Reference Department Scranton Public Library Scranton, PA The Great Anthracite Coal Regions of America, i895. ti r^'j.' Scranton Public Library. NO. 'ens, Business Interests and Resources, together th a History from its Settlement up to the Present Time. Statistics Showing Increase in Population, Buildings, Wealth and Manufacturing Interests. SCRANTON==WILKES BARRE==PITTSTON==CARBONDALE==^3Sme*m. Or N writing a brief history of The Great Anthra- cite Coal Regions of America it is first ne- cessary to trace the meaning of the word coal. .-'"By some writers it was derived from the He- brew, and by others from the Greek or Latin, but whatever may be its origin, it is deserving of remark that the same sound for the same object is used in the Anglo-Saxon, the Teutonic, the Dutch, the Danish and the Islandic languages. In the most general sense the term coal includes varieties of car- bonaceous minerals used as fuel. Stone coal is a local English term, but with a signification restricted to the substance know by mineralogists as anthracite, says George B. Kulp Esq., historiographer of The Wyoming Historical and Geological Society. In old English writings the term pit coal and sea coal are commonly used. These have reference to the mode in which the mineral is obtained, and the manner in which it is transported to market. Anthracite is the most condensed form of mineral coal and the richest in carbon. Its color varies from jet to glisten- ing black, to dark lead gray; it is clean, not soiling the hands; ignites with difficulty; burns with a short blue flame without smoke, and with very little illuminating power. It gives an intense, concentrated heat.___- The constituents of Anthracite are carbon, water ancTearthy matters — not in chemical proportions, but in accidental and varying mixtures. There are also other ingredients occasionally present beside the oxide of iron, silica and alumina, which compose the earthy matters of ash. These are sulphur, bitumin, etc. All coals, including in this designation naptha, petroleum, asphaltum, etc., are but representatives of the successive changes from vegetable to mineral matter. Anthracite is the condensed coke of bituminous coal. It must be borne in mind that the signification now attached to the word coal is different from that which formerly obtained, when wood was the only fuel in general use. Coal then meant the carbonaceous residue obtained in the distructive distillation of wood or what is known as charcoal, and the name collier was applied indifferently to both coal miners and charcoal burners. As it is with anthracite we have to deal, we will devote ourselves to that branch of coal. Of the value or even the existence of coal in America all races were ignorant until the eighteenth century. "At Christian Spring, near Nazareth, Pa., there was living about the year 1750 to 1755, a gunsmith, who, upon application being made him by several Indians to repair ^their rifles, replied that he was unable to comply immediately; 'for' said he, T am entirely bare of charcoal, but as I am now engaged in setting some wood to char it, therefore, you must wait several weeks." This, the Indians, having come a great distance, felt loath to do; they demanded a bag from the gunsmith, and having received it, went away and in two hours returned with as much stone coal as they could well carry. They refused to tell where they had procured it." As there is no coal near Nazareth the tale seems improbable If the time fixed had been two days, instead of two hours, the coal could have been brought from the Mauch Chunk region in that time. That portion of Pennsylvania purchased of the Five Nations by the Con- necticut-Susquehanna Company at Albany, N. Y., July 11, 1754, for the sum of two thousand pounds of current money of the province of New York, embraced the Lackawanna and Wyoming coal district. Fourteen years later, November 5, 1768, the same territory was included in the Fort Stanwix purchase of the Indian Nations by the proprietary government of Pennsyl- vania. The strife between Pennsylvania and Connecticut resulted from these purchases. The first notice of coal at Wyoming grew out of the settlement there in 1762. Parshall Terry, in his deposition, says: "As near as he can recollect, some time about the last of August, 1762, he, with ninety-three others, mostly from Connecticut, went to Wyoming, encamped at the mouth of Mill Creek, on the bank of the Susquehanna, built huts, made hay on Jacob's Plains, and shortly after were joined by many others, and they continued there ten days or longer. The committee of the settlers, viz.: John Jenkins, John Smith and Stephen Gardner advised us to return, which we agreed to." After the return home of these settlers the above committee, through their chairman, John Jenkins, made report of the dis- covery of iron ore and anthracite coal at Wyoming. The next mention we have of coal is on the original draft of the Manor of Sunbury, surveyed in 1768 by Charles Stewart in the Proprietary's interest, where appears the brief notation "stone coal" without further explanation. The location on the draft is near the mouth of Toley's creek, and not far from where the Woodward breaker is located. The next mention of coal is as follows: During General Sullivan's march through Wyoming, in 1779, Major George Grant, one of his officers, wrote of the valley: "The land here is excellent, and comprehends vast mines of coal, pewter, lead and copperas." The last three named have never been found here. The next mention of coal is as follows: John David Schopf, in his travels, mentions a visit he made in 1783, to a bed of_ brillant black coal, a mile above Wyoming, which on handling, leaves no taint, and burns with- out emitting an offensive odor; that it was so abundant as to be obtained without any charge He further tells us that a smith had erected workshops near it, and who spoke highly of its value. He noticed the numerous im- pressions of plants between the shale and the coal, which he believes proves its origin and great antiquity. It is found here on both sides of the river, and in various parts of the valley. We here conclude the notice of coal with one further mention. Joseph Scott, in his " Gazetteer of the United States," published in 1795, in his remarks on Luzerne county, says: " Wilkes-Barre, the county seat, contains forty-five dwellings, a court house and jail, and several beds of coal 321740 «V INTRODUCTORY. are found in the townships of Wilkes-lSarre, Kingston, Exeter and Plymouth. It is impossible to state when the consumption of Wyoming coal began. It is possible that the Indians at Wyoming had some knowledge of the com- bustible nature of anthracite coal. Two chiefs from the valley, in company with three others from the county of the Six Nations, visited England in 1 710, and it is presumed they witnessed the burning of coal, then in general use in the cities of England for domestic purpose. The consumption of black stones instead of wood could not fail to make a deep impression on their minds, and they would naturally infer that this fuel was nearly allied to the black stones of their own country. The appearance of anthracite had long been familar to their eyes. The forge, or seven feet vein of coal, had been cut through and exposed by the Nanticoke creek, and the seven feet vein of Plymouth had been laid open to view by Ransom's creek. The Susquehanna had exposed the coal at Pittston, and the Lackawanna at Several points along its banks. If the Indians at that day were ignorant of the practical use of coal, they were at least acquainted with its appearance and not improbably with its inllamable nature. That the Indians had mines of some kind at Wyoming, the following account fully establishes: In 1766 a company of Nanticokes, and Mohicans, six in number, who had formely lived at Wyoming visited Philadelphia, and in their talk with the governor said: "As we came down from Chenango we stopped at W \ oming, where we had a mine in two places, and we discovered that some white people had been at work in the mine and had filled canoes with the ore, and we saw their tools with which they had dug it out of the ground, where they made a hole at least forty feet long and five or six feet deep. Abadiah (lore, who represented Westmoreland county in the legisla- te of Connecticut, in 1781 and 1782, and subsequently"one of the judges of Luzerne county, and in 1788, 1789 and 1790 a member of the Pennsylvania legislature, emigrated from Plainfield, Conn., to Wyoming in 1769, and began lite in the new colony as a blacksmith. Friendly with the remaining natives, he learned of them the whereabouts of black stones, and being withal a hearty and an experimental)' artisan, he succeeded in mastering the coal to his shop purposes the same year. He, in connection with his brother, Daniel Core, also a blacksmith, were the first white men in Wyoming to give practical recognition and development to anthracite as a generator of heat. In the few blacksmith shops in Wyoming Valley and the West Branch settlements coal was gradually introduced after its manipulation by Mr. Gore. Mr. Pearce who differs from most of the historians of the valley, says, " We do not believe, as do some, that the Cores were the first whites who used anthracite on the Susquehanna for blacksmithing Stone coal would not have been noted on the original draft of the Manor of Sunbury if it had not been known to be a useful article. Hence, when the first settlers came into our valley the evidence inclines us to believe the knowledge of the use of anth- racite coal was communicated to them by the Indians or by some of their own race." Jessie bell used anthracite coal in a nailery in 17X8. He says, " 1 found it to answer well making wrought nails, and instead of losing in the weight of the roils, the nails exceeded the weight of the rods, which was not the case when they were wrought in a charcoal furnace." When the struggle for American independence began, in 1775, the proprietary government of Pennsylvania found itself so pressed for firearms that under the sanction of the supreme executive council two Durham boats were sent up to Wyoming and loaded with coal at Mill Creek, a short distance above Wilkes-Barre and tloated down the Susquehanna to Harris Ferry (Harrisburg). thence drawn upon wagons to Carlisle, and employed in furnaces and forges to supply the defenders of our country with arms. This was done annualy during the rev- olutionary war. Thus stone coal, by its patriotic triumphs, achieved its way into gradual use. The Smith brothers, John and Abijah, of Plymouth, were the first in point of time who engaged in the continuing industry of the mining of anthracite coal in the United States. They left their home in Derby, Conn., in 1805-6, came to this valley and immediately purchased coal land and en- gaged in mining coal. There were others who had made the attempt on the Lehigh, but the obstacles and discouragements which stood in the way proved too great and the work had to be given up. It was not resumed until the year 1820. The Smith brothers shipped their ark of coal in the fall of 1 807 , to Columbia, Pa. This was probably the first cargo of anthracite coal that was ever offered for sale in this country. In 1808 they sent several ark loads to Columbia and other points. Prior to 1803, as we believe, the use of an- thracite coal as a fuel was confined almost exclusively to furnaces and forges, using an air blast, notwithstanding the fact that Oliver Evans had, in 1802, and even before that time, demonstrated on several occaisons that the blast was unnecessary for the domestic use of coal, and had successfully burned the fuel in an open grate and also in a stove without an artifical draft. In order to create a market for this fuel it became necessary to show that it could be used for domestic purposes as well as in furnace and forges; that it was better and more convenient fuel than wood, and that its use was attended with no difficulties. To accomplish this the Smiths went with their coal arks sent to market, and took with them a stone mason and several grates, with the purpose of setting the grates in the puplic houses where they might make known the utility of their fuel. In several houses in Columbia and in other towns the fire places for burning wood were changed by them and fitted for the use of coal, and coal fires were lighted, careful instructions being given meanwhile in the mysteries of a stone coal fire. After much perseverance and expense in providing coal and grates to demonstrate the valuable qualities of the new fuel, they disposed of a small part of their cargo and left