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Thia is the introductory article to a series which trill contain a fuH 
explanation and exposure of patent-medicine tiietliods, and the harm done 
to the public iy this industry, founded mainly on fraud and poison. Results 
of the puil'dti/ given to these methods ean already be seen in the aleps 
recently taken it/ the Nat o at Coufrnme t sone State do ernmenta and a 
The ohject of the senea is to make 
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ear some ne e l\ five m 11 ana i>f 
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t II s r Ho V h ge quant t ea of a1 
1 ol an appalling amount of op ates 
■\n I nareof IC1 a i 1p asiortment of 
ar ed dr gs ranging from powerful 
inrl dangero is heart depressants t 
n I lioi s 11 er stimi lants and far n 
e\ e s of all other ngred enta i 
d ] ted fra I For fraud exploited 
bi tl e sk llf lest of ad ert b ng buneo 
n IS tl e ba s of tl e t ade Should 
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dr " fiendi sa ed 

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II prnpr etary d ed c nes in one ind s 

r 11 ate denune ition ea ne warn 

(, f all B des hen this ser es 

s a I o ccd B it the honest at 

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ts de eloj 3 a la iientable lack of 

1 ! ed ca d 1 tes for tl e sheepfold 

i" \terual reu ed es there mai be which 

are at on -e honest m the r claims 

and effeet e for the r p rposes the? 

are not to be found among the 

1 ch ad ert sed o ntn enta or applica 

t ons hich fill the public prints 

n but n extravagance of advertising 

Pond a Extract one vould naturally 

methoda but m tha recent 

\ ^(d5L(o 

epidemic scare in New York it traded on the public alarm by putting forth 
"display" advertisements headed, in heavy black type, "Meningitis," a 
disease in which witch-hazel is about as effective as molasses. This is 
fairly comparable to Peruna's ghoulish exploitation, for profit, of the yellow- 
fever scourge in New Orleans, aided by various southern newspapers of 
standing, which published as news an "interview" with Dr. Hartman, 
president of the Peruna Company. 

Drugs That Make Victims. 

When one comes to the internal remedies, the proprietary medicines 
proper, they all belong to the tribe of Capricorn, under one of two heads, 
harmless frauds or deleterious drugs. For instance, the laxatives perform 
what they promise; but taken regularly, as thousands of people take them 
(and, indeed, ns the advertisements urge), they become an increasingly 
baneful necessity. Acetanilid will undoubtedly relieve headache of certain 
kinds; but acetanilid, as the basis of headache powders, is prone to remove 
the cause of the symptoms permanently by putting a complete stop to the 
heart action. Invariably, when taken steadily, it produces constitutional 
disturbances of insidious development which result fatally if the drug be 
not discontinued, and often it enslaves the devotee to its use. Cocain and 
opium stop pain; but the narcotics are not the safest drugs to put into the 
hands of the ignorant, particularly when their presence is concealed in the 
"cough remedies," "soothing syrups," and "catarrhal powders" of which 
they are the basis. Few outside of the rabid temperance advocates will 
deny a place in medical practice to alcohol. But alcohol, fed daily and in 
increasing doses to women and children, makes not for hoalth, but for 
drunkenness. Far better whiskey or gin unequivocally labeled than the 
alcohol-laden "bitters," "sarsaparillas" and "tonics" which exhilarate 
fatuous temperance advocates to the point of enthusiastic testimonials. 

None of these "cures" really does cure any serious affection, although 
a majority of their users recover. But a majority, and a very large ma- 
jority, of the sick recover, anyway. Were it not so — were one illness out 
of fifty fatal — this earth would soon be depopulated. 

As to Testimonials. 

The ignorant drug-taker, returning to health from some disease which he 
has overcome by the natural resistant powers of his body, dips his pen 
in gratitude and writes his testimonial. The man who dies in spite of the 
patent medicine — or perhaps because of it — doesn't bear witness to what it 
(lid for him. We see recorded only the favorable results: tbe unfavorable 
lie silent. How could it be otherwise when the only avenues of publicity are 
controlled by the advertisers? So, while many of the printed testimonials 
are genuine enough, they represent not the average evidence, but the most 
glowing opinions which the nostrum vender can obtain, and generally they 
are the expression of a low order of intelligence. Read in this light, they 
are unconvincing enough. But the innocent public regards them as the 
tyj)p, not the exception. "If that cured IMrs. Smith of Oshgosh it may cure 
me," says the woman whose symptoms, real or imaginary, are so feelingly 
described under the picture. Lend ear to expert testimony from a certain 
prominent cure-all: 

"They see my advertising. Tliey read the testimonials. They are con- 
vinced. They have faith in Peruna. It gives them a gentle stimulant and 
so they get well." 

There it is in a nutshell; the faith cure. Not the stimulant, but the 
faith inspired by the advertisement and encouraged by the stimulant does 
th« work— or teems to do it. If the public drugger can convince his pat- 

ron that she is well, she ia well — ^for his purposes. In the case of such 
diseases as naturally tend to cure themselves, no greater harm is done than, 
the parting of a fool and his money. With rheumatism, sciatica and that 
ilk, it means added pangs; with consumption, Bright's disease and other 
serious disorders, perhaps needless death. No onus of homicide is borne 
by the nostrum seller; probably the patient would have died anyway; 
there is no proof that the patent bottle was in any way responsible. Even 
if there were — and rare cases do occur where the responsibility can be 
brought home — there is no warning to others, because the newspapers are 
too considerate of their advertisers to publish such injurious items. 

The Magic "Red Clause." 

With a few honorable exceptions the press of the United States is at the 
beck and call of the patent medicines. Not only do the newspapers modify 
news possibly affecting these interests, but they sometimes become their 
active agents. F. J. Cheney, proprietor of Hall's Catarrh Cure, devised 
some years ago a method of making the press do his fighting against legis- 
lation compelling makers of remedies to publish their formulae, or to print 
on the labels the dangerous drugs contained in the medicine — a constantly 
recurring bugaboo of the nostrum-dealer. This scheme he unfolded at a 
meeting of the Proprietary Association of America, of which he is now 
president. He explained that he printed in red letters on every advertising 
contract a clause providing that the contract should become void in the 
event of hostile legislation, and he boasted how he had used this as a club 
in a case where an Illinois legislator had, as he put it, attempted to hold 
him for three hundred dollars on a strike bill. 

"I thought I had a better plan than this," said Mr. Cheney to his associ- 
ates, "so I wrote to about forty papers and merely said: TIease look at 
your contract with me and take note that if this law passes you and T 
must stop doing business.' The next week every one of them had an article 
and Mr. Man had to go." 

So emphatically did this device recommend itself to the assemblage that 
many of the large firms took up the plan, and now the "red clause" is a 
familiar device in the trade. The reproduction printed on page 6 is 
a fac-simile of a contract between Mr. Cheney's firm and the Emporia 
Gazette, William Allen White's paper, which has since become one of the 
newspapers to abjure the patent-medicine man and all his ways. Em- 
boldened by this easy coercion of the press, certain firms have since used 
the newspapers as a weapon against "price-cutting," by forcing them to re- 
fuse advertising of the stores which reduce rates on patent medicines. Ty- 
rannical masters, these heavy purchasers of advertising space. 

To what length daily journalism will go at the instance of the business 
office was shown in the great advertising campaign of Paine's Celery Com- 
pound, some years ago. The nostrum's agent called at the office of a 
prominent Chicago newspaper and spread before its advertising manager 
a full-page advertisement, with blank spaces in the center. 

'We want some good, strong testimonials to fill out with," he said. 

*You can get all of those you want, can't you?" asked the newspaper 

"Can youV returned the other. "Show me four or five strong ones from 
local politicians and you get the ad." 

Fake Testimonials. 

That day reporters were assigned to secure testimonials with photo- 
graphs which subsequently appeared in the full-page advertisement m 
promised. As for the men who permitted the use of their names for this 


purpose, Hevcral of tliPin nfterward admitted that they had novor 1a,st( 
the ^'Compound," hut that th(»y won* willing' to sijrii the t«'siinioiiials for tl 
joy of ajipciirhif^ in print as **])roniin('nt citizi-ns." Anf)11icT (hica^'o new 
paper conipellt'd its j)olitical editor to tout tor fake indoismu'iits of 
noHtriim. A man with an inside knowlcd^^e of the patcnt-nu'dicinc l)nsin<' 
made Konie investigations into tliis pliase of the niatt«'r, anrl lu* deelar 
that Hueh j)roenrenient of testimonials iM'came ^(\ estnlili-h<'(I as to lia 
the force of a system, only two Chieajro pajjers lieinj^ tice from it. To-(hi 


This Contract is Void If Patent .Slieets witli Advcrlisemcnts arc Used. ^ 

~ "">"wr - . . . . - . . . ..._.. 

i' ThreeJiCca^'s' Advertising Contract. \^ 

state of. ^.^CfVvvr«-/.. •..^J-^,^!^^^-''^:^)" 

We Ifsrehy a^rc^-^Ulb Cheney MeoiClNC COMPANY, for the auni of 1^ 
./.....C^..^.S- HOLX-f^^S^^to insert the ndvertinRmeint of t 

"H ALL'S CATARRH^URE/' containing nvilter na per copn fnrn.Uhvd (.vnt in <. 
our regular reading iiutiter type) to he pubUslj^flec^fh Ls.'iue of Vape,r and j 
to appear in regular reading tn/xttcr not to be pr^c^ttd hy any paid notice, \ 
and on local or etlitorial pa^e. Said adverti semen t to herun for three years 
with ilia pritt^ege of twelve changes annmil/y. /•'" 

Paynk^tuti to h e jfyAd e semi-annually. Advert L^t^j^rts tf/b€ pichlished in 
Daily y^s'dHf^.Ci^t^ .yu.<L t^d ireckly .^^AjCm!!Z^.. 

PuJblished't^^ ^........r..,r*,tU.^....»'-^.g^^^^K,...r77£4>., ^..^, ^ .. 

Wt liko iirfc to BiRil a eirpr of each lijKlv iMiiMinini " Ai<." lo Chrncy McJi. Ine Co., Tuicdo, Ohio. 

Circulation, DaVy C?'..^!!^? Circulation, Week! if .?'AJ'~J. 


Memarka ~. 

It is mutually a^eed thai this Contract ls«vold. If any iii«v 1.^ enacted by \our 
state restrlctlnl or prohibiting the manufacture! or sale of proprietary medicines. 


^ , ^^_. ^ 'Per 

TCa/mc of Paper ^ ^ ^... 

........ VkTi-U-tee 


Per...... . .\Ay.->rA-...VvT!yy-!^ Manager. 


The **Ilr»d Clause" is shown In hi-avy typo, beginning with the words "It 
mutually a;,'nM'd . . ." Tho (I antic lias recently decided to exclude i 
patent-medlciue advertising from its columus. 

lie adds, a similar "deal" could be made with half a dozen of that cit\ 
dailies. It is disheartening^ to note that in the ease of one important ai 
hi^h-elass daily, the Pittsburfr (Jazctlc, a trial rejection of all paler 
medicine ndvertisin<r received ahsolutely no .supj)ort or oncouragcme 
from the public; so the paper reverted to its old policy. 

One mi;,'ht expect from the medical press freedom from such inHuencM 







DoniOoseYonrscIf nilfi searel "Palenl liledltines'fllmoslall of 
whicii are fmismi Humbugs When sickConsult a't 
lake his Prescription; i( is fhe only Sensible Way^nJ you'll find 




The control is as complete, though exercised by a class of nostrums some- 
what differently exploited, but essentially the same. Only "ethical" prepa- 
rations are permitted in the representative medical press, that is, articles 
not advertised in the lay press. Yet this distinction is not strictly adhered 
to. "Syrup of Figs," for instance, which makes widespread pretense in the 
dailies to be an extract of the fig, advertises in the medical journals for 
what it is, a preparation of senna. Antikamnia, an "etliical" proprietary 
compound, for a long time exploited itself to the profession by a campaign 
of ridiculous extravagance, and is to-day by the extent of its reckless use 
on the part of ignorant laymen a public menace. Recently an article an- 
nouncing a startling new drug discovery and signed by a physician was 
offered to a standard medical journal, which declined it on learning that 
the drug was a proprietary preparation. The contribution was returned to 
the editor with an offer of payment at advertising rates if it were printed as 
editorial reading matter, only to be rejected on the new basis. Subse- 
quently it appeared simultanously in more than twenty medical publica- 
tions as reading matter. There are to-day very few medical publica-* 
tions which do not carry advertisements conceived in the same spirit and 
making much the same exhaustive claims as the ordinary quack "ads" 
of the daily press, and still fewer that are free from promises to "cure" 
diseases which are incurable by any medicine. Thus the medical press 
is as strongly enmeshed by the "ethical" druggers as the lay press is bv 
Paine, "Dr." Kilmer, Lydia Pinkham, Dr. Hartman, "Kail" of the "red 
clause," and the rest of the edifying band of life-savers, leaving no agency 
to refute the megaphone exploitatii n of the fraud. What opposition there 
is would naturally arise in the medical profession, but this is discounted 
by the proprietary interests. 

The Doctors Are Investigating. 

"You attack us because we cure your patients," is their charge. Tliey 
assume always that the public lias no grievance against them, or rather, 
they calmly ignore the public in the matter. In his address at the last 
convention of the Proprietary Association, the retiring president, W. A. Tal- 
bot of Piso's Consumption Cure, turning his guns on the medical profes- 
sion, delivered this astonishing sentiment : 

"No argument favoring the publication of our formulas was ever uttered 
which does not apply with equal force to your prescriptions. It is pardon- 
able in you to want to know these formulas, for they are good. But you 
must not ask us to reveal these valuable secrets, to do what you would 
not do yourselves. The public and our law-makers do not want your secrets 
nor ours, and it would be a damage to them to have them" 

The physicians seem to have awakened, somewhat tardily, indeed, to 
counter-attack. The American Medical Association has organized a Coun- 
cil on Pharmacy and Chemistry to investigate and pass on the "ethical" 
preparations advertised to physicians, with a view to listing those wliich 
are found to be reputable and useful. That this is regarded as a direct 
assault on the proprietary interests is suggested by the protests, eIo(|ueiit to 
the yergG. of frenzy in some cases, emanating from those organs which the 
manufacturers control. Already the council lias issued some painfully frank 
reports on products of imposingly scientific nomenclature; and more are to 


What One Druggist Is Doing. 

J^argely for trade reasons a few druggists have been fighting the nos- 
trums, but without any considerable etiect. Indeed, it is surprising to see 
that i)e()pie are so deeply impressed with the advertising claims put forth 
daily as to be impervious to warnings even from experts. A cut-rate 

store, the Economical Drug Company of Chicago, started on a campaign 
and displayed a sign in the window reading: 


What IS 





For you eniharrasa us, as our honest answer 

must he that 


If you mean to ask at what price we sell it, that is an 

entirely different proposition. 

When sick J consult a good physician. It is the only proper 

course. And you will find it cheaper in the end than 

9elf -medication with worthless "patent** nostrums. 


This wa« followed up by the salesmen informing all applicants for the 
prominent nostrums that they were wasting money. Yet with all this that 
store was unable to get rid of its patent-medicine trade, and to-day nos; 
trums comprise one-third of its entire business. They comprise about two- 
thirds of that of the average small store. 

Legislation is the most obvious remedy, pending the enlightenment of the 
general public or the awakening of the journalistic conscience. But legisla- 
tion proceeds slowly and always against opposition, which may be measured 
in practical terms as $250,000,000 at stake on the other side. I note in 
the last report of the Proprietary Association's annual meeting the sig- 
nificant statement that *'the heaviest expenses were incurred in legislative 
work." Most of the legislation must be done by states, and we have seen 
in the case of the Hall Catarrh cure contract how readily this may be con- 

Two government agencies, at least, lend themselves to the purposes of 
the patent-medicine makers. The Patent Office issues to them trade-mark 
registration (generally speaking, the convenient term "patent medicine" is 
a misnomer, as very few are patented) without inquiry into the nature 
of the article thus safeguarded against imitation. The Post Office Depart- 
ment permits them the use of the mails. Except one particular line, the 
disgraceful "Weak Manhood" remedies, where excellent work has been 
done in throwing them out of the mails for fraud, the department has 
done nothing in the matter of patent remedies, and has no present intention 
of doing anything; yet I believe that such action, powerful as would b« 


the opposition developed, would be upheld bj the courts on the pame grounds 
that sustained the Post OfTice's position in the recent case of "Kobusto." 

A Post-OflSce Report. 

That the advertiHing and circular stat^monts circulated throupfh the 
mails wore materially nnd subRtantially false, with the result of cheating 
and defraudinpj those into whose hands the statonienta came; 

That, while the remedies did possess medicinal properties, these were 
not Huch as to carry out the cures promised ; 

That the advertiser knew he was deceiving: 

That in the sale and distribution of his medicines the complainant made 
no inquiry into the sjiccific charjicter of the disease in any individual casp. 
but supj)lied the same remedies and prescribed the same mode of treatment 
to all alike. 

Should the department apply these principles to the patent-medicine 
field pjenerally, a number of conspicuous nostrums would cease to be pat- 
rons of Uncle Sam's mail service. 

Some states have made a good start in the matter of legislation, among 
them Mjchif^an, which does not, however, enforce its recent strong law. 
Massachusetts, which has done more, throufj^h the admirable work of its 
State Board of Health, than any other agency to educate the public on 
the patent-medicine question, is unable to get a law restricting this tfade. 
In New Ilam[)shire, too, the proprietary interests have proven too strong, 
and the Mallonee bill was destroyed by the almost united opposition of a 
"red-clause'' press. North Dakota proved more indcpi^ndent. After Jan. 
1, 1000, all medicines sold in that state, except on ])liysician's prescriptions, 
which contain chloral, ergot, morphin, opium, cocjiin, bromin, iodin or any 
of their compounds or derivatives, or more than 5 per cent, of alcohol, 
must so state on the label. When this bill became a law, the Pro])rietary 
Association of America proceeded to bliijht the state by resolving that its 
members should ofl'er no gcods for sale there. 

Boards of health in various parts of the country are doing vjiluablc edu- 
cational work, the North Dakota board having led in the legislation. The 
Massachusetts, Connecticut and North Carolina boards have been active. 
The New York State board has kept its hands off patent medicines, but the 
Board of Pharmacy has made a cautious but promising beginning by 
compelling all makers of powders containing cocain to put a poison label 
on their goods; and it proposes to extend this ruling gradually to other 
dangerous compositions. 

Health Boards and Analyses. 

It is somewhat surprising to find the Health Department of New York 
City, in many respects the foremost in the country, making no use of care- 
fully and rather expensively acquired knowledge which would serve to pro- 
tect the public. More than two years ago analyses were made by tlie 
chemists of the department which showed dangerous quantities of cocain in 
a number of catarrh powders. These analyses have never been printe<l. l]ven 
the general nature of the information has been withheld. Should any citizen 
of New York going to the Health Department, have asked: "My wife is 
taking Birney's Catarrh Powder; is it true that it's a bad thing?" tlie 
officials, with the know^ledge at hand that the drug in question is a maker 
of cocain fiends, would have blandly emulated the Sphinx. Outside criti- 
cism of an overworked, undermanned and generally eflicient department 
is liable to error through ignorance of the problems involved in its admin- 
istration; yet one can not but believe that some form of warning against 
what is wisely admittedly a public menace would have been a wiser form 


of procedure than that which has heretofore been discovered by the formula, 
"policy of the department." 

Policies change and broaden under pressure of conditions. The Health 
Commissioner is now formulating a plan which, with the work of the chem- 
ists as a basis, shall check the trade in public poisons more or less con- 
cealed behind proprietary names. 

It is impossible, even in a series of articles, to attempt more than an ex- 
emplary treatment of the patent-medicine frauds. The most degraded and 
degrading, the "lost vitality" and "blood disease" cures, reeking of terroriza- 
tion and blackmail, can not from their very nature be treated of jn a lay 
journal. Many dangerous and health-destroying compounds will escape 
through sheer inconspicuousness. I can touch on only a few of those which 
may be regarded as typical: the alcohol stimulators, as represented by 
Peruna, Paine's Celery Compound and Duffy's Pure Malt Whiskey (adver- 
tised as an exclusively medical preparation) ; the catarrh powders, which 
breed cocain slaves, and the opium-containing soothing syrups, which stunt 
or kill helpless infants; the consumption cures, perhaps the most devilish 
of all, in that they destroy hope where hope is struggling against bitter 
odds for existence; the headache powders, which enslave so insidiously 
that the victim is ignorant of his own fate; the comparatively harmless 
fake as typified by that marvelous product of advertising effrontery, 
Liquozone; and, finally, the system of exploitation and testimonials on 
which the whole vast system of bunco rests, as on a flimsy but cunningly 
constructed foundation. 

Bepsintb> imoM Collibb'i V/kkkly, Oct. 28, 1905. 


A distinguished public health official and medical writer once made this 
jocular suggestion to me: 

"Let us buy in large quantities the cheapest Italian vermouth, poor gin. 
and bitters. We will mix them in the proportion of three of vermouth to 
two of gin, with a dash of bitters, dilute and bottle them by the short quart, 
label them 'Smith's Reviver and Blood Purifier; dose, one ivincgldssful 
before each meaV ; advertise them to cure erysipelas, bunions, dyspepsia, 
heat rash, fever and ague, and consumption; and to prevent loss of hair, 
smallpox, old age, sunstroke and near-sightednoas, and make our everlasting 
fortunes selling them to the temperance trade." 

"That sounds to me very much like a cocktail," said I. 

"So it is," he replied. "But it's just &s much a medicine as Peruna and 
not as bad a drink." 

Peruna, or, as its owner. Dr. S. B. Hartman, of Columbus, Ohio (once a 
physician in good standing), prefers to write it, Pe-ru-na, is at present the 
most prominent proprietary nostrum in the country. It has taken the 
place once held by Greene's Nervura and by Painc's Celery Compound, and 
for the same reason which made them popular. The name of that reason is 
alcohol.* Peruna is a stimulant pure and simple, and it is the more dan- 
gerous in that it sails under the false colors of a benign purpose. 

According to an authoritative statement given out in private circulation 
a few years ago by its proprietors, Peruna is a compound of seven drugs 
with cologne spirits. The formula, they assure me, has not been materially 
changed. None of the seven drugs is of any great potency. Their total is 
less than one-half of 1 per cent, of the product. Medicinally they are too 
inconsiderable, in this proportion, to produce any eflFect. There remains 
to Peruna only water and cologne spirits, roughly in the proportion of three 
to one. Cologne spirits is the commercial term of alcohol. 

What Peruna Is Made Of. 

Any one wishing to make Peruna for home consumption may do so by 
mixing half a pint of cologne spirits, 190 proof, with a pint and a half of 
water, adding thereto a little cubebs for flavor and a little burned sugar for 
color. Manufactured in bulk, so a former Peruna agent estimates, its cost, 
including bottle and wrapper, is between fifteen and eighteen cents a bottle. 
Its price is $1.00. Because of this handsome margin of profit, and by way 
of making hay in the stolen sunshine of Peruna advertising, many imita- 
tions have sprung up to harrass the proprietors of the alcohol-and-water 
product. Pe-ru-vi-na, P-ru-na, Purina, Anurcp (an obvious inversion) ; 
these, bottled and labeled to resemble Peruna, are self-confessed imitations. 
From what the Peruna people tell me, I gather that they are dangerous and 
damnable frauds, and that they cure nothing. 

What does Peruna cure? Catarrh. That is the modest claim for it; 
nothing but catarrh. To be sure, a careful study of its literature will sug- 
gest its value as a tonic and a preventive of lassitude. But its reputation 

♦ Dr. Ashbel P. Giinnell of New York City, who has made a statistical study 
of patent medicines, asserts as a provable fact that more alcohol is consumcfd 
in this country in patent medicines than is dispensed in a legal way by licensed 
liquor venders, barring the sale of ales and beer. 


rests on catarrh. What is catarrh? Whatever ails you. No matter what 
youVe got, you will be not only enabled, but compelled, after reading Dr. 
Hartman's Peruna book, "The Ills of Life," to diagnose your illness as 
catarrh and to realize that Peruna alone will save you. Pneumoni* is 
catarrh of the lungs; so is consumption. Dyspepsia is catarrh of the stom- 
ach. Enteritis is catarrh of the intestines. Appendicitis — surgeons, please 
note before operating — is catarrh of the appendix. Bright's disease is 
catarrh of the kidneys. Heart disease is catarrh of the heart. . Canker sores 
are catarrh of the mouth. Measles is, perhaps, catarrh of the skin, since 
"a teaspoonful of Peruna thrice daily or oftener is an effectual cure" 
("The Ills of Life'*). Similarly, malaria, one may guess, is catarrh of 
the mosquito that bit you. Other diseases not specifically placed in the 
catarrhal class, but yielding to Peruna (in the book), are colic, mumps, 
convulsions, neuralgia, women's complaints and rheumatism. Yet "Peruna 
is not a cure-all," virtuously disclaims Dr. Hartman, and grasps at a golden 
opportunity by advertising his nostrum as a preventive against yellow 
fever! That alcohol and water, with a little coloring matter and one-half 
of 1 per cent, of mild drugs, will cure all or any of the ills listed above is 
too ridiculous to need refutation. Xor does Dr. Hartman himself personally 
make that claim for his product. He stated to me specifically and repeat- 
edly tha^ no drug or combination of druffs, with the possible exception of 
quinin for malaria, will cure disease. His claim is that the belief of the 
patient in Peruna, fostered as it is by the printed testimony, and aided by 
the "gentle stimulation," produces good results. It is well established that 
in certain classes of disease the opposite is true. A considerable proportion 
of tuberculosis cases show a history of the Peruna type of medicine taken 
in the early stages, with the result of diminishing the patient's resistant 
power, and much of the typhoid in the middle west is complicated by the 
victim's "keeping up" on this stimulus long after he should have been under 
a doctor's care. But it is not as a fraud on the sick alone that Peruna is 
baneful, but as the maker of drunkards also. 

"It can be used any length of time without acquiring a drug habit," de- 
clares the Peruna book, and therein, I regret to say, lies specifically and 
directly. The lie is ingeniously backed up by Dr. Hartman's argument that 
"nobody could get drunk on the prescribed doses of Peruna." 

Perhaps this is true, though I note three wineglassfuls in forty-five min- 
utes as a prescription, which might temporarily alter a prohibitionists's out- 
look on life. But what makes Peruna profitable to the maker and a curse 
to the community at large is the fact that the minimum dose first ceases 
to satisfy, then the moderate dose, and finally the maximum dose; and the 
unsuspecting patron, who began with it as a medicine, goes on to use it as 
a beverage, and finally to be enslaved by it as a habit. A well-known 
authority on drug addictions writes me: 

"A number of physicians have called my attention to the use of Peruna, 
both preceding and following alcohol and drug addictions. Lydia Pinkham's 
Compound is another dangerous drug used largely by drinkers; Paine's 
Oelery Compound also. I have in the last two years met four cases of 
persons who drank Peruna in large quantities to intoxication. This was 
given to them originally as a tonic. They were treated under my care as 
simple alcoholics." 

The Government Forbids the Sale of Peruna to Indians. 

Expert opinion on the non-medical side Is represented In the government 
order to the Indian Department, reproduced on the followiiig page, the 
kernel of which Is this: 

"In connection with this investlgaticm, ple^^ 

I'l.i'MjrMi.Ni ur riii: imkkkik. 

' \Va-II1N».I'in'. I). ('.. AnijiiAt JO, XO(JO. 

' 'I :;• n?t':iti"ii n! tin- <M11'' i.:i ■ Ifi-n •mIN*! tn tin* fact that mail}' 

Ik.iti- fl I ;uli r-- ,11 ■ v.r\ n- L:li;;»'nl a- i«» !ln' \\.\\ in wlii'-h thoir r-tnrrH 
.•'•: k'-pt. *^'»Mii' I :i"k '»J' «i:'l«'i lui^'lit )"• ''tuiilMnril. hut 'it is rf'|><>rt«*'l 
\\i \\ ii,;iiiy t<iii-- aic iliii;, «\<mi in I'lli hiiii-x-*. >\v\\ a cniwlitidii of 
;!tr.i-.r ii<-«>i iHii )>•' t'il'Tat-'il. a- ■! iiM;»i'ovi'iiii>i)t in t)i:it n-.spiM-t niii<t 1h' 
ill i -i-'l an. 

\ 'ill! HiVif' i.-. Mil -«» iiii-\j"'rifi»i'»il .i-, ti» -u|i|n>"*r tliat ti'iultTH r>|»»*n 

■ifij*'- j.iiMMi;;- Ii'<h.ur- liiiiii jiliilai»:lir'»j'i«' inuiivi-s. NfV»'ri!u'Ii*>*s a 
trail* i ha* .« :/'■'' iiiMnini--' ani<i;i;; tin- Iinlian- wlih whom h<* hiiH chjii- 
ritaiit ({fall!. J- :iiiii who mm- oltcii >h'|i'-ii<li-iil upon him. and tluTi* arc 
n'lt a i'«".\ '.■» i.uM'v- 1 . \vlii.-ii ih.- tiaih-r ha> **\iTti-il ihis infliirili'i' for 
tii«; wi ila>< ''I his •-ii-<(i>iii>'r - :is wi-ii .i" l<>i' i>i- iiwn pr.'lit. 
j ,\ w.-i'-k»"pt inn. ti'lv in apjM- inmri-. whi-i.- ih" ;;iit)<l}^. ('S|ii*fi:iIIy 

! •*jitf« "•:'■-. .!;'■ ii.iMilii ■! Ill a ■■liMiii\ \\a\, \\\\\\ ihii- rrj.ii'il lo nrfliinirv 

I hy^;i«nf. Hii'l \,1 \ =■ 1'.— ■Mithmi- pn-x-ni i*- a (ivili/in^ iiiflu- 

I »-i i-r tirj'.ii/ • II' ^si.iM' ili-«iir.| r. - hi\ • niihr- •, -lip.-lnul ways, aiid 

liii I II !• ih MMi .1! ./ 1^. 

V'lii \vi!i p! \.i!i:'i'- iiti' ;ii«'\\ii\ in whii-h ilir tnuh'rK uiiilcr 

\'»ni «-npi'i\ !•* II i-"i;il':i "i ! nr / ^'.i|«-. |,..n\ ;!>i _"i«»'1-. p.trlicularlv 
'liihlc t^iiii'l. , .T. 'iiii:'- I. I' ;n'il f.'.iv.-n niit .iii-i f=«'t' to il that in 
ih''-»' I. -ptf'-. :j- '.'.• ' :'■ !■ -p- 'i "t" v.'-i/h:-. piirih. ami a('<M)Ul)t-k(*Mp> 
il::.'. tilt :,-,.|i;i..- ;^ |-.-ip -iv ■ i n'l ■ •. h'kI. If;'n\ 1 lai hi*, alter (huMiotic<*. 
(aiih :«» '•iinii- up n» ih- :;< iiipiiri'inriit*; v«»n will r»'p«irt him to tliiV* OfliifO. 
Jn (•.jn)n".-ii!ni v,ii!i il;: . iiiv<'.-n/,at ion. ph'a?*** yi\i* iritrtimihir att«M)tion 
to thf piopri'-t.ii'v iMi •i'(-lni'<i and othri* componml'- wiiich the traders 
k»i'p in :«;•;■ !:. "*'. illi -•»' .-m! ri'lVrriHM" to the liahililv nf tln-ir iniHiiHQ liy 
lii'lJans (ill ,. «-i";..t ..! ;;..■ ::ii-/i!ioI \viii<-h thr\ contaiiK Thp Halo of 
IN-rnni. \\l»irl. i,:. ii,- h -l- nl" -iM'imI tuHhT.-i. i** herehy ul»holut(*ly 
p;-'ihihit*-(i. .\^.i m'-diMm. >--oin>-thin^r cNe rsin In- Kiihstitiltod ; }I8 an 
!n'oxi":nji it ha- h-'-n I'lnnd too t«'n»pi in^r and ••OiM'tivt*. AiiYthing of 
h»- -on iMxh-i- .i':i)ii.("- iiinie .vliii !i ih T'liind to )i-ad to intoxication you 
■.vdl p)«-:i =!■ :-.'p !! ■-! I hi- Ollli'i*. Whrii a i-onipoMiul of t hat iM)rt' g(*tM a 
\y.\\ nai.ic il !• !>!" '<r \a' pat on the inarUi'l with some rtli^ht change 
• if form :iMd a \\>-\\'. .Iamaie:i i^inpfcr nnd llavorin^ uxtractB of 
vaniliii. I' !:ioii ;iii(i xc r''f:-t!i, slnadd lie kept in only small quantitiOB 
and in -iii.ill hi)M!i^a:'i! -honld not he sold to Ii-.'Iian^. or at loiiHt Only 
'-■pann;^';. \" \\\*>:-r who », is known will iw«* tlnMn rndy for lepcltimate 
p.iij -sc:-. 

{ >r • iiii--" ;.■■• . V. "lil ■• Miii'iiii* to '.rivi* .iHi'iit i-tii to tin* lahclinj:? <>f poiBOn* 
i.ij..!:- . \\\\\\ ■ kill! -ind l'^o-^--I'oll•»^ ms per < MVice eircnlar of Jannary 
!'j. IIiii.) 
<'niii'- ■•' ;ii, ''irf-niMi- hMli r a«i- h'-i'i-wit h to hi* hirnislifd tho tl*Hder8, 

J ^'I'l '■-. T'..,|„.(.t I'lili V. 

. 1 riiurj ( ''nnt m!-'/»/ofl«r. 


WHAT 'irn: (;nvi:ii\M[:NT thinks of rKurxA. 

Sf>i>\ In fin- ru'tli;iL-r;i).li. flu-n snitpiwos ; "T\\o s'.\\o <i\" V^^yuwa. \v\\\cAi \vk r»xv \\.\o. U-M c 
,7// iiitn\i,;uit il }i:i< lunii fxiiinl i<i'» riMiipiin^ and •'fr«'(:t\v«*.'" 


to the proprictaiy medicines and other compounds whicl^the traders keep 
in stock, with special reference to the liability of their misuse by Indians 
on account 'of the alcohol which they contain. The sale of Peruna, which is 
on the lists of several traders, is hereby absolutely prohibited. As a medi- 
cine, something else can be substituted; as an intoxicant, it has been found 
too tempting and effective. Anything of the sort, under another name, 
which is found to lead to intoxication, you will please report to this office. 
"[Signed] F. C. Labbiabee, Acting Commissioner." 

Specific evidence of what Peruna can do will be found in the following 
report, verified by special investigation: 

PiNEDALE, Wyo., Oct. 4. — (Special.) — "Two men suffering from delirium 
tremens and one dead is the result of a Peruna intoxication which took 
place here a few days ago. C. E. Armstrong, of this place, and a party of 
three others started out on u camping trip to the Yellowstone country, 
taking with J;hem several bottles of whisky and ten bottles of Peruna, 
which one of the members of the party was taking as a tonic. The trip 
lasted over a week. The whisky was exhausted and for two days the party 
was without liquor. At last some one suggested that they use Peruna, of 
which nine bottles remained. Before jthey stopped the whole remaining 
supply had been consumed and the four men were in a state of intoxication, 
the like of which they had never known before. Finally, one awoke with 
terrible cramps in his stomach and found his companions seemingly in an 
almost lifeless condition. Suffering terrible agony, he crawled on his hands 
and knees to a ranch over a mile distant, the process taking him half a day. 
Aid was sent to his three companions. Armstrong was dead when the 
rescue party arrived. The other two men, still unconscious, were brought 
to town in a wagon and are still in a weak and emaciated condition. Arm- 
strong's body was almost tied in a knot and could not be straightened for 

Here is the testimony from a druggist in a "no license" town: 

"Peruna is bought by all the druggists in this section by the gross. 1 
have seen persons thoroughly intoxicated from taking Peruna. The com- 
mon remark in this place when a drunken party is particularly obstrep- 
erous is that he is on a 'Peruna drunk.' It is a notorious fa<it that a great 
many do use Peruna to get the alcoholic effect, and they certainly do get it 
good and strong. Now, there are other so-called remedies used for the same 
purpose, namely, Gensenica, Kidney Specific, Jamaica Ginger, Hostetter's 
Bitters, etc." 

So well recognized is this use of the nostrum that a number of the 
Southern newspapers advertise a cure for the "Peruna habit," which is 
probably worse than the habit, as is usually the case with these "cures." 
In southern Ohio and in the mountain districts of West Virginia the 
"Peruna jag" is a standard form of intoxication. 

Two Testimonials. 

A testimonial-hunter in the employ of the Peruna company was referred 
by a Minnesota druggist to a prosperous farmer in the neighborhood. The 
farmer gave Peruna a most enthusiastic "send-off;" he had been using it 
for several months and could say, etc. Then he took the a^ent to his barn 
and showed him a heap of empty Peruna bottles. The agent counted them. 
There were seventy-four. The druggist added his testimonial. "That old 
boy has a *stiir on all the time since he discovered Peruna," said he. "He's 
my star customer." The druggist's testimonial was not printed. 

At the time when certain Chicago drug stores were fighting some of the 
leading patent medicines, and carrying only a small stocV of them, a boy 


Thesi- difljirnnia show whnt WDiitd I* Ivtt In a bcitllG of patent medicine if 
evpr.vllilni; w.ik poiircil out exuppt tile alcohol : th^y also show the quantity of 
Hicohol tliuC wonkl Im iirexcnt II Ihp uitne bottle luid conlnineil whisky, cham- 
puene. cliirpt or liper. It Is apparent rliat u Inflle nf Teriina contaloa as much 
alcohol SK live iMlllpM ot beer, cii' three liottles »[ riaret or thampage — that Is, 
bottleK of the tuimo nlxe. It would take nearly nine bottles of beer to put as much 
alcohol Into a thirKlv ninn's KVHlem as a temperance advocate can get by 
drlnklne one hotlle of llnnletler-fl Btomnch Hitters. Wblle Ihe "doses" prescribed 
Ijy till' luitenl iiuilU'lni' iiiMiiif.iclureia are only one lo two teaspoontnls several 
times a day, the o[)[iorliiuily to lake more eilsls. and even small doses of alcohol, 
taken regularly, cense that cravlnfc whicb la the flrst step In the maklns ol * 
drnnkard oc drus Sand. 


called one evening at one of the downtown shops for thirty-nine bottles of 
Peruna. "There's the money," he said. "The old man wants to get his 
before it's all gone." Investigation showed that the purchaser was the 
night engineer of a big downtown building and that the entire working 
staff had "chipped in" to get a supply of their favorite stimulant. 

"But why should any one who wants to get drunk drink Peruna when 
he can get whisky?" argues the nostrum-maker. 

There are two reaspns, one of which is that in many places the "medi- 
cine" can be obtained and the liquor can not. Maine, for instance, being 
a prohibition state, does a big business in patent medicines. So does Kan- 
sas. So do most of the no-license counties in the South, though a few have 
recently thrown out the disguised "boozes." Indian Territory and Okla- 
homa, as we have seen, have done so because of Poor Lo's predilection toward 
curing himself of depression with these remedies, and for a time, at least, 
Peruna was shipped in in unlabeled boxes. 

United States District Attorney Mellette, of the western district of Indian 
Territory, writes: "Vast quantities of Peruna are shipped into this coun- 
try, and I have caused a number of persons to be indicted for selling the 
same, and a few of them have been convicted or have entered pleas of 
guilty. I could give you hundreds of specific cases of *Peruna drunk' among 
the Indians. It is a common beverage among them, used' for the purposes 
of intoxication." 

The other reason why Peruna or some other of its class is often the 
agency of drunkenness instead of whisky is that the drinker of Peruna 
doesn't want to get drunk, at least she doesn't know that she wants to 
get drunk. I use the feminine pronoun advisedly, because the remedies of 
this class are largely supported by women. Lydia Pinkham's variety of 
drink depends for its popularity chiefly on its alcohol. Paine's Celery Com- 
pound relieves depression and lack of vitality on the same principle that 
a cocktail does, and with the same necessity for repetition. I know an 
estimable lady from the middle West who visited her dissipated brother in 
Kew York — dissipated frcm her point of view, because she was a pillar of 
the W. C. T. U., and he frequently took a cocktail before dinner and came 
back with it on his breath, whereon she would weep over him as one lost 
to hope. One day, in a mood of brutal exasperation, when he hadn't had 
his drink and was able to discern the flavor of her grief, he turned on her: 

"I'll tell you what's the matter with you," he said. "You're drunk — 
maudlin drunk!" 

She promptly and properly went into hysterics. The physician who at- 
tended diagnosed the case more politely, but to the same effect, and ascer- 
tained that she had consumed something like a half a bottle of Kilmer's 
Swamp-Root that afternoon. Now, Swamp-Root is a very creditable 
"booze," but much weaker in alcohol than most of its class. The brother 
was greatly amused until he discovered, to his alarm, that his drink- 
abhorring sister couldn't get along without her patent medicine bottle! 
She was in a fair way, quite innocently, of becoming a drunkard. 

Another example of this "unconscious drunkenness" is recorded by the 
Joui^nal of the American Medical Association: "A respected clergyman 
fell ill and the family physician was called. After examining the patient 
carefully the doctor asked for a private interview with the patient's adult 

" *I am sorry to tell you that your father undoubtedly is suffering from 
chronic alcoholism,' said the physMan- 

" 'Chronic alcoholism 1 Whv *er never drank a 

drop of liquor in his life^ r«»^ it his habits.' 

" 'Well, my boy, if « dbi this present 


rn',m<^nt your father it drtink. How Iihh Ilih hcHlth biv 
l«»-ri tnkiii).' any nip<li<'inel' 

" -Wliv. f-.r M.imi' tiiiii'. mx iiimitlis, I shciuM hov. fa 
plniiK'] '•>! fi'i-lin}.' iiiiii-.tiiil1v tirnl. A Uw itioiitlix ti 
m-"iiiiri('[i<Ii-<l l>i'niiia t'> liirii, ii-ur[ii(; lijiii 
Since tlii'ii III! liiiH tiiki-n mnny IhiIIIus of it, ii 
tHki-ll IK.Mlti! rUi-r' 

Knuri Ht vi-ry Tiiinip liip woiihl imtxirnllv iil.-nlvo DiilTv's Walt Whbkev 
frimi fmiicliilciit ).rrl..ii.c-. [liif Duflv"-^ M.ill \Vlii-k..v i- n frniid, for it 
ijrHdicU lo 111- II iii.iiii.Lii,. iitid l.i .■iin- .itl kiiiiU ..f Inn;; >in<l thro;it dlfieavei. 
It ■» cspi-cinlly fiivriml liv 1ciii|htiiih'i- fcilk. "A <l<'-..T(JiifKiiiful four to 

re««ntlyT Haa be 

■, fatlicr hax oftvn eom- 
it ««<> n fH«nd of bio 
it wiiiiM build him up. 
II (jiiiU.- sure that he han 


^H fMt HU.T ^^^M 

A SAU)0\ WlXDflW DISri.AY AT AUBUllN, S. Y, 
rirani udvertlsnd Duffy's Malt WhUker, tlic leTCrnj^e "Indorsed" by tbe 
r] iJlvJiiCH atiil lim III' I'll tici! uorkiTs" iilctiircd bi^luiv, nod dlaitlayB It 
v<^|]'kn<i\vu liruiiils i<F I^iiirtion and ryc^— nut UH a rnvtEldnc, but purel}' 
Ki ill- KiTvi'd, Uki- olUers, lu IS-couC ddulis ecru^H tlie bar. 

ine or Liquor? 

tbf' diH'tiir ill clinrgp, by way of allayfir' 
li.'iil. ■■Hint tiiUiiiK Uiifty's Malt Whidi 
lukiiiK liqiiiir in lurgc quantititi. 



le fbret "dlatlneiilstipd dlvlnn and temperance wortiei's," the Set, Dun- 
_. m Qet-Uarrled-Qulck Malj-lmonlBl Bureau, while the "nef." Hougbton 
Ha Income Ikmi lila t^.nlacs as Depiitj Intecnal Revenue Collector, his 
■ * ' ■' ''ii'le Sam"e liquor tai. The printed portrait o( 
■ly; a genuine jihotOBcapb o( the "lemiwraDcc 
!■ ia Hhown obOTe, The Rev. McLewl Uvea In 
:jl 8S3 Inh&bltButs, la Sallna County, north or 
Miv line. Sir, MeLeod was called to trial hi Wa. 

I'liif Mill 


ri I nil mill liH|>iiini-sH, while taken the other way it 

unci decay. If ymi follow our advice about taking it 
(I llii- ti'iiiiM-rniicr fold, without qualm of conscience." 
M riiui-iiiK fri'iii ('iiiiNiiiii)ition to malaria, and indoriw- 
Oii till' jircfwling pajtc we reproduce a Duffy advcrtise- 
[Kirlriiit*" (it tlirec "elerffyiiicn'' wlio eonsider DuffyV 
II p(t iif (IikI, and on [intEir IH n na toon- window ditplay 
r (III- wliiiky liiw Hh rfflfitrnimii piaee behind the bar, 
niifiiHiireri' to the wlicilesnli' li'|iiiir trade nnd by them 
■ it miiv Ih' jmrehaHed iivit tlie coiipler for 85 cents • 
.. }iul Diiiry'H Pure Wiilt Wliitkf.v is nnt rvcardwl a* a 

BK». llr. lUiiiliaiu Mils j,,''1 tuiiii 

■■<llsiIiil,-iilHli«I divine- with the aide 

Itic' IKmUm Mi;ilkul I'xUeup iind imii.- 

nhlslii'is In the Kufty whiskey ad- 

licvil nuilldiie iiridi iil".iit llililj- 

vertlKement. Mr, Houghton was tor a 

years ajt"> «■'"■" Hf imivtd west. oC years [lastor ot the Church 

Then' hp IjBtann' n jircinhLT. lie 

•if Klemal lloiie, ot Hradtord, Fa. 

iHTiiiilitl tilt! ]pul[.ll iif lUc South 

lie retired hii years ago to enter 

('hi.yeiine, W.V'iihItik. rriuarreallomil 

iii.Illies, and 1- now a deiiuty Internal 

nmrrh tw tell ji-nrs. Two yiiir« 

Itevenue eollcctor. AlthuuBU a mem- 

.ip. he "rHIieil from the imliiit nml 

i-Hluhllshc'L II tiLnrrlii;;e bureau fur 

.iinic over rvniii ruloi-mii) i« lie mar- 
riea. Xi. mim<-y «as paHl Ly the 

ered oratlona last Biimmer at the Lily 
Hale asaemhly, llie spl ritual Is tic "City 

Duffy-s JlHll Whiskey [iBoute for 

of I.lyht" located near UunklrU, N. i'. 

