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' ■ • 

• • • 

• • 

« « • •• 

• • 

• • •• 

• • • 

■ • * 


Tint is y»iMmt XV of a complete tet of 

CQc ercat ebcnt0 br famous l>l]8tortansi 

CiBiu/taf ^f TwrtO' Volume}, Issued Slrialy as a Limited 
E^titm. In y»lume I will it found the OJidal Certificate, 
madtr the Seal of the National Alumni, as to the Ltmitalton 
of the Edition, the Registered Number of this Set, and ikt 
fitme of the Owner. 


Vol. XV 

The binding of this volume is & F&csimile of the original on 
tthi wi un in the Bft)liothK]ue Nabon&le. 

h wu ex ec uted for Grolier. u that time Tre&iurer- General 
of Ffkncc. He wu the most ^mous of bibliophiles, a staiesm&a 
finan o g. and scholar, whom Erasmus delighted lo call " the pa- 
von of scholars and an cmameni to France " 

The voiume vm«s bound by an Italian artist whom Grolier hod 
bmighl to Pans from the AJdine Shop in Venice, to bmd some 
books for the ^jccn of France. 

"Thm Loiin motto, meaning " For Grolier and Kis Friends." 
appeared on most of the art bindings in Grolier's famous col- 

'"i !>!« rornr 









trnnrnv. omiAaziNc the more iMPORXAfir events, and pre- 


— «_ .-.„„..„ ™„,„„ 


AMI lunorc nojUDiNo brief introouctions by speoausts 









IHli a itdff if ifteithiu 



' : » V • 

« • 4 




• • •• 




Am OmtiuK Narraiiv* of tht Grtai Events. 



Vmimt tf trtlamd with Great Britain 

Tht Crtat trisk Rebtllion {a r> iSoo). ■ 



Jtim 0/ llu Dtwucratic I'arly m the United States 

(am. iSoi) 

Jtf train's Inaugural, 






1 nr Triftliien War (a p. 1804) 



TV Cmwumtiem ^ Sa/>e!eon {.* d. iSo4). 



TV Uwia and Clttrk Etpedttion (.10 /S04). 



BOBurr soirrtiKv 

The BattU tf Tre^algar {a r iSos) 

Smglmmel httomes Mistress of the Seas. 



Tht BattU ^ Austfrliis (a.i>. iSos)- 


nsasB LAwntBY 



Tlu Briiisk Acquisiiicn of Cape Cohny {ah. i8o6)% i2J 


IVussia CrmsktJ hjt NapoUan {a n i8o6)% 14O 


TTU First Prtutual Sieamboai (am. iSoj)* i$9 


WiUington s Ptninsuiar Campaign (a.p. i8o8-i8ij)t 170 


BtomU becowus IndrprndfHt (ah 1808-1822), 18 1 


Tkf RfXH^tmiicn in Mexico (a. p. i8io)* • .189 


Tkf uprising in South Amrrica (ad /8/0) 

Tlu Career of Bolix*ar, the Liberator^ 305 


The Massacre of the Afamelukes (a P i8ii)» . 223 


NapoUon s Russian Campaign (a P 18 12), 231 


War on the Canadian Border (a p. i8i2- 1814), 241 


Perry s Vutory on luske Erie (a P t8ijf). J68 


The uprising of Germany (a p i8ij) 

The Battle of the Sati0ns at l^tpsu, .281 


The Burning of Washington (ad. 1814). 295 


Thf Cmgrtu tf Vifnna (ad. t8i4)' 3*0 


Tht Hartford Cmnvrntiom (ad. 18/4) 

PrMfUt against tkt War of 18/2 3^6 


Thf BMtk tfNrw OrUams (a.d. tSts) 

Tht Emd^tkr Warof t8t» 343 


ThtBmttU^WaSerioo(A.Di8is)' • - • 3*3 


VmtgrtaJ Otr«noUgf (a.D- 1800-1815), 393 




Nsfvtnm't TftTtat thratigk the ttrttts of LfiptU after 
kit dtfft by tkt allud armies of Austria, 
Rmttia. and Prutsia (page 294), Frontispiece 

t by L. Bnm. 

r »J a letter from Napoleon to foupkine, 76 

Tlu C0r»matiom of Napoleon, ..... 82 

PsBtiB( by Jacques David. 

Admiral Nelson on board the frigate Victory in the 

Battle tf Trafalgar 1 10 

Paiukv by W. H. 0*cniid. 

- t 

• • • 

» • • • I 

.• • 


• •. 

• • • 

• • 

This is y^iumt XV of a complete set of 

C])e (0reat (£t)tnt0 br famous t)t0tor{an0 

C^msu/mg tf Twenty yo/umes, IssueJ SirUtJy at a Limited 
EdttuM. Im Volume I xeill be found the Offteial Certifitate^ 
amder the Seal tf the Natienai /llumni, ai to the Limitation 
^ the Edition, the Registered Number of this Set, and the 
Name tf the Owner. 

Vol. XV 

The bimkig of this volume is & facsimile of th« original on 
wAimon in the Biblioth^ue Naiionale. 

h wfts aetaatd for Crolter, u that time Treasurer-Ceneral 
of France. He was the most Famous of bibliophiles, a statesman. 
finan o Cf. and scholar, whom Erasmus dclighied lo call " the pa- 
■on of scholars and an omameni to France." 

The volume was bound by an Italian artist whom Crolier had 
brought to Pans from the Akine Shop m Venice, to btnd some 
books for the Ouccn of France. 

The Lafin mono, meaning " For Grolier and his Friends." 
appeared on moH of the art bindings in Grolicr'j famous col- 




r AND (J01-AJ.-. 

IfilTOK IK • l> 


CHARl t 

JO 1 1 N U I 

dwM^b tbt tinea d 
Mat W *i •Med 




I ■■■ TMI WQM. »«' 

ftCMKlTr K 





I tlinufb tfar fbtra d 


Vol. XV 

TIh bindmB of thtt vdume is a Hcsank of rhe onginkl on 
editi uon in the BMiochtque Nationale. 

k wu executed for Crober, al thai time Treasuro-'Gcner&l 
of France. He v%rai the most famous of bibliophiies, a staicsman. 
fswnder, and scholar, whom Erasnus delighted to call "the pa- 
ron of schokrs and an ornament to France." 

The volume was bound by an Italian artist whom Crolier had 
brought lo Pans from the Aldnc Shop in Venice, to btnd some 
bocia for the Queen of France. 

The Ladn mocto. meanng "For Crolier arid his Frtends." 
appeared on most of the art bindings in Crolier's Famous col' 

r«t its* rum 






or THE MCWT E-MWtv /\.' 

r AND *AJ■"J^*■ 








A conmnEtetvt. and readable acxxx;nt of the world-s 




— ,™ .- ™„„.. 








C^e ^ttonal aiumnf 


Tlu Briiish Acquisiiicn of Caf^ Colony (a.p. /So6)f 127 


/Vussia Crush*' J by SafoUon {a n 1806)9 14O 


TAr First Practuat Steamhoai (aj>. l8oy). 1 59 


WiUimgton s Peninsular Campaign (a.p. iSoS-iSij). 170 


Brasil bf€Owus /ndrprnJrni (a.p 1808-1822), l8l 


Tkr RrxH>luticn in Mexico (a./k /8/o)* . .189 


TAr Uprising in South Amrrira (a.p i8io) 

Thr Career of Rolix*ar, the Liberator, 105 


The Massaere of the Mamelukes (a P 18 II). . 33 J 


Napoleon s Russian Campaign { A P 18 12), ajl 


War on the Canadian Border (a p. 1812-1814), 24 1 


Perry s V^utorr on luike Erie {a P l8l^), t6i 


The I 'pruing cf Germany {a p 18 1 f) 

7 he Battle if the Xations at Letpsu, jRl 


The fiurmng of Washington (a o 1814), 29J 


Tkt CmigTfu (f Vimma (ad. t8t4), 310 


Thg Hartford Comvemiion (a.d. /S/4) 

f^musts agaimit the War of i8t2 336 


Tht B4Utl* tf fifw OrUanj (ad 18/$) 

Tkt Emd iftkt War of 18 12 34i 


Tht B»ttU^WtUrrloo(AD 1815). • • ■ 363 


Om h tf u t t Ckrvmdouf (a.o. 1800-181$), 393 




N ^ tUv n 's rftreaJ tkr^ugh tk* streets of Leipsic after 
hit defeat by the allied armies of Austria, 
Russia, and Prussia (page 2^4), Frontispiece 

PftiBliDC bjr L. BnoB. 

FatsimnU af a Utter from Napoleon to fosepkitte, 76 

TV Carffmalian of Napoleon 82 

PaiatlBC bjr Jicques David. 

Admtiral Nelscn on board tkt frigate Victory in the 

BaItU ef Trafalgar 110 

T^m.iSmt by W. H. Ovcrend. 





PO conc|ucn)r since ihc days of Charlemagne 
has so allcr«d the political buundarics of 
Euroftc as did Napoleon, and none has so 
changed the minds of men. Intentionally 
or not, he became one of the greatest bene- 
factors of the human race. In France he 
suppressed the Republic; but abroad he was 
:, and spnad its basic principle of equahty over ihc cn- 
K lace erf civiliution. Future ages may dale an epoch fnim 
■ •• having been the last grrat military conqueror; for the 
CM iHablilhrrl by him and by his generation seem to have 
■dr hntber conquests tike his own impossible. 

If «c try lo imagine the French Rc\-olution without Napo- 
M, we mtitt picture it driven batk u-ithin French IxtrderN by 
e »*mit* al united Europe, with its principk's perhaps {kt- 
toed to oocitinuc in feeble existence among Parisian phil<>»i>- 
m^ boi ioopcniivc and even unknown among Ihc mass of 
^ It is Due that the United States was at ihe same moment 
I to the world a noble example of the success of rrpub- 
ml; but the United States was feeble, distant, and 
France was the centrr of civiliuiliim. the 
hMTt of the worid, leader of Europe in intellect and culture-; and 
At ftaach RcpubUr in 1 799 seemed staggering to its fall, l^eaten 
I by the annies of kings, tangled in the meshes of an ira- 
e cmMitutioii, given over to the rule of incumjKlencc 

forward Gencnl Bonaparte. In f;i)$ he had 



rcsaied his country from the ruk of King Mob; in 1799 he saved 
it from its feeble government of paper, defended it against the 
cannon of Europe. He assumed a military dictatorship, swept 
away the inefficient constitution, and substituted one of his own 
which left all power with himself. In name, however, the coun- 
try continued a republic, and the common folk of Europe were 
little likely to appreciate the meaning of Bonaparte's changes. 
Irxlecd, Frenchmen themselves remained a bit confused, and 
yean afterward, even when their chief had assumed the rank of 
Emperor, their coins were inscribed " Napoleon, Emperor of the 
French Republic." So it was still as the champion of liberty 
that Napoleon appealed to Europe. 

As soon as be assumed power the whole aspect of affain 
changed. In 1800 he crossed the Alps with an army, and for the 
secood time dro\T the Austrians out of Italy. His chief lieuten- 
ant, Mortau, gained a decisi\'e victory over .\ustrians and Ger- 
mans at Hohenlinden. A peace was established which left Bona- 
parte the chief potentate of Europe. 

The many minute details arranged by this treaty dragged 
its final settlement on until 1803. Then emerged from it 
a new and wholly reconstructed Central Europe, with France 
made more than e%*er its chief State. .<\ row of little republics, 
dependent on French support, extended over Italy, Switxerland, 
Holland, arul most of Germany. The tiny (fcrman States, pre- 
viously near four hundred in numlier, were reduced to forty; 
arnl most of these were included in a ''Confederation of the 
Rhine,*' from which both Prussia and .<\u5tria were shut out« 

Tlie tKxt \Tar General Bonaparte definitely assumed the 
title of Emperor Na()oleon I, was cniwned by the Pope, and be- 
gan changing his set of dependent rri>ublics into kingdoms^ to 
be ruled by hb lieutenants arMi members of his family. His am- 
bition to become the successor of Charlemagrie, to unite Ger- 
mans and French in or>e huge empire, was clearly aimounccd; 
and the cry of " Liberty," by which France had everywhere sum- 
moned the common people to her aid, began to fail her. Even 
Napoleon could scarce continue to aj»en Mmself the high 
priest of that republicanism which he was suppressing on every 

Ste Csrmmiwm 0/ Sm^t4^^m, page 74. 



So tbnug WIS the power the dictator had established, that 
CTC nigbt haw been none to dispute it but for England. 
, finding ber commercial supremacy threatened by the 
g ttridei of France, had become Napoleon's most per- 
il be returned her antagonism in kind. His iU- 
1 lo Egypt had been partly an attack upon her 
tndc But the destruction of his licet by Nelson in the Bat- 
lie of tbc Nile, had made England as powerful on the seas as 
Fnacc od Usd. Neither State could match the other on its chu- 

Ea^Knd, however, has alwa)-s one vulnerable point, Ireland. 
TW hit gmt Irish rebellion had arisen in 1798; and in 1800 
Ac ODUOUy was finally united with England under a single gov- 
tamtOL Irish members entered Parliament, to continue there 
Iht WMI7 ftnifflk for tibcriy which they had so long maintaintxl 
■I b»e.' Nipolcon was constantly seeking to arouse rctK-ILon 
IBKW {■ the dependent island ; and at length in 1804 he gathered 
•■caociDouiannyonthe shores of the English Channel with the 
■■wBul ntcntion of invading England and crushing forever her 
Cflpoiitioa to him and tik freedom. 

In bee of this tremendous danger the British Government 
t minu l itidf vigDRMisly. Austria, Russia, Sweden, and Naples 
we pemuded to join it in what is known as the "Thinl Great 
n" against Napoleon; and frrtm Britain's wealth large 
■CR d^Uibutcd to the allies to enable them to put their 
. in motioQ. At the same time an English fleet defeated a 
1 of the French and, occupying the Channel, made ihr 
n temporarily im)x>ssible. 
I pcomptly tumetl his army against his other f(x-«. 
■{f a cavfialgo considered his military- maMcr]>iece he com^Kllnl 
ftkilBrAiMtrian army to surrender at UUn in Germany. Then 
fma^m^ aa bio Austria he seixed \'ienna and met the (-ombineil 
■■^■1 and Austrian forces under command of their <iov(-r 
ft at Aurterlit/.' Thi(«, the " Battle of the Thn-.- 
ft Napoleon's mo^l imixinant success. The Ku<. 
*aw tMmnf IrHmmd wiA GrMi Britoii : Th* Ortsi Jmk Uttfl 


sians fell back defeated, into their own land. Austria, helpless at 
the conqueror's feet, submitted to whatever terms he chose to die* 
tate. The following year the Austrian ruler even abandoned his 
title of Emperor of Germany. The ancient empire which had 
maintained a precarious existence for more than a thousand yean 
(800-1806) disappeared at last, and gave place to the new French 
empire, which extended over much of Germany. 

To offset thb greatest of Napoleon's triumphs, came the 
Battle of Trafalgar, in which, but two days after the surrender 
at Ubn, Nelson, greatest of England's naval heroes, crushed the 
combined fleets of France and her unwilling ally, Spain.' 

Remembering the \'ictorics of Frederick the Great, and be- 
lieving themselves to be invincible in arms, the Prussians had 
watched not unwillingly the overthrow of their ancient rival, 
Austria, and had pmtcste<J little against the annihiUtion of a Ger- 
nun Empire in which they could hold only a secondary place. 
But by degrees the exactions of Napoleon, the insolence of his 
demands, became sue h as no State could submit to, except as an 
acknowledged de{x*n<lrnt. Prussia, which for a dozen yean had 
refused all the overtures of the other |iowers to join the alliance 
against F*rance, suddenly dctlarrd war single handed.' 

Her ill commamlcd, antic|uatc^l tror>{is were defeated with 
ridiculous ease at Jena and Auen»tadt by the veterans of Napo- 
leon (1806); and the conquemr enten-Yi a new capital, Berlin, 
as he had entered Rome and Vienna. Russia, safe in its dis- 
tance from the arch enemy, had taken up Prussia's cause, so 
Napoleon, pn*vsing farther ea5t than hi^ standards had yet 
been seen, enamnteml the Russians on their own bonlerland in 
two bloody battles at Kylau and Frierlland (1807). The first 
of these waui indecisive, the M^ond a se%'ere defeat for Rusna, 
and following it came the famous inter>'iew of the jroung cxar, 
.\lexander, with his rival, on a raft in the Niemcn, Rti«ta*8 
boundarv river. 

Which of the two Emperors had the better of the meeting has 
been much cliscussed. Certain it is that they clasped hands and 
came to a friendly agreement to divide Europe between them. 
NapofeoQ was to do what he liked in the west. Alexander tetaed 

* Sec 71# iUiiU H Trw/mlgmr, pttg e 105. 


(mm Sweden ihr east coast of the Baltic Sea, thus extending 
KuHii'i northwest limits where they stand to-day; and he also 
• p propr iB ted hbcral slices of Turkey- and Prussian Poland. 

Id Rtum the Czar pledged himself to support Napoleon in 
the VIA commgrcial warfare which the latter was planning 
a^ioM En^Mid. The wealth of the island empire consisted in 
; ibe supplied ihc wants of Europe. Now, every 
1 port Wfts to be closed against her. This policy of 
e quite as hard upon the lands which sold and the 
I) purchased goods, as it did on England which trans- 
n; and to the installation of this mistaken system, to 
the atlonpl lo enforce it, is commonly traced the downfall of 
Napokon. The common folk of Europe who had at first ad- 
mifed the "man of destiny," grew resentful and rebellious under 
iktir priTBtkins. 


No ODc man can be stronger than ail men. Those who seem 
to w mcM powerful in dominance over the age in which they 
fivc^ b>vc in reality only recognized the current of the times ami 
■■vpt lloog upon its surface, gujfiing it porhajKi, but never 
AnvtiBg H. Napokon in his earlier career had been in har- 
maay with his age, with its revolt against old formulas, its drfi- 
•aCE cl abaohitisni, its insistence on individual worth, recogni- 
boa of ihe man and not the title. More and mon-, howrveT. did 
he te hii uvei wtuitng self a>nfidence scl him.splf in opposition 
to the new influences by which he ha<l rim-n. He iKiiime but 
■■other oppn as or, replacing those he had ovenhr<'wn. 

WapedMj was this manifest in S{uiin. Then- the ancient 
■Ofol bsJIf bad proved so worthless, so subscnienl lo his will, 
Am at knglh be deposed them enlirely and dcclartf! his own 
iaiUi broCber, king. The deiN>se<l DourUins resisli-d as little 
I the cmquenw expected ; but there was in the S|>anianls 
I a changelessness. a Inyal consenalism, that made 
' patriotic. The>' cnuld nni stand against the 
»al Frmncr, which easily establi«ihed Joseph Bona- 
pme in Madrid, but all over the ruunlr>- anM- a guerilla war- 
fafe vhidi not even the greatest of the Bonafiancs was able 
to iBbdtML Portugal also insisted un keeping her (torts o[>ra to 


Eogliih commerce. So Napoleon attacked her, toa England 
eagerly accepted this chance of renewing the war against her 
enemy, and sent troops to the aid of both Portgual and Spain* 
Wellington began in that desolate Peninsula the strife which 
was to lead him to Waterloo.' 

Next Austria revolted against French tyranny and roae in her 
turn, not now at the command of her sovereign, but at the insist- 
ence of her people. Napoleon left Spain and came in person to 
suppress the rebellion. He succeeded, but not until the Austrians 
had inflicted on him at Aspem the first defeat of his career. The 
Prussians also were grown savage against him. The very men 
who had cheered him on his entr>' to Berlin in 1806, salutol him 
with such grim reluctance in 181 2, that he marvelled at the 
change. At last Alexander of Russia declared he would no 
longer ruin his country by excluding British ships from her 
ports. Napoleon in answer planned his great Russian cam- 
paign of 181 2.' 

Its issue is too well known to need repetition. The once in* 
TuliHrrable conqueror was defeated not more by the severity ol 
the Ru&sian winter, than by the unity of the Russian people in 
resistance against him. As he fled back to Paris, nation after 
nation rose behind him in relxrilion, not in obedience to their 
kings, but answering to the cry for "freedom,** which France 
herself had fir%t sent out. 

There is something aweinsf>iring in that uprising of Europe. 
The Prxjasian?^ let! the way; then the other (fcrman [leoples, then 
Austria, joined with the advancing Russians. The Sfmniards led 
by Wellington swarmetl over the P)rrnees. The Britons crossed 
from their ishuul refuge. The Swedes came down from the 

And there was much that was heroic in Napoleon's defiance. 
He raised a nem army from exhausted France, an army of old 
men and boys. Ne^-er did he conduct a more masteriy cam- 
paign. But the men he was facing fkjw wtrv not mere military 
machines. Vihcn the Prussians found their [lowder worthlcsa, 
they charged FretKh cannon with their clubbed muskets and 
beat their way to victory through sheer brute desperatioQ. At 

* Sec H^fUimfUm*M Pfmimimimr Cmmfrntgrn, pafc 17a 


h liuj annihilated an entire army. Napoleon him- 
a the great " Battle of the Nations" al Leipsic, 
iHaiilU indeed from the "Battle of the Emperors" at Austcrlitz. 
Tfe vantpiiilKd victor fled back lo France with the remnant of 
Us wmj.' StiD did be fight battle after baldc, still with impo- 
im genhii Rsist the irresistible. At last the allies forced their 
wmy lo Pub, and his own Senate declared the Emperor deposed. 
Hr yielded and wu exiled to the island of Elba, over which he 
«s* permitted to rule. 

The delighted monarchs of Europe gathered in the celebrated 
"Caognat of Vienna" to rearrange their household, readjust 
dtt boundaiy lines which France had so tumuliuously disar- 
T'tr** Each king was warm in congratulations and gratitude 
Id hh people who had rescued him. Each promised them the 
■mty diey desired. As a matter of (act, however, the monarchs 
prared test tnterested in arranging conslilulions for iheir sub- 
jects thao in grasping tcrrilor)- for themselves. So loud grew 
tbe wrangling at Vienna that it seemed the result must be an- 
ocber war, ooc of the ancient kind where kings fought for prov- 
facn and tbe people had no part except in the slaughter.* 

Nipoleotii seeing his opportunity in this disunion, left his 
Bttle Ungdam of Elba and reappeared suddenly in France. His 
«id wi di e n Socked to his standard ; the allies for a moment hesi- 
iKtai', aad kkxi tbe Emperor was firm upon his throne as ever. 
e led fail umtes hurriedly lo the frontier to ait-ock those which 
1 Eofcland, his two most obstinate enemies, were 
t him. For a moment the oM days of his vir- 
r again: but Enfilish steadiness and Prussian 
I overthrew him at WaterKwi.' He was i^iliii m 
SL HcIbm, where he died a prisoner. The mnnar(h.s returned 
IB tkdr bvguning at Vienna: and the people resumed their 
iltag far the comtitulions llu-y had eametf. 


TW wild anfusion which N'ap<>leon had taiisol in Euro|>e, 
' naturally iu echo in other pam nf the world. In i8c/> 

'Se« V^ritimg «f Grrmanf . \^*t.v j>i. 
'Sm T%t Citngnts n/ I'inina. p»tt Jio 


Engbuid, Uking advantage of the league into which aD Europe 
had been forced against her, wrenched South Africa from the 
Dutch.' After Napoleon had been driven from Egypt, British 
forces were landed there to take advantage of the civil strife to 
which the inhabitants had been abandoned. The expedition 
was unsuccessful, but it opened the way for a daring ad\Tnt- 
urcr, Mehemet Ali, to establish himself as Pacha of Eygpt. 
Ali threw off all but a nominal allegiance to Turkey; he massa- 
cTvil the ** Mamelukes/* and thus made himself practically ab- 
solute monarch of a new and independent State.' 

