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^ 



HARVARD UNIVERSITY 

Library of the 

Museum of 

Comparative Zoology 



;EAT BASIN NATURALIST MEMOIIK 



>r 1 



Brigham Young University 



1971 



BIRDS OF UTAH 



iV;os. 







GREAT BASIN NATURALIST MEMOIRS 

Editor. Stephen L. Wood, Department of Zoology, Brigham Young University, Provo, 

Utah 84602. 
Editorial Board. Kimball T. Harper, Botany; Wilmer W. Tanner, Life Science Museum; 

Stanley L. Welsh, Botany; Clayton M. White, Zoology. 
E.x Ojficio Editorial Board Members. A. Lester Allen, dean. College of Biological and 

Agricultural Sciences; Ernest L. Olson, director, Brigham Young University Press, 

University Editor. 

The Great Basin Naturalist was founded in 1939 by Vasco M. Tanner. It has been 
published from one to four times a year since then by Brigham Young University, Provo, 
Utah. In general, only previously unpublished manuscripts of less dian 100 printed pages 
in length and pertaining to the biological natural history of western North America are 
accepted. The Great Basin Naturalist Memoirs was established in 1976 for scholarly 
works in biological natural histoiy longer than can be accommodated in the parent publi- 
cation. The Memoirs appears irregularly and bears no geographical restriction in subject 
matter. Manuscripts are subject to the approval of the editor. 

Subscriptions. The annual subscription to the Great Basin Naturalist is $12 (outside 
the United States $13). The price for single numbers is $4 each. All back numbers are in 
print and are available for sale. All matters pertaining to the purchase of subscriptions 
and back numbers should be directed to Brigham Young University Press, Marketing 
Department, 204 UPB, Provo, Utah 84602. The Great Basin Naturalist Memoirs may be 
purchased from the same office at the rate indicated on the inside of the back cover of 
either journal. 

Scholarly Exchanges. Libraries or other organizations interested in obtaining either 
journal through a continuing exchange of scholarly publications should contact the Brig- 
ham Young University Exchange Librarian, Harold B. Lee Library, Provo, Utah 84602. 

Manuscripts. All manuscripts and other copy for either the Great Basin Naturalist 
or the Great Basin Naturalist Memoirs should be addressed to the editor as instructed on 
the back cover. 






iEAT BASIN NATURALIST memoir: 

BIRDS OF UTAH 





Library of Congress Catalog Card Number: 76-55878 

International Standard Book Number: 0-8425-0663-2 

® 1976 by Brigham Young University Press. All rights reserved 

Brigham Young University Press, Provo, Utah 84602 

Printed in the United States of America 

12-76 3M 19790 



REAT BASIN NATURALIST MEMOIR 



Brigham Young University 



BIRDS OF UTAH 



C. Lynn Hayward 

Clarence Cottam 

Angus M. Woodbury 

Herbert H. Frost 

Photographs by 
Richard Porter and Robert J. Erwin 




CONTENTS 



PAGE 

Preface 1 

List of Figures 2 

Introduction 4 

Acknowledgments 5 

Historical 5 

Conservation Organizations 18 

State and Federal 

Waterfowl Preserves 19 

Bird Populations in Utah 20 

Physiography and Climate of Utah ... 23 

Bird Habitats in Utah 25 

Aquatic and Semiaquatic Habitats . 25 

Land Habitats 26 

Accounts of the Species 30 

Gaviidae. Loons 30 

Podicipedidae. Grebes 31 

Pelecanidae. Pelicans 34 

Phalacrocoracidae. Comiorants .... 39 

Ardeidae. Herons and Bitterns .... 40 

Ciconiidae. Storks and Wood Ibises 45 
Threskiomithidae. Ibises 

and Spoonbills 45 

Phoenicopteridae. Flamingos 46 

Anatidae. Swans, Geese, and Ducks 46 

Cathartidae. American Vultures . . 60 

Accipitridae. Eagles and Hawks . . 60 

Pandionidae. Ospreys 66 

Falconidae. Falcons 66 

Tetraonidae. Grouse 69 

Phasianidae. Quail and Pheasants . 71 

Meleagrididae. Turkeys 74 

Gruidae. Cranes 74 

Rallidae. Rails, Gallinules, 

and Coots 75 

Charadriidae. Plovers 78 

Scolopacidae. Snipes 

and Sandpipers 80 

Recurvirostridae. Avocets 

and Stilts 96 

Phalaropodidae. Phalaropes 98 

Stercorariidae. Jaegers 99 

Laridae. Gulls and Terns 99 

Alcidae. Auks and Murres 104 



PAGE 

Columbidae. Pigeons and Doves . . 104 
Cuculidae. Cuckoos 

and RoadRmners 107 

Tytonidae. Barn Owls 108 

Strigidae. Typical Owls 108 

Caprimulgidae. Night Hawks 

and Poor-wills 113 

Apodidae. Swifts 114 

Trochilidae. Hummingbirds 116 

Alcedinidae. Kingfishers 118 

Picidae. Woodpeckers 119 

Tyrannidae. Tyrant Flycatchers . . . 122 

Alaudidae. Larks 129 

Hirundinidae. Swallows 131 

Motacillidae. Pipits 133 

Laniidae. Shrikes 134 

Bombycillidae. Waxwings 135 

Cinclidae. Dippers 136 

Troglodytidae. Wrens 137 

Mimidae. Mockingbirds 

and Thrashers 139 

Muscicapidae. Thrushes 143 

Sylviidae. Kinglets 150 

Paridae. Chickadees and 

Titmice 152 

Sittidae. Nuthatches 156 

Certhiidae. Creepers 157 

Emberizidae. Buntings, Sparrows, 

and Tanagers 157 

Parulidae. Wood Warblers 171 

Vireonidae. Vireos 178 

Icteridae. Meadowlarks and 

Blackbirds 180 

Fringillidae. Finches, Grosbeaks, 

and Crossbills 184 

Ploceidae. House Sparrow 187 

Sturnidae. Starlings 187 

Corvidae. Jays, Magpies, 

and Crows 188 

Species of Uncertain Status 190 

Subspecies of Uncertain Status 199 

Literature Cited 200 

Index 212 



Great Basin Naturalist Memoirs 

Birds of Utah 



No. 1 



Brigham Young University, Provo, Utah 



1976 



C. Lynn Hayward,i Clarence Cottam,^ Angus M. Woodbury,^ and Herbert H. Frost* 
Photographs by Richard D. Porter^ and Robert J. Erwin^ 



PREFACE 

Prior to 1926 veiy little intensified work 
on the birds of Utah had been done by local 
students of ornithology. Several lists of 
Utah birds had been published earlier, in- 
cluding those of Baird (1852), Merriam 
(1873), Henshaw (1874), and Ridgway 
(1877). Cottam (1927) for a master's thesis 
at Brigham Young University compiled a 
list of Utah birds based on a search of pub- 
lished records up to that time and on con- 
siderable fieldwork of his own. Behle 
(1944) produced a check-list of Utah birds. 

Beginning about 1930 Angus M. Wood- 
bury, of the University of Utah, Clarence 
Cottam, then of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife 
Service, and John W. Sugden undertook a 
comprehensive work on Utah birds. Tliis 
included a search of the literature, a visit 
to most of the museums containing Utah 
birds, and considerable fieldwork. An ex- 
tensive treatment of ornithological work in 
Utah and an account of the species includ- 
ing all collection records, nesting records, 
and sight records known to the writers con- 
stituted the major part of the manuscript. 
A brief description of each species, a treat- 
ment of the natural histoiy of each species. 



a key to the birds of the state, and an ex- 
tensive bibliography were also included. 

The result of this work was a massive 
manuscript of some 1,200 typewritten pages, 
some of it single-spaced. This manuscript 
was completed about 1948 or 1949, but it 
appears that there was little search of the 
literature after 1945. Means for publica- 
tion were not forthcoming when the manu- 
script was completed, and, owing in part to 
the accidental deatli of Woodbury, the 
work was not published. When it became 
evident that there was no way of publish- 
ing the account after its completion, Wood- 
bury, Cottam, and Sugden determined to 
produce a check-list based on the larger 
manuscript (Woodbuiy, Cottam, and Sug- 
den 1949). 

In 1968 Cottam, then director of the 
Welder Wildlife Foundation near Sinton, 
Texas, invited me to join him in an at- 
tempt to revive the manuscript and prepare 
it for publication under the authorship of 
Hayward, Cottam, and Woodbuiy. Her- 
bert H. Frost was later added as one of the 
authors as a result of the considerable work 
he had done on a bibliography of Utah 
ornithology. 

The question tlien arose as to how the 



1 Professor Emeritus of Zoology, Brigham Young University, Provo, Utah 84602. 

^Former Director of the Rob and Bessy Welder Wildlife Foundation, Sinton, Texas. Deceased. 

^Professor of Zoology, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah. Deceased. 

'^Professor of Zoology, Brigham Young University, Provo, Utah 84602. 

^Research Biologist, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Provo, Utah 84601. 

6892 East 3250 North, North Ogden, Utah 84404. 



GREAT BASIN NATURALIST MEMOIRS 



No. 1 



manuscript could be revised to make it of 
value and yet be reduced to reasonable 
size for publication. Since the completion 
date of the original work, a great amount 
of fieldwork has been done in the state, 
particularly by personnel of the University 
of Utah and Brigham Young University. A 
number of important works have also been 
published recently. Were all these new 
data to be added to the original format of 
the manuscript, the size would have been 
at least doubled. It was determined, there- 
fore, that the following plan would be fol- 
lowed: (1) The section of the original 
paper dealing with the history of ornithol- 
ogy in Utah and other general matters has 
been retained complete with a few revi- 
sions and additions; (2) descriptions of tlie 
species and subspecies, as well as identifi- 
cation keys, have been omitted; (3) most of 
the references to the early collections and 
writings of Ridgway, Henshaw, and others 
were retained inasmuch as these older refer- 
ences are less accessible to many students; 
(4) the general status including relative 
abundance and habitat preference of each 



species is indicated; (5) in die case of un- 
usual or rare species found in the state, all 
records pertaining to them known to us are 
included. In certain instances a few rec- 
ords of the more common species are in- 
cluded where it seems desirable to indicate 
their widespread occurrence in the state. 
Every effort has been made to consult all 
the literature on Utah birds to date, but 
only the references cited in the text are 
included in this work. 

While the original manuscript was freely 
used and consulted, the present work is 
essentially an account of the history of 
ornithology in Utah, an up-to-date check- 
list and reference list, and a more extensive 
annotation of each species than usually 
appears in check-lists. 

The unfortunate and untimely passing of 
Clarence Cottam, 30 March 1974, left a 
great void in the authorship of this publica- 
tion. However, prior to his death he had 
critically examined and approved the en- 
tire manuscript except for the final revision. 

C. Lynn Hayward 



LIST OF FIGURES 



1. Double-crested Cormorant. Geneva Steel Plant Dike, Orem, Utah County, Utah, 20 May 1970. 
Photo courtesy United States Steel Corporation. 

2. Great Blue Heron. Salt Creek Waterfowl Management Area, Box Elder County, Utah, 7 June 1973. 
Photo by R. J. Erwin. 

3. White Pelican. Tremonton, Box Elder County, Utah. Photo by R. J. Erwin. 

4. Snowy Egret. Salt Creek Waterfowl Management Area, Box Elder County, Utah, 23 June 1973. 
Photo by R. J. Erwin. 

5. Goshawk. Snow Basin, Weber County, Utah, 10 July 1970. Photo by R. J. Erwin. 

6. Sharp-shinned Hawk. Ogden Canyon, Weber County, Utah, 10 July 1956. Photo by R. J. Erwin. 

7. Sharp-shinned Hawk. Ogden, Weber County, Utiih, 10 April 1973. Photo by R. J. Erwin. 

8. Swainson's Hawk. Ogden, Weber County, Utah, 30 August 1970. Photo by R. J. Erwin. 

9. Red-tailed Hawk. Ogden, Weber County, Utah, 15 April 1973. Photo by R. J. Erwin. 

10. Red-tailed Hawk. Ogden, Weber County, Utah, 15 April 1973. Photo by R. J. Erwin. 

11. Ferruginous Hawk. Promontory Point, Box Elder County, Utah, June 1955. Photo by R. J. Erwin. 

12. Peregrine Falcon. Ogden, Weber County, Utah, June 1952. Photo by R. D. Porter. 

13. American Kestrel. Ogden, Weber County, Utah, 30 September 1973. Photo by R. J. Erwin. 

14. Golden Eagle. Dugway, Tooele County, Utah, spring 1954. Photo by R. D. Porter. 

15. Marsh Hawk. Ogden Bay, Weber County, Utah, spring 1948. Photo by R. D. Porter. 

16. American Kestrel. Ogden, Weber County, Utah, 15 June 1959. Photo by R. J. Erwin. 

17. Common Snipe. Monte Cristo, Rich County, Utah, 30 June 1963. Photo by R. J. Erwin. 

18. Long-billed Cudew. Ogden Bay, Weber County, Utah, 21 June 1916. Photo by R. J. Erwin. 



1976 BIRDS OF UTAH 6 

19. Spotted Sandpiper. Pigeon Lake, Bayfield County, Wisconsin, no date. Photo by R. D. Porter. 

20. Black-necked Stilt. Ogden Bay, Weber County, Utah, spring 1953. Photo by R. D. Porter and R. J. 
Erwin. 

21. Black -necked Stilt. Ogden Bay, Weber County, Utah, spring 1953. Photo by R. D. Porter and R. J. 
Erwin. 

22. Wilson's Phalarope. Ogden Bay, Weber County, Utah, 20 June 1961. Photo by R. J. Erwin. 

23. Black Tern. Rochester, Monroe County, New York, 11 July 1967. Photo by R. J. Erwin. 

24. American Kestrel. Ogden, Weber County, Utah, 27 February 1973. Photo by R. J. Erwin. 

25. American Avocet. Willard Bay, Box Elder County, Utiih, 6 May 1973. Photo by R. J. Erwin. 

26. Mourning Dove. Tremonton, Box Elder County, Utah, 30 June 1974. Photo by R. J. Erwin. 

27. Barn Owl. Ogden, Weber County, Utah, 8 August 1973. Photo by R. J. Erwin. 

28. Barn Owl. Ogden, Weber County, Utah, 8 August 1973. Photo by R. J. Erwin. 

29. Long-eared Owl. Promontory, Box Elder County, Utiih, 30 June 1969. Photo by R. J. Erwin. 

30. Long-eared Owl (young). Hogup Mountains, Box Elder County, Utah, 25 June 1974. Photo by 
R. J. Erwin. 

31. Burrowing Owl. Ogden, Weber County, Utah, 8 August 1973. Photo by R. J. Erwin. 

32. Short-eared Owl. Dugway, Tooele County, Utah, 23 March 1953. Photo by R. D. Porter. 

33. Saw-whet Owl. Weber River bottoms, Weber County, Utah, 1948. Photo by R. D. Porter and R. J. 
Erwin. 

34. Saw-whet Owl (young). Weber River bottoms, Weber County, Utah, April 1948. Photo by R. D. 
Porter. 

35. Horned Lark. Hogup Mountains, Box Elder County, Utah, 11 June 1972. Photo by R. J. Erwin. 

36. Willow Flycatcher. Blacksmith Fork, Cache County, Utah, 18 July 1954. Photo by R. D. Porter 
and R. J. Erwin. 

37. Tree Swallow. Blacksmith Fork, Cache County, Utah, 17 July 1954. Photo by R. D. Porter and 
R. J. Erwin. 

38. CliflF Swallow. West Weber, Weber County, Utah, 15 July 1954. Photo by R. J. Erwin. 

39. Loggerhead Shrike. Dugway Valley, Tooele County, Utah, May 1953. Photo by R. D. Porter and 
R. J. Erwin. 

40. Rock Wren. Big Bend National Park, Brewster County, Texas, May 1958. Photo by R. D. Porter 
and R. J. Erwin. 

41. House Wren. North Fork Ogden River, Weber County, Utah, 11 June 1954. Photo by R. J. Er\vin. 

42. Mockingbird. Cedar Mountains, Tooele County, Utah, 19 June 1953. Photo by R. D. Porter and 
R. J. Erwin. 

43. Hermit Thrush. Monte Cristo, Rich County, Utah, 15 June 1959. Photo by R. J. Erwin. 

44. Mountain Bluebird. Blacksmith Fork, Cache County, Utah, 18 July 1954. Photo by R. D. Porter 
and R. J. Erwin. 

45. Blue-gray Gnatcatcher. Cedar Mountains, Tooele County, Utah, 18 June 1953. Photo by R. D. 
Porter and R. J. Erwin. 

46. Blue-gray Gnatcatcher. Cedar Mountains, Tooele County, Utah, 18 June 1953. Photo by R. D. 
Porter and R. J. Erwin. 

47. Black -capped Chickadee. Rochester,, Monroe County, New York, 16 October 1968. Photo by R. J. 
Erwin. 

48. White-crowned Sparrow. Monte Cristo, Rich County, Utah, 14 July 1973. Photo by R. J. Erwin. 

49. Brewer's Sparrow. Vernon, Tooele County, Utah, 2 June 1954. Photo by R. D. Porter and R. J. 
Erwin. 

.50. Black-throated Sparrow. Camel Back Mountain, Tooele County, Utah, no date. Photo by R. D. 
Porter. 

51. Black -throated Sparrow. Camel Back Mountain, Tooele County, Utah, 12 June 1954. Photo by 
R. D. Porter. 

52. Sage Sparrow. Rush Valley, Tooele County, Utah, 31 May 1954. Photo by R. D. Porter and R. J. 
Erwin. 

53. Sage Sparrow. Rush Valley, Tooele County, Utah, 31 May 1954. Photo by R. D. Porter and R. J. 
Erwin. 

54. Long-billed Marsh Wren. Ogden Bay, Weber County, Utah, 1 July 1969. Photo by R. J. Erwin. 

55. Dark -eyed Junco. Monte Cristo, Rich County, Utah, 27 June 1973. Photo by R. J. Erwin. 

56. Chipping Sparrow. North Fork Ogden River, Weber County, Utah, 30 June 1930. Photo by R. J. 
Erwin. 



GREAT BASIN NATURALIST MEMOIRS 



No. 1 



57. Yellow Warbler. Rochester, Monroe County, New York, 9 July 1967. Photo by R. J. Erwin. 

58. Yellow -rumped Warbler. Monte Cristo, Rich County, Utah, 7 July 1973. Photo by R. J. Erwin. 

59. Solitary Vireo. North Fork Ogden River, Weber County, Utah, 8 July 1956. Photo by R. J. Erwin. 

60. Warbling Vireo. Snow Basin, Weber County, Utah, 30 June 1959. Photo by R. J. Erwin. 

61. Northern Oriole. Ogden, Weber County, Utah, 18 June 1973. Photo by R. J. Erwin. 

62. Brewer's Blackbird. Tremonton, Box Elder County, Utah, 9 June 1974. Photo by R. J. Erwin. 

63. House Finch. Cedar Mountain, Tooele County, Ut;ih, 30 June 1953. Photo by R. D. Porter and 
R. J. Erwin. 

64. Gray Jay. Paradise Park, Uinta Mountains, Uintah County, Utah, 30 July 1953. Photo by R. J. 
Erwin. 

65. Scrub Jay. Ogden, Weber County, Utah, 10 May 1959. Photo by R. J. Erwin. 



INTRODUCTION 

Because of their widespread popular as 
well as scientific interest throughout the 
world, birds are the best known group of 
animals. It is unlikely that tliere is any 
species living in Nordi America that has 
not been identified and named, and there 
are few kinds even in the remote areas of 
the world diat have not been discovered. 
With a few exceptions, the numerous 
species of birds are rather easily distin- 
guished from one another; and one could 
assume that their classification might have 
long since become well stabilized. How- 
ever, more recent taxonomic studies using 
some of the newer behavioral, physiological, 
ecological, genetical, and biochemical tech- 
niques, as well as the older morphological 
approach, have resulted in some rather 
drastic changes in classification of birds. 
On the subspecies level there has been a 
tendency by recent workers to eliminate 
or combine some of the named races in 
polytypic species, especially among the pas- 
serine birds. In the complex sparrowlike 
and finchlike species a number of the kinds 
formerly recognized as being in separate 
genera have been combined into fewer 
genera. The phylogenetic arrangement of 
the several families, particularly in the pas- 
serine birds, has been considerably altered 
by several workers. 

The phylogenetic arrangement of die 
orders and families as an indication of their 
evolutionary relation.ships is still not well 
understood, due in part to the relative 
scarcity of fossil material. As a result, there 



appears to be no standard and universally 
accepted classification system for birds at 
the present time. In preparing this list of 
birds, we are, therefore, faced widi the 
need of making some arbitrary decisions as 
to the phylogenetic arrangement and 
nomenclature to be used. Some of tlie more 
recent and comprehensive treatments of 
phylogeny and classification of birds are as 
follows: Peters, Check-list of Birds of the 
World, Vols. 9 (1960), 10 (1964), 12 (1967), 
13 (1970), 14 (1968), 15 (1962); Wetmore 
(1960), A Classification for the Birds of the 
World, Smithsonian Misc. Coll., 139(11):1- 
37; Mayr and Short (1970), Species Taxa of 
North American Birds, Publ. of die Nuttall 
Ornitli. Club, No. 9:1-322; Storer (1971), 
Classification of Birds in Avian Biology, 
Farner, King, and Parkes, eds.. Academic 
Press, New York; Cracraft (1972), The Re- 
lationships of the Higher Taxa of Birds, 
Condor 74(4):379-392; AOU Committee on 
Classification and Nomenclature (1973), 
Thirty-second supplement of the AOU 
Check-list of North American Birds, Auk 
90(2):411-419. 

In the present treatment of Utah birds, 
the authors have followed, in the main, the 
arrangement of orders and families and 
nomenclature of the 1957 (5th) edition of the 
AOU Check-list of North American Birds 
and its thirty-second supplement (1973) for 
the orders up to and including the Pici- 
fonnes, as well as certain families not yet 
treated in the series of Peters, Check-list of 
Birds of the World. For the remaining 
families (essentially the Passeriformes) Pet- 
ers, Check-list of Birds of the World, Vols. 



1976 



BIRDS OF UTAH 



9(1960), 10(1964), 12(1967), 13(1970), 14 
(1968), and 15(1962), is followed witli a few 
exceptions. 

In the discussion of each species the 
statement on status includes the relative 
abundance, general seasonal occurrence, 
and preferred habitat. Under the subtitle 
of records reference is made to some of the 
early records. In the case of uncommon 
species all acceptable references known to 
us are included. No attempt is made to in- 
clude all the known records of tiie more 
common speices, although most of the early 
records are cited and a limited number of 
more recent records are included to indi- 
cate the extent of their occurrence in the 
state. In the case of poly typic species, where 
only one subspecies is known to occur in 
the state, the entire trinomen is given. 
Where two or more subspecies are known to 
occur in Utah, only the binomen is given in 
the heading, and the subspecific status is 
discussed in a separate paragraph. 

For tlie most part, the list of species in 
the main body of the text is based on die 
actual collection of specimens within the 
boundaries of the state. A few species are 
included based on sight records that are, 
in the judgment of the authors, well authen- 
ticated by photographs or repeated obsei^va- 
tions by competent ornithologists. 

Division of labor among the authors has 
been as follows: Woodbuiy wrote most of 
the original manuscript upon which the 
present paper is based. Cottam tlssisted 
materially through his own knowledge of 
Utah birds and through his search for speci- 
mens in several museums and records from 
the literature. Hayward searched die more 
recent literature and was responsible for 
writing most of the present text. Frost 
assisted with the literature search, revised 
the literature list, and checked the refer- 
ences to the literature. 



ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 

The writers wish to express appreciation 
to the numerous individuals and organiza- 
tions that have assisted us over the many 
years of preparation of this work. 

Financial support for the final typing and 
publication was obtained through the gen- 
erosity of the following: Division of Re- 
search, Brigham Young University, Leo P. 
Vernon, Director; State of Utah Division 
of Wildlife Resources, John E. Phelps, 
Director; members of the family of the late 
Clarence Cottam: Mrs. Ivan L. (Glenna) 
Sanderson, Mrs. Margery Osborne, Mrs. 
Douglas (Josephine) Day, and Mrs. Dwayne 
(Caroline) Stevenson; College of Biological 
and Agricultural Sciences, Brigham Young 
University, A. Lester Allen, Dean; Mt. 
Timpanogos Chapter, National Audubon 
Society, Merrill Webb, President; Utah 
Audubon Society, National Audubon So- 
ciety, Durrell H. McGarry, President. 

We also extend our thanks to Dr. Wilmer 
W. Tanner, Director of the Life Sciences 
Museum, Brigham Young University, who 
has generously placed the facilities of the 
museum at our disposal and aided in ob- 
taining financial support. Dr. William H. 
Behle of the University of Utah has been 
most lilieral in furnishing information re- 
garding certain records from his own ex- 
perience and files. 

HISTORICAL 

Perhaps the first white persons to make 
obsei-vations on the birds of Utah were mem- 
bers of the Dominguez^ and Velez de Esca- 
lante party who visited Utah Valley and 
other parts of the state in September 1776. 
Members of the party were more interested 
in converting the resident Indians to Chris- 
tianity than in studying birds but Fatliers 
Dominguez and Velez de Escalante did 



^Fray Francisco Atanasio Dominguez was the leader of the party and the senior author of the report, 
but he fell into ecclesiastical disfavor and all credit for the expedition was given to his junior companion 
by the church and subsequent historians until recently (Warner 1975). 



6 



GREAT BASIN NATURALIST MEMOIRS 



No. 1 



mention that Utah Lake abounded in geese 
and other waterfowl. In commenting on 
the situation Dominguez and Velez de 
Escahinte (Auerbach 1943:70) state: "The 
Timpanogotzis (Utah Lake) is teeming with 
several kinds of edible fish in addition to 
geese, beaver and other land and water 
animals which we did not see." They also 
speak of "wild hens" being abundant and 
being used as food by the Indians. Other 
writers have translated this to mean "sage- 
hens" (Philip Harry in Simpson 1876:492). 
Dominguez and Velez de Escalante also 
mentioned seeing nests of Cliff Swallows in 
what is now Spanish Fork Canyon. 

The next explorer to leave a record of 
Utah bird life was Captain John C. Fremont 
(1845) who visited the Great Salt Lake area 
on his second trip to the West in the sum- 
mer of 1843. Fremont visited the lake at 
the mouth of Bear River and the mouth of 
Weber River and commented particularly 
on the abundance of waterfowl (p. 149): 

The water fowl made this morning a noise like 
thunder. A pelican {Pelecanus onocrotalus) 
was killed as he passed by, and many geese 
and ducks flew over the camp. . . . The whole 
morass was animated with multitudes of water 
fowl, which appeared to be very wild — rising 
for the space of a mile around about at the 
sound of a gun, with a noise like distant thun- 
der. Several of the people waded out into the 
marshes, and we had tonight a delicious sup- 
per of ducks, geese, and plover. 

The presence of gulls in tire area is 
attested to by Fremont's statement, that on 
12 September (p. 158) "we had tonight a 
supper of sea gulls, which Carson killed 
near the lake." 

Captain Howard Stansbury (1852), under 
the direction of the War Department, con- 
ducted an expedition to Salt Lake Valley 
for the purpose of making explorations of 
the lake and surrounding areas. He arrived 
in the valley 28 August 1849 and remained 
exactly a year. His report (1852) contains 
a number of references to the birds. From 
Promontory Point on 22 October 1849 he 
made the following observation of the bird 
life of Bear River Bay (p. 100): 



The Salt Lake, which lay about half a mile 
to the eastward, was covered by immense 
flocks of wild geese and ducks, among which 
many swans were seen, being distinguished by 
their size and the whiteness of their plumage. 
I had seen large flocks of these birds before, 
in various parts of our country, and especially 
on the Potomac, but never did I behold any- 
thing like the immense numbers here congre- 
gated together. Thousands of acres, as far as 
the eye could reach, seemed literally covered 
with them, presenting a scene of t)usy, ani- 
mated cheerfiilness, in most graceful contrast 
with the dreary, silent solitude by which we 
were immediately surrounded. 

Visits were made by Stansbuiy and his 
party to several of the islands in Great Salt 
Lake in the spring of 1850. His accounts of 
some of these visits are as follows (p. 161): 
Rounding the northern point of Antelope 
Island, we came to a small rocky islet, about 
a mile west of it, which was destitute of vege- 
tation of any kind, not even a blade of grass 
being found upon it. It was literally covered 
with wild waterfowl; ducks, white brandt, 
blue herons, cormorants, and innumerable 
flocks of gulls, which had congregated here to 
build their nests. We found great numbers of 
these, built of sticks and rushes, in the cre- 
vices of the rock, and supplied ourselves, with- 
out scruple, with as many eggs as we needed, 
principally those of the herons, it being too 
early in the season for most of the other 
waterfowl. 

On 8 May Stansbuiy visited Gunnison Is- 
land and described the gull and the pelican 
colonies (p. 179): 

The whole neck and the shores on both of 
the little bays were occupied by immense 
flocks of pelicans and gulls, disturbed now for 
the first time, probably, by the intrusion of 
man. They literally darkened the air as they 
rose upon the wing, and, hovering over our 
heads, caused the surrounding rocks to re- 
echo with their discordant screams. The 
ground was thickly strewn with their nests, of 
which there must have been some thousands. 
Numerous young, unfledged pelicans, were 
found in the nests on the ground, and hun- 
dreds of half-grown, huddled together in 
groups near the water, while the old ones re- 
tired to a long line of sand-beach on the south- 
ern side of the bay, where they stood drawn 
up, like Prussian soldiers, in ranks three or 
four deep, for hours together, apparently with- 
out motion. 



1976 



BIRDS OF UTAH 



A full-grown one was surprised and cap- 
tured by the men, just as he was rising from 
the ground, and hurried in triumph to the 
beach. He was very indignant at the uncere- 
monious manner in which he was treated, and 
snapped fiiriously with his long bill to the 
right and left at everybody that came near 
him. On the top of his bill, about midway of 
its length, was a projection about an inch long 
and half an inch high, resembling the old- 
fashioned sight of a rifle; in the female this is 
wanting. We collected as many eggs as we 
could carry. That of the gull is of the size of 
a hen's egg, brown and .spotted; that of the 
pelican is white, and about as large as a goose 
egg. The white of the latter, when cooked, 
is translucent,, and resembles clear blanc- 
mange. 

During the year of tlieir stay in the Salt 
Lake area, Stansbury's party obtained spe- 
cimens of 31 species of birds. These speci- 
mens were later studied by Spencer F. 
Baird, and he reported upon them in Ap- 
pendix C of Stansbuiy's report (1852). 

The year after Stanbury's report ap- 
peared, Congress provided for a number of 
expeditions to discover practical routes for 
establishing a railroad across the United 
States. One of these routes crossed Utah 
and was explored during the summer and 
fall of 1853 by a party of 30 men com- 
manded by Captain J. W. Gunnison. Mr. 
F. Kreuzfeldt was die naturalist of the 
party. In Utah the party entered the Grand 
River Valley and crossed Green River near 
the present town of Green River, Utah. 
They passed through Salina Canyon and 
arrived on the Sevier River 17 October 
1853. A short time later Gunnison and 
Kreuzfeldt were killed by Indians. The re- 
mainder of the party, under the command 
of Lieutenant E. G. Beckwith, traveled to 
Salt Lake City where they spent tlie winter. 
Of some 25 species of birds collected by 
this expedition, 11 were probably taken in 
Utah. The birds of this and odier railroad 
survey expeditions were examined and re- 
ported by S. F. Baird (1854, 1858). 

Two French scientists, Jules Remy and 
Julius Brenchley, visited Utah in 1855 pri- 
marily to study the Mormons. They made 



obsewations on birds but apparently made 
no collections. Remy (1860) published in 
Paris a two-volume report of the trip, and 
the following year an English translation 
was published in London by Remy and 
Brenchley (1861). In both editions a list 
of 28 birds found in Utah is given. 

The U.S. government's "Johnston's AiTny" 
(sent to Utah over a misunderstanding with 
the Mormons) entered Salt Lake Valley 26 
June 1858 and later established Camp 
Floyd near the present town of Fairfield, 
Utah County. This camp was maintained 
until 1861 at the outbreak of the Civil War. 
During the Camp Floyd period Captain J. 
H. Simpson conducted several exploring 
trips into adjacent areas. During the most 
important of these expeditions (1859), he 
was accompanied by Henry Engelmann 
who served as geologist, meteorologist, and 
botanist, and Charles McCardiy, a taxi- 
dermist who collected birds and mammals. 
On one trip the party passed westward 
from Camp Floyd through Rush and Skull 
valleys, past Fish Springs and across 
Nevada to the foot of the Sierra Nevada 
Mountains. They returned over a more 
southerly route via the north end of Sevier 
Lake Valley. McCardiy's collections ap- 
pear to have included not only those of 
this expedition (partly from Nevada) but 
also a good many specimens, mostly water 
birds from Utah Lake and from a pond near 
Camp Floyd formed by a large spring in 
the desert. His collections were identified 
and reported by S. F. Baird (1876). There 
were 258 specimens of 114 species included 
in the list. At that time the Territory of 
Utah extended further east and west than 
the present confines of Utah; thus some lo- 
calities indicated as "Utah" are in present- 
day Wyoming and Nevada. Thirty-four 
species appear to have been collected in 
Utah, although some of the locations are 
not definitely given and cannot be accu- 
rately determined. 

Little or no ornithological work was 
done during the Civil War, but during the 
reconstruction period following. Congress 



GREAT BASIN NATURALIST MEMOIRS 



No. 1 



(2 March 1867 and 3 March 1869) author- 
ized the U.S. Army to make geological ex- 
plorations of the West along the 40th paral- 
lel. This exploration party conducted by 
Clarence King included Robert Ridgway, 
zoologist, who, as a specialist trained in 
ornithology, made the first intensive col- 
lection of bird skins, nests, and eggs from 
the Great Basin. The expedition coming 
from the Pacific coast in 1867 crossed Cali- 
fornia and Nevada, reaching the Deep 
Creek Mountains in Utah in October 1868. 
After suspending activities for the winter, 
the expedition resumed collections in Utah 
20 May 1869 and continued at Salt Lake 
Citv, Parley's Park, the west end of Uinta 
Mountains, Provo Canyon, and Utah Lake 
until 16 August. The collections of the ex- 
pedition deposited in the U.S. National 
Museum of Natural Histoiy (foiTnerly U.S. 
National Museum) included 769 skins and 
753 nests and eggs, mainly from the Great 
Basin in Utah and Nevada. Ridgway 
(1873a) listed 107 species from near Salt 
Lake City, 116 species from Parley's Park, 
6 from Deep Creek, 23 from Antelope Is- 
land, 3 from Carrington and Hat Islands, 
and 9 from Provo River. Tliis report seems 
to be the first record of birds on Hat (Bird) 
Island. His total from the Great Basin 
reached 238 species. 

In the East, the widespread interest in the 
specimens beginning to pour in about this 
time from the zoologically poorly known 
West stimulated an expedition from the 
Museum of Comparative Zoology, Hai-vard 
University, to investigate the Great Plains 
and the Rocky Mountains. This expedition, 
under the leadership of J. A. Allen, with 
C. W. Bennett as taxideiTnist and Richard 
Bliss as ichthyologist, crossed the plains in 
the spring of 1871, passed through the 
mountains, and reached the Great Salt 
Lake by fall. They collected along the east 
side of the lake, especially around Ogden 
from 1 September to 8 October 1871, cover- 
ing the valley lands from Salt Lake to Og- 
den, Ogden Canyon, and the mountains to 
the northeast. 



The list of birds collected or obseived by 
the Allen party totaled 137 species and in- 
cluded 3 species reported to have been re- 
cently introduced: the English Sparrow, the 
California Quail, and the Eastern Bobwhite, 
the latter being the only one that failed to 
survive (Allen 1872a, 1872b). In the report 
the great variety of environmental condi- 
tions, such as marshes, flat valley lands, 
abruptly rising mountains, and alpine sum- 
mits, was offered to account for the rich 
avian fauna. An increase in the small seed- 
eating, insectivorous, and fruit-eating birds 
was accounted for by the settlers' activity 
in transfoiTning arid plains into farms with 
orchards and shade trees. 

In the early 1870s the federal govern- 
ment paid considerable attention to ex- 
plorations of the West. As early as 1867 
Congress authorized the Interior Depart- 
ment to undertake a geological survey of 
the territories. Reports of the first two 
years' activities were made by tlie commis- 
sioner of the General Land Office, but 
thereafter they were directed by F. V. 
Hayden, United States geologist. 

In 1870 the work was centered in Wyo- 
ming and northeastern Utah, and by 1872 
it had moved westward to include north- 
ern Utah and portions of Idaho and Mon- 
tana. It was the intention that "collections 
in all departments should be as complete 
as possible." Biologists accompanying the 
parties gathered specimens in several dif- 
ferent fields. 

The party in Wyoming in 1870 (August 
to November) was organized by Hayden 
and included James Stevenson as manag- 
ing director, Heniy D. Schmidt (Smith) as 
naturalist, and C. P. Carrington as zoologist, 
all of whom seem to have helped in the col- 
lection of specimens. The area covered by 
the work included Bear River, Muddy 
Creek, Black's Fork, Smith's Fork, and 
Henry's Fork on the north slope of the 
Uinta Mountains in Utah. In Hayden's re- 
port (1872) of work done in 1870, James 
Stevenson published a list of mammals and 
birds collected by the expedition. He re- 



1976 



BIRDS OF UTAH 



marked that it was a meeting ground be- 
tween eastern and western fonns and diat 
it was too late in the season for nests and 
eggs. The hst included 124 species, of 
which 31 are reported from the area witliin 
Utah on the north slope of the Uinta Moun- 
tains. 

The work of 1872 was handled by two 
parties. One party, under Hayden's direc- 
tion, worked southward from Bozeman, 
Montana, into Yellowstone National Park, 
which had been established that year. The 
other party, led by James Stevenson, started 
at Ogden, Utah, surveyed a route to Fort 
Hall, Idaho, and then proceeded to ex- 
plore by pack train the headwaters of the 
Snake River in Idaho and Wyoming. This 
party included John M. Coulter as botanist, 
Campbell Carrington as naturalist, and C. 
Hart Merriam as ornithologist. During die 
work in Utah from 5 to 21 June, Merriam 
collected 120 bird skins and 52 nests with 
eggs. Merriam (1873) reported on the mam- 
mals and birds of the expedition and gave, 
in addition, a list of 176 species of birds 
then known from Utah, some of them con- 
tributed by Allen, Henshaw, and Ridgway. 

Simultaneous with the geological sur- 
veys of the Interior Department, Congress 
authorized the War Department to 
undertake geographical and geological sur- 
veys of the West. This was a veiy extensive 
and elaborate scientific investigation 
under the direction of Captain George M. 
Wheeler of the U.S. Army. Developing 
from King's exploratoiy expedition of 1867- 
69, the investigation finally became a plan 
for a complete detailed topographic suivey 
with associated natural history observations 
of the territory west of the one hundredth 
meridian. At a cost of $2.5 million, this was 
to have been the first great general survey 
during initial stages of settlement. 

In 1872 the expedition concentrated on 
Utah. It was planned for two parties. Dr. 
H. C. Yarrow and H. W. Henshaw carried 
on the ornithological work. The parties 
were organized at Salt Lake City, and while 
they were assembling, the two ornithologists 



moved 50 miles south to Provo on 22 July 
and plunged into their work during their 
two weeks' wait for plans to mature. 

The routes followed by Yarrow and Hen- 
shaw after they left Provo have been de- 
scribed by Behle (1938:170). Yarrow ac- 
companied a party led by Lieutenant Hoxie, 
who traveled a route westward from Provo 
through Fairfield and across the Great 
Basin as far as eastern Nevada. They then 
went southeastward to Fillmore, Utah, and 
thence eastward to Panguitch in the valley 
of the Sevier River. From there the course 
led southward to the Virgin River and 
eventually to the town of Toquerville, 
where they were to meet the other part of 
the expedition. Henshaw traveled with the 
party led by Lieutenant Wheeler, who 
went eastward to Strawberry Valley and 
then southward to Thistle and Sanpete 
Valley. The journey continued over Fre- 
mont Pass to Parowan and thence south- 
ward to Toquei-ville for a rendezvous with 
the Lieutenant Hoxie party. Yarrow and 
Henshaw later explored much of the Virgin 
River Valley in the vicinity of St. George 
before returning to Provo where they did 
additional collecting until the expedition 
disbanded in December. 

Five months of field collecting netted 
the two collectors about 600 skins of 165 
species of birds, including a skin from Iron 
City in Iron County destined to become the 
type for one of the races of the Plain Tit- 
mouse. 

An annotated list of 214 species of birds 
of Utah, including data furnished by Allen 
and Ridgway, was read by Henshaw before 
the Lyceum of Natural History, New York, 
6 April 1874 (Henshaw 1874). His list was 
reprinted the same year with minor modifi- 
cations as a government publication (Yar- 
row and Henshaw 1874). This included, in 
addition, most of the material later incor- 
porated in Henshaw's paper published in 
the Wheeler report of 1875, Geographical 
Surveys west of the lOOtli Meridian. 

By a coincidence, while Yarrow and Hen- 
shaw were working at Provo in late July 



10 



GREAT BASIN NATURALIST MEMOIRS 



No. 1 



1872, the youthful Edward W. Nelson was 
making a private collection some ten miles 
north of Salt Lake City. The enthusiastic 
youth and a companion. Will Wentworth, 
earlier in the season had come west from 
Illinois with Samuel Gamian to join E. D. 
Cope in collecting fossils in Wyoming. 
While at Fort Bridger Nelson borrowed an 
old gun from Cope and made a collection 
of birds from that region (including some 
from the north slope of the Uinta Moun- 
tains in Utah). Owing to a disagreement, 
Carman parted company with Cope and 
went on west toward the Pacific coast tak- 
ing the two boys with him. They stopped 
over at "Sessions' Settlement" (near Bounti- 
ful, Davis County) from 27 July to 8 August. 
Nelson obtained a second-hand shotgun 
and continued bird collecting. They 
covered the prolific area around the mouth 
of the Jordan River and the valley lands be- 
tween there and the Wasatch Mountains, 
gathering specimens and data on 41 species 
(Nelson 1875). 

With all this work concentrated on Utah 
between the Civil War and 1875, the main 
outlines of Utah ornithology were fairly 
well established and most of the national 
investigations were thereafter directed else- 
where. Only one other expedition of im- 
portance was to reach Utah in the period of 
exploration and that only incidentally as it 
spread from Death Valley in southwestern 
Utah, 19 years after Yarrow and Henshaw 
had been there. 

In 1886 and subsequent years. Congress 
provided for studies of tlie geographical 
distribution of animals and later (1890) of 
plants under the direction of the Depart- 
ment of Agriculture. In 1891 these studies 
were concentrated in Death Valley and tlie 
surrounding region, including an extension 
into southwestern Utah. During the pro- 
gress of the work. Dr. C. H. Merriam and 
Vernon Bailey left the main camp on 24 
April 1891 and set out for a trip to south- 
western Utah during May and June. They 
traversed the Virgin River up as far as St. 
George and Santa Clara, then northward 



through the mountains via Diamond Valley, 
Mountain Meadows, and Shoal Creek to 
the southwestern end of the Escalante 
Desert. Mr. Bailey's previous trip through 
Utah during the winter of 1888-89 had 
taken him down the Virgin River. He spent 
the forepart of Januaiy at St. George and 
vicinity, following the Virgin down to the 
Colorado River in the latter parts of the 
month. The ornitliological results of the 
Deatli Valley studies were reported by A. K. 
Fisher (1893) and covered a list of 290 
species which included a large number that 
extended into Utah. 

It seems that C. Hart Merriam and his 
assistant Vernon Bailey made sporadic col- 
lections of birds in Utah Valley on some of 
their travels through the area. Specimens 
now in the U.S. National Museum of 
Natural History were collected at Provo in 
the fall of 1888. These include the Moun- 
tain Chickadee {Parus gambeli). Plain Tit- 
mouse (Parus itiornatus), and Winter Wren 
{Troglodytes troglodytes). Bailey also col- 
lected a few specimens at Cedar Fort west 
of Utah Lake in the summer of 1890. Speci- 
mens of the Lazuli Bunting {Passerina 
amoena) and die Rufous-sided Towhee 
(Pipilo erythrophthalmus) from that locality 
are in the U.S. National Museum of Natural 
History collection. It is entirely possible 
that Merriam and Bailey made other 
ornithological collections in Utah Valley, 
but these workers were more interested in 
mammals. Consequently, the collection of 
birds was somewhat incidental. 

The arrival of the Mormon pioneers in 
Utah in tlie summer of 1847 led to the 
establishment of pemianent white settle- 
ments and the eventual development of 
interests and institutions whereby ornitho- 
logical work of a local nature could take 
place. The Mormons themselves, con- 
fronted with the grim necessity of obtaining 
a livelihood from a rather hostile environ- 
ment, were mainly interested in the eco- 
nomic aspects of ornithology. Soon after 
their arrival they organized drives to ex- 
terminate all kinds of "vermin," both birds 



1976 



BIRDS OF UTAH 



11 




Fig. 1. Double-crested Cormorant. Geneva Steel Plant Dik{ 
1970. Photo courtesy United States Steel Corporation. 



Orem, Utah County, Utah, 20 May 



and mammals, an indication that these 
animals were present in noticeable num- 
bers. 

An example of one of these drives of ex- 
termination is as follows: "Articles of agree- 
ment between Captains John D. Lee and 



John Pack, made this 24th day of Decem- 
ber 1848 to carry on a war of extermination 
against all the ravens, hawks, owls, wolves, 
foxes, etc., now alive in the valley of the 
Great Salt Lake" (Journal Histoiy 24 De- 
cember 1848). 



12 



GREAT BASIN NATURALIST MEMOIRS 



No. 1 



The agreement provided for a social din- 
ner to be given by the losers and indicated 
that ". . . the game shall count as follows: 
the right wing of a raven counting one, a 
hawk or owl two, the wings of an eagle five, 
the skin of a mink or pole cat five, the skin 
of a wolf, fox, wild cat, or catamount ten, 
the pelt of a bear or panther, fifty" (Journal 
History 24 December 1848). 

The episode of the so-called "sea" gulls 
and MoiTnon crickets is the best known of 
the ornithological events in the early histoiy 
of the settlements. Judging from the fre- 
quent references in diaries and tlie press 
from 1848 to 1850, there was a spectacular 
saving of the crops by the California Gull. 

Apparently crickets were numerous in 
Salt Lake Valley when the pioneers ar- 
rived 22-24 July 1847. Orson Pratt's Journal 
under date of 22 July stated: "We found 
the drier places swarming with very large 
crickets about the size of a man's thumb" 
(Pratt 1926:211). 

And William Clayton recorded about die 
same time: "The ground seemed literally 
alive with large black crickets crawling 
around on grass and bushes. They look 
loathsome but are said to be excellent for 
fattening hogs which would feed on them 
voraciously" (Clayton 1921:311). 

Presumably in 1847 there was little con- 
cern about the crickets and no damage to 
crops, since the crickets would be on the 
wane for winter before the first summer 
and fall plowings could be started into pro- 
duction. In 1848, however, the crops were 
growing when the crickets hatched in the 
spring and furnished enticing bait when the 
insects began to move. The earliest avail- 
able reference in that year is in Eliza R. 
Snow's journal of 28 May: "This morning's 
frost in unison with the ravages of the 
crickets for a few days past produces many 
sighs" (Snow 1848). 

Isaac C. Haight's diaiy, 4 June 1848, said: 
"The crickets have destroyed some crops 
and are eating the heads of the grain as 
soon as it heads out" (Haight 19.36 :.56). 

Again on 6 July he remarked: "The pros- 



pects for crops begin to brighten although 
some have lost their crops by insects" 
(Haight 1936:57). 

From a letter to Brigham Young, who 
was in the East, written by John Smith, 
Charles C. Rich, and John Young in Utah, 
9 June 1848, came the following: "The 
crickets have done considerable damage to 
both wheat and corn, which has dis- 
couraged some, but there is plenty left if 
we can save it for a few days. The sea gulls 
have come in large flocks from the lake and 
sweep the crickets as they go" (Journal 
History 9 June 1848). 

Writing again on 21 June, they infomied 
Brigham Young: "The crickets are still 
quite numerous and busy eating, but be- 
tween the gulls, our efforts and the growth 
of our crops, we shall raise much grain in 
spite of them. Our vines, beans and peas 
are mostly destroyed by frost and the crick- 
ets; but ... we will still raise many pump- 
kins, melons, beans, etc." (Journal History 
21 June 1848). 

Thomas Callister, writing in retrospect 
on 13 February 1869 and referring to the 
"cricket war" in 1848, said: 

When the crickets descended upon every- 
thing green, [sic] All the nursery trees had 
been destroyed, and much of the grain, and 
the inevitable destruction of everything was 
apparent to all. ... So dark were the circum- 
stances that the hearts of the strongest Elders 
were faint. ... In a very short time after this, 
the gulls from the Lake made their appear- 
ance and devoured the crickets (Journal His- 
tory 9 June 1848). 

Despite all the evidence to the contrary 
and the corrections in the literature (Good- 
win 1904a; V. Bailey 1905), occasional refer- 
ences still indicate the Black-headed Frank- 
lin instead of the California Gull as the one 
involved in saving the Monnon crops. The 
evidence is clear and definite to the con- 
traw. In response to a queiy of the origin 
of the mistaken idea, Vernon Bailey (1905) 
wrote: 

Yes, I know the whole and the history of 
the report of Franklin's Gull in Utah and am 
in part responsible for it. In the first edition 



1976 



BIRDS OF UTAH 



13 



of Mrs. Bailey's Handbook of Birds, the name 
franklini was edited into the note I gave on 
the gulls that destroyed the crickets and I 
did not notice it until the book was out. It 
was corrected in a later edition, but has been 
copied and used over and over and will never 
be eliminated. It was just one of the many 
editorial blunders that occur and keep re- 
appearing. 

We knew Franklin's Gull perfectly at the 
time and knew that it did not occur in the 
Salt Lake Valley.^ The California Gull was 
the common species there then as it is now. 

As has been pointed out, the principal 
concern with respect to birds and other 
wildhfe of Utah in the early days of settle- 
ment centered on the economic aspect of 
these animals. Local people exhibited little 
interest in studying them scientifically. 
Limited studies in natural history arose 
with the establishment of institutions of 
higher learning, and over the years these 
studies have resulted in continual progress. 

The University of Deseret, which later be- 
came the University of Utah, after a brief 
prior existence was revived in 1869 widi Dr. 
John R. Park as president. From 1869 to 
1874 Park taught natural science work him- 
self, and during this time he initiated some 
"cabinets" to hold specimens including 
some bird eggs and skins. 

Following Park, Francis Marion Bishop 
was responsible for natural histoiy work, 
but it was during the time of Orson How- 
ard, who followed Bishop, that ornithology 
received considerable emphasis as a part of 
the natural histoiy curriculum. Howard 
began his work as a student and by 1884 
was teaching zoology and botany. The next 
year, he was professor of natural science 
and English literature as well as curator of 
the museum which had grown from the 
"cabinets." He left the University in 1890 to 
obtain an M.D. degree, returning in 1898, 
after which he was active, particularly in 
the museum, until his retirement in 1912. 

Following the retirement of Howard, 
there was little interest in ornithology at 



the university for a period of time. A collec- 
tion of some 1,500 bird skins and mounted 
specimens with scientific data were, in the 
main, lost, or at least they disappeared. At 
about this time J. H. Paul, who was teach- 
ing courses in nature study, had access to 
the specimens which he used in classwork. 
The tags containing the data were often 
removed for convenience in class use. 

Ralph V. Chamberlin returned to the 
university in December 1924, after which 
biological work was rapidly expanded and 
specialized. At that time die bird skin col- 
lection had reached a low point of about 
100 mounted specimens and even fewer 
study skins. In 1927 a special course in orni- 
thology was initiated by Angus M. Wood- 
bury and continued by him until 1940. In 
1931 a research collection of vertebrate 
specimens was established with Woodbury 
responsible for the birds and reptiles, and 
Stephen D. Durrant die mammals. William 
H. Behle took over the ornithological work 
in 1940. He and his students have been 
active since then in building at the univer- 
sity a collection of birds now containing 
some 25,000 specimens. 

Utah State University, formerly Utah 
State Agricultural College, began the de- 
velopment of a museum soon after its estab- 
lishment in 1888. Display cases were pro- 
vided and mounted specimens were in- 
stalled from time to time. By 1895 the 
cases contained 25 species of birds and by 
1899, 44 species. The president's biennial 
report for 1901-1902 contained the follow- 
ing statement: "For the zoological museum, 
a collection of Utah birds, male and female, 
their nests, eggs, and young, should be 
commenced at once. Such a collection 
would grow in value with the years" (Bi- 
ennial Report 1903:45). 

By 1917 the display collection at Utah 
State had grown to about 100 mounted 
birds as well as a collection of mammals. 
When J. Sedley Stanford joined the zoology 
staff in 1930, the collection contained ao- 



^The Franklin Gull does, of cou 



rse, occur in 



Salt Lake Valley and may have occurred the 



14 



GREAT BASIN NATURALIST MEMOIRS 



No. 1 



proximately 150 mounted birds and 50 
study skins. As a result of Dr. Stanford's 
efforts and those of his students, the collec- 
tion had increased by 1942 to include about 
225 mounted birds and 1,300 study skins. 
At present (1976) the bird skin collection 
consists of about 2,000 specimens. Stanford 
introduced the study of ornithology as a 
separate course in the summer school of 
1939 and instituted it in the regular school 
year in the spring of 1936. Following the 
retirement of Dr. Stanford, the work in 
ornithology at Utah State has been con- 
tinued by Keith L. Dixon and Gene H. 
Linford. 

In 1903 Brigham Young Academy be- 
came Brigham Young University. Prior to 
that time courses taught in the biological 
sciences were on a high school level. In 
1904-1905 Chester G. Van Buren offered 
a course in ornithology on a college level. 
In 1906-1907 courses in ornithology and 
zoological collecting and taxidermy were 
taught presumably by Professor Van 
Buren. Before that time Van Buren had col- 
lected birds and other natural history ob- 
jects in Central and South America and 
had had some training in taxidermy. Be- 
ginning in 1908 a department of biology 
was established with Dr. Ralph V. Cham- 
berlin as teacher, assisted by Van Buren 
and others. The biological curriculum was 
enlarged, but the course in ornithology was 
apparently discontinued. Van Buren and 
Chamberlin left about 1911 and the interest 
in ornithology died. 

When I (Hayward) came to Brigham 
Young University as a student in 1923, 
there was a small collection of bird skins 
that, presumably, had been prepared by 
\'an Buren or his students. At that time 
Walter P. Cottam taught a course called 
Field Biology which covered local trees, 
shrubs, spring flowers, and birds. The 
above mentioned collection was used for 
teaching purposes. As I recall, the speci- 
mens bore little data. 

With the arrival of Dr. Vasco M. Tanner 
on the campus in 1925, the Department of 



Zoology and Entomology was organized. 
Soon afterward the building of a bird 
skin collection was begun. Clarence Cot- 
tam was the first student of birds at the 
institution. He began his work toward a 
master's degree in 1926 and wrote his thesis 
on the birds of Utah (Cottam 1927). Dur- 
ing the early part of the summer of 1926 a 
field party led by Dr. Tanner and including 
Clarence Cottam, Claudeus Brown, and my- 
self, visited parts of northern Utah collect- 
ing various natural history objects but prin- 
cipally insects and birds. The following 
school year I worked considerably with Cot- 
tam while he was preparing his thesis; and 
I became interested in birds, although at 
that time my chief interest was in ento- 
mology. Clarence Cottam remained at the 
university as a teacher until 1929 when he 
left to take a position with the U.S. Fish 
and Wildlife Service in Washington. Dur- 
ing his years at the university he continued 
to collect birds in Utah Valley as well as 
other parts of the state. However, his thesis 
was never published. His writings on the 
birds of the valley were confined to a few 
short papers. 

When I returned to Brigham Young Uni- 
versity as a teacher in 1930, my interests 
were at first primarily in entomology. They 
soon shifted more toward ornithology and 
mammalogy and resulted in the building of 
a collection. With the help of other mem- 
bers of the staff and numerous students, the 
collection of bird skins at Brigham Young 
University has grown continuously until at 
present it contains about 5,500 skins and 
some 300 mounted specimens. In addition, 
the university has obtained several large 
bird-egg collections, including those of 
R. G. Bee, Ashby Boyle, Merlin J. Killpack, 
Lloyd Gunther, J. Donald Daynes, and part 
of the John Hutchings collection. 

Another institution of importance in the 
early histoiy of Utah ornithology was the 
Deseret Museum, which had its origin in 
1869. It was established by John W. Young 
and Guglielmo Giosue Rosetti Sangiovanni 
("Sangio" for short). Following a trip to 



1976 



BIRDS OF UTAH 



15 



Europe, these two men decided they would 
start a museum and menagerie that would 
present "Utah at a glance" as a means of 
showing "tourists what we are doing." 
John W. Young was proprietor, under the 
patronage of his father, Brigham Young, 
and Sangio became curator of the menag- 
erie. 

They published requests for specimens 
from the public, and Sangio was soon busy 
housing the relics in a two-room adobe 
house at about 43 East on South Temple in 
Salt Lake City and building cages and pens 
outside for the great variety of animals 
that came pouring in to him. Sangio was 
principally occupied witli the menagerie 
and paid little attention to die museum. 

In May 1871 the museum, shorn of the 
menagerie, was moved to an abandoned 
store building opposite the south gate of 
the Temple Block, and "Professor" Joseph 
L. Barfoot, a studious, self-educated Eng- 
lishman, was made curator. 

About 1878 ownership of the collection 
passed to the Monnon Church under the 
name of the Deseret Museum, made popu- 
lar by common usage. Professor Barfoot 
died 23 April 1882, leaving the museum 
in the hands of "custodians" who merely 
attempted to hold it intact, making no pre- 
tense of progress in museum building. The 
degree to which Professor Barfoot had de- 
veloped the museum seems to be indicated 
by a statement in the University of Deseret 
catalog of 1882 that students of the univer- 
sity would have access to the extensive and 
diversified collections of the Deseret Mu- 
seum. 

In 1885 ownership of the museum passed 
to the newly organized Salt Lake Literary 
and Scientific Association, which there- 
after maintained the museum and directed 
its policies for several years. In 1890 the 
museum building was sold and it became 
necessary to move the materials. After 
several months part of the exhibits were set 
up in a small room, inadequate for the pur- 
pose, in the Templeton Building (soudieast 



of Temple Block) and reopened to the pub- 
lic in Januaiy 1891. 

At diis time James E. Talmage was made 
curator and J. Reuben Clark, Jr., assistant 
curator. The museum was now to witness a 
renaissance and second growth similar to 
that made under Professor Barfoot. The col- 
lection could not expand at that location, 
so two years later it was moved to the top 
floor of a new building erected by the Asso- 
ciation on the Ellerbeck property at First 
North between First and Second West. 
Here the museum expanded and grew for 
ten years. 

In 1894 the Salt Lake Literary and Sci- 
entific Association endowed the chair 
of Deseret Professor of Geology at the Uni- 
versity of Deseret, then located at the pres- 
ent site of West High School. A building 
housing die museum was a part of the en- 
dowment. 

Seven years later, in July 1910, the ex- 
hibits were installed in the new Vermont 
Building erected on a site across the road 
from the south Temple gate (now the Bene- 
ficial Life Building). In this location James 
E. Talmage was director and his son. Ster- 
ling B. Talmage, curator. Here it remained 
for eight years. 

In October and November of 1918 die 
collection was dismembered, the fossils, 
minerals, and animals being allocated to 
the LDS University across the road east 
from the Temple, and the balance, mainly 
relics, being assigned to the Bureau of In- 
foniiation of the Mormon Church. The 
specimens of birds and odier animals from 
the LDS University later (June 1931) passed 
to Brigham Young University at Provo. 
The birds are all mounted specimens, and 
only part of them bear complete data. 

Some of the other colleges in the state 
have been active at times in collecting 
birds and have accumulated a number of 
specimens. At Dixie Junior College in St. 
George, Utah, Vasco M. Tanner, Angus 
M. Woodbury, D Elden Beck, and C. Ross 
Hardy, along with some of dieir students, 
have been active in adding to the bird col- 



16 



GREAT BASIN NATURALIST MEMOIRS 



No.l 



lection. Some papers resulting from these 
Studies have been published. There is also 
a collection of some 300 skins at Weber 
State College at Ogden. 

Much infomiation on Utah birds was 
assembled, particularly during the first half 
of the present century, by nonprofessional 
naturalists or persons interested in birds as 
a hobby. Most of these workers were in- 
terested primarily in the collection of eggs 
and nests, but some of the collectors exer- 
cised great care in presei-ving data on nest- 
ing habits and on the birds tliemselves. 
Since the building of private collections is 
no longer permitted, most of these collec- 
tions have gone to the institutional museums 
of the state or to museums elsewhere, and 
some, unfortunately, have apparently be- 
come lost. 

One of the earliest egg collectors in Utah 
was Alberto Treganza, an architect by pro- 
fession, who with his father and other mem- 
bers of the family began collecting in Utah 
in 1901. They eventually amassed a collec- 
tion of about 30,000 eggs, although many 
of these were obtained by exchange from 
all over the world. The Treganza family 
remained active in Utah until about 1927, 
when financial reverses forced them to 
move to Florida and later to California. 
The Treganza collection has been scattered 
to a number of localities, most of it at tlie 
Western Foundation of Vertebrate Zoology 
at Los Angeles. A number of sets from the 
collection are to be found at the Royal On- 
tario Museum, Toronto, Canada; Field Mu- 
seum of Natural History, Chicago; American 
Museum of Natural History, New York; Car- 
negie Museum, Pittsburgh; U.S. National 
Museum of Natural History, Washington, 
D.C.; and elsewhere. 

Another of the early-day naturalists and 
egg collectors was Harry Aldous, whose 
collection was made principally in northern 
Utah. About 1924 he loaned a collection of 
birds and eggs to be displayed in the State 
Capitol. Following his death in 1929 most 
of his collection went to J. Donald Daynes 
of Salt Lake City. Parts of the Aldous col- 



lection are to be found at the U.S National 
Museum of Natural History, American 
Museum; Cleveland (Ohio) Museum, Field 
Museum, and at other localities. 

Mark Jackson, a building contractor who 
lived in Panguitch and Parowan, Utah, 
learned taxidermy from his father in En- 
gland and later practiced this art as a 
hobby after coming to America. He pre- 
pared more than a hundred specimens of 
local birds and mammals which were later 
given to the University of Utah. 

Claude T. Barnes, a prominent lawyer 
and legislator of Salt Lake City, was an 
ardent student of birds who did much to 
promote public interest by writing a series 
of illustrated articles in the magazines 
called the Improvement Era and Juvenile 
Instructor, published by the Mormon 
Church. He also collected a number of 
skins and kept extensive notes on birds 
based on his own observations. Mr. Barnes 
was well acquainted with other naturalists, 
particularly in the Salt Lake area, and with 
their help was instrumental in establishing 
a chapter of the Utah Audubon Society in 
1913. 

Another early-day oologist of Utah was 
George R. Walker, who became an active 
collector in the early 1900s, partly through 
the encouragement of A. O. Treganza. In 
addition to his own material, he obtained 
part of the collections of W. H. Parker. 
Many of these eggs went at first to the Uni- 
versity of Utah but were later transferred to 
the Harrison collection at the Western 
Foundation of Vertebrate Zoology in Los 
Angeles, California. Parts of the Parker col- 
lection, however, are to be found at the 
Florida State Museum, Carnegie Museum, 
and Field Museum of Natural History. 
Smaller numbers of sets are located in other 
places. 

John W. Sugden, who came to Utah in 
1869, made a large collection of bird eggs 
and insects. Following his death in 1933 
his son, John W. Sugden, Jr., inherited the 
collection and continued to add to it for 
many years. The bulk of the Sugden collec- 



1976 



BIRDS OF UTAH 



17 



tion went to the University of Utah and 
eventually to the Western Foundation of 
Vertebrate Zoology, Los Angeles. Some 30 
sets of eggs of the collection are to be found 
at the Field Museum of Natural History, 
while lesser numbers are located in six 
other institutions. 

Ashby D. Boyle, a Salt Lake City lawyer, 
began a collection of bird eggs about 1915. 
Following his death, this collection was pre- 
sented to Brigham Young University where 
it is now housed. 

Around 1922 John H. Brandt made a col- 
lection of nearly 300 sets of eggs in Utah. 
These are presently located at the Carnegie 
Museum. About diis time (19251930) 
Lieutenant (now Colonel) L. R. Wolf, an 
army officer stationed at Ft. Douglas, Utah, 
collected bird eggs in the state. Most of 
this material is to be found in the Harrison 
collection at the Western Foundation of 
Vertebrate Zoology. 

Another active egg collector in the Salt 
Lake area in recent times is J. Donald 
Daynes. Mr. Daynes has accumulated a 
large and well-prepared collection which 
he donated recently to the Brigham Young 
University Life Sciences Museum. 

The U.S. National Museum of Natinal 
History collection of bird eggs contains a 
number of sets obtained in Utah by early 
ornithologists. About 61 sets of eggs and 
nests were collected by Robert Ridgway in 
1869. Lesser numbers were obtained by C. 
Hart Merriam in 1872 and later by A. K. 
Fisher and Alexander Wetmore. 

In the meantime a few amateur orni- 
thologists, interested primarily in the col- 
lection of eggs as a hobby, were active in 
the Utah Valley area. H. C. Johnson of 
American Fork was developing an egg col- 
lection, but persons who knew him indicate 
that much material was brought to him by 
others. Most of the Johnson material even- 
tually found its way to the Harrison collec- 
tion at the Western Foundation of Verte- 
brate Zoology, the Cleveland Museum of 
Natural Histoiy, and the Field Museum of 
Natural History. Johnson published a num- 



ber of short papers dealing with the breed- 
ing of Clarke's [sic] Nutcracker (1900, 
1902b), Duck Hawk (1899b), Raven (1899c), 
Wilson's Snipe (1899a), Pigmy Owl (1903), 
Pinyon [sic] Jay (1902a). Widi W. H. Par- 
ker he also privately published a pamphlet 
on die nesting of birds in Utah (1899?). 

In 1887 the Congregational Church estab- 
lished an institution in Provo known as the 
Proctor Academy, which continued until 
about 1912 or 1914 or about the time Provo 
High School was established. One of the 
teachers in the latter part of its history was 
Professor S. H. Goodwin, an accomplished 
naturalist. He and some of his students 
apparently took considerable interest in the 
local bird fauna. One of his pupils was 
Robert G. Bee, who later adopted ornithol- 
ogy as a hobby and gathered an extensive 
collection of eggs and several volumes of 
notes and photographs, all of which are 
now at Brigham Young University. Good- 
win published a few notes in the Condor 
which include observations on the nesting 
of the White Pelican on Rock Island in 
Utah Lake (1904b), the California Gull 
(1904a), and the presence of die Bohemian 
Waxwing in Utah (1905). 

Robert G. Bee began his collecting of 
eggs in 1892 when he was only 10 years old. 
Although throughout his later life he 
directed most of his efforts toward the col- 
lection of nesting data and eggs, he also 
kept extensive notes on other items of 
ornithology. A contemporaiy of Bee was 
John Hutchings, who was born in Lehi, 
Utah, and has lived there ever since. An 
accomplished taxidemiist, he was brought 
many interesting and unusual bird speci- 
mens to mount. His early collections in- 
cluded many sets of eggs with full data. 
Part of this material is at Brigham Young 
University and the remainder is in a small 
museum in Lehi, Utah, built for him by the 
citizens of that area. 

Bee and Hutchings (1942) summarized 
the records of breeding birds in Utah based 
on their previous years of collecting and 
obsei^vation. Most of these collections were 



18 



GREAT BASIN NATURALIST MEMOIRS 



No. 1 



made in Utah Valley and closely adjoining 
areas. 

In more recent years Lloyd Gunther, 
who was superintendent of the Bear River 
Migratoiy Bird Refuge, has made a collec- 
tion of bird eggs in Utah. His collection 
has recently been acquired by Brigham 
Young University. A small collection of 
eggs made by Merlin L. Killpack is also 
housed at Brigham Young University. 

CONSERVATION ORGANIZATIONS 

During Utah's biological "past history" 
several private organizations and interested 
groups have fostered the study of natural 
histoiy and have been active in consewa- 
tion. 

During the 1880s a natural history move- 
ment under the auspices of the Agassiz 
Association gained momentum in Utah, 
and although it never became institutional- 
ized like the University of Utah and the 
Deseret Museum, it continued as an im- 
portant force for several years among en- 
thusiastic members of the populace. This 
movement was designed to encourage the 
observation and study of natural phenomena 
including birds. 

The founder, Harlan F. Ballard, in the 
November 1880 issue of St. Nicholas 
Magazine issued a general invitation for 
the formation of chapters. In response, Utah 
Ghapter A was organized 1 August 1882, 
Ghapter B in the spring of 1883, and Ghap- 
ter G later that same season, all in Salt 
Lake Gity. They continued with varying 
degrees of enthusiasm until 1 November 
1885, when they were combined into one 
chapter and reorganized. 

This organization initiated a small 
monthly publication under the title of 
Agassiz Notes, which ran through seven 
numbers between November 1885 and May 
1886 before publication was suspended. 
During the life of the organization many 
field trips were conducted, many specimens 
collected (minerals, insects, bird nests and 
eggs, plants, etc.), cabinets installed, print- 



ing press acquired, and notes published, all 
largely under the leadership of Marcus E. 
Jones, botanist, explorer, and general natu- 
ralist. Many of the members of this society 
were egg collectors on a semi-commercial 
basis and could scarcely be considered con- 
servationists, although their efforts contri- 
buted somediing to the scientific knowledge 
of the birds of the area. 

During the second decade of the twen- 
tieth centuiy, a group of nature enthusiasts 
including such individuals as Glaude T. 
Barnes, J. H. Paul, Walter Gluff, N. W. Rey- 
nolds, J. W. Sugden, E. G. Titus, G. T. 
Vorhies, A. O. Treganza, A. O. Garrett, J. 
Gecil Alter, G. O. AiTnstrong, Florence 
Knox, M. R. Gheeseman, F. A. Wrathall, 
Fred W. Chambers, Josephine Seamen, and 
Royal G. Barnes became active in bird 
study and formally incoiporated the Utah 
Audubon Society on 3 Januaiy 1913 at Salt 
Lake Gity. 

During that year they were instrumental 
in pushing two important laws through the 
legislature: one providing for the observ- 
ance of bird day in all public schools on 
the last Friday of April, and the other pro- 
viding for protection of all birds in the state 
except game birds in open season and a 
few pest birds that damage crops, poultry, 
or fish. 

Certain members remained active for 
many years, but the group's activity grad- 
ually subsided. Soon after this, a chapter 
of the Cooper Club was organized in Salt 
Lake Gity. This group included such per- 
sons as the Treganzas, tlie Sugdens, Ashby 
Boyle, J. L. Mullen, G. Ray Walker, and 
others, most of whom were held together 
by a common interest in oology. In 1935 
and 1936, after the previous movements 
had more or less subsided, a new group in- 
cluding A. M. Woodbury, William H. Behle, 
Charles W. Lockerbie, Rex B. Snow, J. 
Donald Daynes, Nettie Bradford, Beth Han- 
sen, and others revived and reorganized the 
Utah Audubon Society. This society is 
still functioning. It has held monthly meet- 
ings, conducted monthly field trips, par- 



1976 



BIRDS OF UTAH 



19 




Fig. 2. Great Blue Heron. Salt Creek Waterfowl Management Area, Box Elder County, Utah, 7 
June 1973. Photo by R. J. Erwin. 



ticipated in the Christmas bird census, kept 
field records, pubHshed mimeographed 
articles, sponsored the Junior Audubon 
Clubs, supported special programs for bird 
day in schools, promulgated winter bird 
feeding campaigns, and in general sup- 
ported conservation movements. 

Recently chapters of the Audubon So- 
ciety have been organized at Provo (Mount 
Timpanogos Chapter), Logan (Bridgerland 
Chapter), and Vernal (Uinta Chapter). 

STATE AND FEDERAL WATERFOWL 
PRESERVES 

During the early expansion of Utah no 
restrictions were placed upon hunting. The 



time arrived, however, when not only game 
birds but big game animals as well were so 
reduced in numbers that many of the species 
were threatened with local extermination. 
Belatedly, the drastic game depletion was 
recognized and more definite steps were 
taken toward conservation and the restora- 
tion of reduced game populations. 

One of the early steps was the establish- 
ment of a fish and game department by the 
legislature in 1893 which reported back to 
the legislature in 1895. It was this agency 
which first reported duck sickness around 
Great Salt Lake in 1910. In 1913 a compre- 
hensive set of fish and game laws was 
placed in the statutes, providing for fairly 
adequate protection for many kinds of birds 



20 



GREAT BASIN NATURALIST MEMOIRS 



No. 1 



of the state. The law at one time (State Fish 
and Game Commissioner 1929) provided 
that: 

Except game birds as hereiniifter enu- 
merated, it shall be unlawful for any person or 
persons to take, kill, ensnare, net trap, or 
shoot at any native or imported bird in the 
state of Utiih. 

Provided, that when farmers or poultry - 
men or others find it absolutely necessary 
to protect their interests, the following named 
birds may be destroyed, to wit: English spar- 
row, magpie, sharp -shinned hawk. Cooper 
hawk, goshawk and prairie falcon or bullet 
hawk. 

Provided, further; that the blue and black- 
crowned night heron and pelican may be de- 
stroyed under regulations issued by the state 
Fish and Game Commissioner. 

Under the law "game birds" included 
both waterfowl and upland game birds. In 
accordance with federal regulations at that 
time, hunting of the following waterfowl 
could be permitted by the Commission: 
ducks, geese, swans, snipes, sandpipers, 
plovers, willets, curlew, godwits, avocets, 
and coots. The Commission has powers 
under certain conditions and with certain 
precautions to provide open hunting sea- 
sons of the following upland game birds: 
Pinnated Grouse, Blue Grouse, Ruffed 
Grouse, Willow Grouse, Sage Hen, Pheas- 
ant, Quail, Hungarian Partridge, and 
Mourning Dove. 

Problems of game management, particu- 
larly of big game, led in 1917 to the estab- 
lishment of the first game presei-ves, a 
number of which are now distributed 
through the state of Utah. The formation of 
such preserves was based on the idea that 
they could serve as breeding centers from 
which game would overflow into sur- 
rounding areas where it could be hunted. 

Over the years the Utah State Depart- 
ment of Fish and Game, now known as the 
Division of Wildlife Resources, in coopera- 
tion with federal wildlife agencies, has 
been instmmental in expanding the number 
of gamebird management areas within the 
state. Such management areas include Lo- 
comotive Springs, Salt Creek Public Shoot- 



ing Grounds, Ogden Bay, Farmington Bay, 
Timpie Springs, Harold Crane, and Howard 
Slough, all of which are around the borders 
of Great Salt Lake. Powell Slough and 
Rock Island management areas are located 
at Utah Lake. Other state owned areas are 
Clear Lake and Topaz Marsh, Millard 
County; Stewart Lake, Uintah County; 
Brown's Park, Daggett County; Desert 
Lake, Emeiy County; Bicknell Bottoms, 
Wayne County; and Olsen Slough, Sanpete 
County. 

Federally owned and operated refuges 
include the large Bear River Migratory 
Bird Refuge in Box Elder County, Fish 
Springs Refuge in Juab County, and Ouray 
Reflige in Uintah County. 

BIRD POPULATIONS IN UTAH 

The abundance of water and shore birds 
around the Great Salt Lake was vividly de- 
scribed by Fremont (1845) and by Stans- 
bury (1853). Quotations from their writing 
have been mentioned elsewhere. These 
early explorers as well as the early pioneers 
were understandably interested in the more 
conspicuous and larger birds as well as the 
game birds and predatory species. As has 
been previously mentioned, the early Mor- 
mon settlers soon after their arrival orga- 
nized campaigns against the "vennin." In 
addition, market hunting of ducks, geese, 
and other edible species was a regular oc- 
currence. The fact that these larger species 
were able to suivive at all attests to the fact 
of their original abundance. 

The abundance of upland game birds in 
favorable habitats throughout the state and 
in adjoining areas was evident in my (Hay- 
ward's) experience in the early 1900s in die 
Bear Lake area of northern Utah and south- 
eastern Idaho. Sage Grouse, Sharp-tailed 
Grouse, Ruffed Grouse, and Blue Grouse 
were all present in large numbers in their 
particular habitats. Sage Grouse tended to 
gather around springs in late summer, and 
I have seen them rise in great clouds when 
disturbed. Some ruthless hunters would 
shoot these easy targets by die dozens, re- 



1976 



BIRDS OF UTAH 



21 



move the breasts, and leave the rest of the 
carcasses in piles to decay. 

In the vicinity of Utah Lake there was 
an abundance of waterfowl and wading 
birds similar to those of the Great Salt Lake 
area in the early days. 

Fortunately Robert G. Bee obtained 
some infonnation from early fishermen, 
trappers, and hunters around Utah Lake 
and recorded some of their statements in 
his notes. ^ Mr. Gus Slade of Lehi fished 
and hunted around Utah Lake before 1900. 
There was extensive fishing for bass from 
about 1894-1900, but the introduction of 
caip killed out the so-called "moss," and 
the bass largely disappeared for a time. Mr. 
Slade stated that in 1895 the "moss" was 
so tliick you could hardly row a boat through 
it. There were "millions of ducks, so thick 
that when you shot a rifle you couldn't see 
through them as they arose." He mentions 
hunting ducks on Skippers Bay and killing 
125 to 150 per day. He stopped the shoot- 
ing in 1898 owing to the decrease in ducks 
and blamed the decrease to the destruction 
of the "moss" and other duck food by the 
carp. While Mr. Slade's descriptions seem 
to be somewhat exaggerated, he was no 
doubt impressed by the high populations 
of birds. 

About the year 1896-97 a bounty was 
offered on all types of herons, pelicans, cor- 
morants and all other fish-eating birds. At 
that time, and for some years before, states 
Mr. Slade, there were large heronries in the 
cedars (junipers) in die vicinity of Soldier 
Pass and Goshen Pass (west of Utah Lake). 
He estimated that the colony was three or 
four miles long and a mile wide and con- 
tained 100,000 birds. The Great Blue Heron 
also nested in the marshes of Goshen Bay. 
Mr. Slade visited this area with several 
other men, killed 1,290 birds (presumably 
nestlings) with sticks, cut their heads off, 
and placed them in sacks. They received 
$129 bounty for this kill. 



Ad Bobbins was another early hunter 
and trapper interviewed by Mr. Bee. Rob- 
bins also participated in market hunting of 
ducks, on one occasion killing 75 to 100 in 
a single day. The principal ducks killed 
were teal, scaup, and canvasbacks. On the 
market these brought from $1.25 to $1.75 
per dozen. He also took part in the killing 
of what he called "quaks" and "cranes," 
These were Black-crowned Night Herons 
and Great Blue Herons. He reported being 
at the rookeiy before daylight and collect- 
ing heads and eggs. Many birds were shot. 

Bobbins mentions visiting Rock Island 
(year not given) and killing 1,000 pelicans 
"until the smell made us all sick." 

Pete Johnson of Provo who was inter- 
viewed by Mr. Bee in March 1937 was then 
79 years of age. He was another of the early 
trappers, fisheimen, and hunters. He 
stated that he made $6 to $7 a day hunting 
fish-eating birds for bounty. He estimated 
that 10,000 herons and four or five hundred 
pelicans were slaughtered but there is no 
indication in the notes concerning the 
length of time involved. He said that in 
1928 he killed over 1,200 mudhens (coots). 
They ate tlie hearts and gizzards, saved the 
feathers, and then threw the remaining parts 
of the birds away. 

The destruction of fish-eating birds in 
the vicinity of Utah Lake continued into 
the thirties. When I (Hay ward) first came 
to Brigham Young University to teach in 
1930, tlie State Fish and Game Department 
furnished ammunition to hunters in Utah 
Valley to kill pelicans and other fish-eating 
birds. Thus many of tliese birds, along with 
numerous hawks, were killed. 

During the past 46 years important 
changes affecting bird life in the central 
valleys of the state have been evident. 
Habitats of the water and shore birds have 
fluctuated and changed considerably. Utah 
Lake has fluctuated from a point of nearly 
diying up during a series of low precipita- 



9Robert G. Bee's unpublished notes and journals are in the Life Sciences Museum, Brigham Young 
University, Provo, Utah. 



22 



GREAT BASIN NATURALIST MEMOIRS 



No. 1 



tion years in the early 1930s to a high peak 
where it flooded adjacent farmlands in 
1948-49. Pumping of water from the lake 
in varying amounts for irrigation purposes 
has resulted in some seasonal fluctuations. 
The area of shallow water known as Provo 
Bay or Mud Lake, partially surrounded by 
swampy land and emergent vegetation, has 
been an important area for the nesting of 
wading birds and waterfowl. In early spring 
of 1936 certain irrigation interests dug 
drainage canals through the area in an 
attempt to carry the water into Utah Lake 
to reduce surface evaporation. There was 
no attempt to install headgates to control 
the drainage, and for a time this important 
resource was nearly drained. Protests by 
local conservation interests (Evening Her- 
ald 15 April 1936:18) retarded the process 
of this program. The drainage canal has 
since been abandoned and has partially 
filled up. For many years raw sewage from 
the cities and towns of the valley flowed 
into Provo Bay and other parts of the lake. 
However, within the past decade most of 
these communities have established sewage 
plants, although they have not been entire- 
ly effective. Another source of pollution, 
still not entirely controlled, has been the 
by-products of the Geneva Steel plant, in- 
stalled during World War II, and other 
smaller industries of the area. 

Various other activities of man on and 
around Utah Lake have had their influence 
on bird life. The construction of a small 
boat harbor at the mouth of Provo River 
and the establishment of several other boat 
landings at other points on the lake, to- 
gether with the increasing popularity of 
boating, have undoubtedly increased the 
disturbance factor, especially during the 
nesting season. 

Habitats for the nesting of certain species 
have varied markedly over the past years. 
Following the construction of the previously 
mentioned canal in Provo Bay, willow 
trees and poplars sprang up along its banks 
and on drained land. Later these trees 
were flooded and consequently died. For 



several years these dead trees served as 
important nesting sites for colonies of Great 
Blue Herons and Cormorants. During the 
drought years of the early 1930s tamarisks 
and willows became established on the ex- 
posed land as the lake receded. When the 
lake rose again, these dense stands be- 
came flooded and for a short time were 
ideal habitats for the nesting of the Yellow- 
headed Blackbird, Red-winged Blackbird, 
American Coot, Western Grebe, Marsh 
Wren, and other species. 

The effects of housing expansion, con- 
struction of roads, development of indus- 
tries, and the reduction of farm lands along 
the Wasatch Front over the past twenty 
years have had some effect on the land bird 
populations, but an exact measurement of 
the effect is difficult. Only general observa- 
tions are possible. The riparian habitat of 
Provo River and other streams issuing from 
the mountains along the more densely 
populated Wasatch Front — an area im- 
portant to many forest dwelling species of 
birds — is rapidly disappearing and being 
replaced by homes. Certain species that 
formerly inhabited these areas in the late 
1920s and early 1930s seem to have nearly 
or completely disappeared. These include 
the Redstart, Veery, and Fox Sparrow. On 
the other hand, the establishment of hous- 
ing units, parks, and university campuses 
where ornamental shrubs and trees bearing 
edible fruits have been introduced seems to 
have attracted more of the smaller birds 
that have adapted well to human occupa- 
tion. 

Water conservation activities in Utah over 
the past several years have resulted in the 
construction of a number of reservoirs that 
have had some effect on the distribution and 
populations of birds in the state. Most of 
these reservoirs are of value principally as 
resting areas for waterfowl, but do not 
afford suitable breeding grounds. An ex- 
ception to this is Pelican Lake, a small shal- 
low body of water in the Uinta Basin near 
Vernal. Because of the abundant growth 
of emergent vegetation, the ample food, 



1976 



BIRDS OF UTAH 



23 



and some open shores, this lake has liecome 
an important nesting ground for American 
Coots, Black-crowned Night Herons, Black 
and Forster's Terns, Eared and Western 
Grebes, American Avocets, Black-necked 
Stilts, and several kinds of ducks. It is also 
serving as a resting and feeding area for 
many kinds of shore birds, both in spring 
and summer migration. The creation of 
several waterfowl refuges by previously 
mentioned state and federal agencies has 
also helped to balance against the loss of 
habitats resulting from human occupation, 
industries, and the pollution resulting there- 
from. 