Dimhanrs l.^ hut he I'e- 

Sir. Iluiighton owned racehorses nnd 

Its status lia.'i been dellnilcly settled in New York State, where Excise 
:^ii]iniis»i(iiiiT Cnlliiinne recently obtained a decision in the supreme court 
lei'tariii^ it a liquor. The trial waa in Rocliester, where the nostrum la 
luiile. Kle\en «ii|iposedly rejiiitiible physieinns. four of Ihem members 
■f llie lleiillb Department, swiin- to their belief that the whisky contained 
Inijis nhieh iim-lilutec! it a t-"''"'''"; nieditinc. 'Hie Klutc whs able to show 

di:il c 




quantities as to be indistinguishable, and, of course, utterly without value; 
in short, that the product was nothing more or less than sweetened whisky. 
Yet the United States government has long lent its sanction to the "medi- 
cine" status by exempting Duffy's Pure Malt Whiskey from the federal 
liquor tax. In fact, the government is primarily responsible for the formal 
establishment of the product as a medicine, having forced it into the patent 
medicine ranks at the time when the Spanish war expenses were partly 
raised by a special tax on nostrums. Up to that time the Duffy product, 
while asserting its virtues in various ills, made no direct pretence to be 
anything but a whiskey. Transfer to the patent medicine list cost it, in 
war taxes, more than $40,000. By way of getting^ a quid pro quo, the com- 
pany began ingeniously and with some justification to exploit its liquor as 
"the only whisky recognized by the government as medicine," and con- 
tinues so to advertise, although the recent decision of the Internal Revenue 
Department, providing that all patent medicines which have no medicinal 
properties other than the alcohol in them must pay a rectifier's tax, rele- 
gates it to its proper place. While this decision is not a severe financial 
blow to the Duffy and their congeners (it means only a few hundred dol- 
lars apiece), it is important as oflBcially establishing the '*bracer" class on 
the same footing with whiskey and gin, where they belong. Other "drugs" 
there are which sell largely, perhaps chiefly, over the bar, Hostetter's Bit- 
ters and Damiana Bitters being prominent in this class. 

When this series of articles was first projected Collier's received a 
warning from "Warner's Safe Cure," advising that a thorough investigation 
would be wise before "making any attack" on that preparation. I have no 
intention of "attacking" this company or any one else, and they would have 
escaped notice altogether, because of their present unimportance, but for 
their letter. The suggested investigation was not so thorough as to go 
deeply into the nature of the remedy, which is an alcoholic liquid, but it 
developed this interesting fact: Warner's Safe Cure, together with all the 
Warner remedies, is leased, managed and controlled by the New York and 
Kentucky Distilling Company, manufacturers of standard whiskies, which 
do not pretend to remedy anything but thirst. Duffy's Malt Whiskey is 
another subsidiary company of the New York and Kentucky concern. This 
statement is respectfully submitted to temperance users of the Malt Whis- 
key and the Warner remedies. 

Some Alcohol Percentages. 

Hostetter's Bitters contain, according to an official state analysis, 44 
per cent of alcohol; Lydia Pinkham appeals to suffering womanhood with 
20 per cent, of alcohol; Hood's Sarsaparilla cures "that tired feeling" with 
18 per cent.; Burdock's Blood Bitters, with 25 per cent.; Ayer's Sarsa- 
parilla, with 26 per cent.| and Paine's Celery Compound, with 21 per cent. 
The fact is that any of these remedies could be interchanged with Peruna 
or with each other, so far as general effect goes, though the iodid of potas- 
sium in the sarsaparilla class might have some effect (as likely to be harm- 
ful as helpful) which would be lacking in the simpler mixtures. 

If this class of nostrum is so harmful, asks the attentive reader of news- 
paper advertising columns, how explain the indorsements of so many people 
of prominence and reputation? **Men of prominence and reputation" in 
this connection means Peruna, for Peruna has made a specialty of high 
gfovernment officials and people in the public eye. In a self-gratulatory dis- 
sertation the Peruna Company observes in substance that, while the leading 
minds of the nation have hitherto shrunk from the publicity attendant on 
commending any patent medicine, the transcendent virtues of Peruna have 
overcome this amiable modesty, and one and all, they stand forth its 
avowed champions. This is followed by an ingenious document headed« 


"Fifty Memlx'rs of Conjifress Send Letters of Indortement to the InTentor 
of the Great Catarrh Remedy, Pe-ru-na," and (quoting thirty-six of the let- 
ters. Analyni^ of the!<e letters brings out the singular circumstance *that in 
twenty-cne of the thirty-six there is no indication that the writer has ever 
tasted the remedy which he so warmly praises. As a sample, and for the 
benefit of lovers of ingenious literature, I reprint the following from s 
humorous member of Congress: 

"My secretary had as bad a case of catarrh as I ever taw, and since hi 
has taken one bottle of Peruna he seems like a different man. 

**Taylorville, N. C. Romulus Z. IrnrwET." 

The famous letter of Admiral Schley is. a case in point. He wrote to 
the Peruna Company: 

"I can cheerfully say that Mrs. Schley has used Peruna, and I beliere 
with good effect. [Signed] W. 8. Schley." 

This indorsment went the rounds of the country in half-page blazonry, 
to the consternation of the family's friends. Admiral Schley seems to have 
appreciated that this use of his name was detrimental to his standing. He 
wrote to a Columbus religious journal the following letter: 

"1826 I Street, Washington, D. C, Nov. 10, 1904. 

"Editor Catholic Columbian: — Tlie advertisement of the Peruna Com- 
pany, inclosed, is made without any authority or approval from me. When 
it was brought to my attention first I wrote the company a letter, stating 
that the advertisement was oirensive and munt be discontinued. Their 
representative here called on me and stated he had been directed to assure 
mc no further publication would be allowed, as it was without my sanction. 

"I would say that the advertisement has been made without my knowledge 
or consent and is an infrin<,'ement of my rights as a citizen. 

"If you will kindly inform me what the name and date of the paper 
was in which the inclosed advertisement appeared I shall feel obliged. 

"Very truly yours, W. S. SCHLET." 

Careful study of this document will show that this is no explicit denial 
of the testimonial. But who gives careful study to such a letter? On the 
face of it, it puts the Peruna people in the position of having forged their 
advertisement. Ninety-nine people out of a hundred would get that im- 
pression. Yet I have seen the testimonial, signed with Admiral Schley's 
name and interlined in the same handwriting as the signature, and I 
have seen another letter, similarly signed, stating that Admiral Schley had 
not understood that the letter was to be used for such advertising as the 
recipient based on it. If these letters are forgeries the victim has his 
recourse in the law. They are on file at Columbps, Ohio, and the Peruna 
Company would doubtless produce them in defense of a suit. 

What the Government Can Do. 

One thing that the public has a right to demand in its attitude toward 
the proprietary medicines containing alcohol: that the government carry 
out rigidly its promised policy no longer to permit liquors to disguise 
themselves as patent medicines, and thereby escape the tax which is put 
on- other (and probably better) brands of intoxicants. One other demand it 
should make on the purveyors of the concoctions: that they label every 
bottle with the percentage of alcohol it contains; then the innocent clergy- 
man who writes testimonials to Duffy, and the W. C. T. U. member who 
indorses Peruna, Lydia Pinkham, Warner, and their compeers, will know 
when they imbibe their "tonics," "invigorators," "swamp roots,*' "bitters," 
"nerve-builders," or "spring medicines," that they are sipping by the table- 
spoon or wineglassful what the town tippler takes across the license-paying 

Bepbintbd from Collieb'8 Wekklt, Nov. 18, lOuO 


Twenty years ago the microbe was making a great stir in the land. The 
public mind, ever prone to exaggerate the importance and extent of any 
new scientific discovery, ascribed all known diseases to microbes. The 
infinitesimal creature with the mysterious and unpleasant attributes became 
the leading topic of the time. Shrewdly appreciating this golden oppor- 
tunity, a quack genius named Radam invented a drug to slay the new 
enemy of mankind and gave it his name. Radam's Microbe Killer filled the 
public prints with blazonry of its lethal virtues. As it consisted of a 
mixture of muriatic and sulphuric acids, with red wine, any microbe which 
took it was like to fare hard; but the ingenious Mr. Kadam's method of 
administering it to its intended prey via the human stomach failed to 
commend itself to science, though enormously successful in a financial sense 
through flamboyant advertising, 

Liquozone "Cures" Thirty- seven Varieties. 

In time some predaceous bacillus, having eluded the "killer," carried off 
its inventor. His nostrum soon languished. To-day it is little heard of, 
but from the ashes of its glories has risen a mightier successor, Liquozone. 
Where twenty years ago the microbe reveled in publicity, to-day we talk 
of germs and bacteria; consequently Liquozone exploits itself as a germi- 
cide and bactericide. It dispenses with the red wine of the Radam con- 
coction and relies on a weak solution of sulphuric and sulphurous acids, 
with an occasional trace of hydrochloric or hydrobromic acid. Mostly it is 
water, and this is what it "cures" : 

"Asthma, Gallstones, 

Abscess — Anemia, Goiter — Gout, 

Bronchitis, Hay Fever — Influenza. 

Blood Poison, La Grippe, 

Bowel Troubles, ' Leueorrhea, 

Coughs — Cclds, Malaria — Neuralgia, 

Consumption, Piles — Quinsy, 

Contagious Diseases, Rheumatism, 

Cancer — Catarrh, Scrofula, 

Dysentery — Diarrhea, Skin Diseases, 

Dyspepsia — Dandruff, Tuberculosis, 

Eczema — Erysipelas, Tumors — Ulcers, 

Fevers; Throat Troubles 

— ^all diseases that begin with fever — all inflammations — all catarrh — all 
contagious diseases — all the results of impure or poisoned blood. In nerv- 
ous diseases Liquozone acts as a vitalizer, accomplishing what no drtigs 
can do." 

These diseases it conquers by destroying, in the human body, the germs 
which cause (or are alleged to cause) them. Such is Liquozone's claim. 

Yet the Liquozone Company is not a patent medicine concern. We have 
their word for It: 

"We wish to state at the start that we are not patent medicine men, 
and their methods will not be employed by us. . . . Liquozone is too 
important a product for quackery." 

The head and center of this non-patent medicine cure-all is Douglas Smith. 


Mr. Smith ifi by profcMlon a promoter. He ft credited with a. keen Tisioi 
for fiiofit^. Scvoriil yrnrs nf^o he mn on a worthy ex-piano dealer, a Caiui- 
din 11 )>y thr* iinme of Powlry (\vc Rhnll meet him again, trailing clouds of 
KUtry in a ^iflondirl metnTnorphonin), who was selling with eoiDe euccess a 
inixtiiro known an Vnwh^y'n rj'qiirfird Ozone. This was guaranteed to kill 
miy (Iii«p;i«ft perm known to Bcience. Mr. Smith examined into the possi- 
^iIiti(•^ of tho prodiK't, })oiirrht out Powlcy, moved the business to Chicago, 
and or^r;iiii7f(l it nn tho Liquid Ozone Company. Liquid air was then much 
in tho jnifdif printf^. Mr. Smith, with the intuition of genius, and some- 
thinir morp ihnn genius* rontcmpt for limitations, proceeded to catch the 
fiu1))ir> fvo with thin frank assertion: "Liquozone is liquid oxygen — ^that 
Im nil." * 

It. is pFioMjrh. Tlint \n, it would be enough if it were but true. Liquid 
oxygon d«p«*Fi't, pxist nhovo a teniprrnture of 220 dojEnrees below sero. One 
Mpoonfnl would frcc/o n niMn*fl tonf^ue, tooth nnd throat to equal solidity 
Iwforo tio ovor luid timo to Rwnllow. If he oould, by any miracle, manage 
U} frpi it. down, t]io undiTtukor would have to put him on the stove to 
thaw him out, •^Mfliciputly for a rospccfnhlo burial. Unquestionably Liquo- 
zono, if it worf» liquid o\y;;cn, wonlil kill ;;orujs, but that wouldn't do the 
ownor of tho /jcrnis much fjood, t>ocjiuso ho'd be doad before they had time 
to rojilizo tlint tho tonjf)oraturo was fallinfj. That it would cost a good 
many dolIarH nn ounce to mako \a, porhap«, boflide the question. The 
ohiccf of tho company was not to mako monoy, but to succor the sick and 
HulTcrin^. Tlioy say so tliomsolvos in thoir advertising. For some reason, 
howovor, tlio bnsinc-s did not prospor an lis new owner had expected. A 
widor ajjpcal to tlic sick and sufTcrinsr waa noodod. Claude C. Hopkins, 
formerly advert isin«:r mana^xcr for Dr. Shoop's Restorative (also a cure-all) 
and j)orIinj)H tlu* aMcsf. oxj)oncnt of his specialty in the country, was brought 
into tho concern and a record-hrenkin;^ campaign was planned. This cost no 
little money, l)nt tho event proved it a good investment. President Smith's 
next move showed him to ho tho master of a silver tonj^e, for he persuaded 
tlio mend)ers of a very prominent law firm who were acting as the com- 
pany's attorneys to take stock in the concern, and two of them to become 
directors. These penllemen represent, in Chicago, something more than th» 
high professional standing of their firm; they are prominent socially and 
forward in civic activities; in short, just the sort of people needed by 
President Smith to bulwark his dubious enterprise with assured respect- 

The Men Who Back the Fake. 

In the Equitable scandal there has been plenty of evidence to show that 
directors often lend their names to enterprises of which they know prac- 
tically nothing. This seems to have been the case with -the lawyers. One 
point they brought up: was Liquozone harmful? Positively not, Douglas 
Smith assured them. On the contrary, it was the greatest boon to the 
sick in the world's history, and he produced an impressive bulk of testi- 
monials. This apparently satisfied them; they did not investigate the 
testimonials, but accepted them at their face value. They did not look into 
the advertising methods of the company; as nearly as I can find out, they 
never saw an advertisement of Liquozone in the papers until long after- 
ward. They just became stockholders and directors, that is all. They did 
as hundreds of other upright and well-meaning men had done in lending 
themselves to a business of which they knew practically nothing. 

While the lawyers continued to practice law, Messrs. Smith and Hopkins 
were running the Liquozone Company. An enormous advertising campaign 
was begun. Pamphlets were issued containing testimonials and claiming 


the soundest professional backing. Indeed, this matter of expert testi- 
mony, chemical, medical, and bacteriologic, is a specialty of Liquozone. To- 
day, despite its reforms, it is supported by an ingenious system of pseudo- 
scientific charlatanry. In justice to Mr. Hopkins it is but fair to say that 
he is not responsible for the basic fraud; that the general scheme was 
devised and most of the bogus or distorted medical letters arranged before 
his advent. But when I came to investigate the product a few months ago 
I found that the principal defense against attacks consisted of scientific 
statements that would not bear analysis and medical letters not worth the 
paper they were written on. In the first place the Liquozone people have 
letters from chemists asseverating that the compound is chemically 

Faked and Garbled Indorsements. 

Messrs. Dickman, Mackenzie & Potter, of Chicago, furnish a statement to 
the effect that the product is "made up on scientific principles, contains no 
substance deleterious to health and is an antiseptic and germicide of the 
highest order." As chemists the Dickman firm stands high, but if sulphuric 


SULPHURIC ACID - - About nine-tenths of one per cent. 
SULPHUROUS ACID - About three-tenths of one per cent. 
WATER Nearly ninety-nine per cent 

Sulphuric add is oil of vitriol. Sulphurous wcid is also a 

corrosive poison, Liquozone is the combiner 

tion of these two heavily diluted. 

and sulphurous acids are not deleterious to their health there must be some- 
thing peculiar about them as human beings. Mr. Deavitt of Chicago makes 
affidavit that the preparation is not made by compounding drugs. A St. 
Louis bacteriologist testifies that it will kill germs (in culture tubes), 
and that it has apparently brought favorable results in diarrhea, rheu- 
matism, and a finger which a guinea-pig had gnawed. These and other 
technical indorsements are set forth with great pomp and circumstance, but 
when analyzed they fail to bear out the claims of Liquozone as a medicine. 
Any past investigation into the nature of Liquozone has brought a flood of 
"indorsements" down on the investigator, many of them medical. My inqui- 
ries have been largely along medical lines, because the makers of the drug 
claim the private support of many physicians and medical institutions, and 
such testimony is the most convincing. "Liquozone has the indorsement 
of an overwhelming number of medical authorities," says one of the pam- 

One of the inclosures sent to me was a letter from a young physician on 
the staff of the Michael Reese Hospital, Chicago, who was paid $25 to 
make bacteriologic tests in pure cultures. He reported: "This is to certify 
that the fluid Liquozone handed to me for bacteriologic examination has 
shown bacteriologic and germicidal properties." At the same time he in- 


formed the Liquozone agent that the mixture would be worthless madieiiuiUy. 
He writes me an follows: "I have never used or indorsed Liquocone; for* 
therniore, its action would be liiirmful when taken intenutlly. CSan report 
a case of gastric uhfr du<> probably to its use." 

Later in my investigations I came on this certificate again. It wia 
quoted, in a report on Li(|uozon<s made by the head of a prominent Chicago 
laboratory for a medical journal, and it was designated, "Report made 
by the Michael Reese Hospital," without comment or investigation. This 
Burprisinfj: garbling of the factH may have l>een due to carelessness, or it 
nmy have nonie connection with- the fact that the laboratory investiga- 
tor was about that time employed to do work for Mr. Douglas Smith, 
Liquo/one's president. 

Another document is an enthusiastic "putf" of Liquozone, quoted as 
being contributed by Dr. W. H. Myers in The \vw York Journal of Health. 
There is not nor ever 1ms been any sucli ma^jfazine as The New York Jour- 
nal of Health. Dr. \V. 11. Myers, or H(»me person masquerading under that 
naime, got out a bogus "dummy" (for j)ubIieation only, and not as guaran- 
tee of good faitli), at a >mal! (liai«,^e to llie Li<|U()/nne people. 

For convenience, I list H(?veral letters quoted or sent to me, with the 
result of inve.<^ti;rati()ns. 

The SutFolk lIo>i)ital and l)isp«'n^^al■y <if Ito^ton, through its president, 
Albert C. Smith, writes: *'Our te.^t shows it (Uquozonc) to possess great 
remedial value." 'J'lie letter I liavc fountl to be genuine. Hut the hospital 
mrdical autlioritics »ay tliey know notliin^if of Li<juoz(me and never 
preseiibc it. If President Smith is j)res(iil)ing it he is liable to arrest, 
as he is not an M..1). 

\ favoring letter from "Dr." Fred W. Porter of 'J'ampa. Fla., is quoted. 
The Liquozone recijjiciits of the letter for;,M)l to mention that '*Dr." Porter 
is not an ^f.D.. but a veterinarv sur'renn. as is shown bv his lettiT head. 

Dr. (jJeorge K. Bliss of Ma])le Rapids, Mieh., lias used Li(juozone for cancer 
patients. Dr. liliss writes me, under the llaming headline of his "cancer 
cure," that his letter is genuine, and "not solicittated." 

Dr. A. A. Bell of Madison, (jJa., is (pioted as saving: "1 found Liquozone 
to invigorate digestion." Ho is not (pioted (although he wrote it) as say- 
ing that his own personal experience with it had .shown it to be ineffective. 
I have seen the original letter, and the unfavorable part of it was blue* 

For a local indorsement of any medicine, perha])s as strong a name as 
could be secured in Chicago is that of Dr. Frank Billings. In the offices of 
Collier^s and elsewhere Dr. Billings has been cited by the Liquozone people 
as one of those medical men who were prevented only by ethical consid- 
erations from publicly indorsing their nostrum, but who nevertheless, pri- 
vately avowed confidence in it. Here is what Dr. Billings has to say of this: 

Chicago^ III., July 31. 1905. 
To the Editor of Collier's Weekly: 

Dear Sir: — I have never recommended Liquozone in any way to any one, nor 
have I expressed to any representative of the Liquozone Company, or to any 
Other person, an opinion favorable to Liquozone. (Signed). 

Frank Billinqs, M.D. 

Under the heading, "Some Chicago Institutions which Constantly Employ 
Liquozone," are cited Hull House, the Chicago Orphan Asylum, the Home 
for Incurables, the Evanston Hospital, and the Old People's Home. 

Letters to the institutions elicited the information that Hull House had 


never used the nostrum, and had protested against the statement; that 
the Orphan Asylum had experimented with it only for external applica- 
tions, and with such dubious results that it was soon dropped; that it 
had been shut out of the Home for Incurables; that a few private patients 
in the Old People's Home had purchased it, but on no recommendation 
from the physicians; and that the Evanston Hospital knew nothing of 
Liquozone and had never used it. 

Having a professional interest in the "overwhelming number of med- 
ical indorsements" claimed by Liquozone, a Chicago physician, Dr. W. H. 
Felton, went to the company's offices and asked to see the medical evidence. 
None was forthcoming; the lists, he was informed, were in the press and 
could not be shown. He then asked for the official book for physicians ad- 
vertised by the firm, containing "a great deal of evidence from authorities 
whom all physicians respect." This also, they said, was "in the press." 
As a matter of fact, it has never come out of the press and never will; the 
special book project has been dropped. 

One more claim and I am done with the "scientific evidence." In a 
pamphlet issued by the company and since withdrawn, occurs this sprightly 
sketch : 

"Liquozone is the discovery of Professor Pauli, the great German 
chemist, who worked for twenty years to learn how to liquefy oxygen. 
When Pauli first mentioned his purpose men laughed at him. The idea 
of liquefying gas — of circulating a liquid oxygen in the blood — seemed 
inipossib^f. But Pauli was one of those men who set their whole hearts 
on a problem and follow it out either to success or to the grave. So Pauli 
followed out this problem though it took twenty years. He clung to it 
through discouragements which would have led any lesser man to abandon 
it. He worked on it despite poverty and ridicule," etc. 

Liquozone Kills a Great German Scientist. 

Alas for romance! The scathing blight of the legal mind descended on 
this touching story. The lawyer-directors would have none of "Professor 
Pauli, the great German chemist," and Liquozone destroyed him, as it 
had created him. Not totally destroyed, however, for from those rainbow 
wrappings, now dissipated, emerges the humble but genuine figure of our 
old acquaintance, Mr. Powley, the ex-piano man of Toronto. He is the 
prototype of the Teutonic savant. So much the Liquozone people now 
admit, with the defence that the change of Powley to Pauli was, at most, 
a harmless flight of fancy, "so long as we were not attempting to use a 
name famous in medicine or bacteriology in order to add prestige to the 
product." A plea which commends itself by its ingeniousness at least. 

Gone is "Professor Pauli," and with him much of his kingdom lies. 
In fact, I believe there is no single definite intentional misstatement in the 
new Liquozone propaganda. For some months there has been a cessation 
of .all advertising, and an overhauling of materials under the censorship 
of the lawyer-directors, who were suddenly aroused to the real situation 
by a storm of protest and criticism, and, rather late in the day, began to 
"sit up and take notice." The company has recently sent me a copy of the 
new booklet on which all their future advertising is to be based. The most 
important of their fundamental misstatements to go by the board is 
"Liquozone is liquid oxygen." "Liquozone contains no free oxygen," declares 
the revision frankly. No testimonials are to be printed. The faked and 
garbled letters are to be dropped from the files. There is no claim of 
"overwhelming medical indorsement." Nor is the statement anywhere 


mad«' that Liquozonr will riirr sniy nf ilu- <li**«MiM'H in wbich it i« reeom- 
iij<'ii<i<'(l. V<'t sucli i^ till' iii;^niniitv with which thr a(lvc»rti»*insr niana«^r 
h;i- |;n'-«'nt«'<I liis cnsc thnt tin* inw iH'W^papcr <>\ploi1ntinti apponlj^ to th«" 
'-■Auu \u)]H"i :inil fears, with tin- >:inn' implied |inuniM'«<, as the oM. "I'm 
well bee;iu-ie of ]/u\i](}/ji\U'." in hnir*' type, is fnlh^wed l>y tho li-^t of (lisi»as<^ 
"where it :ipplies." Arnl the iM'w li-t i^ iimre eniuprehensiv«» than the oM. 

All Ills Look Alike to Liquozone. 

Jii-t as to Peruiia all ilN are catarrh, so to Licpiozoiie every di^ea^o i- 
a j/eriii <li».eaM'. Kvery ^tateim-nt in tlw n«\v prosp«.ctiiy of onro "hn- 



Positive Preventive e« 

Yellow Fever 

A '.'•icnuliv'. nl>-;ul>jtcly harmless 
frCMjiu'iilr. tiiiivrr.«;allv indorsrd and 
:iiCvo;jfully nscd by 'the hfst 
CJaiii;. ^'()ll rnn al)>olutrly safeguard 
yt'^yr.self Ji^ainM the fever In- takinfl: 
a feaspoonful nf Hydfozono'in each 
tumbler of w?tcv ynu drink. Sold by 
be«^t drnvgists. None genuine with- 
out my siprnature. 

63E Prlnc« Street, N.Y. 

f REB— Send for" How to prevent and cure 
<li5Wse / and »pecl.-\l insuuctions how.ioa\«okl 
and curt YELLOW F Pvpq 


Advert iscmenls of a •TeiiUMly" \vlil(!h has been li;;htlii^ Li(iuozone as an 
"imitator," aud wliicli liere nialvcs a claim as extreme as any oxer put forth by 
liio CMjicajjfo sulplniric-acid mixture. 

))een siibniittcd to competent authorities, and is exactly true and correct," 
declares the recently issued pamplilet, "Liqiiozcmo and Tonic Germicide;" 
and the i)ami)hl('t *i:oes on to ascribe, amon<»- oilier ills, asthma, gout, neural- 
gia, dysj)e})sia, goiter, and "most forms of kidney, liver and heart troubles'' 
to germs. 1 don't know just which of the eminent authorities wlio have been 
working for the Liquozone Company fathers this remarkable and epoch- 
making discovery. It might be Professor Pauli, or perhaps the sulphuric- 


acid-proof firm of Dickman ft Mackenzie. Whoever it is ought to make 
the definite facte public, in the interests of humanity as well as their 
own. Monuments of discarded pill boxes will celebrate the Liquozone 
savant who has determined that dyspepsia is a germ trouble. The discov- 
ery that gout is caused by the bite of a bacillus and not by uric acid is 
almost as important an addition to the sum of human knowledge as the de- 
termination of a definite organism that produces the twinges of neuralgia, 
while the germ of heart disease will be acclaimed with whoops of welcome 
from the entire medical profession. 

Unfortunately, the writer of the Liquozone pamphlet, and the experts 
who edited it, got a litle mixed on their germs in the matter of malaria. 
"Liquozone is deadly to vegetable matter, but helpful to animals," declares 
the pamphlet. . . . "Germs are vegetables" — and that is the reason 
that Liquozone kills them. But malaria, which Liquozone is supposed to 
cure, is positively known to be due to animal organisms in the blood, not 
vegetable. Therefore, if the claims are genuine, Liquozone, being "helpful 
t-o animals," will aid aiid abet the malaria organism in his nefarious work, 
and the Liquozone Company, as well-intentioned men, working in the in- 
terests of health, ought to warn all suflferers of this class from use of their 

The old claim is repeated that nothing enters into the production of 
Liquozone but gases, water and a little harmless coloring matter, and 
that the process requires large apparatus and from eight to fourteen days' 
time. I have seen the apparatus, consisting of huge wooden vats, and can 
testify to their impressive size. And I have the assurance of several gen- 
tlemen whose word (except in print) I am willing to take, that fourteen 
days' time is employed in impregnating every output of liquid with gas. 
The result, so far as can be determined chemically or medicinally, is pre- 
cisely the same as could be achieved in fourteen seconds by mixing the 
acids with the water. The product is still sulphurous and sulphuric acid 
heavily diluted, that is all. 

Will the compound destroy germs in the body? This is, after all, 
the one overwhelmingly important point for determination; for if it will, 
all the petty fakers and forgery, the liquid oxygen and Professor Pauli and 
the mythical medical journalism may be forgiven. For more than four 
months now Collier's has been patiently awaiting some proof of the inter- 
nal germicidal qualities of Liquozone. None has been forthcoming except 
specious generalities from scientific employes of the company — and testi- 
monials. The value of testimonials as evidence is cousidered in a later 
article. Liquozone's are not more convincing than others. Of the chemists 
and bacteriologists employed by the Liquozone Company there is not one who 
will risk his professional reputation on the simple and essential state- 
ment that Liquozone taken internally kills germs in the human system. One 
experiment has been made by Mr. Schcen of Chicago, which I am asked to 
regard as indicating in some degree a deterrent action of Liquozone on the 
disease of the anthrax. Of two guinea-pigs inoculated with anthrax, one 
which was dosed with Liquozone survived the other, not thus treated, by 
several hours. Bacteriologists employed by us to make a similar test failed, 
because of the surprising fact that the dose as prescribed by Mr. Schoen 
promptly killed the first guinea-pig to which it was admiliistered. A series 
of guinea-pig tests was then arranged (the guinea-piir ia th* animal which 
responds to germ infection most nearly as tSie "vjijonds), 

at which Dr. Gradwohl, representing the " gent, 

and in which he took part. Tha wgort 



^anitury. Chemical and Baoteriologic lnvestigaiionM» 


Octoher U, iMS. 
Anthraw TcMt. Twenty-fuur fruloea-plgs were Inoculated with aDthraz btdlU. 
under the name condhionH, the name amount belnx given to each. The repreaenti- 
tlvc of the Llfinozonc i>oo|)lo neleotod the twelve pigs for treatnaent. TbeM 
anlmalH wero ^Iven Llquozune In R c.c. (Iokoh fur three hours. In twenty-foar 
hourH all pIkk were dead — the treated and the untreated ones. 

tii'vund Anthrax Teat. Kl^ht gulnoa-plKH were Hnoculated under the same 
cundltluns with a culture of unthrax sont by the Llquozone people. Four of 
tbvKo uulmalR were treated for three huurs with Llquoione as In the last 
exiM'rliiipnts. Theue died also In from thlrty-Hlz to forty-eight hours, as did the 
remalnlns four. 

Diphtheria Test. Six KVilneapUH were Inoeulated with diphtheria bacilli and 
treated with LI<iuozoue. They ull died lu from furty-el^ht tu seventy-two hours. 
Two out of th^(^> controls (I. e.. untreated Kninca-plgs) remained alive oftfi- 
rereiviuK the same amount of culture. 

TuhcirHloHiH Test. VAnht ;;uln»'a -pJKH were Inoculated wllh tubercle bacliil- 
Four of these animals were treated fur elKht hourH with 5 cc. of a 20 per cent 
solution of Llquozone. Four received uo LI<iuo/.oue. At the end of twenty- 
four days ull tlie animals w<ti> killed. 

Fairly developed luberculosl?, was present in all. 

To Hummnrl/e, W(> woul<i say lliat tiie Li<|ii*i/on(; hud Hl)Soiutely no curative 
effect, but did. when ;;iven in pure t'orm, li>\ver the resistance of the animalK, 
HO that they die<l a little earlier than tliose not treated. 

Lldiiulu Lahoratouies. 
liy Ernst J. Lederle. 

Dr. Gradwohl, reprt.'heiitiii^ tlie Li<niozone C()ui|»aiiy, .^tilted that he was 
satisfied of the of the tests. He further tleelared that in his opin- 
ion the tests had proved satisfactorily the total inetVcctiveness of Llquozone 
as an internal gerinicich'. 

But these oxperinieiits sliovv more than tliat. They sliow that in so "far 
as Liqiiozone has any elVect, it tends to lower tlie resistance of the body 
to an invading disease. Tliat is, in tlie very genn diseases for which it is 
advocattid, JAquozoiw may decrease the chances of the patienfa recovery 
irith every dose that is siralloired, hut certainli/ would not increase them. 

In its own field Liqiiozoiu? is sui (joicris. On the ethical side, however, 
there are a few "internal g«'rniicides," and one of tliese comes in for men- 
tion here, not that it is the least like Licjuozonc in its composition, but 
be(!ause by its monstrous claims it challenges comparison. 

Since tlie announcement of this article, and before. Collier's has been in 
receipt of much virtuous indignation from a manufacturer of remedies 
whicli, he claims, Llquozone copies. Charles Marchand has been the most 
active enemy of the xJouglas Smith product. He has attacked the makers 
in print, organized a society, and established a publication mainly de- 
voted to their destruction, and circulated far and wide injurious literature 
(most of it true). about their product. Of the relative merits of I^ydro- 
zone, Glycozone (Marchand's products), and Liquozone, I know nothing; 
but I know that the Liquozone Company has never in its history put forth 
80 shameful an advertisement as the one produced on page 28, signed 
by Marchand, and printed in the New Orleans States when the yellow- 
fever scare was at its height. 


And Hydrozone is an "ethical" remedy; its advertisements are to be 
found in reputable medical journals. 

The Same Old Fake. 
Partly by reason of Marchand's energy, no nostrum in the country has 
been so widely attacked as the Chicago product. Occasional 46^^hs» ^^ 
tributed (in some cases unjustly) to its use, have been made the most of, 
and scores of analyses have been printed, so that in all parts of the country 
the true nature of the nostrum is beginning to be understood. The promi- 
nence of its advertising and the reckless breadth of its claims have made 
it a shining mark, ^orth Dakota has forbidden its sale. San Francisco has 
decreed against it; so has Lexington, Ky., and there are signs that it 
will have a fight for its life soon in other cities. It is this looming danger 
that impelled Liquozone to an attempted reform last summer. Yet, in 
spite of the censorship of its legal lignts, in spite of the revision of its 
literature by its scientific experts, in spite of its ingenious avoidance of 
specifically false claims in the advertising which is being scatterea broad- 
cast to-day, Liquozone is now what it was beiore its rehabilitation, a fraud 
which owes its continued existence to tne laxity of our public health meth- 
ods and the cynical tolerance of the national conscience. 



I^nornnoe niid cri-duloiiH lioj)e iiinke the market for most proprietary 
r('iiu'(li(>rt. IntcIIi^'i'iit people are not given largely to the uae of the glar 
in^ly a(<l ciirc-allri hucIi aH Liqiio/.one and Peruna. Nostrums then 
iin\ however, which rrach the thinking classes as well as the readily gulled. 
Depending, as they do, for their Huccess on the lure of some subtle drug 
concealed under a trad(>n)ark name, or some opiate not readily obtainable 
under its own hihel, the>e are the mo»t dangerous of all quack medicines, 
not only in t)ieir ini mediate eiTect, hut becauMe they create enslaving appe- 
tites, sonietinies obscure and diilicult of treatment, most often tragically 
obviouB. Of the<e concealed drugs the headache powders are the most 
widely used, and of ttie heada<'lie powders Orangeine is the most cos- 

Orangeinc prints its formula. It i.s, therefore, its proprietors claim, not t 
secret remedy. Hut to all intents and purj)oses, it t« secret, because to the 
uninformed public the vitally important word "acetanilid" in the formula 
means little or nothing. Worse than its secrecy is its policy of careful and 
dangerous decejition. ()rangein«", like ])ract ically all the headache powders, 
is simply a mixture of acetanilid with le-ts potent drugs. Of course, there 
is no orange in it, exce])t the orang*' hue of the boxes and wrappers which 
is its advertising symbol. Hut this is an uniujportant deception. The 
wicrkednoss of the fraud lie- in this: that whereas the nostrum, by virtue of 
its acetanilid coiilciit, tliins the blood, de])ress('s the heart, and finally under- 
mines the whole M^tem, it claims to strrufftlicn the heart and to produce 
better blood. Thus far in the patent medicine Held I have not encountered 
so direct and sjx'cillc an inver>ion of the true facts. 

Kecent years have added to llu? mortality re<*or(la of our cities a surpris- 
ing and alarming number of sudden dt^aths from heart failure. In the year 
1902 New York City alone reported a death rate from this cause of 1.34 
per thousand of ])opulation; that is about six times as great as the typhoid 
fever death record. It was about that time that the headache powders were 
being widely advertised, and there is every reason to believe that the in- 
creased mortality, which is still in evidence, is due largely to the secret 
weakening of the body by acetanilid. Occasionally a death occurs so 
definitely traceable to this poison that there is no room for doubt, as in 
the following report by Dr. J. L. Miller, of Chicago, in the Journal of the 
American Mtdical AfisociatioVj on the death of Mrs. Frances Robson: 

''I was first called to see the patient, a young lady, physically sound, 
who had been taking Orangeine powders for a number of weeks for in- 
s(jmnia. The rest of the family noticed that she was very blue, and for 
this reason I was called. When I saw the patient she complained of a 
sens(? of faintness and inability to keep warm. At this time she had taken 
a box of six Orangeine powders within about eight hours. She was warned 
of the danger of continuing the indiscriminate use of the remedy, but in- 
sisted that many of her friends had used it, and claimed that it was harm- 
less. The family promised to see that she did not obtain any more of the 
remedy. Three days later, however, I was called to the house and found the 
patient dead. The family said that she had gone to her room the evening be- 
fore in her usual health. The next morning, the patient not appearing, they 
investigated and found her dead. The case was reported to the coroner, and 
the coroner^s verdict was: 'Death was from the effect of an overdose of 


Orangeine powders administered by her own hand, whether acidentally or 
otherwise, unknown to the jury.*". 

Last July an 18-year-old Philadelphia girl got a box of Orangeine pow- 
ders at a drug store, having been told that they would cure headache. 
There was nothing on the label or in the printed matter inclosed with the 
preparation warning her of the dangerous character of the nostrum. Fol- 
lowing the printed advice, she took two powders. In three hours she was 
dead. Coroner Dugan's verdict follows; 

"Mary A. Bispels came to her death from kidney and heart disease, 
aggravated by poisoning by acetanilid taken in Orangeine headache pow- 

Prescribing Without Authority. 

Yet this poison is being recommended every day by people who know 
nothing of it and nothing of the susceptibility of the friends to whom they 
advocate it. For example, here is a testimonial from the Orangeine 
booklet : 

"Miss A. A. Phillips, 66 Powers street, Brooklyn, writes: *I always keep 
Orangeine in my desk at school, and through its frequent applications to 
the sick I am called both "doctor and magician." ' " 

If the school herein referred to is a public school, the matter is one for 
the Board of Education; if a private school, for the Health Department or 
the county medical society. That a school teacher should be allowed to 
continue giving, however well meaning her foolhardiness may be, a harmful 
and possibly fatal dose to the children intrusted to her care seems rather a 
significant commentary on the quality of watchfulness in certain insti- 

Obscurity as to the real nature of the drug, fostered by careful deception, 
is the safeguard of the acetanilid vender. Were its perilous quality known, 
the headache powder would hardly be so widely used. And were the even 
more important fact that the use of these powders becomes .a habit, akin to 
the opium or cocain habits, understood by the public, the repeated sales 
which are the basis of Orangeine's prosperity would undoubtedly be greatly 
cut down. Orangeine fulfills the prime requisite of a patent medicine in 
being a good "repeater." Did it not foster its own demand in the form of 
a persistent craving, it would hardly be profitable. Its advertising invites 
to the formation of an addiction to the drug. "Get the habit," it might 
logically advertise, in imitation of a certain prominent exploitation along 
legitimate lines. Not only is its value as a cure for nervousness and head- 
aches insisted on, but its prospective dupes are advised to take this power- 
ful drug as a tracer. 

"When, as often, you reach home tired in body and mind . . . take 
an Orangeine powder, lie down for thirty minutes' nap — if possible — any- 
way, relax, then take another." 

"To induce sleep, take an Orangeine powder immediately before retiring. 
When wakeful, an Orangeine powder will have a normalizing, quieting 

It is also recommended as a good thing to begin the day's work on in the 
morning — ^that is, take Orangeine, night, morning and between meals! 

These powders pretend to cure asthma, biliousness, headaches, colds, 
catarrh and grip (dose: powder every four hours during the day for a 
week! — a pretty fair start on the Orangeine habit), diarrhea, hay fever, 
insomnia, influenza, neuralgia, seasickness and sciatica. 

Of course, they do not cure any of these ; they do practically nothing but 
give temporary relief by depressing the heart. With the return to normal 
conditions of blood circulation comes a recurrence of the nervousness, 


heudaohc, or wlint not, and the incentive to more of the drug, until it 
becomes a ncccssily. In my own ncquiiintnnce, I know half a dosen persons 
wiio have come to deju^nd on one or another of theite headache preparations 
to keep them t:oli\ir. One younf? woman whom I have in mind told me quite 
innocently that nhu had been taking; five or six Orangeine powders a day 


!r/ii'« list of fntnhtivH is inndr up from statements puhliahed 
in the finrsi)nprrft. In rvpry cafte the person who died had 
taJcrn to rrlirvr a headache or as a hrnrer a patent medicine 
containinfj nrvianUul, irithout a flortor's prescription. Hiis 
list docs vnt ivrludr the casr of a dor/ in Altoona, Pa,, which 
died imjucdiatcly on catint/ some sample hradache potrderg. 
The dog did unt ktvno any b/^tter. 

Mrs. Minnie Bishop, Louisville, Ky.; Oct. x6, 1903. 

Mrs. Mary Cusick and Mrs. Julia Ward, of 172 Perry Street, 

New York City; Nov. 27, 1903. 
Fred. P. Stock, Scranton, Pa.; Dec. 7, 1903. 
C. Frank Henderson, Toledo, 0.; Dec. 13, 1903. 
Jacob E. Staley, St. Paul, Mich.; Feb. 18, 1904. 
Charles M. Scott, New Albany, Ind.; March 15, 1904. 
Oscar McKinley, Pittsburg, Pa.; April 13, 1904. 
Otis Staines, student at Wabash College, April 13, 1904. 
Mrs. Florence Rumsey, Clinton, la.; April 23, 1904. 
Jenny McGee, Philadelphia, Pa.; May 26, 1904. 
Mrs. William Mabee, Leoni, Mich.; Sept. 9, 1904. 
Mrs. Jacob Friedman, of South Bend, Ind.; Oct. 19, 1904. 
Miss Libbie North, Rockdale, N. Y.; Oct. 26, 1904. 
Margaret Hanahan, Dayton, 0.; Oct. 29, 1904. 
Samuel Williamson, New York City; Nov. 21, 1904. 
George Kublisch, St. Louis, Mo.; Nov. 24, 1904. 
Robert Breck, St. Louis, Mo.; Nov. 27, 1904. 
Mrs. Harry Haven, Oriskany Falls, N. Y.; Jan. 17, 1905. 
Mrs. Jennie Whyler, Akron, 0.; April 3, 1905. 
Mrs. Augusta Strothmann, St. Louis, Mo.; June 20, 1905. 
Mrs. Mary A. Bispels, Philadelphia, Pa.; July 2, 1905. 
Mrs. Thos. Patterson, Huntington, W. Va.; Aug, 15, 1905. 

Some of these victims died from an alleged overdose; others 
from the prescribed dose. In almost every instance the local 
papers suppressed the name of the fatal remedy. 

for several months, having changed from Koehler's powders when some one 
told her that the latter were dangerous! Because of her growing paleness 
her husband had called in their physician, but neither of them had men- 
tioned the little matter of the nostrum, having accepted with a childlike 
faith the asseverations of its beneficent qualities. Yet thev were of an 
order of intelligence that would scoff at the idea of drinking Swamp-Root or 


Piiiiiiia. Tliat ]iui- titular vitUm bud llio bug in nil]); of tbe typical blup sUii 
pictured in the street-cai" advertlsementB of Ornngeiue (the advertisements 
are a little mixed, as they put the blue hue on the "before taking," whereas 
it should go on the "after taking"). And, by the way, I can coMcieotiously 
recommend Orangeinc, Koehler^ powders, Eoyal Pain powders and others 
of that class to women who wish for a complesion of a dead, paetj white. 

i-crgiiig to H puffy blueness UDder the eves and about tlie lips. Patient use 
li llieiit drugs will even produce an interestina: and picture3t|uc, if not 
intrinsically beautiful, purpliab-gray hue of the face and neck- 
Drugs That Deprave. 
.\uothi-r acquaintance writes me that he is unable to dissuade his wi(i> 
from fhe i-onntant use of 1ioth Orangciiie nnd Bromo- Seltzer, nlllio\ig!i her 


hiMllli i- l>r--:<kiii;- .l.iuii. Dft.-n it i- iliHii-iilt for n pli.VKu-ian to dwgWM 
llipxt- ('ii>i-- lHt'nii'>i- till' syintilimii iirv tli'ioR if rrrtaio dixeaaes in trbki 
the IiImhI drt('Ti<irnli-K, nixl, )iiiirit>vi'T. Dip virtiiu. kh in opium and cocain 
Rlavrry. nill |Hi>itivi'1y rli'ny hiivinp ii-cil ttir ilnifi- A case of Bcetaniliil 
niMiiti'in (in "iiphiilijin," riii cthirnl ii]'r>|>rii-tnry) iw thu« reported: 

"When IIk' ili'ii^' \v>i^ »'it1i(i.'ia tl>.- |Mlii-iil HHiii licfinn to oxiiibit all the 
tniits |H'i'u]i;ir In flu- ciirilirtinil iii[ir|>liiii<i'miiiiiiir — mnrni depravity and tk 
likf. Sill' I'liiiiliiyi'rl i-vi'iy ]iii>-.ili[i' iiii'Hiih to iilitnin the dnift, attempting 
cvni (o lirilx' llic iiuv-c, iiiid. llii- fniliii(,', i-vrn nu'iiilK'rn of tlie family." 

