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Great Chriftian Do&nnQ 

O F 



Evidences of its Truth produced, 

AND >:. 

Arguments to the contrary anfwered. 

Containing, in particular, 

A REPLY to the Objeftlons and Arguings of 
Dn John Taylor, in his Book, Intided, 
" The Scripture-Dodtrine of Orighml Sin pro-' 
" pofed to free and candid Examination, &c." 

By the late Reverend and Learned 


Prefident of the College of New-Jerfey. 
— ^ 111 i^^^— , 

Matth. ix. 12. They thai be<wholf, need not a Phyjician\ but 

they that are Jfck, •* 
— Et haec non tantuip ad Pcccatores referenda eft ; quia in 
omnibus Maledidtionibus primi Hominis, omnes ejus Gene- 
rationes conveniunt.*- ' R. Sal. Jarchj. 

Propter Concupifcentiam, innatam Cordi humane, dicitur. 
In Iniquitate genitus fum ; atque Senfus eft, quod a Nati- 
vitate implantatum fit Cordi humano Jetzer harang, Fig- 
jnentum malum.— Absn-Ezra* 

—Ad Mores Natura rtfcurrit 
Damnatos, fixa & mutari nefcia.— • 

— Dociles imitandis 
Turpibus & pravis omnes fumus. — Juv. 

BOSTON Printed, LONDON Re-printed, 
For J. Johnson and Co. at the Giohe^ in Pat^tnoftir-Ro^iu % 
and G. Keith, in Gracecburch-'Stnet* ' 


. ^ r 
I • I ' ^ 

, J 



/gi'on. i.'"^' 

TILDiN FG.: . : ^ I 

B K'40 L } 


I* . 

t Hi i 

■ < ii^ 

A brief Account of the Book and \W 


THE Reverend Author of the following 
Piece was removed by Death, before its 
Ptiblication, But, ere his Deceafe, the 
Copy was finiflied and brought to the Prefs, and 
a Number of Sheets paffcd his own Review. 

They that were acquainted with the Author, or 
kno^y his juft Charafter, and have any Tafte for 
the ferious Theme, will want Nothing to be faid 
in Recommendation of the enfuing Tra6t, but only 
that Mr. Edwards wrote it. 

Several valuable Pieces on this Subjedl have 
lately been pubHfhed, upon the fame Side of the 
Qucftion. But he had no Notice of fo nAich as 
the very firft of them^ till he had wholly concluded 
what he had in View : nor has it been thought, 
any Thing already printed fhould fuperfede this 
Work of his ; being defigned on a more extenfive 
Plan; comprifing a Variety of Arguments, and 
Anfwers jo many Objeftions, that fell not in the 
Way of the other worthy Writers -, and the Whole 
done with a Care of familiar Method and Lan- 
guage, as well as clear Reafoning, in general ac- 
commodated very much to common Capacities. ^. 

It muft be a fenfible Plcafure to every Friend of | 
Truth, that fo mafterly a Hand undertook a. ]Reply 
to Dr. Taylor; notwithftanding. ..tJbc. various 

a 2 • /": Anfwers 

iv A Brief Account af the Author, 

Anfwers already given him, both at home and 

. As it has been thought unfit, this Pofthumous 
TSook fhould go unattended with a refpeftful Me- 
morial of the Author, it is hoped, the Reader will 
candidly accept 'the following Minutes of his Life 
and Charafter. 

Mr. Edwards was the only Son of the late 
Reverend Mr. Timothy Edwards, long a faith- 
ful Paftor of a Church in fVinfor^ in Connefticut •, 
who (together with his Wife, our Author's pious 
Mother) was living, in a very advanced Age, till 
a little before the Death of this his excellent Son, 
who had for many Years been his Parents Joy 
and Crown, 

He had his Education in Yale-College.— . 
At the Age of about Eighteen, commenced Bat- 
chelor of Arts, Anno 1720. — Afterwards refided 
at College for fome Time, purfuing his Studies 
with a laudable Diligence. — Took the Degree of 
Mafter, at the ufual Time : and for a while ferved 
the College in the Station of a Tutor, 

He foon entered into the Miniftry, and wais fet- 
tled at Northslmpton, . in Maflachufetts, as Col- 
league with his aged Grandfather, the Reverend 
and famous Mr. Solomon Stoddard; with whom, 
indeed, as a Son with the Father ^ he ferved in the 
Cofpel^ till Death divided them. — There he con- 
tinued his Labours for many Years, in high Efteem 
. at homei as well as abroad; till uncomfortable De- 
bates arifing about a Right to Sacraments, and after 
his beft Attempts finding no rational jProfpeft of any 
fafe aftdTpeqdy IfTue or them^ he at length amica- 
• v^ bly 

%is Life and CharaSler. ^ 

bly refigrted his Paftoral Relation, and had an 
honourable Quietus, Anno 1750. 

Soon after this, there being a Vacancy in the 
Miflion at Stockbridge, by the Death of the. 
Reverend and learned Mr. John Sergeant, the 
Board of Commiflioners at Bofton, who aft under 
the Society in London, for propagating the Golpel 
among the Indians in and about New-England, 
turned their Eyes to Mr. Edwards, for a Supply 
of that Miflion. And upon their unanimous Invi- 
tation, in Concurrence with the Call of the Church 
(confifting of Indians and Englifh) at Stockbridge, 
he removed thither, and was, regularly re-inftate4 
in the Paftoral Office. 

He continued his Miniftry there, until on Oc- 
cation of the Death of his worthy Son-in-law, the 
Reverend and Learned Mr. Aaron Burr, who 
had fucceeded the Reverend and Learned Mr, 
Jonathan Dickinson, in the Station of Prefi- 
dent of the College of New-Jersey, he wa.s by 
the Honourable and Reverend Trustees of that 
Society cholen to be his Succeflbr. The Com- 
miflioners at Bofton having received a Motion fron> 
them for his Tranflation, did in Deference* to the 
Judgment of fo refpedable a Bocfy^. as well as from 
an Efteem for Mr. Edwards, and a View to his 
more extenfive Ufefulnefs, generoufly confent to 
his Removal : and the venerable Council, to whom 
. he finally referred himfelf for Advice on this im- 
portant Occafion, giving their unanimous Opinion 
for the Clearnefs of his Call to the Prefident's 
Place, he at Length (though with much Reluft^icc 
and Self-difiidence) relinquiflied his Paftoral Charge 
gnd MLoifteri^l Miflion at Stockbridge, and re*? 

a 3 . . pa.ovQd/ ;/. ■•% 

•/ ' '*■ 


vT A Brief Account of the AutnoR, 

moved to Prince-Town in New-Jerfcy, where 
Nassau-Hall ftands, lately eredled. 

But that fatal Diftemper, the Small-pox, which 
has in former Days been fo much the Scourge and 
Terror of America, breaking out, in or near the 
College, about that Time, and Inoculation being 
favoured with great Succefs, Mr. Edwards, upon 
mature Thought and Confultation, judged it ad- 
vifable to go into this Method. Accordingly he 
was inoculated on the 23d of February 1758. 
And though his Difeafe was comparatively light, 
the Pock of a milder Sort, and few, yet fuct-a 
Number happened to be feated in his Throat and 
Mouth, as prevented his receiving the neceflary 
cooling and diluting Draughts •, and fo, upon the 
Turn of the Pock, a fecondary Fever came on, 
which prevailed to the putting an End (on MarcK 
2 2d) to the important Life of this good and great 
Man. — As he Hved chearfuUy refigned in all 
Things to the Will of Heaveti, fo he died, or ra- 
ther, as the Scripture emphatically exprefles it, in 
relation to the Saint in Chrift Jefus, he fell cifleep^ 
without the leaft Appearance of Pain, and with 
great Calm of Mind. Indeed, when he firft per- 
ceived the Symptoms upon him to be mortal, he is 
faid to have been a little perplexed for a while, 
about the Meaning of this myfterious Conduft of 
Providence, in calling him out from his beloved 
Privacy, to apublick Scene of Aftion and Influence y 
and then fo fuddenly, juft upon his Entrance into 
it, tranflating him from thence, in fuch a Way, by 
Mortality ! However, he quickly got believing and 
compofing View3 ,of the Wifdom and Goodnefs of 
God in this furpnfing Event : and readily yielded 
to the fovereign Difpbfal of Heaven, with the mod 
' placid Submiflipn. A^iidft the Joy of Faith, he 


■ I** ■ » I 

his Life and CbaraSier. vii 

departed this World, to go and fee Jesus, whom 
his Soul loved ; to be with him, to behold his 
Glory, and rejoyce in his Kingdom above. 

Though, by the preceding Account of Mr. 
Edwards, the Reader may form a general Idea 
of his Charafter ; yet doubtlefs a more particular 
Defcription will be expefted. 

In Perfon, he was tall of Stature, and of a flender 
Make. — There was fomething extremely delicate in 
his Conftitution ; which always obliged him to the 
exadeft Obfervation of the Rules of Temperance, 
and every Method of cautious and prudent living. 
He experienced very (ignally the Benefit hereof^ 
as by fuch Means he was helped to go through in» 
cejflant Labours, and to bear up under much 
Study, which, Solomon obferves, is a Wearinefs to 
the Flelh. — Perhaps, never was a Man more con- 
ftantly retired from the World ; giving himfelf to 
Reading, and Contemplation, And a Wonder it 
was, that his feeble Frame could fubfift under fuch ' 
Fatigues, daily repeated and fo long continued. 
Yet upon Occafion of fome Remark upon it by a 
Friend, which was only a few Months before his 
Death, he told him, " He did not find but he was 
fhen as well able to bear the clofeft Study, as he 
was 30 Years before ; and could go through the 
Exercifes of the Pulpit with as little Wearinels or" 
Difficulty/- In hi§ Youth, he appeared healthy, 
and with a good Pegree of Vivacity ; but was never 
robuft, In middle Life, he appeared very much 
emaciated (I had almoft faid, mortified) by fevere 
Studies, and intenfe Applications of Thought. 
Hence his Voice was a little languid, ?ind too low 
for a Urge Affembly •, though much relieved and 
ji^vantaged by a proper Emphafis, juft Cadence^ 

viii A Brief Account cf the Author, 

well-placed Paufes, and great Diftinftnefe in Pro- 
nunciation. He had a piercing Eye, the trueil 
Index of the Mind. His Afpedt and Mein had a 
Mixture of Severity and Plealancy. He had a na- 
tural Turn for Gravity and Sedatenefs ; ever con- 
templative ; and in Converfation ufually referved, 
but always obfervant of a genuine Decorum, in his 
Deportment -, free from fullen, fupercilious and 
contemptuous Airs, and without any Appearance 
of Oftentation, Levity, or Vanity. As to Imagi- 
nation, he had enough of it for a great and good 
Man : but the Gaieties of a luxuriant Fancy, fo' 
captivating to many, were what he neither affefted 
himfelf, nor was much delighted with in others.- 
He had a natural Ste^dinels of Temper, and For- 
titude . of* Mind •, which, being fandlificd by the 
Spirit of God, was ever of vaft Advantage to him, 
to carry him through difficult Services, and fupport 
him under trying Affliftions, in the Courfe of his 
Life. Perfonal Injuries he bpre with a becoming 
Meeknefs and Patience, and a Difpofition to For- 
^ivenefs. The Humility, Modefty, and Serenity 
of his Behaviour, much endeared him to his Act 
Guaintance.]^ and made him appear amiable in the 
Eyes of fuch as had the Privilege of converfing 
with him. He was a true and faithful Friend; 
and fliew^d much of a difinterefted Benevolence to 
bis Neighbour. The feveral Relations fuftained 
by him, he adorned with an exemplary Conduft ; 
and was felicitous to fill every Station with its pro- 
per Duty. He. kept up an extenfive Correfpond- 
cnce, with Minifters and others, in various Parts ; 
and his Letters always contained fomq fignificant 
and valuable Communications, Jn his private 
Walk, as a Chriflian, he appeared an Example of 
truly rational, confiitent, uniform Religion and Vir^ 
tue : a fhining Inftance of the Power and Efficacy 


his Life and Chamber. bt 

of that holy Faith, which he was fo firmly attached 
to, and fo ftrenuous a Defender of. He exhibited 
much of Spirituality, and a heavenly Bent of SouL 
In him one faw the lovelieft Appearance, — a rare 
Aflcmblagc of Chriftian Graces, united with the 
richeft Gifts, and mutually fubfcrving and recom- 
mending one another* 

As a Scholar, his intelleftual Furniture exceeded 
what is common, confidering the Difadvantages wq 
labour under in this remote Corner of the Worlds 
He very early difcovered a Genius, above the ordi- 
nary Size : which gradually ripened and expanded, 
by daily Exertment and Application. He was re- 
markable for the Penetration and Extent of his 
Underftanding, for his Powers of Criticifm and ac- 
curate Diftinftion, Quicknefs of Thought, Solidity 
of Judgment, and Force of Reafoning ; which 
made him an acute and ftrong Difputant. By Na- 
ture he was formed for a Logician, and a Meta^ 
phyfician; but by Speculation, Obfervation, arid 
Converfe, greatly improved. He had a good In- 
fight into the whole Circle of liberal Arts and 
Sciences -, poflefled a very valuable Stock of Claf- 
fick Learning, Philofophy, Mathematick^, Hiftdry, 
Chronology, &c. By the Bleffing of God' on his 
indefatigable Studioufnefs^ to the laft, he was con- 
ftantly treafuring up ufeful Knowledge, both hu- 
man and divine. 

'Thus he appears uncommonly accomplifhed for' 
the arduous and momentous Province, to which he 
was finally called. And had Heaven indulged us. 
with the Continuance of his precious Life, we liave 
Reafon to think, he would have graced his new 
Station, and been a fignal Bleffing to the College, 


« A Brief Account of the AtrxHOR, 

and therein cxtenfivcly ferved his Generation, ac- 
cording to the Will of God. 

After all, it muft be owned, Divinity was his Fa* 
vourite Study j and the Miniftry, his moft delight- 
ful Employment. Among the Luminaries of the 
Church, in thefe American Regions, he was juftly 
reputed a Star of the firft Magnitude : Thoroughly 
terfed in all the Branches of Theology, didaftic, 
polemic, cafuiftic, experimental, and practical : In 
roint of divine Knowledge and Skill, had few 
Equals, and perhaps no Superiour, at lead in thefe 
foreign Parts. On the matured Examination of 
the different Schemes of Principles, obtaining in 
the World, and on comparing them with the facred 
Scriptures, the Oracles of God and the great Stan- 
dard of Truth, Jie was a Proteftant and a Calvinift 
in Judgment j adhering to the main Articles of the 
Reformed Religion with an unlhaken Firmnefs, 
and with a fervent Zeal, but tempered with Cha- 
rity and Candour, and governed by Difcretion. 
He feemed as little as moft Men under the Bias of 
Education, or the Poffeflion of Bigotry. As to 
pra6lical and vital Chriftianity, no Man appeared to 
have a better Acquaintance with its Nature and 
Importance •, or to underftand true Religion, and 
feel its Power, more than he : which made him an 
excellently fit Guide to inquiring Souls, and qua- 
lified him to guard them .againft all falfe Religion. 
His internal Senfe of the Intercourfe between God 
and Souls, being brought by him to the feverc 
Teft of Reafon and Revelation, preferved him, both 
in Sentiment and Condud, from the leaft Tinfture 
of Enthufiafm. The accomplifhed Diyine enters 
deep into his Charade^ 

' A3 

his Life and CharaUtr^ . ' . id. 

' As a Preacher, he was judiciou$> folid, and ia«. 
ftruftive. Seldom was he known to bring Con-? 
troverfy into the Pulpit ; pr to handle any Subjeft 
in the nicer Modes and Forms of fcholaftic Difler- 
tation. His Sermons, in general, fe^nKd exceed- 
ingly to vary from his controverfial Compofitions. 
In his Preaching, ufually all was plain, familiar, 
jfententious, praftical ; and v^ry diftant from any 
Affeftation of appearing the great Man, or dilplay-; 
jng his extraordinary Abilities as a Scholar. Bi;t 
ftill he ever preferved the Charadler of a Ikilfwl 
and thorough Divine. The common Themes of 
his Miniftry were the cioft weighty and profitable 5 
and in Ipecial, the great Truths of the Gofpel of 
Chrift, on which he himfelf lived by Faith. His 
Method in preaching was, firft to apply to the Un- 
jdcrftanding and Judgment, labouring to enlighten 
and convince them ; and then to perfuade the Will^ 
engage the Affeftions, and excite the a<5tive Powers 
of the Soul. His Language was with Propriety 
and Purity, but with a noble Negligence ; nothing 
ornamented. Florid Diftion was not the Beauty 
he preferred. His Talents were of a fuperiour 
Kindi. He regarded Thoughts, rather than Words. 
Precifion of Sentiment and Clearnefs of Expreflion 
are the principal Charafterifticks of his Pulpit-Stile. 
Neither quick nor flow of Speech, there was a cer- 
tain Pathos in his Utterance, and fuch Skill of 
Addrefs, as feldom failed to draw the Attention^ 
warm the Hearts, and IFiniulate the Confciences 
of the Auditory. He fludied to fliew himfelf ap- 
proved unto God, a Workman that needed not to 
be afhamed, rightly dividing the Word of Truth. 
And he was one that gave himfelf to Prayer, a$ 
well as to the Miniftry of the Word. Agreeably^ 
it pleafed God to put great Honour upon him, by 
crowning his Laboiirs with furprifing Succeffes, 
'. . in 

xii^ A Brief 'Account ef the Author, 

in the Converfion of Sinners, and the Edification of 
Saints, to the Advancement of the Kingdom and 
Glory of God our Saviour Jefus Chrift. 

Mr. Edwards diftinguiflied himfclf as a Writer, 
clpecially in Controverfy, which he was called to on 
a Variety of Occafions. Here the Superiority Af 
his Genius eminently appeared. He knew to ar- 
range his Ideas in an exadt Method: and clofe 
Application of Mind, with the uncommon Strength 
df his intelleftual PoWers, enabled him in a Man- 
ner to exhauft every Subjeft he took under Con- 
fideration. He diligently employed the latter 
Part of his Life in defending Chriftianity, both in 
*ix% doftrinal and praftical Views, againft the Errors 
of the Times. Befides his excellent Writings in 
Behalf of the Power of Godlinefs, which fome 
Years ago happily prevailed in many Parts of the 
Britifh America ; he alfo made a noble Stand againft 
Enthufiafm and falfe Religion, when it threatened 
to Ipread, by his incomparable Treatife upon reli- 
gious AfFeftions. And more lately in Oppofition 
to Pelagian, Arminian, and other falfe Principles, 
he publifhed a very elaborate Treatife upon the 
Liberty of the human Will. A Volume, that has 
procured him the Elogy of eminent Divines abroad. 
Several Profeflbrs of Divinity in the Dutch Univer- 
fitics very lately fent him their Thanks,- for the . 
Afflftance he had given them in their Inquiry into 
fome controverted Points \ haying carried his own 
further than any Author they had ever feen. And 
now this Volume of his, on the great Chriftian Doc- 
trine of Original Sin, is prefented to publick View. 
Which, though ftudioufly adapted to lower Capa- 
cities, yet carries in it the evident Traces of his 
great Genius, and feems with fuperiour Force of 
Argument to have entirely baffled the Opponent. 



his Life^ and Chcrafler. xiii 

Befides numerous other fair Manufcripts, he has 
a Volume on the Nature of Virtue ; which 
he defigned fhould follow the prefent one into the 
publick Light. It is hoped, that we fhall yet fee 
it ; and that they who have the Care of his Papers, 
will confult the common Benefit, by publifhing 
more of the valuable Remains of this great Man : 
by which, he being dead, may ftill (peak, for the 
Inftrudion of Survivors *. 

His Writings will- perpetuate his Memory, and 
make his Name bloflbm in the Duft. And the 
Bleffing of Heaven attending the Perufal of them, 
will make them effeftually conducive to the Glory 
of God,* and the Good of Souls ; which will 
brighten the Author's Crown, and add to his Joy, 
in the Day of future Retribution. 


* It is imagined that the aboYe-mentioned Piece, with other 
of his Works, were printed the laft Year at Bojion^ though not 
yet received. 

C xlr ) 


Author's PREFACE. 

THE following Difcourfe is intended, not 
merely as an Anfwer tq any particular Book 
written againft the Doftrine of Original SiUj 
but as a general Defence of that great important 
Doftrine. Neverthelefs, I have in this Defence 
taken Notice of the main Things fidd againft this 
Dodrine, by fuch of the more noted Oppofcrs of it^ 
Ifcs I have had Opportunity to read; particularly 
thofe two late Writers, Dr. Turnbull, and Dr. 
*rAyLOR oi Norwich 'y but efpecially the latter, in 
what he has publiflied in thofe two Books of his, 
the firft intitled, T'he Scripture-Do5lrine of Origitihl 
Sin propofed to free and candid Examination ; The 
other, his Key to the Apoftolic fVritings^ with a Pa- 
rapbrafe and Notds on the Epiftle to the Romans. 
-I have clofely attended to Dr^ Taylor's Piece oft 
Original Sin^ in all its Parts, and have endeavoured 
■ that no one Thing there faid, of any Confequence 
in this Controverfy, fhould pafs unnoticed, or that 
any Thing which has the Appearance of an Argu- 
ment, in Oppofition to. this Doftrine, (hould be left 
tinanfwered. I look oa the Doftrine as of great 
importance ; which every Body will doubtlefs own 
it is, if it be true. For, if the Cafe be fuch* in- 
deed, that all Mankind are by Nature in a State of 
total Ruin^ both with refpeft to the moral Evil they 
are the Subjefts of, and the affliSiive Evil they are 
cxpofed to, the one as the Confequence and Punifh- 
ment of the other, then doubtlefs the great Salva- 

, e .. 

^be Author's Pnface^ jtv 

Swn by Christ ilands in direft Relation to this 
Ruin J as the Remedy to the Difeafe ; and the whole 
Go/pel^ or Doftrine . of Salvation, muft fuppofe it ^ 
and all real Belief, or true Notion of that Gofpcl^ 
muft be built upon it.. Therefore, as I thkik the 
DoArine is moft certainly both true and important 
I hope, my attempting a Vin,^ication of it, will be 
candidly interpreted ^ and that what I have done 
towards its Defence, will be impartially confidcred, 
by all that will give themfelves the Trouble to read 
the enfuing Difcourfe: in which it is defigned 
to examine every Thing material throughout the 
Dodor's whole Book, and many Things in that 
other Book of Dr. T — r*s, containing his Key and 
Expofition on Romans -, as alfo many Things writ- 
ten in Oppofition to this Doftrine by fome other 
tnodern Authors. And moreover, my Difcourfc 
being not only intended for an Anfwer to Dr. 
Taylor, and other Oppofers of the Dodtrme irf 
Original Sin, but (as was obferved above) for a 
general Defence of that Dodlrine ; producing the 
Evidence of the Truth of the Dodrine, as well as 
anfwering ObjeSlions made againft it : — confidering 
thefe Things, I fay, I hope this Attempt of mine 
will not be thought needlefs, nor be altogedier 
ufelefs, notwithftanding other Publications on this 

I would alfo hope, that the Extenft'uenefs of the 
Plan of the following Treatife will excufc the 
Length of it And that when it is confidered, how 
much was abfolutely requifite to the full executing 
erf" a Defign formed on fuch a Plan ; how much 
has been written againft die Doftrine of Original 
Sin, and with what Plaufibility ; and how ftroflg 
the Prejudices of many are in Favour of what it 
, laid in Oppofttion to this Doftrine \ and thatit can- 

xvi ^he AuTHOR^s Preface. 

not be expcftcd, any Thing fliort oizfull Confide- 
ration of almoft every Argument advanced by the 
main Oppofcrs, cfpecially by this late and fpecious 
Writer, Dr. Taylor, will fatisfy many Readers; 
and alfp, how much muft unavoidably be faid in 
order to a full handling of the Arguments in De- 
fence of the Doftrine -, and how important the Doc- 
triric muft be, if true ; I fay, when fuch Circum- 
ftances as thefe are confidered, I truft, the Length 
of the following DUcourfe will not be thought to 
exceed what the Cafe really required. However, 
this muft be left to the Judgment of the intelligent 
and candid Reader. 

StQckbridgi^ Msty 26, 17S7' 

The Editor has taken the Liberty of ftriking out 
a. few Things from the Preface and the Account 
of the Author, the better to adapt them to the 
European Reader j and has altered all the Re- 
ferences, fo as to fuit them to the laft London 
Editions of Dr. 7*— r's Books j whereas Mr. Ed- 
wards made ufe of the Irifh. 


When the Page is referred to in this Manner p. 40. p. 5; a. 
without mentioning the Book, thereby is to be underilood fuch 
a Page in Dr. Taylor's Scripure'DoSrine of Original Sin, 
S. intends the Supplement. When the AVord, Key, is ufed to 
iignify the Book referred to, thereby is to be underftood Dr. 
^Taylors Key to the Apoflolic Writings, This Mark [§] with 
Figures or a Number annexed, fignifies fuch a Seftion or Para- 
graph in his Key, When after mentioning Preface to Far, on 
Epift> to Romans, there is fubjoiiied p. 145, 47. or the like, 
thereby is intended Page and Paragraph, page 145, Paragraph 
47. The Letter 7". alone, is ufed to iignify Dr. Taylor'* 
Name, and no other. 


l xvii 3 




WHEREIN arc confidered fomc Evidences of Ori- 
ginal Sin from Fa£fs and Events j as found by 
Obfervation and Experience : Together with Repre- 
fentations and Teftimonies of holv Scripture^ and thq 
Confeffion and Aflertions of Oppolers. 


The Evidence of Original Sin from what appears m 
Fafl: of the Sinfulnefs of Mankind. 

Sect. I. Jll Mankind do conftantly, in all Ages, with* 
out Fail in any one Inftancc, 7'un into that moral Evil^ 
which is in Eflfeft their own utter and eternal Perditiof^^ 
in a total Privation of God's Favour, and fufFering of 
his Vengeance and Wrath* Page i — iqg 

■ « 

Sect, II. It follows from the Proportion proved in the 
foregoing Sedlion, that all Mankind are under the In- 
fluence of a prevailing effk^ual 't'endency in their gNatute^ 
to that Sin and Wickednefs which implies their titter 
and eternal Rttin. p. 20-?r3i. 


xviii The G O N T E N T S. 

Sect. Ill- That Propenjit^^ which has been proved to be 
in the Nature of all Mankind, muft be a very <««/, de^ 
proved^ and pernicious Propenfity ; making it manifeft^ 
that the Soul of Man, as it is by Nature, is iii a c^r- 
rt^tj fallen^ and ruined State: Wnich is the otiicr Part 
of the Confequence, drawn from the Propofition' laid 
down in the firft Section. page 32— -40. 

SscT. IV. The Depravity of Nature appears by a Pro- 
penfity in all, to bxi immediately J as foon as they are ca- 
. pable of it, ax^d to fin continually and progrejfi^lf *^ and 
alfo by the Remains of Sin in the be/i of Men, p. 40— 46. 

Sect. V. The Depravity of Nature appears, in that the 
general Confequence of tne State and Tendency of Man's 
Nature is a much greater Degree of Sin, than Righteoufm 
nefs ; not only with Refpe£l to Value and Demerit, but 
like wife to Matter and Quantity. p. 47rr-59. 

.S£CT* VL Thp Corruption of Man's Nature appears by 
its Tendency, in its prefent State, to an extreme De- 
gree of Folly and Stupidity^ in Matters of Religion. 

P- 59—74- 

Sect. VII. That Man's Nature is corrupt, appears, in 
that vaftly the greater Part of Mankind, in sdl Ages^ 
have been wicked Men^ p. 75 — ^i. 

Shct, Vin. The native Depravity of Mankind appears, 
in that there Has been fo little good EffeSf of fo mani- 
fold and great Means ufed to promote Virtue in the 
World, P* 91 — 120. 

Sect. IX. Several Eva/ions of the Arguments for Depra- 
vity of Nature, from Trial arid Events, confidered. 

Evafan I. Adam^s Nature, and the Nature of the Artels 
that fell, was not finful, yet they Jinned -^ and all Man- 
kind may, without a fmful Nature, fin as well as they. 

p. 121 — 127. 


. Til? CONTENTS.. xh^ , 

kvaft^n II. Man's own Free-Will is a Caufc fufficunt to 
account for the general Wickednels of the WorWJ ' ' 

p. 128—136. 

Evafkn III. The Corruption of the World may be owing, 
not to a depraved Nature, but to had Example. 

p. 131—139. 

Evajion IV. The general Prevalence of Wickedniefs, mav, 
without fuppohnff a corrupt Nature, be accounted for 
by our Senfes being firji in Exercifc, and our animal 
Paffums getting the Start of Rcaf<Jn, p. 139 — 143. 

Evajion V. Men in this World are in a State of Trtal*, it 
is therefore fit, that their Ftrfi^e ftiould be tried by 
Oppofttion^ both from without and from within. 

p. 143—146. 


Vmverfal Mortality proves Original Sin ; particularly, the 
Death of Infants^ with its various Circumftances, 

p. 147 — 168. 


Containing Obfervations on particular Parts of the holy 
Scripture^ which prove the Dodtrine of Original Sin. 

p. 169. 


Obfervations relating to Things contained in the three 
firjl Chapters of GENESIS, with Reference to the 
.Do<9:rine of Original Sin. 

SfiCT. I. Concerning original Righfeouffjefs ; and whether 
bur firft Parents were created with Righteoufnefs or 
moral Reftitude of Heart. p. 169 — 189. 

Sect. II. Concerning the Kind of Death threatenedto our 
firft Parents, if they (hould eat of the forbidden Fruit. 

p. 189 — 200. 

b 2 Sect. 

. .J 

SkcT. m. Wherein it is^nqpired, wfaetber there be any 
•Thine in. the Hiftbrv of the three firft Chapters of 

^g.^£fi«^^,y^]^^ thstGod, in 

\\rhh Cqf^ftfta^ofl.^t^.^jQ^J/^ Jeijt with Afbmkind in 
' genfi-aij as tnclutkd in .^eir firft Father ; and that the 
. ^thrgattning of Death, in Cafe he fhould eat the for- 
bidden Fruit, bad Refpe^^ not only to him, but to his 
Pofterity ? page 200—225. 

\. \ CHAP, n- 

Qbfervationis on other Paris of the holy Scriptures^ cliiefl/ 
in the Old Teftamentj that prove Original Sin. 

p. 226 — 243. 


CHAP. ni. 

Qbfen^tions on various other Places of Scripture, prin- 

• cipally of the New Tejlanunt^ proving the Doctrine of 
Original Sin. 

Sect. I. Ohferyations on ^ohn iii. 6. in Conne£tion 

• ;wit|h fome other PafTages in the *New Teftament ; 
jfhewing all to be Flejh^ by natural Birth, p. 244 — 256. 

Sect. II. Obfervations on Rom, iii. 9 — 24. (hewing, 
f th^t i/tf/ in. their, jl&y? State are Wi{hd.: - p, 257-^170. 

'Sect. in. Obfervations on iJcz^. v. 6^-10. Eph. ii. 3. 
with the Context.; and Rfim. v\u confirming it, rthat 
All in their firji State are Wicked. . p. 270— 291. 

* • 

CHAP. IV. • 
Containing Obfervatiorii on ^m. v. 12, to the End. 

:S£CT. I. Remarks on Dr. jT— r's Way of explaining this 
; Paragraph. f>. 292— 332. 

Sect; II. Obfervations, fliewingthefrtt^jC^«;r^^flw, Scope^ 
. 4(nd Senfe of this remarkable Paragraph ; with fome 

• Re(le<Slions on the Evidence^ which we here have, of 
the Do^ne of Original Sin. p. 333 — 354. 


The 6 N T E N T'S, ksi 

PART nr.^ 

»e • «- •» - 

OU^rvhig the EvuUfiu pteti tis, v^tfdve €i the DoAh'iJjr 
r.#f Originai Sin^ in Irliat die Scif{>t«tttBs reveal eoa- 
. ceming the Rukmptim by Christ* ^ 355, 


The EvideAce 6f Original Sin from <ht Ndhtn of Sib* 
demption, in the Procwranent of it : Which is iiiper- 
fcdcd by Dr. 7*— r's Scheme, P* 3S$— 3^5* 

• ... - . , 


The Evidence of the Do6bi]ie of Originsil Sin from what 

the Scripture teaches concerning th^ Jpptiaxtis^ of Re- 

- 4emption« p. 366— jSi^ 


Containing Aftfwrtrs to OBJECTIONS, p. 382. 


Concerning thait Obje6lion, That to Qippofe Men to be 
BORN in Sifiy without their Choice, or any previooi 
ASt of their own, is to fuppofe what is incmfiftent with 
the Nature of SIN. And Reile£tions, fliewinjg the /w- 
^onftflerac of Dr. T*— r's Arguings from this Topic. 

p. 382 -388* 

CHAP. 11. 

Concerning that Objeftion againft the Dofirinc of native 
Corruption, That to fuppofe. Men receive their firft 
Exigence in Sin^ is to make Him who is the Author 
. of their Bfingy alfo the Attthar of their Depravity. 

p. 388—400. 



CHAP, ni, 

Tbat ptit OUc&ion agalnft the ImputatioH of Aian!% Siti 
to hi$ Poftenty. confidered, T!hat Juch Imputation is un- 
jtift and tmreaion^ble, in as muck as Adam and his Poftc- 
nty are not One and the fame : With a brief Reflection 
fiibjoinedy on what fome have fuppofed^ of God's im- 
puting the Guilt of Adam*s Sin to his Pofterity, but 
in an infinitely hfs Degree than to Adam himfelf. 

p. 400-- 434- 


Wherein feveral other ObjeSltons are confidered. Viz* 

That -at die Re/ieration of the World after the Flood, 
God iMTonouQced equivalent, or greater BUffmgs on 
'/Noah and-his Sons, than he did on Adam at his Crea- 
tion, p. 434— 439. 

That the Dodbine of Ori^nal Sin^ difparages the divine 
Goodttefs in giving us owx Beings and leaves us no Reafon 
to tbflnkGoiiiQt it^ as a Gift of hi^ Beneiieence. 

^ . ' ' P- 439—443- 

That at the Day of Judgment^ the Judge will deal with 

every Man yJ/s^/y' znA feparately^ rendering to every Man 

.according to his own Works, and his Improvement of 

ferfonal Talents, p. '443"*-446'. 

That the- Word Impute^ is never ufed in Scripture but 
with Refpeft to Men*s ovrnperfcMal AAs. p. 446-^449» 

That little Children are propofed as Patterns of Humility^ 
Meeknefs^ and Iftnocence. ' . p. 449, 450- 

Thar the: Dodlrine of Original Sin pours Contempt upon 
the human Nature. p. 450, 451. 

That it tends to beget in \ii ah ill Opinion of our Fellow- 
Creatures, and to promote lU-will and mutual Hatred* 

^ . P-4Si» 452. 

That it hinders oUr Comfort^ 'and promotes GlooYninefs of 

Mihdi p. 452, 453. 

That it tends te^ encourage Men in Sin^^ and leads to all 

Madtinejr of Iniquity. p. 453. 

That if this Dodrine be true, it muft be unlawful to beget . 

Children. p. 454, 455. 


The CONTENTS. xxiii 

Th^t it is ftran^e this DocSlrine fliould be jio <ffiner and 
not more plainly fpoken of in Scripture ; it t>eing, if 
true, a very imporumt l>9^ine, p. 4S5'^4S7« 

That Chri/i fays not one Word of this Dodlrine throughout 
thefntr Gojpeh. p. 457— 465* 


iCdhtaining fomc brief Obfervations on certain artful 
Methodsj ufed by Writers who are Adverfaries tm this 
Do^lrine^ ia order to prejudice their Readers againfl: 
lu p. 466, lt«t 




, » 







Wherein are confidered fome Evidences of 
Original Sin from FaSts arid Events, as 
found by Obfeivation and Experience, to- 
gether with Reprefentations and Teftimo- 
nies of 'holy Scripture, and the Confeffion 
and Affertions of Oppofers. , 

CHAP. i. 

'The Evidence o/" Original Sin Jrom nohat appears 

in Fa£l of the Sinfulnefi of Mankind. 

Se c t. I, 
All Mankind do cdnjlantly, in all Ages, without Fail 
in any one Injlance, run into that ;noral Evil^ 
•which is in EffeEt their own utter and eternal Per- 
dition^ in a total Privation of GOD^s Favour ^ and 
fuffering of bis Vengeance and IVratb. 

^^ 2Y Original $i»y as the Phrafe has been 
("glpS moft commonly uftd by Divines, is 
^ meant the innate finful Depravity of the 
I Heart. But yet when the DoHrine of 
Original Sift is fpoken of, it is vulgarly under- 
B flood 

i Of Virtue's fuppofed Prevalence. Part L 

ftood in that Latitude, as to include not only thcr 
jy^ravity of Nature^ but the Imputation of Adant% 
firil Sin •, or in other Words, the Liablenefs or 
Expofcdneft of Adan^% Pofterity, in the divine 
Judgrhcnt, to partake of the Punifhment of thatSin. 
So far as I know, moft of thofe who have held 
one of thefe, have maintained the other ; and 
moft of thofe who have oppofed one, have op- 
|)ofed the other : both are oppofed by the Author 
chiefly attended to in the following Difcourfe, in 
his Book againtt Original Sin : And it may per- 
haps appear in our future Confideration of the 
Subject, that they are clofely connefted, and that 
the Arguments which prove the one eftablifh the 
other, and that there are no more Difficulties at- 
tending the allowing of one than the other. 

I fhall, in the firft Place, confider this Dodlrine 
more efpecially with regard to the Corruption of - 
Nature y and as we treat of this, the other will 
naturally come into ConfKkration, in the Profecu- 
tion of the Difcourfe, as connefted with it. 

As all moral Qualities, all Principles either of 
Virtue or Vice, lie in the Difpofition of the Hearty 
I fhall confider whether we have any Evidence, 
that the Heart of Man is naturally of a corrupt 
and evil Difpofition. This is ftrenuoufly denied 
by many late Writers, who are Enemies to the 
Doftrine of Original Sin ; and particularly by Dr, 

The Way we come by the Idea of any fuch . 
Thing as Difpofition or Tendency, is by observing 
what is conftant or general in Event •, efpecially 
under a great Variety of Circumftances ; and above 
all, when the EfFedt or Event continues the fame 


Chap. i. 7 of Virttce^s fuppofed Prevalence. ^ 

through gre^t and various OppofitJon, much and 
manifold Force and Means ufcd to the contrajy: 
not prevailing to hinder the EfFeft. — I do not 
know, that fuch a Prevalence of Effefts is denied 
to be an Evidence of prevailing Tendency in 
Caufes and Agents ; or that it is exprefsly denied 
by the Qppofers of the Doftrlne of Original Sin^ 
that, if, in the Courfe of Events, it univerfally or 
generally proves that Mankind are aftually cor- . 
rupt, this would be an Evidence of a prior cor- 
rupt Propenfity in the World of Mankind j what- 
ever may be faid by fome, which, if taken with 
its plain Confequences, may fibem to imply a De- 
nial of this ; which may be confidered afterwards. 
— But by many the Fa6l is denied j that is, it is 
denied, that Corruption and moral Evil are com- 
monly prevalent in the World : On the contrary, 
it is infifted on, that Good preponderates, and that 
"Virtue has the Afcendant. 

To this Purpofe Dr. Turnhull fays *, " Witk 

-•* regard to the Prevalence of Vice in the World, 

** Men are apt to let their Imagination run- out 

** upon all the Robberies, Pyracies, Murders, Per- 

^ juries. Frauds, Maffacres, Aflallinatibns they -. 

•' have either heard of, or read in Hiftory ; thence 

concluding all Mankind to be very wicked. As- 

** if a Court of Juftice were a proper Place to 

" make an Eftimate of the Morals of Mankind, 

" or an Hofpital of the Healthfulnefs of a Climate* 

" But ought they not to confider, that the Num- 

" ber of honeft Citizens and Farmers far furpafles 

•V that of all Sorts of Criminals in any State, and 

"'^hat the innocent and kind Aftion^ of even Cri-- 

'V'ininals tbemfelves furpafs their Crimes in Nuni- 

♦ Moral rhUof, p. 2S9, 290.. 


4. Of Virtue* s fuppofed Prevalence. Part %• 



bers •, that it is the Rarity of Crimes, in Comj 
parifoh of innocent or good Aftions, which c*Y" 
gages our Attention to them, and makes tHe'ni 
to be recorded in Hiftory, while honeft, ge- 
nerous domeftic A6lions are overlooked, ojrily 
becaufe they are fo common ? As one great 
Danger, or one Month's Sicknefs fliall becpnje 
" a frequently repeated Story during a long Lire 
of Health and Safety. — Let not the Vices of 
Mankind be multiplied or magnified. Let us 
'* make a fair Eftimate of human Life, and fet 
^^ over-againft the Ihocking, the aftonifhing Iji- 
ftances of Barbarity and Wickednefs that h^vip 
been perpetrated in any Age, not only the exceed- 
ing generous and brave Adtions with which Hi- 
ftory fhines, but the prevailing Intioccncy, Good- 
Nature, Induftry, Fehcity, and Chearfulnefs of the 
** greater Part of Mankind at all Times \ and 
'* we Ihall not find Reafori to cry out, as Objeftors 
againft Providence do on this Occafion, that all 
Men are vaftly corrupt, and that there is hardly 
any fuch Thing as Virtue in the World. Upoa 
a fair Computation, the Faft does indeed come 
out, that very great Villanies have beep very 
uncommon in all Ages, and looked uponw 
'* itionftfous ; fo general is the Senfe and Efteem 
" of Virtue." — It feems to be with a like View 
that Dr. tT. fays, " We muft not take the Meafure 
^' of our Health and Enjoyments from a Lazar- 
** Houfe, nor of our Underftanding rrom Bedlam^ 
^ nor of our Morals from a Goal." (p. 77. S.) 

With refpeft to the Propriety and Pertinence of 
fuch a Reprefentation of Things, and its Force as 
to the Confequence defigned, I hope we fhall be 
better able to judge, and in fome Meafure to de- 
termine, whether the natural Difpofition of the 



Ciap. 'f- 1 ^ 0/ Grace interpojing. 5 

oCCi. 1* \ 

Hearts of Mankind be corrupt or not, when the 
Things which follow have been confidered. 

But for the greater Clearncfs, it may be proper 
here to premife one Confideration, that is of great 
Importance in this Controverfy, and is very much 
overlooked by the Oppofers of' the Dodtrine of 
Original Sin in their Difputing againit it ; which 
h this— — 

That is to be looked upon as the true Tendency 
of the natural or innate Dilpofition of Man's Heart, 
which appears to be its Tendency, when we con- 
fider Things as they are in themfelves, or in their 
own Nature, without the Interpofition of Divine 
Grace. Thus, that State of Man's Nature, that 
Dilpofition of the Mind, is to be looked upon as 
evil and pernicious, which, as it is in itfclf, tends 
.to extremely pernicious Confequences, and would 
certainly end therein, were it not that the free 
Mercy and Kindnefs of God interpofes to prevent 
that Iflue. It would be very ftrange if any fliould 
argue, that there is no evil Tendency in the Cafe, 
becaufe the mere Favour and Compaffion of the 
Moll High may ftep in and oppofe the Tendency, 
and prevent the fad EfFeft tended to. Particularly, 
if there be any Thing in the Nature of Man, 
whereby he has an univerfal unfailing Tendency 
to that moral Evil, which, according to the real 
Nature and true Demerit of Things, as they are 
in themfelves, implies his utter Ruin, That muft 
be looked upon as an evil Tendency or Propenfity ; 
however divine Grace may interpofe, to flive him 
from deferved Ruin, and to over-rule Things to 
an IfTue contrary to that which they tend to of 
themfelves.- Grace is a fovereign Thing, exer- 
fifed according to the good Pleafure of God, 
' '■ ■ B3 bringing 

6 Of Grace interpvjing. f^tL 

. bringing Good out of Evil. The Effcft of it be- 
Ibhgs not to the Nature of Things themfelves, that 
otherwife have an ill Tendency, any more than the 
Remedy belongs to the Difeafe •, but is fomething 
altogether independent on it, introduced to oppofe 
the natural Tendency, and reverie the Courfe of 
Things. But the Event that Things tend to, 
according to their own Demerit, and according to 
divine Juftice, That is the Event which they tend 
to in their own Nature ♦, as Dr. T — r's own Words 
fully imply (Pre/, to Par- on Rom. p. 131.) "* God 
*' alone (fays he) c^^ declare whether he will pardon 
•* or punifli theOngodlinefs and Unrighteoufnefs 
'^ of Marikind, which is in ITS OWN NATURE 
^* puniftiable." Nothing is more precifely accord- 
ing to the Truth of Things, than divine Juftice : 
it weighs Things in an even Balance j it views and 
eftimateis Things no otherwife than they are truly 
in their own Nature. Therefore undoubtedly that 
which implies a Tendency to Ruin, according to 
the Eftimate of divine Juftice^ does indeed imply 
^ fuch a Tendency in its own Nature. 

And then it muft be remembered, that it is ^ 
moral Depravity we are fpeaking of; and there^* 
fore when we are confidering whether fuch Depra- 
vity do not appear by a Tendency to a bad EfFecEt 
or Iflue, it is a moral Tendency to fuch an IfTue, 
that is the Thing to be taken into the Account.. 
A moral Tendehcy or Influence is by Defert. 
'TTien may it be faid, Man's Nature or State is 
"attended with a pernicious or deftruftive Ten- 
dency, in a moral Scnfe, when it tends to that 
■which deferves Mifery and Deftruftion. And«r 
fore it equally fhews the moral Depravity of the 
Nature of Mankind in their prefent State, whe- 
ther that Nature be univerfally attended with ^xi 


fc^P* t \ Crace no ' Jr^umeni. &c. 7 

Sea. I. / ^ » / 

cffeftual fencjenby to deftruftive Vengeance ^:ff«^/^ 
''execuf4d, or to their defcrving Mifeiy and* Ruin, 
or their juft Expofedhefs to Deftruftion, howeyer 
that fatal Confequence may be prevented by Graf e, 
<)r whatever the aftual Event be. 

' One Thing more is to be obferved here, viz^ 
That the Topic mainly infilled on by the Oppp- 
fers of the Doctrine of Original Sin, is the Juftice 
of God ; both in their Objedtions againft the 
Imputation of Adam^s Sin, and alfo againft its 
being fo ordered, that Men fhould come into the 
World with a corrupt and ruined Nature, without 
having merited the Difpleafure of their Creator by 
any perfonal Fault. But the latter is not repug- 
nant to God's Juftice, if Men can be, and aftualiy 
are, bom into the World with a Tendency to Sin, 
and to Mifery and Ruin for their Sin, which ac- 
tually will be the Confequence, unlefs mere Grace 
fteps in and prevents it. If this be allowed, the 
Argument from Jujike is eiven up : For it is to 
fuppofe, that their Liablei^ to Mifery and Ruin ♦ 
comes in a Way of Juftice ; otherwife there would 
be no Need of the Interpofition of divine Grace 
to favc them-, Juftice alone would 'l^c fufficient 
?5ecurity, if exercifed, without Grace. It is all 
one in this Difpute about what is juft and righ- 
teous, whether Men are born in a miferable State, 
by a Tendency to Ruin, which actually follows^ 
and that jufily \ or whether they are born in fuch 
a State as tends to a Defert of Ruin, which might 
jufily follow, anfi would aSually follow^ did not 
Grace prevent. For the Controverfy is not, what 
Grace will do, but what Juftice might do. 

I have been the more particular on this Head, 
becaufe it enervates many of the Reafonings and 

B 4 Con- 

8 Grace m Argument Parti. 

Conclufions by which Dr. 7*. makes out his Scheme ; 
in which he argues from that State which Mankind 
are in by divine Grace^ yea, which he himfelf fup,- 
pofes to be by divine Grace ; and yet not making 
iany Allowance for this, he from hence draw^ 
Conclufions againft what others fuppofe of the 
deplorable and ruined State Mankind are in by 
the Fall *. Some of his Argurpents and Conclu- 

' fion$ 

* He often fpeaks of Death and Affliflion as coming ox^ 
^dain% Pofterity in Confcqucnce of hi8 Sin j and in p. 20, 21 . 
and many other Places, he fuppofes, that thefe Things come 
in Confequcnce of his Sin> not as a Punifliment or a Cala- 
xnlty, bat as a Benefit. But in p. 23. he fuppofes, thefe 
Things would be a great Calamity and Mifery, if it were not 
for the Refurreftion ; which Refurreftion he tiftre, and in the 
following Pages, and in many other Places, fpeaks of as being 
by Chriil ; and pften fpeaks of it ^s being by the Grace o( 
God in Chrift. 

P, 63, 64. Speaking of our being fubje£led to Sorrow, La- 
bour, and Death, in Confequence of Adani% Sin> he repre- 
fents thefe as Evils that are reverfed and turned into Ad- 
vantages, and that we are delivered from through Grace in 
Chrift. And p. 65, 66^ 67. he ^eaks of God's thus turn- 
"^ing Death into an Advantige through Grace in Chrift, as 
what vindicates the Juftice of God in bringing Death by 

P. 152, 156. It is one Thing which he ailed ges againft tl^is 
Propofition of the Affembly of Divines, That we are by Na- 
ture Bond-flaves to Satan ; ^hat God hath been providiftgt from 
the Beginning of the IVorld to this Day^ *various Means and Dtfpen* 
fat ions t to prefer<ve and refcue Mankind from the Derui/, 

P. 168, 169, 170. One Thing alledged in Anfwer to that 
Objedlion againft his Dodlrine, That we are in worfe Cir- 
cumftances than Adam, is the happy Circumftances we are 
under by the Proviiion and Means furniftied through free 
Grace in Chrift, 

P. 228. Among other Things which he fays, in anfwering 
that Argument againft his Dodlrine, and brought to (hew Men 
have Corruption by Nature, i/Zx. That thereis a Law in our 
Members, — bringing us into Captivity to the Law of Sin 
and Death, fpoktn of Rom, vii. He allows, that the Cafe of 
thofe who aie under a Law threatening Death for every Sii^ 


^ap. L 1 againjt ccrrupi Nature. • g 

Scft. I. J 

pons to this EfFeft, in order to be made g09d, 
muft depend on fuch a Suppofition as this ; That 
God's Difpenfations of Grace, are Rectifications 


(wKl^h Law he elfe where fays, Jhtnjos us the natural and proper 
Demerit of Sin, and is ferje^ly confonant to e^verlajiing Truth and 
Righttoujntfs ) mttft be quite deplorable ^ if they ha^ve no Relief from 
the Liercy of the Lawgiver. 

P. 90— 93.5. In Oppoiition to what is fappofed of the 
roiferable State Mankind are brought into by Jdam's Sin, one 
Thing he alledges, is. The noble Dejtgns of Lo^ve^ manifefied by 
advancing a nenjj and happy Difpenfation, founded on the Obedience 
and Righteoufnefs of the Son of God; and that, although by 
Jdam we aie fubjeded to Death, yet in this Difpenfation a 
Refurrcdlion is provided ; and that Adam% Pofterity are under 
a mild Difpenfation of Grace^ &c. 

P. \\z,S, He vindicates God's Dealings with Adam, m 
placing him at firft under the Rigour of Law, Tranfgrefs 
and die, (which, as he expreffes it, ivas putting his Happinefs 
on a Foot extremely dangerous) by faying, that as God had before 
determined in his o*wn Breaji^ fo he immediately ejlablijhed bis Cove- 
nant upon a quite difftirent Bottom, namely, up^^n G^a^. 

P. 122, 123. S, Againll what R» R, lays. That God for- 
fook Man when he iell, and that Mankind after Adam's Sin 
were born without the divine Favour, &c. he alledges ainong 
other Things, ChriJTs coming to be the Propitiation for the Sins 
of the ^Jchole IVorld — And the Riches of God* s Nercy in gi<ving 
the Promife of a Redeemer to deftroy the IVorks of the De^uil — 
that He caught his Jinning falling Creature in the Arms of his 

In his Note on Rom. v. 20. p. 297, 298. he fays as fdl* 
lows : *' The Law, I conceive, is not a Difpenfation fuitable 
^* to the Infirmity of the human Nature in our prefent States 
," or it doch not feem congruous to the Goodnefs of God, 
•* to afFord us no other Way of Salvation but by Law, which, 
*• if we once tranfgrefs, we are ruined for ever. For who 
*' then from the iJeginning of the World could be faved ? 
" And therefore it leems to me, that the Law \va.s not ab- 
" folutely intended to be a Rule for obtaining Life, even 
*« to Adam in Paradiie : Grace was the Difpenfation God 
** intended Mankind (hould be under ; and therefore 
•* Chrift was fore-ordained before the Foundation of the 
« yVorld." 

There are various other Paffages in this Author^s V^^ritin^s 
• gf the like Kind. 

%o AH Men Jin. PStt t 

car Amendments of his foregoing Conffitudons 
and Proceedings, which were merely Icgd; as 
though the Difpenfations of Grace, which fuccetd 
thofe of mere Law, implied an Acknowledgment, 
that the preceding legal Conftitution would be 
unjuft,. if left as it was, or at Icaft very hard 
Dealing with Mankind ; and that the other were 
of the Nature of a Satisfaftion to his Creatures, 
for former Injuries, or hard Treatment : fo that 
put together, the Injury with the Satisfadion, die 
Kgal and injurious Difpenfation taken with the fol^ 
lowing good Difpeniation, which our Author calls 
Grace, and the Unfaimefs or imprc^r Severity 
rf the former, amended by the Goodneis of the 
latter, both together made up one Righteous D^* 

The Reader is defired to bear in Mind that 
which I have faid concerning the Interpofition of 
divine Grace, its not altering the Nature of Things, 
as they are in themfelves ; and accordingly, when I 
l|)eak qS fuch and fuch an evil Tendency of Things, 
belonging to the prefent Nature and Sute of Man- 
kind, underftand Me to mean their Tendency as 
ibey are in tbemfelvesj abftra6ked from any Con- 
fideration of that Remedy the fovcreign and infi- 
mte Grace of God has provided. 

Having premifed thefe Things, I now proceed 

That Mankind are all naturally in fuch a State, 
3ts is attended, without Fail, with this Confequence 
or Iffue ; that they univerfaJly run themfelves into 
that which is, in EfFeft, their own utter eternal 
Perdition, as being finally accurfed of God, and 
the Subjedts of his remedilefs Wrath thro' Sin... 


Cluip* 1. 1 jUI Men Jin. Ji 

sea:r. s "^ 

Frqm which I infer, that the natural* State xA 
die Mind of Man, is attended with a Propenfity 
<>f Nature, which is prevalent and efFeftual, to 
iHOh an Iffue •, and that therefore their Nature 
is corrupt and depraved with a moral Depra- 
vity, that anioupts to and implies their utter 

Here I would firfl: confider the Truth of the 
Propofition ; and .then would ihew the Certainty 
of the Confequenccs which I infer from it. if 
both can be clearly , and certainly proved, then I 
truft, none will deny but that the Do6trine of orir 
ginal Depravity is evident, and ib the Falfenefs irf 
Dr. ?"— r*s Scheme demonftratedi the greateft 
Part of whofe Book, called the Scripture Do£frinff 
of Original Sin^ &c. is againft the Do6trine of 
innate Depravity^ In p. loy. S. he fpeaks of the 
Conveyance of a corrupt and finful- Nature to 
Jdair^% Pofterity as the grand Point to be proved 
by the Maintainers of the Doftrine of Original 

In order to demonftrate what is aflerted in the 
Propofition laid down, there is need only that 
thefe two Things Ihould be made manifefl: : Om 
is this Faft, that all Mankind come into the World 
in fuch a State, as without Fail comes to this Iflue, 
namely, the univerfal Commiflion of Sin ; or that 
every one who comes to aft in the JPVorW as ^ 
moral Agent, is, in a greater or lels Degree; 
guilty of Sin. The Other is, that all Sin defdrves -,^ 
and expofes to utter and eternal Deftru<3:ion, under ^ 
God's Wrath and Curfe ; and would end in it^ 
were it not for the Interpofition of divine Grace 
to prevent the EfFeft. Both which can be abui*- 


tft jfll Men ftn. ■ Pvt £[ 

dandy demonftrated to be agreeable to the Word 
of God, and to Dr. T* — r^% own Dodtrine. 

That every one of Mankind, at leaft of them 
that are capable of afting as moral Agents, are 
guilty of Sin (not now taking it for granted that 
they come guilty into the World) is a Thing moft 
clearly and abundantly evident from the holy 
Scriptures : i Kings viii. 46. If any Man fin a- 
j^ahtji thee •, for there is no Man that finneth not. 
Eccl. vii. 20. There is not a juft Man upon Earth 
that doeth Good^ and finneth not. Job ix. 2, 3. / 
kn0w it is fo of a Truths (i, e. as Bildad had juft 
before faid. That God would not caft away a per- 
feft Man, &c.) hut how Jhoutd Man be juft with 
God ? If he will contend with him^ he cannot an- 
fwer him one of a Thoufand. To the like Purpofe, 
Pfal. cxliii. 2. Enter not into Judgment with thy 
Servant \ for in thy Sight (hall no Man living he 
juftified. So the Words of the Apoftle (in which 
he has apparent Reference to thofe of the Pfalmift) 
Rom. iii. 19, 20. That every Mouth may beftopped^ 
and all the fVorld become guilty before God. There- 
fore by the Deeds of the Law there JhaU no Flejb 
ti juftified in his Sight : for by the Law is the 
Knowledge of Sin. So, Gal. ii. 16. i Joh. i. 7, — 10. 
If we walk in the Lights the Blood of Chrift 
eleanfeth us from all Sin. If we fay that we have 
na Sin J we deceive ourfelves^ and the Truth is not 
in us!^ If: %e cenfefs our Sins^ he is faithful and 
juft to forgive us our Sins, and to cleanfe us from 
all Unrigbteoufnefs. If we fay that we have not 
finned, we make him a Liar, and bis Word is not 
in us. As in this Place, fo in innumerable other 
Places, Confeffion and Repentance of Sin are 
ipoken of, as Duties proper for all ; as alfo Prayer 


<*ap. I^} All Siu to MttiT Rain. jj 

to God for Pardon of Sin •, and Forgivenefs of 
thofe that injure us, from that Motive, that. we 
hope to be forgiven of God. Univerfal Guilt of* 
Sin might alfo be demonftrated from the Appoint- 
ment, and the declared Ufe and End of the ancient; 
Sacrifices j and alfo from the Ranfom, which every 
dne that was numbered in Jfraelj was direfted to 
pay, to make Atonement for his Soul, Exod. xxx. 
ii — 1 6. All are reprefented, not only as being 
finful, but as having great and majiifold Iniquity^ 
Joi ix. 2, 3. Jam. iii. 1,2. 

There are many Scriptures which both declare 

the uniyerM Sinfulneis of Mankind, and alfo that 

all Sin deferves and juftly expofes to everlafting 

Deftruftion, under the Wrath and Curfe of God i 

and fo demonftrate both Parts of the Propofition 

I have laid down. To which Purpofe that in 

GaL iii. 10. is exceeding full : For as many as are 

of the fForks of the Law are under the Curfe -, 

for it is written, Curfed is every one that continuetb 

not in all Things which are written in the Book of 

the Law, to do them. How manifeftly is it implied 

in the Apoftle*s Meaning here, that there is no 

Man but what fails in fome Inftances of doing all 

Things that are written in the Book of the Law^ 

and therefore as many as have their Dependance 

on their fulfilling the Law, are under that Curfe 

which is pronounced on them that do fail of it ? 

And hence the Apoftle infers in th| nejn Verfe, 

that NO MAN is juftified by the Law in the Sight 

of God : as he had ikid before in the preceding 

Chapter, Yer. 1 6. By the Works of the Law fhall 

no Flefh be jujlified. The Apoftle ftiews us that 

he underftands, that by this Place which he cites 

from Deuteronomy, the Scripture hath concluded, or 

fhut up, all under Sin j as in Chap. iii. 22. So 



14 -^^ Si?r t0 utter Rmn, Fart X," 

that' here wc are* plainly taught, both thai evety / 
one of Mankind is a Sinner^ and that every Sinner 
is under the Curfe of God. 

To the like Piirpbfe is that^ Rbfn. i v.. 1 4. and 
alfo 2 Cor. iii. 6, 7, 9. where tKe Law is called 
tbt Letter that kills^ the Mniftratian of Deatby and 
the Miniftratmt of Condemnation. The Wrath, 
Condemnation, and Death, which is threatened 
in the Law to all its Tranfgrcflbrs, is final Per- 
dition, the fecond Death, eternal Ruin ; as is very 
plain, and is confeffed. And this Punifliment 
which the Law threatens for every Sin, is a juft 
Punifliment ; being what every Sin truly ckferves 5 
God's Law being a righteous Law, and the Sen- 
tence of it a righteous Sentence. 

All thefe Things are what Dr.-?'. himfelf confeffes^ 
and aflerts. He lays, that the Law (rf God requites 
perfeft Obedience. (Note on Rom. vii. 6. p. 308.) 
God can never require imperfeft Obedience, 
or by his holy Law allow us to be guilty of any 
" one Sin, how fmall foever. And if the Law^ 
as a Rule of Duty, were in any Refpeft abo- 
liflied, then we might in fome Refpefts trant 
grefs the Law, and yet not be guilty of Sin. 
" The moral Law, or Law of Nature, is the 
*' Truth, everlafting, unchangeable •, and there- 
" fore, as fuch, can never be abrogated. On the 
*^ contAry, #ur Lord Jefus Chrift has promul- 
" gated it anew under the Gofpel, fuller and 
" clearer than it was in the Mofaical Conftitution,, 
•' or any where elfe ; — having added to its "Pre- 
" cepts the Sandtion of his own divine Authority!*' 
And many Things which he fays imply, that all 
Mankind do in fome Degree tranfgrefs the Law. 
In p. 228. fpeaking of what niay be gathered 



Cbaptl^l M Sin $0 uiier Ruhu t« 

Sea. t: s " ■* 


from Bam. viL and viii he fays, *' We are v«iy 
^pty in a World full of Temptation, to be de-* 
ceived, and drawn into Sin by bodily Appe- 
tites, &c* And the Cafe of thofe who are under 
a Law threatening Qeath to every Sin, muft be 
quite deplorable, if they have no Relief front 
the Mercy of the Lawgiver.** But this is very 
fully declared in what he fays in his Note on Ronu 
V. zo. pu 297* His Words are as follows : *' In- 
deed, as a Rule of A6tion prefcribing outji^ 
Duty, it (the Law) always was, and always 
^' mull be a Rule ordained for obtaining Life ^ 
^' but not as a Rule of JuftiEcation, not as it 
*' fubjedts to Death for every Tranfgreffion, jFor 
^' if it COULD in its utmoft Rigour have givsen us 
*' Life, then, as the Apoftle argues, it would have 
•' been againft the Promifes of God. — For if 
*< there had been a Law, in the ilri<St and rigorous 
** Senfe of Law, WHICH COULD HAVE 
^* MADE US LIVE, verily Juftification Ihould 
" have been by the Law« But he fuppofes, no fuch 
** Law was ever given : and therefore there is Need 
^' and Room enough for the Promifes of Grace ; ^a 
" as he argues. Gal. ii. 21. it would have fruftra- 
*' ted, or rendered ufclefs the Grace of God* 
^^ For if Juftification came by the Law, then 
truly Chrift is dead in vain, then he died to ac- 
complifli what was, or MIGHT HAVE BEEN 
EFFECTED by Law itfelf without his Death. 
Certainly the Law was not brought in among" 
the Jews to be a Rule of Juftification, osc to 
*' recover them out of a State of Death, and to 
** procure Life by their finlefs Obedience to it : 
** For in this, as well as in another Refpeft, it was 
" WEAK ; not in itfelf, but thro* the WEAK- 
«' NESS of ourFieih, Rom. viii. 3. The Law, I 
** conceive, is not a Difpenfatiori fuitable to the 

1 " Infirmity 

n hi 

■ k 

2& All Sin to ettmat Pare 1 

•' Infirmity of the human Nature in our*prelent 
'* State ; or it doth not fecm congruous to the 
^^ Goodnefs of God to afford us no other Way of 
•' Salvation, but by LAW •, WHICH IF Wfi 
'^ COULD BE SAVED?'' How clear and exprefe 
are thefe Things, that no one of Mankind; from 
flihe Beginning of the World, can ever be juftified 
by Law, becaufe every one tranlgrefles it ? * 

And here alfo we fee. Dr. 7*. declares, that by 
the Law Men are fcntenped to everlafting Ruin for 
one Tranfgreflion. To the like Purpofe he often 
cxprefles himfelf. So p. 207. " The Law re- 
^ quireth the moft extenfive Obedience, difco- 
*' vering Sin in ail its Branches. — It gives Sin a 
**^ deadly Force, fubjefting every Tranfgreflion td 
•* the Penalty of Death ; and yet fupplieth neither 
*^ Help nor Hope to the Sinner, but leaveth him 
*' under the Power of Sin and Sentence of Death.*' 
In p. 2 13. he fpeaks of the Law as extending to 
Luft and irregular Dejires^ and to every Branch and 
Princifle of Sin \ and even to its latent Principles^ 
' and minuteji Branches : again (Note on Rom. vii. 6. 
p. 308.) to esuery Sin^ how finall foever. And wheri 
he fpeaks of the Law fubjedling every Tranfgret 
lion to the Penalty of Death, he means eternal 
Death, as he from Time to Time explains the 
Matter. In p^ 212. he fpeaks of the Law in the 


* I am fenfible, thefe Things are quite inconfifteiit with 
what he fays el fe where, of fufficient Po^er in all Mankind con- 
fiantly to do the ^joie Duty wohtch God requires of them^ without! 
a Necefllty of breaking God's Law in any Degree, (P. 63— » 
68. S,) But, I hope, the Reader will not think me account- 
able* for his loconfillences. 


Ohap.,f, ? anijufi Perditidn. ij 

condemnifig Fewer of it^ as binding us in everlafting 
Chains. In p. no. S. he fays, that Death which 
is the Wages of Sin, is the fecond Death : and- this 
p. 78. he explains of final Perdition. In his X^, 
p. 107. §. 296. .he fays, " The Curfe of the Lav^ 
" fubjefted Men for every Tranfgrelfion to eternal 
" lieaihP So in Note on Rom. v. 20. p. 291. 
" The Law of Mofes fubjefted thofe who were 
*' under* it to Death, meaning by Death eternal 
" Death." Thefe are his Words. 

He alfo fiippofes, that this Sentence of the Law, 
thus fubjefting Men for every ^ even the leajl Siny 
and every, minuteft Branch and latent Principle of 
Sin^ to fo dreadful a Punilhment, is jujl and righ- 
teousy dgreeable. to Truth and the Nature of Things^ 
or to' the natural and proper Demerits of Sin. This 
he is very full in. Thus in p. 1 86. P. " It was Sin 
(fays he) which fubjedted us to Death by the Law, 
JUSTLY threatening Sin with Death.. Wliich 
Law was given us, that Sin might appear ; might 
^ befetfdrth IN ITS PROPER COLOURS; 
*' when we fawit fubje6tcd us to Death by a Law 
that Sin by the Commandment, by the Law, might 
be reprefented WHAT IT REALLY IS, an 
exceeding great and deadly Evil.** So in Note 
on Rom. v. 20. p. 299. '' The Law or Miniftr^j- 
" tion of Death, as it fubjedts to Death for every 
" Tranfgrefiion,- is ftill of Ufe to fhew the NATU^ 
Ibid. p. 2g2. " The Language of the Law, Dying 
*' thou Ihalt die, is to be underftood of the Dcine- 
*' r//of the Tranfgreffion, that which it deferves.'* 
Ibid. p. 298. " The Law was added, faith Mr. 
" Locke J on the Place, becaufe the Ifraelitesy the 
*' Pofterity of Abraham^ were TranfgreflbrS a? 

C "well 



1 8 All fin to eternal Part I. 

" well as other Men, to fliew them their Sins, and 
" the Punifhment and Death, which in STRICT 
JUSTICE they incurred by them. And this 
appears to be a true Comment on Rom. vii. .13. 
— Sin, by Virtue of the Law, fubjefted you to 
*' Death for this End, that Sin, working Death 
" in us, by that which is holy^ jujl^ and goody PER- 
*' Confequently every Sin is inJtriH Jujiice deferving 
" of Wrath and Puniftiment ; and the Law in its 
^' Rigour was given to the Jews^ to fet-home this 
" awful Truth upon their Confciences, to ftiew them 
** the evil and pernicious NATURE of Sin ; and 
" that being confcious they had broke the Law 
" of God, this might convince them of the great 
•* Need they had of the FAVOUR of the Law- 
" giver, and oblige them, by Faith in his GOOD- 
" NESS, to fly to his MERCY, for Pardon and 
« Salvation/' 

If the Law be holy, juft, and good, a Confti- 
tution perfeftly agreeable to God's Holinefs, Ju- 
ftice, and Goodnefs ; then he might have put it 
exaftly in Execution, agreeably to all thefe his 
Perfeftions. Our Author himfelf fays, p. 133. S. 
*' How that Conflitution, which eftaWifbcs a Law, 
" the making of which is inconfiitent with the 
" Juftice. and Goodnefs of God, and the Exe- 
" cuting of it inconfiftent with his Holinefs, can 
*' be a righteous Conflitution, I confefs, i^ quite 
" beyond my Comprchenfion.'* 

Now the Reader rs left to judge, whether it be 
not moft plainly and fully agreeable to Dr. T—r\ 
own Doftrine, that there never was any one Per- 
fon from the Beginning of the World, who came 
■ • to 

Chap. I: ) and jufl Perdition, igi 

to aft in the World as a moral Agent, and that it 
is not to be hoped there ever v/ill be afty, but 
what is a Sinner or Tranfgreflbr of the Law of 
God 5 and that therefore this proves to be the 
Ifliie and Event of Thihgs, with Refpeft to all 
Mankind in all Ages, that, by the natural and 
proper Demerit of their own Sinrulnefe, and in the 
Judgment of the Law of God, which is perfeftly 
confonant to Truth, and exhibits Things in their 
true Colours, they are the proper Subjefts of the 
Curfe of God, eternal Death, and everlafting 
Ruin ; Which muft be the aftual Confequence, 
tinlefs the Grace or Favour of the Lawgiver in- 
terpole^ and Mercy prevail for their Pardon and 
Salvation. The Reader has feen alfo how- agree- 
able this is to the Doftrine of the holy Scrip- 

And if fo, and what has been obferved con- 
cerning the Interpofition of divine Grace be re- 
membered, namely, that this alters nbt the Nature 
of Things as they are in themfelves, and that it 
does not in the leaft afFcft the State of the Con- 
troverfy we are upon, concerning tlie true Nature 
and Tendency of the State that Mankind come 
into the World in,- whether Grace prevents the 
fatal EfFeft or no ; I fay, if thefe Things are con- 
fidered, I truft, none will deny, that the Propofition 
that was laid down,^ is fully proved, as agreeable 
to the Word of God, and Dr. 'T — r*s own Words ; 
viz. That Mankind are all naturally in fuch a State, 
as is attended, without Fail,- with this Confequence 
or Iflue, that they univerfally are the Subjefts of 
that Guilt and Sinfulnefs, which is, in Effedl, their 
utter and eternal Ruin, being caft wholly out of 
the Favour of God, and fubjedted to his everlafting 
Wrath aad Curfe. 



20 A cotjjiant EffeS Part 1* 


// follows from the Propofition proved in the fore- 
going SeilioHj that all Mankind we under the 
Influence of a prevailing effedual Tendency 
in their Nature, to that Sin and Wickednefs^ 
which implies their utter and eternal Ruin. 

THE Propofition laid down beins proved, the 
Confequence of it remains to be made out, 
'viz. That the Mind of Man has ^natural Tendency^ 
or Propenfity to that Event, which has been fliewn 
univerfally and infallibly to take Place (if this be 
not fufficiently evident of itfelf, without Proofs ) 
and that this is a corrupt or depraved Propen- 

I ihall here confider the former Part of this 
Confequence, namely. Whether fuch an univerfal, 
conftant, infallible .Event is truly a Proof of the 
Being of any Tendency or Propenfity to that 
Event ; leaving the m/ and corrupt Nature of 
fuch a Propenfity to be confidered afterwards. 

If any fhould fay, they do not think that its 
being a Thing univerfal and infallible in Event, 
that Mankind commit fome Sin, is a Proof of a 
prevailing Tendency to Sin \ becaufe they do not 
only fin, but alfo do Good, and perhaps more 
Good than Evil : Let them remember, that the 
Queflion at prefent is not. How much Sin there 
is a Tendency to \ but. Whether there be a pre- 
vailing Propenfity to that IfTue, which it is allowed 
all Men do aftually come to, that all fail of keejp- 
ing the Law perfeftly ;-^whether there be not a 
Tendency to fuch Imperfeftion'of Obedience, as 


Chap. I. \ proves Tendency. t r 

Sed. II. J 

always without Fail comes to pafs ; to that Degree 
of Sinfulnefs, atleaft, which all fall into; and fo 
to that utter Ruin, which that Sinful n'efs implies 
and infers. Whether an effedtual Propenfity to 
this be worth the Name of Depravity, becaufe of 
the Good that may be fuppofed to balance it, (hall 
be confidered by and by. If it were fo, that all 
Mankind, in all Nations and Ages, were at leaft 
one Day in their Lives deprived of the Ufe of 
their Reafon, and run raving mad -, or that all, 
even every individual Perfon, once cut their own 
Throats, or put out their own Eyes ; it might be 
an Evidence of fome Tendency in the Nature or 
natural State of Mankind to fuch an Event -, tho* 
they might exercife Reafon many more Days than 
they were diftradted, and were kind to and tender 
of themfelves oftener than they mortally and cruelly 
wounded themfelves. 

To determine whether the unfailing Conftancy 
of the above-named Event be an Evidence of 
Tendency, let it be confidered. What can bq meant 
by Tendency, but a prevailing Liablenefs or Expo- 
fednefs to fuch or fuch an Event ? Wherein confifts 
the Notion of any fuch Thing, but fome ftated 
Prevalence or Preponderation in the Nature or 
State of Caufca or Occafions, that is followed l^y^ 
and fo' proves to be effediual /(?, a ftated Preva- 
lence or Commonnefs of any particular Kind of 
EfFeft? Or, fomething in the permanent State of 
Things, concerned in bringing a certain Sort of 
Event to pafs, which is a Foundation for the 
Conftancy, or ftrongly prevailing Probability, of 
fuch an Event ? If we mean this by Tendency, 
(as I know ndt what elfe can be meant by it, but 
this, or fottiething like this) thea it is manifert, 
that where we fee a ftated Prevalence of any Kind 

C 3 %i 


111 4 (onjiant EffeB proves Tendency. Part L 

of Effcft or Event, there is a Tendency to that 
EfFeft in the Nature and State of its Caufes. A 
common gtnd fteady EfFedl fhews, that there is 
fomewhere a Preponderation, a prevailing Expb- 
fednefs or Liablenefs in the State of Things, to 
what comes fo fteadily to pafs. The natural Dic- 
tate of Reafon fhews, that where there is an EfFeft, 
there is a Caufe, and a Caufe fufficient for the 
EfFe<5t ; becaufe, if it were not fufficient,- it would 
not be efFeilual ; and that therefore, where there 
is a ftated Prevalence of the EfFeft, there is 4 
ftated Prevalence in the Caufc : A fteady EtFeft 
argues a fteady Caufe. We obtain a Notion of 
fuch a. Thing as Tendency, no other Way than by 
Obftrvation: And we can obferve nothing but 
Events : And it is the Commonnefs or Conftancy 
of Events, that gives us a Notion of Tendency 
in all Cafes, Thus we judge of Tendencies in 
the natural World. Thus we judge of the Ten- 
dencies or Propenfities oF Nature in Minerals, 
Vegetables, Animals, rational and irrational Crea-r 
tures. A Notion of a ftated Tendency, or fixed 
Propenfity, is not obtained by obferving only a 
fingle Event. A ftated Preponderation in the 
Caufe or Occafion, is argued only by a ftated Pre- 
valence of the Effeft. If a Die be once thrown, 
and it falls on a particular Side, we do not argue 
froni hence, that that Side is the heavieft ; but. if 
it be thrown without Skill or Care, many Thou- 
fands or Millions of Times going, and conftantly 
falls on the fame Side, we have not the leaft Doubt 
m our Minds, but that there is fomething of Pro- 
penfity in the Cafe, by fuperior Weight of that 
Side, or in fome other Kefpeft. How ridiculous 
would he make himfelf, y^ho |hpuld earneftly 
difpute againft any Tendency in the State of 
Things to Cold in the Winter, or Heat in the 

Summer 1 

Chap; T. 7 Univerfal Sin proves Prcpenjity to Sin. 2 3 

Summer ; or Ihould Hand to it, that although 
it often happened that Water quenched Fire, 
yet there was no Tendency in it to fuch an 
EfFeft ? 

In the Cafe we are upon, the human Nature, as 
cxifting in fuch an immenfe Diverfity of Perfons 
and Circumftances, and never failing in any one 
Inftance, of coming to that Iflue, viz. that Sinful- 
nefs, which implies extreme Mifcry and eternal 
Ruin, is aa the Die often caft. For it alters not 
the Cafe in the leaft, as to the Evidence of Ten^ 
dency, whether the Subjeft of the conftant Event 
be an Individual, or a Nature and Kind. Thus, 
if. there be a Sucgeflion of Trees of the fame ;Sort, 
proceeding one from another, from the Beginning 
of the World, growing in all Countries, Soils, and 
Climates, and otherwife in (as it were) an infinite 
Variety of Circumftances, all bearing ill Fruit j it 
as much proves the Nature and Tendency of the 
X/W, as if it v/ere only one individual Tree, that 
had remained from the Beginning of the World, 
had often been tranfplanted into different Soils, 
&c. and had continued to bear only bad Fruit, 
So, if there were a particular Family, which, from 
Generation to Generation, and through every Re- 
move to innumerable different Countries, and 
Places of Abode, all died of a Confumption, or 
all run diftrafted, or all murdered themfelves, it 
would be as much an Evidence of the Tendency 
of fomething in the Nature or Conftitution of that 
Hace, as it Would be, of the. Tendency of fome- 
thing in the IS^ature or State of an Individual, if 
fome one- Perfon had lived all that Time, and 
fome ^remarkable Event had often appeared in him, 
wlJif h he'had been; the Agent or Subjeft of from 

C4" Yw 

jj4 Umverfai Sin Part I, 

Year to 'Year, and from Age to Age, continually 
and without Fail *. 

Thus a Propenfity, attending the prefent Nature 
or natural State of Mankind, eternally to ruin 
themfelves by Sin, may certainly be inferred from 
apparent and acknowledged Faft. — And I would 
now obferve further, that not only does this follow 
from Fafts that are acknowledged by Dr. T, but 
the Things he ajferts^ the Expreffions and Words 
which he ufes^ do plainly imply that all Mankind 
have fuch a Propenfity j yea, one of the higheft 
Kind, a Propenfity that is invincible^ or a Ten- 
dency which really amounts to a fixed conftant 
unfailing Neceffity. There is ^ plain Confeflion 
of a Propenfity or Pronenefs to Sin, p. 143. — 
*' Man, who drinketh in Iniquity like Water ; 
^' who is attended with fo many fenfual Appetites, 

^' and 

* Here may be obfen^ed the Weaknefs of that Objeflion, 
made againft the Validity of the Argument for a fixed Pro- 
penfity tp Sin. from the Conllancy and Univerfality of the 
Event, li\i?xAiiam finned in one Inilance, without a fixed Pro- 
penfity. Without Doubt a fingle Event is an Evidence, that 
there was fome Caufe or Occafion ofthatEv6nt : But the 
Thing we are fpeaking of, is 2l fixed Caufe: Propenfity is a 
y?i?/<^ continued Thing. We juftly argue, t\izt 2i flated Effe£l 
muft have a fiated Caufe \ and truly obferve, that we obtain 
the Notion of Tendency, or fiated Frefonderation in Caufes, 
no other Way than by obferving a ftated Prevalence of a par- 
ticular Kind of EfFed. But who ever argues a fixed Pro- 
penfity from a fingle Event ? And is it ^ot ilrange arguingj 
that becaufe an Event which once comes to pafs, does not prove 
any flatcd Tendency, therefore the unfailing Confiancy of 
an Event is an Evidence of no fuch Thing ? — ^But becaufe 
pr. 7*. makes io much of 0iis Objedlion, from Ad(m\ finning 
without a Propenfity, Llhall hereafter confider it more parti- 
cularly, in the Beginning of ^he ^th BeSiaa of this Chapter ; 
where will ^Ifo be confidered what ii objcded from the Fall 
»i the Angels. 


Ch«p. 1, 1 proves Propenjftty to Sin-. 1^5 

oCvt. 11. 3 .... 

" and fo APT to indulge them. — " And again, 
p. 228, " WE ARE VERY APT, in a World foil 
of Temptation, to be deceived, and drawn into 
Sin by bodily Appetites." — If we are very apt 
or prone to be drawn into Sin by bodily Appetites, 
and Jhtfully to indulge them^ and very apt or prone 
to yield to temptation to Sin^ then we are prone to 
Sin ; for to yield to Temptation to Sin is Jinfui. — 
la the fame Page he reprefents, that on this Ac- 
count, and on Account of the Confequences of 
tills, the Cafe of thofe who are under a Law,, 
threatening Death for every Sin^ muji be quite de- 
plorable^ if they have no Relief from the Mercy of 
tkt Lawgiver. Which implies, that their Cafe is 
hopelefs, as to an Efcape from Death, the Punifh- 
ment of Sin, by any other Means than God's 
Mercy. And that implies, that there is fuch an 
Aptnefs to yield to Temptation to Sin, that it is 
hopelefs that any of Mankind (hould wholly avoid 
it. But he Ipeaks of it elfewhere, over and c^ver, 
as truly impojjible^ or what r^»«^/ be\ as in the 
Words which were cited in the laft Section j from 
his Note on Rom. v. .20. where he repeatedly 
fpeaks of the Law, which fubjefts us to Death 
for every Tranfgreflion, as what CANNOT GIVE 
LIFE ; and reprefents, that if God offered us no 
other Way of Salvation, no Man from the Begin-- 
fling of the World COULD .be faved. In the fame 
Place he with Approbation cites Mr. Locke's 
Words, in which, fpeaklng of the Ifraelites^ he 
fays, " All Endeavours alter Righteoufnefs was 
^' LOST LABOUR, fince any one Slip forfeited 
Life, and it was IMI^OSSIBLE for them to 
expeft ouglit but Death." Our Author fpeaks 
of it as impoflible for the' Law requiring finlcfs 
Obedience, to- give Life, not that the Law waf 
weak in itfelfj but through the Weaknefs- of 'bur 



x6 ■ That all . do Jixy P?utL 

Fkjh. Therefore he fays, he conceives the Law not 
to be a Difpenfation fuitaile to the Infirmity of the 
human Nature in its prefent State. Thefe Things 
amount to a full ConfefTion, that the Pronenefs in 
Men to Sin, and to a Demerit of and juft Expo- 
fcdncfs to eternal Ruin by Sin, is univerfally in- 
vincible, or, which is the fame Thing, amounts 
to abfojute invincible Neceflity ; which furely is 
the higheft Kind of Tendency, or Propenfity: 
And that not the lefs for his laying this Propen- 
sity to our Infirmity or Weaknefs^ which may 
feem to intimate fome Defeft, rather than any 
Thing pofitive : And it is agreeable to the Sen- 
timents of the beft Divines, that all Sin originally 
comes from a defedtive or privative Caufe. But 
Sin does not ceafc to be Sin, or a Thing not juftly 
cxpofing to eternal Ruin (as is implied in Dr. 
2* — r^s own Words) for arifing from Infirmity or 
Defeft ; nor does an invincible Propenfity to Sin 
ceafe to be a Propenfity to fuch Demerit of eter- 
nal Ruin, beeaufe the Pronenefs arifes from fuch a 

It is manifeft, that this Tendency which has 
been proved, does not confift in any particulac 
external Circumftances, that fome or many are in, 
peculiarly tempting or influencing their Minds ^ 
but is inherent^ and is feated in that Nature which 
is common to all Mankind, which they carry with 
them wherever they go, and ftill remains the 
fame, however Circumftances may differ. For it 
is implied in what has been proved, and fliewn to 
be confefled, that the fame Event comes to pa{s 
in all Circumftances, that any of Mankind ever 
^re, or can be under in the World. In God*5 
Sight no Man living can be jujtifiedi but all are 
Sinners, and expofed to Condemnation^ This is 


Cfeap. 1. 1 proves Propenfity of Nature. :tj 

true of Perfons of all Conftitutiorw, Capacities, 
Conditions, Manners, Opinions and Educations^ 
in all Countries, Climates, Nations, and Ages; 
and through all the mighty Changes and Revo* 
lutions, which have come to pafs in the habitable 

We have the feme Evidence, that the Propen- 
.fity in this Cafe lies in the Nature of the Subje6t, 
and does not arife from any particular Circumftan- 
ces, as we have in any Cale whatfoever ; which is 
only by the EtFe<5ls appearing to be the fame in 
^11 Changes of Time and Place, and under all 
Varieties of Circumftances. It is in this .Way 
only we judge, that any Propenfities, which we 
ohferve in Mankind, are fuch as are feated in their 
Nature, in all other Cafes. It is thus we judge 
of the mutual Propenfity betwixt the Hqxcs^ or of 
the Difpofitions which are exercifed in any of the 
natural Paflions or Appetites, that they truly be- 
long to the Nature of Man •, becaufe they are 
obferved in Mankind in general, through all 
Countries, Nations, and Ages, and in all Con- 

If any Ihould fay. Though it be evident that 
there is a Tendency in the State of Things to this 
general Event, that all Mankind fhould fail of 
perfedt Obedience, and fhould fin, and incur a 
Demerit of eternal Ruin •, and alfo that this Ten- 
dency does not lie in any diflinguifhing Circum- 
Ibftces of any particular People, Perfon, or Age ; 
yet it may not lie in Man's Nature, but in the ge- 
neral Conflitution and Frame, of this World, into 
which Men are born : Though the Nature of Man 
may be good, without any evil Propenfity inherent 
in it J yet the Nature and univerfal State of this 



28 "That all do Jin^ Part L 

earthly World may be fuch as to be full of fa 
many and ftrong Temptations every where, and of 
fueh a. powerful Influence on fuch a Creature as 
Man, dwelling in fo infirm a Body, &c, that the 
Refult of the whole may be a ftrong and infal- 
lible Tendency in fuch a State of things j to the 
Sin and eternal Ruin of every one of Man- 

To this I would reply, that luch an Evafion 
will not at all avail to the Purpofe of thofe whom 
i oppofe in this Controverfy. It alters not the 
Cafe as to this Queftion, Whether Man is not a 
Creature that in his prefent State is depraved and 
ruined by Propenfities to Sin. If any Creature 
be of fuch a Nature that it proves evil in its 
proper Place, or in the Situation which God has 
afligned it in the Univerfe, it is of an evil Na- 
ture. That Part of the Syftem is not good, which 
\s not good in its Place in the Syftem •, and thofe 
inherent Qualities of that Part of the Syftem, 
which are not good, but corrupt, in that Place, 
arc juftly looked upon as evil inherent Qualities. 
That Propenfity is truly efteemed to belong to the 
J^ature of any Being, or to be inherent in it, that 
£s^ the neceflary Confequence of its Nature, con- 
fidered together with its proper Situation in the 
univerfal JSyftem of Exiftence, whether that Pro-v 
penfity be good or bad. It is the Nature of a 
Stone to be heavy ; but yet, if it were placed, as 
it might be, at a J)iftance from this World, it 
'would have no fuch Quality, But feeing a Stone 
is of fuch a Nature, that it will have this Quality 
or Tendency, in its proper Place, here in this 
World, where God has made it, it is properly 
looked upon as a Propenfity belonging to its Na- 
'ture : And if it be a good Propenfity here in its 


Ciiap. 1. 1 proves Prepenftty of Nature. 29 

Se6t. II. \ 

proper Place, then it is a good Quality of its 
Nature \ but if it be contrariwife, it is an evil 
natural Quality. So, if Mankind are of fuck a 
Nature, that they have an univerikl effeftual Ten-^ 
dchcy to Sin and Ruin in this World, where God 
has made and placed them, this is to be looked 
upon as a pernicious Tendency belonging to their 
Nature. There is, perhaps, fcarce any fuch Thing 
in Beings not independent and felf-exiftent, as any 
Power or Tendency, but what has fome Depend-: 
iance on other Beings, which they Itand in fomc 
Connexion with, in the univerfal Syftem of Exi- 
ftence : Propenfities are no Propenfities, any other- 
wife, than as taken with their Objefts. Thus it is 
with the Tendencies obferved in natural Bodies, 
fuch as Gravity, Magnetifm, Eleftricity, &c. 
And thus it is with the Propenfities obferved in 
thte various Kinds of Animals ; and thus it is 
with moft of the Propenfities in created Spirits. 

It may further be obferved, that it is exactly 
the fame Thing, as to the Controverfy concerning 
an Agreeablenefs with God's moral Perfedions 
of fuch a Difpofal of Things, that Man fhould 
come into the World in a depraved ruined State, 
by a Propenfity to Sin and Ruin ; whether God 
has fo ordered it, that this Propenfity fliould lie 
in his Nature confidered alone, or with Relation 
to its Situation in the Univerfe, and its Connexion 
with other Parts of the Syftem to which the Crea- 
tor has united it ; which is ts much of God*s 
ordering, as Man's Nature itfelf, moft fimply 

Dr. 7*. (p. 188, 189.) fpeaking of the Attempt 
of fome to folve the Difficulty of 'God's being the 
Author of our Nature, and yet that our Nature 


jjo RmarksoffDr.T — *sOhje£liomagainJi PartL 

is polluted, by fuppofing that God makes the 
Soul pure, but unites it to a polluted ^Body, (of a 
Body fo made» as tends to pollute the Soul ;) he 
cries out of it as weak and infufficient, and too 
grofs ta be admitted : For, fays he. Who infufed the 
Soul into the Body ? And if it is polluted by being 
infufed into the Body,. IVbais the Author and Caufe 
ef its Pollution ? And who created the Body^ &c. ? 
— But is not the Cafe juft the fame, as to thofe 
who fuppofc that God made the Soul pure, and 
places it in a polluted World, or a WorH tending 
by its natural State in which it is made^ to pollute 
the Soul, or to have fuch an Influence upon it, 
that it fhall without Fail be polluted with Sin, and 
eternally ruined ? Here, may not I alfo cry out, 
on as good Grounds as Dr. 7*, — ^^Who placed the 
Soul here in this World ? And if the World be 
polluted, or fo conftituted as naturally and infalli- 
bly to pollute the Soul with Sin, Who is the 
Caufe of this Pollution ? And, who created the 

Though in the Place now cited, Dr, ?*. fo infifts 
upon it, that God muft be anfwerable for the 
Pollution of the Soul, if he has infufed* or put 
the Soul into a Body that tends to pollute it ; yet 
this is the very Thing which he himfelf fuppofes 
to be Faft, with refpeft to the Soul's being crea- 
ted by God, in fuch a Body as it is, and m fucH 
a World as it is ; in a Place which I have already 
had Occafion to obferve, where he fays, '^ We are 
•' apt^ in a WorM full of Temptation, to be 
*^ drawn into Sin by bodily Appetites." And if 
fo, according to his Way of Reafoning, God muft 
be the Author and Caufe of this Aptnefs to be 
drawn into Sin. Again, p. 143. we have thefe 
Words, ^ Who drinketb in Iniquity like Water ? 

cup . I. } the SouPs^ king united to a polluted Body. 3 i 

JVbo is attended with fo many fenfual Jppeiit£S^ 
and fo apt to indulge them f" In thefe Words 
our Author in EfFeft fays the individual Thiag 
that he cries out of as ib grofs^ viz. The Ten- 
dency of the Body, as God has made it, to pol- 
lute the Soul, which he lias infufed into it Thefc 
fenfual Appetites, wliich incline the Soul, or make 
it apt to a fmful Indulgence^ are either from the 
Body which God hath made, or otherwife a Prone- 
nefs to fmful Indulgence is immediately and ori- 
ginally feated in the Soul itfelf, which will not 
mend the Matter for Dn Taylor. 

I would here laftly obferve, that our Author 
infifts upon it, p. 42. S. That this lower World 
where w€ dwell, in its prefent State, " Is as it 
was, when, upon a Review, God pronounced 
it, and all its Furniture, very good. — And that 
the prefent Form and Furniture of the Earth 
is full of God's Riches, Mercy, and Good- 
" nefs, and of the moil evident Tokens of his 
" Love and Bounty to the Inhabitants." If fo, 
there can be no Room for fuch an Evafion of 
the Evidences from Fa6t, of the univerfal infal- 
lible Tendency of Man's Nature to Sin and 
eternal Perdition, as, that the Tendency there 
is to this Iflue, does not lie in Man's Nature, 
but in the general Conftitution and Frame of 
this earthly World, which God hath made to be 
the Habitation of Mankind. 




^± ^he above mentioned Propenfity VdftU- 

SECT. Ml. 

3^ai Propenjftyy which has heeti prdved to be /* 
the Nature of all Mankind^ mufi be a very evil, 
depraved, and pernicious Propcnfity, making ' 
it mamfefty that the Soul of Man^ as it i^ ff 
Nature^ is in a corrupt, fallen, and ruined State ; 
which is the other Part of thd Confequence^ 
drawn from the Propojition laid down in the firft 

TH E Queftion to be confidered, in order ta 
determine whether Man's Nature is not de- 
praved and ruinedy is not. Whether he is not in^ 
dined to perform as many good Deeds as bad ones t 
But, Which of thefe two he preponderates to, in 
the Frame of his Heart, and State of his Nature^ 
a State of Innocence and Righteoufnefs, and Favour 
with God •, or a State of Sin, Guiltinefsj and Abhor* - 
rence in the Sight of God ? — Perfevering finleis 
Righteoufnefs, or elfe the Guilt of Sin, is the 
Alternative, on the Decilion of which depends, 
(as is confefled) according to the Nature and 
Truth of Things, as they are in themfelves, and 
according to the Rule of Right, and of perfect 
Juftice, Man's being approved and accepted of 
his Maker, . and eternally blefled as good ^ or his 
being rejefted, thrown away, and curfed as bad. 
And therefore the Determination of the Tendency 
of Man's Heart and Nature, with reipeft to thete 
Terms, is that which is to be looked at, in order 
to determine whether his Nature is good or evil, 
furc or corrupt, found or ruined. If fuch be 
Man's Nature, and State of his Heart, that he 
has an infallibly efFeftual Propcnfity to the latter ^, 
of thofe Terms ^ then it is wholly impertinent to* 


thap. L 7 ^fi corrupt and pernicious. g^ 

talk of fhe innocent and kind A8ionSy even of Cri^ 
nunals tbemfelves^ furpajfing their Crimes in Num-^ 
hers J and of the prevailing Innocence^ good Nature^ 
Induftry^ Felicity^ and Cbearfulnefs of the greater 
Part of Mankind. Let never fo many Thoufands, 
or Millions of Afts of Honefly, good Nature, &c. 
be fuppofed ; yety by the Suppofition, there is ait 
unfailing Propenfity to fuch moral Evil, as in it» 
dreadful Gonfequences infinitely out-weighs all 
EfFedts or Gonfequences of any fuppofed Good. 
Surely that Tendency, which, in Effeft, is an in- 
fallible Tendency to eternal Deftruftion, is ait 
infinitely dreadful and pernicious Tendency : And 
that Nature and Frame of Mind, which implies 
fuch a Tendency, mull be an infinitely dreadful 
and pernicious Frame of Mind. It would be 
much more abfurd, to fuppofe, that fuch a State 
of Nature is good, or not bad, under a Notion 
of Men's - doing more honeft and kind Things 
than evil ones -, than to fay, the State of that 
Ship is good, to crofs the Atlantic Ocean in, that 
is fuch as cannot hold together thro' the Voyage, 
but will infallibly founder and fink by the Way ; 
under a Notion that it may probably go great 
Part of the Way before it finks, or that it will 
proceed and fail above Water more Hours than it 
will be in finking : — Or, to pronounce that Road 
a good Road to go to fuch a Place, the greater 
Part of which is plain and fafe, though Ibmc 
Parts of it are dangerous, and certainly fatal 
to thcni that travel in it -, or to call that a good 
Propenfity, which is an inflexible Inclination to 
travel in fuch a Way. 

A Propenfity to that Sin which brings God's 
Eternal Wrath and Curfe (which has beei proved 
i{> .belong to the Nature of Man) is evil, not only 


34 3""*^ tfA Wf nfentiemd Prap990ty Part t. 

as it is calamitous and forrowful^ ending in great 
natural Evil-, but as it is odious and deteftable\ for 
by the Suppofuion, it tends to that moral Evilj by 
which the Subjcit becomes odious in the Sight of 
God, and liable, as fuch/ to be condemned, and 
utterly reje&ed, and curfed by bim. This alfo 
makes it evident, that the State which it has been 
proved Mankind are in, is a corrupt State in a 
waral Senfe^ that it is inconfiftent with the Ful- 
filment of the Law of God, which is the Rule of 
moral Reditude and Goodnefs. That Tendency, 
which is oppofite to that which the moral Law 
requires and infifts upon, and prone to that which 
the moral Law utterly forbids, and eternally con- 
demns the Subfed for, is doubtlefs a corrupt 
Tendency, in a moral Senfe. 

So that this Depravity is both odious j and alfo 
pernicious^ fatal and deftruftive, in the higheft 
Senfe, as inevitably tending to that which implies 
Man's eternal Ruin ; it fhews, that Man, as he is 
by Nature, is in a deplorable and undone State, in 
the higheft Senfe. And this proves that Men do 
not come into the World perfeftly innocent in the 
Sight of God, and without any juft Expofednefs 
to his Difpleafure. For the being by Nature in 
a loft and ruined State, in the higheft Senfe, is 
not confiftent with being by Nature in a State dS 
Favour with God. 

But if any ftiould ftill infift on a Notion of 
Men's good Deeds exceeding their bad ones, and 
that, feeing the Good that is in Men is more than 
countervails the Evil, they cannot be properly de- 
nominated evil ; all Perfons and Things being 
moft properly denominated from that which pre^ 


Ckap. L } mojt corrupt Mi pernicious. J5 

Sed. III. C 

Vails, and has the Afcendaht in them -, I would fay 
further. That 

I prfefume'it will be allowed, that if there is in 
Man's Nature a Tendency to Guilt and lii-Defert, 
in a vaft Over-balance to Virtud and Merit •, or a 
Propenfity to that Sin, the Evil and Demerit of 
which is fo great, that the Value and Merit that 
ii in him, or in all the virtuous Afts that ever 
he performs, are as Nothing to it ; then truly 
the Nature of Man may be faid to be corrupt and 

That this is the tnie Cafe, may be demonftrated 
by what is evident of the infinite Heinoufnefs of 
Sin againft God, from the Nature of Things. 
The Heinoufnefs of this muft rife in fome Propor- 
tion to the Obligation we are under to regard the 
divine Being ; and that muft be in fome Propor- 
tion to his Worthinefs of Regard-, which doubtlefe 
■is infinitely beyond the Worthinefs of any of our 
Fellow-Creatures. But the Merit of our Refpe6t 
or Obedience to God is not infinite. The Merit 
xxf Refpeft to any Being does not increafe, but is 
rather diminiflied, in Proportion to the Obliga- 
tions we are under in ftrift Juftice to pay him that 
Refped:. There is no great Merit in paying a 
"Debt we owe, and by the highcft poffible Obliga- 
tions in ftri6t Juftice are obliged to pay, but there 
is great Demerit in refufing to pay it. That on 
•fuch Accounts as thde, there is an infinife De- 
-tnerit in ail Sin againft God, .which mutt therefore 
immenfcly outweigh all the Mer|t which can be 
futoofed to be in our Virtue, I think, is capable 
-or full Demonftrauon ; '^nd that the Futility of 
' the Objeftion^ which fome have made againft the 
.Ai'gutaenf, ' might mcft" plainly be demonftrated, 
*'-• D 2 But 

3,6 i:he Sin of all Men Part I. 

But I fliall omit a particular » Confidcration of 
the Evidence of this Matter from the Nature of 
Things, as 1 ftudy Brevity, and left any (houla 
cry cut, Metaphyficks ! as the Manner of fome is, 
when any A^g^^'^^^t is handled againft any Tenet 
they are fond of, with a clofe and exaft Confidera- 
tion of the Nature of Things. And this is not fo 
neceffary in. the prefent Cafe, in as much as the 
Point aflerted, namely^ that he who commits any 
one Sin> has Guilt and lll-Defert> which is fo great; 
that the Value and Merit of all the Good whicH 
it is poffible he fhould do in his whole Life, is as 
Nothing to it ; I fay, this Point is not only evi- 
dent by Meiaphyjicks^ but is plainly demonftrated 
by what has been fhewn to be Fatly with refped 
to God's own Conftitutions and Difpenfations to- 
wards Mankind : As particularly by this, that 
whatever Afts of Virtue and Obedience a Man 
performs, yet if he trefpafles in one Point, is 

fuilty of any the leaft Sin^ He, according to the 
.aw of God, and fo according to the exadt Truth 
of Things, and the proper Demerit of Sin, is 
expofed to be wholly caft out of Favour with 
God, and fubjedled to his Curfe, to be utterly and 
eternally deftroyed. This has been proved-, and 
ftiewn to be the Doftrine which Dr. T. abundantly 
tCiches. But how can it Be agreeable to the 
Nature of Things, and exaftly confonant to ever- 
lafting Truth and Righteoufnefs^ thus to deal with 
a Creature for the leaft finful Aft,, though he 
Ihould perform ever fo many Thoufands of honeft 
and virtuous A6ls, to countervdl the Evil of that 
Sin ? Or how can it be agreeable to the exa£l: 
Truth and real Demerit of Things, thus wholly ta 
caft off the deficient Creature, without any Regard 
to the Merit ot all his good Deeds,^ unlefe that be 
in Truth the Cafe, that the Value and Merit of 


Chap. L 1 infinUely outweighs their Virtue. ' it 
Sea.Iir. f ^ -^ 6 ^/ 

all thofe good Aftions, bear no Proportion to the 
Heinoufiiefs of the leaft Sin ? If it were not Ib^ 
one would think, that however the offending Pef- 
Ibn might have fome proper Punifhment, yet 
feeing there is fo much Virtue to lay in the Bal- 
Jance againft the Guilt, it would be agreeable to 
the Nature of Things, that he'ftiould find fonie 
Favour, and not be altogether rejeded, and made 
the Subjeft of perfedt an3 eternal Deftruftion ; and 
^thiis no Account at all be made of all his Virtue, 
ih much as to procure him the leaft Relief or 
Hope. How can fuch a Conftitution reprefent Sin 
in its proper Colours^ and according to its true Nature 
^nd Defert^ (as Dr. 7*. fays it does) unlefs this be 
3ts true Nature, that it is fo bajl, that even in the 
leaft Inftance it perfedfcly fwallows up all the Value 
c^f the Sinner's fuppofed good Deeds, let them be 
ever fo many. So that this Matter is not left to 
our Metaphyficks, or Philofophy ; the great Law- 
giver, and infallible Judge gf the Umverfe, has 
clearly decided it, in the Revelation he has made 
of what is agreeable to exaft Truth, Juftice, and 
the Nature of Things, in his revealed Law, or 
Rule of Righteoufnefs, 

He that in any Refpedt or Degree is a Trant^ 
greflbr of God's Law, is a wicked Man, yea, 
wholly wicked in the Eye of the Law \ all his 
Goodn^fs being efteemed Nothing, having no Ac- 
count made of it, when taken together with his 
Wickednefs. And therefore, without any Regard 
to his Righteoufnefs, he is, by the Sentence of 
the Law, and fo by the Voice of Truth and Juftice, 
to be treated as worthy to be rejefted, abhorred, 
and curfed for ever •, and muft be fo, unlefs Grace 
interpofes, to cover hi^ Tranfgrenion. But Men 
. .jre really, in themfehres, what they are in the Eye 

Da of 

3 8 Sin infinittly. outweighs - Parti. 

of the. Law, and by the Voice of ftrift. Equity and 
Juftice ; however they may be looked upon, an^ 
treated by infinite and unmerited Mercy. 

So that, on the whole, it appears, all. Mankind 
have an infallibly efFeftual Propenfity to that mo- 
ral Evil, which infinitely but- weighs the Value of 
all the Good that can be in them •, and have fuch a 
Difpofition o Heart, that the certain Confequencc 
of it is^ their being, in the Eye of perfeft Truth 
and Righteoufnefs, wicked Men. And I leave all 
to judge, whether fuch a Difpofition be not in the 
Eye of Truth a depraved Difpofition ? 

Agreeable to thefe Things, the Scripture rcprc^ 
fents all Mankind, not only as having Guilt, but 
immenfe Guilt, which they can have no Merit or 
Worthinefs to countervail. Such is the Reprefen- 
tation we have in Matth. xviii. 21. to the End. 
There, on Peter* s enquiring. How often his Brother 
Jhould trefpafs againji bim^ and be forgive him^ whe- 
ther until feven times ? Chrift replies, / fay not 
unto tbee^ until feven timesj but until feventy times 
feven ; apparently meaning, that he fliould efteem 
no Number of Offences too many, and no Degree 
of Injury it is poflible our Neighbour fliould be 
guilty of towards us, too great to be forgiven. 
For which this Reafon is given in the Parable there 
following, that if ever we obtain P'orgivenefs and 
Favour with God, he muft pardon that Guilt and 
Injury towards his Majefl:y, which is immenfely 
greater than the greateft Injuries that ever Men 
are guilty of one towards another, yea, than the 
Sum of all their Injuries put together, let them 
be ever fo many, and ever fo great •, fo that the 
latter would be but as an hundred Pence to ten 
thoufand Talents, which iihmenfe Debt wc owe to 


Seagirt.} • ^*' ^^'^« "/ ^«- . 59 

God, and have nothing to pay ; which implies, 
that, we have noMerit to countervail any Part of our 
Guilts ; And this muil be, becaufe if all that may 
be called Virtue in us, be compared with our ill 
Dcfc'rt, it is in the Sight of God as Nothing to it. 
The Parable is not to rcprefent Peier's Cafe in 
particular, but that of all who then were, or ever 
ftiould be, Chrift's Difciples. It appears by the 
Conclufion of the Difcourfe, So likewife Jhall my 
heavenly Father do^ if ye^ from your Hearts^ forgive. 
not every one his Brother their Trefpajjes. 

Therefore how abfurd muft it be for Chriftians 
to objed- againft the Depravity of Man's Nature, 
a greater Number of innocent and kind Aclions, 
than of Crimes ; and to talk of a prevailing In- 
nocency, good Nature, Induftry, and. Chearful- 
nefs of the greater Part of Mankind ? Infinitely 
more abfurd, than it would be to inlift, that the 
Domettic of a Prince was not a bad Servant, be- 
caufe tho' fometimes he contemned and affronted 
his Mafter to a great Degree, yet he did not fpit 
in his Mailer's Face fo often as he performed Ad:s 
of Service ; or, than it would be to affirm, that 
hisSpoufe was a good Wife to him, becaufe, al- 
though fhe committed Adultery, and that with 
the Slaves and Scoundrels fometimes, yet (he did 
not do this fo often as fhe did the Duties of a 
Wife. Thefc Notions would be abfurd, becaufe 
the Crimes are too heinous to be atoned for, by 
many honeft Aftions of the Servant or Spoufe of 
the Prince ; there being a vaft Difproportion be- 
tween the Merit of the one, and the Ill-Defert of 
the other : But in no Meafure fo great, nay infi- 
nitdy lefs, than that between the Demerit of our 
Offences againft God, and the Value of our A6t& 
of Obedience, 

V . D 4 T! U3 

M Jte Jim immediaiefy. part L 

t>i^ ^ ^^-t^ ^S^^''^ throuj^h'wich my firft Argu* 
»«c% M«*o$ l^ewn the Evidence of the Truth 
4C 9V i^O|X*ic'^oii 1 kid down at firft, and proved 
4s 0*^^S*^"^^- ^' there are many other Things, 
4ii^ ^toidxvit A Ycry corrupt Tendency or Dif- 
ivav>^^ a Mati** Nature, in his prefent State, 
%hv^ I :SwU wke Notice of in the following 


t'hi IV'VVi/y ef Nature appears by a Propenjity 
49 4ui iJ Jin immediately, as foon as they are 
« ^'>iV of ity and to Jin continually and pro-r 
a^TtJlivcly ; and alfo by the Remains of Sin in the 
beil of Men. 

THE great Depravity of Man's Nature ap- 
peal's, not only in that they univerfally com- 
mit Sin, who fpend any long Time in the World, 
but in that Men are naturally fo prone to Sin, that 
none ever fail of immediately tranfgrefling God's 
l^w, and fo of bringing infinite Guilt on them- 
£rlves, and expofing themfelves to eternal Perdi-^ 
rion, as loon as they are capable of it. 

'. The Scriptures are fo very exprefs in it, that 
all Mankind, all Flejh^ all the Worlds eyery Man 
livings are guilty of Sin ; that it muft at leaft be 
underftood, every one that is come to be capable 
of being aftive in Duty to God, or Sin againft 
him, is guilty of Sin. There are Multitudes in 
the World, who have but very lately begun to 
exert their Faculties, as moral Agents ; and fo 
are but jqft entered on their State of Trial, as 
^iiling for themfelves. There are many ThoufandS 


Sea. IV. J "^ -^ 

•qoiiftandy ia the World, who' have riot lived one 
Month, or Week, or Day, fince they have arrived 

: to any Period that can be affigned from their Birth 
to twenty Years' of Age. And if there be riot 
a ftrong ^ropenfity in Man's Nature to Sin, that 
{hould, as it were^ hurry them on to fpeedy Tranf- 
greflion, and they ,hav€ no Guik previous to their 
perfonal Sinning, what ftiould hinder but that theirc 
might always be a great Number of fuch as a6b 
for themfelves on the Stage of the World, and 
are anfwerable for themfelves to God, who have 
hitherto kept themfelves free from Sin, and have 
perfedly obeyed God's Law, and fo are righteous 
in God's Sight, with the Righteoufnefs of the 
Law ; and if they Ihould be called out of thd 
World without any longer Trial (as great Numbers 
die at all Periods of Life) would be juftiSed by 
the Deeds of the Law ? And how then can it be 
true, that in God's Sight no Man living ^anbejujii" 
Jied^ that no Man can be jujt with God^ and that 
by the Deeds of the haw no Flejh €an be jujiified^ 
becaufe by the Law is the Knowledge of Sin ? And 
what Ihould hinder but that there may always be 
many in the World, who are capable Subjects of 
InftrudHon and Counfel, and of Prayer to God, 
for whom the Calls of God's Word to Repentance, 
and to feek Pardon through the Blood of Chrift^ 
and to forgive others their Injuries, becaufe they 
;ieed that God Ihould forgive them, would not be 
proper ; and for whom the Lord's Prayer is not fuit- 
able, wherein Chrift directs all his Followers to 
pray, that God would forgive their Sins, as they 
forgive thofe that trefpaft againft them ? 

