 
at the base, from matted or creeping rooUtocks ; flowering in summer, (Name 
from fX«f, a fnoriA, and x^'i g^ce; being marsh planls.) 

». BpPulal hvdir If it ill IhklLsr tbu tba ■pongr-uDatu' enlm ; lalts 

B^kelM cjrUndrtc, minr-Bowarad ; msIm ooriueoai, hio\if stnsd 

Onlm lenu . \. B. tnltrMtteta. 

CdIid itur^f '' -'■ n- J . 

SpOoJet UiKH- 

CoiiD ituj^f ^.AnElfld i ........ E, ZL tfuadroM^mt^iA, 

I, dlitlosUr Dcrrad S, K. SoblHimi. 

■. SplkalBt mnoh tUcktr thu Uw snlm (or, IT altuder, «<tb dedduoui 

A. AilMiiH liinllegltr or UiHiirM : atjlH moailr t^Ieft e. 

Mm wbIM, wIlh'tinHn mMritM 

S<9l« pnrple-browD. wllh grscn midrib* 

a. Upper ilusthi uloia >nd Qna. (real, dm nariont, Ibe Up* olton 
dut-owrgtDSd d. 
a. riuUtDfled,moil]runuil,«ltlioD 

cliVDaH buck ; I 

Bp'KIit' V« ' 
Gplkelal i^ft-S 

a. HMi 

Matura adWDsi bUck ; tutwrde uiicer-sh(p«d ; Dnnembulli 
■ ow-delloU. 

.-_ lib-brDwc, nltb grHalih lib; ubsorj fit 

biKk 1. B.B 

BalDi porpta-bTiiwD ; b^hAnea parplv-bUck i1} B capt 

n Hwlb bnnd-deliold / 

> Up, Oh 

/. Tubarcle im tbu Ivo-ltiii^i u bnud u tbe ubi 
Tiiberc> dgpn-Bi€>d turban -sbipe, broader tbai) _ 

brliUu waaUnic or radtmectarT . . . . 
TubflTcIv deltoid .fioDlfli blsber ttion bn»d; brliiUrf 
inucb Hseedlns Ibe acbinfl 
^ Tubercle neaHy or quite an broad u Ibe acbei 

tban blib : 

Tnbercls dopreued*jDlc, onncevfd Inward Ihe Up. nne- 
tblid aa bl(b as U» acbeue ; briitlei mucb eiecedlng 
tbt acbsDF lU. jr. ebluta. 

Tobenile Oil-deltold. with atraliht tldfi. nnr-fnnrth a<> 
bUh a. Ihe asbene ; brislle= Kircely ur out il ill ». 

firfiUei about eqnaJliiK [be lebene .11. K, KHffOntammt. 

BrliUe« rtidlmenlarr or -anting . (11) K. Kugelnuinni,T.d*loiui 

. Dot tufted, pennnlal from cttrDgate rootateeka , , 13 £". palinirit. 



i Mbmm tnantfttlir or tQivM ;- styto S-ctaft p, 
g. AeheDM regrnlarly redciUAto or cross-lined. 

SplkeleU flattened. »-6-flowered ; the thin setles S-S^snkfld . 3S. M 
Splkelets terete ; the seeles neny-ranked. 
Upper sheaths loose, with white soarloas tips; adienes 

finely oross'llned between the strong ribs . . 14. ^. Wo(^ 

Upper sheaths close and firm, not scarf ons ; acbenes dlstlnotly 
Tubercle oonlo-sabnlaie, much smaller than the aohene . 16. X, tortUU, 
Tubercle cap-shaped, as large as the aohene . ,16. B, M^rculottk. 

g, Acbenes smooth or papillose, not reirularly rettcnhita A. 
JL Tnberde depressed, as broad as high or iM^oader. 

<. Aeheoes white 17. JR 7brre|ra«a. 

i. Achenes yellow, brown, or black J, 
j, Achenes smooth. 

Tnberde flattened and dosely eorerlng the top of the 

bkek achene 18. JT. mHaitoemrpa* 

Tnberde short-conlo, constricted below, narrower than 

the ollTe-brown achene . • . • • • 19. ^. alHda, 
Jm Aehenes papillose-roughened. 

Achene with jn'omtnent keel-Uke angles . • . • 80. JK iricottata. 
Achene with the angles not keeled. 
Tips of the upper sheaths dark-girdled; achenes 
golden-yellow or orange-brown (in age drab), 
oonspicoonsly papfUose-ronghened, plomp, with 
rounded angles. 

Culms flliform, 4-angled 91. JK tenui$, 

Oulms flattened 22. JT. acuminato. 

Tips of the upper sheaths whitish ; achenes whitish- 

yellow, minutely roughened, with distinct angles 28. £, ntOda, 
A* Tobercle long-conlo. higher than broad. 

Tuberde clearly distlnet fh>m tte achene. 
Tubercle conlc-snbulate, much narrower thao the plnmp 

Bristles exceeding the adiene U. X. imUrmtdia, 

Bristles wanting (34) E. intermedia, ▼. HabertrL 

Tuberde conio-deltold, nearly as broad as the compressed 

schone ...••..... 26. if. MaeounH. 
Tnberde seemingly confluent with the achene • • . 26. JT. ronteliata. 



288. E. liiterstlncta. 

1. X. Interstlncta (Vahl.) R. & S. Culms large and stont 
(0.5-1 m. high), knotted as if jointed by many cross-partitions; 
Vasal sheaths often leaf-bearing ; spikelets 2-4 cm. long ; scales 

in several ranks, pale, witb scarious mar- 
gins ; achene with transversely linear-rec- 
tangular reticulation and a conical-beaked 
tubercle ; bristles 0, rigid, or wanting. {E. 
equisetoides Torr.) — Shallow water, Mass. 
to Fla., w. to Mich, and Tex. (W. I., 
8. A.) Fio. 238. 

2. E. quadrangnlAta (Michx.) R. ft 8. 
Similar; culm continuous and sharply 
4-angled; spikelet 2-6 cm. long; achene Jlnely reticulated^ 
with a conical flattened distinct tubercle. {E. mutata 
Britton, not R. & S.) — Shallow water, Ct. to Mich., and 
south w., rare. Fig. 289. 

8. B. Robbinsii Oakes. Flower-bearing 
culms exactly triangular^ rather slender, 
erect (2-7 dm. high), also producing tufts of capillary abortive 
fltems or line leaves, which float in the water ; sheath obliquely 
truncate ; spikelet 1-2.5 mm. long ; scales only 
8-9, few-ranked, convolute-clasping the long 
,\_^ flattened joints of the axis, lanceolate^ with thin 
IJ^Bi scarious margins; achene oblong-obovate, tri- 
^Kw angular, minutely reticulated, about half the 
* ^9 length of the bristles, tipped with a flattened awl-shaped tubercle. 
— Shallow water, N. B. to Fla., w. to Mich, and Ind. Fio. 240. 
4. E. ochreita (Nees) Steud. Similar in habit to the next; 
the capillary culms 8-80 cm. high ; spikelets 2-6 mm. long ; scales 

E. qnadrangulata. 

244). E. Bobblnsli. 

Ml. E. ochreata. 
8plkdf*t X 2%. 
Achene y 




vay pale ftndlhln, I^2.GniTii. long; achene oft^n eqaa1in<; tliebrteUet, ttmied 

by a abort alenderoouical tubercle. — Wet placea, Va. to SXa. (W. 1., S. A.) 

6. B. Oliricaa Torr. Culm» Jlatliih, grooved, diffusely tufted 
on UBU&Ily Bleodcr matted ruouslockn, 2-15 cm. liigh; ^itflrt 
oblong-ovoid, aculith, ^U-SO-jIoiecred, 3-7 mm. long; tealet 
ovair, oUuae, ratlier loosely imbricated, 2-.8 mm. long, wiib a 
I stigbLly Bcarious margin ; achene obovoid, dull, green to blackiah, 
1 mm. long, Ehi>n«r thao the C-8 brittlai; 
tubercle capping J of the Huniniit of the jfc 

acbene, saucer-tibaped, tipped by alon^conlc- JffiSc^ 

subulate beak. — Wet sbores, Me. to Ont., ^tf^w 

en K h™™-. •■ W N. C, Pa„ O., and Mich. Fio. 242. Y^ ^ 

"Dikii.tKMir *■ B. «tro9urpate»Clletz.) Kunlb. I>warf / 

A'h,.,»ir' *"f'^'} »n""al: culms capillary, arcuate. 3-7 ,«,. e. MrppoTpn™.. 

cm. Irmg ; gpikftet oblong-ovoid, 2-4 mm. Bulkelfi x ». 
long; tealet ovale, thiii'membranaeeout, blunt, dark brown, Aebeo* x lo/" 
with pale midrib and margin ; acbene lenticular^obovoid, 
luairoua, black, with a minute saucer-ahaped tubercle ; bristles white, Bhort«i 

- Wet eand, 


J Col., 

,iid suiitbvr. (Eurasia, W.I.) 


7. S. upitiU (L.) R. Br. Culms teret«, 0.3-3 dm. high; 

tpikplfta ovoid to ei/tindric (3-!> mm. long), obtuse, 15~10-Sowered ; 
Katei thtckluli, round-ovate, oblute, pate brown, with green keel 
and paler margins ; stamens 2 ; acbene obovoid, blac^C, about 
rgualing the U-H briafUs, tipped with a Battened or 
saucer-Bbaped tubercle. — In sand or gravel near 
BloughB, Md. to Fla. and Tex. (W. I., S. A.) 
Fio. 244. 
. _ Var. dlapar (E. J. Hill) Femald. Scales purplc- 

,. ,' "P'"'* brown J acheiifs puri>le-black. (E. diaiar E. J. 
A b "ifl *J''l-)— >^et sand, lake Co., Ind. 

e eoa X I . g g diindM C. Wright. Erect or depressed ; 

enlms 0. 1-6 dm. long ; epikelet ovoid, obtuse or acutiah, 2-T mm. 
long, 2-3.6 mm. thick ; leaUi barely appreased, ovale to ovate- j 
oblong, blunt, dull, pale broan, with prominent green midrib ; 

achene obovoid or inverled-pyritonn, 1 mm. long. — .Sandy shures .. _., 

of the Androscoggin, Merrimac and Connecticut Rivers, and of 

Uneida L. (N. Y.) — Differing constantly from the next In Its depressed tnbercla 

aud paler scales, as well as in tbe absence of bristles. Fto. 246. 

Q. E. oviU (lioth) R. & a. Erect or depressed : culms 
0.3-6 dm. long ; spikelet globose-ovoid to o»oid-cjiindric, 
obtuse, densely Qowered, 2-7 mm. long, 2~4 mm. thick; 
lealei oblong to narrowly ovate, obtuse, pvrple-broiBn, with 
pale midrib and white scarioua margin ; acbene obovoid or 
Inverted-pvriform, about 1 mm. long. — Wet places, N. B. to 
Cl and Mich. ; Ore. (Eumjsta.) i>'ia. 218. 
10. E. ObtAsa (Willd.) Schultes. Simi- 
m. i> "..— . '*' ' culms0..i-7 dm. high ; spikelel globoae- 
ioAati-nW, """^'^ 'o ovoid-ohlong, obtuxe, 2-13 mm. 
Acbene k 1o7' '*"'8i 2-6 mm. thick ; ecalea ovat«-oblong to 
Buborbicular, with rounded lips, denselg 
eroteded in mttni/ ranki, dull brouin; ttgle 3( rarely 2')-fleft; 
achene turbinate-obovoid with narrow base, pale brownish, 
shining, shorter than the 0-S brislleH, fliyhtlg broader than 
the thurt-deltoid acute and fiattrned tubercle. (&'■ ovata 
Man. ed. 0.) — Muddy places, N. S. to Oiit., and southw.j 
B.C. and Wash. Fia. 247. — Like all the annual species, 
*«ry variat>le in size and habit. 

\l. E. Bngelmimu Steud. Similar; colma 1.6-3 dm. 





■igb ; apaaet cyHndrlc, 6-20 mm. long, 2-4 mm. iJiIck, Mntiab ; BCEilet d(w»- 
^preesed, brown; achenea with broad muehJlrtUened tubertle; brliUes about 
tqtMling the achenr. — Local, Maas. to Mo. Eio. :^4H. Var. 
uetiSnbi Gray. BrisUes vmiUlng ttr rudfmenlari/. — llore 
frequent, Maas. to Neb., s. lu Fa., Inil., aud Ariz. 

12. E. paldstria (L-) II. & IS. Culms nearly t«rete, striate, 
0.1-1.6 m, high; a^iktltt aleader, eub- 
egUndrie, pointed, many-Jtowfred ; scales 
OBate-oblottg, loosely imbrical^d, reddUh- 
farown nitb a broad and tracelucent 
whltUh margin and a greenish keel, the 
upper BcutUi, the lowest rounded and 
often enlarged ; achene oboToid, som^. 
what shining, crowned nitb a ebort ovate ^ 
or OTale-triangular flattened tubercle, 
shorter than the utually 4 briallee. — 
Very common and variable, either in 
w. H. puumi. water, where It U rather stout and tall, o: „ , 

Splkdol x2. grounds, where it la slender and lower. (Eurasia.) Fio. 

Achene x 10. 24D. Var. OLiccfescBKS (Willd.) Gray. Culms rienderot 

SUform ; tubercle narrower, acute, beak-like, sumetimea halt as long as the 
achene. — With the type. Var. o<(lva (Torr.) Gray, Brlstlea noHe ; tubercle 
short, but narrower than in the type. — Local. Var. vIoens 
Bailey. Culms very stout, rigid ( ach:?ne more broadly obovoid. 
— I^ke mar^iis, northw. 

i:l. E. acicoUris (L.) H. k S. Culma finely capillary, 3-10 
|m. high (becoming much elongate when Bubmeraud), more or 
leas i-angulitr; spikelet 2-0 mm. long; Bcalea 
ovate-oblong, rather obtuse (gresnish with purple sso. e. •deiiluris. 
sides); aclienes obovate-oblong, only the lowest SplkelMxS. 
maturing, with ^-ribbed angles and 2-3 timet as Aehena x lo. 
many smuller Intermediate ribSf also transver^ly 
striate, longer lliau the 3-1 very fugaciuus bristles ; tubercle eont- 
cal-trlangular. — Muddy shores, across the coutinent. (W. I., 
V Eurasia.) Fio. 2S0. 

»I. E WolBL **■ ^- W*l*i Gray. Ciiims slender (a-^ dm. high), from very 
- ',1 I , u i, small creeping rhizomes, 2-edgeil; spikelet slender-ovoid, acute, 
Achene X 1"'. 0.5-1 cm. long ; Scales ovalc-oblong, obLuse, Kcarious, pale purple ; 
achene pyriforin, ahinini;, leilh 6 nearly equidixlant obtuse Hba 
having traatverge tsrinkles bettoeen them; tubercle depretsrd, truncate, mote 
or lesa aplculate; bristles none. — Wet prairies, 111., Minn., and la. Fio, 261, 

15. B. tfirtilis (Link) Schultes. CuJtna tufted (mm fibrous 
roots, aharply triangular, capillary, twisting when dry ; spike- A 
let tnrgjd-ovoici, 3-0 mm. lung, few-dowered ; scales firm- BR 
membranaceous, penlstent, ovate ; briattea stout, barbed, ^9 
as lonjt as the striate and pitled-reticu- I 
Jk late achene and its eonia-beaked tuber- fl 

^ cic — N. J. toKa. Fio. 252. I' 

jM» 16. E.tnberculb3a(Mlchz.) R.&S. |l 

bOM Similar ; ciilmi Jlatliih, striate ; spike- ' 

WW let 6-13 mm. long, many-flowered ; 

Tf^ tubercle fiattiah- cap -shaped. — Wet 

I sandy soil, froiu Mass. along the coast 

I toFIa. FiQ.253. 

IT. B. Torr«;lna Boeckl. Tufted culms capillary, 
1-4 dm. high ; spikelet anuiU (2-6 mm, long'), sometime* 
proliferous, tlie one or uiore short new culms from the 
HB. E. 'iibertnio"*. aiil of its lowest scale, which persists as an herbaceous 
bract; scales thin, ovate, ariilish, tehUiah-green oko 
brvan ; aehena tiny, white, with sharp angles and a shon 

SSi. E. tortlllc 

Spike le 




S&5. E. mekuioearpc 
Ppikelet X 1 
A«heD« X 10. 

eonieal tubercle^ which Is hardly equaled by the 3-0 aleiidei 
bristles. — Wet pine-barrens, etc., Ct to Fla. Fio. 264. 

1 8. E. melaiiodbrpA Torr. Tu f ted, from a Mhort thick eawdex ; 

fU. E.Torrejua. culnu JlaUened, grooved, wiiy, erect (2.5-7 dm. high), the cioeo 

Bpike]0tx2. basal sheaths vfith truncate mttcronate tips; 

AdMD« X 10. spikelet cylindrical-ovoid, thicks obtuse, 

densely many-flowered (7-16 mm. long); 

scales closely many-ranked, roundish-ovato, very obtuse, 

broumith, with broad scarious margins; aehene glossy ^ obo- 

void4op-shaped, obtusely triangular, the broad summit entirely 

covered by the flat depressed tubercle, which is raised in tiie 

center into a short abrupt triangular point; bristles often 

obsolete ; aehene soon blackish. — Wet sand, Mass. to Fla. ; 

also n. Ind., where the culms are sometimes proliferous at 

tip {HUl). (Bermuda.) Fig. 266. 

19. B. Albida Torr. Tufted, from a slender creeping 
base; culms slender, wiry, striate, 1-4 dm. high, the basal 

sheaths with very oblique tips; spikelet cylindric-ovoid, blunt, 4-8 

mm. long ; scdles obtuse, whitish to light brown, vrith narrate scari' 

ous margin; achenes smooth, not glossy, trigonous- 

pyriforui, 1 mm. long, contracted below the conie- 

A ^^P deltoid pale tubercle, and usually exceeded by the 

Jft ^W^ reddish bristles, — Damp chiefly brarkidi soil, Md. 

9 to Fla., etc. (Mex., W. I.) Fio. 256. 

V 20. S. tricostAta Torr. Rootstock stout and 

I tough ; culms flattish (2-6 dm. high) ; spikelet soon 

2fi6 K aibkiA. ^'''w'**^'* densely many-flowered (tV-18 mm. long) ; 

' : J^ scales ovate, very obtuse, rusty brown, with broad 

Ach«nVx 10 ■<5a'^o«» margins ; aehene obovoid, with 8 prominent **^^- ^- *rtoortrta 

angles, minutely rough-wrinkled, crowned with a 9p*kel«tx«. 
tAor(-oon<e<i{ acuU tubercle ; bristles none. — N. Y . to Fla. Fio. 267. ^***"* * '**• 
21. S. tennis (Willd.) Schultes. Culms almost capillary, erect from running 
rootstocks, i^angtdar (0.6-7 dm. high), the sides concave ; spike- 
let ellipsoidal, acutish, 2X>-S0'flowered (8-10 mm. long) ; scales 
ovate, obtuse, chestnut-purple, with a broad 
scarious margin and green keel, the outer 2 or 
8 mm. long ; aehene plump, obovoid, roughish- 
wrinkled, 1-1.8 mm. long, cro%ened with a small 
depressed tubercle, persistent after Uie fall of 
the scales ; bristles \ as long ss the aehene or 
none. — Nid. to Man., and southw. June-Aug. 
Fig. 258. 

22. S. acuminAta (Muhl.) Nees. Similar; 
rootstock generally stouter and stiffer; culms 
flat, striate, tufted, usually coarser; scales 
lance-ovate, the uppermost acute. (E. compressa 
Sulliv.) — Wet places, oftenest in calcareous soil, N. Y, and 
Ont, southw. Fig. 259. — Perhaps a variety of the last. 

23. E. nitida Fernald. Perennial, from slender rootstock ; 
culms capillary, 4-angled, striate, 2-8 cm. high; spikelet OYoid,, 2.5-4 5 mm. long, 1.5-2.6 mm. thick, 8-20-flowered ; scales 
elliptic-oblong, with rounded tips, purplish-brown, with greenish 
ribs and very narrow scarious margins, the lowermost 1-1.2 mm. 
long; achenes whitish-straw-color, narrowly obovoid, sharply 

100 E nlttda. ^^^ff^^^^** ^^^ minutely (under a lejas) roughened, 0.7-1 mm. 
8Dikeietx2 *°^» ^^^ ^^^ narrow crown -like tubercle with a short point in 
AdLnexio ^^® middle. — Springy spots, valley o/ the Ottawa R., Can. (J. 
' Maeoun). Early June. Fio. 260. 

24. B. intermMia (Muhl.) Schultes. Culmtt capillary, striate-grooved, 
densely tulted from fibrous roou, diffusely spreading or reclining (0.2-4 dm 

268. K. MoaU. 

8pllMl«t X 9. 
Aehene x lO. 
CroiB le c tion of 
eolm X&. 

too. E. acumlnsta 
Spikelet X 9. 
Aehene x 10. 
CroM^eeotlon of 
culm X ft. 


long)! iIiMtha with obllnue tips; nikelet eyIlndrio-OBoid, oeu- 
tUl,IooMJir6~j!0-jlou«r«dC^7 mm. long); Bcaiea oblong, obtUK, 
green-keeled, tiie sides piirpluh-browa ; acheue 
4 obOToid Willi A DarTowed base, beaked with 

M ft slander conical-awl-shaptd tubercle, nbich 

£ (At nealijr equals the 6 brintles. — Wet places, 
Jffl njU 0»p6 Co.. Que., to w. UtiU, s. to n. Me., 
T l^B "■ *^' ^- ^■' ^^' ^■' *"■* '"■ ^'*'' ^'' MI E IntWDisdIi 
3 k'JS Var. HiBKniKi Fcmald, Bristles absent or gnihlBt x i. 
" WV rudimeatar;. — Shores of Oneida L., N. Y. AchBuxIO. 
" (J. r. Haberrr). 
MI. E. UKoaid. ^' ^ Macoiinii Fernftld. Annual ; culms 
SnU I xl. 'WBak, 2 or 2.6 dm. long; splkelet lance-ellip- 
^laa X 10, *^'''> ^ *'™- 'ong, densely flowered ; »calt» 
ovate-lanceolate, acatiah or blunt, daTkbrovin; 
arliena much eompreteed, trigonotu-obovoid, twice as long 
■1 Ihs broad deltoid-conical tubercle, — Border of manb, 
North Wakefield, Que. {J. M. IdaMurC). Fio. 262. 

!8. B. rostelUtA Toir. rereniilal, from tAort IMek 
taudrx; eulnu fialUned and tlrlate-grotyoed, wiry, erect (3-12 
dm. long), Ihe tterila onet reclining, rooting and prollferoui 
from tbe apex, the sheath transveieely truncate ; ^nkelet 
^IndU-ihaptd, 12-20-flonered, 6-16 mm. long; scales ovate, 
obtuse (light brown); achene obovoid-triangular, narrowed 
into the conSueiil pyramidal tubercle, which la overtopped MS. E. rotullcu. 
by tbe 4-6 bristles. — Salt matshea, N. H. to Pla., and locally Spikalat xi. 
Id alkaline situaUons inland. (Mex., Cuba. ) Fia. 268. Aebtn* x ID. 


F^pikelets fcw.flowered, all but 3 or 4 of the flowem ueually Imperfect or 
sboitive. Scales Imbricated somewhat in 2 ranks, more or less condupllcate or 
bnnl-Bhaped, keeled, while or whitinh. Stamens 8. Style 
a-cleft. I'triiinth, bristles, etc., none. Achene lentlcttlar, 
wrinklnd transverBely, crowned with the persistent and broad 
tubercled base of the styte, — Cultns leafy, from creeping 
perennial rootstocks ; the leaves of the involucre mostly white 
at the base (whence the name, from jit, 
dovble, and xf>>^fM> e«for). 

1. D. COloriU (L.) Hitchc. Culm 
trinng-'ilar (0,au-l m. high) j leaves nar- 
row; thoie of the involucre 4-7, linear; 
tu. D odonu. achpnetrunente,notmarglned. (D./euco- 
cephala MIchx. ) — 1>amp pine-barrenH, 
lT.J.toFla,andTe!c.; very rare northw. July-Sept. (Mex., 
T. 1) Fio. 264. 

2. D. lAtifblia Balder. Culm stouter, nearly terete; 
leaves broadly linear; thnae of Ihe involucre Hnear-lartee- 
olaU, 8 or 9, tapering from bate to apez; achene ronnd- 
oboToid, faintly wrinkled, tbe tubercle decurrent oik Ita **5- D- btlfolifc 
«dgefl.— Low pine-barrens, Va. to Fla, and Tex. Fio. 26S. 

S. PSHOCARTA Torr. Bald Rvati 

Splkelets ovoid, terete, the numerous scales alt alike and regularly Imbri- 
(•led, each with a perfect flower. Stamens mostly 2. Style 2-cleft, lis base 
enlarging and hardening to form tbe beak ot the leutlcnlar or tumid Mii>re or 
'ess wrinkled achene. — Annuals, with leafy culma, the Bpikeltta in terminal and 
axUlaiy cyQie& (Name from V'Uii naked, and Kipvor, nut-J 



£60. P. scirpoldes. 

Del, soathw.; 

1. P. scirpoldes Torr. Annaal (0.2-3 dm. high), leaiyj 

leaves flat ; spikelete 20-30-flowered ; scales oblong-ovate, acate. 
chestnut-colored ; achene finely roughened^ somewhat margined, 
beaked toith a long sword-shaped almost wholly persistent style. 
— Wet sandy shores and swamps, Mass. and R. I.; u« Ind. 
Aug.-Oct. Fig. 266. 

2. P. nitens (Vahl) Wood. Similar; often be* 
coming 5-7 dm. high ; faces of the aehene with 
strong transverse ribs; tubercle depressed^ broader 

thayi high. — Wet sandy shores and bogs, L. I. and 2(7. P. dUoo^ 
a Ind. Aug.-Oct. Fig. 267. 


Spikelets as in Fimbristylisy the comparative\y large scales In few nuik& 
Stamens 2 or 3. Style 2-3-cleft, filiform, glabrous, its base swollen and forming 
a persistent colored tubercle. Otherwise as in Fimbristylis ; standing in the 
game relation to that genus as Eleocharis to Scirpus. — Leaves primarily basal, 

narrowly linear or filiform, the sheaths hairy or ciliate. (Name 
. fr from aT€p6s, narrow^ and <f>^\\op, leaf.) 

^\Jf 1* S. capillAris (L.) Britton. Low annual, densely tufted 

^9f (0.3->3 dm. high) ; culms and leaves nearly capillary, the lattei 

I short, minutely ciliate ; umbels compound or panicled, loose oi 

Z69. 8. cftpOlarls. Compact (ill dwarf plant often much reduced) ; ftpikelels ovoid- 
oblong, brown to blackish ; stamens 2 ; achene acutely triangular 
minutely wrinkled, very blunt. ( Fimbristylis (^ray .) — Sandy fields, Me. to Kla., 
w. to the Pacific. July-OcL (Trop. Am.) Fig. 268. 


Splkelet88everal-many.flowered, terete ; scales all floriferous, regularly fanbr* 
cated in several ranks. Stamens 1-3. Style 2-3-cleft, often with a dilated oi 
tumid base, which is deciduous from the apex of the naked lenticular or trian- 
gular achene. Otherwise as in Scirpus, Spikelets in our 
species umbelled, and the involucre 2^'i-leaved. (Name com- 
pounded of flmbi'ia, a fringe, and stylus^ style, which is 
(ringed with hairs in the genuine species.) 

* Style 2'Cleft; achene lenticular, 

*^ Spikelets mostly on elongate rays; style cdiaie* 

1. F. spadicea (L.) Vahl. Perennial, rigid; the thickened 
base covered loith firm dark sheaths ; culms wiry, 0.:^1 m. 

hii^h, nearly naked ; leaves pale and firm, 

involute; umbel .*i-10-rayed, the rays very 

unequal, some simple, others forking ; 

spikeUts ovoid to short-cylindric, 0.7-1.7 

cm, long, the firm somewhat lustrous dark 

scales all glabrous ; stamens 2 or 3 ; 

achene broadly obovate, lustrous, minutely 

striate and reticulated. — Sand-dunes and 

brackish shores, Va. to Fla. and Tex. 

Aug.-Oct. (Trop. Am.) Fig. 269. 

2. P. castAnea (Michx.) Vahl. Similar; more slender 

(1.5-7 dm. high) and freely stoloniferous ; the basal sheaths 

softer and thinner; the culms ana the thread-form or con- 

volute-channeled leaves smooth and somewhat rigid; spikelets 
ovoid-ellipsoid 0.6-1 cm, long, becoming cylindrical, rheslimt-color ; the scale* 
softer and thinner, at least the lower puherulent. {F. spadicea, var. Gray,) — 
Salt marshes and sand, along the coast from N. Y. to Fla. and Tex. ; extending 
north w. in the interior to Ont, Mich., 111., and Neb. July-Oct, Fio. 270. 

Stt. F.ip«lieM. 

270. F. castanea. 


Var. pnMniU (Mit^hx.) Brltton. Lfirrca and ncape* 
ftbtmaU. — Gil. and Ha. to Tex. : &lso n. in Lhe flat country 
tolnd.. HI., and Mo. 

3. F. Uia Vahl. Calms slender (0.5-7 dm. high) fmin 

kD annual rout, wpni, grooved and flattish ; leaves Unenr, 

fal, ^iau-denticulate, giautMus, Bometimes haii7} spike- 

leta ovoid, acute {0.4-1 cm, long) ; stamen 1 ; 

/l * /] achene eonspicnously 6-8-rt&bed on ench side. 

1 / and viith finer crasa-line». — Low ground, 

the coast, I'n. to Fla. and Tex.; n. in the flat 
cnontry to III. and Mo. July-OcL (Trop. 

■^ j~ SpikeUls glomtfulate ; style glabrotis. 


SP^ *■ F. Vihlli (Lam.) Link. Dwarf tufled annual (0..')-2 dm. 

I hi^); the culms, leavea and verg elongated upright liracls fill- 

B). T. TahlH. /""•/ glomenile 0.;i-l cm. in diameter; Bplkeleis 3-8, sul)- 
cjliiiaric, greenish or pale brnivn, the narrow ecales acuminate : 
aekttu mlnnt^, trantverselg reticulate. — Damp sandn, 
etc, y. a to Fla., Tex., and Mo.; introd. near Phlla. 
Julf-Ocl. Fig. 272. 

• • iSj/fl Z-cleft; ocAene triangular, 
Gl F. aatomoUis (L.) R. &, S. Annual (t-4 dm. 
high), ID tatts ; culms flat, slender, diffuse or erect ; 
leaves flat, acate ; jimbel compouTid or decompound, tlie 
— - — m slender-ci/llndric to fusiform brown upOre- 
n. liitig ; the mucronate-acnminate ovate- 
e scales oppressed; Btamens l--t; ackenes very 
minute, O.b mm. long, smooth or 
minutel; roughened. — Low grounds, 
Pa., 111., and Mo., southn. July- 
Sept (Trop, Am.) Via. 273. „., .. .. 

6. F. FrinkU Steud. Similar, ■ ■ ■ " """"" ■ 
0.1-2 dm. high ; the umbel simple or tlightig compound 
(or the spikeletB solitary in dwarf planis); splkeleta elllp- 
toid or narrou>ly ovoid, castaneous, the slendtr lipa nf Ike 
scales slightly spreading; aehenet 0,76 mm. long. (F. 
aulnmnalU Man. ed. 0, in part.) — Sandy shores, Me. to 
fu. r.rtMoUL Out., aDd sotithw. Aug.-Uct. Fia. 274. 

a SCfRPDS [Toum.] L. Bdlrubh or Club RnSH 

Spikelets few-man y-flowered, solitary or in a terminal cluster when It Is sab- 
lended by a 1 -several-leaved Involucre (this when simple ofMn appearing like a 
continuation of the cnlm); the scaiea in several ranks, or rarely inclining to be 
Cranked. Flowers to all the scales, or to alt but one or two of the lowest, all 
perfect. Perianth of 1-0 (or B) briBtles, or sometimes wanting, SlanienB 2 or 
S. Style 2-.S-cleft, simple, wholly deciduous, or sometimes leaving a tip or 
point to the lenticular or triangalar achene. — Culms sheathed at base. (The 
lM[a name of the bulrush.) 

onj) iptkelel; uhene WgoBui 

i PfrtiaUi-brlKlei tents aiHl telu 

Soha ortli« bilrned splkcle 

ntronrlr b>rb«d : teiitn> 

■pTfikdln; ar BACvudlntr Ho* haint ; auheuei bAAJLiMO. 


Only fhti oh.jumoti aoale awned • . S. & ClinioiUL 

All the scalM awned A, A plani/oliu4, 

h, P«rianth-hiifitJe8 UgtiUte and barblesa ; scales ebartaceon^, the midrib 
of at least the outer prolonged Into a rigid awn. 
Culms terete and smooth at tip ; achene 2 mm. loner, sllfrhtly ex- 
ceeded by the perianth 5. & oae»pUo»»%, 

Culms trigonous and scabrous above ; achene about 1 nun. long ; 

the poianth becoming 2-8 cm. long t. 8. hudmmiamm^ 

3. Involucre foilaceona or appearing to be a continuation of the culm e. 
e. Inyolucnl bract 1 (occasionally with a 8«*condary smaQ Involucel), ap- 
pearing to be a continuation of the culm d. 

d. Splkolet solitary: culms flaccid 7. 8» avhUmUnam, 

d. 9plkel«ts normally more than 1 ; culms firm e. 

€. lipikelets crowded Into a snbtermlnal short spike . • • 8. & rt^fSu. 

s. Bpikelets distinct, paniculate or glomerulate /. 
/. Splkelets sessile or in glomenues g, 
g. Annuals with tufted ruota ; culms terete or obtusely angled. 

Achenes transversely wrinkled . • . • • 9. & HaUiL 

Aohenes smooth or merely pitted. 
Achenes unequally biconvex or lenticular. 

Bristles surpaastng the achene 10. 5. d^bilU. 

Bristles wanting (10) S.dsba4Ji,yf. WUHamtiL 

Achenes plano-convex, one ikoe distinctly flattened. 

Bristles wanting 11. & Smithii. 

Bristles present (11) & SmUhU, v. Mtotm. 

g. Perennials with running rootatocks ; culms sharply trigonous A. 
A. Involucral leaf erect. 

Involucral leaf <4-*16 cm. long ; splkelets pointed. 
Scales reddish-brown, dilate, awn-tipped ; achene plano- 
convex, broadly obovold, short-mucronate . 12. & ameHoaniM. 
Scales yellowish-brown, entire, raucronate; achene 

trigonous, oblone-obovold, long-mucronate . . 18. A Tbrreyi. 
Involucral leaf 1-8 cm. long; splkelets obtuse . . 14. S. OIneyi. 

k. Involucral leaf strongly divergent 15. S. muoronatm*, 

f, Splkelets more or less loosely umbellnlate or paniculate i. 
i. Culms triangubur, fh>m a short rootstock ; basal sheath bear- 
ing a long trianrular leaf; involucral leaf keeled, much 

overtopping the loose umbel 16i. 8. ^ivhercmtatms, 

i. Culms and short involucral leaf terete, the latter shorter than 
the 1-slded compound umbel-like panicle of tawny spike- 
leta ; basal sheaths mostly bladeless j. 
J. Achenes lenticular ; bristles 4-6, subequal, about as long as 
the achenes. 
Achenes 2 mm. long, nearly eoualing the scales . 17. A validu9. 

Aohenes 2.0-8 mm. long, muen exceeded by the scales . 18. & oecidtnUMM. 
J. Aohenes trigonous; brlstfos very unequal, mostly shorter 

than the achenes 19. A kelerocha^tmt, 

e. Involucral bracts 2 or more, leaf-like ; culms leafy k. 
km Splkelets hirge, 1-5 cm. long, 0.5-1 cm. thick ; midrib of the scales 
extended beyond the somewhat lacerate or 2-cleft apex as an 
awn ; culms sharplv trigonous ; rootatocks cord-like, with fre- 
quent tuber-Uke tntokentngs. 

Achenes sharply and equally trigonous 90. 8jiuvi4iitiii, 

Achenes lenticular, plano-convex or obscurely trigonous. 
Scales of the splkelets rufesoent, bearing numerous elongate 

red markings . • 91. & robualtu. 

Bca\e»» whitish to castaneous, not mibsoent. 
Scales whitish-brown ...••••.. 22. iSl campsttrU. 
Scales drab to castaneous. 
Spikelets all or mostly in a dense glomerule . (22) S. Cftmpetlria^ v. paludomu. 
SplkeletM 1-several on mostly elongate rays. 
Splkelets long-cylindrir., *l-h cm. long (22) N. campettrit, v. notae-anglias, 
s^pikelets ovoid, l-'i cm. lung .... (22) S. eampetlris, v. J^emaidi^ 
k, Splkelets small, 2-15 mm. long, 1-^ mm. thick, very numerous, in 
decompound umbellifonn panicles /. 
L Bristles retrorsely barbed ; splkelets In glomerulus : culms mostly 

solitary ; the short candex bearing thick sccly stolons m. 
m. Lower sheaths (at least) red -tinged ; bristles barbed neariy to 
base n. 
n. Achenes lenticular ; stvle-brancbes 2 : bristles 4. 

Primary and secondary rays of the, inflorescence mostly 

elongate, the ultimate glomerules' mostly p(vi uncled . 28. & fvibrotinetm^ 
Primary and secondary rsvs abbreviated, most of the ulti- 
mate glomerules crowded in irreguUr masses (28) 8. rubroUnetUB^ v. mm^jifcii, 
n. Achenes trigonous ; style- branches 8 ; bristles 8 or tf. 

Splkelets narrowly ovoid, 8-5 mm. long . . . . 24. A gf/t^aticJU 
Splkelets cyllndric, 5-14 mm. lonr . . . (24) 8. aylwUimu, v. iM«c22^1 
m. Sheaths uniformly greenish, not red ; bristlea barbed only above 
the middle o. 


0L BiIbUm ahortor tlutn or ftboat eqaallnff the Aohen« p. 
p» Lower leaves and abeaths noduluae*retieulate ; briatlos 
nearly or quite euualiog the acheiie. 
Boales of the splkefet dark brown, orbicular-ovate, ab- 
ruptly mocronate, l.b-3 mm. long, one-thtnl longer 
than the achenes. 
Some of the raya of the Infloresoence elongate and defl> 

. „ ^te 25. A atrotirmit. 

AU the rays abbreriated and hidden in the dense inflo- 

roMenoe (2ft) iV. atroeirtns, t. pynoeephal^* 

Scales of the spikelet Hght brown, eOfptto-ovab*. namtwed 
to a long aetolose awn, aboat twice aa lung aa the 

Achenes S6. S.pamdu%. 

fX Lower leaves and. sheaths smooth and hardly nodulose; 

bristles shorter than the aehene or often wanting . • 27. S. georgianun. 
o. Bristles twice as long as the aehene. 

apikeleta ovoid. 8.0-8JS mm. long 28. ^. polyphjflfus. 

Splkeleta eyttndric, 6-8 mm. long . . (28) SI. polyphyUut^ v. mctcrottachyu 
t Bristles smooth or with few scattered or ascending hairs (not 
regular^ retrorse-barbed), bent or curled ; non-atolonlferous 
plants in tufts or stools q, 
q. Bristles at maturity aearoely exceeding the scales. 

Bristles firm, appressed* shorter than or about equaling the 

aehene 20. A diearUain: 

Bristles weak, loosely asoending, about twice as long aa the 
Scales with the strong green midrib prolonged into a sharp 

point fiO. S. HuMiiuM. 

Scales blunt, the midrib inconspicuous 81. <S\ PedtU, 

q. Bristles at maturitv much exc^ading the scales r. 
r. Spikeleta all in nomeniles of 8 to 1 A. 
Involncels reddish-brown. 

Splkeleu ovoid, 8-« mm. long 82. A eyperinw. 

Spikelets eylindrlc, 7->10 mm. long . . (82) S. eyperin^m, v AndrewHi, 
Involocels dull brown or drab, with blackish bases. 
Kays elongate, the fflomerulea mostly diatlnct . (32) S. oyperinus, v. pelius. 
Bays abbreviated, the glomerulea crowded in dense irreg* 

ttlar masses (82) »s:. cyperinttt^ r. condenaatus. 

r. Lateral spikelets of each group mostly pediceled (pedicels 
short and obscure only in a variety with congested pan- 
icles) a. 
Sm Involuoels brown or reddish. 

Involueels bright red-brown or ternnsotta . . .83. S, Eriophorum. 
Involuoels dall brown, not reddish. 
Bpikelets 8^ mm. long, pale brown to straw-color . 84. S pedicefiatut. 
Spikelets 7-10 mm. long, drab . . . (84) S. pediceiMtu«, v. pullue. 
«. Involuoels black. 

Rays mostly elongate, the ray lets nsually deflnite . . 85. ^. atroclnctu9. 
Says and raylets abbreviated, the spikelets crowded In 

irr^gnlar masses (85) S. atrocinetM, v. bracAypodits. 

1. S. nAniu 8preng. Culms densely tufted, bristle-like, flattened and grooved 

(1-7 cm. high); spikelet ovoid, 8-B-flowered; scales ovate, the 

Qpper rather acute ; bristles mostly longer than the ovoid aehene, 

aometimes wanting. {Eleocharis pygmaea Torr.) — Brackish 

marshes of the Atlantic coast ; locally inland in N. Y., Mich., and . ^ 

Minn. July-Sept (Eu., n. Afr., Mex., Cuba.) Fio. 276. 276. 8. nanus. 

^ 2. S. pauciflbms Lightf. Culms striate-angled, veiy slender 

mvkl (0.6-4 dm. high), scarcely tufted, on slender running root- 

W^^ stocks, with a short truncate sheath at base ; scales chestnut- 

I brown, pointless, all flowf r-bearing, the two lower larger; 

I bristles 8-6, about as long as the acliene. (Eleocharis Link.) 

ZTC S. paoelflorns — ^^^ calcareous soil, Que. to B. C, s. to n. N. E., N. Y., 

^^ ■ Pa., 111., etc. June-Sept. (Eurasia.) Fig. 276. 

3. 8. Cliiit5nii Gray. Culms acutely triangular, almost bristle-like ; sheaths 
at the base bearing a very slender almost bristle-shaped leqf shorter (usually 
▼ery much shorter) than the culm ; outer scale mostly shorter 

than the pale-chestnut ovoid spikelet; aehene 1.6-2 mm. long, y Ilk 

compressed, broadly obovoid, equaled or exceeded by the bristles. | ^ 

-Dry banks, N. B. and Me. to w. N. Y. and Mich.; »*N. C." .,-, ^ rnn»«„M 

May, June. Fig. 277. 2... ^. Uintonu 

4. S planifblitts Muhl. Culms, trtan^ulaTt leafy at base ; leaves linear, flat 


A A 3» long as the culm, and Ilk« It TDUEh-cdged ; uuter Kftk 

WW usuiLlly overtopping ilie ovoid or subcytindric siran-colored 

I or brosyiilHb Hpikcli-l ; brtalli's nioatly about aa lon^ aa Ifaf 

KR "* ni.nif.iiinK oclieiie. — Dry opDii woods, Mass. and Vt. to Del., Fa., and 

■^ Mo. May, June. Fi.i. -JTP. 

6. S. caeapit6siu L. Culmt terete, wiry, 1-6 dm. high, denwly abcathed 
tt base, iu coinpact turfy tufts; lliu upper sheath beariiig a very thurt aioi- 
ihaped leaf; spikelet ovoid, rust-color ; outer rigid-pointed _ 
jcale scarcely surpassing the apikeleC j bristles smai'lk, longer '^b9«i 
Iban the abruptly shori-pointed achene. — Mts., cold shores tM' 
Ud swamps, Lab. to Alaska, s. to N. &., n. N. E., N. Y., 111., 1 ^ 

Minn., exc. ; and on the sumtuits of llie a. ,,, „ ,. 

Alleghenies. (Eurasia.) Fm. aTO, lK.S.c«.riw.« 

0. S- hndsODiiaus (Michx.) Femald. Culms alender, 
many In a row from a running routstock (1.6-4 dm. highX 
scabnius, naked ; sheaths at tlm bane awl-llpped ; ec^ea 
brownlaii, oblong-lanceoUic ; briaUei white, frinped, ma»f 
time* exceeding the narrowly obovoid aplculale aehrne. 
(_Eriophorum atpiniim L,. uot S. alpiiiu* Schleicli.) — Cold 
bogs and wet shores Nid. to lluditon Bay and K. C. a. 
WO. •'. huJ=,.iiii.r.ii!. •* <^'-t N- ^-t Mich., and Minn. May-Aug. (Eu.) Fia. 

7. S. Bubtenninllia Torr, Aquatic, rarely euiersed ; 
roolHtock slendur ; culms (0,3-1 ni, long, thioklsh-liiirorm) 
partly and the shorter filiform leaves wholly submersed, 
cellular ; the flUfurm green bract 1-A cm. long, surpassing 
the Hubcyliiidric to ovoid spihdet (6-13 mm. long}; scales 
ijreon or straw-color, somewhat pointed ; brlHles beanled 
ii/viatearil, rather shorter than the abruptly pointed acliene. 
— Slow Btr>'ains and pondH, Nfd. tu B. C, a. to N. J., I'a., ih\. a. lubunnixsliL 
Mich, n. hid., etc. Fio, 281. 

8. S. rflfus (Huda.) Schrad. Freely stolon I teroua ; cutmj 
smooth, subterete, compressed, 1-fl cm. hiKh, taller than the sut>. 
terete channeled callous-tipped firm mostly basal leaves ; >piir« 
lUttichoHi, 1-3 cm, lung, eoneltdng of elonely crowli-d 2-Ii-fitnBrrea 
spikelela; Involucre 1-& cm. lung, sometimes wanting; scales 
i-nxiaiienus, conduplicate, pointed; bristles 0, or :i-0. upwardly 
barbellate, much aborter than the plano-convex ellipsoid long-beaked 
achene (4,5-5.5 mm. long). — Braciiish mai'shes, e. N.B. 



cal, acute, g 


nonf; achene 

wrinkled (i 

to Fla. and Tex. 

Sept Fic. 2Hy. 

10. S. dibills Pursh. Culmt obtu»ely triangular, with somewhat hoDowei) 
Bid>-K, 1-0 dm. hiiih, ycllowisli-green, shining; spikek'LS 1-12, 
l\ capitate, ovoid, obtuse (O.Ti-l cm. long); luvolucral leaf often 

Lm horizontal at maturity ; scales rouudish. with tawny margins ; 

BU stauieiis 3 ; style 2— l-cU-Ft ; briftles G, Muul, downwardly barbed, 

I ' equaling or two Burpassing the broadly obovoid turgid abruptly 

IM mucrori ale -pointed achciie. — Sandy or muddy shores. Me. to 

|k Minn., and xoutliw. Aug., Rt-pt. P[o. 284. Var. WiLi.iiMoii 
yjr Feniaid. ItristlcH wanting. — Massaimi^ I'., Sharon, Mass. 

" 11. S. Smlthll Gray. Calmg terete, slender, 0.6-4 dm. high 

M. a dvbUW. often leaf -bearing from the upper sbealb, dull (rwa Ob are iha 



Ut ovoid acatlsh spikelels (0.6-1 om. long); inrolucral leaf alirayH 
erect ; scalaa oblong-oval ; aiyle 2-cleft ; brisltet 1 or 2 minute 
Tuiinwitt or none ; achene cuiieat&«bOT3te. — Wet ehoree, local. 
He. to Pa.. IlL, Mioh., and Out. July-Kept. Fio. 285. Var. 
wt6tc» Fernald. Perianth of 4 or 6 Blunder retrorael; barbed 
briatlea, mostly exceeding tbe acheues. — Me.; 
Hasa. ; and 111. 

12. 8. Bmeiiciniu Fere. Running rootstockt 
long and stout ; eultivi ibarply ^-angled througb- 
out (0-2-1 m. High) wltb concave aides ; leavts ™ „ ^ ... „ 
1-J, elongated (1-3 dm. lonR), keeled and clian- "^ "■"■"'""I- 
neled ; invotucrat leaf pointed; apikeleU I-C. capitate, ovofd, 
mostly 0.6-1 cm. lon^ ; scalet ovate, iparingly dilate, 2-cle/t 
at the apex; anthera lipped wilh an atBlshaped minutely /ringed 
appendage; alyle 2-clefl (rarely 3-clefl); briatles 2^, shorter 
than the smooth achene. (£. pungens Vahl.) — Borders ol 
■H N .marinnnn ^^ f^"^ fixeb ponds and streams, temperate S. A. Aqk.- 
Oct. CEu.,8. A.) Fm. 286. 
13. S. Torrdyl Olney. Boolitocks /lender and teeak; culm R-angted, with 
concave sides, latber slender (0.4-1.6 m. hieb), lei^y nt bane; leavee2 or 3, more 
tAan half the length of the eulm, trianRular-cb an neled, slender ; 
innolacral leaf blunt ; tpikeleta 1-4, oblong or epindle^haped, 
acute, distinct, 1-1.6 cm. long; scales ovate, smootti, barely mu- ' 
cronaie ; ftyle 3-cltj/t ; brietlet longer than the unequally triangular I 
terf smooth long-pointed achene. — Borden of ponds, brackish 
and fresb, Me. to Ps., la., and Man. Aug., Sept. 
Fio. 287. 

/%^ 14. 8. Olniyl Gray. Culm 3^\eing-angled, with - 

I^H deepln excavated sides, stout (0.5-2 m. high), tlie ~ 

'■ upper sheath bearing a triangular leaf or none; 

spikelets 6-12, closely capitate, ovoid, obtuse, over- 
topped by tlie short involucral leaf ; scales orbicular, ^^ g Toirevi 
smooth, the inconspicuous mucronate point shorter 
tlian the scarious apex ; anthers with a very ehort and blunt 
minutely bearded lip; style 2-clefC; bristles fl, scarcely equaling 
the narrowly obovate plano-convex and mucroiiate achene. — Salt 
^ 1 rrtninH niarshcB, H. II. to Fla. ; also iu Mich., and on liie Pacific coast. 
' °^ July-Sept, (W.I.) F[o. 288. 
15. 8. MDOBONXTtrs li. Resembling the last, S-Q dm. high ; involucral leaf 
Hvergent; spikelets numerous in a dense cluster, oblong-ovoid; scales ovate, 
mucrunate, firm, scarcely at all scarioua ; style S-clefl; 
wliene unequally trigonous, broadly ol)ovate. — In a 
lingle locality in Delaware Co., Pa.; probably introd. 

18. S. etnberculitns (Stend.) Klze. Cuim(l-2in.liigh) 
S-angted, usually sharply no above, obtusely below, the 
theaA at base extended into a long slender triangular and 
thanneled leaf; involucral leaf similar (1-2.6 dm. long), 
continuing the culm ; spikelets cylindric (1-2 cm. long), 
tingle or sometimes prollferousiy 2 or 3 togetlier, nodding 
on the apex of the 5-0 long filiform and flattened peduncles 
or rays of the dir:hotomou» umbel-like corymh, or tlie 
central one nearly sessile ; scales loosely Imbriented, 
oblong-ovate, acute, pale, thin and scarioua, witli a green- 
ish nerved back; bristles ft, firm, fumifhed above with 
spreading hairs rather than barbs, equaling tbe slender 
abrupt beak of the oboroiil-lriangular shining achene 
(4 mm. long). (S. Canbyi Gray ; 4'. cylindrieus Britton.) 
— Swampa and ponds, Md. to FUt.. eU). Juue-Aug. 
flQ, 289. Sn. B. etatMiouMiii. 



17. S. TlMna Vabl. (Griit B.) Rooutocfa Btoat, acaly, faoriKmUl; 
iilm 0.5-S.5 m. higb, 0^2.6 cm. thick at base, soft, liglit green; boMol 

theatlu lofl, tUth won Inr.rraU hfatiw laargin; decom- 
pound panicle lar, l\iv ragg 1-0 cm. Imig, tUnder and 
fiexKOua; bractleU brtiieiiiiih, pubfMCtnl al lip, fimbriaU- 
eiUate, wUb itronglji tjxuireiU midrib ; gpiktleli soUt^ij or 
in glomerulea of :i~,'>, rufe»cent, ovuiiC aciilUh, 5-10 mm 
long ; »ealt* auborbicular, a llule pubri- 
rent on the bact, cUlale, mucronatt ; style 
2-clett ; achene fUieonK or dull black 
when ripe, broad -obovoid, plano-con»ex, 
inucroniHe,l..f-1.6mni.&r<Md. (S. (actM- 
trit, mostly of A m. auth. , not L.) — Mar- 
gins of ponds and qulst BtresjuB. July, 

18. 8. OCCldenUlla (Wata.) Chase. Similar; the culms 
luuder, olive-green ; haml tAealht firmer, the marglni beetim- 
ing fibriUote; panicle compound, the rayt 0.5—5 cm. long, 
tliff: braetlett rtd-*poUtd, vlteid at tip, laetrate-Jltabriale, 
abruptly mticronate; spikelet4 mostly In f^iomerules of 2-T, 

rarely solitary, drati to reddiiK-broan, $ubqiHndrlc, 1-2 cm. jjj g mcWbduH* 
MDg; tcalet oblong-ovnte. aristate, red-dotted, viscid above; 
achene biconvex, 1.7-1.9 mm, broad. — Lake-txirderH, Nfd, to B. C, B. to Mmb>, 
.S, Y.,Gieat Lakes, Mo„ etc. Aug., !%ept. Kio. 291. 

19. 8, heterochattns Chase. Similar ; the culms slender, rarely 1 cm. ttaiok 
at biuie, pale green ; panicle compound, the tubrrra vers »lendtr rapi 1-9 cm. 

J. long ; braetleU pale, ari»Uile-acumiaate, gtahrovt ; tpike- 

I j4k ItM solitary, ellipsoid. S-14 mm. long, pale brown ; aeale* 

^B oVBte-oblong, exceeding the achenea, emaiginate, short- 

j^ .dk aristate, sllghtl; red-doti«d, glabrovt, uith erote-JImbrtate 

margin*; ttffU S-el^tt; brintlet 
fragile, 2-4 ; achene greenilh 
or yelloieleh, 2.6-.3 min. long, 
l.T-2 mm. broad. — Marshes 
and sheltered shores, e. Maas. 
and Vt. to III., Neb., and Ore. 
July, Aug. Fia. 292. 

20. S. flDTiitilia (Torr.) 

Gray. (KitbhB.^ Culm very 

stout, 1-1,6 ro. high; leaves 

Sat. broadly linear (0.7-2 cm. wide), tapering gnidu- 

allj to a point, the upper and those of the very long 

Involucre very much exceeding the eomponnd umbel; 

Ttiys 5-12, elongated, reeurved-iepreadlng, each bearing 

1-6 ovoid to cylindrical acute pale-brown spikelels 

(1.5-4 cm. Iodic); scales slightly lacerate, the awns 

much exceedins the cleft tip ; 

I acAene obovoid. iharply and 

exactly triangular, cunspicu- 

onuly pointed, opaque, about tea. a. tliiTumii. 

equaling the fl rield bristles. 

— Borders of lakes and large streams, e. Mbm. and 
Vt. to D.C., w. to Minn., Kau., eic July-Sept. 
Pio. 29-1. 

21. 8. robdstuB Pursh. Leaves fint. green, 4--M)mta. 
broad, as Ion;; ns or longer than the stout calm (0.7- 
1.2 m, high), Chose nf the involucre 3 or 4, very unequal. 
the longest 'iji-idm. long; spikelet* 1-16, rvfeteenL, 
ovoid to cylindric, 1.5-.1 cm. long, 6-12 mm. thick, 
W4. s. r<>bu>-.ui. some sessUe. the otben borne ou short (2-e cm. I0114; 

Wt. S. beteroetiunii 


r^t ; »eale» all pubetceyit, the auint Boon recurved Eud many tifoe* txeeeding 
the elefl tip ; achene broadly to imrrowly obuvuid, couipreBBcd, fiat on one tide, 
cemei or obtvte-anglfd on ike other, Blmrl-poiiiUd, Bhining ; the bristles unequal 
uid deciduous or obsolete. (S, maritlmitt, in part, Am. authoTB.) — Bnckisl) 
OT salt motBbes, Mass. to Fla. aud Tex. July-bept. Fia. 2M. 

22. S. campfatiia BrittOD. Culms 0^1 m. Iiigh, usually exceeding the atlff 
pair leave* (3-9 mm. broad); involucral Uaee»2 (it 3), the longer 1-2 dm. long; 
ipikeleta toftituA-frroten, oroid to cylindric, 1-2 cm, long, B-10 mm. Ihic^, 2- 
11 in a dense glomenile, occasionally a. tew in a seiondarj f;l<»Qenile; teales 
puberulent, or the outermoel glabrous except at tip, 
ue e)igbU7 curved aan twice or thrice exceeding the 
titft tip. {S. ntaritimua. In part, of authors.^ — 
Knirie«, etc, Man. and Minn., neatn. and Boutbw. 
Var. PALroOeus (A. NeUon) Fernald. Siuiilar, but 
with the Kcale* drab to aataneoiu. (S. paludoiHe 
A. Nelson.) — Alkaline Bilnationa inland, and in salt 
naisbes, GdU of St. Lawrence to X. J. July-Sept. 
Fia. 206. Vor. h6vib-Aholtab (Brllton) Kemald. 
L'saally taller (1-2 m. blgh); the involucral leaves 
3 to 5, the longest 2-8.6 dm, long; the loi/ier i^lo- 
Tucenee with 3 to 8 curved raj/s (2-10 cm. long) ; 
tfUctiet* dark brnvn, q/lindric, 2-6 em. long. {S. 
nmae-angliae Britcon.) — Maas, to s. N. Y.; also w. N. Y. Passing to Var, 
FiBHiLDi (Bicknell) Bartlett. Spikelets short-ovoid, 1-2 cm. long, on tnoatly 
dougale raye. (S, F«malili Bicknell.) — Me. to Mass. 

23. S. mbiotlncttia Femald. Culm rather stout, 4-9 dm. high; leave* 

broadly linear, the upper equaling oi slightly exceed- 
ing the inflorescence, the deaths mostly red-tinged ol 
base, the blades smooth, 4-lS mm. broad ; involucral 
leaves mostly 3, the longest equaling or exceeding tbe 
Inflorescence ; rayi numerous, the S-6 longest ones 
0.6-l.Ddm. long, stiff, ascendiiig, subeqtial, tbe many 
shorter ascending and divergent ; Epikelets 4-0 mm. 
long, ovoid to cyliodrlc, In glomerules of from 3 to 
many ; scales ovate, blunt, or the terminal macronaie, 
finely sufiused with green and black ; stamem 8. (A'. 
tylvaticus, var. digynus Man. ed. 0, not Boeckl.) — 
Wft. 8 nivoaDstDi. Damp open soil, Nfd, to Assina., e. to Ct,, N. Y., 
Great Lakes, etc. Yr. July, early Aug. Fia. 2tNI, 

Var. coiTpfeRTua Femald. Giomerules compacted into dense cluatera 1,6-4 cm. 

across. —Nfd. to Me., local. 