PHYSIOGRAPHY AND CLIMATE 
OF UTAH 

Great Basin. — That portion of the Great 
Basin lying in Utah was formerly a part of 
ancient Lake Bonneville, which extended 
from southern Idaho southward into Iron 
County and from Salt Lake City westward 
nearly to Nevada. With tlie disappearance 
of that lake, the drainage was broken into 
several separate basins which are now inde- 
pendent of each other. Some of these have 
brackish or salty lakes or playas in the bot- 
torn. The principal ones are the Great Salt 
Lake and Sevier Lake basins, but there are 
also several smaller ones. 

Bordering the Great Basin on the east 
side are a series of high mountain ranges, 
peaks, and plateaus running in a north- 
south direction. The summits of these 
mountains range from 9,000 to 12,000 feet 
in elevation. Drainage from the westward 
slopes formerly ran into the lakes and 
other lower areas of the Great Basin, but 
now much of this water is held back by 
reservoirs from whence it can be released 
into the cities and farmlands of the basin 
for irrigation or culinaiy purposes. 

Between this series of mountains and the 
Nevada line, rising out of die lowlands of 
the basin (4,200 to 5,500 feet), lie a large 
number of small mountain ranges rising 
3,000 to 5,000 feet above the basin floor. 



Most of these have north-south axes. Be- 
tween these mountain ranges lie lowland 
areas on the floor of the basin, most of which 
present desert characteristics. The extreme 
in desert soil is illustrated in the Great Salt 
Lake Desert where large areas of "salt 
flats" occur. These flats are covered with 
crystalline salt on the surface and are com- 
pletely barren of vegetation. Nearly all 
gradations from these extreme desert condi- 
tions to rich agricultural soil may be found 
somewhere in the basin. 

Colorado Basin. — The Green River 
arises in northwestern Wyoming and then 
enters Utah about thirty miles west of the 
northeast corner of the state. From there it 
makes a detour around the east end of the 
Uinta Mountains, into northwestern Colo- 
rado, and back into Utah. After that it flows 
southward through half of the state before 
joining the Colorado River. The latter 
river arises in Colorado in the mountains 
of the continental divide, crosses western 
Colorado, entering Utah near the middle 
of the east boundary, and then flows south- 
westward through remarkable canyons be- 
fore it passes into Arizona near the middle 
of the soudiern boundary of die state. 

A series of tributaiy rivers — Uinta, Price, 
San Raphael, Fremont (Dirty Devil), Es- 
calante, Paria, Kanab, Virgin, and many 
lesser streams — drain the eastern slopes 
from the Great Basin divide in Utah. The 
chief tributaries of the Green and Colorado 
rivers from the Colorado Rockies include 
Yampa, White, Dolores, and San Juan 
rivers. The slopes of the Uinta Mountains 
also contribute numerous tributaries to the 
Colorado River drainage. 

The Uinta Mountains, with an east-west 
axis, lie just south of Wyoming and include 
the highest areas in the state: Kings Peak at 
13,498 feet and six other peaks over 13,000 
feet. South of the Uinta Mountains lies the 
Uinta Basin, underlaid by strata which rise 
slowly to the south and form high plateaus 
that break off in escaipments known as the 
Roan and Book cliffs. 

Two isolated sets of mountains. La Sal 



24 



GREAT BASIN NATURALIST MEMOIRS 



No. 1 



and Abajo, arise from the Colorado Basin 
to heights of more than 11,000 and 12,000 
feet in the region southeast of the Colorado 
River. The Henry Mountains foiTn a con- 
spicuous landmark west of the Colorado 
River. 

Green River enters Utah from Wyoming 
at an altitude of 5,855 feet. The Colorado 
River enters from Colorado at 4,330 feet. 
The two join at an elevation of 3,875 feet 
and pass out of Utah into Arizona at 3,160 
feet. The lowest altitude of the state, how- 
ever, is found in Washington County in the 
southwest comer where both the Virgin 
River and the Beaver Dam Wash pass into 
Arizona at an approximate altitude of 2,250 
feet. The Virgin River Basin is consequent- 
ly the lowest basin of the state and is the 
only portion that is similar to the Lower 
Sonoran or Southern Desert shRib com- 
munities of Arizona and southern Nevada. 

Columbia Plateau. — A small area in 
the northwesteiTi corner of the state be- 
longs to the Snake River drainage. Some 
small streams originating on the north 
slope of the Raft River Mountains flow 
northward into the Snake River. 

Climate. — Particularly in the summer, 
moisture-laden air may sweep into Utah 
from the Gulf of Mexico, but the major 
source of water is the Pacific Ocean. Winds 
from that source must cross ranges of high 
mountains that parallel the coast and ab- 
stract much of the moisture. Utah, lying 
in the rain shadow of these mountains, is 
a part of the driest physiographic province 
of North America. 

The desert valleys receive four to ten 
inches of precipitation annually. Moun- 
tains get more according to their altitudes 
above adjacent valleys, roughly increasing 
about one inch for each 160 to 200 feet rise. 
Higher mountain passes, however, may re- 
ceive 30 to 50 inches annually. 

Precipitation is unequally distributed 
throughout the year. In southern Utah, 
there are on the average two periods of de- 
ficiency, one in late spring and early sum- 



mer, the other in the fall, and two periods 
of maxima, one in late winter, the other in 
late summer. Farther north, this double 
cycle tends to be replaced by a single sea- 
sonal cycle in which the maximum occurs 
in early spring and the minimum in mid- 
summer. The proportion of precipitation 
which falls as rain and snow varies from the 
Virgin River Basin, where snow seldom 
occurs, to the high Uinta Mountains where 
it is nearly all snow. Part of the summer 
rains occasionally come in the form of 
thunder showers. In some years these thun- 
der showers assume torrential proportions. 

The actual conditions of climate vary a 
great deal in different years from average 
conditions. Prolonged drought, heavy rains, 
or blizzards may cause a wide departure 
from normal in any given year. Such de- 
partures often subject living organisms to 
extremes of climate that tax their endur- 
ance. 

Temperatures in Utah are extremely vari- 
able and wide ranging. There is often a 20- 
to 30-degree F difference between day and 
night and 100-degree F difference between 
winter minimum and summer maximum, 
occasionally much more. During warm 
weather the relative humidity is extremely 
low, especially during the day. This is cor- 
related with a high evaporation rate, 
particularly in southern Utah at low alti- 
tudes. The combination of low precipita- 
tion, high evaporation, and low relative 
humidity results in extensive desert areas 
with scanty vegetation, especially in the 
rain-shadow of mountains. 

The average relative humidity of Utah, 
like that of Nevada and Arizona, is near 50 
percent in contrast with the sea coasts with 
averages of 75 to 80 percent, the plains with 
70 to 75 percent, and the western mountain 
states with averages of 50 to 65 percent. The 
rate of evaporation in Utah, because of the 
low humidity and bright sunshine, is ex- 
tremely high, amounting to 45 to 55 inches 
per year from a free-water surface in the 
valleys west of the Wasatch Mountains. 



1976 



BIRDS OF UTAH 



25 



BIRD HABITATS IN UTAH 

There are, perhaps, few areas of compa- 
rable size on the North American continent 
that offer a wider range of habitats suitable 
to birds than those found within the state 
of Utah. The aquatic habitats range from 
large freshwater and salt lakes in the low- 
lands to small natural glacial lakes of the 
mountains, from slow-nmning streams of 
the valleys to swift rivers and brooks in the 
mountains. Added to these natural water 
bodies are several man-made lakes and 
reservoirs at varying elevations. Land com- 
munities vary from a small area of hot desert 
in the Dixie country of southwestern Utah 
to true alpine in the Uinta Mountains of 
northern Utah. 

Since birds are among the most mobile 
of vertebrates, it is difficult to define 
many of them in terms of their confine- 
ment to any special community. To attempt 
to assign birds to particular life zones or 
biomes often fails or applies to them only at 
certain seasons of the year. Attempts to 
assign birds to particular community types 
are usually based on their activities during 
the breeding and nesting seasons when the 
populations are most stable as to numbers 
and territorial needs or to resident species 
that do not migrate or wander far. 

Nevertheless, in viewing the Utah avian 
population it is possible, as it is elsewhere, 
to describe several types of bird habitats 
and to predict certain species that one 
would expect to find there during each of 
the seasons. 

Aquatic and Semiaquatic Habitats 

Utah Lake, located west of the Wasatch 
Mountains in Utah County, is the largest 
natural freshwater body in the state. It is 
a shallow lake some 20 miles long and 8 
miles wide. Its shoreline varies from 
swampy areas with much emergent vegeta- 
tion to rocky or sandy beaches. Until the 
beginning of the last decade, much raw 
sewage from the towns on the east side of 
the lake was poured into the lake, and the 



water became badly polluted. Most of the 
settlements now have sewage disposal 
plants, but even so there is still consider- 
able waste material from sewage and indus- 
trial products entering the lake. 

While Utah Lake probably does not have 
the potential for water fowl that it had 
prior to the coming of the white man, it and 
the adjacent sloughs and ponds of the val- 
ley lowlands still produce a great variety of 
birds. 

The open waters of the lake serve prin- 
cipally as a daytime refuge, especially in 
early spring and autumn, for large numbers 
of ducks and geese that fly to surrounding 
fields or marshlands to feed at night. These 
birds inhabit the lake as long as it is free of 
ice. In addition, the White Pelican, Double- 
crested Cormorant, and Western Grebe feed 
on fish in the open waters. Some of the 
larger refuges such as Farmington Bay and 
Bear River areas adjacent to the Creat 
Salt Lake and Fish Springs Refuge of west- 
ern Utah afford similar habitats of open 
water but are better controlled and less 
polluted. 

The large man-made reservoirs including 
Lake Powell, Flaming Gorge, Deer Creek, 
Strawberiy, and several others within the 
boundaries of the state are at present most- 
ly areas of refuge and rest for waterfowl. 
In time they may develop surroundings 
suitable for breeding and feeding. The 
shallow reservoirs such as Pelican Lake in 
the Uinta Basin and Mona Resei"voir in 
eastern Juab County seem to be more suit- 
able for open water birds as well as for 
marsh and shore birds. 

The Great Salt Lake supports no fish and 
is, tlierefore, not an important area for fish- 
eating birds, although there are colonies of 
White Pelicans, California Gulls, and other 
species of birds nesting on some of its 
islands. Dense populations of brine shrimp 
and brine fly occur in the salty water and 
are utilized for food by a few species of 
birds. 

Marshlands that have developed around 
the lakes, particularly Utah Lake and the 



GREAT BASIN NATURALIST MEMOIRS 



No. 1 



Great Salt Lake, consist of areas subject to 
periodic flooding and draining and are 
somewhat unstable. However, they furnish 
cover, food, and nesting habitats for many 
kinds of birds. The tall tules (Scirpus), cat- 
tails (Typha), and reeds (Phragmites), as 
well as other emergent vegetation, afford 
valuable nesting habitats for several species. 
Colonies of Great Blue Heron, Snowy Egret, 
Black-crowned Night Heron, and White- 
faced Ibis occur from time to time but suf- 
fer considerable shifting about, depending 
upon the amount of disturbance and drain- 
age. Numerous coots and grebes build 
floating nests in these marshes especially 
where their waters are continuous with 
those of the lake. Marsh Hawks and occa- 
sionally Black and Forster's Terns build 
platform nests or nest on the tops of musk- 
rat houses or masses of dead water plants. 

Colonies of Yellow-headed and Red- 
winged Blackbirds nest in the marshes. 
Also characteristic are Long-billed Marsh 
Wrens and Yellow-throats. 

On slightly higher ground the marshes 
with their emergent plants give way to wet 
meadow situations that are often flooded 
in spring and early summer but become dry 
later in the summer. Numerous species of 
grasses, sedges, and rushes grow here, and 
much of the land is used for pasture or the 
vegetation is cut for wild hay. The Red- 
winged Blackbird, Western Meadowlark, 
Bobolink, Wilson's Phalarope, Willet, Long- 
billed Curlew, and Common Snipe are char- 
acteristic nesting species in this habitat. 

Shallow open waters on the margins of 
lakes and ponds as well as the shores them- 
selves afford an important feeding and 
nesting area for a number of species. Char- 
acteristic nesting birds of open beaches are 
tlie Killdeer, Snowy Plover, American 
Avocet, Black-necked Stilt, and Spotted 
Sandpiper. Numerous kinds of migrating 
shorebirds, with Western and Least Sand- 
pipers, Northern Phalaropes, and Sander- 
lings being the most common, feed in the 
shallows and wet mud flats near shore. 

The state of Utah, particularly the Colo- 



rado River drainage portion, is crossed by 
numerous streams fed by the watersheds 
within the state and in bordering states. 
The largest of these are the Green and Colo- 
rado rivers. In the lowlands these streams 
flow slowly or form rapids, depending upon 
the topography. Within the Great Basin 
there are numerous streams flowing from 
the Wasatch and other mountain ranges. 
Among the larger of these streams are Bear, 
Weber, Sevier, and Provo rivers. In the 
canyons and at higher elevations where 
these streams have their origin the water 
usually runs swiftly over a rocky streambed. 

The slow-flowing streams of the lowlands 
serve as refuges and resting places for a 
variety of waterfowl. Canada Geese some- 
times nest along the stream banks and may 
be seen in summer swimming with their 
young in the open water. Ducks, particular- 
ly of the diving type such as Common and 
Red-breasted Mergansers, Buffleheads, and 
Common Goldeneyes, frequent these 
streams in winter. Small, quiet estuaries, 
flooded by high water in spring, frequently 
develop pond situations with emergent 
vegetation and are inhabited by Cinnamon 
Teal, Pintails, Mallards, and other species. 

Swift streams of steeper canyons support 
the Dipper and occasionally the Belted 
Kingfisher, although the latter is more fre- 
quent near smaller valley streams. High 
mountain lakes, especially abundant in the 
Uinta Mountains of northern Utah, do not 
support many waterfowl, although small 
flocks or individuals of most species of 
ducks common to Utah may be seen on 
them occasionally. Little if any nesting 
occurs around these high lakes since they 
are still frozen over at the regular nesting 
time for ducks. 

Land Habitats 

The lowland country of Utah, which 
occurs in valleys ranging in elevation from 
2,800 to 6,000 feet, is taken up with agricul- 
tural lands, cities, and towns wherever 
there is sufficient water for irrigation and 
suitable soil. This, however, takes up a 



1976 



BIRDS OF UTAH 



27 



relatively small portion of the total area of 
the state. The remainder of the lowland 
country is semidesert and desert vegetated 
by a variety of low-growing shrubs and is 
used principally as winter range for live- 
stock. 

The lowland streams are typically bor- 
dered by a flood plain or riparian wood- 
land composed of cottonwood and box 
elder trees and a variety of tall shmbs and 
willows. In agricultural areas this com- 
munity has expanded along irrigation 
canals and a similar community type occurs 
in orchards, ornamental trees and shrubs 
of city streets and parks. As a result, there 
is probably a more extensive and produc- 
tive habitat of this sort suitable for a large 
variety of smaller birds than there was prior 
to die settlement by white man. Summer 
bird inhabitants of these wooded communi- 
ties include a large variety of passerine 
birds such as the Yellow Warbler, Yellow- 
breasted Chat, Gray Catbird, American 
Robin, Black-headed Grosbeak, Starling, 
Western Wood Pewee, and House Finch. 
Other kinds include the Mourning Dove, 
Broad-tailed Hummingbird, Screech Owl, 
Sharp-shinned Hawk, and Cooper's Hawk. 
In winter the buds, fruits, and berries of 
both native and ornamental shrubs and 
trees offer an increasing supply of food for 
such wintering species as Bohemian and 
Cedar Waxwings, Evening Grosbeaks, 
California Quail, American Robins, and 
Townsend's Solitaires. 

The community type described above, 
while relatively small in comparison to the 
total area of the state, is of great ornitho- 
logical value and interest since it supports 
the greatest variety and population of 
small birds, most species of which seem to 
be able to withstand the pressures of the 
continuing expansion of human populations. 
The principal factors detrimental to their 
success would seem to be the increasing 
use of insecticides and the growth of the 
predator population, especially the house 
cat. 

The desertlands of Utah are of two Gen- 



eral kinds. A small portion of the Mojave 
Desert extends into the lower elevations 
of extreme southwestern Utah. Its vegeta- 
tion is characterized by such shrubs as 
creosote bush, mesquite, giant yucca, and 
numerous hot desert cacti. A few species 
of birds including LeConte's Thrasher, 
Crissal Thrasher, Abert's Towhee, and the 
Black Phoebe seem to be rather strictly con- 
fined to this community. The Mockingbird 
is common but by no means confined to it. 

A second general desert type occupies 
most of the valleys and plains of the state. 
It has been variously described as the 
Upper Sonoran Life Zone or the Northern 
or Cold Desert. It is characterized in the 
main by a vegetation of low-growing 
shrubs, many of them of a dull gray appear- 
ance, the species of which depend often 
on the amount of salinity of the soil and the 
degree of human disturbance. Bird life is 
rather sparse, but a number of interesting 
species occur. The Horned Lark is the 
most widespread and conspicuous species. 
Odier species include the Sage Thrasher, 
Brewer's Sparrow, Vesper Sparrow, Sage 
Sparrow, Black-throated Sparrow, and in 
limited areas the Sage Grouse. 

Another type of community that par- 
takes primarily of desert characteristics is 
the pinyon-juniper forest, sometimes called 
tlie pygmy forest. This community is wide- 
spread in Utah but is especially well de- 
veloped on the low mesas and hills of the 
eastern portion of the state. The juniper is 
universally present in the community, and 
the pinyon pines, of which there are two 
species, are often present. Bird life in this 
community is sparse and widely scattered 
both as to numbers and kinds, but a few 
species are rather characteristic. These in- 
clude the Pinon Jay, Plain Titmouse, Black- 
throated Gray Warbler, Gray Flycatcher, 
Ash-throated Flycatcher, and Blue-gray 
Gnatcatcher. 

Another land community found within 
the state is the so-called mountain brush. 
This is mostly a deciduous chaparral type 
with the scmb oak (Quercus gamhelii) be- 



28 



GREAT BASIN NATURALIST MEMOIRS 



No. 1 



ing the predominant plant. Other common 
shrubs include the big-toothed maple 
{Acer grandidenatum) and hackberry (Cel- 
tis douglasii). Cliff rose {Cowania stans- 
buriana), antelope-bush {Purshia triden- 
tata), and mahogany (Cercocarpus) often 
grow on the more rocky ridges. This com- 
munity is well represented above the 
pinyon-juniper in the more isolated moun- 
tain ranges of southeastern Utah and along 
the Wasatch front or die west slope of the 
Wasatch Mountains where pinyon-juniper 
is lacking as a distinct belt. The avifauna 
of this community consists of many of the 
species that live also in the riparian com- 
munities of the valleys. Perhaps die most 
characteristic species are the Rufous-sided 
Towhee, Virginia's Warbler, Orange- 
crowned Warbler, and Scrub Jay. 

At elevations on the mountains above the 
mountain bush are several types of ever- 
green and deciduous forests. The yellow 
pine forest {Pinus ponderosa) is one of these. 
This community is rather sparsely repre- 
sented in Utah, with the largest stands oc- 
curring along the south and east base of the 
La Sal Mountains and other mountains of 
southeastern Utah and in some portions of 
the Uinta Mountains. Perhaps the most 
characteristic bird of this community is the 
Pygmy Nuthatch. The White-breasted and 
Red-breasted Nuthatch, Western Bluebird, 
Clark's Nutcracker, and Solitary Vireo are 
also characteristic of the yellow pine forest. 

The two more widespread types of coni- 
ferous forests found in the mountains of 
Utah are the Lower Montane Forest, in 
which the white fir {Abies concolor) and 
the Douglas fir {Pseudosuga menziesii) are 
the predominant trees, and the Upper Mon- 
tane Forest, wherein the Englemann spruce 
(Picea engelmanni) and the subalpine or 
black fir {Abies lasiocarpa) are character- 
istic. A subclimax conifer forest of lodge- 
pole pine {Pinus contorta) occurs, particu- 
larly in the Uinta Mountains following 
bums. While these coniferous forests are 



quite different botanically, the bird life 
seems to be rather similar in all of them. 
The Red-breasted Nuthatch, Golden- 
crowned Kinglet, Ruby-crowned Kinglet, 
Yellow-rumped Warbler, Western Tanager, 
Olive-sided Flycatcher, Hammond's Fly- 
catcher, Steller's Jay, and the Northern 
Three-toed Woodpecker are a few of the 
common representatives. 

A deciduous forest of aspen {Populus 
tremuloides) frequently occurs in the moun- 
tains of the state at the level of the Lower 
Montane Forest where there have been 
fires. Ultimately these forests are usually 
replaced by conifers, but the process is 
often slow and mature stands of old aspens 
may occur. Such forests, with large stand- 
ing live or dead trees are particularly suit- 
able for a variety of hole-nesting birds in- 
cluding the Tree Swallow, Violet-green 
Swallow, Purple Martin, House Wren, 
Black-capped Chickadee, Yellow-bellied 
Sapsucker, Downy Woodpecker, Hairy 
Woodpecker, and Common Flicker. Other 
common birds of the aspen forests are 
Western Tanager, Chipping Sparrow, Cas- 
sin's Finch, Black-headed Grosbeak, West- 
ern Wood Pewee, Yellow-rumped Warbler, 
Mountain Bluebird, and Hermit Thrush. 

Alpine communities are represented in 
some of the higher mountain ranges of 
Utah, particularly in the Uinta Mountains, 
Wasatch Mountains, and La Sal Mountains. 
They occur usually at elevations above 
11,000 feet and are most extensive in the 
Uinta Mountains. These treeless, cold areas 
are rather inhospitable to most birds. The 
Rosy Finch and Water Pipit and some- 
times the Rock Wren nest there but migrate 
to lower elevations in winter. Several 
kinds of birds feed in the alpine meadows 
in late summer. These include the Ameri- 
can Kestrel, Green-Tailed Towhee, and 
several species of sparrows. 

More specific habitat relationships will 
be considered under the accounts of the 
Utah species. 



BIRDS OF UTAH 



29 




30 



GREAT BASIN NATURALIST MEMOIRS 



No. 1 



ACCOUNTS OF THE SPECIES 

Family Gaviidae 

Gavia immer (Biiinnich) 

Common Loon 

Status: The Common Loon is a rather 
habitual and consistent migrant in both 
spring and fall, and a few may remain 
throughout the summer, especially in the 
northern part of the state. There seem to 
be no records of nesting. 

Records: Specimens taken at Great Salt 
Lake in 1849 or 1850 were reported by Baird 
(1852:324 325) who stated that this record 
"enables us to give to it a locality more west- 
ern than any yet recorded." Remy (1860 
[2] :450) included the loon in a list of 
birds of Utah observed in 1855. Henshaw 
(1875:488) reported that "this diver was 
said bv the fishermen of Utah Lake to be 



rather common, remaining in their waters 
till quite late in the fall." More recent col- 
lection records include the following: 
mouth of Jordan River, Salt Lake County, 
30 October 1885; near Brigham City, Box 
Elder County, 9 June 1928; Utah Lake, 
Utah County ,^30 October 1932; Veyo, Wash- 
ington County, 27 October 1933; Gunnison 
Island, Box Elder County, 31 July 1938; 
Jordan Fur Farm, Davis County, Novem- 
ber or December 1938; north of Scipio, 
Juab County, 14 August 1939 (Long 1940: 
122). There are numerous sight records in 
recent years including obsei-vations by 
Donald Nielson of a single individual in a 
brinepond near Wendover, Tooele County, 
10 June 1942 (Behle 1955:111) and Dugway, 
Tooele County, 18 May 1960 (Behle et al. 
1964:450) and by Hay ward and Frost of 
two specimens at Pelican Lake, Uintah 
County, 15 May 1970 (field notes). 




Fig. 3. White Pelican. Tremonton, Box Elder County, Utiih. Photo by R. J. Erwin. 



1976 



BIRDS OF UTAH 



31 




Fig. 4. Snowy Egret. Salt Creek Waterfowl Management Area, Box Elder County, Utah, 23 June 
1973. Photo by R. J. Erwin. 



Gavia arctica pacifica (Lawrence) 
Arctic Loon 

Status: A rare transient probably acci- 
dental in the state. 

Records: Hardy (1941a:125) reported 
that a bird of the subspecies pacifica was 
found dead near Beaver, Beaver County, 18 
October 1940. 

Gavia stellata (Pontoppidan) 
Red-throated Loon 

Status: A rare and seemingly accidental 
visitor to Utah. 

Records: A specimen in the University 
of Utah collection was found at the Bear 



River Migratory Bird Refuge during the 
summer of 1973. According to Behle 
(1973b:243), the bird was first seen at the 
refuge on 28 July 1973. It was later cap- 
tured and died from the effects of a catfish 
spine lodged in the esophagus. A picture 
of this specimen is in American Birds (Able 
1974:22). 

Family Podicipedidae 

Podiceps auritus (Linnaeus) 
Horned Grebe 

Status: The Horned Grebe is a sparse 
but rather consistent migrant in Utah both 
in spring and fall. Formerly nesting in 



32 



GREAT BASIN NATURALIST MEMOIRS 



No. 1 




Fig. 5. Goshawk. Snow Basin, Weber County, Utah, 10 July 1970. Photo by R. J. Er 



northern Utah (AOU Check-hst 1957:5). 

Records: Allen (1872b: 173) collected a 
specimen near Ogden, Weber County, in 
September 1871. Henshaw (1875:489) re- 
ported that it was present in small numbers 
at Rush Lake, Iron County, in September 
1972. A specimen in the U.S. Biological 
Survey collection was taken at Bear River, 



Box Elder County, 4 September 1916, by 
Fisher. Webster' (1947:40) published a 
sight record for Pine View Reservoir, 
Weber County, 19 April 1945, and Behle 
et al. (1964:450) reported two females 
taken at Farmington Bay, Davis County, 8 
April 1962. 



1976 



BIRDS OF UTAH 



33 



Podiceps nigricoUis californicus Heennan 
Eared Grebe 

Status: This is the most common grebe 
found on tlie lakes and reseiA/oirs of the 
state, appearing often in large numbers 
especially in spring. It breeds commonly 
in suitable habitats throughout the area. 
Most of the nesting records are for early 
June, July, and August. 

Records: Robert Ridgway (1877:369) 
noted tliis grebe especially in the vicinity 
of the Jordan River marshes and Great Salt 
Lake in Salt Lake County as early as 1869 
but took no specimens. Young collected 
specimens near the lake in April 1897. 
These specimens are in the U.S. National 
Museum of Natural Histoiy, Washington, 
D.C. 

Numerous specimens are in die Univer- 
sity of Utah and Brigham Young Univer- 
sity collections. Dates of collections and 
observations range from April dirough De- 
cember. Cottam (1929:80) reported diat on 
the night of 13 December 1928 many hun- 
dreds of grebes were forced to the ground 
by heavy storms at Caliente, Lincoln Coun- 
ty, Nevada; at Enteiprise, Washington 
County; and at Uvada and Modena, Iron 
County, Utah. They were undoubtedly in 
mass migration, but it is not certain from 
whence they came. Wauer (1969:331) re- 
ported a migration through the Virgin River 
Valley from 20 April to 14 May and from 30 
September through 27 October. 



Aechmopliorus occidentalis (Lawrence) 
Western Grebe 

Status: The Western Grebe is a com- 
mon migrant and breeding species in Utah. 
It is most abundant from mid-March to 
mid-November, but a few individuals occur 
in winter. Cottam et al. (1942:51) saw tliem 
at the Bear River Migratoiy Bird Refuge, 
Box Elder County, and near Ogden, Weber 
County, 14, 27-28 December 1941 and 10 
January 1942. For breeding puiposes these 
grebes prefer the marshy borders of the 



larger lakes and reservoirs, although they 
often feed in rivers and larger canals espe- 
cially if diese are bordered by marshlands. 
Records: Early records of this species in 
Utah include the observations of Ridgway 
(1877:369) who saw it in ponds and marshes 
near Great Salt Lake in May and June 
1869. Henshaw (1875:488) recorded col- 
lecting a specimen at Utah Lake, Utah 
County, 24 July 1872. There is an abun- 
dance of sight records and numerous col- 
lected specimens especially from northern 
and central Utah where more extensive 
habitats occur that are suitable for breeding. 
There are also many records of nesting in 
May and early June. Behle (1960a:21) re- 
ported seeing two migrants on the Colorado 
River at river mile 163 near Red Canyon, 
San Juan County, 5 July 1958. 



PodiJijmbtis podiceps podiceps (Linnaeus) 
Pied-billed Grebe 

Status: A resident throughout the year 
in the state wherever tliere are suitable 
habitats. Less common in winter than in 
other seasons, diis grebe is more likely to 
inhabit small slow-flowing streams and 
secluded ponds than are the Eared and 
Western Grebes. The Pied-billed Grebe is 
usually seen as individuals or pairs especial- 
ly during breeding and is less common than 
either the Western or Eared Grebe. 

Records: Early-day ornithologists re- 
ported that this species was common around 
Great Salt Lake and Ogden, Weber County 
(Allen 1872b:173; Ridgway 1877:369). Hen- 
shaw (1875:490) found it to be rather numer- 
ous at Rush Lake, Iron County, in Septem- 
ber 1872. Most of the more recent records 
are from the northern counties of the state. 
However, Hardy and Higgins (1940:95) 
reported a migrant taken from the Virgin 
River at St. George, Washington County, 
24 November 1934. Although it appears 
periodically in streams and ponds of south- 
ern Utah, presumably as a transient, nesting 
has been reported only in northern Utah. 



34 



GREAT BASIN NATURALIST MEMOIRS 



No. 1 




Fig. 6. Sharp-shinned Hawk. Ogden Canyon, Weber County, Utah, 10 July 1956. Photo by R. J. 
Erwin. 



Family Pelecanidae 

Pelecanus erythrorhynchos Gmelin 

White Pelican 

Fig. 3, p. 30 

Status: A nesting species on islands in 
Great Salt Lake and a migrant through the 
State. The White Pelican occurs in the area 
mostly from March to September, although 
there are reports of a few individuals win- 
tering (Young 1951:169, Wilson 1952:159). 
The White Pelican occupies somewhat 
barren islands for resting and nesting and 
feeds on fish from freshwater bodies nearby. 
The history of these birds in Utah has 
shown considerable fluctuation in the num- 
ber of breeding birds from year to year 



over the past 40 or 50 years. From the 
earliest records Gunnison and Hat Island 
in Great Salt Lake have been the principal 
nesting areas for these pelicans. Stansbury 
(1852:179) gave the first account of the 
pelican nesting on Gunnison Island under 
date of 8 May 1850. Behle (1935:33) counted 
3,300 nests and 6,600 adults on Gunnison Is- 
land, 29 June 1932. That same year he found 
1,500 nests on Hat Island. Behle (1936b: 
220) reported that Hat Island had been de- 
serted as a nesting area in 1935 and 1936; 
however, Cottam and Williams (1939:150- 
155) visited the island on 11 and 12 June 
1938 and reported seeing about 425 young 
pelicans. It was reported to Behle (1944b: 
199) that pelicans nested on Hat Island in 



1976 



BIRDS OF UTAH 



35 




Kig. 7. Sluiip-shinned [lawk. Ogdeii, \\\-bvT County, Utah, 10 April 1973. Photo by R. J. Erwin. 



1943. When Behle (1949b:268) revisited tlie 
island on 1 June 1947, there were no nest- 
ing pehcans found. 

The nesting cofony on Gunnison Island 
had been reduced to 1,250 nests when 
Behle visited it on 11 June 1948 (Behle 
1949b:268-270). Lies and Behle (1966:286) 
reported that in 1964 the nesting colony on 
Gunnison Island, Great Salt Lake, was still 
intact but apparently reduced in size. They 
counted 897 young on 9 July 1964. Pelicans 
are known to have nested on Rock Island, 
Utah Lake, Utah County, on only one occa- 
sion (probably June 1904, Goodwin 1904b: 
126 129). 

Records: Fremont (1845:149) was die 
first to mention the presence of the White 
Pelican near Great Salt Lake at the mouth 



of Bear River, Box Elder County, 3 Septem- 
ber 1843, where one was shot as it flew by. 
Stansbuiy (1852:179, 191, 195) visited Gun- 
nison Island 8 and 30 May and 1 June 1850 
and described the large nesting colonies 
there. Remy (1860 [1] :154, [2] :450) in 1855 
mentioned pelicans as being present in the 
Salt Lake Valley. Numerous specimens 
have been collected from Box Elder, Cache, 
Tooele, Salt Lake, Kane, and Washington 
counties, and sight records are available 
from most of the counties of the state. Prior 
to the restrictions on egg collecting, hun- 
dreds of sets were collected for exchange 
purposes. On 16 May 1894 W. H. Parker 
took 500 sets of eggs from the colonies 
on Hat and Gunnison islands. Numerous 
sets were also taken by Treganza, Boyle, and 



36 



GREAT BASIN NATURALIST MEMOIRS 



No. 1 




Fig. 8. Svvainson's Hawk. Ogden, Weber County, Utah, 30 August 1970. Photo by R. J. Erwin. 



Others in May 1906 and 1907. In the spring 
of 1918 Hat Island was visited by C. G. 
Plummer who reported that representatives 
of Utah Fish and Game Commissioner 
had shot many adults and clubbed to death 
nearly all the young birds presumably on 
the basis that they were detrimental to fish- 
ing interests. The fish consumed by this 
species are normally the rough or coarse 
fish, little used for human consumption 



(Cottam and Uhler 1937:5). S. H. Goodwin 
(1904b:126-129) found a nesting colony of 
about 200 young on Rock Island, Utah Lake, 
in June 1904. White Pelicans have been 
reported in migration from Kanab, Kane 
County, 10 and 28 April 1935 (Behle et al. 
1958:38); Bryce Canyon, Garfield County, 
14 June 1937 (Presnell 1937:259); St. 
George, Washington County, 20 October 
1938 (Hardy and Higgins 1940:95-96). Re- 



1976 



BIRDS OF UTAH 



37 




Fig. 9. Red-tailed Hawk. Ogden, Weber County, Utah, 15 April 1973. Photo by R. J. Erwin. 



cently Knopf and Street (1974:428 433) 
analyzed eggs from the Gunnison Island 
colony and found that DDD, DDE, and 
Dieldrin levels were comparable to those 
reported for this species elsewhere. 

Pelecanus occidentalis Linnaeus 
Brown Pelican 

Status: The Brown Pelican is possibly 
a rare, accidental transient in tlie state. 



Records: This species is included in the 
Utah list on the basis of a few sight records. 
No collected specimens from this locality 
are known to us. Woodbury (1937:225) re- 
ported a pelican of brown plumage with a 
flock of 20 to 30 White Pelicans observed 
near the Jordan River nortliwest of Salt Lake 
City, 28 April 1934. Another record is that 
of Claude T. Barnes (1946:258-259), who 
described in some detail a bird seen by him 



38 



GREAT BASIN NATURALIST MEMOIRS 



No. 1 




Fig. 10. Red-tailed Hawk. Ogden, Weber County, Utah, 15 April 1973. Photo by R. J. Er 



1976 



BIRDS OF UTAH 



39 



at Farmington Bay Project, Davis County, 
27 May 1944. Lockerbie (1947:162) re- 
ported that L. D. Pfoiits saw two Brown 
Pelicans in a flock of White Pehcans on 
13 April 1947 at Utah Lake, Utah County. 
Hay ward (1966:305) reported a specimen 
seen by Merhn L. Kiflpack and him at Peh- 
can Lake, Uintah County, 1819 May 1963. 
Huser and Kashin (Kingeiy 1973:92) re- 
ported one seen at Lake Powefl, San Juan 
County, in October 1972. 

Family Phalacrocoracidae 

Phalacrocorax auritus (Lesson) 

Double-crested Comiorant 

Fig. l,p. 11 

Status: This is a summer resident in 
Utah usually fiom April through Septem- 
ber. It is known to nest on several islands 
and in trees in a number of localities. 



Records: Stansljury (1852:161, 188, 207) 
gave the first descriptions of cormorant 
colonies on Egg Island, Great Salt Lake, 
which he visited on 9 April, 20 May, and 
16 June 1850. The birds were nesting there 
at the time of his visits. This species was 
found around Great Salt Lake by Ridgway 
(1877:369). Numerous specimens have been 
collected from the Utah area, particularly 
from Box Elder County, and are now lo- 
cated in the U.S. National Museum of Natu- 
ral History, Colorado Museum of Natural 
History, Louis B. Bishop, University of Utah, 
Utah State University, and Brigham Young 
University collections. Nesting records are 
numerous. Beginning in 1906 many sets of 
eggs were taken at Egg Island, Great Salt 
Lake, during early April. There is a record 
of a set of eggs taken by Aldous, 10 May 
1901, at White Rock on the nortliwest side 
of Antelope Island. Dolphin Island in 





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Fig. 11. Ferruginous Hawk. Promontory Point, Box Elder County, Utah, June 1955. Photo by K. J. 
Erwin. 



40 



GREAT BASIN NATURALIST MEMOIRS 



No. 1 



Great Salt Lake was once used as a nesting 
site (Lewis 1929:7), but it has since been 
abandoned (Behle 1936a:79). A nesting 
colony at Bass Pond Reservoir, Millard 
County, was reported by Pearson (1927: 
382). Nesting has occurred in dead trees 
along Little Bear River, Cache County. 
This colony was visited by Stanford (1937: 
195), 7 July 1936 and 28 April 1937 and by 
Hayward (field notes), 13 May 1938. Since 
the establishment of artificial islands in 
some of the units at Bear River Migratory 
Bird Refuge, Box Elder County, cormo- 
rants have utilized them for nesting sites. 
Their use began in 1936 and has continued 
to the present time. Migrants have been 
observed at St. George, Washington 
County, 6 May 1940, and collected at Ivins 
Reservoir, Washington County, 20 April 
1940 (Hardy and Higgins 1940:96); observed 
at Kanab, Kane County, 21 April 1931 
(Behle et al. 1958:38); and observed on the 
Colorado River at mile 109 in Glen Canyon, 
16 July 1958 (Behle 1960a:21). 

Periodically, cormorants have nested in 
Utah Valley. In the late 1940s and early 
1950s a colony in the Provo Bay area nested 
in dead trees that had been flooded by high 
water. A similar nesting colony also in 
dead trees was established south of Provo 
City Airport, Utah County, in the late 
1950s and early 1960s. During die latter 
part of the 1960s, as the trees rotted and fell 
and boating activities on the lake increased, 
cormorants became very scarce in the vicini- 
ty of Utah Lake. Frost (field notes) reported 
colonies at Geneva Steel dike and south of 
the Provo airport, Utah County, estimated 
at 40 nests, 20 May 1970. Mitchell (1975: 
927-930) has summarized the history of 
this species in Utah and indicated a great 
decline in nesting pairs in the past 50 years. 

Subspecies: Peters in Check-list of Birds 
of the Wodd (1931[1]:86) indicated that 
both the western race P. a. albociliatus and 
the eastern race P. a. auritus are to be found 
in Utah. The more recent AOU Check-list 
of North American Birds (1957:35 .36) 
shows only P. a. auritus as being in Utah and 



limits P. a. albociliatus to western Nevada 
(Pyramid Lake) and Arizona (lower Colo- 
rado River, Roosevelt Lake). Behle (1936a: 
76-79) concluded that the Utah specimens 
he examined came closer to auritus, in 
which the plumes found in older breeding 
birds of both sexes are predominantly black 
ratlier than white as they are in albociliatus. 
Our own observations tend to confirm 
Behle's conclusion. 

Family Ardeidae 

Ardea herodias treganzai Court 
Great Blue Heron 

Fig. 2, p. 19 

Status: The Great Blue Heron is a com- 
mon summer-breeding resident in the lower 
valleys and along the streams throughout 
the state. In localities where there is open 
water, a few remain throughout the winter. 
Henshaw (1875:464) found it on the borders 
of Utah Lake in December and assumed 
tlrat some birds remained through the win- 
ter. Frost and Murphy (1965:181) observed 
it along the Colorado River below Moab, 
Grand County, every month of the year. 
It has been observed in January, February, 
and March in the St. George area (Hardy 
and Higgins 1940:96). Nests may be built 
in trees, on the ground in marshes, or 
occasionally on cliffs. 

Records: The earliest record for Utah 
seems to be diat of Stansbury (1852:161, 
188, 207), who found these herons on Egg 
Island, Great Salt Lake, 9 April, 21 May, 
and 16 June 1850. Allen (1872b: 172), Hen- 
shaw (1875:464), and Ridgway (1875:31) 
were other early writers who reported them 
for the state. 

Nesting records are known for many 
localities around Great Salt Lake and from 
Egg, Gunnison, and Hat islands on die lake 
from whence many sets of eggs have been 
collected. There have been and still are 
many nesting records from the vicinity of 
Utah Lake where they have nested in 
marshes and in trees at various locations in 
the valley. There have also been many 



1976 



BIRDS OF UTAH 



41 



nesting records from the Bear River Migra- 
toiy Bird Reflige area in Box Elder County. 
Small nesting colonies occur along the major 
rivers of the state, especially the Green and 
Colorado rivers (Behle 1960a:21; Frost and 
Murphy 1965:181; Hayward 1967:17-18). 
In 1970 a few herons built tlieir nests on 
narrow ledges of the sheer cliffs of Lake 
Powell a few miles south of Bullfrog Marina, 
Kane County (Hayward field notes). 

Subspecies: Great Blue Herons of the 
Utah area are considered to be A. /?. tregan- 
zai described by Court (1908:291-296), die 
type locality being Egg Island, Great Salt 
Lake. The type specimen, now in the col- 
lection of the U.S. National Museum of 
Natural History, was taken by A. O. Tre- 
ganza, 10 April 1907. Certain authorities 
(Parks 1955:287-288; Mayr and Short 1970: 
31) consider A. herodias to be conspecific 
with A. cinerea. 

Butorides striatus (Linnaeus) 
Northern Green Heron 

Status: The Green Heron is an uncom- 
mon summer resident and occasional win- 
ter resident in the state and is known to 
breed in the marshes near tlie mouth of 
Bear River. Specimens with gonads in 
breeding condition have also been taken in 
the Virgin River area in southwestern Utah. 

Records: A breeding male was taken by 
Huber and Hull near the mouth of Bear 
River, Box Elder County, 21 June 1927. Two 
birds were seen at this time. Hardy (1941a: 
125) recorded a specimen in the collection 
at Dixie College obtained 17 September 
1936 at St. George, Washington County. 
Behle (1943a:34) collected a male and a 
female along Santa Clara Creek near St. 
George, 15-16 May 1940. Behle et al. 
(1964:450) obtained a female at Spring Run, 
Salt Lake County, south of Salt Lake City, 
27 December 1960, and another near the 
Salt Lake airport. Salt Lake County, 9 
October 1961. Wauer (1969:331) reported it 
nesting in a cottonwood along Santa Clara 
Creek, Washington County, 18 and 24 May 
1966. There have been a number of sight 



records reported in recent years: Behle et al. 
(1958:39), Kanab, Kane County, 9 June 1935; 
Hardy and Higgins (1940:96), St. George, 
Washington County, 9 April 1940; Locker- 
bie (1956:208), Salt Lake City, 26 Decem- 
ber 1955; Ferris (1963:63), Jordan Narrows, 
Utah County, 13 October 1963; Scott (1964: 
60), Jordan River, Salt Lake County, 13 
October 1963, and (1967:591), Fish Springs, 
Juab County, 6 August 1967. Scott (1974: 
489) reported one at Zion National Park, 
Washington County, 17 December 1973. 

Subspecies: A male in breeding condi- 
tion taken at the moudi of Bear River by 
Huber and Hull 21 June 1927 was examined 
by Oberholser and Cottam, who judged it 
to be of the subspecies B. v. virescens, the 
smaller race common to eastern North 
America. Other specimens have been deter- 
mined to be B. V. anthonyi, which ranges 
through the western Pacific states and less 
commonly into the intemiountain area 
(Hardy 1941a:125; Behle 1943a:34; Behle 
et al. 1964:450; Wauer 1969:331). B. 
virescens is now considered conspecific 
with B. striatus (American Ornithologists' 
Union 1976:786). 

Florida caerulea caendea (Linnaeus) 
Little Blue Heron 

Status: A rare summer visitor to the 
state. 

Records: Scott (1958:48) reported a 
specimen collected at Bear River Migratory 
Bird Refuge, Box Elder County, 4 Septem- 
ber 1957, supposedly die first record for 
Utah. Subsequently Wilson and Reid (1958: 
214) reported on the same specimen, indi- 
cating it was apparently sick from botulism 
and died the day it was captured. Scott 
(1963:422) and Behle (1966:396) noted a 
specimen that has been found dead near 
Draper, Salt Lake County, 25 May 1963. 
This specimen was placed in the University 
of Utah collection. An immature white- 
phased bird was seen by Kashin at Farming- 
ton Bay, Davis County, in the fall of 1974 
(Kingery 1975:93). 



42 



GREAT BASIN NATURALIST MEMOIRS 



No. 1 




Fig. 12. Peregrine Falcon. Ogden, Weber County, Utah, June 1952. Photo by R. D. Porter. 



Bubulcus ibis ibis Linnaeus 
Cattle Egret 

Status: This old-world egret, which has 
emigrated in recent years to parts of Central 
and South America, has spread northward 
into the United States and has been reported 
in Utah on several occasions during the 
past six or seven years. 



Records: Kashin (1964a:55) reported 
what seemed to be Cattle Egrets at Farm- 
ington Bay, 9 August 1964. Two birds were 
seen by Frost and Hayward near the Bear 
River Migratoiy Bird Refuge, Box Elder 
County, 29 April 1969. These birds had 
been previously noted by personnel at the 
refuge and by a party from the University 
of Utah. Frost and Hayward (field notes) 



1976 



BIRDS OF UTAH 



43 



saw a specimen south of Provo, Utah 
County, 16 April 1971. The bird was ob- 
served closely with a spotting scope and 
was in fiill breeding plumage. Kingery 
(1971:775) reported a specimen west of 
Logan, Cache County, 6 May 1971. A win- 
ter record has been reported by Beall (1974: 
487) at Bear River Migratory Bird Refuge, 
Box Elder Count)^ 17 December 1973. This 
species has now appeared in southern Utah 
at Zion National Park, Washington Count)', 
18 May 1975 (Kingeiy 1975:886). 

Casmerodius alhus egretta (Gmelin) 
Great Egret 

Status: The Great Egret is a rare mi- 
grant or wanderer in Utah. No finn record 
of nesting within the state has been estab- 
lished. 



Records: A mature male was captured 
alive at St. George, Washington County, 
in May 1934. It was later prepared as a 
mounted specimen and is now in the col- 
lection of Brigham Young University. Ridg- 
way (1877:.369) found diis species near Salt 
Lake City in 1869 and suspected that it 
might be breeding. A specimen was seen 
by Henshaw (1875:465) near Beaver, Beaver 
County, 22-25 September 1872. Later sight 
records include: Hull (letter), near mouth 
of Bear River, Box Elder County, summer 
1926; Wilson, mouth of Bear River, 25 
April 1933; Marshall (letter). Bear River 
Migratory Bird Reliige, mid-October 1936; 
Twomey (1942:368), near Jensen, Uintah 
County, 3 and 5 May 1937; Beck (letter), 
Provo Bay area, Utah County, spring 1940; 
Cottam (field notes), near Jensen, Uintah 
County, 12 September 1941; Scott (1959:51), 




Fie,. 1 >. American Kestrel. Ogden, Weber Count) 



,(i s.-pU'iiil. 



Photo by R. J. Erwin. 



44 



GREAT BASIN NATURALIST MEMOIRS 



No. 1 



Bear River Migratory Bird Refuge, Box 
Elder County, 28 November 1958; Scott 
(1959:311), Famiington Bay, Great Salt 
Lake, Davis County, 9 March 1959; (Utah 
Audubon News 1963:38), Fanuington Bay, 
20 May 1963; Bent (1926:144), hsted die 
Bear River marshes and Salt Lake Valley in 
the breeding range of die Great Egret, but 
there appear to be no nesting data to sub- 
stantiate this statement. 

Egretta thula brewsteri (Thayer 

and Bangs) 

Snowy Egret 

Fig. 4, p. 31 

Status: A common summer resident 
breeding in marshes around Great Salt 
Lake, Bear Lake, Cache Valley, Utah Lake, 
and more recently at Pelican Lake, Uintah 
County. Wanderers and nonbreeders may 
be seen around lakes and reservoirs or 
along streams almost anywhere in the state 
during the summer. In Utah the Snowy 
Egret seems to prefer nesting in remote 
marsh areas where it may occur in com- 
pany with Great Blue Herons and Black- 
crowned Night Herons. 

Records: Surprisingly there are no early 
records of diis egret in Utah unless die 
accounts of Ridgway (1875:31; 1877:369) 
and Henshaw (1875:465) were of this species 
under the name Herodias alba egretta. In 
their 45-year histoiy of die Snowy Egret in 
Utah, the Treganzas (1914:245-250) men- 
tioned that Mr. Knudsen had observed what 
he called the "white squak" near the mouth 
of Bear River as far back as about 1869. Mr. 
Knudsen obtained a specimen for Treganza 
in 1904. There are indications that the 
egret has increased in numbers after the 
settlement of the Utah valleys by white 
man. Collections of eggs in marshes near 
the mouth of Bear River, Box Elder County, 
were made by Aldous as early as 1906. 
Since that time there have been numerous 
collections of both birds and eggs and 
hundreds of sight records in various locali- 
ties within the state. 



Nycticorax nycticorax hoactli (Gnielin) 
Black -crowned Night Heron 

Status: A common summer resident, 
especially in the central valleys of the 
state. A few individuals may remain into 
late fall and even through the winter. Hen- 
shaw (1875:466) saw it around Utah Lake 
in December. Kashin (1968:361) reported 
seeing one in the Salt Lake area, 24 Decem- 
ber 1967. There are numerous nesting 
colonies in less accessible marshes often 
in company with the Great Blue Heron and 
the Snowy Egret. Colonies may also nest 
in trees or tall bushes. 

Records: Early writers (Allen 1872b: 172; 
Henshaw 1875:466; Bailey field notes) 
found this heron common around Great Salt 
Lake, Utah Lake, and Bear Lake. Numer- 
ous nesting records are available from these 
areas. Twomey (1942:369) found a small 
nesting colony in marshes south of Jensen, 
Uintah County, in the spring of 1937. An- 
other nesting colony has been noted at 
Pelican Lake, Uintah County, by Frost and 
Hayward (field notes 1964 and 1970; Hay- 
ward 1967:18). Hardy and Higgins (1940: 
96) suggested that it might be "a summer 
resident in limited numbers" in the St. 
George area. Most of the collection and 
sight records are for March through Octo- 
ber, but there are several examples of win- 
ter occurrence as noted above. 

Ixobrychus exilis hesperis 

Dickey and van Rossem 

Least Bittern 

Status: An uncommon species known to 
breed at least foiTnerly in the marshes 
around Great Salt Lake. Since the Least 
Bittern is shy and retiring in habits, it may 
be more common than die few records 
would indicate. 

Records: Hardy (1939:86) recorded a 
specimen collected near the V^irgin River, 
Washington County, 20 May 1938. G. W. 
Browning and J. W. Sugden collected a 
set of eggs from Hot Springs Lake north of 



1976 



BIRDS OF UTAH 



45 



Salt Lake City, 8 April 1884. The species 
was known to breed in this area before the 
marsh was drained. Several sight records 
are available: Bailey reported it from the 
Bear River Gun Club, 10 June 1936; Hull 
and Wilson added it to the list of Bear River 
Migratoiy Bird Refiige birds in 1937; and 
Cottam (1945b:172) found it at Bear River 
Migratory Bird Refuge, 2 June 1943, all 
localities in Box Elder County. Wauer and 
Russell (1967:420) obseived it along die 
\'irgin River, soudi of Washington, Wash- 
ington County, 27 June 1965 and 28 August 
1965. 

Botaurus lentiginosus (Rackett) 
American Bittern 

Status: A summer resident of marshes 
all through the state, especially around tlie 
borders of the Great Salt Lake and Utah 
Lake. A few remain in the state through- 
out the winter (Killpack 1959:238). Since 
the bittern is solitaiy and tends to live in 
remote areas of the marshlands, it is rarely 
seen, but it may be more common than die 
records indicate. 

Records: The first recorded specimen 
taken in die state was obtained by die Stans- 
bury expedition in 1850 (Baird 1852:320). 
Other earlv workers (Allen 1872b:172; Hen- 
shaw 1875:466-467; Nelson 1875:348; Ridg- 
way 1877:369, 618) referred to it as being 
common in the early days of settlement. 
Numerous collections and obsei"vations 
have been made in more recent years^ with 
specimens being found in several collec- 
tions diroughout the country. Most of the 
numerous nesting records are for May and a 
few for early June. 

Family Ciconiidae 

Mijcteria americana Linnaeus 
Wood Stork 

Status: A sparse though somewhat regu- 
lar summer wanderer in the state, at least 
formerly. Henshaw (1875:462) stated: "At 
Rush Lake I saw several different flocks, 
none composed of more than ten indivi- 



duals." Most of the collection and obseiva- 
tion records, other than Henshaw's (1875: 
462), seem to have been made in the 1930s. 
We have not noted any published records 
in recent years. 

Records: The following records of col- 
lected specimens are known to the writers: 
Rush Lake, Iron County, two specimens 
taken by Henshaw, 1 October 1872 (Hen- 
shaw 1875:463); Hooper, Weber County, 8 
August 1930 (Stanford 1938:1.36) and now 
in the Utah State University collection; 
Springer (1931:120) recorded a specimen 
from Holladay, Salt Lake County, 8 August 
1930; marshes at mouth of Bear River, Box 
Elder County, 19 July 1934, an adult male 
now in University of Utah collection; near 
Lehi, Utah County, summer 1935, mounted 
by John Hutchings and now in Brigham 
Young University collection; Clear Lake, 
Millard County, 16 September 1938, U.S. 
Biological Sui-vey; Virgin City, Washing- 
ton County, 28 August 1939 in University of 
Utah collection (Long 1940:122). Several 
obsei^vations have been recorded for Box 
Elder, Davis, Salt Lake, Millard, and Piute 
counties, all in die 1930s. Palmer (1962: 
512) indicated on his map a record for ex- 
treme soudiwestern Utah. This may be the 
record reported by Long (1940:122). Kraft 
reported one at Fish Springs, Juab County, 
24 June 1973 (Kingeiy 1974:83). 

Family Threskiornithidae 

Plegadis chihi (Vieillot) 
White-faced Ibis 

Status: A common summer resident, 
breeding in large colonies, often associated 
with several species of herons. Occasional- 
ly occurring also in winter (Kashin 1963b: 
263). The known nesting colonies are in 
marshes around Great Salt Lake and Utah 
Lake. In early spring they often feed in 
large flocks in open fields diat have been 
flooded, as noted by Tanner (1941:86), 
southwest of Hurricane, Washington Coun- 
ty, 6 May 1941. 

Records: Early ornithologists who vis- 



46 



GREAT BASIN NATURALIST MEMOIRS 



No. 1 



ited the state all recorded the White-faced 
Ibis. Allen (1872b: 172) reported it as com- 
mon around Great Salt Lake in 1871 but 
indicated that it might not have occurred 
prior to that time. Henshaw (1875:463) 
found it common in spring and fall around 
Utah Lake. Ridgway in 1869 (1877:369, 
615) saw a few near Great Salt Lake and 
considered it to be an abundant breeder 
(1875:31). Numerous specimens have been 
collected and are deposited at the Univer- 
sity of Utah, Brigham Young University, 
and in other collections within the state 
and throughout the country. Large nesting 
colonies have been located in Box Elder, 
Davis, Salt Lake, and Utah counties, and 
many sets of eggs have been collected from 
some of these colonies. 

Ajaia ajaja (Linnaeus) 
Roseate Spoonbill 

Status: A veiy rare visitor to the state. 

Records: There is only one audientic 
record known to us. Barnes (1919:.565) 
stated that on 2 July 1919 a specimen was 
brought to him for identification. The spe- 
cimen had been killed by Joseph Condley 
near Wendover, Tooele County, and was 
one of five that appeared on his ranch. 
Barnes had the bird mounted and displayed 
it on several occasions. Later it disappeared 
from his home and was considered lost 
(Behle 1944a:69). Behle (1955:17) reported 
that the specimen has been relocated and 
is now in the University of Utah collection. 
The AOU Check-list (1957:57) indicates 
that it occasionally wanders to northern 
Utah. This statement probably is based on 
Barnes's record. 

Family Phoenicopteridae 

Phoenicopterus ruber Linnaeus 
American Flamingo 

Status: A very rare and apparently acci- 
dental visitor to the state. 

Records: The inclusion of this species 
in the state list is based on sight records. A 



specimen was seen by Don E. Neilson at 
Clear Lake Waterfowl Management Area, 
Millard County. It was observed on 25 
July 1962 and again on 12 October (Wor- 
then 1968:129). Color photographs were 
taken of die bird through a telephoto lens, 
amd there seems to be no doubt of the iden- 
tification. W. E. Ritter and Reuben Dietz 
saw one at Buffalo Bay, Antelope Island, 
Great Salt Lake, 3 August 1966 (Behle and 
Periy 1975:9). Kingeiy (1971:883) reported 
two sight records, one at Bear River, Box 
Elder County, and the other at FaiTnington 
Bay, Davis County, both in June and Au- 
gust 1971. Contact widi the Salt Lake City 
Zoo indicated that no bird had escaped 
from that institution. These records were 
substantiated by photographs. 

Family Anatidae 

Olor columbianus (Ord) 
Whistling Swan 

Status: A common migrant and some- 
times a winter resident. During migration 
the birds may congregate in large flocks. 

Records: Stansbury (1852:108, 159) re- 
corded immense flocks of this swan near 
the mouth of the Bear River, 22 October 
1849, and at the mouth of die Jordan River, 
4 April 1850. His party collected two speci- 
mens in this area on 10 March 1850 (Baird 
1852:321). Beckwith also collected a speci- 
men at Salt Lake City (Baird 1858:758). 
Several other specimens have been col- 
lected in Box Elder, Weber, and Salt Lake 
counties and are in various museums around 
the country. One specimen in the Colo- 
rado Museum of Natural History was taken 
near Moab, Grand County, 10 November 
1925. One was reported shot during the 
spring of 1945 at Kanab, Kane County 
(Behle et al. 1958:39). It has been found in 
December along the Virgin River near St. 
George, Washington County (Hardy and 
Higgins 1940:96), and along the Colorado 
River near Moab, Grand County, in Febm- 
ary 1952 (Behle 1960a:22). Sherwood (1960: 



1976 



BIRDS OF UTAH 



47 



370 377) discussed the status of this swan 
in Salt Lake Valley. 

Olur buccinator Richardson 
Trumpeter Swan 

Status: FoiTnerly common and probably 
a nesting species in the northern part of die 
state in early days. Presently occurs only as 
a rare straggler. 

Records: Six immature birds were cap- 
tured and sent to the New York Zoological 
Park, 5 Januaiy 1901. These birds were ob- 
tained near Salt Lake City (Coale 1915:87). 
A mounted specimen in the University of 
Utah collection was taken at Spring Lake, 
Millard County, in April 1892 and was pre- 
sented to the university by J. H. Clive. One 
was shot on Great Salt Lake, 23 November 
1959 (Scott 1960:328). Several sight rec- 
ords have been recorded, but since this 
swan is difficult to distinguish from the 
Whistling Swan in the field, these observa- 
tions are to be looked upon with some 
caution. This is especially true at the 
present time since the Trumpeter is in- 
clined to stay close to its nesting ground at 
Red Rock Lake, Montana; Yellowstone 
Park, Wyoming; British Columbia; and 
southern Alaska. Bartonek (1966:521), who 
is acquainted with the calls of both the 
trumpeter and whistler, recorded hearing 
a trumpeter in an area about five miles 
south of Bear River Migratory Bird Refuge, 
Box Elder County, 27 December 1965. One 
was observed at Fish Springs National 
Wildlife Refuge, Juab County, during the 
summer of 1968 (Behle and Peny 1975:9). 

Branta canadensis (Linnaeus) 
Canada Goose 

Status: The Canada Goose is a common 
summer breeder throughout much of die 
state. Many individuals migrate through 
the areas, and, depending somewhat on the 
severity of the weather, others remain in 
the state throughout the winter. The most 
common breeding areas are around Great 
Salt Lake, especially at Farmington Bay 



Refuge, Davis County, and Bear River Mi- 
gratory Bird Refuge, Box Elder County; 
but otlier lakes and reservoirs throughout 
the state are also used. Nesting also occurs 
along the larger waterways, especially the 
Green and Colorado rivers. 

Records: Baird (1858:765), Reniy (1860 
[2]:449), and Ridgway (1877:620) stated 
that this goose was found in the Salt Lake 
Valley. Ridgway (1877:620) collected an 
egg on Carrington Island, Great Salt Lake, 
17 June 1869. Many recent records for this 
species are found in the literature. 

Subspecies: The common breeding race 
of the Canada Goose in Utah is B. c. mof- 
fitti, but several other races have appeared 
in the population apparently as migrants 
or winter residents. Because the several 
subspecies of B. canadensis are based large- 
ly on measurements (Delacour 1954:164- 
178) and because there is much size inter- 
gradation among the races, it is difficult to 
place individual birds in their proper cate- 
gories. As far as we are aware, no sub- 
stantial series of Utah specimens have been 
assembled for taxonomic stLidy. The best 
we can do here is list the records of the non- 
breeding races available to us. Three speci- 
mens from Bear River Marshes, Box Elder 
County, 25 November 1933 and 23 October 
1941 (University of Utah), were identified 
as B. c. leucopareia. One mounted speci- 
men in the Bear River Gun Club collection 
taken about 1907 was identified as B. c. 
hutchinsii, and several odier small speci- 
mens taken in Cache, Piute, and Millard 
counties were considered to be of this 
race (Cottam, Williams, and Gunther pers. 
comm.). Worthen (1968(136 138) lists sev- 
eral specimens in the University of Utah 
collection that represent nonbreeding races: 
A specimen approaching B. c. parvipes was 
taken at Fool Creek Reservoir near Oak 
City, Millard County, 4 January 1964. An- 
other specimen from Deseret, Millard Coun- 
ty, 13 December 1953, appears to be B. c. 
taverneri. B. c. minima was collected at 
Clear Lake, Millard County, 8 November 
1962. 



48 



GREAT BASIN NATURALIST MEMOIRS 



No. 1 



Branta bernicla nigricans (Lawrence) 
Black Brant 

Status: The Black Brant is considered 
to be accidental or casual in Utah. It is 
generally a coastal and saltwater species. 

Records: Brant were seen at Rush Lake, 
Iron County, 1 October 1872 (Henshaw 
1875:472). A pair were taken on the Bear 
River Marshes, Box Elder County, in the 
fall or winter of 1913 and were mounted 
and placed on display at the Bear River 
Gun Club. Behle and Periy (1975:10) re- 
ported a specimen from Ogden Bay Water- 
fowl Management Area, Weber County, 
29 October 1955. 

Anser albifrons (Scopoli) 
White-fronted Goose 

Status: This goose is known principally 
as an uncommon spring and fall migrant 
through Utah. However, there have been 
a few December and Januaiy records in 
recent years. 

Records: A specimen of White-fronted 
Goose was taken by the Stansbuiy party 
(Baird 1852:321) at the mouth of Jordan 
River, Great Salt Lake, in March of 1850. 
Since that time a few additional collections 
have been made: Alexander Wetinore took 
an immature male at the Bear River 
Marshes, Box Elder County, 10 October 
1916, and examined another taken by a 
hunter at the same place on 12 October 
1915; Syninger reported a specimen which 
lie captured alive near the mouth of die 
Jordan River, Davis County, in the fall of 
1926 and kept alive for several years on his 
game farm; Hull collected a juvenile fe- 
male 18 miles west of Brigham City, Box 
Elder County, 28 September 1928, and four 
birds on 29 September 1928 north of Bear 
River Bay; Behle and Selander (1952:26) 
reported a .specimen taken at Bear River 
Gun Club, Box Elder County, 28 Septem- 
ber 1928; Hayward (1944:204) published a 
record of a specimen in the Brigham Young 
University collection taken at Lehi, Utah 



County, 22 April 1933; a specimen taken 
illegally by a hunter near Corinne, Box 
Elder County, 10 November 1937, was con- 
fiscated and mounted for display at the 
Bear River Migratoiy Bird Refuge; Behle 
and Selander (1952:26) reported an addi- 
tional specimen taken at Lake Front Gun 
Club, Salt Lake County, 10 October 1948; 
Hayward (1966:305) reported a specimen 
in the Brigham Young University collection 
taken at Utah Lake, Utah County, 8 Novem- 
ber 1964. 

Several additional sight records have 
been published: Van den Akker (1949b: 
178), south of Salt Lake City, Salt Lake 
Count)', 3 Januaiy 1949; Lockerbie (1952: 
160), Salt Lake County, 23 December 1951. 

Subspecies: It appears that two sub- 
species of the White-fronted Goose may 
occur in Utah. Most of die collected speci- 
mens studied are of the smaller A. a. fron- 
talis in which die length of the culmen is 
about 51 or 52 mm. A specimen obtained 
near St. George, Washington County, 24 
September 1939, and now in die collection 
of Dixie College, has been identified as the 
larger race A. a. gambeUi, sometimes known 
as die Tule Goose (Hardy and Higgins 
1940:96). The culmen on this specimen 
measures 58 mm. Obseivant hunters in die 
state have also recognized two different- 
sized geese in their hunting experience. 

Chen caerulescens caenilescens (Linnaeus) 
Snow Goose 

Status: A common spring and fall mi- 
grant often appearing in large flocks espe- 
cially in freshwater bodies around the bor- 
ders of Great Salt Lake. In spring the Snow 
Geese appear in late Februaiy or early 
March and remain until about mid-April. 
In fall they occur usually from late Septem- 
ber until the freeze-up. 

Records: All of the early ornithologists 
who visited Utah noted the Snow Goose 
(Stansbuiy 1852:161; Remv 1860[2]:449; 
Allen 1872b: 172; Henshaw 1875:470; Ridg- 
way 1877:619), but apparently there were 



1976 



BIRDS OF UTAH 



49 




Fig. 14. Golden Eagle. Dugway, Tooele County, Utah, spring 1954. Photo by R. D. Porter. 



no collections made by tliem. In more re- 
cent years several specimens have been 
taken and are now in the U.S. National 
Museum of Natural Histoiy, Utah State 
University, University of Utah, and Brig- 



ham Young University. The widespread 
occurrence of this goose in the state is indi- 
cated by many sight obsei-vations in such 
localities as Bear River Migratoiy Bird 
Refuge, Box Elder County; moutli of Jordan 



50 



GREAT BASIN NATURALIST MEMOIRS 



No. 1 



River, Davis County; Utah Lake, Utah 
County; Clear Lake Refuge, Millard Coun- 
ty; Minersville Reservoir, Beaver County; 
and V^irgin River, Washington County. 

Subspecies: Examinations of Snow Geese 
taken in Utah indicate that they are all of 
the race C. c. caerulescens. Sight records 
of the dark moiph that has been known as 
the "Blue Goose" have been reported from 
time to time. They are as follows: Marshall 
(1937:128) obsei-ved one at Bear River Mi- 
gratory Bird Refuge, Box Elder County, 13 
October 1936; Scott (1954:322) has re- 
corded two specimens seen at Farmington 
Bay Refuge, Davis County, 15 March 1954; 
a field party (Scott 1960:59 and 1967:63) 
noted one each at the Bear River Migratoiy 
Bird Refuge on 5 November 1959 and in 
the fall of 1966. 



Dendrocygna hicolor helva Wetmore 

and Peters 

Fulvous Whistling-Duck 

Status: A casual or accidental visitor to 
the state. 

Records: A specimen taken by V. T. 
Davis at Bear River Marshes, Box Elder 
County, in November 1908, was mounted 
and placed on display at Bear River Gun 
Club. Behle et al. (1964:451) reported a 
female taken by Donald E. Neilson at Clear 
Lake, Millard County, 20 May 1959. Scott 
(1969:612) reported two seen near Cedar 
City, Iron County, 10 May 1969, by Murie. 

Anas platyrhynchos 

platyrhynchos Linnaeus 

Mallard 



Chen rossii (Cassin) 
Ross' Goose 

Status: Ross' Goose is a casual tliough 
regular migrant through Utah. 

FIecords: Several ornidiologists have 
taken specimens at die Bear River Migratoiy 
Bird Refuge, Box Elder County. Wetmore 
took one on 22 October 1914; Marshall 
stated several were taken by hunters at the 
public shooting grounds in the fall of 1924; 
liull reported five killed in one day in die 
fall of 1929. Marshall recorded one taken 
on 30 November 1936; Behle and Selander 
(1952:26) reported a specimen from Bear 
River Migratory Bird Refuge, 27 October 
1949; Scott (1954:354-355) also gave a sight 
record for Salt Springs, western Utah, 31 
May 1954. Behle (19.56:72) gave another 
record for Desert Lake, 15 miles soudieast 
of Price, Carbon County, about 1 Decem- 
ber 1955. Behle et al. (1964:450) reported 
a mounted specimen at the headquarters 
of the Utah Division of Wildlife Resources 
in Salt Lake City taken at Flowell, Millard 
County, 3 Aprif 1961. Scott (1966:77) re- 
ported one that had been collected at Bear 
River Migratory Bird Refuge in the fall of 
1965. 



Status: A common peniianent resident 
of the state where it breeds around shallow 
waters. Less common in winter than sum- 
mer but present in winter wherever diere 
is open water. The Mallard is perhaps the 
most widespread duck in die state, since it 
inhabits any type of shallow water includ- 
ing small ponds or even ditches and canals. 
It is most abundant at elevations ranging 
between 4,000 and 7,000 feet. 

Records: Hundreds of collection and 
sight records are available from virtually all 
the counties of the state where the habitat 
is suitable. 

Anas nibripes Brewster 
Black Duck 

Status: The Black Duck is regarded as 
a casual migrant and occasional winter resi- 
dent. Although this duck has been intro- 
duced into Utah on several occasions, it is 
doubtful that it was ever a regular native 
resident. Yarrow (reported by Henshaw 
1875:473) saw what he believed to be this 
species "having seen a number" at Rush 
Lake, Iron County, in November 1872. 
Later Yarrow (1877:4) wrote that he col- 
lected Black Ducks at Rush Lake and 



1976 



BIRDS OF UTAH 



51 



Stated "... I have killed too many Black 
Ducks not to know them when I see them." 
Subsequent observations, however, have 
not supported Yarrow's observation. Speci- 
mens liberated at the Bear River Migratory 
Bird Refuge and eggs of black ducks ex- 
changed for mallard eggs in nests found in 
the wild have not established this species 
as a common bird in Utah. Black ducks 
are natives of marshes and streams of the 
eastern United States and do not seem to be 
well adapted to western conditions. This 
species commonly hybridizes with the Mal- 
lard. 

Records: One was collected at Bear 
River Gun Club, Box Elder County, 10 
November 1938. Anotlier at the same 
locality was taken on 8 December 1942 and 
is on display at Bear River Migratory Bird 
Reflige (Williams et al. 1943:159). Behle 
and Selander (1952:26) reported a speci- 
men now in the University of Utah collec- 
tion taken at Farmington Bay, Davis 
County, 22 November 1951. Anodier speci- 
men was collected near Farmington Bay 
Refuge, Davis County, 16 October 1965 
(Behle 1966:396). Most specimens studied 
appear to have been crosses with mallards. 
A few sight records of the Black Duck are 
noted: pond near Jordan River, Salt Lake 
County, 20 December 1937 (T. Evans and 
A. Nielson); Bear River marshes. Box Elder 
County, November 1939 and 24 April 1941 
(V. T. Wilson); Follett (1960:253), Hyde 
Park, Cache County, 26 December 1959; 
Scott (1967:63), Bear River Migratoiy Bird 
Refuge, fall 1966. 



Anas strepera Linnaeus 
Gadwall 

Status: A common breeding species 
throughout the state but more abundant 
northward. It is most commonly found 
from mid-February to mid-November, but 
a few may remain throughout the winter 
where there is open water. 

Records: Stansbury's party took a speci- 



men in Salt Lake Valley as early as 1850. 
Specimens were collected by McCarthy for 
Simpson at Utah Lake in January and April 
1859 and reported by Baird (1876:381). 
Ridgway (1877:369) reported this species as 
being in the sloughs and marshes near the 
Jordan River and in open ponds near the 
Great Salt Lake. Since the time of these 
earliest records, numerous specimens have 
been collected and innumerable sight rec- 
ords noted in appropriate habitats in all 
sections of the state. 



Anas acuta Linnaeus 
Pintail 

Status: During spring and autumn mi- 
gration the Pintail is probably the most 
common duck in Utah. Many remain 
throughout the winter when the weather 
is not too cold, and a goodly number nest 
here, particularly in the northern part of 
the state. Like the Mallard, the Pintail is 
primarily a shallow-water bird, often feed- 
ing in temporary ponds during migration, 
especially during spring. 

Records: Early observers (Baird 1852: 
323; Remy 1860[2]:450; Allen 1872b:173; 
Baird 1876:381; and otliers) collected speci- 
mens and considered this duck to be com- 
mon. Since that time many specimens have 
been observed throughout most of the coun- 
ties. Sight r-ecords are abundant. 

Anas crecca carolinensis Gmelin 
American Green-winged Teal 

Status: The Green-winged Teal is a 
common migrant duck in Utah where it 
appears in large flocks from about 1 March 
to 15 April and again from 1 September to 
1 December. A few pairs occasionally nest 
within the state on the high lakes of the 
Uinta Mountains, sometimes as high as 
10,000 feet (1. Rasmussen and C. L. Hay- 
ward field notes). Wherever water re- 
mains open, a few may winter in Utah 
(Grater 1943:75). 



52 



GREAT BASIN NATURALIST MEMOIRS 



No. 1 



Records: Collections of Green-winged 
Teal were reported by most of the early 
ornithologists who worked in the state in 
the 1800s (Baird 1852:322; Baird 1858:778; 
Remy 1860[2] :450; Ridgway 1877:623). 
Since tlien many collection and obsei-va- 
tion records have been published. 

Anas discors discors Linnaeus 
Blue-winged Teal 

Status: This teal is a consistent diough 
not abundant spring and fall migrant and 
nests sparingly especially in the nortliern 
part of the state. A few may also remain 
throughout the winter (Grater 1943:75). 
According to Henshaw (1875:477), it was 
as numerous as tlie Green-winged Teal in 
1872. 

Records: A few specimens were seen or 
taken by early explorers such as Henshaw 
(1875:477), Nelson (1875:345), Baird (1876: 
381), and Ridgway (1877:369), but there is 
no reference to the species existing in great 
abundance except in tlie case of Henshaw's 
report. Numerous more recent records are 
available. 



Anas cijanoptera septentrionalium 

Snyder and Lumsden 

Cinnamon Teal 

Status: The Cinnamon Teal is a veiy 
common summer resident and breeds in 
great numbers throughout the state wher- 
ever there are suitable marshlands. A few 
remain throughout die winter especially in 
southern Utah, but the bulk of the popula- 
tion is migratoiy. 

Records: Baird (1852:322-323) reported 
three specimens collected by the Stans- 
bury expedition along the Jordan River as 
being the second, third, and fourth indivi- 
duals obtained in North America. This 
species was first described from birds col- 
lected in die Straits of Magellan. The first 
specimen from North America was col- 
lected near Opelousas, Louisiana, by Dr. 
Pilate and sent to the Philadelphia Academy 
of Science. Because the Louisiana bird had 
not been described and also because there 
was no description of a North American 
specimen, Baird (1852:323) .gave a detailed 
account of a male and female from the Salt 
Lake area. All of the early-day ornitholo- 
gists attest to the abundance of this species. 




Fig. 15. Marsh Hawk. Ogden Bay, Weber County, Utah, spring 1948. Photo by R. D. Porter. 



1976 



BIRDS OF UTAH 



53 



The many collections that have been made 
up to the present time further attest to the 
species' abundance. Records of occurrence 
indicate that fall migrations are completed 
by the last of September. Most of the 
spring migration takes place in April ex- 
cept in southern Utah where they have 
been reported in Febmaiy and March 
(Hardy and Higgins 1940:97). 

Anas penelope Linnaeus 
European Wigeon 

Status: This is a species of casual or 
accidental occurrence in Utah. 

Record: Wilson and Young (1956:390) 
recorded a specimen taken at Bear River 
MigratoiT Bird Refuge, Box Elder County, 
19 October 19.56. Behle and Peny (1975: 
11) reported a sight record by Bill Pingree 
at Lakefront Gun Club, eight miles north- 
west of Salt Lake City, Salt Lake County, 
15 December 1963. 

Anas americana Gmelin 
American Wigeon 

Status: The American Wigeon is an un- 
common although consistent spring and 
summer resident in Utah. A few of diese 
ducks are usually seen in any mixed con- 
centration of waterfowl from March through 
the summer. A few occurrences have also 
been recorded in winter (Kashin 1968:361). 
Nesting takes place in the northern counties 
of the state. 

Records: Beginning with the Stansbuiy 
expedition (Baird 1852:322), when speci- 
mens were taken on tlie Jordan River, 4 
April 1850, all of the early visitors to tlie 
state reported the American Wigeon. Hen- 
shaw (1875:475) considered it to be abun- 
dant in Utah in the fall, remaining around 
certain warm springs and sloughs all winter 
in the Provo area. Specimens have been 
collected and numerous sightings recorded 
for most of the counties of the state. Nest- 
ing records with eggs being laid as early 
as 2 March (Boyle collection) are known to 



us from Box Elder, Weber, Davis, Tooele, 
Salt Lake, Wasatch, and Uintah counties. 

Anas clijpeata Linnaeus 
Northern Shoveler 

Status: One of the more common of the 
Utah ducks, the Shoveler breeds in abun- 
dance in marsh edges around die Great 
Salt Lake as well as in other marshlands of 
the state. It is primarily a summer resident, 
although a few remain through the winter 
where there is open water (Foster 1971:463; 
Allen 1972:478). 

Records: The first known collection in 
the state was made by McCarthy at Utah 
Lake, Utah County, 20 March 1859 and re- 
ported by Baird (1876:381). Ridgway (1875: 
31) regarded it as a breeder of question- 
able abundance in Salt Lake Valley in 1869. 
Numerous collections are on record up to 
the present time. Breeding records are 
numerous especially for the northern coun- 
ties of the state. Most of these records are 
for April, May, and June. 

Aix sponsa (Linnaeus) 
Wood Duck 

Status: An uncommon visitor or casual 
transient in Utah. Allen (1872b: 172) re- 
ported this species at Ogden, Weber Coun- 
ty. Some early records indicate that it may 
have been a summer resident in fomier 
times and probably bred near the mouth 
of Bear River (Woodbuiy et al. 1949:8). 

Records: Most of die more recent rec- 
ords available seem to be for the fall. They 
are as follows: Hyrum Canyon, Cache 
County, 11 November 1934 (Stanford 1938: 
136), Lake View, Utah County, November 
1936 (BYU collection); Circleville, Piute 
County, 16 October 1942 (Behle and Ross 
1945:168); Blacksmith Fork, Cache County, 
2 July 1944 (Webster 1947:40); Springville, 
Utah County, 2 November 1946 (BYU col- 
lection); Clear Lake, Millard County, 1957, 
1959, and 1961 (Behle et al. 1964:451), 
Farmington Bay, Davis County, 10 October 



54 



GREAT BASIN NATURALIST MEMOIRS 



No.l 



1962 (Behle et al. 1964:451); St. George, 
Washington County, December 1964, and 
along Santa Clara Creek, Washington 
County, 29 December 1964 (Wauer 1969: 
331); Salt Lake City, 20 September 1965 
(Scott 1966:77); Cedar Valley, Iron County, 
1 October 1966 (Scott 1967:63). 

Aythya americana (Eyton) 
Redhead 

Status: A summer resident throughout 
the state, breeding in marshes with deep 
channels of water. Common in northern 
Utah, more sparingly in the south. Most 
abundant during migration in March-April 
and August-September. 

Records: Some of die earlier collections 
in Utah were those of the Beckwith party 
in 1854 near Salt Lake City (Baird 1858: 
794) and others reported by Baird (1876: 
381) as being taken at Utah Lake, Utah 
County, 21 March 1859. Many specimens 
have been collected and observed since 
that time in most of the counties of the 
state. 

Aythya collaris (Donovan) 
Ring-necked Duck 

Status: A rare summer resident in north- 
em Utah and a casual migrant throughout 
the state. There are a few records of nest- 
ing. 

Records: Henshaw (1875:479) obtained 
a young female at Rush Lake, Iron County, 
in September 1872. A specimen in the U.S. 
Biological Survey collection was taken at 
the mouth of Bear River, Box Elder County, 
21 October 1916. Specimens in the Univer- 
sity of Utah collection were taken at Wil- 
lard Spur, Box Elder County, in November 
1929, and at the mouth of Bear River, Box 
Elder County, 12 October 1932. There is 
also a specimen taken at Bear River, 1 No- 
vember 19.37, in the Utah State University 
collection (Stanford 1938:136) and one from 
Ivins Reservoir, Washington County, 20 
April 1940, collected by Harold Higgins 



(Hardy 1941:125). The Brigham Young Uni- 
versity collection contains a specimen 
taken at the Bear River Migratory Bird 
Refuge, 15 March 1966, by Lloyd Gunther 
and another from Mona Reservoir, Juab 
County, 14 November 1969. The Univer- 
sity of Utah collection contains specimens 
taken at Clear Lake, Millard County, 12 
April 1965, 7 November 1965, and 4 March 
1966 (Worthen 1968:152-153). 

Aythya valisineria (Wilson) 
Canvasback 

Status: Uncommon breeder of the Great 
Salt Lake marshes and a common migrant 
during March-April and October-Novem- 
ber. Uncommon in winter. 

Records: There appear to be no records 
of early collections of the Canvasback in 
Utah. However, Ridgway (1877:625) con- 
sidered it to be an abundant bird in winter 
on the lakes and marshes of the Great 
Basin. Specimens from the Bear River 
Marshes, Box Elder County, taken 11 August 
1914 and 23 September 1916, are in the 
U.S. National Museum of Natural History 
collection. Other specimens from the same 
locality are in the Brigham Young Univer- 
sity, University of Utah, and Utah State 
University collections, taken 4 November 
1928, 14 November 1929, and November 
1937, respectively. Most of the nesting 
records are from localities around Great 
Salt Lake. Low and Nelson (1945:131) re- 
ported seeing two broods at Ogden Bay 
Refuge, Weber County, one on 7 July 1943 
and the other in mid-July 1943. At Clear 
Lake, Millard County, 27 June 1944, they 
saw a brood of nine young about three 
weeks old. 

Aythya marila nearctica Stejneger 
Greater Scaup 

Status: A rare migrant through the state. 
There is no certain evidence that it nests 
in Utah. 

Records: The Greater Scaup was con- 



1976 



BIRDS OF UTAH 



55 




Fig. 16. American Kestrel. Ogden, Weber County, Uuili, 15 Juuf 1959. Fliutu by K. J. Eiwi 



sidered by Allen (1872b:172) to be a com- 
mon duck around Great Salt Lake in the 
fall and by Henshaw (1875:479) at Utah 
Lake and up the Provo River as the lake 
froze in November 1872. Several specimens 
were shot at diat time. The status of this 



species has definitely changed, since at the 
present time it is rarely taken or seen, be- 
ing far less common dian the Lesser Scaup. 
Several specimens now in the U.S. National 
Museum of Natural History were taken by 
Wetmore in the Bear River Marshes, Box 



56 



GREAT BASIN NATURALIST MEMOIRS 



No. 1 



Elder County, October 1916. A specimen 
taken from the same locality, 19 October 
1932, and one from FaiTnington Bay Refuge, 
Davis County, 27 March 1949, are in the 
University of Utah collection (Behle and 
Selander'l952:26). A bird killed by botu- 
lism was picked up by Cottam at Ogden 
Bay, Weber County, 9 September 1942. 
Stanford (1931:4) recorded birds of this 
species at Redmond Lake, 15 April 1929, 
and at Salina Canyon, 27 March 1929, both 
localities in Sevier County. It is not clear 
whether these birds were collected or only 
observed. Barnes (1943:102) observed 
birds at Farmington Bay, Davis County, 21 
March 1942. Kingeiy (1975:721) reported 
20 birds at Bear River late in Febniary 
1975. 

Aythya afftnis (Eyton) 
Lesser Scaup 

Status: A common migrant through the 
state in March-April and October-Novem- 
ber; uncommon summer resident and breed- 
er of northern Utah. 