Amithor icpiirt nf ii wimiliir cii-.c (iiiiil (liiTe iirf plenty o( them to seTpot 

■■St.iEiiiirli iii<-rc-n^iii(rlv inilHlile: >kiii » j-nivi-li nr lijrht piirplifih hw. 
IHilliiliitiiiii jiiiil >iij;li( .■iLliUK'-iuciit .if 1h.- lu'iirl : ^'vent proxtrntlon, with 
IHiiii" ill till' ii;;i.iii iif Ihi' lii'iirl ; lil'Hiil ili-iiiliiii'ct Ion cWfilnte hue, TV 
piilii'Mt ili'iii.'il tliiit >li<' UikI Iii'i'ii u-ht;: ii.i'tiiniliil. Ixit it wns dixoovered 
(liiil. f.,v (I y.'iii- sli.' bill! Ik'i'ii .iLlaiulii;.' it in tlii' form of a proprietiry 

r< -ily Htiil liail luni mrti'il a n-^xiUt ■luiliit.' I)n tlii' di-'t-ontinuanre of the 

ili'ii}.'!!!!- sViii|i1oriis ili.ii|ii>i':iM'.L Sl<<' wn- ili~<'1iar|.-i'cl from the honpital a< 
i-111'c'i!, Eitil SOON I'.luiiii'il III till- ii-i' iif 1}ii' ilniji Hiul ii]iplicd for readmia- 

f |i(i,\i-iiiau [Uiikiiifr his millions oiit of 
IVnmii, or ii prof ess iomil proiiioli'r tnidiiiK in the i-harlntniiry of Liquoxone, 
it liim si'cini'd siipcrfliiniiH to i-onimi'iit nil the peiNOiinlity of the men. They 
iiic wlint their biisiiti'SB cnniiotcH, WHh Oi'iiiij.'i'ine thi? ease is somewhat 
iliD'cri'iit. Its priipriedirs arv mm of Ktniidiiif; in other nnd reputable 
H]ili('rcH of activity. Churlex L. Bnrtlett, its president, is a graduate Mf 
^'iilu Univt'i'sity and a iiuin of some j>roniin<'ii('e in its nhiinni affairs. 
Oniiif!c>itic is a Hi<ht i««iie with him. l*rof('SHi<jn]illy he U the western repre- 
si'tiliitivc of Ivory Saitp, one of the heavit-st of l(i){itimatc ndvertisera, and 
he iloubtlww lenrned fioiii this the value of skillful exploitation. Next to 
Sir. llnrtlett, llic InrfcsHt owner of stock IuiiIchh he hus recently sold out> 
IN \\'illlam (iilU'ttc, the nctor, whoso enthuHiasllc indorsement of the pow- 
ders i" known in a. jiKi'sonnl aeniie to the profession whieh he follows, and in 
jirinl to hundreds of tlionsiinds of theater-goers who have read it in their 
IirofjrHms. Whatever these pciitlemen may think of their product (and I 
iimlcrstiind that, iiieriilililp iis it miiy si'em, lioth ot them are eoiistant 
users of it nnd p-nnine Iwlievers in it), tbo methods by which it is sold and 
the essential and mcnilaeioiis I'oncenlment of its real nature illustrate the 


level to which otherwise upright and decent men are brought by a businesi 
. which can not profitably include either uprightness or decency in its 

Orangeine is less dangerous, except in extent of use, than many other 
acetanilid mixtures which are much the same thing under a diflferent name. 
A friend of mine with a weak heart took the printed dose of Laxative 
Bromo Quinin and lay at the point of death for a week. There is no word 
of warning on the label. In many places samples of headache powders are 
distributed on the doorsteps. The St. Louis C^rontcie. records a result: 

"Huntington, W. Va., Aug. 15, 1905. — While Mrs. Thomas Patterson 
was preparing supper last evening she was stricken with a violent head- 
ache and took a headache powder that had been thrown in at her door the 
day before. Immediately she was seized with spasms and in an hour she 
was dead." 

That even the lower order of animals is not safe is shown by a canine 
tragedy in Altoona, Pa., where a prize collie dog incautiously devoured three 
sample tablets and died in an hour. Yet the distributing agents of these 
mixtures do not hesitate to lie about them. Rochester, N. Y., has an excel- 
lent ordinance forbidding the distribution of sample medicines, except by 
permission of the health officer. An agent for Miniature Headache Powders 
called on Dr. Goler with a request for leave to distribute 25,000 samples. 

"What's your formula?" asked the official. 

"Salicylate of soda and sugar of milk," replied the traveling man. 

"And you pretend to cure headaches with that?" said the doctor. "1*11 
look into it." 

Analysis showed that the powders were an acetanilid mixture. The sample 
man didn't wait for the result. He hasn't been back to Rochester since, 
although Dr. Goler is hopefully awaiting him. 

Bromo-Seltzer is commonly sold in drug stores, both by the bottle and at 
soda fountains. The full dose is "a heaping teaspoonful." A heaping tea- 
spoonful of Bromo-Seltzer means about ten grains of acetanilid. The 
United States Pharmacopeia dose is four grains; five grains have been 
known to produce fatal results. The prescribed dose of Bromo-Seltzer is 
dangerous and has been known to produce sudden collapse. 

Megrimine is a warranted headache cure that is advertised in several of 
the magazines. A newly arrived guest at a Long Island house party 
brought along several lots and distributed them as a remedy for headache 
and that tired feeling. It was perfectly harmless, she declared; didn't the 
advertisement say "leaves no unpleasant effects?'* As a late dance the 
night before had left its impress on the feminine members of the house 
party, there was a general acceptance of the "bracer.** That night the local 
physician visited the house party (on special "rush" invitation), and was 
well satisfied to pull all his patients through. He had never before seen 
acetanilid poisoning by wholesale. A Chicago druggist writes me that the 
wife of a prominent physician buys Megrimine of him by the half-dozen 
lots secretly. She has the habit. 

On October 9, W. H. Hawkins, superintendent of the American Detective 
Association, a man of powerful physique and apparently in good health, 
went to a drug store in Anderson, Ind., and took a dose of Dr. Davis* 
Headache Powders. He then boarded a car for Marion, and shortly after 
fell to the floor, dead. The coroner*s verdict is reproduced on page 35. 
Whether these powders are made by a Dr. W. C. Davis, of Indianapolis, 
who makes Anti-Headache, I am unable to state. Anti-Headache describes 
itself as "a compound of mild ingredients and positively contains no 
dangerous drugs.*' It is almost pure acetanilid. 

In the "ethical** field the harm done by this class of proprietaries is per- 


haps as ^^reat nn in the OfK'n field, for many of those which are supposed 
to l>e sohl only in prescript ions arc as frcM»ly distributed to the laity as 
Pcrunn. Ami their advertising is hardly difTorent. 

Dangers of Antikamnia. 

Antikaninia, claiming to he an "ethical" remedy, and advertising through 
the medical press by methods that would, with little alteration, fit any 
patent painkiller on the market, is no less danpfcrous or fraudulent than 
the Oranpeine class which it almost exactly parallels in composition. It 
was at first exploited as a "new synthetical coal-tar derivative," which it 
isn't and never was. It is simply half or more awtanilid (some analyses 
sliow as Inijli as 08 per cent.) with other unimportant ingredients in vaiy- 
ing proportions. In a booklet entitled 'Slight on Pain," and distributed on 




The folloicing uell-knoun "rcnu:(li(s" both ^^ethicaV* and 
''patent ^^^ depend for their results upon the heart-de- 
pressing action of Acetafiilid: 

Orangeine Megrimine 

Bromo-Seltzer Anti-Headache 

Royal Pain Powders Dr. Davis' Headache 

Miniature Headache Powders 

Powders Antikamnia 


and practically all of the dnnj-stnrc-vcnded ''headache 
cures'' and "aiiti-paiii^' rctncdics. 

Take no nostrum of this class icithout a doctor's pre- 
scription, unless you arc sure it contains no acctanilid. 
Make the druygist tell you. lie is responsible, A suit 
for damages has recently been toon against a New York 
drug store for ilhvcss consequent upon the sale of a 
"guaranteed harmless'* headache tablet containing three 
grains of acetanilid. 

doorsteps, J find under an alphabetical list of diseases this invitation to 
form the Antikamnia habit: 

''Nervousness (overwork and excess) — Dose: One Antikamnia tablet 
every two or three h^urs. 

"Shoppers' or Sightseers' Headache — Dose: Two Antikamnia tablets 
every three hours. 

"Worry (nervousness, *the blues') — Dose: One or two Antikamnia and 
Codein tablets every three hours." 

Codein is obtained from opium. The oodein habit is well known to all 
institutions which treat dru&r addictions, and is recognized as being no less 
difficult to cur© than the morphin habit. 

A typlsal inetanco of what Antikamnia will do for its users is that of a 
I'ennsylvania merchant, 60 years old, who had declined, without apparent 


cause, from 140 to 116 pounds, and was finally brought to Philadelphia in 
a state of stupor. His pulse was barely perceptible, his skin dusky and his 
blcod of a deep chocolate color. On reviving he was questioned as to 
whether he had been taking headache powders. He had, for several years. 
What kind? Antikamnia; sometimes in the plain tablets, at other times 
Antikamnia with codein. How many? About twelve a day. He was 
greatly surprised to learn that this habit was responsible for his condition. 

**My doctor gave it to me for insomnia," he said, and it appeared that the 
patient had never even been warned of the dansrerons character of the drug. 

Were it obtainable, I would print here the full name and address of that 
attending physician, as one unfit, either through ignorance or carelessness, 
to practice his profession. And there would be other physicians all over 
the country who would, under that description, suffer the same indictment 
within their own minds for starting innocent patients on a destructive and 
sometimes fatal course. For it is the careless or conscienceless physician 
who gets the customer for the "ethical" headache remedies, and the cus- 
tomer, once secured, pays a profit, very literally, with his own blood. Once 
having taken Antikamnia, the layman, unless informed as to its true nature, 
will often return to the drug store and purchase it with the impression that 
it is a specific drug, like quinin or potassium chlorate, instead of a dis- 
guised poison, exploited and sold under patent rights by a private concern. 
The United States Postoftice, in its broad tolerance, permits the Antikamnia 
company to send through the mails little sample boxes containing tablets 
enough to kill an ordinary man, and these sample boxes are sent not only 
to physicians, as is the rule with ethical remedies, but to lawyers, business 
men, "brain workers," and other prospective purchasing classes. The box 
bears the lying statement: "No drug habit — no heart effect." 

Just as this is going to press the following significant case comes in from 
Iowa : 

"Farmington, Io%va, Oct. 6. — (Special to the Constitution-Democrat,) — 
Mrs. Hattie Kick, one of the best and most prominent ladies of Farmington, 
died rather suddenly Wednesday morning at 10 o'clock from an overdose of 
Antikamnia, which she took for a severe headache from which she was suf- 
fering. Mrs. Kick was subject to severe headaches and was a frequent user 
of Antikamnia, her favorite remedy for this ailment." 

There is but one safeguard in the use of these remedies; to regard them 
as one would regard opium, and to employ them only with the consent of 
a physician who understands their true nature. Acetanilid has its uses, 
but not as a generic painkiller. Pain is a symptom; you can drug it away 
temporarily, but it will return, clamoring for more payment, until the final 
price is hopeless enslavement. Were the skull and bones on every box of 
this class of poison the danger would be greatly minimized. 

With opium and cocain the case is different. The very words are danger 
signals. Legal restrictions safeguard the public, to a greater or less degree, 
from their indiscriminate use. Normal people do not knowingly take opium 
or its derivatives except with the sanction of a physician, and there is even 
spreading abroad a belief (surely an expression of the primal law of self- 
preservation) that the licensed practitioner leans too readily toward the 
convenient narcotics. 

But this perilous stuff is the ideal basis for a patent medicine because its 
results are immediate (though never permanent), and it is its own best 
advertisement in that one dose imperatively calls for another. Therefore it 
behooves the manufacturer of opiates to disguise the use of the drug. This 
he does in varying forms, ana he has found his greatest success in the 
"cough and consumption cair«s" and the soothing syrup class. The former 
of these will be considered in another article. As to the "soothing syrups," 

(WiKi"-I for llo'.lr 


lirm- IU.11IV hnvf ri- 

luolwlilv :.■" Imriii 

lit III 

to till. Llil-. 

Sniiic yriirs nyii 

t iK'^ 

1|i1i~ iiii.iiii-. i-\iu tlip li'mlt- doeit not know 
ir \:i-i- |iii.lil. ami -iili-iJpil. A few surrjn, 

iil'iiiiil il mil-', oil the m-prnpe, so that \ij 

'<■ IIS II tv[ii' 1 mil lit k'Rst doing no Injiutke 

..ii.r.iiri.-iil \. «■ Vnik Iiih.v.t. naked by Ui 

I II. I.i.y :< tiik.'t fi.r ...iii.' ■■ii-.-..iiili..ii" tmll. ™y to btr: 
III till'-'- iilliiir-. \'irn. iilii'ii v'lii Imvi; two young childm 

II ii;;lit." -Ill' vitiii'Mi'l Mitlirk; "Jil-t wiin tpnitpoollfnl o( 

I I Kill); tli« poorrr 
ilih'i-ii eventual l<r 

iiililiction to the 

I'll ii^'i'. ami it i» 

III (rum my own 

l-Hlk ..«■. 

V 111.. |,ll 



t'iiiif- till' 

Olllv rllil 

ill iifi', li 

hilllit. 'i 

Olll' llllll 

lit iviiii- 
fiilln'r f 

1 will. M 

III' fiilli. 
iliiil wil 


■ I 

1 t 


•1'Ik- II 


•■I lln^ 

10 Vl^lllH 

thing ^lu 

Iliil w«« 


11 1 

rl. A middle- 

II'. It controlled 

I'llv uii-; wilhiliiiiiii tlip diarrhea re- 
■u\.h- lii';:iiii »tii'\v, mill llip ilnai reBiilt 
■iii^' llii' il.'Hiyliti.r II/ flic opium habit 

I «ii-. > I' >i'.ii'-. iifli'i'iviird thnt the 

iilviii'lnl llii' linliil. wlii'ii tile phvsiciaD 
in-c til,, yii'l iiioi'i.Uiii. with exactly the 
'■■il Mitli 111,. |.iil.'iil At ths 

li-, liiiii^lili.r nils 111 VfiirH of ftge, an 
!■ ivliii i', iilil tuivc. bin! i.vri-y iidvRntaf^ 
ill |.i-,.i'y iviiy iw II I'l'-iilt iif the opium 
LI'S i,i Ills ,.y,-^. i|,„i ii,. »'„iiia rather 
ss tliliu tu Imv,. Iivi.ii lu become the 

S^iii .}.,-..■; Ciil., iviitcs to fullicr'a as 

A ivijiiiiin ivitb five irbililrcn, all under 
uii-s bnni. iibiiiit il yciir .i;;o, llie first 
■ Wiiis]i:u'"s Wimlliiii;,' f^yi'lip, mid uvciy 

Bi'd Ijy viellnii 
e lab«le4 "Polgon," 



week anotlicr liottle was l>oii;,']it at lir»t, until now a bottle is bought ererr 
third dar. Why? DecniiKo the baby has becotnt habituated to the drug. I 
am not well ciiouprh acquainted with the family to be able to saT that thi 
weaned children nhow any present abnormality of health due to the opitnn 
contained in the dru^. but the aftor-ofTects of opium have been thus de* 
scribed. . . . Another instance, quite as startling, was that of a mother 
who gave larpe quantities of soothinu syrup to two of her children in in- 
fancy; then, beeoming convinced of its danger, abandoned its use. These 
children in middle life !)ecame neurotics, spirit and drug-takers. Three 
children horn later and not given any drugs in early life grew up strong and 

*'T fenr the children of the woman in question will all siifTer for their 
mother's i^Miornnce, or worse, in later life, and have tried to do my duty 
by senclinjr word to the mother of the harmful nature of the stufT, but 
without ('fleet. 

"P. S. — IIow many muroticfl, ficntN and criminals may not *Mrs Wins- 
low' he RjKnisor for?'' 

This query is reHj)ect fully referred to the Anplo- American Drug Com- 
pany, of New York, which makes its handsome profit from this slave trade. 

Kecent Ic^ri^lJition on the part of the New York State Hoard of Pharmacy 
will tend to decrease the ])rotit. as it requires that a poison label be put on 
each bottle of the product, as lias lonfj been the law in England. 

An Oiii^iha phy«<i(ian reports n ease of poisoning from a compound bear- 
ing the toucliin*; name of "Kopp's l^ihy Friend," which has a considerable 
sale in the middle west and in central New York. It is made of sweetened 
water and mor])hin, about one-third grain of morphin to the ounce. 

"The child (after taking four drops) went into a stupor at once, the 
pupils were i)in-j)ointcd, skin cool and clammy, heart and respiration slow. 
J treated the case as one of opium poisoning, but it took twelve hours before 
my little j)atient was out of danger." 

As if to put a point nf satirical grimness on the matter, the responsible 
proprietor of this particular business of drugging helpless babies is a 
woman, ^frs! J. A. Kopp, of York, Pa. 

Making cocain fiends is another profitable enterprise. Catarrh powders 
arc the medium. A decent druggist will not sell cocain as such, steadily, 
to any customer, except on prescription, but most drugfjists find salve for 
their consciences in the fact that the subtle and terrible drug is in the 
form of somebody's sure cure. There is need to say nothing of the effects 
of cocain other than that it is destructive to mind and body alike, and 
appalling in its breaking down of all moral restraint. Y''et in New York 
City it is distributed in "samples" at ferries and railway stations. You 
may see the empty boxes and the instructive labels littering the gutters of 
Broadway any Saturday night, when the drug trade is briskest. 

Birney's Catarrhal Powder, Dr. Cole's Catarrh Cure, Dr. Gray's Catarrh 
Powder, and Crown Catarrh Powder are the ones most in demand. All of 
them are cocain; the other ingredients are unimportant — perhaps even 

Whether or not the bottles are labeled with the amount of cocain makes 
little difference. The habitues know. In one respect, how^ever, the labels 
help them by giving information as to which nostrum is the most heavily 

"People come in here," a New York City druggist tells me, "ask what 
catarrh powders we've got, read the labels, and pick out the one that's got 
the most cocain. When I see a customer comparing labels I know she's 
a fiend." 


Naturally these owners and exploiters of these mixtures claim that the 
imall amount of cocain contained is harmless. For instance, the "Crown 
Cure," admitting 2% per cent., says: 

*'0f course, this is a very small and harmless amount. Cocain is now 
considered to be the most valuable addition to modern medicine ... it 
is the most perfect relief known." 

Birney's Catarrh Cure runs as high as 4 per cent, and can produce testi- 
monials vouching for its harmlessness. Here is a Birney "testimonial" to 
the opposite effect, obtained "without solicitation or payment" (I have 
ventured to put it in the approved form), which no sufferer from catarrh 
can afford to miss: 


William Thompson, of Chicago, 

says of 


"Three years ago Thompson was a strong man. 
Kow he is without money, health, home, or friends." 

(Chicago Tribune.) 

"I began taking Birney's Catarrh Cure (says Thompson) 
three years ago, and the longing for the drug has grown so 
potent that I suffer Avithout it. 

"I followed the directions at first, then I increased the quan- 
tity until I bought the stuff by the doze# bottles." 

A famous drink and drug cure in Illinois had, as a patient, not long ?igo, 
a 14-year-old boy, who was a slave to the Birney brand of cocain. He had 
run his father $300 in debt, so heavy were his purchases of the poison. 

Chicago long ago settled this cocain matter in the only logical way. The 
proprietor of a large downtown drug store noticed several years ago that at 
noon numbers of the shop girls from a great department store purchased 
certain catarrh powders over his counter. He had his clerk warn them that 
the powders contained deleterious drugs. The girls continued to purchase 
in increasing numbers and quantity. He sent word to the superintendent 
of the store. "That accounts for the number of our girls that have gone 
Avrong of late," was the superintendent's comment. The druggist, Mr. 
Mi'Connell, had an analysis made by the Board of Health, which showed 
that the powder most called for was nearly 4 per cent, cocain, whereon he 
threw it and similar powders out of stock. The girls went elsewhere. Mr. 
McConnell traced them and started a general movement againsl this class 
of remedies, which resulted in an ordinance forbidding their sale. Birney's 
Catarrhal Powders, as I am informed, to meet the new conditions, brought 
out a powder without, cocain, which had the briefest kind of a sale. For 
weeks thereafter the downtown stores were haunted by haggard young men 
and women, who begged for "the old powders; these new ones don't do any 
good." As high as $1.00 premium was paid for the 4 per cent, cocain 
species. To-day the Illinois dfuggist who sells cocain in this form is liable 
to arrest. Yet in New York, at the corner of Forty-second street and Broad- 
way, I saw recently a show-window display of the Birney cure, and similar 
displays are not uncommon in other cities. 

Regarding other forms of drugs there may be honest differences of 
opinion as to the limits of legitimacy in the trade. If mendacious advertis- 
ing were stopped, and the actual ingredients of every nostrum plainly pub- 


lifihfd and frankly explained, the patent mediciM tmda i^plit 
flaim to be a legitimate enterprise in many of its phn— , But bo U 
opium or rorain, though the warning skull and erm9 hrmm eovcr tka be 
will excuac the Mile of pffHluctn thnt are nr\'er safely uaed except hj a 
advicT. I l)elieve that the Chicngo method of dealliiK witli the tak 
pomdrm in the ri;<ht nietho<l in coi-ain- and opium-bearing aoatnimfl. 
Htrict the driiff by the ftnmi* wnfr^niiirds when noId nnder'a lying prH 
hh when it f1i<*M it a true rohirH. Tlirn. and then only, will oar laws pn 
the -Ininifful Iriido thiit stii|ifflfH hr1|ilc>fi Imldes and makes criminals d 
voiifi*; nif'ii uiid liar loth of our young women. 


bCOTl S 

Ineurahle Ivpa e i one of tl e trongliold'i of It p patent medicine bu'^i 
nes The idt 1 [ ition iieici in the li^lil of iiulitible bii ine« 11 the 
\utim of some -tlon and «a«tin„ ailimii in nhuU reuirrent lii pe inspires to 
repeated e\pentnent8 nlth anj cure tliatotTers In tlic columns of almost 
eveiy neM'.pipei ton iiiav lind iironnses to <.iirc consumption Consumption 
la a disease absoluteh in(niable by any mediLiiie although an indeaning 
p I -ent ii,e of conHuinptiteH are sa\ 1 by open air, diet 
111! methodual 1i\]ng This is tliorou}>hly and deti 
niti'h tinderntood by all meUital and scientiHc men 
^eieitheiess there are in the patent medicine v.ot\A a 
■set of harpies nlio, for their own bu-siness mteiests 
delibeiatelj footer m the mind of the unfortunate 
RtlTeiei fiom tuberculosis the belief that he can be 
SI e I bv the ii>e of some absolutely fraudulent lu x 
tiiim Many of thoe consumption cuiea tontiin 
liiii^s nhidi hasten the pio^iess of the dixcas^ suih 
a bloioform opium ak'ohul anil hasiieesh Othtrs 
T e comparatively harmless in them'*hes but hv 
11 11 ferient promises of re-MJue they delude the 
•^ ilTerer into misplacing his re lance and forfeitin;; 
1 IS onlv el ance by ncgleLting- those ngidly careful 
hal ita of life which alnne can conquer the «hile 
pi i;;iic One and all Ibe men ubo adicrtise meli 
HI tn cule (onsiimption delil (rateh Irafhc in hunmi 
1 fe 

( ttiMi members of the Pio]riiiun Association of 
\n 1 I [t! e pj tent medi ine combine ) llith "liom 
1 1 c tilkcd haie urjrcd on me the claim that tl eie 
aip hrius in the nostrum business that are ahnte 
c itieism and hate n entioned H B BiicLlen &, Co 
of Chicago \bo maniifa ture a certain snlte Tie 
Bu klen ahe did not paiticulaily interest mi But 
tthcn I came to take up the subiect of consumptun 
cures I ran une\pectedlv on an interesting trail In 
the country and small city newspapers there is non 
being advertised lavisbly Dr Kings ^ew Discoierv 
for Consumption It is proclaimed to be the only 
sure cuie for consumption' Further announcement 
IS made that it strikes terror to the doctors As it 
18 a morphin and chloroform mi\ture Dr King-s 
New Discoierv for Consumption is well calculated to strike terror to the 
lottois or to any other class or profession except perhaps the undertakers 
It IS a pretty diabolical concoction to give to anjone and particularly to a 
consumptHe The chloroform temporarily alliys the cough thereby cheek 
ing !Natuies effort to thrpw off tie dead matter from the lungs The 
opium drugs the patient into a deceiied cheerfulness The eombimtion is 
T in iribly designel to shorten the life of any consumptive 'who takes it 
tea hli Of course there is nothing on the label of the bottle to warn the 

An example ot 
legitimate adrer 
tialng In tbecon 
sumption field. 


^ ' ■JJ:U 

■ FREE of CO§fi 

I Tho Trne Remedy at last PiseoYeredl 






The Only Suro Cure for Consumption In the World. 


A'-'l .-.H t!-i-ir i!'". Tlr. i.' !■ • 1. 1 I .-.■•. I'l m-iiivnily •.HI 
A-tl.iiia. II-. I- ■ : I" I, ■■ |i ■■ : • • . I ■ ■ / I Vi,i,f»i|i ,itiiim»*, 

11 :lMi'-li- I- .ii-.,i{ ■:•>: L .. ' n^i.i.^ ■■■ itic Ttaiwt. Q rfwyi V 

K:.wit I. %«•■! I:i< •:■. 1 !■>.' ■■:«.■ . IL.. ii-Jniiti |.i.i< -• k.-c^ j:ir Kingciunllfl^ ^■ 

Dr. King's New Di^^covery for Consumption, v 

,") ■■!■ < riu«lv-liherk ailiiii : 

, ii4« ■■ |{ ^ li^ vluk, ^ , 

I :.t wlh-i It liet withlkfaii^^ 

laii ^ 

llilldlii:' .iii.:i ijI ii.. .11 j'l .1^1 -, I luli.i.i J t.<Mt| •!(■ fV 

I I lI-IJI.' t. ' ■ ■ 

-iiii.. < .1.1 iri.ii-ii -ivr iji:-.l.[- • • f iiii<- ci'.-rfi Jr^'Oreryi 
< -.w i. [ -.• .'I I f ■! ft- ■■ ■ i.' . :. I,;, ( ■■ II ri.4i-; »ii'(H.riilviil «« fM .S-**'. 
■i( l'..t h'i'I • : , ■ :i r- 1 k)rf > l.>i|>-.» i-l J- •III;: 'rii.i j.i'l, whoM^ ,*1 
iiiMi.> f..i 1-. I.. •.,::• i. ■ I rt..:,!!,!! HefiurtUiahtllit untea " 

TV Pjv r.'-! :■ .1 ^ ! . II |i .1 ). M LiM- 1 

that L:.-. III.. \ 'i, ^-ii' ... |.!i'.ii, ir ■> 

fc.niT ».^n tJ. •■i.i *M I ! ■ •> ;■ ■ '. • i!.i it> 1 1'. ! 

|iciw-ir (n iir'i i.ic » I ■•i.«c i i ■I'm. K i^fnS Si w l)'*i ' v Khi'." Siirtr f-nughi 

1' IN I .1. -Il , 

v* rrlievt 'I «'i 

. K.- ■ ; 

^ iiiiiii; III hi .1 

Itul il « i!! ii. I •!. ■! Mi.iiit i..f ii>i<: • : , ■ :i r-i k)rf 

{.I'-jif. fi4 fiii> i-l i: c 

>«hjrM , 
■nd«i» % 




It a )c'K'fi'4l iff.-il i> <i' I < «|.i-H li'i I I V i' • t.-i (••<%. '-.!(.!% nf the OBnirnU ■ifflli''' 
luitlle :iir II ■-',». uillfWi r^liiin rf iM- |...[::i-, -iv .■■li«uj« of t'lcinrtitciiivhfl.iiig 
l4«n Ukrn »ii-.:-l. i^ l • tl..C4i<"lis "'1 iiif >^e Ui;::.- mh: (.•! %slik:ll Ii ii iftOM* ■-■.'•' 
Dii-nik-d,- |9f<.iii]/'i^ rrf>.;.-l t! •■ t!i i.i 5 j .i.'l ii>r il. II nl »■• iit-t ihe ni<rfl Mrfact •\: 
conli'knce in ii^ \iiiui.', v ■. ti<iiM u<.t oScr it tn wcl'i on Irr lh--'« OHiditiaah. 
lla\i:^vl' ' .' 1..:^ I. > il ■ ii'.rrkia Uf/wk i.itl. i .«m.», Ahl«ci uwillria4r*X^ 

■ad pr:-fiMly katd In ritLii.;.' i-nr n-piilutiuii an<l mnncy oil ii* ivnilik } ■ 

Nw meiiiriiiv ii-it crt-r )4l iwrn uiiiuiJiurti V, ihv Aonri. jDpiupUllkeiti OoM :^ 
vpwr dtu^-,n.<t •lul K' t • K-ii!c. If thrj* h-ii r IM •;i.t it i: i% e {I.i-bd •euil fur ii. ormi - '. 
for it ymii-.lf. IK» nut utmln anj ciroiiiiiunrral^ iluin pel m «ff an jroa «■• . ^■-. 
WAn>iIr\« I)reiiaratl</fi, clriininx to b* M y<M.4l, m iu Bqiul d-H-i r»ot eiht. Alk III. .. >f 
*Da. KiNb'ft New DiKOTARV Mm CoufcUMKnoir,'* wkJ lake no other. '••.\. 

TRUL BOHLES FREE OF COST. Regular Size $I.00l ' 

■■WAm OF oouimiiFiiTe aho Imitations. ■••uratiM 

naw "OK. KKCe MKW DieoOVlHY" »> on mvmty bottlm, 


Hi E. BUOKLEN & CO., Props. 


.- ■ *-■ 





tlalins nre basoIpHs, tho prnnrnntpr' ridiciiUms aii<l thr* rfinody liarmful. 


icliaser. That would decrease the profits. The makers of this beneficent 
?paration arc H. E. Bucklen & Co., of Chicago. 

Chloroform and Prussic Acid. 

Another "cure" wliicli, for excellent reasons of its own, does not print its 
mula. i.^ *'Shiloh'.s Consumption Cure," made at Leroy, N. Y., by S. C. 
?lls & Co. Were it to publish abroad the fact that it contains, among 
ler ingredients, chloroform and prussic acid, the public would probably 

• ■•'* 

bV^jV'^ I 

4 _ ■ 

// it.'* " >v. 

.Xntiritji^ -^^.'t rr.\-*->* •*»'»\. ' C-' i'.'..\^ 





;. Mifc'"'" itratf '»*/;/ 

'«. ' ^■ 

drlnkiB* t>i« oot.Mnva •T « b««xl« rf Br. liiU'a '- 

It Mul« «• a«Mln*tT« %• i^ MfMy tf «^« .. 
yoWlo itt Iftr^v ir It ««r« r«4vlJ*«4 ky Im t^M «U 

IkMlM with • QMtlM, w b«t««r atUl, ffltli « 


■t 1 h MVr • HM -ij 


One logical result of unlabeled poisons. 

libit some caution in taking it. Under our j)re8ent lax system there is 
warning on the bottle that the liquid contains one of the most deadly of 
sons. The makers write me: "After you iiave taken the medicine for 
liilc, if you arc nut firmly convinced that you are verj' much better we 
nt you to go to your druggist and get back all the money that you have 
id for Shiloh.-* But if I were a consumptive, after T had taken "Shiloh" 
awliilo 1 should be less interested in recovering my money than in get- 


ting back my wasted chance of life. Would S. C. Wolls & Co. guarantee 

Morphin is the important ingredient of Dr. Bull's Cough Syrup. Never- 
theless, the United States Postoffice Department obligingly transmits me a 
dose of this poison through the mails from A. C. Meyer k Co., of Baltimore, 
the makers. The firm writes me, in n-spouse to my letter of inquiry: 

**We do not claim that Dr. Bull's Cough Syrup will cure an established 
case of consumption. If you have gotten this impression you most likely 
have misunderstood what we claim. . . . We can, however, say that 
Dr. Bull's Cough Syrup has cured cases said to have been consumption in 
its. earliest stages." 

Quite conservative, this. But A. C. Meyer k Co. evidently don't follow 
their own advertising very closely, for around my .sample bottle (by cour- 
tesy of the PostoflTice Department) is a booklet, and from that booklet I 
quote : 

• *'There is no case of hoarseness, cough, asthma, bronchitis . . . or 
consumption that can not be cured speedily by the proper use of Dr. Bull's 
Cough Syrup." 

If this is not a claim that Dr. Bull's Cough Syrup "will cure an estab- 
lished case of consunij)tion," what is it? Tlic inference from Meyer & Co.'s 
cautious letter is that they realize their responsibility for a cruel and 
dangerous fraud and are beginning to feel an uneasiness about it, which 
may be shame or may be only fear. One logical effect of permitting medi- 
cines containing a dangerous quantity of poison to be sold without the 
poison label is shown in the coroner's verdict reproduced on page 47. In 
the account of the Keck baby's death from the Dr. Bull opium mixture, which 
the Cincinnati papers published, there was no mention of the name of the 
cough syrup. Asked about this, the newspapers gave various explanations. 
Two of them disclosed lliat they had no information on the point. This is 
contrary to the statement of the physician in the case, and implies a" 
reportorial laxity which is difficult to credit. One ascribed the omission to 
a settled policy and one to the fear of libel. When the coroner's verdict 
was given out, however, the name of the nostrum got into plain print. On 
the whole, the Cincinnati papers showed themselves gratifyingly inde- 

Another case of poisoning from this same remedy occurred in Morocco, 
Ind., the victim being a 2-year-old child. The doctor reports: • 

"In an hour, when first seen, symptoms of opium poisoning were present. 
In about twelve hours the child had several convulsions, and spasms fol- 
lowed for another twelve hours at intervals. It then sank into a coma and 
died in the seventy-two hours with cardiac failure. The case was clearly 
one of death from overdose of the remedy." 

The baby had swallowed a large amount of the "medicine" from a bottle 
left within its reach. Had the bottle been properly labeled with skull and 
cross-bones the mother would probably not have let it lie about. 

Caution seems to have become a suddenly acquired policy of this class of 
medicines, in so far as their correspondence goes. Unfortunately, it does 
not extend to their advertising. The result is a rather painful discrepancy. 
G. G. Green runs hotels in California and manufactures quack medicines 
in Woodbury, N. J., one of these being "Boschee's German Syrup," a "con- 
sumption cure." Mr. Green writes me (per rubber stamp) : 

"Consumption can sometimes be cured, but not always. Some cases are 
beyond cure. However, w^e suggest that you secure a trial bottle of German 
Syrup for 25 cents," etc. 

On the bottle I read: "Certain cure for all diseases of the throat and 
limgs." Consumption is a disease of the lungs; sometimes of the throat. 


If it "can sometimes be cured, but not always/' then the Grerman Syrup is 
not a "certain cure for all diseases of the throat and lungs," and somebody, 
as the ill-fated Reingelder put it, "haf lied in brint" on Mr. Green's bottle, 
which must be very painful to Mr. Green. Mr. Green's remedy contains 
morphin and some hydrocyanic acid. Therefore consumption will be much 
less often curable where Boschee's German Syrup is used than where it is 

Absolutely False Claims. 


A curious mixture of the cautious, semi-ethical method and the blatant 
claim-all patent medicine is offered in the Ozomulsion Company.. Ozomul 
sion does not, like the "cures" mentioned above, contain active poisons. It 
is one of the numerous cod-liver oil preparations, and its advertising, in 
the medical journals at first and now in the lay press, is that of a cure for 
consumption. I visited the ofiices of the Ozomulsion Company recently and 
found them duly furnished with a regular physician, who was employed, so 
he informed me, in a purely ethical capacity. There was also present dur- 
ing the interview the president of the Ozomulsion Company, Mr. A. Frank 
Richardson, former advertising a^ent, former deviser of the advertising of 
Swamp-Root, former proprietor of Kranitonic, and present proprietor of 
Slocum's Consumption Cure, which is the "wicked partner" of Ozomulsion. 
For convenience, I will put the conversation in court report form, and, in- 
deed, it partook somewhat of the nature of a cross-examination : 

Q. — Dr. Smith, will Ozomulsion cure consumption? 

A. — Ozomulsion builds up the tissues, imparts vigor, aids the natural re- 
sistance of the body, etc. ( Goes into a long exploitation in the manner and 
style made familiar by patent medicine pamphlets.) 

Q. — But will it cure consumption? 

.1. — Well, without saying that it is a specific, etc. (Passes to an in- 
structive, entertaining, and valuable disquisition on the symptoms and 
nature of tuberculosis.) 

Q. — Yes, but will Ozomulsion cure consumption? 

A. — We don't claim that it will cure consumption. 

Q. — Does not this advertisement state that Ozomulsion will cure con- 
sumption? (Showing advertisement.) 

A. — It seems so. 

Q. — Will Ozomulsion cure consumption? 

A. — In the early stages of the disease — 

Q. (interrupting) — Does the advertisement make any qualifications as to 
the stage of the disease? 

A. — Not that I find. 

Q. — Have you ever seen that advertisement before? 

A. — Not to my knowledge. 

g.— Who wrote it? 

A. (by President Richardson) — I done that ad. myself. 

Q. — Mr. Richardson, will Ozomulsion cure consumption? 

A, — Sure; we got testimonials to prove it. 

Q. — Have you ever investigated any of these testimonials? 

0. {to Dr, Smith) — ^Dr. Smith, in view of the direct statement of your 
advertising, do you believe that Ozomulsion will cure consumption? 

A. — Well, I believe in a great many cases it will. 

Health for Five Dollars. 

That is as far as Dr. Smith would go. I wonder what he would have 
said as to the Dr. T. A. Slocum side of the business. Dr. Slooum puts out 
a "ISpecial Cure Offer" that will snatch you from the jaws of death, on the 


blanket plan, for $6, and guarantees the cure (or mora medicine) for $10. 
His scheme is so noble and broad-minded that I can not refrain from detail* 
ing it. For 9o you get 

1 large bottle of Psych ine, 

1 large bottle of Ozomulsion, 

1 lurg(? Ixittle of ColtHfoote Expectorant, 

1 large tube of Ozojell, 

3 boxes of Lazy Liver Pills, 

3 Hot X-Rny Porous Plasters, 
"which," says the certificate, "will, in a majority of cases, eflfect a perma- 
nent cure of the malady from which the invalid is now suflTcring." What- 
ever ails you — that's what Dr. T. A. Slocum cures. For $10 you get almost 
twice the amount, plus the guarantee. Surely there is little left on earth, 
unless Dr. Slocum should issue a $15 offer, to include funeral expenses and 
a tombstone. 

The Slocum Consumption Cure proper consists of a gay-hued substance 
known as "Psydiine." Psychine is about 10 per cent, alcohol, and has a 
dash of strychnin to ^ivc the ])atient his jiioney's worth. Its alluring color 
is derived from ccchineal. It is "an infallible and unfailing remedy for 
consumption.*' Ozomulsion is also a sure cure, if tlie literature is to Iw 
believed. To cure one's self twice of the same disease savors of reckless 
extra va^'a nee. but as "a perfect and permanent cure will be the inevitable 
consequence." perliaps it's wortli tlie money. It would not do to charjjc 
Dr. T. A. Slocum with frau<l. because he is, T suppose, as dead as Lydia K. 
Pinkham; but Mr. A. Frank liichardson is very uuu'h alive, and I trust it 
will be no surprise to him to see here slaled that his Ozomulsion makes 
claims that it can not support, that, his Psychine is considerably worse, 
that his sj)ecial cure ofl'cr i«< a bit of shameful (piackery, and that his whole 
Slocum Consunij)tion C'urc is a fake and a fraud so ludicrous that its con- 
tinued existence is a luilliaiil ((innucntary on human credulousness. 

Since the early '(jO's, and j)crhaps before, tlu-rc has constantly been in the 
public prints one or another benefactor of the human race who wishes to 
l)estow on sullering mankind, free of charge, a remedy which has snatcheil 
him from the brink of the j,Mave. Such a one is ^Ir. \V. A. Noyes, of Roches- 
ter, X. Y. 'J'o any (lie who writes him he sends «,natis a prescription which 
will surely cure consumption. IJut take this j)rescription to your druggist 
and you will fail to fjet it filled, for tlie siin])le reason that the ingenious 
^Fr. Noyes has employed a pharinaceutical nomenclature peculiarly his 
own. If you wish to try the "Cannabis Sativa Remedy" (which is a mixture 
of hasheesh and other dru^s) you must purchase it direct from tlie adver- 
tiser at a price which assures him an abnormal profit. As Mr. Noyes 
Avrites me proposing to «:lve special treatment for my (supposed) case, de- 
pending on a diagnosis of sixty-seven questions, I fail to see why he is not 
liable for practicing medicine without a license. 

Piao Grows Cautious. 

Piso's Coiisumption Cure, extensively advertised a year or two ago, is 
apparently withdrawing from the field, so far as consumption goes, and 
the Piso people are now more modestly promising to cure coughs and colds. 
Old analyses give as the contents of Piso's Cure for Consumption, alcohol, 
chloroform, opium and cannabis indica (hasheesh). In reply to an inquiry 
as to whether their remedy contains morphin and cannabis indica, the Piso 
Company replies: "Since the year 1872 Piso's Cure has contained no mor- 
phin or anything derived from opium." The question as to cannabis indica 
is not answered. Analysis shows that the "cure" contains chloroform, 
alcohol and apparently cannabis indica. It is therefore, another of the 


remedies ivhich wiu not possibly cure oonaumptiou, but, on the contrary, 
tend by their poiaocous and debilitating drugs to undermine the victim's 

Penina, liquozone, Duffy's J/«It Whiskey, Pierce's Golden Jledical Dis- 
covery and the other '"blanket" cures include tnberculosia in their lists, 
claiming great numberH of wpll-nuthentiented cures. From the imposing 
biiok puhlislied by tlii' R. y. Pierce Company, of BulTnlo, I took a number of 
ti-stimonials for investigation; not a large number, for I found the con- 
sumption testimonial rather scarce. From fifteen letlei-s I got results in 
nine eases. Seven of the letters were returned to ine marked "unclaimed," 
cf ivhich one was mnrced "Xanie not in the dictorj-."' another "Xo such 
postolllcc in tlie state" and a third "Deeensed," The eighth man wrote that 
the Golden ^Icdical Disenvery had cured liis coiigb and blood-spitting, add- 
ing: "It is tlic best lung nicdisan I ever used for lung trubble." Tlie last 
man said he look tweufy-flvc littles and ivns c-ure<ll Two out of nino 
fwins to me a suspiciou^iy small percentage of traceable rei-overio^. 5Iueli 
strcs- Imi been laid by the I'vopiictaiy Association of America through its 

S'esM tomniittce im the suit brouj;hL by R. ^", Pierce; against the Luilks' 
omc Jouriml, the iniplieiition being (although the xuit hnn not yet been 
tried) that a reckless lihcler of a noble and worthy business lias lici'ii 
uuitahly punished. In the full apjircciation of Dr. I'lcree's attitude In the 
matter of lil>el, I wish to slate that in so far as ita claim of curing eon- 
Humption is concerned his Golden ^^edical Discovery is an unqualified fraud. 
One might suppose that the quacks would stop short of trying to deceive 
the medical profession In this matter, yet the "consumption cure" may be 
found disporting itself in the pages of the medical journals. For instance, 
I find this advertisement in several professional magazines: 

"iloArthnr's Syrup of Hypophospnites has proved itself, time and timi! 
again, to he positively heneflcial in this condition lliibcrcnlo^ii] in the 
hands of prnminent ol.-crvers, Hiiiicians anil, wluil i-. mm-,.. iinL.-ti.iiig 
lihyMciuns, hundreds of \vbonL have writlon Ih.'ii' iKlijiLrijig cJic<.iiiiuiii., jii 


its behalf, and it is the enthusiastic conviction of many that itB effect is 
truly specific" Which, translated into lay terms, means that the syrup 
will cure consumption. I find also in the medical press "a sure cure for 
dropsy," fortified with a picture worthy of Swamp-Root or Lydia Pinkham. 
Both of these are frauds in attempting to foster the idea that they will 
cure the disease, and they are none the less fraudulent for being advertised 
to the medical profession instead of to the laity. 

Is there, then, no legitimate advertising of preparations useful in diseases 
Rueh as tuberculosis? Very little, and that little mostly in the medical 
journals, exploiting products which tend to build up and strengthen the 
patient. There has recently appeared, however, one advertisement in the 
lay press which seems to me a legitimate attempt to push a nostrum. It 
is reproduced at the beginning of this article. Notice, first, the frank state- 
ment that there is no specific for consumption ; second, that there is no 
attempt to deceive the public into the belief that the emulsion will be help- 
ful in all cases. Whether or not Scott's Emulsion is superior to other cod- 
liver oils is beside the present question. If all patent medicine "copy" 
were written in tlie same spirit of honesty as this, I should have been able 
to omit from this series all consideration of fraud, and devote my entire 
attention to the far less involved and difficult matter of poison. Unhappily, 
all of the Scott's Emulsion advertising is not up to this standard. In 
another newspaper I have seen an excerpt in which the Scott & Bowne 
Company come perilously near making, if they do not actually make, the 
claim that their emulsion is a cure, and furthermore make themselves 
ridiculous by challenging comparison with another emulsion, suggesting a 
cheinical test and offering, if their nostrum comes out second best, to give 
to the i7istitution snaking the experiment a supply of their oil free for a 
year. This is like tlie German druggist who invented a heart-cure and 
offered two cases to any one who could prove that it was injurious! 

Consumption is not the only incurable disease in which there are good 
pickings for the birds of prey. In a recent issue of the New York Sunday 
American- Journal I find three cancer cures, one dropsy cure, one "heart- 
disease soon cured," three epilepsy cures and a "case of paralysis cured." 
Cancer yields to but one agency — the knife. Epilepsy is either the result 
of pressure on the brain or some obscure cerebral disease; medicine can 
never cure it. Heart disease is of many kinds, and a drug that may be 
helpful in relieving symptoms in one case might be fatal in another. The 
same is true of dropsy. Medical science knows no "cure" for paralysis. 
As space lacks to consider individually the nature of each nostrum sepa- 
rately, I list briefly, for the protection of those who read, a number of 
the more conspicuous swindles of this kind now being foisted on the public: 

Rupert Wells' Radiatized Fluid, for cancer. 

Miles' Heart Disease Cure. 

Miles' Grand Dropsy Cure. 

Dr. Tucker's Epilepsy Cure. 

Dr. Grant's Epilepsy Cure. 

W. H. May's Epilepsy Cure. 

Dr. Kline's Epilepsy Cure. 

Dr. W. O. Bye's Cancer Cure. 

Mason's Cancer Cure. 

Dr. Williams' Pink Pills for Pale People, which are adver- 
tised to cure paralysis and are a compound of green 

vitriol, starch and sugar. 
Purchasers of these nostrums not only waate their money, but in many 
cases tliey throw away their only chance by delaying proper treatment 
until it is too late. 


Properly, a "cure" known as Bioplasm belongs in tWs list, but so in- 
genious are its methods that it deserves some special attention. In some 
of the J^ew York papers a brief advertisement, reading as follows, occupies 
a conspicuous position. 