the rest to be sold on commission. Notwithstanding the thorough manner in which they had set about the introduction of coal as a fuel for domestic uses, it was several years before all obstacles to its use were overcome and they were able to gain a profit from the enterprise. The Annual average of the business of the Messrs. Smith, from 1807 to 1820 was from six to eight ark loads or about four to five hundred tons. " The old Susquehanna coal ark, like the Mastodon, is a thing of the past. Its size and dimensions, cost and capacity must be chronicled. The length of the craft was ninety feet, its width sixteen feet, its depth four feet and its capacity 60 tons. Each end terminated in an acute angle, a stern post sur- mounted by a huge oar some thirty feet in length, and which required the strength of two stout men to ply it in the water. It required in its con- struction thirty-eight hundred feet of two inch plank for the bottom, ends and sides, or seventy-six hundred feet board measure. The bottom timbers would contain about two thousand feet board measure, and the ribs or studs sustaining the side planks four hundred feet making a total of some ten thousand feet. The ark was navigated by four men, and the ordinary time to reach tide water was seven days. Two out of these arks would probably reach the port of their destination; one-third was generally left upon the rocks in the rapids of the river or went to the bottom." The average price of sales at this time was probably ten dollars, leaving a profit of five dollars on the ton. If, therefore, three hundred and fifty tons of the five hundred annually IN TROD UCTOR V. transported by the Messrs. Smith reached the market, it left them a profit of seventeen hundred dollars, not taking into account their personal services. Mr. George M. Hollenback sent two ark loads down the Susquehanna, taken from his Mill Creek mines in 1813. The same year Joseph Wright of Plymouth mined two ark loads of coal from the mines of his brother, the late Samuel G. Wright, of New Jersey, near Port Griffith in Jenkins township. This was an old opening and coal had been mined there as" far back as 1775. The late Lord Butler of Wilkes-Barre had also shipped coal from his mines, more generally known of late years as the "Baltimore mines," as early as 1814, and so had Crandall Wilcox of Plains township. Colonel George M. Hollenback sent two four-horse loads of coal to Philadelphia in 1813, and James Lee, of Hanover, sent a four-horse load to a blacksmith in Germantown. In 1813 Hon. Charles Miner was publishing The Gleaner in Wilkes-Barre, and in a long editorial article from his pen, under date of November 19, and the head of ''State Policy," he urged, with great zeal, the improvement of the descending navigation of the Susquehanna and Lehigh rivers. He then said: "The coal of Wyoming has already become an article of considerable traffic with the lower countries of Pennsylvania. Numerous beds have been opened, and it is ascertained, beyond all doubt, that the valley of Wyoming contains enough coal for ages to come." Chapman, in his History of Wyoming, writ- ing in 1817, speaking of coal, says: "// constitutes the principal fuel of the in- habitants as well as their most important article of exportation" Plumb, in his History of Hanover township, says: "From 1810 to 1820 one thousand or fifteen hundred tons per year were mined in Hanover" and "there was a constant sale of coal down the river by arks from the time people learned to burn it in the house." In this small way the coal trade continued on from 1807 to 1820, when it assumed more importance in the public estimation. The years preceding that of 1820 were the years of its trials, and the men, during that period, who were engaged in the business were merely able to sustain them- selves with the closest economy and the most persevering and unremitting labor. b 6 It seems to be the common belief that the anthracite coal trade had its rise on the Lehigh in the year 1820, when three hundred and sixty-five tons of coal were carried to market, yet, as a matter of fact the industry was begun at Plymouth thirteen years before, and for nine years prior to the be- ginning of the coal business on the Lehigh river the annual shipments on the Susquehanna were considerably in excess of the first year's product of the Lehigh region. Mr. Pearce states that up to 1820. "the total amount of coal sent from Wyoming is reckoned at eighty-five hundred tons." This we believe to be a low estimate. Commencement of the Anthracite Coal Trade in the United States: WYOMING REGION. 1807 55 tons. 1808 1809 1810 1811 1812 '813 1814, LEHIGH REGION. *5° 200 35° 45° 5°° 5°° 1 700 1 8 1 _) 1 000 1 8 1 6 1 000 tons. 1817 1100 " 1818 I2 oo " 1819 1400 " 2500 " I»20 .365 tons. The foregoing statement we believe to be absolutely correct. The pyramids now in use give the year 1829 as the commencement of the coal trade in the Lackawanna region, and seven thousand tons sent by the Delaware & Hudson Canal Company. The same pyramids start us in the Wyoming region in 1842, as shipping by canal forty-seven thousand three hundred and forty-six tons— a surely good commencement, if true, of the first year's buisness on the canal. Our canal was opened in 1831. In 1830 the North Branch Canal was completed to the Nanticoke dam. The first boat, " The Wyoming," was built by Hon. John Koons, at Shickshinny. It was launched and towed to Nanticoke, where she was laden with ten tons of anthracite coal, a quanity of flour and other articles. Her destination was Philadelphia. The North Branch canal being new, and filling slowly with water, " The Wyoming" passed through the Nanticoke chute and thence down the river to Northumberland where she entered the Susquehanna div- ision of the Pennsylvania canal, and proceeded, with considerable difficulty, by the way of the Union and Schuylkill canals to Philadelphia. "The Wyoming" received in that city fifteen tons of dry goods, and commenced her return trip; was frozen up in ice and snow at New Buffalo, in January, 1831. The voyage of " The Wyoming" was attended with many difficulties and detentions, and embraced a period of upwards of three months. The second boat, "The Luzerne," was built by Captain Derrick Bird, on the river bank opposite Wilkes-Barre. She was laden with coal which was conveyed to Philadelphia, whence she returned with a cargo of merchandise, arriving at the Nanticoke dam in July, 183 1. The pryamid starts us in 1846 with five thousand eight hundred and eighty-six tons by the Lehigh railroad. The niistake about this is that the Lehigh & Susquehanna railroad was completed in 1843. These figures from the pyramid are by Benjamin Bannan, and taken from " Coal Iron and Oil." Pearce, in his "Annals of Luxerne County," says: " The completion of the Lehigh & Susquehanna railroad in 1843, connecting Wilkes-Barre with White Haven, promised another outlet to market for Wyoming coal." These improvements, together with the discovery of the methods of generating steam on boats, and of smelting iron in furnaces by the use of . anthracite, created a great and increasing demand for coal in all quarters of the state, and in the seaports of the country. Mr. F. E Saward in The Coal Trade for 1891, states that the Nothern Anthracite Coal Field is the largest anthracite basin in the World. It has long been known as the Wyoming. Its coal production since i860 is as follows: x 86o 2,914,817 tons 1870 7,974,666 " 1880 1 1,419,270 1890 18,657,694 To mine this coal requires the services of over 50,000 men and boys and this number is steadily increasing rather than diminishing. 6 IN TROD UCTOR Y. The total amount af anthracite coal mined in 1890, was 35,865,000 tons. duced 6,329,658 tons, or 17.65 per cent., and the Wyoming region, as we Thus it will be seen that the Wyoming region produces 52 per cent, of the have seen, produced 18,657,694 tons, or 52.04 percent. total anthracite production. The Schuylkill region in 1890, produced 10,- The total annual output of anthracite coal shipped from Pennsylvania 867,821 tons, or 30.31 per cent., and the Lehigh region, the same year, pro- mines during the year 1894 was 41,000,000 tons valued at $69,700,000. The City of f\P\(f(§)P\ and Vicinity, HEN, little over a century ago, a sturdy settler forsook his former home in Connecticut to carve out his fortune in the Deep Hollow, as the electric city was designated in the year 1788, he little knew the portentous character of his mission as the founder of a mighty and prosperous city which ranks to-day the proud peer of any of its rivals. Philip Abbott was the first settler in " Deep Hollow '" as this place was origin- ally called, from 1788 to 1798, when it took the name of " Slocum Hollow." He made the first clearing and built the first cabin in the hollow. It was a log hut, covered with boughs formed but a single room, occupied in great part by a huge fire place which fur- nished both light and heat to the hardy in- mates. The wants of the inhabitants multiplying gradually by the growth of the settlement and other causes suggests to the practical mind of the first settler, the erection of a grist mill upon the banks of the roaring brook In 1 lie spring of 1789, Reuben Taylor and James Abbott, became equal part- ners in the mill. Mr. Taylor erected a double log house on the banks of the brook, below the cabin of Abbott, which was the second cabin built in the Hollow. In 1789, they opened a strip of land for the cultivation of wheat and corn, bringing forth the maiden crop that year. In July 1798, Ebenezer and Benjamin Slocum purchased the undivided land of Slocum Hollow. One year later, E. Slocum and his partner, James Dm vain, built a sawmill above the grist mill. A smithshop and two or three additional houses for the workmen of the saw and grist mills, one cooper shop and a distillery formed the total village of Slocum Hollow or Scranton in 1 Soo. The village of Scranton in 1840 had a population of 100 and was laid (Hit on a circumscribed scale in 1841 by Captain Scott, a civil engineer, of Carbondale. In 1845 an attempt was made to have the town, which then contained 500 inhabitants, called Harrison, in honor of the favorite Presi- dential candidate, General William Henry Harrison. The idea, however, was not universally popular, and the old name, Slocum Hollow, clung to the locality until the population had increased to 2730, when it was called Scrantonia in honor of the founders of the town. The later name did not entirely please the citizens, and on January 17, 1851, it was reduced to plain Scranton; and so the borough and city have been justly known since. Dr. B. H. Throop, one of the early settlers and prominent men of the thriv- ing town, was appointed postmaster in 1853. Although known to the world as a coal city, Scranton makes steel rails as well, and produces annually more steel rails within its limits than are pro- duced in any other city in the world. In 1853 the population of Scration borough was 3,000; in i860, 9,223; in 1870, the population of the city was 35,092, in 1880, 45,925, in 1890, 75,- 000 and to-day it reaches 96,000. The unprecedented advance in population between i860 and 1870 was due to the incorporation of Providence, Hyde Park and a portion of Dunmore with Scranton. The manufacturing interests of Scranton are paramount and pre-eminent. The large number of coal, iron and steel establishments, and the immense amount of capital they represent, are a practical and tangible demonstration of this fact. Railroad and coal interests aside, more than $20,000,000 a re- invested in manufactures, and upon a fair estimate, 37 per cent of the entire population are producers. The minor of the manufacturing industries, ex- clusive of those concerned with coal or iron or steel, involve a capitalization verging on $1,000,000, give constant employment to nearly 3,000 people, and the annual aggregate of their productions reaches $2,000,000. The trade conditions of this city, indeed, are so flourishing as to offer strong inducements to all classes of manufactures. One thing, however, must be borne in mind by manufacturers looking toward Scranton as a desirable site for their in- dustrial enterprises, and that is this: The chief merit of selection does not rest in securing an unoccupied field with the certanty of fair immediate re- turns, but is due to the cheapness of raw materials, as is fully exemplified in our subsequent remarks on coal, culm and other products. Here in Scranton the facilities required by manufacturers are unequaled. Every essential agency for propelling the machinery, every natural ability for the construction of