When in 1807 the royal family of Portugal were driven to 
flee from the troops of France, they took refuge in their cobny of 
Brazil, arul Mreing its vastness proclaimed it an American em- 
{lire.' When the S|>anish colonics in America fournl that they 
were recei\ing ortlcn^ fn>m three different governments at home, 
that of Jcnimc litmafiarte, of the Ikiurbons, and of a revolu- 
tionary tribunal; when, moreover, they found each government 
threatening them with death if the}' obeyed the others; and 
when they realized that no one of the governments was able to 
enfone its thrrats or uphold it^ olTiciab — naturally in this di- 
lemma they began j^oveming themselves. The Mexican Revolu- 
tit>n began in 1810, but indcfRndcnce was not won till 1833.* 

The n>k)nic3 were stimuLitetl by the cr>' of •'liberty** which 
WMs ever>'where ujion the air. ( )ver all South .\merica one re- 
bellion flamed up after arK>ther. The )'oke of helpless Spain was 
e\er>^herc thniwn off. The freedom of America from Europe 
which the United States had pnK laimed in the North, the Span- 
ish States rK)wcchoe<l thmugh the .South. The gospel of equality 
which .\merica had taught to France, aiKl France to Europe, 
now returned fn>m Eun>f)e to .\merica.* 


Meantime, what hail been the experiences of the United 
States? While in Europe democracy was being trampled 
down, fint by Napoleon whom it hail placed upon hb tlm)oe» 

* Sec rkd Bftittk Aiqmiiiti^m #/ CV^ C^l^my, paf e 117. 
*Sec MAita*wf fif ik4 Mmmiimkit. pafv t2\ 

*Scc Brmsii lUc^mui inSfftmdtmt^ page tSi. 

* Sec Rnmimimm tm MeMU0. page iS^. 

*Sm Upritimg m S^mik Amurus : Cmwmr 0/ Bminmr, psft iO$. 


I by the monarchs whom it bad rescued from his grip, in 
fc tl wu being ever more widely extended. Scarce was 
I dead ere his cautious conservatism was brushe<l 
T party, vigorously proclaiming its trust in the 
e to power under Thomas Jefferson. The 
lamented his election to the Presidency as 
■■ e*a aliacMl equal to revolution. They felt that the " mad- 
acw o( the mob" was upon them, and feared to sec repealed 
in their own country the excesses of the French Reign of Ter- 


Nolfaiog of the son happened. Democracy, frenzied in Eu- 
rope, proved admirably calm and self controlled in America; 
and out of the bitter political controversies of it:^ earliest years, 
the United States passed into a period of cabn, wherein the great 
— jnrilj of its leaders were closely agreed as to measures and 
potriea. The "era of good feeling" began. 

Moit importaflt of the great measures for which Jeffenon 
«■■ mpocoible, was the purchase of Louisiana. This was 
nothcrof tbeooRwquencesof the great European strife. Napo- 
leon had taken Louisiana fmm Spain. He had \'isions of build- 
!■( there a vast colonial empire; but England's a>mplcte mas- 
kfyol the tea aoon rendered any such hope chimerical. When in 
tfloj the conqaeiDr bc^n planning his huge English campaign, 
k was obvioui that at the first note of war the British navy could 
■he I imWllM. unoi^xiscd. To prevent this he solrl — or gave 
weM be the belter word — gave Louisiana to the United Stales. 
Aa ahnoat worthlcB gift men thought it then, this va:il unpeopled 
Many Americans pmtested against the President's 
% even three miUion dollars for it. They saw in ihc Irraty 
ooljr a shrewd Napoleonic move to embroil iheir niiiion wilh Circat 
BriCaio, a Democratic scheme to bind them closer to democracy 
in France.' 

Bui war did not immediately follow: and the internal de- 
Kb p roea l o* the country during ibis period of jware was w enor 
Mova B8 loon to give a new importance to the purchasei) terri- 
•My. la tB04 Lewis and Clark were rle:tpalched on their famous 
t^^Mfa«g*1*irHt{nn to the NoTthwest, upon the results of which 

' Sac /titr »ftki D*m»cr*tif P/irty m ikt L'niud StaUi. ptf e iS. 
' Sac Fmr(ik*j£ tf LauuiMM4. page }> 


EiigUnd, Uking advantage of the league into which aD Europe 
had been forced against her, wrenched South Africa from the 
Dutch.' .\fter Napoleon had been driven from Egypt, British 
forces were landed there to take advantage of the ciWl strife to 
which the inhabitants had been abandoned. The expedition 
was unsuccessful, but it opened the way for a daring advent- 
urer, Mehemct Ali, to establish himself as Pacha of Eygpt. 
Ali threw off all but a nominal allegiance to Turkey; he massa- 
cred the '* Mamelukes,** and thus made himself practically ab- 
solute moruirch of a new and independent State.' 

When in 1807 the royal family of Portugal were driven to 
flee from the troops of France, they took refuge in their cobny of 
Brazil, arul seeing its vastness proclaimed it an American em- 
[lire.' When the S|Kinish colonics in .\merica found that they 
were recei\*ing cmlers fn>m three different governments at home, 
that of Jen)mc I^ma|>arte, of the Ikmrbons, and of a revolu- 
tionary tribunal; when, moreover, they found each government 
threatening them with death if they obeyed the others; and 
when they realizrtl that no one of the govenmients was able to 
cnfone its threats or uphold its <»iriciaLs — naturally in this di- 
lemma they Ixrgan pivcming ihem!ielves- The Mexican Revolu- 
tion began in 1810, but inde{>cn(lence was not won till 1833.* 

The anionics were stimubte<l by the cr>' of ** liberty" which 
was ever>'where ujjon the air. Over all South America one re- 
bellion flamed up after arK>ther. The )f>ke of helpless Spain was 
e\er>^here thniwn off. The freedom of America from Europe 
whi(h the United Slates hail pnclaimed in the North, the Span- 
ish States now cchoe<l lhn>ugh the South. The gospel of equality 
which .\merica ha<i taught to France, and Fnmce to Europe, 
i»w returned fn>m EurT)|)c to America.* 


Meantime, what hail been the experiences of the United 
States? While in Europe democracy was being trampled 
down, fint by Napoleon whom it had placed upon hb throoe» 

' Sec TTu Bfiittk Ai^misitttm #/ Cmpi C^l^my, paf e 117. 
*See MAit»t*fe ^f ikg Mmm$ilmktt. P^v "> 
*H€c Brmni lUc^mui /miUfftuUmi, page tSi. 

* 5icc Xnmimi^mt tm M^mu*, page iS^. 

* Sec Up^uimg M SmUA Amurkm : Cmrtfr 0/ B ^k ' t mr, pag* 90$, 


thco bf the monarrtu whom it bad rescued from his grip, ia 
America it waa bdng ever more widely extended. Scarce was 
Wuhington dead ere his cautious conservatism was brushed 
■ndc, and a new paily, vigorously proclaiming its trust in the 
"coo u noo people," rose to power under Thomas JeGcrson. The 
eUtr tMamtn lamented his election to the Presidency as 
•o evil afaiKiat equal to revolution. They felt that the "mad- 
BOBoflhe mob" was upon them, and feared to see repeated 
in their own country the excesses of the French Reign of Tcr- 

Nothing of the sort happened. I!)emocracy, frcn/icd in Eu- 
rope, proved admirably calm and self -cont rollrd in America; 
■od out of the bitter political controversies of jLs earliest years, 
the United States passed into a period of calm, wherein the great 
majority of its leaders were closely agreed as to measures and 
poficics. The "era of good feeling" began. 

Most important of the great measures for which Jefferson 
WIS rtsporoiblc, was the purchase of Louisiana. This was 
Uotberof the consequentrcs of the great European strife. Napo- 
koo had token Louisiana from Spain. He had Wsions of build- 
tag ihcR a nsl colonial empire; but England'^ tx^mplete mas- 
MyodbetCBtoon rendered any such hope chimerical. When in 
1803 the axiqueror began planning his huge English campaign, 
k WW obvioui thai at the first note of war the British navy could 
ariK Loubima, unopposed. To prevent this be .v>ld— or gave 
«odd be the better word — gave Louisiana to the United Stales. 
As aknaM worthkas gift men thought it then, this vast unpeopled 
wfld em oa. Many Americans protestetl against the President's 
ftjiag mn three million dollars for it. They s;iw in the treaty 
oily aihrvwd Napt>leonic move tormbmil their nation with (irrat 
*****^. a Democratic scheme to bind ihem closer lu demtxracy 

Bol war did not immediately follow; and the internal de- 
vdopHMOt of the country during ihU period of peace was w eiKir- 
■OOi aa looa to give a new im|)r>rtanre to the purchased terri- 
tofjr. lo 1804 Lewis and Clark were drspatchni on their famous 
■apklrinf apedition to the Northwest, upon the results of which 
■ S«* /Um «//V firm^ra/ii I'ariy in tki ViuUd Statfi, pafC t^ 
' Sm FmnAmM «f L^uin^m^t p>ce 3^ 


the Uniied Sutes btaed its claim to the Oregon regioiL' In the 
Mast, roads were everywheie built; aod in 1807 Fulton's invea- 
tion of a practical steamboat revolutionized commerce, made of 
every one of the vast rivers of the continent a highway, inezpen- 
sive, swift, and safe. The wiklemcas ceased to be remote.' 

Intercourse with foreign lutions during this time consisted 
chiefly of trying to keep out of trouble. All Europe was at war. 
If the United States could keep at peace with the needy na- 
tions, vast commercial profits were to be gained* The trade of 
all the world might be gathered in her harxls. American ships 
were seen in every ocean of the globe. Britain, hamponed by 
Napoleon's decrees, could scarce compete with this new and 
daring rival Naturally there was constant friction. 

Since Europe was too busy, or too little interested, the United 
States in 1801 and 1803 undertook the chastisement of the Bar- 
bary powers, whose plurKlering hampered her merchant-ships.* 
Twenty years before, Paul Jones, appearing suddenly upon 
European coa^s, had been called a pirate; but here was a fuD- 
armed, full-manned fleet -of- war sailing into European waters froni 
arK>ther continent. Such an event had rx>t occurred since the 
da3rs of the Saracens. Except from invaders dwelling around the 
Mediterranean it had never cKcurred. It was an epoch in hia- 
tory, the first sign of the fatiing of European supremacy. 

Both Englaml and France began taking measures against 
the American trailing invasion. Decree after decree was ivued 
against our shi\n. The Mtuation grew ever more strained. 
There would have been war, onlv the United States knew not 
which of its huge hectoring antagonists to attack, and could 
hardly fight both. Finally Napoleon made an offer of amity, 
and instantly the United States attacked EnglaiKl (181 a). 

Canada saw in this war only an attempt of the overgrown 
and grasping Republic to conquer her; and irxlecd it must be 
admitted that for a time the contest had somewhat of that as- 
pect.* EngUrnl, involved in her huge European struggle, couM 
do little to aid Cana^la; and thou^^ the New Fjigland States in 

*S«< 71# Fir$t Prm€iuM! SHmmUmi, psft i|^ 

•Sm 71# Trip^Himm Wmr, pi^ 5a. 

*Sat Wmw^ m M# C^m^dimm B^^^dtr, pi^ 141. 


partinilir fdl amall cnthusia^im for the war, yet .\merican troops 
gndually increased in numbcn> along the- border, and bade fair 
lo owTTwbdm ihc brave resistance of the Caniidians. The cen- 
tnl vxtiiry of tbe frontier contest was thai of Perry on Lake Erie. 
He boih a Beet to ouilcb that of the Canadians, completely 
ovBwfadtiwdhMOf^ncnU, and thus gained control of the lake. 
Wlh k came American supremac)- over all the va^uc Northwest.' 
Al wt, meanwhile, the tiny American navy was covering it- 
fa ^ory, its individual ships meeting those of England with 
1'he privateers of each nation did great 
c to the other's tndinf;' vesseb, while Fiuncc looked on with 
I U tbe mutual desiniaion. Of courae, in the end Eng- 
had*s huge fleets drove the AmeHcat] men-of-war from the seas; 
sad the shrewd tndcn of New Enf;land saw ruin staring them 
in tbe Uxe. In 1S14 a convention met in Connecticut, at 
Hutlofd, to protest against the war. There was nothing really 
daMoaable in this, but through the excited countr>' the cr)- of 
UMH WW Tsiaod and believed, and gave the final blow to the 
CfW^Mfalg Federalist party of New England.' 

NapoleoD's defeat and first abdication early in 1814 caused 
e change in the American war. England fountl herself 
rof a triumphant European peace; and all her Heets and 
■ frw for use in America. She turned them 
t to that pur^Kise. The presumptuous Stale which 
I to dispute her commercial supremacy, was to be 
■npletely. Three powerful eicpixliiions were sent out, 
e to ttikc aoulhwud from Canada, one to ravage the coast 

', ud ooe to penetrate nodhward from New Orleans. 
The ctnttml expedition irflected little credit on either of the 
cooiHtuiti. A force of hardly four thousand British broke 
'^■"■t*' a iuKe number of bewildered militia, and burned 
WvUiigtan, committing such irrepaiBble and pnit'illess destruc- 
li^ m dvflintiaa has grown to rr-gnrd as mere vandalism. 
lli^ tfcalcd tbe city as even infuriated Eun>|>e in the some 
yiar had oot drcunt of treating capiumi Paris. The maraud- 
tn tbes iiilH Baltimore but were rrpeUcd.* 

• St* Ptrry't i'Utrty n« l^kt Frti. page >6S 
•S«« Tlu HMttf-^rj Ctmvtmtum. pafr \)<, 
*Sm T%t Bmrmmg «/ H'MktMgt^. pa(c 195. 


Ta north and south there wis a different tale to telL The 
powerful Canadian expedition, attempting to penetrate by Lake 
Champlain, was met by a few militia and an American aquadroo 
feebler than its own. The Britons were completely defeated* 
their fleet destroyed, and their army driven back to Canada. 
The New Oricans invasion was met by General Jackson and 
his straight shooting frontiersmen. The determined resolution 
of the defenders of their homes, the deadly aim of the men, and 
the military instinct of their leader proved irresistible. The en- 
tire force of British veterans, long trained to European victory 
in Wellington's wars, suffered that most disastrous defeat which 
Louisiana still celebrates as a yearty holiday.' 

Both Britain and the United States grew wise. Nay, per- 
haps the whole wortd had learned its lesson, that invasion of the 
homes of a rrs( Jute |)cople is a far different and far more diflkuh 
RUtter than ordinary orn- sided battle. France at the outset of 
her revolution had buried back all the armies of Europe. Yet 
the insulted Pru.viians in their hour of \Tngcance had annihilaled 
the invading tmo{>s of France. Even the irregular guerillas of 
Spain in defence of home had proved able to maintain them- 
selvxs against all the genius of Napoleon. The Um'ted States 
had twice failed to conquer Canada. Britain had failed even 
more signally to conquer the United States. Neither party has 
e\Tr renew e d the futile attempt. 

The War of i8i j has Ixrn called America's " Second War of 
Independence.'* In Eurr>[K- the era of 1815 '**^^ democracy be» 
wilderrd and hr![>lesNly entangicfl, but in the United States it 
free, triumphant, and advancing. What wonder that the 
continent should prr>grrM mort* rapidly than the other, that its ex- 
ample, its attractiim, should prove irresistible in allurement to 
the down trndden common folk of Europe. 

* See 71# SsaU 0/ Stw Orismms . Emd^/iks H^mr ^ tii9, p^t J4> 

[foa TVS marr samow or mn Qnmuu. tmiTST sis voMms vn\ 




Fw son lluB Are* ccDturlcs the condiiioo and claims of Ireland 
Ibr itnirt (be sttentloo of the world. That country ii oltea spoken 
«f u havinK b*«ti doriot tfau long period in a Ktate o( 'chronic rebel- 
las' acslSit dtfl'*l> nilc. Uf ihe actual organiicd rebelliofis which 
MMfc ta hktoqr f ran 1565 to 1S70, do fewer than nine distinct outbreaks or 
amtam df ottimtlMii an recorded. Among these the * Great Kebel- 
■iB* of I79l waa lb« OMt fonnidable. AlthQugh unsuccessful, it taught 
ftc )iawC<alB how belter to estimate the force* al their command for 
titfWBtitf iIm cowatry's inieresu, and gradually led to more inietligeni 
ami syaHsatk codeavon in the Cirlda of di»cu»ion and autesmanship. 
Vnm riMC IB tine, during the niDclccnlh century, clear gains for the 
a^N at Irlah libeny were won by her champions in Parliament, on the 
faH(iiC*t Md in lh« ranks ot Uleralure. 

Tte 'Gfc«t Rebellion* waa preceded by the organiiaiion of many 
ItWl ■TT*tT'i' In boatUity 10 the British Government. Oiiel among 
Ai^vasthc Sodety of L'nited iTwhmen, founded at Belfui. In 1791, 
■■ii% bgr Tlwotatld Wolfe Tone, a young barrister of English descent, 
^id. Ife> MMM of ibt Kembers of the suciciy.a I'roicsunt. 

Atim lb* United Irishmen formed an open orsaniiation. whose chief 
■•otW Mim» wvrc parliamentary reform. re)> of ihc penal Uwi, and 
CsAiAcaVMBclpatloii. Later It became a secret society witli revulution- 
■vyofe^Kft. Tbe siocy of it* acts, of the rebellion which 11 was inslrti- 
MMil la OHJaf, and ot the union with Creai Uriuin which soon Ivl- 
■■■ad, b awB told by Morria. long a member o( tlie Irish judiciary, and 
^m ml A* aaM conpetcBl bblorians of these events. 

I INTTED Iriih tcad«n, seeing thoro «iu no hojx- nf accom- 
plihiiig tbdr ends by constitutional mcan.'^, bqran, as 
Tone had dooc (ram the first, to ihinli that rt-vulutiun wa.% iht-ir 
•■^ ■*"'*^ Tbdr oifuization was made miUUir>' ; tht-ir mj- 
dtdB wen pcqwfed for a uU to tbe Grid ; mi \<]i\in> of anns urrr 
the districts in which they |i<>^«i-ssrtl inilurncc 
1 nader tbc aittuninil of ofrui:f>; and aiimptn *um 


Lord Edwmrd Fitzgerald who was to command the armed Ie\-ie5 
of the South, and whose great name secmccl a tower of strength. 
These levies, it was said, numberwl two hundred thousand men 
— an estimate, beyond doubt, excessive; but tens of thousands 
of the Catholic |K*asantr>* had by this time btrome Uniictl Irish- 
men, and many of them had been rudely armed anci dt>ci|)lincd. 
The plan of the conspirators was to seize the Castle of Dublin, 
as in 1641, to cncupy the capital, and to make the men in |x)wer 
prisoners; and then to rise generally thn>ughout the countr)', 
when the invasion of the French had been made certain. In the 
inter\'al of time remaining, fresh efforts were macle to exas(>erate 
and extend the agrarian war; ma[>s of the old confi.scated bnds 
were pre|>ared; old pn>phccies that the Saxon was to \)c ex- 
pellctl fn)m Ireland were noisetl abnKid, and the [K*asantry were 
told that their alien masters were dfx>me<l. In this wav the re- 
bellious and the agrarian movements lx*came thon)Ughly united 
in some districts; pbntations were cut down and smithies blazed 
for the manufacture of a formidable wea^xm, the pike; and the 
organization of the ** Whiteljoy ** system with its central and local 
secn*t sr>cieties, was set on foot to promote the United Irish 
cause. This combination, however, dcxrs not appear to have 
been comf)Ute in more than a few counties; and it did not ex- 
ist, it has iKfn said, in Connaught. 

This stale of things in Ireland was perilous in the extreme; 
affairs in Fun>|)e, and even in Kngbnd, increaMxl the periL 
Notwithstanding the failure of 170, a great French flee! had 
assi^mblcfl at Bn^st. and a Dutch fleet was at anchor near the 
Texel, in order to renew a descent on Ireland — Tone had tnde- 
fatigably pressctl on the enteqirise; France had already nearly 
ma-sten-d the (^mtinent ; the vcr\' naval jxiwcr of Great Britain 
ha<l been shaken, esfxrially by symptoms of disaffection in the 
fleet. The Irish (iovemment was perfectly justified in revolving 
to crush out rebellion in time; Cbre, its master spirit, dcserrts 
credit for a resolution and daring worthy of Straffonl. But tt 
was more unfortunate that it had not the sup(K>rt of a regular 
and will organize*! military force. The army in Irebnd was 
only a few thousand men ; the militia had become deeply tainted; 
the men at the ** Castle** had largely to rely on the yeomanry* a 
nctnerous \T>lunteer levy, raiicd to a great extent by the local 


gaatrf, md nouly Protcstanls. Ulster was st^^lcclcd as the tirst 
point oi Attack; ibe leaden o{ the conspiracy were arrested; 
the Jncgndiary press wax scattered to the wind.'i ; a general proc- 
f9B ol Muiog and coOcctlng arms was cnforc<.-d in the Province 
withooi scniple or mercy. Ilausrs were bumcd down whole- 
ale ID cumpcl the sunrndcr of weapons; bands of yeomen har* 
rird the Catholic districts; confessions were extoned by atrocious 
■abodi; wbemtr an attempt at ivsistancc was mudt-, it was 
ff— — *< by wild and relentless cruelties. In a wonl, a kind of 
wage guerilla warfare not unlike that of the De&mtind con- 
fict. and afiKnrated by a furious strife of race and creed, raRed 
for a tttne in many parts of Ulster; and hundreds of captives 
t burricd off, and put on board the fleet — an c\'cnt omi- 

jr connected with the Mutiny at the Nore. The head of the 
1 was broken; it itbould be added that, ruthless as the 

a were, ibey had been sanctioned by the Irish Parliament. 
TW G<nonn»enl, after a pause of a few weeks, lumcd against 
Ar oDB^iiiacy in the capital. It must be Ix^mc in mind that 
ikomh a Fimch invasion had been stop|>ed by the great fight of 
Cka|Mrdown, the warrior of Italy was at this ver>' morneni on 
Ar Proxfa ccuts, planning a descent on England. Spies and 
fedonacn had kept Camden, Clare, aJid the Counril apprised 
of aB that waa going on; the members of the Director)- were 
■ade priaooen; ai>d the arrest and subsc<|ucnt <Ieath of I.ord 
Edwaid Fitxgcnld deprived the leaders of the intended rising 
^m bead in wboin tbey placed extraordinarv' trust, thoUKh there 
■■• Ink to tvoDOuncn j him except a name, still a s]>ell of power 
■wns the peaauilry of the South. 