24. S. BylTiticus L. Similar ; tall and coarse, 0.6-2 m. high ; upper sheatbi 
mostly green, leaf-blades uitth sfahrous margins, 

1-2 cm. broad ; rays very ujimerous. niostly ascend- 
ing but Jlexuoui, the 1-4 longest 0.5-4 dm. long; 
•pikelela 3-fi mm. long, ovoid, in gloniiTules of 
from 2-8; stamens S.— By brooks and in wet 
Bwarope, s. Me. to Fla., and Mich. Fr. Aug. 
(Eurasia.) Fio. 307. 

Var. BimiUU Femald. Spikelets cyllndric. S-14 
nm. long, mostly 5-20 in a glomerule, — Local, 

Ck and N. Y, — An anomalous plant, combining : 

chAiacteristlcs of S. syUaticws and S. rvbrotinctiis ; ' 

frnitiDg earlier than Che former, later than tbe 

2fi. S. atrArireiu Muhl, RatherBtout,0.S.-1.6m. 
blgb ; leaves pale green, vsith scabrous margins, 
7-15 mm. wide, at least the lotoer nodnlose-rHicu- 
late, the ribs 0,26-0.3 mm. apart ; spikelcta dull 
peeuisb-brown or mfescent, narrowly ovoid to if. 8- vlvsUoaa. 


c;li[|dric, 3,&-6 (ntrei/ 10) mm. long, in glonirrules of 10-30 ; tcale* 1.6-2 mm. 

long; bri<r|p!( xparM-Jy and siroKgly barbcil, nearly straight, as long as tbe 

cnnxpicuoiuly points and obovo id-oblong irigonous acbene. 

. — Mtndows and lK>es, Me. U> Sask., s. to Ga. and Mo. Fr. 

' l^il« July, Aug. Fill. -i^S. Var. rrcKucipHALi a Fernald. 

Kays abbreviaied ; giomtrrule^ crowded in a dense iireguiai 

bead. — Flats of die Mobawk K., N. V., local (Haberer). 

I iO. S. pillidua (Brilton) Fernald. tiimilar ; fratM>« nrry 

. pale; splkele(« pale browti. very numerous in irregnlat 

•jlotnrrule* ; tealrt 2-3 mm. lung, ailh tbt eonipleiioat palt 

midribt prolunged inlo loug xtnlott ouiiu. (.S'. atn-viTtna, 

var. Britton.) — Man, to Kan. and Uie Rocky , 

MW, Fr. July. Fic. 299. A 

27. S. geOTgUniu Harper. Slender, 3-12 * 

J. a .irovire ^^' '''^b. bright green ; leaeei tntouth, rarelf ,^g^ g n«llidu». 

nodiUoie beloui, numerous, crowded at base, 

n.'r-t cm. broad, the rib« 0.15-0.2 lum. apart ; HpikeleU2-4 mm. long, numerous 

in tlie glomernli-s; llie greenish-brown or rufescenl scale* miicrfinate, 1-1.6 mm. 

h>ng, slightly exceeding the ellipsoid aclienes. — Que. to 

Midi., Ga., and Ark. Fr. Ju!y. — (Iccasioiially proliferous. 

2S. S. polypli^lltu Vahl. Culm usually very leafy ; 

ipikfleU gtlliiie-broiea or reddisli, ovoid.^ mm. lung, 

clustered 3-8 together in tmall heada on the short ultimate 

liivislons of the upea dreompound umbel; scales ronndrd, 

mucronale, 1-1.6 mm. long, about eciualing the broadly 

obovoid short'tipped actiene ; briille$ <i, tuuallg tmiee 

brnt, about twice the length of the achetia. — Swamps and 

Ixirdets of ponds, w. N. E. to Ga., w, to Minn, and Ark. 

July-Sept. — Often proliferous. Fio. 300. Var. mack6s- 

,„. ^ , , „ TACHts Boechl. Splbele(« cyliDdric, 6-8 mm. long. — 

a.*. S.p«l)pl,;ll.i.. (^^,_ p^ ^^^ jf ^ 
29. S. dlTaricitOS Ell. Slender, wak, 0.5-1.5 m. high ; 
leavet very numerous, deep green, mfl and smooth, 4-10 mm. 
wide ; inflorescence loose, often proliferous, with elongated 
wldelj/ divergent fiexaiius rai/s; spikelets mostly pedlceled, 
very slender, cyllndric, at i^rst 3 or 4 mm. long, the axis 
elongating M 1 cm., 1-2 mm. thick ; sealet tcAi'ftsA or pale 
brown, blnnt, incnreed, leilh broad green midrib ; acbene 

flrni, sharply trigonous, ovoid, apicu- 

laie. — Swamps, elo., Va. to Mo., and 

soutliw. June-Aug, Fio. 301, 

30. S- lintitna Mtchx. Culms re- 
motely leafy, 0,6-1.5 m. hlRIi ; Uavex 

linear, flat, pale greeit, stiff, rather 

broad (0.6-1 cm. wide), rough on the 

margins ; inroluere and involucels pale 

brown at base; umbrlt terminal and 

Bometiraes axillary, looae, 0.6-2 dm. „. ^ ., . 

high, tubtecund. the terminal with a b. div»rl»iut. 

-^ J, .. 1-S-leaved involucre much shorter than the long slender 

.. n*i UK. attending, nndding-tipprd rays; epikdet* oblong, becom- 

ing cylindrical (0.5-1 cm. long), on thread-like drooping 
pedleets; sr.ftles pale hroten, ovate, jfrfen-tff/«yl, pninied, the lips asrendiag, not 
appres'ed; arliene firm, troion, sharp-pointed. (Eriophorum B. & H.) — Low 
groiindH, VL Hi Ga,. and westw. June-Aug. Fio. 302. 

^"- ^- f "''" "ritton. Culms slender. 0.8-1.7 m. high ; ln.CM pale green, 
5-0 mm. broad, tlie margins scabrous; involiirre and involucels blackl»\ al 
bate; in florescence 0.6-2 dm, high, the 2-5 longest ttif rant atfending, the 
othi-rs shorter, ascending or divergent, Ute tips scarcely drooping; tpiktlet* 
oblong-cylindnc, fr-O mm. long, mosUn Kstile or mbseuite in glomerules of 


i-7; tealei oblong-oTBte, acatlsh or obtuse, b!ackl$h' 
fermginout above Uie pale base ; achene toft, akiligh, 
ebtong. — Meadows and bogs, N. H., VL, and n. N. V. 
Jul;, Aog. Fic. 303. 

35. S. cypertnna (L.) Kunlb. (Wool Grass.) Culm 
Dcaitf terete (1-1.6 in. high); leaves narrowly linear, 

long, rigid, tliose ol the involnr-re 
3-5, longer than the looie umbtl 
(1.5-3 dm. long), the tipa of the 
rays at length drooping ; invalvctU 
r«(i<HsA-6rown,'»p(ft'(i'(a exceedingly mra o d v" 

Mumeroa*. otold, eiuatered, woolly "^ "*■ *^"*- 

at maturity (3-0 mm. long) ; the rKst-rolored brtstlet mvch 
longer than the pointless Teddiah-browa scales; achene 
Bhon-pointed. i^EHophomm L.) — Wet meadows and 
swamps, N. E. to Vs., Tenn., and Aik. Aug.. Sept. Fio. 
304. Var. Ami>r^ws:i Fernald. Involuetlsreddiah-broten ; 
tpltelets cytindric, 7-10 wikj. long. — Local, Ct. 

Var. pilins Kemald. Involucela blackish at base; 

brtitUs drab or amoke-color. — The common form nortliw. ; 

Kid. to Ont., B. to Ct., N. Y., and Mich. —Pethspe dis- 

304. s cipuinni. iJncL Var. condensXtub Femald. Similar, hut with 

ays all or nearly all abbreviated, the glomemlet in deiwe 

Irregular masaet. — Lo<Mil, range of la«L Aug.-Oct. 

3:3. S. KriAphoniro Michi. Coarse and tall (1-2 m.) ; the culm S.5-C mm. 
thick below tlie ample (1.6-3 dm. high) inliorescence ; leaves pale green, firm, 
B-11 mm. broad; rays very elongate, mostly ascending, drooping at tip; thb 
itnolitcelK deep red-hrown or terra-cotta; spikelela ovoid, S-4 mm. long, tbe 
lateral pediceled ; scales red-broicn; wool sllgbtly paler. — Mostly near the coast, 
Ct. to Fla., La., and Ark. July-SepL 

34. S. pedicellAtus Femold. tilmilar ; the culm rather stout (2-4 mm, 
thick below the inflorescence; ; leaves pale green, firm, 3-10 
vnn.broad; infiorescence ample, 1-2.6 dm. high, the numerous 
Mcending eubeijija! rays very slender, with nodding tips i 
iavolucelt broan to dull atraiB-coloT ; spikelets 3-6 mm. long ; 
tcalet pale brown; wool whltiah-brown. — Alluvial thickets 
and swamps e. Que. to Ct., N. Y., and Wis., mostly In the 
Interior. July, Ang. Fio. 306. — Ordinarily very distinct, 
occaslonalty approaching the preceding or the following aa In 80S, B. (wdloeUiiiit. 
Var, rtiLrs Fernald. ^kelete dull fcroion or drab, 7-10 mm. 
long. — Local, and perhaps aa nearly related to the ne it (including & oirocfnc- 
tKf, var, grandU Fernald), 

36. 3. atroclactos Fernald, Slender (0.5-1.2 m. high); thecnim 1-2 mm. 
to diameter below the Inflorescence j leaves bright green, rather aofl, 2-5 mm, 
broad; Inflorescence 0.5-1.8 dm. high, the slender mys very unequal ; involucets 
md bate of involucre black ; spikelets 2.5-6 mm. long, mostly pfcdlceled; scalet 
greenigh-blach ; teool drab or olii!c-brov>n. — Meadows and swamps, abundant 
northw. ; Kfd. to Hudson Bay and Sask., a. to Ct., Pa., Mich., and la. June, 
July (Aug. in colder regions). Var. nRAciifroDL's Fernald. Spikelets on 
shortened pedicels, in irregular dense cltisfrs; rays osnally much reduced. 
— Frequently occupying large areas, especially northw, and at higher altitudes 
than the typical form. 

10. BRldPflOROM L. CcKTTOK Grass 

BriMlea naked, very numerous, silky and becoming greatly elongated. Otlier- 
wise as in Sctrpus. —Spikelets single or clustered or umbellate, when Involu- 
craie with leaf-like bracts, upon a leafy or naked stem ; scales membranaceous, 
l-5-Derred, some of the lowest usually emitr, Stvle very slender and elongated. 


S-cief t. Achene acutely triangular. (Name composed of fpiov, wool or eoiton^ 
and 0op6f, bearing.) 

1 1. Splkelet aollUiT ; involiier* none ; th« lowest seala of th« sptke- 
let eolargM and thickened ; stem-leareft redaoed to mostlj 
bbdeless sheaths a. 

a, Btoloniferoas, enlins solitary ; empty scales at base of spikelet 

few (1 or less) ; flowering spikelet cylindrio, in fhilt becom- 
ing obovold. 

Bristles reddish or oinoamon-oolor UK. ChamiMtmU. 

Bristles white (i) K. ChamiuonU, "w. atbidum 

0. NonatolonillMroas, culms totted; empty scales 10-15; flowering 

spikelet oboToid or globose, in froit becoming depressod- 
Densely tufted, the eolms very many; upper sheaths dis- 
tinctly Inflated : calm trigonous and scabroas at tip . 2. E, eaUUrim^ 
Loosely tofted, calms rery »w ; npper sheath close ; calm 

terete, glabrous at tip 8. JT. opttcum, 

1 9. Bpikelets 9-eeveral ; inTolaore of l-sereral leafy bracts b. 

b. Leaves very slender. 1-1.5 mm. broad, triangular-chaoneled 

tbronghoat ; inyolacre a single erect short bract. 
Upper cauHne leaf with the sheath longer than the blade . 4. E, ffraetis. 
Upper caallne leaf with the sheath shorter than the blade . 6. JT. UnsUmn^ 
b. Leaves broader, flat at least below the middle; involaeral 
bracts 2 or more e. 
e. Scales of spikelet wiUi only 1 prominent rib ; stamens 8. 
Midrib or scale prominent onlr below the membranous tip ; 
npper leaf-sheaths dark-gudled at summit. 

IicaTes 1.5-4 mm. broad $, K anfftMUfoUum. 

Leaves 5-8 mm. broad {'^ E, anffuttifolium, ▼• nu^u* 

Midrib prominent to the tip of the scale ; leaf-shMths not 

Bplkelets mostly pedonded 7. JT. Hridi-carinatum. 

SplkeleU sessile In a glomernle • CO E. HridUrcarinalwm^ ▼. FtUo*O0ti. 

o. Beales of the spikelet with several prominent ribs ; stamen 1. 

Bristles copper-color or brown 8. if. Hrgini«um. 

Bristles white except at base ....•• (8) £*. €irginiovkm^ ▼. album. 

1. S. Chamiflabnia C. A. Mey. Culms soft, subterete, 1-8 dm. high ; btual 
leaves slender^ channeled, the upper scarcely ififiated sheaths mostly bladeleas ; 
flowering spikelet 1.5-2 cm. long ; its scales brownish lead-color with broad 
whitish margins, bluntish; bristles reddish, (E. russeolum Fries.) — Locally 
in bogs, Lab. to N. 8. and N. B. ; Ont. ; Rocky Mts., etc. Fr. July, Aag. 
(Eurasia.^ Var. Xlbidum (F. Nylander) Femald. Bristles white. — Que. and 
K. B. ; Alaska, etc. (Eurasia.) 

2. E. cAlUtriz Cham. (Hare's Tail.) Culms stiff and wiry, densely tufted, 
1.&-7 dm. high; basal leaves filiform^trigonous, scabrous; upper bladeless 
sheaths infialed; flowering spikelet obovoid or globose, 0.8-1.6 em. long; scales 
/«(ui-co2or with pale margins, ovate to ovate-lanceolate, long-acuminate; fruiu 
ing spikelet 2.5-5 cm. broad ; bristles bright white, (E, vaainatum Am. 
authors, not L.). — Bogs and mountain slopes, Lab. to Alaska, a to Pa., 
Mich., Wis., and Man. Fr. May-^uly. (Asia.) 

8. S. opicum (Bj^.nstr.) Femald. Similar; culms terete, glabrous, fili- 
form, forming loose small tufts; leaves glabrous ; upper sheaths close; flowering 
spikelet rarely 1 cm. long ; scales lead-color, lance-attenuate ; fruiting spikelet 
2-3.5 cm. broad ; bristles sordid white. — Locally on bogs, South Ashbumham, 
Mass. (Forbes); Ont. to Sask. and the Rocky Mts. Fr. June, July. (Eurasia.) 

4. S. grAcile Roth. Weak and slender, glabrous, the subterete culm 2-6 
dm. high, with no young basal leaves developed at flowering season; upper 
cauline leaf-blade smooth, round-tipped, 1-4 cm. long ; involucre dark at base; 
spikelets 2-5, mostly on short slender pubescent peduncles (0.&-3 cm. long), 
in an thesis 7-10 mm. long, in fruit 1.5-2 cm long ; scales lead-color or blackish; 
achenes 1.&-2 mm, long; bristles white. — Cold bogs and swamps, Gulf of St. 
Lawrence to B.C., s. to Ct., Pa., Mich., Neb., and Cal. Fr. May-July. 

5. S. tenMlum Nutt. Culms stiff, obtusely trigonous, scabrous above, 3-9 
dm. high, with long slender green pointed basal leaves ; upper cauline leaf-blad^ 
scabrous, pointed, 3-18 cm. long; involucre brown or Hraio-color at base: 
spikelets 3-0, on scabrous peduncles, in fruit 2-2.8 cm. long; scales greenish 


ttraw-eolor to reddish-brown; aehenes 2.5-3 mm, long; bristles whitish 
[B. graciU, Tar. paucinervium Eiigelm. ; E. paucifiervium A. A. Eaton.) -- 
Swaiups and bo^s, Nfd. to Ont, s. to N. J. and 111. Fr. Juiy, Aug. 

6. B. angnstifblinm Kotb. Culms 2-6 dm. high, slender^ oMusely angled ; 
haaai leaves broody conduplicate above the middle ; cauline leaves few, stiffs fiat 
at base, 1.5-15 cm. long, 1.5-4 mm. broody scabrous on the margins; spikelets 
2-10, mostly on stout glabrous or glabrate peduncles (0.5-7 cm. long), in 
anthesis ovoid, 1-2 cm, long, in /niit 2.5-4.5 cm. long; scales lead-color to 
castaneous, 4-10 mm. long, the nerveless tip membranous; anthers 2.5-5 mm, 
long; achenes 2.7-3.5 mm. long ; bristles bright white. (E, polystachion L., 
in part.) — Cold bogs, Arctic Am., s. to Nfd., N* S., N. B., Me., L. Superior, 
etc. Fr. June, July. (Eurasia.) Var. mXjus Schultz. Stout and tall 
(3-0 dm.) ; the leaves 4-8 mm. broad. — South to Me., Ont., HI., Wise., la., etc. 

7. E. ▼{ridi-caiinitimi (Engelm.) Femald. Culms 2-0 dm. high; leaver 
pa except at tip, 2-6 mm. wide ; spikelets 3-30, on slender simple or forked 
minutely hairy p(>dundes, in anthesis slender-ovoid., 6-10 mm. long, in firuit 
1.5-3 em. long; scales greenish-drab to lead-color, the prominent often scabroui 
midrib extending to the tip; anthers 1-1.25 mm. long; bristles whitish or palt 
hnff. (^E. polystachion of most Am. authors.) — Bogs and wet meadows, Nfd. 
to Sask. and B. C, s. to Ct., N. Y., O., Mich., Wis., and said to extend to Ga. 
Fr. May-Aug. Var. F£ll6w8ii Femald. Spikelets all sessile. — Local, Me. 
and Mass. 

8. B. yirglnicum L. Culms wiry, terete below, trigonous above, smooth, 
4-12 dm. high ; leaves flat, stiff, elongate-linear, with close sheaths, the upper- 
most 1-2.5 dm. long, 1.5-4 mm. wide; involucral bracts somewhat divergent; 
spikelets mostly crowded in a dense glomerule, in anthesis 6-10 mm. long, in 
fruit 1-2 cm. long ; scales vdth strongly striate-ribbed greenish or straw-colored 
body and thin nerveless red-brown margin ; bristles tawny or copper-color. — 
Bogs and meadows, Nfd. to Ont and Minn., s. to Ga. Fr. Jalv-Sept. Var. 
iLBUx Gray. Bristles whitish. — Ct. and N. Y. 

11. FUIfiftNA Rottb. Umbbblla Oram 

Spikelets many-flowered, terete, clustered or solitary, 
axillary and terminal. Scales imbricated in many ranks, 
awned below the apex, all florif erous. Perianth of 8 ovate 
or heart-shaped petaloid scales, mostly on claws, and usu- 
ally with as many alternating small bristles. Stamens 8. 
Style 8-cleft. Achene triangular, pointed with tho per- 
sistent base of the style. — Culms from a usually perennial 
root, obtusely triangular. (Named for Q. Fuiren, a Danish 

1. F. squarrftsa Mlchx. Annual, 0.5-8 dm. high ; stems 
glabrous ; leaf -sheaths more or less hispid ; spikelets 2-8 ; 
perianth-scales narrowly to broadly oblong or ovate, long- 
stipitate and attenuate to a long retrorsely barbed awn ; 
barbed bristles usually exceeding the yellow-brown achene, 
which is equaled by the persistent style. (Var. pumUa 
Ton*.) — Sandy shores and swamps, Mass. to Fla.; Mich. 806. F. sqnirroM. 
and Ind. Aug. -Oct. Fio. 806. 

2. F. hispida Ell. Perennial; stem (2.5-8 dm. high) leafy; leaves and 
sheaths densely hairy; spikelets ellipsoid (0.5-1.2 cm. ^^ng), bristly with the 

spreading awns of the scales ; perianth-scales rliombic or deltoid 

^f\ ovate, with a short thick smooth terminal awn or point, the inter- 

Y posed mostly barbed bristle:* shorter than the yellow achene, which 

^ is twice as long as tlie persistent style {F. squarrosa, var. 

807. F. hispid*. Chapm.) — Sandy wot places, N. .; to Fla and Tez., n. in thf 

fruit xi^ low country to Ky. and L T. Juij-Oct. Fio .'W, 



iM 3. F. simplex Vahl. Perennial, 1-8 dm. high; leaf-sheatha 

Vf hairy; perianth-scales ovate-obloug, the retrorselp barbed awns 

^ arising from below the tip, bristles equaling or exceeding the 

BOS. F. Bimplez. white achene. — Sandy or saline soil, Mo. and Kan. to Mex. 

Fruit X 2%. Aug.-(>ct. Fig. ;K)8. 

809. H. micrantlifl. 

12. HEMICArPHA Nees & Am. 

Spikelet, flowers, etc., as in Scirpus, except that 
there is a minute translucent scale T readily overlooked) 
between tlie flower and the axis of the spikelet. Sta- 
men only 1. Style 2-cIeft. Bristles or other perianth 
none. (Name from i^/m-, Jialf, and Kdfxpos, straw or 

ch(nff, in allusion to the single inner 

1. H. micrintha (Vahl) Britton. 
Pwarf or minute annual (0.2-15 dm. 

high]); involucre 1-leaved, as if a piaarx %" BoTkeiot x 2% 
continuation of the bristle-like culm, Acheno x lo 

and usually with another minute 

leaf; spikelets.lS, short-cylindric or ovoid (2-4 mm. long); 
scales oblong or narrowly obovate, brown, tipped tottA a short 
recurved point ; achenes cylindrie^ brown^ slightly reticulated, 
with many close rotes of croirded low papillae. {If. sub- 
squarrosa Nees.) — Sandy borders of ponds 
and rivers, N. H. to Fla., w. to the Pacific ; 
chiefly on the coastal plain and in the flat 
country of the interior. Aug. -Oct. (Mex., 
S. A.) Fio. 800. 
2. H. Dramm6ndi Nees. Similar ; scales broadly obovate 
or rhombic, the broad green midrib barely projecting as a blunt 
appressed tip; achenes narrowly obovoid, ashy, scarcely reticu- 
lated, the papillae fewer and somewhat remote. — Damp sand, 
etc., w. Ont., Ind., and 111. to Ark., Kan., and Tex. July- 
Oct. Fig. 310. 

8. H. occidentilis Gray. Spikelets globose, the wide-spread- 
ing lanceolate or narrowly ovate scales tapering to slender re^ 
curved awns {as long as the blades) ; achenes as in the latter. 
— Damp sand, w. Out. ; Wash, to Cal. July-Oct. Fio. 811. 

810. H. Dmminondi. 
Bplkelet x 2%. 
AcheQ« x 1(K 

811. TT. AoeldentaBi. 
Aolieoe x lOi 


Spikelets terete, many-flowered, in a terminal close cluster 
involucrate by leafy bracts. Scales spatulate, regularly im- 
bricated in many ranks, awnless, deciduous, a few of the 
lowest empty. Inner scales (bractlets) 2 to each flower, thin, 
one between the scale of the spikelet and the flower, one 
between the latter and the axis of the spikelet. Stamens 1 
or 2. Style 2-3-cleft. Achene flattish or triangular, naked 
at the tip. — Culms leafy at base. (Name formed of X^vot, 
fat, and Kdp<pos, chaff, from the thickness of the inner scales 
of some species.) 

1. L. maculita (Michx.) Torr. Annual; culm (0.5-2.6 
dm. high) much longer than the linear concave leaves; 
spikelets (3-7 mm. long) green and dark-spotted; inner 
scales delicate ; stamen 1 ; achene oblong witli a contracted 

base. — Springy or miry places, Va, to Fla. ; near Philadelphia, probably adT. 

July-Ocu Fio. 812. 

812. L. DiAcalaU. 


11 KTnCHdSPORA VahL Bbak Robb 

Spilulets paalcled or varioiul; cliutered, ovate, globular, or splndlensh^ved, 
teiete, or aomeliuies Uatlish ; but the tcaXm open or barely concave (not boaC- 
■baped nor keeled) ; the lower commonly loosely imbricated and empty, the 
uppermost often subtending imperfect flowers. Peiiantb of bristles. Stameoa 
nioetty 3. Achene lenticular, globular, oi flat, crowned witb a conapiciioos 
tubercle or beak conHisting of the peraiatent indurated base or even of the greater 
part of the style. — Chiefly perennials, with more or leas 
uTBQgular and leafy culms ; the epikelets in terminal and 
aiillary clusters ; flowering in summer. (Name composed 
of i^X'h o snout, and eropd, a teed, from the beaked 

i 1. Spikelets lanceolate, acuminaU, in frnit fiattish, 
cymoar-panlcUd, of only one perfect and 1-1 slaminale 
pmera; icalm few; bristles rigid, minvtelg seabroui 
upward; style simple or barely 2-tootlied, JUiform 

and grtulually thickened dovmicard, in 

fruit persistent aa an exserted elender 

aiel-shaped tipteardty roughened beak, 

several times longer than the smooth 

fiat obovale achene ; coarse perennials ; 

spikelela in fioieer 1-1.5, in frtiil (£n- 

cluding the projecting beak) 2-3 cm. 

1. R. coraicnliU (Lam.) Gray. ,,„ „ „„„,„,,„. 
(Horned KuBH.) Culm 0.5-2 m. high; ais. R. cornlciitau. 
leaves 0.3-3 cm. wide ; cymes decompound, d(fn»e; bristles 
awl-shaped, stout, unequal, shorter than the achene. — Wet 

filaces on the coastal plain, Del. and Pa. to Fla, and Tex., 
ocally northw. in the Miss. Basin to Mo., lud., and 0. 
June-Sept. Fm. 313. 

2. B. macrostichya Torr. Erect and rather atiff ; the 
glomerntes mostly of 10-50 spikelets, strongly ascending, 
sessile or on few short rays; bristles capillary, twice the 
length of the achene, — Bordeis of ponds, Mass. to Fla. and 
Tex., locally northw. in the Miss. Basin to Kan. and lud, 

114. R.mBr<..Ucby». Aug.-Oot Fco. 314. 

Var. InnndAta (Oakee) Fernald. Cyme loosely decom- 
pound, the numerous rays wide-spreading or fleiuous ; the spikelets solitary 
or 2-fi in loose glomerules. (Vor.jiafufaChapm.} — Mass. to Fla. 
(2. Spikelets terete or biconvex, few-many-fiowered ; style conspicuously 2- 

clefl, its base only fo)-miiig the tubercle of the mostly lenticular achene; 

bristles usually present, merely rough or barbed-denticulate (rarely pltt- 

• Aehene transversely wrinkled; bristles mostly 6, upwardly deMiculate. 
3. R. cymbsa^ir. Culm slender 0.3-1 m. high, triangular; 
leaves linear (l-^mm. wide); cymes corymbose, the brown spike- 
lets crowded and clustered; acfteneroiind-oftofoiJ, faintly wrinkled, 
twice the length of the bristles, four times the 

♦ length ol the depressed-conical narrow tubercle. — 

Low grounds, N. J., Pa., 111., and soutbw. June- 
jjj Aug. (W. I.. S, A.) Fio. 315. 

piewi" *■ ^' «W'>pt*9B« Carey. Simiiar; culm rather 
Htont ; leaves pale and firm, 3-7 mm. wide ; achene 
strongly wrinkled, the tubercle with broad depressed thin-edged 
base. — Ga. and Fla. to 1^., northw. in the low country to Mo. 
July. FiQ. 816. 8 


5 R. Tomjia* Gray. Culm nearlg tertU, tUnd«r; leaan 
invotute-filifnrm; cyuies panicleil, somewhat locae, the aocend- 
\n% brown tpikrUta moHly pediceled; aeheue 
compreesed, oblong-o!>ovoid, longer than the 
bristles, thrice the length oF the broad com- 
preased-conicftl tubercle. —SmuDpe and bogs, 
East Washington, N. H. (C. P. Parter) ; 
pine-baireoB of N. J. to Oa. July-Ock Fio. 

6 K. InexpinM (Hichr.) Vahl. Culm 
tnanffvlar, slender ; leavea norrouly Knear, 
'iS mm. wide, t>ecomlnf; Involute ; tpUceleU 
ipindle-thaped, mottlv pediceled, in drooping 
panfclei; achene ohlong, half the length of 
the Blender bristlee, twice the lengtb of the 

"" triangular-subulate tubercle. — Low groonds, 
Va. to 0«. July-Sept. Fia. 318. 

* ■ Aehene smooth and even. sis. K. losipatua. 

»- BrUtlet 6, fonjr and contpieiioug, upteardlj/ dentleulate. 

T. B. fdaca (L) Alt. f. Loosely alolonlferoiu) ; culm 2-Q 

dm. high ; leavei brittle-form, channeled; epikelele ovoid- 

(iifllform, fen, clustered in \-i loose heads (uhestnut-color) 

overtopped by the slender bracts ; achene obo- 

void, about j the length of thfi brifClei, nearly 

equaling the trlangular-8 word-shaped acuie 

tubercle, which la roufch-semilalfi on the mar- 

■lo B A. B'"*- — Boggy places, Nfd. lo Out, a. to Del. 

'"• ■ and Mich. July-Sept. (Eu.) Fco. 819. 

8. B. gnciltnta Gray. Culms very aieiider, 3-8 dm. high ; ^^ „ ^^^^ ^ 

kaw* narroiBly linear; spikeleta ovoid, in 2-4 small cluatere, B.r»cueDi». 

the lateral long-ptdimcled ; achene onold, rather thorter (Aon 

^. A the brUllei, about the length of the flat-awl-shaped tuberrle. — 

^Uf Low grounda, e. N. Y. and N. J. to Fla. Ang., Sept. (\V. I., 

^■f/ S. A.) Fio. 320. 

^I§ 9- K- oligAntha Gray. Culm and leaves flilfonn, 

-— r dm. high; spikelrW very few (1-4), ovoid-fuslfonn ; bri»Urt 

^^H plumose bfhtvi the middle; achene obovoid-oblong, bearing a 

' conical tubercle ) itfl length. — I>el. no Fla. July, Aug. 


■i- 1- BrUtte* n. 

•, or 1~3 and nt(Aut«; tptkelett pale, 1-Jhwered. 


10. R. piUida M. A. CurtU. Culm (3-6 dra. high) acutely 
triangular ; leaves and tpikeUts as in the next species, but onlD 
a terminal dense etu»ler, which Is less wliito or turne pate 
reddish-tawnv ; achene otMivoid-lnnliouIar, tipped with a minute 
drpresned and apiculale tubercle; the delicaie bristles 4-S times 
shorter or obsolete. — Bngs In plnp-barreng, N.J. and N. C. 
Aug., Sept. (W. I., S. A.) Fin. 322. SM. B. 

•-■•- — Brittlee long, drntictitale doientenrd, or tnth vmyi In no. 15. 
— BpOcelett white or whltifh, beriming tntenf with age, perftrting onlf a gtitdU 
Jtoiaer ; ttataens usually 2 ,■ brlellei 0-Vi, or even 20. 

11. K. ilba (L.) Vahl. Culm slender (1.6-0 dm. hloh), triangular almve; 
leaves narrowly linear or almost bristle-form; spjkeleis lanceolate, densely 
crowded in a head-like terminal corymb (0.5-1. S cm. broad) and usually one oi 
two Uti-ral i>ne» ; achene nlilong-obovaU! with a narrowed base, siurcely longer 
than the flctttened-nwl-shaped tubercle, shorter than the brisUes. — Bc«a, Nfd 



to Alaska, 8. to Fla., Ky., the Great Lake region, and n. CaL 
Jaly-Sept (Eurasia, Porto Rico.^ Fxo. 823. Van xXcra Clarke. 
Cosner, 4-8 dm. high ; terminal corymb often 2-4 cm. broad. — 
The common aouthem form, extending n. to central N. T« and Mass. 

** ** Spikelets chestnut-colored, fev>-Mveral-Jl(nJoered ; 
staniens S ; bristles usually 6. 

12. S. capillAcea Torr. Culm 1-4.6 dm. high, 
slender ; leaves bristle-form ; spikelets 8-^ in a ter- 
minal cluster, and commonly 1 or 2 on approximate 
or remote axilliary peduncles, oblong-lanceolate (pale 828. R. alba, 
chestnut-color); achene oblong-ovoid, stipitate, very 
obscurely wrinkled, about half the lengOi of the (6, rarely 12) 
stout bristles, and twice the length of the lanceolate-beaked 
m. S. oftDlIkMsea. ^'i^^^®* — Marly bogs and wet limestone rocks, e. Que. to 
^ w. Ont., s. very locally to N. J., Pa., O., Mich., and Mo. July- 

Sept Fio. 324. Van lbtis^ta £. J. Hill. Bristles perfectly 
smooth. — IxKsal, Me., Ont, Mich., and Ind. 

13. R. Emesk^mii Carey. Culm 1-0 dm. high, slender; 
leaves narrowly linear, short; spikelets numerous, crowded in 
i-6 disUtnt clusters, oblong-ovoid, 2-3 mm. long ; achene obovoid, 
narrowed at base, equaling the bristles, twice the length of the 
triangular flattened tubercle. — Pine-barrens of N. J. (on bog 
iron ore exclusively) to Va. ; rare. July-Sept. Fio. 325. 

14. S. glomerlktA (L.) Vabl. Culms 0.1-1 m. high; leaves 
linear^ flat; spikelets numerous in distant clusters or heads (0.6-1.5 cm. broad) 

often in pairs from the same sheath, ovoid-oblong; achene 
oboYoid, margined, narrowed at base, as long as the lance 
awl-shaped flattened tubercle, which equals the always down- 
voardly barbed bristles. — Low grounds, N. B. to Ont, and 
southw. July-Sept Fio. 326. Van niactTiBHs Clarke. 
Bristles barbed only at the tip or quite smooth, 
n JmI — N. J., and southw. 

V ^f Van paniciiUita (Gray) Chapm. Coarse 

and tall (1-2 m.); the very elongate inflores- 
cence bearing numerous loose clusters of 
heads. — Md. and Ind., southw. 

15. R. axilUris ^Lam.) Britton. Culm 
stout (0.4-1.2 m. high); leaves narrowly 
linear, flat, keeled; spikdets very numerous, crowded in 2 or Z 
or more dense globular heads (1.5-2.5 em, thick), which are dis- 
tant (and often in pairs), oblong-lanceolate, dark brown ; achene 
orbicular-obovoid, margined, narrowed at base, 2-2.5 mm. long, 
sbout as long as the awl-shaped beak ; bristles twice longer, 
stout, barbed douffitoard and sometimes also upward, (B. cephalantha Gray.) 
— Sandy swamps, L. I. and N. J. to Fla. and La. Aug.-Oct. Fio. 327. 

Van microc^phala Britton. More slender, and usually lower ; glomerulea 
0.7-1.5 cm. thick ; achenes smaller. — N. J. to Fla. and La. 

825. R. Knles- 

IM. B. glomerata. 

827. R.axl11ariB. 

16. CLIdIUU p. Bn Twio Rush 

Spikelets ovoid or oblong, of several loosely imbricated scales ; the lower 
empty, one or two above bearing a staminate or imperfect flower ; the terminal 
flower perfect and fertile. Perianth none. Stamens 2. Style 2-3-cleft, decidu- 
ous. -Achene ovoid or globular, somewhat corky at the summit, or pointed, 
without any tuberele, in which it differs from Bynchospora. n>iminuti^e 
of K\d8ot, a branch, from the repeatedly branched cyme of tne original 

L C. Duuiacoldea (Muhl.) Torr. Perennial; culm obscurely triangular 


(0.4-1 ra. high); leavei narrow (1-3 mm. trfifc), dianjulett, 
aeareei!/ TOugh-maTgined ; panicle O.d-3 dm. lotig, 2-6 cm. 
broad, of 2-4 umbelllfonn cymea, the raya rigidly ascend- 
ing ; BpikeleU clustered in heads 3-10 
Uigether on few peduncle* ; aekene miler- 
shaped, the tritntale bate tliglUlD Jtarlng. 
— Bogs and wet sandy Bhores, either 
fresh or brackish, N. N. to Out., a. to 
Fla., Ky.,Ind., andla. Aug.-Oct. Fio. 

2. C. jamalciiisa Crantz. (Saw 
Guam.) Tall (1-3 m.) and coarse; 

s^i c iBiriiooide*. '*•'"*' broad (0.6-1 em.), $tiff and flat, 
the margin* and midrib beneath hanhly 
Mrrale; panicle 8-0 dm. long, the numerous rays bearing 
abnndant fascicled smsll chCBtnut-colored spikelets; achetts 
obovoid, the truncate haee not Jlartng. (U. <fru«uni Toir.) 
—Shallow water, Va. to Fla. and Tex. (w. L) Fio. 829. t». O. >auic«Bw. 

1ft. SCLfiSIA. BergiuB. Nor Bush 

Flowen monoeclona ; the fertile splkelels l-flow«red, tunally Intermixed with 
cinaters of few-flowered etaminate spihelets. Scales loosely Imbricated, the 
lower empty. tStamens 1-3. Style 3-cletL Achene globular, stony, bony, or 
euamel-like la texture. — Perennials, with trian^ar leafy 
culms, CDOstly from creeping roolstncks ; flowering in summer; 
all in low cround or swamps. Inflorescence, In our species, 
of terminal and axillary clusters, the lower clusters usnally 
peduncled. (Name (rt\jipla, hardnCM, from the indunt«d 
^^""'-^ • Achene amooth. 

1. S. triglomerit* Michx. Culm (0.6-1 m. high) and 
broadly linear (3.5-9 mm. ieide) leaves rovghiah; fsKclcles of 
spikeleis few, tlie lowest peduncled, the upper aomevthnl in 
threes; achene ovoid-glubnae or deprtmed, 2-3 mm. long, on 
an obscure crustaceous disk. — L«w, usually 
sandy soil, e. Mass. and Vt. (according to John 
Torrey) to Ont., la., and souLhw. June-Aug. 
Fio. 330. Var. ghXcjus BriUon. Culms 
slender (3-6 dm. long); leaTcs narrower; 
foKidea few-flowtercd, the lower (2-H-Jlowcredj 
(SO. B tdxlnmtniu. "" "^l* long filiform peduncles; achene nar- 
rower, 1-1.5 mm. long, acutish, (Var. minor 

Britton,)— N. Y. and N. J. jj^ g oltemnth*. 

2. S. Oligintlia Uichi. Culms lender, the angles somewhat ' 

winged; leaves linear (3-5 mm. wide), smoofA except the Bcnbrtnis 

/apex ; lateral fascicles 1 or 2, usually on long exserted pednncles; 
tic/tene ovoid, on a taberculate diek. — Woods, D. C. to Fla. and 
Tei. May-July. Fia. 331. 

■ • Achene papillate, granulose or wartj/. 

3. S. pandflbra Muhl. Smoothish or slightly hairy ^ culm 
slender (2-8 dm. high) ; leaves narrowly linear, 1-3 mm. broad ; 
fascicles few-flowered, the lateral pedunculate, sessile, or want- 
ing; braelfl ciliate ; achene globose, 1.5-2 mm. tn diameter; the 
disk a narrow ring bearing 3 pair* of distinct minute tiibereUs. 
~- Barrens and dryish meadows, N, J. to O., s. to Fla. and Tex, 
June-Aug. (W. I.) Fib. 332. 

Var. caroliniina (Willd.) Wood, Very slender; leaves, CMlnu 
and scales very pubtsctnt. —Local, Mass., O., Ind., and southw. 


VftT. kJiMina Femald. Very Blender and pubescent; each ^k 
pair o/tubfrtla bearing a rmailer inUrmediate one. — Sandy aoil, ^B 
Cberokce Co., K&n. Fia. XSS, -W 

4. S. ciliiU Michx. Umially coarser, ~_ „ ., 
O-B-lm. high, glabrous, cr alightly pubescent ^,i^^^" 
below ; leases firm, 1-2.6 tnfn. wide, becoming 

revolute ; fatcielee 1 or 2, utuaHii atilttary, O.T'^.Scm. long; 

bracts ciliate; acofes tmooCh; achene 2-3 mm. in diameter, 

Uie diak bearing 3 broad thaliow entire or barely notcAed 

txibertlea. — Fine-barrens, etc., Va. and 

&lo. to Fla. and Tex. July, Aug. 

(W. I.) Fio. 334. , 

5. S. ElUdttil Chapm. Coarser and 
lower, 3-5 dm. high ; tbe eutms and fiat 

tH.8. dUu*. leaze» (2.5-6 mm. irfde) puheecent; 

fascicles 2 or 3, usually eubapproxaiiate, ' 

bnning an Interrupted head 1.5-3.6 cm. long; bracts 
mareely ciliate; tralea ciliate on the back; achene with 
I lote broad tubercles, each i-lobed. — Fine-barrens and 
dry ground, Va. and Mo., soulhw. May- 
July. (W. 1.) Fio. S36. 

* * * Aefient rtlieulattd or wrinkled. 
6. S-reticulirisMichx. Culmsslender, ws. 8. KUottu. 
erect, smoolh (1.5-T dm, high); leaves linear (1.5-4 mm. nide), 
smooth ; lateral (asciclea 1-3, loose, remote, nearly erect, ( 
afton ofien included peduntlet; bracts glabrous; 
aehene globose, regnlarly reticulated and pitied, 
the pit* often vertically arranged, not hairy, resting 
upon a double green isli conspicuonsiy 3-lobed 
disk, the inner appressed to and deciduous with the ^■j g „yg 
achene. — Damp sand and pine-barrens, local, e. t pubeiKsiii' 
Mass, to Fla. ; n. Ind. Aug., Sept. Fm. 8S6. 
lu d .«i„.i.rf. ^^r- pnbiscem Britton. Culms weak, dilute, O.S-1 m. 
"a™"^- high, allghtly scabrous or aroootb ; leaves linear (2-7 mm. wide), 
imoolh ; lateral fascicles loose, on more or lett elongated and drooping filiform 
peduncles; achene irregularly pilted-reticulated or pitted-rugoie with the ridge* 
often somewhat spiralis arranged and more or less hairy. (S. Tor- 

Treyana Walp. ; S. Irichopoda C.Wrigbt,)— Pine-barrens, etc., Cl. 
and Ind, to Fia. and Tei. (W. 1.) Fio. 837. 
7, S. verticlllita Muhl, Smoolh ; culms simple, aiender (1-9 
dm. high); leaves narrowly linear ; fascicles 4-6, few-flowered, ses- 
sile in an interrupted spike; achene globose, somewhat triangular 
at base, rough-wrinkled with short elevated ridgei; disk obsolete, — 
PincbarreJia, damp sand, and wet roclia, Mass. to Oat., Minn., and 
■outhw. July-Sept. (W.I.) Fio. 338, 


17. EOBRdSU WlUd. 

Spikeleta unisexual and one-flowered, or with two flowers (one 
MS. S nm- P'^'""^! <)'1B Etaminate) in abort spikes aggregated in elongate 

eS»tiL ^^^^ °^ panicles ; the pistiilate Bower consisting of a spatbiform 
glume (homologous with ttie perigynium of Carex) wrapping about 
the base of the achene and subtended by the scale of the spikelet. — Perennial 
herbs of northern regions, resembling the first group (Vigneae) of Carex, but 
with the perigyninn) replaced by the open glome whii^ has ila margins connate 
at base. (Named for enn Kobres, a nobleman of Augsburg and patron of 
botany in Willdenow's time.) 

1. K. eUchrdUpA Femaid. Densely tufted ; the wiry compreased culms 2-fi.S 


^ dm. high, scabrous above ; leaves 1-2 mm. wide, flat, about half 

m as long as the culms; heads slender, 1-2.5 cm. long, of ^7 rpniote 

V/i appressed-ascetiding spikes; spikes either staminate (clavate), 

mw androgynous, or pistillate (ovoid); bracts ovate, concave : glumes 

yJL ovate, subepathiform, emarginate at tip, more or less mark^ with 

\U green and brown ; style with 2 elongate branches, the slender 

|t base becoming chartaceons and subpersistent, finally separating 

189 K elMhj- '^™ ^® truncate subterete nerveless pale achene (1.2-1.6 mm. 

'^„|L^ ^' louK); stamens 2, the anthers much exceeding the filaments. — 

Wet banks of Aroostook R., Me.; locaL June, July. Fio. 389. 

28. CArSX [Ruppius] L. Sedob 

Flowers unisexual, destitute of floral envelopes, disposed in spikes; the 
staminate consisting of three stamens, in the axil of a bract, or scale; the pistil- 
late comprising a single pistil with a bifid or trifid style, forming in fruit a hard 
achene, which is inclosed in a sac (perigynium) borne in the axil of a bract, or 
scale, Staminate and pistillate flowers borne in different parts of the spike 
(spike androffynoug), or in separate spikes on the same culm, or rarely the 
plant dioecious. — Perennial grass-like herbs with mostly triangular culms, 
8-ranked leaves, and spikes in the axils of leafy or scale-like bracts, often aggre- 
gated into heads. An exceedbigly critical genus, the study of which shoukl be 
attempted only with complete and fully mature specimens.^ (The classical 
Latin name, of obscure signification ; derived by some from cefpeir, to cut, on 
account of the sharp leaves — as indicated in the English name IShear-grass.) 

I 1. Spikes mostly uniform and sessile^ hearing the staminate fiowers at hose or 
apex or sometimes scattered amongst the pistillate ; stigmas 2 and achenfis 
lenticular, — VIgN BAE [Beauv.] Koch. (For § 2, see p. 200.) 

d. Staminate flowers tcatterad or at the base of the spikes (only tn 
•zoeptiiinal Individuals and In the often dioecious C'. gynoerates 
and C, soeUia the entire spike staofiinate) S. 


O, Perifynia aaoendiog, the tips only sometimeB wlde-spreadtngar 

recurved, not spongy at base, the margins winged at least 

toward the beak />. 

/^. Bracta wanting or setaoeoas, If broad at most twice as long as 

the inflorescence B, 

JRi Strongly stoloniferoas ; calms rising from an elongated 

rootatock ; i»erigTnla firm, 5-6 mm. long . 4. (7. ifimii, 

B. Not strongly stolonUerous ; cnlms solitary or In stools F. 
F, Perigynia les^ than 2 mm. broad O, 
Q, Pengynla 5 mm. or more long IT. 
B, Perigynia 7-10 mm. long; spikes long-i^Undrle, 

pointed. 1.5-2.5 cm. long \, O. muskingwmsmsU 

H. Perigynia shorter (or, when exceptionally 7 mm. long, 
in shorter spikes) /. 
/. Perigynia half as broad as long, plump, nerveless 

or obscurely shortrnerved on inner ftce . . 2S. C. a^msis, 
L Perigynia one third as broad as long J. 
J, Perigynia thin, scale-like, scarcely distended OTor 
toe achenes, distinctly nerved on the inner 
fiuse and prominently exceeding the subtend- 
Ing scales. 
Leaves at most 8 mm. wide ; spikes 8-9, glossy 
brown or straw-colored, pointed. 
Inflorescence oblong-ovold or snboylindrio, 

with aso(>ndtng approximate spikes . . 2. O. tooparia. 
Inflorescence monillforra . . (2) C, aeoparia^ v. manUiU&rm^ 
Inflorescence subglobose or broad-ovold 

spikes crowded and divergent . . (2) (7 MopaHa, v. cond^nsa 
Leaves more than 8 mm. wide; spikes 8-14, 

green or dull brown, blunt . . , . 8. <7. tribvloldf. 

1 The perigynial characters are here based on study of mature plants. In sen 
eral the perigynia at the tip of the spike are less characteristic than those Dear«t 
Uito middle ; and, if possible, the latter alone ahould be used in critical comparisons 

cypbbaobaj: (sbdgb family^ 


/. PerisynlA firm, obvloaftl/ distended o^er tlie 

DerraleM or obscorely nerred on the Inner ftoe, equaled 

by the subtendlnff scales 7. 01 pra1§nti9. 

9 ?arigynla less than 5 mm. long JC. 

JL Peiwyntn tbln, soale-llke, scarcely disteoded over the aohenee ; 
leaTee H-6 mm. broad. 
Ferlgynta with appressed tips. 
Inilorescenoecyllndric; spikes approximate • 9, Ctr^uMden. 

Iiidoresceneemonlllform; Bplkee scattered . • {Z) C tr^tUotdM^ r. turbata 

P«ri;^ynla with spreading tips ; Inflorescence flezuous (8) C. tribuMd^^ v. redueta 
IT. Periirynla Arm, obviously distended over the achenee L. 
Jm Perigynla elongate-la'iceolate or sobulate, less than one third 
as broad as long, at most 1.4 mm. broad. 
Tips of the perigynia conspioaously exceeding the lance- 
subulate dull scales. 
Culms 1-4 dm. high ; leayet 1-2.5 mm. wide ; spikes 

8-7 nun. long 6. C. OravfordU* 

Culms taller; leaves broader; spikes 8*11 mm. long (0) C. Cravifordii^ v. nigwiu. 
Tips of the perigynia equaled by the ovate bluntish glossy 

dark scales 6. ^. crtm^ntiU. 

L. Perigynia broader, nearty or quite half as broad as long M. 
M. 'nps of perfnrnla distinctly exceeding the subtending scales N. 
y. Leaves 2.6 mm. or more wide O. 
O. Spikes compactly flowered, the mature perigynia with 

recurved or spreading tips concealing the scales 8. C. crMakL 

O. Spikes with ascending or slightly spreading perigynia ; 
scales apparent P. 
P, Mature porlg}'nla greenish or pale straw-colored, in 
loose spikes ; Inflorescence more than 2.2 cm. long 
(if shorter, with dark chestnut scale*). 
Bptkes approximate In ovoid or short-cy lindrio heads. 
Scales pale, not strongly contrasting with the 

perigynia 10. t7. tnimhUU. 

Scales dark chestnut, stron^y contrasting with 

the perigynia (10) C. mirabUU; v. Hncta, 

Spikes scattered In a monlllform Inflorescence (10) C. mirttbUU, r. pertonga. 
P. Mature perigynia brown. In denMe spikes ; heads at 

most 2.2 cm. long ; scales pale brown • . 18. C, JM>Mi, 
jr. Leavea narrower. 

Inflorescence stltT, with crowded closely flowered spikes 18. C, Bsbhii, 
Inflorescence flexuous and monllifbrm, or at least with 

the loosely flowered spikes scattered . . 11. C. ^aminsa. 

M, Tips ofperigynlaefiualed by the subtending scales ^. 
Q, Inflorescence stiff and erect, or at least with spikes 

Spikes brown or ferrugtnous 20. (7. lejHuHna 

Spikes bfownlsh-whlte 21. C^. xeraniioa 

^. Infforeseenoe flexuous, or at least with the lower spikes 
Perigynia nerveless or minutely short-nerved on the 
inner face. 
Mature perigynia straw-colored or pale brown, one 

third as brood as long 7. (7. praUn9U, 

Mature perig>-nia oUve-green or bronze, half as broad 

as long 22. <7. aenea. 

Perigynia with strong ribs the length of the inner face ; 

spikes silvery-green . 19. 01 ybeiMa. 

\ Perigynia 2 mm. or mure broad R. 

R. Tips of the perigynia distinctly exceeding the subtending scales 8. 
8. Ferlgynia thin and scale-like, barely distended over the achenes, 
one fourth to one third as broad as long. 

Perigynia 7-10 mm. lung I. C. nt v«Hn^Wff»MfM<t. 

Perigynia shorter %. C. teoparia. 

& Perigynia flrmer, obviously distended over the achenes, nearly 
or quite half as broad as long T. 
T. Perigynia lance-ovate, about half as broad att long U. 

U, Leaves 2.5 mm. or more broad 10. £7. nUrabiUs. 

U» Leaves narrower. 

Perigynia distinctly about 10-nerved on the Inner ihces, 
4-6 mm. long. 
Spikes 8-12 mm. long; perigynia 4.8 6 mm. ion« . 12. C, hormathodM. 
Spikes 5-8 mm. long ■ perigynia 4-5 mm. long (12) O. hormathodsa, v. invUOm 
Perigynia 8-5-nerved on the inner fhoes, mostly less than 
4 mm. long. 
Perigynia with ascending inconspicuous tips • . 11. O. ttramifiea. 
Perigynia with divergent conspicuous tipb (11) 0. $tram4nea, v eaUnodaft 

T. Perigynia with broad-ovate to orbicular bodies F. 
V Inflorescence moniUform aiul Hexuoiia, wl^ ino^thr rlftvnto> 
based spikes. 


Morelj besk«d flim pcriSTBlA .... 14. CHUcbo, 
SplkM ferrogliKMis: Um ftbrapt slender bealu of 
the perlrrnlA with looeely ascending or spread- 

iog dps (li) {7. Mormatkod49, ▼. ff« rtff 

Fl iDfloTMeenee stiff (or. if flexiioaa, with brown or 
fnm^oas splkefl) W. 
Wi PeriiTTnia 5.6-7.7 mm. long, rery Hdn, aodo-like, 

MTOoettraoBparent; soles blaot . l^ CLJfietmslM* 

W, Perfgyiilo less thiso 6,$ mm. long, firm and opaqne 
(when exoepttonsllj longer in C. tUatOt with 
srlstste scales) X. 
X Scales long-scnminate or ailstate; pcrigjnia 
4-&,5 mm. lonr; acbenes oblong. 
Spikes green or finally doll brown ; scales 1aiieo> 
subulate ; perlgynla obovate, S.&-8.7 mm. 
brosd, sbruptlr narrowed at base . 1& (Z alaia. 

Spikes becoming dark brown or DermglDoaB; 
perig^mia 2.S-2.S mm. broad. 
Spikes closely approximate; scales orate- 
laneeolate; perlgynla ovate, tapering 
grsdoally to the beak . Id. €7. tmbsr0tta. 

Spikes scattered in a fleraons lnfloreM<>noe ; 
seales laneeolate; perigynia orbieniar, 

abniptly slender-beaked . • (12) C, hormatAodsM, ▼. iMdWc 
X. Seales bhmt or at most aeutish. 

Spikat ^Wr-green or finally doll brown, with 
Kmgqr appressed-ascendlng very lirm 

perlgynla 8.5-4 (rery rarely 4.5) mm. long 9. C, atbdutsMo^nM. 
Spikes straw.colored or ferrnirinons, wiUi 
tpreading«asc«ndlng perigynia 4-5.5 mm. long. 
Tufloreiioenceof 5-10 mostly distinct spikes . 17. C/eMtucae^a. 
Intloresoence of 8-6 approximate spikes (IT) C. fettvcacsa, ▼. brmtior 
M- *nps of the (i^rigrnla equaled by the subtending scales Y. 
T, lo(lore!«ceiiee stiff ana erect, or at least with approximate 
spikes Z. 
2. Spikes whitish or grsy*green. 

Perlgynla lanoe-ovate, 4-4.8 mm. long, nerveless on 

the inner fkce, golden-yellow at base . . .SI. 0. veranMoo. 
Perigynia broad-ovate to suborblonlar. 
Perigynia strongly ribbed the length of the ianer 

dkoe, S mm. broad 19. (7. foenea. 

Perifynla nerreless or ftintly nerved on the Inner 

bee, broader 9. C. alboiuUseeiu, 

Z, Spikes bronze or ferniglnoas. 

Perixynia distinctly concave on the nsnally nerved 

inner Ikee ; achene 1 mm. broad . . . 90. C. Uporina, 

Perigynia flat or convex on the osoally nerveless 

inner Ikce, very plump ; achene 2 mm. broad . 28^ C» adusta. 
Y. Intlorescenoe flexuoas, at least the lower spikes romote a. 
a. Perigynia nerveless or only Iklntly short-nerved on the 
inner fsoe. 
Perigynia ovate-lanceolate, one third as broad as 

long; achene 1 mm. broad 7. ^. praienHti. 

Perigynia ovate, half as broad as long ; achene 1.5 mm. 

broad 29. CLa^Ma. 

a, Perigynia distinctly nerved on the inner fkce. 

Perigynia 2.9-4.4 mm. li>ng, at mo9t 2.4 mm. broad, 
7-18-ribbed on the inner fsoe, abruptly beaked. 
Inflorescence of 4-0 spikes 6-10 mm. long ; peri- 

gynia 2.8-4 mm. long 19. C.foensa. 

Inflorescence of 6-15 spikes 10-17 mm. long; 

perigynia 8.5-14 mm. long . (19) C, /osnsa, v. p&rplsx^ 

Perigynia 4-5.8 mm. long, 2.5-8 mm. broad, 8-5- 

nerved on the inner &ce, obscurely broad -beaked 14. C.nliesa. 
J), BrMts leaf-like, much prolonged, the lowest 1-2 dm. long; 

spikes crowded ; perigynia subulate 24. C •peknocBphaia, 

0» Perigynia horizontally spreading or reflexed when mature, spongy 
at base, with thin but scarcely winged margins b. 
b. Spikes solitary and terminal, pistillate or stamtoate, or with 
flowers variously scattered. 
Stolonlferous ; the filiform culms at most 8 dm. high, from fili- 
form rootstocks is. C gynocraUi, 

Not stolonlferous ; the wiry culms 2-7 dm. high, in caespltose 

fttools 96. C. MiKs. 

h. Spikes 2-fleveral o. 

c. Perigynia broadest at base ; beak rough or serrulate d. 
d. Perigynia at most half as brood as long, finally yellowish, with 
slender beak nearly equaling the body ; scales pointed 4, 


«. Perigrnfa o^ate, 9-4 mm. long. 
Spues at most 12-flowdr«l. 
Inflorescence 1-8 cm. long, the 2-6 spikes subap- 

proximate 87. C tUUulata. 

Inflorescence 2-6 cm. long, the S-4 spikes very re- 
mote, the terminal \r1th a clavate base 0.5-1 

cm. long (27) C. ateliulatat r. ormantha. 

Spikes with more flowers. 
Leaves 1-2J^ mm. broad; spikes scattered, 12-^0- 
flowered ; perlgynia less than half as broad as 

long (27) C. tttillulatat v. excelsior 

Leaves 3-4 mm. broad ; spikes mostlv approximate, 
15-40-flowered ; perlgynia half as broail as 

long (27) C. tieilulata^ ▼. cephalantha. 

e. Perlj^'nla lanceolate or ovate-lanceolate, 2.5-8 mm . long ; 

inflorescence of 2-6 approximate spikes . (27) C. aUllulata^ v. angtutaUt, 
d. Perlgynia more than half as oroad as long (narrower only 
in var. of no. 89), firm, brownish or dark green; 
beak one fourth to one half as lung as the body. 
Scales sharp-pointed ; leaves 2.6-4.5 mm. broad ; Inflo- 
rescence 1.5-8.5 cm. long; spikes 15-50-flowered ; 

coarse plant 28. C aUrilU. 

Scales blunt; leaves narrower; inflorescence 1-2 cm. 
long ; spikes 5-15-fiower«d ; slender plants. 
Leaves 1-2 mm. brood ; perlgynia faintly nerved or 
nerveless on the inner face. 
Perlgynia deltoid-ovate, spreading . . . . 89. C. neirpoidefi. 
Perlgynia lance-subulate, ascending . . (29) C. wirpoidets, v. JoMelynii. 
Leaves narrower; perlgynia strongly nerved (29) C. tdrpoidea, v. capillacea. 
e. Perlgynia broadest near the middle, less than 2 mm. broad, 
very thin and conspicuously nerved, with short smooth 
beak ; spikes remote 80. 0. aeorwi* 


/. Perigvnta 4 mm. or more long, lon/r-beaked. 

Spikes lance-cylindrie, in a U)ose linear-cvlindrlc Inflorescence ; 
perlgynia '1-1.3 mm. bruad, strongly nerved; scales ob- 
long; leaves 1-2 Ji mm. brood 84. C.bromoidea. 