establishments, every method for removing the results of these operations, is perfect in capacity, convenience, promptitude and cheapness. The coal and culm deposits are exhaustless, locations for public works are countless, and Scranton's efficient railroad service affords unexcelled opportunities for reaching foreign markets timely and advantageously. The neighboring hills are rich with coal and iron ore, and freights are tempered to the advantage of all shippers, thus making this point one of the most important manufactur- ing centres in the country. Capital that has already found fertile results from its embarkment in our midst is proving its confidence in the commercial prominence of Scranton, by seeking new forms of industries, and duplicating its trust by urging vigorously the introduction of other wealth. This alone is a powerful attestation of the exceptional vitality of Scranton. It confirms her position as one of the foremost of trade centres, and forecasts for her a proud and wonderful future. The Scranton Board of Trade was organized in 1867 and incorporated February 4, 1871. The objects of the association are to protect and foster the mercantile and manufacturing industries; to promote the city of Scranton and its gen- eral prosperity, by the solicitation of manufacturers and business enter- prises to locate within its boundaries and adjacent territory; the promulga- tion of the advantages possessed by Scranton as a desirable place of residence and for the employment of capital; the use of all proper means to obtain legislation, National State and Municipal, favorable to the interests of the SCR AN J ON. MUNICIPAL BUILDING. SCRAN TON. city and its inhabitants; the extension of facilities of transportation, and the protection of the trade of the city from unjust discrimination in rates of freight and otherwise, and generally by uniform and well-directed efforts to advise and extend the welfare and promote the commercial integrity of the business community. A map of the railroads of the country shows that the railway system of Scranton is one of great value as a factor in the future progress of the city, while its increase in extent bears evidence to the natural adaptations of the location as a railway centre. It is in fact, the hub of a complete railway system, and its transportation facilities are well nigh perfect. Prominent among the principal roads that centre here are the Lehigh Valley, the Pennsylvania, the Delaware and Hudson Canal, the Delaware Lackawanna and Western, the Erie and Wyoming Valley and the Philadel- phia and Reading. A great and growing city is generally well equipped with express and telephone facilities. Scranton is no exception to this rule. There are three express companies represented here, providing our people with the rapid transmission of express matter to and from all parts of the world. 'I hey are the United States Express Company, the Adams Express Company, and Wells, FargO & Company. 'The telephone system here is the acme of per- fection. Twelve hundred miles of wire radiating in every direction, furnish to Scrantonians the advantages and conveniences of this great necessity to business and enterprise. Telephone connection is also to be had with all the towns in the valley. few interests of Scranton have been so stable, and like concerns of no < itv in the commonwealth can point to such unabated and uniform pros- perit) as the banking institutions of Scranton during the present generation. The banks, in fact — National and State — have been managed with rare ability and fidelity, conducing largely to the safety and stability of the city's business. There is an abundance of ground within easy access of the railroads centering in this city that is well fitted for manufacturing sites, and, with the spirit of enterprise and liberality characteristic of the people of our city, these lands can be purchased at a low figure and on favorable terms. Scranton is alive with the spirit of progress, and her Board of Trade, pledged to the promotion of all legitimate efforts to increase her business, attain greater manufacturing and commercial importance and place her where she belongs, the second city of the Commonwealth in manufacturing and general business, stands ready to liberally back and heartily support everj well devised plan to attain that end. Those who are in search of homes, business locations, factory sites, or of safe ami profitable investments, should visit Scranton, and inspect the superior advantages the city possesses in all these particulars. The city includes about twelve square miles of hill and valley and the immediate suburbs on every side are rapidly becoming thickly populated. The streets are straight, wide and level, and are being rapidly improved with the asphalt pavement. The water system, for lire protection or for use, covers nearly the entire corporation. Gas mains and electric light wire ex- tend in all the principal business and residence thoroughfares and avenues, and the electric street cars penetrate every section of the city and environs. HON. W. I.. CONN El. I.. The Hon. W. L. Connell, Mayor of Scranton, Pa., was born less than thirty four years ago in the city of which he is now the Chief Executive, and with which he has been closely indentified during his whole life, socially, politically and in business. After receiving a liberal Academic education, he made his start in business life by taking a subordinant position in the esta- blished furniture house of Hill & Keyser. Here, by a thorough application to his work, he soon mastered the details of the business, and on the retire- ment of Mr Keyser from active work in the firm he eventually succeeded to a partnership, the firm name changing to Hill & Connell, which it has since remained. Mr. Connell is also actively interested in the coal business, being connected with "William Connell & Co." of Scranton, "The Enterprise Coal Co" of (Sham) Excelsior, Pa., of which latter company he is General Manager. He is also a prominent Director in the Scranton Axel Works as well as in several other industries situated in his city. His political career has been comparatively brief but remarkably suc- cessful. He was elected to represent the Seventeenth Ward in the Common Councils of the City 1888, and shortly after taking his seat in that body was chosen its presiding officer. Falling health compelled him to resign from the Councils in 1889, and temporarily leave the city. In the latter part of 1892 he was named by the Republican City Convention as the candidate for Moyor, and was elected to that office the following February by an unpre- cedented majority. His administration of municpal affairs has bee»: ; ci -y successful. Mr. Connell's term as Mayor expires in April 1896. SCR ANTON. / r .ij an ~>r Ur iii \\\ m ill lit COURT HOUSE. SCR ANTON. zs DR. BENJAMIN II. TIIKOOl', ROSWELL H. PATTERSON. WILLIAM A. WILCOX. Dr. Benjamin II. Throop was born in Oxford, Chenango Country, New York, in i8ir, and is one of the Sons of the Revolution, being descended from Adrian Scrope, regicide, one of the signers of the death warrant of Charles First, King of England. Asa matter of History we might add that upon the restoration and accession of Charles Second he declared these judes outlaws and Scrope in company with regicides, lied to the United States, and sought the protection "I the Colonists, who were by them secreted and protected until their death. Dr. Throop's grandfather also named Benjamin, served through the war of the Revolution. He was a Major in the Fourth Connecticut Volunteers, and was brevetted Colonel for gallant conduct on the recommendation of General Washington. The lather of Dr. 'Throop, also served in the same regiment as a lifer being about fifteen years of age. Dr. Troop's mother was born in New England, . nd also numbers among her ancestors prominent Revolutionary heroes. Dr. Throop entered the Fairfield Medical College — where he graduated as doctor of medicine in 1832, being then twenty-one years of age. In 1847 In \\ as induced to remo\ e to Scranton, which even at that time was struggling for existence, and an open field for enterprise. His practice extended over a large territory, and was very exacting and laborious. When President Lincoln called for volunteers in 1861, to suppress the rebellion Dr. Throop, was the first surgeon in old Luzerne to respond to the call. To the doctor belongs the honor of being the first to found field hospitals during the rebellion. For many years Dr. Throop held the position o( chief surgeon, of D. L. & W. R. R., and the Delaware and Hudson Canal Companie's railroad. In politics Dr. Throop is a Republican although not aspiring to political destinctions. Roswell H. Patterson and William A. Wilcox, of the firm of Patterson i\; Wilcox, are two of the well-known lawyers of the city of Scranton. Mr. Patterson, a talented member of the Lackawanna bar, who is fast gaining distinction and prominence in legal circles was born in Wayne County, Pennsylvania, on November 1 ith, i860, and comes of good New England decent. His early education was acquired in the public schools at Waymart, Pa., after which he entered college at Mount Pleasant. He subsequently took a course in the law school of Cornell University from which he gradu- ated in 1883. During his boyhood days he had been engaged in the office of J. E. Burr, and during that period, made the acquaintance and won the friendship of many of the most distinguished members of the bar. Mr. Patterson devoted his attention exclusively to the civil departments of the law and made a specialty of the laws as applied to real estate and corpora- tion matters, which peculiarly fitted him for his present position. He is connected with extensive North Carolina lumber interests, water companies and local corporations. Mr. Wilcox was born in Olean, New York state July 25th, 1857. He is of New England extraction his paternal ancestors having settled in Westerly, Rhode Island, since 1640. In 1862 his father removed to Nicholson, Penn- sylvania where he received his early education in the public schools, after- wards attending the Keyston Academy at Factoryville, from which academy he graduated. Studied law in Tunhannock with W. E. & C. A. Little, and was admitted to the bar in January 1880, practising in Scranton continuous- ly since that time Mr. Wilcox's professional career has been conducted in such a manner as to secure him the respect and esteem of both Bench and Bar and gain him an excellent position in legal circles. I he firm of Patterson & Wilcox was formed in 1890. Their clientage includes many prominent real estate men, and their professional methods are thoroughly honorable and reliable in every respect. SCR AN TON. 13 VIEW OF LACKAWANNA AVENUE. 