Jf there are any in the World, though but lately 
become capable of afting for themfelves, as Siili- 
jpds pf the Law of God, who are perfedlly free 


42 jIU M$n fin imtnediaiely. Port L 

from Sin, fuch are. mod likely to be found among 
the Children of Cbriftian Parents, who give thdofi 
the mod pious Education, and fet thcni tlie beft 
Examples : And thveforc fuch would never be fo 
likely to be found in any P^rt or Age of the 
World, as in the primitive Chriftian Churdi> in the 
firft Age of Chriltidnity, (the Age of the Church'^ 
greateft Purity) fo long after ChFiIlianity had been 
citablilhed, that there had been. Time for. great 
Numbers of Children to be born, and educated 
by thofe primitive Chriftians. It was in that Age, 
and in fuch a Part of that Age, that the Apoltlc 
John wrote his firft Epiftle to the Chriftians that 
then were. But if there was then a Number of 
them come to Underftanding, who were perfedly 
free from Sin, why does he write as he does ? 
I John i. 8, 9, lo. JJf we fay that we have no Sin^ 
we deceive ourfelves^ and the Truth is not in us* 
If we confefs our Sins^ he is faithful and jufi to 
forgive us our Sins^ and to cleanfe us from aH Un^ 
right eoufnefs. If we fay that we have not finned^ 
we make him a Liar^ and the Truth is not in us*.. 


* If any fhould objeft, that this is an overllraining of 
Things ; and that it fuppofcs a greater Nicnefs and Exadl- 
»efs than is obferved in Scripture- Rcpiefentations and Expref- 
£ons, to infer from thefu Exprefions, that all Men fin inune- 
diate]y as foon as ever the/ are capable of it. I'o this I 
would fay, that I think the Arguments ufed are truly iblid, 
and do really and juftly conclude, either that Men are born 
guilty, and fo are chargeable with Sin before they come to a6l 
tor themfelveb, or elle commit Sin immediately, without tSe 
lead: Time intervening, after they are capable of undcr|landing 
their Obligations to God, and reficcting on themfelvesj and 
that the Scripture clearly determines, there is not one fuchf 
Perfon in the World, free from Sin. But whether this be a 
ftrtiining 'I'hings up fo toogreatan Exficlncfs, ornoti ytx I,fup- 
pofe,. None that do not entirely ict afide thc^ Senfe of {i^cjn 
Scri^ptures as have been mentioned, and deny thof« Propofi- 
tions which DuT, himfelf allows to be contained infome-ot 


Chap.. 1. 7 'MiH Jin-cdMiWAlfy: 43 

Again, the Reality and Greattiefe of the Depra- 
vity of Man's Nature appears in this. That he has 
a prevailing Prbpcnfity to be cmitinually finning 
againft God. What has been obftrvcd above, 
will clearly .prove- this.. That fame Difpofition of 
Nature, which is an effectual Propenfity to imme^ 
diate Sin,, amounts to a Propenfity to c(mUnp0l 
Sin. For a being prone to contimal finning,, is 
nothing but a Proneneli to immediate Sm confi-- 
nued. Such appears to be the Tendency of Na^ 
ture to Sin, that as foon as ever Man is capable, 
it caufes him immediately to fin, without fuUeringr 
any confiderable Time to pafs without Sin. Ana 
therefore, if the fame"- Propenfity be continued 
undiminiftied, there will be an equal Tendency to 
immediate finning again, without any confiderable 
Time paffing. And fo the fame will always be a 
Difpofition ftill immediately to fin, with as little 
Time pafling without Sin afterwards, as at firft. 
The only Reafon that can be given why Sinning 
mujft be immediate at firft, is that tlie Dlfpbfition 
is fo great^ that it will no; fuffer any confiderable 
Time to pafs without Sin : and therefore, the fame 
Difpofition being continued in equal Degree, with- 

them, will deny they prove, that no confiderahk Time pafles 
after Men are capable of ading for themfelves^ as the Sub- 
jects of God's Law, before they are guilty of Sin ; becaufc 
if the Time were confiderable, it would be great enough to 
deferve to be taken Notice of, as an Exception to iuch uni- 
verfal Propofitions, as. In thy Sight /hall no Man Irving bejufii-. 
fed, &c And if this be aillowed, that N'icn arc fo prone to 
iin, that in JPadl all Mankind do fin, as it ivere, immtdiately, 
after they Come to be capable of it, or fail not to fin fo 
foon, that w toKfiderable^tme pafTes before they run intoTranf- 
greffion againft God ; it does not much alter the Lafc, as to 
the prei'ent Argument. If the Time of Freedom from Sin be 
fo fmall, as not to be worthy of Notice in the lort mentioned 
«niverfal Propofitions of Scripture, it is alfo fo imall, as not 
to be worthy oi Notice in the prcfent Arguircnt. 

44 Men Jin increajtngly. Part I. 

out fomc new Reftralnt, or contrary Tendency, ii; 
will ftill equally tend to the fame EfFefl:. And 
though it is true, the Propenfity may be dimi- 
nifhed, or have Reitraints laid up6n it^ by gracious 
Difpofals of Providence, of merciful Influences of 
God*s Spirit •, yet this is not owing to Nature, 
That ftrong Propenfity of Nature, by which Men 
are fo prone to immediate Sinning at firft, has no 
Tendency in itfelf to a Diminution •,. but rather 
to an Increafe ; as the continued Exercife of an 
evil Difpofition, in repeated adlual Sins, tends to 
ftrengthen it more and more : agreeable to that 
Obfervation of Dr. T — r\ p. 228. •* We are apt 
** to be drawn into Sin by bodily Appetites, and 
*' ^en once we are under the Government of 
^* thefe Appetites, it is at leaft exceeding difficulty 
** if not impracticable, to recover ourfelves, by 
•' the mere Force of Reafon." The Increafe c^ 
Strength of Difpofition in fuch a Caie, is as in a 
falling Body, the Strength of its Tendency to de- 
fccnd is continually increafed, fo long as its Mo- 
tion is continued. Not only a conftant Commiffion 
of Sin, but a conftant Increafe in the Habits and 
Prafticc of Wickednefs, is the true Tendency of 
Man's depraved Nature, if unreftrained by divine 
Grace ; as the true Tendency of the Nature of an 
heavy Body, if Obflacles are removed, is not only 
to fdl with a continual Motion, but with a con- 
ilanuy increafing Motion. And we fee, that \vw 
creafing Iniquity is aftually the Confequence of 
natural Depravity, in moft Men, notwitnftanding 
all the Reftraints they have. Difpofitions to Evil 
are commonly much ftronger in adult Perfons, 
than in Children, when they firft begin to a£t in 
the World as rational Creatures. 


Chap- LT Sin in the btfi. 45. 

If Sin be fuch a Thing as Dr. ST. himfelf rcpre- 

fcnta it, p. 69. " a Thing of an odious and de- 

** ftruftive Nature, the Corruption and Ruin of 

*' our Nature, and infinitely hateful to God ;" 

then fuch a Propenfity to continual and increafing 

Sin, muft be a vtry evil Difoofition. And if we 

may judge of the Pernicioumefs of an Inclination 

of Nature, by the Evil of the ESeft it naturally 

tends to, the Propenfity of Man's Nature muft be 

evil indeed v For the Soul being immortal, as Dr. 

7*. acknowledges, p. 94. 5. it will follow from 

what has been obferved above, that Man has a 

natural Difpofition to one of thefe two Things; 

either to an Increafe of Wickednels without End, 

or till Wickednels comes to be fo great, that the 

Capacity of his Nature will not allow it to be 

greater. This being what his Wickednefs will 

come to by its natural Tendency, if divine Grace 

does not prevent, it may as truly be faid to be 

the Effedl which Man's natural Corruption tends 

to, as that an Acorn in a proper Soil, truly tends 

by its Nature to become a great Tree. 

Again, That Sin which is remaining in the 
Hearts of the beji Men on Earth, makes it evi- 
dent,, that Man's Nature is corrupt, as he comes 
into the World. A remaining Depravity of Hear^ 
in the greateft Saints^ may be argued fiom tht 
Sins of nioft of thofe who are fet forth in Scrip- 
ture as the moft eminent Inftances and Examples 
of Virtue and Piety : And is alfo manifeft from 
this. That the Scripture reprefents all God's Chil- 
dren as ftanding in Need of Chaftifement. Heb. 
xii. 6, 7, 8. For whom the Lord loveth^ he chafteneth-y 
and fcourgistb every Son whom he receiveth. — JVhal 
Son is he J whom the Father chajleneth not ? — If ye 
are wifhoui Chajiijementy — then, are ye- BaJlardSy aiid 


4* Sin in the beft. * iPkrt t 

not Sons. But this is dircftly and fully afferted in 
fome l^laces ; as in that forcmcntioned Ecclef. vii. 
20, Tkere is not a juft Man upon Earthy that doetb 
Good J and /tnneth not. Which rs as much as to 
fi^. There is no Man on Earth, that is fo juft, as 
to have attained to fuch a Degree of Righteouf- 
ncfs, as not to commit any Sin. Yea, the Apoftle 
James Ipeaks of all Chriftians as often finning, or 
committing many Sins ; even in that primitive Age 
of the Chriltian Church, an Age diftinguilhed 
from, all others by eminent Attainments in Holi- 
nefs ; Jam. iii. 2. /// many Things we all offend. 
And that there is Pollution in the Hearts of all, 
as the Remainder of moral Filth that was there 
antecedent to all Attempts or Means for Purifica- 
tion, is very plainly declared, in Prov. xx. 9. Who 
can fay^ I have made my Heart clean^ I am pure 
from my Sin ? 

According to Dr. 7*. Men come into the 
World wholly free from finful Propenfities. And 
if fo, it appears from what has been already faid, 
there would be nothing to hinder, but that many, 
without being better than they are by Nature, 
might pcrfeAly avoid the Commiffion of Sin. But 
much more might this be the Cafe with Men after 
they had, by Care, Diligence, and good Praftice, 
attained thofe pofitive Habits of Virtue, whereby 
they are at a much greater Diftance from Sin, 
than diey were naturally ; — Which this Writer 
fuppofes to be the Cafe with many good Men. 
But fince the Scripture teaches us, that the beft 
Men in the World do often commit Sin, and have 
remaining Pollution of Heart, this makes it abun- 
dantly evident, that Men, when they are no other- 
Wife than they were by Nitiire, without any of thofe 
virtuous Attainments, have a finful Depfavity ; yea, 
muft have great Corruption of Nature. 


Sea; V. S 

CJiapJ.:? More Siu than yiriue. ^A 

Sea. " ' 



vhe Depravity of Nature appears^ in that the 

.general Confequence of the State and Tendenej 

ef MatCs Nature is a much greater Degree of, 

Sif$i than Righteoufnefs ; not only with RefpeS 

V to Value and Demerit, but Matter and Quan- 

I Have bdfore (hewn, that there is a Propcnfity 
in Man's Nature to that Sin, which in Heinouf- 
ncfs and Dl-defert immenfely outweighs ail the 
Value and Merit of any fujppofed Good, that may 
be irt him, or that he can do. I now proceed to 
fay further, that fuch is Man's Nature, in his pre- 
fen^State, that it tends to this lamentable Effedt, 
That there fhould at all Times, through the Courfc 
of his Life, be at leaft much more Sin, than Righ- 
teoufnefs •, not only as to JVeight and Valiie^ but 
as to Matter and Meafure\ more Difagreement 
of Heart and Praftice from the Law of God, and 
from the Law of Nature and Reafon, than Agree- 
ment and Conformity. 

The Law of God is the Rule of Right, as Dr. 
7*. often calls it : It is the Meafure of Virtue and 
Sin : fo much Agreement as there is with this 
l^ule, fo much is there of Reftitude, Righteouf- 
nels, or true Virtue, and no more ; and . fo much 
Difagreement as there is with this Rule, fo mucU 
Sin is there* 

Having premifed this, the following Things 
may be here obierved. 

I. The Degree of Difagreement from this Rule 
of Right is tD be determined, not only by. the 


4$. M bavi mate Sin FsrtL 

Degree of Diilance from it in Excefs^ but alio in 
Defe£l \ or in other Words, not only in pofitive 
Tranfgrefliojti, or doing what is forbidden^ but alfi> 
in witholdirig what is required. The divine Law- 
giver does as much prohibit the one as the other, 
and does as ntuch charge the latter as a finful 
Breach of his Law, expofing to his eternal Wrath 
and Curfe, as the former. Thus at the Day of 
Judgment, as defcribed Matth. xxv. The wicked 
are condemned as curfedy to everlajiing Fire^ fw 
their Sin in Defedt and Omiflion : / was an bun^ 
gredy and ye gave me no Meaty (^c. And the Cafe 
is thus, not only when the Defedt is in Word or 
Behaviour, but in the inward Temper and Exercife 
of the Mind, i Cor. xvi. 2Z. If any Man love 
not the Lord Jefus Cbrifty let bim be Anatbima 
Maranatha. Dr. ST. fpeaking of the Sentenc^and 
Punilhment of the Wicked^ (Mattb. xxv. 41, 46.) 
fays, p. 159. " It was manifeftly for WANT of Be* 
nevolence> Love^ and Compaflion to their Fel- 
low-Creatures, that they were condemned.'* And 
elfcwhere, as was obferved before, he fays, that 
the Law of God extends to the latent Principles 
of Sin to forbid them, and to condemn to eternal 
Deftruftion for them. And if fo,^ it doubtlefs alfo 
extends to the inward Principles of Holinefs, to 
require them, and in like Manner to condemn for 
the Want of them. 

n. The Sum of our Duty to Gk)d, required iiii 
his Law, is Love to God -, taking Love in a larg^ 
Senfe, for the true Regard of our Hearts to God, 
implying Efteem, Honour, Benevolence, Grati- 
ttide, Complacence, &c. This is not only verv 
plain by the Scripture, but it is evident in itfelr.- 
The Sum of what the Law of God requires, is 
doubtlc& Obedience to that Law: No Law can 




ChaifiL^ than Right eoujnefs. 49^ 

S cA. V. f 

require more than that it be obeyed. But it is 
manifeft, that Obedience to God is Nothing, any 
otherwife than as a Teftimony of the Ref])e6t of 
cur Hearts to God : Without the Heart, Man's 
external Ads arc no more than the Motions of the* 
Lrimbs of a wooden Image ; have no more of thfe 
Nature of either Sin or Righteoufnefs. It muft 
therefore needs be fo, that Love to God, or the 
Refpe6t of the Heart, muft be the Sum of tlifc 
Duty required towards God in his Law. 

III. It therefore appears from the Premifes, that 
wlK)foever with-holds more of that Love or Rcfpeft 
of Heart from God, which his Law requires, than 
he affords, has more Sin than Righteoufnels. Not 
only he that has Icfs divine Love, than Paflions 
and Afieftions which are oppofite ; but alfo he 
that does not love God half fo much as he ought, 
or has Reafon to do, has juftly more Wrong than 
Right imputed to him, according to the Law of 
God, and the Law of Reafon -, he has more Irre- 
gularity than Reftitude, with Regard to the Law 
of Love. The finful Difrefpeft, or Unrefpeft- 
fulnefs of his Heart to God, is greater than his 
Relped: to him. 

But what confiderate Perfon is there, even a- 
mong the more virtuous Part of Mankind, but 
what would be afhamed to fay, and profefs before 
God or Men, that he loves God 'half fo much as 
hff ought to do \ or that he exercifes one Half of 
that Efteem, Honour and Gratitude towards God, 
which would be altogether becoming Hirn ; con- 
fidering what God is, and whajt great Manifcftations 
he has made of his tranfcendent Excellency and 
Goodnefs, and what Benefits he receives from 
him ? And if few or none of the beft of Men can 

E with 

go jffl have more Sin ' Part I* 

with Reafon and Truth make even fuch a Profcf- 
fion, how far from it muft the Generality of Mai^ 
kind be ? 

The chief and moft fundamental of all the 
Commands of the moral Law, requires us to love 
the Lord our God with all our Hearts^ and with aU 
ifur Soulsj with all our Strength j and all cur Mind : 
that is plainly, with all that is within us, or to the 
utmoft Capacity of our Nature ^ all that belongs 
/^, or is comprehended within the utmoft Extent 
or Capacity of our Heart and Soul, and Minded 
Strength, is required. God is in Himfelf worthy 
of infinitely greater Love, than any Creature can 
cxercifc towards him : He is worthy of Love equal 
to his Perfeftions, which are infinite : God Ipyes 
Himfelf with no greater Love than he is worthy 
of, when he loves himfelf infinitely : But we can 
give God no more th^n we have. Therefore, if 
we give him fo much, if we love him to the utn^oft 
Extent of the Faculties of our Nature, we arc 
€xcufed :. But when what is propoied, is only that 
we fhould love him as much as our Capacity will 
allow, this Excufe of Want of Capacity ceaies, 
and Obligation takes hold of us ; and we sfre 
doubtlefs obliged to love God to the utmoft of 
what is poflible for us, with fuch Faculties, and 
fuch Opportunities and Advantages to know God, 
as we have. And it is evidently implied in tkis 
great Commandment of the Law, that our Love 
to God fhould be fo great, as to have the moft 
abfolute Poffeflion of all the Soul, and the perfeft 
Government of all the Principles and Springs of 
Aftion that are in our Nature. 

Though it is not eafy, precifely to fix the Limits 
#f Man's Capacity, as to Love to God ; yet in 


Chap.r. ) ihan Rizhteottfnefs. ri 

Scft. V J & J J ^ 

general we may determine, that his Capacitj; of 
Xove is coextended with his Capacity of Knpw- 
ledge : The Exercife of the Underftanding opens 
the W^y for thp Exercife pf the othpr Faculty. 
Now, though we cannpt have any proper pofitive 
Underftanding of Qod's infinite E^fcellency ^ yet 
the Capacity of thp hunian Underftanding is very 
great, and may be extended far. Jt is needlefs to 
difpute, hpw far Pylan's Knowledge may be faid to 
be ftridly comprehenfjve of Things that are very 
great, ^s of the Extent pf the Expanfe of the 
jHeav^jis, or of the pimenfions of fhe Globe of 
the E^th ; and of fuch a great Number, as of t^e 
in^ny Millions of its Inhabitants. The Word 
Gpmprehenfivey fciems to be ambiguous. But doubt- 
Je6 we are capable pf fome proper pofitive Under- 
ftanding of the Greatnefs of thefe Things, }n 
Comparifon of other Things that we know, as 
unlpeakably exceeding them. We are capable of 
fome clear Underftanding of the Greatnefs or 
Confiderablenefs of a whole Nation j or of the 
whole World of Mankind, as vaftly exceeding 
that of a particular Perfon or Family. We jcan 
pofitively underfl^nd, that the whole Globe of the 
Earth is vaftly greater than a particular Hill or 
Mountain. And can have fome good pofitive 
Apprehenfion of the ftarry fleavens, as fo greatly 
exceeding the Globe pf the Earch, that the latter 
is as it were Nothing to it. So the human Facul- 
ties are capable of a jreal and clear Underftanding 
of the Greatnefs, Glory, and Good^efs of God, 
and of our Dependence Upon him, from the Ma- 
' nifeftations which God has made of himfelf to 
Mankind^ as being beyond all Expreflion abov^ 
that of the moft excellent human Friend, or earth- 
ly Objeft. And fo we are capable of an Efteepi 
and iJove xo "God, which ftiall be prpportionablev 

E 2 anil 

> »■ 

52 More Corruption ' Part I. 

and as much exceeding that which we haye to ^ny 

Thefe Things may help us to form fome ]udg* 
ment, how vaftly the Generality of Mankind fSl 
below their Duty, with refpeft to Love to God j 
yea, how far they are from coming half-way i;p 
that Height of Love, which is a reeable to the 
Rule of Right. Surely if our Efteem of Go(J» 
Defires after him, and Delight in him, were fuch 
as become us, confidering the Things foremen- 
tioned, they would exceed our Regard to other 
Things, as the Heavens are high above the Earth, 
and would fwallow up all other AfFeftions like a 
Deluge. But how far, how exceeding far, arc 
the Generality of the World from any Appearance 
of being influenced and governed by fuch a Pcgriec 
of divine Love as this ' 

If wa confider the Love of God, with refpcft 
to that ohe Kind of Exercife of it, namely. Gra- 
titude^ how far indeed do the Generality of Man- 
kind come fhort of the Rule of Right and Reafbn 
in this ! If we conlider how various, innumerable, 
and vaft the BeneBts are we receive, from God, 
and how infinitely great and wonderful that Grace 
of his is, which is revealed and offered to them 
that live under the Gofpel, in that eternal Salvation 
which is procured by God's giving his only be- 

• gotten Son to die for Sinners ; and alfo how un- 
worthy we are all, defer ving (as Dr. 7*, confcfles) 
eternal Perdition under* God's Wrath and Curfe ; 
how great is the Gratitude that would become us, 

^-who are the Subjefts of fo many and great Bene- 
fits, and have fuch Grace towards poor finful loft* 

L Mankind let before us in fo afiefting a Manner, 
as in the extreme Sufferings of the Son of G6d, 

»• being: 

CEap. h ? than Rigbteoufnefs^ in atL 53 

being carried through thofe Pains by a Love 
ftrohger than Death, a Love that cohquered thofe 
mighty Agonies, a Love whofe Length and Breadth^ 
and Depth and Height, paffes Knowledge ? But 
oh ! what poor Returns ! — How little the Grati- 
tude ! How low, how cold and inconftant the Af* 
feftion in the beft, compared with the Obligation ' 
And what then fhall be faid of the Gratitude of* 
the Generality ? Of rather, who can exprefs the 
Ingratitude ? 

If it were fo, that the greater Part of them that 
are called Chriftians, were no Enemies to Cfirift 
in Heart and Praftice, were not governed by 
Principles oppofite to him and his Gofpel, but 
had Ibmc real Love and Gratitude •, yet if their 
Love fails vaftly fliort of the Obligation or Occa- 
fk>n given, they are guilty of Ihameful and odious 
Ingratitude. As, when a Man has been the Sub* 
jeft :of fpme Inftance of tranfcendent Generofity^ 
whereby he has been relieved from th^ moft ex* 
treme Calamity, and brought! into very opulent^ 
honourable, and happy Circumftances, by a Bene- 
factor of excellent Charafter ; and yet exprefles no 
more Gratitude on fuch an Occafion, than would 
be requifite for feme Kindnefs comparatively in- 
finitely fniall, he may juftly fall under the Impu- 
tation of vile Unthankfulnefs, and of much more 
Ingratitude, than Gratitude -, though he may have 
no Hl-Will to his Benefactor; or no pofitive Affec- 
tion of Mind contrary to Thankfulnefs and Bene- 
volence : What is odious in him is his Defeft, 
whereby he falls fo vaftly below his Duty, 

Dr. 'TurnhuU abundantly infifts, that the Forces 
of the AfFeftions naturally in Man are well pro- 
portioned ; and often puts a Queftioii to thi* 

E 3 Purpofe, 


54 Mort Cmnptim Part % " 

Ptirpofe, — How Man's Nature could have been 
better conftituted in this Refpeft ? How die AfFec* 
tiSns of his Heart could have been beftcr propor- 
tioned ? — I will now mention one Inftartce, but erf 
many that might be m(*ntioned. Man, if his 
Heart were not depraved, might have had a Dif- 

gjiition to Gratitude to God for bis Goodnefi^ in 
ropbrtion to his Difpofitiort ito Anger toward 
Men for their Injuriet.- When I fay, in Proportion, 
I mean confidering the Greatnefs and Number of 
Favours and Injuries, and the Degree in which 
the one and the other are unmerited, and the 
Benefit received by the former, and the Damage 
fuftained Hy the latter. Is there not an apparent 
and vail Difference and Inequality in the Difpofi- 
tions to thefe two Kinds of Affeftion, in the Ge^ 
fterality of both old and young, adult Perfons and 
Kttle Children ? How ready is Refentment for 
Injuries received from Men ? And how eafily is 
it raifed in moll, at leaft to an Equality with the 
Dcfert ? And is it fo with refpeft to Gratitude' for 
Benefits received from God, in any Degree of 
Comparifon ? Dr. ^umbull pleads for the natural 
Difpofition to Anger for Injuries, as being good 
iind iifeful : But futely Gratitude to God, if wc 
were inclined to it, would be at leaft as good and 
ufeful as the other. 

How far the Generality of Mankind are from 
their Duty with refpeft to Love to God, will fur*- 
ther appear, if we confider that we are obliged 
jiot only to love him with a Love of Gratitude for 
Benefits received ; but true Love to God prima^ 
rily confifts in a fupreme Regard to him for 
what he is in himfelf. The Tendency of true 
Virtue is to treat every Thing as it is, and ac- 
cording to its Nature, And if we regard the Moft 


C^tfPrJ^l than Righteoufntfsy in all 55 

Hjghi acdording t6 the infinite Dignity and Glorv 
of hU Nature, we Ihall efteem and love him with 
ajlviour Heait and Soul, and to the utmoll of the 
edacity of our Nature, on this Account ; and 
not primarily becaufe he has promoted ourlnterell. 
If Groc) be infinitely excellent in Himfelf, then He 
is infinitely lovely on that Account -, or in other 
Words, infinitely worthy to be loved. And doubt* 
lef&, if he be worthy to be loved- for this, then he 
ought to be loved for this. And it is manifeft, 
there can be no true Love to Him, if he be not 
loved for what he is in himfclf. For if we love 
him not for his own Sake, but for fomething elfe, 
then our Love is not terminated on him, but on 
ibmething elfe, as its ultimate Objeft* That i& 
no true Value for infinite Worth, which impliesr 
no Value for that Worthinels in itfelf confidered, 
but only on the Account of fomething foreign. 
Our Efteem of God is fundamentally defective, if 
it be not primarily for the Excellency of his Na- 
ture, which is the Foundation of all that is valuable 
in him in any Refpeft. If we love not God becaufe 
he is what he is, but only becauie he is profitable 
to us, in Truth we love him not at all : If we 
fcem to love him, our Love is not to him, but to 
fomething elfe. 

. And now I muft leave it to every one to judge 
for himielf, from his own Opportunities of Obfer- 
vation and Information concerning Mankind, how 
little there 'is of this dilinterefted Love to God» 
tbis pure divine Affeftion, in the World. How 
very little indeed in Companion of other Ai&c<- 
tions altogether diverfe,^ which perpetually urge, 
aftuate and govern Mankind, and keep the World, 
through all Nations and Ages, in a conpnud Agi- 
fadon and Commotion ! This is an Evidence of 

£ 4 an 

^6 Mffre Corruption . Part*l# 

' . • • ■ 

an horrid Conteinpt of God, reigning in the World 
of Mankind. It would juftly be efteenicd a great 
inftance of Difrefpect and Contempt of a Prince^ • 
if one of his Subjects, when he came into his 
Houfe; (hould fet him below his meaneft Slave. 
But in fetting the infinite JEHOVAH bebw 
earthly Objefts and Enjoyments, Men degrade 
him below thofe Things, between which and him 
there is an infinitely greater Diftance, than between 
the higheft eaithly Potentate, and die moft abjeft 
of Mortals. Such a Conduft as the Generality of 
Men are guilty of towards God, continually and 
through all Ages, in innumerable Refpeds, would 
be accounted the nr.oft vile contemptuous Treat- 
ment of a Fellow-Creature, of diftinguifhed Dig- 
nity. Particularly Men's Treatment of the Offers 
God makes of Himfelf to them as their Friend, 
their Father, their God, and everlafting Portion ; 
their Treatment of the Exhibitions he has made 
of his unmeafurable Love, and the boundlefs 
Riches of his Grace in Chrift, attended with 
earneft repeated Calls, Counfels, Expoftulations, 
and Intreaties ; as alfo of the moft dreadful 
Threatnings of his eternal Difpleafure and Ven- 

Before I finifli this SeSlion^ it may be proper to 
fay fomething in Reply to an Objection, fome may 
be ready to make againfl the Force of that Argu- 
ment, which has been ufed to prove, that Men in 
general have more Sin than Righteoufnels, namely. 
That they do not come half-way to that Degree of 
Love to God, which becomes them, and is their 

The Ob^eSiion is this : That the Argument feems 
to prove too much, in that it will prove, that event 


Ckap. K 1 than Right eoufnefs in att. ^^ 

good Men themfelves have more Sin than Holinefs; 
which alfo has been fuppofed. But if this were 
• true, it would follow, that Sin is the prevalent 
Principle even in good Men, and that it is the 
Principle which has the Predominancy in the Heart 
^d Practice of the truly pious •, which is plainly 
contrary to the Word of God. 

I anfwer. If it be indeed fo, that there is more 
Sin, confifting in Defeft of required Holinefs, than 
there is of Holinefs in good Men in this World ; 
yet it will not follow, that Sin has the chief Go- 
vernment of their Heart and Praftice, for two 

1. They may love God more than other Things, 
and yet there may not be fo much Love, as there 
is Want of due Love -, or in other Words, they 
may love God more than the World, and there- 
fore the Love of God may be predominant, and 
yet may not love God near half fo much as they 
ought to do. This need not be efteemed a Para- 
dox : A Perfon may love a Father, or fome great 
Friend and Benefaftor, of a very excellent Cha- 
rafter, more than fome other Objeft, a thoufand 
Times lefs worthy of his Efteem and Affeftion, 
and yet love him ten Times lefs than he oqght ; 
and fo be chargeable, all Things confidercd, with 
a Deficiency in Refpeft and Gratitude, that is very 
unbecoming and hateful If Love to God prevails 
above the Love of other Things, . then Virtue will 
prevail above evil AfFcdtions, or pofitive Principles 
of Sin; by which Principles it is, that Sin. has a 
pofitive Power and Influence. For evil Affeftions 
radically confift in inordinate Love to other Things 
befides God: And therefore. Virtue prevailing 
beyond thefe, will have the governing Influence, 


S% Moiri Sm than t^irtut. Vzrt^L^ 

The Predominance ^ the Love of God in tho 
Heans of good Men, is more from the Nature o^ 
the Objed loved» and the Nature of the Principle • 
of true Love, than the Degree of the Principle. * 
The Objeft is One of fuprcine Lovelincfe \ im-* 
menfely above all other Objefts in Worthinels of 
Regard v and it is by fuch a tranfcendent Excel- 
lency, that he is God, and worthy to be regarded 
and adored as God : Ai^d he that truly loves God, 
loves him as God : True Love acknowledges him 
to be God, or to be divinely, and fupremely excel- 
lent ; and muft arife from fome Knowledge, Senle, 
and Convidion of his Worthinefs of fupreme Re- 
IpeA : And though the Senfe and View of. it may 
be very imperfedt, and the Love that arifes frortt 
it in like Manner imperfeft ; yet if there be any 
realifing View of fuch divine Excellency, it muft 
caufe the Heart to relpeit God above all, 

2. Another Reaibn, why a Principle of Holi* 
nefs maintains the Dominion in the Hearts of 
good Men, is the Nature of the Covenant of Grace, 
and the Promifes of that Covenant, on which true 
Chriftian Virtue relies, and which engage God's 
Strength and AiTiftance to be on its Side, and to 
help It againft its Enemy, that it may not be over- 
come. The Juit live by Faith. Holinefs in the 
Chriftian, or his fpiritual Life, is maintained, as 
it has Refpeft by Faith to its Author and Finilher, 
and derives Strength and Efficacy from the divine 
Fountain, and by this Means overcomes. For, as 
the Apoftle fays, ^his is the ViSory that overcomes 
the World J even our Faith. It is our Faith in hin^,^ 
who has promifed, never to leave nor forfake his 
People, and not to fwfake the Work of his own 
Hands, nor fuffer his People to be tempted above 
their Ability, and that his Grace fliall be fufficient 



%MP>I- 7. Extreme Sivfidltj^ ^. b§ 

for. them, and that his Strength Audi be made 
perfect in Weaknefs, and that where he has begun 
a - good Work he will carry it oh to the Day of 


S E C T. VI. 

The Corruption of Mdifs Natar^ appears hy in 

^ Tendency^ in its prefent State^ to an extreme 

Degree of Folly and Stupidity in Matters of 

IT appears, that Man's Nature is greatly depfa* 
ved, by an apparent Pronenefs to an exceeding 
Stupidity and Sottiflinels in thofe Things wherein 
his Duty and main Intereft are chiefly concerned* 

I fhall inftance in two Things^ viz, Men*s 
Pionenefs to Idolatry ; and fo general and great a 
pifregard of eternal Things^ aa appears in them 
that live under die Light of the GofpeL 

It is manifcfl:, that Man's Nature in its prefem 
•State is attended with a great Propenfiiy to rorfake 
the Acknowledgment and Worihip of the true 
God, and to fall Into the moft ftupid Idolatry^ 
This has been fufficiendy proved by known Fad, 
on abundant Trial : Inafmuch as the World of 
Mankind in general (excepting one fmall People, 
miraculoufly delivered and preferved) through all 
Nations, in all Parts of the World, Ages after 
Ages, condnued without the Knowledge and Wor- 
ihip of the true God, and overwhelmed in grofs 
Idolatry, without the leaft Appearance or Proiped 
«f its recovering, itfelf from fo great Blindnds, or 
, . returning 

^6 Ithe IdQlatry of the ff^orti f^rtti 

fretufhihg from its brutifli Principles and Cuftoms^ 
till delivered by divine Grace. 

■ ■ - 

In Ordet to the moft juft arguing from Fa£t^ 
concerning the Tendency of Man's Nature, as 
that is in itfelf, it fhould be enquired what the 
Event has been, where Nature has been left to 
itfelf, to operate according to its own Tendency, 
with leaft Oppofition made to it by any Thing 
fupernatural ; rather than in exempt Places, where 
the infinite Power fuid Grace of God have inter- 
pofed, and extraordinary Means have been ufcd to 
ftem the Current, and bring Men to true Religion 
and Virtue. As to the Means by which God'^ 
People of old, in the Line of Abrahamj were 
delivered and preferved from Idolatry, they weft 
miraculous, and of mere Grace : Notwithftanding 
which, they were often relapfing into the Notions 
and Ways of the Heathen ; and when they had 
backflidden, never were recovered, but by divine 
gracious Interpofitioft. And as to the Means *by 
ivhich many Gentile Nations have been debvered 
fince the Days of the Gofpel, they are fiich 2^ 
have been wholly owing to moft wonderful, mira- 
culous, and infinite Grace. God was under no 
Obligation to beftow on the Heathen World greater 
Advantages than they had in the Ages of their 
grofs Darknefs ; as appears by the Fait, that God 
aftually did not, for fo long a Time, beftow greater 

Dr. 7*. himfelf obferves, (Key^ p. »•) I'bat in 
about four hundred Tears after the Floods the 
Generality of Mankind were fallen into Idola- 
try. And thus it was every where through 
the World, excepting among that People that was 
faved and preferved by a conftant Series of Mira- 

CU«frpi t. \ • prbves corrupt Natun. 6i 

Sea. VI. J '^ 

cies, through a Variety of Countries, Nations, 

and Climates, great enough^ — and thro' fucceflivfe 

Changes, Revolutions, and Ages, numerous enough^ 

to be a fufficient Trial of what Mankind are prone 

to, if there be any fuch Thing as a fufficient 


That Men fliould forfake the true God for Idols, 
is an Evidence of the moft aflx)ni(hing Folly and 
Stupidity, by God*s own Teftimpny, Jer. ii. 12, 
13. Be aftmijhed^ O ye Heavens^ at this^ and be 
ye horribly afraid^ be ye very defolate^ faith the 
Lord: For my People have committed two Evils \ 
they have forfaken me, the Fountain of living IVa^ 
ters^ and have hewed out to themfelves Cijlerni^ 
broken Cijierns^ that can hold no Water. And -that 
Mankind in general did thus, fo foon after the 
Flood, was n-om the evil Propenfity of their 
Hearts, and becaufe they did not like to retain God 
in their Knowledge \ as is evident by Rom. i. 28. 
And the Univerfality of the Eifeft (hews that the 
Caufe was univerfal, and not any Thing belonging 
to the particular Circumftances of one, or only 
fome Nations or Ages, but fomething belonging 
to that Nature that is common to all Nations, and 
that remains the fame through all Ages. And 
what other Caufc could this great Effed: poflibly 
arife from, but a depraved Difpofition, natural to 
all Mankind ? It could not arife from Want of a 
fufficient Capacity or Means of Knowledge. This 
is in EfFedt confeffed on all Hands. Dr. Tumbull 
(Chrif. Phil. p. 21.) fays as follows : « The Exiit- 
" ence of one infinitely powerful, wife, and good 
*' Mind, the Author, Creator, Upholder, and 
** Governout of all Things, is a Truth that lies 
** plain and obvious to all that will but think;" 
And (ibid. p. 245. j " Moral Knowledge, which is 

'' the 

0i Tbi Ihlatry of the /Fortd Part 1. 

*^ the hioft important of all Knowkdge, may 
♦^c^ily be acqiiired by all Men." And a^ain^ 
(ibid^ p. 292.) '* Every Man by himfelf, if he 
** woulcl duly empby his Mind in the Concem- 
?* pUtion of the Works of God about him, or ' 
** in the Examination of his own Frame, — ^might 
** make very great Progrefs in the Knowledge of 
** the Wifiiom and Goodnefs of God. This all 
<^ Men, generally (peaking, might do, with very 
*' little Afliftancc ; for they have all fufficient 
^ Abilities for thus employing their Minds, and 
** have all fufficient Time for it." Mr. Locke fays, 
(Hum. Und, p. iv. Chap. iy. p. 242. Edit. 11.) 
^ Our own Exiftence, and the fenfible Parts of 
** the Univerfe, offtr the Proofs of a Deity ib 
•' clearly and cogently to our Thoughts, that I 
^ deem it impoffible for a confiderate Man to 
•* withftand them. For I judge it as certain and 
*• clear a Truth, as can any where he delivered, 
*' that the invifible Things of God are clearly fecn 
** from the Creation of the World, being under- 
*' ftood by the Things that are m^de, even his 
^* eternal Po%wer and Godhead." And Dr. ^. 
himfelf, (in p. 78.) fays, " The Light given' tt> 
^ all Ages and Nations of the World, is fufficiciit 
** for the Knowledge and Praftice of their Duty.** 
And in p. Ill, 112. citing thofe Words of the 
Apoftle, Rom. ii. 14, 15. fays, " This clearly 
** fui^ofes that the Gentiles, who were then in 
*^ |he World, might have done the Things con- 
*' tained in the Law by Nature, or their natural 
*' Power.** And in one of the next Sentences he 
fays, " The Apoftle, in Rom. i. 19, 20, 21. affirms 
" that the Gentiles had Light fufficient to have 
** feen God*s eternal Power and Godhead, in the 
^* Woriks of Creation -, and that the Reafon why 
^* they did not glorify him as God, was becfiufe 
t . ^' they 

.Cbtp,L ? p^ows €orrupt "Nature. ^t^j 

*' they became vain in their Inriaginadons, and had 
*^ darkened their foolilh Heart ; fo that they were 
** without Excufe," And in his Paraphrafe on 
thofe Verfes in the ill of Rom. he fpeaocs of the 
*' very' Heathens, that were without a- written 
^^ Revelation, as having that clear and evident 
*' Difcovery of God*s Being and Perfeftions, that 
** they are inexcufable in not glorifying him fuit- 
" ably to his excellent Nature, and as the Author 
** of their Being and Enjoyments.** And in p. 1 46. S. 
he iays, ** God affords every Man fufficient Light 
** to know his Duty." If all Ages and Nations 
■ of the World have fufficient Light for the Know- 
ledge a£ God, and their Duty to him, then even 
fuch Nations and Ages, in which the moll brutlfli 
Ignorance and Barbarity prevailed, had fufficient 
Light, if they had had but a Difpoiition to im- 
prove it •, and then much more thofe of the Hea- 
then, which were more knowing and poHflied, and 
in Ages wherein Arts and Learning had made 
greateft Advances. But even in fuch Nationts and 
Ages, there was no Advance made towards true 
Religion -, as Dr. Winder obferves, (Hijl. of Knowh 
vol. ii. p. 336.) in the following Words : ** The 
" Pagan Reiigion degenerated into greater Abfur- 
'** dity, the further it proceeded ; and it prevailed 
** in all its Height of x\bfurdity, when the Pagan 
** Nations were polifhed to the Height. Though 
** they itt out with the Talents of Reafon, and 
** had iblid Foundations of Information to build 
•* tipon, it in Faft proved,, that with all their 
•** lengthened Faculties, and growing Powers of 
Reafon, the Edifice of Religion rofe in the jnoft 
abfurd Drformities and Difpfoportions, and gra- 
dually went on in the moft irrational, difpro- 
portioned, incongruous Syftems, of which the 
** moft eafy Didates of Reafon would have de- 

" monftrated 

64 Tbi Idolatry of the World Part I. 

mpnftratcd the Abfurdity. They were contrary 
to all juft Calculations in moral Mathematicks.** 
He obferves, " That tRtir grofleft Abominations 
** firft began in Egypt ^ where was an Oftentation 
*' of the greateftProgrefs in Learning and Science : 
*' And they never renounced clearly any of their 
*' Abominations, or openly returned to the Wor- 
*' Ihip of the one true God, the Creator of aH 
*'^ Things, and to the original, genuine Sentiments 
** of the highcft and moft venerable Antiquity. 
** The Pagan Religion continued in this deep 
** State of Corruption to the laft. The Pagan' 
*' Philofophers, and inquifitive Men, made great 
*« Improvements in many Sciences, and even in 
** Morality itfelf; yet the inveterate Abfurdities 
*• of Pagan Idolatry remained without Remedy. 
*' Every Temple fmoked with Incenfe to the Sun 
^' and Moon, and other inanimate material Lu- 
*' minaries, and earthly Elements, to Jupiter, 
*' Juno, Mars, and Venus, '&c. the Patrons and 
*' Examples of almoft every Vice. Hecatombs 
*' bled on the Altars of a thoufand Gods -, as mad 
*' Superftition infpired. And this was not the 
*' Difgrace of our ignorant untaught Northern 
Countries only ; but even at Athens itfclf, the 
Infamy reigned, and circulated through all 
Greece \ and finally prevailed, amidft all their 
Learning and Politenefs, under the Ptolemy^% 
in Egyft^ and the C^far's at Rome, Now if the 
*' Knowledge of the Pagan World, in Religion, 
*'^ proceeded no further than this •, if they retained* 
*' all their Deities, even the moft abfurd of them 
" all, their deified Beafts, and* deified Men, even 
** to the laft Brea,-th of Pagan Power : We may 
juftly afcribe the great Improvements in the 
World, on the Subjeft of Religion, .to divine 
" Revelation, either vouchfafed in the Beginning, 

*' when 


■ » V 

Chap, u 1 prcves corrupt Nature^ 65 

Sed. vr. f 

when this Knowledge was competently clear 
and copious -, or at the Death of Paganifm, 
when this Light (hone forth in its confummate 
Luftre at the Coming of Chrift." 

Dr. 7*. often fpeaks of the Idolatry of the 
Heathen World, as great Wickednefs^ in which 
they were wholly inexcufable *, and yet often fpeaks 
of their Cafe as remedilefs, and of them as being 
dead in Sin, arid unable to recover themfelves. And 
if fo, and yet, according to his own Doftrine, every 
Age, and every Nation, and every Man, had fuf- 
ficient Light afforded, to know God, and to know 
and do their whole Duty to him ; then their In- 
ability to deliver themfelves muft be a moral 
Inability, confifting in a defperate Depravity, ana 
moft evil Difpolition of Heart. 

And if there had not been fufficient Trial of 
the Propenfity of the Hearts of Mankind, thro* 
all thofe Ages that pafTed from Abraham to Chrift, 
the Trial has been continued down to this Day, 
in all thofe vaft Regions of the Face of the Earth, 
that have remained without any Effefts of the 
Light of the Gofpel ; and the difmal Effeft con- 
tinues every where unvaried. How was it with 
that Multitude of Nations inhabiting South and 
U^rtb America ? What Appearance was there, 
when the Europeans firft came hither, of their 
being recovered, or recovering, in dpy Degree, 
from the groffeft Ignorance, Delufioris, and moft 
ftupid Paganifm ? And how is it at this Day, in 
thofe Parts of Africa and Afia, into which the 
Light of the Gofpel has not penetrated .? 

. This ftrongand univerfally prevalent Difpofition 
of Mankind to Idolatry, of whjch there has been 

F / fuch 

6^ Of Metfs ftupU Difregard Part L 

fuch great Trial, and fo notorious and vaft Prcx)f, 
in Faft, is a moft glaring Evidence of the exceed- 
ing Depravity of the human Nature j as it is a 
Propenfity, in the utmoft Degree, contrary to the 
higheft End, the main Buflnefs, and chief Hap- 
pineis of Mankind, confifting in the Knowledge, 
Service, and Enjoyment of the living God, the 
Creator and Governor of the World j — in the higheft 
Degree contrary to that for which mainly God 
gave Mankind more Underftanding than the Beafts 
of the Earth, and made them wil'er than the Fowls 
of Heaven •, which was, that they might be capa- 
ble of the Knowledge of God : — And in the higheft 
Degree contrary to the firft and greateft Com- 
mandment of the moral Law, That we Jhould 
have no other Gods before JEHOVAHy and that 
we fhould love and adore him with all our Heart, 
Soul, Mind, and Strength, The Scriptures are 
abundant in reprefenting the Idolatry of the Hea- 
then World, as their exceeding Wickednefs, and 
their moft brutifh Stupidity. They that worfhip 
and truft in Idols, are faid themfelves to- be like 
the lifelefs Statues they worfhip, like mere fenfe- 
lefs Stocks and Stones, Pfalm gxv, 4 — 8. a»d 
CKxxv. 15 — 1 8. 

A Second Inftance of the natural Stupidity of the 
Minds of Mankind, that I ftiall obfervc, is, that 
great Ififregard of their own eternal Inter eft ^ whiqh 
appears fo remarkably, fo generally among them 
tha^ live under the GofpeL 

As Mr, Locke obferves, (Hum. Und. voL L 

p. 207.) " Were the Will determined by the Views 

*' of Good, as it appears in Contemplation, greater 

" or lefs to the .Underftanding, it could never get 

. ^ loofe frooi the infinite eternal Joys of Heaven, 

" once 

Ch*p. 1. \ pf fterml Things. $7 

Sedl. VI. X "^ ^ "^ 

*' once propofed, and confidered as poflible ; the 
** eternal Condition of a future State infinitely 
*' outweighing the Expeftation of Riches or Ho- 
*' nour, or any other worlcjly Pleafure, which we 
*' can propofe to ourfelves •, though we fbould 
*' graqt thefe the more probable to be obtained.'* 
Again, (p. 228, 229.) " He that will not be fo 
far a rational Creature, as to refled ferioufly 
upon infinite Happinefs and Mifery, muft needs 
" condemn himfelf, as not making that Ufe of 
" his Underflanding he Ihould. The Rewards 
*' and Puniftiments of another Life, which the 
** Almighty ha$ eftablifhed, as the Enforoemcnts 
*' of his I^ws, are of Weight enough to deter* 
** mine the Choice, . againtt whatfocver Ple^fure 
" or Pain |:his Life can (hew. When the eternal 
Sfate is cpnCidered but in its bare Poflibility, 
which nobody can make any Doubt of, he that 
will ^llo-w eyquifite and endjefs Happinefs to be 
but the poflible Coniequence of a good Lif(» 
here, aiwl ^ contrary State the poflTibTe Reward 
of a b^ one, muft own himfelf $0 judge very 


" mwh ai;nif9j if he does not coi^clude that a vir- 
^' tuous Life, with the certain Expeftation of 


everfafting Blifs, which may ^ome, is to be 
prefj^rr^ to a vicious one, with th^ Fear of that 
dreadful State of Mifery, which it is very pot 
fiible n>ay overtake the guilty, or at lealt the 
terrible uncert^n Hope pf Annihilation. Tjhis 
is evidently fp ; though the virtuous Life here 
had noishing but Pain, and the vicious cpntinu^ 
Ple^fure -, which yet is for the moft Part quite 
od^rwift, and wicked NJ^n have not mwch th^ 
" Odds to brag of, ^ven in their prefent Poffef- 
" fion : Nay, all Things rightly confidered, hav^s 
^*. I think c)^n the .woirft Part here. But 'whw 
^* in^aitc H^ppjnefe i$ put m on^ Sfal^,. ^ggji^nft 

F 2 *' iniinite 

69 Of Men's ftupid Difregard Part f. 


infinite Mifery in the other ; if the worft that 
comes to the jmous Man, if he miftakes, be the 
** beft that the wicked Man can attain to, if he 
** be in the right-, who can, without Madncfs, 
*' run the Venture ? Who in his Wits would 
" chufe to come within a Poflibility of infinitef 
*' Mifery? which if he mifs, there is yet Nothing 
•' to be got by that Hazard : Whereas, on the 
" other Side, the fober Man ventures Nothing, 
" againft infinite Happinefs to be got, if his Ex- 
*' peftation comes to pafs/* 

That Difpofition of Mind which is a Propenfity 
to aft contrary to Reafon, is a depraved Difpofi- 
tion, It is not becaufe the Faculty of Reafon, 
which God has given to Mankind, is not fufficient 
fully to difcover to them, that forty, fixty, or an 
hundred Years, is as Nothing in Comparifon of 
Eternity, infinitely lefs than a Second of Time to 
an Hundred Years, that the greateft worldly Pro- 
fperity and Pleafure is not treated with mod perfe6t 
Difregard, in all Cafes where there is any Degree 
of Competition of earthly Things, with Salvation 
from exquifite eternal Mifery, and the Enjoyment 
of everlafting Glory and Felicity ; as certainly it 
would be, if Men afted according to Reafonl 
But is it a Matter of Doubt or Controverfy, whe- 
ther Men in general do not ftiew a ftrong Difpo^ 
fition to aft far otherwife, from their Infancy, 
till Death is in a fenfible Approach ? In Things 
that concern Men's temporal Intereft, they eafily 
difcern the DiflTerence between Things of a long 
and (hort Continuance. It is no hard Matter to 
convince Men of the Difference between a being 
admitted to the Accommodations and Entertain- 
mc;;its of a convenient, beautiful, well-furnilhed 
Habitation, and to partake of the Provifions and 

.1 Produce 

«kap. L 7 of eternal Thiim. fo 

Sed.VLJ ' "^ ^ ^ 

Produce of a plentiful Eftate for a Day, or a Night ; 
and having all given to them, and fettled upon 
them, as their own, to poflefs as long as they 
live, and to be theirs, and their Heirs for ever : 
There would be no Need of Men's preaching. 
Sermons, and fpending their Strength arid Life, 
to convince Men of the Difference, Men know 
how to adjuft Things in their Dealings and Con- 
tradls one with another, according to the Length 
of Time in which any Thing agreed for is to be. 
ufcd or enjoyed. In temporal Affairs, Men are 
fcnfible that it concerns them to provide for future 
Time, as well as for the prefent. Thus common 
Prudence teaches them to take Care in Summer 
to lay up for Winter ; yea, to provide a Fund, 
and, get a folid Eftate, whence they may be fup- 
plied for a long Time to come. And not only fo, 
but they are willing and forward to fpend and be 
Ipent, to provide that which will ftand their Chil- 
dren in Stead, after they are dead ; though it be 
quite uncertain, who fhall ufe and enjoy what they 
lay up, after they have left the World ; and if 
their Children Ihould have the Comfort of it, as 
they defire, they will not partake with them in 
that Comfort, or have any more a Portion in any 
Thing under the Sun. In Things which relate to 
Men's temporal Intereft, they feem very fenfible 
of the Uncertainty of Life, eipeclaliy of the Lives 
of others ; and to make anfwerable Provifion for 
the Security of their worldly Intereft, that no 
coniiderable Part of it may reft only oa fo uncer- 
tain a Foundation, as the Life of a Neighbour 
or Friend. Common Difcretion leads Men to 


take good Care, that their outward Pofleffions be 
weH fecured, by a good and firm Title. In worldly 
Concerns, Men are difcerning of their Opportu- 
nities, and carefyl to improve them before they 

.... F 3 ^^^ 

70 Ti^is Stuptdify proves T^avtl. 

are paft. The Hulbandfrian' is careful to plow his 
Ground, and fow his &ed) in the proper Seafon j 
dtherwife he knows he cannot expeft a Crop : 
And when the Hanreft is come^ he will not deep 
away the Time j for he knows, if he does fo^ the 
Crop will foon be loft. How careful and eagle- 
eyed is the Merchant to obferve and improve his 
Opportunities ind Advantages to enrich himfelf f 
How apt are Men to be alarmed at the Appear- 
ance of Danger to their worldly Eftate, or any 
Thing that remarkably threatens great Lofs of 
Damage to theif outward Intercft ? And how will 
ihey beftir themfelves iii fuch a Cafe, if poflible to 
avoid the threatened Calamity ? In Things purely 
iecular, arid not of a moral or fpiritual Nature^ 
Men eafily receive Conviftion by paft Experience^ 
when any Thing, on repeated Trial, proves un- 
profitable or prejudicial; artd are ready to tnk^ 
Warning by what they have found th^hnfelves, and 
dfo by the Experience of their Neighbours atid 

But if we conflder how Men generally ccndu<5t 
themfelves in Things on which their Well-being 
does infinitely more depend, how vaft is the Di- 
verfity ? In thefe Things how cold, lifclefs, and 
dilatory ? With what Difficulty are a Few of 
Multitudes excited to any tolerable Degree of 
Care and Diligence, by the innumerable Means 
ufed with Men to make them wife for themfelves ? 
And when fome Vigilance and Activity is excited^ 
how apt is it to die away, like a mere Force againft 
a natural Tendency ? What Need of a conftant 
Repetition of Admonitions and Counfels^ to kee]^ 
the Heart from falling afleep ? How many Ol>» 
jeftions are made ? And how are Difficulties mag*- 
iiified ? And how foori is thfe Mind difcouraged t 


Chap.!.} dreadful Corrtfpthn af Nature. yt 

Sed.VI. J 

How many Arguments, and often renewed, and 
varioufly and elaborately enforced, do Men ftand 
in Need of, to convince them of Things that are 
felf- evident ? As that Things which are eternal, 
are infinitely more important than Things tempo- 
ral, and the like. And after all, how very few are 
convinced efFeftually, or in fuch a Manner as to 
induce to a praftical Preference of eternial Things ? 
How fenfelefs are 'Men of the Ncceffity of im* 
proving their Time to provide for Futurity, as to 
their fpiritual Intcreil, and their Welfare in another 
World? Though it be an endlefs Futurity, and 
though it be their own perfonal, infinitely import- 
ant Good, after they are dead, that is to be cared 
for, and nbt the Good of their Children, which 
they Ihall have no Share in. — ^Though Men artf 
fo fenfible of the Uncertainty of their Neighbours 
Lives, when any confiderable Part of their Eftates 
depends on the Continuance of them; how ftupidly 
fenfelefs do they feem to be of the Uncertainty of 
their own Lives, when their Prefervation from im- 
menfely ^reat, remedilefs, and endlefs Mifery, is 
rifqued by a prefent Delay, through a Dependence 
on future Opportunity ? What a dreadful Venture 
will Men carelefsiy and boldly run, and repeat and 
multiply, with Regard to their eternal Salvation, 
who are very careful to have every Thing in a 
Deed or Bond firm, and without a Flaw ? Hov^ 
negligent are they of their fpecial Advantages and 
Opportunities for their Soul's Gocxl ? How hardly 
awakened by the moft evident and imminent Dan- 
gers,' threatening eternal Deltruftion, yea, though 
put in Mind of them, and much Pains taken to 
point them forth, fhew them plainly, and fully to 
reprefcnt them, if poflible to engage their Atten- 
tion to them ? How are they like the Horfe, that 
boldly ruflies into the Battle ? Hov/ hardly are 

F 4 Men 

/]% This Stupidity proves Part L 

.Men conTinced by their own frequent and abun* 

ddknt Experience, of the unfatisfadtory Nature of 

.earthly Things, and the Inftability <rf their own 

'Hearts in their good Frames and Intentions ? And 

-how hardly convinced by their own Obfervation, 

aiid the Experience of all paft Generations, of the 

.Uncertainty of Life,' and its * Enjoyments ? PfaK 

xlix. 1 1 . &c. Their inward Thought isy that thieir 

Houfes Jhall cdntinue for ever. — Neverthelefs^ Man 

being in Honour^ abi^th not ; he is like ^e Beafts 

that perijb. This their Way is their Folly •, yet their 

PojUrity approve their Sayings. Like Sheep art 

they laid in the Grave. 

. In thefe Things, Men that are prudent for 
their temporal Intereft, a6t as if they were bereft 
x)f Reafon : They have EyeSy and fee not ; Ears^ 
and hear not ; neither do they underjiand : They are 
Uke the Horfe and Mule, that have no Under" 
ftanding. — Jen viii. 7. The Stork in the Heaven 
knowetb her appointed Times ; and the Turtle^ and 
the Crane, and the Swallow^ obferve the Time of 
their Coming : But my People know ndt the Judg- 
ment of the Lord. 

Thefe Things are often mentioned in Scripture^ 
as Evidences of extreme Folly and Stupidity, 
wherein Men aft as great Enemies tothemfelves, 
as though they loved their own Ruin i Prov. viii. 
%^. Laying wait for their own Blood, Prov. i. 18. 
And how can thefe Things be accounted for, but 
by fuppofing a moft wretched Depravity of Na- 
ture ? Why otherwife ihould not Men be as wife 
for themfelves in fpiritual and eternal Things, as 
'in temporal ? All Chriftians will confefs, that 
Man's Faculty of Reafon was given him chiefly 
to enable him to underftand the former, wherein 
'<• his, > dreadful Corruption of Nature. 73 

Seft.VI, J * . 

his main Intereft, and true Happinefs confifii. 
This Faculty would therefore undoubtedly be 
every way as fit for the underftanding of them^ 
as the latter, if not depraved. The Reafon why 
thefe are underftood, and not the other, is not 
that fuch /Things as have been mentioned, be- 
longing to Men's ' fpiritual . and eternal Interefl^ 
are ciore obfcure and abilrufe in their own Na- 
ture. For Inftance, the Difference between long 
and ihort, the Need of providing for Futurity, 
the Importance of improving proper Opportunities, 
and of having good Security, and a fure Founda- 
tion, in Affairs wherein our Intereft is greatly 
concerned, &c. thefe Things are as plain in them- 
felves in religious Matters, as in other Matters. 
And we have far greater Means to aflift us to be 
wife for ourfelves in eternal, than in temporal 
Things. We have the abundant Inftruftion of 
perfed: and infinite Wifdom itfelf, to lead and 
.condud us in the Paths of Righteoufnefs, fo that 
we may not err. And the Reafons 06 Things arc 
moft clearly, varioufly, and abundantly fet before 
us in the Word of God ; which is adapted to the 
Faculties of Mankind, tending greatly to enlighten 
and convince the Mind : Whereas, we have no 
fuch excellent and perfed: Ruks to inftruft>and 
direft us in Things pertaining to our temporal 
Intereft, nor any Thing to be compared to it. 

If any (hould fay. It is true, if Men gave full 
Credit to what they are told concerning eternal 
Things, and thefe appeared to them as real and 
(:ertain Things, it would be an Evidence of a Sort 
of Madnefs in them, that they fliew no greater 
Regard to them in Eradlice : But there is Reafon 
to think, this is not the Cafe ; the Things of ano- 
ther World being unfeen Things, appear to Men 


74 5**^5 Stupidity proves^ &?r. Part t 

as Things of a very doubtful Nature, and attended 
with great Uncertainty. — In Anfwer, I would 
obferve, agreeable to what has been cited from 
Mr. Locke^ Though eternal Things were confidered 
in their bare Poflibility, if Men afted rationally, 
they would infinitely outweigh all temporal Things 
in their Influence on their Hearts. And I would 
alfo obferve, that the fuppofing eternal Things 
not to be fully believed, at leaft by them who 
enjoy the Light of the Gofpel, does not weaken, 
but rather (lengthen the Argument for the De- 
pravity of Nature. For the eternal World beinff 
what God had chiefly in View in the Creation ^ 
Men, and the Things of this World being made 
to be wholly fubordinate to the other, Man^s State 
here being only a State of Probation, Preparation, 
and Progreflion, with refpeft to the future State, 
and fo eternal Things being in Effeft Men's All, 
their whole Concern; to underftand and know 
which, it chiefly was, that they had Underftanding 
given them ; and it concerning them infinitely 
more to know the Truth of eternal Things than 
any other, as all that ate not Infidels will own ; 
therefore we may undoubtedly conclude, that if 
Men have not refpeft to them as real and certain 
Things, it cannot be for Want of fufficient Evi- 
dence of their Truth, to induce them fo to regard 
them ; efpecially as to them that live under that 
Light, which God has appointed as the mofl: pro- 
per Exhibition of the Nature and Evidence of 
thefe Things : But it muft be from a dreadful 
Stupidity of Mind, occafioning a fottilh Infenfi- 
bility of their Truth and Importance, when ma- 
nifefted by the clearefl: Evidence. 


Chap. I. 7 ^he Generality fif Mankind^ t?r. yi^ 

Sed. VII. J 


That Man*s Nature is corrupt^ appears^ in that 
vq/tly the greater Part of Mankind^ in all jigeSy 
have been wicked Men. 

THE Depravity of Man's Nature appears, 
not only in its Pmpenfity to Sin in fomtf 
Degree^ which renders a Man an evil or wicked 
Man in the Eye of the Law^ and Uriel Juftice, as 
was before {hewn ^ but it is fo corrupt, that its 
Depravity either (hews that Men are^ or tends to 
make them to be^ of fuch an evil Character, as 
0iall denominate them wicked Men, according to 
the Tenor of the Covenant of Grace. 

This may be argued from feveral Things which 
have been already obfervcd : As from a Tendency 
to continual Sin -, a Tendency to much greater' 
Degrees of Sin than Righteouihefs, and from the 
general extreme Stupidity, of Mankind. But yet 
the prefrnt State of Man's Nature, as implying, 
or tending to a wicked CbaraRer^ may be worthy 
to be more particularly confidercd, and diredtly 
proved. And in general, this appears, in that there 
have been ic^ very Few in the World, from Age to 
Age^ ever fince the World has itood, that have 
been of any other Charafter. 

It is abundantly evident in Scripture, and is 
what I fuppofe none that call themfelves Chriftians 
will deny, that the whole World is divided into 
Good and Bad, and that all Mankind at the Day 
of Judgment will either be approved as righteous, 
or condemned as wicked ; either glorified, as ChiU 
dren of the Kingdom^ or call into a Furnace of Fire, 
as Children of the wicked One. 
• ' I need 

76 ^he Generality of Part t 

I need not Hand to fhew what Things belong 
to the Charafter of fuch as (hall hereafter be ac- 
cepted as righteous, according to the Word of 
God, It may be fufficient for my prefent Purpofe, 
to obferve what Dr. ^. himfelf fpeaks of, as be- 
longing eflentially to the Charafter of fuch. In 
p. 203. he lays, " This is infallibly the Charader' 
^' of true Chriftians, and what is eflential to fuch, 
** that: they have really mortified the Flefti with 
*' its Lulls 5 — ^Thcy are dead to Sin, and live no 
*' longer therein ; the old Man is crucified, and 
*' the Body of Sin deftroyed : They yield them- 
^ felves to God, as thofe that are alive horn the 
♦' Dead, and their Members as Inftruments of 
*' Righteoufnefs to God, and as Servants of Righ- 
** teoufnefs to Holinefs." — There is more to the 
like Purpofe in the two next Pages. In p. 228. 
he fays, " Whatfoever is evil and corrupt in us, 
*' we ought to condemn -, not fo, as it (hall ftill 
** remain in us, that we may always be con- 
^ demning it, but that we may fpecdily reform, 
•' and be efieftually delivered from it ; otherwife 
*' certainly we do not come up to the Charafter of 
" the true Difciples of Chrift." 

In p. 248. he fays, " Unlefs God*s Favour be 
>* preferred before all other Enjoyments whatr 
*' foever, unlefs there be a Delight in the Worlhip 
*' of God, and in Converfe with Him, unlefs every 
>^ Appetite be brought into Subjeftion to Reafon 
*' and Truth, and unlefe there be a kind and 
'' benevolent Difpofition towards our Fellow-Crea- 
^' tures, how can the Mind be fit to dwell with 
God, in his Houfe and Family, to do him 
Service in his Kingdom, and to promote the 
Happinefs of any Part of his Creation." — And 
in his Key, § 286. p. loi, 102, &c. Ihewing 



Chap. 1. 1 Mankind are tyicked, *ri 

Sea. VII. J '' 

there, what it is .to ht a true Chriftian^ he fays^ 
among other Things, " That he is one who hii 
" fuch a Senfe and Pcrfuafion of the Love of God 
*' in Chrift, that he devotes his Life to the Honouf 
*' and Service of God, in Hope of eternal Glory^ 
** And that to the Charadter of a true Chriftian, 
*' it is abfolutely neceffary, that he diligently ftudjr 
'* the Things that are freely <given him of God^ 
viz. his Eleftion, " Regeneration, &c. that he 
may gain a juft Knowledge of thofe jneftimable 
Privileges, may tafte that the Lord is gracious i 
and rejoice in the Gofpel-Salvation, as his greateft 
Happinefs and Glory. — It is neceflary, that he 
" work thele Bleflings on his Heart, till they be-^ 
" come a vital Principle, producing in him the 
" Love of God, engaging him to all chearful 
" Obedience to his Will, giving him a proper 
" Dignity and Elevation of Soul, raifing him above 
*' the bcft and worft of this World, carrying his 
" Heart into Heaven, and fixing his AfFeSions 
and Regards upon his everlafting Inheritance, 
and the Crown of Glory laid up for him there* 
*' —Thus he is armed againft all the Temptations 
** and Trials refulting from any Pleafure or Pain^ 
" Hopes or Fears, Gain or Lofs, in the prefent 
^ World. None of thefe Things move him from 
" a faithful Difcharge of any Part of his Duty, or 
" from a firm Attachment to Truth and Righ- 
" teoufnefs; neither counts he his very Life dear 
to him, that he may do the Will of God, and 
finiih his Courfe with Joy. In a Senfe of the 
" Love of God in Chrift, he maintains daily 
*' Comniunion with God, by reading and medi- 
tating on his Word. In a Senfe of his own 
Infirmity, and the Readinefs of the divine Fa- 
'' vour to fucGOur him, he daily addrefles the 
*' Throne of Grace, for the Renewal of fpiritual 





to IVickednefs general P^itL 

mention the comparative Smallnefs of the Num- 
ber of them that are faved, as a Confequencc of 
the peculiiar Perverfenefs of that People, and o^ 
that Generation ; but as a Confequence of the 
general Circumftances of the Way to Life, and 
the Way to Deftruftion, the Broadnefs of the onc^ 
and the Narrownefs of the other. In the Strait- 
nefs of the Gate, &c. I fuppofe none will deny, 
that Chrift has Refpeft to the Strifthefs of thofe 
Rules, which he had infilled on in the preceding 
Sermon, and which render the Way to Life very 
difficult to Mankind. But certainly thefe amiable 
Rules would not be difficult, were they not con- 
trary to the natural Inclinations of Men*s Hearts ; 
and they would not be contrary to thofe Inclina- 
tions, were thefe not depraved. Confequently the 
Widenefs of the Gate, and Broadnefs of the Way, 
that leads to Deftruftion, in Confequence of which 
many go in thertat, muft imply the Agreeablenefs 
of this Way to Men's natural Inclinations. The 
like Reafon is given by Chrift, why few are faved* 
Luke xiii. 23, 24. "Then faid one unto him^ Lord^ 
are there few .faved ? And he faid unto ' themy 
Strive to enter in at the Jirait Gate : For many 
I fay unto you^ fhall feek to enter in^ and fball 
not be able. That there are generally but few 
good Men in the World, even among them that 
have thofe moft diftinguifhing and glorious Ad- 
vantages for it, which they are favoured with that 
live under the Gofpel, is evident by that Saying 
of our Lord, from Time to Time in his Mouth, 
Many are called^ but few afe chofen. And if there 
are but few among thefe, how few, how very few 
indeed, muft Perfons of this Charafter be, com- 
pared with the whole World of Mankind ? The 
exceeding Smallnefs of the Number of true Saints, 
compared with the whole World, appears by the 


Chap.;!. 7 in all Ages. 84 

ReprefentatioDs often made of them as diftin- 
guilhed from the World j in which they' are fpok^'n 
of as called and chofen out of the IVorldy redeemed. 
from the Earth, redeemed from among Men ; as 
being thofe that are of God, while the whole World 
liech in Wickednefs, and the like. And if we 
look into the Old Teftamenr, we Ihall find the 
fame Teftimony given. Prov. xx. 6. Moft Men 
will proclaim every Man bis own Goodnefs : But a 
faithful Man who can find Z' By a faithful ManJ ' 
is the Phrafe is ufed in Scripture, is intended' 
much the fame as a fmcere, upright, or truly good . 
Man ; as in Pfai. xii. i. and xxxi. 23. and ci. 6- \ 
and other Places. Again, Eccl. vii. 25—29. / 
applied mine Heart to kmw^ and to fearch, and to 
find out Wifdom, and the Re'afon of Things^ and 
to know . the Wickednefs of Folly y even pf Foolifh-- 
nefs and Madnefs : And I find more bitter than 
Deaths the Woman wbofe Heart is Snares^ &c.— 
Behold^ this have I found, faith the Preacher, count- 
ing one by one, to find out the Account^ which yet my 
Soul feeketh, but I find not : One Man among a 
Thoufand have J found •, but a Woman among all 
thefe have 1 not f^ound. Lo, fhis only have I' 
found, that God made Man upright -, but they have 
fought out many Inventions, Solmon here fignifies, 
that when he fet himfelf diligently to find out 
the Account or Proportion of true Wifdom, or 
thorough Uprightnefs among Men, the Refulc 
was, . that he found it tj^ be but as one to a Thou- 
sand, &c. Dr. 5r. on this Place, p. 184. fays, " The 
^' wife Man in the Context, is inquiring into the 
*' Corruption and Depravity of Mankind, c£ the 
V Men and Women, THAT LIVED IN HIS 
*' TIME/' As though what he faid reprcfented* 
Nothing of the State of Things in the World in 
general, . bat only in his. Time. But d<>e5 Dr. 5C. ' 
, ,s G or 

fit U^Ukednefs generat Part 1. 

©r any Body clfe, fuppofe this only to be the De- 
fign of that Book, to reprefent the Vanity and 
Evil of the World in that Time^ and to fhew that 
all was Vanity and Vexation of Spirit in Solomon^ 
Day ? (Which Day truly we have Reafon to think, 
was a Day of the greateft Smiles of Heaven on 
that Nation, that ever had been on any Nation 
from the Foundation of the WorldO Not only does 
the Subje6t and Argument of the whole Book 
fhew it to be othcrwife; but iilfo the decllared 
Defign of the Book in the firft Chapter j where 
the World is reprefented as very much the fame, 
a^ to the Vanity and Evil it is full erf, from Age 
to Age, making little or no Progrefs, after all its 
Revolutions and reftlefs Motions, Labours and 
Purfuits, like the S^a, that has all the Rivers con- 
ftantly emptying themfelves into it, from Age to 
Age, and yet is never the fuller. As to that Place, 
ProV. xx^ 6. A faithful Man who can .find? there 
is no more Reifon to fupp(^ that the wife Man 
has refpeft only to his Time, in thefe Words, than 
in thofe immediately preceding, Counfel in the 
. Heart of a Man is like deep IVaters ; but a Man of 
Underfianding will draw it out. Or in- the Words 
next following, The jujl Man walk€th in his In- 
tegrity : His Children are hlejfed after him^ Or m 
any other Proverb in the whole Biook, And if it 
were fo^ that Solomon in thefe Things meant only 
to defcribe his own Times, it would not ataU 
weaken the Argument. For, if we obferve the 
Hiftory of the Old TeQiamcnt, there is Reafon ta 
think there never was any Time from Jojhua tor 
the Captivity, wherein Wickednefs was more re- 
ftrained, and Virtue and Religion more eiScouraged 
and pmmoted, than in David^s and Solomon^s Times. 
And if there was fo little true piety in that Nation 
that was . the only People of God under Heaven, 


'chap. I. 7 in all Jres. 82 

Sea. Vil. s ^ i 

tven in th^ir very beft Tithes^ what may we fup- 
poJe concerning the World in general, take one , 
^ ritt^t with another ? 

Notwithllanding what fome Authors advance 
concerning the Prevalertce of Virtue, Honefty^ 
good Neighbourhood, Chcarfulncfs, &c. in the 
World ; Solancn^ whom we may juftly cftecm as 
wife and juft ah Obferver of human Nature, and 
the State of the World of Mankind, as moft in 
thcfc Days (befides, Chriftians ought to remember^ 
that he wrote by divine Infpiration) judged the 
Wofld to be fo full of Wickednefs, that it was 
better never to be born, than to be born to live 
only in fuch a World. Eccl. iv. at the Beginning, 
Sd I returned and confidered all the Oppnjjms thnt 
are done under the Sun •, and behold^ the ^ears of 
fuch as wen ^ppreffed^ and they had no Comforter : 
And on the Side of their Opprejfors there 'ivas Power ; 
but they had no Comforter, frherefore^ I praifed tii 
diad^ which wire already dead^ more than the livings 
winch are yet aUve. Tea^ better is he than both 
they, which bath not yet beens ff^HO HMH NOT 
UNDER THE SUN. Surely it will not be faid 
that Solomon has only tlefpe^ to his Times here 
too, when he fpcaks of the Opprcflions of them 
ttoLt were* in Power \ fince H^ himfclf, and otheri^ 
appointed by him, and wholly under his Controul, 
were the Men that were in Power in that Land, 
and in dmoft all the neighbouring Countrieii. 

The feme inlpired Writer fays, Ecclef. ix. 3. 
The Heart of the Sons of Men is full of Evil \ and 
Madnefs is in their Heart while they live j and after 
that they go to the dead. If thefc general Exprei^ 
(btis are to be Underftood o^ly of fome^ and chofe 

G 2 xJcv^tt 

;84 WUkednefs general 'Parti;, 

the Icfs Part, when in general, T^ruth^ Honeftyy 
Good-Naturey &c. govern the World, why are 
fuch general Expreflions from Time to Tirne 
ufed ? Why does not this v/ife and noble, and 
great-foul'd Prince exprefs himfelf in a more ge- 
nerous and benevolent Strain, as well as more 
agreeable to Truth, and fay, JVifdcm Js in the 
Hearts of the Sons . of Men while they live^ &c* 
t— inftead of leaving in his Writings fo many fly, 
ill-natured Suggeftion5, which pour fuch Con- 
jempt on the human Nature, and tend fo much 
to excite mutual Jealoufy and Malevolence, to 
taint the Minds of Mankind through all Genera- 
tions after him I 

If we confider the various fucceffive Parts and 
Periods of the Duration of the World, it will, if 
poflible, be yet more evident, that vaftly the 
greater Part of Mankind have in all Ages been 
lof z, wicked Character. The fhort Accounts we 
have of Adam and his Family are fuch as lead us 
to fuppofe, that far the greater Part of his Pofterity 
In his Life-time, yea> in the former Part of his 
Lifcy «were Wicked.. It appears, that his ddeft 
Son, Cainy was a very wicked Map, who flew his 
righteous Brother AieL Arid Adam lived an hun* 
dred and thirty Years before Seth was born: And 
i)y that Time, we may fuppofe, his Pofl:erity 
.began' to be confiderably numerous : When he 
,was born, his Mother called. his N^me Seth 'y for 
Gody faid She, hath appointed me another. Seed inftead 
of Abel. Which naturally fuggefts this to out? 
Thoughts; That of all her $ed then exifting, 
mone were of any fuch Note for, Religion and 
Virtue, as that their Parents could have any great 
•Comfort in them.,, or Expeftation from them on 
that Account. And by the brief Hiftory we have^ 
..: it 

Chap,!. } m all Ages. 8r 

Sea. VII. f 6 :> 

it looks 2s if (however there might be fome Inter- 
vals of a Revival of Religion, yet) in the general. 
Mankind grew more and more corrupt tiJl the 
Flood. It is fignified, \h2X^iVhen Men began to 
multiply on the Face cf the Earthy Wickednefs 
prevailed exceedingly. Gen. vi. at the Beginning.* 
And that before God appeared to Noah^ to com-^ 
mand him to build che Ark, 120 Years before the 
Flood, the World had long continued obftinatc 
in great and general Wickednefs, and the Difeafe 
was become inveterate. The Expreflions we have 
in the 3, 5, arid 6 Verfes of jhat Chapter fuggeft 
as much : Jnd the Lord /aid. My Spirit Jhall not 
ALU^ATS Jirive mth Man.— And God faw^ that 
the Wickednefs of Man was great on the Earthy and 
that every Imagination of the Thought of his Heart 
was evik only evirCOI<!TINUALLT^ and it re- 
pented the Lord^ that he had made Man on the Earthy' 
and it grieved him at his Heart. And by that 
Time, all Flefh had corrupted his IVay upon the 
Earthy v. 12. And as Dr. 7". himfclf obferves," 
p. 122. " Mankind were univerfally debauched 
" into Luft, Senfuality, Rapine, and Injuftice." 

And with refpeft to the Period after the Flood,' 
to the Calling of Abraham •, Dr. 2". fays, as has 
been already obferved, that in about 400 Years 
after the Flood, the Generality of Mankind v/ere 
fallen into Idolatry •, which was before the paffinof 
iway of one Generation ; or before all they were 
dead, that came out of the Ark. And it cannot 
be thought, the World jumpt into that fo general 
and extreme Degree of Corruption, all at once ; 
but that they had been gradually 'growing more 
and more corrupt; though it is true, it. muft be 
by very fwift Degrees, (however foon we may (up- 
pofe they b^gan) to get to that Pals in one Age. 

G 3 An4 


86. Wtckidmfs general Part I. 

And as to the Period from the CaiHng of Al^a^ 
bam to the Coming of Chrift, Dr. T. juftly ob- 
ferves as follows: (Keyy p. 133O '^ If wc reckon 
from the Call of Jbrabam to the Coming of 
Chrift, the Jewijh Difpenfation continued one 
Thoufand nine Hundred and twenty*one Yeafs ; 
** during which Period, the other Families and 
Nations of the Earth, not only lay out of God's 
peculiar Kingdom, but alfo lived in Idolatry^ 
•* great Ignorance, and Wickednefs." And with. 
Regard to that one only exempt Family or Nation 
of the Ifraelitesy it is evident that Wickcdnefs was 
the generally prevailing Charadter among them» 
from Age to Age. If we confider how it was with 
Jacol?*s Family, the Behaviour of Reuben with his 
Father's Concubine, the Behaviour of jfudab with 
^am^fy the Conduft of Jacob's^ Sbns in general 
(though Simeon and Levi were leading) towards 
the Sbecbemiiesj the Behaviour of Jofepb\ ten Bre- 
thren in their cruel Treatment of him \ we cannot 
think, that the Character of true Piety belonged 
to many of them, according to Dr. 5" — r's own 
Notion of fuch a Charafter j though it be true, 
they might afterwards repent. And with refpeft 
to the Time the Children of Ifrael were in E^t ; 
the Scripture, fpeaking of them in general, or as 
a colleftive Body, often reprefents them as com* 
plying with the abominable Idolatries of the Coun-* 
try *. And as to that Generation which went out 
of Egypty and wandered in the Wildernefe, they 
are abundantly reprefcnted as extremely and almoft 
univerfally wicked, pcrverfe, and Children of di- 
vine Wrath. And after Jojhuah Death, the Scrip- 
ture is very exprefs, that Wickednefs was the 
prevailing Charafter in die Nation, from Age to 


• Levit. xvii. 7. Jefh. v. 9. andxxiv, 14. Ezclc j^x. 7, ft. 



Chap. T. 7 in all Jgis. 87 

Sea. VIL \ ^ ' 

Age. So it was till SamuePs Time. 1 Sam. vtii. 7, 
8. T'hey have rejeSled me, that I jhould not reign 
ever them \ according to all their Works which they 
have done, fince the Day that I brought them out of 
Egypty unto this Day. Yea, fo it was till Jeremiah 
and EzekiePs Time. Jer. xxxii. 30, 31. For the 
Children of Ifrael, and the Children of Judah, have 
only done Evil before me from their Youth ; for the 
Children of Ifrael have only provoked me to Anger 
with the Work of their Hands, faith the Lord : For 
this City hath been to me a Provocation of mint 
Anger, and of my Fury, from the Day they built 
it, even unto this Day. (Compare Chap. v. 21, 
23. and Chap. vii. 25, 26, 27.) So Ezek. ii. 3, 4. 
/ fend thee t<t the Children of Ifrael, to a rebellious 
Nation, that hath rebelled againfi me, they and 
their Fathers have tranfgreffed againfi me, even 
unto this very Day : For they are impudent ChiU 
dren, and fiiff-hearted. And it appears by the 
Difcourfe of Stephen (Afts vii.) that this was gene- 
rally the Cafe with that Nation, from their firft 
Rife, even to the Days of the Apoftles. After 
his fummary Rehearfal of the Inltances of their 
Perverfencfs from the very Time of their feUin^ 
Jofeph into Egypt, he concludes, (Ver. 51, 52, 53. 
Te fliff-necked, and uncircumcifed in Heart and Ears, 
ye do ALfVATS rejifi the Holy Ghofl. As your 
Fathers did, fo do ye. Which of the Prophets have 
mt your Fathers perfecuted ? And they have flain 
them which fhewed before of the Coming of that juj^ 
One, of whom ye have been now the Betrayers and 
Murderers : Who have received the Law by the 
J^ifpojition of Angels, and have not kept it. 

Thus it appears, that Wickednefs was the ge- 
nerally prevailing Character in all the Nations of 
Mankind^ till Cnrift came. And fo alfo it appears 
^ G 4 t<» 

8lB Conft ant, general Wickedncfs Part-T; 


to have bcea fincc. his coming to this Day. Sa 
in the ^ge of , the Apoftles-, thougii then, among 
thofe that were converted to Chriftianity^ were 
great Numbers of Perfons eminent for Piety; 
yet this was not the Cafe with the greater Part of 
the World, or the greater Part of any one Nation 
in it. There was a great Number of Perfons of 
a truly pious Charafter in the latter Part of the 
apoftolic Age, when Multitudes of Converts had 
been made and Chriftianity was as yet in its 
primitive Purity. But what fays the Apoftle John 
of the Church of God at that Time, as compared 
i^^ith the Reft of the World ? i John v. 19. IVe 
knoKv that we are of Gody and the whole World 
lieth in fVickedu^fs. And after Chriftianity came 
to prevail, to that Degree, that Chriftians had the 
upper Hand in Nations artd civil Communities, 
ftill the greater Part of Mankind remained in their 
old Heathen State j which Dr. T. fpeaks of as a 
State of great Ignorance and Wickedneis. And 
befides, this is noted in all Ecclefiaftical Hiftory, 
that as the Chriftians gained in Power and fecular 
Advantages, true Piety declined, and Corruption 
and Wickednefs prevailed among them. — And as 
to the State of the Chriftian World, fince Chri- 
ftianity began to be eftabliflied by human Laws, 
Wickednefs for the moft Part has greatly pre- 
vailed ; as is very notorious, . and is implied in 
what Dr. T. himfelf fays»; He, in giving an AcT- 
count how the Doftrine of Original Sin came to 
prevail among Chriftians, fays, p. 167. S, *^ That 
the Chriftian Religion was very early and grie- 
voufly corrupted, by dreaming, ignorant, fuper- 
*' ftitious Monks." In p. 259. he fays, " The 
Generality of Chriftians have embraced this 
Perfuafion concerning Original Sin ; and the 
Confequence has been, that the Generality of 

" Chriftianis 



Chap, I. ? . ' prices Corruptim bf Nature. 89 

" Chriftians have been the moft wicked, lewd^ 
" bloody, and treacherous of all Mankind." 

Thus, a View of the feveral fiicccflive Periods 
of the paft Duration of the World, from the Be- 
ginning to this Day, fhews, that Wickednefs has 
ever been exceeding prevalent, and has had vaftly 
the Superiority in the World. And Dr. T. himfelf 
in Effect owns^ that it has been fo ever (mcx Adam 
firft turned into the Way of Tranfgreffion. p. 168. 
** It is certain (fays he) the moral Circumftances 
•* oif Mankind, fince the Time Jdam firft turned 
** into the Way of Tranfgreflion, have been very 
" different from a State of Innocence. So far as 
•* we can judge from Hiftory, or what we know 
** at prefent, the greateft Part of Mankind have 
** been, and ftill are very corrupt ; though not 
" equally fo in every Age and Place.'* And 
lower in the fame Page, he fpeaks of Adatifs 
Pofterity^ as having funk themfehes into the moft 
lamentable Degrees of Ignorance^ Superftition^ Ido-- 
latry\ Injujlice^ Debauchery^ &c. 

Thefe Things clearly determine the Point, con- 
cerning the Tendency of Man's Nature to Wicked- 
nefs, if we may be allowed to proceed according to 
fuch Rules and Methods of Reafoning, as are uni- 
verfally made ufe of, and never denied, or doubced 
to be good and fure, in experimental Philofophy * ; 
or may reafdn from Experience and Fafts, in that 
Manner which common Senfe leads all Mankind 


• Dr. Tm^nhidlj though (o great an Enemy to the Doflrine 
of the Depravity of Nature, yet. greatly infifts upon ic, that 
the experimental Method of Reafoning ought. to b<i.gone ^nto 
in moral Mattersj. and Things pertaining to the ham^n Na* 
tore-; and (hon1d cfhiefly Be rdied'upon, in'rtiordl, as well at 
■ aiiural Philofophy. See Introduce to Mor, PhiL 

§2 Great Means ajtd Part I. 

Dr. y. fuppofcs all that Sorrow and D^th, 
which came on Mankind, in Confequence. of 
AdairC^ Sin, was "brought on them by God, in 
great Favour to them; as a hentoolent Father ^ 
exercifing an *'s>holefome Difcipline towards his Chil- 
dren ; to reftrain them from Sin, by increafing the 
Vanity of all earthly Things^ to abate their Force to 
tempt and delude ; to induce them to be moderate in 
gratifying the Appetites of the Body ; to nfortify 
Pride and Ambition ; and that Men might ahvays 
have hefore their Eyes a ftriking Demojtflration^ 
that Sin is infinitely hateful to God, by a Sight of 
That, than which Nothing is more proper to give 
them the utmoji Abhorrence of Iniquity, and to fix in 
their Minds a Senfe of the dreadful Confequences of 
Sin, &c. &c. And in general, that they do not 
come as Puniftirtients, but purely as Means to 
keep Men from Vice, and to make them better. 
—If it be fo, furely they are great Means indeed. 
Here is a mighty Alteration : Mankind, once fo 
eafy and happy, healthful, vigorous, and beautiful, 
rich in all the pleafant and abundant Bleflings of 
Paradife, now turned out, deftitute, weak, and 
decaying, into a wide barren World, yielding 
Briars and Thorns, inftead of the delightful 
Growth and fweet Fruit of the Garden of Eden^ 
to wear out Life in Sorrow and Toil, on the 
Ground curfed for his Sake; and at laft, either 
through long Languiftiment and lingering Decay, 
or fevere Pain and acute Difeafe, to expire and 
turn to Putrefadion and Duft. If thefe are only 
ufed as Medicines, to prevent and to cure the 
Difeafes of the Mind, they are fliarp Medicines 
indeed ; efpecially Death ; which, to ufe HezekiaFs 
Jleprefentation, is as it were breaking all his Bones : 
And one would think, ftiould be very effeftual, 
if the Subjedl had no Depravity, no evil and con- 

C!iaj:l. 7 u oppofe fFickeJ^tfs. 93 

trary Biafs, to refill and hindej:- a proper EfFedt ; 
efpecially in the old World, when the Thing which 
was the firft Occafion of this terrible Alteration^ 
this Severity of Means, was frelh in Memory i 
jidam continuing alive near two Thirds of the 
Time that paffed before the Flood -, fo that a very 
great; Part of thofe that were alive till the Flood> 
might have Opportunity of feeing and converfing 
with him, and hearing from his Mouth, not only 
an Account of his Fall, and the Introduftion of 
the awful Confequences of it, but alfo of his firft 
finding himltlf in Exiftence in the nev/-created 
World, and of the Creation of Eve^ and the Things 
which pafled between him and his Creator in Pa* 

But what was the Succcfs of thefe great Means, 
to reftrain Men from Sin, and to induce them to 
Virtue? Did they prove fufficient ? — inftead of 
this, the World foon grew exceeding corrupt ; 
till it came to that, to ufe our Author's own 
Words, That Mankind were univerfally debauched 
inlo Lujl^ Senfuality^ Rapine^, and Injuftice^ 

Then God ufcd farther Means : He fent Noah^ 
a Preacher of Righteoufnefs, to warn the World 
of the . univerfal Deftrudtion which would come 
upon them by a Flood of Waters, if they went oil 
in Sin. Which Warning he delivered with thefe 
.Circumftances, tending to ftrike their Minds, and 
command their Attention ; that he immediately 
l¥ent a,bout building that vaft Strufture of the 
Ark: in which he muft cmplov a great Number 
of Hands, and probably fpent all he had in the 
Worid., to fave himfelf and his Family. And 
under thefe uncommon Means God waited uport 
them 120 Years. — But all to no EfFe£t, The whole 


$4 Great Meant ufei Parr L 

World, for ought appears, continued obftinate, 
And abfolutely incorrigible : So that Nothing re- 
mained to be done with them, but utterly to 
deftroy the Inhabitants of the Earth ; and to begin 
a new World, from that fingle Family who had 
diftinguiibed themfelves by their Virtue, that from 
them might be propagated a new and purer Race. 
•^Accordingly this was done : And the Inhabi- 
tants of this new World, of NoaVs Poftcrity, had 
thefe new and extraordinary Means to reftrain Sin, 
and excite to Virtue, in Addition to the Toil, 
Sorrow, and common Mortality, which the World 
had been fubjeded to before, in Confequence of 
AdanC% Sin ; viz. that God had newly teftified 
his dreadful Difpleafure for Sin, in ddlroying the 
many Millions of Mankind, all at one Blow, old 
and young, Men, Women, and Children, without 
Pity on any for all the difnial Shrieks and Cries 
which the World was filled with ; when they 
themfelves, the remaining Family, were fo won- 
derfully diftinguiibed by God's preferving Good- 
liefs, that they might be a holy Seed, being deli- 
vered from the corrupting Examples of the old 
World ; and being all the OtFspring of a living 
Parent, whofe pious Inftrudlions and Counfels they 
had, to enforce thefe Things upon them, to pre- 
vent Sin, and engage them to their Duty. And 
thefe Inhabitants of the new Earth, muft, for a 
long Time, have before their Eyes many evident, 
and as it were, frefh and ftriking ESefts and Sign« 
of that univerfal Deftrudtion, to be a continual 
afieding Admonition to them. And befideft alt 
this, God now fhortcncd the Life of Man, to 
about one half of what it ufed to be. The 
fliortening Man's Life, Dr. "T. fays, p. 68. " Was, 
*' that the wild Range of Anibirion and Luft 
" migkt be brought into narrower Bounds, and 

'* have 

Chap.T. 7 t0 &ppdfi PP^kk^dnifi. 55 

06ct. ViJiI. y 

*' have lefs Opportunity of doing Mifchirfj and 
" that Death, being ftill nearer to our View, 
" might be a more powerful Motive to regard 
" lefs the Things of a tranfitory World, and 
*' to attend more to the Ruks of Truth aftdi 
" Wifdom.'" 

And now let us obferve the Cbnfequcnce* — 
Thefe new and extraordinary Means, in Addition 
to the former, were fa far from proving lufficient, 
that the new World degenerated, and became 
corrupt, by fuch fwift Degrees, thatj a;s Dr. STJ 
obfcrves. Mankind in general were funk into Ido- 
latry, in about 400 Years after the FkxKl, and {6 
in about 50 Years after Noai/s Death : They be* 
came fo wicked and brutilh, as to forfake thcf 
true God, and turn to the Worlhip of inanimate 

When Thingfe were come to this dreadful Pafe^ 
God was pleafcd, for a Remedy, to introduce a 
new and wonderful Difpenfation ; feparating a par- 
ticular Family and People, from all the reft of the 
World, by a Series of mott aftonifliing Miracles^ 
done in the open View of the World'; and fixing 
their Dwelling, as it were in the Midft of the 
Earth, between j^Jiriy Europe and Afrka^ and in 
the Midft of th:ie Nations which were moft con- 
fiderable and tlnous for Power, Knowledge, and 
Arts ; that G^ might, in an extraordinary Man- 
ner, dwell among that People, in vifible Tokens 
of his Prefence, manifefting himfelf there, and 
from thence to the World, by a Courfe of great 
and miraculous Operations and Effefts, for many 
Ages \ that that People might be holy to God, 
and as a Kingdom of Priefts, and might ftanti as 
a City on an HjU, to be a Light to the World ; 



9^ Gene^ral objiinate Wtckedftefs ' Psitl 

withal gradually (hortening Man's Life, till it was 
brought to be but about oi^.e twelfth Part- of what 
it ufed to be before the Flood ; and fo, according 
to Dr. T. vaftly cutting off and diminifliing his 
Temptations to Sin^ and increafmg his Excite- 
ments to Holinefs. — And now let us confider what 
the Succefs of thefe Means was, both as to the 
Gentile World, and the Nation of Ifrael. 

Dr. y, juftly obferves, (Key^ p. 24. § 75.) " The 
Jewilh Difpenfation had refpedt to the Nations 
of the World, to fpread the Knowledge and 
'' Obedience of God in the Earth -, and was 
" eftablilhed for the Benefit of all Mankind." — 
But how unfuccefsful were thefe Means, and all 
other Means ufed with the Heathen Nations, fo 
long as this Difpenfation lafted ? Abraham was a 
Perfon noted in all the principal Nations that were 
then in the World ; as in Egypt^ and the eattern 
Monarchies : God made his Name famous by his 
wonderful diftinguifhingDifpenfations towards him,^ 
particularly by fo miraculoufly fubduing before 
him, and his trained Servants, thofe Armies of 
the four eaftern Kings. This great Work of the 
moft High God, Poffeffor of Heaven and Earth, 
was greatly taken Notice of by Melchizedeck -^ and 
one would think, (hould have been Tufficient to 
have awakened the Attention ancLConfideration of 
all the Nations in that Part of thev^orld, and ta 
have led them to the Knowledge ai^l Worlhip of 
the only true God ; efpecially if confidered in Con- 
junftion with that miraculous and moft terrible 
Deftruftion of Sodom^ and all the Cities of the 
Plain, for their Wickednefs, with Loi*s miraculous 
Deliverance •, which doubtlefs were Fa6ls, that in. 
their Day were much famed abroad in the Worid. 
But there is not the Icaft Appearance, in any Acr. 


Ch^p. r. 7 agaittji gr£at Medns. pf 

count? we have, of any confiderable good EfFcdt. 
On the contrary, thofc Nations which were mpft 
in the Way of obferving and being afFedted with 
thefe Things, even the Nations of Canaan^ grew 
worle and worfe, till their Iniquity came to the 
full, in JcJ!:ua'^ Time. And the Poftcrity of Lot^ 
that Saint fo wonderfully diftinguiftied, foon be- 
came lome of the mod grofs Idolaters •, as they 
appear to have been in Mofei's Time. (See Num. 
XXV.) Yea, and the far greater Part even oi Abra- 
ham''s Poilerity, the Cinldren of IJhmaely Ziman^ 
Jcklhan^ Mcdan^ Mldian, IJhbak and Shuab^ and 
Efau^ loon forgot the true God, and fell off to 

Great , Things were done in the Sight of the 
Nations of the World, tending to awaken them, 
and lead them to the Knowledge and Obedience 
of the true God, in Jacobs and Jofeph^s Time j 
in that God did miraculoufly, by the Hand of 
Jgfephy preferve from perifhing by Famine, as it 
were the whole World ; as appears by Gen, xli. 
56, sj. Agreeably to which, the Name that Pha^ 
Yaoh gave to Joftph^ Zaphnath-Paaneahy as is faid^ 
in the Egyptian Language, fignifies Saviour of the 
World, But there does not appear to have been 
any good abiding Elfeft of this ; no, not fo much 
as in the Nation of the Egyptians^ (which feems 
to have been the chief of all the Heathen Nations 
at that Day) who had thefe great Works of Jeho- 
vch in their moft immediate View : On the con- 
trary, they grew worf^ and worfe, and frem. to be 
far more grofs in their Idolatries and Ignorance of 
the true God, and every Way more wicked, and 
ripe for Ruin, when Alofes was fcnt to Pharaoh^ 
than they were m JofepFs Time. 

■ H ■ Af:er 

98 ^be Htatben IVorld ohfttnate Part L 

» - 

After this, in Mofes and JoJhucCs Time, the great 
GaJ was pleafed to manifeft himfclf in a Scries of 
the moft aftonifhing Miracles, for about fifty Yean 
together, wrought in the moft publick Manner, in 
Eigypt^ in the Wildernefs, and in Canaan^ in the 
View as it were of the whole World •, Miracles by 
which the World was Ihaken, the whole Frame erf 
the vifible Creation, Earth, Seas, and Rivers, the 
Atmofphere, the Clouds, Sun, Moon, and Stars 
were affedted ; Miracles, greatly tending to con- 
vince the Nations of the World, of the Vanity of 
their falfe Gods, fhewing JEHOVAH to be in*- 
finitely above them, in the Thing wherein they 
dealt moft proudly, and exhibiting God's awfiil 
Difpleafure at the Wickednefs of the Heathep 
World. And thefe Things are exprefsly fpoken of 
as one End of thefe great Miracles, in Exod. ix. 14. 
Numb. xiv. 21. Jofh. iv. 23, 24. and other Places. 
However, no Reformation followed thefe Things •, 
but by the Scripture- Account, the Nations which 
had them moft in View, were dreadfully hardened, 
ftupidly refufmg all Conviftion and Reformation, 
and obftinately went on in an Oppofitbn to the 
living God, to their own Deftruftion. 

After this, God did from Time to Time very 
pubhckly manifeft himfelf to the Nations of the 
World, by wonderful Works wrought in the Time 
of the Judges^ of a like Tendency with thofe already 
mentioned. Particularly in fo miraculoufly de- 
ftroying, by the Hand of Gideoriy almoft the whole 
of that vaft Army of the Midianitesj AmalekiteSj 
and all the Children of the Eafiy confifting of about 
135000 Men. Judg. vii. 12. and viii. 10. But 
«o Reformation followed this, or the other great 
Works of God, wrought in the Times of Deborah 
and Barak J Jephtha and Samffon. 


Chai>. t ? m their JVidcednefs. 99 

After thefe Things, God ufed new, and m fbmc 
RefpeAs much greater Means with the Heathea 
World, to bring them to the Knowledge and Ser*^ 
vice of the true God, in the Days of David and 
Salomon. He raifed up David, a Man after his 
own Heart, a raoft fervent Worftiipper of the true 
God, and zealous Hater of Idols, and fubdued 
before him almoft all the Nations between Egypt 
and Euphrates -, often miraculoUfly affifting him in 
his Battles with his Enemies : And he confirmed 
Solomon his Son in the full and quiet Poffeflion of 
that great Empire, for about forty Years ; and 
made him the wifeft, richeft, moft magnificent^ 
and every Way the greateft Monarch that ever 
had been in the World •, and by far the moft fa- 
mous, and of greateft Name among the Nations ; 
efpecially for his Wildom, and Things concerning 
the Name of his God ; particularly the Temple he 
built, which was exceeding magnificent, that if 
might be of Fame and Glory throughout all Lands ; 
t Chron. xxii. 5. And we are told, that there 
came of all People to hear the Wifdom of Solomon j 
from all Kings of the Earth ; 1 Kings iv. 34. and 
X. 24. And the Scripture informs us, that thefe 
great Things were done, that the Nations in far 
Countries might bear of God's great Name, and of 
bis out 'fir etched Arm ; that all the People of the 
Earth might fear him, as well as bis People Ifrael : 
And that all the People of the Earth might know, 
tik9 the LORD was God, and that there was none 
elfe. 1 Kings viii. 41, 42, 43, 60. But ftill there 
is no Appearance of any confiderable abiding 
Efie6t, with regard to any one Heathen Nation. 

After this, before the Captivity in Babylon, 
many great Things were done in the Sight of the 
Gentile Nations, very much tending to eolighten, 

H 2' aficct. 


loo ^be Heathen U^orU obfitnate Part L 

afFeft, and perfuade them : As, God's deftroying 
the Army of the Ethiopians of a Thoufand Thou- 
fand, before Afa \ Elijah' % and Elijha\ Miracles ; 
efpegially Elijah\ miraculoufly confounding BaaPs 
Prophets and Worfhippers j Elijha\ healing Naa- 
man^ the King of Syrians prime Minifter, and the 
miraculous Viftories obtained through Elijha^s 
Prayers, over the Syrians^ Moabites^ and Edomites -, 
the miraculous Deftruftion of the vaft united 
Army of the Children of Moab^ Ammon^ and 
Edom^ at Jehofhapbaf^ Prayer. (2 Chron. xx.) 
Jonahs preaching at Nineveh^ together with the 
Miracle of his Deliverance from the Whale's 
Belly ; which was publifhed, and well attefted, as 
a Sign to confirm his Preaching : But more efpe- 
cially that great Work of God, in deftroying Sen^ 
nacberibh Army by an Angel, for his Contempt 
of the God of Ifrael^ as if he had been no more- 
than the Gods of the Heathen. 

When all thefe Things proved ineffedtual, God 
took a new Method with the Heathen World, and 
ufed, in fome Refpedts, much greater Means to 
convince and reclaim them, than ever before. In 
the firft Place, his People, the Jews^ were removed 
to Babylon^ the Head and Heart of the Heathen 
World (Cbaldea having been vtry much the Foun- 
tain of Idolatry) to carry thither the Revelations 
which God had made of Himfelf, contained in the 
facred Writings ; and there to bear their Tefti- 
mony againft Idolatry, as fome of them, particu* 
larly Daniel^ Shadrach^ Mejhacky and Abed-nego, 
did, in a very open Manner before the King, and 
the greateft Men of the Empire, with fuch Cir- 
cumftances as made their Teftimony very famous 
in the World -, God confirming it with great Mi- 
raqles ; which were publifhed through the Empire, 


Chap. I. 7 in their Wickedmfs. loi 

Sea. vin. s 

by Order of its Monarch, as the mighty Works 
of the God of Ifrael^ fliewing him to be above 
all Gods : Daniel^ that great Prophet, at the fame 
Time being exalted to be Governour of all the wife 
Men of Babylcn^ and one of the chief Officers of 
Nebuchadnezzar* s> Court. 

After this, God raifed up Cyrus to deftroy Ba- 
bylon^ for its obftinate Contempt of the true God, 
and Injurioufnefs towards his People •, according 
to the Prophecies of IJaiah^ fpeaking of him by 
Name, inftrufting him concerning the Nature 
and Dominion of the true God. (Ifai. xlv.) Which 
Prophecies were probably Ihewn to him, whereby 
he was induced to publilh his Tcftimony con- 
cerning the God of IfraeU as THE GOD. (Ezra 
i. 2, 3.) 'Daniel^ about the fame Time, being 
advanced to be prime Minifter of State in the new 
Empire, erefted under Darius^ did in that Place 
appear openly as a Worfhipper of the God of 
Ifrael^ and Plim alone ; God confirming his Te- 
ftimony for him, before the King and all the 
Grandees of his Kingdom, by prcfcrvlng him in 
the Den of Lions -, whereby Darius was induced 
to publifh to all People, Nations, and Languages, 
that dwelt in all the Earth, his Teftimony, that 
ihe God of Ifrael was the livi'ng God, and Jieadfajl 
for ever^ &c. 

When, after the Deftruftion of Babylon^ fome 
of the Jews returned to their own Land, Mulritudcs 
never returned, but were difpcrfcd abroad through 
many Parts of the vaft Perfian Empire \ as appears 
by the Book of EJlher, And many of them after- 
wards, as good Hillories inform, were removed 
into the more weftern Parts of the World y and 
fo were difperfed as it were all over the Heathen 

H 3 World, 

f02 The Heathen World cbjiinate Parti. 

World, having the holy Scriptures with them, and 
Synagogues every where, for the Worihip of the 
true God. And fo it continued to be, to the Days 
of Chrift and his Apoftles ; as appears by the A5ls 
cf the Apojiles. Thus that Light, which God had 
given them, was in the Providence of God carried 
abroad into all Parts of the World : So that now 
they had far greater Advantages, to come to the 
Knowledge of the Truth, in Matters of Religion, 
if they had been difpoled to improve their Ad- 

And befides all thefc Things, from about Cyrus* ^ 
Time, Learning and Philolophy increafed, and 
was carried to a great Height. God raifed up 
a Number of Men of prodigious Genius, to 
inftruft others, and improve their Reafon and 
Underftanding, in the Nature of Things : And 
philofophic Knowledge having gone on to increafe 
for feveral Ages, feemed to be got to its Height 
before Chrift came, or about that Time. 

And now let it be confidered what was the 
EfFe6t of all thefe Things. — Inftead of a Refor- 
mation, or any Appearance or Profpedt of it, the 
Heathen World in general rather grew worfe. 
As Dr. Winder obferves, " The inveterate Abfur- 
' dities of Pagan Idolatry continued without R^- 
' medy, and increafed as Arts and Learning 

• increafed ; and Paganifm prevailed in all its 

* Height of Abfurdity, when Pagan Nations 
' were polilhed to the Height, and in the moft 
' polite Cities and Countries ; and thus continued 
' to the laft Breath of Pagan Power." And fo it 

was with refpeft to Wickednefs;^ in general, as 
well 5s Idolatry ; as appears by what the Apoftle 
Vaul obferves in Rom. i. — Dr. f. fpeaking of the 




Seft. VIII. / JO 

Time when the Golpel-Scheme was introduced, 
(^y § 289.) fays, " The moral and religious 
** State of the Heathen was very deplorable, being 
generally funk, into great Ignorance, grofs Ido- 
latry, and abominable Vice." Abominable Vices 
prevailed, not only among the common People, 
but even among their Philofophers themfelves, 
yea, fome of the chief of them, and of greateft 
Genius ; fo Dr. T. himfelf obferves, as to that 
deteftable Vice of Sodomy, which they commonly 
and openly allowed and pradifed without Shame. 
See Dr. T — r*s Note on Rom. i. 27. 

Having thus confidered the State of the Hea- 
then World, with regard to the ESe6l of Means 
ufed for its Reformation, during the Jewi/h Dif- 
pcnfation, from the firit Foundation of it in 
Jbraham^s Time : Let us now confider how it was 
with that People themfelves, that were diftin- 
guiflied with the ^peculiar Privileges of that Dif- 
penfation. The Means ufed with the Heathen 
Nations were great •, but they were fmall, if com- 
pared with thofe ufed with the Ifraelites. The 
Advantages by which that People were diftinguiihed, 
are reprefented in Scripture as vafily above all 
parallel, in Pafiages which Dr. 2". takes Notice of. 
(£?)», % 54.) And he reckons thefe Privileges 
among thofe which he calls antecedatt BleJJlnfs^ 
confiiting in Motives to Virtu-: and Obedience , 
and fays, fi&y, § (>(>^^ " That this was the very 
End and Defign of the Difpenfation of God's 
extraordinary Favours to the Jews^ viz. to en- 
gage them to Duty and Obedience, or that it 
was a Scheme for promoting Virtue, is clear 
beyond Dilpute, from every Part of the Old 
" Tcftament." * Neverthelefs, as has been already 
fliewn, the Generality of that People, thi;cnigh all 

H 4 the 

I04. ^he OLJiinacy of the Jews Part I. 

the fuccelllve Periods of that Difpcnlation, were 
Men of a wicked Charader. But it will be more 
abundantly nnanifcft, Lew llrcng the natural Biais 
to Iniquity appeared to be among that People, by 
confidering more particularly how Things were 
with them from Time to Time, 

Notwithftanding the great Things God had done 
in the Times of Ahrahum^ Ifaac^ and jaccb^ to fc- 
parate them and their Pofterity fiom the Idolatrous 
World, that they might be a holy People to 
himfelf; yet in about 200 Years after yaco^B 
Death, and in lefs than i po Years after the Death 
of Jc/eph^ and while fom>e were alive that bad 
ften joftphj the People hj.d in a great Meafure 
left the true Religion, and were apace conforming 
to the Heathen World: \Vhen, for a Remedy, 
and the more efieftually to alienate them firom 
Idols, and engage them to the God of their Fa-" 
thers, God appeared to bring them out from* 
among the Egyptians ^ and fcparate them from the 
Heathen World, and to reveal Himfelf in his 
Glory and Majefty, in fo afl'ecting and aftonifhing 
a Manner,, as tended mcft deeply and durably to 
imprefsx their Minds-, that they might never for- 
fake him more. But fo perverfe were they, that 
they murm.ured even in the Midft of the Miracles 
that God wrought for thf.m in Egypt ^ and mur- 
mured at the Red-Sea^ in a few Days after God 
had brought them out with fuch a mighty Hand* 
When he had led them through the Sea, they fang 
his Praife^ but fccn fcrgat kis Works, Before they 
got to Mount Sinai ^ they openly manifefted their 
Perverfenefs from Time ,to Time •, fo that God 
fays of them, Exod. xvi. 28. How long refufe ye 
to keep my Ccmniandmcnts^ and nry Laws ? After- 
wards they murmured again at Rephedim. 