Records: The earliest collection records 
seem to be 10 specimens taken by Wetmore 
at the Bear River Marshes in October 1916. 
That this species was present earlier is im- 
plied by Henshaw (1875:470): "I did not 
secure any evidence of the presence at this 
time of the closely allied species Fulix 
ajfinis, though if not there then it had been 
a little earlier, as the gunners distinguish 
between them, and assure me of its abun- 
dance." Several other specimens in the col- 
lections of the University of Utah, Brigham 
Young University, and other institutions 
have been assembled. Mayr and Short 
(1970:34) called attention to the close taxo- 
nomic relationship of the Greater and Less- 
er Scaups. 

Bucephala clangula americana (Bonaparte) 
Common Goldeneye 

Status: A common migrant through the 
state in February-April and October- 



December. Also a rather common winter 
bird living on the larger streams that stay 
open. It may occasionally linger into the 
spring as illustrated by Carter's (Monson 
1963:423) finding two at Beaver Dam Wash, 
Washington County, 14 May 1963. 

Records: Beckwith's party (Baird 1858: 
796) took a specimen near Salt Lake City 
in 1854. Henshaw and Yarrow collected a 
specimen on Utah Lake, Utah County, 2 
November 1872, and Henshaw (1875:480- 
481) reported it as a common duck in late 
fall and winter on Utah Lake and Provo 
River, Utah County. Specimens in tlie Brig- 
ham Young University collection include 
two from the Bear River Marshes, Box Elder 
County, 4 and 15 November 1928; one from 
near Provo, Utah County, 23 December 
1932; and one from Utah Lake, Utah 
County, 4 April 1933. There are no cer- 
tain records of nesting witliin the state. 
It has been seen at Kanab, Kane County, 21 
April 1931 (Behle et al. 1958:42). Hardy 
and Higgins (1940:97) reported one col- 
lected at Leeds, Washington County, 14 
April 1940. It has also been obseived in 
Glen Canyon on the Colorado River by 
Behle (1960:23), 16 April 1947. 

Bucepliala islandica (Gmelin) 
Barrow's Goldeneye 

Status: Barrow's Goldeneye is con- 
sidered to be a casual migrant through the 
state with a few birds remaining over win- 
ter. 

Records: Specimens were taken by Hen- 
shaw (1875:482) at Utah Lake, Utah County, 
11 November and 1 December 1872. A 
mounted specimen taken in the Bear River 
Marshes, Box Elder County, about 1908, is 
in the Bear River Gun Club collection. An- 
other specimen reported by Cottam et al. 
(1942:52) was taken at the same locality 
during the hunting season of 1939. Recent 
sight records are as follows: Kanab, Kane 
County, 20, 22, 27 April 1931 (Behle et al. 
1958:42); a male near the Virgin River at 
St. George, Washington County, 20 April 



1976 



BIRDS OF UTAH 



57 



1940 (Hardy and Higgins 1940:97); and 
seven on Sevier River near Hatch, Garfield 
County, 14 Febmaiy 1942 (Behle et al. 
1958:42); Logan, Cache County, Januaiy 
and March 1949, reported by Van den 
Akker (1949:179); and at Bear River Migra- 
tory Bird Reflige, Box Elder County, 28 
December 1964, reported by Wilson (1965: 
309). Scott (1963:346) recorded a collection 
at Bear River Migratoiy Bird Refuge, Box 
Elder County, 27 March 1963. 

Bucephala alheola (Linnaeus) 
Bufflehead 

Status: The Bufflehead is a fairly com- 
mon duck during spring migration from 
late Febmaiy to early May and again in die 
fall from mid-October to early December. 
It is also a sparse winter and summer resi- 
dent, although there appears to be no evi- 
dence that it nests witliin the state. 

Records: Early obseivers in Utah found 
the Bufflehead present in the state. The 
Stansbuiy party (Baird 1852:324) took a 
specimen on Provo River, Utah County, 22 
February 1850. Birds were also reported 
by Remy (1860 [2] :450), and two specimens 
were collected by Henshaw and Yarrow at 
Provo, 25 November 1872 (Henshaw 1875: 
482). Numerous specimens taken more re- 
cently are in the U.S. Biological Sui-vey, 
University of Utah, Utah State University, 
Brigham Young University collections, and 
others. 

Clangula hyernalis (Linnaeus) 
Oldsquaw 

Status: A rare transient of northern 
Utah. Records available indicate that the 
Oldsquaw is a late fall and early winter mi- 
grant. 

Records: The following collection and 
obsewation records are available: Bear 
River Marshes, Box Elder County, a male, 
20 December 1929 (University of Utah); 
near Benson, Cache County, a pair taken 
about 1915, mounted in Utah State Univer- 
sity collection; mouth of Weber River, We- 



ber County, male taken in November 1927 
was mounted and put on display in Ogden, 
Weber County (Hull); Bear River Marshes, 
a female taken 19 November 1933, Univer- 
sity of Utah collection, and two females 
taken 22 November 19.36 (Marshall); Utah 
Lake, Utah County, taken about 1936 and 
mounted in Brigham Young University col- 
lection; Cottam et al. (1942:52) reported 
one seen at Bear River Migratory Bird 
Refuge, Box Elder County, 10 October 1941, 
and mentioned that 13 specimens had been 
taken during the hunting season of 1934; 
Williams et al. (1943:159-160) report one 
seen flying near Perry, Box Elder County, 
in December 1942; Ogden Bay, Weber 
County, two seen in fall 1948 and two taken 
by hunters at Bear River in the fall of 1948, 
reported by Van den Akker (1949:25); Wil- 
son and Norr (1950:27; 1951:31) noted spec- 
imens that were collected at Bear River 
xMigratory Bird Refuge by hunters, 11 No- 
vember 1949 and 24 November 1950; adult 
female from Clear Lake, Millard County, 27 
October 19,56 (Worthen 1968:157). 

Histrionicus histrionicus (Linnaeus) 
Harlequin Duck 

Status: Accidental in Utah. 

Record: Two birds were taken on Box 
Elder Creek near Brigham City, Box Elder 
County, 13 April 1913, by James Hull. One 
of the birds was mounted and placed on 
display in a local hotel where it was exam- 
ined and identified by Alexander Wetinore 
(field notes). This is the only record of the 
Harlequin Duck from Utah known to us. 
The present location of diis specimen is un- 
known to us. Behle (mimeographed list 
1971) and Behle and Perry (1975:12) regard 
the occurrence of this species in the state as 
hypothetical. 

Melanitta deglandi deglandi (Bonaparte) 
White-winged Scoter 

Status: The white-winged Scoter is an 
uncommon fall migrant appearing on the 



58 



GREAT BASIN NATURALIST MEMOIRS 



No. 1 




Fig. 17. Common Snipe. Monte Cristo, Rich County, Utah, 30 June 1963. Photo by R. J. Erwin. 



larger bodies of water in nortliern Utah. 
Also an occasional spring visitor to tlie 
state. 

Records: Two specimens in the Colorado 
Natural Histoiy Museum were taken near 
Corinne, Box Elder County, 9 October 1914. 
While Alexander Wetmore was stationed at 
the Bear River marshes, Box Elder County, 
he had reports of specimens being shot by 
hunters in that area in November 1914 and 
1915 and of a specimen being given to him 
by H. \I. Porter that was taken on 8 Oc- 
tober 1916. Specimens in the University of 
Utah collection include females taken at 
the public shooting grounds near Little 
Mountain, Weber County, 30 November 
1930 and 26 October 1932. Cottam et al. 
(1942:52) reported a specimen collected at 
the Bear River Migratoiy Bird Refuge, Box 
Elder County, 1 October 1941, and two shot 
during the 1941 hunting season. The only 
spring records available to us are those of 
Webster (47:40) who saw them at Pineview 
Reservoir, Weber County. He recorded 
two birds on 29 March 1945, eight on 5 
April, and two on 9 April. Wilson and Norr 
(1951:31) reported seeing 50 birds at Bear 



River Migratoiy Bird Refuge, Box Elder 
County, 30 November 1950. Shaffer stated 
that a specimen was collected by a hunter 
and brought to the Tracy Aviaiy in late 
October 1952, where it died the following 
month (Utah Audubon News 1952:52). The 
locality is not indicated. Lloyd F. Gunther, 
former manager. Bear River Migratoiy Bird 
Refuge, Box Elder County, collected a spe- 
cimen in the fall of 1966 at tlie refuge (Scott 
1967:63). Worthen (1968:158) stated diat a 
specimen was taken by a hunter at Clear 
Lake, Millard County, in 1955 or 19.56, and 
was sent to the State Division of Wildlife 
Resources. However, this specimen has not 
been located since. 

Melanitta perspicillata (Linnaeus) 
Surf Scoter 

Status: A rare transient in Great Salt 
Lake and probably Utah valleys. 

Records: Wetmore obtained an im- 
mature female killed at the Duckville Gun 
Club, Box Elder County, 24 October 1916. 
Bent (1925:151) referred to a migration of 
the Surf Scoter in the Bear River area at 



1976 



BIRDS OF UTAH 



59 



this same period. There was a mounted 
specimen at one time on display at the 
State Capitol that was supposedly taken in 
Salt Lake Valley. Mushback (1932:9) con- 
sidered the Surf Scoter to be a rare migrant 
on the Bear River Migratoiy Bird Refuge, 
Box Elder County. 

Oxijura jamaicensis ruhida (Wilson) 
Ruddy Duck 

Status: A common summer resident, 
breeding near deep water over much of the 
state, especially in northern Utah. It is a 
common migrant from late February to 
early May and in the fall from September 
to November. A few are known to remain 
in the state throughout the winter. 

Records: Simpson's party (Baird 1876: 
381) took a specimen in Utah in 1859. Ridg- 
way (1877:369) found it in sloughs and 
marshes near the Jordan River in the Salt 
Lake Valley in 1869. Specimens were col- 
lected by Allen (1872b: 172) in Weber 
County, 16 and 23 September 1871, and are 
now in the Museum of Comparative Zool- 
ogy. Henshaw (1875:483) recorded a speci- 
men taken at Provo, Utah County, 27 No- 
vember 1872. Numerous specimens in the 
University of Utah, Brigham Young Univer- 
sity, and other museums of the West have 
been collected in recent years. 

Mergus cucullatus Linnaeus 
Hooded Merganser 

Status: A sparse migrant through the 
state. A few may remain in Utah through- 
out the winter, and there is a possibility that 
it may be a rare summer resident. 

Records: Henshaw (1875:484) recorded 
this species as being common in Utah. A 
mounted specimen on display at the Bear 
River Gun Club, Box Elder County, was 
supposed to have been taken on the Bear 
River Marshes, Box Elder County, about 
1908. The Colorado Museum of Natural 
History has one collected in Utah about 



1925 or 1926. Three specimens in the Uni- 
versity of Utah collection were taken near 
Perry, Box Elder County, 19 November 
1933, and C. S. Williams reported one taken 
in Bear River Migratoiy Bird Refuge, Box 
Elder County, in late November 1938, by a 
hunter. An adult male in the University of 
Utah collection was taken at Clear Lake, 
Millard County, 7 December 1955 (Worth- 
en 1968:160). There have been numerous 
sight records from the Bear River Marshes. 
Clifton Greenhalgh (Utah Audubon News 
1955:30) reported a flock estimated at 1.50 
seen on Bear Lake, Rich County, Utah, 20 
April 1955. Murie (Scott 1967:527) reported 
seeing two specimens in southwestern Utah, 
25 April 1967. 



Mergus merganser americanus Cassin 
Common Merganser 

Status: This species is a casual summer 
resident in Utah and an uncommon mi- 
grant throughout the state mainly from mid- 
February to early May and from early Oc- 
tober to December. 

Records: Early collection records in- 
clude a specimen taken at Utah Lake in the 
spring of 1849 by the Simpson party (Baird 
1876:381). Allen reported it to be common 
in Salt Lake Valley in 1871 (1872b: 172), 
and Henshaw (1875:483) reported it to occur 
in the state. There are several specimens 
in the University of Utah and Brigham 
Young University collections. The BYU 
collection includes one collected by Cottam 
at Bear River Migratoiy Bird Refuge, Box 
Elder County, 4 November 1928; one at 
St. George, Washington County, in March 
1936; one from Lehi, Utah County, 8 March 
1937; two on the Colorado River, 20 miles 
south of Moab, San Juan County, 20 De- 
cember 1962. Webster (1947:40) collected 
one west of Logan, Cache County, 15 De- 
cember 1945, and observed this species on 
the Weber River, west of Ogden, Weber 
County, 8 December 1945, 31 December 
1945, 19 January 1946, and 2 February 1946. 



60 



GREAT BASIN NATURALIST MEMOIRS 



No. 1 



Mergus senator serrator Linnaeus 
Red-breasted Merganser 

Status: A rather common migrant 
through Utah from late February to late 
April and from early October to December. 
A few may remain all winter. The summer 
status seems uncertain. R. G. Bee stated in 
an unpublished report that it was a nesting 
species at Farmington Bay, Davis County, 
in July 1939. Ii-vin G. Emmett is supposed 
to have found it nesting near Great Salt 
Lake in 1919. 

Records: Allen collected a specimen 
near Ogden, Weber County, 4 September 
1871. This specimen is in the Museum of 
Comparative Zoology. Henshaw (1875:484) 
found it to be rather common at Utah Lake, 
LItah County, in November 1872. Hayward 
(unpublished ms 1934) found it to be com- 
mon in Bear Lake Valley, Utah-Idaho, in 
early spring and again in the fall and found 
a few in the summer with evidence of nest- 
ing. Several specimens from Utah are in 
the collections of the University of Utah 
and Brigham Young University. It has 
been reported from St. George, Washing- 
ton County, 5 November 1935, and from 
Ivins Reseivoir, Washington County, 20 
April 1940 (Hardy and Higgins 1940:97). 
Other southern Utah obsei^vations are sight 
records: 21 April, 5 and 10 May 1931, and 
15 April 1947, Johnson Resei-voir, near 
Kanab, Kane County; 50 at Lower Reser- 
voir, near Kanab, Kane County, 15 April 
1947 (Behle et al. 1958:42). 

Family Cathartidae 

Cathartes aura teter Friedmann 
Turkey Wiltine 

Status: Widely distributed throughout 
the state somewhat less commonly now 
than formerly. Sometimes seen roosting in 
small flocks in trees in more remote areas. 
Nesting usually in caves along the mountain 
ranges wherever such sites are available. 

Records: All of the early ornithologists 



that visited Utah collected or recorded the 
Turkey Vulture. These included Allen 
(1872b:170), Ridgway (1875:34), Henshaw 
(1875:428), Fisher (1893:34), and Bailey 
(field notes). In recent years collections or 
obsei"vations have been made of this species 
in every county of the state. Most observa- 
tions are of a single bird or a pair of birds. 
However, on tlie Green River, Uintah Coun- 
ty, Twomey (1942:375) during the summer 
of 1937 reported "forty or fifty birds often 
were seen feeding on a carcass." Hardy 
and Higgins (1940:97) also reported "a 
large flock numbering fifty or more" in cot- 
tonwoods at die junction of the Santa Clara 
and Virgin Rivers, Washington County, 28 
September 1939. 

Vultur californianus Shaw 
California Condor 

Status: Formerly a rare visitor probably 
limited to the southern part of the state. 
Records: Henshaw (1875:428) reported: 

A very large vulture, seen near Beaver, 
Utah, November 25 [ 1872] , was believed to 
be of this species. In company with a flock of 
the Red-headed Vultures [Turkey Vultures] 
it had been feeding upon the carcass of a 
horse, and, as they all made off at my ap- 
proach, I was enabled to note the comparative 
sizes of the two; the bird supposed to be this 
species greatly exceeding the others in size. 

A taxidermist who fonnerly lived in Iron 
County told Woodbury (1932) that condors 
were occasionally seen by sheepherders 
during the winter in western Iron County 
where they fed on sheep carcasses, especial- 
ly during severe winters. 

Family Accipitridae 

Accipiter gentilis atricapUlus (Wilson) 

Goshawk 

Fig. 5, p. 32 

Status: A year-round resident of Utah, 
probably more common in winter because 
of migration from more northern areas. 
This species breeds in scattered localities 



1976 



BIRDS OF UTAH 



61 




Fig. 18. Long-billed Curlew. Ogden Bay, Weber County, Utah, 21 June 1916. Photo by R. J. Er 



throughout tlie montane forests as well as in 
floodplain woodlands (White et al. 1965). 

Records: Numerous specimens are in tlie 
Utah State University, University of Utah, 
and Brigham Young University collections. 
Most of the specimens have been taken in 
late autumn and winter and may be either 
local individuals or migrants. There is a 
tendency for the local breeding population 
to drift down into the valleys in winter. 
Breeding birds tend to use the same nesting 
site or alternate closely located sites year 
after year. To our knowledge, a nesting 
area at Aspen Grove, Mt. Timpanogos, Utah 
County, was used from at least 1925 to 1945. 
Nests are constructed either in dense conif- 
erous growths or in more open aspen forests. 

Subspecies: Foirnerly the western popu- 



lation of Goshawks in North America went 
under the subspecies name of A. g. striatulus 
(Check-list of Birds of the World [1] 1931: 
208). It now seems to be die general con- 
sensus tliat the western birds should be in- 
cluded in the subspecies A. g. atricapillus 
(Friedmann 1950:150; American Ornitholo- 
gists Union 1957:102). Todd (1963:211) con- 
sidered tlie new-world atricapillus to be 
specifically distinct from gentilis. 

Accipiter striatus velox (Wilson) 
Shaip-shinned Hawk 

Figs. 6, 7; pp. 34, 35 

Status: A widely distributed resident of 
the state preferring wooded areas along 
canyon and valley streams. Since this is a 



62 



GREAT BASIN NATURALIST MEMOIRS 



No.l 



hawk of more or less dense woodlands, it 
seems to be more likely to survive than 
those species living in more open habitats. 

Records: Early ornidiologists in Utah 
(Baird 1852:314; Remy 1860[2] :449; Hen- 
shaw 1875:417; Ridgway 1877:375) re- 
corded and collected the Sharp-shinned 
Hawk, and all regarded it as common when 
white men first settled in the area. Many 
collections have been made and are now in 
the museums of the state institutions. Many 
sets of eggs have been collected, indicating 
that the nesting season ranges from late 
April through June, which is somewhat 
later than most raptors of the area. Piatt 
(1976:102-103) reported that Utah Sharp- 
shinned Hawks appeared at the nest site 
up to four weeks before egg laying. Nest- 
ing occurs 15-20 days earlier in Washing- 
ton County than in Cache County, 350 
miles to the north. 

Accipiter cooperii (Bonaparte) 
Cooper's Hawk 

Status: A fairly common summer resi- 
dent in Utah being more common in mi- 
gration and sparse in winter. Like the 
Sharp-shinned Hawk, Cooper's Hawk 
tends to prefer wooded areas as a habitat. 

Records: This species was first noted in 
Utah by Ridgway (1877:375), who regarded 
it as an uncommon breeding species in 
1869. Henshaw (1874:10) indicated that it 
was not common but generally distributed 
and a resident in the state. Many speci- 
mens are in the collections of the various 
institutions of the state and elsewhere. 
There are numerous accounts of nesting, 
mostly for late May and June. 

Buteo jamaicensis (Gmelin) 
Red-tailed Hawk 
Figs. 9, 10; pp. 37, 38 

Status: A permanent resident through- 
out the state. It is adapted to a wide range 
of habitats and is found in deserts, moun- 
tains, and populated valleys. It may nest 
either on cliff ledges or in tall trees. 

Records: Baird (1852:314) listed a speci- 



men near Great Salt Lake in 1850. Red- 
tailed Hawks were obseived or collected by 
Remy (1860 [2] :450) in 1855, and Ridgway 
(1877:375, 582-584) found them nesting in 
the Wasatch Mountains in 1869. Reference 
was made to them by Stevenson (1872:462), 
Allen (1872b:170), Nelson (1875:347), Hen- 
shaw (1875:424), and others. Specimens col- 
lected early in Utah are in the U.S. National 
Museum of Natural Histoiy and in the 
American Museum. Many newer collection 
records of birds and eggs have been made 
in recent years from eveiy county of the 
state. 

Subspecies: The Utah population of the 
Red-tailed Hawk has usually been assigned 
to the subspecies B. j. calurus. The race B. 
j. kriderii has been reported by Parker and 
Johnson (1899?). Porter and Bushman 
(19.56:152) recorded two collections of diis 
subspecies: one immature male from Wil- 
lard Bay, Box Elder County, 15 October 
1951, and an immature at King's Pasture, 
Garfield County, 24 August 1953. These 
specimens were verified by Herbert Fried- 
mann. Recently Behle, C. White, and G. 
Kashin published sight records of two more 
birds (Utah Audubon News 1962:32) west 
of Delta, Millard County, 25 May 1962, and 
at Memory Grove, Salt Lake City, 30 May 
1962. Twomey (1942:378) collected speci- 
mens in Uintah County which he identified 
as belonging to die race B.j.fuertesi. How- 
ever, some doubt exists as to the accuracy 
of this identification (Behle 1944a:71). A 
specimen of B. j. harlani in the University 
of Utah collection (no. 20931) was taken at 
the Lorin Peck farm, six miles west of 
Delta, Millard Count)', 4 November 1967 
(Worthen 1968:172; ' 1973a:79). Wauer 
(Snider 1966:447) reported sighting a har- 
lani at St. George, Washington County, 
from 22 January to 4 March 1966. 

Buteo lineatus lineatus (Gmelin) 
Red-shouldered Hawk 

Status: Of accidental or casual occur- 
rence in Utah. 



1976 



BIRDS OF UTAH 



63 



Records: Knowlton and Hannston (1943: 
589) took a specimen at Elgin, Grand Coun- 
ty, 28 September 1939. It seems, however, 
that die specimen was not saved (Behle let- 
ter). Kashin (1963a:16) reported seeing 
one in Parlev's Canyon, Salt Lake County, 
10 Febmaiy 1963. Murie (Scott 1965:567) 
reported that one was seen regularly at 
Cedar City, Iron County, from 8 August to 
September 1965. 

Buteo swainsoni Bonaparte 

Swainson's Hawk 

Fig. 8, p. 36 

Status: A summer and possibly an occa- 
sional winter resident throughout the state. 
It occurs both in valleys and at lower eleva- 
tions in the mountains. Its numbers have 
declined recently because of heavy perse- 
cution. 

Records: A specimen in the U.S. National 
Museum of Natural History was taken in 
the Wasatch Mountains in 1868. Ridgway 
(1877:584) found it nesting abundantly in 
oaks and aspens around Parley's Park, Sum- 
mit County, and in the nearby valley. He 
reported that these hawks in the valley were 
feeding on Mormon Crickets and grass- 
hoppers (1877:586-587). Numerous speci- 
mens of birds as well as their eggs are in 
the collections of the institutions of tlie 
state and elsewhere. A sight record by 
Gleb Kashin for Salt Lake City, Salt Lake 
County, 14 December 1960, indicated tliat 
it may occasionally remain in Utah through- 
out the winter (Scott 1961:348). 

Buteo lagopus sanctijohannis (Gmelin) 
Rough-legged Hawk 

Status: A rather common migrant and 
winter resident in the state. Reports by 
some early naturalists (Henshaw 1875:426; 
Ridgway 1877:375) stating that it was pres- 
ent in summer may have resulted from mis- 
identification since there are, to our knowl- 
edge, no nesting records or specimens taken 
in summer. 



Records: Henshaw (1875:426) found it 
to be common around Utah Lake in late 
November and early December 1872 when 
he and Yarrow collected 11 specimens. 
Bailey collected and found this hawk to be 
common in St. George, Washington County, 
in late December 1888 (specimens in U.S. 
National Museum of Natural History). 
Numerous specimens taken in more recent 
years are in the collections at Utah State 
University, Brigham Young University, and 
the University of Utah. 

Buteo regalis (Gray) 

Ferruginous Hawk 

Fig. 11, p. 39 

Status: A widely distributed species in 
the state but found mainly in open desert 
country. It is primarily a summer resident 
with only a few records for winter months. 

Records: McCarthy, of Simpson's ex- 
pedition, collected a bird, its nest, and eggs 
on 3 May 1859 in Rush Valley, Tooele 
County, and another on the same day at 
Camp Floyd, Utah County (Baird 1876: 
377). The species is still fairly common in 
these desert valleys. Weston (Murphy et al. 
1969:25-34) during 1967-68 studied the 
nesting ecology of diis species in west cen- 
tral Utah. There have been numerous col- 
lection records of birds and eggs in more 
recent years. Nests may be built in low 
trees, especially junipers, on ledges and 
rock pinnacles, on mounds, or on level 
ground (Weston and Ellis 1968:111). 

ButeogaUus anthracinus 

anthracinus (Deppe) 

Black Hawk 

Status: A rare nesting bird in southern 
Utah, known to occur in the state since 
1962. 

Records: Carter and Wauer (1965:82-83) 
first found this hawk nesting near Spring- 
dale, Washington County, in early May 
1962. The hawks were seen in the vicinity 
of two nests located in cottonwood trees. 



64 



GREAT BASIN NATURALIST MEMOIRS 



No. 1 



However, on 13 May 1963 a bird was seen 
on one of these nests, although the final 
outcome of the nesting was not determined 
at that time. Photos of the birds were taken 
for positive identification. Wauer and 
Russell (1967:420) reported seeing die 
mating of a pair of Black Hawks on 8 



May 1964 at Beaver Dam, Arizona, and 
later in the summer (August 25) found a 
single juvenile, indicating that nesting had 
been successful. They also recorded a 
single adult bird seen near Hurricane, 
Washington County, 27 June 1965. Wauer 
(1969:331) collected a specimen at Wash- 




Fig. 19. Spotted Sandpiper. Pigeon Lake, Bayfield County, Wisconsi 
Porter. 



no date. Photo by R. D. 



1976 



BIRDS OF UTAH 



65 



ington, Washington County, 21 April 1966. 
Tliis is the first collected specimen for the 
state and is found in the museum collection 
at Zion National Park, Washington County. 
Northward movement of diis species is evi- 
denced by a sight record at Capitol Reef 
National Monument, Wayne County, in the 
fall of 1971 (Kingeiy 1972:96). 

Acjuila chrysaetos (Linnaeus) 

Golden Eagle 

Fig. 14, p. 49 

Status: A resident bird throughout its 
breeding range mainly in rugged country. 
It usually nests on cliffs but sometimes in 
trees or even on flat ground. This is a 
steadily declining species because of perse- 
cution and probably the effects of insecti- 
cide and poisonous baits. (Ellis et al. 1969: 
165-167). 

Records: All of the early naturalists re- 
ported the eagle in the state (Remy 1860 [2] : 
222; Ridgway 1875:34, 1877:375; Allen 
1872b: 170; Henshaw 1875:426; Bailey field 
notes). Numerous specimens are in collec- 
tions of the various institutions of die state 
and elsewhere. There are many records of 
nests and eggs from almost every county. 
Recently Camenzind (Muiphy et al. 1969: 
4-15) discussed die nesting ecology and be- 
havior of the Golden Eagle in west central 
Utah. 

Halicieetus leucocephalus (Linnaeqs) 
Bald Eagle 

Status: A fairly common winter resident 
in Utah. Early observations indicate that 
the Bald Eagle also nested in some numbers 
in foniier times. Breeding records at die 
present time are not well confirmed. 

Records: Allen (1872b: 170) reported that 
the Bald Eagle was more or less frequent 
around Ogden, Weber County, in early fall 
of 1871. Henshaw (1875:427^ and Yarrow 
found it regularly visiting Utah Lake, Utah 
County, for fish and assumed that it nested 
in nearby mountains. Bailey (field notes) 



found it near Provo, Utah County, and in 
Sevier, Kane, and Garfield counties in die 
winter of 1888. He also saw it in late June 
at Fairfield, Utah County, in 1890. Most 
of the nesting records are from the notes of 
Treganza who observed nesting sites at 
Upper Provo River, Wasatch County, 1 
May 1914; head of Emigration Canyon, Salt 
Lake County, 15 May 1918; Low Pass, 
Tooele County, 15 March 1922; and Mt. 
Baldy, Summit County, 1 April 1922. Tlie 
first nest contained almost fully fledged 
young. Apparently no egg sets were taken 
by Treganza. Wolfe (1928:97) made refer- 
ence to a nest east of Alpine, Utah County. 
A nesting site has been reported near Bick- 
nell, Wayne County (Hayward 1967:23). 
Large concentrations of Bald Eagles are 
common in several localities in the state 
during the winter. Scott (1957:284) re- 
ported a peak of 120 birds at Bear River Mi- 
gratory Bird Refuge, Box Elder County, 3 
March 1957, and Murie (1963:46) counted 
18 in the area around Parowan, Iron 
County, during the winter of 1962-63. The 
population dynamics of diis species and the 
Golden Eagle in the Great Basin have been 
studied by Edwards (1969:1-142). 

Subspecies: The Bald Eagles of Utah 
have been considered to be of the larger 
northern race, H. I. alascanus (AOU Check- 
list 1957:114), although the Check-list (113- 
114) indicates that the southern race H. I. 
leucocephalus may have foiTnerly bred in 
Utah. It is presumed that the birds winter- 
ing in the state are migrants from the north, 
but there is no confinned evidence of this. 
Two female specimens in the Brigham 
Young University collection, taken in Utah 
County in December and January, have 
wing measurements of 606 mm and 620 
mm — well within the size range of the 
northern race. 

Circus cyaneus hudsonius (Linnaeus) 

Marsh Hawk 

Fig. 15, p. 52 

Status: A common summer resident 



GREAT BASIN NATURALIST MEMOIRS 



No.l 



usually found around marshy areas in the 
lower valleys but sometimes feeding over 
mountain meadows and in desert country. 
Behle (1960a:25) observed one flying over 
the crest of the Abajo mountains near Cooley 
Pass, San Juan County, 24 August 1956, at 
an elevation of about 10,350 feet. Pri- 
marily a migrant species, although a few re- 
main in lower valleys throughout the win- 
ter. 

Records: All the early ornithologists who 
visited Utah soon after its settlement by 
the Mormons recorded the Marsh Hawk 
as being common to abundant, particularly 
in the Salt Lake and Utah Lake valleys. 
However, it is found in many localities 
throughout the state: near Yost, Box Elder 
County, 7 September 1932 (Behle 1958:16); 
St. George, Washington County, 25 March 
1934 (Hardy and Higgins 1940:98); along 
the Green River, Uintah County, summer 
1937 (Twomey 1942:381); Fish Springs, 
Juab County, 23 June 1946 (Behle 1955:18); 
south of Kanab, Kane County, 20 May 1947 
(Behle et al. 1958:45). There are numerous 
nesting records. 



spring 1926 (reported by Cottam); mouth 
of Provo River, Utah County, 23 April 1927 
(killed by a hunter); Murray Fish Hatchery, 
Salt Lake County, 15 October 1927; Ogden, 
Weber County, 1 May 1930 (taken by a 
hunter); two miles south of Gunlock, Wash- 
ington County, 23 April 1945 (specimen in 
Dixie College collection). Numerous sight 
records are available from various parts of 
Utah. One was seen by Hayward at Lin- 
coln Beach, Utah County, several times in 
spring of 1969. All nesting records have 
been from mountain areas where there are 
lakes or reservoirs. The birds have nested 
at Fish Lake, Sevier County, as reported 
by Wolfe (field notes), Cottam (field notes), 
and Bee and Hutchings (1942:67). Nesting 
records from Summit, Wasatch, and 
Duchesne counties were reported by Hay- 
ward (1931:151), Twomey (1942:382), and 
Bee and Hutchings (1942:67). All of the 
nesting sites were in tall trees. Kingery 
(1973:644) saw one at Zion National Park, 
Washington County, in late March 1973. 

Family Falconidae 



Family Pandionidae 

Pandion haliaetus carolinensis (Gmelin) 
Osprey 

Status: Formerly a sparse but regular 
summer resident in Utah; now greatly re- 
duced in numbers and considered to be 
rare and endangered. 

Records: Early notations by Allen 
(1872b:170) and Henshaw (1874:10) indi- 
cate that the Osprey was present around 
the marshes of Great Salt Lake in the early 
days of settlement. Henshaw said it was 
rare at Utah Lake, while Allen stated that 
it was common in summer near Great Salt 
Lake. A few specimens have been taken 
within the state as follows: mouth of Weber 
River, Weber County, 13 October 1914 
(Wetmore); Maple Creek Trout Hatchery, 
Mantua, Box Elder County, 25 April 1925; 
Springville Fish Hatchery, Utah County, 



Falco mexicanus Schlegel 
Prairie Falcon 

Status: Formerly considered to be com- 
mon in Utah but lately becoming increas- 
ingly more rare. It is a permanent resident 
found at all elevations but more commonly 
in the lower canyons and valleys. 

Records: Some of the early naturalists 
(Henshaw 1875:410-411; Ridgway 1877: 
;368, 375, 577; Fisher 1893:39) recognized 
the Prairie Falcon as a rather common 
species in the state. Hayward (field notes) 
recorded it frequently in the Utah Valley 
area and westward. Nesting pairs occurred 
on cliffs in most of the canyons along the 
Wasatch Front in the 1930s and 1940s. 
Brigham Young University collection con- 
tains the following specimens from Utah: 
Utah Lake, Utah County, 18 November 
1932; St. George, Washington County, 30 
September 1934 and 3 November 1935; Lost 



1976 



BIRDS OF UTAH 



67 




iM:K^M\^S/'% 



Fig. 20. Black-necked Stilt. Ogden Bay, Weber County, Utah, spring 1953. Photo by R. D. Porter 
md R. J. Erwin. 



Lake, Uinta Mountains, Summit County, 
29 August 1940. There are numerous rec- 
ords of nesting throughout the state. Re- 
cently Porter and White (1973:1-74) have 
discussed competition between tlie Prairie 
Falcon and Peregrine Falcon in Utah. 

Falco peregrinus Tunstall 

Peregrine Falcon 

Fig. 12, p. 42 

Status: The Peregrine Falcon, or Duck 
Hawk as it has sometimes been called, is 
a sparse permanent resident in the state, 
especially in areas near marshlands. It has 
been greatly reduced in numbers here as 
elsewhere in recent years and is in grave 
danger of extermination. 

Records: Some of the early investigators 
in the state considered this falcon to be 
rather common (Allen 1872b: 170; Henshaw 
1874:9). Neither Ridgway nor Merriam en- 
countered it. Specimens from Bear River 
Marshes, Box Elder County, are in the col- 
lections of the U.S. National Museum of 
Natural History and Academy of Natural 
Sciences of Philadelphia. The University 
of Utah collection contains specimens from 
near Bountiful, Davis County, and from 
near Salt Lake City and elsewhere. Bent 
(1938:67) reported that a specimen banded 



at King's Point, Yukon, Canada, 30 July 
1924, was shot at Duchesne, Duchesne 
County, 20 February 1925. A specimen 
taken west of Utah Lake 2 August 1935 was 
mounted by John Hutchings of Lehi. A 
specimen in the Louis B. Bishop collection 
was taken at Cedar City, Iron County, 12 
May 1936. Specimens in the Royal On- 
tario Museum (Canada) and the Carnegie 
Museum were taken in the Uinta Basin. 
Wolfe (1928:101) collected a specimen at 
St. George, Washington County, and there 
is a specimen in tlie Zion Park Museum 
from Zion Canyon, Washington County, 16 
July 1939. Nesting sites have been reported 
from Box Elder County (Treganza letter); 
Weber County (Dee Porter); Tooele County 
(Wolfe letter 30 June 1930); Utah County 
(Johnson 1899b :45; Bee and Hutchings 
1942:67-68); Clear Lake Reflige, Millard 
County (Gunther and Nelson field notes); 
and Uintah County (Twomey 1942:383- 
384). Porter and White (1973:1-74) have 
listed numerous specimens and nesting rec- 
ords for the state and have discussed the 
ecology of the species in detail. 

Subspecies: The systematics of the Pere- 
grine Falcon has been treated by White 
(1968:1-195). It appears that both F. p. 
anatum and F. p. tundrius have been taken 
in Utah during the winter months. 



68 



GREAT BASIN NATURALIST MEMOIRS 



No. 1 



Falco columbarius Linnaeus 
Merlin (Pigeon Hawk) 

Status: A sparse resident of Utah breed- 
ing in scattered areas in the mountains. 
There is some migration of at least three 
races through the state, and a few winter in 
the area. It seems that no specimens of 
breeding birds have been taken, and the 
race nesting in the state is unknown. 

Records: There are a few records of 
Pigeon Hawks having been collected in 
Utah in the early days of settlement. Stev- 
enson (1872:462) reported a specimen taken 
on Green River in early October 1871 by 
the Hayden Expedition. Allen (1872b:170) 
regarded it as being moderately frequent 
around Ogden, Weber County, in 1871, and 
took one specimen at West Weber, Weber 
Count)', 16 September, and another at 
Ogden, 4 October. A specimen was taken 
near Minersville, Beaver County, 12 Decem- 
ber 1934, and reported by Stanford. An- 
other was taken by Ralph Hafen, 11 Decem- 
ber 1939, near St. George, Washington 
County (Hardy and Higgins 1940:98). Behle 
et al. (1964:451) published an account of a 
specimen shot in the Salt Lake City Ceme- 
tery, Salt Lake County, 9 March 1937, and 
another collected at the Tracy Aviary, Salt 
Lake City, 1 Febmary 1954. Both are now 
in the collection of the University of Utah. 
Porter and Knight (1952:84-85) recorded 
specimens taken at Plymouth, Box Elder 
County, Februaiy 1948, and Ogden, Weber 
County (both in Weber State College col- 
lection). There are two specimens in the 
Brigham Young University collection taken 
in Utah. One was collected at St. George, 
Washington County, 21 December 1926, 
and the other at Provo, Utah County, 26 
January 1964. Both are females. 

Sets of eggs are known to have been col- 
lected in Utah. Wolfe (1946:97) referred 
to a set of eggs in the ]. P. Morris collection 
taken in the Wasatch Mountains, 29 May 
1868. These eggs were collected by Ricken- 
secker and are now in the collection of the 
Western Foundation of Vertebrate Zoology. 



Another set taken by Rickensecker in 1869 
in the Wasatch Mountains is in the U.S. 
National Museum collection. 

Subspecies: It seems that three or four 
subspecies may appear in the Utah popula- 
tion. A specimen in the U.S. National 
Museum of Natural Histoiy listed by Coues 
(1874:348) as having been taken in Box 
Elder Creek, Utah, was placed in the sub- 
species F. c. richardsonii. A specimen in 
the Brigham Young University collection 
taken at St. George, Washington County, 
was identified by H. C. Oberholser as 
columbarius. However, the latter specimen 
seems to be definitely of the race F. c. rich- 
ardsonii, according to Freidman's key 
(1950:619). The specimen mentioned above 
collected in the Salt Lake Cemetery is of 
the race columbarius. The race F. c. suck- 
leiji is a winter visitor in Utah. The pre- 
viously mentioned specimen taken at the 
Tracy Aviary, Salt Lake City, and those 
reported by Porter and Knight (1952:84-85) 
for Plymouth, Box Elder County, and Og- 
den, Weber County, are of this race. A 
female specimen in the Brigham Young Uni- 
versity collection taken at Provo, 26 Janu- 
aiy 1964, is also suckletji. F. c. bendirei has 
been assumed to be the race breeding in 
Utah (Behle 1943a:24), but there seems to 
be no positive proof of this. Hardy and 
Higgins (1940:98) recorded a specimen of 
bendirei collected at St. George, 11 Decem- 
ber 1939. 

Falco sparverius sparverius Linnaeus 

American Kestrel (Sparrow Hawk) 

Figs. 13, 16, 24; pp. 43, 55, 78 

Status: A pennanent resident in Utah 
but less common in tlie northern part of 
the state during winter. This falcon seems 
to maintain its population somewhat better 
than most of tlie other birds of prey. Owing 
perhaps to its small size, it is less con- 
spicuous and is persecuted less frequently 
by man than are most of its larger relatives. 

Records: All of the early writers on Utah 
ornithology commented on tlie great abun- 



1976 



BIRDS OF UTAH 



69 



dance of this small species in the state 
(Allen 1872b: 170; Henshaw 1875:414; Ridg- 
wav 1877:578-580; and others). It has been 
obsened and collected from many localities 
throughout the state. Recently Smith et al. 
(1972a:73-83) studied the ecology of this 
species in central Utah. 

Family Tetraonidae 



Dendragapus obscums (Say) 
Blue Grouse 

Status: Fonnerly a common grouse in 
the higher mountain ranges of the state. 
Now, as a result of hunting pressure and 
livestock grazing, it is reduced in numbers. 
It ranges in altitude from the foothills to 
timberline but is perhaps most character- 
istic of coniferous forests where there is an 
abundance of wild berries on which it 
feeds. 

Records: Early obsewers collected spe- 
cimens and noted the abundance of Blue 
Grouse in Utah mountains (Allen 1872b: 
170; Henshaw 1875:435-436; Ridgway 1877: 
598). Many records of specimens from the 
major mountainous areas of the state are in 
collections throughout the countiy. Breed- 
ing records available are mainly those of 
broods of young. Sets of eggs on record 
indicate that nesting begins in mid-May. 

Subspecies: The subspecies recognized 
from most areas of the state is D. o. ob- 
scurus, which is also found in central Wyo- 
ming, Colorado, parts of northern New 
Mexico, and Arizona. Behle and Selander 
(1951b:125-128) have described a paler 
colored race which they call D. o. oreinus 
that is found in the Deep Creek Mountains 
of central western Utah and westward into 
parts of Nevada. The type specimen was 
collected by Robert K. Selander and is in 
the University of Utah Museum of Zoology, 
no. 10779. It was collected three miles north 
of the Queen of Sheba mine, west side of 
Deep Creek Mountains, 7,500 feet eleva- 
tion, Juab County, 23 April 1950. 



Bonasa umbeUus incana Aldrich 
and Friedmann 
Ruffed Grouse 

Status: The Ruffed Grouse was former- 
ly rather common at lower elevations in 
northern Utah at least as far soutli as San- 
pete County. It is an inhabitant of brushy 
canyons and aspen forests where there are 
frequent open areas and nearby streams. 
In some localities it has been called the Wil- 
low Grouse. 

Records: Fremont (1845:143) was the 
first to record this species, noting that it was 
abundant in areas that later became the 
Utah-Idaho border. It was also recorded 
by Allen (1872b:171), by Simpson's partv 
(Baird 1876:380), and by Ridgway (1877: 
599). Numerous specimens have been col- 
lected in more recent years. Sets of eggs 
are few, but many broods of young have 
been noted. Mullen (pers. comm.) found a 
nest containing five eggs in Big Cotton- 
wood Canyon, Salt Lake County, 22 June 
1931. The nest was located under tlie 
curved base of an aspen. Hayward and 
Bee (Bee and Hutchings 1942:68) found a 
nest in identical habitat on Mt. Tim- 
panogos, Utah County, 17 May 1942, which 
eventually contained seven eggs by 23 May. 

Subspecies: The Utah population has 
been placed in the race B. u. incana (AOU 
Check-list 1957:129). The type specimen 
is an adult male, no. 155869, in die U.S. 
National Museum of Natural Histoiy, col- 
lected at Barclay, 15 miles east of Salt Lake 
City, Salt Lake County, 1 May 1897, by E. 
A. Preble. 

Tympaniichus phasianeUus columbianus 

(Ord) 

Shaip-tailed Grouse 

Status: Originally widespread and 
rather common throughout much of north- 
ern and central Utah wherever there was 
a suitable habitat of grassland and sage- 
brush. Since much of its native habitat vvas 
taken up for agriculture, it is now restricted 



70 



GREAT BASIN NATURALIST MEMOIRS 



No. 1 




Fig. 21. Black-necked Stilt. Ogde 
and R. J. Erwin. 



Bay, Weber County, Utah, spring 1953. Photo by R. D. Porter 



to a few areas in the northern part of the 
state. 

Records: These grouse were reported by 
early naturahsts for the Salt Lake and 
Ogden areas as well as for Utah Valley 
(Allen 1872b:170; Henshaw 1874:10; Nel- 
son 1875:347; Ridgway 1877:599; Bailey 
field notes; Osgood field notes). There are 
few specimens in the museums of the state. 
The Museum of Comparative Zoology has 
one taken in Weber County, 26 September 
1871; specimens were collected near Blue 
Spring Hill in Box Elder County, 17 August 
to 5 September 1928; specimens in the col- 
lection of the Colorado Natural Histoiy 
Museum were taken near Tremonton, Box 
Elder County, 28 May and 7 June 1929; a 
specimen collected three miles west of 
Huntsville, Weber County, 24 March 1940, 
is in the University of Utah collection. Nest- 
ing records are very scarce. A set of nine 



eggs collected by Aldous (now in the 
Daynes collection) was taken in Davis 
County, 20 May 1917. Hayward (field 
notes), while living and hunting in Bear 
Lake Valley during the 1920s, found the 
Sharp-tailed Grouse, or Prairie Chicken as 
it was locally called, common on die foot- 
hills and sometimes along die valley streams 
on the west side of the valley. The birds 
inhabited the parkland country and usually 
sought groves of aspens or tall shrubs around 
springs, especially in winter. They often 
fed in autumn in diy farm grain fields and 
were nearly as common as the sage grouse. 
In those days it was not uncommon for a 
hunter to take Sage Grouse, Blue Grouse, 
and Sharp-tailed Grouse in the same gen- 
eral locality. Low and Gaufin (1946:180) 
reported a flock of 23 east of Providence, 
Cache County, 22 March 1946. 



1976 



BIRDS OF UTAH 



71 



Centrocercus urophasiamis 

urophasianus (Bonaparte) 

Sage Grouse 

Status: Originally widespread and very 
eommon throughout the state wherever 
sagebrush or mixed grasslands and sage- 
brush were prevalent. Since much of the 
original habitat has been taken up by agri- 
culture, tlie grouse have been restricted to 
rangelands but have been able to survive 
under reduced hunting pressure and con- 
sei"vation measures. 

Records: All the early naturalists who 
visited die area mentioned tlie abundance 
of Sage Grouse even in places near settle- 
ments (Baird 1852:319; Remy 1860 [2] :450; 
Merriam 1873:699; Ridgway 1877:368, 375, 
600). There are many collected specimens 
in local museums and others throughout 
the countiy. At the present time their prin- 
cipal habitat is sagebrush communities 
where there are small streams or springs. 
In 1970 hunters obtained 15,877 birds, and 
in 1971 this species provided 20,013 indi- 
viduals for hunters (State of Utah Division 
of Wildlife Resources 1972:19). 

Family Phasianidae 

Colinus virginianus (Linnaeus) 
Bobwhite 

Status: The Bobwhite, at times referred 
to as the Eastern Partridge, is not a native 
to Utah but has been introduced into the 
state several times and in a variety of lo- 
calities. According to Allen ( 1872a :395), 
this quail was introduced into Utah around 
Ogden prior to 1871 and for a time gave 
promise of multiplying rapidly and becom- 
ing thoroughly naturalized. Henshaw 
(1875:439) found them near Provo and 
stated that "everything would seem to 
indicate their rapid increase. In July, the 
call notes of males were frequently heard, 
and a number of coveys were seen here in 
the fall near the thickets and hedges." 
Wyman (1889:123) and Bent (1932:31) both 



referred to this early introduction into Utah. 
Birds resulting from these early plantings 
soon died out under pressure from hunters 
and had mostly disappeared by about 1900. 
In more recent years the Bobwhite has been 
introduced into Utah several times. They 
were planted near Moab, Grand County, in 
1915; near Vernal, Uintah County, in 1930; 
at Jensen, Uintah County, in 1935; and 
near Richfield, Sevier County, in 1938 (in- 
formation from Utah Division of Wildlife 
Resources). Plants were also made near 
Deweyville and Brigham City, both in Box 
Elder County, in 1947, and also near 
Grantsville, Tooele County, in 1946. Most, 
if not all, of these birds have disappeared, 
and fiuther introductions seem unjustifi- 
able. 

Lophortijx californicus (Shaw) 
California Quail 

Status: The California Quail, also called 
the Valley Quail or California Partridge, 
is not native to Utah but was introduced a 
short time before 10 November 1869 by 
General Gibbon who was stationed at Camp 
(now Fort) Douglas. He brought to Utah 
14 pair of quail and liberated them in the 
Salt Lake Valley for the express purpose of 
propagating them (Deseret Evening News 
1869:3). During die 1870s and 1880s several 
more introductions were made, mostly in 
the northern and central valleys of the state. 
(Popov 1949:138-143). The birds survive 
best in city parks and in agricultural areas 
and adjacent foothills where there are 
ample shrubs or thickets for cover. Under 
limited hunting diese quail survive rather 
well in the central and northern counties 
of the state. 

Records: Early collectors in Utah, in- 
cluding Ridgway, Merriam, Nelson, and 
Henshaw, did not report this quail since 
it had not become widespread in their 
time. Specimens were recorded in the 
Deseret Museum Catalogue in 1892, and a 
pair of birds taken at Ogden, Weber 
County, in 1883, are in the Colorado 
Natural History Museum. In more recent 



72 



GREAT BASIN NATURALIST MEMOIRS 



No. 1 



years numerous specimens have been as- 
sembled in tlie several collections witliin 
the state and elsewhere. 

Subspecies: Since numerous introduc- 
tions of this quail have been made with 
stock from several areas, the subspecies in 
the Utah population are ill defined. It 
seems that the first introductions were of 
the subspecies brunnescens, a native of the 
more humid western coast. This olive 
brown and darker race seemingly did not 
survive in the diy interior, but the Colorado 
Museum specimens taken at Ogden in 1883 
appear to be of this subspecies. The present 
Utah population seems to resemble more 
closely the race L. c. californicus. 



Lophortyx gamhelii Gambel 
Gambel's Quail 

Status: Gambel's Quail is a native in- 
habitant of the warmer deserts in the Colo- 
rado and Virgin River drainage areas of 
southern Utah. It is known to occur as far 
north as Wayne County (Grater field notes), 
and Porter (1954:362) has reported it from 
Green River, Emery County. It has adapted 
rather well to human settlements and often 
feeds in grain fields. 

Records: Yarrow and Henshaw (Hen- 
shaw 1875:440-441) collected this quail 
along the Virgin River in October 1872 and 
reported that it lived near settlements. 
They stated that flocks of 100 were not in- 
frequent. Vernon Bailey (field notes) found 
it to be common in the same area in Janu- 
aiy 1889. Numerous collections and obser- 
vations are on record for more recent years. 

Subspecies: In some of the earlier litera- 
ture (Woodbury et al. 1949:11) the popula- 
tion of the Virgin River and north to Wayne 
County was assigned to the race L. g. gam- 
helii, and the birds of southeastern Utah, 
especially in the Moab area, were assigned 
to the western Colorado subspecies L. g. 
sanus. Behle (1960b:16-17) considered the 
birds in the extreme southwestern part of 
Utah to be L. g. gambelii, although atypical. 



Specimens from the Kanab, Kane County, 
and Moab, Grand County, areas appear to 
be L. g. sanus, according to Behle's account; 
however, Phillips (1958:;365) placed the 
race sanus in synonymy under L. g. gam- 
belii. 

Phasianiis colchicus Linnaeus 
Ring-necked Pheasant 

Status: The first pheasants were intro- 
duced into Utah near Salt Lake City by 
M. H. Walker about 1890 (Popov 1949: 
144-153). Twomey (1942:388) wrote diat 
they were also released in the Uinta Basin in 
1900. The birds seemed to thrive well, and 
several eggs were taken in Salt Lake County 
as early as 1899 and 1904. In 1922 the State 
Division of Wildlife Resources established a 
pheasant faiTn in Springville, Utah County, 
and has since released many hundreds of 
birds into all the agricultural areas of the 
state. While pheasants occur more abun- 
dantly around fann and pasture lands, they 
have also spread into foothill areas, par- 
ticularly along the Wasatch Front. During 
1970 and 1971 hunters obtained over 250,000 
birds each year (State of Utah Division of 
Wildlife Resources 1972:19). 

Records: Collections have been made in 
nearly all counties in the state. However, 
both collection and sight records would 
indicate that pheasants are more numer- 
ous in tlie Great Basin (especially in settle- 
ments along the Wasatch Front) and in die 
Uinta Basin, owing to the greater extent of 
irrigated farmlands in those areas. 

Subspecies: The AOU Check-list (1957: 
146) does not assign subspecific names to 
the North American stock, inasmuch as the 
birds have been introduced from England 
as well as from their native Asia where 
there are some 30 races. Several of these 
races have been introduced and have inter- 
mingled to the extent that the present-day 
population in America cannot be sub- 
specifically identified. 



1976 



BIRDS OF UTAH 



73 



Alec tor is cliukar (Gray) 
Chukar 

Status: A native of southern Europe and 
Asia, the Chukar or Chukar Partridge has 
now been successfully introduced into many 
localities in the western United States in- 
cluding Utah. The first birds were appar- 
ently released in Box Elder County in 
March 1936 (Popov 1949:126-131). Since 
that time, many releases have been made 
and the species has become established in 
semidesert countiy throughout the state. 
Thev seem to sui^vive well under seasonal 
hunting. In 1970 hunters harvested .56,053 
Chukars and in 1971, 61,151 were taken 
(State of Utah Division of Wildlife Re- 
sources 1972:19). The largest harvest came 
from Box Elder, Utah, Cache, Tooele, and 
Morgan counties. The Chuckar adapts 
well to native desert countiy and is not so 
dependent on agricultural lands for sur- 
vival. 

Records: Collections of specimens have 
been made from many parts of tlie state. 
The Brigham Young University collection 



contains one specimen from Dog \'alley, 
Juab County, 23 November 1956; diree 
from Roosevelt, Duchesne County, 15 April 
1958; and one from Sterling, Sanpete 
County, 15 November 1958. 

Subspecies: According to die AOU 
Check-list (1957:147), there are over 20 
geographic races of the Chukar in its native 
range. Several of these have been intro- 
duced into the United States, and the sub- 
specific status of the present population is 
uncertain. 

Pcrdix perdix perdix (Linnaeus) 
Gray Partridge 

Status: The Gray Partridge, also called 
Hungarian Partridge, is native to northern 
and central Europe and Asia. Porter (1955: 
93-109) has reviewed the status of this 
species in Utah. One hundred twenty birds 
were introduced from Canadian stock in 
the spring of 1912 and distributed to seven 
counties in Utah. In 1923 an additional 
400 birds were released. By 1940 all intro- 
ductions were considered unsuccessful. 




Fig. 22. Wilson's Phalarope. Ogden Bay, Weber County, Utah, 20 June 1961. Photo by R. J. Erwin. 



74 



GREAT BASIN NATURALIST MEMOIRS 



No. 1 



However, populations are established in 
Rich, Box Elder, Tooele, and Juab counties. 
These individuals are believed to have 
spread from the neighboring states of Idaho 
and Nevada where introductions have been 
successful. The State of Utah Division of 
Wildlife Resources (1972:19) reported 9,407 
Hungarian Partridges harvested in 1971. 

Family Meleagrididae 

Meleagris gallopavo merriami Nelson 
Turkey 

Status: Whether or not the Turkey oc- 
curred natively in Utah is questionable. If 
it did, it most likely lived in the mountains 
of the southeastern part of the state. There 
is evidence that it was native in some of 
the counties of Colorado, Arizona, and New 
Mexico adjoining Utah (Hayward 1967:26). 
Turkey bones and feathers have been found 
in cliff dwellings (Hargrave 1939:208; 
Shroeder 1955:159; Sharrock and Keene 
1962:62; Sharrock 1966:77-78, 80, 82), but 
these could have been domesticated birds 
or else birds brought into the area from 
elsewhere. Many introductions of wild 
stock have been made in various parts of 
the state. A number of introductions from 
eastern stock were made between 1925 and 
1948 as follows: Antelope Island, Great 
Salt Lake, 1925; east of Milford, Beaver 
County, 1936, 1938, 1939-1941; Iron 
County, 1941; Washington County, 1942; 
south fork of Provo River, Utah County, 
1943, 1948. Apparently none of these intro- 
ductions was successful for any great 
length of time (Popov 1949:154-160). Behle 
(1960a:26-27) gave an account of its intro- 
duction into the La Sal, Abajo and Henry 
mountains by the State Division of Wild- 
life Resources beginning in 1953. Worthen 
(1968:193) has furnished information re- 
garding the release of turkeys west of Mil- 
ford in 1936 and mentioned several scat- 
tered records from the Tushar Mountains, 
Beaver and Piute counties. Populations 
have also been established on Boulder 



Mountain, Garfield County, and near East 
Zion, Kane County, and Beaver Mountain, 
Beaver County. These plantings have been 
successful to the point where limited hunt- 
ing is now allowed. Eighty-six birds were 
harvested in 1971 (State of Utah Division of 
Wildlife Resources 1972:19). 

Family Gruidae 

Grus canadensis (Linnaeus) 
Sandhill Crane 

Status: Formerly a common summer 
resident in northern Utah (Baird 1852: 
319; Remy 1860 [2] :450; Ridgway 1877:364, 
376) but now a regular though uncommon 
migrant. John Hutchings (Bee and Hutch- 
ings 1942:69) saw an adult with young near 
Lehi, Utah County, in the summer of 1939. 
A party consisting of R. G. Bee, James 
Bee, and C. L. Hayward found a nest at 
Fish Springs, Juab County, 3 May 1946. As 
many as five birds were seen together at 
that time in the Fish Springs area (Bee 
and Hutchings 1942:68-69). Within the last 
five years nesting has occurred on the 
Strawberry River, Wasatch County. In June 
1969 a nest was destroyed by cattle in this 
area, but the two eggs were saved. The 
Utah State Division of Wildlife Resources 
donated one egg to the University of Utah 
and the other to Brigham Young University. 
In recent years the Sandhill Crane has be- 
come well established as a migrant and 
breeding species along the Bear River and 
in nearby marshlands of Bear Lake Valley. 
Although this valley lies partly in Utah, it is 
doubtful if any nesting takes place in the 
state, owing to lack of extensive marsh- 
lands in that part of the valley lying in 
Utah. However, nesting birds should be 
looked for along the Bear River in Rich 
County in the vicinity of Woodruff and 
Randolph. Bear Lake Valley has always 
been a favored migration route for the Sand- 
hill Crane, and some birds have no doubt 
nested there rather consistently for many 
years. Hayward, who was bom and raised 



1976 



BIRDS OF UTAH 



75 



in that area, recalls as a small boy seeing 
and hearing cranes frequently in spring and 
foil and remembers that they were some- 
times shot for food. When he made a rather 
extensive study of the birds of the valley 
(approximately 19271930), a few Sand- 
hills were seen in the valley throughout the 
summer, but no nests were actually found. 
However, at that time they were not nearly 
as common as they have been in the last 
10 vears. 

Records: Most of the records in print 
are apparently sight records, many of 
which have been puljlished. Two speci- 
mens taken by the Stansbuiy party in Salt 
Lake County in 1849-50 are in die U.S. 
National Museum of Natural History. These 
are probably the same birds that Baird 
(1858:654) mentions. Yarrow saw birds of 
this species at Fish Springs in August 1872 
(Henshaw 1875:467). A set of two eggs un- 
dated, in the U.S. National Museum of 
Natural History, is labeled "Simpson Lake 
Charles McCarthy Exp. in Utah." A 
mounted specimen, taken by John Hutch- 
ings at Lehi, Utah County, in March 1936, 
is in the Brigham Young University collec- 
tion. Sugden (1938:18 22) summarized die 
known records of diis species in Utah and 
southern Idaho. While there have been 
several nesting records mentioned over the 
years, there are apparently few actual sets 
of eggs available. A set of two eggs taken 
near Utah Lake was brought to Johnson, 
3 May 1900 (Johnson's Journal). Two sets 
of two eggs each are in the Brigham Young 
University collection, taken 4 May 1940 
and 2 May 1946 at Fish Springs, Juab Coun- 
ty. The Sandhill Crane has been obsei-ved 
in southern Utah at the junction of die 
Santa Clara and Virgin Rivers, Washington 
County, 9 April 1940 (Hardy and Higgins 
1940:98), and in the northwestern part of 
the state, two miles south of Lynn Reser- 
voir, Box Elder County, 20 June 19,56 (Behle 
1958:18). 

Subspecies: It appears from the infoniia- 
tion available that the race G. c. tabida is 
the common migrant and breeding bird in 



Utah. However, an unknown number of 
G. c. canadensis, a smaller subspecies some- 
times called the Little Brown Crane, ap- 
pear as transients. The mounted specimen 
cited above in the Brigham Young Univer- 
sity collection from Lehi, Utah County, 
taken in March 1936, is of this smaller race. 
The measurements of this specimen are 
culnien 93 mm, tarsus 189 mm, and wing 
452 mm. 

Family Rallidae 

Rallus limicola limicola Vieillot 
Virgina Rail 

Status: A breeder, migrant, and regular 
winter resident in marshlands throughout 
the state wherever such habitats occur. 

Records: All of the early collectors ob- 
tained specimens or reported this rail in 
Utah. Ridgway (1877:369) in 1869 found it 
near Salt Lake City; Henshaw (1875:468) 
recorded it from nearly all areas of the state 
visited by him in 1872; Rowley (collection 
of American Museum of Natural Histoiy) 
took a specimen at Bluff, San Juan County, 
14 May 1892. Many specimens have been 
collected in recent years. Specimens at 
Brigham Young University from Utah are 
as follows: near Utah Lake, Utah County, 
24 December 1927, 17 May 1934, and 12 
October 1955; one specimen found dead on 
Brigham Young University campus, Utah 
County, 15 December 1958; Myton, Du- 
chesne County, 27 December 1958. There 
are also numerous nesting records, includ- 
ing several for soudiern Utah (Hardy and 
Higgins 1940:98; Wauer 1969:331). Sets of 
eggs have been taken as earlv as 20 April 
and as late at 10 June, but most of the 
records are for May. 

Porzana Carolina (Linnaeus) 
Sora 

Status: The Sora or Sora Rail is a rather 
common breeding species and migrant in 
marshy habitats, especially in the more 



76 



GREAT BASIN NATURALIST MEMOIRS 



No. 1 



northern counties of Utah. Because of its 
secretive habits, it would appear to be less 
common than it actually is. Altliough it is 
primarily a bird of lower valleys, it may 
occur at higher elevations where there are 
suitable habitats. It is known to occur 
sparsely in winter. 

FIecords: Early records include those of 
Ridgway (1877:369, 376, 612-613), who 
found it to be common in the marshes 
around Salt Lake City, Salt Lake County, 
in 1869, and who also collected one at Par- 
ley's Park, Summit County, 26 July 1869. 
Allen (1872b: 172) reported it as common 
near Ogden, Weber County, in September 
1871, and Henshaw (1875:469) found it in 
1872 near ponds and lakes in Utah. Many 



more recent collections have been made. 
Specimens in the Brigham Young Univer- 
sity collection include one from Logan, 
Cache County, 27 June 1931; two from near 
Utah Lake, Utah County, 21 April 1928 and 
28 September 1943; and one from Roosevelt, 
Duchesne County, 1 June 1950. One in the 
University of Utah collection was obtained 
at Dugway Proving Ground, Tooele 
County, 26 August 1957. This specimen 
was far from any water (Behle et al. 1964: 
451). Although most of the known breed- 
ing records are from the northern counties 
of the state (especially Weber, Salt Lake, 
Utah, and Wasatch), Hardy and Higgins 
(1940:98) reported an immature bird taken 
in Washington County, 19 May 1938. 




Fig. 23. Black Tern. Rochester, Monroe County, New York, 11 July 1967. Photo by R. J. Erwin. 



1976 



BIRDS OF UTAH 



77 



Porphijnila martinica (Linnaeus) 
Puiple Gallinule 



Status: The Pui-ple Gallinule occurs 
only accidentally in Utah. 

Records: A mounted female specimen 
in the collection of the University of Utah 
was taken at Haynes Lake, about 12 miles 
south of Salt Lake City, Salt Lake County, 
23 November 1924 '(Sugden 1925:210). 
There is also one sight record from Salt 
Creek Canyon about 4 miles east of Nephi, 
Juab County, 10 July 1939 (Woodbuiy et al. 
1949:12). 



Gallinula chloropus cachinnans Bangs 
Common Gallinule 



April and May 1969, and one bird in the 
same area in May 1970. On 10 May 1969 
two of the birds were seen fighting in a 
small area of open water in the otherwise 
dense growth of cattails and tules. The 
males would periodically display witli the 
tail raised to show conspicuously the white 
under-tail coverts. Not wishing to disturb 
the birds, Hayward conducted no svstematic 
search for a nest, but the fighting and dis- 
play of the males and the persistence of the 
birds in the area strongly support the pos- 
sibility of nesting. Winter records for north- 
ern Utah are reported by Beall (1974:487) 
at Bear River Migratoiy Bird Refuge, Box 
Elder County, 17 December 1973, and by 
Kingeiy (1975:721) at the same location in 
Januaiy and early Febmaiy 1975. 



Status: This species occurs only casually 
in Utah, but there is some evidence that it 
may occasionally nest in the state. 

Records: A single bird was obsewed 
and studied closely with field glasses at 
the Ogden Bay Bird Refuge, Weber County, 
24 June 1947 (Cottam and Low 1948:459). 
Wauer (1963:263) first reported this species 
in southern Utah at St. George, Washington 
County, 29 December 1962. Nine were 
counted in the same locality on 19 Decem- 
ber 1963 (Wauer 1964:292) and one at St. 
George on 12 March 1964 (Snider 1964: 
377). Fledglings were observed on 9 July 
1964 near Washington, Washington County 
(Snider 1964:527), and on 1, 17, and 2r Aug- 
ust 1965. Juveniles were observed, an indi- 
cation that it is a breeding bird in southern 
Utah (Wauer and Russell 1967:421). A 
specimen was collected at Washington, 5 
May 1966, and is in die collection at Zion 
National Park, Washington County (Wauer 
1969:331). One was obsei-ved at Bear River 
Migratory Bird Refuge, Box Elder County, 
spring 1966 (Scott 1966:536). Hayward 
(field notes) observed three Common Gal- 
linules, presumably two males and one 
female, at one time at Powell's Slough, Utah 
Lake, Utah County, on several dates in 



Fulica americana americana Gmelin 
American Coot 



Status: An abundant breeding species 
and migrant throughout the state wherever 
there are ponds, lakes, or marshes. Coots 
prefer water bodies with open shorelines 
where they can come out to sun on the 
beaches but can quickly retreat to the water 
whenever disturbed. 

Records: Tlie earliest explorers in the 
area attest to the abundance of the Coot in 
Utah. Beckwith's party (Baird 1854:15) 
took a specimen in 1854 at Salt Lake City, 
and Simpson (Baird 1876:381) collected one 
at Camp Floyd, Utah County, west of Utah 
Lake, 25 March 1859. Henshaw (1875:470) 
indicated that the lakes and ponds of the 
state in tlie fall were "fairly covered with 
the coots." Many collections and observa- 
tions have been made since that time. 
Especially in the spring and fall when mi- 
gration is at its peak, the Coot is by far the 
most common bird in lakes and ponds. 
There seems to be no indication that the 
numbers are diminishing. There are also 
numerous records of nesting, which takes 
place in late April and during May. 



78 



GREAT BASIN NATURALIST MEMOIRS 



No. 1 




Family Charadriidae 

Charadriiis semipalmatus Bonaparte 
Semipalinated Plover 

Status: The Semipalmated Plover is a 
casual migrant in both spring and fall re- 
ported from several areas in the state. It 
appears in small numbers often in associa- 
tion with Killdeer and Snowy Plovers. 

Records: A specimen from the Bear 
River Marshes, Box Elder County, taken 
22 April 1916, is in the U.S. National Mu- 
seum of Natural History. Behle et al. (1964: 
451) recorded two specimens collected at 
Dugway Proving Grounds, Tooele County, 
29 April 1961. The Brigham Young Univer- 
sity collection has two specimens from Peli- 
can Lake, Uintah County, 23 September 
1961 and 29 Septermber 1962. One was 



obsei^ved by Webster (1947:40) at Harris- 
ville, Weber County, 6 May 1945. Snider 
(1966:79) reported that Wauer observed 
one at St. George, Washington County, 24 
August 1965. One was seen at Panguitch, 
Garfield County, 28 August 1974 (Kingery 
1975:94). There have also been several 
sight records from Box Elder, Davis, Salt 
Lake, Utah, and Uintah counties. 

Charadrius alexandrinus nivosus (Cassin) 
Snowy Plover 

Status: This is a rather common sum- 
mer resident and breeding species on 
muddy flats or sandy beaches in the central 
valleys of the state. It seems to be rare in 
the Uinta Basin and other parts of the Colo- 
rado River drainage. 

Records: Ridgway (1877:604) stated. 



1976 



BIRDS OF UTAH 



79 



"This handsome and graceful httle Plover 
was exceedingly numerous in May on the 
bare mud-flats around Wanu Springs Lake 
near Salt Lake City." Numerous collections 
have been made and sightings recorded of 
this species, especially in the vicinity of 
Great Salt Lake and LTtah Lake. They nest 
regularly at Lincoln Beach at the south end 
of Utah Lake, Utah County (Hayward field 
notes). Most of the records of nests are for 
May, although sets of fresh eggs have been 
taken as late as 10 June (Sugden collection). 
An early spring sight record is for Kanab, 
Kane County, 28 March 1931 (Behle et al. 
1958:48). 

Charadrius vociferiis vociferus Linnaeus 
Killdeer 

Status: An abundant summer resident 
and breeding species throughout the state 
in nearly all the valleys up to 8,000 feet 
elevation where there is water. Many birds 



also migrate through Utah in spring and 
fall, and a few remain in winter where 
there are warm springs or small streams 
that remain open (Webster 1947:40). Nest- 
ing occurs over a long period from early 
April to late July; there is some evidence 
that two broods may be produced. 

Records: Hundreds of collections and 
observations of birds and nests are on rec- 
ord for this abundant and conspicuous 
species. 

Charadrius montanus Townsend 
Mountain Plover 

Status: The Mountain Plover, which is 
at home on the higher plains of eastern 
Montana, Wyoming, and Colorado, is only 
a casual migrant in Utah. 

Records: In 1872 a few specimens were 
seen south of Fort Bridger, Wyoming, a 
few miles north of the Utah border (Nelson 
1875:342). Alexander Wetmore (field notes) 




Fig. 25. American Avocet. Willard Bay, Box Elder County, Utah, 6 May 1973. Photo by R. J. Ei 



80 



GREAT BASIN NATURALIST MEMOIRS 



No. 1 



saw three birds near the mouth of Weber 
River, Weber County, 26 August 1915. 
Van den Akker (1946:246) collected a female 
15 miles southwest of Brigham City, Box 
Elder County, 25 March 1946. This is the 
first collected record in the state. The speci- 
men taken at Bear River iMigratory Bird 
Reflige is in the refuge collection. Scott 
(1965:501) reported a specimen collected 
by Wauer near Rockville, Washington 
County, 29 March 1965. Wauer and Russell 
(1967:421) listed a specimen taken four 
miles below Rockville, Washington County, 
11 April 1965, and indicated that it is de- 
posited in the Zion Canyon National Park 
Museum. Snider (1966:537) reported that 
Wauer saw two birds of this species at St. 
George, Washington County, 24 April 
1966. 



migrant through the state from mid-April to 
early June and from August to mid-October. 
Records: Several specimens have been 
collected in the Bear River Migratory Bird 
Refuge area, Box Elder County. One taken 
by a hunter in the fall of 1908 is on display 
at the Bear River Gun Club, Box Elder 
County, and tlie collection of the U.S. Na- 
tional Museum of Natmal History has six 
specimens taken by Alexander Wetmore 
in May 1915 and 1916. The Brigham Young 
University collection contains 10 specimens 
as follows: Utah Lake, Utah County, one 
specimen, 9 May 1936; Pelican Lake, 
Uintah County, nine specimens, 13 May 
1961, 23 September 1961, 18 May 1963, and 
1 June 1964. There are also many sight 
records mostly from Box Elder, Davis, Salt 
Lake, and Utah counties. 



Pluvialis dominica dominica (Miiller) 
American Golden Plover 

Status: This is a sparse migrant tlirough 
Utah in both spring and fall, although fall 
records are more numerous. 

Records: A mounted specimen bearing 
no data was on display at the Bear River 
Gun Club, Box Elder County; there is also 
a skin taken 19 September 1932 by Archie 
V. Hull. Another specimen in the Univer- 
sity of Utah collection was taken at tlie 
New State Game Club on 28 October 1939. 
A specimen at Brigham Young University 
was collected at Pelican Lake, Uintah Coun- 
ty, 23 September 1961 (Hayward 1966:305). 
Several sight records are available. 
Twomey (1942:390) saw two sizable flocks 
near Jensen, Uintah County, in May 1937, 
and a flock of eight at Strawberry Resei^voir, 
Wasatch County, in August of the same 
year. Two Golden Plovers were seen with 
a flock of Black-bellied Plovers at Bear 
River Marshes, Box Elder County, by Cot- 
tam and Williams, 17 September 1941. 

Pluvialis squatarola (Linneaus) 
Black-bellied Plover 

Status: An uncommon although regular 



Family Scolopacidae 

Arenaria interpres morinella (Linnaeus) 
Ruddy Turnstone 

Status: The Ruddy Turnstone is a rare 
or casual migrant in Utah. 

Records: Cottam (1945a:79) recorded 
the following collection and sight records 
of this species: Archie Hull collected a male 
at Bear River Migratoiy Bird Refuge, Box 
Elder County, 4 August 1930; Hull and V. 
T. Wilson closely studied two birds in the 
same area in late May 1932, and diree more 
in full breeding plumage were seen by 
Hull at close range on 17 May 1933; E. R. 
Quostrup saw a Turnstone on Willard Spur 
just outside of Bear River Migratoiy Bird 
Refhge, 28 May 1944. Behle and' Perry 
(1975:17-18) reported sight records from 
northern Utah marshes, 3 June 1944, 29 
April 1962, and 24 August 1973. 

Capella gallinago delicata (Ord) 

Common Snipe 

Fig. 17, p. 58 

Status: A common summer resident 
throughout the lowlands of Utah wherever 
there are swampy or boggy habitats or 



i 



1976 



BIRDS OF UTAH 



81 



even temporary ponds. A tew birds also 
remain diroughout the winter where there 
are small running streams or seeps that do 
not freeze over. 

Records: All of the early naturalists to 
visit Utah recorded the Common Snipe or 
Jacksnipe as an abundant breeding species 
in the area (Allen 1872b: 171; Nelson 1875: 
348; Henshaw 1875:452-453; Ridgway 1877: 
376, 606). Numerous birds and sets of eggs 
have been collected more recently. Most 
of the breeding records are for May and 
early June. 

Numenius americanus Bechstein 

Long-billed Curlew 

Fig. 18, p. 61 

Status: A fairly common summer resi- 
dent and migrant in tlie state, especially 
through the central and more northern val- 
leys. There are occasional reports of its 
occurrence in winter (Kashin 1963b :264). 
Less common in the Colorado River drain- 
age. This species lives and breeds in higher 
and drier meadowlands than do many of 
die shorebirds. Its numbers seem to be 
gradually diminishing, a result of disturb- 
ances by man and livestock on its breeding 
grounds. 

Records: All of the early explorers and 
naturalists who visited the state were aware 
of these large and conspicus birds, and 
indications are that they were very com- 
mon (Remy 1860[2] :450; Merriam 1873: 
701; Nelson 1875:348; Ridgway 1877:369, 
370, 376, 611). Stansbury (Baird 1852:320) 
was probably the first to collect a specimen 
(on Antelope Island), but there is evidence 
that the Mormon pioneers used diem to 
some extent for food. Simpson (1876:46) 
on 3 May 1859 recorded that "McCarthy 
shot a curlew, from which he took, per- 
fectly formed in the shell, an egg as large 
as a chicken's." Hundreds of collection 
records and observations have been pub- 

^"We follow Mayr and Short (1970:45-46) and other authors listed by them in merging Actitis and 
Totanus into Tringa. 



lished. In past years, when egg collecting 
was permitted, numerous sets of eggs were 
taken since they were highly prized by col- 
lectors. 

Subspecies: Most of the specimens of 
curlews known from Utah have been re- 
ferred to the subspecies N. a. americanus. 
Oberholser (1918b: 195) placed a specimen 
from Fillmore, Millard County, under die 
name N. a. occidentalis, a short-billed sub- 
species not recognized in the AOU Check- 
list (1957:180-181). Some specimens from 
Utah seem to be of die currently recognized 
short-billed race N. a. parvus, but separa- 
tion of this form from N. a. americanus 
seems to be uncertain where age and sex 
are unknown. It does appear to be certain, 
however, that the short -billed race is at the 
most a rare migrant through die state. 

Numenius phaeopus hudsonicus Latham 
Whimbrel 

Status: This is a rare migrant known to 
pass through Utah in May. 

Records: Merlin L. Killpack and C. L. 
Hayward saw a flock of 28 birds at Monte- 
zuma Creek Reservoir, Uintah County, 18 
May 1963. One female was taken from the 
flock and is now in the collection at Brig- 
ham Young University (Hayward 1966:305- 
306). Scott (1965:501) listed one seen by 
Dennis M. Forsythe near Logan, Cache 
County, 7 May 1965. McKnight (Scott 1967: 
527-528) observed 10 Whimbrel at Fish 
Springs, Juab County, 21 May 1967. 

Tringa^^ macularia Linnaeus 

Spotted Sandpiper 

Fig. 19, p. 64 

Status: A common summer resident 
from late April to late September, breeding 
along the margins of streams, ponds, and 
lakes throughout the state. It has a wide 
altitudinal range from 10,000 feet down to 



82 



GREAT BASIN NATURALIST MEMOIRS 



No. 1 



the lowest elevations. A few individuals 
remain in the state in winter. 

Records: Allen (1872b: 171), Henshaw 
(1874:11), Ridgway (1877:369, 376, 610) and 
other early naturalists found the Spotted 
Sandpiper along all the streams and ponds 
they visited. In more recent years numer- 
ous collections and observations of both 
birds and eggs are on record. Nesting of 
diis species seems to be somewhat later 
than most of the local shorebirds since the 
majority of the records are for June and 
early July. 

Tringa solitaria Wilson 
Solitary Sandpiper 

Status: The Solitary Sandpiper is a 



casual summ.er resident especially in the 
Colorado River drainage area of the state 
where it may nest. Wauer (1969:331) con- 
sidered it to be a regular migrant in die St. 
George Basin, Washington County, where 
it was seen from 8 April to 4 May and from 
4 August to 12 September. 

Records: Early naturalists who visited 
the state recorded sightings of this Sand- 
piper in several areas (Allen 1872b: 171; 
Nelson 1875:345; Henshaw 1875:459; Ridg- 
way 1877:376, 610). In more recent years 
the following collections have been made: 
Bear River Marshes, Box Elder County, 29 
August 1914 (Wetmore); Utah Lake, Utah 
County, 10 September 1927 (Cottam); Ben- 
son, Cache County, 28 April 1937 (Utah 




Fig. 26. Mourning Dove. Tremontou, Box Eldt-i Cotintv, L tali, )() |i,i,. 1;J, ,. I'liDto by R. J. Er 



1976 



BIRDS OF UTAH 



83 



State University collection) (Stanford 1938: 
137); near Mexican Hat, San Juan County, 
9 July 1937 (University of Utah); near Jen- 
sen, Uintah County, 22 July 1937 (Brigham 
Young University); 2 miles south of Jensen, 
summer 1937 (Twomey 1942:392); Zion 
Canyon, Washington County, 3 May 1942 
(Grater); Springdale Ponds, Washington 
County, 29 April 1965 and 8 May 1965 
(Wauer and Carter 1965:51). Evidence of 
nesting of this species in Utah seems to be 
based on our knowledge that the birds are 
consistent summer residents in small num- 
bers. To our knowledge, no nests have 
actually been found. However, Behle and 
Selander (1952:26-27) reported a pair col- 
lected at Ibapah, Tooele County, 15 July 



1950, one of which had testes 12 mm long. 
This pair was near an irrigation ditch and 
would not leave the area. Behle and Selan- 
der inferred that tlie birds were breeding. 
Porter and Bushman (1957:204) indicated 
that the testes measurement was in error 
and that the testes were 2 mm long, which 
would eliminate the likelihood that the 
birds were breeding. They also reported 
the collection of six more specimens in 
Skull Valley, Tooele County, 9, 12(2), 17, 
and 31 August and 13 September 1954. 

Subspecies: Woodbury et al. (1949:13) 
stated that die form T. s. cinnamomea is a 
casual summer resident breeding in Uintah 
and Kane counties. Behle and Selander 
(1952:26-27) reported that die Kane County 




Fig. 27. Barn Owl. Ogden, Weber County, Utiih, 8 August 1973. Photo by R. J. Ervvin. 



84 



GREAT BASIN NATURALIST MEMOIRS 



No. 1 



specimens (University of Utah nos. 2635 
and 2636) were "Spotted Sandpipers {Acti- 
tis macularia)" in winter plumage and so 
were misidentified. These authors also 
commented on several other specimens 
taken in Utah. The specimen collected at 



Ibapah, mentioned above, and those re- 
ported by Twomey (1942:392) are referred 
to the race T. s. solitaria on the basis of 
Conover's (1944:537-544) discussion of the 
races of the Solitary Sandpiper; a specimen 
collected at Mexican Hat, 9 July 1937, and 




Fig. 28. Barn Owl. Ogden, Weber County, Utiih, 8 August 1973. Photo by R. J. Erwin. 



1976 



BIRDS OF UTAH 



85 



another in the University of Utah collection 
obtained at Farmington Bay, Davis County, 
10 May 1950, are also of the race T. s. soli- 
taria. Porter and Bushman (1957:203-206) 
carefully summarized tlie characteristics 
of the specimens from Mexican Hat, Ibapah, 



Fannington Bay, and the six obtained in 
Skull Valley using Conover's (1944:537-549) 
diagnostic characters of races. Their 
analysis indicated that all the specimens 
were of the race cinnamomea except one 
collected at Skull Valley, 12 August 1954, 







Fig. 29. Long-eared Owl. Promontory, Box Elder County, Utah, 30 June 1969. Photo by R. J. Erwin. 



86 



GREAT BASIN NATURALIST MEMOIRS 



No. 1 




I 



Fig. 30. Long-fartd Owl (young). Hogiip Mountains, Box Elder County, Utah, 25 June 1974. Photo 
by R. J. Erwin. 



1976 



BIRDS OF UTAH 



87 






■■'*- ■ f ■ 



Fig. 31. Burrowing Owl. Ogden, Weber County, Utah, 8 August 1973. Photo by R. J. Erwin. 

which was of the race solitaria. Wauer fairly common migrant tlirough Utah main- 
(1969:331) obtained a male at Washington, ly in April, May, and again in late July 
Washington County, 22 April 1966, which through September. There are some fall 



also represents the race cinnamomea. 

Tringa melanoleuca (Gmelin) 
Greater Yellowlegs 

Status: The Greater Yellowlegs is a 



records for October and November, and 
Cottam et al. (1942:53) have published a 
record for 10 December 1941. 

Records: Allen (1872b: 171) considered 
it to be abundant around Ogden during 



GREAT BASIN NATURALIST MEMOIRS 



No. 1 



( 




Fig. 32. Short-eared Owl. Dugway, Tooele County, Utah, 23 March 1953. Photo by R. D. Porter. 



September 1871. Earlier naturalists had 
missed it. Henshaw (1875:458) and Yarrow 
found it to be abundant at practically all 
ponds and lakes of the state they visited. 
They collected specimens near Utah Lake, 
Utah County, 26 July 1872, and at Deep 
Creek, Washington County, 12 August 1872. 



Numerous collections and sight records are 
available in more recent years. One rec- 
ord of special interest is a specimen in the 
Brigham Young University collection taken 
at Kigalia Ranger Station, Elk Ridge, San 
Juan County, at 8,402 feet elevation, 24 
June 1927, by Cottam. This specimen was 



1976 



BIRDS OF UTAH 




Fig. 33. Saw-whet Owl. 
and R. J. Erwin. 



Weber River bottoms, Weber County, Utah, 1948. Photo by R. D. Porter 



a male in full breeding plumage witli great- 
ly enlarged gonads. It has been reported 
in migration in southern Utah by Hardy 
and Higgins (1940:99) and Behle et al. 
(1958:49). 



Tringaflavipes (Gmelin) 
Lesser Yellowlegs 

Status: The Lesser Yellowlegs is a com- 
on migrant dirough Utah, especially from 



90 



GREAT BASIN NATURALIST MEMOIRS 



No. 1 




Fig. 34. Saw-whet Owl (young) 
R. D. Porter. 



Weber River bottoms, Weber County, Utah, April 1948. Photo by 



mid-March to early May and again in late 
summer and fall from mid-July to mid- 
September. A few stragglers may occur 
in northern Utah in October and as late as 
December (Kashin 1968:.361). 