Splices ovoid or ovoid -cylindrlc ; perlgynia 1.6-1.9 mm. brood, 
Iklntly nerved or nerveless ; scales ovate ; leaves 2-5 mm. 

broaa • . 85. (7. Dvweyana. 

f. Perlgynia less than 4 mm. long g. 
g. Perigvnia with serrulate beaks or mai^ns h. 
A. Inflorescence elongate, from slender to thickish-cylindric i. 
i. Perlgynia ovate, broadest at base ; spikes mostly or all 

approximate in a thick cylindrlc inflorescence . . 81. C. arcta. 
i, Perlgynia broadest near the middle. 

Plant glaucous ; leaves 2-4 mm. broad ; spikes with 
many appressed-ascendlug glaucous obscurely 
beaked perlgynia. 
Spikes 6-10 mm. long, approximate or the lowest 

rarely 1.5 cm. aport; perlgynia 2.^3 mm. long . S2, C. caneacsnt. 
Spikes 4-7 mm. long, subapproxlmate or remote: 

perlgynia about 2 mm. long . (82) C. canescem, v. aubloliaeea 

Spikes &-18 mm. long, remote, the lowest 2-4 cm. 

apart (82) C. canesceii9, v. di^uncta. 

Plant green, not glaucous ; leaves 1-2.5 mm. broad ; 
spikes with few loosely spreading dark green or 

brown distinctly beaked perlgynia . . . 88. T. hrunnencenn. 

h. Inflorescence subglobose, of 2-4 closely approximate snb- 
globoSb loosely flowered silvery spikes; perlgynia 
oblong, beakless, nerved, 8-8.4 mm. long . . . 86. C Unuiflora, 
g. Perigvnia smooth throughout j. 
j. Spikes whitish, silvery green or pale brown. 

Inflorescence elongate, at least the lower spikes scattered. 
Uppermost spikes divaricate-pedunculate, lowermost 
subtended by a leaf-like bract ; perlgynia usually 
more than 8 mm. long. 

Leaves flat, 1-2 mm. broad 87. T. trUpenna. 

Leaves setaceous. 0.8-0.5 mm. broad . . (87) C. tri*perma, v. BiliingHL 
Spikes continuous in a linear-cyllndrlc loose Inflores- 
cence, bractless or only short-bracted ; perlgynia 

2-8 mm. long 82. C. canescena. 

Inflorescence subglobose, of 8-4 closely approximate snb- 

flobose loosely flowered spikes; perlgynia beakless, 
mm. or more long 86. (?. tenuifiara. 

jL Spikes ferruginous or dark brown ; terminal spikes with 
conspicuous clavate base; perlgynia abruptly beaked; 
culms smooth (or harsh only at tips;. 


B|Am dMInet; Um lowest 4-5 mm. tMdc; tlw ter- 
mtml 1~K<» cm. long; perfgynte pde, aboat eqaaled 
bjr the yeOowUh-lyrowii blunt ieiles . . 88. C my r ^iytoO' 

Splkee Approximate ; the lowest less than 4 mm. itMk ; 
pfamt week« lax ; lenyee Involate, 0^1.5 mm. brood ; 
pcrlgynin pole brown or dnb. 

Perfgynin Ibstfonn 99. C. giarmt^a. 

Peri^la ovoid (89) C. (flareo^a^ t. aMpAi^oaa 

i. tUadaftto flowen borne at tke t9p Of tbe tpikM t. 
k, Peilgynfa elBpsoid-oTold, seareeljr oompresaed, nearly terete . 40. C. Unsiia. 
t Perigrnla eompreaaed I. 
I. Spues 2 or more In a simple or eompoond spieate or panfeolate 

Infloreseenee m. 
Mk BooUtocks sbortand thiek ; calms In terminal tafts or stools i». 
%. BpikM green or neuij so when matore (becoming brown 
onlv when orer-rlpe) o. 
o. Broadest leares 1-4.5 mm. wide p. 
p. Perlgynla rery spongy below the middle, the nerre-Nke 
margins Inflezed q. 
q. PerlgYDia with mlnotelr aerralate margins; soales 
blnnt ; spikes mostly remote. 
Perlgynla qalckly becoming sqnarrose. 
CauDS erect; spikes 4-1&-flowered . . .41. CroMo, 
Calms loosely spreading ; spikes 9-A-flowered (41) C. roMo, t. radittUk 

Perlgynla ascending In fruit (41) C rveea, ▼. nUfior. 

q. Perlgynla with smooth margins ; scales aeamlnate ; 
spikes mostly approxloute. 

Perlinmia ovoid 48. T. relroJUata. 

Perlgynla lance-snbalate .... (42) C. retn^exa, v. UtaB0iuU 
p. PerlgynU of essentially uniform froembranoas) texture 
throughout, not conspicuously spongy below the 
middle ; margins slightly If at all inflezed r. 

r. Peri^nia 4-4 mm. long 48. Cmwricaia 

r. Perlgynla less than 4 mm. long a. 
s. Leaves and culms stiff and wiry ; heads 9 (rarely 
1.6)-4 cm. long. 

Perlgynla distinctly nerved 44. r. JiuhUmberffii. 

Perlgynia nerveless .... (44) C. JinMsnberffii^ v. euervU. 
*, Leaves and culms soft; heads 0.7-1.5 (rarely l.») 
cm. long. 
Perlg>'nia dUptlc-ovate, broadest below the 

m'iddle, narrowest at ba«e . 45. C eephalophora 

Perlgynla cordate-deltoid, broadest at the cor- 
date or subcordate base . 46. C lAar&nicortAH. 
O. Leaves 5-10 (the narrowest rarely 4.5) mm. wide t. 
t. Perig>'nia uniformly firm throoghout, the outer Ikoe 
nerveless or very lUntly nerved u. 
u. Perlgynla wlng-marglned to the base ; spikes mostly 

distinct In a monillform inflorescence .47. C. *parganoidsm. 

«. Perlgynla wlng-marglned onlv above the middle ; 
spikes approximate in a cyiindric or ovoid head. 
Perlgynla broad-ovate to aaborbicular, nearly 
equaled by the long-pointed scales. 
Culms 8-0 dm. high ; leaves subbasal . . 60. (7. gravida. 

Culms 6-18 dm. high; leaves remote . (SO) C. graHda, v. lam^otia, 

Perlgynla lance-ovate, twice as long as the thtn 

white scale 48. r. Cfphaloidsa. 

t. Perlgynla spongy below the middle, the outer Ikoe 

prominently ribbed . . . . . . . 50. (7. oonjuncta. 

IS. Spikes yellowish or tawny when mature v. 
«. Perlgynla Arm and uniform in texture, not spongy nor 
conspicuously Inflated below, the beak shorter than 
or barely equaling the bodv to. 
10. Perlgynla straw-oolor, thin, distinctly flattened on the 
Inner fltce 0. 
0. Membranous band of the leaf-sheath not cross-puck- 
ered ; scales aeamlnate, rarely awned y, 
y. Leaves 8-^ mm. wide ; culms firm, without thin 

wing-margins 48. 01 mwHcata. 

y. Leaves 4-6 mm. wide \ culms soft, with almost wing- 
like angles. 
Beak nearly as long as the narrow-ovate body 

of the perigynlum A9. C. alop^eoidsa. 

Beak one tnlra as long as the broad-ovate or sub- 
orbicular body of the perigyniuiu. 
Culms 2-5 dm high ; leaves 'subbasal . . 60. C gravida. 
Culms 6-18 dm. high ; leaves remote (50) C. gravida^ v. f^ nej^fa 

•. Aiembranous or chartaoeous band of the ieaf-sheath "^ 

cross-puckered, at least in age ; soales awn-tipped. 


LeftTes eqaaliog or exeeodlng the enlms . . . 61. C vuipinoidta. 
Leares duUncuy shorter than the ciiloift. 
Perigynia Unoeolftta or lance orato . , . ft2. C. utaoea, 
Perif ynla broad-oyate to ftuborbicular . (bi) C. 9Btac^, r, ambiff%ta, 

w, Fttlgynia drab to dark brown or purplish, plamp, Bome- 
what biconvex. 
Perlgynia oboTotd, narrow-margined, abrapUy sbort- 

beaked W, C decompoHta. 

Perigynla ovoid, with rounded margins, tapering 
gradually to a beak. 
Inftoreecenoe dark brown, itlff, dense, spidfons . 54. C. diandra. 
Inflorescence Ught brown, fleznous, loose, sab- 
paniculate (54) C. dUtndra, t. ramosa. 

«i Perigynla promlnentlv enlarged and spongy at base, eon- 
splcnoasly nerved, the sfonder beak much longer than 
the body. 
Perigynia 4-5 mm. long, tapering gradually from base 

to tip 56. C.ttipata, 

Perigynla 5-0 mm. long, abruptly enlarged below Into 

a disk-like base hi. C. erus-eorvi. 

m. Sootstock slender and elongate ; culms mostly scattered, or if 
tufted bearing slender stolons at base «. 
a. Perigynla thin-margined ; heads elongate, 2-8 cm. long, of 
numerous distinct spikes. 
Pierfgynia wing-margined ; inner side of leaf-sheath carti- 
laginous to ehartaceous, nerveless . . . 68. ^. armaria. 
Perigynla not wing-margined ; leaf-sheath green and uni- 
formly ribbed, except at the orifice . . C9. C. SarttotUH. 
m, Perigynla plump, not thin-margined ; heads ovoid to glo- 
bose, 0.5-1.5 cm. long, of few congested spikes. 
Perigynla flat on the inner fiice, faintly nerved . 00. (7. BttnophyUa. 
Perigynla plano-convex, strongly nerved . . .61. O. chord orrhi»a. 
L Bpike solitary, terminal, globular or short-ovoid . . • .62. C''. capiiata. 

i 2. Some of the spikes strictly pistillate ; stigmas 3 and achenes trigonous: or, 
if stigmas 2 and achenes lenticular , some of the spikes peduncled. EUCA RE X 
Griseb. A. 

i. Aehenet lentlciilar or plano-conyex : stigmas S (very rarely and 
exceptionally 8); perigynla beakless or very short-beaked, with 
entire or merely emarglnate orifice £, 
B. Perlgrnia dull C. 
C. Scilea arlstate or subulate-tipped, much exceeding the perigynla ; 
pistillate spikes all peduncled D, 
D. Scales appressed-ascending ; basal sheaths rarely fibrillose. 

Awns longer than the blades of the scales ; sfilkes on wide- 
spreading or drooping capillary peduncles ; old leaves 

revolnte 68. ^. fnaritima. 

Awns shorter than the blades of the scales ; spikes strongly 

ascending; old leaves involute .... M, C.9aUna^y.eutpidaia. 
I*, Scales spreading : basal leafless sheaths flbrlllose. 
Leaf-sheaths glabrous. 
Perlgrnia inflated, wrinkled in drying. 
Sinkes flexuous or drooping, the pistillate 8.5-10 cm. 

long 66. C erinUa, 

Spikes suberect or spreading, 1-8.5 cm. long . . (65) C. erinita, v. minor» 

Perigynla tight, not inflated (65) C. cHnita v. Parttri. 

Leaf-sheaths scabrous-hispid. 
Pistillate spikes 2.5-10 cm. long, drooping . (65) C. erifMa, v. gynandra. 
Pistillate spikes suberect or spreading, 1-8.5 cm. long (65) O, orinUa, v. siMtUana, 
ۥ Scales obtuse or acute, not arlstate ; if subulate-tipped with the 
upper spikes mostly sessile E. 
Mi Perigynla compressed, lenticular or plano-convex F. 
F, Culms soUtaiy or ibw ; lower sheaths sligbtiy if at all fibril- 
lose O, 
O. Perigynla nerveless IT. 
H. Perigynla plane, not twisted at tip I. 
/. Cohns leaiy and tall, somewhat caespitose ; leaves 
scabrous on the veins and margins ; basal off- 
shoots chiefly erect J, 
J, Green, scarcely glaucous ; pistillate spikes atten- 
uate at tip 64. (7. strfifia, t. emupUUUa. 

J, Strongly gkncous; pistillate spikes fbll and 
rounded at tip. 
Scales conspicuous, dark, nearly or quite equal- 
ing the perigynla. 
Scales blunt or acutlsh. 
PUtillat»spikMS-4w5 mm. thick ... 66 CaquaUlU 



PlBtUtete spikes 5-8 mm. thick . . (66) C. aqnatUU^ t. elatior 

Scales cusplaate (6^ C. aqu€Mti$^ r. eunpidalA. 

Scales bidden by the pertgjnla • . • (66) C, aquatilU, r, v/rMMiM. 
/. Cnlms low; leaves mostly basal, smooth; basal off* 

shoots chiefly repent 8T. C rigida* 

iST. Perigyuia elongate, with an empty twisted tip • .68. O. ioria, 
O, Perlgynla nerved. 

Caespitoso, not stolonlferons ; green central portion 

of the scale about as broad as the darker margins . 69. C. UntteularUm 
Stolonlferons ; green midrib of the purple or blackish 

scale very slender TO. C Goodsmowit, 

W» Colma nnmeroQs in stools ; lower sheaths fibrlllose. 

Perlgynla elliptic, tapering about eouallv to base and apex. . 
PbtUlate spikes dense, mostly ftiil at base ; scales blunt, 
slightly if at all exceeding the perlgynla. 

Pistillate spikes 2-7 cm. lonr 71. ^. tirUsta. 

Pistillate spikes 0.5-1.6 cm. long . . . (71) C. strieia, v. curtUHma, 

PlsliUate spikes rather loose, long-attenuate at base ; 

scales acutlsh (71) C. ttrMa, r. anguidatn, 

Perlgynla obovate or orbicular, shorter than the attenuate 

scales (71) C. gtHcta, t. decjra. 

JC Perlgynla plump, subterete. 

Mature perlgynla fleshy, pyrlform or snbglobose, orange or 

browntftli, glabrous 7S. C atirea. 

Mature perigvnia not fleshy, ellipsoid, Blender-stlpltate, 

white, pulverulent 78. C ^ieolor, 

B. Perigvnia lustrous. 
Perlgynla nerved. 

Leaves flat ; bracts ascending 190. C. OrahamU 

Leaves soon Involute ; bracts divergent 181. (7. rotundaia, 

Perlgynla nerveless. 

Leaves flat; pistillate spikes sut^lobose or short-cyHndrta, 

h-% mm. thick 170. C. saaBatilis, 

Leaves involute or filiform ; pistillate spikes slender, t-t mm. 

thick (179) C. 9aeeaUiU, ▼. miliarU 

d. Aeheneitrigonoafl; stifnuts 3 (very rarely and exceptionally 8) K, 


L. Spikes naked or without large leafV bracts Ml 
M. Leaves tongue-shaped, 2-4 cm. broad • • . . . 77. <X UramH, 
M. Leaves grass-like, narrow K, 
N, Spikes monoecious, green or straw-color; perigynto gla^ 
brous O. 
0, Spikes staminate at tip, few-flowered ; perlgynla with entire 
Perlgynla appressed-asoendlng, In a llnear-cyllndrlo 
spike, beakless. 
Perlgynla 2.5-8.5 mm. long; achenes lustrous, not 

puncticulate, obtusely trigonous . . • . 75. ^. Uptdita* 
Perlgynla 4-5 mm. long ; achenes puncticulate, barely 

lustrous, sharply Glgon'>u8 76. C Tfarji^ri. 

Perigynia soon rofhu:ted, slender-beaked . • .74. C» paue^fiora. 
O, Spikes staminate at base, many-flowered ; perlgyuln ndth 
long bidentate beaks. 
Scales of pistillate flowers subulate- tipped • . . '\9^. C. 9qwtrro»a. 

Scales blunt 168. C. typMnpidst. 

It, Spikes dioecious, purplish-brown ; perlgynfa pubescent. 

Culms shorter than the leaves ; scales short-aristate, ex- 
ceeding the perigynia 116. C. pieia* 

Culms exceeding the leaves; scales blunt, shorter than 

the perigynia 02. (7. tcirpoidsa. 

It, Spikes subtended by long leafy bracts. 
Perigynia somewhat 2-edgea. 
Scales all bracteate, overtopping the perigynia . • • 80. C HadtU. 
Only the lowest scales overtopping toe pe'rigynla • • 00. (7. WWdenotetL 
Perigynia globose, with slender cylindric beak . . • 01* O. JamsHi. 

K. 8p1K»i 2 OR MORR P. 

P. Pwrigynia not rigidly hitl^niaU^ the oH/tce entire or emar' 
ginaU, Ihe Ueih ij present sqfl and thin Q, 
Q. Terminal spike bearing some pistillate flowers R. 
R, Terminal spike pistillate throughout, brown or purplish, the 

lower spike much smaller; perigynia hairy . . 9i. C. 9Cirpoid4a. 

R, Terminal spike with both staminate and pistillate flowers S. 
8. Terminal spike pistillate only at ba&e ; the capillary pedun« 

cles often basal ; perigynia sharply angled . . 118. C peduncultUa. 

& Terminal spike pistillate at summit, or. If plstilUte at base, 
the spikes mostly near the tip of the culm T, 
T. Perigynia ascending U. 
U. Scales brown to purplish- block ; spikes globose, OToid 
or thlck-cyUodno V* 




148. (7. vermeon. 




C. Balleri. 

C, atraia^ t. o^akk 

C. polygama. 
C. paupereiUa. 

185. C gr€Mulari9. 

C, irieept^ v. SmitMi. 
C, triespst ▼• hirtnUa, 

82. C.9ireao€M, 



a DwoMi, 




C, graeiUima, 
C. aMtivalU. 

Vm SealM shorter tluui or about eqnaHiiff the perigynhL 
Settles roogh-Awned ; eoaree ficnthern pliut . • 
Soalee blunt ; slender oorthero plants. 
Spikes sessile, closely approximate In an trrefir^lar head 
Spikes mostly peduncled, spreading or drooping . 
F. Seales mach exceeding the per^nla. 

Spikes sessile, erect 

Spikes pednnded, spreading or drooping 
Scales white or greenish, or if rery brownish the spikes 
Unear-cylindrie W. 
W, Spikes mostly sessile or subsessUe and erect X. 
X. Spikes mostly remote ; leaves glabroas, short and broad 

(4^10 mm. broad) 

X Spikes approximate or overlapping ; leaves long and 
slender (1-4 mm. broad), at least the sheaths hairy. 
Perlgynia smooth, or when young slightly hairy. 

Leaves smooth 

Leaves hairy ...••••• 

Perlgynia very hairy. 

Terminal spike (including the stamlnate base) 1.8-4 

cm. long, one tenth to one seventh as thick . 

Terminal spike 9-18 mm. long, one fifth to one 

third as thick (82) C. vireseetM, t. Swanil 

W. Spikes mostly peduncled, spreading or drooping Y. 
T. Perlgynia 2 mm. or more thick. 

Scales blunt or cuspidate, much shorter than the 
perlgynia ........ 

Scales long-awned, usuallv equaling the perigynia . 
Perlgynia less than 2 mm. thick Z. 
JE. Bracts with distinct long sheaths ; perlgynia bluntly 
angled a. 
a. Perl^nia rounded or narrowed but not definitely 
snpitate at base b. 
Perigynia less than 4 mm. long, beakless. 
Sheaths glabrous ; perigynia obtuse . • . 
Sheaths pubescent ; per^nia acutlsh . 
Perigynia 4 mm. or more long. 
Leaves hairy ; perigynia b^kless . . 
Leaves smooth ; perigynia beaked. 
Scales white or whitish ; perlgynia with long 
conlo-cylindrlc beaks .... 

Scales with dsrk-brown margins ; perigynia 
with short-conic beaks .... 

a, Perlgynia with slender stipitate bases . 
Z. Bracts sheathless ; perlgynia sharply angled 
Perigynia wide-spreading or renexed. 
Perigynia orbicular to broadly elliptic, compressed, nerve- 
toss, with tiny short point ; bracts erect 
Perigynia terete, beaked, strong-ribbed ; bracts diveigent. 
Beak about as long as body of perigynlum. . . 
Beak much shorter than body of perig}'nlum . 
Q. Terminal spike stamlnate throughout e. 
& Lowest rollaceous bracts of the inflorescence sheathless, or with 
short colored sheaths or colored auricles, sometimes wanting 
or reduced to mere colored sheaths d. 
d, Perii^nia pubescent (If rarely glabrous, the spikes mostly 
crowded at the base of the denselv tufted leaves) e. 
e. Spikes subtended by colored tubular sheaths which are 
without green blades. 
Pistillate spikes cyllndrio, 1-2 cm. long ; scales exceeding 

the perlgvnia 120. C RiehardnotU, 

Pistillate spikes subglobose, 4-7 mm. long; scales much 

shorter than the perigynia 119. C condnna. 

tf. Spikes bractless or the lowermost with green foliaceous bracts /. 

/. I^eaves and culms soft-pubescent iOl. C. pub^eens. 

/. Leaves and culms glabrous ff. 
g. Leaves mostly basal, the culms naked or with short 
reduced leaves h, 
A* Scales rough-cuspidate ; perigynia yellowlsh-brown . 
h» Scales smooth ; perigynia green or whitish i. 

i. Plant strongly stolonlferfius, the elongate often leaf- 
less stolons scaly-braoted and creeping. 
Beak one fourth to one fifth as long as the body of 

the perigynlum 

Beak about as long as the body (100) C. penntyUoaniea, v, 

i. Plant caespltose or slightly stolonlferous, the bajuu 
leafy snoots strongly assurgent j. 
/• Some (or all) of the culms short and more or teM 
hidden by the bases of the leaves k. 

87. CoaeylepU, 

146. C. debiliit vars. 



O. tentuta^ v. minor. 
C. aretata. 
C. praHna, 

88. C.Shoriiana. 


a OtderU 

102. C.earyophyTUa, 


C. ptnn^ylcaniea, 


Al B«mMate of tteddlamrM panlstiar Mi«urtiillid 
■hrada; msIm ■mmlnf^^t •taarp-poliiiad, naftrijr 

or qoite aqooliiic the parigyaiA. 
POrlgTiilA l.t-S^ nun. tUck. 
Bmt naoriy or quite m loDf m tbo bod j of tbo 

Perigynlft pabemlent M. O. Mmheilata. 

Porigyniftfkbroiu . . • . • (W) C. wnbsllaia, r. tonsa 
Book one third u loas m ttio bodj (»t) C wn^tfOota* t. br0viroatrU, 

FtelcTiilft 1^1.6 mm. thick 94. ^fU^fviiMfviMalak 

A. BomiiMit«oroldloftTeaftoft,alightlTtfoiAUahredded; 
Mileo blant or oeate, mndi abortar than the 

porigynlA M^ C.d^fUm^ 

§, Oulmsotoniato, none oftbombiddoDAitlMbMeoltlie 
|»Uot U 
L Pierifjiilft moeh oToooding tho Malot; ipikM doaalj 

oppcoxioiAto 96. C alMowM; 

JL Poricfni* neorl/ or Quite equaled hj the Melee m. 
«». Mitare leevee 8-o mm. wide (if oseeptlooeajr ner- 

rower, the eplkee remote) . • . 07. <7. eammmmit, 

m, Metiire leeToe 1-8.5 mm. wide (If exoeptioneUf 
brooder, the splkee epprozimeie). 
0temloete eod ptotfOete eptkes all sessile. 
Bealee of pistUUte eplkes whitish or greeniih . 96. C vaHa, 

8ealee porplish (98) (7. varitt, t. coiorata, 

Stemtoete and the lowermost pletlQete spikes 

sbort-pedaneled 99. ^. noeoeHstty^sae. 

p. Onlms leaiy, tbe leeree elongate n. 
•» Pistillate spikes seasfle or sabseasQe : baaal sheaths flbrlllose. 

Staminate spike OTertoppIng the pistfllate . . ISi. C. vdUa, 

Stamloate spike shorter than the pistlQata . . (154) 0. eestOo, t. KmmtdyL 

«. Plttlllate spikes (or at least the lower) dlatincUj pednnded ; 
sheaths not nbrillose. 
LasTes soft, ribbon-like, daik ffreen, the tower bract ez- 

eeeding the eulm ; perigynla tong-beaked . . 190. C, •cabrata 

LeaToe firm, short, glaaooas ; the bracte short ; perlgynia 

barelf beaiced ........ 106. C.glax 

d. Psdgjmla f labroos o. 
0. Lsavea seuuseoas, baaal ; eolms setaceoas, naked ; bracts redaoed 

to pale tabular sheathe 117. C, 

0, Laavea Hat or plicate t>. 
p. LaaTee lanceolate. 1.6-8 em. l»tMd, firm and erergreen ; culms 
slender, beenng nomeroue tubular ootored sheaths and 

remote slender spikes l$tl. 0. plamtagtn§a. 

p. Learee linear or linear-lanceolate, less than 1.6 cm. broad q. 
q, Pertgjnia beaklees or with minute entire beaks r. 
r. Pistillate spikes mostly on capillary peduncles, wide-spread- 
ing or drooping «. 

"or ezceed- 

«• Bealee brownish or purplish, nearijr equaling or a 
tng the compressed short-tipped perigvnia t. 
t, Splkee globoae to oblong-<7linaric, rarely 2 cm. 

Nca&s exceeding the perlgynla u. 
«. Scales long-attenuate with subulate tips, much ex- 
ceeding the perigynia. 
Scales diurk brown or purplish throughout. 
PIstlUate spikes 4-8 mm. long . . Ill (7. paupmvuta. 

Pistillate spikes 1-1.6 cm. long . (Ill) C. pauptreuia^ r. irHqma, 

Scales green with pale-brown or yeUowlsh margins 

(111) O. paup^roula, t. pallm^ 
«k Scales obtuse or acute, barely exceeding the perigynia. 
Leaves inrolute, 0.5-1 mm. wide, glaucous; scales 

brown 112. O. Umo§a. 

Leares flat, 1-8 mm. wide, dark green; scales 

purple-black 118. C.rar{^tora, 

1 Spikes linear-cyllndrio, 2-5 em. long; scales barely 

equaling the perigynia 114. (7. UUontlu. 

«. Scales whitish, much shorter than the sharply trigonous 

attenuate perigvnia . il6. C. praHna 

». Pistillate spikes seedle or short-pednnded, erect e. 
v» Phint glaucous, loosely stoloniTenms ; staminate splkea 
long-stalked, their scales mostly purple-brown. 
Leayes 2.5-6 mm. wide, revolute in drying, harsh; 

culms harsh ; perigynia brown .... 108. O glauea. 

LeareA 1-8 mm. wide, becoming plicate or Invuiute 
smooth , culms smuuth ; perigynia pale green or 

whitish 104. a /ioMii. 

«. Plant green, densely tufted ; staminate spikes seBsilt; or 
short-stalked, their scales pale browt» or straw 



SptteB all sesflile Mid ftpproxlmftte ; pertgynlft obovoU, 
pruininently ribbed, retuse, wltn a distinct short 

enUrebeak 109. O. abbr^Hata. 

Lowest spike pedoncled ; peri^ynla narrowlv obovoid, 
Motlj nenred or nerreless, narrowed to the beakless 

tip .... 110 CpattMOMtt, 

f. PcrlgYnia dfstioetly beaked v. 
«. djAkes sessile, or the lowermost short-pedlecled, erect or 
ubUqae the bracts Tory long and much exceeding the 
inflorescenoe, rarely fi mm. broad. 

LeaTee involute 187. C, emt^nsa. 

Beak aboQt equaling bodT of perigynlnm .... 188. C. flora. 
Beak muoh shorter than body of perigyniam . . . 189, ۥ O^wrL 
«. Spikes mostly long-pediceled, spreading or drooping, If ses- 
sile and erect ue bracts more than D mm. wide cd. 
9, Leaves broad (nsaally 5 mm. or more); scales strong- 
ribbed ; spikes dense, the perigynla firm, doll, wide- 
spreading y. 
y. Leaves soft, ribbon-Uke, dark green ; lower bract 6-10 

mm. wide, much exceeding the Inflorescence . 160. (7. nedbrota. 

y. Leaves firm, glaaooos ; lower bract 1-4 mm. wide, abont 
eaoaUng the Inflorescence. 
Periigynia spreading-ascending, glanooas, Iklntly-nerved 

or nerveless, gradually tapering to the short beak . 148^ C. varrvcoaa 
Perigynla squarrose, deep green or brownish, strongly 

many-ribbed, abraptfv beaked 149. C. macrokoUc^ 

m. Leaves narrow (usually less Uian t mm. wide) ; scales thin, 
nervelesa or slightly nerved ; Pplkes loosely flowered, 
the thin lustrous perigynla strongly ascending e. 
a. Perigynla abruptly contracted to an awl-shaped beak 

as long aa the body ....... 141. C. UmgiroMirU. 

a. Perigynla gradually contracted to the beak. 

Leaves pubescent ; pistillate spikes 5-8 mm. thick . 148. C. cattansa. 
Leaves gbibrous ; pistillate spikes 8-4 mm. thick . . 144. O. eapUiarU, 
& Lowest foliaceous bract of the inflorescence with a prominent dosed 
green sheath a. 
a. Perigynia nerveless or with t&w nerves most prominent toward 
the base, not uniformly and conspicuously nerved from base 
to orifice (excepting the marginal nerves) o. 
h. Plant caespitose, scarcely stoloniferous, the rootstock short and 
thick ; perigynia wiu long-attenuate beaks e. 
c. Perigynia abruptly contracted to a slender beak as long as the 

Perigynla hairy, remote . . .... 140. C. asHiUbainmuiM, 

Perigynia smooth, approximate 141. C. lonffiroiOrU. 

€. Perigynla gradually contracted to the beak d. 
d. Pistillate spikes oblong-cylindrio, densely flowered. 
Spikes 5-10 mm. thick. 
Leaves glabrous ; scales white ..... 143. C. eherokMntU, 

Leaves pubescent ; scales brown 148. C. eaatanta. 

Spikes 8-4 mm. thick. 
Plant 0.5-1.5 dm. high ; spikes approximate . . . 144. (7. eapiUarU. 
Plant taller ; spikes remote .... {,\ii) CeapillariM^y. ^on\fatek 
d. Pistillate spikes linear-cylindrlc e. 
•. Basal sheaths reddish-purple or castaneous /. 
/ Baaal leaves 6-10 mm. broad, scabrous at base ; peri- 
gynla stipltate, ovoid-trigonous .... 145. C, areiaia, 
f. Basal leaves 8-7 mm. broad, smooth at base; peri- 
gynia ftaslform, obscurely trigonous . . . 
Perigynla glabrous. 
Perigynia mostly overlapping. 
Perigynia 6-9 mm. long, twice as long as the 

white scales 146. C. debUU. 

Perigynla 4.5-6.5 mm. long; the scales straw- 
color or greenish-brown. 
Perigynia twice as long as the scales ; leaves 2-4 

mm. wide (14Q C. dtbiUtt^ y. BudgH, 

Perigynia one third longer than the scales ; leaves 

4-6 mm. wide (146) (7. d^bUU, y. ttrioUor. 

Perigynla alternate and mostly remote, not over- 
lapping (146) C. debiU9, V. inUrjeeia. 

Perigynia hairy (146) C. dehilU, v. pubera. 

e. Basal sheaths dull pale brown .... (127) U. laoai/iora, v. Uptonerria 
5. Plant loosely stoloniferons, the elongate rootstock slender; 
perigynla beakless or with short or abrupt beak |jF. 

g Perigynia hairy 102. C. oaryophytUa, 

g Perigynia not hairy h. 
h. Perigynla beakless or with a very short oblique tip i. 


4, FsrinrnlA gnwnloM-roiigheDed : sptkM yeiy remote, ms- 

slfa or short-stalked, !o nearly all the leaf-axils . . 186. C, 
4b PerlffyDia not granulosa ; spikes (except in rare cases 
long-stalked basal ones) borne only toward the sam- 
mit of the calm J. 
J. Leaves white-glaucous, quickly becoming pUcato or 

Involute 104. CiMdOm 

J. Leaves green, slightly if at all glaaooas, flat, in age be- 
coming revolnte. 
Culms obtusely angled, smooth throughout • • 106. C. paniottu 
Oulms acutely angled, scabrous at summit. 
Spikes slendor-cylindric, 8.6 mm. thick. 
Spikes mostly close-flowered, the perigynia over- 
lapping 106. C. Utanica. 

Spikes loosely flowered, most of the perigynia 

remote (106) C. IwUinica, v. WoodH 

Spikes oblong-cyllndrie, 6-10 mm. thick . . (106) C. ttiinien^ v. Mtadti. 
fc. Perigynia with a stnughtish slender beak. 

Oulm stllf, harsh above ; spikes stiffly erect, densely many- 
flowered 107. C.polyvMrpha, 

Culm flexuous, smooth throughout ; spikes spreading or 

drooping, loosely few-flowered 108. C, wiffinata, 

\. Perigynia with numerous uniform nerves from base to orifice (ex- 
treme specimens of nos. 106, 107, 108 might be sought hero) h. 
h. Tall and uender, with Unear-cvlindric spikes .... 147. C, ventMta, t. mUmor. 
h. I»w, or if tall with thick-cylindric to globose spikes I. 

I. Perig^-nia sharply angled, with pl^ne faces (forms of (7. laxi- 

llora might be sought here) «». 
Ha. Perigynia 5-7 mm. long ; staminate spikes dark brown or 

purplish 122. C Cbrf|faiMSw 

«». Perigynia 2-4 mm. long; staminate spike straw-color or 
Iiale brown n. 
la. Basal leaves 1-4 em. broad ; pIsttUato spikes sessile and 

erect 128. C. piat^phpOa, 

ft. Dasal leaves narrower, or, If rarely 1 cm. broad, the spikes 
flexuous on capillary peduncles. 
Scales acuminate or aristate ; lowest braot slightly If at 
all overtopping the inflorescence. 
Basal leaves 0-12 mm. broad. 

Perigynia 2.8-8.2 mm. long 124. C. ta^leulmU. 

Periffynia 8.8-4 mm. long . . . . (124) C toWcw/nt<«, v. eopWoto 

Basal leaves 2-d mm. broad 125. C.digUalU. 

Scales blunt; lowest bract greatly overtopping the in- 
florescence 126. C, ptifcMocarptL 

I. Perigvnla obtusely angled, or plump and scarcely if at all angled o. 
O. Perigynia strongly ascending, beakless or with broadly 
conic oblique' tips ; spikes mostly scattered ; bracU 
strongly ascending p, 
p. Perigynia fusiform to ftisiform-obovoid, tepering sub- 
equally to the conic tip and the long gradually con- 
tracted base, obtusely trigonous q. 
q, Perigynia bearing distinct elevated ribs ; scales smooth r. 
r. Perigynia with several ribs on each fkce ». 

9, Staminate spike prominent, usually projecting 
above the pistillate; culms slightly i/^at afl 
ancipltel t. 
t» PisUllato spikes distinct, not closely crowded. 
Perigynia plump-obovoid, the snort beak ab- 
ruptly bent to one side. 
Pistillate spikes mostly 1.5-8 cm. long . • 127. C. law^flora* 
Pistillate spikes mostly 0.5-1.8 cm. long 

(127) a lam{/U)ra^ r. graeaUma 
Parigrnia ellipsold-flisUbrm, the elongate beak 
sUghtlv oblique. 
Perigynia appressed-ascendlng In an alter- 
nate-flowered spike . (127) C. laas(/loraf r. patuli^ia, 
Perigynia oblique or divergent, mostly over- 
lapping in the denslsh spike. 
Basal leaves 7-12 mm. broad . (127) C. laxiflora, r. MMkaw^i. 
Basal leaves 8-6 mm. wide . • (127) (7. taxi/lora, v. s^Iq^Cmmi. 
t. Uppermost pistillate spikes approximate at the 

baseoftnesUminato .... (127) (7. to«(/(ora, ▼. wriaiu. 
• . Staminate spike small and nearly or quite hidden 
among the pistillate ; culms andpitel. 
Basal leaves elongate, linear-lanceolate, 5-14 mm. 

broad . (127) C. laxUora, v. btamda. 

Basal leaves lanceolate, 1 J^ em. broad . (127) C. Uuci/hra, t. latiMia. 
f% PeriKfute norreleaa or with 1-8 nervea on each Dmo 

(187) a laacifiora^ t. Itjxtontrria 





180. C. katahdin&nti$. 

181. C. eonoidea. 

187. (7. «r<dfiM. 

q, PtrigynU doaelf impreeied-iierTad ; acalea roogli- 

SheftUu pubescent 128. C. 

Sbeetbs fflabrouft 129. C. 

p, PerlgyniA obloog-ovold to obovold or globose, rounded to 
the seseile <»r abrapUy skort-stlpltAte base u. 
u. Closely csespitose, not stolonlferous v. 
it. Cakns 1-6 em. high, more than twioe exceeded by the 

leaves and bracts 

V, Culms taller ; bracts proportionately shorter «». 
w. Uppermost bract sUgbtly if at all overtopping the 
stamlnate spike; perlgynla impressea-neryed 
w. Uppermost bract nincn overtopping the stamlnate 
spike (if rarely shorter, the perigynia with 
prominent ribs) m. 
0. Perigynia impressed-nerved y. 
y. Stvle Jointed below the middle. 

Leaves thin and soft, slightlv if at all glaacoaa. 
Spikes borne principally in the apper axUa. 
Perigynia oblong. 
Perigynia turgid, beakleas, acaroely 

angled 182. A griMO. 

Perigynia scarcely turgid, trigonous, 

narrowed to a beak . . (182) C. grUeay v. Haida. 
Perigynia subglobose . . . (182) C. griatUt ▼• fflobota. 
Bpikes borne (torn the lowest as well as the 

upper axils .... (182) C ffrUsa, v. anguttifolia. 
Leaves thick and Arm. very glaucous . . 188. C. glaueodea. 
tf. Style Jolntlesa ; perigynia golden-bruwn . . 184. C. jlaccoBperma. 
m. Perigynia with elevated ribs and short point or 
Perigynia plump-ovold to globose . . 185. C. granuUirU. 

Perigynia oblong .... (186) C. granulari», v. f/a/eanu- 
u. Culms solitary, fix>m slender stolonlferous base . 186. C. (YatceL 

47. Perigynia wide-spreading or squarrose, slender-beaked; 
spikes mostly toward the summit of the culm ; bracts 
dlveiYont m. 
m. Loaves Involute ; perigynia spreading-ascending 
m. Leaves flat ; perigynia squarrose aa. 
aa, fieak iri>out as long as tbe body of the perigynium, often 
bent, at least in maturity. 
Stamlnate spike sessile or very short-stalked, some- 
times pistillate at tip; pistillate spikes mostly 
Fruiting spikes 9-12 mm. thick, short^yllndric or 

globose ; beaks spreading In all directions 
Fruiting spikes 6.5-8 mm. thick, mostly sbort- 
qrlindrio perigynia mostly wide-spreading and 

stralghtlsh (\88) C. Jtara, y.rectirostrti. 

Stamlnate spike usually peduncled ; pLstlllate mostly 

remote, the curved perigynia usually retrorse . (188) Cjlava, v. slatior, 
aa. Beak dIsUnoUy shorter than body of the perigynium, 
straight or slightly bent, ascending or horizontally 
Stamlnate spike usually peduncled ; pistillate scat- 
tered 189. (7. Oederi, 

Stamlnate spike usually sessile, often more or less 

pistillate ; pistillate spikes mostly approximate (189) C, Oederi, y.pwnila, 
P. Bttdt or Up qf perigynium ^ictrply bidetitaU, the teeth aoero»e bb. 
bb. Perigynia firm and tough, closely investing the acbene oe. 
ee. Teeth less than 1 mm. long, erect dd. 
dd, Perigynia pubescent. 

LMves involute-flllform 151. C.JUiformie* 

Leaves broad and flat. 
Scales mostly equaling the densely halrv perigynia . . 152. 
Scales mostiy snorter than the sparsely hairy perigynia 158. 
dd. Perigynia glabrous. 

Perigynia broadly ovoid 

Perigynia narrowly ovoid. 
Perigynia more than 5 mm. long, becoming lustrous. . ISO. 
Perigynia less than 5 mm. long, dull and minutely papillose 160. 
CC. Teeth more than 1 mm. long, divergent or recurved ee. 

ee. Scales of Bteminate spike hairy 157. C. hiria, 

ee. Scales of stamlnate spike glabrous. 
Perigynia hairy. 
Pengynia ovoid, in slender <nrllndrie spikes . • . 158. 0. irichoearpa. 

Perigynia lance-subulate, in short-cylindrio or ovoid 

spikes (158) C. triohocarpa^ v. turbinata 

Perigynia glabrous. 

188. C.fiiwa, 

C. lanuginoea. 
C. nnughUmii. 

156. C. 9triata, v. brevU 

C. riparia. 
C. curutiformie. 


4b Parlnrnlfl gnuinloM-rooghenfld : spikes Tsiy remote, .»^ 

site or short-sUlked, lo nearlj all the leaf-axils . . IM. C. 
<b PeiigyDla not granulose ; spikes (except in rare oases 
long-stalked basal ones) borne only toward the sum- 
mit of the culm J. 
J. Leaves white-elaucoas, quickly becoming plicate or 

Involute . . ; 104. ^. IMOa. 

^, JjmHtB green, slightly If at all glaucous, flat, In age be- 
coming revolute. 
Culms obtusely angled, smooth throughout . • 106. C, panieta. 
Culms acutely angfod, scabrous at summit. 
Bptkes slender-cylindric, 8.6 mm. thick. 
Spikes mostly close-flowered, the perlgynia over- 

Upping 1G4. C. Utaniea. 

Spikes loosely flowered, most of the perlgynia 

remote (106) T. IHaniea^ r. Woo4ii 

Spikes oblong-cyllndric, 6-10 mm. thick . . (106) C. t€tiHi4Sit, r. Meadii 
h, Perlgynia vrith a stnughtish slender beak. 

Culm stlir, harsh above ; spikes stiflSy erect, densely many- 
flowered 107. C.polymorpKa, 

Culm flexuous, smooth throughout ; spikes spreading or 

drooping, loosely few-flowered 108. C ffaffinata, 

i. Perlgynia with numerous uniform nerves from base to orlflce (ex- 
treme specimens of nos. 106, 107, 106 mifht be sought hero) h. 
h. Tall and slender, with linear-cylindric spikes . 147. ^.«eis««ta,T.flnltMW. 

h. T»w, or if tall with tbiek-cylindrle to globose spikes I. 

I. Perlg^'nta sharplr angled, with plane faces (forms of (T. laxl- 

JUtra might be sought here) «». 
na. rerlgynia 5-7 mm. long ; stamtnate spikes dark brown or 

purplish 18S. C» CaiMyana, 

«f». Perlgynia 2-4 mm. long; stamlnate spike straw-color or 
pale brown n. 
«». BaMl leaves \-% em. broad ; pistillate spikes sessile and 

erect 188. C. pUit^tiKyQtk 

M. Basal leaves narrower, or, if rarely 1 em. broad, the spikes 
flexuous on caplllaury peduncles. 
Scales acuminate or srlstate ; lowest braot slightly if at 
all overtopplnjr the inflorescence. 
Basal leaves 6>12 mm. broad. 

Perlgynia 2.8-8.2 mm. long 124. C. UmleulmU. 

Perlgynia 8.8-4 mm. lonff .... (124) C lasricitlmiM, v. eopulaia 

Basal leaves 2-5 mm. broad 125. C digitali: 

Scales blunt ; lowest bract greatly overtopping the In- 
florescence 126. C, piif€kocarpa» 

%, Parlgvnia obtusely angled, or plump and scarcely if at all angled o. 
O, Perlgynia strongly ascending, oeakless or with broadly 
conic oblique tips ; spikes mostly scattered ; bracts 
strongly ascending p, 
p. Perlgynia ftislform to Aisiform-obovold, tapering sub- 
equally to the conic tip and the long gradually con- 
tracted base, obtu^ly trigonous q. 
q, Perlgynia bearing d Istinct elevated ribs ; scales smooth r. 
r. Perlgynia with several ribs on each fsoe «. 

•. Stamlnate spike prominent, usually projecting 
above the pistillate; culms slightly if at au 
andpltal t. 
& Pistillate spikes distinct, not closely crowded. 
Perlgynia plump-obovoid, the snort beak ab- 
ruDtly bent to one side. 
PtstuUte spikes mostly 1.&-8 cm. long . . 127. O. last^JIcTa. 
PlstOlate spikes mostly 0.5-1.8 cm. long 

(127) a Uutifiora, t. ffraeilUma 
Ptetarnia ellipsold-ftislfonii, the elongate beak 
allghtlv oblique. 
Perlgynia appressed-ascendlng in an alter- 
nate-flowered spike . (121) C. kuti^lora, r. patmiybUa. 
Perisynla oblique or divergent, mostly over- 
lapping in the densish spike. 
Basal leaves 7-12 mm. broad (127) C. laxi/lora, t. Jttehaw^L 
Basal leaveR 8-6 mm. wide . • (127) C. Iaxi0ora, t. e^lfj^^fsni. 
t. Uppermost pistillate spikes approximate at the 

base of tne stamlnate .... (127) C.laso(^lora,r,9<»HamM. 
9. Stamlnate spike small and nearly or aulte hidden 
among the pistillate ; culms andpltal. 
Basal leaves elongate, llneai'-lanceoUte, 5-14 mm. 

broad (127) C. taxiilora, t. blanda. 

Basal leaves lanoeobte, 1JM cm. broad . (127) C. law(/lora, ▼. lati/blia. 
r. Piarigynla nerreleaa or with t-8 nanroa on each fhce 

(187) O, laaoi/lora, t. UptansrrU 


q, PertnrnU doBely Imprasflfld-iMrTtfd ; aeiba roogb* 

Sheatlu pubesoent 188. C. ITUckMckiama, 

Sbttths ffUtbrouB 129. C. oligocarpa. 

p. PerlgynU oblong-ovoid to obovold or globose, rounded to 
tne sessile »r abmptljr short-stlpitate base u. 
U. Glosely caespitose, not stoloniferous «. 
«. Culins 1-6 otn. hlgb, more than twice exceeded by the 

leaves and bracts 180. C katahdifutudt. 

V. Culms taller ; bracts proportlonatelv- shorter w. 
«9. Uppermost bract slightly if at ail overtopping the 

staminate spike ; perigynla impressed-nerved 181. C. oonoidta, 
w. Uppermost bract niach overtopping the staminate 
spike (if rarely shorter, the perigynia with 
prominent ribs) ao. 
m, Perlgvnia iropressed-nerved v. 
y. Style Jointed below the middle. 

Leaves thin and soft, slightly If at aHglauooas. 
Spikes borne principally in the upper axils. 
Perigynia oblong. 
Perigynia tuigld, beakleas, scarcely 

angled 182. C, grUsa, 

Perigynia scarcely turgid, trigonons, 

narrowed to a beak . . (182) C. grUtay ▼. rigida. 
Perigynia subglobose . (182) C. griBta^ v. globoMi. 

Spikes borne ftonx the lowest as well as the 

upper axils .... (182) C. grU^a^ y. angusti/oiia. 
Leaves thick and firm, very glaucous . . 188. C. glauoodea. 
If. Style Jointlesd; perigynia goldon-brown . . 184. C. jlaeeo9p€rma. 
m. Perigynia with elevated ribs and short point or 
Perigynia plump-ovoid to globose . . 185. C, granular in. 

Perigynia oblong .... (185) C. graniUarit, v. I/aUanu- 
u. Cubns solitary, fh>m slender stoloniferous base . 186. (7. Crawei, 

O* Perigynia wide-spreading or squarrose, slender-beaked ; 
spikes mostly toward the summit of the culm ; bracts 
dlveigont m. 
m. Leaves Involute ; [lerigynia spreading-ascendlng . . 187. C, exUnnu 
g. Leaves flat ; perigynia squarrose era. 
aa. Beak i^nt as long as the body of the perigyntum, often 
bent, at least in maturity. 
Staminate spike sessile or very short-stalked, some- 
times pistillate at tip; pistillate spikes mostly 
Fruiting spikes 9-12 mm. thick, short-cyllndric or 

globose ; beaks spreading In all directions 188. C. Jlava, 

Fruiting spikes 6.5-8 mm. thick, mostly sbort- 
cynndnc perigynia mostly wide-spreading and 

straightish (188) C. Jlara, v. recUrogtra, 

Staminate spike usually peduncled ; pistillate mostly 

remote, the curved perigynia usually retrorse . (188) C. Jtava^ ▼. elatior, 
acL Beak distinctly shorter than body of the nerigynlum, 
straight or slightly bent, ascending or norizontally 
Staminate spike usually peduncled; pistillate scat- 
tered 189. a Oederi, 

Staminate spike usually sessile, often more or less 

pistillate ; pistillate spikes mostly approximate (189) C Otdtri, y.pumHa, 
P. iMk or tip qfpeHgynium iharply bidentatSy the Ueth aoerote bd, 
bb. Fdrigynia firm and tough, closely investing the achene CO. 
06. Teeth less than 1 mm. long, erect dd. 
dd. Perigynia pubescent. 

Leaves in volute-flllform . . • . • . .151. CJUiformis. 

Leaves broad and flat. 
Scales mostly equaling the densely hairy perigynia . . 152. C. lanuginosa. 
Scales mostly snorter than the sparsely hairy perigynia 158. C. IloughUmU. 
id. Perigynia glabrous. 

Perigynia broadly ovoid 155. C. ttriaia, r. brevtt 

Perigynia narrowly ovoid. 
Perigynia more than 5 mm. long, becoming lustrous. . 150. C ripnria. 
Perigynia less than 5 mm. long, dull and minutely papillose 160. C. acutiformU. 
Ct. Teeth more than 1 mm. long, divergent or recurved ««. 

M. Scales of staminate spike hairy 157. C. hirta, 

««. Scales of staminate spike glabrous. 
Perigynia hairy. 
Perigynia ovoid, in slender cyllndric spikes . • . 158. 0. trichoearpa. 

Perigynia lance^subulate, m short-cylliidric or ovoid 

spikes ........ (158) C. iriohoearpa, v. turbinata 

Perigynia glabrous. 


PerigynU obaearely ribbed (108) C. iriehoearpa, ▼. Devftifl 

Perigynla promlncotly ribbed. 

Bheatiu hairy (158) C. IHehocarpa, ▼. arUiata 

Sheaths glabroas (158) C. triehoearpa^ r. imbsrbU. 

bb, Perlgynia thiB and l>apery, usaally more or less inflated ^. 

^. Staminate spike sottta^ or none or the terminal omy partly 
stamlnate (rarely a very short secondary spike at the base 
of the other) ga. 
gg. Leaves involnte-flUfonn ; perlgynia broadly oonlo-ovold, 5-4S 

mm. long IM. O. oHgotpmma, 

gg. Leaves flat aA. 
hh, Perlgynia oboonic or broadly obovold, trancate or abruptly 
roanded above to long subolAte beaks ; terminal spike 
often mostly pistillate. 
Perlgynia longer than the scales. 
Pistillate scales subulate-tipped or awned . 161. C, 9quarro9a. 

Pistillate scales blunt 162. C. tjn>hinoid€%» 

Perlgynia shorter than the roagh-awned scales . . 168. 0. Fi'ankU, 

kk. Perlgynia from subnbtte to ovoid or globose. If abruptly 
beaked the terminal spike stamlnate ii. 
U. Pistillate spikes oblong-cyllndric or narrower Jj. 
H' Perlgynia seareelv Inflated, rigid, lanoe-subulate, slender- 
stipltate, with prominent rigid crowded ribs, soon 
Teeth of the perlgynia nearly parallel .... 164. C. PMudo-C^fp^nst. 
Teeth of the perigynia strongly divcnirent . . 165. C,coma§a. 

ji. Perigvnia Inflated, if stiplute large and bladder-like kk. 
kt, Mitnre perigynU less than 12 mm. lonf? //. 

U, Pistillate scales mostly with thin serrulate awns; 
perlgynia not fklcate mm. 
Btarolnate scales with rough awns; plants 
Perlgynia slightly Inflated, narrowly conic; 

aehenes obovoid 166. C, hytUridma, 

Perigynia vrlth bladderv-lnflated subglobose 
bodies and abrupt beaks ; aehenes narrowly 
Pistillate spikes 1.5-2 dm. thick ; perigynia 7-10 

mm. long 167. C. lurida. 

PlstlUate spikes 1-1.8 cm. thick ; perlgynia 5-7 

mm. long (167) C. lurt'da, v. graeUU 

Stamlnate scales smooth, scarcely If at all awned ; 

plant loosely stoloniierous .... 168. C SehwHnitaU, 
A. Pistillate scales smooth, or only the lowest 
serrulate niu 
Plant caespltose, forming tussocks; perigynia 
somewhat falcate. 
Spikes mostly clustered and sessile at the tip of 
the culms ; perigynia retrorse. 
Perigynia 8-l() mm. long .... 169. C. reirona. 

Perigynia 5-6 ram. lone . . (160) C. rtirorta^'r. RobinmmU. 

tikes scattered, mostly long-peduncled. 

Perigynia wide-spreading or retrorse . (169) C. rttrorta^ v. HarHL 

Perigynia ascending (160) (7. rtirorta, v. Maoounn. 

MS. Plant not caespltose, the culms solitary from slen- 
der rootstocks ; perigvnia not fUcate . • 170. C, BdUL 
fib. Mature perisynia more thac 12 mm. long. 

Achene rhombold-ovold, the angles prominently 

nipple-tipped 172. C. lupuli/ormU, 

Achene narrowly elllpsold-ovold, the angles scarcely 
Plsttllate spikes mostly crowded, sessile or sub- 
sessile 178. C. lupuHna. 

Pistillate spikes mostly pedanded, the lowermost 

remote (178) C. lupuUna^ v. pedunatUala- 

U. Pistillate spikes globose or subglobose oo, 
oo. Stamlnate scales prolonged into rough thin awns . 167. C. lurida. 

4fo» Staminate scales smooth pp. 
pp. Teeth of the beak erect or ascending gq. 
qq. Mature perigynia green. 

Perigvnia elongate-rhomboid, cuneate at base. 

Perigynia glabrous 174. C. Orayi, 

PerigynU bispidulous iXU) C, Orayi^ j. hUptduia. 

Perigynia ovoid to narrowly conic, rounded at 

Perigynia ovoid-conic, half as broad as long . 175. C. iwtumeitemtt. 
Perlgynia lanoe-conlc, one fourth to one third 

as broad as long . (175) O, intum^se0ru, v. F^maidH 

gg. Mature perlgynia straw-colored 


Lmtm O.M J> sm. briMd nt. C./Mtailala. 

Le*T« I.A-4.Iiiiiin. brood ITT, O. MtcAatatiam 

pp. Tteth or Uifl bank •n-angly nfrtaud . , , ITS. C.tubulala. 

f. BtHnuuU ipIkH S or oion rr. 
rr. Acbtna dlittiMtl]' broader tbin long, 1U hoaa itronglj con- 

fT- AchtoA laDoer than broad, tba ftavt flar or al1fbtlyoan*eji av. 
at Culm tlilek and a|«nej at baw, K«neraily amuoth and 

FarlKynla flaak-abannl.'riitlier abruptly cuntraclad u Uia 
6«ak. S-gmu.ranit. 
Stout : aplkes cyllndrii, !-10 cm. Inng . . . 180. (7. roafrnta. 

Slander; iplkci giobou or ahon-cyllndrlc, I-!.* cm. 

long (ISS) C. rotlrala, v. ambtgtnt, 

FeriB^ynla tapflrinf gndnally to tba beak^ O.^l cm. 

M. Cnlio aarealy apongF at baae, abarp-anfrlod abnvo, ot\»a 
barsb \ l«a>ea allgbily i[ >t all ooilulnKo u. 
U. Btak or tba parigynla uauall/ allgbtly ronglianed gr 

ri^lttlataaplkaaoyllDdrio.S.K-Snii.loDg. l-l.Sam. Udck 1S1. Cbvliala. 
I'litlllaiK iplluii globoas to iblck-cyUiidrli:. 
' '-»cm. uJck 

' "' ^'^^^ 

.Smui. tbick ISO. C Tadctrmanl, 

Psrigrnia aaoandlng, eCralgbti leares llrin, i^T mm. 
rerUynta bladdsri Inllatei). 
Pericyiila OToLd^cDnlc, tapering gradually to tba 

beak . i^. C. viriearta. 

P^rlgynla ronndaa-orold, raCker abruptly taperlDg 

. (1SS) a tMiearia. r. mmiie. 

.(IW) C.imlairUl.t.dUieoia. 
. (182) C. VHicarta, y.JMtma. 
(IM) C.taitcaHa.'/.Satana. 

'. IW. Crtlrarta. 

ingnmfnala Schwein. Culms 1 m. or less 

7 leafy ; leaves labcordale at their juncUori wilh 

the loose green sbejitlis, tboee of the 

sterile shoots crowded and almost dls- 

tichooii ; infloreacence oblong, of 5-12 

appressad-sscending pointed spikes; 

perigynia very thin and Bcale-Hke, 

barely distended over the achenes. — 

Meadows, swamps, and net woods, 

O. to Man. and Mo. July, Aug. Fio. 


2. C. Bcopftria Schknhr. Culms 

0.2-1 m. high, mostly slender and 

Ml. C. aeoparia. *^'^'=' i '«<""«» narrow (at most 3 mm. 
wide), ahorter than the culm ; inflo- 
IWoence of 8-9 stratB-cotortd or brownigh mastty shining 
lod aacending approiiiiiai« ovoid pointed spikes (0.5-1.5 
cm. long) ; perigynia 5(rarely 4)-d.5inni. 
lonff. — Low ground or even dry open ..,, „ 
BoU, rarely In woods, Nfd. to Sask. and *"■ *'■ "">»''' "Kf'M'nlt 
Ore., and somhw. May-Aug. Fio. 311. Var. hohilifArmib 
Tuckerm. Spikes scattered, the lowesi remote. ~ Less common. 
Var. couDfeuBA Femald. Spikes spreading, crowded in a globose 
or subglobose head. — S. B. to Ont. and Cl. Fig. 342. 

3. C. tilbuloldes Wahlenb. Culms loose, 0.3-1 m. high, 

sharply trigonous ; leaves soft and loose, 3-8 mm. trend, numer- 

Kopatia, OQB, the upper often nearly or quite overtopping the culm, those 

leu*. of the sterile sboots crowded and gomewhac diaticboua; infio- 


rtteeiux compact, tA«S-14 obouold atctndina somewhat crowded 
grag-green or dult-brown tpiket 1-li 
mm. long ; perlgynia S.T-G uiiii. long, 
Ikeir tipt appreened. — Swales and ricli 
upen woods, N. H. to Sash., Mul 
J soutliw, June-Sept Fic, 343. Var. 

/% tl-rbXta Bailey. Spikes remote. — 

Uju Var. miActA Bailey, Inflorescence 

w iisually flciuouB, at least the lowest 

spikes scattered ; perigyniaieith looirly 

Ttcurved tipg. (Var. monili/onais Dlil- 

ton, in part.} — Gulf of St. Lawrence 

to Ont, s. to Ct., N. Y., and la. Fio. 