If cactt t bad already occum-d, the Irish Ciovemment, up 
Id thtt poinl of time, recollecting the- situation, can Ik- hardly 
hhaed. The brain of the conspiracy had, so lo speak, been 
imium', but the paralyzed memlx-r^ still stirred with life; all 
IBlUm ti of a rising had not disappeared. Fil/^'ibbon knew 
dMt Ac plan of the leaders was not to move until the French 
had Imded; be srcms, like Claverhouse, to have dehU-ralely n.-- 
■Iff«d to iom tniurrcclion into pnmaiun- Uint; and to stillr it 
Wbiv it could obtain aid from abroad. Hy liis counsels more 
Ami bf AcMe of any other pcRionagr, the syMem which had suc- 
c North was carried out in jiarts of the Suuthcro 


provinces. This polic>', which, be it obscn-ed, was denounced 
by Abercromby, the commander-in-chief of the rcj^lar army, 
and a true srildier, had the rcsuh exiKxrtwl from it. It became 
impossible to await the coming of the French; the people in 
several counties were driven into re\'olt; and the sanguinary re- 
bellion of 1 798 broke out on May 23d in that year. 

The rising was confined to a part of Leinster; it was gener- 
ally feeble and ill-combined, it became formidable in a nook of 
the province only. An attempt to attack Dublin from without, 
connected with an insurrection within, i^-as easily quelle<l by the 
armed force on the spot, and though deeds of bloixl were done, 
Kildare, Carfow, and Meath were quickly subdued. The rising, 
however, was universal and fierce in the two beautiful amntics 
of Wicklow and Wexfonl, the fairest part of the 5ioutheastem 
tract of Ireland. In this prr^sfxTous region, the strife l>etwecfi 
the Orangemen and Defen<lers had ragc<l for some months, and 
the efforts of the (lovemment to bring reWlion to a head had 
been market! wiih [)cculiar cruellies. The conflict fnim ibc 
first was a savage war of nligion; it was also to some extent a 
struggle of race; but, in this instance, the double lines of dis- 
tinction in In-land did not coinc ide, the relx'ts were for the roost 
jMirt of Anglo Norman or Knglish descent; it was a war at 
armefl Pnitestants, backeci by a militar>' force, wagetl with a 
Catholic [K-asanir)', half mad<!cnefl by wmng. For nearly a 
month the is^^ue f»f the cfmtest was ver\- doubtful; it assumed a 
terrible and hidi^ous asjHtt; it is im{>ossil>le to adjust the bal- 
ance of evil (Ut^U clone on either side. The horn>rs of the scene 
are relievi-tl In* the [)n«ofs of di vr»titl courage that were shown; 
the Pn>teslants fought with the nrLlt^ss pridr characteristic ol a 
dominant race; the Catholics cxhiliittti hen>ic daring, at Vine- 
gar Hill, Oulart, ancl New Ross; the fc»wling pitie and the long 
pike had great effect in brave and rejiolute hands; and one ol 
the rebel leaders dispbyetl a rajiarity worthy of a bom generaL 
After many effort«i the rising was at last c|urnchcd, in ashes and 
blood; but the Catholics had occupie*! the timn of Wexford lor 
a time, and, had the march of the Catholic s on .\rkk>w proved 
successful, the capital would ha\*e beeti probably taken. 

The uprising scarcely made a sign in Connaught ; it appeared 
in Munster in only a few weak gatherings. Ulster, wbctr ibt 


r had bcca most deeply laid, did not stir during the 
«*r ID the Kwtheui. The causes of this deserve passing notice. 
TIk pRpvmtioas for a rising bad been already prevented; the 
P wa b ymiam waited the advent of the Fn^nch; they resented, 
ttsD, a quand between France and the United States. But the 
matt cflrctive cause of their inaclion was this: the struggle in 
Wicklow ind Wexford was one of religions; and the United 
If M hia of Ulster stood aloof from a purely Prolcstani and 
rittffBr conflict which ran counter to their hopes and s)'nipa- 
The nbeUkm of 1798 was almost wholly fought out by 
it had nearly ceased when ttxxips poured in from 
EaglKiid; but it had called out high Irish qualities. By this 
Hme Canwtm had been repbced by ComwaUis, a capable and 
hanaoe ■oUkr; but a kind of guerilla struggle lingered for a 
in> nomlu anKing the valleys and hills of Wicklow, the fast- 
mtm of the Celtic rnouniaineen of old. 

Nrratfadesfi Ihe stale of Ireland was lamentable after the 
dne vi 179B; it left a legacy of blighted hopes and most evil 
■CBKxies. It was not only that fair parts of the country had 
bees iBTiiced by a barbarous strife; the material was as nothing 
to Ac oioral ruin. The influences that had. for many years, 
aeoned to lr«en the differrnces of blood and faith, and even to 
have hcakd many wound» of the |>asi, had disa))[>eared in an 
1 ttntgglc; the old distinctions had come «ui, deeply 
as nrw; the cnnfiici, if not wholly, had been in ihe 
1 a war of race, and above all. of rt-iigion. The hojieful 
OS of the Uniltd Irishmen had gmdually disappeared; the 
I of Gniltan hod proved imjioxMble; ihe lopiniions of a 
cfa Ind been as idle as Ihe French dreams of 1789. The 
If ocden of Ireland had been made revengt'fut; the classes 
1 had beheld the pro!t|K¥t of enlarKi.-<l Iflx-rtict &ud- 
4im^ wkbdrawn; the lines of deman ation U'lwtvn the owners 
mi iKiiip i e i i of the mjl, and Ixiwren Calholtc and PiDiesiant, 
had bacn (mtly widened. This change for the worse, which 
fM dK wlwie counlry iMck, wns vi-ry marked in the IriUt Par- 
■■MBl; h had become a mere coun to register what the CasUe 
J lad One ordend; the Indiiiendent {urty in it had dwindled 
itaaM to BOlUnK; and Graltan and his followers, indignant at 
■aont fVBMi^ tUMble to thtck the courw of the Govemmcni, 


and saddened at the failure of the hopes of 1782, had seceded 
from it in anger and despair. Long before thin time they had 
Rude a last fruitless effort in the cause of Catlmlic emanci[Kition 
and Parliamcntar\' reform. 


Before the end of the struggle, a French squadron, and a 
few hundml men. had landed near Kilbb, on the a> of Mayo. 
Napoleon had taken the main fleet of France to the East, where 
it perished in the great liattle of the Nile; he had no taste for re- 
bellion, Irish or other; the French Director)* sent only an in«iig- 
nificant force to the shores of Ireland. Its leader, Humlx^rt, 
however, was a brilliant soldier; he niuted a IxKiy of militia, 
threefold in numbers, in a a>mlxit known as the ** Race of Cas- 
tlebar"; he gave Comwallis much to do Ufoa* he was com- 
pelle^l to surrender, .\noiher jHity Fn-nc h descent was remark- 
able only for the capture of Wolfe Tone after a sharji engage- 
ment. The unfortunate chief of the Uniti*d Irish movement — 
he had scned in the expe<lition to Bantr)* and had witnessed 
the disaster of Cam|>enlown — was doomwl to the ignominious 
death of a fekin, though he held the a>mmivsi<m of a French 
general, and only avertetl his fate by suicide. Tone wx% un- 
questionably the first of the Irish leaders; he had ca[iacity, re- 
source, true faith in his cause, and |Kitriotism; his figure wiU 
live in Irish hiMor)*. After a few s<'vere examples had Ijeen 
made, the conspirators who had fallen into the hands f»f the 
Irish (fovemment, were amnestied, under not unfair conditions; 
their lives wen* sjiarefl. but they had to leave the count r\*. They 
wen*, none of them, men of marker! [Kiwers; but v»me woo 
honor in foreign lands; two or three gallantly foUowcti Napo- 
leon's eagles; more than one made a name f«>r himself in Amer- 
ica. Much in their am<luct is to Ik* stemlv condemned; vct» at 
this distance of time, it descr\es a kind of sN-mfiathy. They had 
at first only constitutional reforms in view; they were drawn 
into rebellion in part by the iTA*olutionary ideas of France, but 
in part by the mistakes of the Irish (iovemment. 

The rebellion of i;c>8 had only just ended, when I*itt began 
to lay grounds for the Unii>n. The amtest had licm tanlily jiut 
down; reinforcements from England had a>me in late; but we 
maj fummarily reject the wicked myths — e%'il phantoms rising 
fnm a field of camage^that Pitt fomented a rising in anns« and 


Itl IliA bttiont tear each other to pieces in order to promote a 
iiiuw he had at heart The Union of Great Britain and Ire- 
knd had not only been projected by many able thinkers; it had 
beta m the miodt of several English statesmen, ever since the 
Rrrafatkn of 1783. Apart, however, fnjm this, Pilt, it is evi- 
dent fmm his Irtlcrs and speeches, did not thoroughly comprc- 
hcDd the whole reasoiu that made a union a necessity of state at 
tUi thnc, or pcrcdvc the consequences that might flow from it. 
Be aw,uthe"Ref^ncyQui-stiun " had made manifest, that the 
two Iqtulatuns miftht dangcmu^y dash; he saw, too, the dan- 
ger of this at a period of war, though, in Kn){land's struggle with 
Reto luti onaiy Fnncc, the Irish rariiomeni hud given him most 
OPnSal fOpport. He saw also that pnittably the best moans to 
■■im the Established Church in In-land, to keep the land in 
notestant hands, in a word to maintain what he called "the 
PraceHani Srttletnent," was to make ln.-lund one with Great 
Britain; nor was he blind to the possible evils of the existing 
Male of Catholic IrrUnd. But, though he was not insensible to 
than, be did not completely grasp the truths that, after the hor- 
nn of 1798, the only hojK- for Inland, torn as she had been by 
A barbanus strife of race and faith, was to bring her imder the 
OOMIqI of an imperial parliament ; and that the only wise policy 
far a British minister was. with the aid of a strung and just gov- 
tfirnif^*! to place Catholic and Protrsiant, Saxon and Ci-lt, on 
■D eqoa] Irrd of civil and religious rights. This ju.stiticalion of 
dw Union be did not fully realize, at least he <iid not act boldly 
ai U br did; and we may smile at his notions that the introduc- 
tkm of Irish members into the Unilnl Parliament might largely 
e the power of the Crown, and that a union would cauM.* 

i factfcxi quickly to cease. I'fit, in fact, as we have before 
■ {fpiorani of the true stale of In-land, and in the 
CMC of Irdand as in that of France in 1 792- 1 7r;3, he ha<l not the 
geBJaa to perceire what was beyond tils immediate ken. 

It waa the wish of Pitt to combine the Union with the eman- 
ffptfrll of the Irish Catholics, and with measures to provide 
fanda far the support of the Calholir In\h prit-^thixwl. and for 
AecDlBrailtatioa of the tithes of the Kstabli>hed Church ; he had 
■a, «v have said, the bad effects «f ihi> impost. ThU polJcy 
■H fa the ri^ direclkin; but it was not original, as ha« been 


allcgtd; the Irish Paiiiament would hiive conceded the Catholic 
claims in 1 7Q5 ; the pa)'ment of the priests was an old idea, and 
had been ad\tx:ated by Irish writers and statesmen; the com- 
mutation of the tithe was a favorite pbn of Grattan. Piti, how- 
ever, did not persist in the project, which he had hoped to make 
an essential part of the Union; he yielded to the counsels of 
ChuT, greatly trusted by him in Irish affairs, and consented to 
deprive his measure of these features; he knew, too, at this lime, 
that George III was obstinately opposed to the demands of the 
Catholics. This was the first of his grave mistakes on the su!>- 
ject; it is the more to be blamed because Comwallls, able to 
gauge Irish opinion on the spot, always insisted that the Union 
could not succeed, if Catholic emancipation was not made, so 
to s{K*ak, its gift. 

Means wtre taken, toward the close of 1798, to ascertain the 
judgment of Irishmen on the question of Union and Catholic 
emancifation. A few of the great peers agreed to support the 
scheme, should it scne their interests; a numlxrr of members of 
the Iri^h HouM-s were nady to obey the minister on the usual 
terms; si»mc of the indi{>endent landeci grntr)-, alarmed at the 
e\Tnts of i7(>H. InhrM in the Union safety for themselves; the 
leading men of Catholic Inbn*!. much sls they had resented 
Filzwilliam's recall, were not unwilling so consicler the subjcTt. 
But an immense* majority of the Irish Prr)testanis the trading 
clasvs of Dublin almost to a man, and nine tenths, at least, of 
the Iri>h l^r. were indignant at the ver> thought of a union, aiui 
expre>.s4'<l their Ncnlimenls in emphatic language: this is the 
more rtmarkable IxxauM- the amntrv* was held down by a Brit- 
ish armc^l forre, and the views of the British Ministr)' were 
perfiTtly well known. In these cinnim stances, Roljert Stewart, 
I-onl Castlereagh. the thief ^etretar)* of Comwallis annouiKed, 
somewhat vaguely, the fiolicy of Pitt, in the Irish House of Com- 
mons in a sfKTch on the acklress made in Januar\% 1799; but an 
amendment was rejectctl by one vote only; and, as this was 
pbinly ^{uivalent to a defeat, the measure was permitted to 
drt>j) for a time. 

Though the Government had been baflled in the Irish Lower 
House, it obtained a large majority in the Irish House of Isolds* 
where the influence of Clare was easily supreme. The British 


ni lud, about the same time, passed resolutions in favor 
at the Union by an overwhelming mnjorily of voles; and Pilt 
iMtaed ibat the measure could be carried out in Ireland. Bui 
il WM {tr ftwn ea.iy to give his pu rposc elTcci ; and means were 
adopted, the octet nature of which has been matter of contru- 
vcnjr ever ance, but of which the general character is not dr>ubl- 
foL The Irish P&rliamcnt had long been swayed by corrupt in- 
flnoKc; this had probably incrca.sed since- 17)^2; it had been 
tf<tfy cterdsed on the "Regt-ncy Question." Dintt bribery 
«M DOC employed; but promises of peerages were Livishly scat- 
lend; phc ei were created and places unscrupulousJy tilled, in 
eadtr to obtain support for the scheme; ofTicials were threat- 
tned with **<■"«»"' if they did not vote for the Government; 
were persistently made to the hoiK-s and the fears of the 
•5 in bolb parts of the Irish Parliament. Simultaneously, 
i were pvea that immense sums were to l>e [uid to the 
I and the proprietors of the numerous boroughs to be 
"; and one of the reforms effectt-d in i ;y_i, by which 
1 in the House of Commons were- comjjelled to vacate 
I, was twisted into a method to secure a majority. By 
ttCM opedicols, rrfprded by Comwallis with dis^isl, but em- 
ployed bjr his chief secretary with untlinching boldness, the Irish 
hufiamcnt was packed to vote for a union ; but it is only just to 
add that, (ram the first, many of its members — and the numlirr 
certainly Icoded to increase — conscientiously approved of I'itt's 

Rccoorse, too, was hail to other means to inlluenee Iri-Ji 
Vftf^ outside the Pariiament tn behalf of the amlemplatcd 
■eaaoK. Able pamphlets were published, and the pn-ss 5Ubst- 
dbed; CotnwaQis went through dillerent muniiev. to can^-au, 
m to qieaktfcw the Union; and many favorable aitiln-sses were 
1 (faou^ thcK were of a quest ionahle kind, and the ad- 
e much more numerous. The Irish Ciovem- 
er, chiefly directed its eflnns lo rnllM Catholic Irr- 
kad OB ita Me; and incidents <x-curred. even yet obscure, that 
fana an onbappy passage in Irish htsior^'. ritl had infurmrd 
CoiSwdBl that the Union was to be a " I*mle«ani Uni"n." in 
the phrase of the lime; he told the I^ird Lieutenani, vcry)ibinly. 
ikal Catholic enuitdpation was to be no part of the measure. 


But his own speeches in the British House of G>mmons implied 
that he approved of the Catholic claims and that they might be 
conceded when the Union had become hw; he certainly encour- 
aged ComwaUis and gave him power to bid openly for Catholic 
support; he perhaps authorized ComwallLs to assure the Irish 
Catholic leaders that their cause was his oi^-n. That upright but 
not ver>' astute nobleman, alwi-ays the earnest champion of the 
Irish Catholics, placed his own interpretation on Pitt*s hints and 
words: he had many conferences with the heads of Catholic Ire- 
land, and entreated them to use their influence to pmmote the 
Union; he unquestionably held out hopes, if he did not make 
promises; he left them under the impresMon that their emanci- 
pation was certain and at hand. It should Ixr ad<ied that, before 
this time, Comwallis had been negf>tiating with the Irish Catho- 
lic bishops with reference to a pmvision for the priesthcxxl; 
Pitt seems to have been not aware of this; but the fact is, not the 
less, of extreme significance. The hnwd result was that the 
Catholic leaders generally threw in their lot with the Union, and 
drew the Catholic masses with ihcm; Cathnlic In*land, in the 
main, declared for the measun-; and this, Piit ancl Comwallis 
agreed, was of supreme importance. A small minority, how- 
ever, of the Irish Catholics, with more insight, ami \ycrhi]n with 
more ambitious news, protested vchcmtntly against the pro- 
posed scheme: among these was Daniel 0*Connell, a young law- 
yer, just beginning his career. 

The de\'ices employed to bring about the Union made their 
effects apparent in the Irish Parliament, when it asscmblctl 
again in Januarj-, 1800. An amendment t(» the **.'\ddress,'* by 
which it was ?ought to stop the [>nHcri*^*» of th#- measure, was 
rejectefl; the "Question** was intnKluc<*<l. a ffw days afterward, 
by a menage from the Viceroy sending to !i«r>ih Houses the reso- 
lutions ^-oted by the British Pariiament, an<l reo>mmending the 
policy* sanctioned by it. The debates on the subject, arising in 
different ways, were impassioned, and tcK4 up much time; but 
they arc marked by ability of a ver>' high onlcr. Castlereagh 
advocated the scheme, with calm [jower and thorT>ughness; 
Clare, in a speech of real insight and force, insisted that in a 
union lay the only hopt of property, of bw, and of the Estab- 
liibed Church in Iiclaod. A fine amy of eloquence was nur- 


fhaDod on Ihv other side; Ihe bar engaged its most brilliant or- 
—«"»«*■, Sauria, Plunkel, Busbe, and other eminent worthies; 
ike Speaker, Foiler, rose to the height of a great argument, in 
a HKMt wtt^Uy and tbou^tful harangue. But Graitan lowered 
aboTC an hia fellowi — he bad lately relumed to the House of 
ConoBntu. In language of singular beauty and pathos, accom- 
panied by aofemn and prophetic warnings, he advised the Par- 
Eamcnt not to destroy itself, and to pn-sene its existence for 
Ifce Irtib "nation." All opposition, however, proved vain; the 
GovenuDcnt maincd the majority it had procured; resolutions, 
) by the Irish Pariiamcnt, in favor of a union, were trans- 
1 into aitidea and bills, and the measure of Pitt received the 
a of both the Irish and the British Pariiamcnis. It de- 
a notice thai a propasal to refer the decision of the question 
e IrUi dccioratc was angrily resented by Pitt and Castlc- 
1; the voice even of Protfstant Ireland, though that of a 
r of the Irish people, and of a minority in the main 
byat was not allowed to pronounce on this matter. It is cer- 
tain, bowerrr, that, in its Inter stages at least, the measure did 
Dot pR»voke widespread discontent; there was no passionate 
OQtbant of opinion against it. Dublin and the Irish bar, in- 
died, mnainrd bitterly hostile; but there was Utile murmuring 
Im the eountry districts; the mav> of Catholic Ireland did not 
tdf', in leaden looked forward with anxious hojx?; the trading 
dHaea were induced 10 expect that the Union would bring thc-m 
tuge bencGu; Pmbvienan Ireland set-m^ to have thouu'lit thai 
ilB bvoritc linen manufacture would make great progress. The 
ttiinde of the majority of the r>e«iplr was one of a|)aihy; il 
■■sCeb thai a mcasurv, backed by the British Parliament and 
ike Britilh anny.could not be withstood; but unqucsiionably a 
■iDorily, growing in itrtngth, inclined very drcidc^jly toward a 

The Unkn wsa accnmph^heil by r|ue>iiiin,itilr mcan't; nor 
VMlta wcD-CDOcrived measure, even within the narrow limits 
tBced out by Pitt. The Irixh and BriiiNh Legi^Liturrs were 
acnif cMnbiocd, and emergnl in 3 single im[M-rial Parh-imcnt: 
Ifdand retained the viceroy, a M-paraie riovemmml, a Mfurale 
Atefafatntinii, separate couns of justice, even vparate et< 
I lor a cnniidcrable time, and the shadow of an inde- 



pendent state was suffered to exist. The remaining portions of 
the Mrheme were of Ic^ importance and do not deserve |Mirticu- 
lar attention. 

The maintenance of the Established Church was made a sol- 
emn and fundamental law; with what results time was to show 
in its fulncfvs; the settlement of the land was left of course, as it 
was; but umloubietlly the hoj^e of preserving this had wcij»ht 
with numbers of the bndwJ gentrj* alarmed at the threats uttered 
in 1798 to undo the confiscations of the past. The fiscal ar- 
rangements were harsh to Ireland; she was to a>ntribute tvk-o- 
sevcnleenths to the imperial exi)en<liture, a pn>iM)riion certainly 
in excels; her trade was somewhat further enbrgetl, and ulti- 
mately was to be aimpletely free; but the commercial l>enefits 
which Castlerra^h dechrrd would follow the Union were not 
realiz4*<l. The Irish jK-ers hM their seals in the IriJi House* of 
Ixmls; a <^mall liodv c)f the order have ever since been chosen to 
rrpreM-nl them in the im|>erial I*arliamenl; the three hundred 
mcmlxrs of the Irinh Houm* of Commons were reduced to one 
hundretl in the im[Mrial Ifousc, a num)x*r that ought to have 
iKx-n adc<juale to make the will of In-bnd sulTicienily felt. For 
xhv rr<\,^hi\v much that the Union should have amtained wa« 
unhapf>ily not comprise<l in it, much that was discreditable in 
itv inci<l<nts was f.iiihfully carrictl out; the lx>n)Ugh-mi>ngeriiig 
n<»!>l«*^ and commoners were gorge*! with the s[K>il that had 
Ifctn pnimiscd; ancl the pledges of corruption were duly ftil- 

ritt was a brxi* mindc*! and enlightened statesman; he cer- 
tainlv df^ireti, whrn the Union was M-cure, to carrv out the meas- 
un*^ « f relief for the Iri'^h Catholics which. fn»m the outset, he 
had had in view. He pn»l>ably reckoned on his prodigious in- 
flurnce; but he had unha{)pily kept the King in the dark, though 
fully aware of the King's sentiments; a ministerial cabal was 
formed against him; and George III, on a prr[M>sterous [ilea, 
[>rf^N<xJ with the otjstinacy of a distempered mind, peremptorily 
refu*^-*! to listen to the Catholic cbims. TTie sulisequent coo* 
dun c»f Pitt in this matter has indisputably thnmn a shadow 00 
his name. He resigned his office, when he had persuaded him- 
iclf that he could not carry out his Irish Catholic policy; be ti 
entitled to every credit attaching to the act. But in a ^-ery »bort 


c he let hb master know ihat he would not urRc ihc qut-stion 

ia; be lupportcd a violent AalJ-Caiholic Ministry; he re- 
1 to office, but took no steps to vindicate the demands of 

AD this has exposed hLs memory to grave suspicion; and 
btaoiycu) hardly withhold its censure, ll is idle to say that he 
loU Cornwallis thai the Union was to be a Protestant one only: 
bebddoutbopcshiinsclf to the Irish Catholics; be invited Com- 
mffii to do the same; he carried the Union, to some extent at 
ImM. bjr obtaining Irish Catholic support, secured only by what 
«CR deemed ptomises that Catholic relief would cenainly fol- 
low. In these ctrcunutances, it was not enough to have simply 
•baadooed the hebn; he oui;ht to have insisted on the Kinf;'s 
[ hia measures; and had he done so, he must have at- 
1 hk object ; and his subsergucnt attitude has a look of in- 
i inoe rit y, if not worse. We fear it must be said that, in his wish 
to aaxNnpUsh the Union, he did not scruple to allow the Irish 
CthoBci to enienain hopes which, he well knew, michl not be 
fnttDed; that he all but pledffcd himself to them, (hrouRh the 
E<anl Linitcnant, though he fell he might not be able lo redeem 
tke pledge; and that he thought his conscience abMilveiJ by a 
iHi^Batkn — which he look care should noi last long— without 
mn UTtng to give effect to a policy to which ho Mood committed 
aa a man and a minister. The best excuses, ix-rhaps. in be made 
lor him are that, in his ignontnce of Ireland and her re;il Male, 
hr tfid not understand all thai was involved in the course he 
took, SDd that, in ihe death struggle of ihe nlxllion, he iM-lieved 
fl wu bit duty lo become the head of ihe stale, without regard to 
tBodMacy or (oa fine a sense of honor. 