Records: Allen (1872b:171) and Hen- 
shaw (1874:11) considered this species to 
be uncommon in the state and apparently 
collected no specimens. Judging from the 
numerous collections and observations 
made by more recent ornithologists, it is 
probably more common in migration than 
the Greater Yellowlegs. In migration it 
passes through southern Utah where Tan- 
ner (1941:86) saw a flock of 20 in a small 
pond southwest of Hurricane, Washington 
County, 6 May 1941. Behle et al. (1958:49) 
collected one near Kanab, Kane County, 15 
April 1947. Wauer and Russell (1967:421) 
reported a specimen collected at Springdale, 
Washington County, 29 April 1965, and 



anotlier near St. George, Washington 
County, 7 September 1965. 

Catoptrophorus semipalmatus 

inornatus (Brewster) 

Willet 

Status: The Willet is a common shore- 
bird in Utah from late March to early Oc- 
tober, occurring rarely in winter. It in- 
habits the lowlands in grassy situations 
near the borders of streams and lakes 
especially in the more central and northern 
counties, but it appears in southern Utah 
during migration. 

Records: The earliest collection was 
made by the Stansbuiy party near Salt Lake 
City in 'the spring of 1850 (Baird 1852:320). 
Ridgway (1877:609) found it to be an 
abundant breeder in Salt Lake Valley 
from 2 May to 21 June 1869. Numerous col- 



1976 



BIRDS OF UTAH 



91 



lections of both birds and nests have been 
made more recently. In over 40 years of 
observation in Utah County I (Hayward) 
have not noted any marked decrease in the 
numbers of diis species around Utah Lake. 

Calidris canutus rufa (Wilson) 
Red Knot 

Status: An erratic migrant through the 
state. During some years flocks numbering 
1,500 have been observed (Woodbury et al. 
1949:14). 



Records: The University of Utah has a 
specimen collected at Bear River Marshes, 
Box Elder County, in May 1933. There are 
several observations of this species around 
Great Salt Lake. Two were seen at Farm- 
ington Bay, Davis County, 8 May 1954 
(Scott 1954:322-323). Wauer and Russell 
(1967:421) obtained a specimen three miles 
southeast of St. George, Washington Coun- 
ty, 12 September 1965. It was feeding with 
Killdeer and Least and Western Sandpipers 
in a flooded field. One was observed at 
Utah Lake, Utah County, 11 May 1968 









Wr^ 



<•,■• 



.-j.^i... iu^^::;i,.L^^ 



-^jt--^ - 



Fig. 35. Horned Lark. Hogup Mountains, Box Elder County, Utah, 11 June 1972. Photo by R. J. 
Erwin. 



92 



GREAT BASIN NATURALIST MEMOIRS 



No. 1 




Fig. 36. Willow Flycatche 
Porter and R. J. Erwin. 



Blacksmith Fork, Cache County, Utah, 18 July 1954. Photo by R. D. 



(Scott 1968:,561). Behle and Peny (1975: 
19) reported a flock of 40 at Bear River 
Migratory Bird Refuge, Box Elder County, 
10 May 1973, and Kingery (1975:887) listed 
one for Logan, Cache County, 5 May 1975. 

Calidris melanotos (Vieillot) 
Pectoral Sandpiper 

Status: This species is an uncommon 
spring and fall migrant through Utah. 
Most of the records are from late March 
through May and from late June into Oc- 
tober. 

Records: Two specimens in the U.S. 
National Museum of Natural Histoiy were 
taken at Bear River Marshes, Box Elder 
County, 18 and 22 September 1914. In the 
same area two were found dead of botulism 



on 28 August and 17 September 1929 by 
Hull. Wetmore (field notes) found the Pec- 
toral Sandpiper to be common at Bear 
River Marshes in September and tlie first 
half of October 1916, and C. S. Williams 
noted the first arrivals in the same area on 
21 March 1938. There is a sight record 
from near Salt Lake City, Salt Lake County, 
12 August 1950 (Wilson and Norr 1951:32). 
Two males were collected by Wauer (1969: 
331) at Washington, Washington County, 
10 September 1965. Kingery (1975:887) re- 
ported a sight record in southern Utah on 
9 May 1975. 

Calidris hairdii (Coues) 
Baird's Sandpiper 

Status: A seasonal migrant dirough 



1976 



BIRDS OF UTAH 



93 



Utah. From the available infonnation, it 
would seem to be present April through 
June and in August and September. 

Records: This species was taken by Wet- 
more at Bear River Marshes, 5 September 
1914 and 11, 19, 23 August 1915. The speci- 
mens are in the U.S. National Museum of 
Natural History. Other specimens col- 
lected in tlie same locality were taken 2 
April 1933 (University of Utah), 6 August 
1938 (Trowbridge), and 27 June 1941 (Cot- 
tam). Twomey (1942:393) obsei^ved "small 
scattered flocks of from tliree to ten birds 
during early May and September." They 
were seen by him on 4 May 1937 along the 
Green River, Uintah County, and in Sep- 
tember 1937 at Strawberiy Resei-voir, 
Wasatch County, and at the Ashley Creek 
marshes, Uintah County, in company with 
Least and Semipalmated Sandpipers. Wil- 
son and Norr (1951:32) reported seeing 
3,000 at Bear River, Box Elder County, 16 
September 1950. Two specimens were 
taken at Pelican Lake, Uintah County, 23 
September 1961 (Brigham Young Univer- 
sity). Wauer and Russell (1967:421) col- 
lected "an extremely fat (weight, 66.6 g) fe- 
male of this species" near St. George, Wash- 
ington County, 15 September 1965. 

Calidris minutUla (Vieillot) 
Least Sandpiper 

Status: An abundant migrant in Utah, 
where it often appears on mud flats or 
around the borders of lakes and ponds in 
large flocks. It is more common in April- 
May and August-September but has been 
recorded for every month of the year. 
Small numbers winter in the state where 
warm springs keep the water open. 

Records: Ridgway (1877:369, 376, 608) 
found it near the shores of the Great Salt 
Lake and elsewhere in the summer of 1869. 
Allen (1872b:171) thought it to be uncom- 
mon around Great Salt Lake in the fall of 
1871. Henshaw (1875:455) collected one 
at Utah Lake, Utah County, 26 July 1872. 
The Brigham Young University collection 
contains some 25 speciments from Utah and 



southern Nevada. Specimens in the Brig- 
ham Young University collection were taken 
near Utah Lake on 3 and 24 December 
1927 and 28 December 1960. Tanner (1927: 
199) in his report on the birds of the Virgin 
River Valley in southwestern Utah stated, 
"Two specimens were taken in September, 
1926, by Mr. Cottam." Cottam collected 
specimens in September, December, and 
January at St. George, Washington County 
(Hardy and Higgins 1940:99). 

Calidris alpina pacifica (Coues) 
Dunlin 

Status: A casual but regular migrant 
through Utah, known mainly in Salt Lake 
and Utah Lake valleys and from the Uinta 
Basin. It is known to occur in the area from 
mid- April through May and again from mid- 
August to December. 

Records: The only one of the early natu- 
ralists to record the Dunlin in Utah was 
Allen (1872b: 171), who found it common in 
Salt Lake Valley in September 1871. Speci- 
mens in the U.S. National Museum of 
Natural Histoiy were taken at Bear River 
Marshes, Box Elder County, 20 and 26 May 
1916 and again 26 May 1932. Twomey 
(1942:393) mentioned a sight record by A. 
C. Lloyd in die Uinta Basin, 1 May 1935. 
Behle and Selander (1952:27) referred to 
specimens taken at the mouth of Bear River, 
Box Elder County, 26 May 1932, and Faim- 
ington Bay Refuge, Davis County, 10 May 
1950. Wauer (1969:331-332) collected one 
of two specimens seen at the confluence of 
Santa Clara Creek and the Virgin River, 
Washington County, 28 December 1965. 
Hayward and Frost (field notes) found a 
small flock of about a dozen birds at Pelican 
Lake, Uintah County, 13 May 1966. A 
single female was seen and collected at 
Lincoln Beach, Utah County, 18 April 1970 
(Brigham Young University). 

Calidris pusilla (Linnaeus) 
Semipalmated Sandpiper 

Status: An uncommon migrant through 



94 



GREAT BASIN NATURALIST MEMOIRS 



No. 1 




Fig. 37. Tree Swallow. Blacksmith Fork, Cache County, Utah, 17 July 1954. Photo by R. D. Porter 
and R. J. Erwin. 



Utah, usually associated with Least and Utah, but apparently few specimens were 

Western Sandpipers. taken. Henshaw (1875:454-455) took one 

Records: Early naturalists in Utah men- specimen at Sevier Lake, Millard County, 

tioned the occurrence of this sandpiper in in September 1872. Large flocks at the 



1976 



BIRDS OF UTAH 



95 



shore of Great Salt Lake noted by Nelson 
(1875:348) may have been mostly Western 
Sandpipers. One was collected near Nephi, 
Juab County, 13 June 1936 (Ross Hardy 
collection). Twomey (1942:394) reported 
three specimens of C. pusilla taken by him 
near Jensen, Uintah County, in 1937. On 
this basis he considered it to be the most 
numerous of the sandpipers migrating 
through the area. He later reported, how- 
ever, that these specimens had been mis- 
identified and were actually C. mauri 
(Twomey 1944b :90). Two specimens were 
collected by Wauer and Russell (1967:421) 
southeast of St. George, Washington Coun- 
ty, 7 September 1965. 

Calidris mauri (Cabanis) 
Western Sandpiper 

Status: An abundant migrant through 
the central valleys of Utah but also through 
the Uinta Basin of eastern Utah (Twomey 
1944:90). Most of the migration occurs 
from mid-March to mid-May and from late 
July through October. 

Records: Shorebirds of tlie group often 
called "peeps" were noted by early natural- 
ists, but few specimens were collected. The 
two closely related species C. pusilla and 
C. mauri were apparently often confused. 
Based on collections and observations in 
more recent years and up to the present, 
the Western Sandpiper is by far the more 
common of the two. Numerous collections 
and obsewations have been made (Hardy 
and Higgins 1940:99; Tanner 1941:86; Behle 
et al. 1958:50; Wauer and Russell 1967: 
421). 

Calidris alba (Pallas) 
Sanderling 

Status: The Sanderling is a regular 
though not common migrant dirough Utah 
in both spring and fall. It appears most 
commonly about the middle of May but 
may be found as early as mid-April. It is 
less common in the fall, although there are 



records as early as 3 August and as late as 
13 October. 

Records: This species seems not to have 
been noted by early naturalists in the state. 
The U.S. National Museum of Natural His- 
tory has specimens from the Bear River 
Marshes, Box Elder County, 20 May 1916. 
Others have been taken in that some local- 
ity on 26 May and 17 September 1932. The 
University of Utah has specimens from Egg 
Island, Great Salt Lake, 18 May 1932 and 
21 April 1940, and from Utah Lake, Utah 
County, 26 May 1932 (Behle 1942b:231). 
Twomey (1942:394) reported a female col- 
lected by A. C. Lloyd at Ashley Creek 
marshes, Uintah County, 21 May 1935, and 
another specimen obtained soudi of Jen- 
sen, Uintah County, summer 1937. Brig- 
ham Young University collection has speci- 
mens taken at Utah Lake, 8 October 1927, 
and eight specimens from Pelican Lake, 
Uintah County, 13 May 1961, 23 September 
1961, 13 May 1966, 12 May 1970. Behle 
et al. (1964:452) reported a specimen from 
Dugway, Tooele County, 29 April 1961. 

Micropalama himantopus (Bonaparte) 
Stilt Sandpiper 

Status: A rare or perhaps accidental 
migrant through Utah. 

Records: A mounted male specimen 
from the old Deseret Museum now at Brig- 
ham Young University is labeled "Utah, 
April 1893." The label is written on the 
bottom of the stand on which the specimen 
is mounted. The bird is in inteiTnediate 
plumage betsveen winter and breeding. 
The specimen reported by Woodbury et al. 
(1949:14) from Moab, Grand County, proved 
on closer examination to be a Long-billed 
Dowitcher (Behle and Selander 1952:28). 
Woodbuiy et al. (1949) also recorded a 
sight record of several birds at Bear River 
Marshes, 26 July 1932. To our knowledge, 
there have been no collections of this 
species in the state in recent years. Wauer 
(Snider 1965:502) sighted a Stilt Sandpiper 
near Washington, Washington County, 15 



96 



GREAT BASIN NATURALIST MEMOIRS 



No. 1 



May 1965. Kashin (Scott 1969:87) reported 
one at FaiTnington Bay, Davis County, 5 
September 1968. 

Limnodromus griseus hendersoni Rowan 
Short-billed Dowitcher 

Status: An uncommon but probably 
regular migrant through tlie state. Positive 
records are few, but there is evidence that 
birds appear in bodi spring and fall. 

Records: Pitelka in his revision of the 
genus Limnodromus (1950:48) recorded an 
adult male taken at the mouth of Bear 
River, Box Elder County, 20 May 1915. 
Behle and Selander (1952:27) listed a female 
from the Bear River Migratoiy Bird Refuge, 
Box Elder County, 17 August 1946 (Uni- 
versity of Utah). A series of specimens in 
the Brigham Young University collection 
all appear to be the common Long-billed 
Dowitcher. This includes two specimens 
foiTnerly identified as L. griseus (Johnson 
1935a:160). 

Limnodromus scolopaceus (Say) 
Long-billed Dowitcher 

Status: The Long-billed Dowitcher is 
abundant during migration, especially 
through the central valleys of the state. It 
often appears in large flocks of hundreds. 
It is known for every month of the year 
except January and February, but is most 
abundant in May and August-September. 

Records: Allen (1872b:171) found this 
species to be abundant near Ogden, Weber 
County, in September 1871, and Henshaw 
(1875:453) regarded it as an abundant mi- 
grant in Utah. Yarrow and Henshaw (Hen- 
shaw 1875:453) collected a juvenile female 
at Rush Lake, Iron County, 1 October 1872. 
Numerous collections and obsewations 
have been made in recent years in various 
localities in the state, including St. George, 
Washington County, 4 May 1935 (Hardy 
and Higgins 1940:99, errata) and Kanab, 
Kane County, 1 May 1946 (Behle et al. 
1958:49). The Brigham Young University 



collection contains some 30 specimens, 
mostly from Utah Lake Valley, Utah 
County, and Pelican Lake, Uintah County. 
Dates range from 26 March to 23 Septem- 
ber. Twomey (1942:393) collected 3 speci- 
mens east of Vernal, Uintah County, in May 
1937, and Cottam et al. (1942:53) reported 
one seen at Bear River Marshes, Box Elder 
County, 12 December 1941. 

Limosafedoa (Linnaeus) 
Marbled Godwit 

Status: The Marbled Godwit is a com- 
mon migrant dirough Utah, especially in 
the central valleys of Great Salt Lake and 
Utah Lake. Lesser numbers pass through 
the Uinta Basin. Most of the migration 
occurs in late April through May and from 
July to September, aldiough stragglers may 
remain as late at 16 December (Cottam et 
al. 1942:53). 

Records: Many specimens were taken 
by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service in the 
Bear River Marshes, Box Elder County, 
from 1914 to 1916. Two specimens, Utah 
Lake, Utah County, 26 April 1929 and 12 
May 1932, are in the Brigham Young Uni- 
versity collecton. Twomey (1942:394) col- 
lected a specimen 12 miles east of Vernal, 
Uintah County, 6 May 1937. One specimen 
was taken at Lower Reservoir, 3 miles 
south of Kanab, Kane County, 15 April 
1947 (Behle et al. 1958:50). 

Family Recurvirostridae 

Recurvirostra americana Gmelin 

American Avocet 

Fig. 25, p. 79 

Status: This was formerly a common 
summer resident and breeding species on 
the mud flats and around the borders of 
lakes and ponds, especially near the Great 
Salt Lake and Utah Lake. It is still present 
in considerable numbers on the Bear River 
Migratoiy Bird Refuge, Box Elder County, 
and other sanctuaries where it has received 



1976 



BIRDS OF UTAH 



97 




Fig. 38. Cliffs 



West Weber, Weber County, Utiih, 15 July 1954. Photo by R. J. Er 



a measure of protection from disturbance 
during the nesting season. In recent years 
it has become more common around some 
of the reservoirs in the Uinta Basin where 



it regularly breeds. Occasionally a few may 
winter in the state (Kashin 1966:351, six seen 
on 2 Januaiy 1966 in the Salt Lake area.) 
Records: All of the early naturalists 



GREAT BASIN NATURALIST MEMOIRS 



No. 1 



(Baird 1852:320; Remy 1860[2]:450; Allen 
1872b:171; Merriam 1873:701; Nelson 1875: 
348; Henshaw 1875:448-450; Ridgway 
1877:369, 605) found the American Avocet 
to be abundant around Great Salt Lake and 
Utah Lake, Utah County. Collections with- 
in the State as well as in most of the Ameri- 
can museums and some foreign museums 
contain numerous specimens of both birds 
and eggs from Utah. In migration it has 
been observed and collected in southern 
Utah at Hurricane, Washington County, 6 
May 1941 (Tanner 1941:86), and near 
Kanab, Kane County, 5 May 1931, 28 April 
1935, 17-18 May 1946, 15 April 1947, 20 
and 24 May 1947 (Behle et al. 1958:50). 

Himantopus mexicanus mexicanus (Miiller) 
Black-necked Stilt 
Figs. 20, 21; pp. 67, 70 

Status: The Black-necked Stilt was for- 
merly a common summer resident breed- 
ing along open shores of lakes and ponds, 
especially in the central valleys of Utah. 
Disturbances by man have caused it to be 
less common at present and somewhat less 
abundant than the American Avocet. It 
has become well established as a breeding 
species in the Uinta Basin and maintains 
itself rather well at the Bear River Migra- 
tory Bird Refuge, Box Elder County, and 
at other wildlife sanctuaries in the state. It 
has been recorded from early March to 
late November. 

Records: Allen (1872b:171), Merriam 
(1873:702, 711), Henshaw (1874:12), and 
Ridgway (1877:369-606) all reported the 
stilt as a common breeding species, espe- 
cially in Salt Lake and Utah Lake valleys. 
Many collections and observations have 
been made in recent years. Migrants have 
been observed near Hurricane, Washington 
County (Tanner 1941:86), near Boulder, 
Garfield County, and south of Kanab, Kane 
County (Behle et al. 1958:50). 



Family Phalaropodidae 

Phalaropus fulicarius (Linnaeus) 
Red Phalarope 

Status: A rare, accidental migrant 
through Utah. 

Records: Two specimens now in the 
Dixie College collection were collected on 
the Virgin River near St. George, Washing- 
ton County, 14 and 15 October 1934 (Hay- 
ward 1937:304). A partially paralyzed Red 
Phalarope was picked up by botulism work- 
ers at Bear River Migratory Bird Refuge, 
Box Elder County, in September 1951. The 
specimen is now in the U.S. National Mu- 
seum of Natural History (Sciple 1953:205). 
Kingery reported (Snider 1965:65) seeing 
a Red Phalarope on Wahweap Creek, Kane 
County, 10 September 1964. 

Phalaropus ^^ tricolor (Vieillot) 

Wilson's Phalarope 

Fig. 22, p. 73 

Status: A common summer resident in 
suitable habitats throughout the state 
where it breeds in grass or sedge habitats 
near water. It has been recorded from late 
March to mid-September. Often abundant 
in migration in July and August, when on 
stormy nights it may be seen in tliousands 
milling around city lights. 

Records: Ridgway (1877:;369, 604) found 
it on alkaline ponds around the southern 
shore of Great Salt Lake in May and June 
1869. Allen (1872b: 171) found it abundant 
near Ogden, Weber County, and Great 
Salt Lake in the early fall of 1871. It was 
also reported in the same area by Merriam 
(1873:701) and by Yarrow (Henshaw 1875: 
451). The species seems to maintain itself 
rather well even under the pressure of ex- 
panding human population. Numerous col- 
lections and obsei^vations have been made 
in recent years. 



*iWe follow Mayr and Short (1970:47) and other authors cited by them in considering the three 
species of phalaropes to be congeneric. 



1976 



BIRDS OF UTAH 



99 



Phalaropus lohatus (Linnaeus) 
Northern Phalarope 

Status: A common and abundant mi- 
grant through Utah in spring and kite sum- 
mer. The peak of spring migration occurs 
about mid-May and the summer flight in 
August. 

Records: Many hundreds of observations 
and collections have been recorded, mostly 
from the central Utah valleys of Great 
Salt Lake and Utah Lake. However, it has 
also been recorded from southern Utah. 
Greenhalgh observed Northern Phalaropes 
at Kanab, Kane County, 9-10, 12 May 1931 
(Behle et al. 1958:50); Hardy and Higgins 
(1940:99) reported it at St. George, Wash- 
ington County, 3 September 1939; and it 
has also been reported from the northwest 
portion of Utah, near Yost, Box Elder Coun- 
ty, 7 September 1932 (Behle 1958:18). In 
recent years there has also been a heavy 
flight through the Uinta Basin. Hayward 
and Frost (field notes) obsei"ved thousands 
of Northern Phalaropes on 15 May 1970 at 
Pelican Lake, Uintah County. Large rest- 
less flocks were swimming in the open water 
or wading in the small pools adjacent to the 
lake. They appeared to be feeding on the 
abundant midges on the water surface. 
Approximately three weeks later, 3 June 
1970, not one Northern Phalarope was ob- 
served (Frost field notes). 

Family Stercorariidae 

Stercorarius parasiticus (Linnaeus) 
Parasitic Jaeger 

Status: A rare migrant or accidental, 
having been obsei-ved in spring, summer, 
and fall. 

Records: A male victim of botulism was 
taken at the Bear River Migratory Bird 
Reflige, Box Elder County, 2 September 
1932, and another specimen (University of 
Utah) was collected in the same area by 
Hull on 8 October 1934. Several sight rec- 
ords by personnel of tlie Bear River Migra- 



toiy Bird Refuge are known for 21, 25 
August 1934, September 1941, and Septem- 
ber 1942 (Woodbuiy et al. 1949:15). King- 
eiy (1972:884) reported two seen at Bear 
River Migratoiy Bird Refuge, Box Elder 
County, during the spring and summer of 
1972. 

Stercorarius longicaudus Vieillot 
Long-tailed Jaeger 

Status: A rare migrant or accidental 
known to occur in Utah in August and Oc- 
tober. 

Records: A specimen now in the U.S. 
National Museum of Natural Histoiy was 
found dead at Bear River Migratoiy Bird 
Refuge, Box Elder County, 29 August 1944, 
by C. C. Speny (Cottam'l945b:173). A. K. 
Fisher (1937:389-390) observed one at close 
range in the same locality on 3 October 
1926. 

Family Laridae 

Larus hijperboreus hyperboreus Gunnerus 
Glaucous Gull 

Status: This gull is usually considered 
to be an accidental visitor to the state, and 
most of the records are sight records. 

Records: Two birds were obsei"ved at 
the mouth of Provo River and Utah Lake, 
Utah County, from 22 Februaiy to 15 April 
1934, and one (Brigham Young University) 
was finally collected (Johnson 1935a:160). 
One was collected at Bear River Migratory 
Bird Refuge, Box Elder County, 16 March 
1955, by Vanez Wilson (Wilson and Young 
1956:390). This specimen is now in the 
refuge collection. One was seen in west 
central Utah by Lockerbie during tlie win- 
ter of 1948 49 (Van den Akker 1949:179). 
Worthen (1968:475) mentioned a bird re- 
cently collected at Farmington Bay, Davis 
County. The Audubon Field Notes for 
1963, 1964, 1965 (Scott 1963:347, 442; 1964: 
376; 1965:405) reported a number of sight 
records for Farmington Bay and Bear River 



100 



GREAT BASIN NATURALIST MEMOIRS 



No. 1 




Fig. 39. Loggerhead Shrike. Dugway Valley, Tooele County, Utah, May 1953. Photo by R. D 
Porter and R. J. Erwin. 



Marshes. All of the records available to us 
are for February, March, and April, except 
a report from Bear River for 17 December 
1973 (Beall 1974:487). 

Larus argentatus smithsonianus Coues 
Herring Gull 

Status: The Herring Gull is probably a 
regular transient in Utah where it has been 
reported in the spring, fall, and winter. 

Records: The first observation of tliis 
species in Utah was Nelson (1875:348), 
who reported, "I saw a large gull at the 
mouth of the Jordan which I am quite sure 
was this species." The first collection rec- 
ord is that in June 1915 by Wetmore, who 
found the remains of a specimen that had 
died the previous winter or spring (Williams 
et al. 1943:160). Marshall (1937:258) also 
reported a partially decayed carcass found 
at Bear River Migratory Bird Refuge, Box 
Elder County, 27 April 1937. Between 27 
April and November another specimen was 
found, according to Marshall. This pos- 



sibly could be the mounted skin on display 
at Bear River Migratoiy Bird Refiige Head- 
quarters that was obtained 7 October 1937. 
Stanford (1938:139) recorded a bird ob- 
tained at Bear River Migratory Bird Refuge, 
25 November 1937, now in the Utah State 
University collection. Behle ( 1942b :230) 
obtained a specimen from Bear River Mi- 
gratory Bird Refuge diat was collected in 
late September or early October 1939. Cot- 
tam et al. (1942:53) reported seeing a Her- 
ring Gull at Bear River Migratory Bird 
Refuge in September and again 16, 27, 28 
December 1941. A specimen obtained by 
Beck (1942:54) at Utah Lake, Utah County, 
27 FebRiary 1942, and later verified by 
Cottam, has unfortunately been lost. The 
remains of one bird were found by Behle 
( 1942b :230-231) on Egg Island, Great Salt 
Lake, 8 May 1942. On the following day he 
obsei-ved one at Bear River Migratoiy Bird 
Refuge. During the winter of 19.56 57 
Lockerbie reported four birds wintering at 
Fannington Bay, Davis County (Scott 
1957:284). Another winter report is that of 



1976 



BIRDS OF UTAH 



101 



Kashin (1966:351) for the Salt Lake area 
in late December 1965 and early January 
1966. Wauer (Scott 1965:405) reported 
sighting a Herring Gull at Springdale, 
Washington County, 14 Februaiy 1965. 

Lams californicus Lawrence 
California Gull 

Status: This is an abundant summer 
resident of Great Salt Lake and Utah Lake 
valleys where it nests in large colonies on 
islands and dikes. Small numbers occur 
elsewhere in the state as nonbreeders or 
migrants. Banding records indicate tliat 
young birds hatched in Utah migrate to 
the West Coast where they remain for two 
or three years until they are ready to breed. 

Records: Early records of the California 
Gull in Utah are somewhat indefinite. Fre- 
mont (1845:158) related tliat his party on 
their visit to Great Salt Lake on 12 Septem- 
ber 1843 had a supper of "sea gulls." Stans- 
bury (1852:188) and Ridgway (1877:637) 
found them nesting commonly on the islands 
of Great Salt Lake in 1850 and 1869. Allen, 
Nelson, Merriam, and Henshaw did not 
mention them in their writings. It has been 
generally assumed that the "sea gulls" men- 
tioned by die Mormons as saviors of die 
crops of 1848 and 1849 from the ravages of 
crickets (Anabnis simplex) were most likely 
California Gulls. In more recent years 
many hundreds of records and observations 
of birds and their nesting activities have 
been made. 

Larus delawarensis Ord 
Ringed-billed Gull 

Status: A common winter resident in 
the central valleys of Utah. It is a regular 
though less common resident in summer. 
Some evidence indicates that it nests in 
small numbers. 

Records: A specimen of diis species in 
the U.S. National Museum of Natural His- 
tory was taken by Stansbuiy in Utah in 1850 
(Ahen 1872b:173). Henshaw (1875:485) re- 



corded a female taken at Provo, Utah 
County, 30 November 1872. Nelson (1875: 
349) and Henshaw (1875:485) found it com- 
mon around the larger bodies of water in 
the state but did not find the California 
Gull. There may have been some confusion 
in identification of the two species by these 
early naturalists. Twomey (1942:396) re- 
ported that Ring-billed Gulls nested in 
small numbers near Jensen, Uintah County, 
but this was based on hearsay and was not 
verified by Twomey. Hayward (field notes) 
has found this species to be a common 
summer resident at Pelican Lake, Uintah 
County. It is far more common there than 
the California Gull. However, we have 
found no evidence of nesting. It has been 
found in the following localities in soutliern 
Utah: along the Virgin River, near St. 
George, Washington County, 23 April 1940 
(Hardy and Higgins 1940:99), and along 
the Colorado River, near die mouth of 
Last Chance Creek, river mile 49, Kane 
County, 16 April 1947 (Behle 1948b:306). 

Larus pipixcan Wagler 
Franklin's Gull 

Status: A common summer resident in 
Utah where it breeds in marshy areas 
around the Bear River Migratory Bird 
Refuge, Box Elder County, and possibly 
other areas. It has been recorded in the 
state from 2 April to 22 October. 

Records: None of the early naturalists 
to visit the state identified Franklin's Gull; 
and it has been claimed by some that this 
species, which is the common gull east- 
ward in the prairie country, has but recent- 
ly moved westward. Goodwin (1904a:99) 
wrote that he was not able to find the bird 
in the state up to 1904. Wetmore (1916) 
found them rather common at Bear River 
Marshes in 1916 and apparently was first to 
discover a nesting colony there. Since diat 
time, they appear to have increased greatly 
in the Bear River Migratory Bird Refuge 
area. Box Elder County. Twomey (1942: 
396) reported this species in the Uinta Basin 



102 



GREAT BASIN NATURALIST MEMOIRS 



No. 1 



on 10 May 1937. In recent years they have 
increased in that area (Hay ward 1967:31). 
The Brigham Young University collection 
has four specimens taken at Pelican Lake, 
Uintah County, 22 July 1961, 2 June 1964, 
and 15 May 1966. Our observations indi- 
cated that Franklin's Gull is spotty in its 
distribution in the state. Areas of concen- 
tration seem to be the Bear River Migratory 
Bird Refuge and the Uinta Basin. It is 
rarely seen in Utah Valley around Utah 
Lake. This irregular distribution of the 
species may account for the fact that it was 
missed by early observers in the state. This 
species has been found in southern Utah at 
several different localities. One specimen 
from a flock of 20 was obtained on the Vir- 
gin River near St. George, Washington 
County, 23 April 1940 (Hardy and Higgins 
1940:99). Behle (1948b:306) collected one 
on the Colorado River, near the mouth of 
Ticaboo Canyon, river mile 148, Garfield 
County, 13 April 1947. A flock of 12 was 
seen at Lower Reservoir, three miles south 
of Kanab, Kane County, 15 April 1947 
(Behle et al. 1958:50). 

Lams Philadelphia (Ord) 
Bonaparte's Gull 

Status: An uncommon migrant and oc- 
casional winter resident in Utah. It is not 
known to breed within the state, but a few 
nonbreeding individuals may remain 
through the summer. 

Records: The only recording of Bona- 
parte's Gull by the early naturalist visitors 
was by Allen (1872b:173), who found a 
flock near Ogden, Weber County, about 2 
October 1871. Five immature specimens 
collected at the Bear River Marshes, Box 
Elder County, 22 May 1915 and 8 June 
1916, by Wetmore, are now in the U.S. Na- 
tional Museum of Natural Histoiy. Four 
specimens were collected by Cottam (Brig- 
ham Young University) at the Bear River 
Marshes on 13 November 1927 and 4 No- 
vember 1928. Two were taken at Utah 
Lake, Utah County, 15 May 1933, and one 



at the same locality on 21 October 1934 
(Brigham Young University). One was col- 
lected near Kanab, Kane County, 15 April 
1947 (University of Utah, Behle et al. 1958: 
51). Behle et al. (1964:452) reported a col- 
lection near Camel Mountain, Tooele ■ 
County, 25 April 1955. Hayward and Frost I 
(field notes) observed several with a flock 
of Franklin's Gulls at Pelican Lake, Uintah 
County, 15 May and 3 June 1970. There 
have been numerous other sight records. 

Rissa tridactyla tridactyla (Linnaeus) 

Black-legged Kittiwake J 

Status: A species of seemingly acciden- ^ 
tal occurrence in Utah. 

Records: A male specimen was found 
dead at Fish Springs National Wildlife 
Refuge, Juab County, 12 March 1972, by 
Jim Harrison, a trapper. It was sent to the 
University of Utah and placed in their col- 
lection (Behle 1973b:243). 

Xema sabini sabini (Sabine) 
Sabine's Gull 

Status: The few records would indicate 
that this gull is of accidental occurrence in 
Utah. 

Records: Allen (1872b: 173) took a single 
specimen, the only one seen, at West 
Weber, near Ogden, Weber County, 28 
September 1871. This specimen is now in 
the Museum of Comparative Zoology at 
Harvard. Behle (1949a:98) recorded a speci- 
men found by C. W. Lockerbie at Decker's 
Lake near Salt Lake City, Salt Lake County, 
26 September 1948. Five other birds were 
seen at the lake that day. There is also a 
sight record for Lockerbie (Scott 1954:33) 
of one near Salt Lake City, 8 October 1953. 
Kingery (1975:722) reported one observed 
at Vernal, Uintah County, for two weeks 
during March 1975. 

Sterna forsteri Nuttall 
Forster's Tern 

Status: A common summer resident of 
Utah, breeding mainly from 25 May to 20 
June in marshes around lakes and sloughs. 



1976 



BIRDS OF UTAH 



103 



It is more abundant in the northern and 
central valleys of die state but is also known 
to breed at Pelican Lake, Uintah County. 

Records: Ridgway (1873a:173; 1875:31; 
1877:369, 640) collected specimens and 
noted that it was an abundant breeder in 
Salt Lake \'alley from 20 Mav to 21 June 
1869. Henshaw (1874:13; 1875:486) col- 
lected specimens at Utah Lake in the sum- 
mer (24 July) and fall of 1872. Many records 
of birds and nesting have been reported 
since then. 

Sterna hirundo Linnaeus 
Common Tern 

Status: A migrant species through Utah, 
the Common Tern is usually considered to 
be rare, but it may be more common dian 
has been supposed. Because of its close 



resemblance to Forster's Tern and its ten- 
dency to flock with that species, the Com- 
mon Tern may be easily overlooked. 

Records: Stanford (1944:151) listed one 
collected at Gunnison Resewoir, Sanpete 
County, 7 June 1941. One in the U.S. Na- 
tional Museum of Natural History was 
found a victim of botulism at Bear River 
Migratoiy Bird Refuge, Box Elder County, 
14 September 1941. At this same time Wil- 
liams (1942:578) estimated that about one- 
fourth of the terns at the refuge were Com- 
mon Terns. Several additional sight rec- 
ords are available, including a single bird 
at Kanab, Kane County, 5 May 1931 (Behle 
et al. 1958:51); six at Famiington Bay, Davis 
County, 20 May 1963, obsei"ved by Kashin 
and Webb (Utah Audubon News 1963:38); 
and one at Provo, Utah County, 30 April 
1974 (Kingery 1974:833). 



y*"?^^ 




\^m 


^ 


Jmm 




w 


Z-:^^' ^,- ^ 


\ 




n^ 



Fig. 40. Rock Wren. 
Porter and R. J. Erwin. 



Big Bend National Park, Brewster County, Texas, May 1958. Photo by R. D. 



104 



GREAT BASIN NATURALIST MEMOIRS 



No. 1 



Sterna caspia Pallas 
Caspian Tern 

Status: An uncommon summer resident 
in Utah where it has bred at several locali- 
ties from time to time depending upon the 
amount of disturbance by man and by 
other birds. 

Records: Ridgway (1875:31; 1877:369, 
639) was the only one of the early natu- 
ralists to record this tern. He found it in the 
marshes near Salt Lake City, Salt Lake 
County, in June and July 1869. Wetmore 
took three specimens at Bear River, Box 
Elder County, in June and August 1916. 
Brigham Young University has two imma- 
ture specimens taken at St. George, Wash- 
ington County, 7 September 1926, and 
three others taken from Utah Lake, Utah 
County, in June 1927 and 1928. Various 
nesting sites of the Caspian Tern have been 
recorded, including Hat Island, Great Salt 
Lake, Rock Island, Utah Lake, Utah 
County (Hay ward 1935a: 140- 141), and on 
certain dikes at the Bear River Migratory 
Bird Refuge, Box Elder County. Cottam 
(1946:94-95) found downy young at Bear 
River as late as 18 September 1945. Some 
of the colonies have been harassed by the 
predatory California Gull, especially when 
the two were nesting together. At the pres- 
ent time there is a nesting colony on an 
artificial island at the Bear River Migra- 
tory Bird Refuge. Kingeiy (1975:95) re- 
ported four seen at Zion National Park, 
Washington County, 11 September 1974. 

Chlidonias niger surinamensis (Gmelin) 
Black Tern 
Fig. 23, p. 76 

Status: A common summer resident of 
Utah where it breeds in small colonies in 
the marshes around Great Salt Lake and 
Utah Lake, Utah County. In recent years 
it has probably nested at Pelican Lake, 
Uintah County, where it is a common sum- 
mer resident. 

Records: Henshaw (1875:487) found it 



at Utah Lake, Utah County, in July 1872, 
and Ridgway (1875:31) found evidence of 
its nesting in Salt Lake Valley. Numerous 
records of collections and observations of 
both birds and eggs have been recorded in 
more recent years. The Black Tern is now 
common in the Uinta Basin, especially at 
Pelican Lake. Birds are to be found there 
throughout the summer, with immature 
individuals being taken in late July (Hay- 
ward 1967:31-32). It has been reported 
north of Ibapah, Tooele County, 20 May 
1942 (Behle and Ross 1945:169), and near 
Kanab, Kane County, 1 May 1946, 20 and 
24 May 1947 (Behle et al. 1958:51). 

Family Alcidae 



SynthUboramphus antiquus (Gmelin) 
Ancient Murrelet 

Status: The Ancient Murrelet is a rare 
and accidental visitor in Utah and in some 
of the other intermountain states. 

Records: One specimen was taken on 
Jordan River, Utah County, 21 December 
1925, by John Hutchings and was prepared 
by him as a mounted specimen (Woodbury 
et al. 1949:16). A second specimen, a 
female, was obtained 12 November 1955 at 
Roosevelt, Duchesne County, by Merlin L. 
Killpack (Killpack and Hay ward 1958:23). 
The bird was found on the ground in an 
exhausted state. This specimen is now in 
the collection at Brigham Young University. 
Verbeek (1966:510) reported a specimen 
found dead at Logan, Cache County, 24 
November 1962. A carcass about two days 
old was found on Gunnison Island, Great 
Salt Lake, Box Elder County, 6 May 1974 
(Kingeiy 1975:95). 

Family Columbidae 

Culumba fasciata fasciata Say 
Band-tailed Pigeon 

Status: An uncommon resident in the 
mountains of southern Utah at mid-eleva- 



1976 



BIRDS OF UTAH 



105 



tions, especially in pinyon-juniper and yel- 
low pine forests. Less common in the Uinta 
Basin of northeastern Utah and in recent 
years reported along the Wasatch front. 

Records: Sight records of this species, 
usually seen in small flocks, are numerous 
(Presnell 1935a:82; Benson 1935:445; Hardy 
and Higgins 1940:99; Cottam 1941b:122; 
Grater 1943:76; Wauer and Carter 1965:53). 
Grater (1937:14) reported this species as 
breeding at East Fork Mountain, Kane 
County, near Bryce Canyon (no date). 
Behle and Ghiselin (1958:4) reported a 
mounted specimen in the University of 
Utah collection taken at Hanna, Duchesne 
County, July 1930. The remains of a Band- 
tailed Pigeon were collected between 9 and 
12 September 1946 in the vicinity of Elk 
Ridge, San Juan County (Behle 1960a:28). 
Behle and Selander (1952:27 28) took one 
at New Harmony, Washington County, 24 
June 1950. Behle (1960a:28) collected a 
specimen in the La Sal Mountains, San 
Juan County, 17 July 19.56. Worthen (1968: 
214) reported three separate areas in the 
Tusher Mountains, six or seven miles north- 
east of Beaver, Beaver County, where three 
flocks were breeding in cottonwoods along 
streams. A flock of between 5 and 25 was 
seen by many observers in Salt Lake City, 
Salt Lake County, during the spring of 1975 
(Kingeiy 1975:887). Pederson and Nish 
(1975:59-75) have summarized sight and 
collection records from all parts of the state 
up to and including 1972. For the 1970-72 
period tliree additional reports are given 
for the Uinta Basin plus two reports for 
Wasatch County and seven for Utah 
County. One was collected at the head of 
Rock Canyon, Utah County, 20 September 
1975, and is in tlie Life Sciences Museum 
at Brigham Young University (museum 
number 5425). 

Columba liva Gmelin 
Rock Dove 

Status : Introduced and common around 
cities and farming communities throughout 



the state. It may be domesticated by pigeon 
fanciers or occur in semiwild flocks in city 
streets or around farms. The common 
pigeon is composed of a mixture of several 
natural subspecies (AOU Check-list 1957: 
260). 

Zenaida asiatica mearnsi (Ridgway) 
White-winged Dove 

Status : This dove is an uncommon sum- 
mer resident in Utah especially in the hot, 
diy desert country of the southwest. 

Records: Behle et al. (1964:452) have 
summarized the known records of this 
species. Most of these are sight records, but 
several specimens have been taken at 
Beaver Dam Wash, Washington County, 
24 June 1961, 25 May 1962, and July 1962. 
Two specimens were taken in traps at Fish 
Springs National Wildlife Refuge, Juab 
County, 24 May 1961 and 8 September 
1962. One was banded and the other, 
which expired in the trap, was prepared as 
a specimen. There are also sight records 
for East Canyon, Morgan County, 1 August 
1939, and Liberty Park, Salt Lake City, 1 
May 1962. It has also been reported for 
Bear River Migratory Bird Refuge, Box 
Elder County, 19 July 1965 (Scott 1965:567) 
and Beaver Dam Wash, Washington County, 
from 5 April to 4 August (Wauer 1969:332). 
A White-winged Dove was collected in a 
river bottom near the old Bennion Ranch 
northeast of McDowell (Keg) Mountain, 
Juab County, 8 September 1975. One wing 
was presei*ved and is in the Brigham Young 
University Life Sciences Museum (museum 
number 5429). 

Zenaida macroura marginella (Woodhouse) 

Mourning Dove 

Fig. 26, p. 82 

Status: The Mourning Dove is a com- 
mon summer resident tliroughout the state. 
It is most abundant along the streams in 
the lower valleys where it builds flimsy 
nests of small sticks in trees or on the 



106 



GREAT BASIN NATURALIST MEMOIRS 



No. 1 




Fig. 41. House Wren. North Fork Ogden River, Weber County, Utah, 11 June 1954. Photo by R. J. 
Erwin. 



ground. A few individuals remain through 170; Merriam 1873:710; Henshaw 1875:431- 

the winter, particularly in the waiTner val- 432; Ridgway 1877:596 597) who visited 

leys of the south. Utah. Many collections and observations 

PIecords : Mourning Doves were reported have been made in recent years, 
by all the early naturalists (Allen 1872b: 



1976 



BIRDS OF UTAH 



107 



ScardafeUa inca (Lesson) 
Inca Dove 



Coccijzus erythropthalmus (Wilson) 
Black-billed Cuckoo 



Status: This dove is considered acci- 
dental in Utah. 

Records: Behle (1966:396) reported one 
collected at Beaver Dam Wash, Washing- 
ton Count)', 5 miles north of the Utah- 
Arizona border, 9 July 1963. One was seen 
at Parowan, Iron County, 15 August 1963 
(Behle and Perry 1975:22). 

Family Cuculidae 



Coccijzus americanus occidentalis 

Ridgway 

Yellow-billed Cuckoo 

Status: The Yellow-billed Cuckoo is an 
uncommon summer resident in favored 
habitats throughout the state from May to 
September. It lives in the woodlands along 
streams in the lower valleys. 

Records: Henshaw (1875:386) saw this 
species at Provo, Utah County, but took no 
specimens. Bailey (field notes 1893) re- 
ported that a pair lived on a farm near 
Ogden, Weber County, in July 1893. More 
recent collection records are as follows: 
Wellsville, Cache County, 17 June 1938, 
and Logan, Cache County, 10 June 1941 
(Utah State University); near Hurricane, 
Washington County, 20 August 1932 (Uni- 
versity of Utah, Woodbury 1939:157); St. 
George, Washington County, 11 July 1937 
(Hardy and Higgins 1940:99). Brigham 
Young University has specimens from Bluff, 
San Juan County, 2 July 1927; Virgin River, 
Washington County, near Utah-Arizona 
border, 1934; Provo, Utah County, 20 June 
1941. Merlin L. Killpack (pers. comm.) 
reported a male specimen taken near San- 
taquin, Utah County, 8 July 1973. Wauer 
and Carter (1965:59) considered it to be a 
rare summer visitor in the Virgin River 
V^alley of southwestern Utah. Several sets 
of eggs have been taken in Weber, Salt 
Lake, Utah, and Washington counties. 



Status: This cuckoo appears to be of 
rare occurrence in the state in summer. 

Records: Behle and Selander (1952:28) 
reported a specimen taken at Bountiful, 
Davis County, 9 July 1951. This was a 
female in breeding condition. Kashin 
(1963c:61) reported that one was seen and 
heard singing in Salt Lake City, Salt Lake 
County, 15 June 1963. 

Geococcyx californianus (Lesson) 
Roadmnner 

Status: The Roadrunner is a fairly com- 
mon resident of tlie lower deserts adjacent 
to the Virgin River Valley of Washington 
County. It is less common in southern Iron 
and Kane counties and accidental as far 
north as Provo, Utah County. 

FIecords: The occurrence of the Road- 
runner in the Virgin River area of south- 
western Utah was mentioned by Henshaw 
(1875:383) and some of the other early natu- 
ralists, but they apparently took no speci- 
mens. Specimens and observations of both 
birds and eggs taken in recent years are 
mostly from Washington County (Presnell 
1935b:201; Hardy and Higgins 1940:99; 
Behle 1943a:39). A specimen taken near 
Parowan, Iron County, prior to 19,36, is in 
the University of Utah collection (Worthen 
1968:218). Behle et al. (1958:51) saw Road- 
runners near Kanab, Kane County, 2 April 
1947, 1 May 1946, 20 May 1947, and 29 
November 1947. In July of 1932 a rather 
badly decomposed specimen was found on 
the foothills east of Provo by Reinwald 
Leichty (Hayward 1944:204). The head 
was saved in alcohol and was in tlie Brig- 
ham Young University collection for several 
years. Unfortunately it eventually was lost. 
Wauer and Carter (1965:54) considered 
the Roadrunner to be an uncommon per- 
manent resident at lower elevations in the 
Zion Canyon area. Recently (21 August 
1976) Laurence B. McArthur (personal 



108 



GREAT BASIN NATURALIST MEMOIRS 



No. 1 



communication) observed a Roadrunner 
for approximately 15 minutes at Beers Pass 
(elevation 6,300 feet), about three miles 
west of State Highway 21 in the extreme 
northwestern comer of Beaver County. 
This location is about a mile south of the 
Beaver-Millard County line and is over 100 
miles north of the range of this species as 
given by Behle and Perry (1975:23). 

Family Tytonidae 

Tijto alba (Scopoli) 

Barn Owl 
Figs. 27, 28; pp. 83, 84 

Status: The Barn Owl is usually con- 
sidered to be an uncommon resident in 
Utah, but it tends to be colonial. In certain 
localities where there are suitable nesting 
situations, it may be concentrated in con- 
siderable numbers (Smith et al. 1972b:229). 
It is known to live and nest through the 
length of the state in the central valleys 
and also in the Uinta Basin. 

Records: The early naturalists seem not 
to have noted the Barn Owl in Utah. Two 
specimens (University of Utah) were taken 
near Parowan, Iron County, prior to 1936. 
There are also several collections (Univer- 
sity of Utah) from near Kanab, Kane 
County, 14 June 1939, 12 and 19 July 1940, 
and 2 May 1946. Behle (1941a:160) de- 
scribed nesting activities in that same lo- 
cality, based partly on earlier reports by 
Greenhalgh, who noted as many as 30 owls 
present at one time. Brigham Young Uni- 
versity has the following specimens from 
Utah: Provo, Utah County, 19 October 
1955; Springville, Utah County, 19 March 
1959; Provo, 10 April 1967; Ironton Steel 
Plant (now demolished), Utah County, 25 
January 1969. A late nesting record was 
recorded by Smith et al. (1970:492) at 
Springville, Utah County, 4 October 1968. 
Frost banded a brood of six young in the 
attic of a school in American Fork, Utah 
County, 21 April 1971. Smith et al. (1974: 
131136) have described the activities of a 
colony near Springville, Utah County. 



Family Strigidae 



Otus asio (Linnaeus) 
Screech Owl 

Status: The Screech Owl is a fairly com- 
mon resident of Utah, where it lives in die 
riparian communities along the streams. 
It occasionally occupies trees along city 
streets and is known to nest in such locali- 
ties (Hay ward field notes). 

Records: Presnell ( 1935b :201) saw a red- 
dish brown Screech Owl at Zion National 
Park, Washington County, 27 January 1935. 
It was with a gray phased owl, and unfor- 
tunately only the gray specimen was col- 
lected. Since Peterson (1961:157) stated 
that the brown color phase is limited to the 
northern Great Basin, PresnelFs report is 
of interest. Screech Owls have been found 
in many parts of the state. Collected speci- 
mens in Utah institutions represent most of 
the counties. The following selected pub- 
lished records indicate its widespread oc- 
currence in Utah: Twomey (1942:398), two 
miles south of Jensen, Uintah County, 25-30 
July 1935; Behle (1941b:182), Block Can- 
von, San Juan County, 3 and 5 April 1938; 
Behle (1958:19), George Creek, five miles 
southeast of Yost, Box Elder County, 12 
July 1955; Wauer and Carter (1965:54), 
Zion's Canyon, 18 September 1963 and 6 
January 1964. Of some 25 nesting records 
available to us, most of tliem are for the 
month of April. 

Subspecies: Specimens of Screech Owls 
from Utah have been variously referred to 
the races O. a. cineraceus, inijoensis, max- 
welliae, and mychophilus. Two specimens 
from St. George, Washington County, were 
identified by H. C. Oberholser in 1942 as 
mychophilus, but this race was not recog- 
nized in the 1957 AOU Check-list. Behle 
(1948a:71), in a brief review of diis species, 
concluded that tlie birds of most of the state 
are of the race inijoensis, although there 
are certain indications of a transition with 
cineraceus. O. a. cineraceus seems to be 
restricted to a small area of southeastern 



1976 



BIRDS OF UTAH 



109 




Fig. 42. Mockingbird. Cedar Mountains, Tooele County, Utah, 19 June 1953. Photo by R. D. Porter 
and R. J. Erwin. 



Utah. A specimen (Brigham Young Uni- 
versity) from Murray, Salt Lake County, 
5 June 1927, was identified years ago by 
Oberholser as maxwelliae with some ques- 
tion, but the specimen has been lost. 

Otus Jlammeolus flammeohis (Kaup) 
Flammulated Owl 

Status: This is a sparse resident in Utah 
where it lives in forested areas especially 
in the mountains. It is known to nest in 
woodpecker holes. 

Records: Oberholser (1899:15) recorded 
a specimen taken near Salt Lake City, Salt 
Lake County, in the fall of 1895. Specimens 
(University of Utah) have been collected 
from near Silver City, Tooele County, 5 and 
12 May 1912; near Grantsville, Tooele 
County, 12 June 1932; Navajo Mountain, 
San Juan County, 6 July 1936 (Woodbuiy 
1939:158). The Brigham Young University 
collection contains a specimen from Pine 
Valley Mountain, Washington County, 20 
October 1935, and from Mt. Timpanogos, 
Utah County, 3 July 1937 (Hay ward 1937: 



304-305). The last mentioned specimen 
was taken by hand from its nest in an aspen 
tree. The nest was located about 24 feet 
from the ground in a hole which had ap- 
parently been used by a Flicker since it 
was larger than holes used by Swallows and 
House Wrens. In the nest were two small 
young with downy white feathers. More 
recent records are as follows: Porter (1954: 
362), specimen found dead on highway 
near Ogden, Weber County, 26 May 1950; 
Lockerbie (1951:53) reported one seen at 
Memory Grove, Salt Lake County, 14 Octo- 
ber 1951; Wauer (1966a:211), four (two 
banded) seen in Zion Park, 8, 12, 27 May 
1964, and one at Springdale, Washington 
County, 7 May 1965. 

Bubo virginianus (Gmelin) 
Great Horned Owl 
Status: A common resident throughout 
the state with a wide range of distribution 
from lowland deserts to timbered countiy 
in the mountains. It occurs in conifer for- 
ests, streamside woodlands, and remote 
desert country. 



no 



GREAT BASIN NATURALIST MEMOIRS 



No. 1 



Records: Most of tlie early naturalists 
to visit Utah mentioned the Great Homed 
Owl. Stansbuiy sent a specimen to the U.S. 
National Museum of Natural Histoiy in 
1850. Allen (1872b:170), Henshaw (1875: 
407), and Ridgway (1877:375) all reported 
the species as common wherever they 
traveled. Numerous specimens and sets of 
eggs and countless obsei-vations have been 
made in more recent years. 

Subspecies: Two races occur commonly 
within the state, according to an account 
by Behle (1960b: 17). A darker fonn, B. v. 
occidentalis, inhabits the northern part of 
the state, and a paler race, B. v. pallescens, 
occurs in more desert country of the south. 
B. V. lagophonus is a rare winter visitor 
(Behle and Ghiselin 1958:5; AOU Check-list 
1957:278). 

Nyctea scandiaca (Linnaeus) 
Snowy Owl 
Status : The Snowy Owl is a rare winter 
visitor to Utah. 

Records: Snowy Owls have been re- 
ported intermittently from Utah for the 
past 65 years. Hayward (1935b:284) re- 
ported a specimen in the Brigham Young 
University Life Sciences Museum collected 
on Provo Bench (now Orem), Utah County, 
December 1908. Behle (1968b:231-232) re- 
corded the following specimens: Hunts- 
ville, Weber County, winter 1909; 15 miles 
northeast of Mantua, Box Elder County, 1 
October 1925 (two birds that were not 
saved); south of Centei-ville, Davis County, 
5 April 1953. Ferris (1954:20) recorded a 
sight record for Ephraim, Sanpete County, 
4 January 1954. Behle (1968b:232) men- 
tioned the sighting of a single bird on the 
southeastern outskirts of Salt Lake City, 
Salt Lake County, early Januaiy 1961. 
Three records are reported for 1967: Behle 
(1968b:232) listed an obsei-vation of one 
bird two miles south of Randolph, Rich 
County, 7 January 1967, and the collection 
of a decomposed body at the south end of 
Bear Lake, Rich County, 22 January 1967. 
Behle indicated that these two reports 



could have been the same bird, as the two 
localities are only about 15 miles apart. 
Scott (1967:444) recorded a specimen (now 
in the University of Utah collection) col- 
lected 4 miles west of Syracuse, Davis 
County, 26 January 1967. 

Glaucidium gnoma californicum Sclater 
Pygmy Owl 

Status: The Pygmy Owl is an uncom- 
mon resident of the forested sections of the 
state. It is more common in the coniferous 
forests of the mountains but also lives in 
woodlands and groves of dense trees along 
streams in the lower valleys and sometimes 
in cities. 

Records: A specimen taken in the moun- 
tains east of Ogden, Weber County, 5 Oc- 
tober 1888, is in tlie US. National Museum 
of Natural History. Several specimens are 
in the Utah State University collection as 
follows: Oquirrh Mountains, Tooele 
County, 30 April 1936; Manti, Sanpete 
County, 24 December 1936; Logan Canyon, 
Cache County, 25 June 1941. The Univer- 
sity of Utah collection has a specimen taken 
at die mouth of City Creek Canyon, Salt 
Lake City, Salt Lake County, 12 January 
1941 (Behle and Ross 1945:169), and an- 
other collected near Ogden on 24 January 
1943. Brigham Young University collection 
contains nine specimens as follows: Aspen 
Grove, Mt. Timpanogos, Utah County, 
August 1926, 30 June 1937, July 1937, 3 
July 1937, 12 June 1957; near Roosevelt, 
Duchesne County, 22 June 1957; 22 miles 
south of Cannonville, Kane County, 18 
June 1960 (three specimens). Wauer and 
Carter (1965:55) considered this species to 
be an uncommon winter visitor in the Zion 
Park area of southern Utah. Wauer (1969: 
332) collected a specimen in Zion Canyon, 
Washington County, 5 July 1964. 

Athene cunicularia hypugaea 

(Bonaparte) 

Burrowing Owl 

Fig. 31, p. 87 

Status: Locally rather common in 



1 



1976 



BIRDS OF UTAH 



111 



desert valleys of the state especially in 
prairie dog colonies. Formerly common in 
Salt Lake and Utah Lake valleys, but 
mostly driven from the more populated 
areas when much of the land was taken up 
for agriculture. Considerable numbers of 
migrants also appear in the state. 

Records: Most of tlie reports of the early 
naturalists were from Salt Lake and Utah 
valleys. Stansbury (Baird 1852:314) found 
them common in Salt Lake Valley in 1849 
and 1850. Odier published reports include 
those of Baird (1858:61) and Remy (1860 
[2] :449), Salt Lake Valley; Allen (1872b: 
170), Ogden, Weber County; Merriam 
(1873:696, 710), Salt Lake and Ogden; Hen- 
shaw (1874:9), Ogden; Ridgway (1877:368, 
574), Salt Lake Valley. Oates (1902:338) 
reported a set of Burrowing Owl eggs from 
Utah in the British Museum (Natural His- 
tory). This set may have been collected by 
Henshaw. Numerous other collections and 
observations of this owl have been made 
up to the present time. Examples are pub- 
lished reports of Behle (1958:19-20), Kel- 
ton. Box Elder County, 10 September 1932; 
Twomey (1942:399 400), 20 miles east of 
Vernal, Uintah County, 6 May 1937; Hardy 
and Higgins (1940:100), Beaverdam slope, 
Washington County, 16 June 1939; Behle 
(1955:21), 5 miles north of Ibapah, Tooele 
County, 22 May 1942. 

Strix occidentalis lucida (Nelson) 
Spotted Owl 

Status: The Spotted Owl is a casual 
visitor to Utah, especially in the pinyon- 
juniper woodlands of southern and eastern 
Utah. 

Records: Woodbury captured an im- 
mature bird in Zion Canyon National Park 
in June 1928. It was photographed and re- 
leased. Russell (Woodbury 1939:158) col- 
lected an immature male at the base of 
Navajo Mountain, San Juan County, 3 
August 1936. A few sight records have 
been published: Behle (1960a:29) reported 
a bird seen in Escalante Canyon, Garfield 
County, August 1957, and two in Glen 



Canyon, Kane County, 17 July 1958. M. L. 
Killpack (field notes) watched one for some 
time at East Tavaputs Plateau, Uintah 
County, 6 September 1958. This occurrence 
was reported by Scott (1959:52) and by Hay- 
ward (1967:34). Wauer and Carter (1965: 
55) reported two obsei-vations in Zion Can- 
yon, Washington County, 9 November 1963 
and 29 August 1964. 

Strix nebulosa nehulosa (Forster) 
Great Gray Owl 

Status: A species of rare and accidental 
occurrence in Utah. 

Records: Oring (Scott 1960:329) re- 
ported shooting a Great Gray Owl at Logan, 
Cache County, 6 March 1960. According to 
Behle (letter 2 July 1974) this specimen is 
mounted and displayed in a sporting goods 
store in Logan, Cache County. One was 
observed by Derrell McCullough at Spirit 
Lake, Daggett County, 30 July 1962 (Behle 
and Perry 1975:24). 

Asio otus tuftsi Godfrey 

Long-eared Owl 

Figs. 29, 30; pp. 85, 86 

Status: A common resident throughout 
the state, breeding in pinyon-juniper forests 
and in woodlands along the valley streams. 
Old Magpie nests are frequently used as 
nesting and roosting sites. 

Records: Collections and observations 
of this owl were made by some of the first 
naturalists to visit the state. Baird (1876: 
377) reported a specimen and a set of eggs 
taken by the Simpson expedition in Skull 
Valley, Tooele County, 4 May 1859. Other 
early collections were made by Allen (1872b: 
170) near Ogden, Weber County, 8 Octo- 
ber 1871; by Henshaw (1875:403-404) in 
Sevier and Millard counties in September 
and November 1872; and by Nelson (1875: 
344) from tlie north slope of the Uinta 
Mountains in June and July 1872. Many 
collections and sight records have been 
made in recent years. Examples of pub- 
lished records are: Twomey (1942:400-401), 
near Jensen, Uintah County, 24 April and 



112 



GREAT BASIN NATURALIST MEMOIRS 



No. 1 




Fig. 43. Hermit Thrush. Monte Cristo, Rich County, Utah, 15 June 1959. Photo by R. J. Erwin. 



15 May 1935; Behle (1941b:182), 10 miles 
north of Monticello, San Juan County, 3 
April 1938; Behle (1955:21), 2 miles east of 
Ibapah, Tooele County, 23 April 1950; 
Wauer and Carter (1965:55), Zion National 
Park, Washington County, mid-March 
1965. 

Asio flammeus flammeus (Pontoppidan) 

Short-eared Owl 

Fig. 32, p. 88 

Status: This owl is a common resident, 
especially through the northern and central 
valleys where there are marshes and wet 
pasture lands. Less common in the Colo- 
rado River Basin. 

Records: There are a few records by 
early naturalists as follows: Simpson (Baird 
1876:377) obtained a specimen in Wasatch 
County in 1859, and Henshaw collected 
one near Utah Lake, Utah County, in 1872. 
Many more recently taken specimens from 
Utah are in the several institutional mu- 
seums within the state. Some collection 
and sight records are: Twomey (1942:401), 
Ashley Creek Marshes, Uintah County, 21 
September 1937; Hardy and Higgins (1949; 



100), St. George, Washington County, 5 
November 1939; Behle (1958:20), east of 
Raft River, Box Elder County, 17 Septem- 
ber 1941. 

Aegolius acadicus acadicus (Gmelin) 

Saw-whet Owl 

Figs. 33, 34; pp. 89, 90 

Status: The Saw -whet Owl is a sparse 
resident among aspens, pinyon-juniper, and 
streamside forests. It frequently winters in 
the valleys where it may find shelter in 
abandoned buildings. 

Records: Zion National Park, Washing- 
ton County, 15 October 1933 (Presnell 
1935b:202); Oquirrh Mountains, Tooele 
County, 30 April 1936 (Utah State Univer- 
sity); Salt Lake City, 31 December 1934 
(University of Utah); near Moab, Grand 
County, 15 November 1936 (Woodbury 
1939:158); Beaverdam Mountains, Washing- 
ton County, 17 December 1939 (specimen 
found dead on highway by Ross Hardy) 
(Hardy and Higgins 1940:100). Behle 
(1958:20) recorded one southwest of Stand- 
rod, Box Elder County, 8 September 1949. 
The following specimens are in the collec- 



1976 



BIRDS OF UTAH 



113 



tion of Brigham Young University: Lehi, 
Utah County, 27 March 1937; two im- 
mature, Hobble Creek Canyon, Utah 
County, 3 August 1944; Vernal, Uintah 
County, 29 December 1957; Neola, Du- 
chesne County, 4 Febmaiy 1959. Wauer 
(1969:332) recorded the following: Zion 
National Park, 24 October 1964, and Spring- 
dale, Washington County, 24 December 
1964. 

Family Caprimulgidae 

Phalaenoptilus nuttallii nuttallii 
(Audubon) 
Poor-will 

Status: The Poor-will is a fairly com- 
mon summer resident throughout the state 
from April to October and still more com- 
mon in migration. It may be found at ele- 
vations ranging from lowland deserts up- 
ward to 10,000 feet. 

Records: Most of the early naturalists 
noted the Poor-will within the state. Ridg- 
way (1877:.568), Uinta Mountains, 7 July 
1869; Allen (1872b: 169) near Ogden, Weber 
County, 7 October 1871; Henshaw (1874: 
8), mountains in the state in summer 1872; 
Merriam (1873:692, 709), Ogden, 8 and 12 
June 1872; Fisher (1893:52), Escalante 
Desert, Iron County, 17 May 1891. Nu- 
merous collections of birds and eggs have 
been made in more recent years from lo- 
calities throughout the state. The follow- 
ing examples indicate its statewide occur- 
rence: Twomey (1942:401), two miles south 
of Jensen, Uintah County, 19 August 1935; 
Behle (1969a:29), south of Crescent Junc- 
tion, Grand County, 24 June 1947; Behle 
(1955:21), two miles east of Ibapah, Tooele 
County, 4 June and 9 August 1950; Behle 
(1958:20), Clear Creek, Box Elder County, 
29 July 1950 and 13 June 1951; Wauer and 
Carter (1965:.56), common in Zion Canyon, 
Washington County, with records extend- 
ing from 12 April to 18 October. Found at 
10,000 feet at Cedar Breaks, Iron County, 
26 August 1974 (Kingery 1975:95). 



Chordeiles minor (Forster) 
Common Nighthawk 

Status: The Common Nighthawk is a 
summer resident in lower valleys and mid- 
elevations throughout the state. Flocks 
frequently congregate around ponds, lakes, 
or reservoirs at dawn and dusk to feed on 
midges and other flying insects. Certain 
races appear only as migrants. 

Records: There are many records of 
nighdiawks taken in Utah. The early 
records were reviewed by Hay ward (1940: 
93-96). The following are examples of col- 
lections that have been made more recently: 
Woodbury and Russell (1945:59), top of 
Navajo Mountain, San Juan County, 14 
July 19.36; Twomey (1942:401), Jensen, 
Uintah County, summer 1937; Behle (1943a: 
40), junction of Virgin and Santa Clara 
rivers, Washington County, 9 September 
1941; Behle and Selander (1952:28), mouth 
of Weber Canyon, Weber County, 29 May 
1942; Behle (1948:71), Midway, Wasatch 
County, 9 June 1944; Behle (1955:21), diree 
miles east of Ibapah, Tooele County, 4 
June 1950; Wauer and Carter (1965:56), 
Zion National Park, Washington County, 
2 September 1964. 

Subspecies: The breeding and migrant 
nighthawks of Utah are difficult to inter- 
pret subspecifically since there appears to 
be considerable overlapping of diree races 
within its borders. C. m. hesperis seems to 
be dominant in the Creat Basin and the 
mountains eastward. The breeding popu- 
lation of the Colorado River Basin con- 
sists of intergradient individuals having 
some characteristics of C. m. howelli in 
the north and C. m. henryi in the south 
(Selander 1954:57-82). A few examples of 
migrant C. m. sennetti (Twomey 1942:402; 
Hayward 1940:94) have been reported, but 
Selander (1954:78) considered these to be 
atypical of that race. Behle (1948a:71) ob- 
tained a specimen of C. m. minor at Mid- 
way, Wasatch County, 9 June 1944, and 
Behle and Selander (1952:28) recorded it 
from Ogden Canyon, Weber County, 29 



114 



GREAT BASIN NATURALIST MEMOIRS 



No. 1 



May 1942. These specimens were un- 
doubtedly migrants. 

Chordeiles acutipennis texensis Lawrence 
Lesser Nighthawk 

Status: A fairly common summer resi- 
dent mostly confined to the low valleys of 
the Virgin River and its tributaries in ex- 
treme southwestern Utah and rarely wan- 
dering into more northern counties. 

Records: Several specimens, all from 
Washington County and located in the Uni- 
versity of Utah and Dixie College collec- 
tions, were collected 14 August 1938, 6 and 
7 June 1940, 15 and 17 May 1940. Mer- 
riam found this species breeding at St. 
George, Washington County, 31 May 1891 
(Fisher 1893:53). Other published reports 
are: Hardy and Higgins (1940:100), St. 
George, 6 May 1940; Behle (1943a:41), 
Beaver Dam Wash, Washington County, 
15 May 1940, and Santa Clara Creek, Wash- 
ington County, 17 May 1940; Wauer and 
Carter (1965:56), Zion National Park, 
Washington County, 2 September 1964. 
Wauer (1969:332) considered this species to 
be a common summer resident throughout 
the Virgin River drainage below 2,500 feet 
from 24 April to 25 August. He collected 
one near Hurricane, Washington County, 
2 June 1966. Behle et al. (1964:453) listed 
two specimens taken at Hanksville, Wayne 
County, 8 July 1961. Two northern reports 
are Kingery (1971:885), seen by Kashin at 
Vernon, Tooele County, June 1971, and 
Kingery (1972:97), seen by Richard Ryan 
at Bear River, Box Elder County, 23 Septem- 
ber 1971. 

Family Apodidae 

Cypseloides niger borealis (Kennerly) 
Black Swift 

Status: The Black Swift is an uncom- 
mon summer resident in Utah where it is 
now known to breed in the Wasatch Moun- 
tains. 



Records: Knorr (1962:79) found this 
swift nesting at Upper Falls, Bridal Veil 
Falls, and near Aspen Grove on Mt. Tim- 
panogos, Utah County, August 1959, 1960, 
1961. Behle et al. (1964:453) reported a 
specimen found dead at Zion Canyon, 
Washington County, 2 August 1960. Kashin 
(1963a:61; 1964a:3) recorded sight records 
for Salt Lake City, 18 June 1963, and Red 
Creek near Fruitland, Duchesne County, 
6 August 1963. Wauer and Carter (1965: 
57) recorded Black Swifts from Zion Na- 
tional Park, Washington County, 2 August 
1960, 11 May 1964, 25 August 1964. 

Chaetura pelagica (Linneaus) 
Chimney Swift 

Status: Seemingly an accidental visitor 
to Utah, the Chimney Swift is of very rare 
and irregular occurrence in the state. 

Records: A specimen in the University 
of Utah collection was taken by Claude T. 
Barnes (1946:258-259) near Kaysville, 
Davis County, 7 May 1912. There is also 
a sight record (Scott 1959:391) for one re- 
portedly seen at Utah Lake on 10 May 1959. 

Chaetura vauxi vauxi (Townsend) 
Vaux's Swift 

Status: A casual visitor to the state, 
having been obtained or observed in both 
northern and southern Utah. 

Records: A dried mummy of this species 
is in the University of Utah collection. It 
was obtained at the bottom of a stovepipe 
in a cabin at Jordan Fur Farm, Davis 
County, 28 October 1939, and probably 
had been trapped in the stovepipe that 
spring or summer (Woodbury et al. 1949: 
18). Wauer and Russell (1967:421) reported 
three individuals seen at Springdale Ponds, 
Washington County, 11 and 13 September 
1965. Behle (1973b:243) reported a speci- 
men taken at Terry Ranch, Beaver Dam 
Wash, in southwest Washington County, 
19 May 1972. He also reported several 
additional sight records. 



1976 



BIRDS OF UTAH 



115 




Fig. 44. Mountain Bluebird. Blacksmith Fork, Cache County, Utah, 18 July 1954. Photo by R. D. 
Porter and R. J. Erwin. 



Aeronautes saxatalis (Woodhouse) 
White-throated Swift 

Status: This swift occurs commonly 
throughout the state wherever there are 
cliffs with crevices suitable for nesting or 



roosting. It lives at a wide range of eleva- 
tions from desert canyonlands to the high- 
est mountains. It may also range many 
miles away from its nesting site in search 
of food. 



116 



GREAT BASIN NATURALIST MEMOIRS 



No. 1 



Records: Early naturalists, including 
Henshaw (1874:8), Ridgway (1877:564), and 
Merriam (Fisher 1893:55), obsei-ved this 
species in tlie state but apparently took no 
specimens. Many collections and observa- 
tion records have been made in recent 
years. Some examples are as follows: Kai- 
parowits Plateau, Kane County, 27 July 
1937 (Woodbuiy and Russell 1945:61); five 
miles northwest of Leeds, Washington 
County, 11 May 1939 (Behle 1943a:41); sum- 
mit of Mount Ibapah, Juab County, 3 July 
1950 (Behle 1955:21); Clear Creek, Box 
Elder County, 18 June 1951 (Behle 1958: 
20). 

Subspecies: Twomey (1942:403) listed 
tlie swifts of the Uinta Basin as belonging 
to tlie subspecies A. s. sclateri on the basis 
of their larger size. However, there has 
been some doubt that the Uinta Basin 
population belongs to this race. Other col- 
lectors have reported the subspecies A. s. 
saxatalis as being the common race in the 
state. (Hardy and Higgins 1940:100; Wood- 
bury and Russell 1945:61; Behle 1943a:43; 
Behle et al. 1958:53). Behle (1973a:306) 
proposed that A. s. scalteri become a 
synonym of A. s. saxatalis. 

Family Trochilidae 

Archilochus alexandri (Bourcier 

and Mulsant) 

Black-chinned Hummingbird 

Status: This is a common and wide- 
spread summer resident in the state. It 
seems to be more common southward and 
in the lower valleys where it appears in 
April and may remain until early October 
or as long as there are ample flowers in 
bloom. 

Records: The earliest collections of spe- 
cimens were made by Ridgway (1877:559) 
at Parley's Park, Summit County, June and 
July 1869. Henshaw (1875:374) took speci- 
mens in the Provo, Utah County, area 29 
and 30 July 1872. Three specimens were 
collected by Merriam (1873:693) at Ogden, 



Weber County, 20 June 1872. Other early 
collections were made by Merriam (Fisher 
1893:56) in Washington County, 11-14 
May 1891. In more recent years numerous 
collections and observations have been 
made within the state. Among these are 
the following: Stanford (1938:138), Logan, 
Cache County, 6 August 1931; Woodbury 
and Russell (1945:62), Navajo Mountain, 
San Juan County, 9 July 1936; Behle (1958: 
20), Yost, Box Elder County, 5 August 
1936; Twomey (1942:404), 10 miles west of 
Vernal, Uintah County, 28 May 1937. It is 
considered to be a common summer resi- 
dent in Zion National Park, Washington 
County (Wauer and Carter 1965:57). 

Calypte costae (Bourcier) 
Costa's Hummingbird 

Status: This species is seemingly con- 
fined to the low hot valleys of southwest- 
ern Utah and from thence south westward. 
It is the most common species in its alti- 
tudinal range. 

Records: Costa's Hummingbird was first 
reported in Utah by Fisher (1893:57) when 
he stated that "Dr. Merriam found it com- 
mon among the junipers of the eastern side 
of the Beaverdam Mountains, Utah May 
11" (1891). Specimens have been taken at 
Santa Clara Creek, 15 April 1932 (Univer- 
sity of Utah); St. George, 29 March 1936, 
25 April 1940 (Dixie College, Hardy and 
Higgins 1940:100); Beaver Dam Wash, 8 
May 1941 (University of Utah, Behle 1943a: 
41); Springdale, 11 May 1940 (Utah State 
University, Stanford 1944:151). All of die 
above localities are in Washington County. 
Wauer and Carter (1965:57) considered 
this hummingbird to be less common than 
fonnerly. They recorded the following 
sightings: Zion National Park, Washing- 
ton County, 10 May 1962, 11 April 1963, 
and 14 May 1964; Springdale, 11 April 1963. 
A northward extension of the range of this 
species is given by Porter and Bushman 
(1956:152) and Behle et al. (1958:53) for 
eight miles west of Boulder, Garfield Coun- 



1976 



BIRDS OF UTAH 



117 



ty, 16 May 1953. Kingery (1975:722) re- 
ported one wintering in Salt Lake City, Salt 
Lake County, from October 1974 to 16 
March 1975. It was at a feeder where a 
light kept water from freezing and vitamins 
and proteins fortified die food at die feeder. 

Selasphorus platycercus platijcercus 

(Swainson) 

Broad-tailed Hummingbird 

Status: The Broad-tailed Hummingbird 
is the most common species in Utah and it 
occurs in eveiy part of the state. It appears 
in the lower valleys in April and later nests, 
usually near streams, at higher elevations. 
A few individuals remain in the valleys to 
nest and many appear again in the sum- 
mer and early fall. 

Records: Ridgway (1877:.560-.563) found 
diis hummingbird abundant in Utah in 
1869. He collected 13 specimens around 
Salt Lake City during his stay. Other 
early naturalists (Allen 1872b: 169; Hen- 
shaw 1874:8; Nelson 1875:347) found it 
common within the state, and many col- 
lections of both birds and nests have been 
made more recently. The following are 
examples of numerous published accounts: 
Twomey (1942:405), Ashley Creek Marshes, 
Uintah ' County, 20 May 1937; Stanford 
(1938:138), Logan Canyon, Cache County, 
21 May 1937; Behle (1958:20), Clear Creek, 
Box Elder County, 17 and 19 May. 1948; 
Behle (1955:21), Queen of Sheba Mine, 
Deep Creek Mountains, Juab County, 2 
July 1950. It is considered a common sum- 
mer resident in Zion National Park, Wash- 
ington County, by Wauer and Carter (1965: 
57). 

Selasphorus rufiis (Gnielin) 
Rufous Hummingbird 

Status: This hummingbird is a transient 
species within the state of Utah. All rec- 
ords available to us indicate that it occurs 
in the state only in die summer and early 
fall. Nesting in the state was reported by 
Bee and Hutchings (1942:73), who found 



a nest supposedly of this species at Lehi, 
Utah County, 20 June. The bird was col- 
lected and mounted by Mr. Hutchings, but 
the specimen has been lost and verifica- 
tion of this unusual record cannot be made. 
Based on the following collection record, 
Behle et al. (1964:453) also suggested die 
possibility of this species nesting in the 
state: 10 July 1961, Wasatch Plateau, 
north end of Fairview Reservoir, Sanpete 
County. This specimen had testes 2 mm 
long but also had a thin layer of fat suggest- 
ing it might have been a migrant. Worthen 
(1968:237) collected four males at die Pio- 
neer Ranger Station, one mile north of 
Mount Catherine, Pavant Mountains, Mil- 
lard County, 23 June 1966. These had testes 
1 mm in size and may have been resident 
birds. 

Records: Early naturalists in the state 
did not report this species, although they 
found it in the neighboring states of Ari- 
zona, Colorado (Henshaw 1875:375-377), 
and Nevada (Ridgway 1877:559-560). 
Many collections and observations have 
been made by local ornithologists, most of 
them for July, August, and early September. 
Published records include the following: 
three miles northwest of Strawbeny Reser- 
voir, Wasatch County, 15 July 1934 (Behle 
and Ghiselin 1958:6); Navajo Mountain, 
San Juan County, 11 July 1936 (Woodbury 
and Russell 1945:63); Park Valley, Box 
Elder County, 12 August 1937 (Stanford 
1938:138); Kanab Canyon, Kane County, 
24 September 1946 (Behle et al. 1958:54). ' 

Stellula calliope (Gould) 
Calliope Hummingbird 

Status: The Calliope Hummingbird is 
an uncommon summer resident in moun- 
tainous parts of the state. It is often con- 
fused with the Broad-tailed Hummingbird 
which occurs in the same habitats and 
which is much more abundant but larger. 
The two species have similar habits. Care- 
fid observations may reveal that it is more 
common than has been supposed. 



118 



GREAT BASIN NATURALIST MEMOIRS 



No. 1 




Fig. 45. Blue-gray Gnatcatcher. Cedar Mountains, Tooele County, Utah, 18 June 1953. Photo by 
R. D. Porter and R. J. Erwin. 



Records: Ridgway (1875:33; 1877:372, 
375) stated that it was a breeding species 
at Parley's Park, Summit County, in the 
summer of 1869. He apparently preserved 
no specimens. Miller (1934:160) observed 
one building a nest in the Escalante Moun- 
tains, Garfield County, 3 July 1931. Speci- 
mens have since been taken at Paradise, 
Cache County, 12 June 1932; Mantua, 
Box Elder County, 25 May 1933; sev- 
eral localities in Logan Canyon, Cache 
County, June and July 1941 (Utah State Uni- 
versity); St. George and Beaver Dam Wash, 
Washington County, 21 June 1933 and 5 
April 1941. The Brigham Young University 
collection contains specimens fi-om Provo 
Canyon, Utah County, 19 August 1951, and 
ft'om Deep Lakes, Bear Lake County, Idaho, 
a few miles from the Utah border. Wauer 
and Carter (1965:58) reported this species 
from the high country in Zion National 
Park, Washington County, 3 May 1963. 



reported as a summer visitor in southern 
Utah. 

Records: Kingery (1971:885) reported 
that this species was seen repeatedly at a 
feeder at Springdale, Washington County, 
7 July to 10 August 1971. The bird was 
photographed and the picture appeared in 
American Birds 26:98, 1972. The species 
has also been reported from three miles 
northwest of Parowan, Iron County, 24 
August 1962 (Behle 1976b:42) and from 
Cedar City, Iron County, 24 August 1971 
(Kingery 1972:97). In 1972 it was observed 
at Springdale from 23 May until the end of 
July (Kingery 1972:885). George Edmonds 
saw one at Salt Lake City during the last 
week of June and first week of July 1972 
and near Brighton on 27 June 1974. Both 
localities are in Salt Lake County (Behle 
and Perry 1975:25). 

Family Alcedinidae 



Megaceryle alcyon caurina (Grinnell) 
Eugenes fiilgens (Swainson) Belted Kingfisher 

Rivoli's Hummingbird 

Status: The Belted Kingfisher is a resi- 
Status: An uncommon species recently dent throughout the state of Utah in the 



1976 



BIRDS OF UTAH 



119 



vicinity of streams and ponds. It is much 
less common now than formerly because of 
disturbance of nesting sites and persecution 
due to its fish-eating habits. Most common 
in summer but a few remain through the 
winter. 

Records: Ridgway collected specimens 
at Parley's Park, Summit County, 26 July 
and 7 August 1869 (1877:545). Allen (1872b: 
169) found it common around Ogden, 
Weber County, and took a specimen on 
7 September 1871. Henshaw found it com- 
mon along the fishing streams of the state 
and collected a specimen at Provo, Utah 
County, 26 July 1872 (1875:,366). Collec- 
tions in the institutions of the state and else- 
where contain many specimens from vari- 
ous sections of Utah taken more recently. 

Family Picidae 

Colaptes auratus (Linnaeus) 
Common Flicker 

Status: A common resident throughout 
the state where both the yellow-shafted race 
(rarely) and the red-shafted race (common- 
ly) occur. It ranges from the lowland 
streamside woodlands and parks to the 
montane forests. Within the last 10 or 15 
years its numbers seem to have been con- 
siderably reduced. 

Records: All of the early naturalist visi- 
tors to the state found the flicker to be a 
common bird wherever they went in the 
1860s and 1870s. All of their references 
appear to be of the red-shafted form. Yel- 
low-shafted Flickers, or specimens showing 
some features of the yellow-shafted race, 
have been reported more recently. Porter 
(1954:362) recorded a specimen from Cedar 
Mountains, Tooele County, 14 October 
1945, and a mounted bird from Syracuse, 
Davis County, December 1946. Hayward 
(1967:36) recorded a specimen from Roose- 
velt, Duchesne County, 7 January 1959, 
and noted several specimens from that area 
showing signs of hybridization with the 
red-shafted race. Behle and Selander (1952: 



28) reported specimens of hybrids from 
Salt Lake City, 5 April 1950. Many records 
of the more common Red-shafted Flicker 
have been published. 

Subspecies: A species formerly known as 
Colaptes cafer is now considered to be con- 
specific with Colaptes auratus (American 
Ornithologists' Union 1973:415). 

The Red-shafted Flicker now becomes C. 
auratus cafer and the Yellow-shafted Flick- 
er becomes C. auratus auratus. There is a 
sight record (Snider 1964:377) of the sub- 
species C. a. chrysoides, known as the 
Gilded Flicker, for Beaver Dam Wash, 
Washington County, 13 February and 26 
March 1964. 

Dryocopus pileatus picinus (Bangs) 
Pileated Woodpecker 

Status: The Pileated Woodpecker is a 
sparse resident in isolated sections of the 
state. 

Records: A specimen in the American 
Museum of Natural History was taken by 
C. P. Rowley at Bluff, San Juan County, 21 
May 1892 (Woodbury and Russell 1945:66). 
Behle and Ghiselin (1958:6) recorded see- 
ing three birds about 30 miles north of 
Roosevelt, Duchesne County, 10 August 
1943. Behle et al. (1958:55) reported a bird 
near Wildcat Ranger Station, Aquarius 
Plateau, Garfield County, 16 August 1952, 
and another one 10 days later in the same 
general area. Hayward (1967:37) saw one 
near Blanding, San Juan County, 6 Septem- 
ber 1956. 

Melanerpes erythrocephalus 

caurinus Brodkorb 

Red-headed Woodpecker 

Status: The Red-headed Woodpecker 
is an uncommon resident, especially in the 
northern part of the state and in the Uinta 
Basin. Recent observations indicate that it 
is likely to be found nesting in the riparian 
woodlands of the Uinta Basin. 

Records: Baird (1876:377) reported a 



120 



GREAT BASIN NATURALIST MEMOIRS 



No. 1 



specimen taken in Utah by McCarthy of 
the Simpson expedition in 1859. Ridgway 
(1877:554-555) obsei-ved one near Parley's 
Park, Summit County, in June 1869. Twomey 
(1942:407) found an adult male dead near 
Ouray, Uintah County, 28 July 1937. Wil- 
liams (1942:578) collected an adult male at 
Bear River Migratory Bird Refuge, Box 
Elder County, 26 August 1941. Killpack 
and Hayward (1958:23) have published 
sight and collection records for the Uinta 
Basin, 27 July 1937 and 29 May 1955. Murie 
(Scott 1969:504) saw this species near Cedar 
City, Iron County, 17 February 1968. 