"After suffering for ten years the torture that only an ataxic can know, 
Mr. E. P.* Burnham, of Delmar, N. Y., has been relieved of all pain and 
restored to health and strength, and the ability to resume his usual pur- 
suits, by an easily obtained and inexpensive treatment which any druggist 
can furnish. To any fellow-sufferer who mails him a self -addressed envelope 
Mr. Burnham sends free this prescription which cured him. — Adv, 

Now, people who give away something for nothing, and spend money ad- 
vertising for a chance to do it, are as rare in the patent medicine business 
as out of it, and Delmar, N. Y., is not included in any map of Altruria 
that I have learned of. E. P. Burnham, therefore, seemed worth writing to. 
The answer came back promptly, inclosing the prescription and explaining 
the advertiser's purpose: 

**My only motive in the notice which caught your attention is to help 
other sufferers. You owe me nothing. I have nothing to sell. When you 
are benefited, however, if you feel disposed and able to send me a contribu- 
tion to assist me in making this great boon to our fellow-sufferers better 
known it will be thankfully received and used for that purpose." 

I fear that Mr. Burnham doesn't make much money out of grateful corre- 
spondents who were cured of locomotor ataxia by his prescription, because 
locomotor ataxia is absolutely and hopelessly incurable. Where Mr. Burn- 
ham gets his reward, I fancy, is from the Bioplasm Company, of 100 Will- 
iam street, New York, whose patent medicine is prescribed for me. I should 
like to believe that his "only motive is to help other sufferers,** but as I 
find, on investigation, that' the advertising agents who handle the "Bum- 
ham** account are the Bioplasm Company's agents, I am regretfully com- 
pelled to believe that Mr., Burnham, instead of being of the tribe of the 
good Samaritan, is probably an immediate relative of Ananias. The Bio- 
plasm Company also proposes to cure consumption, and is worthy of a 
conspicuous place in the Fraud's Gallery of Nostrums. 

Even the skin of the Ethiop is* not exempt from the attention of the 
quacks. A colored correspondent writes, asking that I "give a paragraph 
to these frauds who cater to the vanity of those of my race who insult their 
Creator in attempting to change their color and hair," and inclose a typical 
advertisement of "Lustorene,'* which "straightens kinky, nappy, curly hair.'* 
and of "Lustorone Face Bleach," which "whitens the darkest skin" and will 
**bring the skin to any desired shade or color.'* Nothing could better illus- 
trate to what ridiculous lengths the nostrum fraud will go. Of course, the 
Lustorone business is fraudulent. Some time since a Virginia concern, 
which advertised to turn negroes white, was suppressed by the Postoffice 
Department, which might well turn its attention to Lustorone Face Bleach. 

There are being exploited in this country to-day more than 100 cures for 
diseases that are absolutely beyond the reach of drugs. They are owned by 
men who know them to be swindles, and who in private conversation will 
almost always evade the direct statement that their nostrums will "cure" 
consumption, epilepsy, heart disease and ailments of that nature. Many of 
them "guarantee** their remedies. They will return your money if you 
aren't satisfied. And they can afford to. They take the lightest of risks. 
The real risk is all on the other side. It is their few pennies per bottle 
against your life. Were the facile patter by which they lure to the bargain 
* menaos to the pocketbook alone, one might regard them only as ordinary 


folloNVfrn of liprht linrinop, mifi^ht imagine them filchinff their gmin with the 
confidential. h:ilf-l)ra/cn, halfasbnniod Iror of the thlmblerigger. But the 
matter jroos furtlir-r an«l (leepor. Kvory man who trades in this market, 
whether lie iMMket** the |)rolitH of the maker, the purveyor or the advertiser, 
takes toll of hloe.d. lie may not dceeive himself here, for here the patent 
medicine is nakedest, most cold-hearted. Relentless greed Mtf the* trap and 
death is partner in the enterprise 

Hetrixted rnoM Collieb'« Wekkly, Feb. 17, 1C0«. 


Advertising and testimonials are respectively the aggressive and de- 
fensive forces of the Great American Fraud. Without the columns of the 
newspapers and magazines wherein to exploit themselves, a great majority 
of the patent medicines would peacefully and blessedly fade out of exist- 
ence. Nearly all the world of publications is open to the swindler, the 
exceptions being the high-class magazines and a very few independent 
spirited newspapers. The strongholds of the fraud are dailies, g^eat and 
small, the cheap weeklies and the religious press. According to the esti- 
mate of a prominent advertising firm, above 90 per cent, of the earning 
capacity of the prominent nostrums is represented by their advertising. 
And all this advertising is based on the well-proven theory of the public's 
pitiable ignorance and gullibility in the vitally important matter of health. 

Study the medicine advertising in your morning paper, and you will 
find yourself in a veritable goblin-realm of fakery, peopled with monstrous 
myths. Here is an r mulct in the form of an electric belt, warranted to 
restore youth and vigor to the senile; yonder a magic ring or mysterious 
inhaler, or a bowitch^^d foot-plaster which will draw the pangs of rheuma- 
tism from the tortuied body "or your money back;" and again some benefi- 
cent wizard in St. Louis promises with a secret philtre to charm away 
deadly cancer, while in the next column a firm of magi in Denver pro- 
poses confidently to exorcise the demon of incurable consumption without 
ever seeing the patient. Is it credible that a supposedly civilized nation 
should accept such stuff as gospel? Yet these exploitations cited above, 
while they are extreme, differ only in degree from nearly all patent-medicine 
advertising. Ponce de Leon, groping toward that dim fountain whence 
youth springs eternal, might believe that he had found his goal in the 
Peruna factory, the Liquozone "laboratory" or the Vitae-Ore plant; his 
thousands of descendants in this century of enlightenment painfully drag 
themselves along poisoned trails, following a will-o'-the-wisp that dances 
above the open graves. 

Newspaper Accomplices. 

If there is no limit to the gullibility of the public on the one hand, there 
is apparently none to the cupidity of the newspapers on the other. As the 
Proprie.tary Association of America is constantly setting forth in veiled 
-warnings, the press takes an enormous profit from patent-medicine adver- 
tising. Mr. Hearst's papers alone reap .a harvest of more than half a 
million dollars per annum from this source. The Chicago Tribune, which 
treats nostrum advertising in a spirit of independence, and sometimes with 
scant courtesy, still receives more than $80,000 a year in medical patronage. 
Many of the lesser journals actually live on patent medicines. What wonder 
that they are considerate of these profitable customers! Pin a newspaper 
owner down to the issue of fraud in the matter, and he will take refuge in 
the plea that his advertisers and not himself are repsonsible for what 
appears in the advertising columns. Caveat emptor is the implied super- 
scription above this department. The more shame to those publications 


which prostitute their news and editorial departments to their ^rc<*(l. Here 
are two samples, one from the Cleveland Plain- Dealer, the other from a 
temperance weekly: 





"Vienna^ September 9. — The astonishinp: success of the Ascftt<-o treat niont 
for catarrh, asthma and bronchitis is wholly attributed to its marvelous, 
action on the mucous membranes, and having no disturbinpf influence on 
other organs of the body. 

"It is claimed by European savants, from whom this remedy emanated, 
that five hundred drops will cure permanently even the most obstinate 
cases. The dose is small and pleasant to take, bein«r only seven drops twice 
daily. The Austrian dispensary, 32 West Twenty- fifth Street, New York, 
N. Y., will send a trial treatment of Aseateo free by mail to all suin^rers 
who have not tested the wonderful curative powers of the specific' 






•'Paul said: Trove all things; hold fast that which is good.* Vitae-Ore 
has been before the American people for three decades and is still groAving 
in popularity. 

"They have proven and hold fast to it. Read about it on last page. 
You can test and prove it without a penny risk." 

Green Goods "Cable News." 

The "Ascatco" advertisement, wliich the Plain-Dealer prints as a cable- 
gram, without any distinguishing mark to designate it as an advertisement, 
of course, emanates from the office of the nostrum, and is a fraud, as the 
Plain-Dealer well knew when it accepted payment, and became partner to 
the swindle by deceiving its readers. The Vitai-Ore "editorial" appears 
by virtue of a full-page advertisement of this extraordinary fake in the 
same issue. 

Whether, because church-going people are more trusting, and therefore 
more easily befooled than others, or from some more obscure reason, many 
of the religious papers fairly reek with patent-medicine fakes. Take, for 
instance, the Christian Endeavor World, which is the undenominational 
organ of a large, powerful and -useful organization, unselfishly working 
toward the betterment of society. A subscriber who recently complained 
of certain advertisements received the following reply from the business 
manager of the publication: 

"Dear Sir: — ^Your letter of the 4th comes to me for reply. Appreciating 
the good spirit in which you write, let me assure you that, to the best of 
our knowledge and belief, we are not publishing any fraudulent or unwor- 
thy medicine advertising. We decline every year thousands of dollars' 
worth of patent-medicine advertising that we think is either fraudulent or 
misleading. You would be surprised, very likely, if you could know of the 
people of high intelligence and good character who are benefited by these 



medicines. We have taken a great deal of patns to make particular in- 
quiries of our subscribers with respect to this question, and a very large 
percentage of them are devoted to one or more well-known patent medi- 
cines, and regard them as household remedies. Trusting that you will 
be able to understand that we are acting according to our best and sin- 
cerest judgment, I remain, yours very truly, 

"The Golden Rule Company, 
''George W, Coleman, Business Manager,** 

Running through half a dozen recent issues of the Chris tion Endea/vor 
World, I find nineteen medical advertisements of, at best, dubious nature. 
Assuming that the business management of the Christian Endeavor World 
represents normal intelligence, I would like to ask whether it accepts the 
statement that a pair of "magic foot drafts'* applied to the bottom of the 
feet will cure any and every kind of rheumatism in any part of the body? 
Further, if the advertising department is genuinely interested in declining 
"fraudulent or misleading" copy, I would call their attention to the ri- 
diculous claims of Dr. Shoop's medicines, which "cure" almost every dis- 
ease; to two hair removers, one an "Indian Secret," the other an "acci- 
dental discovery," both either fakes or dangerous; to the lying claims of 
Hairs Catarrh Cure, that it is "a positive cure for catarrh" in all its stage; 
to "Syrup of Figs," which is not a fig syrup, but a preparation of senna; 
to Dr. Kilmer's Swamp Root, of which the principal medicinal constituent 
is alcohol; and, finally, to Dr. Bye's Oil Cure for cancer, a particularly 
cruel swindle on unfortunates suffering from an incurable malady. All of 
these, with other matter, which for the sake of decency I do not care to 
detail in these columns, appear in recent issues of the Christian Endeavor 
World, and are respectfully submitted to its management and its readers. 

Quackery and Religion. 

The Baptist Watchman of Oct. 12, 1905, prints an editorial defending 
the principle of patent medicines. It would be interesting to know whether 
the back page of the number has any connection with the editorial. This 
page is given up to an illustrated advertisement of Vitae-Ore, one of the 
boldest fakes in the whole Frauds' Gallery. Vitae-Ore claims to be a 
mineral mined from "an extinct mineral spring," and to contain free iron, 
free sulphur and free magnesium. It contains no free iron, no free sul- 
phur, and no free magnesium. It announces itself as "a certain and never- 
failing cure'* for rheumatism and Bright's disease, dropsy, blood poisoning, 
nervous prostration arid general debility, among other maladies. Whether 
it is, as asserted, mined from an extinct spring or bucketed from a sewer, 
has no bearing on its utterly fraudulent character. There is no "certain 
and never-failing cure" for the diseases in its list, and when the Baptist 
Watchman sells itself to such an exploitation it becomes partner to a 
swindle not only on the pockets of its readers, but on their health as well. 
In the same issue I find "Piso's Cure for Consumption," "Bye's Cancer 
Cure," "Mrs. M. Summer's Female Remedy," "Winslow's Soothing Syrup," 
and "Juven Pills," somewhat disguised here, but in other mediums openly a 
sexual weakness **remedy." 

A correspondent sends me clippings from The Christian Century, lead- 
ing off with an interesting editorial entitled "Our Advertisers," from 
which I quote in part: 

"We take pleasure in calling the attention of our readers to the high- 
grade of advertising which The Christian Century commands. We shall 
continue to advertise only such companies as we know to be thoroughly 
reliable. During the pist year wc have refused thousands of dollars' 

of pai'na to make particular 

this question, and a very large 

r more well-lcnoim patent medi- 

remeJics. Trusting tbat you will 

'ling aoeording to our best and ein- 


"The Goldes Rule Compahi, 

"je W. Coleman, Business il onager," 

-ient issues of tlie Chriation Endeavor 

.iTtisenienta of, at best, dubious nature. 

.I'ment ot the Chrislian EndeavoT World ' 

.Miuld like to aak whether it accepts the 

f'lot drafts" applied to the bottom of the 

lud of rheumatism in any part of the body? 

■partment Is genuinely interested in declining 

L'Opy, I would call their attention to the ri- 

ji'a medicines, which "cure" almost every dis- 

-, one an "Indian Secret," the other an "aeci- 

iier fakes or dangerous; to the lying claims of 

it is "a positive cure for catarrh" in ail ita stage; 

li is not a fig syrup, but a preparation of senna; 

Root, of which Uie principal medicinal constituent 

, to Dr. Bye's Oil Cure for cancer, a particularly 

< tunates sufFeriog from an incurable malady. All of 

I ler, which for the sake of decency I do not care to 

lus, appear in recent issues of the ChrtBtian Endeavor 

I'ctfully Kuhmitted to its management and ita readers. 

Quackery and Religion. 

it eh ji a nf t. 12. lOOn, prints an editorial defending 

utcnt med c c« It would be interesting to know whelher 

( the number has any connection with the editorial. ITiis 

p to in llustrated adrertisemejit of Vit4E-0re, one of the J 

n the t1 ole Frauds' Gallery. Vitie.Ore claims to be a. 

!ro an eit net mineral spring," and to contain free iron, 

1 f igneaiutn. It contains no tree iron, no free aul- 

m It announces itself as "n certain and never- 

I m and Bright's (lieease, dropsy, blood poisoning, 

1 neral debility, among other maladies. Wliether ' 

J 1 I om an extinct spring or bucketed from a __ _., 

ullerlv friiidulent character. There is no "certain 

for the diseases in its list, and when the Baptist 

esploitation it becomes partner to a 

ts renilers, but on their health as well. 

■ lire for Consumption," "Bye'a Cancer 

lii'iimiy,'' "Wiuslow'a Soothing Syrup," 

eii lu'ie, but in other mediums openly ■ | 

of our readers to the higfc 1 

turn commands. We ahAll4 

we know to be thoroughly- '■ 

refused tliousrtnda of dollar ' 


worth of udvertiwiiig wliidi uthvr i-i'li;^iuii%» juuniaU uic ruuniiur, but which 
Is rated 'objectionable' by the belter chi?«s of i)erioilical's. Compare our 
ndverti«;ing columns with the colunms of any otlier purely relij,'ious jour- 
nal, and let Ujj know what >ou think of tlie <'harafter of our advertising 

Whether th<* opiiiioi* cf a noii-^ul»^rrilMr will intcn-i 'i In- Cluifitiaih 
Crnturif I have no nifan-» of knowii:;;, hut I will vi-nlun* it. My opinion 
is that a ron*-idernhle ])ro])nrlion of it^ ailvrrti^rnn-nt-i are >urh as any 
rijrht-niinded and intelli;:ent publisher ^liould Im- a-^hunn-d to print, and 
that if its readers nccrjjt it- Iinlor-i'mont of tlw a<lvrvti*.in!Lr (■olnnin*^ they 


Tin: l*i:i«i NA Dm <. Mam iac r\ iciN<i < <>., 

^i y. . h: •■ h«a:i . «r >.fcv« yo-r tcj* Ito...;. . 
tftei, i .i* ::t • - *• live ..^•r- fr.^ :■ . •■ : 
oabc '.■•;.:■-/ -i *. y -r ji-.'ti.X »ti*» ■' .. > ' 
oett.-. -r y -fik' r r r ;-."• 

A-. :i. «.i..z l<^ AjfcAt ,t.:t* fcUi 'T l..h' • ■ I.. • 
altlrcpn ...*..■•,:>■. ai.a lr.»' 7c- »ro s><1i.j; f\r r-L.- 
l*t*.C!s • :r..:lry *t.i-n >-'.r ttttltr.-.iftl :*. 

t/.j .-•■. . y .. r? *ivf, :;(;>* Bith * -'-ly '■ I" ' 
■o vl". . -.sf.r- J.- #'1: jen'.i 'i.- tfcjr. a^ ii ;... -•'" . 

%• . :' I . ■.!■ -•. ill fc .'r. ..*.•■■ ^* ..'•t, ■ ^- •' 
a J " • .• 17 i.ifti /.: . : c 1,..--: ,.; ■ . .. •. 

•1 ; 

H. i. 

V-.ry •'r.?»r*.j > . 

TUB i'UhJUA :kV^ !i.- 

J C\ 


will have a very heavy indictment to brin^' against it. Three "cancer 
cures/' a dangerous ''licart cure," a charhitan eye doctor, Piso*s Con- 
sumption Cure, Dr. Shoop's Rheumatism Cure and Liquozone make up a 
pretty fair "Frauds' Gallery" for the delectation of The Christian Century's 

As a convincing argument, many nostrums guarantee, not a cure, as they 
would have the public believe, but n reimbursement if the medicine is im- 
sati?factor3'. Liquozone does this, and fnilli fully carries out its agreement. 
l''h'«ti-o-;;('n. ii iH'W "ynniicide." which ha>< stolen IJqiio/onc's jMhorti'^in*.'' 
.^rhenie ahno«-t wtud for woid. iiN<; pionii-r- thi-^. Dr. Sh'(iop'<> :i;ji<'rnnMit 


is so worded that the unsatisfied customer is likely to have considerable 
trouble in getting his money back. Other concerns send their "remedies" 
free on trial, among these being the ludicrous "magic foot drafts** re- 
ferred to above. At first thought it would seem that only a cure would 
bring profit to the makers. But the fact is that most diseases tend to cure 
themselves by natural means, and the delighted and deluded patient, ascrib- 
ing the relief to the "remedy," which really has nothing to do with it, 
sends on his grateful dollar. Where the money is already paid, most 
people are too inert to undertake the eflfort of getting it back. It is the 
easy American way of accepting a swindle as a sort of joke, which makes 
for the nostrum readers ready profits. 

Safe Rewards. 

Then there is the "reward for proof" that the proprietary will not per- 
form the wonders advertised. The Liquozone Company ofTer $1,000, I be- 
lieve, for any germ that Liquozone will not kill. This is a pretty safe offer, 
because there are no restrictions as to the manner in which the unfortunate 
germ might be maltreated. If the matter came to an issue, the defendants, 
might put their bacillus in the Liquozone bottle and freeze him solid. If 
that didn't end him, they could boil the ice and save their money, as 
thus far no germ has been discovered which can survive the process of 
being made into soup. Nearly all of the Hall Catarrh Cure advertise- 
ments offer a reward of $100 for any case of catarrh which the nostruni 
fails to cure. It isn't enough, though one hundred times that amount 
might be worth while; for who doubts that Mr. F. J. ""heney, inventor of 
the "red clause," would fight for his cure through every court, exhausting 
the prospective $100 reward of his opponent in the first round? How 
hollow the "guarantee" pretence is, is shown by a clever scheme devised 
by Radam, the quack, years ago, when Shreveport was stricken with yellow 
fever. Knowing that his offer could not be accepted, he proposed to the 
United States Government that he should eradicate the epidemic by de- 
stroying all the germs with Radara's Microbe Killer, offering to deposit 
$10,000 as a guarantee. Of course, the Government declined on the 
ground that it had no power to accept such an offer. Meantime, Radam 
got a lot of free advertising, and his fortune was made. 

No little stress is laid on "personal advice" by the patent-medicine 
companies. This may be, according to the statements of the firm, from 
their physician or from some special expert. As a matter of fact, it is 
almost invariably furnished by a $10-a-week typewriter, following out one 
of a number of "form" letters prepared in bulk for the "personal-inquiry" 
dupes. Such is the Lydia E. Pinkham method. The Pinkham Company 
writes me that it is entirely innocent of any intent to deceive people into 
believing that Lydia E. Pinkham is still alive, and that it has published in 
several cases statements regarding her demise. It is true that a number 
of years ago a newspaper forced the Pinkham concern into a defensive 
admission of Lydia E. Pinkham's death, but since then the main purpose 
of the Pinkham advertising has been to befool the feminine public into 
believing that their letters go to a woman — who died nearly twenty years 
ago of one of the diseases, it is said, which her remedy claims to cure. 

The Immortal Mrs. Pinkham. 

True, the newspaper appeal is always "Write to Mrs. Pinkhani," and this 

is technically a saving clause, as there is a Mrs. < Pinkham, widow of the 

son of Lydia E. Pinkham. What sense of shame she might be supposed to 

suffer in the perpetration of an obvious and public fraud is presumably 


salviMl by (ho lar«:o profits of tlir biisin(»<4S. Tlio pn-at majority of the *:\iU^ 
who "write to Mrs. Pinkham" siijiposo thonisclvcs to }k» acldri'.ssinpf Lydia K. 
Pinkham, and t!n'ir h'ttcrs nro not even answered liy the prosent proprietor 
of the name, l)ut l»y a <'orps of h\irrir'<l clerks and typewriters. 

You fret the same resulls wlien you write to Dr. Hartman, of Peruna, for 
personal puidanee. Dr. Hart man himself told me tliat he took no active 
part now in tlie cornlurt of the Peruna C'om|)any. If he sees the letters 
addressed to him at all, it is liy ehanee. "Dr. Kilmer." of Swamp-Root 
fame, wants vou to write to him about vour kidnevs. There is no Dr. Kil- 
mer in the Swami)-I*oot cone^'rn, and luis not l)een for many years. Dr. 
T. A. Sloeum, who writ<«s you so earnestly and juously aliout takin|3f care 
of your consumption in time, is a myth. 1'lie whole "])ersonal medical 
adviee" business is mannered by rote, and the letter that you j»ct "special to 
your ease" has been printed mihI si;:ned before your incpiiry ever reached the 
shark who <xots j-our money. 

An increasingly eominon pitfjill is the letter in the newspapers from 
some sulTerer who has been saved from disease and wants you to write and 
'ffvt the prescription free. A cons])i(Mious instance of this is "A Notre Dame 
Lady's Ai)pear' to sulTercrs from rheumatism and also from female trouble. 
**!Mrs. Sunmiers," of N<tre Dame, 111., whose picture in tlu? papers represents 
a fat Sister of ('harity, with the wan, uneasy exi)ression of one who feels 
that her dinner isn't di*:e«<lin;r proj)erly, may be a real lady, but I suspect 
she wears a full beard and talks in a ba^s voice, because my letter of in- 
quiry to her was ans\verc<l by tjie patcnt-mediciiu! lirm of Vanderhrof & (V>., 
who inclosed some sample tablets and waiite*! to sell me more. There are 
many others of this class. It is safe to assume that every advert i.sin«r 
altruist who pretends to ^'ive out free j)rcs(riptions is really a quack medi- 
cine firm in disguise. 

One instance of bad faith to which the nostrum patron renders him- 
self liable: It is asserted that tlu-se letters of in(|uiry in the patent-medi- 
cine field are re<(ardcd as [irivate. "All corresj)oiidcnce hebl strictly private 
and sacredly confidential." advertises Dr. R. V. TMcrce, of the Golden Medi- 
cal Discovery, etc. A (-hicapro lirm of hitter brokers offers to send me 
50,000 Dr. Pierce order blanks at $2 a thousand for thirty days; or I can 
get terms on Ozomulsion, Theodore Xoel ( Vita*-Oi-e) , Dr. Stevens* Nervous 
Debility Cure, Cactus Cure, women's regulators, etc. 

With advertisements in the medical journals th<' ])ublic is concerned only 
indirectly, it is true, but none the less vitally. Only doctors read these 
exploitations, but if they accept certain of them and treat their patients on 
the strength of the mendacious statements it is at the ])eril of the patients. 
Take, for instance, the Antikamnia advertising which appears in most of 
the high-class medical journals, and which includes the following state- 

"Do not depress the heart. 
Do not produce habit. 
Are aeurate — safe — sure." 

These three lines, reproduced as they occur in the medical journals, con- 
tain five distinct and separate lies — a triumjdi of condensed mendacity un- 
equaled, so far as I know, in the "cure all" class. For an instructive paral- 
lel here are two claims made by Dufl'y's ^lalt Whiskey, one taken from a 
medical journal, and hence "ethical," the other transcribed from a daily 
paper, and therefore to be condemned by all medical men. 

Puzzle: Which is the ethical and which the unethical advertisement? 








j|»-5 ^f J»/s.l 





"It is the only cure and previ'ntative [sic] of consuiiiption, pneu- 
monia, jifrip, bronchitis, couj^hs, colds, mnlaria, low fevers and all 
wasting, weakening, diseased conditions." 

"Cures general debility, overwork, la ;?rippe, colds, bronchitis, 
consumption, malaria, dyspepsia, depression, exhaustion and weak- 
ness from whatever cause." 

All the high-class medical publications accent the advertisinsr of "^fcAr- 
thur's Syrup of Hypophosphites," which uses the following statement: "It 
is the enthusiastic conviction of many (physicians) that its effect is truly 
specific.** That Iroks to me suspiciously like a "consumption cure" shrewdly 
expressed in pseudo-ethical terms. 

The Germicide Family. 

Zymoticine, if one may believe various medical publications, "will pre- 
vent microbe proliferation in the blood streams, and acts as an efficient 
eliminator of those gorms and their toxins which are already present." 
Translating this from its technical Imguajre, I am forced to the conviction 
that Zymoticine is hnlf-brotlicr to Li(|Uozonf. and if tlic latter is ille^ritimate 
at least both are children of Beelzebub, father of all frauds. Of the same 
family «re the "ethicals" Acetozoiie and Koimol, as shown by their germi- 
cidal claims. 

Again, I find exploited to tlie niedical ])rofessioii, throucrh its own orsrans, 
a "sure cure for dr()])sy." "Hy<j:ei}i presents lier latest discovery," declares 
the advertisement, and fortifies th(» statement witli a ])i('ture worthy of 
Swamp-Root or Lydia Pinkhani. Every intelli«rent ])>iysieinn knows that 
there is no sure euro for dropsy. The alternative imp ieiition is that the 
advertiser hopes to get his profits by deluding the uninfelliirent of the dvq- 
fession, and that the publications which print his advertisement are willing 
to hire themselves out to the swindle. 

In one respect some of the medical journals are far below the average of 
the newspapers, and on a par with the worst of the "reli^jfious" journals. 
They olTer their reading 8])ace for sale. Here is an extract from a letter 
from the Medical Mirror to a well-known "ethical firm:" 

"Should you place a contract for this issue we shall publish a 300- word 
report in your interest in our reading eohinins." 

Many other magazines of this class print advertitiements as original read- 
ing matter calculated to deceive their subscribers. 

Back of all patent medicine advertising stands the testimonial. Produce 
proofs that any nostrum can not in its nature ])erform the wonders that it 
boasts, and its retort is to wave aloft its careful horde of letters and cry: 

"We rest on the evidence of those we have cured." 

The crux of the matter lies in the last word. Are the writers of those 
letters really cured? What is the value of these testimonials? Are they 
genuine? Are they honest? Are they, in their nature and from their source, 
entitled to such weight as would convince a reasonable mind? 

Three distinct types suggest themselves: The word of grateful acknowl- 
edgement from a private citizen, couched in such terms as to be readily 
available for advertising purposes: the encomium from some person in 
public life, and the misspelled, illiterate epistle which is from its nature 
go unconvincing that it never gets into print, and which outnumbers tha 
other two classes a hundred to one. First of aU, most nostrums make a 
point of the mass of e\idence. Tliousands of testimonials, they declare, 


just as valuable for their purposes as those they print, are in their files. 
This is not true. I have taken for analysis, as a fair sample, the "World's 
Dispensary Medical Book," published by the proprietors of Pierce's Favorite 
Prescription, the Golden Medical Discovery, Pleasant Pellets, the Pierce 
Hospital, etc. As the dispensers of several nostrums, and because of their 
long career in the business, this firm should be able to show as large a col- 
lection of favorable letters as any proprietary concern. 

Overworked Testimonials. 

In their book, judiciously scattered, I find twenty-six letters twice 
printed, four letters thrice printed, and two letters produced four times. 
Yet the compilers of the book "have to refrret'* (editorially) that tlu y can 
"find room only for this comparatively small number in this volume." Why 
repeat those they have if this is true? If enthusiastic indorsements ])oured 
in on the patent medicine people, the Duffy's Malt Whiskey advertising? 
management would hardly be driven to purchasing its letters from tlie very 
aged and from disreputable ministers of the gospel. If all the counnunica- 
ticns were as convincing as those published, the Peruna Companv would 
not have to employ an agent to secure publishable letters, nor the Liquozone 
Company indorse across the face of a letter from a Mrs. Benjamin Char- 
teris: "Can change as we see fit." Many, in fact I believe I may say almost 
all, of the newspaper-exploited testimonials are obtiined at an expense to 
the firm. Agents are employed to secure them. This costs money. Diufj- 
gists get a discount for forwarding letters from their customers. This 
costs money. Persons willing to have their picture printed get a dozen 
photographs for themselves. This costs money. Tx4ters of inquiiy answered 
i)y givers of testimonials bring a price — 25 cents per letter, usually. Here 
is a document sent out periodically by the Penma Company to keep in line 
its "unsolicited" beneficiaries: 

"As you are aware, we have your testimonial to our remedy. It has 
been some time since we have heard from you, and so we thought best to 
make inquiry as to your present state of health and whether you still occa- 
sionally make use of Peruna. We also want to make sure that we have 
your present street address correctly, and that you are making favorable 
answers to such letters of inquiry which your testimonial may occasion. 
Remember that we allow 25 cents for each letter of inquiry. You have only 
to send the letter you. receive, together with a coj)y of your reply to the 
same, and we will forward you 25 cents for each ])air of letters. 

"We hope you are still a friend of Peruna and that our continued use of 
your testimonial will be agreable to you. We are inclosing stamped en- 
velope for reply. Very sincerely yours, 

"The Peruna Drug Man ufact r ring Company, 

"Per Carr." 

And here is an account of another typical method of collecting this sort 
of material, the writer being a young New Orleans man, who answered an 
advertisement in a local paper, offering profitable special work to a news- 
paper man with spare time: 

"I found the advertiser to be a woman, the coarseness of whose features 
was only equaled by the vulgarity of her manners and speech, and whose 
self-assertiveness was in proportion to her bulk. She proposed that I set 
about securing testimonials to the excellent qualities of Peruna, which shs 
pronounoed Tay-Runa,' for which I was to receive a fee of $5 to $10,, accord- 
ing to the prominence of 'the guy' from whom I obtained it. This I declined 


flatly. She thou inquired whether ur nut I wuh a member of any social 
organizations or clubs in the city, and receiving a pofiitivc answer she 
offered me $3 for a tey*timonial, including the statement that Pay-Runa had 
been used by the inenil>ers of the Southern Athletic Club with good effects, 
and raised it to 5?.") l)efore I left. 

"This female exhibited to me what purportc-d to be a letter of intro<j!u*- 
tion from ex-(Joveru(>r Hogg, of Texas, *To whom it may concern,' and 






•witrr ■*. 'er €»r »>-rcl«] Jmm '.MWMt vb'.oh !» ti' tr is^iirA in heritor ef ' 
tfc* tfTtimf i^»*\ipf. •r •->!*' AT«rl«i> iiodio ? *■ ■ iikf.c.-. n:» itfut 
-*!'.'. l-.vr L e1r«tilB(lffii •f ItiCro onM.* »n^ W.l' >« t*»^ *-r th# y»H 

n*" !n •.!■■■ ;r«' • ■■Irn. 

your TM oMit ftir ••• i-ac* *■ *'-<* • ^r ■«< «,■■• f «e. 

3tKfjli yp.: piao* « ■i-n*r«:t f»r XMn IsMie *« ••■••' -.uKlo} <: *.'. r-- ^l:•.• 
tfr«d «jri • »*rt In ymir Intrrvat !•! -our r j.***, .^'Ju— *^. •« fcra* It 
v«ul« »«• tfl *our «4Trn*.a^ tti ><• In i M|'*5la) '.■! ii- ifci' wiil r^«c?. tlw 
I«K44nf ni>-. r' ■*# Mwf«>M«t«n. 

*» triMt ran «lll b« nlth ub nd tta"fliH ra- fvi' ^'■.« wturti^ ff 

■ «. ■' 
aiaarlr ri«:iy, w- >■*, ti- r»nnln 

• * 



i^J^ifcAa<>fc—i^^Mrfi I >t>i I 

A frauk i)roi)osltion to sell a nostrum favorable editorial mention. 

among other interesting documcnls slieets of letterpaper signed in blank 
by liapj)y users of I*ay-Riina, which she was to lill out to suit herself. 

No Questions Desired. 

'•rpon my askinir hf-r wliat her business was before she undertook the 
l*ay-Huna work, she became very angry. Now, when a female is both vei^" 
large and very angry, the best thing for a small, thin young man to do is 
to leave her to her thoughts and the expression thereof. 1 did il." 


Testimonials obtained in this way are, in a sense, genuine; that is, the 
nostrum firm has documentary evidence that they were given; but it is 
liardly necessary to state that they are not honest. Often the handling of 
the material is very careless, as in the case of Doan's Kidney Pills, which 
ran an advertisement in a Southern city embodying a letter from a resident 
of that city who had been dead nearly a year. Cause of death, kidney dis- 

In a former article I have touched on the matter of testimonials from 
public men. These are obtained through special agents, through hangers- 
on of the newspaper business who wheedle them out of congressmen or 
senators, and sometimes through agencies which make a specialty of that 
business. A certain Washington firm made a "blanket offer" to a nostrum 
company of a $100 joblot of testimonials, consisting of one De Wolf Hopper, 
one Sarah Bernhardt, and six "statesmen," one of them a United States 
senator. Whether they had Mr. Hopper and Mme. Bernhardt under agree- 
xnent or were simply dealing in futures I am unable to say, but the offer 
Avas made in business-like fashion. And the "divine Sarah" at least seems 
"to be an easy subject for patent medicines, as hfer letters to them are by no 
^Kneans rare. Congressmen are notoriously easy to get, and senators are by 
^Mio means beyond range. There are several men now in the United States 
Senate who have, at one time or another, prostituted their names to the 
'•ises of fraud medicines, which they do' not use and of which they know 
:^3othing. Naval officers seem to be easy marks. Within a few weeks a re- 
hired admiral of our navy has besmirched himself and his service by acting 
>^s pictorial sales agent for Peruna. If one carefully considers the "testi- 
^»aonials" of this class it will appear that few of the writers state that they 
^ave ever tried the nostrum. We may put down the "public man's" indorse- 
:»aent, then* as genuine (documentarily), but not honest. Certainly it can 
^ear no weight with an intelligent reader. 

Almost as eagerly sought for as this class of letter is the medical indorso- 
^ment. Medical testimony exploiting any medicine advertised in the lay 
^ress withers under investigation. In the Liquozone article of this series I 
showed how medical evidence is itself "doctored." This was an extreme in- 
stance, for Liquozone, under its original administration, exhibited less con- 
science in its methods than any of its competitors that I have encountered. 
Where the testimony itself is not distorted, it is obtained under false pre- 
tences or it comes from men of no standing in the profession. Some time 
ago Duffy's Malt Whiskey sent out an agent to get testimonials from hos- 
pitals. He got them. How he got them is told in a letter from the physi- 
cian in charge of a prominent Pennsylvania institution : 

"A very nice appearing man called here one day and sent in his card, 
bearing the name of Dr. Blank (I can't recall the name, but wish I could), 
a graduate of Vermont University. He was as smooth an article as I have 
even been up against, and I have met a good many. He at once got down 
to business and began to talk of the hospitals he had visited, mentioning 
physicians whom I knew either personally or by reputation. He then 
brought out a lot of documents- for me to peruse, all of which were bona 
" fide nflfairs, from the various institutions, signed by the various physicians 
or resident physicians, setting forth the merits or use of ^Duffy's Malt Whis- 
key.. He asked if I had ever used it. I said yes, but very little, and was 
at the time using some, a fact, as I was sampling what he handed me. He 
then placed about a dozen small bottles, holding possibly two ounces, on the 
table, and said I should keep it, and he would send me two quarts free for 
use here as soon as he got* back. 


Qetting a Testimonial from a Physician. 

'Tie next asked me if I would give him a testimonial regarding Duflfy's 
WTiiskey. I said I did not do sucn thin«?s, as it was against my principles 
to do so. 'But this is not for publication/ he said. I replied that I had 
used but little of it, and found it only the same as any other whisky. He 
then asked if I was satisfied with the results as far as I had used it. T re- 
plied thnt I was. He then asked me to state* that much, and I very fool- 
ishly said I would, on condition that it was not to be used as an advertise- 
ment, and he assured me it would not be used. I then, in a few words, said 
that *I (or we) have used and are using Duffy's Malt Whiskey, and are 
satisfied with the results/ signing my name to the same. He left here, and 
what was my surprise to receive later on a booklet in which was my testi- 
monial and many others, with cuts of hospitals ranging along with people 
who had reached 100 years by use of the whiskey, while seemingly all ail- 
ments save ringbone and spavin were being cured by this wonderful bev- 
erage. I was provoked, but was paid as T deserved for allowing a smooth 
tongue to deceive me. Duffy's ^Malt Whiskey has never been inside this 
place since that day and Yiovor will be while I have any voice to pre- 
vent it. The total amount used at the time and before was less than half 
a gallon." 

This hospital is still used as a reference by the Duffy people. 

Many of the ordinary testimonials which come unsolicited to the ex- 
tensively advertised nostrums in great numbers are both genuine and honest. 
What of their value as evidence? 

Some years ago, so goes a story familiar in the drug trade, the general 
agent for a large jobbing house declared that he could put out an article 
possessing not the slightest remedial or stimulant properties, and by adver- 
tising it skillfully so persuade people of its virtues that it would, receive 
unlimited testimonials to the cure of any disease for which he might choose 
to exploit it. Challenged to a bet, he became a proprietary owner. Within 
a year he had won liis wager with a collection of certified "cures" ranging 
from anemia to pneumonia. Moreover, he found his venture so profitable 
that he pushed it to the extent of thousands of dollars of profits. His 
remedy" was nothing but sugar. I have heard "Kaskine" mentioned as the 
cure" in the case. It answers the requirements, or did answer them at 
that time, according to an analysis by the Massachusetts State Board of 
Health, which shows that its purchasers had been paying $1 an ounce for 
pure granulated sugar. Whether "Kaskine" was indeed the subject of this 
picturesque bet, or whether it was some other harmless fraud, is immaterial 
to the point, which is that where the disease cures itself, as nearly all -dis- 
eases do, the medicine gets the benefit of this vix medicatrix natures — the 
natural corrective force which makes for normal health in every human 
organism. Obviously, the sugar testimonials can not be regarded as very 
weighty evidence. 

Testimonials for a Magic Ring. 

There is being advertised now a finger ring whieh by the mere wearing 
cures any form of rheumatism. The maker of that ring has genuine letters 
from people who believe that they have been cured by it. Would any one 
other than a believer in witchcraft accept those statements? Yet they, are 
just as "genuine" as the bulk of patent medicine letters and written in as 
good faith. A very small proportion of the gratuitous indorsements get 
into the newspapers, because, as I have said, they do not lend themselves 


t G7 

•well to advertising purposes. I have looked over the originals of hun- 
dreds of such letters, and more than 90 per cent, of them — that is a very 
conservative estimate — are from illiterate and obviously ignorant people. 
Even those few that can be used are rendered suitable for publication only 
by careful editing. The geographical distribution is suggestive. Out of 
100 specimens selected at random from the Pierce testimonial book, eighty- 
seven are from small, remote hamlets, whose very names are imfamiliar to 
the average man of intelligence. Only five are from cities of more than 
50,000 inhabitants. Now, Garden (^ity, Kas. ; North Yamhill, Ore.; Ther- 
esa, Jefferson County N. Y. ; Parkland, Ky., and Forest Hill, W. Va., may 
produce an excellent brand of Americanism, but one does not look for a 
very high average of intelligence in such communities. Is it only a coinci- 
dence that the mountain districts of Kentucky, West Virginia and Tennes- 
see, recognized as being the least civilized parts of the country, should fur- 
nish a number of testimonials, not only to Pierce, but to Peruna, Paine's 
Celery Compound and other brands, out of all proportion to their popula- 
tion? On page 61 is a group of Pierce enthusiasts and a group of Peruna 
witnesses. Should you, en the face of this exhibit, accept their advice on a 
matter wholly affecting your physical welfare? This is what the adver- 
tiser is asking you to do. 

Secure as is the present control of the Proprietary Association over the 
newspapers, there is one point in which I believe almost any journal may be 
made to feel the force of public opinion, and that is the matter of com- 
mon decency. Newspapers pride themselves on preserving a respectable 
moral standard in ineir news columns, and it would require no great 
pressure on the part of the reading public (which is surely immediately 
interested) to extend this standard to the advertising columns. I am 
referring now not only to the unclean sexual, venereal and abortion adver- 
tisements which deface the columns of a majority of papers, but also to the 
exploitation of several prominent proprietaries. 

Recently a prominent Chicago physician was dining en famille with a 
friend who is the publisher of a rather important paper in a Western city. 
The publisher was boasting that he had so established the editorial and 
news policy of his paper that every line of it could be read without shame 
in the presence of any adult gathering. 

''Never anything gets in," he declared, "that I couldn't read at this table 
before my wife, son and daughter." 

The visitor, a militant member of his profession, snuffed battle from afar. 
**Have the morning's issue brought," he said. Turning to the second page 
he, began on Swift's Sure Specific, which was headed in large black type 
with the engaging caption, "Vile, Contagious Blood Poison." Before he had 
gone far the 19-year-old daughter of the family, obedient to a glance from 
the mother, had gone to answer the opportune ring at the telephone, and the 
publisher had grown very red in the face. 

*I didn't mean the advertisements," he said. 

'I did," said the visitor, curtly, and passed on to one of the extremely 
intimate, confidential and highly corporeal letters to the ghost of Lydia E. 
Pinkham, which are a constant ornament of the press. The publisher's son 
interrupted : 

"I don't believe that was written for me to hear," he observed. "I'm too 
young — only 25, you know. Call me when you're through. I'll be out 
looking at the moon." 

Relentlessly the physician turned the sheet and began on one of the 
Chattanooga Medical Company's physiological editorials, entitled "What 


Men Like in a Girl." For loathsome and gratuitous indecency, for leering 
appeal to their basest passions, this advertisement and the others of the 
Wine of Cardui series sound the depths. The hostess lasted through the 
second paragraph, when she fled, gasping. 

The Readers Can Regulate Their Papers' Advertising Columns. 

"Now," said the physician to his host, "what do you think of yourself?" 
The publisher found no answer, but thereafter his paper was put under 
a censorship of advertising. Many dailies refuse such" "copy" as this of Wine 
of Cardui. And here, I believe, is an opportunity for the entering wedge. 
If every subscriber to a newspaper who is interested in keeping his home 
free from contamination would protest and keep on protesting against 
advertising foulness of this nature, the medical advertiser would soon be 
restricted to the same limits of decency which other classes of merchandise 
accept as a matter of course, for the average newspaper publisher is quite 
sensitive to criticism from his readers. A recent instance came under my 
own notice in the case of the Auburn (N. Y.) Citizen, which bought out an 
old-established daily, taking over the contracts, among which was a large 
amount of low-class patent medicine advertising. The new proprietor, a 
man of high personal standards, assured his friends that no objectionable 
matter would be permitted in his columns. Shortly after the establishment 
of the new paper there appeared an advert^isement of Juven Pills, referred 
to above. Protests from a number of subscribers followed. Investigation 
showed that a so-called "reputable" patent medicine firm had inserted this 
disgraceful paragraph under their contract. Further insertions of the 
offending matter were refused and the Hood Company meekly accepted the 
situation. Another central New York daily, the Utica Press, rejects such 
"copy" as seems to the manager indecent, and I have yet to hear of the 
paper's being sued for breach of contract. No perpetrator of unclean ad- 
vertising can afford to go into court en this ground, because he knows that 
his matter is indefensible. 

Our national quality of commercial shrewdness fails us when we go into 
the open market to purchase relief from suffering. The average American, 
when he sets out to buy a horse, or a house, or a box of cigars, is a model 
of caution. Show him testimonials from any number of prominent citizens 
and he would simply scoff. He will, perhaps, take the word of his life-long 
friend, or of the pastor of his church, but only after mature thought, forti- 
fied by personal investigation. Now observe the same citizen seeking to buy 
the most precious of all possessions, sound health. Anybody's word is good 
enough for him here. An admiral whose puerile vanity has betrayed him 
into a testimonial; an obliging and conscienceless senator; a grateful idiot 
from some remote hamlet; a renegade doctor or a silly woman who gets 
a bonus of a dozen photographs for her letter — any of these are sufficient 
to lure the hopeful patient to the purchase. He wouldn't buy a second-hand 
bicycle on the affidavit of any of them, but he will give up his dollar and 
take his chance of poison on a mere newspaper statement which he doesn't 
even investigate. Every intelligent newspaper publisher knows that the 
testimonials which he publishes are as deceptive as the advertising claims 
are false. Yet he salves his conscience with the fallacy that the moral re- 
sponsibility is on the advertiser and the testimonial-giver. So it is, but the 
newspaper shares it. When an aroused public sentiment shall make our 
public men ashamed to lend themselves to this charlatanry, and shall enforce 
on the profession of journalism those standards of decency in the field of 
medical advertising which apply to other advertisers, the Proprietary Asso- 


ciation of America will face a crisis more perilous than any threatened 
legislation. For printers' ink is the very life-blood of the noxious trade. 
Take from the nostrum vendors the means by which they influence the 
millions, and there will pass to the limbo of pricked bubbles a fraud whose 
flagrancy and impudence are of minor import compared to the cold-hearted 
greed with which it grinds out its profits from the sufferings of duped and 
eternally hopeful ignorance. 




No peril in the whole ranfje of human pathology need have any ixrvcy^ 
for the man who can believe the medical advertisements in the newsp^" 
pers. For every ill there is a "sure cure" provided, in print. Dr. This " 
as confident of reniovinj; your cancer without the use of the knife as I^^* 
That is of eradicatin;^ your consunipticm by his marvelous new discover Vi 
or Dr. Otherone of rchabililatinf^ your kidneys, which the regular pr^' 
fcssion has ^rivcn up as a hopilcss job. 