Cliap. I. ? • ifi their Wickednefs. to 4 

Sea, VIII. J "^ ^ 

In about two Months after thqr came out of 
Egyfty they came to Mount Sinai ; where God 
entered into a moll folemn Covenant with the 
People, that they (hould be an holy People unto 
him, with fuch aftonilhing Manifeftations bf his 
Power, Majefty, and Holinefs, as were altogether 
unparallel'd : As God puts tlie People in Mind, 
Deut. iv. 32 — 34. For ajk now of the Hays that 
are paji^ isohich were before thee^ fince the Hay that 
God created Man upon the Earth ; and afk from 
one Side of Heaven unto the other^ whether there has 
been any fuch Thing as this great Thing is^ or hath 
been heard like it. Did ever People hear the Voic^ 
of God fpeaking out of the Midji of the Fire^ as 
thou hafi heard^ and live ? Or hath God affayed to 
• take him a Nation from the MidJi of another Nation^ 
&c. ? And thefe great Things were to that End, 
to imprefs their Minds with fuch a Convidtion and 
Senfe of divine Truth, and their Obligadons to 
their Duty, that they miglit never forget them: 
As God fays, Exod. xix. 9. Lo^ I come unto thee in 
a thick Cloudy that the People may hear zvben I 
fpeak with thee^ and. believe thee for ever. But 
what was the Effeft of aU ? Why, it was not more 
than two or three Months, before that People, 
there, under that very Mountain, returned to their 
old Egyptian Idolatry, and were finging and dan- 
cing before a golden Calf, which they had fet up 
to woriliip. And after fuch awful Manifeftations 
as there v/ere of God's Difpleafure for that Sin, 
and fo much done to bring them to Repentance, 
and confirm them in Obedience, it v/as but a few 
Months before . they came to that Violence of 
Spirit, in open Rebellion againft God, that with 
the utmofl: Vehemence they declared their Refo-- 
lution to follow God no longer, but to make them 
^ Captain ta return into Egypt, And thus they 


. \ 

tc6 The ObJHnaiy tf thi Jews Part L 

went on in Ways of pcrverfc Oppofition ta the 
moft High, from Time to Time, repeating their 
open AAs of Rebellion, in the Midil of continued 
aftonilhing Miracles till that Generation was de* 
ftroyed. And though the following Generation 
ieems to have been the beft that ever was in Ifrael, 
yet notwithftanding their good Example, and not- 
withftanding all the Wonders of God's Power and 
I^ve to that People in Jojhuah Time, how foon 
did that People degenerate, and begin to fbrfakc 
God, and join with the Heathen in their Idolatries, 
till God by fevere Means, and by fending Prophets 
and Judges, extraordinarily influenced from abovc^ 
reclaimed them ? But when they were brought to 
fome Reformation by fuch Means, they foon fell 
away again into the Pradice of Idolatry ; and (^ 
fix)m Time to Time, from one Age to another; 
and nothing proved eifedtual for any abiding Re^ 

After Things had gone on thus {or feveral hurw- 
drcd Years, God ufed new Methods witli htii 
People, in two Refpefts -, Firft^ He railed up s| 
great Prophet, under whom a Number of young 
Men were trained up in Schools, that from among 
them there might be a conftant SucceflTion of great 
Prophets in Ifrael^ of fuch as God fhould chufe % 
which feems to have been continued for more than 
500 Years. Secondly^ God raifed up a great King, 
David^ one eminent for Wifdom, Piety, and For- 
titude, to fubdue all their Heathen Neighbours, 
who ufed to be fuch a Snare to them ; and to co»- 
firm, adorn, and perfed: the Inftitutions of his 
publick Worfhip ; and by him to make a more full 
Revelation oi the great Salvation, and future glo^ 
rious Kingdom of the Meffiah. And after him, 
raifed up his Son, Solamony the wifeil and greateft 


Chap* I. I in their fVickedmfs. xot 

Sea. VIII. J ^ 

Frince that ever was on Earth, more fully to 
iettlc and eftablifh thofc Things which his Father 
David had begun, concerning the publick W.orihip 
cS God in Ijraely and to build a glorious Temple 
for the Honour of JEHOVAH, and the Infti* 
tutions of his Worlhip, and to initruct the neigh- 
bour Nations ip true Wifdoni and Religion. But 
^ to the Succefs of thefe new and extraoxdinary 
Means : if we take Dr. 2". for our Expofitor of 
Scripture, the Nation muft be extremely corrupt 
in David^s Time ; for he fuppofes, he has refpeft 
to his own Times, in thofe Words, Pfal. xiv. 2, 3. 
9^he Lord looked dozvn from Heaven^ to fee if there 
were any that- did underjiandy and feek God : They 
are all gone afide\ They are together become filthy. \ 
There is none that doeth Goody no^ not cne. But 
whether Dr. T. be in the right in this, or not, 
yet if we confider what appeared in Ifrael, in 
jlbfakmh and Sheba's Rebellion, we fh^ll not fee 
Caufe to think, that the greater Part of the Nation 
at that Day were Men of true Wifdom and Piety, 
As to Solomcn*s Time, Dr. T. fuppofes, as has 
been already obferved, that Solomon fpeaks of his 
<>wn Times, when he fays, he had found but one 
in a Thoufand that was a thoroughly upright Man. 
However, it appears, that all thofe great Means 
ufcd to promote and' eftabUfli Virtue and true 
Reljgbn, in SamuePs^ David% and Solomon's Tinics, 
were ib far from having any general abiding good 
Effedt in Ifraelj that Solomon himfelf, with all his 
Wifdom, and notwithftanding the unparalleled Fa- 
vours of God to him, had his Mind corrupted, 
{o as openly to tolerate Idolatry in the Land, and 
greatly to provoke God againft him. And as foon 
as -he was dead, ten Tribes of the twelve forfook 
the true Worflaip of God, and inftead of it, openly 
eftablifticd tire like Idolatry, that the People fell 


ioS ^be Objiinacy of the Jews Part I. 

into at Mount Sinai^ when they made the golckn 
Calf-, and continued finally obftinate in this Apo- 
ftacy, notwithftanding all Means that could be 
ufed with them by the Prophets, which God fcnt, 
one after another, to reprove, counfcl, and warn 
them, for about 250 Years ; efpecially thofe two 
great Prophets, Elijah and Elijha. Of all the 
Kings that reigned over them, there was not fo 
much as one but what was of a wicked Charafter. 
And at laft it came to that, that there Cafe 
feemcd utterly defperate : So that Nothing remained 
to be done with them, but to remove them out 
of God's Sight. Thus the Scripture reprefents 
the Matter, 2 Kings xvii. 

And as to the other two Tribes ; though their 
Kings were always of the Family of David^ and 
they were favoured in many refpe6ts far beyond 
their Brethren, yet they were generally exceeding 
corrupt : Their Kings were moft of them wicked 
Men, and their other Magiftrates, and Priefts and 
People, were generally agreed in the Corruption, 
Thus the Matter is reprefented in the Scripturc- 
Hiftory, and the Books of the Prophets, And 
when they had feen how God had caft off the ten 
Tribes, inftead of taking Warning, they made 
themfelves vaftly more vile than ever the others 
had done; as appears by 2 Kings xvii. 18, 19. 
Ezek. xvi. 46, 47, 51. God indeed waited longer 
upon them, for his Servant David^s Sake, and for 
Jerufalem^s Sake, that he had chofen -, and ufed 
more extraordinary Means with them; elpecially 
by thofe great Prophets, Ifaiab and Jq^miahy but 
to no Effeft : So that at laft it came if> this, as 
the Prophets reprefent the Matter, 'that they w^e 
like a Body univerfally and defperately difeafcd 
and corrupted, that would admit of no Cure, 


Ckap: I, 7 in their Jf^ickednefSi IK;^' 

Seel. VIII. \ 

the • whole Head fick, and the whole Heart 
faint, &c^ 

Things being come to that Pafs, God took this 
Method with them: He utterly deftroyed their 
City and Land, and the Temple which he had 
among them, made thorough Work in purging 
the Land of them -, as when a Man empties a 
Dijh^ wipes z7, and turns it upjide down-y or uhen 
a Veffel is caft into a fierce Fire^ till its Pilthinefs 
is thoroughly burnt out. i Kings xxi. 13. Ezek, 
Chap. xxiv. They were carried into Captivity, 
and there left till that wicked Generation was dead, 
and thofe old Rebels were purged out ; that after- 
wards the Land might be relettled with a more 
pure Generation, 

After the Return from the Captivity, and God 
had built the Jewifh Church again in their own 
Land, by a Series of wonderful Providences-, yet 
they corrupted themfelves again, to io great a 
Degree, that the TranfgrefTors were come to the 
full again in the Days of Antiochus Epiphanes ; as the 
Matter is reprefented in the Prophecy of Daniel^ 
Dan, viii. 23. And then God made them the Sub- 
jefts of aDifpcnfation, little, if any Thing, lefs ter- 
rible, than that which had been in Ncbtickadmzzar''s 
Days. And after God had again delivered them, 
and reftored the State of Religion among them, 
by the Inftrumentality of the Maccabees^ they de- 
generated again : So that when Chrift came, they 
were ' arrived to that extreme Degree of Corrup- 
tion, which is reprefented in the Accounts given 
by the Evangelifts. 

It may be obferved here in general, t'-iat the 
Jews^ though fo vaftly diftinguilhed wiih.Advan- 


1 1 i 77^ Gtfj!^^/ generally refified Part L 

long by Chrift and his Apoftlcs, the Generality 
of them rejefted Chrilt and his Gofpel, with ex- 
treme Pertinacioufnefs of Spirit. They not oiriy- 
went on ftill in that Career of Corruption which 
had been increafino; from the Time of the Macca^ 
bees '^ but Chrift's Coming, and his Dodlrine and 
Miracles, and the Preaching of his Followers, and' 
the glorious Things that attended the fame, were 
the Occafion, thro' their perverfe Mifimprovement, 
of an infinite increafe of their Wickcdnels. They 
crucified the Lord of Glory, with the utmolt 
Malice and Cruelty, and perfecuted his Followers ; 
they pleafcd not God, and were contrary to all 
Men ; and went on to grow worfe and worfe, till 
they filled up the Meafure of their Sin, and Wrath 
came upon them to the uttermoft ; and they were 
deftroyed, and call out of God's Sight, with un- 
fpeakably greater Tokens of the divine Abhorrence 
and Indignation, than in the Days of Nebucbcd- 
nezzar. The bigger Part of the whole Nation 
were (lain, and the reft were fcattered abroad 
through the Earth, in the moft abjed: and forlorn 
Circumftances. And in the fame Spirit of Unbe- 
lief and Malice againil Chrift and the Gofpel, and 
in their miferable difperfed Circumftances, do they 
remain to this Day. 

And as to the Gentile Nations, though there 
was a glorious Succefs of the Gofpel amongft 
them, in the Apoftles Days •, yet probably not 
one in ten of thofe that had the Gofpel preached ' 
to them, embraced it. The Powers of the World 
were fet againft it, and perfecuted it with infatiable 
Malignity. And among the Profeflbrs of Chri- 
ftianity, there prefently appeared in many a Difpo- 
fition to Corruption, and to abule the Gofpel unto 
the Service of Pride and Licentioufnefs. And the 


- t . . 

thaj^.t. I hy tews and Gentiles. iiq 

Seel. VIII. f -^ "^ ■ ^ 

Apoftles in their Days foretold a grand Apoftacy 
of the Chriftian World, which Ihould continue 
tnany Ages \ and obferved, that there appeared 
a Difpofition to fuch an Apofiacy, arhong profef- 
fing Chriftians, even in that Day. 2 ThefT. ii. 7. 
And the greater Part of the Ages which have now 
elapfed,' have been ipent in the Duration of that 
grand and general Apoftacy, under which the 
Chriftian \Vorld, as it is called, has been tranf- 
formed into that which has been vaftly more 
deformed, more dilhonourable and hateful to God, 
and repugnant to true Virtue, than the State of 
the Heathen World before : Which is agreeable 
to the prophetical Defcriptions given of it by the 
Holy Spirit* 

In theft latter Ages of the Chriftian Church, 
God has raifed up a Number of great and good 
Men, to bear Teftimony againft the Corruptions 
of the Church of Rome^ and by their Means in- 
troduced that Light into the World, by which, in 
a fliort Time, at leaft one Third Part of Europe 
was delivered from the more grofs Enormities of 
Anticbrift : Which was attended at firft with a 
great Reformation, as to vital and pradtical Reli- 
gion. But how is the Gold foon become dim ! 
To what a Pafs are Things come in Proteftant 
Countries at this Day, and in our Nation in par- 
ticular! To what a prodigious Height has 3, 
Deluge of Infidelity, Profancnefs, Luxury, De- 
bauchery, ' and Wickednefs of every Kind, arifen! 
The poor favage Americans are mere Babes and 
Fools (if I may fo fpeak) as to Proficiency in< 
Wickednefs, in Comparifon of Multitudes that 
the Chriftian World throngs with. Dr. T. him- 
felf, as was before obfefved, reprefenis, that the 
Generality of Chvfiians huve been the moji z^cked, 

I iezi^J, 

114 STi^ Gafpel in general . Part L 

lewd^ bloody^ and treacherous of mU Mankind \ and 
fays, (Key, § 388.) " The Wickcdncfs of the 
*' Chriftian World renders it fo much like the 
" Heathen, that the 'good EfFedts of our Change 
•* to Chriftianity are but little feen.** 

And with refpeft to the dreadful Corruption of 
the prefent Day, it is to be confidered, befides 
the Advantages already mentioned, that great 
Advances in Learning and philofophic Knowledge 
have been made in the prefent and paft Century, 
;iving great Advantage for a proper and enlarged 
"*xercife of our rational Powers, and for our feeing 
the bright Manifeftation of God's Perfeftions in 
his Works. And it is to be obferved, that the 
Means and Inducements to Virtue, which this 
Age enjoys, are in Addition to moft of thole 
which were mentioned before, as given of old 5 
and among other Things, in Addition to the 
(hortening of Man's Life to 70 or 80 Years, from 
near a Thoufand. And with regard to this, I 
would obferve, that as the Cafe now is in Chri- 
ftendom, take one with another of them that ever 
come to Years of Difcretion, their Life is not 
more than forty or forty-five Years ; which is but 
about the twentieth Part of what it once was : 
And not fo much in great Cities, Places where 
Profanenefs, Senfuality, and Debauchery, com- 
monly prevail to the greateft Degree. 

Dr. T. (Key, § i.) truly obferves. That Gcid 
has from the Beginning exercifed wonderful and 
infinite Wifdom, in the Methods he has, from 
Age to Age, made ufe of to oppofe Vice, cure 
Corruption, and promote Virtue in the Worlds 
and introduced feveral Schemes to that End. It 
i^ indeed remarkable, how many Schemes and 

Method g 


Sca.VIil. ) 

Methods were tried of old,, both before and after 
the Flood \ how many were, Died in the Times of 
the Old Teftament, both with Jews and Heathens, 
and how inefie6kial all thefe ancient Methods pro* 
ved, for 4000 Years together, till God introduced 
that grand Difpenfation, for the redeeming Men 
from all Iniquity, and purifying them to himfelf, 
a People zealous of good Works ; which the 
Scripture reprefents as the Subjed of the Admi- 
ration of Angels. But even this has now fo long 
proved fo inefFeftual, with refpect to the Genera- 
lity, that Dr. T"* thinks there is Need df a new 
Difpenfation ; the prefent Light of the Go/pel being 
infufficient far the full Reformation of the Chriftiam 
fVorldy by Reafon of its Corruptions: (Note <m 
Rom. i. 27*)— ^And yet all thefe Things, accord- 
ing to him, without any natural Biafs to the con- 
t«-ary ; no Stream of natural Inclination or Pro- 
penfity at all, to oppofe Inducements to Goodncli; 
no native Oppoation of Heart, to withftand thofc 
gracious Means, which God has ever ufed with 
Mankind, .ftom the Beginning of the World to 
this Day \ any more than there was in the Hearc 
of Adam^ the Moment God created him in peffedt 

Surely Dr. ?*— /s Scheme is attended with 
ftrange Paradoxes. And that his myfterious Te- 
nets may appear in a true Light, it muit be ob- 
ferved,— -at the fame Time while he fuppofes thefe 
Means, even the very greatefl: and beft of them, 
to have proved fo ineffe&ual, that Help from 
them, as to any genera} Reformation, is to be 
<lefpaired of; yet be maint^jns, that all Mankind, 
even the Heathen in all Parts of the World, yea, 
every fmgle Pcrfon in .it, (which, muft include 
.€very Indian in America^ before tl;c Enrcpeans 

J a . ^ came 

Ii6 "the Ohftinacy of the World tart 1. 

came hither; and every Inhabitant of the un-^ 
known Parts of Africa and ^erra Aufiralis) has 
Ability, Light, and Means fufficient to do thcif 
whole Duty, yea, (as many Paflages in his Wri*' 
tings plainly fuppofe) to perform perfeA Obedience 
to God*s Law, without the Icaft -Degree of Vice 
or Iniquity *. 

But I muft not omit to obfcrve, — Dr. T*. fup^ 
pofes, that the Reafon why the Grofpel-Difpenfe-*^ 
tion has been lb inefFe6tual, is, that it has been 
greatly mifunderftood and perverted. In Key, 
§ 389, he fays, " Wrong Reprefentations of the 
Scheme of the Gofpel have greatly obfcured 
the Glory of divine Grace, and contributed 
much to the Corruption of its Profeflbrs. — Such 
Doftrines have been almoft univerfally taught 
and received, as quite fubvert it. Miflaken 
" Notions about Nature, Grace, EleAion and 
*' Reprobation, Juftification, Regeneration, Re* 
" demption. Calling, Adoption, &c. have quite 
*' taken away the very Ground of the Chriftian 
'• Life.'' 

But how came the Gofpel to be fo univerfally 
and exceedingly mifunderftood ? Is it becaufe it 
is in itfelf fo very dark and unintelligible, and 
not adapted to the Aj)prehenfion of the humah 
Faculties ? If fo, how is the Poffeffion of fuch an 
obfcure and unintelligible Thing, fo unfpeakable 
and glorious an Advantage? — Or is it becaufe 
of the native Blindnefs, Corruption^ and Super*- 
ftitioh of Mankind? But this is giving up the 
Thing in Queftion, and allowing a great Depra- 
vity of Nature.— And Dr. ST. fpeaks of the Go%el 
as far otherwife than dark and unintelligible-; 

. ht 
• See p. 259. 63, 64, ^i. J. 



Chap. I, 7 proves Corruption of Nature. ii 7 
sea.viri. f r r J / 

he reprefehts it as exhibiting the cleatdl and liioft 
glorious Light, to deliver the World from Dark- 
ncfs, and bring them into marvellous Light. He 
fpcaks of the Light which the Jews had, under 
the Mofaic Difpenfation, as vaftly exceeding the 
Light of Nature, which the Heathen enjoyed : 
And yet he fuppofes, that even the latter was fo 
clear, as to be fufficient to lead Men to the Know- 
ledge of God, and their whole Duty to him. And 
he fpeaks of the Light of the Gofpel as vaftly 
exceeding the Light of the Old Teftament. He 
fays of the Apoftle Paul in particular, " That he. 
wrote with great Perfpicuity -, that he- takes- 
great Care to explain every Part of his Subjeft ; 
that he has left no Part of it unexplaihed and 
unguarded; and that never was an Author more 
** exadt and cautious in this," * — Is it not ftrange- 
therefore, that the Chrijlian Worlds without any 
native Depravity to prejudice and darken their- 
Minds, fliould be fo blind in the Midft of fuch 
glaring Light, as to be all, or the Generality, 
agreed, from Age to Age, lb eflentially to mifun-- 
derjiand that which is made fo very plain ? 

Dr. y. fays, p. 167. 5. " It is my Perfuafion, 
*' that the Chriftian Religion was very early and 
^^ grievoufly corrupted, by dreaming, ignorant,, 
fuperftitious Monks ^ too conceited to be fatis- 
fied with plain Gofpel -, and has long remained 
" in that deplorable State.'* — But how came the 
whole Chriftian World, without any blinding De- 
pravity, to hearken to thefe ignorant fooliih Men^ 
rather than unto wifer and better Teachers ? Efpe- 
cially, when the latter had plain Gofpel on their 
Side, and the Doftrines of the other wfere fas our 
Author fuppofes) fo very contrary not only to the 

' I 3 plain 

• Prcf. to Par. on Rom. p. .146, 4S. 


ii8 the Obftinaty of the W^rid' PaitT. 

plain Gofpel, but to M^n'& Reafon and common 
Senfe ! Or were all the Teachers of the Chrifti^n 
Church nothing but a Parcel of ignorant Dreamers f 
If fo, this is very ftrange indeed, unleft Mankind 
naturally love Darknefs^ rather than Light ; feeing 
in all Parts of the Chriftian World, t&re was to 
great a Multitude of thofe in the Work of the 
Miniftry, who had the Gofpel in their Hands, 
and whofe whole Bufinefs it was to ftudy and teach 
it 5 and therefore had infinitely greater Advantages 
to become truly wife, than the Heathen *Philolb- 
phers. But if it did happen k>^ by fome ftrange 
and inconceivable Means, that notwithftanding all 
thefe glorious Advantages, all the Teachers of the 
Chrifliarf' Church through the World, without any 
native evil Propenfity, very early became filly 
Dreamers, and alfo in their dreaming, generally 
ftumbled on the fame individual monftrous Opi- 
nions, and fo the World might be blinded for 
a while ; yet why did they not hearken to that 
wife and great Man, Pelagius, and others like 
Him, when he plainly held forth the Truth to 
the Chriftian World ? Efpecially feeing his In- 
ftruftions were fo agreeable to the plain Doftrines, 
and the bright and clear Light of the Gofpel of 
Chrift, and alfo fo agreeable to the plaineft Dic- 
tates of the common Senfe and Underftanding of 
all Mankind; but the other fo repugnant to it, 
that (according to our Author) if they wer^ true, 
it would prove Underftanding to be 7to Underftand- 
ingy and the Word of God to he no Rule of Truth, 
nor at all to be relied upon, and God to be a Being 
worthy of no Regard! 

And befides, if the Ineffeftualnefs of the Gofpel 
to reftrain Sin and promote Virtue, be owing to 
the general Prevalence of thefe Dodrines, which 


CfcAp. L 7 proves Corruption of Nature. 119 

are fuppofed to be fo abfurd and contrary to the 
Gofpel, here is this further to be accounted for ; 
namely. Why, fince there has been fo great an 
Increafe of Light in religious Matters (as muli be 
fuppofed on Dr. 2^ — r's Scheme) in this and the 
;iaft Age, and thefe monftrous Doftrines of Ori- 
ginal Sin, Ele6lion, Reprobation, Juftification, Re- 
generation, &c. have been fo much exploded, 
efpecially in our Nation, there has been no Refor- 
mation attendinor this great Advancement of Light 
and Truth : But on the contrary. Vice, and every 
Thing that is oppofite to practical Chriftianity, 
has gone on to increafe, with fuch a prodigious 
Celerity, as to become like an overflowing De- 
luge, threatening, unlels God mercifully inter- 
pofes, fpeedily to fwallow up all that is left of 
what is virtuous and praife-worthy. 

Many other Things might have been mentioned 
under this. Head, of the Means which Mankind 
have had to reftrain Vice, and promote Virtue ; 
fuch as Wickednefs being many Ways contrary 
to Men's temporal Intereil and Comfort in this 
eWorld, and their having continually before their 
Eyes fo many Inftances of Perfons made miferable 
by their Vices ; the Reftraints of human Laws, 
.without which Men cannot live in Society; the 
Judgments of God brought on Men for their 
Wickednefs, with which Hiftory abounds, and the 
providential Rewards of Virtue •, and innumerable 
particular Means, that God has ufed fropi Age to 
Age, to curb the Wickednefs of Mankind, which 
I have omitted. But there would be no End of 
a particular Enumeration of fuch Things. Enough 
has been faid. They that will not be convinced by 
the Inftances which have been mentioned, pro- 
bably would not be convinced, if the World had 

I 4 fto*al 

110 The Obfiinacy of the JVorld^ ^<. .Parti. 

flood a Thoufand Times fo long, and we had the 
moft authentick and certain Accounts of Meaas 
having been ufed from the Beginning, in a Thou- 
fand Times greater Variety ; and new Difpenfa- 
lions had been introduced, after others had been 
tried in vain, ever fo often, and ftill to little EfFeft. 
He that will not be convinced by a Thoufand 
good WitnefTes, it is not likely that he would be 
•convinced by a Thoufand Thoufand. The Proofs 
that have been extant in the World, from Trial 
ia'nd Faift, of the Depravity of Man's Nature, are 
inexpreflible, and as it were infinite, beyond the 
' Reprefentation of all Comparifon and Similitude^ 
' If there were a Piece of Ground, which abounded 
with Briars and Thorns, or fome poifonous Plant, 
and all Mankind had ufed their Endeavours, for 
a Thoufand Years together, to fupprefs that evil 
Growth, and to bring that Ground by Manure 
and Cultivation, Planting aftd Sowing, to produce 
better Fruit, but all in vain, it would ftill be 
over-run with the fame noxious Growth •, it would 
not be a Proof, that fuch a Produce was agreeable 
to the Nature of that Soil, in any wife to be 
'compared to that which is given in divine Provi« 
dcnce, that Wickedn^fs is a Produce agreeable to 
the Nature of the Field of the World of Mankind \ 
which has had Means ufed with it, that have been 
fo various, great, and wonderful, contrived by the 
unfearchable and boundlefs Wifdom of God ; Me- 
dicines procured with infinite Expenoe, exhibited 
with fo vaft an Apparatus \ fo marvellous a Suc^ 
ceflion of Difpenlations, introduced one after ano- 
ther, difplaying an incomprehenfible Length and 
Breadth, Depth and Height, of divine Wifdom, 
Love, and Power, and everj'^ Perfeftion of the 
Godhead, to the eternal Admiration of the Princi- 
palities and Powers in heavenly Places. 

. S E c T.: 


Cbip.I. 7 Evafions of" the Proofs &c. 121 
6ea, IX. s ^ 

S E C T. IX. 

Several Evafions of the Arguments for the De- 
pravity of Nature^ from Trial and Events fon^ 

pVASTONl. Dr.r.fays, p. ?3i, 2'iZ.^^Adanf% 
^^ '' Nature, it is allowed, was very far from 
** being finful; yet he finned. And therefore, 
" the common Dodrine of Original Sin, is no 
** more neccflary to account for the Sin that has 
"' been or is in the World, than it is to account 
*' for Adam\ Sin." Again, p. 52, 53, 54, 5. &c, 
♦^ If we allow Mankind to .be as wicked as R. R. 
has reprefented them to be ; and fuppofe that 
there is not one upon Earth that is truly Righ- 
*' teous, and without Sin, and that fome are very 
" enormous Sinners, yet it. will not thence follow, 
** that they are naturally corrupt. — For, if finful 
♦* Adtion infers a Nature originally corrupt, then^ 
*' whereas Adam (according to them that hold thci 
" Doftrine of Original Sin) committed the moft 
" heinous and aggravated Sinj that ever was com- 
<* mitted in the World ; for, according to them; 
*' he had greater Light than any other Man in 
" the World, to know his Duty, and greater 
" Power than any other Man to fulfil it, and was 
^^ under greater Obligations than any other Man 
" to Obedience j he finned, when he knew he 
*' was thq Reprefentative of Millions, and that 
^' the happy or miferable State of all Mankind, 
*'• depended on his Conduft; which never was, 
" nor can be, the Cafe of any other Man in the 
" World : — Then, I fay, it will follow, that his 
Nature was originally corrupt^ &cc, — Thus their 
Argument frpm the Wiekedncfs of Mankindv 



124 Evafians of the Proof: ;• Parti. 

It is true, as was obferved before, there is no 
Effeft without ibme Caufe, Occafion, Ground, or 
Reafon of that EfFeft, and fome Caufe anfwerabJe 
to the Elffeft. But certainly it will not follow from 
thence, that a tranftent Effeft requires a permanent 
Caufe, or a fixed Influence or Propenfity. An 
Eflfedt's happening once, though the EfFeft may 
be great, yea, though it may come to pafs on the 
lame Occafion in many Subje6ts at the fame Time, 
will not prove any fixed Propenfity, or permanent 
Influence. It is true, it proves an Influence great 
and extenfive, anfwerable to the Efiedt, (nice ex-i 
crted, or once efFeftual ; but it proves Nothing in 
the Caufe fixed or conftant. If a particular Tree, 
or a great Number of Trees fl:anding together^ 
have blafted Fruit on their Branches at a particular 
Seafon, yea if the Fruit be very much blafted^ 
apd entirely fpoiled, it is evident that fonficthing 
was the Occafion of fuch an EflFc6t at that Time-; 
but this alone does not prove the Nature of the 
Tree to be bad. But if it be obferved, that thofe 
Trees, and all other Trees of the Kirtd, wherever 
planted, and in all Soils, Countries, Climates, and 
Seafons, and however cultivated and managed, ftiH 
bear ill Fruit, from Year to Year, and in all Ages; 
it is a good Evidence of the evil Nature of thA 
Tree : And if the Fruit, at all thefe Times, and 
in all thefe Cafes, be very bad, it proves die Na- 
ture of the Tree to be very. bad. And if wc 
argue in like Manner from what appears among 
Men, it is eafy to determine, whether the univerfai 
Sinfulnefs of Mankind, and their all finning imi 
mediately, as foon as capable of it, and all finning 
continually, and generally being of a wicked Cha- 
rafter, at all Times, in all Ages, and all Places; 
and under all pofTible Circumftances, againft Means 
and Motive^ inexpreffibly manifold and great,, and 


Chapi T. \ from Experience confidered. i l « 
Sea. IX. C ^ ^ 

in the utmoft conceivabfe Variety, be from a per- 
manent internal great Caufe. 

If the Voice of cortimort Seiife were attendedF 
to, and heard, there would be no Occafion fof 
Labour in multiplying Arguments, and Inftances;' 
to ftiew, that one Aft does »not prove a fixed In- 
clination -, but that €onftant Praftice and PuifuiC 
does. We fee that it is in Fa6t aojreeable to the 
Rcafon of all Mankind, to argite fixed Principles,' 
Tempers, and prevailing Inclinations, from re-» 
peated and continued AdtionSj though the Aftionsf 
ate voluntary, and performed of Choice^, and thui 
to judge of the Tempers and Inclirtations of Per- 
. fons. Ages, Sexes, Tribes, and Nations. But i^ 
it the Manner of Men to conclude, that whatever 
they fee others ortce do, they have a fixed abiding 
Inclination to do ? — Yea, there may be feveral 
Acts feen, and yet they not taken as good Evi-' 
dence of an eftablilh^d Propenfity ; nay, though 
attended with that Circumftante, that one Aft, oi* 
thofe feveral Afts, are followed with fuCh conftant 
Praftice, as afterwards evidences fixed Difpofition; 
As for Example-, there may be feveral Inftances of 
a Man's drinking fome Ipirituous Liquor, and they Sign of a fixed Inclination to that Liquor: 
But thefe Afts may be iritroduftory to a fettled 
Habit or Propenfity, which, may be made very 
nianifeft afterwards by conftant Praftice. 

From thefe Things it is plain, that what is aU 
ledged concerning the firft Sin of Adam^ and of 
.the Angels, without a • previous fixed Difpofition 
to Sin, cannot in the leaft injure or weaken the 
Arjyuments, which have been brought to prove a 
fixed Propenfity to Sin in Mankind in thtrir prefenc 
S:ate. The Thing which -the Permanence of the 


X^6 r JEvaficMS of ihe Proof PaitCi 

Caufe has been argued from, is the Pcrfnaneficc 
of the EfFeft. And that the permanent Caufe 
confilb in an internal fixed Fropenfity, and not 
any particular external Circumftances has been 
argued from .the Efieds being the fame, through 
a. valk Variety and Change of Circumftances. 
Which Things do not take Place vrith refpedfc 
to the firit: Ad of Sin thsLt Jdam or the Angeb 
were guilty of; which firfl: A6ts, confidercd in 
themielves, were no permanent continued Efie6):9. 
And tho' a great Number of the Angels finned, 
and the Effed on that Account was the greater, 
and more extenfive ; yet this Extent of the Effedt 
is a very different Thing from that Permanence^ or 
fettled Continuance of the Effeft, which is fup- 
poied to {hew a permanent Caufe, or fixed "In- 
fluence or Propenfity. Neither was there any 
Trial of a vaft Variety of Circumftances attending 
a permanent Efieift, to fhew the fixed Caufe to be 
internal, confifting in a fettled Difpoficion of Na- 
ture, in the Inftances objefted. And however 
great the Sin of Adam^ or of the Angels^ was, and 
however great Means, Motives, and Obligations 
they finned againft-, whatever may be thence ar^ 
gued concerning the tranfient Caufe, Occafion, or 
Temptation, as being very fubtil, remarkably ten- 
ding to deceive and feduce, or otherwife great ; 
yet it argues nothing of any fettled Difpofition, 
or fixed Caufe at all, either great or fmall \ the 
Effeft both in the Angels and our firft Parents^ 
being in itfclf tranfient^ and for ought appears, 
happening in each of them under one Syftem or 
Coincidence of influential Circumftances. 

The general continued Wickednefs of Mankind, 
againft fuch Means and Motives, proves each of 
thefe Things, viz. that the Caufe isfixedj and that 


Ckap. 1. 7 from Mxfemnce confidcred. t%j 

Sc6t, xX- y 

the fijied Caufe is interntil^ in Man's Nature, acid 
alfo that it is ytvy powirfuL It proves the fii^fi^^ 
namely, that the Caufe is fixed, bccaufe the £fFe& 
is fo abiding, through fo many Changes^ It proves 
the fecondy that is, that the fixed Caufe is intemal« 
becaufe the Circumftances arc fo various : The 
Variety of Means and Motives is one Thing that 
is to be referred to the Head of Variety of GiP- 
cumftances ; and they are that Kind of Circum- 
iiances, which above all others proves this } for 
they are fuch Circumftances as cannot pofiiblf 
caule the EflFeft, being moft oppofite to the £ffi3& 
in their Tendency. And it proves the thirds viz* 
the Greatnefs of the internal Caufe, or the Power* 
fulnefs of the Propenfity ; becaufe the Meant 
which have oppofcd its Influence, have been H^ 
great, and yet have been ftatedly overcome. 

But here I rtiay obferve by the Way, tl\at with 
regard to the Motives and Obligations v/lii^h our 
firft Father finned againft, it is not reafonably 
alledged, that he finned when he knew his Siii 
would have dcilrudtive Confequences to all his 
Pofterity, and mighty in Procefs of Time^ pave tb$ 
whole Globe with Skulls y 6fr. Seeing it is io e^* 
dent, by the plain Account the Scripture gives us 
of the Temptation which prevailed with our firft 
Parents to commit that Sin, that it was io con- 
trived by the Subdlty q£ the Tempter, as firft to 
blind and deceive them as to that Matter* and to 
make them believe that their Difobedience Ihould 
be followed with no DeftruSicn or Calamity at all 
to themfelves, (and therefore not to ti>eir Pofterity) 
but on the contrary, with a great Increafe and 
Advancement of Dignity and Happiiiefs. 


12« TbeEvqfioH ^ sut L. 

Evqfion II. Let the Wickednefs of the World 
be ever fo general and great, there is no Neceflity 
of fuppcrfing ariy Depravity of Nature to be the 
Caufe: Mun*s own Frce-JVill is Caufe fufficient. 
Let Mankind be more or lefs corrupt, they makd 
themfelves corrupt by their own free Choice. This 
Dr. 7*. abundantly infifts upon, in many Parts of 
his Book *. 

But I would afk, how it comes to pafs that 
Mankind fo univerlklly agree in this evil Exercife 
of their Free-Will ? If their Wills are in the firfl: 
Place as free to Good as Evil, what is it to be 
afcribed to, that the World of Mankind, conflfting 
of fo mtoy Millions, in fo many fucceflive Gene- 
rations, without Confultation, all agree to exercife 
their Freedom in Favour of Evil ? If there be no 
natural Tendency or Preponderation in the Cafe, 
then there is as good a Chance for the Will's 
being determined to Good as Evil. If the Caufe 
is indifferent, why is not the Effeft in fome Mea- 
fure indifferent ? If the Balance be no heavier at 
one End than the other, why does it perpetually 
and as it were, infinitely preponderate one Way ? 
How comes it to pafs, that the Free-Will of Man- 
kind has been determined to Evil, in like Manner 
before the Flood, and after the Flood j under the 
Law, and under the Gofpel; among both Jews 
and <i€ntilesy under the Old Teftament -, and fmce 
that, among ChriJiianSy Jews, Mahometans-, among 
Papifts and Proteftants •, in thofe Nations where 
Civility, Politenefs, Arts, and Learning mod pre- 
vail, and among the Negroes and Hottentots in 
Africa, the "tartars in Afta, and Indians in America^ 
towards both the Poles, and on every Side of the 

Globe ; 

•Page 257, 258. S^> S3' ^* and many other Places, . 

Ciifp. I. 7 frm Free- Will, confidered. t^c> 

6e£l.IX. J 

Globe ; in greateft Cities and obfcureft Villages ; 
in Palaces and in Huts, Wigwams and Cells under 
Ground i Is it enough to reply, It happens fo^ 
that Men every where, and at all Times, chufc 
thus to determine tlieir own Wills, and lb to make 
themfelves finful, as foon as ever they are capable 
of it, and to fin conftantly as long as they live, and 
Xiniverfally to chufe never to come up half Way to 
their Duty ? 

As has been often obferved, a (teady Effeft re- 
quires a fteady Caufe •, but Free- Will, without 
any previous Propenficy to influence its Determi- 
nations, is no permanent Caufe -, Nothing can be 
conceived of, further from it \ For the very Notion 
of Freedom of Will, confiding in felf-determining 
Power, implies Contingence : And if the Will i$ 
free in that Scnfe, that it is perfedly free from . 
any Government of previous Inclination, its Free- ; 
dom muft imply the moft abfolute and perfe^- 
Contingence: And furely Nothing can be con- 
ceived of, more unfixed than that* The Notion 
of Lib^fty of Will, in this Senfe, implies perfect 
Freedom from every Thing that fliould grevioufly 
fi:^, bind or determine it \ thaf it may-^be left to 
be fixed and determined wholly by itfelf ; There- 
fore its Determinations muft be pj;cvioufly alto* 
gether unfixed. And caa that which is fo unfixed, 
fo contingent, be a Caufe fufficient to account for 
an Effeft, in fuch a Manner, and to fuch a De- 
greq, permanent, fixed, and conll^nt ? 

When Men fee only one particular Perfon, going 
on in a certain Courfe with great Conitancy, againft 
all Manner of Means to difiuade him^ do they judgt 
this to be no Argument of any fixed Difpofition 
of Mind, bccaufe he being free may det^mine to 

K * d« 


1 30 Evafions^ from Free- Will Part L ' 

do fo, if he will, without any fuch Difpofition ? 
Or if they fee a Nation or People that diflFer; 
greariy from other Nations, in fuch and fuch In- 
^ances of their conftant Conduft, as though their 
Tempers and Inclinations were very diverfe, and 
any fhould deny it to be from any fuch Caufe, and 
fhould fay. We cannot judge at all of the Temper 
or Difpofition of any Nation or People, by any 
Thing obfervable in their conftant Praftice or Be- 
haviour, becaufe they have all Free- Will, and 
therefore may all chule to ad: fo, if they pleaie, 
without any Thing in their Temper or Inclination 
tav biafs them •, would fuch an Account t)f fuch 
Effefts be fatisfying to the Reafon of Mankind ? 
But infinitely ftlrthcr would it be from fatisfying 
a confiderate Mind, to account for the conftant 
and univerfal Sinfulnefs of Mankind, by faying^ 
that the Will of all Mankind is free, and therefore 
all Mankind may, if they pleafe, make themfelves 
Wicked : They are free when they firft begin t» 
aft as moral Agents, and therefore all may, if they 
pleafe, begin to fin as foon as they begin to aft : 
They are free as long as they continue to aft in the 
World, and therefore they may all commit Sin 
continually, if they will : Men of all Nations are 
free, and therefore all Nations may aft alike in 
riiefe Refpefts, if they pleafe (though fome do. 
not know how other Nations do aft.) — Men of high 
and low Conditionj learned and ignorant, are free,, 
and therefore they may agree in afting Wickedly, 
if they pleafe (though they do not confult toge- 
ther.) — Men in all Ages are free, and therefore 
Men in one Age may all agree with Men in every 
other Age in Wickednels, if they pleafe, (thouorh 
chey do not know how Men in other Ages have 
aftcd) &c. &c. Let every one judge whether luck 
an Account of Things can iacisfy Reaibn. 
' - Evqfiam 

Cli«|>. t. 7 and bad Example, conjidered. 131 

Sed. IX. y 

Evafim III- It is faid by many of the Oppofers 
of the Doajpine of Original Sin, that the Corruption 
of the Wodd of Mankind may be owing, not to 
a depraved Nature, but to bad Example. And I 
thLafc we muft underftand Dr. T*. as having refpeft 
to the powerful Influence of bad Inftru6bion and 
Example, when he fays, p. 118. " The Gentiles 
" in their Heathen State, when incorporated into 
" the Body of the Gentile World, were without 
'' Strength, unable to help or recover themfelves." 
And in feveral other Places to the like PurjK)fe. 
If there was no Depravity of Nature, what elfe 
could there be but bad Inftruflion and jpxample, 
to hinder the Heathen World, as a colleftive 
Body, (for as fuch Dr. 2". Ipeaks of "them, as may 
be feen p. 117, 1 1 Stik^^^ epfierging out of their 
Corruption, on the ttp of each new Generation ? 
As tQ their bad Inltruflion, our Author infifts 
upon "it, that the Heathen, notv/ithftanding all 
tlicir Difadvantagcs, had fufticient Light to know 
God, and do their whole Duty to him, as we 
huve obferved from Time to Time. Therefore 
it muft be chiefly bad Example, that we muft 
fuppoie, according to Iiim, rendered their Cafe 

Now concerning this Way of accounting for 
the Corri^tion of the World, by the Influence 
of bad Example, I would obferve the following 
Things : 

I. It is accounting for the Thing by the Thing 
ilfelf. It is accounting for the Corruption of the* 
World by the Corruption of the World, tor, 
that bad Examples arc general all over the World 
• 10 be followed by others, and have been fo from 
the Beginning* 19 only an Inftance, or rather a 

K 2 Defcriptioa 

ip "The Evafiorij Part t. 

Defcription of that Corruptiort of the World which 
is to be accounted for. If Mankind are naturally 
no more inclined to Evil than Good, ,then how 
comes there to be fo many more bad Examples 
than good ones, in all Ages? And if there are 
not, how come the bad Examples that are fet, to 
be fo m«ch more followed than the good ? If the 
Propenfity of Man's Nature be not to Evil, how 
comes the Current of general Example, every 
where, and at all Times, to be fo much to Evil ? 
And when Oppofition has been made by good 
Examples, how comes it to pafs that it has had 
fo little EfFeft to ftem tKp Stream of general 
wicked Practice ? 

I think from the brief Account the ScripCUre 
gives us of the Behaviour of the firft Parents of 
Mankind, the Expreflions of their Faith and Hope 
in God's Mercy revealed to them, we have Reafon 
to fuppofc, that before ever they had any Children, 
they repented, and were pardoned, and became 
truly pious. So that God planted the World at 
firft with a noble Vifie -, and at the Beginning pf 
the Generations of Mankind, he fet the Stream t& 
Example the right Way. And we fee, that Chil- 
dren are more apt to follow the Example of their 
Parents, than of any others •, efpeciaHy in early 
Youth, their forming Time, when thofe Habits 
are generally contrafted, which abide by them all 
their Days. And befides, Adam\ Children had 
no other Examples to follow, but thofe of their 
Parents. How therefore came the Stream fo foon 
to turn, and to proceed the contrary Way, with 
fo violent a Current ? Then, when Mankind be- 
came fo univerfally and defperately corrupt, as not 
to be fit to live on Earth any longer, and the 
World was every where full of bad Examples, 


Chap. 1. 1 from bad Example, conftdereL 133 

Scfl:. IX. J 

God dcftroyed them all at once, but only righteous 
Hoah^ and his Family, to remove thofe bad Ex- 
amples, and that the World of Mankind might 
be planted again with good Example, and the 
Stream again turned the right Way : How there- 
fare came it to pafs, that NcaFs Pofterity did not 
follow his good Example, elpecially when they had 
fuch extraordinary Things to enforce his Example, 
but fo generally, even in his Life-time, became 
fo exceeding corrupt ? One would think, the firft 
Generations at lealt, while all lived together as 
one Family, under Noahy their venerable Father, 
might have followed his good Example : And if 
they had done fo, then, when the Earth came to 
be divided in Peleg*s Time, the Heads of the fe- 
veral Families would have fet out their particular 
Colonies with good Examples, and the Stream 
would have been turned the right Way in all the 
various Divifions, Colonies, and Nations of the 
World. But we fee verily the Fa6l was, that in 
about fifty Years after NoaFs Death, the World 
in general was over-run with dreadful Corruption ; 
fo that all Virtue and Goodnefs was like foon to 
perifh from among Mankind, unlefs fomething 
extraordinary fhould be done to prevent it. 

Then, for a Remedy, God feparated Ahrahafn 
and his Family from all the reft of the World,''that 
they might be delivered from the Influence of bad 
Example, that in his Pofterity he might have an 
holy Seed. Thus God again planted a noble Vine ; 
Abraham^ Ifaac^ and Jacob being eminently pious. 
But how foon did their Pofterity degenerate, till 
true Religion was like to be fwallowed up ? We 
fee how defperately, and almoft univerfally corrupt 
they were, when God brought them out of Egypt^ 
and lc4 them in the Wildernefs. 

K 3 Thea 

1^4 ^^ Eva/hHy ' ftetl. 

Then God was pleafed, before Tie planted kis 
People in Canaan^ to dcftroy that perverfe Gene- 
ration in the Wildernefs, that he might plant them 
there a noble Vine^ wholly a right Seed, and fet 
them out with good Example, in the Land where 
they were to have their fettled Abode. Jer.)ii, 21. 
It is evident, that the Generation which came with 
)ua into Canaan^ was an excellent Generation, 
>y innumerable Things faid of them *. But how 
foon did that People, neverthelefs, become the 
degenerate^Plant of a ftrange Vine ? 


DV i 

• 7 



And when the Nation had a long Time proved 
themfelves defperately and incurably corrupt, C?od 
deftroyed them, and fent them into Captivity, till 
the old Rebels were dead and purged out, to de-^ 
liver their Children from their evil Example : And 
when the following Generation were purified as in 
a Furnace, God planted them again, in the Ijand 
of Ifraely a noble Vine^ and fet them out with good 
Example; which yet was not followed by their 

When again the Corruption was become inve- 
terate and defperate, the Chriftian Church was 
planted by a glorious Out-pouring of the Spirit of 
God, caufing true Virtue ^nd Piety to be exem- 
plified in the firft Age of the Church of Chrrft, 
far beyond whatever had been on Earth before ; 
and the Chriftian Church was planted a noble Vine. 
But that primitive good Example has not pre- 
vailed, to caufe Virtue to be generally and Ked- 
faftjy maintained in the Chriftian World : To how 


• See Jer. ii. 2, 3. Pfal. Ixviii. 14. Jofti. xxii. 2..dn4 
>:xiii. S. Deut. iv. 3, 4. Hof, xi, i.andix. lo. 
7, 17, 22. and many other Places. 

^^Jw* ^-l from bad Example, conjidered. 1^5 

great a Degree it has been otherwife, has already 
Jbeen obferved^ 

After many Ages of general and dreadful Apo- 
flacy, God was pleafed to ereft the Proteftant 
Church, as feparated from the more corrupt Part 
c£ Chriltendom ; and true Piety flourifhed very 
much in it at firft ; God planted it a noble Vine : 
But notwithftanding the good Examples of the 
firft Reformers, what a melancholy Pafs is the 
Proteftant World come to at this Day ? 

When England grew very corrupt, God brought 
over a Number of pious Perfons, and planted 
thefti in New-England^ and this Land was planted 
with a noble Vine. But how is the Gold become 
dim! How greatly have we forfaken the pious 
'Examples of our Fathers I 

So prone have Mankind always proved them- 

felves to Degeneracy, and bent to Backfliding. 

-Which ftiews plainly their natural Propenfity ; and 

that when Good ha? revived, and been promoted 

^among Men, it has been^by fome divine Interpo- 

fition, to oppofe the natural Current; the Fruit of 

ibme extraordinary Means, the Efficacy of which 

has foon been overcome by conftant natural Biafs, 

and the Effeft of good Example prefently loft, 

and Evil has ^-egained and maintained the Domi- 

tnion : Like an ' heavy Body, which rnay by fome 

•great Power be caufed, to afcend, againft its Na- 

•ture, a little while, but foon goes back, again 

^towards the Center, to which it naturally and 

conftantly tends. 

So that evil 'Example wll in ho wife account 
•for the Corruptipn of Mankind, without fuppofing 

K 4 « 

a natural J^roncnefs to Sin. The Tendency ^ 
Btih)pK*Slldnc'will not account for general wicked 
O^taiftice', as confequent on good Example. And 
^'t\it Influence of bad Example is a Reafon of 
feme of the Wickednefs that is in the World, th^ 
tione will not Account for Men's becoming worfc 
than the Example fet, and degenerating more and 
more, and growing worfe and worfe, which has 
been the Manner ot Mankind, 

2. There has been given to the World an Ex- 
ample of Virtue, which, were it not for a dreadful 
Depravity of Nature, would have Influence on 
them that live under the Gofpel, far beyond all 
either Examples 5 aqd that is the Example of Jefus 

God, who knew the human Nature, and how 
^t Men are to be influenced by Example, has' 
made anfwerable Provifion. His infinite Wifdom 
has contrived that we fbould have fet before us the 
moft amiable and perfect Example, in fuch Cir-> 
cumftances, as ftiould have the greateft Tendency 
to influence all the Principles of Man's Nature, 
but his Corruption. Men are apt to be moved 
by the Example of others like then^felves^ or in 
their own Nature ; therefore this Example was , 
given in our Nature, Men are ready to follow^ 
the Example of the great and honourable ; and 
this Example, though it was of one in our Nature, 
yet it was of one infinitely higher and more ho-, 
nourable than Kings or Angels.. A People are^ 
apt to follow the Example of their Prince : This ' 
is the Example of that glorious ferfoq, who ftands 
in a peculiar Relation to Chrifl:Ians, as their Lord 
and King, the fupreme Head of the Church % and 
not only fo, but the King of Kings, fupreme Head . 


Cbiftl. 7 /r^«» bad Eicamplc, confidered. 137 

:<rf the Univerfe, and Head over, all Things to thp 
Church. Children are apt. tp follow the Exampfe 
of their Parents; This is the Example of th^ 
Author of our Beitig, and one who is in a peculiar 
and extraordinary Manner our Fatjier, as he is th/b 
Author of our holy and happy Being ; befides.his 
being the Creator of the World, and everlafling 
Father of the Univerfe. Men are very apt to 
follow the Example of their Friends : The Exam- 
ple of Chrift is of one that is infinitely our greateft 
Friend, {landing in the moft endearing Relations 
of our Brother, Redeemer, fpiritual Head and 
Jiulband ; whofe Grace and Love expreffed to us, 
tranfcends all other Love and Friendlhip, as mucli 
^s Heaven is higher than the Earth* And then the 
Virtues and Afts of his Example were exhibited 
to us in the moft endearing and engaging Circum- 
ftances that can poffibly be conceived ofj His 
Obedience and Submiflion to God, his HumiKty, 
Meeknefs, Patience, Charity, Self-Denial, &c. being 
exercifed and expreffed in a Work of infinite 
Grace, Love, Condefcenfion, and Beneficence to 
ps : and had all their higheft Expreffions in his 
• laying down his Life for us, and meekly, patiently^ 
and cbearfuUy undergoing fuch extreme and un- 
utterable Suffering, for our eternal Salvation. Men 
are peculiarly apt to follow the Example of fuch 
as they have great Benefits from : But it is utterly 
impoffible to cpnceive of greater Benefits, that 
we could have by the Virtuesr of any Perfon, than 
wc have by the virtuo\j^ Afts of Chrift ; who 
depend upon being thereby faved from eternal 
Pcftrudion, and brought to inconceivable immor- 
tal Glory at God's right Hand. Surely if it were 
not for an extreme Corruption of the Heart of 
Men, fuch an Example v/ould have that ftrohg 
Jnfluepce or\ the H^art, that would as it were 


•I . ' 

Iwallow up the Power of all the evil and haceiui 

Examples of a Generation of Vipers* 


5. The Influence of bad Example, without 
•Corruption of Nature, will not account for Chil- 
dren's univerfally committing Sin as foon as capa- , 
•ble of it ; which, I think, is a Fad that has been 
made evident by the Scripture. It mW. not account 
-for this, in the Children of emincndy pious Pa- 
rents 5 the firft ^Examples, that are fet in their 
View, being very good 5 which, as has been ob- 
^ferved, was efpecially the Cafe of many Childpen 
•in Chriftian Families in the^'Apoftles Days, when 
the Apoftle John fuppofes that every individual 
Perfon had Sin to repent of, and confefs to 

4* What Dr. T. fuppofes to have been FetSty 

-with relped to a great Part of Mankind, cannot 

coflfiftently be accourfted for from the Influence 

•of bad Example, viz. the State of the Heathen 

W(M-ld, which he fuppofes, confidered as a col- 

ledtive Body, was helplefs, dead in Sin, and un- 

.able to recover itfelf. Not evil Example alone, 

no, nor as united with evil Inftruftion, can ^be 

^liippded a fiafficient Reafon why every new Ge- 

-neration that arofe among them, fhould not be 

able to emerge from the Idolatry and Wickedneifs 

of their Anceftors, in any Confiftence with his 

Scheme. The ill' Example ef Anceftors couk} 

•have no Power to oblige them to fin, any other 

■Way than as a ftrong Temptation. But Dr. 'ST, 

-himfelf fays, p. 72. S. "To fuppofe Men's Temp- 

•' tations to be fuperiour to their Powers, will im- 

•' peach the Goodnefs and Juftice of God, whb 

^ appoints every Man's Trial." And as to baa 

' Jpflrudions, as was obfervcd before, he fuppofes 


(hat they dl, yea every individual ^0rroi>, had 
JLight fufficient to -know God, and do itkeiF vdiole 
Duty. And if each one could do this for Him- 
ielf, then furely they might all be ^reed .in it 
through the Power of. Free- Will, as well as the 
-whole World be ijgreed*'in Corruption by the 
iame Power. 

J&vafim IV, Some modern fOppofers of the 
. -Podtrine of 'Original Sin, do thus -account for, the 
general Prevalence of Wickednefe, viz. ^that^ina 
Courfe of Nature our Senfes grow up firft, and 
the animal Pai&ons get the Start of Reaibn. So 
Dr. fTurnbuU feys *, "Senfitive Objedts ?firft aflfedt 
U5, and inafmuch as Reafon is a rPrinqiple, 
which, in the Nature of Things, muft he ad- 
vanced to Strength and Vigour, by .gradual 
Cultivation, and thefe Objeds are continually 
af&iling and foliciting us; fo, unlefs a very 
** happy Education .prevents, ourfenfitive App^- 
^' tites muft have become very ftrong, before 
" Reafon can have Force enough to^ call them 5 to 
*' an Account, andaflurae Authority over them." 
/From 'hence «Dn ^urnbull fuppcrfes it comes to 
pals -f, " That though fome few may, tiiTough 
the Influence of virtuous Example, ' be 'iaidtabc 
fanftified from the Womb, fo liberal, fo gene- 
rous, ' lb virtuous, fo truly noble-as: their- Gaft of 
Mkid •, yet, generally fpeaking, the whole 
*' World lieth in fuch Wickednefs, that, with 
** relpeft to the. far greater Part of Mankiad, 
*V''the Study of Virtue >is beginning to reform, 
acKl'is a fevere Struggle againft badiHabits, 
early. contraded, and« deeply rooted; it. is there* 
** fore .: putting -pff.^an » old- inveterate corrupt Nar 


" ture, 

* «^ See 'MorJPlnl. -p.'^TQ. «^ ChripPBih ^.^^74. t Girifi , 
PA^/.^p/282, 283. 

140 The Evaficn from Scnfc Part L 

turc, and putting on a new Form and Temper; 
it is moulding ourfelves anew; it is a being 
born again, and becoming as Children. — And 
*' how few are there in the World who efcapc its 
" Pollutions, fo as not to be early in that Clafs, 
*' or to be among the Righteous that need no 
" Repentance ?" 

Dr. *Taykr^ though he is not fo explicit, feems 
to hint at the fame Thing, p. 192. *' It is by flow 
*• Degrees (fays he) that Children come to the 
*' Ufe of Underftanding ; the animal Paillons 
" being for fome Years the governing Part of 
*' their Conftitution. And therefore, though they 
** may be froward and apt to difpleafc us, yet 
*' how far this is Sin in them, we are not capable 
*' of judging. But it may fuffice to fay, that it 
** is the Will of God that Children fhould have 
** Appetites and Paffions to regulate and reftrain, 
** that he hath given Parents Inftru6tions and 
*' Commands to difcipline and inform their 
*' Minds, that if Parents firft learned true Wif- 
*' dom for themfelves, and then endeavoured 
*' to bring up their Children in the Way of 
** Virtue, there would be lefs Wickednefs in the 
«' World." 

Concerning thefc Things I would obferve, that 
fuch a Scheme is attended with the very fame 
Difficulties, whiclu they that advance it would 
avoid by it ; liable to the fame Objeftions, which 
they make againft God's ordering it fo that Men 
ihould be brought into Being with a prevailing 
Propenfity to Sin. For this Scheme fuppofes, the 
Author of Nature has fo ordered Things, that 
Men (hould come into Being 2^ moral Agents, 
that is, Ihould firft have Exiftence in a State and 


Chap: I. .7 getting the Sian 'of 'KeafoH. ni 

Sed. IX. ) 

Capacity of moral Agency, under a prevailing 
Pfopenlity to Sin. For that Strength, which ferl- 
fitive Appetites and animal Paffions come to by 
their habitual Exercife, before Perfons come to the 
Exercife of their rational Powers, amounts to a 
Itrong Propenlity to Sin, when they firft: come to 
t)ie Exercife of thofe rational Powers, by the Siip- 
pofition : Becaufe this is given as a Reafon why 
the Scale is turned for Sin among Mankind, and 
why, generally /peaking^ (be whole fVorld lies in 
Wtckednefs^ and the Study of Virtue is a fevere 
Struggle againji bad Habits^ early contrasted^ and 
deeply rooted. Thefe deeply rooted Habits muft: 
imply a Tendency to Sin -, otherwife they could 
not account for that which they are brought to 
account for, namely, prevailing Wickednefs in the 
World: For that Caufe cannot account for an 
EfFeft, which is fuppofed to have no Tendency to 
that Effedt. And this Tendency which is fuppofed, 
is altogether equivalent to a natural Tendency : It 
is as neceflary to the Subjeft. For it is fuppofed to- 
be brought on the Perfon who is the Subjeft of 
it, when he has no Power to v/ithftand or oppofc 
it : The Habit, as Dr. Turnbull fays, becoming 
very ftrong, before Reafon can have Force enough 
to call the Paffions to Account, or alTume Autho- 
rity over them. And it is fuppofed, that this 
Neceffity, by which Men become fubjeft to this 
Propenfity to Sin, is from the Ordering and Dif- 
pofal of the Author of Nature ; and theretoM 
muft be as much from his Hand, and as much 
without the Hand of the Perfon himfelf, as if he 
were firft brought into Being with fuch a Propen- 
fity. Moreover, it is fuppofed thac the Etfcct, 
which the Tendency is /^, is truly Wicke^inejs, 
For it is alledjjed as a' Caufe or Reafon why 
the whole WoilJ lies in Wickednefs^ and why rl:! 

bui: a very few are firft in the Clais of the Wiehed^ 
and not among the Righteous^ that need no. Re- 
pentance. If they need Repentance^ what they 
are guilty of is truly and properly Wickedhelsy 
or nioraL Evil \, for certainly Men need no Repent- 
ance for that which is no Stn^ or blameable EviL 
If it be fo, that as a Coniequence of this. Pra* 
penlity^ the World lies in Wickednefe, and the 
far greater Part are of a wicked Charafter^ with- 
out Doubt, ^hc far greater Part go to eternal 
Perdition : For Death does not pick and chufe, 
only for Men of a righteous Character. And 
certainly that is an evil corrupt State of Things, 
which naturally tends to^ and ifHies in that Con- 
fequence> that as it were the whole World licr 
ai)d lives in Wickednels, and dies in Wickednefs, 
and periihes eternally. And this by the Suppofi- 
tion is a .State of Things, wholly of the ordering 
of the Author of Nature^ before Mankind are 
capable of having any Hand in the Afiair. And 
is. this any Relief to the Difficulties, which thefe 
Writers objedt againft the Doftrine of natural 
Depravity ? 

And I might here alio obferve, that this W^ 
of accounting for the Wickednefs of the World,, 
amounts to juft the lame Thing with that Solur* 
tion of Man's Depravity, which was mentioned 
before, that Dr. T. cries out of as too grofc to bet. 
admitted, (p. i88, 189.) viz. God's creating thifi 
Soul pure, and putting it into fuch a Body, ^ a& 
* naturally tends to pollute it. For this Scheme 
fuppofes, that God creates the Soul pure, * and 
puts it into a Body, and into fuch a State in that 
Body, that the natural Confequence is a ftrong 
Propenfity to Sin> as foon as the Soul is capable 
of finning. 

Chap. 1.1 gMingtbi Start 6f Riofbn. 143 . 

Sedl.IX. 3 

Dn TurnhuH feems to fuppofc, that the Matter 
could not have been ordered oth^rwifc, confiftent 
with the Nature of Things, than that animal- - 
Paflions fhould be fo aforehand with Reafon, a& 
that the Confequence fhould be that which has 
been mentioned ; becaufe Reafon is a Faculty of 
fuch a Nature, that it can have Strength and Vi- 
gour no otherwife than by Exercife and Culture *• 
But can there be any Force in this ? Is there any 
Thing in Nature, to make it impoffible, but that 
the fuperiour Principles of Man's Nature flioulA 
be fo proportioned to the inferiour, as to prevent 
fuch a dreadful Confequence, as the moral and 
natural Ruin, and eternal Per^tion of the fer 
greater Part of Mankind ? Could not thofc fupe- 
riour Principles be in vaftly greater Strength at 
firft, and yet be capable of endlefs Improvement? 
And what fhould hinder its being fo ordered by 
the Creator, that they fhould improve by vaflly 
fwifter Degrees than they do? If we are Chriflians^* 
we mufl be forced to allow it to be pofTible in die 
Nature of Things, that the Principles of huma^ 
Nature fhould be fo balanced, that the Confer 
quence fhould be no Propenfity to Sin, in the firft 
Beginning of a Capacity of moral Agency •,. be- 
caufe, we mufl own, that it was fo in Fad in 
Adam^ when firfl created, and alfq in the Man 
Chrifl Jefus; though the Faculties of the latter 
were fuch as grew by Culture and Improvement, 
fo that he incrcafed in Wifdom as he grew in 
Stature* . 

Evofton V. Seeing Men in this World are inr 

a State of Trial, it is fit that their Virtue, fhould 

meet with Trials^ and confequently that it fhould 

have Oppofmon; aqd Temptation to overcome; 




144 Of that EvAfiotiy that . f art*' 

not only from without, but from within, in the 
animal Paflions and Appetites we have to fttuggW 
with ; that by the Conflift and Vidory our Virtue • 
may be refined and eilabliflied. Agreeable to this 
Dr. T. (p. 253.) fiiy^, " Without a right Ufc and ' 
" Application of our Powers, were they naturally 
'*- ever fo j^eifeft, we could not be judged fit t& 
** enter into the Kino;dom of God. — This orives a 
** good Rcaion wliy we are now in a State dP 
Trial and Temptation, viz. to prove and difci- 
pline our Minds; to feafon our Virtue, and to- 
" fit us for the Kingdom of God ; for which, irt 
the Judgment of infinite Wifdom, we cannot 
be qualified, but by overcoming our prcfent 
Temptations." And in p. 78. S. he fays, " We' 
are upon Trial, and it is the Will of our Father 
" that our Conftitution ftiould be attended With va- 
'* rious Paflions and Appetites, as well as our out- 
'* ward Condition with various Temptations.** He 
fays the like in feveral other Places. To the fame 
Purpofe very often Dr. Tumbull^ particularly Cbrif^ 
Phil. p. 310. " What Merit (fays he) except from 
Combat ? What Virtue without the Encounter of 
fuch Enemies, fuchTemptations as arife both from' 
within, and from abroad ? To be virtuous, is 
to prefer the Pleafures of Virtue, to thofe which 
come into Competition with it, and Vice holds 
forth to tempt us; and to dare to adhere to 
Truth and Goodnefs, whatever Pains and Hard- 
Ihips it may coft. There muft therefore; in 
Order to the Formation ,and Trial, in Order 
to the very Being of Virtue, be Pleafures of 
a certain Kind to make Temptations to Vice.** 

In Reply to thefe Things I would fay, either the 
State of Temptation, which is fuppofed to be or- 
dered for Men*s Trial, amounts on the whole to 

tkap.i. •» . f^fUi mujt be iried. 14.5. 

S«A.IX.X "' 

a ' prevailing Tendency to that State of general . 
Wickednefs and Ruin^ which has been proved to 
take Place, or it does not. If it does not amount 
to a Tendency to fuch • an EfFeft, then how does 
ic account for \t ? When it is inquired, by what 
Caufe fuch an EflTedl ihould come to pafs, is it not 
abfurd to ailedge a Caufe, which is owned at the 
fame Time to have no Tendency to fuch an EfFed ? 
Which is as much as to contefs, that it will not 
account for it. I thinks it has been demonftrated, 
that this EfFeft muft be owing to fome prevailing 
Tendency. If the other Part of the Dilemma be 
taken, and it be faid, that this State of Things,, 
does imply a prevailing Tendency to that Effedt^ 
which has been proved, viz. that all Mankind^ 
without the Exception of fo much as one,^ fm 
againft God, tQ their own deferved and juft eternal 
Ruin *, and not only fo^ but fm thus immediately, 
as foon as capable of it, and fin continually, and 
have more Sin than Virtue^ and have Guilt that 
infinitely outv/eighs the Value of all the Goodneii 
any ever have, and that the Generality of the 
World in all Ages are extremely ftupid and 
foolilh, and of a wicked Charadker, and adually 
perifli for ever •, I fay, if the State of Temptation 
implies a natural Tendency to fuch an EfFedt as 
this, it is a very evil, corrupt, and dreadful State 
of Things, as has been already largely Ihewn. 

. Bcfides, fuch a State has a Tendency to defeat! 
its own fuppofed End, which is to refine, ripen, 
and perfeft Virtue in Mankind, and fo to fit Men 
for the greater eternal Happinefs and Glory i 
Whereas, the Eftedt it tends to, is the Rev^rfe of 
this, viz. general, eternal Infamy and Ruin, in 
all Generations. It is fuppofed, that Men's Virtu* 
niuft have Paflkms and Appetices to ftruggle \v\i\i^ 

L \tk 

i/^$ Of Virtue's hdt^ Med. Part t 

ih order to have the Glory and Reward of ViAory : 
but the Confequence is> a prevailing, continual^ 
and generally eSedual Tendency, not to Men's 
yiftory aver ev\l. Appetites and Paffimsy and the 
glorious Reward of that Vi&ory, but to the Vic- 
tory oi evil Appetites and Lxifts ov^ Men^ and 
utterly and eternally deftroying them. If a Trial 
of Virtue be requifKe, yet the Queftion is, Whence 
comes fo general a failing in the Trialy if there be 
no Depravity of Nature ? If Conflift and War be 
neceffary, yet furely there is no Neceffity that there 
fliould be more Cowards than good Soldiers v un-^ 
lefs it be neceffary that Men flK)uld be overcome 
and deltroyed : Eipecially it is not neceffary that 
the whole World as it were fliould lie in Wicked-^ 
nefs> and fo lie ami die in Cowardice. 

. I might alio here obferve, that Dr. ^urniull i» 
not very eonfiftcnt, in fuppofing, that Combat witb 
Temptation is requifite to the very Being of Virtue. 
For I think it clearly follows from his own Notion 
of Virtue, that Virtue muft have a Being prior 
to any virtuous or praife- worthy Combat . vrvStk 
Temptation. For by his Principles, all Virtue 
lies in good AfFe(9ion, and no Anions can^ be vir^ 
tuous, but what proceed from good AfFe6tion*v 
Therefore, furely the Combat itfelf can have no 
Virtue in it, unlefs it proceeds from virtuous Af- 
feftion: And therefore Virtue muft have an Exi- 
gence before the Combat^ and be the Caufe 
of it. 


Qfrif, PM. p* n5> i^4i 115^ 

Cbiap.II; Argument from umverfal Mortality. i4i 



Univerfel Moxxzliixy proves Original Sin ; farticu^ 
. larly the Death of Infants^ wth its various Cir- 

TH E univerfal Reign of Deaths civer Perfona 
of all Ages indifcriminatcly, with the awful 
Circumftances and Attendants of Death, proves 
that Men come finful into the World. 


It is rieedlefs here particularly to inquire. Whe- 
ther God has not a fovereign Right to fet Bounds 
to the Lives of his own Creatures, be they finful 
or not ; and as he gives Life, fo to take it away 
when he pieafes ? Or how far God has a Right to 
bring extreme Suffering and Calamity on an inno- 
cent moral Agent ? For Death, with the Pains 
and Agonies with which it is ufually brought on, 
is not merely a limiting of Exiftence, but is a 
moft terrible Calamity ; and to fuch a Creature as 
Man, capable of conceiving of Immortality, and 
made with fo earneil a Defire after it, and capable 
of Forefight and of Refledtion on approaching 
Death, and that has fuch an extreme Dread of it, 
is a Calamity above all others terrible, to fuch as 
are able to refleft upon it. I fay^ it is neediefs, 
elaborately to confider, whether God mAy not, 
confiftent with his Perfc6tions, by abfolute So- 
l^ereignty, bring fo great a Calamity on Mankind 
when perfed;ly innocent. It is fufficient, if we 
have good Evidence from Scripture, that it is not 
agreeable to God's Manner of dealing with Man^ 
kind fp to do. 

It is.manifeft, that Mankind were riot originally 
fobjefted to this Calamity : God brought it on 

L 2 them 

148' Affkaion 4ind Heafb VvmM 

them afterwards, on Occafion of Man's Sin, at a 
Time of the Manifeftation of God's great Dif- 
pleafure for^ Sin, and by a Denunciation and Sen- 
tence pronounced by him, as afting the Part of a 
Judge ; as Dr. T, often confeffes. Sin entered 
into the World, and Death by Sin, as the Apoftle 
fays. Which certainly leads us to fuppofe, that 
this Affair was ordered of God, not mcrfily by the 
Sovereignty of a Creator, but by the RighteouiV 
nefs of a Judge. And the Scripture every where 
fpeaks of all great Affliftions and Calamities, 
which God in his Providence brings on Mankind, 
as Teftimonies of his Difpleafure for Sin, in the 
Subjeft of thole Calamities ; excepting thofe Suf- 
ferings which are to atone for the Sins of others. 
He ever taught his People to look on fuch Ca- 
lamities as his Rod^ the Rod of his Anger^ his 
Frowns^ the Hidings of bis Face in Difpleafure^ 
Hence fuch Calamities are in Scripture fp often 
called by the Name of Judgments^ being what 
God brings on Men as a Judge^ executing a righ- 
teous Sentence for TranfgrefTion : Yea, they are 
often called by the Name cf Wrath^ efpecially Ca- 
lamities confifling or ifTuing in Death *. And 
hence alfo is that which Dr. 7*. would have us 
take fo much Notice of, that fbmetimes, in the 
Scripture, Calaniity and Suffering is called by fuch 
Names as Sin^ Iniquity^ being guilty^ &cc. which 
is evidently by a Metonymy of the Caufe for the 
EfFeft. It is not likely, that in the Language 
in Ufe of old among God's People, Calamity or 
Suffering would have been called even by the 
Names of Sin and Guilt, if it had been fo far 


* See Levit. x. 6. Namb. i. 53. and tviii. 5. Jolh. ix. 
20. 2 Chron. xxiv. 18. and xix. 2, 10. and xxviiu 13. and 
u. 25. Ezra vii. 23. Neh. xiii. 18. Zech. vii* 12. and 
odier Place^. 

Chap. n. prove Original Sin. 149 

from having any Conncdtion with Sin, that even 
Death itfelf, which is always fpoken of as the moft 
terrible of Calamities, is not fo much as any Sign 
of the Sinfulnefs of the Subjed:, or any Teftimony 
of God's Difpleafure for any Guilt of his^ as Dr. 
T. fuppofcs. 

Death is fpoken of in Scripture as the chief of 
Calamities, the moft extreme and terrible of all 
thofe natural Evils, which come on Mankind in 
this World. Deadly DeftruSion is fpoken of as the 
jmoft terrible Deftru6tion- i Sam. v. 11. Deadly 
Sorrow^ as the moft extreme Sorrow. Ifai. xvii. 11. 
Matt. xxvi. 38. and deadly Enemies^ as the moft 
bitter and terrible Enemies. Pfal. xvii. 9. The 
Extremity of Chrift's Sufferings is reprefented by 
his Suffering unto Death. Philip, ii. 8. and other 
Places. Hence the greateft Teftimonies of God's 
Anger for the Sins of Men in this World, have 
been by infiifting Death : As on the Sinners of 
the old World, on the Inhabitants of Sodom and 
Gomorrahy on Onan^ Pharaoh^ and the EgypiicinSy 
Nadab and Abihuy Korab and his Company, and 
the reft of the Rebels in the Wildernefs, on the 
wicked Inhabitants of Canaan^ on Hcphni and 
PhinehaSy Ananias and Sappbira^ the unbelieving 
JewSy upon whom Wrath came to the uttermoft, 
in the Time of the laft Deftrudion of Jerufakm. 
This Calamity is often fpoken of as in a peculiar 
Manner the Fruit of the Guilt of Sin. Exod, 
xxviii. 43. Tbat they bear not Iniquity and die. 
Levit. xxii. 9. Left they bear Sin for if and die. 
So Num. xviii. 22. compared with Levit. x. i, 2. 
The very Light of Nature, or Tradition from 
ancient Revelation, led the Heathen to conceivtQ 
of Death as in a peculiar Manner an Evidence of 
divine Vengeance, Thus we have an Account, 

L 3 Afts 

tffy 4B^^ion and Death PaitL 

Ads xxviii. 4. That when the Barbarikus faw the 
venomous Beaji hang on PaulV Hand, they /aid 
among themfehes, no Doubt this Man is a A&r- 
derer, whom though be hath efcaped the SeaSj yei 
Vengeance fufFereth not to live. 

Calamities that are very fmall in Comparifon of 
the univcrfal temporal Deftrudlion of the whole 
World of Mankind by Death, are fpoken of as 
manifeft Indications of God's great Difpleafure for 
the Sinfiilnels of the Subjedl ; Tuch as the Deftnic- 
tion of particular Cities^ Countries, or Numbers 
of Men, by War or Pellilence. Deut. xxix. 24, 
j4ll Nations Jhall fay. Wherefore hath the Lord done 
thus unto this Land? what meaneth the Heat ef 
this great Anger ? Here compare Deut. xxxii. jcx 
I Kings ix. 8. and Jer. xxii. 8, 9. Thefe CalaF- 
mities, thus fpoken of as plain Teftimonies 6i 
God's great Anger, confiftcd only in haftcning on 
that Death, which otherwife, by God's Difpofal, 
would moft certainly have come in a (hort Time. 
Now the taking off of 30 or 40 Years from 70 or 8oj 
(if we Ihould fuppofe it to be fo much, one with 
another, in the Time of thefe extraordinary Judg- 
ments) is but a fmall Matter, in Comparifon of 
God's firft making Man mortal, cutting off his 
hoped-for Immortality, fubjedHng him to inevitaWc 
Death, which his Nature fo exceedingly dreads 1 
and afterwards (hortening his Life further, by 
cutting off more than 800 Years of it : fo brings 
ing it to be lefs than a twelfth Part of what it 
was in the firft Ages of the World. Befides that 
innumerable Multitudes in the common Courfe of 
Things, without any extraordinary Judgment, die 
in Youth, in Childhood, and Infancy. Therefore 
how inconfiderable a Thing is the additional op 
haftened Deftruftion, that is fometimes brought 


^r^^f~-w' * ■ ' I ■■ i-T— ^^i^^^^T' 

Cin^ II. pnA;e Original Sin^ i:$v 

on a particular City or Countiy by War^ com- 
pared with that univerfal Havock which Death 
makes of the whole Race of Mankind, fronm Ge- 
neration to Generation, without Diftin<5tion of 
Sex, Age, Quality, or Condition, with all the 
infinitely various difmal Circumftances, TormentS;, 
and Agonies, which attend the Death of old and 
young, adult Pcrfons and little Infants ? If thofe 
particular and comparatively trivial Calamities, ex- 
tending perhaps not to more than the thoufandth 
Part of the Men of one Generation, are clear 
Evidences of God's great Anger ; certainly this 
univerfal vaft Deftruftion, by which the whole 
World in all Generations is fwallowed up, as by 
a Flood, that Nothing can refill, muft be a moft 
glaring Manifeftation erf" God's Anger for the Sin- 
fulnefs of Mankind. Yea, the Scripture is eX- 
prefs in it, that it is fo. Pfal. xc, 3, &c. Thau 
turnefi Man td t>eftru£tion^ and ft^eft^ Rit^rn^ ^ 
Children of Men. — Thou carriejl them away as wUb 
a Flood : They are as a Sleep : In the ' Morning they 
are like Grafs^ which groweth up ; in the Morning 
it flourijheth and groweth up \ in the Evening it is 
cut down and ivithereth. For we are confumed by 
thine Anger^ and by thy Wrath are we troubled. 
Thou haft fet okr Iniquities before thee;, our fecret 
Sifts jn the Light of thy Countenance, For all our 
Days are paffed away in thy Wrath : ff^e fpend our 
Tears as a Tale that is told. The Days of our 
Tears ate Threefccrs Tears and Ten: And if by 
Reafon of Strength they be Fourfcore Tears^ yet is 
their Strength Labour and Sorrow \ for it is foon 
ckt off^ and we fly away. W!jO knoweth the Power 
of thine Anger ? According to thy Feary fo is thy 
IVrath. So teach us to number cur Days that we 
fnay apply our Hearts^ unto Wifdom. How plain 
^nd full is this Tcftimony, that the general Mor- 

L 4 ^^I'l^Y 

152 4ffliauin and Death r: BaitX 

•tality of Mankind is an Evidence of God^s Anger 
for the Sin of thofe who are t;he Subjeds of fucor i^ 
Jifpenfation ? v.. -r* 

Ahimehch fpeaks of it as a Thing which he had 
Rcafon to conclude from God's Nature and Per- 
fedion, that be 'would not Jlay a righteous Naiipn. 
Gen. xjf. 4. By righteous evidently meaning inno^ 
cent. And if fo, much lefs "j.'ill Gcd fiay a rigbr 
teous Worlds (confiding of fo many National- 
repeating the great Slaughter in every Generation) 
or fubjeS the whole World of Mankind to Deaiih, 
when they are confidered as innocent, as Dr. S*. 
4uppofes. We have from Time to Time, in Scrips 
ture fuch Pl^rafes as — worthy of Deaths and gwtty 
^f Death : But certainly the righteous Judge iof 
all the Earth will not bring Death on TiiQU- 
fands of Millions^ not only, that are not wordiy 
of Death, but are worthy of no Punifhrnent 
at all V 

Dr. T. from Time to Time fpeaks of Affliffcion 
and Death as a great Benefit, as they increafe the 
Vanity of all earthly Things, and tend to excite 
Ibber Refle<5lions, and to induce us to be. modc- 
jate in gratifying the Appetites of the Body, and 
to mortify Pride and Ambition, &c, * To this 
I would fay, 

T, It is not denied but God may fee it needfu.l 
for Mankind in their prefent State, that they 
ihould be mortal, and fubjed to outward Afliie- 
tions, to rellrain their Lufts, and mortify their 
Pride and Ambition, &c. But then is it not an 
Evidence of Man's Depravity, that it is fo ? Is it 
not an Evidence of Diftemper of Mind, ye^, 


• P. 21, 67, and other Places, 

Chap. II. pr^ve Original 'Sin. 153 

^ftrong-Difeafe, when Man ftands in Need' of fuch 

' fliarp Medicines, fuch fevere and terrible Means 
to reftrain his Lufts, keep down his Pride, iand 
make him willing to be obedient to God ? It mull 
be becaufe of a corrupt and ungrateful Heart, if 

the Riches of God's Bounty, in bellowing Life 
and Profperity, and Things comfortable and plea- 
fant, will not engage the Heart to God, and to 
Virtue, and child-like L.ove and Obedience, but 
that he muft always have the Rod held over him, 
and be often cbaftifcd, and held under the Appre^ 
henfions of Death, to keep him from running 
wild in Pride, Contempt, and Rebellion, ungrate- 
fully ufing the Bleffings dealt forth from God's Hand, 
in finning againft him, and ferving his Enemies. 
If Man has no natural Difingenuity of Heart, it 
muft be a myfterious Thing indeed, that the fweet 
Bleflmgs of God's Bounty have not as powerfiil 
An Influence to reftrain him from finning againft 
God, as terrible Affliftions. If any Thing can 
be a Proof of a perverfe and vile Difpoiltion, this 
muft be a Proof of it, that Men (hould be moft 
apt to forget and defpife God, when his Provi- 
dence is moft kind ; and that they fhould need to 
have God chafiife them with great Severity, and 
even to kill them, to keep theqi in Order. If 
we were as much difpofed to Gratitude to God 
for his Benefits, as we are to Anger at our Fel- 
low-Creatures for Injuries, as we muft be (fo far 
as I can fee) if we are not of a depraved Heart, 

. the Sweetnefs of the divine Bounty, if continued 
in Life, and the Height of every Enjoyment that 
is pleafant to innocent human Nature, would be 
as powerful Incentives to a proper Regard to 
Grod, tending as much to promote Religion and 
Virtue, as to have the World filled with Cala- 

.. mity, and to have God ("to yfe the Language of 


'54 JffiiSion dnd Dfmtb PaitL 

H^^iMb^ Qtiah xxxviii. 13. defcribing Death and 
tta Agonies) as a Uofty breaking all cur Bcmsy 
and pram Day even to Night j making am End 

Dr. IT. hitnfelf, p. 252. fays, •* That our firft 
** Patents before the FaJl were placed in a Condi- 
^ tion proper to engage their Gratitude, Love, 
** and Obedience." Which is as much as to fay, 
proper to engage them to the Exercife and Prac- 
tice of all Religion. And if the paradifaical State 
was proper to engage to all Religion and Duty, 
and Men ftill come into the World with Hearts a$ 
good as the two firft of the Species,, why is it not 
proper to engage them to it ftill ? What need of 
lb. vaftly changing Man's State, depriving him of 
aU thofe BlelTings, and inftead of them allotting 
to him a World fiill of Briers and Thorns, AiB^o* 
tion> Calamity, and Death, to enga^ him to it I 
The taking away of Life, and all thofe plea&nt 
Enjoyments Man had at firft, by a permanent 
Conftitution, would be no ftated Benefit to Man- 
lindy unlefs there was a ftated Difpofition in 
them to abufe fuch Blefllngs. The taking them 
away is fuppofed to be a Benefit under the Notion 
<if their being Things that tend to lead Men to 
Sin : But they would have no fuch Tendency, at 
leaft in a ftated Manner, unlefs there was in Men 
a fixed Tendency to make that unreafonable Mifinnl-^ 
provement of them. Such a Temper of Mind 
as amounts to a Difpofition to make fuch a Mifim- 
provement of Bleflings of that Kind, is often 
fpoken of in Scripaire, as moft aftonilhingly vile 
and perverfe. So concerning IfraeV% abufing the 
Bleflings of Canaan^ that Land flowing with Milk 
and Honey ; their Ingratitude in it is fpoken of 
by the Prophets^ as enough to aftonift all Hea,ven 


Cbip. H. friffVi Original Sin. 155 

and Eiifth^ and as more than brutilh Stupidity 
arid Vilcncfs. Jer. ii. 7. / brought tb&m into a plfn- 
tiful Omntfjy to eat the Fruit thereof^ and the 
Goodnefs thereof. But tvhen ye entered^ ye defiled ' 
nry Land^ &c. See the following Verfes, elpe- 
cially Ter. 12, Be afionijhed^ O ye Hea'OenSy at this^ 
-^So Kai. i. 2— -4. Hear^ O Heavens, and givi 
JSar^ O Earth \ I have ndurijbed and brought up 
Children, and they have rebelled againft ine. The 
Ox knoweth his Owner, and the Afs his Mafiefs 
Crib ; but my People doth not know, Ifrael doth not 
fonfider. 4h,Jinful Nation] a People laden with 
Iniquity, a 'Seed tf Evil-doers, Children that are 
Corrupters. — Compare Deut. xxxii. 6-*- 19. If it 
fhewed fo great Depravity, to be difpofed thus to 
abufe the Bleflings of fo fruitful and pleafaiit a 
Land as Canaan, fureiy it would be an Evidence 
of a no lefs aftonifliing Corruption, to be inclined 
to abufe the Bleflings of Eden, and the Garden tsU 
God there, 

2. If Death he brought on Mankind only as k 
Benefit, and in that Manner which Dr. 3", men- 
tions, viz. to mortify or moderate their carnal 
Appetites and Affeftions, wean them from the 
World, excite them to ibber Reflexions, and 
lead them to the Fear and Obedience of G6d, 
i&c. — is it not ftrange that it fhould fall fo heavy on 
Infants, who are not capable of making any fuch 
Improvement of it •, fo thatmany mofje of Man- 
kind fuffer Death in Infancy, than in any other 
equal Part of the Age of Man ? Our Author 
fometimes hints, that the Death of Infants may 
be for the good of Parents, and thofe that are 
aduk^ and may be for the Correftion and Punifh- 
ment of the Sins of Parents : Byt. hath God any 
Need of fuch Methods to add to Parents Afflic- 
tions ? 

156 Fatherly ChaJlifemenH ; Part I. 

tions ? Are there not Ways enow that he mi^ 
increafe their Trouble, without deftroying the 
Lives of fuch Multitudes of xhdk that are per- 
fedly innocent^ and have in no Refpedt any Sin 
belonging to them ; on whom De^th comes at ati 
Age, when not only the Subjcdls are not capable 
of any Reflcdion, or making any Improvpment oi 
\ty either in the Suffering, or Expectation of it ; 
but alfo at an Age, when Parents and Friq^ds, 
who alone can make a good Improvement, and 
whom Dr. !T. fuppofes alone to be punilhed by it, 
fuffer leaft by being bereaved of them •, though 
the Infants themfelves fometimes fuSer to great 
Extremity ? 

3. To fuppofe, as Dr. T. does, that Death is 
brought on Mankind in Confcquence of .Adam\ 
Sin, not at all as a Calamity, but only as a^ Favour 
and Benefit, is contrary to the Doftrine of the 
Gofpel ; which teaches, that when Chrift, as the 
iecond Adam^ comes to remove and deftroy that 
Peath, which came by the firft yldamy he finds 
it not as a Friend, but an Enemy, i Cor. xv, 22. 
For as in Adam all die^ fa in Chriji Jhall all 
be made alive: with ver, 25 and 26, For he 
tnujl reign^ till be hath put all Enemies under bis 
Feet. The laft ENEMT that Jloall be dejlroyed, 
is DEATH. 

Dr. T. urges, that the AfHidlions which Man- 
kind are fubjeded to, and particularly their com- 
" mon Mortality, are reprefented in Scripture as the 
Chaftifements of our heavenly Father ; ajid there- 
fore are dcfigned for our fpiritual Good, and con- 
iequcntly are not of the Nature of Punifliments. 
So in p. 68 J 69. 38, 39. S. 


■r •■ 

Chafi.Il. are for Sin. .. . . i^j 

Though I think the Thirijg. aflertcd far from 
being true, viz. that the Scripture repreferits thic 
Affliftions of Mankind in general, and particu- 
larly their common Mortality, as the Chaftifementss 
of an heavenly Father ; yet it is needlefs to ftand 
to difpute that Matter : For if it be fo, it will be 
no Argument that the Affliftions and Death of Man- 
kind are not Evidences of their Sinfulnefs, Thofe 
would be ftrangeChaftifements from the Hand of ^ 
wife and good Father, which are wholly for Nothing; 
^(pecially fuch fevere Chaftifements, as to break 
the Child's Bones, when at the fame Time the 
Father does not fuppofe any Guilt, Fault, of 
Offence, in any refped, belonging to the Child -, 
but it is chaftifed in this terrible Manner, only 
for fear that it will be faulty hereafter. I fay^ 
thefe would be a ftrange Soft of Chaftifements -, 
yea, though he Ihould be able to make it up to 
the Child afterwards. Dr. 7*. tells of Reprefenta- 
tions made by the whole Current of Scripture : 
I am certain, it is not agreeable to the Current of 
Scripture, to rcprefent divine fatherly Chaftife- 
ments after this Manner. It is true, that the 
Scripture fuppofes fuch Chaftenihgs to be the 
Fruit of God's Goodnefs ; yet at the fame Time 
it evermore reprefents them as being for the Sirt 
of the Subjcft, and as Evidences of the divine 
Difpleafure for its Sinfulnefs. Thus the Apoftle 
in I Cor. xi. 30, 31, 32, fpeaks of God's chaften- 
ing his People by mortal Sicknefs, for their Good, 
that they might not be condemned with the Worlds 
and yet fignifies, that it was for their Sin \ FOR 
THIS CAUSE ma7iy are weak and Jickly among 
yGU\ and many Jleep : that is, for the Profanenefs 
and finful Diforder before-mentioned. So Elihu^ 
Job xxxiii. 1 6. &c. fpeaks of the fame Cbajleimig 
by Sicknefs, as for Men's Good •, to withdraw 


^5? ' Fatherly Cbafiifments Fartlj 

]^n from his finful Purpofe^ and to bide Pride 
from Matty and keep back his Soul from the Pit j 
that therefore God chaftens Man with Pain on his 
ffedj and the Multitude of his Bones with ftrong 
Pain. But thefc Chaftenings are for his Sins, ^^ 
appears by what follows, ver. 28- Where it i$ 
ot)ferved, that when God by this Means has 
brought Men to repent^ and humbly confefs their 
Sins, he delivers them. Again, the fame Elibu^ 
fpeaking of the unfailing Love of God to the 
Righteous, even when he cbajiens them^ and thef 
are bound in Fetters^ and holden in Cords of jlffik^ 
tion^ Chap, xxxvi. 7, &c, yet fpeaks of thefe 
Chaftenings as being for their Sins, vcr. 9. 
S^ben he fiewetb thent their Worky and their Trai^--' 
greffi^nSy that they have exceeded. So David^ Pfd. 
XXX. fpeaks of Qod*s Chajiening by fore Afiiiftionsy 
as being for his Good, and ifluing joyfully v and 
yet being the Fruit of God's Anger for his Sin^ 
ver. 5. God^s ANGER endureth but for a Moment y- 
&c. — Compare Pfal. cxix. 67, 71, 75. God's fa- 
therly Chaftifements are fpoken of as being for 
Sin. 2 Sam. vii. 14^ 15. / w/7/ be his Father y and 
be Jhall be my Son. If he commit Iniquity, / wiU 
^baften him with the Rod of Men^ and with the 
Strips of the Children of Men \ but nvy Mercy fhall 
not depart away from him. So the Prophet Jere^ 
mah fpeaks of the great Affliftion that God's 
People of the young Generation fuffered in the 
Time of the Captivity, as being for their Good. 
Lam. iii. 25, &c. But yet thefe Chaftifements arc 
Ipoken of as being for their Sin ; fee efpecially 
ver. 39, 40. So Chrift fays. Rev. iii. 19. As many 
as I lovcy I rebuke and chafien. Rut the Wwds 
following ftiew, that thefc Chaftenings from Love 
are for Sin that fhould be repented of: Be zealots 
therefore^ and repent. And though Chrift tells usy 


Ch4p^ n« are /(Or Sia« 159 

they are bleife4 that are perfecuted for RiKhteo]!i& 
nefs Sake, and havt Reaion to rejoice ana be ex- 
ceeding glad; yet even the Feriecutions of God's 
People, a» ordered in divine Providence, are ipoken 
of as divine Chaftenings for Sin> like the joft 
Corrections of a Father, when the Children xfe^ 
fcrve them, Heb. xii. The Apoftle there fpeaking 
to the Chriftians concerning the Perfecutions which 
they fuffered, calls their Suflferings by the Name 
of divine Rebukes ; which implies teftifying agasfj/i 
a Fault : And that they may not be difcouragcd, 
puts them in Mind, that whom the Lord laves he cha^ 
fiensj andfcourgeth every Son that he receivethu it is 
alfo very plain, that the Feriecutions of Ood^s 
People, as they are from the difpofing Hand «f 
God, are Chaftifcments for Sin, from i Pet. iv- 
17, 18. compared with Prov. xu 31. See ^fo 
Pfal, Ixiic. 4 — 9. 

If divine Chaftifements in general are ceftai» 
Evidences that the Subjefts are not wholly without 
Sin, fome Way bebngii^ to them, then in a pe- 
culiar Manner is Death fo ^ for thefe Reaipns : 

(i.) Becaufe (laying, or delivering to Deach^ 
is often fpoken of as ii> general a more awfbl 
Thing than the Chaftifements that are endured in 
this Life. So, PfaL cxviii. 17, 18. I Jball not di^ 
kut live^ and declare the Works of the Lord, The 
Lord hath chaftened me fore \ but he hath not given 
me over unto Death. So the Pfalmift, in Pfa).' 
Ixxxviii. 15. fetting forth the Extremity of his 
AffliAion,^ rcprefenta it by this, that it was next 
to Death. / am affi£led\ and ready to die^ — while 
I fuffer thy terror s^ I am difiraSled. So Davids 
I Sam. XX. 3. So God's Tendernefs towards Per- 
ibns under Chaftifoment, is from Time to Time 

l6o Tbi Death of tnfaiits Putt*. 

let forth by that, that he did not proccf d io faf 
as to make an End of them by Death -, . as irt 
Plal. Ixxviii. 38, 39. Pfal. ciii. 9. withver. 14, 15^ 
Ffal. XXX. 2, 3, 9. and Job zxxiii. 22, 23, 24. 
So we have God's People often praying, when 
under great Affli&ion, that God would not pro* 
ceed to this, as being the greateft Extremity^ 
Pfal, xiii. 3. Confider^ and hear me^ O Lord n0 
Cod\ lighten mine Eyes^ left I fieep the Sleep of 
Death. So Job X. 9. Pial. vi. i — 5. Ixxxviii^ ^ 
10, II* and cxliii. 7. 

Efpecially may Death be looked upon as the 
mod extreme of all temporal Sufferings, when 
attended with fuch dreadful Circumftances, and 
extreme Pains, as thofe with which Providence 
ibmetimes brings it on Infants \ as on the Children 
that were offered up to Molochy and fome other 
Idols, who were tormented to Death in burning 
Brafs. Dr. T, fays, p. 83, 128. 5. " The Lord 
of all Being can never want Time, and Place, 
and Power, to compenfate abundantly any Suf- 
" ferings Infants now undergo in Subferviency 
" to his good Providence." But there are no 
Bounds to fuch a Licence, in evading Evidences 
from Faft. It might as well be faid, that there is 
not and cannot be any fuch Thing as Evidence, 
from Events of God*s Difpleafure \ which is moft 
contrary to the whole Current of Scripture, as 
may appear in Part from Things which have been 
obferved. This Gentleman might as well go fur* 
ther ftiil, and fay, that God may cafl guiltlels 
Perfons into HeU-Fire, to remain there in the 
mofl unutterable Torments for Ages of Ages> 
(which bear no greater Proportion to Eternity 
than a Quarter of an Hour) and if he does fo, 
it is no Evidence of God*s Difpleafure ^ becaufe 



Chap; II. pYoves Original SiH. t$i 

he can never want Time, Place, and Power,' 
abundantly to compenfate their Sufferings after* 
wards. If it be fo, it is not to the Purpofe, aj! 
long as the Scripture does lo abundantly teach us 
to look on great Calamities and Sufferings whicK 
God brings on Men, elpecially Death, as Marks 
of his Dilpleafure for Sin, and for Sin belonging 
to them that fuffer. 

(2.) Another Thing, which may well lead Us to 
fuppofe Death, in a peculiar Manner, above other* 
temporal Sufferings, intended as a Teflimony of 
God's Difpleaftire for Sin, is, that Death is a Thing 
attended with that awful Appearance^ that gloomy 
and terrible Afpeft, that naturally fuggefls to our 
Minds God*s awful Difpleafure. Which is a Thing 
that Dr, T. himfelf takes particular Notice o^ 
p. 6^. fpeaking of Death, " Herein (fays he) 
have we before our Eyes a flriking Demon- 
ftration, that Sin is infinitely hateful to God, 
and the Corruption and Ruin of our Nature. 
Nothing is more proper than fuch a Sight to 
give us the utmofl Abhorrence of all Iniquity, 
&c." Now if Death be no Teftimony of God's 
JDifpleafure for Sin, no Evidence that the Subjedt 
is looked upon, by him who inflidls it, as any 
other than perfedly innocent, free from all Man- 
ner of Imputation of Guilt, and treated only* as 
an Objeft of Favour, is it not flrange, that God 
fliould annex to it fuch affefting Appearances/of 
bis Hatred and Anger for Sin, more than to other 
Chaftifements ? which yet the Scripture teaches us 
are always for Sin. Thefe gloomy and flriking 
Manifeftations of God's Hatred of Sin attending 
Death, are equivalent to av/ful Frov/ns of Qpd. 
attending the Stroke of his Hand. If we fhduld 
fee a wife and' juft Father chaflifing his Child, 

M mixing 




iGz Of the Infanti of Sbdom, Parti. 

mixing terrible Frowns with fevere Strokes, urc 
■fhould juftly argue, that the Father confidered his 
■Child as having fomething in him difpleafing to 
him, and that he did not thus treat his Child 
only under a Notion of mortifying him, and pre- 
venting his being faulty hereafter, and making it 
up to him afterwards, when he had been perfe6tly 
innocent, and without Fault, either of Aftion or 
Dilpofition hitherto. 

We may well argue from thefe Things, that 
Infants are not looked upon by God as finlefs, but 
that they are by Nature Children of Wrath, feeing 
this terrible Evil comes fo heavily on Mankind in 
Infancy. But befides thefe Things, which are 
obfervable concerning the Mortality of Infants 
in general, there are fome particular Cafes of the 
Death of Infants, which the Scripture fets before 
us, that are attended with Circumftances, in a pe- 
culiar Manner, giving Evidences of the Sinfiilnefs 
of fuch, and their juft Expofednefs to divine 
Wrath. As particularly. 

The deflroying the Infants in Sodom^ and the 
neighbouring Cities; which Cities, deftroyed in 
fo extraordinary, miraculous, and awfol a Manner, 
are fet forth as a fignal Example, of God's dreadful 
Vengeance for Sin, to the World in all Genera- 
tions ; agreeable to that of the Apoftle, Jude^ vcr. 
7. God did not reprove, but manifeftly counte- 
nanced Abraham^ when he faid, with Refpedk to 
the Deftruftion of Sodom, (Gen. xviii. 23, 25.) 
fFill thou dejtroy the Righteous with the Wicked ? 
— That be far from thee to do after this Manmr^ 
to Jlay the Righteous with the Wicked, and that the 
Righteous fhould be as the Wicked, that he far 
from thee. Shall not the Judge of all the Earth do 


Chap. 11. mi of the Old World. ' 1 6^ 

right ? Abraham^ Words imply that God would 
not deftroy the innocent with the guilty. We may 
well underftand innocent as included in the Word 
righteous^ according to the Language ufual ia 
Scripture, in fpeaking of fuch Cafes of Judgment 
and Puniftiment j as is plain in Gen. xx. 4. Ekod* 
xxiii. 7. Deut. xxv. i. 2 Sam. iv. 11. 2 Chron. 
vi, 23. and Prov. xviii. 5. Eliphaz fays, Job iv. 
7. JVho ever perij}:)ed^ being innocent? or where 
w£re the righteous cut off? We fee what great 
Care God took that Lot ihould not be involved in 
that Deftruftion. He was miraculoufly refcued 
by Angels, fent on Purpofe; who laid hold on 
him, and brought him, and fet him without the 
Gates of the City ; and told him that they could 
do Nothing till he was out of the Way. Gen, xix. 
^22. And not only was he thus miraculoufly deli- 
vered, but his two wicked Daughters for his Sake. 
The whole Affair, both the Deftrudipn, and the 
Refcue of them that efcaped, was miraculous.: 
And God could as eafily have delivered the In- 
fants which were in thofe Cities. And if they bad 
been without Sin, their perfedt Innocency, one 
ihould think, would have pleaded much mpre 
ftrongly for them, than thofe lewd Women's Re- 
lation to Lot pleaded for them. When in fuch a 
Cafe, we muft fuppofe thefe Infants much furthier 
from deferving to be involved in that Deftruc- 
iion, than even Lot himfelf. To fay here, that 
iGod could make it up to thofe Infants in ^.nother 
World, muft be an infufficient Reply) For fo he 
could as eafily have made it up to Lct^ or to ten 
or fifty righteous y if they had been deftroy ed in the 
fame Fire: Neverthelefs it is. plainly figniiied, that 
this would not have been .agreeable to the wife 
and holy Proceedings of the Judge of s^ll the 

Earth. ''■■ S 

M 2 . Since 

1 64 Of the Infants of the Old World, Part L 

Since God declared, that if there had bceit 
found but ten righteous in Sodom, he would have 
fpared the whole City for their Sake, may we not 
Well fuppofe, if Infants are perfeftly innocent, 
that he would have fpared the old IVorld, in which 
there were, without Doubt, many Hundred Thou^* 
fand Infants, and in general, one in every Family, 
whofe perfeft Innocence pleaded for its Preferva- 
tion ? Efpecially when fuch vaft Care was taken to 
fave Noah and his Family,^ (fome of whom, one 
at leaft, feem to have been none of the beft) that 
they might not be involved in that Deftrudtion:. 
If the perfeft Sinlefsnefs of Infants had been a 
Notion entertained among the People of God of 
pld, in the Ages next following the Flood, handed 
down from Noah and his Children, who well knew 
that vaft Multitudes of Infants perifhed in the 
Flood, is it likely that EliphaZy who lived within 
a few Generations of Shem and Noah, would have 
faid to Johy as he does in that forementioned. Job 
iv. 7. ff^ho ever perijhed, being innocent ? and when 
were the Righteous cut off ? Elpecially fince in the 
fame Difcourfe (Chap. v. 1.) he appeals ta the 
Tradition of the Ancients for a Confirmation' of 
this very Point ;. as he alfo does in Chap, xv^ 
7 — 10. and xxii. 15, 16. In which laft Place he ^ 
mentions that very Thing, the Deftruftion- of the 
Wicked by the Flood, as an Inftance of that pe- 
rifhing ot the Wicked, which he fuppofes to be 
peculiar to them, for Job'*s Conviftion ; in which , 
the Wicked were cut down out of Time^ their Foun- 
dation being overflown with a Flood, Where it is 
aMb obfervable, that he fpeaks of fuch an Un- 
timelinefs of Death as they fuffered by the Flood, 
as one Evidence of Guilt ; as he alfo does. Chap. 
XV. 32, 33. It Jball be accomplifhed before his Time^\* 
and his Branch fhall not be green. But thofe that 


Chap, II. Canaan, and Egypt. 16$ 

were deftroyed by the Flood in Infancy, above all 
the reft were cut down out of "Time ; when inftead 
of living above 900 Years, according to the com- 
mon Period of Man's Life, many were cut down 
before they were one Year old. 

And when God executed Vengeance on the 
ancient Inhabitants of Canaan^ not only did he 
not fpare their Cities and Families for the Sake 
of the Infants that were therein, nor take any 
Care that they Ihould not be involved in the 
Deftrudion ; but often with particular Care re- 
peated his exprefs Commands, that their Infants 
ihould not be fpared, but fhould be utterly de- 
ftroyed, without any Pity ; while Rahab the Harlot 
(who had been far from Innocence, though {he 
'Cxpreffed her Faith in entertaining, and fafely 
difmifling the Spies) was preferved, and all her 
Friends for her Sake. And when God executed 
his Wrath on the Egyptians^ by flaying their firft 
born, though the Children of Ifrael^ who were 
moft of them wicked Men, as was before (hewn, 
were wonderfully fpared by the deftroying Angel, 
yet fuch firft born of the Egyptians as were Infants, 
were not fpared. They not only were not refcued 
by the Angel, and no Miracle wrought to fave 
them (as was obferved in the Cafe of the Infants 
of Sodom) but the Angel deftroyed them by his 
own immediate Hand, and a Miracle was wrought 
to kill them. 


Here not to ftay to be particular concerning 
the Command by Mofes^ refpefting the Deftruc-r 
tion "of the Infants of the Midianites^ Num. xxxi. 
17. And that given to Saul to deftroy all the 
Infants of the AmalekiteSj i Sam. xv. 3. and what 
h f^id concerning Edom^ Pfal. cxxxvii. 9. Happy 

M i pall 

i66 Of the Infants PaitL 

/ball be be that taketh^ and dajhetb thy Httle meSy 
againji the Stones. — I proceed to take Notice 
of fomcthing remarkable concerning the Deftruc- 
tion of Jerufakmj reprefented in Ezek. ix. when 
Command was given to them, that had Charge 
over the City, to deftroy the Inhabitants, ver. i— 8. 
And this Rcafon is given for it, that their Iniquity 
required it, and it was a juft Recompence of their 
Sin. ver. 9, 10. And God at the fame Time was 
moft particular and exact in his Care that fuch 
Ihould by no Means be involved in the Slaughter, 
as had proved by their Behaviour, that they were 
ijpt Partakers in the Abominations of the City. 
Cdtnmand was given to the Angel to go through 
the City, and fet a Mark upon their Foreheads, 
and the deftroying Angel had a ftrid Charge not 
to come near any Man, on whom was the Mark ; 
yet the Infants were not marked, nor a Word 
faid of fparing them : On the contrary. Infants 
were exprefsly mentioned as thofe that ftiould be 
utterly deftroyed, without Pity. ver. 5, 6. Go 
through the City, and fmite : Let not your Eye 
fpare, neither have ye Pity. Slay utterly old and 
young, both Maids and litde Children : But come 
mt near any Man upon whom is the Mark. 

And if any ftiould fufped: that fuch Inftances 
as thefc were peculiar to a more fevere Difpenfa- 
tion, under the old Teftament, let us confider a 
remarkable Inftance in the Days of the glorious 
Gofpel of the Grace of God ; even the laft De- 
ftruclion of Jerufalem ; which was far more terri- 
ble, and with greater Teftimonies of God*s Wrath 
and Indignation, than the Dcftrudion of Sodom^ 
or of ^yjrufaletn in Nebuchadnezzar's Time, or any 
Thing that ever had happened to any City or 
People, from the Beginning of the World to that 

Time ; 

Chap, n, ef Jcrufilem. 1.67 

Time: Agreeable to. Matth. xxiv. 21-. and Lwke 
xxi.. 22,. 23. Rut at that Time parriculbr Care 
was taken to diftinguifh and deliven God's People, 
as was foretold Dan. xii. i. And we have in the 
New Teftament a particular Account of the 
Care Chrift took for the Prefervation of his Fol- 
lowers : He gave them a Sign^ by wJiich they 
might know when the Defolation of the City w^ 
nigh, that they that were in Jtr.ufalem might flee 
to. the Mountains, and efcape. And as. Hiftory 
gives Account, the Chriftiaiis followed the DkeC'- 
tions. giveas, and efcaped to. a Place in the Moun- 
tains called Pella^ and were preferved; Yet no 
Care was. taken to preferve the Infants of the City, 
in general; but according to the Predidions. of 
that Ev^nt, they were involved with others in that 
great DKUrudion : So heavily did the Calamity 
fall upon them, that thofe Words were verified, 
Luke xxiii. 29. Beheld the .Days are comings m 
which they Jhall fay^ Blejfed are the barren^ and the 
Womb that never bare^ and the Paps which never 
' gave Suck. And that Prophecy in Deut. xxxii. 
21 — 25. which has undoubtedly fpecial Refpedt 
to this very Time, and is fo applied by the beft 
Commentators; / will provoke them to Jealoufy^ 
with thofe that are not a People : —For a Fire is 
kindled in mine Anger ^ — and it Jhall burn to the 
loweft HelL I will heap Mifchiefs upon them : I 
will Jpend mine Arrows upon them. They [hall be 
burnt with Hunger^ and devoured with burning 
Heat^ and bitter DeJiruSiion. — The Sword without^ 
and Terror withi7J^ Jhall dejiroy both the young Man^ 
and the Virgin, THE SUCKLING al/o, with the 
Man of grey Hairs, And it appears by the Hi- 
ftory of that Deftruftion, that at that Time was 
a remarkable Fulfilment of that in Deut. xxviii, 
53 — 57' concerning Parents eating their Children 

M 4 in 

J 68 Of tU Infants of Jcrufdem. Part I, 

in the SiegCy — and the tender and delicate Woman 
eating her new-born Child. And here it muft be 
remembered, that thefe very Deftrudtions of that 
City and Land are fpoken of in thofe Places fore- 
mentioned, as clear Evidences of God's Wrath, to 
all Nations which fhall behold them. And if fo, 
they were Evidences of God's Wrath towards 
Infants \ who, equally with the reft, were the 
Subjedts of the Deftrudion. If a particular Kind 
or Rank of Perfons, which made a very confider- 
able Part of the Inhabitants, were from Time to 
Time Partakers of the Overthrow, without ^y 
PifBnftion made in divine Providence, and!" yet 
this was no Evidence at all of God's Difpleafure 
with any of them-, then a being the Subjects of 
fuch a Calamity could not be an Evidence cf 
God's Wrath againft any of the Inhabitants, to 
the Reafon of all Nations^ or any Nation, or fii 
much ^ one Perfon, 


[ 1^9 1 ' 


Containing Obfervations on particular Parts 
of the holy Scripture^ which prove the 
Dodlrine of Original Sin. 


Obfervations relating to Things contained in the 
three firft Chapters of Genefis, with Re^ 
ference to the DoBrine of Original Sin, 


Concerning Original Righteoufnefs ; and whether 
our firft Parents were created with Righteoufnefs^ 
or moral Reititude of Heart ? 

THE Doftriae of Original Righteoufnefs^ or 
the Creation of our firft Parents with holy 
Principles and Difpofitions, has a dofe Conneftion, 
in feveral Relpedts, with the Doftrine of Original 
Sin, Dr. fT. was fenfible of this ; and accordingly 
he ftrenuoufly oppofes this Doftrine, in his Book 
againft Original Sin. And therefore in handling 
the Subjeft, I would in the firft Place remove 
this Author's main Objeftion againft this Doc- 
trine, and then ftiew how the Doftrine may be 
inferred from the Account which Mofes gives us, 
in the three firft Chapters of Genefis. 

Pr. T* — r's grand Objeftion againft this Doc- 
trine, which he abundantly infifts on, is this ; 
That it is utterly inconfiftent with the Nature of 




I yo Of Dr. T— r's psnd Argument Part IL" 

Virtue, that it fhould be concreated with any 
Perfon ; becaufe, if fo, it muft be by an Aft of 
God*s abfolute Power, without-our Knowledge or 
Concurrence ; and that moral Virtue, in its very 
Nature implieth the Choice and Confent of the 
moral Agent, without which it cannot be "Virtue 
and Holinefs : That a neceflary HoUnefs is no 
Holinefs. So p. i8o. where heobferves, "That 
•' jidam muft exift, he muft be created, yea he 
. muft exercife Thought and Refleftion, before 
he was righteous.'') See alio p. 250, 251. In 
p. 161. 5. he fays, ^* To fay, that God omm^ only 
•* endowed Adam with a Capacity of being. «igh- 
** teous, but moreover that Righteoufnefe and 
•* true Holinefs were created with him, or wrought 
•* into his Nature, at the feme Time he was made, 
** Is to affirm a Contradiftipn, or what is incon- 
** fiftent with the very Nature of Righteoufiiefe.^ 
And in like Manner Dr. Turnbull in many Places 
infifts upon it, that it is neceflary to the very 
Being of Virtue, that it be owing to our own 
Choice, and diligent Culture. 


With refpeft to this, I would obferve, that it 
confifts in a Notion of Virtue quite inconfiftewt 
with the Nature of Things, and the common' 
Notions of Mankind ; and alfo inconfiftent with 
Dr. T — r's own Notions of Virtue. Therefore if 
it be truly fo, that to affirm that to be Virtue or 
Holinefs, which is not the Fruit of preceding 
Thought, Reflection, and Choice, is to affirm a 
Contradiftion, I fliall fliew plainly, that for him 
to affirm otherwife, is a Contradiftion to himfelfl 

In the firft Place, I think it a Contradiftion to 
the Nature of Things, as judged of by the com- 
mon Scnfe of Mankind. It is agreeable to the 


C)*ip.I.:i npm^ Ongktal Rigbfteotifne&. tjt 

Se£t. I, ^ 

iycolk of the Minds c^ Men in atl Nations zni 
Ages^ not only that the Fruit or Effet5t of a good 
Choice is virtuous^ but the good Choice itfelf, 
£x)m whence that Eflfed: proceeds ; yea, and not only 
iby but alfo the antecedent good Difpofition, Tem- 
per, or Aflfeftion of Mind, from whence proceed* 
dax. good Choice, is virtuous. This is the general 
Notion, not that Principles derive their Goodnefs 
jfrom AiSbions, but that A6tions derive their Good»- 
flefe from the Principles whence they proceed ; 
and fo that the Afl of chufing that which is good, 
is no further virtuous than it proceeds from a 
good Principle, or virtuous Difpofition of Mind. 
Which fuppofcs, that a virtuous Difpofition of 
Mind may be before a virtuous Aft of Choice ; 
and that therefore it is not neceflary that there 
ihould firft be Thought, Refleftion, and Choice, 
before there can be any virtuous Difpofition. If 
the Choice be firft,' before the Exiftence of a good 
Difpofition of Heart, what fignifies that Choice? 
There can, according to our natural Notions, be 
no Virtue in a Choice which proceeds from no 
virtuous Principle, but from mere Self-love, Am- 
bition, or fome animal Appetite; and therefore 
a virtuous Temper of Mind may be before a good 
A6t of Choice, as a Tree may be before the Fruit, 
and the Fountain before the Stream which proceeds 
from it* 

The following Things in Mr. Hutchefonh In- 
quiry concerning moral Good and Evil, are evi- 
dently agreeable to the Nature of Things, and the 
Voice of human Senfe and Reafon. Seft. 11. p. 
132, 133. " Every Aftion which we apprehend 
*' as either morally good or evil, is always fup- 
« pofed to FLOW FROM fome Afieaions to^ 
ff wards fenfitive Natures. And whatever we call 

•' Virtue 

tji Of Dr. T — rV grand Argument Part IL 

^.V Virtue or Vice, is either fome fuch Afiedtion, 
« or fome Adion CONSEQUENT UPON IT. 
**; — All the Actions counted religious in any 
^ Country, are fuppofed by thofe who count 
*fr them fo, to FLOW FROM fome Affedkions 
*♦ towards the Deity : And whatever we call focial 
*' Virtue, we ftill fuppofe to FLOW FROM 
*' AfFeftions towards our Fellow - Creatures. — 
*^ Prudence, if it is only employed in promoting* 
*^ private Intereft, is never imagined to be a Vir- 
** tue/' In thefe Things Dr. Tumbull cxprefsly 
agrees with. Mr. Hutcbefon^ who is his admired 
Author *. 