Undcrthe Cnn.«iilutionof 1781 Ireland unque^dionatily made 
Koal and material progress; ihe ancient divi.sionsof Uim-I and 
deed, which for centuries have kejn her ran-s. apart, and her 
fcodi of dtm, had to some extent disappearrtl. In these cir- 
O^MlUKXi it ms not impossible, though in our judirnient it wa.t 
■el pnbablr, that Gnttan's idi-al might have, wiih a free I'ar- 
ImmM and a powerful landetl genm. ihe rt-^jHTl uf a conlentcd 
But the French Re^xilution »tnttrreil thej*- hope* lo 
; its dotntctive influence was a<^ fatal, perhaps, in 
L aa in any pan of Europe; it Uighted the fair prtuntK 


of the close of the eigfatccnth century. We must add, too, that 
hanng regard to the relations it created between Great Britain 
and Ireland, the Constitution of 1782 was not likely to endure; 
it was hardly compatible with the security of the British em- 
pire; it was distrusted by British statesmen. Be this as it may, 
the French Revolution, searching Irish institutions to the wry 
core, proved how errors of policy and faults of the British and 
Irish (iovemments prevented reforms which might, conceiva 
bly, have averted the disastrous events that followed. RelxUion, 
however, began to lift its hea^i; a revolutionary movement to 
combine Irishmen in a league against England, the common 
enemy, and to stir up anarchical strife, was cnjsscd and ba/Hed 
by another movement, characteristic of the ill-feeling of the i>ast; 
and the end wa.s a horrible war of race and religion. For much 
that was done in 1 7(>8, Clare and the men at the Castle are to Ije 
severely blamed; but their jjosition, we must n^coUect, was dif- 
ficult in the extreme; and if the)* forcecl civil war to a>me to a 
head, they certainly prevente<l a worM! catastrophe. .\s afTain 
stood when the relx-IIion had ende<l, a union had become a ne- 
cessitv of state, in the interest of In land an<l of (ireat Britain 
alike; but Pitt managed the settlement Ixidly; and the Union 
was an ill designed measure, carrii-^i by sinister mcrans through 
the Irish Parliament, and accomjanitxl l)y an act of wn>ng to 
Catholic Ireland, of which the re'»ulls wca- long felt. Still Pitt 
must not be Ujo liarshly ja«ige<l; in the existing state of the 
world he was bound to accomplish a union at almost any risk or 

Ireland enterrtl into a union with England under unhappy 
a>n<litic>n5, and at an inauspicious lime. The Catholic question 
was one of pressing imfiortance, and, if unNCttlixi, certain to 
cause tmuble; the counlr\- refjuirecl other reforms, the necessity 
of which had bcgiin to be seen bj' some of the Ijesit men in the 
Irish Parliament. Ireland was in want of a strong but pnnn^-^- 
sivr g«»vemment; but she had Xxxn united with (*reat Britain at 
the ven' time when the conflict with France was Hum to Ixxii.Tie 
one of life an<] death; when all hopes of changes in the slate 
seemed gone; when reactionary ideas had immense force; when 
unbending Toryism was supreme, nay absolute. .\nd the re- 
forms she Mtdcd were, in mmt iattances, in direct oooflict with 


Britah ideas; in others, wrrr litlle understood by British stales- 
SMfli and livbnd was to be ruled by a Parlianienl that knew 
fan aot, and by politicians well m«ininK, indn-d, bui often ill- 
iFifrM^tH and without sympathy; it being doubtful, too, if in the 
pmiBir Nate of her representation, slic would possess sufTicient 
cofherown. Theprosperity of Ireland had been largely 
"; the land had be«i devastated by civil war; the dregs 
of lAdBcD Uogercd; animosities of race and faith had been 
katfvSfy revived; and the islajid was behind England in culti- 
vmlioa and wealth. TTicsc drcumslajicfs alone made it no easy 
laik to govern ttvland wet) in an imperial Parliament, and by 
onnklen dependent on it. If the Union was a necessity of the 
liBc; if. on the whole, it was to cfTecl good, it was to be seen that 
il wu not an utunixcd blessing, and that it was to be accom- 
M, with some real evils. 


qucnccs of a compleie bremch, he went just far enouf^ into the 
adroitly laid sn&rcs of Talleyrand to greatly compromise himself, 
his fellowambas&adors, and the Administration. The want of 
tact was so much the greater, as Talleyrand, by three different 
mediators, gave the ambassador to understand that the payment 
of a large sum of money was a coixlition precedent of a settle- 

In the early part of April, 1 798, the l^resident laid before the 
House of Representatives all the documents bearing on this pro- 
cedure. If, even before his administration had begun, the gen- 
eral feeling of the country had been constantly turning against 
France, fK)w 9 real tornado of ill- will broke forth. 

The Anti- Federalists would willingly ha\*e gi\Tn currency to 
the view that the aml>assadors had been deceived by common 
cheats. But their ranks grew so thin that they were obliged to 
proceed with great caution. 

While Jefferson had called the President's message of March 
iQth mail, he rK>w dcdaa-d: ** It is still our duty to erxleavor to 
avoid war; but if it shall actually take place, no matter by whom 
brought on, wc muM dcfi^nd ouiselves. If our house be on firet 
without inquiring if it was fired fnmi within or from without, we 
must try to extinguish it. In that, I have no doubt, we shall act 
as one man." That such would have been the case will be 
scarcely questioned rniw. Rut although the .\nti- Federalists did 
not think of planng the (art of traitors, and although they gave 
expression to their sympathy for Frame only in a suppreaoed 
tone, Jefferson was right when he said that ** [mrty passions were 
indeed high." The visionaries became sober, arxl those who 
haul been solder intoxicated. HeiKe the discord grew worse than 

\ small number of the Federalists were anxious for war, and 
the rest of them consi<lercd it at least as probable as the preKnrm* 
tion of peace. Warlike preparations were therefore pushed for- 
wan! mith energ>'. But it was not considered sufhdent to get 
reaily to receive the foreign enemy; it was necessary to fetter the 
enemy at home. The angr>' aliens were to be gotten rid of whOe 
it was not vet too late, an<I the extreme Anti Federalists wrre to 
be deterred from throwing too great obstacles, at this terioui ttoie, 
in the way of the AdministratiorL In the desire to ef ect both ol 


AcK things, the so-odlrd Alim and Sedition laws, which scaled 
tke tut o( the Federal party and gave rise In ihc doclrine of nulli- 
SflioB, had ihcir origin. 

The pUn of this work docs not permit us to dwell on the con- 
leaCi of thcK UwB. SutBce it tossy that (or a long time they 
have been coosiderrd in the United Slates a.i unquestionably un- 
Al Ihc lime, however, there was no doubt among 
I prominent Federalists of their constitutionality. 
en questioned it as little as he di<l their exiK-diency. 
BM W <ttd not conceal it from himself thai their adoption was the 
auUbhmeni of a dangerous precedent. Lkiyd of Maryland 
had OB June 36th introduced a bill mon- accurately to defme 
the dime of treason and to punish the crime nf sedition, which 
faiD was intended for the suppression of all exhibitions of (riend- 
Mp tot France, and for the better ptt>tection of the Government. 
H«»nt«. moce to Wolcott in relation to this bill that it endan- 
^led the tntemal peace of the country, and would "give to fac- 
tioa body and lolidity." 

Lloyd's bill did not come up to be \-otcil ufxtn in its original 
fann; buf the Alien and Sedition laws were of themselves sufTi- 
ocnt 10 realize Hamilton's (cant. Tht- supremacy of Ma^sachu- 
Ktta and Connecticut had become so unbearable to the South 
Am the idea of Kparation amse again in May. The intlufntial 
}6bn Taylor of Virginia thought " that it was not unwise now to 
qtimaiff the separate ma» of Virginia and North Carolina with 
a *iew to ibcir acparste existence." Jcncr?wn wmic him in rela- 
llOB to this adnce, on June 1, i7<)tt."thal it would not U- wise lo 
i launediatdy to a disruption of the Union when l>arty ims- 
I waa at luch a height. If we now nxlure our Union m Vir- 
^■ia and North Carolina, immediately the conllict will Ix- i->lat>- 
■Aed between tboac two States, and they will end by breaking 
fatfo tbdr simple units." 

A» it was necessary that there should be some party to oppoM-, 
it was bat lo keep the New Engbml Slates for lhi> purjxw, He 
I to say against the rightfulncis of thr step. He i-on- 
t( with dissuading frum it on gnnind:' >'t exprdirnry. 
i patience until fortune should change, and ihe " lost 
** n^t be regained, "for thi.^ i.t a g.-imc in whiih prin- 
■ IK the Make." 


ment being aoverrign and mdcpcndcnt, have the unquestionable 
right to judge of the mfraction; and that a nullification by thcM: 
sovereignties, of all unauthorized acts done under color of that 
instrument, is the rightful remedy.'* 

In later times the admirers of Nfadiaon and Jefferaon who 
were true to the Union have endeavored to confine the meaning 
of these rr^lutions within so narrow limits that every rational 
interpretation of their contents has been represented by them as 
arbitrary and slanderous. Wlien about the eml of the third and 
the beginning of the fourth decade of this century, the op[iusition 
to the Federal Government in Oeorgia, and csficcially in South 
Carolina, began to assume an alarming form, the aged MadiM>n 
expressly protested that Virginia did not wish to ascribe to a sin 
gle Stale the Constitutional right to hinder by force the execu 
tion of a law of ihe United Slates. "The n'srJulion,** he wn>le 
March 27, 1831, ''was expressly decbralory, and, procec<iing 
from the I^egislature only, which was not even a fiarty to the Con 
stitution, could lie declarator)* of opinion only/' In one sense 
this cannot Ix* qucstionetl. In the rcjiort of the committee of the 
Virginia Ix-gihlalure on the answers of the other States to the reso- 
lutions of 1 7<>8 we read as follows : ** The declarations are expres- 
sions of opinion unaccom(>anied by any other effort than what 
they may produce on opinion, by exciting refletlion." But to 
conceile that this was the siAc intention of the resolutions ol 
December 24th, is to dqirivc the wonLs aiconling to which the 
States hafl the right and were in duty bound to ** interpose" in 
case the (leneral (iovemment hail in their opinion permitted it- 
self to assume ungrante<i (lower, of all meaning. 

But it has never yet lxt*n clenietl that these few m*ords exprcfli 
the pith of all the res«)lutions. More was daimctl than the right 
to express opinions— a right which hail never been c|ucstiuncd. 
If expression w*as not ckariy and distinctly given to what was 
claimed, it was to leave all {lossible ways o\ycn to the other Stmica 
to come to an agreement in all essential matters. 

JefTerson was in this instance less cautious than Madison, and 
his vision was more acute. He thought that the crisis of the Coo* 
stitution had come, and therefore assumed a standpoint from 
which he could not be forced back to the worthkii postkMi 
adopted by Madison in his celetNmtcd report of i8oa Jcffenoo 


sDoiKd h to depend on the further course of events whether force 
ifaould be taed, or whether only Ihc rif^ht to employ force should 
be atpnmiy uid formally claimed. At Urst he was anxious that 

■ mtlMl* r^TW" i^V>iilil hf -icgitmfvl hill a miflHIf- pncitifxn whlch 

■flonled ft Kcure foothold. The Lef^sbturc of Kentucky had 
done lliil, tBumuch as it had adopted that passage in his draft in 
wWdi il wu daimed that the General Government and the States 
wm cqttal parties, and in which it was rccognL£c<l that the latter 
bad "an equal tight to judge" when there was a violation of the 
^, as wcU as to determine the ways and means of re- 

I, and, later, Benton, as well as all the other admirers 
et the " Sage of Monticello," who were opposed to the Later school 
irfwn ■iiiiiiili. tiiM laid great weight on ihe fact that the word 
■uBficalioo, or anything of a like import, is to be found only in 
ihr Kentucky resolulions of 1799, which did not originate with 

This technical pica in Jefferson's behalf has been 
1 by the publication of his works. Among his papers 
t*e copies of the original draft of the Kenucky resolutions of 
I798havi! been discovcrxxl in hin own handwriling. In them wu 
ind the following: "Resolved, That when the General Govem- 
■CBl aKumca powen which have not beon delegated, a nullifi- 
cadoD of the act is the rightful remedy: that cvvry State has a 
■ab&al right, in cases not within the compact Icasus nan jariUrii), 
to wtOaty of their own authority nil assumplionn of [K>wer by 
othm within their limits." 

That Jeffcrv>n wa.* not only an advocate, but the father, of 
the doctrine of nulhtication is thus well estabhsheil. It muy be 
ikat Nicholas secured his assent to the striking out of these scn- 
•CBOei, but cw fact has as yit Urn discovereit in support of this 
amamfHion. Still less is there any positive gntund fur the allega 
lioB that Jeffcrann had begun to doubt the jxisilion he had as 
HBcd. Various passages in his later letters |M>int decidedly to 
At vcfT opposite conclusion. 

The Vliginia ami Kentucky resolutions produced no further 
iaiMHliatc ooQsrqurnccs. The re<-i>gni;e<l leaders of the Anti' 
Fcdcntbts or Republicans had given thi-ir inter^imation of the 

k, and of the Union created by it. Thdr decUralions 
i a bog time unused, but also uorecallcd and unfurgoi- 

j6 rise of the democratic party 

ten. The intenud conteits continued and their character re- 
mained the !uune. The revolution in the situation of parties now 
necessitated a change of front on both sides^ and for a time also 
the battks between them were waged over other points and in 
part in another way. 

The next collision was an actual struggle for supremacy. An 
inadequate pro%ision of the Constitution alone made this battle 
a possibility to the Federalists; but the struggle over the question 
of the Constitution was after all considered only as a mere acci- 
dental collateral circumstance* 

The Republicans (DemocraU) had won the Presidential elec- 
tion by a majority of eight of nine electoral \*otcs- Their two 
candidates, JcfTenon and .\aron Burr, had each received se\'enty- 
three \-otes. They intended that Jefferson should be President 
and Burr Vice President. Spite of this, howe\er, they gave both 
the same number of \-otcs, either not to enclangcr Burr's election 
or because he Ixxame a candidate only on that condition, lliis 
was, considering Burr's ri-tiutation and the boldness of his char- 
acter, a ciangemus ex|>crimcnt. Ju<lge Wdodworth charged that 
Burr hail mon r»ver one of the ekxtors of New York to withhold 
his \-oie fn»m Jcffcr*>n, an<I that this was prevented only by the 
fart that the other elcc ttjrs of the Slate had discovered it in time. 
If this c harge \x well foumic^l, it was by mere accident that the 
countr)' es(a{icd ele< ting a man Pn-sident whose name had ne\*cr 
yet licen connet teti miih the Prn»i<leni7 by any [jariy. 

If an er]ual numl>er of electoral vfites should be cast for two or 
more (andi<!ales, the Houm: of Repre-scnlatives wouH ha\*e to 
elec t one of them to the Pre-sidcnc y. In this case, the \x>tcs would 
be caAt by Siatc-^, and it would W neiessary that a majority of all 
the States !»hould \*ote for one c)f the caniiidates in ortier to have 
a valid electi^m. The Fetieralists had a maj<irity in the House 
of Rqircsentatives, but \'r>ting by States they could control ooljr 
c>ne half the \*otcs. This was just sufhcient to prevent an elec- 

No one deni<^l that the majority of the people, as well as the 
Rrimblican elettor^, <lesiretl to make Jefferson President. But 
party (jassion haii reat hoi such a feverish height that the Feder- 
alisu resr>h-ed, spite of this, to plant thcmsehTS on the letter of the 

and to hinder Jcffenon*s election. The poasibility 


of cfacting their own candidates' was completely excluded by the 
Coafdtiiliofi. They could therefore do nothing except to obtain 
for Buir ft majority of the \*otc3 of the States, or prevent an clec- 
tioB. In caae no President was elected by the Slates, Ihey thought 
of caMtng the election on the Senate. The Senate was to elect a 
ptoTMiooal President — from among the Senators or not — who 
tlicn inif^ be declared Pmidcni of the United Slates. Such a 
ptocceding could not bejustificd by any provUionof ihcConslilu- 
boa; (he case had not been pru\'i(fcd for at all. It is imimssiblc 
k> wjr wliether this is the reason why the plan wa» soon droi>[>ed ; 
ccftain it is, however, tliat Gibbs's statement, that such a plan 
never eiutcd, ts incorrect. 

After ■ante hesitation ihey resolved to try to i-led Burr. Only 
■I Stales, it ia true, rated for him, but it was necessary to win over 
ooly bar votes in onlcr lo guantnlcc him the Ic^l majority of 
wiut States. The prospect of the success of both plans was at 
hsM great enough to inspire the Republicans with serious fear. 
shad written on December isth to Iturrthat "decency" 
i him 10 remain "completely pa-ssivc" during the cam- 
But now he considered the situation so serious that he 
1 no longer bound by "decency." He personally 
d Adanu lo interfere by his veto, if the Federalists should 
t lo turn over the Government, during an inierrcgnum, to 
It fro km. Although he dcclart^l th:ii such a me:l.^urc 
i probably exdtc forcible rcsislancc, .\dams refused tu be 
J bjr bis advice. 
Mrttr** pnpoacd another means of escape. He th»ui!hl 
AbI an mmngmmi until the meeting of Congress in Oct cmlxT, 
tSei, would be too dangen)us: jeffcpMin and Burr should iherv- 
ioR <aD Congress together by a common pnMl-imaiM'n or rt-(um- 
This «rp iftuld no more Ik- ju«lifn'l by .iny prxi- 
a of the Constitution than an intrm-);num uit'li-ra pninsinnal 
Madison himself tonccileil lh;it ii wi'uld n>ii U- 
'■ffcttyrqcuUr." But the literal intcrprrlalinn wav |.r»-sumably 
Ac alpha and omega of the political rrt-ol cf the Kct>ubli<am. 
Spile of thta ibe notioa mn with JclTtTvinS appnittatiim. 

BeC»RB the two panics, or mther aUiie ihrm, «t<MMl the 
I fciadff of the Fedctalisl pany himM-If. Kven Hamilton advin-d 

J 'AtUmnai I'lacktK) — Ki). 


that a concession &houM be made to the interests of political ex- 
pediency. The posksibilities which the equal electoral \-ote placed 
in the hands of the Fwleralists in the House of Representatives 
were to be use<l wherever |x>!isible, to force certain promises from 
Jeilerson. But Hamilton did not wish to go any further. He 
declarcfl the pniject of the interregnum to be ** dangen)us and un- 
becoming,*' and thought that it could not possibly succeed. Jeffer- 
son or Burr was the only question. Ulien his party assoc iates also 
seemcfl to have adopted this view, he used his whole influence to 
dissuarie them fmm smuggling Burr into the White House. He 
hail written to Wolcott on I>ecember i6th, that he expcctal that 
at least New England would not so far lose her senses aui to fall 
into this snare. When he was mistaken in these expectations he 
wn>te letter after letter to the most pniminent Federalists who 
might exert an influence directly or indirectly on the election. 
**If there lie a man in the n-orld/* he wrote to Morris, ** I ought 
to hate, it is Jeffcrwrn.*' Spite of this, howe\Tr, he pleailed for 
Jefferson's election hanlrr than any Rqiublican: "for in a case 
like this," he afMcxi, "it wouKl \k base to listen to personal con* 
sideralions." Besides, he alwa\'S dwelt with emphasis on the 
folly, the baseness, the corruption and im[)olicy of the Burr in- 
trigue. In all thc-se letters, some of which are \Try lengthy. He 
sho>**s himself the far sctHng statesman, and examines everjlhing 
with calmness am] incision; but at times he rises to a solemn 
[lathos. With the gn'atest firmness, but at the same time with a 
certain amount of regret, he writers to Bayanl : ** If the f^rty shall, 
by supporting Mr. Burr as President, adopt him for their official 
chief, I shall l>e ol^ligc*! to consider m^-self as an isobted man. 
It mill lie im|)osMble for me to recom ile mith my motives of honor 
or policy the continuing to be of a party which, according to my 
apprehension, will have degraded itself and the country." 

Hamilton's intellectual superiority was still rrcogniMd by the 
Fetieralists but s[Mte of this he stood almost isolated from every 
one. The repulsi%T virulence with which the ]mny war had been 
waged during all these years, aiKl the consciousness thai their 
defeat was in a great mea.sure due to the bitter ancl exasperating 
contentions among tbemsehTS, had duUcd the political judgment 
and political morals of mmt of the other leaders. Hamthon*s 
admooitioQi were not without cffea, but be was not able to bnog 


about a complete suirmdcr oiF the plan which was as impolitic as 
it mat oomipt. The electoral contest in the House of Rcprescn- 
ttlimoootinued from February nth to the 17th. Not until the 
Ihiiqr-axtb boJlot did so many of the Federalists use blank ballots 
ihU Jeflenoo ncei^'cd the ^'otes of ten States and was declared 
the kgilljr elected President. According to the testimony of the 
Fcdcnlbt Rq>resentalivrs themselves, the fiel'l would not even 
jnrt have been dcared were it not that Burr had surrendered his 
■mbiguous poeition. lie could not cnmjiletely and formally re- 
DOttncc tus Republican friends, and hence the Federalists received 
ham fami only vague and mcuninglcss assiirumes. All the dan- 
^a» to the pHfly and the country which would have been the con- 
aeqacsceof the success of their intrigues, they would have Icnow- 
taglyeDlaikd inonler to place at the head of the Government one 
•fan they believed would turn his back on them the moment 
dMjr had belpe<l him into power. I'hey would have been throw- 
ing dke to delennine the future of the Union simply for the satis- 
iKtuo of venting their hatred on JefTenion. 

Everyooc waa fully conscious of the magnitude of the crisis. 
~ Me to Hamilton on March 8th ronceminf; the last 

ai of the FederalisU: " AU acknowlrdgetl that nothing but 
CfStc meuures remained, which several were disposeil to 
pt and but few were willing o)ienly to disn)>pn>ve. We bn>kv 
e in oonftision and disconl. and the manner of the last 
bsOot was arranged but a few minutes Ix-forc the Icillol was 
grtm.** Some yrais later he rrpcatcd the assertion under oath, 
thai there were Mmie who thought it t>elier to abide by iheir vote, 
and ti> mnain without a I'rrsidenl, rather than choose JefTcrvin. 
BoC naaud and patriotism at length obtained the mastery. Hay- 
■■d MCms to haxT Ixcn the instrument of this derision. 