Sphyrapicus varius nuchalis Baird 
Yellow-bellied Sapsucker 

Status: A common breeding species in 
the mountains of tlie state especially in 
aspen woodlands and wooded areas bor- 
dering streams. It sometimes nests along 
valley streams where cottonwoods and 
other deciduous trees occur. In winter this 
species tends to migrate out of the higher 
elevations to the southern part of its range. 

Records: Early naturalists observed and 
collected this species in Utah. Ridgway 
(1877:550) collected nine specimens at 
Parley's Park, Summit County, July 1869, 
and Hayden and Smith (Stevenson 1872: 
463) took several specimens on the north 
slope of the Uinta Mountains in 1870. Hen- 
shaw (1875:393) saw it in die Wasatch 
Mountains and collected specimens in 
Washington County in October 1872. Many 
specimens have been observed and taken 
in more recent times. 

Sphyrapicus thyroideus nataliae 

(Malherbe) 

Williamson's Sapsucker 

Status: Williamson's Sapsucker is an 
uncommon summer resident in the moun- 
tains of the state. It feeds and nests pri- 
marily in conifer forests from timberline 
downward. 

Records: A few of these birds were ob- 



served and collected by early naturalists. 
Ridgway (1877:552) collected it at Parley's 
Park, Summit County, in August 1869. Nel- 
son (1875:344) found it on the north slope 
of the Uinta Mountains in July 1872, and 
Bailey (field notes) recorded a breeding 
record for the Bear Lake Mountains (now 
known as the Bear River Range, Cache 
County) in July 1893. Henshaw (1875:394) 
discovered that the unlike males and fe- 
males of this bird are one and the same 
species. Numerous specimens from all of 
the mountainous counties of the state have 
been collected in recent years. Among 
them are: Stanford (1938:139), Dolomite, 
Tooele County, 11 September 1935, and 
Logan Canyon, Cache County, 10 June 
1937; Behle (1960a:32), Kigalia Ranger Sta- 
tion, Elk Ridge, San Juan County, 28 
August 19.56; Wauer and Carter (1965:59), 
Zion National Park, Washington County, 8 
December 1964. 



Melanerpes lewis (Gray) 
Lewis' Woodpecker 

Status: This woodpecker is of some- 
what erratic and uncommon occurrence in 
Utah. It sometimes appears in loose flocks, 
especially in late summer and fall and at 
such times may be rather common in cer- 
tain localities. This species is also known 
to nest in limited areas within the state. 

Records: Henshaw (1875:397) considered 
this species to occur commonly in Utah. 
Specimens from almost all sections of the 
state have been taken, a few of which are: 
Tanner and Hayward (1934:227), La Sal, 
San Juan County, June 1927; Behle (1958: 
21), Dove Creek, Box Elder County, 10 
September 1932; Stanford (1938:139), Wells- 
ville. Cache County, 22 July 1937; and 
Behle (1943a:42), near Leeds,' Washington 
County, 2 May 1939. A specimen in the 
Brigham Young University collection was 
taken at Provo, Utah County, 2 December 
1939. Hayward (1967:37) reported this 
species to be the most common woodpecker 
in Cottonwood groves along Green River, 



1976 



BIRDS OF UTAH 



121 



near Ouray, Uintah County, 17 May 1958. 
At that time several pairs were nesting. 

Picoides villosus (Linnaeus) 
Hairy Woodpecker 

Status: The Haiiy Woodpecker is a per- 
manent resident of die state in the moun- 
tains and along the wooded streamsides at 
lower elevations. It is known to nest in 
both mountain and valley woodlands but 
more commonly in the foiTner. 

Records: The first known collection of 
this species in Utah was by McCarthy in 
1859 (Baird 1876:377). Ridgway (1877:546) 
reported specimens taken at Parley's Park, 
Summit Count}', in July and August 1869. 
Henshaw (1875:387) collected a specimen 
in Grass Valley in what is now Sevier and 
Piute counties on 10 September 1872. Many 
other records and specimens are extant in 
various collections. 



Subspecies: Two subspecies have been 
recognized in the Utah population. A 
smaller race inhabiting the southern part of 
the state has been known as P. v. leuco- 
thorectus. However, Phillips et al. (1964: 
74) and Rich (1967:1-130) were unable to 
separate this race from P. v. orius. Both of 
these races were named in the same publi- 
cation (Oberholser 1911:595-622), and 
both Phillips and Rich elected to use the 
name orius. P. v. orius is especially well 
represented by specimens from Wayne, 
Garfield, Kane, and Washington counties. 
The larger race (P. v. monticola) occurs in 
the counties northward. Numerous ex- 
amples of the intergradation between the 
two have been noted. 

Picoides pubsecens leucurus 

(Hardaub) 

Downy Woodpecker 

Status: A rather common, widely distri- 




Fig. 46. Blue-gray Gnatcatcher. Cedar Mountains, Tooele County, Utah, 18 June 1953. Photo by 
R. D. Porter and R. J. Erwin. 



122 



GREAT BASIN NATURALIST MEMOIRS 



No. 1 



buted resident of the state breeding more 
commonly in aspen forests of the mountains 
but sometimes in streamside woods in the 
lower valleys. In winter the species tends 
to spread to lower elevations and is often 
seen feeding on ornamental trees around 
the settlements. 

Records: Early naturalists recorded the 
Downy Woodpecker from several sections 
of the state. Ridgway (1877:546) observed 
it at Parley's Park, 25 miles east of Salt Lake 
City, Summit County, July and August 1869. 
Allen (1872b: 169) found it near Ogden, 
Weber County, in the fall of 1871, and Hen- 
shaw (1875:388) recorded it from the vicin- 
ity of Provo, Utah County. There are 
many records of nesting and specimens col- 
lected in more recent years. 

Picoides scalaris cactophilus 

(Oberholser) 
Ladder-backed Woodpecker 

Status: In Utah this woodpecker is con- 
fined to the low and hot desert areas in 
Washington County where it is especially 
common in the Joshua trees of the southern 
slope of the Beaver Dam Range. It also 
occurs in woodlands in the Beaver Dam 
Wash area and along the Virgin River as 
far as Zion National Park. 

Records: Bailey (field notes) found it 
common along Santa Clara Creek, Wash- 
ington County, 17 January 1889. A few 
years later (14 May 1891) Merriam reported 
this species in the same locality (Fisher 
1891:47). Behle (1943a:43) listed several 
collection records from Beaver Dam Wash 
for April and May 1932 and 1941. Brigham 
Young University collection contains seven 
specimens from St. George and vicinity, 
April, September, November, and Decem- 
ber 1928 to 1934. Wauer and Carter (1965: 
59) reported seeing one in Zion National 
Park, Washington County, 18 September 
1964. 

Picoides tridactylus dorsalis Baird 
Northern Three-toed Woodpecker 

Status: This species is a resident of 



conifer forests at higher elevations usually 
above 8,000 feet. It is rather common in the 
Uinta Mountains but more rare in the 
Wasatch and the higher plateaus and iso- 
lated mountains elsewhere in the area. 

Records: The early ornithologists seem 
to have missed this species, possibly be- 
cause they did relatively little work at high 
elevations. There is one old reference (Mer- 
rill 1888:255) to specimens from Utah but 
no detailed information. The Brigham 
Young University collection contains 14 
specimens mostly from Trial Lake, Uinta 
Mountains, Summit County. One specimen 
is from La Sal Mountains, Grand County, 
21 July 1934, and another from Navajo 
Lake, Kane County, 24 August 1934. Several 
selected references indicate it is found oc- 
casionally in various other localities within 
the state: Behle (1943a:44), east of Pine 
Valley, Washington County, 17 June 1938; 
Stanford (1944:151), upper Dry Canyon, 
Logan, Cache County, 6 June 1940; Behle 
(1960a:32), Abajo Mountains, San Juan 
County, 24 and 25 August 1956; Worthen 
(1968:255-256), Big Flat Guard Station, 
Tusher Mountains, Beaver County, 24 July 
1966. 

Family Tyrannidae 

Tyrannus tyrannus (Linnaeus) 
Eastern Kingbird 

Status: A fairly common breeding 
species in summer in streamside woodlands 
in lower valleys of northern Utah. This 
species is less abundant than formerly and 
has been persecuted considerably owing to 
its conspicuous nesting habits. At present 
it seems to be most common in Cache Val- 
ley, Bear Lake Valley, and in the Uinta 
Basin. 

Records: This species was considered 
to be common by the early-day ornitholo- 
gists, and many specimens were taken by 
them near Ogden, Salt Lake City, and 
Provo. Ridgway (1877:533) found it near 
Salt Lake City, Salt Lake County, in 1869. 
Allen (1872b: 169) collected it at Ogden, 



1976 



BIRDS OF UTAH 



123 



Weber County, in September 1871, and 
Nelson (1875:347) obtained a specimen in 
the summer of 1872 near Salt Lake City. 
Henshaw (1875:341-342) reported it as 
being numerous around Provo, Utah Coun- 
ty, in late July 1872. Of the many speci- 
mens collected in recent years nearly all 
are from the northern and central counties 
of the state. Specimens taken three miles 
south of Kanab, Kane County, 18 June 1947 
(Behle et al. 1958:56) and Zion National 
Park, Washington County, 13 May 1964 
(Wauer and Carter 1965:59), represent the 
southernmost record known to us. 

Tyrannus verticalis Say 
Western Kingbird 

Status: The Western Kingbird breeds in 
summer throughout most of the state, being 
most abundant in southern Utah and gra- 
dually diminishing in numbers northward. 
It nests in deciduous woodlands along the 
lower valley streams or on trees and utility 
poles in rural areas. This species appears 
to be better able to maintain its numbers in 
this western habitat than does the Eastern 
Kingbird. 

Records: Many records are available 
from the writing of early naturalists in the 
state, mainly from Ogden, Salt Lake, and 
Utah valleys. These include the reports of 
Allen (1872b:169), Merriam (1873:690), Hen- 
shaw (1875:343), and Ridgway (1877:532). 
Numerous more recent records have been 
published; among them are: Webster (1947: 
40), three miles north of Levan, Juab Coun- 
ty, 13 December 1945; Behle et al. (1958: 
.56), two miles south of Escalante, Garfield 
County; and Behle (1958:21), Grouse Creek, 
Box Elder County, 17 June 1956. 

Tyrannus vociferans Swainson 
Cassin's Kingbird 

Status: A common summer resident of 
southern Utah and sparingly northward 
from late April until August. It lives in 
deciduous trees along streamsides, often 



in company with the Western Kingbird, but 
it is also often found in pinyon-juniper 
forests. 

Records: Mention of this species by 
early naturalists is lacking, presumably be- 
cause they did not visit its habitat to any 
extent. Specimens in the Brigham Young 
University collection are all from San Juan, 
Wayne, Kane, and Grand counties. Kashin 
(1964:50) reported a sight record for Lof- 
green, Tooele County, 20 June 1964. 

Muscivora forficata (Gmelin) 
Scissor-tailed Flycatcher 

Status: This species is of accidental oc- 
currence in Utah, and the few records 
available are sight records. 

Records: One was observed in sage- 
brush near Snyderville in Parley's Park, 
Summit County, 11 June 1948, by Guy 
Emerson, Charles Lockerbie, and Kenneth 
Tanner (Woodbury et al. 1949:20). Van den 
Akker (1949:25) reported this record as be- 
ing at Salt Lake City. One was seen and 
photographed by Paul A. Pemberton at 
Three Lakes, near Kanab, Kane County, 11 
July 1963 (Behle and Perry 1975:27). Wor- 
then (1968:258) reported a sight record by 
Willard E. Ritter, Federal Game Manage- 
ment agent, 1.5 miles northwest of Lynndyl, 
Millard County, 4 September 1965. 

Myiarchus tyrannulus magister Ridgway 
Wied's Crested Flycatcher 

Status: This is an uncommon summer 
resident of the southern part of Utah. 

Records: The only Utah records known 
to us are those published by Wauer (1968: 
88). One was collected three miles above 
Lytic Ranch, Beaver Dam Wash, Washing- 
ton County, 18 May 1966. Other observa- 
tions were made by Wauer at Beaver Dam, 
Arizona, near the Utah border, and indi- 
cated that this species breeds in the Beaver 
Dam Wash area in Utah. Behle and Perry 
(1975:27) reported a specimen in the Uni- 
versity of Utah collection taken at Beaver 
Dam Wash on 24 May 1968. 



124 



GREAT BASIN NATURALIST MEMOIRS 



No. 1 







/ 



.f 



4 i 



1 






Fig. 47. Black -capped Chickadee. Rochester, Monroe County, New York, 16 October 1968. Photo by 
R. J. Erwin. 



Myiarchus cinerascens cinerascens 

(Lawrence) 

Ash-throated Flycatcher 

Status: The Ash-throated Flycatcher is 
a common summer resident of southern 
Utah and other less humid parts of the 
state where habitat is favorable. It is less 
common in northern Utah. It inhabits low 
trees and shrubs and is especially charac- 
teristic of pi nyon -juniper woodlands. 

Records: Ridgway (1875:33) found it 
breeding at Parley's Park, 25 miles east of 
Salt Lake City, Summit County, in June, 
July, and August 1869. Henshaw (1875:346) 
mentioned its northward extension into 
Utah. Fisher (1893:61) reported that Mer- 



riam found the species in Washington 
County, 11-15 May 1891. A specimen in 
the American Museum of Natural History 
was collected by Rowley at Riverview, San 
Juan County, 24 April 1892. Cottam col- 
lected a female, ready to deposit an egg, 
south of Vernal, Uintah County, in June 
several years ago. Many collections and 
observations of both birds and nests have 
been made more recently from almost every 
county in the state. Two northern records 
for this species are Behle (1955:22), Deep 
Creek Mountains, Tooele County, 29 June 
1946, and Behle (1958:22), six miles south 
of Grouse Creek, Box Elder County, 17 
June 1956. 



1976 



BIRDS OF UTAH 



125 



Sayornis phoehe (Latham) 
Eastern Phoebe 

Status: This species appears to be of 
somewhat irregular and casual occurrence 
in Utah. 

Records: Two specimens were collected 
at Springdale, Washington County, 27 
March and 17 December 1965 (Wauer 
1966c:519). Wauer also reported earlier 
sight records for Zion's Canyon and Beaver 
Dam Wash, Washington County, 21 Octo- 
ber 1963 and 25 March 1965. Snider (1966: 
538) reported that Wauer saw one at 
Beaver Dam Wash, 19 May 1966. Kashin 
(Scott 1970:75) reported seeing an Eastern 
Phoebe near the Jordan River, Salt Lake 
County, 11 September 1969. 

Sayornis nigricans semiatra (Vigors) 
Black Phoebe 

Status: A sparse resident of the low 
valleys of the Virgin River drainage in 
Washington County and extending east- 
ward in southern Utah to Kane and San 
Juan counties. It rarely occurs in northern 
Utah. Wauer and Carter (1965:60) con- 
sidered it to be increasing in numbers in 
the Zion Park area in recent years. 

Records: The University of Utah collec- 
tion contains a specimen taken by Wood- 
bury in Washington County, 19 April 1932. 
Brigham Young University collection con- 
tains a specimen taken at Gunlock, Wash- 
ington County, 8 April 1933, and another 
from St. George, Washington Count)', 27 
April 1936. Specimens in the Dixie College 
collection have been taken along Santa 
Clara Creek, Washington County, and in 
the vicinity of St. George, 26 January, 25 
March, and 28 April 1940 (Hardy and Hig- 
gins 1940:101). Behle et al. (1964:454) re- 
ported several records for the St. George 
area and from four miles north of Kanab, 
Kane County, 26 and 27 June 1961. They 
also mentioned a specimen from Newcastle, 
Iron County, 26 May 1962. Hayward (field 
notes) observed one near Bluff, San Juan 



County, 13 September 1966. Behle (1966: 
396) reported one entering a hole in an 
eave of a roof in Salt Lake City, Salt Lake 
County, 4 June 1963. On 16 June 1965 a 
badly decomposed body of a bird of this 
species was found in Salt Lake City. 

Sayornis saya (Bonaparte) 
Say's Phoebe 

Status: Common spring, summer, and 
fall resident of low, open valleys and foot- 
hills or along valley streams where it lives 
in low brush or scattered trees. It frequent- 
ly nests in abandoned buildings or in low 
ledges of rock. A few individuals winter in 
the warmer sections of tlie state. However, 
one has been reported in northern Utah 
near Salt Lake City, Salt Lake County, 2 
February 1966 (Worthen 1972b:220). 

Records: Ridgway (1873:172) found diis 
bird to be a rather common breeder in Salt 
Lake Valley in 1869. The U.S. National 
Museum of Natural Histoiy has specimens 
from Bear River, Box Elder County, 25 
June 1872 (Merriam 1873:690), and Kanab, 
Kane County, 30 June 1873. Enough addi- 
tional specimens and observations are avail- 
able to establish the universal occurrence 
of this species in the state wherever there 
are suitable habitats. (Stanford 1938:139; 
Twomey 1942:411; Woodbuiy and Russell 
1945:73-74; Behle 1955:22). 

Subspecies: All of the collected speci- 
mens reported above are of the race saya. 
Cottam obtained a specimen of the sub- 
species yukonensis at Johnson Creek Ranch, 
southwest of Yost, Box Elder County, 18 
September 1941 (Behle 1958:22), and Wor- 
then (1972b:220) recorded a specimen of 
this race at Saltair, 17 miles west of Salt 
Lake City, Salt Lake County, 2 February 
1966. 

Empidonax traillii (Audubon) 

Willow Flycatcher 

Fig. 36, p. 92 

Status: A common breeding resident 



126 



GREAT BASIN NATURALIST MEMOIRS 



No. 1 



from May to August, the Willow Flycatcher 
usually lives in willows and other low 
shrubs near water. It is for the most part 
confined to lower elevations but is known 
to breed at elevations of 7,000 feet. 

Records: McCarthy of Simpson's expedi- 
tion collected this flycatcher at Goshiute 
Pass, Tooele County, in 1859 (Baird 1876: 
378). Ridgway (1873:173) found it com- 
mon in streamside thickets near Salt Lake 
City, Salt Lake County, and Merriam (1873: 
691) took several specimens and three nests 
near Ogden, Weber County, in June 1872. 
These specimens are in the U.S. National 
Museum of Natural History. Henshaw 
(1875:356) found it to be common in the 
willows along Provo River, Utah County, 
in late July and early August 1872. Numer- 
ous records are available for more recent 
years. 

Subspecies: Specimens of the Willow 
Flycatcher are rather variable in colora- 
tion, and some problems have arisen re- 
garding subspeciation in the group. Ober- 
holser (1918a:85-98) named the western 
race, E. t. brewsteri, and Behle (1948a:71- 
72) at first considered this to be the only 
subspecies found in the Utah population. 
Later Behle and Ghiselin (1958:7-8) found 
the race in northeastern Utah to be E. t. 
adastus, as did Twomey (1942:412). Snyder 
(1953:7) considered the northeastern Utah 
birds to be extimus. However, neither 
adastus nor extimus was accepted in the 
AOU Check-list (1957:343-344). In die 
thirty-second supplement to the AOU 
Check-list (American Ornithologists' Union 
1973:415-416) the flycatchers formerly 
grouped in the species Empidonax traillii 
are divided into two species based on a dif- 
ference in vocalization. The species and 
subspecies found in the West are listed as 
E. traillii brewsteri under the common 
name of Willow Flycatcher. Empidonax 
alnoram breeds in the boreal forest areas of 
eastern North America, Canada, and Alaska. 
It could presumably appear in Utah during 
migration, but its occurrence in the state 
has not, to our knowledge, been established. 



Empidonax hammondii (Xantus) 
Hammond's Flycatcher 

Status: Hammond's Flycatcher is a 
summer resident in the conifer and aspen 
forests of mountainous sections of the state, 
especially in the Wasatch, Uinta, and Raft 
River mountains. It also appears in the 
lower valleys in spring and fall. 

Records: Of the early naturalists Allen 
and Henshaw were the only ones to record 
this species in Utah. Allen (1872b: 179) re- 
ported it from Ogden, Weber County, in 
September 1871, and Henshaw (1875:363) 
found it at Beaver, Beaver County, and at 
Cedar City, Iron County, in September and 
October 1872. Numerous specimens have 
been collected in more recent years. A 
few of these are from the following locali- 
ties: Henry Mountains, Wayne County, 
September 1929 (Stanford 1931:6); 17 miles 
east of Kamas, Summit County, 31 May 
1953 (Behle and Ghiselin 1958:8); south 
end of Deep Creek Mountains, Juab 
County, 30-31 May 1953 (Behle 1955:22); 
Zion National Park, Washington County, 
15 May 1963 (Wauer and Carter 1965:61). 

Subspecies: Johnson (1966:179-200), 
after making measurements and other com- 
parisons of some 545 specimens of this fly- 
catcher, found no morphological basis for 
division into subspecies. 

Empidonax oberholseri Phillips 
Dusky Flycatcher 

Status: This species formerly known 
under the name £. wrightii (AOU Check- 
list 1957:345) is a rather common fly- 
catcher throughout the state during the 
summer. It nests at mid-elevations where 
there is considerable brush or tall shrubs. 
In migration it is often encountered in 
woodlands along the valley streams. 

Records: Early collectors in the state 
obtained a few specimens often recorded 
as E. obscurus or E. obsecra. Two speci- 
mens in the American Museum were taken 



1976 



BIRDS OF UTAH 



127 



in Utah by Drexler, 28 May 1858 and 17 
May 1859. Ridgway (1877:543) reported it 
as being common at Parley's Park, near 
Salt Lake City, Summit County, during 
June and August 1869. Henshavv (1875: 
.361) found it at Provo, Utah County, 9 
August 1872. Recently specimens have 
been taken in nearly all counties of the 
state from April tlirough September, in- 
cluding those reported by Twomey (1942: 
413), Behle (1955:22), Behle et al. (1958: 
98), and Wauer and Carter (1965:61). 

Empidonax wrightii Baird 
Cray Flycatcher 

Status: The Cray Flycatcher, fonnerly 
called E. griseus (AOU Check-list 1957: 
346), is widespread as a summer resident 



throughout the state and is perhaps the 
most common of the Empidonax flycatchers 
in the area. It inhabits pinyon-juniper 
woodlands or tall shrubby vegetation in 
more desert areas. 

Records: Because of the confusion in 
separating the several species of small fly- 
catchers of diis genus, references to this 
species in the early literature are uncertain. 
In recent years many specimens have been 
taken from most of the counties of the state. 
Some of tliese are: Twomey (1942:413), 
Behle (1955:22), Wauer and Carter (1965: 
62), and Hayward (1967:39-40). Nineteen 
specimens in the Brigham Young Univer- 
sity collection are from San Juan, Garfield, 
Grand, Uintah, Utah, Juab, Emeiy, and 
Kane counties. Dates range from early 
April to late August. 




Fig. 48. White-crowned Sparrow. Monte Cristo, Rich County, Utah, 14 July 1973. Photo by R. J. 
Erwin. 



128 



GREAT BASIN NATURALIST MEMOIRS 



No. 1 



Empidonax dijficilis hellmayri Brodkorb 
Western Flycatcher 

Status: This is a sparse breeding species 
in the mountains from 7,000 to 9,000 feet 
elevation. As nesting sites it often uses 
rocky ledges in shaded areas where water 
is nearby. It is found from late May to 
early October. 

Records: Ridgway (1877:544) collected 
two specimens at Parley's Park, east of Salt 
Lake City, Summit County, 5 August 1869. 
Allen (1872b:169) found it at Ogden, Weber 
County, in 1871, and Henshaw considered 
it to be common in cool canyons through- 
out the state although he collected no spec- 
imens. Many specimens have been taken 
in more recent years, indicating its rela- 
tively widespread distribution throughout 
the state where habitat is suitable: Navajo 
Mountain, San Juan County, 7 August 1936 
(Woodbury and Russell 1945:78); 10 miles 
west of Vernal, Uintah County, 28 May 
1937 (Twomey 1942:414); south end of 
Deep Creek Mountains, Juab County, 31 
May 1953 (Behle 1955:23); Zion National 
Park, Washington County, 25 June 1962 
(Wauer and Carter 1965:62). Brigham 
Young University collection contains speci- 
mens as follows: Salt Creek Canyon, Mt. 
Nebo, Juab County, 10 July 1931; Aspen 
Grove, Mt. Timpanogos, Utah County, 9 
June 1934; Jerico, Juab County, 6 August 
1959 (migrant); La Sal Mountains, Grand 
County, 13 July 1967. Hayward (1941:3) 
gives an account of nesting near Aspen 
Grove, Utah County, 26 June 1937. 

Subspecies: Behle (1948a:72) at first 
recognized two races of this species in 
Utah specimens that he was able to study, 
although there appeared to be considerable 
overlapping of the two. The populations 
from southeastern and central Utah as far 
north and west as the Wasatch Mountains 
are closest to the race E. d. hellmayri, 
while those of the west desert ranges are 
closer to the West Coast E. d. dijficilis. 



Later Behle (1958:23) revised his opinion 
as stated above on the basis of further 
study and wrote that "Western Flycatchers 
from all parts of Utah are referable to hell- 
mayri even though those from the mountain 
ranges of the west desert section of the 
state show an approach to dijficilis." 



Contopus sordidulus Sclater 
Western Wood Pewee 

Status: This is a common spring and 
fall migrant and summer breeder in lower 
montane forests and along valley streams. 

Records: All of the early ornithologists 
found this species either as a migrant or 
breeding bird in their travels throughout 
the state, Ridgway in 1869 (1877:538), Allen 
in 1871 (1872b:169), Merriam in 1872 (1873: 
691), and Henshaw in 1872 (1875:356). 
Many collections and observations have 
been made by more recent observers. 

Subspecies: According to an account of 
the subspecies published by Burleigh (1960: 
143-144), C. s. veliei is the breeding sub- 
species in Utah. Behle (1967:133-134) has 
reported the subspecies saturatus from a 
specimen taken in the Cedar Mountains, 
Tooele County, 27 May 1953; the sub- 
species siccicola from 10 specimens ob- 
tained from all parts of the state except the 
Uinta Basin; and the subspecies amplus 
from 5 specimens collected in the follow- 
ing localities: near Yost, Box Elder County, 
7 September 1931; North Willow Canyon, 

22 August 1953, and east Hickman's Can- 
yon, 28 August 1953, both in Stansbury 
Mountains, Tooele County; Flat Canyon, 
13 miles east of Fairview, Sanpete County, 

23 August 1950; War God Spring, Navajo 
Mountain, San Juan County, 13 August 
1936. Mayr and Short (1970:60-61) con- 
sidered some of the subspecies as proposed 
by Burleigh (1960) "unwarranted" and 
recognize only the race veliei in the western 
North American population. 



1976 



BIRDS OF UTAH 



129 



Contopus^^ borealis (Swainson) 
Olive-sided Flycatcher 

Status: A regular but not common sum- 
mer breeder in mountain coniferous forests 
throughout the state. In spring and fall mi- 
gration it occurs in wooded areas in lower 
valleys. 

Records: A specimen in the U.S. Nation- 
al Museum of Natural History was taken by 
Ridgway at Parley's Park, Summit County, 
23 June 1869 (Ridgway 1877:536). This 
species was also observed in the state by 
Merriam (1873:691), Henshaw (1875:350), 
Nelson (1875:344), and other early orni- 
thologists. It has since been collected or 
observed in most of the counties of the 
state. Brigham Young University collection 
contains seven specimens taken in Utah as 
follows: La Sal, San Juan County, 12 June 
1927; Lost Lake and Trial Lake, Uinta 
Mountains, Summit County, 12 and 29 July 
1930; Pole Canyon, Utah County, 25 May 
1945; Paria, Kane County, 20 May 1961; 
Oak Creek Camp, Garfield County, 22 June 
1963; Sheep Creek Watershed, Sevier 
County, 27 August 1968. 

Pyrocephalus rubinus flammeus 

van Rossem 

Vermilion Flycatcher 

Status: A sparse resident of the low 
deserts of southern Utah and seemingly 
confined to that part of the state. 

Records: Woodbury (1939:159) summar- 
ized the records of this bird from south- 
western Utah that were known up to that 
time. He listed several records from the 
Virgin River Valley in the vicinity of St. 
George, Hurricane, and near Zion Park, all 
located in Washington County. He also in- 
cluded a sight record by Clifton Green- 
halgh for Kanab, Kane County, 25 April 
1935. Brigham Young University collection 
contains one specimen from St. George, 21 



December 1925, and another from the same 
locality, 26 April 1936. Stanford (1944: 
151) obtained a pair of birds east of St. 
George, 10 May 1940. Wauer (1966b:351) 
obsewed one in the St. George area Christ- 
mas bird count, 28 December 1965. Wauer 
(Snider 1966:591) found a nest near St. 
George, 2 June 1966. 

Family Alaudidae 

Eremophila alpestris (Linnaeus) 
Horned Lark 

Fig. 35, p. 91 

Status: A common and sometimes abun- 
dant species through the deserts of the state 
and occasionally in the alpine. In winter 
large flocks, often consisting of several 
subspecies, appear along roadways or on 
exposed ridges where the ground is bare of 
snow. 

Records : All of the early naturalists re- 
ported the Horned Lark to be common in 
the state. It was reported by the Stansbury 
expedition (Baird 1852:318), Stevenson in 
the Uinta Mountains (1872:464), Allen 
(1872b:167), Merriam (1873:685), Nelson 
(1875:339), Henshaw (1875:310-311), Mc- 
Carthy (Baird 1876:379), Ridgway (1877: 
500), and Fisher (1893:66 67). Many hun- 
dreds of collections and obsei^vations have 
been made in recent years. 

Subspecies: A strong tendency of this 
species toward subspeciation as well as its 
migratory and wandering habits during the 
nonbreeding season has led to considerable 
confusion in the subspecific identification 
of die Utah population. Behle ( 1942a :205- 
316) has reviewed the Horned Larks of 
western North America in much detail after 
examination of many hundreds of speci- 
mens. From his studies it would appear 
that two races can be identified in the 
breeding population in Utah. The sub- 
species E. a. utahensis is the breeding form 



^^Mayr and Short (1970:60) agree with Phillips et al. (1964) that the genus name Nuttalornis formerly 
used for this species "does not comprise a monotypic genus." 



130 



GREAT BASIN NATURALIST MEMOIRS 



No. 1 




Fig. 49. Brewer's Sparrow. Vernon, Tooele County, Utah, 2 June 1954. Photo by R. D. Porter and 
R. J. Erwin. 



in the Great Basin section of the state west- some intergradation between leucolaema 

ward of the Wasatch Mountains and cen- and E. a. occidentalis in southeastern 

tral plateaus, while E. a. leucolaema breeds Utah (Behle 1960b: 17, 19-20). Migrant and 

in the desert lands and high alpine mea- wintering birds may consist not only of 

dows of eastern Utah. There seems to be breeding subspecies but also of several 



1976 



BIRDS OF UTAH 



131 



Other subspecies such as E. a. arcticola, E. 
a. enthymia, E. a. hoyti, and E. a. merrilli 
(Behle 1943b: 153-156). 

Family Hirundinidae 

Tachycineta thalassina lepida M earns 
Violet-green Swallow 

Status: This species is a common sum- 
mer resident throughout the state where it 
breeds most often at higher elevations. It 
frequently nests in holes in aspens often in 
close association with Tree Swallows. The 
two species sometimes compete for nest- 
ing holes. Violet-green Swallows may use 
holes in rocky ledges for nesting sites, 
especially at lower elevations. From mid- 
April through May and again in August 
and September these birds appear in large 
migratory flocks especially near lakes and 
reservoirs. 

Records: Ridgway (1877:444) reported 
it from the vicinity of Salt Lake City, Salt 
Lake County, in May 1869. He found it 
nesting in cliffs. Allen (1872b:167) found it 
near Ogden, Weber County, 11 September 
1872, and Henshaw (1875:218) considered 
it to be an inhabitant of high mountains. 
Merriam (1873:677) found it rather com- 
mon in Ogden Canyon, Weber County, in 
June 1872. Occurrence of this species in 
more recent years has been recorded from 
every county of the state. Wauer (1969: 
332) reported it nesting at an extremely low 
elevation (1,950 feet) in Beaver Dam Wash, 
Washington County, 18 May 1966. 

Tachycineta hicolor (Vieillot) 

Tree Swallow 

Fig. 37, p. 94 

Status: A regular breeding species 
throughout the state, especially in the moun- 
tains where it nests in holes in aspens or 
other trees. In spring and late summer 
Tree Swallows appear in large flocks often 
in company with other species of swallows. 
Spring migration occurs from mid-March 



through May, and fall migration takes 
place through August and September. 

Records: Specimens were collected by 
the early ornithologists. Ridgway (1877: 
443) obtained specimens in the vicinity of 
Salt Lake City, Salt Lake County, in May 
and July 1869. Henshaw (1875:217) found 
it in Utah County in August 1872. Cary 
(field notes 9-12 July 1907) found it nesting 
in aspens in the La Sal Mountains, San 
Juan County. Many recent records of nest- 
ing have been reported in the timbered 
areas of the state. 

Progne suhis (Linnaeus) 
Purple Martin 

Status: A sparse and localized breeding 
species in the mountains throughout the 
state where it nests in holes in aspens or 
dead conifers. Judging from the reports of 
early naturalists in the area, the martin 
was far more common in the early years 
of settlement in the state than it is at the 
present time. It remains in Utah from May 
through August. In migration it is occa- 
sionally seen with flocks of swallows. 

Records: Ridgway (1877:439) found it 
abundant in the aspens around Parley's 
Park, Summit County, east of Salt Lake 
City, during the summer of 1869. Henshaw 
(1875:214) reported its occurrence through- 
out Utah in large colonies, both in towns 
and cities as at Salt Lake City, Salt Lake 
County, where it was breeding in bird 
boxes. In coniferous forests of the moun- 
tains it nested in abandoned woodpecker 
holes. We are not aware of any such large 
colonies in the state at the present time, 
although it is found consistently in moun- 
tainous areas especially where there are 
aspen forests and ponds or lakes over which 
the birds feed. More recent records of the 
species have been published by Behle and 
Selander (1952:28) and by Hayward (1958: 
406). Utah specimens in Brigham Young 
University collection are as follows: Aspen 
Grove, Mt. Timpanogos, Utah County, 22 
June 1931; Skyline Drive, Sanpete County, 



132 



GREAT BASIN NATURALIST MEMOIRS 



No. 1 



23 July I960; Sheep Creek Watershed, 
Sevier County, 15 August 1969. 

Subspecies: (Behle 1968a:166) has recog- 
nized the Utah population of Purjole Mar- 
tin as a new subspecies, P. s. arhoricola, 
characterized by being larger tlian other 
races and with females whiter on the fore- 
head and underparts. The type locality 
is given as Pay son Lakes, Mt. Nebo, Utah 
Count\', elevation 8,300 feet, 10 July 1950. 

Stelgidopteryx ruficolUs (Vieillot) 
Rough-winged Swallow 

Status: The Rough-winged Swallow is 
a common breeding species in the lower 
valleys throughout the state. It nests in 
colonies in earthen banks along streams. 
It is present in the area from about mid- 
April to late September. In spring and 
fall migration it appears in large flocks. 

Records: Ridgway (1877:446) found it 
common in the river valleys in Salt Lake 
Valley where it nested in earthen banks. 
Allen (1872b:167) considered it to be mod- 
erately common around Ogden, Weber 
County, in 1871. Henshaw (1875:219-220) 
reported finding it exceedingly abundant 
along the banks of the Provo River, Utah 
County, 26 July 1872. Fisher (1893:112) 
reported that Merriam considered it the 
commonest swallow in the Santa Clara 
Valley, Washington County, in May 1891. 
Numerous more recent records indicate 
that it is still a common species through- 
out the state. 

Subspecies: The breeding subspecies 
found in most of Utah is S. r. serripennis 
(Behle 1958:24; Hayward 1967:41). Wauer 
(1969:332) obtained a female of the race 
psammochroa at Beaver Dam Wash, Wash- 
ington County, 14 April 1966. This bird 
was flying about an earth bank with holes 
in it which Wauer assumed were its nest- 
ing sites. This assumption was further sub- 
stantiated when he examined the ovary 
and found it to be 11 X 3.5 mm. If this 
bird was breeding at Beaver Dam Wash, 
the breeding range of this race would be 



extended northward from Flagstaff, Ari- 
zona, about 180 miles (Phillips et al. 1964: 
97). Further work needs to be carried out 
in soudiwestem Utah as Wauer (1969:332) 
also collected the subspecies serripennis 
in the same general locality during the 
breeding season. 

Riparia riparia riparia (Linnaeus) 
Bank Swallow 

Status: A common summer resident in 
lowlands where it nests in colonies in ver- 
tical earthen banks. In spring and late 
summer Bank Swallows appear in large 
migrating flocks. They are especially con- 
spicuous in late August when at dusk they 
fly into trees or willow patches to roost for 
the night. 

Records: Ridgway (1877:445) found it 
nesting in Weber River Valley in June 1869, 
and Henshaw (1875:220) found it nesting in 
colonies with Rough-winged Swallows in 
July 1872. Others of the early naturalists 
reported it for various parts of the state. 
There are numerous records in more recent 
years. Wauer (1969:332) considered it to 
be an occasional visitant in the Virgin River 
Basin from 25 March to 19 May, and 7 to 17 
September. 

Hirundo rustica erythrogaster Boddaert 
Barn Swallow 

Status: The Barn Swallow is a wide- 
spread breeding species throughout the 
state where it nests in cliffs or in buildings. 
The birds often nest singly or in small 
groups, depending on the availability of 
nesting sites. During spring migration in 
April and early May and again in late sum- 
mer and early fall, flocking occurs often 
with other species of swallows. 

Records: Most of the early ornitholo- 
gists doing fieldwork in the state reported 
it in their writings. Ridgway (1877:441) 
found it around Salt Lake City, Salt Lake 
County, and recorded its nesting in July 
1869. Henshaw (1875:216) took specimens 



BIRDS OF UTAH 




Fig. 50. Black-throated Sparrow. Camel Back Mountain, Tooele County, Utah, no date. Photo by 
R. D. Porter. 



at Provo in July and at Fairfield (both in 
Utah County) in August 1872. Many ob- 
servations of birds and nesting activities 
have been reported in recent years. 

Petrochelidon pyrrhonota (Vieillot) 

Cliff" Swallow 

Fig. 38, p. 97 

Status: This is perhaps the most com- 
mon and widespread of the species of 
swallows inhabiting the state during the 
summer months. It nests in large colonies 
by attaching its mud nests to overhanging 
cliffs, eves of buildings, and the undersides 
of bridges. It is most common at lower 
elevations. In spring and early fall it may 
appear in large migrating flocks, often in 
company with other species of swallows. 

FIecords: Escalante (Cones 1899:359; 
Auerbach 1943:61) was the first to record 
Cliff" Swallows in what is now called Deep 
Creek, Duchesne County, 19 September 
1776. Ridgway (1877:440) considered this 
to be the most abundant swallow in the 
Great Basin where he noted nesting on 
cliffs and in buildings. All of the early 
ornithologists referred to the great num- 



bers of this species, and there are numerous 
records for recent years. 

Subspecies: Behle (1960b:19) stated diat 
two races of this species occur in Utah. Ac- 
cording to him, P. p. hypopolia is found in 
the western part of the state and P. p. 
pyrrhonota in the eastern portion. Worthen 
(1968:285-287) regarded die Washington 
County breeding population as P. p. 
tachina and considered the birds elsewhere 
in the state to be intergrades between hy- 
popolia and pyrrhonota. Behle (1976a:70), 
on the basis of a large sample of specimens, 
indicated that three races exist in Utah: 
P. p. tachina in the extreme southwestern 
part of the state, P. p. hypopolia in western 
Utah, P. p. pyrrhonota in eastern Utah, with 
a widespread inteiTnediate population 
between hypopolia and pyrrhonota extend- 
ing across Utah. 

Family Motacillidae 

Anthus spinoletta (Linnaeus) 
Water Pipit 

Status: A fairly common breeding 
species in the mountains and high plateaus 



134 



GREAT BASIN NATURALIST MEMOIRS 



No. 1 



of the state at elevations near or above 
timber line. Water Pipits winter in the 
lower valleys near water, sometimes in 
large flocks. 

Records: All of the early ornithologists 
encountered the pipit in the state but 
chiefly during periods of migration (Steven- 
son 1872:463; Allen 1872:166; Henshaw 
1875:187). Relatively little work was done 
by these observers at high elevations where 
the species breeds. Many specimens of both 
breeding and wintering birds have been 
taken in more recent years. 

Subspecies: The breeding subspecies of 
the state is A. s. alticola, and this race is also 
commonly found among the wintering 
birds. A. s. rubescens has been reported as 
a migrant to southern Utah (Behle 1943a:60; 
Check-list of Birds of the World 1960 [9] : 
160). Porter and Bushman (1956:153) re- 
corded two specimens of this race, one 
collected at Orr's Ranch, Skull Valley, 1 
May 1954, and the other at Government 
Creek, four miles north of Camel Back 
Mountain, 12 May 1954, both in Tooele 
County. Porter (1954:363) summarized 
several records of A. s. pacificus from St. 
George, Washington County, and from 
Tooele County, taken in April, September, 
and December. He also reported A. s. 
geophilus collected near Simpson Moun- 
tain, Tooele County, 18 October 1952. The 
latter race is not recognized in the Ameri- 
can Ornithologists' Union Check-list of 
North American Birds (1957:457-458) or 
the Check-list of Birds of the World (1960 
[9] : 160-162). Presumably it is a difficult 
race to distinguish from A. s. pacificus 
(Phillips etal. 1964:138). 

Family Laniidae 

Lanius ludovicianus^^ Linna.eus 

Loggerhead Shrike 

Fig. 39, p. 100 

Status: The Loggerhead Shrike is a 



rather common breeding species in the 
lower valleys and on the foothills through- 
out the state. It is an inhabitant of desert 
shrub communities and pinyon-juniper 
woodlands. There is some evidence that 
there is a general drifting southward in 
winter to the lower and warmer valleys of 
the southern part of the state. 

Records: Specimens of this shrike were 
taken or observed by several of the early 
naturalists. Ridgway (1877:464) found it 
nesting at Salt Lake City, Salt Lake County, 
24 and 27 May 1869, and on Antelope Is- 
land, Great Salt Lake, 4 and 7 June 1869. 
He also reported it nesting at Promontory 
Point, Box Elder County, June 1869, and 
Fremont Island, 16 August 1869. Allen 
(1872b:167, 176) found fliis species "quite 
common" in Ogden, Weber County, during 
the fall of 1871 (1 September to 8 October). 
Merriam (1873:677) found shrikes at Salt 
Lake City, 11 June 1872, and Nelson (1875: 
346) found them common about infre- 
quented fields in late July and early August 
1872. Henshaw (1875:235) during the same 
year collected a specimen at Fillmore, 
Millard County, 15 November. In 1891 
Merriam observed them in Washington 
County, southwestern Utah, at Beaver Dam 
Mountains 10 May; Santa Clara Valley, 
11-15 May; and Mountain Meadows, 17 
May (Fisher 1893:115). Bafley (field notes) 
found it wintering along the Virgin River, 
Washington County, in January 1889. In 
more recent times numerous collection and 
sight records have been published, indicat- 
ing that the populations are well sustained 
at the present time. 

Subspecies: There has been considerable 
confusion regarding the subspecific status 
of the shrikes occurring in Utah. The race 
L. /. nevadensis, proposed by Miller (1930: 
156) as the breeding form in the Great 
Basin and elsewhere in the West, is placed 
in synonomy under L. /. gamheli in Check- 
list of Birds of the World (1960[9] :353). It 



^^There is evidence that L. ludovicianus might eventually be considered conspecific with L. excubitor 
(Mayr and Short 1970:71). 



1976 



BIRDS OF UTAH 



135 



now seems that the breeding subspecies 
throughout most of the state is L. I. gambeli 
with a possibihty that L. /. sonoriensis may 
nest in extreme southwestern Utah (Behle 
1943a:61). 

Lanius excubitor invictus Grinnell 
Northern Shrike 

Status: The Northern Shrike is an un- 
common but regular wintering species 
throughout Utah. In the northern part of 
the state it appears to hirgely replace the 
breeding L. ludovicianus diat drifts soudi- 
ward in winter. 

Records: McCarthy, the taxidermist with 
Simpson's party, collected three specimens 
at Camp Floyd, Utah County, in 1859 
(Baird 1876:378). Henshaw (1875:233) ob- 
tained one specimen and observed others 
late in the fall of 1872 in soudiern Utah. 
Utah specimens in the Brigham Young 
University collection are as follows: Provo, 
Utah County, 2 November 1928, 13 Febm- 
ary 1958, 15 December 1962; Bridgeland, 
Duchesne County, 31 December 1955. 

Family Bombycillidae 

Botnbijcilla garrulus pallidiceps Reichenow 
Bohemian Waxwing 

Status: An irregular but consistent 
winter resident throughout the state. Large 
flocks of the species appear in winter 
especially around parks or homes where 
there is an abundance of berries on orna- 
mental shrubs or dried faiits left on trees. 
They wander from place to place wherever 
food is available and ordinarily do not 
remain long in one locality. 

Records: We have no records of this 
species in Utah until after the turn of tiiis 
centuiy when Goodwin (1905:52) noted it 
in Provo, Utah County, from mid-December 
to the first week of April. He also stated 
that he had seen them in Provo each 
winter from 1898 1899 to 1905 except 1900 
1901 when none was obsei'ved. Many 



collections and observation records of this 
species are known. Some of these are: 
Stanford (1938:142), Logan, Cache County, 
16 March 1932; Hardy and Higgins (1940: 
105), St. George, Washington County, late 
December; Behle (1958:29), Park Valley, 
Box Elder County, 29 December 1951; 
Wauer and Carter (1965:72), Zion National 
Park, Washington County, 20 December 
1965. Brigham Young University collection 
contains some 27 specimens from the state. 
These specimens are mostly from the cen- 
tral Utah valleys with dates ranging from 
early November through March. 

Bombycilla cedrorum Vieillot 
Cedar Waxwing 

Status: The Cedar Waxwing is a resi- 
dent of Utah throughout the year, although 
it appears most abundantly in winter. In 
winter it is often seen in large flocks, some- 
times in company with Bohemian Wax- 
wings. Like the Bohemian it feeds on dried 
berries and fruits that remain on bushes or 
trees during the winter. Judging from the 
scarcity of reports by early naturalists in 
the state, die Cedar Waxwing is likely more 
common now than formerly owing possibly 
to the greater supply of food on introduced 
shrubs and fruit trees. In summer it nests in 
small numbers in woodlands along streams, 
canals, or in parks (Croft 1932:91). 

Records: Most of the early reports of 
this species seem to have been based on 
the observation of Allen (1872b: 167), who 
regarded it as rather common around 
Ogden, Weber County, in September 1871. 
Numerous reports in more recent years 
indicate its continued occurrence through- 
out the state during all months of the year: 
Escalante, Garfield County, 7 June 1940 
(Hayward 1967:48); four miles east of Pine 
Valley, Washington County, 13 September 
1941 (Behle 1943a:61); Yost, Box Elder 
County, 21 May 1954 (Behle 1958:29). Sev- 
eral pairs have been known to nest on the 
Brigham Young University campus (Hay- 
ward field notes). Bee and Hutchings 



136 



GREAT BASIN NATURALIST MEMOIRS 



No. 1 




Fig. 51. Black-throated Sparrow. Camel Back Mountain, Tooele C;ounty, Ut;ih, 12 June 1954. Photo 
by R. D. Porter. 



(1942:80) recorded a 
County, 1 July. 



nest at Lehi, Utah 



Phainopepla nitens lepida Xdn Tyne 
Phainopepla 

Status: This is an uncommon resident 
in southwestern Utah in the Virgin River 
Valley. In this area it is primarily a sum- 
mer resident, although some may remain 
throughout the year. 

Records: Fisher (1893:113) reported that 
the Pliainopepla was common in the lower 
Santa Clara Valley, Washington County, 
11-15 June 1891, and that "several pairs 
were breeding in the village of St. George." 
Behle ( 1943a :61) recorded three specimens 
taken at Anderson's Ranch, Washington 
County, 28 June 1932 and 5 July 1932. 
Brigham Young University has a specimen 
from St. George taken 19 June 1933 and one 
from Anderson's Ranch taken 18 May 1934. 



Hardy and Higgins (1940:105) reported 
specimens from St. George, 15 November 
1938 and 10 May 1939. Behle et al. (1958: 
72-73) obtained six specimens two miles 
south of Kanab, Kane County, 18-19 June 
1947. Wauer (1969:333) states that it is 
found in southern Utah from 1 April to 15 
November. 

Family Cinclidae 



Cinclus mexicanus unicolor Bonaparte 
Dipper 

Status: A common resident the year 
around along mountain streams and oc- 
casionally along valley streams where there 
is swift water. 

Records: This species was reported con- 
sistently by all of the early naturalists who 
did fieldwork along canyon streams. Ridg- 
way (1877:407) found it nesting in Pack's 



1976 



BIRDS OF UTAH 



137 



Canyon, Uinta Mountains, 7 July 
Allen (1872b:166) obtained 14 specimens in 
Ogden Canyon, Weber County, 2 October 

1871, and Merriam (1873:671) noted it in 
the same area in June 1872. Henshaw (1875: 
159) reported it as being particularly nu- 
merous along Provo River, Utah County, in 

1872, and Birdseye (field notes) found it 
near Pine Valley, Washington County, 13 
October 1909. Many recent records indi- 
cate its continuing occurrence in most 
mountainous sections of the state. There 
are also a number of records from lower 
valley streams. Brigham Young University 
has specimens from near Provo, on Provo 
River, 4 December 1932; Escalante, Gar- 
field County, 9 June 1936; Fruita, Wayne 
County, 8 June 1960. The species also oc- 
curs and nests in Zion Canyon (Wauer and 
Carter 1965:67). 

Family Troglodytidae 

Campylorhynchus hninneicapillus couesi 

Sharpe 

Cactus Wren 

Status: A year-round resident of the 
lower Virgin River Valley of southwestern 
Utah. It nests in thorny or spiny plants of 
the hot desert lands. 

Records: Henshaw (1875:178-179) took 
a specimen and saw two other birds a few 
miles north of St. George, Washington 
County, 27 October 1872. Merriam (Fisher 
1893:131) found it common up to 3,800 feet 
on the Beaver Dam slope and in Santa 
Clara Valley, Washington County, May 
1891. All known records are from the 
Washington County area. Brigham Young 
University has two specimens from near St. 
George, 27 May 1920 and 5 October 1935. 
Hardy and Higgins (1940:104) collected 
two males three miles west of the summit 
of the Beaver Dam Mountains on 17 Feb- 
ruary 1941. Behle (1943a:55) found this 
species to be common in the Joshua tree 
belt on the west slope of the Beaver Dam 
Mountains. He also noted several nests, 
all of which were located in cholla cactus. 



Salpinctes obsoletus obsoletus (Say) 
Rock Wren 
Fig. 40, p. 103 

Status: A common resident throughout 
Utah, breeding in rocky outcroppings at all 
elevations from low deserts to the alpine. 
In winter the Rock Wren drifts to lower 
elevations and southward. 

Records: This species was observed or 
collected by early naturalists in the state 
and reported by all of diem as being very 
common. Ridgway (1877:419) found it in 
suitable localities in 1869; Allen (1872b: 
166) in 1871 found it abundant in the Wa- 
satch Mountains; Henshaw (1875:180-181) 
recorded it in 1872 as especially common in 
southern Utah as did Merriam in the Virgin 
River Valley in 1891 (Fisher 1893:132). 
Many records have been published, the 
more recent ones being: Woodbury and 
Russell (1945:102), near Bluff, San Juan 
County, 27 October 1931; Twomey (1942: 
426), Green Lake, Daggett County, Uinta 
Mountains, 13 July 1937; Behle (1955:25), 
north slope of Mount Ibapah, Juab County, 
2 July 1950; Wauer and Carter (1965:69), 
Zion National Park, Washington County, 
18 June 1963. 

Salpinctes mexicanus conspersus (Ridgway) 
Canyon Wren 

Status: An abundant resident of cliffs in 
canyon land countiy of southeastern Utah, 
becoming common to sparse in similar 
habitats northward. Nesting takes place in 
crevices in the rocky cliffs. 

Records: Ridgway (1873:172) regarded 
this wren as rare in the canyons near Salt 
Lake City, Salt Lake County. Henshaw 
(1875:181-182) found it in the cliffs and 
canyons of southern Utah and collected 
specimens in October 1872. Merriam 
(Fisher 1893:133) noted it breeding in the 
lower Virgin River Valley, Washington 
County, in available cliff habitats in May 
1891. Loring (field notes) found it at Bluff, 
San Juan County, in November 1893. 



138 



GREAT BASIN NATURALIST MEMOIRS 



No. 1 



Brigham Young University has specimens 
taken in canyons east of Provo, Utah 
County, 4 February 1933, 27 July 1944, and 
4 October 1946. 

Cistothorus palustris (Wilson) 

Long-billed Marsh Wren 

Fig. 54, p. 142 

Status: An abundant species in the 
marshlands around Great Salt Lake and 
Utah Lake and present in other lowland 
areas of the state in lesser numbers. 

Records: Early records of this species in 
the state include those of Allen (1872b:166), 
at Ogden, Weber County; Henshaw (1874: 
3), who considered it exceedingly abundant 
in marshy areas in the state; and Ridgway 
(1877:425-426) at various localities in Utah. 
Many records of more recent years have 
been published. Presnell (1935b:204) did 
not report this species from Zion National 
Park, Washington County, but Henshaw 
(1875:186) collected a specimen at Toquer- 
ville, Washington County, a few miles west 
of Zion, 15 October 1872. More recently 
Wauer and Carter (1965:68) considered it 
to be a fairly common migrant in areas 
near Zion Canyon below the high country 
and believed that it has increased in recent 
years. 

Subspecies: The race C. p. plesius ap- 
pears to be the breeding form throughout 
most of the state, but Behle ( 1948a :75-76) 
considered some of his specimens from St. 
George, Washington County, and Kanab, 
Kane County, to be of the subspecies C. p. 
aestuarinus. The latter race may range 
northward along the Colorado River an 
unknown distance from its more usual 
range in southern California and Arizona. 

Thryomanes bewickii eremophilus 

Oberholser 

Bewick's Wren 

Status: This wren is primarily an in- 
habitant of pinyon-juniper forests, par- 
ticularly of southern and eastern Utah, ex- 



tending its breeding range as far north in 
the state as the Uinta Basin. 

Records: Henshaw (1875:183) found the 
wren at Iron City, Iron County, 6 October 
1872, and at several localities in Washing- 
ton County about the same time. Merriam 
(Fisher 1893:134) and Birdseye (field notes) 
also reported this species from Washington 
County in 1891 and 1909. More recent 
fieldwork has resulted in many records 
from the pinyon-juniper areas of eastern 
Utah (Killpack and Hayward 1958:23; 
Hayward 1967:45). The species appears to 
be less common in the Great Basin. A 
specimen at the University of Utah was 
taken at Benmore, Tooele County, 10 June 
1934, and another in Utah State University 
was collected at Vernon, Tooele County, 2 
May 1936 (Stanford 1938: 141). 

Troglodytes troglodytes (Linnaeus) 
Winter Wren 

Status: A sparse winter resident of die 
state and occasionally reported breeding 
(Treganza, near Boulter, Juab County, 11 
June 1911). 

Records: Collection records of the 
species are scattered and few. Tliere is a 
specimen in the U.S. National Museum of 
Natural History from Provo, Utah County, 
6 November 1888, collected by Vernon 
Bailey. Brigham Young University has a 
specimen taken by C. Cottam in Rock 
Canyon, near Provo, Utah County, 26 
December 1927. Other records are as 
follows: Boulter, Juab County, 11 June 
1909 (Treganza); Santa Clara Creek, Wash- 
ington County, 16 March 1940 (Hardy and 
Higgins 1940:103); Capitol Reef Monu- 
ment, Wayne County, 5 November 1941 
(Behle et al. 1958:67). Several sight records 
have been published: Behle (1958:27), 
Clear Creek Canyon, Raft River Mountains, 
Box Elder County, 5 August 1936; Grater 
(1943:76), Zion National Park, Washing- 
ton County, 1 Februaiy 1942; Utah Audu- 
bon News (1964:2), Salt Lake City, Salt 
Lake County, 22 December 1963. Winter 



1976 



BIRDS OF UTAH 



139 



wrens were reported by Kingery (1976:103) 
for Logan, Cache County, and Zion Na- 
tional Park in die fall of 1975. 

Subspecies: Owing no doubt to die 
paucity of specimens, there has been no 
careful study of the subspecific status of the 
Utah population of winter wrens. Accord- 
ing to Check-list of Birds of die World 
(1960 [9] :416), Utah would most likely fall 
within the range of T. t. pacificus. 

Troglodytes aedon parkmanii Audubon 
House Wren 
Fig. 41, p. 106 

Status: The House Wren is a common 
summer resident in wooded areas of both 
mountains and lowlands. It is present from 
late April through October over most of 
the state, and a few remain over winter in 
the low Virgin River Valley (Wauer and 
Carter 1965:68). This species nests in holes 
in trees or under loose bark and frequently 
in abandoned buildings. 

Records: Ridgway (1877:422-4) took 
five nests in Parley's Park, Summit County, 



east of Salt Lake City, 23-27 June 1869. 
Henshaw (1875:184-185) noted that it was 
common at elevations up to 10,000 feet in 
the areas of the state visited by him. In 
more recent times many additional records 
have been obtained. 

Family Mimidae 

Dumetelh carolinensis (Linnaeus) 
Gray Catbird 

Status: The Gray Catbird is a common 
summer resident throughout the state 
where it lives in thickets along the lower 
valley streams or ditch banks and in 
similar habitats around dwellings and 
parks. The bulk of the population arrives 
in late May or early June and remains until 
October. A few may winter here. Kashin 
(1974:488) reported one at Salt Lake City, 
Salt Lake County, 16 December 1973. 

Records: During his observations of 
1869, Ridgway (1877:399) found diis species 
to be one of the most abundant birds in the 
Wasatch region. Allen (1872b: 165) reported 




Fig. 52. Sage Sparrow. 
R. J. Ervvin. 



Rush Valley, Tooele County, Utah, 31 May 1954. Photo by R. D. Porter and 



140 



GREAT BASIN NATURALIST MEMOIRS 



No. 1 



it as common along the Weber River, 
Weber County, 1 September to 8 October 
1871. Other early records for Utah were 
made by Merriam (1873:670, 705), Henshaw 
(1875:153), and Vernon Bailey (field notes). 
Additional notations of this species are 
continuously being made to the present 
time. 

Mimus polyglottos leucopterus (Vigors) 
Mockingbird 



Mockingbird 
Fig. 42, p. 109 



Status: A summer breeding inhabitant 
of tall semidesert brushlands throughout 
most of the state. Most common in the 
lower valleys of the Virgin River and 
Colorado River and becoming less com- 
mon northward. 

Records: The early naturalist explorers 
did not report the Mockingbird from the 
northern part of the state. However, Mer- 
riam (Fisher 1893:127) found it to be com- 
mon in Washington County in May 1891. 
Rowley collected specimens for the Ameri- 
can Museum of Natural History at Bluff, 
San Juan County, in May 1892 (Woodbury 
and Russell 1945:103). Birdseye (field 
notes) reported it from St. George, Wash- 
ington County, in 1892. Numerous more 
recent records have been reported includ- 
ing Tanner (1936:185-187), who sum- 
marized Utah records to that date; Stan- 
ford (1944:151), Ouray Valley, Uintah 
County, 6 June 1940; Behle (1960a:41), 
Moab, Grand County, 8 June 19.56; Wauer 
and Carter (1965:69), Zion National Park, 
24 November 1964. More northern breed- 
ing records include those of Bee and Hutch- 
ings (1942:78), who found them nesting in 
tall greasewood west of Lehi, Utah County, 
in late May and June. 

Oreoscoptes montanus (Townsend) 
Sage Thrasher 

Status: The Sage Thrasher is a common 
summer resident of the lower desertlands 
where it nests in greasewood or tall sage- 



brush communities. It is found in Utah 
from March through October. 

Records: The former abundance of the 
Sage Thrasher in Utah is indicated by the 
numerous collection and obsei^vation 
records of all of the early naturalist ex- 
plorers. Ridgway (1877:402) seems to be 
the first to have recorded it and took nests 
and birds from Antelope and other islands 
of Great Salt Lake in June 1869. Other 
early reports include Allen (1872b:166), 
Ogden, Weber County, September 1871; 
Merriam (1873:670), Ogden, 11 June 1872; 
Henshaw (1875:149), central and southern 
Utah, fall of 1872. Hundreds of additional 
records have accumulated from every 
county of the state in recent years. 

Toxostoma rufum longicauda (Baird) 
Brown Thrasher 

Status: The Brown Thrasher seems to 
be of casual occurrence in Utah. Surely it 
is rare, although there is some evidence 
that it may nest within the state. 

Records: Grantham (1936:85) banded a 
specimen at Zion Canyon, Washington 
County, 7 December 1935. It was later 
preserved as a specimen. Wauer and 
Carter (1965:69) reported that Presnell ob- 
served one in Zion Canyon in late March 
1936. Behle (1954b:313) reported a speci- 
men taken in Salt Lake City (Tracy Aviary), 
Salt Lake County, 25 June 1953. Brigham 
Young University has a specimen from 
Roosevelt, Duchesne County, 29 December 

1954. Hayward (1967:45) erroneously re- 
corded this specimen as 29 December 

1955. Hayward (1967:45) saw one at the 
junction of the San Rafael and Green Rivers, 
Emery County, 4 June 1957. Behle et al. 
(1964:454) found it at Fish Springs, Juab 
County, 9 June 1961. Carter (1967 mimeo- 
graphed list) recorded a sight record from 
Arches National Monument, Grand County, 
25 September 1967. Kingery (1973:94) 
reported one observed at Fish Springs, 
Juab County, 27 October 1972. Kingery 



1976 



BIRDS OF UTAH 



141 



(1975:96) reported them at Salt Lake City 
in early September 1974; Bear River, Box 
Elder County, 27 October to 12 November 
1974; Canyonlands National Park, San Juan 
County, 4 December 1974. 



Toxostoma hendirei bendirei (Coues) 
Bendire's Thrasher 

Status: A sparse summer resident in 
southern Utah. 

Records: Early naturalists who visited 
southern Utah did not record Bendire's 
Thrasher in their lists. Brigham Young Uni- 
versity has a specimen from Monument 
Valley, San Juan County, 4 July 1927. 
Cottam, who collected the specimen, re- 
ported seeing several birds in that area. A 
specimen in the University of Utah collec- 
tion was taken near Escalante, Garfield 
County, 9 May 1937 (Woodbuiy 1939:159). 
Behle (1960a:41) recorded a sight record at 
the top of Lake Canyon, San Juan County, 
14 July 1958. Kingeiy (1971:886) reported 
a Bendire's Thrasher seen twice during tlie 
breeding season of 1971 at Vernon, Tooele 



County. Three were observed at the same 
locality on 24 May 1975 (Kingery 1975:888). 

Toxostoma lecontei lecontei Lawrence 
Le Conte's Thrasher 

Status: Le Conte's Thrasher appears to 
be confined in Utah to the Virgin River 
Valley and die south slope of the Beaver 
Dam Mountains in Washington County. It 
has been reported rarely from Utah, al- 
though it is rather common in soudiern 
Nevada. 

Records: Fisher (1893:130) listed a 
specimen in the U.S. National Museum of 
Natural Histoiy taken in Beaver Dam 
Mountains, Washington County, 10 May 
1891, by C. H. Merriam. Merriam in his 
notes indicated tliat it was rather common 
on the west side of this mountain range 
where it lived in close association with the 
Cactus Wren. Presnell (1935b:205) re- 
ported it as having been observed near 
Shunes Creek, Zion National Park, Wash- 
ington County (no date given). Wauer 
(1964:292) saw two at St. George on 19 
December 1963. 




Fig. 53. Sage Sparrow. 
R. J. Erwin. 



Rush Valley, Tooele County, Utah, 31 May 1954. Photo by R. D. Porter and 



142 



GREAT BASIN NATURALIST MEMOIRS 



No. 1 




Fig. 54. Long-billed Marsh Wren. Ogden Bay, Weber County, Utah, 1 July 1969. Photo by R. J. 
Erwin. 



Toxostoma dorsale coloradense van Rossem 
Crissal Thrasher 

Status: An uncommon resident of the 
Virgin River Valley in southwestern Utah. 
Also reported from Kanab, Kane County. 
Judging from available records, it is the 



most common of the four representatives of 
the genus found in southern Utah. 

Records: Early records of tliis species 
include a specimen in the U.S. National 
Museum of Natural History taken by 
Palmer at St. George, Washington County, 
9 June 1870. Henshaw (1874:2) saw this 



1976 



BIRDS OF UTAH 



143 



species in St. George in 1872. Yarrow and 
Henshaw (field notes) reported it there in 
Januaiy 1889 (specimen in U.S. National 
Museum of Natural Histoiy). Merriam 
(Fisher 1893:130) found it breeding in the 
lower Santa Clara Valley, Washington 
County, 16 May 1891. Brigham Young 
University has four specimens taken at St. 
George in late December 1926 and 8 April 
1933. Behle et al. (1964:454) obtained seven 
specimens from City Springs area, St. 
George, 31 December 1960, 20 June 1961, 
25-26 May 1962. Wauer (1964:292) re- 
ported seeing four at St. George, 19 Decem- 
ber 1963. Lund (1968a:360) obsei-ved a 
Crissal Thrasher at Kanab, Kane County, 
20 December 1967. One was also seen at 
St. George, 25 September 1974 (Kingeiy 
1975:96). 

Family Muscicapidae 

Sialia mexicana Swainson 
Western Bluebird 

Status: The Western Bluebird is a 
species common to central and southern 
Utah where it lives in lower mountain and 
pinyon-juniper communities. There is 
some altitudinal migration in spring and 
autumn, and the species winters at lower 
elevations in flocks. Several pairs were 
found nesting in a grove of aspens near the 
Kanab Sand Dunes, Kane County, 7 May 
1957 (Hayward 1967:46). 

Records: Early naturalists in Utah did 
not mention this species in Utah. A speci- 
men in the U.S. National Museum of 
Natural History was taken by Bailey near 
Kanab, Kane County, 26 December 1888. 
Sight records were reported by Gary on the 
lower eastern slope of the La Sal Moun- 
tains, Grand or San Juan counties, July 
1907 (field notes). Nelson and Birdseye 
(field notes) observed it near Kanab and in 
Washington County in 1909. There are 
numerous more recent records and collec- 
tions. 

Subspecies: Both the race S. m. occi- 



dentalis and S. m. bairdi appear in the Utah 
population. The former seems to be a 
wintering and transient race, while bairdi 
is the breeding subspecies. Several of the 
earlier records of occidentalis, especially 
nesting records, may be questioned. Behle 
(1941b: 183) reported a specimen of occi- 
dentalis (transient) taken near Moab, 
Grand County, 6 April 1938, and Twomey 
(1944a:89) collected one on 21 October 
1937 at Kanab, Kane County, in a flock of 
seven bairdi. A series of eight specimens 
in the Brigham Young University collection 
taken near the Kanab Sand Dunes, Kane 
County, early May 1955, are all of the race 
bairdi. These birds were in breeding con- 
dition. 



Sialia currucoides (Bechstein) 

Mountain Bluebird 

Fig. 44, p. 115 



Status: Formerly a common summer 
resident in valleys and mountains tlirough- 
out the state. Now, less common and mostly 
confined to mountains and high valleys as 
a breeding species but frequently appear- 
ing in flocks in the lower valleys during 
spring and fall migration. A few winter in 
central and southern Utah (Wauer and 
Carter 1965:70). 

Records: In the accounts of early ex- 
plorations in Utah the Mountain Bluebird 
was frequently mentioned. The Stansbuiy 
party (Baird 1852:307, 314-315, 328) re- 
ported it in Salt Lake Valley in 1849 and 
collected specimens for the U.S. National 
Museum of Natural Histoiy. Remy 
(1860 [2] :450) reported this species in 1855. 
Ridgway (1877:405-406) found it in several 
localities in Utah in June and August 1869, 
and Henshaw (1875:162-163) also reported 
it from various areas of the state visited by 
him in September, October, and November 
1872. Numerous collections and observa- 
tions have been made in more recent years. 



144 



GREAT BASIN NATURALIST MEMOIRS 



No. 1 



Myadestes townsendi townsendi 

(Audubon) 

Townsend's Solitaire 

Status: A widespread but not common 
species that nests in the mountains and 
winters at lower elevations in foothills and 
valleys. 

Records: Of the early naturalists in 
Utah, Henshaw (1875:231-232) collected 
two specimens, one at Pine Valley, Wash- 
ington County, and the other in Millard 
County in October and November 1872. 
Vernon Bailey (field notes) found a speci- 
men killed at Provo, Utah County, 14 
November 1888, and noted that it was 
common in canyons near Manti, Sanpete 
County, 3 December. In more recent years 
records have been obtained from most of 
the counties of the state. 

Zoothera naevia (Gmelin) 
Varied Thrush 

Status: This is a rare and possibly acci- 
dental visitor in Utah. 

Records: The only collection record 
available for Utah is a specimen at Brigham 
Young University taken at Cedar City, Iron 
County, 4 December 1967. Merlin L. Kill- 
pack (letter) captured a Varied Thrush in a 
banding operation at Ogden, Weber 
County, 22 December 1973. The specimen 
was photographed but was unfortunately 
destroyed by a house cat before it could be 
studied further. The first sight record was 
recorded from Jordan River Park, Salt Lake 
City, Salt Lake County, 22 and 29 Decem- 
ber 1946 and 1 January 1947, by Kenneth 
Tanner, Mr. and Mrs. C. W. Lockerbie, 
and several other observers. The bird was 
feeding on the fruit of the Russian olive 
(Lockerbie 1947a:17; Bader 1947:107). 
Keith (1968:245-276) summarized the eight 
records for this species in Utah up to and 
including May 1966. Since then, five more 
sight records have been reported: Kashin 
(1967:347) reported one observed sometime 
between 21 December 1966 and 2 January 



1967 in the Salt Lake area. Kingery (1973: 
94) stated that one was seen 30 October 
1972 at Bryce Canyon, Garfield County, 
and listed another Salt Lake record on 6 
November 1972. Mitchell (letter 1974) ob- 
served a male and female, 16, 18, 19 May 
1974, at Glen Canyon City, Kane County. 
A single bird was seen at Zion National 
Park, Washington County, 28 April 1975 
(Kingery 1975:888). 

Subspecies: The races naevia and meru- 
loides are found along the Pacific coast 
north to Alaska. The one collected speci- 
men mentioned above has been identified 
as meruloides by M. R. Browning of the 
U.S. National Museum of Natural History. 

Catharus fuscescens salicicola (Ridgway) 
Veery 

Status: The Veery, also sometimes 
called Willow Thrush, is a summer inhabi- 
tant of streamside woodlands especially in 
the lower valleys. From available records 
it would appear that this species was much 
more common in the early days of setde- 
ment than it is at present. Apparently it 
has not been able to adjust to the pressures 
of human population. 

Records: Ridgway (1877:398) found this 
thrush very abundant along the lower por- 
tions of the Provo River, Utah County, 10- 
11 July 1869. He also found it along the 
Weber and Bear rivers. Henshaw (1875: 
148) considered it to be an abundant sum- 
mer resident in Utah. Strangely enough, 
neither of these workers obtained speci- 
mens. A specimen was taken northeast of 
Wellsville, Cache County, 21 July 1927 
(Stanford 1938:141). There is a specimen 
in the Royal Ontario Museum collected 
near Jensen, Uintah County, in July 1935. 
Stanford (1931:8) reported a specimen 
taken near Salina, Sevier County, 10 April 
1929, but the location of this specimen is 
not known. Behle and Selander (1952:29) 
recorded a male specimen collected along 
Clear Creek, Raft River Mountains, Box 
Elder County, 14 June 1951. This speci- 



1976 



BIRDS OF UTAH 



145 



men had enlarged testes and was suspected 
of breeding. Several sight records have 
been recorded, including a more recent 
one by Kashin (1964:50) for American Fork 
Canyon, Utah County, 13 June 1964. Hay- 
ward (field notes) regarded this diRish as 
common in woodlands along Provo River, 
Utah County, in the 1930s, but no speci- 
mens were taken. Several instances of 
nesting have been recorded. Brigham 
Young University collection contains three 
sets of eggs as follows: Provo River near 
Provo, Utah County, 29 June 1933, set of 
two with one cowbird egg collected by 
R. G. Bee; City Creek, Salt Lake County, 
1 June 1934, set of four collected by A. D. 
Boyle; Provo, 4 June 1934, set of four col- 
lected by D. E. Johnson. The sets of Veery 
eggs are decidedly darker blue than a 
series of Audubon's Henriit Thrush eggs 
from the Wasatch Mountains. Kashin 
found one in Salt Lake City, Salt Lake 
County, 13-14 January 1972 (Kingery 1972: 
636). 



Catharus ustulatus (Nuttall) 
Swainson's Thrush 

Status: This is a fairly common summer 
resident in the mountains of northern and 
central Utah. It appears to be less common 
southward. It inhabits approximately the 
same altitude zone as the Hermit Thrush 
but tends to live closer to water where it 
nests in tall shrubs, conifers, and aspens. 
It is less common than the Hermit Thrush. 

Records: The earliest published record 
for the state is that of Ridgway (1877:397- 
398), who considered it a common breeder 
in streamside diickets. He collected 
specimens, nests, and eggs, 23 and 27 June 
1869, at Parley's Park, Summit County. 
Osgood (field notes) found it at Puffer Lake, 
Beaver County, and Brian Head, Iron 
County, August and September 1908. 
Brigham Young University collection con- 
tains specimens as follows: Strawberry 
Reservoir, Wasatch County, 7 July 1926; 
Kamas, Summit County, 21 August 1930; 



Yost, Box Elder County, 7 September 
1957; Strawberry River, Duchesne County, 
19 June 1961; 'sheep Creek Watershed, 
Sevier County, 16 July 1968 and 8 July 1969. 
Subspecies: According to Bond (1963: 
373-387), the subspecies occurring in Utah 
is C. u. almae, although he appears to have 
examined few specimens from the area. 
Ripley (Checklist of Birds of die World 
1964 f 10]: 171-173) also considered almae 
to be found in Utah. Wauer (1969:333) 
obtained a specimen of the race swainsoni 
in Zion National Park, Washington County, 
27 May 1966. 

Catharus guttatus (Pallas) 

Hermit Thrush 

Fig. 43, p. 112 

Status: The Hermit Thrush is a com- 
mon breeding species in mountains 
throughout the state. It is also a frequent 
migrant in spring and autumn when it may 
be found in woodlands and thickets along 
valley streams and occasionally in semi- 
desert country. 

Records: Ridgway (1877:394-395) found 
this species in the Wasatch Mountains in 
May and August 1869. Allen (1872b:173) 
reported it for Ogden, Weber County, and 
Henshaw (1875:144) also recorded it for 
Utah. In more recent years many addi- 
tional records have been published. 

Subspecies: C. g. auduboni appears to 
be die common nesting subspecies in the 
mountain ranges of northern and eastern 
Utah. Behle ( 1948a :76) regarded die 
breeding thrushes of southern and soudi- 
western Utah as C. g. polionotus. This 
view is also indicated in Checklist of Birds 
of die World (1964[10] :174). However, 
the status of the subspecies of C. guttatus is 
still somewhat unsettled (Aldrich 1968: 
1-33; AOU Supplement 1973:416). 



Hylocichla mustelina (Gmelin) 
Wood Thrush 

Status: The Wood Thrush is of rare and 



146 



GREAT BASIN NATURALIST MEMOIRS 



No. 1 



accidental occurrence in Utah. 

Records: Behle (1966:396) reported that 
a specimen was captured after flying into 
a wire at Tracy Aviaiy, Liberty Park, Salt 
Lake City, Salt Lake County, 14 October 
1963. The bird later died and was pre- 
served as a specimen. Kashin observed one 
at American Fork, Utah County, May 1964 
(Behle and Periy 1975:32). 



Turdus migratorius propinquus Ridgway 
American Robin 

Status: A common resident throughout 
the state. Originally probably an inhabitant 
of streamside woodlands and mountain 
forests but spreading into farmlands, parks, 
cities, and towns following settlement by 
white man. Although its numbers seem 
to have diminished somewhat in the past 




Fig. 55. Dark-eyed Junco. Monte Cristo, Rich County, Utah, 27 June 1973. Photo by R. J. Erwin. 



1976 



BIRDS OF UTAH 



147 



decade, the robin is still a rather common 
summer inhabitant of valleys and moun- 
tains up to timberline. In winter it is of 
erratic occinrence depending upon the 
presence of food. In canyons it is often 
found in large flocks where wild berries 
are available, and it frequently occurs 
around settlements where berries of orna- 
mental shiiibs or fiiiits are left on tlie 
trees. 



Records: McCarthy (Baird 1876:378) 
collected a specimen at Camp Floyd (now 
Fairfield, Utah County) in 1859. All of the 
early naturalists to visit Utah reported it. 
Ridgway (1877:393) collected a number of 
specimens in die Wasatch and Uinta moun- 
tains in June and July of 1869, but he col- 
lected none in the valley. Henshaw (1875: 
143) observed that in September 1872 it 
was very common in Provo, Utah County, 




Fig. 56. Chipping Sparrow. North Fork Ogden River, Weber County, Utah, 30 June 1930. Photo by 
R. J. Erwin. 



148 



GREAT BASIN NATURALIST MEMOIRS 



No. 1 



where a few years before it was unknown. 
Most of the early observations indicate that 
it was not an abundant species in the early 
days of settlement. In recent years numer- 
ous observations and collections have been 
made both in the valleys and in the moun- 
tains. 



Polioptila caerulea amoenissima Grinnell 
Blue-gray Gnatcatcher 
Figs. 45, 46; pp. 118, 121 

Status: A summer resident, less com- 
mon north to the Great Salt Lake and the 
Uinta Basin. Its distribution in the state 




Fig. 57. Yellow Warbler. Rochester, Monroe County, New York, 9 July 1967. Photo by R. J. Erwin. 



1976 



BIRDS OF UTAH 



149 



seems to depend somewhat on the presence 
of pinyon-juniper forests in which it most 
frequently nests. However, it is also found 
in willows or brush. It has been reported 
from early April to mid-September. 

Records: Early naturalists in the state 
reported the species only from the southern- 



most counties. In 1891 Merriam and Bailey 
(Fisher 1893:143-144) found it breeding 
commonly in Santa Clara Valley, 11 to 15 
May, and in junipers on Beaver Dam Moun- 
tains, both localities in Washington County. 
Osgood (field notes) found it in scrub oak 
at the base of Beaver Mountains, Beaver 










Fig. 58. Yellow -rumped Warbler. Monte Cristo, Rich County, Utah, 7 July 1973. Photo by R. J. 
Erwin. 



150 



GREAT BASIN NATURALIST MEMOIRS 



No. 1 




Fig. 59. Solitary Vireo. North Fork Ogden River, 
Ervvin. 

County, 25 August 1908. Nelson and Birds- 
eye (field notes) saw some near Kanab, 
Kane County, 3 September 1909. Reports 
of occurrence in more northern counties 
have been made in recent years. Treganza 
(field notes) found it nesting in the West 
Tintic Mountains, Juab County, in 1912 
and 1914. One from Skull Valley, Tooele 
County, taken 22 July 1935, is in die Uni- 
versity of Utah collection. A specimen 
from Antelope Island, Davis County, col- 
lected 24 June 1938, is in die U.S. National 
Museum of Natural History. Brigham 
Young University has specimens from 
Provo Bay, Utah County, 10 May 1942, and 
from Cedar Valley, Utah County, April 
1946. Bee and Hutchings (1942:80) re- 
ported it nesting in Cedar Valley, Utah 



Weber County, Utah, 8 July 1956. Photo by R. J. 

County, in late June and early July. Hay- 
ward (field notes) found it to be very com- 
mon near Bonanza, Uintah County, in June 
1954. 

Family Sylviidae 



Regulus satrapa Lichtenstein 
Golden-crowned Kinglet 

Status: This species is a rather common 
breeding species in coniferous forests of 
mountainous areas throughout most of the 
state. In winter it tends to move down to 
lower elevations where it occurs in small 
flocks in brush or pinyon-juniper wood- 
lands. The Golden-crowned Kinglet seems 
to be less common than the Ruby-crowned 



1976 



BIRDS OF UTAH 



151 



Kinglet, but it is more secretive and less 
conspicuous in song so that it is more likely 
to be overlooked. 

Records: The earliest records for the 
state appear to be those of Osgood (field 
notes), who found it at Fish Lake Park, 



Sevier County; Rabbit Valley, Wayne 
County; and in the llcniy Mountains, Gar- 
field County. His obseivations were made 
in September and October 1908. Treganza 
(field notes) noted that they were common 
in the Wasatch and Uinta mountains where 




Fig. 60. Warbling Vireo. Snow Basin, Webtr C^uunty, Utiih, 30 June 1959. Photo by R. J. Er 



152 



GREAT BASIN NATURALIST MEMOIRS 



No. 1 



he located 27 nests. Nearly all the numer- 
ous collection records are for fall, winter, 
or early spring. Woodbury (1939:159-160) 
and Behle and Ross (1945:169) summarized 
collection and sight records of this species. 
Subspecies: The Utah population of 
Golden-crowned Kinglets has been vari- 
ously referred to the races olivaceus or 
amoenus. The AOU Check-list (1957:453) 
includes Utah within the range of R. s. 
amoenus named by Van Rossem (1945:77- 
78). Behle (1955:26; 1958:29; Behle et al. 
1958:71) used R. s. olivaceus in lists of birds 
from the Deep Creek Mountains, the Raft 
River Mountains, and the Kanab area. 
Later Behle referred to them as R. s. 
amoenus in his treatise on birds of south- 
eastern Utah (1960a:43). A series of eight 
specimens at Brigham Young University, all 
taken in fall, winter, or early spring, came 
within the larger size range of R. s. amoenus 
with the exception of one specimen. It 
would seem that there is a need to assemble 
a collection of breeding as well as winter- 
ing birds to clarify the subspecific relations 
of the Utah population. 

Regulus calendula cineraceus Grinnell 
Ruby-crowned Kinglet 

Status: This is a common breeding 
species in coniferous forests throughout the 
mountain ranges of the state. In fall, winter, 
and spring it occurs in small flocks or indi- 
vidually in lowland areas wherever there 
are streamside woodlands or ornamental 
trees. During the nonbreeding season it 
is more common southward. 

Records: This kinglet was reported by 
most of the early naturalists who visited 
Utah. Ridgway (1875:33) considered it a 
common breeding species at Parley's Park, 
Summit County, during the summer of 1869. 
Most of the other early observations or col- 
lections were made in fall, winter, and early 
spring when the birds were migrating or on 
their wintering ground. Henshaw (1875: 
165) took a specimen near St. George, Wash- 
ington County, 26 September 1872. A 
specimen in the American Museum was 



taken by Rowley, near Four Corners, on 
the San Juan River, 20 April 1892. The 
Museum of Comparative Zoology contains 
specimens collected by Allen near Ogden, 
Weber County, in September 1871. Many 
collections have been made and reported 
in recent years. 

Family Paridae 

Parus atricapillus Linnaeus 

Black-capped Chickadee 

Fig. 47, p. 124 

Status: The Black-capped Chickadee is 
a rather common permanent resident 
throughout the state, being somewhat more 
common northward. In winter it inhabits 
woodlands along the streams of the valleys 
but in summer tends to move upwards into 
the mountains where it breeds. This active 
species almost invariably appears in pairs 
or small flocks of two or three pairs. 

Records: Reports of the early naturalists 
vary as to the numbers of these chickadees. 
Baird (1852:316) reported one specimen 
taken in Utah by Stansbury in 1849 or 
1850. He called it rare. Ridgway (1877: 
412) stated that it was probably wanting in 
the western Great Basin and extremely 
rare on the eastern side in 1869. Allen 
(1872b: 166) called it abundant around 
Ogden, Weber County, in September 1871. 
Neither Merriam nor Nelson found it in 
1872. Henshaw (1875:171) reported it as 
common in cottonwood groves near Provo 
River, Utah County, in July and November 
1872, but did not see it elsewhere in his 
travels. Vernon Bailey (field notes) con- 
sidered it to be common to abundant from 
Salt Lake City, Salt Lake County, all the 
way to southern Utah during October, 
November, and December in 1888. The 
variable observations by these early travel- 
ers reflect the erratic nature of these chicka- 
dees in their search for food, especially in 
winter, and would probably be no indica- 
tion that they were less common than they 
are at present. 