S43. c. iribuiuidM. 4, CaiccitftDewey, Culmsslender, 

1-6 dm. higli; Uavet stiff, 1-3 mm. 

wido ; inflorcKCence of 3-7 approximata or scattered glofty brown tpilce*, Uia 

ttamtaale and pMUlate fimor.r» variouily mixed or In distiact npilea; peri^'uia 

obviously distended .net llie acliene, 2 mm. broad, uHiially 

with distinct eerrulaie win|^. — Dry or eandy soil, Mc. to 

B. C. and Alaska, a. tl Mass., Ct, N. Y., 

()., Micb., and westw. May-Jutj. Fic. i 

G. C. Crawfdrdil Fernald. BiindtT, 
Oie cKlma fanning cloM itoolt; leavea 
iiBrrow {1-2.6 mm. wide), often equalinf; 
or exceeding the culms ; {florescence dull 
broien, Bubcylindric or ovoid, often sub- 
tended by an elonRate filiform bract; 
spikft S-i2, tabcijllndrlc or narrowly 
ivotd, ascending, 3-7 mm, long, approximate ; the Unear- 
lancrolale periyi/nia plump at base, aboKt 1 mm. wide, 

^^ ifuparta, var. minor Boolt.) — Open =,,,., 

^■ut rarely in woods, Nfd. to B. C, s. to n. Ct., and Mich. Jane- 

wHs Sept. Fin. S4e. Var. tIoens Femald. Stouter Uirougbout: 
'((Sg&j- cnimsS-Odm. bigh; leaves 2.6-3 mm. broad; 
^^HBK^ Hpikes mostly greener and lonfrer, densely 
iSHS^St crowded. — Less common. Fio. 347. 

^^^f^» 6. C. oroujnsla Femald. Culnw fete in 

ft looie stools, tall and erect, 0.^1 wi. hi;ik, 

atl C fr«»furtiL sliarply angled and ftnraft aftope.'IfaveBsmootli, 
t.ilgtD*. 2.5-1 mm. broad, muchsbortertlian the culms; 

itijioretcenee thlek-eylindric, erect; tpikta 3-1), 
MaefaS\n^,daTkhr'n'!K. rhomboid-ovoid, poinUd,fi.b-\ cm. long; 
scales dark, with pale tcariov* marglm: pcri- 
Kjiiift appressed, about 4 mm. long, 1.3 mm. us, c. onuwn*!*. 
broad, very narrowly winged above. — Pry 
fields, thickets, open woods, and gravelly banks, Orono and 
Bangor, Me. June-July. Fio. 848. 

7. C. prattnsls nrcjer. Culms gmooth and slender, 3-€ 
dm. high, overtopping the smooth flat (2-3.G mm. broad) 
leaves ; in/loreseener slender, Jlexuous. tnnnUlfurm ; spikes Z-7, 
tilrerg-brvwn, mostly remote, pointed, feto-Jlowered. 7-1.7 mm. 
long, mostly long-elaeale at base; prrignnia ovale-laneeolate, 
4.&~S.6 mm. long. L5-2 mm. broad. — <ipt>n woods, dealings, 
and prairies, Lab. to B. C., s, to N. S., n. Me., L Superior, etc. 
June-Aug. (Greenl.) Fio. 340. 

8. C. crlsUU Scliwein, Culms I b 
above ; leaves soft and flat, 8-7 mm. 


■ Wfi. C. Ctv 



8G0. 0. cristata. 

851. C. tlbolatescens. 

852. 0. mirabills. 

the calms, sheaths loose ; inflorescence usually dense ^ cylin- 
dric to ellipsoid; spikes 6-15, globose, closely flowered, 
greenish or dull brovoUf 0.5-1 cm. long ; perigynia 3-4 mm. 

long, their tips rosulate-spread- 
ing, (C tribuloides, var. Bailey; 
Ccristatella Britton.) — Swales 
and wet woods, e. Mass. and Yt. 
to Pa., Mo., Sask., and B. C. 
June-Aug. Fio. 850. 

0. C. albolut^scens Schwein. 
Culms stout and stiff, 2-8 dm. 
high ; leaves erect, long-pointed, 
pale green, 2-5 mm. wide, shorter 
than the culms ; inflorescence 
stiff, linear-cyllndrio to subglobose, with or without 
elongated bracts ; spikes 3-^0 (sometimes compound), 
conic-ovoid to subglobose, 0.0-1 cm. long; i>erigynia 2-3 mm. broad, rhombic* 

ovate to suborbicular, pale, with short 
deltoid firm greenish tips. ((7. straminea, 
vars. foenea Torr. and cumulata Bailey.) 
— Damp or even dry soil, chiefly on tlie 
coa.stal plain, N. B. to Fla. and Mex.. 
rarely Inland ; also L. Hurpn to Man. 
July-Sept Fio. 351. 

10. C. mirAbilis Dewey. Culms 0.3- 
1.5 m. high, very loose and smooth; leaves 
soft and thin, 2.5-6 mm, wide, the sheaths 
rather loose; spikes 4-12, greenish, sub- 
globose or ovoid, 5-9 mm. long, mostly approximate; peri- 
gynia lance-ovate, 8-4 mm. long, with divergent tips. (C. 
straminea, var. Tuckerm.) — Dry banks, open woods, and rich 
copses, Me. to Man., N. C. and Mo. June, 
July. Fig. 352. Var. perl6nga Femald. 
Spikes remote. — Less common. Fio. 353. 

Var. tincta Femald. Spikes 3-7, ovoid, 
approximate, brown-tinged; scales brown 
with a pale margin. — N. B. and n. N. E. 
C. mir. T. p«rt.» — l*iant comparatively small. 

11. C. straminea Willd. Culms very 
dender, 3-7 dm. high, smooth except at summit; leaves 
0.5-2 mm. wide; spikes 3-8, yellow-brown, or rarely green 
OYoid or subglobose, 4-8 mm. long, usually forming a moniliform or linear- 

cyVindrlc flexuous inflorescence ; perigynia 
rarely 4 mm. long, lance-ovate, the inner 
faces 3-5-nerved or nerveless, the ascend- 
ing tips inconspicuous. (C. tenera 
Dewey.) — Meadows, dry banks, or open 
woods, N. B. to B. C, Ky., and Ark. 
June-Aug. Fio. 354. 

Var. echinbdes Femald. Tips of the 
slightly longer perigynia divergent and 
conspicuous. — Vt. (Brainerd); Out. and 
Mich, to la. Fio. .S55. 

12. C. hormathMes Femald. Culms 
sea. c. 8tr., v. ecWn. g]en(jer and flexuous, sharply angled, 

smooth except at summit, 3-9 dm. high ; leaves shorter than 
or rarely exceeding the culms, very ascending, 1-2.5 mm. 
wide; ir^fiorescence slender, moniliform (or on late culms 
congtited), of 3-9 broadly ovoid brorcnish spikes (8-12 mm. 
ioHQ) , with or without subtending elongated bracts ; perigy nia 856. c. honnathodea 

8r>l. C. straminea. 



857. C. horm 
V. in visa. 

flongate-^vate, ascending or rarely spreading^ distinctly <ibout 10- 
nerved on each face; scales lance-«tteiituate or aristate. (C. 
straminea, var. aperta Boott; C. tenera Britton, not Dewey.) ^ 
Fresh or brackish marshes, commonest near the 
coast, e. Que. to Del. and 1%. ; B. C. June-Aug. 
Fig. 366. — Lower small-spiked (6-8 mm. lon£) 
plants have been separated as var. invIsa (W. 
Boott) Fernald. Fio. 367. 

Var. RicMl Fernald. Perigynia 4-6 mm. long, 
with suhorbicular bodies abruptly contracted to con- 
spicuous loosely ascending or spreading tips. (C j«« f, wtmm 
tenera, var. Fernald.) — Mass. to D. C. Fio. 868. ^ riShT ** 
13. C. Bickn611ii Britton. Culms comparatively Terminal tpika 
stout, 4-0 dm. h igh, smooth except at summit ; leaves i^^d p«rig7iilaiii. 
ascend in£:, rather short and firm, 2-4.6 mm. broad ; 
inflorescence of 3-7 silvery-brown or greenish ovoid, obovoid or snbgloboM 
approocimate or slightly remote spikes (8-14 mm. long) ; perigynia ascending^ 

with broadly ovate or suborbi- 
cular bodieSy the tips becoming 
conspicuotis, broadly wing-mar- 
gined, when mature becoming 
almost translucent and about 10- 
nerved on each face. (C stra- 
mined, var. Crawei Boott.) — Dry 
or rocky soil, Me. to Man., N. J., 
()., and Ark. — May-July. Fio. 

14. C. sUicea Olney. Culms 
slender, stiff, 3-8 dm. high ; leaves 
erectish, usually glaucous, 2-4.6 
mm. wide, often becoming involute; 

inflorescence of 3-12 usually remote conic-ovoid and clavate' 
based whitish spikes (1-1.6 cm. long) ; perigynia firm 
and opaque, 4-5 mm. long, 2.2-3 mm. broad, short-beaked^ 
broad-winged, the body distinctly 8-6-nen7tfd on the inner, 
6-12-nerred on the outer face. (C. foenea, var. gubu- 
lonum Gray.) — Sands and rocks ^^ 

near the soa. Gulf of St. Law- 
rence to N. J. June- Aug. Fio. 

16. C. aUta Ton*. Culms rather 
stout, smooth except at summit, 
0.6-1 m. high; leaves mostly short and har.^'h, 
2.6-4.6 mm. wide, the sheath green and strongly nervrd 
nearly or quite to the narrow subchartaceous auricle ; 
head oblong or ovoid, of 3-8 compact approximate 
conic-ovoid or subcylindric spikes (8-16 mm. long) ; 
perigynia appressed-a^cending, firm and opaque, broad- 
winged, very faintly nerved or nerveless, much broader 

than the usually rough-aicned scales. 
(C. straminea, var. Bailey.) — Marslie^ 

and wet woods, N. II. to Mich, and Fla.; mostly coastaL June, 
July. Fio. 361. 

16. C. 8uber6cta (Olney) Britton. Similar ; slender ; tiiC 
3-5 irregularly clustered spikes finally tawny or ferruginous ; 
perigynia ovate, 4-5 mm. long, 2.Ji-2.8 mm. broad ; scales 
lance-ovate, mostly awnless. (C. tenera, var. Olney; C alaia, 
var. ferruginea Fernald.) — Ont. and O. to Mich., 111., and la. 
F»o. 362. 
saa. 0. Buberecu. 17. C. festucicoa Schkuhr. Ctdms stiffs 0.5-1 m. hi^ ; 

850. C. Blckn«im. 

860. C. sffioea. 

861. C. alata. 



SM. C. fest., 
T. Ivevior. 

8d8. C. festaoaoea. 

86S. C. B«bbU. 

{eaves stiff y erect, shorter than the culms, 2-4 mm. wide, the 
theath with a thin barely nerved or nerveless pale band 
extending down from the membranous auricle ; iriflorescence 
cylindric, rarely ovoid, of 6-10 distinct or rarely approxU 
iMte subglobose or broadly ovoid-conic yellovhbroujn or green- 
brown ascending spikes (7-12 mm. long); perigynia broad- 
ovate to suborbicularj strongly l-l6-nerved on the outer, 
nerveless or faintly nerved on the inner face; achenes sub- 
orbicular. (C straminea, var. Tuckerm.) — Dry or rocky 
soil. Me. to Man. and Pa. June-Aug. Fio. S63. 

Var. brdyior (Dewey) Femald. Lower, 
rarely more than 0.6 m. high, and more 
slender; spikes 3-6, approximate or subap- 
proximate. (C straminea, var. Dewey.) — 
Commoner, reaching B. C, Ark., etc. May- 
July. Fig. 364. 

18. C. B6bbii Olney. Chilms rather slen- 
der, 2-6 dm. high, smooth except at tip; 
leaves mostly shorter, ascending but not stiff, 
1.7-4.5 mm. wide ; inflorescence short, com- 
pact, ovoid to ellipsoid, broxon, 1-2 cm. long, of 3-12 globose or ellipsoid 

ascending spikes (5-8 mm. long); perigynia narrowly ovate, 
3-3.5 mm. long, 1.6-2 mm. broad, mostly dull brown, and 
loosely ascending,/ai«%/ew-ncrtjed or nerveless; scales oblong, 
bluntly acuminate. ( C. tribuloides, var. Bailey.) 
— Low grounds, Nfd. to w. Mass., N. Y., 111., 
Col., B. C., and north w. June-Aug. Fio. 865. 

19. C. fodnea Willd. • Culms slender and 
lax, smooth except at tip, 3-9 dm. high ; leaves 

soft and loose, pale green or glaucous, mostly shorter, 2-4 mm. 
broad; inflorescence linear-cylindric or moniliform, erect or 
fiexuous, of 4-9 globose or ovoid clavate-based appressed- 
ascending whitish-green or silvery-brown spikes (6-10 mm. 

long); perigynia ovate, S-4 
mm, long, 1.8-2.2 mm. broad, 
appressed-ascending, finally a 
little spreading. — Dry woods 
and banks, Me. to B. C. and 
Md. July. Fig. 366. Var. 
pERPLtxA Bailey. Coarser, and often taller ; 
ir{floresc€nce heavier, mostly nodding, the 6-16 
spikes larger (1-1.7 cm. long), the terminal 
ones often crowded ; perigynia 
8.6-4.4 mm. long. — Com- 
moner, Nfd. to Man. and Va. June-Aug. Fig. 367. 
20. C. lbforIka L. Culms stiff and ascending, 2-8 dm. 
high; leaves mostly short and firm, 1.5-4 mm. 
broad ; inflorescence from subglobose to cylindric, 
of 3-6 obovoid or ellipsoid approximate or sub- 
approximate brown or ferruginous ascending 
spikes (0.8-1.4 cm. long); perigynia 3.8-4.5 mm. 
long, 1.8-2.3 mm. broad, ascending. — Dry hill- 
sides, rocky banks, etc., local, Nfd. to Mass. and 
K. Y. ; and occasional on ballast southw. June- 
Aug. (Nat. from Eu.) Fig. 368. 

21. C. xerintica Bailey. Culms stiff, sca- 
brous above, 3-6 dm. high ; leaves short, mostly near the base, 
2-3 ram. broad; inflorescence linear-cylindric, of 3-6 distinct 
ascending ellipsoidal brownish-white spikes (8-13 mm. long) : 
869. Czenntica. perigynia oppressed, 4-4.8 mm. long, 2-2.3 mm. broad, the viner 

866. C. foene*. 

867. C. foenaa, v. perplexa. 

868. C. leporina. 


>T only atghUy nerved &l the golden-jiellovi bate. —Open pnUm, 

July. Fio. 3(10, 
22. C. ainea Fernald. Culms gniooth and wli?, bat 

more or less JUxmvi at lip, 0.26-1.2 m. bigh| leATe* 

much Hhorier, rather soft and flat, 2-4 mm. bruad j 

infioregcence looielj/ cylindric or moniiiform, of 3-13 

obovoid mustls clavate-hoied brownith or fermginoia 

gptket (O.B-2.6 cm. long, in laxuriant planta oftev 

peduncled or corapoQJid) ; prri- 

gynia loosely atcetiding, dark 

green or brown when mature, 

4-5 mm. long, 1.9-2.7 mm, broad [ 

aehrne 1 .3-1 .7 mm. firwnL— l.)pen 

woods, dry banks, or iirely in low 

ground. Lab. to B. C, s. to Ct., 

Mich., etc. May^uly. Fio.870. 
28. C. adiiata Boott. Cvtma tli^y erect, smooth, 
2-8 dm. high ; leaves unualiy ahonei, 2-6 mm. broad ; 
inflorescence erect, dense and ttiff, ovoid or cylindrie, 
often subtended by a etiS promi- 
nent bract, of 3-15 simple or com- sii. O. idosu. 
pciiind full and rounded brotonUk 

xplkes (<t-12 mm. long) ; perlgynia 4-5 mm. long, 2-3 mm. 
broad J achene 1.8-2.1 mm. broad. — Dry noodi, gravelly 
banks, etc., I^fd. to Mt. Desert I., Me., n. to Mian, and fat 
iiorthw. June-Sept. Fig. 371. 

24. C. sycbnoctpbaU Cai-ey. Culms smooth, 2-6 dm. 
high ; leaves soft, ascending, 2-4 mm. wide ; bracts very 
unequal; tpikex 4-10, subeyllndric, 8-15 

head; pt 

._ _ . . , or nerveless. — M 

m.c..y.hi.ocpi»i^ ^^jy ^ 
and B. C. July, Ang. Fic 

25. C. gTOfcratea Wonnsk, Calms O.ft-3 dm, 
txixeding the setaceous leaves; spikes 0.6-2 cm 
slatnlnate and linear, with oblong mostly blunt-tipped scales, 
others Btamlnate above, with one or more pistillate flowers below, others thlek- 
cyllndric and strictly pistillate, with 0-12 rather plump suhterele but thin-«ilged 
strongly nerved conic-beaked pertgynla. (C. Bedoaskiana 
Bailey, not C. A. Mey.) — Svvampe and bogs, Lab. to 
AlaHka, B. to N. B., Me., N. Y., w. Pa., Mich., »nd Col. 
.fune-Aug. (Eurasia.) Fio. 373. 

aa. C. exUls Dewey. Culms rigid, usually much exceed- 
Ing the Jllt/orm stiff leave* ; spikes mostly solitary, 1-3 cm. 
long, slamuiate, pistillate, or with the flowers variously situ- 
ated ; perigynla ovate.lanceolate, leith aerrvlale chin mar- 
gins, strongly convex, on (Ae outer, 
Jiattisk ana fete-nerved or nemetees ' 
' o» the Inner face, — Bocsand mead- 

ows near the coast, locally from Lab. to N. J. ; ra 
inland to Vt., Ont., N. Y„ Mich., aud Minn. May--" 
Fia. 374. 

iT. C. atelluUta Good. Caespltose ; the culms rather 
wiry, 1-4 dm. hi);li; leaves Hborier than or equaling the 
culms, 1-2.6 miu. wide; Inflorescence linear-cylindric, aio. a (MlnlitL 

i-3 em. long, of 2-6 suhnpproximate or slightly remote 

snbgloboae or subcylindric S-Vl-flniBered spikes: perigynla finally ycJiovtsh, 
uarrojoly ovale, early asceudiug, later wide-spreading, f^Uy nerved or "—-"i'^ 

8T3. C. ertiiKnlt^ 

>r nerveleat 



srr. c. steii., 

T. exeelstor. 

•D the inuer face, 3-4 mm. long, } or } exceeding the ovate pointed 
browniab scale. (C echinata^ var. microstachya Boeckl. ; G. sterilis 
Am. autb.f not Willd.) — Open low ground, Lab. to Alaska, s. to 
Md., 0.,Micb.,etc. June-Aug. (Kui*asia.) Fig. 375. 
Var. ormAntha Fernald. Inflorescence 2-6 cm. 
long, of 2-4 very remote S-d-flowered spikes^ the ter- 
minal one witb a clavate base 0.5-1 cm. long ; peri- 
gynia as in tbe typical form, mostly twice as long 
as tbe scales. — Less common. Fig. 876. 

Var. excelsior (Bailey) Fernald. Tall and slen- 
der, 0.3-1 m. higb; inflorescence 3-^.5 cm. long, 
spikes 3-0, distinct, only the lowermost remote, 
12-20-floweredy at first ellipsoid, witb tbe perigynia 
ascending, later subglobose, witb strongly renexed 370 o. steii., 
perigynia ^ lunger than the scales. — Nfd. to Mich. v. ormanttui! 
and N. C. Fig. 377. 

Var. cephalAntha (Bailey) Fernald. The coarsest form, 
3-7 dm. high ; inflorescence cylindric or slightly moniliform, 
8-7.5 cm, long, the 4-8 shor^cylindric spikes Id-AO-flowered ; 
perigynia ovate. (G. echinata, yslt, Bailey.) — Nfd. to Mich., 
B. C, and N. C. Fio. 378. 

Var. angostAta Carey. Extremely slender or almost seta- 
eeons, 1-2 dm. high (in shade often higher) ; leaves 0.5-1.5 mm. 
wide ; inflorescence 0.75-2.5 cm. long, the few 3-15- 

6 flowered spikes approximate; the divaricate peri- 
gynia lanceolate or lance-ovate, 2.5-3 mm. long, 
twice exceeding tbe scales. ( G. echinata, var. Bailey ; 
C sterilis, var. Bailey.) — N. S. co Ct., w. Que., 
111., and Wise. Fig. 379. 
j„ c toll ^^' ^* ^^^^^^ Willd. Goarse, 1 m. or less tall ; 

T Aiunisuta! ^^^^^ ^**» shorter than or equaling tbe culms ; i»- 
florescence ofZ-Q subglobose or thick-cylindric densely 
fiowered olive-green croicded or distinct spikes ; the thick strongly 
many-nerved perigynia broad-ovate, 3-3.5 mm. long, 2-3 mm. 
broad, squarrose or witb recurved tips. (G. echi- 
nata, var. conferta and G. atlantica Bailey.) — 
CoaBtal bogs and pine-barrens, Nfd. to Fla., rarely 
inland to n. Me., Adirondack Mts., N. Y., and 
Mt. Sorrow, Pa. June, July. Fig. 380. ^is c. stelL 

29. C. scirpoides Schkuhr. Slender, 1.^-6 dm. y. cephaUntha. 
high; the leaves 1-2.5 mm. wide; the 2-5 spikes 
ail fertile, all sterile, or variously mixed, usually subglobose, 
4-5 mm. in diameter, the terminal long-clavate at base; peri- 
gynia firm, plump, olive-green or -brown, more or less nerved 
or essentially nerveless, broadly deltoid^ovate, obscurely short- 
beaked and with slightly thickened margin, 2.3-3.2 mm. long, 
1 . 5-2 mm. broad, finally wide-spreading or recurved, 
much exceeding the oblong or ovate bluiit scales, 
{G. interior Bailey.) — Damp or wet soil, e. Que. 
to Hudson Bay, B. C., Fla., and Ariz. May-Aug. 
Fig. 381. 

Var. capillAcea (Bailey) Fernald. Stiff, culms 
almost bristle-like; leaves about 0.5 mm. broad, 
often involute ; perigynia strongly nerved. (C. in- 
terior, var. Bailey.) — N. H. to N. Y., N. J., and Pa. 
Var. Josselynii Fernald. Perigynia lance-subu- 
late, barely 1 mm. broad, mostly ascending, — By St. John R., Me. 
30. C. se^rsa E. C. Howe. Gulms soft, in loose stools, 3.5-6.5 
dm. high ; leaves shorter, soft, pale, 2-4 mm. broad ; inflorescence 
(8S. c. neonta. 2.5-7 cm. long, of 2-6 mostly remote subglobose cr ellipsoid 6-20- 

^. C. BteriUs. 

881. C. Bclrpoides. 




B«5. C. OAOMC, 

T. sabloIiMM. 

flowered green spikes (8.5-7 mm. long), the terminal OAuaOy with a long-<;iaTar« 
base, the lower often subtended by a setiform bract , perlgynia etUptic-ovate^ 
with a narrow substipitate base^ wide-spreading or recurved, much exceeding 
the acutish scales. — Wet woods and swamps, e. Mass. to centf . 
N. Y. and Del. May, June. Fio. 882. 

31. C. Arcta Boott. Pale green or somewhat glaucous ; euinu 
very soft, in loose stools, 1.5-0 dm. high, often overtopped by ttie 
soft flat leaves (2.5-4 mm. broad) ; inflorescence of 
A^^BSy ^^^ ovoid or subcylindric spikelets (6-11 mm. 
/Ij ^Hp long); peHgynia cordate-ovate, v/ithtLTVLthtiT definite 
^ ■ beak, strongly nerved on the outer, faintly on the 
a88. urciM, ^^^^^ face, 2-S mm. long, 1.2-1.5 mm. broad, some- 
what exceeding the acute often brown-tinged scales. 
( G, eanescens, var. polystachya Boott.) — Wet woods, alluvial 
thickets, etc.. Me. and Que. to B. C, s. to Mass., N. Y., Mich., 
and Minn. June-Aug. Fig. 888. 

82. C. can6scens L. Culms soft, in loose stools, 1.5-6 dm. 
high ; leaves soft and flat, shorter ihan or exceeding tlie culms ; 
inflorescence 2.5-5 cm. long, of 4-7 short-cylindric 
^ to narrowly obovoid appressed-ascending approxi' 

% mate or slightly remote spikes ; perigynia ovoid- 

J oblong, usually serrulate toward the short-pointed tip, 1.8-1.7 mm 

I A. hroad, more or less nerved on both faces, somewhat exceeding 
I Q the ovate pointed scale. — Wet places, Lab. to B. C, 
I ▼ locally s. to Ct., and Mich. May-Aug. (Eurasia.) 
m Fio. 884. 

I Var. sublolijlcea Laestad. Smaller; the spikes 

shortr-oblong or subglobose ; perlgynia smaller, barely 
2 mm. long, smooth throughout. — Similar range. 
(Eu.) Fio. 385. 
Var. diajilncta Femald. Tall and lax, 8-8 dm. high ; inflo- 
rescence elongated, flexuous, 0.5-1.5 dm. long; spikes 5-^, ellip- 
soid to cyliiidric, all but the teiminal remote ; 
perigynia as in the species. — Nfd. to Wise., O., 
and Pa., common. Fio. 886. 

88. C. brunn^scens Poir. Very slender and 
lax; culms 1.5-7 dm. high; leaves soft, flat; 
inflorescence 1-6 cm, long, of 8-6 more or less 
remote or approximate subglobose or ellipsoid 
spikes (3-7 mm. longY, perigynia 2-2.7 mm. 
long, 1-1.5 mm. broad, serrulate at the base 
of tlie distinct beak, loosely spreading token 
mature, {C. canesce.ns, vars. alpicola Wah- 
lenb. and vulgaris Bailey.) — Open woods and 
dry rocky banks, Nfd. to B. C, s. to N. C, Mich., Wise., etc. 

June-Aug. (Eu.) Fig. 387. 

34. C. bromoides Schkuhr. Very slender and 
lax, green, scarcely glaucous ; the culms '^S dm. 
long, mostly exceeding the soft flat leaves; 
inflorescence loosely subcylindric, 2-5.5 cm. 
long, of 2-6 approximate or slightly scattered 
spikes (0.5-2. cm. long); Ix^ak of the perigynium 
J-J as long as the strongly nerved body, sli.ehtly 
exceeding the oblong pointed scale. — Rich low 
woods and swamps, N. S. to Ont., and south w. 
May-,July. Fig. 388. 

35. C. Deweyina Srliwein. Very lax, glau- 
cous; the culms 2-12 dm. long, much exceeding 
the soft flat leaves ; inflorescence flexuous, 2-6 

29B.O. brouiuUei. om. long; the 2-7 spOrAey S-12-itoioered (fr-12 SSB. a Deweyu^ 


887. C. bronoefloans. 





8J1. 0. tiiBperma. 

Am. long), the upper sabapproxiinate or Rcattored, the loxnest vrry remote^ 
usually subtended by an elongate Blender bract ; beak about } as long aa ttie 
body of the perigynium, somewhat exceeding the ovate acumi- 
nate or short-ctispidate pale scale, — Uich open woods and banks, 
Que. to B. C, 8. to Pa., Mich., Wise., N. Mex., etc. May- Aug. 
Fig. 889. 

36. C. tenuifl^ra Wahlenb. Lax, the culms 2-6 dm. long, 
mostly exceeding the very narrow (0.7-2 mm. broad) pale green 

leaves ; spikes 3-10-flowered ; peri- 
gynia 1.&-1.7 mui. broad, with the 
bluntish tips smooth or rarely with 890. c. teouidora. 
1 or 2 teeth, about equaled by the 
ovate or ovate-oblong white scale. — Bogs and wet 
mossy woods, local, Hudson Bay to Man., s. to N. B., 
Me., Mass., N. Y., Mich., Wise., and Minn. June, 
July. (Eu.) — Apparently hybridizes with C. tri- 
tperma in n. Me. Fio. 390. 

87. C. trisp^rma Dewey. Culms almost filiform, 
2-7 dm. long, usually much overtopping the soft 
narrow (1-2 mm. wide) leaves; the 2 or S spikes 
2-6-flowered; the finely many-nerved beaked peri- 
gynia 3.3-3.8 mm. long, 1.6-1.8 mm. 
broad, slightly exceeding the ovate- 
oblong pale obtuse to roucronate- 
acuminate scales. — Mossy woods and bogs, Nfd. to Sask., s. to 
Hd., the Great Lakes, and Neb. June-Aug. Fio. 391. 

Var. BiUIngsii Knight. Leaves nearly setaceous, O.'S^. 6 mm. 
wide; the 1 or 2 spikes 1- or 2-flowered ; perigynium 2.6-3.3 
WTO. long. — Boggy spots, local, N. S. and Me. to N. J. 

38. C. nory^gica Willd. Glaucous and freely stoloniferous ; 
tulms smooth and soft, 1-4.5 dm. high, mostly overtopping the 
>jft flat rather narrow (1-2.6 mm. broad) leaves ; inflorescence 
1.5-0.5 cm. long, of 2-6 ovoid or thick-cylindric spikes, the 
lower 5-12 mm. long; perigynia faintly nerved, 2.5-3.3 mm. g^ ^ norvwrlcft. 
long, 1.6-2 mm. broad, conic-rostrate, usually abruptly contracted 

to a suhstipitate base. — Damp, usually brackish soil, locally on the coast from 
Me. north w. June-Aug. (Eu.) Fio. 392. 

X C. H^LTOLA Blytt is a hybrid of this with no. 32, occurring in N. B. and 
a. Eu. 

39. C. glare^sa Wahlenb. Culms acutely angled, mostly curved, scabrous at 
up, 1-3 dm. high, once and a half or twice exceeding the Jlaccid narrow blue-green 
leaves; inflorescence narrowly ellipsoid or obovoid, 0.7-2 cm. 
long, with 2-4 oppressed-ascending obovoid spikes, the lower 4-9 
mm. long, the terminal larger, 6-11 mm. long; perigynia fusi- 
form, with narrow smooth beak, striate-nerved, 2.5-:^ mm. long, 
barely 1 mm. broad, exceeding the ferruginous or purplish white- 
edged ovate acutish or obtuse scales. — Shores of the lower St. 
Lawrence, Que., and northw., local. June-Aug. (Eu.) 

Var. amphigena Femald. Perigynia broadly 
A. ellipsoid, ovoid or obovoid, 1.3-1.9 mm. long, 898. Cgkreow, 
|B abruptly beaked. — Commoner, Arctic coast to v. amphij^ena. 
W Que. and N. B. (Eurasia.) Fig. 393. 

40. C. ten611a Schkuhr. Exceedingly slender, 1-6 dm. high, in 

loose tufts; leaves flat, soft, and wciik, mostly shorter Uian the 

culm ; spikes l-^i-Jloicered, or the terminal 4-6-flowered, scattered 

on the upper part of the culm, the bracts obsolete or the lowest 

914 Q teneiu. present and very short ; perigynium very plump, finely nerved, the 

minute beak entire, longer than the white scale, usually at length 

vplitting and exposin<; ihe dark achene. — Cold swamps and wet woods, Nfd. to 

B. C, 8. to N. J., Pa., Mich., Col., etc. May-Aug. (Eu.) Fio. 394. 



899. 0. roBC*. 

41. C. rbsea Schkuhr. Always slender and weak, erects 2-7 dm. hlg^ 
culins exceeding the narrow (1.6-3 mm. broad) leaves ; ttpikes 3-8, 6-l&-jCotcered, 
the uppermost aggregated^ the others 0.5-2.5 cm. apart^ the lowest 
usually with a setaceous bract; perigynium lance-ovoid^ plano- 
convex, shining, nerveles.s, rough on the edges ahove^ witii a flat 
bidentate beak, perfectly squarrose, very preen, 2.5-4 mm. long, 
about twice longer than the translucent white acale.-^ Open dry 
woods, N. S. to Man., and southw. May-July. Fig. 395. 

Var. radiJLta Dewey. Much more slender, the loose culnis 
sometimes almost capillary; spikes 2-5, scattered, 
2-4'Jlou;ered ; perigynium mostly narrower. — Rich 
woods, e. Que. to Ont., and southw.; commonest 
in the Alleghenies. 

Var. mkior Boott. Erecty very slender; spikes 
8-10-flowered ; perigynia ascending, — Local, s. 
Me. to Mich. 

42. C. retrofl^xa Muhl. Similar ; stiff, 1-6 dm. 
high; spikes 3-8, mostly aggregated, the lower 1 or 2 slightly 
separated and commonly subtended by a conspicuous bract, often 896. C. rvtrofkxa 
brownish; perigynium ovoid, smooth throughout^ very promi- 
nently corky and swollen at the base, at maturity widely spread- 
ing ; scales brownish and sharp, at length deciduous. ( C rosea, 
var. Torr.) — Dry open woods, Mass. to OnU and Tex. May, 
June. Fig. 396. 

Var. tez^nsis (Torr.) Fern aid. Spikes 3-6 ; perigynium lance- 
ovoid or lance-subulate. (C. rosea, var. Torr. • C. iexensis 
Bailey.) — Ky. to Mo., and southw. 

43. C. muricXta L. Culm 1.5-8 dm. high, rough, longer than 
the narrow leaves ; spikes 5-10, variously disposed, but usually 
some of them scattered, frequently all aggre- 
gated, rarely tawny; perigynium heavy, ovate, 
897. C. marlcfttft. 4-6 mm, long, shining, nerveless, the long beak 

minutely rough, spreading, a little longer than 
the sharp green or brownish scale. — Dry fields, local, s. Me. 
to Va. and (). (Nat. from Eu.) Fio. 397. 

44. C. Mtthlenb^rgii Schkuhr. Plant very stUf through- 
wtt, pale, growing in small tufts, 2.5-8 dm. high ; culms much 
prolonged beyond the few narrow (2.&-4 mm. broad) and at 
length plicate or involute leaves; head 1.5-4 cm. long, the 298, C. Mnhlenliei^ 
individual spikes clearly defined; spikes globular, 3-10 ; peri- 
gynium nearly circular, very strongly nerved on both faces, 
broader than the rough-cusped scale and about as long. ^- 
Open sterile soils; s. Me. to Ont., and southw. June, July. 
Fio. 398. Var. en t avis Boott. Perigynium nearly or entirely 
nerveless. (Var. zalapensis Britton.) — Mass. to Neb., and 

45. C. cephal6phora Muhl. Strict but soft, 
899. C. cophalophom. 2-7 dm. high ; leaves 2-4 5 mm. wide; head 

small, 0.7-1.8 mm. long, globular or very short- 
cylindric, n^r^r interrupted, the lower 1 or 2 spikes usually bearing ''T^ A 
a very setaceous short bract ; perigynium elliptic^ovate, about I ^\ 

2 mm. long, slightly longer than the acute or rough-cusped ^U^ 

^ale. — Dry woods and knolls. Me. to Ont., and southw. May- 400. c. I>«ven 
July. Fio. 399. worthiL 

46. C. Lea7enw6rthii Dewey. In habit resembling the last, 

usually more lax, 1-5 dm. high ; leaves 1-3 mm. wide ; head 0.7-1.5 cm. long; 
perigynia cordate-deltoid, exceeding the acutish rarely cuspidate scale. (C. 
eephalophora, var. angustifolia Boott. ) — Damp woods and banks, Ont. to Ky , 
Fla., and Tex. May, .i ane. Fig. 400. 

47. C. sparganioid^ MuhL Culm 4-10 dm. high; leaves very broad 


rS4 mm.) uid flat, their theatta eontpicnoasly clothing the 
ioK of the calm; tpiktt 6-12, the 2 or 3 upper ones con- 
tigwuB, the remainder entirely $epariUe, vers/ ceeni shori- 
ejliodric, tbe lowest often compound, all truncate at Cop; 
perigynium ovat«, 3-4 inm. long, rough on the short beak, 
often obscnrely nerveU on tbe outer face, considerably longer 
than the nhiiish sharp-pointed Gcale. — Rich woods, N. H. to 
OnL, Mo., and Va. June, July. Fio. 401. 
4S. C. cephaloldoa Dewey. Lax, very green, 3-8 dm. 
high ; leaves broad (5-S mm.) and thin, 
shorter than the longsoft culm ; head 1.8-3.8 
cm. long, rather deme ; perigynium narromly 
oeale, 8.i'i-4.'> mm. long, pale green, nerue- 
leaa, with long rough beak, spreading. — 
Rich woods and thickets, local, N. B. to 
Pa., Wise., and Ont. May^nly. Fio. 402. 
40. C. alopecoldaa Tuckerm. Sti^ut but 
rather soft, 4-4) dm. high; rjiimT<ither sharp, 
m. C nnhaloldeL ^^ick and HOft in texture ; leaves 4-8 mm. , 

wide, about the length of the culm, very 
green ; head 2-6 cm. long, stram-color or iawiii/, occasionally a little compound, 
the iplkcB many and compactly or somewhat loosely disposed or the lowest 
often separate and all mostly Bhort-cylindric ; periffyntjim -i-i 
mm. long, 1.5-2 mm. broad, tapering into a rovgh beak, very 
prominently tcipilale, with a /em brnvin neroef on the outer 
fice, ascending, about equaling or a little exceeding the scale ; 
aehene oboeale, I mm. broad, xlyle not thickened at base. — 
Open swales and low thickets, Me. to Ont. 
and 111. ; local. June, July. Fio. 40;i. 

60. C. grivida Bailey. Low, tbe eulm , 

(«uandsAorpiv'"'?'«^-2-6dm. high; leaves ^^^ c itloBwolclM. 
rather firm, shorter than the culm ; head 2-4 "^ 

cm. long, greeaish to pale broinn, short-cylindrfo, the lowest 
spikes raruly distinct ; spikes globular ; perigynium !l-4.5 mm. 
long, 2-3 mm. broad, »easile, plump and somewhat polished at 
maturity, prominently spreading ; achenetub- 
orbtcvlar, 1.5-2 mm. broad, style bulboua- 
thiekened at base. — Ind. and Wise, lo Keb., 
and Bouthw. Pio. 404. Var. l*xif(iua 
«i. c. er«ld», Bailey. Much lai^r, 6-12 dm. high ; leaves 
broader and lax ; head large and dense, 
OToid or tbick-cyliDdric, scarcely interrupted. — Ky. to S. Dak. 

61. C. Tulpinoldea Michx, Mostly rather 
stiff, 0.3-1 m. high ; culm very rough, at least 
above; leaves 2-5 mm, broad, moKly flat and 
longer than the culm; head 'i-l-i cm. long, 
uaually much interrupted or dense or somewhat 
compound, varying Irom dull brown to almost . 
greon at maturity, commonly provided with /V 
maay very setaceous short bracts; spikes very ^ 
numerous, ascending and densely flowered ; peri- ^^^ ^ vulplpoiJea. 
gynium ovate or lance-ovate, mostly ascending, 
l.T-3 cm. long; scales mostly long-awned. — Low places, variable. 
June- Aug. Fio. 405. 

62. C. setitcea I>ewey. Resembling the last; culms stiff, 
0.4-1 m. high, much exceeding the rather broad (2-7 mm.) stiffish 
leaves; head usually simple, :).5-8 cm. long, of approximate or 
remote spikes; perii/ynia lanceolate to lanee-ovate, tapering 

. gradually to the serrulate beak, usually dull brown or drab in 




407. 0. Mt., 

T. UDblgUA. 

409. C. dUndra. 

maturity ; scales shoH-awned. — Vt to Ont and Ky. ; Jnne-Ang 
Fio. 4(Kf. 

Var. ambigua (Barratt) Fernald. Perigynia broad-ovate to 
orbicular^ abruptly sbort-beaked, often golden-brown. (C. oW- 
pinoidea^ yar. ambigua Barratt ; C. zanthocarpa 
Bicknell.) — Dry soil, s. Me. to la., and south w. 
Fio. 407. 

53. C. decompdsita Muhl. Stout, exceed- 
ingly deep green, 0.5-1 m. high, in stools ; culm 
very obtusely angled, almost terete below ; leaves 
firm, channeled below, 5-^ mm. voide, longer 
than the culm; panicle 1-1.5 dm. long, the 
lower branches ascending and 1.5-3.5 cm. long ; 
perigynium very small, few-nerved, hard and 
at maturity shining, the abrupt short beak entire 
or very nearly so ; scale acute, about the length of the peri- 
gynium. — Swamps, N. Y. to Miclu, and south w. ; local. 
July, Aug. Fio. 408. 

54. C. diAndra Schrank. Slender but 
mostly erect, 8-8 dm. high, in loose stools ; 
culm rather obtuse, rough at the top, mostly 
longer than the narrow (1-3 mm. broad) 
plicate leaves; head 1.5-5 cm. long, 0.5-1 4og^ c. dccompoBlti. 
cm. thick ; perigynium very small, truncate 
below, bearing a few inconspicuous short nenren on the oatei 
side, stipitate, firm and at maturity blackish and shining^ thf 
short beak lighter colored ; scale the length of 
the perigynium. (C teretCascula Good.) — 
Bogs and wet meadows, e. Que. to the Yukon, 
8. to Ct., Pa., Mich., Neb., etc. May-July. (Eu.) Fio. 409. 

Var. rambsa (Boott) Fernald. Tall (0.5-1.2 m.) ; head 3-8 cm. 
long, the upper portion often nodding, the usually pale spikes 

scattered and the lowest often slightly compound ; 
perigynia brown. (C. teretiuscula, vax. prairea 
Britton.) — Bogs, e. Que. to B. C, s. to Ct., Pa., 
O., 111., Minn., and Utah. Fio. 410. 

65. C. conjiincta Boott. Strict but rather 
weak, 0.5-1 ni. high ; culm soft and sharply 
triangular or nearly wing-angled, becoming 
ribbon-like when pressed ; leaves soft. 5-10 mm. 
broad ; head 3.5-7.5 cm. long, interrupted, pale 
green, infrequently bearing a few setaceous 
bracts ; perigynium lance-ovate, light-colored, whitish and 
thickened heloir, the beak lightly notched and roughish, almost 
equaling or a little exceeding the cuspidate scale» 
— Swales and glades, Pa. to Ky., HI., la., and 
Minn.; local. June. Fig. 411. 

56. C. stipAU Muhl. Stout, 0.2-1 m. high, 
in clumps ; culm rather soft, very sharp ; leaves flat and soft, 
4-15 mm. wide ; head 2-10 cm. long, often somewhat compound 
at base, interrupted, the lowoat spikes 0.7-2 cm. long; peri- 
gynium lanceolate, brown-nerved^ the beak toothed and rough- 
ish, about twice the length of the body, and much longer than 
the senile. — Swales, common and variable. M^y-Aug. Fig. 

57. C. cni9-c6nri Shultlw. Stout, glaucous, 0.&-1 m. high ; 
culm rough, at lea«t above ; leaves flat and very wide (<J-12 mm.); 
hf'ad much branched and compound, 6.5-23 cm. long ; perigynium 
long-lanceolate, the short hase very thick and disk-like, the and 
very slender beak thrice the length of the body or more, 3-4 times the length 

410. O. dlandn. 
T. mnoaa. 

4U. C. oonjuncta. 

418. C. stlr«ta. 


of the InoonapieaooH scale. — Rwdrnpn and bottoniB, 
Ind. M Minn., Neb., SJid eoutlin. ; rare norlhw. June, I 

Jul;. Fio. 413. I 

58. C. arbnXnia L. Exleniivel!/ crneping, OJ-b dm. I 

tiigb ; leaveM verg narrow and verg loity-pointfd, shorter I 

than the culm; head dense or some- 11 

times interrupted, oroid or cyllndrlo ; ^V 

gpiket lew tn many, those of tht a)pex ^gS 

of the head umally itaminaU, the ^^ 

intennedlate ones staminate at the 
summit, the lowest entirely pistillate *lt. O. orDs-oorrL 
and subtended by a bract 1-H cm. 

long ; perigynlum very strongly nerved on both faces, wing- 
margined abnve. sharply long-toothed, about tbe lenph of 
the hrovm subulale-aeumiiuUe tcale. -;— Sea-besches near Kor- 
tolk, Va. (Nat. from Eu.) Fio, 414. 

69. C. Sartwtllli Dewey. Calms stiB and strict, 0^1.3 
m. high, from an elonynte darle root$tock; leaTes (3-S mm. 
wide) prodnced Into a long slender point, mostly shorter than 
the culm ; ttaminttUJlowere variously dlepoted, frequently whole 
ipikes being sterile ; head 2.6-7 cm. long and rather narrow. 
At Individual spike* usnally dearly defined, or occasionally the 
head interrupted below, taiony-broxcn ; perijtynlum 8-6 mm. 
long, elliptic nr lancet lliptic, nerved on both sides, very gradu- 
ally contracted into a short beak ; icale blunt, »mooth, Itj/aUne- 
(djfli, about the lenffth of the perlgynliim. — B(^, centr. N. Y. 
. to B. C, a. to ()., III., la., 8. Dak., etc. June, 

A July. Fio. 416. 

)■ A eo. C, steuophylla Wahlenb. Stiff, tufted, 

^K/\ 0.6.^.6 dm. high; leaves pale, involute and 

f \# shorter than the cnlm; perigynium ovate, 

inc^BoptMi.. gf»duftlly contracted into a short and entire 4j6.c.S«t-»i 

Tough-ed^ed beak, tightly inclosing the achene, 
U maturity longer than tlie hyaline aeutith teale. — Dry grounds, n. Iil to 
the Rocky Mts.. and northw. June, Jaly. (Eurasia.) Fio, 410. 

81. C. cliordorThlia L.f. Very extensively ttoloitfferout ; 
oIiM mostly lateral and solitary, 1-4.5 dm. long; leaves 
intlale, shorter than the culm ; perigyrtivm compresaed-ovuid 
to sub-ylobose, sliort-[>ointed and entire, 
about the length of the acute scale. — 
Cold bogs and soft lake-borders, Que. to 
B. C, s. to Me., Vt., Pa,, III., la., etc.; 
infrequent. May-July. (Kurasia.) Fio. 
417. * — 

62. C. caplUU L. BIgid, 0.7-5 dm. high ; leaves filt- 
form, shorter than the culm ; head uniformly ttatnfnats 
above, brown, very small, 0,&-I em. long; 
perfsyn(um broadly ovate, very thin, wAfficfl, 
prominently beaked, nerveless or nearly si 
erect and appresHed. longer than the ver 
thin and obtuse scale. — Alpine region ( 
Mt. WashiDglon, N. H. June-Aog. (Eu.) tig c. opIuul 
Fio. 418. 

63. C. maiitima O. F. Mueller. Mostly stout ; culm 
sharp, smooth or rough above, 2-7 dm. high, usually over- 
topped hy the leafy tJifts and the broad bracts ; leaves 
smooth and flat, strongly ribbed, 3.5-10 mm. broad ; pia. 
tillale spikes 2-«, scattered, 2-8 cm, long, 0.8-2 cm. thick, 
oftfn etaminate at lip; stamlnate spikes 2-4, unequal, 

<il. C. multlniL the terminal 2-6 cu. long ; perigynivm nearly orbicular 

itii-h, A i- 

veTv 0# 
m of I 

280 CrPfiBACfiAB 03BD6B FAUTLY) 

pale, few-nerved or nerveless, the beak very short and entire, or nearly bo ; seaU 
whitish or brown, produced into a pale rough awn 3-8 times as long as the peri- 
gynium. — Brackish or saline shores, Lab. to Mass. Jime-Aug. (£u.) Fio. 419. 

64. C. sallna Wahlenb., var. cuspidlita Wahlenb. Rather stout, 3-9 dm. 
high ; culm rather sharp, smooth ; leaves narrow (2-5 mm. wide) but flat ; pistillate 
spikes 2-4, somewhat approximate, erect, 2-7 cm. long and rather thick, the 
lower subtended by leaf-like bracts ; staminate spikes 1-3 ; perigynium elliptic^ 
somewhat granular, marked with 2 or 3 nerves, or nerveless, the minute beak 
entire ; scale brown-margined, mostly produced into a lighter and rough awn 
much exceeding the perigynium, — Salt mai-shes, Lab. to Mass. — Apparently 
hybridizes with C. stricta, July, Aug. (Eu.) 

65. C. crinita Lam. Robust and mostly stout, 0.3-1.6 m. high ; culm sharp and 
rough or sometimes smooth ; leaves 4-10 mm. broad, flat, more or less rough 
on the nerves and margins, the lower short and at the base of the culm re- 
duced to smooth flbrillose sheaths; pistillate spikes 3-6, somewhat scattered, all 
variously peduncled, mostly secund, 3.5-10 cm. long<, narrowly and evenly cylin- 
dric, often staminate at tip ; staminate spikes usually 2, rarely pistillate at tip ; 
perigynia suborbicular to ovate, 2-3 mm. long, thin and inflated, becoming 
wrinkled in drying, nerveless, puncticulate or granular, with a minute entire 
beak ; scales greenish-brown and rough-awned, 2-^^ times as long as the peri- 
gynia. — Swales and damp thickets, generally common. — Hybridizes with C torta 
and C. scabrata. June-Aug. 

Var. minor Boott Much smaller in all parts ; 4-6 dm. high ; leaves 4-5 mm. 
wide ; spikes 1-3.5 cm, long, ascending ; perigynia> 2 mm. long ; scales leas 
prominent — Me. to N. Y., scarce. 

Var. Portdri (Olney) Fernald. Like small G. crinita, but spikes very blen- 
der ;pen^j(nm compact, not inflated, oblong-lanceolate, distinctly beaked ; scales 
lance-attenuate. (C. gynandra, var. Porteri Britton.)' — Moosehead Lake, Me. 

Var. gynindra (Schwein.) Schwein. &Torr. Harsher; leaves broad (4-12 
mm.), the sheaths hispidulous; culms tall; staminate spikes 1 or 2, generally 
pistillate above ; pistillate spikes soft, loosely flowered, drooping, 2.5-10 cm. 
long; perigynia ascending, elliptic or ovate-lanceolate, ^-4 mm. long, subin- 
flated. (C. gynandra Schwein.) — Nfd. to Wise., and in the mis. to Ga. 

Var. sunulana Fernald. Harsh as invar, gynandra; low ; leaves 4-^ mm. broad ; 
spikes suberect, the terminal androgynous, 1-3.5 cm. long, scarcely drooping ; 
perigynia 3 mm. long. — Nfd. to Vt. and Mass., chiefly in the mts. 

6Q. C. aquAtilia Wahlenb. Glaucous, 3-9 dm. high ; culm very obtuse and 
smooth; leaves exceedingly long, 4-7 mm. broad, the bracts broad and pro- 
longed far beyond the culm ; pistillate spikes 3-5, 1.5-5.5 cm. long, very com- 
pact or the lowest sometimes attenuate below, erect ; perigynia round-ovate or 
broadly elliptic, nerveless, greenish, imbricated ; scales dark, shorter than or 
equaling the perigynia. — Swamps and lake margins, Que. t($ B. C, s. to the 
Potomac R., w. N. Y., Ind., etc. June-Aug. (Eurasia.) 

Var. eUtior Bab. Bobust, 0.9-1.5 m. high ; leaves 5-8 mm. broad ; pistillate 
spikes stout and heavy, 3.5-8 cm. long. — Me. to Man., s. to N. Y., O., and Mich. 

Var. cospidlLta Laestad. Spikes slender, 3-4 mm. thick ; scales cuspidate^ 
exceeding the perigynia. — Local, Que. to N. J. 

Var. yir^scens Anders. Scales pale and short, hidden by the crowded peri' 
gynia. — Local, Vt. to Ont. and Mich. 

67. C. rigida Good. Somewhat stoloniferous, low (0.5-4.5 dm. high); leaves 
shorter than the mostly smooth culms, rather crowded at base, smooth, dark 
green, firm, broad (3-7 mm.), becoming revolute in drying ; pistillate spikes 
1-5, subglohose to short-cylindric, dense, 0.5-2.5 cm. long, 4-6 mm. thick, the 
lowest bractlcss or leafy-bracted ; staminate spike 1 (rarely 2), sometimes pistil- 
late at base ; perigynia elliptic^ greenish or purplish ; scales elliptic, brown to 
purple-black. — Arctic regions, south to mts. of Que., Rocky Mta., etc July, 
Aug. (Eurasia.) — Passing to the formal Var. Bigel6wii (Torr.J Tuckerm., 
with pistillate spikes elongate (1.5-4 cm. long:, 2 5-5 mm. thick), th^ lower 
attenuate mt base, — Extending s. to mts. of n. N. E. and N. Y. (Eu.) 


Ml C tdrta Boott. Slender but erect, 2-f) dm. higb, in el«np», %rith exceed* 
n^ voxxgb and eord-JIke root* ; culm rather sharp, amooth or roughtah above ) 
Itma flat and rather lo/t, those of the culm very ihort (2-6 mm. 
wide); putitlate spikrg 2-6 (rarely compound), mostly somewhat 
■[^roiimate or the lower remote, the tipper Bes8[le and asccndinfii 
bnl the others often spreading or droc)pine, long and ftendrr (1.5-0 
em. loDB, S.e ram. thick) ; Biaminate spike l(rHrely 2)-pedmicled, 
l£-4 cm. long, occasionally with some pistillate flowers ; peri- 
flKitm iancf-ovaU, green, the slim tipper hal/fmpCji and more or 
less Cortyiotts, tlie beak entire or erose ; »f:tile 
purple-margined and very abtute. shorter than 
theperigyniura. — By streanw, rarely in swamps, 
e. Que. to M1nn.,s. toN. C. and Mo. May-Jniy. 
Via. 420. 

CO. C. lentlcuUria MIchx. Rather slender 
but erect, pale thronshoKt, 1-6 dm, high ; culm 
eharp, usually slightly rough above ; leanet very 
narroiB (1-3 mm. wide), numerous, much tiir- 
patting We calm ; spikes 3-8, more or lens aftgro- 
gat«d or the lowest remote, the terminal andro- 
gynous or stamlnate, mostly sessile, erect, 1-4.& 
cm. long, 2.5-4 ram. thick ; perigynla ovate, 
minntelg gnxnvlar, brovtTi-nervrd, the tip empty 
and entire ; scales obtuse, about i the length of 
the perlKynia. — Gravelly or sandy shores, Lab. 
to the Mackenzie, s. to Mass., N. Y„ Mich., .«, ^ ,,^. 
Minn.,eM!. Jone-Sept. F.c.421. 4».C..orlt 

TO. C. GoodenbwU J. Gay. Lnose or gltghtly eaespUone, 
O.'VO dm. hi<;h; culm sharp, smooth or rather rough above; 
leavei narroiB (1-3 mm, wide) and stiff, shorter than the culm, 
glaucoiit-blue. the mirgina invilvte In drying ; pistillate spikes 
1-4, all aessile or rarely the lowest very short-stalked, short 
■I. C. IodiIcdIvId. and erect (0.8-4.5 cm. long, 4-0 mm. thick), very densely 
fiowered or sometimes becoming loose below, tlie lowest usually 
nbtended by a bract 2-10 cm. long ; periggnia appreited, oval or round-otate, 
motUg Jlne-ttrlaCe toward (/w ba>e, the beak entire or very nearly so, blight 
peen becoming tamny ; scale ovate and vei7 obtuse, conspicuously narroteer and 
ritnrltr than the ptrlgynla. (C vulgaris Fries.) — Across the continent norlhw., 
extending a. in swalea and open places, chiefly along the seaboard, to Mas^. and 
t. Hk. May-SepL (Euraala.) 

II. C. atrlctft Lam. Tail and slender but erect, 0.5-1.3 m. high, generally 
(» ieait clumpt when old, or rarely In small tufla ; enim sharp, rough above ; 
leans long and narrow (2-4 mm. wide), rough on the edges, the lowest thealht 
Mnatly becoming prominently fibrtllose ; 1 or 2 lowest bracts leafy and equaling 
Uie culm ; pistillale tpiket 2-0. scattered, the lowest often more or loss pedun- 
eled and claval« and the othera sessile, erect or nacending, oblong or cylindrlc, 
S"! cm. long, 3-d mm. thick, compactly flowered above but often allennate at 
iMse, the upper often staminaie at top, all green iali- purple or pallid ; perigynla 
iecoming laieng, mostly lightly fiv-nerved and somewhat granular, tlie beak 
nry short and commonly entire' ; teate brown, with a pale middle, nearly or 
qttle equating the perlgynfa. — Swales, throughout; abundant and variable. 
M»y-Aug. — Hybridizes with C. fiUf-imlt and O. tallna, var. eutpidala. 

Var. cnrtlasima Peck. Scales of the very short (0.6-1. 6 cm. long) plslUlat* 
flrfieimuch shorter than the perigynia. — N. B. to Ct. and N. V., rare, 

Var. angnsUta (Hoott) Bailey. AJi'tcs longer and narrower (.1-11 em. long 
!-* uiDi. thick), more approximate and mostly attenuale at base, usually with 
lonR Btaminate lips ; scales narrower, mostly longer than the perigynia. (In 
chiding var. nrorarpa Britton.) — Same range as the type, but lees common. 

Var. decbra Bailey. Usually smaller ; bjisal sheaths less flbrillose ; spikes 
1-4 cm. long, 4-7 mm. thick, sessile or very nearly so, rarely a 


•light); It at all itAminate Kt tip ; tealtM vtry sAarp <"«' ^treadinff, longer tftoa 
the perlaynia. (C Hagdtni l>ewe;.) — Me. to Ky., OoL, and la. 

Ti. C. auTsa Null. Low and lender, 0.6-5 dm. high ; Uavei pale ffreea, 

narrow (1-3 mm. wide); 2 or S of the biacU exceeding the culm ; ^tilcet 3-6, 

all but tbe lowest usually approiimnte. peduncled or the upper one 

or two seMlle, erect, loosely fen-flawered or tometiuies becoming 

2 cm. long, at mcdurdy yellow or brown, ibe terminal one fre- 

quenily pietlllnte above ; perigymum fitthy al maluTitg, plump, 

, nvrved, about 2 uim. loii);, rouuded or sliglill; depressed at tip, 

( loniier than tiie blunt whUt or pale-broan tcale. — 

Wet meadows &nd springy banks, Nfil. to B. C, 

a. to n. CL.centr. N. Y., n.w. Pa., Ind., Wise., etc., 

moBily iti calcareous regions. June-July. Fio. 422. 

i7;i. C. bfcolor All. SiuiilHr ; spikes mostly 
crowded, only the lowermost sublended by an 
elongated bract, the others shorUbracted or braci- 
«tt c unL '**'■ ^''* terminal mostly pislillale ; mature peri- 
gj/nia <lry nnd Jimt, mhile, pulvrrultnt, tapt-ring to 
tlie abort dp; tcitlee dark brown or purplish. — Wet ledges and 

Kvelly shore*. Lab. to n. Me. ; n. shore L. Superior. June-Aug. (GieenL, 
) - — 


Fia. «2S. 

, nanciflbra Ligbtf. Very slender but erect, $tlff, 
I- nigli ' "" "" " ' ' 


0.5-6 dm. high ; leaves very narrow, unually much shorter 

than the culm ; alaminate and pislillale flowers 2-.'i ■, pr-ri- 

g>jnUiMtraw-ail"r,inbiitaU, several times lunger 

than the inconapicuous scales, at maturity 

drjlexed and eaaily iletached. — Cold bogs, N(d. 

to Alaska, lnc;illy s. to Ct., Ta., Mich., Minn., 

etc. June. July. (Eu.) Fia. 424. 

76. C. leptilea Walilenb. Capillary, e 
orRliRhtly diffuac, 0.5-6 dm. high ; leaves mostly ui, c. lr|>uka 
shnrtt'r than the cului ; spike 0.4-1.6 cm. long, 
stamlnale portion small, the suhallernaU thin green nervose oblong or narrowly 
elllpaoid blunt prrli/ynia about twice longer than the brovinUti mostly obtuse 
cjiducouB Kilet, (C- polyirickiiidfi ,Muhl.) — Bnj;B and wel 
A meadiiwB, Nfd. to D. C, a. to I'a., the Great Lakeit. M.i., CoL, 

aI and Ore.; and in the mis, to N. C. June-Aug. Fig. 426. 