14 SCRAXTON. I HOMAS JOSEPH MCGUIRE. Thomas foseph McGuire, District Agent of The Mutual Life Insurance Company, was born March nth, 1852. His parents emigrated to this country in 1854, ami settled at Corning and later removed to Williamsport, New York, the father enterring the railroad business. In 1862 they removed to Scranton. Mr. McGuire's early education was gained in the common schools and home Study. He began his commericial career at the age of 13, at which time his father was sen ing under General Sherman in the battle of Petersburg. Thos. J, McGuire was the eldest of five children, at the age of twenty he became interested in the Mosley Safety Steam Boiler Company of Scranton and with little practice he became very proficient in the use of tools. In 1879 he severed his connection with this company, and engaged with the Dickson Mfg. Co., as journeyman machinist, afterwards going into bus- iness for himself which he conducted successfully for 3 1 / 2 years, when he decided that the field was too small and sold out his interest. About 1890 he was requested by the manager of the Mutual Life In- surance Company of New York, to represent them in this locality and was so successful that on February 1st, 1895, he accepted the position as district agent, with headquarters at Scranton. MICHAEL E. MC DONALD. Michael E. McDonald, was born on September 26th, 1858. He re- ceived his early education at the public schools of Dunmore, after which he was apprenticed to the moulding business — this at the age of fifteen. He learned his trade, five years later entered the Wyoming Seminary at Kings- ton, after which he studied law for three years, when he was admitted to the bar and began practising immediately. Mr. McDonald has always been actively engaged in politics and is a staunch democrat. Prior to his election as state representative he held numerous local offices. SCRAN TON. l 5 PUBLIC SCHOOL No. 34. id SCRAN TON. FREDERICK J. WIDMAVER. Frederick J. Widmayer, Comptroller of Scranton, was born in Germany, and emigrated to this country in 1868. He started his business career as clerk with C. J. Amsden & Co., of Scranton when fourteen years of age, and remained in their employment four years. In 1876 he went to Nebraska and after remaining there a short time returned to Scranton, opening a grocery store on Wyoming Avenue, later he removed to Lackawanna Avenue, and at present conducts the largest retail grocery business in Scranton. He is a staunch Republican and at the earnest solicitation of his party he accepted the nomination for Comptroller in 1892. MILTON W. LOWRY, Milton W. Lowry, one of Scranton's prominent lawyers, was born March 10, 1859, at Elkdale, Susquehanna County. After acquiring a com- mon school education he attended the Keystone Academy at Factoryville, and subsequently the Pennsylvania State College from which he graduated with honors in 1884, winning the prize oration of his class. After completion of his college course Mr. Lowry entered the law office of W. W. Watson, and was admitted to practice in 1886. ]n 1885 he accepted an appointment as Deputy Prothonotary of Lacka- wanna County, where he served until April 1S86. SCRAN J ON. '7 VIEW ON WYOMING AVENUE. i8 SCRANTON. WILLIAM H. RICHMOND. William II. Richmond, was horn in Marlborough, Hartford County Conn., October 21st, 1 821, and was educated in the public schools of his native place. When twelve years of age he was placed under the care of a worthy merchant at Middle Haddam. where he remained as clerk in his store for three years. In May, 18.15, he commenced business in Carbondale under the firm name of Richmond & Robinson, this firm was dissolved in 1853. Mr. Richmond erected one of the first coal breakers on the line of the Delaware and Hudson Canal Company. In 1863 the firm o\ Richmond & Co., was merged into the Elk Hill Coal and Iron Company. Mr. Richmond being Treasurer and General Manager of the same. James H. Torrey. James H. Torrey, City Solicitor of the Scranton Municipality, was born at Delhi, N. Y., in 1851. He received his education at Amherst College and came to Scranton in 1872. In 1876 he was admitted to the Luzerne Coun- ty bar, and has since devoted himself exclusively to the practice of his pro fession. From 1886 to 1889 he represented Scranton in the various munici pal conventions of cities of the third class, and was a member of the com mittee which spent weeks in drafting laws under which Scranton and othc cities of the same class have since been operated. His present office of City Solicitor for Scranton is the only political office he has held or been a candi- date for. SCRAN TON, '9 YOUNG MEN'S CHRISTIAN ASSOCIATION. SCR AN TON. EDWARD MERRI FIELD. Edward Merrifield, lawyer, was born in the village of Wyoming, Luzerne county, July 30, 1832. His education was received in the public schools at Hyde Park, Wyoming Seminary, Kingston, and at Oxford Academy, Chenango County, N. Y. In the spring of 1852 he entered the law Academy at Easton, Pa., at the August term of court in 1855, he was admitted to the bar, and the same year opened an office at Hyde Park, six years later removed to Scranton. In politics Mr. Merrifield has acted with the Democratic party, and has been the nominee for numerous public offices. i JOHN Ii. SMITH. John B. Smith, the father of Dunmore, was horn in Sullivan Country, New York, and was the son of Captain Charles Smith, a native of Con- necticut, who served in the war of 181 2. Just after the son had reached early manhood the family moved to Car- bondale, Pa., where he completed a common school education, and when but fifteen years of age, he entered the service of the Delaware and Hudson Canal Company, where he remained four years in their machine shops. From 1848 to 1850 he was mechanical draughtsman for the Pennsylvania Coal Company, and from 1850 to 1886, he was General Superintendent of the Pennsylvania Coal Company. In November, 1882, he was elected president of the Erie & Wyoming Valley Railroad. Mr. Smith was also director in the Scranton Gas & Water Co., president of the Dunmore Gas & Water Co., and president of the Dunmore Iron & Steel Co. He also invented and patented the three cylinder locomotive, now in use on the Erie & Wyoming Valley Railroad. Mr. Smith moved to Dunmore in 1850, bringing his family from Car- bondale Since then he has made Dunmore his home. He was a member of the Presbyterian Church, and a trustee since the organization in Dunmore. He was connected with the Independent Order of Odd Fellows at Carbon- dale and the Free and Accepted Masons of Hawley. One son, George B. Smith, Superintendent of the Erie & Wyoming Valley Railroad, and one daughter, Mrs. A. D. Blackington survive him. Both reside in Dunmore. Mrs. Smith died nine years ago. Three years ago Mr. Smith became a sufferer from diabetis, which finally caused his death. Though nearly four score years of age, he was up to the last, possessed of that wonderful executive power that enabled him all through his life, tc manage with ease, the num- SCRAN70N. erous enterprises of which he was head. He had nearly reached the octogenar- ian mark in a life full of cheer and brightness. Beyond the respect of the community which the example of his pure and useful life commanded, his kindly words, his cordial and unassuming manner, his keen sense of humour, his ready facility of expression and his wide in- formation attached to him a group of friends who knew him well and loved him. But chiefly his loss fell upon his son to whom through long years of mutual confidence he gave the teachings and experiences of his life. In his quiet library surrounded by the volumes which as years passed and other friends were taken, had become his favorite companions, death touched him; and on the 16th day of January 1895, in the eightieth year of his age, he left this world without regret, and with his last conscious thoughts fixed upon a better world to come. GEOkGE B. SMITH. George B. Smith, son of the late John B. Smith, was born at Dunmore on the 9th of April, 1853. His early education was obtained in Dunmore, this preparation was however, the least important part of his training, its more valuable portion resulting from the companionship and influences of his home life. From his father he acquired the example of integrity which has become synonymous with the name, and the conservative principles and industrious ways that marked the earlier generations. From his mother he received an ideal conveyed in many varied lesson — To derive the utmost good from life. He entered the office of The Pennsylvania Coal Company at an early age, and was practically taught the duties of each department. Feeling his want of Military training a serious deficiency he entered the Riverview Military Academy at Poughkeepsie, N. Y. In 1869 he returned to Dunmore, and has since been continuously connected with the leading industries of that section. He was elected President of the Dunmore Iron and Steel Company- last spring, and is also Superintendent of the Pennsylvania Coal Company and the Erie and Wyoming Valley Railroad. Mr. Smith has traveled extensively both in this country and abroad. He has a large and well selected library with the contents of which he is familiar and through his travels and wide reading is unusually well-informed on a wide range of topics. He is a most interesting conversationalist and is also a ready, forcible and convincing speaker. Mr. Smith is a firm friend and one who does not forget a favor. He is not spoiled by his wealth and success in life and is as accessible now as when a comparitively poor man. Many an old friend has been the recipient of a timely hint or frequently a still more substantial evidence of the fact that Mr. Smith's friendship was more than a mere sentiment. He is a genial courteous business man and valued citizen, and in social circles, as in business life, is recognized as a man of excellent judgement and sterling qualities. A. D. ISLACKINTON. Mr. A. D. Blackinton, chief engineer of the Erie and Wyoming Valley Railroad, is a native of New England, having been born and reared in Rockland, Maine, but for the past twelve years has been identified with the above railroad and its coal interests reaching from Pittston to Jessup. He received his early education in the Puplic Schools of Rockland, graduating from the High School with honors in 1873. Entering the State College the same year, he persued the course in Civil Engineer ng and was graduated in SCR ANTON. 1877, being one of twelve selected from the class to speak at commencement. Being called back by the Professor of Natural History, he spent some time in preparing charts and illustrations for lecture purposes. He was then employed for several months draughting, sketching and assisting Fish Com- missioner Atkinson, at Bucksport Hatcheries. He then bought out a civil engineers office in Rockland, and began bus- iness for himself in 1878, and was elected city engineer successively in 1879- 80 and 81. During the summer of 1881 being appointed resident engineer of the Rockland Harbor Breakwater, under General Thorn, he started the work and remained two years during which time $60,000 were put into the work, of which the whole was to cost $600, oco. His military service consisted of 4 years in a cadet company, being Captain the last year, and three years as 2d Lieutenant in the State Militia Went to Hawley, Pa., in 1882 and worked for the Pennsylvania Coal Co., as leveller in a corps of engineers locating a steam road over the Mooric Mountains, to take the place of the gravity system. Returned to Rockland when that work was completed. In 1883 was recalled to Pennsylvania, where he worked as transitman in a corps of engineers locating and constructing the present Erie and Wyoming Valley Railroad. After the completion of this work he was retained as Engineer, and has been in the company's employ ever since. He has also held the position of Treasurer of the Consumers Ice Co., since its organization in 1889. In 1894, he was married to Mary E. daughter of the late John B. Smith, and has ever since resided at Dunmore, where the companies offices are located. His first employment was with the Delaware and Hudson Canal Company, with whom he remained untill 1865 when he engaged with the Pennsylvania Coal Company as apprentice and pattern maker serving his time, afterwards entering the office of the Company where he remained for several years. He had in the meantime studied mechanical draughting, and was em- ployed by the Company as draughtsman in 1872, after devoting considerable time to study, he has gradually worked himself up to the position of head draughtsman which he now holds. His training and experience fit him to perform, in the most satisfactory manner, all work in civil engineering and he has gained a reputation by the fidelity and accuracy of his work, which has placed him in the front rank of his profession. He is a resident of Dunmore, a man of large business capacity and through reliabilty, with whom it is always a pleasure to meet, socially or professionally. Mr. Farrer, was married in 1876, to Miss Lizzie McKinstoy, daughter of Steven McKinstoy, of Newburgh. N. Y CHARLI S Charles S. Fairer, was bom at Carbondale, Pa., November 1st, 1849. In i860 his father died, leaving him to fight his way through the world. I). E. BARTON. The subject of our sketch, which is taken from a very good photograph of D. E. Barton, was born Oct. 14, 1859, at Dunmore, Lackawanna County, Pa. He is the youngest son of D. P. Barton, formerly of Dunmore Pa. , now located at Washington D. C. who sprung from Connecticut stock and was raised in Orange Co., New York. His mother came from early Dutch settlers at Easton, Pa. D. E. Barton was educated in Dunmore Public Schools, and studied under the late Prof. H. H. Merrill at his private school at Scraton, Pa., for two years, also studied under and assisted Major S. F. Fon Forstner, C. E. two years during which time Major Von Forstner served one term as City Engineer of Scranton, Pa. Major Von Forstner removing from Scranton in 1877, Mr. Barton then 18 years of age entered the employment of Penna. Coal Co., as apprentice to machinist trade. In 1883 having served nearly seven years, he removed to Fort Worth, Texas, and obtained employment with the Gould System of Rail Roads on Texas and Pacific R. R. as a machinest. During his residence in Texas, the Erie and Wyoming Valley R. R. having been built and put in operation in connection with Penna. Coal Co., SCRANTON. 