Subspecies: The Utah population ap- 



1976 



BIRDS OF UTAH 



153 



pears to contain two recognizable sub- 
species, although many specimens seem to 
be intergrades between the two. A race 
known as P. a. septentrionalis, typical of 
west central Canada and central United 
States, intergrades in eastern Utah with P. 
a. nevadensis which occurs in the Wasatch 
Mountains and Great Basin sections of 
Utah. P. a. garrinus, described by Behle 
(1951:75-79), was placed in synonomy with 
P. a. septentrionalis in Checklist of Birds of 
the World (1967[12] :81). Wauer (1969: 
332) reported a specimen of the race 
nevadensis at Springdale, Washington 
County, 20 March 1965, as being the first 
for the Virgin River Valley. 

Parus gambeli Ridgway 
Mountain Chickadee 

Status: A permanent resident with con- 
siderable altitudinal migration. In summer 
it inhabits coniferous forests where it 
breeds, but in winter it spreads into stream- 
side woodlands at lower elevations. 

Records: Several of the early naturalists 
made note of this chickadee in Utah. Ridg- 
way (1877:411) found it in the Wasatch 
and Uinta mountains in 1869. Stevenson 
(1872:464) recorded it from the Uinta 
Mountains, Summit County, September 
1870. Henshaw (1875:170) regarded it as 
a common resident in coniferous forests 
and found it also in lower valleys in Novem- 
ber 1872. He collected several specimens 
at Fillmore, Millard County, 17 November 
1872. Many records are available from 
more recent collections and observations. 

Subspecies: P. g. inyoensis appears to be 
the only clear-cut subspecies inhabiting 
Utah. In eastern and southern Utah it inter- 
grades with P. g. gambeli, a race typical of 
the Rocky Mountains. A population named 
P. g. wasatchensis by Behle (1950b:273- 
274), which he supposed inhabited Utah, 



was considered by Snow in Check-list of 
Birds of the World (1967 [12] :84-85) to be 
a synonym of P. g. inyoensis. 

Parus inornatus ridgwayi Richmond 
Plain Titmouse 

Status: A common resident found 
throughout the state but especially charac- 
teristic of pinyon-juniper woodlands. 

Records: The type of this subspecies 
named by Richmond (1902:155) was col- 
lected by Henry W. Henshaw at a locality 
then known as "Iron City," Iron County, 
8 October 1872 (Henshaw 1875:168). This 
specimen is now in the U.S. National Mu- 
seum of Natural History. Numerous col- 
lection and sight records are available from 
all sections of the state, especially where 
pinyon-juniper forests are present. 

Auriparus flaviceps acaciarum^'^ Grinnell 
Verdin 

Status: A breeding species of hot deserts 
along the Virgin River of southwestern 
Utah. 

Records: Merriam (Fisher 1893:142) 
found several nests of Verdin on Beaver 
Dam Creek, Arizona (near Utah), 9-10 May 
1891, and a single nest near the junction of 
Santa Clara Creek with the Virgin River, 
Washington County, 14 May 1891. Two 
specimens at the University of Utah were 
collected near the Utah-Arizona border, 
one in Arizona, 28 October 1938, and the 
other in Utah, 9 May 1941 (Behle 1943a:53). 
There is a sight record (Wauer and Carter 
1965:66) from Zion National Park, Washing- 
ton County, 20 December 1962. 

Psaltriparus minimus^^ (Townsend) 

Bushtit 

Status: A permanent breeding resident 

of the state where it occurs most commonly 

in pinyon-juniper forests or in biaishlands 



i^Snow (Check-list of Birds of the World 1967 [12] :69) has placed this species in the family Remizidae 
rather than Paridae. 

l^Snow (Check-list of Birds of the World 1967 [12] :59) places this species in the family Aegithalidae 
rather than Paridae. 



154 



GREAT BASIN NATURALIST MEMOIRS 



No. 1 



\ 




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Fig. 61. Northern Oriole. Ogden, Weber County, Utah, 18 June 1973. Photo by R. J. Envin. 



1976 



BIRDS OF UTAH 



155 




Fi 
Erwin 



ig. 62. Brewer's Blackbird. Tremonton 



Box Eld 



er County, Utah, 9 June 1974. Photo by R. J. 



at mid elevations. It has been reported 
from most of the counties, although it is 
more abundant southward. 

Records: Early records for the state in- 
clude those of Ridgway (1877:413-414), 
who observed a few near Salt Lake City, 
Salt Lake County, in 1869. It was taken 
by Stevenson (1872:464) on Green River, 
Daggett County, 10 October 1870. Hen- 
shaw (1875:172) reported large flocks in 
several localities of the state in fall and 
winter. He noted it in pinyon-juniper and 
streamside thickets and collected speci- 
mens at Iron City, Iron County, 5 October 



1872, and at Beaver, Beaver County, 10 
November 1872. Numerous additional rec- 
ords are available in recent years. 

Subspecies: The race P. m. plumheus 
appears to be found in Utah except for tlie 
southwestern and south central areas. Here 
many specimens are intergrades between 
P. m. plumbeus and P. m. providentalis, 
the latter being a race described by Aveiy 
(1941:74-75) from Providence Mountains 
of southeastern California. Behle (1948a:45) 
regarded two specimens from Kanab, Kane 
County, as being well-defined P. m. pro- 
videntalis. 



156 



GREAT BASIN NATURALIST MEMOIRS 



No. 1 



Family Sittidae 

Sitta pusilla ^^ Latham 
Pigmy Nuthatch 

Status: The Pigmy Nuthatch is present 
as a permanent resident throughout Utah 
wherever there are forests of ponderosa 
pine. While not strictly confined to the 
ponderosa pine, it seems to be more at 
home there and is often rather common 
in such forests. 

Records: This nuthatch was observed 
rarely by early naturalists in the state, 
owing perhaps to its limited habitat. 
Neither Henshaw (1874:3) nor Ridgway 
(1877:373) reported taking any specimens, 
but Henshaw did mention that it oc- 
curred in the state. Vernon Bailey (field 
notes) found it in ponderosa pine between 
Garfield and Kane Counties, 18 December 
1888. Cottam took one from a juniper near 
Lynndyl, Millard County, 18 September 
1926. Twomey (1942:424) took specimens 
at Green Lake, Daggett County, 30 June 
1937. A few records are available from the 
Henry Mountains and high plateaus of 
Garfield County (University of Utah and 
Brigham Young University). Specimens 
have also been taken principally from pon- 
derosa pines in Pine Valley Mountains of 
Washington County (Behle 1943a:54; Har- 
dy 1941b:2.36). Wauer and Carter (1965:67) 
reported them from localities in Zion Na- 
tional Park, Washington County. Most of 
the available records for the species are 
from the La Sal and Blue mountains of San 
Juan County where they seem to be most 
common. 

Subspecies: Birds inhabiting the Utah 
area are of the subspecies S. p. melanotis. 
Hardy (1941b:236) regarded specimens of 
the Pine Valley Mountains as S. p. canes- 
cens, but Behle (1943a:.54) cast some doubts 
upon the identification. Worthen (1968: 
320-322) concluded that the subspecies 



canescens does not occur in Utah. Further- 
more, Greenway in Check-list of Birds of 
the World (1967 [ 12] : 135) stated that S. p. 
canescens is "perhaps not separable from 
melanotis." 

Sitta canadensis Linnaeus 
Red-breasted Nuthatch 

Status: A common summer resident and 
breeding species principally in coniferous 
forests throughout the mountains and high 
plateaus of the state. It may sometimes be 
found as a migrant in the lower valleys. 

Records: Ridgway (1877:416) regarded 
this species as being less common than the 
Pigmy and White-breasted Nuthatch in the 
summer of 1869 in coniferous forests of the 
Wasatch Mountains. It was missed by most 
of the odier early naturalists, presumably 
because they did relatively little work in 
the mountains. Where suitable habitat 
occurs, this species has been reported in 
recent years from most parts of the state. 

Sitta carolinensis Latham 
White-breasted Nuthatch 

Status: A peiTnanent resident of pinyon- 
juniper forests, coniferous forests, and 
streamside woodland throughout the state. 
While it may not be regarded as a common 
species in Utah, this nuthatch is rather 
widespread and not so restricted to particu- 
lar habitats as the other two species. Some- 
times it occurs in small loose colonies, 
especially in less disturbed woodlands 
along the valley streams. 

Records: Some of the early naturalists 
who visited in Utah missed this species 
entirely, and all considered it to be rare. 
Ridgway (1875:32) found it breeding in 
Parkley's Park, Summit County, in 1869, and 
Henshaw (1874:3) reported a single speci- 
men from the Wasatch Mountains. This 
species has been reported often in more 



I6phillips et al. (1964:114-115) and Mayr and Short (1970:66) consider S. pygniaea to be conspecific 
ith S. pusilla. 



1976 



BIRDS OF UTAH 



157 



recent years from most of the counties of 
the state where suitable habitat occurs. 

Subspecies: Greenway in Check-hst of 
Birds of the World (1967[12] :138-139) in- 
cluded S. c. tenuissima and S. c. nelsoni 
in the Utah population. However, his de- 
scription of their distribution is not clear 
and indicates that the ranges of the two 
races overlap. It seems evident that S. c. 
nelsoni inhabits most, if not all, of the state. 
If S. c. tenuissima occurs at all, it should be 
looked for in the mountains of western 
Utah. Behle (1943a:54) found one speci- 
men from Pine Valley Mountains, Washing- 
ton County, that approached tenuissima in 
bill length, but other specimens from that 
area appeared to be typical nelsoni. A race 
described by Twomey (1942:422-424) as 
S. c. uintaensis has not been accepted by 
other ornithologists. This race is con- 
sidered a synonym for S. c. nelsoni (Check- 
list of Birds of the World 1967[12] :138- 
139). 

Family Certhiidae 

Certhia familiaris Linnaeus 
Brown Creeper 

Status: A widespread but not common 
resident throughout the state where it lives 
in summer principally in montane coni- 
ferous forests and tends to migrate to lower 
elevations in winter. It is a quiet bird and 
often solitary so that its presence may be 
easily overlooked. 

Records: Some of the early-day natural- 
ists considered the Brown Creeper to be 
rather common or even abundant (Nelson 
1875:343; Ridgway 1877:418). It was 
missed by other observers such as Allen, 
Merriam, and Henshaw. Numerous records 
and obsei"vations have been made more 
recently. 

Subspecies: Behle (1948a:75) has re- 
viewed the subspecific status of the Brown 
Creeper in Utah. It appears that the birds 
of the Kane County area and presumably 
those of Washington County belong to C. 



/ leucosticta, while C. /. montana occurs 
elsewhere in the state. 

Family Emberizidae 

Calcarius lapponicus (Linnaeus) 
Lapland Longspur 

Status: The Lapland Longspur is an 
uncommon but apparently consistent visitor 
in Utah most likely to be found in winter, 
late fall, and early spring. It associates 
often with flocks of Horned Larks and 
seems to be more common in the Colorado 
River Basin. 

Records: Several records have been re- 
ported for the Uinta Basin (Killpack 1953: 
152; Killpack and Hayward 1958:25). Speci- 
mens from that area in the Brigham Young 
University collection are as follows: one, 
Roosevelt, Duchesne County, 1 January 
1952; five, Myton, Duchesne County, 17 
December 1955, 28 January 1956, 15 Janu- 
ary 1957, February 1958. Porter (1954:364) 
reported specimens from four miles north 
of Camel Back Mountain, Tooele County, 
13 April 1953, and near the same locality 
on 3 November 1953. Behle et al. (1964: 
4.56) reported specimens from Farmington 
Bay Waterfowl Management area, Davis 
County, 5 November 1955, and three miles 
east of Camel Back Mountain, Tooele 
County, 9 October 1957. A large flock (120) 
was reported at Bear River Migratory Bird 
Refuge, Box Elder County, 18 February 
1975, by Kingeiy (1975:724). 

Subspecies: Judging from the specimens 
collected to date, C. /. alascensis appears to 
be the most common race found in Utah. 
A specimen of C. /. lapponicus from near 
Camel Back Mountain, taken 13 April 1953, 
was reported by Porter (1954:.364). 

Calcarius ornatus (Townsend) 
Chestnut-collared Longspur 

Status: A rare, seemingly accidental, 
visitor in Utah. 

Records: Porter (1954:364) recorded a 



158 



GREAT BASIN NATURALIST MEMOIRS 



No. 1 



specimen taken near Government Creek, 
four miles north of Camel Back Mountain, 
Tooele County, 14 October 1953. One was 
observed by Stewart Murie in Cedar Valley, 
Iron County, 25 November 1966 (Behle and 
Perry 1975:45). Kertell reported one at 
Zion National Park, Washington County, 
10 October 1974 (Kingeiy 1975:97). Three 
were observed at Farmington Bay, Davis 
County, 20 April 1975 (Kingery (1975:889). 

Plectrophenax nivalis nivalis (Linnaeus) 
Snow Bunting 

Status: The Snow Bunting is a regular 
although uncommon winter visitor in Utah. 
It is known to occur only in the northern 
part of the state. 

Records: At the Bear River Migratory 
Bird Refuge, Box Elder County, it was re- 
ported to be common in the winter of 1930- 
31, and three specimens were taken there 
13 October 1932 (Behle and Ross 1945:170). 
One of these specimens is in the University 
of Utah collection. Another specimen in 
the University of Utah collection was taken 
near Centerville, Davis County, 29 Novem- 
ber 1939 (Behle and Ross 1945:170). Three 
specimens from Utah at Brigham Young 
University are as follows: near Provo, Utah 
County, 25 February 1934 (Johnson 1935a: 
160), and 9 February 1935 (Johnson 1935b: 
294); Fort Duchesne, Uintah County, 14 
January 1952 (Killpack 1953:152). Locker- 
bie and Behle (1952a:17) reported diat 
Floyd Thompson saw a flock of 25 at Rock 
Island, Utah Lake, Utah County, 5 Novem- 
ber 1951. One specimen was found dead 
on the island. Behle (1958:37) reported 
one observed at Stanrod, Box Elder County, 
30 December 1951. 

Calamospiza melanocorys Stejneger 
Lark Bunting 

Status: The Lark Bunting is a sparse 
but regular summer resident and migrant 
especially in the northern part of the state. 
It is primarily a grassland species but also 



inhabits semideserts where sagebrush and 
other low-growing shrubs are predominant. 
During migration it appears sporadically 
in small numbers in pasture lands and 
fields. 

Records: The earliest record of the 
species in Utah was a specimen taken by 
the Simpson Expedition presumably in 
Cedar Valley, Utah County, in 1859 
(Baird 1876:379). At Parley's Park, Summit 
County, Ridgway (1877:487) collected a 
juvenile specimen and regarded the species 
as a straggler from the Great Plains. Speci- 
mens in the U.S. National Museum of 
Natural History were taken at Bear River 
Migratory Bird Refuge, Box Elder County, 
1 June 1916. In recent years several col- 
lections have been made in Salt Lake, Utah, 
Juab, Millard, Sanpete, and Washington 
counties. Recent published reports in- 
clude those of Killpack (1951:99) and Behle 
and Ghiselin (1958:19) for the Uinta Basin 
and Behle et al. (1964:455) for Tooele 
County. Treganza (field notes) reportedly 
found two nests and noted several birds 
on the flat between Garfield and Saltair, 
Salt Lake County, but the dates are not 
available. Another record of breeding at 
Murray (AOU Check-list 1957:585) was 
apparently based on a report by Behle and 
Selander (1952:31), who took a male in 
breeding condition at that locality on 11 
June 1950. Porter and Egoscue (1954:219- 
221) gave a very complete account (28 speci- 
mens, 98 observations) of this species in 
Utah. 

Zonotrichia iliaca (Merrem) 
Fox Sparrow 

Status: The Fox Sparrow is a sparse 
breeding species particularly in the north- 
ern part of the state. It is also a migrant, 
but a few possibly winter here. It inhabits 
thickets usually near running water or 
springs and ranges from the lower valleys 
well into the mountains. In the 1930s it 
was rather common in Utah Valley espe- 
cially along Provo River, but in recent 



1976 



BIRDS OF UTAH 



159 



years it has become very scarce (Hayward 
field notes). 

Records: Ridgway (1877:486-487) found 
it to be an abundant breeder in Parley's 
Park, 25 miles east of Salt Lake City, in the 
summer of 1869. Allen (1872b:168) ob- 
served it near Ogden, Weber County, 10 
September 1871. Henshaw (1875:293) took 
a specimen near Provo, Utah County. 
There have since been numerous records, 
mostly from northern Utah. Brigham 
Young University has the following speci- 
mens from Utah: Long Lake, Uinta Moun- 
tains, 21 July 1930; Provo, Utah County, 18 
March 1932, 25 June 1932, 4 April 1935, 3 
March 1958; Sheep Creek Watershed, 
Sevier County, 3 May 1969. 

Subspecies: The Utah population was 
referred to the race Z. i. swarthi by Behle 
and Selander on the basis of the "decided 
gray color to the head and back" (1951a: 
364). However, Ridgway (1901:395) has 
used this same character to distinguish die 
race Z. i. schistacea. Phillips et al. (1964: 
24) considered swarthi to be a synonym of 
schistacea, but Paynter, in Check-list of 
Birds of the World (1970[13] :44-45), has 
recognized Z. i. swarthi as the race found in 
Utah. 

Zonotrichia melodia (Wilson) 
Song Sparrow 

Status: The Song Sparrow is a common 
resident species throughout the state. It 
is confined mainly to thickets along valley 
streams or irrigation canals or occurs 
around the borders of lakes and ponds 
wherever there are thickets or emergent 
vegetation providing ample cover for nest- 
ing and feeding. 

Records: All of the early naturalists in- 
cluding Allen (1872a:168), Merriam (1873: 
682), Henshaw (1874:6), Ridgway (1877:482- 
483), and others found this bird in abun- 
dance throughout the state and collected 
many specimens as well as their nests and 
eggs. Numerous specimens taken more re- 



cently are in the collections of the various 
institutions of the state. 

Subspecies: The race now known as Z. 
m. montana is the breeding and also winter- 
ing form throughout most of the state of 
Utah. Z. m. fallax, at one time named 
Melospiza melodia virginis (Marshall and 
Behle 1942:123), occurs in a limited area of 
the lower Virgin River drainage in Wash- 
ington County. Intergradation between 
fallax and montana seems to occur in south 
central and southeastern Utah (Behle 
1948a:79-80). However, Wauer (1969:334) 
collected a female of the race montana on 
a nest at St. George, Washington County, 
17 June 1966. Two specimens in the Brig- 
ham Young University from Bear Lake 
Valley near the Utah-Idaho border show 
some features of Z. m. merrilli and indicate 
intergradation with montana. Behle and 
Ross (1945:170) reported a specimen taken 
in the winter near Hooper, Weber County, 
which also showed characteristics of mer- 
rilli. Worthen (1968:465) recorded two 
specimens of Z. m. merrilli in the Univer- 
sity of Utah collection from Delta, Millard 
County, 18 December 1965. Fisher (1893: 
100) reported that Bailey collected a speci- 
men of the subspecies guttata at Santa 
Clara, Washington County, 13 January 
1889. Later Ridgway (1901:361) considered 
this specimen to be a representative of the 
race merrilli, which seems to be valid in 
that the American Ornithologists Union 
Check-list (1957:632-633) lists merrilli as 
wintering in southern Utah at Santa Clara. 
Four specimens in the Royal Ontario Mu- 
seum taken near Jensen, Uintah County, 
in the spring of 1935, were identified by P. 
A. Tavemer as Z. m. jiiddi (Twomey 1942: 
476). Behle (1958:37) reported five speci- 
mens of the subspecies fisherella taken at 
Yost, Raft River, and Grouse Creek, Box 
Elder County, 18-19 September 1941. 
Since tliere seems to be some latitudinal 
migration among song sparrows, it is likely 
that individuals of these several races may 
appear in the winter population or as 
migrants out of their breeding range. 



160 



GREAT BASIN NATURALIST MEMOIRS 



No. 1 



Zonotrichia lincolnii (Audubon) 
Lincoln's Sparrow 

Status: A rather common summer bird 
of die mountains of the state where it nests 
in boggy areas, especially where there is a 
growth of willows or other low-growing 
shrubs. In spring and fall it appears as a 
migrant near water in the lower valleys. 
Most of the migration takes place during 
April-May and September-October. 

Records: The first specimen was taken 
by the Stansbury expedition to Great Salt 
Lake, 21 March 1850 (Baird 1852:317). 
This was most likely a migrating bird. 
Remv (1860 [2] :450) included it in his list 
of Utah birds in 1855. Ridgway (1877:485) 
found it plentiful as a migrant in the lower 
valleys and nesting at Parley's Park, Sum- 
mit County, in 1868-69. Stevenson (1872: 
465) collected a specimen at the head of 
Henry's Fork, Summit County, in 1870. 
Allen (1872b:168) found it to be exceeding- 
ly abundant at Ogden, Weber County, in 
1871. Henshaw (1874:6) considered it to 
be rather uncommon. He collected a speci- 
men in Grass Valley, Sevier County, 10 
October 1872 (Henshaw 1875:283-284). 
Numerous records and collections of both 
migrating and breeding birds have been 
made in more recent years. 

Subspecies: Most of the birds taken in 
Utah, whether breeding or migrating, seem 
to belong to the race Z. /. alticola, a larger 
race proposed by Miller and McCabe 
(1935:156). All of the specimens in Brig- 
ham Young University fall within the size 
range of that subspecies. The subspecies 
Z. /. lincolnii may also be found in the mi- 
grating population. Behle (1941b: 184) re- 
ported a specimen from Moab, Grand 
County, 9 April 1938. It has also been col- 
lected at the junction of the Virgin River 
and Santa Clara Creek, Washington Coun- 
ty, 9 September 1941 (Behle 1943a:78), and 
near Vernal and Jenson, Uintah County, in 
May and September 1937 (Twomey 1942: 
475). Early records of Z. /. lincolnii prior 
to the naming of Z. /. alticola are somewhat 



doubtful. Worthen (1968:461) obtained a 
specimen of the race lincolnii from Clear 
Lake, Millard County, 20 March 1965. 

Zonotrichia georgiana ericrypta 

(Oberholser) 

Swamp Sparrow 

Status: An uncommon winter visitor in 
Utah to be looked for in large flocks of 
White-crowned Sparrows. 

Records: Henshaw (1875:285) collected 
a specimen near Washington, Washington 
County, 23 October 1872. Behle (1954b: 
313) reported a specimen taken in Salt 
Lake City, Salt Lake County, by Boyd 
Shaffer, 20 February 1952. The specimen 
was placed in the Tracy Aviary of that city. 
Wauer and Russell (1967:423) gave two 
more records of this species in the Virgin 
River Valley. One specimen was collected 
at Springdale Ponds, Washington County, 
2 March 1965, and is in the Zion Park col- 
lection. There is also a sight record on 9 
February 1966 near the confluence of the 
Virgin and Santa Clara rivers, Washington 
County. Carter (Scott 1965:501) recorded 
a specimen taken at Arches National Monu- 
ment, Grand County, 19 May 1965. 

Zonotrichia querula (Nuttall) 
Harris' Sparrow 

Status: A regular but uncommon win- 
ter resident in most parts of Utah. Wauer 
(1969:334) considered this species to be a 
regular winter visitor in the Virgin River 
Valley of southwestern Utah. It is usually 
found in company with flocks of White- 
crowned Sparrows or juncos living in lower 
and warmer valleys. 

Records: This species was not reported 
by early naturalist visitors to the state but 
could have easily been overlooked because 
of its casual association with flocks of more 
common sparrows. Published collection 
records of more recent years are as follows: 
Linwood, Daggett County, 26 November 
1916 (Cottam 1942b:255); Centerville, 



1976 



BIRDS OF UTAH 



161 



Davis County, 9 February 1937 (Woodbury 
1939:162); Wellsville, Cache County, 17 
April 1937 (Stanford 1938:145); Price, Car- 
bon County, 28 December 1941 (Behle and 
Higgins 1942:54); Nephi, Juab County, 15 
March 1942 (Long 1943:39); Mt. Pleasant, 
Sanpete County, 4 Februaiy 1951 (Behle 
and Selander 1952:31); Government Well, 
Tooele County, 21 October 1953 (Porter 
1954:363); Santa Clara, Washington County, 
16 December 1939 (Behle and Higgins 
1942:54). Brigham Young University has 
the following specimens from Utah: My ton, 
Duchesne County, 4 and 29 December 1955; 
two specimens, near Magna, Salt Lake 
County, 7 January 1971. Several sight 
records have also been published (Kashin 
1964b:293, 1966:351, 1967:347; Wauer 
1965a:311). 

Zonotrichia leucophrys (Forster) 

White-crowned Sparrow 

Fig. 48, p. 127 

Status: A common year-round resident 
in Utah with one race breeding in the moun- 
tains throughout the state and another win- 
tering in large flocks in the foothills and 
valleys. 

Records: Specimens of this sparrow 
were taken by most of the early ornithol- 
ogists who visited Utah. Ridgway (1877: 
470-471) found it nesting in the Wasatch 
Mountains in June and July 1869. Steven- 
son (1872:464) reported specimens taken by 
the Hayden expedition on Green River in 
October 1870. Allen (1872b:177) collected 
specimens from near Ogden, Weber 
County, in September 1871. Henshaw 
(1875:260-263) collected it from several 
localities in the state in the fall of 1872 and 
thought that it bred in the Wasatch Moun- 
tains. Many records from all of the counties 
of the state have since been recorded. 

Subspecies: The race breeding within 
the state has been called Z. /. oriantha, 
named originally from the Warner Moun- 
tains near Adel, Oregon (Oberholser 1932: 
12). This name was extended by Miller 



(1941:262) to include the Utah breeding 
population. Banks (1964:114) was unable 
to separate Z. /. oriantha from Z. /. leu- 
cophrys from eastern North America and 
considered the former to be a synonym of 
the latter. Paynter in Check-list of Birds of 
the World (1970[13] :60-61) feels justified 
in retaining the name oriantha, however. 
The race Z. /. gambelii, distinguished on 
the basis of white rather than black lories, 
seems to be quite distinct. It is the com- 
mon wintering subspecies in Utah, although 
lesser numbers of Z. /. oriantha may also 
appear in the wintering flocks. 

Zonotrichia albicolUs (Gmelin) 
White-throated Sparrow 

Status: The White-throated Sparrow ap- 
pears to be a sparse winter resident or mi- 
grant in Utah. It should be looked for in 
flocks of wintering White-crowned Spar- 
rows or juncos. 

Records: Porter (1954:364) reported col- 
lecting one specimen at Orr's Ranch, Tooele 
County, 12 October 1953. Wauer and Rus- 
sell (1967:423) collected a female at Oak 
Creek Canyon, Zion National Park, Wash- 
ington County, 29 October 1965. Merlin 
L. Killpack (pers. comm.) captured one in 
a banding operation at Ogden, Weber 
County, 15 December 1963. The specimen 
was banded and released. Other records 
from Utah that we have been able to find 
are sight records. They are as follows: Box 
Elder, Salt Lake and Utah counties, be- 
tween 14 October and 15 May (no years) 
(Woodbury et al. 1949:35); Springdale, 
Washington County, 20 November 1964 
(Wauer and Carter 1965:85); Terry Ranch, 
Beaver Dam Wash, Washington County, 
15 May 1965, and near St. George, Wash- 
ington County, 11 January 1966 (Wauer 
and Russell 1967:423); near Cedar City, 
Iron County, 5 October 1966 (Scott 1967: 
64); Arches National Monument, Grand 
County, 30 December 1966 (Carter 1967b: 
345); Arrowhead Mine, southern Utah, fall 
1969 (Scott 1970:75); Stansbury Mountains, 



162 



GREAT BASIN NATURALIST MEMOIRS 



No. 1 



Tooele County, 18 October 1972 (Kingery 
1973:96); Zion National Park, early May 
1973 (Kingery 1973:802). 

Zonotrichia atricapilla (Gmelin) 
Golden-crowned Sparrow 

Status: A rare but seemingly regular 
winter resident in lower and warmer val- 
leys throughout the state. It is likely to be 
found with flocks of Wliite-crowned Spar- 
rows. 

Records: In Zion Canyon, Washington 
County, a bird was captured on 16 January 
1936 and eventually made into a study skin 
(Long 1936:89 90). One was also taken at 
Standrod, Box Elder County, 4 October 
1947 (Greenlialgh 1948:46). Porter (1954: 
364) reported collecting a specimen at 
Cane Springs, west side of Cedar Moun- 
tains, Tooele County, 13 October 1952. A 
number of sight records are also available. 
These include: Zion National Park, 7 March 
1942 (Woodbury et al. 1949:35); Zion Na- 
tional Park, 22 April 1963, and Springdale 
Ponds, Washington County, 13 April 1964 
and March 1965 (Wauer and Carter 1965: 
85); Santa Clara, Washington County, 28 
December 1965 (Wauer and Russell 1967: 
423); St. George, Washington County, 29 
December 1969 (Lund 1970:416); Zion Na- 
tional Park, 27 January 1974 (Kingery 1974: 
672); Logan, Cache County, 25 April 1975 
(Kingery 1975:889). A Golden-crowned 
Sparrow was trapped, banded, and ob- 
served at Logan from 26 March until 3 
May 1976 by Ralph (1976:67). She diought 
this bird might have wintered in the Logan 
area. 

Junco hyemalis (Linnaeus) 

Dark-eyed Junco 

Fig. 55, p. 146 

Status: A common year-round resident 
of the state composed of two subspecies that 
breed in the mountains and several sub- 
species that winter in the area. In summer 
the nesting birds are confined almost entire- 



ly to montane forest communities. In win- 
ter large flocks occur, especially in lower 
valleys and foothills, but they may be found 
at almost any elevation where ground food 
is available. 

Records: Collections and observations of 
this abundant species by early collectors in 
the state as well as by more recent observ- 
ers are numerous for all parts of the area. 
No attempt will be made to list them here. 

Subspecies: Several foims of the Junco 
in die United States previously considered 
to be separate species are now regarded 
as subspecies of Junco hyemalis. (Mayr 
and Short 1970:86; AOU Check-list 1973: 
418). This is because more field work has 
indicated that there is a general over- 
lapping and hybridization wherever the 
breeding populations of the several forms 
meet. /. h. caniceps appears to be the 
breeding subspecies in the mountains 
through most of Utah. However, /. h. 
mearnsi breeds in the Wasatch Mountains 
of extreme northern Utah. In this area the 
two breeding forms hybridize commonly. 
Wintering juncos in Utah are primarily of 
the race /. h. montanus, which is of an ex- 
tremely variable group somewhat confused 
with /. h. shufeldti, which may also occur 
in the wintering populations. Smaller num- 
bers of /. h. hyemalis (Behle and Higgins 
1942:54-55)—/. h. mearnsi, J. h. caniceps, 
J. h. cismontanus (Behle 1941b:184), and 
possibly other races — also appear in win- 
ter, usually in mixed flocks. 

Ammodramus sandwichensis (Gmelin) 
Savannah Sparrow 

Status: A common summer resident 
March through September throughout most 
of the state except in the warmer desert 
areas of southwestern Utah where it occurs 
mainly in winter. It lives in salt grass 
meadows and open pasture lands around 
the borders of lakes and ponds. 

Records: Ridgway (1877:464-465) col- 
lected specimens, nests, and eggs from 
several localities near Salt Lake City, Salt 



1976 



BIRDS OF UTAH 



163 



Lake County, in May, June, and July 1869. 
Henshaw (1875:254-255) took six speci- 
mens near Provo, Utah County, in July and 
August 1872. Nelson (1875:346) collected a 
specimen near Salt Lake City on 7 July 
1872. During the years 1888 to 1893, Bailey 
(field notes) recorded several collections 
and observations in Utah as follows: Og- 
den, Weber County, 8 October; Kanab, 
Kane County, 21 December; Virgin River 
Valley, Washington County, January; Fair- 
field, Utah County, abundant in meadows, 
20-30 July; Laketown, Rich County, 25 
July. Many records of birds and nesting 
activities have been recorded recently. 

Subspecies: The common and apparently 
only breeding subspecies within the state is 
A. s. nevadensis. A specimen taken by 
Vernon Bailey and now in the U.S. National 
Museum of Natural History was collected 
at Ogden, Weber County, 8 October 1888, 
and is considered to belong to the race A. s. 
anthinus (Woodbury et al. 1949:33). A 
second specimen of this race now in the 
University of Utah was taken by Behle 
(1943a:74) at Santa Clara, Washington 
County, 19 December 1939. Porter and 
Bushman (19.56:153) have reported three 
specimens of anthinus from Orr's Ranch, 
Skull Valley, Tooele County, 13, 14, 21 
April 1954. Wauer (1969:334) reported 
three specimens from Washington County: 
a female taken at Washington on 14 January 
1966, a male at the same locality on 18 
February 1966, and another male at St. 
George on 4 March 1966. Worthen (1968: 
437) recorded a male anthinus from Wah 
Wah Spring, Beaver County, 24 May 1962. 

Ammodramus leconteii (Audubon) 
Le Conte's Sparrow 

Status: This is a species of rare or acci- 
dental occurrence in Utah. The only 
known specimens were noted in winter and 
spring. 

Records: A specimen at Brigham Young 
University was taken two miles southwest 
of Provo, Utah County, 24 December 1927, 



by Cottam (1941a:116). Three others were 
seen near the same locality on 10 March 
1928 (Woodbury et al. 1949:33). Carter 
(Scott 1966:537) observed one at Moab, 
Grand County, 19 April 1966. 



Ammodramus savannarum perpallidus 

(Coues) 

Grasshopper Sparrow 

Status: Fomierly a common breeder in 
the valleys of northern Utah; now very rare. 
Early observers reported that this bird 
lived in the dry grassy plains. Since most 
of the dry grasslands in Utah were soon 
taken up for farmlands or else were heavily 
overgrazed, it is likely that the species' 
disappearance was a result of the loss of its 
native habitat. By the restoration of much 
of this grassland in recent years it is pos- 
sible that the Grasshopper Sparrow might 
become reestablished. 

Records: Ridgway (1877:467) obtained 
the type specimen of this bird from Ante- 
lope Island, Great Salt Lake, 4 June 1869, 
and considered it to be abundant. Allen 
(1872b: 167) found it common in September 
1871 near Ogden, Weber County, and 
Merriam (1873:706) found it nesting there 
on 5 June 1872. Henshaw (1875:257-258) 
took a specimen near Gunnison, Sanpete 
County, 7 September 1872. Nelson (1875: 
346) found it common in the fields near 
Bountiful, Davis County, in 1872. Bailey 
(field notes) reported sighting a specimen 
north of Ogden in July 1893 and stated that 
they were common. Pearson (1927:381) 
referred to it at Currant Creek, Wasatch 
County, and Cottam and Williams observed 
one near Stewart's Lake, Jensen, Uintah 
County, 21 September 1941. Behle and 
Ross (1945:169) obtained a specimen 10 
miles west of Salt Lake City, Salt Lake 
County, 20 September 1942. Behle et al. 
(1964:455-4.56) reported one taken near 
Camel Back Mountain, Tooele County, 19 
September 1961. 



164 



GREAT BASIN NATURALIST MEMOIRS 



No. 1 



Spizella arborea ochracae Brewster 
Tree Sparrow 

Status: A rather common winter resi- 
dent in the central valleys of the state from 
late September to early May. It is more 
common in northern Utah than it is farther 
southward. Its wintering habitat includes 
brushy areas where it is often found with 
Song Sparrows and White-crowned Spar- 
rows. 

Records: Stevenson (1872:465) reported 
collecting specimens on Green River and 
Henry's Fork near the Utah-Wyoming 
border, 11 October 1870. Henshaw (1875: 
277) found it to be common at Provo, Utah 
County, in December 1872, and a few were 
observed around Beaver, Beaver County, 
during the first part of November 1872. 
Bailey and Loring (field notes) reported 
them from Manti and Cunnison, Sanpete 
County, in December 1888, and from Bluff, 
San Juan County, in November 1893. There 
are many recent records from nearly all the 
counties of the state. 

Spizella passerina arizonae Coues 

Chipping Sparrow 

Fig. 56, p. 147 

Status: A common summer resident 
throughout the state from April into Octo- 
ber. This species ranges in altitudinal dis- 
tribution from montane coniferous forests 
to valley woodlands and brushlands. It is 
less common in very dry deserts. During 
migration it often appears in sizable flocks, 
especially in sagebrush communities. 

Records: Early ornithological work in 
Utah including that done by Allen (1872b: 
168), Henshaw (1875:277-278), and Ridg- 
way (1877:479) all commented on the 
abundance of the Chipping Sparrow in 
Utah. Several hundred records, represent- 
ing all sections of the state, have more lately 
accumulated. 

Spizella atrogularis evura Coues 
Black-chinned Sparrow 

Status: A rather common species of the 



Virgin River Valley in southwestern Utah. 
It lives in brushy areas in canyons and ap- 
parently breeds there. There is some indi- 
cation that it may have increased in num- 
bers in more recent years (Wauer and 
Carter 1965:84). 

Records: The earliest record of this 
species for Utah seems to be that of Hardy 
and Higgins (1940:110), who observed 
them on 8 April 1939 and collected them 
near the summit of Beaver Dam Mountains, 
Washington County, 20 May 1939 and 16 
June 1939. Behle (1940:224) obtained four 
specimens at Danish Ranch, near Leeds, 
Washington County, 20-30 April 1939. 
Wauer and Carter (1965:84) reported this 
species as being a "fairly common summer 
resident" in Zion National Park, Washing- 
ton County. Their records range from 22 
April to 14 September. 

Spizella pallida (Swainson) 
Clay -colored Sparrow 

Status: A rare and probably accidental 
visitor in Utah. 

Records: Knowlton (1937:165) collected 
a specimen at Dolomite, Tooele County, 21 
September 1934. Behle and Periy (1975:44) 
report that Gleb Kashin saw one at Spirit 
Lake, Daggett County, late August 1961, 
and that Stewart Murie saw this species 
many times in the area of Cedar City, Iron 
County, in the spring and fall of 1963, 1964, 
and 1965. 

Spizella breweri breweri Cassin 

Brewer's Sparrow 

Fig. 49, p. 130 

Status: A veiy common summer resi- 
dent of Utah where it is known to occur 
from mid-April to mid-October. It lives 
primarily in sagebrush lands or in mixed 
sage and grasslands. In late summer and 
fall it gathers in large flocks where it may 
be seen along roadways or on its breeding 
grounds. 

Records: Baird (1876:379) reported 
specimens taken by McCarthy of the 
Simpson explorations in areas of uncertain 



1976 



BIRDS OF UTAH 



165 



location in western Utah, 9 May 1859. 
Ridgway (1877:481) found it nesting in 
abundance in sagebrush near Salt Lake 
City, Salt Lake County, and collected 22 
sets of eggs in May and June 1869. Allen 
(1872b:168) apparently confused it with 
the Clay-colored Sparrow but considered it 
to be common around Ogden, Weber 
County, in September 1871. Bailey (field 
notes 1893), after much travel in the state, 
concluded that it was common all through 
the sagebrush communities. In more recent 
years there have been many hundreds of 
records from every county. 

Pooecetes gramineus (Gmelin) 
Vesper Sparrow 

Status: A common breeding bird of 
sagebrush areas throughout the state. It 
appears to be most abundant in higher 
valleys where it occupies the same habitat 
as the equally common Brewer's Sparrow. 
Like the latter species, it often appears in 
flocks during spring and fall migrations in 
March, April, and September. 

Records: Abundant records of occur- 
rence are available from early collectors in 
the state as well as from more recent ob- 
servers. Ridgway (1877:466) found it 
breeding at Parley's Park, Summit County, 
in June and July 1869. Four specimens now 
in the U.S. National Museum of Natural 
History were taken by the Hayden expedi- 
tion on the north slope of the Uinta Moun- 
tains in September 1870 (Stevenson 1872: 
464). Henshaw (1875:256) considered die 
Vesper Sparrow and Savannah Sparrow to 
be the most common species of sparrows in 
the state. It is still an abundant species. 

Subspecies: P. g. confinis is the common 
breeding and migrant subspecies found in 
Utah. P. g. afftnis, which is a smaller and 
more brownish race, appears to be an un- 
common migrant. A specimen of diis race 
in the University of Utah collection was 
taken at King's Ranch, Henry Mountains, 



Garfield County, 9 September 1929 (Stan- 
ford 1931:10). Another specimen at Brig- 
ham Young University is from Panguitch, 
Garfield County, 20 August 1934. More 
recently Behle and Selander (1952:31) have 
reported specimens from St. George, 
Washington County, 11 September 1941, 
and from Farmington Bay Refuge, Davis 
County, 1 September 1949. Behle (1959:34) 
reported a specimen collected by Cottam at 
Yost, Box Elder County, 18 September 
1941. 

Chondestes grammacus strigatus 

Swainson 

Lark Sparrow 

Status: A summer resident breeder 
found throughout the state from April 
through September. It may winter in 
southern Utah where Wauer and Carter 
(1965:82) saw three birds near Rockville, 
Washington County, 29 December 1964. 
It inhabits open brush communities mainly 
in the lower foothills and valleys. Areas of 
scattered sagebrush seem to provide die 
most favorable nesting habitat. 

Records: Ridgway (1877:470) found this 
species nesting under sagebrush around 
Salt Lake City, Salt Lake County, and col- 
lected several specimens in May and June 
1869. Nelson (1875:346) found it abundant 
in flocks near Bountiful, Davis County, in 
July and August 1872. Henshaw (1875: 
259-260) encountered it in many localities 
and took six specimens near Provo, Utah 
County. Bailey (field notes) found it com- 
mon during his travels in Utah in 1890, 
1891, and 1893. In recent years many re- 
ports have listed it as a common species in 
suitable habitat. 

Aimophila^'^ bilineata deserticola 

(Ridgway) 

Black-throated Sparrow 

Figs. 50, 51; pp. 133, 136 

Status: A summer resident throughout 



l^Phillips et al. (1964:202) and Mayr and Short (1970:84) concur in merging the former genus 
Amphispiza into Aimophila. 



166 



GREAT BASIN NATURALIST MEMOIRS 



No. 1 



much of the state from late April to Septem- 
ber. This sparrow is more common to the 
drier desert country, especially the more 
saline communities where shadscale, 
greasewood, and other low shrubs are 
found. It is more abundant southward, and 
a few may winter in the Virgin River Valley 
of southwestern Utah (Hardy and Higgins 
1940:109). 

Records: This sparrow seems not to 
have been noted by a number of the early 
ornithologists who visited Utah. However, 
Ridgway (1877:475-476) collected speci- 
mens and nests around the Great Salt Lake 
and on Antelope Island in May and June 
1869, and Merriam (Fisher 1893:96) found 
it in 1891 on both slopes of the Beaver Dam 
Mountains and in the lower Santa Clara 
Valley, both localities in Washington 
County. He found several nests with eggs 
and considered it an abundant breeding 
bird. Among the more northern records 
are three specimens in the Brigham Young 
University collection from Cedar Valley, 
Utah County, 3 May 1936. Other northern 
records for the state are: Behle (1955:30) 
Fish Springs, Juab County, 25 June 1946; 
Behle (1958:34) Standrod, Box Elder 
County, 19 May 1948. There are numerous 
records from the southern counties of the 
state. 

Aimophila belli nevadensis (Ridgway) 

Sage Sparrow 

Figs. 52, 53; pp. 139, 141 

Status: A rather sparse summer resident 
throughout much of the state confined to 
sagebrush, greasewood, and other shrubs of 
the open valleys. In the northern part of 
the state it occurs on the nesting grounds 
from late March into October. Wintering 
birds may be found in the Virgin River 
Valley in southwestern Utah (Wauer and 
Carter 1965:83) and in southern Nevada 
(Phillips et al. 1964:201-202). 

Records: Ridgway (1877:476) found this 
sparrow less abundant than the Black- 
throated Sparrow in the deserts around 



Great Salt Lake in 1869. Stevenson (1872: 
465) made records of specimens collected 
on the north slope of the Uinta Mountains 
and Green River (Wyoming?) in early 
October 1870. Allen (1872b:168) found it 
common in sagebrush near Ogden, Weber 
County, in September 1871. Henshaw 
(1875:276) reported collecting specimens 
in Iron and Washington counties in Octo- 
ber 1872. Bailey (field notes) found it 
wintering around St. George, Washington 
County, January 1889. More recently 
many collection and sight records have 
come from most of the counties of the state. 

Aimophila ruficeps scottii (Sennett) 
Rufous-crowned Sparrow 

Status: An uncommon resident of 
southwestern Utah where it has been found 
in the warmer canyons in Zion National 
Park. Scanty records indicate that it is both 
a wintering and breeding species in that 
area. 

Records: There is some question as to 
when this species was first observed in 
Utah. Scott (1964:60) indicated that a 
specimen was collected in Oak Creek 
Canyon, Zion National Park, Washington 
County, 25 October 1963. Wauer and 
Carter (1965:82) mentioned the first record 
of this species as being collected 25 October 
1964. Wauer (1965:447), in his summary of 
the Rufous-crowned Sparrow in Utah, in- 
dicated the first bird collected was on 5 
November 1963 and that the first bird re- 
corded was one banded 3 November 1963. 
This bird banded in November was recap- 
tured 2 December 1963 and 4 March 1964, 
indicating that it wintered in Zion National 
Park during 1963-64. Wauer in this same 
report indicated different sightings, collec- 
tions, or bandings between 3 November 
1963 and 30 January 1965. There is also a 
report of nesting at Zion National Park, 28 
June 1966 (Scott 1966:589). Lund (1968b: 
361) noted a sight record for Zion National 
Park, 27 December 1968, and Scott (1974: 
489) reported another at Zion, 17 December 
1973. 



1976 



BIRDS OF UTAH 



167 








Fig. 63. House Finch. Cedar Mountain, Tooele County, Utah, 30 June 1953. Photo by R. D. Porter 
and R. J. Erwin. 



Pipilo chlonirus (Audubon) 
Green-tailed Towhee 

Status: A common summer resident 
and breeder in foothills and mountains 
throughout the state. It may occur rarely 
in winter (Bader 1948:109). It nests in 
shrubby communities where there is rather 
dense cover from 5,000 feet to timberline 
and frequently wanders into the alpine 
when the young are grown. During migra- 
tion it may also appear in shrubs or stream - 
side thickets in lower valleys. 

Records: This species was included in 
most of the early lists of Utah birds. Ridg- 
way (1877:496 497) considered it to be 
common in various localities around Salt 
Lake City in 1869. Two specimens in tlie 
U.S. National Museum of Natural History 
were taken by the Hayden Expedition to 
the Uinta Mountains, 20 September 1870. 
Allen (1872b: 168) found it common around 



Ogden, Weber County, after 20 September 
1871. Henshaw (1875:309) collected speci- 
mens in central Utah in August and Sep- 
tember 1872. Such travelers through the 
state as Merriam, Bailey, Preble, and Os- 
good all recorded the Green-tailed Towhee 
in their field notes. Many records of birds 
and nests have been reported more recently 
from all die counties of the state. 

Pipilo erythrophthalmiis (Linnaeus) 
Rufous-sided Towhee 

Status: This towhee is a common in- 
habitant of shrubby lower slopes of the 
mountains throughout most of the state. It 
is especially common in the oakbrush 
community of the Wasatch Front where it 
lives the year around. A few individuals 
also breed in thickets along the valley 
streams. In winter there is some altitudinal 
as well as latitudinal migration, particularly 



168 



GREAT BASIN NATURALIST MEMOIRS 



No. 1 



of those birds breeding at higher elevations 
or farther north. 

Records: Ridgway (1877:494-495) con- 
sidered this species to be common around 
Salt Lake City, Salt Lake County, and took 
several specimens as well as six nests with 
eggs between 20 May and 18 June 1869. 
Allen (1872b:168) found it at Ogden, Weber 
County, September 1871, and Merriam 
(1872:684, 708) collected eight skins and 
three sets of eggs in the same locality in 
June 1872. Henshaw (1875:303-304) re- 
ported taking specimens at Provo, Utah 
County, and in Washington County in July, 
August, late October, and November 1872. 
The field notes of Bailey, Preble, Osgood, 
and Birdseye also contain records of this 
bird from many localities in Utah. Nu- 
merous records from all of the counties of 
the state are available for more recent 
years. 

Subspecies: The breeding and common 
migrating and wintering subspecies in Utah 
is P. e. montanus. There was some con- 
fusion in the early literature on Utah birds, 
and many of the migrants were regarded 
as P. e. arcticus (Ridgway 1901:416). The 
only confirmed record of this latter race 
known to us is that of a specimen in the 
U.S. National Museum of Natural History 
taken by Yarrow and Henshaw at Provo, 
30 November 1872 (Woodbury et al. 1949: 
32). This identification was made by J. W. 
Aldrich and A. R. Phillips. 

Pipilo aberti aberti Baird 
Abert's Towhee 

Status: A resident of the Virgin River 
Valley in extreme southwestern Utah. It 
inhabits tall leafy shrubbery of stream- 
sides. 

Records: Henshaw (1875:307) reported 
specimens from Washington and St. 
George, Washington County. Bailey took 
a specimen in Santa Clara Canyon, Wash- 
ington County, 15 January 1889 (U.S. Na- 
tional Museum of Natural History). Fisher 
(1893:105) noted that Merriam found it 



"breeding commonly" near St. George in 
May 1891. Birdseye (field notes) found it 
common in brushy areas at Washington, 
Washington County, and collected a speci- 
men in early November 1909 (U.S. National 
Museum of Natural History). Wauer and 
Carter (1965:82) considered it common at 
Washington and St. George. 

Spiza americana (Gmelin) 
Dickcissel 

Status: A casual or possibly accidental 
visitor to Utah. 

Records: The only collection record of 
this species known to us was taken at Provo, 
Utah County, 25 May 1964 (Frost 1966:126). 
One was seen at the Jordan Narrows, Utah 
County, 12 June 1955 (Kashin 1955:39) and 
five were observed in the Salt Lake Ceme- 
tery, Salt Lake County, 1 October 1959 
(Scott 1960:60). 

Pheucticus ludovicianus (Linnaeus) 
Rose-breasted Grosbeak 

Status: This species is of rare and 
rather irregular occurrence in Utah, found 
particularly in the southern and western 
parts of the state. 

Records: Behle ( 1973b :245) has sum- 
marized the collection and well-verified 
sight records known for this species to the 
present time: Kanab, Kane County, 26 
April 1935 (sight, Behle et al. 1958:79); Salt 
Lake City, Salt Lake County, 4 August 1955 
(not heretofore recorded, collected but not 
saved); Springdale Ponds, Washington 
County, 3 May 1965 (collected, Wauer and 
Carter 1965:78); Kanab, 7 June 1965 (sight, 
oral report from Wauer); Arches National 
Park, Grand County, 26 May 1965 (col- 
lected, Behle 1966:396-397); Fish Springs 
National Wildlife Refuge, Juab County, 
2 June 1965 (collected) and 4 June 1965 
(sight); Terry Ranch, Beaver Dam Wash, 
Washington County, 19 May 1972 (col- 
lected, Behle 1973b:245). Kingery (1975: 
889) reported one at Zion National Park, 
Washington County, in the spring of 1975. 



1976 



BIRDS OF UTAH 



169 



Pheucticus melanocephalus 

melanocephalus (Swainson) 

Black-headed Grosbeak 

Status: A common summer resident 
diroughout the state where it occurs from 
late April to September. It lives primarily 
in deciduous woodlands of the mountains 
and streamsides of the valleys. It adapts 
rather well to human populations and is 
frequently found in ornamental trees of 
towns and parks. 

Records: McCarthy, a collector of Simp- 
son's expedition, took specimens in Skull 
and Rush valleys, Tooele County, about 
1859 (Baird 1876:379). Ridgway (1877:489) 
took specimens near Salt Lake City, Salt 
Lake County in 1869. Henshaw in 1872 
(1874:6; 1875:298) regarded it as common 
in Utah, but found it particularly numerous 
at Provo, Utah County, where he collected 
11 specimens. Fisher (1893:106) reported 
that Merriam found it plentiful along Santa 
Clara River, Washington County, in May 
1891. In more recent times there have been 
numerous observations and collections from 
all the counties of the state. 

Passerina caerulea interfusa 

(Dwight and Griscom) 

Blue Grosbeak 

Status: A summer resident of shrubs 
and thickets usually near water from April 
to September. Early records indicate that 
it is primarily a bird of southern Utah, but 
more recent observations show that it is 
well distributed in lower valleys of more 
northern counties although it is less com- 
mon northward. 

Records: A specimen in the U.S. National 
Museum of Natural History was collected 
by Vernon Bailey near St. George, Wash- 
ington County, 14 May 1891. Fisher (1893: 
106) reported that Merriam found it to be 
common in the lower Santa Clara Valley, 
Washington County, 11-15 May 1891. 
More northern records have appeared in 
recent years: Behle and Selander (1952: 
31) report records for Vernal, Uintah 



County, June 1950 and 4 August 1951. A 
specimen at Brigham Young University 
was taken at Myton, Duchesne County, 8 
June 1957 (Killpack and Hayward 1958:24). 
Behle et al. (1964:455) recorded specimens 
from Lehi, Utah County, 29 June 1961. 
Roger Tory Peterson observed it at Far- 
mington Bay Refrige, Davis County, 22 
August 1962 (Behle et al. 1964:455). Geog- 
hegan (1959:41; 1963:40-42) observed a 
single bird on 14 June 1959 and a pair on 
9 June 1963 at Jordan Narrows, Utah 
County. Two pairs were seen at Grants- 
ville, Tooele County, 31 May 1964 (Utah 
Audubon News 1964:42). A pair was ob- 
served by Frost at Provo Airport, Utah 
County, on several occasions during the 
summer of 1968. 

Passerina amoena (Say) 
Lazuli Bunting 

Status: A summer resident from early 
May to early September occupying stream- 
side shrubbery and mountain brush lands 
up to 9,000 feet. 

Records: Ridgway (1875:490-491) found 
it in Utah in 1869, where he noted it most 
frequently in streamside shioibs and found 
it nesting at Parley's Park, Summit County. 
Allen (1872b: 168) found it not common 
near Ogden, Weber County, in September 
1871. Henshaw (1875:300-301) reported it 
to be common in streamside vegetation 
near Provo, Utah County, in 1872 and 
recorded it from several other localities in 
the state. Later, field observers recorded 
the Lazuli Bunting in their field books: 
Powell at Gunnison, Sanpete County, in 
1873; Bailey at many places from 1890 to 
1893; Loring near Bear Lake, Rich County, 
in 1893. Merriam found it in the lower 
Santa Clara Valley, Washington County, 
where it was found nesting in May 1891 
(Fisher 1893:107). Many specimens and 
observations have been made more re- 
cently, and there are numerous specimens 
in the several institutions of the state and 
elsewhere. 



170 



GREAT BASIN NATURALIST MEMOIRS 



No. 1 



Passerina cyanea (Linnaeus) 
Indigo Bunting 

Status: A sparse breeding species in 
the Virgin River Valley of southwestern 
Utah and appearing elsewhere rarely dur- 
ing migration. 

Records: Hardy (1939:86) reported a 
specimen taken at St. George, Washington 
County, 11 July 1937. Behle (1943a:70) 
mentioned a sight record for St. George, 
14 May 1940. Cottam (1941:122) observed 
a specimen at the mouth of Zion Canyon, 
Washington County, 21 July 1940. Wells 
(1958:223) observed a pair of Indigo 
Buntings along Leeds Creek in Pine Valley 
Mountains, Washington County, 6 June to 
1 August 1957. Wauer and Carter (1965:79) 
listed a number of records from the Zion 
Park area, including several from Spring- 
dale, Washington County. One male was 
banded at Oak Creek Canyon by Wauer on 
1 July 1963. Records from outside the 
Virgin River Valley are all sight obsei-va- 
tions. Scott (1957:.368; 1966:537; 1968:633) 
reported specimens from Saratoga Springs, 
Utah County, 30 May 1957; near Provo, 
Utah County, 8 May 1966; and Cedar 
Valley, Iron County, 7 June 1968. Carl 
Wadsworth (field notes) observed a single 
male with a flock of Lazuli Buntings at 
Sheep Creek watershed, Sevier County, 22 
August 1968. Worthen ( 1972b :220) col- 
lected one on the University of Utah cam- 
pus. Salt Lake City, Salt Lake County, 20 
May 1966. Whitmore (1975:509) has sum- 
marized the more recent records of the 
species. 

Piranga rubra cooperi (Ridgway) 
Summer Tanager 

Status: Not reported in the state prior 
to 1962 (Zimmerman 1962:498). This 
species seems to have become fairly well 
established as a breeder in streamside 
cottonwoods and willows at Beaver Dam 
Wash and in the Virgin River Valley in 
Washington County. It has been reported 



as far north as Eureka, Juab County (Behle 
and Perry 1975:40). 

Records: Carter (Zimmerman 1962:498) 
observed the first specimen at Beaver Dam 
Wash, 3 August 1962. A few weeks later 
Murie (1963:45) reported one from near 
Parowan, Iron County, 21 August 1962. In 
1963 three birds were observed by Wauer 
near Santa Clara, Washington County, one 
on 30 July and two on 19 September (Mon- 
son 1964:63). Easterla (1966:210) in 1964 
reported die following sightings at the 
Teny Ranch, Beaver Dam Wash: one 
singing male, 20 May; two pairs, 10 June; 
one immature, 3 September; one adult 
male, 24 September. He also reported 
seeing a female about one mile west of 
Santa Clara on 22 July. On the following 
day at the same locality he saw another 
female and found a dead female which was 
made into a study skin and is now in the 
University of Utah collection, no. 18458. 
This was the first collection record for the 
state. Wauer and Russell (1967:422) ob- 
served a female and immature at the Teriy 
Ranch on 25 August 1965 and two females 
at Santa Clara on 7 September 1965. Wauer 
(1969:334) collected a male at Berry Spring 
near Hurricane, Washington County, 11 
May 1966. This specimen extended the 
range another 20 miles north along the 
Virgin River, indicating that in the future 
it may be found further north into Utah 
where suitable habitat is available. A 
specimen in Brigham Young University 
was collected near Santa Clara, 18 May 
1974. Kingery (1975:889) reported one at 
Zion National Park, Washington County, 
during the spring of 1975. 

Piranga ludoviciana (Wilson) 
Western Tanager 

Status: A common summer resident of 
mountains diroughout the state where it 
inhabits coniferous and aspen forests. In 
May and early June and again in late 
August and September it often appears as a 
migrant in lower valleys where it is com- 



1976 



BIRDS OF UTAH 



171 



monly seen in streamside woodlands and 
in ornamental trees. 

Records: Early naturalists who visited 
Utah reported the Western Tanager to be a 
common species. Ridgway (1877:455) 
found it breeding in the Wasatch and Uinta 
mountains during die summer of 1869. 
Allen (1872b:167) considered it frequent 
near Ogden, Weber County, in September 
1871. Henshaw (1875:235-236) found it at 
Provo, Utah County, where he took an 
adult male on 29 July 1872. Many records 
from most of the counties of the state indi- 
cate that it is still a common species in the 
area. 



Family Parulidae 



Mniotilta varia (Linnaeus) 
Black and White Warbler 

Status: This warbler is an accidental or 
casual visitor in Utah. 

Records: Behle and Selander (1952:30) 
reported a specimen found dead in Salt 
Lake City, Salt Lake County, 10 December 
1951. Lockerbie (1953:79) recorded one 
seen at Centerville, Davis County, between 
25 May and 6 June 1953. Kingery (1976: 
105) reported one at Santa Clara, Washing- 
ton County, 5 July 1975. 

Vermivora celata (Say) 
Orange-crowned Warbler 

Status: A common breeding species 
and migrant throughout the state. Its 
summer habitat is principally the brush- 
covered slopes of the mountains at mid- 
elevations, but during spring and fall migra- 
tion it may be found in streamside wood- 
lands of the lower valleys. A small number 
winter in the Virgin River Valley, Washing- 
ton County (Wauer 1969:333). 

Records: Early records include those of 
Ridgway (1877:429-430), who found this 
warbler at Parley's Park, Summit County, 
where he took specimens on 17 July and 



12, 16 August 1869. He also noted nu- 
merous fall migrants in streamside shrub- 
bery in the lower canyons. Stevenson 
(1872:463) reported specimens taken by the 
Hayden expedition at several localities in 
the Uinta Mountains in September and 
October 1870. Allen (1872b: 166) found it 
near Ogden, Weber County, in September 
and October 1871. Numerous more re- 
cently collected specimens are in the sev- 
eral institutions of the state. Hayward 
picked up a fresh specimen found dead on 
a sidewalk in St. George, Washington 
County, 28 December 1972. 

Subspecies: The common breeding and 
migrating race found in Utah is V. c. 
orestera. The more northerly breeding 
race, V. c. celata, appears in the state dur- 
ing migration and may be more common at 
this time than is usually supposed. Cottam 
( 1942b :255) reported the following speci- 
mens of celata: Parley's Park, Summit 
County, 16 August 1869; north slope of 
Uinta Mountains, 16 September 1870; 
Green River, south of mouth of Heniy's 
Fork, Daggett County, 6 October 1870. A 
specimen in Brigham Young University 
was taken at Lyndyl, Millard County, 18 
September 1926. Twomey (1942:438) 
collected two specimens of celata, one at 
Green Lake, Daggett County, 13 September 
1937, and one south of Jensen, Uintah 
County, 29 September 1937. It has also 
been recorded in Raft River Canyon, Box 
Elder County, 18 September 1941. (Behle 
1958:29), and south of Kanab, Kane County, 
16 September 1946 (Behle et al. 1958:74). 
Behle and Selander (1952:30) reported 
specimens of celata from Lake Solitude, 
Salt Lake County, 4 September 1945, and 
from Arcadia, Duchesne County, 3 Septem- 
ber 1949. A specimen of the Pacific Coast 
race, V. c. lutescens, in the Carnegie 
Museum was taken by Twomey ( 1944a :89) 
at St. George, Washington County, 12 
October 1937. Wauer (1969:333) reported 
two races in Washington County: lutescens 
at Washington on 6 January 1966 and 
orestera at Springdale on 13 May 1965. 



172 



GREAT BASIN NATURALIST MEMOIRS 



No. 1 



County, 16 September 1946 (Behle et al. 
1958:74). Behle and Selander (1952:30) 
reported specimens of celata from Lake 
Solitude, Salt Lake County, 4 September 
1945, and from Arcadia, Duchesne County, 
3 September 1949. A specimen of the 
Pacific Coast race, V. c. lutescans, in the 
Carnegie Museum was taken by Twomey 
(1944a:89) at St. George, Washington 
County, 12 October 1937. Wauer (1969: 
333) reported two races in Washington 
County: lutescens at Washington on 6 
January 1966 and orestera at Springdale on 
13 May 1965. 



Vermivora ruficapilla ridgwayi van Rossem 
Nashville Warbler 

Status: An uncommon migrant through 
Utah where it appears in April and Sep- 
tember along streamside woodlands in 
canyons and valleys. It has been reported 
to breed in the Northern Wasatch Moun- 
tains (AOU Check-list 1957:484), but 
Johnson (1976:224-225) conclusively showed 
that the Check-list is in error. 

Records: The earliest record of this 
species in the state appears to be that of 
Ridgway in 1869 (1873b:177). Allen (1872b: 
166) collected one at Ogden, Weber 
County, 20 September 1871, and more re- 
cently it has been observed and collected 
consistently. Behle et al. (1958:74) recorded 
a sight record for Kanab, Kane County, 21 
April 1935. Woodbury and Russell (1945: 
119) listed specimens from Navajo Moun- 
tain, San Juan County, 11 August 1935, and 
East Gypsum Drainage, Monument Valley, 
17 August 1936. Brigham Young Univer- 
sity has specimens from Kamas, Summit 
County, 21 August 1930, and from Soap- 
stone, Uinta Mountains, Wasatch County, 
30 August 1940. Lockerbie (1948:21) re- 
ported a sight record for the Salt Lake 
area on 14 September 1947 and another 
sight record for near Salt Lake City, Salt 
Lake County, 26 December 1955 (Locker- 
bie 1956:208). One at Bear River, Box 



Elder County, 15 August 1974, and one at 
Springdale, Washington County, 15 Sep- 
tember 1974 (Kingery 1975:97), have been 
recorded. 



Vermivora virginiae (Baird) 
Virginia's Warbler 

Status: A common summer resident and 
breeding species throughout the state 
where it inhabits dense mountain brush 
and streamside thickets at mid-elevations 
and in lower valleys. Migration occurs in 
April and May and again in September. 

Records: Ridgway (1877:429) found 
Virginia's Warbler in City Creek Canyon, 
Salt Lake County, and near Salt Lake City, 
where he collected four specimens on 24 
and 26 May and 21 June 1869. He also 
found a nest containing four eggs under an 
oak on 19 June. In July of that year he 
reported it from Pack's Canyon, Summit 
County (1877:376). It was apparently 
missed by other early ornithologists. 
Specimens have more recently been ob- 
served and collected in most of the counties 
of the state. 



Vermivora luciae (Cooper) 
Lucy's Warbler 

Status: A fairly common summer resi- 
dent and breeding species of southern Utah 
where it inhabits streamside vegetation 
along the lower San Juan, Colorado, and 
Virgin rivers and their tributaries. 

Records: Merriam, of the Death Valley 
expedition (Fisher 1893:117), took speci- 
mens at Santa Clara, Washington County, 
11 May 1891, and at St. George, Washing- 
ton County, 16 May 1891. A specimen in 
the American Museum was taken by Row- 
ley at Riverview near Four Corners, San 
Juan County, 27 April 1892. Numerous 
records have since been obtained from 
Garfield, San Juan, Kane, and Washington 
counties. 



1976 



BIRDS OF UTAH 



173 



Dendwica petechia (Linnaeus) 
Yellow Warbler 

Fig. 57, p. 148 

Status: A common summer resident 
throughout Utah from late April to October. 
It lives mainlv in the woodlands along 
streams in the lower valleys or in orna- 
mental trees of farms and cities. It occurs 
less commonlv in aspen forests and tall 
shrubbery in the mountains. 

Records: The Yellow Warbler was noted 
bv several of the early ornithologists. 
Ridgway (1877:432) reported it for Salt 
Lake Valley and other localities in 1869. 
Allen (1872a: 396) also reported it for Salt 
Lake \^alley in 1871. Henshaw (1875:192) 
collected six specimens at Provo, Utah 
Count)', in 1872. Several hundred obsei-va- 
tions and collections have been made more 
recentlv. 

Subspecies: The race D. p. morcomi is 
conceded to be the common migrant and 
breeding subspecies in the state and is 
identical with the West Coast population 
formerly known as D. p. brewsteri (Behle 
1948a:77 78). Migrants of other races may 
occasionally appear in Utah. Specimens in 
the American Museum taken at Uncom- 
pahgre Indian Reservation, Uintah County, 
3 May 1895, and from Riverview, San Juan 
County, 4 May 1892, were identified by 
A. R. Phillips as D. p. aestiva (Woodbuiy 
and Russell 1945:121). Another specimen 
from Strawberry X'allev, Wasatch County, 
17 May 1941, now in tlie Carnegie Museum, 
was identified as the same race by J. S. 
Aldrich. Cottam (1942b:255) reported a 
specimen collected by Henshaw in Provo, 
Utah Count)', 30 July 1872, as being of the 
race amnicola. Specimens in Brigham 
Young Universit)' collected near Provo on 
27 May 1936 and 17 May 1945 were identi- 
fied by J. W. Aldrich as D. p. amnicola. 
Wauer (1969:333) reported a specimen of 
the race amnicola collected at Springdale, 
Washington County, 6 May 1965. Wood- 
buiy et al. (1949:28) listed the race rubigi- 
nosa from Utah, Wasatch, and Washington 



counties, 10, 27 May and 7, 30 July (no 
years given). Worthen (1968:487) also 
mentioned this race apparently on the 
basis of the Woodbury report. 

Dendwica caerulescens (Gmelin) 
Black-tliroated Blue Warbler 

Status: A rare or accidental visitor to 
Utah only recently reported. 

Records: A male specimen of the Black- 
throated Blue Warbler in immature plum- 
age was taken at the headquarters of the 
Desert Range Experiment Station, Millard 
County, 27 September 1974 (Porter and 
Pritchett 1975:31). These authors have 
also referred to additional sight records by 
Lockerbie and Emerson at Salt Lake City, 
24 October 1953 (Scott 1954:33) and by 
Behle (letter 24 May 1973) in the Stansbuiy 
Mountains, Tooele County, 16 October 
1955. Behle and Perry (1975:36) reported 
that Stewart Murie saw this species near 
Cedar City, Iron County, 16 October 1955. 
Behle and Periy (1975:36) reported that 
Stewart Murie saw diis species near 
Cedar City, Iron County, 20 May, 19 
August, 10 September, all in 1963. 

Subspecies: The above mentioned 
specimen was examined by Roxie C. Lay- 
bourne of the Bird and Mammal Labora- 
tory, U.S. National Museum, and assigned 
to the race D. c. caerulescens. 



Dendwica graciae grac\ 
Grace's Warbler 



graciae graciae Baird 



Status: An uncommon summer resident 
in southern Utah where it inhabits pon- 
derosa pine forests. Wauer and Carter 
(1965:75) regarded it as common in the 
higher countiy around Zion National Park. 
They stated that the bird arrives in late 
April and remains through August. It may 
rarely occur as far north as central Utah. 

Records: Benson (1935:445) included it 
in his list for Navajo Mountain, San Juan 
County, mid-June 1933. Woodbury and 
Russell (1945:125) collected a specimen at 



174 



GREAT BASIN NATURALIST MEMOIRS 



No. 1 



Navajo Mountain, 15 June 1938. Behle 
( 1960a :45) recorded a specimen taken at 
Kigalia Ranger Station, Elk Ridge, Gar- 
field Count)', 27 August 1956. Wauer 
(1966b:352) reported that a bird was ob- 
sei-ved at Zion Park, Washington County, 
visiting a feeder for a week beginning 21 
December 1965; it was considered by die 
Audubon Field Notes editor as a possible 
first winter record for this species in die 
United States. Kashin (Scott 1970:630) 
reported seeing Grace's Warbler at Provo, 
Utah County, 13 April 1970. 

Dendroica nigrescens nigrescens 

(Townsend) 

Black-tliroated Gray Warbler 

Status: A common summer resident 
throughout the state from late April into 
September. During the nesting season it is 
most likely to be seen in pinyon-juniper 
forests. 

Records: Ridgway (1875:32) made ref- 
erence to this species breeding in the 
Wasatch Mountains of Utah. He also re- 
ferred to it breeding in the Uinta Moun- 
tains (1877:433). Most of the other early 
ornithologists seemed to have missed it 
possibly Ijecause of its restricted habitat. 
Still a common species in pinyon-juniper 
woodlands, the Black-throated Gray 
Warbler has numerous observations and 
specimens on record. 



Dendroica townsendi (Townsend) 
Townsend's Warbler 

Status: A seemingly regular but un- 
common migrant through Utah in spring 
and fall. 

Records: All of the published records 
for tliis species appear to be of more recent 
date. It was reported first by Stanford 
(1931:8), who took a specimen in the Henry 
Mountains, Garfield County, 12 September 
1929. Behle (1960a:45) summarized a num- 
ber of records from southeastern Utah, and 



later several additional records were pub- 
lished by Hayward (1967:50). Brigham 
Young University has the following speci- 
mens from Utah: Bennion Park, Duchesne 
County, 24 August 1957; Provo Boat Har- 
bor, Utah County, 24 September 1960; 
Bluff, San Juan County, 13 September 1966. 



Dendroica occidentalis (Townsend) 
Hermit Warbler 

Status: An uncommon summer resident 
and migrant of southern Utah. 

Records: Woodbury and Russell (1945: 
125) referred to specimens from Navajo 
Mountain, San Juan County, 11 August 
1935. Woodbuiy et al. (1949:29) reported 
a specimen from Navajo Mountain, 13 
August 1936. Behle ( 1960a :45) mentioned a 
specimen taken on the slope of Mount 
Ellen, Heniy Mountains, Garfield County, 
13 August 19,56. Wauer and Russell (1967: 
422) reported a specimen from Beaver 
Dam, Mohave County, Arizona, 17 August 
1965. Since Beaver Dam is about seven 
miles south of the Arizona-Utah border, 
this warbler could be looked for in the 
Virgin River drainage of Utah. 



Dendroica magnolia (Wilson) 
Magnolia Warbler 

Status: An uncommon spring and fall 
migrant through Utah to be looked for in 
company with other more common species 
of warblers. 

Records: This species has been reported 
only in recent years. Sight records are as 
follows: Scott (1963:54), two at Salt Lake 
City, Salt Lake County, 14 October 1962; 
Scott (1968:.561), one at Green River, Emeiy 
County, 30 May 1968; Kingery (1972:98), 
several at Bear River, Box Elder County, 26 
September 1971. Behle (1973b:244) 'col- 
lected a specimen at Terry Ranch, Beaver 
Dam Wash, southwestern Washington 
County, 19 May 1972. 



1976 



BIRDS OF UTAH 



175 



Dendroica coronata (Linnaeus) 

Yellow-rumped Warbler 

Fig. 58, p. 149 

Status: The Yellow-rumped Warbler, a 
variety of which has been commonly 
known as Audubon's Warbler, is a common 
summer resident of montane forests 
throughout the state and is frequently seen 
in lower valleys during migration. A few 
may remain in warmer sections of die 
state throughout the winter. 

Records: A few references to this species 
were made by early ornithologists. Ridg- 
way (1877:433-434) included the subspecies 
auduboni (see subspecies account below) in 
his Utah list and stated diat it bred in the 
pine belt of the mountains and wintered in 
the valleys in 1869. Cottam (1942b:254) 
listed a specimen of the race coronata, 
which was collected by the Hayden Survey 
of 1870 on the Green River south of die 
mouth of Heniy's Fork in what is now 
Daggett County on 9 October 1870. A 
second record of coronata was listed by 
Gunther and Van den Akker (1946:285) for 
Bear River Migratoiy Bird Refuge, Box 
Elder County, 7 May 1946. Henshaw 
(1875:194 195) mentioned collecting speci- 
mens o( auduboni in 1872 from half a dozen 
localities in Utah. Brigham Young Univer- 
sity' has several wintering specimens of 
auduboni as follows: St. George, Washing- 
ton Count}', 27 December 1926 and 5 Janu- 
ary 1934; Provo, Utah County, 4 January 
1937 and 17 Januaiy 1955. There are also 
abundant sight and collection records for 
other niondis of the year. 

Subspecies: According to the account in 
Check-list of Birds of the World (1968 [14] : 
29-31), tlie yellow-throated form previously 
given fidl species status as D. auduboni is 
now considered to be a subspecies under 
D. coronata, since the two are known to 
interbreed (Hubbard 1969:393-432). Tliis 
taxonomic decision is also accepted by 
the AOU Check-list (1973:417). Further- 
more, the intermountain breeding race, 
known for many years as D. a. memorabilis 



(Oberholser 1921:243), is now considered 
to be in synonomy with D. c. auduboni. 
There are, therefore, two kinds of warblers 
in the Utah population: D. c. coronata, 
which appears as an uncommon spring and 
fall migrant, and the common D. c. audu- 
boni, which is the breeding, migrating, and 
wintering race. 

Dendroica striata (Forster) 
Blackpoll Warbler 

Status: A species of rare occurrence in 
Utah known presently only as a spring and 
fall migrant. 

Records: One specimen found dead on 
the Brigham Young University campus, 
Provo, Utah County, 3 October 1973. The 
specimen was a fall bird of uncertain sex. 
It was found by M. Vanhille and is now in 
the university collection (museum number 
5364). Sight records were reported by 
Behle and Peny (1975:37) for Bear River 
Migratoiy Bird Refuge, Box Elder County, 

15 June 1970, and at the same locality, 19 
September 1974. 

Dendroica castanea (Wilson) 
Bay -breasted Warbler 

Status: A rare and possibly accidental 
or casual migrant in Utah. 

Records: A male specimen (number 
22249 in University of Utah) was taken 
along the floodplain of White River near 
Bonanza, Uintah County, 25 May 1974 
(Behle and Perry 1975:37). Tliis appears to 
be the only record known for Utah. 

Setophaga ruticilla tricolora (Miiller) 
American Redstart 

Status: A sparse breeder in deciduous 
trees of valleys and low canyons in nordiern 
Utah. Apparently more common fomierly 
than at present. 

Records: Ridgway (1877:367; 372-373; 
376-377; 438-439) found it from 20 May to 

16 August 1869 along City Creek, near Salt 



176 



GREAT BASIN NATURALIST MEMOIRS 



No. 1 



Lake City, Salt Lake County, in Parley's 
Park, Summit County, and Provo Canyon, 
Utah County. Henshaw (1875:209)' re- 
garded it as common in wooded lowlands 
and collected a specimen at Provo on 29 
July 1872. Hayward (field notes) found it 
to be of regular occurrence in streamside 
woodlands near Provo in the early 1930s, 
took specimens, and found it nesting. Other 
earlier collection localities include River- 
dale, Weber River, 10 June 1942 (Univer- 
sity of Utah), and Jensen, Uintah County, 
20 August 1935 (Royal Ontario Museum). 
Porter (1954:363) reported making collec- 
tions at Warburton Ranch, Pilot Mountain, 
Box Elder County, 31 August and 1 Sep- 
tember 1935, and Cedar Mountains, Tooele 
County, 22 September 1953. Behle and 
Selander (1952:30-31) took specimens near 
Vernal, Uintah County, 12 June 1949, near 
Duchesne, Duchesne County, 3 September 
1949, and on the north side of the Uinta 
Mountains at Hideout Canyon along the 
Green River, Daggett County, 12 Septem- 
ber 1950. Behle et al. (1964:454) published 
an additional record for Camel Back 
Mountain, Tooele County, 30 August 1961. 
Wauer (Snider 1966:538) saw several Red- 
starts in Washington County on 18 xMay 
1966. 

Seiurus noveboracensis (Gmelin) 
Northern Waterthmsh 

Status: A sparse but apparently regular 
migrant along water courses in the state in 
May and again in August and September. 
Possibly occurs rarely in winter (Bader 
1948:109). 

Records: Most of the early-day orni- 
thologists did not record this species for 
Utah perhaps because of its scattered oc- 
currence during migration. A specimen in 
the U.S. National Museum of Natural His- 
tory was taken by Merriam and Bailey at 
Santa Clara, Washington County, 11 May 
1891 (Fisher 1893:122). Two other speci- 
mens in the same museum were collected 
by Wetmore at Bear River, 12 and 21 



August 1915, and several otliers were ob- 
sei-ved by him. Cottam (1942b:255) men- 
tioned a sight record of one on 20 May and 
three on 22 May 1917 at Linwood, Daggett 
County. The Royal Ontario Museum con- 
tains three specimens collected by Lloyd 
near Jensen, Uintah County, 8 May and 11 
August 1935 (Twomey 1942:445). Wood- 
bury took one near Bluff, San Juan County, 
11 May 1933 (Woodbuiy and Russell 1945: 
125). The following more recent collection 
records have been published: Behle and 
Selander (1952:30), Faiinington Bay Refuge, 
Davis County, 10 May 1949; near Snyder- 
ville. Summit County, 14 May 1949; and 
Benjamin, Utah County, 15 May 1949; 
Behle et al. (1964:454), near Natural 
Bridges National Monument, San Juan 
County, 13 May 1960, and Dugway, Tooele 
County, 21 May 1961. There are also 
numerous sight records. 

Subspecies: Formerly it was thought that 
both the races S. n. notabilis and S. n. 
limnaeus occurred in the migratory popu- 
lation, but the species is now considered 
to be without subspecific diff'erentation 
(Check-list of Birds of the World 1968 [14] : 
35-36). 

Geothhjpis trichas (Linnaeus) 
Common Yellowthroat 

Status: A radier common summer resi- 
dent and migrant diroughout the state 
wherever there are suitable habitats. It 
inhabits sedge and cattail vegetation 
around the borders of lakes and ponds and 
is also found in willow diickets near water 
especially during migration. 

Records: Ridgway (1877:366-.367) found 
this warbler at Deep Creek, Box Elder 
County, 5 October 1868, and near Salt Lake 
City, Salt Lake County, through August 
1869. Allen (1872a:396) took specimens 
near Ogden, Weber County, in September 
1871 and considered it common. Merriam 
(1873:674, 705) collected it near Ogden, 
17 June 1872, and found it nesting. Hen- 
shaw (1874:10) considered it common and 



1976 



BIRDS OF UTAH 



177 



(1875:205) found it in various parts of Utah. 
He collected it at Panguitch, Garfield 
County, 17 September 1872. Such early 
naturalist visitors as Vernon Bailey, Os- 
good, and others made references to it in 
their field notes. Merriam (Fisher 1893:123) 
observed it along the lower Santa Clara 
River, Washington County, 11-15 May 
1891. Numerous additional records have 
been published in recent years. 

Subspecies: The most widespread breed- 
ing Yellowthroat in Utah is G. t. occi- 
dentalis, which also includes G. t. utahicola 
described by Oberholser (1948:3). G. t. 
scirpicola occurs only in the extreme south- 
western part of the state (Behle 1950a:210). 
Recently, Wauer (1969:333) reported die 
race occidentalis as also breeding in south- 
western Utah. The race G. t. campicola is 
known to migrate through die state (Behle 
1948a:78). 

Geothlypis agilis (Wilson) 
Connecticut Warbler 

Status: Known only as an accidental 
visitor to the state. 

Records: The only collection record of 
this warbler known to us is that published 
by Porter and Bushman (1956:153). A 
specimen was obtained by them at die 
mouth of South Willow Canyon, 10 miles 
south of Grantsville, Tooele County, 22 
September 1954. A sight record by Kashin 
in City Creek Canyon, Salt Lake City, Salt 
Lake County, 26 August 1972 (Behle and 
Peri-y 1975:37) has been published. 

Geothlypis tolmiei (Townsend) 
MacGillivray's Warbler 

Status: A common breeding species and 
migrant diroughout the state widi two 
races being represented in the Utah popu- 
lation. The breeding birds live at mid- 
elevations where diey nest and forage in 
radier dense shmbby vegetation in canyons 
or under aspens. 

Records: Ridgway (1877:435-436) found 
this warbler in "all the fertile canyons from 



the Sierra Nevada to the Uintahs [sic] . It 
inhabited the rank herbage near the 
streams, or the undergrowth of the thickets 
and aspen copses." He took nests and eggs 
at Parley's Park, Summit County, in June 
and July 1869. Allen ( 1872a :396) obtained 
specimens near Ogdeii, Weber County, in 
September 1871. Henshaw (1875:205-206) 
referred to its presence in Utah but ap- 
parently took no specimens. There have 
since been many records from most of the 
counties of the state. 

Subspecies: The subspecies G. t. monti- 
cola is the breeding form found in Utah and 
throughout most of the intermountain area. 
The more northern breeding race G. t. 
tolmiei, including G. t. austinsmithi de- 
scribed by Phillips (1974:298), is a regular 
migrant dirough the state (Behle et al. 
1958:76; Behle 1958:31, 1960a:46). The 
spring migration occurs mainly in May and 
the fall migration takes place from mid- 
August into October. 

Wilsonia pusilla (Wilson) 
Wilson's Warbler 

Status: A common migrant especially 
along the streams in the lower valleys dur- 
ing May and again in August and Septem- 
ber. Known also to breed in small numbers 
in the high mountain forests. 

Records: Most, if not all, of the speci- 
mens taken by early-day ornithologists 
were probably migrants. Ridgway (1877: 
438) collected one on Antelope Island, 
Great Salt Lake, 24 May 1869. Stevenson 
(1872:463) reported specimens from the 
northern slope of the Uinta Mountains on 
16 September 1870. Allen (1872b:167) 
found it common and took specimens near 
Ogden, Weber County, 11-30 September 
1871 (1872a:396). Nesting records are 
scarce, but Higgins (field notes) reported 
seeing several dozen birds around his camp 
on Boulder Mountain, Sevier County, 27 
July to 2 August 1941. Twomey (1942:448- 
449) found young birds and family groups 
on Bald Mountain, Summit County, 19 



178 



GREAT BASIN NATURALIST MEMOIRS 



No. 1 



July 1937, and at Moon Lake, Duchesne 
County, 21 August 1937. Many records of 
migrant birds are available for more recent 
years. 

Subspecies: The breeding and migrant 
race found in the state is W. p. pileolata; 
however, Cottam (1942a:127) reported the 
collection of a specimen of W. p. pusilla at 
the west base of Pilot Peak, Elko County, 
Nevada, 20 September 1941. This collec- 
tion site is only two miles west of die Utah- 
Nevada border, so it appears that this race 
probably migrates through Utah, although 
not in any great numbers. 

Wilsonia canadensis (Linnaeus) 
Canada Warbler 

Status: A rare migrant in the state. 