■T 76. C. Haiptrl Femald. Similar, 2.r>-7 dm. 

B| blgh ; the lunre crowded spike with stTongly 

H I overlapping linear-oblong perigynia and whitiA 

W acuminate »eatr». — Bo)!b and awampy woods, 

' Pa. to Fla. and Tex. May-July. Fio. 4-Jfl. 

4W.C. HvperL ^^' C Praairl Andrews. Caespiloee ; eufnt 
2-5 dm. high, naked or the lower portion in- 
eluded in lootely nhealhing leave*, smooth and stiff ; leavei 
broad, dettitute of midrib, ciouly lanug-rib'ied, very thick and 
persisti.-nt, pale, 1.5-U dm. longj tpike solitary, the pittdlate 
portion globular, the longer rtamiuate tip oblong; perigynia ,. . „ ' „ 
straw-colored, papery, ovoid, faintly nerved, **'■ ' - ''*"" " * 
much longer than the whitiih »eaU$. — Rich inflorMwnc* "na 
moiii.Uin woods. Va.. W. Va., and soulhw. j '^"'*- 

local. May July. Fio. 427. 

T8. C. HalBri Gunn. Small and slender, 1-6 dm. high ; eulm 
thin aiidobliiff,, smooth or roughish, naked abovu ; leaves narrow 
and dat, shorter than the culm ; $pikrt 2-4, aggregated, 4-8 mm. 
long, semilear rarely the lowest short-stalked ; perigynia orbicu- 
lar to elliptic, nerveless or nearly sn, the short beak sUghtlv 
noU'li(^. 1 little l-inperlhan the ovate purple-brown obtuse tealtit, 
C', tlpiiiH Sw.) — (,old wet rockf, e. Que., L. Superior reicioa, 
Kocky Mta., and far nuriliw. July, Aug. (Ku.) Fio. 428. 



TO. C Atrita L., Tar. oriU (Radge) Boott. Ver; slender but erect, 2-9 
din. bigh ; cvlnt raOier tkarp, rougkish above ; leaves aarrow but flat, sliurt«r 
than the culm ; tpikea 3-0, all but tliB terminal one on 
fUnder italta, drooping when mature, 1-2.5 cm. lung, ellip- » 
aoid or abort cylindric, reddi»h-brou>n Co purplisK-blaek ; ^jk- 
perigjn'a broadly ovate, tbiu and puncticulaie, very short- kW 
beaked, ihe orifice slightly notched i ecaleg blunt, thin- ^^ 
margined, about as long as the perigynUi, 
(C atratifurrait Britwu.) — By atreama 
and in cold ravines, Nfd. to Athabasca, 
locally s. to the mta. ot n. N. E. Junfr- 
Aug. Fia. 429. 

HO. C. pol^nnu Sobkuhr. Rather 
alender but stiff, 2-9 dm. high ; culm 
ahprp, roughiah above ; leaves very nar- 
row, rough, mostly shorter than the 4S». a itnui, t. onu. 
culm ; spikes 2-1, the terminal rarely all 
staminate, sessile and approximate or the lowest very abort- 
Btalked, from globular to narrowly cylindric, 0.7-5 cm. long, 
wlrgmt. *"'''■" ^'■"i'" <"' viriegated; perigi/nia elliptic aiid beakless, 
toMtish and granular, nearly nerveless, the orifice entire j 
ilamtnat* scales verg iony-lanixolate, the pistillate lanee-ovaCe and very sharp, 
consptcuovslg lonj/er titan the perlgs/nla. (C. fusca Man. ed. 6, not All. ; 
C. Buxfidumif Wahlenb.) — Bogs and wet shores, e. Que. to Alaska, 
^ toPa., Great Lake region. Mo., Utah, and CaL; and in the mts. 
WN.C. May-luly. (Eu.) Fio. 430. 

8L C. triceps Michi., var. hirs&U (Willd.) Bailey. Slender; 
leami narrow, hairy; spikes %A (tisnalty 3), all contiguous or 
Dccasionally the lowest Bomewhat removed, sessile, thtck-cylindric 
to lobular, green or brown (4-7 nun. thick) ; perigynia broad- 
ovoid, Jtaltisk, very obtuse, often apaisely hirsute 
when young but smooth at nudurity; staminate 
scales very aliarp; pistillate scales acute or short- 
awned, aboat the length of or shorter than the 
perigynia. (C. triceps Britton in part, not MIchx.) 

— Copses and dryish meadowa, N. E.toOnt.,aud 
Bouthw., rare northeastw. May-July. Fra. 431. **'■ ?■ '""t"- 

— Hybridizea with C. gracilUma. ^' "'""'"■ 
Var, Smlthii Porter, '['all, slender, olive-green, the leaves 

very long, very nearly smooth; spikes small, globular to cylin- 
dric, the lowest often sDinewliat remote, all more inclined to be 
peduncled ; perigynia globular and turgid, brov>n, squarrose, 
exceeding the broieaish gcalfs. {G. caroliniana Schwi ' 
Fields and woodlanda, Gulf States, locally n. to 
N. Tf., III., and Mo. May, June. 

82. C. TirJscens Muhl. Slender, erect or 
spreading, 0.4-1 m. high ; leaves very narrow, 
more or less hairy ; spikes 2-4, sessile ur slightly 
«. C rlrmceiis «'*"'E<'> compact, Itnear-cylindrlc, 2~i mm. thick ; 
perigynia ellipsoid-ovoid, compressed, coatale, 
uually longer tban the thin whitish acute scales. (Var. costata 
Dewey; 0. eostellata Britton.) — Dry banks and copses, s. Me. 
»B.OnL, and southw. June, .tnly. (W.I.) Fio.432. — Hy- ««■»;■ vf., 
iiridiMS with C. arctata and C. debills, var. Budget '' ' 

Var. Swinii Fernald. Lower, 1.6-8 dm. high, the 3-5 thick-egllndrie to 
nibglob'jse spikes 3-5 mm. thick ; (Ae perigynia less strongly ribbed, (C. vires- 
ens Kan, ed. 6, not Muhl.) — Kimilar range. Fia. 433. 

S3. C. formbaa Dewey. Slender, erect, 3-9 dm. Iiigh ; leaves flat, often 
pobeecent, -t-T mm. broad, those of the culm short ; spikes 'i-5, scattered, ellip 
aMor cylindrical, 1-3 cm. long, compact, all lleiuuse or drooping; perigynia 





485. C. DftTlsiL 

486. O. graclllima. 

greenish, inflated, ovoid, pnncticulate, obscurely nerved^ 
short- beaked with a slightly notched orifice, all but the 
lowest one or two twice longer than the blunt or cuspidatt 
whitish scales. — Woods and copees, w. 
N. E. to Ont. and Mich.; local. May, 
June. Fio. 434. 
A ^1 84. C. Dayisii Schwein. & Torr. 

fm ^1 Similar; spikes, 3-7, heavier, 1.5-4.6 cm. 
rV \ long ; perigynia more inflated, strongly 

ym I nerved and prominently toothed, equaled 

434. c. formosa. by the conspicuously owned and spread- 
ing scales. — Meadows and wet woods, 
w. Mass. to & Minn., and south w. ; rare eaatw. and north w. 
May, June. Fig. 435. 

85. C. gracillima Schwein. Tall and slender, sometimes 
diffuse, 0.3-1 m. hi^h ; leaves broad and flat {the radical 5-9 
mm. wide), very dark and bright green ; spikes 3-6, scattered, 

the terminal rarely stami- 
nate, densely flowered ex- 
cept at base, peduncled and drooping, or 
sometimes ascending, 
green, 2-6 cm. long, 2-3 
mm. thick ; perigynia ovoid, 
thin and slightly swollen, 
nerved, obtuse, orifice en- 
tire, twice longer than the very obtuse whitish scale. — .Wood- 
lands and meadows, generally common. May-July. Fio. A\MS. 
— Var. HtjMiMS Bailey is apparently a starved form. Hybridizes 
with C triceps, var. hirsuta, C. pubescens, and C. aestivalis. 

86. C. aestivAlis M. A. Curtis. Slender but erect, 2.6-4\ 
dm. high ; leaves very narrow, 1.5-3 mm. wide, flat, shorter 
than the culm, the deaths pubescent; spikes 3-5, erect or 
spreading, 1.5-4.5 cm. long and very loosely flowered, short- 
stalked; perigynia ovoid, scarcely pointed and the orifice 

entire, few-nerved, about twice longer than the 
obtuse or mucrouate scale. — Rocky woods, 
mostly on npland slopes, N. II. to Ga., rare. 
June-Aug. Fio. 437. 
Al/M 87. C. oxylepis Torr. & Hook. Similar; 

V (/ V 2-8 dm. high; leaves 3-7 mm. wide; perigynia ^^- <'-«»t«v*M« 
r / jm 4-5 mm. lon^, ellipsoid, acute, prominently 
few-nerved, glandular-dotted, slightly exceed- 
ing the long-acuminate white scales. — Kich 
woods, S. C. to Mo., and south w. April, May. 
Fio. 438. 

88. C. ShortiAna Dewey. Tall, 3-9 dm. 
high, in small clumps ; leaves 0.4-1 cm. broad, 
flat, rough on the nerves ; spikes S-4i, some- 
what approximate near the top of the culm, 
the lowest 2 or 3 short-peduncled, erect, 1-3.5 
488. C. oxylepis. cm. long, 4-6 mm. thick, evenly cylindrical, 

exceedingly densely flowered; perigynia sca- 
brous, sharp-edged, the orifice entire, squnrrnse; scales thin 
and blunt, about the length of the perigynia, — Meadows 
and low woods, Ta. to Out., la., and south w. May, Juno. 
Fio. 439. 

89. C. BAckii Boott. Forming dense mats ; leaves dark 
green, 3-5 mm. broad, stiff, very abundant and overtopping 
the very unequal culms ; spikes solitary, terminating short 
and long slender culms (0.1-3 dm. long); staminate floxoers 439. c. Sbortlana 



m. CBmekXL 

about 3 ; pistillate 2-5 ; perigynia gradually beaked ; scales 
very broad and leaf-like, entirely enveloping the spike. (C 
durffolia Bailey.) — Dry rocky or sandy wooded slopes, e. Que. 
to Assina. and B. C, locally s. to Mass., N. Y., the Great Lake 
region, Neb., and westw. May-July. Fio. 440. 

90. C. Willden6wii Schkuhr. Similar, 
softer and paler; leaves 1.6-4 mm. wide; 
spike compact ; pistillate flowers 3-9, stamt- 
note 6-12 ; perigynia with a rougher beak ; 
scales chaffy, nerved, as broad as and some- 
what longer than the perigynia, or the 
lowest rarely overtopping the spike. — Rocky 
woods, Mass. to Mich., and south w., local 
May*July. Fio. 441. 

91. C. Jamdsii Schwein. Similar; leaves 
1>2 mm. wide, much surpassing the culm ; 441. C. WllldenowO. 
spike very small ; staminate flowers 8-20 ; 

pistfllate 1-^ and loosely disposed ; perigynia produced into a very long and 
roughened nearly entire beak ; scales narrow, the lowest often elongate, the 
ypper often shorter than the perigynia. — Woods, N. Y. and Ont. 
to Mo., and south w.; frequent. May, June. Fig. 442. 

02. C. scirpoldea Michz. Strict, the pistillate plant mostly 
stiff, 1-7 dm. high; staminate plant smaller; 
leaves flat, shorter than the culm; spike 1.5-4 
cm. long, densely cylindrical, very rarely with a 
rudimentary second spike at its base ; perigynia 
ovoid, short-pointed, very hairy, exceeding the 
dliate purple scales. — Arctic regions, s. by 
cold streams and in alpine districts to Cape 
Breton, N. S., n. N. E., n. N. Y., L. Huron, 
Rocky Mts., etc. June-Aug. (Eurasia.) Fio. 

93. C. nmbell&ta Schkuhr. Low and con- 
spicuously caespitose, forming dense mats ; 
leaves rather stiff, 0.5-4.5 dm. long, 1-4.5 mm. 
wide ; culms mostly short and croxcded at the base 
of the leaves, or some elongate (rarely 2 dm.), 
bearing either staminate or pistillate spikes, or both ; 
pistillate spikes 0.5-1 cm. long, mostly sessile ; peri- 
gynia plump, stipitate, puherulent, 3.2-4.7 mm. 445. c. umb,, 
long, the slender beak nearly equaling the ellipsoid- v. tonsa. 
ovoid to suhglobose body, and about equaled by 
the acuminate green or purple-tinged scales. (C. deflexa, var. 
media Bailey and var. Farwellii Britton.) — Dry 
sandy or rocky soil, P. E. I. to centr. Me., w. to 
Sask. and B. C, s. to N. J., D. C, and I. T. Apr.- 
July. Fig. 444. Var. t6s8a Femald. Similar; 
perigynia glabrous or merely puberulent on the 
an^/es of the long beak. — Local. Fio. 445. 

Var. breyirdstris Boott. Perigynia smaller, the 
broad beak about ^ as long as the hairy body. — Que. to Sask. 
and B. C, s. to n. N. E., N. Mex. and Cal. Fig. 
94. C. nigro^marginita Schwein. Leaves mostly stiffer, often 
M dm. long, 2-4 mm. wide ; some of the culms prolonged ; 
V^gynia smooth or nearly so, fusiform, 3-4 mm. long; scales 
ordinarily purple-margined, giving the spikes a very dark or 
variegated appearance, equaling or exceeding the perigynia. — 
Dry sandy or rocky soiU on the coastal plain, extending locally 447 c. oigro. 
B* to Ct. Apr.-June. Fig. 447* nuugijiflu. 

us. C. JamesiL 

448. C. Bclrpoldet. 




C. nmb., 
V. brcv. 

(H. C. amboUata. 


06. C. defl6za Hornem. Diffuse and low, tufted; leaves soft, 1—3 mm. 

wide; culms 0.2-4 dm. high, setaceous^ more or less curved or spreading^ 

. little ezceediog or shorter than the leaves ; staminate spiks »malL 

A^ WkgJ sometimes invisible in the head; pistUliUe spikes 2-S, 2S- 

V9 jjr flowered, green, or green and brown, all aggregated into a head, 

1 f or the lowest oneslighty remote, short-peduncled and subtended 

by a leafy bract ; radical spikes usually present ; perigynia very 

448. c. deflexA. ^^^\ ^^(j much contracted below, sparsely hairy or nearly 

smooth, the beak flat and very shorty longer than the scales. (Including 

var. Deanei Bailey.) — Open woods, clearings, and mountain slopes, Nfd. 

to Alaska, s. to Mass., Pa., Mich., Minn., Wash., etc. May- Aug. (Greeni.) 

Fio. 448. 

06. C. ilbicans Willd. Slightly caespitose ; culms straightish, 1-6.6 dm. tall, 
much exceeding the soft narrow (1.5-3 mm. Yfide) pale leaves; pistillate spikes 
globose or short-ovoid, 1-3, all approximate, or the lowest slightly 
remote, naked or subtended by a narrow bract ; staminate spike 
sessile, often hidden in the head; perigynia ellipsoid, pubescent, 
with a short cylindric beak, mostly exceeding the broad scales, 
— Open woods or cool rocky banks, chielly m calcareous regions, 
e. Que. to the Yukon, s. to Mass., Pa., Mich., and Minn. May- 
July. Fig. 449. 44». C. albicans 

97. C. communis Bailey. Forming small tufts, never sto- 
loniferous; culms 1-0 dm. high, 'much exceeding the leaves; 
leaves flat, becoming 2-6.5 mm, wide; inflorescence 1-8 cm. 
long ; the 1-0 pistillate spikes mostly distinct, often remote, rarely 
1 cm. long, the lowest often leafy-bracted ; staminate spike from 
green to chestnut, sessile or stalked, 3.5-20 mm. long ; perigynia 
hairy, 2.5-4 mm. long, the body subglobose to broadly ellipsoids 
the base elongate and spongy, the beak broad ; scales ovate, 
acuminate, greenish-brown to reddish, about equaling the peri- 
gynia, (Including var. Wheeleri Bailey ; C pedieellata Britten : 
0. pilulifera Femald, not L.) — Dry open woods, etc., e. Que. 

4KA n ^nmmnni. ^ ^' C., s. to Pa., O. , Wlsc., aud Id. J Bud along the mts. to 

400. o. communii. ^^ May-July. Fio. 460. 

98. C. T&ria Muhl. Densely tufted; leaves soft and very nar- 
row ; the capillary culms variable in length, lax, often twice longer 
than the leaves, 1-5 dm. long ; pistillate spikes closely aggregated, 
or rarely somewhat loosely disposed but never scattered, all strictly 
sessile, green ; radical spikes none ; lower bract usually present ; ■ j 
perigynia about the length of the sharp scale. —* Banks and dry A 
woods. Me. to Ont., and south w. Apr.-July. Fio. 461. In T 
var. colorXta Bailey the scales are purple. 4^1. c. rmrto. 

99. C. ndyae-ilngliae Schwein. Very slender and 
soft, loosely caespitose, 1-4 dm. high ; culms little longer than the 
very narrow pale-green leaves ; staminate spike exceedingly narrate 
(0.5-1 cm. Zonpr, 0.5-1 mm. tAicit), mostly minutely peduncled;pi<£i^ 
late spikes 2, or rarely 3, the upper one near the base of 
the staminate spike, the lower very shortrpeduncled 
and remote and subtended by a leafy bract which 
nearly or quite equals the culm, rather loosely 3-10- 
flowered; perigynia very narrow, small, very thin, 
slightly hairy, the beak sharp and prominent. — Open 
woods. Que. and N. S. to Mass. and N. Y. ; com- 
._„ ^ mon north w., rare southw. June, July. Fto. 

462. C. novae- ^ro 

*"*^ 100. C. pennsylyinica Lam. Strongly stolonife- ^-g ^ 

rous, the small tufts with reddish bases and usually with persist- gyivMla? 
ent brush-like tufts of fibers ; leaves 1.5-3.r) mm. broad, shorter than, 
equali))^ or often exceedini; the slender rulms (0.5-4 dm. high); pistillate spikes 
1-4, globose or ovoid, approximate or remote, the lowest often leaf y-bnu!ted ; 





454. C. penn., 
▼. lucorum. 

ftaminate spike clavate, 1-2 om. long, sessfle or shoTt-stalked, usually reddish, 
nrely paler ; perigynia puberulent, globose to obovoid, the short beak i to i <u 
long as the body; the scales usually red-tinged. — Dry or sandy 
8uil, 8. Me. to Alb., and southw. May, June. Fig. 463. 

Var. Incdrum (Willd.) Feruald. Perigynia puberulent to gla- 
bnte, the conspicuous slender beak about as long as the body. — 
Richer, usually damper soil, Me. to Mich., and the mts. of N. C. 
liay-July. Fio. 454. 
101. C. pnb^scens Muhl. Lax, 2S dm. high, pubescent through- 
out; leaves flat (0.i3~l cm, wide) and soft, shorter than the 
culm ; spikes 2-4, the upper approximate, tlie lower 1 or 2 
short-peduncled, short-cyhndric, 0.7-2.8 cm. long, loosely floxo- 
ered, erect; perigynia very hairy^ sharply S-angled, conspicu- 
ously beaked and minutely toothed, straight, about the length 
of the truncate and rough-cuspidate thin scales. — Copses and 
moist meadows, N. £. to Ky., and westw., local. May, «June. 
Fio. 455. 

102. C. CARTOPHYLLiA Lat. Slightly stoloniferous, stiff; 
the culm sometimes curved, O.SS dm. high ; leaves flat, shorter 
than the culm ; staminate spike prominently 
„ , clavate, mostly sessile ; pistillate spikes 2-8, all 

. o. pa teens. ^j^^g^Q^g^ sessile or the lowest very short- 

peduncled and subtended by a bract scarcely as long as itself, 
all ellipsoid or short-cylindric, the lowest 0.7-1.5 cm. long; peri- 
gynia trigonous-oboYoid, the vei'y short brak 
entire or erose, thinly hispid-hirsute. (G. prae* 
cox Jacq.) — Fields, Me. tc D. C, local. May, 
June. (Nat. from Eu.) Fig. 466. 4^^ O.caryoph. 

103. C. QLxtcA Scop. Very stoloniferous 
and glaucous; the cvXm^ stiff, 1-6 dm. high; leaves shorter, 
firm, w;th revolute scabrous margins, 8-6 
mm. broad ; staminate spikes 2 (rarely 1), 
clavate, the terminal 2-8.5 cm. long, pe- 
duncled ; pistillate 1-8, cylindric, 1.5-8.5 
cm. long, 4-6 mm. thick, remote, mostly 
ped uncled, erect ; the subglobose or ellip- 
soid puncticulate perigynia slightly ex- 
ceeding the oblong blunt or mucronate 
purplish scales. — Dry open soil, local, 
N.S., Que., and Out. June, July. (Nat. 
from Eu.) Fig. 457. 

104. C. llvida (Wahlenb.) Willd. Very 
glaucous and stoloniferous; culms 1.5-6 
dm. high ; leaves narrow, often becoming 

/^ involute; pistillate spikes 1 or 2, sub- 

tJ approximate or remote, sessile or nearly so, 

▼ erect, or rarely basal and long-stalked, narrow, 

0.7-2.6 cm. long, 3-6 mm. thick ; perigynia 
4J7 C ffbraca. ovoid-oblong, nerved, granular, beakless, the 

point straight or nearly so, orifice entire ; scale. 
tMuse^ brown- or purple-margined, mostly a little shorter than 
the perigynia. — Bogs, chiefly in calcareous regions. Lab. and 
Nfd. to Alaska, locally s. to Ct., N. J., Mich., Minn., etc. May- 
July. (Eu.) Fio. 458. 

106. C. panicea L. Strict, often stiff, glaucons-hhie, 1.0-6 
dm. high ; culm smooth; bracts broad and short, 1-6 cm. high ; 
pistillate spikes 1-3, scattered, colored, mostly peduncled, erect, 
rather compact or loose below, 1-3 cm. long, 5-7 mm. thick ; 
perigynia ovoid, yellow or purple, somewhat turgid, scarcely 
nerved, the point usually curved, mostly longer than the purple- 459. c. nanlcea. 

458. CUvldA. 



maigf ned scale. — Bogs and meadows, near the coast, K. 8. to 
CU, local. May-July. (Perhaps introd. from Eu.) Fig. 459. 

106. C. tetiiiicA Schkuhr. Slender, rarely glaucous, some- 
what stolonif erous ; culms scabrous, at least above, 1-6 dm. 
high ; leaves 1.5-4.5 mui. wide ; spikes all pedunclcd, the uppet 
one very shortly so, pale, all more or less attenuate 
below, 0.7-4 cm. long, the lower borne in the axils 
of bracts 0.5-2 dm. long ; perigynia not turgid, green- 
ish, somewhat nerved, the b^k strongly bent ; scale 
obtuse or abruptly mucronate, all except the lowest 
mostly shorter than the perigynia. — Meadows and 
^ ^ hogs, w. N. E. to Man., and south w. May-July. Fig. 

^^ 400. Var. Wo6dh (Dewey) Bailey. Very slender; 

£m leaves narrow, very long and lax ; spikes mostly alter- 

ym nateflowered throughout ; scales often sharper. — 

^ Mass. to Ont., Mich., and D. C, locaL 

Var. Meildii (Dewey) Bailey. Stiffer; leaves 461. c.trt, 
MO C tet&nicft. '^^^^y broader (2.6-5 mm. broad) and stricter; spikes ▼. UeaAVL 

thick and densely flowered, not attenuate at base, 
the upper one often sessile ; perigynia larger. (Var. Canbyi Porter ; C Meadh 
Dbwey.) — Pa. to Man., and southw. Fig. 461. 

107. C. polym6rpha Muhl. Stout, S-C dm. high, from 
stout cord-like rootstocks; leaves rather broad (3.5-^ mm.), 
short ; spikes 1-2, short-stalked, erect, compact 
or rarely loose, usually staminate at the apex, 
1.5-4 cm. long, 5-9 mm. thick ; perigynia long- 
ovoid, obscurely nerved ; the very long and 
nearly straight beak oblique or lipped at the 
orifice; scales reddish-brown, obtuse, shorter 
than the perigynia. — Open woods and meadows, 
B. Me. to N. C., local. June-Aug. Fio. 462. 

108. C. yaginilta Tausch. Very slender and 
more or less diffuse, strongly stoloniferous, 
2-8 dm. high ; leaves narrow (1.5-5 mm. broad) 
and soft, shorter than the culm; spikes \~S, 
scattered, all peduncled and more or less spread- 
ing, loosely S-20-flowered ; perigynia small, 

C. polymorphft. ^^^^7 nerveless, thin, the beak straightish ; 
' scales loose, acute, shorter than the perigynia. 

(C saltuensis Bailey ; (7. altocaulis Britton.) — Bogs and mossy 
woods, I^b. to the Yukon, s. to N. B., n. N. E., N. Y., Mich., 
Minn., Alb., and B. C. June-Aug. Fig. 463. 

100. C. abbreviAta PrescotL Stiff, 1.5-5 dm. high; culm 

and leaves thinly pubescent ; spikes globose to thick-cylindric, 
0.5-1.5 cm. long ; perigynia equaling or exceeding the mostly 
cuspidate scales. (C Torreyi Tuckerm.) — Wooded slopes, 
Minn, to Sask. and Col.; supposed to have been collected Id 
N.Y. by Torrey, and in Pa. by Schxoeinitz. 
June, July. Fig. 464. 

1 10. C. pall6scens L. Slender, erect, 1-6 
dm. high ; leaves narrow, flat, the lower slightly 
pubescent, particularly on the sheaths; spikes 
2-4, 0.5-2 dm. long, densely flowered, all but 
the upper one very shortly peduncled, erect 
iAk c. abbreviatA. ^r spreading ; perigynia about the length of 

the cuspidate scales. — Glades and meadows, 
Nfd. to Pa., Wise., and Ont. May-Aug. (Eu.) Fio. 465. 

111. C. paup6rcula Michx. Slender but erect, tufted, 1-2.5 
dm. high, glabrous; leaves flat and lax, somewhat shorter 
than the culm ; lowest bract as wide as the leaves or nearly 4«0i. C. 

468. C. vigiiistA. 


« and axeedlng Vie culm ; tpiket 2-^, approximate, all alen- 
derlj' aulked, spT^oding or drooping, 4~H mm. iong ; pfrlgt/nla 
orbiriilar or broad-ovaie, nerved In llie middle, ^ the length 
of tin eattantout tcalft. — Alpine bogs, e. Quo. Aug. 

V«r. irrlpia (Walilenb.) Fernalil. TaUer, 1^ dm. bigh ; 
tiffni jrtnbruus; epiket cyliudrio, 1-1.0 cut. lung; scales c<u- 
Mnfoia. (C magfliaaica Miui. eil. 0, not Lam.) — Bogs, 
Arctic regions. B. lo Ma«s., I'a., Cot., and Utah. June-Aug. 
(Eu.) Fio. 406. 

Var. pillens Fernald. Tall, the eulma ueually 

tteabrous; spikes cylindric, 1-1. S cm. long ; scales 
« green teilh pale brovm or yelloteish margin*. — 
fSi Ilogs and mossy woods, e. Que. lo B. C., Ct., 
F''"l N.r.,Micb., and Minn. June, July. 
112. C. limdsa L. Slender but rather stEtF, 
1.5-0 dm. bigii, «e7y Holonfferous ; culm akarp, 
rovgh above ; spikes 1-3, nodding on short stalks or the upper one 
erect, snbcylindric, 1-2.5 cm. long, springing from the axil of a 
very narrow iiraci which is nearly always shorter than the cvlm; 
pertgynla very ehort-pointed, aboMt the length of 
the broad broan or purplish scales. — llf>Ka, e. Que. 
tfT ailiiiou. •" Saflk. and B. C., a. to I'a., Great J^ke region, 
Col., and Cal. May-Aug. (Eu.) Fio. 467. 
118. C. rarifl&ra Smith. Very small but stiff, 0.7-3. Q dm. 
bigh, slightly stoloniferous ; evlia obCtise and fery smooth ; spikes 
1-3, only 3-10-fl(iwered, drooping, 
borne in the axil of a minute ami-like 
and purple-aurieled bract; perigynia 
ovale, nearly poinlless, obscurely 
nerved, mostly a little shoiter than **■ *'■ ""i'''™- 
the purple-black enveloping scale*. — Cold bogs and 
graniiic slopes, Arctic regions; very locally b. to 
Gulf of St. I^wrence ; Table-topped Ml,, Gasp^ Co., 
Que.; and MC. Kalahdin, Me. (^Goodale). (Eu.) 
Fio. 408. 

114. C. littorilia Schwein. Somewhat slender 
hot erect, 4-1) dm. bigh, stoloni/froiis ; leaves -t-R ram, 
broad, stiff, fiat, glaucotu, ahorler than the siiarp 
and nearly smooth often solitary culms ; stamlnate 
spikes 1-3, dark purple, Ji.5 cm. lojig or less, the 
scales obtuse ; pistillate spikes 1-1, 
somewhat approximate, on thread- 
like peduncles, narrowly eyiindrie 
(2-6 cm. long, 5-7 mm. thick), usu- 
ally staminate at top ; perigynia 
lance-oval, faintly nerved, the minute 
beak entire, mostly longer than the 
obtuse purple scale; bracts promi- 
nently purple-aurieled. — Wet woods 
and bogs, oftenest near the coast, 
Ct, and southw., local. May, June. Fia. 460. 

115. C- prisina Wahlenb. Slender, somenhat flexuons, 3-7 
dm. high ; culm rather sharp, smootli ; leaves 2.0-5 mm. wide, 

■oft and flat, rough ; ^ikes 2-4, linear-cgUndrie, peduncled and 470. C. pnilM. 
spreading or drooping, somewhat approximate, green, 1.5-0 cm. 
long, loosely flowered ; perigynia pale, thin, nearly nerveless, produced into a 
thort but slender entire or minutely toothed beak; scale very thin and acute, 
aearly colorless. — Wet woods and glades, w. Me. to Ont,, Mich., U. C., and 
Uel. ; and along the mts. to Ga. May-July. Flo. 470. 

116. C. picU Steud. Kather weak, 1.5-3 dm, high; leaves flat and /rm. 

4KI. C. Httonlli. 


perxiHtiiig thraugh thp nriiiu-r, ttt least twice longer than the enlm ; n xheallUng 
puri'le tcale <U the hose <>{ the apike; gtaminaie spike 2.6-^ cm. long, clavata in 
anthesis, the puqile $cnlea ending in a very shnrt tind bivM vikiUah 
tip; piatiUalf tpike narrower and moBltu longer, the arales more 
abrupily coiUractrd into a colored cuap and at length deciduuiu ; 
pprigyaln much eonlTOcltd below into a stipe-like base, very strongly 
nerved, pointless, hairy above, covered by thescatei. — In a wooded 
ravine near Bloumington, Ind. (Dudley'); also Ala. and La. Fio.47L 

117. C. eb(inie« Boon. Tuf led from a ripW paie 
broion etoloiiiferous base; culms capillary, teiry, 
1-t dm. hlgli ; leanes iiieolute-Jtliform, Bhorter than 
the culm; staminale apike very small (4-8 mm. long), 
Bessile or very short-peduncled, overtopped by the tv>o 
vpper pistillate spikes; pistillate spikes 2-4, approxi- 
mate or the lowest remote, all stalked, erect, 2-^- 
floinered; perigynia very small (1.5-2 mm. long), 
til C DlctL BitrioBt nerveless, smooth and becoming black and ^^_ q_ «i 

jAininff at full maturity ; scaieawfti'W and thin, obtuse, 
•horter than the perifiyiiia. (C. aetifolia Britlon.) — Limestone ledges or sliiDgle, 
rarely In sand, e. Que, to the Mackenzie, s. locally Ut Va., 
Ky., Mo., and Meb. May-Aug. Fio. 472. 

118. C. pednncnUta Mubl. Low and dUfuae, 0.6-3 dm. 
high, forming mats ; leaves abtmdant, very green, flat and 
firm, 2-6 mm. wide, moatly longer than the taeak cvlmt; 
staminate spike amaW, uauMvsligfUly pistHlaleat bate; pistil- 
late spikes 2-4 on each culm, acallered and long-pedunded 
/rom green sheaths, erect or spreadio)?, many other spikes 
nearly or quite radical and very loag-stalkad, all SS-Jlowered ; 
perigynla smooth or very slightly pubescent above, the short 
and nearly entire beak somewhat oblique ; scalet green to 
purple, truncate and euspi^te, moatly a little longer tfaao the 
perigynia. — Hlch woods and banks, e. Que. to 
. Sask., s. to Va., 0., Mich., and Minn. Apr.- tm^ 

I June. Fio. 47.5. T# 

■ IIS. C. conclnna R. Br. Loosely caespi' JT 

F tose ; culms slender, curving, 0.5-2 dm. high ; A 

.' leaves dark green, mostly shorter, 1-3 mm. ^ 

rm r Mdnnculau. "'de ; stamlnate spike 4-7 mm. long, sessile or . „ 

short-pednncled ; platillaW 2 or 3, the upper *'*-'•■"'«""'»■ 
wsslle and approximate, 3-lO.jIoicered ,■ perigynia narrowly trigonous-ovoid, 
hairy, blunt, 2.5-3 mm. long, much exceeding tlie dark pale- 
margined roundish scales. — HoBsy knolls and cold wood^ 
banks, e. Que. to the Mackenzie, s. to n. N. B., UnL, and 
Mont. June, July. Fio. 474. 

120. C. Bicharda6ni It. Br. Rather stifi, 1-8 dm. high ; 
atnloniferous ; sheaths short, purple or brown; leaves 2-4 
mm. wide j atamiaate spike stout and moatly shorl-peduncled, 
1.5-2.5 cm. long; pistillate spikes 1-3, the very short Ht^ka 
included, erect, compact; perigynia obovoid, firm, hairy, the 
very short beak entire or erose ; scales brown, teith a conipieu- 
ova trhite'hyaline margin, obtuse or pointless. — Dry ground, 
Ont. to B. C, 8. to w. N. T., 111., la., S. Dak., etc May, 
June. Fig. 475. 

12L C. pUntaglDoa Lam. Slender bat erect, 2.5-5.5 dm, 
hljih ; leaves very Jirm, appearing after Che flmeert and per- 

01 sisting over winter, shorter than the culm; stamlnate spike 

a purple and clavaw, stalked, 1.3-2.5 cm. long; pistillate aplkea 

I 8-4, scattered, loosely few-flowered, 1-2.5 cm. lon^, erect, the 

peduncles mostly included In the lenSess sheathe; pertgynt' 
h»rd»nt 3-4.6 mm. long, sharply 8-angted, prominently b«*ak. d. sZfyAA 


lotgtr than the tharp Mal«f. — Rich woods, N.B. to Hau., 
L to N. C, lod., and IH. Apr.-June. Flo. 476. 

122. C. Carerioa Torr. Tall and slender, mostly 
CRctiS-Sdm. hlgb ; leaves briglit green, firm, 1-1. G cm. 
aide, ihorUr ttum the long culoi ; bracts leufy; slamlnaM 
q>ike heavy and stalked, 1.3-2.3 cm. 
long; pUUllate spikes 2-3 (mostly 2), 
erect, the upper usuatlj near tbe ter- 
minal spike, and nearly sesaile, the other 
remote and iDng-peduncled, loosely 2-S- 
flowered ; perigynia very sharply angled, 
the beak oblique, finely many-nerved, 
twice longtT than the iharp tcale». — 
Rich woods, N. Y. and Ont. to Mich, and 
D. C, local. May, June. Fio. 477. 

123. C. platyph^Ila Carey. Low, 
spreading, glaucous, 1^ dm. high ; leaves 
L mostly shorter than the culms ; braeti 
m with tbia and sharp-pointed leaf-like tipt ; 
H staminate spike stalked ; pistiUate spikes 
^ 2-8, scattered, all more or less pe- 
dnncled, alternately 2-IO-flowered ; peri- 
gynia strongly many- striate, about the 
teogth of the acute or cuspidate scales. ^^^ q ptutuiDHxS 
— Rich shady wooda and banks, a. Me. ^^^' ^^^ ™rig,n' 
«7. c. Cweniu. *» OnU, s. to Va. and HI, May, June. lom md i»*f-tiD 
Fro. 478. 
in. C. Uzlcdimis Schwein. Caespitose; culms slender and lax, 1.5-6.6 dm. 
long; leore* usually Tery glaueout, mostly shorter than Ibe culms, broad (6-12 
am.); staminate apike uauaiiy peduncled, ]-2 cm. long; 
plKiUate 8-6, very remote, on capillary flexuous peduncles, 
0.7-1,6 cnk long, S.&-E> mm. thick ; the spreading-aacending 
sharply trigonous-ovoid peri- 
gynia 2&-Z.2 mm. long, 
equaling or exceeding tbe 
scales, — Glades and rich 
woods, s. Me. to Va., and 
Mo. May-July. Fio. 479. 
In the interior passing to 
Tar. copnLiTA (Bailey) Fcr- 
nald. Glnucoua or sonie- 
times deep green ; spikfe 1-2 
cm. long; perigynia 3.3-4 
mm. long. (C. digitalU, 
var., Bailey.)— Vt. to Dei., 
O., Mich., and Ont. 

126. C. diEitilis Willd. 
Very tlender, bright green, 
tufted, 1.6-6dm. high ; leaves 
mciujenhnla. *80. 0. dlglullt narrow; staminate spike 478. A. pWypbrlls. 

short-Hlalked ; pistillate Bfitps 
M, on fllKonn stalks, ascending or slightly spreadinp, linear, 1-3 cm. long, 
^tenately ^floteered ; perigynia '2,b-S ram. long, longer than the acute uftitisA 
lealei. — Dryish woods and glades. Me. to Ont., Mich., and souttiw. May-July. 
?io, 480. 

126. C. ptycbocirpa Sleud. Low, glaucous; culmfiO.3-1.8dm. high; leaves 
fist and rather hrond (4-8 mm.), much exceeding the culms; hrarta leafy and 
MwA prolonged; sCaminaCe splice very small and sessile, mnsUy orerlopped by 
■Ac iip})er pitltllale spike ; piHtillate spikes 2-3, sessile or short-.italki'd or rarely 
the lowest long-pednncled, erect, 0.7-1.6 cm. long ; perigynia tawny, narrow^ 



lio. 481. 

127. C. Iazlfi6ra Lam. Rlender but moetly erect, 3-C.1 
du). bicli ; basal teavea 2S1-' mm. wide, rather eoft ; tiamt- 
nalexpike peduneleil oral leant roiugiieuotu ; 
pUtillaU tplkea 2-1, neautrtd, pedmicled or 
the upper uiie aessile, 
Itiotelil Jloaend, eslin- 
drie, 1.5-3 cm. long, 
erect 01 the lower looaely 
aprcHding ; perigyuU 1 
ubovoid, coiiepicuoualy ] 
Dervcil, tbe short entire 
brak much berU or re- 
curved; ecalea thin and 
niOMlly flborter than the 
perigynia. — Itlch woods 
and meadows, e. Que. 
to w. OnL.aiid aouUiw. 
May-July. Fio. 482. 
— Exceedingly Tariable, ^jg^ P l^^ 

Vnr. giacllllma Hoott. Similar j but with tbort (0.6-1,8 em. long} oUon$ 

ilmier-flowered »piki 

, and Houthw. Fio. 463, 

Var. pstnlinila (Dewe.v) Carey. T.eavea 
0.6-2 ciu. broad ; staniiiiat« apike promlnenl, 
mostly BtalkeU ; pialillaU apike* long ^2-13 
em.) and alttrnaUly fiovxrtd, aealtered mkI 
ped uncled ; pi'rtgi/nSa2.b~4 mm. long, ellipsoid, 
aUcnuaU at both tndt, mostly less prominently 
iienred, and tbe beak not ttronglf reeuretd. 
— Me. to Va., O., Mich., and Ont. Fro. 484. 

Var. MichaHzil Bailey. Tall and compais- 
tivel; stout, 4-t) dm. high ; leaves 0.7-1.2 cm. 
broad ; s'aminate spike lai^e and stallced ; pi» 
liUate spikes Bccttered, all but the upper one 
prominently peduncled, 12-3 cm. 
long ; peTigt/aia very iarge, 4-(i 
mm. long, dinarlcale. (Var. (Hoart- 
aila B^ley.) — 1'^ to Ala. and 

I. 48Q. 



Var. Btyloflixa (Buckley) BootL 

Very tpeak and slender, S~9 dm. 

high ; leaves H-^ mm. wide ; atam- 

inaie spike naualiy pednncled ; 

,=„ ,«. P<tll'late 2-8, gcattered, few-Bow- 

4M. c !ti V It. '" MiohT ' Bred, O.C-2 cm. long, lowest droop- ^ ^ 

. ".. V, p jijg , ptrigynia oblong-futlform, 

4-6 mm. lon^ verg long-pot'nted; scales often browu-Unged. (C. 

stylojlexa Buckley.) — Ct. to Fla. and Tex. Fio. 466. 

Var. viriana Bailey. Culms often ancipilal, T.IWS dm. high ( ^g, „ j^ 
leaves O.S-1.2 cm. broad; pistillate spikes 1-3 cm. long, Itnem^ _ ^, "* 
egliHdrlc to nnrrow-oblnng, the two upper more or less nontigaouM ' 
In the. Mimlnate spike and seaijile or nearly so ; bracts leafy and prolonged. ^ 
Me. loOnt., la., and soQlhn. 

Var. blinda (Dewey) itoott. I.*aves 0.5-1.4 cm. broad ; cutfiu soft, anelpt- 
Ol. 1.6-tl dm. high ; piMiUate tpikea oblong, 0.6-8 cm. long, tht Kfper tmUi 


ami affgregattd abovl the inconipieuout ttamiaaCe 
»piie, tie lowest usually long-exserwd. (Var. alri- 
aftJa Carey.) — Vl and e. Mans, to Unt., and soulhw. 
Pig. 487. 

Var. latif6IU Boott Rather low, 2-0 dm. higli ; 
eiiltM aini/td; leaves 1.5-4 cm. broad; ataminale 
^ike sessile or very nearly ao, liicUien by the pisttl- 
biie; pistillate spikes eylindric and loose, 1.5-:i cm. 
long, tbe upper one or tno contiguous ; bracts very 
bro«d. (C. albwsina Sheldon.) — Ueep rich woods, 
T. Que. and Tt. to Out., and aonthw. Fio. 488. 

Var. loDtontTTia Fer- 

*1 .<*?^ ^'^^' leaves 0.5-1 c 

V ^ff broad; pistillate apikea 

l» *,/' linear-cylindric, loosely ,,, _ , 

flowered, 1-2.5 cm. long, **\*'- ~' 

the 2 or 3 upper crowded *' '^'^■■ 

at the base of the slaminat«, the lower 

remote ; perigynia obi ong-tnai form, 

faintly nerved or nerceles*. — Nfd. to 

Ont., H. to n. N. B., N. Y., and Mich. ; 488. C. i«., 

andinthemts. toN. C. Fio. 4gg. i.UitifoJU. 

128. C. HitchcockUna Dewey. 
Erect, 3-7 dtn. high ; leaves 3-7 mm. broad ; spikes 
2-4, all more or less peduncled, very loosely fea- 
flnvitred, erect, 1-2.5 cm. long, the bracta elongate 
and leafy ; perigynia trlangular-ovoid, many-striate, 
i-a mm. long, the strong beak prominently oblique, 
490. C Hiwh. th^TtfT than (Aewa/Es. — Rich woods, VL to Ont., 
-,. j^_., ™u«,i. ^ j^ jjy ^,^^ jj^_ May-July. Fio. 400. 

■ " 129, C. oUgOCirpa Schkuhr. Diffuse, 1-5 dm. high; leaves 

M.S mm. wide; bracts elongate, spreading; staminate spike scaslle or stalked; 
fistillate sptket 2-4, scattered, stalked or the uppermost sessile, loosely 2-8- 
finreered, erect, 0.&-1.5 cm. long; perijiynia 3.5-4 mm. lung, 
bard, finely impressed-nerved, abrupily contracted into a con- 
spicuous mostly oblique beak, the oriilce entire ; scales very 
loosely spreading, longer than the perigynia — l)i7 woods and 
copses, Vt. to Ont,, la., and southw. May-July, Fio, 491. 

130. C, katahdiniDsis Fernald. Densely 
caeepitose; leaves 1-2,5 dm. long, 3-4 mm. 
broad, with the aimilar bracts mueh (2-6 
time*) overtopping the lom (1-6 cm. high) 
Tough-augled culms; pistillate spfies .S or 4, 
approximate, or the lowest remote, short- 
pediceled, 8-14 mm. long, b-iO-fiorcered ; 
slaminale spike 6-8 mm. long, generally 
hidden among the pistillate ; perigynia ellip- 
soid, 3-4 mm. long, many-nerved, beaklees, 
mostly exceeding the whitish greeii-awned 
scales. — Gravelly shore of a pond, Mt, 
Katabdin, Me. ; rocky bank. Lake St. John, 

*. C, oUgoarpi. Que. (Brainerd). J^ly.Aug, Fic, 492 492, C, ksUhdlnend.. 

131. C. conoldea Schkuhr. Slender but 

ttrict, 1,5-7 dm. high; staminate spike long-peduncled or rarely nearly sessile; 
pIttiUale spikes 2-3, scattered, short-s talked or tbe upper one sessile (the 
lowest frequently very iong-staiked), narrowly ellipsoid, 0,7-2,5 cm. long, ralfter 
doielji Jtoteered, erect; perigynia oblong-conical, 3-4 mm. long, impressed- 
nerved, gradually narrowed to a point, the orifice entire ; scales loosely spread- 
ing and rough-awned, equaling or exceeding tbe perigynia. — Moist grassy 


places, N. B. to Ont,, s. to Fa. and la.; and tn the mtB. to H. C 

May-Aug. Fio. 4113. 

132. C. grlMB Wahlenb. BtouC, 3-8 dm. b^fa ; learnt 3-7 mm 
broad, sliglitlj glaucoua ; bracts broad and U<^- 
tike, diverging, very mucb exceeding the culm ; 
atammate spike small and semile ; pistlllnu 
Bplkes 3-6, oblODg, 0.7-2.5 cm. long, 4-T mm. 
thick, the highest two usually contlgaoiu to the 
etamlnaCe spike and sesnile, the othere somewhat 
j^ I n remote and peduncled (hut not from the lowest 
^k ij axils), all erect; ptrigynla oblong, potntieii, 
^p I jjl marked with impreiied nerves, turgid and eylln- 
drtc, appretied-oMcending, 4.6-6.6 mm. long, all 
but the lowest longer than tbe narron, cuspi- 
date or blunt, nerved scale. — Low woods and 
meadows, s. Me., wesiw. and soutbw. May, i 

June. Fto. 404. Var. hIoidx Bailey. Much ' 

more aleniler ; leaves gcarctlg haJfto wide; Ihe 
bracu, especially, much narrower and ahorter 
as. u. wDoldH. and more erect ; spikes slender ; pertfrynfn 
eeareely inflaifd, triangular-oblong, bearing a 
beak-ltke point, 2-ranked. (Var. angusti/blia Man. ed. 6, not -^„ - ^ 
Boot!.) — Local. Mass. and N. Y., southw. Var. OLOBAa* *»*■ ^ r"—- 
Bailey. Very slender ; spikes few-flowered, otien with bat 2 or 8 
perigynia; perigynium short, infial'd, vtry blunt, nearly glirliote or 
ohovoid; scale short, not prom intntly cuspidate or 
the upper ones wholly blunt. — Mo., Kan., and 

... - . Var. angnstlfblla Boott Lcares ratber narrow, 

T teg "" '''"S ■°'i *™'^' ' stamlnate spike often peduncled ; 
pislillate spikes very actlered, all more or lera 
stacked, the loinfst borne from near the base; perigynia tri- 
angular-oblong, hard, longer than the cuspi- 
date ascending scale. (G. amphibola Slena.^ 
— D. C. to Fla. and Tei. Fio. 495. 

13.^ C. gUuc5dea Tuckcrm. Laiorsome- 

what strict (1-6 dm. bigh), densfty glaucous ; 

leaves flat, thick and firm, Q.b-l cm. wide; 

spikes as in G. grisea; perigynia firm, not 

infiated, promlneutly 

glaucous, 3-4 mm' 
long, muBtly exceed- 
ing the short-cuspl- 

daW or blunt thin «:, c. flKco.p™^ 4W. . :. sluoodo. 
and appresscd scale. 

— Upland woods and rich meadows, e. Mass. aod Vt. to 
Ont., and southw., local. June, July. Fio. 496. 

134. C. flaccospifrma Dewey. Similar ; leaves slightly 
or scarcely glaucous, thinner ; perigynia 4.5-6 mm. long, 
2-3 times exceeding the brownish scales. — Rich woods 
and swamps, N. C. to Mo., and southw. Hay, Jane. 
Fio. 40T. 

IS."). C. granuUiia MuM. Erect or spreading, 3.6-9 
a^ dm. high, someKhat glaucous : li-aves flat, the basal 6-12 
^n mm. wide ; bracts broad and Ion;;, mui-h exceeding the 
y9 culm; spikes ii-4, scattered, all but the upper pednncled, 
^ erect or ascending, comiiact, ahoruelllpsoid lo cylindrle, 
0.8-3 cm. long, IMInini, thick; stam in ate spike email and 
«a. C. jniiuiirtB. usually sessUe ; perigynia ovoid to globose, 2-3.5 ntnt. 



Inf, vtry Mrnnglg nrrved, the ne&rlj entire ahorl bfok ntually bent; scale 

tbiD uid pninled, about J the lenglb of the {lerigynia.— Woods and . 

nieiduwB. Vt. toOnt., and Hoatliw. June. July. Fui. 488. m 

V«r. HAleina (Oliiejj I^rter, Lowtr and mote slender; pis- w 

liilue tpike* more Blendur, 3-5 mm. thick ; periggnia oblong, { 0. 

SArinert Brillon.j—Me. to Sask., s. lo Va., «9-Cir"n-. 
O. Mich., and Wise Fio. 499. v, ii.i«a., 

18«. C. Criirei Dewey. Low, strict, etoloniferoui, 
0.5-4 dm. high ; leaves IM mm. wide ; tract* scarcely 
Kccteding the cufnt; spften 2-6, Kattered. the Imotit radi- 
cal or neariy to, short-ped uncled or tlie upper sessile, 
erect, compact, l-'i.l cm. long; etamlnate 
spike generally peduneled ; jteriggnia ovoid, 
wivaily re*inoU9-doUed, ui-arly nerveless 
or lew-nerved, very aliort-pointed, longer 
tiinn the obtuse or short-pointed scale. -~ 
Moist places, In calcareous districts, Cape 
Breton I. lo Man., locally s. to n. Me., 
n. Pa., the Great Lake region, and Kan. 
June, July. Fio. 600. 

137. C. KXTtNBA Good. Slender but 
trict, 3-6 dm. higli ; leaves involute ; spikes 
-A, the lowest remote and ah or l^ped uncled, 
tlie renisinder spproximnte and sessile, 
short (OM-'i.b cui. long! and compact; 
perigynia ovoid, narrowed at the base, very 
stronifly nerved, ascending, the lAorf stout 
btak tbarplj'toothed, longer than the blunt brown-edged scale. 
-Sandy shores, Long Island and Coney Island, N. Y. ; Norfolk, wl- 0. wwdu. 
Va. June-AQg, (Nat. from Ku.> Fio. 501. 

1.18. C. Bkva L. Tulud, 2-S dm. high, 
I yeXloteith throughout; leates fiat, 2-5 mm. 
T wide, mostly siiorter than the culms, bract* 
prominent, divergent; pinlitlate tptken 2-0, 
aggregated, or the loKftt distinct, subgloboae 
r shurt-oylindric, 0.8-1.5 cm. 
>ng ; peri^iynia ovuid, yellow- 
niwD, produced into a l<iny 
dejlrred beak, stroiigly nerved, 
taice or thricf longer than the 
blunt brown teale. — l>Bmp 
places, NId. to Sask. and Alb., 

coo. O. CnwsL 

Ml. C. Hi 



N. J., 


and Mont. 

r. rectirAstra Gaudln. Low and slender ; leaves I 
1-8 mm. wide ; the smaller Uraightitk perlygniu 
greenUh or greenish-yelloa. (Var, graminif Bailey.) 
— N/d. to K. I. andMleh. (Eu.) Fio. 603. 

Var. elitior Sohlecht. Pitlillale tpiket remote. 
6-9 mm. thick, the curr^d periggnla spreading or 
usually very retrorse. (C. lepidocarpa Tanscli.) — 
GaHp6Co.,QuE.,toR,L8nd N. V. (Eu.) Fio. 6ftJ. 
139. C. Oediii Retz. Similar, plant greenish, 
• . 0.6-3 dm. high ; leaves 1—1 mm. wide ; pisliUate ^^ j. j,^,^ 
JL tpikeg 2-4, moallii aeatUred, 5-15 mm. long, 4-0 mm. ^_ tiittor. 
^y thick ; the plump greenUh-brovin shnrt-benked peri- 
' gynia aacf Tiding or wide-gpreading. \ lunger than the vbtuteteale.^ 
Bogs, meadows and shores, Nfd. V) Hudson B.iy and Me. June 
U. OvOuri. Aug. (Eu.) Fio. 505. — Hybridizes with C. (lava. 


Vor. p&mila (Cosaon i Germain) Fernald. Plant0.&-6 dm. 
bigh; pUtillate ipike» 3-10, muttly crowded. (C. viridula 
Michx.; C. Itaua, var. viHdvla Bailey.)— Nfd. 
■- " '' a. U. N. E., Pa., O., Ind., eW. (Eu.) 

N^Mfc \ 140. C. oumiboiiiinsis W. Boott, Tufted, 

^^Bjtt\ Rlender, 4.5-9 dm. liJgh, purpliih-tirown at base; 

^■^F \ leaves 2-3 inm. vide, llie bracU short, rarely 

'^. prolonged; BUuninateGpilte]oiig-Btallied,2— Sciu. 

J ionSi pUtillaU tpiket 2, verj' re:iiote, pediiiicled, 

606 c OritA. " TemoU alternate flowers; perigynia 

t. pumlla. &-0-6 mm, long, lancesubiilale, about equaling 

tbe Bcales. — Damp thicliets and gravelly uborea, 

Man. and n. Minn. June. Fio. &07. 

HI, C. longiTaatria Torr. Slender but erect, 0.3-1 m. high, 
growing in Btools, tbe bate dull brount and re- 
taining coarse ahreddg tuftt; leaves 3-A tarn. 
wide, flat, loose; Htaminale spikes 1-4, pe- WI.C.b»s1bI. 
duricled ; pistillate spike* 2-6, 1-6 cm. long, boln«n«i«. 
loosely Jloieered, slender-peduncled and mostly drooplnic; 
perigynia tbin, aljgblly inflated, green, Bpreading, abovt the 
length of the avined scalei, — Rocliy woods or dry alluvial 
thickeis, N. B. to Sask., H. J., Pa., and Neb„ \ocai. Blay- 
July. Fto. 508. 

142. C. cherokeinsia Scbwein. Rather slender, 2-7 dm 
high, the base c/tstaneoua ; leaves flat, tbe 

basal 3-<J mm, broad ; slaminale spikes 2—), 
whitish; pistillate 2-10, remote, often in 
2'« or 3*8, 1.6-5 cm. long ; perigynia conic- 
ovoid, pale preen or straw-color, promi- 
nently fen-ribbed, slightly exceeding the 
tiroad pale Kales. — Woods and river 
swamps, Ga. and Fla. to Tex.; nortbw. 
In the flat country to Mo. April, May. 
Fio. 5W. 

143. C. castjinea Wahlenb. Slender 
but erect, 3-9 dm. liigh ; leaves, 3-41 mm. 
brond, flat, hairy, much shorter than tbe 

^^ rough culm J slaminate spike 0.7-2 mm. 

.^o^r- 1 .J .J. long,¥eryBliort-peduncled;p(«(H((i(eioi(J;e» 

KS. I,. g_g^ approximate, widely spreading or 

drooping on filiform stalks, 0.8-a.6 cm. long, rather dense, poj n ohwokeeDtla. 

tawny j perigynia narrowly conic, the beak ) as long as Uio 

body, cbUi, with a nerve on each side, longer Qtan the brotni 
acvte thin scales. — Alluvial woods and thickelB, rarely In bogs, 
in calcareous districts. Hid. to Ont., locally a. to CL, N.Y., and 
the Great Lake region. May-July. ¥ia. 610. — Hybridizes witU 
C. aretata. 

144. C. capilUria L. Densely tufted, very slender but erect, 
0.3-2A dm. high ; culm smooth, longer than the narrow flat or at 
length involute leaves ; spikes 2-4, approximate, tbe loieest rarelf 
2 fin. apart, all more or less long-peduncled and drooping, borne 
In the aiiia of sheathing bracts, very small (3-12- 
Jlowered) : perigynlum thin, very small, oblong- 
obovoid, the beak hyaline-lipped, / 
very obtuse white ecale. — Alpini 
regions, Mt. KIneo, Me. ; Mt Washington, 
and high northw. July, Aug. (Eu.) Fi< 

Var. elongita Oliiey. Loose and tall (1.6-8 

BIO. c.ausiaa^. dm.); the spikes remote, ihe lowest 2.6-10 on. Bti. O.apiiteria, 

very sniall, obiong- / ^ 

ed, long.rr tiian the [i y^ 

Ipine or subalpine lf^i'<hK l 

Washington, N. H. ; JT A 

(Eu.) Fio. 611. { ^ 

ise and tall (\.b-A ' 


aart. — Wet rocka &nd moesy wciods, In calcnreona regions, Nfd. to Alults, 
lOQlhw. to», N. B., Me,, N. Y„ Mich., Col., etc. June, July. 

145. C arctlta Boott. Slender, erect, 2.6-10 dm. high ; rmUcal Uaret mve\ 
tkorter Man tht culm and veir broad, flat ; bracts broad and 
ibmt, lonfi-Bhe^ing ; Bpikea 3-6, DBuall; Bpreading or droop- 
ing on filifonu staliiB, 1.6-8 cm. long, slender ; perigynia 
3.5-4.5 nun. Ion;, abruptly and eongplcnovBly ttipitaU and 
dmptlj contracted Into a tieak, S-cornered, prominentiy 
fiie-nereed, i^reen, motlly spreading, tlightly 
longer than the very »harp or cutptdale scale. 
(Including Tar. Faxoni Bailey, nhich vas 
based on palliological material.) — Woods 
and copses, e. Que. to Ont., s. to Pa., Midi., 
and Minn. Juno-Aug. Fin, 612. — Hybrid- 
izes with C. caslanea and C. vireseeja. 