How much Hamilton contributed to the defeat of the ad^iv 
cataoltheM hom^itei it is not coxy to estimate. Randolph, ai the 
IBC a member of the House of Representatives, often ex)>resscd 
Uacoaviction that the safety of the Republic was due to Honiil 
tarn. Their was do difference o( opinion in the two [>anirs on 
M^ thai the virtory of the siubliom Fe<ler:di»l!> woultl have 
Mrfoorijr CDdangcTcd the Rq>ublic. 

One mooth before the balloting began we find the ronvidion 
pervakal aiDoag the Fedcraltsu that the Republicans would, un- 


of the close of the eighteenth century. We must add, too, that 
having regard to the relations it created between Great Britain 
and Ireland, the Constitution of 1782 was not likely to endure; 
it was hardly compatible with the security of the British em- 
pire; it was distrusted by British statesmen. Be this as it may, 
the French Re\t>lution, searching Irish institutions to the very 
a)rc, proved how errors of policy and faults of the British and 
Irish Governments prevented reforms which might, conceiva- 
bly, have averted the disastrous events that followed. Rebellion, 
however, began to lift its head; a re^^olutionary movement to 
combine Irishmen in a league against England, the common 
enemy, and to stir up anarchical strife, was crossed and bafBcd 
by another movement, characteristic of the ill-feeling of the past; 
and the end was a horrible war of race and religion. For much 
that was done in 1 7(>8, Clare and the men at the Castle are to be 
severely blamed; but their [K>sition, we must nxroUect, wzs dif- 
ficult in the extreme; and if the)' forced civil war to come to a 
head, they certainly prevcntcti a worse catastrophe. As aHairs 
stood when the rebellion had endf<l, a union had become a ne- 
cessitv of state, in the interest of Inland and of Great Britain 
alike; but Pitt managixl the settlement baiUy; and the Union 
was an ill deigned mc"a5ure, carritfi by sinister means through 
the Irish Parliament, and accomjjanied by an act of wrong to 
Catholic Ireland, of which the results were king felt. Still Pitt 
must not be too liarshly juilgetl; in the existing state of the 
world he was bound to aca>mplish a union at almost any risk or 

Ireland entered into a union with England under unhappy 
conditions, and at an inau*»i»icious time. The Catholic question 
was one of pressing imjiortance, and, if unsettled, certain to 
cau5e trouble; the counir\- nxjuired other reforms the necessity 
of which had begun to be seen b)* some of the best men in the 
Irish Parliament. Ireland was in want of a strong but progrrs- 
sive g»>vemment; but she had been united with Great Britain at 
the ver>' time when the conflict i»ith France was scjon to become 
one of life an<l death; when all hopes of changes in the stale 
seemed gone; when reactionary ideas had immense force; when 
unbending Toryism was supreme, nay absolute. And the re- 
forms she net4c4 were, in mmt iastincM, in direct conflict with 


h Idas; in others, wore little undcriiood by Brilish stalcs- 
and Ireland was to be ruli-d by a Parliament ihaC knew 
M, aod by politicians well meaning;, indeed, but often ill- 
d and without sympathy; it being doubtful, too, if in the 
r mtc oi her representation, she would possess sulTicieni 
» of her own. The prosperity of Ireland had Ix-en largely 
d; the land had been devastated by civil war; the dregs 
at lebdlioa lingered; animosities of race and faith had been 
fawfnlljr tv%'ived; and the island was behind Enj^land in culli- 
nckn and wealth. These circumstances alone made il no easy 
tHfc to govrm Ireland well in an imperial Parliament, and by 
Wlinttlfrf dependent on it. If the Union was a necessity of the 
dne; if, an the whole, it was to cCTccl g(Kxl, it was to be seen that 
it vaa not an unmixed blessing, and that it was to be accom- 
panied, al least, with some real evils. 

L, VOL. <«.—«. 




AJ>. 1801 


AmoQf the {K>litical pArttet which have appcarrd in the United Sutcs 
since the foanding o( the Republic manjr irtMc throuf h temporary tnf!a- 
ences and. with or without accocnpHfthinf noteworthy aimi, came to an 
end 0( thiMe which, whatever chani^es at one time or another they may 
hare undergone. ha%'e long remained aji permtitent factors in American 
politics, that which almost from its origin haa been known aa the Demo- 
cratic party b the oldest and at many penodi has been the dominant 
party of the country. It has controlled the national or the executive 
Government under nine TreAidenu Jefferson, Madison, Monroe, Jack- 
son. Van liuren. Tolk. ricrcr. HucHanan. and Cleveland. 

Under Washington arv<l John Adams the national executive was cm* 
trolled by the KcderaluiA. a party formed in 1787 to support the Federal 
Constitution Its importance cra5^ soon after the War of 18 is. It 
was opposed by the An ti Federal party, which stood against strengthen- 
ing the National (Wncrnmcnt at the expense of the States. The name 
AntJ Federal went out of uv al»ou! 17'M. ^nd the opponents of the Fed- 
eral party t{X>k the rvame of Ke{Hjblicans. Their party was afterward 
called the Democratic Republican. an<l still later (iftiS) the Democratic 
party, a name chosen as Ijetng "novel, distinct, and popular.* Of tkla 
party— as the Democratic- kr|Hibliran —Jefferson Is regarded as tbt 
founder. axKl the DemcxTattc party to the present day is often called the 
• jarty of Jefferson." nhile the term * Jeffersonian Democracy* U as fre- 
quently applied to It* print iplrs. 

In the survey of \'on H<>Ut. an eminent authority on the polittcml 
foutKlation and development ti the I'ntted States, the origin and prm- 
ciples of the Democratic p^rty are clearly set forth, and m Jefiersoo*s 
first inaugural, which follows, the political faith of the pftrty.aa gives bf 
himself, is dcnnitely suted. 


\A/ASHINGTON*S prrsmcc made Adams's iiuugurmlion a 

moving spectacle. Adams remarked that it was difficult to 

say why tears flowed so abundantly. An ill defined feeling fiUcd 

' From Von Ifobt's C^mihtmiiim^I mmJ Poliik^ His$my 0f th4 
SuUi (New Yori . Callaghan and Conpaay), by pcrmimoo. 



mDniiiida tlut severer storms would ha\T lo be met now that the one 
■MO ms DO lunger at the hood of the state, who, spile of all oppo- 
Matm, WIS known to bold a place in the hi-arts of the entire peo- 
ple. The Federalists of the Hamilton fai:tion gave very decided 
opcanons to these fears, and Adams himself was fully conscious 
that his lot had fallen on evil da)'s. It was natural that the com- 
plications with France should for the moment inspire the greatest 
eop cem . The suspicion that France was the quancr from which 
the new administration was threatened with greatest danger was 
wooa veri6cd by events. 

The inaugUTHl address touched on the relations between 
France and the United States only lightly. Adams bad con- 
loilcd himself with speaking of his high esteem for the French 
people, and with wishing that the friendship of the two nations 
wi^A continue The message of May 16, 1797, on the other 
fand, addRSBcd to an extraordinary session of Congress, treated 
Aitqnetfion ocliisively. The I*ro$i<lent informed Congress that 
the Dinctofy bad not only refused to receive I'inckncy, but had 
mu otd ere d him to leave France, and that iliplomalir relations 
D the tiro powers had entirely ceased. In strong but tem- 
t language he courLselled them to unanimity, and recom- 
Ithat "cfTecluol measures <if defence" should be adopted 
t dday. Il is necessary "to conWnce France and the 
«acU that we arc not a degraded people, humiliali-d under a co- 
loaial qiiritof fearand sense of inferiority, filtcil to be miserable 
ts of foreign inilucnt e, and rrganlless of national honor, 
cr, and interest." At the same time, however, he prom- 
iaed to make another effort at negiil iation. 

Ptocknry, ManhaU, am) Ciern- were i horten lo make an effort 
tD bring about the rcsimipiion of diplomatic ri'laiion<i and the 
Ucod^ Mtlkment of the pending dithrullies. 1'hnr cfTons n-ere 
enaplelely fruitless. The Directory did not indeeil trmt ibem 
«Uh opeo (fiacourtcsy, but mei them in such a manner lliat only 
WK9 and greater insults were added lo the olih-r. Oerr)', for 
whan Adami entenaincd a feeling uf [K-rM>nal frit-nd<thi[>, wa.s 
■KM accrptabk to the Directory, becau**- he w-ji an .\nti FeiU-T- 
afaL TaOeyrmnd cndeavDn-d to persuade him to .id al»nc. 
Thar can be no doubt whatever that Gerr> hati no authority to 
ds aa. hfify fmn vanity, and partly from fear of ihc coiim> 




AJ>. 1801 


Amoof th« political parttct which have appeared in the United Sutcs 
since the founding of the Republic many arote through temporary influ- 
ences and. with or without accoropliahing noteworthy aims, came to an 
end. Of those which, whatever changes at one time or another they may 
have undergone, have long remained as persistent factors in American 
(lohtics, that which almost from its origin has been known as the Demo- 
cratic party b the oldest and at many periods has been the dominant 
party of the country. It hai controlled the national or the eiecutivc 
Government under nine I' residents Jefferson. Madison, Monroe, Jack- 
son. Van liuren. Tolk. i'tcrce. liuchanan. and Cleveland. 

Under Wafthington ami John Adams the national eiecutire was 000* 
trolled by the Frdcrah»L%. a party formed in 17S7 to support the Federal 
Constitutioo Its importance cruMrt! »oon after the War of iSu. It 
was oppoftcd by the Ann Federal party, which stood against strengthen- 
ing the Natiorul (*»o%(rnmrnt aI the rspenie of the States. The namt 
Anti Federal went out oi uv j!>ou! t7>4. and the opponents of the Fed- 
eral party tifok the name of Republicans. Their party was afterward 
called the Democratic Republican. An<l still later (i8j5) the Democratic 
party, a name chc^sen a% being "novel, distinct, and popular.* Of this 
party ~ as the Democratic Republican — Jefferson b regarded as the 
founder, and the Democratic party to the present day b often calM tUm 
■ jurty of Jefferson." mhile the term " Jeffersooian Democracy* baa fre- 
quently applied to M% print jpl'-s. 

In the survey of Wni HoUt. an eminent authority on the politicd 
foundation and development « ( the United States, the origin and pn»- 
ciples of the Democrattc party are clearly set forth, and in Jeflersos's 
firvt inaugural, which follows, the political faith ol the pArty.aa given bf 
himself, b de^itely stated. 


\A/ASmNGTON*S prwrncc made Adams's tnatigurmtion a 

moving spectacle. Adams remarked that it was diflBcuh to 

say why tcan flowed so abundantly. An ill defined feeling filled 

* From Von llobt't CmnttfrnU^ma/ MmJ P^iikmi Hisi^fy 0f tki Umiisd 
SisUi (New York . Cillaghan and Cocnpaoy), l>y pcrmiasaoa. 



bthat levCTrr storms would ha\c to be met now that the one 
■■a «w DO longer at the head of the stale, who, spite of all oppo- 
Mom, ms known to hold a place in the hearts o( the entire peo- 
ple; The Fedenlists of the Hamilton faction gave very decided 
ririiwiiiiw to these feais, and Adams himself was fully conscious 
that hti bt hid fallen on e\il days. It was natural that the com- 
a with France should for the moment inspire the greatest 
The nisptcion that France was the quarter from which 
dK Dew ■dminutration was threatened with greatest danger was 
aooa verified by events. 

The uuuguni address touched on the relations between 
Fnncc and the United States only lightly. Adams had con- 
Icxttcd himself with speaking of his high esteem for the French 
people, «nd with wishing that the friendship of the two nations 
m^ht OMidntie. The message of May i6, lyg;, on the other 
hand, addneiMd to an extraordinary session of Congress, treated 
tfakqnestioa exclusively. The President informed Congress that 
ihe Directory bad not only refused to receive Pinckney, but had 
CVCB otdend him to leave France, and that diplomatic relations 
B the two powcn had entirely rea.sed. In strong but tern' 
t languaj{c he counselled them to unanimity, and recom- 
"effectual measures of defence" should be adopted 
t dday. It is necessary "to convince France and the 
d that we arc not a degnuiwl jx-oplc, humiliated under a co- 
d Ipirit of fear and sense of inferinrily. filleii to be miwrablc 
ntaof foreign influence, and regardless of national honor, 
r.aod interest." At ihc same lime, however, he prom- 
ed Id make another effort at negotiation. 
PiDckney, Marshall, and (lerry were < hosen In make an effort 
brini about the resumption <>f diplomatic rrittttxn?' ami the 
y Kttlcmcnt of the pcndinR diflirulties. Their eflurts were 
'f fruitlrsa. The Dlnilory diil not irnlee*! trral ihrm 
wilh open dbconnesy, but met them in such a manner that only 
■■V aiid greater insults werv addnl Ui the older. Oerni-, for 
vkooi Adaau cnlertainrd a feeling of persinal friendship, was 
mam accqKable to the Dirwiory, becauM- he w;u an .\nti Fcder 
wMtL TaDcTraod endcawred to persuade him to act atone. 
TWr can be no doubt whatever that Gerr>' had no authority to 
do Mb Paitljr buta vanity, and partly fmm fear of the conse- 


quenccs of a complete breacht he went just far enough into the 
adroitly laid snares of Talleyrand to greatly compromise himselft 
his fellow-ambassadors, and the Adminmration« The want of 
tact was so much the greater, as Talleyrand, by three different 
mediators, gave the ambassador to understand that the payment 
of a large sum of money was a condition precedent of a settle- 

In the early part of April* 1798, the President laid before the 
House of Representatives all the documents bearing on this pro- 
cedure. If, even before his administration had begun, the gen- 
eral feeling of the country had been constantly turning against 
France, now a real tornado of ill* will broke forth. 

The AntiFctleralists would willingly ha\T given currency to 
the view that the amiiassadors had been deceived by common 
cheats. But their ranks grew so thin that they were obliged to 
procee«l with great caution. 

While Jefferson had called the President's message of March 
iQth mad. he now deilarcd: ** It is still our duty to endeavor to 
avoid war; but if it shall actually take place, no matter by whom 
bn)Ught on, we must clefen<l ouiselvcs. If our house be on fire, 
without inquiring if it was firwl tnim within or from without, we 
must try to extinguish it. In that, I have no doubt, we shall act 
as one man.** That such would have been the case will be 
scarcely questioned now. But although the Anti- Federalists did 
not think of planng the |>art of traitors, and although they gave 
expression to their s)-mpathy for France only in a sujifji 
tone, Jefferson was right when he said that **(>arty passions 
indettl high.'* The vuvionaries became sol)er, and those who 
hail Ijeen sober intoxicated. Hence the discord grew worse than 

\ small number of the Federalists were anxious for war, and 
the rest of them considered it at least as probaUe as the pTaarm- 
tion of peace. Warlike preparations were therefore pushed lor- 
wanl with energy. But it was not considered sufficient to get 
reaily to receive the foreign enemy; it was necessary to fetter the 
enemy at home. The angr>' aliens were to be gotten rid of whtk 
it was not vet too late, and the extreme Anti Federalists were to 
be deterred from throwing too great obstacles, at this serious tiiiie» 
in the way of the Administration. In the desie to effect both of 


thor ihtngi, the so-called Alien and Sedition laws, which scaled 
the Eue of the Federal party and gave rise to the doctrine of nulli- 
fi cm ri o n , had tbdr origin. 

The phn of this work docs not permit us to dwell on the con* 
lam of these hm. Suflice it to say that for a lon^ time they 
hftvc been conndcrtd in the United Stales as unquestionably un- 
n—titutianaL At the time, however, there was no doubt among 
al the noM prominent Federalists of their constitutionality. 
&Hflbxl eves questioned it as little as he did their cxpnliency. 
Bat he Al not cotural it from himself that their adoption was the 
mahluhinent of a dangerous precedent. Lloyd of Maryland 
had on June >6lb inliDdured a bill more accurately to define 
the criiDe of treason and to punish the crime of sedition, which 
fafll «aa iaiended for the suppression of all exhibitions of friend- 
ihip far Fiance, and for the belter protection of the Government. 
BnAoB wrote to Wolcoit in relation to this bill that it endan- 
■Bcd the ioteroal peace of the country, and would "give to fac- 
tioa body and aotidity." 

UajKl't bin did not come up to be votetl u|>on in its original 
facm; but the Alien and Sedition laws were of themselves sulli- 
doa to reaUw Hamilton's fcArs. The siiprcm,ti y of Massachu- 
Hm and Coiuntrlicut had become so unbearable to the South 
thai dw idea of leparalion arose attain in May. The inlluenlial 
Join Taykir of Viripnia thought " that it was not unwise now to 
catiDttlc the •eparalc mass of Virginia and North Carolina with 
a view lo their Kparate existence." JelTcrson wmir him in rrla- 
liaa to thh adrice, on June 1, 1 798, " that it would not be wL«e to 
pDOead fan m edi alely to a disruption of the Union when party [hu- 
■oa waa at nicfa a fadgfal. If we now reduce our Utiion to Vir- 
^■ia aad North Carolina, immediately the omllict will 1h- eslab- 
Biked betw tco those two States, and they will end by breaking 
iH> ihar MBpk unitt." 

Aait was neccMary that there should be some (larlr to oppose, 
ft aaa bcM to keep the New England States for this purpose. He 
* ' I to say aicainst the rightfulness of the stip. He nin- 
K with dissuading from it on grounds of exjHdicncy. 
d padencc until fortune should change, and ttu- " liml 
" ai^t be regained, " for this Ls a g.-inic in whiih prin- 
a are the stake." 


mcnt being aoveirign and tndcpendentt have the unquestionable 
right to judge of the infraction; and that a nullification by thcM; 
sovereignties, of all unauthorized acts done under cobr of that 
instrument, is the rightful remedy.*' 

In later times the admirers of Nfadison and Jefferson who 
were true to the Union have endeavored to confme the meaning 
of these rc^lutions within so narrow limits that every rational 
interpretation of their contents has been represented by them as 
arbitrarv and slanderous. When about the end of the third and 
the beginning of the fourth decade of this centur)*, the op[K>sition 
to the Federal CJovemment in Georgia, and esixrcially in South 
Carolina, began to assume an alarming form, the aged MadL<ion 
expressly protested that \'irginia did not wi«kh to ascribe to a sin- 
gle State the Constitutional right to hinder by force the execu- 
tion of a law of the United Siatt-s. **The resolution," he wrote, 
March 27, 1831, "was expressly decLiratory, and, pmceetling 
from the Ix*gislaturc only, which was not even a [>arty to the Con- 
stitution, could be declarator}' of opinion only." In one sense, 
thill cannot he questioni^l. In the refxirt of the committee of the 
Virginia I^*gihblure on the answers of the other States to the reso- 
lutions of 1 7c>8 wc read as follows : ** The dcx tarations are expres- 
sions of opinion unacaimpanieYl by any other effort than what 
the)* may prcxluce on opinion, by exciting refleilion." But to 
concede that this was the .sole intention of the resolutions ol 
December ^4th, is to dq)rive the wonLs, acconling to which the 
States had the right and were in duty bound to ** interpose** in 
case the (General (lovemment hail in their opinion ixrrmittrd it- 
self to assume ungranted |x>wer, of all meaning. 

But it has never yet Ix-en denied that tht-se few wonb expre^i 
the pith of all the resolutions. More was lUimetl than the right 
to express opinions— a right which had never been questioned. 
If ex|)ression was not cleariy and distinctly given to what was 
claimed, it was to leave all possible ways o[)en to the other Stales 
to come to an agreement in all essential matten. 

Jeffenon was in this instance krss cautious than Madison, and 
his visi<in was more acute. He thought that tl^ crisis of the Coo- 
ftitution had tome, and therefore assumed a standpoint from 
which be could not be forced back to the worthlcis position 
adopted bjr Madison in his celebrated report of 180a Jeffeisoo 


d it to depend on ihc fnrthtr course of events whether force 
Aoold be used, or whether only the right to employ force should 
be expressly uid fonnally claimed. At first he was anxious that 
amiddlcpontiansbouldbcassumcd, but a middle position which 
■ frmtnl 1 Mcurc foothold. The Lcgislalurc of Kentucky had 
daoelUl,iliasrotldiasit had adopted that passage in his draft in 
«Wdl it wu chimed that the (icncral Government and the States 
were eqtuil parties, and in which it was recognized that the luitcr 
had "an equal right to judge" when there was a violation of the 
I, as wcU as to determine the ways and means of re- 

1, and, later, Benton, as well as all the other admirers 
of llK**SaKeof Monticcllo," who were ujifiosc^d lolhe later school 
rfMliwiiiiiiiili. have laid great weight on the fact that the word 
■■■ficstioa, or anything of a like im;x>rt, is to be found only in 
Ae Kemucky resolutions of lyog, which did not originate with 
JafciBM. This technical plea in Jefferson's behalf has l>ecn 
wmtmatd bjr the publication of his works. Among his papers 
lae eofrics of the ori^nal draft of (he Kenucky resolutions of 
i}9Bbavc been discovered in his own handwriting. In them we 
iad tbefoQowing: " Resolved, Thai when the(ieneral (lovem- 
■cai avumcs powers which have not Ixrn dek-gat(.-<l, a nulHli- 
B at the act is the rightful rcmnly: that cverv' Slate has a 
ll ri^l, in cases not within the cttmpact (rojiu wtfn /W/nj ), 
I naBfy d their own authority all assumptions of [tower by 
hen vrithin tbeir limits." 

Tbai Jeflmon was not only an advocate, but the father, of 
m doctrine of nullification is thus well eMablishcd. It may be 
■1 Nicholas secured his assent 10 the Mnking out of these M-n- 
■cati but DO fact has as yrt been discovered in sup))on of this 
■■■pliaa. Still teas is there any po>itive gmuml for the allega 
OB thM Jefferson had begun to doubt the ixMJiion he hail os- 
ned. Various passages in his later letters {Miint decidedly tu 
m voy opposite conclusion. 
The Viqpnia and Kentucky resolutions produced no further 
e consequcncrs. The rccrtgni/eil leaders of the Ami 
1 or Republicans hail givm their inlcrjir^-talion of the 
d of the Union created by it. Their dccUnuions 
d a king time unused, but also unrccallcd and unforgot- 


ten. The internal contests continued and their character re- 
mained the same. The revolution in the situation of parties now 
necessitated a change of front on both sides, and for a time also 
the battles between them were waged over other points and in 
part in another way. 

The next collision was an actual struggle for supremacy. An 
inadequate provision of the Constitution alone made this battle 
a possibility to the Federalists; but the struggle over the question 
of the Constitution was after all considered only as a mere acci- 
dental collateral circumstance. 

The Republicans (Democrats) had won the Presidential elec- 
tion by a majority of eight of nine electoral \x>tes. Their two 
carKiidateSv Jefferson and Aaron Burr, had each received seventy- 
three ^-olcs. They intended that Jcflcnion should be President 
and Burr Vice-President. Spile of this, however, they gave both 
the same number of \'otes, either not to endanger Burr's election 
or because he became a candidate only on that condition, lliis 
was, considering Burr's reputation and the boldness of his char- 
acter, a dangerous cxjjcrimcnt. Judge Wcxxlworth charged that 
Burr hsul won over one of the elct tore of New York to withhold 
his ^xne from Jcflcrs<r>n, and that this was prevented only by the 
fact that the other elct tore of the State had disco\Tred it in time 
If this charge Ixr well foundcii, it was by mere accident that the 
country es(a[)Cfl clcc ting a man President whose name had nevxr 
yet been connected with the Presidency by any jiarty. 