23 the President of the E. & W. V., Mr. Jno. B. Smith offered him a position as Ass't. Master Mechanic under the late A. J. Crane, then M. M , whom Mr. Barton succeded at his death in 1887. Since that time Mr. Barton has held continuously the position of Master Mechanic, and has helped to make the Motive Power of the E. & W. V. R. R. noted for its efficiency. During Mr. Bartons time the E. &. W. V ". R. R. have built at their Dunmore Shops several Three Cylinder Locomotives under patents of the late President Jno. B. Smith, which have proved very success- ful. In 1888 Mr. Barton married Allie, youngest daughter of Mr. and Mrs. Christopher Moffatt of Dunmore, formerly of Dumfries, Scotland, which union has been blest with two children, Jessie M. who died in her infancy and David M. now a bright youngster of four. Mr. and Mrs. Barton have lately built a very comfortable home on Dudley St., Dunmore, and enjoy the confidence and esteem of many Dunmore friends. They are members and regular attendants of Dunmore Presbyterian Church, in which they take great interest. JAMES H. YOUNG. Capacity for doing simultaneously a phenomenal amount of work in dif- ferent lines of effort is one of the explanations of the success achieved by Mr. Young, who is of Scotch descent, having been born in Scotland, November 26th, 1843. In the same year his parents came to this country and settled at Carbondale, Pa., where he received his early education. In 1 85 1 the family removed to Dunmore, at the age of ten years he entered the employ of the Pennsylvania Coal Company as slate picker. His father being also engaged in the mining business, at which work he continued until • 863, when he entered the machine shop of the Company, working as a machinist for one year. In 1868 the late John B. Smith offered him the position as mine foreman which he accepted, in that capacity he served the Company until April 1st, 1873, when he was advanced to the position of mine superintendent of Dunmore, having seven large mines under his control. In addition to the supervision of those great enterprises, Mr. Young has many other business cares, every one of which receives his systematic and masterful attention from day to day. A mind keen in instantly analyzeing a situation, and possessed in re- markable degree of the synthetical faculity of grouping and utilizing details, enables him to accomplish with apparent ease work that would exhaust a dozen men of even more than ordinary ability and energy. Mr. Young was married in 1857 to Miss Charlotte Harrington, of Dunmore, and has two children. ANDREW H. ALLEN. Andrew H. Allen was born 1 8th May, 1863, at Nevada City, California, and is the son of Charles and Margaret M. Allen, natives of Scotland who emegrated to Pittston Luzerne Co., Penna. and were married April 10th, 1854. When Andrew was three years of age his father died at Grass Valley, California, leaving a widow and five children. Andrew being the second youngest at the age of two he removed to Pittston, Penna., with his mother and family, where he received a common school education. When at the age of 15 he commenced the study of Mining by starting to work as a Door Boy at No. 6 Colliery of the Penna. Coal Co , where he continued to work at the various occupations of mining until he reached the age of 18, he then had a desire to know a little about machinery and secured a position at 50c per day and spent a year in the machine shops of Wisner & Strong, at West Pittston, Pa. Then he began the study of Civil Engineering and secured a position as Chain Man on the Engineer Corps of Penna. Coal Co. On Sept. 1 st, 1885, he was promoted to Transit Man, having charge of one Corps of Engineers, which position held until July, 1st, 1892, when he was given the position of Mining Engineer, P C. Co. at Pittston and on Oct. 1st, 1894, was promoted to the position of Chief Engineer Penna , Coal Co., with headquarters at Dunmore, Penna., which position he now holds. On Aug. 4th, 1886, he was married to Miss Mary, daughter of Andrew Bryden, Supt. Pittston Division Penna. Coal Co. Their marriage was blessed by three children, Isabell, Andrew and Margaret. He was elected Council Man in Pittston, in 1893 as a Republican by over 800 majority. 24 SCRAN TON. HERBERT A. MACE. HENRY HEYEA. Herbert A. Mace train despatcher of the Erie and Wyoming Valley Railroad Company, was horn at Abington, Luzerne, now Lackawanna County, June 15th, 1850, and was educated at the puhlic schools of Factory- ville, Pa. ."completing his education at the Buckwell University, at Lewisburg, l niion County, Pa. His first employment was as telegraph operator in the employ o\ the" Delaware Lackawanna and Western Railroad, and continued with them in that capacity and that of ticket agent for six years, attending school and studying at home during his leisure hours. In 1869 he entered the employ of the Delaware and Hudson Canal Company as train despatcher where he remained until May 1886. He then accepted the position of Chief Dispatcher for the Erie and Wyoming Valley Railroad at solicitation of the late John B. Smith, then President of the road. This position he holds at the present time. Mr. Mace has the reputation of being the most expert Dispatcher in the country. His father was also in the railroad business. Mr. Mace studied law in the office of Lodd Rockwell, at Canton Ohio, but gave it up and returned to his old occupation. He was President of the Train Dispatchers Association of America. Has resided at Scranton from 1889 to 1894, when he removed to Dunmore, Pa. Mr. Mace was married in 1872 to Amanda, daughter of David Seaman, of Scranton, Pa. Henry Beyea, Paymaster and accountant of the Pennsylvania Coal Com- pany, was born at Mammicating Township, Sullivan County, N. Y. He received his early education at the public schools of Mammicating and later at the State Normal School located at Liberty, N. Y. After leaving school in 1852, he was employed by his father, who was engaged in transacting a general store at Pittson Pa. He remained there for five years, and then owing to the extreme business depression which was so severe at that time, he went to Nebraska, where he engaged in farming. After the hard times had passed, he sold his farm and returned to the state, his adoption, when shortly after- wards at the solicitation of the late John 15. Smith, he took charge of the freight department branch, of the Pennsylvania Coal Company at Dunmore, in which department he served the company until June, 1864, when he was made paymaster and accountant of Pennsylvania Coal Co. In 1885 he also took the position of paymaster and accountant of the Dunmore Iron and Steel Company, Erie and Wyoming Railroad, and the Dunmore Gas and Water Company. In 1879 ne was elected Secretary and Treasurer of the Dunmore Cemetery Association, all of which positions he now holds. Mr. Beyea, was married in January, 1862, to Ellen, daughter of Peter Purser of Wilkes Barre, Pa., who was for years a prominent citizen and large land owner. At the time of his death, which occured on January 8th, 1874, he was President of the Wilkes Barre Savings Bank, and connected with many other enterprises of considerable importance. SCRANTON. The Pennsylvania Coal Company, DUNMORE, T>A. GEORGE B. SMITH, General Superintendent. SAMUEL THORNE, President, W. E. STREET, Treasurer, M. B. MEAD, Secretary. THOMAS HODGSON, Western Supt. Penn. Coal Co., Buffalo, N. Y. GEORGE W. DECKER, Supt. at Newburgh, N. Y., Penn. Coal Co. 26 SCRAN70N. ARTHUR D. DEAN. Arthur D. Dean was born in North Abington, Luzerne County, Pa., 29th January, 1849. His ancestors came from Rhode Island, were among the first settlers of Wyoming Valley, and was one of the forty settlers who in 1769 built forty-fort on the banks of the Susquehanna, just above Kingston, Pa It was he who gave the name of Kingston, to this settlement in honor of his wife, who was a native of Kingston, R. I. Isaac Dean, father of A. D. Dean, was born 9th June, 181 1, and is now living in the 1st ward of Scranton. His wife was Polly S. Heermans, daugh- ter of Henry Heermans, one of the first settlers of Providence, Pa. She died 1 8th July, 1868, Their family consists of three sons and three daughters, all living in 1895. Thesubject of this sketch is the second son. born 29th January. 1849, on the farm cleared by his father about a mile west of the village of Dalton. His early education was obtained in the country schools in the neighborhood of his home. Later he attended Lewisburg University, studied Creek and Latin at East Greenwich Academy, R I., and entered Brown University. Providence, Rhode Island, where he graduated in the classical course, taking the degree of A. B. in 1872. He was admitted to the Bar of Luzerne County, nth Jan , 1875, and to the Supreme Court of Pennsylvania, a few years later, he practised his profession in Wilkes-Barre until the division of Luzerne County, when he removed to Scranton, and has continued in active practice to the present time. He has interested himself in some of the business enterprises of the city and engaged to a moderate extent in real estate investments which have proved reasonably profitable. He has great faith in the future growth and prosperity of Scranton. Although an earnest Republican in politics, he has never sought political preferment, the practical politics of the time being uncongenial to his tastes, which are quiet and unassuming rather than pushing and aggressive. His ambition and affections centered in his home and there he finds the peace and solace which puplic office and notoriety could not secure. He married 11th May, 1882. SCRANTON. 27 Tfie Heitdrtcfi Manufacturing <Zo\uuauu, li/td. E. E. HENDRICK. Among the many important industries that have grown up with the country, may be mentioned that of The Hendrick Mfg. Co., of Carbondale. Mr. E. E. Hendrick, from whom the Company derives its name, was born in Plymouth, Michigan, May 9th, 1832, where he attended the public schools, when but eighteen years of age he engaged in the manufacturing business in his native town, and for seven years he stood by his first venture. Two years later he directed his attention to the manufacture of lubricating oil from crude petroleum, and in 1881 he secured his first patent. Mr. Hendrick, was one of the pioneers in the oil industry and many of the wonderful discoveries that gave crude oil greater value were made by him. In the year 1889, Mr. A. P. Trautwein, who was interested in the manu- facture of the Pontifex ice machine associated himself with Mr. Hendrick and the Hendrick Manufacturing Company began the manufacture of the Pontifex machines with the Hendrick improvements, and the combination has proved a big success. The firm are manufacturing refrigerating and ice making machines with a capacity varying from one to fifty tons daily. Within the past few years the entire plant of the Hendrick Mfg. Co., has been re- built. The old structures have given way to imposing and substantial buildings in which the business of the concern is now carried on. New machines are being constantly added and the old ones removed as fast as superior devices are found to take their place and to show how rapidly these changes are made there is but one in this great establishment that was in service four years ago. It is due to Mr. H.endrick's patience and persistence that the business of this company has assumed the proportions of to-day. Good judgement re- garding the requirements, the desire to give satisfaction to its customers, has made The Hendrick Manufacturing Company, one of the largest of its character in the United States. 'Ihe officers of the Company are E. E Hendrick, chairman; A P. Trautwein, Superintendent; W. T. Colville, Treasurer; and L. A. Bassett, Secretary. The main office is at Carbondale, Pa., Branch office, Havemeyer Building, New York, N. Y. :\iJ£Ei_.-T «ifc-r-i • X. THE HENDRICK MFC CO., LTD., CARBONDALE, PA. 28 WM. CONNELL, Prest. SCR AN TON. ALEX. E. HUNT, Gen'l. Mgi. ALBERT G. HUNT, Sec'y. , THE HUNT & CONJSTELT, CO., HFAUY HARnVA/ARF Steam and Hot Water Heating, Plumb- HLHVI nHflUVVMnr:. ingf Electric Light Wirelng, Gas and BLECTRIO FIXTURES. STORE AND OFFICES-432 &. 484 Lackawanna Avenue. WAR EHOUSE On D. L. & W. R. R., Corner Lackawanna Ave. and Eighth St LACKAWANNA HARDWARE CO.. General Railroad, Mine & Mill Supplies, BUILDERS HARDWARE, PLATE CLASS. Supplies for Plumbers, Tinners, Steam Fitters, Contractors, Railroads, Water Works, Mills and Manufacturers. 221 Lackawanna Avenue, 222 & 224 Centre Street Scpanton, Pa. Selling Agents Chambers Eagle Brand Glass. PRICE & HOWARTH, LUMBERMEN, Scranton, Pennsylvania. SCRANTON. 