146. C. dibUis Michi. Ifesembling the 
last; rery slender and lax, 0.3-1.2 m. high ; 
leaves narrow and lai ; spikes 8 or 4, the 
Dpper approximate, the lon'er remote, mostly 
overtopped by the leafy bracts, slender-pedl- 
celed and flexuous, S-8 cm. long ; ptrtgynla 5,^ „ 

1 dfbPJi. 


soft and thin. 6-0 mm. long, faintly nerved 
or nertel«K», the whUf-edged scales blunt. — Woods and copses 
D. C. to Fla. and Tex. May, June. Fio. 513. 
Vir. KAdgel Bailey. Culms 0.1-1 m. high; spikes 1.5-<i cm. lon^ ; perigj/nla 
t6-9 fltiB. long, raslg mhea ripe, appressed, linice longer than the (aionj gcaltB. 
(C. lenuU Rudge.) — Open woods, thickcta and meadows, Nfd. to 
f Wise., s. to N. C. June-Aug. Fio. 514. — Hybridizes with C. 
4 1 vlrescent. Var, STHfciioB Bailej. Usually tail, strirt; leaves 
U broad'tr and Jtrmer; spikes atiffer, simplg spreading or even erect; 
Mm perigynta tnotlly thorter and greener, often little 
|m exceeding^ the scales. — Wbite Mts., N. H. 
r^ Var, interjfcta Bailey, Perigynia firmer, more 

1. trigonoos, sc/iltered ; the alternale-Huieered spites 4-S 

V cm. long. — Ct. toO. and n, N. J., local. 

1 Var. pilbera Gray. Ferigynia nHunlly more slen- 

der, more nerved and minulely pubescent. — Pa. to 
■ N.C., local. 

147. C. Tendsbi Dewey, var. minor Boeckl. 
Slender bat strict, 3'S dm. high; basal leaves 4-12 mm. wide, 
Mria, the upper and the bracts about as long as the culm; 

spikes 2-5, the upper piHtillato ones approii- ^,5 p ^^^ 
A/ ^ mate, usually ascending, the terminal some- i minor ' 

J Mk Unifs staminate at top, l.S-Ticm. long; pCT'i- 

M MB Mt m/nia ascending, 5.6-8 mm. long, ^rm, pniminetilly served. 

■ ^& Sk *^' "^'^ short and stout beak prominently toolhfd, tkrice 

■ 1 'y^ijlg longer than the rusty i 
"I r Jter' Sphagnous swamps and 

local. June. Fio. 515. 

148. C. Ternic6a« Mulil. Glaucous, ttoul and stiff, 0.6- 
1.6 m. high ; leaves long, rnngh-angled, becoming revolnte; 
spikes 3-10, 2-4 cm. long, 6-0 mm. thick, scattered to 
loosely aggregated, ascending or pendulous, often somewhat 
staminate above, varinasly peduncled ; scales thin, brown, 
emargjnale, shorter than the avoid glancous perigynia, but 
the hispid aum from 2-3 times longer to nearly obsolete; 
in. beak short, entire. — Swamps and wet shores, Va., Mo., 
and southw. July-Sept. Fiu. 510. 
146. C. macrolrillea Sleud. Similar, slender, 4-T dm. high ; spikes 2-6, 
l.M cm. long, ascending, c-n elendsr peduncles ; scales lanceolate to ovate, 

til Q. 



618. C. 

short-awned, exceeded by the plump sabglobote or obovoid 
strongly ribbed abruptly beaked perigynia. ( C Joofii Bailey. ) 

*- Swamps and wet sboreB, Mo. to Fla. 
and Tex. Aug. Fio. 517. 

150. C. scabrita Sciiwein. Rather stoat, 
very leafy^ 2-^ dm. high ; culm sharply and 
very roughly angled; leaves 6-18 mm, 
broad^ fiat^ very rough; spikes ft-O, scat- 
tered, the apper 1 or 2 sessile, the remainder 
often long-peduncled and sometimes nod- 
ding, 1-6 cm. long, narrowly cylindrical 
and compactly flowered ; perigynia broadly 
ovoid, prominently few-nerved, rough, t?ie 
beak nearly as long as the body and 
sUgfUly toothed; scales acute and rough- 
tipped, green-nerved, about as long as the 
517. 0. macrokole*. body of Uie perigynia. — Wet meadows 

and glades, e. Que. to Ont., a. to the mts. 
of 8. C. and Tenn., O., and Mich« June-Aug. ITio. 518. — 
Hybridizes with C. crinita, 

151. C. filif6rmi8 L. Ta2l and very slender but erect, 
0.5-1.2 m. high; culm obtuse ^ smooth; leaves very long, 

involute-Jiliform<t rough; spikes 1-^, sts- 
£k sile, somewhat scattered, erect, short and 

#B I thick, 1-6 cm. long, 5-7 mm. thick ; perU 

M Bl gynia very short-ovoid, the teeth very 

D bI short, the few nerves obscured by the dense stiff hairs; scdle% 

iff 11 thin and blunt, about as long as the perigynia. — Bogs and 

If 1\ shallow water, Nfd. to B. C, s. to Pa. and the Great Lake 

1/ y\ rt'pion. May-Aug. (Eu.) Fio. 619. 

152. C. lanuginosa Michx. Similar ; lower ; 
culm mostly rough above; leaves flat, 2--6 
mm. broad ; spikes usually somewhat slim- 
mer, the lowest usually pedunded; scales 
mostly sharper and longer. (C flUformis, 
var. latifolia Boeckl.) — Swales and low 
meadows, N. B. to Sask. and B. C, a. to Pa., 
111., Kan., etc. June-July. 

153. C. Houghtbnii Torr. Stiff, 1.5-6.6 
dm. high, extennively creeping; culm rather 
sharply angled, rough, exceeding the leaves ; 
leaves flat and very sharp-pointed ; spikes 
1-^3, sessile or the lowest 
short^talked, erect, vaiying 
from nearly globular to cylin* 
dric, 1-4.5 cm. long, 7-12 mm. 

619. c. flUforinis. 520. C, Houghtonii. ^^*<'*t compact ; perigynia 

short-ovoid, stiffly pubescent, 
prominently nerved and toothed ; scales thin-margined, acute or 
owned. — Dry sandy or gravelly soil, e. Que. to Athabasca, 8. to 
n. N. E., N. Y., Mich., and Minn. May-Aug. Fig. 520. 

161. C. vestita Willd. Stout. and stiff, 3-8 dm. high, freely 
stoloniferous ; culm sharply angled, smooth or somewhat rough ; 
leaves narnnt and rather short, roughish ; staminate spike 1, 
fart'ly 2, sessile or nearly so, 2-5 cm, long ; pistillate spikes 1-3, 
subapproximate, or rarely the lowest subradical, often staminate 
at top, ellipsoid or shortly lindric, 0.8-2.8 cm. long, compactly 
flowered ; perigynia ovoid, nerved, slifflij haiiy, short^beaked, the 
beak often jiurple and irhite-hy aline at the orifice, which becomes 
fUi/re or less split with age : scales thin and blunt or acute, shorter Cati. c, vesuu. 




dnn the per^Ttilft.— In undy miIIb. from s. He. to e. V. T., and D. C i "soath 
lo 0>." Jitny^aly. Fio. 621. Vnr. KeNitiDTi Fernald. Stamtnatt Bpikt 
oftouf 1 em. ^nif, hidden b) the ptilUlale. — WllmingtODi 
Maa^ ISeniudy^. 

IK. C. BtriJiU MIcbx., var. brtrla Bailey. Btiff, 3-8 
dm. bigb, ecUntivelj/ creeping ; culm sharply angled, imootb 
orilightly rough above, moally exceeding the leaves; Itava 
narrow and ttiff, btajmlng involute; tpikei 1-S, mostly 
cloflfaly BGBalle, considerably separated when two, Bhon 
(1-5 om. loi%g^ and rather thick, erect; perigj/nta broad' 
ovoid i»Uh impretsed ntrvts, imoolh, ascouding, Bhon- 
beilwd Bud very short-toothed ; scaJen thin, obtow or 
Bcutisb, mostly aboat { as long as 
the perigynla. (0. TToItArteiM.Tar. 
Bailey.) — Pine-barren swamps, s. e. 
Mass., southw., locaL June-Aog. 
Fio. 623. 

166. C. oUcospJnna Hichi. 
Very slender, but stiS, 2.6-0 dm. 
high ; culniB solitary or few from a 
tltnder sloloHiferout bate; leaves 
and brads very narrow, becoming 
involute; staniinaU spike pedun- 
cled ; piaCillate spikes 1 or 2, rarely 
3, sessile or the lowest very short- 
pedancled, globular or short-oblong 
(0.7-2cfn. long) fevy-JUywered ; peri- ^ q ,jrt»u v bre» 
gyni» tr.i^id, thintng, gradually . ■ ■ 

contracted Into a very short and mltiately toothed beak, 
prominently fetB-neraed, yellowish, dbstIj twice longer 
than the blunt scales. — Bogs and wet shores. Lab. and Nfd. to Uie 
Hackenile, a. to Pa., and the Great Lake region. June-Aug. 
Flo. 628, 

157. C. HfRT* L, Variable in size (2-fl dm. high), vsldely creep- 
ing; culm rather slender but erect, obtiue and smooth or slightly 
rough aboTo; leaves soft and flat, generally sparsely hairy and 
Ibe sheaths very hirsute, rarely smooth ; spikes 2-8, distant, more 
or less shortly pedancled, erect or nearly bo, 
1.5-1 om. long, rather loose; perigynla long- 
ovoid, nerved, soft-hairy, the prominent beak 
slender-toothed ; scales thin and green-nerved, 
aaned, mostly a little shorter. — Groves, fields, 
and made-lands, e. Mass. to centr. N. Y. and 
Pa. ; local. Jnne-Aug. (Nat. from En.) 
Fio. 524. 

168. C. tclcliDcirpa Huhl. Btont and tall, 
0.6-1.2 m. high i eulnt sharply angled, rough 
above ; leave* numeroas, flat, 3-3 mm, wide, 
very rough, but not hairy, much exceeding the 
cttim ; spikes 2-6, scattered, Uie lower stalked 
and more or less spreading, 8-8 cm. long, 
1-1.6 cm. thick, heavy, but loosely flower»l 
at base ; ptrigynia ovoid, many-eostate. gparsely 
ihort-hairj/, about twice as long as the uiem- 
M tifefaooviM branaceons, acute or acuminate scales. — a* C blru. 
'^' Marahes, s. w, Vt to Ont., 8. to Pa. and III. 
JniK-AuR. Fio. 526. Var, teritsai* Dewey. Spikes 2-2.5 cm. long, 13-13 
em. thick ; perigynla lanoe-subuiate. — Dutches.'* Co., N. Y. 

Var. Dewiyi Bailey. Leaves narrower, often becoming somewhat Involute, 
BBooUier ; spikes short, 1.6-6 cm. long, all but the lowest one sessile -, perifniM 



imooth, thick in texture, becoming poltelied with ^e, the ner ., 

scales sharp, mosll; n little shorter than the perigfnia Ix t 

Kan., and nonhwenw. Fia. 626, 

Var, uirtiU (H. Dr.) Bailey. Mostly stouter; Uavei 
4-10 mm, wide, more or le» hairn on the under tvr/oM 
and $heatlu; perigynta lance-ovold, nnooth, the teeth 
longer and more spreading ; scales long and sharp. ( C. 
arUtala R. Br,) — Ont. to Sask. and H, C, 8, to N. Y., 
Mich,, Wise., Neb., etc. Fio. 62T. Var. iMsfeauisGray. 
. n.«i™i ' Sheatht glabrovt. — (Int. to N, Dak. and Mo. 

^' 159. C. ripiria W. Curtis. Very large and ttout, 

0.6-1.3 m. high, stotonlferous ; ltaee$ 0.6-1.6 cm. broad, flat, rough, 

glattcout, much longer than the sharply angled g-, /. f^ 
culm; spikes 2-4, scatlered and alt more or less '^^L. 
pedQncled, the lowestoften very long-etalked, vary- *' 
ing from almost globular to slender-cylindric, 2-10 cm. long, 
erect or the lower somewhat droopinfr, loosely 
y flowered below ; perigj/nla laiire-nviild, eorC- 

\ areout, rathir lightly many-nerved, the beak 
Jml ihort and thick; scales varying from blunt to 
mm awned, shorter or longer than the peri|rvnla. 
UM — Swamps and wet shores, N. 1). to Man., 
^f and Bouthw. Mny-July. (Eu.) Fio, 628, 
160. C, *0UTrr6RHis Ehrh, Stout, 0.*- 
US C rinarlL ^-^ "'' '''R^ i '^"'^"^ thick and sharp, mnetly 
pmnM. gj^gpj), , (,nn,j broad, flat and glautnui, much 
prolonged ; spikes 2-.6, all hut the uppermost pednncled, spread- 
ing or drooping, narrowly cylindric, lJ-6..'j cm, 
long, loosely flowered below j perlgj/aia ovoid, 
very strongly many-nerrfd, tlie short beak 
slightly toothed; scales roiigh-awned and longor 
than the perigynia. — Boggy meadow. New . 
Bedford, and formerly at Uorcliesier, Mass. K»- C. Mnuewmlk 
June, July. (Nat. from Eu.) Fio, 620, 

161. C. squTTbu L. Cae)ipitosc,3-0dm.high ; enlnisAaiTrfj 

angled, more or leas rou^b above ; leave* 

2.b-i mn*. broad, weak, roughish, exceeding 

the culm ; bracts slender, elongate ; spikes 

1-4, thick, the terminal always two thirds 

' pistillate or more, the remainder more or let« 

ir slightly nodding, globular orshort-cylindric, 

1.6-3 cm, long, 1.6-2 cm. thick, brown, 

exceedingly densely flowered ; prrlgynia 

aquarrose, the benk rough ; scale short 

and usually hidden, — Swamps and wet 

wood*, w. K, E. to Keb.. and southw., 

local. June-Sept. Fm. ^iSO. 

162. C. typhinoldes Scliweln. Coarser, 
tbe ^{aHCoiis or pale leave* 0.5-1 em. broad ; 
spikes 1.5-5 cm. long, 1-2.2 cm. thick, pale 
brown ; perigynia less squarroBe, the beakt 
attending. — Meadows and alluvial woods, 
w. Que. and w. N, E. to la. and southw. 
Jnne-Oet. Fio. 5S1. 

168. C. FrinUl Kunth. Slout and very 
leafy, 6-8 dm, high ; culm obtusely angled-, 
„ very smooth ; leaves 4-9 mm. broad, rough 
on the nerves, the upper and the bracts 
very mucli longer than the culm ; terminnl spike ofl«n pls- 
tlllaW at top ; other tpUct* 3-7, the uppermoet sessile on 1A« m. c FiuUL 

I. a trpbiDo 


tifvif rftacWt, 1.6-J cm. long, 1 cm. thick, evenlf 
eiliKlrieal, oft«n staininate at lop ; ptrigyitia eery 
abmpllg contraeled into a sbort but aleniJer toolhed 
teak. (C. tUnolepit Torr.) — Swamps aiid mead- 
ova, Pm. u> III. and Boutbw. Juue-^pt. Fio. 


IM. C. PwAdo-Cypirna L. Tall and rather 
■tout, 0.6-1 m. high, in clumps ; culm ihtck and 
rerj sharply irianuultkr, roufib througliout ; leaves 
Terr '"DS' rough -margined, 0.5-1 cm. wide ; tpiket 
S-5, slenderly ptduncled and more or lesa droop- 
ing, aamewhat contiguous, 2. 6-7. Gem. long, nar- 
roicly enlindi-icnl (8-1 1 mm, thicli), nerjf compartlf 
JbwfTeii ; perigynia Btrongt; reSexed, more or less 
i-edged, many-costate, the beak thoHer than the 
bodg, with erect thort (0.5-1 mm. long) teeth; 

acalcs very rough-awned, about the 

length of the perigynia. — Bogs and 

shallow water. Gulf of St. Lawrence 

to Saak., locall; b. to CL, centr. 

N. Y. and the Great Lakes. Juue- 

Ang. (Ett.) Fio. 633. 

166. C. comdsa Boott. MoBtlj 

ttoutfr (0.5-1.6 m. high), the leave* 

broader (6-16 mm. wide); gptkea ^^- C. PMado-Cjpw™. 

1.3-1.7 cm. thkk, more Uioatly fiovi- 
trei; perigynia longer, the beat mostly longer than the body and the teeth 
long {l.i-2 mm.) and ipreadlng. (C. Pneudo-Cuperua, var. americana Hocbst.) 

— Swamps, N. S. to Wash., a. to Fla., La., and a. Cal. 
June-Aug, Fio. 634. 

106. C. hystericlna Muhl. Slender but erect, 2.&-1 m. 
high ; culm very sharply angled and rougli, at least above ; 
leaves 3-10 mm. broad, roughlah ; spikes 2-5, borne near 
the top of the culm, rarely very remoie, the upper often 
sessile, the remainder on more or less filiform stalks, 
spreading or drooping, 1.5-6 cm. long, 1-1.5 cm. thick, com- 
paclly flowered ; perigynia greenish 
vr slraiB-colored, strongly 16-20- 
neroed, the very slender beak 
strongly toothed ; scale nearly or 
quite as long as the perigynium. 

— Swales, throughout; frequent. 
Jane-Aug. (Jamaica). Fio. 635. 

— Tall specimens with long pen- 
dulous spikes have been separated 
as the scarcely distinguishable vai'. 
Coolly I Dewey (var. Dudleyi 

167. C. lirida Wahlenb. Vari- 
able in size. 0.2-1 m. high, stout ; 
culm rather obtusely angled and 
smooth ; leaves long and loose, 
ass. C.hj.t«ld«. 4-fl mm. «*ie, rough, the bracts ^_ c. lurtd.. 

leafy, elongated ; spikes 2-4, vari- 
DUly disposed, the 1 or 2 upper sessile, nearly erect or often drooping, the 
others more or less peduncled, approximate or remoie, very densely flowered, 
globose to tblck-cylindrio, 1.6-6 cm. long, 1.6-2 cm. thick; perigynia thin 
wd turgid, somewhat shining, about i(t-nerted, the body barely equaling the 
•imder long-conic beak ; etatninate spike single ; scales linear, halF as long 
Hthe perigynia or mole. — Swamps and wet woods, U.S. to Unt., sndsouthw. ■ 



abundant eaatw. Fia. hSd. — llybridk!c« wilh C. Inpttllna. Verj wnbie, 
pusing 10 nuoy scarcely diatinguishable forms, and to 

Var. {ricilia ( Boott) Bailey. Slender, 3-7 dm. high ; Utnet 
2-3 mm. wide; sptket 1-4 cm. long, 1-1^ em. think. (O. 
BaiUj/lBrittiou), — Cuol woods and meadowB, Me. tow. N. T., 
and in the mts. to Tenn., local. Fia. 637. 

168. C. Schwttinftiii Dewey. Soft but erect, 2.6-7 dm. 

high, jitiloyelMh-green, becoming straw-colored indiying; tulat 

gotltarj/, jyom creeping rooUtoek, 

flaUlth and smoolli ; leaves 0.6-1 cm. 

broad, tbe radical longer than tbe 

^ culm, tbe othen moBtiy abort ; spikes 

m 3-5, the lower one or two abort-pe- 

W duncled, tbe others subseasile and 

Iter r la^ ..» appmximaW, narrowly lotiff-q/Undri- 

asi. V, wr.. T. frti. caiC2.5-7.6cm.long,8-13min.thick), 

■scendiDft; perlgynia thin and somewhat inflated, few- 

tx^rred, toe long beak ahort-tootbed, ascending; scales 

awned and commonly rough at the tip, a little shorter 

Uian tbe perigynia. — Swamps and wet calcareous soil, 

& Vt, to Ont., a. to Cl, n. N. J., and Mich. Jane, 

July. Fio. 536. 

100. C. retitesa Schwein. StotiC, 0.4-1 m. high; 
culm obtosely angled and smooth or nearly so ; leaves 
and bracts 0.4-1 cm. broad, 
soft, rougbish, much longer 
than the culm ; ttamtnate 
ipikei 1-4, sutilt or thori' 
peduaeled; pittillale tpikt* 
8-8, approximate near the 
top of the culm or tbe lowest g^ 
remote, all but the loaeMl 
1 or 2 tettlle or tulfteuOe, 1.6-5 cm. long, 1.7-2 em. 
thick, compactly flowered, erecf or ipreading; peri- 
ffjftiia yery thin and papery, much lnflal«d, proml' 
nenlly nerved, atrongiy re/Uxxd, conlcoroid, long- 
benked, 6-lOmm. long, much exceeding the acuminate 
scales. — Wet places, e. Que. to the Saskatchewan 
and B. C, s. to Pa., the Great Lakes, la., Ida., and 
Oro, July-Oct. Fio. 639.— 
Hybridizes with C. roatrata. 
Var. BoBiNB6nii Femald. 
Spikes slender, 1.2-1.5 cm. 
thick. —Local, Me. to Ida. 
Var. Hirtii (Dewey) Gray, 
est. C. ntroim The remote, ofUH long-pedw- 

eltd tplket usually more slen- 
der, 2-8 cm. long; perigynia reide-tpreading. — Local, 
H. H. to Ont. and MIcb. i 

Var. HacoAnil (Dewey) Feniald. Similar to the last, I 
but perigynia atcending. (C lupulina x retrorta Diul- ' 
ley.) — N. T., Ont.,andMicb. 

170. C. Hilei Carey. Cultm tolitary, tlender, emooOa, ,^ c HiM. 

2-0 dm. high ; Uavet and bracts soft, roughisb, S-8 mm. 

broad, over.topplng tbe inflorescence ; Uaminate ^ke long-ptduneted ; ptttOlate 
2-4, moatly MOUlered, teuile, or the lowest short-peduncled, ehort-cylindric to sub- 
fflobote, 2-3.6 cm. long, 2-2.6 cm. thick ; the rather few periffynia conlc-ovokl, 
tbin, bladders, 10-12 mm. long, with a rather abrupt slender-conic beak, twice as 
long as the firm ovale acuminate scales. (0. louisianiea Bailey.) >- Swamps, 
F1& to Tei., nortbw. in tbe lowlands to Mo. June-Aug. Flo. 640. 


ITI. C. {icuiUk Budge. Looseti/ catfpitoie or gomffwhut rMoaUerofm. Uout, 

OJi-lj! m. faigh ; leawt O.T-1.5 cm. broad; stamlaa(« epikeg 'i-t ; plttitlaU 2-4, 

tcattered, the lotneat lonff-peduneled and remote, r&ther 

luceel; Sowered, 3-7 cm. long, 2-2,7 cm. thick; ptri- 

ffnia swollen beluw but ver; ahruplli/ coatracted into . 

a $ltiultT beak S-1 timtt a* long a* the bod]), tpreading I 
at right angles or nearl]/ to, never 
becoming j^ellovr ; acales narrow, 
amoolh. (C grandie Bailey.) — 
SwuDpa, Del., Ky., and Mo., soutbw. 
July-Sept. Fio. 6*1. 

172. C. lopulUdrmia Sartwel.. 
Stout, tall, O.C-1.2 m. high; leaves 
0,6-1.3 cm. broad, conspicuously 
elongate bracts broad and far ex- 
ceeding the culm ; xtaminate spike 
, vaually peduncled; pittilliUe ipikr* 
8-fi, S-Scm. long, cwHnrfWrai (i;-3.5 „, ^ _,„.,„ 
cm. thick), at Teaat the lower p«- "'' '^■»^'* 
duncled, erect or ascending, somewhat scattered or the 
upper approximate, becoming jiellotoith brown; periRjiiia 
ja. hipnIlftrniiiL narrowly conic-ovoid, 1.3-2 cm. long, moHtly twice exceed- 
ing the Arm lance-attenuate scales, ascending. (C. Ivpu- 

Una, var. polyttaehya Schwein. A'i'orr.) — Itichawamps, 

meadiiwB, and pnJries, Vt. to Minn., s. to Del, III, and 

U. July-Oct. Fio. M2. 
173. C. lupullna Muhl. Very stout and leafy, 4-9 dm. 

high ; leaves 0.0-1 cm. broad, loose ; bructs bruad awl 

tlonjitte ; pttttUate spiiei '2-li, approzimale at the top of 

On culm, all closely scasile or the lower sometimes short- 

peduncled, thick-cylindnoal to subglobose, very heaoj/ and 

if tMi^ flowered, 3-6 em. long, 2-3 cm. thick; staminate. 

^ilu $e»tile ; perigynia much indated, rather soft, 1.3-2 

cm. long, erect or but ilighlly ^reading, giving the spike 

a hop-like aspect (whence the name); scales Urm, lance- ^^ ^. lupiiiim 

orate, moatlymucb shorter than the perigynia.— Swamps 

and wet woods N. B., lo Ortt., la,, anil sotithw. Jnly- 
Oct. FiQ. 643. — Frequently hybrLdizes with oilier 

Var. peddncnUtli Dewey. Often taller ; spike» more 
or I«M (Coffered, some or all promiHentl]/ jieduncled; 
elamitiaU tpike nsuatly conspicuous, gmerally pe- 
duncled; perigynia more spreading. — Locally more 

1T4. C. OriTli Carey. Rather ttout, 0.3-1 m. high ; 
leaves 0-11 mm. vjide, flat, hai'sh, pale green; piBtillal« 
spikes 1 or 2, the lowest often peduncled, perfectly 
globular and compactly 6-30-flnwered, the perigi/nia 
firm, much inflated, gtalrous, 1.5-2 cm. long, spread- 
ing or deilexed and prominently many-nerved. (C. 
Ata-Orayi Bailey.) — Wet alluvial woods and meadows, 
w. N. E. to Out., la., and Mo., local. Juoe-Oct. Fio. 

Var. ItispidlilA Gray. Perigynia hitpidulous — Ct 

o»t. w. onyii. j^p g intnmiscens Budge. Slender, 0,3-1 m. 

high ; Iravei and bracts 3-.8 mm. wide, soft, much elongate, dark green ; pistlU 
kle spikes 1— ■?, subglobose or short-ovoid, loosely l-12-flowered ; the perigynia 
thin, bladdery, green, 1-1.6 cm. long, &-S mm. thick, Bproadlng, many- 
Mried. — Swamps, meadows, and alluvial woods, throughout ; the typical 


fonn commoneBt from Mu& BoaAw. lime-8ppt 
Fio. MS. 

Var. Femildil Bafley. Ptrimnia ntort iltnder, 
leM Inflated, 1.2-1.7 ci». long, 3-6 mm. thiet.^ 
Nfd. to Man., a. to U&bs., N. Y., Mich., and Wwc.: 
and on tbe mta. of N. C; the common (orm 

176. C. foIllcnUts L. Batber slender, 0.S- 

1.2 m. higli ; Uave» eerp 
hrond and flat, j/etloKliih- 
gven, lax; pistillate $piket 
"l-l>, motUy seaitered, all but 
ike uppermost prnmiaentlg 

Ipeduitchd; periggntacaiuc- 
aubiilat«, very tUghllg in- 
finted, many-aerred, 1-1.6 
ctn, long ; ecalet auined and 
oilen nearly as long. — Wet 
woods, meadows and boga, 
Nfd. M Ont., B. to Md., 
W. Va.. and Micb.; locally 
abundant. June-Ang. Fio. 


177. C. HichauxUna Boeckl. Slender bnt Mff and erea, 2.6-< dm. hlfA. 
jellonlshi leavei narroui aadfirn, shorter than the culm; ^fi«i2-l, tbeloweel 
Dsually remote and short-peduncled, . 
the remainder aggregated and Kwile ; 
perigynia lance-eubulat*, not inflated, 
S-13 mm. long, erect or epi^ding, 
twice longer than the bluiu Mcate*. 
(C. abaaa Bailey.) — Bc^ and lake- 
borders, Nfd. to L. MistaBsini, a. to 
n. N. R., n. N. Y., and Mich.; local. 
June, July, Fia. 647. 

178. C. aubnUta Michi. Qreen, 
Tery slender but erect, 1.6-6 dm. high ; 
leaveM iitft, 1.6-4 mm. wide, shorter 
than the culm ; bracts leafy, sbeatb' 
ing ; ptsHllate gpikes 2-5, scattered, 
i-S-Jlowered ; perCgynia subulate. 1-1.6 
cm. long, df/lexed. ( C. CoUlTttit Null.) 
— Bogs and white cedar swamps, U. L 
to «. Fa., and aoutbw. ; veiy local. 
June, July. Fio.648. 

179. C. aazitilia L. Low, 2-S di 
I ttidr, flat, becoming involute, nearl 

culm; etaminate spike 1 (rarely 2);'pittiliatt 

1—1, sessile or slioruped uncled, svbglobose or 

rl-rylindric, 0.5-2 cin. locp, 6-8 mm. thick ; 

' perigynia purple or purple-tingr I, uiuallj/ 

nerveless, ovoid, 3-4 mm. long, with a short subentire beak, 

slightly exceeding the blunt purple scale; ati^nnaa 

* naually 2. —By an alpine pond, Mt. Katahdin, 

iilj jy Me.; Lab, and GreenL July, Aug, (Fu.) Fio. 

[, C. MlcbiniliDi. 

T. aUhriL 

Var. mllUlria (Michi.) Bailey. Slender and taller, 
2.5-« dm. high; Iravrs nrarlg filiform; pistillaU 
spikes mostly paler and more slender. 1-2,6 cm. long. 
8-7 mm. thick. (C. miliarit Micbx.) — Margins of 
rivers and lakes, Nfd. to Uudsoii Bay, locally a, to Ml, c ■■ 


t, H. B. and centr. Me. JuIy-SepL Fio. 6G0. — Apparently 

hjbddlzes with C. vesicaria. 

leO. C. Grahiml BooU. Sleader, 2-7 dm. high; leaves 
fat, \.h~3 Dim. wide ; stauiinale spikes 1-3 ; piutillale I 3. At 
biKtM mottly ahirrl-peduncled, sliglitly spreading or ascending, 
LS-Ucm. loDg, 0-10 turn. Uiick ; perigyma Hlmw-colured, thin, 
ovuld, 4-5 mm. long, fite-iui'vtd, wiLli a alender 
•ubentjre beak, atceading, twice as long ns the 
blunt purple Bcale. — Margin ol a pond, Mt. 
Katahdln, Me. July, Aug. (Scotland.) Fio. 
601. — Much o( the American material preTi- 
oualy referred to this species Is apparently a 
hybrid between C. saxatUia, var. mlUarig and 
forma ol C. vesiearia. (C. miliaria, Yat.aurea 
Bailey ; 0. Raeana Brittou, not Boott ; C. nwfii- 
enait Porter.) 

181. C. ntaodita Wablenb. Slender, 6 dm. 

or less higli; leaves soon becoming involute J 

Btaminate spike 1 (rarely 2 or 3); platiHate 

m. C. r>laDd.ta. } '"■ 2; «"''e, short an<f compact, 8-13 mm. „,. c. G«hunL 

long, O-S mm. thick, the lower ntblended by a 
ditergent braet (4-5 em. long) ; perlgynia pale or fermginons, plump, mb- 
^obcee-ovoid, few-Herved, about 3 mm. long, abruptly short-beaked, the beak 
entire or short-lootheil, one half longer than tlie purplish scales. — Outlet ol 
Uoosehead L., Me. Aug. (Greenl., n. Eu,) Fio. G52. 

182. C- TeskJliia L. Comparatively gleiider, 0.4-1 m. bigh ; the enlmt 
Aarplf angled and generally harsh above, usually overtopped by the bracts' 
Leav» 4-7 mm. wide, loosely ascending or spreading; stamiiiate 
tpikea mostly 2 or S, peduncled ; pistillate spikes 2-S, remote, 
sessile or short-peduncled, cj/lindrir, 2-7 cm. long. 
I 1-1.5 em. thick; perigynia slightly turgid, ovoid 

A. to oblong-conic, gradually tapering to the beak, 
/7T% Mhen mature 7-9 mm. long, twice exceeding the 
Si M ovate-lanceolate acvie or acuminate scales. — Mead- 
UdV oWB and low ground, e. Que. to B. C, a. to Pa., 
^^ the Great Lake region, etc June-Aug. (Eu.) 
jy f, ^ FiQ. 663. — A very variable northern species, pass- 
, ai^iig' Ing freely with ua Into the following arbitrarily 
dieiinguiitlied tendencies. Vnr. uonIlb (Tuckerm.) 
Femald. Leaves 2-6 mm. wide ; pistillate spikes aa in the 
gpeciea; perigynia more turgid, roundish-ovoid, about mm. 
long, rather abruplly Capering to the beak. (C. 
monile Tuckerm.) — Nfd, to Sask,, Ky., and Mo, 
generally common. Fjo. G54. Var. jejCina Fer- 
Smaller and more elender; pistillate spikes 
er, 6-8 mm. thick. — Common northw. Var. 
I DisTiiiTA Fries. Slender; pistillate spikes 1 or 2, f^_ c. »Mlc»rii. 
jL short and thick, 1-2.6 em. long, 1-1.6 cm. thick; 
I V tl prrigsnia Bubglobose or OTold, abruptly beaked. — Local, Nfd, and 
I ^M Que. to Me. and Vt. Var. BaeIna (Boott) Femald. Very alen- 
A W der; leates 2 mm. wide, tending to become involute at tip; pls- 
ul I tillaie spikes slender, 4-8 mm. thick; perigynia scarcely inflated, 
W I narrow and elongate. — Local, Que. to Athabascci, a. to Me. 
• I Fio. 666. 

183. C. RMtrita Stokes. Culm O.S-I m. high, rather stout, 
"'"' tLlcklsh and spongy at base, generally smooth and bluntly angled 
* above ; leaves elongated, flat, usually equaling or exceeding the 
1, pale green or glaucous, 0.2-1 cm. wide, promin«ntiy nodulose, espe- 
cinltj ^[er dryiug; staminate it\/torescenee peduncled, 0/2-4 distinct spikes, 
(Inillate ^(lus mostly 2-4, aesalle or the lower peduncled, qilindric, dense. 


HO cm. long, ft-18 mm. thfek; pniffj/nta Ha-endlng or atlglitlT _, „ 

jtott-AA^pod, S-4t mm. long, fAe abrupt cglindrie beak Bomeirhat eiceedina 
the bliiiillBli or acute oblong ur laiiceolate purpU'-Un^d 
scHle. (C vtrlculata, var. minor Boott.) — WetHnftinn 
and shallow nater, Nfd, nnd Lab. to Soak, and B. C~, 
B. to Ct., N. Y., III., Utah, and 
C^. ; common northw., local 
Boutbw. (En.) Fio. 66Q. 

Var. utrlculita (Boott) BaUey. 
Coarter: mature ^(kei 1-2 em. 
thick, oflCD longer than In the 
epeclea ; pertffj/itt tltlpt<M-o<Ki(d 
to eonie-eyliitdrle, 
OJ-1 CO. long, taper- 
ing eraduallf to the 
beak. (O. utrtcu- 
lala Boott.} — Ex- 
tending H. to N. J., 
O., etc Fia. 667. 

Var. imblgeu 
Femald. Verg ■!<»• 

m a r«tntL ''^' *-* ■'"'■ '''S'l [ 

t"™i». culms barely 1 mra. 

In diameter below the Bpiketi ; leavea 2-G 

mm, broad ; Mtaminate rpikr.t l or 2; pU- 

ailale 1-S, l-2.e em. loag; perlgynia tatBe.a.1. 

In the species. — Que., N. B., and n. Me. 

1S4. C. bnlUta Rcbknhr. Slender, 4-Q dm. high, the long biID Umee 4-0 

>MN. wide; Btaminnte aplkea mostly 2 or 8, loog-pednncled ; pUtHlate tiiiiit 
mo^y 2, remote, cj/Undric, densely flowered. !t.6— > 
cm. long, 1-1,5 cm. ihick ; perigynia strongly nerrwl, 
Jlrm, dull or slightly sbinitig, very turgid, G-8 mm. 
long, spread Ing-ascendlne, the usually temlate or 
tilghtly Toughiah conic-cylindrlc beak much exceeding 
the acul« or hlaiitlsh scale. (C Olneyi Boott; C. 
luUata X utrteulala BaileyO — Swales and wet mead- 
ows, local. Mass, to Del. June, July. Fio 668. 

Var. Greinii (Boeckl.J Fer- 
nald. More slender and lower; 
leave* 2-4 mnt. wide; plitillaie 
ipilce 1 (or 1/2, remote'), ahorler 
and thicker, rather loosely flow- 
ered ; perigynia 'lostrous, 0-0 
mm. long. (C. huUata Man. ed. 
6.) — Commoner, s. Me. to Fa. 
and Ga. Fio. 569. 

186. C. Ttickermint Dewey. 

Culms slender, 1 m. or leaa blgb, 

forming loose stools ; leavea S-6 

eta. C. bull«t», I. Omnll. mm, wide: bracts very leaNike 

and oaually much prolonged j 

ttaminat« spikes S or 3, lo&g-ped uncled ; plelBlate tptket ' 

4 or 3, atender-pedtmcled or the upper sessile, Ihick- 

q/ltndrie, 2-8 cm. long, 1.2-1.8 cm. thick, loouly flowered ; 

perlgynta glossy, txtremelji membranaceoug and bladder- g^ f, 

Uke, strongly nerved, globoro-ovoid, 1 cn». long, 6.fl.6 mm. ii«««™mi. 

thick, tApering gradually to the slender cylltidric beak, much exceeding the 

oblong-ovate acute or acuminate scales. — Rich alluvial shores, rarely in swamp*, 

N. B. to Lake St. Jobu, Qae- and Out- a. to N. J- Ind., and Minn. Jniw- 

Ang. Fio. seO 


ARACSAX (Arhm Family) 

Plants with acrid or pungent juice^ simple or rompound often vein^f lectve$% 
wdjlowera crowded on a spadiz^ which is usually Hftrrounded by a spathe. — 
Floral envelopes none, or of 4-3 sepals. Fruit UHtially a berry. Seeds wiib 
fleshy albumen, or none, but filled with the large fleshy embryo. A large family, 
chiefly tropical. Herbage abounding in slender rbaphides. — The genuine 
Araeeae have no floral envelopes, and are almost all nionoecions or dioecious ; 
bat the genera of the third and fourth sections, with more highly developed 
flowera, are not to be separated. 

* S|mmUx el«>ng»teil, enveloped in a spathe; Howera destltate of perianth, monoedoaB or dioecious. 

1. Ariuema. Flowers ooverin^ only the baae of the apadlz. Leaves not sagittate. 
& FBltsadra. Flowers coverinf the spadix. Leaves safrlttate. 

**Spadlz short-ryllndrio, subtended by an open s{ireadfDg petalold spathe; flowors 0^ least the 

lower one») perftct, without perianth. 

5. Calla. Flowers covering the whole spadix. 

* * * 8[isdlx fflobose, enveloped In a very fleshy ovoU 6;iatlxe ; flowers iterfect and perianth present 

4. Symplocarpus. Sepals 4, hooded. 

* * e • spadix cylindrical without obvious f ^tutae ; Cowers perfect, perianth present 

6. OroBtimii. Spadix narrow, naked, terroinatlnt^ the terete scape. 
6. AconiS. Spadix cylindrical, borne on the skie of a leaMtke scape. 

1. AfilSA^MA Marti us. Indian Turnip. Draoon Arum 

Spathe convolute below and mostly arched above. Flowers monoecious or 
by abortion dioecious. Sterile flowers above the fertile, each of a cluster of 
almost Kessile 2-i-celled anthers, opening by pores or chinks at the top. Fertile 
flowers a 1 -celled ovary containing 5 or fl erect orthotropons ovules; in fruit a 
l-few-seeded scarlet berry. — Low perennial herbs, with a tuberous rootstock 
or corm, semliiig up a simple scape sheathed with the petioles of the simple or 
compound veiny leaves. (Name from d/>/r, a kind of arum^ and a*fjui, blood, from 
the spotted leaves of some species.) 

1. A. triphyllum (L.) Schott. (Indian Turnip, Jack-in-the-1*ulpit.) 
J^nvfs m-tstly 2, divided into 3 elliptical-ovate pointed leaflets ; spadix mostly 
diitrciouSy sulx^ylindrio or clubnshaped, obtuse, much shorter than the spathe, 
▼hic-h is smooth or corrugated in its tubular part and incurved-liooded at its flat 
ovaif-lanceolate pointed summit. {A, pusillum Nasli : A . titewardsonii Britton. ) 
— Klch woods. May. — Corm tuniii>-6haped, wrinkled, farinaceous, with an 
iniensely acrid juice ; spathe with the petioles and sheaths pale green, or often 
dark purple or variegated with dark purple and whitish stripes or spots. 

2. A I>rac6ntiuiii (L.) Schott. ((trkbn Dragon, Dragon Uoot.) Leaf 
usually solitary, pedately divided into 7-11 oblong-lanceolate pointed leaflets; 
spadix often androgynous, tapering to a long and slender point beyond the 
oblong and conv()lute-n.)iiitfd greenish spathe. — Low grounds, w. N. £. to Fla., 
w. to Ont., Miim., e. Kan., and 'IVx. June. — Corms clustered ; petiole 3-6 dm. 
long, much exceeding the peduncle. 

2. PSLTANDRA Raf. Arrow Arum 

Spathe elongated, convolute throughout or with a dilated blade above. 
Flowers thickly covering the long and taperin^: spadix throughout (or only its 
apex naked). Anther-masses sessile, naked, covering all the upper part of the 
spadix, each of 4-6 pairs of cells embedded in the margin of a thick and shield- 
siiaped connective, opening by terminal pores. Ovaries at the base of the 
ipadix, each surrounded by 4-6 distinct, scale-like white staminodia, 1-celled, 
Rearing 1-few amphitropous ovules at the base. Berries in an ovoid fl^ihy 


258 AEACBAB (arum FAMILY) 

head enveloped by the base of the leathery spathe. — Stemless herbs, with arrow- 
shaped or hfustate palmately 3-nerved and pinnately veined leaves, and simple 
scapes from a thick fibrous or subtuberous root. (Name from rArif, a small 
shield, and dmjp, for stamen, from the shape of the latter.) 

1. P. Yirginica (L.) Kunth. Scape 2-3.5 dm. high, about equaling the 
leaves ; basal lobes of the leaves rather long and often acutish ; spathe convolute 
throughout, wavy on the marigin, mostly green ; sterile portion of the spadix 
several times longer than the pistillate ; ovules several ; fruit green ; seeds l(-8). 
(P. undtdata Raf.) — Shallow water, s. Me. to Fla., w. to s. OnL, Mich., and 
^o. Jane. 

8. CALLA L. Water Arum 

Spathe ovate (abruptly pointed, the upper surface white), persistent. Lower 
flowers perfect and 6-audrous ; the upper often of stamens only. Filaments slen- 
der; anthens 2-celled, opening lengthwise. Ovary 1-celled, with 6-9 erect 
anatropous ovules. Berries (red) distinct, few-seeded. — A low perennial herb, 
growing in cold bogs, with a long creeping rootstock, bearing hearUabaped long- 
petioled leaves, and solitary scapes. (An ancient name, of unknown meaning.) 

1. C. paltistris L. — Cold bogs, N. S. to N. J., w. to Mich, and Minn., and 
Dorthw. June. — Seeds surrounded with jelly. (Eurasia.) 

4. SYMPLOCARPUS Salisb. Skuxk Cabbage 

Stamens 4, opposite the sepals, with at length rather slender fUamentS; 
antheis extrorse, 2-celled, opening lengthwise. Style 4-angled and awl-«haped ; 
stigma small. Ovule solitary, suspended, anatropous. Fruit a globular or ovoid 
mass, composed of the enlarged and spongy spadix, inclosing the spherical 
seeds just beneath the surface, which is roughened with the persistent fleshy 
sepals and pyramidal styles. — Perennial herb, with a strong odor like that of 
the skunk, and also somewhat alliaceous ; a very thick rootstock, and a cluster 
of very large and broad entire veiny leaves, preceded in earliest spring by the 
nearly sessile spathes, which barely rise out of the ground. (Name from 
^vfjor'KoK'^, connection, and icopT^s, fruit, in allusion to the coalescence of the 
ovaries into a compound fruit.) 

1. S. fo^tidus (L.) Nutt. Leaves ovate, cordate, becoming 3-6 dm. long, 
short-petioled ; spathe spotted and striped with purple and yellowish-green, 
ovate, incurved. (^Spathyema Raf.)— Bogs and moist grounds, N. S. to N. C, 
w. to Ont, Minn., and la. 

6. 0R6NTIUM L. Golden Club 

Spathe incomplete and distant, merely a leaf-sheath investing the lower part 
of the slender scape, and bearing a small and imperfect bract-like blade. Lower 
flowers with 6 concave sepals and 6 stamens ; the upper ones with 4. Filaments 
flattened ; anthers 2-celled, opening obliquely lenj^thwise. Ovary 1-celled, with 
an anatropous ovule. Fruit a green utricle. — An aquatic perennial, with a 
deep rootstock, and long-petioled entire oblong and nerved floating leaves. 
(Origin of the name obscure.) 

1. 0. aquAticiim L. — Ponds, Mass. to Fla. May. 

6. ACORUS L. SwBBT Flag. Calamtjs 

Sepals 6, concave. Stamens 6 ; filaments linear ; anthers kidney-shaped, 
1-celled, opening across. Ovary 2-3-celled, with several pendulous orthotropons 
ovules in each cell. Fruit at length dry, gelatinous inside, 1-few-seeded. 
— Aromatic, especially the thick creeping rootstocks (calamus of the shops). 
Leaves sword-like; the upper and more foliaceous prolongation of the acape 
may be considered as a kind of open spathe. ('AKopaj, the ancient name, of no 

known meaning.) 

1. A. CAUmns L. Scape leaf-like and prolonged far beyond the (yellowl^ 
green) spadix. —Margins of rivulets, swamps, eto. (Eurasia.) 


IEMNACBAE (Dcckwebd Family) 

Minute stemless plants, floating free on the water , destituti of distinct stem 
nd foliage, being merely a frond, producing one or few monoecious flowers 
from the edge or upper surface, and commonly hanging roots from underneath ; 
wules rising from the base of the cell. Fruit a \-7 -seeded utricle. Seed large. 
Embryo straight. — The simplest, and some of them the smallest of flowering 
plants, propagating by the proliferous growth of a new individual from a cleft 
in the edge or base of the parent frond, also by autumnal fronds in the form of 
minate bulblete, which sink to the bottom of the water, but rise and vegetate in 
spring ; the flowers (in summer) and fruit scarce, in some species hardly ever 
seen. — l*hese plants may be regarded as very simplified Araceae, 

1. Splrodela. Frond 5-15-nerTed, with several rootlets. 

2. T-ffmilfl Frond 1-6-nerved, with a single rootlet. 

3. WollBa. Frond thick, ovoid or ellipsoidal, very minute (0.5-1.8 mm. long), withoat rootlets. 
i. WolAella. Fronds strap-shaped, thin, without rootlets. 

1. SPIRODiLA Schleid. 

Anther-cells bilocellate by a vertical partition and longitudinally dehiscent 
Ovules 2. Rootlets several, with axile vascular tissue. Otherwise as Lemna, 
(From ffxeipa, a cord, and SrjXos, evident.) 

1. S. polyrhiza (L.) Schleid. Fronds round-obovate (8-8 mm. long), thick, 
purple and rather convex beneath, dark green above, palmately (mostly 
7-) nerved. — Common in ponds and pools, except near our n. limits. (Temp, 
and trop. regions.) 

2. L^MNA L. Duckweed. Duck*s-meat 

Flowers produced from a cleft in the margin of the frond, usually three 
together surrounded by a spathe ; two of them staminate, consisting of a stamen 
only; the other pistillate, of a simple pistil; the whole therefore imitating a 
angle diandrous flower. JSter. Fl, Filament slender; anther 2-celled, didy- 
mous ; the cells dehiscent transversely. Fert. Fl. Ovary 1-celled ; style and 
trancate or funnel-shaped stigma simple. Ovules and seeds 1-7. — Fronds 
1-^nerved, producing a single rootlet beneath (which is destitute of vascular 
tissue), proliferous from a cleft in the margin toward the base. (An old Greek 
Dame of uncertain meaning.) 

* Fronds oblong, long-stalked at base, remaining connected. 

1. L. trisiilca L. Fronds oblong to oblong-lanceolate (6-10 mm. long), at- 
tenuate at base into a slender stalk, denticulate at the tip, very obscurely 3-nerved, 
often without rootlets, usually several series of oflshoots remaining connected ; 
Bpathe sac-like ; seeds ovate, amphitropous, with small round operculum. — 
Ponds and springy places, N. S. to N. J., Tex., and w. to the Pacific. (Temp, 
and trop. regions.) 

* * Fronds oblong to elliptical or round-ovate, sessile^ soon separating. 

2. L. valdivi^na Philippi. Fronds elliptic-oblong, small (2.5-4 mm. long), 
rather thick, usually somewhat falcate, obscurely l-nerved; spathe broad-reni- 
form; utricle long-ovate, pointed by the long style ; seed orthotropous, oblong, 
with a prominent acute operculum. (L. minor, y&t. cyclostasa Ell.; L. cydth 
stasa of auth.) — Pools, Mass. to Fla. and westw. across the continent. 
(S. A.) 

3. L. perpusilla Torr. Fronds obovate or roundish-obovate, oblique (2-8 
mm. long), obscurely S-nerved; utricle ovale ; style rather long ; seed orthotro- 
pous, ovate or oval, obtuse, with scarcely apiculate operculum. — Mass. to Fla., 
and w. to Dak. and Kan. Var. tbin^jrvis Aust. has larger distinctly 
3-nerved fronds, and an equally cordate seed. — N. J. to Kan. and I. T. 


4. L. minor L. Fronds round- to eUiptic^obovate (2-6 mm. in diameter) 
ratber thick, very obscurely ^nerved; spathe sac-like; utriclf short-urn -sliaped, 
tipped with a short style ; seed oblong-obovate, amphitropous, with prtmUneui 
rounded operadum. — Stagnant waters, except along our n. borders. (Temp, 

8. w6LFFIA Horkel. 

Flowers central, bursting through the upper surface of the globular (or m 
some foreign species flat) and loosely cellular frond, only 2 ; one consisting of a 
single stamen with a 1-celled 2-yalved anther ; the other of a globulHr ovary, 
tipped with a very short style and a depressed stigma. Ovule orthotropous, 
rather oblique in the cell. Utricle spherical. Albumen thin. — Fronds root- 
less, proliferous from a cleft or funnel-shaped opening at the base, the offspring 
soon detached ; no rhaphides. — The simplest and smallest of flowering plania, 
floating as little grains in or on the water. (Named for Johanu Friedrich Wolf. 
who wrote on Lemna in 1801.) 

M«»t dotted ; upper anrikee strongly convex • 1. W. eoiumbtana. 


Upper snHkee Hettifth • 8. IT. punctata. 

UMier sariboe low-eonlcel 9. W. papni^era 

1. W. oolmnbUoA Karst. Globose or globular, 0.7-1.6 mm. long, very 
loosely cellular, light green all over, not dotted ; stomata 1-6 ; the opening at 
the base circular and with a thin border.— Floating rather beneath the surface 
of stagnant waters, Ct. to Fla., w. to Minn, and La. 

2. W. pnnctita Griseb. Oblong, smaller and more densely cellular, flattish 
and deep green with many stomata above, tumid and pale below, brown-dotted 
all over, anterior edge sharp; opening at base circular. {W, hrasiliensis of 
aath., not Weddell.) — Onu to the Gulf of Mez. — Growing with the preceding 
but floating on tlie Murface. 

3. W. papulffera C. H. Thompson. Lower surface hemispherical, the upper 
flattish at the margin, rising at the center to a single low papilla; flowers 
unknown. — Mo, {Bush, Thompson). 

4. WOLFFIAlLA Hegelm. 

Flowers and fruit unknown. Fronds (in ours) linear-attenuate or flagellate, 
falcate or sigmoid, many times longer than wide, punctate, solitary or cohering 
at the base and radiating in a stellate manner. Pouch single, triangular, t asal. 
-» Small genus of imperfecily known plants. (Name a diminutive of ^'nlffia. ) 

1. W. floridina (J. D. Sm.) 'lliompson. Fronds hollow, gradually attenuate 
from iMise to flageJlifonn apex, OS mm. long. ( Wolffla gtadiata, var. J. D. Sm.) 
•—Mo. to Fla. and Tex. 

ERIOCAULACBAS (Pipewort Familt) 

Aquatic or mar^ herbs, stemhss or short-stemmedj vfith a tuft offbnmm 
roots, a cluster of narrow and often Iwtsely cellular grass-like leaves, and naked 
scapes sheathed at the base, bearing dense heads of monoecious or rareljf 
dioecious small 2-^merous flowers, each in the axil of a scarious bract; the 
perianth double or rarely simple, chaffy; anthers introrse; the fruit a 
celled 'Ir^seeded capsule; seeds pendulous, orthotropous ; embryo at the 
of mealy albumen. — Chiefly tropical plants, a few in northern temperate regiona. 

1. Briocaolon. Perlenth doable, the loner (corolla) tabalar-ninDel-form in the ■tembntc 
d^iwerfl. Stamens ti»lee as many as the corolla-lobes (4). A ntbers S-oelled. 

5. SyncoBaathttS. Perianth as In the kst. Bumens only as many as the curoUa-lobw C8). An. 

thers 2-cell<Ml. 
9. Lschaocaul o a. Perianth simple, of 8 sepals. Stamens 8, monadelpbous below. 
1 c«Ued. 


L SRIOCAtTLON [Gronov.] L. Pipbwort 

Flowers monoecious and androgynous, ».«. both kinds in the same head, either 
intermixed, or the central ones sterile and the exterior fertile, rarely dioecious. 
Ster. Fl. Calyx of 2 or 8 keeled or boat-siiaped sepals, usually spatulate or dilated 
upward. Corolla tubular, 2-3-lobed, each of the lobes bearing a black gland or 
spot Stamens inserted one at the base of each lube and une in each smus. 
Instils rudimentary. Fert. FL Calyx as in the sterile dowers, often remote fmm 
the rest of the dower (therefore purhaps to be viewed as a pair of bractlets). 
Corolla of 2 or 3 separate narrow petals, i^tamens none. Ovary often stalked, 
i4>lobed ; style 1 ; stigmas 2 or i\, slender. Capsule membranaceous, loculicidal. 
— Leaves mostly smooth, loosely cellular and pellucid, flat or concave above. 
Flowers, also the tips of the bracts, etc., usually wbite-beaidid or woolly. 
(Name compounded of Kpio^f wool, and Kav\6s, a stalk, from the wool at the 
base of the scape.) — Our species are all steniless, wholly glabrous excepting at 
the base and the flowers, with a depressed head and dimerous flowers. 

1. S. decangnliire L. Leaves obtuse, varying from lanceolate to linear-awl- 
^haped, rather rigid, 0-40 cm. long; scapes 10-12-ribbed (3-0 dm. high); 
head hemispherical, becoming globose (0-14 mm. in diameter) ; scales of the 
involucre acutish, straw-color or light brown ; ch(^ff (bracts among the flowers) 
iMtinied. — Pine-barren swamps, N. J. and I'a. to Fia. and Tex. 

i. E. oompr6s8um Lam. Leaves spreading (5-12 cm. long), grassf-aiwl' 
fhapedj rigid, or when submersed thin and pellucid, tapering gradually to a 
<hHrp point, mostly shorter than the sheath of the lO-rihbed scape ; scales of the 
involucre very obtuse, turning lead-color; ehajf obtuse. {E, gtiaphalodes 
Michx.) — Pine-barren swamps, N. J. to Fla. 

3. S. articnlAtum (Huds.) Morong. Peduncles 1-severaI ; leaver 2-8 cm. 
long, awl-^haped. ppHucid, soft and very cellular ; scape 4-7-striate, slender, 5-15 
CDi. high or when submersed becoming 3-20 dm. long according to the depth of 
the water; chaff acutish; head 5-9 mm. broad, at length depressed-globose; 
bracts, chaff, etc., lead-colored except where whitenecl by short but coarse 
bpard; anthers longer than broad. (E. septangulare With.) — In ponds or 
n\ mg thnir border*, Nfd. to N. J., w. to Ind., Mich., Minn., and Ont. July, 
Aug. (Ireland ar.d adjacent islands.) 

4. S. Parkdri Robinson. Leaves lance-linear, 3-6 cm. long, attenuate from 
a base :^-A mm. broad to a very sharp tip ; peduncles 10-22, erect, slightly rigid ; 
heads small (•^-4 mm. in diameter), even in fruit surrounded by a campanulate 
iuoolucre; chaff and flowers nearly glabrous; anthers as broad as long. — 
lUiiks of the Delaware U. near Camden, N. J. (7*. P, James, Parker,} 

9, SYNGONAnTHUS Ruhland. 

Stamens as many as the (often involute) lobes of the funnel-form corolla in 
ilie sterile flowers, and opposite them, commonly 3, and the flower ternary. 
I'etaU of the fertile flowers united to the middle. Otherwise nearly as in 
Eriocaulon, (Name from ff&yyopot, connate, and Apdot, flower, from the united 

1. S. flavidulus (Michx.) Ruhland. Tufted, stemless; leaves bristle-awl- 
Hhaped (2-7 cm. long) ; scapes (1-4 dm. hii;h) very slender, simple, minutely 
pabescent, 5-angled ; bracts of the involucre oblons:, pale straw-color, those 
among the flowers mostly obsolete ; perianth glabrous ; sepals and petals of the 
fertile flowers linear-lanceolate, scariou8>white. {Paepalanthus Kunth.) — Low 
pine-barrens, s. Va. to Fla. and Ala. 

8. LACHNOCAt^LON Kunth. Hairt Pipe wort 

Flowers monoecious, etc., as in EHocaulon. Calyx of 3 sepals. Corolla 
uoael ^er. Fl. Stamens 3; filaments bel«iw coalescent into a club-shaped 
tube artmnd the rudiment of a pistil, above separate and elongated ; anthers 
l-49elled 1 F^rL Fl. Ovary 3-celled, surrounded by 3 tufts of hahrs (in place of 


a corolla). Stigmas 3, two-cleft. — Scape slender, bearing a single bead, 2-1^ 
angled, hairy. (Name from Mxk>s, tcool, and jcau\6f, stalk.) 

1. L. inceps (Walt) Morong. Leaves linear-awl-shaped, tufted, villona 
(L, Mickatuiii Kunth.) — Low pine-barrens, Va. to Fla. and Tex. 

ZYRIDACBAE (Yellow-eted Grass Family) 

Bush4ik€ herbSy with narrate leaves sheathing the base of a naked seape^ which 
is terminated by a head of perfect ^androus flowers, with extrorse atUherSy glu- 
maceous calyx, and a regular colored corolla; the S-valved mostly \-celled cap* 
mile containing several or many orthotropous seeds with a minute embryo at the 
nfpex of fleshy albuinen. 

1. ZiHIS [Gronov.] L. Yellow-eted Grass 

Flowers single in the axils of coriaceous scale-like bracts, which are densely 
imbricated in a head. Sepals 8 ; the 2 lateral boat-shaped and persistent ; the 
anterior one larger, enwrapping the corolla in the bad and deciduous with it 
Petals 3, yellow (rarely white), with claws, which cohere more or less. Fertile 
stamens 3, inserted on the claws of the petals, alternating with 3 sterile filaments, 
which are cleft and in our species plumose or bearded at the apex. Style 3-clef t 
Capsule oblong, free, 1-celled, with 3 parietal more or less projecting placentae, 
S-yalved, many-seeded. — Ours apparently all perennials. (Zvplt, a name of 
some plant with 2-edged leaves, from (vp6y, a razor.) 

Lateral mimIs about eqnalinff the subtendlnr bracts and concealed by them. 
fiaae not balboua \ keel of the lateral sepala with an ero5e wing. 
Heads OTold. 
Leaf-blades strictly linear or broadest at the base; scape narrowly 2- 
Heads naiTowly ovoid ; flower-bearing scales few (4-7) at length dark 

brown , t, X. fiumiana. 