The more deadly the disease tlie more blatantly certain is the quael^ 
that he alone can save you, and in exlreiue cases, where he has failed to 
get there earlier, he may ev(»n rai^e you from your coffin and restore you 
to your astonisliod and admiriiij^ friends. Such things have happened — 
in the advert isin*^ columnH of the newspapers — and pitiful gropers after 
relief from suilVring !)elieve that they may happen again, otherwise 
charlatanry would cease to spread its daily cure. 

Advertising furnishes the surest diagnosis of quackery. Any doctor, 
mstitution or medical concern which f)romises to cure disease, either in a 
I)ublic advertisement or in a circular or letter is, in its own type, branded 
"quack," and the man who wastes his money and his health on such is the 
Foolkiller's abh'st assistant. 

If there is one disease more than another where quackery means death 
to the patient, it is tuberculosis. For, taken early, consumption may be 
cured, not by medicine, indeed, but by regulated diet, open air, and sunlight. 
Yet the aim of the consumption quack is either to draw patients to his 
"sanatorium," often in a crowded city, where they will live under un- 
healthful conditions, or to treat them by some "special" method, usually 
a stimulant medicine, which excites the hopes wlu'le it undermines the 
stamina of the victim. There is good money for the crooked doctor in tu- 
bercular diseases, because the j)atient usually dies slowly, willing to the 
end to give up his last dolhir for any promise of life. A distinguished 
citizen of Cincinnati amassed a large fortune from his understanding of 
the financial possibilities of tuberculosis. Dr. Thomas W. Graydon is now 
dead, but you wouldn't know it from the circular of his Alpha Medical 
Institute, which survives him. This institute continues to send out Dr. 
Graydon's literature promising to cure consumption by the Andral Broca 
method, which is a combination of worthless inhalation with worse than 
worthless medicines. The patient is encouraged to diagnose his own case, 
and this valuable hint is pressed on him: "Shortness of breath on making 
any unusual exertion ... is a serious warning that the lungs are 

Even the Laboratories are Fakes. 

That is, if a man unaccustomed to exercise should rush up fourteen 
flights of stairs, three steps at a leap, and should then discover that his 
breathing was somewhat labored, his jn'oper course would be to rush hastily 
down again and write to Dr. Graydon for help. On this principle it 
seemed to me the Alpha Medical Institute would require large and 
commodious quarters in which to transact its extensive business, and I was 
not surprised to note in its pamphlet the picture of a fine office building 
bearing its sign. A visit to the given address in Cincinnati, however. 

I no such edifice as adorns the pamphlet's pngpa. On tlie 

t should have stood was a row of dinpy housea, of dEsliiirtlv 

il aspect. In one of these, designnted aa "o'ifite," 1 was reeeivi'd'b 

■' who setiued uDnecouiitably perturbed ut iny viait. He was 


ctant to g e h a 

as He Idnt t II nc 

ance in euppo t f tl e cIq n 


ally accepted mid ailuplpil liy Hit- li-iidin;; incdipal nutlinTitipH, and b; the 
medical jirufcnxiun nx n wlmli-." IIIh iiiic nrt;iiin<>nt wan that he couM 
produce lestimntiinU, anil hin oni- lilcn, that the IniilitiitD ought not to be 
"pounded," am it whh K'>in;; nut (it biiHinfsH in n few monthii, anywaj. This 
means that tiie licld h v\hauMii\: (hal. an iuvarinblv will happen, the 
accumulated force of cxpcrii'iii'i-, jivovin^' tliu Atgdm MciJical Institute to be 

The j-ounjtest Hj-i 

wnrnlD); them tsalnat 

i fraud, has finally overcome Hip counter -force of its advertising. Prob- 
nbly its proprietors (I understand that l)r. (irayJon's sona have got rid 
)f the busiiness as a bant-ful influence upon tbelr social aspirations} will 
presently start up under some other name. 


York hOB bad a flourieiiing concern of this kind, the Koch Con- 
Bumption Cure, with branches in the principal cities of the country, some 
of whicli still survive. Reuben K. Mayfleld whs the preBiiIin^ genius of 
Ibis hopeful scheme. Untrammeled by any meager considerations of the 
Ibw, he copyrighted the famous Kocli'a picture for his own use, forged a 
document or two, and wus doing famously when the County Medical So- 
ciety descended upon him and he hastened to parts unknown to avoid 
forcible removal to a large sanatorium for the treatment of moral ail- 
ments at Sing Sing, The "Secretary" of his outfit, P. L. Anderson, ia now 
running an S-Ray Consumption Cure swindle at 50 West Twenty-second 
Street, New York, "Koch Institutes" still flourish in other gities. 

Somewhat on the Koch concern order is a aeherae conducted by "Dr." 
Dcrk P. Yonkerman at Kalamazoo, Mich. "Dr." Yonkcrmnn is one of 

those altruists who take "a personal interest in your ease." He adver- 
tises a two biindrcd'pnge free medical book on consumption, which will 
prove to the dissatisfaction of any reasonable person that he's got it. 
The reader is urged to fill out a symptom blank, in reply to which he 
cetB a letter from John Adam May, M.D., "consulting pbyaician" ftnd 
"specialist in tuberculosis," diagnosing that disease, and advising the uhb 
of Tubereulozyne (Yonkerman's remedy) at once. This letter, of (iOlirM, 
is a form letter. I tested John Adam Hay, M.D., by sending him a list 
of symptoma that even a quack could hardly have regarded as possibly 
indicating tuberculosis, if he had considered them; but John Adam hadnt 
the wit to see llie patent trap, and walked in by advising me that "your 
symptonis indicate the presence of the poisonous toiins generated by 
tbo consumption germ." "Tubereulozyne" is one of those vicious morphin 



poncoptinn>( nhicli ilitll the mlicnfs prrreptions. render him insensible 
of the aiiKmenled prugress of the riiBeaso, and keep him the uneonacioiis 
and prnfliiihip slave of the dispenser until death puts an end to the 
gniesome farce. 

The Wmnnn's Mutual Benefit Company of Joliet, 111., hae a scheme for 
Hwindling consiiniptives that works pretty well. Tt maintains women 
Bfients in various towns who personally canvass the aiek. To the pastor 
of an lola (Kan.) cliureh I am indebted for iu illuminating instance of 
the company's methods: 

"A very poor nian with a wife and two children is dying of consump' 
tion here. The doctors have said he will live about two months. The Iocs] 
acent ot this 'niedicine company' went to see him and aroused his hope 
of recovery by telling him of the wonders this stuff will i • ■ ■ 

A lodge t 

winch he belongs raised about $10 to pav for one months treatment He 
la now weaker than eier Vbout a week ago he sent for me and I 
thinking the end was at hand hurried to him He wanted to get $12 
from me to buy more Phosphozone' I sent for the agent and told her 
Q treat the man on the basis of the guarantee on the label and that if 
nv phi-iiLian of stan ling pronounced hii i cured I wo iH pa> the bill 
Ineedltss to saj she wanted the inonei llrst 

Consumption Cute Frauds, 
dead, and bis fiimily i^ penniless. "Phoapho:! 
guaranteed by the Woman's Mutual Benefit Company I - 


ye, pre! 


)>•' i» II 


tion. Being a praetlenlly inert mixture of crciwote nril "iifinr, if will 
cure consumption just ai it "cureil" tlie poor dupe ill Iciln. It Ik a fiiki', 
pure and aimple. 

^Mechanical devices and new "di*<^>vorii't" for '■iiriii<; ^'lHl^lllll]Jtil>ll iilimnid. 
Tlie Cabinarc Institute of New York fit.v a.liiTl im's ii l''iiisi'ii-riiy (ri':it- 
ment which is no more the reul Finipn ray lliuii U a tallou'-iiiiidli'. Injii^ 
merely ordinnrj electric light paa<ii^ thrniiKli blue plaiw. TliiTe iiri' "X- 
lUv" and Violet-Ray "cures," atomizers, viiporirars. the H'Owiiiiwr trcnt- 
meiit, which is admitted to some aupiKncdly partk'Hiar inu^xinc^ the 
Tondor InhalatioB, and other specious devices for the relief iif ciniHuiiip- 
tives. The only thing they actually relievo nnv coiisumpiive <if U nmiiey. 
One and all, they are impotent to cure. E<|unily to be uliuimeil urn the 
concerns which exploit private niedicines, such as tin- T.un;; Ooriiiiiio 
Company of Jackson, Mich., and the Sawn Iii«litute, wliii-li '■puri's" h<'iiiiir- 
■teliiige in twenty-fiiur hours by a conibiiiiiticm of South .\fri<*iiii hcilw. i)np 
""le can be act down for th'e whole field of tiilM-reulo-'is rciuciiics ; every 
rartisement of ■ consumption cure elouk?i n Mwim)le. 
The Cancer Vampire. 
■The same ia true of cancer curea. In this ilepartment of qunckery tlie 
( family is preeminent. The fsmily practice hiia S]j|it, n" ' ' ' "' 
I difTerencea, the father and one son eonductiii^ Hi>piin 
tblishmenta in Indianapolia and the two otiier aouv o] 
WM Citv. Tlia fountain-head of the Rye fakcry in D. V. '- 
Jttie Dr.' D. M. Bye Combination Oil Cure C.impaiiy of Iiii 
nit kind of a 'doctor" "Dr." Bye is, I do not kiimv. Imt hi' 
*" . Perhaps lie is a D.D. He has founded a little t-hiircli in ' 
'") money extracted from his dnpe.i, a ty|>c of financial iM>niiiiiMi 
miliar by men of more conspicuous BtamiiuE in tlie'world. Dr. 
-- -»ith f«ety in hin "literature." '■Riiii'ly (Jod'a blmKinjr nttcnils 
I." *We ask the prayers of Ood's pcojilo that wi' may 
Bible, meek and lowly in heart like .Tesus would hnve us. So we 
Piifter wblcb, this Uriah ITccp of tlie quatk InmineHs tum^ to nnil 
H the ercdulous patients who arc mialed by hi^ relitfioua preleiiscfl, 
luting a tithe of the blood-money to his private cliutcli. Quite 
..^Htfy I heard in Indianapolis that wliutever niifjlit be said of "itr." 
I tnisinesB, h* was "such a gooil man. and so iiiiasHuining; runs that 
;h at hie own expense." Truly it pays Uriah to be 'uinble and jiiouH, 
t It ia against the Bye principle to uae the knife. Such ia tlic inft'r(>iice 
fcroin the advertising. "The knife, even iti llie hands of the inost Hkiile<l 
_l!pperators, proves aa deadly as the disease." What would lie the adv-Tii- 
" tage of undergoing surgical operation, anyway, mIh-ii "our trcntnipiit 
gives universal satiaf action," and ia declared to meet with "almost uni- 
veraal success I" 

"Almost universal success" ia rather an elastic term, if one may credit 
br. L. T. Leach, the present manager of the "Dr." D. M. Bye Companj-. 
Dr. Leach, apparently forgetful of bin ail vert isiiig, frankly alnti'd to me 
that the Bye treatment cured about 10 per eimt. of the casus of genuine, 
malignant cancer, and he wished to exclude fiYim this Earcnmn, one of 
the commonest and the moat deadly form, on the grounil tliat it iviii^ not 
cancer at allt Asked to reconcile hia 00 per cent, of cane^ lo»t with bis 
etaim of "almmt universal success," he found no anawer. "We do as 
well aa anybody can do," he said. 

Even if this were bo — and I leave to the reader's judgment young Dr. 
Iieacb'i implied claim of equality with the most eminent aurgeon« in tlie 
eouDtry— the fact remains that the Dr. D. il. Bye Coiubiunlion Oii treat- 
ment It bufit on charlatanry, since, by the atliiiissinti of ita manager, 

It performa at. moat only a fiiiiiiM ppic 
the Burgeon's knife, the knife wliicli 
etc., it U habitually used in the Bye 
admisBion of Dr. Leach, 

ilapp of whnt it promiBeB. As for 
proven BR rleadly as the disenge," 
itublisliniL-nt. This, on the explicit 

From Bye to Bye. 

A STliONf L\ r\D(msl D QL iCK 
Of (be ten atntementa which Dr furry prints under hla picture thre. 
one other la probablj true and llit emuinlog eli are lies 

a« a large and comm. 
poimj, bIib lel \arl 
doctor's Sanatorium 

I liou^ Inch bull lin" standing far lack in an im 
'1 e peturL is ) iirtlj imaginary So w that of the 
in the same pamphlet The B F D}e outQt u 


ensconced in a shabby wooden house close to the street, and the "office 
and laboratory" are little more imposinjr inside than outside. The younger 
Bye makes the preposterous claim of 82 per cent, of "complete recover- 
ies." His "remedy" consists of a sort of paste of clay, glycerin, salicylic 
acid and oil of wintcrgreon; a mixture of cathartics for internal use; 
a vaseline preparation; and the oil itself, which is ordinary commercial 
cottonseed oil with an infusion of vegetable matter, probably hyoscyamus. 
And wuh this combination he proposes to remove cancer and cure the 
condition that causes it! His treatment wouldn't remove a wart or cure 
a mosquito bite. 

Dr. B. F. Bye*s correspondence is replete wth unconscious humor; vide 
this sample from his "hurry-up" form -letter: "When I pause and consider 
the amount of quackery and humbuggerj' practiced all over the country, it 
is not difficult to understand why the afflicted hesitate to accept new 
treatment, no matter hoAv logical it may be." 

He belongs to most of the fake medical organizations in the country, 
"whose diplomas (purchased) he proudly displays on his walls. The remain- 
ing two members of this estimable clan do a "soothing, balmy oil" busi- 
ness, under the title "The Dr. Bye Company, Kansas City." They make 
the same ridiculous claims, and, from the bulk of their advertising, would 
seem to be prospering beyond the other branches at present. 

Another quack family with a cancer branch is the Kilmer family of 
Binghamton, N. Y. Kilmer's Swamp Root, one of the most blatant of the 
"patent -medicine" swindles, \^as devised by Dr. S. Andral Kilmer, who sold 
out years ago (although Swamp Root dupes are still urged to write him), 
and is now proprietor of a "CanCertorium," and an itinerant charlatan. 
"Cancer's* First Conqueror" is liis modest description of himself. He 
"itinerates" through the large towns and small cities of New York State, 
advertising like Barnum's circus. Free consultation, remedies at $3 a week, 
and treatment at $2 a week, constitute his traveling plan. At his Can- 
Certorium at Binghamton, N. Y., the charges are higher. A campus care- 
taker at Hamilton College, afflicted with facial cancer, went to Dr. Kil- 
mer's Cancertorium on a fund raised for him among the undergraduates, 
who did not know of the nature of the institution. He was provided with 
all the liquor he could drink, evidently with a view to keeping him 
drugged, until Kilmer had extracted $800 from him, when the progress 
of his disease was so marked that he became frightened and left, going 
to a reputable surgeon, who at once operated. He is now back at work. 
This man kept track of seven of the CanCertorium patients whom he came 
to know well, of whom, so he tells me, live died and the other two are 
apparently going the same way. Dr. S. Andral Kilmer represents an old, 
picturesque and fast-disappearing tribe of bunco-artists, and when his 
side-whiskers disappear from the pages of the small city dailies, those 
publications will be the less amusing, though the more respectable for the 

An Ananias of Quackdom. 

Much more up to date in his methods is Dr. G. M. Curry of Lebanon, 
Ohio. I don't want to overrate Dr. Curry in his own department of human 
activity, but he seems to me, on the whole, one of the most eminent all- 
around liars I have encountered anywhere in Quackdom. According to his 
own statements Dr. Curry has discovered not only the germ of cancer, but 
also a sure cure for it. Any kind of cancer is easy for him. "Worst 
cases cured in twenty days. To use other treatment simply invites 
death." Thus his advertising, which seems hardly fair to his fellow- fakers. 

The fact is; of course, that Dr. Curry can not cure cancer, and he 
Imowe tllftt be can not. He has not found and identified "the real cancer 

oreatiism," as lie claims, and liis stalfmont to tliis effort is a deliberate 

lie exjiioits liimsrlf as a menilipr of (lie Oliio and Kentucky State Med- 
Seal Societies, wliic'li lit: iH nut, ami Surj-eiin for tlie Inter-Urban Railway 
Company of Cincinnati, vrliicli writcH me that he is not in (heir employ; 
alNO examininj; pliyKicjan for tlii> Ni'w York ^lutual Life Insurance Com- 

Kny, tliD MasBitt-liiiM'ltB JIutual Life Inniirnnce Company, tbc Prudential 
Fc Insnrnncc Com|mny. unil oilier siniiliir (iriianixnlious. His commis- 
gion Willi tlm latter eoiniian.v wuh tiTiulnnlcd in ISBr, the New York 
Mutual gut rid of blui iin soon as the nature of his buaincas became 

FAKK l[f)Ml'; OF A TAKK MEniCiNE. 
Tills jili'iiirp In tnn™ from Hip Alpha Mcdlcnl InKtlliite's booklet, which 
uBscTl.s llinl llils Is llii'ir !ii>aili]iiiirlpra ul ::in, :ilN. :!2I). and a-d-2 I'^ant fttli St., 
rini'iiiiiiitl. (ililii. Thii [)hutuKra|)h on puKC 80 gLowh the tiouees at U18 and 318 
KuHt <>lh SI., Ill tlial city. 

known to tliem, and the ^lassacliusctis Mutual informs me that he hasnt 
ilfinc any wuk for tlicm for nearly ten years. One of his principal adTer- 
tUiil ciinnn't ionn, however, i» nrnin'l; he is a pcnnion examiner for the. 
Cnitcil Ntates (iovcmnient, and makes use of the prestige attaching to 
hifl oflli'c fur tlie fnrlhernnec of liis disrepiitahle hiiRincss. In his enter- 
prise lie lian the sn|i]iiii't of I^^hanon's "hpst citizens," including County 
'rreasiiriT Lcwist. Slieriir (lalliilier. Recorder Rpence, Auditor Stillwell, 
Ji!i!j!:e O'N'ciill, Attoriirv^ AVri(.'lit and Riinynn, Bankers Wood and Eulass, 
and several otlier prominent inhabitants. 
Ilcnr their pronunciuinenlo: 


"Dr. Curry ii no quack. His remedy is no fake. Holli nre ontjtleil to the 
fullest confldence of cancer aiiitenn, anil I^hnnon is proud of liis siirccsa." 
To controvert such a ^laxy of pxpert Irstimonv an tliiii U riskv. YpI. 
on the atren^^h of Dr. Curry's nn-n (es(iin<iny in fetter and advertisement, 
I will adventure it. Dr. Curry I'a n i|uaek. His rcineily is a take. And 
the highly respectable citizens ivho 1>olNter it are, giving them the benefit 
of the doubt, the dupea of an arrant Bwinillor. 

I esn do no more than mpntion, liy way <if wnrninK, a si-oundrel who 
endeavors to frighten women into taking liiii treutinent liy advprtising in the 
p*pera "In woman's breast any liiiup is raiicer." Me ciiIIh himti'lf S. It. 
CMtml ec, M.D., Ph.S., and conduits bis hiisinrKs from St. l.»iii>t. "Dr." 
r of Tr^do is. also a faker to liewnre of llu U ttomcthini; of a 
I, since he nses the name of (be latn Prenidont Harjicr of Chicago 
f as * case that could have been naved by liis treatment. 

Tho Ascatco Lie. 
ane of the "patent-medicine" nrtieles I touched brii-fly on a product 
> OB Asr«tco. Properly .A^enteci lielonfjs to llie diuuain of quackery, 
" '~ }t Bold, like "patent medicine," through tlin drii^; stores, but 
Ifrom the Austrian DispenMan', on \\>st Twenty-fifth Street, 
T. It makes claim to being a sure cure fur oatarrh and 
. I newspaper advertiHing. ivliicb is all of tlie "paid reading 
tj, masquerading as telep'npb'ic or ralile neivs, exploits it as 
I product, the discovery nf ilixlinjruislied smvants, endorsed by 
_ „ _ ropean scientists and by llic T'uited Stnto« Consular reports. 
» Leonard Hill is the presiding genius of tlio Austrian Dispensary, He 
■^-1 to esbibit to me an extensive collection of testimonials, but did 
nswer certain qtieatinns i<'gnrding the nature of Aswatco. 
I of the points on which he deelinoil to enlighten me: 
1 Austria Ascateo is made? by whom it is made? what 
nuts endorse it! whence emanate the "eablegranis" as to its 
Hd in the newspapers and paid fur by the Ascatco company I 
e weuld not answer my queries I must dn my best to answer them 
_lf, Aacatco is not marJe in Austria ; it is made in this country to the 
r of the Aacatco comiiany. lis ''calilcgrams" arc manufactured by the 
._mpany. It is not endorsed by any Kurojienn savants. ,\s tn consular 
inpport of the stuff, the only ovailablc consular repoit on it {to the 
ise of which it is perfectly welecmie) is a statement made, on the author- 
ity of two of the leading official pbavmarisls of Austria, by Mr. lIcFar- 
land. .imericnn Consul at BeiebciilxTg, .\ustriii : 

"Both [official pharmacists] state Ihnt '.Ascafco' is not an .Austrian prod- 
uct, does not appear on any oiTieial list, is not on aalo in .Austria, and is 
by name or otherwise utterly unknown." 

Minor Quackery. 
The product itself is a strong solution of arsenioua o\id, one twenty- 
fifth of a grain to a seven-drop dose, ami if by no means a safe thing for 
an uninitructed layman to experiment on himself with. Jly visit to the 
Austrian Dispensary opened up a minor and quite unexpected vista of 
quackery. From time to time a curious little publication calling itself 
the "National Advertiser" has been indulging in "canned editorial" argu- 
menta, attacking Collier's tor its "pa tent -medicine" artieles, and- uphold- 
ing the Proprietary Association's interests. In my innocence I had sup- 
posed that the little magazine was merely defending the principle of 
fraudulent advertising for the sake of its own profits. How ilirectly these 
were involved I discovered only when I found that the "National Adver- 


tiwr" is isfliipil from l]ie lop floor of the Ascatco Ijuildinjr, bv on( 
"Ascatco" UiliB, and is practically an Ascatco concern. 

The kidney cures are a large and growing claite; conspicuous among 
them are the Pape Company of Cincinnati; Dr. Irving S. Mott of the 
Banie city, who used the name of the Harvard Medical School, which he 
has never seen, Bgainst its protest, until the magazines and newspapers 
being warned, refused his adveVtisements; the Church Kidney Cure crowd, 
the Fulton Compniiy of San Franctijca, and many others make unfulfillable 
promises to cure Briglit's disease and diabetes. Tliia type of enterprise, 
at its worst (and it is equally typical, in its penerni workings, of all 
quack inalitulionsl, h well dcscrilicjl liy n rniin? pliyiriiin whn look em- 

ployment in a "kidney-cure" concern, but "got disgusted and quit," to use 
uis own phrase, and is now a reputable practitioner in a southern city, 
Driven by necessity, shortly after graduating from a medical college of 
standing, he became "case-taker" (alleged diagflostician | in one branch 
of the St. .John's Medical Institute, which operated bunco factories in 
Baltimore, St. Paul and Kansas City. 

"1 remember the 'great laboratory,'" he writes, "where the remediei 
were prepared in lots labeled No. 1, 2, 3, 4 up to 72, and the great case- 
taker (myself) made the diagnoses in the front office and prescribed 1, 2, 
or 3, tts required for the case. Theas valuable remedies eagt 1 cent each 
bottle, except 12, whicti coat 2 cents, In no cose muat the <»at of ti«tt< 


ment be more than 10 cents per month per patient. On one occasion 
the genius who got up our advertising had failed to get from the engraver 
some fierce uric-acid crvstal illustrations to fit the story of how thev 
ground through tissues, tearing up heart, lung, kidneys, etc. In reality 
the pictures were borrowed from a publisher of school-books, and were 
not uric-acid crystals at all, but starfish.^* 

Motto: *'Keep 'em Sick!" 

When the St. John's Medical Institute changed hands (transferring 
its patients to the new nianagoment as one of the chief assets) the "case- 
taker" left and took a position with the Copelnnd Medical Institute of 
Des Moines, Iowa (which pretends to cure nearly everything), where to 
quote his own words, "the office girl made the diagnoses and the labora- 
tory was presided over by an expert chemist at $7 per week, who was a 
graduate from the Chamberlain Remedy Company, where he had taken a 
course in bundle-wrapping." 

"Under our treatment," he writes, "there were hopeless incurables who 
had given up a fee every month for periods varying from one month to 
eight years in one case. The policy was, when you couldn't keep the 
sucker under treatment any longer, to tease a testimonial out of him 
by some means. Well, we were a sweet bunch of philanthropists, and 
our motto was, *A cured patient pays no fee. Keep 'em sick!' which was 
done by 'suggestion' for longer or shorter periods. Over 30,000 people 
were treated from this office." 

This gives a fair notion of the class of service furnished by the med- 
ical outlaws. 

Various publications, lecturers, renegade physicians, hospitals and insti- 
tutes batten parasitica lly on the vested interests of quackery. A fake 
concern, called the Viavi Company, which preys on iin])ressionable women, 
has organized an elaborate "lecture bureau," mostly women and clergy- 
men. to spread its doetrines, the chief of which is that every woman hns 
something wrong with her, and that whatever it is, Viavi preparations 
alone will cure it. A Chicago woman, who received an invitation to 
one of these lectures, through a friend, lays bare the whole "game" in 
a few sentences: 

"After the lady lecturer finished her course, it became evident to me that 
there was no one present who was exeiii])t from the need of 'Viavi,' from the 
actions and words of the lecturer, and also, I am sorry to say, from the 
"words of the ladies." 

The Special Agents of Quackery. 

The same old "skin game;" get your victim to worrying and she'll buy 
your medicine. "Viavi Hygiene," of course, is based on the fallacy of 
diagnosing and treating by mail. 

Two alleged publications have for some time been making a living as 
special agents of quackery. One. the "New York Health Journal," has 
lately quit the field, by reason of the death of its "editor." It got out a 
number whenever enough quacks and fraud-medicines could be found to 
*T3ay for its editorial space. It had no real existence as a magazine, and its 
"professional contributors" were myths. Anything was grist to its mill; 
it even printed solemn editorial endorsements of such roaring farces as 
LiquoKone and Vitse Ore. The "United States Health Reports" belongs to 
this same category. It, of course, is a fake imitation of the "United 
States Public Health Reports," published by the United States Public 
Health and Marine-Hospital Service, wliich would very much like to lay 
hands jon- the proprietors of the scheme. They sell "official commendations"<irt patent foods, quack medicines or anything else that will buy. 



nature. No intelligent man defends quackery under a misapprehenaioni 
and when A. H. Ohmann-Duniesnil, A.lVf., iM.D., acting? under the order 
of the Anti-Kamnia fraud factory, doliborately prostitutes his editorial 
pages to the purposes of the nostrum trader, he boromes, at the best, an 
accomplice of quackery. For his wages, see his advertising columns. The 
owners of the "Western Druggist," a Proprietary Association organ, also 
control the "Medical Standard/' which, less openly, is a nostrum-defending 
publication under the pretense of an ethical attitude. To the medical 
profession the handling of such journals as these may safely be left: the 
deception has already worn transparently thin. 

Medical directories can be so conducted as to take a profit of quackery. 
Galen, Gonsier & Company go about getting doctors to subscribe to state 
rosters. They have left a sore crowd of regulars in Ohio, for, after listing 
all the respectable members of the profession, they included in their list 
of "Cincinnati Specialists" all the notorious quacks in the city, and sold 
their advertising pages to "Cancer Cure" Curry and "Dr." Annie Florein, 
whose hospital is most widely, if not most favorably, known as an abortion 
resort. "Dr." Annie has been at least once convicted for illegal practice. 
The Suffolk Hospital and Dispensary of Boston has already been men- 
tioned as living largely from the sale of donated "patent medicines," for 
which it pays in testimonials. St. Luke's Hospital, at Niles, Mich., has 
an equally ingenious scheme; it sells diplomas to quack doctors. Most of 
those whom I have visited have its parchment framed on their walls, not- 
withstanding that the institution has passed out of existence, its two 
founders being at present fugitives from justice. 

I had thought to have finished with Peruna in the "patent-medicine" 
series, but as the Peruna Comi)any labors under the delusion that it has 
been harshly treated, and fiocds me with corres])ondence, claiming that its 
testimonials will bear the severest scrutiny, I revert to them long enou<»^h 
to show their support by a quack doctor wlio apparently makes a busi- 
ness of selling endorsements. Several months ago, a picture of one. Dr. 
Patrick F. Maley, in the attitude of making an affidavit endorsing the 
"wonderful remedy," Peruna, appeared conspicuously in the papers. Tlie 
accompanying matter recited Dr. Maley's record; graduate of a regular 
medical college. Army and Navy surgeon, ex-alderman of Cincinnati, ex- 
coroner of Hamilton County, and ex-pension examiner. (And, by the way, 
if the Pension Bureau will go over its list of examiners, it will, I believe, 
find opportunities to improve its personnel by a little judicious "muck- 
raking.") What the Peruna Compnny did not state was that their eminent 
medical endorser is an ex-convict, having served a year in the Dayton jail 
for embezzling a pension fund from a Jielpless old soldier. The evidence 
was readily available had any effort been made to investigate Dr. Maley's 
record. Dragging forth an old crime into the light of day to blight an ex- 
convict's career is a measure which I should not employ but for the fact 
that Dr. Maley is to-day in an enterprise as fraudulent, if not as crim- 
inal, as thievery, the selling of testimonials to "patent-medicine" com- 
panies, for not in the Peruna list alone do I find his name. He endorses 
Juniper Tar find other fakes. I can not prove that the Peruna Company 
paid him for his picture and affidavit; but will any one, knowing his 
past record and his present occupation of providing this kind of matter, 
believe that he presented this valuable evidence to Dr. Hartman's "booze," 
free? Quite a number of ])hysicians eke out their incomes by this dis- 
graceful method. Most of them are themselves quack practitioners, or ig- 


norant backwoods graduates of some medical night school; a few are 

How shall the public protect itself against quackery? A few very 
simple rules, while not all-embracing, will pretty thoroughly cover the 
jB.eld. Any physician who advertises a positive cure for any disease, who 
issues nostrum testimonials, who sells his services to a secret remedy, or 
who diagnoses and treats b^ mail patients whom he has never seen, is a 
quack. Any institution which publishes other than in a medical journal, 
testimonials or endorsements, is a quack institution. Any publication, 
medical or otherwise, which editorially or otherwise endorses secret or dis- 
honest remedies or methods of cure, is a quack publication. Shut your 
eyes to the medical columns of the newspapers, and you will save your- 
self many forebodings and symptoms. Printor'a ink, when it spells out a 
doctor's promise to cure, is one of the subtlest and most dangerous of 

SiraiXTED raoM Collier's Weekly, Aig. 4. 1006 


Popular credulity moves in waves. Xow it takes financial form, aud 
some 620-per-cent. Miller buys himself a suit of striped clothing, govern- 
ment pattern, with his profits. Again, religious fervor is its fuel, and 
"Francis Truth," fortified with press -agent and advertising man, passes 
across the field of public notice like a meteor, and, like a meteor, vanishes 
into the darkness. Just at present the public is much concerned with its 
individual health, a condition which has bred innumerable parasites of the 
**healer" type. Profiting by the general hypochondriacal tendency, for 
which the profession of medical advert isins: in the newspapers is largely 
responsible, and employing a curious pseudo-science of their own devising, 
these charlatans are conducting a sort of magic saturnalia of healing. 

Family Resemblance of the Fakes. 

What is true of one of this class is true of all the "doctors," ^'healers," 
"medical institutes," "homes of science," and various fresh-coined 
"opathys," which advertise to cure diseases by "special knowledge," "mar- 
velous inventions," "startling discoveries in the realm of science," or 
"miraculous powers." Their schemes are, essentially, the same. One and 
all, they are frauds, operating by a shrewd and cunningly developed 
system, in which the sole essential of success is to bait the hook so as to 
attract the human gudgeon. Once he has nibbled, he's the charlatan's 
fish. Lucky, indeed, may he count himself if he come oflF depleted in 
purse alone, and not in his chances of cure or of life. 

Once on a time — this is a recognized antl proper form for beginning a 
tale of magic — there was born a young wizard named Isham. In the nat- 
ural course of growth he reached that point in life where he desired to 
turn his wizardry to financial account. Less ingenious representatives of 
his ilk take to side-shows on country circuits, and either "eat-*em-alive" 
or become the Beautiful Mile. Astralctte, Seer and Prophetess, according 
to sex and inclination. Isham had a, soul above canvas. He has yearned 
for something permanent and high-sounding; so he devised "Humanity 
Baking Powder," which, by a complicated sclieme too long for detail here, 
was not only to raise the human race to heights hitherto undreamed of, 
but was even to extend their thoughts to the stars by means of a mighty 
telescope to be established from the dividends. The "Humanity Baking 
Powder" advertising was a thing to thrill the soul; but the sodden and 
materialistic American mind (feminine) declined to respond with that 
spontaneity which was expected, so Isham dropped the scheme and came 
East to settle in that spot where, as every bunco man in this country 
knows, the Permanent Convention of Jays and Come-ons is always in 
session — ^New York City. Isham's device for alienating the Innocents of 
New York from their money was the "California Waters of Life." These 
waters flow from a spring near San Diego, Cal., having come a long way 
to reach that spot, since they are, so Isham assures me, the identical 
waters which gushed from the Scriptural rock when Moses smote it. 

"How do you know that they are?'' I inquired when this interesting 
statement was made to me. 

"How do you know they aren't?" demanded the Wizard triumphantly, 
and while I was dazedly feeling for some means wherewith to cope with 
this resilient brand of logic, he continued with an argument too profound 
for me to grasp in detail. The gist of it seemed to be, however, that all 
the wftten of tho earthi being in constant motion, eventually ^n4 their 

way to nil purLa of llie rartli, and Hint liis spring was just ah likely to tl 
the Mriaaic article bb any gther; a procesg of reasoning wliith I cheerfully 
Ica^'e to persons fond of diatecties. Wliatever the Boiirce of the wfttera, 
laliaui, iu the course of time, came out with huge advertisements in the 
New York jmpora, in which he exploited himtielf and his spring about 
equally, dt-tlai iiif; Hint hp had a scheme for abolishing poverty and Buff«f 

lug, that he had been in personal consultation with the Deity about t 
and, furllier, that the I sham spring water would cure rheumatism id 
seven days, cancer in thirty days, Bright's disease and diabetes in thirty 
days, would stop hair from falling out in three days, and would grow 
H luxuriant hirsute crop on the most sterile cranium. When Saa Fzat 
ciseo was destroyed, the thrifty Isham, eager to make capltftl i 
calamity, rushed into print with the following headlines: 

dirt a^B 





Then followed the oiirative claims. When I calU>(l on I. sham in his 
office in the Flatiron Buihling, New York City, to ask about the cancer 
cases, he loaded me down with testimonials of various kinds, most of which, 
however, related to thin hair, or to indeterminate ailments, ranging from 
indigestion, through supposed kidney trouble, to a bump on the spine 
sustained in a trolley accident. To investigate all that he produced in the 
way of testimonials (most of them obviously not worth investigation, as 
seriously supporting his claims) would have taken weeks, ])erhaps months. 

A few interested me l)ecauae they suggested technical knowledge on the 
part of the patient. One of these was a "Professor" Fogg, by whom 
Isham seemed to set great store. 

**AVhat is he Professor of?" I asked. 

"Well, I don't exactly know," said Isham, hesitatingly. "He calls him- 
self Professor." 

"Suppose I look him up at the Broadway address given in the advertise- 

"You wouldn't be likely to find him," was the hasty response. "He only 
gets his mail there. He lives somewhere in Long Island City." 

Another name he gave me was that of a very prominent and high- 
standing New York physician. This physician, in reply to my query, 
stated that he had taken two cases of the waters for rheumatism, and 
had experienced not the slightest benefit. If Isham desires a testimonial 
to this effect, I dare say he can get it for the asking. Fifteen or twenty 
fairly prominent Philadelphia business men and financiers a])pear on the 
Isham list of names "used by permission." Several of these were asked 
whether they believed that Isham was divinely inspired, that his "Waters 
of Life" were the identical waters that gushed from the smitten rock of 
Moses, and that the waters would cure cancer in thirty days, all these 
statements having been publicly used by the Wizard to push the sale of 
his product. 

Isham's Medicine Makes Good Ice-Water. 

Some of the recipients of my inquiry became alarmed, and sent the 
letter to Isham. Those who replied answered the (juestions in the nega- 
tive. One bank president loftily characterized the queries as "absurd." 
Apparently the initial absurdity of his lending his name to the ])urposes 
of a preposterous quack like Isham had not occurred to him. At the close 
of my interview with Isham, after he had fervently harangued me on the 
supernal virtues of his water, declaring that it would make the drunkird 
a model of sobriety, reform the vicious and restore youth to the senile, 
he exhorted me to be fair and dispassionate in my judgment of him and 
his product. I shall try to be. As to the "Waters of Life," they are ])r()l)- 
ably a fairly good mineral water, as useful perhaj)s in minor stomach, 
kidney or uric-acid troubles as the average mineral spring water, and 
no more useful. They will no more cure cancer, Bright's disease, diabetes 
or paralysis than will Croton water. To Isham himself 1 give the benefit 
of the doubt. I believe him to be mentally unsound. On any other 
premise he is the most arrant and blasphemous faker now before the 

Isham may perhaps find food for thought in the career of a fellow-wizard, 
"Dr." Theodore H. White of Baltimore, who has recently relinquished the 
presidency of "Dr. White's College of Science" to serve a three years' 
sentence in a Federal jail for fraudulent use of Ihe mails. The "doctor's" 

qualiflcatioTis for the hendship of tlie I'nllejjo were derived from hLs previoiia 
career as an oynter-slmi'krr, HpiriUiiilist nipdiitm and "patent-medicine" 
agent. By ingenious adrerliaing of a Hort of book of knowledge he worked 
up a buBJneBg which produced from 500 to 1,000 letters of inquiry per 
day. TliiB book "tells yoti how to heal yourself and others of all dia- 
eaaes," and to perform variriin other imefiil Hnd Biirprising funetions, anfl — 
ii, also, "the key of evprhiritinj; lite, u godsend to Buffering humanity." 

KtoK of the Macnetlc Quacks. 
The Post-Office Gets After White. 
In the course of time the Post-OfHee Department became interested In 
"Dr." White and his scheme, to the extent of instituting inquiries, which the 
"doctor" was unable to answer. A fiaud order stopped his mail, and 
hia prosecution and conviction fallowed. The book which was the Col- 
lege of Science's main stock in trade is a fearsome hash of old witch-lon 
and alchemy, and modern spiritualism, stolen from various soul 
Apparently the es-oyster-alnicker's raantle has fallen upon Prgf, 7, 


Mclntyre of 126 West 34th Street, New York City, who explofts the 
world as his bivalve through a system bearing the esoteric and hypnotic 
title of "Ucchatana and Bidwesana," whereby the "eminent exponent of 
the occult and psychic" (meaning Mclntyre) teaches all and sundry "to 
heal the sick and suffering without doctors or drugs." This he pretends 
to do free, and he will doubtless continue the pretense until the over- 
worked fraud-order section of the Post-Oflice Department attends to him. 
Some months ago the Post-Office authorities descended, with blighting 
result, upon "Prof/* Thos. J. Adkin, sometime of Rochester, where he 
established the "New York Institute of Physicians and Surgeons" for the 
practice of "Vitaopathy," whatever that may be. Judging from external 
evidence it consists chiefly in persuading, by some mysterious influence, 
the business managers of not-too-particular newspapers to print as "spe- 
cial-correspondence'* such headings as the following: 


Rescued on Way to Grave — Professor Stops Funeral — Restores Woman to Life — 

Does He Possess Divine Power? 

The most eminent physicians and specialists in the world were, accord- 
ing to Professor Adkin, his associates in the practice of Vitaopathy. In 
addition to his professional qualifications, the professor seems to have 
been a truly hynotic financier, since he succeeded in securing his world- 
beating physicians at a maximum wage of $30 a week, while the most 
that any "specialist," called in from without to treat extraordinary 
cases, was able to wrest from the New York Institute cf Phy«icians and 
Surgeons was about $5 a month. 

"In Prof. Adkin's laboratory his chemists arc daily engaged in extract- 
ing the life-and-health-giving principle from rare vegetables, fruits and 

Thus one of the Vitaopathist's advertisements. When called upon to 
give details, Professor Adkin could produce neither laboratory, chemists, 
vegetables, fruits nor plants. Under pressure he bashfully explained that 
his "treatment" consisted of tablets put up to his order by Parke, Davis & 
Co. of Detroit. This testimony should be interesting to phvsicians, since 
Parke, Davis & Co. are the largest manufacturers of "ethical" prepara- 
tions advertised to the medical profession in the country, and are earnest 
claimants of high professional standing. How their ethics comport with 
this acting as supply to a proven and self-convicted quack, I leave for 
them to explain. In the general stir that accompanied the Post-Office 
Department's action against Adkin, resulting in his retirement from 
public life, the regular medical profession of Rochester did not come 
off unscathed. One of the allegations against the Vitaopathist was that 
he diagnosed and prescribed for cases by mail. Believing that the local 
medical profession was the agent of his discomfiture (a misapprehension 
on his part) and keen for revenge, Adkin sent out decoy letters to a 
considerable number of local physicians in good and regular standing, 
and got responses from a dozen or more agreeing to prescribe by mail 
for cases they had never seen. This unpleasant evidence the "Professor" 
used in a manner very trying to the ethical practitioners. A sharp lesson 
for them, but a salutary one. . There will be very little of the long-dis- 
tance-diagnosis form of quackery practiced by the regular profession in 
Rochester for some time to come, I fancy. On the records of the fraud- 
order hearing, there is noted as being present (doubtless with a fellow- 
feeling for the defendant) Gen. James R. O'Beirne, who has held several 
posts of honor in New York City, and one of conspicuous dishonor, the 
presidency of the Force of Life Company, a swindle so open and bold 


that its recent whitewashinff by a prominent Federal official of Xew York 
has })een a source equally of amazement and s])eeulation to those who 
followed the proceed injjs a*:ainst it. One of its fakes was a "Life-Ray 
Capsule,*' said to contain radium, hut in reality simply a mixture of corn 
starch and calcium suUid. 



■•«^V«« ••-••*w<»^»."*^.*.«V»*A/». 




' I 


Rc>tor:^ tiealtit to lihalid^ Pronounced tiopetes:ily Incurable By 
Pliybkiaiis. Hcalin? in Wvi Face of Apparent Impossibilities. 


And Condcms iirulal Operations By Sur|feon's Deadly Knife^ 
No Oisca/.c He May Mot Cure By Some 


That Cures When Doctors and Medicines Fail and Hope 

Is Gone. 


Ministers of tlie Gospel Say He Is Gifted of God. and Praise liim 
For His Help to Suffering: Humanity— He Gives Service and ' | 

Home Treatment Free to the Sick and Afflicted. m 


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it.-.'t-nt,} 1 r«i'"'»-J '1 m jeltur 


The "Professor" Iladloy Is also Modical Director of the Force of Life fake. 

Science, in^'cniously ])erverted, is made the afjent of the miracle-work- 
ing quack. Sliould some scientist authoritatively announce to-morrow a 
method of cons<'rving the liglit and h(»at of the sun, within a few weeks 
we should read in the papers that "Jiottled Sunlight'* is a sure cure for 


any and all ills. So radium, havinp: o<*ciipiod the public mind and 
excited the public fancy, has furnisliod material for the lively commer- 
cial imagination of the quacks. Rupert Wells, M-D., early perceived its 
possibilities, and appointed himself Prcfessor of Radio-Therapy in the 
"Post-Graduate College of Electro-Therapeutics of St. Ix)ui9," a chair which 
has no existence, in a college which is purely mythical. 

Religious Rupert, the Fireside Faker. 

Rupert Wells, M.D., is very religious — in his advertisements. He loves 
the church papers. The weeklies with smug and j)ious editorials, and 
no conscience whatever in the matter of paid advertising, are his green 
pastures. He is a home-and-fireside cuddler, is Rupert. lie is also ^ 
grcund-and-lofty liar of the most complete and soul-satisfying description. 
Yju can read whole pages of his literature and not come u])on one single 
statement tainted with truth. To illustrate, by a brief cai)itulation of 
the main points of one of his "come-on" letters: Ry virtue of his pro- 
found studies in radium-administration (lie No. 1) at the college wherein 
he is professor (compound lie. No. 2) he can cure consumption (lie No. 
3) and cancer (No. 4) by a method which he wishes to toll you about free 
(No. 5), consisting of the internal and external application of Radol, 
which is radium in fluid form (No. 6), which he himself has discovered 
(No. 7), and by which he has elTected many cures ( Xo. 8), as follows 
(Nos. 9, 10, 11, etc., to the extent of the testimonials). Recently a 
Philadelphia w^oman emulating the anxious gentleman in Mr. Wallace 
Irwin's engaging poem, 

"/ tcrotc Dr. f^harlo and got as an ausircr: 
'The wart on your thumb is incipient canK^cr^^ " 

consulted Rupert Wells, M.I)., by mail. He sent her a form letter, 
ingeniously devised so that besides date, name and address only one word 
need be written in. This word gives the location of the alleged cancer, and 
the sentence is: "Your letter convinces me that you have cancer 

of the ." In this instance the word "tem])le'' was obviously typed 

in. Of course, the symptoms, whatever they ma;^^be, will always "con- 
vince" Rupert, M.D., that his corres])ondent has cancer (unless the reply 
is to a consumption advertisement), to be cured only by Radol. Of late 
the Professor of Radio-Therapy has grown quite painfully cautious. 
Attempts to purchase Radol of liim direct, have proved unavailing; he 
will send it by mail alone, and then only after receiving a diagnosis 
blank. However, the Lederle Laboratories succeeded by a roundabout 
process in obtaining the precious fluid for analysis, which showed that 
Radol contains exactly as much radium as dishwater does, and is about as 
emcacious for cancer or consumption. 

More Radio-Quackery. 