29 JVIcCLAVE'S Improved Grate and Improved Argand Steam Blower, for boiler and other furnaces; These appliances together, combine more valuable features for burning the smaller sizes of hard and soft coal, such as anthracite culm, Birdseye, Buckwheat, and Bitumino us Slack, than any pi^s^jh ■ other SYSTEM; Grate alone. STANDS UNEQUALLED FOR BURNING THE LARGER SIZES OF THESE FUELS WITH NATURAL DRAUGHT. FOR FULL PARTICULARS, SEND FOR ILLUSTRATED DESCRIPTIVE CATALOGUE A. Me CLAVE, BROOKS &CO. ■ Scranton, Pa., U.S.A. Established 1847. S. G. BARKER & SOH, SCRANTON, PA. m ran Tfwm Q : B Coal Telephone, 1133. Ice Telephone, 1132- CONSUMERS ICE COMPANY, WHOLESALE AND RETAIL DEALERS IN PINE LAKE ICE, Anthracite and Bituminous Coal, ADAMS AVE. and ASH ST., Orders by Mail or Telephone will receive prompt attention. Coal Yard, 906 & 908 Washington Ave., SCRAHTOM, PA. I. F. Megaigel, Pres't., E. N. Willard, Vice-Prest., A. D. Blackington, Treas., J. H. Steele, C. D. Jones, P. J. Horan, Wm. Connell, Directors. C. H. Schadt, Gen'l Manager THE SCRAMTOM VITRIFIED BRICK AND TILE MFG. CO., MAKERS OF SHALE PAVING BRICK, Etc. M. H. DALE, General Sales Agent SCRANTON, PA. Office: 32i> Washington Avenue, Works : Xaij-Aug, Pa. E. & W.V.K.R C. E, RETTEW, Pres. T. McDONALD, A. P, TRAUTWEIN, Trea s E. CLARKSON, V. Pres. Manager, A. D. HARDING, Sec. THE SPERL HEATER CO., MANUFACTURERS OF The Spepl Steam and Hot Water Heaters, MAIN OFFICE AND WORKS, Dunaff St. and D. & H. R. R. Yard, CARBONOALE, PA. PETER KRANTZ, BREWER OF 50,000 tons of Coal is weighed every day on Barker's Scales. LAGER, ALE AND PORTER, CARBOttOA-bB, PA. 3° SCR AN TON. OHN K. SYKES. HARRY R. SYKES. S. SYKES' S0NS, Contractors and Builders AND DEALERS IN Cut Stone and Flagging. CEMETERY POSTS AND ENCLOSURES MADE AT SHORT NOTICE. Office and Yard: 1222 to 1228 Capousc Avenue, SCRANTON, PA, Telephone No. 5332. 1231 to 1237 Penn Avenue. Wft B.BC B'ljP) UJIL lullUt! liijiiii ■W ! ti»jf(i SCRANTON lOUSD, On the European Plan. VICTOR KOCK, Proprietor. Near D. L, &. W. R. R. Depot, The Bed Rooms are large and well ventilated, Heated by steam, Electric Bells and Light in every Room. SCRANTON, PA. TlKDMAe F. If UI,LEN f <ISanitary Plumber,^ GAS, STEAM AND HOT WATER FITTER, TINNIING, SHEET IRON, COPPER WORK, ETC., Telephone No. 1522. No. 315 SPRUCE STREET. SCRANTON, PA. J. T. PETH1CK. E. E. BUNNELL. R. W. PETH1CK. The Carbondale Lumber Co., GENERAL HOUSEBUILDING SUPPLIES. WHOLESALE AND RETAIL. YARD AND OFFICE, DUNDAFF ST., OPPOSITE D. & H. DEPOT. CARBONDALE, PA. SCRANTON FIRE BRICK CO. MANUFACTURERS OF FIRE BRICK and FIRE CLAY FOR STEEL WORKS, ROLLING MILLS, BLAST FURNACES, BOILERS, CUPOLA AND STACK LININGS. MADE FROM BEST QUALITY NEW JERSEY FIRE CLAY. WORKS, NAY=AUG AVENUE, <JfDAISITOM PA Near Green Ridge Street. OV^All I Ul^l, I" /A. Telephone : Works, 1805. Treas., 452. GREEN RIDGE LUMBER C0MPANY, 521 Green Ridge Street, SCRANTON, PA. W, L, SCOTT, Pres. M. D, BROWN, Vice-Pres, G. A. CLEARWATER, Sec'y. GEO. D, BROWN, Treas. Miami HfffiGTiiiii co. ™ uaam iron and steel co. MANUFACTURERS OF SASH, DOORS. BLINDS, and MOULDINGS. Scroll Sawing, Turning, Carving, Veneered Work & Fine Interior Finish. Contractors, Builders and General Lumber Dealers. 101 to ill East Market St, SGRANT«0N, PA. Telephone, 2957. MANUFACTURERS OF STEEL RAILS. SCRANTON, PA. New York Office, 52 WALL STREET. SCRANTON. 3' JOHN J. GORMAN, Sanitary Plumbing, GAS AND STEAM FITTING, TINNING, Etc. 1ELEPHONE 3283. 309 Spruce Street. Temple Court. SCRANTON, PA. M. H. HOLCATE, REAL ESTATE, Factory Sites, Business Property, Dwelling Houses, Lots, well located, MORTGAGES AND OTHER SECURITIES BOUGHT AND SOLD. Loans Negotiated. Correspondence Solicited. Address: Rooms 27-28, Commonwealth Building, SCRANTON, PA. FRANK MOYER, Contractor and Builder, Private Wire and Stock Ticker. All Stocks and Bonds Dealt in on N, Y. Stock Exchange Bought and Sold. Telephone 5002. WM. LINN ALLEN &. CO., Stock Brokers, 412 Spruce Street, SCRANTON, PA. GEO. du B. DIMMICK, Manager. PROPRIETOR OF LACKA BRICK WORKS. PETER STIPP, Contractor and Builder, DEALER IN BUILDING STONE, Contracts taken for all kinds of Masonry, and ( ementing of Cellars. Stones Delivered to all Parts of the City. Office, 520 Spruce St. Opp. Court House. SCRANTON, PA. Telephone 2804. A. H. SQUIRE, Agt, Steam; and Hot Water Fitting. 331 Washington Ave., SCRANTON, PA. Lewis Havens, Philadelphia. John D. Williams, of J. D. Williams & bio., Scranton WOOD CONSTRUCTION, Rear 320 N. Washington Avenue, Telephone S.->4. SCRANTON, PA. ESTIMATES FURNISHED S. E. ADDYMAN. M. C. CALKIN ADDYMAN & CALKIN. Contractors & Builders, HAVENS & WILLIAMS, Contractors & Builders, 301 Washington Ave., SCRANTON, PA. T. C. von Storch, Tresident. E. A. Clark, Sec'y 5- Treas. OFFICE AND SHOP, cor. north main ave. and Ferdinand st. fop, N. Main Ave. and Green Ridge St., Scranton, Pa SCRANTON, PA. 3* SCRANTON. SIMPSON & WATKINS, WHOLESALE DEALERS IN COAL * REPUBLICAN BUILDING. Operating Edgerton, Northwest, Babylon, Mount Lookout, Forty Fort and Harry E. COLLIERIES. SCR^.]SrT01T, Z 5 ^.. IFRAKM €AMOJe©I f Dealer In Wyoming Blue, Forest City White, Scranton Yellow, AND ALL KINDS OF Cut Stone, Carving, Statuary, Etc. Quarries at Nicholson and Forest City, Pa. Yard and Mill, 724 Scranton St. SCRANTON, PA. Jas. G. Batterson, President. EDWIN S. WILLIAHS, Contractor & Builder, Dealer in Gat Sl@ne. OFFICE AND YARDS Cor. Perm Avenue and Ash St. SCRANTON, PA. Furnished the cut stone for the County Jail, Municipal Building, Dime Savings Bank, No. 27 School, entire work on Carter and Kennedy Building, also Norton's Building. Rodney Dennis, Secretary. THE John E. Morris, Ass't Sect'y. Travelers Insurance Company, OF HARTFORD, CONN. INCORPORATED 1863. J. W. DUSENBURY, Agent. Coal Exchange Building, Wyoming Av , SCRANTON, PA. BROWN & MORRIS. Price Building, |3GW¥6]I t Pfl. Telephone No. 3162. MULHERIN & JUDGE, LUMBER DEALERS, Contractors and Builders, Yard and Office at Steel Works Station, SCRAHTON, PA. MANUFACTURER OF Clemmons Patented Mine Hames, ALL KINDS OF HICH and LOW TOP MINE HAMES. LOOP TOP and BOTTOM MINE HAMES. Beware of Imitations. None genuine without A. D. Williams, Scranton, stamp- ed on each Hook. TEAM, CART, OR ANY OTHER KIND OF HAMES made to Order At Regular Prices if you send Sample. All HAMES made of Best White Oak, steamed and bent. Your orders solicited and Satisfaction Guaranteed or money refunded. All Kinds of Mine Hames Repaired. 443 Taylor Ave., SCRANTON, PA. G. D. BROWN, President. G. A. CLEARWATER, Treasurer H. H. REYNOLDS, Secretary. E. L. MERRIAM, Manager. THE Paragon Plaster & Supply Co., MANUFACTURERS OF "PARAGON" WALL PLASTER, AND DEALERS IN PLASTER, CEMENT, LIMF, HAIR, MARBLE DUST, FLUE LINING, ETC. OFFICE AND FACTORY, I 506 to 1516 Albright Avenue, SCRANTON, PA . Telephone: 3153. THE CITY OF PITTSTON. HE history of the origin, growth and develop- ment of Pittson, like that of the many other leading coal mining centres of Pennsylvania, presents a tale of early struggles, indomitable perseverance and inbred energy; in truth, another striking illustration of the trials, en- durance and faith of those pioneers who struck out beyond the borders of civilzation to rough hew their own fortunes from what opportunities Dame Nature may place at their disposal. Pittston is situated in the Wyoming Valley, midway between Scranton and Wilkes Barre, in the centre of the Anthracite coal field. The resources of the place depend almost entirely upon the coal-mining industries which extend over a wide range of territory, which is cultivated assiduously by her merchants, who are distinguished for their liberality, energy and complete preparation for supplying all demands upon their resources and possessingevery facility for the procurement and distribution of goods. The anthracite coal from this region is noted for its free combustive qualities and free- dom from slate and the hill and mountain sides for miles around are dotted with towering breakers at the mouths of the almost numberless mines, while employment is furnished to a vast army of skilled and unskilled laborers, the annual products amounting to about 2,500,- 000 tons which is shipped to almost all portions of the Union east of the Mississippi river, besides the coal industry there are a number of iron producing establishments, saw-mills, sash, door and planing mills, breweries, machine shops, etc., and the business men of the town recognize the para- mount importance of manufactures and the value of their fuel at hand, and extend cheerful and substantial assistance to such enterprises. The mercan- tile houses, both wholesale and retail, are well organized, conducted with prudence and judgment, and have the entire confidence of those with whom they have business transactions. The financial institutions embrace both national and private banking houses and are noted for their sound, sagacious and conservative management, and hold high rank among the financial in- stitutions of the country. In the several public schools, which are graded, ample provisions are made for the accommodation of all classes of pupils, and some ot the buildings are provided with all the very latest and most modern improvements; the best available educational talent is employed and the scholars are instructed in those branches which best qualify them for life's struggles. The annual reports show steadily increasing attendance, gratifying progress in all grades, and the most satisfactory condition of affairs in every way. Pittston has always been wisely and economically governed, the ad- ministration of its public affairs being continually placed in the hands of honorable, intelligent and trustworthy citizens who are thoroughly imbued with the spirit of an honest and peaceable local government and advancement. The population is about 20,000, and is annually increasing. The climate is of an average character, perfectly healthy, and the vital statistics give evidence of a remarkably low rate of mortality, while diseases of an epidemic nature are almost unknown. Rents are very reasonable and as a general thing the expert and honest workman can find steady and lucrative employment. In this practical age railroads and manufactories form the backbone of a city. Pittston has already five great lines of Railroads, which, with several branches, is more than many cities of greater pretentions can boast. Within two rmles of its business centre are fifteen gigantic coal breakers, in and around which are employed about 5,129 persons, furnishing for ship- ment, daily, over 10,150 tons of best quality anthracite coal; and yet these operations are in their infancy. Manufacturers to whom coal is transported at distant places, must soon realize that much money can be saved by removing their plants to this section, where the desired fuel is produced. Plants desiring to locate in this city will receive valuable assistance and should address the Board of Trade, E. H. Banker, Secretary, Pittston, Pa. JOHN S. JENKINS. John Smith Jenkins, coal operator, was born January 21st, 1835. He PITTSTON. 