If an er]ual number of electoral \*oics should be cast for two or 
more candi(btes, the House of Rq)rcscnlativcs wfiukl have to 
elect one of ihcm to the PrcsideiKy. In this cxv, the vxitcs would 
be ca5t by Stales, slimI it ^f >uH l)e necessarv' that a majority of all 
the Slates should \-ote for one of the candidates in order to have 
a valid election. The Federalists had a majority in the House 
of Representatives, but voting by States they could control ocily 
one half the votes. This was just sufficient to prevent an elec- 

No one deniccl that the majority of the people, as well as the 
Republican clectore, dcsiretl to make Jefferson President. But 
party |iassion had reached such a fev*erish height that the Fcdcr- 
alisu resolved, spite of this, to plant thcmselvTs on the letter of the 
Coostitutioo, and to hinder Jeffefion*s election. The powbiltty 


at cfctting ihcir own candidates' was compiclcly excluded by the 
CoMdltttian. They could therefore do nothing except to obtain 
ior BtnT t majority of the votes of ihe States, or prevent an dec- 
doo. In case no President was electetl by the States, they thought 
g ibe decdon on the Senate. The Senate was to elect a 
I President — from among the Senators or not — who 
then mi^ be declared President of the United Stales. Such a 
ptooenfing could not be justified byany prov-isionof thcConstitu- 
tkn; the case hid ttot t>ecn provided for at all. It is impossible 
Id njr whether this is the reason why the plan was soon d roppcd ; 
cotain it b, boweiiTr, that Gibbs's statement, that such a plan 
never existed, is incorrect. 

After fume bexilation they resolved to try to elect Burr. Only 
Ki States, it u Inic, voted for him, but it was necessary to win over 
only fcur votes in onler to xuarantev him the legal majority of 
nine States. The prospect of the success of both plans was at 
Inat peat enough to inspire the Republicans with serious fear. 
D had written on Dc-ct-mbcr 1 slh to Burr that " decency" 
o remain "completely pa.tsivc" during the cam- 
But now he considered the situation so serious that he 
I hinutclf DO longer bound by "decency." He personally 
d Ailams to interfere by his vein, if the Federalists should 
t to ttim o^-er the Government, during an inierrrgnura, to 
• ncrideat fro Urn. Ahhough he di-clan-d that .Nuch a measure 
I probably «dtc forcible rcsislunce, .Adams refused to be 
1 b)r hb advice. 
Madhrwi piopoMd another means of escape. He thought 
Am an interrefnum until the mvvling of Congn-ss in Dec ember, 
bSdi, WDold be too darif^ious; Jcffervin and Burr shoul<l ihen;- 
iovecall CoogTCU tDf;ether by a common piTHlamalii>n or riinm- 
■Mttdation. This ilrp couM no mnrr Ik- juMilk-tl by any pni 
nBOOolthcCoostitution than an intrrregnum i]n<k-r a pnimional 
riiihlilil Madison himsrif tomi-dcd ih:it it wuuM not l>c 
"Miktljr RKular." But the literal intcqin-iuiion w;is ]'n-*umably 
As Alpha and oncga of the political cn-f<t of the Republicans. 
SpilK si dib the notion mti with Jrllervin's appiubalion, 

1 the twu parties, or rather ubuve thi-m, sluoii the 
ref the FedcTBtist party himself. Even Hamilton adviwl 
'Aduuaad I'sxltiKj'.— Lt>. 


that a concession should be made to the interests of political ex- 
pediency. The possibilities which the equal electoral vote placed 
in the hands of the Federalists in the House of Representatives 
were tf) \)c use<l wherever |K>ssible, to force certain promises from 
Jefferson. But Hamilton did not wish to gt) any further. He 
declare^l the pn)je<i of the interregnum to Ix' ** dangen>us and un- 
bccf>ming/* and thought that it could not possibly succee<l. Jeffer- 
son or Burr was the only question. When his party asMx iates also 
seemed to have ailopted this view, he usc<l his whole influeme to 
dissuade them from smuggling Burr into the White House. He 
hail written to Wolant on IXxemlxTr i6th, that he exix-c tetl that 
at least New EnglarKi wouki not so far lose her senses as to fall 
into this snare. WTien he was mistaken in these exiKxiations he 
wn»te letter after letter to the most pn)minent Federalists who 
might exert an influence directly or indirw tly on the election. 
**If there lie a man in the ^^-orld/* he wnite to Morris, ** I ought 
to hate, it is Jefferson." Spite of this, however, he pleailefl for 
Jefferson's election hanlcr than any Republican: **for in a case 
like this,** he afldcnl, "it would Ik base to listen to personal con- 
tide rat ions.** Ik-sides, he alwavs dwdt with emphasis on the 
folly, the bavrni-vs the corruption and im|x>licy of the Burr in- 
trijrue. In all thc-se letters, some of which arc vtTy lengthy, he 
shows himself the far string statesman, and examines ever>ihing 
with calmness and incision ; but at times he rises to a solemn 
pathos. With the greatest firmness, but at the same time with a 
certain amount of re^jret. he writes to Bayanl: ** If the jKirty shall, 
by supporting Mr. Burr as President, adopt him for their official 
chief, I shall l>e obligt^l to coasider myself as an isolatcfl man. 
It will \k imjwissihle for me to recom ile with my motives of honor 
or jjolicy the continuing to be of a {Kiriy which, according to my 
apprehension, will have degraded itself aiKl the country.'* 

Hamilton*s intellectual superiority was still rrcogntMd by the 
Feileralists but s|>ite of this he stood almost isolated from every 
one. The rrpulsivT virulence with which the fwirty war had been 
wai^ during all these years, arMi the consciousness that thctr 
defeat was in a great measure due to the bitter arni exaspermtinK 
contentions among themseUTs, had dulled t)^ political judgrocnt 
and political morals of mo^t of the other leaden. Hamikoo*! 
admoQitiom were not without cffecty but be was out able to briog 


ftboot a complete surrender of the plan which was as impolitic as 
it WIS cDmipt. The electoral contest in the House of Represen- 
tatms continued from February i ilh to the 17th. Not until the 
dnrty-iixtli ballot did so many of the Federalisis use blank ballots 
tlttt jtBenoa received the toIcs of ten Slates and was declared 
tfar k^Oy elected President. According to the testimony of the 
Fedeia&st Representatives themselves, the field would not even 
ytt hkvc been cleared were it not that Burr had surrendered his 
a position. He could not completely and formally re- 
s Us Republican friends, and hence Iho Federalists received 
faoB him only vafrue and meaningless assurances. All the don- 
gen to the party and the country which would have been the con- 
nqucnce oi the success of their intrigues, they would have know- 
ing entailed in order to place at the head of ihe (lovemment one 
vtaooi thry believed would litm his back on them the moment 
dKy had helped him into power. 'I'hey would have been throw- 
oif fUce lo dctcnninc the future of the Union simply for the salis- 
factjofi ol venting their hatred on Jefferson. 

Evoyone was fully conscious of the magnitude of the crisis. 
Bayaid wrote to Hamilton on March 8ih concerning the last 
• of the Federalists: "All acknowledged nothing but 
r mcasuiea remained, which several were disjioseil to 
i but few were willing o[xrnly to rli.sapprove. We broke 
ime tn confusion and discord, and ihe manner of the last 
IS arranged but a few minutes Ix-fore the ballot was 
^VCB.** ScoK yean later he reftenled the assertion under oath, 
ikM thne were some who thought it lieltcr to abide by their vote, 
and to remain without a Prntideni, rather than chiM>Mr JelTerson. 
Bui wain and patriotism at length obtained the mastery. Bay- 
aid MCBM to have been the irwirument of ihis dnision. 

How much Hamilton contributed to the defeat of the advo- 
CMEiolUieTC hoMfWf.' it is not eaxy to estimate. Randolph, at the 
lime a mouber of the House of Representalivn, often exprrMcd 
hia caovktiaa that the safety of the Republic was due to Hamil- 
•oB. There wma no difference of r)pinion in the two panii.'v on 
Mi« that the victory of the stublMm Federalists tvould have 
iBfa^y eodancmd the Republic. 

One month before the balloting btgan we find the conviction 
< among the Federalists that the Republicans would, un- 


dcr no dmimsUmceft, be sadsSed with an interregnum or with the 
election of Burr. James Gunn« a Federal Senator from Georgia, 
wrote to Hamilton on January 9th : '* On the subject of choosing 
a President some revolutionary opinions are gaining ground, and 
the Jacobins are determined to resist the election of Burr at every 
hazard. I am persuaded that the Democrats have taken their 
ground with the fixed resolution to destroy the Government 
rather than yield their point.** 

The Republicans did not oppose this conviction, but declared 
it to be well founded with all the emphasis with which such dec- 
larations ha^T always been made in America. JefTerson wrote 
to Nf onroe on February i sth, two days before the election : " If 
they (the Federalists) had been permitted to pass a law for 
putting the Government into the hands of an ofEcer, they would 
certainly ha\'e prevented an election. But we thought it best to 
declare openly and firmly, one and all, that the day such an act 
was passed, the Middle States would arm, and that no such usur- 
pation, even for a single day, should be submitted to. This firat 
shook them, ami they were completely alarmed at the resource 
for which we dcclaml; to wit, a convention to reorganixe the 
Government and to amend it." Armed resistance, followed by 
a peaceful re\t>lution ; such was the last word of the RepubUcana. 
The Federalists rightly considered this ultimatum to be no vain 
threat. In a letter written the day after the election to Madiaoo, 
Jeflerson speaks of the ** certainty** that legislati^-e usurpation 
woukl have met with armed resistance. Ami Jcflrcnon*s testi- 
mony is by no means the only e%'idence. Even the press began to 
treat the suhjeti of ** belle, herrida belle!'* More than this; in 
V'ir^nia, where the excitement was greatest, estalili^hmcnts had 
alrea^iy been erected to supply the neressar)' arms, and evtn 
troops. John Randolph, in the speech already mentioned^ had 
completely lifted the curtain that hung over this subject. Reli- 
ance was to be placed on Dark's brigade, which had promised to 
take possession of the arms in the United States armory at Har- 
per's Ferry. 

The idea of waging war on the Union with its own weapons 
b vtTj old ; the secessionists did nothing more than carry out die 
plan which the "fathen** of the RepuWc had considered aa 
bodying the proper coune under ceitain contingcndca. 


TIk victoty of the Republicans did not by any means produce 
the icvolutiao in intenud politics which was (o be expected. 
When the dedonl vote had been made known, Jetlerson, in the 
tat tnuifpofta of his joy over the victory, blew with all his might 
the trumpets of the opposition. He tendered Chancellor Linng- 
Mod a place in his Cabinet, that he might be of some sen-ice in the 
"new ntablishmcnt of Republicanism; I say for its new estab- 
H*'**T*'*_ lor hitherto we have only seen its travesty." The stub- 
born labtaocc of the Federalists, which wounded his vanity not 
n Bnle, iocrcmwd his anj^ feeling against them. On February 
ifltb be fumiahcd Madison with an account of the election. He 
hys puticutar stress on the fact that the Federalists did not finally 
vote lor htm, but thai there was an election only because a part 
of them abstained from rating, or only used blank ballots. " We 
iitfi^ii I this, therefore," he says, "a declaration of war on the 
put of (his band." 

Thoe utterances arc thoroughly in keeping with JeETcrson's 
pncadiag courac, and with his n-ords and actions towanl the Fed- 
^■Pf^ and tbetr poUcy. Spile of this, however, his on-n future 
polcy b not to be inferred from ihem. Hamilton did noi fall 
into this error, because be was well acquainted with the main 
Haiti of Jefferson's character, and cslimatwl their reblivc value 
ODmctly, although his judgment on the whole may have been 
J too severe. He therefore saw and foretold the char- 

Tofjeflefaon'a policy lietler than JetTcnon himself aiuld have 

c while under the intlueme of the- excitement of the political 
Hamilton writes to Bayanl, January- 16, 1801 : "Nor 
> it true that jcflcrson is zealot enough to do anything in punu- 
■ee of hil principles which will ronlruvene his p()[iul.-irity <>r his 
wtmtaL He b ax likely as any man I know to temporize, to cal- 
:riMe «4»t wiU be likely to promote his outi repuiaiion an<l ad- 
; and the piobablc rcsuh of such a lemjitT is the presena- 
qrttcms, though originally opposed, which being once 
d oould not tx- o^-ertumed without dani;iT to the pcrfin 
ndU fa. To my mind, a true estimate of Mr. JetTerson's char- 
wanaots the expectation of a lempori^ng rather than of a 

TlJi |ad|CiDeni of Hamilton found its confirmation in the in- 
iftnal addraa of the new Frcsidcnt. In it Jcflenson cotmscls 


thmt the rights of the minority should be held sacred, that a unkm 
in heart and soul should be brought about, and that an effort 
should be made to do away with despotic political intolerance as 
religious intolerance had already been done away with. "We 
have called by different names brothers of the same principle. 
We arc all Republicans — we are all Federalists." 

Jefferson could not only use such language without dangert 
but it was unquestionably the best key in which he could have 
spoken, although the extreme Republicans would have much pre- 
ferred to listen to a t*^ vkiis! He had asserted as eariy as the 
spring of 1796, that '*the whole landed interest," and therefore 
a large majority of the people, bebnged to the Republican party. 
There is now little differmcc of opinion on the point that Jeffer- 
son would immediately have followed Washington in the Presi- 
dential chair, if the elcTtors had been nothing but the men of 
straw into which the)* afterward degenerated. But even if this 
could be rightly questioned, it m-ould not yet follow that the ma- 
jority of the i)e<>ple were then really inclined to the Federal party. 
The Republicans were far inferior to the Federalists in the num- 
bers and the ability of their leaders; and, moreover, the great 
mono-ed interests of the Northern States were the cornerstone ol 
the Faleral party. These were two elements which might vtry 
well keep them in power awhile longer, e\Tn if the nujority of 
the ))eople were in reality more attached to the principles of tbetr 
antagonists. But th<7 were not a support on which they could 
establish lasting rule. In a democratic rq>ublic, the political in- 
fluence of the mone>*ed interests, when they have mA attained 
the immense prr>pr)rtions they have in the America of to-day, ti» 
as a rule, \*ery limited, and that of talent is very frequently still 

Hamilton's lead was followed as bng as the pressure of neces- 
sity was felt. But as soon as the most diflkiih labor of organtift- 
tion was done, his superiority became one of the greatest obitacki 
which stood in the way of his public activity. Not only did tlie 
Federalists put him aside by degrees, but their fauhfinding with 
his actions aiMl omissions began here aiKl there to partmke of tlie 
tone of the most odious attacks made by the Republicans on Us 
policy. This was a sign of the times which doierved the mon 


-, ■ brcmch occurs between its founders and the masses that 
c it, its (U71 are, as a rule, numbci^. If the breach takes 
ptace after the essential idea on which Ihi- party was founded has 
been reaHxed, il will not, and cannot, be long survived. 

Tliia one essential idea, which constituted the real sparic of 
vitality in tbe FederaUst party, had been realized before the end 
of Waahiiiglon's second term as President, and the existence of 
tbe watk as weO secured as was possible under the drcumstances. 
TW brce wfaid) moved the pendulum in its fonvard motion was 
And if il did not begin iu backwani cour^ imme- 
; bot Moned to stand for a momcnl in suspense, it was 
B an accidental foree acted u|x>n it from without. The 
1 of tbe supremacy of the Federal party was due 
jr to tbe unhealthy attitude assumed by the Anti-Federalists 
lowafd France. When the fruits of ihis began to be reaped in 
Aetranaactinns under the government of the I)irettor>'. the power 
of tbe Fedenhsts, which was then <)erlining, at once mounted 
to its xrnith. The Congressional flections of 17Q; were vciy 
iavorable to tbcnt. I'hc value of this success, howc\-cr, must not 
be ovcfotintaled, as it was owing I0 a question of external poli- 
ticB. Only in case fereif^ politics, by the outbreak of war, should 
be kept BKisI ptotnioently in the fort^mund, could they hope that 
Ikdr BUGCcv would obtain a more lasting character. But the 
^mxni between France and the L'nitetl States h.v1 reached its 
hd^ whh the"X. Y. Z."' affair and with Clcrr^'s return- 
Wbcs Adams, contnry to a former solemn assurance, resolved 
IB Mud a Dtw etnbassy to Frani-e, ihe Republicans Mxm rr- 
piocd tbe ground they had lost ; for the attitude of the people 
lD«afd questions of home politics remaineil essentially unol- 

Tbe poattion of the Federalists in the Pn-si<lenii:d elertion of 
ifln had been a desperate one. The hopelessness of iheir silua- 
tte dRWv tbem lo the rash and despicable ;:ame in the Houjte of 
They would have been deterred fmm il if the>' 
ba«« ascribed their riefeat ir> accidental and transitory 

ka X. Y. 2. Uiasloo, an Amcfican cmtwMy to Fnuier m t;9;. 
^ flf C. C. Fiackaty. John Minball. .uid Kltrktcc Cttn. An 
■I VM audr b; thrc* Frtnch ae^"!^ (tli)cu>*«l a* \.. Y.. mA Z ) 

a., TOt, XV-— i. 


causes. The conrcspoiKlence of iheir leaders, hciwever, diowti 
plainly that their faint hofxr of inrtter success after four years was 
only a hope against their Ixrtter judgment. The reaction had fairly 
set in. The Republic ans did not dare to touch the essential things 
which had Ixren accomplished during the twelve years' victor)* of 
the PVleralists over them, and did not even desire to do so; for 
the same matter is seen very differently from the jxiint of view of 
the Administration and of the opposition. It might not \k ei- 
[Kxted of them that the)' would intentionally increase the heritage 
left them, but if they would not immediately scjuander it, the cap- 
ital wx)uld lx*ar interest ami increase. More was not to be ex- 
pcctcfl. The defeat of the Fwleralists was a decisive one, far 
even the citadel of their strength was undermined. While in the 
Southern States a more tcmjx-rate ftTling prevaile<l, the Republi- 
cans in the New Enj^^land States lx*gan to celebrate triumphs. 
The decisive {Kiint, however, was that they obtaineil a firm footing 
in the rural districts, whereas, hitherto, they had found adherents 
only amonj^ the m<»n' mmurial {copulation of the brge towns^ 
The t holt e tnw»i>s <»f the Fc^tlera lists Ix-gan to waver on every si<lc, 
and the intrigue!* c»f the leaders in the House of Representatives 
gave the impuLsi- to the ( omplete dissolution of their ranks. Yet 
neither the sense of h'>nor, nor the healthy judgment which drew 
fn»m Hamilton the <!etbnition that he must renounce a [Kirty 
whit h had thus M)iletl il,> name, was wantinj^ among the masses. 
It was seen at the moment how great wxs the mistake made* 
Kven during the k'ilk»tin;: in the House of Rc'pn-sentatives, ihc 
Frtleralisls went over in swarms to the encrmv; even* vote for 
liurr was another nail in the coffin <»f the [>arty. This sucklen 
and >iolc*nt fall c»f the Fe^ieral j>arty explains the security which 
the (onlinuance of the Union enjoyetl clurin$» the two following 
dccacles. The jwuly whic h repn-sentetl {Kirticubristic tendencies 
was in |v»ssession of power, and had an overwhelming majority. 
In the next Prrsiclential election Jeffers^m and Clinton recei%fd 
each one hundred sixty-twt) electoral votes, while Charles C. 
Pinckne)* and Rufus Kinj? rweivetl only f'>urteen each, and in 
1 80^ there were onlv seven Federalists in the Senate. But e%^en 
if the probabtUty of a disru[>tion was therefore \*enr small the 
c hancter of the internal struggle remained the same. This char* 
acter was e%tm placed in a clearer light by the fact that the parU 


ph^vd by each wprc changed, so far as the ([ucslion of right was 
I, and that the opposition, spite of its weakness, was not 
I with wishes and threats of separation, but b^an in car- 
am Id demc plans of dissolution. 


Called upon to undertake the duties of the first executive of- 
fice of our country, I avail myself of the presence of that por- 
liaa of my fcUow-cili«ns which is here assembled, lo express 
■y gntefut thanks for the favor with which they have been 
pIcMcd to look ton-ard me, to declare a sincere consciousness that 
te Uak ia above my talents, and thai I approach it with those 
■mHit antl awful presentiments which the greatness of the 
charge, aikd the weakness of my powers, so justly inspire. A ris- 
iag nation, spread over a wide and fruitful land, traversing oil the 
aeaa wHh the rich productions of their indttstr\', engaged in com- 
titc wtlh nations who fct;l power and forget right, advancing 
n|wlly lo destinies bcj'ond the reach of mortal t7e; when 1 con- 
telplalc these tou\sccndcnt objecLs, and see the honor, ihe hap- 
piMM, and the hopes of this belovcxi country committed lo the 
fane and the auspices of this day, I shrink from the contcmpla- 
liaa and bumble m)-Nelf l>ef<ire the magnitude of llie undertaking. 
Vnaif indeed should I despair, did not the presence of many, 
■faoa I ben ice, remind me, thai, in ihe oilivr high authorities 
ptovided by our Constitution, I shall find resources of wisilom, of 
Tbtve, and of zeal, on which to rely under .ill difTicuttii-s. To 
JQO, then, gentlemen, who an.- chargeii wilh the sovereign func- 
tions of ksi^tion, and to those assiKialed with you, I l-^ik niih 
^Koungeinent (or that guJdanri- and sup|Hirt which may enable 
wt lo alecr with safety the vessel in which we arc all embarked, 
tmid the cocifiicling elements of a troubled world. 

During the eonirsl of opinion through which we haxe p-is-^f), 
Ae aaunation of diseu-ssions and of exertions has stimt'linus worn 
an aipect which might im|xtM-on strangers unustvl to think (n-elv 
■ndloqKmkandto write what they ihlnk: but lhis|>eing nnwile- 
dded by Ibr voice of (he nation, anntiumeil an onlinK lo the rules 
«C the Constitutioa, all will of cour>« arrange ihemsetves und(.-r 
ihr will of the law, and unite in <i>mmon rflnnN for (he comm'^ 
(KxL All too win bear in mind this sacred principle, that though 


the win of the majority is in all cases to prevail, that wiD, to be 
rightful* must be reasonable; that the minority possess their equal 
rights, which equal law must protect, and to \'iolate would be op- 

Let us then, fellow-citizens, unite with one heart and one 
mind, let us restore to social intercourse that harmony and affec- 
tion without which liberty, and even life itself, are but dreary 
things. And let us reflect that hanng banished from our land 
that reU'^ious intolerance under which mankind so long bled and 
suffered, we have yet gained little, if we countenance a political 
intolerance, as despotic, as i^nckcd, and capable of as bitter and 
bloody {persecutions. During the throes and con^iikions of the 
ancient workl, during the agonizing spasms of infuriated man, 
seeking thmugh bkxxl and sbughter his long lost litxrrty, it iA*as 
not wonderful that the agitation of the billows should reai h even 
this distant and fK^ccful shore; that thL« should txf more felt aixl 
fcarwl l)y !M)mc ami less liy others; ami should divide opinions as 
to measures of safety ; but every difference of opinion is not a dif • 
ferrnc e of principle. We have called by different names brethren 
of the same principle. \Vc are all Re{)uhlicans: we arc all Feder- 

If there be any among us who would wish to dis8ol%*e this 
Union, or to change its re}>ublican form, let them stand undis- 
turt)c<l as monuments of the safety with which ern>r of opinion 
may \k tolerated, where reason is left free to coml>at it. I kiK>w 
indeetl that Siome honest men fear that a re|>uhlican go%*emment 
cannot tie stnmg; that this (lovemment is rK>t stn>rig enough. 
But would the honest {tatriot, in the full tide of successful ex|ieri- 
ment. aliandon a ^>vemment, which has s^) far kept as free and 
firm, on the theon*tic and visionar>* fear that this (io\Tmment, the 
worki*s best hoj)e, may, by {Missibility, want ener^j}- to pmerre 
itself? I trust not. I believe this, on the a>ntnir\', the strocmcsl 
gos-emment on earth. I believe it the only one, where es'ery nian« 
at the call of the bw, woukl tlv to the standard of the law, and 
woukl meet invasions of the f )ublic onler as his own [lersonal con- 
cern. Sr»metimes it is said that man cannot lie trusted with the 
go^rmment of himself. Can he then be trusted with the gottni- 
ment of others? Or have we found angels, in the form of kiopb 
to fovtrn htm ? Let history answer thb question. 