Heads broadly ovoid ; flower-bearing scales usually nomerous, greenish 

or pale brown 2. X. earoUniana. 

Leaf-blades broadest in the middle ; scape much flattened, conspicuously 

2-winged 8. X (lifformt*. 

Heads ellipsoidal or subcylindrlo (southern) \. X. elaia. 

Base bulbous ; keel of the Mterai M>iialA clUolate &. X.jleruota. 

Lateral sepals evident, much exceeding the subtending bracts or exsertcd 
Keel of the lateral sepala slightly lacerate or erose • . . . 6. X Smattiann, 

Keel of the lateral sepals conspleuou^ly fHnged. 
Base neither bulbous nor indurated ........ 7. X. Jtmhriata. 

Base bulbous and indurated, dark brown 8. X. arenicota, 

1. X. montina Ries. Dwarf and very slender, l-(rarely)3 dm. high, some- 
what caespitose from a more or less branching rooutock ; leaves narrowly linear, 

rarely more than 4 cm. lon^r, about one fourth or one third 
the length of the nearly filiform stipes ; hea<ls at maturity 
4-6 mm. thick; seeds subcylindric-spindle-shaped, regularly 
ribbed. (X flexuosa, var. pusiUa Gray.) — Chiefly in 
bogs, Nfd. to Mt. Desert, Me., the uplands of 
N. Y., and e. Pa. ; also on L. Sui^erior. Fio. 

B«i. X. montana. g. X. caroliiiiAna Walt. Varying much 
Uteral sepal x 8%. ^^ gj^e ; leaves grass-like, mostly 6-20 cm. 
"**" '***• long, one third to two thirds as long as the 

slightly ancipital siipe ; roots a tuft of delicate fibers ; root- 
stock apparently not developed ; fruiting heads S-10 mm. in M2. X. earollniaBa. 
diameter; seeds ovoid-spindltr-sbaped somewhat irregularly Lateral aepal x 8%. 
about L^rlbbed, when ripe claret-colored. — Wet sandy shores Seed x88. 
of lakes and pools, centr. Me. to Ind., and southw. Fio. 562. 

8. X. difformis Chapm. Rather stout ; leaves lance-linear, 7-12 mm. broad 
fa the middle, tbickish ; scape Htrongly flattened, conspicuously 2-winged, S-8 


mm. broad ; heads sabgloboee, in fruit about 1 om. in diameter ; seeds about 26* 
ribbBd. — Skndy shores, Md. (Canby)^ and southw. 

4. Z. eUta Chapm. Tall (4-S dm. high) ; leaves grass-like (2-4 dm. long"), 
linear or gladiate from broadened strongly equitant bases ; scape slender, onfy 
moderately compressed, ancipital but not winged ; beads ellip- 
soidal or Bubcylindric, 1.4-8 cm. long ; floriferous scales numer- 
oaa, suborbicular. — Sandy shores, Va. to Fla. and Miss. 

L Z. flszndsa Muhl. Leaves narrowly linear, pale green, 
Uiickjsh, twisted, from a small bulb-like base ; stipe 3-6 dm. 
high, twisted and flezuous, slightly compressed toward the 
gaminit, not winged ; head sabglobose, about 1 cm. in diameter; 
scales suborbicular, pale brown, the greenish area small and ill- 
defined ; lateral sepals ciliolate on the keel. — > ^^ ^ flexuosa. 
Wet places, chiefly in sandy soil, e. Mass. to \^*L^ Lmi » su 
Minn. , Tex. , and S. C. Fig. 563. ^ '•' 

6. X. SmallUna Nash. Tall (4-9 dm. high) ; leaves broadly 
linear or sword-shaped, 2.5-6 dm. long, often nearly 2 cm. broad 
at the equitant and commonly proliferous base, neither twisted 
nor flexuous ; scape rather slender, straight, compressed near 
the summit; heads obovoid or ovoid-ellipsoidal, at maturity 

S64. X s alliAii *^o^^ 10-12 mm. in diameter ; scales broadly ovate, green with 
Lateral m1 si. * Btramineous or pale-brown border; lateral sepals long and 
»«P« ^ %• narrow, erose-lacerate on the usually narrow wing ; seeds for 
the genus long, subcylindric, regularly ribbed, pale in color. ^-Chiefly on boggy 
shores rich la decaying vegetation, often in water, e. Mass. 
to Fla.— The northern form, which has the lateral sepals a 
little less lacerate on the keel, has been published as X Cong- 
ioni Small. Fio. 564. 

7. X. flmbriita Ell. Tall, strict; leaves 
broadly linear, straight; scape straight or 
nearly so, 5-8 dm. high, compressed and 
roughened on the edges toward the summit; 
heads ellipsoidal, about 12-15 mm. in diameter, 
nearly 2 cm. long ; fringed sepals conspicuous, 
nearly twice as long as the bracts. — Pine- 
barrens, N. J. to Fla. and Miss. Fio. 566. f^^ ^ fl,„Kj«#. 

8. X. arenicoU Small. Base thick and ^^al bTmI x8% 
bulb-like, surrounded by broad chestnut- ^ ^' 

866. X. arenicoia. <^iored scales, the enlarged and hardened persistent bases of 
Utenl aeiwl x 8^ former leaves ; slender stipe and very narrow thickish leaves 

twisted and flexuous ; head cylindric, 1-2.5 cm. long, acutish, 
8-10 mm. thick; fringed sepals conspicuous. (X torta of aaUL, notSm.) — 
Ffaie-barrens, N. J. to Fla. and Miss. Fio. 566. 

HATACACEAS (Mataoa Family) 

Mo894ike aquatic plants, densely leqfy, with narrowly linear sessile pellucid 
leaves, axillary naked peduncles terminated by a solitary perfect S-androus 
Jlower, herbaceous calyx, white corolla, and a S-valved l-celled several-seeded 
capsule, — A single genus. 

t UATACA Aublet. 

Perianth persistent, of 3 herbaceous lanceolate sepals, and ^ obovate petals. 
Stamens alternate with the petals. Ovary with 3 parietal f ew-ovuled placentae ; 
style filiform ; stigma simple. — Creeping or floating in shallow water ; leaves 
entire, minutely notched at the tip ; peduncle solitary, sheathed at basa (An 
aboriginal name.) 

1. M. AublMi Michx. Peduncles deflexed In fruit ; capsules about 0-seeded 
(Jt Michauxii Schott & £ndl.) — Va. and O. to Fla. and Tex. 


COMMBLIlfACBAS (Spidkrwobt Family) 

Herbs^ tffUhJlbrouM ur tttmetimes thickened roots. Jointed and often branching 
leafy sterna, and chirfly perfect and (^-androtts often irregular flowers^ with thi 
perianth firee from the 2-o-c«//ed ovary, and having a distinct calyx and corolla ^ 
yiz., 8 persistent commonly herbaceous sepals, and 8 petals, ephemeral, decay- 
ing or deciduoos. Stamens hypogynouR, often some of them sterile ; antberb 
with 2 separated cells. Style 1 ; stigma undivided. Capsule 2-8-ceIled, 2-^ 
halved, loculicidal, 8-fleveraI-seeded« Seeds orthotropous. Leaves entire, paral- 
lel-Yeined, sheathed at base ; the appermost often dissimilar and forming & kind 
of apathe. *- Chiefly tropical. 

1. TndaseaiitU. BraoU leftf-llk* or flnuJI aod seailoat. Petal* cqnsL Ptorfeet wtsmns •; 

lllMiieiit* beardad. 
t. OoauMUaa. Oym* mmI1« witlilo a oordato or ooniMto braoi (•|istlM)u Patals anaqnL 

PHtel ataoMnt 8; lIlMnoDt* naked. 

1. TRADBSCAlfTIA [Rapp.] L. SpinaswoRT 

Flowers regular. Sepals herbaceous. Petals all alike, ovate, sessile. Sta- 
mens all fertile ; filaments bearded. Capsule 2-:}-celled, the cells 1-2-8eeded. — 
Perennials, Stems mucilaginous, mostly upright, nearly simple, leafy. LeaveK 
keeled. Flowers ephemeral, in umbeled clusters, axillary and terminal, pnv 
duced through the summer; floral leaves nearly like the others. (Named for 
the elder Tradeseant, gardener to Charles the First of England.) 

Urabeli loDf-pedanoled ; braoU shorty snbMsarloua . . • . . 1. T. roMa. 

Umbels Meatle or nearly so, much sarpasaed by the leaMIke bracts. 
Dwarf, rarely over 1 dm. high, tWoos ; pedicels 9-6 em. long, thread'Hke . i. T. brsMcauHs, 
Taner, S-8 dm. high. 
Stem genlcalat^ the aobMasfle nmbels azlllaiy a» well as terminal . • S. T. ptlota, 
Btem straight, simple or branched ; nmbels terminal. 
Sepala entSraly glabrous, or one or more of them with • tnfl of batra 

near the lavolnte slightly hooded apex 4. r.rr^ero. 

Pspaia tUIoqs with non-ghuidalar hairs •«•••• .ft. 7*. virffiniana. 
8iDala glaadnkr-TtUoas. 

Bneta broader than the leaToa • • 6. T. hraeUata. 

Braeta not broader than the leaToa 1. T. oeetdentatU 

1. T. rbaea Vent Small, slender (1.6-4 dm. bigh^, smooth, erect from a 
running rootstock ; leaves linear, grass-like, 1-6 (nirely as much as 11) mm. 
broad.*— Sandy woods, Md. to Fla., w. to Mo. and «*Tez.*' 

2. T. bfeTicaAlia Raf. Ojten stemless or nearly so^ yery hairy ; roots a dus- 
ter of dark more or less thickened fibers ; leaven lance-linear ; sepals ifvate-lan- 
eeolate, 1-1.6 em. long, villous; petals large, purplish-blue or more often roae> 
colored. (7*. virginica. var. villosa Wats.) —Moist sandy soil, centr. Ind. (iH 
H. Bartlett) to Ky., Tex., and Kan. Apr., May. 

H. X. pttfrsa Lehm. Tall, stout, 4-7 dm. high, zigzag ; leaves Inrpe, flat, often 
8-1 ciu. wide, dark green above, finely ])iibe^cent on both surfaces, rarely sulv 
glabrous; sepals pilose or smontliiHli, nvate-tMnng, 6-0 mm, long; petals blue. 
(T.Jleruosa Kaf.) — Woods and shaded banks of streams, Pa. to Mo. and Ga. 

4. T. rell^xa Raf. <S7fn(f«r, glabrous or nearly so, ^Zaticotts: leaves narrow, 
linear-attenuate from a lanceolate base, stnmgly involute ; umbels terminal on 
the stems and branches, many-flowered ; narrow bracts and glabrous pedicels 
soon d/^exed; sepals ovate-lanceolate, 8-1:) mm. long, glabrous except at the 
often tufted tip; petals blue, 10-14 mm. long. — Wet places, O. to Mich., 
Minn., Kan., Tex., and 8. C. 

6. T. Tirginiiiia L. Green; leaves flat, linear or lance-linear, the upper 
Ai(«re or less pubescent ; bracts leaf-like, elongated, usually ascending; pedicels 
and sepals villous, the latter aUYut 1.6 cm. long; petals rich purplish-blue, 
l.lV-2 cm. long. — Alluvial soil, Ct. to Pa. and S. C. : aiso in trod, north w. 


d. T. bn^teftta Small. Sordid glandutar-HtlofU above: hraeU rtHaUveip 
argej eondapUcate, recurved, thfir bases 2-2^ em. broad: noweis laige, 2.6-3 
em. in diameter. — Prairies, ** Minn.,** and la. to Tex. and B. C. 

7. T. ooddenUliB (Britton) Smyth. Slender, 3 dm. high ; letnee narrowly 
MiiAir, involutef their bases often enlarged and scarious ; the bracts scarcely if cU 
aH broader than the foliar leaves: sepals glandular'pubescentj about 1 cm. long ; 
petals blue (or roseate^, about 1.4 cm. long. — *^ la.^'to Neb., Tex., and N. Mez. 

T. MoirrXNA. Shnttfw., not Ueyne, a southern species distinguished from 
T. virginiana chiefly by its smaller flowers and smoother calyx and from T. 
tfioM by its broader greener leaves, Is said to extend as far north as Va. and Ky . 

%, COMMBLtNA [Plum.] L. Dat-floweb 

Flowers irregular. Sepals somewhat colored, unequal ; the 2 lateral partly 
onited. Two lateral petals rounded or kidney -shaped, on long claws, tiie odd 
one smaller. Stamens unequal, 8 of them fertile, one of which is bent inward ; 
8 of them sterile and smaller, with Imperfect cross-shaped anthers ; filaments 
isked. *- Often procumbent and rooting at the Joints. Leaves contracted at base 
into sheathing petioles ; the floral one heart-shaped and clasping, folded together 
or hooded, forming a spathe inclosing the flowers, which expand for a single 
loorning and are recurved on their pedicel before and afterward. Petals blue. 
Muwering all summer. Ours all with perennial roots, or propagating by striking 
root from the joints. (Dedicated to the early Dutch botanists J. and S. 

* VenlraX cells ^ovuled (usually 2-seeded)y the dorsal l-ovuled, 

1. C. communis L. Slender and creeping^ nearly glabrous ; leaves lanceo- 
late, 2-5 cm. long ; spathe cordate, acute, loUh margins not united; seeds shal- 
Umly pitted^ granulate-reticulated. (C. nud^flora auth., not L.) — Alluvial 
banks, DeL to Fla., w. to Kan. and Tex. -* A frequent weed of dooryards and 
gardens, northeast w. to e. MaES. (E. Asia, lYop. reg.) 

2. C. hirttUa Vahl. Stout, erects 6-12 dm. high ; leaves large, lanceolate, 
the sheaths brawnrbearded ; spathes crowded, with margins unUed; seeds 
mnoih. — River-banks, Pa. to Fla., w. to I. T, and Tex. 

* * Ceils \-ovuled, l-seeded; seeds smooth; spathe cueullate; roots subtuberofis, 

8. C- erftcta L. Slender, often low ; Iscnes linear; cells iOl dehiscent.-- Pa. 
to Pla. and Tex. 

4. a Tirglnica L. Slender, usually tall ; leaves lanceolate to linear ; dorsal 
cell indehiscent, scabrous. — Damp ricn woods and banks, s. N. Y. to Fku, w. to 
Mloh., KaiL, and Tex. 


Arte (cr scarcely woody plants^ nearly all tropicaX)^ the gr&aer pari epU 
pkfftes^ with persistent dry or fleshy and ehannelsd crowded Uaoes^ sheathing at 
the tete, usually covered with 

1. TILLAlfDSIA L. LoHO Mesa 

Pttianth plainly double, 6-parted ; the 8 outer divisions (sepals) membrana- 
ceous ; the 8 inner (petals) colored ; all connivent below into a tube, spreading 
above, lanceolate. Stamens 6, hypogynous or the alternate ones adhering tc> 
the base of the petals ; anthers introrse. Ovary free; style thread-shaped , 
ttigmas 3. Capsule cartilaginous, 3-celled. Seeds several or many in each cell, 
anatropous, club-shaped, pointed, raised on a long hairy-tufted stalk, like a 
eoina. — Scurfy-leavid epiphyi^.s. (Named for Prof. Tillanda of Abo.) 

]. T. usneoides L. ^Common U>n» Moss or Black Moss.) Stems thread 


shaped, branching, pendulous ; leaves thread-shaped ; peduncle short, 1-flow. 
ered ; flower yellow. — K. Va., s. to Fla., and westw. ; growing on the branchei 
of trees, forming long hanging tufts. 

PONTEDBRlACBAS (Pickerbi^weed Family) 

Aquatic herbSj with perfect more or less irregular /lowers from a $pathe ; th^ 
petal-like Q-merous perianth free from the ^-celled ovary ; the 3 or 6 moHly 
unequal or dissimilar stamens inserted in its throat, — Perianth with the 6 
divisions colored alike, imbricated in 2 rows iu the bud, the whole together 
sometimes revolute-coiled after flowering, then withering away, or the base 
thickened-persistent and inclosing the fruit. Anthers introrse. Ovules anat- 
ropous. Style 1 ; stigma 3-lobed or 6-toothed. Fruit a perfectly or incompletely 
3-cplled many-seeded capsule or a 1-ceIled l-seeded utricle. Embryo slender, 
iu floury albumen. 

1. Pontederia. Ppike many-flowered. Perianth 2-Iipped, iu fleshy penisteDt base Indoiiiif 

the l-9«eded utricle. SUtmens 6. 

2. Beteranthera. ftpatbe l-few-flowered. Perimnth salfer-Bhaped. Stamens 8. Gapsufe 


1. PONTED^RIA L. Pickerel-weed 

Perianth funnel -form, 2-lipped ; the 3 upper divisions united to form the 3- 
lobed upper lip ; the 3 lower spreading, and their claws, which form the lower 
part of the curving tube, more or less separate or separable to the base ; tube 
after flowering revolute-coiled. Stamens 6 ; the 3 anterior long-ezserted ; the 
3 posterior (often sterile or imperfect) with very short filaments, unequally 
iuMerted lower down ; anthers versatile, oval, blue. Ovary 3-celled ; two of the 
cells empty, the other with a single suspended ovule. Utricle 1 -celled. — Stout 
herbs, with thick creeping rootstocks, producing erect long-petioled leaves, and 
a 1-leaved stem, bearing a spike of violet-blue ephemeral flowers. Root-leaves 
with a sheathing stipule within the petiole. (Dedicated to Pontedera^ Professor 
at Padua in the 18th century.) 

1. P. cordita L. Leaves heart-shaped, blunt ; spike dense, from a apathe- 
like bract ; upper lobe of perianth marked with a pair of yellow spots (rarely 
all white); calyx-tube in fruit crested with 6-toothed ridges. — N. S. to Ont., 
Minn., and Tex. Ju!y-Sept. (Trop. Am.) Var. angc8tif6lia Torr. X^eaves 
lanceolate or triangular-attenuate, roundish or truncate at base. — Same range. 

8. HETERANTHftRA R. & P. Mud Plantain 

Perianth with a slender tube ; the limb somewhat equally 0-parted, ephemeral. 
Stamens in the throat, usually unequal ; anthers erect Capsule 1-celled or 
incompletely 3-ceIled by intrusion of the placentae. — Low herbs, in mud or 
shallow water, with a l-few-flowered spatlie bursting from the sheathing aide 
or base of a petiole. (Name from fr^pa, different, and drOrfpd, anther.) 

* Stamens unequal; 2 posterior filaments with ovate yellow anthers; the other 
longer, with a larger oblong or sagittate greenish anther; captult tneom* 
pletely Z-celled ; leaves rounded, long-petioled; creeping or floating piantB. 

1. H. renifdrmis R. & P. Leaves round -kidney-shaped to cordate and acute ; 
spathe 8-i>-flowered ; flowers white or pale blue, — Ct. to Neb., and south w. 
(S. A.) 

2. H. limdsa (Sw.) Willd. Leaves oblong or lance-oblong, obtuse at both 
ends; spathe 1 -flowered j flowers larger, blue. — Va. to Neb., and southw. 
(S A.) 


** Stttmens alike, with sagittate anthers; capsule l-celled, with Z parietal pla- 
eewtae; leaves liiiear, translucent, sessile; submerged grass-like herbs, with 
only the flowers reaching the surface. 

3. EL ddbia (Jacq.) MacM. The slender branching stems clothed with leaves 
and bearing a terminal 1 -flowered spathe (becoming lateral); flowers small, pale 
fellow, wiUi a very long thread-like tube. (^ graminea Vabl.) — N. £. to Ont., 
WBstw. and soatiiw. 

JUNCACEAK (Hush Family) 

Oras»4ike or rush-like herbs, with small regular and hypogynous persistent 
lowers, 3 glumaceous sepals, and 3 similar petals, or rarely 3 stamens with 
^celled anthers, a single short style, 3 filiform hairy stigmas, and an ovary 
eilher Z^elled or "i-celled with 3 parietal placentae, forming a loculicidal 
^valved capsule. Seeds anatropoas, with a minute embryo inclosed at the base 
of the fleshy albumen. — Flowers liliaceous in structure, but sedge-like in aspect 
and texture. 

1. Jimcafl. Capsato S-eelled (Aoinetlmes imperfectly bo\ many-seeded. Plants never hairy. 
S. Lunla. Capsule 1-celled, 8-seeded. Plants often hairy. 

1. jt)l7CnS [Toum.] L. Rush. Boo Rush 

Capsule 3-celled, or 1-celled by the placentae not reaching the axis. Stamens 
when 3 opposite the 8 sepfds. — Chiefly perennials, and in wet soil or water, 
with pithy or hollow and simple (rarely branching) stems, and cymose or clus- 
tered small (greenish or brownish) flowers, chiefly in summer. (The classical 
name, from jungere, to join, alluding to the use of the stems for bands.) 

a. Infloreseence appearing lateral ; the involneral leaf erect, similar to 
and oon(inatng the naked or essentially naked scape ; rootstock 
creeping b. 
b. Sheaths at base of the scape leafless. 
Stamens 8. 
Capsule tipped by a erown-like blunt mucro, fbrroed by the 

thick base of the style ; inflorescence densely capitate . It. J. confflomeratut. 
kpsule truncate or emarginate at tip. without a distinct mucro. 
Inflorescence loose, the primary branches conspicuous . . 16. J. effustu. 

Inflorescence a dense head, the primary branches short and 

inconspicuous (16) J. efusus^ v. eompacttu. 

Stamens 6. 
flowers greenish ; capsule broadly ovoid, barely mucronate, 

about equaling the calyx 19. J.JKiformis. 

Flowers brown ; capsule more or less trigonous, distinctly mu- 
Calyx 2-8.T mm. long, much exceeded by the capsule . . 18. J. Smithli. 
Calyx 8.&-{^ mm. long, nearly or quite equaling tne capsule 

14. J. baltlcua, y. liUoralit. 
b. Sheaths (or at least the Inner ones) bearing long terete scape-like 
Flowers solitary at the tips of the ultimate ramiflcations of the 
cyme ; capsule subglobose, S-4 mm. In diameter, about equaled 

by the spreading sepals 10. •7'. aetaceut. 

Flowers clustered at the tips of the ultimate branchlets ; capsule 
trigonous, barely 2 mm. broad ; sepals and petals appressed- 
Capsule broadly ovoid, about equaling the calyx ; seeds ovoid, 

obtuse 19. .T. Boemerianfiia. 

Capsule ellipsoid, exceeding the calyx ; seeds with long caudate 

tips .20. J.ituuritifMiB. 

•i Inflorescence terminal e. 
e. Leaves fllat, or somewhat terete, or setaceous and channeled, but 
never septate d. 
d. Annuals with soft bases and fibrous roots. 

Sepals much shorter than the rigid petals ; flowers in dense 

clusters ; stamens 8 ; capsule subulate . 42, J. reptna. 

Sepsis equaling or exceeding the petals; stamens 6; capsule 
ellipsoid or ovoid. 



8. J. GerardL 

11. J. Vi'ti^yt. 

12. «/. orruewriMm 

J. Gr^enH. 

66|MUt( and petatnaU Inng-atienaate aiid cacoeedinf the e^Mols; 
MHMlit ovoM. ap1eulat«. 
Flowers iic»tt«rwl nlnfrly along' the one-aided uaually dteboto- 

inoufi branch«*« •...••... 1. t/. bufiftUM*. 

Flowi*rs cliivtert^i (V) J. b%{fi>nitUff t. cottf/tt^tu* 

PetmU liUint or ubiu&e, shorter than or only sUghtly exceod- 

liiK the capsule; aeeda tmneaie . 0) J' &i|^iUim, ▼. halophUmt. 

d, Perennlab «. 

«. Flowers prophvUate, i.«. anbtended by bracteolea (2) in addi- 
tion to the bractlet at base of pedicel /. 
/. Leaf-sheaths with flnabriate auncle» ; flowers !-t, 0-40 times 
exceeded by the thread-like aubtending leaf. 
Basal sheaths with setlform scarcely leaf-like blades : can- 
line leaves mostly crowded at the aommit; flowers 

Qsoally 'i-4 2. J. tHJIdua. 

Basal sheaths bearing long leaves ; canllne lesves scattered ; 

flowers nsnally solitary (2) •/. tri/fdus. 

/. Leaf-sheaths with entire (or merely ero^) auricles ; flowers 
(except in depauperate individuals) numerous g. 
g. Leaf-sheaths covering one half the stem or more ; the brown 

and irreenlsh sepals 'obtu^e. and incurved at tip . 
ff. Leaf-sheaths covering one foorLh the stem or less ; sepals 
aente or acuminate A. 
A. Seeds with long caudate appendages. 

Inllarescence exceeding the erect bmct»: capsule 4.!M1 

mm. long, usually exceeding the calyx . 
Inflorescencti exceeded by the bracts; capsule much 
shorter than the calyx ... . • 

A, Seeds short fntlnted or blunt L 

i. Capsule re<l«lish or castaneous, ellipsoid, much exceed- 

ins the calyx 18. 

i. Capsule gre*-n or straw-colored (brown In age), shjrter 
than i»r -ibout e«iualing the calvx J, 
J. Leaves Hat (or in ago becoming Involuted k. 
k. Aurlclen at the summit of the sheaths scarlouat 
whitish, conspicuously exiemlcHl beyond the of insertion ; bracts exceeding the Inflo- 
rescence I. 
i. Capsule at least two thirds aa long as the spread- 
iiig-ascending senals. 
Flowers mostly clustero«1 at the tipa of the 

branches of the intloresoenc«« . 4. •/*. teiMcia. 

Flowers scattered and secund along the 
Branches of Inflorev^noo loos<'1r n^oendlnir. 
elongate, the nltlinate florltenius branch- 
lets elongate and ascending . (4) J. UnuU^ r ttnUUintmM 
Ultimate fli>riferouA brancblets widely sprt'Oil- 

Ing, O..Vit cm. long .... {4) J. tsnuis^ v. WiUi4in*9ii 
I. Capsule less than one half aa long ai the closely 

approKAed sepals 6. «/. monoMtiehum, 

Aiiricle.i ttt the summit of the sheatliA not conspicu- 
ously extended beyond the point of insertion. 
Bracts shorter than the cymes; flowers 'it^i.a 
mm. long, scattered and second along the as- 
cending or incurve<l branches . . 7. «A seeundu*. 
Bracts (ur at leofit the lowermost) exceeding the 
cymes ; flowers mostly larger, not conspiou- 
ously secund. 
Inflorescence and ba«al sheaths straw-colored 
or the latter somewhat darlcer. 
Bhesths and auricles membranaoeoua, pale ; 

perianth erect 

Sheaths and auricles ouHlaginoaa, darker; 

perianth spreaillng 

Inflorescence brownish ; Inner basal sheaths 

strongly pnr[»le-tinged . . (9) ./. dichotomut, v. platyphyllum 
^. Leares terete, or at most slightly grooved along the 

nprter surfhce ^, J. d4cKotomu«. 

U flowers eprophyllate. i.e. with only the bractlet at the base of 

the very short |iedicel m. 
«». Capsules at mott 4 mm. long, rarely excee<1in? the calyx; 
flowers irl'*'iifrulate. mostly In freely branched cyinea.* 
Leaves terete, scape-like. 
Capsule hroaiUy ovoid, about equaling the calyx ; seeds 

ovoi<l. ot»tn!«e 

Capsule ellii'sold, slightly exceeding the calyx; seeds with 

long caudate tips . . 

I^Mves flat, grass- like. 

fi. J. inUrlor. 
8. J. iHtdleyi. 

19. J. JtocmeHaittta. 

20. /. marUimu4* 



28. «/! bi'uehye^phaiu$. 

S4. J. eanadmiiU. 

38. J. br§9ieamdatu9. 

Bumena Indndad In fruit. 
PeuUs OTate or oblonir, blant . • . • • * 4S. J. marffinahm. 
Petals lAiic4-attenuati>. aritftato . (4S) J.margintuwi, v, Metont*. 

Statnttns persistent and exerted In fruit . . . 44. t/. <tritdiUatu9» 

m. Capsules 6-9 mm. lonir, iiiuch exceeding the calyx ; flowers 

few, In 1-4 terminal glouierules . 41. i/. ttygint, r. afnsricanu*. 

ft Laares hollow, nodoloee, I.e. with septa at regular Intenrals n. 
%. Seeds with definite eaadate tips o. 
o. Leaves papUlose^seabruus ; stamens 6; seeds 8-8 mm. long . 81. J. fup^r, 
0. Leaves smooth ; stamens 8 ; seeds shorter p, 
p. mowers with the mature fruit about 2.6 (rarely 8 5) mm. lonir ; 
sepals obtuse; seed elhpsoid, barely 1 mm. long, witli 
Tery short tails .... .... 

p. Flowers with mature fruit about 4 mm. lonir : petals attenu- 
ate, acute ; seed spindle -sha(»ed« with conspicuous tails. 
Inflorescence (when well developed) ovoid or broader, one 
third lonjperthan broad ; the gloroerules many«fl(>wered ; 
capsule equaling or slightly exceeding the euyx. 
Capsule abruptly short- pointed ; seed 1-1.8 mm. long 
Capsule graduauy tapering to tip ; seed searcelv 1 mm. 

long (24) (/. citnnd/nMs^ r. mbisaudatus 

Inflorescence elongate, strict, and narrow, 8-6 times longer 
than broad ; capsule much exceeding the calyx, gradu- 
ally tapering; seed about 1 mm. long .... 
%■ Seeds merelv pointed or blunt, not caudate g, 
q. SStamensS r. 
r. Capsule attenuate to tip or subulate, distinctly azMedinf the 
calvx n. 
*. Heaiis ^7-flowered ; capsule not subulate. 

Mature fruit 8.5 mm. long ....... 

Mature fruit 5 mm. long 

«. Heads densely many-flowered ; capsule subulate. 

Leaves flattened, obscurely septate: sheaths without 
anrtolesat summit ; cyme large, with widely divergent 

branches and branchiet.^ 

Leaves terete, dlntlnctly septate ; sheaths with definite auri- 
cles at summit ; branches and branehlets ascending. 
Blade of the uppermost leaf much shorter than its 
sheath ......... 

Blade of uppermost leaf much longer than Its sheath . 
r. Capsule shorter than or about «!quallng the calyx, If longer, 
abruptly tipped (not subuUte) i. 
k Capsule half or two thirds as long as the calyx, tapering 
gradually to a oonlc-subu'ate beak ; glomernles spher- 
ical; the rigid subulate sepals much exceeding the 
petals ; rootstook thick, white, horizontal 
1 Capsule nearlv equaling or exceeding the calyx, abruptly 
tipped; glomerules hemispherical ; se,>aU and |>et^ 

86. J. dfibUin. 

87. J. difuJiiMimtu. 

89. •/. jtolyctphalvs 

84. J, tnegae€phahii» . 
88. J. 9oirpoide«. 

88. •/. hraeKyearpun 

86. J. aetiminatWL 
88. J. rohuhtuit. 

88. «/. mU4tari9, 

subequal ; stems tufted or with merely thickened base. 

Basal leaves abundant, tufted from a thickened ba^^e, often 

elongate and floating, obscurely septate ; stems lax. 

decumbent or repent, 0.5-S.5 dm. high ; petals blunt 87. J. bnlbotus 

Basal leaves few. erect ; plant erect, 8 dm. or more high ; 

petals acuminate. 

Heads 1-60, on ascending-spreading braochee; flowers 

8-8.5 mm. lonsr 

Heads 200-900, on widely dlvexgant branches ; flowers 
5)-2.5 mm. long • ....... 

9. Stamens 6 u. 
u. Upper cauline leaves blodoless (or esaentlally so), consisting 
of firm tawny or colore I sheaths 8.6-6' cm. long ; the 
middle loaf erect, much overtopping the inflorescence 
«. ITpper cauline leaves with blades, or. if bbKlelesn, very small «. 
e. Flowers solitary or in 2*8. often accompanied or replaced by 
fkksclcles of s-nall leaves. 
Stem erect, from a horizontal rontstock ; flowers sectind 
on the branehlets of a loose dichotomons cyme ; fas- 
oioles of reduced leaves confined to the inflorescence; 
anthers much exoeeiin? the filaments 
Stem repent or floating, l>earing scattered ftiMcles of re- 
duced leaves; roots tufted ; flowers 1 or 2 on axillary 
or subtermlnal peduncles; anthers about equaled by 

the filaments 

9. Flowers more nnmeron*. in rinmernles w. 
w. Lower le^ve^ eloniratf. finronn. floating, upper stouter; 
glomerules nioitly hearing Iksclcles of small leaves; 
capsule blunt . . . 21. JL bldb09n2- 

W. Leaves nnfform. none floating ; gtem^rQlev wtUtout iksH 
eles of leaves 0. 

25. J. p^ocftrpwL 

86. J, euMMe. 


:>p>q1e> anbolMa 
rcwdlDfr ths in Hon 

31. /. Torrvt- 

;. aiomenila sphnlin] ; Mpalt anbaUu ; opaqlei anbolMa or Ud«*- 

■nboliLs ; InrolDEnl bncl uiuiUy «if— " ■■- "■■ 

Flowm S-* mm. long, reddlih-brown ; , , „ „ _ 

tug tba wpiJi XI. J. 

Flowen «-6 mm. long, grwnlahr- ■•-"'■ ~' v.i..^„ 

m. aiomerolei honiliiibBrtttl : Hpila blnnt or uuraluUi, u moat ma- 

eranaU-Uppeif : apaulea OTold or sUlpsold ; IniroLDcn] bnsi 

ninoh ihorUr Ihm tha tnBonsMDM y. 

ff. S«»li>cumlniu J bnncbHorUielnflunKenoeiridelT dlTuveDt. 

Flowar brgwn or brownish ; Dipanledirkbronii.a-l mm, lung, 

gnduilly uparlngto tbsmucroDiu Up .... tO. J. arUeulatut. 
Flower pwnlah ; cipaulfl p»le brown, ai-8 mm. long, ibrupUy 

y. S«|Hla blunt, often ID BcroTute- tipped ; brucboi of knfloreacaiiu 

Dnncbea alrtetly anct; glotnemlfli IoomIj fbw.flowarfid. gflner- 
■lly witb ODS or mon Howeia alsriled on allghllj slongit* 

Flawera caauiieaa* a». J, alpltnu. 

yiowtra irrmDiab or ilnw-colored (Re) ^ aipinut, t. iiuigmU. 

lirly nowend 

-uoeiidUiB ; glomcrules omiptetly ud ^n. 

• InJtoreKencet moitlg terminal; leave* flat or canaliculate, rarely Urett, 

ems low and slender (0 
; cyme spreading ; Jtoioi 

OlamentB Hlif;!itly longer tban the antbern ; jieeib narrouily ovoid 
or elllptoidal (fl.3-0.5 mm. long). — D&inp open ground, road- 
Bides, etc., common. June-Nov. (Cosmop.) Pio. 6tt7. 

Var. cong£stui Wahlb. Floaert mostly in glotntrult*. — In- 
frequent. (Ku.) 

Var. Iul6philui Buchenaa & Fernald. More flesby ihrou^- 

out ; flotaers moatly in a's or 3's ; whitish petals obluae ; leed* 

thort-cgliadrir,, abruptig tntneate at one end. — 

Bmckifh shures, Gulf of St. Lawrence to 

B«T. J. bnfboiaa. Mass. ; Neb. to Rocky Mts., etc. June-Sept, 

Pu* of itidnrea- (Eu.) "- 

«n«KH. 2. T. 

6*od>i5». matted , . 

high), sheatlied and moalls Unjte»t at b<i$f, 
2-S-leaved at the nummil; Bowen brown (3-4 mm. long) ; 
Kpals ovatc-lanccolale, acute, equaling or rather shorter thao 
the Dvat« benk-pointed deep-brovsa capuvte; antbera much 
longer than the filaments; seeds few, oblong, angled (1.6-3 
mm. long), Bhort--tailed. — Alpine summits, I^b. to N. E. and ug, j. buf., t. bd. 
N, T. June-Aug. (Greenl., Eurasia.) FirtoriiillcinHsas* 

Var. mODintlios (Jacq.) BluH & Fingerhuth. Taller (i.6-« »%, 
dm. bigh), the numeroui basal leaves often equaling the culm. Se«d x30. 
— I»cirt, mis. of s. N. Y. to Va. and N C. (Ku.) 

3. J. GerAidi Loiuel. (Black Gb*8s.> Stems scarcely flattened, rigid (I.&- 
8 dm. hi"h) ; cyme contracted, usually longer than the brsct«al leaf ; Qoners 
3-4 mm. long ; sfpals oval-oblong, nearly or quite as long as the oToid obtoae 
and mucronate capsule ; anthers much lunger than the short filaments ; style aa 
long «a the ovary ; seeds (0,4-0.6 mm. long) obovoid, delicately ribbed and chmb- 
lined. — Salt marshes; common along the coast, rarely inland In Me., Vt, 
N. y., and about the Great Lakes. June-Scpt. (F-urasia, n. Afr.) 

4. J. tioais Willd. Stem wiry (0.6-6 dm. high) ; cyme l-S cm. long, loow, 
or barely crowded ; ftovters green (3^.5 mm. \oTig\ mostly aggregated at the tip* 
of the branche*; sepals lanceolate, very acute, spreading Id fruit, longer tlisn 


the oToId retuse scarcely pointed green falaelj' 1-celIed c*|>' 
aule ; anlbeia mach aharler than the fUiuuents ; style vei7 
abort ; seeds Bmall (3-4 mui. long), delicately ribbed and 
croes-lined. — Fields and ToadBides, very 
common. Juue-ijept. (Eu., n. Afr.) 
Kio. 669. 

Var, antlieUtiu Wiegand. Tall (4-0 
dm. Iiigh) atid loose ; cyme loost, 6-18 
cm. long; Soifera UEuklly 2,6-3.6 mm, 
long. — Ala. to Mo. and Tei. 

Var. WitlUouil FernAld. Compara- 
tively low (2.6-5 dm, bigb) and slender ; 
inflorescence 3-8 cm. long: capsule about 
equaling the calyx. — Gulf of St. Iiaw- 
rence to Ct. and N. T. (Eu.) 
t*nau. ^' J* intSrlor Wiegand. Compam- 

* X %■ li''fi'y "tout, 4.6-9 iliu. high ; leaves about 
h mrtclo* 0"^ third as long aa the acapes ; InBorea- 
ceiice 3-10 dm. long, with very ascend- 
ing branchea, the flonera 3-4 mm. long ; 
e obscurely 8-celltd ; anthers much shorter than the ^-f, j, jntartor 
Dta; seeds S.6-5 mm. long, — Prairies, 111. to Wyo. inflamLncaxU 
and Tei, Apr .-July. Pio. 670. ^' 

6, J, monteUchua Banlett. Erect, S-6 dm. tall ; culms compressed ; leaves 
hasal, j-J as long aa the culms, the blades Involute in drying, the auricles aa in 
J. tenuis; in&orescence 4-8 cm. long, much exceeded hv the 
loweat bract, finally atramineoua, the branches 1-2.6 cm. long, 
often incurved, bearing 3-9 secund flowers; perianth 4-4J mm. 
long, the sepals lance-acuminale, entirely concealing the trig- 
onous-ovoid falsely 1-celled liapsule (2 mm. long) ; aeeda 
ovoid, coarsely reticulate, with longitudinally oblong areoles. 
— Ind. audArk. Fio. 671. 

7. J. sec^dns Beauv. Strict (1-8 dm. 
high); the short flat leaves mostly tufted, 
rarely more than one third as long as the 
acapes ; sheaths with rounded membranous 
auricles; inflorescence 3-14 cm. long, the 
branches closely flowered ; sepals erect, barely 
exceeding the distinctly 3H:elled capsule ; 
anthers exceeding the fllaments. (J. tenuis. 
Tar. aecundut Engelm.) — Sandy or sterile 
soil, Me, to Vt. and N. C; also In the Miss. 
VaL from Tenn. to HI, and Mo. June-Uct. 
m. J.noiiogtichiu. Fio. 5T2. 

lnOanmia »%. 8- J- Dndldjrl Wiegand. SUft (0.3-1 m. i 

FniitlDg flower K S. high) ; leaves about half as long as the i 

scapes ; inflorescence 1.6-7 cm. long, the 
floweta rather closely a^regated, 4-6 mm. long, the segments spreading- 
Mcending, yellowish-green, barely exceeding the imperfectly 1-celled trigonous 
ctpsule ; filaments slightly exceeding the anthers; seeds 3.6-4.5 
mm. long. — Damp or open (mostly calcareous) soil. Que. to 
Ssak. and the Rocky Mta., s. to Pa., Mich., Wise, Minn., and 
Kan. June-Sept. Fio. 573. 

9. J. didiatomna £11. Stema rigid (0.4-1 m. higli) from a 
tlunld base ; leaves flliform, two tliirds as long as the scapes, 
tbe broad brown or purplish sheaths with rounded cartilagi- 
Bona auricles ; cyme loose or dense ("2-8 cm, long), oftfii with 
1-aided forked branchea, mostly longer than tbe involucrai sis. J. Dudltjl, 
leaf ; Bowera greenish brown (3.6-1 mm. long] ; sepals lance- Bhoib witb uil- 
eUte, abarp-poiutcd, spreading in fruit, as long as the ovoid cieMti. 


iM-aked lichl mnhnganr-olnred nbMHUvl; 1-c«>11ed cap- 
sulf ; hntlH-re iiearlv »» long an llip HlntlitiiU. — Low 
mndy nr"""'!", '-■ '■ t" Pla- (Tr.i|>. Am.) Fio. 67*. 

Vfir.plat7plitlluBWi.-gAii<l. L«aviH 
flat nr merely li>v.>luie aa in .f. teniii'-'; 
Auiiclea leu cariMituinouit, ort«n nenrly 
icariiina; cyme lioae. — Along lUe 
cuaBt, Mas*, to Tt-x. 

10. J. mUmm liOHtk. Scnpe slen- 
iler (O.^l 111. lii^li ) ; cyme tocHe, rUher 
few-flunered J fliiners preeiiiHli (3-4 
iiifQ. lung) ; setnlB and petals lancco- 
lal«, Hliarp-poinUd, eEp<-clall; tbo S 
sliiiiing Bepals; capsule beak-polo [«d, 

CiiUh ur liRlit brown ; anib<-rs •■ 
_ u the filnmenta ; «tyle consplcu- ^^^ j (etaemit. 
ous ; wrda (».e mm. Icn^) Irregu- i^A^nL,.^ « « 
larly obconlc, long-stlpttaEc. rlbberj ortaKtB. 
and cro«a-Ilii«d. — Low luually brack- 
i*h ground, DeL *nd Ho. to Flo. and La. Juns-SepL Fio. KTfi. 

11. J. VAiiyi EoRelm. Stems rigl.l (2.5-4 dm. high), densely tutted ; leavea 
nearly terete, very slightly channeled od the Inner side ; cyme 1-4 cm. Ioiir, 
often lojij^r than the involucral leaf ; Sowers few, often oiits- 
slded; capsule oblong, green isli ; sepals lanceolate, scute, sp- 
pressed; aiithen as long as lbs filaments; style very shnn 

seeda slender (1 

an. J. o 

long), the tails half as li<ng as 
tbedark body. — Damp thickets, ilioreH, eic, 
n. N. B. to Sask., B. to centr. Me., n. N. Y.. 
Mich., 111., la., and Col. July-Ang. Fio 

12. J. oronfiula Femald. SliiiiUr; of 
paler straw-color throughout ; the Iiillnres- 
cence elongate, 2.6-S dm. long, subdichuio- 
inous, the flowera secund abd disUuct along 
the Hecundsuberect branches; capeule oblons- 
trlgonous, truncate-emarglnate, the sides flat 
or a little concave toward the tip. much 
Bborti>r than the sfpnls ; seeds 1 mm. long, 
the tails ^ as long aa the 
body. — Thickets, Me., local. 
Fio. 677. 

\S. J. Gretnel Oakes 4 
■ Tucfcenn. Sleins rigid (2-8 
■ dm. high) ; leaves nearly 
f deeply channeled (almost involute) on the inner 
■Ids ; cyme 1-8 cm. long, usually much siiorter than the prin- 
cipal erect Involucral leaf, generally dense, the numerous 
flowem often one-sided (4-6 mm. long); sepals lanceolate, 
acute, light bronn, appressed ; antliers as long as the filaments ; 
style very short ; sreUs ovoid (0.5 mm. Inng), ribbed and deli- 
cately crosB-linrd. — Kaniiy or barren soil. Me. to VU and N. J. ; 
locally about the Great Lakes. June-Kr-pt. Fia. 578, 
• • Infti3reKenc4 appraring lalrral ; the tiwilucral leaf erect, 
limilar to and c<iiUiiiuing the nat^d acape; ieavet teantinff. ^'^^ J- Oneiwl. 
14. J. bilticos Willd , var. UttorftlU Rngelm. Scapes rigid i!^"!^" "* 
(0.3-1 m. Mgh); cyin.-s 1o.hc or denxe (l-U cm. long); flowers 
cbestnut-brown with gH'en ; sepalt ovale -lanceolate, sliarp-polnied, petals 
obtuslHh , capsule ellipHoidal, niUier tri^^lIular, obtuse and miicrimate. deep 
brown ; aotb«i* touch lunuer 'baa the bniad filaments ; style about the ieiigth 



5i». J. bftlt., T. lit 
iBfloreMcnca x %. 

580. J. fllifbrmis. 

of the ovary ; seeds rather laige (about 1 mm. long), nearly 
obtuse, delicately ribbed and crosa-lined. — Sandy (mostly 
brackish) shores, Nfd. to N. Y. and Pa.; the Great Lakes, and 
westw. Fio. 679. 

15. J. filif6nni8 L. Scape very slender (1.5-6 dm. high), 
pliant ; cyme few-flowered, almost simple ; flowers 3 mm. 
long ; sepals lanceolate, petals a little shorter and less acute, 
mostly longer than the obtuse greenish capsule ; anthers 
shorter than the fllaments ; style very short ; 
seed (0.5 mm. long) shortp-pointed at both 
ends, indistinctly reticulated. — Wet shores 
and bogs, Nfd. to Sask., Pa., Mich., Rocky 
Mts.,etc. Jime-Aug. (Eurasia, Patagonia.) 
Fio. 580. 

16. J. e£Nbu8 L. (Common or Soft 
Fraitiiiff flower X 8. Bi78H.) Scape soft and pliant (8-12 dm. 

high) ; inner sheaths awned ; cyme diffusely 
much branched, many-flowered ; prophyllum below the indi- 
vkiaal flowers broad-ovate; flowers small (2-2.5 mm. long), 
greenish ; sepals lanceolate, yery acute, as long as the narrow 
triangular-obovoid retuse and pointless greenish-brown capsule : inflorMoenoe x %. 
anthers as long as the filaments ; style very short ; seeds small g^ed x 25. 
(0.5 mm. long), with short pale points. — Marshy ground, very 
common. (Cosmop.) Var. compActus Lejeune & Courtois. Inflorescence 
dense, glomerulate. — Less common, except in N. S., where abundant. 

17. T. conglomer&tus L. Similar to tiie last ; scapes more rigid (8-7 dm. 
high), distinctly sulcate or even costate below the inflorescence ; ^omerule 1-2 

cm. in diameter ; prophyllum lanceolate ; flowers about 8 mm. 
long, brown or greenish; sepals somewhat exceeding the 
short-mucronate capsule; anthers shorter than the fila- 
ments. (J, Leersii Marsson). — Ditches, etc., Nfd. and N. S. 

18. J. Smithli Engelm. Scape rather slender (6-9 dm. 
high) ; cyme few-flowered, nearly simple ; sepals lanceolate, 
acute; petals a little shorter, obtusish, shorter than the 
broadly ovoid rather triangular acute deep chestnut-brown 
capsule ; anthers as long as the filaments ; style short ; seeds 
large (nearly 1 mm. long^, obtuse, short-appendaged at 
both ends, many-ribbed ana reticulated. (J, gymnocarpuB 
Coville). — Sphagnous swamps and wet woods, very local, 
Schuylkill Co., Pa. ; Walton Co., Fla. Fio. 581. 

§ 2. Flowers eprophyllcUSy i.e. with only the bractlet at base of the very short 


* Isecmes terete, scape-like^ not septate, 

19. J. RoemerUtnns Scheele. Scape stout and rigid (0.5-1.5 m. high), its 
apex as well as the leaves pungent ; cyme compound, open and spreading, 
brown; 8-6 greenish or light brown flowers (8-8.5 mm. long) in a cluster; 
sepals lanceolate, sharp-pointed, longer than the obtusish petals ; anthers much 
longer than the broad filaments ; styles shorter than the ovary ; seeds (0.7 mm. 
long) very delicately ribbed. — Brackish marshes, N. J. to Fla. and Tex. 

20. J. maritimuB Lam. Resembling the last, but with a rigid contracted green 
cyme, an ovary attenuate into a style of nearly its own length, a greenish acute 
capsole which usually exceeds the acute sepals, and seeds with distinct tails and 
stronger ribs. — Coney Island, N. Y. (Widely distr.) 

• • Leaves nodulose, i.e. vHth septa at regular intervals, 

21. J. Asper Engelm. Stems tufted, erect (0.4-1 m. high), terete, stout, 
rigid, and witii the rigid leaves rough; cyme with rigid slightly spreading 

gbay's makual — 18 

S8I. J. Smithli. 
iDHoresoeDce x%. 
Seed xSO. 



braiichea, bearing BCttttered rew(2-0)-flaw9red beads; 

flowers greenish with browa (,4.6 mm. long) ; aepala 

OTat«-lanctK>late, awl-polnUd, rigid and Btrongl; nerved, 

ghoiter tlian the Himllar petuls, tbese a little ahortet 

than Che triangular-ovold beaked incompletely 3-celled 

brown capsule ; ovary taper- 
i Ing inu> a conspicuouE style ; 

seeda Urge, eubcylindric, 
I nith white or often reddish 

appendages. {J. caetarien- 
I sit Coville), — Sphftgnoua 

swampe, b, N. J., very local. 

Aug.-Sept Fin. 582. 
22. J. brachycipholua 

(Engelin.)Buchenau. Stem 

slender (2.5-7 dm. high), 

bearing aumeroos small 3-.5- 

flowered heads In a large 
„. , , (0.6-2. & dm. long) spreaa- 

SSlSxi^ Isff or light brown; iepals i'^ o/ nflo««et,« x %. 

shorter than the petals and " 

the brown abruptly sbort--poin(ed capsule. (J. Mnodetwf*, var. Engelm.) — 
Matahea and wet shores, ii. Me. to Wise., a. to Ct., Pa., and 
111. July-Sept. Fio. 683. 

23. J. bievJcaudJittw (Kngelm.) 
Fernald. Stem slender (1.5-7 dm. 
iiigh), bearing few deep-brown 3-7- 
flowered heads in a somewhat erect 
contracted cyme (2.6-16 cm. long); 
Boweis2.6mm. long; sepals acute, the 
petals rarely obtusish, much shorter 
than the prismatic gradually pointed 
deep-hrown capsule. (/, caaadtntit, 
vara, brevicavdatna and coarctalia Kn- 
gelm.) — Muddy or damp places, Nfd. 
to OnL. W. Va., and Minn. June- 
Sept. Fio. 684. 
FLii J I \ A , 24. J. caoadinala J. Gay. Sterna ... . 

KH. j.i,™vi«iiauoi. tufted. Stout and rigid (4-12 dm. high), p^,. „ '„ 

noret«ii» •/,. (jj^^ing in a decompound somewhat p»""'I''*"™«»"'^''%- 
spreading cyme the numerous 6-60- s^"'^ 
flowered heads ; flowers greenish or light brown (2,6-3.6 mm. long) ; aepals and 
petals awl-pointed, mostly shorter than the abruptly short-pointed capsule ; aeeds 
conspicuously lail-poinled. — Marshy places. Nfd. to 
Minn., fia., and La. Aug.-Oct. (S. A.) Fio. 6S5. 

Var, subcanditus Engelm. Stem slender, often decum- 
bent (3-9 dm. high), bearing in simpler spreading cymes 
fewer S-20-flonered heads ; flowers greenish ; sepals awl- 
shaped, but not so rigid ; capsule mostly tapering; seeds 
with short while membranous appendages. — R. 1. to Pa- 
and Ga. — Perhaps specifically distinct. 

26. T. pelocirpus Me;. Stems slender (0.6-6 dm. 
high), oearing few thread-like slightly knotted leaves, 
branching above into a compound spreading cyme ; flow- 
era small (2.5 mm. long), greenish with red ; sep^ and 
petals oblong, obtuse, the petals longer, bat shorter than 
tbe slender taper-beaked l-^elled capsule; style alendtn-; 
seeds (0.6 mm. long) obovoid, short-pointed. — Saodj, 
vet or swampy places, Nfd. to M. J., Pa„ Hiun., ud 

CidS. J. p«1ucvpui. 
V%rt DtlDBonKsiiec > 
euia, proUwsBt n % 




SST. J. nbUIli. 

Ont Ang., Sept. —The proliferous planu ore ububJIj sterile and mucb larger, 
witb Iwger dlffnse panicles. Fio. 686. 

SB. J. adbtilia Mey. Creeping or Qoating, oapiUary, reddish, in water 

becoming 4 or 6 dm. long, nltli eloDgale capil* 
lary leaves, on shore forming roaettes (0.5-2 dm. 
broad) with a tuft oi primary leaves (2 or 8 cm. 
long) and repent branches bearing smali fasci- 
cies of small leavps and axillary or termina' 
flowers either sessile or short- 
ped uncled ; Sowers and capsule 
mnch as in preceding, but fila- 
nients longer. (J. peloearpug, 
Plantx^. FiDwsrxS. ^*^- Sngelm.) — Margins and 

shores of ponds and streams, 
N(d„ Qne., nnd He. Aug., SepL Fiq. EST. 

2T. J. bnlbiau L. Similar, bat with hardened bulbons 
hues, coarser babit, several-flowered glomerales, sharper sepala 
and petals, and blunt capsule. — Ma^ns and shores of ponds, 
■treams or pools (generally floating). — Lab., Nfd., and N. 8. 
(Ku., n. Afr., Pacific I.) Fio. 688. 

28. J. milHAria Bigel. Stem stont (3.&-e dm. h1^), from 
a thick creeping rootstoch, bearing a solitary stout erect le«f 
(3-7 dm. long) below the middle, which overtops the crowded 
and rather contracted oyme ; beads numerous, 5-12(rarel; 26)- ' 
flowered; flowers brownish (3 mm. long); sepals and petals 

lanceolate, the sepnis awl-polnted, as long as the nar- 
rowly-ovoid triangular taper-beaked 1-celled capsule; 
anthers longer than the fliameats; ovarjr attenuate 
into a slender style ; 
seeils (0.0 mm. long) 
globoae-obovoid, ob- 
tuse, abmptlypointed. ' 
— Margins of ponds 
and streams, N. 8. to 
n. N. r. and Ala.— 
Sometimes producing, 
in deep water, num- 
berless long capillary 
m T ...nii—i. submersed ieavea from 

~ the rootstock. Fro. 

HO. J. polyoapluhu. 

Put of InfloKKHiin X %. 

mehx. Stoat (0.6-1.3 n „ , , 

horizontal rootstock ; leaves laterally flattened 

(3-9 mm. wide) j cjine large (1-3 dm. long), gjed x»0 

spreading, beariDg many distant heads (nearly 

1 cm. In diameter); flowers 3.6 mm. long ; the subulate sepahi longer than die 

similar petals ; anthers about as long as the fllamenta. (_J. 

Klrpoidi$, var. Engelm). — Swamps, s. Va. to Fla. and Tex. 

Pio. 500. 

30. J. nodtMiia L. Stem erect (1.5-^ dm. high), slender, 
from a creeping thread-like and tuber-bearing rootstock, 
mostly with 2 or 8 slender leaves ; heads few or several, rarely 
■iugie, 8-20-liowered (T-11 mm. in diameter), overtopped by 
the involucral leaf; sepals nearly as long as tbe slender 
triangular taper-pcinted 1-celled capsule ; anthers oblong, 
shoner [ban Che filaments ; style very eliort ; seeds (0.6 mm. 
king) oboToid, abruptly mucronate. — Swamps and gravelly 
t«kB, e. Qoe. to Sast, a. lo Ya., EL, and Neb. July, Ang. hi. j. podoaui. 




UM. i.Twnyi. 

. J. iclipoldea 

tl. T. ToiTfejl Corflle. S\m\Ux to the lut ; stem stonter (0.4-1 m. Ugfat 

h thick leaves ; hetds few and Urge (1-1.6 cm. In diameter), 80-80-fluweiedi 

snthera linear, shorter than the fllanxucs. (J. nodottu, 

var. megacephaluf Ton.) — Low sandy hoU, Mhbs. to Baak., 

westw. and eouihw, Jiily-OcL Via. 6W. 

32. 1. bracbycirptu Engelm. Sum erect (4-8 dm. 
high), iroro a thick white horizontal rootstock, bsNiIng 
about 3 leaTea and 2-10 densely flowered spherical head* 
(T-ll mm. In diameter) In a slightly 
spreading crowded cyme much exceed- 
fug the Inrolucral leaf; flowers pale green 
/4 mm. long) ; aothers much shorter 
than the Hlamenla ; style very short ; 
seeds (D.8 mm. long) abruptly aplculate. 
— Damp light soil, Mass. to N. C. ; Ont. 
to Miaa and Tei. June-Aug. Fio. 693. 
, _._.,___(■ Ivim. Stem erect (2.6-B dm. high), 
rather slender, from a thick horizontal rootatock, beting 
about 2 terete leaves with wide and open sheaths, and a oyme 
of few or many densely flowered pale green Irregularly spheri- 
cal headx, much longer than the involucial leaf, its branches 
erect and often elongated; heads (0-13 ram. In diameter) 
15-10-flowered ; floweiB8-4mm.longi sepals and petals rigid, 
awl-flhaped and (eBpecially the sepals) bristly-pointed, at g^ j btmdiTmrt™ 
length pungent, as long as the stamens and nearly equaling infloIweeowK^L 
the obiong-triangnlar taper-pointed l-ce11ed capsule ; anthers prBldnc domr x a 
very small ; style elongaWd or very short ; seeds ovoid, 
abruptly pointed at each end (0.5 mm. long.) — Wet sandy soil, N. T. to Fla., 
Mo., and Tex. Jnly-Sept 

84. J. mesAciplLtliM M. A. Curtis. Stonier ; leaves lereta ; brancbas of the 
wmpact cyme short ; heads larger, spherical, 40-60-flowered ; flbwen 4 mm. 
long;sepatoand petals narrower and mor« sharply pointed, 
the sepals a little longer than the petals; stamens shorter 
and anthers longer than In the preceding, and seeds radier 
smaller and more slender. (^J, toirpofdea, var. echtnelxu 
Engelm.) — Va. (?) to Fla. 

85. J. acuminltiM Michx. Stems tufted, erect, slender 
(3-T dm, high), bearing about 2 leaves and a very loo«e 
spreading cyme; beads rather few and large (0.&-1 cm. 
broad), 5-many-flowered, greeuisli, at length strav-colored 
or darker ; sepals and petals lance-awl- 
shaped, abarp-pointed, equal, as long as 
the ovoid-prismatic sbort-poinied l.c^led 
Btraw-colored or light brown capsule : an- 
thers a little shorter than the filaments; 
style almost none; seeds small (0.3-O.4 
mm. long), acute at both ends, ribbed and 
rstlonlaled. — N. E. to Ga., Minn., and 
Tex. May-Aug. — Heads often prolifer- 
ous in autumn. (Mez.) Fia. 694. 
^__^„ 86. J. dibilia Gray. Stems slender 

(2-8dm.long), flaccid, erect, decumbent, 
or even rooting at the nodes ; heads green, 2-T-Sowered, in a 
loose cyme (0.&~2.6 dm. long); flowers small (2.6 mm. long); bkj. j. dabBk. 
capenle oblong-prismatic, sbort-nmcronate. (J. aevminatut, ya,r. tnflarMmm k %. 
Engelm.) — Wet sandy soil, R. L to Mo., and soulhw. May- prnltliiB Bower xl 
Aug^ Fra. 696. 