35 is the son of Benjamin Jenkins, and represents one of the most prominent and historical families of this section. His grandfather was Thomas Jenkins and his great grandfather the famous John Jenkins of Northmoreland, who built Fort Jenkins, so prominent in the history of the Wyoming Massacre. Another illustrious member of this family was the son Col. John Jenkins of revolutionary fame John S Jenkins received his education at the Exeter School House, and began life at Pittston in 1847, in the employ of Samuel Benedict In 1849 he entered business for himself , boating coal on the North Branch Canal running between Pittston and New York. When the war broke out he enlisted with company G, 187 regiment of Pa., and served as sergeant until August 3, 1865. He then returned and took charge of the Greenwood Colliery. On August 1st, 1877, he became Super- intendent of the lumber road known as the Spring Brook Railroad, where he remained until 1879 during which time he engaged in running a general store under the firm name of John S. Jenkins & Co. From 1879 to 1887 he engaged in various enterprises, leasing and releasing coal mines etc. In many cases developing coal lands that were supposed to be unproductive. In October, 1887, he bought of John Jermyn, his mine property located at Blakely Borough, also supposed to be unproductive, and in December, formed a company to operate the mines under the name of the Rush Brook Coal Com- pany, he becoming its President. This is now a valuable mine; he is also interested in other mining property through the valley. Mr. Jenkins was married in 1861, to Miss R. A. Spencer, daughter of Miles Spencer, of Dallas, Pa. JOHN B. LAW. John B. Law, General Manager of the Newton Coal Mining Company, and Old Forge Mining Company of Pittston, whose potrait we give herewith, was born in Archibald, Luzerne County. Pa., on the 28th day of November, 1852, and he is distinctively a representative citizen of the county of his birth. He was the son of Catherine and William Law, of Pittston, who emigrated from Scotland and settled in Carbondale, July 4th, 1842. Mr. Law Sr., was a practical miner, and engaged in this business on his arrival here, both at Pittston and Carbondale, and at his death, was superin- tendent of the Pittston mines of the Penna. Coal Company. Mr. Law, was educated at the puplic schools of his birthplace, and later attended the Riverview Military Academy at Poughkeepsie N. Y. In 1868 he entered the Lafayette College at Easton, Pa., where he completed his studies, and graduated as a mining engineer in 1872. He then engaged with the Delaware Lackawanna and Western Railroad Company, as a mining engineer, with whom he remained until 1873, when he to °k a position for the Pennsylvania Coal Company, taking charge of their Pleasant Valley Colliery, situated near Pittston, continuing with them until 1880, when he went to Canada to superintend the iron mine of the Roberts Iron Company, at Robertsville, Ontario, remaining there for two years. Owing to the severity of the climate he returned to Pittston, and engaged with the Penna Coal Co., as assisant superintendent under his father. In 1892 he accepted the position of General Manager for the Newton Coal Mining Company of Pittston, and on September 1, 1893, was made General Manager of the Old Forge Mining Company, which position he now fills. On September 22nd, 1874, he was married to Miss Jennie McDougall, daughter of John McDougall of Pittston, and has two children, Janet, born September 28th, 1875, and Jean Gorey, born January 10th, 1887. Properties Bought and Sold. Real Estate Loans Negotiated. Secretary Board of Trade, Pittston, Pa. "BANKER'S REAL ESTATE NEWS." A monthly publication, contains a brief description and price of more than 360 " For Sale " pro- perties. FREE. FACTORY SITES, OOAL PROPERTIES, AND LOUISIANA RIOE LANDS, THE CITY OF WILKES-BARRE. LKES-BARRE, the county seat of Luzerne County, was originally one of the five town- ships allotted by the Susquehanna Company, to the Connecticut settlers in 1768. Two years later it was surveyed by David Meade and named in honor of John Wilkes and Colonel Barre, members of Parliment, and distinguished for their advocacy for the liberty and rights of the Colonists before the Revolution. From the very beginning of its history, Wilkes-Barre was noted as a trading centre, and its subsequent growth resulted more from its commercial prosper- ity than agricultural pursuits. Long before ie advent of the whites, there were Indian traders through this section The first regu- merchant here was Matthias Hollenbech, who kept a store on South Main Street, just be- low the (inner of Northampton. It goes without saying that the cause of popular education was one of the very first things to command the attention of the people. Early and substantial provision for the foundation of it had been made by the Susque- hanna Company, which set aside five hundred acres of land in each township for the support of common schools in each township. In 1773 the people in town-meeting assembled, assessed themselves a tax of three pence in the pound for the founding of a free school in each township. From this has grown the splendid public school system for which the city is justly celebrated, whose counterpart is reflected in the exceptional average intelligence of the people of Wilkes-Barre. The school buildings are numerous, afford ample accommodation for the pupils, and contain, generally, spacious, roomy, well- ventilated and lighted rooms, besides the excellent graded schools, that provide ample accommodations for all the children of school age, there are several private institutions of high caracter. Conspicuous among these, the Wilkes-Barre Female Academy, chartered in 1854, and conducted under the able hand of the Presbytery of Luzerne, has attained a very high reputation St. Mary's ( onvent, with its schools, was opened in the fall of 1855, and in the summer of 1876, the Sisters of Mercy of this convent opened a seminary for young ladies on Washington Street. The Malincherodt Convent and Academy of the Sisters of Christian Charity was established in 1878. It is very beautifully located and commands a view of one of the richest pieces of picturesque landscape in the State, while its educational equipment is in every way superior. The Wilkes-Barre Academy was founded about four- teen years ago as a higher school for boys, is a chartered institution, liberally endowed, and takes high rank among schools of its class in this section When the nineteenth century ushered itself in, it found the little town- ship of Wilkes-Barre in a thriving and prosperous condition, advancing with steady strides towards that position of supremacy in the valley, which its history, its commerce, its location and other natural advantages certainly entitled it. Coal and iron were being mined all through this section and began to impress themselves indelibly upon the development of Wilkes-Barre. On March 17th, 1806, Wilkes-Barre was incorporated a borough, embracing the town plot and the puplic common bordering on the river. Subsequently, at different times, the borough limits were changed, each time more territory being added. The act creating the borough did not separate it from the township nor constitute it an independent election district, but left its citizens still inhabitants of the township, its voters being voters at the elections for township officers until 18 19, when the borough ceased to have any connec- tion with the townships election. In 1804 there were six distilleries in the township; a shipyard was established on the puplic common and the con- struction of ships was begun in the hope that they could be navigated to the ocean by way of the Susquehanna and there disposed of profitably. The " Franklyn" reached the ocean in safety, but the wreck of the second ship, in 181 2, brought disaster to the proprietors and an end to the project. A small cut nail factory was established in 181 1, and for several years a somewhat extesive wholesale and retail trade was carried on. There were other enter- prises which were begun at this time and flourished for longer or shorter periods, leaving their impress on the advancement and prosperity of the villiage, although the men who conceived them have long been dead In 1820 the population of Wilkes-Barre was 732, in 1830, 1201, ten years later it was 17 18; in 1850, 2723; in i860, 4259; in 1870, 10.174; in 1880, 23.340 and in 1890, 37,718. During the dark days of the War of Seces- sion, Wilkes-Barre earnestly espoused the Union cause, and furnished her portion of the volunteers sent to the front by the state. Up to 1870 the need of a city hospital had long been felt. In that year, an appeal, signed by nine of the most prominent physicians of the city, was published, urging the necessity of a place in which men injured in and around the mines could have the proper care and treatment. This led to the founding and erection of the Wilkes-Barre City Hospital. The City of Wilkes-Barre was incorpor- ated by an act of the Assembly, approved May 24th, 1871, and included the borough of Wilkes-Barre and all of the townships of Wilkes-Barre lying west of the Empire road, projected northerly to the township line of Plains and southerly to the townships line of Hanover. Wilkes-Barre has many attractions as a city of homes. Her location is everything that can be desired, and her eligibility as a place of residence WILKES-BARRE. 39 has exerted a powerful influence in the developement of her natural resour- ces. Her broad streets and wide business thoroughfares are well paved and graded; her leval roads find fine opportunity for driving, while her numerous elegant private residences and fine public buildings combine to make her an attractive place in which to live. The rents in Wilkes-Barre are remarkable reasonable, the cost of building at a minimum, and the expenses of living as low as those of any town in this section. I he solidity of the city of Wilkes- Barre in point of healthy growth, socially, morally, as well as architecturally, is, perhaps not so fully estimated by the general public as it should be. The business of this city has been a steady, healthy groth, and, as before premised, is due to the prudence and foresight of the capitilists, merchants, manufac- turers and investors who are here engaged in business pursuits. Tracing the history of Wilkes-Barre from the year 1880 to the present time, we find her greatest progress has been made within that period. When the last census was taken the city had a population of 37.718. To day she is accredited with a population of over 45 000. She has made progress in every way — in manufactures, in commerce and trade, in commercial and political importance and in material wealth. From being a purely provincial city some years ago, she has taken a rank as one of the formost, most progressive metropolitan cities of the common- wealth. Briefly summarized, the chief events of the past decade that have wrought these marvelous changes are as follows: The Axle Works, the Lace Works, the Cutlery Works, the Silk Factory, the Paper Mill, the Underwear Factory, the Boot and Shoe Factory and the Wire Rope Manu- factory — all important and distinctive feautres of our industries — were estab- lished at different periods. An admirable system of sewerage, extending to all parts of the city, has been laid, making Wilkes-Barre's sanitary condition almost perfect. The streets, both business and residence thoroughfares, have been paved with asphalt, and arched with myriads of electric lamps, while the miles of telephone and telegraph wires, threading in all directions, attest our progress in this respect. Around her borders, and within a radius of eight miles up and down the river, 130000 people find their living. This, with her own population, makes her the political, social and business center for nearly 200,000 peo- ple. Her location on the Susquehanna makes her climate healthful and invigorating. The county seat of Luzerne, the greatest anthracite coal pro- ducing county in the world, and the center of the historic and picturesque Wyoming Valley, gives her a prestige and an advantage over other ambitious, but not equally favored cities of this region. A clean, well-governed and busy city, containing an enlightened and intelligent populace, it needs no great amount of perspicuity to forsee for it a still greater, more prosperous and gratifying future The inspiration and salvation of every progressive mercantile and manu- facturing community is dependent upon ample banking facilities — upon banks that are sound, rich and reputable, conservatively managed and yet liberal in their treatment of those who, investing their capital, brains and labor in local enterprises of a legitimate and beneficent nature, may at times require reasonable assistance in the way of pecuniary accommodation. It is safe to say that no community of equal numbers in the country is better sup- plied with fiduciary trusts of the kind described than is Wilkes-Barre, nor has any set of banks and business men a betier or more cordial mutual un- derstanding than exists here. The banks are eight in number — three nation- al, four State and one private bank. All of these institutions are in a flour- ishing condition. In manufacturers, Wilkes-Barre stands in the front line among the manufacturing cities or the state. The right place to manufacture successfully is evidently at a point where the raw materials accumulate naturally, and where at the same time, there is cheap power and advanced and ample facilities for marketing the product. Wilkes-Barre pre-eminently furnishes these conditions. With numerous and far reaching railroad lines connecting the city with the markets of the whole country, and the lumber and coal regions of the immediate vicinity, material necessarily accumulates here, and cheap power is amply provided and assured for all time. Opportunities can be obtained here by the manufacturer superior to those of larger cities, for the reason that while equal facilities are found here, at the same time the best positions are available at comparatively little cost Excellent coal, iron, hardwood lumber and other materials for manufacturing purposes are right at hand, and no city has better facilities for distributing the product. The manu- facturer who locates here will find everything at hand for the successful furtherence of his enterprise, and a friendly and helping hand will be offered him by every citizen of the community. In brief, some of the advantages of Wilkes-Barre are: 1 st. It is situated in the heart of the Anthracite coal fields, with inex- haustible supplies of the cheapest fuel on earth in its culm piles. 