Some time ago I received a circular inviting me to become rich without 
effort by investing in the stock of the Dr. Warner Remedy Co. of Chicago, 
111., proprietors of Radium Rings and Radiozone. Radium Rings, I 
Ivarned from the accompanying literature, "are circular adhesive plas- 
ters, self- retaining to any part of the body, and a positive cure for all 
germ diseases" by a process wliereby "the germs and decayed tissues are 
promptly flooded with emanntion from the radioactive compound." 
*'Radiozone tablets," so the ])rospective investor is further informed, 
"carry the radio-active properties (internally) and ])ossess all of the vir- 
tues of Radium Rings." \'ery alluiing as a tinancial proposition, but I 
restrained my cupidity, and went to call on the Dr. Warner Remedy Co., 
which I found to consist of one Bird Collins, a graduate from the fraudu- 

lent noBtruni schoul as oxemplifictl by \Vir 
fTUlk and businrr^xlikp |>prsnn an will bo si 
"Are Badium Kings mdiuin?" 

"Is there any rniliiim in thrm?" 


"Then ivhy do yon cnll thrm Itiidiiim Kin 

"It's a tmdc name." 

"Ib Radioione raditim?" 


"Ib there any radium in U!" 

"Thon whv do voii lall it lladiozimc?" 
"IVe a trade annie." 
"Ib Dr. Warner here!" 

of Cardui. Mr. Collins is ft 

■n by the following dialogue: 

The Paal-OR)ce hati Interfered nilli Ibla Quack's notlvlly by ISBulDg a traud 
order agaloal blm. 

"Tlien whv do you call it the Dr. Warner Medical Companyl" 
'■It's a trade name." 
"Ih your name Collins!" 

«n rcincdicB?" 

"\^"ho makes them?" 

"Seabury and Johnson." (' 
"ethical" concern.) 

"Is there anything in them at all?" 

"Yes there is," said Mr. Bird Collins earnestly. "There's money in 
'em if they're pushed ritjht." And he proceeded with an impressive line 
of promoter's nrK"ment, whith I refrain from reproilucinp, this not being 
a financial article. 

Badium Radia is another attempt to trade upon the public superstition 
regarding supposed wonderful qualfties of the little understood element. 

, like I'lirke, Davis. & Co., is i 


It is really a patent medicine rather than a specific form of quackery, 
and I mention it only to state that it contains no radium, and that its 
name is typical of its swindlinj» purpose. The same is true of Radiumite, 
a cure-all which consists of zinc suliid and lead. 

The truly profitable way of furnishing radium to the public is to find 
a place where it spouts from the ground. Sucli a spot has been discovered 
at Claremore, Indian Territory, by an association of highly' respected 
business men and bunco practitioners from Fort Smith, Arkansas, calling 
themselves "The Claremore Kadiiim Wells Co." 

Their circular embodies a picture of a young female exhaling zigzag 
streaks from her head and hands in a manner to suggest that she has 
just been short-circuited, the illustration being labeled "Radium Emana- 
tions from Human Hody after a Bath." The literature goes on to describe 
in modest and restrained terms the virtues of the spring. 

"This magic mineral Radium Water has more miraculous and wonder- 
ful cures to its credit than any other known agency. . . . Hundreds 
are being cured of all manner of diseases, and no failures with this Magical 
Mineral Radium Water, irithoiit the use of medicine. Drink the Magical 
Mineral Radium Water for rheumatism, all blood diseases, all kinds lung 
and stomach troubles and Hright's diseases {sic). It cures quick." 

The baldness of the fake is enhanced by the inclusion in the circular 
of a chemical analysis of the water, showing absolutely no radium or 
radium-producing constituents. As a fitting close to this remarkable 
instance of swindling, which the correspondent who calls it to my atten- 
tion characterizes as "evidently designed to test the limits of human 
credulity," I can do no better tiian rci)roduce in its own form the caution 
in the Claremore Radium Wells Co. circular: 


and to add, lest there be any misapprehension, that the chief "Fake 
Radium Water" in Claremore is that furnished by the Claremore Radium 
Wells Co. 

Magnetism is still "good graft." Its mystical suggestion, appealing 
to superstitious hope, offers the proper medium for skilled quackery. Prof. 
S. Malcolm Watson, R.S. (whatever that may mean), of Battle Creek, 
Michigan, operates in this field. Vibro Discs are his wares. They are 
exploited to cure rheumatism. Prof. Wiitson's advertising matter is cal- 
culated to inspire it. I have seen nothing more ingenious in the realm 
of patent medicine literature. 

The Professor's letters, too, are models of altruism. He yearns to cure 
you, not so much for his good as yours. The $5 which he proposes to 
charge you is merely nominal. If, after you have nibbled at his bait the 
first time, he fails to hook you, he lowers his price to $2.50. Let this 
letter go unanswered for a fortnight, and he comes after you with a final 
proposition to throw in a bottle of ^"ibro Oil, although the Vibro Discs 
and the Vibro Tablets, which are an "infallible cure," would seem to be 
sufficient. Mark the pathos of this last Watsonian plea: 

"I have written you several kind and courteous letters, but so far you 
do not seem to have made the least reply. All this is very strange and 
to me rather painful. Of course there may be a just cause for your 
silence. But if no such cause exists you must admit that I am not get- 
ting a fair return for the good I have tried to do and the courtesy I have 
shown you." 

How to be Your Own Magnetizer. 

"Prof." Watson's Vibro Discs are merely plasters to be affixed to the 
soles of the feet. Vibro Tablets and Vibro Oil are ordinary preparations 


put up for liim bj a driiK Ann. In none of them 19 there any mora 
curative "vibration" or "gulvnnism" liiar in » lump of mud. In the 
interests of those suffering from rheumatic ailRients 1 will sive the fol- 
lowing prescription frw, whii-li I wilt guiir«iitpe to be us efflcacious aa 
Prof. WutHon's Vibro Ireatmmt, and timsid^rabty lens expensive. Pur- 
chase at any drug store one t«o-ccnt Btnmp (the one-rent variety will do 
in incipient casesl. alTix it flniily to the base of the spinal column, andtl 
while seated upon it take one tiread pill [brown or white), wheneTwd 
you happen to think of it. The ntnnip will provide fully as much vibrft- J 
■•-' "•-■■■■■■■■ ••- ■ ■'■ '- ' -'I' ■■■:■] Ihi better for ycwJ 

1 I'rof. W* 

Tbls picture la taliPn from the 
Co., o[ Clatemore. Indian 'terrlt. .. 
has had her head nnd hpr hnnds rat off nfu 
even l( the rcEullUDl pyrotechnic effects are genuine. 

bob up again in some new spwt, unless the fraud-empowering bill, j 

at Washington, tics tiie bands of the Poet-Ofllpc Department and gives Pro 

Watson a practietil license to resume buaincsa at tile old stand. 

Mugic Foot Drafts, made at Jackson, Michigan, belong to tl 
elnas. Affixed to the soles of the feet they are advertised as drawing out 
the rheumatic poison from the whole aystem. Of course they might as 
well be affixed to the barn door, so far as any uric acid extraction is con- 
cerned. They are a compound of poke-root, pine tar, and com meal. 
Prof. E. C. Goddard, manager of the Crescent Magnetic Appliance Co. of 
St. Louia, also has a "foot-bnttery" to be attached to any form of insole 
and a magnetic (not an eleclric) belt ''guaranteed to throw a magnetic 
current through six inches of solid glass, stone, wood or other substance." 


This claim is no more preposterous than the company's offer to cure heart 
disease, epilepsy, paralysis, rheumatism, insomnia, and general debility 
by means of their contrivances. On this same principle of pasting a label 
on the outside of oneself to cure something wrong with one's inside is 
Dr. Young's "Peptopads," which, like the Magic Fcot Drafts, hail from 
Jackson, Michigan. Affix one of these to your solar plexus and, according 
to the advertisement, you will not only recover from any stomach ail- 
ment, but "you can eat what you want and all you want." This, I sup- 
pose, operates on the simple and well-known principle of sticking a piece 
of couft-plaster on the back of a watch to repair a broken mainspring. 

But the King of Quackdom in the magnetism field is C. J. Thacher, 
M.D., of Chicago. His powers are cribbed, cabined, and confined by no 
arbitrary limits. He would scorn to restrict himself to any one disease 
or class of diseases. Thacher will cure anything, paralysis, consumption, 
Bright's disease, obesity, insanity or senility j it's all one to him. Just 
let him get the patient inside a set of "the famous Thacher Magnetic 
Shields," and disease and death must slink away, impotent and ashamed. 
Hear the trumpet-tones of Thacher, via the New York "American:" 

"I want to say to every man, woman and child within my reach that 
I can cure any disease that afflicts the human race. I make that state- 
ment just as broad, sweeping and all-inclusive as I know how. I don't 
care what the disease is, nor how bad it is, nor how many other diseases 
are complicated with it, I am as positive that I can cure them all with 
the famous Thacher Magnetic Shields as I am that the sun will rise in the 

When I called at 161 State Street, Chicago, to see tlie worker of these 
miracles, I found a big, gaunt old man, with a formidable head, a for- 
midable voice, and a still more formidable manner. He wore a magnetic 
cap, a magnetic waistcoat, magnetic insoles, and his legs were swathed 
like a mummy's in magnetic wrappings. It made one perspire to look at 
him. The outset of the conversation, I- regret to report, was unpropitious. 
Upon learning of my errand, the aged Thacher proceeded to thunder 
eloquent denunciations. Because of what he termed "wholesale and un- 
warranted attacks" he couldn't get his advertisements in the best news- 
papers, nor would the high-class office buildings accept him as a tenant. 
(Real estate men in Chicago seem to be more particular than in New 
York, where the Flatiron Building accepts Waters-of-Life Isham, the 
blood-brother in quackery of Thacher, et al.) He was confounded with 
every quack that chose to exploit himself. He, Thacher, was no quack. 
He defied anyone to call him a quack. At this point, observing that his 
hearer was properly impressed and alarmed, he became mild and confiden- 
tial, and delivered a lecture which I think was devised for prospective 
patients. A few of the gems (unset, of necessity) follow: 

**My object is to spread the light: to rescue humanity. I can cure them 
of anything! I write and I lecture. The people flock to hear me. In 
time they will compel the authorities to take notice of ray methods." 
(Presumably Pr. Thacher did not have in mind the Post-Office authorities.) 
"I will extend my Magnetic Shield treatment to the Government. I will 
say, 'Take it! Take it! and set the people free.' 

"Inaanity!" (Whacking himself on the magnetic-cap.) "Insanity! 
Simple as daylight! Let the authorities turn over ten cases to me. I'll 
put my magnetic shields on 'em and cure 'em. Restore the harmonious 
vibrations of the brain and everything is well. 

Paralysis!" (Hammering himself on his magnetic leg-swaddlings.) 
Easy problem. Had five cases. Couldn't wink or speak or move finger or 
toe. Put suits on 'em and cured 'em. Cured 'em right off. Winked. 
Spoke. Moved finger and toe. Got up and walked. Paralysis! Pish!'* 


that in every squnre of hw rosgnet 
vl lifting [Wtter of a fnJl suit being 3' 
ns to be something wrong w*"" 



i\/ *^ 




r ■■ 




\'r ■ 

1 ^''y. 


' f' 



— t. 




sample of umguetic insoles, as the very slightly magnetized stMl in 
them won't lift its own weight. At this rule a full outfit, having the 
lifting power claimed by the inventor, would be rather cumbrouB for 
ir, na it would weigh ahout a quarter of a ton. 


Of the making of "electric belts" and other fake forms of electrie 
"cures," there is apparently no end. Most of them purport to relieve 
general debility. They may have a brief stimulating influence, but the 
stimulus soon wears off, leaving the dupe worse than he was before. As 
cures for rheumatism, paralysis, and* the other diseases which they pre- 
tend to eradicate, they are simple frauds one and all. Moreover, most of 
them when worn next the skin produce ugly and poisoned sores, from the 
chemical action. Extreme instances of swindling claims are afforded by 
"The Electricure," which modestly offers to cure absolutely "consumption, 
paralysis, rheumatism, heart disease, and all acute, chronic or organic 
diseases," and the "Electro-Chemical Ring," which cures diabetes, epi- 
lepsy and rheumatism merely by being worn on the finger. 

From Quackery to Miracles. 

At the apex of the profession of quackery stands the miracle-worker 
proper. Usually he is an itinerant, traveling after the manner of his 
fellow parasite, the flea, by long leaps. One week he will be in Cincin- 
nati, the next in Chattanooj^a, and a fortnight later in New Orleans. His 
advertising methods are those of the circus. One of this class, who 
swings around the circle in western New York, is a singular creature, 
whose stage name is *'The Great Vurpillat." He travels with a brass 
band and a six-horse team, duly blanketed with his name, and precedes 
his "lecture" with a vaudeville show. Newspapers that want his adver- 
tising must print it as legitimate news, which, to their discredit, many 
of them do. In the Rochester Union and Advertiser^ for instance, I 
find his three-quarters of a column next to reading matter and with no 
mark to designate it as advertising. The Great Vurpillat's system is 
to hire a vacant hall, or, in warm weather, a vacant lot, give his little 
show, and then proceed to "demonstrate." For instance, a member of 
the audience presents himself to be cured of deafness. The Great Vurpillat 
stands fifteen feet away from the patient, and in a voice like a dying 
saint's last whisper inquires: "Can you hear me speak?" 

"No," replies the patient in answer to the expression of inquiry on the 
demonstrator's face. Anointment with some kind of embrocation follows, 
after which the wonder-worker moves away forty or fifty feet, and thun- 
derously bellows: "Can you hear me now?" 

"Yes," says the startled victim. 

On the following day the Union and Advertiser dutifully announces 
that "after the Great Vurpillat had demonstrated upon him with his 
wonderful new discovery, Mr. Leidecker said he could hear Vurpillat's 
voice at a distance of sixty feet." 

The New Orleans States sells its space to a species of quackery so blas- 
phemous that the clergj^ of that city might well make it the subject of 
concerted protest. The advertiser is a "Panopathic Professor," Wallace 
Hadley of New York, who offers to cure all diseases at any distance, and 
thus exploits himself in huge type: 


Ministers of the Gospel say he is Gifted of God, and Praise Him for His Help 

to Suffering Humanity. 

Professor Hadley, when not itinerating, is the medical director and 
working head of the Force of Life Co. 

Toledo has a curious quack who describes his alleged successes as 
"Modem Miracles." He calls himself "Professor T^rmouth," under which 
name he conducts a "Health Home." He is cunning, ignorant and with- 
out genuine medical qualifications, in spite of which he has as partner 


in bis noisonip enterprise the proprietor of one of Toledo's principal news- 
paperH, a {gentleman who takes pride in his record as a public influence 
for good tlirougli lectures and Y. M. C. A. addresses; yet who takes profit 
from a swindle, compared to which three-card monte is respectable and 

Every city has its quacks of the miracle-working kind. Mostly they 
prey upon the ignorant, and when the field of one locality is worked 
out they move to anollu^r, Icavinjj their former province to some suc- 
cessor of their kind. For upon tliis profitable principle all medical bunco 
is built: tliat the human slieep once fieeced soon grows another crop for 
the benefit of the c( niin' slu'urcr. 

Reprinted prom Collier's Weekly, Sept. 1, 1900. 


Specializing is the modern tendency in medical practice. ITence the 
quack, who is but an exaggerated and grotesque imitation of the regular 
practitioner, smells money in devoting himself to specific fields of en- 
deavor. Sedulously he perfects himself in his own department; not by 
acquiring knowledge of the nature and treatment of disease, indeed, but 
by studying how most eflfectively to enmesh the sufTerer from a certain 
class of ailments in the net of his specious promises. Upon his skill 
here depends his success. Experience teaches him notliing of professional 
value, for the vast majority of his "patients" he never sees, lie diag- 
noses by mail and doses by express. Ilis "consultation" correspondence is 
carried on through a series of ingeniously deviseil form-letters, worded 
to suit every case and turned out by a corps of typewriters. The average 
advertising specialist concern would work just as well if the "doctor" him- 
self spent his time fishing for finned suckers and left his trained stenog- 
raphers to attend to the human variety. 

Blindness and deafness are fattening afflictions for the medical guer- 
rillas. With a little reading, a few borrowed scientific phrases and 
illustrations wherewith to garnish his booklet, and an apt catchword 
for his advertising, your eye or ear specialist, or eye and ear specialist — 
for some of them combine the two — is ready for business. To get his 
patients he appeals to a deep-rooted and universal instinct, the piteous 
shrinking of the flesh and spirit from ccld steel, so often the cruel neces- 
sity and the merciful hope of the afllicted. 

Like Mending Chimneys by Mail. 

"Don't undergo an oj)eration. Come to me and spare yourself the tor- 
ture of the knife," loudly invites the quack. What matters it to him 
that the time wasted in his futile processes may mean sight or hearing 
wasted, also, and beyond chance of recovery! Ho gets his pay; that's his 
whole concern. For this he will promise to cure you, not only without 
operation, but without even seeing you. Can the mind conceive any- 
thing more preposterous? Here are two instruments of nerve and muscle, 
infinitely delicate, inscrutably eflicient and accurate. The eye is a 
marvel of mathematical adjustment in angles and curves, of vision. Our 
precious quack proposes to solve the problem of its distorted equations 
without the slighest study of the figures. Could he work out a geometri- 
cal thesis without a diagram? Could he survey a field by mail? The 
problems of hearing are almost as intricate and far more obscure than 
those of seeing. The self-styled "P^minent Aurist" will remedy the most 
diflicult defects without a personal examination. Would he essay to 
repair a defective chimney fine by "homo treatment?" The jn-oposition 
is a far more reasonable one. Yet the eternally hopeful, eternally credu- 
lous fill the mails with trusting appeals and dollars addressed to these 
swindlers, and thus lighten themselves for a swifter llight to darkness 
and silence. 

If I were organizing an American Institute of Quack Specialists I should 
select Dr. Oren Oneal of Chicago as the first president. The artful plausi- 
bility of his advertising, his ingenuity in "jollying along" the patient for 
his reluctant dollars, the widespread familiarity of his features through 
the magazine advertising pages, and, above all, his sleek and polished 
personality, make him the natural candidate. A high-class ex])onent of 
the charlatan's art is Dr. Oren. No raw newspaper advertising for him! 
He prefers the magazines, and the bane of his business existence is that, 

; closing their pages t 

9 bland and benevoleitt features ahone forth like a beniaon 
from the rpnr of Collicr'a for ycara. Harper's still harborii him, and he 
is a particular pet of the religious weeklies — at apecisl rates. 

"Dissolvent Method" is the Oneal slogan. No matter what the trouble 
may be, he "dissolves" it awajr. "How I Make the Blind See and Cure 
All Eye Diseases in Patii^nt't. Own Hume Without the Knife." ii the 
modest hGading of one of his advertisements in that model of religious 
journalism, the Ckriatian Endtapor World. "By this mild and harmiesB 
treatment," he announpes, "I have restored siglit to thousands in all 
parts uf the world. With it I have cured cataract, optic nerve paralysis, 

How Much 

Would You Take for 

Your Eyes? 

Would You Sell Them 
at Any Price? 

A high-claas eje Qtiack who will iiuflcrlake 

.l>1e blindness. 

granulated (si'o) lids, pannus, pterygium, glaucoma, conjeetioa (sfo) 
of the optic nerves, weak, watery eyes and all other eye diseasefl," AJl 
this he will do for the moderate price of fifty dollars — sometimes for 
twenty-five, but the patient must put down part of the money in advance. 

Give him his pay and OnenI will undertake the impossibir — — '- 

eyes; not only thia, hut he will undertake to cu 
knows to be incurable. His "Dissolvent Method' 
foi a cheap eye-wash which can no more cure any 
1 plain water. Th[s he aenda out by express 

a to u 

caaes which he himself 
high-sounding name 
IB derangement than 
m press ive directions 

\\Tien I palled upon Dr. Onenl nt his ofliee he assured me that he was 
doing a perfectly legitimate business, and that I wiis making a grave 
error in listing him with the quacks. As he spoke he was facinj; a wall 
OD which hung a number of framed documents. One was a certificate 



of membership in the American Medical Association, which is the standard 
medical body of the country. Dr. Oneal was forced out of it several years 
ago for unprofessional conduct. Nevertheless, he keeps the old certificate 
on exhibit. Neighboring the outlawed certificate were two others, one 
of a high-sounding organization whose sole purpose is to issue framable 
parchments to doctors of dubious standing, the other certifying that Dr. 
Oren Oneal was a member of the staiT of St. Luke's IIosi)ita1 at Niles, 
Michigan. Dr. Oneal has never been in Nilea, Michigan. He has had no 
relation with St. Luke's Hospital of that town, because there is no such 
institution. The document he purchased from a quack named Probert, 
who did a little peddling business in this line, charging $20 for the framed 
article when he couldn't get $25. Dr. B. F. Bye of cancer fame has one 
of th^se, and I have seen them decorating the olhoes of other quacks. 

For the conduct of a perfectly legitimate business these were three 
obviously rotten props. A fourth was sui)plied by a copy of the lfeu> 
York Health Journal, used by Dr. Oneal as a warrant of professional 
standing, and containing an "unqualified editorial endorsement" (leading 
editorial) of that gentleman's method and practice. Now, the Neta 
York Health Journal (since happily defunct) was, as I have observed 
before in the Liquozone matter and elsewhere, a fake, pure and simple. 
It printed no "editorial endorsements" except for cold cash. As Dr. 
Oneal doesn't remember paying for his puif, I assume that the firm which 
places his advertising did 'it for him. One other bit of suggestive evi- 
dence is found in the Nebraska State Board of Health Records, showing 
that in 1899 the Board secretaries recommended the revocation of Dr. 
Oren Qneal's license "on the ground of unprofessional and dishonorable 

Invents Unknown Diseases. 

So much as to Oneal's standing. Now as to his methods. About a year 
ago a certain Mrs. Price wrote him, giving the details of an incurable 
case and asking if he could cure her. He replied: 

"I find the trouble to be paralysis of the optic nerve. [There is no 
such condition; he meant, as he afterward admitted, atrophy of the 
optic nerve.] I have been especially successful in curing such troubles 
as yours. [In a letter to another prospective patient, shown me as evi- 
dence that he would not take money from hopeless cases, he distinctly 
states that paralysis of the optic nerve "will not respond to any treat- 
ment."] So positive am I that your case is curable and that you can be 
cured in a short time, that I will promise to continue the treatment free 
of charge after five months." [Her condition, as described by her, was 
obviously and hopelessly incurable.] 

Here, then, is "the most successful oculist of modern times" {vide his 
own modest claim) diagnosing a condition which doesn't exist, and prom- 
ising to cure a disease which he himself admits elsewhere to be incurable. 
The matter of Mrs. Price*s eyes never came to a test, because she offered 
to deposit one hundred dollars (twice his price) to be paid to him when 
a cure was effected, whereupon he wrote her one epistle replete with 
pained dignity, and charged up his letter-forms and postage to profit and 

An Eastern ophthalmologist filled out one of Dr. Oneal's diagnosis 
blanks with the unmistakable description of an incurable case of atrophy 
of the optic nerve, which the learned specialist promptly diagnosed as 
cataract, and offered to cure for fifty dollars. Strabismus (cross-eyes) is 
one of Dr. Oneal's specialties. I asked him how he cured this trouble 
without the knife to which he replied that he had never made such a 
claim. On the following day he sent to my hotel (for the purpose of 


proving that his methodB were porfectly upright) a quantitj of adver- 
tUinf; matter, whitli lip ha<l npparpnily imt (-cn«orpd, as it contained a 
dingiionia blnnk lK>nring thi'w words: "C' wtraighteneil in two 
miiiiitcfl willimit knifi'. ]iiiii], or iiiccmvi'nii'im'.'' When this alight dia- 
<.'r(>|)unrf wax ('iilli>d to liii ultcntioii In- triiti to rxjilain it away by saying 
that lie iiBPil "nil iiiHlri;im>nt of my own invi-ntion." Technically, tliis 
inMtrunu'nt is a kind of Ki-isKorH; but I fnil to see how the patient who is 
lunsl to [>r. OiiciiI'h ofliii: liy |irotiib<ps of Iiiin-Hur;;ical cure ("Rye Diseases 
C'lircd Witiioiit SiirfOT.v'' ix llic title of his liook) xulTcrs the less liecniiae 
the openitov'M instriiincnt hax two blades instead of one. Oneal says: 

The Absorption Treatment 


By DR. W. 0. COFFEE 



"I mnke no ftiinraiitee to cure." I have his letter guaranteeing a cure. 
He «iiyi! "!Ncilli('r do I clinrge for n cure." I have his letter naming 
fifty ilollars an the i)iicc of n cure. He says: "I will not under any cir- 
cuiLiHtnntcs treat a ease or take money when I think there is any doubt 
of directing a cure." I have liis letters iitrcring to treat hopeless ■cases, 
and oilier letter* from him offering to lake ciiscs which he admits are 
probably incursible. In tlie face of all this, Oneal writes me a personal 
letter deprecating any attack upon him, and saying: "All you have 
afraiiist me is a few tcchnicaliticB — a few words which have crept into my 
liiei'aliire fo which you take exception." Dr. Oneal ia proceeding on a 
fal^c premise. I have nothing against him ; I found him a singularly 
agreeable and frank specimen of the genua Quabk. But every man. 


woman and child who roads his advert i-^oinonts has this afjainst him and 
against the magazines that print his stiifT; tliat he is a maker of lyin^ 
promises, a deliberate swindh>r, and a tanipcrer with blindness at the 
peril of others, for a fifty-dollar foe. 

"Absorption Method" is the j)r()ft'ssional catch-phrase of Dr. W. O. 
Coffee of Des Moines, Iowa, where lie runs an eye-and-ear infirmary, and 
does an extensive bunco business \iy mail. i)r. ColTee's stock in trade 
as an oculist is a large supply of cheek and a copy of "External Diseases 
of the Eye," by Haab of Berlin. Professor llaab is a genuine authority 
and his book is an excellent foundation for ey(» practice, but not as CoflTee 
uses it. The Des Moines expert's interest is confined to the pictures, 
which are in color and are ratlier painful to look at; just the sort of 
thing to set one worrying about liis own eyes. Herein lies their value 
to the shrewd CoflTee. He gets up a book of liis own. all about himself 
and his successful Absorpticm Treatment; and. applying the treatment 
to the Haab volume, absorbs tlie illustrations wliole. 

Stolen Goods Improved. 

For instance. Table 10 in tlie Haab book shows a badly mutilated eye 
labeled "Lime-burn, caused by the explosion of a bottle." That is what 
Ilaab thought of it. Deluded Teuton! This same picture transferred 
to Coffee's classic work is described in the following bold and masterly 
strokes. "This eye was afflicted with granulated lids and ulcers, follow- 
ing inflammation. There is no known remedy that will remove these 
s'lots except Dr. Coffee's absorption treatment, and it will do it com- 
pletely. This case required three months to absorb the scum and scar 
and clear up the sight." On the same plate of Haab's book appears an 
illustration of "Lime-burn of longer standing in the case of a mason mix- 
ing lime." How tame, compared to the sj)irited Coffee version of the 
.same eye! "Chronic ulcers of the eye and cataract. This eye had been 
diseased for four years, but only bad about one year. It had been 
treated by two different oculists with but temporary relief, and they 
wanted to operate, but the patient would not submit, and, hearing of 
Dr. Coffee, came to him, and in five months' use of the absorption treat- 
ment, sight was restored almost completely." It is impossible to withhold 
a tribute to the calm and logical mind of the mason who owned the eye. 
An ordinary man, into whose optical cavity lime had spurted, would, in 
the instancy of his pain, rush to the nearest doctor. Net so "our German 

"VVait," says he to himself, "don't let's be hasty. This is a case for 
Coffee. Me for Des Moines, U. S. A." 

So he changes his clothes, buj's him a ticket and comes over to be 
examined. Probably he tells Cofiee about the lime incident. 

*Lime?" says that Eminent Authority. "Pooh! Not at all. The 
trouble was caused by a general practitioner using sugar-of-lead eye- 
water in the eye. [this last is quoted direct from the Coffee book.] 
Ulcers. Also cataract. I'll cure you." 

And he did it, so he says, in five months. 

Imagine the surprise and relief of the mascn at discovering that what 
he had supposed was a splash of lime from the mixture he was working, 
was really a dose of sugar-of-Iead eyewater surreptitiously introduced 
into his optic by a villainous general practitioner presumably operating 
a squirt-gun from a neighboring window. (Query: Could it have bees 
Haab himself, scheming to get a picture for his book?) 

Eyes Repaired by Mail. 
Again, Plate 32 of Haab's bcok shows two specimens: (A) Senile 
cataract in a woman seventy-two years old; (B) cataract in a fourteen 


yenr-old hoy cnused by foiling agninit a table. In the Coffee tome, thii 
identical Picture A appears as a l>e(ore-iiaii(g nnd Picture B a» no after- 
using exhibit; "The patient," says Dr. Coffee, "mnde the fatal error 
of nubmitting to nn operation." with the result n» shown in A; but after- 
ward came to Coffee, who repaired the damage aa in B. Reasoning from 
the Coffee statement, it is plain that the afied lady and the unfortunate 
youth, having heard in their Gcrman'hoineH that Dr. Coffee cured eataract' 
by mail, promptly removed the injured orRanS and sent them, postage 
prepaid to Des Moines, where the speeinliat fixed one and returned it, but 
unfortunately mislaid the other, en that one at the ttendera must atill be 
short of vision. But whether the venerable Frau ia now cocking the eye 
of budding manhood at the village bcHea, or the youth peering cautiously 
at the world with the aensoned nnd sadilcned outlook of aeventy-two years, 
ia a matter rei[Uiring further investigation. 

In view of the "Eminent Authority's" qualiflcationa aa an Eminent 
Thief and Pre-eminent Liar, the mass of testimonials which he offers fails 
to impress me particularly, though some of the local ones interest me. 
For inatance, Mr. Nye, editor of the Des Moinea JTcirs, goes on record in 
print to the effect that "Dr. Coffee ia an honorable man; perfectly reliable 
in every particular"^ — an opinion which I venture to gueas, ia based oa 
prompt payment of the Coffee advertising bills due the News. Advertising 
Manager Snyder of the News furnishes additional evidence in hia letter. 
The owner of The Homestead and the manager of Uticoestful Farming, 
both of which papers get part of the Coffee advertising fund, obligingly 
testify to the moral and professional worth nt the "eminent" charlatan. 
And he has also got religious backing, an asset nf the greatest value 
to any medical rogue, aince it inspires confidence on the part of his 
prospective dupes. "Liwk, sirs, we keeps a ministerl" boast Quack &, 


Co., and make the most of it in their nclvortiwmcnts. Dr. CofTee's 
minister is the Rev. J. Ernest Cathell. re<tor of St. Paul's Church, Des 
Moines, who lends his name to a ])errtonal endorsement. The processes 
underlying this endorsement arc not diflicult to conjecture. A not-too- 
inquiring, charitable-minded clerj^'man. a ricli parishioner, an occasional 
pious word substantially backed up by a generous gift to the church: 
"Surely, this Dr. Coffee must Ihi a worthy man." And so the rogue 
goes forth, tongue in cheek, with a cheaply bought blessing on his bunco 
business which he promptly puts into type as a shove to his trade. For 
the rest, the eminent Coffee just about parallels wilh his "Absorption 
Method" the eminent Oneal with his "Dissolvent Metliod." He under- 
takes to cure promptly and permanently incurable oases of cataract, 
atrophy of the optic nerve (which he calls "paralysis"), glaucoma, and 
other ailments, without ever seeing the eye he is maltreating. 

Scientific Editors Cry for Him. 

Singularly like Dr. W. 0. (^olTee is Dr. P. Cliester Madison of Chicago, 
who is, if one may credit his own statement, "America's Master Oculist." 
Which one copied from the other T am unable to say; but both Coffee and 
Madison advertise an "Absorption Method," and both steal their illus- 
trations from Haab. Madison's pictorial peculations are exhibited in 
the accompanying illustration. ^Madison has high-priced local endorse- 
ments. The Chicago Inter Ocean (luiviug been ])aid for it) declares its 
patron "America's Greatest Oculist," and solemnly states that he "will 
be classed in history as an eminent scientist," and that "scientific and 
medical journals are clomoring for articles written by him." At least 
one religious journal seems to have "clamored" successfully, for "The 
Christian Century" prints, at advertising rates, doubtless, a touching 
article by the Doctor entitled "The Window of the Soul" (meaning the 
eye), arid for good measure the managing editor of the paper writes him 
a letter, all about "little Ethel Chapman," who was cured by the Madison 
Absorption Method. "It reminded one of the sweet song of the skylark 
soaring to greet the morning sun," gurgles Editor Young ecstatically, "to 
hear little Ethel tell" how Dr. Madison saved her from blindness. It re- 
minds one of the sweet song of the cuckoo to hear Editor Young chanting 
on his editorial page the praises of Dr. Madison as a healer and a member 
of the Jackson Boulevard Christian Church, which is profitable for Dr. 
Madison, but pretty tough on a presumably innocent church. 

Any kind of eye disease is meat for Madison, but he makes quite a 
specialty of cross-eyes. "Why Remain Cross-Eyed?" he pertinently in- 
quires, and explains that he can cure people afflicted with strabismus 
"almost instantaneously without the use of the knife, without confining 
them to a dark room, without the use of bandages, without the adminis- 
tration of anesthetics, chloroform or ether, and with absolutely no pain." 
The only drawback to this is that it is a lie. A few cases of strabismus 
there are, mostly those of young people, which can be corrected by slow 
and careful non-surgical treatment. But when Dr. Madison or any other 
doctor pretends to be generally successful in strabismus by an "Absorbent 
Method" or any such nonsense, he is obtaining patients and their money 
under false pretenses. "Cross-Eyed Forty-eight Years; Cured in Two 
Minutes" is the heading of one of his testimonials. Another reads: 
"Eyes Straightened; Was Cross-Eyed Twenty-six Years." This is sheer 
faking. If Madison straightens eyes in two minutes, he does it by cutting 
the muscle responsible for the uneven tension, and if he doesn't use the 
juiife he uses scissors gr clippers or some equally painful implement. His 


"no knifr" claim is simply disrtpiitabli 
undertakes to cure atrophy of the optic 
as do all the eye qiinck.s. 

The Flitting Fakeig, 
For the scoreB of petty tnlters who flit froiti city to city doing a little 
biuiness in eye lotions, I have no space. Their preparation* are either 
boracic add wlutiona, which are useful merely as a cleansing agent, and 
can be purchased at tlie corner drug store for one-twentieth of the quack's 
price, or coeain concoctions, extremely dangerous in unpracticed hands. 

1 ll..ld -Miirii 


rolls himi 

c lu 

of the Murine concern'? prepamtioni, Bnnene, is advertised to ab.sorb 
cataract, a reminisci-'ncc of Coffee, Madison, et nl. Tlie ninn who attempts 
to "doctor" his own eye for anything more serious than ordinary irrita- 
tion ia running a risk. As for ''absent treatment" tlicre is just one kind 
of eye than can be successfully treated by mail, and that is a glass eye. 
The superintendent of a great institution for the deaf and partly 
deaf states that nine-tenths of those who come there do so only after hav- 
ing spent from three hundred (o one thousand dollars each on quack 
treatments, vibration methods and meehanical car drums. Certain kinds 
of deafness are curable, it ia true, and it is also true that the quacks, 
with their hit-or-mias syateni, sometimta benefit mild cases of catarrhal 


deafness; but these are canes wliich any aurist rauld handle better, 
cheaper and more quickly. For, it iiinst lie l)()riic in mind, the purpose 
of the quack nho treats at BO much per month, is to keep hix patient under 
treatment as lonff ai pnNnible. Outside of vinipic catarrhal eases, the 
self'TBunting "apeeialiaf is for more likely to do irreparable damafje 
than to be of any bene&t. 

What Oneal and ColTee arc to the discnaod-eye market, Dr. Guy Clifford 
Powell is to the ear trade. So complete and imti^factorily doea Powell 
fulfill erery tradition of the quack industry that I shall catalogue 
him under specific headings, as an instructive type. 

(A) Claimt. "Deafness Curcil at Liut. Wonderful New Diacovcry 
for the Positive Cure of Deafness and Head Noises, At last, after years 
of study and research, the wonderful Nature Forces have been harnessied 
together and Deafness ran be •.ured. If I did not know positively that 

nilhesloD following opera 

Tbla picture, Blched from rrof. 
tiaab'a "Dlaeaae of Ibe Exteinul 
FTre," Is described by Madlauu ns 
"iDflammatlon, adhesion, nnd 
bnrstlng o( eje-ball," cured by Ills 

absorptfon method. It In ronlly .^enn«^ or inese cases 

a case of wound trom an Iron u'llbin fuur tbonannd 

splinter. Muillxua's uQlge In L'hit 


of Iron wounil. 

my method could cure I would nnt nllow my name to be connected with 
thia treatment. . . . Write t(^dlly to the discoverer, Guy Clifford 

(B) OatohKOrd, Eleetro-Vibrntion. "Electro- Vibration, which is my 
method of treatment, is heralded by the greatest scientists of this country 
B8 the most scientific and certain treatment of the age." 

(C) Religious Uponsor. Rev. Father Sydney G. Jeffords, rector of St. 
Stephen's Church, Peoria, Illinois, who writes a to-whom-it'may-concern 
letter, in which ho says: "I consider Dr. Powell one of the most careful 
and exhauHtive investigators in his special line to be found anywhere." 

(D) Editorial 8p<msor. The National Jovrnal of Health (a congener 
of the take Hew York Health Journal and of the Ameritan Journal of 
Bealth), which editorializes as follows: "Dr. Guy Clifford Powell . . . 
has perfected a system of treatment that actually cures, as we know from 
its results. It is known as the Electro- Vibratory apparatus for the euro 
of deafneia and head noises," etc. 




Friend/' assures the patient of complete niid pormniicnt cure '*nt your 

Letter II — ^Admits that the cn»e is diflicult. but rofers the sufTerer 
to the cured case of a Mr. Kolly, almost oxnctly similar, whose address 
Dr. Powell has unfortunately Inst. Prico of treat iiiont $100! reduced 
to $30 because of ''special interest" in the case. 

Letter III — Waminff that the $;J0 prico lasts only iiftcM'n days. 

Letter IV — ^Expressing surprise that "Doar Tricnd'* has failed to avail 
himself of the unporalleled opportunity. Dr. Towi'll *'firmly l)clieve8" 
that if the patient had ordered at once iio would "at the present moment 
be well, on the road to recovery." Terms iiow $5 tlown and $25 after 
trial. "I could not make an oirer more fair to my brother," he patheti- 
cally avers. 

Letter V— Price drops to $25. "Should you plaee your ease with me 
I will cure you." The doubts expressed in No. II have fled before the 
fear of losing the catch. 

Letter VI — "It has been and is now a matter of no small wonderment 
to me why you so persistently ne^rleet so important a matter as the 
treatment and cure of your aillietion. T have cured many eases similar 
to yoors. My professional honor is at stake, and I am not pjoinj? to make 
a false or misleading statement to secure you as a patient." Terms — $25 
cash, or $15 cash and two monthly payments of $7.50 each. 

Letter VII and last — "Fortune is now knocking at your door," and 
Dr. Powell makes a "special and confidential price of $15," to secure "a 
cored patient in your neigliborhood rij^lit away," and for this, gives me 
"the most positive assurance of a rapid and coiiiplcte cure." 

This is .the Complete Letter-Writer of quackery. Of the seven epistles 
six are form-letters, sent exactly alike to every j)aticnt, and abounding 
in general promises, equally and fallaciously inapplicable to every cases. 
Dr. Guy Clifford Powell's ''I'31cctro- Vibratory Cure for Deafness" isn't 
worth $100, or $30, or $25, or 25 cents, except as its patent right, owned 
by the "discoverer," is an asset in his swindling operations. 

Another member of the Powell clan hails from Boston. He must be a 
thorn in the side of Discoverer Powell, this Dr. J. Rider Powell, as he not 
only has a vibrator of his own, but he olTers to sell it, together with a 
Ave months' treatment, for the low price of three dollars, which is cutting 
nnder the market with a vengeance. Considering the cheapness of Dr. J. 
Rider, I hesitate to criticise him too severely, but his "literature" fills me 
with misgiyings that he is brother in art, if not in family, to Guy ClifTord. 
Boston shelters also "Health Specialist Sj)roule," who occasionally styles 
himself "Catarrh Specialist Sproule." "Deafness Conquered" is Sproule's 
headline. "I shall let you know whether the case is one I can con- 
scientiously accept for treatment," he writes me, and when I send him 
the details of a ease which anyone but an imbecile or a quack would 
recognize as hopeless, he cheerfully accepts it. The Doctors Gardner 
of West Thirty-third Street, New York, run a fake concern, on a basis 
of false and ridiculous claims. 

The Deaf Not Neglected. 

Small instruments at large prices, exploited as aids to hearing, may 
still be found advertised in some of the most careful magazines. These 
are quite moderate in their claims, and as long as the prospective buyer 
understands that it is ten to one against his deriving any benefit from 
them, they are, perhaps, legitimate enough. Seldom do they do any 
harm, though the introduction of foreign snl)stances into the ear is not 
the most prudent of processes. An extreme type was the late Help-to- 
Hear Company (not in the legitimate category), which sent out circular^ 


atating that the inventor had been deaf for twelve years, during which 
time he had spent a small fortune on cures, before perfecting n device 
which was a certain remedy and which he would sell to the bteSE^ed public 
for the small price of $2 each. Investigation by the Post-Oflicc authori- 
ties developed the fact that the "device"' was a small sheet ot hard rubber 
to be held against the teeth, that it was ulioKy inenlcacious, and that it 
cost about seven cents; after admitting all which, the Help-to-Hear Com- 
pany gracefully retired from husincHa. 

Easily first among the mechanical fakes is Actina, made by the New 
York and London Klectric A^xoi'lntion uf Kansas City, which also manu- 
factures "Magneto-Conservative Garments" (supposed to cure anything 
from indigestion to locomotor ataxia) and other bunco devices. Actina 
itself is alleged to cure deafness and hlindness, nlso catarrh, nervousness 
and a few pathological odds and ends of that nort. Its religious backera 
%ie the St. Louia ChTtatian Advocate and the Central Baptist. Its booklet 

*>CureB" eye trotibleH at one enil, ear diseases at tbe other aad all b; means 
ol a bad SDicIl valued at ten dollars. 

is a weird jumble of psendo-physiology and bad English. The Actina 
itself costs ten dollars. It is a small slecl vial with screw stoppers 
at both ends. One end cures eye ailments and the other ear troubles. 
They work simultaneously. I live in hopes of seeing the Actina concern 
give a test, applying Blind Mary to one end and a deaf mute to the 
other, and curing both at one stroke of business for five doUore apiece. 
The Actina, upon bemg unpacked from the box in which it is mailed, 
comports itself life a decayed onion. It is worth the ten dollars to get 
away from the odor. "Can be used by anyone with perfect safety," 
says the advertisement, but I should regard it as extremely unsafe to offer 
it to a person wifli a weak stomach. Its principal ingredient is oil 
of mustard, an active poison, regarding which the United States Pharma- 
copeia prints this emphatic warning; "Great caution ehouid be exer- 
cised when smelling this oil." ' So the "perfect safety" guarantee is 
hardly sound. The Actina contains also oil of sassafras, representing pre- 
Biunably a brave but hopeless attempt to kill the inexpressible odor, and 


some alkaloid, possibly atropin. So far as curin|» any jijpnuine eye or ear 
disease is concerned, the sufferer might just as well — and with far more 
safety — blow red pepper up his nose, and get his sneeze cheaper than by 
sniffing at a ten-dollar evil smell. The whole contrivance costs probably 
about twenty-five cents to make. 

Space lacks to consider at any length the gct-th in-quick frauds, but the 
following letter regarding the "Obesity Cure" of F. J. Kellogg of l^attle 
Creek, Michigan, puts the case so justly that I quote it as applying to 
all this class of fakes: 

''Comanche, Texas, Feb. 7, 1906. 
"Editor Collier* 8, Ncxo York Citj/, X. Y.: 

"Dear Sir — As one of yc^ur subscribers I take the liberty of sending 
you the within letter. • 

" *Turns fat into muscle' is the slogan of this fake. Everyone having 
the slightest knowledge of physiological metamorphosis knows that such 
a change is impossible. 

*'This vulture sneaking into the homes of those suffering from fattv 
degeneration, or (which is more frequently the case) enjoying good 
health and fat because of a family characteristic, and. by a ])rocess of 
mental suggestion, swindling and despoiling them of remaining health, 
should be held up to public scorn till the wcrld may see that there are 
better men in every prison containing an inmate on earth. 

"Yours truly, 

"J. W. Reese." 

Mr. Reese is right. Notliing supplies muscle where fat was, but hard 
physical effort, and the man who ])retonds to achieve tliis result by medi- 
cine or "health food" is Iving in the face of a fundamental law of nature. 
The treatment that reduces your fat by mail reduces your health by mail. 
There are also cures for leanness, addressed mostly to women, and promis- 
ing perfection of figure. It is, ])erhaps, enough to say that any woman 
who tries the "bust developer" treatment is playing with fire, and that 
the vultures who conduct it fatten on the carrion of ruined morals and 
wrecked lives. 

Some Ways of Knowing a Quack. 

In one department of medical practice a layman may be justified 
in giving advice, and that is in pointing out what pitfalls to avoid. 
Here are a few of the more conspicuous and unmistakable indications of 
quackery among the specialists: The advertising doctor who, having a 
"cure" to sell, is "editorially endorsed" by any publication, particui ' 
in the religious field, is a quack. The doctor who advertises secret 
powers, or newly discovered scientfic methods, or vaunts a special "sys- 
tem" or "method." is a quack. The doctor who ofl'ers to sell, at a price, 
a cure for any ailment is a quack, and if he professes a "special interest" 
in your case and promises reduced rates, he's throwing in a little extra 
lying for good measure. Finally, the form-letter is a sure sign. You can 
tell it because it begins "Dear Friend," or "Dear Mr. So-and-So," or 
**My Dear Correspondent," and contains promises that wnll fit any case. 
If, however, you are determined to giA^e a trial to one of these "specialists," 
suggest these'terms: that, since he promises to cure you, you will deposit 
to his account the full price of the treatment, to be paid him as soon 
as you are cured, or substantially benefited, and not before. Then and 
there negotiations will cease. The promising quack will never stand 
behind his promises. Through this simple expedient one may guard him- 
self against the whole army of medical, scamps, for this is the final test 
of quackery which none of the ilk can abide. 