If a virtuous Difpofition or Affe6tion is before 
A&s that proceed from it, then they are before 
thofe virtuous Afts of .Choice which proceed from 
it. And therefore there is no Neceffity that all 
virtuous Difpofitions or AfFeftions ftiould be the 
EfFedt of Choice : And fo no fuch fuppofed Ne- 
ceffity can be a good Objedion againft fuch a 
Difpofition's being natural, or from a Kind of 
Inftindt, implanted in the Mind in its Creation. 
Agreeable to what Mr. Hutchefon fays, (Ibid. 
Se6t. III. p. 196, 197.) " I know not, fays he, 
*' for what Reafon fome will not allow that to be. 
^* Virtue, which flows from Inflinft or Paffions. 
" But how do they help themfelves ? Thdy fay,. 
*^ Virtue arifes from Reafon. What is Reafon, 
^' but the Sagacity we have in profecuting any 
^ End? The ultimate End propofed by common 
*.' Moralifts, is the Happinefs of the Agent him-, 
fclf. And this certainly he is determined to 
purfue from Inftinft. Now may not another 
^* Inftinft towards the Publick, or the good of 
^^ others, be as proper a Principle of Virtue, as 

. '^ thQ 

• Mer. Phil, p. ijz— 115. p, 142. et alihi fajpm^ 

thap. h 7 againji Original Rightcoufricfs. 1 7Jf 

Sed. I. ) 

•* the Inftin6lr towards private Happihefs ? — If it 
^' be faid, that Adtions from Jnftinft are not the 
" Effedt of Prudence and Choice, this Objedtion 
** will hold full as ftrongly againft the Addons 
** which flow from Self-love/' 


And if we confider what Dr. T. declares as his 
own Notion of the Eflence of Virtue, we fhall 
find, what he fo confidently and often affirms^ of 
its being effential to all Virtue, that it ftiould 
follow Choice, and proceed from it, is no lefs re^ 
pugnant to that, than it is to the Nature of Things^ 
and the general Notions of Mankind. For it is 
his Notion, as well as Mr. Hu^cheforfs, that the 
Eflence of Virtue lies in go/?d Affe£lion^ and par- 
ticularly in Benevolence or Love : As he very 
ftiUy declares in thefe Words in his Key *, " That 
the Word that fignifies Goodnefs and Mercy 
fliould alio fignify moral Redlitude in general^ 
** will not feem flirange, if we confider that Love 
is the fulfilling of the Law. Goodnefs, accord- 
ing to the Senfe of Scripture, and the Nature 
*'. of Things, includes all moral ReSiitude •, which, 
*' I reckon, may every Part of it, where it is true 
and genuine, be refolved into this fingle Prin^ 
cipleJ*^ If it bcL fo indeed, then certainly no 
Aft whatfoever can have moral ReSitude^ but 
what proceeds from this Principle, And confe-* 
quently no Aft of Volition or Choice can have 
any moral Reftitude, that t;akes Place before this 
Principle exifts. And yet he moft confidently 
affirms, that Thought, ^ Refleftion, and Choice- 
muft go before Virtue, and that all Virtue or Righ- 
teoufnefs mufl: be the Fruit of preceding Choice. 
This brit^gs his Scheme to an evident Contradic- 
tion, For no Aft of Choice can be virtuous but 

* • Mafginal Notf annexed to ^ 358. 




1 7+ Of Br. T— r V ^and Argument I^art tL 

what proceeds from a Principle of Benevolence or 
Love ; for he infills that all genuine moral Rec- 
titude, in every Part of it, is refolved into thds 
fingle Principle : And yet the Principle of Bene- 
volence itfelf, cannot be virtuous, unlefs it pro- 
ceeds from Choice ; for he affirms, that nothing 
can have the Nature of Virtue but what comes 
from Choice. So that virtuous Love, as the 
Principle of all Virtue, muft go before virtuous 
Choice, and be the Principle or Spring of it -, and 
yet virtuous Choice muft go before virtuous Be- 
nevolence, and be the Spring of that. If a vir- 
tuous A(ft of Choice goes before a Principle of 
Benevolence, and produces it, then this virtuous 
A6t is fomething diftinft from that Principle 
which follows it, and is its Efieft. So that hstt 
is at leaft one Part of Virtue, yea the Spring and 
Source of all Virtue, viz, a virtuous Choice, that 
cannot be refolved into that fingle Principle of 

Here alfo it is worthy ta be obferved, that Dr^ 
y. p. 128. fays. The Caufe of every Effefl is alone 
tbargeable with the Effeit it produceth ; or which 
froceedeth from it : And fo he argues, that if the 
EfFeft be bad, the Caufe alone is finfuL Ac- 
cording to which Reafoning, when the EfFedt is 
good, the Caufe alone is righteoas or virtuous v 
To the Caufe is to be afcribed all the Praife of the 
good Effedt it produceth^ And by the fame Rea- 
foning it will follow, that if, as Dr. 3". fays, Adam 
muft chufe to be righteous, befpre he was righ- 
teous, and if it be eflential to the Nature of Righ- 
teoufnefs, or moral Reftitude, that it be the Effeft 
of Choice, and hence a Principle of Benevolence 
cannot have moral Reftitude, unlefs it proceeds 
from Choice y then not to the Principle of Bene- 


Ch«p* I. ? ^gmfi Otigiflal Righteoufnefs . 175 

Se£t. I. 3 

volence, which is the EfFe<9:, but to the foregoing 
Choice alone is to be aicribed dll the Virtue <k 
Righteoufnefs that is in the Cafe. And fo, inftead 
of all moral Rectitude in everjr Part of it, being 
Tefolved into that fingle iPrinciple of Benevolence, 
•no moral Redtitude, in any Part of it, is to be rc- 
folved into that Principle : But all is to be re- 
do! ved into the foregoing Choice, which is the 

But yet it follows from thefe inconfiftcnt Prin- 
ciples, that there is no moral Reftitude or Virtue in 
that firft Aft of Choice, that is the Caufe of all con- 
fequent Virtue. This follows two Ways -, i . Becaufe 
every Part of Virtue lies in the benevolent Prin- 
ciple, which is the Efieft; and therefore no Part 
of it can lie in the Caufe. 2. The Choice of Virtue^ 
as to the firft: Aft at leaft, can have no Virtue or 
Righteoufnefs at all; becaufe it does not proceed 
from any foregoing Choice. For Dr. '/. infifts, 
that a Man muft firft have Refleftion and Choice, 
before he can have Rishteoufnefs : and that it is 
effential to Holinefs, that it proceed fi-om Choice. 
So that the firft Choice of Holinefs, which Holi- 
nefs proceeds from, can have no Viriiue at all, 
becaufe by the Suppofition it does not proceed 
from Choice, being the firft Choice. Hence if it 
be cflential to Holinefs, that it proceeds from 
Choice, it muft proceed from an unholy Choice ; 
unlefs the firft holy Choice can be before itfelf, 
or there be a virtuous Aft of Choice before that 
which is firft of all. 

And with refpeft to Adani^ let us confider how 
upon Dr. T — r's Principles^ it was poflible he ever 
fliould have any fuch Thing as Righteoufnefs, by 
any Means at all. In the State wherein God 


•I 7^ Of Dr. T— V grand Argument^ &c. Part ft 

created him^ he could have no fuch Thing ail 
Love to God, or any Love or Benevolence in his 
Heart. For if fo, there would have been Original 
Righteoufnefs •, there would have been genuine moral 
Reiiistide ; Nothing would have been wanting : For 
our Author fays. True genuine moral ReSitude^ in 
ivery Part of it^ is to be refolved into this Jingle 
Principle. But if he were wholly without any fuch 
Thing as Love to God, or any virtuous Love^ 
how Ihould he come by Virtue ? The Anfwer 
doubtlefs will be. By Aft of Choice: He fnuft 
firft chufe to be virtuous. But what if be did 
chufe to be virtuous ? It could not be firom Love 
to God, or any virtuous Principle, that he chofe 
it ; for, by the Suppofition, he has no fuch Prin- 
ciple in his Heart : And if he chufes it without 
fuch a Principle, ftill, according to this Author, 
there is no Virtue in his Choice ; for all Virtue, 
he fays, is to be refolved into that fingle Principle 
of Love. Or will he fay, there may be produced 
in the Heart a virtuous Benevolence by an Aft 
or Afts of Choice, that are not virtuous ? But 
this does not confift with what he implicitly 
aflerts, that to the Caufe alone is to be alcribed 
what is in the Effeft. So that there is no Way 
that can poflibly be devifed, in Confiftence with 
Dr. 7* — r's Scheme, in which Adam ever could 
have any Righteoufnefs, or could ever either ob- 
tain any Principle of Virtue, or perform anyone 
virtuous Aft. 

Thefe confufed inconfiftent Aflertions, con- 
cerning Virtue and moral Rcftitude, arife from the 
abfurd Notions in Vogue, concerning Freedom of 
Will^ as if it confifted in the Will's Self-determining 
Power^ fuppofed to be neceffary to moral Agency, 
Virtue, and Vice. The Abfurdities of which. 

ftkaji. I. J Evidence of the DoSirine^ &c. 177 

Seit. I. J 

with the Grounds of thefe Errors, and what the 
Truth i$ refpefting thefe Matters, with the Evi-* 
dences of k, I have, according to my Ability, 
fully and largely confidered, in my Inquiry on 
that Subjed: ; to which I muft refer the Reader, 
that defires further Satisfaftion, and is willing to 
give: himfelf the Trouble of reading that Dif- 
oourfe, . 

Havins: confidered this great Argunient, and 
pretended Demonftration ot Dr. T — r's againft 
original Righteoufnefs : I proceed to the Proofs 
of the Doftrine. And in the firft Place, I would 
confider, whether there be not Evidence of it in 
the three firft Chapters of Genejis : Or, whether 
the Hiflory there delivered, does not lead us to 
fuppofe, that our firft Parents were created in a 
State of moral Reftitude and tlolinefs. 

I. This Hiftory leads us to fuppofe, Adamh Sin, 
with Relation to the forbidden Fruit, was the firft 
Sin he committed. Which could not have been, 
had he not always, till then, been perfeftly righ- 
teous, righteous from the firft Moment of his 
Exiftence -, and confequently, created or brought 
into Exiftence righteous. In a moral Agent, fub- 
jeft to moral Obligations, it is the fame Thing, 
to be perfeftly innocent^ as to be perfeftly righ-- 
teous. It muft be the fame, becaufe there can 
no more be any Medium between Sin and Righ- 
teoufnefs, or between being right and being 
wrong, in a moral Senfe, than there can be a 
Medium between ftraight and crooked, in a na- 
tural Senfe. Adam was brought into Exiftence 
capable of afting immediately, as a moral Agent : 
And therefor^ he was immediately under a Rule 
pf right A6tion ; He was obliged as foon as he 

N exifted 

17S Evidence *i/ the DoSfiiH Part It 

exifted to ail right. And if he was obliged to aft 
right as foon as he exiiled, He was obliged ev^n 
then to be inclined to ad right. Dn T. ^j%^ 
p. i66« S, ^^ Adam could not Jin without a finful 
*' Inclination * :" And, juft for the fame Realbn^ 
he could not do rigbt^ without an IncUnatian to 
right Adtion. ^nd as he was obliged to aft right 
from the firft Moment of his Exiftence, and did 
do fo, till he finned in the Affair of the forbidden 
Fruit, he muft have an Inclination or Difpofition 
of Heart to do right the firft Moment of his Exi* 
flence ^ and that is the fame as to be created, or 
brought into Exiftence, with an Inclination to 
right Aftion, or, which is the fame Thing, a vir- 
tuous and holy Difpofition of Heart. 


Here it will be in vain to fay. It is true, that it 
was Adam^s Duty to have a good Difpofition of 
Inclination, as foon as it was poffible to be ob-^ 
tained, in the Nature of Things : But as it could 
not be without Time to eftablifh fuch an Habit, 
which requires antecedent Thought, Refieftion, 
and repeated right Aftion •, therefore all that Adam 
could be obliged to in the firft Place, was to refleft 
and confider Things in a right Manner, and apply 
himfelf to right Aftion, in order to pbtaiii a right 
Difpofition. For this fuppofes, that even this R&. 
fieftion and Confideration, which he was obliged 
to, was right ASion. Surely he was obliged to it 
no otherwife than as a Thing that was right : And 
therefore he muft have an Inclination to this right 
Aftion immediately, before he could perform thofe 


• This is doubtlefs true : For althoufirh there was no natural 
finful Inclination in Adam^ yet an Inclination to that Sin of 
eating the forbidden Fruit, was begotten in him by rfic De- 
lufion and Error he was led into ; and this Indinatioa 'K^ 
cat the forbidden Fruit; muft pr^gede his aftual £ating. 

tAtf, r, 7 if Original Rtghtcotifncfs. 1:79 

Sed. I. \ 

firft right Adions. And as the Inclination to them 
Ihould be right, the Principle or Difpofition from 
which he performed even thefc Adions, muft be 
good : Otherwife the Adkions would not be right 
in the Sight of Him who looks at the Heart ; nor 
would they anfwer the Marfs Obligations, or be 
a doing his Duty, if he had done them for fortie 
finifter End, and not from a Regard to God and 
his Duty. Therefore there muft be a Regard to 
God and his Duty implanted in him at his firft 
Exiftence : Otherwife it is certain, he would have 
done Nothing from a Regard to God and his 
Duty ; no, not fo much as to refleft and conlider, 
and try to obtain luch a Difpofition. The very 
Suppofition of a Difpofition to right Aftion being 
firft obtained by repeated right ASiion^ is grofly 
ineonfiftent with itfelf : For it fuppofes a Courfe 
of right Adion, before there is a Difpofition to 
perform any right Action. 

Thefe arc no invented Quibbles or Sophifms.' 
If God expeded of Adam any Obedience or Duty 
to him at ^1, when he firft made him, whether it 
was in reflefting, confidering, or any Way exert- 
ing the Faculties he had given him, then God 
expedted he ftiould immediately exercife Love and 
Regard to him. For how could it be expefted, 
that Adam fhould have a ftrift and perfe6t Regard 
to God's Commands and Authority, and his Duty 
to him, when he had no Love nor Regard to 
Him in his Heart, nor could it be expefted he 
fhould have any? If Adam from the Beginning 
did his Duty to God, and had more Re^eft to 
the Will of his Creator, than to other Things, and 
as muchRefpcft to him as he ought to have ; then 
from the Beginning he had a fupreme and perfe6t 
Refpeft and Love to God : And if fo, he was 

N 2 created 

i8o Evidence of the l^oSrine Part II; 

created with fuch a Principle. There is no avoid- 
ing the Confequence. Not only external Duties, 
but internal Duties, fuch as fummariljr confift in 
Love, muft be immediately required of Adam^ as 
foon as he exifted, if any Duty at all was re- 
quired. For it is moft apparently abfurd, to talk 
of a fpiritual Being, with the Faculties of Under- 
ftanding and Will, being required to perform 
external Duties, without internal. Dr. T. himfelf 
obferves, that Love is the Fulfilling of the Law> 
and that all moral ReSlitude^ even every Part of itj 
muft be refolved into that fingle Principle. There- 
fore, if any morally right Aft at all, Refie&ion, 
Confideration, or any Thing elfe, was required 
of Adam immediately, on his firft Exiftence, and 
was performed as required •, then he muft, the firft 
Moment of his Exiftence, have his Heart pof- 
feffed of that Principle of divine Love \ which 
implies the whole of moral Reftitude in every 
Part of it, according to our Author's own Doc- 
trine ; and fo the whole of moral Redtitude or 
Righteoufnefs muft begin with his Exiftence : 
Which is the Thing taught in the Doftrine of 
original Righteoufnefs. 

And let us confider how it could be otherwife, 
than that Adam was always, in every Moment of 
his Exiftence, obliged to exercife fuch Regard or 
Refped of Heart towards every Objeft or Thing, 
as was agreeable to the apparent Merit of that 
Objeft. For Inftance, would it not at any Time 
have been a becoming Thing in Adam^ on the 
Exhibition to his Mind of God*s infinite Good- 
nefs to him, for him- to have exercifed anfwerable 
Gratitude ; and the contrary have been unbecom- 
ing and odious ? And if fomething had been pre- 
fented to Adam^% View, tranfcendently amiable ia 


Chap. I.} ^Original Righteoufnefs. 181 

Scft. L J 

itfelf, as for Inftance, the glorious Perfeftion of 
the divine Nature, .would it not have become him 
to love, relilh, and delight in it ? Would not fuch 
an Objeft have merited this ? And if the View of 
an Objeft fo amiable in itfelf did not afFeft his 
Mind with Complacence, would it not, according 
to the plain Didlates of our Underftanding, have 
fliewn an unbecoming Temper of Mind ? To fay, 
that he had not had Time, by Culture, to form 
and eftablifh a good Difpofition or Relilh, is not 
what would have taken off the Difagreeablenefs 
and Odioufnefs of the Temper. And if there had 
been never fo much Time, 1 do not fee, how 
it could be expefted he Ihould improve it aright, 
in order to obtain a good Difpofition, if he had 
not already fome good Difpofition to engage him 
to it. 

That belonging to the Will and Difpofition of 
the Heart, which is in itfelf either odious or 
amiable, unbecoming or decent, always would 
have been Adam's Virtue or Sin, in any Moment 
of his Exiftence ; if there be any fiich Thing 
as Virtue or Vice; by which Nothing can be 
meant, but That in our moral Difpofition and Be- 
haviour, which is becoming or unbecoming, ami- 
able or odious, 

Human Nature mull be created with fome Difi 
pofitions ; a Difpofition to relilh fome Things as 
good and amiable, and to be averfe to other 
Things as odious and difagreeable : Otherwife, 
it muft be without any fuch Thing as Inclination 
or Will : It muft be perfeftly indifferent, without 
Preference, without Choice, or Averfion towards 
any Thing as agreeable or difagreeable. But if it 
had any concrcated Difpofitions at all, they muft 

N 3 be 

1 82 Evidence $f the DoSlrine Part ff. ' 

be either right or wrong, either agreeable or jdift^ 
agreeable to the Nature of Things. If Man had 
at firft the higheft Relilh of thofe Things that 
were nK)ft excellent and beautiful, a Difpomion to 
have the quickeft and higheft Delight in thofe 
Things that were nioft worthy of it, then his Dit 
pofitions were morally right and amiable, and 
never can be decent and excellent in a higher 
Senfe. But if he had a Difpofition to love moft 
thofe Things that were inferiour and lels worthy, 
then his Dilpofitions were vicious. And it is cvfe. 
dent there can be no Medium between thefe* 

11. This Notion of Adanf% being created withw 
out a Principle of Holinefs in his Heart, taken 
with the reft of Dr. ST— r*s Scheme, is inconfiftent 
with what the Hiftory in the Beginning of Genejis 
leads us to fuppofe of the great Favours and 
Smiles of Heaven, which Adam enjoyed, while 
he remained in Innocency. The Mofaic Account 
fuggefts to us, that till Adam finned, he was in 
happy Circumftances, furrounded with Teftimonies 
and Fruits of God's Favour. This is implicitly 
owned by Dr. T. when he fays, p. 252. " That 
" in the Difpenfation our firft Parents were under 
*' before the Fall, they were placed in a Condi- 
*' tion proper to engage their Gratitude, Love, 
** and Obedience." But it will follow on our 
Author's Principles, that Adam while in Inno* 
cency, was placed in far worfe Circumftances, than 
he was in after his Difobedience, and infinitely 
worfe than his Pofterity are in ; under unfpeakabiy 
greater Difadvantages for the avoiding Sin, acia 
the Performance of Duty. For by his Doftrinc, 
Adam^% Pofterity come into the World with their 
Hearts as free from any Propenfity to Sin as he, 
and he was made as deftitute of any Propenfity to 


Sect. !• > 

Righteoufiids a$ they : And, yet God, in Favour . 
to them, does great Things to reftrain them from 
Sin, and excite them to Virtue, which he never 
did for y^^^w in Innocency, but laid him, in the 
higheft Degree, under contrary Difadvantages.. 
God, as an Inftance of his great Favour, and 
fatherly Love to Man, fince the Fall, has denied 
him the Eafe and Pleafures (rf* Paradife, which 
gratified and allured his Senfes, and bodily Appe- 
tites ; that he might diminifh his Temptations to 
Sin : And as a ftill greater Means to reftrain from 
Sin, and promote Virtue, has fubjefted him to La- 
bour, Toil, and Sorrow in the World : And not 
only lb, but as a Means to promote his fpiritual 
and eternal Good far beyond this, has doomed 
him to Death : And when all this was found in- 
fufficient, he, in further Profecution of the De- 
figns of his Love, fhortened Men's Lives exceed- 
ingly, made them twelve or thirteen Times fhorter 
than in the firft Ages. And yet this, with all the 
innumerable Calamities, which God in great Fa- 
vour to Mankind has brought on the World, 
whereby their Temptations are fo vaftly cut fliort, 
and the Means and Inducements to Virtue heaped 
one upon another, to fo great a Degree, all have 
proved infufficient, now for fo many Thoufand 
Years together, to reftrain from Wickednefs in 
any confiderable Degree ; innocent human Na- 
ture, all along, coming into the World with the 
feme Purity and harmlefs Difpofitions that our 
firft Parents had in Paradife. What vaft Difad- 
vantages indeed then muft Adam and Eve be in^ 
that had no more in their Nature to keep them 
from Sin, or incline them to Virtue, than their 
Pofterity, and yet were without all thofe additional 
and extraordinary Means ! Not only without fuch 
exceeding great Means as we now have, when our 

N 4 Lives 

1 84 Evidence of the D&Orim Ym^lSi 


I^ives arc made fo very fhort, but having TafHy 
Icfs Advantages than their Antediluvian Pofteritfi 
who to prevent their being wicked, and to mnke 
them good, had fo much Labour and Toil, Sweat 
and Sorrow, Briers and Thorns, with a Body gra- 
dually decaying and returning to the Duft 5 when* 
our firft Parents had the extreme- Difadvantage of- 
being placed in the midft of fo many and exceed-' 
ing great Temptations, not only without Toil or 
Sorrow, Pain or Difeafe, to humble and mortify 
them, and a Sentence of Death to wean then* 
from the World, but in the midft of the moft 
cxquifite arid alluring fenfitive Delights, the Rch- 
verie in every Refpeft, and to the higheft Degree^ 
of that moft gracious State of requifite Means, 
and great Advantages, which Mankind now en- 
joy ! If Mankind now under thefe vaft Reftraints^ 
and great Advantages, are not rettraincd from 
general, and as it were univerfal Wickednefs, how 
could it be expefted that J[dam and Eve^ created 
with no better Hearts than Men bring into the 
World now, and deftitute of all thefe Advantages, 
and in the midft of ail contrary Difadvantages, 
Ihould efcape it ? " 

Thefe Things are not agreeable to Mofes\ 
Account ; which reprefents an happy State of 
peculiar Favours and Bleflings before the Fall, and 
the Curfe coming afterwards: But according to 
this Scheme, the Curfe was before the Fall, and 
the great Favours and Teftimonies of Love fol- 
lowed the Apoftacy. And the Curfe before the 
Fall muft be a Curfe with a Witnefs, being to fa 
high a Degree the Reverfe of fuch Means, Means 
fo nec'eflary for fuch a Creature as innocent Man, 
and in all their Multitude and Fulnefs proving- 
too little. Paradife therefore muft be a mere De-^ 
* lufion ! 

QHap* I. f? 9f Original Rightcoufiicfsi i S^ 

kifion ! There was iitdeed a great Shew of FavouT^ 
in placing Man in the midft of fuch Delights. But 
this delightful Garden, it feems, with all its 
Beauty and Sweetnefs, was in its real Tendency 
worfe than the Apples of Sodtrni : It was but a 
mere Bait, ^God forbid the Blafphemy) the more. 
efFeftually enticing by its Beauty and Deliciouf- 
nefs, to Adam*s eternal Ruin : Which might be 
the more expefted to be fatal to him, feeing that 
he was the firft Man that ever exifted, having no 
Superiority of Capacity to his Pofterity, and wholly . 
without the Advantage of the Obfervations, Ex- 
periences, and Improvements of preceding Gene- 
rations •, which his Pofterity have. 

I proceed now to take Notice of an Additional 
Proof of the Doctrine we are upon, from another 
Part of the holy Scripture. A very clear Text, 
for original Righteoufnefs is that in Ecclef. vii. 29.- 
Lo^ this only have I founds that God wade Man 
upright \ but they have fought out many Inven- 

It is an Obfervation of no Weight which Dri 
2". makes on this Text, that the Word Man \% 
commonly ufed to fignify Mankind in general, or 
Mankind colleftively taken. It is true, it often, 
fignifies the Species of Mankind : But then it is 
ufed to fignify the Species, with regard to its Du- 
ration and Succejfton from its Beginning, as well 
as with regard to its Extent. The Englifh Word 
Mankind is ufed to fignify the Species : But what 
if it be fo ? Would it be an improper or unintel- 
ligible Way of fpeaking, to fay, that when God 
firft made Mankind^ he placed them in a pleafant 
Paradife, (meaning in their firft Parents). but now- 
they live in the midft of Briers and Thorns? And 

1 8 8 Evidence of the DoSrine^ &c. Part IL 

to fignify a moral Reftitucfe, or Charafter of real 
Virtue and Integrity. For the wife Man, in this 
Context, is fpeaking of Men with refpefl: to their 
moral Chara&er, inquiring into the Corruption 
and Depravity of Mankind (as is confeflcd p. 184.^ 
and he here declares, he had not found more than 
one among a Thoufand of the right Stamp, truly 
and thoroughly virtuous and upright : Which ap- 
peared a ftrange Thing! But in this Text he 
clears God, and lays the Blame on Man : Man 
was not made thus at firft. He was made of the 
right Stamp, altogether good in his Kind, (as all 
other Things were) truly and thoroughly virtuous, 
as he ought to be ; hut they have fought out 
many Inventions. Which laft Expreffion fignifies 
Things finful, or morally evil ; as is contefled, 
p.. 1 85. And this Expreffion, ufed to fignify thofe 
moral Evils he found in Man, which he fets in 
Oppofition to the Uprightnefs Man was made in, 
Ihews, that by Uprightnefs he means the moft 
true and fmcere Goodnefs. The Word rendered 
Inventions^ moft naturally and aptly fignifies the 
fubtile Devices, and crooked deceitful Ways of 
Hypocrites, wherein they are of a Chara6ter con- 
traiy to Men of Simplicity and godly Sincerity ; 
who, though wife in that which is good, are 
fimple concerning evil. Thus the fame wife Man, 
in Prov. xii. 2. fets a truly good Man in Oppofi- 
tion to a Man of zvicked Devices^ whom God will 
condemn. Solomon had Occafion to obfei-ve many 
who put on an artful Difguife and fair Shew of 
Goodnefs -, but on fearching thoroughly, he found 
very few truly upright. As he fays, Prov. xx. 6. 
Mojt Men ''joill proclaim every one his own Good- 
nefs : But a faithful Man *<Jcho can find ? So that 
,it is ejcceeding plain, that by Uprightnefs, in this 


Cfiap. r. ) What Death threatened to Adam, i 84 
Sea. II. J ^ 

Place in Ecckjiaftes^ Solomon means true moral 

What our Author urges concerning marrf In-* 
ventions being fpoken of, whereas AdarrC^ eating 
the'forbidden Fruit was but one Invention^ is of as 
little Weight as the reft of what he fays on this 
Text. For the many Luits and Corruptions of 
Mankind, appearing ih innumerable Ways of 
finning, are all the Confequence of that Sin. 
The great Corruption Men are fallen into by the 
original Apoftacy, appears in the Multitude of 
wicked Ways they are inclined to. And there- 
fore thefe are properly mentioned as the Fruits 
and Evidences of the Grcatnefs of that Apoftacy 
and Corruption. 


Concerning the Kind of Death, threatened to our 
firji Parents^ if they Jhould eat of the forbidden 

DR. T. in his Obfcrvations on the three firfl: 
Chapters of Genejis^ fays, p-. 7. " The 
" Threatening to Man in Cafe of Tranfgreflion 
" was, that he Ihould furely die. — Death is the 
*' lofing of Life. Death is oppofed to Life, and 
" muft be underftood according to the Nature of 
*' that Life, to which it is oppofed. Now the 
*' Death here threatened can, with any Certainty, 
** be oppofed only to the Life God gave Adam^ 
" when he created him, ver. 7. Any Thing 
" befides this muft be pure Conjefture, without 
" folid Foundation." 


t|90 T6i Jtrfi Thtdtening imp^ed Fwttt* 

.. . To this I would fay ; It is true» Death is op- 
pofed to Life J and mujt be underftood according t9 
the Nature of that Life^ to which it is oppojfed : 
But does it dierefore foUow, that Nothing can be 
meant by it but the Lojj of Life ? Mifery is op^ 
pofed to Happinefs, and Sorrow is in Scripture 
often oppofed to Joy : But can we conclude from 
thence, that Nothing is meant in Scripture by 
Sorrow> but the Lofs of Jcy ? Or that there is no 
more in Mifery, than the Lofs or Abfence of Hap- 
pinefs ? i^nd if it be fo, that the Death threatened 
to Adam can, with Certainty, be oppofed only to 
the JJ&. given to Adam^ when God created him ; I 
think, a State of perfed, perpetual, and hopele& 
Mifery is properly oppofed to that State Adam 
was in J when God ^created him. For I fuppofe it 
will not be denied, that the Life Adam had, was 
truly a happy Life j happy in perfedt Innocency, 
in the Favour of his Maker, furrounded with the 
happy Fruits and Teftimonies of his Love : And 
I think it has been proved, that he alfo was happy 
in a State of perfeft Righteoufnefs. And Nothing 
is more manifeft, than tliat it is agreeable to a 
very common Acceptation of the Word, Life^ in 
Scripture, that it be underftood as fignifying a 
State of excellent and happy Exiftence. Now 
that which is moft oppofite to that Life and State 
Adam was created in, is a State of total confirmed 
Wickednefs, and perfeft hopelefs Mifery, under 
the divine Dilpleafure and Curfe ; not excluding 
temporal Death, or the Deftruition of the Body, 
as an Introdu£tion to it. 

And befides, that which is much more evident,, 
than any Thing Dr. '/. fays on this Head, is this, 
viz. That the Death, which was to come on Adam, 
as the Punifhment of his Difobedience, was oppofed 


tl^a^t } &u:Atu^ Md eterA&l Deask t6t 

Scd. II. J ^ 

£0 that Ufe^ whk:b he would have had as the 
Edward of hi3 Oiedience in Cafe he had not (inned« 
Obedience and Difobedience are Contraries : And 
the *Threat^mngs and Promifes^ that are San^Elioas 
of a Law, are fet in dired Oppofidon : And th^ 
fnmufei Rewards and threatened Punijbments^ are 
what, are mofk properly taken as each others Op* 
polites. But none will deny, that the Life which 
would have been Adamis Reward^ if he had per* 
iiiled in Obedience, was eternal Life. And th^re^ 
fore we argue juftly, that the Death which. fia/nd$ 
ppfofed to that Ufe^ (Dr. 7*. himfelf being Judge, 
p. 120. S.) is manifefily eternal Deaths a Death 
widely Afferent from the Death we now die. — to 
ufe his own Words. If Adam^ for his perfevering 
Obedience^ was to have had everlafiing Life and 
Happinefs^ in perfeSl Holinefs^ Union with his 
Maker, and Enjoyment of his Favour^ and this 
was the Life which was to be confirmed by the 
Tree of Life -, then doubtlefs the Death threatened 
in Cafe of Difobedience, which (lands in diredt 
Oppolition to this, was a being given over to 
everlafiing JVickednefs and Mifery^ in Separation 
from Grod, and in enduring his Wrath. 

And it may with the greateft Reafon be fup- 
pofed, that when God firil made Mankind, and 
made known to them the Methods of his moral 
Government towards them, in the Revelation he 
made of Himfelf to the natural Head of the 
whole Species \ and let him know, that Obedience 
to Him was expefted as his Duty •, and enforced 
this Duty with the Sanftion of a threatened Pu- 
niftiment, called by the Name of Death -, 1 fay, 
we may with the greateft Reafon fuppofc in fuch 
a Cafe, that by Death was meant that fame Death 
which God efteemed to be the moll proper Pu- 


igi Tbifirfi Threatening incited ttOtp: 

MJfhment of the Sin of Mankind, and which he 
ipeaks of under that Name, throughout the Scrips 
turc, as the proper Wages of the Sin of Man, 
and Mfas always from the Beginning underftood to 
be fo in the Church of God. It would be ftrange 
indeed, if it Ihould be otherwife. It would 
have been ftrange, if when the Law of God wa^ 
firft given, and enforced by the Threatening of a 
Punifhment, Nothing at all had been mentioned 
of that great Punfthment, ever fpoken of under 
the Name of Deaths (in the Revelations which he 
has given to Mankind from Age to Age) aa the 
proper Puniftiment of the Sin of Mankind. - And 
it would be no lefs ftrange, if when the Punifh- 
ment which was mentioned and threatened on that 
Odcafion, was called by the fame Name, even 
Death, yet we muft not underftand it to mean 
the fame Thing, but fomething infinitely diverfe, 
and infinitely more inconfiderable. 

But now let us confider what that Death is, which 
the Scripture ever fpeaks of as the proper Wages 
of the Sin of Mankind, and is Ipoken of as fuch 
by God's Saints in all Ages of the Church, from 
the firft Beginning of a written Revelation, to the 
Conclufion of it. I'll begin with the New Tefta- 
ment. When the Apoftle Paul fays, Rom. vi. 23^^ 
S'he Wages of Sin is Death, Dr. 3". tells us, p." 
120. S. that this means eternal Deaths the fecond 
Death, a Death widely different from the Death we 
now die. The fame Apoftle fpeaks of Death as 
the proper Punifhment due for Sin, in Rom. vii. 5. 
and Chap. viii. 13. 2 Cor. iii. 7. i Cor. xv. 56. 
In all which Places, Dr. T. himfelf fuppofes the 
Apoftle to intend eternal Death *• And when the 


♦ See p. 78. Note on Rom. vii. 5, and Note on ver. 6* 
Kote on Rom. v. 20. Note on Rem. vii. 8. 

(^ftfif K ) ^ ipiritual and eternal Utaih. t^l 

Apoftle James {peaks of Death, as the proptf 
Reward, Fruit, and End of Sin. Jam. i. 1 5. Sini 
Vfben it is fini/hed^ bringetb forth Death : It is 
manifeft, that our ^Author fuppofcs eternal De- 
itrudion to be meant *. And the Apoftie yobn^ 
agreeable to Dr. T—r's Senfe, fpeaks of the fecond 
Death as that which Sin unrepented of will bring 
all Men to at laA. Rev* ii. 11. xx. 6^ 14. 
and xxi. 8. In the fame Senfe the Apoftle John 
ufes the Word in his ift Epiftle^ Ghap. iii» 
14. fFe know J that we have pajfed from Death t9 
i^/<jL becaufe we love the Brethren : He that hatetb 
his Brother^ abide th in Death. In the fame Manner 
Chrift xifed the Word from Time to Time, when 
he waa on Earth, and fpake concerning the Pu- 
nifliment and Ifllie of Sin. John v. 24. He that 
heareth my Word^ and believeth^ &c. hath ever^ 
lajting Life ; and fhall not come into Condemnation : 
but is pajfed from Death to Life. Where, accord- 
ing to Dr. T — r^s own Way of arguing, it cannot 
be the Death which we now die, that Chrift Ipeaks 
of, but eternal Death, becaufe it is fet in Oppo* 
fition to everlaljling Life. John vi. 50. This is the 
Bread which cometh down from Heaven^ that a 
Man may eat thereof^ and not die. Chap. viii. 51. 
Verily^ verily j I fay unto yoUj If a Man keep my 
Sayings he fhall never fee Death. Ohap. xi. 26. 
And whofoever liveth and believe th in me ^ fhall never 
die. In which places it is plain C/irift does not 
mean that Believers fhall never fee temporal Death. 
See alfo Matth. x. 28. and Luke x. 28. In like 
Manner, the Word was commonly ufed by the 
Prophets of old, when they Ipake of Death as the 

/ O proper 

* By comparing what he fays, p. 126. with what he often 
fays of that Death and Deftruftion which is the Dement and 
End of perfond Sin, which he fays is the fefond Dtath, «r 
eternal Vefiru&ion. 

194 The firft Threatening implkd FartS. 

proper End and Recompence of Sin. So, abun- 
dantly by the Prophet Ezekiel. Ezek. iii, i8. ff^ben 
I fay unto the wicked Man^ thou Jhalt fur<ly die. 
In the Original it is. Dying thou Jhalt die. The fame 
Form of Expreffion, which God ulcd in the 
Threatening to Adam. We have the fame Word* 
again, Chap, xxxiii. i8. — In Chap, xviii. 4. it is- 
faid. The Soul that ftnneth^ it Jhall die. To the 
like Purpofe are .Chap. iii. 19, 20. and xviii. 4, o^ 

13, 17, iS, 19, 20, 21, 24, 26, 28. Chap, xxxiii, 
8, 9, 12, 13, 14, 19. And that temporal Death is 
not meant in thefe Places is plain, becaufe it is 
promifed moft abfolutely, that the Righteous fliall 
not die the Death fpoken of. Chap, xviii. 21. He 
Jhall fur ely live^ he (hall not die. So ver. 9, 17, 19, 
and 22. and Chap. iii« 21. And it is evident the 
Prophet Jeremiah ufes the Word in the lame Senfe* 
Jer. xxxi. 30. Every one Jhall die for his own Ini* 
quity. And the fame Death is fpoken of by the 
Prophet Ifaiah. Ifai. xi. 4. ff^ith the Breath of bis 
Lips Jhall he flay the IVicked. See alfo Chap. IxvL 
1 6. with ver. 24. — Solomon y who we mull fuppofe 
was thoroughly acquainted with the Senle in which 
the Word was ufed by the Wife, and by the An- 
cients, continually fpeaks of Death as the proper 
Fruit, Iflue, and Recompence of Sin, ufing the 
Word only in this Senfe. Prov. xi. ig. j^s Rigb-- 
teoufnefs tendeth to Life, fo he that purfueth Evily 
purfueth it to his own Death. So Chap, v . 5^ 6^ 
23. vii. 27. viii. 36. ix. 18. x. 21. xi. 19. xiv* iia. 
XV. 10. xviii. 21. xix. 16. xxi. 16. and xxiii. 13, 

14. In thefe Places he cannot mean tempond 
Death ; for he ofteri fpeaks of it ^ a Punilhment 
of the Wicked, wherein the Righteous Ihall cer- 
tainly be diftinguiflied from jhem : As in Prov. xii. 
28. /» the Way of Right eoufnefs is Life^ and in 
the Path'Way thereof is no Death. So in Chap. x. 


Chap. t. 7 fpiritual and eternal Death* 1 9^ 

2. xi. 4. xiii. 14. xiv. 27. and many other Places. 
But we find this fame wife Man obferves, that as 
to temporal Death, and temporal Events in gcr- 
neral, (ikere is no Di(tin6tion, but that they happen 
alike to good and bad. EccL ii. 14, 15, 16. 
vtii* ?4. and ix. 2, 3. His, Words are remarkable 
in EecL vii. 15. There is a juft Man that perifheth 
in bis Right eoufmfs -, and there is a wicked Man 
that prplongeth his Life in his JVickednefs. — So we 
find, David in the Book of Pfalms ufes the Word 
Death in the fame Senfe, when he fpeaks^ of it as 
the proper Wag^s and Iffue of Sin. Pfal. xxxiv* 
'2 1 . Evil JhaU flay the Wicked. He fpeaks of it 
as a certain Thing, Pfal. cxxxix. 19. Surely Thou 
wilt (Izy the Wicked, O God* And he fpeaks of 
it as a Thing wherein the Wicked are diftinguilhed 
from the Righteous. Pfal. Ixix. 28. Let tbem be 
blotted out of the Book of the Living, and not be 
written with the Righteous. — And thus we find the 
Word Death ufed in the Pentateuch^ or Books of' 
Mofes : In which. Part of the Scripture it is, that- 
we have the Account of the Threatening of Death 
to jidam. When Death, in thefe Books, is fpoken 
of as the proper Fruit, and appointed Reward of 
Sin, it is to be underftood of eternal Death. So 
Deut. XXX. 15. Seey J have fet before thee this 
Day Life and Good, and Dcsith and Evil. Ver. 19. 
/ call Heaven and Earth to Record this Day againfi 
youj that I have fet before you Life and Death, 
Bleffmg and Curjing. The Life that is fpoken of 
here, is doubtlefs the fame that is fpqken of in 
Levit. xviii. 5* Te fhail therefore keep my Statutes 
and my Judgments, which if a Man do, he fball 
live in them* This the Apoftle underftands of 
eternal Life-, as is plain by Rom. x. 5. and Gal. 
iii. 12. But that the Death threatened for Sin in 
the Law of Mofes meant eternal Death, is what 

O 2 Dr. 


1^6 ^tbe firft Threatening implied Partlf. 

Dr. Sf, abundandy declares^ So in his Note o» 
Rom. V. 20. Par.p. 29 1 . Such a Conftitution the Law 
of Mofes waiy fubjeSing tbofe who were under k 
to Death for every Tran/greffion : Meaning by Death 
ETERNAL DEA^H. Thcfc are his Words. 
The like he afferts in many other Places. Whe* 
it is faid, in the Place now mentioned, I have fet 
before thee Life and Death, Blefjing and Curfingj 
without doubt, the fame Bleffing and Cnrjmg is 
meant which God had already fet before then> 
with fuch Solemnity, in the 27th and 28 th Chap- 
ters V where we have the Sum of the Curfes m 
thofc laft Words of the 27th Chapter, Curfedis 
every one^ which confirmeth not all the Words of 
this Law to do them. Which the ApofUe fpeaks 
of as a Threatening of eternal Death ; and witfe 
him Dr. ST. himfelf *, In this Senfe alfo Job and 
his Friends, fpake of Deaths as the Wages and 
End of Sin, who lived before any written Reve- 
lation, and had their Religion and their Phra- 
feology about the Things of Religion from thfe 
Ancients. '•. 


If any (hould infill upon it as an Objeftiort 
againft fuppofing that Death was intended to fig- 
nify eternal Death in the Threatening to Adanty 
that this Ufe of the Word is figurative : I reply; 
that tho* this fhould be allowed, yet it is by no 
Means fo figurative as many other Phrafes ufed in 
the Hiftory contained in thcfe three Chapters : A$ 
when it is faid, God/aid^ Let there be Light -^ God 
faidy Let there be a Firmament, &c. as thouc/h God 
Ipake fuch Words with a Voice. So when it i!^ 


* Note on Roin« v. 20. Par. p. 291—299. 

tSap. 1/7 fpiritual and eternal Death. r^y 

faid, God called the IJght^ Day : God called the 
Firmament^ Heaven^ &c. God relied on the feventb 
Day ; . as though he had been weary, and then 
refted. Jnd when it is faid^ 'They heard the Voice 
of God walking •, as thovigh the Deity had two 
Feet, and took Steps on the Ground. Dr. ST. 
fuppofes, that when it is faid of Adam and Eve^ 
^heir eyes were, opened^ und they faw that they were 
flaked'^ by the Word naked is meant a State of 
<iuilt. P. 1 2- Which Senfe of the Word, naked^ 
is much fbrther from the common Ufe of the 
Word, than the fuppofed Senfe of the Word 
Death. So this Author fuppofes the Promife con- 
cerning the Seed of the Woman's bruifing the Ser- 
penfs Head, while the Serpent fhould bruife his 
Heel, is to be underftood of the MeJJiah^s dejtroying 
the Power and Sovereignty of the Devil, and re^ 
reiving fome flight Hurt from him. P. 15, 16. 
Which makes the Sentence full of Figures, vaftly 
more befaie the common Ufe of Words. And 
-why might not God deliver Threatenings to our 
firft Parents in figurative Expreflions, as well as 
Promifes? — Many other ftrong Figures are ufed 
in thefe Chapters. 


Bat indeed, there is no Neceflity of fuppofing 
the Word Death, or the Hebrew Word fo tranflated, 
if ufed in the Manner that has been fuppofed, to 
have been figurative at all. It does not appear 
but that this Word, in its true and proper Mean- 
ing, might fignify perfed Mifery, and fenfible 
Deftruftion -, though the Word was alfo applied 
to fignify fomething more external and vifible. 
There are many Words in our Language, fuch as 
Heart, Senfe, View, Difcovery, Conception, Lights 
and many others, which are applied to fignify 
external Things, as that mufcular Part of the 

O 3 Body 

J 98 The firji Threatening implied Part 11 • 

Body called Heart -, external Feeling called Senfe ; 
the Sight of the bodily Eye called View\ the 
finding of a Thing by its being uncovered, called 
Difcovery ; the firil Beginning of the Foetus in the 
Womb, called Conception '^ and the Rays of the 
Sun, called Light : Yet thefe Words do as truly 
^d properly fignify other Things of a more fpi- 
ritual internal Nature, as .thofe : Such as the 
Difpofition, AfFeftion, Perception, and Thought 
of the Mind, and Manifeftation and Evidence to 
the Soul. Common Ufe, which governs the E?^ 
priety of Language, makes the latter Thiop^tD 
be as much fignified by thofe Words, in th^ 
proper Meaning, as the former. It is efpetuaUy 
common in the Hebrew^ and I fuppofe, other 
oriental Languages, that the fame Word that fig- 
nifies fomething external, does no lefs properly 
and ufually fignify fomething more fpiritual. So 
the Hebrew Words ufed for Breath, have fuch a 
double Signification -, Nejhama fignifies both Breath 
and the Soul ; and the latter as commonly as the 
former : Ruach is ufed for Breath or fVindy but *^' *" 
yet more commonly fignifies Spirit. Nepbejh is 
ufed for Breathy but yet more commonly fignifies 
Soul, So the Word Libh^ Hearty no lefs properly 
fignifies the Soulj efpecially with Regard to the 
Will and Afieftions, than that Part of the Body 
fo called. The Word Shalom^ which we render 
Peace^ no lefs properly fignifies Profperity and 
Happinefs, than mutual Agreement. The Word 
tranflated Life^ fignifies the natural Life of the 
I Body, and alfo the perfeft and happy State <kf 
. fenfible a6tive Being ; and the latter as properly as 
the former. So the Word Deaths fignifies De- 
. ftrudion, as to outward Senftbility^ Aftivity, and 
Enjoyment : But it has moil evid«itly another 
Si;^nification, which, in the Hebrew Tongue, is no 


Chap. L 7 ipirirugl and eternal Death. i^ 

Sedl. ir, 3 

leis proper, viz. perfe£l^ fenjible^ hopelefs Ruin and 

It is therefore wholly without Reafon urged, 
that Death properly fignifies only the Lofs of this 
prefcnt Life : And that therefore Nothing elfc 
was meant by that Death which was threatened for 
eating the forbidden Fruit. Nor docs it at all 
appear but that Adam^ who from what God faid 
concerning the Seed of the Woman, that was fo 
very figurative, could underftand, that Relief was 
DFfiibifed as to the Death which was threatened, 
"(a* Dr. T. himfelf fuppofes) underftood the Death 
that was threatened in the more important Senfe ; 
efpecially feeing temporal Death, as it is originally, 
and in itfelf, is evermore, excepting as changed 
by divine Grace, an Introduction or Entrance into 
that gloomy difmal State of Mifery, which is fha- 
dowed forth by the dark and awful Circumftances 
of this Death, naturally fuggefting to the Mind 
the moft dreadful State of hopelefs, fenfible Ruin. 

As to that Objedlion which fome have made, that 
the Phrafe, Dying thonjhalt die^ is feveral Times ufed 
in the Books of Mofes^ to fignify temporal Death,* it 
can be of no Force. For it has been fhewn already, 
that the fame Phrafe is fometimes ufed in Scrip- 
ture to fignify eternal Death, in Inftances much 
more parallel with this. Rut indeed Nothing can 
be certainly argued concerning the Nature of the 
Thing intended, from its being exprefled in foch 
a Manner. For it is evident, that fuch Repe- 
titions of a Word in the Hebrew Language, are 
no more than an Emphafis upon a Word in the 
more modem Languages, to fignify the great 
Degree of a Thing, the Importance of it, or the 
Ccrtauity of, it, &c* When we would fignify and 

O 4 inprefs 

200 Adatn deah wUb P^rt 11/ 


imprefs thefe, we commonly put an Emphafis oft 
our Words : Inftead of this, the Hebrews^ when 
they would exprefs a Thing ftrongly, repeated or 
doubled the Word, the more to imprefs the Mind 
of the Hearer ; as may be plain to every one in 
the leaft converfant with the Hebrew Bible. The 
Repetition in the Threatening to Adam^ therefore 
only implies the Solemnity, and Importance of the 
Threatening. But God may denounce either etCF*-' 
nal or temporal Death with Peremptorini^s and 
Solemnity, and Nothing can certainly be inferred 
concerning the Nature of the Thing threatened, 
becaufe it is threatened with Emphalis, more than 
this, that the Threatening is much to be regarded. 
Though it be true, that it might in an efpedal 
Manner be expefted that a Threatening of etemkl 
Death would be denounced with great Emphafis, 
fuch a Threatening being infinitely important, and 
to be regarded above all others. 

SECT, m. 

Wherein it is inquired^ whether there be any Thing 
in the Hijiory of the three firft Chapters of GenefiSy 
which Jhould lead us to fuppoje^ that Gody in his 
Conjiitution with Adam^ dealt with Mankind in 
general, as included in their firfl: Father, and 
that the Threatening of Deaths in Cafe he fhould 
eat the forbidden Fruity had Refpeft not only to 
him, but his Pofterity ? 

DR. 5r. rehearfing that Threatening to Adamy 
"Thou fhalt furely die^ and giving us his Para- 
phrafe of it, p. 7, 8. concludes thusj " Obferve, 
♦' here is not one Word relating to Adanfs Pofte* 

'' rky/* 

Chap. I. 7 as a federal Head. 210 

Sea. III. 1 

** rity,'* But it may be obferved in Oppofition to 
this, that there is fcarcely one fVord that we have 
an Account of, which God ever faid to Adam or 
Evdj but what does manifeftly include their Pcfc- 
fterity in the Meaning and Defign of it. There 
is as much of a Word faid about Adam\ Pofterity 
in that Threatening, as there is in thofe Words c3f 
God to Adam and £w. Gen. i. 28. Be fruitful^ 
and multiply J and replenijb the Earthy and fubdue 
it ; ancl ^ much in Events, to lead us to fuppofe 
Adam^s Pofterity to be included. There is as 
much of a Word of his Pofterity in that Threaten- 
ing, as in thofe Words, vcr. 29. Behold^ I ha^e 
given ytm every Herb bearing Seedy — and every Tree 
in which is the Fruit of a Tree yielding Seed^ &c. 
Even when God was about to create Adam^ what 
he faid on that Occafion, had not Refpe£b only to 
Adamy but to his Pofterity. Gen. i. 26. Let us 
make Man in our Image^ and let them have Domi- 
nion over the Fijh of the Sea^ &c* And, what is 
more remarkable, there is as much of a Word 
laid about Adam's Pofterity in the Threatening of 
Death, as there is in that Sentence, Gen. iii. 19, 
Unto Duft Jhalt thou return. Which Dr. T. him- 
felf fuppofes to be a Sentence pronounced for the 
Execution of that very Threatening, Thou fhalt 
furely die : And which Sentence he himfelf alfo 
often fpeaks of as including Adanfs JPofterity : 
And, what is much more remarkable ftill, is a 
Sentence which Dr. T. himfelf often fpeaks of, 
as including bis Pofterity ^ as a SENTENCE OF 
and a Sentence which God pronounced with Re- 
PART OF A JUDGE, and as fuch condemning 
them to temporal Death. Though he is therein 
utterly inconfiftent with himfelf, inafjnuch as he 


aoa - Adatn dealt whb Part IL 

at the fame Time abundantly inMs, that Death 
ia not brought on AdanC^ Pofterity in Confequence 
of his Sin, at aU as a Punifliment ; but merely by 
the gracious Difpofal of a Father, beitowing a 
Benefit of the bigheft Nature upon them *. 

But I Ihall fhew, that I do not in any of thele 
Things falfcly charge, or mifreprefent Dr. T. — He 
4)eaks c^ the Sentence in. Chap. iii. 19. as pro- 
suHinced in Purfuance of the Threatening in the 
former Chapter^ in thefe Words, p. ijy 18. " The 
*'. Senteiure upon the Man, ver. 17, 18, 19. firft 
^* affefts the Earth, upon which he was to fubfift : 
*^ The Ground (hould be incumbered wkh many 
*' noxious Weeds, and the Tillage of it more 
*' toilfome : Which would oblige the Man to 
*^ procure a Suftenance by hard Labour, till he 
^' ihould die, and drop into the Ground,, from 
•* whence he was taken. Thus Death entered by 
<• Sin into the World, and Man became mortal -f-, 
Mankind becomes mortal, and muft die, accord-- 
ing to the Threatening in the former Chapter, 
then doubtlefs the Threatening m the former 
Chapter, Thou Jhalt die^ had Rcipq^ not only to 
Adamy but to Mankind, and included AdavC% 
Pofterity. Xea, and Dr. T". is exprefs in it, and 
very often fo, that the Sentence concerning drop- 
ping into the Ground, or returning to the Duft, 
did include Adan^% Pofterity. So, p. 20. fpeaking 
there of that Sentence, " Obfcrve ^fays he) that 

" wc 

• Page 27. S. 

+ The fubfequent Part of the Quotation the Reader will 
not meet with in the third Edition of Dr. Ti— -r, but in the 
ii^vond of 1741* 

Chap. I. 7 XIS41 federal Head. 203 

sea. ni. s ^ 

we theit- Pofterity ace in Fad fubjefted to the 
fame Afflidion and Mortality, here by Sentence 
inflidled upon our firft Parents, — ^P. 42. Note. 
But yet Men thro' that kmg Traft, were all fub- 
jeft to Death, therefore they mufl: be included in 
** the Sentence." The lame he affirms in innu- 
merable other Places, fome of which I fhall have 
Occafion to mention prefendy. 

The Sentence which is founded on the Threaten- 
ing, and (as Dr. T. fays) according to the T^breaten- 
ingj extends to as many as were included in the 
Threatening, and to no more. If the Sentence 
be upon a colle6tive Subject, infinitely, (as it 
were) the greateft Part of which were not included 
in the Threatening, nor were ever threatened at 
all by any Threatening whatfoever, then certainly 
this Sentence is not according to the Tbreateningy 
nor built upon it. If the Sentence be according 
to the Threatening, then we may juftly explain 
the Threatening by the Sentence : And if we find 
the Sentence fpoken to the fame Perfon, to whom 
the Threatening was fpoken, and fpoken in the 
fecond Perfon Angular, in like Manner with the 
Threatening, and founded on the Threatening, and 
according tv the Threatening ; and if we find the 
Sentence includes Adan^% Pofterity, then we may 
certainly infer, that fo did the Threatening : And 
hence, that both the Threatening and Sentence 
were delivered to Adam as the publick Head and 
Reprefentative of his Pofterity. 

And we may alfo further infer from it, in* ano- 
ther Refpeft direftly contrary to Dr. 5"— ^r's Doc- 
trine, that the Sentence which included Adanf% 
Pofterity, was to Death, as a Punijhment to that 
Pofltrity, as well as to Adam himfelf. For a Sen- 

404 Ahfurdit) of fuppbjing Adam -Pirt IE 

tenc€ pronounced in Execution of a Threatcmng, 
is- to a Punifhmcnt. Threatenings are of PunilK- 
ffyents. Neither God nor Man are wont to threaten 
others with Favours and Benefits. 

But left any of this Author's Admirers Ihould 
(land to it, that it may very properly be faid, 
God threatened Mankind with beftowing great 
Kindnefs upon them, I would obferve, that Dn 
^. often fpeaks of this Sentence as pronounced 
by God on all Mankind as amdemnirg them, fpeaks 
of it as a Sentence of Condemnation judicially pro^ 
nonnced, or a Sentence which God pronounced 
on all Mankind aSfing as their Judge, and in a 
judicial Proceeding : Which he affirms in Multi- 
tudes of Places. In p. 20. Ipeaking of this Sen- 
tence, which, he there fays, fubjedts us, Jdam'n 
and Eve's Pofterity, to Affliftion and Mortality, 
he calls it a judicial Aft of Condemnation. " The 
** judicial ASl of Condemnation (fays he) clearly 
*' implies, a taking him to Pieces, and turning 
*' him to the Ground from whence he was taken.** 
And p. 28, 29. Note. " In all the Scripture fix)m 
*' one End to the other, there is recorded but 
one Judgment to Condemnation, vfhich came upon 
all Men, and that is. Gen, iii. 17, 18, 19. 
*' Duji thou art, &c." P. 40. fpeaking d£ the 
fame, he fays, " All Men are brought under 
*' Condemnation.'^ In p. 27, 28. " By Judgment, 
** Judgment to Condemnation, it appeareth evidently 
** to me, he [Paul] means the being adjudged to 
*' the forementioncd Death ; he means the Sen- 
^' tence of Death, of a general Mortality, pronoun- 
ced upon Mankind, in Confequence of AdamS 
firft Tranfgreflion. And the Condemnation in- 
" flifted by the Judgment of God, anfwereth to, 
*^ and i5 in EfFeft the fame Thing with, being 

'' dead,*' 






Chap. }.\ not a federal He4d. x ao4 

Scam./ ^ 

« dead.** P. 30. " The many, that is Mankind^ 
** were fubjeft to Death by the judicial AS of 
God." P. 31. " Being made Sinners, may very 
well fignify, being adjudgedy or condemned to 
Death. — For the Hebrew Word, i^c. fignifies 
to make one a Sinner by a judicial Sentence^ or 
" to condemn. ^^ — P. 178. Par. on Rom. v. 19. 
Upon the Account of one Man's Difobediencc, 
Mankind were judicially conjtituted Sinners ; thai 
is, fubjefted to Death, by the Sentence of God 
the Judge** And there are many other Places 
where he repeats the iame Thing. And it is pretty 
remarkable, that in p. 48, 49. immediately after 
citing Prov. xvii. 15. He that jujlifietb thetVicked^ 
and he that condemneth the Juji^ are both an Abo- 
mination to the Lord -, And when he is careful in 
citing thefe Words, to put us in Mind, that it is 
meant of a judicial A£t\ yet in the very next 
Words-, he fuppofes that God himfelf does fo,i 
fince he conftantly fuppofes that Adam^s Pofterity, 
whom God condemns, are innocent. His Words 
are thefe, " From all this it foUoweth, that as the 
Judgment, that paffed upon all Men to Condem- 
nation., is Death's coming upon all Men^ by the 
" judicial A£l of God^ upon Occafion of Adam*s 
**• Tranfgreflion : So, &c." — And it is very remark- 
able, that in p. 3, 4, 7. S. he infifts, " That in Scrip- 
ture no A&ion is faid to be imputed, reckoned; 
or accounted to any Perfon for Righteoufnefs or 
CONDEMNATION, but the proper Adt and 
" Deed of that Perfon."-:-And yet he thus con- 
tinually affirms^ that all Mankind are made Sin- 
ners by a judicial A£l of God the Judge^ even to 
Condemnation^ and judicially conftituted Sinners^ and 
fo fubjefted to a judicial Sentence of Condemnation^ 
on Occafion of Adam^s Sin ; and all according to 
the Threatening denounced to Adam^ Thou Jbalt 




ioS Abfurdity of fuff^tig Adam Put H 

Junly die : Though he fuppofcs Aiatffs Pofterity 
were not included in the Threatening, and are 
looked upon as perfedtly innocent^ and treated 
wholly as fuch. 

I am fenfible Dr. 7*. does not run into all this 
Inconfiftencc, only through Overlight and Blun- 
dering ; but that he is driven to it, to make out 
his Matters in his EvaTion of that noted Paragraph 
in the fifth Chapter of Romans -j efpeciaUy thofe 
three Sentences, ver. i6. ^be Judgment was iy 
*w to Condemnation, ver. 1 8. By the Offence of amy 
Judgment came upon all Men to Condemnation \ and 
ver. \^, By ^ne Matins Difoiedience many were made 
Sinners. - And I am alfo fenfible of what he oflfers 
to i^ve the Inconvenience, viz. " That if the 
*' Threatening had immediately been executed gi> 
** Adam^ he would have had no Pofterity ; and 
that fo far the poflible Exiftence of AdanC^ Po- 
fterity fell under the Threatening of the Law> 
and into the Hands of the Judge, to be dif- 
pofed of as he fhould think fit : And that this 
is the Ground of the Judgment to Condemna- 
tion, coming upon all Men.** * But this \% 
trifling, to a great Degree : For, 

I. Sufiering Death, and failing of poffible Exi- 
ftence, are entirely different 'Hfkigs. If there 
had never been any fuch Thing as Sin committed,, 
there would have been infinite Numbers of pof- 
fible Beings^, which would have failed of Eiiftence^ 
by God's Appointments God has appointed not 
to bring into Exiftence numberlefs poffible Worlds, 
each repleniftied with innumerable poffible Inhabi- 
tants. But is this equivalent to God's appointing 
them all to fuffer Death ? 

^. Our 

* Page 95. 90, 91. S* 



Chap. LI not a federal Head. 207 

sca.iir. J 

2. Our Author rcpirfcnts, that by Mcmfs Sin^ 
the pqffible Exiftmce of bis Fofterity feU into • the 
Hands of the Judge^ to be difpofed of as he (botdd 
think fit. But there was no Need of any Sin of 
Adam's^ or any Body's elfe, ui order to their being 
brought into God's Hands in this Refpeft. Ti« 
future poflible Exiftence of all created Beings, is 
in God's Hands, antecedently to the Eadftence of 
any Sin. And therefore by God's fovereign Ap-» 
pointment, infinite Numbers of poffible Beings^ 
without any Relation to Jdam^ or any other fin- 
ning Being, do fail of their poffible £xiftence» 
And liJdam had never finned, yet it would be un^ 
reafonable to fijppofe, but that innumerable Mul- 
titudes of his poffible Pofl^rity, would have failed of 
Exiftence by God's Difpofal. For will any be fo un- 
reafonable as to imagine, that God would and 
muft have brought into Exiftence as many 6f his 
Pofterity as it was poffible (hould be, if he had 
not finned ? Or that in that Cafe, it would not have 
been poffible, that any other Perfons of his Pofte- 
rity ftiould ever have exifted, than thofc individual 
Perlbnsj who now aftually fall under that Sen*- 
tence of fufFering Death, and returning to the 


3. We have many Accounts in Scripture, which 
imply the adtCsl Failing of the poffible Exiftence 
of innumerable Multitudes of Adanf% Pofterity, 
yea, of many more than ever conje into Exiftence. 
As, of the poffible Pofterity of Abely the poffible 
Pofterity of all them that were deflroyed by the 
Flood, and the poffible Pofl:erity of the innume- 
rable Multitudes, which we read of in Scripture, 
deftroyed by Sword, Peftilence, &c. And if the 
Threatening .to Adam reached his Pofterity, in no 
other refped than this, that they, were liable to be 


2ot Abfurdity of fuppofing Adam Part XL4 

deprived by it of their poffible Exiftence, then 
thefe Inilances are much more properly a Fulfil- 
ment of that Threatening, than the SuiFering of 
Death by fuch as aftually come into Exiftencc ; 
and fo is that which is moft properly the Judg- 
ment to Condemnation, executed by the Sentence 
of the Judge, proceeding on the Foot of that 
Threatening. But where do we ever find this fo 
reprefented in Scripture ? We read of Multitudes 
cut off for their perlbnal Sins, who thereby failed 
of their poflible Pofterity. And thefe are men- 
tioned as God's Judgments on them, and Eflfefts 
of God*s Condemnation of them : But when arc 
they ever fpoken of as God's judicially pro- 
ceeding againft, and condemning their poffible 
Pofterity ? 

4. Dr. jT. in what he fays concerning this Matter, 
fpeaks of the Threatening of the Law delivered 
to Adam^ which the poffible Exiftencc of his Po- 
fterity fell under, as the Ground of the Judgment 
to Condemnation coming upon all Men. But huereiB 
he is exceeding inconfiftent with himfelf : For he 
affirms in a Place forecited, that the Scripture 
never (peaks of any Sentence of Condemnation 
coming upon all Men, but that Sentence in the 
third of Genejisj concerning Man's turning to Duft. 
But according to him, the Threatening of the 
Law delivered to Adamy could not be the Ground 
of that Sentence; for he greatly infifts upon it, 
that that Law was entirely abrogated before that 
Sentence was pronounced, that this Law at that 
Time was not in Beings had no Exiftenee to have 
any fuch Influence, as might procure a Sentence 
of Death ; and that therefore this Sentence was 
introduced entirely on another Foot, viz, on the 
Foot of a new Difpenfation of Grace. The Header 


Cl^p. h \ Mot a federal Head; aod 

Sea. III. y ■ ^ 

may fee this Matter ftrenuoufly urged, and parti- 
cularly argued by him, p* 113 — 120* 5. So that 
this Sentence could not, according to him, have 
the Threatening of that Law for its Ground, as 
he fuppofes ; for it never flood upon that Ground. 
It could liot be called a Judgment of Condemna- 
tion, binder any fuch View -, for it could not be 
viewed under Circumftances, under which it never 

5. If it be as our Author fuppofes, that the 
Sentence of Death on all Men comes under the 
Notion of a Judgment to Condemnation by this 
Means, viz. that the Threatening to Adam was in 
Ibme Refpeft the Ground of it ; then it alfo comes 
under the Notion of a Punifliment : For Threaten- 
ings annexed to Breaches of Laws, are to Punifh- 
ments : and a Judgment of Condemnation to the 
Thing threatened, muft be to Punifhment •, and 
the Thing condemned to, muft have as much the 
Notion of a Punifhment, as the Sentence has the 
Notion of a Judgment to Condemnation. But 
this Dr. 7". wholly denies: He denies that the 
Death fentenced to, comes as any Punifhment at 
alU but infifts that it comes only as a* Favour and 
Benefit, and a Fruit of fatherly Love to Adan^% 
Pofterity, refpedted not as guilty, but wholly in- 
nocent. So that his Scheme will not admit of its 
coming under the Notion of a Sentence to Con-* 
demnation in any Refpeft whatfoever. Our Au- 
thor's Suppofition, that the poflible Exiftence of 
Adanf% Polterity comes under the Threatening of 
the Law, and into the Hands of the Judge, and 
is the Ground of the Condemnation of all Men to 
Death, implies, that Death by this Sentence is 
appointed to Mankind as an Evil, at leaft, nega- 
tively fo •, as it is a Privation of Good : For he 

P manifcflly 

2io Ad^m mofi'evidentfy Fartll^ 

manifeftiy fpeaks of a Non-ex iftence as a negative 
Evil. But herein he is inconfillcnt with himfelf : 
For he continually infifts, that Mankind are Tub- 
jefted. to Death o^y as a Benefit , as has been before 
(hewn. According to him, Death is not appointed 
to Mankind as a negative Evil, as any^ Ceffation 
of Exiftence, as any Ceflation or even Diminution 
of Good J but on the contrary, as a Means of 
a more happy Exijiencey and a great Increafe of 

So that this Evafion, or Salvo of Dr. T — ^r's, is 
fo far from helping the Matter, or falving the In- 
confiilence, that it increafes and multiplies it. 


And that the Conftitution or Law, with the 
Threatening of Death annexed, v;hich was given 
to Adam^ was to him as the Head of Mankind^ 
and to his Pofterity as included in him, not only 
follows from fome of our Author's own Affertions, 
and the plain and full Declarations of the Apoftlc 
in the fifth of Romans^ (of which more afterwards) 
which drove Dr. T. into fuch grofs Inconfiftencies : 
But the Account given in the three firft Chapters 
of Genejisy direftly and inevitably lead us to fuch 
a Conclufion. 

Though the Sentence, Gen. iii. 19. Unto Dufi 
thou Jhalt return^ be not of equal Extent with the 
Threatening in the foregoing Chapter, or an Exe- 
cution of the main Curfe of the Law therein de- 
nounced ; for, that it Ihould have been fo, would 
have been inconfiftent with the Intimations of 
Mercy juft before given : Yet it is plain, this 
Sentence is in Purfuance of that Threatening^, 
being to fomething that was included in it. The 
Words of the Sentence were delivered to the fame 


Ciiap. t. \ a federal Head. 21 1 

Sea. Ill, J 

Peribn, with the Words of the Threatening, 
and in the fame Manner, in like fingular Terms, 
as much without any exprefs Mention of his 
Pofterity : And yet it manifeftly appears by the 
Confequence, as well as all Circumftances, that 
his Pofterity were included in the Words of the 
Sentence; as is confefled on all Hands. And 
as the Words were apparently delivered in the 
Form of the Sentence of a Judge^ condemning 
for fomething that he was difpleafed with, and 
ought to be condemned, viz. Sin ; and as the 
Sentence to him and his Pofterity was but one, 
dooming to the fame Suffering, under the fame 
Circumftances, both the one and the other fen- 
tenced in the fame Words, Ipoken but once, and 
immediately to but one Peribn, we hence juftly 
mfer, that it was the fame Thing to both; and 
not as Dr. T, fuggefts, p. 67. a Sentence to a 
proper Puniftiment to Adam^ but a mere Promife 
of Favour to his Pofterity. 

Indeed, fometimes our Author feems to fuppofe, 
that God meant the Thing denounced in this Sen- 
tence, as a Favour both to Adam and his Pofte- 
rity *. But to his Pofterity, or Mankind in gene- 
ral, who are the main Subjedb, he ever infifts, that 
it was purely intended as a Favour. And there- 
fore, one would have thought, the Sentence ftiould 
have been delivered, with Manifeftations and Ap- 
pearances of Favour, and not of Anger. How 
could Adam underftand it as a Promife of great 
Favour, confidering the Manner and Circum- 
ftances of the Denunciation ? How could he 
think, that God would go about to delude him, 
by cloathiftg himfelf with Garments of Vengeance, 
.uflrtg V/ord3 .pf Dilpkafure and Rebuke, felting 

P 2 forth 

* Page 35, 453 46. ^. 

212 Adam mofi evidently Part It. 

forth the Heinoufrfefs of his Crime, attended with 
Cherubims and a flaming Sword j when all that 
he meant was only higher Teftimonies of Favour, 
than he had before in a State of Innocence, and 
to manifeft fatherly Love and Kindnefs, in Pro- 
mifes of great Blcflings ? If this was the Cafe, 
God's Words to Adam mult be underftood thus : 

* Becaufe thou haft done fo wickedly, haft heark- 

* cned unto the Voice of thy Wife, and haft eaten 

* of the Tree of which I commanded thee, faying, 

* Thou ftialt not eat of it ; therefore I will be more 

* kind to thee then I was in thy State of Innocence, 

* and do now appoint for thee the following great 

* Favours : Curfed be the Ground for thy Sake^ &c.* 
And thus Jdavi muft underftand what was faid, un- 
lefs any will fay (and God forbid that any ftiould be 
lb blafphemous) that God doathed himfelf with 
Appearances of Difpleafure, to deceive Adam^ and 
make him believe the contrary of what he inten- 
ded, and lead him to expeft a difmal Train of 
Evils on his Pofterity, contrary to all Reafon and 
Juftice, implying the moft horribly unrighteous 
Treatment of Millions of perfeftly innocent Crea- 
tures. It is certain, there is not the leaft Appear- 
ance in what God faid, or the Manner of it, as 
Mofes gives us the Account, of any other, than that 
God was now teftifying Difpleafure, condemning 
the Subjeft of the Sentence he was pronouncing, 
as juftly expofed to Puniftiment for Sin, and for 
that Sin which he mentions. 

When God was pronouncing this Sentence, 
Adam ddubdefs underftood, that God had Relpeft 
to his Pofterity, as well as Himfelf; though God 
fpake wholly in the fecond Perfon fingular, Becaufe 
thou hafi eateUy — In Sorrow fhalt thou eat^ — Unto 
the Duji Jhalt thou return. But he had a3 much 


Chap. I. 7 a federal Head. w? 

Sea. III. \ ^ 

Reafon to underftand God as having Refped to 
his Pofterity, when he direfted his Speech to him 
in like Manner in the Threatening, "Thou Jhalt 
furely die. The Sentence plainly refers to the 
Threatening, and refults from it. The Threaten- 
ing fays, If thou eat^ thou Jhalt die : The Sentence 
fays, Becaufe thou haft eaten^ thou Jhalt die. And 
Mofes^ -who wrote the Account, had no Reafon to 
doubt but that the Affair would be thus underftood 
by his Readers ; for fuch a Way of fpeaking was 
well underftood in thofe Days : The Hiftory he 
gives us of the Origin of Things, abounds with 
it. Such a Manner of fpeaking to the firft of the 
Kind, or Heads of the Race, having Refpeft tq 
the Progeny, is not only ufed in alnioft every 
Thing that God faid to Jdam and Eve^ but even 
in* what he faid to the very Birds and Fifoes^ Gen. 
i. 22. And alfo in what he faid afterwards to 
Noah^ Gen. ix. and to Shem^ Ham and Japhethj 
and Canaan^ Gen. ix. 25, 26, 27. So in Pronnifes 
made to Abraham^ in which God diredled his 
Speech to hkn, and fpake in the fecond Perfon 
Angular, from Time to Time, but meant chiefly 
his Pofterity : 21? thee will I give this Land. In 
thee Jhall all the Families of the Earth he hleffed^ 
&c. &c. And in what is faid of IJhmael^ as of his 
Perfon, but meant chiefly of his Pofl;erity, Gen, 
xvi. 12. and xvii, 20. And fo in what i/?z^c faid 
to Efau and Jacobs in his Rlefllng-, in which he 
Ipake to them in the fecoml Perfon Angular ; but 
meant chiefly their Pofterity. And fo for the moft 
Part in the Promifes made to Ifaac and Jacob \ 
and in Jacobs BleflTing of Ephraim and Manajfehj 
and of his twelve Sons. 

But I fhaU/take Notice of one or two Things 
fqrther Ihewing that Jdam\ Pofterity werq in- 

F 3 eluded 

214' Of th Curie on the Ground. PartIL 

eluded in God's Eftablifhment with him, and the 
Threatening denounced for his Sin •, and that 
the Calamities which come upon them in Confc- 
quence of his Sin, are brought on them as Pu- 

This is evident from the Curfe on the Ground \ 
which if it be any Curfe at all, comes equally on 
Adr.m^% Pofterity with himfelf. And if it be a 
Curfe, then againft whomfoever it is defigned, and 
on whomfoever it terminates, it comes as a Pu- 
nifhment, and not as a Blefling, fo far as it conies 
in Confequence of that Sentence, 

Dr. 7". p. 19. fays, '^ A Curfe is pronounced 
*' upon the Ground, but no Curfe upon the Woman 
" and the Man." And in p. 45, 46. 5. he infifts, 
that the Ground only was curfed, and not the 
Man : Juft as though a Curfe could terminate 
on lifelefs fenfelefs Earth! To underftand this 
Curfe otherwife than as terminating upon Man 
through the Ground, would be as fenfelefs as to 
fuppofe the Meaning to be, 7he Ground jhall ie 
p2i7iijhed^ and fljall be iniferable fcr tJjy Sake. Our 
Author interprets the Curfe on the Ground, of its 
being incumbered with noxious Weeds: But would 
thefe Weeds have been any Curfe on the Ground, 
if there had been no Inhabitants, or if the Inhabi- 
tants had been of fuch a Nature, that thele Weeds 
Ihould not have been ]^cious, but ufeful to them ? 
It is faid, Deut. xxviii. 1 7. Curfed Jhall be thy Ba- 
fiet^ and thy Store : And would he not be thought 
to talk very ridiculoufly, who fhould fay, ' H[er^ 
' is a Curfe upon the Bafket ; but not a Word of 
' any Curfe upon the Owner : And therefore we 
* have no Reafon at all to look upon it as any 
Punilhment upon him, or any Teftimony of 

' God's 

Cbap. L 1 Of the Curfe. on the Ground, 21^ 
Sea. III. y "^ ^ 

* God*s Difpleafure towards him. ' How plain is 
it, that when lifeleis Things, which are not capa- 
ble of either Benefit or Suffering, are faid to be 
curfed or blefled with regard to fenfible Beings, 
that ufe or poflefs thefe Things, or have Con- 
nexion with them, the Meaning muft be, that 
theie fenfible Beings are curfed or blefled in the 
ather^ or with Refpe6t to them ! In Exod, xxiii. 
25. it is faid. He Jhall blefs thy Bread and thy 
Water, And I fuppofe, never any Body yet pro- 
ceeded to fuch a Degree of Subtilty in diftin- 
guifliing, as to fay, ' Here is a Blefling on the 

* Bread and the Water, which went into the Pof- 

* feffors Mouths, but no Blefling on them/ To 
make fuch a Diftindion with regard to the Curfe 
God pronounced on the Ground, would in fome 
Relpefts be more unreafonable, becaufe God is 
exprefs in explaining the Matter, declaring that 
it was/<?r Man^s fake^ exprefly referring this Curfe 
to him, as being with Refpedl to him, and for the 
Sake of his Guilt ; and as confifting in the Sorrow 
and Suffering he fhould have from it : In Sorrow 
Jhalt "tHOU eat of it,— "Thorns and Thijiles Jhall 
it bring forth TO THEE. So that God's own 
Words tell us, where the Curfe terminates. The 
Words are parallel with thofe in Deut, xxviii. 1 6: 
but only more plain and explicit, Curfed fhalt 
THOU he in the'Field^ or in the Ground. 

If this Part of the Sentence was pronounced 
under no Notion of ^ny Curfe or Punifliment at 
all upon Mankind, but on the contrary^ as making 
an Alteration in the Ground, that fhould be for 
the better^ as to them ;. that inftead of the fweet,, 
but tempting, pernicious Fruits of Paradife, it 
might produce wholefome Fruits, more for the 
Health of the Soul j that it might bring forth 

• P 4 Thorns 

2i6 Of Eve's new Name. PartlL 

Thorns ' and Thiftles, as excellent Medicines, to 
prevent or cure moral Diftempers, Difeafes whioh 
would iffue in eternal Death -, I fay^ if what was 
pronounced was under this Notion, then it was a 
Blefling on the Ground, and not a Curie •, and: it 
might more properly have been faid, * BLESSED 

* Jhall the Ground be for thy Sake. — I will make a 
' happy Change in it, that it may be a Habitation 

* more fit for a Creature fo infirm, and fo apt. to 
' be overcome with Temptation, as thou art.* , 

The - Event makes it evident, that in pronoun- 
cing this Curfe, God had as much Refpeft to 
AdanC% Pofterity, as to himfelf : And fo it was 
underftood by his pious Pofterity before the Flood ; 
as appears by what Lantech^ the Father of Noaby 
lays. Gen. v. 29. And he called his -Name Noah ; 
faying^ This fame Jhall comfort us concerning our^ 
JVorkj and the Toil of our Hands^ " becaufe of the 
*' Ground which the Lord hath curfed," ' 

Another Thing which argues, that Adam*s Po- 
fterity were included in the Threatening of Death, 
and that our firft Parents underftood, when fallen, 
that the Tempter, in perfuading them to eat the 
forbidden Fruit, had aimed at the Punifhment and 
Ruin of both them and their Pofterity, and had 
procured it, is Adam^s immediately giving his 
Wife that new Name, Eve^ or Life^ on the Pro- 
mife or Intimation of the Difappointment and 
Overthrow of the Tempter in that Matter, by her 
Seed ; which Adam underftood to be by his pro- 
curing Life •, not only for themfelves, but for 
many of their Pofterity, and thereby delivering 
them from that Death and Ruin which the Ser- 
pent had brought upon them. Thofe that fhould 
be thus delivered,^ and obtain Life, Adam calls 

' • the 

Chap. I. 7 Of Evt^s new Name. a 17 

Sea. III. J -^ ^ 

ihe Living : And becaufe he obferved, by what 
God had faid, that Deliverance and Life was to 
be by the Seed of the Woman, he therefore re- 
marks, that Jhe is the Mother of all Livings and 
thereupon gives her a new Name, calls her Chavab^ 
Life, Gen. iii. 20. 

There is a great deal of Evidence, that this Is 
the Occafion of yidam^s giving his Wife her new 
Name. This was her new Honour, and the greateft 
Honour, at lead in her prefent State, that the 
Redeemer was to be of her Seed. New Names 
were wont to be given for fomething that was 
the Perfon's peculiar Honour. So it was with 
regard to the new Names of Abraham^ Sarahj and 
Ifrael. Dr. T. himfelf obferves *, that they who 
are faved by Chrift, are called the Livers, 0/ ^av-ns 
2 Cor. iv. II. 'the Living, or they that live. So 
we find in the Old Teftament, the Righteous are 
called by the Name of the Livings Pfal. Ixix. 28, 
Let them be blotted out of the Book of the Living, 
and not be written with the Righteous. If what 
jidaM meant by her being the Mother of all Liv^ 
ing, was only her being the Mother of Mankind j 
and gave her the Name Life upon that Account ; 
it were much the moft likely that he would have 
given her this Name at firft; when God firfl; 
united them, under that Blefling, Be fruitful and 
multiply, and when he had a Prolpeft of her being 
the Mother of Mankind in a State of Immortalityy 
living indeed, living and never dying. But that 
Adam fhould at that Time give her only the 
Name of Ifha, and then immediately on that me- 
lancholy Change, by their coming under the Sen- 
tence of Death, with all their Pofterity, having 
now a new awful Profpeft of her being the 


• Note annexed to § 387. 

2 1 8 EveV new Name an Jrgument of Part IL* 

Mother of Nothing but a dying Race^ all from 
Generation to Generation turning to Duft, through 
her Folly : I fay, that immediately on this, he 
fhould change her Name into Life^ calling her 
now the Mother of all livings is perfedly unac^ 
countable. Befides, it is manifeft, that it was 
not her being the Mother of all Mankind, or 
ber Relation as a Mother, which fhe ftood in to 
her Pofterity, but the ^ality of thofe fhe was to 
be the Mother of, which was the 1 hing Adam 
had in View, in giving his Wife this new Nam6 ; 
>s appears by the Name itfelf, which fignifies 
Life. And if it had been only a natural and 
mortal Life which he had in View, this was No- 
thing diftinguiftiing of her Pofterity from the 
Brutes ; for the very fame Name of living ones, 
or living Things, is given from Time to Time in 
this Book of Genejis to them : As in Chap. i. 21, 
24, 28. Chap. ai. 19. Chap. vi. 19. vii. 23. and 
viii. I. and many other Places in the Bible. — 
And befides, if by Life the Quality of her Pofte- 
rity was not meant, there was nothing^ in it to 
diftinguifh' her from Adam ; for thus fhe was no 
more the Mother of all living, than he was the 
Father of all living ; and ftie could no more pro^ 
perly be called by the Name of Life on any luch 
Account, than he : But Names are given for 
Diftindtion. Doubtlefs Adam took Notice of fome^ 
thing diftinguilhing concerning her, that occa-^ 
iioned hia giving her this new Name. And I 
think, it is exceeding natural to fuppofe, that as 
Adam had given her her jirji Name from the 
Manner of her Creation^ fo he gave her her nev^ 
Name from Redemption^ and as it were new Crea^ 
Hon^ through a Redeemer, of her Seed : And 
that he ftiould give her this Name from that which 
con^rted him, with refpeft to the Curfe that 


Chap* !• } the ^breatenings including Poftcrity. xi% 

God had pronounced on him and the Earth, as 
Lamech named Noab^ Gen, v. 29. Sayings This 
fame /hall comfort us concernitig our IVcrky and Toil 
of our Hands y becaufe of the Ground which the Lord 
bath curfed' Accordingly he gave her this new 
.Name, not at her firft Creation, but immediately 
after the Promife of a Redeemer,, of her Seed. 
See Gen. iii. 15 — 20. 

Now as to the Confequence which I infer from 
Adani^ giving his Wife this Name, on the In- 
timation which God had given, that Satan 
ftiould by her Seed be overthrown and difap- 
pointed, as to his malicious Defign, in that Deed 
of his which God then fpake of, viz. his tempting 
the Woman ; Adam infers from it, that great 
Numbers of Mankind fliould be faved, whom he 
calls the Living •, they fhould be faved from the 
Effefts of this malicious Defign of the old Serpent, 
and from that Ruin which he had brought upon 
them by tempting their firft Parents to Sin ; and 
fo the Serpent would be, with relpeft to them, 
difappointed and overthrown in his Defign. But 
how is any Death or Ruin, or indeed any Cabir 
mity at all, brought upon their Pofterity by 
Satanh Malice in that Temptation, if inftead of 
that, all the Death and Sorrow that was confe- 
quent, was the Fruit of God's fatherly Love, and 
not Satan^s Malice, and was an Inftance of God's 
free and fovereign Favour, fuch Favour as Satan 
could not poflibly forefce ? And if Multitudes of 
Eve*s Pofterity are faved, from either fpiritual or 
temporal Death, by a Redeemer, of her Seed, 
how is that any Difappointment of Satan-s Defign, 
in tempting our firft Parents ? How came he to 
have any fuch Thing in View, as the Death of 
Adam\s ai^d Eve^s Pofterity, by tempting them to 


220 Ohgeftion, thai Man kdos to die Part IL 

Sin, or any Expeftation that their Death would be 
the Confequence, unlcfs he knew that they were 
included in the Threatening ? 

Some have objected againfl Adam^s Pofterity*s 
being included in the Threatening delivered to 
Adam^ that the Threatening itfelf was inconfiflent 
with his bwcing atry Pojierity: It being that he 
Ihould die on the Day that ke finned. 

To this I anfwer, that the Threatening was not 
inconfiflent with his having Pofterity, on two Ac- 
counts : 

Thofe Words, In the Day thou eateft thereof 
tbou Jhalt furely die^ according to the Ulc of 
fuch like Expreffions among the Hebre^xs^ do 
not fignify immediate Death, or that the Execu- 
tion mail be within twenty-four Hours from the 
Commiflion of the Faft ; nor did God by thofe 
Words limit himfelf as to the Time of executing 
the threatened Punifhment ; but that was ftill left 
to God's Pleafure. Such a Phrafe, according to 
the Idiom of the Hebrew Tongue, fignifies no 
more than thefe two Things : 

!• A real Connexion betweerf the Sin and the 
Punilhment. So Ezek. xxxiii. 12, 13. The Rigb- 
teoufnefs of the Righteous Jhall not deliver him IN 
THE DAT of his rranfgreffion. As for the TVicked-^ 
nefs of the Wicked^ He Jhall not fall thereby IN 
THE DAT that he turnetb from bis Wickednefs : 
Neither Jhall the Righteous be able to live IN THE 
DAT THAT HE SINNJ^H : But for his Ini^ 
quity that he hath committed^ HE SHALL DIE 
for it. Here it is faid, that in the Day he finneth, 
Jie fliall not be able to live, but he fhall die ; not 



Chap«L 7 in the Day he finned, onfvoeretL 221 

Se£t. Iir. ( 

fignifying the Time when Death Ihall be exe- 
cuted upon him, but the Connexion between his 
Sin and Death ; fuch a Connedkion as in our prc- 
fent common Ule of Language is fignified by the 
Adverb of Time, When ; As if One Ihould fay. 
According to the Laws of our Nation, {o loi^ 
as a Man behaves Himfelf as a good Subjeft, he 
may live ; but When he turns Rebel, he muft 
die :" Not fignifying the Hour, Day, or Month 
in which he muft be executed, but only the Con-f 
neftion between his Crime and Death. 

2. Another Thing which feems to be fignified 
by fuch an Expreflion, is, that Adam fliould be 
expofed to Death for one Tranfgrejfton^ without 
waiting on him to try him the fecond Time. If 
he eat of that Tree, he Ihould immediately 'fall 
under Condemnation, though afterwards he might 
abftain ever fo ftri6tly. In this Refpefl: the Words 
are much of the fame Force with thofe Words of 
Solomon to Shimei, i Kings ii. 37. For it Jhall be 
that ON THE DAY that thou goeft outj and 
paffeji over the Brook Kidron, thou Jhalt know for 
*' certain, that thou fiialt furely die/' Not mean- 
ing, that he fliould certainly be executed on that> 
Day, but that he fliould be afluredly liable to 
Death for the firft Offence, and that he fliould not 
have another. Trial to fee whether he would go 
over the Brook Kidron 2l fecond Time. 

And then befidcs, 

II. If the Words had implied, that Adam fliould 
die that very Day, within 24 or 12 Hours,, or that 
Moment that he tranfgrefled, yet it will by no 
Means follow, that God obliged himfelf to exe- 
cute the Puniftiment /;j its utnwjt Extent on that 



222 l^Qtae§fth€Tintatemf^n9 0bj€£don. Partff. 

Day. The Sentence was in great Part executed 
immediately ; he then died fpiritually ; he hA 
his Innocence and original Righteoufnefs, and the 
Favour of God; a dtfmal Alteration was made 
in his Soul, by the Lofs of that holy divine Prin- 
ciple, which was in the higheft Scnfe the Life of 
the Soul. In this he was truly ruined and undone 
that very Day ; becoming corrupt, mifcraWe, and 
helplefs. And I think it has been (hewn, that 
fuch a fpiritual Death was one great Thing implied 
in the Threatening. — And the Alteration then 
made in his Body and external .State, was the 
Beginning of temporal Death. Grievous external 
Calamity is called by the Name of Death in Scrip- 
ture, Exod. X. 1 7. — Intreat the Lord that be may 
take away this Death. — ^Not only was Adanf% Soii 
ruined that Day, but his Body was ruined ; it loft 
its Beauty and Vigour, and became a poor, dull, 
decaying, dying Thing. And befides all this, 
Adam was that Day undone in a more dreadful 
Senfe : He immediately fell under the Curfe of 
the Law, and Condemnation to eternal Perdition. 
In the Language of Scripture, he is deady that is, 
in a State of Condemnation to Death ; even as 
our Author often explains this Language in his 
Expofition upon Romans. In Scripture-Language, 
he that believes in Chrift, immediately receives 
Life. He paffes at that Time from Death to 
Life, and thenceforward (to ufe the Apoftle Jobtfs 
Phrafe) " has eternal Life abiding in him." But 
yet he does not then receive eternal Life in its 
higheft Completion j he has but the Beginning of 
it ; and receives it in a vaftly greater Degree at 
Death : But the proper Time for the compleat 
Fulnefs is not till the Day of Judgment. When 
the Angels finned, their Punifhment was imme- 
diately executed in a Degree : But their full Pu- 

Cfmp, L I Adam notmpre bcnour^d tbanOmA. 221 
Sea. III. J ^ 

niflimcnt is not till the End of the World. And 
there is nothing in God's Threatening to Adam 
that bound him to execute his full Punifhment at 
once ; nor any Thing which determines, that he 
(hould have no Pofterity. The Law or Conftitution 
which God eftablifhed and declared, determined, 
that if he finned, and had Pofterity, he and they 
fliould die : But there was no Conftitution deter- 
mining concerning the aftual Being of his Poftc-r 
rity in this Cafe -, what Pofterity he fhould have^ 
how many, or whether any af all. All thefe 
Things God had referved in his own Power : The 
Law and its Sanation intermeddled not with the 

It may be proper in this Place alfo to take fomc 

Notice of that Objeftion of Dr. ^—r^s^ againft 

Adam\ being fuppofed to be a federal Head for 

his Pofterity, that it gives him greater Honour 

than Chrift, as it fuppofes that all his Pofterity 

would have had eternal Life by his Obedience, if 

he had ftood; and fo a greater Number would 

have had the Benefit of his Obedience, than are 

faved by Chrift *. — I think, a very little Confi- 

deration is fufficient to ftiew, that there is no 

Weight in this Objedion. For the Benefit of 

Chritt's Merits may neverthelefs be vaftly beyond 

that which would have been by the Obedience of 

jidam. For thofe that are faved by Chrift, are 

jiot merely advanced to Happinefs by his Merits, ' 

but gre faved from the infinitely dreadful EfFedts 

of jidam's Sin, and many from immenfe Guilt, 

Pollution, and Mifery, by perfonal Sins; alfo 

brought to a holy and. happy State, as it were 

through infinite Obftacles ; and are exalted to a 

far greater Degree of Dignity, Felicity, and Glory, 


♦ Page 120^ &c. S. 

224 Sum of fhe ArgK frm Mofes^j Accmit. Pirt IT; 

than woiild have been due for Aianf% Obedience % 
for aught I know, many Thoufand Times fo great# 
And there is enough in the Gofpel-Difpenlation, 
clearly to manifeft the Sufficiency of Chrift's Merits 
for fuch EfFefts in all Mankind. And how- great 
the Number will be, that fhall aSlually be , the 
Subjedts of them, or how great a Proportion of 
the whole Race, confidering the vaft Succrfs of 
the Gofpel, that fliall be in that future, extraor- 
dinary, and glorious Seafon, often fpoken of, none 
can tell. And the Honour of thefe two federal 
Heads arifes not fo much from what was prppofed 
to each for his Trial, as from their Succefs, and 
the Good aftually obtained ; and alfo the Manner 
of obtaining: Chrift obtains the Benefits Men 
have through him by proper Merit of Condignity, 
and a true Purchafe by an Equivalent: Which 
would not have been the Cafe ynxkAdam if he 
had obeyed. 

I have now particularly confidered the Account 
which Mofes gives us in the Beginning of the 
Bible, of our firft Parents, and God's Dealings 
with them, the Conftitution he eftablilhed with 
them, their Tranfgreffion, and what followed. And 
on the whole, if we confider the Manner in which 
God apparently fpeaks to Adam from Time to 

«ime -, and particularly, if we confider how plainly 
id undeniably his Pofterity are included in the 
Sentence of Death pronounced on Adam after his 
Fall, founded on the foregoing Threatening ; and 
confider the Curfe denounced on the Ground for 
his Sake, and for his and his Pofterity's Sorrow : 
And alfo confider what is evidcndy the Occafion 
of his giving his Wife the new Name of EvCj and 
his Meaning in it, and withal confider apparent 
f a6t in conftant and univerlal Events, with Rela- 

Chap. I. ISum of the JrgKfromMoks^syiccoutit. 22 5 

Sed. JII. 3 

tion to the State of our firft Parents, and their 
Pofterity from that Time forward, through all 
Ages of the World ; I cannot but think, it muft 
appear to every impartial Perfon, that Mofes^s 
Account does, with fufficient Evidence, lead all , 
Mankind, to whom his Account is communicated, 
t6 underftand, that God, in his Conftitution 
with Adam^ dealt with him as a publick Perfon, 
and as the Head of the human Species, and had 
Refpeft to his Pofterity, as included in him : And 
that this Hiftory is given by divine Direftion, 
in the Beginning of the firft-written Revelation, 
to exhibit to our View the Origin of the prefcnt 
iinful miferable State of Mankind, that we might 
fee what that was, which firft gave Occafioh for 
all thofe confequent wonderful Difpenfations of 
divine Mercy and Grace towards Mankind, which 
are the great Subjed of the Scriptures, both of 
the old and new Teftament ; And that thefe 
Things are not obfcurely and doubtfully pointed 
forth, but delivered in a plain Account of Things, 
which eafily and naturally exhibits them to our 

And by what follows in this Diftourfe, we may 
have, in fome Meafure, Opportunity to fee how 
other Things in the holy Scripture agree with what^^ 
has been now obferved from the three firft Chap- 
ters of Genefis. 

^_ • « ^-« ^'aa ^ *.^ « - 


.- '» 

( 226 ) 



CHAP. 11. 

Obfervations on other Parts of the holy Scriptuns^ 
chiefly in the Old Teftamcnt, that prove the Doc^ 
trine of Original Sin. 

ORIGINAL Depravity may well be argued, 
from Wickednefs being often fpoken of ii^ 
Scripture, as a Thing belonging to the Race €f 
Mankinds and as if it' were a Property of the 
Species. So in Pftil. xiv, 2, 3. "The Lord locked 
down from Heaven upon the CHILDREN OF 
MENy to fee if there were any that did underfland^ 
and feek Gcd. They are all gone afide \ they 4ire 
altogether become filthy: There is nom that doetb 
Good', noj not one. The like we have agdin, 
Pfal. liii. 2, 3. — Dr. T. fays, p. 104, 105. " Tho 
*' holy Spirit does not mean this of every Indi- 
*^ viduaU becaufe in the very fame Piaiin, He 
*' fpeaks of fome that were righteous, ver, 5. 
*' Gcd is in the Ge7ieration of the Righteous.''^ Buc 
how little is this Obfervation to the Purpofe ? For 
who ever fuppofed, that no unrighteous Men were 
ever changed by divine Grace, and afterwards 
made Righteous ? The Pfalmift is fpeaking of 
what Men are as they are the Children of Men^ 
born of the corrupt human Race •, and not as bora 
of God, whereby they come to be the Children (^ 
God, and of the Generation of the Righteotrnf^fCho, 
Apoftle Paul cites this Place in Rom. iii, 10, 11, 
12. to prove the univerfal Corruption of Man* 
kind ; but yet in the fame Chapter he fuppofes 
thefe fame Perfons here fpoken of as Wicked, may- 
become righteous, through the Righteoufncfe and 
Grace of God, 



Chap. IL Texfs, chiefly of the Old Teft. &c. 227 

So Wickednefs is fpoken of in other Places in 
the Book of Pfalms, as a Thing that belongs to 
Men^ as of the human Race^ as Sons of Men. 
Thus, in Pfal. iv. 2. O ye Sons of Men, how long 
will ye turn my Glory into Shame ? How long wtll 
ye love Vanity ? &c. Pfal. Ivii. 4. / lie among them 
that are fet on Fire^ even the Sons of Men, wbofe 
^eetb are Spears and Arrows^ and their Tongue a 
Jharp Sword. Pfal. Iviii. i, 2. Do ye indeed fpeak 
Righteoufnefs^ O Congregation ? Do ye judge up- 
rightly^ O ye Sons of Men ? Tea^ in Heart ye 
work JVickednefs ; ye weigh out the Violence of your 
Hands in the Earth. Our Author mentioning 
thefe Places, fays, p. 105. Note, '^ There was 
*' a ftrong Party in Ifrael difaffcfted to David* s 
** Perfon and Government, and fometimes he > 

** chufeth to denote them by the Sons or Children '^ 

** of Men/* But it would have been worth his 
while to have inquired, IVhy the Pfalmift Jhould 
chufe to denote the wickedeft and worft Men in 
■Ifrael by this Name ? Why he (hould chufe thus 
to difgrace the human Race, as if the Compella* 
tion of Sons of Men moft properly belonged to 
iuch as were of the vileft Charafter, and as if all 
the Sons of Men, even every one of them, were 
of Iuch a Character, and none of them did good ; 
no, not one ? |s it not ftrange, that the Righ- 
teous fhould not be thought worthy to be called 
Sons of Men', and ranked with that hoble Race of 
Beings; who are born into the World wholly right 
and innocent! It is a good, ealy, and natural 
Reafon, why he chufeth to call the Wicked, Sons ♦ 
of Men^ as a proper Name" for them. That by 
being of the Sons of Men, or of the corrupt 
ruined Race of Mankind, they come by theijc 
Depravity, And the Pfalmift himfelf leads us t6 
this very Reafon, Pfal. Iviii. at tile Beginning, D(h 

228 Text 5^ chiefly of the Old Teftament, Part II. 

ye judge uprightly^ O ye Sons of Men ? yea^ in 
Heart ye work Wickednefo^ ye weigh out the Violenci 
of your Hands, The Wicked are eftranged from 
the Womb, &c. Of which I Ihall fpeak more .by 
and by. 

Agreeable to thefe Places, is Prov. xxi. 8. Th^ 
Way of MAN is froward and ftrange-^ but as for 
the pure^ his Work is right. He that is perverfe 
in his Walk, is here called by the Name of Man^ 
as diftinguilhed from the pure : Which 1 think is 
ablolutely unaccountable, if all Mankind by Na^ 
ture are pure, and perfeftly innocent, and all fuch 
as ^e froward and Itrange in their Ways, therein 
depart from the native Purity of all Mankind. 
lUie Words naturally lead us to fuppofe the con- 
, trary; that Depravity and Perverfenels properly 
belong to Mankind as they are naturally, and 
that a being made pure, is by an After-work, by 
which fome are delivered from native Pollution, 
and diftinguifhed from Mankind in general : 
Which is perfectly agreeable to the Reprefenta^- 
tion in Rev. xiv. 4. where we have an Account 
of a Number that were not defiled^ but were pure, 
and followed the Lamb ; of whom it is faid, 

To thefe Things agree Jer. xvii. 5, 9. In vcr, 
5. it is faid. Cur fed is he that trufteth in MAN. 
And in ver. 9. this Reafon is given. The Heart 
is deceitful above all Things^ and defperately wicked ; 
who can know it ? What Heart is tliis fo wicked 
and deceitful ? Why, evidently the Heart of bim^ 
who, it was faid before j we muft not truft\ and 
that is MAN. It alters not the Cafe as to the 
prefent Argument, whether the^ Deceitfulnefs of 


Chap. tl. proving Original Corruption. 


the Heart here fpoken of, be its Deceitfulnefs to 
the Man himfelf, or to others. So Eccl. ix. 3. 
Madnefs is in the Heart of the SONS OF MEN, 
while they live. And thofe Words of Chrift to 
Peter^ Matth. xvi. 23. Get thee behind me, Satan 
* — For thou favoureji not the Things that be of 
God, but the Things that be of MEN. Signifying 
plainly, that to be carnal and vain, and oppofite 
to what is fpiritual and divine, is what properly 
belongs to Men in their prefent State. The fanne 
Thing is fuppofed in that of the Apoftle, i Cor. 
iii. 3. For ye are yet carnal. For whereas there is 
among you Envying and Strife, ate ye not carnal^ 
and walk as MEN ? And that in Hof. vi. 7. 
But they like MEN, have tranfgreffed the Coveimnt. 
To thefe Places may be added Matth. vii. 11! If 
ye being Evil, know how to give good Gifts. — - 
Jam. iv. 5. Do ye think that the Scripture faith in 
'vain, The Spirit that dwelleth in us, lufteth to 
Envy ? — I Pet. iv. 2. That he no longer fhould live 
ibe reft of his Time in the Lufts of MEN, but to 
the Will of God. — Yet above allj that in Job xv. 
1 6. How much more abominable and filthy is MAN, 
Of which mdre prefently. 

Now what Account can be given of thefe 
Things, on Dr. 7*— r's Scheme ? How ftrange is it, 
that we Ihould have fuch Defcriptions, all over 
the Bible, of MAN, and the SONS OF MEN ! 
Why.ftiould Man be fo continually fpoken of as 
evil, carnal, perverfe, deceitful, and defperately 
Wicked, if all Men are by Nature as perfeftly 
inncjcent, and free from any Propenfity to Evil, 
as Adam was the firft Moment of his Creation, all 
made right, as our Author would have us under- 
ftand, EccL vii. 29 ? Why, on the contrary, is it 

Q 3 ^^ 

i^o Itexis, chiefly of the old Tcftamcrit, Part 

not faid, at leaft as often, and with equal Reaibn, 
that The Heart of Man is right and purei, that 
The Way of Man is innocent and holy -, and that & 
wbo favours true Virtue and JVifdom^ favours the 
Things that be of Men ? Yea, and why might, it 
not as well have been faid. The Lord lookid dimm 
from Heaven on the Sons cf Men, to fee if there 
were any that did underftand, and did feek offer 
God ; and they were all right, altogether pure^ 
there was none inclined to do WickeSiefs, no^ not 

Of the like Import with the Texts mentioned 
are thofe which reprefent Wickednefs as what pro- 
perly belongs to the WORLD ; and that they 
who are otherwifc, are faved from the fForld^ and 
called out of it. As John vii. 7, The WORLD 
cannot hate you ; but me it hateth ; becaufe I tejiify 
of it, that the Works thereof are evil. Chap, viih 
23- r^ are of this WORLD: I am not of this 
WORLD. Chap. xiv. 17. The Spirit of Trutby 
whom the WORLD cannot receive ; becaufe it feetb 
him not, neither knoweth him: But ye know bxm^ 
Chap. XV. 18, 19. If the WORLD hate yoUy ye 
know that it hated me before it hated you. If yt 
were of the WORLD, the WORLD would love its 
own : But becaufe ye are not of the WORLD, but 
I have chofen you out of the WORLDy therefore 
the WORLD hateth you. Rev. xiv. 3, 4. Tbefe 
are they which were redeemed from the EARTHy 
— redeemed from among Men. John xvii. 9. I pray 
710 1 for the WORLD, but for them which thou baft 
given me. ver. 14. / have given them thy JfTordi 
and the WORLD hath hated them, becaufe they, dref 
not of the WORLD, even as I am not of the 
WORLD. I John iii. 13, Marvel not, my Bre- 
thren^ if the WORLD hate you. Chap, iv. 5. Tbey 


Chap; li. prying Original Cottuptiofi. ^^t 

are of the WORLto^ therefore fpeak they of th^ 
fTORLD, and the WORLD heareth them. Chap. 
y. 19. ff^e are of God^ and the whole fVORLD 
i^fh in fVickednefs. It is*evident, tha,t in thefe 
Places, by the World is me^t the World of 
Mankind ; not the Habitation, but the Inha;bi- 
tants : For, it is the World fpoken of as loving^ 
hating^ doing evil JVorks^ Jpeaking, hearing, &c. 

It fhews the fame Thing, that Wickcdnefs is 
often fpoken of as being Man's OWN, iri Con^ 
tfadiftiiiftion froni Virtue and Holinefs. So Men's 
Lufts are often called their OWN Heart's Lufts, 
arid their pradtifing Wickednefs is called walking 
in their OWN Ways-, walking in their OWN Coun- 
fels, in the Imagination of their OWN Heart, 
and in the Sight of their OWN Eyes, according 
to their OWN Devices, &c. Thefe Things de- 
mote Wickednefs to be a Quality belonging pro- 
perly to the Charafter and Nature of Mankind in 
their prefent State : As, when Chrift would repre- 
fent that Lying is remarkably the Gharafter and 
the very Nature of the Dfevil in his prefent State, 
he exprefles it thus, Joh. viii. 44. IVhen he fpeak^ 
eth a Lye, he fpeaketh of his OWN : For he is a 
Liar, and the Father of it. 

And that Wickednefs belongs to the Nature 0^ 
Mankind in their prefent State, may be argued 
from thofe Places which fpeak of Mankind as 
being wicked in their Childhood, or from their 
Childhood. So, that in Prov. xxii. 1 5. Foolifhnefs 
is bound in the Heart of a Child ; but the Rod of 
Corrediion Jhall drive it far from him. Nothing is 
more manifeft, than that the wife Man in this 
Book continually ufes the Word Folly, or Foolifh- 
nefs, for Wickednefs: And that this is what he 

Qjj. means 

a 3 a That noted TVx/, Gen. vUi- ii. .[ Pari: If ^ 

means in this Place, the Words thpmfelve^ da 
fliew : For the Rod of Corredtion is proper to 
drive away no other Foolifhnefs, but that which 
is of a moral Nature. The Word rendered Bounds 
fignifies, as is obferved in Pool's Synopfisy a clofe 
and .firm Union. The faifie Word is ufed in 
Chap. vi. 21. Bind them continually upon thine 
Heart. And Chap. vii. 3. Bind them upon thy 
Fingers^ write them upon the Table of thifie Heart, 
To the like Purpofe is Chap. iii. 3. and Deut- xi. 
18. where this Word is ufed. The fame Verb is 
ufed, I Sam. xviii. i. The Soul of Jonathan was 
knit (or bound) to the Soul of David, and Jona^ 
than loved him as his own Soul. — But how comes 
Wickednefs to be fo firmly bound, and ftrongly 
fixed, in the Hearts of Children, if it be not 
there naturally ? They having had no Time firmly 
to fix Habits of Sin, by long Cuftom in actual 
Wickednefs, as thofe that have lived many Years 
in the World. 

The fame Thing is fignified in that noted Place, 
Gen. viii. 21. For the Imagination of Man's Heart 
is evil, FROM HIS TOUTH.-^lt alters not the 
Cafe, whether it be tranflated For, or Though the 
Imagination of Man's Heart is evil from his. 
Youth, as Dr. T. would have it ; ftill the Words 
fuppofe it to be fo as is faid. The Word tranflated 
Touth, fignifies the whole of- the former Part of 
the Age of Man, which commences from the 
Beginning of Life. The Word in its Derivation, 
has Reference to the Birth or Beginning of Exi- 
ftence. It comes from Nagnar, which fignifies to 
Ihake off, as a Tree fhakes off its ripe Fruit, or 
a Plant its Seed : — the Birth of Children being 
commonly reprefented by a Tree's yielding Fruit, 
or a Plant's yielding Seed. So that the Word 


Chap. IL 4 Pfqof of Original SiH^ 233 

here tranflated Tcuthy comprehends not only what 
we in Englijh moft conunonly call the Time of 
Youth, but alfo Childhood and Infancy, and is 
very often ufed to fignify thefe latter. A Word 
of the fame Root is ufed to fignify a young Child^ 
or a little Child^ in the following Places j i S^m. i. 
24, 25, 27. I Kings iii. 7. and xi, 17. 2 Kings ii. 
23. Job xxxiii. 25. Prov. xxii, 6. xxiii, 13. and 
xxix. 21. Ifai. X. 19^ xi. 6. and Ixv. 20. Hof. xi. 
I . The fame Word is ufed to fignify an Infant j 
in Exod. ii. 6, and x. 9. Judg. xiii. 5, 7, 8, 24. 
I Sam. i. 22. and iv. 21. 2 Kings v. 14. Ifai. vii. 
1 6. and viii. 4. 