2d It is an important railroad center, with competing lines to New York, Boston and the West and outlets in every direction. 3d. The government of the city is based on the strictest ideas of economy consistent with safe and sure progress, and the spirit of the people is decidedly in favor of every measure intended to make the rate of taxation low. 4th. It is rich in capital, strong in credit, untrammeled by debt, with small taxation, light municipal expenses and cheap real estate, destined to advance rapidly in valve. 5th. Statistics show that it is one of the healthiest cities in the Union, subject to no contagious disease and free from prevailing sickness. 6th. Its public school system is one of the best in the State and affords excellent educational facilities. 7th. The cost of living is much less than in larger cities. 8th. Its social advantages are numerous, the tone of society healthy and the morals of the community beyond dispute. In fact, no city in the Union offers so many advantages to the small or large manufacturer as does Wilkes-Barre at the present day. The business men who control the capital have been trained to other pursuits, and have made their money there, and many of them may not now be fitted for a change, hence the opening must be filled principally by in- coming capitalists and manufacturers, who will find local capitalists ready to join hands with skillful and enterprising managers. The introduction of new manufacturing enterprises will increase the opportunities of the retail merchant to establish successful mercantile enterprises, and the general growth and development of the city will be stimulated. The question is frequently asked, What can be manufactured in Wilkes-Barre to the best advantage ? The simplest answer and an absolute true one is: Everything. A good deal of what can be done may be obtained by a glance at the pros- perous and flourishing branches of manufacturing business now carried on here. The trade conditions of this city are so flourishing as to offer strong inducements to all classes of manufactures. One thing, however, must be 4° WILKES-BARRE. borne in mind by manufacturers looking towards Wilkes-Barre as a desirable site for their industrial enterprises, and that is this : The chief merit of the selection does not rest in securing an unoccupied field with the certainty of fair immediate returns, but is due to the cheapness of the raw materials, as is fully exemplified in the article on coal, culm and other products to be found in this volume. ' Here in Wilkes-Barre the facilities required by man- ufacturers are unequaled. Every essential agency for propelling the machi- nery, every natural ability for the construction of establishments, every method for removing the results of these operations, is perfect in capacity, convenience, prompitude and cheapness. Our coal and culm deposits are exhaustless, locations for public works are countless, and our railroads afford us unexcelled opportunities for reaching foreign markets timely and advan- tageously. The neighboring hills are rich with coal and iron ore, and freights are tempered to the advantage of all our shippers, thus making this point one of the most important manufacturing centers in the country. Capital that has already found fertile results from its embarkment in our midst is proving its confidence in the commercial prominence of Wilkes-Barre by seeking new forms of industries among us and duplicating its trusts by urging vigorously the introduction of other wealth. This alone is a power- ful attestation of the exceptional vitality of our city. It confirms its position as one of the foremost of trade centers, and forecasts for it a proud and wonderful future. Wilkes-Barre to-day has within her limits mam facturing establishments vanning from corporations giving employment to 2000 men down to private enterprise with a helper or two. They are respectively making agricultural implements, awnings, axles, axle skeins, blank books, boilers, bolts and nuts, boxes, brass goods, beer, brick, brushes, buggy seats, candy, carriages and material, chain belting, crackers, drugs, files, fire-brick and clay, flour, scales, plaster, furniture, galvanized iron ware, hay tools, iron work, machinery, road scrapers, shoes, steam engines, copper and sheet iron ware, trunks, vinegar, hot-air furnaces, wagons, bottles, locomotives, doors, sash and blinds buttons, woolen goods lace curtains, electric motors, silk goods and other important products requiring the expenditure of money, skill and energy. George B. Kulp, lawyer, editor and historian, of Wilkes-Barre, Pa., is a descendant of Rev. Henry Kulp, one of the earliest German settlers in Pennsylvania. The former was born at Reamstown, Pennsylvania, February 11, 1839, and has resided in Luzerne County, Pennsylvania, since 1853. He read law with Lyman Hakes, Esq., and was admitted to the Luzerne County Bar August 20, i860. In October, i860, before he had arrived at the age of 22, he was elected Register of Wills of Luzerne County. In 1863 he was re- elected for another three years, by over three thousand majority. In the year 1876 he was chosen a member of the City Council, in which body he continued until 1882. In January 1872 he established the "'Luzerne Legal Register," of which publication he is still editor and proprietor, confessedly one of the best legal publications in the State. In February 1877, in con- nection with Joseph K. Bogert, he established the Leader, a weekly Democratic newspaper, which in January 1879 absorbed "The Luzerne Union." In October of the latter year a daily edition of the "Union Leader" was established by the firm, from which Mr. Kulp retired in 1880, his interest having been purchased by M. Bogert. He is the author of "Families of the Wyoming Valley," a work in three volumes, containing nearly 1500 pages; he is also the author of 'Historical Essays," of 155 pages, published in 1892, besides numerous other essays on Religious and Economic subjects. HARRY HAKES. GEORGE B. KULP. Harry Hakes, lawyer and physician was born at Harpers Field, N. Y., on June 10th, 1825, and represents the fifth generation on American soil of that old and respected family of that name. Both his paternal and maternal WILKES-BARRE. 4« ancestors were English and the family traces its origin back to the time of Queen Elizabeth when in 1586 they were granted their coat of arms. He is justly proud of his ancestory and has expended considerable time in completing a volume on the genealogy of the family, a book said to be one of the best of its character in this country. He is the youngest son of the late Lyman Hakes, judge of the courts of Delaware Co , N. Y., by appointment of Gov. Seward. Lyman Hakes served in the war of 1812-13. His mother was Miss Nancy Dayton, daughter of Lyman Dayton, who served in the Revolutionary war. Of his ancestors eight out of a possible ten fought in the Revolutionary war, six in the war of 181 2- 13, and over fifty in the Rebellion. His boyhood was spent on his father's farm, the summer being devoted to farm duties and the winter to attending the district school. Even at this early period he developed a great capacity for study and when he left the school had acquired a fair English education and entered the Castleton Medical College from which institution he graduated in 1846, with honors of a doctor of medicine. He began the study of law in the office of his elder brother, Lyman Hakes, and was admitted to practice January 28th, i860. He went rapidly to the front, and in 1864 was elected a member of the legislature on the Democratic ticket and returned at the succeeding term with a majority of about 3, coo. He served on the Judiciary Local, Judiciary General, Ways and Means, Corporation and other prominent committees and introduced and championed many bills of merit. After thirty years of practice at the bar he still takes an active interest in all that pertains to the science of medicine and is a member of the Penn. State Medical Society, the American Medical Asso., and the Luzerne Medical Asso., from which he is often a delegate. His digest of the history of Columbus is one of the most remarkable works of its class ever published and has been favorably commented upon by the press throughout the world 42 WILKES-BARRE Hollenback Coal Exchange Building, Cor. River and Market Sts., Wilkes-Barre. Pa. The Finest Office Building in North Eastern Pennsylvania. Thoroughly Fire Proof. Elevator, Electric Light, Steam Heat, Fire Proof Vaults, Toilet Rooms connected with Offices. For Particulars apply to H. L. WELLS, Jr., Room 33. W. II. Mil ■Till RD W. C. SHEPHERD. ESTABLISHED 1870. W. H. SHEPHERD & SONS, H. C. SHEPHERD. CONTRACTORS Building Work of all Descriptions, Doors, Sash, Blinds, Mouldings, Etc., Hardwood Work a Specialty. You can save money by Consulting us before Building. We furnish Plans and Specifications whenever desired. Shops and Mill : Cor. Main and Dana Sts., WHaKBS-BARRB, Pe\. J. W. HOLLENBACK, President. F. J. LEAVENWORTH, Vice-President A. A. STERLING, Cashier. People's Bank of Wilkes-Barre. CAPITAL - $250,00000 SURPLUS AND EARNINGS, 175,000.00 WILKES=BARRE, PA. THE WILKES-BARRE LACE MANUFACTURING CO., Incorporated 1885. Capital $100,000. ■]. W. HOLLENBACK, President. GEO. S. BENNETT, Vice-President, CLARENCE WHITMAN, Treasurer. New York Office : 39 &. 41 LEONARD STREET- WILKES-BARRE. 43 THE KINGSTON LUJIBER CO., WHOLESALE AND RETAIL DEALERS IN LUMBER OF ALL KINDS. Shingles, Doors, Sash, Mouldings, Lath and Builders' Material Generally. KINGSTON, PA. S. L. Brown, W. W. Brown, T. W. Brown. S. L. Brown & Co, OILS. BROWNS BLOCK, 202 TO 218 MARKET ST. WILKES-BARRE, PA CHARLES PARRISH, I. F. RYMAN, JOHN C. HRIDGMAN, WALTER GASTON, President. Vice-President. Sei 'y. Gen'l Manager & Treas. MANUFACTURERS OF Iron, Steel, and Galvanized Wire Rope. ESTABLISHED. 184S. WILKES-BARRE, PA. II. 11. ASH] I'.V, Pres't. S. J. TONKIN, Supt. CHAS. P. HUNT, Treas jnitiija/iN vein ce^it company, Rooms 2, 3, 4, 2nd floor, Hunt Building, NO. I I SOUTH MAIN ST. WILKES-BARRE, PA. Wyoming Fire Brick and Terra Cotta Works. WYOMINC, LUZERNE CO., PA. MANUFACTURERS OF Salt Glazed Vitrified Sewer and Drain Pipe, Chimney Top, Flues, Fire Brick, and Boiler Blocks. J. A. HUTCHINS & CO, Proprietors. MAIN OFFICE AND FACTORY, WYOMING, PA. TELEPHONE CONNECTION. CHAS. A. MINER. ESTABLISHED 1795, ASHER MINER. MINER & CO., MANUFACTURERS OF FliSZIR AND FEED. Shippers and Wholesale Dealers in Grain and Hay. MINER'S MILLS, PLYMOUTH MILL. OFFICE No. 2 WYOMING BANK BUILDING, PITTSTON MILL. WILKES-BARRE, PA, ESTABLISHED 1872. J, R, GOOLBAUGH, REAL ESTATE AND INSURANCE AGENT, Ecom 7 Laning Building, Wilkes-Earre. We attend to tlie Purchase and Sale of Real Estate. Renting and Col led inns. F. L. OLDS. Architect, OFFICE: 44-45-46 COAL EXCHANGE, WILKES-BARRE, PA 44 WILKES-BARRE. WILSON J. SMITH, Gentraetsr and Builder, ROSS AND CANAL STREETS, Wilkes Barre. Pa. CEO. D. SILVIUS, Planing Mill and Contractor \ N I) MAN CI ACTURER (IF Porch Columns, Stair Bails, Newels and Balusters. DOOR AND WINDOW FRAMES MADETO ORDER. Brackets, Corner Blocks, Mouldings, Scroll Sawing, Kiln Dried Lumber, Adamant Wall Plaster. Custom Work Promptly attended to. 24 and 26 Baltimore St., WILKES-BARRE, PA. Telephone, 2 195. John L. Raeder, Effective, D urable, Simple, W i ll La st Man y Years. W. H. NICHOLSON & CO., MANUFACTURERS OF Nicholson's Expanding Lathe Mandrels, NICHOLSON'S COMPRESSION SHAFT COUPLINGS, And Other Specialties. WILKES=BARRE, PA. Vosburg Carriage Manufactory, MANUFACTURE M 9 S. MAIN STREET, WILKES-BARRE, PA. Carriages and Wagons, Painting, Trimming and Repairing Done in all Their Branches. FACTORY WORK A SPECIALTY. ALL WORK WARRANTED. 12 N. CANAL STREET, Above Market, WILKES-BARRE, PA. GILES ROSS, *C6NT^CT0^ ■ ■ ■ ~D BUILDER Shop, 83 South River St., WILKES-BARRE, PA. All Work Promptly Attended to. a, m* ipiHitflipg 9 Contractor & Builder, AND GENERAL ERECTOR OF HOUSES, School Houses and Churches a Specialty. 64 WEST RIVER STREET, WILKES. It A It HE, PA. WYOJxlip PltfPP MILL, CONRAD LEE, Proprietor, WHOLESALE AND RETAIL DEALER IN Lumber, Mouldings, Doors, Sash and Blinds. Telephone No. 692. Corner Canal and North Streets, WILKES-BARRE, PA.