Let tu Ibcn, «rith courage and confidence, pursue our own 
fedoml aod republican principles; our attachment to union and 
Rproenuti^'e government. Kindly separated by nature and a 
wide OGCU) Irom the exterminating havoc of one-quaner of the 
globe; loo bigb-minded to endure the degradations of the others, 
g a chosen rounir)-, with room enough for our descend- 
I to the ibousandth and thousandth generation, entertaining 
a due Mose of our equal right to the use of our own faculties, to 
the aoquisittoits of our own industry, to honor and confidence 
r (ellow-dlleens, resulting nut from Liinh, but fmm our 
d (heir eciuc of (hem, enlightene<l by a benign religion, 
i atid practised in various forms, yc'. all of them 
g honesty, truth, temperance, gratitude and the lovo of 
, idtno«rkd)pt^ and adoring an overruling Frovidencc, 
wUch bgr all its dispcn&ationa proves that it delights in the happi- 
■CM of man here, aiKl his greater happiness hereafter; with ail 
thae faieaings, what more is necessary to make us a happy and a 
pRHpenus people? Still one thing more, fellow-citizens, a wise 
■ad frugal goveminenl, which shall restrain men fmm injuring 
oae anolher, shall leave them otherwise free to regulate iheir own 
puwila of industry and impnivemenl, and shall not take from 
Ac Boolb of bbor the bread it has earned. This is the sum of 
food govenuncnl ; and this is necessary to close the cirx:lc of our 

About to enter, fellow -citizens, on the exercise of duties which 
d evcTjlhing dear and valuable to you. it i» proper vou 
I uodentaiKl what I deem the essential principles of our 
, and consequently those whi.h ought lo shajie in 
I will compress them within the narrowest torn- 
y wjU bear, stating the general prim'i])le, but not all its 
Equal and exact justice to all men, i>( whatever 
le or pmuasion, religious or political. |K-are, (ommerce. and 
leM faicndship with all naiions, entangling alli;inrc» uith none: 
mmfml of the State governments in all their rights, as the 
NOOOtprlcnt a<)ministration& for our domotii loncems, and 
■not bulwarks against ftntirr|)uhfiran lendendcs: the pres- 
■doo of the General (iovemment in its whole ccnMiiutinnal 
V.Mlbeshect anchor ofour|H-acc at home iind vifetyabniad: 
e of tbc right of election by ihi- |iei>ple, a mild and 


safe cx>iTPctivc of abuses which arc loppccl by the swoni of evolu- 
tion, where [xraceable rcmetlicsarc unpmvidccl: alj^olute acqui- 
escence in the decisions of the majority, the vital principle of re- 
publics, fmm whi( h is no apfieal but to fone, the vital [jrinc i|)lc 
and immetliate jmrent of des{x>tism: a well disciplim^tl militia, 
our Ixsl reliance in jMrace, and for the first moments of war, till 
regulars may relieve them: the supremacy of the civil over the 
militar)' authority : economy in the public ex]xrnse, that lalxir may 
be lightly bunlenetl : the honest payment of our debts arwl sacred 
presenation of the public faith: encouragement of agri(ulturr, 
and of commerce as its handmaid: the diffusion of information, 
and arraignment of all abuses at the bar of the public reason : free- 
dom of religion; freedom of the press; and freetlom of person, 
umler the pnitection of the habeas carpus; and trial by juries im- 
partially selected. 

These principles form the bright constelbtion, which has gtme 
before us, and guidctl our stq>s thmugh an age of re^olutitm and 
reformation. The wis^iom of our sages, an<l bkiod of our herxics, 
have lxx"n devotetl to their attainment : — thev should \pc the crerd 
of our fiolitical faith ; the text of ( ivic instruction, the tout hstorn: 
bv which to tn* the serv ices of those wc trust ; and shoukl we wan- 
der fmm them in moments of error or of abrm, let us hasten to 
retrace our steps, and to regain the n>ad which ak>ne leads to 
peace, lilxrrty, and safety. 

I rqxiir, then, fellow citizens, to the post \*ou have assigned 
me. With exjjcrience enough in subonlinate <iflfices to have seen 
the difficulties of this the greatest of all, I have leame^l to expert 
that it will ranly fall to the lot (»f imjx'rfect man to retin- frr>m this 
station with the n^putation, and the favor, whi< h bring him into 
it. Without pretensions to that high confidence you reposed 
in our iirsx arwi greatiM Revolutionar\- character, whi>se pretoii- 
nent wrvices had entitled him to the first f>lace in his country's 
k)ve, and destine*! for him the fairest |»age in the %t)Iume of faith- 
ful hiMf)r)', I ask so much confidence only as may gi%*e finnncas 
and effect to the legal administration of your affairs. 



After the framing aad idoptiixi of the Federal Cnnstitutton, the rimi 
■fsnui owil cvciil in the hintory of ihe t'nilc<l Suiea in the girat land 
iM|iriillioa known u the Louuiana Purchase, Already. «ven bclore Ihe 
no! Indepcodcan.a tnoTcmeni of population from the caiicm 
■ lo ihcncloB beyond the Allcghanle* hud begun. and ihi« advance 
id tke caaatrj'* inlerior had much to do with makiiig condiiion« 
B to tba new cxpan*ion when the opporiunily for li came. 
TW Ohio ud Miaaluippl rivers were at once seen to be available as 
gmi wsier roaiES of cnmmcrce. and these natural advantagcn rapidly led 
to* centiaocd weuward migration. To meet llie new conditions in tbc 
HiMiwlppi Valley, many roodilicalions of eastern modes and inslilutiona 
««n Mdc, and itie bcrca*in2 complexity of society. toKciher with for- 
■%■ llMllliI of the Mississippi country, rendered tlic prublcm of lurlhcr 
n in that direction difficult lu deal nitti. It was finally 
1 wtlboal tbe help of precedents atul witlioui «erious complica- 

Towaid the end ol Ihe eighteenth century, forces long at work deter- 
•iMdcTOilata the direction of American conlrul of the .MiMiMi|i|n Vjl- 
kr. I» wfaldi the French, old enemies of the llril>!>h colonists. UiU cUim 
^fum, ihc cariicT cbiniaDt. had refused free navigation of the M iuissippi 
to AaMricui Mlikn, but Unally in 1794 this wi« granted, Then, kn 
Dmt, the ctmBtrj which became known as the Louisiana furchase, in- 
dattaf New Orkafts and all the Und from the MiuiuippI In the Rocky 
M—tilBi mil bitwren l]<e t.utt of Mexico ami lUlliUi America. W4* 
mitt by Spain to France, in whidi cnuntry N.ijwlron had lately made 
Here KandaM'* srcnunl takri up Ihe hiMnry. in 
iCil and motl important of atl chanices in tlic poswMiim <■( ihc 
Via»-MiMiMippl lands gave them into the permanent keeping of llie 
INTELLIGEN'CE of the ctv^on «.f I^iii»iana and the Flori 

das by Spain to France reached the I'nilcl Slates. The im 
pottaol chuiftta ihU e\mt rauswi in our uwn fi'mnn n.-hiiioii.i. 
aad tbc on* an) ilnisive line nf juilit y il at unci- suKKested to 
Pwid eirt jfBfntm, nhuuli) \>e itivtn inhi*<.wfi wutiU. Hewrtiir 
ID Mr. LivingMoo, the American minister in t'ruKC, April iS. 


*'Thc ctssuon of Louisiarui axKl the Floridas by Spain to 
France works most s^>rrly on the Unilc<l Slates. On thLs j»ub- 
jecl the Sccrelar)' of State hxLs written to you fully, yet I cannot 
forbear recurring to it |K*n»<>nally, mi deep is the impresMon it 
makes on my miml. It completely reverM!* all the political re- 
lations of the United States, and will form a ncvi qxich in our 
political course. Of all nations, of any consi<lenition, France Is 
the one which, hitherto, ha.H offered the fewest |)oint5 on which 
we could have any conflict of right, and the most [joints of a 
a>mmunion c>f interests. Fmm these causes, we have ever kxikcd 
to her as our natural friend, as one with whic h we never coukl 
have an ck cxsion of difference. Her gniwth, therefore, we viewed 
as our own: her misfortune ours. There is on the gk)be one 
single s|)ot, the [xissessor of which is our natural enc-my. It is 
New Orleans, thnmgh whic h the produce cif three eighths of our 
territorj* must j>ass to market, and fmm its fertility it will ere 
k)ng yieki more than half of our whole pniduce and amtain 
more than half of our inhabitants. 

•* France, pbc ing herself in that dcwr, assumes to us the atti- 
tude of defiame. Spain mii:hi have retained it <|uietly for yean. 
Her [Pacific disjioNitions, her fcfble state, wouUI induce her to 
increase our facilities there, m) that her (Kjssession of the place 
would lie hanlly felt by us. ami it woukl not, |>erha[>s, lie xtry 
k)ng before M>me circumstance might arise which might make 
the cession of it to us the price of something of more f^tirth to 
her. Not S(o can it ever lie in the hands of France: the impetu- 
osity of her tem|)er. the enerjr)- and restlessness of her charmrter» 
placed in a {loint of eternal friction with us, and our character, 
which, though c|uic*t and k>ving f»i*ace and the f>ursuit of wcatth, 
ts high minded, despising wealth in com|ictition with insult or 
injury, enteqirising ami energetic as any nation on earth; these 
circumstances render it imfiossible that France and the United 
States can continue king frieinls when the>* meet in lo irritable 
a position. 

•'They, as well xs we, must be blind if xhcy cki not see this; 
and we must lie very impnn-ident if we cki not begin to make 
arrangements on that h%*|)othesLs. The day that France takes 
possession of New Orleans files the sentence which is lo re- 
strain her fore\Tr within her kwwater marL It leab the unioo 


of tmt MlioM, who, in conjunction, can mainlain exclusive pos- 
•Evioa id the ocean. From that momi-nt wc must marry our- 
•eho to the Briliab fleet »nd nAiion. \Vc must lum all our al- 
Icntica to ■ maritime force, for which our resources place us on 
vef7 hi^ ground: and having formed and connected together 
■ power which may render rcftnXonement of her settlements here 
inniiMililf to France, makes the first cannon which shall l>c &rcd 
ia Eunipe the sifcnal (or tearing up any settlement she may have 
■adc, and for holding the two continents of America in scqucs- 
balian for the common puqioscs of the united British and Ameri- 
€an natiofH. This is not a state of thinfts wc seek or desire. It 
m one which thit measure, if adopted by France, forces on us, 
■■ acEonrily as any other cause by the laws of nature brings on 
te BBCcaaiy effect. 

" It b not fium a fear of France that we deprecate this meas- 
WK prapoacd by her. For however ftreatcr her force Is than 
oaa, axnpaied tn the abstract, it ia nothing in unnparison to 
eon when to be exencd on our soil. But it is fmm a sincere love 
of peace, and a finn persuasion that, lx>und to Frame by the 
iamata and the strong sympathies still existing in the minds of 
I, and bokJing relative positions which insure their 
c are secure of a long course of peace. Whereas, 
Ae cbaage of fricndsi, which will be rendered necessary if France 
I ihai poaition, embarks us necessarily as a belligerent 
r IB the ^sl war of Europe. In that case, France will have 
Ud poMCHton of New Orleans during the intenal of a |H.-acc, 
koc or ahort, at the end of which it will be wTested from her. 
WiD tfaia abort-lived possession have Ixvn an ii|uivalent In her 
iar the tnoafer of luch a weight into the stale of her enemy? 
WU Dot the amalgamation of a >'ouiig, thriving naliun continue 
to that caeniy the health and fonx which are at present hi cvi- 
^iWttf on Qm decline ? And will a few years' poue^^on of New 
■ add equally to the strength of Frame? She may say 
b Louisiana forlhe supply of herWe>t Inriio. Shr di>cs 
d It in time of peace, ami in war Khe loulit not de]>end im 
■ (flopplical because they would be so easily inlenrfiled. I 
r thai all thcM* consideralion-s might, in Mime 
I, be btDU)ffat into new of the Govcnimcnl of France. 
led bf tia it otight not to give oQcnce; because we du 


not bring than forward as a menace, but as consequences not 
contniUabk by us, ami inevitable from the courie of things. We 
mention th<rm, not as things which we desire by any means, but 
as things we deprecate; ami we beseech a friend to look forward 
and to |>re\'ent them for our common interests. 

**If France considers Ix)uLsiana, however, as indispensable 
for her views, she might perha[>!» tje willing to look aix)ut for ar- 
rangements which might reconcile it to our interests. If any- 
thing a>uld do this it woukl be the ceding to us the islaml of 
New ( )rleans ami the Fkiridas. Thw would certainly, in a great 
degree, remove the causes of jarring and irritation lietween us, 
ami |>erha{>s for such a length of time as might prtxluce other 
means of making the measure fx-rmanently conciliatory to our 
interests ami fricmbJiifjs. It wouhl. at any rate. n'lie\T us fn»m 
the ntxes&ity of taking immctliate measures for cf>untervailing 
such an o|)craiion by arrangements in amuher quarter. But still 
we sh*>ukl ctinsider New Orleans and the Flori<las as no equiva 
lent for the risk of a quarrel with F* ranee, produced by her %'ic- 

** I have m) doubt you have urged these considerations on 
ever)- |>n>f>er occasion, with the (Government where you arc. 
The)' are suth as must have etTtt t, if yi>u can find means of pith 
duiing thonmgh retletlion on them by that Government. The 
idi-a here i^ that the in>o{>% M-nt to Santo Domingr) were to pro- 
cei-fl to LouiMana after finishing their i^tirk in that island. If 
thi> were the arranirement, it will give you lime to return again 
ami ai;ain to the < har^e. For the < onqur^l of Santu Domingo will 
m»l lie a >h*»rt wurl. It will take ( orisiderable time ami wear 
df>wn a irrrat numlxT <if v»Hit rs. Kverv e\c in the Unilwl States 
\^ HiAv t'uol on the alTairs of I>oui>iana, IVrhajis m>thing since 
the KeNolutionar) War ha.v pHKiucc^l more uneasy sensaticmt 
through the !ji>dy of the natif>n. Notwithstamling temporary 
bit kerinj^" have taken pbi e with F'ram e, she has still a strong 
hold on the alTtxtions <»f our (iii/>eas tjenerally. I have thought 
it m»t amiv*», hv way of supplement to the letters of the Serretary 
f»f State, to write \ou thiN [»ri\ate one. to impress )-ou mith the 
im{i»»riamf we aiht t** lhi> transoition/' 

This letter f^-as to Ix* Mmt to M. de Nemours, who was about 
to proceed from the United States to Fnuxre. As he did not cmU 


fcirit, tbc President forwarded it to him a{>cn; requesting him 
to pCMMMhimseU thoroughly of its contents, and then seal it. His 
ofa^ WIS ifata explained : 

"I wall you to be possessed of the subjcrt, because you may 
be able to imprcas on the Government of France the ineWta- 
bfe CDoaequences of their taking possession of Louisiana; and 
Thmigh. u t here mention, the cession of New Orleans and the 
Fkridu lo us iTOuld be a palliation, >'cl I believe it would be no 
■KHc ud thai this measure will a)st France, and perhaps not 
Wfjr iDOg betice, • war which will onnihilale her on the ocean, 
sad place that clement under the despotism of two nations, 
wUch I am not reconciled to the more because my own would be 
one of tbcm. Add to this the exclusive appropriation of both 
cootincnti of America as a consequence. I vfish the present order 
of iUb|P lo continue, and with a view to this I value highly a 
■ate at friendship between France and us. Vou know lt>o well 
hnraiiceTC I have n-er been in these disjiositions, to doubt them. 
Voa know, too, bow much I value peace, and how unwillingly 
I ihould Kc any event take place whi<h would render war a 
■■c^ivy raource, and that all our movements should change 
their cfaancter and object. I am thus open with yuu, liecause I 
OHt that you will have it in your [x>wcr to impress on that Oov- 
cniBeiit onadeniions in the scale a} which the pos.scs.Mon 
of |-««ff'l"ft is nothing. In F.urupi-notliing but Europe is seen, 
i to have any right in the affairs of nation.^; but this 
, of France's possessing hen*elf of I^>ui^ta^a, whii h 
it tfacDWB in as nothing, as a men: make weight in the general 

I of accounts— this spcik which now apfH-ar?. as an 
I iniiible point in the horizon, is the cmbno of a tcimado 

D bunt on the countries on lioth sides nf the .Alliiniic, 
e in its eflcits their highest destinies, Thul it may 
jM br avoiiled ts my sincere prayer; and if you i an U- the means 
of *■*'■— "'"g the wisdom of Botupane of all itx 1 iinM>|urnri>, 
Jtm hare dea cr ve d wdl of both countries. Peace and at)stinmce 
J interferences are our objeils, and so will nm 

r tbeprcscni order of things in America remains unin 

m a bold experiment on the ruler of Fninrr- the first 
id 00c of ibc lout limid slainmen and diplomati.sts 


of modem times. The morality of the President's attitude rests 
on the basts of necessity — the right to do that which is indis- 
pensable to self-presenation. The practical consequences in- 
volved were the same in a single point — so far as I Louisiana 
was concerned— as those contemplated in Hamilton's Miranda 
scheme. But the btter made conquest its primary object, and 
it pmposed to fall upon another power because it was weak and 
defenceless, not because it was dangerously strong. It indeed 
made some late show of acting for the purpose of guarding 
against {>reciscly what now had taken place; but if we should 
assume this to be a sincere ground of action, it would only have 
put our country in the posture of plundering a weak neighbor to 
pre\*cnt a more dangerous neighbor from plundering it— <loing a 
moral wrong in anticipation, for fear some other power might 
do that moral wrong. l*his woukl be a plea on which nations 
or individuals could alwa}'s found a right to rob the weaker. 

But when P'rancc actually obtained a title to these contigu- 
ous f>rD\inccs an<l proposed to make herself our neighbor, she 
%*t)luntarily, and by no fault of ours, practically commenced a 
5tq> whic h all Americans agreed in considering fraught with the 
cxtremest danger to our countr)*. Even then we did not attempt 
secretly to form confederacies to wrest her property from her. 
We went to her frankly and told her our news. We went boklly 
to the thc*n strongest nation on earth, and informed her if she 
pcnasted in cokmizing at a point which gave her the key of our 
western {losses&ioas she must prepare for war with us and such 
friends as we coukl secure to our alliance. And neither was this 
made the alternative of her pelding up anything that belonged 
to her without a rightful equivalent. It was the purpose of our 
Cabinet, the moment it was found France would negotiate on 
the basis of parting fn>m her newly acquired possession, to offer 
her far more for them than the)- had cost her. Our Cabinet migltt 
or might not judge correctly of our danger. But there was oodl- 
ing dishonorabk or immoral in its conduct. There was noduiig 
which required a a)vering of false preteiKcs to deceive our peo- 
ple or to draw them into a war on fictitious grounds, when, had 
they known them, they would have abhorred the true ooea» 
There was nothing in the transaction, or in any of its oomiec- 
tions, which woukl require them to be forgotten or disavowed bf 


diief acton within tlut brief period in which ordinaty memories 
pam-f ? e truisactions of very secondar}- importance. 

Wc are not prepared lo deny, however, that ihc President's 
kttcr to Livingston showed high diplomatic skill — that it made 
the noM of the circumstances — that it was a shrewd and singu- 
h>^ dufng effort to beat the French Consul at a ^amc he was 
tfeHdf vny fond of pla>ing toward other nations. The further 
dhanm of the game — the skill of the players — the end which 
tots the wisdom of the beginning — are to be hereafter re- 

Tbe French Government, however, studiously avoided giv- 
■if our minister any information of its purchase of Louisiana or 
in aoo-purchasc of Florida. The reason will presently appear 
1b a dcqwld) of Livingston. The latter, according to his in- 
i, attempted as a primary object to prevent the French 
J acquisitions, and next, if they took place, to attempt 
tD obtain that portion of them east of the Mississippi, and par- 
tknhily West Florida, in order to secure (he outlets tn the 
Golf ot Mexico furnished by its rivers, especially the Mobile. 
la ddt Livingston met with no encouragement. On his hinting 
at m potchaac the minister told him " none but spendthrifts sat- 
Ued ibdr debts by selling their lands." l)e Marbois — a steady 
Uaod of the United Stales — inform<.-d him that the French 
I considered the acquired possessions an excellent 
I far their lurbuienl spirits." He soon learned thai their 
I a fa\^rite scheme of the First Consul, Some 
■ lo a despatch of Livingston, of January 15, 1801, de- 
«VTC pvtkular attention : 

"By the secTccy and duplicity practised relative to this ob- 
JBCt. it ia clear to me that ihey apprelu-nil sonic l1p|Hl^iIio^ i>n 
Ae pan ct America to ihdr plans. I have, however, im all or 
CHfaoa dcdaicd thai as long as France conforms to the eiisiin:; 
nmtf between us and Spain, the (iovemmcnt of the I'nite I 
SMb doea not csnsider henelf a.s having any inir*n'^t in uppus 
lis tfK tachutge. The evil our country' has <<uth'ml by their 
nytare with Fraive is not 10 be caliulati't. Wc have brcnmr 
^ object ot )eak>usy both lo the Government and jm-i 'pie. 

~Tbe ichirtance wc have shown lo a renewal of ihr Irraly I'f 
1778 has Cfcaled many suspidons. Amoni; other absurd onr«. 


they believed seriously that we have an eye to the conquest of 
their islands. The business of Ix)uisiana also originated in that ; 
and they say expressly that they could have no pretence, so far as 
related to the Plohdas, to make this exchange, hail the treaty 
been renewed, since by the sixth article they were ex|>ressly pro- 
hibite<l fn>m touching the Floridas. I own I have always con- 
sidered this article, ami the guaninty of our Independence, as 
more im[x>rtant to us than the guaranty of the islands was to 
France: and the sacrifices we have made of an immense claim 
to get rid of it, as a dead loss.** 

By comparing this with Jefferson's letter of April i8, i8oa, 
it will be seen how completely the President's %'iews differed 
from Mr. Livingston's in rcganl to the consequences of a FreiKh 
colon iz^it ion of I^uisiana, and in reganl to the proper pol- 
icy to Ixr ado{)tcd by the Unitetl States if it was attempted. 
Ami the further ciespatches show that no change took place in 
the miniNtir's views until he receiver! the letter of the President. 
The fjolii y whiih set untl the purchase of Ix>uisiana was purely 
original with the Litter. Not a distant hint, not even an analo- 
gims idea, was rtxeiveti fn)m any other quarter. 