Dr. T. fays, p. 124. Note, that he " conceives, 
" From the Toutby is a Phrafe fignifying the Great- 
" nefs or long Duration of a Thing." But if by 
long Duration he means any Thing elfe than what 
is literally exprefled, viz. from the Beginning of 
Life, he has no Reafon to conceive fo ; neither has 
what he offers, fo much as the Shadow of a Rea- 
fon for his Conception. There is no Appearance 
in the Words of the two or three Texts^he men- 
tions, of their meaning any Thing ejfe than what 
is mofl literally fignified. — And it is certain, that 
what he fuggefts is not the ordinary Import of 
fuch a Phrafe among the Hebrews : But that 
thereby is meant from the Beginning, or early 
Time of Life, or Exiftence ; as ' may be feeh in 
the Places following, where the fame Word in 
the Hebrew is ufed, as in this Place in the eighth 
of Genejis. i Sam.yii, 2. I am ol4y and grey-headed 
— and I have walked before you from my Childhood 
unto this Day : where the original Word is the 
fame. Pfal. Ixxi. 5, 6. Thou art my Tnijl from my 
Youth: By thee, have I been holden up from the 
Womb. Thou art he that took me out of my Mother^ s 


ft 34- Proof frofH'Pfdl. Will ^: FartS^ 

Bowels, vcr. 17, 18. O God, thou halt taught m 
from my Youth y and hitherto have I declared thy 
ivondrous Works: Now alfo, when I am old Md 
gref --headed^ forfake me not. Pfal. cxxix. 1,2. Mifftf 
a ^ime have they affliSted me from my Youth, may 
Ifrael now fay : Mairf a Time have they affiiSted me 
from my Youth % yet have they not prevailed againfi 
me. Ifai. xlvii. 12. Stand now with the Multitude 
of thy Sorceries, wherein thou haft laboured fKMn 
thy Youth. Sover. 15. and 2 Sam. xix. 7. That 
will be worfe unto thee^ than all the Evil that befet 
thee j&x>m thy Youth until now* Jer. iii. 24, ^^* 
Shame hath devoured the Labour of our Fath&s^ 
from our Youth. — We have finned againft the Lord 
our God from our Youth, even to this Day. So 
GcRi 3tlvi. 34. Job xxxi. 18. Jef. xxxii. 30^ and 
xlviii* II. Ezek. iv. 14. Zech. xiii. 5. 

And it is to be obfetved, that according to the 
Manner of the Hebrew Language, when it is faid, 
fuch a Thing has been from Touthy or the firft 
Part of Exiftence, the Phrafe is to be underftodd 
as including that firft Time of Exiftence. So, 
Jofli. vi* 21- They utterly deftroyed all^ from the 
Toung to the Oldy (fo it is in the Hebrew) i. c. 
including both^ So Gen. xix. 4. and Efther 
iii. 1^. 

And as Mankind are reprefented in Scripture, 
as being of a wicked Heart from their Touth^ fo 
in other Places they are fpoken of as being thus 
from the Womb. Pfd. Iviii. 3. The Wicked are 
iftranged from the Womb : They go a/fray as foon 
as they be born^ fpeaking Lies. It is obfervable, 
that the Pfalmift mentions this as what belongs to 
the Wicked, as die SONS OF MEN : For, thefe 
are the preceding Words; *' Do ye judge uprightly, 

« O ye 

Chap« II. Proof frtnn Pfali Iviii* 3, 235 


O ye Sons of Men i-^Tea^ in Hiart ye work 
JVkkednefs'* ( A Phrafe of the like Import 
with that in Gen. viii^ 21. The Imaginationy or 
Operation, as it might haye been rendered, of his 
Heart is eviL) TTien it follows. The Wicked are 
eftranged from the Womb, &c. The next Verfc 
is, ^heir Poifon is like the Pbifon of a Serpents 
It is fo remarkably, as the very Nature of a Ser- 
pent is Poiibn : Serpents are poifonous as fbon as 
they come into the World: They derive a poi- 
fonous Nature by their Generation.-— Dr. 7, p. 
134, 135. fays, ^' It is evident that this - is a 
*' feriptural figurative Way of aggravatii^ Wick- 
*' ednefs on the one Hand, and of fignifying 
early and fettled Habits of Virtue on the other, 
to fpeak of it as being from the Womh!* And 
as a probable Inftance of the latter, he cites that 
in Ifai. xlix. i . The Lord hath caUed me from the 
Womb ; from the Bowels of my Mother he made 
Mention of my Name, But 1 apprehend, that in 
Order to feeing this to be either evident or proib^ 
hle^ 2L Man muft have Eyes peculiarly afFe£be(L 
I humbly conceive that fuch Phrafes as that in the 
49th of Ifaiahi^ of God's calKng the Prophet //-^jW 
the Womb^ are evidently no/t of the import vrfiich 
he fuppoies ; but mean truly from the Beginnifflg 
of Exiftence, and are manifeftly of like Significa^- 
tion with that which is faid of the- Prophet Jerer 
miah, Jer. i. 5. Before I formed thee in' the Belly^ 
I knew thee : Before thou tameft, out of- the Wornk^ 
I fanHified theey and ordained thee a Prdphet unto 
the Nations. Which furely nieans fomething elfe 
befides a ihigh Degree of Virtue : It plainly figni- 
fies that he^was, from his-firft Exiftcncev fet apart 
by God for a Pk-ophet. And it ^ould be as un- 
reafonable to underftand it otherwife, as to fuppofe 
the Angd meant any other than that Samfon was 


2^6 Proof from job x v. 14, \6. Patt It* 

fet apart to be a Nazaritc from the Beginning of 
his Lite, when he fays to his Mother, Bebdldj 
thou JhaU conceive and bear a Son : And now dnnk 
no JVine^ norfirong drink j 6fr. For the Child fiaU 
he a Nazarite to God, from the Womb, to the 
Day of his Death. By thefe Inftances it is pl^n^ 
that the Phrafe, From ^ the tVomb, as the other. 
From the Touth, as ufed in Scripture, properly^ 
fignifics from the Beginning of Life. 

Very remarkable is that Place, Job xv. 14, ig^ 
1 6. ff^at is Man^ that he Jhould be clean ? And be 
that is born of a Woman, that he Jhould be rigb- 
teous ? Beholdy he putteth no Truft in his Saints ; 
yea^ the Heavens are not clean in his Sight : How 
much more abominable and filthy is Man^ which 
drinketh Iniquity like fVater? And no lefs remark-^ 
able is our Author's Method of managing of it. 
The 1 6th Verfe exprefles an exceeding Degree of 
Wickednefs, in as plain and emphatical Terms, 
almoft, as can be invented ; every Word repre- 
fenting this in the ftrongeft Manner : How much 
more abominable and filthy is Man^ that drinketh 
Iniquity like Water ? I cannot now recoUeft, where 
we have a Sentence equal to it in the whole Bible, 
for an emphatical, lively, and ftrong Reprefenta- 
tion of great Wickednefs of Heart. Any one of 
the Words, as fuch Words are ufed in Scripture^ 
would reprefent great Wickednefs : If it had been 
only faid, How much more abominable is Man ? Or, 
How much more filthy is Man ? Or, Man that drinketh 
Iniquity. — But all thefe are accumulated with the 
Addition of — like Water^ — the further to reprefent 
the Boldnefs or Greedinefe of Men in Wickednefs ! 
Though Iniquity be the moft deadly Poifon, yet 
Men drink it as boldly as they drink Water, are 
as familiar with it as with their common Drink, 


Chap. II. Proof frm Job xv. 14, 1 6. 237 

and drink it with like Grcedinefs, as he that is 
thirfty drinks Water. That Boldnefe and Eager- 
nefs in perfecuting the Saints, by which the great 
Degree of the Depravity of Man's. Heart oftea 
appears, is reprefented thus, Pfal. xiv. 4. Have 
the IVorkers of Iniquity no Knowledge^ who eat up 
my People^ as they eat Bread ? And the greateft 
Eagernefs of Thirlt is reprefented by thirfting as 
an Animal thirfts after Water, Pfal. yXiu i. 

Now let us fee the foft, eafy, light Manner, in 
which Dr. T. treats this Place, p. 143. ^^ .How 
" much more abominable and filthy is Man, IN 
" who drinketh Iniquity like Water ? who is 
" attended with fo many fenfual Appetites, and 
*^ fo apt to indulge them. You fee the Argument, 
Man in his prefent weak and flefhly State, can- 
not be clean befofe God. Why fo ? Becaufe he 
*' is conceivied and born in Sin, by Reafon of 
" Jdam*s Sin ? No fuch Thing. But becaufe, if 
^' the pureft Creatures are not pure, in Comparifon 
*' of Gody much lefs a Being fubjeft to fo many 
" INFIRMITIES, as a MORTAL Man. Which 
" is a Demonftration to Me, not only, that Job 
" and his Friends did not intend to eftablifli the 
^' Dodrine we are now examining, but that they 
♦' were wholly Strangers to it." Thus this Author 
endeavours to reconcile this Text with his Doc- 
trine of the perfed native Innocence of Mankind : 
In which we have a notable Specimen of his 
Demonftrations\f as well as of that great Impartiality 
and Fairnefs in examining and expounding the 
Scripture, which he makes fo often a Profef- 
fion of. • ' 



a^S Proof from Job wr^ 14, i6. Part B. 

In this Place we are not only told, how wicked 
Man's Heart is, but aUb how Men come by fuch 
Wkkedneis ; even hy being of the Race of Nfan* 
kind, by ordinary Generation : itn:>at is Man^ thai 
bejbould be. clean ? and be that is bom of a WomaHy 
that be fbouU be rigbteotts? Our Author p. 141, 
142. reprefents Man's being born of a Woman, 
as a PeripbrafiSj to fignify Man ; and that there is 
no Defign in the Words to give a Reafon, why 
Man is not clean and righteous. But the Cafe is 
mofl: evidently otherwife, if we may interpret the 
Book of Job by itfelf : It is moft plain, that Man's 
being bom of a tVoman is given as a Reafon of his 
not being clean ; Chap. xiv. 4. Who can bring a 
clean Thing out of 4in unclean? Job is fpeaking 
there exprcfly of Man's being born of a Woman^ 
ds appears in ver. i. And l^re how i^dkn iis it,, 
that this is given as a Reafon of Man^ not being 
clean ? Concerning this Dr. T. fays, ^bat ibis has 
no refpeS to any moral Uncleatmefs^ but only common 
Frailty^ &c. But how evidently is this alfo other- 
wife ? when that Uncleannefs, which a Man has 
by being bom of a Woman, is exprefly e)cplained 
of Unrigbteoufnefs^ in the next Chapter at the 14th 
Verfc. fH?at is Man^ that he fhould be clean ? and 
he that is born of a Wrnnan^ that be fhould be 
RIGHTEOUS ? And alfo in Chap. xxv. 4. How 
then can Man bejuftified with God ? And how can 
he be clean that is born of a Woman? It is a 
moral Cleannefs Bildad is fpeaking of, which a 
Man needs in order to being juftifed. — His Defign 
is, to convince Job of his moral Impurity, and 
from thence of God's Righteoufnefs in his fevere 
Judgments upon himj and not of his natural 


Chap-H. Proof Jrm Pfel. li. 5, 23^ 

And without Doubt, David hafi relf>e6k to tlu» 
fame Way of Derivation of Wickcdnefe of Hearty: 
lyhea he lays, Plal. li. 5. Behold^ I was Jhflfen in 
Iniquity^ and in Sin dU n^ Mother conceive we. 
It alters not the Cafe as tjo the Argument we arc 
upon, whether the Word tranflated conceive^ fig- 
nifies conceive, or nurfe ^ which latter, our Author; 
takes fo much Pains tp prove : For when he ha» 
done all, he fpeaks of it as a jufl: Tranflation <rf 
the Words to render them thus, / was BORN in 
Iniquity^ and in Sin did my Mother nurfe me. p. 
135. If it is owned that Man ishorn in Sin, it is 
not worth the while to difpute, whether it isi 
exprefly afferted, that he is conceived in Sin. Buc 
Dr. "T, after his Manner infifts, that fuch Exprcf- 
fions, as being hrn in Sin, being Tranfgreffors 
from the Won^^^ and the like, are only Phrafea 
figuratively to denote Aggravation, and high De- 
gree of Wickedwls. But the contrary has been 
already demonftrated, from many plain Scripture- 
Inftances. — Nor is one Inftance produced, ia 
which there is any Evidence that fuch a Phrafe is 
ufed in fuch a Manner. A poetical Sentence out 
of Firgil's JSneids^ has here been produced, and 
made much of by fome, as parallel with this, in 
what Dido fays to Mneas^, in thefe Lines : 

Nee tibi Diva Parens, Generis nee Dardanus Auftor, 
Perfide : Sed duris genuit te Cautibus horrens 
Caucafus, Hyrcanaecjue admorunt Ubera Tygres. 

In which fhe tells Mneas, that not a Goddefs was 
his Mother, nor Anchifes his Father ; but that he 
had been brought forth by a horrid rocky Moun- 
tain, and nurfed at the Dugs of Tygers, to repre- 
fent the Greatnefs of his Cruelty to her. But how 
unlike and unparallel is this ? Nothing could be 
more natural, than for a Woman overpowered 


140 Noted Lines in Vii^il,^ Parallel. Part II. 

with the Paflion of Love, and diftra6ted with 
raging Jealoufy and Difappointment, thinking her- 
feli treated with brutifh Perfidy and Cradty, by a 
Lover whofe higheft Fame had been his being 
the Son of a Goddefs, to aggravate his Inhuma-^ 
nity and Hard-hearted nefs with this. That his 
Behaviour was not worthy the Son of a Goddefs, 
nor becoming one whofe Father was an illuilrious 
Prince : And that he a6led more as if he had been 
brought forth by hard unrelenting Rocks, and 
had fucked the DugS of Tygers. But what is 
there in the Cafe of David, parallel, or at all in 
like Manner leading him to fpeak of himfelf as 
bom in Sin, in any fuch Senfe ? He is not fpeak- 
ing himfelf, nor any one elfe fpeaking to him, of 
any excellent and divine Father and Mother, that 
he was born of: Nor is there any Appearance oF 
his aggravating his Sin, by its being unworthy of 
his high Birth. There is nothing elfe vifible in 
David's Cafe, to lead him to take Notice of his 
being iorn in Sin, but only his having fuch Expe- 
rience of the Continuance and Power of indwel- 
ling Sin, after fo long a Time, and fo many and 
great Means to engage him to Holinefs ; which 
ftie\sred that Sin was inbred, and in hds very- 

Dr. 7*. often objefts to thefe and other Texts, 
brought by Divines to prove original Sin, that 
there is no Mention made in them of Adam, nor 
of his Sin. He cries out. Here is not the leaft 
Meniion, or Intimation of Adam, or any ill Effehs 
of his Sin upon us.- — Here is not one Word, nor the 
leaft Hint of Adam, or any Confequences of his Sin^ 
&c. &c: * He fays f, ^' If Job and his Friends 

" had 

• Page 5, 64, 96, 97, 98, 102, 108, 112, 118, 120, 122, 
127, 128, 136, 142. 143, 149, 152, 155, 229. t i4=- 

Chap. II. Adam not n^ntioned^ no Objeftion. 24 1 

** had known and believed the Doftrine of a 
" corrupt Nature, derived from Adam^s Sin only, 
" they ought in Rcafon and Truth to have given 
" this as the true and only Reafon of the human 
** Imperfeftion and Uncicannefs they mention/* 
But thefe Objeftions and Exclamations are made 
no lefs impertinently, than thtry are frequently. 
It is no more a Proof, that CoiTuption of Nature 
did not come by Jdam^s Sm, becaufe many Times 
when it is mentioned, AdnCs Sin is not exprefly 
mentioned as the Caufe of it, than that Death 
did not come by AdanC% Sin, (as Dr. 2". fays it 
did) becaufe though Death, as incident to Man- 
kind, is mentioned fo often in the Old Telta- 
ment, and by our Saviour in his Difcourfes, yet 
Adamh Sin is not once exprefly mentioned, after 
the three firft Chapters of Genejis^ any where in 
all the Old Teftament, or the four Evangelifts, as 
the Occafion of it. 

What Chriflian has there ever, been, that be- 
lieved the moral Corruption of the Nature of 
Mankind, who ever doubted that it came that 
Way, which the Apoftle fpeaks of, when he fays, 
*' By one Man Sin entered into the World, and 
*' Death by Sin ?*' Nor indeed have they any 
more Reafon to doubt of it, than to doubt of 
the whole Hiftory of our firft Parents, becaufe 
Adamh Name is fo rarely mentioned, on any 
Occafion in Scripture, after that firft Account of 
him, and Eve's never at all ; and becaufe we 
have no more any exprcfs Mention of tlie par- 
ticular Manner, in which Mankind were firft 
brought into Being, either with refpeft to the 
Creation of Adam or Eve. It is fufficient, that 
the abiding, moft vifible Effects of theft; Thin-rs, 
remain in the View of Mankind in all -Alcs, and 

R arc 

242 One plain Revelatiop fufficient. Part II. •' 

are often fpoken of in Scripture •, and that the par- 
ticular Manner of their being introduced, is once 
plaiiiiy fet forth in the Beginning of the Bible, 
i») tiiat Hiftory which gives us an Account of 
tht Origin of all Things. And doubtlefs it was 
expecU d, by the great Author of the Bible, that 
the Account in the three firft Chapters of Gencfis 
ihoulcl i'^ taken as a plain Account of the In- 
troJuction cf both natural and moral Evil into * 
the World, as ic has been fhewn to be fo in- 
deed. The Hiilory of Jdam's Sin, with its Cir- 
cumftances, God's Threatening, and the Sentence 
pronounced upon him after his Tranfgreflion, 
and the imniediate Confequences, confilting in 
fo vail an Alteraricn in his State, and the State 
of the World, which abides ftlU, with refpe<5t to 
all his Pofterity, do mod diredtly and fuffi- 
ciently lead to an Underftanding of the Rife of 
Calamity, Sin and Death, in this finful miferablp 

It is fit we all fhould know, that it does not 
beconric us to tell the Moll High, how often 
he fhall particularly explain and give the Reafon 
of any Do6trine which he teaches, in order to 
our believing what he fays. If he has at all 
given us Evidence that it is a Doftrine agree- 
ible to his Mind, it becomes us to receive it 
with full Credit and Submifllon ; and not fuUenly 
to rq'..*6l it, becaufe our Notions and Humours 
are not fuited in the Manner, and Number of 
Times, of his particularly explaining it to us. 
How often is Pardon of Sins promiied in the 
Old Tcflament to repenting and returning Sin- 
ners ? How many hundred Times is God*s fpecial 
Favour there promifed to the fincerely Righ- 
teous, without any cxprefs Meiuicn of thefe 


4V > . 

Chap. II. One plain RevelattM fufEcient, 243 

Benefits being through Chrift ? Would it there- 
fore be becoming us to fay, that, inafmuch as 
our Dependence on Chrift for theft Benefits, is ' 
a Doftrine, which, if true, is of fuch Import*, 
ance, God ought exprefly to have mentioned 
Chrift's Merits as the Reafon and Ground of the 
Benefits, if he knew they were the Ground of 
, them, and fliould have plainly declared it fooner, 
and more frequently, if ever he expefted we 
fhould believe him, when he did tell us of it ? 
— How often is Vengeance and Mifery threatened 
in the Old Teftament to the Wicked, without 
any clear and exprefs Signification of any fuch 
Thing intended, as that everlafting Fire, where 
there is Wailing and Gnafhing of Teeth, in ano- 
ther World, which Chrift fo often fpeaks of as 
the Punifliment appointed for all the Wicked ? 
Would it now become a Chriftian, to objeft and 
fay, that if God really meant any fvich Thing, 
he ought in Reafon and Truth to have declared 
it plainly and fully ; and not to have been fo 
jQlent about a Matter of fuch vaft Importance 
to all Mankind, for four Thoufand Years to- 

Jl 2 CHAP. 

•»■> .^j 

. ■» '. 




244 Proofs chiefly from the New Teft°*. Part !!• 


Obfervations on various other Places of Scrip-' 
ture^ principally of the New Teftament, 
proroing the DoSlrine of Original Sin. 

S E C T. I. 

Obfervations on John iii. 6. in ConneSlion with fome 
other Faffages in the New Teftament, 

THOSE Words of Chrift, giving a Reafon to 
NicodemiiSy why we mult be born again, 
John iii. 6. That which is born of the Flefh^ is 
Flefh ; and that which is born of the Spirit ^ is 
Spirit ; have not without good Reafon been pio- 
duced by Divines, as a Proof of the Doftrine of 
Original Sin : fuppofing, that by Fle/h here is 
meant the human Nature in a debafed and corrupt 
State. Yet Dr. 71 p. 144. thus explains thefe 
Words, That which is born of the Flejh^ is Flefh ; 
That which is born by natural Defcent and 
Propagation, is a Man confifling of Body and 
'• Soul, or the mere Conftitution and Powers of 
^' a Man in their natural State." But the con- 
ftant Ufe of thcfe Terms, Flefh^ and Spirit^ in 
other Parts of the New Teftament, when thus^fet 
in Oppofition one to another, and the latter faid 
to be produced by the Spirit of God, as here, 
and when fpeaking of the fame Thing, which 
Chrift is here fpeaking of to Nicodemus^ viz. tho 
requifitc Qualifications to Salvation, will fully vin- 
dicate the Scnfe of our Divines. Thus in the 
7th and 8th Chapters of Romans^ where thefe 
Terms Flefh^ and Spirit^ (tra^^ and t^vivyLtt) are 
abundantly repeated, and fet in Oppofition, as 



Chap. 111. 7 Proof from John jiL 6. 1245 

Se6t. I. J 

here. So, Chap. vii. 14. The Law is fpiritual, 
{7fi¥ivyLdLTi^®-) but I am carnal, (crrtpxix^) fold under 
Sin. He cannot only mean, ' I am /? Man^ con^ 

* Jifting of Body and Soul, and having the Powers 
*' of a Man,^ Ver. 18. / know that in me, that 
is, in my Flefh, dwelletb no good Thing. He does 
not mean to condemn his Frame, as conjifting of 
Body and Soul-, and to aflert, that in his human 
Conjiitution, with the Powers of a Man, dwells no 
good Thing. And when he fays in the laft Verfe 
of the Chapter, IVith the Mind, I myfelf ferve the 
Law of God, but with the Flefh, the Law of Sin -, 
He can^1&l>^mean, * I myfelf ferve the Law of God\ 

* but with my innocent human Conftitution, ai$ 

* having the Powers of a Man, 1 ferve the Law 

* of Sin.' And when he fays in the next Words 
in the Beginning of the 8th Chapter, There is 
no Condemnation to them, — that walk not after the 
Flefh, but after the Spirit ; and ver. 4. The Rigb- 
ieoufnefs of the Law is fulfilled in us, who walk 
not after the Flejb ; He cannot mean, ' There is 

* no Condemnation to them that walk not ac- 

* cording to the Powers of a Man, &c.* And when 
he fays, ver. 5 anJ 6. They that are after the 
Flefh, do mind the Things of the Flefh ; and to be 
carnally minded is Death-, He does not intend, 

* They that are according to the human Confiitu- 
' tion, and the Powers of a Man, do mind the 
' Things of the human Conftitution ami Powers -, 

* and to mind thefe, is Death.' And when he 
fays, ver. 7 and 8. The carnal (or fleihly) Mind 
is Enniity againft God^ and is not fubje^t to the Law 
of God, neither indeed can be -, fo that they that are in 
the Flefh, cannot pleafe God-, He cannot mean, 
that ' to mind the Thino;s which are agreeable to 
' the Powers and Conftitution ^f a Man^ (who, as 
our Author fays, is conilituteu 0P made right) ' is 

R 3 ' '; ' Enmity 

246 Proof frm John iii. 6. Part II. 

* Enmity againft God ; and that a Mind which 

* is agreeable to this right human Conftitution, as 

* God hath made it, is not fubjedb to the Law of 

* Goid, nor indeed can be ; and that they who 

* are according to fuch a Conftitution, cannot 
^ pleafe God.* And when it is faid, ver. 9. Te 
are mi in the Flelh, but in the Spirit ; the Apoftle 
cannot mean, ' Ye are not in the human Nature^ 

* as conjiituted of Body and Soul, and with the 

* Powers of a Man.* It is moft manifeft, that by 
the 77^, here the Apoftle means fome Nature 
that is corrupt, and of an evil Tendency, and 
dire6tly oppofite to the Law, and holy Nature of 
'God ; fo that to be, and walk according to it, and 
to have a Mind conformed to it, is to be an utter 
Enemy to God and his Law, in a perfeft Incon- 
fiftcnce with being fubjeft to God, and pleafing 
God-, and in a fure and infallible Tendency to 
Death, and utter Deftruftion. J^nd it is plain, 
that here by being and walking a/ter^ or according 
to the Fleflf, is meant the fame Thing as being 
and walking according to a corrupt and finful 
Nature •, and to be and walk according to the 
Spirity is to be and walk according to a holy and 
divine Nature, or Principle : And to be carnally 
minded, is the fame as being vicioufly and cor- 
ruptly minded -, and to be fpiritually minded, is to 
be of a virtuous and holy Difpofition. 

When Chrift fays, John iii. 6. ^hat which is 
horn of the Flefh, is Flefh, he reprefents the Flefl) 
not merely as a Quality ; for it would be incon- 
gruous, to fpeak of a Quality as a Thing born : 
It is a Perfon, or Man, that is born. Therefore 
Man, as in his whole Nature corrupt, is called 
Flejh : Which is agreeable to other Scripture-Re- 
prefentations, where the corrupt Nature is called 
the Old Many the Body of Siny and the Body of 



^ap. IIt.7 in Connexion with other ^exts. 247 

Sea. I. i ^^ 

Death. Agreeable to this are thofe Reprefenta- 
tions in the 7th and Sth Chapters of Romans: 
There Flejh is figuratively reprefcnted as a Perfon, 
according to the Apoftle's Manner, obferved by 
Mr. Locke^ and after him by Dr. T — r, who takes 
Notice, that the Apoftle, in the 6th and 7th of 
Romans^ reprefents Sin as a Perfon; and that 
he figuratively diftinguifties in himfelf two Peiibns, 
fpeaking of Flefh as his Perfon. For I know that 
in ME^ that is in 7ny Flefh, dwelleth no good Thing. 
And it may be obferved, that in the Sth Chapter 
he ftill continues this Reprefentation, fpeaking of 
the Flejh as a Perfon : And accordingly in the 6th 
and 7th Verfes, fpeaks of the Mind of the FleJJj^ 
^SovufjLA (7-tffjc^, and of the Mind of the Spirit^, 
<!?§ovi)iAA ^yiVfjLet7&- ; as if the Flejh and Spirit were 
two oppofite Perfons, each having a Mind contrary 
to the Mintl of the other. Dr. T. in'terprets this 
Mind of the Flejh, and Aiind of the Sph'-it, as tho* the 
Flejh and the Spirit were here fpoken of as the dif- 
ferent Ohjeols^ about which the Mind fpoken of is 
converfant. Which is plainly befide the Apoftle's 
Senfe ; who fpeaks of the Flefti and Spirit as the Sub- 
jedls and Agents, in which the Mind fpoken of is 5 
and not the Objefts about which- it afts. We 
have the fame Phrafe again, ver. 27. He that 
fearcheth the Hearts, knoweth what is the MIND 
OF THE SPIRIT, <t ?oi/»^ct wvgy^r (S^ ., the Mind 
of the fpiritual Nature in the Saints being the 
fame with the Mind of the Spirit of God himfelf, 
who imparts and actuates diat fpiritual Nature; 
here the Spirit is the Subje<^ and Agent, and not 
the Objeft. The fame Apoftle in like Manner 
ufes the Word, y»^, in Col, ii. 18. Vainly puffed up 
by his flefhly Mind, ttT.% t» vo^ t»k ca^y.Q- ctyrv, 
by the Mind of his Flefh. And this Agent (o often 
called Flefh J repreicnted by the y\poftle, as al- 

R 4 together 

148 Trwf from John iii. 6. ^PirtW 

together evil, without any good Thing dwelling 
in it, or belonging to it; yea pcrfeftly contrary 
to God and his Law, and tending only to Death 
and Ruin, and dircftly oppofitc to the Spirit, is 
what Chrift fpeaks of co Nicodemus as born in the 
/firit Birth, as giving a Reafon why there is a 
Ncccflity of a New-birth, in order to a better 
Trod u(^t ion. 

One Thing is particularly obfervable in that 
Dilcourlr of the Apoftle, in the 7th and 8th 
of Romans^ in which he fo often ufes the Term 
Fhp^ as ()|>poritc to Spirit^ which, as well as many 
orhir 'rhinj.;s in his Difcourfe, makes it plain, 
ilia! by I'ltiflj he means fomething in itfclf cor- 
I up! antl linful, and that is, that he exprefly calls 
it //////// I'lcjb^ Rom. viii. 3. It is manifeft, that 
\^\Jnifti/ lleflj he means the fame Thing with that 
I'lrlh fpokcn of in the immediately foregoing and. 
foll()win{i; Words, and in all the Context: And 
tliiu when it is laid, Chrift was made in the Like- 
nefs of Jinful Fle/h^ the Expreflion is equipollent 
with thofe that fpeak of Chrift as made Sin, and 
vnidc a Curfe for us. 

Fiejh and Spirit are oppofed to one another in 
Gal. V. in the fame Manner as in the 8th of 
Romans : And there, by FleJh cannot be meant 
only the human Nature of Body and Soul, or the 
mere Conftitution and Powers of a Man, as in its 
natural State, innocent and right. In the i6th 
ver. the Apoftle fays, fValk in the Spirit, and ye 
Jhall not fulfil the Lufts of the Flefh : Where the 
Flelh* is fpoken of as a Thing of an evil Inclina- 
tion, Defire, or Luft. But this is more ftrongly 
fignified in the next Words ; For the Flefh lufleth 
againft the Spirit, and the Spirit againjl the Flefh ; 


dhap. llL ) in CotmeSli&n with other texts. i±q 
Sea. I. s 

and tbefe are contrary the one to the other. What 
could have been faid more plainly, to fhew that 
what the Apoftle means by Flejh^ is fomething 
very evil in its Nature, and an irreconcileable 
Enemy to all Goodnefs ? And it may be obferved, 
that in thefe Words, and 'thofe that follow, the 
Apoftle ftill figuratively reprefents the Flejh as a 
Perfon or Agent, defiring, afting, having Lufts, 
and performing Works. And by Works of the 
Flefh^ and Fruits of the Spirit^ which are oppofed 
to each other, from ver. 19. to the End, are 
plainly meant the fame as Works of a finful Na- 
ture, and Fruits of a holy renewed Nature. Now- 
the fVorks of the Flelh are manifejiy which are 
thefe : Adultery^ Fornication^ Uncleannefs^ Lafciviouf- 
nefs^ Idolatry^ IVitchcrafty Hatred^ Variance^ Wrath^ 
Strife^ Seditions^ Herefies^ &c. — But the Fruit of 
the Spirit is Love^ Joy^ Peace^ Long-Sufferings Gen* 
tlenefs, Goodnefsy &c. The Apoftle, by Flejhy does 
not mean any Thing that is innocent and good in 
itfelf, that only needs to be reftrained, and kept 
in proper Bounds ; but fomething altogether Evil, 
which is to be deftroyed, and not merely reftrained. 
I Cor. V. 5. ^0 deliver fuch an One to Satan^ for 
the Deftruftion of the Flefh- We muft have no 
Mercy on it ; we cannot be too cruel to it •, it muft 
even be crucified. Gal. v. 24. They that are Chrijfs^ 
have crucified the Flefti, with the AffeSlions and 

The Apoftle John^ the fame Apoftle that writes 
the Account of what Chrift faid to Nicodemus^ by 
the Spirit means the fame Thing as a new, divine, 
and holy Nature, exerting itfelf in a Principle of 
divine Love, which is the Sum of all Chriftian 
Holinefs. i John iii. 23, 24. And that we fhould 
love one another^ as he gave us Comnlandment j and 


^SO Proof from John iii. 6. Part It, 

be that keepetb his Commandments^ dwelletb in bim^ 
and he in him : And hereby we know that he ahidetb 
in uSj by the Spirit that he hath given us. With 
Chap. iv. 12., 13. If we love one another^ God dweU 
leth in us^ and his Love is perfected in us : Hereby 
know wey that we dvSell in himy becaufe he batb 
given us of bis Spirit. The fpiritual Principle in 
us being as it were a Communication of the Spirit 
of God to us. 

And as by 'arytvyLn is meant a holy Nature, {o 
by the Epithet, t^vtviA^r^K^^ fpiritual^ is meant the 
fame as truly virtuous and holy. Gal. vi. !• Te 
that are fpiritual, rejiore fuch an one in the Spirit 
of Meeknefs. The Apoftle refers to what he had 
juft faid, in the End of the foregoing Chapter, 
where he had mentioned Meeknefs^ as a Fruit of 
the Spirit. And fo by carnal^ or flejhly^ ^*f jw*®', 
is meant the fame as fmful. Rom. vii. 14. 
*The Law is fpiritual, (i. e. holyj but I am carnal^ 
fold under Sin. 

And it is evident, that by Flejh^ as the Won! 
is ufed in the New Teftament, and oppofed to 
Spirity when fpeaking of the Qualifications for 
eternal Salvation, is not meant only what is now 
vulgarly called the Sins of the Flejhy cpnfifting in 
inordinate Appetites of the Body, and their Indul- 
gence ; but the whole Body of Sin implying thofe 
Lulls that are moft fubtil, and furtheft from any 
Relation to the Body -, fuch as Pride, Malice, 
Envy, &c. When the fVorks of the Flefh are 
enumerated. Gal. v. 19, 20, 21. they are Vices 
of the latter Kind chiefly, that are mentioned ; 
Idolatry y Witchcrafty HatredyVariancey Emulations ^ 
Wrathy Strifey Seditions. HereJieSy Envyings. So, 
Pride of Heart is the Effed or Operation of the 


Gkap. in.? in Connexion with other Texts. 251 
Sea. .1 V 

Flejh. Col. ii. 18. Vainly puffed up hy his fleflily 
Mind : In the Greeks hy the Mind of the Flejh. 
So, Pride^ Envying^ Strife^ and Divifion^ are fpoken 
of as Works of the Flejh^ i Cor. iii. 3, 4. For ye 
are yet carnal {(f^^^^t^^i^fieftoly.) For whereas there is 
Envying, and Strife, and Divijion, are ye not carnal, 
and walk as Men ? For while one faith, I am of 
Paul, and avMther^ I am of Apollos, are ye not 
carnal ? Such Kind of Lufts do not depend on 
the Body, or external Senfes -,. for the Devil him- 
fclf has them in the higheft Degree, who has 
not, nor ever had, any Body or external Senfes to 

Here, if it ftiould be inquired, how Corruption 
or Depravity in general, or the Nature of Man 
as corrupt and linfui, came to be called Flefh ; 
and not only that Corruption which confifts in 
inordinate bodily Appetites .? I think, what the 
Apoftle fays in the laft cited Place, Jre ye net 
carnal, and walk AS MEN ? leads us to the true 
Reafon. It is becaufe a corrupt and finful Nature 
is what properly belongs to Mankind, or the Race 
of Adam, as they are in themfelves, and as they 
are ky Nature, The Word Fleflo is often ufed in 
both Old Teftament and New, to fignify Mankind 
in their ^ prefent State. To enumerate all the 
Places, would be very tedious •, I fhall therefore 
only mention a few Places in the New Teftament. 
Matth. xxiv. 22. Except thofe Days ffjould he 
jhortened, no Flefli (bould he faved. Luke iii. 6. 
All Flefh fhall fee the Salvation of God. John xvii. 
2. Thou haft given him Power over all Flefh. See 
alfo Ad:s ii. ly. Rom. iii. 20. i Cor. i. 29. Gal. 
ii. 16. Man's Nature, being left to itfelf, forfaken 
of the Spirit of God, as it was when Man fell, 
and confequently forfaken of divine and holy Prin- 

i^l Proof from John iii. 6. Part IT^, 

ciples, of itfelf became exceeding corrupt, utterly 
depraved and ruined : And fo the Word Flejby 
which fignifies Man^ came to be ufed to fignify 
Man as he is in himfelf, in his natural State, de- 
bafed, corrupt, and ruined : And on the other 
Hand, the "Word Spirit came to be ufed to fignify 
a divine and holy Principle, or new Nature -, be- 
caufe that is not of Man^ but of Godj by the 
indwelling and vital Influence of his Spirit. And 
thus to be corrupt, and to be carnal, or flefhly^ 
and to walk as Men, are the fame Thing with the 
Apoftle. And fo in other Parts of the Scripture, 
to favour the things that be of Men, and to favour 
Things which are corrupt, are the fame •, and Sons 
of Men, and wicked Men, alfo are the fame, as was 
obferved before. And on the other Hand, to 
favour the Things that be of God, and to receiire 
the Things of the Spirit of God, are Phrafes that 
fignify as much as relifhing and embracing true 
Holinefs or divine Virtue. 

All thefe Things confirm what we have fup- 
pofcd to be Chrift's Meaning, in faying, Thaf 
which is born of the Flefh, is Flefh \ and that 
which is born of the Spirit, is Spirit, His Speech 
implies, that what is born in the firfl Birth of 
Man, is Nothing but Man as he is of himfelf, 
withput any Thing divine in him ; depraved, de- 
bafed, finful, ruined Man, utterly unfit to enter 
into the Kingdom of God, and incapable of the 
fpiritual divine Happinefs of that Kingdom : But 
that which is born in the new Birth, of the Spirit 
of God, is a fpiritual Principle, and holy and 
.divine Nature, meet for the divine and heave;nly 
Kingdom. It is a Confirmation that this is the 
true Meaning, that it is not only evidently agree- 
able to the conftant Language of the Spirit of 


Chap. m. 1 in Connexion with other ^exts. 2 ^ ? 
Seafl.. \ ^^ 

Chrift in the New Teftament; but the Words 

underftood in this Senfe, contain the proper and 

true Reafon, why a Man muft be born again, in 

order to enter into the Kingdom of God ; the 

Reafon that is given every where in other Parts of 

the Scripture for the Neceflity of a Renovation, a 

Change of Mind, a neiw Heart, &c. in order to 

Salvation :• To give a Reafon of which to Nico- 

dcmus^ is plainly Chrift's Defign in the Words 

which have been infilled on. 

Before I proceed, I would obferve one Thing 
as a Corollary from what has been faid. 

CoroL If by Flefli and Spirit, when fpoken of 
in the New Teftament, and oppofed to each other, 
in Difcourfes on the neceffary Qualifications for 
Salvation, we are to underftand what has been 
now fuppofed, it will not only follow, that Men 
by Nature are corrupt, but wholly corrupt^ with- 
out any good Thing. If by Flefli is meant Man's 
Nature, as he receives it in his firft Birth, then 
therein dwelleth no good Thing ; as appears by 
Rom. vii. 18. It is wholly oppofite to God, and 
to Subjedtion to his Law, as appears by Rom. viii. 
7, 8. It is direftly contrary to true Holinels, and 
wholly oppofcs it, and Holinefs is oppofite to that v 
as appears by Gal. v. 17. So long as Men are in 
their natural State, they not only have no good 
Thing, but it is impoflible they fhould have or do 
any good Thing; as appears by Rom. viil. 8. 
The^e is nothing in their Nature, as they have it 
by the firft Birth, whence ftiould arife any true 
Subjeftion to God; as appears by Rom. viii. 7. 
If there were any Thing truly good in the Flefi^ 
or in Man^s Nature^ or natural Difpoiition, under 
^ moral Vi?w, then it fliould only be amended ; 


25+ Proof from i Cor. ii. 14, lie. Part II.' 

but the Scripture reprefents as though we were to 
be Enemies to it, and were to fcek nothing fhort 
of its entire Deftruclion, as has been obferved. 
And eliewhere the Apoftle direfts not to the 
amending of the old Man^ but putting it off^ and 
putting on the nevj Man -, and feeks not to have 
the Body of Death made better, but to be delivered 
from it ; and fays, That if any Man be in Chrifty 
he is a new Creature (which doubtlefs means the 
fame as a Man new-born) Old Things are (not 
amended) but faffed away^ and ALL Things are 
become new. 

But this will be further evident, if we particu- 
larly confider the Apoftle's Difcourfe in the latter 
Part of the fecond Chapter of i Cor, and the 
Beginning of the third. There the Apoftle fpeaks 
of the natural Man^ and the fplriiual Man : where 
natural and fpiritual arc oppofed juft in the fame 
Manner, as I have obfcr\ ed carnal a;/d fpiritual 
often are. In Chap. ii. 14, 15. he fays. The na- 
tural Man receivetb not the Things of the Spirit of 
God: For they are Foolifhnefs unto' him ; neither can 
he know tkem^ becaufe they are jpiritually difcerned. 
But he that . is fpiritual^ judgeth all Things. And 
not only does the Apoftle here oppofe natural and 
fpiritual,, juft as he eliewhere does carnal and fpi- 
ritual,, but his following Difcourfe evidently {hews^ 
that he means the very fame Diftinftion, the fame 
two diftincl and oppofire Things. For imme- 
diately on his thus fpeaking of the Difference be-. 
tvveen the 7wtural and the fpiritual Man, he turns 
to the CcrinlhianSj in the firft Words of the next 
Chapter, connefted with this, and fays, And /, 
Brethren^ could not fpeak unto you as unto fpiritual, 
but as unto carnal. Referring manifeftly to what 
!ic had been laying, in the immediately preceding 


Chap. III. 7 Proof from i Cor. ii. 14, &fr. 255 

Sed. I. J 

Difcourfc, about fpiritual and natural Men^ and 
evidently ufmg the Word, carnal, as fynonymous 
with natural. By which it is put out of all rea- 
fonable Difpute, that the Apoftle by natural Men 
means the fame as Men in that carnal, finful 
State, that they are in by their firft Birth ; — not- 
withftanding all the Gloffes and Criticifms, by 
which modern Writers have endeavoured to palm 
upon us another Senfe of this Phrafe ; and lb to 
deprive us of the clear Inftruftion the' Apoftle 
gives in that 14th Verfe, concerning the finful 
miferable State of Man by Nature. Dr. ST. fays, 
by A'^x^^'®''i '^^ meant the animal Man, the Man 
who maketh Senfe and Appetite the Lav/ of his 
Aftion. If he aims to limit the Meaning of the 
Word to external Senfe, and bodily Appetite, his 
Meaning is certainly not the Apoftle's. For the 
Apoftle in his Senfe includes the more fpiritual 
Vices of Envy, Strife, &c. as appears by the four 
firft Verfes of the next Chapter -, where, as I have 
obferved, he fubftitutes the Word carnal in the 
Place of -4/^%/*®-. So the Apoftle Jude ufes the 
Word in like Manner, oppofing it to fpiritual, or 
having the Spirit, ver. 19. Thefe are they that fepa- 
rate themfelves, fenfual, (>I/v;^/xot) not having the 
Spirit. The Vices he had been juft fpeaking of, 
were chiefly of the more fpiritual Kind. ver. 16. 
^hefe are Murmurers, Complainers, walking after 
their own Lujis ; and their Mouth fpeaketh great 
fwelling IVordSy having Men^s Perfons in Adfrnra- 
lion, becaufe of Advantage. The Vices mentioned 
are much of the fame Kind with thofe of the 
Corinthians, for which he calls them carnal, E?rjy' 
ing. Strife, and Divijions, and faying, / am of 
Paul, and / of ApoUos •, and being puffed up for 
one againft another. We * have ^ the iame Worcl 
again, Jam, iii, 14, 15. If ^e ^ave hitter Envying ^ 



f^ ■^■> 

2^6 Proof from i Cor. ii. 14, 6?r, Part II, 

and Strife^ glory not^ and lie not againft the Truth .* 
This Wifdom defcendeth not from above^ but is 
earthly^ fenfual, (4wx'**») and devilifh ; where alfo 
the Vices the Apoftle Ipeaks of are of the more 
fpiritual Kind. 

So that on the whole, there is fufEcient Reafon 

to underftand the Apoftie, when he fpeaks of the 

natural Man in that i Cor. ii. 14. as meaning 

Man in his native corrupt State. And his Words 

reprefent him as totally corrupt, wholly a Stranger 

and Enemy to true Virtue or Holinefs, and Things 

appertaining to it, which it appears are commonly 

intended in 'the New Teftament by Things fpiri-- 

tualj and are doubtlefs here meant by Things of 

the Spirit of God. Thefe Words alfo reprefent^ 

that it is impoflible Man fhould be otherwife, 

while in his natural State. The Expreflions arc 

very ftrong : The natural Man receiveth not the 

Things of the Spirit of God^ is not fufceptible of 

Things of that Kind, neither can he know tbem^ 

can have no true Senfe or Relifh of them, or 

Notion of their real Nature and true Excellency ; 

becaufe they are fpiritually difcerned •, they are not 

difcerned by Means of any Principle in Nature, 

but altogether by a Principle that is divine, Ibme- 

thing introduced by the Grace of God's holy 

Spirit, which is above all that is natural. The 

Words are in a confiderable Degree parallel with 

thofe of our Saviour, John xiv. 16, 17. He fhall 

give you the Spirit of Truths whom the World cannot 

receive^ becaufe it feeth him not^ neither knowetb 

him : But ye know him -, for he dwelleth with you^ 

and fijall be in ycu^ 


fchap. IIL 7 Remarks t)n Rom. iii. 9—24. 257 

Bed. 11. J 


Obfervatiens on Rom. iii. 9—24. 

IF the Scriptures reprefent all Mankind as wicked 
in their firft State, before they are made Par- 
takers of the Beneifits of Chrift's Redenription, then 
they are wicked by Nature : .For doubtlefs Men*s 
firfl: State is their native State, or the State they 
come into the World in. But the Scriptures do 
thus reprefent all Mankinds • 

Before I mention particular Texts to this Pur- 
pofe, I would obferve, that it alters not the Cafej 
as to the Argument in Hand, whether we fuppofe 
thefe Texts fpeak direftly of Infants, or only of 
fuch as are capable of fome Underftanding, fo as 
to underftand fomething of t;hcir own Duty and ■ 
State. For if it be fo with all Mankind, that as 
foon as ever they are capable of reflefting and 
knowing their own moral State, they find them- 
felves wicked, this proves that they are wicked by 
Nature; either born wicked, or born with an in- 
fallible Dilpofition to be wicked as foon as poflible, 
if there be any Difference between thefe ; and 
either of them will prove Men to be bom ex- 
ceedingly depraved. I have before proved, that a 
native Propenfity to Sin certainly follows from 
many Things faid in the Scripture of Mankind ; 
but what I mtend now, is fomething more direct, 
to prove by direft Scripture-Teftimony, that all 
Mankind, in their firft State, are really of a 
wdcked Charafter. 

To this Purpofe is exceeding full, expreis, and 
abundant that Paflfage of the ApoiUc, in Rem. iii. 

S be&in- 


258 Proof from Rom. iii. 9—24. Part II; 

beginning with the 9th ver. to the End of the 24th 5 
which I Ihall fet down at large, diftinguifhing the 
\miverfal Terms which are here fo often repeated, 
by a diftindt Charaftcr. The Apoftle having in 
the firft Chap. ver. 16, 17. laid down his Propo- 
fition, that none can be laved in any other Way 
than through the Righteoufnefs of God, by Faith 
in Jefus Chrift, he proceeds to prove this Point, 
by fhewing particularly that all are in themfelves 
Wicked, and without any Righteoufnefs of their 
own; Firft, he infifts on the Wickednels of the 
Gentiles^ in the firft Chapter •, and next, on the 
Wickednefs of the Jews^ in the fecond Chapter* 
Arid then in this Place, he comes to fum up the 
Matter, and draw the Conclufion in the Words 
following i " What then, are we better than they ? 
No, in no wife ; for we have before prowd 
both Jews and Gentiles^ that they are ALL under 
" Sin : As it is written. There is NONE righ- 
^' teous, NO, NOT ONE j there is NONE that 
*' underftandeth -, there is NONE that feeketh 
after God ; they are ALL gone out of the 
Way ; they are TOGETHER become unpro- 
fitable ; there is NONE that doth Good, NO, 
NOT ONE. Their Throat is an open Sepid- 
chre •, with their Tongues they have ufed De- 
ceit ; the Poilon of Afps is under their Lips ; 
whofe Mouth is full of Curfing and Bittemefi ^ 
their Feet are fwift to fhed Blood ; Deftru6fcion 
and Mifery are in their Ways, and the Way of 
Peace they have not known ; there is no Fear 
of God before their Eyes. Now we know, that 
whatfoever Things the Law faith, it faith to 
" them that are under the Law, that EVERY 
Mouth may be ft6pped, and ALL THE 
WORLD may become guilty before God. 
" Therefore by the Deeds of the Law, there (hall 

" NO 

Ghap. lit. ) All t» their jirfi State Wicked. 259 
Se£t< II. ) 

« NO FLESH be juftified in his Sight ; for by 
^' the Law is the Knowledge of Sin. But now 
*' the Righteoufnefs of God without the Law, is 
manifeft, being witnefled by the Law and the 
Prophets •, even the Righteoufnefs of God, wl^iich 
is by Faith of Jefus Chrift, unto ALL, and 
upon ALL thenfi that believe ; for there is NO 
« DIFFERENCE. For ALL have finned, and 
come fhort of the Glory of God. Being jufti- 
fied freely by his Grace^ through the Redemp- 
tion which is in Jefus Chrift." — 





Here the Thing which I would prove, viz. that 
Mankind in their firft State, before they are in- 
terefted in the Benefits of Chrift's Redemption, 
are univerfally wicked, is declared with the utmoft 
poffible Fulnefs and Precifion. So that if here 
this Matter be not fet forth plainly, exprefly, and 
fully, it muft be becaufe no Words can do it, and 
it is not in the Power of Language, or any Manner 
of Terms and Phrafes, however contrived and 
heaped up one upon another, determinately to 
fignify any fuch Thing. 

Dr. 2". to take oflF the Force of the whole,' would 
have us to underftand, p. 104 — 107. that thefe 
PafTages quoted from the Pfalms, and other Parts 
of the Old Teftament, do not fpeak of all Man- 
kind^ nor of all the Jews -, but only of ^tbem of 
whom they were true. He obferves, there were 
many that were innocent and righteous •,, though 
there were alfo many, a ftrong Party, jhat were 
wicked, corrupt, &c. of whom thefe Texts were 
to be underftood. Concerning which I would ob- 
ferve the following Things. 

S 2 1 . Accor^i- 

i6o Proof from Kom.m. 9 — 24. PartU. 

I. According to this, the Univerfality of the 
Terms that are found in thcfe Places, which the 
Apoftle cites from the Old Teftament, to prove 
that all the IVorld^ both Jews and Gentiles^ are under 
Sin^ is nothing to his Purpofe. The Apoftle ufes 
univcrfal Terms in his Propofition, and in his 
Conclufion, that ALL are under Sin, that EVERY 
MOUTH is flopped, ALL THE WORLD 
guilty, — that by the Deeds of the Law NO 
FLESH can be juftified. And he chules out a 
Number of univerfal Sayings or Claufes out of 
the Old Teftament, to confirm this Univerfality ; 
as, There is none righteous'-^ no, not one : They arc 
all gone out of the Way \ There is none that under- 
fiandetb, ^c. But yet the Univerfality of thefc 
Expreflions is nothing to his Purpofe, becaufe the 
univerfal Terms found in them have indeed no 
Reference to any fuch Univerfality, as this the 
Apoftle fpeaks of, nor any Thing a-kin to it ; 
they mean no Univerfality either in the colle<9ivc 
Senfe, or perfonal Senfe •, no Univerfality of the 
Nations of the World, or of particular Perfons in 
thofe Nations, or in any one Nation in the World : 
" But only of thofe of whom they are true^^ That 
is, There is none of them righteous, of whom it is 
true, that they are not righteous ; no, not one : Tbe^e 
is none that underfiand, of whom it is true, that they 
underftand not : They are all gone out of the Way^ 
of whom it is true, that they are gone out of the 
Way, &c. — Or thefe Expreflions are to be under- 
ftood concerning that ftrong Party in Ifrael, in 
David's and Solomon's Days, and in the Prophets 
Days ', they are to be underftood of them univ^r- 
ially. And what is that to the Apoftle*s Purpofe ? 
How does fuch an Univerfality of Wickednefs^ as 
this, — that all were wicked in Ifrael, who were 
wicked, — or, that there was a particular evil Party, 


Chap. III. ) All iu their firft State Wicked. 261 J 

all of which were wicked, — confirm that Univer- 
fality which the Apoftle would prove, viz. That 
all Jews and Gentiles^ and the whole Worlds were 
wicked, and every Mouth flopped^ and that no 
Flejh could be juftified by their own Righteouf- 

Here Nothing can be faid to abate the Non- 
fenfe, but this, That the Apoftle would convince 
the Jew5^ that they were capable of being wicked, 
as well as other Nations ; and to prove it, he 
mentions fome Texts, which fhew that there was 
a wicked Party in Ifrael, 2l Thoufand Years ago : 
And that as to the univerfal Terms which hap- 
pened to be in thefe Texts, the Apoftle had no 
Refpeft to thefe •, but his reciting them is as it 
were accidental, they happened to be in fome 
Texts which fpeak of an evil Party in Ifrael, and 
the Apoftle cites them as they are, not becaufc 
they are any more to his Purpofe for the univerfal 
Terms, which happen to be in them. But let the 
Reader look on the Words of the Apoftle, and 
obferve the Violence of fuch a Suppofition. Par- 
ticularly let the Words of the 9th and loth Verfes, 
and their Connexion, be obferved. j4ll are under 
Sin: As it is written^ There is none righteous \ vo^ 
not one. How plain is it, that the Apoftle cites 
that latter univerfal Claufe out of the 14th Pfalm, 
to confirm the preceding univerfal Words of his 
own Propofition ? And yet it will follow from the 
Things which I^* T*. fuppofes, that the Univer- 
fality of the Terms in the laft Words, There is 
none righteous ; no^ not one^ hath no Relation at 
all to that Univerfality he fpeaks of in the pre- 
ceding Claufe, to which they are joined, All are 
U7ider Sin^: and is no more a Confirmation of it, 
than if the Words were thus, ' There aie foms^ 

S3 w 

262 Proof from Rom. iii. 9—24, Part IT, 

' or there arc mavy in Ifratly that arc not righn 
* teous/ 

2* To fuppofe, the Apoftle's Defign in citing 
thefe Paflagcs, was only to prove to the Jeao^^ that 
of old there was a confiderable Number of their 
Nation that were wicked Men, is to fuppofe hinx 
to have gone about to prove what none of the 
Jenjos denied, or made the leaft Doubt of. Even 
the Pharifees, the moft felf-righteous Seft erf" 
them, who went furtheft in glorying in the Di- 
ftinftion of their Nation from other Nations, as z, 
holy People, knew it, and owned it ; they openly 
confefled that their Forefathers killed the Prophets^ 
Matth. xxiii. 29, 30, 31. And if the Apoftlc*s 
Defign had been only to refrefh their Memories, 
to put them in Mind of the ancient Wickednds 
of their Nation, to lead to Refle6tion on themfelvcs 
as guilty of the like Wickednefs, (as Stephen does, 
Afts vii.) what Need had the Apoftle to go fo far 
about to prove this ; gathering up many Sentences 
here and there, which prove that their Scriptures 
did fpeak of feme as wicked Men •, and then, in 
the next Place, to prove that the wicked Men 
fpoken of muft be of the Nation of the JewSy by 
this Argument, That ivhat Things foever the haw 
faithy it faith to them that are under the LaWy or 
that whatfoevcr the Books of the Old Teftament 
faid, it muft be underftood of that People that 
had the Old Teftament ? What Need had the 
Apoftle of fuch an Ambages or Fetch as this, to 
prove to the Jews^ that there had been many of 
their Nation in fome of the ancient Ages, which 
were wicked Men ; when the Old Teftament was 
full of Paflages that afferted this exprefly, not 
(jnly cf a ftrong Party, but of the Nation in ge- 
neral ? How much more would it have been to 


Chap. ra. I All in their firft State Wicked. 2 63 

Seft. n. J 

fuch a Puipofe, to have put them in Mind of the 
Wickedneis of the People in general, in worihip- 
ping the golden Calf, and the Unbelief, Murmur- 
ing, and Perverfenefs of the whole Congregation 
in the Wildernefs, for forty Years, as Stefben 
does i Which Things he had no need to prove 
to be fpoken of their Nafion, by ahy fuch in^ 
direft Argument, as that. Whatsoever Things the 
Law faiths it faith to them that are under th^ 

3. It would have been impertinent to the Apo- 
file's Purpofe, even as our Author underftands 
his Purpofe, for him to have gone about to con- 
vince the Jews^ that there had been a ftrong 
Party of bad Men in David^^, and Solomon^s^ and 
the Prophet's Times. For Dr. T. fuppofes, the 
Apoftle's Aim is to prove the great Corruption of 
both Jews and Gentiles at that Day, when Chr^Ji 
came into the World *, 

In order the more fully to evade the dear and 
abundant Teftimonies to the Do6trine of Original 
Sin, contained in this Part of the holy Scripture, 
our Author fays. The Apoftle is here fpeaking of 
. Bodies of People, of Jews and Gentiles in a coU 
leftive Senfe, as two great Bodies into which 
Mankind are divided -, fpeaking of them in their 
colleftive Capacity, and not with refpeft to parti- 
cular Perfons j that the Apoflle's Pefign is to 
prove, neither of thefe two great colle6tivc Bodies, 
in their coUeftive Senfe, can be juflified by Law, 
becaufe both were corrupt ; and fo that no more 
is implied, than that the Generality of both were 
wicked f , On this I obfervej, 

S 4 (i.) That 

• See Key, 4 l^7> V^ t Page 102, 104, 117, 119, 12a, 
4Uid Note on Rom. iiit IQ — 19. 

264 Proof from Rom. iii. 9 — 24. Part U, 

(i.) That this fuppofed Senfe difagrees ex- 
tremely with the Terms and Language which the 
Apoftle here makes ufe of. For according to this, 
we muft underftand, either, 

Firfi^ That the Apoftle means no Univerfality 
at all, but only the far greater Part. But if the 
Words which the Apoftle ufes, do not nnoft 
fully and determinately fignify an Univerlality, 
no Words ever ufcd in the Bible are fufficient to 
do it. I might challenge apy Man to produce any 
one Paragra^ h in the Scripture, from the Begin- 
ning to the End, where there is fuch a Repetition 
and Accumulation of Terms, fo ftrongly and em- 
phatically and carefully, to exprefs the moft perfeft 
and abfolute Univerfality •, or any Place to be 
compared to it. What Inftance is there in the 
Scripture, or indeed any other Writing, when the 
Meaning is only the much greater Part, where 
this Meaning is fignlfied in fuch a Manner, by 
repeating fuch Expreflions, They are ally — They 
are all. — They are all — together ^ — every one^ — all 
the World •, joined to multiplied negative Terms, 
to fhew the Univerfality to be without Exception ; 
faying, There is no Flefb^ — there is none^ — there is 
}io7;ej — there is none, — there is none^ fqur Times 
ever ; befides the Addition of No, not one, — w, 
not Gtiey — once and again ! 

Or, Secondly^ if any Univerfality at all be al- 
lowed, it is only of the colleftive Bodies Ipoken 
of ; and thefe colleftive Bodies but two, as Dr. 
3". reckons them, viz. the Jewifh Nation, and the 
Gentile World j fuppofing the Apoftle is here rc- 
prefenting each of thefe Parts of Mankind as 
being Wicked. But is this the Way of Men's 
vfing Language, when fpeaking of but twoThin^, 

Cliap. in. 7 All in Heir firfi State Wicked. % 6k 
Sea. IT. s 

to exprefe themfelves in univerfal Terms of fuch 
a Sort, and in fuch a Manner, and when they 
mean no more than that the Thing affirmed is. 
predicated of both of them? If a Man fpeaking 
of his two Feet as both lame, fhould fay, j4ll ff^ 
Feet are lame^ They are all lame^ uill together are 
become weak^ None of my Feet are ftrong^ None of 
them are found ; No^ not one ; would not he be 
thought to be lame in his Underftanding, as well 
as his Feet ? When the Apoftle fays, '-Ihat every 
Mouth may he flopped^ muft we fuppofe, that he 
fpeaks only of thefe two great colledtive Bodies, 
figuratively afcribing to each of them a Mouth, 
and means that thefe two Mouths are Hopped ! 

And befides, according to our Author's own 
Interpretation, the univerfal Terms ufed in thefe 
Texts cited from the Old Teftament, have no 
relpeft to thofe two great colledtive Bodies, nor 
indeed to either of them j but to fome in Ifrael^ 
a particular difaffefted Party in that one Nation, 
which was made up of wicked Men. So that 
his Interpretation is every Way abfurd and incon- 
. fiftent. 

(2.) If the Apoftle is (peaking only of the 
Wickednefs or Guilt of great coUeftive Bodies, 
then it will follow, that alfo the Juftification he 
here treats of, is no other than the Juftification of 
fuch coUeftive Bodies. For, they are the fame 
he fpeaks of as guilty and wicked, that he argues 
cannot be jujiified by the Works of the Law, by 
Reafon of their being Wicked. Otherwife his 
Argument is wholly difannuUed. If the Guilt he 
fpeaks of be only of colleftive Bodies, then what 
he argues from that Guilt, muft be only, that 
colleftive Bodies cannot be juftified by the Works 


26i Proof from Rom. iii. 9 — 24. Part H. 

it is plain, the Argument would be quite vain and 
impertinent. Yet thus the Argument muft ftand 
according to Dr. T — r*s Interpretation. The col- 
Icftive Bodies, which he fuppoles are fpoken of as 

« wicked, and condemned by the Law, confidered 

^ as in their colleftive Capacity, are thofe two, the 

Jewijb Nation, and the heathen World : But the • 
cplleftive Body which he fuppofes the Apoftle 
Ipeaks of as juftified without the Deeds cf the 
Law, is neither of thefe, but the Chriftian Church, 
or Body of Believers j which is a new colleftive 
Body, a new Creature, and a new Man, (according 
to our Author's underftanding of fuch Phrafesj 
which never had any Exiftence before it was jufti- 
fied, and therefore never was wicked or con- 
demned, unlefs it was with regard to the Indivi- 

/ duals of which it was conftituted •, and it does 

not appear, according to our Author's Scheme, 
that thefe Individuals had before been generally 
wicked. For according to him, there was a Num- 
ber both among the Jews and Gentiles^ that were 
righteous before. And how does it appear, but 
that the comparatively few Jews and Gentiles^ of 
which this new-created colledtive Body was confti- 
tuted, were chiefly of the beft of each ? 

So that in every View, this Author's Way of 
explaining this Paflage in the third of RomanSy 
appears vain and abfurd. And fo clearly arid 
fiiUy has the Apoftle expreffed himfelf, that it 
is doubtlefs impoffible to invent any other Scnfe 
to put upon his Words, than that which will 
imply, that all Mankind, even every Individual 
of the whole Race, but their Redeemer Him- 
felf, are in their firft original State corrupt and 


Chap. in. 7 AH in their firft State WickW. 2169 

Before I leave this Paflage of the Apoftle, it 
may* be proper to obferve, that it not only is a 
mod clear and full Teftimdny to the native Depra- 
vity of Mankind, but alfo plainly declares that 
natural Depravity to be total and exceeding great/ 
It is the Apoftle's itianifeft Defign in ' thefe Cita- 
tions from the Old Teftament, to fhew thefe 
three Things, i . That all Mankind are by Nature 
corrupt, 2 * That every one is altogether corrupt^ 
and as it were, deprived in every Part. 3, That 
they are in every Part corrupt in an exceeding 
Degree, — With refpedt to the fecond of thefe,- that 
every one is wholly, and as it were in every Part 
corrupt, it is plain the Apoftle chufes'out, and 
puts together thofe particular Paflages of the Old 
Teftament, wherein mod of thofe Members of 
the Body are mentioned, that are the Soul's chief 
Inftruments or Organs of external Adlion^ The 
Hands (implicitly) in thofe Expreflions, ^hey are 
together become unprofitable^ ^here is none that doth 
good. The Throat, Tongue, Lips, and Mouth, 
the Organs of Speech*, in thofe Words, Their 
Throat is an open Sepulchre : IVith their Tongues 
they have ufed Deceit : The Poifon of Afps is under 
their Lips ; whofe Mouth is full of Curjing and 
Bitternefs. The Feet in thofe Words, ver. 15, 
Their Feet are fwift to fhed Blood. Thefe Things 
together fignify, that Man is as it were all over 
corrupt in every Part. And not only is the total 
Corruption thus intimated, by enumerating the 
feveral Parts, but by denying of all Good j any 
true XJnderftanding or fpiritual Knowledge, any 
virtuous Aftion, or fo much as truly virtuous 
Defire, or fceking after God. There is none that 
underftandetb ; There is none that feeketh after 
God : Thtre is none that doth Good : The Way of 
Peace have they not known. And in general, by 
^ d mying 

-7«> p'Mr r-JM RxT- V. c — ir. Part H. 

uciiviiig ill "'-'? ?j<^ oc RecaJiiQ JE Moi in 
UjciT dr.: Su::;, v;:. i j. rirfr/ ;,- c^ Pcir tf God 
iifun :'ct-.' L-'i:. — T-.-: £jtp-ne.Ii;cj ij:> are evi- 
decdy ^JtOi^;:! :j ic3j;e x zt.-'jO: ercdie aad def- 
permit Wi^'itinciA 0£* Hrirr. Ar. cxcwiiac Dc- 
prav:-.- :.i iirlrei :3 iv;r^- Pirt : To 'Ja Tmaat, 
the S*:;n: oi m ;_;ti ■■i-pni^sri ^ ta ibe Tooguc and 
Lips, r'v-s.-, ar.ii .ii ?:\ '.xtf Aj: ; :o zag Mouth, 
CmrjWt i^.i B^^r-trT.^/: -, o: Li<:r fic: :t is laid, 
/iir» ^rrf _ "::■./; ;j ^Z-^J £.';;-' : A:u: wid: rvgaid lo 

we ir: --".e'.r \\,i;.-i. The RepreKZ'-idia is very 
ftrons or ra;a or '3^ Trings, c;i. That «// 
ManSir.J are ccmp: ; iI-j: everj- or.i: is vhaify 
and aliij"gc"."er ctKrup; ; ir.i jdib fx:rtmthi and 
dcfperaccly corrupt. And i: is piiL';, ic is not 
accidental, :?u: we hiv; here luch i Colkokia ot 
fuch ftrong ExpTe'Tior::, lb eoipiuziciily ligMying 
thcfe ; bu: ihj: they an; cholcn <tf tlK 
Apoille on Defigr., as bei.ig direfdy and hiHy lo 
his PurpofCi which Purpoie appei.-s in ail' his 
Dilcourfc in the whole or' :hii Chipter, and in- 
deed from the BeginnLig or the EpiiVtc. 

Ohfervatiens on Rom. v. 6 — lo. and Eph. ii. 3. 
■mtb the Context, and Rom. vii. 

ANOTHER Paffage of this Apoftlc in the 
fame EpifUe to the RemanSy which Ihews 
thai all that are made Partakers of the Beiiefits of 
JiVs Redemption, are in their firft State wicked, 
defperately wricked, is that. Chap. v. 6 — 10. 
}ben we •autre yet without Strength, in due 

CKtp. in. ) AU in their firfi State Wicked. 871 

Sed. III. ) 

"Time Ciriji died for the Ungodly. For fcareely for 
a righteous Man will one die ; yet peradventure for 
a good Many fome would even dare to die. But God 
commendeth his Love towards us^ in that while we 
were yet Sinners, Chrift died for us. Much more 
then^ being now jujlified by his Bloody we fhall be 
faved from Wrath through him. For if while we 
were Enemies, we were reconciled to God through 
the Death of his Son ; much more^ being reconciled^ 
we fhall be faved by his Life. 

Here all that Chrift died for, and that are faved 
by him, are fpoken of as being in their firft State 
Sinnersy Ungodly^ Enemies to God, expofed to divine 
Wrathy and without Strength^ without Ability to 
help themfelves, or deliver their Souls from this 
miferable State* 

Dr. "T. fays. The Apoftle here fpeafcs of the 
Gentiles only in their heathen Siate^ in Contradi- 
ftinftion to the Jews ; and that not of particular 
Perfons among the heathen Gentiles, or as to the 
State they were in perlbnally j but only of the 
Gentiles colleSively taken^ or of the miferable State 
of that great colleftive Body, the heathen World : 
And that thefe Appellations, Sinners^ Ungodly^ Ene^ 
miesy &c. were Names by which the Apoftles in 
their Writings were wont to fignify and diftinguilh 
the heathen World, in Oppofition to the Jews -, 
and that in thi#Senfe thefe Appellations are to 
be taken in their Epiftles, and in this Place in 
particular *. And it is obfervable, that this Wav 
of interpreting thefe Phrafes in the apoftolick 
Writings, is become fafhionable with many late 
Writers ; whereby they not only evade feveral clear 


• Page 1 14-- 1 20." Sec alfo Dr. 71- r's Paraph, and Notes 
on the Place. 

_ ■ ^ 

372 Proof from Rom. v. 6 — '\6. Part II; 

Teftimonies to the Do6trine of Original Sin, buc 
make void great Part of the New Teftament ; on 
which Account it deferves the more particular 

• ■ 

It is allowed to have been long common and 
cuilomary among the Jews^ in Chrift's and the 
Apoftle's Days, efpecially thofe of the Seft of the 
Pbarifees^ in their Pride and Confidence in their 
Privileges as the peculiar People of God, to exalt 
themfeives exceedingly above other Nations, and 
greatly to deipife the Gentiles, and call them by 
luch Names as Sinners^ Enemies^ Dogs^ &c. as 
Notes of Diftindtion from themfeives, whom they 
accounted in general (excepting the Publicans^ and 
the notorioufly profligate) as the Friends^ fpecial 
Favourites^ and Children of God ; beeaufe they 
were the Children of Abrahanty were circumcifed, 
and had the Law of Mofes^ as their peculiar Pri- 
vilege, and as a . Wall of Partition between them 
and the Gentiles. 

But it is very remarkable, that a Chriftian Di- 
vine, who has ftudied the New Teflament, and 
the Epiftle to the Romans in paiticular, fo dili- 
gently as Dr. T. Ihould be flrong in an Imagina- 
tion, that tlie Apoflles of Jefus Chrift Ihould fb 
far countenance, and do fo much to cherilh thefe 
felf-exalting, uncharitable Difpofitions and Notions 
of the JewSy which gave Rife to fuch a Cuftonl, 
is to fall in with that Cuftom, and adopt that 
Language of their Pride and Contempt ; and 
efpecially that the Apofl:le Paul (hould do it. 
It is a moil unfeafonable Imagination on many 

I. The whole Gofpel Difpenfation is calculated 
entirely to overthrow and abolilh every Thing to 


tUhzpAU. i AH in tbmrjirft State Wid^tL i'j^- 

which this felf-diftinguilhing^ fclf-exalting Lan- 
guage of the yeivs was owing; It was calculated 
wholly to exclude fuch Boafting, and to deftroy 
that Pride and Sclf-Righteoufnefs that were the 
Caufes of it: It was calculated to abolifti the 
Enmity, and break doWn the Partition- Wall be- 
tween Jews and Gentiles^ arid of Twain to make 
one new Man, fo making ^Peace ; to deftroy all Dif* 
pofitions in Nations and particular Perfons to 
defpife one another, or to fay one to another^ 
Stand by thyfelf come not near td me\ for I am 
holier than Thou ; and to eftablifh the contrary 
Principles of Humility, mutual Efteem, Honour 
and Love, and univerlal Union, in the moft firnl 
and perfeft Mannen 

2* Chrift, when on Eatth, let himielf, througji 
the Courfe of his Miniftry, to militate againft this 
Pharifaical Spirit, Pi^ftice, and Language of the 
Jews-, appearing in fuch Reprefentations, Names, 
and Epithets, fo cuftomary among them-, by which 
they fliew^d fo much Contempt of the Gentiles^ 
Publicans^ and fuch as were openly lewd and vi- 
cious, and fo exalted themfelves above them'; 
calling them Sinners and Enemies, and themfelves 
Holy, and God's Children -, ' not allowing the Gdh- 
tile to be their Neighbour, &c. He condemned 
the Pharifees fot not efteemitig themfelves Sinners^ 
as well as the Publicans ; trufting in themfelves . 
that they were righteous, and defpifing others* 
He militated againft thefe Things in his own 
Treatment of fome Gentiles, Publicans, and others, 
whom they called Sinners, and in what he faid on 
thofc Occafions ** 

T tic 

* Matth. viii. 5— «3. Chap. ix. 9—^13. Chap. xi. 19—24. 
Chap. XV. 21 — »28. Luke vii. 37; tathe End. Chap. xvii. 
i2-*^i9. Chap. xix. i-— 16. John iv, 9, &c. ver, 39, 55c, 
Compare Luke x. 29, &C. 

174- Proof from Rom. v. 6— ibi Part 11; 

He oppofed thele Notions and Manners of 
the Jews in his Parables *, and in his Inftruc^ 
tions to his Difciples how to treat the unbelieving 
Jews + ; and in what he fays to Nicodemus about 
the Neceflity of a new Birth^ even for the Jews^ 
as well as the unclean Gentiles^ with regard to 
their ^^rofelytifm, which fome of the Jews looked 
up6n as a new Birth : And in Oppolidon to thor 
Notions of their being the Children of God^ 
becaufc the Children of Abraham^ but the Gep- 
tiles by Nature Sinners and Children of Wrath, 
he tells them that even they were Children of tb§ 
Devil J. 

3. Thbudi we fliould fuppofe the ApofUes not 
to have bera thoroughly brought off from fuch 
Notions, Manners, and Language of the Jews^ 
till after Chriffs Afcenfion j yet 5ter the pouring 


♦ Matth. xxi. 28—32. Chap. xxii. i — lo. Luke xiv. 16-24^ 
Compare Luke xiii. 28, 29, 30. 

f Matth. X. »4y 15. 

J John viii. 33 — 44. 

It may alfo be obferved, that Jokif the BapHft grcady cort-! 
ii^di^ed the Jwu/ Opinion of Themfdves, as being a holy 
People, and accepted of God, becaufe they were the Children 
of Abmhamy and on that Account better than the Heathen 
whom they called Sinners, Enemies, Unclean, &c. in bapd- 
aing the Jrws as a polluted People, and Sinners^ as the Je^s 
nfed to baptize Profelytes from among the Heathen ; calling 
them to Repentance as Sinners, faying. Think not to fay luithim 
jourfihvesy We harje Abraham to our Father ; fir I fay untoyoM, 
that God is able, of thefe Stones, to rafe up Children «»/« Abraham | 
and teaching the Pharifees, that inftead of their being a holy 
Generation, and Children of God, as they called thcmfclvcs, 
ihey were a Generation of Vipers. 

tXtif. Itl. 7 All /» ibeirfirjl State Wicked. 47^ 

SeA. III. } 

out of^the Spirit on the JDay of Pentecorf, or at 
kaft, after the Calling of the Gentiles^ begun in 
the Converfion d£ Cornelius^ they were fully in- 
doarinatcd in this Matter, and efFedtually taught 
no longer to call the Gentiles Unclean^ as a Note 
of Diftindtion from the Jews^ A6ts x. 28. which 
was before any of the Apoftolic Epiltles were 

4. Of all the Apoftles, none were more pef-* 
fcftly inflrufted in this Matter, and none fo abun- 
dant in inftrufting others in it, as Paul^ the great 
Apoftle of the Gentiles. He had Abundance to 
do in this Matter : "None of the ApoftlesJiad fo 
much Occafion to exert themfelves againit the 
forementioned Notions and Language ofthe Jews^ 
in Oppolition to- Jewijh Teachers, and Judaizing 
Chriftians, that ftrove to keep up the Separa,tion- 
Wall between Jews and Gentiles^ and to exalt the 
former, arid fet the latter at nought. 

5. This Apoftle does efpecially ftrive in this 
Matter in his Epiftle to the Romans^ above all his 
other Writings j exerting himfelf in a moft elabo^ 
rate Manner, and with his utmoft Skill and Power 
to bring the Jewijh 'Chriftians off from every 
Thing of this Kind •, endeavouring by all Means 
that there might no longer be in them any Re- 
mains of thde old Notions they had been edu- 
cated in, of fuch a great Diftindion between Jews 
and Gentiles^ as were expreffcd in the Names they 
ufed to diftinguifti them by, calling the Jews holy^ 
Children of Abraham, Friends, and Children of God ; 
but the Gentiles Sinners^ Unclean^ Enemies^ and 
the like. He makes it almoft his whole Bufinefs, 
from the Beginning of the Epiftle, to this Faffage 
in the 5th Chapter, which we afe upon, to con- 

T 2 vince 


476 Proof from Rom. v, 6 — it. Part 11. 

vincc them that there was no Ground for any fuch 
DUtindion, and to prove that in common, both 
Jews and Gentiles^ all were defperatcly wicked, 
and none righteous, no, not one. He tells them^ 
Chap. iii. 9. that the Jews were by no Means 
better than the Gentiles ; and (in what follows in 
that Chapter) that there was no Difierence be- 
tween Jews and Gentiles \ and reprefenta all as 
without Strength, or any Sufficiency of their own 
in the Affair of Juftification and Redempdon: 
And in the Continuation of the fame Difcourfe, 
in the 4th Chapter, teaches that all that were 
juftified by Chrift, were in themfelves un^odtfy 
and that being the Children oi ^Abraham was not 
peculiar to the Jews. In this 5th Chap, ftill in 
Continuation of the fame Difcourfe, on the lame 
Subjeft and Argument of Juftification through 
Chnft, and by Faith in him, he (peaks of Chim's 
dying for the Ungodly and Sinners^ and thofe that 
were without Strength or Sufficiency for their own 
Salvation, as he had done all along before. But 
now, it feems, the Apoftle by Sinners and ungodly 
muft not be underftood according as he ufed thefe 
Words before -, but muft be fuppofed to mean 
only the Gentiles as diftinguilhed from the Jews ; 
adopting the Language of thofe felf-righteous, 
felf-exalting, difdainful Judaizing Teachers, whom 
he was with all his Might oppofing : countenan* 
cing the very fame Thing in them, which he 
had been from the Beginning of the Epiftlc dif- 
countenancing and endeavouring to difcourage» 
and utterly to abolifli, with all his An an(i 

One Reafon why the Jews looked on themfelves. 
better than the Gentiles^ and called themfelves 
boly^ and the Gentiles Sinners^ was, that they had 


Chap. III. 7 All in their firft State Wicked. 277 

Sc€t, III. \ 

-■ ■ . < 

the Law of Mofes. They made their Boajl of the 
Law. But the Apoftle fhews them, that this was 
fo far from making them better, that it condemned 
them, and was an Occafion of their being Sinners^ 
in a higher Degree, and more aggravated Manner, 
and more efFeftually and dreadfully dead in and by 
Sin, Chap. vif. 4 — 13. agreeable to thofe Words 
of Chrift, John v. 45. 

It cannot be juftly objected here, that this 
Apoftle did indeed ufe this Language, and call the 
Gentiles Sinners, in Contradiftinftion to the Jews^ 
in what he faid to Peter^ which he himfelf gives 
an Account of in Gal. ii. 15, 16, PTe who are 
Jews by Nature y and not Sinners of the Gentiles, 
knowing that a Man is not juftified by the Works of 
the LaWy but by Faith in Jefus Chrift. It is true, 
that the Apoftle here refers to this Diftinftion,^ as 
what was ufually made by the felf-righteous JewSy 
between themfelves and the Gentiles \ but not in 
fuch a Manner as to adopt, or favour it ; butt)n 
the contrary, fo as plainly to Ihew his Difappro- 
batiou of it •, q. d. ' Though we were born JewSy 

* and by Nature are of that People which are 

* wont to make their Boaft of the Law, expefting 

< to be juftified by it, and truft in themfelves 

* that they are righteous, defoifing others, calling 

* the Gentiles Sinner Sy in Diftinftion from them- 
^ fclves J yet we being now inftrufted in the 

< Gofpel of Chrift, know better ; we now know that 

* a Man is not juftified by the Works qf the 

* Law ; that we ^re all juftified only by Faith 
^ in Chrift, in whom there is no Difference, no 

* piftindion of Greek or Gentile, and Jewy but all 

* are one in Chrift Jefus.* And this is the very 
Thing he tjiere (peaks qf, which he blamed Peter 
for ; that by his withdrawing and feparating him- 

T 3 ftlt" 

278 Proof frm Kom. y. S-r^io. V^xitJl. 

fdf irom the Gentiles^ reftifing to ^at with then),, 
&c, he had countenanced this felf-exalting, felf^ 
diftinguilhing, feparating Spirit and Cuftom of 
the Jews^ whereby they treated the GentikSy as^ 
in a diftinguifhing Manner, Sinners and Unclean^ 
and not fit to come near them who were ^ holy 

6. The Words themfelves of the Apoftle ia 
this Place, fliew plainly, that he here ufcs the 
Word, Sinnersy not as fignifying Gentiles^ in Op- 
pofition to JewSy but as denoting the tnorally eviU 
in Oppofition to fuch as are righteous or good: 
Becaufe this latter Oppofition or Diftinftion be- 
tween Sinners and Righteous is here exprefled ia 
plain Terms. Scarcely for a righteous Mau wiJl 
one die 5 yet feradventure for a good Man fomt 
would even dare to die\ But God commended bis 
Love towards us^ in that while we were" yet 
Sinners, Chriji died for us^ By righteous Men. 
are doubtlefs meant the fame that are meant by 
fuch a Phrafe, throughout this Apoftle's Writings^j 
and throughout the New Teftament, and through* 
out the Bible. Will any one pretend, that by the 
righteous Man, whom Men would fcarcely die for,^ 
and by the good Man, that perhaps fome might 
even dare to die for, is meant a Jew? Dr. T^ 
himfelf does not explain it fo, in his Expofition of 
this Epiftle ; and therefore is not very confiftent 
with himfelf, in fuppofing, that in the other Part 
of the Diftindion the Apoftle means Gentiles^ as 
diftinguiflied from the Jews. The Apoftle himfelf 
had been labouring abundantly, in the preceding 
Part of the Epiftle, to prove that the Jews were 
Simiers in this Senfe, namely, in Oppofition to 
righteous j that all had finned^ that all were under 
&*//, and therefore could not be juftified, could 


Chap. HI. 7 Ail in their firfi SMe WicRed. 1279 

Se'd. m. J 

not be accepted as rigbfeousy by their own Righ* 

7. Another Thing which makes it evident that 
the Apoftle, when he fpeaks in this Place of thie 
Sinners and Enemies which Chrift died for, does 
not mean only the Gentiles^ is, that he included 
himfelf among them!, faying, while JVE were Sin* 
nerSy and when WE v^ere Enemies. 

Our Author from Time to Time fays. The 
Apoftle, though he Ipeaks only of the Gentiles 
in their Heathen State, yet puts himfelf with them^ 
hecaufe he was the Apoftle of the Gentiles. But this 
is very violent and unreafonable. There is no 
more Senfe in it, than there would be in a Father*s 
ranking himfelf among his Children, when fpeak- 
ing to his Children of the Benefits they have by 
being begotten by himfelf; and faying, We ChiU 
dren — Or in a Phyfician's ranking himfelf with 
his Patients, when talking to them of their Difeafes 
and Cure ; faying., We Jick Folks, — Paulas being 
the Apoftle of the Gentiles^ to favc them from 
their Heathenifm, is fo far from being a Reafon 
for him to reckon himfelf among the Heathen, 
that on the contrary, it is the very Thing that 
would render it in a peculiar Manner unnatural 
^nd abfurd for him fo to do. Becaufe, as the 
Apoftle of the Gentiles^ he appears as their Healer 
and Deliverer from Heathenifm ; and therefore irx 
that Capacity docs in a peculiar Manner appear 
in his DiftiniSion from the Heathen, and in Op- 
pofition to the State of Heathenifm. For it is by 
the moft Qppofite Qualities only, that he is fitted 
to be an Apoftle of the Heathen, and Recov^rer 
from Heathenifm. As the clear Light of the Sun 
is the Thing which makes it a proper Reftorative 

T 4 fmiu 

i8o PrciffirimKom-yy, 6—^6. ? WlS^^: 

_• ■■/ 

from Darkne£s ; and therefore the Sun'» being 
ipoken of as fuch a Remedy, none would fuppoie 
to be a good Reafon why it ihould be ranked 
with Darknefs, or among dark Things. And bcr 
fides (which makes this Suppofition of Dr. T — f's 
appear more violent) the Apoltie, in this Epiftle^ 
does exprefly rank himfelf with the Jews^ when 
he fpeaks of them as diftinguifhed from the Goh- 
tiles i as in Chap. iii. 9 . What then ? are WE better 
than They ? That is, are we Jews better than the 
Gentiles ? 

It cannot juftly be alledged in Oppofition to 
this, that the Apoftle Peter puts himfelf with the 
Heathen, i Pet. iv. 3. For the Time faft of OUR 
Ufe may fuffice US to have wrought the JViU of tbt 
Gentiles -, when WE walked in Lafcivioufjufs^ l^^ffi^t 
Excefs of Wine^ Revellings^ BanquetingSj and ab&mi^ 
7iable Idolatries. For the Apoftle Peter (who by 
die Way was not an Apoftle of the Gentiles) here 
does not fpeak of himfelf as one of the Heathen, 
but as one of the Church of Chrift in general, 
made up of thofe that had been Jews^ ProfelyteSj 
and HeathefiSy who were now all one Body, of 
which Body he was a Member. It is this Society 
therefore, and not the Gentiles, that he refers to 
in the Pronoun US. He is fpeaking of the Wickcd- 
nefs that the Members of this Bo^ or Society had 
lived in before their Converfion; not that every 
Member had lived in all thofe Vices here men-* 
tioned, but fome in one, others in another. Very 
parallel with that of the Apoftle Paul to Titus^ 
Chap. iii. 3. For WE ourfehes alfo (i. e. We of 
the Chriftian Church) were fometimes foolijh^ dif 
6bedie7it^ deceived^ ferving divers Lujis and Plea^ 
fttres^ (fome one Luft and Pleafure, others another) 
iiinjig iri Malice^ Eirvy^ hateful and hating one ant^ 


Oj^Hl.l A\i4n ibeir pji Stafie Wxc^td: 4U 

$ J 

rt^y &c; There is Nothing in this, but what is 
very natural. That the Apoftle, Ipeaking to the 
Chriftian Church, and cf that Church, confefling 
its fc»:mer Sins, Ihould fpeak of himfelf as one of 
dtat Society, and yet mention fome Sins that he 
perfbnailly had not been guilty of, and among 
others, heatheniih Idolatry, is quite a different 
Thing from what it would have been for the 
Apoftle, exprefly diftinguiftiing thofe of the Chri- 
ftians, which had been Heathen, from thofe which 
had been Jews^ to have ranked himfelf with the 
former, though he was truly of the latter. 

If a Minifter in fome Congregation in England^ 
fpeaking in a Sermon of the Sins pf the Nation, being 
himfelf of the Nation, ftiould fay, * WE have greatly 
^ corrupted ourfelves, and provoked God by our 
^ Deifm, Blaibhemy, profane Swearing, Lafciviou& 
* nefs. Venality, &c.* fpeaking in the firil Perlba 
plural, tho* he himfelf never had been a Deift, and 
perhaps none of his Hearers, and they might alfo 
have been generally fi=ee from other Sins he men-^ 
tioned 5 yet there would be nothing unnatural in 
his thus e3q)refl[ing himfelf But it would be a 
quite different Thing, if one Part, of the Britijb 
Dominions, fuppofe our King's American Domi- 
nions, had univerfally apoftatized from Chriftianity 
to Deifm, and had long been in fuch a State, and 
if One that had been born and brought up in 
England among Chriftians, the Country being uni- 
ve^ly Chriftian, fhould be fent among them to 
fliew them the Folly and great Evil of Deifm,' and 
convert them to Chriftianity -, and this Miffionary, 
when making a Diftinftion between Englijh Chn* 
ftians, and thefe Deifts, Ihould rank himfelf with 
the latter, and fay, 1VE American Deifts^ WE 


t«« Pfwf firm Eph, ii. 5, &c. Part H. 

fodtifi^ blind If^dds^ &c. This indeed would bc^ 
very unnatural and abfurd> 

Another Paflage of the ApofUe, to the like 
Purpc^ with that which we have been confidering 
in the 5th of Romans^ is that in Eph. ii. 3. — And 
foere by Nature Children of fVratb^ even as otbers. 
TUs remains a plain Teftimony to die Do£brine of 
CXiginal Sin, as held by thofe that ufed to be 
called orthodox Chriftians, after all the Pains and 
Art ufed co torture and pervert it. This Do&rine 
is here not only plainly and fully taught, but 
abundantly fo, if we take the Words with the 
Context; where Chriftians are once and again re- 
preiented as being, in their firft State, dead in 
Sin^ and as quickened and raifed up from fuch a 
State of Death, in a moil marvellous Difplay of 
die free and rich Grace and Love^ and exceedi^ 
Hreatnefs vf the Power of God, &c. 

With refpeft to thofe Words vfitv Ttxm %j»m 
e^gj We were by Nature Children of Wratb^ Dr. 
T. fays, p. 119, 113, 114. ^' The Apoftle means 
** no more by this, than truly or really Children of 
♦* Wrath ; ufing a metaphorical Expreflion, bor- 
*' rowed from the Word that is ufed to fignify 
^* a true and genuine Child of a Family, in Di-^ 
*' ftindion from one that is a Child only by Adop- 
** tion.'* In which it is owned, that the proper 
Senfe of the Phrafe, is, being a Child by Nature^ 
in the fame Senfe as a Child by Birth or natural 
Generation -, but only he fuppofes, that here the 
Word is ufed metaphorically. The Inftance he 
produces as parallel, to confirm his fuppofed me- 
taphorical Senfe of the Phrafe, as meaning only 
truly^ really^ or properly Children of Wrath, viz^ 
the Apoftle Paulas calling Timothy his oin^n Son in 


Chap. III. 1 All in their Jirji State Wicked. aSj 

the Faitb^ yvmiov r&cyov^ is fo far from confirming 
his Senfe, that it is rather dire6Uy ag^inft it. For 
doubtlefs the Apoftle ufes the Word yvwiov in its 
original Signification here, meaning his begotten 
Son ; yvwi®^ being the Adjeftive from yoyy,^ OflPf 
ipring, or the Verb, ytwococy to beget ; as much 
as to fay, Timothy my begotten Son in the Faitb i 
pnly allpwing for the two Ways of being begotten, 
i^poken of in the New Teftament, one natural, 
^d the other Ipirityal ; one being the firft Gene» 
ration, the other Regeneration ; the one a being 
begotten as to the human Nature, the other a 
being begotten in the Faith, begotten in Chrift, 
or as to one*s Chriftianity. The Apoftle exprefsly 
fignifies which of thefc he means in this Place, 
Timothy my begotten Son in the Faith, in the fame 
Manner as he fays to the Corinthians^ i Cor, iv. 
1 5. In Chrift J^fu^ I have begotten you through the 
Gofpel, To fay, the Apoftle ufes the Word, $u<7e, 
in Eph, ii. 3, only as fignifying real^ true, and 
proper, is a moft arbitrary Interpretation, having 
nothing to warrant it in the whole Bible, The 
Word ^voiLS is no wher^ ufed in this Senfe in the 
New Teftament *, 

Another T^i^g which our Author alledges to 
evade the Force of this, is, that the Word rendered 
Nature^ fometimes fignifies Habit contrafted by 
Cuftomj or an acquired Nature, But this is not 
the proper Meaning of the Word, And it is 
plain, the Word in its common Ufe, in the New 
Teftament, fignifies what we properly exprefs in 
Engli/b by the Word Nature. There is but one 



• The following are all the other Places where the Word 
is ufed, Rom. i. 26. and ii, 14. and ver. 27. and xi. 21. and 
ver. 24. thrice in that Verfe. i Cor. xi. 14. Gal. n, 15, and iv* 
S. Jam, ill. 7. twice in that Verfe, and 2 Pet. L 4, 

«g4 Proof from Eph. \\. 3, &c. Part II. 

Place where there can be the leaft Pretext for fup- 
pofing It can be ufed otherwife •, and that is i Cor, 
xu 14. Doth not even Nature it f elf teach youy that 
if M Man have long Hair^ it is a Shame unto him ? 
And even here there is, I think, no Manner of 
Rea{bn for underftanding Nature otherwife than ia 
the proper Senfe. The Emphafis ufed aDrn n (pvarts^ 
Nature ITSELFy fhews that the Apoftle does not 
mean Cujlom, but Nature in the proper Senfe. It 
is true, it was long Cuftom, that made having the 
Head covered a Token of Subjeftion, and a femi- 
nine Habit or Appearance ^ as it is Cuftom that 
makes any outwjud Aftion or Word a Sign Of 
Signification of any Thing : But Nature itfelf. Na- 
ture in its proper Senfe, teaches, that it is a Shame 
for a Man to appear with the eftablifhed Signs of 
the Female Sex, and with Significations of Infe- 
riority, &c. As Nature itfelf fhews it to be a 
Shame for a Father to bow down or kneel to his 
* own Child or Servant, or for Men to bow to an 
Idol, becaufe bowing down is by Cuftom ati 
eftablifhed Token or Sign of Subjedtion and Sub- 
miflion : Such a Sight therefore would be unna^ 
tural, Jhocking to a Man's very Nature. So Na- 
ture would teach, that it is a Shame for a Woman 
to ufe fuch and fuch lafcivious Words or Geflurc5, 
though it be Cuftom, that cftablifhes the unclean 
Signification of thofe Gcfhires and Sounds. 

It is particularly unnatural and unreafonable, tQ 
underftand the Phrafe, tbkvx ^va&^ in this Place^ 
any otherwife than in the proper Senfe, on the folr 
lowing Accounts. 1. It may be obferved, that 
both the Words, riy.voc and (f uo-;?, in their original 
Signification, have Reference to the Birth or Ge- 
neration. So the Word (p^jc-^-, which comes from 
9'jw, which fignifies to beget or bring forth Young, 


Chap. ni. I All in their firfi State Wicked. i 85 

Se£i. III. ) 

or to put forth, or bud forth as a Plant, that brings 
forth young Buds and Branches. And fo the 
Word TBTtyov comes from T^scT&r, which fignifies to 
bring forth Children. — 2. As though the Apoftle 
took Care by the Word ufed here, to fignify what 
we are by Birth, he changes the Word he ufed 
before for Children, In the preceding Verfe he 
ufed yw/, fpeaking of the Children of Difobe- 
dience ; but here Tgxi^a, which is a Word derived, 
as was now obferved, from nycrco to bring forth a 
Child, and more properly fignifies a begotten or 
horn-Child. — 3, It is natural to fuppofe that the 
Apoflile here fpeaks in Oppofition to the Pride c£ 
fome, efpecially the Jews^ (for the Church in Epbe- 
Jus was made up partly of Jews^ as well as the 
Church in Rome), who exalted themfelves in the 
Privileges they had by Birth^ becaufe they were 
horn the Children of Abraham^ and were Jews by 
Nature^ (pvtrei Wa;e?/, as the Phrafe is. Gal. ii. 1 5, 
In Oppofition to this proud Conceit, he teaches 
the Jews^ that notwithftanding this they were by 
Nature Children of Wrath, even as others, i. e. as 
well as the Gentiles, which the Jews had beea 
taught to look upon as Sinners, and out of Favour 
with God by Nature, and born Children of Wraths 
— 4. It is more plain, that the Apoftle ufes the 
Word Nature in its proper Senfe here, becaufe te 
fcts what they were by Nature, in Oppofition to 
what they are by Grace, In this Verfe, the Apoftle 
fliews what they are by Nature, viz. Children* of 
Wrath ; and in the following Verfcs he fliews, 
how very difFerept- their State is by Grace ; laying, 
ver. 5. By Grace ye are faved; repeating It again 
ver. 8. By Grace ye are fayed. But if, by being 
Children of Wrath by Nature, were meant no 
more than only their being really and truly Chil- 
dren of Wrath, as Dr. T. fuppofes^^ there would be 


ii6 Pmf from Ep|i. ii, 3, ire. Fdrttti 

no Oppofition in the Signification of thefePhrales) 
for in this Senfe they were hy Nature in a State of 
Salvation^ as much as by Nature Children of JVratb : 
for they were truly^ really^ and properly in a Stattf 
of Salvation. 

If we take thcfe Words with the Context, tfatf 
whole abund^itly proves, that by Nature we are*' 
totally corrupt^ without any good Thing in us. 
For if we allow the pliun Scope of the Place, 
without attempting to hide it, by extreme Violence 
ufed with the Apoftle's Words and Expreflions^ 
die Defign here is ftrongly to eftablilh this Point $ 
That what Chriftians have that is good in them^ 
or in their State, is in no Part of it naturally in 
themfelves, or from themfelves, but is wboUf 
from divine Grace^ all the Gift of God^ and InS 
fForkmanfbip^ the Effeft of his Power, and free 
and wonderful Love : None of our good JV'orks are 
primarily from ourfelves, but with refpeft to them 
all, we are God^s Workmanfhipj created unto good 
Works ^ as it were out of Nothing : Not fo much 
as Faith itfelf^ the firft Principle of good Works 
in Chriftians, is of themfelves, but that is the Gift 
of God. Therefore tlie Apoftle compares the Work 
of God, in forming Chriftians to true Virtue and 
Holinefs, not only to a new Creation^ but a Refur^ 
reiliony or raifing from the Dead. ver. r. Tou bath 
he quickened^ who were dead in Trefpajfes and Sins. 
And again, ver. 5. Even when we were dead in 
SinSy hath quickened us together with Chrifl. In 
fpeaking of Chriftians being quickened with Chrift, 
the Apoftle has Reference to what he had faid 
before, in the latter Part of the foregoing Chapter, 
of God*s manifefting the exceeding Greatnefs of bis 
Power towards Chriftian Converts in their Con- 
verfion, agreeable to the Operation of his mighty 


Ciiap. M.\ AAm their firjt Stuta Wicked, lii / ' 

Power ^ when be raifed Ckrift from the Dead. S6 
that it is piain by every Thing in this Difcourfej 
the Apoflie would fignify, that by Nature we havtJ 
no Goodnefs. ; but are as deftitute of k as a dead 
Coipib ifi of Life : And that all Goodnefs, all good 
Works, and Faith the Principle of all, arc pert eftly 
the Gift of God's Gcace, and the Work of his great^ 
almighty, and exceeding excellent Powen I think, 
there can be need of Nothing but reading the 
Chapter, and mindii^ what is »bad, to convince 
all who have common Underftanding, of thiS"). 
whatever any of the moft fubtil Criticks have donc^ 
or ever can do, to twift, rack, perplex, and pervert 
the Words and Phrafes here ufed- 

Vk. T. here again infifts^ that the ApoIHe fpeaks 
pnly of the Gentiles in their heathen State, when 
he ^aks of thofe that were dead in Sin, and ly 
Nature Children of fVratb ; and that though he 
feems to include himfclf among thefe, fayirrg,. WE 
were by Nature Children of Wrath^ WE were dead 
in Sins ; yet he only puts himfclf among them be- 
caufe ^e was the Apoftle of the Gentiles. The 
grols A;bfurdity of which may appear feom what 
was faid before. But befides the Things which 
have been already obferved, there are feme Things 
which make it peculiarly unreafonable to under- 
ftand it fo here. It is true, the greater Part of" 
the Church of Ephefus had been Heathens, and 
therefore the Apoftle often has Reference to thdr 
heathen State, in this Epiftle. But the Words ia 
this Chap. ii. 3. plainly ihew, that he means himr- 
felf and other Jews in Diftinftion from the Gen-^ 
tiles'!, for the Diftindion is fully exprefled. After 
he had told the Ephejians^ who had been generally 
Heathen, that they had been diead in Sin, and 
had walked according to the Cbielje-of this World, 

aSS Proof from Eph. ii. ^, &c. 1^ tt; 

&c. ven I and 2* he makes a Diftin^ion^ ^^^t^VSf 
jhnong whom WE ALSO had our Converfationj 06c. 
md were by Nature Children of Wratb^ EVEN 
AS OTHERS. Here firft he changes the Peribn > 
whereas, before he had fpoken in die fecond Per- 
oily TE were dead^ — TE in Time paft walked^ &c. 
ihow he changes Sdle, and ufes the firik PerlfM!^ 
in a moil manifeit Diftinfbion, Among whom HfE 
ALSOy that is, we Jews^ as well as ye Gentiles : 
not only changing the Perfon, but adding a Par-' 
tide of Diftinftion, Alfo ; which would be Non- 
^^ie, if he meant the fame without Diilindi<Hi. 
And befides all this, more fully to eicpreis the 
Diftinftion, the Apoftle further adds a Pronoun rf 
biftinftion ; WE alfo, even as OTHERS, or, wc 
as well as others : Moft evidently having rcfyddi 
to the Notions, fo generally entertained by the 
Jews J of their being much better than the GeftHles^ 
in being Jews by Nature^ Children of Abrabam, 
and Children of God; when they fuppoled the 
Gentiles to be utterly call off, as born Aliens, and 
by Nature Children of Wrath : In Oppofition to 
this, the Apoftle fays, ' We Jews, ^ter all our 
' glorying in our Diftindtion, were by Naturt 
■ Children of Wrath, as well as the reft of the 
• WorW And a yet further Evidence, that the 
Apoftle here means to include the Jews, and even 
himfelf, is the univerfal Term he ufes. Among 
whom alfo we ALL had our Converfation, &c. Tho* 
Wickednefs was fuppofed by the Jews to be the 
Courfe of this World, as to the Generality of Man- 
kind, yet they fuppofed themfelves an exempt 
People, at leaft the Pharifees, and the devout Oo- 
fervers of the Law .of Mofes, and Traditions of the 
Elders ; whatever might be thought of Publicans 
and Harlots. But in Oppofition to this, the Apo- 
ftle aiierts, that tbq all were no better by Nature 


■■•>< ijjl /» their Jrfi State Wicked. ^89 

than, others, but were to be reckoned amonor the 
CiiUren of Difobedience^ and Children of. Wrath. ' 

' And then befidcs, if the Apoftle chufes to put 
himfelf among the Gentiles^ becaufe he was the 
Apoftle of the Gentiles^ I would afk, why does he 
not do fo in the 1 1 th Verfe of the fame Chapter, 
where he fpeaks of their Gentile State exprelsly ? 
Remember that TE being in Time pafi Gentiles in 
the Flejh. Why does he here make a Diftinftion 
between the Gentiles dnd himfclf ? Why did he 
not fay. Let tls remember, that w^ being in Time 
paft Gentiles ? And why does the fame ApolBc^' 
even univerfally, make the fame Diftinftion, fpeak-- 
ing either in the fecond or third Perfon^ and never 
in the firft, where he exprefsly fpeaks of the Gen-- 
tilifm of thofe that he wrote tO; or fpeaks of 
them with Reference to their Diftinta:ion from the 
Jews ? So every where in this fame Epiftle ; as 
in Chap. i. 12, 13. where the DiftinftiOn is madd 
juft in the fame Manner as here, by the Change' 
of the Perfon, and by the diftinguilhing Particle, 
Alfo. That JVEfhouldbe to the Praife of his Glory 
tvho firji trUjled in Chriji^ (the firft Believers iix 
Chrift being of the Jews^ before the Gentiles were 
called) in whom TE ALSO trufied^ after that ye 
beard the Word of Truths tJM Gofpel of your Salva^ 
tion. And in all the follo^^ Part of this fecond 
Chapter, as ver. 11, 17, 19, and 22. in which laft 
Verfe the fame diftinguiftiing Particle aigain is 
ufed ; In whom TE ALSO are builded together for 
an Habitation of God through the Spirit. See alfo 
the following Chapters % Chap. \\u 6. and iv. 

17. And not only in this Epiftle, but conftantly 
in other Epiftles •, as Rom. i. 12, 13. Chap, xi. 

13, 14, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 2$, 

io, 31. Chap. XV. 15, 16. i Cor. xii. 2. Gal. iv, ^^ 

U . - GoU 

290 Proof from Rom. vii. 5, 14, (^e. Part VL 

Col. L 27. Chap. ii. 13. i Thcff. i. 5, 6, 9^ 
Chap. ii. 13, 14, 15, 16. 

Though I am far from thinking our Author^s 
Expofition of the vii*^ Chap, of Romans to be in 
any wife agreeable to the true Senfe of the ApofUe, 
yet it is needlefs here to ftand particularly to exa- 
mine it ; becaufe the Doftrine of Original Sin may 
be argued not the lefs flrongly, though we fliould 
1,;^^ allow the Thing wherein he mainly differs from 
• ''V fuch as he oppotes in his Interpretation, viz. That 
•^t^ the Apoftle does not fpeak in his own Name, or 
to rcprefent the State of a true. Chriltian, but as 
*• t ^'cprcfcnting the State of the Jews under the Law4 
For even on this Suppofition, the Drift of the 
Place will prove, that every one who is under 
the Law, and with equal Reafon every one of 
Mankind, is carnal^ fold under Sin^ in his firft 
State, and till delivered by Chrift. For it is plain, 
that the Apoftle's Defign is to fliew the Infuffi- 
ciency of the Law to give Life to any one what- 
foever. This appears by what he fays when he 
comes to draw his Conclufion, in the Continuation 
of this Difcourfe ; Chap. viii. 3. * For what ibe 
Law could not doj in that it was weak through the 
Flefb ; God fending his own Son^ (dc. Our Author 
fuppofes, this here fodcen of, viz. " that the Law 
" cannot give Life,ffc^:aufe it is weak through 
*' the Flelh," is true with refpeft to every one of 
Mankind -f. And when the Apoftle gives this 
Reafon, In that it is weak through the Flefh^ it is 
plain, that by the Flefh^ which here he oppofes to 
the Spirit^ he means the fame Thing which in the 


* Dr. 7. himfelf reckons this a Part of the fame Difcourfe 
or Paragraph, in the Divifion he makes of the Epiftle, ia hi» 
Paraphrafi and Notes upon it. 

t See Nott on Rom. y. 20. 


Chap. Ill ) All in their firfi State Wicked, igi 
Sea. III. \ ^ 

preceding Part of the fame t)ifcourfe, in the fore- 
going Chapter, he had called by the Name Flejh^ 
ver. 5, 14, 18. and the Laijo of the Member s^ ven 
23. and the Body of Heathy ycr. 24. Which is the 
Thing that through this Chapter he infifts on as 
the grand Hindrance ^ and Reafon why the Law 
could not give Life, juft as he does in his Conclu- 
fion. Chap. viii. 3. Which in this laft Place, is 
given as a Reafon why the Law cannot give Life 
to any of Mankind. And it being the fame Reafon j- 
of the fame T'hingj fpoken of%tn the fame Dif ^ 
eeurfsy in the fwrner Part of it ; as appears, be- # • 
caufe this laft Place is the Conclufion, of which ^ 
that former Part is the Premifes : And inaimuch ^ 
as the Reafon there given is being in the Fleft)^ and 
a being carnal^ fold under Sin : Therefore taking 
the whole of the Apoftle*s Difcourfe, this is juftly 
underftood to be a Reafon why the Law cannot 
give Life to any of Mankind ; and confequently, 
that all Mankind are in the Flelh^ and are carnal^ 
fold under Sin^ and fo remain till delivered by 
Chrift: And confequently, all Mankind in their 
firft or original State are very finful ; which wa* 
the Thing to be proved.- 


U a CHAPj 

29Z Remarks on Dr. T— r*s Part IL 

C H A P. IV. 

Containing Obfervatiom on Rom. v. 12. to 

the End^ 

S E C T. I. 

Rtmarks on Dr. T—r's IVay of explaining this 



THE following Things are worthy to be 
taken Notice of, concerning our Author's 
Ejcpofition of this remarkable PafTage of the Apo^ 
ftle Paul. 

L He gteatly infijUs^ that by Death in this 
Place no more is meant, than that Death which 
we all die, when this prefent Life is extinguilhed^ 
and the Body returns to the Duft ^ that no more 
is meant in the 12, 14, 15, and 17th Verfes. P. 27. 
he i^peaks of it as evidently, clearly, and infallibly 
fo, becaufe the Apoftle is ftill difcourfmg on the 
fame Subjeft; plainly implying, that it muft moft 
infallibly be fo, that the Apoftle means no more 
by Death, throughout this Paragraph on the Sub- 
jedt. But as infalliUe as this is, if we believe 
what Dr. T. elfewliCTe fays, it muft needs be 
otherwife- He, in p. 120. S. Ipeaking of thofe 
Words in the laft Verfe of the next Chapter, The 
Wages of Sin is BEATH, but the Gift of God is 
ETERNAL LIFE, through Jefus Chrift our Lord, 
fays, " Death in this Place is widely different 
*' from the Death we now die ; as it ftands there 
eppofed to eternal Life, which is the Gift of God 
through Jefus Chrift, it manifeftly fignifies eter- 
\[ nal Beathy the fecond Death, or Aat Death 

- " which 

Chap. IV. 1 Escplanation of Rom* v. 12, &c, 293 

Sect* X« J 

** which they Ihall hereaftet irV, who live after 
" the Flefh." But Death, (in the Conclufion d£ 
the Paragraph we arc upon in the 5th Chapter, 
concerning the Death that conges by Adam) and 
die Life that cofties by Chrift, in the laft Verfe of 
the Chapter, is appofed to eternal Life juft in the 
feme Manner as it is in the laft Verfe of the next 
Chapter: STi^tf/ as Sin has reigned unto DEATfi^ 
even fo might Grace reign^ through Righteoufnefsj 
unto ETERNAL LIFE, by Jefus Chrift our Lord. 
So that by our Author's own Argument, D^th 
in this Place alfo is manifeftly widely different from 
the Death we now die, as it ftands here opfvfed to 
eternal Life, through Jefus Chrift : and ftgnifUs 
eternal Death, the fecond Death. And yet this is 
a Part of the fame Difcourfe or Paragraph with 
that begun in the 12 th Verfe, as reckoned by Dr. 
T. himfelf in his Divifion of Paragraphs, in his 
Paraphrafe and Notes on the Epiftle. So that if 
we will follow him, and admit his Reafonings in 
the various Parts of his Book, here is manifeft 
Proof againft- infallible Evidence ! So that it is 
true, the Apoftle throughout this whole Paflage 
on the fame Subjeft, by Death, evidently, clearly, 
and infallibly means no more than that Death we 
pow die, when this Life is extinguift)e4 -, and yet 
by Death, in fome Part of this Paff^ge, is meant 
Ibmething widely different from the Death we now 
die, and is MANIFESTLY intended eternal Death, • 
the fecond Death. 

But had our Author been more confiftent witji 
himfelf in his laying of it down as fo certain and 
infallible, that becaufe the' Apoftle has a fpecial 
Refpedt to temporal Death, in the 14th Verfe, 
Death reigned from Adam to Mofes, therefore he 
mean$ no more in the feveral confecjuent JP^rts of 

U 3 ^Wi 


^94. - Remarks en Dr. T— I's Part II, 

this Paflage, yet he is doubtlefs too conBdent artd 
pofitive in this Matter. This is no more evident^ 
deary and infallibUy than that Chrift meant no 
more by pertjhing^ in Luke xiii. 5. when he fays, 
/ tell yoUy Najy hut except ye repent^ ye fi>all all 
likewife perijh ; than fuch a temporal Death, as 
came on thofc that died by the Fall of the Tower 
of Siloamy fpoken of in the preceding Words of 
the fame Speech ; and no more infallible, than 
that by Life^ Chrift means no more than this tem- 
poral Life, in each Part of that one Sentence, 
Matth. X. 39. He that findetb his Life JhaU lofe 
it ; and be that lofeth bis Life for my Sake^ foaU 
find it i bccaufe in the firft Part of each Clauie^ he 
has Relpe£t efpecially to temporal Life *. 