37. J. dtfhislssimns Buckley. Slenderandereot (2.5-fldm. high); headaraj 



IBT. J. robuMDi, 

Uneu'-iabnlkte sepslB ftod petab rabequklj ospmh llneu^ 
prlimUio. — Ind. to Oa. and Tax. Jnne, Julj. Pio. M6. 
S8. I, iDbAstva (Engetm.) CovUle. Stem itont, tail 
(0.6-1.5 m.), bearing S or 8 long 
erect diatlnctlj septate leaves, nnmei' 
_ , . OQB 5-S-flowered light brown heads 

\W } Im a large mnob bnncbed cyme (1-8 

\ ^ / dm. lone) ; OTold-prlsmatio oapeulea 

\ \ / ^^ ecarcely longer than the lepale ; seeda 

Ettgelm. ) — Deep swampa, 111. to La. 
and Tex. Jane, Joly. Fio. fi07. 

Se. J. alplnaa Vill. Stem erect 
or ellghtlj decumbent (0.5-8.6 dm. 
bigt), from a creeping R>0IMoak,irltb 
1 or 2 slender erect leaves ; OTme 
meager (1-16 cm. long), with erect . 

tnacbes bearing distant dark-bronn heads, each of 8-10 aj^?t gn 
B (3-2.6 mm. long) and ntmally with one or more 

flowera elevated on alender pedloele ; aepals oblong, obtuse, 
mucronate or cuspidate and umiallj longer than the roundea 
oblong petals, aa long as or shorter than the obtuse short- 
polntwl incompletelj 8-oelled castaneous capsule ; anthers as 
long as the fllamenta ; style short ; aeeda (0.6 mm. in length) 
- ■ "■ i-ehaped, — Wet shores and marshes, Arctic Am., e. to 
S. B., n. Me., n. Vt., Oneida Co., N. Y. (Babenr), 
and L. Superior. July, Aug. (Eurasia.) Fio. 606. 

Var. imtpiiii Fries. Similar, usually taller (eometimea 
6 dm, high) ; the flowers greenish or straw-color ; the capsule 
pale brown. (J. BteAardiotUaniu ScbnlCea.) — Sandy shoiea, 
etc., e. Que. to B. C, s. to 
oentr. Me., Pa., 0., Ind., 
m., etc. (Eoraala.) 

Var, fuscJBcens Fer- 
nald. Branches spreading- 
aaoendlng- glomerulee com- 
pactly ana r^ularly flow- 
ered, only ezoeptlonaUy 
rwxs. "itbanyM the greenish or 
Btraw-ooloredflo wera raised 
e pedicels. ~ Vl to B. C. and Ho. 
.. J. articnUtiis L. Stems (1.6-6 dm. 
Iil0),Ui(tedfiomaslK>rt creeping rootstock, 
with l-3slendet leaves; cyme short f 2-0 cm. 
long), spreading, the crowded heaos S-IO- 
towered ; flowers brown (2.6.^ mm. long) ; 
petals a little longer than the sepals, sborter 
than the slender^conlc Incompletely S-celled 
deepcheatnuE-brown shiningcai»u]e; anthers 
Mlongas thefllamentB; ovary attenuate into 

i»hort style ; seeds (0.5 mm. long) obovold, « __ w» 

attenuate below, abrupUy pointed above.— '"fl"™"™ >■ *■ rrqiu»giiow«"a 
Vet grounds. Nfd. to N. J., Ont., and Mich. July, Aug. (Eurasia.) Via. 600. 
Tar. obtositos Engelm. Inflorescence pale, usually larger (sometimes l.G 
dm. long), the green flowers smaller, the abruptly mucronate pale capsule 
riwrtei and duller. — Me. to Tf. J. and Vt., oftenest In brackish soil. 
* ■ ■ Leave* fiat and grau-like or filiform, not leptate. 


abont the length of the eheathing scariouB awl-pointed bract ; flowers pole and 
reddish ^8-4 mm. long) ; sepals lanceolate, acute; petals obtusish, f the length 
of the tngonoas^oToid acute or acuminate pale capsule (5-0 mm. long), as long 
as the slender stamens ; filaments many times longer than the oblong anthers ; 
recurved stigmas shorter than the style ; seeds oblong, with a very loose coat 
prolonged at both ends (2>2.5 mm. long). — Eurasia. 

Var. americinus Buchenau. Often taller (1-4.5 dm. high) ; heads 1 or 2; 
flowers larger (4.5-5.5 mm. long); the distinctly mucronate-tipped capsule 

longer ^6-9 mm. long) ; seeds 3-4 mm. long. — Peat-bogs, Lab. 
and Nfa. to Ont., s. to N. S., Me., N. T., Mich., and Minn., Yery 
local. July, Aug. (E. Prussia.) 

42. J. rdpens Michx. Stems ascending (0.5-2 dm. high) 
from a fibrous annual root, at length creeping or floating: 
leaves short, linear, those of the stem nearly opposite and 
fascicled ; heads few in a loose leafy cyme, 8-12-flowered ; 
flowers green (0.5-1 cm. long) ; sepals and petals rigid, lance- 
subulate, sepals as long as the linear triangular obtuse capsule, 
the petals much longer; stamens as long as the sepals; fil*- 
floo J repens nients much longer than the oblong anthers; seeds obovoid, 
iDfloi^nce X %. «l«hUy pointed, veiT delic^ly ribbed and cross-lined. — M^ 
"^ banks and ditches, Del. to Fla. and La. June-Oct. Fio. 600. 
43. J. marginitns Rostk. Stem erect, from a bulbous and stoloniferous 
base (2^7 dm. high) ; leaves linear ; heads 8-l2-flowered, in simple or compound 
cymes ; flowers purplish and green (3.5 mm. long) ; sepals and 
petals oblong, the sepals acute and slightly awned, petals longer, 
mostly obtuse, as long as the subglobose scarcely mucronate cap- 
sule ; stamens shorter than the sepals, early shriveling ; anthers 
shorter than the filaments ; style very short ; seeds (about 0.5 
mm. long) slender, pointed at both ends and strongly ribbed. — 

Moist sandy places. Me. to Ont, Neb., and 
southw. July-Sept. Fio. 601. 

Var. setbsns Coville. Similar to the species, 
but with lance-attenuate aristate petals. — «oi. J.iMMfMtD* 
Kan. to La. and Tex. Infloreseeoc* x ^ 

eoB. J. iristuktu.. ^.t^- J. axistuUtiM Michx. Comer (0.4-.lm. Fruiting iiow«ricl 
PruHiDg flower X 8. ^^S^)y the larger inflorescence (0.5-2 dm. high) 

with abundant 2-5-flowered brown heads ; stamens equaling or 
exceeding the sepals, persistent and usually exserted in fruiL («/. marginattu^ var. 
biflortis Engelm.) — Wet sandy barrens, Mass. to Mich., and southw., mosUy near 
the coast. Fio. 602. 

2. LtrZULA DC. Wood Rush 

Capsule 1-celled, 3-seeded, 1 seed to each parietal placenta. — Perennials, 
often hairy, usually in dry ground, with flat and soft usually hairy leaves, and 
spiked, crowded, or umbeled flowers. (From Gramen Ltusulae^ or Luxulae, 
diminutive of Zuz, light, — a name given to one of the species from its shining 
with dew.) Juncoioes [Dili] Adans. Juncodbs Etze. 

a. Flowers BoliUry at tbo tins of th« nltimftte branoh«s of the Infloresoenee. 

Inflorescence an umbel, the filifunn peduncles l(rsrely 2)-flowered; flow- 
ers 8-4.5 mm. lone 1. X. 9aitu€n»i: 

Inflorescence a loose decompound crme : flowers 2 mm. Ion; • . . S. £ parvi/larom 
S. Flowers crowded In spikes or glomertiles b» 

h. Flowers white 8. Zw nemorota. 

h. Flowers brown or strsw-colorod (rarely green in shade) c. 

c Flowers In dense nodding spike-like iianicle 0. Z>. ^picata, 

e. Flowers In mostly ped uncled glomerules d. 
d» Leaves flat, with blunt callous tips ; bracts at baa« of tb« flowers entire 
or merely lacerate. 

Flowers eastaneous (8) -^^ eamp4MrU, r./Hgid^ 

Flowers ferruginous, pale brown or yellowish. 

Rays all strongly ascending 6. £. eampestrit, r. mmit^flora. 

Bays (or some of them) strongly divergent . . (•>) L. eampe&trU, r. buibota, 
d. Leaves with Involute subulate tips ; bracts at base of flowers dilate- 

fimbriate i, Z, e^V^M. 


1. L. fialtoAiisis Fernald. Plant loosely caespitose, often stoloniferotus, 1-^ 
dm. high ; leaves lanoe-linear, hairy, the basal 0.5-1- cm. wide ; umbel mostly 
simple, the peduncles loosely ascending or spreading ; sepals and petals broadly 
lanceolate, pale brown or straw-colored, with hyaline margins, shorter than the 
oonic-o7oid pointed capsule ; seeds with a long curved appendage. (L, vernalU 
Man. ed. 6, not DC. ; J, pilosum Covllle, not Ktze.) — Woods and banks, Nfd. to 
Sask., N. Y., Mich., and Minn., and in the mts. to 6a. Apr., May. (E. Asia.) 

2. L. parvifl6ra (Ehrh.) Desv. Nearly smooth (1.6-9 dm. high); leaves 
broadly linear, the basal 7-13 mm. wide; corymb decompound, loose; pedicels 
drooping; sepals pointed, straw-color, about the length of the minutely pointed 
and brown (tardily black) capsule ; seeds not appendaged. (L, tpadUea^ var. 
mdanocarpa Mey.) — Low woods and mountain slopes. Lab. to Alaska., s. to 
N. B., Me., White Mts., w. Mass., n. N. Y., Great Lakes ; and in the Rocky Mte. 
June, July. (Eurasia.) 

3. L. nbmor6sa (Poll.) Mey. Loosely caespitose (4-8 dm. high); leaves 
long, linear, erect, more or less hairy, the basal 8-5 mm. wide ; inflorescence 
diffiosely corymbiform, 3-15 cm. long, the ultimate branchlets terminated b> 
3-8-flowered glomerules ; sepals and petals lanceolate, acute, the sepals dis- 
tinctly shorter, about equaled by the apiculate-beaked trigonous-ovoid dark 
capmle. — Open woods, Riverdale, N. Y. ; Niagara Falls, Ont. June, July. 
(Introd. from Eu.) 

4. L. confiiaa Lindeberg. Caespitose (0.6-8 dm. high) ; leaves linear, chan- 
neled; spikes 1-6, on unequal ascending or rarely recurved peduncles, ovoid, 
chestnut-brown, the largest 5-8 mm. thick ; sepals taper-pointed, longer than 
the obtuse capsule ; seeds not appendaged. (L. arcuata Man. ed. 6, not Mey. ; 
L. hpperhorea R. Br., in part.) — Alpine sum mite, Me., N. H., and far north w. 
July, Aug." (Eurasiiu) 

6. L. spiciita (L.) DC. I>ensely caespitose (1-6 dm. high) ; leaves channeled, 
narrowly linear ; flowers in sessile clusters, forming an interrupted spiked pan- 
ide, brown ; sepals bristle-pointed, scarcely as long as the abruptly short-pointed 
capsule ; seeds merely with a roundish projection at base. — Alpine regions, 
N. E. and n. N. Y., and far north w. June-Aug. (Eurasia.) 

6. L. camp^stris (L.) DC. Loosely caespitose and strongly stoloniferous 
(0.6^2 dm. high): leaves linear, flat, hairy; spikes 2-6, globose (6-7 mm. thick), 
irregularly umbeled, 1 or 2 subsessile, the others on wide-spreading or decurved 
peduncles ; flowers castaneous, 3 mm. long ; sepals bristle-pointed, longer than 
the obtuse capsule ; seeds with a conical appendage at base. — Eurasia. 

Yar. mnltifldra (Ehrh.) Celak. Densely caespitose (1.5-6 dm. high); spikes 
3-12, subgloboee or subcylindric (6-6 mm. thick), mostly on ascending or erect 
simple or slightly forked peduncles (sometimes congested) ; the ferruginous or 
pale brown (rarely green) calyx 2.6-8 mm. long, often equaled by the capsule. 
(L, campestris Am. auth., not DC.) — Fields, meadows, and open woods, very 
common, Nfd. to the Pacific, s. to Pa., Great Lakes, ete. Apr.-July. (Eur- 

Var. frfgida Buchenan. Similar to var. mxUtiflora^ but with the subglobose 
short-peduncled heads castaneous or nearly black. — Lab. and Nfd. to N. B. and 
Me. (N. Eu.) 

Var. bulbdsa A. Wood. Somewhat resembling var. multiflora, but with some 
or all of the rays divergent, and the base sometimes but not always producing 
small bulblets. (Juncoides Small.) — Woods, generally near streams, D. C. to 
Ind., Kan., and south w. 

LILlACSAS (Lilt Family) 

Herbs^ or rarely tooody plants, vfith regular and symmetrical almost always 
^-androus flowers ; the perianth not glumaceous, free from the chi^y S-^ielled 
cnary; the stamens 1 before each of its divisions or lobes (i e. 6, in one in- 
stance 4), with 2^ell€d anthers; fruit a few-many-seeded pod or berry ; the 
9maJU embryo inclosed in copious olbumen^ Seeds anatropous or amphitropous 


(orthotropouB in SmUaz). Flowers not from a spatbe, except in AJUium; the 
oater and inner ranks of the perianth colored alike (or nearly so) and generally 
similar, except in Trillium. 

Tribe I.' VAftTHBC^BAB. Flowers perilMt, smAll, Bpicate-noemose. FerUuith of 6 dltttnet Mr> 
menu. Style none ; eUgniA email, sUghtlj lobed or undirided. Fruit a loooliddel oepeole. 
1. HaitliecillilL Fllemente woolly. PerUnth-eegments Unear-laDoeolate, jeUowleh. CnMiik 
ahort-cyliDdrlo, ettennete, meny-eeoded. 

flibe n. HBLOSlXAB. Flowers (small) perfect or dioedons, raoemo-spleaie. Pertanth of 6 
dlstfnot segments. Styles 8, distinct Fmlt e locnllddal eapsale. 
S. Zeropliyllnm. Flowers perfect Seeds 3 in each cell. 

5. Welfliltot. Flowers perftet Seeds many in each cell, linear and with a tapering appeadige 

at each end. 

4. CIUUiiaeUriniiL Flowers dloecioas. Seeds nomeroas, somewhat wing^appeadaged at the 

Tribe m. yBSATSBAB. Flowers perfect or polygamonsly monoedons. Perianth of 6 neariy 
or qnite distinct segments. Styles 8, dlsUnct Fmlt a septicldal capsule. 

6. TofleMia. Flowers perfect. Anthers 2-celIed. Leayes S-ranked, equttant. 

e. AmlaiitMnm FlowcTS perfect Anthers confluently 1-eelled. LesTes seTersl-raaked. 

Perianth-segments glandless. 
T. BteiimthlnliL Flowers polygamous. Perianth-segments lanceolate, aoomiaate, glaadleas. 

Stem from a bnlboos base. 

8. ZygadenttS. Flowers perfect or monoedous. LeaTes seversl-ranked, linear. Perianth. 

segments glandular at the base, oyate or oblong. Stem glabroos. 

9. itfi««tiit«iw Flowers polygamo-roonoedoas. Stem pubescent aboye, from a mnnlog roo^ 

stock. Perianth-segments ftwe from the orary, their long daws adnata to the fflamenta. 

10. Yeratnun. Flowers polygamo-monoedous. Stem pubescent aboye, ttom. a ranning roo^ 

stock. Perianth-segments wlthont daws, slightly sdnate to the oyary. 

Tribe. IV. ^Fy^F'-4^^^* Flowers perfect Perianth-segments distinct Style 8<left to below 
the middle. Fruit a loeoUddal capsule. Flowers terminal or axillary. Stem leaiy. 

11. VTVlAria. Stem terete. Leayes perfoliate. Flowers terminal Capsule truncate, 8-lobed. 
19. Oaketia. Stem angled. Leayes sessile but not perfoliate. Flowers appearing oppoalte dM 

leayes. Capsule rounded or more or less pointed at the summit, acutdy 8-winged. 

Tribe y. A'^t"^* Flowers perfect, umbellate. Perianth-sefirments 6, neariy or quite distloet 
1-neryed. Style single, long ; stigma undeft, or only slightly 8-lobed. Fmlt a locnMdal 
capsule. Seeds few (1-7) in each cell. 

18. Ainmw Seeds 1-9 in each celL Plants with a strong odor. 

li. Vothoecordnm. Seeds seyeral in each cell Plants without strong odor. 

Tribe YL HJtmkOCALTJDRAlt. Flowers perfect Perianth-segments united below the middle 
into a Axnnd-shaped tube, not conspicuously roughened. Style single, long, dedlnad, WM 
deft. Frait a locnllddal capsule. 

16. HemerocaHit. Flowers IsTge. Perianth yellow or brownish-red. 

Tribe Tn. Ln.tBAK Flowers perfect Perianth-segments distinct, petalold. Style 
dongated, undeft Fruit a locnllddal capsule. Seeds numerous In each oelL Stem 
scaly bulb or from a corm. 
18. Uliuffl. Stem leaQr, from a scaly bulb. Seeds flattened. 

17. BnrtlirmliillL Stem a scape firom a solid bulb. Leayes 2, basal Seeds oboyold. 

Tribe Vm. SCflXBAB. Flowers perfect. Perianth-segments distinct and 8 s e fe ia l-nerred, e» 
united into an nreeolate short-toothed tube, not roughened externally. Style siagle, slender^ 
undeft. Fruit a locnllddal capsule. Stem scapose ttom a tunicate bulb. 

18. Camaaala. Flowers light blue, long-racemose. Filaments fUiform. Perianth segimjiita 


19. Onithogalam. Flowers greenish-white, sobcoryrabose. FQaments dQated. PerlsBth wg. 

ments distinct 
90. Mucftri. Flowers blue. Perianth gamophyDons, globoite-uroeolate ; limb short-tooChsd. 


Mto S. TftOCBAS. Jlowen peiibet, noemo-pftnksalAte. Perianth immptnntotd | Its Mgmentf 
(1vg«) disUnot or aomewhAt connate near the base. Fleshy 84obed stifoutophore nearly or 
quite sessUe. Frolt a locallddal capsule. Cells many-seeded. 
81. Tncca. Leafes sword-shaped, rigid. 

Tdte X POLTGOHAtBAB. Flowers perfect Btyle single, enttM or shortly a^eft at the 
lommlt. Fmlt a bwry. 

* Proper leaves rednoed to scarloas scales, the apparent (phyllodial) leayes fiUlbniL 

H AfpAngU. Btem excessively bruiehed. Flowers small, axlUary. 

* * Leaves neither scale-like nor flHform. 

4- Perlanth-s^gnaents distinct 

tt. CHntpnta. Scapose. Flowers nmbellate or subambellate. 
H fimflafiiw. Leaiy-stemmed. Flowers 6-parted, racemose or panicolata. 
SB. Maianthemiim. Low ; stem 1-8-leaved. Flowers 4-parted. 
tl IHspomffl. ]>aiy-stemmed. Flowers few In terminal umbels. 
I fl. Stzeptopua. LeaQr-stemmed. Flowers axillary on bent pedicels. 

i 4- -H Perianth-segments connate. 

I 18. Folyfoiuitnni. 8tem leaiy. Peduncles axillary, l>8-flowered. Perianth eylindrloai. 

I V. ConvallaxlA. Leaves sheathing the scape. Flowers racemose. Perianth bell-shaped. 

Mbe XL PARIdBAB. Flowers perfect Perianth-segments dletlnct Style-branches distinct 
! Fruit a berry. Canline leaves whorled. 

n. MddeoUli Canline leaves in % whorls. Flowers nmbellate. Styles flUform. 
II. TriUinm. Oauline leaves 8 in a tingle whorL Stylos short, thick, the stigmatie snrlkce 

I tribe Zn. ALklkBAB. Flowers perfect Perianth (small, white or yellow) gamophyllous, 

I ooasplcaously roughened. Style single, slightly deft at the summit Ovary partly inferior. 

I FmJt a loculicidal many-seeded capsule. 

I 88. Aletils. Scapose. Flowers in a splcate raceme. 

Tribe XnL SMZLAcBAB. Flowers dloedons, umbellate. Fruit baccate. Leaves net-veined. 
Tendrils usually present 
88. ftnlllT Periantu-segmenta disttnot, deciduous, small, greenish or yellowish. 


Ck flowers dioecious. 

Inflorescence umbellate ; fhiit a berry 88. Sxilaz. 

Inflorescence a splcate raceme ; fruit a pod 4. CHAiu.BLiuirM. 

& Flowers perfect or monoecious b. 
ft. Perianth gamophyllous, nrceolate or campanulate, with a shortly 
toothed Umb. 

Stem leaiy ; leaves ovate, oblong, or knceolate 28. PoLTOoirATrM. 

Stem scapoid, leafy only at the base. 

Leaves oblong ; perianth white 29. Convallabia. 

Leaves very narrow, lanceoUte to linear or terete. 

Perianth smooth, blue 20. Muboabl 

Porlanth roughened, white or yellow 82. Aunis. 

ft. Perianth deft at least to the middle or divided to the base e, 
e. Fruit a berry d. 
d» Oauline leaves whorled. 

Canline leaves 8, in a single involucre-like whorl . . .81. TuLuinf. 

Oauline leaves in 2 whorls 80. Mbdbola. 

d. Oauline leaves alternate or none. 

Leaves all basal 28. CLnrroiru. 

Beal leaves scale-like ; apparent leaves filiform . • • .22. Aspabaous. 
Leaves follaoeous. never filiform. 

Flowers 4-parted «... 26. MAiAirmBMim. 

Flowers 6-parted. 

Flowers racemose or paniculate 24. Smilaoiha. 

Flowers umbellate 28. Dupobum. 

Flowers axillary, solitary or in pairs 27. STBBPTOPirs. 

& FMt a capsule e. 
«. S^e none or very short and fleshy. (See also TWipa, p. 288) 

Flowers small ; leaves distichous 1. Nabthbcivm. 

now«val«ge;<leavea8everal-maDy-ra]iked 21, TirooA. 


«. Rtj1« or stylM fnifbrm /. 
/. Style single, entire or more or lees deeply parted 0u 
g. Style ^parted to below the middle. 

Leaves perfoliate ...•••••• 11. ITtvi^bia. 

Learee seselle. not perfoliate li. Oakmia. 

ff. Style entire or Biigbtly 8-Iobed at the sammlt k, 
h. Stem rblzomatoBe at the base . . • • • . .15. Himsbooalls 
h. Stem balboas at the base i. 

i. Bulb solid <a eorm) ; leaves S, basal . .... 17. Ertthsohiitm. 

i. Bulb soaiv ; stem leafy Itt. Laium, 

i, Bnib tanlcate. 

Perianth-segments 1-nerved. 

Herbage with the odor of onion 18. ALLiim. 

Herbage wlthoat strong odor 14. Notiiosookdum 

Perianth-segments S-soverat-nenred. 
Perianth bine ; filaments thread -like . . • .18. Camassia. 
Perianth greenlsh-whito; filaments broad . . .19. ORNiTuoaALtm 
/ Styles 8, distinct to the base J. 
J, Stigmas linear. 

Perianth -segments purplish ; seeds many in each cell . . 8. Hxloiviab. 
Perianth-segments white ; seeds 2 in eacli cell ... 8. XsKOPHTLLiTif . 
J, Btfgmas terminal. 

Anthers 2-ceUed 6. Topibldla. 

Anthers confluently l-celled. 
Stem pubescent. 

Perianth-segments clawed 9. MtLAHrniUH. 

Perianth-segments essentiaHy sessile . • . .10. Ybratbum. 
Stem glabrous. 
Perianth-segments glandular near the base ... 8. Ztoadsxcs. 
Perianth-segments not glandulsr. 

Flowers polygamous 7. SmiAirrRfrM. 

Flowers perfect d. Amiahthivm. 

1. NARTH^IUM [Mohrlng] Juas. Boo Asphodel 

Sepals 6, Hnear-lanceolate, yellowish, persistent. Anthers linear, fntrone. 
Seeds ascending, appendaged at each end with a long bristle-form tail. — Root- 
stock creeping, bearing linear equitant leaves, and a simple stem or scape termi- 
nated by a simple dense bracteate raceme ; pedicels bearing a linear bracUet. 
(Name an anagram of Anthericumy from dvOdpiKosj supposed to have been the 

1. N. americAnum Ker. Stem 2.5-4 dm. high; leaves 0.7-1.6 mm. wide, 
7-0-ner7ed ; raceme dense (2-5 cm. long) ; perianth-segments narrowly linear 
(4-5 ram. long), scarcely exceeding the stamens. (^Abama Morong.) — Sandy 
bogs, pine-barreDS of N. J. June, July. 

2. XBROPHtLLUH Michx. 

Perianth widely spreading ; sepals petal-like (white), oval, distinct, without 
glands or claws, 5-7-nerved, at length withering, about the length of the awl- 
shaped filaments. Anthers 2-celled, short, extrorse. Styles thread-like, stig- 
matic down the inner side, persistent. Capsule globular, .3-lobed, obtuse (small). 
Seeds collateral, t3-angled, not margined. — Herb with the stem simple, from a 
thick tuberous rootstock, bearing a simple dense bracteate raceme of showy 
flowers, and thickly beset with needle-shaped leaves, the upper reduced to 
brisUe-like bracts ; those from the root in a dense tuft, reclined, rough on the 
margin, dry and rigid. (Name from ^7ip6s, arid^ and ^i^XXop, leaf.) 

1. X. asphodeloidea (L.) Nutt. Stem .S-12 dm. high. (X setifolium Michx.) 
—Pine-barrens, N. J. to e. Tenn., and Fla. June. 


Perianth of 6 spatulate-oblong purple segments, persistent, severai-nerved, 
glandless, turning green, shorter than the thread-like filaments. Anthers 
2-celled, roundish-oval, blue, extrorse. Styles revolute, stigmatic down the 
inner side, deciduous. Capsule obcordately S-iobed, loculicidsdly 3-valved ; the 
ralves divergently 2-lobed. — A smooth perennial, with many oblong-spatulate 

LttiiACBAB (lily family) 288 

or oblanceolate evergreen flat leaves, from a tuberoas rootstock, prodndng in 
early spring a stout hollow sparsely bracteate scape (8-6 dm. high), sheathed with 
broad bracts at the base, and terminated by a simple and short dense raceme. 
Bracts obsolete ; pedicels shorter than the flowers. (Name probably from IXot, 
a twampf the place of growth.) 
1. fiL bullita L. — Wet places, s. N. Y., and e. Pa. to Va., rare snd local 

4. CHAMAELtRirrH Willd. Detil's Bit 

Perianth of 6 spatulate-linear (white) spreading 1-nerved sepals, wlthering- 
piesistent. Filaments and (white^ anthers, as in Helonias; fertile flowers 
with rudimentary stamens. Styles Imear-club-ehaped, stigmatic along the inner 
side. Capsule ellipsoid, not lobed, of a thin texture, loculicidally 3-yalved 
from the apex. Seeds linear-oblong. — Smooth herb, with a wand-like stem 
from a (bitter) thick and abrupt tuberous rootstock, terminated by a wand- 
like spiked raceme (1-3 dm. long) of small bractless flowers ; fertile plant more 
leafy than the staminate. Leaves flat, lanceolate, the lowest spatulate, tapering 
into a petiole. (Name formed of x^l^^i on the ground^ and Xe/pioi^, lily^ the 
genus having been founded on a dwarf undeveloped specimen.) 

1. C. Idteom (L.) Gray. (Blazing Star.) Stem 8-12 am. high; fruiting 
T^icels\-b mm. long; capsule 7-10 mm, long, ((7. carolinianum Willd.) — 
Low grounds, w. Mass. to Fla., w. to Mich., Neb., and Ark. June. 

2. C. obovile Small. Similar ; flowers larger ; fruiting pedicels about equal- 
ing the larger (12-14 mm. long) capsules. — Woods, N. Y., N, J.; and in the 
mts. from W. va. to N. C. and Ala. — Species not seen. 

6. TOFliLDIA Huds. Falsb Asphodbl 

Perianth more or less spreading, persistent; the sepals (white or greenish) 
concave, oblong or obovate, without claws, 8-nerved. Filaments awl-shapea ; 
anthers short, innate or somewhat introrse, 2-celled. Styles awl-shaped ; stig- 
mas terminal. Seeds oblong, horizontal. — Slender perennials, mostly tufted, 
with short or creeping rhizomes, and simple stems leafy only at the base, bearing 
small flowers in a close raceme or spike. Leaves 2-ranked, equitant, linear, grass- 
like. (Named for Mr. Tojieldy an obscure English botanist of the 18th century.) 

* CHabroua; pedicels solitary, in a short raceme or head; seeds not appendaged, 

1. T. p&lfistris Huds. Scape leafless or nearly so (6-19 cm. high), slender, 
l)earing a globular or subcylindric head or short raceme of whitish flowers ; leaves 
tufted, 2-4 cm. long. — Gasp^ Co., Que., to Minn., and north w. (Greenl., Eu.) 

* * Stem and inflorescence pubescent ; pedicels f abided in threes; seeds caudate, 

2. T. glutin5sa (Michx.) Pers. Stem (1.5-4.5 dm. high) and pedicels very 
glutinous with dark glands: leaves broadly linear, short ; perianth not becom- 
ing rigid ; cai>sule thin ; seeds with a contorted tail at each end. — Moist grounds, 
Md. to centr. Me., III., Minn., north w. and westw. ; alsos. In the AUeghenies. 
June, July. 

3. T. racembsa (Walt. ) BSP. Stem (3-9 dm. high) and pedicels roughened 
with minute glands; leaves longer and narrower ; perianth rigid about the firm 
capsale ; seeds with a short white appendage at each end. {T.pubens Michx.) 
— Pme-barrens, N. J. to Fla. and Ala. July. 

6. AMIAnTHIUM Gray. Fly Poison 

Perianth widely spreading ; the free white segments oval or obovate, without 
daws or glands, persistent. Filaments capillary. Anthers, capsules, etc., nearly 
as in Melanthium. Styles thread-like. Seeds 1-4 in each cell. — Glabrous, with 
simple stems from a bulbous base or coated bulb, scape-like, few-leaved, termi- 
nated by a simple dense raceme of handsome flowers, turning greenish with age. 
(Prom dfdarros, unspotted, and dv0ot, flower; a name formed with more regiud 
to euphony than to good constraction, alluding to the giandless perianth.) 


1. A. maacMUbdciuii (Walt} Gray. (Flt Poisoir.) Lwoe$ broadJfg linear^ 
elongated, obtuse (4-27 mm. wide); reiceme simple; capBole abraptly 3-bomed. 
seeds oblong witb a fleeby red coat. {Chroepwma Ktze.) — Open woods, L. L 
to Fla», w. to Ky. and Ark. Jane, July. 

T. STENlHTHIUM (Gxay) Knnth. 

Perianth spreading ; the sepals narrowly lanceolate, tapering to a point trom 
the broader base, where they are coherent to the base of the ovary, much longer 
than the short stamens. Seeds nearly wingless. — Smooth, with a wand-like 
leafy stem from a bulbous Imubc, long and grass-like condupUcate-keeled leaves, 
and nomerous smi^ flowers in compound racemes, forming a long termina« 
panicle ; flowering in summer. (Name composed of o-rei>6f, luirrofO, and Antfot, 
fiower^ from the slender sepals and panicles.) 

1. S. gramfnenm (Ker) Kunth. Stem leafy (1-1.6 m. high), slender; leaves 
4-10 mm, broad; panicle elongated, very open, with slender flezuons branches 
or snbsimple ; flowers nearly SMiie or the fertile on short pedicels ; sepals linear* 
lanceolate (white), 4-8 mm. long; capsule mostly reflexed, narrowly oblong- 
ovate, with spreading beaks. {8. angustifolium Kunth.) — In the Alleghenies 
from Va. to (9a., westw. to Mo. S. robi^stum Wats., separated on its stonier 
habit, dense panicle, broader leaves, and erect capsule, is doubtfully distinct. 

8. ZTGAdBNUS Michx. 

Flowers perfect or polygamous. Perianth withering-persistent-, spreading: 
the petal-like oblong or ovate sepals 1-2-glandular near the more or less narrowed 
but not nnguiculate base. Stamens free from the sepals and about their length. 
Anthers, styles, and capsule nearly as in Melanthium, Seeds angled, rarely at 
all margined. — Smooth and somewhat glaucous perennials, with rather large 
panided greenish- white flowers in summer. TName composied of ^fy6t, a yoke^ 
and 43i^r, a glands the glands being sometimes in pairs.) 

* Stem from a creeping rootstoek ; 2 eonapicuoHe orbietUar glands on each divi- 

sion of the perianth above the daw. 

1. Z. glabftrrimns Michz. Stems 3-0 dnu high ; leaves grass-like, channeled, 
conspicuously nerved, elongated, tapering to a point ; panicle pyramidal, many- 
flowered ; flowers perfect ; sepals nearly free (12 mm. long), ovate, becoming 
lanc^-ovate, with a short claw. — Grassy low grounds, Va. to Fla. and Ala. 

* * Stem from a more or less btUbous base; glands less obvious^ covering the 

base of the perianth-segments, 

8. Z. ehlorinthas Richards. Stem 8-9 dm. high; leaves flat, carlnate; 
raceme simple or sparingly branched and few-flowered; bracts ovate-lanceolate ; 
base of the perianth coherent with the base of the ovary ^ the thin ovate or obo- 
vate sepals marked with a large obcordate gland^ the inner abruptly contracted 
to a broad claw. (Z. elegans of anth., not Punsh.S — Calcareous soils, Gaspd Ck>., 
Que., to Man., south w. to n. N. B., n. Vt., n. N. x., n. O., n. III., and (?) Mo. 

8. Z. NuttAUii Gray. Like the last ; raceme rather densely flowered, with 
narrow bracts ; perianth free ; sepals with an HUd^ned gland at base, not at 
all clawed ; seeds larger (6 mm. long). — Kan. to Tex. 

4. Z. leimanthoides Gray. Stem 7-15 dm. high, slender; leaves narrowly 
linear ; flowers small (8 mm. in diameter) and numerous, in a few crowded pan- 
ioled racemes ; only a yellowish spot on the contracted base of each division of 
the free perianth. — Low grounds, pine-barrens, L. I. to Ga. 

9. kelAnthium L. 

Perianth of 6 separate and free widely spreading somewhat heart-shaped ot 
oblong and halbeid-shaped or oblanceolate sepals, raised on riender dawa^ 
oream-colored or greenish. Filaments shorter tluui the divisions of the periantlk 


adheriDg to their elswi often to near the summit, persistent. Anthers beart- 
ihaped or kidney-shaped, conflaently 1-celled, shield-shaped after opening, 
extrorse. Capsule ovoid-conical, 8-lobed, of 3 inflated membranaceous sevenu- 
seeded carpels ; seeds flat, broadly winged. — Stems tall and leafy, from a thick 
lootstock, roughish-downy above, as well as the open and ample pyramidal pan- 
icle (composed chiefly of simple racemes), tbe terminal part mostly fertile. 
Leaves linear to oblanceolate or oval, not plaited. (Name composed of fUXas^ 
Mack^ and Ar^, flower^ from the darker color which ^e persistent perianth 
aasomes after blossoming.) 

^ P^anthr4ivi8(o¥is uoUh a coti8picw>u8 double gland at tJie gummU of the daw. 

1. M. Tirglnicnm L. (Bunoh-flowbr.^ Stem 8-16 dm. high, leafy, rather 
slender; leaves linear (1-3 cm. wide); divisions of the perianth flat, ovate to 
oblong or slightly hastate (5-8 mm. long); capsule 1.4 cm. long ; seeds 10 in 
each cell, 4-6 mm. long. — Wet meadows, ** R. L,** N. Y. to Minn., Tex., and 

2. M. lati^lium Desr. Le<tves more oblanceolate, often 6 cm. broad ; dlvi* 
sions of the perianth undulate ^6 mm. long), the very narrow claw nearly 
equaling the orbicular or ovate olade ; capsiUe 12-16 mm. long, on pedicels 
8-18 mm. in length ; seeds 4-8 in each cell, 6-8 mm. long. (AT. rtteemoeum 
Michx.)— CUtoS. C. 

Var. longipedicelUtnm A. Brown. Leaves somewhat narrower; pedicels 
8-2.6 cm. long. — Wooded slopes, w. Va. (Judge Brown), 

* * Perianth-divisions oblanceolate, without glands, 

8. X. parrifl^mm (Michx.) Wats. Stem rather slender (0.6-1.6 m. high), 
sparingly leafy, naked above; leaves oval to oblanceolate (6-10 cm. viride), on 
long petioles ; perianth-divisions 4-6 mm. long, oblanceolate or spatulate, those 
of the sterile flowers on claws ; stamens very short ; capsule 1.6 cm. long ; 
seeds 4-6 in each cell, 6 mm. long. {Veratrum Michx.) — In the AUeghenies* 
Va. to 8. C. 

10. VEfiAXRUX [Toum.] L. Falsb Hblleborb 

Perianth of 6 spreading and separate obovate-oblong (greenish or brownish) 
divisions, more or less contracted at the base (but not clawed), nearly free from 
the ovary, not gland-bearing. Filaments free from and shorter than the sepals, 
recurving. Anthers, pistils, fruit, etc., nearly as in Melanthium, —Somewhat 
pubescent perennials, with simple stems from a thickened base producing coarse 
flbrous roots (very poisonous), 8-ranked plaited and strongly veined leaves, 
and racemed-panicled dull or dingy flowers; in summer. (Name from vers, 
truly, and ater^ black.^ 

1. V. Tixide Ait. (Ambbioan Whitb Hellbborb, Indiav Pokb.) Stem 
wtout^ very leafy to tne top (6-20 dm. high); leaves broadly oval^ pointed, 
^hetOhrclasping ; panicle pyramidal, tbe dense spike-like racemes spreading ; 
perianth yellovoishrgreenj moderately spreading, the segments ciliate-^errulate ; 
ovary glabrous : capsule many -seeded. — Swamps and low grounds. 

2. V. W0(6du Bobbins. Stem slender, sparingly leafy (8-14 dm. high); 
leaves oblanceolate, only the lowest sheathing ; panide very narrow ; perianth 
greeniih-purple, wUh entire segments ; ovary tomentosp, soon glabrate ; capsule 
few-oeeded. —Woods and hilly barrens, s. Ind. to Mo. 

11. UVULArIA L. Bbllwobs 

Perianth narrowly bell-shaped, lily-like, deciduous ; the 6 divisions spatulate- 
lanoeolate, acuminate, obtusely gibbous at base, with a deep honey-bearing 
groove within bordered on each side by a callus-like ridge. Stamens much 
shorter, barely adherent to their base. Capsule truncate, coriaceous, 3-lobed, 
locnlioidal at the summit. Seeds few in each cell, obovoid, with a thin white 
aaH. — Stems terete, from a short rootstock with fleshy roots, naked or scaly at 
base, forking above, bearing oblong perfoliate flat and membranaceous leaves 


with smooth maigins, and yellowish drooping flowers, in spring, aolitaiy on ter- 
minal peduncles. (Name ** from the flowers hanging like the uvula^ or palate/*) 

1. U. perfoliita L. Qlaucaus throughout, 2-5 dm. high, with 1-^ leaves 
below the fork ; leaves glabrous, oblong- to ovate-lanceolate, acute ; perianth- 
segments granular-pubescent toUhin (1.8-3.6 cm. long) ; stamens shorter than 
the styles; tip of the connective acuminate: cells of the capsule with 2 dorsal 
ridges and 2-beaked at the apex. — Rich wooas, e. Mass. to Ont., Dak. and south w. 

2. U. ffandiflbra Sm. Yellowish green, not glaucous ; stem naked or with 
a single leaf below the fork ; leaves whitish-pubescent beneath, usually some- 
what acuminate ; perianth-segments smooth within or nearly so (2.&-4.5 cm. 
long); stamens exceeding the styles, obtusely tipped; capsule obtusely lobed. 
{U.Jiava Sm.) — Rich woods, w. N. H. to Ga., westw. to Minn, and Kiui. 

IS. OAKftSIA Wats. 

Flowers resembling those of Dvularia, but the segments obtose or acatisb, 
earinately gibbous and without ridges within. Capsule membranous, elliptical, 
acutish at each end or shortly stipitate, triquetrous and acutely winged, very 
tardily dehiscent. Seeds globose, with a very tumid spongy rhaphe. — Stem 
acutely angled, from a slender creepini? rootstock, with sessile clasping leaves 
scabrous on the margin, and 1 or 2 flowers terminal on slender pedtmcles bat 
soon appearing opposite the leaves by the growth of the branches. (Dedicated 
to miliam Oakes, New England botanist, 1799-1848.) 

1. 0. sessilifdiia (L.) Wats. Leaves lance-oblong, acute at each end^ pale, 
glaucous beneath, sessile or partly clasping; divisions of the perianth 1.4-2.5 
cm. Ions; anthers obtuse; capsule short-stipitate, 1.2-2 cm. long. (Uvularia 
L.) — Woods and thickets. 

2. 0. pub^mla (Michx.) Wats. Slightly puberulent; leaves bright green 
both sides and shining, oval, mostly rounded at base, with rougher edges; 
styles separate to near the base, not exceeding the acute anthers ; capsule not 
stipitate, 2-2.5 cm. long. (Uvularia Michx. ; O. sessilifoUa, var. nitida Britton.) 
— Pine-barren swamps and mountain woods, N. J. to S. C. 

18. Allium [Toum.] l. Onion. Garlio 

Perianth of 6 entirely colored sepals, which are distinct, or united at the very 
base, l-nerved, often becoming dry and scarious and more or less peisistent; 
the fllaments awl-shaped or dilated at base. Style persistent, thread-like ; 
stigma simple or only slightly 3-lobed. Capsule lobed, loculicidal, 8-Talved. 
with 1-2 ovoid-kidney-shaped amphitropous or campylotropous black seeds 
in each cell. — Strong-scented and pungent herbs; the leaves and usually 
scapose stem from a coated bulb; flowers in a simple umbel, some or all oi 
them frequently replaced by bulblets ; spathe scarious, 1-2-valved. (The an- 
cient Latin name of the Garlic.) 

Ovftrj not eroBted. 
Capsule Btrongly 8-lobed, oells l-ovuled ; leares elUpttc-bnceoUite, 2-5 em. 

brcMd \» A, 

Oftp«ol« oroM to oboTold, sU^tly lobod ; oells IMoTeral-oruIed ; leayes 
linear or terete. 
Umbel csptute ; the pedicels shorter than or little exceeding the peri- 
anth S. il. 

Umbel open (except when as in ^. onnad^nse and A. vinaaU the 
flowers are more or lo»s replaced by BesMlo bulblets) ; the pedicels 
much exceedlDg the perianth. 
Stem leafy to or above the middle ; bulb-coats flbro-membranous, not 

strongly reticulated 8. ii.WiMo/a. 

Stem leafy only near the base ; bulb-€fMit« In age stronglr nott^. 
Umbel few-howered, nearly always^ converted [lartiany or wholly 

Into an ovoid IncloMHl hood of buIbletA B. A. cana^tsnM 

Umbel many-flowered ; bulbletjt none 1, A. mutabife. 

Ovary and capsule conspicuously crested. 

Umbel nmlding 8. J. e€mvunt» 

Umbel erect; stamens and style exserted 4. A. atsUatum. 

Umbel araet; 'Stamens and style in^odMl ^ A»rff4culatum 


1. A tric6ocaiii Ait. (Wild Lebk.) ScAjpe (1.6-4 dm. high, from clustered 
pointed bulbs 8.5-5 cm. long) bearing an erect many-flowered umbel ; leaver 
10-23 cm. long and 3-^ cm. tffide ; segments ot the perianth oblong (greenish 
white), equaling the nearly distinct filaments ; capsule strongly Z-lobed. — Rich 
woods, N. fi. to Minn, and la., a. in the mts. to N. C. — Leaves appearing in 
early spring and dying before the flowers are developed. 

2. A Schoen^rasum L., var. sibiricum (L.) Hartm. Scape (2-4 dm. high) 
bearing a globular capitate umbel of many rose-purple flowers ; segments of the 
perianth lanceolate, pointed, longer than the simple downwardly dilated fila- 
ments ; leaves awl-ahapedy hollow ; capsule not etched. — Ledgy shores, Nfd. to 
Alaska, s. to N. S., n. N. £., the Great Lake region, etc. (Eurasia.) — The typi- 
(^ form of the species (the Chives of vegetable gardens; is a lower and more 
slender but not sharply separable plant. 

3. A. c6muum Roth. (Wild Onion.) Scape angular (2.5-6 dm. high), 
nodding at the apex, bearing a loose or drooping few-many-Jlowered umbel; 
leaves linear, flattened, sharply keeled (S dm. long); segments of the perianth 
oblong-ovate, acute, rose-color to purple, shorter than the slender filaments 
and style ; c<Q>sule d-crested. (? A. allegheniense Small.) — N. Y. to S. C, and 

4. A. stelUtnm Eer. Scape terete (3-5 dm. high), slender, bearing an erect 
umbel ; bulb^oats membranous ; capsule prominently ^crested. — Rocky slopes, 
Minn, to w. 111., Mo., and westw. 

5. A. reticuUtum Don. Scape 1-1.8 dm. high ; bulbs densely and coarsely 
fibrous-coated; spathe 2-valved ; umbel rarely bulbiferous; sepals ovate to 
narrowly lanceolate, thin and lax in fruit, a third longer than the stamens ; 
capsule crested, — Sask. to la. and N. Mex. 

6. A. canad^nse L. (Wild Garlic.) Scape 3 dm. high or more ; bulb 
small (1.2-1.8 cm. in diameter); bulb-coats somewhat fibrous; umbel densely 
bulbiferous, the flowers few or often none; segments of the perianth narrowly 
lanceolate, equaling or exceeding the stamens ; capsule not crested. — Moist 
meadows,- N. B. to Ont., s. to Fla. and Tex. May, June. 

7. A. mutibile Michx. Similar in stature, habit, and flowers to preceding ; 
umbels not normally bulb^feroua, many(16-43)-flowered ; bulbs iS cm. in 
diameter. — Prairies and borders of woods, Mo. (Bush.^ to Fla., Tex., and Neb. 

8. A vineXle L. (Field Garlic.) Stem slender (3-9 dm. high), clothed 
with the sheathing bases of the leaves below the middle; leaves terete and 
hollow, slender, channeled above ; umbel often densely bulbiferous ; filaments 
much dilatedy the alternate ones cuspidate on each side of the anther. — Moist 
meadows and fields, locally abundant, Mass. to Mo., and Va. June. (Nat. from 

14. N0TH0SC6RDUM Konth. 

Flowers greenish or yellowish white. Capsule oboyoid, somewhat lobed, 
obtuse, with the style obscurely jointed on the summit; cells several-ovuled 
and -seeded. Filaments filiform, distinct, adnate at base. — Bulb tunicated, 
not alliaceous. Otherwise as in Allium. (Name from v6$os, false, and ffK6pdtoy, 

1. N. birAlre (L.) Britton. Scape 1.5-8.5 dm. high; bulb small, often 
bulbiferous at base ; leaves narrowly linear ; flowers few, on slender pedicels, 
the segments narrowly oblong, about 1 cm. long ; ovules 4-7 in each cell. {N, 
striatum Kunth.) — Prairies and open woods, Va. to O., Neb., and southw. 

15. HEHSROCAlLIS L. Dat Lilt 

Perianth funnel-form, lily-like ; the short tube inclosing the ovary, the 
spreading limb 0-parted ; the 6 stamens inserted on its throat Anthers as in 
IMium, but introrse. Filaments and style long and thread-like, declined and 
aaoonding; stigma simple. Capsule (at flrst rather fleshy) 3-angled, locult- 
cidally 3-valyed« with several black spherical seeds in each cell. -^ Show^ 

288 LUilACBAB (lily FAMILY) 

perennials, witb fleshj-HbrooB roots ; the long and linear keeled leaves S-ranked 
at the base of the tall scapes, which bear at the sommit seyeral bracted and 
large floweis ; these colli^we and decay after expanding for a single day (whence 
the name, from li/tdpa, a day^ and cdXXos, beatUy.) 

1. H. ft^LVA L. (CoMMoif D.) Inner diTlsions (petals) of the tawny orange 
perianth wavy and obtnse. — Roadsides, escaped from gardens. (Introd. from 

16. LfUUM [Toum.] L. Lilt 

Perianih fannel-form or bell-shaped, colored, of 6 divlsionB, spreading or 
recurved above, decidnoos. Anthers linear, extrorsely attached near the 
middle to the tapering apex of the long filament, which is at first inclnded, at 
length vexsatile ; the cells dehiscent by a lateral or slightly introrse line. Style 
elongated ; stigma 3-lobed. Capsnle subcylindric ; seeds densely packed in 2 
rows in each cell. Bulbs scaly, producing simple stems, with numerous alternate- 
scattered or whorled narrow sessile leaves, and from one to several large and 
showy flowers in summer. (The classical Laiin name, from the Greek XtlptowS) 

* Flowers erect; sepals narroteed below into claws; btUbs not rhizomataus, 

1. L. philad^lphicnm L. (Wild Ora nob-red L., Wood L.) Stem 4-0 
dm. high ; leaves linear-lanceolate, chiefly whorled ; flowers 1--3, open-bell- 
shaped, reddUK-orange, spotted with purplish inside ; the lanceolate segments 
little or not at all recurved at the obtusish or shortly acuminate summit ; pod 
somewhat rounded at base. -* Dry or sandy ground, N. £• to Ont. and N. C. 
—Separated by no constant character from 

Var. andlnum (Nutt ) Ker. Leaves, all but the uppermost, scattered ; peri- 
anth divisions mostly ^p red ; pod attenuate at the base. (JL umbelUUum 
Pursh ; L. lanceolatum Fitzpatrick.) — Rich soil of prairies, ana In bogs, Ont. 
and O. to Ark., and north westw. 

2. L. CatesbaAi Walt (Southerw Red L.) Leaves linear-lanceolaU^ 
scattered; flower solitary, open-bell-shaped, the laige and long-clawed divisions 
of the perianth wavy on liie margin and recurved at the caudate-attenuate sam- 
mit, scarlet, spotted with dark purple and yellow inside ; bulb-scales thin, narrow 
and leaf-bearing.— Pine-barrens, N. C. to Fla., w. to "Ky.," ''a. SI.,** and 
" Mo." 

* * Flowers nodding; sepals sessile; bulbs rhizomatous. 

8. L. sup^rbnm L. (Tcrk*s-cap L.) Stem 9-23 dm. high ; lower leaves 
whorled, lanceolate, attenuate at both ends, 8-nerved, smooth ; flowers (8-^) in 
a pyramidal raceme ; perianth-divisions (7--8 cm. long) strongly revolute, orange, 
with numerous dark purple spots inside. — Rich low grounds, N. B. to Va., w. 
to Minn, and Mo. 

4. L. caroliniJlnnm Michz. Nearly related to the preceding and with Tery 
similar flowers ; stem 4-7 dm. high, 1-3 flowered ; leaves obovate to oblaneeO' 
late, obtusish or short-acuminate, — Borders of mountain woods, Va. (^8maU)f 
and south w. 

6. L. canad^nse L. (Wild Yellow L.) Stem 6-20 dm. high; leaves 
remotely whorled, lanceolate, strongly d-nerved, the margins and nerves rough; 
flowers long-peduncled, narrowly bell-shaped, the perianthrdivisions (5-8 cm. 
long) recurved-spreading above, yellow or orange, usually spotted with brown. — 
MoUt meadows and bogs, e. Que. to Ga., w. to Mo., Minn., and Ont. 

6. L. Grkji Wats. Stems 6-0 dm. high ; leaves in whorls of 4-8, lanceo- 
late, acute or slightly acuminate, smooth ; flowers 1 or 2, nearly horizontal, the 
perianth-divisions (8.6-6 cm. long) but little spreading above the racier broad 
bane, rather abruptly acute, deep reddish-orange, thickly spotted within. — Peaks 
of Otter, Va. , and south w. in the mts. to N. C. 

7. L. tiorInum Ker. (Tioer L.) Tall, pubescent above; leaves zoattered, 
narrowly lanceolate, dark green, &-7-nerved, the upper axils bulbiferouz; flowers 
large, resembling those of L. superbum, — An escape from gardens. (Introd. 
firom £. Asia.) 


17. ESTTHSdmXTM L. Doo's-tooth Yiouit 

Perianth lily-like, of 6 lanceolate recurved or spreading divisions, decidaons, 
tbe 3 inner usually with a callous tooth on each side of the base, and a groove in 
(be middle. Filaments 6, awl-shaped ; anthers oblong-linear. Style elongated. 
Capsule obovoid, contracted at base, d-valved, loculicidal. Seeds rather numer- 
ous. — Nearly stemless herbs, with two smooth and shining flat leaves tapering 
into petioles and sheathing the base of the commonly one-flowered scape, rising 
from a deep solid scaly bulb. Flowers rather large, nodding, in spring. (The 
Greek name for the purple-flowered European species, from ipvSp^^ red. ) 

1. B. americinom Ker. (Yellow AddbbVtonode). Scape 1.6-2 dm. 
Ligh ; leaves elliptical-lanceolate, pale green, mottled with purplish and whitish 
and often minutely dotted ; perianth light yellow^ often spotted near the 
base (2-4 cm. long); style club-shaped ; atigmat unUed. — Rich ground, N. B. to 
Fla., vr. to Ont. and Ark. 

2. S. ilbidum Kutt. (Whitb Doo*s-tooth Violet.]) Producing subter* 
ranean oCtshoots from the base of the corm ; leaves elliptical-lanceolate, less or 
not at all spotted ; periav'Ji pinkish-while ; inner divisions toothless ; style more 
slender except at the R.pex, bearing 3 short spreading stigmas. — Rich ground, 
Ont. to N. J., w. to Minn, and Tex. 

3. £. mesoch^Mreum Knerr. No basal offshoots; leaves narrowly lance* 
oblong or linear-lanceolate, not mottled ; perianth-divisions bluish or lavender- 
Hntedy scarcely or not at all revolute ; stigmas spreading. — Prairies, w. la. 
{Burgess) and Mo. to Kan. and Neb. 

4. S. propiUlans Gray. Offshoot arising from the stem^ near the middle; 
leaves smaller and more acuminate ; flowers bright rose-color, yellowish at base 
(12 mm. long); style slender; stigmas united, — In rich soil, Minn, and Ont. 

TtLTPA STLvssTsis L., a wild tulip of Europe, readily recognized by its soli- 
tary subscapose large yellow flowers, 6-divided perianth and thickish subseasile 
lUgma, is said to be established in e. Pa. (^Fretz). (Adv. from Eu.) 

18. CAMAsSIA Lindl. 

Perianth slightly irregular, of 6 blue or purple spreading 3-7-nerved divisions ^ 
filaments filiform. Style thread-like, the bajse persistent. Capsule short and 
thick, 3-angled, loculicidal, 8-valved, with several black roundish seeds in each 
cell. — Scape and linear leaves from a coated bulb; the flowers in a simple 
raceme, mostly bracted, on jointed pedicels. (From the native Indian name 
quamash or camass.) 

1. C. MCulinta (Ker]) Robinson. (Eastbrit Camass, Wild Htacivth.) 
Scape 1.5-7 dm. high ; leaves keeled ; raceme elongated ; bracts longer tlian 
ibe pedicels ; divisions of the perianth pale blue, 8-nerved, 10-14 mm. long ; 
capsule acutely triangular-globose. (^Scilla Ker; G, lYaseri Ton, ; Quamasia 
esculenta Coville; Q, hyacinthina Britton.) — Rich ground, w. Pa. to Minn., 
Tex., and Ga. — This species should be carefully distinguished from the larger 
flowered plant of the Northwest, which has long passed as C, esculenta Lindl., 
*^a name which must be replaced by Camassia quamash Greene. 

19. OHinXHdGALtJM [Toum.] L. Stab of Bbthlehbic 

Perianth of 6 (white) spreading d-7-nerved divisions. Filaments 6, flattened- 
awl-sbaped. Style 3-sided ; stigma 3-angled. Capsule roundish-angular, with 
few dark and roundish seeds in each cell, locTilicidal. — Scape and linear chan- 
neled leaves from a coated bulb. Flowers corymbed, bracted ; pedicels not 
jointed. (A whimsical name from 6pint, a bird, and yd\a, milk.) 

1. 0. umbbllXtum L. Scape 1-2.5 dm. high ; flowers 5-8, on long and 
nreading pedicels ; perianth-divisions green in the middle on the outside. — Es* 
Mped ^m gardens. (Introd. from Eu.) 



2. 0. HtJTAHS L. Scape 8 dm. hl^ or more : '^.owen 6-6, Imige f2-2.6 em. 
long), nodding on very short pedicels: filamenu /ery broad. — iSurely eaoaped 
from gardens ; Pa. to D. C. (Introd. from Eu.) 

90. MUSCARI [Tourn.] Mill. Grapb Htacimth 

PerianUi globular or ovoid, minutely d-toothed (blue, rarely pink or white) 
Stamens 0, Included ; anthers short, introrse. Style short. Capsule locolicldAl, 
with 2 black angular seeds in each celL — Leaves and scape (in early spring) 
from a coated bulb ; the small flowers in a dense raceme, sometimes moak* 
scented (whence the name). 

1. M. botrtoIdbs (L.) Mill. Leaves linear, 6-10 mm. broad ; flowers globih 
lor (3-6 mm. long), deep blue, appearing like minute grapes. — Escaped from 
gardens into copses and lence-rows. (Introd. from £u.) 

2. M. RACB1C68UM (L.^ Mill. Leaves 2-3 mm. broad ; flowers obtong^ureeo- 
late (4-6 mm. long), aeep blue, fragrant^ -* Rare escape, a. N. Y, to Va. 
(Introd. from En.) 

91. Y^rCCA [Bupp.] Lu Bbar Grass. Spahish Batoitbt 

Perianth of large white or greenish oval or oblong and acute flat wfth- 
ering-persistent segments, the 3 inner broader, longer than the 6 stamena 
Stigmas 3, sessile. Capsule oblong, somewhat 0-sided, 3-celled, or imperfectly 
excelled by a partition from the back, fleshy, at length loculicidally 3-valved 
from the apex. Seeds very many in each cell, flattened. — Stems woody, in 
ours very short, bearing persistent rigid linear or sword-shaped leaves, and an 
ample panicle or raceme of showy flowers. (The native Haytian name for the 
coot of the Cassava-plant.) 

1. Y. gUdca Nutt Leaves very stiff and pungent^ 2-0 dm. long, 4-12 mm. 
wide, fillferous on the margin ; raceme mostly simple^ nearly sessile