Records: A partially decomposed body 
of a bird of this species was found at Callao, 
Juab County, 31 May 1975. It is in the 
Brigham Young University Life Sciences 
Museum (museum number 5390). 

Myioborus pictus pictus (Swainson) 
Painted Redstart 

Status: An uncommon and perhaps ac- 
cidental visitor to the Virgin River area in 
southwestern Utah. 

Records: Presnell (1935b:207) first pub- 
lished a record of this species based on an 
observation by V. M. Tanner at Zion 
National Park, Washington County, 26 
April 1930. Dixon Joyner saw one at the 
Terry Ranch, Beaver Dam Wash, Washing- 
ton County, 22 May 1965 (Behle and Perry 
1975:38). Wauer (1969:333-334) sum- 
marized several other sight records, all 
from Zion National Park in 1966. These 
are as follows: 22 April, three individuals; 
24 April, two seen and one heard; 30 April, 
one observed. The 1930 sighting and the 
1966 observations were within a (juarter 
mile of each other. Kingery (1975:88) re- 
ported a Painted Redstart at Zion National 
Park during the period 28 April to 2 May 
1975. 



Icteria virens auricoUis (Deppe) 
Yellow-breasted Chat 

Status: A common summer resident and 
breeding species in suitable habitats 
throughout the state. The Yellow-breasted 
Chat is an inhabitant of dense thickets 
along natural waterways and canal banks 
in the lower valleys and canyons. 

Records: Henshaw (1875:206-207) re- 
ferred to the Yellow-breasted Chat from 
several localities in Utah, and Allen (1872b: 
166) found it moderately common in the 
vicinity of Ogden, Weber County. Ridg- 
way (1875:24) considered it to be a com- 
mon breeder in the Salt Lake Valley in 
1869. Merriam (Fisher 1893:124) indicated 
it as a "tolerably common breeder," 11-15 
May 1891, in tlie Santa Clara Valley, 
Washington County. Many more recent 
occurrences are on record. 

Family Vireonidae 

Vireo griseus noveboracensis (Gmelin) 
White-eyed Vireo 

Status: An accidental or casual visitor 
to Utah. 

Records: This species was reported by 
Porter and Bushman (19.56:153), who re- 
corded a specimen taken by Heber H. Hall 
eight miles west of Boulder, Garfield 
County, 11 May 1953. It was found in a 
fruit orchard in a mixed flock of other 
species of birds. 

Vireo hellii arizonae Ridgway 
Bell's Vireo 

Status: This vireo is an uncommon but 
regular summer resident in tlie Virgin 
River Valley of southwestern Utah. 

Records: Two males were collected by 
Ross Hardy three miles south of St. George, 
Washington County, 19 and 20 April 1940. 
These records were reported by Hardy and 
Higgins (1940:105) as being of the race V. b. 
pusiUus. Later, Hardy (1941a:125) cor- 
rected die subspecies name to arizonae. 



1976 



BIRDS OF UTAH 



179 



Wauer and Carter (1965:73) published a 
sight record from Parunuweap Canyon, 
Zion National Park, Washington County, 
17 August 1962 and 26 August 1962. In die 
latter case an immatiue bird was seen with 
adults. 

Vireo vicinior Coues 
Gray Vireo 

Status: A fairly common summer resi- 
dent, particularly of the more soudrern 
counties where it inhabits principally the 
arid pinyon-juniper forests and dry biiish- 
lands. 

Records: The University of Utah has 
several specimens from Washington 
County, including Beaver Dam Mountains, 
22 April 1930 and 4-6 May 1941 and a 
locality near Leeds, 30 April-4 May 1939 
(Behle 1943:62). A specimen in the Dixie 
Junior College collection was taken on 
Beaver Dam Mountains, 29 June 1940 
(Hardy and Higgins 1940:105). More re- 
cent published records (Behle et al. 1958: 
73) are from Cave Lakes Canyon, Kane 
County, 15 May 1946 and 23 May 1947, 
and from confluence of Calf Creek and 
Escalante River, Garfield County, 7 May 
1954. Wauer (1969:333) considered it a 
common resident from 2 April to 30 June 
in the mountains near Zion National Park, 
Washington County. Sight records include 
that of Webster (1947:40), who reported 
seeing two in a pinyon-juniper forest near 
Salina, Sevier County, 22 August 1945. 
Scott (1965:.567-.568) reported that Carter 
saw the Gray Vireo at Arches National 
Park, Grand County, and in the nearby La 
Sal Mountains and that it was found nest- 
ing in both localities in June 1965. Tlie 
following year it was again recorded all 
during die summer at Arches National 
Monument (Scott 1966:589). 

Vireo solitarius (Wilson) 

Solitary Vireo 

Fig. 59, p. 150 

Status: A radier common summer resi- 



dent throughout the state where it inhabits 
streamside woodlands, pinyon-juniper 
forests, and yellow pine forests. 

Records: Ridgway (1875:321, .367, 374) 
obsei-ved it in scrub oak and pinyon- 
juniper habitats of City Creek Canyon, 
Salt Lake County, in July and August 1869, 
and also at Parley's Park, Summit County. 
Allen (1872:167) collected it at Ogden, 
Weber County, 8 September 1871, and 
considered it to be "rather frequent. " Hen- 
shaw (1875:225) found it in die Wasatch 
Mountains. In addition, many recent oc- 
currences are on record. 

Subspecies: The common breeding sub- 
species in the state is V. s. plumbeus. The 
race V. s. cassinii may also appear as a 
spring and fall migrant. Some recent pub- 
lished records of this race include those of 
Stanford (1938:142), Logan, Cache County, 
27 September 1930; Behle (1943:62), Beaver 
Dam Wash, Washington County, 18 April 
1932; Behle (1958:29), Clear Creek, Box 
Elder County, 3 September 1932; Behle 
(1955:27), Queen of Sheba Mine, Deep 
Creek Mountains, Juab County, 16 Sep- 
tember 1947; Behle ( 1960a :43), La Sal 
Mountains, San Juan County, 14 September 
1955; Hay ward (1967:48), White River 
near Bonanza, Uintah County, 20 Sep- 
tember 1966. 

Vireo olivaceus olivaceus (Linnaeus) 
Red-eyed Vireo 

Status: A sparse migrant dirough the 
state in late May and early June and again 
in September. It usually appears as a 
migrant in streamside vegetation of the 
lower valleys, although an obseivation by 
Cottam and Kalmback (field notes) for 
Aspen Grove, Mt. Timpanogos, Utah 
County, 7 July 1938, indicated that it might 
rarely nest in the state. 

Records: The only records from die 
early naturalists were those of Allen (1872b: 
167), who collected it near Ogden, Weber 
County, 8 September 1871. He regarded it 
as more or less common in that area in 



180 



GREAT BASIN NATURALIST MEMOIRS 



No. 1 



September and early October. More recent 
collection records for the state include the 
following: four miles soutli of Jensen, 
Uintah County, May and June 1937 (Two- 
mey 1942:437); near Logan, Cache County, 
30 May 1941 (Stanford 1944:151); losepa. 
Skull Valley, Tooele County, 11 September 
1953 (Porter 1954:363); Salt Lake City, Salt 
Lake County, June 1962, and Dugway, 
Tooele County, 6 September 1962 (Behle 
et al. 1964:454). A number of sight records 
have also been reported. 

Vireo gilvus (Vieillot) 

Warbling Vireo 

Fig. 60, p. 151 

Status : A common summer resident and 
breeding species in the state from late 
March through September. It inhabits 
deciduous woods along valley and moun- 
tain streams but is especially abundant in 
aspen forests. 

Records: Most of the early-day orni- 
thologists either collected or observed this 
species in various sections of the state. 
Ridgway (1875:449) took a specimen at 
Antelope Island, Davis County, 5 June 
1869. He also found nests and eggs at 
Parley's Park, Summit County, 23-24 June 

1869. Stevenson (1872:464) found it along 
Green River, Daggett County, in October 

1870. Allen (1872b:167) regarded it as 
"rather common" around Ogden, Weber 
County, in September and early October 

1871. Henshaw (1875:221) found it to be a 
widespread and common vireo in several 
localities he visited. Two specimens col- 
lected by Granger in Uintah County on 31 
May 1895 are in the American Museum. 
Numerous collection and sight records have 
been made more recently. 

Subspecies: The common breeding and 
migrating race in the state is V. g. leuco- 
polius. V. g. swainsonii appears as an un- 
common migrant. Tlie University of Utah 
collection contains specimens of the latter 
from King's Ranch, Henry Mountains, Gar- 
field County, 10 September 1929, and from 



Deep Creek Mountains, Tooele County, 
16 September 1947 (Woodbury et al. 1949: 
217; Behle 1948a:77). A specimen at Brig- 
ham Young University from Henrieville, 
Garfield County, 7 September 1937, also 
appears to be V. g. swainsonii (Hay ward 
1967:49). There are four specimens of tliis 
race taken at Clear Creek and along the 
slope of the Raft River Mountains, Box 
Elder County, 18 May 1948 and 25 August 
1949 (Behle 1958:29). However, on die 
basis of a study of some 200 specimens, 
Worthen (1968:367,368) doubted diat 
swainsonii occurs in the Utah population at 
all. 

Family Icteridae 

Icterus cucullatus nelsoni Ridgway 
Hooded Oriole 

Status: This oriole is an uncommon 
summer resident in extreme southwestern 
Utah. 

Records: Behle (1943a:68) reported a 
specimen at Terry Ranch, Beaver Dam 
Wash, Washington County, 22 April 1930. 
Hardy and Higgins (1940:107) obtained a 
specimen on 23 April 1940 at St. George, 
Washington County, which tliey indicated 
was of the race sennetti. Later Hardy 
(1941a: 125) reported that the specimen had 
been misidentified and belonged to die 
race nelsoni. Behle et al. (1964:455) also 
recorded a male specimen with enlarged 
testes taken at Lytle Ranch, Beaver Dam 
Wash, 25 June 1961, and mentioned that 
this was the third specimen known for the 
state. Wauer (1969:334) collected a male 
at tlie Lytle Ranch, Beaver Dam Wash, 27 
April 1966. He observed this species from 
8 April to 25 August in the Virgin River 
Valley of Utah, Arizona, and Nevada. 

Icterus galhula (Linnaeus) 

Northern Oriole 

Fig. 61, p. 154 

Status: A common summer resident and 



1976 



BIRDS OF UTAH 



181 



breeding species throughout the state from 
early May through August. Its natural 
habitat appears to be woodlands along 
the streams of the lower valleys, but it has 
also adapted rather well to ornamental 
trees in towns and parks. 

Records: Ridgway (1877:509) collected 
specimens, nests, and eggs in the Salt Lake 
Valley and Wasatch Mountains in 1869. 
Henshaw (1875:320) referred to finding 
this species in several localities in Utah 
during his fieldwork in 1872. All the 
other early naturalists to visit the state re- 
corded its occurrence in dieir reports and 
field notes. The species is still common in 
the state, and many specimens are in local 
collections. 

Subspecies: The subspecies I. g. hul- 
lockii, known as Bullock's Oriole for many 
years, is by far die most common and wide- 
spread, if not the only, morphologically 
distinct form occurring in Utah. It was 
formerly given flill species status but is now 
considered as a subspecies of the ubiquitous 
I. galhula (AOU Check-list 1973:417). 
Worthen (1968:385; 1973b :677-678) re- 
ported a specimen of 7. g. galbula in the 
University of Utah collection from Milford, 
Millard County, 27 June 1964. 

Icterus parisoru7n Bonaparte 
Scott's Oriole 

Status: An uncommon summer resident 
more frequently found in the southern part 
of the state, but in recent years reported in 
a number of locations in the north. It in- 
habits pinyon-juniper woodlands and semi- 
desert country where there are tall shrubs. 

Records: There seem to be few refer- 
ences to this oriole in die early reports on 
Utah birds. Fisher (1893:77) mentioned its 
occurrence in tlie Beaver Dam Mountains 
of southwestern Utah. Behle et al. (1964: 
455) collected several specimens at Lytle 
Ranch, Washington County, 25 June 1961. 
Behle and Selander (1952:31) collected it 
25 miles east of Hanksville, Wayne County, 
20 May 1951. Carter (1967a:5)' included it 



for Arches National Park, Grand County, 
30 May and 29 June 1965; it was also re- 
ported to have nested there. Long (1943: 
39) reported seeing it at Nephi, Juab 
County, 17 May 1942. Porter (1954:363) 
reported a sight record for Cedar Moun- 
tains, Tooele County, 7 May 1953. Hay- 
ward and Frost (field notes) saw a male 
near Fish Springs, Juab County, 19 May 
1966. Some additional sight records have 
appeared as follows: Scott (1959:391; 
1962:436; 1965:568) near Eureka, Juab 
County, 30 May 1959; Salt Lake City, Salt 
Lake County, 30 April 1962; nest with 
young. Arches National Park, 29 June 1965; 
and Kingery (1971:887), Topaz Mountain, 
Juab County, summer 1971. Hayward (field 
notes) found it nesting near Topaz Moun- 
tain, Juab County, 29 May 1973. 

Xa7ithocephalus xanthocephahis 

(Bonaparte) 

Yellow-headed Blackbird 

Status: A common summer resident 
throughout the state in lower valleys where 
there are swamplands or lake borders with 
ample rushes or odier emergent vegetation 
suitable for nesting colonies. It may oc- 
casionally remain all winter as witnessed 
by Cottam et al. (1942:53), who obsei-ved 
one at Bear River Marshes, Box Elder 
County, 16 December 1941. In addition, 
Wauer (1969:334) saw five at Washington, 
Washington County, 28 December 1965. 

Records: This conspicuous bird was 
noted by all of the early investigators to 
visit the state. Ridgway (1877:.502-503) 
found it plentiful at the mouth of Jordan 
River, Davis County, in 1869, as well as at 
other localities. Allen (1872b:168) found it 
in the marshes near Ogden, Weber County, 
and Henshaw (1874:7) reported it as being 
veiy numerous in the state. Many colonies 
of tliis species may still be found through- 
out die state. The abundance of this species 
may, in part, be attributed to the creation 
of new water storage resei-voirs wherein 
emergent vegetation is able to grow around 



182 



GREAT BASIN NATURALIST MEMOIRS 



No. 1 



»^ 










1 


lirt J 




H 



Fig. 64. Gray Jay. Paradise Park, Uinta Mountains, Uintah County, Utah, 30 July 1953. Photo by 
R. J. Erwin. 



the borders. This has apparently increased 
dieir numbers and extended their distribu- 
tion. 

Agelaius phoeniceus (Linnaeus) 
Red-winged Blackbird 

Status: A common resident of valley 
marshlands and meadows where it nests. 
In winter large flocks remain in the wanner 
valleys. 

Records: A number of references to this 
species for Utah were found in the early 
records of Allen (1872b: 168), Henshaw 
(1874:7; 1875:314-315), and Ridgway (1877: 
505). Since this is one of the more common 
birds in the state, hundreds of records have 
been made in recent years. 

Subspecies: The breeding and wintering 
population found throughout Utah appears 
to be A. p. fortis. A race named A. p. 
utahensis was proposed by Bishop (1938:2), 
and Behle (1940b: 234- 240) supported tliis 
view principally on the basis of the de- 



cidedly pinkish color found on tlie throat 
in many females. However, Blake (Check- 
list of Birds of the World 1968[14] :168) 
has placed utahensis in synonomy with 
fortis. Behle (1948a:78-79) indicated that 
there is some evidence of intergradation of 
fortis with A. p. nevadensis on die western 
border of the state, where he considered 
collected birds to be atypical breeding 
A. P. nevadensis individuals. Twomey 
(1942:453) collected three specimens, which 
he considered to be migrants of the race 
nevadensis, two miles south of Jensen, 
Uintah County, in late September 1937. 
Behle ( 1976b :44) reported a specimen in 
the Zion National Park collection as being 
of the race A. ;;. sonoriensis. 

Sturnella ncglecta Audubon 
Western Meadowlark 

Status: A permanent resident through- 
out the valleys of the state especially in 
grasslands or cultivated fields and pasture- 



1976 



BIRDS OF UTAH 



183 



lands. It also sometimes occurs in sage- 
brush or other low growing sliRibs. In 
winter it tends to congregate in small flocks 
especially around cattle feed lots. 

Records: Baird (1852:316), in Stans- 
buiy's report on his explorations of Great 
Salt Lake, found the meadowlark in that 
area in 1850. Ridgway (1875:30, 33) indi- 
cated it as a breeding species in the Salt 
Lake Valley and at Parley's Park, Summit 
County, in 1869, and Henshaw (1875:318) 
also reported it from Panguitch, Garfield 
County, and from Washington County in 
September and October 1872. Bailey and 
Loring (field notes), during their travels 
throughout much of the state in 1888-89 
and 1893, recorded it frequently. The 
meadowlark still maintains itself well in 
the state and seems to adapt to the expand- 
ing human population. 

Quiscahis quiscula (Linnaeus) 
Common Crackle 

Status: An accidental visitor to Utah. 

Records: Talley (1957:400) reported a 
specimen collected near Provo, Utah 
County, 21 March 1957. Lockerbie and 
Behle (1952b:53) recorded a specimen 
seen at Salt Lake City, Salt Lake County, 
20 November 1952. Behle and Perry (1975: 
39) reported the following sight records: 
eight at Bear River Marshes, Box Elder 
County, 13 September 1941; Salt Lake City, 
Salt Lake County, 26 November 1952, late 
fall 1958, and 17 May 1969; Fannington 
Bay, Davis County, 8 August 1954; Jordan 
Narrows, Salt Lake County, 30 November 
1957. Kashin (1974:489) reported two at 
Salt Lake City on 16 December 1973. 

Euphagus carolinus carolinus (Miiller) 
Rusty Blackbird 

Status: A casual and rare visitor in Utah. 

Records: Porter (1954:363) reported col- 
lecting a male Rusty Blackbird near Camel 
Back Mountain, Tooele County, 24 Novem- 
ber 1952. Two were seen at Trial Lake, 



Summit County, in early August 1956 by 
Kashin (Behle and Perry 1975:39). A male 
specimen at Brigham Young University was 
taken by Merlin L. Killpack near Soldier's 
Summit, Utah County, 18 October 1963. 
Wauer and Carter (1965:77) also recorded 
a sight record for Zion National Park, Wash- 
ington County, 1 June 1965. 

Euphagus cijanocephalus (Wagler) 

Brewer's Blackbird 

Fig. 62, p. 155 

Status: A common resident in the lower 
valleys throughout the state. It frequently 
nests in willow thickets or trees along natu- 
ral streams and irrigation canals. It is often 
seen feeding on lawns and in pastures and 
commonly occurs in small flocks along 
roadways. 

Records: Early records in the state in- 
clude those of Henshaw (1875:323), who 
found it at several localities in the state 
during his fieldwork in 1872. Ridgway 
(1877:368, 374) recorded it from localities 
in Utah in 1869. Bailey (field notes) made 
reference to this species from many local- 
ities through the state in 1888-89. Many 
obsei^vations have been made in more re- 
cent times, indicating that the species is 
still common although there is some evi- 
dence of a decline in population in the last 
five years. 

Molothrus ater (Boddaert) 
Brown-headed Cowbird 

Status: A rather common summer resi- 
dent throughout the lower valleys of the 
state where it inhabits streamside wood- 
lands and ornamental trees in parks and 
towns. It may also sometimes be seen in 
small flocks in open country or pastures 
where cattle are feeding. 

Records: During his fieldwork in Utah, 
Ridgway (1877:501) found a few cowbirds 
at Parley's Park, Summit County, and in 
Bear River Valley in June 1869. Henshaw 
(1875:312) collected specimens near Provo, 



184 



GREAT BASIN NATURALIST MEMOIRS 



No. 1 



Utah County, in 1872. There have since 
been many collections and observations 
made in the state. 

Subspecies: M. a. artemisiae is the race 
occupying most of the state, with M. a. 
obscurus occurring in southwestern Utah 
(Blake in Check-list of Birds of the World 
1968 [14]: 199-200). Hardy (1941a:125) re- 
ported four specimens of obscurus from St. 
George, Washington County, 7 May 1939, 
26 April 1940, and 15-16 May 1940. 

Dolichonyx oryzivorus (Linnaeus) 
Bobolink 

Status: An uncommon summer resident 
seemingly confined mainly to the valleys 
west of the Wasatch Front. Its habitat is 
restricted almost entirely to wet, short grass 
fields and pastures. Its numbers seem to 
have declined somewhat over the past 10 
years. 

Records: All of the early investigators 
visiting Utah prior to the turn of the cen- 
tury found this bird present and in con- 
siderable numbers. Allen (1872b: 168) and 
others considered it to be a common breed- 
er in Salt Lake Valley in 1871 and 1872. 
Henshaw (1875:311) collected it near Provo, 
Utah County, where he found it feeding 
young on 25 June 1872. Occasionally it has 
been found in irrigated land in the veiy arid 
areas of western Utah. Behle (1955:28) 
collected one at Ibapah, Tooele County, 25 
July 1950, and Frost (field notes) saw two 
in an alfalfa field at Callao, Juab County, 
31 May 1975. 

Family Fringillidae 

Carduelis pirius pinus (Wilson) 
Pine Siskin 

Status: An abundant resident species 
found diroughout the state where it nests 
primarily in conifer trees from the lower 
valleys to timberline. In winter it occurs 
in large flocks especially in the valleys and 
on foothills where weed seeds are exposed. 



Records: Ridgway (1877:464) collected 
a nest with one egg from a fir tree in Par- 
ley's Park, Summit County, 23 June 1869. 
Henshaw took a specimen at Provo, Utah 
County, in 1872 (U.S. National Museum of 
Natural Histoiy). Osgood and Birdseye 
(field notes) found it in the Beaver Moun- 
tains, Beaver and Piute counties, and the 
Henry Mountains, Garfield County, in 1908, 
and in the Pine Valley Mountains, Washing- 
ton County, in 1909. There have since been 
many reports of its occurrence in die state. 

Carduelis tristis pallida (Mearns) 
American Goldfinch 

Status: A common resident throughout 
the state where it breeds in lower valleys 
and lower canyons. It nests primarily in 
deciduous trees growing along valley 
streams or in ornamental trees of towns and 
parks. In winter it may appear in the val- 
leys in large flocks especially where sun- 
flower seeds are available. 

Records: Ridgway (1877:461) found this 
finch nesting in Pack's Canyon on the west 
slope of the Uinta Mountains in 1869. Ste- 
venson (1872:464) reported taking five 
specimens along the Green River in Dag- 
gett Comity in northeastern Utah, and 
Allen (1872b:167) recorded it as abundant 
near Ogden, Weber County, in September 
1871. Henshaw (1875:244) diought it to be 
common in Utah where it appeared to live 
and nest in cottonwood trees. Bailey (field 
notes) found it common from one end of 
the state to the other during his travels 
from 1888 to 1893. Loring in 1893 and Os- 
good in 1908 (field notes) also noted it on 
many occasions. This species is still com- 
mon in Utah, and many records have been 
made in recent years. 

Carduelis psaltria Jiesperophila 

(Oberholser) 

Lesser Goldfinch 

Status: A common resident throughout 
the state but more abundant southward 



1976 



BIRDS OF UTAH 



185 



especially in the Virgin River Valley. It 
inhabits deciduous trees along the valley 
streams and in the parks and settlements. 
In winter it is especially fond of the seeds 
of several kinds of native and ornamental 
birches. 

Records: Most of the early investigators 
in the state reported this finch as being 
common. Allen (1872b: 167) found it at 
Ogden, Weber County, in September 1871. 
Henshaw (1875:246) recorded it from St. 
George, Washington County, in October 
1872, and Ridgway (1875:33;1877:462-463) 
found it breeding in the lower canyons of 
the Wasatch and Uinta mountains in the 
summer of 1869. Numerous more recent 
accounts from most of the counties of tlie 
state are on record. 

Carduelis jlammea flammea (Linnaeus) 
Common Redpoll 

Status: An uncommon and irregular 
visitor to Utah. It should be looked for 
along streams where birch and alder are 
growing and in birch trees of settlements 
and parks. 

Records: Stevenson (1872:464) and Cot- 
tam ( 1942b :254) referred to two specimens 
taken by the Hayden expedition on tlie 
north slope of the Uinta Mountains, 10 
October 1870. Killpack (Killpack and Hay- 
ward 1958:24) collected a female from a 
flock of 40 birds 11 miles west of Roosevelt, 
Duchesne County, 1 January 1958. A num- 
ber of sight records have been reported in 
more recent years. Webster (1947:40) saw 
flocks near Perry, Box Elder County, 20 
Febmary 1944. In the Uinta Basin one 
was obsei"ved near Roosevelt, Duchesne 
County, 27 or 28 December 19.56 (Killpack 
1957:215; Scott 1957:285). Murie (1963:45) 
obsewed several at close range at Parowan, 
Iron County, 19 and 23 November 1962. 
Kashin (1964a:37) stated that 25-30 Com- 
mon Redpolls were seen in City Creek Can- 
yon, near Salt Lake City, Salt Lake County, 
7 March 1964. Hayward (field notes) saw 
three feeding in a birch tree at his home in 
Provo, Utah County, 1 Febmary 1969. 



Leucosticte arctoa (Pallas) 
Rosy Finch 

Status: A common summer and winter- 
ing species throughout the state, being re- 
stricted in breeding to tiie higher mountain 
ranges where it is found mainly in alpine 
areas. In winter it is found in large restless 
flocks of several subspecies in valleys and 
on low hills. 

Records: The occurrence of this bird in 
Utah was not reported by most of the early 
naturalists who visited the area, presum- 
ably because they did not visit alpine areas 
where these birds breed nor did they en- 
counter the large but irregular wintering 
flocks. The second specimen known of die 
race L. a. tephrocotis and die first specimen 
located in the United States is now in the 
U.S. National Museum of Natural History 
and was taken at Salt Lake City, Salt Lake 
County, by R. J. Pollard of tiie Stansbuiy 
Expedition on 21 March 1850. It was 
described by Baird (1852:317-318) and re- 
ported again by Remy (1860[2] :450). Ste- 
venson (1872:464) reported a specimen 
taken by Schmidt on the north slope of the 
Uinta Mountains on 20 September 1870. 
This specimen proved to be a juvenile of 
the breeding race L. a. atrata. In recent 
years it has been obseived and collected in 
many localities throughout the state. 

Subspecies: Three races of L. arctoa are 
known to occur in the state. L. a. atrata is 
the breeding subspecies found in the 
Wasatch and Uinta mountains. L. a. lit- 
toralis and L. a. tephrocotis are widespread 
in winter, witii tephrocotis being the more 
common. All tliree races ma\' appear to- 
gether in wintering flocks. L. a. tephrocotis 
and L. a. atrata were fomierly considered 
to be separate species, but are now known 
to be conspecific with L. arctoa (Howell 
in Check-list of Birds of the World 1968 
[14] :261-262; Mayr and Short 1970:80). 

Carpodacus cassinii Baird 
Cassin's Finch 

Status: A common summer resident of 



186 



GREAT BASIN NATURALIST MEMOIRS 



No. 1 



the mountains throughout the state where 
it inhabits montane forests and nests in 
conifers and aspens. The species winters in 
lesser numbers in lower valleys where it is 
sometimes seen in small flocks feeding on 
the buds of deciduous trees in early spring. 
Records: Most of the early naturalists re- 
ported Cassin's Finch as being common in 
the mountains. Ridgway (1877:457-458) 
found it at Parley's Park, Summit County, 
and in City Creek Canyon near Salt Lake, 
Salt Lake County, in 1869; he also collected 
nests and eggs from aspens and cotton- 
woods. Allen (1872b: 167) found it near 
Ogden, Weber County, in September 1871. 
Henshaw (1875:240) considered it to be 
abundant in 1872. Bailey, Cary, and 
Osgood all refer to it in their field notes 
from 1890 to 1908. Many recent accounts 
attest to the species' abundance in the 
mountains. 



Carpodacus rriexicanus frontalis (Say) 
House Finch 
Fig. 63, p. 167 

Status: A common year-round resident 
in lower valleys throughout the state. Its 
natural habitat appears to have been desert 
brush, streamside woodlands, and pinyon- 
juniper forests, but it has readily adapted 
to human communities where it may at 
times live in orchards and feed to some ex- 
tent on ripened fruits. 

Records: Judging from the earliest writ- 
ings on Utah birds, this finch was common 
in the state when the pioneer settlers 
arrived. Henshaw (1874:5; 1875:241 243), 
Ridgway (1877:458-461), Fisher (1893:81), 
and several others made frequent reference 
to it as being abundant in all areas of die 
state visited by them. The species is still 
common, and numerous accounts of its oc- 
currence are on record. 

Subspecies: The subspecies C. m. soli- 
tudinus, C. m. grinnelli, and C. m. sordidus 
have recently been consolidated under C. 
m. frontalis (Howell in Check-list of Birds 
of the World 1968 [14] :272). 



Pinicola enucleator montanus Ridgway 
Pine Grosbeak 

Status: An uncommon resident of coni- 
ferous forests in most of the mountain 
ranges of the state. In severe winters the 
birds tend to drift downward along the can- 
yon streams and may even appear in the 
higher valleys. 

Records: Some of the early-day natural- 
ists failed to report this species in the state, 
undoubtedly because they did not work 
extensively in the higher elevations where 
Pine Grosbeaks are found. Stevenson 
(1872:464) reported a juvenile specimen 
taken on the north slopes of the Uinta 
Mountains on 20 September 1870, and Nel- 
son (1875:344) found it common in about 
the same locality between 22 June and 
24 July 1872. Osgood (field notes) found it 
in the Beaver Mountains, Beaver County, 
and at Brian Head, Iron County, Septem- 
ber 1908. More recent records are numer- 
ous from all the major mountain ranges and 
high plateaus of the state. 

Loxia curvirostra Linnaeus 
Red Crossbill 

Status: An irregular but sometimes 
common summer resident of coniferous 
forests in the high mountain ranges and 
plateaus of the state. Known to nest in the 
Uinta Mountains and in die vicinity of 
Navajo Lake, Kane County. Crossbills 
normally appear in restless flocks flying 
from tree to tree and remaining only a few 
minutes in one place. 

Records: Records of crossbills in the 
early literature on Utah birds are scarce. 
Stevenson (1872:464) reported a specimen 
taken by the Hayden expedition on the 
Green River in early October 1870. Nelson 
(1875:344) saw flocks on the north slope of 
the Uinta Mountains and noted that nearly 
full-grown young were present. Specimens 
in the U.S. National Museum of Natural 
History were taken by Osgood in the 
Beaver Mountains, Beaver County, 17 
August 1907. He also found them in the 
Parowan Mountains, Iron County, and 



1976 



BIRDS OF UTAH 



187 



Heniy Mountains, Garfield County, in Sep- 
tember and October of die same year. 
Many additional records have been estab- 
lished more recently. Papers summarizing 
much of this infonnation have been pub- 
lished by Hayward (1943:276 277), Se- 
lander (1953:158 160), and Behle and 
Ghiselin (1958:18). 

Subspecies: Several authors have dis- 
cussed the subspecific status of die Red 
Crossbill population in Utah (Woodbuiy 
1939:162; Behle 1944a:84; Selander 1953: 
158-160). It appears tliat there are several 
races within the area with considerable 
overlapping of racial characteristics. L. c. 
benti seems to be the most common nesting 
subspecies especially in the Uinta Moun- 
tains. Typical L. c. hendirei appears less 
commonly, and L. c. grinnelli is the least 
common of the three. The southern race 
L. c. stricklandi may appear as a wanderer 
in soudiern Utah (Howell in Check-list of 
Birds of the World 1968 [ 14] :292; Wood- 
buiy 1939:162; Woodbuiy and Russell 
1945:140 141; Behle et al. 1958:83). 

Loxia leucoptera leucoptera Gnielin 
White-winged Crossbill 

Status: A rare and presumably acci- 
dental visitor to Utah. 

Records: Worthen (1968:431; 1972a:243- 
244) reported three specimens in the Uni- 
versity of Utah collection (nos. 19577-19579) 
from Pioneer Ranger Station, onie mile 
north of Mount Catherine, Pavaiit Moun- 
tains, Millard County, 2 August 1965. 
Kashin (1970:416) saw diree White-winged 
Crossbills at Salt Lake City, Salt Lake 
County, on several occasions prior to 21 
December 1969, and another one at Salt 
Lake City, 16 December 1973 (Kashin 1974: 
489). One was reported at Salt Lake City 
in Januaiy 1974 (Kingeiy 1974:671). 

Coccothraustes vespertimts brooksi 

(Grinnell) 

Evening Grosbeak 

Status: A common but erratic winter 
resident in lower valleys throughout the 



state where it is found in small flocks feed- 
ing on buds and fruits of native and orna- 
mental trees. It has been reported as nest- 
ing in small numbers in conifer and decidu- 
ous trees in higher mountains. 

Records: Early ornithologists visiting 
Utah, such as Henshaw, Ridgway, and 
Allen, seem not to have encountered this 
species, probably because of its erratic 
distribution. All major reports of more re- 
cent years, however, indicate its wide- 
spread and rather common occurrence, 
especially in winter and early spring. 

Family Ploceidae 

Passer domesticus domesticus (Linnaeus) 
House Sparrow 

Status: The House Sparrow, also called 
English Sparrow, was introduced in Utah 
sometime prior to 1870 and has since spread 
throughout the state wherever diere are 
settlements or ranches. 

Records: Allen (1872a:395; 1872b:167) 
reported this species from Ogden, Weber 
County, and Salt Lake Valley during his 
visit to die area in the fall of 1871. Numer- 
ous reports have been made since that time. 

Family Sturnidae 

Sturmis vulgaris vulgaris Linnaeus 
Starling 

Status: A common introduced resident 
species throughout the state principally in 
and near human habitations and livestock 
feeding areas. Occasionally found in wood- 
lands along the streams of the lower valleys. 
Records: Although the Starling was in- 
troduced into eastern United States many 
years ago, it did not appear in Utah until 
the late 1930s. Lockerbie (1939:170) re- 
ported a specimen in the University of 
Utah collection taken by Thayer Evans 
near Salt Lake City on 26 February 1939. 
Behle (1954a:49-50) reviewed the history 
of the bird in Utah. Cottam (1945b:172) re- 
ported a dead starling at the Desert Range 
Experimental Station in southwestern Mil- 



188 



GREAT BASIN NATURALIST MEMOIRS 



No. 1 



lard County on 1 September 1942. The 
first records were for wintering birds, and 
nesting was not reported before 1949 (Utah 
Audubon News 1949:1). Killpack and Crit- 
tenden (1952:338-344) have given an ac- 
count of the Starhng in the Uinta Basin 
from 1947 to 1951 and indicate that it might 
have appeared in that area at least 10 years 
prior to that time. At present the species 
nests commonly in the state and winters in 
flocks of hundreds wherever it can obtain 
food. 

Family Corvidae 

Gymnorhinus cijanocephala Wied 
Pihon Jay 

Status: A common resident species liv- 
ing primarily in pinyon-juniper forests 
wherever such forests are to be found in the 
state. It usually appears as family groups 
or small, loosely -organized flocks that wan- 
der restlessly over large areas of their 
habitat. 

Records: Ridgway (1877:517) did not 
specifically mention its occurrence in Utah; 
he did, however, refer to its presence 
throughout the West. Henshaw (1875:331- 
333) collected specimens near Beaver, 
Beaver County, in 1872, and considered it 
to be common in that area. Merriam 
(Fisher 1893:73) reported it to be present 
on the east slope of the Beaver Dam Moun- 
tains, Washington County, in southern 
Utah. Because of the state's extensive and 
relatively undisturbed areas of pinyon- 
juniper, the Pihon Jay is still frequently 
reported. 

Cijanocitta cristata cyanotephra Sutton 
Blue Jay 

Status: A species common to eastern 
North America and of accidental occur- 
rence in Utah. 

1\ecords: a Blue Jay specimen collected 
by John Bushman at Holladay, Salt Lake 
County, 30 April 1970, was reported by 



Behle ( 1973b :244). In the same account 
Behle also included sight records from the 
vicinity of Holladay where one had been 
seen for some time prior to 5 January 1969; 
another was observed in the same area dur- 
ing the winter of 1970-1971; one was re- 
ported on die Markagunt Plateau, Iron 
County, beside state highway 143, 25 June 
1950. One was seen by Stewart Murie on 
Cedar Mountain, Iron County, 29 October 
1966 (Scott 1967:63). 



Cyanocitta stelleri (Gmelin) 
Steller's Jay 

Status: A fairly common although ir- 
regular resident of coniferous forests and 
adjacent mountain shrub areas throughout 
the mountains of the state. In winter a few 
birds may descend to lower valleys where 
they appear in streamside woodlands or 
ornamental trees. 

Records: The earliest reports of Steller's 
Jay in Utah referred to it under the name 
Cyanura stelleri var. macrolophus (Henshaw 
1874:7). Ridgway (1877:525 526) con- 
sidered it comparatively plentiful in the 
Uinta Mountains in 1869.' Allen (1872b: 178) 
reported it from near Ogden, Weber County, 
and Henshaw (1875:3^36) collected speci- 
mens in Provo Canyon, Utah County, 31 
July 1872 and 30 November 1872. Since 
that time numerous specimens have been 
collected. 

Subspecies: Various subspecific names 
have, at one time or anodier, been applied 
to the Utah population. Behle (1943a:48- 
51) and Phillips (1950:252-254) have re- 
viewed tlie races found in Utah and ad- 
jacent areas. Blake and Vaurie (Check-list 
of Birds of die World 1962 [15] :209) refer 
all Utah birds to the race C. s. macrolopha. 
The subspecies C. s. percofitatrix, C. s. cot- 
tami, and C. s. hrowni have been placed 
in synonomy with the above race. There is 
evidence that the northern breeding sub- 
species C. s. annectens may wander into 
northern Utah (Stanford 1938:140). 



1976 



BIRDS OF UTAH 



189 



AphelocoiJia coerulescens (Bosc) 

Scnib Jay 

Fig. 65, p. 197 

Status: A common jay tliroughout the 
state occurring usually in shrubby vegeta- 
tion or pinyon-juniper forests along the 
foothills. 

Records: This widespread and common 
jay was reported by all the early-day natu- 
ralists who worked in Utah. Ridgway 
(1877:526-527) recorded it from the Wa- 
satch Mountains in 1869. Merriam (1873: 
688) reported it from near Ogden, Weber 
County, Utah, in 1872. Henshaw (1875: 
338) referred to this species from several 
locations in Utah in 1872, and Fisher (1893: 
69) recorded it from the Beaver Dam 
Mountains of Washington County in 1891. 
More recent references in the literature are 
abundant. 

Subspecies: While there appears to be 
considerable intergradation between diem, 
two rather distinct subspecies of Scmb Jay 
have been recognized in the Utah popula- 
tion (Behle 1948a:74). A race described 
by Pitelka (1945:24), known as A c. neva- 
dae, occupies western Utah, especially the 
Great Basin, while A. c. woodhouseii oc- 
curs in the eastern part of the state in the 
Upper Colorado River Basin (Hayward 
1967:42). 

Perisoreus canadensis capitalis Ridgway 
Gray Jay 
Fig. 64, 182 

Status: The Gray Jay, also sometimes 
called the "Camp Robber," is a rather com- 
mon resident of spruce-fir forests in tlie 
higher mountain ranges and plateaus of 
central and southern Utah. In winter this 
jay may drift to lower elevations in yellow 
pine forests, but it is rarely seen in lower 
valleys. 

Records: Some of the early workers in 
the state, such as Allen (1872b), Merriam 
(1873), and Henshaw (1875), missed this 
species probably because they did relative- 
ly little fieldwork in the high spruce-fir 



forests where the species lives. It was re- 
ported by Stevenson (1872:465) from the 
Uinta Mountains, 20 September and 2 Octo- 
ber 1870 (U.S. National Museum of Natural 
History). Nelson (1875:344) also found it 
on the north slope of the Uinta Mountains 
in July 1872. Specimens were taken by the 
Stansbuiy Expedition in 1849-50 and by 
the Simpson Expedition (Baird 1876:380); 
exact localities are unknown. Many other 
occurrences have been recorded more re- 
cently. 



Pica pica hudsonia (Sabine) 
Black-billed Magpie 

Status: A common resident throughout 
the state living in shrubby and wooded 
areas along the lower foothills and in the 
valleys. It is more abundant in tlie north- 
ern part of the state and occurs more spar- 
ingly in the south. Judging from early re- 
ports, it may have increased somewhat as 
the area became populated with white 
settlers. 

Records: Captain J. C. Fremont (1845: 
1.56) reported that on 9 September 1843 a 
Magpie visited his camp on Fremont 
Island in Great Salt Lake. Ridgway (1877: 
521) found it abundant in Nevada in 1869 
but noted that it was absent from many 
favorable localities on the east side of the 
Great Basin in Utah; however, in his report 
of traveling down Provo Canyon, Utah 
County, 10-11 July 1869 (1877:377), he re- 
corded several different species of birds 
and stated, "And the Magpie again numer- 
ous." In an earlier preliminaiy report 
(1875:35) he recorded Magpies in Provo 
Canyon and stated that diis species "in 
other localities in Utah was found to be 
rare or entirely wanting." Stevenson (1872: 
465) noted that it was abundant in north- 
eastern Utah (now Daggett County) in 
October 1870. Allen (1872b:169) found it 
common around Ogden, Weber County, 
during September-October 1872. In die 
summer and fall of 1872, Henshaw (1875: 
334) found it a common resident of the 



190 



GREAT BASIN NATURALIST MEMOIRS 



No. 1 



lower portions of tlie mountains, tlie val- 
leys, and the plains where the streams issue 
out upon them. Many hundreds of records 
have been made for all of the counties of 
the state in recent years. 

Nucifraga columhiana (Wilson) 
Clark's Nutcracker 

Status: A resident of coniferous forests 
of the higher mountains and plateaus 
throughout the state. In winter it tends to 
drift to lower elevations where it may be 
found in pinyon-juniper forests of tlie Wa- 
satch and Uinta mountains. 

Records: Ridgway (1877:515) called it 
common in the high coniferous forests of 
the Wasatch and Uinta mountains in die 
summer of 1869. Henshaw (1875:329) found 
it in more open coniferous forests and first 
saw it at Otter Creek, Piute County, 8 Sep- 
tember 1872. Bailey (field notes) found it 
at the divide between the Sevier and Virgin 
rivers, Kane County, 18 December 1888. 
Osgood (field notes) also reported it from 
Fishlake Plateau, Henry Mountain, and 
other localities in September and October 
1908. Birdseye (field notes) recorded it 
from Pine Valley Mountain, Washington 
County, 1909. Recent recordings include 
nearly every county in the state. 

Corvus brachyrhynchos Brehm 
Common Crow 

Status: A common wintering bird in the 
central valleys of the state especially in 
Salt Lake and Utah valleys and a sparse 
breeder in wooded areas along the streams. 
Along the Bear River in Rich County it 
nests rather commonly in colonies. 

Records: Ridgway (1877:514-515) did 
not report the presence of crows in Utah in 
1869, and Henshaw (1875:327) called it 
rather rare in the state in 1872. He saw a 
few at Provo, Utah County, during his field- 
work in Utah Valley. Other early workers, 
such as Allen, Merriam, and Nelson, appar- 
ently did not find it. Most of the records 



for more recent years have been for the 
large wintering flocks. Richards and White 
(1963:530-531) have summarized die nest- 
ing records tliat are available. 

Subspecies: For many years it has been 
assumed diat the breeding and wintering 
crows of Utah were of the race C. b. hes- 
peris. However, Richards (1971:116-118), 
who studied a large series of residents as 
well as wintering specimens from Utah 
localities, has concluded that the Utah 
birds are in most respects more closely 
related to C. b. brachyrhynchos. 

Corvus corax sinuatus Wagler 
Raven 

Status: A common resident of wide- 
spread habitats, living usually at lower 
elevations but sometimes moving to higher 
elevations, even alpine, for feeding. It is 
more commonly seen in desert country 
where it feeds on animals killed along the 
highways. It nests in cliffs or trees or some- 
times on deserted buildings. 

Records: Captain Bonneville (Iwing 
1868:491) reported an abundance of Ravens 
in Bear River Valley, Rich County, in 1835. 
Gunnison and Beckwidi (Baird 1854:14) 
obtained a Raven between White River 
and San Rafael, Utah. This is in present- 
day Emeiy County. Simpson (1876:380) 
reported two specimens from Fairfield, 
Utah County, May 1859. Ridgway (1877: 
;368, 374) found it common in the Great 
Basin in 1869. Allen (1872b: 169) reported 
it common around Ogden, Weber County, 
in the fall of 1872. Bailey (field notes) dur- 
ing his fieldwork in Utah from 1888 to 1890 
recorded it from many localities. Numer- 
ous records have been added in more re- 
cent years. 

SPECIES OF UNCERTAIN STATUS 

The following species have been reported 
as sight records from the state. They have 
not been documented by specimens, photo- 
graphs, or by several detailed descriptions. 



1976 



BIRDS OF UTAH 



191 



Thus, for the present, we prefer to separate 
them from the main body of the annotated 
hst. Wherever possible, observations from 
adjacent states are given to help substan- 
tiate die records from Utah. Where there 
are several records from neighboring states 
or from within a single state, we have used 
that report closest to Utah. 

Podiceps grisegena (Boddaert) 
Red-necked Grebe 

Records: The Red-necked Grebe was 
reported at Fannington Bay, Davis County, 
20 May 1963, by Kashin and Webb (Utah 
Audubon News 1963:38), and by Behle and 
Perry (1975:7) along the causeway from 
Syracuse to the north end of Antelope 
Island, Davis County, 3 December 1970. 
Has been found at Lake Coeur d'Alene, 
Kootenai County, Idaho, 11 October 1950 
(Burleigh 1972:3). Recently it was recorded 
from Lake Mead, Clark County, Nevada, 
15 December 1973 (Mowbray 1974:496; 
Kingeiy 1974:669). 

Dichromanassa rufescens (Gmelin) 
Reddish Egret 

Records: A single sight record at Fann- 
ington Bay, Davis County, 15 April 1949, 
seen by Calvin D. Wilson and Boyd Shaffer 
of the Tracy Aviary (Behle and Perry 1975: 
8). The AOU Check-list indicated it as 
accidental in Arizona and Colorado (1957: 
46). Phillips et al. (1964:6) recorded several 
sightings from southern Arizona. The most 
northern report was one across the state 
line on the San Bernardino County, Cali- 
fornia, side of Lake Havasu on 9 September 
1954. 



Hydranassa tricolor (Miiller) 
Louisiana Heron 

Records: Two sight records in Utah, one 
seen at Farmington Bay Refuge, Davis 
County, by Calvin Wilson, 15 May 1947, 
and another at the same locality, 15 June 



1973, obsei-ved by Dorodiy Piatt (Behle and 
Periy 1975:8). In Arizona it has been re- 
ported north to Camp Verde, Yavapai 
County, 27 August 1886 (Phillips et al. 1964: 
6). The AOU Check-list (1957:49) listed it 
as wandering north to southern Nevada. 



Anas fulvigtila Ridgway 
Mottled Duck 

Records: W. E. Ritter reported a flock 
of 21 seen near Hurricane, Washington 
County, 25 September 1965 (Behle and 
Peri-y 1975:11). Mottled Ducks have been 
designated as being of casual occurrence 
in Colorado (AOU Check-list 1957:73). We 
have no other records of this species in ad- 
jacent states. 



Melanitta nigra (Linnaeus) 
Black Scoter 

Records: One seen at Bear River Mi- 
gratoiy Bird Reflige, Box Elder County, by 
Lloyd F. Gunther in the fell of 1966 (Scott 
1967:63). Behle and Peny (1975:12) dated 
this record as 9 September 1966. This 
northern species is reported in die AOU 
Check-list (1957:94) as being found irregu- 
larly in Wyoming and Colorado. We have 
not found it reported in the literatine from 
any of the other states adjacent to Utah. 

Buteo platypterus (Vieillot) 
Broad-winged Hawk 

Records: Observed in Big Cottonwood 
Canyon, Salt Lake County, 25 September 
1970 by Vernon Kousky (Behle and Perry 
1975:14). Kingeiy (1975:886) reported one 
seen at Provo, Utah County, 25 April 1975. 
A Broad-winged Hawk was banded and 
remained in a woodlot at Pocatello, Ban- 
nock County, Idaho, 30 April 1973 (Kingery 
1973:800). One was seen at Cheyenne, 
Laramie County, 19 May 1968, and was 
considered to be a new record for Wyoming 
(Scott 1968:.561). The AOU Check-list 
(1957:108) listed it as casual in Colorado. 



192 



GREAT BASIN NATURALIST MEMOIRS 



No.l 



In Arizona this species has been collected 
once, on 22 September 1956, in the Chiri- 
cahua Mountains, Cochise County, in the 
southeastern area of the state (Phillips et al. 
1964:22). The first record for Nevada was 
at Corn Creek, Desert National Wildlife 
Range, Clark County, 7 May 1973 (Monson 
1973:804). 

Buteo albicaudatus Vieillot 
White-tailed Hawk 

Records: There have been a number of 
sight records of this species in the state. 
Behle and Peny (1975:14) reported the fol- 
lowing: near Vernon, Tooele County, 27 
February 1957, observed by John B. Bush- 
man and D. Elmer Johnson; near Eureka, 
Juab County, in 1942, 1953, and 19.56, seen 
by Clyde Ward; one at Hell's Backbone, 
near Boulder, Garfield County, early 
August 1960, observed by Gleb Kashin. 
Kashin and Albert Webb reported one 
near Tooele, Tooele County, 10 April 1960 
(Scott 1960:410). It has been reported in 
Arizona around Phoenix, Maricopa County, 
from 1899 to the winter of 1955 (Phillips 
et al. 1962:22-23). 

Parabuteo unicinctus (Temminck) 
Harris' Hawk 

Records: A bird of this species has been 
reported at Parowan, Iron County, 1 or 11 
April 1963. Murie (1963:46), who saw the 
bird, reported it as 1 April 1963, while 
Scott (1963:422) reported it for 11 April. 
Behle and Perry (1975:14) indicated diat 
the correct date is 1 April 1963. This wide- 
spread species over the southern tier of 
western states is reported as far north in 
Arizona as Topock in southern Mohave 
County (Phillips et al. 1964:23-24). 

Falco rusticolus Linnaeus 
Gyrfalcon 

Records: Clayton White (pers. comm.) 
has furnished us with the following sight 



records in Utah. In December 1946-48 
Boyd Shaffer saw one at Red Butte Can- 
yon, Salt Lake County. Gary Lloyd, Robert 
Ford, and Clayton White were flying trained 
Prairie Falcons west of Salt Lake City, Salt 
Lake County, in November 1954, when a 
large falcon was attracted to them. It was 
about twice the size of the female Prairie 
they were flying. Ford had a close look at 
it and thought it was a Gyrfalcon. Lee 
Camp of Logan reported the occurrence 
of one in Logan, Cache County, in die win- 
ter of 1970. During the winter of 1970 or 
1971 Teriy Roundy saw one near Sandy, 
Salt Lake County. Behle and Perry (1975: 
15) reported one seen by Jim Hatchett, a 
falconer, at Riverton, Salt Lake County, 
December 1969. Kingery (1972:635) re- 
ported sight records at Pocatello, Bannock 
County, Idaho, 4 March 1972, and at Cur- 
lew Valley, Oneida County, Idaho, 11 
March 1972. He also reported it being 
sighted at Sheridan, Sheridan County, 
Wyoming, 5 Januaiy 1972. Rogers (1974: 
80) saw another bird in southeastern Idaho, 
21 November 1973. 

Lagopus leucurus (Richardson) 
White-tailed Ptannigan 

Records: Woodbuiy et al. (1949:36) 
listed it as hypotlietical. They stated: "Re- 
ported by stockmen, sportsmen and others 
from mountain tops above timberline in 
Raft River, Uinta and Tusher Mountains, 
but no authentic record is available." 
Worthem (1968:470) did not find White- 
tailed Ptarmigans in the Tusher Mountains, 
Beaver and Piute counties, during his study 
of the area, although he indicated suitable 
habitat was available. White-tailed Ptarmi- 
gans have been released by die Utah State 
Division of Wildlife Resources at the head 
of Painter Basin near Gilbert Peak in die 
Uinta Mountains, Duchesne County. The 
first release of 23 birds was made on 3 June 
1976, and an additional release of 32 birds 
occurred on 3 September 1976. These birds 
were obtained from Colorado and are of 



1976 



BIRDS OF UTAH 



193 



the race L. I. altipetens (personal com- 
munication Darrell H. Nish and LaVar A. 
Ware, Utah State Division of Wildhfe Re- 
sources). Ptarmigans are found in the 
mountains of Wyoming and Colorado south- 
ward to northern New Mexico (AOU Check- 
hst 1957:136). 

Coturnicops novehoracensis (Gmelin) 
Yellow Rail 

Records: Woodbury et al. (1949:37) re- 
ported it under die hypothetical list for 
Utah. The AOU Check-list (1931:98) re- 
ported it as casual in Utah. This statement 
was dropped in the 1957 (157-158) edition. 
The original record for this rail is Ridgway 
(1877:613), who reported seeing it at Par- 
ley's Park, Summit County, and several 
other localities. Stewart Murie reported 
two sight records for Cedar Valley, Iron 
County, one about 1947, the other on 14 
July 1969 (Behle and Perry 1975:17). There 
is a summer report for Barr Lake, Adams 
County, in eastern Colorado (AOU Check- 
list 1957:157-158), and one caught alive at 
Sacaton, Pineal County (southeast of 
Phoenix, Arizona), 28 March 1909 (Phillips 
etal. 1964:31). 

Haematopus hachmani Audubon 
Black Oystercatcher 

Records: Wilson and Norr (1949:246) 
reported that C. L. Lockerbie observed a 
Black Oystercatcher at Farmington Bay 
Refuge, Davis County, 5 August 1949. It 
was obsei^ved in company with Willets. 
This West Coast species occurs as far south 
as Baja California but has not been reported 
inland (AOU Check-list 1957:165). 



Bartramia longicauda (Beckstein) 
Upland Sandpiper "Plover" 

Records: This species has been reported 
sporadically over the past centuiy in Utah. 
Ridgway (1877:611) considered it common 
in the Kamas Prairie area of Summit County 



in July 1869. One was seen by Stanford 
(1931:4), probably in Sevier County, 16 
April 1929, and Webster (1947:40) reported 
one at Perry, Box Elder County, 6 May 
1945. Murie observed one at Cedar City, 
Iron County, 28-29 August 1965 (Scott 
1966:77). Burleigh (1972:13) has reported 
it from Kootenai County in Idaho's pan- 
handle, and Snider (1970:631) listed one 
near Las Vegas, Clark County, Nevada, 19 
April 1970. Phillips et al. (1964:34) re- 
ported one on the San Bernardino County, 
California, side of Lake Havasu on 11 Sep- 
tember 1952. 



Heteroscelus incanwn (Gmelin) 
Wandering Tattler 

Records: Behle and Perry (1975:18) re- 
ported the following sight records of tlie 
Wandering Tattler: two birds seen at 
Farmington Bay, Davis County, 13 August 
1961, by Gleb Kashin. In 1974 Vernon 
Kousky saw one at Farmington Bay, 2 
September, and later this one was ob- 
served by Paul Adamus on 4 and 11 Sep- 
tember. Kingei-y (1976:102) reported a 
Wandering Tattler at Farmington Bay in 
the fall of 1975 in the same locality as die 
one reported in 1974. One was reported at 
Phoenix, Maricopa County, Arizona, be- 
tween 18 September and 9 October 1971 
(Monson 1972:101). 

Calidris fusciollis (Vieillot) 
White-rumped Sandpiper 

Records: A single bird was observed 
feeding and in flight at Fish Springs Na- 
tional Wildlife Refuge, Juab County, 29 
March 1974, by Clyde L. Pritchett. Bur- 
leigh (1972:123-124) reported one collected 
at Hauser, Kootenai County, Idaho, 26 
May 1960. In Colorado, Kingeiy (1971:884) 
reported one from Antero Resei-voir, Park 
County, during the summer of 1971. Mon- 
son (1973:804) recorded 35 at Bosque del 
Apache National Wildlife Refuge, Socorro 
County, New Mexico, 6 May 1973, and 



194 



GREAT BASIN NATURALIST MEMOIRS 



No. 1 



Snider (1970:76) reported two at Tuscon, 
Pima County, Arizona, 5 October 1969. 

Limosa lapponica (Linnaeus) 
Bar-tailed Godwit 

Records: One observed at Bear River 
Migratory Bird Refuge, Box Elder County, 
24 August 1973 by Mark Collie (Behle and 
Perry 1975:20). There are no records from 
adjacent states. There were several reports 
of this species on the Pacific Coast in 1973 
and 1974. Two reports are listed for Cali- 
fornia: one at Bolinas Lagoon, Marin 
County, 26 October 1973, where it was 
photographed (Remsen and Gaines 1974: 
101), and anotlier at Areata, Humboldt 
County, 17-31 July 1974 (Stallcup and 
Greenberg 1974:944). 



Limosa haemastica (Linnaeus) 
Hudsonian Godwit 

Records: Six Hudsonian Godwits were 
observed by Stewart Murie at Cedar City, 
Iron County, 28 April 1968 (Scott 1968:561). 
Burleigh (1972:133) reported one in south 
central Idaho (Minidoka County), 7 July 
1919, and Scott (1968:561) reported one 
near Cheyenne, Laramie County, Wyoming, 
19 May 1968. 

Cyclorrhynchus psittacula (Pallas) 
Parakeet Auklet 

Records: One bird was seen at Fairning- 
ton Bay Reflige, Davis County, 19 August 
1962, i)y Gleb Kashin and Bert Webb 
(Behle and Periy 1975:22). It has not been 
reported inland in any of tlie adjacent 
states. 



Columbina passerina (Linnaeus) 
Ground Dove 

Records: A Ground Dove was seen at 
Cedar City, Iron County, 4 September 
1963, by Stewart Murie (Behle and Perry 



1975:22). Two were observed in Wyoming 
in 1972, one at Green River and the other 
at Seedskadee National Wildlife Refuge, 
Sweetwater County, 20 October. This 
species has been found at Grand Canyon 
Village, Coconino County, Arizona, 22-23 
October 1930 (Phillip et al. 1964:43). It 
has been collected at two localities in 
Nevada. Wauer (1969:332) obtained one 
at Overton, Clark County, 20 July 1966, 
and Monson (1972:639) reported a collec- 
tion at Monnon Farm, Clark County (near 
Las Vegas), 25 December 1971. 

Caprimulgus vociferus Wilson 
Whip-poor-will 

Records: The Hardens heard this species 
calling in Oak Creek Canyon, Zion National 
Park, Washington County, on two consecu- 
tive nights in early May 1965 (Wauer and 
Carter 1965:56). Richard W. Russell re- 
ported hearing it calling at Pine Lake, 
northeast of Bryce Canyon National Park, 
Garfield County, 7 and 9 July 1965 (Scott 
1966:77). It is considered as casual at Fort 
Collins, Larimer County, Colorado (AOU 
Check-list 1957:291), and in Arizona it has 
been found as far north as Kingman, Mo- 
have County (Phillips et al. 1964:55 56). 

Lampornis clemenciae (Lesson) 
Blue-tliroated Hummingbird 

Records: Reported at Springdale, Wash- 
ington County. The bird was described as 
"a large hummingbird with white rectal 
and postocular stripes, white tail feathers, 
and an aggressive behavior contrasting 
markedly with the docile Rivoli's" (Kingery 
1973:94). The date of this quoted obsei"va- 
tion was not given; however, in correspond- 
ing witli Kingery we found that the bird 
was first observed 3 August 1972 and was 
seen 12 times in the following few days by 
Jerome Gififord and one other competent 
observer. This species, which is found in 
southern Arizona, southern New Mexico, 
and western Texas, has been reported twice 



1976 



BIRDS OF UTAH 



195 



from Colorado in the past few years. In 
1970 it was found at Evergreen, Jefferson 
County (in mountains west of Denver), 7 
September (Scott 1971:85). Two years later 
Kingeiy (1972:885) reported one at Rock 
Creek Canyon, El Paso County, south of 
Colorado Springs, 30 July 1972. 

Melanerpesformicivorus (Swainson) 
Acorn Woodpecker 

FIecords: There have been three ob- 
servations of tliis species in southern Utah. 
Stewart Murie saw one seven miles north 
of Cedar City, Iron County, 25 May 1963, 
and one near Cedar City, 20 October 1971 
(Behle and Perry 1975:26). Phillip Sollins 
saw a woodpecker of this species near 
Springdale, Washington County, 25 August 
1970 (Scott 1971:85). It has been reported 
at the south rim of die Grand Canyon, 
Coconino County, Arizona, by Phillips et al. 
(1964:70-71) and at Tsegi Canyon, Navajo 
County, Arizona, 23 July 1936, by Wood- 
bury and Russell (1945:66). Recendy it has 
been seen twice in Nevada: at Boulder 
City, Clark County, 23-31 October 1971 
(Monson 1972:102), and east of Las Vegas, 
Clark County, 27 October 1972 (specimen 
collected, Monson 1973:99). 

Anthus spragueii (Audubon) 
Sprague's Pipit 

Records: Behle and Periy (1975:33) re- 
ported this species in the Salt Lake City, 
Salt Lake County, and Cedar City, Iron 
County, areas. Obsei^vations are 3 and 23 
January, 11 March, 27 August, 16 October, 
14 November, 22-23 December. It has been 
found in north central Wyoming at Lake 
DeSmet, Johnson County, November 1967 
(Scott 1968:74), and near Durango, La 
Plata County, Colorado, 28 Febmaiy 1969 
(Scott 1969:504). In New Mexico one was 
sighted at Bitter Lake Refuge, Chaves 
County, 29 April 1972 (Monson 1972:794). 
It has been found as far north in Arizona as 
Wikieup, Mohave County (Phillips et al. 
1964:138). 



Cathanis minimus (Lafresnaye) 
Gray-cheeked Thrush 

Records: There are two sight records of 
this species in Utah, both reported by 
Kashin. He obsei"ved one in south Willow 
Canyon, Stansbuiy Mountains, Tooele 
County, 18 October 1972, and the other in 
Salt Lake City, Salt Lake County, 7 Novem- 
ber 1972 (Kingery 1973:94). It has been 
reported from Fort Collins, Larimer 
County, Colorado, 15 May 1973, where a 
specimen was collected (Kingeiy 1974:85), 
and again on 13 May 1974 (Kingery 1974: 
834). Monson (1972:794) reported one at 
Tule Springs Park, Las Vegas, Clark Coun- 
ty, Nevada, 13 May 1972, and Kingery 
(1974:834) gave a sight record for die 
spring of 1974 at the same locality. 

Popioptila melanura Lawrence 
Black-tailed Gnatcatcher 

Records: The Christmas Bird Count of 
the National Audubon Society at St. 
George, Washington County, 29 December 
1969, recorded this species (Lund 1970:416). 
It has been seen a number of times in 
Nevada. At an earlier date (Fisher 1893: 
110) took one at Bunkei-ville, Clark Comity, 
Nevada, 9 May 1891. Lawson and Mow- 
bray (1970:423; 1971:469; 1972:487) found 
it at Henderson, Clark County, Nevada, 
21 December 1969, 2 Januaiy 1971, and 
18 December 1971. Austin (1968:366; 
1969:396) and Mowbray (1973:487) found it 
at the Desert Game Range, Clark and Lin- 
coln counties, 28 December 1967, 22 De- 
cember 1968, and 30 December 1972. 
Wauer (1969:333) obtained a specimen at 
Overton, Clark County, Nevada, 12 May 
1966. 



Calcarius mccowanii (Lawrence) 
McCowan's Longspur 

Records: McCowan's Longspurs have 
been reported from west of Ogden, Weber 
County, 22 October 1953 (Scott 1954:33); 



196 



GREAT BASIN NATURALIST MEMOIRS 



No. 1 



at Logan, Cache County, 27 December 
1956, by Ronald Ryder (1957:215); and in 
Cedar Valley, Iron County, 24 November 
1966 (Scott 1967:64). Burleigh (1972:440) 
reported one from Butte County in south- 
eastern Idaho, 6 August 1890. Woodbury 
and Russell (1945:154) reported observa- 
tions from the following northeastern Ari- 
zona locations: Cameron and Tuba City, 
Coconino County, 17 February 1937, 19 
February 1937; Ganado, Apache County, 
10 February 1938; Polacca, Navajo County, 
30 September 1938. 

Ammodramus bairdii (Audubon) 
Baird's Sparrow 

Records: This species has been reported 
at Farmington Bay, Davis County, 12 
March 1961, by Kashin (Scott 1961:348). 
Behle and Perry (1975:42) reported the 
following dates in northern Utah without 
any definite localities: in the spring (24, 
30' April; 10 May); in the fall (14, 19 Sep- 
tember; 12 October). It breeds in southern 
Canada and usually migrates east of the 
Rockies to southern New Mexico and Ari- 
zona (AOU Check-list 1957:592). Phillips 
et al. (1964:193, 194) recorded it in Arizona 
northward to the vicinity of Maverick in 
the southern part of Apache County. 

Spizella pusilla (Wilson) 
Field Sparrow 

Records: Several were seen at Salt Lake 
City, Salt Lake County, in late September 
and early October 1972 by Kashin (Behle 
and Perry 1975:44). It breeds in the Boul- 
der, Boulder County, and Fort Morgan, 
Morgan County, Colorado, areas (AOU 
Check-list 1957:616). 

Aimophila cassinii (Woodhouse) 
Cassin's Sparrow 

Records: Woodbury et al. (1949:39) re- 
ported that A. O. Treganza saw one in 
April (no year given) near Low, Tooele 



County. Murie (1963:45) reported Cassin's 
Sparrows "in groups of 3-4, among Brewers, 
lark, chipping and white-crowned spar- 
rows" at Parowan, Iron County, 18 Sep- 
tember 1962. A Cassin's Sparrow was found 
at Evergreen, Jefferson County, Colorado, 
9 November 1970. It was seen by many ob- 
servers and banded (Scott 1971:86). It 
remained all winter in Evergreen at a 
feeder (Scott 1971:608) and was last seen 
on 13 May 1971 (Kingeiy 1971:779). It has 
been found in central Arizona near Camp 
Verde, Yavapai County (Phillips et al. 
1964:200 201). In 1891 Merriam obtained 
a specimen at Timpahute Valley, Lincoln 
County, Nevada, on 26 May (Fisher 1893: 
98). 

Piranga olivacea (Gmelin) 
Scarlet Tanager 

Records: Behle and Periy (1975:39) 
reported that A. Dean Stock obtained a 
specimen at St. George, Washington 
County, 17 June 1950. The skin was later 
destroyed. A nest with four eggs was found 
during the same summer in this area. A 
sight record in Salt Lake City, Salt Lake 
County, 29 June 1963, was given by Mrs. 
Gleb Kashin to Behle and Periy (1975:39). 
The AOU Check-list (1957:543 544) indi- 
cated it as being accidental in Cheyenne, 
Laramie County, Wyoming. Kingeiy (1973: 
95) reported a sight record at Gunnison, 
Gunnison County, Colorado, 3 September 
1972. A male was seen in Farmington, San 
Juan County, New Mexico, 19 and 28 May 
1970 (Snider 1970:632). Phillips et al. 
(1964:175) gave three records for Tucson, 
Pima County, Arizona, for 18 May 1884, 
and Scott (1968:633) stated that Fritz Ryser 
found one at Genoa, Douglas County, 
Nevada, 8 June 1968. 

Piranga flava (Vieillot) 
Hepatic Tanager 

Records: A male Hepatic Tanager was 
observed at a feeder at the headquarters of 



1976 



BIRDS OF UTAH 



197 



Bryce Canyon National Park, Garfield 
County, for almost a month commencing 
in late August 1964 (Scott 1965:64). One 
was reported by D. Elmer Johnson at 
Three Lakes near Kanab, Kane County, 4 
June 1965 (Behle and Perry 1975:39). 
Phillips et al. (1964:175) reported it as far 
north as the south rim of the Grand Canyon, 
Coconino County, Arizona. Mowbray 
(1974:496) has found it at the Desert Game 
Range, Clark and Lincoln counties, Ne- 
vada, 29 December 1973. 



Vermivora peregrina (Wilson) 
Tenessee Warbler 

Records: Observed several times by 
Stewart Murie in the Cedar City area. 
Iron County, between 9 August and 16 
October 1963; six or seven were seen in 
South Willow Canyon, Stansbuiy Moun- 
tains, Tooele County, 26 September 1972 
by Kashin (Behle and Periy 1975:35). One 
collected at Potlatch, Latah County, Idaho, 
13 September 1949 (Burleigh 1972:328). In 
Colorado it has been found at Durango, 



La Plata County, 12 October 1970 (Scott 
1971:86), and in New Mexico near Questa, 
Taos County, 21 May 1970 (Snider 1970: 
632). One was collected in the Chiricahua 
Mountains, Cochise County, Arizona, 7 
April 1925. (Phillips et al. 1964:146). Sev- 
eral have been reported from Corn Creek, 
Desert Game Range, Clark County, Nevada, 
9 and 18 October 1972 and 8 May 1973 
(Monson 1973:100, 805). 



Parula americana (Linnaeus) 
Northern Paixila Warbler 

Records: One observed at Farmington 
Bay, Davis County, 5 September 1968, by 
Kashin (Scott 1969:87). This nordiern and 
eastern species has been recorded as casual 
at Cheyenne, Laramie County, Wyoming, 
and at Clear Creek, Jefferson County, 
Colorado (AOU Check-list 1957:485-486). 
Mowbray has reported this species at tlie 
Desert Game Range, Clark and Lincoln 
counties, Nevada, 4 May 1969 (Snider 
1969:614) and 16 and 19 May 1971 (Snider 
1971:784). 




Fig. 65. Scrub Jay. Ogden, Weber County, Utah, 10 May 1959. Photo by R. J. Erwin. 



198 



GREAT BASIN NATURALIST MEMOIRS 



No. 1 



Dendroica dominica (Linnaeus) 
Yellow-throated Warbler 

Records: One seen by Robert Sundell 
and William H. Behle at East Canyon, 
Wasatch County, 19 May 1962 (Behle and 
Perry 1975:37). There are two recent 
records for southern Arizona, one at 
Guadalupe Canyon, Cochise County, 19 
May 1972 (Monson 1972:794), and the other 
at Patagonia, Santa Cruz County, 2 June 
1972 (Monson 1972:? 



Dendroica virens (Gmelin) 
Black-throated Green Warbler 

Records: Murie (1966:8-9) reported two 
sight records of this species at Parowan, 
Iron County, 5 September 1963 and 10 
September 1963. Kashin found one at Salt 
Lake City, Salt Lake County, 2 October 
1971 (Kingery 1972:98). It has been re- 
ported as casual at Barr, Adams County, 
Colorado (AOU Check-list 1957:496). 
Snider (1970:632) reported one at Farming- 
ton, San Juan County, New Mexico, 8 9 
May 1970. 

Dendroica fusca (Miiller) 
Blackburnian Warbler 

Records : Reported early from the Ogden 
area by Allen (1872:166, 175). Jules Drey- 
fous saw one at the Old Mill, near the 
mouth of Big Cottonwood Canyon, Salt 
Lake County, 4 June 1974 (Behle and Perry 
1975:36). It has been found at Fort Col- 
lins, Larimer County, Colorado, 13-17 
October 1973 (Kingeiy 1974:86); Fort 
Bayard, Grant County, New Mexico (AOU 
Check-list 1957:497); Arizona-Sonora 
Desert Museum, near Tucson, Pima County, 
Arizona, 8 October 1973 (Parker 1974:90); 
and in Nevada (no locality given), 19 
September 1973 (Kingery 1974:86). 

Dendroica palmarum (Gmelin) 
Palm Warbler 

Records: Palm Warblers have been 



recorded at Zion National Park, Washing- 
ton County, 20 October 1963 (Scott 1964: 
60); Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge, 
Juab County, 25 May 1968 (Scott 1968:561); 
Bear River Migratory Bird Refuge, Box 
Elder County, 19 September 1974, by Bruce 
Webb (Behle and Perry 1975:37). One was 
seen at Salt Lake City, Salt Lake County, 
27 October 1974, by Gleb Kashin (Kingery 
1975:97). The AOU Check-list (1957:504) 
recorded it as casual at Tarrington, Goshen 
County, and Laramie, Albany County, 
Wyoming. Scott (1968:74) reported one 
from Lookout Mountain, Jefferson County, 
Colorado, 30 September 1967. One was 
identified near Farmington, San Juan 
County, New Mexico, 13 May 1972 (Mon- 
son 1972:794). Phillips et al. (1964:155) 
reported sight records from central Arizona 
(Walnut Grove, Yavapai County), 29 April 
1956. 



Seiurus aurocapillus (Linnaeus) 
Ovenbird 

Records: One was seen in South Willow 
Canyon, Stansbury Range, Tooele County, 
14 October 1953 (Scott 1954:33), and an- 
other was obsei^ved near Salt Lake City, 
Salt Lake County, 20 May 1961, by Kashin 
(Behle and Periy 1975:37). Kingery (1971: 
886) reported one at Rupert, Minidoka 
County, Idaho, 29 May 1971, and a bird 
was found breeding at Storey, Sheridan 
County, Wyoming, during the late spring 
of 1971. It also breeds at Colorado Springs, 
El Paso County, Colorado (AOU Check- 
list 1957:506). Snider (1968:76) recorded a 
bird near Tucson, Pima County, Arizona, 
3 October 1967. Monson (1973:805) found 
one at Corn Creek, Desert National Wild- 
life Range, Clark County, Nevada, 27 May 
1973. 



Vireo flavifrons Vieillot 
Yellow-throated Vireo 

Records: Keith Dixon reported one 
'singing steadily in cottonwoods along a 



1976 



BIRDS OF UTAH 



199 



river near Logan," Cache County, 11 June 
1974 (Kingery 1975:96). Two have been 
reported from Phoenix, Maricopa County, 
Arizona, 29 August 1969 (Snider 1970:78) 
and 18 August 1971 (Monson 1972:103). 
Mowbray saw one at Las Vegas, Clark 
County, Nevada, 27 October 1974 (Kingery 
1975:96). 



Vireo philadelphicus (Cassin) 
Phihidelphia Vireo 

Records: First reported at Salt Lake 
City, Salt Lake County, 15 September 1964 
(Scott 1965:64), and again at the same 
locality on 22 September 1968 by Kashin 
(Scott 1969:87). There are two reports for 
Durango, La Plata County, southwestern 
Colorado, one on 16 September 1967 (Scott 
1968:74), and the other on 10 July 1969 
(Scott 1969:680). One was collected south 
of Phoenix, Maricopa County, Arizona, 12 
October 1963 (Phillips et al. 1964:145). 

Carduelis lawrencei Cassin 
Lawrence's Goldfinch 

Records: A flock of 24 was reported by 
Lois and Clyde Harden at Kanab, Kane 
County, 29 December 1966 (Lund 1967: 
346). A specimen was taken at Wickenburg, 
northern Maricopa County, Arizona, 12 
May 1953 (Phillips et al. 1964:188). John- 
son and Banks (1959:303) collected one in 
the extreme southern part of Clark County, 
Nevada, 4 April 1958. One was photo- 
graphed at Corn Creek, Desert Game 
Range, Clark County, Nevada, 1 October 
1972, and erroneously reported as the first 
record for Nevada (Monson 1973:101). 

Carpodacus purpureus (Gmelin) 
Purple Finch 

Records: There have been several sight- 
ings of this species but no collection 
records. Behle and Peny (1975:40) re- 
ported the following: a few seen at Bounti- 
ful, Davis County, 26 November 1949, by 



Rex Snow; several at Tracy Aviary, Salt 
Lake City, Salt Lake County, winter 1949- 
50, by Calvin Wilson; many females at 
Holladay, Salt Lake County, winter 1972- 
73, by Steve Carr. Fifty-nine were reported 
at Kanab, Kane County, 20 December 
1972, by Richard and Georgina Stuart, who 
indicated they had been there "all fall" 
(1973:479). Three were reported at Zion 
National Park, Washington County, 19 
December 1972 (Foster 1973:480). Kingery 
(1973:645-646) indicated tliat not only were 
there the above mentioned sightings in 
southern Utah, but there had been one 
sighting somewhere in the northern part of 
the state. No details were available. Wilt 
(1973:484) reported nine at Pipe Springs 
National Monument, Mohave County, 
Arizona, 26 December 1972. Two were 
collected at the Nevada Test Site, Nye 
County, Nevada, 24-25 October 1961 (Hay- 
ward et al. 1963:23). 

Aphelocoma ultramarina (Bonaparte) 
Mexican Jay 

Records: One was seen at the Cactus 
Mine, about two miles south of Frisco Peak, 
San Francisco Mountains, Beaver County, 
17 August 1949 (Taylor 1949:3). In Arizona, 
Mexican Jays have been reported as far 
north as die Mogollon Rim in northwestern 
Gila County (Phillips et al. 1964:105). 

SUBSPECIES OF UNCERTAIN STATUS 

Oberholser (1974) proposed changing 
the names of several species and described 
a number of new subspecies, 12 of which 
have ranges extending into or through 
Utah. Since neither die species nor the 
subspecies have been critically reviewed, 
we have listed the subspecies with Utah 
affinities below. Thus, we recognize their 
presence in the literature but do not accept 
them as valid changes at the present time. 



Leucophoyx thula 
Utah Snowy Egret. 



ileuca Oberholser: 



200 



GREAT BASIN NATURALIST MEMOIRS 



No. 1 



Type specimen Bear River, Box Elder 

County, 6 June 1916. U.S. National 

Museum No. 261042. 
Anas platyrhyncha neoboria Oberholser: 

American Mallard. 
Chordeiles minor divisus Oberholser: 

Wyoming Common Nighthawk. 
Solivireo solitarius jacksoni Oberholser: 

Jackson's Solitary Vireo. 
Melodivireo gilvus petrorus Oberholser: 

Wyoming Warbling Vireo. 
Dendroica petechia hypochlora Oberholser: 

Arizona Yellow Warbler. 



Passer domesticus plecticus Oberholser: 

Pale House Sparrow. 
Agelaius phoeniceus stereus Oberholser: 

Colorado Red-winged Blackbird. 
Agelaius phoeniceus zastereus Oberholser: 

Idaho Red-winged Blackbird. 
Piranga ludoviciana zephyrica Oberholser: 

Rocky Mountain Western Tanager. 
Junco oreganus eumesus Oberholser: 

Coues' Oregon Junco. 
Zonotrichia leucophrys aphaea Oberholser: 

Idaho White-crowned Sparrow. 



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Clayton, W. 1921. William Clayton's journal. 
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CoALE, H. K. 1915. The present status of the 
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CoNOVER, B. 1944. The races of the Solitary 
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CoTTAM, C. 1927. Distributional list of the 
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. 1929. A shower of grebes. Condor 31: 

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. 1941a. Leconte Sparrow in Utah. Con- 
dor 43:116-117. 

. 1941b. Indigo Bunting and Band-tailed 

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. 1942a. Records from extreme north- 
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. 1942b. New or uncommon Utah bird 

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. 1945a. The Ruddy Turnstone in Utah. 

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. 1945b. Some records of birds in Utah. 

Condor 47:172-173. 

. 1946. Late nesting of the Caspian Tern 

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CoTTAM, C, AND J. B. Low. 1948. Florida 
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CoTTAM, C, AND F. M. Uhler. 1937. Birds in 
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CoTTAM, C, AND C. S. WiLLIAMS. 1939. Food 

and habits of some birds nesting on islands in 
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CoTTAM, C, C. S. Williams, and C. A. Scoter. 
1942. Some unusual winter visitors or late 
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. 1899. Very early record of the Cliff 

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Court, E. J. 1908. Treganza Blue Heron. 
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Cracraft, J. 1972. The relationships of the 
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Croft, G. Y. 1932. Cedar Waxwing {Bom- 
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Delacour, J. 1954. The waterfowl of the world. 
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Deseret Evening News. 1869. Salt Lake City, 
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Easterla, D. a. 1966. First specimen of the 
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Edwards, C. C. 1969. Winter behavior and 
population dynamics of American Eagles in 
western Utah. Unpublished Ph.D. disserta- 
tion. Brigham Young University. 142 pp. 

Ellis, D. H., D. G. Smith, and J. R. Murphy. 
1969. Studies on raptor mortality in western 
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Evening Herald. 1936. Provo, Utah. Drainage 
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Ferris, R. 1963. Jordan Narrows field trip, 
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Fisher, A. K. 1893. Report on the ornithology 
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. 1937. Long -tailed Jaeger observed on 

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390. 

Follett, R. F. 1960. Christmas bird count, 
Hyde Park, Utah. Audubon Field Notes 14: 
253. 

Foster, R. 1971. Christmas bird count, Zion 
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. 1973. Christmas bird count, Zion Na- 
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Fremont, J. C. 1845. Report of the exploring 
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year 1842, and to Oregon and North Cali- 
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Frost, H. H. 1966. Dickcissel in Utah. Wilson 

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vicinity of Moab, Utah. Proceedings of the 



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Utah Academy of Sciences, Arts, and Letters 
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Geoghegan, E. 1959. Jordan Narrows tieldtrip. 
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. 1963. Fieldtrip to Jordan Narrows. Utah 

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Goodwin, S. H. 1904a. About the Utah gull. 
Condor 6:99-100. 

. 1904b. Pelicans nesting at Utah Lake. 

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. 1905. Bohemian Waxwings in Utiih — 

range of Clifi' Swallows. Condor 7:52. 

Grantham, H. 1936. The Brown Thrasher in 
Utah. Condor 38:85. 

Grater, R. K. 1937. Check-list of birds of 
Grand Canyon National Park. Natural His- 
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History Association. 55 pp. 

. 1943. Bird notes from southwestern 

Utah. Condor 45:75-76. 

Greenhalgh, C. M. 1948. Second record of 
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Gunther, L. F., and J. B. Van Den Akker. 1946. 
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Haight, I. C. 1936. Diary of Isaac C. Haight, 
7 June 1842" to 12 February 1862. His- 
torical Records Survey Project of the Work 
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H.A.RDY, R. 1939. Two new bird records for 
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. 1941a. Utah bird records. Wilson 

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. 1941b. Records of the Nevada Nuthatch 

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Hardy, R., and H. G. Higgins. 1940. An 
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Hargrave, L. L. 1939. Bird bones from 
abandoned Indian dwellings in Arizona and 
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Hayward, C. L. 1931. A preliminary list of the 
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. 1935b. A study of the winter bird life in 

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. 1936-1968. Field notes. Located in 

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. 1937. Some new and unusual bird rec- 



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. 1940. Notes on the distribution of night- 
hawks in Utah. Great Basin Naturalist 1: 
93-96. 

. 1941. Notes on the nesting habits of some 

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. 1943. Notes on the status of the Red 

Crossbill in Utah. Auk 60:276-277. 

. 1944. Additional records of uncommon 

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. 1958. Additional notes on the Purple 

Martin in Utah. Condor 60:406. 

. 1966. New and unusual bird records 

from Utah. Condor 68:305-306. 

. 1967. Birds of the upper Colorado 

River basin. Brigham Young University Sci- 
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Hayward, C. L., M. L. Killpack, and G. L. 
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Henshaw, H. W. 1874. Annotated list of birds 
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— . 1875. Report upon the ornithological 
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Irving, W. 1868. The adventures of Captain 
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Johnson, D. E. 1935a. Some bird notes from 
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. 1935b. Another Snow Bunting record 

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Johnson, H. C. 1899a. Nesting of the Wilson's 
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. 1899b. A successftil diiy with the Duck 

Hawks. Bulletin of the Cooper Ornithologicid 
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. 1899c. Riivens nesting on a railroad 

bridge. Bulletin of the Cooper Ornithological 
Club 1:71-72. 



1976 



BIRDS OF UTAH 



205 



. 1900. In the breeding home of Chirk's 

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. 1902a. ThePinonJay. Condor 4:14. 

. 1902b. An unusual set of eggs of Clarke 

[sic] Nutcracker. Condor 4:87-88. 

. 1903. Pygmy Owl in town. Condor 5:81. 

Johnson, N. K. 1966. Morphological stability 

versus adaptive variation in the Hammond's 

Flycatcher. Auk 83:179-299. 
Johnson, N. K., and R. C. Banks. 1959. Pine 

Grosbeak and Lawrence Goldfinch in Nevada. 