The Truth of the Cafe, with refped to wliat 
the Apoftle intends by the Word Death in this 
Place, is this, viz. That the fame Thing is meant, 
that is meant by Death in the foregoing and fol- 
lowing Parts of this Epiftle, and other Writings of 


* There are many Places parallel with thefe, as John xi. 
35» 26. I am thi Refurre^ion^ and the Lift: He thai belirveth iu 
me J f hough he txtere deai^ yet Jhall he linje : And ixhofiever Ihieth^ 
and heiieveth in me^ Jhall nt'ver (Re, Here both the WtM%^ 
Lifet and Death,' are ufed with this Variation ; I eum the Re- 
fwreBion and the Life, meaning fpiritual and eternal Lilt; 
Be thai helie^tth in me, though he ivere dead, having Rcfpefi to 
temporal Death, yet Jhall he li*ve, with refpedl to fpiritual Lift, 
and the Reftoration of the Life of the Body. And ^wbofee'ver 
liveth and hetteveth in me, Jhall never die, meaning a fpiritusd and 
eternal Death. So in Johp vi. 49, 50. Tour Fathers did eat 
Joanna in the Wildernefs, and are dead, having refpeQ chiefly to 
temporal Death. T/'/j is the Bread nvhich cometh donvn /hm 
Heiwen, that a Man may eat thereof, and not die, i. e. by the 
Lofs of fpiritual Life, apd by eternal Death. (See alfo ver. 58.) 
And in the next Vcrfe, If any Man eat of this Bread, be Jhall 
lii/e for e^ver, have eternal Life. So ver. 54. See another like 
Inftance, John v. 24 — 29. • 

Chap. IV. I Explanation efKoixtf v* 12, &c. 295 

Sed, I. 3 

this Apoftlc, where he fpeaks of Death as the 
Confequence of Sin, namely, the Whole of that 
Death, which He, and the Scripture every where, 
fpeaks of as the proper Wages and Punifhment of 
Sin, including Death, temporal, fpiritual, and eterrr 
nal; though in fome Parts of this Difcourfe he 
has a more fpecial refped to one • Part of thi3 
Whole, in others to another, as his Argument 
leads him ; without any more Variation than i^ 
common in the fame Difcourfe. That Life, which 
the Scripture fpeaks of as the Reward of Righ-? 
teoufnefs, is a Whole containing feveral Parts, 
viz. The Life of the Body, Union of Soul and 
Body, and the mofl: perfedt Senfibility, Adlivity, 
and Felicity of both, which is the chief Thing. 
In like Manner the Death, which the Scripture 
ipeaks t>f as the Puniftiment of Sin, is a Whole 
including the Death of the Body, and the Death 
of the Soul, and the eternal, fenfible, perfe(3: De- 
Itruftiori an4 Mifery of both. It is this latter 
Whole, that the Apoftle Ipeaks of by the Name 
of Death in this Difcourfe, in Rom. v. though 
in fome Sentences he has a more fpecial Relped: 
to one Part, in others to another : And this, with- 
out changing th^ Sijgnification of the Word. For 
an having Refpedt to feveral Things included in 
the extenfive Signification of the Word, is not the 
fame Thing as pfing the Word in feveral diftindt 
Significations. As for Jnftaijce, the Appellative, 
Many or the proper Name of any particular Man, 
is the Name of a Whole, including the different 
P^rts of Soul and Body. And if any one in fpeak- 
ing of James or John, fhould fay, hp was a wife 
il^», and a beautiful Man 5 in the forrner Part of 
the Sentence, Refpeft wouldi be had more efpe- 
cially to his Soul, in the latter to his Body, in the 
Word Man : But yet without any proper Change 

U4 rf 

iar the 5ignificatJ6n of Ac Name w diftinft Senfes, 
In John xxi. 7. it is faid, Peter was naked, ind in 
^the following Part of tlie ^Jf&tee Story it is faid, 
'ipetcr was ' grieved. ' In the former Propofition, 
Rclpedt js^ nad efpecially to his B6dy, in the 
latter to his Soul : But yet here is ho proper 
^Change of the Meaning of the Name, Peter. 
And as to the Apoftle's Ufe of the Word Deatb^ 
in the Paffage now under Confideration, on the 
Suppofition that he in general means the whofe'of 
that Peath, which is the Wages of Sin, there is 
nothing but what is perfeftly natural in fuppbfing 
that he, in order to evince, that Death,-* the pro- 
per Punifhment of Sin, comes on iall Mankmd, 
. m Confequence of Adam^s Sin, fhould take Notice 
of that Part of this Punifhment, which is vifiblc 
in this World, and which every Body therefore 
fees does in Faft come on all Mankind, (as in 
ver. 14.) and from thence fhould infer, tKat all 
Mankind are expofcd to the Whole of that Death 
which is the proper Punifliment of Sin, whereof 
that temporal Death which is vifible, is a Part, 
and a vifible Image of the Whole, and (unlefs 
changed by divine Grace) an Introduftion to 
the principal, and infinitely the moft dreadful 

II. Dr. 5r— Vs Explanation of this PafTa^ makes 
wholly infignificant thofe firfl Words, By one Man 
Sin entered into the World, arid leaves this Propo- 
fition without any Senfe or Signification at all. 
The Apoflle had been largely and elaborately re^ 
prefenting, how the whole World was full i>i Sin, 
in all Parts of it, both among Jews and gentiles, 
and all expofed to Death and Condemnation. It 
is plain, that in thefe Words he would tell us how 
this came to pafs, namely, that this forrowful 


Sed« I* J 

Event came by one Many even the.firft Man. 
That the World was full of Sin, and full of 
Death, were two great and notorious Fadts, deepljt 
afie&ing the Interefts o£ Mankind; and tfaef 
foemed very wonderful .Fa£bs, drawing the Atten- 
tion of the more thinking Part of Mankind evciy 
where, who ofteff ^ikfcd this Queftion, WbmcB 
con^s Evily moral and natural Evil ? (the latter 
chiefly vifible in .Death.) It i^ manifeft, the Apo* 
file. here means to tell us, how thefe came into 
the World, and came to prevail in it as they do. 
But all that is meant, according to Dr. fT— rr's 
Interpretation, is " He begun Tranfgrejfwn*^ * As 
-if all that the Apoftle meant, was, to tell us. who 
happened to fin firft; not how fuch a Malady 
came upon the World, or how any one in the 
World, befides Adam himfelf, came by fuch a 
.Diftemper. Thci Word$ of the Apoitie, By 4fne 
Man Sin. entered jmo THE IFORLD, and Death 
iy StHy. fliew the Defign to be, to tell us how 
Jiefe Evils came, as affefting .the State of the 
Wfirld'j and not only as reaching, one Man in the 
World. If. this were not plain enough in itfelf, 
the Words immediately following depwnftrate it ; 
. And fo Death faffed upon ALL MEN^ for that 
all have finned. By Sitis being in the Worlds the 
Apoftle does not mean being in the World only 
in that one Inftance of Adanf^ firft Tranigreflion, 
but being abroad in the Worlds among the Inha- 
. bitants of the Earth, in a wide Extdnt^, ^ and con- 
, tinued Series of Wickednefs ; as is plain in the 
.firft Words of the next Verfe, For until the Law^ 
Sin was IN THE WORLD. And therefore when 
he gives us an Account how it came to be in the 
Worlds or, which is the fame Thing, how it entered 


* Page 56, 

39S Remarks m Dr. T-^r^s Part n. 

intff the. ff^orUy he does not mean only coming is 
in one Inftance. 

-• « 

If the Cafe were as Dr. 9\ reprefents, that the 
Sin of Adamy either in its Pollution or Puniftitnent, 
reached none but himfelf, any more than the Sia 
of any other Man, it would . bfe no more pn^r 
to fay^ that iy one Man Sin entered into the H^ld^ 
than if it ihould be inquired, how Mankind came 
into America^ and there had anciently been a Ship 
of the Pbeni4:ians wrecked at Sea, and a fingte 
Man of the Crew was driven afhore on this Con- 
tinent, and here died as ibon as he reached the 
Shore, it fhould be faid. By that one Man Mam- 
Und catne into America. 

And befides, it is not true, that by one Afm^ 
or by Adantj Sin entered into the World, in Dr, 
^— r's Senfe : For it was not he, but Eve^ that 
t^n Tranjgreffion. By one Man Dr. T. under- 
ftands Adam^ as the Figure of Chrift. And it is 
plain, that it was for his Tranfgrefl[k>n, and not 
£t;tf*s, that the Sentence of Death was pronounced 
on Mankind after the Fall, Gen. iii. 19. It app^rs 
unreafonabk to fuppofe the Apoille n^eans to in- 
elude Eve^ when he fpeaks of Adam ; for he lays 
great Strefs on it, that it was BT ONE^ repeating 
it feveral Times. 

III. In like Manner this Author brings to No- 
thing the Senfe of the caufal Particles, in foch 
Phrafes as thefe, fo often repeated. Death BT Sin^ 
ver. 12. If THROUGH the Offence ofcne^ trntrf be 
deady ver. 15. BT one that firmed^ — Judgment was 
BT ^ne to Condemnation^ ver. 1 6. BT one Man's 
Offence J Death reigned BT one^ ver. ij. BT the 
Offence of one^ Judgment came upon alh ^c. ver. 1 8. 


€!iap. iV. ) EnpUmatiM ff Rom. <y< 1 2 , &c . 299 

BTcne Marfs DifihiditKce. ven i9«. . Thefe cau&l 
Particles, fo dwelt upon, and io varioufly repeated, 
unleis we make mere Nonfenle of the Dilcourfe, 
fignify fome Conneftion and Dependence, by fome 
Sort c^ Influence of diat Sia of one Man, or fome 
Tendency to that Efied;, which is fo often faid to 
come 57* it. But' according to Dr. T. there can 
be no real Dependence or Influence in the Cafe 
of any Sort whadbcver. There is qo Conned:ion 
by any natural Influence of that one A£b to make 
all Mankind mortal Our Author does not pre- 
tend to account for this Efie^St in any fuch Manner, 
but in another molt diyerfe, viz. A gracious Aft 
of God, laying Mankind under Afilidion, Toil, 
and Death, from fpecial Favour and Kindnefs. 
Nor can there be any Dependence of this Effeft 
on that Tranigrefllon oi,Jfdam^ by any mvral In- 
fluence, as deferving fuch a Confequence, or ex- 
pofing to it on any moral yi^cmnt ; For he fup- 
poies, that Mankind are not in this Way expofed 
to the leafl: Degree of Evil. Nor has this Efieft 
any legal Dependence on that Sin, or any Con- 
nedkion by Virtue of any antecedent Conftitution, 
which God had eftabliihed with Adam: For he 
inMs, that in that Threatening, In the Day tbeu 
€at0 thoujhalt die^ there is not a Word ikid of his 
Ppftciityi p. 8* And Death on Mankind, accord- 
itig to him, cannot come by Virtue of that legal 
Conflitution with Adam\ becaufe the Sentence oy 
wjhich it came, was after the annulling and abo- 
Jilhing that Conftitution ; p. 113. ^. And it is 
manifeft, that this Confequence cannot be through 
any Kind of tendency of tnat Sin to fuch an Effed ; 
becaufe the Effect comes only as a Benefit, and is 
the Fruit of mere Favour : But Sin has no Ten- 
dency, either natural or morale to Benefits and 
divine favours. And thus that Sin q£ Adam coiihl 


300 Runarkf oh Br, T— **« Part 11, 

ndther be the effixient Caufe, nor the procuring 
Caufe, neither the natural^ morale nor legal Cauie^ 
nor an exciting and moving Caufe, any more than 
jiiani% eating of any other Tree of the Garden. 
And the only real Relation that the EfFeft can 
have to that Sin^ is a Relation as to Time, vi^. 
that it is after it. And when the Matter is clofe^ 
examined, the whole amounts to no more than 
tbk^ That God is pleafed, of his mere good Will 
and Plcafure, to beftow a greater Favour upon us, 
than he did upon Adam in Innocency, after tbst 
Sin of his eating the forbidden Fruit ; which- Sin 
we are no more concerned in, than in the Sin of 
the King of Pegu^ or Emperor of China. 

IV. It is altogether inconfiftent with the Apo^ 
ftle*s Scope, and the Import of what he fays, to 
fuppofe that the Death which he here fpeaks of, as 
coming on Mankind by Adamh Sir^, comes not a$ 
a Punilhment, but only as a Favoun It quite 
makes void the Oppofition, in which the Apoftle 
fets the Confequences of Adan^s Sin^ and the Con- 
fequences of the Grace and Rigbteoufnefs of Chriji. 
They are fet in Oppofition to each other, as oppo^ 
lite EfFefts, arifing from oppofite Caufes, through- 
out the Paragraph : One as the juji Confequeme of 
an Offence^ the other a free Gift^ ver. 15,16, 17, 
1 8. Whereas, according to this Scheme, there is 
no fuch Oppofition in the Cafe -, both are Benefits, 
and both are free Gifts. A very wholelbme Me- 
dicine to fave from perilhing, ordered by a kind 
Father, or a Shield to preferve from an Enemy, 
beftowed by a Friend, is as much a free Gift as 
pleafant Food. The Death that comes by Adam^ 
is fet in Oppofition to the Life and Happinefs that 
comes by Chrifl:, as being the Fruit of 5/», and 
Judgment for Sin ; when the latter is the Fruit of 


Chap. IV. 7 Explanation ofVLoiA. V, 12, &c. 301 

jiivine Grace^ ver. 15, 17, 20, 21. Whereas, accor- 
ding to our Author, both came by Grace : Death 
comes on Mankind by the free Kindnefs and Dave 
of God, much more truly and properly than by 
jldam^s Sin. Dr. 7*. fpeaks of it as coming by OC- 
CASION of Adam's Sin. (But as I have obferved, 
it is an Occafion without any Influence.) Yet the 
proper CAUSE is God's Grace : So that the true 
Caufe is wholly good. Which, by die Way, is di- 
redly repugnant to the Apoftle*s Doftrine in Rom, 
vii. 13. ff^as then that which is goody made Death 
unto me ? God forbid. But Sin^ that it might <ap^ 
pear Sin^ working Death in me by that which h 
good. Where the Apoftle utterly rgefts any fuch 
Suggeftion, as though that which is . good were 
the proper Caufe of Death \ and fignifies, that Sin 
is the proper Chufe^ and- that which is good^ only 
the Occafion. But accoTflhg -to this Author, the 
Reverie is true : That which IS good in the highefl: 
Senfe, even the Love of God, and a divine gra- 
cious Conftitution, is the proper Caufe of Death, 
and Sin only the Occafion. 

But to return, it is plain, that Death by Adam^ 
and Life and Happinefs by Chriji^ are here fet in 
Oppofition-, the latter being fpoken of as goodj the 
other as evil ; one as the Effeft of Righteoufnefs, 
the other of an Offence 5 one the Fruit of Ohe^ 
dience^ the other of Difobedience j one as the Fruit 
of Godh Favour y in Confequence of what was 
pleafing and acceptable to him, but the other the 
Fruit of his Difpleafure^ in Confequence of what 
was difpleafing and hateful to him; the latter 
coming by Juftification^ the former by the Condemn 
nation oi the Subjedt But according to the Scheme 
of our Author, there can be no Oppofition in any 
of thefc Refpefts : The Death here Ipoken o^ 
' neither 

30Z Remarks on Dr. T — r*» Pari IL 

neither comes as. an Evil^ nor from an evil Qmfo^ 
cither an evil efficient Caufe^ or procuring Canfe i, 
nor at ail as any 1 eftimony of God^s Difpleafure 
to the Sub)e4^ but as properly the Effed cdP God's 
FavoUTy no lefs thiui that which is fpoken of a^ 
coming by Chrift \ yea, aiid as much as thaty ap- 
pointed by w Aa of JUSTIFICATION of the 
Subje<% ; a$ Ive underftands aad explatn» the Word 
Juftification : For both are by a Grant of Favour^ 
and are Inftanccs of Mercy and Goodnefe*^ Atd 
he does abundantly infift upon it> that ''ANY 
Grant of J?avour, ANY finance of ^ercy 
and Goodneis^ whereby God delivers and ex- 
empts from any Kind (£ Danger, Sufiering^ or 
Calamity, or confers ANY Favour, Bleffing^ or 
Privilege^ is called Juftification^ in the: Scripture* 
" Sent and life of the Word." * • 



And over and above all thcfe Things^ oor 
Author makes void and deftroys the o:rand and 
fundamental Oppofition of all, to illuftrate which 
is the chief Scope of this whole Paffage, viz. That 
between the Jirft and fecond Adam^ in the "Death 
that comes by one^ and the Life and Happinefs by 
the otber^ For, according to his Dodrine, hoth 
come by Cbrifty the fecond Adam\ both by his 
Grace, Righteoufnefe, and Obedience : The Death 
that God fcntenced Mankind to in Gen^ ni. 19. 
being a great deal more properly and truly by 
Chrift, than by Adam. For, according to him». 
that Sentence was not pronounced on liie Foot 
of the Covenant with Ad^m^ becaufe that was 
abrogated, and entirely iet afide, as what vi^ ta 


* ^» 5 374» where it i» to be obferved, that he himfelf 
puts the Word ANY in Capital Letters. The fatcie Thing ia> 
Subftance is often aiTerted eliewhere. And this indeed k hi*> 
main Point in what he calls th $ru§ Go/pel'Scbfrng.. 

Chtp. IV, 7 Explanation ^feom. v, iS, i&c, 30 1 

Se6i. I. \ 

have no more EfFcd, before it was pronounced 5 
as he largely infifts for niany Pages together, p. 
113 — 119. S. He lays, p, 113. 5, " This Cove- 
^' nant with Adam was difannuUed immediately 
^^ after Adam finned. Even before God pafli&l 
** Sentence upon Adam^ Grace was introduced/* 
And in p* 119, 5. He fays, ** The Death that 
Mankind are the Subjeds of now, ftands under 
the Covenant of Grace." And in pu 120. & 
In the Counfel and Appointment of God, it 
flood in this very Light, even before the Sta- 
tence of Death was pronounced upon Adam \ 
and confequently. Death is no proper and legal 
Puniihmeat of Sn«" And he often infifts, that 
it comes only as a Favour and Benefit ; and flaad- 
ing, as he lays, under the Covenant of Grace, 
which i^ by Chrift, therefore is truly one of the 
Benefits of the new Covenant, which comes bj 
Chrifl, the fecond Adam. For he himfelf is full 
in it, to ufe his own Words *, *' Tbat ail die 
*' Grace of the Gofpel is difpenfed to us, IN, 
*' BY or THROUGH the Son of God." ^ No- 
*' thing is clearer (fays he -f) from the whok 
Current of Scripture, than that all the Mocy 
and Love of God, and all the Blefliags of dae 
Gofpel, from firfl: to lafl, are IN, BY, and 
THROUGH Chrifl, and particularly by his 
^' Blood, by the Redemption that is in binou 
*' This (fays he) can bear no Dilpute amonjg 
** Chriftians.'* What then beconaes of all this. 
Difcourfe of the Apoflle's, about the great Dif- 
ference and C^:{K>fition between Adam and Chrifi:^ 
as Death is by one, and eternal Life and Hap- 
{xnefs by the other f This grand Diflindion be- 
tween the two Adams^ and all the other Inftances 
of Oppofition and Difference here infifled on, as 


* Kiy, Chap. viii. Title, p. 44. t J^cy* $ H5- ^ 


3^4 Remarks on Dr. T — r*s l^art ffr 

between the EfFefts of 5m and Rightioufnefs^ the 
Confequehces of Obedience and Bifobedience^ of the 
Offence and the free Gifty Judgment and Grace^ 
Condemnation and JuJiificatioHy they alt conie to 
Nothing : And this whole Difcoune of the Apo<» 
file's, wierein he feems to labour much, as it 'it 
were tjo fet forth fome very grand arid moft im- 
portant DiftinHions and Oppqfitions in the State' of^ 
Things, as derived from the two great Heads of 
Mankind, proves nothing but a Multitude qf 
Words without Meaning, or rather an Heap of 

V. Our Author's . own l)oftririe intirely ihtd^s 
*uoid what he fuppofes to be the Apoftle*s Argumtnt 
in the 13 th and 14th Verfes; in thefe Words, 
For until the Lavo^ Sin was in the World : but Sin 
is not imputed where there is no Law. Nevertbekfs 
Death reigned from Adam to Mofes, even over them 
that had not finned after the Similitude of Aizm'J 

What he luppofes the Apoftle would pirove 
here, is, that Death, or the Mortality of Mankind, 
comes only by Adamh Sin, and not by Men's 
perfonal Sin^ 5 and that it is here proved by this 
Argument, viz. Becaufe there was no Law, threat- 
ening Death to Adam's Pofterity for perfonal Sins^ 
before the Law of Mdfes ; but Death, or the Mor- 
tality of Adam*s Pofterity, took Place many Ages 
before the Law was given ; therefore Death 
could not be by any Law threatening Death for 
perfonal Sins, and confequently could be by No- 
thing but Adam's Sin *. On this I would ob-^ 

i. That 

* Page 40, 41, 42, 57. aiid oftcfl elfcwlierc. 

Chap.iy. ) Explanatiofi of '9.0m. v. 12, &c. J05 

Sedl. I. J 

I . I'hat which he fuppofes the Apoftle to take 
for a Truth in this Argument, vis^. That therd 
was no Law (f God in Being, by which Men were 
iexpofed to Death for perfdnal Sin^ duriijg the 
Time from "Adam to Mofes^ is neither true^ hof 
Agreeable to this Apoftle's own Doilriite- 

Firfi^ It is not true. For the Law of 'Nature^ 
tvHtten in Men's Hearts, was then in Being, and 
was a Law by which Men were expofcd to Death 
for perfonal Sin. That there was a divine Eftab- 
lifhmeht, fixing the Death and Deftruftioh of the 
Sinner, as the Confequence of peribrial Sift, which 
was well known before th^ giving of Mofts\% Law, 
is plain by many Paffages in the Book of Joh^ ai 
fully and clearly implying a; Conneftion between, 
fuch Sin and fuch a Punilhment, as any Paffage 
in the Law of Mofes : Such ^s that irr Job xxiv. 
19. "Drought and Heat confume the Snow-ff^ater's i 
fo doth the Grave them that have Jinfied. (Compare 
ver. 20 and 24.) Alfo Chap, xixxvi. 6. He prefer- 
*ueth not the Life of the Wicked. Chap. xxi. 29 — 32.' 
Have ye not ajked them that go by the Way ? and 
do ye not know their 'Tokens ? That the Wicked is 
referved to the Day of DeJlruSlion ; they fhall he 
brought forth to the Day of Wrath. Ver. 32. Hi 
fhall be brought to the Grave *. 

Secondly^ To fuppofe that there is no Law in 
Being, by which Men are expofed to Death for 
perfonal Sins, where or when a revealed LaW of 
God, before^ in, or after -Mofes*^ Time is not in 

X Bdngy 

* See alfo Job Tv. 7, 8, 9* Gha^. xV. 17 — 35. Ghap. xviii. 
5 — 21. xix. 29. and xx. 4 — 8. and ver. 23— 29.. Chap. XXi^ 
16 — 18. 20—26. xxii. 13 — 20. and xxvii. 11. to the. End. 
Chap. xxxi. 3, 23. xxxiii. 18,22, 23, 24, 28, 30. xxxiv. 11/ 
lli-^26. xxxvii. i2i i8i 19, 20. and xxxviij/ i^. 

^o6 Remarks en Dr. T — r's Part IL 

Being, is contrary to this Apoftle^s own DvEfrine in 
this Epiftle. Rom. ii. 12, 14, 15. For as many as 
havejinmd without Law^ (ir e. the revealed Law) 
fiall perijb without Law. But how they can be 
expofed to die and perifh, who have not the Law 
of Mofes^ nor any revealed Law^ the Apoftle 
fhews us in the 1 4th and 1 5th Verfcs 5 viz. In 
that they have the Law of Nature, by which they 
fall under Sentence to this Punifhment. For when 
the Gentiles^ which have not the Law^ do by Na- 
ture the ^Things contained in the LaWy tbefe having 
not the Law J are a Law to tbemfelves j which Jhew 
the Work of the Law written in their Hearts ; their 
Confcience alfo hearing fVilnefs. — Their Confcience 
not only bore Witnefs to the Duty prefcribed by 
this Law, but alfo to the Punifhment before 
fpoken ofy as that which they who finned without 
Law, were liable to fufFer, viz. that they Ihould 
perifh. In which the Apoftle is yet more exprefs, 
Chap. i. 32. fpeaking more efpecially of the Hea- 
then, IVbo knowing the Judgment of God^ that they 
which commit fuch Things are worthy of Death, 
Dr. 7*. often calls the Law the Rule of Rjght\ and 
this Rule of Right fentenced thofe Sinners to 
Death, who were not under the Law of Mofes^ 
according to this Author's own Paraphrafe ot 
this Verfe, in thefe Words, " The Heathen were 
" not ignorant of the Rule of Rights which God 
" has implanted in the human Nature ; and which 
*• fhews that they which commit fuch Crimes, arc 
" deferving of Death.** And he himfelf fuppofes 
Abraham^ who lived between Adam and MofeSy 
to be under LaWy by which he would have been 
expofed to Punifhment without HopCj were it not 
for the Promife of Grace, — in his Paraphrafe on 
Rom. iv. 15, 


CTap.iV. 7 Explanation of Rom. v. 12, tec. 30 f 
Seft. I. J 

So that in our Author^s Way of explaining the 
Paflage before us^ the grand Argument^ whichi 
the Apoftle infifts upon here^ to prove his main 
Point, viz. that Death does not come by Men's 
perfonal Sins^ but by Aianfs Sin, becaufe it cam# 
before the Law was given, that threatened Death 
for perfonal Sin ; I fay, this Argument which Dr. 
ST. luppofes fo clear and ftrong *, is brought to 
. Nothing more than ^ mere Shadow without Sub-^ 
Itance; the very Foundation of the Argument 
having no Truth. To fay, there was no fuch Law 
actually exprefled in any ftanding Revelation^ 
would be mere trifling : For it no more appears^ 
that God would not bring temporal Death for per- 
fonal Sins, without a ftanding revealed Law 
threatening it, thai) that he would not br}ng 
eternal Death before there was a revealed Law 
threatening that: Which yet wicked Men that 
lived in Noab^s Time, were expofcd to, as appears 
by I Pit. iii. ^9, 20. and which Dr. T^ fuppofes 
all Mankind are expofed to by their perfonal Sins 3 
and he himfelf fays -f , " Sin in its own unalterable 
" Nature leads to Death." Yea, it might be argued 
with as much Strength of Reafon, that God could 
bring on Men no Punifhment at all for any Sin^ 
that was committed from jidam to Mofes^ becaufe 
there was no ftanding revealed Law then extant^ 
threatening any Punilhment. It may here be pro- 
perly obferved, that our Author fuppofes, the 
ihortening of Man's Days, and haftening of Deaths 
entered into the World by the Sin of the Antedilu- 
vians ^ in the fame Senfe as Death and Mortality 
entered into the World by Adam\ Sin J. But 
where was there any ftanding revealed Law for 
that^ though the Ev-ent was fo univerfal ? If God 
might bring this on all Mankind, on Occasion of 

X 2 other 

• Page 117. S. t t^g^lif 78# % E«gft6». 

jo8 Remarks on Dr. T— r's Pait % 

9tber Men's Sins, for which they deferved No- 
thing, without a revealed Law, what could thenS 
be to hinder God's bringing Death on Men foe 
their perfonal Sins, for which their own Confciences 
tell them they do deferve Death without a revealed 
Law ? 

2. If it had been fo, that from Adam to Mofes 
there had been no Law in Being, of any Kind, 
revealed or natural, by which Men could be pro- 
perly expofed to temporal Death for perfonal Sin, 
yet the Mention of Mofesh Law would have been 
wholly impertinent, and of no Signification in the 
Argument, according to our Author's underftand- 
ing of it. He fuppofes, what the Apbftle would 
prove, is, that temporal Death, or the Death wc 
now die, comes by Adam ; and not by any Law 
threatening fuch a Punilhment for perfonal Sin^ 
becaufe this Death prevailed before the Law of 
Mofes was in Being, which is the only Law threat- 
ening Death for perfonal Sin. And yet he himfelf 
fuppofes, that the Law of Mofes^ when it was in 
Beings threatened no fuch Death for perfonal Sin. 
For he abundantly afferts, that the Death which 
the Law of Mofes threatened for perfonal Sin, was 
eternal Deaths as has been already noted : And 
he fays in exprefs Terms, that eternal Death is of 
a Nature widely different from the Death we now 
die * ; as was alfo obferved before. 

How impertinently therefore does Dr. ST. niake. 
an infpired Writer argue, when, according to him, 
the Apoftle would prove, that this Ki^id of Death 
did not come by any Law threatening this Kind 
tf' Deaths becaufe it came before the Exiftence of 

• Page 120, 5, He fays t© the like Purpofe in his Note ow 
Rom. V, 17, , ; 

Chap. IV. 7 Explanation of Kom. v. 12, &c. 309 

Scft. h S 

a Law threatening another Kind of Death, of a 
Nature widely different ? How is it to the Apo- 
ftle's Purpofe, to fix on that Period, the Time of 
giving Mofef% Law, as if that had heen the Period 
wherein Men began to be threatened with this 
Punifhment for their perfonal Sins, when in Tfvth 
it was no fuch Thing ? And therefore it was no 
more to his Purpofe, to fix on that Period, from 
jidam to Moffis, than irom Adam to David, or any- 
other Period whatfoever, Dr. T, holds, thateve'n 
now, fince the Law of Mofes has been given, r£% 
Mortality of Mankind, or the Death we now diey 
does not come by that Law -, but that it always 
comes only by Adam *. And if' it never comei-hy 
that Law, wc may be fure it ttever was threatened 
in that Law. - ^- 

3. If we fliould allow tl^e Argument in Dr; 
y — r's Senfe of it, to prove that Death does not 
come by perfonal Sin, yet it will be wholly with- 
out Force to prove the main Point, even that it 
muft come by Adamh Sin: For it might come by 
God'S fovereign and gracious Pleafure; as innu- 
merable other divine Benefits do. If it be ordered, 
agreeable to our Author's Suppofition, not as a 
Punilhment, nor as a Calamity, but only as a 
Favour, what Neceflity of any fettled Conftitution, 
or revealed Sentence, in order to the beftowing 
fuch a Favour, more than other Favours -, and parr 
ticularly more than that great Bejiefit, which he 
fays entered into the World by the Sin of the 
Antediluvians, the (hortening Men's Lives fo much 
after the Flood ? Thus the Apoftle's arguing, by 
Dr, 7* — r's Explanation of it, is turned into mere 
Trifling, and a vain and impertinent Ufe of Words, 
without 4ny real Force or Significance, 

X 3 VI. The 

t This is plaip by what he fays, p. ^8, 40^ 55. 1 if. h 

jio Remarks on Dr. T — i*s Part H, 

VI. The Apoftlc here fpcaks of that great Bcr 
ncfit which we have by Chrift, as the Antitype of 
jidam^ und^r the Notion of a Fruit of GRACE. 
I do not mean only that Super-abounding of Grace, 
wherein the Benefit we have by Chrift goes be- 
yond the Damage fuftained by Jdam ; but that 
Benefit, with Regard to which Adam was the Fi- 
gure of him that was to come^ and which is as it 
were the Counterpart of the Sufifering by Adam^ 
and whi(:h repairs the Lofs we have by him. 
This is here fpoken of as the Fruit of die free 
Grace of God\ as appears by ven 15, 16, 17, 18^ 
20, 21. This, according to our Author, is the 
lleftoring of Mankind to that Life which they 
loft in Adam : And he himfelf fuppofes this Re- 
ftoration of Life by Chrift to be what Grace does 
for us, and calls it the Free Gift of God^ and the 
Grace and Favour of the Lawgiver *• And fpeak* 
ing of this Reftoration, he breaks out in Admi-* 
ration of the unfpeakable Riches of this Grace f . 

But it follows from hb Doftrine, that there is 
JVO Grace at all in this Benefit, and it is no more 
than a mere Aft of Jujlice^ being only a removing 
of what Mankind uiffer, being innocent. Death, 
as it commonly comes on Mankind, and even op 
Infants, (as has been obferved) is an extreme 
pofitive Calamity ; to bring which on the perfeftly 
innocentj unremedied, and without any Thing to 
countervail it, we are fufficiently taught, is not 
confiftent with the Rightepufnefs of the Judge of 
all the Earth. What Grace therefore, worthy of 
being fo celebrated, would there be in afibrding 
]^emedy and Relief, after there had been brought 


* Page 39, 70, T48, 27. 5. See alfo Contents of this Pa^ 
ragraph in Rom. v. in his Notes on th« Kpidle, and his Note 
on ver, 15, i6, 17. t Page 119, S, 


Chap. IV. 7 Explanation of Rom. v. 1 2, &c. lit 

Sedl. I. 3 

on innocent Mankind that which is (as Dr« T. 
himfelf reprefents *) the dreadful and univerfal 
Deftruftion of their Nature ; being a (hiking 
Demonflration how infinitely hateful Sin is to 
God \ What Grace in delivering from fuch fhock- 
ing Ruin, them that did not dcferve the leaft Ca- 
lamity ! Our Author fays, " We could not jujihf 
*' lofe G>mmunion with God by Adam^s Sin."-j- 
If fo, then we could not jufUy lofe our Lives, and 
be annihilated, after a Courfe of extreme Paihs 
and Agonies of Body and Mind, without any 
Reftoration; which would be an eternal Lofs of 
Communion with God, and all other Good, befides 
the pofitive Suflfering* The Apoftle, throughout 
this Paflage-,. reprefents the Deaths which is the 
Confequence of AdanC^ Tranfgreffion, as coming 
in a Way of Judgment and Condemnation for Sin ; 
but Deliverance and Life through Chrift, as by 
Grace^ and the free Gift of God. Whereas, on 
the contrary, by Dr. T — r's Scheme, the Death 
that comes by Adam^ comes by Grace^ great 
Grace ; it being a great Benefit, ordered in fa* 
therly Love and Kindnefs, and on the Foot of a 
Covenant of Grace : But in the Deliverance and 
Reftoration by Chrift, there is no Grace at all. 
So Things arc turned topfy^turuy^ the Apoftlc's 
Scope and Scheme intirely inverted and con- 

VII. Dr. ST, explains the Words, Judgmepti 
Condemnation^ Juftificationj and Righteoufnefs^ as 
ufed in this Place, in a very unreafonable Manner. 

I will firft confider the Senfe he puts upon the 
two former. Judgment and Condemnation. He often 
calls this Condemnation a judicial A£t^ and a Seuf 

X 4 tenoe 

jia Rjsmarks on Dr. T — r's Part If, 

tfnce of Condemnation. But, according to his Scheme, 
it is a, judicial Sentence of Condemnation pafled 
upon them that are perfeftly innocent^ apd viewed 
by the Judge, even in his paffing . the Sentence, 
and condemning them, ^s having no Guilt of Sin, 
or Fault at all chargeable upon them ; and a judi- 
cial Proceedings P^Jfi^S Sentence arbifrarjly, without 
any Jl^aw or Rule of Right before eftablifhed 2 
For there was no preceding Law or Rule threaten- 
ing Death, that he, or any one elfe, ever pre- 
tended to have been eftablifhed, but only this. 
In the Day that thou eat eft thereof ^ thpu fioalt furely 
die. And concerning this, he infifts, that there is 
not a Word faid in it of Adatri^ Pofterity. So 
that the Condemnation fpoken of, is a Sentence 
of Condemnation to Death, for, or in Confequencg 
of the Sin of Adam^ without any Law, by which 
that Sin cpulcj be imputed to bring any fuch Con- 
fequence ; contrary tx) the Apoftle's plain Scope. 
And not only fo, but over and above all this, it 
is a judicial Sentence of Cqndemnation to that which 
is no Calamity, nor is confidered as fuch in the 
Sentence; but it is Condemnation to a great 
Favpqj: ! 

The Apoftle ufes the Words Judgment and Con^ 
dcmnation in other l^laces ; they are no ftrange and 
unufual Terms with him : But never are they ufc^ . 
by him in this Senle, or any like it ; nor are they 
ever ufed thus any where elfe in the New Tefta- 
ipent. This Apoftle elfewhere in this Epiftle to 
tjie Roman} is often (peaking of Condemnation^ 
ufing the fame or fimilar Terms and Phrafes as 
here, but never in the abovefaid Senfe. Chap. ii. 
I, 2, 3. fix Times in thefe Verfes ; alfo ver. i^ 
and %"], and Chap. iii. 7. Chap. viii. i and 3. 
). xiv. 3, 4. and vpr. 10,^ 13, 22 and 23^ 


Oiap. IV. \ Explanation cf Rom, v. 1 2, &c. 313 

Se6l. I. 1 

This will be plain to every one that cafts his Eye 
on thefe Places : . And if we look into the former 
Part of this Chapter, , the Apoftle's Difcourfe here 
makes it evident, that he is here fpeaking of 9 
Condemnation, that is no Teftimony of Favour to 
the Innocent J but of God's Difpleafure towards 
thofe that he is not reconciled to, but looks on 
as Offenders, Sinners, ^nd Enemies, and holds as 
the Objects of his Wrath, which we ^re delivered 
from by Chrift ; as may be feen in Verfes 6, 7, 8, 
9, 10, and II. 

And viewing' this Difcourfe itfelf, in the very 
l^aragraph we are upon, if we may judge any 
Thing by Language and Manner of Speaking,, 
there is every Thing to lead us to fuppofe, that 
the Apoftle ufcs thefe Words here, as he does 
c]fewhere, properly, and as implying a Suppofition 
of Sin, chargeable on the Subje£b, and expoling 
^o Punilhment. He fpeaks of Condemnation with 
Reference to Sin, as what comes by Sin, and as 
a Condemnadon to Death, which feems to be a 
moft terrible Evil, and capital Punifhment, even 
in what is temporal and vifible ; and this in the 
Way of judgment ^ and Execution of Juftice, in 
Oppofiuon to Grace or Favour^ and Gift or a Be- 
nefit roming by Favour. And Sin and Offence, 
Tranfgreflion and Pilbbedience are over and over 
again fpoken of as the Ground of the Condemna- 
tion, and of the .capital SuiFering condemned to, 
for ten Verfes fucceffively, that is, in every Verfe 
Ja the whole Paragraph, without miffing one. 

The Words, Jufiification and Rigbteoufnefs^ are 
cxplmned by Dr. fT. in a no lefs unreafonablc 
IVIanner. He underftands Juftification^ in ver. 18. 
Sipd Rigbteoufne/Sj in ver. 19. in fuch a Senfe, as 


JX4 Remarks oh t>r. T — r's Part IL 

to (uppofc them to belong to all, and aftually to 
be applied to all Mankind^ good and bad> Be- 
lievers and Unbelievers ; to the worft Enemies of 
God^ remaining fuch, as well as his peculiar Fa- 
vourites, and many that never had any Sin imputed 
to them ; meaning thereby no more than wnat is 
tuIfiUed in an univerfal Refurreftion from the 
Dead, at the laft Day *. Now this is a moft arbi- 
trary forced Senfe. Though thefe Terms arc ufcd 
every where, .all over the New Teftament, yet 
nothing like fuch an Ufc of them is to be found 
in any one Inftance, through all the Writings d£ 
the Apoftles and Evangelifts. The Words Juftify^ 
Juftificatien^ and Righteoufnefs^ as from God to 
j^en> are never ufed but to fignify a Privilege 
belonging only to fome^ and that which is peculiar 
to iijiinguijhed Favourites. This Apoftlc in par- 
ticular, above all the other Writers of the New 
Teftament, abounds in the Ufe of thefe Terms ; 
fo that we have all imaginable Opportunity to 
uftderftand his Language, and know the Scnle in 
which he ufes thefe Words: But he never elfe- 
wherc ufes them in the Senfe fuppofed here, nor 
is there any Pretence that he does. Above all, 
does this Apoftle abound in the Ufe of thefe 
Terms in diis Epiftle. JUSTIFICATION is the 
Subjeft he had been upon through all the pre- 
ceding Part of the Epiftle. It was the grand Sub- 
.^jei^jji- all the foregoing Chapters, and the prece- 
ding Part of this Chapter, where thefe Terms are 
continually repeated. And the Word, Juftification^ 
is conftantly ufed to fignify fomething peculiar to 
Believers, who had been Sinners ; implying foinc 
Reconciliation and Forgivenefs of Sin, and fpecial 
Privilege in Nearnefs to God, above the reft of 
the World. Yea, the Word is conftantly ufed 


• So, Page 47, 49, 60, 61, 62, and other Places* 

Chap. IV. 7 Explanation of Rom. v. 1 2, &c. 315 

thus» according to Dr. T — r's own Explanations, 
in his Paraphrafe and Notes on this Epiftle. And 
there is not the leafl Reafon to fuppofe but that 
he is flill fpeaking of the fame Juftification and 
Rigbteoufnefs^ which he had dwelt upon from the 
Beginning to this Place. He fpeaks oi JuftificatioH. 
and Righteoufnefs here, juft in the fame Manner 
as he had done in the preceding Part of the 
Epiftle. He had all along fpoken of Juftificatioa 
as ftanding in Relation to Sin-^ Difobedience to 
God, and Offence againft God, and fo he does 
here : He had before been fpeaking of Juftifica- 
tion through free Grace^ and io he does here: 
He before had been fpeaking of Juftification thro* 
fiigbUoufne/Sj as in Cbrijl Jejiis^ and fo he does heitf 

And if we look into the former Part of thk 

vtpry Chapter, there we fhall find Jufitficc^im 

ipoken of juft in the fame Senfe as in the refl;cf 

the Epiftle ; which is alio fuppofed ^y our Author 

in his Bxpofition : It is ftill Juftification by Faitb^ 

Juftification of them that had been Sinners^ J^fti' 

fication attended with Reconciliation^ Juftification 

peculiar to them that had tbe Love of God fbei 

abroad in their Hearts. The Apoftle*s foregoing 

Difcourfe on Juftification by Grace through Faith, 

and what he had fo greatly infifted on as the 

Evidence of the Truth of this Dodlrine, even the 

univerfal Sinfulnefs of Mankind in their original 

State, is plainly what introduces this Difcoune in 

the latter Part of this 5th Chapter; where he 

(hews how all Mankind came to be finful and 

miferable, and fo to need this Grace of God, and 

Righteoufnefs of Cfa^rift. And therefore we cannot, 

without the moft abfurd Violence, fuppofe any 

other than that he is ftJU fpeaking of tlie lame 



3 1 6 Remarks on Br. T— r*» Part II, 

And as to the univerfal Expreflion ufed in the 
1 8 th Verfc, By the Righteoufnefs of one^ the free 
Gift came upon ALL MEN to Jujiification of 
Life\ it is necdlefe here to go into the Controverfy 
between thfc Remonfirants and Anti^rethonftrants^ 
concerning univerfal Redemption, and their dif- 
ferent Interpretations of this Place. If we take 
the Words even as the Arminians do ; yet, in their 
Senfe of them, the free Gift conies on all Men 
to Juftification only Conditionally^ i. e. provided 
they believe, repent, &c. But in our Authot^^ 
Senfe^ it aSually comes on all, whether they be- 
lieve and repent, or not ; which certainly ca^inot 
be inferred from the univerfal Expreffion, as here 
uftd. Eh". ST. himfelf fuppofes, the main Defign 
of the Apoftle in this univerfal Phrafe, All Men^ 
is to figni^ that the Benefits of Chrifl fhall come 
on Gentiles as well as Jews *. And he fuppofes 
that the Many^ and the All^ here fignify the fame : 
But it is quite certain, that all the Benefits here 
ipoken of, which the Apoflle fays are to the many^ 
does not adually come upon all Mankind; as 
particularly the abounding of Grace^ fpoken of ven 
1 5, The Grace of God, and the Gift ly Grace^ bath 
abounded unto the many^ cig tbs 'zzroMy^. 

This abounding of Grace our Author explains 
thus ; " A rich Overplus of Grace, in erefting a 
** new Difbenfation, furnifhed with a glorious 
" Fund of^ Light, Means, and Motives." p. 44. 
But will any pretend, that all Mankind have 
aftually been Partakers of this new Fund of Light, 
&c. How were the many Millions of IndianSy on 
the American Side of the Globe, Partakers of it, 


, * Page 60, 61. See alfo ContenH of this Paragraph^ inhi^ 
Notee on the Epiille. 

*^P- ^-1 Eicplanatiort of Rom. v. 12, &c. 31^ 

Seft. I. 3 

before the Europeans came hither ? Yea, Dn IT; 
himfelf fuj^ofes, all that is meant is, that it is 
free for all that are willing to accept of it *. The . 
Agreement between Adam^ as the Type or Figure 
of him that w^ to come, and Chrift as the Anti- 
type, appears as full and clear, if we fuppofe ALL 
which are IN CHRIST (to ufe the common 
Scripture Phrafe) have the Benefit of his Obe-- 
dience, as ALL that are IN ADAM have the 
forrowful Fruit bf his Difobedience. The Scrip-^ 
ture fpeaks of Believers as the Seed or Poftcrity . 
of Chrift. {GaL iii. 29.) They are in Chrifi by 
Grace^ as Adan^^ Pofterity are in him by Nature :i- 
The one are in the firft Adam naturally^ as the 
other are in the fecond Adam fpirituallj : Exadly 
agreeable to the Reprefentation this Apoftle makes? 
of the Matter, i Cor. xv. 45 — 49. The fpiriftwl. 
Seed are thofe which this Apoftle often reprefents 
as Chrift 5 Body : And the a 'zzroMo/ here fpokea 
of as made righteous by Chrift's Obedience, are 
doubtlefs the fame with the ol '^zroTXoi which he 
Ipeaks of in Chap. xii. 5. tf^e^ being mdf^^ are vm 
Body V or, We^ the many, 0; 7S'o?\of bv o-cojulo^ ^fJL&fm 
And again, i Cor, x. i /• bv (tou^m 01 tmtoM.oi mptm'^ 
And the fame which the Apoftle had fpoken of in 
the preceding Chapter, Rom. iv. 18, compared 
with Gen. xv. 5. 

Dr. y. much infifts on that Place, i Cor. xv. 
a I, 22- For ftnce by Man came Heathy by Man 
came alfo the Refurre£iion of the Dead : For as in 
Adam aU die^ fo in Chrift Jhall all be made alive 5 
to confirm his Suppofitions, that the Apoftle here 
in the 5th of Romans^ fpeaking of the Death and 
Condemnation which come by Adam^ has refpeft 
only to the Death we all dicy when this Life ends: 


• Notes OA the Epiftlc, p.ige 284* 

ji8 Remarks on Dr. T — r^s Part tt 

And that by the Juftification and Life which come 
by Chrift, he has refpedt only to the general Re^ 
furreSlion at the laft Day. But it is obfervable, 
that his Argument is wholly built on thefe two 
Suppofitions, viz. Firftj that the Refurrcftion 
meant by the Apoftle, in that Place in the i Cor. 
zv. is the Refurre&ion of all Mankind, both Juft* 
and Unjuft. Secondly^ That the oppofite Confe- 
quences of AdanC% Sin, and Chrift's Obedience^ 
fpoke of here in Rom. v. are the very fame, neither 
more nor lefs, than are fpoken of there. But thero 
ve no Grounds for fuppofing either of thefe Things; 
to be true. 

I. There is no Evidence, that the ReJurreSion 
there fpoken of, is the Refurreftion both of the 
Jufi and Unjufi ^ but abundant Evidence erf" the 
contrary. The Refurreftion of the Wicked is 
feldom mentioned in the New Teftament, and 
rarely included in the Meaning of the Word ; it 
• being eftcemed not worthy to be called a Rifing 
to Life, being only for a great Increafe of the Mi- 
fery and Darknefs of eternal Death : And therefore 
by the Refurre£lion is moft commonly meant a Rifing 
to Life and Happinefs; as may be obferved ia 
Matth. xxii. 30* Luke xx. 35, 36. John vi. 39^ 
40, 54. Philip, iii. 11. and other Places. The 
Saints are called the Children of the RefurreSlion^ as 
Dr. jT. obferves in his Note on Rom. viii. ir. 
And it is exceeding evident, that it is the Refur^ 
reftion toi Life and Happinefs, the Apoftle is 
fpeaking of in this i Cor. xv. 21, 22. It appears 
by each of the three foregoing Verfes, ver. 18^ 
Then they which are fallen afleepJN CHRIST 
(i. e. the Saints) are periftied. Ver. ig* If in this 
Lffe only ff^E (Chriftians or Apoftle^) have Hopef 
in Chriji^ (and have no Refurrc6tion and eternal 


Chap. IV. > Explanation of Kom. v. 12, &c. 31^ 

SedU L 3 

Life to hope for) we an of all Men mefi miferaik^ 
Ver. 20. Bui now is Chriji rifen from the Dead^ 
and is become the FIRST FRUITS of them that 
flept. He is the Forerunner and firft Fruits only 
with refpedt to them that are his ; who are to folr 
low him, and partake with him in the Glory and 
Happinefs of his RefurreAion : But He is not 
the &il Fruits of them that fhall come forth to the 
Refurredion of Damnation. It aUb appears by 
the Verfe immediately following, ver. 23. But 
every Man in bis own Order > Cbrift the firft Fruits^ 
and afterward they that are Chrift^s^ at his Comings 
The fame is plain by what is faid in ver. 29, 30, 
31, and 32. and by all that is faid from the 35th 
Verfe to the End of the Chapter, for twenty-three 
Verics together: It there exprefly appears, that 
the Apome is fpeaking only oi a Rifing to Glory^ 
with a glorious Body^ as the litde Grain that is 
fown, being quickened, riies a beautiful flourifh* 
ing Plant. He there fpeaks of the different Ete- 
grees of Glory among them that ihall rife, and 
compares it to the different Degrees of Glory 
among the celeftial Luminaries. The Rcfurredioa 
which he treats of, is exprefly a being raifed iff 
Incorruption^ in Glory ^ in Power ^ with a fpiritual 
Bodyy having the Image of the fecond Man^ the 
fpiritual and heavenly Adam ; a Refqrrec^ion where^ 
in this Corruptible fhaU put on Ineorruption^ and this 
Mortal put on Immortality j and Death befwallowed 
up in Victory ^ and the Saints Ihall glorioufly triumph 
over that laJft Enemy. Dr. S'.liimfelf &ys that 
which is in £fie£i: owning, the Refurreftioa here 
fpbken of, is only of the Righteous ; for it is ex- 
prefly a Refunji^tion sv aSruvxa-iocj and ccp^cc^tna^ 
ver. 53, and fP But Dr. T. fays, Thefe are never 
attributed to the Wicked in Scripture % So that 

* Note on Rom. viit, 17. 

^io Remarks on Dr. T — r's f^art II: 

when the Apoftle fays here. As in Adam all diCy 
fo in Chrift Jhall all be* made alive ; it is as much 
as if he had faid, As in Adam we all die^ and our 
Bodies are fown in Corruption^ in Dijhonour^ and 
in Weaknefs\ fo in Chrift we all (we Chriftians, 
whom I have been all along fpeaking of ) Jhalt ie 
rdifed in Power ^ Glory ^ and Incorruption^ fpiritual 
Mnd heavenly^ conformed to the fccond Adain. 
For as we have borne the Image of the earthy ^ we 
(hall alfo bear the Image of the heavenly y ver. 49. 
Which clearly explains and determines his Mean- " 
ing in ver. 21, 22, 

'2. Thet« is no Evidence, that the Benefit by 
the fecond Adam^ Ipoken of in Rom. v. is the very 
fame (containing neither more nor Icfs) as tht' 
Refurre6Hon Ipoken of in r Cor, xv. It is no 
Evidence of it, that the Benefit is oppofed to the' ' 
Death that comes by the firft Adam^ in like Maff^' 
ncr in both Places. The Reiurreftion to eternal 
Life, though it be not the whole of that Salvatiorf 
arid Happinefs which comes by the fecond Adam^ 
yet is it that wherein this SaWatbn i^ principally . 
obtained. The Time of the Saints glorious Re- 
furreftion is often fpoken of as the proper Time 
of the Saints Salvation, The Day of their Redemp- 
tion, the Time of their Adoption^ Glory, and Re- 
compenfe. (As in Luke xiv. 14. and xxi. 28. 
Rom. viii. 23. Eph. iv, 30. Colof iii. 4. 2 Thef i. 7. 
2 Tim. iv. 8. i Pet, i. 13. and v. 4. i John iii. 
2. and other Places) All that Salvatbn and Hap- 
pinefs which is given before, . is only a Prelibation 
and Earneft of their great Reward. Well there- 
fore may that confummate SalvatJM beftowed on 
them, be fet in Oppofition to theTPfath and Ruin 
which comes by the firft Adam^ in like Manner 
as the whole of their Salvation is oppofed to the 

thap. rv. 7 Explanation <?/Rom. v. 12, oct. ^ii 

Sea. I. 1 '0 

fame in Rom, v. Dr. T, hifnfclf obftrves *, '^hai 
the Revival and RefurreSlion of the Body^ is frt'^ 
quently put for our Advancement to eternal Lifd. 
It being the liigheft Part, it is often pvft for the 

This Notion, as if the Juftificatrdn, kighte^uf- 
nefs, and Life Ipoken of in Rom. v. implied tKe 
Refurreftion to Damnation, is not only without 
Ground from Scripture, but contrary to Reafon. 
For thofe Things arc ther6 fpokeh of as great 
Benefits, by the Grace and freie Gift of God : But 
this is the contrary, in the highellf Degree poflible, 
being the moft coitfiTmmate and infihite Calamity. 
To obviate this, our Author fuppofes the RefuN 
redlion of all to be a great Bcaefit in itfelf though 
turned into a Calanlity by the Sin ind Folly of 
obftinate Sinners, who abufe God*s Goodneft. 
But the far greater Part of Mankind, fince Adatiiy 
have never had Opportunity to abufc this' Good- 
nefs, it having never been macfe known' to them^ 
Men carfnot abufe a Kindnefs,- which they never 
had either in Poffeflion, Promife, Offer, or fom'e 
Intimation: But a Refurreftion is fnacde known' 
Only by divine Revelation; which few coimpara- 
tively have enjoyed. So that a^ to fuch wicked 
Menf as die in Landsf of Darknefs', if their Refur- 
reftion comes, at all by Chrift, it conies from him, 
and to them, only as arCurfe, and not as a Bleffiflg ;' 
for it never' comes to them at all by any Con^bej- 
Mcey Grants Piomife^ or Offer, or any Thmg by. 
which they cart claim it, or know any Thing df 
it,, till it \comes' as an infinite Calamity, paft all 

f Note Oft Rom, vhr. rU 

522 Remarks on Dr. T — r's Part IL 

VIIL In a peculiar Manner is there an unrea^ 
fonable Violence ufed in our Author's Explanation 
of the Words Sinners and finneiy in the Paragraph 
before us. He fays, " Thefe Words, By one 
" Man^s Difobedience many were made Sinners^ mean 
** neither more nor lefs, than that by one Man's 
Difobedience, the Many were made fubjeft to 
Death, by the judicial Aft of 'God/* ♦ And 
he fays in the fanw Place, " By Death, moft cer- 
tainly is meant no other than the Death and 
Mortality common to all Mankind." And 
tbofc Words, ver* 1 2. For that all ha*De finned^ he . 
thus explains, *^ All Men became Sinners^ as alt 
*' Mankind are brought into a State of Suffering/-^ 
Here I obferve, 

I • The riiain Thing, by which he juftifies fucb 
Interpretations, is, that &Vi, in various Inftances, 
is ufed for Sufferingy in the Old Tcftament ^ 
To which I reply 5 Though it be true, that the 
Word Cbattaaby fignifies both Sin, and a Sii>-oflfer- 
ing i and this, and fome other Hebrew Woids, 
-which fignify Sin, Iniquity, and Wickedneis, are 
fometimes put for the Effeft or Punifhment of 
Iniquity, by a Metonymy of the Caufe for the 
EfFedt i yet it does not appear, that thefe Words 
are ever ufed for enduring Suffering, where the 
Suffering is not fpoken oS under any Notion q£ a 
Puniftiment of Sin, or a Fruit of God*s Anger 
for Sin, or of any Imputation of Guilt, or under 
^ny Notion of Sin's being at all laid ta the 
Charge of the Sufferer, or the Suffering's being 
at all qS the Nature of any Recompence, Compen- 
fation, or Satisfaftion for Sin^ And thertfofc 
none of the Inftances he mentions, come up to his 
Purpofe, When Lot is eommanK^ to leave Sodom^ 

? Page 5a. t Page 54, and elfewhcjpc. * JP^age 54, 

tkajj. iV: ? EiepjamitdH of Ilottij V. ts, &c* 3i| 

Sedt. L 3 

that he might not be cotifumed in the Iniquity of 
the City, meaning in that Fire^ which was the 
Effeft and Punilhment of the Iniquity of the 
City^ this is quite another Thing, than if that 
Fire came on the City in general, as no Punifli'* 
ment at all, nor as any Fruit of a Charge of Ini- 
quity on the City, or of God's Difpleafure for 
their Sin, but as a Token of God^s Favour to the 
Inhabitants • which is what is fuppofed with re^ 
Ipeft to the Death of Mankind ; it being intro- 
duced only as a Benefit j on the Foot of a Covenant 
of Grace4 And efpecially is this quite anothei^ 
Thing, than if, in the Expreflion ufed, the Ini- 
quity had been afcribed to Lot % and God, inftead 
of faying. Left thou be confurncd in the Iniquity 
Hf the City, had faid^ Left thou be corifumed i^ 
thine Iniquity^ or^ Left thou Jin^ or be made a Sin* 
fieri Whereas the Expreffion is fuch^ as docs 6x^ 
prefly remove the Iniquity Ipoken of from l^U 
and fix it on another Subjeft, viZi the City^ The 
Place cited by our Author in Jer^ li. is exa&ly 
parallel. And as to what Abimelech lays to Abra* 
ham. What have I offended thee, thai thou haji 
iri^ught on me, arid on my Kingdom, a great Sin t 
it is manifeft, Abimelech was afraid that God was 
angry^ for what he had done to Sarah ^ or^ 
Ivould have been angry with him^ if he had done 
what he was about to do, as imputing Sin to him 
for it i Which is a quite difierent Thing from 
calling fome Calamity, Sin^ under no. Notion ojf 
its being any Puniihment of Sin, nor in the leaft 
Degree from God's Difpleafure. And fo With 
regard to every Place our Author cites in the 
Margin, it is plain^ that what is meant in each ^ 
them, is the Punijhmelit of Sift, and riot fome Suf- 
fering which is na Puniihment ai alL Aftd sts to 
the Inftances he mentions in his Supplement, p^ S/ 

324 Remarks on l)r. T — r^s Part tt 

the two that look moft favourable to his Defign, 
are thofe in Gen. xxxi. 39. and 2 Kings vii. 9. 
With refpeft to' the former, where Jacob fays, 
J'bat which was torn of Beajls^ Anochi-achattenah, 
Dr. 7*. is pleafed to tranflate it, / was the Sinner \ 
but properly rendered, it is, / expiated it-, the 
Verb in Pihel properly fignifying to expiate ; and 
the plain Meaning is, / bore the Blame of itj and 
was obliged to pay for it, as being fuppofcd to be 
loft through my Fault or Negleft r Which is a 
quite different Thing from Suffering without an^ 
Suppofition of Fault. And as to the latter Placed 
where the Lepers fay, ^his Day is a Day of good 
Tidings, and we bold cur Peace : If we tarty tiU 
Morning fome Mifchief will befall us : In the He- 
brew it is UmetzaanU'gnavon, Iniquity will find us\ 
that is, fome Punifhment of our Fault will come 
upon us. Elfewhere fuch Phrafes are uled,as. 
Tour Iniquity will find you cut, and the like. But 
certainly this is a different Thing from Sufiering 
without Fault, or Suppofition of Fault. And 
it does not appear, that the Verb in Hiphil, 
Hirfhiang, is ever put for condemn, in any othef 
Senfe than condemning for Sin, or Guilt, or fup- 
pofcd Guilt belonging to the Subjeft condemned. 
This Word is uled in the Participle of .Hiphil, 
to fignify condemning, in Prc^•. xvii. 15. He that 
juflifieth the Wicked, and he that condemnetb the 
Juft, even both are an Abomination to the Lord. 
This Dr. T. obferves, as if it were to his Purpofe, 
when he is- endeavouring to flicw, that in this 
Place in the 5th of Romans, the Apoftle fpeaks 
of God himfelf as condemning the Juft, or perleftly 
Innocent, in a Parallel-Signification of Terms. 
Nor is any Inftance produced, wherein the Verb^ 
fin, which is ufed by the Apoftle >yhen he fays. 
All have finnedy is any where ufed in- our Author's 


Chap. IV. 1 Explanation of Rom. v. 12, &c. 325 

occt. 1. I 

Scnfe, for being brought into a State of Sufiering^ 
and that not as a Punifhment for Sin, or as any 
Thing arifing from God's Difpleafure 5 much lefe 
for being the Sgbjeft of what comes only as the 
Fruit of divine Love, and as a Benefit of the 
HIGHEST NATURE *. Nor can any Thing 
like this Senfe of the Verb be found in the whole 


2. If there had been . any. Thing like fuch an 
.Ufe of the Words, Sin and Sinner, as our Author 
fuppofes, in the Old Teftament, it is evident, that 
fuch an Ufe of them is quite alien from the Lan- 
guage of the New Teftament. Where can an In- 
ftance be produced, of any Thing like it, in any 
one Place,, befides what is pretended in this ? and 
particularly, where elfe fhall we find thefe. Words 
and Phrafes ufed in fuch a Senfe in any of this 
Apoftle's Writings ? We have enough of his Wri- 
tings, by which to learn his Language and Way 
of fpeaking about Sin, Condemnation, Punijbment, 
Death, and Suffering, K[e wrote rpuch more of 
the New Teftament than any other Perfon. He 
very often has Occafion to fpeak of Condemna- 
tion ', hut where does he exprefs it by bein^ 
made Sinners? Efpecially" how far is he elfewhere 
from ufing fuch a Phrafe, to fignify a being 
condemned without Guilt, or any Imputation or 
Suppofition of Guilt ? V^ftly n^ore ftill is it 
remote from his Language, fo to ufe the Verb 
fm, and to fay, Mtinjinneth, or has finned, diough 
hereby meaning Nothing more nor lefs, than that 
he, by a judical A^, is condemned^ oa the f qqt pf 
a Difpeniation of Grace^ to regeive a gxeat Favour ! 
He abundantly ules the Words Sin and Sinner ; 
his Writings are fvU of fuch Terms > but; whevo 

* fage 27. ?. 


3^6 Remarks en Dr. T— r"a Pj« D, 

die does he life them in fuch a Scnfe? He has 
much Occ^fion in his Epiftles to fpe^k of Deatb^ 
temporal and eternal ; he has much Occaiion to 
fpcak of Sufferin^^ of all Kinds, in this World, ant} 
tne World to come : But where does he call thcfe 
Things Sin ? and denominate innocent Men Sin- 
nerf^ or fay. They have finne^^ meaning, that 
they are brought into a State of Suffering ? If the 
Apoftle, becayfe he was a 7^w, was fo addided 
to the Hcbre^v Idiom, as tnus in one ^Paragraph 
to repeat this particular Hehraifm^ which, at moft, 
is comparatively rare even in the Qld Tcftament^ 
it is ftrange that never any Thing like it ihoyld 
appear any where elfe in his Writings \ ^d eipp^ 
cially that he (hould never fall into fuch a Way of 
fpeaking in his Epiftle to the Hebrews^ wptten to 
Jews only, who were moft ufed to the Htbrew 
Idiom, And why does Chrift never ufe fuch Lan- 
guage in any of his Speeches, though he was bom 
and brought up amongft the Jews^ and delivered 
almoft all his Speeches only to Jew^ ? And why 
do none pf the reft of the Writers of the J^ew 
Teftament ever ufe it, who were all born and 
educated Jews^ (at leaft all excepting Jjuke) and 
fome of them wrote efpegially for the Benefit of 
the Jews ? 

It is worthy to be obferved, what Liberty is 
taken, and Boldnefs ufed with this Apoule; 

fuch Words as cc/>cagiToA@<, ocjma^rap&jj y.pifxa'^ 
xotTUTicifJLa^ Sizaicce, Sixociooai^^ and Words of the 
fame Koot and Signification, are Words abun-f 
dantly ufed by him elfewhere in this and other 
Epiftles, and alfo when fpeaking, as he is here, 
of Chrift's Redemption and Atonement, and of 
the general Sinfulnefs of Mankind, and of the 
Condemnation of Sinners, and of Juftification by 


CImp. IV. I Explanation of Rom» v. 1 2 , &c. 3 ly 

Sedl. I. J 

Chrifl:,. and of Death as the Confcquence of Sin, 
and of Life and Reftoration to Life by Chrill, as 
here ; yet no where are any of thefe Words ufed, 
but in a Senfe very remote from what is fuppofed 
here. However in this Place, thefe Terms muft 
have a dijtinguijhed fingular Senfe found out for 
them, and annexed to them ! A new Language 
muft be coined for the Apoftle, which he is evi- 
dently quite unufed to, and put into his Mouth 
on this Occafion, for the Sake of evading this 
clear, precife, and abundant Teftimony of his, to 
the Do6lrine of Original Sin. 

3. The putting fuch a Senfe on the Word, 5i», 
in this Place, is not only to make the Apoftle 
greatly to difagree with himfelf in the Language 
he ufes every where clfc, but alfo to difagree with 
himfelf no le(s in the Language he ufes in this 
very Paffage. He often here ufes the Word, &*», 
and other Words plainly of the fame Defign and 
Import, fuch as Tranfgreffton^ Difobedience^ Offince. 
Nothing can be more evident, than that thefe are 
here ufed as feveral Names of the fame Thing ; 
for they are ufed interchangeably, and put one tor 
another ; as will be manifeft only on the Cafi of 
an Eye on the Place. And thele Words are ufed 
no lefs than feventeen Times in this one Paragraph. 
Perhaps we Ihall find no Place in the whole Bible, 
in which the Word, S/;/, and other Words 
nymous, are ufed fo often in fo little Compafs : And 
in all the Inflances, in the proper Senfe, as fignify- 
ing moral Evily and even fo underftood by Dr. T. 
himfelf (as appears by his own Expofition) but 
only in thefe two Places : where in the Midft of 
all, to evade a clear Evidence of the Dodlrine of 
Original Sin, another Meaning muft be found 
out, and it muft be fuppofed that the Apoftle ufes 

Y 4 the 

^26 Remarks t>n Br. T-^Ps Part^L 

the W^td in a* Scnfe intirely different, fighifyrn^ 
ijomeching that neither inrplres not fufpofes ^ny 
-moral Evil at all in the Subjeft. •'■■•' •' e> 

- -^ 

Here it is very remarkable, the Genrieman who 
fo greatly infifted wpo'n it, that the Word, Deaths 
riiuft needs be underftood in the fame - Senfe 
throughout this ' Paragraph •, yea, that it is evi-^ 
denthfy clearly^ and infallibly fo, inaftnuch as the 
Apoftle is ftill difcourfing on the fame Subjeft; 
yet can, without the leaft Difficulty, fuppofe the 
Word, 5/;/, to be ufed fo differently in the ver/ 
fame Paffagc, wherein the Apoftle is difcoyrfing 
on the fame Thinor. Let us take that one Inftance 
in ver. 1 2 . Wherefore as by one Man SIN entered 
into the fVorld:, and Death by SINy and fo Death 
pdffed upon all Men, for that all have SINNED. 
^cre, by Sin, implied in the Word, Jinned, in the 
End of the Sentence, our Author underftands 
fomething perfedtly and altogether diverfe from 
what is meant by the Word,'5/», not only in the 
fame Difcourfe on the fame Subjeft, but twice in 
the former Part of the very fame Sentence, of 
which this latter Part is not only the Conclufion, 
but the Explication : And alfo intirely different 
from the Ufe of the Word twice in the next 
Sentence, wherein the Apoftle is ftill moft plainly 
difcourfing on the fame Subjeft, as is not denied': 
And in the next Sentence to that (ver. 14.) the 
Apoftle ufes the very fame Verb, finned, and as 
fignifying the committing of moral Evil, as our 
Author himfelf underftands it. Afterwards (ver. 19.) 
the Apoftle ufes the Word, Sinners, which our 
Author fuppofes to be in feme what of a different 
Senfe ftill. So that here is the utmoft Violence of 
the Kind that can be conceived of, to make out 
a Scheme againft the plaineft Evidence, in chang- 

cai»p;'IV, 7 E^planati^ of Rom. v. 12, &c. 329 

Sc6t. I. 3 

iiig the Meaning of a Word bickward and for- 
ward, in one Paragraph, all about one Thing, and 
in different Parts of the lame Sentences,, coming 
over and over in quick Repetitions, with a Variety 
of other fynonymous Words to fix its Signification \ 
befides the continued Ufe of the Word in the 
former Part of this Chapter, and in all the preced- 
wig Part of this Epiftle, and the continued Ufe 
of it in the next Chapter, and in the next to 
that, and the 8th Chapter following that, and to 
the End of the Epiftle ; in none of which Places 
it is pretended, but that the Word is ufed in the 
proper Senfc, by our Author in his Paraphrafe and 
Notes on the whole Epiftle *, 

But indeed we need go no further than that one 
ver. 12. What the Apoftle means by 5/», in -the 
latter Part of the Verfe, is evident with the utmbft 
Plainnefs, by comparing it with the former JPait ; 
one Part anfwering to another, and the laft Claufe 
exegetical of the former. Wherefore^ as by one Man 
Sin entered into the Worlds and Death by Sin j ana 
Jo Death faffed upon all Men^ for that (or, unto 


* Agreeable to this Manner, our Author, in explaining the 
7th Chap, of Hofpanst underfbnds the Pronoun /, or Jlf^r, ufed 
by the Apoflle in that one continued Difcourfe, in no lefs thaa 
Six different Senfcs. He takes it in the ill 'vfr, to fignify tfte 
Apofths Pan/ himfclf. In the 8, 9, 10, and nth Vcfres, 
for the People of the Jews, through all Ages, both before and 
after Mc/i:j, efpecially the carnal ungodly Part of xhem. In the 
I 3th ver. for an dbje^^ipg y£iv, entering into a Dialogue with 
the Ap^ftlc. In the 15, 16, 17, 20th, and latter Part of thu 
25th *ver, it is anderftood in two different Scnfes, for two /'s 
in the fame Perfon ; one, a plan's Reafon ; and the other, his 
Paflions and carnal Appetites. And in the 7th and former Part 
of the laft Verfe, for Us Chriftians in general ; or, for all that 
enioy the Word of God, the Law and the Gofpel : And tliefe 
diftcrent Scnfes, the moil of them ih-angely intermixed and 
ffiterchangcd backwards and forwards. 

3 JO Remarks on Dr. T — rt Part IL 

vrhich) all have finned. Here Sin and Death arc 
ipoken of in the former Part, and Sin and Death are 
ipoken of in the latter Part % the two Parts of the 
Sentence fo anfwering one another, that the fame 
Things are apparently meant by Sin and Death in 
both Parts, 

And befides, to interpret finning^ here, of fal* 
Kng under the Suffering of Deaths is yet the more 
vidfent and unreafonable, becaufe the Apoille in 
this very Place does once and again difiinguifb 
between Sin and D^atb-, plainly fpeaking of one 
as the Effcdt, and the other the Caufe. So in the 
2 1 ft Verfe, That as Sin bath reigned unto Death 5 
and in the 12 th Verfe, Sin entered into the Worlds 
and Death BT Sin. And this plain Diftin^on 
holds through all the Difcoude, as between Death 
and the Offence^ ver, ig^ and ver. 17, and be* 
tweenthe Offence and Condemnation^ ver. 18. 

4. Though we fhould omit the Confideration of 
the Manner in which the Apoftle ufes the Words, 
Sin^ftnned^ &c. in other Places, and in other Parts 
of this Difcourfe, yet Dr. T — r's Interpretation of 
them would be very abfurd. 

The Cafe ftands thus : According to his Expo* 
fition, we are faid to have finned by an a&ive 
Verb, as though we had adively finned ; yet this 
is not fpoken truly and properly, but it is put 
figuratively for our becoming Sinners pajjivelyy our 
being made or conftituted Sinners, Yet again, not 
that we do truly become Sinners paffivelyy or are 
really made Sinners^ by any Thing that God does ; 
this alfo is only a figurative or tropical Reprefenta* 
tion •, and the Meaning is only, we are condemmd% 
and treated AS IF we were Sinners. Not indeed 
that we are properly condemned^ for God never 


Chap IV. 1 EnpUafation of Rom, r; 1 2, &c. 331 

Sedt. T. J 

truly condemns the Iimocent : But this alfo Is only 
a figurative Reprelentation of the Thing, It is 
but as it were condemning ; becaufe it is appoint^ 
ing %o Death J a terrible Evil, as if it were a Pu- 
niftimei^t. But then, in Reality, here is no Ap^ 
pointment to a terrible JEw7, or any Evil at all ^ 
put truly xo a Benefit^ a great Benefit : And lb, 
in repreienting Death as a runifhment or Calamity 
cpndemncd to, another Figure or Trope is made 
Uf? of, and an exceeding bold one 3 for, as we 
are appointed to it, it is fo far from being an 
Evil or Punifhment, that it is really a Favour ^ and 
that of the bigheft Nature, appointed by mere? 
Grace and JU>ve, though it feems to be a Calamity. 
Thus we have Tropes and Figures multiplied, one 
upon the back of another ; and all in that one 
Word, Jinned ; according to the Manner, as it is 
fuppofed, the ApofUe ules it. We have a jfigura^ 
tive ReprefentatioUj not of a Reality, but. of a 
figurative Reprefentation. Neither is this a Repre- 
fentatioQ of a Reality, but of another Thing that 
ftill is but a figurative Reprefentation of fomething 
^Ife : Yea, even this fometbing elfe is ftill but ^ 
Figure^ and one that is very harlh and far-fetched. 
So that here we have a Figure to reprefent a Figure^ 
even a Figure of a Figure^ reprefenting fome very 
remote Figure^ which moft obfcurely reprefents 
the Thing intended ; if the moft terrible Evil can 
indeed be faid at all to reprefent the contrary Good 
of the higheft Kind. And now, what cannot be 
made of any Place of Scripture, in fuch a Way 
of managing it, as this ? And is there any Hope 
of ever deciding any Controverfy by the Scripture, 
in the Way of ufing fuch a Licence with the 
Scripture, in qrdcr to force it to a Compliance 
with our own Schemes ? If the Apoftle indeed 
yre3 Language after fo ftrange a Manner in this 


jJ32 On Dr. T— r's Sen/e of Rom. v. Sec PartH* 

Place, it is perhaps fuch an Inilance, as not onty 
there is not the like of it in all the Bible befides, 
but periiaps in no Writing whatfoever. And this, 
not in any parabolical, vifionary, or prophetic De*- 
fcription, in which difHcult and obfcure Kepre*- 
ifentations are wont to be made Ule of ; nor in a 
dramatic ■ cm* poetical Reprefentation, in which a 
great Licence is often taken, and bold Figures are 
commonly to be expe&ed : But it is in a familiar 
Letter, wherein the Apoftle is delivering Goipel- 
Iriftruftion, as a Minifter of the New Teftament ; 
and wherein, ^s he profefies, he delivers divine § 
Trttth without the Vail of ancient Figures and 
Similitudes, and ufes great Plainnefs of Speech : 
And in a Difcourfe that is wholly didadric, nar- 
jative, and argumentative ; evidently fetuhg hini- 
felf to explain the Doftrine he is upon, in the 
Reafon and Nature of it, with a great Variety of 
ExprelRons, turning it as it were on every Side, 
to make his Meaning plain, and to fix in his 
Readers the exa6t Notion of what he intends. 
Dr. T. himfelf obferves *, " This Apoftle takes 
gfcat Care to guard and explain every Part of 
his Subjeft : And I may venture to fay^ he has 
left no Part of it unexplained or unguarded. 
«< Never was an Author more exaft and cautious 
*' in this than he. Sometimes he writes Notes o^i 
** a Sentence liable to Exception, and wanting 
*' Explanation." Now I think, this Care and 
Exadnefs of the Apoftle no where appears more 
than in the Place we are upon. Nay, I fcarcely 
know another Inftance equal to this, of the Apo- 
ftle's Care to be well underftood, by being very 
particular, explicit, and precife, fecting the Matter 
forth in every Light, going over and pver again 
with his Doftrine, clearly to exhibit, and fully to 
fettle and determine the Thing which he air^s at, 


• Pref, to Paraph, on Rom. p. 146, 48, 


:liap.lV. 7 The true Scope tf VLom^ y. ti^itc. ^jj 
jcft. II. y 

S EC T. II. 

Some Obfervations on /A^ Coftneftion, Scope, and 
Senfe of this remarkable Paragraph itf Rom. v.- 
JVith fome RefleSiiofis 0t the Evidence whkb 
we here have of the DoSrine of Original Sin^ 


THE Conneftiofl of this remarkable Pafagfaph 
with the foregoing Difcoiirfe in this Epiftte; 
h not obfcure and difficult, nor to be fought for 
at a Diftance. It may be plainly feeti, only by 1 
general Glance on Things which went before^ 
from the Beginning of the Epiftle : And indeed 
v/hat is faid immediately before in the fame Chap- 
ter, leads direftly to it. The Apoftlr in the pre« 
ceding Part of this Epiftle had largely treated of 
the Sinfulnefs and Mfery of all Mslnkind, Jewi 
as well as Gentiles. He had particularly fpokcit 
of the Depravity and Ruin of Mankind inthetr 
natural State, in the foregoing Part of this CJbap- 
ter ; reprefenting them as being Sinners^ Ungodly^ 
Enemies, expctfed to divine Wrath, and imthoui 
Strength. No Wonder how, this leads him ttf 
©bferve, hotv this fo great and deplorable an Event 
came to pafs •, how this univerfal Sin and Ruirt 
came into the World. And with Regard to the 
Jews in particular, who, though they might alloTT 
tlie Doftrine of Original Sin in their own Profeflion,- 
yet were ftrongly prejudiced againft what was? 
rmplied in it^ or evidently followed from it, with: 
regard to themfelves; in this refpeft they were 
pr^'judiced againft the Doftrine of univerfal Sin- 
fulnefs, and Expdfednefs to Wrath by Nature, 
looking on themfelves as by Nature lioly, anif 
Favourites of God^ becaufe they were the Chii- 
drea of Abraham 5 and wlf b them the a^^oftle h^ct 


^54 ^^^ ^^^ CcnneHionj Scope^ Fait & 

laboured mod in the foregoing Part of the Epiftle^ 
to convince them of their being by Nature a^ 
finful, and as much the Children or Wrath, as the 
QtntiUs :—^ fay^ with regard to them, it was ex* 
ceeding proper, and what the Apoftle's Defign 
mod naturally led him to, to take oflF their Eye^ 
from their Father Abraham^ who was theit Father 
in DiftindioA from other Nations^ and dire6t 
them to their Father Aiami who was the commoii 
Father of Mankind^ and equally of Jews and 
Cen$iles4, And when he was entered on this Doc-^ 
trine of the Derivation of Sin and Ruin, or Deaths 
to all Mankind from Adam^ nd Wonder if hi 
thought it needful to be fomewhat particular in " 
it^ feeing he wrote to Je^s and Gentiles \ the 
»rmer of which had been brought up under the 
Vejudices of a proud Opinion of themfelves^ asf 
a holy People by Nature, and the latter had been 
educated in total Ignorance of all Things of this 

Again, the Apoftle had^ from the Beginning of 
the Epiftle, been endeavouring to evince the ab- 
iblute Dependence of all Mankind on the free 
Grace of GOD for Salvation, and the Greatnefs 
of this Grace ; and particularly in the fcwmer Part 
of this Chapter. The Greatnefs of this Grace he 
fliews efpecially by two Things, (i.^ The univer-« 
fal Corruption and Mifery of Mankind ^ as in all 
the foregoing Chapters, and in the 6, 7, 8, 9,^ 
and loth Vertes of this Chapter. (2.) The Great-' 
nefs of the Benefits which Believers receive, and 
th6 Greatnefs of the Glory they have Hope of^ 
So efpecially in ver. j, 2, 3, 4, 5, and nth of 
this Chapter, And here, in this Place we are 
upon, from ver. 12 to the End, he is ft ill on the 
fame Defign of magnifying the Grace of God, in 


« 1 

Chip. iV. > end Senfe of 'Rom. v. 12^ ice. ^3^ 

Sed. II« ) 

the fame Thing, viz. the Favour, Life, and H^ 
pinefs which Believers in Chrift receive > fpeaking 
here of the Grace of Godj tie Gift by Graces tlm 
Abounding of Grace^ and the Reign of Grace. And 
he ftill ftts forth the Freedom and Riches of Grace 
by the fame two Arguments, viz. The univerial 
Sinfulnefs and Ruin of Mankind^ all having fin-' 
ned, all being naturidly expoied to Death, Judg- 
ment, and Condenmation ^ and the exceeding 
Greatnefs of the Benefit received, being far greater 
than the Mifery which comes by the fifit jidam^ 
and abounding beyond it* And it is by no Means 
confident with the Apoftle*s Scope^ to iuppoie^ 
that the Benefit which we have by Chrift, as the 
Antitype of Adant, here mainly infifted on, is 
without any Grace at all^ being only a Reiloratiofi 
to Life of fuch as never defer ved I>eath. 

Another Thing obfervable int the Apc^Ue's 
Scope from the Beginning of the Epiftle, b, her 
endeavours to fhew the Greatnefs and Abfolutene& 
of the Dependence of all Mankind on the Re-- 
demption and Rigbteoufnefs of Christ, for Julli-^ 
fication and Life, that he might magnify and exaU: 
the Redeemer -^ which Defign his whole Idfeart was 
fwallowed up in, and may be looked upon as the 
main Defign of the whole Epiflle^ And this is 
what he had been upon in the preceding Part of 
this Chapter I inferring it from the fame Argu« 
ment, the utter Sinfulnefs and Ruin of all Men^ 
And he is evidently ftill on the . fame Thing in 
this Place, from the .12th Verfe to. the End; 
fpeaking cf the fame Juflification and Righteotst' 
nefs, which he had dwelt on before, and not ano« 
ther totally diverfc* No Wonder, when the Apo- 
ftle is treating fo fully and largely of .our Reflora- 
tion> Righteoufhef3> and Life by Chrift^ that -hd 19 


'jjS The true ConneSlion^ Scopiy ife^jaft IL 

led by it to confider our Fall, Sin, Death, and 
Ruin by Adam -, and to obferve wherein thefe two 
oppofite Heads of Mankifid agree, and whereiii 
they differ, in the Manner of Conveyance of oppo- 
fite Influences and Communications from Each. 

Thus, if the Place be urtderftood, as it ufed 
to be underflood by orthodox Divines, the whole 
ftiands in a natural, eafy, and clear Cohnedtioii 
with the preceding Part of the Chapter, and all 
the former Part of the Epiftle-, and in a plain 
Agreement with the exprefs Defign of all that ^ 
the Apoftle had been faying ; and alfo iit Connec- 
tion with the Words laft before fpoken, as in- 
troduced by the two immediately preceding 
Verfes, where he is fpeaking of our Juftification, 
Reconciliation, and Salvation by Chrift •, whicli 
leads the Apoftle diredlly to obferve, how, on the 
contrary, we have Sin and Death by Adam. Tak- 
ing this Difcourfe of the Apoftle iri its tfue and 
plain Senfe, there is no Need of gfeat Extent 
of Learning, or Depth of Criticifm, to find out 
the Conneftron : But if it be underft'ood in Di^. 
ST— r's Senfe, th^ plain Scope and Conneftion are 
wholly loft, and there was truly Need of a" Skill in 
Criticifm, and Art of Difcerning, beyond or at 
kaft different from that of former Divines, and a 
Faculty of feeing fomething afar of, which other 
Men's Sight could not reach, in order to find ouft 
the Coiineftion. 

What has been already obferv'ed, m^y fuffice to 
ftiew the Apoftle's general Scope in this Place. 
But yet there feerti to be fome other Things, 
which he has his Eye to, in feveral Expfeflions-, 
fome particular Things in the then prefent State, 
Temper and Notions- of the Jnos^ which he alfb 


CKkp. tV; ? and Sinfe ^/Rom. v. 1:2, tec. 3^7* 

Sed. II. 3 

had before fpoken of, or had Reference to, lit' 
certain Places of the foregoing Part of the Epiftle. 
As particularly, * the Jews had a very fupcrfbtious 
and extravagant Notion of their Law, delivered by 
Mofes ; as if it were the prime, grand, and indeed 
only Rule of God's Proceeding with Mankind as 
their Judge, both in Men's Juftification and Con • 
dcmnation, or from whence all, both Sin and 
Righteoufnefs, was imputed; and- had no Confi- 
deration of the Law of Nature, written in the 
Hearts of the Gentiles^ and of all Mankind. Here- 
in they afcribed infinitely too much to their parri * 
ticular Law, beyond the true Defign of it. They 
made their Bo^ of the Law\ as if their being 
diftinguilhed from all other Nations' by that great 
Privilege, the giving of the LaWy fufficiently made 
them a holy People, and God's Children. This \ 
Notion of theirs the Apoftle evidently refers to. 
Chap. ii. 13, 17,18,19. and indeed through that 
whole Chapter. They looked on the Law of 
Mofes as intended to be the only Rule and Means' 
of Juftification •,. and as fuch, trufted in the Works 
of the Law, efpecially Circumcifion •, which ap- 
pears by the iii"^ Chapter. But as fof the Gentiles^ 
they looked on them as by Nature Sinners, and 
Children of Wrath; bccaufe born of uncircumcifed 
Parents, . and Aliens from their Law, and who 
themfelves did not know, prbfefs and fubmit to 
the Law of Mofes^ become Profelytes, and receive 
Circumcifion. What they eftcemed the Sum of 
their Wickednefs and Condemnation, was, that 
they did not turn Jews^ and aft as Jews *.. This' . 
Notion of theirs the Apoftle has a plain Refpeft 
to, and endeavours to convince them of the Falfe- 

Z ncfs 

* Here are worthy to be obferved the Things which Dr.^ 
7. himfelf fays to the fame Purpofe, Key^ § 30^, 503. and 
F re face to Par, on Eftji[ to Rom. p. 144, 43. 

3fj8 ^te true CenmSlionj Scope^ Part H, ' 

nf:J^ (^, in Chap. iL 12-^1 6. And he has a ms^ 
nifeft Regatd again to the fame Thing here, m 
the 12, 13, and 14th Verfes of Chap. v. Which 
may lead us the more clearly to fee the true Scnfe 
of thofe Verfes •, about the Senfe of which is the 
main Gontrovcrfy, and the Meaning of whick 
being determined, it will fettle the Meaning of 
every other controverted Expreffion through the 
whole Difeourfe. 

Dr. ?*. mifreprefents the Apbfile's Argument , 
in thefe Verfes. (Which as has been demon- 
ilrated, is in his Senfe altogether vain and im- 
pertinent.) He fuppofes^ the Thing which the 
Apoftle m^nly intends- to prove, is, that Deaths 
or Mortality does not come on Mankind by per- 
final Sip;, and that he would prove it by this 
Medium, that Death reigned when there was na 
Law in Being, which threatened perfonal Sin with 
Death. It is acknowledged, that this is implied,, 
even that Death came into the World by Adam^^ 
Sin : Yet tWs is not the main Thing the Apoftle 
defigns to prove. But his main Point evidently 
is, that Sin^nd Guilty znAjuJi Expofednefs to Death 
* and Ruin J came inta the World by Jdamh Sin ; 
as Righteoufnefsj' Jujlificationy and a Title to eternal 
Life come by Ghrift. Which Point he confirms 
by this Confideration^ That from the very Time 
when Adan^ fmned,, thefe Things,, namely. Sin, 
Guilt,: and Defcrt of Ruin, became univerfal in' 
the Worlds long before the Law given by Mofis 
to the Jewijh Nation had any Being. 

The Apoftle's Remark^ that Sin entered into 
the World by om Man, who was the Father of 
the whole human Race, was an Obfervation which 
afforded proper Inflruftion for the Jews, wha- 


oiap. F(r. 7 anH Sepfi of Rom. v. liy &:c. ^^j 

oe^ Ii« 3 I 

looked oni themfdvcs as an holy People, becaiife 
they had the Law of MafeSj ajpd yr^re t;he (li^tiUdreK 
pf Abraham^ an holy Jt'ather 5 ^hile they looked 
on other Nations as by Nature unholy and Signers; 
becaufe they were not Abrahm^ji Ghildren. He 
leads theih up to aii higher Ateeftpr than this 
Patriarchy even to Adam^ who b^ing ecpiaUy the 
Father of Jtws aAd Gentiles^ both aJifeLC com^ fron^ 
k finful Father ; from whpnfi Guilt and PpUutiori 
were derived alike to ^H Mankind. AiJi^d this the 
Apoftie proves by an Argumjent, which of all that 
iould polfibly be invented, tended the nioft briefly 
txA direftly to convince the Jews j even by this? 
Refleftion, that Death had come equally on s^tt 
Mankind from Adam'% Time, and that the Pofte- 
fity of Abtahani were equally fubjeft to it with' 
the reft of the World. This was apparent in 
FaSly a Thing they all knew. And the '^•ews had 
Always been taught, that Death (which beg^n in 
the Deftruftipn of tte Body, and Of thi$. prefent 
Life) was the proper Puniflitneht of Sin. Thxi 
i\\ty were taught in' Mofe^s Hiftory of Adafd^ zfl^ 
God's firft Threatening of Puniflimeht for Sin, aadt 
by thi conftant Dodtrine of the Law and the Pro- , 
phets i as has been already obferyed. 


And the Apbftle's Obferv^^tioh, that Sin ms iff 
the World long before the Law was given, and 
was as aniverfai M the World from the Times of 
AdafUj as it had been anibrig the Heathen fince 
the Law of MSfes,' thisT ftiisjwed plaiftly, that fhti 
Jews were quite miftakerf in their Notion of their 
particular Law ; and that the Law which is the 
original and univerfg^l Rule of Righteoufnefs and,: 
Judgment fofatf Mankind/ Was aribther Law, d? 
far more ancient Date, even the Law of Nature -/ 
which began as early as the human Nature began, 

Z 2 and 

340 The true ConneSlion^ Scope^ Part IL 

and was eftablilhed'with the firft Father of Man-^ 
kind, and in him with the whole Race : The po-* 
fitive Precept of abftaining from the forbidden 
Fruit, being given for the Trial of his Compliance 
with this Law of Nature \ of which the main Rule 
is fupreme Regard to God and his Will. And 
the: Apoftle proves that it muft be thus, becaufe,- 
if the Law of Mofes had been the higheft Rule 
of Judgment, and if there had not been a fupe- 
riour, prior, divine Rule eftabliflied. Mankind ifi 
general would not have been judged and con- 
demned as Sinners, before that was given, (for 
^' Sin is not imputed, when there is no Law") 
as it is apparent in Fa6l: they were, becaufe Death 
reigned before that Time, even from the Times 
of Adam. 

It may be obferved, the Apoftle in this Epiftle, 
and that to the Galatians^ endeavours to convince 
the Jews of thefe two Things, in Oppofition to 
the Notions and Prejudices they had entertained 
concerning their Law. ( i . ) That it never was in- 
tended to be the Covenant^ or Method by which 
* they fhould aftually be jujlified. (2.) That it was 
not the higheft and univerfal Rule or Law, by 
which Mankind in general, and particularly the 
heathen World, were condemned. And he proves 
both by fimilar Arguments.^ — He proves, that the 
Law of Mofes was not the Covenant^ by which any 
of Mankind were to obtain Jiiftification^ becaufe 
that Covenant was of older Date, being exprefly 
eftabliflied in the Time of Abraham^ and Abraham 
himfelf was jujiifed by it. This Argument the 
Apoftle particularly handles in the iii^ Chap, of 
Galatiansy efpecially in ver. 17, 18, 19, And this 
Argument is alfo made Ufe of in the Apoftle's 
Reafonings in the iv^^ Chap, of this Epiftle to 


Chap. IV. 7 and Senje of Rom. v- 1 2, &c. 341 

Sedl. II. \ 

the Romans^ elpccially ver. 13, 14, 15. He proves 
alfb, that the Law of Mofes was not the prime 
Rule of Judgment, by which Mankind in general, 
and particularly the heathen World, were con- 
demned. And this he proves alfo the fame Way, 
viz. by Ihewing this to be of older Date than that 
Law, and that it was eftablifhed with Adam. Now, 
thefe Things tended to lead the Jews to right 
Notions of their Law, not as the intended Me- 
thod of Jujiification^ nor as the original and unir ' 
verfal Rule of Condemnation^ but fomething fupe^ 
added to both, both being of older Date -, — lupef- 
added to the lattery to illuftrate and confirm . it, 
that the Offence might abound -, and fuperadded to 
the former, to "be as a School-Majlery to prepare 
Men for the Benefits of it, and to magnify divine 
Grace in it, that this might niuch more abound. 

The chief Occafion of the Obfcurity and Diffi- 
culty, which feems to attend the Scope and Con- 
nexion of the various Claufes in the three firfl: 
Verfes of this Difcourfe, particularly the 1 3th and 
14th Verfes, is, that there are two Things (althq* 
Things clofely connefted) which the Apoltle; has 
in his Eye at once^ in which he aims to enlighten 
them he writes to ; which will not be thought at 
all ftrange by them that have been converfant 
with, and have attended to this Apoftle's Writings. 
He would illuftrate the grand Point he. had beea * 
upon from the Beginning, even Juftification thro" 
Chriji's Righteoufnefs alone, by fhewing how we ^ « 
originally in a finful miferable State, and how wjC 
derive this Sin and Mifery from Adam, and. how 
we are delivered and juftified by Chrift as a fecond 
Adam. At the fame Time he would cqnfutq thofe 
foolilh and corrupt Notions of the Jews, about 
their Nation, an,d their Law, that were very incon- 

Z 3 fiftcnt 

fiftent mdi thcfe Dodbrines. And he here endea- 
vours to eftablHh, at once, thcfe two Things in 
Pppofitioh to diofe Jcwifi Notions. 


(i.) That it is our natural Relation to AJamy 
and not to Abrabam^ which d.etermines our nadve 
moral State \ and that therefore the l^ing natural 
ChiMren of Abrabamy wiU not make ys by Nature^ 
^oly in the Sight of God, fihce we are the hatoral 
Sect! of fmful Adam : Nor does the GenHles being 
tiot defcended from Ahrabatn^ denominate them 
Sinners, any more than the y^j, feeing bpthadfloe 
^re defcended from Adam. 

(tz.) That the Law of Mpfes is not the prion; 
tftdd general Law and RxAc of Judgment for Mao- 
kind, to condemn them, iand denominate th|^ Sh' 
ners •, but that the State they are in with regard to 
•a higher, more ancient and pnhrerfal Law, deter- 
•mines Mankind in general to be Sinners in the 
5^t of God, imd liable to be condemned as inch. 
Which Obfcnradon is, in many Refpedis, to die 
Apoftle's Purpofc; particularly in this Re^xd, 
that if the Jews were convinced, that the Law^ 
-which i^as die prime Rule of Condemnation^ was 
rg^ven to all, was common to all Mankind, «nd 
that all fell under Condemnation through the 
Violation of that Law by the common Father of 
all, both Jews and Gentiles, then they would be 
led more eafily juid naturally to believe, that the 
Method of Jiiftijication, which God had ellabliihed, 
aUb extended equally to all Mankind ; And that 
the Meffiaby by whom we have this Juilification, 
• js appointed, as Adam was, for a common Head to 
all, both Jews and Gentiles. 


iaiap.IV. 7 a$i4 Senfe of Rom. v, 1 2, &c. j^j 

The Apoftle's jaiming to confiatc the Jewijk 
^otion^ is the principal Qccafion of thofe Words 
in the 13 th Verfe, Far smtil the Ijw^ Sm "jms in 
the JVorld'^ hut Sin is not imputed^ when there is 
no Law,. 

As to the Import of that Expreffion, ^ven 
ever them that had not Jinn fd after the Similitude of 
Adam's Tranfgrejjion^ no]t only is the Thing fignir 
fied by it, in Dr. ^T*— r*s Senfe of it, noJt true i or 
if it had been true, would have been impertinent, 
as has been ihewn : But his Interpretation is, other^ 
wife, very much Jlrained and unnatural Accord- 
ing to him, by " finning after the Similitude of 
*' Mam^s Tranfgreflion," is not jneant any Simi- 
litude of the Aft of finning, nqr of the Command 
finned againft, nor properly any Circumftance of 
the Sin ; but only die Similitude of 9 Circumftance 
of the Command^ viz, the Threatening it i& atten- 
ded with.. A far-fetphed Thing, to be called a 
Similitude ofjinnir^! 3efidcs this Expreflion, in 
fuch a Meaning, is only a needlefs, impertinent, 
and awkward R^eating over again the fame Thing, 
which it is fuppofed the Apoftle had obfefved in 
(the foregoing Verfe, even after be had left it, and 
had propepded .another Stf p in the Series pf hi^i 
Pifcourfc, or Chain of ^rguing. As thus, in the 
foregoing Verfp the Apoftle h^d plainly laid down 
his Argument, (as our Author underftands it) by 
which he would prQve, peatb did not come by 
perfonal Sin, viz. that Death reigned before any 
Law J threatening Death fpr perfonal Sin, wa? in 
Being ; fo that the S\t\ then committed was againft 
no Lawy threatening Death for perfonal Sin* Ha- 
ying laid this down, the Apoftle leaves this JPart 
of his Argument, and proceeds another Step, Ne- 
ver tbelefs Deafh reigned from Adam to Mofe« : A*\d 

^4- tU<^^ 

§44- ^^^ ^^^^ CotmeRioUi Scgpe^ - Part It> 

then returns, in a llrange unnatural Manner, and 
repeats that Argument or AiTertion again, but 
only more oibfcurcLy than before, in thefe Wordsi 
Even ,Gijer them that bad not finned after the Simfi- 
litude of Adam's Tranfgrxjfiony i, e. over them that 
had not finned againft a Law threatening Death 
fpr perfpn^l Sin, Which is juft the fame Thing 
as it the Apoftle had faid, '^ They that finned 
" before tbe.Lftrjo^ did not fin againft a Law threat- 
" ening Death for perfonal Sin ; for there was na 
" fuch Law for any to fin againft at that Time i 
S' Neverthelefs Death reigned at that Time, men 
« over fuch as did not fin againft a Law threaten - 
?' ing Death for perfonal Sin." Which latter 
Claufe adds Nothing to the Premifes, and tends 
Nothing to iiiuftrate what was faid betbre, but 
rather to obfcure and darken it. The Particle 
(;ta/) ^'«;, when prefixed in this Manner, uledtb 
fignify fomething additional, fome Advance in the 
Senfe or Argument ; implying, that the Words 
following exprefs fomething more, or exprefs the 
fame Thing more fully, plainly, or forcibly. But 
to unite two Claufes by fuch a Particle, in fuch a 
Manner, when there is nothing befides a flat Re- 
petition, with no fuperadded Senfe or Force, but 
rather a greater Uncertainty and Dbfcurity, would 
te very unufual, and indeed very abfurd. 

. I can f^e no Reafon why we fhould be diflatisfied 
with th^t Explanation of this Claufe, which has 
more cpmmonly been given, viz. That by them 
luoho have not finned after the Similitude of Adam'i 
Tranfgrejfiony are meant Infants -, who, though they 
have indeed finned in Adam-^ yet never finned as 
Adam did, by actually tranfgreffing in their own 
Perfons; unlefs it be, that this Interpretation is 
too old^ and too common. It was v/.cil known by 


^OainJV. 7 ifnd 'Senfe of Rom. v. li, tec. 545 

thofe the Apoftle wrdte to, that vaft Numbers had 
died in Infancy, within that Period which the Apo- 
ftle fpeaks of, particularly in the Time of the 
Deluge : And it would be llrange, the Apoftle 
Ihould not have the Cafe of fuch Infants in his 
Mind; even fuppofing his Scope were what our 
Author fuppofes, and he had only intended td 
prove that Death did not come on Mankind for 
their perfbnal Sin, How direftly would it have 
ferved the Purpofe of proving this, to have men- 
tioned fo great a Part of Mankind that are fubjefi: 
to Death, who all know, never committed any Sin 
in their own Perfom ? How much more plain and 
eafy the Proof of the Point by that, than to go 
round about, as Dr. ST. fuppofes, and bring in a 
-Thing fo dark and . uncertain as this. That God 
never would bring Death on all Mankind for per^ 
fonal Sin, (though they bad perfonal. .Sin): without 
an exprefs revealed Conjlitution •, and then to obr 
ierve, that there was . no revealed Conftitution of 
this Nature from Adam to Mofes\ which alfo 
feems a Thing without any plain Evidence ; and 
then to infer, that it muft needs be fo, that it could 
come only on Occafion of Adamh Sin, though not 
for his Sin, or as any Punilhment of it ; which Ii»- 
ference alfo is very dark and unintelligible. 

If the Apoftle in thi$ Place meant thofe who 
never finned by their perfpnal Act^ it is not ftrange 
that he fliould exprefs this by their notjinning after 
the ^ Similitude of AdamV ^ranfgreffon. . We read 
of two Ways of Men's being X^tAdam^ or in 
which a Similitude:- to him is aferib^d to Men; 
Dne is a being begotten qr borp in his Image or 
i/te/?/5,..Gen. ^v. 3*: AnoU^r is. a tranfgreffing 
God's Covenant or Law, like him ^ Hof. vi. 7. Ihey^ 
like Adam, (fo, in the Hcb. and Vulg, Lat.) have 


-^^ '^be true ConneShn^ Scfipe^ Part \i^ 

prfmfgrejfed the Qovenant. Infants have the former 
^Similitude, bu|t not the latter. And it w;^ very 
^tural> when the Ap9llle would infer that Infants 
l)€CQme Sinners by that one Aft and Offence of 
Jidam^ to pbferve, that they had not renewed the 
Aft of Sin themfelvcs, bv any fecond Inftance of 
^ likp Sort. And fuch might be the State of I,*anr 
jguage amoiig Jews and Chriftistns at that Dav^ 
that the Apoftle might have no Phrafe more apdy 
to cxprefe this Meaning. The Manner in which 
the Epithets, Perfon^l and AElualy are ufed and 
applied now In this Cafe, is probably of later Date^ 
and mori^ modern Ufe. 

And thpn this Suppofition of the Apoftlc*s ha^ 
ving the Cafe of Inrants in View, in this Exprrft 
iion, makes it nwre to his Puroofe, to mention 
peath reigning before the t-av oi Mofes was given^ 
For the Jews looked on all Nations, befidcs them<r 
felves, as Sinners^ by Virtue of their Lnw ; being 
inadiB fo efpecially by the Law of Circumcifiony 
^ivcn firft to Abraham^ and compleated by Mofes^ 
making the Want of Circumcilion a legal Pollution, > 
wtterly difqualifying for the Privileges of the Sanc- 
liuary. This Law, the Jews fupppfed, made the 
very Infants of the Gentiles Sini)ers, polluted an4 
hateful to God ; they being uncircumcifed, and 
born of uncircumcifed Parents, But the Apoftle 

S roves, ;^gainft thefe Notions of the Jews^^ that the 
rations of the World do not become Sinners by 
-Nature, and Sinners from Infancy, by Virtue of 
their l^vfy in this Manner, but by Adam^s Sin ; 
Jnafmcuh as Infants were treated as Sinners long 
hefore the Law of CircunKifion was given, ^ w?U 
^ l^fore they had committed ^ftvfal Siq. 


piap. ly . 7 and Senfe ^ Rdm. h, iz, &c. ^14^ 

What has been faid, may, as I hpmbly conceive^ 
lead us to that which is the true Scope aod Senfe 
of the Apoftle in theij: three Verfcs; which J iwiU 
endeavour more briefly to reppdfent in the folfayMr 
ing Parapbrafe. 

" The Things which I hav« 12. fVhenfore^ «f 
largely infifted on, viz. the hy 0ne JMkn Sin «r 
^vil that is in the Wof id, the tmdinto the Jf^crli^ 
general Wickednefs, (juilt i^nd and J)eatb ^ Sin^ 
'Ruin of Mankind, and thp op- and fo THaih f^fii 
polite Good, even Juftific^tion upon nU, Mm^ fm 
and Life, as only by Chrift, that M hwe (iwpd* 
lead me to obferve the Likenefs 
of the Manner in which they 
are each of them introduced^ 
For it was by one Man^ that . . 

the general Corruption and 
puilt which I have ^ken of^ 
came info the World, and Cdn- 
idemnation and Death by Sin ; 
And this dreadful punifliment 
. and Ruiij came on all Man- 
kind by the grieat l^am offVorks^ 
originally cftabliihcd with Manr 
kind in their fitfl: Father, an4 
by his ope Offente^ or Bitach 

of that. Law ; Ml thereby be- 

coming Sinners in God's Sight, 
and' expofed to final Deftrucr 

" lit is manifeft, that it was 13. For until thi 
in this Way the World became Law Sin was in the 
finful and guilty; 'zr\6. not \n World : But Sink 
that Way which the Jews^iv^^ not imputed^ when 
pofc, viz. That their Law, tkere is m Law. 

"" given 


34$ ■ ^i^e Proof of Original Sin Part IL 

given by Mofes is the grand 
univerfal Rule of Righteouf- 
nefs and Judgmeht for Man- 
kind, and that it is by being 
Gentiles^ uncircumcifed, and 
Aliens from that Law, that 
the Nations of the World are 
eonjiituted Sinners ^ and unclean. 
!por before the Law of Mofes 
was giveirt, Mankind were all 
looked upon by the great Judge 
as Sinners, by Corruption and 
Guilt derived from Adanf% 
Violation of the original Law 
of Works ; which fhews, that 
the original univerfal Rule of 
Righteoufnefs is not the Law 
of Mofes \ for if fo, there would 
have been no Sin imputed he- 
fore that was given •, becaufe 
Sin is not imputed, when there 
is no Law. 

" But that at that Time Sin 14. Never tbelefs 
was imputed^ and Men were by Death reigned from 
their Judge reckoned as Sin- Adam toMofcs^even 
ners^ through Guilt and Cor- over them that had 
ruption derived from Adam^ not finned after the 
and condemned for Sin to Similitude of Ad3.voL^ 
Deaths the proper Punifhment Tranfgrejion. 
of Sin, we have a plain Proof; 
in that it appears in Faft, all 
j^fankind, during that whole 
Time which preceded the Law 
of Mofes J were fubjefted to 
that temporal Death, which is 
the vifible Introdudion and 


Chap. IV. 7 ftm RcMn. V. full mi flAin. ^49 

Sedt.II. J 

linage of that utter Deftruc- 
tion which Sin <Jeferves, not 
excepting even Infants^ who 
could be Sinners no other Way 
than by Virtue of AdanC% 
Tranfgreffion, having never in 
their own Perfons aftually fin- 
ned as Adam did ; nor could 
at that Time be made polluted 
by the Law of Mofes^ as being 
uncircumcifed, or born of un- 
circumcifed Parents." 

Now, by Way of Reflefliioii on the Whole, I 
would obferve, that though there are two or three 
Expreffions in this Paragraph, Rom. v. 12, &c. the 
Defign of which is attended with fome Difficulty 
and Obfcurity, as particularly in the 13th and 14th 
Verfes, yet the Scope and Senfe of the Difcourfc 
in general is not obfcure, but on the contrary very* 
clear and manifeft ; and fo is the particular Doc- 
trine mainly taught in it. The Apoftle fcts himfelf 
with great Care and Pains to make it plain, and 
precifely to fix and fettle the Point he is upon. 
And the Difcourfc is fo framed, that one Part of 
it does greatly clear and fix the Meaning of other 
Parts ; and the Whole is determined by the clear 
Connection it ftands in with other Parts of tlic 
Epiftle, and by the manifeft Drift of all the pre- 
ceding Part of it. 

The Doftrine of Original Sin is not only here 
taught, but moft plainly, explicitly, and abundantly 
taught. This Doftrine is aflerted, exprefly or im- 
plicitly, in almoft every Verfe, and in fome of the 
Verfes feveral Times. It is fully implied in that 
firft Expreffion in the 1 2th ver. By one Man Siz 


3SO Tie Proof of Original Si;t Art It. 

tntered into the World. The Paflfage implies, that Siri 
became univerfal in the World ^ as the ApofUc 
had before largely ftiewn it was ; and itot merely 
(which would be a trifling infignificant ObfervaticMi) 
that one Man, who was made firft^ finned firft; 
before other Men finned ^ or, that it did not fo 
Iiappen that many Men began to fin juflr together 
tx, the fame Moment. The latter Part of Ac 
Vcrfe, And Death by Sin^ and fo Death faffed upon 
all Men^ for that (or, if you will, unto which) alt 
bavejinnedy (hews, that in the Eye of the Judge of 
the World, in Adanf^ firft Sin, all fimied;* not 
only in fom€ Sort^ but ail finned y^ as to be cx- 
pofed to that J)eathy' and final Deftru6tion, whicht 
is the proper fFages of Sin. The fame Dod3rin« 
IS taught again twice over in the 1 4th Verfe. It 
is there obfcrved, as a Proof of this Doftrine, that 
Death reigned over them which had not Jinned after 
the Similitude of Adam's Tranfgreffion^ i. e. by dieif 
pcrfonal Aft j and therefore could be expofed to 
Death, only by deriving Guilt and Pollution fronr 
Jfdamy in Confequence of his Sin. And it is taught 
again in thofe Words, ff^ho is the Figure of Bim 
that was to come. The Refemblance lies very much 
in this Circumfl:ance,- viz.- our deriving Sin, Guilt,' 
and Punilhment by Adam's Sin, as we do R^h- 
ttoufnefs, Juftification, and the Reward of Life by 
Chrift's Obedience; for fo the Apoftle explains 
himfelf. The faiAQ Doftrine is exprefly taught 
again, ver. 1 5-. Through the Offence of one^ manjf be 
dead. And again twice in the 1 6th Vcrfe, It wat 
hf one that finned v i. e. It was by Adam^ that 
Guilt and Punilhment (be foriefpokon of) came on" 
Mankind : And in thefe Words, Judgment was by 
one to Condemnation. It is again plainly and full/ 
hid down in the 17th Verfe, By o?te Man's Offence, 
Death reigmd by om* So again in the i8th Verf^^» 


fcfcap. tV.\ from Rom, v. fdl and fim. $^i 

Se6t. II. J 

By th^ QffencB $f dM^ Judgment came upn aS, 
Mm to Condemnation Again very plainly in die 
19th Verie, By ene Mat^s Difobedienct^ msxy werti 
made Sinners. 

And here is every Thiiig ta determine and fir 
the Meaning of g^ important 3Vi»jy that the Apo-i 
file makes Ufe of: As, the abundant Ufe o£ them 
in all Parts of the New Teftament j and efpecially 
in this Apoftle's Writings, which make up a very 
great Part of the New Teftament : And his ;pc- 
peated Ufe oi them in this Epiftle in particular^ 
efpecially in the preceding Part of the Epiftle^ 
which leadfs to and introduces this Difcourie, an4' 
in the former Part of this very Chi4)ter ; and alfo' 
the Ligift that one Sentence ill this Par^^raph cafts' 
on another, which fully fettles their Meaning: 
As, with refpeft to the Words Jufiificatiot^ iSif^- 
teoufnefiy and Condemnation ; and above ^, in re« 
gard of the Word, Sin^ whicfe is the moft impoit- 
ant of all, with Relation to the DoSirine and Coo^ 
troverfy we are upon. Befides the conftant Ufe 
of this Term every where eUe through the New' 
Teftament, through the Epiftleis of this Apoftk^ 
this Epiftle in particular, and even the former' 
Part of this Chapter, it is often repeated in thi* 
very Paragraph, and evidently ufed in the verj^ 
Senfe tliat is denied to belong to it in the End of 
ver^ 12, and ven 19. though owned every where 
elfe : And its Meaning is fully determined by the 
Apoftle^s varying the Term ; ufiiig together with;, 
it, to fignify the fame Thing, fuch a Variety of 
other fynonymous Words, fuch as Offenee^ Tranf- 
greffwn^ Dtfobedienee. And further, to p^t the 
Matter out of all Cohtroverfy, it is particularly 
and exprefsly and repeatedly diftinguiihed frpnr 
that which our Qppofers would expUmt it by, ,tsr;p^ 


354 ^^oof JrmjRfVS^X' fnU and ptm^ Part II, 

Senfe as an Help to fettle the Meaning of mftny 
other Paflages of' fecred Writ^ . 