Rbpsinted from "Collier's Weekly/' September, 22. 1006. 


rHIS article^ which is the last in the series that has been running 
under the title of " The Great American Fraud'' for the past 
year, deals with those fakers who claim to cure the drink habit 
or the drug habit by mail. Mr. Adams has made an interesting 
collection of facts concerning the methods of these quacks, 
which are here set forth in detail. It is shovm that the so-called 
drug **cures** merely aggravate the drug habit, and never cure it. 

At the bottom of the noisome pit of charlatanry crawl the drug habit 
specialists. They are the scavengers, delving amid the carrion of the 
fraudulent nostrum business for their profits. The human wrecks made by 
the opium and coca in laden secret patent medicines come to them for cure, 
and are wrung dry of the last drop of blood. By comparison with these 
leeches of the uttermost slime, the regular patent medicine faker is a 
pattern of righteousness. He can find something to say for himself, at 
least. The leading citizen of Columbus will advocate the faith-cure vir- 
tues of his Peruna with a twinkle in his eye; the highly respectable 
legal light who is now })reHidont of (liicago University Club will manage 
to defend, with smug lawyer talk, the dollars he made out of Liquozone; 
even the menacing trade of the Antikaninia folk is excused (by the owners) 
on the ground that it does give relief in certain cases. But the creatures 
who prey upon drug fiends are confessedly beyond the pale. They 
deliberately foster the most dreadful forms of slavery, for their own 
profit. They have discovered a money-making villainy worse than murder, 
for which, apparently, there is no legal penalty. Equally deep in degra- 
dation I would rank those thugs who, as "specialists" in private diseases, 
ruin the lives of men and extort their pjiy by daring blackmail. 

The drink curers are on a somewhat different plane. They are swindlers, 
not panders. Time was when the "cures" for alcoholism consisted in the 
substitution of the worse morphin or cocain habits for the drink habit. 
This is done« if at all, very little now.* The "alcoholists" give some 
"bracer" or slow emetic, and try to persuade the victim that he is cured, 
long enough to get their pay. I group them with the drug cure wretches, 
because they prey on the same class, though with a less degree of vicious- 
ness. They may be compared to the petty shore thieves who furtively 
strip the bodies of the drowned; the opium-morphin-cocain-cure quacks 
are the wreckers who lure their victims to destruction by false signals. 

No Effort Is Made to Save a Patient. 

No more vivid illustration of the value of the patent medicine clause 
in the Pure Food law, requiring that the amount of habit-forming drug 
Jn any medicine be stated on the label, could be found than is furnished 
by the "drug habit" cures. Practically all of these advertised remedies 
are simply the drug itself in concealed form. No effort is made to save 
the patient. The whole purpose is to substitute for the slavery to the 
drug purchased of the comer pharmacist the slavery to the same drug, 
disguised, purchased at a much larger price from the "Doctor" or "Insti- 
tute" or "Society." Here is a typical report from a victim: "When 
I tried to stop the remedy, I found I could not, and it was worse than 
the morphin itself. I then went back to plain morphin, but found that 
I requierd twice as much as before I took the cure. That is what the 
morphin cure did for me." Another victim of a "No pay, no cure" sani* 
tarium treatment writes; 


**Ko, he never returns the money, for the poor sufferers are glad to get 
Away with what little life they have left. You board at the house at 
11.26 per day, in advance. You also pay every cent of your $100 before 
being treated. You are then at his mercy, if you can stand it. They 
give you a certain length of time by treatment, and they stop and tell 
you to kick it out, and that you will be all rip^ht in a few days, and the 
misery is so great that most any preacher, who never told a lie, would 
•ay he was all O K in order to get away, seemingly cured. Some few 
get as far as Cincinnati before they are back to the habit, while others 
get the stuff before leaving Lebanon." 

The Cure. 

Richie Painless Cure 

St. Paul Association Cure . 

Tri-Elixiria (Charles B. James 

The Purdy Cure 

Maplewood Institute (J. L. Steph 

St. James Society Cure 

O. P. Coats Co. Cure 

Harris Institute Cure 

Morphina-Cure . 

Opacura .... 

Prof. M. M. Waterman . 

Drug Crave Crusade 


Dr. J. C. Hoffman Cure . 
Dr. B. M. Woolley Cure . 
Dr. J. Edward Allport System 




What It 



When the Pure Food Law goes into effect these vulturous enterprises will go 
ont of business, as each "cure" must be labeled with its full content of morphln. 

This dainty advertisement decorated the New York billboards to the dismay 
of the cure's clerical endorsers. 

This refers to the Maplewood Medical Institute of Lebanon, Ohio, run 
by the Dr. J. L. Stephens Co., of which more hereafter. 

Investigations into the mail order drug cures have been made on the 
basis of a pretended morphin addiction. In every case the "remedy" 
sent me to cure the morphin habit has been a morphin solution. Some- 
times the morphin was mixed with other drugs, to produce greater effect 
and fasten more firmly upon the unfortunate the yiabii of the remedy ^ as 
substitute for the original drug habit. All these concerns advertise 
to cure also the cocain habit, the chloral habit, the opium habit, etc. As 
they covertly give morphin to their morphin victims, it is a just infer- 

ence that they treat the cocnin habit with dlsRuised cocain, the opium 
habit witli eoiiceuled opium, the cliloru! habit with liidden chlorai, and ao 
tliroughout the list. 

Surrijiinded by the beat religious intliienees, in tlie Presbyterian Build- 
ing Bt 158 Fiftli Ai'enuc, New Yorii City, tlie Rev. W. N. Richie, D.D., 
holds fortli. Here, in pious worda, he invokes the aid of Heaven upon hia 
transactions. He lias another address, 105 St. James Plaee, Brooklyn, 
where be docs the work of Hell. By bis eateh-word, "torthe sake of 
humanity," be has inveigled a number of well-meaning and otherwise 
intelligent gentlemen into supporting hia scheme with their names. Aa 
high-minded a man as the late Rev, John Ilall was duped, and bis pieture 
is now used on the cover of one of the Richie circulnra. Rev. Dr. Burrcll, 
the late Rev. S. 8. Baldwin, Rev, C. A, Stoddard, and the editors of the 
Iiidepeiident, Chriatian Work and other religious journals appear as en- 

dorserw of the Richie "cure." The "literature" gotten out by the reverend 
exploiter reeks of a smug pseudo-piety. He recommends hia nostrum aa 
a ""Painlesa cure for all drug habits. Only cure epdorsed by the secre- 
taries of Foreign 'Mission Boards, Interdenominational Committee, etc." 
He claims that it will cause "actual destruction of the desire for nar- 
cotics." On hia letter-head appear conspicuously the words, "Supports 
better than the drug. No substitute." Mark that "No substitute." This 
means that in the remedy no drug ia aubatituted for the one used by the 
victim. It is a lie. The Rev. Dr. Richie knows it for a lie. So well 
does he know it that hia employCa dare not back it up in their cor- 
rcspondenee. After procuring a sample of the output, I wrote, under an 
assuuicit name, saying that it produced the same effect as morphin, and 


■sUnff if it contained any of that dnip. IIpto is the reply: "There 
would be no special ndvnnlnup in mir dcnyin;; nr n,isirtir(r (lie use of 
morphin or opium in the reiiii'rly." "Nm sixtliiI i\-^f," imli'iil! Thrir nnm- 
ple, OD analfsU, contninx 2.12 ■:raiii-i nf iTj-liilli/i-iI uinipliin per <la-ie. 

An Ordinaiy Dose Would Kill the Average Han, 
I am invited to euro nivsi>tf liv t!il;ii]<.- tUi» >^liitr f.,ur limi-it a day. If I 
Ui-ed through the first ilnsc, the s.i-i.ikI vimUl kill iiii', or any of my 
readers who is not a morphin liri'il. The onliiinry ilnse is i/i of a crain, 
heavy dose ^ of a ^rain. Hut the liii-hie l'imi]«iiiy siipposeH I ean utand 
more, so they endeavor to foi-t tlieir I'niii-iH-liim iijiim iiii' in pliii* nf iiiy 
supposed addiction. How doex tins cnDiport with tht'ir "Xo HubAtitution" 

Iby IbtJ 
BotlDbclompiHdtathitciciicd by Un« llitU. 
The BluUt Con !• >a dlmlvi nincdl' lui iLi 
Dnii Kibn." 



CapltnllzlDg a 

Etos 3*. liaiDci Pto«, aroowr^ 1 

i: for (be pralits of Hcoundrellsm. 

claim? This and othpr qiip«finns T put in ivTiling to fho Rev. Dr. Richie. 
He has not anHWernl it. His silonce is lint surprising. It is the part 
of wisdom — or, at least, enution. I'm not n'rtnin just how to place this 
reverend gentleman. It niiiy lie that he has hi'pu fooled into believiTig 
in the "lUchie cure," and that he is an exemplar of a type of asininity 
80 baneful and deadly tlint its ihdsscssot ouglit, for the sake of the public, 
to be permanently established in an asyluni for the diingeroiisly imbeeile. 
But I tbinic not. I think he can not be ignorant of his traffic in ruined 
lives. This alternative implies lint criminality. Nor has thc_ divinity 
doctor always eluded the dutch of the law. He has been convicted ana 
fined for practicing medicine without a license. 


There is a religious tinge to the twin organizations, the St. James 
Society of New York City and the St. Paul Association of Chicago. I 
call them twins because their letters are identically worded in several 
important particulars, suggesting vividly a community of interest. M. E. 
Cowles, M.D., Medical Director of the St. James swindle, publishes a 
pamphlet called Plain Truth, from which I cull the following warning 
against his competitors: 

"Substitutes are also extensively advertised, and in taking these the 
patient is merely paying some imposter about $5 for morphin he could 
buy in pure form of his druggist for $1." Quite so! An admirable 
description of the transaction of the St. James Society. "This is not a 
reduction cure" he informs me. (A reduction cure is one in which the 
treatment consists in a gradual reduction of the drug, from week to 
week. It is successful only when the patient is under the close surveil- 
lance of the doctor — and seldom then.) And when I write him the test 
letter, saying that the remedy acts like morphin, he replies: "We 
scarcely think you experienced any of the reactions of morphin." The 
average man would experience a promptly fatal reaction if he took the 
prescribed dose containing 1.75 grains of morphin six times a day, and 
half the dose five times more. (It must be remembered that those 
addicted to drugs can take a dose which would be fatal to the normal 
person.) I know of two unfortunates who got the St. James habit more 
firmly fixed than the original morphin habit. The only satisfaction 
they received, on complaining, was the advice to "begin the system all 
over again" — to the profit of the "Society." 

The St. Paul Association also writes me: "This is not a reduction 
cure" the letter being signed by Dr. I. W. Rogers. In reply to my query 
as to whether the sample sent me contains morphin, he writes: "We find 
that your trial is prepared, containing a small amount of [ ] 

narcotic to each fluid dram." Evidently the original intention to fill 
the blank was abandoned. It was filled, however, when I wrote demand- 
ing the figures of the "small amount," and the name of the blank nar- 
cotic. The return mail brought me the information that it was "neces- 
sary to put 1 1/3 grains morphia in each fiuid dram" for my treatment. 
At the prescribed dosage of a dram six times a day and half a dram 
between times, I should have been getting about 11 1/3 grains of mor- 
phin a day instead of the 12 grains, which was my supposed habit. 
"Not a reduction cure," indeed. Very little reduction in the St. Paul 
method. A nice, Christian concern, the St. Paul Association, 'fit com- 
panion for its brother in villiany, the St. James Society. 

Many Quacks Are Themselves Opium Fiends. 

In a former article I had occasion to describe at some length the quack 
cancer cure of Dr. G. M. Curry of Lebanon, Ohio. This pained the 
Lebanon newspapers extremely. Having waxed fat upon the Curry cash, 
they rose in their might and denounced this weekly as a vicious slanderer 
of good men. Therefore it is with tremulous reluctance that I tempt the 
shafts of Lebanon's editorial thunders, by taking up another of that 
enlightened community's standard institutions, the Maplewood Institute 
for the Cure of Drug Addictions, which is supposed to be run by Dr. 
J. L. Stephens, deceased. Among the endorsements of the sanitarium I 
find one from Dr. Curry. The institute also issues an editorial endorse- 
ment by the fake American Journal of Healthy for which it paid cash. It 
refers the inquirer to the Postmaster of Lebanon, any of the newspapers, 
the city and county officers, etc., just as Curry does, from which I con- 
clude that Lebanon must be a lush, green field for the quack harvester. 
"There is no danger, whatever, in our remedy. It is perfectly harmless," 


vritn the Institute, ngardinft H* xun- i-un- Inr nii>r|>liin In- mail. Two 
fnins of morphiii to the <Icmc U thr Sl(>ph<iii luitidii iif h "gHTfrvtly 
lumless" treatment. "Ph^-ajrian. hen) tliVHcIf" iH nut ii (liH-triii(> pmiv 
tkcd at the Lebanon Institute of Inii|Uit,v. Witliiii rccriit jrarii thrco 
of its "medical directors'' or "mpilical mlviscrs" linvr Ihvii iiiuIit trnit- 
Bent a.t a reputable and priiminrnt Knitcrii hunituTJuni for ilruf! habit. 
It is aji interesting and significant fai't, l>y liir way, that a large |iro|ior- 
tiDD of the morphin and opium cure iiiiackH nrp tlieniM'lvra "nenitii.'' 
One K. F. Purdj; runs a little cure I'f liix own at llimntoii. Tvx.. and wnea 
a pamphlet in which he warns tiic Trader, wilh owii.'h Milc-innity, againat 
qaacka and frauds. "The Purdy Cure," Jii- ntnti'», "eradicnt<-H i-mvc, drulrc for 
tbedru^, and CAi'HEfor itausc." Tiio cauae, of coutm-. is the <li-inandn[ the 
atlared body for the drug, and Dr. Punly HHtiHlliv thiH ih'itianil by fur- 
ttishing the required drug scpn-Hy, In reply to my miiu'»t for enlight- 
Bunent as to whether hia morphin "i-urr* <iintaiii)' iiidrphln.' he replies 
iagcnioualy: "I do not think it is to the iiitcn-Ht of yuii or any other 
patient, to inquire particularly in rc|;iinl tn the i-haractcr or ninkc-up 
of the remedy." Adrnirable solicitudi-! Further he assures me that his 

DH. K. F. rUBDY. 
Dr. Pnrd; operates In nouatou, Tciua, and bas qiilli; n trade In driiR-cure 
qoacker; thronghont the Soutb. 

treatment is "abanlutely harmless and undpr no oircumsitnnccH or con- 
tingencies will it leave a lisbit." As the trcnlniciit oousistM in .57 j;rain 
of morphia per teaspoonful, most nuthorilics wotitd disa^^iK' with the 
claim of absolute harmlesKncss. J>r. I'urdy is simply another of tlio 
human ghouls who fatten on drug ilcnili. 

Dr. Coats of the 0. P. Coats Co. ot Kansas City lalmra under the sin- 
gular delusion that he is not a quack. "I do not ndverlisc in any ncws- 
Eper," he Bays proudly. Somebody does it for him, then, for I find 
I advertisements in the Sunday papers: "Opium, ninrjihin, cocain habits 
absolutely cured." The Coats firm is purely a mail ordpr conpcrn. You 
tend thou your money tor morphin cure and thoy sfind yoi; their reine<ly, 
containing the very drug that you arc striving to discnnl, in Ibc quan- 
tity whidi you have been taking. Th<> Coats "cure" contains 2.5 grains 
<k morphin per dose, a terrific quantity — and it hears no poison laliel. 
PoiaOQ Sent Out Unlabeled. 
Something ot the nature of the agile grasshopper inberen in the Opa 
BpeeinKy Co.) which sella Opacura, It answers my first letter from 


Chicago, my second from San Antonio, and my third from South Haven, 
Michigan. Possibly it operates on the sound economic principle that it is 
cheaper to move than to pay rent. "Opacura," the reader is informed, 
"is very palatable and easily taken, and positively contains no belladonna, 
calomel, enabis indicis [cannabis indica?] or atropin in any form.'* Nor 
ice cream, nor dish-water, ncr dry Martini cocktail ! But it does contain 
inorphin, in most formidable proportion. The Opa Company informs me 
modestly, replying to my desire for information as to the presence of 
morphin in the '*cure:'* "There is a little to give support while the 
Tonic acts upon the system." A little! Nearly two grains per dose. 
**It will not injure the patient in any manner/' declares the scoundrel 
who writes me, and he distributes this deadly poison unlabeled. Mor- 
phina-Cura, which is advertised as "A Reliable Cure for Opium" is itself 
morphin. It must be credited with the merciful precaution of labeling 
its poison with skull and bones. 

How much there is in a good name! "Drug Crave Crusade" is almost 
worth the money. Their advertisement, sij^nod D. C. C. Co., appears in 
the Smart Set, which ofl'ers an eager hospitality to this class of villainy. 
"Our remedy forms no other habit whatever," writes the Dr. Baker, who 
runs the foul business. Certainly not. It simply keeps up the same 
hf'bit. The patient is encouraged to take all he can stand of the stuff. 
"Enough to give comfortable support" is what I aiii encouraged to take. 
Thus Ihe poor victim who supposes himself to be conquering the morphin 
habit is really continuing his habit, and paying the Drug Crave Crusade 
a big price for the privilege. Their "cure" runs to about a grain of mor- 
phin per dose. 

"The sedative which is in the remedy is to take the place of morphin," 
is the Drug Crave Crusade's reply to my query. "We are enclosing here- 
with an extract from the Nciv York Health journal, which we feel sure 
will settle any doubt in j^our mind as to the remedy containing any 
opiates." It does. It would settle any doubt in my mind, were there 
any. as to the nature of the Druo^ CraA-^e Crusade. Any enterprise en- 
dorsed by that ghost of a journalistic prostitute, the New York Health 
Journal, is, by that very token, damned for a swindle. 

"Dcnarco" is the nostrum of the Comstoek Remedy Co. of Lafayette, 
Indiana. Having filled out one of their blanks with the description of 
a case taking 12 grains of morphin a day, T receive, via form-letter, the 
encouraging though somwhat astonishing information that "your answers 
show there is nothing serious the matter with you." Nothing serious 
the matter with a man who takes in twenty-four hours enough morphia 
to kill a dozen normal men! There is something the matter with the 
Comstoek Remedy Co., and this is it. that they are a band of murderous 
medical pirates. Their "Denarco," described as "reliable and absolutely 
harmless," contains .19 grain of morphin per dose, which I am invited 
to take day and night, if I need it. Of course, the jsrominent bankers 
and the Postmaster of Lafayette are used as backing in the advertising 
matter of the company. 

The Amazing Contrell. 

It is always a pleasure to meet a straight-out whole-souled liar. As 
such R. G. Contrell, M.D., the genial medical vampire who acts as 
•'director" of the Harris Institute of 400 West Twenty-third Street, New 
York City, is entitled to respectful consideration. "We never advocate 
a reduction or tapering-ofT treatment, but eliminate the drug from the 
start," he asseverates in the Institute's booklet, further stating that in 
undergoing a course of the treatment, "there is no more danger than in 
taking a glass of water. . . . The results are positively and absolutely 


guaranteed." The only safe guarantee to make for the Harris treatment 
would be that the dupe who takes it will fulfil the Scriptural description: 
**The last state of this man was worse than the first." Perpend Contrell, 
^r.D., on the innocence of his "dope:" "Owing to the general effect of 
the medicine many people imagine that our medicine contains opium when 
nothing is far |s/c] from the truth." Contrell, M.D., is "far from the 
truth." His non-reduction and non-tapering-off treatment contains 1.7 
grains of mcrphin to the double teaspoonful dose, to be' taken four times 
a dny. 

Within easy reach of the Harris man-trap by a Twenty-third Street ' 
crosstown car, the Professor M. W. Waterman Institute does business. 
Professor Waterman, so his circular informs all and sundry, was formerly 
Deputy Coroner of New York City. Very likely; and he is now pre- 
sumably furnishing subjects for his successors. "My treatment is the 
only absolute specific and cure for drug habits. It is the only one that 
contains the vital principle." Many cures, he sadly observes, are "sim- 
ply morphin in solution. They dupe their patients into paying exorbi- 
tant prices for the identical drug they are seeking to be rid of." This 
is, indeed, spoken from the lofty heights of wise philanthropy. But 
down he comes from those heights on being asked whether his own "cure" 
isn't morphin in solution. "You Avill note," he writes me, "that the 
only narcotic contained in the remedy is bi-maconic acid. This is a bi- 
product [sic] of opium, but is not as injurious as morphia nor is it as 
strong." Impressive term, bi-maconic acid! But, strangely enough, it is 
unknown to the regular chemists. I suspect that Professor Waterman 
span it out of his own inside, like a spider. He is most certainly of the 
spider genus, and the human flies that get in his web are fed on morphin, 
as the "vital principle" of his "cure." My sample contains .65 grain 
morphia per teaspoonful dose, which I am advised to repeat as often as 
1 feel like it. 

Quacks Who Pretend to be Physicians. 

There is a grim pleasure in illuminating the devious ways in which 
those quacks who pretend to legitimate standing work their little games. 
They arc hard to catch, and of the two whose description follows, one 
would never have boon embodied in this article but for the efforts of cer- 
tain physicians of Cleveland, where he practices. To be accurate. Glen- 
ville, a suburb of Cleveland, is the stamping-ground of J. Edward Allport, 
M.D. The Glenville paper is full of paragraphs about his private hospi- 
tal. He is an ingenious fellow, a dispenser of platitudes to Sunday-school 
classes, and a churchgoer, as part of his advertising, for he follows the 
precept laid down by Sam Weller's friend the "depity saw-bones," and 
has himself called out of the service on urgent business, so that people 
shall wonder at the demands of his practice. Allport's specialty is drug 
addictions. No case is too bad for him to tackle by mail. He fell easily 
into a trap set for him and undertook to cure a bad case of morphin 
habit without seeing the patient. His dosage, prescribed by letter, carries 
about 1.1 grains of morphin six times a day. With the morphin vial he 
sends me a bottle of pink whisky, to mix with the morphin when it gets 
low, a pretty villainous combination. Dr. J. Edward Allport does not 
advertise openly, but he is no less scoundrelly, and is even more dangerous, 
than Richie, the twin "Saints," and Waterman. 

More easily caught was Dr. J. C. Hoffman of Chicago. Dr. Hoffman 
yearns to be considered "ethical." "My social and professional standing 
protect me from the insult of being classed with advertising quacks," he 
writes in a fine burst of dignity. Therefore, he hires a stool-pigeon to do 
his advertising for him. Readers of the Sunday papers will remember 
ber ingenious Uttle advertisement. "Myself cured, I will glady inform 


airy one addicted to coeain, morphin, opium, or laudanum of a never- 
fauing, harmless home cure. Mrs. Mary 0. Baldwin, Box 1,212, Chicago." 
Upon receiving an inquiry Mrs. Baldwin, in a manuscript letter, refers 
the "come-on" to Dr. HolTman. She says she dees this out of gratitude 
for her own cure. I surmise that she does it because she is paid to do it. 
Then Dr. Hoffman takes hold. His "follow-up" system of form-lettera is 
typical. He is sure he can cure you by mail. "The. remedy so perfectly 
controls the system that the patient feels better than under the deadening 
influence of the former drug. Yea, indeed! The gentleman of protective 
social and professional standing keeps his patients feeling happy, by a, 
steady if not judicious dosage of mcrphin. The treatment he sent me 
contained about two grains of morphin to the maximum dose, to be 
repeated three to four iimes a day. The Hoffman- Bald win partnership 
may be one of gratitude, but it is, I suspect, a gratitude based on the 
hope of profits to come. A pretty grisly pair of ghouls are Dr. Hoffman 
and his accomplice, Mrs. Baldwin. 

i" morpbin flends 
Dy mail, wiia moriinm. 

When this article was announced Dr. H. M. WooUcy of Atlanta, Georgia, 
wrote me advancing arguments to show why he should not be included 
among the quack drug cure practitioners, and asserting that his one 
unethical feature is the fact that he advertises. What he advertises to do 
is to cure the morphin habit. Hia "cure" consists in 1.9 grains of mor- 
phin per teaspoonful dose, to be repeated four times a day. If Dr. 
Woolley has any further arguments to adduce, tending to disprove my 
theory that the world would be a better place if he were safely in jail, I 
hope he will send them to me. 

A Safe Bole to Follow. 

Necessarily I have omitted many of the minor vampires of the drug 
addiction school. I can, perhaps, cover them all in one warning; the 
man who advertises a sure cure for any drug habit is a swindler. Ten 
to one he is also a siibstituter and will push his victim further into the 
depths, for the few dollars to be got out of it. Reputable sanitariums 
there are in plenty for this purpose; most physicians know of them. The 
addict who can not be cured in them can not be cured anywhere, and 
might better b«y his poison at the regular rate than at a fancy price 


from the vicious quack of the advertising school. When the Pure Food 
law goes into effect, the business must, perforce, cease, for, honestly 
labeled, the "dope" bottles carrying the cure would be bought by few. 

The Sunday newspapers and small weeklies teem with advertisements 
of "drink cures," which are supposed to exercise the alcoholic craving 
when secretly given in tea or coffee. Few of these concoctions can be 
described as immediately dangerous, though none of them is really safe. 
All are swindles. They do not cure the drink habit. Once in a while 
some drunkard will succeed in breaking his fetters synchronously with 
the taking of the "remedy," and the wonderful "cure" is heralded to the 
world. But the percentage of these cases is so small as to be practically 
negligible. Orrine is such a cure, conspicuously exploited. Another is Dr. 
Haines* Golden Specific. Parker Willis conducts a little bunco trade in 
this line at Indianapolis, and the Milo Drug Co. of St. Louis helps to 
make good that community's claim to the proud title of the City of 
Quacks. Toledo boasts H. C. Keith, who not only has a quack treatment 
for drink, but further exhibits himself as a swindle by guaranteeing to cure 
all drug addictions. One might at first suppose that the Kansas Anti- 
Liquor Society's project for furnishing a drink cure prescription free 
was a worthy charity. In reality it is only a petty fake, since the "pre- 
scription** is one that no drug store could put-up, so the patient must buy 
it from the "Society" — at a heavy advance upon the cost of the drugs. 
Of course it will fail to effect any good results in a vast majority of 
cases. In the foot-note to the proscription the patient is assured that 
it is harmless to "the most delicate and sensitive constitution," which 
may possibly be true; but before I took repeated doses containing, even 
in minute quantities, such poisons as aloin, strychnin, hydrastin and 
cocain, I should want to know what ray doctor thought about it. 

Quacks with Stool-Pigeons. 

The reader has very likely seen in the public prints an alleged picture 
of Mrs. Margaret Anderson of Hillburn, New York, who "cured her hus- 
band of drinking," and wants to tell you how to cure yours, free. "She 
has nothing whatever to sell," says the advertisement. True. But the 
Physidans* Co-operative Association, a quack organization of Chicago, for 
which Mrs. Anderson is stool-pigeon, has something to sell. That some- 
thing is Alcola. "The Conqueror of King Alcohol.** Mrs. Anderson*8 
correspondents are recommended by her, in a skillful imitation of a hand- 
written letter, to buy Alcola and be saved. Alcola is the same kind of 
fake as the rest of the "given in secret'* cures. 

Of "institutions" for the regeneration of drunkards there are many. 
Some of them are entirely reputable, but these do not make blanket 
promises of cure. The famous "Keeley Cure," which formerly made the 
most extravagant claims, is now conducted on a much sounder basis, and 
actually produces results in a certain percentage of cases, though its for- 
mer claim of more than eighty per cent, cured and less than twenty per 
cent, lost would be much nearer the truth if reversed. As the Keeley 
institutes do not now, so far as I can judge, promise to cure all forms 
of drunkenness nor attempt to take pay for cases which they know to 
be incurable, I do not include them in the swindling category. 

Hundreds of letters come to Collier's, inquiring about various advertised 
cures in all fields of human suffering, and a large proportion of these 
relate to treatments for private diseases of men. This is a subject which 
I take up reluctantly, and only because of its widespread peril. As the 
drug cures are the most vicious form of quackery, so the private disease 
treatments are the foulest. All this class of practitioners are frauds and 


swindlers. Many of them are ex-criminals of other fields. Tlie "Old 
Doctors," the "Physicians Institutes," the "Medical Councils," and tlie 
"Quick Cures/'^are all equally to be shunned. Blackmail is the underlyin^^ 
principle of this business. These treatments can not cure; ten to one 
they only aggravate the disease and render it dangerous or even deadly. 
But once they have a man in their clutches, they need not help him in 
order to get his money. If he demurs at their charges, a threat to expose 
the nature of his ailment to his family or employers is enough. Some 
firms of this sort send a $25 treatment C. 0. D. by express, as soon as an 
inquiry is received, without any order. If the addressee refuses to accept 
it, they write him saying: "Another gentleman in your town has also 
written us. We will turn over your shipment to him^ explaining the cir- 
cumstances." The unhappy dupe, realizing that the knowledge of such 
a remedy having beeri sent him may prove ruinous, pays the price to 
preserve his wretched secret. Every advertisement of "private diseases," 
or "men's specialist," ought to be a danger signal, pointing not only to 
wasted money, shame and misery, but often to invalidism and a dreadful 
form of death, where in 90 per cent of cases reputable treatment would have 
brought the patient through. In some localities it is against the law to 
publish advertisements of this class. Pennsylvania has such a law, but 
it is a dead letter. St. Tx)uis is attempting to enforce its illooral advertis- 
ing ordinance, and the St. T^ouis newspapers nre fighting to save for them- 
selves the dollars tainted with unspeakable filth. 



"Here shall the Press the People's rights maintain, 
Unawed by influence and unbribed by gain." 

— Joseph Story : Motto of the Salem Register. 

Would any person believe that there is any one subject upon which the 
newspapers of the United States, acting in concert, by prearrangement, in 
obedience to wires all draxcn by one man, will deny full and free discus- 
sion f If such a thing is possible, it is a serious matter, for we rely upon 
the newspapers as at once the most forbidding preventive and the sioiftest 
and surest corrective of evil. For the haunting possibility of newspaper 
exposure, men uho knoto not at all the fear of God pause, hesitate, and 
turn back from contemplated rascality. For fear "it might get into the 
papers," more men are abstaining from crime and carouse to-night than 
for fear of arrest. But these are trite things — only, what if the news- 
papers fail us? Relying so wholly on the press to undo evil, how shall 
tee deal with that evil with which the press itself has been seduced into 

In the Lower House of the Massachusetts Tx>pislature one day last March 
there was a debate which lasted one whole afternoon and engaged some 
twenty speakers, en a bill providing that every bottle of patent medicine 
sold in the state should bear a label stating the contents of the bottle. 
More was told concerning patent medicines that afternoon than often 
comes to light in a single day. The debate at times was dramatic — a 
member from Salem told of a young woman of his acquaintance now in 
an institution for inebriates as the end of an incident which began with 
patent medicine dosing for a harmless ill. There was humor, too, in the 
debate — Representative Walker held aloft a bottle of Peruna bought by 
him in a drug' store that very day and passed it around for his fellow- 
members to taste and decide for themselves whether Dr. Harrington, the 
Secretary of the State Board of Health, was right when he told the Legis- 
lative Committee that it was merely a "cheap cocktail." 

The Papers did not Print One Word. 

In short, the debate was interesting and important — the two qualities 
which invariably ensure to any event big headlines in the daily newspapers. 
But that debate was not celebrated by big headlines, nor any headlines at 
all. Yet Boston is a city, and Massachusetts is a state, where the pro- 
ceedings oi the legislature figure very large in public interest, and where 
the newspapers respond to that interest by reporting the sessions with 
greater fullness and minuteness than in any other state. Had that debate 


been on prison reform, on Sabbath observance, the early closing saloon 
law, on any other subject, there would have been, in the next day's papers, 
overflowing accounts of verbatim report, more columns of editorial com- 
ment, and the picturesque features of it would have ensured the attention 
of the cartoonist. 

Now why? Why was this one subject tabooed? Why were the daily 
accounts of legislative proceedings in the next day's papers abridged to a 
fraction of their usual ponderous length, and all references to the aifternoon 
debate on patent medicines omitted? Why was it in vain for the speakers 
in that patent-medicine debate to search for their speeches in the next 
day's newspapers? Why did the legislative reporters fail to find their 
work in print? Why were the staff cartoonists forbidden to exercise their 
talents on that most fallow and tempting opportunity — the members of 
the Great and General Court of Massachusetts gravely tippling Peruna 
and passing the bottle around to their encircled neighbors, that practical 
knowledge should be the basis of legislative action? 

I take it if any man should assert that there is one subject on which 
the newspapers of the United States, acting in concert and as a unit, will 
deny full and free discussion, he would be smiled at as an intemperate fa- 
natic. The thing is too incredible. He would be regarded as a man 
with a delusion. And yet I invite you to search the files of the daily 
newspapers of Massachusetts for Marph 16, 1905, for an account of the 
patent-medicine debate that occurred the afternoon of March 15 in the 
Massachusetts Legislature. In strict accuracy it must be said that there 
was one exception. Any one familiar with the newspapers of the United 
States will already have named it — the Springfield Republican. That 
paper, on two separate occasions, gave several columns to the record of 
the proceedings of the legislature on the patent-medicine bill. Why the 
otherwise universal silence? 

The patent-medicine business in the United States is one of huge finan- 
cial proportions. The census of 1900 placed the value of the annual 
product at $59,611,355. Allowing for the increase of half a decade of 
rapid growth, it must be to-day not less than seventy-five millions. That 
is the wholesale price. The retail price of all the patent medicines sold 
in the United States in one year may be very conservatively placed jat 
one hundred million dollars. And of this one hundred millions which 
the people of the United States pay for patent medicines yearly, fully 
forty millions go to the newspapers. Have patience! * I have more to 
say than merely to point out the large revenue which newspapers receive 
from patent medicines, and let inference do the rest. Inference has no 
place in this story. Tluere are facts a-plenty. But it is essential to point 
out the intimate financial relation between the newspapers and the 
patent medicines. I was told by the man who for many years handled 
the advertising of the Lydia E. Pinkham Company that their expenditure 
was $100,000 a month, $1,200,000 a year. Dr. Pierce and the Peruna Com- 
pany both advertise more extensively than the Pinkham Company. Cer- 
tainly there are at least five patent-medicine concerns in the United States 
who each pay out to the newspapers more than one million dollars a 
year. When the Dr. Greene Nervura Company of Boston went into bank- 
ruptcy, its debts to newspapers for advertising amounted to $535,000. 
To the Boston Tlerald alone it owed $5,000, and to so small a paper, com- 
paratively, as the Atlanta Constitution, it owed $1,500. One obscure quack 

r-doctor in N w ■^o k wh d d m 
Authorities and a nong he pa le 
that within a j n he hnd pa d < 
another :!20 000 D Humph ; 
icine makG 

n olll hu n "(B was ra ded by the 
e zed he e w e con a s show ng 
e pape to a r ng $5 85B 80 to 
3ne of he be t known pa ent med 
of he Pa n Med n Asso 

dation: "The twen 7 thousand newapape a of the Un ted S a es make 
more money f om advert s ng he p opne a 7 med nes ban do be p 
prietOTS of the med nes hem e vea Of b e p s one th rd 

1 "CONTHAfT c 
ea In heavy type 

f me-haM goes for advertiBing." More than aix years ago, Cheney, the 
csident of the National Ai^aociation of Patent Medicine Men, estimated 
e yearly amount paid to the newapapera by the larger patent medicine 
eems at twenty million dollars— more than one thousand dollars to 
ll daily, weekly and monthly periodical in the United States. 
Silence is the Fixed Quantity. 
i throw any Hgbt on the silence of the Masaachusetta papersT 
naturally such large sums paid by the pntent-medicine men to the 


papers suggest the tliougliL of favor. But silence is too important a part 
of the patent-medicine man's business to be left to the capricious chance 
of favor. Silence is the most important thing in his business. The 
ingredients of his medicine — ^that is nothing. Does the price of golden- 
seal go up? Substitute whisky. Does the price of whisky go up? Buy 
the refuse wines of the California vineyards. Does the price of opium go 
too high, or the public fear of it make it an inexpedient thing to use? Take 
it out of the formula and substitute any worthless barnyard w^eed. But 
silence is the fixed quantity — silence as to the frauds he practices; silence 
as to the abominable stewings and brewings that enter into his nostrum; 
silence as to the deaths and sickness he causes ; silence as to the drug fiends 
he makes, the inebriate asylums he fills. Silence he must have. So he 
makes silence a part of the contract. 

Read the significant silence of the Massachusetts newspapers in the 
light of the following contracts for advertising. They are the regular 
printed form used by Hood, Ayer and Munyon in making their advertising 
contracts with thousands of newspapers throughout the United States. 

On page 74 is shown the contract made by the J. C. Ayer Company, 
makers of Ayer*s Sarsaparilla. At the top is the name of the firm, "The 
J. C. Ayer Company, Ix)well, Mass.," and the date. Then follows a blank 
for the number of dollars, and then the formal contract: "We hereby 

agree, for the sum of Dollars per year, to insert in 

the , published at , the advertisement of the 

J. C. Ayer Company." Then follow the conditions as to space to be used 
each issue, the page the advertisonicnt is to be on, and the position it is 
to occupy. Then these two remarkable conditions of the contract: "First — 
It is agreed in case any law or laws are enacted, either state or national, 
harmful to the interests of the J. C. Ayer Company, that this contract 
may be canceled by them from date of such enactment, and the insertions 
made paid for pro-rata with the contract price." 

This clause is remarkable enough. But of it more later. For the present 
examine the second clause: "Second — It is agreed that the J. C. Ayer Co. 
may cancel this contract, pro-rata, in case advertisement^ are published 
in this paper in which their products are offered, with a view to substitu- 
tion or other harmful motive; also in case any matter otherwise detri- 
mental to the J. C. Ayer Company's interest is permitted to appear 
in the reading columns or elsewhere in the paper." 

This agreement is signed in duplicate, one by the J. C. Ayer Company 
and the other one by the newspaper. 

All Muzzle-Clauses Alike. 

That is the contract of silence. (Notice the next one, in identically 
the same language, bearing the name of the C. I. Hood Company, the 
other great manufacturer of sarsaparilla; and then the third — again in 
identically the same words — for Dr. Munyon.) That is the clause which 
with forty million dollars, muzzles the press of the country. I wonder if 
the Standard Oil Company could, for forty million dollars, bind the news- 
papers of the United States in a contract that "no matter detrimental to 
the Standard Oil Company's interests be permitted to appear in the read- 
ing columns or elsewhere in this paper." 

Is it a mere coincidence that in each of these contracts the silence 
clause is framed in the same words? Is the inference fair that there is 


an agreement nniong the palent-miHtivine men nnil quaek doctors, each t 
impose thia contract iin nil the nrnvRpapers with whieh it deals, » 
reaclitng tlie newspapers wliieh the otlier iloea not, and nil combined i 
ing all the papers in the United Stales, and effeeting 3 nnivi^rsal agreemenl 
■mong newspapers to print nothing dt^trimental to patent medicinetn 
You need not take it ea an inference. 1 shall show It later as a (act. 

"In the reading eohimns or elspwhere in this paper." The paper n 
not print itself, nor must it allow any outside party, who might 1 so. to pay the I'fgriilor advertising rates and print the truth ahout'^ 

Chemcy Meoicime Co. 

A letter such as Uiin wiii! Bpnt Icet Febi-uary to every paper 
ChOBBtta wli!ch bad a contract with any patent- medicine concern. There wenlj 
very lew newEpapers uocantamlnated by the red c la use, end tbey all gan) 
"pconipt attention to tlie bill." The nnrae of the paper to which this letteej 
ma aadreaseil Is erased In order to ehleld tbe pnbllsbera fpom conseauencea Ihat^ 
might (alluw. 

patent medicines in the advertii^ing columns. More than a, year ago, juata 
after Mr. Bok had printed hia first article exposing patent mi " ' ' 

business man in St. Louis, a man of great wealth, conceived that it would'l^ 
help his business greatlj- if he could linve Mr. Bole's aiticle printed a 


advertisement in every newspaper in the United States. He gave the 
order to a firm of advertising agents and the firm began in Texas, intending 
to cover the country to Maine. But that advertisement never got beyond 
a few obscure country papers in Texas. The contract of silence was effect- 
ive; and a few weeks later, at their annual meeting, the patent-medicine 
association "Resolved"— I quote the minutes — "That this Association com- 
mend the action of the great majority of the publishers of the United 
States who have consistently refused said false and malicious attacks in 
the shape of advertisements which in whole or in part libel proprietajry 

I have said that the identity of the language of the silence clause in 
several patent-medicine advertising contracts sueeests mutual understand- 
ing among the nostrum makers, a preconceived plan; and I have several 
times mentioned the patent-medicine association. It seems incongruous, 
almost humorous, to speak of a national organization of quack doctors and 
patent-medicine makers; but there is one, brought together for mutual 
support, for co-operation, for — but just what this organization is for, I 
hope to show. No other organization ever demonstrated so clearly the truth 
that "in union there is strength." Its official name is an innocent-seeming 
one — **The Proprietary Association of America." There are annual meet- 
ings, annual reports, a constitution and by-laws. And I would call special 
attention to Article II of those by-laws. 

"The objects of this association," says this article, "are: to protect the 
rights of its members to the respective trade-marks that they may own 
or control; to establish such mutual co-operation as may be required in the 
various branches of the trade; to reduce all burdens that may be oppress- 
ive; to facilitate and foster equitable principles in the purchase and sale 
o# merchandise; to acquire and preserve for the use of its members such 
business information as may be of value ib them; to adjust controver- 
sies and promote harmony among its members." 

That is as innocuous a statement as ever was penned of the objects 
of any organization. It might serve for an organization of honest cobblers. 
Change a few words without altering the spirit in the least, and a body of 
ministers might adopt it. In this laboriously complete statement of objects, 
there is no such word as "lobby" or "lobbying." Indeed, so harmless a 
word as "legislation" is absent — strenuously absent. 

Where the Money Goes. 

Biit I prefer to discover the true object of the organization of the "Pro- 
prietary Association of America" in another document than Article II of 
the by-laws. Consider the annual report of the treasurer, say for 1904. 
The total of money paid out during the year was $8,516.26. Of this, one 
thousand dollars was for the secretary's salary, leaving $7,516.26 to be 
accounted for. Then there is an item of postage, one of stationery, one of 
printing — the little routine expenses of every organization; and finally 
there is this remarkable item : 

Legislative Committee, total expenses, $6,606.95. 

Truly, the Proprietary Association of America seems to have several 
objects, as stated in its by-laws, which cost it very little, and one object — 
not stated in its by-laws at all — which costs it all its annual revenue aside 
from the routine expenses of stationery, postage and secretary. If just a 


few more words of romment may Ik- |HTiiiiUiil on tliis poiiil, doos it not 
senn odd that so Inrgc iin iti-m ns 4<l>.<>lll>.!i.'i. fuil nf a (dIiiI IiikIki-I of onl^ 
¥8,516.26, should be put in ns ii Ininji sinii. '-U-{;i''lntfvi- ('ommittw, total 
expenses?" And wiiiild not tlic iinnuiil r[']K>rt of the treaHurer of the 
Proprietary Assoeiotinn of Ann'rii-a Ih' ii nmrc eiitertuinin)( document if 
these "total expensca" of the Lp^nslative t'uiTiinittou nvrc carefully item- 

Kot that I mean to charj;!- tlic tUni't (-iirri][ilinn of IcfciHluturcH. The 
Proprietafy Association iif AiiiiTini ii^^cd ti> do tliat. Tlii-y um-iI to s)>cnd, 
according to the stutenictit of tlic prc^i'iit |>ri-siitcnt of the orpniiwitlon, 
5[r. F. J. aicnev, as much an »cvcn1v-llvi. thousaiid dullar« u ycir. But 
that was before Mr. (Iiciicy hiiu^ilf dis<s<vcr<'d a bctlcr way. The ^hUnc 
of pnblic health legiglation is the piinuiy obJKt and chief activity, the 



very laison d'etie, of the Pioprietaiy Aasociation. The motive back of 
bringing the quatk doctors and patent- medicine manufacturers of the 
United Btates into a mutual organizatinn was tliia: Here are some scores 
of men, each paying; a large sum annually to the newspapers. The agi^re- 
gate of these sums is forty million dollars. ISy organization, the full 
effect of this money can be got and used as a unit in preventing the pass- 
age of laws which would compel them to tell the contents of their nos- 
trums, and in suppressing the newnpopcr puhlieity which would drive them 
into oblivion. So it was no mean intellect wliieh devised the scheme 
whereby every newspaper in America is made an oHive lobbyist for the 
patent-me<Hcine association. The ni:in who did it is the present president 
of the orgnnkation, its executive head in the work of suppressing public 


knowledge, stifling public opinion and warding oS public health legislation, 
the Mr. Cheney already mentioned. He makes a catarrh cure which, 
according to the Massachusetts State Board of Health, contains fourteen 
and three-fourths per cent, of alcohol. As to his scheme for making the 
newspapers of America not only maintain silence, but actually lobby in 
behalf of patent medicines, I am glad that I am not under the neces- 
sity of describing it in my own words. It would be easy to err in the 
indirection that makes for incredulity. Fortunately, I need take no resn^n* 
sibility. I have Mr. Cheney's own words, in which he explained his scheme 
to his fellow-members of the Proprietary Association of America. The 
quotation marks alone (arid the comment within the parentheses) are mine. 
The remainder is the language of Mr. Cheney himself: 

Mr. Cheney's Plan. 

"We have had a good deal of difficulty in the last few years with the 
different legislatures of the different states. ... I believe I have a 
plan whereby we will have no difficulty whatever with these people. I 
have used it in my business for two years and know it is a practical thing. 
. . . I, inside of the last two years, have made contracts with between 
fifteen and sixteen thousand newspapers, and never had but one man 
refuse to sign the contract, and by saying to him that I could not sign 
^ contract without this clause in it he readily signed it. My point is merely 
to shift the responsibility. We to-day have the responsibility on our 
shoulders. As you all know, tliere is hardly a year but we have had a 
lobbyist in the different state legislatures — one year in New York, one 
year in New Jersey, and so on." (Read that frank confession twice — note 
the bland matter-of-factness of it.) "There has been a constant fear 
that something would come up, so I had this clause in my contract 
added. This is what I have in every contract I make : *It is hereby agreed 
that should your state, or the United States Government, pass any law 
that would interfere with or restrict the sale of proprietary medicines, 
this contract shall become void.' ... In the state of Illinois a few years 
ago they wanted to assess me three hundred dollars. I thought I had a 
better plan than this, so I wrote to about forty papers and merely said: 
*Please look at your contract with me and take note that if this law passes 
you and I must stop doing business, and my contracts cease.' The next 
week every one of them had an article, and Mr. Man had to go. . . . 
I read this to Dr. Pierce some days ago, and he was very much taken 
up with it. I have carried this through and know it is a success. I 
know the papers will accept it. Here is a thing that costs us nothing. 
We are guaranteed against the $75,000 loss for nothing. It throws the 
responsibility on the newspapers. ... I have my contracts printed 
afid I have this printed in red type, right square across the contract, so 
there can be absolutely no mistake, and the newspaper man can not say 
to me, *I did not see it/ He did see it and knows what he is doing. It 
seems to me it is a point worth every man's attention. ... I think 
this is pretty near a sure thing." 