Condor 61:303. 
. 1976. Breeding distribution of Nashville 

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Journal History. 1848. Microfilm copy 22 

July 1847-8 October 1848. Brigham Young 

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K.\SHiN, G. 1955. The June trip to Jordan 

Narrows. Utah Audubon News 7:39-40. 
. 1963a. Trip to Fairmont Park and lower 

Parley's Canyon, February 10, 1963. Utah 

Audubon News 15:16, 60-61. 
. 1963b. Christmas bird count. Salt Lake 

Citv, Utah. Audubon Field Notes 17:263- 

264. 
. 1964a. Field notes. Utah Audubon 

News 16:3-4, 37, 50, 55. 
. 1964b. Christmas bird count. Salt Lake 

City, Utah. Audubon Field Notes 18:293. 
. 1966. Christmas bird count. Salt Lake 

City, Utah. Audubon Field Notes 20:351-352. 
. 1967. Christmas bird count. Salt Lake 

City, Utah. Audubon Field Notes 21:347. 
. 1968. Christinas bird count, Salt Lake 

City, Utah. Audubon Field Notes 22:361. 
. 1970. Christmas bird count. Salt Lake 

City, Utah. Audubon Field Notes 24:416. 
. 1974. Christmas bird count. Salt Lake 

City, Utah. American Birds 28:488-489. 
Keith, A. R. 1968. A summary of the extra - 

limital records of the Varied Thrush, 1848 to 

1966. Bird Banding 34:245-276. 
KiLLPACK, NL L. 1951. Lark Bunting in 

Uintah [.sic] Basin, Utah. Condor 53:99. 
. 1953. Lapland Longspur and Snow 

Bunting recorded in Utah. Condor 55:152. 

. 1957. Christmas bird count, Roosevelt, 

Utah. Audubon Field Notes 10:215. 
. 1959. Christmas bird count, Roosevelt, 

Utah. Audubon Field Notes 13:238. 
KiLLP.\CK, M. L., AND D. N. Crittenden. 1952. 

Starlings as winter residents in the Uinta 

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KiLLPACK, M. L., AND C. L. Hayward. 1958. 

New and unusual records of birds from the 

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KiNGERY, H. E. 1971. Great Basin-central 



Birds 

Birds 

Birds 

In- 



Rocky Mountain region. American Birds 25: 

774-780, 882-888. 
. 1972. Great Basin-central Rocky Moun- 
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638, 882-887. 
. 1973. Great Basin-central Rocky Moun- 
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646, 799-803. 
. 1974. Mountain West. American 

28:83-86, 668-672, 8.32-836. 
. 1975. Mountain West. American 

29:93-98, 720-724, 885-890. 
. 1976. Mountain West. American 

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Knopf, F. L., and J. C. Street. 1974 

secticide residues in White Pelican eggs from 

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Knorr, O. a. 1962. Black Swift breeds in 

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Knowlton, G. F. 1937. Utah birds in the con- 
trol of certain insect pests. Proceedings of 

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Knowlton, G. F., and F. C. Harmston. 1943. 

Grasshoppers and crickets eaten by Utah 

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Lawson, C. S., and M. V. Mowbray. 1970. 

Christmas bird count, Henderson, Nevada. 

Audubon Field Notes 24:423-424. 
. 1971. Christmas bird count, Henderson, 

Nevada. American Birds 25:469. 
. 1972. Christmas bird count, Henderson, 

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Lockerbie, C. W. 1939. Starlings arrive in 

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. 1947. Utah Region. 

Notes 1:14-17, 161-162. 
. 1948. Utah Region. 

Notes 2:20-22. 
. 1951. Report on October fieldtrip to 

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. 1952. Christmas bird count. Salt Lake 

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Audubon Field 
Audubon Field 



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Field notes. Utiih Audubon News 4:17, 52- 
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Long, W. S. 1936. Golden -crowned Sparrow 
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. 1940. Lesser Loon and Wood Ibis in 

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. 1943. Scott Oriole and Harris Sparrow 

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LoRiNG, J. A. 1893. Field notes. U.S. Bureau 
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Low, J. B., AND D. M. Gaufin. 1946. An un- 
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Low, J. B., and M. Nelson. 1945. Recent 
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Lund, B. 1967. Christmas bird count, Kanab, 
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. 1968a. Christmas bird count, Kanab, 

Utah. Audubon Field Notes 22:360. 

. 1968b. Christmas bird count, Zion 

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. 1970. Christmas bird count, St. George, 

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Marshall, J. T., and W. H. Behle. 1942. The 
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Marshall, W. H. 1937a. A Blue Goose record 
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. 1937b. A Herring Gull record for Utah. 

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. 1934. Field experiences with mountain- 
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. 1941. A review of centers of differentia- 
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Nelson, E. W. 1875. Notes on birds observed 

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— '■ . 1937. Three new records from Bryce 

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. 1873b. The birds of Colorado. Bulletin 

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. 1875. List of birds observed at various 

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Scott, O. K. 1954. Great Basin, central Rocky 
Mountain region. Audubon Field Notes 8: 
32-33, 322-323, 354-355. 

. 1957. Great Basin, central Rocky Moun- 
tain region. Audubon Field Notes 11:283- 
285, 367-368. 

. 1958. Great Basin, central Rocky Moun- 
tain region. Audubon Field Notes 12:47-49. 

. 1959. Great Basin, central Rocky Moun- 
tain region. Audubon Field Notes 13:51-53, 
311-312,390-391. 

. 1960. Great Basin, central Rocky Moun- 
tain region. Audubon Field Notes 14:58-60, 
328-329, 409-410. 

. 1961. Great Basin, central Rocky Moun- 
tain region. Audubon Field Notes 15:346- 
348. 

Basin, central Rocky 
Audubon Field Notes 16: 



-. 1962. Great 

Mountain region. 
435-436. 

-. 1963. Great 

Mountain region. 



Basin, central Rocky 
Audubon Field Notes 17: 
53-54, 345-347, 422-423. 

-. 1964. Great Basin, central Rocky Moun- 
tain region. Audubon Field Notes 18:60-61, 
374-376. 
-. 1965. Great Basin, Central Rocky 



Mountain Region. Audubon Field Notes 19; 
63-64, 404-406, 500-501, 567-568. 

. 1966. Great Basin, central Rocky Moun- 
tain region. Audubon Field Notes 20:76-77, 
535-537, 588-589. 

. 1967. Great Basin, central Rocky 

Mountain region. Audubon Field Notes 21: 
62-64, 443-444, 527-528, 590-592. 

. 1968. Great Basin, central Rocky Moun- 
tain region. Audubon Field Notes 22:73-74, 
560-562, 632-634. 

. 1969. Great Basin, central Rocky Moun- 
tain region. Audubon Field Notes 23:86-87, 
503-504, 611-612, 679-680. 

. 1970. Great Basin, central Rocky Moun- 
tain region. Audubon Field Notes 24:74-75, 
628-630. 

. 1971. Great Basin, central Rocky Moun- 
tain region. American Birds 25:84-86, 606- 
608. 

Scott, P. 1974. Christmas bird count, Zion 
National Park, Utah. American Birds 28: 
489. 

Selander, R. K. 1953. Notes on the Red 
Crossbills of the Uinta and Wasatch Moun- 
tains. Condor 55:158-160. 

. 1954. A systematic review of the boom- 
ing nighthawks of western North America. 
Condor 56:57-82. 

Sharrock, F. W. 1966. An archeological survey 
of Ganyonlands National Park. Pages 49-84 
in Miscellaneous Collected Papers 11-14, 
University of Utah Anthropological Papers 
No. 83. 

Sharrock, F. W., and E. G. Keane. 1962. 
Carnegie Museum collection from southeast 
Utah. University of Utah Anthropological 
Papers No. 57. 71 pp. 

Sherwood, G. A. 1960. The Whisding Swan 
in the west with particular reference to Great 
Salt Lake Valley, Utah. Condor 62:370-377. 

Simpson, J. H. 1876. Report of explorations 
across the Great Basin of the territory of Utah 
for a direct wagon-route from Camp Floyd to 
Genoa, in Carson Valley, in 1859. Engineer 
Department, U.S. Army. Government Print- 
ing OflFice, Washington, D.C. 518 pp. 

Smith, D. G., C. R. Wilson, and H. H. Frost. 
1970. Fall nesting Barn Owls in Utah. 
Condor 72:492. 

. 1972a. The biology of the American 

Kestrel in central Utiih. Southwestern 
Naturalist 17:73-83. 

. 1972b. Seasonal food habits of Barn 

Owls in Utah. Great Basin Naturalist 32:229- 
234. 

. 1974. History and ecology of a colony 

of Barn Owls in Utah. Condor 76: 131 -136. 



1976 



BIRDS OF UTAH 



209 



Snider, P. R. 1964. Southwest region. Audu- 
bon Field Notes 18:376-378, 526-528. 

. 1965. Southwest region. Audubon Field 

Notes 19:64-66, 501-503. 

. 1966. Southwest region. Audubon Field 

Notes 20:78-80, 446-448, 537-539, 589-591. 

. 1968. Southwest region. Audubon Field 

Notes 22:75-77. 

. 1969. Southwest region. Audubon Field 

Notes 24:612-615. 

. 1970. Southwest region. Audubon Field 

Notes 24:75-79, 526-528, 630-633. 

. 1971. Southwest region. American Birds 

25:780-784. 

Snow, E. R. 1846-1849. Eliza R. Snow's jour- 
nal. Microfilm of original located in Brigham 
Young University Library, Provo, Utah. 

Snyder, L. L. 1953. On eastern empidonaces 
with particular references to variation in E. 
traillii. Contributions Royal Ontario Museum 
of Zoology and Palaeontology No. 35:1-26. 

Springer, C. E. 1931. Wood Ibis in Utah. Bird 
Lore 33:120. 

Stallcup, R., and R. Greenberg. 1974. Mid- 
Pacific coast region. American Birds 28: 
943-947. 

Stanford, J. S. 1931. Records of birds in cen- 
tral and southeastern Utah. Bulletin Univer- 
sity of Utah 21, Biological Series 1:1-10. 

. 1937. Cormorant and heron colonies in 

Cache Valley, Utiih. Proceedings Utah 
Academy of Sciences, Arts, and Letters 14: 
195. 

. 1938. An annotated list of the birds in 

the US AC Zoological Museum. Proceedings 
of Utah Academy of Sciences, Arts, and 
Letters 15:135-146. 

. 1944. New records of birds collected for 

the US AC Zoological Museum. Proceedings 
Utah Academy of Sciences, Arts, and Letters 
19-20:151. 

. 1969. An annotated check list of birds of 

Cache Valley, Utah -Idaho. Utah Academy of 
Sciences, Arts, and Letters 46:134-141. 

Stansbury, H. 1852. Explorations and survey 
of the valley of the Great Salt Lake of Utah, 
including a reconnoissance [sic] of a new 
route through the Rocky Mountains. Senate 
Special Session, March 1851. Executive No. 
3. Lippincott, Crambo and Co., Phila- 
delphia. 487 pp. 

State Fish and Game Commissioner. 1929. 
Utah Fish and Game Laws: Revision of 
1929. Salt Lake City, Utah. 

State of Utah Division of Wildlife Resources. 
1972. 40th biennial report July 1970 to July 
1972. 48 pp. 

Stevenson, J. 1872. A list of mammals and 
birds collected in Wyoming Territory, by Mr. 



H. D. Smith and Mr. James Stevenson, dur- 
ing the expeditions of 1870. Pages 461-466 in 
F. V. Hayden, preliminary report of the 
United States Geological Survey of Wyoming, 
and portions of contiguous territories (being 
a second annual report of progress), con- 
ducted under the authority of the Secretary of 
the Interior, 42nd Congress, Second Session. 
House of Representatives Ex. Doc. No. 325. 
Government Printing Office, Washington, 
DC. 

Storer, R. W. 1971. Classification of birds. 
Pages 1-18 in D. S. Earner, J. R. King, and 
K. C. Parkes, Avian biology. Academic 
Press, New York. 

Stuart, R., and G. Stuart. 1973. Christmas 
bird count, Kanab, Utiih. American Birds 27: 
479. 

SuGDEN, J. W. 1925. Purple Gallinule in Utiih. 
Condor 27:210. 

. 1938. The status of die Sandhill Crane 

in Utah and southern Idaho. Condor 40: 
18-22. 

Talley, G. M. 1957. Common Crackle in 
Utah. Condor 59:400. 

Tanner, V. M. 1927. Notes on birds collected 
in the Virgin River Valley of Utah. Condor 
29:198-202. 

. 1936. The Western Mocking Bird [sic] 

in Utah. Proceedings Utah Academy of Sci- 
ences, Arts, and Letters 13:185-187. 

. 1941. Lesser Yellow Legs [sic] new 

record for Washington County, Utah. Great 
Basin Naturalist 2:86. 

Tanner, V. M., and C. L. Hayward. 1934. A 
biological study of the La Sal Mountains, 
Utah Report No. 1 (Ecology). Proceedings 
Utah Academy of Sciences, Arts, and Letters 
11:209-235. 

Taylor, H. G. 1949. Bird observations July 25 
to August 25. Utah Audubon News 1:2-3. 

Todd, W. E. C. 1963. Birds of the Labrador 
Peninsula and adjacent areas. University of 
Toronto Press, Toronto. 819 pp. 

Treganza, a., E. Treganza, and A. O. Treganza. 
1914. A forty -five-year history of the Snowy 
Heron in Utah. Condor 16:245-250. 

Twomey, a. C. 1942. The birds of the Uinta 

Basin, Utah. Annals of the Carnegie Museum 

28:341-490. 
. 1944a. Notes on some birds taken in 

Utah. Condor 46:89. 
. 1944b. A correction of identification of 

sandpipers. Condor 46:90. 
Utah Audubon News. 1949. Starling found 

nesting in Utah. 1:1. 

. 1952. Field notes. 4:52-53. 

. 1955. Field notes. 7:30. 



210 



GREAT BASIN NATURALIST MEMOIRS 



No. 1 



. 1962. The rare and unusual observa- 
tions. 14:32. 

. 1963. Famiington Bay. 15:38. 

. 1964. The 1963 Christmas census. 16: 

2-3, 42. 

Van Den Akker, J. B. 1946. A Mountain 
Plover from Utah. Condor 48:246. 

. 1949. Great Basin, central Rocky Moun- 
tain region. Audubon Field Notes 3:23-26, 
178-180. 

Van Rossem, A. J. 1945. The Golden-crowned 
Kinglet of Southern California. Condor 47: 
77-78. 

Verbeek, N. a. M. 1966. Wanderings of die 
Ancient Murrelet: some additional com- 
ments. Condor 68:510-511. 

Warner, T. J. 1975. The significance of the 
Dominguez-Velez de Escalante Expedition. 
Charles Redd Monographs in Western His- 
tory 5:63-80. 

Wauer, R. H. 1963. Christmas bird count, St. 
George, Utah. Audubon Field Notes 17:263. 

. 1964. Christmas bird count, St. George, 

Utiih. Audubon Field Notes 18:292-293. 

. 1965a. Christmas bird count, Zion 

National Park. Audubon Field Notes 19:311. 

. 1965b. Wintering Rufous -crowned Spar- 
rows found in Utah. Condor 67:447. 

. 1966a. Flammulated Owl records fol- 
lowing May storms in Zion Canyon, Utah. 
Condor 68:211. 

. 1966b. Christmas bird count, St. George, 

Utah. Audubon Field Notes 20:351-352. 

. 1966c. Eastern Phoebe in Utah. Condor 

68:519. 

. 1968. Northern range extension of 

Wied's Crested Flycatcher. Condor 70:88. 

. 1969. Recent bird records from the 

Virgin River Valley of Utah, Arizona, and 
Nevada. Condor 7 1 : 33 1 -335. 

Wauer, R. H., and D. L. Carter. 1965. Birds 
of Zion National Park and vicinity. Zion 
Natural History Association. Springdale, 
Utah. 92 pp. 

Wauer, R. H., and R. C. Russell. 1967. New 
and additional records of birds in the Virgin 
River Valley. Condor 69:420-423. 

Webster, J. D. 1947. Notes on the birds of 
Utah. Condor 49:40-41. 

Wells, P. 1958. Indigo Buntings in Lazuli 
Bunting habitat in southwestern Utah. Auk 
75:223-224. 

Weston, J. B., and D. H. Ellis. 1968. Ground 
nesting of the Ferruginous Hawk in west- 
central Utah. Great Basin Naturalist 28:111. 

Wetmore, a. 1914-1916. Field notes. U.S. 
National Museum of Natural History, Wash- 
ington, D.C. 



. 1960. A classification for the birds of the 

world. Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collection 
139:1-37. 

White, C. M. 1968. Biosystematics of North 
American Peregrine Falcons. Unpublished 
Ph.D. dissertation. University of Utah. 195 
pp. 

White, C. M., G. D. Lloyd, and G. L. Richards. 
1965. Goshawk nesting in the upper Sonoran 
in Colorado and Utah. Condor 67:269. 

Whitmore, R. C. 1975. Indigo Buntings in 
Utah with special reference to interspecific 
relations with Lazuli Buntings. Condor 77: 
509-510. 

Williams, C. S. 1942. Two new bird records 
for Utah. Auk 59:578. 

Williams, C. S., G. H. Jensen, and C. Cottam. 
1943. Some birds not commonly observed 
in Utah. Condor 45:159-160. 

Wilson, V. T. 1952. Christmas bird count. 
Bear River Migratory Bird Refuge, Utah. 
Audubon Field Notes 6:159. 

. 1965. Christmas bird count. Bear River 

Migratory Bird Refuge, Utah. Audubon Field 
Notes 19:309. 

Wilson, V. T., and R. H. Norr. 1949. Great 
Basin-central Rocky Mountain region. Audu- 
bon Field Notes 3:246-247. 

. 1950. Great Basin-central Rocky Moun- 
tain region. Audubon Field Notes 4:26-28. 

. 1951. Great Basin-central Rocky Moun- 
tain region. Audubon Field Notes 5:30-32. 

Wilson, V. T., and W. A. Reid. 1958. First 
occurrence of Little Blue Heron in Utah. 
Auk 75:214. 

Wilson, V. T., and L. T. Young. 1956. Euro- 
pean Widgeon and Glaucous Gull in Utah. 
Condor 58:390. 

Wilt, R. 1973. Christmas bird count. Pipe 
Spring National Monument, Arizona. Ameri- 
can Birds 27:483-484. 

Wolfe, L. R. 1928. The breeding accipitres of 
Utah. Oologists' Record 8:90-102. 

. 1946. Pigeon Hawk breeding in Ut;ih. 

Condor 48:97. 

Woodbury, A. M. 1937. A Brown Pelican 
record from Utah. Condor 29:225. 

. 1939. Bird records from Utah and Ari- 
zona. Condor 41:157-163. 

Woodbury, A. M., and H. N. Russell, Jr. 1945. 
Birds of the Navajo country. Bulletin Uni- 
versity of Utah 35, Biological Series 9:1-160. 

Woodbury, A. M., C. Cottam, and J. W. Sugden. 
1949. Annotated check-list of the birds of 
Utah. Bulletin University of Utah 39, Bio- 
logical Series 11:1-40. 

Worthen, G. L. 1968. The taxonomy and dis 
tribution of the birds of the southeastern 



1976' 



BIRDS OF UTAH 



211 



Great Basin, Utah. Unpublished M.S. thesis, 

University of Utah. 588 pp. 
. 1972a. First-recorded specimens of the 

White-winged Crossbill from Utah. Wilson 

Bulletin 85:243-244. 
. 1972b. A record of an Indigo Bunting 

and a wintering Say's Phoebe for northern 

Utah. Great Basin Naturalist 32:220. 
. 1973a. Harlan's Hawk from Utah: first 

record for the Great Basin. Wilson Bulletin 

85:79. 
. 1973b. First Utah record of the Balti- 
more Oriole. Auk 90:677-678. 
Wyman, G. H. 1889. Quail in Dixie. Forest 

and Stream 33:123. 
Yarrow, H. C. 1877. The Black Duck in the 

Rocky Mountains. Forest and Stream 8:4. 



Yarrow, H. C., and H. W. Henshaw. 1874. 
Report upon and list of birds collected by 
the expedition for explorations west of the 
one-hundredth meridian in 1872. Lieut. Geo. 
M. Wheeler, Corps of Engineers, in charge. 
Pages 5-33 in Report upon ornithological 
specimens collected in the years 1871, 1872, 
and 1873. Engineer Department, U.S. Army. 
Geographical and geological explorations and 
surveys, west of the one-hundredth meridian. 
Government Printing Office, Washington, 
D.C. 

Young, L. T. 1951. Christmas bird count. Bear 
River Migratory Bird Refuge, Utah. Audubon 
Field Notes 5:169. 

Zimmerman, D. A. 1962. Southwest region. 
Audubon Field Notes 16:496-498. 



212 



GREAT BASIN NATURALIST MEMOIRS 



No. 1 



INDEX 



aberti, Pipilo, 168 

Pipilo aberti, 168 
acaciaruni, Auriparus flaviceps, 153 
acadicus, Aegolius, 112 

Aegolius acadicus, 112 
Accipiter 

cooperii, 62 

gentilis, 61 

atricapillus, 60, 61 
striatulus, 61 

striatus velox, 61 
Accipitridae, 60 
Actitis, 81 
Actitis macularia, 84 
acuta, Anas, 51 
acutipennis, Chordeiles, 114 
adastus, Empidormx traillii, 126 
Aechmophorus occidentalis, 33 
aedon, Troglodytes, 139 
Aegithalidae, 155 
Aegolius acadicus acadicus, 112 
Aeronautes 

saxatalis, 115 
saxatalis, 116 
sclateri, 116 
aestaurinus, Cistothorus palustris, 138 
aestiva, Dendroica petechia, 173 
affinis, Aythya, 56 

Fulix, 56 

Pooecetes gramineus, 165 
Agelaius 

phoeniceus, 182 

fortis, 182 

nevadensis, 182 

sonoriensis, 182 

stereus, 200 

utahensis, 182 

zastereus, 200 
agilis, Geothlypis, 177 
Aimophila, 165 

belli nevadensis, 166 

bilineata deserticola, 165 

cassinii, 196 

ruficeps scottii, 166 
Aix sponsa, 53 
Ajaia ajaja, 46 
ajaja, Ajaia, 46 

alascanus, Haliaeetus leucocephalus, 65 
alascensis, Calcarius lapponicus, 157 
Alaudidae, 129 
alba, Calidris, 95 

Herodias, 44 

Tyto, 108 
albeola, Bucephala, 57 



albicaudatus, Buteo, 192 

albicollis, Zonotrichia, 161 

albifrons, Anser, 48 

albociliatus, Phalacrocorax auritus, 40 

albus, Casinerodius, 43 

Alcedinidae, 118 

Alcidae, 104 

alcyon, Megaceryle, 118 

Alectoris chukar, 73 

alexandri, Archilochus, 116 

alexandrinus, Charadrius, 78 

almae, Catharus ustulatus, 145 

alnorum, Empidonax, 126 

alpestris, Eremophila, 129 

alpina, Calidris, 93 

alticola, Anthus spinoletta, 134 

Zonotrichia lincolnii, 160 
altipetens, Lagopus leucurus, 193 
aniericana. Anas, 53 

Aythya, 54 

Bucephala clangula, 56 

Fulica, 77 

americana, 77 

Mycteria, 45 

Parula, 197 

Recurvirostra, 96 

Spiza, 168 
americanus, Coccyzus, 107 

Mergus merganser, 59 

Numenius, 81 
americanus, 81 
Ammodramus 

bairdii, 196 

leconteii, 163 

sandwichensis, 162 
anthinus. 163 
nevadensis, 163 

savannarum perpallidus, 163 
amnicola, Dendroica petechia, 173 
amoena, Passerina, 10, 169 
amoenissima, Polioptila caerulea, 148 
amoenus, Regulus satrapa, 152 
gamphispiza, 165 
amplus, Contopus sordidulus, 128 
Anabrus simplex, 101 
Anas 

acuta, 51 

americana, 53 

clypeata, 53 

crecca carolinensis, 51 

cyanoptera septentrionalium, 52 

discors discors, 52 

fulvigula, 191 

penelope, 53 

platyrhyncha neoboria, 200 



1976 



BIRDS OF UTAH 



213 



platyrhynchos platyrhynchos, 50 

rubripes, 50 

strepera, 51 
Anatidae, 46 

anatuin, F'alco peregrinus, 67 
amnicola, Dendroica petechia, 173 
annectens, Cyanocitta stelleri, 188 
Anser 

albifrons, 48 
frontalis, 48 
gambelli, 48 
anthinus, Ammodramus sandwichensis, 163 
anthonyi, Butorides virescens, 41 
anthraciniis, Buteogalliis, 63 

Buteogallus anthraciniis, 63 
Anthus 

spinoletta, 133 
alticola, 134 
geophilus, 134 
pacificus, 134 
rubescens, 134 

spraguei, 195 
antiquus, SynthHboramphus, 104 
aphaea, Zonotrichia leucophrys, 200 
Aphelocoma 

coerulescens, 189 
nevadae, 189 
woodhouseii, 189 

ultramarina, 199 
Apodidae, 114 
Aquila chrysaetos, 65 
arboricola, Progne subis, 132 
arborea, Spizella, 164 
Archilochus alexandri, 116 
arctica, Gavia, 31 
arcticola, Eremophila alpestris, 131 
arcticus, Pipilo erythrophthahnus, 168 
arctoa, Leucosticte, 185 
Ardea 

cinerea, 41 

herodias, 41 

herodias treganzai, 40 
Ardeidae, 40 

Arenaria interpres morinella, 80 
argentatus, Larus, 100 
arileuca, Leucophoyx thida, 199 
arizonae, Spizella passerina, 164 

Vireo bellii, 178 
artemisiae, Molothrus ater, 184 
asiatica, Zenaida, 105 
Asio 

flammeus flammeus, 112 

otustuftsi. 111 
asio, Otus, 108 
ater, Molothrus, 183 

Athene cunicularia hypugaea, 1 10 
atrata, Leucosticte arctoa, 185 
atricapilla, Zonotrichia, 162 



atricapillus, Accipiter gentilis, 60 

Panis, 152 
atrogularis, Spizella, 164 
auduboni, Catharus guttatus, 145 

Dendroica coronata, 175 
Anklet, Parakeet, 194 
aura, Cathartes, 60 
auratus, Colaptes, 119 

Colaptes auratus, 119 
auricollis, Icteria virens, 178 
Auriparus flaviceps acaciarum, 153 
auritus, Phalacrocorax, 39 

Phalacrocorax auritus, 40 

Podiceps, 31 
aurocapillus, Seiurus, 198 
austinsmithi, Geothlypis tolmiei, 177 
Avocet, American, 23, 26, 79, 96, 98 
Aythya 

afFinis, 56 

americana, 54 

collaris, 54 

marila nearctica, 54 

valisineria, 54 

bachmani, Haematopus, 193 
bairdi, Sialia mexicana, 143 
bairdii, Ammodramus, 196 

Calidris, 92 
Bartramia longicauda, 193 
belli, Aimophila, 166 
bellii, Vireo, 178 
bendirei, Falco columbarius, 68 

Loxia curvirostra, 187 

Toxostoma, 141 
bendirei, 141 
benti, Loxia curvirostra, 187 
bernicla, Branta, 48 
bewickii, Thryomanes, 138 
bi color, Dendrocygna, 50 

Tachycineta, 131 
bihneata, Aimophila, 165 
Bittern, American, 45 

Least, 45 
Blackbird, Brewer's, 155, 183 

Colorado Red -winged, 200 

Idiiho Red-winged, 200 

Red -winged, 22, 26, 182 

Rusty, 183 

Yellow-headed, 22, 26, 181 
Bluebird, Mountain, 28, 115, 143 

Western, 28, 143 
Bobolink, 26, 184 
Bobwhite, 8, 71 
Bombycilla 

cedrorum, 135 

garrulus pallidiceps, 135 
Bombycillidae, 135 
Bonasa umbellus incana, 69 



214 



GREAT BASIN NATURALIST MEMOIRS 



No. 1 



borealis, Contopus, 129 

Cypseloides niger, 114 
Botaunis lentiginosus, 45 
brachyrhynchos, Corvus, 190 

Corvus brachyrhynchos, 190 
Brant, Black, 48 
Branta canadensis, 47 
Branta canadensis 

hutchinsii, 47 

leucopareia, 47 

minima, 47 

moffitti, 47 

parvipes, 47 

taverneri, 47 
Branta bernichi nigricans, 48 
breweri, Spizella, 164 

SpizeHa breweri, 164 
brewsteri, Dendroica petechia, 173 

Egretta thula, 44 

Empidonax traillii, 126 
brooksi, Coccothraustus vespertinus, 187 
browni, Cyanocitta stelleri, 188 
brunneicapillus, Campylorhyncus, 137 
brunnescens, Lophortyx caHfornicus, 72 
Bubo 

virginianus, 109 
lagophonus, 110 
occidentahs, 110 
pallescens, 1 10 
Bubulcus ibis ibis, 42 

buccinator, Olor, 47 
Bucephala 

albeola, 57 

clangula americana, 56 

islandica, 56 
Bufflehead, 26, 57 
bullockii, Icterus galbula, 181 
Bullock's Oriole, 181 
Bunting, Indigo, 170 

Lark, 158 

Lazuli, 10, 169, 170 

Snow, 158 
Bushtit, 153 

Buteo 

albicaudatus, 192 
jamaicensis, 62 

calurus, 62 

fuertesi, 62 

harlani, 62 

kriderii, 62 
lineatus lineatus, 62 
lagopus sanctijohannis, 63 
platyptenis, 191 
regalis, 63 
swainsoni, 63 

Buteogallus anthracinus anthracinus, 63 



Butorides 
striatus, 41 
virescens, 41 
anthonyi, 41 
virescens, 41 

cachinnans, Gallinula chloropus, 77 
cactophilus, Picoides scalaris, 122 
caendea, Florida, 41 

Florida caerulea, 41 

Passerina, 169 

Polioptila, 148 
caenilescens, Chen, 48 

Chen caerulsecens, 48, 50 

Dendroica, 173 
caerulescens, 173 
cafer, Colaptes, 119 

Colaptes auratus, 119 
Calamospiza melanocorys, 158 
Calcarius 

lapponicus, 157 
alascensis, 157 
lapponicus, 157 
mccownii, 195 

ornatus, 157 
calendula, Regulus, 152 
Calidris 

alba, 95 

alpina pacifica, 93 

bairdii, 92 

canutus rufa, 91 

fusciollis, 193 

mauri, 95 

melanotus, 92 

minutilla, 93 

pusilla, 93, 95 
californianus, Geococcyx, 107 

Vultur, 60 
californicum, Glaucidium gnoma, 1 10 
californicus, Larus, 101 

Lophortyx, 71 
californicus, 72 

Podiceps nigricollis, 33 
calliope, Stellula, 117 
calurus, Buteo jamaicensis, 62 
Calypte costae, 116 
campicola, Geothlyjois trichas, 177 
Camp Robber, 189 

Campylorhyncus bnuineicapillus couesi, 137 
canadensis, Branta, 47 

Grus, 74, 75 
canadensis, 75 

Perisoreus, 189 

Sitta, 156 

Wilsonia, 178 
canescens, Sitta pusilla, 156 
caniceps, Jimco hyemaiis, 162 
canutus, Calidris, 91 
Canvasback, 21, 54 



1976 



BIRDS OF UTAH 



215 



Capella gallinago delicata, 80 
capitalis, Perisoreus canadensis, 189 
Caprimulgidae, 113 
Caprimulgus vociferus, 194 
Carduelis 

flammea flammea, 185 

lavvrencei, 199 

pinus pinus, 184 

psaltria hesperophila, 184 

tristis pallida, 184 
Carolina, Porzana, 75 
carolinensis, Anas crecca, 51 

Dumetella, 139 

Pandion haliaetus, 66 

Sitta, 156 
carolinus, Euphagus, 183 

Euphagus carolinus, 183 
Carpodacus 

cassinii, 185 

mexicanus 

frontalis, 186 
grinnelli, 186 
solitudinus, 186 
sordidus, 186 

purpureas, 199 
Casmerodius albus egretta, 43 
caspia. Sterna, 104 
cassinii, Aimophila, 196 

Carpodacus, 185 

Vireo solitarius, 179 
castanea, Dendroica, 175 
Catbird, Gray, 27, 139 
Cathartes aura teter, 60 
Cathartidae, 60 
Catharus 

fuscescens salicicola, 144 

guttatus, 145 
auduboni, 145 
polionotus, 145 

minimus, 195 

ustulatus, 145 
almae, 145 
swainsoni, 145 
Catoptrophorus semipalmatiis inornatus, 90 
caurina, Megaceryle alcyon, 118 
caurinus, Melanerpes erythrocephalus, 119 
cedrorum, Bombycilla, 135 
celata, Vermivora, 171 

Vermivora celata, 171,172 
Centrocercus urophasianus urophasianus, 71 
Certhia 

familiaris, 157 
leucosticta, 1 57 
montana, 157 
Certhiidae, 157 
Chaetura, 

pelagica, 114 

vauxi vauxi, 114 



Charadriidae, 78 
Charadrius 

alexandrinus nivosus, 78 

montanus, 79 

semipalmatus, 78 

vociferus vociferus, 79 
Chat, Yellow-breasted, 27, 178 
Chen caerulescens, 48 
Chen 

caerulescens caerulescens, 48 

rossii, 50 
Chickadee, Black-capped, 28, 124, 152 

Mountain, 10, 153 
Chicken, Prairie, 70 
chihi, Plegadis, 45 
Chlidonias niger surinamensis, 104 
chloropus, Gallinula, 77 
chlonirus, Pipilo, 167 
Chondestes grammacus strigatus, 165 
Chordeiles 

acutipennis texensis, 114 

minor, 113 
divisus, 200 
henryi, 113 
hesperis, 1 13 
howelli, 113 
minor, 113 
sennetti, 113 
chrysaetos, Aquila, 65 
chrysoides, Colaptes auratus, 1 19 
Chukar, 73 
chukar, Alectoris, 73 
Ciconiidae, 45 
Cinclidae, 136 

Cinclus mexicanus imicolor, 136 
cineraceus, Otus asio, 108 

Regulus calendula, 152 
cinerascens, Myiarchus, 124 

Myiarchus cinerascens, 124 
cinerea, Ardea, 41 
cinnamomea, Tringa solitaria, 85, 87 
Circus cyaneus hudsonius, 65, 66 
cismontanus, Junco hyemalis, 162 
Cistothorus 

palustris, 138 
aestuarinus, 138 
plesius, 138 
Clangula hyemalis, 57 
clangula, Bucephala, 56 
clemenciae, Lampornis, 194 
clypeata. Anas, 53 

Coccothraustes vespertinus brooksi, 187 
Coccyzus 

americanus occidentalis, 107 

erythropthalmus, 107 
coerulescens, Aphelocoma, 189 



216 



GREAT BASIN NATURALIST MEMOIRS 



No. 1 



Colaptes 

auratus, 119 
auratus, 119 
cafer, 119 

chrysoides, 119 

cafer, 119 
colchicus, Phasianus, 72 
Colinus virginianus, 71 
collaris, Aythya, 54 
coloradense, Toxostoma dorsale, 142 
Columba 

fasciata fasciata, 104 

liva, 105 
columbarius, Falco, 68 

Falco columbarius, 68 
Columbiana, Nucifraga, 190 
Columbidae, 104 
Columbina passerina, 194 
columbianus, Olor, 46 

Tympanuchus phasianellus, 69 
Condor, California, 60 
confinis, Pooecetes gramineus, 165 
conspersus, Salpinctes mexicanus, 137 
Contopus 

borealis, 129 

sordidulus, 128 
amplus, 128 
saturatus, 128 
siccicola, 128 
veliei, 128 
cooperi, Accipiter, 62 

Piranga rubra, 170 
Coot, American, 21, 22, 23, 26, 77 
corax, Corvus, 190 

Cormorant, Double-crested, 11, 21, 22, 25, 39 
coronata, Dendroica, 175 

Dendroica coronata, 175 
Corvidae, 188 
Corvus 

brachyrhynchos, 190 
brachyrhynchos, 190 
hesperis, 190 

corax sinuatus, 190 
costae, Calypte, 1 16 
cottami, Cyanocitta stelleri, 188 
Coturnicops noveboracensis, 193 
couesi, Campylorhyncus bnmneicapilius, 137 
Cowbird, Brown-headed, 183 
Crane, Little Brown, 75 

Sandhill, 74 
crecca. Anas, 51 
Creeper, Brown, 157 
cristata, Cyanocitta, 188 
Crossbill, Red, 186 

White-winged, 187 
Crow, Common, 190 
Cuckoo, Black -billed, 107 
Yellow -billed, 107 



Cuculidae, 107 
cucullatus. Icterus, 180 

Mergus, 59 
cunicularia, Athene, 110 
Cudew, Long-billed, 26, 61, 81 
currucoides, Sialia, 143 
curvirostra, Loxia, 186 
cyanea, Passerina, 170 
cyaneus. Circus, 65 
cyanocephala, Gymnorhinus, 188 
cyanocephalus, Euphagus, 183 
Cyanocitta 

cristata cyanotephra, 188 
stelleri, 188 

annectens, 188 

browni, 188 

cottami, 188 

macrolopha, 188 

percontatrix, 188 
cyanoptera. Anas, 52 
cyanotephra, Cyanocitta cristata, 188 
Cyanura stelleri var. macrolophus, 188 
Cyclorrhynchus psittacula, 194 
Cypseloides niger borealis, 1 14 

deglandi, Melanitta, 57 

Melanitta deglandi, 57 
delawarensis, Larus, 101 
delicata, Capella gallinago, 80 
Dendragapus 
obscurus, 69 
obscurus, 69 
oreinus, 69 
Dendrocygna bicolor helva, 50 
Dendroica 

caenilescens, 173 

caerulescens, 173 
castanea, 175 
coronata, 175 
auduboni, 175 
coronata, 175 

175 



173 



memorabilis, 

dominica, 198 

fiisca, 198 

graciae graciae, 

magnolia, 174 

nigrescens nigrescens, 

occidentalis, 174 

palmarum, 198 

petechia, 173 
aestiva, 173 
amnicola, 173 
brewsteri, 173 
hypochlora, 200 
morcomi, 173 
nibiginosa, 173 

striata, 175 

townsendi, 174 

virens, 198 



174 



1976 



BIRDS OF UTAH 



217 



deserticola, Aimophila bilineata, 165 
Dichromanassa rvifescens, 191 
Dickcissel, 168 
difficilis, Empidonax, 128 

Empidonax diflficilis, 128 
Dipper, 26, 136 
discors. Anas, 52 

Anas discors, 52 
divisus, Chordeiles minor, 200 
Dolichonyx oryzivorus, 184 
domesticus, Passer, 187, 200 

Passer domesticus, 187 
dominica, Dendroica, 198 

Pluvialis, 80 
dominica, 80 
dorsale, Toxostonia, 142 

Toxostoma dorsale, 142 
dorsalis, Picoides tridactylus, 122 
Dove, Ground, 194 

Inca, 107 

Mourning, 20, 27, 82, 105, 106 

Rock, 105 

White-winged, 105 
Dowitcher, Long-billed, 95, 96 

Short -billed, 96 
Dryocopus pileatus picinus, 1 19 
Duck, Black, 50, 51 

Harlequin, 57 

Mottled, 191 

Ring-necked, 54 

Ruddy, 59 

Wood, 53 
Dumetella carolinensis, 139 
Dunlin, 93 

Eagle, Bald, 65 

Golden, 49, 65 
Egret, Catde, 42 

Great, 43, 44 

Reddish, 191 

Snowy, 26, 31, 44 

Utah Snowy, 199 
Egretta thula brewsteri, 44 
egretta, Casmerodius albus, 43 

Herodias alba, 44 
Emberizidae, 157 
Empidonax 

alnorum, 126 

difficilis difficilis, 128 
hellmayri, 128 

griseus, 127 

hammondii, 126 

oberholseri, 126 

obscurus, 126 

obsecra, 126 

traillii, 125 
adastus, 126 
brewsteri, 126 



extimus, 126 
wrightii, 126, 127 
enthymia, Eremophila alpestris, 131 
enucleator, Pinicola, 186 
Eremophila 
alpestris, 129 

arcticola, 131 

enthymia, 131 

hoyti, 131 

leucolaema, 130 

merrilli, 131 

occidentalis, 130 

utahensis, 129 
eremophilus, Thryomanes bewickii, 138 
ericrypta, Zonotrichia georgiana, 160 
erythrocephalus, Melanerpes, 119 
erythrogaster, Hirundo rustica, 132 
erythrophthalmus, Pipilo, 10, 167 
erythropthalmus, Coccyzus, 107 
erythrorhynchos, Pelecanus, 34 
Eugenes fulgens, 118 
eumesus, Junco oreganus, 200 
Euphagus 

carolinus carolinus, 183 
cyanocephalus, 183 
evura, Spizella atrogularis, 164 
excubitor, Lanius, 135 
exilis, Ixobrychus, 44 
extimus, Empidonax traillii, 126 

Falco 

columbarius, 68 
bendirei, 68 
columbarius, 68 
richardsonii, 68 
suckleyi, 68 
mexicanus, 66 
peregrinus, 67 
anatum, 67 
tundrius, 67 
rusticolus, 192 
sparverius sparverius, 68 
Falcon, Peregrine, 42, 67 

Prairie, 20, 66, 67 
Falconidae, 66 

fallax, Zonotrichia melodia, 159 
familiarus, Certhia, 157 
fasciata, Golumba, 104 

Columba fasciata, 104 
fedoa, Limosa, 96 
Finch, Cassin's, 28, 185, 186 
House, 27, 167, 186 
Purple, 199 
Rosy, 28, 185 
fisherella, Zonotrichia melodia, 159 
Flamingo, American, 46 
flammea, Carduelis, 185 
Carduelis, flammea, 185 



218 



GREAT BASIN NATURALIST MEMOIRS 



No. 1 



flamineolus, Otus, 109 

Otus flammeolus, 109 
flammeus, Asio, 112 

Asio flammeus, 112 

Pyrocephalus rubinus, 129 
flava, Piranga, 196 
flaviceps, Auriparus, 153 
flavifrons, Vireo, 198 
flavipes, Tringa, 89 
Flicker, Common, 28, 109, 119 

Gilded, 119 

Red -shafted, 119 

Yellow-shafted, 119 
Florida caerulea caerulea, 41 
Flycatcher, Ash -throated, 27, 124 

Dusky, 126 

Gray, 27, 127 

Hammond's, 28, 126 

Olive -sided, 28, 129 

Scissor-tailed, 123 

Vermillion, 129 

Western, 128 

Wied's Crested, 123 

Willow, 92, 125 
forficata, Muscivora, 123 
formicivorus, Melanerpes, 195 
forsteri. Sterna, 102 
fortis, Agelaius phoeniceus, 182 
franklini, 13 
Fringillidae, 184 
frontalis, Anser albifrons, 48 

Carpodacus mexicanus, 186 
fuertesi, Buteo jamaicensis, 62 
fulgens, Eugenes, 118 
Fulica americana americana, 77 
fulicarius, Phalaropus, 98 
Fulix affinis, 56 
fulvigula, Anas, 191 
fusca, Dendroica, 198 
fuscescens, Catharus, 144 
fusciollus, Calidris, 193 



Gadwall, 51 
galbula. Icterus, 180 

Icterus galbula, 181 
gallinago, Capella, 80 
Gallinula chloropus cachinnans, 77 
Gallinule, Common, 77 

Purple, 77 
gallopavo, Meleagris, 74 
gambeli, Lanius ludovicianus, 134, 135 

Parus, 10, 153 
gambeli, 153 
gambelii, Lophortyx, 72 

Lophortyx gambelii, 72 

Zonotrichia leucophrys, 161 
gambelii, Anser albifrons, 48 
garrinus, Parus atricapillus, 153 



garnilus, Bombycilla, 135 
Gavia 

arctica pacifica, 31 

immer, 30 

stellata, 31 
Gaviidae, 30 
gentilis, Accipiter, 60 
Geococcyx californianus, 107 
geophilus, Anthus spinoletta, 134 
georgiana, Zonotrichia, 160 
Geothlypis 

agilis, 177 

tolmiei, 177 

austinsmithi, 177 
monticola, 177 
tolmiei, 177 

trichas, 176 
campicola, 177 
occidentalis, 177 
scirpicola, 177 
utahicola, 177 
gilvus, Melodivireo, 200 

Vireo, 180 
Glaucidium gnoma californicum, 1 10 
Gnatcatcher 

Black-tailed, 195 

Blue -gray, 27, 118, 121, 148 
gnoma, Glaucidium, 110 
Godwit, Bar-tailed, 194 

Hudsonian, 194 

Marbled, 96 
Goldeneye, Barrow's, 56 

Common, 26, 56 
Goldfinch, American, 184 

Lesser, 184 

Lawrence's, 199 
Goose, Blue, 50 

Canada, 26, 47 

Ross', 50 

Snow, 48, 50 

Tule, 48 

White-fronted, 48 
Goshawk, 20, 32, 60 
graciae, Dendroica, 173 

Dendroica graciae, 173 
Crackle, Common, 183 
gramineus, Pooecetes, 165 
grammacus, Chondestes, 165 
Grebe, Eared, 23, 33 

Horned, 31 

Pied-billed, 33 

Red-necked, 191 

Western, 22, 23, 25, 33 



grinnelli, Carpodacus mexicani 

Loxia curvirostra, 186 
grisegena, Podiceps, 191 



186 



1976 



BIRDS OF UTAH 



219 



griseus, Empidonax, 127 

Limnodromus, 96 

Vireo, 178 
Grosbeak, Black -headed, 27, 28, 169 

Blue, 169 

Evening, 27, 187 

Pine, 186 

Rose -breasted, 168 
Grouse, Blue, 20, 69, 70 

Pinnated, 20 

Ruffed, 20, 69 

Sage, 27,70,71 

Sharp -tailed, 20, 69, 70 

Willow, 20, 69 
Gniidae, 74 
Grus 

canadensis, 74 
canadensis, 75 
tabida, 75 
Gull, Bonaparte's, 102 

California, 13, 17, 25, 101, 104 

Franklin's, 12, 101, 102 

Glaucous, 99 

Herring, 100, 101 

Ring-billed, 101 

Sabine's, 102 
guttata, Zonotrichia melodia, 159 
guttatus, Catharus, 145 
Gymnorhinus cyanocephala, 188 
Gyrfalcon, 192 

haemastica, Limosa, 194 
Haematopus bachmani, 193 
Haliaeetus 

leucocephalus, 65 
alascanus, 65 

leucocephalus, 65 
haliaetus, Pandion, 66 
haminondii, Empidonax, 126 
harlani, Buteo jamaicensis, 62 
Hawk, Black, 63 
Broadwinged, 191 

Cooper's, 20, 27, 62 

Duck, 17, 67 

Ferruginous, 39, 63 

Harris, 192 

Marsh, 26, 52, 65, 66 

Pigeon, 68 

Red-shouldered, 62 

Red-tailed, 37, 38, 62 

Rough -legged, 63 

Sharp-shinned, 20, 27, 34, 35, 61, 62 

Sparrow, 68 

Swainson's, 36, 63 

White-tailed, 192 
hellmayri, Empidonax difficilis, 128 
helva, Dendrocygna bicolor, 50 
hendersoni, Limnodromus griseus, 96 



henryi, Chordeiles minor, 113 

Herodias alba egretta, 44 

herodias, Ardea, 40, 41 

Heron, Black-crowned Night, 20, 21, 23, 26, 44 

Great Blue, 19, 20, 21, 22, 26, 40, 44 

Little Blue, 41 

Louisiana, 191 

Northern Green, 41 
hesperis, Chordeiles minor, 113 

Corvus brachyrhynchos, 190 

Ixobrychus exilis, 44 
hesperophila, Carduelis psaltria, 184 
Heteroscelus incanum, 193 
Himantopus mexicanus mexicanus, 98 
himantopus, Micropalama, 95 
Hirundinidae, 131 
Hirundo rustica erythrogaster, 132 
hinmdo. Sterna, 103 
Histrionicus histrionicus, 57 
histrionicus, Histrionicus, 57 
hoactli, Nycticorax nycticorax, 44 
howelli, Chordeiles minor, 113 
hoyti, Eremophila alpestris, 131 
hudsonia. Pica pica, 189 
hudsonicus, Numenius phaeopus, 81 
hudsonius. Circus cyaneus, 65 
Hummingbird, Black-chinned, 116 

Blue-throated, 194 

Broad-tailed, 27, 117 

Calliope, 117 
. Costa's, 116 

Rivoli's, 118 

Rufous, 117 
hutchinsii, Branta canadensis, 47 
Hydranassa tricolor, 191 
hyemalis, Clangula, 57 

Junco, 162 
hyemalis, 162 
Hylocichla mustelina, 145 
hyperboreus, Larus, 99 

Larus hyperboreus, 99 
hypochlora, Dendroica petechia, 200 
hypopolia, Petrochelidon pyrrhonota, 133 
hypugaea, Athene cunicularia, 110 

ibis, Bubulcus ibis, 42 

Ibis, White-faced, 26, 45, 46 

Icteria virens auricollis, 178 

Icteridae, 180 

Icterus 

cucullatus nelsoni, 180 

sennetti, 180 
galbula, 180 
bullockii, 181 
galbula, 181 
parisorum, 181 
iliaca, Zonotrichia, 158 
immer, Gavia, 30 



220 



GREAT BASIN NATURALIST MEMOIRS 



No. 1 



inca, Scardiifella, 107 

incana, Bonasa unbellus, 69 

incanum, Heteroscelus, 193 

inornatus, Catoptrophorus semipalmatus, 90 

Parus, 10, 153 
interfusa, Passerina caerulea, 169 
interpres, Arenaria, 80 
invictus, Lanius excubitor, 135 
inyoensis, Otus asio, 108 

Panis gambeli, 153 
islandica, Bucephala, 56 
Ixobrychus exilis hesperis, 44 

Jacksnipe, 81 

jacksoni, Solivireo solitarius, 200 

Jaeger, 

Long -tailed, 99 
Parasitic, 99 
jamaicensis 
Buteo, 62 
Oxyura, 59 
Jay, Blue, 188 
Gray, 182, 189 
Mexican, 199 
Pinon, 17, 27, 188 
Scrub, 28, 189, 197 
Steller's, 28, 188 
juddi, Zonotrichia melodia, 159 
Junco, Coues' Oregon, 200 

Dark-eyed, 146, 162 
Junco 

hyemalis, 162 
caniceps, 162 
cismontanus, 162 
hyemalis, 162 
mearnsi, 162 
montanus, 162 
shufeldti, 162 
oreganus eumesus, 200 

Kestrel, American, 28, 43, 55, 68, 78 
Killdeer, 26, 78, 79, 91 
Kingbird, Cassin's, 123 

Eastern, 122, 123 

Western, 123 
Kingfisher, Belted, 26,118 
Kinglet, Golden -crowned, 28, 150 

Ruby -crowned, 28, 150, 152 
Kittiwake, Black-legged, 102 
Knot, Red, 91 
kriderii, Buteo jamaicensis, 62 



lagophonus. Bubo virginianus, 
lagopus, Buteo, 63 
Lagopus 

leucurus, 192 
altipetens, 193 
Lampornis clemenciae, 194 



110 



Laniidae, 134 
Lanius 

excubitor, 134 
invictus, 135 

ludovicianus, 134, 135 

gambeli, 134, 135 

nevadensis, 134 

sonoriensis, 135 

lapponica, Limosa, 194 

lapponicus, Calcarius, 157 

Calcarius lapponicus, 157 
Lark, Horned, 27, 91, 129, 157 
Laridae, 99 
Larus 

argentatus smithsonianus, 100 

californicus, 101 

delawarensis, 101 

hyperboreus hyperboreus, 99 

Philadelphia, 102 

pipixcan, 101 
lawrencei, Carduelis, 199 
lecontei, Ammodramus, 163 

Toxostoma, 141 
lecontei, 141 
lentiginosus, Botaurus, 45 
lepida, Phainopepla nitens, 136 

Tachycineta thalassina, 131 
leucocephalus, Haliaeetus, 65 

Haliaeetus leucocephalus, 65 
leucolaema, Eremophila alpestris, 130 
leucopareia, Branta canadensis, 47 
Leucophoyx thula arileuca, 199 
leucophiys, Zonotrichia, 161, 200 

Zonotrichia leucophrys, 161 
leucopolius, Vireo gilvus, 180 
leucoptera, Loxia, 187 

Loxia leucoptera, 187 
leucopterus, Mimus polyglottos, 140 
leucosticta, Certhia familiaris, 157 
Leucosticte 

arctoa, 185 
atrata, 185 
littoralis, 185 
tephrocotis, 185 
leucothorectus, Picoides villosus, 121 
leucurus, Picoides pubescens, 121 

Lagopus, 192 
lewis, Melanerpes, 120 
limicola, Rallus, 75 

Rallus limicola, 75 
limnaeus, Seiurus noveboracensis, 176 
Limnodromus 

griseus hendersoni, 96 

scolopaceus, 96 
Limosa 

fedoa, 96 

haemastica, 194 

lapponica, 194 



1976 



BIRDS OF UTAH 



221 



lincolnii, Zonotrichia, 160 

Zonotrichia lincolnii, 160 
lineatus, Biiteo, 62 

Buteo lineatus, 62 
littoralis, Leucosticte arctoa, 185 
liva, Coluniba, 105 
lobatus, Phalaropus, 99 
longieauda, Bartramia, 193 

Toxostoma rufum, 140 
longicaudus, Stercorarius, 99 
Longspur, Chestnut-collared, 157 
Lapland, 157 
McCowan's, 195 
Loon, Arctic, 31 
Common, 30 
Red-throated, 31 
Lophortyx 

californicus, 71 
californicus, 72 
brunnescens, 72 
gambelii, 72 
gambelii, 72 
sanus, 72 
Loxia 

curvirostra, 186 
bendirei, 187 
benti, 187 
grinnelli, 187 
stricklandi, 187 
leucoptera leucoptera, 187 
luciae, Vermivora, 172 
lucida, Strix occidentalis, 111 
ludoviciana, Piranga, 170, 200 
ludovicianus, Lanius, 134 

Pheucticus, 168 
lutescens, Vermivora celata, 171, 172 

macrolopha, Cyanocitta stelleri, 188 
macrolophus, Cyanocitta stelleri, 188 
macroura, Zenaida, 105 
macularia, Actitus, 84 

Tringa, 81 
magister, Myiarchus tyrannulus, 123 
magnolia, Dendroica, 174 
Magpie, Black -billed, 20,111,189 
Mallard, 26, 50, 51 
Mallard, American, 200 
marila, Aythya, 54 
marginella, Zenaida macroura, 105 
Martin, Purple, 28, 131 
martinica, Porphyrula, 77 
mauri, Calidris, 95 
maxwelliae, Otus asio, 108, 109 
mccownii, Calcarius, 195 
Meadowlark, Western, 26, 182 
mearnsi, Junco hyemalis, 162 

Zenaida asiatica, 105 
Megaceryle alcyon caurina, 118 



Melanerpes 

erythrocephalus caurinus, 119 

formicivorus, 195 

lewis, 120 
Melanitta 

deglandi deglandi, 57 

nigra, 191 

perspicillata, 58 
melanocephalus, Pheucticus, 169 

Pheucticus melanocephalus, 169 
melanocorys, Calamospiza, 158 
melanoleuca, Tringa, 87 
melanotis, Sitta pusilla, 156 
melanotos, Calidris, 92 
melanura, Polioptila, 195 
Meleagrididae, 74 
Meleagris gallopavo merriami, 74 
melodia, Melospiza, 159 

Zonotrichia, 159 
Melodivireo gilvis petrorus, 200 
Melospiza melodia virginis, 159 
memorabilis, Dendroica coronata, 175 
Merganser, Common, 26, 59 

Hooded, 59 

Red-breasted, 26, 60 
merganser, Mergus, 59 
Mergus 

cucullatus, 59 

merganser americanus, 59 

serrator serrator, 60 
Merlin, 68 

merriami, Meleagris gallopavo, 74 
merrilli, Eremophila alpestris, 131 

Zonotrichia melodia, 159 
meruloides, Zoothera naevia, 144 
mexicana, Sialia, 143 
mexicanus, Carpodacus, 186 

Cinclus, 136 

Falco, 66 

Himantopus mexicanus, 98 

Salpinctes, 137 
Micropalama himantopus, 95 
migratorius, Turdus, 146 
Mimidae, 139 

Mimus polyglottos leucopterus, 140 
minima, Branta canadensis, 47 
minimus, Catharus, 195 

Psaltriparus, 153 
minor, Chordeiles, 113 

Chordeiles minor, 113 
minutilla, Calidris, 93 
Mniotilta varia, 171 
Mockingbird, 27, 109, 140 
moffitti, Branta canadensis, 47 
Molothrus 

ater, 183 

artemisiae, 184 
obscurus, 184 



222 



GREAT BASIN NATURALIST MEMOIRS 



No. 1 



montana, Certhia familiaris, 157 

Zonotrichia melodia, 159 
montanus, Charadrius, 79 

Junco hyemalis, 162 

Oreoscoptes, 140 

Pinicola enucleator, 186 

Pipilo erythrophthalmus, 168 
monticola, Geothlypis tolmei, 177 

Picoides villosus, 121 
morcomi, Dendroica petechia, 173 
morinella, Arenaria interpres, 80 
Motacillidae, 133 
Murrelet, Ancient, 104 
Muscicapidae, 143 
Muscivora forficata, 123 
mustelina, Hylocichla, 145 
Myadestes townsendii townsendii, 144 
mychophilus, Otus asio, 108 
Mycteria americana, 45 
Myiarchus 

cinerascens cinerascens, 124 

tyrannulus magister, 123 
Myioborus pictus pictus, 178 



naevia, Zoothera, 144 

Zoothera naevia, 144 
nataliae, Sphyrapicus thyroideus, 120 
nearctica, Aythya marila, 54 
nebulosa, Strix, 111 

Strix nebulosa. 111 
neglecta, Sturnella, 182 
nelsoni, Icterus cucullatus, 180 

Sitta carolinensis, 157 
neoboria, Anas platyrhyncha, 200 
nevadae, Aphelocoma coerulescens, 189 
nevadensis, Agelaius phoeniceus, 182 

Aimophila belli, 166 

Ammodramus sandwichensis, 163 

Lanus ludovicianus, 134 

Parus atricapillus, 153 
niger, Chlidonias, 104 

Cypseloides, 114 
Nighthawk, 

Common, 113 

Lesser, 114 

Wyoming Common, 200 
nigra, Melanitta, 191 
nigrescens, Dendroica, 174 

Dendroica nigrescens, 174 
nigricans, Branta bernicla, 48 

Sayornis, 125 
nigricollis, Podiceps, 33 
nitens, Phainopepla, 136 
nivalis, Plectrophenax, 158 

Plectrophenax nivalis, 158 
nivosus, Charadrius alexandrinus, 78 
notabilis, Seiurus noveboracensis, 176 



noveboracensis, Coturnicops, 193 

Seiurus, 176 

Vireo griseus, 178 
nuchalis, Sphyrapicus varius, 120 
Nucifraga columbiana, 190 
Numenius 

americanus, 81 
americanus, 81 
occidentalis, 81 
parvus, 81 

phaeopus hudsonicus, 81 
Nutcracker, Clark's, 17, 28, 190 
Nuthatch, Pygmy, 28, 156 

Red-breasted, 28, 156 

White-breasted, 28, 156 
nuttallii, Phalaenoptilus, 113 

Phalaenoptilus nuttallii, 113 
Nuttalornis, 129 
Nyctea scandiaca, 1 10 
Nycticorax nycticorax hoactli, 44 
nycticorax, Nycticorax, 44 



oberholseri, Empidonax, 126 
obscurus, Dendragapus, 69 

Dendragapus obscurus, 69 

Empidonax, 126 

Molothrus ater, 184 
obsecra, Empidonax, 126 
obsoletus, Salpinctes, 137 

Salpinctes obsoletus, 137 
occidentalis, Aechmophorus, 33 

Bubo virginianus, 110 

Coccyzus americanus, 107 

Dendroica, 174 

Eremophila alpestris, 130 

Geothlypis trichas, 177 

Numenius americanus, 81 

Pelecanus, 37 

Sialia mexicana, 143 

Strix, 111 
ochracea, Spizella arborea, 164 
goldsquaw, 57 
olivacea, Piranga, 196 
olivaceus, Regulus satrapa, 152 

Vireo, 179 
olivaceus, 179 
Olor 

buccinator, 47 

columbianus, 46 
onocrotalus, Pelecanus, 6 
oreganus, Junco, 200 
oreinus, Dendragapus obscurus, 69 
Oreoscoptes montanus, 140 
orestera, Vermivora celata, 171, 172 
oriantha, Zonotrichia leucophrys, 161 
Oriole, Bullock's, 181 

Hooded, 180 



1976 



BIRDS OF UTAH 



223 



121 



184 



Northern, 154, 180 
Scott's, 181 

orius, Picoides villosus, 

ornatus, Calcarius, 157 

oryzivorus, Dolichonyx, 

Osprey, 66 

Otus 

asio, 108 

ceneraceus, 108 
inyoensis, 108 
maxwelliae, 108, 109 
mychophilus, 108 
flameolus flameolus, 109 

otus, Asio, 111 

Ovenbird, 198 

Owl, Barn, 83, 84, 108 
Burrowing, 87,110,111 
Flammulated, 109 
Great Gray, HI 
Great Horned, 109 
Long-eared, 85,86,111 
Pygmy, 17, 110 
Saw-whet, 89,90,112 
Screech, 27, 108 
Short-eared, 88, 112 
Snowy, 110 
Spotted, 111 

Oxyura jamaicensis rubida. 

Oyster-catcher, Black, 193 



59 



pacifica, Calidris alpina, 93 

Gavia arctica, 31 
pacificus, Anthus spinoletta, 134 

Troglodytes troglodytes, 139 
pallescens. Bubo virginianus, 110 
pallida, Carduelis tristis, 184 

Spizella, 164 
pallidiceps, Bombycilla garrulus, 135 
palmarum, Dendroica, 198 
palustris, Cistothorus, 138 
Pandion haliaetus carolinensis, 
Pandionidae, 66 
Parabuteo unicinctus, 192 
parasiticus, Stercorarius, 99 
parisorum. Icterus, 181 
parkmanii. Troglodytes aedon, 
Partridge, California, 71 

Chukar, 73 

Eastern, 71 

Gray, 73 

Hungarian, 20, 73 
Paridae, 152, 153 
Parula americana, 197 
Pamlidae, 171 
Parus 

atricapillus, 152 
garrinus, 153 



66 



139 



nevadensis, 153 
septentrionalis, 153 
gambeli, 10, 153 
gambeli, 153 
inyoensis, 153 
wasatchensis, 153 
inornatus, 10, 153 
ridgwayi, 153 
parvipes, Branta canadensis, 47 
parvus, Numenius americanus, 81 
Passer domesticus 
domesticus, 187 
plecticus, 200 
Passerina 

amoena, 10, 169 
caendea interfusa, 169 
cyanea, 170 
passerina, Columbina, 194 

Spizella, 164 
pelagica, Chaetura, 114 
Pelecanus 

erythrorhynchos, 34 
occidentalis, 37 
onocrotalus, 6 
Pelecanidae, 34 
Pelican, Brown, 37, 39 

White, 6, 17, 20, 21, 25, 30, 34, 36, 37, 39 
penelope. Anas, 53 
percontatrix, Cyanocitta stelleri, 188 
Perdix perdix perdix, 73 
perdix, Perdix, 73 

Perdix perdix, 73 
peregrina, Vermivora, 197 
peregrinus, Falco, 67 
Perisoreus canadensis capitalis, 189 
perpallidus, Ammodramus savannarum, 163 
perspicillata, Melanitta, 58 
petechia, Dendroica, 173, 200 
Petrochelidon 
pyrrhonota, 133 

hypopolia, 133 
pyrrhonota, 133 
tachina, 133 
petrorus, Melodivireo gilvus, 200 
Pewee, Western Wood, 27, 28, 128 
phaeopus, Numenius, 81 
Phainopepla, 136 
Phainopepla nitens lepida, 136 
Phalacrocoracidae, 39 
Phalacrocorax 
auritus, 39 

albociliatus, 40 
auritus, 40 
Phalaenoptilus nuttallii nuttall 
Phalarope, Northern, 26, 99 
Red, 98 

Wilson's, 26, 73, 98 
Phalaropodidae, 98 



113 



224 



GREAT BASIN NATURALIST MEMOIRS 



No. 1 



Phalaropus 

fiilicarius, 98 

lobatus, 99 

tricolor, 98 
phasianellus, Tympanuchus, 69 
Phasianidae, 71 
Phasianus colchicus, 72 
Pheasant, Ring-necked, 20, 72 
Pheucticiis 

ludovicianus, 168 

melanocephalus melanocephalus, 169 
Philadelphia, Larus, 102 
philadelphicus, Vireo, 199 
Phoebe, Black, 27, 125 

Eastern, 125 

Say's, 125 
phoebe, Sayornis, 125 
phoeniceus, Agelaius, 182, 200 
Phoenicopteridae, 46 
Phoenicopterus ruber, 46 
Pica pica hudsonia, 189 
pica. Pica, 189 
Picidae, 119 

picinus, Dryocopus pileatus, 119 
Picoides 

pubescens leucurus, 121 

scalaris cactophilus, 122 

tridactylus dorsalis, 122 

villosus, 121 

leucothorectus, 121 
monticola, 121 
orius, 121 
pictus, Myioborus, 178 

Myioborus pictus, 178 
Pigeon, Band -tailed, 104, 105 

Common, 105 
pileatus, Diyocopus, 119 
piliolata, Wilsonia pusilla, 178 
Pinicola enucleator montanus, 186 
Pintail, 26, 51 
pinus, Carduelis, 184 

Carduelis pinus, 184 
Pipilo 

aberti aberti, 168 

chlorurus, 167 

erythrophthalmus, 10, 167 
arcticus, 168 
montanus, 168 
Pipit, Water, 28, 133 

Sprague's, 195 
pipixcan, Larus, 101 
Piranga 

flava, 196 

ludoviciana, 170 
zephyrica, 200 

olivacea, 196 
rubra cooperi, 170 



platycercus, Selasphorus, 117 

Selasphonis platycercus, 117 
platypterus, Buteo, 191 
platyrhyncha. Anas, 200 
platyrhynchos. Anas, 50 

Anas platyrhynchos, 50 
plecticus. Passer domesticus, 200 
Plectrophenax nivalis nivalis, 158 
Plegadis chihi, 45 
plesius, Cistothorus palustris, 138 
Ploceidae, 187 
Plover, American Golden, 80 

Black -bellied. 80 

Mountain, 79 

Semipalmated, 78 

Snowy, 26, 78 

Upland, 193 
plumbeus, Psaltriparus minimus, 155 

Vireo solitarius, 179 
Pluvialis 

dominica dominica, 80 

squatarola, 80 
Podiceps 

auritus, 31 

grisegena, 191 

nigricollis californicus, 33 
podiceps, Podilymbus, 33 

Podilymbus podiceps, 33 
Podicipedidae, 31 
Podilymbus podiceps podiceps, 33 
polionotus, Catharus guttatus, 145 
Polioptila 

caeridea amoenissima, 148 

melanura, 195 
polyglottos, Mimus, 140 
Pooecetes 

gramineus, 165 
affinis, 165 
confinis, 165 
Poor-will, 113 
Porphyrula martinica, 77 
Porzana Carolina, 75 
Progne 

subis, 131 

arboricola, 132 
propinquus, Turdus migratorius, 146 

providentalis, Psaltriparus minimus, 155 

psaltria, Carduelis, 184 

Psaltriparus 

minimus, 153 
plumbeus, 155 

providentalis, 155 
psanimochroa, Stelgidopteryx ruticollis, 132 
psittacula, Cyclorrhynchus, 194 
Ptarmigan, White-tailed, 192 
pubescens, Picoides, 121 
purpureus, Carpodacus, 199 



I 



1976 



BIRDS OF UTAH 



225 



pusilla, Calidris, 93 

Sitta, 156 

Spizella, 196 

Wilsonia, 177 
pusilla, 178 
pusillus, Vireo bellii, 178 
pygmaea, Sitta, 156 
Pyrocephalus rubinus tlanimeiis, 129 
pyrrhonota, Petrochelidon, 133 

Petrochelidon pyrrhonota, 133 

Quail, California, 8, 27, 71 

Gambel's, 72 

Valley, 71 
querula, Zonotrichia, 160 
Quiscalus quiscula, 183 
quiscula, Quiscalus, 183 

Rail, Sora, 75 

Virginia, 75 

Yellow, 193 
Rallidae, 75 

Rallus limicola limicola, 75 
Raven, 17, 190 
Recurvirostra americana, 96 
Recurvirostridae, 96 
Redhead, 54 
Redpoll, Common, 185 
Redstart, American, 22, 175, 176 

Painted, 178 
regalis, Buteo, 63 
Regulus 

calendula cineraceus, 152 

satrap a, 150 
amoenus, 152 
olivaceous, 152 
Remizidae, 153 

richardsonii, Falco columbarius, 68 
ridgwayi, Parus inornatus, 153 

Verniivora ruficapilla, 172 
Riparia riparia riparia, 132 
riparia, Riparia, 132 

Riparia riparia, 132 
Rissa tridactyla tridactyla, 102 
Roadmnner, 107, 108 
Robin, American, 27, 146 
rossii, Chen, 50 
ruber, Phoenicopterus, 46 
mbescens, Anthus spinoletta, 134 
nibida, Oxyura jamaicensis, 59 
rubiginosa, Dendroica petechia, 173 
rubinus, Pyrocephalus, 129 
nibra, Piranga, 170 
rubripes. Anas, 50 
rufa, Calidris canutus, 91 
rufescens, Dichromanassa, 191 
ruficapilla, Vermivora, 172 
nificeps, Aimophila, 166 



ruficollis, Stelgidopteryx, 132 
rufum, Toxostoma, 140 
rufus, Selasphorus, 117 
rustica, Hirundo, 132 
rusticolus, Falco, 192 
ruticilla, Setophaga, 175 



sabini, Xema, 102 

Xema sabini, 102 
Sage Hen, 6, 20 

salicicola, Catharus fuscescens, 144 
Salpinctes 

mexicanus conspersus, 137 

obsoletus obsoletus, 137 
sanctijohannis, Buteo lagopus, 63 
Sanderling, 26, 95 
Sandpiper, Baird's, 92 

Least, 26, 91, 93 

Pectoral, 92 

Semipalmated, 93 

Solitary, 64, 82 

Spotted, 26,81,82 

Stilt, 95 

Upland, 193 

Western, 26, 91, 95 

White-rumped, 193 
sandwichensis, Ammodramus, 162 
sanus, Lophortyx gambelii, 72 
Sapsucker, Williamson's, 120 

Yellow-bellied, 28, 120 
satrapa, Regulus, 150 
saturatus, Contopus sordidulus, 128 
savannarum, Ammodramus, 163 
saxatalis, Aeronautes, 115 

Aeronautes saxatalis, 116 
saya, Sayornis, 125 

Sayornis saya, 125 
Sayornis 

nigricans semiatra, 125 

phoebe, 125 

saya, 125 
saya, 125 
yukonensis, 125 
scalaris, Picoides, 122 
scandiaca, Nyctea, 110 
Scardafella inca, 107 
Scaup, Greater, 54, 56 

Lesser, 55, 56 
schistacea, Zonotrichia iliaca, 159 
scirpicola, Geothlypis trichas, 177 
sclateri, Aeronautes saxatalis, 116 
scolopaceus, Limnodromus, 96 
Scolopacidae, 80 
Scoter, Black, 191 

Surf, 58, 59 

White-winged, 57 
scottii, Aimophila ruficeps, 166 



226 



GREAT BASIN NATURALIST MEMOIRS 



No. 1 



Seiurus 

aurocapillus, 198 

noveboracensis, 176 
limnaeus, 176 
notabilis, 176 
Selasphonis 

platycerus platycerus, 117 

rufus, 117 
semiatra, Sayornis nigricans, 125 
semipalmatus, Catoptrophorus, 90 

Charadrius, 78 
sennetti, Chordeiles minor, 113 

Icterus cucullatus, 180 
septentrionalis, Parus atricapillus, 153 
septentrionalium. Anas cyanoptera, 52 
serrator, Mergus, 60 

Mergus serrator, 60 
serripennis, Stelgidopteryx ruficollis, 132 
Setophaga ruticilla tricolora, 175 
Shoveler, Northern, 53 
Shrike, Loggerhead, 100, 134 

Northern, 135 
shufeldti, Junco hyemahs, 162 
Sialia 

curnicoides, 143 

mexicana, 143 
bairdi, 143 
occidentaHs, 143 
siccicola, Contopus sordidulus, 128 
simplex, Anabrus, 101 
sinuatus, Corvus corax, 190 
Siskin, Pine, 184 
Sitta 

canadensis, 156 

caroHnensis, 156 
nelsoni, 157 
tenuissima, 157 
uintaensis, 157 

pusilla, 156 

canescens, 156 
mehinotis, 156 

pygmaea, 156 
Sittidae, 156 

smithsonianus, Larus argentatus, 100 
Snipe, Common, 26, 58, 80, 81 

Wilson's, 17 
Solitaire, Townsend's, 27, 144 
solitaria, Tringa, 82 

Tringa solitaria, 84, 85, 87 
solitarius, Solivireo, 200 

Vireo, 179 
solitudinus, Carpodacus mexicanus, 186 
Solivireo solitarius jacksoni, 200 
sonoriensis, Agelaius phoeniceus, 182 

Lanius ludovicianus, 135 
Sora, 75 
Sora Rail, 75 
sordidulus, Contopus, 128 



sordidus, Carpodacus mexicanus, 186 
Sparrow, Baird's, 196 

Black -chinned, 164 

Black-throated, 27, 133, 136, 165 

Brewer's, 27, 130, 164, 165 

Cassin's, 196 

Chipping, 28, 147, 164 

Clay-colored, 164, 165 

English, 8, 20, 187 

Field, 196 

Fox, 22, 158 

Golden-crowned, 162 

Grasshopper, 163 

Harris, 160 

House, 187 

Idaho White -crowned, 200 

Lark, 165 

Le Conte's, 163 

Lincoln's, 160 

Pale House, 200 

Rufous -crowned, 166 

Sage, 27, 139, 141, 166 

Savannah, 162, 165 

Song, 159, 164 

Swamp, 160 

Tree, 164 

Vesper, 27, 165 

White-crowned, 127, 160, 161, 162, 164 

White-throated, 161 
sparverius, Falco, 68 

Falco sparverius, 68 
Sphyrapicus 

thyroideus nataliae, 120 

varius nuchalis, 120 
spinoletta, Anthus, 133 
Spiza americana, 1G8 
Spizella 

arborea ochracea, 164 

atrogularis evura, 164 

breweri breweri, 164 

pallida, 164 

passerina arizonae, 164 

pusilla, 196 
sponsa, Aix, 53 
Spoonbill, Roseate, 46 
spragueii, Anthus, 195 
squatarola, Pluvialis, 80 
Starling, 27, 187, 188 
Stelgidopteryx 

ruficollis, 132 

psammochroa, 132 
serripennis, 132 
stellata, Gavia, 31 
stelleri, Cyanocitta, 188 

Cyanura, 188 
Stellula calliope, 117 
Stercorariidae, 99 



1976 



BIRDS OF UTAH 



227 



Stercorarius 

longicaudus, 99 

parasiticus, 99 
stereus, Agalaius phoeniceus, 200 
Sterna 

caspia, 104 

forsteri, 102 

hinindo, 103 
Stilt, Black -necked, 23, 26, 67, 70, 98 
Stork, Wood, 45 
strepera. Anas, 51 
striata, Dendroica, 175 
striatulus, Accipiter gentilis, 61 
striatus, Accipiter, 61 

Butorides, 41 
stricklandi, Loxia curvirostra, 187 
strigatus, Chondestes grammacus, 165 
Strigidae, 108 
Strix 

nebulosa nebulosa, 111 

occidentalis lucida. 111 
Sturnella neglecta, 182 
Sturnidae, 187 
Sturnus vulgaris vulgaris, 187 
subis, Progne, 131 
suckleyi, Falco columbarius, 68 
surinamensis, Chlidonias niger, 104 
swainsoni, Buteo, 63 

Catharus ustulatus, 145 
swainsonii, Vireo gilvus, 180 
Swallows, Bank, 132 

Barn, 132 

Cliff, 6, 97, 133 

Rough -winged, 132 

Tree, 28, 94, 131 

Violet-green, 28, 131 
Swan, Trumpeter, 47 

Whistling, 46, 47 
swarthi, Zonotrichia iliaca, 159 
Swift, Black, 114 

Chimney, 114 

Vaux's, 114 

White -throated, 115 
Sylviidae, 150 
Synthliboramphus antiquus, 104 

tabida, Grus canadensis, 75 

tachina, Petrochelidon pyrrhonota, 133 

Tachycineta 

bicolor, 131 

thalassina lepida, 131 
Tanager, Hepatic, 196 

Rocky Mountain Western, 200 

Scarlet, 196 

Summer, 170 

Western, 28, 170 
Tatder, Wandering, 193 
taverneri, Branta canadensis, 47 



Teal, American Green-winged, 51, 52 

Blue-winged, 52 

Cinnamon, 26, 52 
tenuissima, Sitta carolinensis, 157 
tephrocotis, Leucosticte arctoa, 185 
Tern, Black, 23, 26, 76, 104 

Caspian, 104 

Common, 103 

Forster's, 23, 26, 102, 103 
teter, Cathartes aura, 60 
Tetraonidae, 69 

texensis, Chordeiles acutipennis, 114 
thalassina, Tachycineta, 131 
Thrasher 

Bendire's, 141 

Brown, 140 

Crissal, 27, 142, 143 

Le Conte's, 27, 141 

Sage, 27, 140 
Threskiornithidae, 45 
Thrush, Grey-cheeked, 195 

Hermit, 28, 112, 145 

Swainson's, 145 

Varied, 144 
Willow, 144 

Wood, 145 
Thryomanes bewickii eremophilus, 138 
thula, Egretta, 44 

Leucophoyx, 199 
thyroideus, Sphyrapicus, 120 
Titmouse, Plain, 9, 10, 27, 153 
tolmiei, Geothlypis, 177 

Geothlypis tolmiei, 177 
Totanus, 81 
Towhee, Abert's, 27, 168 

Green -tailed, 28, 167 

Rufous-sided, 10, 28, 167 
townsendi, Dendroica, 174 

Myadestes, 144 

Myadestes townsendi, 144 
Toxostoma 

bendirei, 141 
bendirei, 141 

dorsale coloradense, 142 

lecontei, 141 
lecontei, 141 

rufum longicauda, 140 
traillii, Empidonax, 125 
treganzai, Ardea herodias, 40, 41 
trichas, Geothlypis, 176 
tricolor, Hydranassa, 191 

Phalaropus, 78 

Setophaga ruticilla, 175 
tridactyla, Rissa, 102 

Rissa tridactyla, 102 
tridactylus, Picoides, 122 
Tringa, 81 



228 



GREAT BASIN NATURALIST MEMOIRS 



No. 1 



Tringa 

flavipes, 89 

macularia, 81 

melanoleuca, 87 

solitaria, 82 

cinnamomea, 85, 87 
solitaria, 84, 85, 87 
tristis, Carduelis, 184 
Trochilidae, 116 
Troglodytes 

aedon parkmanii, 139 

troglodytes, 10, 138 
pacificus, 139 
troglodytes, Troglodytes, 10, 138 
Troglodytidae, 137 
tuftsi, Asio otus. 111 
tundrius, Falco peregrinus, 67 
Turdus migratorius propinquus, 146 
Turkey, 74 
Turnstone, Ruddy, 80 
Tyrannidae, 122 
Tyrannus 

tyrannus, 122 

verticalis, 123 

vociferans, 123 
tyrannus, Tyrannus, 122 
tyrannulus, Myiarchus, 123 
Tympanuchus phasianellus columbianus, 69 
Tyto alba, 108 
Tytonidae, 108 



uintaensis, Sitta carolinensis, 157 
ultramarina, Aphelocoma, 199 
umbellus, Bonasa, 69 
unicinctus, Parabuteo, 192 
unicolor, Cinclus mexicanus, 136 
urophasianus, Centrocercus, 71 
urophasianus, Centrocercus urophasianus, 71 
ustulatus, Catharus, 145 
utahensis, Agelaius phoeniceus, 182 

Eremophila alpestris, 129 
utahicola, Geothlypis trichas, 177 



valisineria, Aythya, 54 

varia, Mniotilta, 171 

varius, Sphyrapicus, 120 

vauxi, Chaetura, 114 
Chaetura vauxi, 114 

Veery, 22, 144 

veliei, Contopus sordidulus, 128 

velox, Accipiter striatus, 61 

Verdin, 153 

Vermivora 
celata, 171 

celata, 171, 172 
lutescens, 171, 172 
orestera, 171, 172 



luciae, 172 

peregrina, 197 

nificapilla ridgwayi, 172 

virginiae, 172 
verticalis, Tyrannus, 123 
vespertinus, Coccothraustes, 187 
vicinior, Vireo, 179 
villosus, Picoides, 121 
virens, Dendroica, 198 

Icteria, 178 
Vireo, Bell's, 178 

Gray, 179 

Jackson's Solitary, 200 

Philadelphia, 199 

Red-eyed, 179 

Solitary, 28, 150, 179 

Warbling, 151, 180 

White-eyed, 178 

Wyoming Warbling, 200 

Yellow -throated, 198 
Vireo 

bellii arizonae, 178 
pusillus, 178 

flavifrons, 198 

gilvus, 180 

leucopolius, 180 
swainsonii, 180 

griseus noveboracensis, 178 

olivaceus olivaceus, 179 

philadelphicus, 199 

solitarius, 179 
cassinii, 179 
plumbeus, 179 

vicinior, 179 
Vireonidae, 178 
virescens, Butorides, 41 

Butorides virescens, 41 
virginiae, Vermivora, 172 
virginianus. Bubo, 109 

Colinus, 71 
virginis, Melospiza melodia, 159 
vociferans, Tyrannus, 123 
vociferus, Caprimulgus, 194 

Charadrius, 79 
vociferus, 79 
vulgaris, Sturnis, 187 

Sturnis vulgaris, 187 
Vultur californianus, 60 
Vulture, Red-headed, 60 

Turkey, 60 



Warbler, Arizona Yellow, 200 
Audubon's, 175 
Bay -breasted, 175 
Black-and-white, 171 
Blackburnian, 198 
Blackpoll, 175 
Black -throated blue, 173 



1976 



BIRDS OF UTAH 



229 



Black-throated gray, 27, 174 

Black -throated green, 198 

Canada, 178 

Connecticut, 177 

Grace's, 173, 174 

Hermit, 174 

Lucy's, 172 

MacGillivray's, 177 

Magnolia, 174 

Nashville, 172 

Northern Parula, 197 

Orange-crowned, 28, 171 

Palm, 198 

Tennessee, 197 

Townsend's, 174 

Virginia's, 28, 172 

Wilson's, 177 

Yellow, 27, 148, 173 

Yellow -rumped, 28, 149, 175 

Yellow-throated, 198 
wasatchensis, Parus gambeli, 153 
Waterthrush, Northern, 176 
Waxwing, Bohemian, 17, 27, 135 

Cedar, 27, 135 
Whimbrel, 81 
Whip-poor-will, 194 
Whistling-Duck, Fulvous, 50 
Wigeon, American, 53 

European, 53 
Willet, 26, 90 
Wilsonia 

canadensis, 178 

pusilla, 177 
pileolata, 178 
pusilla, 178 
woodhouseii, Aphelocoma coerulescens, 
Woodpecker, Acorn, 195 

Downy, 28, 121 

Hairy, 28, 121 

Ladder-backed, 122 

Lewis', 120 

Northern Three-toed, 28, 122 

Pileated, 119 

Red-headed, 119 
Wren, Bewick's, 138 

Cactus, 137 

Canyon, 137 

House, 28, 106, 109, 139 



189 



Long-billed Marsh, 22, 26, 138, 142 
Rocic, 28, 103, 137 
Winter, 10, 138 
wrightii, Empidonax, 126, 127 



Xanthocephalus xanthocephalus, 181 
xanthocephalus, Xanthocephalus, 181 
Xema sabini sabini, 102 



Yellowlegs, Greater, 87, 90 

Lesser, 89 
Yellowthroat, Common, 26, 176 
yukonensis, Sayornis saya, 125 



zastereus, Agelaius phoeniceus, 200 
Zenaida 

asiatica mearnsi, 105 
macroura marginella, 105 
zephyrica, Piranga ludoviciana, 200 
Zonotrichia 

albicollis, 161 
atricapilla, 162 
georgiana ericrypta, 160 
iliaca, 158 

schistacea, 159 

swarthi, 159 
leucophrys, 161 

aphaea, 200 

gambelii, 161 

leucophrys, 161 

oriantha, 161 
lincolnii, 160 

alticola, 160 

lincolnii, 160 
melodia, 159 

fallax, 159 

fisherella, 159 

guttata, 159 

juddi, 159 

merrilli, 159 

montana, 159 
querula, 160 
Zoothera 

naevia, 144 
meruloides, 144 

naevia, 144 



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