As this Place in general is . very full and pMn^ 
fo the Doftriftc of the Corruption cf Nature^^ a$ 
derived from Adam^ and alfa, the Impucatipn of 
his firft Sin, are hfoth clearly tatught in m, ^ht 
imputation of Aianf^ one TranfgreflH^fr, is iridbcd 
molt direftly and frequently aflerted. We are here 
aiTured^ that hy oni Ma1t$ Sini Death pajfed m 
all '9 all being adjudged to this Puniflunent, as 
having ^nned (fo it is implied) in that one Manli 
Sin. And it is repeated over and over, that all 
are condemnedy mafrf are deadj many made Simtersj 
&c. by one Maris Offence^ hy the Difobediencet^^cf 
cnej afid iy one Offence. And the DoEtnwl if^ 
(Kiginal Depravity is alio here taught, when thft 
Apoflle fays. By one Man Sin entered ini& fie 
World % having a plain Refpeft (as hath been 
ihewn) to that univerfal Corruption and. Wicked- 
nefs, as well as Guilt, which he had bdR>re hrgel^ 
treated of 


tltfthi:!) ho^ffrm Redemption. 355: 

Chap.I. ) 


*, ' _ ■ ■ ■ 


(Serving tie Evidence giveri us, r^/afive id 
'" ' tie Dodirine of Original Sin, in what the 
]\ Scriptures reveal concerning the Redemption 
j'; Jy Christ.. 

vv. C H A t^. L 

STbt Evidence of Original Sin^ from^ the Nature cf 
Vi .. Redemption, . in the Procurement ef it% -. 

\\ CCORDING to Dr r— r?s Scheme, i0i vtrf 
ijr\ great Part of Mankind are the Subjefts of 
t3irift*s Redemptidtf^ who live and die pcrfc6tiy in- 
mcent'^ who never have had, and never will have 
anjF 5/^ charged' to their Account,' and never are 
either the Subjefts of^ or expofed to any Punijh" 
io^ whatibever, viz. sXX ih2it^\t\t\r Infancy . They 
are the Subjefts of Chrifi\ Redeinption^ as he re- 
deems them from Deaths or as they by his Righ- 
teoufnefs have Juftification^ and by his Obedience 
are made righteousy in the Refurreilion of the Body, 
in the Senfe of Rom; v. 18, 19. And dll Mankind 
are thus the Subjefts of Chrift*s Redemption, 
while they are perfeftly guiltkfs, and expofed ta 
no Punilhment, as by Chrift they are inticled to a 
Refurre^lioHi Though, with refpeft to fuch Perfohs 
as have finned^ he allows it is infome Sort by Chriff 
and his Death, that they are faved from Sin, and 
the Punilhment of it. ^ 


Now let te fee whether fucfi a ScK'eme well con- 
fifts with the Scripture- Account of the Redemption 
by Jefus Ghrift. 

A a 2 ' 1 The 

356 Proof of Original Sin Part III* 


I. The Reprefentations of the Redemption by 
Chrift, every where in Scripture, lead us to fup- 
pofe, that all whom he came to redeem, are Sinners -^ 
that his Salvation, as to the Term from wbUb (or 
the Evil to be redeemed from) in all is Sin^ and 
the deferved Punijhmeni of Sin. It is natural to 
fuppofe, that when he had his Name Jefus^ cm* 
Saviour^ given him by God's fpedal and imme- 
diate Appointment, the Salvation meant by that 
Name (hould be his Salvation in general ; and not 
only a Part, of his Salvation, and with Regard only 
to fome of them that he came to fave. But this 
Name was given him to fignify bis faving bis 
People from their Sins^ Matth. i. 21. And the great 
Doftrine of Chriffs Salvation is, that he came into 
the World to fave Sinners^ i Tim. i. 1 5. And that 
Chrift bath once fuffered^ the Juft for the Unjufij 
I Pet. iii. 18. In this was mamfefted the Love of 
God towards us^ (towards fuch in general as have 
the Benefit of God's Love in giving Chrift) that 
God fent his only begotten Son into the Worlds that 
we might live through Him. Herein is Love^ that 
be fent his Son to he the Propitiation for our Sins, 
I /John iv. 9, iQ. Many other Texts might be 
mentioned, which feem evidently to fuppofe, that 
all who are redeemed by Chrift, are faved frona 
Sin. We are led by what Chrift himfelf faid, ;to 
fuppofe, that if any are not Sinners, they have 
no Need of him as a Redeemer, any more than a 
well Man of a Phyfician, Mark ii. 17. And. that 
Men, in order to being the proper Subjects of 
the Mercy of God through Chrift, muft firft be in 
a State of Sin, is implied in Gal. iii. 22. But the. 
Scripture hath concluded all under Sin, that the 
Prcmife by Faith of Jefus Chrift might be given to 
thcra that believe. To the fameEffed is Ro7n. xi. 32. 


Chap. I. from Redemption hy Chrift. J57 

* Thefe Things are greatly confirmed by the 
Scripture-Dodrine of Sacrifices. It is abundantly 
plain, by both Old and New Teftament, that 
they were Types of Chriffs Death, and were for 
Sin, and fuppofcd Sin in thofe for whom chey 
were offered. The Apoftle fuppofes, that in order 
to any having the Benefit of the eternal Inheritance 
by Chrift, there muji of Necejfity be the Death of 
the TeJiator\ and gives that Reafon for it, that 
without' fhedding of Blood there is no Remi£ion^ Heb. 
ix. 15, &c. And Chrift himlelf, in reprcfenting 
the Benefit of his* Blood, in the Inftitntion of the 
Lord's Supper, under the Notion of the Blood 
of a Teftament^ calls it,- The Blood of the New Te- 
fiament fhed for the Remijfton of ^ins^ Matth. xxvi. 
28. But according to the Scheme of our Author, 
many have the eternal Inheritance* by the Death 
of .the Teftator, who never had any Need of Rc- 

IT. The Scripture reprefents the Redemption 
by Chrift as a Redemption frotji deferued Deftruc- 
tion ; and that, not merely as it refpefts fomc 
Particulars, but as. the Fruit of God's Love to 
Mankind. John iih ij6. Godfo iovedjhe WORLD, 
thai he gave bis only begotten Son, that whofoever 
believeth in him SHOULD NOT PERISH, but 
have everlajiing Life : Implying;, that otherwife 
they muft pcrifh, or be deftroyed : But what 
Neceflity of this, if they did not deferve to be 
deftroyed ? Now, that the Deftruftion here fpoken 
of, is deferved Deftruftion, is manifeft, becaufe it 
is there compared (o the peri(hing of fuch of the 
Children of Ifrael as died by the Bite of the fiery 
Serpents, which God in his Wrath, for their Re- 
hllion, fent amongft them. And the fame Thing 
clearly appears by the laft Verfe of the fame 

A a 3 Chapter, 

•358 Dr. T-^^Sfheme fuperftdes Fart IB, 

Chapter, He ibat believetb on the Sen^ bdtb euep-- 
hji:n7 Life \ and be tbat believetb not tbe Son^ /bMff 
not fee Life^ hut tbe Wratb of God abidetb m bviiy 
tty is left remaining on him : Implying, that aU 
m general are found under the Wratb of God, imd 
thut they only of all Mankind, who are interefittd 
in Chriit, have this Wrath removed^ and eoemai 
Life beflowed ; the reft are left with the Wr4tih 
of Gcd ftill remaining on tbeml The fame is ckaitf 
illuftrated and con&med by Jobn v. 24. ffe fintt 
lelircetb^ batb everlafting Life^ and fball not com 
into Condemnationy but is fajfed from Death to JJfi. 
In being pafled from Death to life is implied^ 
that before^ they were all in a State of Death ^ and 
they are fpoken of as being fo by a Sentenced 
Condemnation ; and if it bfc zjujl Condemnatio^^^^ 
is a deferved Condemnation, ^ 

III. It will follow on Dr. 7*—r^s Scheme, ^th'St 
Chrift*s Redemption, with regard to a great Part 
of them who are the Subjcfts of it, is not oiiJy a 
Kedtmption from no Sin^ but from no Cahmitj^ 
and fo from no Evil of any Kind. For &^-te 
Deatby which Infants arc redeemed from, ttey 
never were fubjefted fo it as a Calaniity, buf: p<Mly 
as a Beneft. It came by no Threatening o^Cuiib 
denounced upon or through ^dam ; the Go^n^t 
with him being ytterly abolijhedj as to all its^HoNc 
and Power on Mankind (according to our-Aii- 
thor) before the pronouncing the Sentence r^ 
Mortality. Therefore Trouble and Death ixm^ 
be appointed to innocent Mankind no other iWiy 
than on the Foot of another Covenant, the.Qnre- 
nant of Grace ; and in this Channel they conie 
oniy as FazourSy net as Evils. Therefore they 
could need no Medicine or Remedy, for they had 
no Difeafe. Even Death itfclf, which itis-iuppofed 


Cbap^^ h Hedempdon tjCbriJt. 35^ 

Cluift iaves tfaem from, is only a Medicine ^ it is 
preventing Phyfick, and one oif the greatdt pf 
JBenefits. It is ridiculous to tiUk of Perfons needing 
a Medicine, or a Phyfician to fave them from ah 
cvpellent Medicine^ or of a Remedy from a happy 
Remedy ! If it be faid, though Peath be a Benebc, 
yet it IS fo becaufe .Chrift changes it, and turns }t 
inco a Benefit^ by procuring ^a RefurreSion: I 
would hei:c a(k, What can be ogieant by turmng or 
ebanging it into. a. Benefit, when it never was 
odierwife, nWKOiAd ever jiffiJy. ie otherwife? /«- 
f^s could not ^ all be brought under Death as 
a 4Calami^ ^ fc^ thty never deferved it. Audit 
imuld: be JOfAyf i|0 Abufe (be it far from us, to 
isfcribe fuch. aXbing to God) in any Being, t6 
make the Qfier to any poor Su^^rs, of a Re^ 
dcsemer from Tome Calamity, wliicHj^ had brought 
Upon diem ^MtbQUt the leaft Defirt of it on their 
Part.- .-> 

% * «.k 

, ■ . ■ ^ - — 

But it is plain j dut Deatli or Mortality, was 
not at firft bUMlghl: on Manl^nd as a Bleflins, on 
the Foot of tha Cbvenant of Grace through Cnrift ; 
and that Chrift anil Grace do not bring Mankind 
under Death, byt^j^/them under it, % Cor. v, 14, 
Wtthus judge^ 4haf if one died for ally then were 
aU dead, JUukiK x»* to. ^be Son of Man is C4>ine 
to fetk and fo fave that which was loft. The 
Grace which appeals in providing i Deliverer from 
any State, fuppofes the Subjeft to be in that State 
ftttul' to that Grace and Deliverance ; and not that 
fueh a State is firft introduced by that Grace. In 
our Author^s Scheme, there never could be any 
Seiftence c£ Peath or Condemnation, that requires 
a Saviour from it \ becaufe the very Sentence lU 
l^lf, according to the true Meaning of it, implies 
and mal^s fure all that Good, which is recjuifite 

Aa4 to 

g^ Dr. :S^f^^s^'S€baniiigpa^es Parj^BO; 

tDvabolilh und makeivoid the feeming fivil'ta Aa 

jciriocent Subjeft. i So chatitdio.itSentence.iHJ^ns 

^n .£&& thbDelivctier; and'>theittis:'n6 Nced?ik£ 

anotben.DeiiveFer .to deliver; iSnom't^atiSemend^ 

•Dr. ?*. infiffcs'upon it; that ^^ Notlvufig cocneaitopott 

t^: us in Confequcnce of; jidBm^iSm^i in aby S£NS£» 

*V<KIND, or DEGREE, ihconfiftciit withi; the 

£^ eriginad JSUffing pronounced, .vn^'utdion . at . his 

?^. Creation; and .In othing bliiitvywhto isi:pe£ft&ly 

^.^ conliftcnt widi God's BleiTing^. Love, ^an^£kxjd^ 

:^i:.nefsj^ declared toi jfdam as ibtovas. he came.*«nit 

^? of his .Maker's Hands *.f If the Cafe be (£>i 

it is certain there is no £vilt)hGidamityiabalLsfi>r 

.ChriH to redeem us from; unlcA ifjfingiragtmfiifi 

Jo the divine Goodnefi^ LovCy and'Bliffixg^ aiic Xhuigs 

.which we peed Redemption from, z-?^^ ' .>^ - tjiiuur.; 

. .^- . _ .» I.; ■ ' . ■ ■ I. ...»_••.■.* 1 ■■ ■• I .-- ■t.l^]l''(>w' 

: '■ Vif.i It wilL follow, on bur Amtbcir^s Prindpl^j 
not only with Refpefb to Infants, but even admt 
Perfons, that Redemption is needlefs^ and Chrifb is 
dead in vain. .Not only'is there mfJ^eed of QhdTs 
Rjedtmpiion in order ;iol Pelivetaoce ^rom'^ any 
Confequences of Aiani% £in, . bub alfo in ordtr^o 
perfedt Freedom from perfonal Sin,- and^ialll^its 
evil Confequences. For God h^s. m^e other fuf-- 
ficicnt Provifion for that, mz,-'- ^ Jjuffiuent Siowk 
and Jhilityiy in all Mankind^ to id^ all their \ijttHjf^ 
and wholly to avoid Sin. Yea, this- Author infifts 
Mpon it, that " when Men b^ve not fuf&debt 
^* .Power, to do their Duty, they have no Djity 
*' to do. We may fafely and afluredly conclude^ 
" (fays he) that Mankind in all f j^rts of-'thc 
^' World have SUFFICIENT Power, to dp fiiie 
" Duty which God requires of them ; and thrft 
". he requires of them NO MORE than they 
« have SUFFICIENT Powers to dof/' An4 


:* Page 88, 89. 5, f Page in. 63, 64. S. 

la another Pkce *, *' God has given Poweis 
♦' EQUAL to the Duty which he expefts.'* And 
he exprefles a great Diflike at R. R's fuppofing, 
*' that our Fropenfities to Evil, and Temptations, 
*S.arc too ftrong to be EFFECTUAil.Y and 
*f CONSTANTLY refitted; or that we are un- 
^* avoidably finful IN A DEGREE ; that our Appe- 
'^ tites and Paifions will be breaking out, notwith- 
" ftancjing our evcrlafting Watchfulnefs -j-." Thcfe 
Things ^Uy imply, that Men have in their own 
natural Ability Sufficient Means to avoid Sin, and 
to be perfectly free from it ; and fo, from all the 
bad Confequences of it. And if the Means are 
fiffficien^j': lien tljere is no Need of more ; and 
•jtherefore there is no Need of Chrift's dying, in 
jQrder to it;. ;Wh%t Dr; T. fays, in p.. 72. 5. fully 
impii§$a that it i^ould be unjuft in God to give 
JiS^tjkiti^ Qeing in fuch Circumftances, as that they 
^wpuld be more likely to fin^ fo as to be expofed to 
4n^ Mifery, than otherwife. Hence then, without 
ChrijEtand his f Redemption, and without any Grace 
a^alli,M£{lE^ JUSTICE. niakes fuff^ient Provi. 
fionSxxi our being free frorp $in and Mifery, by our 
pWftFQWer. • . ; 

'.; I .\\ ■■:' ..." \ n .:■■ 

. If all Mankind, in all Parts of the World, have 
fuch fufficient Power to, .do fcheir ,whale Dqty, 
vrithout being finful in any Degree^ then they have 
fufficient Power to '.obtain Rrghteoufnefs. by 'the 
. JLavj ;• And then, according to the Apolile Paul^ 
Chrift is dead in vain. Gal.ii. 2.1. If^RigbteoufneJs 
come by the Jmw^ Chrift is dead in vain -^-r-rAkx vou.e, 
without. the. Article, by Law ^ or the Rj^le of right 
Aftipn, as our Author explains , the Phrafe ij;. And 
according po the Senfe in- which he explains lYiVk 
.'. very 

* P^ge 67, y. t Cage ,68. S. ^ % P|;ef. to Par. on 
Rom. p. 143, 38, 

36z Dr. T— r^s icbime fupetJUes Pwtt UL 

rcrj Plade, " It would faave fruftreted ot ten^ 
^ dered ufelefs the Grace of God, if Chrift dieCl 
** to accompliih what was or MIGHT have been 
** efFefted by Law itfclf, without his I>ath ••*• 
So that it mod clearly follows from his own Doc-r 
frine^ that Cbrift is d^d in vain^ and the Grace of 
God is fiftlefs. The fame Apoftle fays^ If there 
bad been n Law which COULD have givien Life^ 
verify Rightetmfnefs ftxmld have been by tbi JLme^^ 
Gal. iii. 21. i. e. (ftill according to Or* 5?^— r^a 
own Senfe) if there was a Law^ that MAn/4ti htft 
prefent State^ had fuflkicnt Power perfeftl]ft'tb 
nilfil. For Dr. ?*. fuppoTes the Reafon-wfayr.the 
Law could not give Lire» to be, ^^ Ao^ faeiMife k 
^* was ^eak in itfeU; but through the W^ihncft 
^ of our Flcft, and the Infirmity of ih<S> htttkilk 
•* Nature in the prefent State f", But^fifi^ 
** We are under a mild Difpenfatioft of ^EtAOl^ 
" making AUowieinte for our Infirmities* J.^-..% 
tnr Infirmities^ we kiay upon good Grounds ft^ 
pofe he means that Infirmity of human NUtun^i, 
which he gives as theReafen why the ]Law cannot 
give Life. But what-Griftf i$ the* iH aifljkliig, 
that Allowance for our Infirmities, which }^i»/liir# 
itfelf (according to his Po£trine) molt abfolutefy 
requires, as he fuppofes divine Juftice exa^y pro^* 
portions our JDuty to our Ability I 

•- 4*. 

Again, If it be faid, that although Chnfif^ |te« 
demption was not heceffary to preferve Men fiom 
beginning to fin, and getnng into ar Co\3*fo^Df Sn, 
bccaufe they have fufficient Power in thc'mfelvta 
to avoid it J yet it may be ileceflary to ddiver 
Men, afier they have by their own Folly brought 
themfelvcs under the D^^ion of evil Appetite^ 


* Kote on Rom. v. 20. p. 297. t Tfpli. t Pan 
92. s. 


Cfapip* I» Redemption by Cbrffi. gSg 

»d Baffions \ I anfwer, if it be fo, that Me$^ 
peed Peliverance from tivofe Habits and Pafljoos^ 
which ^e become too ftrong for them, yet thac 
Deliverancty on oyr Authors Principles^ woidd 
be no Salvation from Sin^ For, the Exercife ^ 
Paffions which ^e top ftrong for us, and which 
we cannot overcome, \s necejfary: And he ftronghf 
urges, that a necejQ^ Evil can be no. mafal EviL 
|t is true, it is the £ffeff of Evil, as it is the 
£fie£i of a bad Praiftice,; while the Man remained 
at liberty, and had Power to have avoided it 
But then, fu:cording to Pr^ T — r, that evil Cdufe 
alone is Sin i and not fo, the neceflary ^ffefl : For 
he iays exprefly, ^' tie Caufe of every EfFeft is 
.^^ alone chargeable with the Effeft it produceth, 
fVpr which proce^detb from itf.^*. And as to 
that Sin which was the Cau/e^ the Man needed no 
Saviour ;fit)m fhaf^ having b$d fufficUni Pawir in 
i^imfelf to have avoided it. So that it follows, by 
pur Author's Scheme, th^ none of Mankind, 
neithef Infants nor adult piprfons, neither the more 
nor. lefs vicious, neither yew^ nor GentiUs^ neither 
fieatbens nor Chrijiian^^ ever did. or ever could 
jbmd in any Need of a Saviour ; aj;ui that, with 
-jrei^pe^ to ^//, the Truth is, Cbrift is dead in vain. 

If any ihould fay. Although all Mankmd in all 

Ages have fufficient Ability to do their whole 

Puty, ^d fo may by thcjr own Power enjoy 

:|)erfe€t Freedom from Sin, yet God forefaw that 

they ^auU fin^ and that after they had finned, 

they would need Chriflfs Peath : I anfwer, it is 

-plain, by what the ApofUe fays in thofe Places 

-which w?re juft now mentioned, Qal. ii. 21. and 

iii. 2 1, 

* See p, 2z8.«8nd alfo what he fays of the helplefs State <>< 
' the HeathtB, in Paraph, and Notes on Rrai, vfi. and .Begin- 
ning of Chap. viii. f Page 128. 

364 Dr: T — fs Sebme fuperfedes Part TR. 

iii 21. that God would have eftcemed it nc«Hefs' to 
give his Son to die for Men, unlefs there had been 
a prior Impoffibility of their having Righteoufhds 
by Law; and that, // there had been a Law v)hicb 
COULD have given Life^ this other Way by the 
Death of Ghrift would not have been provi- 
ded. And this appears to bfe agreeable to our 
Author's own Senfe of Things, hj ^^* Words 
which have bcert eited, wherein he fays, "It would 
•^ have FRUSTRATED or rendered USELESS 
" the Grace of God, if Chrift died to acconrpiifh 
•* what was or MIGHT HAVE BEEN efifefted 
*^ by Law itfelf, -witJhout his- Death." ■ ■ : •'" 

' .. .... ..',■■ 

V. It ^11 follow on pf/7'-^ir^s.Schenie,Jpi0t 

only that Chriflfs Redemption li needlefs forthjEi 
(aving from Sin,, or its Confequences, but alio that 
it does no Good that Way, has nb Tendency to any 
Diminution of Sin in the Wpfld. , For ks, /to any 
Infujionof Virtue or:HQlinefs* iiito the Hearty by 
divine Power through Chriffi. or his Redemption,* 
it is altogether inconfiiftcnt with this A uthor*s "Nor 
tions. With him, inwrought Virtue, if there were 
any fuch Thing, would be: »^ Virtue i riot'being; 
the Effeft of our own Will, Choice, and Defign, 
but only of a fovereign Adk of God^s Power *, And 
therefore, all that Chrift does to increafe Virtue, 
is only increafing our Talents, our Light, Advan- 
tages, Means and Moti es -, as he often dxplainsi' 
the Matter f . But" Sin is not at alj dinriinifhed* 
For he fays,. Our Duty muft be meafurcd' by our 
Talents y as, a Child that has' icfe Talents, has leFs 
Duty; and therefore muft be no more expoftd to 
commit Sin, than he that has greater Talents ; 


* See p. 180, 24J, 250. t In p. 44, 50, and inna* 

merable other Places* 


Chap. L Redemption hj Cbrift. ^6g 

becaufe he that has greater Talents, has more Duty 
required, in exad Propordon *. If fo, he that has 
but one Talent, has as much Advantage to perform 
that one Degree of Duty which is required of him, 
as he that has five ^Talents, to perform his Jive 
Degrees of Duty, and is no more expofed to fail 
of it. And that Man's Guilty who fins againfl: 
greater Advantages, Means, and Motives, is greater 
in Proportion to his Talents +. And therefore it 
will follow, on Dr. 7*— rr's Pririciples, that MeA 
ftand no better Chance, have no more eligible or 
valuable Probability of Freedom from Sin and Pti* 
nilhment, or of contrafting but litde Guilt, or of 
performing required Duty, with the great Advan- 
tages and Talents implied in Chrift's Redemption, 
than without them; when all Things are com- 
puted, and put into the Balances together, the 
Numbers, Degrees, and Aggravations of Sin ex- 
pofed to, Degrees of Duty required, &c. So that 
Men have no Redemption from Sin, and no new 
Means of performing Duty, that are valuable or 
worth any Thing at all. And thus the great Re- 
demption by Chrift in every Refped comes to 
Nothing, with regard- both to Infants and adult 


*♦ See page 234. 61, 64—70. S. f Sefc Paraph, on 
Kom. ii. 9, alfo on ver. 12. 

0(58 Procf ef Ori^nal Sin Fart lit, 

appears by John i. 12, i^. But as many as received 
bimy to them gave be Power to become the Sons of 
God J even to them that BELIEVE on bis NamCy. 
winch were born not of Bloody &c. but of God. 

Juft as Chrift lays concerning Converfion, Matth. 
xviii. 3. Verily^ verily^ I fay unto yoUy Except ye 
he- converted and become as little Children^ yejhall not 
enter into the Kingdom of Heaven : So does he fay 
concerning being born again^ in what he fpake ta 

' By the Change Men pafs under in Converfion, 
they become as little Children ; which appears in 
the Place laft cited : And fo they do by Regenera- 
iioTiy I Pet. i. at the End, and Chap. ii. at the 
Beginning. Being born again. — fFherefore^ as new- 
born BabeSy dejire^ £5?f. It is no Objeftion, that 
the Difciples, whom Chrift fpake to in Mattb. xviii. 
3. were converted already : This makes it not lefs 
proper for Chrift to declare the Neceffity of Con- 
verfion to them, leaving it with them to try them- 
felves, and to make fure their Convcrfion : In like 
Mariner as he declared to them the Neceffity q£ Re- 
pentancCj inZ«^^xiii. 3, 5. Except ye repent y ye Jhall 
all likewife perijh. 

The Chahge that Men pafs under at their Re^ 
pentance^ is exprefled and exhibited by Baptifm.- 
Hence it is called the Baptifm of Repentance^ from 
Time to Time, Matth. iii. 11. Lukem. 3. ASlsxtiu 
24. and xix. 4. And fo is Regeneration, or being 
born again, exprefled by Baptifm ; as is evident 
by fuch Reprefentations of Regeneration as thofe, 
John rii. 5. Except a Man be born of Water ^ and of 
the Spirit — Tit. iii. 5. He faved us by the tVaJhing 
cf Regeneration. — Many other Things might be 


f . , -1 -■ ■ •- .■ ■ '," • ■■ ■ ': ■ ». 

«,■•■■ • . ■ • 

Chap. it. from Application of Redemption. 369 

Obferved, to ftiew that the Change Men pafs under 
in their Repentance and Converfion, is tht fame 
with that which they are the SabjeAs of in Re- 
jgcneration. — But thefe Obfervations may be fuf- 

II. The Change which a Man paffes under when 
born again, and in his Repentance and Converfion; 
is the fame that the Scripture calls the CIRCUM- 
CISION OF THE HEART.— This may eafily 
appear by confidering. 

That as Regeneratbn is^ that in which are at- 
tained the Habits of true Virtue and Holinefs, a^ 
has been fhewn, and as is confeffed -, fo i's Circum^ 
cifton of Heart, Deut. xxx.. 6. And the Lord thy 
God will circumcife thine Heart, and the Heart of 
thy Seedj to love the Lord thy God ivitb all thine 
Heart J and with all thy Soul. 

Regeneration is that whereby Men conie to have! 
the Charafter of true Chriftians ^ as is evident, and 
as is confeffed ; and fo is Cirtumcifion of Heart : 
for by this Men become Jews inwardly^ or Jewi 
in the Spiritual and Chrijlian Senfe (and that is the 
fame as being true Chriftians) as of old Profelytes 
were made *Jews by Circumcifion of the Flelh. 
Ram. ii. 28, 29, Fof he is not a Jew, which is one 
outwardly \ neither is that Circumcifion, which /V 
outward in the Flefh : But he is a Jew, which is one 
inwardly ; and Circumcifion is that of the Heart, 
in the Spirit and not in the Letter^ whofe Praife iJ 
not of Men, but of God. 

That Circumcifion of the Heart is the fame with 
Converfion, or turning from Sin to God,- is evident 
by Jer. iv. i — 4. If thou wilt return^ IfraeU re- 

B b turn' 


370 Proof of Original Sin Part 111* 

turn (or, convert unto me) — Circumcife yourfelves 
to the Lord^ and put away the Forejkins of your 
Heart. And Deut. x. 16. Circumcife therefore 
the Forejkin of your Heart, and be no more ftiff^ 

Circumcijion of the Heart is the fame Change of 
the Heart that Men pafc under in their Repentance ; 
as is evident by Levit. xxvi. \\* If their uncir- 
cumcifed Hearts he humbled^ and they accept the 
Funifhment of their Iniquity. 

The Change Men pafs under in Regenerationy 
Repentanccy and Converjiony is fignified by Baptifniy 
as has been fhewn ; and fo is Circumcijion of the 
Heart fignified by the lame Thing. None will 
deny, that it was this internal .Circumcifion, which 
of old was fignified by external Circumcifion ; nor 
will any deny, now under the New Teftament, that 
inward and Spiritual Baptifm, or the Cleanfing of 
the Heart, is fignified by external Wafliing or 
Baptifm. But foiritual Circumcifion and fpiritual 
Baptifm are the lame Thing -, both being the putting 
off the Body of the Sins of the Flefh ; as is very 
plain by Colof. ii. 11, 12, 13. /;/ whom alfo ye are 
drcumcifedy with the Circumcifion made without 
Handsj in putting off the Body of the Sins of the 
Flefti, by the Circumcifion of Chrijl^ buried with him 
in Baptifm,, wherein alfo ye are rifen with him^ &c. 

III. This inward Change, called Regenerationy 
and Circumcifion of the Hearty which is wrought in 
Repentance and Converjion^ is the fame with that 
fpiritual RESURRECTION fo often fpoken of, 
and reprefented as a dying unto Sin^ and living unto 


Ghap^ II. from Application of Redemption. 37 1 

This appears with great Plainnefs in that laft 
cited Place, Col. ii. In whom alfo ye are cirtumcifed^ 
with the Circumcijion made without Hands^-^buried 
with him in Baptifm^ wherein alfo ye are rifen with 
him, through the Faith of the Operation of God^ 
&c. And yott^ iehjg dead in your Sins^ ^and the 
VncircumdftoH of yaur Fkfh^ bath be quickened 
together with him 5 having forgiven you all Tref 

The fame appears by Rom. vi, 3, 4, 5* Kn&w 
ye not J that fo many of us as were baptized into 
Jefus Chrift^ were baptized into his Death ? Inhere* 
fore we are buried with bim by Baptifm into Death ; 
that like as Chriji was raifed up from the Dead, by 
the Glory of the Father^ even fo we alfo ftiould 
walk in Newnefs of Life, i^c. ver. 1 1 . Likewife 
reckon ye alfo yourfelves to be dead unto Sin, but 
alive unto God, through Jefus Chrift our Lord. 

In which Place alfo it is evident, by the Words 
recited, and by the whole Context, that this (piri- 
tual Refurre£tion is that Change^ in which Peribns 
are brought to Habits of Holinefs and to the di- 
vine Life, by which Dr. 9". defcribes the Thing 
obtained in being born again. 

That ^fpiritual RefurreSion to a liew divine 
Life, Ihould be called a being born again^ is agree- 
able to the Language of Scripture, in which we 
find a Refurre£iion is called a bdng born^ or begotten. 
So thofe Words in the ii^ Pfalm, Thou art my Sony 
this Day have I begotten thee, are applied to Chrift's 
RefurreSiion^ Afts xiii. 33. So in Colof i. 18. Chrift 
is called the firji BORN from the Dead-y and in 
Rev. i. 5. The firfi BEGOTTEN of the Dead. 
The Saints, in their Converfion or fpiritual Refur^ 

B b 2 rekion 

3/2 ¥roof of Original Sin Part III; 

reSion^ are rifen with Cbrift^ and arc begctten and 
bom with him. i Pet. L 3. IVhicb bath begotten 
us again to a lively Hope^ by the Refurre&ion of 
Jefus Chrift fix)in the Dead, to an Inheritance in- 
corruptible. This Inheritance is the fame Thing 
with that KINGDOM of HEAVEN, which Men 
obtain by being born again^ according to Chriif s 
Words to Nicodemus ; and that fame Inheritance of 
them that are fan£!ifiedy fpoken of as what is ob- 
tained in true CONVERSION. A6b xrvi. iSi 
^0 turn them (or convert them) from Darknefs to 
Ught, and from the Power of Satan unto Godj thai 
they may receive Forgivenefs of SinSj and Inheritance 
among them that are fandified, through Faith tbat^ 
is in me. Dr. 2"— r's own Words, in his Note on 
Rom. i. 4. fpeaking of that Place in the ii* Pfalmj 
juft now mentioned, are very worthy to be here 
recited. He obferves how this is applied to Chrift's 
Refurre&ion and Exaltation, in the New TeftamenJ^ 
and then has this Remark, " Note, Begetting is 
*' conferring a new and happy State : A Son is a 
*' Perfon put into it. Agreeably to this, good 
'' Men are faid to be the Sons of God, as they arc 
'' the Sons of the Refurre&ion to eternal Ufe^ which 
'' is reprefented as a 7ruKLyyzv€(jia^ a being BE- 
*• RATED." 

So that I think it is abundandy plain, that the 
fpiritual Refurre&ion fpoken of in Scripture, by 
which the Saints are brought to a new divine Life, 
is the fame with that being born again, which Chrift 
fays is itecejfary for every one, in order to his feeing 
the Kingdom of God. 

IV. This Change, v^hich Men are the Subje6ls 
of, when they are born again, and circumcifed in 


Chap. JI. from Application of Redemption. 373 

Hearty when they repent^ and are converted^ and 
Ipiritually rat fed from the Dead^ is the fame Change- 
which is meant when the Scripture fpeaks of mak- 
ing the HEART and SPIRIT NEW, or giving 
a new Heart and Spirit. 

It is needlefs here to ftand to obferve, how evi- 
dently this is fpoken of as neceflary to Salvation,' 
and as the Change in which are attained the Ha- 
bits of true Virtue and HoUnefs, and the Charafter 
of a true Saint ; as has been obferved of Regene^ 
ration^ Converfon^ &c. and how apparent it is 
from thence, that the Change is the fame. For 
it is as it were felf-evident : It is apparent by the 
Phrafes themfelves, that they are different Expref- 
fions of the fame Thing. Thus Repentance 
{fxeioivotot) or the Change of the Mind, is the 
fame as being changed to a NEW Mind, or a 
NEW Heart and Spirit. Converjion is the turning 
of the Heart ; which is the fame Thing as changing 
it fo, that therc^ ftiall be another Heart, or a new 
Hearty or a new Spirit. To .be born again^ is to 
be born ANEW-, which implies a becoming NEW, 
and is reprefented as becoming new-born Babes : 
But none fuppofes it is the Body^ that is imme- 
diately and properly new, but the iWiW, Hearty or 
Spirit. And fo a fpiritual Refurre£iion is the Re- 
furreftion of thp Spirit, or rifing to begin a NEW 
Exiftence and Life, as to the Mind^ Hearty or 
Spirit. So that all thefe Phrafes imply an having 
a new Hearty and being renewed in the Spirit ^ aC' 
cording to their plain Signification, 

When Nicodemus expreffed his Wonder at Chrift*s 
declaring it neceflary,, that a Man fhould be born 
figain in order to fee the King4on> of God, or en- 
joy the Privileges of the Kingdon^ of tlie Meffiah, 

Bb3 Chrift 

374 -Pro^f of Qrigiml Sin^ &c. - Part III.- 

Chrift fays to him, j4r( thou a M^fier of Ifrael, 
and knoweft not tbefe Things ? i. e. ' Art thou one .. 

* who is let to teach others the Things written in 

* the Law and the Prophets, and knoweft not a 

* Doftrine fo plainly taught in your Scriptures, 

* that fuch a Change as I fpeak of, is neceffary to 

* a Partaking of the Bleffings of the Kingdom of 
> the Meffiah ?' — ^But what can Chrift have Refpef^ 

to in this, unlefs fuch Prophecies as that in Ezek. 
:^xxvi. 25, 26, 27 ? Where God, by the Prophet^ 
Ibeaking of the Days of the Mefliah's Kingdom, 
lays, Then will I fpr inkle clean Water upon ybUy and 
ye /ball be clean.— A NEW HEART alfo will Igivfi 
you, and A NEW SPIRIT will I put within you 
— and I will put my Spirit within you. Here God. 
fpeaks of having a new Heart and Spirit j by being 
wajhed with Water, and receiving the Spirit of 
Godj as the Qualification of God's People, that 
ftiall enjoy the Privileges of the Kingdom of the' 
Meffiah. How much is this like the Do£trine of 
Chrift to Nicodemus, of being born again of Water,, 
and of the Spirit ? We have another like Prophecy 
in Ezek. xi. 19. 

Add to thefe Things, that Regeneration, or a 
being born again, and the RENEWING (or making 
new j by the Holy Ghoft, are fpoken of as the fame 
Thing, Tit. iii. 5. By the Wajhing of Regeneration^ 
and Renewing of the Holy Ghoft. 

V. It is abundantly manifeft, that being born 
again, 2l fpiritually riftngfrom the T>ead to Newnefs 
of Life, receiving a new Heart, and being renewed 
in the Spirit of the Mind, thefe are the fame Thing 
with that which is called putting off the OLD 
MAN, and putting on the NJ^W Ud^, 


Chap. 11. Of flitting off the Old Man, &c. 375 

The Expreflions are equivalent; and the Re- 
prefentations are plainly of the fame Thing, When 
Chrift fpeaks of being horn again, two Births are 
fugpofed; a jftrjl and a fecond% an OLD Birthy 
and a NEfV one : And the Thing born is called 
MAN. So what is born in the firft Birth is the 
old MAN \ and what is brought forth in the fecond 
Birtby is the new MAN. That which is born in 
the firft Birth (fays Chrift) is Flejh : It is the car- 
nal Many wherein we have borne the Image of the 
earthly Adam, whom the Apoftle calls the FIRST 
MAN. That which is born in the new Birth, is 
Spirit, or the fpiritual and heavenly Man : Wherein 
we proceed from Chrift the SECOND MAN, the 
new Man, who is made a quickening Spirit, and is 
the Lord from Heaven, and the Head of the new 
Creation. — In the new Birth, Men are reprefented 
as becoming new-born Babes, (as was obferved 
before) which is the fame Thing as becoming 
New Men. 

And how apparently is what the Scripture fays 
of the fpiritual RefurreSlion of the Chriftian Con- 
vert, equivalent and of the very fame Import with 
putting oft the old Man, and putting on the new 
Man ? So in Rom. vi. the Convert is fpoken of 
as dying, and being buried with Chrift-, which is 
explained in the 6th Verfe, by this, that the OLD 
MAN is crucified, that the Body of Sin might be 
deftroyed. And in the 4th Verfe, Converts in this 
Change are fpoken of as rijing to NEWNESS of 
Life. Arp not thefe Things plain enough ? The 
Apoftle does in EfFeft tell us, that when he fpeaks 
of that fpiritual Death and Refurreftion which is 
in Converfion, he means the fame Thing as cm- 
(ifying and burying the old Man, and rifing a New 

B b 4 And 


^%i^ Qf$utSmg^'QJf-ib€ Old Man^o&c- '^P^rtill, 

* is. moft apparent, that fpiritual Cinumd-* 
Jwn^ .and fpiritual Baptifm^ and the fpiritual Jiefur-' 
rfHion^ are all the fame with putting off the old 
Man^ and putting on the new -Man. This appears 
by Colof ii. ii, 12. IH whom alfo ye are circumcifed 
.with the CIRCUMCISION made without Hafidsy 
IN PUTTING OFF the Body of the Sins, of the 
Flejhy by the Circumcijionof Chriji^ buried with hhn 
in BAFT IS My wherein alfo ye are RISEN with 
him. Here it is -.manifeft, that the fpiritual Cir-r 
cumcifion, Baptifm, and Refurreftion, all fignify 
that Change wherein Men put off the Body of the 
Sins of the Flefh: But thaf is the fame Thing, in 
this Apolile's Language, as putting off the .old 
Man ; as appears by Rom. vi. 6. Our OLD. J^AN 
is crucified^ that the BODY OF SIN. tnay. be de- 
Jiroyed, And that putting off the old Man is the 
feme with putting off the Body of SinSy appears 
further by Ephef iv. 22, 23, 24. and Colof. iii, 
8, 9, 10. 

As Dr. T. confeffes, that a being horn again is 
*!^ that wherein are obtained the Habits of Virtue, 
V Religion, and true Holinefs ;" fo how evidendy 
15 the fame Thing predicated of that Change, 
which is called putting off the old Man^ and putting , 
• c,n the Jiew Man? Eph. iv. 22, 23, 24. That. ye 
put off the 0I4 Manj which is corrupt ^ &c. and put 
en the new Man^ which after Gcd is created IN 

And it is moft plain, that this putting, off the 
old Man, &c. is the very fame Thing with making 
the Heart and Spirit new. It is apparent in itfelf : 
the Spirit is called the Man^ in the Language of 
the Apoftle j it is called the inward MaUy and the 


Chap. II. Dr.T — ^s Cenftrulfim aijuri. ^yy 

hidden Man^ -Rom. vii. 22. 2 Cor. iv. r6. i Pet. 
iii. 4. And therefore putting off the old Man^ is 
• the lame Thing with the Removal of the old Heart j 
and the putting on the new Man, is the receiving . 
^ new Hearty and a new Spirit. Yea, putting on 
the new Man is exprefly fpoken of as the fame 
Thing with receiving a new Spirit ^.hv being renewed 
in Spirit^ Eph. iv. 22, 23, 24. That ye put off the 
old Man — and be renewed in the Spirit of your 
Mind^ and that ye put on the new Man. 

From thefe Things it^appears, how unrealbnable, 
and contrary to the 'litmoft Degree of fcriptural 
Evidence, is Dr. T — r^s Way of explaining the 
old Man^ and the new Man *, as though thereby 
was meant Nothing perfonal ; but that by the 
old Man /was meant the Heathen State, and by the 
new Man the Chrijlian Difpenfation^ or 5tate <rf 
profeffing Chriflians, or the whole colkSiive Body 
of Profeffors of Chriftianity, made up of Jews aird 
Gentiles ; when all the Colour he has for it isj that 
the Apoftle once calls the Chriftian Church a new 
.Many Eph. ii, 15. It is very true, in the Scrips 
tures often, both in the Old Teftament and New, 
xolledive Bodies, Nations, Peoples, Cities, arc 
iiguratively reprefented by Perfons ; particularly 
the Church of Chrift is reprefented as one holy 
Perfon, and has the fame Appellatives as a par- 
ticular Saint or- Believer ; and fo is called a Child 
and a Son of God, Exod. iv. 22. Gal. iv, i, 2. and 
a Servant of God, Ifai. xli. 8, 9. and xliv. i. Tho 
Daughter of God, znd Spoufe of Chrijl, Pfal. odv. 
10, 13, 14. Rev. xix, 7. Neverthelefs, would it 
be reafonable to argue from hence, that fuch Apr 
pellations, as a Servant of God, a Child of God, &cc^ 
are always or commonly to be taken as fignifying 

• Pnge 149—153. fi, 

378 Cy^ i^/i*^ created a-new, &:c. Part III, 

iDidy the Church of God in general, or great collec- 
tive Bodies \ and not to be underftood in a perfonai 
Scafc ? But certainly this would not be more un- 
fcafonable, than to urge, that by the old and the 
mux Matiy as the Phrafes are moftly ufed in Scrip- 
ture, is to be underftood Nothing but the great 
coUeftive Bodies of Pagans and of Chriftians, or 
the Heathen and the Chriftian World, as to their 
mtward Profeflion, and the Difpenfation they are 
under. It might have been proper, in this Cafe, 
to have confidered the Unreafonablenefs of that 
Praftice which our Author charges on others, and 
finds fo much Fault with in them *, " That they 
•* content themfelves with a few Scrap of Scrip- 
** ture, which though wrong underftood, they 
** make the Teft of Truth, and the Ground of 
** their Principles, in Contradidlion to the whffU 
••^ ^enour of Revelations^ 

VL I obferve once more. It is very apparent, 
that a being horn again^ and fpiritually raffed from 
Death to a State of new Exiftence and Life, having 
a new Heart created in us^ being renewed in the; 
Spirit of our A^nd, and being the Subjefts of that 
'Change by which we ^«/ off the old Man^ and put 
on the new Man^ is the fame Thing with that which 
in Scripttire is called a being CREATED ANEW, 

Here, to pafs over many other Evidences of 
this, which might be mentioned, I would only 
obferve, that the Reprefentations are exaftly equi- 
valent. Thefe feveral Phrafes naturally and moft 
pldnly fignify the fame EfFeft. In the firft Birtb^ 
or Generation, we are created^ or brought into 
Exiftence •, it is then the whole Man firft receive^ 

Being; i 

* Page 224. 

Chap. IL Of hmg created a-ncWj &c. 37f; 

Bting : The Soul is then formed^ and tlicn our 
Bodies are fearfully and wtmderfully made^ heing cu^, 
rioufly wrought by cur Creator : So that a new-born 
Child is a new. Creature. So, -when a Man is Ifom 
again^ he is created again ; in that new Birth, there 
is a 7tew Creation ; and therein he becomes as a new^ 
horn Babe, or a NEW CREATURE. So, in a 
RefurreSion^ there is a ^^w Creation. When at 
Man is ^^^^, that which was created or made in 
the firft Birth or Creation is deftroyed : When that 
which was dead is raifed to Life, the mighty Power 
of the Creator or Author of Life, is exerted the . 
fecond Time, and the Subjcft reftorcd to new 
Exiftence, and new Life, as by a new Crsation. 
So giving a new Heart is called CREATING s 
cledn Hearty Pfal. li. i o. Where the Word trant 
lated, create, is the fame that is ufed in the firft ver. 
in Genefjs. And when we read in Scripture of th^ 
new Creature, the Creature that is called NEW is 
MAN 5 not Angel, or Beaft, or any other Sort of 
Creature ; and therefore the Phrafe, New Man, is 
evidcndy equipollent with New Creature-, and a 
putting off the old Man, and putting on the new 
Man, is fpoken of exprefly as brought to pais by 
a Work of Creation. Col. iii. 9, i o. Te have put 
off the old Man — and have put on the new Marip 
which is renewed in Knowledge, after the Image of^ 
him that CREATED him. So Eph. iv. 22, 23, 24. 
That ye put off the old Man, which is corrupt, fcf r. 
and be renewed in the Spirit of your Mind, and that 
ye put on the new Man, which after God is CREA^ 
TED in Right eoufnefs and true Hdinefs. ThefcThings 
abfolutely fix the Meaning of that in 2 Cor. v. 1 7, 
If any Man be in Chrift, be is a new Creature : Old 
Things are pajfed a'ysay \ bebgldj all Things are be^ 
fome New. 


•^o All certainty need fucb a Change. Part IIL^ 

On the Whole, the following RefleftionS may 
made : 

1. That it is a Truth of the utmoft Certainty, 
with refpeft to every Man born of the Race of 
Adam^ by ordinary Generation, that unlefs he he 
horn again J • he cannot fee the Kingdom of God. This 
is true, not only of the Heathen, but of them that 
are born of the profeffing People of God, as Nico^ 
demusj and the Jews^ and every Man i?orn of the 
Flefh. This is moft manifeft by Chrift's Difcourfe 
mJohn\\\. 3 — II, So it is plain by 2 Cor. v/ 
17. That every Man who is in Chrifiy is a ne^ 
Creature. ' ' 

2. It appears from this, together with what \m 
been proved above, that it is moft certain with 
refpeft to every one of the human Race, that he 
can never have any Intereft in Chrift, or fee the 
Kingdom of God, unlefs he be the Subjedt of 
that Change in the Temper and Difpofition oS 
his Heart, which is made in Repentance and Con- 
verfion, Circumcifion of Hearty fpiritual Baptifm, dy- 
ing to Sin^ and rijing to a new and holy Life •, and 
unlefs he has the old Heart taken away^ and a new 
Heart and Spirit given^ and puts off the old Man^ 
and puts on the new Man^ and old things are pafi 
away^ and all things made new. 

3. From what. IS plainly implied in thefe Things, 
and from what the Scripture moft clearly teaches 
of the Nature of them, it is certain, -that every 
Man is born into the World in a State of moral 
Pollution: For SPIRITUAL BAPTISM is a 
Cleanfing from moral Filthincfs. Ezek. xxxvi. 25. 
compared with A5ls ii. 16. and Joh. m. 5. So 
the walhing of Regeneration, or the NEW BIRTH, 


Ghap. IL Original Sin argued from the Premifes. ^tt 

is a Change from a State of Wickednefs. 27a iiu 
3,4, 5. Men are fpokcn of as purified in their 
Regeneration, i Pet. i. 22, 23. See alfp i y/)h, lu 
29. and iii. i, 3. And it appears, that every Man, 
in his firft or natural State is a Sinner -, for other- 
wife he would then need no REPENTANCE, 
no CONVERSION, no Turning from Sin to God. 
And it appears, that every Man in his original 
State has a Heart of Stone j for'thivs the Scripture 
calls that old Hearty which is taken away, when a 
NEW HEART and NEW SPIRIT is given. 
Ezek. xi. 19. and xxxvi. 26* And it appears, that 
Man's Nature, as in his native State, is rorrupt ac^ 
cording to the deceitful Lujls^ and of its own Mo- 
tion exerts itfelf in Nothing but wicked Deeds. 
For thus the Scripture charafterifes the OLD 
Man, which is put off, when Men are renewed 
in the Spirit of their Minds, and put on the NEW 
Man.' Eph. iv. 22, 2.3, 24. Col. iii. S, 9, 10* 
In a Word, it appears, that Man's Nature, as in 
its native State, is a Body of Sin^ which muft b£ 
dejtroyed, muft die^ be buried^ and never rife more^ 
For thus the OLD MAN is reprefented, which is 
crucified^ when Men are the Subjeds of a Ipiritual 
RESURRECTION. Rom. vL 4, 5, 6. Such a 
Nature, fuch a Body of Sin as this, is put off in 
the fpiritual RENOVATION, wherein we put on 
the NEW MAN, and are the Subjedts of the fpi- 
ritual CIRCUMCISION. Eph.w. li, 22, 23. 

It muft now be left with the Reader to judge 
for himfelf, whether what the Scripture teaches of 
the APPLICATION of Chrift's Redemption, aiid 
the Change of State and Nature neceflaiy to true 
and final Happinefs, does not afford clear and 
abundant Evidence to the Truth of the Doftrinc 
of Original Sin. 

* ' "PART 

3§1 TieOifemeH/hmtitH&turcofSm, PvtjS; 

• - "^ 


Containing Anfwers to Objection s» 

CHAP. 1. 

Concerning that Objection, That to fuppofe 
Men^s being born in Sin, without their Choice^ 
or any previous A£l of their own^ is to fup- 
pofe what is inconjiftent with the Nature of 

SOME of the Objeftions made againft the Doc- 
^ trine of Original Sin, which have Reference 
to particular Arguments ufed in Defence of it^ 
have been already confidered in the handling of 
thofe Arguments.* What I fhall therefore now 
confider, are fuch Objeftions as I have not yet had 
Occafion to take any Ipecial Notice of. 

There is no Argument Dr. T*. infifts more upon, 
thaii that which is taken from the Arminian and 
Pelagian Notion of Freedom of Will, confiding in 
ihe Will's Self-determination^ as neceffary to the 
Being of moral Good or Evil. He often urges, 
that if we come into the World infeded with 
finful and depraved Difpofitions, then Sin muft be 
natural to us j and if natural, then neceffary ; and 
if neceflary, then no Sin, nor any Thing we are 
blameable for, or that can in any refpedt be our 
Fault, being what we cannot help : And he 
urges, that Sin mull proceed from our own 
f Cboicey &c. * 

I Here 

* Page 1 2 <7, 128, 129, 130, 1 86, 187, 188, 190,200, 245 
246, 253, 258. 63, 64, i6i, 5. and other Places. 

Chap.L Mfwered. j^J 

Here I would obferve in general, that the fore- 
mentioned Notion of Freedom of Will, as cflcn- 
tial to moral Agency, and neceflary to the very 
JExiftence of Virtue and Sin, feems to be a grand 
favourite Point with Pelagians and Arminians^ and 
all Divines of fuch Characters, in their Controver- 
fies with the Orthodox, There is no one Thing 
more fundamental in their Schemes of Religion : 
On the Determination of this one leading Point 
depends the Iffue of almofl: all Controverfics w^ 
have with fuch Divines, Neverthelefs, it feems a 
jiiedlefs Talk for me particularly to confider that 
Matter in this Place ; having already largely dif- 
cuffed it, with all the main Grounds of this Notion, 
and the Arguments ufed to defend it, in a late 
Book on this Subjedt, to which I afk leave to refer 
the Reader. It is very neceflary, that the modem 
prevailing Dodtrine concerning this Point, ihould 
be well underftood, and therefore thoroughly coo- 
fidered and examined : For without it there is no 
Hope of putting an End to the Cx)ntroverfy aboac 
Original Sin, and innumerable other Controverfics 
that fubfift, about many of the main Points of Re* 
ligion, I (land ready to confefs to the foremen- 
tioned. modern Divines, if they can maintain thek 
peculiar Notion of Freedom^ confifting in the felf- 
determining Power of tb£ Willy as neceflary to moral 
Agency y and can thoroughly eftablifh it in Oppo« 
fition to the Arguments lying againfl: it, then they 
have an impregnable Gaftle, to which they may 
repair, and remain invincible, in all the Contro- 
verfics they have with the reformed Divines, con- 
cerning Original Sin^ the Sovereignty of Grace, 
ElcEtiony Redemption^ Converjiony the efficacious Ope-' 
ration of the Holy Spirit, the Nature of faving 
Faithy Perfeverance of the Saints, and other Prin^ 
ciples of the like Kind. However at the iame 


3?+ Being borri In SUn conjijieiit Part tV^ 

Time I think this fame Thing will be as ftrong 
a Fortrefs for the Deijls^ in common with them, 
as the great Doftrines, fubverted by their Notion of 
Freedom^ are fo plainly and abundantly taught in 
the Scripture. But I am under no Apprehenlions: 
of any Danger, the Caufe of Chriftianity, or the 
Religion of the Reformed is in, from any Poffibi- 
lity of that Notion's being ever eftabliftied, or of 
its being ever evinced that there is not proper, 
perfeft, and manifold Demonjlration lying againffi 
it. But as I faid, it would be needlefs for me to 
enter into a particular Difquifition of this Point 
here ; from which I fhall eafily be excufed by any 
Reader who is willing to give himfelf the Trouble 
of confulting what I have already written : And as 
to others, probably they will fcarce be at the Pains 
of reading the prefent Difcourfe -, or at leaft would 
not, if it ftiould be enlarged by a full Confidera- 
tion of that Controverfy. 

I Ihall at this Time therefore only take Notice of 
fome grofs Inconjijlencies that Dr. T, has been guilty 
of, in his handling this Objedlion againft the Doc- 
trine of Original Sin. 

In Places which have been cited, he fays. That 
Sin muft proceed from our own Choice : And that // 
it does not^ it being necejfary to us, it cannot be Sin, 
it cannot be our Fault, or ivhat we are to blame for : 
And therefore all our Sin mujl be chargeable on 0ut 
Choice, which is the Caufe of Sin : For he fays, 
"^he Caufe cf every Effect is alone chargeable with 
the Efccf it prcduceth, and which procecdetb front 
it *, Now here are implied feveral grofs Contra- 
diftions. He greatly infifts, that Nothing can be 
ftnful, or have the Nature of Sin, but what pro- 


* Page 12S. 

Chap. L iviih the Nature of Sin. 38^ 

eeeds from our Choice. Neverthelefs he fays, " Not 
" the Effeif, but the Caufe alone is chargeable with* 
" BlameJ"* Th^refdre the Choice^ which is the Caufe; 
is alohe blameable, or has the Nature of Sin ; 
and not the Effe£l of that Choice. Thus Nothing 
can be finful, but the EfFeft of Choice; and yet' 
the Effeft of Choice never can be finful, but 
only the Caufe^ which alone is chargeable with al! 
the Blame; 

Again, the Choice^ which chufes and produces 
Sin, or from which Sin proceeds, is itfelf finful. 
Not only is this implied in his faying, " The Caufe 
*' alone is chargeable with all the Blame^*-, but he 
exprefly Ipeaks of the Choice as fauhy *, and calls 
that Choice wicked, from which Depravity and 
Corruption proceeds -f-. Now if the Choice itfelf be 
Sin, and there be no Sin but what proceeds froni 
a finful Choice,^ then the finful Choice muft proceed 
from another antecedent Choice ; it muft be chofcn 
by a foregoing A6k of Will, determining itfelf to 
that finful Choice, that fo it may have that which 
he fpeaks of as abfolutely eflfentid to the Nature 
of Sin, namely, That it proceeds from our Choice^ 
and does not happen^ to us neceffarily. But if the 
finful Choice itfelf proceeds from a foregoing 
Choice, then alfo that foregoing Choice muft be 
finful J it being the Caufe of Sin^ and fo alone 
chargeable with the Blame. Yet if that foregoing 
Choice be finful, then neither muft that happen 
to us neceflfarily, but muft likewife proceed from 
Choice, another Aft of Choice preceding that : 
For we muft remember, th^ " Nothing is* finfiil 
" but what proceeds from our Choice." And then, 
for the fame Reafon, even this prior Choice,* laft 
mentioned, itiuft alfo be finful, being chargeable 

C c with 

• Page 190. f Page 2oa» See alfo p. 216. 

386 Dr.T'^x's Arguingsfrm t^artlV. - 

with all the Blaine of that confequent evil Choice^ 
which was its Effect. And fo we muft gp back 
till we come to the very firft Volition, the prime 
or (Higinal A£fc of Choice in the whole Chain. 
And tbis^ to be fure, muft be a Jinful Choice, be- 
caufe this is the Origin or primitive Caufe of all 
the Train of Evils which follow ; and according 
to our Author, muft therefore be " alone chai^- 
** able with all the Blame.** And yet fo it is, ac- 
cording to him, this " cannot be finful,** becaufe 
it docs not " proceed from our own Choice,** or 
any foregoing A6k of our Will ; it being, by the 
Suppofition, the very firfi Aft of Will in the Cafe. 
And therefore it muft be necejfary^ as to us, having 
no Choice of ours to be the Caufe of it. 

In p. 232. he fays, " Adamh Sin was fix>m his 
*' own dtfobedient fFill-, and fo muft every Man*s 
•' Sin, and all the Sin in the World be, as well as 
his." By this, it fcems, he muft have a " difobedient 
Will " before he fins ; for the Caufe muft bd 
before the EfFeft : And yet that difobedient Will 
itfelf is Jinful 'y otherwife it could not be called dif- 
obedient. But the Queftion is. How do Men come 
by the difobedient WilU this Caufe of all the Sin in 
the World ? It muft not come neceffarily^ without 
Men's Choice •, for if fo, it is not Sin, nor is there 
any Difobedience in it. Therefore that difobedient 
Will muft alfo come from a difobedient U^ill ; and 
fo on, in infinitum. Otherwife it muft be fuppofed, 
that there is feme Sin in the World, which does 
not come from a difobedient Will % contrary to our 
Author's dogmatical Aflertions. 

In p. 166. 5. he fays, " K^^rn could not fin with- 
" out a Jinful Inclination.^^ Here he calls that Incli- 
nation ixSdi fmftil^ which is the Principle from- 



Chap, ii the Natiire of Sin ihcohfiAerit. ^f 

Vherlce finflil A(fb proceed 5 as elftwherd he Ipeaks 
of the difobedient fftll ffOiii whehce all Sin comes 2 
And he allows, * that " the Law reaches to all the 
" latent Principles of Sitt;/* meailirig plainly, that 
it ferhids^ and thY'eatfns Punijhtnent for ^ thofe latent 
Principles. Now thefe latent Principles of Sin^ 
thefe finful Inclinations, without which, according 
to our Author, there can be no finful Aft, cannot 
all proceed from a Jinful Choice \ becaufe that 
would imply great Contfadiftion. For, by the 
Suppofitiori, they are the Principles from whence 
a fidful Choice comes, and whence all finful Afts 
bf Will proceed ; and there can be no finful Aft 
without them. So that the Jirfi latent Principles 
and Inclinations, froih whence all finful Afts pro- 
ceed, are finful y and yet they are not Jinful, be- 
caufe they do not proceed from a wicked Choice^ 
without which, according to him^ " Nothing cart 
*• be finful.'^ 

Dr. 7*. fp^aking of that Propofitiort of the Jf 
fembly of Di'Vines, wherein they affert, that Man is 
by Nature utterly corrupt^ &c. -f thinks himfelf well 
warranted by the fuppofed great Evidence of thefe 
his contradiftory Notions, to fay, " Therefore Sin 
^' is not natural to us j and therefore I fhall not 
" fcruple to fay, this Propofition in the Ajfembly of 
<« Divines is FALSE." But it may be worthy to 
be confidered^ whether^ it would not have greatly 
become him, before he had cloathed himfelf with 
fo much AflTurance, and proceeded^ on the Foun- 
dation of thefe his Notions, fo magifterially ta 
charge the AffemUf% Propofitioit with Falfhood, to 
have taken Care that his own Propofitions, which 
he has let in O'ppofition to them, ftiou^ld be a littlef 

C c 2 more 

* Contents of«Roifi. Chap. vii. in Nottifs 6n the ipiftl^i 
+ Page 1 2 J. 

388 Original Sin does not imply Part IV. 

more con/ijlent \ that he might not have contradiAed 
bimfelf^ while contradifting them •, left fome impar- 
tial Judges, obferving his Inconfiftence, fhould 
think they had Warrant to declare with equal At 
furance, that *' They ftiall not fcruplc to fay. Dr. 
i^ r— r's Doftrine is FALSE/' 

CHAR 11. 

Concerning that ObjeSIion againft the Do6bine of 
native Corruption, That to fuppofe Men receive 
their firft Exijience in Sin, is to make Him who 
is the Author of their Beings the Author of their 

ONE Argument againft Men^s being fuppofed 
to be born with finful Depravity, which Dr. 
T. greatly infifts upon, is, " That this does in Effeft 
charge Him, who is the Author of our Nature^ 
who formed us in the Womb^ with being the Au- 
thor of a finful Corruption of Nature j and that 
it is highly injurious to the God of our Nature, 
whofe Hands have formed and fafhioned us^ to 
" believe our Nature to be originally corrupted^ and 
" that in the worft Senfe of Corruption V* 

With refpeft "to this, I would obferve in the firft 
Place, that this Writer, in his handhng. this grand 
Objeftion, fuppofes fomething to belong to the 
Doftrine objedted againft, as maintained by the 
Divines whom he is oppofing, which does no^ be- 
long to it, nor doeS follow from it : As particu- 
larly, he fuppofes the Dodrine of Original Sin to 


•Page 137, 187, 188, 189, 256, 258, 260, 143,5. andJ 
onier Places. 



Chap, IL God*s 3^/»^ the Author of Sin. 389 

imply, that Nature muft be corrupted by feme 
pqfitive Influence ; " fomething, by fome Means or 
other, infufed into the human Nature ; fome 
^ality or other, not from the Choice of our 
Minds, but like a Taint^ Tin^ure, or Infeffion, 
*' altering the natural ConftitutioAi, Faculties, and 
Difpofitions of our Souls *. That Sin and evil 
Difpofitions are IMPLANTED in the Foetus 
in the Womb -f •" Whereas truly our Dodtrine 
neither implies nor infers any fuch Thing. In 
order to account for a finful Corruption of Nature, 
yea, a total native Depravity of the Heart of Man, 
there is not the leaft Need of fuppofing any evil 
Quality, infufed^ implanted^ or wrought into the 
Nature of Man, by any pofitivc Caufe, or Influence 
whatfoever, either from God, or the Creature \ or 
pf fuppofing, that Man is conceived and born with 
a Fountain of Evil in his Heart, fuch as is any 
Thing properly pofitive. I think, a little Attention 
to the Nature of Things will be fufHcient to fatisfy 
any impartial confiderate Inquirer, that the Ab- 
fence of pofitive good Principles, and fo the With- 
holding of a fpecial divine Influence to impart and 
maintain thofegood Principles, leaving the common 
natural Principles of Self-Love, natural Appetite, 
&c. (which were in Man in Innocence) leaving 
thefe, I fay, to themfelves, without the Govern- 
ment of fuperiour divine Principles, will certainly 
be followed with the Corruption, yea, the total 
Corruption of the Heart, without Occafion for 
any pofitive Influence at all : And, that it was thus 
indeed that Corruption of Nature came on Jdari, 
immediately on his F^U, and comes on all hi§ 
Ppfterity, as finning in him, and falling with him. 

C c 3 Th^ 

• Page 187. t Page 146, 148, 149. S, and the lik^ ir^ 
jnany other Places, 

390 Ofiginal i:» dus p:;: i^!j ^ar( IV, 

T\kt C2SC with Man W2s plainly thjs : When 
God made Man ar nril, he ioiplanted in him two 
Kinds of Principles. There was an infcriour Kind, 
which may be called NATURAL, being the 
Principles of mere human Nature ^ luch as Self- 
love, with thofe narjral Appetites and Pafiions, 
which belong to the Natun cf Man^ in which hi5 
Love to his own Liberty, Honour, and Pleafure, 
were ezerciied: Th^e, when alone, apd left to 
themfelves, are what the Scriptures Ibmedmes call 
FLESH- PeCdes theie, there were fuperiour Prin- 
ciples, th^t were Ipirinial, holy, and divine, flimr 
marilv comprehended in divine Love; whereia 
confifted the fpiritual Image of God, and Map's 
Righteoufnefs and true Holinefs ; which are called 
in Scripture the Divine Nature. Thefe Principle^ 
inay, in fome Senle, be called SUPERNATUt 
RAL *, being (however concreated or conpate, yet) 
fuch as are above thoie principles that are eflentially 
implied ip, or neceflanly refulting from, and in- 


* To prevent all Cavils, the Reader is dcfired particularly 
to obferve, in what Senfe I here ule the Words Natural and 
Supernatural : — Not as Epithets of Diflindion between that 
which is concreated or connate, and that which is extraordit 
narily introduced afterwards, befides the £ril State of Things, 
pr the Order edabliihed originally, beginning when Man^s 
Nature began ; — but as diflinguifliing between what belongs 
to, or flows from, that Nature which Man has, merely as 
Man, and thofe Things which are abcve this, by which one if 
denominated, not only a Man, but a truly lirtucus, bolj^ an4 
ffiritual Man ; which, though they began in Adam, as foon 
as Humanity began, and are neceflary to the Perfection and 
Will-being of t)ie human Nature, yet are not eilential to the 
Conftitution of it, or neceffary to its Being : Inafmuch as one 
may have every Thing needful to his being Man, exdulively 
of them. If in thus ufing the Words, Natural and Suftmatural^ 
1 ufe them in an uncommon Senfe, it is not from any Affec- 
tation of Singularity, but for Want of oth^r 'I'erms mpr^ 
aptly to exprcfs my Meaning. 

Chap, 11, GodV being the Author of Sin, 391 

fcparably conneftcd with, mere human Nature ; and 
being fuch as immediately depend on Man's Union 
and Communion with God, or divine Communi- 
cations and Influences of God*s Spirit: Which 
though withdrawn, and Man's Nature forfaken of 
thefe Principles, human Nature would be human 
Nature ftill; Man's Nature, as fuch, being entire 
without thefe divine Principles^ which the Scripture 
fometimes calls SPIRIT, in Contradiftin&ion to 
Flejh. Thefe fuperiour Principles were given to 
poffefs the Throne, and maintain an abfolute Do- 
minion in the Heart : The other to be wholly fub- 
ordinate and fubfervient. And while Things con- 
tinued thus, all Things werq in excellent Order, 
Peace, and beautiful Harmony, and in their pro- 
per and perfect State. Thefe divine Principles 
thus reigning, were the Dignity, Life, Happinefs, 
and Glory of Man's Nature. When Man finned 
and broke God's Covenant, and fell under his 
Curfe, thefe fuperiour Principles left his Heart ; 
For indeed God then left him j that Communion 
with God, on which thefe Principles depended, 
entirely ce^fed ; the Holy Spirit, that divihe In- 
habitant, forfook the Houfe. Becaufe it would 
have been utterly improper in itfelf, and incon- 
fiftent with the Covenant and Conftitution God 
had eftablifhed, that God fhould ftill maintain 
Communion with Man, and continue, by hi$ 
friendly, gracious vital Influences, to dwell with 
him apd in him, after he was become a RebeU 
and had incurred God's Wrath and Curfe* Therer 
fore immediately the fuperiour divine Principle5 
wholly ceafed •, fo Light ceafes in a Room when 
the Candle is withdrawn \ and thus Man was left 
in a State of Darknefs, woeful Corruption and 
Ruin; Nothing but Flejb without Spirits The 
inferiour Principles of Sclf-loye, and natural Ap^ 

C c ^ petite^ 

39^- Original Sin does not impfy ^ Part IV • 

petite, which were given only to ferve,' being a* 
lone, and left to themfelves, of Courfe became 
reigning Principles ; haying no fuperiour Princi- 
ples to regulate or controul them, they became 
abfoliite Matters of the Heart. The immediate 
Confequence of which was a fatal Catajlropbej a 
turning of all Things upfide down, and the Suc- 
ceffion of a State of the moft odious and dreadful 
Confufion. Man did immediately fet up bimfelfj 
and the Objefts of his private Affeftions and Ap-^ 
petites, as fupreme ; and fo they took the Place 
of GOD. Thefe inferiour Principles are like Fire 
in an Houfe -, which, we fay, is a good Servant, 
but a bad Matter ; very ufeful while kept in its 
Place, but if left to take Pofleflion of the whole 
Houfe, foon brings all to Dettruftion. Man's 
Love to his own Honour, feparate Interett, and 
private Pleafure, which before was wholly fubor- 
dinate unto Love to God, and Regard to his Au- 
thority and Glory, ngw difpofes and impels him to 
purfue- thofe Objeds, without Regard to God's 
Honour, or Law ; becaufe there is no true Regard 
to thefe divine Things left in him. In Conlequence 
of which, he feeks thofe Objeds as much when 
againtt God's Honour and Law, as when agreeable 
to them. And God ftill continuing ftriftly to re- 
quire fupreme Regard to himfelf, and forbidding 
all Gratifications of thefe inferiour Paffions, but 
only in perfect Subordination to the Ends, and 
Agreeablenefs to the Rules and Limits,- which his 
Holinefs, Honour, and Law prefcribe, hence im- 
mediately arifes Enmity in the Heart, now wholly 
under the Power of Self-love; and nothing -but 
JVar enfues, in a conftant Courfe, againtt God. 
As, when a Subjeft has once renounced his lawful 
Sovereign, and fet up a Pretender in his Stead, a 
State of Enmity and War againtt his rightful 


Ghap. Hi God*j heing the Author of Sini ggj 

King neccflarily enfues. It were eafy to Ihew, how 
every Lull, and depraved Difpofition of Man^s 
Heart would naturally arife from this privativg 
Original, if here were Room for it. Thus it is 
eafy to give an Account, how total Corruption of 
Heart Ihould follow on Man*s eating the forbidden 
Fruit, though that was but one Aft of Sin, witb^ 
out God's putting any Evil into his Heart, or ijw- 
planting any bad Principle, or infufing any corrupt 
Taint, and io becoming the Author of Depravity, 
Only God's Withdrawing^ as it was highly proper 
and heceflary that he Ihould, from Rebel-Man, 
being as it were driven away by his abominable 
Wickednefs, and Men's natural Principles being 
left to themfelves^ this is fufficient to account for 
his becoming entirely corrupt, and bent on liiir 
ning againft God, 

And as Jdanfs Nature became corrupt, without 
God's implanting or infufing any evil Thing into 
his Nature ; fo does the Nature of his Pojterity, 
God dealing with Adam as the Head of his Poftc- 
rity, (as has been fhewn) and treating them as 
One, he deals with his Pofterity as having all finned 
in him. And therefore, as God withdrew Ipiritual 
Communion, and his vital gracious Influence from 
the common Head, fo he with-holds the f^mc 
from all the Members, as they come into Exiftence; 
whereby they come into the World mere Flefb^ and 
entirely under the Government of natural and in- 
feriour "Principles ; and fo become wholly corrupt, 
as Adam did. 

Now, for God fo far to have the Difpofal of 
this Affiiir, as to with-hold thofe Influences, with- 
out which Nature will be corrupt^ is not to be the 
^ufhor of Sin. But, concerning this, X mufl: refer 

:t the 

394 Original Sin does not in^fy pint IV. 

die Reader to what I have (aid of it in my Diil 
courfe on the Freedom of the Will *. Though, 
befides what I have there faid, I may here obiervc. 
That if ioic God (b far to order and difpofe the 
Being of Sin, as to permit it, by with^holding the 
gracious Influences neceflary to prevent it, i$ for 
him to be the Author of Sin, then fonie Things 
which Dn T. himfelf lays down, will equally be 
attended with this very Confequence. For, from 
Time to Time, he fpeaks of God's giving Men 
up to the vileft Lufts and Afiedions, by per- 
mitring, or leaving them f. Now, if the Cwtfiwour r 
0f Sin^ and its Increafe and Prevalence, may be 
in Confcquence of God*s Difpofal, by his with-hold- 
ing that Grace, that is needful, under fuch Clrcum- 
ftances, to prevent it, without God's being the 
Author of that Continuance and Prevalence of Sin ; 
then, by Parity of Reafon, may the Being of Sin^ 
in the Race of Jdam^ be in Confequence of God's 
Difpofal, by his with-holding that Grace, that i$ 
needful to prevent it, without his being the Author 
of that Being of Sin. 

If here it fhould be faid, that God is not the 
Author of Sin, in giving Men up to Sin, who 
have already made themfelves finful, becaufe when 
Men have once made themfelves finful, their con* 
tinuing fo, and Sin's prevailing in them, and be- 
coming more and more habitual, will follow in a 
Courfe of Nature : I anfwer. Let that be remem- 
bered, which this Writer fo greatly urges, in Op- 
pofition to them that fuppofe original Corruption 
comes in a Courfe of Nature, viz. That the Courfe 
of Natftre is nothing without God. He utterly re- 
jects the Notion of the '^ Courfe of ^atur^$ being 

♦ Part iv. § 9. p. 354, *c. tK^, $ j88. Note : ^^d |V^ 
Qn Rom. 4. 24» a6» 

Chap. II. GodV i^ing tif Aythpf of Sin. S95 

^^ a proper a6Hve Caufc, which will workt aai 
" go on by itfclf, without God, if he lets or pptr 
.« mits it." ♦ But affirms, " That the Courfe of 
" Nature, fcparatc from the Agency of God, U 
" no Caufcy or Nothing \ and that the Courf^ of 
*' Nature ftiould continue itfelf, or go on to opcr 
" rate by itfelf, any more than at firft prpdgce it- 
^' fclf, is abfolutely impojfible'^ Thefc ftrong E«r 
preflions are his. Therefore, to explain the Qos^ 
tinuance of the Habits of Sin in the fame Perfon, 
when once introduced, yea, to explain the very 
Being of any fuch Habits, in Confequence ^ ttr 
peated Afts> our Author muft have Recourfe to 
thofe fame Principles, which he rejefts as abfurd 
to the utmoft Degree, when alleciged to explain 
the Corruption (rf Nature in the Poftcrity of Mam. 
For, that Habits, cither good or bad, fhpuld con* 
tinfte^ after being once eftablifhed, pr that Habits 
ihould be fettled and have Exigence in Con&quencr 
of repeated Afts, can be owing only to a Cfitfrfi 
0f Nature^ and thofe Laws of Nature which God 
has eftablilhed. 

That the Pofterity of Adam (hould be born with- 
out HoKnels, and fo with a depraved Nature, comes 
to pafs as mych hy the eftabljjhed Courfe of Nature^ 
as the Continuance of a corrupt Difpofition in a 
particular Perfon, after he once has it ; or as much 
as Adam^s continuing unholy and corrupt, after 
he had once loft his Holinefs. For Adam^^ Pofte- 
rity are from Himj and as it werp in him, and 
belonging to him, according to an eft(ibltfhed Courfe 
. of Nature, as much as the Branches of a Tree arc, 
according to a Courfe of Natur^^ from the Tree, 
in the Tree, and belonging to the Tree ; or (to 


* F^^ '34- ^' See alfo with what Vehemence this is 
Vrgei in p. 137. S, , 

39^ Or/^/W/ Sin does not in^ly Part IV. 

make Ufe of the Comparifon which Dr. T. himfelf 
chufes and makes Ufe of from Time to Time, as 
proper to illuftrate the Matter *) juft as the Acorn 
it derived from the Oak. And I think, the Acorn 
is as much derived from the Oak, according to 
the Course of Nature^ as the Buds and Branches. 
Jt is true, that God, by his own almighty Power, 
creates the Soul of the Infant ; and it is alfo true, 
as Dr. 7*. often infifts, that God, by his immediate 
Pow;er, forms and falhions the Body of the Infant 
in the Womb ; yet he does both according to that 
Courfe of Nature^ which he has been pleafed to 
cftablifh. The Courfe of Nature is demonftrated, 
by late Improvements in Philofophy, to be indeed 
what our Author himfelf fays it is, vix. Nothing 
but the eftablifhed Order of the Agency and Ope- 
ration of the Author of Nature. And though 
there be the immediate Agency of God in bringing 
the Soul into Exiftence in Generation, yet it is 
done according to the Method and Order eftab- 
lilhed by the Author of Nature, as much as his 
producing the Bud, or the Acorn of the Oak ; and 
as much as his continuing a particular Perfon in 
Being, after he once has Exiftence. God*s imme- 
diate Agency in bringing the Soul of a Child into 
Being, is as much according to an ejlablijhed Order^ 
as his immediate Agency in any of the Works of 
Nature whatfoever. It is agreeable to the eftab- 
lifhed Order of Nature, that the good Qualities 
wanting in the Treej ftiould alfo be wanting in the 
Branches and Fruit, It is agreeable to the Order 
of Nature, that when a particular Perfon is without 
good moral Qualities in his Heart, he fhould con- 
tinue without them, till fome new Caufe or Effer 
ciency produces them: And it is as much agreeable 
to an eftabliftied Courfe and Order of JNature, that 


• * Page 146, 187, 

Chap. II. GodV being the Author of Sin. J97 

(kice Mantj the Head of the Race of Mankind^ 
the Root of that great Tree with many Branches 
fpringing from it, was deprived of original Righ- 
teoufnefs, the Branches (hould come forth without 
it. Or, if any diflike the Word Nature^ as ufed 
in this laft Cafe, and inftead of it chufe to call it 
a Conftitution^ or eftablifhed Order of fucceflive 
Events, the Alteration of the Name will not in 
the leaft alter the State of the prefcnt Argument, 
Where the Name, Nature^ is allowed ifrithout 
Difpute, no more is meant than an eftablifhed 
Method and Order of Events, fetded and limited 
by divine Wifdotn. 



If any ftiould objeft to this,. That if the Want 
of original Righteoufnefs be thus according to an 
eftablifhed Courfe of Nature^ then why are not 
Principles of Holinefs, when reftored by divine 
Gracey alfo communicated to Poflerity ? I anfwer^ 
• The divine Laws and Eilablifliments of the Au- 
thor of Nature^ are precifely fetded by him as fee 
pleafeth, and limited by his Wifdom. Grace is in- 
troduced among the Race of Mankind, by a new 
Eftablijhment ; not on the Foot of the original 
Eftablifliment of God, as the Head of the natural 
World, and Author of the firft Creation ; but by 
a Conftitution of a vaftly higher Kind ; wherein 
Cbriji is made the Root of the Tree, whofe Branches 
are his fpiritual Seed^ and He is the Head oi the 
new Creation ; of which I need not ftand now to 
fpeak particularly. 

But here I defire it may be noted, that I do not 
fuppofe the natural Depravity ci the Pofterity of 
Adam ;is owing to the Courfe of Nature only ; it 
is alfo owing to die |uft Judgment of God. But 
yet I thmk, it is as truly and in the fame Manner 


f 9^ Original Sin dots not impfy Part IV^ 

Cfwing to the Gourfe of Nature^ that Adanfs Pofte- 
fity eeme into the World without original Righ-* 
feouihefs, as that Adam contintied without it, stft^r 
he had once loft it* That Adam continued diffti- 
tote of Holinefs, when he bad loft ity and would . 
always have! fo continued, had it not been reftofeid 
Iby a jiiedeemer, was not only a^r^/^r^/Conibqtiencey' 
according to the Courfe of Things eftabliflbied by 
God, as the Author of Nature ; but it was alfo ^ 
ftnal Confequence, or a Punifhment of hh Sii>. 
God, in righteous Judgment^ continued to abient 
Imnfelf from Adam after he became a Rebel ; and 
with-held frorti him now thofe Influences of thd 
Holy Spirit, which he before had. And juft thus 
I fuppofe it to be with every natural Branch of 
Mankind : All are looked upon as Jinning in and 
with their common Root ; and God righteoufly 
with-holds Ipeeial Influences and fpiritual Com- 
munications from all, for this Sin. But of th€ 
Manner and Order of thefe Things, more may be 
ioid in the next Chapter. 

On the Whole, thii grand Objection agaiiifl: the 
Doftrine of Men's being born corrupt^ T^hat it 
makes Him who gave tts our Beings to be the Gaufe 
ef the Being of Corruption^ can have no more Force 
Ml it, than a like Argument has to prove, that if 
Men by ^ Gourfe of Naturfr continue Wicked^ er' 
remain without Goodnefs, after they have by vi-c 
cious Afts contradted vicious Habits, and fo made 
themfelves wicked, it makes Him, who is the Gaa/e 
of their Continuance in Beings and the Caufe of the 
Continuance of the Courfe of Nature^ to be the ' 
Gaufe of their continued fFickednefs. Df . T. lays % 
'' God would not make any Thing that is ireful 
" to him ; becaufe, by the very Termsy ling. 

^. would 

* Page 136. St 

Chap. 11. God'i being the Author {>f Sin. gf J 

" would bate to make fuch a Thing.** But if this 
be good arguing in the Cafe to which it is applied, 
may I not as well fay, God would not continue a 
Thing in Being that is hateful to him •, becaafe^ by 
the very TermSy he would hate to continue fuch d 
Thing in Being? I think, the vety Terms do aft 
much (and no more) infer one of thefe Propo^ 
iitions, as the other. In like Manner, the reft msa 
he fays on that Head may be fhewn to be unrea^ 
fonable, by only fubftituting the Word, continue, 
in the Place of make and propagate. I may fairly 
imitate his Way of Reafoning thus : *' To fay, 
God continues us according to his own original 
Decree, or Lxiw of Continuation^ which obliges 
him to continue us in a Manner he abhors, is 
really to make bad worfe : For it is fuppoling 
him to be drfedtive in Wifdom, or by his owa 
Decree or Law to lay fuch a Conftraint upon 
^^ his own Actions, that he cannot do what hb 
** would, but is continually doing what he would 
*^ not, what lie hates to do, and what he con- 
^' demns in us % viz. continuing us finful, when he 
** condemns us for continuing ourfelves finful.** — ' 
If the Reafoning be weak in the one Cafe, it is no 
lefs fo in the other. ' 

If any fhall flill infift. That there is a Difference 
between God*s fo difpoiing Things as that Depra- 
vity of Heart ihall be continued^ according to thcf 
fettled Courfe of Nature, in the fame Perfon, wlrty 
has by his own Fault introduced it ; and his (o 
difpoiing as that Men, according to a Courfe of 
Nature, fhould be born with Depravity, in Coftfe- 
quence of jidam^s introducing Sin, by his A(9v 
which *c had no Concern in, and cannot be juftly 
charged widi: On this I would obferve, that it h 
quite going oflf the Obje^tiony which we have beea 


400 Imputation of AdamV Striy Part I\ - 

upon, from God's Agency, and flying to another. 
It is then no longer infilled on, x}[izx.fimply for him, 
from whofe Agency the Courfc of Nature and ouf 
Exiftence derive, fo to difpofe Things, as thgt we 
fhould have Exiftence in a corrupt State, is for him 
to be the Author of Sin : But the Plea now ad- 
vanced is. That it is not proper and juft for fuch 
an Agent fo to difpofe, in this Cafe^ and only in 
Confequence of Adamh Sin -, it not being juft to 
charge Adnm^s Sin to his Pofterity. And this 
Matter fliall be particularly confidered, in Anfwer 
to the next Objeftion ; to which 1 now proceed,; 


^bat great Objeftion againft the Imputation of 
AdamV Sin to his Poflmty^ confidered^ That fuch I 
Imputation is unjufi and unreafonahle^ inafmuch 
as Adam and his Pofterity are not one and the 
fame. With a brief Reflexion fubjoined of what 
fome have fuppofed^ of God's imputing the Guik 
of Adam's Sin to his Pofterity^ but in an mfinitely 
lefs Degree, than to Adam himfelf. 

THAT we may proceed with the greater 
Clearnefs in confidering the main Objections 
againft fuppofing the Guilt of Adam-s Sin to ht 
imputed to his Pofterity ; I would premife fome 
Obfervations with a View to the right Stating rf 
the Doftrine of the Imputation of Adanf% firft Sin ; 
and then fliew the Reafonablenefs of this Doftrine, 
in Oppofition to the great Clamour raifed againft 
it on this Head. ^^ 

i thinlyi 

(Zhap. III. its true Notion fiated.. 46* 

I think, it would go far towards direfting us tor 
the more clear and diftindk conceiving and right 
Hating of this Affair, were we fteadily to bear this i« 
Mind : That God, in each Step of his Proceeding 
with Adam^ in Relation to the Covenant or Con- 
ftitution eftablifhed with him, looked on his P6ftc- 
rity as being One with him. (The Propriety of 
his looking upon them fo, I fhall fpeafc to after- 
wards.) And though he dealt more immediately 
with Adam^ yet it was as the Head of the whole 
Body, and the Root of the whole Tree ^ and in 
his Proceedings with him, he dealt with all the 
Branches, as if they had been then exifting in 
their Root^ 

From which it will follow, that both Guilt, or 
Expofednefs to Punifhiment, and alfo Depravity of 
Heart, came upon AdanC% Pofterity juft as they 
came upon him, as much as if he and they had 
all co-exifted, like a Tree with many Branches ; 
allowing only for the Difference neceflarily refulting 
from the Place Adam ftood iri, as Head oe Root 
of the whole, and being firft and moft immediately 
.dealt with, and moft immediately acking and fuf- 
fering. Otherwife, it is as if, in every Step of 
Proceeding, every Alteration in the Root had been 
attended, at the fame Inftant, with the fame Steps 
and Alterations throughout the whole Treey iri 
each individual Branch. I think, this will naturally 
follow on the Suppofition of there being a confti- 
tuted Onenefs or Identity oi Adam and his Pofterity 
in this Affair. . 

Therefore I am humbly of Opinion, that if any 
liave fuppofed the Children of Adam to come into' 
the World with a double Guilt, one the Guilt df 
Adam% Sin, a(K>ther the Guilt arifing from thek 

D d having 

404 Imputation tf Adam'j SiV/, Part iV^ 

having a corrupt Heart, they have not fo well 
conceived of the Matter. The Guilt a Man has 
upon his Soul at his firft Exiitence, is one and 
fimple, viz. the Guilt of the original Apoftacy, 
the Guilt of the Sin by which the Species firft re- 
belled againft God. This, and the Guilt ariling 
from the firft Corruption or depraved Diipofition 
of the Heart, are not to be looked upon as two 
Things, diJiinSly imputed and charged upon Men 
in the Sight of God, Indeed the Guilt that arifes 
from the Corruption of the Heart, as it remsdns a 
confirmed Principle, and appears in its confequent 
Operations, is a dijiinil and additional Guilt : But 
the Guilt arifing from the firft Exifting of a de- 
praved Difpofition in Adam's Pofterity, I apprehend, 
is not diftinft from their Guilt of Adanf% iirft Sin. 
For fo it was not in Adam himfelf. The firft evil 
Difpofition or Inclination of the Heart of Adam to 
Sin, was not properly diftind from his firft A£t of 
Sin, but was included in it. The external Aft he 
committed was no otherwife his, than as his Heart 
was in it, or as that Aftion proceeded from the 
wicked Inclination of his Heart. Nor was the 
Guilt he had double^ as for two diftinft Sins : One, 
the Wicked nefs of his Heart and Will in that 
Affair; another, the Wickednefs of the external 
Aft, caufed by his Heart. His Guilt was aH truly 
from the Adt of his inward Man •, exclufive of 
which the Motions of his Body were no more 
than the Motions of any lifelefs Inftrument. His 
Sin confifted in Wickednefs of Heart, fully fufii- 
cient for^ and intirely amounting to^ ail that ap- 
peared in the Aft he committed. 

The depraved Difpofition of Adam\ Heart is to 
be confidered two Ways, (i.) As the firft Riling 
of an evil Inclination in his Hearty exerted in his- 


fchap. ill. its true Notion Jiated, 40 j 

firft A6k of Sin, and the Ground of the complete 
Tranfgreflion. (2.) An evil Difpofition of Hearc 
continuing afterwards^ as a confirmed Principle 
that came by . God*s forfaking him ; which was a 
Punijhment of his firft Tranfgreflion. This con- 
firmed Corruption, by its remaining and continued 
Operation, brought additional Guilt on his SouK 

And in like Manner, Depravity of Heart is to be 
confidered two Ways in Adam's Pofterity. The 
frji Esifting of a corrupt Difpofition in their 
Hearts, is not to be looked upon as Sin belonging 
to them, diJtinSt from their Participation of Adam's 
firft Sin : It is as it were the eic tended Pollution of 
that Sin, through the whole Tree, by Virtue of 
the conftituted Union of the Branches with the 
Root ; or the Inherence of the Sin of that Head of 
the Species in the Members, in the Confent and 
Concurrence of the Hearts of the Members with 
the Head in that firft Aft. (Which may be^ with-^ 
out God's being the Author of Sin, about which 
I have fpoben in the former Chapter.) But the 
Depravity of Nature remaining an ejiablifhed Prin-^ 
ciple in the Heart of a Child of Adam^ and asf 
exhibited in After-Operations, is a Confequence and 
Punijhment of the firft Apoftacy thus participated,^ 
and brings new Guilt. The, firft Being of an evil 
Difpofition in the Heart of a Child of Adam^^ 
whereby he is difpofed to approve of thef Sin of 
his firft Father, as fully as he himfelf approved of 
it when he comraitted it, or fo far as to imply a 
full and perfeft Confent of Heart to it, I think, is 
not to be looked upon as a Confequence of the 
Imputation of that firft Sin, any more' than the full 
Confent of Adam's own Heart in the A6t of fin- 
ning ; which was not confequent on the Imputation 
©f his Sin to Wmfclf, but rather prior to it in thef 

D d 2 Order 


404 Imputation of AdamV &'/f. Part IV* 

Order of Nature. Indeed the Derivation of the 
evil Difpofnion to the Hearts of Addm^s Pofterity, 
or rather the Co-exiftence of the evil Difpofition, 
implied in AdanC% firft Rebellion, in the Root and 
Branches^ is a Confequence of the Union that the 
wife Author of the World has eftabliflied between 
Adam and his Pofterity, but not properly a Confe- 
quence of the Imputation of his Sin ; nay, rather 
antecedent to it, as it was in Adam himfelf. The 
firft Depravity of Heart, and the Imputation of 
that Sin, are both the Confequences of that eftab- 
liflied Union •, but yet in fuch Order, that the evil 
Difpofition is firjt^ and the Charge of Guilt confe- 
quentj as it was in the Cafe of Adam himfelf *. 


* My Meaning, in the whole of what has been Here faid, 
may be illuHrated thus: Let us fuppofe, that jidam and all 
his Pofterity had co-exifled, and that his Pofterity had been, 
through a Law of Nature eftabliflied by the Creator, united 
to him, fojnething as the Branches of a Tree are united to the 
Root, or the Members of the Body to the Head, fo as to 
conftitute as it were c?ie complex Perfon, or one moral Whole: 
So that by the Law of Union there ftiould have been a Com- 
mun'ion and Co-exijlence in Ads and AfFedions ; all jointly 
participating, and all concurring, as one Whohy in the Difpo- 
fition and Adion of the Head : as we fee in the Body natural, 
the whole Body is afFe^led as the Head is affeded ; and the 
whole Body concurs when the Head a£ls. Now, in this Cafe, 
the Hearts of all the Branches of Mankind, by the Conftitu- 
tion of Nature and Law of Union, would have been affected 
juft as the Heart of Adam, their common Root, was affed^ed. 
When the Heart of the Root, by a full Difpofition, committed 
the firft Sin, the Hearts of all the Branches would have con- 
curred ; and when the Root, in Conicquence of this, became 
guilty, fo would all the Branches > and when the lleart of 
the Root, as a Punifhmcnt of the Sin committed, was for- 
faken of God, in like Manner would it have fared with all 
the Branches ; and when the Heart of the Root, in Con- 
fequence of this, was confirmed in permanent Depravity, the 
Cafe would have been the fame with all the Branches ; and 
as new Guilt on the Soul of Adam would have been confe- 
qucnt on this, fo alfo would it have been wilh his mocal 


Chap. III. its true Notion Jlated. 405 

The firft Exiftence of an evil Difpofition of 
Heart, amounting to a full Confent to Adam^^ Sin, 

D d 3 » jio 

Branches. And thus all Things, with Relation to evil Dif- 
pofition, Guik, Pollution and Depravity, would exiil, in the 
fame Order and Dependence, in each Branch, as in the Root. 
Now, DiiFerence of the l^ime of Exiftence don't at all hinder 
Things fucceeding in the fame Order, any more than Dif- 
ference oi Place in a Co-exiftence of Time. 

Here may be worthy to be obferved, as in feveral Rcfpefts 
to the prefent Purpofe, fome Things that are faid by Stapfertts^ 
an eminent Divine of Zurich in Siuitzerland^ in his Theologia 
Poiemica, publiflied about fourteen Years ago ; — in EnglijT? as 
follows. «* Seeing all Jdam\ Pofterity are derived from their 
" £rfl Parent, as their Root, the whole of the human Kind, 
'' with its Root, may be confidered as conflituting but one 
" Whole, or one Mafs ; fo as not to be properly a Thing 
♦' diftindi from its Root ; the Pofterity not differing from 
** it, any otherwife than the Branches from the Tree. From 
*' which it eafily appears, how that when the Root finned, all 
*< that which is derived from it, and with it conftitutes but one 
" Whole, may be looked upon as alfo finning ; feeing it is 
** not diflindl from the Root, but is one with it."— T^p/w, i. 
Cap. 3. %. 856, 57. 

" It is objedted, againft the Imputation of Adcmt^ Sin, that 
** we never committed the fame Sin with Adantt neither in 
" Number nor in Kind. I anfwcr, we fhould diftinguilh here 
<* between the Phyfical AH itfelf, which Adam committed, and 
" the Afortf//Vy of the Aftion, and Confent to it. If we have 
** refpedl only to the external Aft, to be fure it muft be con- 
** feflbd, that Adam^s Pofterity did not put forth their Hands 
«« to the forbidden Fruit; In which Senfe, that Act of Tranf- 
«* grelTion, and that Fall of Adam cannot be fhy/ically one 
<* with the Sin of his Pofterity. But if we confider the 
<* Morality of the Adlion, and what Confent there is to it, it is 
" altogether to be maintained, that his Pofterity committed 
•^ the fame Sin, both in Number and in Kind, inafmuch as 
*' they are to be looked upon as confenting to it. For where 
** there is Confent to a Sin, there the fame Sin is committed. 
** Seeing therefore that Adam with all his Pofterity conftitute 
*• but one moral P erf on , and are united in the fame Covenant, 
«' and are TranfgrefTors of the fame Law, they are alfo to be 
<* looked upon as having, in a moral Eftirnation, comn>itted 
*f the fame Tranfgreffion of tjie Law, both in Number and 
^y in j^ind. Therefore this Reafoning avails nothing againft ■ 

*' thq 

4X)6 Imputation of Adam*i S/», P*t IV. 

no more infers God's being the Author of that 
pvil Difpofition in the Chilis than in the Father. 


*< the righteoas Imputation of the Sin of^^^w to all Man- 
f ' kind, or to the whole moral Perfon that is confenting to it. 
*< And for the Reafon mentioned, we may rather argae thus; 
" The Sin of the Pofterity, on Account of their Confent, and 
*' the moral View in which they are to be taken, is the (amo 
^' with the Sin oi Adam^ not only in Kind, but in Number; 
*< therefore the Sin of Adam is rightfully imputed to his 
♦• Pofterity."— 7</. Tom. iv. C^p. i6. f 60, 61. 

•* The Imputation of Adam's firft Sin conMs in Nothing 
** elfe than this, that his Pofterity are viewed as in the {kmo 
^< Place with their Father, and are like him. Bqt feeing, 
" agreeable to what we have §lready proved, God might, 
'' according to his own righteous Judgment, which was 
** founded on his moft righteous Law, give Adam a Pofterity 
*' that were Uke himfelf\ and indeed it could not be otherwiie, 
♦* according to the very Laws of Nature; therefore he might 
** alfo in righteous Judgment impute Adarn^ Sin to thpm \ 
•* inafmuch as to give Adam a Pofterity like himfelf^ and to 
f* impitte his Sin to them, is one and the fame Thing. And 
«* therefore if the former be not contrary to the divine Pcr- 
*« fedlions, fo neither is the latter. — Our Adverfaries contend 
•* with us chiefly on this Account, That according to our 
** Dodlrine of Original Sin, fuch an hnputation of the firft Sin 
** is maintained, whereby God, without any Regard to uni- 
*« verfal native Corruption j efteems all Adams Pofterity as guilty^ 
«< and holds them as liable to Condemnation, purely on Ac- 
«* count of that finful Aft of their firft Parent ; fo that They, 
*• without any Refpedl had to ibeir (ywn Sitty and fo, as innocent 
*' in themfclves, are deftined to eternal Punifliment. — I have 
" therefore ever been careful to ftievv, that they do injurioufly 
« fuppofe thofe Things to h^feparatedy in our Dodlrine, which 
*• are by no Means to be feparated. The whole of the Con- 
*« troverfy they have with us about this Matter, evidently 
<« arifes from this, That they fuppofe the mediate and the 
*« immediate Imputation are diftinguiftied one from the other, 
" not only in the Manner of Conception, but in Reality. 
<« And fo indeed they coniider Imputation only as immediate ^ 
** and abftradlly from the mediate; when yet our Divines fup- 
" pofe, that neither ought to be coniidercd /eparateiy from the 
« other. Therefore I chofe not to ufe any fuch Diftinflion, 
«< or to fuppofe any fuch Thing, in what I have faid on the 
?• Subjeft ; bnt only have endeavoured to explain the Thing 

Chap. III. sU true Notion Jtated. 407 

The firft Arifing or Exifldng of that evil Difpo- 
fition in the Heart of Adam^ was by God's Per^ 
mjfton ; who could have prevented it, if he had 
plcafed, by giving fuoh Influences of his Spirit, as 
would have been abfolutely effedlual to hinder it ; 
which, it is plain in Fad, he did witb^bold : And 
whatever Myftery may be fuppofed in the Affair, 
yet no Chriftian will prefume to fay, it was not in 
perfed Confiftence with God's Holinefs and Rigb-r 
teoufnefsy notwithftanding jidam had been guilty of 
no Offence before. So Root and Branches being 
one, according to God's wife Conftitution, the 
Cafe in Faft is, that by Virtue of this Onencfs an^ 
fwerable Changes or Effefts through all tht Branches 
co-exift with the Changes in the Root : Confe- 
quently an evil Difpofition exifts in the Hearts of 
Jidam's Pofterity, equivalent to that which was 
exerted in his own Heart, when he eat the for^ 
bidden Fruit, Which God has no Hand in, any 
otherwife, than in not exerting fuch an Influence, 
as might be effectual to prevent it -, as appears by 
what was obfervcd in the former Chapter, 

But now the grand Objeftion is againft the Rea-' 
fonablenefs of f\xchd.ConJiirution^ by which ^dam and 

P d 4 his 

*' itfelf, and to reconcile it with the divine Attributes. And 
^' therefore I have every where conjoined both thefe Concep- 
** tions concerning the Imputation of the firft Sin, as infepa- 
** rable; and judged, that one ought never to be confidered 
*' without the other. — While I have been writing this Note, 
♦* I confulted al} the Syft^Ris of Divinity, which I have b^ me, 
" that I might fee what was the true and genuine Opinion of 
♦* our chief Divines in this Affair j and I found that they 
^' were of the fame IV^ind with Me ; namely, That thefe two 
^« Kinds of Imputation are by no Means to be feparated, or 
•• to be confidered abftraftly one from the other, but that one 
^* does involve the other." — He there particularly cites thofe 
two famous reformed Divix^eSi Fitri^g'^i ^vA Lam^im^-^ 
Tofla. iv. Cap, 17, J' 78, 


^.o8 Imputation af Adam's 5///, Part IV, 

his Pofterity (hould be lcx)kcd upon as One^ and 
dealt with accordingly, in an Affair of fuch infiiniti^ 
Confequence ; fo that if Adam finned, they muft 
■ neceflarily be made Sinners by his Difobedience, 
and come into Exiftence with the fame Depravity 
of Difpofition, and be looked upon and treated as 
though they were Partakers with Jdam in his Aft 
of Sittf I have not Room here to rehearfe all Dr. 
T — r^s vehement Exclamations againft the Rea- 
fonablenefs and Juftice of this. The Reader may 
at his Leifure confult his Book, and fee them 
in the Places referred to beloyr *, Whatever 
black Colours and frightful Reprefrntations are 
employed on this Occafion, all may be fgmmed up 
in this, That Adam and his Pofterity are not one^ 
but entirely dtftinil Agents. But with RefpejSt to 
this mighty Out-cry made againft the Reafona^lenefs 
of any fuch Conftitution, by which God is fuppofed 
to treat Adam and his Pofterity as On(j I would 
make the following Obfervations. 

I. It fignifies Nothing to exclaim againft plain 
Faff. Such is the Faff, moft evident and ac- 
knowledged Faff, with refpeft to the State of all 
Mankind, without Exception of one Individual 
V among all the natural Defcendants of Adam, as 
makes it apparent, that God aftually deals with 
Adafn and his Pofterity as One, in the Affair of his 
Apoftacy, and its infinitely terribje Confequences, 
It has been demonftrated, and fhewn to be in 
EfFed plainly acknowledged, that every Individual 
erf" Mankind comes into the World in fuch Cir- 
cumftances, as that there is no Hope or PofTibility 
of any other than their violating God's holy Law, 
(if they ever live to aft at all as moral Agents) 


* Page 13. 150, ijr, 156, 261. 108, 109, lii? ^? 

Chap. ill. its Reafonabknefs and Jufticc. 409 

and being thereby juftly expofed to el!ernal Ruin * 
And it is thus by God's ordering and difpofing of 
Things. And God either thus deals with Mankind, 
becaufe he looks upon them as one with their firft 
Father, and lb treats them as ^nful and guilty by 
his Apoftacy -, or (which will not mend the Matter) 
He, without viewing them as at all concerned in 
that Affair, but as in every Refpeft perfectly inno-- 
cent^ does neverthelefs fubjeft them to this infinitely 
dreadful Calamity. Adam by his Sin was expofed 
to the Calamities and Sorrows of this Life^ to tern-- 
poral Death and eternal Ruin ; as is confefled. And 
it is alfo in Effeft confefltd, that all his Pofterity 
<:ome into the World in fuch a State, as that the 
certain Confequeace is their being espofed^ and 
jujily fo, to the Sorrows of this Life^ to temporal 
JDeath^ and eternal Ruin^ unlefs faved by Grace. 
So that we fee, God in Fa6t deals with them toge- 
ther, or as one. If God orders the Confequences of 
Adamh Sin, with regard to his Pofterjty's Welfare, 
even in thofe Things which are moft important, 
and which do in the higheft Degree concern their 
eternal Intereft, to be the fame with the Confe- 
quences to 4dam himfelf, then he treats Adam and 
his Pofterity as One in that Affair. Hence, how- 
ever the Matter be attended with Difficulty, paS- 
obliges us to get over the PifEculty, either by. find- 
ing out fome Solution, or by fhutting our Mouths, 
^nd acknowledging the Weaknefs and Scantinefs 
of our Under^andings ; as we muft in innumerable 
.other Cafes, where apparent and undeniable Fa£t^ 
in God's Works of Creation and Providence, is at- 
tended with Events and Circumftances, xht Manner 
and Reafon of which are difficult to our Under- 
^andings.-s— But to proceed, 

II. We 

«► P^rt !• Chap. I. the three firft Se£lipn», 

'4IO Adam's ieing c^nftituted Part JV, 

n. We will confider the Difficulties themfelvcs, 
infifted on in the Objeftions of our Oppofers. 
They may be reduced to thefe two : Firfty That 
fuch a Conftitution is injurious to Adam^s Pofterity. 
Secondly^ That it is altogether improper ^ as it im- 
plies Faljhoodj viewing and treating thofe as one, 
which indeed are not one, but entirely diftinSl. 

FIRST Difficulty J That the appointing Jdam to 
itand, in this great Affair, as the moral Head a£ 
his Pofterity, and fo treating them as one with 
him, as ftanding or falling with him is injurious 
to them, and tends to their Hurt, To which I 
anfwer, it is demonftrably otherwife\ that fuch a 
Conftitution was fo far from being injurious and 
hurtful to AdanC% Pofterity, or tending to their 
Calamity, any more than if every one had been 
appointed to ftand for himfelf perfonally, that it 
was, in itfelf confidered, vefy much of a contrary 
Tendency, and was attended with a more eligible 
Probability of a bappy Iffue than the latter would 
have been : And fo is a Conftitution truly expref- 
fing the Goodnefs of its Author. For, here the 
following Things are to be confidered. 

I • It is reafonable to fuppofe, that Adam was as 
likely^ on Account of his Capacity and natural 
Talents, to perfevere in Obedience, as his Pofterity, 
(taking one with another) if they had all been put 
on the Trial fingly for themfelves. And fuppofing 
•that there was a conftituted Union or Onenefs of 
him and his Pofterity, and that he ftood as a pub- 
lick Perfon, or common Head, all by this Confti- 
tution would have been as fure to partake of the 
Benefit of his Obedience, as of the ill Confe- 
quence of his Pifobedience, in Cafe of his Fall. 

?• Thcr? 

Chap. III. our common Heady not. injurious. 411 

2. There was a greater Tendency to a happy 
Iflue, in fuch an Appointment, than if every one 
had been appointed to ftand for hinrifelf; efpecially 
on two Accounts, (i.) That j4dan^ had ftrong€r. 
Motives to fVatchfulnefs than his Pofterity would 
have had ; in that not only his own eternal Welfare 
lay at Stake, but alfo that of all hi;5 Pofterityi 
(2.) Adam was in a State of cpmplete Manhood^ 
when his Trial began. It was a Conftitution very 
agreeable to the Goodnefs of God, confid^ring tte 
State of Mankind, which was to be propagated in 
the Way of Generation, that their firji Father 
flbould be appointed to ftand for all. For by Rea* 
fon of the Manner of their coming into Exiftencc 
in a State of Infancy^ and their coming fo gradually 
to mature State, and fo remaining for a great while 
in a State of Childhood and comparative Jmper-^ 
feftion, after they were become moral Agents^i 
they would be lefs Jit to lland for thcmfelyes, thao 
jheir firft Father to ftand for them. 

If any Man, notwithftanding thefe Things, fhall 
fay, That for his own Part, if the Affair had been 
propofed to him, he fhould have chofen to have had 
his eternal Intereft trufted in his own Jiands : It is 
fuificient to anfwer, that no Man's vain Opinion 
of himfelf, as more Jit to be trufted than others, 
alters the true Nature and Tendency of Things, 
as they demonftrably are in themfelves. Nor is 
^t a juft Qbj^dtion, That this Conftitution has in 
Event proved for the Hurt of Mankind. For it 
does not follow, that no Advantage was givea for 
a happy Event, in fuch an Eftablilhment, becaufe 
it was not fuch as to make it utterly impoffible 
there fhould be any other Event, 

3- The 

412 This Conjlitution not injurious. . Part IV. 

g. The Goodnefs of God in fuch a Conftitution 
DWth Adam appears in this : That if there had been 
no fovereign gracious Eftablilhment at all, but God 
had proceeded only on the Foot of mere Jujiice^ 
and had gone no further than this required, he 
might have demanded of Adam and all his Pofte- 
rity, that they Ihould perform perfeSl perpetual 
Obediencey without ever failing in the leaft Inftance, 
on Pain of eternal Death ; and might have made 
this Demand without the Promife of any pofitive 
Reward for their Obedience. For perreft Obe- 
dien(:e is a Debt^ that every one owes to his 
Creator •, and therefore is what his Creator was not 
obliged to pay him for. None is obliged to pay 
his Debtor, only for difcharging his jult Debt. — 
But fuch was evidently the Conftitution with Adam^ 
that an eternal happy Life was to be the Confe- 
quence of his perfevering Fidelity, to all fuch as 
were included within that Conftitution (of which 
the ^ree of Life was a Sign) as well as eternal 
Death to be the Confequence of his Difobedience, 
*— I come now to confider the 

SECOND Difficulty, — It being thus manifcft, 
that this Conftitution, by which Adam and his 
Pofterity are dealt with as One^ is not unreafonable 
upon Account of its being injurious and hurtful to 
the Intereft of Mankind, the only Thing remaining 
in the Objeftion againft fuch a Conftitution, is the 
Impropriety of it, as implying Falfhood^ and Contra- 
diction to the true Nature of Things ; as hereby 
they are viewed and treated as one^ who are not 
one, but wholly diftinft \ and no arbitrary Con- 
ftitution can ever make that to be true, which in 
itfelf cqnfidered is not true. 


Chap- III- Nor implying Falfhood. 41 J 

This Objedion, however fpecious, is really- 
founded on a falfe Hypothefis, and wrong Notion 
of what we call Samenefs or Onenefsy among created 
Things •, and the feeming Force of the Objeftion 
arifes from Ignorance or Inconfideration of the 
Degree^ in which created Identity or Onenefs with 
paft Exiftence, in general, depends on the fovereign 
Conftitution and Law of the fupreme Author and 
Difpofer of the Univerfe. 

Some Things, being moil fimply confidered, arc 
entirely dijiin^, and very diverfe-^ which yet are fo 
united by the eftablifhed Law of the Creator, in 
fome Reipefts and with Regard to fome Purpofes 
and EfFefts, that by Virtue of that Eftablilhment it 
is with them as if they were One. Thus a TreCy 
grown great, and an hundred Years old, is One 
Plant with the litde Sprout ^ that firft came out of the 
Ground, from whence it grew, and has been conti- 
nued in conftant Succefiion ; though it is now fo ex- 
ceeding diverfey many thoufand Times bigger, and 
of a very different Form, and perhaps not one Atom 
the very fame : Yet God, according to an eftab- 
liftied Law of Nature, has in a conftant Succefiion 
communicated . to it many of the fame Qualities, 
and moft important Properties, as if it were One. 
It has been his Pleafure, to conftitute an Union in 
thefe Refpedts, and for thefe Purpofes, naturally 
leading us to look upon all as One, — So the Body 
of Man at forty Years of Age, is one with the /»- 
fant'Body which firft came into the World, from 
whence it grew ; though now conftituted of dif- 
ferent Subftance, and the gt-eater Part of the Sub- 
ftance probably changed Scores (if not hundreds) 
of Times: And though it be now in fo many 
Refpefts exceeding diverfe, yet God, according to 
the Courfe of Nature, which he has been pleafed 


4^4 Adam and bis Seed One, Part tV. 

to cftablifli, has caufed, that in a certain Method it 
frould communicate with that infantile Body, in 
the lame Life, the fame Senfes, the fame Features, 
and many the fame Qualities, and in Union with 
the fame Soul •, and fo, with regard to thefc Pur- 
pofcs, it is dealt with by him as one Body, Again^ 
the Body and Sotd of a Man are one^ in a very dif- 
ferent Manner, and for different Purpofes. Con- 
fidered in themfelves, they are exceeding different 
Beings, of a Nature as diverfe as can be conceived v 
and yet, by a very peculiar divine Conftitution or 
Law of Nature, which God has been pleafed to 
eftablifh, they are ftrongly united, and become Oney 
in moft important Refpefts j a wonderful mutual 
Communication is eftabliftied; fo that both be- 
come different Parts of the fame Man. But the 
Union and mutual Communication they have, has 
Exiftence, a;nd is entirely regulated and limited, 
according to the fovereign Pleafure of God, and 
the Conftitution he has been pleafed to eftablifh. 