I should like to ask the newspaper owners and editors of America what 
they think of that scheme. I believe that the newspapers, when they 
signed each individual contract, were not aware that they were being 
dragooned into an elaborately thought-out scheme to make every news- 
paper in the United States, from the greatest metropolitan daily to the 



J. C. Ayer Company 

Manufacturing Chemists 

Lowell, Mass.,.^^ t2<Z \90^' 

W» herA^ agree, for the 
payable in 

to Insert io the 
poblisbed at 

rr....l>pl2art per year. 

',, upon receipt cf tUl, 

in the eounty of _ Slate Of. , . 

the ndvertisementi of i. C Aytr Cemtemf, of Lowell, Maee.. during the ensuing twelwe months, 
from date of first insertion 4HHft««iaHilkMHaMaaB«M^aMMHMHHMriViMlli^Mi^ in 
matter, arrangement, and date of pubUeatUm, according to plates and copy furnished 
by them, the space and insertions to be as specified below, vUt. : 

adverHsetneni to average .inches. ....^^^^^^^^^^^^i^....^ ' ■cwfc 

week in the weekly issue, „ .^^^^__^^_;^,^mn;''eaA insertion to be a* top of 

. . -.. .^pagi,,.whdtXfadj^ting pure reading down one side and under- 

■nmsth, WSriMmn of pog*' «P<w< from other adoertising. 



..JS. 1 

/ adve.-ti$ement to average //...' inchcs....„'f<Z>iiL/..:< each 

week in the weekly ^4sue, ^.^?^ timee, each insertion to be at top of 

. ,/C^r-t</Ct^ poge, wholly adjoining pure reading down one side and under- 
neath, or at bottom of. wfef~?:r.f^r;>rr' page, apart from other advertising (as paper 

ismadCMipon J. 

W> also agree to notify J. C kjet Caapwr X)f first insertion of these advertisements, to mail 
one copy of every issue of the paper cm published to i- C. Ayw Caapaar, UwtO, IUh^ during 
term of this contract, and to proSiptly supply missing papers upon request. 

Change in maJee-up bf paper or consolidation with another paper entitles J> C Kym 
iumftmf to select new position or cancel contract, as preferred by them. 

First. — It in •fpwMl locate any Uw or laws are eniicted. either State or national, harmftil to tte bitereata 
of the J. C. Ayer Co., that tbia contract may be cancelled by tbem from date of each enaetmeat, and the 
InMrtiona mnde psid for pro rata with the contract price. 

Second. — It la agreed tliat the J. C. Ayer Co. may cancel ebia contract, pro mta. In caae adTertlaeoMnta 
arepubllahed in thia paper In which their product* are offered, with a riew to substitution, or other harmful 
motive ; also, In case any matter otherwise detrimental to the J. C. Ayer Co.'s interests is permitted to 
appear In the reading oolomns, or elsewhere, in this paper. 

Guaranteed Circulation 


bm to J. a. AVER CO. for Mr oooiptim. 

Form of Contract (A). 


The gist of the contract lies in the clause which is marked with brackets, 
to the effect that the agreetnent is voidable, in case any matter detrimental 
to the advertiser's interests "is permitted to appear in the reading columns, 
or elsewhere?, in this paper." This clause, in the same words, appears in all 
three of these patent-medicine advertising contracts. The documents repro- 
duced here weref gathered from three different newspapers in widely separated 
parts of the United States. The name of the paper In each case has been 
suppressed in order to shield the publisher from the displeasure of the 
patent medicine combination. How much publishers are compelled to fear 
this displeasure is exemplified by the experience of the Cleveland Press, from 
whose columns .^ IS, 000 worth of advertising was withdrawn within forty-eight 


remotest country weekly, an active, energetic, self-interested lobbyist for 
the patent-medicine association. If the newspapers knew how they were 
being used as cat's-paws, I believe they would resent it. Certianly the 
patent-medicine association itself feared this, and has kept this plan of 
Mr. Cheney's a crfreful secret. In this same meeting of the Proprietary 
Association of America, just after Mr. Cheney had made the speech 
quoted above, and which it was being resolved that every other patont- 

taiMtt, Matty ,A/^;JLv.H, , /,6y,., 190 ^. 

^^mtheri<^ — QLAia&d^ 

- C^^'r^f. .•..,..,« 

"Dtaif Sir: We hereby agree to pay JX^..^bJtAtLAa!/Ci»i. deWm^ 

pvem .^'. ■■ - ^ m e mt h if for one yean^e adverUring inike 

\^yCOyucCAA4.. SJxjLuruif.jae per eontraet signed by you, asfoUowe: 

Weekly-^ve — d^inchet 62 inserUone, /Irtt advi. on.ALtjkaaL/^^ 
page, top of page taUh reading matter Itvmriidef and foUounng, m 
first advt in col. and udih reading matter h9ihtide4,ehanged every 

ittue, ,-=: Unee, inem Hon e ,. 

l o wi n g r ead i ng mm t i er t en ee p m r a t e p a g ee t ehmn g e d wmy in e m U m , 

an d a men thty ne ti ee . 

tfj w »i »4 mt n t U mm i f a f tht y> <n mf mrt-flmm^tk$*-iMlem-^m4^^Smiei»muml»t 
MatUr to 6« twnUktd fty O. I. Bood O*. Fnpiii UtOmeti, mU f»nttktt to m$ 
laf% « lik« M^ prmf Omi tk» md^mUmmmd te Mat ImttHti. 
ti U fwUm ugrmd thai thm j N if — ■ < ■ cftaS to mmU fnijiWf •• J'-yTTmrrf 

and Oat my faOnf to I^Mii m d nm H mmm H « t§mifHd MaS to 

I wyad* up, or a tmm pr» rata May to diM tmm I t i mi Mmt tf fayaaal; ato 

" <• iM< to to ffoM fmr towHtowt, V wir ■^■iHtiiial to glmmt to • 

> 1ft o U tr mi tm tl»§ w u m t M muit m § U,or1mmmi §rt§mml ,0r1f m t H tmrnreim 

^ noMM mImm; aWv ■Mi'k*-«y ilff««r to 

I •ftoB to r«tonMd «*«• mB«« /(Mr. itHIW— I J^fh^ <BF— — f» 

^ynagiH> iM tf lto at nf «^ f »t«tot< to <M<lya> ipw ^M . 

^^ t%mtf <M<ni«< your /or«Ma% Mot mat mmt r mU may to MrrMC% mJ /MO- 

JW^ MKCutetf ; olto m* IAoI o«ir iMaM to f r mf tfiig aafaratf an yasir ai aJH w y IM^ 

' ttat •• aioy tmrnfOg rae a laa Ito pofmn fifom Ito jbvl aaJ «0 catoagMal 

mitd tkmr ttif laaa t a Ito y wfar aafry «^ adaarMaaaMafa to 

/f <f afrtMf ftol flU (7. /. Emi <h. wmt aaaetl flif aiaii a a l . on Mto, fa i 

mr$ pmkUahae fo IM« 9«a«r to wA<dk tt«4r » »a <B <l » ai* afSwatf. wMft a alM» la 
— toH tol toa. ar aOir tofai/kil aiaMM/ atM. to aaa« aav ai aWr it kmm l i$ Sttvlmmilml to A* 
€. t. Hm4 00.'* Im tt n tU U § 9 rmlH $ i la mpg rn r to Oa taa i< a» aataaHM, ar ato—tow, to 

/aaaaaaa W — at aratotolttfayaliaaaton to <ii a < < « J a < aiiaa la fta awa^itow araato a/ 
p n » rUtart aM<ictoa. Haa flMa m H l rmtt $kmtt, a< flU t f liw tf0$ tSmrtUtr, to aaiia>l>wfcj 
llatoaiato«»afato)fci'aMai l ii afiaaai fi aaa i 

Ihuttng that our huti me ee reUMome may prove - mntu at iy pUmf 

Very truly yenrt,. 

y^. a i^ytxx^ ^% 


Form of Contract (B). 

medicine man should put the same clause in his contract, the venerable 
Dr. Humphreys, oldest and wisest of the guild, arose and said: "Will it 
not be now just as well to act on this, each and every one for himself, 
instead of putting this on record? ... I think the idea is a good one, 
but really don't think it had better go in our proceedings." And another 
fellow nostrum-maker, seeing instantly the necessity of secrecy, said: "I 
am heartily in accord with Dr. Humphreys. The suggestion is a good one. 


but when we come to put in our public proceedings, and state that we 
have adopted such a resolution, I want to say that the legislators are 
just as sharp as the newspaper men. ... As a consequence, this will 
decrease the weight of the press ooninienta. Some of the papers, also, who 
would not come in, would publish something about it in the way of get- 
ting square ' 

This contract is the backbone of the scheme. The further details the 

We her eiy agree to insert the advertisentinis of the Munyon^s H, ff, 

Jtemdf Co, in our ^Mition, for 

the next. months and thereafter^ same rate and conditions until 

forbid hy either party, according to copy and instructions furnished iy the 
Afunyon's H. If. Remedy Co. 

Position top of col. and next to reading matter. To be first medical 
advertisement in paper and not to be placed in crotch or fold of paper. 
This can be avoided by having a column of reading or advertising between. 
At. the rate of.^ „ „ _ 

Payments to be made monthly quarterly oh the basis of the amount 
of space used. 

All advertisements, to be set in regular reading type of paper when 
Sesired, Change in copy to be made without extra charge. 

This agreement is not to be invalidated by insertions in wrong loco- 
Sions or omissions, as improper insertions or lack -of insertions are not to 
ke counted or paid for, the publisher gu4irantceing the full number of cor^ 
red insertions with proper positions. 

All editions ecuk day of papers containing the advertisement of the 
Munyoris H. H. Remedy Co. to be sent to them during the life of this con* 
iract, and to supply missing copies upon request. 

Change in make-up of paper or consolidation with another paper 
entitles the MunyotCs H, H, Remedy Co. to select new position at above 
rate or cancel contract, us preferred by them. 

First— -It is agreed in case any law or laws are enacted, either State 
or National, harmful to the interests of the Munyon's If. If. Remedy 
Co. tliat this contract may be canceled by them from date of such enact* 
ment, and the insertions made paid for pro rata with the contract price. 

Second — // is agreed that the Munyon*s If. If. Remedy Co. may can- 
cel this contract pro rata in case advertisements are published . in this 
paper in which their products are offered, with a view to substitution or 
other harmful motive j also, in case any matter otherwise detrimental to 
the Munyon's If. If, Remedy Co.'s interests is permitted to appear in the 
reading columns, or elsewhere in this paper. 

Guaranteed average circulation for past twelve months. 

Accepted for 

^y -. 

Form of Contract (C). 

organization of the bureau to carry it into effect — that, too, has been kept 
carefully concealed from the generally unthinking newspapers, who are all 
unconsciously mere individual cogs in the patent-medicine lobbying ma- 
chine. At one of the meetings of the association, Dr. R. V. Pierce of 
Buffalo arose and said (I quote him verbatim) :..."! would move 
you that the report of the Committee on Legislation be made a special 
order to be taken up immediately . . . that it be considenred in execu- 



Letter addressed to Mr. William Extract from a speech delivered 

Allen White, Editor of the Ga- before the Proprietary Associa- 

zette, Emporia, Kan. tion of America. 


Dear Sir: «^^ ^^^^ ^^^ ^ ^^^^ ^^^^ ^^ 

I have read with a great deal of ,._ ,. . ,, i j. * 

interest, to-day, an article in difficulty m the last few years 

Collier'a illustrating therein the with the different legislatures of 

contract between your paper and the different states. ... I 

ourselves. [See p. 13— Editor.] , ,. ^ , , i , 

Mr. S. Hopkins Adams endeav- ^^^^^^^ ^ ^"'^^ * P^^^ ^^^^^^y ^^ 

ored very hard (as I understand) will have no difficulty whatever 

to find me, but I am sorry to say ^j^^ these people. I have used it 

that I was not at home. I really 

believe that I could have explained in my business for two years, and 

that clause of the contract to his I know it is a practical thing. 

entire satisfaction and thereby _ , i inside of the last two 

saved him the humiliation of ' 

making an erratic statement. years, have made contracts with 

This la the first intimation between fifteen and sixteen thou- 

that I have ever had that that , j i j 

clause was put into the contract 8^°^ newspapers, and never had 

to control the Press in any way, but one man refuse to sign the 

or the editorial columns of the contract, and by saying to him 

Press. I believe that if Mr. Adams ^ „ : . ^ . 

was making contracts now, and <^^at I could not sign a contract 

making three-year contracts, the without this clause in it he read- 
same as we are, taking into con- .i, „;,^«j u \jr^r *>/^;«f to ^^r-^}^ 
., .. ,, * j.i. i.1 ily sieniea it. My point is merely 
sideration the conditions of the •^ & j t- j 

different legislatures, he would be to shift the responsibility. We 

desirous of this same paragraph to-day have the responsibility of 

as a safety guard to protect him- ^, , , ., , , 

self, in case any State did pa^s a ^^« ^^^^^ °^**^^^^ "P^" ^"^ «^*'"^- 

law prohibiting the sale of our ders. . . . There has been 

fi*®^^* constant fear • that something 

His argument surely falls flat ,, ▼ i. j u.i.. 

when he takes into consideration ^"^^ «o°»« ^P' «> ^ ^^^ *^^' 

the conduct of the North Dakota clause in my contract added. 

Legislature, l^cause every news- Thjg jg ^j^^t I have in every con- 
paper m that State that we adver- 
tise in had contracts containing tract I make : 'It is hereby agreed 

that clause. Why we should be that should your State, or the 

JT^^ii't^^P''^-^?'' ^'"""^ '''''' •'' United States Government, pass 

two years advertising or more, in ' ^ 

a State where we could not sell any law that would interfere 

our goods, is more than I can un- with or restrict the sale of pro- 

derstand. As before stated, it is . . ... ... , , 

merely a precautionary paragraph P^etary medicines, this contract 

to meet conditions such as now shall become void.' ... In the 


exist in North Dakota. We vvero State of Illinois a few years ago 
impelled to withdraw from that ^j,^^ ^^^^^ ^^ ^^^^^^ '^^ ^^^^ 
State because we would not pub- 
lish our formula, and. therefore, hundred dollars. I thought I 

under this contract, we are not had a better plan than this, so 

COTi^Ued to continue our adver- j ^^^^^ ^^ ^^^^^ ^^^^ ^^^^ 

To illustrate: There are 739 n»<l merely said: 'Please look at 

publications in your State — 619 your contract with me and take 

S! ^^.^^^^ ^*^}^®* *°^ weeklies, qq^c that if this law passes you 
Out of this number we are adver- , - . . , . , . 

tising in over 500, at an annual *°d I must stop domg business, 

expenditure of $8,000 per year and my contracts cease.' The 

(estimated). We make a three- next week every one of them had 
year contract with all of them, .. , t i. -a 

knd, therefore, our liabilities in *° '''^'''^'- • • • I ^^^ve earned 

your State are $24,000, providing, tliis through and know it is a suc- 

of course, all these contracts were cess. I know the papers will ac- 
made at the same date. Should , ,l tt ii • ^i i. 

these contracts all be made this '''^^ '^' ^^^^ '^ ^ ^^»"g *^^^^ ""^^^^ 

fall and your State should pass a is nothing. We are guaranteed 

law this winter (three months .,^.ainst the $75,000 loss for noth- 
later) prohibiting the sale of our 

goods, there would be virtually a «ng- It throws the responsibility 

loss to us of $24,000. Therefore, on the newspapers. ... I 

for a business precaution to guard i . . • a j j 

against just such conditions, we ^^^'^ "^>' ^'^^^^^^^s printed and 

add the red paragraph referred to I have this printed in red tjrpe, 

in Oollier'8, right square across the contract, 

I make this statement to you, g^ ^^ere can be absolutely no mis- 

as I am credited with being the , , , ^, 

originator of the paragraph, and ^^^^' ^^^ *^« newspaper man can 

I believe that I am justified in not say to me, T did not see it.' 

adding this paragraph to our ^^ ^j^ ^^^ ^ and knows what he 
contract, not for the purpose of . . 

controlling the Press, but, as be- is doing. It seems to me it is a 

fore stated, as a business precau- point worth every man's attention. 
tion which any man should take j ^hink this is pretty near 

who expects to pay his bills. w *» 

Will you kindly give me your * ^^^^ thing, 
version of the situation? Await- 
ing an early reply, I am, 

Sincerely yours, 

tive session, and that every person not a member of the organization be 
asked to retire, so that it may be read and considered in executive ses- 
sion. There are matters and suggestions in reference to our future action, 
and measures to be taken which are advised therein, that we would not 
wish to have published broadcast over the country for very good reasons." 
Now what were the "matters and suggestions'" which Dr. Pierce "would 
not wish to have published broadcast over the country for very good 
reasons ?" 


Valuable Newspaper Aid. 

Dr. Pierce's son, Dr. V. Mott Pierce, was chairman of the Committee on 
Legislation. He was the author of the "matters and suggestions" which 
must be considered ip the dark. "Never before," said he, "in the history 
of the Proprietary Association were there so many bills in different 
state legislatures that were vital to our interests. This was due, we 
think, to an effort on the part of different state boards of health, who 
have of late years held national meetings, to make an organized effort 
to establish what are known as *pure food laws.' " Then the younger 
Pierce stated explicitly the agency responsible for the defeat of this 
public health legislation: "We must not forget to place the honor where 
due for our uniform success in defeating class legislation directed against 
our legitimate pursuits. The American Newspaper Publishers' Association 
has rendered us valued aid through their secretary's oflfice in New York, 
and we can hardly overestimate the power brought to bear at Washington 
by individual newspapers." . . . (On another occasion, Dr. Pierce, 
speaking of two bills in the Illinois Legislature, said: "Two things oper- 
ated to bring these bills to the danger line. In the first place, the Chicago 
papers were almost wholly without influence in the Legislature. . . . 
Had it not been for the active co-operation of the state outside of Chicago 
there is absolute certainty that the bill would have passed. ... I 
think that a great many members do not appreciate the power that we 
can bring to bear on legislation through the press.") But this power, 
in young Dr. Pierce's opinion, must be organized and systematized. "If 
it is not presumptuous on the part of your chairman," he said modestly, 
"to outline a policy which experience seems to dictate for the future, it 
would be briefly as follows" — here the younger Pierce explains the "mat- 
ters and suggestions" which must not be "published broadcast over the 
country." The first was "the organization of a Legislative Bureau, with 
its offices in New York or Chicago. Second, a secretary, to be appointed 
by the Chairman of the Committee on Legislation, who will receive a 
stated salary, sufficiently large to be in keeping with such person's ability, 
and to compensate him for the giving of all his time to this work." "The 
benefits of such a working bureau to the Proprietary Association," said 
Dr. Pierce, "can be foreseen: Fust, a systematic plan to acquire early 
knowledge of pending or threatened legislation could be taken up. In 
the past we have relied too much on newspaper managers to acquaint us 
of such bills coming up. . . . Another plan would be to have the 
regulation formula bill, for instance, introduced by some friendly legisla- 
tor, and have it referred to his own commitee, where he could hold it 
until all danger of such another bill being introduced were over, and the 
Legislature had adjourned.^ 

Little wonder Dr. Pierce wanted a secret session to cover up the frank 
naivete of his son, which he did not "wish to have published broadcast 
over the country, for very good reasons." 

In discussing this plan for a legislative bureau, another member told 
what in his estimation was needed. "The trouble," said he — I quote from 
the minutes — "the trouble we will have in attempting to buy legislation — 
supposing we should attempt it — is that we will never know what we 
are buying until we get through. We may have paid the wrong man, 
and the bill is passed and we are out. It is not a safe proposition, if we 
consider it legitimate, which we do not." 

tb* bill ttetuui 

F p::?:s 

l-nrwiloh ulll 
k t oiaitD Hliii 




_T1i1b lettpr waa sent by the publlahers or one ot tlie leading DewBpaperB 
Senator Noble of that, state. It Illustrates tbe mettiod 
lalpnt-mediclnH niskers lo cflBmel the news|iaiiei's In each 

. - ._„ — - .-jem, Seniitor Jiolile Introdm'ed a hill requlr. 

medicine manufactuwrB lo tale dn their 1iiIh>Ib thp pen-eiitage 
various poiaona wblcli ev?ry boltle mlj;bt coiitniii. Senator Noble and a 
others foiisbt vallniill)' tor their bill [liionuhont the whole of the last 
(Ion ot the Wlscon«ln LcBlHlatiire, hut were deteati'd by the united action 
the newsnaiier iiiibllsherB, n-ho, as tbU letter Ebowa. exert rd pressure of 
"- kind, IncliiiJlno; fhreats, to compel members ot the Leglalature to Tote 

Bgatnst the bill. 

' 138 

True, it is not legitimate, but the main point is, it's not safe; that's the 
Ihing to be considered. 

The patent-medicine man continued to elaborate on the plans proposed 
by Dr. Pierce: "It would not be a safe proposition at all. What this 
association should have ... is a regularly established bureau. . . . 
We should have all possible information on tap, and we should have a list 
of the members of the legislature of every state. We should have a list 
of the most influential men that control them, or that can influence them. 
. . . For instance, if in the state of Ohio a bill comes up that is adverse 
to us, turn to the books, find out who are the members of the legislature 
there, who are the publishers of the papers in the state, where they are 
located, which are the Republican and which the Democratic papers. 
. . . It will take money, but if the money is rightly spent, it will be the 
best investment ever made." 

The Trust's Club for Legislators. 

That is about as comprehensive, as frankly impudent a scheme of 
controlling legislation as it is possible to imagine. The plan was put in 
the form of a resolution, and the resolution was passed. And so the 
Proprietary Association of America maintains a lawyer in Chicago, and a 
permanent secretary, office and staff. In every state it maintains an 
agent whose business it is to watch during the session of the Legislature 
each day's batch of new bills, and whenever a bill affecting patent medi- 
cines shows its head, to telegraph the bill, verbatim, to headquarters. 
There some scores of printed copies of the bill are made, and a copy 
is sent to every member of the association — to the Peruna people, to Dr. 
Pierce at Buffalo, to Kilmer at Birmingham, to Cheney at Toledo, to the 
Pinkham people at Lynn, and to all the others. Thereon each manufac- 
turer looks up the list of papers in the threatened state with which he has 
the contracts described above. And to each newspaper he sends a per- 
emptory telegram calling the publisher's attention to the obligations of 
his contract, and commanding him to go to work to defeat the anti-patent- 
medicine bill. In practice, this organization works with smooth perfection 
and well-oiled accuracy to defeat the public health legislation which is 
introduced by boards of health in over a score of states every year. To 
illustrate, let me describe as typical the history of the public health 
bills which were introduced and defeated in Massachusetts last year. I 
have already mentioned them as showing how the newspapers, obeying 
that part of their contract which requires them to print nothing harmful 
to patent medicines, refused to print any account of the exposures which 
were made by several members of the Legislature during the debate of 
the bill. I wish here to describe their obedience to that other clause of the 
contract, in living up to which they printed scores of bitterly partisan 
editorials against the public health bill, and against its authors per- 
sonally; threatened with political death those members of the Legislature 
who were disposed to vote in favor of it, and even, in the persons of the ed- 
itors and owners, went up to the State House and lobbied personally 
against the bill. And since I have already told of Mr. Cheney's author- 
ship of the scheme, I will here reproduce, as typical of all the others 
(all the other large patent-medicine concerns sent similar letters and 
telegrams), the letter which Mr. Cheney himself, on the 14th day of Feb- 
ruary, sent to all the newspapers in Massachusetts with which he has lob« 
bying contracts — ^practically every newspaper in the states 


'Toledo, Ohio. Feb. 14, 1005. 

" ■ , Mass. 

^Gentlemen : 

"Should House bills Nos. 829, 30, 607. 724. or Senate bill No. 
185 become laws« it will force us to discontinue advertising: in 
your state. Your prompt attention regarding this bill we believe 
would be of mutual benefit. 

"We would respectfully refer you to the contract whicli we 
have with you. Respectfully, 

"Cheney Medicine Company." 

Now here is the fruit which that letter bore: a strong editorial against 
the anti-patent-medicine bill, denouncing it and its author in the most 
vituperative language, a marked copy of which was sent to every member 
of the Massachusetts Legislature. But this was not all that this one 
zealous publisher did; he sent telegrams to a number of members, and a 
personal letter to the representative of his district calling on that member 
not only to vote, but to use his influence against the bill, on the pain of 
forfeiting the paper's favor. 

Now this seems to me a shameful thing — that a ^fassachusetts news- 
paper, of apparent dignity and outward hign standing, should jump to the 
cracking of the whip of a nostrum-maker in Ohio; that honest and well- 
meaning members of the Massachusetts Legislature, whom all the money 
of Rockefeller could not buy, who obey only the one thing which they look 
on as the expression of public opinion of their constituents, the united 
voice of the press of their district — that these men should unknowingly 
cast their votes at the dictate of a nostrum-maker in Ohio, who, if he 
should deliver his command personally and directly, instead of through a 
newspaper supine enough to let him control it for a hundred dollars a year, 
would be scorned ana flouted. 

Any self-respecting newspaper must be humiliated by the attitude of 
the patent- medicine association. They don't ASK the newspapers to do 
it— they ORDER it done. Read again Mr. Cheney's account of his plan, 
note the half-contemptuous attitude toward the newspapers. And read 
again Mr. Cheney's curt letter to the Massachusetts papers; observe the 
threat, just sufficiently veiled to make it more of a threat; and the for- 
mal order from a superior to a clerk: "We would respectfully refer you to 
the contract we have with you." 

And the threat is not an empty one. The newspaper which refuses to 
aid the patent-medicine people is marked. Some time ago Dr. V. Mott 
Pierce of Buffalo was chairman of what is called the "Committee on Leg- 
islation'' of the Proprietary Association of America. He was giving his 
annual report to the association. "We are happy to say," said he, "that 
though over a dozen bills were before the different State Legislatures last 
winter and spring, yet we have succeeded in defeating all the bills which 
were prejudicial to proprietary interests without the use of money, and 
through the vigorous co-operation and aid of the publishers. January 23 
your committee sent out letters to the principal publications in New 
York asking their aid against this measure. It is hardly necessary to 
state that the publishers of New York responded generously against these 
harmful measures. The only small exception was the Evening Stwr of 

f ff 

140 _ .: . ■ 

Poughkeepsie, N. Y., the publisher of which, in a very discourteous letter, 
refused to assist us in any way." 

Is it to be doubted that Dr. Pierce reported this exception to his fellow 
patent-medicine men, that they might make note of the offending paper, 
and bear it in mind when they made their contracts the following year? 
There are other cases which show what happens to the newspaper whi(?h 
offends the patent-medicine men. \ am fortunate enough to be able to 
describe the following incident in the language of the man who wielded th& 
club, as he told the story with much pride to his fellow patent-medicine 
men at their annual meeting: 

**Mr. Chairman and Gentlemen of the Proprietary Association," said 
Mr. Cooper, "I desire to present to you a situation which I think it is 
incumbent on manufacturers generally to pay some attention to — namely, 
the publication of sensational drug news which appears from time to 
time in the leading papers of the country. . . . There are, no doubt, 
many of you in the room, at least a dozen, who are familiar with the 
sensational articles that appeared in the Cleveland Press. Gentlemen, 
this is a question that appeals to you as a matter of business. . 
The Cleveland Press indulged in a tirade against the so-called *drug trust. 
. . . (the "drug trust" is the same organization of patent-medicine 
men — including Pierce, Pinkham, Peruna, Kilmer and all the well-known 
ones — which I have referred to as the patent-medicine association. Its 
official name is the Proprietary Association of America.) "I sent out the 
following letter to fifteen manufacturers" (of patent medicines) : 

" * Gentlemen — Inclosed we hand you a copy of matter which 
is appearing in the Cleveland papers. It is detrimental to the 
drug business to have this matter agitated in a sensational way. 
In behalf of the trade we would ask you to use your influence with 
the papers in Cleveland to discontinue this unnecessary publicity, 
and if you feel you can do so, we would like to have you wire the 
business managers of the Cleveland papers to discontinue their 
sensational drug articles, as it is proving very injurious to your 
business. Respectfully, E. R. Cooper.' 

"Because of that letter which we sent out, the Cleveland Press received 
inside of forty-eight hours telegrams from six • manufacturers canceling 
thousands of dollars* worth of advertising and causing a consequent dearth 
of sensational matter along drug lines. It resulted in a loss to one paper 
alone of over eighteen thousand dollars in advertising. Gentlemen, when 
you touch a man's pocket, you touch him where he lives; that principle 
is true of the newspaper editor or the retail druggist, and goes through 
all business." 

The Trust's Club for Newspapers. 

That is the account of how the patent-medicine man used his club on 
the newspaper head, told in the patent-medicine man's own words, as he 
described it to his fellows. Is it pleasant reading for self-respecting 
newspaper men — the exultant air of those last sentences, and the worldly 
wisdom: "When you touch a man's pocket you touch him whore he lives; 
that principle is true of the newspaper editor. . . ." ? 

But the worst of this incident has not yet been told. Then* remains the 
account of how the offending newspaper, in the language of the bully, 
"ate dirt." The Cleveland Press is one of a syndicate of newspapers, all 


under Mr. McRae's ownership — but I will use Mr. Cooper's own wonls: 
"We not only reached the Cleveland Press by the movement taken up in 
that way, but went further, for the Cleveland Press is one of a syndicate 
of newspa]>ers known as the Scripps-McRae League, from whom tliis ex- 
planation is self-explanatory: 

" 'Office Scripi»s-McRae Pbess AssocrATiox. 

"T^lR. E. R. Cooper, Cleveland, Ohio: 

" T^Ir. McRae arrived in New York the latter part of last week 
after a three months' trip to E^ypt. I took up the matter of the 
recent cut-rate articles wliich appeared in the Cleveland Press with 
him, and to-day received the following? tclefjram from him from 
Cincinnati: "Scripps-McRae papers will contain no more such as 
Cleveland Press published concernin<2: the medicine trust — M. A. 
McRae." I am sure that in the future nothing will appear in the 
Cleveland Press detrimental to vour interests. 

" Tours trulv, F. J. Carlisle.' " 

This incident was told, in the exact words above quoted, at the nine* 
teenth annual meeting of the Proprietary Association of America. 

I could, if space permitted, quote many other telegrams and letters from 
the Kilmer's Swamp Root makers, from the Piso's Cure people, from all 
the large patent-medicine manufacturers. The same thing that hapnened 
in Massachusetts happened last year in New Hampshire, in Wisconsin, in 
Utah, in more than fifteen states. In Wisconsin the response by the news- 
papers to the command of tlie patent-medicine people was even more 
humiliating than in Massachusetts. Not only did individual newspapers 
work against the formula bill ; there is a "Wisconsin Press Association," 
which includes the owners and editors of most of the newspapers of the 
state. That association held a meeting and passed resolutions, "that we 
are opposed to said bill . . . providing that hereafter all patent medi- 
cine sold in this state shall have the formulae thereof printed on their 
labels," and "Resolved, That the association appoint a committee of five 
publishers to oppose the passage of the measure." And in this same state 
the larger dailies in the cities took it on themselves to drum ud the smaller 
country papers and get them to write editorials opposed to the formula 
bill. Nor was even this the measure of their activity in response to the 
command of the patent medicine association. I am able to give the letter 
which is here reproduced [see page 83]. It was sent by the publisher of 
one of the largest daily papers in Wisconsin to the state senator who 
introduced the bill. In one western state, a board of health officer made 
a number of analyses of patent medicines, and tried to have the analyses 
made public, that the people of his state might be warned. "Only one 
newspaper in the state," he says in a personal letter, "was willing to print 
results of these analyses, and this paper refused them after two publica- 
tion in which a list of about ten was published. This paper was the 

, the editorial manager of which is in sympathy with the effort 

to restrict the sale of harmful nostrums. The business management in- 
terfered for the reason that $5,000 in patent-medicine advertising was with- 
drawn in a week." 

In New Hampshire — but space forbids. Happily, there is a little silver 
in the situation. The legislature of North Dakota last year passed, and the 
governor signed a bill requiring that patent-medicine bottles shall have 


printed on their labels the percentage of alcohol or of morphin or various 
other poisons which the medicine contains. That was the first success in 
a fight which the public health authorities have waged in twenty states 
each year for twenty years. In North Dakota the patent-medicine people 
conducted the fight with their usual weapons, the ones described above. 
But the newspapers, be it said to their everlasting credit, refused to fall in 
line to the threats of the patent-medicine association. And I account for 
that fact in this way: North Dakota is wholly a "country" community. 
It has no city of over 20,000, and but one over 5,000. The press of the 
state, therefore, consists of very small papers, weeklies, in which the 
ownership and active management all lie with one man. The editorial 
conscience and the business manager's enterprise lie under one hat. With 
them the patent-medicine scheme was not so successful as with the more 
elaborately organized newspapers of older and more populous states. 

Just now is the North Dakota editor's time of trial. The law went into 
effect July 1. The patent-medicine association, at their annual meeting in 
May, voted to withdraw all their advertising from all the papers in tliat 
state. This loss of revenue, they argued self-righteously, would be a 
warning to the newspapers of other states. Likewise it would be a lesson 
to the newspapers of North Dakota. At the next session of the legislature 
they will seek to have the label bill repealed, and they count on the 
newspapers, chastened by a lean year, to help them. For the independence 
they have shown in the past, and for the courage they will be called on to 
show in the future, therefore, let the newspapers of North Dakota know 
that they have the respect and admiration of all decent people. 

"What is to be done about it?" is the question that follows exposure of 
organized rascality. In few cases is the remedy so plain as here. For the 
past, the newspapers, in spite of these plain contracts of silence, must be 
acquitted of any grave complicity. The very existence of the machine 
that uses and directs them has been a carefully guarded secret. For the 
future, be it understood that any newspaper which carries a patent-med- 
icine advertisement knows what it is doing. The obligations of the con- 
tract are now public property. And one thing more, when next a member 
of a state legislature arises and states, as I have so often heard: "Gentle- 
men, this label bill seems right to mc, but I can not support it; the united 
press of my district is opposed to it" — when that happens, let every one 
understand the wires that have moved "the united press of my district." 

[The foUoiciiig artivlt u reittoduccd, by peimUiiiun, from Colliei-'a Weekly, 

Nor. /7, 1906.] 

i i 


What Becomes of Letters Written "In Confidence" to "Patent 

Medicine" Firms and Quacks. 

WIIKX you write to a piitont-medidne house or a quack doctor, 
whose advertisements solicit letters of inquiry about your 
health, the reply in nine oases out of ten will address you in 
an intimate personal way, as *'Dcar Friend," or **Esteemed 
friend." And the reply will be marked, in conspicuous let- 
ters, "Strictly confidential," even, in some cases, "Sacredly 
confidential." Every art is used to make the dupe believe his letters are 
kept, safely locked in hidden archives, where the thint^s he has said about 
his "health, his affairs, and his person are carefully guarded from any eyes 
b\it the so-called "doctor's." 







417 DEARBORN ST.. t^^i'^V 

C. A DAV15. rUnagW. 


Letters \Al&r^t&di 

We want to buy all kinds of lettem received in fioairer'to ncw^q?ear-*dvertisements^ If 

, "L »■■■-■-■--■ • 

Now the truth about what really happens to these letters is eloquently 
told by the documents reproduced herewith. When the patent-medicine 
man, or the quack, has, in the language of their shops, "jollied" the dupe 
along with false hopes and lying promises until even he becomes suspicious, 
and he can no longer be induced to send another dollar for another bottle 
of medicine, then his letter is sold to some other quack who pretends to 
cure the same disease. That quack coaxes as much money as he can from 
the victim, and then turns him over to a third; and so the dupe is passed 
along, in many cases, for several years. 

To facilitate this exchange of letters among the quacks there are five or 
six so-called letter-brokers. They are really clearing-houses where patent- 
medicine frauds and quack doctors exchange, sell, and rent letters. On 
Vandewater street, New York, is a big warehouse owned by one of these let- 
ter-brokers, Frank B. Swett. In that warehouse are over seven million let- 



ters. It is quite possible that if you, any time within the past five years, 
have written a letter to a quack doctor, j'our letter is somewhere in that 
warehouse, and men familiar with the business could find it. Probably 
your letter has been sold over and over again, and rented . and re -rented to 
every quack who plays on the victims of your particular ailment. 

One of the largest of these letter-brokers is the Guild Company of 132 
Nassau street, New York. They issue a large circular describing the letters 
they have for sale. A portion of the list is printed on the next page. The 
part here produced is only a very small portion, and that the less unprint- 
able part of the circular. 

If you have ever been foolish enough to write to wiiy of the quacks and 
frauds m that list, you may know that your letter is noiv for sale. You 
may know that all the things you have said about your health and your 


.^ .,....,,^1 ifi 

MiaDICAtl 6,000. Dr. Stevrns J^ Co., C*:. 
tamlmR, Ohio. Nervous debility. 

MBDICAL. 2.000. L. West. Aron, N. 
Nenrons debility, first rrplics. 

MEDICAL. L>r. Flerc^ Order Blanta.* 
BOioOO. 1002-*03. 

UKJUICAL. Ozomulslon. 20.000. Ifl03. 


MUDICAL. ' S0,2(f0. Thfo. Noel file cardtt 

AIKUICAL. 24.D00. Fbyoician'rt Inst, anft 
M EdAon France. Women's, 1003. 

? -'"^tSoo flwrreplIes'iate'iSOi: ' 

t ■* ' , ■- 1 i" , ' .- ■ ■ 

18,000' late '02-'03-'oi letters in an- 
swer to above ad. 

Portion of a circular sent out by one of 
the concerns to which "patent medicine" 
men and quack doctors sell the letters they 
receive from their victims. There are five 
or six concerns similar to this, acting as 
clearing-houses, through which pass many 
millions of letters. 



80aO0OJas.Wm. Kidd medical file cards, f«tn«. 

*-?SS"' *? "".4f **' <"«?*"«L£r*" »«) 1«0«. 
180,000 men's matrimonial. S5.000 womini*S *0L IsL < 
200,000 agenU and canvasaeia. 

50.000 Dr. Pierce order blanks, IB, til. 
20,000 Ocomnlson order blanks, !& 
ao.280 Theo. Moel, •02. HV, medicatfile caids^ 
50.000 Agenu' directory. HOfJOL tB. 
2SO.O0OHSme work. ^OL^lC^Sir 
27.900 Rosebud trustTfirsta. 108, "OL i 

J2'52S S2?** Je'^JSy P»y«P«» trust. -W, emretoMt. 1 
52,000 lOc song orders, Star Music Co.. IML fli, ^■ 
17.500 Dr. May & Priar. ladies* tesolator. ^ HM. ' 

«.000 Nenrous debiUty, •08^ X)4| AppUaace On. 

Over t000.00D letters on band, all kteda. Call or 
write me for samples and adsi Xietters boafl(bt 
e. JL Oavto. 1634 W. Okie Street, CMeait, 

iior i 

An advertisement originally printed in 
the Mail Order Journal offering to rent 
letters. These letters are the ones which 
uupes all over the country write to 
"patent medicine" and quack concerns. 
When the original quack has squeezed 
the dupe cry he sells the letters to other 

person — intimate details which you carefully conceal from your friends and 
neighbors — are the property of any person who ca/res to pay four or five 
dolla/rs for the letters of yourself and others like you. 

One very interesting fraud carried on under the name of the Astropathic 
Institute by means of this traffic in letters, was unearthed by the Post-office 
Department recently. The following is quoted from the records of the 
Law Division of the Department, which drove this fraud out of business: 

"The company begins its operation by purchasing large numbers of let- 
ters from letter-brokers. The letters purchased by the company refer to the 
desire of the writer for a treatment for nervous diseases, and have been 
addressed to some other company dealing in such matters." 

Tlie remainder of the explanation of this fraud, as set forth in the Post- 
Office Department records, is rather technical and legal. But the way it 
worked was this: You had written a letter, let us say, to Dr. Blosser, or 
to the Ozomulsion Company, or to Theo. Noel, or to any other of the scores 


of quacks whose letters are for sale by letter-brokers. In your letter you had 
set forth at great length the symptoms you thought you experienced, the 
diseases you thought you had. This letter of yours was bought by the 
Astropathic Institute. Then the Astropathic Institute sent you a circular. 
This circular said the company was in the business of reading your past, 
present, and future — they sold "astrological readings" of your life. Just 
to show their good faith, they would send you a "sample reading" free of 
charge. Glad to get something for nothing, you write for the "sample 
reading." To your great astonishment, you would get a reply saying that 
you were troubled with frequent pains in the left arm, poor appetite, and 
all the details told by yourself, but long forgotten, in your letter to 
Blosser, or Noel, or Ozomulsion. This proof of capacity on the part of 
the Astropathic Institute would usually impress you so strongly that you 
would willingly give up the ten dollars demanded for a "larger and fuller 

Quantity Letters of 

Catarrh Letters. 

8,470 Anglo Amer. Chem. Co. 
20,718 Quaker Oil Co. 
10.088 K. T. Booth Co. 
79,009 C. E. Gauss. 

8.234 Dr. J. W. Kidd Co. 

7.110 E. J. Worst. 

6,724 W. A. Noyes. 
52,097 Dr. Blosser Co. 

Asthma Letters. 

1,326 Cinarsium Co. 
4,286 D. .T. Lane. 

046 National Research Co. 
7.600 W. A. Noyes. 
6,104 Dr. J. W. Kidd Co. 

Dyspepsia Letters. 

7,315 Absolute Remedy Co. 
4,023 Absolute Remedy Co 
1,336 Dr. J. W. Kidd Co. 

Stomach Trouble Jjettera. 

6.420 John Morrow. 
2.833 Orange Manna Co. 
3.502 Dr. A. 11. Swinburne. 
3,874 Dr. J. W. Kidd Co. 

Deaf Letters. 
8.533 Dr. C. M. Jordan. 
5.184 Morley Co. 

007 Dr. C. S. Ferris. 
1,030 Henry Ullrich. 
1,434 John Garmore. 

Quantity Letters of 

Rheumatism Letters. 

1,194 Associated Drug Stores. 
51,920 Tumock Medical Co. 

7,018 Jebb Remedy Co. 
22,038 Dr. C. S. Ferris. 
11,948 Dr. J. W. Kidd Co. 

Obesity Letters. 

11.330 Dr. O. W. F. Snyder. 
6,055 Howard Co. 

Kidney Letters. 

51.632 Pape Medicine Co. 
23,479 Pape Medicine Co. 
51,920 Tumock Medical Co. 

9,077 Pape Kidney Clinic. 

3,094 American Buchu Co. 
39,639 Dr. J. W. Kidd Co. 

6.321 W. F. Smith. 
854 Dr. J. W. Kidd Co. 

Narcotic Letters. 

138 Dr. R. H. Brown. 

948 St. Anne League. 

1,983 Peru Remedy Co. 

Hair Preparation Letters. 
36.419 John Craven-Burleigh. 
46,652 Pacific Trading Co. 
5,786 Burleigh Cash Orders. 

Heart Letters. 
8,288 Dr. J. W. Kidd Co. 

Here is a letter sent out to a prospective customer by the Star Book 
Company, which is one of the names under which one of these letter-brokers, 
C. A. Davis, does business: 
"W. W. Seldex; "June 16. 

"Dear Sir: — As a usual thing I only rent letters, and the medical letters 
would he worth $4 for a copy, but if you will buy outright I will dispose of any 
lots as follows : Dr. Pierce. 
"20,000 Ozomulsion. 
"30.000 Theo. Noel, 
for only $2.50 per 1,000, In order to make room. This is certainly a good 
chance to get No. 1 medical names. 
"Let me hear from you at once. 

"Truly, C. A. Davis/' 

» 146 

:• Another mail-order medical concern, the Dr. Burleigh Corporation of 
B^ton, seeding i^^vestors to buy shares la it,,uses thid argument: 

*'We are now able to purchase medical letteri in lots of 100,000. The80 
letters are from people wno have been patients of other adyertising doctors. 
These names we thoroughly circularize with our attractive and convincing 
booklets and follow them along for several months, and they always produce extra 
good results and at a very small cost." 

The Chicago Brokerage Company sends out a circular, part of which 
reads as follows: 

"For so-Day Copy. 
"Hioh'Qrade Letters. 

"We are willing to rent for 30-day copy any of the following lots of mail^ 
order letters at a very low figure. Write for samples of ads. that drew them 
and any other information desired. We have over one million letters in stock 
and are constantly buying more. If you have any letters for sale, send us full 
particulars and lowest cash price. Many parties using our letters are getting 
rich quick quietly working some good legitimate schemes. With attractive, con- 
vincing literature, they circularize 100,000 or more people who are directly inter- 
ested In their line In two weeks. Returns sure and quick. No expensive news- 
* paper advertising. We shall be pleased to give you any pointers asked for. Our 
prices for rental of letters are lower than elsewhere. Our word can always b» 
relied upon. Write us or call. 

"50,000 Dr. Pierce, medical, 1902-3. 

"20,000 Ozomulsion, medical, 1903. 
"300,000 Jas. Wm. Kidd, medical file cards, all diseases, will sort, 1903-4. 

"30,280 Theo. Noel, medical file cards, 1902-3. 

"24,500 Physician's Institute and Edson France, medical, 1903. 

"50,000 Nervous debility, English, Swedish, Spanish. Norwegian, etc., will 
sort in original envelopes. 
Medical — all kinds, such as rheumatism, dyspepsia, kidney, etc. 

"Chicago Brokebagb Co., Chicago, III." 

Such is the destination of most of the letters which poor dupes send to 
quack doctors, medical specialists, and patent-medicine concerns, under the 
cynical assurance that their letters are kept "strictly confidential." 














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