And if we come even to the perfonal Identity of 
created intelligent Beings, though this be not al- 
lowed to confift wholly in that which Mr. Locke 
places it in, i. c. Same Cotifcioufnefs % yet I think it 
cannot be denied, that this is one Thing eflential to 
it. But it is evident, that the Communication or 
Continuance of the fame Confcioufnefs and Me- 
mory to any Subjeft, through fucceflive Parts of 
Duration, depends wholly on a divine Eftablifti- 
ment. There would be no Neceffity, that the 
Remembrance and Ideas of what is paft ftiould 
continue to exift, but by an arbitrary Conftitution 
of the Creator. — If any Ihould here infift, that there 
is no Need of having Recourfe to any fuch Confii-' 
ttttiot^ in order to account for the Continuance of' 
the fame Confcioufnefs > and fhould fay,, that the very 




Chap. III. confijlent ^itb the Truth of Things. 41^ 

Nature of the Soul is fuch as will fufficicntly ac- 
count for it*, and that the Soul will retain the 
Ideas and Confcioufnefs it once had^ according to 
the Courfe of Nature: — Then let it be remem- 
bered, Who it is, gives the Soul this Nature ; and 
let that be remembered, which Dr. T. fays of thd 
Courfe of Nature, before obferved \ denying, that 
the Courfe of Nature is a proper aSiive Caufe^ which 
will work and go on by itfelf without God, if he Jets 
and permits it ; faying, that the Courfe of Nature^ 
feparate from the Agency of God, is no Caufe, or No-^ 
ihing -, and affirming, that it is abfolutely impojftble^ 
the Courfe of Nature fhould continue itfelf, or go on to 
operate by itfelf,. any more than produce itfelf* ; and, 
that God, the Original of all Beings is the ONLT 
CAUSE of all natural Effe£ls f. — Here is worthy 
alfo to be obferved, what Dr. Tumbull fays of the 
Laws of Nature, in Words which he cites from Sir 
'Ifaac Newton |1. " It is the Will of the Mind that 
is the firjt Caufe, that gives Subfiftence and 
Efficacy to all thofe Laws, who is the efficient 
Caufe that produces the Phenomena, which ap- 
pear in Analogy, Harmony and Agreement, 
according to thefe Laws^^ And he fays, " The 
fame Principles muft take Place in Things per- 
taining to moral, as well as natural Philo- 
" fophy Xr 

From thefe Things it will clearly follow, that 
Identity of Confcioufnefs depends wholly on a Ldiw 
of Nature •, and fo, on the fovereign WiU and 
Agency of GOD ; and therefore, that perfonal Iden- 
tity, and fo the Derivation of the Pollution and 
Guilt of paft Sins in the fanle Perfon, depends on 


♦ Page 134. J, t Page i4o« ^^ \ Mor. Phil. p. 1*, 
t Ibid p. 9. ' 


At 6 ylll created Onenefe, dependent Fart IV'^ 

kn arbitrary divine Conjiitution : and this, even 
though we fhould allow the fame Confciouihers 
mot to be the only Thing which conftitutes Onc- 
nefs of Perfon, but ftiould, befides that, fuppofe 
.Samenefs of Subftance requifite. For, if fame 
Gonfcioufnefs be one Thing neceflary to perfonai 
Identity, and this depends on God's fovereign Con-^ 
Pitutmt^ ic will ftill follow, that perfonai Identity 
depends on God's fovereign Conjtitutien. 

And with relped to the Identity of created Sub^. 
ftance itfelf, in the different Moments of its Dura* 
tion, I think, we (hall greatly miftake, if we 
imagine it to be like that abfolute, independent 
Identity of the First Being, whereby He is the 
fame Tejierday^ to Day^ and for ever. Nay, on the 
contrary, it may be demonftrated, that even this 
Onenefe of created Subftance, exifting. at different 
Times, is a merely dependent Identity ; dependent 
on the Pleafure and fovereign Conftitution^ of Hinl 
who wcrkelh all in all. This will follow from what 
is generally aUowed, and is certainly true. That 
God not only created all Things, and gave thenl 
Being at firft, but continually preferves them, and 
upholds them in: Being. This being a Matter of 
confiderable Importance, it may be worthy here to 
be confidered with a little Attention. Let us in- 
quire therefore, in the firft Place, Whether it be 
not evident, that God does continually, by his im- 
mediate Power, uphold every created Subftance in 
Being ; and then let us fee the Confequence, 

That God does, by his immediate Power, up- 
hold every created Subftance in Being, will be 
iDanifeft, if we confider, that their prefent Exifl:ence 
is a dependent Exiflence, and therefore is an Effe£f 
and muft have fome Caufe : and the Gaufe muft 


Chap. III. on GOiys ftfvereign Conftiturion. 4tf 

be one oftHefe two; either the antecedent Exift-^ 
ence of the fame Subftance, or elfe the Power of 
the Creator. But it cannot be the antecedent 
Exiftence of the fame Subftance; For Inftancc, the 
Exiftence of the Body of the Moon at this prefent 
Moment, cannot be the EffeSl of its Exiftence at 
the laft foregoing Moment. For not only was 
what exifted the laft Moment, no aftive Caufc, 
but wholly a paffive Thing ; but this alfo is to be 
confidered, that no Caufe can produce EfFe&S irt a 
Time and Place in which itfelf is not^ It is plain. 
Nothing can exert itfelf, or operate, wbeh ahd 
where it is not exifting. But the Moon's paft 
Exiftence was neither where nor when its prefent 
Exiftence is. — In point of 97w^, what is pajl^ en- 
tirely ceafes, when prefent Exiftence begins ; other- 
wife it would not be paft. The paft Moment \% 
ceafed and gone, when the prefent Moment take^ 
Place •, and does no more co-exift with it, than does 
any other Moment that had ceafed twenty Years 
ago. Nor could the paft Exiftence of the Particles 
of this moving Body produce EfFe6ts in any other 
Place J than where it then was. But its Exiftence 
at the prefent Moment^ in every Point of it^ is in a 
different Place^ from where its Exifterice Was at 
the laft preceding Moment. From thefe Things, 
I fuppofe, it will certainly folbw, that the prefent 
Exiftence, cither of this, or any other created Sub-* 
fiance, cannot be an EfFeA of its paft Exiftence* 
The Exiftences (fo to fpeak) of an EfFedb, or 
Thing dependent, in different Parts of Space ot 
Duration, though ever fo near one to dnodief, do 
not at all co-exift one with the other j and therefore 
are as truly different EfFefts, as if thofe Farts of 
Space and Duration were ever fo far afunder i And 
the prior Exiftence can no more be the proper 
Caufe of the new Exiftence, in the next Moment, or 

£ e nexc 

41 8 AU created Onenefs, dependent .Fart iV* 

next Part of Space, than If it had been in an Age be- 
fore, or at a Thoulknd Miles Diftance, without any 
Exiftence to fill up the intermediate Time or Space. 
Therefore the Exiftence of created Subftances, in 
each fucceflive Moment, muft be the EfFe6b of the 
immediate Agency, Will, and Power of GOD. 

If any fhall fay, This Reafoning is not good, and 
fliall infift upon it, that there is no Need of any 
immediate divine Power, to produce the pre&nt 
Exiftence of created Subftances, but that their prc- 
fent Exiftence is the Effeft or Confequence of paft 
Exiftence, according to the Nature of Things ;. 
that the eftabliihed Courfe of Nature is fufficient to 
£ontinue Exiftence, where Exiftence is once ^ven ^ 
I allow it : But then it (hould be remembered, what 
Nature is in created Things ; and what the eftabliih- 
ed Courfe of Nature is •, that, as has been obferved 
already, // is Nothings feparate from t^e Agency of 
God'j and that, as Dr.?*. fays, GOD^ the Original of 
all Being, is the ONLT Caufe of all natural EffeSs. 
A Father, according to the Courfe of Nature, be- 
gets a Child i an Oak, according to the Courfe of 
Nature, produces an Acorn, or a Bud ; fo according 
to the Courfe of Nature, the former Exiftence of the 
Trunk of the Tree is followed by its new or prc- 
fent Exiftence. In the one Cafe, and j:hc other, 
the new EfFeft is confequent on the former, only 
by the ejlahlifhed Laws, and fettled Courfe of Na* 
ture ; which is allowed to be Nothing but the con- 
tinued irpmediate Efficiency of GOD,, according 
to a Confiitution that he has been pleafed to eftablifh. 
Therefore, according to what our Author urges, as 
the Child and the Acorn, which come into Exift- 
ence according to the Courfe of Nature, in Confe- 
quence of the prior Exiftence and State of the 
Parent and the Oak, are truly immediately* created 


dhap.Ilt. bn GOJys fovereign Conftitution; 4t$> 

or made by God ; fo muft the Exiftence of each 
created Perfon and Thing, at each Moment of it, 
be from the immediate continued Creation of God; 
It will certainly follow from thcfe Things, that 
God's preferving created Things in Being is per- 
feftly equivalent to a continued Creation, or to his 
creating thofe Things out of Nothing at each Mo-* 
ment of their Exiftence. If the continued Exiftence 
of created Things be wholly dependent on God's 
Prefervation, then thofe Things would drop intd 
Nothing, upon the ceafmg of the prefent Moment^ 
without a new Exertion of the divine Power to 
caufe them to exift in the following Moment. If 
there be any who own, that God preferves Things 
in Being, and yet hold that they would continue 
in Being without any further Help from him, after 
they once have Exiftence 5 I think, it is hard to 
know what they mean. To what Purpofe can it 
be, to talk of God's preferving Things in Being, 
when there is no Need of his preferving them ? Of* 
to talk -of their being dependent on God for con- 
tinued Exiftence, when they would of themfelves 
continue to exift, without his Help ; nay, though 
he Ihould wholly withdraw his fuftaining Power 
and Influence ? 

It will follow from what has been obferved, that 
God's upholding created Subftance, or cauftng its 
Exiftence in each fucceflive Moment, is altogether 
equivalent to an immediate ProduHion out of No- 
things at each Moment. Bec^ufe its Exiftence at 
this Moment is not merely in Part from God^ but 
wholly from him ; and not in any Part, or Degree, 
from it^ antecedent Exiftence. For the fuppofing, 
that its antecedent Exiftence concurs with God irt 
Efficiency^ to produce fome Part of the Efteft, is 
attended Vith all the very fame Abfurdities, which 

Ee % have 


420 Jll created Oncnefs, dependent Part IV/ 

have been Ihewn to attend the Suppofition of its 
producing it wholly. Therefore the antecedent 
Eidftence is Nothing, as to any proper Influence 
or Affiftance in the Aflfair : And confequently God 
produces the EfFeft as much from Nothings as tf 
there had been Nothing before. So that this Effed 
differs not at all from the firft Creation, but only 
Circumftantially ; as in firft Creation there had been 
no fueh Aft and EfFeft of God's Power before : 
whereas, his giving Exiftence afterwards, follows 
preceding Afts and Effects of the feme Kind, in 
an eftabliflied Order. 

Now, in the next Place, let us fee how the Con-* 
fequence of thefe Things is to my prefent Purpofe. 
If the Exiftence of created Subftance^ in each foc- 
ceffive Moment, be wholly the Effe6t of God's 
immediate Power, in that Moment, without any 
Dependence on prior Exiftence, as much as the 
firft Creation out of Nothings then what exifts at 
this Moment, by this Power, is a new EffeS ; and 
fimply and absolutely confidered, not the fame 
with any paft Exiftence, though it be like it, and 
follows it according to a certain eftabliflied Me- 
thod *. And there is no Identity or Onenefs in 


♦ When I fuppofe, that an EfFeft which is produced every 
Moment, by a new Aftion or Exertion of Pbwer, muft be a 
neiu EiFed in each Moment, and not abfolutely and nume- 
rically the fame with that which exifted in preceding Mo- 
ments, the Thing that I intend, may be ilkftrated by this 
Example. The lucid Colour or Brightnefs of the Moon^ as 
we look ftedfailly upon it, feems to be a permanent Thing, as 
though it were perfedlly the fame Brightnefs continued. Bat 
indeed it is an EfFed produced every Moment. It ceafes, and 
is renewed, in each fucceffive Point of Time ; and fo becomes 
altogether a ne<w EfFed at each Inftant ; and no one Thing 
that belongs to it, is numerically the fame that exited in die 
preceding Moment. The Rays of the Sun, impre^ on diat 


Chap. III. on GOUs fivereign Coaftitution. 4^1 

the Cafe, but what depends on the arbitrary Con-^ 
ftitution of the Creator j who by his wife fovereign 


Body, and refle£led from it, which caafe the EiFefl, are none 
of them the fame : The Impreilion, made in each Moment 
on our Senfory, is by the Stroke of nenu Rays : And the Sen* 
fation, excited by the Stroke, is a new EfFeft, an EfFeft of a 
nemo Impulfe. Therefore the Brightnefs or lucid Whitenefs of 
this Body is no more numerically the fame Thing with that 
>vhich exifled in the preceding Moment, than the Soumi of the 
Wind that blows now, is individually the fame with the Sound 
of the Wind that blew juft before ^ which, though it be like it, 
is not the fame, any more than the agitated Jtr, that makes 
the Sound, is the fame ; or than the JVater, flowing in a River, 
that now pafles by, is individually the fame with that which 
paffed a little before. And if it be thus with the Brightnefs 
or Colour of the Moon, fo it muft be with its Solidityy and 
.every Thing elfe belonging to its Subdance, if all be, each 
Moment, as much the immediate ^iFe^ of 4 new Exertion or 
Application of Power. 

The Matter may perhaps be in fome Refpefls flill more 
clearly illuftratcd by this.— The Images of Things in a Glafs^ 
as we keep our Eye upon them, feem to remain precifely the 
fame, with a continuing perfedl Identity. But it is known to 
be other wife. Philofophers well know, that thefe Images aro 
coriftantly rene<vjed^ by the Impreffion and Reflexion of ne-w 
Rays of Light ; fo that the Image imprefs'd by the former 
R.ays is conflantly vanifhing, and a new Image imprefs'd by 
ne'w Rays every Moment, both on the Glafs and on the Eye. 
The Image conftantly renewed, by new fqcceflive Rays, isjno 
more numerically the fame, than if it were by forae Artift put 
on a-new with a Pencil, and the Colours conftantly vaniihing 
as fail as put on. And the new Images being put on imme- 
4iately or inflantly, do not make them the fame, any more 
than if it were done with the Intermiflion of an Hour or a Day» 
The Image that ex ills this Moment, is not j\t all derinfed fron> 
the Image which exifled the lafl preceding Monient: ^s may 
be feen, becaufe, if the Succeflion of new Kays be intercepted, 
by fomething Jnterpofed between the Objeft and the Glafs, 
^he Image immediately ceafes ; the ^aji Zo^ifience of the Image 
has no Influence to uphold it, fo much as for one Moment. 
Which fliews, that the Image \% altogether new-made every 
Moment ; and flri£tiy fpeaking, is in no Part numerically the 
iame with that which exifled the Moment preceding. An<J 
^f ul^ fo ^he Matter muft be with the Bodies themfelvcs, as well 

Ee 5 ft'i 

422 All cre^fd Onenefe, dependent Plrt IV, 

Eftablifliment fo unites thefe fucceffive new Effedb, 
that he treats tbtm as One^ by communicating to 
them like Properties, Relations, and Circum- 
Jlances \ and fo, leads us to regard and treat then> 
as One. When J call this an arbitfary Cmftitution^ 
I mean, that it is a Conftitution which depends 
on Nothing but the divine Wilh^ which divine 
Will depends on Nothing but the divine Wijdom. 
In this Senfe, the whole Course of Nature^ with all 
that belongs to it, all its I^aws and Methods, an4 
Conftancy and Regularity, Continuance and Pro- 
ceeding, is an arbitrary Conftitution. In this Senfe, 
the Continuance of the very Being of the World 
jind aU its Parts, as well as the Manner of con- 
tinued Being, depends entirely on an arbitrary 
Conftitution : For it does not at all necejfarily foUow^^ 
that becaufe there was Sound, or Light, or Colour, 
or Refiftance, or Gravity, or Thoviffht, or Con- 
fcioufnefs, or any other dependent Thing the laft 
Moment, that therefore there fhall be the like at 
the next. All dependent Exiftence whatfoever i^ 
in a conftant Flux, ever paffing and returning ^ 
renewed every Moment, as the Colours of Bodies 
arie every Moment renewed by the Light that 
fhines upon them ; and all is conftantly proceeding 
from GOD, as Light from the Sun. In Him we 
fivej and move, and i^ave our Being. 


^s their Images : They alfo cannot be the fame, with at) 
abfolute Identity; but muft be wholly renewed every Moment, 
if the Cafe be as has been proved, that their prefent Exiftence 
is not, /Iriftly fpeaking, at ajl the Effedl of their paft plxiftencc jf 
but is wholly, every Inftant, the EfFeft of a new Agency, or 
Exertion of the Power, of the Caufe of theij- Exiftence. If fo, 
the Exiftence caufcd is evtty Inftant a new Efi^edl, whether 
the Caufe be Lights or immediate divine Power, or whatever 
it be. 

Chap. III. en GOB^ s fovefeign Con^itntion. 42 j 

Thus it appears, if we confider Matters ftriftly, 
there is no fuch Thing as any Identity or Onenefs 
in created Objefts, exifting at different Times, but 
what depends on GO Us fovereign Conftitution^ . 
And fo it appears, that the ObjeSfion we are upon, 
made againft a fuppofrd divine Conftitution, where- 
by Adam and his Pojierity are viewed and treated 
as One^ in the Manner and for the Purpofes fup- 
pofed, as if it were not confijtent with Truths becaufe 
no Conftitution can make thofe to be one^ which 
are not one ; I fay, it appears that this Objeftion is 
built on a falfe Hypothefis : For it appears, that a 
divine Conftitutiin is the Thing which makes Truths 
in Affairs of this Nature. The Objeftion fup- 
pofes, there is a Onenefs in created Beings, whence 
Qualities and Relations are derived down from 
paft Exiftence, dijiinil from, and prior to any One- 
nefs that can be fuppofed to be founded on divine 
Conftitution. Which is demonftrably falfe; and 
fufficiently appears fo from Things conceded by th^ 
Adverfaries themfelves : And therefore the Objec-r 
tion wholly falls to the Ground. 

There are various Kinds of Identity and Onenefs, ' 
found among created Things, by which they be- 
come one in different Manners^ RefpeSis and De^ 
grees^ and to various Purpofes ; feveral of which 
Differences have been obferved ; and every Kind 
is ordered, regulated and limited, in every Relpeft, 
by divine Conftitution. Some Things, exifting in 
different Times and Places, are treated by their 
Creator as One in one RefpeSl^ and others in an- 
other ; forne are united foj this Communication', and 
others for that ; but all according to the fovereign 
Pleafure of the Fountain of all Being and Ope- 
ration , 

i^a4 Hio-foUd-Re^fon againjt • .PaJ?tlV< 

' Jt appears, -particularly, from what has been feid, 
jhat aU Onepefs, hry Virtue whereof Pollution and 
Guilt from paji Wickednefs are derived, depends 
entirely on 2i divine Eftatblijhmeni, . It is this, and 
this only, that muft account for Guilt and ;an ^vil 
Taint on any individual Sopl, in Qonfequence of a 
Crime committed twenty or forty Years figo, re- 
maining ftill, apd even tp the End of the World 
.and forever. It is this, that muft account, fpr th^ 
Continuance of any fuch Thing, any wherp, as 
Confcioufnefs of A(Ss that are paft; and for the 
Continuance of all HaUiSy either good or bad : 
And on this depends every Thing that can belong 
to prfonal Identity. And all Communications, 
Derivations, or Continuation of Qualities, Proper- 
ties, or Relations, natural or moral, from what is 
pafiy as if the Subjedt were one^ depends on no 
other Foundation, 

And I am perfuaded, no folid Reafon can be 
given, why God, whq conftitutes all other created 
Union or Onenefs, according to his Pleafure, an^ 
for what Purpofes, Communications, and EfFefts, 
he pleafes, may not eftablifti a Conftitution where- 
by the natural Pojlerity of Adam^ proceeding from 
him, mufh as the Buds and Branches from the 
Stock or Root of a Tree, Ihould be treated as One 
with him, for the Derivation, either of Righteouf- 
nefs, and Communion in Rewards, or of the Lofs 
of Righteoufnefs, and confequent Corruption and 
Gyilt *, 


* I appeal to fuch as are not wont tq content themfelves 
with judging by a fupcrficial Appearance and View of I'hings, 
but are habituated to examine Things ftri(5lly and clofely, that 
they may judge righteous Judgment, Whether on Suppbfitioh 
that all Mankind had co^ex'tfied^ in the Manper mentioned be- 

Chap. HI. ponftit* Unity of K^acm and Mankind. 4^^ 

As I faid before. All Onenefs in cr<iated Things, 
•xvhence Qualities and Relations arc derived, cjc*- 
pends on a divine Conftitution that is arbitrary^ in 
every other Refpeft, excepting that it is regulated 
by divine Wifdom. The Wiftlom, which is cxep- 
cited in thefe Conftitutions, appears in thefe two 
Things. Firft^ In a beautiful Analogy and Har^ 
tnony with other Laws or Conftitutions, efpeciall^ 
relating to the fame Svibjeft ; and S^fondly^ in the 


fore, any good Reafon can b$ giyen, why their Creator 
might not, if he had pleafed, have efiablifhed fuch an Unioik 
between Adam and the reft of Mankind, as was in that Cafe 
fuppofed. Particularly, if it had been the Cafe, that Adav^x 
Pofierity had adually, according to • a Law of Nature, fome 
how grown out of him, and yet remained contiguous apd literally 
united to bim, as the Branches to a Tree, or the Members of 
the Body to the Head ; and had all, before the Fall, exifted 
together at the fame Time, though in different Places, as the 
Head and Members are in dijFerent Places : In this Cafe, who 
can determine^ that the Author of Nature might not, if it 
had pleaied him, have eflablifhed fuch an Union between the 
Root and Branches of this complex Being, as that all fhonld 
conftitute One n^oral Whole ; fo that by the Law of Union, 
there ihould be a Communion in each moral Alteration, and 
jthat the Heart of every Branch ihould at the fame Moment 
participate with the Heart of the Root, be coniformed to it and 
concurring with it in all its AfFedions and A£ls, and fo 
jointly partaking in its State, ae a Part of the fame Thing P 
Why might not iGod, if he had pleafed, have £xed fuch a 
Kind of Union as this, an Union of the various Parts of fuch 
a moral Whole, as well as many other Unions, which he has 
aftually iix'd, according to his fovereign Pleafure ? And if he 
might, by his fovereign Conftitution, have eftabliihed fuch an 
Union of the various Branches of Mankind, when exifting in 
different Places, 1 do not fee why be might not alfo do the 
fame, though they exift in different Times. I know not why 
Succeflion, or Diverfity of Time, Ihould make any fuch con- 
ilituted Union more unreafonable, than Diverfity of Place. 
The only Reafon, why Piverfity of Time pan feem to make it 
unreafonable, is, that Difference of Time ihews, there is no 
jabfolute Identity of the ^Things exifting in thofe different 
Times : But it fli^w^ this, I think, not at all piorc than the 
Pifference of the Place of Exiftence. 

426 The Vlifdom of Ga^ in f bis Con&it. Part IV, 

good Ends obtained, or ufeflil Confequences of iuch 
a Conftitution. If therefore there be any Objec- 
tion ftiil lying ^ainft this Conftitution with Adam 
and his Pofterity, it muft be, that it is not fufli- 
ciently wife-in thefe Refpefts. But what extreme 
Arrogance would it be in us, to take upon M to 
z6i as Judges of the Beauty and Wifdom of the 
Laws and eftablifhed Conftitutions of the fupreme 
Lord and Creator of the Univerfe ? And not only 
fOj but if this Conftitution, in particular, be well 
confidered, its Wifdomj in the two fprementioned 
ReipefbSy may eafily be made evident. There is 
an apparent manifold Analogy to other Conftitutions 
and Laws, eftabliflied and maintained through the 
whole Syftem of vital Nature in this lower World ; 
all Parts of which, in all Succeflions, are derived 
from the firji of the Kindj as from their Root, or 
Fountain -, each deriving from thence all Properties 
and Qualities, that are proper to the Nature and 
Capacity of the Kind, or Species : no D^ivative 
having any one Perfeftion (unlefs it be what is 
merely circumftantial) but what was in its Primi- 
tive. And that Adam*s Pofterity ftiould be with- 
out that original Rigbteoufnefs^ which Adam had 
loft, is alfo analogous to other Laws and Eftablifti- 
ments, relating to the Nature of Mankind; ac-r 
cording to which, Adam^s Pofterity have no one 
Perfedtion of Nature, in any Kind, fuperiour to 
what was in him, when the human Race began to 
be propagated from him. 

And as fuch a Conftitution was fit and wife \r\ 
other Refpedts, fo it was in this that follows. 
Seeing the divine Conftitution concerning the 
Manner of Mankind's coming into Exiftence in 
their Propagation, was fuch as did fo naturally 
unite them, and made them in fo many Refpe6ts 


Chap.III. Gncf »nd Shvimt for Original Sin, juft. ^ty 

One, naturally leading them to a clofe Union in 
Society, and manifold Intcrcourfej and mutual 
Dependence, Things were wifely fo eftabliflied, 
that all Ihould naturally be in one and the fame 
moral State -, and not in fuch exceeding different 
States, as that fome ihould be perfe6ay innoceni 
and holy, but others corrupt and wicked; fomc 
needing a Saviour, but others needing none ; fome 
in a confirmed State of perfeft Happinefs, but 
others in a State of publick Condemnation to per- 
fect and eternal Mifery \ fome juftly expofed to 
great Calamities in this World, but others by their 
Innocence raifed above all Suffering. Such a vafl: 
Diverfity of State would by no Means have agreed 
with the natural and neceffary Conftitution and un- 
avoidable Situation and Circumftances of the 
World of Mankind ; aU made of one Blood, to dwell 
on all the Face of the Earth, to be united and 
blended in Society, and to partake together in the 
patural and common Goods and Evils of this lower 

Dr. 7*. urges *, that Sorrow and Shame are only 
for perfonal Sin : and it has often been urged, that 
Repentance can be for no other Sin. To which I 
would lay, that the Ufe oi Words \% very arbitrary: 
But that Men's Hearts Ihould be deeply affefted 
with Grief and Humiliation before God, for the 
Pollution and Guilt which they bring into the 
World with them, I think, is not in the leaft a»- 
reafonahle. Nor is it a Thing ftrange and unheard 
of, that Men ftiould be afhamed of Things done by 
others, whorn they are nearly Concerned in. I am 
fure, it is not unfcriptural ; efpecially when they are 
juftly looked upon in the Sight of God, who fees 


s . • « 


* Page 14; 

4a8 Th€ ObjeSim from Part IV. 

the Diipofitioii of their Hearts^ as fully amfaaing 
and concurripgj 

From what has been obierved it may appear, 
there is no fure Ground to conclude, that ic muft 
be an abfurd and impoffible Thing, for the Race 
of Mankind truly to partake of the Sin of the firft 
Apoftacy, ib as that this, in Reahty and Propriety, 
Iball become their Sin ; by Virtue of a real Union 
between the Root and Branches of the World of 
Mankind (truly and properly availing to fuch a 
Onifequ^nce) eftabUfhed by the Author of the 
whole Syftem.of the Univerfe; to whofe £ftablifhr 
ments are owing all Propriety and Reality of Union, 
in any Part of that Syftem ; and by Virtue of the 
full Confent of the Hearts of Adani^ Pofterity to 
that firft Apoftacy. And therefore the Sin of the 
Apoftacy is not theirs, merely becaufe God imputes 
it to them; but it is truly and properly theirs, and 
on that Ground, God imputes it to them. 

By Reafon of the eftablifhed Union between 
Adam and his Pofterity, the Cafe is far otherwife 
between him and them, than it is between diftinft 
Parts or Individuals of AdanC^ Race-, betwixt 
whom is no fuch conftituted Union : As, between 
Children and other Anceftors. Concerning whom 
is apparently to be underftood that Place, Ezek. 
xviii. I — 2Q. * Where God reproves the Jews for 
the Ufe they made of that Proverb, The Fathers 
have eaten four Grapes, and the Children's Teeth 
are fet on Edge % and tells them, that hereafter they 
fliall no more have Occajion to ufe this Proverb ; 
and that if a Son f^es the Wickednefs of his 
Father, and |in(:erely difapproves it and avoids it, 
and he himfelf is righteous, he Jhall not die for the 
Jniquity ^/ his Father-, that all Souls, both the Soul 

• Which Dr. f. alledgesj p. lo, ii. ?, • 

Chap. III. Ezcfc. xviii. 1—20. anfwered. 429 

cf ihe Father and the Son^ are his ; and that there-- 
fore the Son Jhall not hear the Iniquity of his Father^ 
nor the Father bear the Iniquity of the Son ; but the 
Saul thatjinneth^ it fhall die \ that ihe Rightemfnefs 
of the Righteous fhall be upon him, and the Wicked* 
nefs of the Wicked fhall be upon him^ The Thing 
denied^ is Communion in the Guilt and Punifhment 
of the Sins of others, that are diftinft Parts of 
Adan^% Race; and exprefly, in that Cafe, where 
there is no Confent and Concurrence^ but a fincere 
Difapprobation of the Wickednefs of Anceftors, 
It is declared, that Children who are adult and 
come to aft for themfelves, who are righteous^ and 
do not approve of, but fincerely condemn the 
Wickednefe of their Fathers^ fhall not be punifhed 
for their difapproved and avoided Iniquities. The 
Occafion of what is here faid, as well as the Dejign 
and plain Senfe^ ihews, that Nothing is here in* 
tended in the leaft Degree inconfijient with what 
has been fuppofed concerning Adam^^ Poftcrity's 
finning and falling in his Jpojiacy^ The Occafion 
is, the People's murmuring at God*s Methods 
under the Mofaic Diipenfation ; agreeable to that 
in Levit. xxvi. 39. And they that are left of you^ 
fhall pine away in their Iniquity in their Enemies 
Landj and alfo in the Iniquities of their Fathers 
fhall they pine away with them : And other parallel 
Places, refpefting external Judgments, which were 
the Punifhments moft plainly threatened, and 
chiefly infifted on, under that Difpenfation (which 
was, as it were, an external and carnal Covenant) 
and particularly the People's fufFering fuch terrible 
Judgments at that Day, even in EzekiePs Time, 
for the. Sins of iW^;/^^-, according to what God 
fays by Jeremiah (Jer. xv. 4.) and agreeable to 
what is laid in that Confeflion, Lam. v. 7. Our 


4^o Gofs Juftice, not to he dijputed. Paft Vt;, 

Fathers have fainei and are not, and ^ce have borne 

their Iniquilies* 


In what is (aid here, there is a fpecial Relped to 
the introducing the Gofpel-Difpenfation ; as is 
greatly confirmed by comparing this Place with 
Jer. xxxi. 29, 30, 31. Under which Di^peniation^ 
the Righteoufnefs cf God's Dealings with Mankind 
would be more fully manifefted, in the clear Reve- 
lation then to be made of the Method of the 
Jndgment of God, by which the final State of 
wicked Men is determined ; which is not according 
to the Behaviour of their particular Anceftors ; but 
every one is dealt with according to the Sin of bis 
own wicked Heart, or finful Nature and Praftice. 
The Affair of Derivation of the natural Corruption 
of Mankind in general, and of their Conient tOy 
and Participation ofy the primitive and common 
Apoftacy, is not in the leaft intermeddled with, or 
touched, by any Thing meant or aimed at in the 
true Scope and Defign of this Place in EzekieL 

On the Whole, if any do not like the Philofopby^ 
or the Metaphyjicks (as fome perhaps may chufe ta 
call it) made ufe of in the foregoing Reafonings v 
yet I cannot doubt, but that a proper Confidcra- 
tion of what is apparent and undeniable in Fa£t^ 
with refpedt to the Dependence of the State and 
Courfe of Things in this Univerfe on the fove- 
reign Conjiitutions of the fupreme Author and 
Lord of all, who gives none Account of any of bis 
Matters y and whofe Ways are pajl finding out ^ will 
be fufficient, with Perfons of common Modefly and 
Sobriety, to ftop their Mouths, from making per- 
emptory Decifions againft the Jujiice of God, 
refpeding what is fo plainly and fully taught in 
bis holy Wordy concerning the Derivation of a De- 

Chap. III. Of partial imputation to Infant?!, 43 1 

pravity and Guilt from Mam to his Pofterity ; ft 
Thing fo abundantly confirmed by what is found 
in the Experience of all Mankind in all Ages. 

This is enough, one would thinks forever to 
fllence fuch bold Expreflions as thefe — " If this be 
juft^ — if the Scriptures teach fuch Doctrine, fcf r* 
then the Scriptures are of no Ufe — Underftand- 
ing is no Underftanding, — and, What a GOD 
muft he be, that can thus curfe innocent Crea- 
*' tyres!— Is this thy GOD, O Cbrijlian r --^ 
&c. &c. 

It may not be improper here to add fomething 
(by Way of Supplement to this Chapter, in which 
we have had Occafion to fay fo much about the 
Imputation of Adam^% Sin) concernhig the Opinions 
of two Divines^ of no inconfiderable Note among 
the' Dijfenters in England, relating to a partial hn-* 
putation of Adam^s firft Sin. 

One of them fuppofes, that this Sin, though 
truly imputed to Infants, fo that thereby they are 
expofed to a proper Punijhment, yet is not imputed 
to them in fuch a Degree, as that upon this Ac- 
count they fhould be liable to eternal Punilhment, 
as Adam himfelf was, but only to temporal Deaths 
or Annihilation:, Adam himfelf, the immediate 
Aftor, being made infinitely more guilty by it, than 
his Pofterity. On which I would obfervc; that 
to fuppofe, God imputes not all the Guilt oiAdam^s 
Sin, but only fome little Part of it, relieves 
Nothing but one's Imagination. To think of poor 
little Infants bearing fuch Torments for Aaanf% 
Sin, as they fometimes do in this World, and thefe 
Torments ending in Death and Annihilation, may 
fit eafier on the Imagination, than to conceive of 


452 0/ paitiai im^^ainL U Infants. Part IT; 


tbcir fuSering cucmsl >Exfy fof it. Bi|t it doe» 
cot at all iciicTc ooe's Ru/hs, There is no Rule 
of Reafon, thai cm be fuppcied to lie againfl im- 
ptmng a Sin in the /iF^ rciif of ir, which was com- 
mitted by one, to another wiio did not perfonally 
commit it, but what will alio lie ag^dnll its being. 
b imputed and puniihed in Part. For all the 
Reafons (if there are any ^ lie againil the Imputation ; 
not the ^u£fitity or Degree cf wbci is imputed. If 
there be any Rule of Realbn, that is (bong and 
good, lying againft a proper Derivation or Com- 
munication of Guilt, from one that acted, to another 
that did not aft ; then it lies againft all that is of 
this Nature. The Force of the Reafons brought 
againft imputing Adam\ Sin to his Pofterity (if 
there be any Force in them) lies in this. That 
Adam and bis Pofterity are not One. But this lies 
as properly againft charging a Part of the Guilt, 
as the Whole. For Adam's Pofterity, by not being 
the fame with him, had no more Hand in a Uttle 
of what was done, than in the Whole. They 
were as abfolurely free from being concerned in 
that A6t partly^ as they were wholly. And there 
is no Reafon to be brought, why one Man's Sin 
cannot be juftly reckoned to another's Account^ 
who was not then in Being, in the JVhole of it •, 
but what will as properly lie againft its being 
reckoned to him in any Part^ fo as that he (hould 
be fubjeft to any Condemnation or Puniftiment on 
that Account. If thofe Reafons are good, all the 
Difference there can be, is this; that to bring a 
great Punilhment on Infants for Adam\ Sin, is a 
great Aft of Injuftice, and to bring a comparatively 
fmall Punilhment, is a frnaller Aft of Injuftice v 
but not, that this is not as truly and demonjlrably an 
Aft of Injuftice, as the other. 



Chap. ni. Of Infants future State. 433 

To illuftrate this by an Inftance fomething pa-» 
rallel. It is ufed as an Argument why I may - not 
exaft from one of my Neighbours, what was due 
to me from anqiber^ that he and my Debtor are not 
the fame ; and that their Concerns, Interefts and 
Properties are entirely diiiind:. Now if. this Ar- 
gument be good, it lies as truly againft my de- 
manding, from him a Part of the Debt, as the 
Whole. Indeed it is a greater Ad: of Injuftice, 
for me to take from him the Whole of it, than a 
Part ; but not more truly and certainly an Aft of 

The other Divine thinks, there is truly an Im- 
J)Utation of Adam^s Sin, fo that Infants cannot be 
looked upon as innocent Creatures ; yet feems to 
think it not 'agreeable to the PetfeSlions of God, to 
make the State of Infants in another World worfe 
than a State of Non-exijlence. But this to me ap* 
pears plainly a giving up that grand Point of the 
Imputation of Adam's Sin, both in Whole and in 
Part. For it fuppofes it to be not right, for God 
to bring any Evil on a Child of Adam^ which is in-/ 
nocent as to perfonal Sin, without paying for it, or 
balancing it with Good] fo that ftill the State of 
the Child fhall be as goody as could be demanded 
in Jujlice, in cafe of mere Innocence* Which plainly 
fuppofes, that the Child is not expofed to any pro- 
per Punifhment at all, or is not at all in Debt to 
divine Juftice, on the Account of Adam's Sin. 
For if the Child were truly in Debty then furely 
Jujiice might take fomething from him, ijbithout 
paying for it, or without giving that which makes 
its State as goodj as mere Itinocence could in Juftice 
require. If he owes the fuffering of fome Punifh^ 
menty then there is no Need that Jujiice fhould 
rcqtiite the. Infant for fuffering that Punifhment ; 

F f or 

43(4 J^teffi^gs on Noah and his Sonsj Part IV^ 

©r make nf for itj by conferring fome Good, that 
flull countervail it, and in £Se£t remove and.dif-' 
annul it; fo that, on the Whole^ Good and EvU 
fliall be at an even Balance, yea, fo that the Scale 
©f Good fh?!! preponderate. If it is unjuft in a Judge, 
to order arty Quantity of Money to be taken from 
another, without paying him again, and fully 
making it up to lum, it muft be becau^ he had 
juftly forfeited none at all. 

It feems to me pretty manifeft,. that none can, in 
good Confiftence with themfclves, own a real Im^ 
futation of the Guilt of Adam'?, firft Sin to his 
Pofterity, without owning that they are juftly 
viewed and treated as Sinners, truly guilty, and 
Children of Wrath, on that Account ; nor unlels 
they allow ajuft Imputation pf the Whole ci the 
Evil of that Tranfgreffion •, at leaft, all that per- 
tains to the Effence of that Aft, as a full and com- 
plete Violation of the Covenant, which God had 
cftabiifhed ;. even as much as if each oik of Man- 
kind had the like Covenant eftabliftied with him 
fmgly, and had by the like dired and full Aft of 
Rebellion, violated it for himfclf* 

>■ lit I I 1 I !«■ 

CHAF. rv. 

Wherein fe'Oerat other Objeftions are confidered.- 

DR Tl. objefts againft -^ii/tf^i'sPofterity's being: 
fuppofed to come into the WoiJd under a 
Forfeiture of God's Blejfing, and fubjeft to his . 
Curfe through his Sin,. — That at the Reftoration of 
the World after the Flood, God pronounced equivalent 
or greater Bleffings on Noah and his Sons,, than he 


Chap. IV. no Argument againft Original Sin. 43^ 

did on Adam at his Creation, when he faid. Be 
fruitful^ and multiply^ and repknijb the Earthy and 
have Dominion over the Fijh of the Sea^ &c. * 

To this I anfwcr, in the following Remarks; 

I. As it has been already (hewn, that in the 
Threatening^ denounced for Adam*s Sin, there was 
Nothing which appears inconfijient with the Con^ 
tinuance of this prefent Life for a Seafon, or with 
the Propagating his Kind ; fo for the like Reafon, 
there appears Nothing in that Threatening, upon 
the Suppofition that it reached Adam's Pofterity, 
inconfiftent with their enjoying the temporal Bleffings 
of the prefent Life, as long as this is continued ; 
even thofe temporal Bleflings which God pro- 
nounced on Adam at his firfl. Creation. For it 
muft be obferved, that the Bleflings which God 
pronounced on -rf^iw, when he firft created him, 
and before the Trial of his Obedience, were hot the 
fame with the Bleffings which were fufpended on his' 
Obedience. The Bleffings thus fufpended, were the 
Bleffings of eternal Life ; which, if he had main- 
tained his Integrity through his Trial, would have 
been pronounced upon him afterwards % when 
God, as his Judge, fliould have given him his Re- 
Ijirard. God might indeed,- if he had pleafed, />»- 
mediately luvc deprived him of Ufe, and of all 
temporal Bleffings, given him before. But thofe 
Bleffings pronounced on Invti before-hand,- were 
not the Things^ for the obtaining of which his 
Trial was appointed. Thefe were referved,- till the 
Iffue of his Trial fliould be ktrii and then to be 
pronovinced in the Weffed Sentence, which would 
have been pafied upon him by his Judge, when 

F f 2^ Got* 

* Sec p. SV. &c. Si 

43^ Bleffings M Noah and bis StmSj PartlV^ 

God came to decree to him his Reward for his ap^ 
proved Fidelity, The pronouncing thefe latter 
Bleilings on a degenerate Race, that had fallen un-» 
der the 'Threatening denounced, would indeed (with- 
out a Redemption) have been inconfifient with the 
Conftitution which had been eftablilhed. But the 
giving them the fcrmer Kind of Bleffings, which 
were not the Things fufpended on the Trial, or 
dependent on his Fidelity (and thefe to be con- 
tinued for a Seafon) was not at all inconfiftent 

2. It is no more an Evidence oi Adam^s Pofte- 
rity*s being not included in the Threatening, de- 
nounced for his eating the forbidden Fruit, That 
they ftill have the temporal Bleffings of Fruitfulnefs 
and a Dominion over the Creatures continued to 
them, than it is an Evidence of Adam's being not 
included in that Threatening himfelf. That be had 
thefe Bleffings continued to him, was fruitful, and 
had Dominion over the Creatures after his Fally 
equally with his Pofterity, 

3. There is good Evidence, that there were 
Bleffings implied in the Benedictions God pro- 
nounced on Noah and his Pofterity, which were 
granted on a new Foundation: on the Foot of a 
Difpenfation diverfe from any Grant, Proniife, or 
Revelation, which God gave to Adam^ antecedently 
to his Fall ; even on the Foundation of the Cove- 
nant of Grace^ eftablilhed in Chriji Jefus ; a Dif- 
penfation, the Defign of which is to deliver Men 
from the Curfe that came upon. them by Adam's 
Sin, and to bring them to greater Bleffings than 
ever he had. Thefe Bleffings were pronounced on 
Noah and his Seed, on the fame Foundation, 
whereon afterwards the Bleffing was pronounced on 


Chap. IV. no Argument agidhft Original Shf. 437 

Abraham and his Seed, which included both fpiri-^ 
tual and temporal Benefits. — Noah had his Name* 
prophetically given hinn by his Father Lamechj 
becaufe by him and his Seed, Deliverance fhould 
be obtained from the Curfe^ which came bv Adam^%. 
Fall. Gen. v. 29. And he called his Name Noah 
(i. e. Rest) faying^ This fame Jhall comfort us con- 
cerning our IVork^ and Toil of our Hands^ becaufe of 
the Ground which the Lord hath curfed. Purfuant 
to the Scope and Intent of this Prophecy (which 
indeed feems to refped: the fame Thing with the 
Prophecy in Gen/in. 15.) are the Bleffings pro- 
nounced on Nmh after the .Flood. There is this 
Evidence of thefe Bleffings being conveyed through 
the Channel of the Covenant of Grace, and by the 
Redemption through Jefus Chrift, that they were 
obtained by Sacrifice \ or were beftowed as the 
EfFeft of God^s Favour to Mankind, which was in 
Confequence of God's fmelling a fweet Savour in 
the Sacrifice which Noah offered. And it is very 
evident by the Epiftle to the Hebrews^ that the 
ancient Sacrifices never obtained the Favour of 
God, but only by Virtue of the Relation they had 
to the Sacrifice of Chrift, — Now that Noah and his 
Family had been fo wonderfully faved from the 
Wrath of God, which had deftroyed the reft of the 
World, and the World was as it were reftored" 
from a ruined State, there was a proper Occafioa 
to point to the great Salvation to come by Chrift i 
As it was a common Thing, for God, on Occafion 
of fome great Temporal Salvation of his People, or 
Reftoration from, a* low and mifcrable State, to 
renew the Intimations of the great fpiritual Refto*, 
ration of the World by Chrift^s Redemptim *, 

F f 3 God. 

* It mav be noted, thsct Dr. T. himfelf figiifies it as hi$' 
Mind, th^t thefe Bleffings on NoaJ!; were on thp Foot of the 
Qo^'ctiant of Grace J p. S^j., 90, 91, 92. 5, 

4j8 $kgmg$ iff N6ah and hif Sansj Fatt IV, 

God deals with the Generality of Mankind^ ii> 
their prcfcnt State, far difiercntly, on Occafioii of 
the Redemption by Jefus Ghnft, from what hq 
othcrWife would d6 : For, being capable Siibjefts 
pf faring Mercy, they have a Day of Patience and 
.Grace, and inr>umerabk tjcmppral Bleffmgs bc-f 
ftowed on them ; which, as the Apoftle fignifies 
(j4Sf. xiv. 17.) are Teftimonies of God*s Recon* 
cileablenefs to finful Men, to put them upon feeking 
after God. 

But befide the Senfe in which the Pofterity uf 
Noah in general partake of thcfe Bleffings of 
tytminion over the Creatures^ &c. N^tah himfetr, and 
all fuch of his Pofterity as have obtained like prc^ 
cious Faith with that exercifed by him in ofietin^ 
his Sacrifice^ which made it ^fweft Savour^ and by 
which it procured thefe Bleffings, have Dominion 
over the Creatures, through Chrift, in a more ex- 
cellent Senfe than Jdam in Innocency, as thcf 
are wade Kings and Priejis unto God^ and reign with 
Chrift^ and all things are theirs^ by a Covenant of 
Grace. They partake with Chrift hi that Dominion 
pver the Beafts of the Earthy the Fowls of the Air^ 
andFifhes of the Sea^ fpoken of in the 8thP/i/w, 
which' is by the Apoftle interpreted of ChriJ^s 
JDominion over the World. iCcr. xv. 27. and 
Heb. ij, 7. And the Time is coming, when the 
greater Part of the Pofterity of Noah and each of 
his Sons, ihall partake of this more honourable and 
excellent Dominion over the Creatures, through 
Him in whom all the Families of the Earth fball he 
hkfjed. Neither is there any Need of fuppofing, 
that thefe Bleffings have their moft complete 
Accomplilhment, till many Ages after they were 
granted^ any more than the Bleffing on Jafhetj 

• ^ cx:preffe4 

Chap. IV. no A^umeui agmffi Original &n. 439 

cxprefled in thofe Words, Godjhall enlarge Japhet» 
and beJhaU dwell in ibe Tents of Sheen. 

But that Noah'^ Pofterity have fuch Bl^gs 
given them through the great Redeemer j who fdi 
pends and removes the Curfe which came through 
yidam's Sin, furely is no Argument, that they 
originally, and as they be in their natural State, arc 
not under' the Curfe. That Men have Blcffingi 
through Gracej is no Evidence of their beiAg not 
juftly expofed to the Curfe l?y Nature \ but it ra» 
ther argues the contrary : For if they did not de*. 
ierve the Curfe^ they would not depend on Grace 
and Redemption for the Removal of it, and«ibr 
bringing them into a State of Favour with God. 

Another Oi/eSion, which our Author ftrenuoufly 
urges againft the Dodrine of Original Sin, is, That 
it dtjparages the divine Goodnefs in giving us our 
Being 5 which we ought to receive with ThankfuU 
nefs^ as a great Gift of God's Peneficence, and 
look upon as the firft, original and fundamental 
Fruit of the divine Liberality *, 

To this I anfwer, in the foUowiiig Obfcrvatious. 

I. This Argument is built on the fuppofcd 
Truth of a Thing in Dilute ; and fo is a begging 
the ^ejiion. It is built on this Suppofition, That 
we are not properly looked upon as one with our 
firft fat her y in the State whereiit God at firft 
created hin*, and in his Fajl ^om that State. If 
we are fo, it becomes the whole Race to acknow- 
ledge God's great G^dnefi to them, in the State 
wherein Mankind was made at J^fi \ in the happy 

Ff4 State 

♦ Page $56, 257, 260. 7x^74. 5» 

j(40 2>/i^ jGbodnefs; tioi dijfaraged PartlV; 

State t^ey were then iiH and the feir Opportunity 
they then had of obtaining confirmed and eternal 
Happinefs ; and to acknowledge it as an Aggra- 
vation of their Apoftafy; and to humble them- 
felves, that they were fo ungrateful as to rebel 
againft their good Creator. Certainly, we may all 
do this with as much Reafon, as (yea, much more 
than) the People o&lfrael in Daniers and Nehemiah^s 
Times, did with Thankfulnefs acknowledge God's 
great Goodnefi to their Fathers^ many Ages before, 
and in their Confeflions bewailed, and took Shame 
to themfelves for, the Sins committed by their 
Fathers^ notwithftanding fuch great Goodnefs, 
Seo^the ixth Chapter of Daniel^ and ixth of 

2. If Dr. 7*. would imply in his Objedion, that 
it doth not confift with the Goodnefs of God, to give 
Mankind Being in a State of Mifery^ what ever was 
done before by Adam^ whether he finned, or did 
not fin. I reply. If it be juftly fo ordered, that 
there Ihould be a Pofterity of Adam^ which muft 
be looked upon as one with him^ then it is no more 
contrary to God^% Attribute of Goodnefs to give 
Being to his Pofterity in a State of Puniflimenr, 
than to continue the Being of the fame wicked and 
guilty Perfon, who has made himfelf guilty, in a 
State of Punifhment. The giving Being, and the 
continuing Being are both alike the Work of 
God's Power and Will, and both are alike fundar- 
mental to all Bleflings of Man's prefent and future 
Exiftence. And if it be faid. It cannot be juftly 
fo ordered, that there (hould be a Pofterity oijldam^ 
which ftiould be looked upon as one with him, thij 
is begging the S^eflion^ 

3- ^ 

Chap. IV. hy tnir Iting born in Sin. 441 

3. if our Author would have us fuppofe, that it 
is contrary to the Attribute of Goodncfs, for God, 
in any Cafe^ by an immediate Aft of his Power, to. 
caufe Exiftence, and to caufe new Exiftence, which 
fhall be an exceeding miferable Exiftence, by 
Reafon of Expofednefs to eternal Ruin ; then his 
cwn Scheme muft be fuppofed contrary to the 
Attribute of God's Goodnefe : For he fuppofes, that 
God will raife Multitudes from the Dead at the 
laft Day (which will be giving new Exiftence to 
their Bodies, and to bodily Life and Senfe). la 
order only to their fuffering eternal Deftrudlion. 

4. Notwithftanding we are io finful and pufera- 
ble, as we are by Nature, yet we may have great 
Reafon to blefs God, that he has given us our 
Being under fo glorious a Difpenfation of Grace 
through Jefus Chrift ; by which we have a happy 
Opportunity to be delivered from, this Sin and 
Mifery, and to obtain unfpeakable eternal Happi- 
nefs. And becaufe, through our own wicked In- 
clinations, we are difpofed fo to negledt and abufc 
this Mercy, as to fail of final Benefit by it, this is 
no Reafon why we ought not to be thankful for it, 
even according to our Author's own Sentiments. 
" What (fays He *) if the whole World lies in 
'' Wickednefs^ and few therefore ftiall be faved? 
*^ Have Men no Reafon to be thankful^ becaufe 
*' they are wicked and ungrateful, and abufe their 
*' Being and God's Bounty? Suppofe, our own 
♦' evil Inclinations do with-hold us," [viz. from 
feeking after Happinefs, which under the Light 
of the Gofpel we are placed within the nearer and 
eafier Reach of] " fuppofe, the whole Chriftian 
^' World ihould lie in Wickednefe, and but few 
f* Chriftian3 fliould be. feved j is it therefore cer- 

-. . w .. . " tainljr 

* Page 72, 73. S, 


441 God good, though we an bom in Sin. Part IV, 

•• tainly true, that wc cannot reaibnably thank God 
" for the Gofpel ?** Well, and though the rjtl 
Jmclinationsy which hinder our feeking and obtain- 
ing Happinefs by fo glorious an Advantage^ are 
Urbat we are hrn with, yet if thofe Inclinations are 
MET Fault or &>, that alters not the Cafe : and to 
fsfj they are not our Sin, 'is ftill bdgging the Quef- 
iSon. Yea, it will follow from fevcral Things 
aflferted by our Author, put together, that notwith- 
iltnding Men are torn in fuch Circumftances, as 
that they are under a very great Improbability of 
cvef becoming righteous^ yet they may have Reafon 
to be thankful for their Being, Thus, particularly, 
thofe that were born and lived among the Heathen^ 
before Chrift came. For Dr. T. aSerts, that all 
Men have Reafon of Thankfulnefs for their Being 1 
and yet he fuppofes, that the Heathen World, taken 
as a collective Body, were dead in SiUy and coold 
not deliver or help themfelves, and therefore ftood 
in Neceffity of the Chriftian Difpenfation. And 
not only fo, but he fuppofes, that the Chrifiian 
World is now at length brought to the like de- 
plorable and helplefs Circumftances, and needs a 
new Difpenfation for its Relief; as I obferved be- 
fore. According to thefe Things, the World in? 
general, not only formerly, but even at this Day, 
are dead in 3in^ and helplefs as to their Salvation ; 
and therefore the Generality of them that are born 
Into it, are much more likely to perilh, than other- 
wife, till the new Difpenfation comes ; And yet he 
fuppofes, we all have Reafon to be thankful for 
our Being. Yea, further ftill, I think, according 
to our Author*s Dodtrine, Men Way have great 
Reafon to he thankful to God for bringing. them 
into a State, which yet, as the Cstfe is, is attended 
with Mifery^ as its certain Confequeiice, A% with 
Refpeft to God's raijing th^ Wicked to Life, at 

Chap, IV. Olye£lhnffcmf[jture]udgm.r^fbud. 44j 

the laft Pay ; %hidi, he fuppofes, is in itfelf agreat 
B^nefity procured by CbriX and the V^ottderfM 
Grace of God through him : And if it be tht Fruit 
of God's wondcrfbl Grace, furtrly Men oaght to fete 
thankful for that Grace^ and praife 0^ for rl 
Our DbSrinc of Original Sin, therefore, no liiotb 
difparages God's Goodnefs in Man's Fofmaiyn ih 
the Womb, than bis Dodrine difparages God's 
Goodnefs in their RefurreSlicn from th? GrXVe. 

Another Argument^ which Dr. It. m&ti Uft 
of, againft the Dcyfkrine of Original Sin^ is what iht 
Scripture reveals of the Proceft of the Diy of J*<^ 
mnt % which reprefents the Judge ais dealing iivitll 
Men Jingly and feparately^ rendering ^ every MaA 
according to his Dieeds, and according to the JEiA^ 
provement he lias made of the parricufef Power* 
^nd Talents God has given bim peyfoj^alfy ^« 

But this Objeftion will vanift, if we cOnfidci: 
what is the End or Jyefign of that publicfe Judg- 
ment, Now this wilt not be, that God mfay fiM 
cut what Men are, or what Punilhment or Regard 
is proper for them> or in order to the paffing i 
right Judgment of thefe Things within himfelfj 
which is the End of human Tri^s j but it is ^ 
manifeji what Men are, to their own Confciences, 
and to the World. As the Day of Judgment is 
called the Day of the REVELATION 1/ the 
righteous Judgment of God ; in order to tbiis, God 
will make Ufe of Evidences^ or Proofs, But th* 
proper Evidences of the "Wkkednefs of Mcn'i 
Hearts (the true Seat of all Wicfcednefe) both a^ t6 
Corruption of Nature, and acklitional PdlutioA 
and Guilt, arc Men's tf^orks. 

-. .. I . • • 

f fage 65, 66, iii. S, 

444 ^^ Olge£don frtm the Procefs Part IV* 

The fpccial End of GocTs pubHck Judgment 
ill be, to make a proper, perfeft, open DiftinBion 
among Men, rightly to ftate and manifeft their 
Dijfertnee one from another, in order to that Sepa* 
ration and Difference in the eternal Retribution, 
that is to follow : and this Difference will be mad^ 
to appear, by their perfonal IVorks. \ 

There are two Things, with Regard to which 
Men will be tried, and openly dijiingui/hed by the 
peifedl Judgment of God at the laft Day -, accord- 
ing to the twofold real DiftinSion fubfifting among 
Mankind: viz. (i) The Difference of STATE i 
that primary and grand Diftinftion, whereby aU 
, Mankind are divided into two Sorts, the Righteous 
- :, ^>fii the Wicked. (2.) llSit fecondary DiJtinSion^ 
' ^^ 'l^ereby both Sorts differ from others in the fame 
*^ ]^neral State, in DEGREES of additional Fruits 
of Righteoufnefs and Wickednefs. Now the 
Judge, in order to manifeft both thefe, will judge 
Men according to their perfonal JVorks. But to 
inquire at the Day of Judgment, whether Adam 
finned or no, or whether Men are to be looked 
upon as one with him, and fo Partakers in his Sin^ 
is what in no Refpeft tends to manifeft either of 
thefe Diftindlions. 

I. The frft Thing to be manifefted, will be the 
Statey that each Man is in, with Refpeft to the 
grand Diftinilion of the whole World of Mankind 
into Righteous and Wicked \ or, in metaphorical 
Language, Wheat and Tares ; or, the Children of 
the Kingdom of Chrift, and the Children of the 
Wicked One ; the latter, the Head of the Apoftafy ; 
but the former, the Head of the Reftoration and 
Recovery. The Judge, in manifefting this, will 
prove Men's Hearts by their Works^ in fuch as 

' have 

Ghap. IV. (>f the laft Judgment, anfibfred. 44.5 

have had Opportunity to perform any Works in 
the Body. The evil JVorks of the Children of the 
wicked One will be the proper Manifeftation and 
Evidence or Proof of whatever belongs to the 
general State of fuch ; and particularly they will 
prove, that they belong to the Kingdom of idic 
great Deceiver, and Head of the Apoftafy, as they 
will demonftrate the exceeding Corruption of their 
Nature, and full Confent of their Hearts to the 
common Apoftafy 5 and alfo that their Hearts 
never relinquifhed the Apoftafy, by a cordial Ad- 
herence to Ghrifl; the great Reftorer. . The Judge 
will alfo make ufe of the good JVorks of the 
Righteous to fhew their Intereftin the. Redemption 
of Chrift -, as thereby will bic^manifefted the Sinr 
cerity of their Hearts in their Acceptance of^- and 
Adherence to the Redeemer and his Righteoufnelk^ 
And in thus proving the State of Men's Hearts by 
their Aftions, the Circumjiances of thofc Adtions 
muft neceflarily come into Confideration, to mani-* 
feft the true ^ality of their Aftions; as, each 
one's Talents, Opportunities, Advantages, Lights 
Motives, £5?f. 


2. The other Thing to be manifefted, will be 
that fecondary Viftin£lion^ wherein particular Per- 
fons, both Righteous and Wicked, differ from one 
another, in the Degree of fecondary Good or Evili 
that is fomething befide what is common to all in 
the fame general State : The Degree of evil Fruit, 
which is additional to the Guilt and Corruption of 
the whole Body of Apoftates and Enemies ; and 
the Degree of perfonal Goodnefs and good Fruit, 
which is a Secondary Goodnefs, with Refpedl to. the 
Righteoufnefs and Merits of Chrift, which belong 
to all by that fmcere Faith manifefted in all. Of 
this alfo each .one'& KfcrAs^ with their Circum- , 


44^ Oije^qit from $B§ Scripto^]^ Fart IV.- 

ftaaces, Opportuniries, ^aients^ &c. will be the 
pioper Evidence. 

' As to the Nature and Aggravations of the gene-* 
taSt Apoft^iy by Adani% Sin, and alfo the Nature 
and Sufikien^ of the Redemption by Jifus Chrift^ 
the great Reftprer, though both thefe will have 
iraft lufiuence on the eternal Scate^ which Men flial! 
be adjudged to, yet neither of them will properly 
belong to the Trial Men will b^ the SubjeAs of at 
that Day, in order to the Mariifefiaiidn of their 
8$^€y wherein they are diftinguiftied one from a$^ 
§iier. They will belong to the Bufinefs of that 
Day no otherwife^ than the Manifeftadon of (he 
^reiat Truths of Religion in general v as the Nature 
and Perfections of God, the Dependence of Man- 
kind on God, as thek* Creator and Preferver, &c. 
Such Truths as thefe will alfo have great Influence 
en the eternal State, which Men will then ba 
adjudged tOy as they aggravate the Guilt of Man's 
Wickednefs, and muft be confidered in order to a 
due E^imate of Chrift's Righteoulhefs, and Men's 
perfonal Virtue 5 yet being of general and equal 
Concernment, will not properly belong to the 
Trial of particular Perfons. 

Another Thing urged by our Author particu- 
larly againft the hifittation of J4am^% Sin, is this : 
*' Though, in Scripture, Adion is frequently faid 
^' to be imputed^ reckoned^ accounted to a Perfon, it 
*' is no other than bis own A6t and Deed */* In 
the feme Place he cites a Number of Places of 
Scripture, where thefe Words are ufed, which hc^ 
lays are all that he can find in the Bible. 

f Pagd jv &c. 10 J. 5,' 

Chap. IV* of the Wixrd^ Impute, mfijott^. 44f . 

But we gre no Way concerned with tUs Argo* 
ment at preient, any further than it relates to /sm 
put at ion of Sin^ oxftnful Jiiion. Therefore all that 
is in the Argument, which relates to the psefem: 
Purpofe, is this : That the Word is fo often appUed 
in Scripture to jQgnify God^s imputing peribnal Sin^ 
but never once to his imputing Adam^s Sin.-^Si 
ofuni — How often ?^-JBut T^wice. Ther^are l>us 
two of all thoie Places which he reckons up, that 
fpeak of, or fo much as have any Reference to^ 
God's imfutiMg Sin to any Peribn, where theve is 
any Evidence that only perfonal Sin is meant i 
and they are Levitt xvii. 3, 4* and a ^im. iv. ^6;. 
All therefore the Argument comes to, is this 3 
That the Word, im^tfe^ is applied in Scripture, twi$ 
Times, to the Cafe of God*5 imputing Sin, and 
neither of thofe Times to fignify the imputing dP 
Adamh Sin, but both Times it has Refereace to 
perfonal Sin ; therefore Adam^^ Sin is not imputed 
to his Pofterity. And this is to be noted, that one 
of thefe two Places, even that in Lmit. xvii. 3, 4^ 
does not fpeak of imputing the Aft cohfimitted, but 
another not committed. The Words are, Whsl 
Mdn foJdver there be of the Houfe of Ifrael, tha^ 
killeth an Ox or Lamb or Goat in the Campy ^ tim^ 
killeth it out of the Camp^ and bringeth it not utitw 
the Door of the Tabernacle of the Congregation^ t^ 
offer an Offering unto the Lord^ before the Taberttaelt 
of the Lard, Blood Jhall be imputed unt4) that Many 
he hath floed Blood \ that Man fball be eut off from 
Among bis People^ i. e. plainly, Mm^der {haU be 
imputed to him : He iball be put to D^ath lor it, 
and therein punilhed with the (ame Severity as if 
he had \ffain a Man^ It is plain by. Ifai. Ixvi. 3- 
that in fome Cafes^ a ftiedding the Blood of Beajts^ 
in an unlawful ManiieF, was imputed to them, as if 
they flew a Man*- 


44$ OhjeBionfirom the Scripture-lJ/J', t?f. Part IV^ 

But whether it be fo or not, although in both 
thefc Places the Word, impute^ be applied to per- 
fonal Sin, and to the very A61 done by the Peribn 
4x)ken of, and in ten more Places ; or although 
this could be faid of all the Places, which our Au- 
thor reckons up ; yet that the Word, Impute^ is 
never exprefly applied to Adavi% Sin, does no more 
lu^ue, that it is not imputed to his Pofterity, than 
it argues, that Pride, Unbelief, Lying, Theft, Op- 
preifion, Perfecution, Fornication, Adultery, &- 
domy, Pequry, Idolatry, and innumerable other 
particular moral Evils, are never imputed to the 
Perfons that committed them, or in whom they 
are; becaufe the Word, impute^ though fo often 
ufed in Scripture, is never applied to any of thefe 
Kinds of Wickednefs. 

I know not what can be faid here, except one of 
thefe two Things : That though thefe Sins are not 
exprefly faid to be imputed, yet other Words are 
ufed that do as plainly and certainly imply that they 
are imputed, as if it were faid fo exprefly. Very 
well, and fo I fay with refpedt to the Imputation 
of Adam^s Sin. The Thing meant by the Word, 
impute, may be as plainly and certainly exprefled 
by ufing other Words, as if that Word were ex- 
prefly ufed ; and more certainly, becaufe the Words 
ufed inflcad of it, may amount to an Explanation 
of this Word. And this, I think, is the very Cafe 
here. Though the Word, impute, is not ufed with 
refpeft to AdaTffs Sin, yet it is faid. All have Jinned\ 
which, refpefting Infants, can be true only of their 
finning by his Sin. And, it is faid, By his Bifo- 
hedience many were made Sinners \ and. Judgment 
and Condeninat'on came upon all by that Sin ; and 
that by this Means Death [the Wages of Sin] 
pc^£€d on all Men^ &e. Which Phrafes amount to 


Chap. IV. Ohj.ff. a Child's Humility, tfr. anfw: 449 

full and precife Explanations of the Word, Impute % 
and therefore do more certainly determine the Point 
really infifted on- 

Or, perhaps it will be faid, With relpeft to thofc 
perfonal Sins fore-mentioned, Tridey Unbeliefs &c- 
it is no Argument, they are not imputed to thofc 
who are guilty of them, that the very Word, im- 
pute^ is not applied to them j for the Word itfelf is 
rarely ufed •, hot one Time in a hundred, and per- 
haps, five hundred, of thofe wherein the Thing 
tneant is plainly implied, or may be certainly in- 
ferred. Well, and the fame alfo may be replied 
likewife, with Relpedb to Adam\ Sin. 

• • • « . • 1. 

It is probable. Dr. tT: intends an Argument^ 

againft Original Sii>, by that which he fays in Op- 

pofition to what R. R. fuggefts of Children's dif^ 

covering the Principles of Ihiquttyy and Seeds of Sin^ 

before they are capable of moral ASlion *, viz. That 

little Children are made Patterns of Humility^ Meek^ 

nefs and Innocence^ in Matth. xviii. 3. i Cor. xiv, 

20. and Pfal. cxxxi. 2, 

But wh€fl the iitrhoft is m^de of this, there carf 
be no Shadow pf Rpafon,; to underftand more by 
thefe Texts, than that little Children are recom- 
jtiended as Patterns in regard of a negative Virtue, 
Innocence with refpeft to the Exercifes and Fruits 
of Sin, Harmlefnefs as to the hurtful Effedls of it ; 
and that Image of Me^knefs and Humility arifing 
from this, in Conjunftion with a natural Tender-^ 
nefs of Mind, Fear, Self-diffidence, Yieldablcnefs, 
and Confidence in Parents and others older thanr 
themfelves. And fo, they arc recommended ar. 

G g^ P atterhs' 

4$oOhj.frJisp(mnngCoyiXctnYt&c.anJw. Part IV. 

Patterns of Virtue no more than DoveSj which arcf 
an harmlefi Sort of Creature, and have an Image of 
the Virtues of Mecknefe and Love. Even accord- 
ing to Dr. T — r's own Doftrine, no more can be 
made of it than this : For bis Scheme will not admit 
of any fuch Thing as pofiti^e Virtue, or virtuous 
Difpofition, in Inrants; he inlifting (as was ob« 
ferved before) that Virtue muft be the Fruit of 
Thought and RefleSion. But there can be no 
Thought and Refkftion, that produces pofidve 
Virtue, in Children, not yet capable or tm^al 
AStion ; and it is fuch Children he fpeaks of. And 
that little Children have a negative Virtue or In- 
nocence, in relation to the pqfitive Ads and hurt- 
ful Effe6ls of Vice, is no Argument that they have 
not a corrupt Nature within them : For let their Na- 
ture be ever fo corrupt, yet furely it is no Wonder 
that they be not guilty oipojitive wicked Adion, 
before they are capable of any moral A&km at alL 
A young Viper has a malignant NdtMre^- though 
incapable of doing a malignant Aftion, and at pre- 
fent appearing a harmlefs Creature. 

Another Objeftion, which Dr. 7*. and fome 
others offer againft this Doftrine, is. That it pours 
Contempt upon the human Nature *. 

But their declaiming on this Topic is like ad- 
dreffing the AfFeftions and Conceits of Children^ 
rather than rational arguing with Men. It feems, 
this Doftrine is not complaifant enough. I am fen- 
fible, it is not fuited to the Tafte of feme,- who are 
fo very delicate (to fay no worfe) that they can bew 
Nothing but Compliment and Flattery. No Con^ 
tempt is by this Do6trine caft upon the noble Fa- 
culties and Capacities of MarCs^ Nature^ or the 


1 iPajje 74^ 75, 5, 

Chap. iV. bhje£iianfrom bad Tendeiicy, a^. 45 4 

exalted Bufinefs, and divine and immortal Hap- 
pinefs he is made capable of* Altd as to fpeaking 
ill of Man's prefent moral States \ prefume, it will 
not be denied, that Shame belongs to them that arc 
ix\AYJinful% and to fuppofe^ that this is not thd 
native Charafter of Mankind^ is ftill but meanly 
begging the Queftion. If we, as we come into 
the World, are truly ,fmful, and corifequently 
miferable, he adts but a friendly Part to us, who 
endeavours fully to difeover and manifeft our 
Difeafe. Whereas, oil the contrary^ he a<Sb an un^ 
friendly Part, who to his utmoft hides it from us i 
and fo, in EfFcft, does what in him lies to prevent 
our feeking a Remedy from That, which, if not 
remedied in Time, mbft bring us finally to Shame 
and everlajling Contempt^ and end in perfeft and 
jemedilefs Deftrudtion hereafter. 

Another ObjeSiidny which fome fiavc' made agaihft 
this Dodlrine, much like the former, is. That it 
tends to beget iti us an ill Opinion of our Fellow- 
Creaturesy and fo to promote Ill-Nature and mutual 

To which 1 would fky. If it tye truly io^ that wd 
all come finful into the World, then our heartily 
acknowledging it, tends to promote Humility : But 
our difowning that Sin and Guilt, which truly bc^ 
longs to us, and endeavouring to perfuade our- 
felves that we are vaftly better than ' in Truth we 
are, tends to a foolifli Self-Escaltation and Pride 4 
And it is manifeft, by Reafon, Experience,' and the 
Word of God, that Pride is the chief Source of all 
the Contention^ mutual Hatred^ and Ill-tVilli which 
are fo prevalent in the World ; and that Nothing 
fo cfFedually promotes the contrary Tempers and 
Deportments, as Humility. This Doftrine teaches 

G g a us 

45^ ObjeSfmfrom the bad Tendency Part IV* 

HS to think no worfc of others, than of ourfelves : 
It teaches us, that we are alU as we afe by Nature^ 
Companions in a miferable helplefs Condition ; 
which, under a Revelation of the divine Mercy, 
tends to promote mutual CompaJJion. And No- 
thing has a greater Tendency to promote thofe 
amiable DifpontionS of Mercy, Forbearance, Long- 
fuffering, Gcnrienefs and Forgivenefs, thaA a Senfc 
of our own extreme Unworthiftefs and Mifery, and 
the infinite Need we have of the divine Pity, For- 
bearance and Forgivenefs, together with a Hope 
of obtaining Mercy. If the Doftrihe, which teaches 
that Mankind are corrupt by Nature, tends to pro- 
mote Ill'Willj why Ibould not Dr. T—rh Doftrinc 
tend to it as much ? For he teaches us, that the 
Generality . of Mankind are "Very wicked^ having 
made tbemfelves fo by their own free Choice, with- 
out any Neceflity : which is a Way of becoming 
wicked, that renders Men truly worthy of Refent- 
ment j but the other, not at all^ even according to 
his own Dodrine, 

Another Exclamation againft this Do£trine is, 
That it tends to hinder Comfort and Joy^ and to 
promote Melancholy and Gloominefs of Mind *. 

To which I fhail briefly fay, Doubtlefs, lup^- 
pofing Men are really become finful, and fo cx'- 
pofed to the Difpleafure of God, by whatever' 
Means ^ if they once come to have their Eyes open- 
ed, and are not very ftupid, the Reflection on their 
Cafe will tend to make them Jhrrowful\ and it is 
jff/, it Ihould. Men, with whom this is the Cafe, 
may well be filled with Sorrow, till they are fincere- 
ly willing to forfake their Sins, and turn to God. 
But there is Nothing ia this Doftrine, that in the 


* Page %i\f aiid fomt other Placdi^ 

Chap. IV. of this DoSlrine^ anfwered. 455 

leaft ftands in the Way of Comfort and exceeding 
Joy, to fuch as find in their Hearts a Iincere 
Willingnefs, wholly to forf^ke all. Sin, and give 
their Hearts and whole Selves to Chrift, and comr 
ply with the Golpel-Method of Salvation by him. 

Another Thing objeSfed^ is, That to make Men 
believe that Wickednefs belongs to their very Na-- 
/«r^, tends to encourage them in Sitty and plainly tp 
lead them to all Manner of Iniquity ; becaufe they 
are taught, that Sin is naturaly and therefore ncr 
cejfary and unavoidable *, 

But if this DoArine, which teaches that Sin U 
natural to us, docs alfo at the fame Time teach us, 
that it is never the better^ or lefs to be condemned^ for 
its being natural, then it does not at all encourage 
Sin, any more than Dr. ST — r's Dodlrine encou- 
rages Wickecjnefs when it is become inveterate ; who 
teaches, that fuch as by Cuftom have contrafted 
ftrong Habits of Sin, are unable to help them-- 
felves f. And is it reafonable, to reprefent it as 
encouraging a Man's boldly negledling and wilful- 
ly continuing in his Difeafe, without feeking a 
Cure^ to tell him of his Difeafe, to Ihew him that 
his Difeafe is real and very fatal, and what be can 
never cure himfelf of; yet withal directing him tp 
a great Phyjieian^ who is fufficient for his Reftora- 
tion ? Bat for a more particular Anfwer to what is 
objedled againft the Do£trine of our natural ImpO;- 
tence ^nd Inability y^ as being an Encouragement' to 
go on in Sin, and a Difcoiiragement to the Ufe of 
: all Means for our Help, I muft for Brevity refer 
the Reader to what has been largely written on 

G g 3 this 

f Page 139, and 259. t See his Expofition of Rom, vii. 
p. 205—220. But efpecially in his farafbrafe and Notes Of^ 
the EpilUe, ' 

454 OhjeSionfrcm bad Tendency, unfw. fart IV* 
this Head in my DifcOurfe on the Freedom rf the 


Our Author is pleafed to advance another No- 
tion, among others, by Way ' of ObjeSivn againft 
the Doftrine of Original Sin : That if this Doc- 
trine be true, ii would be unlawful to heget ChiU 
dren. He fays % " If natural Generation be the 
*' Means of unavoidably conveying all Sin and, 
** Wickedi>efs into the World, it muft i{felf be a 
*' f^^l ?nd unlawful Thing." Now, if there ba 
^ny Force of Argument here, it lies in this Propo- 
fition, Whatfoever is a Means or Occafion of the 
certain infallible Exijience of Sin and fVickednefs^ muji 
itfelf he ftnful. But I imagine Dr. T". had not 
thoroughly weighed this Propofiuon, nor confider- 
pd where it would carry him. For, God's conti- 
puing in Being the Devil, and others that ^e finally 
given up tp Wickednefs, will be attended, moft 
certainly and infallibly, with an eternal Series of 
the moft hateful and horrid Wickednefs, But will 
any be guilty of fuch vile Blafphemy, as to fay. 
Therefore God's upholding them in Being is itfelf 
a Jinful Thing ? In the fame Place . our Author 
lays, " So far as we are generated ijf Sin^ it muft 
*' be a Sin to generate." But there is no Appear- 
ance of Evidence in that Pofition, any more than 
.in This : " So far as any is upheld in Exijience in 
^^ ^in, it is a Sin to uphold them in Exiftence." 
Yea, if there were any Reafon in the Cafe, it would 
]?e ftrongeft in the latter Pofition ; For Parents, as 
Dr. T. himfelf pbferves, are not the uiutbgrs of the 
beginning of Exiftence : Whereas, God is truly the 
Author of the Continuance of Exiftence, As it is 
the known Will of God, to continue Satan and 
Millions of pthers in Beings though the moft fure 


• Page 145. . ' • 

Chap.IV. Obje^i(msfr.fewoifcureT€%t$yanfw. 455 

Confequence is the Continuance of a vaft infernal 
World, full of everlafling hcUilh IVickednefs : fo 
it is Part of the revealed Will of God, that this 
World of Mankind Ihould be continued^ and the 
Species propagated^ for his own wife, and holy Pur- 
pofes ; which IVill is complied with by the Parents 
joined in lawful Marriage: Whofe Children, 
fhough they come into the World in Sin, yet are 
£apable Subjefts of eternal HoUnefs and Happi^. 
jiefs : Which infinite Benefits for their Children, 
.Parents have great Reafon to encourage a Hope of, 
in the Way of giving up their Children to God in 
Faith, through a Redeemer, and bringing them up 
in the Nurture and Adimonition of the Lord. I 
think, this may be Anfwer enough to fuch a CaviU 

Another OhjeSiion is, That the Doftrine of Ori- 
ginal Sin is no oftner^ and no more plainly fpoken 
.of in Scripture \ it being, if true, a very important 
Dodrine. Dr. 5". in many Parts of his Book fug- 
gefts to his Readers, that thene are very few Texts^ 
in the whole Bible, wherein diere is the leall Ap- 
pearance of their teaching any fuch Doftrinp. 

Of this I took Notice befoce, but would here 
fay further : That the Reader who has perufed the 
preceding Defence of this Doftrine, muft now be 
left to judge for himfelf, whether there be any 
Ground for fuch an Allegation •, whether xhcr^ he 
not Texts in fufficietit Number, both in the Old 
Teftament and New, that exhibit undeniable £w- 
dence of this great Article of Chriftian Divinity y 
and whether it be not a Do<5trine taught in the 
3cripture with great Plainnefs. I think, there are 
few, if any, Podrines of Revelation, taught more 
plainly and exjH'efly. Indeed it is taught in an ex- 
pUcit Mwt>?r niore in the New^efiamentj than in the 

G s 4 O/^c 

45^ OhjfBim from Fej^nefe and Obfcurity' Part IV. 

Old: Which is not to be wondered at-, it being 
thus with relpeft to all the moft important Doc- 
trines of revealed Religion. 

But if it had been fb, that this Doflrine were 
rarely taught in Scripture •, yet if we find that it is 
indeed 2l Thing declared to us by God, if there be 
good Evidence of its being held forth to us by any 
Word of his, then what belongs to us, is, to be- 
lieve his Word, and receive the Doftrine which he. 
teaches us ; and Aot, inftead of this, to prefcribe to 
him how often he Ihall fpeak of it, ahd to infift 
vpon knowing what Reafons he has for Ipeaking 
of it no oftner^ before we will receive what he 
teaches us -, or to pretend that he fhould give us 
an. Account, why he did not fpeak of it fo plainly 
as we think he ought to have done, fooner than he 
did. Jn this Way of Proceeding, if it be reafour 
able, the Sadducees of old, who denied any Refur- 
reftion or future State, might have maintained 
their Caufe againft Chrift, when he ' blamed them 
for not knowing the Scriptures, nor the Power of God \ 
and for not underftanding by the Scripture, that 
there would be a Refurreftion to fpiritual Enjoy- 
ment, and not to aiiimal Life, and fenfual Grati- 
fications •, and they might have infifted, that thefe 
Doftrines, if true, were very important, and there- 
fore ought to have been fpoken of in the Scrip- 
tures oftner and more explicitly, and not that the 
Church of God fhould be left, till that Time, with 
only a few ebfcure Intimations of that which fo in- 
finitely concerned them. And they might with 
Difdain have rejefted Chrift's Argument, by Way 
of Inference, from God's calling himfelf, in the 
Books of Mofes, the GOD of Abraham, Ifaac and 
Jacob. * For Anfwer, they might have faid. That 
Mofes was fent on Purpofe to teach the People the 


Chap. IV. Bf Texts pleaded, — anfwetti. 457 

Mind and Will of God ; and therefore, if thefe 
Doftrines were true, he ought in Reafon and im 
Trulb to have taught them plainly and frequently^ 
and not have left the People to fpell out fo impor- 
tant a Doftrine, only from God*s faying, that he 
was the God of Abrahamy &c. 

One great End of the Scripture is, to teach the 
World what Manner of Being GOD is ; about 
which the World, without Revelation, has been 
fo wofuUy in the dark : And that God is an infinite 
Beings is a Do6lrine of great Importance, and a Doc- 
trine fufficiently taught in the Scripture, But yet> 
it appears to me, this Doftrineis not taiight' there^ 
in any Meafure, with fuch Explicitnefs and Pre^ 
cijion, as the Dodlrine of Original iSin: and the 
SocinianSy who deny God's Omniprefence and Om- 
nifcience, have as much Room left them for Cavil^ 
as the Pelagians^ who deny Original Sin. 

Dr. T. particularly urges. That Chrift fays not 
me Word of this Doftrine throughout the four 
Gofpels\ which Docftrine, if true, being fo impor- 
tant, and what fo nearly concerned the great Work 
of Redemption, which he came to work out (as is 
fuppofed) one would think, it fhould have been 
emphatically J^oken of in every Page of the Gofpels *• 

In Reply to this, it may be obferved, that by the 
Account given in the four Gofpels, Chrift -was 
continually faying thofe Things whichf plainly 
implied^ that all Men in their original State are 
finful and miferable. As, when he declared, that 
they which are whole , need' not a Phyjician, hut they 
whifb arefick \ \ — That he came tofeek and tof^ve 


• Page 242, 245. t Matt ix. 12. 

OhjiSumfram Fcwnsk MdObfamtj Pait IV, 

ffwi which was kfi^'^ That it was necdlaiy for aB 
•CD be bcm again^ and to be coitverUdj and that 
Otherwife they could not enter inla the Kingdom ef 
Heaven -f ; — and, that all were Sinners^ as well as 
fhofe whofe Blood Pilate mingled with their Sacii^ 
fices, &r. and that every one who did not repent^ 
Jbould ferijh\\ — Withal dire6bing every one to 
frmy to (jod for Forgivenefs of Sin B j — ^Uiing our 
^eceflity of Forgivenefs from God, as an Argu* 
ment with all to forgive the Injuries of their 
Neighbours § 5 — ^Teaching, that earthly Parents^ 
though kind to their Children, are in themlelves 
fvil ** ; — And fignifying, that Things carnal and 
corrupt are prc^rly the things of Men ++ -,— 
Warning his Qifciples rather to beware oi JMen, 
than of wild Beafts JJ ; — Often reprefeaung the 
WORLD as evilj as wicked in its Works, at £11- 
mity with Truth and Holinefs^ and hating him BH ; — 
Yea, and teaching plainly, that all Men are ex- 
tremely and inexpreflibly finful, owing ten Thou* 
fand Talents to their divine Creditor §§. 

And whether Chrift did not plainly teach Nico-^ 
Jtemus the Doftrine of original total Depravity^ 
when he came to him to know what his Dofhinc 
was, muft be left to the Reader to judge, from 
what has been already obferved on Job. iii. i — 11. 
And befides, Chrift in the Courfe of his Preaching 
took the moft proper Method to convince Men ot 
the Corruption of their Nature, and to give them 
an efie£tual and pradical Knowledge of it, in Ap* 


^ Matt, xvlii, II. Luk. oux. 10. t Matt, xviii. 3. 

}: Luk. xiii. I — 5. H Matt. vi. 12. Luk. xi. 4, 

5 Matt. vi. 14, 15. and xviii. 35. ** Matt. vii. 11. 

tt Matt. xvi. 23. . JI Matt. x. 16, 17. |||| Jo^, yU, 

y. and viii. 23, and xiv. 17. and xv. ^5, lo, 
J^ Matt, xviii. 21, to tb^ £nd. 

Chap. IV, of Texts pleaded,— /wj/5:e;frfiL 4^ 

plication tx> themfclves, in particular, by teaching 
jind urging the holy and ftridl Law of God, in its 
Extent and Spirituality and dreadful Threatenings: 
Which, above all Things, tends to fearch the- 
Hearts of Men, and to teach them their inbred 
exceeding Depravity j not merely as a Matter of 
Speculation, but by proper (ponvi(5Hon of Con- 
fcicnce ; which is the only Knowledge of Qrigin4 
Sin, that can av^l to prepare the Mind for receivr 
iflg Chrift's Redemption ; as a Man'^ Senfc of his 
own Skknefs prepares him to apply in good Earncft 
to the Phyfician, 

And as to Chrift's being no more frequent and 
particular in mentioning and inculcating this Point 
in a doSirinal Manner, it is probable, one Reafon 
to be given for it, is the fame that is to be given 
for his fpeaking no oftner of God^s creating tht 
World: Which, though ib important a DocSrine, 
is fearer ever fpoken of in any of Chrift's Dif- 
courfes ; and no Wonder, feeing this was a Matter 
which the Jews-, to whom he confined his perfonal 
Miniftry, had all been inftrufbed in from their 
Forefathei^s, and never was called in Queftion 
among them. And there is a great deal of Rear^ 
fon, from the ancient Jewijh Writers, to fuppofc, 
that the Dofltrine of Original Sin had ever been al- 
lowed in the open Profeflion of that People * : 


* What is found in the more aticient of the Je^iJh Rabbies, 
who have wrote fince the Coming of Chrift, is an Argument 
of this. Many Things of this Sort are taken Notice of by 
Stapferusy in his Theologia Pohmica before mentioned Som^ 
of thefe Things which are there cited by him in Latin^ I ihalj 
here faithfully give in Bn^lijh^ for the Sake of the Engltjb 

• — ^o Manaffeh, concerning Human Frailty, fag, i?9.— 
"V Ge4, viii. 21. I ^vHll -nut any Tnore curfe tbg Earth for Mans 


460 ()hje£lion from Fewncfs iwri Obfcurity Part IV* 

though they were generally, in that corrupt Time, 
very far from a pradtical Conviftion of it; an4 
many Notions ^ere then prevalent, efpecially 


^* Sake I foF the Jppetiie of Man is evil from his Youih ; that is, 
*' from the Time when he comes forth from ins Mother^i 
f^ Womb. For at the fame Time that he fucks the Breafts^ 
'* he follows his Iiry? ; and while he is yet an Infant, he i^ 
•• under the Dominion of Answer, Envv, Hatred and other 
^* Vices to which that tender Age is obnoxious.*' — * Prov. 

* XX ii. 15. Solomon fays, Foolijhmfs is bound to the Mind of n 

• Chdd, Concerning which Place R. Levi Ben Gerfom oh- 

• ferves thus, *' FooUJhnefs as it ivere gronjcs to him in his very 
^* Beginnittgy Concerning this Sin. which is common and 

♦ original to all Men, Dai-id faid, rfal. li. 5. Behold^ I was 
^ begotten in Iniquity^ and. in Sin did my Mother luarm mo^ 
V Upon which Place Eben-Ezra fays thus: Behold, becaofe of 

the Concupifcence which is innate in the Heart of Man, it is 
faid, lam begotten in Iniquity. And the Senfe is, that there 
is implanted in the Heart of Man, Jetzer barang^ an evil 
** Figment, from his Nativity." 

* And Manajfeb Ben Ijrael, de Fragil. pag. 2. <* Behold,, 1 was 
•• formed in htquity, and in Sin hath my Metier ^w armed me. But 
•^ whether this be underftood concerning the common Mother, 
•* which was Eve^ or w hether David fpake only of his own 
Mother, he would fignify, that Sin is as it were natural^ and 
infef arable in this Life. For it is to he obferved, that Evt 
conceived after the Tranfgreffion was committed ; and as 
♦* many as were begotten afterwards, were not brought forth 
in a Conformity to the Rule of right Reafon, but in Confor- 
mity to diforderly and luftful AfFedions." He adds, " On^ 
of the wife Men of the Jewsy namely, R, Aba, rightly ob- 
fervcd, David would fignify that it is impoffible, even for 
" pious Men who excel in Virtue, never to commit any Sin.** 

• Job alfo aflerts the fame Thing with Davids Chap. xiv. 4. 

• faying, (Vho vA II give a clean ^1 bing from an unclean? Truly 

* nat one. Concerning which Words Aben-Ezra fays thus: 
<• The Scnfe is the fame with that, / vjas bego/fen in Iniquity^ 
** becaufe Man is made out of an unclean Thing.** Stafferus^ 
Theolog. Polem. ^Eom, iii. p. 36, 37. 

Id, Ibid. p. 132., &c. * So Sal Jarchi ad Gemaram, Cod^ 

* Schabbathy fol. 142. p. 2. ** And this is not only to be 
•* referred to Sinners ; becaufe ^// the Pofterity of the^n^ Xfan 
*y are in like Manner fubje£led (0 all the Cur/es pronounced ca 





Chap. IV. of Texts pleaded,— :t»»/ie^^^i. 4^1 

among the Pbarifees, which were indeed incon- 
fiftent with it. And though on Account of thefe 
Prejudices they might need' to have this Doftrino 


^ him.'** And Manajfth Sin Ifraelj in his Preface to Hunum 

* frailty^ hys, ** I had a Mind to fhew by ^hzt Means ic 
came to pafs, that when the ^rfi Father of all had lofi hii 
Righuwfnsfs^ his Pofterity are begotten liable to ^tfatnt 

" Funifljment with him.'* • And Munfttrus on the Gofpd of 

* Matthew cites the following Words, from the Book called 
« The Bundle of Myrrh : " The Bleffed Lord faid to t\i^ firfi 
** Matt^ when he cfirfed him, Thorns andl biftks Jhall it bring 
" forth to thee ; and thoufhalt tat the Herb of the Yield. The 

Thing which he means, is, That becaufe o{ his Sin allwh9 
fhould dejcendfrom him, (hould be wicked and pefverfe, like 
Thorns and Thijiles i according to -that Word of the Lord^ 
fpeaking to the Prophet : Thorns and Irritators are ivi/h the^ 
and thou d^wellefl amovg Sforpions. And all this is from the 
Serpent^ who was the Devil, Sam-mael^ who emitted a aior* 
tiferons and corroptive Poifon into Eite^ and became die 
** Caufe of Death to jldofft himfelf, when he eat the Fruit." 

* Remarkable is the Place quoted in J^feph de Voijin^ againft 

* Martin Raymund^ P-47^- o^ M2i^tx Menachem Rakanatenfis^ 

* Se6l« B^refihity from Midrafch Tehillim ; which is cited by 

* Hoornbekiusy againft the Jewsy in thefe Words: ** It is no 
** Wonder, that the Sin of Adam and E've is written and fealed 
** with the King's R$ng, and to be propagated to all following 
** Generations i becaufe on the Day that Adam wa^ created, 
** all Things were finifhed i fo that he ftood forth the Perfec- 
** tion and Completion of the whole Workmanfliip of the 
" World : So when he finned, the njuhole World finned ; whofe 
** Sin. we bear and fuffer. But the Matter is not thus with 

refped to the Sins of his Pofterity,*'— Thus far Stapferks. 
Befides thefe, as Ainfworth on Gen, viii. 21. obferves, ** Iii 
Berefhitb Rabba (a Hebrew Commentary on this Place) a 
** Rabbin is faid to be zfk^^yWhen is the euil I/nagination paf 
** into Man? And he anfwered, From the Hour that he is formed, ^^ 
And in Foots Synopiis it is added, from Grotius, ** So Rabbi 
** Salomon interprets Gen. viii. 21. The Imagination of Man* si 
♦* Heart is evil from his Yottth, of its being evil from the Timi^ 
•* that he is taken out of his Mother's Btowels." " Aben* 
*' Ezra thus interprets Pfal, li. 5. l^wasfiapen in Iniquity, and 
** in Sin did my Mother €oncei*ve me ; that evil Concapifcenc^ W 
** implanted in the HeafC from ChilSood, as if he v/cre/orme^ 

♦« ia 



462 ObjeSiMfrdm Fcwnelstf»iObfcurity ParttV; 

explained dnd applied to them, yet it is welt 
known, by sdl acquainted with their Bibles, that: 
Chrift, for wife Realbns, fpake nM>re iparingly and 


** in it ; and hf my Mother, he anderfhmds £*ve^ who did not 
^ bcdr Children till (he had £nned. And fo Ka/kfenmki fays,- 
«* hoiv Jkall I awid finning f l/Iy Original is corrupf^ mid from 
** thence org tbofe Sins. So Mamtffeh Ben Ifiael^ from this 
*• Place (Pjal. li. 5.) concludes, that not only Dav'J^ bat aU 
** Mankind, ever iince Sin was introdoced into the World, 
<« do Sin from their Original. To this Parpofe is the Anfwer 
<« of Rabbi Hakkadofcby which there is an Account of in tho 
'< Talmud, From lAfhat Time does Concufifcence rsde omer Man T 
•* from the wery Moment ofbisfirfl Formation^ or from bis Nati* 
•« ^ity? Anf. From his Formation,*"* — Pool's Synof/i in Loc. 

On thefe Things I obferve, there is the greaceft Reafon to 
fiippofe, that thefe old Rabbies of the Jemiiflj Nation, who. 

fave fuch Heed to the Tradition of the Elders, wonld never 
ave reciifved this Do£brine of Original Sin, had it not been' 
ddivered down to them from their Forefathers. For it is a 
Bodlrine very difasreeable to thofe pradiical Principles and 
Notions, wherein &t Religion of the unbelieving Jews moft 
fundamentally dijff^ers from the Religion maintained among 
Cbrijliam: particularly their Notion of JufiificeUion by their 
own Righteoufnefs, and Privileges as the Children of Abra- 
bam, &c. without Aanding in Need of any Satisfa£lion, by 
the Sufferings of the Meffiah. On which Account the mo- 
dem JeiAJs do now univerfally rejcd the Dodrine of Original 
Sin, and Corruption of Nature; as Stapfems obferves. And 
it is not at all likely, that the ancient Jenus^ if no fuch Doctrine 
had been received by Tradition from the Fathers, would have 
taken it up from the Chrifiiansy whom they had in fuch great 
Contempt and Enmity ; efpeci'ally as it is a Do£irine fo pecu- 
liarly agreeable to the Chriflian Notion of the fpiritual Salva- 
tion of Jefus, and fo contrary to their carnal Notions of the 
Meiiiah, and of his Salvation and Kingdom, and fo contrary 
to their Opinion of themfelves ; and a Doctrine, which Men 
in general are fo apt to be prejudiced againil. And be{ide&, 
thcle Reibbies do exprtffly refer to the Opinion of their Fore- 
fathers i as, R. Manajjeh fays, ** According to the Opinion of 
" the ANCIENTS, none are fubjeft to Death, but thofe which 
** have finned: for where there is no Sin, there is no Dealby 
Stapfer, Tom. iu. p. 37, 38. 


Chap. IV. of Texts pleaded, — anjkpered. 4(5jf 

obfcurely of feveral of the moll important Doc- 
trines of revealed Religion, relating to the Nc- 
ceffity. Grounds, Nature and Way of his Redemp- 

But we Kave more diredl Evidence^ that tlie Dodtrineof 
Original Sin was truly a received Dodrine amoAg the ancient 
Jewsy even before the Coming of Chrift. Thi« appears by 
ancient Jenvifl? Writings, which were written before Chrift ; 
as, in the Apocrypha, 2 Efdras iii. 21. ** For the ^r^Adam^ 
** bearing a wicked Heart, tranfgr^ffed, and was overcome : 
" and fo be all they that are born of him. Thus Infirmity wa« 
*^ made permanent ; and the Law alfo in the Heart of the 
<* People, with the Malignity of the Root; fb that tlie Good 
** departed away, and the E<vil abode ftill."— 2 E/dras tv, 30* 
** For the Grain of e*vil Seed hath been fown in the Heart of 
** Adam^ from the Beginning; and how much Ungodlineis 
*^ hath it brought np unto this Time ? And how much ihall 
♦' it yet bring forth^ till the Time of threfhing (hall come T* 
And Cbaf. vii. 46. •* It had been better, not to have given 
*< the Earth unto Adam ; or elfe, when it was given htm, to have 
^< retrained him from finning ; for what Profit is it, for Mea 
*' now in this prefent Time, to live in Heavinefs, and after 
<< Death, to look for Punifhment \ O thott Adam^ what haft 
thou done f For though it was thou that finned, thou art 
not fallen alone, but ^we all that come ofthee^ And we read^ 
Ecclef.xxy, 24. " Of the Woman came the Beginning of Sin, 
** and through her <we all dif,^^ 

As this Dodrine of original Corruption was cdnllafttly main- 
tained in the Church of God from the Beginning ; fo fromf 
thence, in all Probability, as well as from the Evidence of it 
in univerfal Experience, it was, that the wifer Heathen main- 
tained the like Doftrine. Particularly Plato, that great Phi- 
lofopher, fo diftinguilhed for his Veneratioft of ancient Tra- 
ditions, and diligent Inquiries after them. Gale, in his Couri 
of the Gentiles, obferves as follows : " PLATO fays (Gorg. fol. 
^' 493.) / have heard from the «wife Men, that ^e are nova dead^- 
** and that the Body is hut our Sepulchre, And in hi» Tinueut 
*' Locrus (fol. 103.) he fays. The Caufe of Vitiofity is from our 
** Parents, and firft Principles^ rather than from ourfehves, 5^ 
that voe never relin^utjh thofe ASions, vuhich liad us to follovM 
theje primitive Blemijhes of our FIRST PARENTS. Plata 
mentions the Corruption of the PFill, and feems to difowst 
any Free-lVill to true Good ; albeit he allows fome f v^wce# 
*^ or natural Difpofitions, to civil Good, in fome great 
^ •« Heroes, 


4^4 OhjlSUnfrom Fewhefi and Obfcurity Part IV. 

tion, and the Method of the Juflification of Sinners^ 
while he lived here in the Flefli ; and left thefe 
Dodtrines to be more pliunly and fully opened and 
inculcated by the Holy Spirit, after his AfcenGon^ 

But if after all, Chrift did not fpeak of this 
Doctrine OTten enough to fuit Dr. T— r, he might 
be alked. Why he fuppofes Chrift did no cfuncr^ 
and no more plainly tcsich fome of bis (Dr. T — r's) 
Doftrines, which he fo much infifts on ? As, That 
temporal Dectb comes on all Mankind by yidam ; 
and. That it comes on them by him, not as a 
Puniihment or Calamity, but as a great Favcvr^ 
being made a rich Benefit, and a Fruit of God'^ 
abundant Grace, by Chrift*s RedemptiGn^ who came 
into the World as a fecond Adam for this End. 
Surely, if this were fo, it was of vaft Impcrtcncey 
that it fhould be known to the Church of God in all 
Ages, who faw Death reigning over Infants j as well 
as others. If Infants were indeed perfeftly injic* 
ccntf was it not needful, that the Dcftgn of that 


" Heroes. SOCRATES afferted the Corruption of hanan 
** Nature, or xetjecy sa^uror. — Grotius affirms, that the Philofo- 
" phe;s acknowledged, it was con-natural X.0 Men, to Jin.'*'' 

SENECA (Bcref. 5. 14.) fays, Wkkednefs has not its Jirjl Be- 
ginning in ivicied Pratlicc ; tbosgh by that it is fi^Jl exercijed and 
made manifeft. "And PWTARCH (de Sera vindida) fays, 
Man does net firjl keccme tivickedy v^hen he Jirft manifefls himfeif 
fo : hut he hath Id'icledncfs from the Beginning ; and he fhew5 
// as foon as he finds Opportunity avd Ability, As- Men rightly 
judge i that the Sting is not Jirfi ingendered in Scorpions ijuhcn thn 
Jtrike, or the Pcijon in Vipers ^wben they bite, — Pool's Syncpf, ott 
Gen. viii. 21. 

To which may be fubjoined what JUVENAL fays, 
^-Ad Mores Natura recurrit 
Dcmnatos^ fix a et maiuri nefcia, 
Englilhed thus, in Profe ; 

NATURE, a Thing fixed and not knowing how to change, 
returns to its wicked Manners. 

Watts, Ruin and Reccjery, 

» ■ 

Chap. IV. of Texts pleaded, — anfwered. 4^5 

which was fuch a melancholy and awful Difpen- 
iktioh towards fo many Millions of innocent Crea- 
tures, ftiould be knowfiy in order to prevent the 
worft Thoughts of God from arifing in the Minds 
of the conftant Speftators of fo myfterioqs and 
gloomy a Difpenfation ? But why then filch a total 
Silence about it, for four Thoufand Years together, 
and not one Word of it in all the Old Tejiament ;. 
nor one Word of it in all the four Gofpels -, and in- 
jdeed not one Word of it in the whole Bible^ but 
only as forced and wrung out by Dr. 7* — r's Arts 
of Griticifm and Deduftion, againft the plaineft and 
r ftrongeft Evidence ! 

" As to the Arguments, made ufe of by many 
late Writers, from the univerfal moral Senfe^ and 
the Reafons they offer from Experience, and. Ob- 
lervation oi xht Nature of Mankind, to fhew that 
we are born into the World with Principles of 
Virtue \ with a natural prevailing Relifti, Appro- 
bation, and Love of Righteoufnefs, Truth, and 
Goddnefs, and of whatever tends to the publick 
'Welfare ; with a prevailing natural Difpofition to 
diflike, to refent and condemn what is felfifh, un- 
juft, and immoral-, and a native Bent \rx Mankind 
to mutual Benevolence, tender Cqmpaffion, ^c. 
thofe who have had fuch Objeftions againft the 
Doftrine of Original Sin, thrown in their Way, and 
defire to fee them particularly confidered, . I alk 
Leave to refer them to a Treatife on the Nature of 
true Virtue, lying by me prepared for the.Prefs, 
which may ere Ipng b^ exhibited to publick View *, 

H h C q N. 

* The Trcatife here mentioned, it is apprehended, has 
teen lately printed at Bojion in AVw Epglani, though not yet 

466 Xi^e Conclufion, remarking' ett 


On the whole, I obferye, There are fome oihef^ 
Things,- befides Arguments, in Dr, ST — r*s Book, 
which arc calculated to influence the Minds, and 
bias the Judgments of fome Sorts of Headers. 
Here, not to infill* on the taking Profeflion he 
makes, in many Places, of Sincerity^ HumiUty^ 
Meeknefsy Modefty^ Charity^ &c. in his fearching 
after Truth; and freely propofmg his Thoughts, 
with the Reafons of them, to others * ; nor on his 
magifterial Ajfurancey appearing on many Occa- 
fions, and the high Contempt he fometimes cxt 
prefles of the Opinions and Arguments of very 
excellent Divines and Fathers in the Church of 
God, who have thought differently from him-}-: 
Both of which Things, it is not unlikely, may have 
a Degree of Influence on fome of his Readers : 
(However, that they may have only their juft In- 
fluence, thefe Things might properly be compared 
together, and fet in Contraji^ one with the other)— 
I fay, not to dwell on thefe Matters, I would take 
fome Notice of another Thing, obfervable in the 
Writings of Dr. ST. and many of the late Oppofers 
of the more peculiar Dodtrines of Chriftianity, 
tending (efpecially with juvenile and unwary Rea- 
ders) not a little to abate the Force, and prevent 
the due Effeft, of the clearefl Scripture-Evidences^ 
in Favour of thofe important Do6trines ; and par- 
ticularly to make void the Arguments taken from 
the Writings of the Apoftle Paul^ in which thofe 
Dodrines are more plainly and fuUy revealed, than 
in any other Part of the Bible. What I mean, is 
this : Thefe Gentlemen exprefs a high Opinion of 


• See his Preface, and p. 6, 237, 265, 267, 175, 5. 
t Page 110, 125, 150, 151, 159, 161, 183, 188. -jj* S, 

certain Methods ufed hy Br. T. 6?r. 4^7 

this Apoftle, and that very juftly^ for his eminent 
Genius, his admirable Sagacity, ftrong Powers o^ 
Reafoning, acquired Learning, &c. They fpeak 
of him as a Writer — of maftcrly Addrefs, of ex- 
tenfive Reach, and deep Defign, every where in 
his Epiftles, almoft in every Word he fays. This 
looks exceeding fpecious : it carries a plaufible Ap- 
pearance of Chriftian Zeal^ end Attachment to the 
holy Scriptures^ in fuch a Teftimony of high Vene- 
ration for that great Apojile^ who was not only the 
principal Inftrument of propagating Chriftianity^ 
but with his own Hand wrote io conuderable a Part 
of the New Teftament. And I am far from de- 
termining, with relpeft at leaft to fome of thefe 
Writers, that they zxq not Jincere in their Declara- 
tions, or that all is niere Artifice^ only to make 
Way for the Reception of their own peculiar Sen- 
timents. However, it tends greatly to fubferve 
fuch a Purpofe -, as riiuch as if it were defi-nedly 
cbntrived, with the utmoft Subtilty, for that End. 
Hereby their incautious Readers are prepared the 
toore eafily to be drawn into a Belief, that they, . 
'and others in their way of thinking, have not 
'rightly uHderfiood many of thofe Things in this 
Apoftle's Writings, which before feemed very plain 
to them ; and they are alfo prepared, by % Prepof- 
feflion in Favour of thefe new iVriters^ to entertain 
a favourable Thought of the Interpretations put by 
them upon the Words and Phrafes of this Apoftle ; 
and to admit in many Paflages a Meaning which 
before lay entirely out of Sight ; quite foreign ta 
all that in the View of a common Reader feems to 
be their obvious Senfe ; and moll remote from the 
Expofiitions agreed in, by thofe which ufed to be 
cfteemed the gfeateft Divines, and beft Comment 
tators. For they muft know, that this Apoftle be- 
ing a Man of no vulgar Underiftanding, it is nothing 

H h a ilrange 

4$& Tht QotitMimr 'rif»arkif^ an 

fining ifhis Meaning lies, very i^V ahdnd Wo&-^ 
derthch, if the ftiiperficial Pifcernihg and^bfcr- 
vation of vulgar Chriftians, or indeed of the Herd 
of conunon Divines, fuch as the fFeftfninfter-Jffem^ 
hly^ &c. falls vaftly fhort of the Apoftle*s Reach, 
and frequently does not enter into the true Spirit and 
Defign of PauH Epiftles. They muft underftand, . 
that the firji Reformers^ and Preachers and Ex- 
politors in general, both before and fince the 
Reformation, for fifteen or fixteen Hundred Years 
pall, were too unlearned and Jhortjigbtedy to be 
capable of penetrating into the Senfe, or fit to un- 
dertake the making Comments on the Writings of 
fo great a Man as this Apoftle ; or elfe had dwelt 
in a Cave x>f Bigotry and Superjlition^ too gloomy 
to allow them to ufe their own Underftandings 
with Freedom, in reading the Scripture, But at 
the fame Time, it muft be underftood, that there 
is rifen up, now at length in this happy Age of 
Light and Liberty, a Set of Men, of a more free 
and generous Turn of Mind, a more inquifitive 
Genius, and better Difcernment. By fuch Infi- 
nuations, they feck Advantage to their Caufe ^ and 
thus the moft unreafonable and extravagant Inter- 
pretations of Scripture are palliated and recom- 
mended : So that, if the fihiple Reader is not very 
much on his Guard, if he does not clearly fee with 
his own Eyes, or has too much Indolence, or too 
little Leifure, thoroughly to examine for himfelf 
(as few, alas,- are willing to be at the Pains of 
acquainting themfelves thoroughly with the 
Apoftle's Writings, and of comparing one Part of 
them with another, fo as to be fully able to judge 
of thefe Gentlemen^s Gloflfes and Pretences) in this 
Cafe, he is in Danger of being impofed on with 
delufive Appearances •, as he is prepared by this 
fair Pretext of exalting the Sagacity of the Apoftle, 


certain Methods ufed ijt 2>% T. ISc. j^^< 

and by a Parade of- Leamilig^ Criticifin, cxaft 
Verfion, Penetration into the true Scope, and DiC?; 
cerning of wonderful Conrt(?Sion$,;.togfed^^ 
the Airs thefe Wjitqrs' affumcT of'di&atoriar Per- 
cmptorincis, and Contepipt of .old .Opinion .aod 
old Expofitions ; I fay, fuch byiEefc 
Things prepared to fwallow ftrahge Dodrifle, as 
trufting to the fuperiour Abilities of thefe moclcm 

But I humbly conceive, "their Interpretation^^ 
particularly of the Apoftle PauP^ Writings, though 
in fome Things ingenious, yet in many Thiiigs 
concerning thefe great Articles of Religion, . arc 
extremely abfu.rd, and demonflrably difagreeablf, 
in the higheft Degree, to his real Defign, to- tile 
Language he commonly ufes> and to the Doftrincs 
currently taught in his Epiftles. 'thtw Criticifins^ 
when examined, appear far more fubtile, than folid; 
and it feems as if Nothing can poUibly be ftrong 
enough, Nothing perfpicuous enough, in any Com- 
poliire whatever, to ftand before fuch Liberties as 
thefe Writers indulge: The plaineft and moft. 
nervous Difcourfe is analyfed and criticized, till it 
diffolves into Nothing, or till it becomes a Thing 
of litde Significance : The holy Scripture is.fub- 
tilized into a mere Mift j or made to. evaporal;e inta 
a thin Cloud, that eaffly pitts oa^any Shape, -and 
is moved in any Direftion, with 2i Puff of Windj- 
juft as the Manager pleafes. It is not in tlie Na- 
ture and Power of Language, to afford fufficient 
Defence againft fuch an x^rt, fo abufed ; as, I ima- 
gine, a due Confideration of fome Things I hav^^r 
had Occafion in the preceding Difcourfe to obferve, 
may abundantly convince U5. ... 


47<> ^^^ Con c Lv s tou. 

But this, ^th the reft of what I havie offered 'on 
this Subjeft of Original 5/;;, muft be left to every 
candid Reader to judge of, for himfelf -, and the 
Succefs of the whole muft now be left with GOD, 
who knows what is agreeable to his own Mind, 
and is able to make his own Truths prevail -, how- 
ever myfterious they may feem to the poor, partial^ 
narrow, and extremely imperfcft Views of Mortals, 
while looking through a cloudy and delufory 
Medium-, and however difagreeable they may be 
to the innumerable Prejudices of Men's Hearts : — 
And who has promifed, that the Gofpel of 
CHRIST, fuch as is really his^ fhall finally be vic- 
torious ; and has affured us, that the JVord which 
goeth out of his Mouth, ^^// not return to him voidy 
but Jhall accomplijh that which he pleafeth^ andjhall 
proffer in the Thing whereto he fends it, — Let GOD 
arife, and plead his own Caufe, and glorify hi* 
own great Name* AMEN. 


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