The minister a^ain wnite home, Maah 24th, that the ctrfo- 
nizatiim of New Orleans was **a darling object of the Fint 
Consul" —that he "saw in it a mean to gratify his friends and 
dLs|>ose of his enemies"— that it was thought "that New Or- 
leans must command the trade of our whole western country** 
— that the Fnnih had U-en jHTsuadetl ''that the Indians were 
atta(hetl to France and hated the .\mericans"— that "the coun* 
tr)' wa.s a paradiM," etc. The minister then pmposcd that the 
Unit'^1 Stall-* e>lal>li>h a |M»rt at Natt he/, or elsewhere, and 
gi\e it su< h advantages "as woubl bring our vesseb to it without 
toui hin;: at N<w ( )rieans." 

He wn>te, .\pril 24th, that the French minister "would ghre 
m> answer to any im{uiries he made" on the subject of Loutti- 
ana; that the («ovemment was "at that m(»ment fitting out aa 
armament" to take |)ossession, coaMsting of ** between five and 
seven th<u;sand men. umler the a>mmand of General Berna- 
ckitte," who m-oukl shortly sail for Nei** Orleans, "unJeM the 
state of affairs in Santo Domingo should change their destiiia- 
tkm/' He decbred hb information certain^ and again 


U> Gommncnt " imrocdialcly to take measures to enable 
s to tiv*l New Orleans." 

■e other Idlers passed which arc not necessary to be men- 
On July joth I.jvtnfpton wrote iht Secretary of Slate 
ikat he hid received his despatches of May isl and nth, the 
PluldtBl's letter throuf^h Dupont dc Nemours, of the preceding 
April 181I1 (180a), and that he was preparing a memoir to the 
French Gorcmmcnt. 

Tbe formal instructions of May ist and i itfa fell far short of 
tbr KOfK or dcdsion of the President's private letter which he 
had KBt to Dupont de Nemours open, expressly and avowedly 
■o bftve hs contents made known to the French Government. 
The former, however, directed the minLiter to urge upon France 
"an abandonment of her present purpose.*' Those of the ist 
d hin to endeavor to ascertain at what price she would re- 
ti the Fk>rid»9— those of the nth, lo employ "every effort 
m" to procure the cession of all Icrrilnr)- cusi of the 
including New Orleans — and he was authorized, 
i it become absolutely necessary* in order lo secure thi.s, to 
e the French possessions west of the river. 
The ducrcpancy between the instructions and private letter 
I of a ready explanation. The one exhibiietl the official 
e which it was considered prudent to takt^— the other Rave 
{ of the iruicr and entire feelings and puqxiM's, in a form 
■■mild have its full effect, but which could not be otTiciatly 
i and tbercforc construed into a menace, nr matk- the 
t of official discussion an<l <li«4'l<iMjrf. The unolTn ial lel- 
■■; ia effect, converted tbe propositions of the offu iul unc^ into 
llrfcPKtil If France would cc«le to the United Stall's New Or- 
Ihm and aD the ierritor>- east of the Miuissippi, fur an e(|ui\'a- 
hM in Bioncy, thrn the "marT>'int{" with Kngland would not 
like place, and FnuKc could have the benetil ul unolhi-r .Xmeri- 
on goaranty. But what was a guarmty worth which would 
U whh the fim collision of the jxirtics between wh»tm the pre- 
Acted "friction" would not be in the lea>l reduciil by the pro- 
poned aiiaiifcciuent f What n'ould the n'mnining Ierritiir\' be 
■ofdl to France — never worth a thousandth [an as mui h tn her 
M ID the United Suics— in the then situalitm of the world, k-ilh- 
M> uqr aavigable approach to the grailcr portion uf it, except 


through a river of which the United States would bold the abao- 
lulc control ? 

To accept the President's offer would be to gi\'e up the nioat 
\'aluablc part of the possession and the key to all the ranaindcrt 
for the purpcse of having the remainder secured from England. 
Yet, if the reasoning in the President's letter was sound — which 
enforced the first cession — the rest i»*ould inevitably soon follow 
that icssion. In fact, the first cession would render the second 
more inevitable, arnl a thousand times less capable of being 
forcibly prevented. The President's idea, then, amounted prac- 
ticallv to this: that if France would sell us all we then needed of 

her territory, for either commercial, military, or any other pur- 
poses, we would help her— or rather allow her to help us— keep 
the other [>art fnim a more dangerous occupant, until we also 
had nee<l for that other part. Precisely in this light the FretKrh 
Government viewe<l this offer. Talleyrand emphatically de* 
clared that if the French (<ovemment gave up what we then 
asked, what was left was worthless to France. 

We iMrither accuse nor susfiect Mr. Jefferson of inatocerity. 
There is no doubt he woukl have respected hb guaranty; and 
that he woukl have remained adverse to taking any unjust ad- 
vantage. But he foresaw, and clcariy arul wamingly pointed to^ 
the train of causes vvhic h must inevitably end, sooner or later, to 
the overthrow of any French power on the Mississippi. Haviflg 
done tlus, he took middle gn)uncl— grourKl that would neither 
disgust France ruir mankiml by its rapacity — and awaited the 
Tv^wXi. We have rH> doubt that having such intellects as BooA* 
[larte's aiwl Tallcvrand's to deal with, he very strongly antki* 
pated the result which finally took place. It was to be ready for 
this or some other equivalent or similar proposition, that he 
sent Monnie to France, with verbal instructions extending to 
any contingeiK)*. 

The President's views produced no immediate viaibie chufe 
in Bonaparte*s plans. Livingston informed his Goveniiiiciil« 
Novemlier nth, that the military expedition to New Orieaoa 
was alvmt embarking, and he feared ** no prudeiKe would pre* 
vent hostilities ere k>ng." Some of his later despatches were 
rather more hopeful in their tenor; but no marked change oe* 
currod in the open aspect of things until the news reached fmuat 



ol the wu fl&nic that was burning in Congrrss, on account of the 
f anfrt A inp of Monles at New Orleans. The Federalists, who 
««« to rdmncotljr laboring to overthrow the Administration on 
that qitcHion, were unconsciously playing into its hands, and as 
cflechiAlly serving one of its great objects — the greatest object 
ol Ha fontgn policy — as if they had been employed expressly for 

Whes intdligcDce of war resolutions, vehement speeches in 
J of e%'ery other apparent indication of a popular 
t lod of a national explosion in the United States was 
■CKMS the Atlantic, the French Consul— used to the fiery 
jr ol donocntic legislatures — unable to discern distinctly at 
i stfiitance between parlies — finding one set openly talking 
1 the other oiJy asking for privacy in the deliberations on 
Ac qoestioo — obseni-ing that all were in favor of firm dcclara- 
tknt and provisional warlike preparations — fancied he ^w the 
Amcricao Kcna of 179S about to be reenafte<l. He saw the 
Uoiied States again preparing with the pnxlif^al bnivcr)- which 
lMMiln,llillm an aroused democracy, to tauntingly defy France 
VD the combat; and he doubtless tieliev*.^! this was the first act of 
the dnma which the President's letter had foreshadowed. 

It would be something «>-orsc than ridiculous to su]>[>c)»e that 
Bonaparte was intimidated, or that the Directory were intimi- 
^•ed in 1798. But the question was, in commercial phrase, 
iccontcst " pay" ? Was it worth while to wage a war with 
t a power while the marine of France was sn inferior to 
tkat ol Eo^and, the sure ally of the enemies of France ? Was it 
mlh whOe to attempt to garrison a wilderness, ile^tilute even 
ti pfDvfiioiia, against five millions of contiguous [x-ople. who 
80^ mch it by a toiKC number of navigable rivers ? Was it 
mik iridle to eipose the French Wi<st India iMM,session.« to the 
aalmch a ndf^bor? Was it worth while to tempi a i>ar- 
I ol aU the colonial possesions of France t>etween the 
■ and England? Was it worth while to "many" 
t in the bonds of a common interest, and induce 
riraObd nxaritime flag* to "maintain ?xc1umvt i>nsM*wion of 
aoeeui.** and fix "the sentence which was to restrain France 
1 her low-water mark"? The shattered ships of 
t bore good lealimony whether the menaces of the Presi- 


(lent in the last particular would prove bagatelles, if the poliqr 
he threatened was enterwl u|M)n. 

The victor of I-^kII, Abukir, and Maren^ — the dictator 
of Southern Kumpe — could have bushed at the President's 
threats if nothing but the Rhine or the Pvn*nei*s had M*|iaratod 
the domains over which thev ruled. But (inumMantes some- 
times mon* than counterbalance strength. A mMuntaineer in a 
|KLss is more formidable than a l>attalion on a plain. The United 
States held the unappn>a( he<l maritime suprcmary of the west- 
ern hemisphere. She held more. Maritime skill and maritime 
victory were hers by birthright. Never man for man ami gun for 
gun had her tlag l>een struc k to Christian (ir < orsair; and now the 
Levantine seas were witnessing her avenging chastisement of 
those to whom Eun)iH* paid tribute. Uniteci with Kngbnd, and 
only given time to bulM in the minhanital sense of the term — 
fleets, and no ex ean or M*a < ould float a sail whic h was not under 
the pmttvtion of their assniatctl flags. 

But inde{)endently of siu h fulun* results, and looking only 
to existing fads, lionaparte was not wc*ak enough in military ca- 
|)acity to sup|M»c* for a momrnt he tould hoM a level ami con- 
paratively unfonifioi mud iKink, inhabitc**! Iiy a few thousand 
entiles, and a vast wiMrmcNs ck( upi«l only by savages, with 
the Atbntic U-twirn it anl FninM-, at:ain*it the t*i;:hting men of 
five millions of |Ki»plf, an! with Kni»Lin<l joyfully ami eagerly 
ready to inten ept even*' sin i or he < mild send, s«i that m>t a regi- 
ment would rea<h Ameriia withimt in |)art (»wing it to favoring 
at cidents. 

The moment, therefiire, he Ix'lievetl the Pn-siclent's 
h.i'i Uen made in earnest, and that the American |Ht)plc 
nadv to uphold them: rt^adv ii» iiirhl for the territory- (ould he ex}Ktt if the Ameritan Kquiblicans, the only 
pany that could ever t(»lenite France, should k*a/| in the war 
fitlini! ? - hi«i stn»ng viiraiity at <»me foresaw that his colonta- 
ti«»n pn»jetts were at an end; that thc>e new domains 
worthlc-v* to France, and must M»r>n pass entin-ly fn»m its 
Measuring as he always ili<l the sentimf-nt of America tovaid 
Franie by the Fetleral standanl, he pntl>ably considertd any 
guaranty the latter couki receive fn»m the former as a far 
ami more e|>hemeral engagement than it would actually 


NKcssity would have bmkcn it. Rut he believed the 
t pntaa would suffice. It was both for his advantaf;c and 
cvedh, then, to get rid of il fur the best equivalent he rould ob- 
tain, before another war should break out between France and 

On April 30th — just eleven days befonr Lord Whitmouth re- 
oehrcd his puspons and left France— a ircaly and two convcn- 
liacB were entered into between the Amcriciin and French min- 
blen, by which Fiance ceded the entire province of lx)uisianA 
to ibe Unitn) Stales, for the sum of sixty millions of francs, to 
be paid to France: twenty millions to be paid to citizens of the 
United Staid due from France, for supplies, embarK(>cs, and 
panes nude at sea; and in further consideration of ccnain stip- 
■ In favor of the inhabitants of the ceded territory, and 
n oonunerdal pri%-ilcgcs secured to France. 

It was provided that the inhabitants of I^uisiana should 
"he nxovporatcd into the Union of the United States, and ad- 
Mined as «wn as possible, according to the principles of the 
Fedeial Oinstiiution, to the cnjoj-ment of all the n^hls. advan- 
HgEftt and immunities of citizens of the United States; and, in 
ika mean lime, they should be maintnine<l and pnitetted In the 
Irk enjoyment of their liberty, property, and the relif^on which 

It wai ptoridcd that French or Spanish shi|M coming directly 
feoM their own country, or any of their colonies, and loade<l only 
«itb the produce or manufactures thcrttif, shoulil for the space 
ti twelve yv»n be admitted to any port vvilhin the 1 ciled itrri' 
Wy, ia the Kune manner and nn the same terms with .\merican 
••■eboaminf; fnmi those places. .Vnd for that p<-riiMl no other 
Hiiaa was 10 ha\T a right to the same priviU-^i-s in the )M)rts of 
ife csded territory-. But this was not to alTei t the n-guUtions 
Ae Called Suics might make tonceminu ihi* cx[Hinatinn of 
ttcir own produce and merchandise, or any right they micht 
kmlBnakemchrrgulalinns. After the exfinilion of the twelve 
|Hi^ and forever, tbc ships of France were to be treated upon 
g o( the moM favored nations in the [xin-i of the icdnl 

The fina^*^"' arrangements were included in the "Conven- 
kmT *■ Vnace exhibited a scivsitivr disinrlination to have this 


territorial transfer fbnnally assume its real character of a sale for 
money. But a careful inspection of the treaties will show that 
she had much less reason to blush for her conduct on this occa- 
sion than nations commonly have which either cede or acquire 
territor)'. Her stipulations in behalf of the existing and future 
population of Louisiana were most humane and noble, and 
those which affected her American creditors were concei\-ed in 
the highest spirit of magnanimity and honor. It is curious to 
speculate what a different air this international compact might 
ha\*e been made to wear had the superseded Talleyrand been 
the negotiator instead of the austerely virtuous Marbois. And 
let us rK>t withhold from the Consul of France the credit which 
is due him for approaching and approving the proceedings of 
such a minbter. 

We think it was Napoleon who said he had noticed that 
Providence generally favored the heaviest and best disciplined 
battalions. Fortune wafts on those who seize her at the ebb. 
The ••good-luck" to which it gave the opposition so much con- 
solation to attribute the President's success in the purchase of 
Louisiana ct>ntinucd. The house of Baring, in LorKkm, offered 
for a mcxlcrate commission at once to take the American ftockt 
which were created for the pun base money of I/niitiana, at 
their current value in Kngland, ami to meet our engagements to 
France by stipubted nvmthly instalments. It is not at all prob- 
able that this offer to furnish so large a sum to an enemy could 
have been made i^ithout an understanding with the British Gov- 
ernment. Nay, the btter had projected an expedition to capl* 
ure New Orieans as Mion as her war with France should bmk 
out, button being apprises! by Mr. King of the measures of the 
United States towani a purchase, evinced apparent latis&ctioQ 
with such an arrangement. And on leamirig the ternia of the 
cession, even George III, if the weUtumcd diplomatic hnguagt 
of I>onl Hawkesbury may be credited, grew gradouit luxl Cl* 
pressed high appn>bation of their tenor. 

England had everv* right to feel gratified. No alltaiioe aguM 
her pr>wer, rx) special guaranties against her arms, no injtirioyi 
discriminations against her ruvigation had been insetted in the 
treaties. France was stripped of her American cootinental poa- 
tetrinm, and crippled from ever becoming the rival of ^^*|^***^ 


in colooial csublishmcnls. The ceded territory bad gone into 
the huids of the only power which could hold it safely from all 
Eonpcu) rivsls, and against which it would have been in vain 
lor P-wftrtH benclf to contend for its possession. The sum paid 
into the coffen of France would not approach that which Eng- 
luid woold nve to sending decls against and in maintaining 
poacaion of Louisiana against both France and the United 
Sutcft, without any hope that possession would be permanent. 
And finaDy, England could now conceniratc all her force with- 
out rcCeraxc to transatlantic efforts or interruptions, in ha 
(katlHttniggle with tb«t modem Alexander against whom it 
■igfal KOO be necestaiy to defend even her own shores from 

LMngiton and Monroe communicated the rcsuh of their ne- 

a to the American Govenmient, May 13th. f I b to be 

i the paper was dran'n up by Livingston, and was ac- 

t in by Monroe, to escape an eclaircisscment which 

mold add to existing irritations. It is said that Ihey (the minis- 

n) "wdl knew" that "an acquisition of so great extent was 

il coBlempUled by their appointment," but "they weri- jhT' 

i ifaat the circumstances and considerations which induced 

ikatt to ouke it would justify them in the measure lu their 

Gotvrnment and countiy." 

So far as official written instrurlinns were concerned, this 
WIS tn>c; but both Livingston's o^icial an<l Jc-fFer^m's inotTic ial 
I ibow that it was an erroneous view; show that procuring 
I had been "cuntempluled" anil made the subject of 
c conespondcncc; show that Jeflet^on had medilalcd 
D obtaining, if praciitable, everj- foot of the Anieri- 
cio continental poescssions of France, the mnment he learned 
ihM France bad obtained them; show that he h-td (iimmuni- 
cMrI Ane vieWB to Linngston, while that minister was cx- 
pRHfag to the French (invcmment, and no doubt humrslly en- 
; a wboUy different class of ideas. And there is not a 
le of doubt that it was precisely to wizc upon a Favorable 
<Mtt AenU H ocmr, to do exactly what was rlonc, that Monroe 
an KM chatgcd with his"verl>al" instructions. 

Mr. Madboa's reply — u Secretary of .^late — (o the cnmmu- 
B of May tjlh, was worded with pcmUar carr, its object 


iMrtng, without giving offence to Mr. Livingston, to dissent from 
the statement that the ministers hsul acictl contrary to any previ 
ous views or wishes of their Government » or had taken a step 
which had not been ** contemplated" by their Government, or 
one which they had not been expected to prom|>tIy and eagerly 
adopt if avaibble. After expressing the une({uivfKal appnjba- 
tion of the Government for the proceedings of the ministers, he 

**This approbation is in no respect prccludal by the silence 
of your commission and instructions. When these were made 
out, the object of the most sanguine was limited to the establish* 
ment of the Mississippi as our boundar)*. It was not presumed 
that more could \k Miught by the United States, either uith a 
cham e of success, or |)erha|>s without being sus|mx teti (»f a ^rriTi ly 
ambition, than the isbnd of New Orleans and the two Floridas; 
it being little doubted that the latter was, or would Ixr, ifimpre* 
hendetl in the cessitm from S|>ain to France. To the a< qui&ition 
of New Orleans and thj Horidas, the pnivision was, then^tirc, 
a(iomm«Mlate«l. Nor wxs it to Ix* supjx>se<l that in caMr the 
French Government should U» willing to part with more than 
the territor)' on onv side of the MisMssippi, an arrangement with 
Sp.iin for restoring to her the terrilor)' on the other side, would 
not lie prefene*! to a sale of it to the Unite*! Slates. It mij»hl 
lie added that the am|ile views of the sulijett (arriitl with him 
bv Mr. Monnie, arwl the confidenc e felt that your judicious man- 
agement would make the most (of?) favi»nible <H(urrences, less- 
I'niil the mressity of multiplying provisions for ever)* turn which 
\t>ur nei»t>tiations mij^ht f»ossibly take." 

He then verv nuietlv mentionetl that it wa«i the tenor of Mr. 
Li\in;fHton's own di"^|>at( h<-s which had "left no eX|icitation of 
any arrangement with France, by v.hich an extensive acrjuisi- 
tion was to lie made, unless in a favorable crisis of which aih-mo- 
tagt* sh<mkl be taken." 

Is it askcfl if we entertain any doubt that Monroe, with hb 


verlial instructions, woukl have concurrr<l readily in a treaty 
ba«>cd on the l*rrsi<lent*s formal and ofTuial <»ffer, that is, c n the 
squrate acf|uisition of the Hori<las and New Orleaas? No 
such douU is entertained. No ({uestion is made that the Prcsi 
dent and the Americmo people woukl have rested satisfied with 


tfaU acqttiiition for a Kcncmtion to come. But it is not probable 
tfaM the PitudcDl expected his official demand would be com- 
pfcd witli, uul no more. 1( so, he sent Monroe to France for 
ODtUag.and much of his letter to him of January 13, 1803, is 
wfaoO; unmeaning gibberish. Undoubtedly he hoped for u more 
fancablc amngrment. Undoubtedly he verbally instructed 
Moonx to acquire as much territory as practicable. Undoubt- 
edly MooTDc would never have signL-d a treaty which did not 
obuio more than New Orleans — and France did not, as it 
pnmd, own the Floridas. After reading the President's letter 
to LiringMoa, of April 18, 1803, it would be absurd to declare 
Am be did not "contemplate" the acquisition of Louisiana; 
Alt be did not sc^ty ori^natc the idea; that he did not ori^- 
I put in motion the imin of causes by which it was 

Moone, with his customary steAiiy discretion and modesty, 
kipt nient as 10 his share of the merit of this ncgottalion. Jcf- 
imoa't tonptalion to speak wa-s stronger. The opposition, with 
its usual variety and diversity of grounds of attack, insislnl: 
Fim, that the purchase was incxpe<lii-nt, unronMituiional, and 
dfatpaceful in its chamcler; Mvonil, that it wa:^ the n-5ult of 
"fpod-hidt," and was wholly unforrM-en and unihouEhl of; 
lUnl, thai Livingston's cnerK)' and tatt haii broken away fmm 
Mtiuctioas to rracue a feeble and irrevilute Administration. 
The Preaident did ow e or twice hint |i> vcrj' i imfidcnilal lorri- 
1 if all the facts were befoa- the public, it would be 
1 thai the minislcn had not U-rn romix-Iled ti> take any 
i or unexpected resjinnsiliility: and he oLso hinted 
Am Uofuoe was entitkri to a full shnre of « ntlil for wh,it had 
bva ■Goocnplisheil. Re>-on() this he coolly Id the ncw>pa)n.-r 
tUuvonand reduce him loasecomlan- attitude tu lh<>w 
p, If tbey had ciccuicd well, hail atted only aa his in.itni- 
■ta. He had conceived the ilesigti ; he had forcHt-n the ocra 
■; be bad even pven the signal to strike when the ixcasinn 

It «M 00 ordinary triumph of which hecmitiul lo claim ihe 

■7. Wbm bom the hntia of ihc I*t,vs ihc floihinR eye of 

I^Uhcvd From the uplumnl fain of the jmiplc Lif 

to the Bceoca of tboK heroic achievcmenu which he in- 


vokcd them to emulate, it looked beyond the Gulf of Salamts 
and the plain of Marathon. Pamcs, in whose rocky gorf^ stood 
Phyle, towered before him in the north, and in the south the 
heights on whose southern bases broke the waves of the /Egoju 
Almost the whole land of Attica by under his vision, and near 
enough to have its great outlines distinguishable. What a world 
was clustered within that compass! 

The land of Attica, whose sword shook and whose civiliza- 
tion a)nquercd the world, had the superficial area and about 
one-third the agricultural productiveness of a moderate sized 
county in any of the American States which have been erected 
in the province of French Louisiana. No conqueror who has 
trod the earth to fill it with desolation and mourning, ever con- 
quered and permanently amalgamated with his native kingdom 
a remote approach to the same extent of territory. But one 
kingfiom in Europe equab the extent of one of its present States, 
(f crmany sup|x)rts a population of tturty-sev'en millions of people. 
All Gcrmanv has a little more than the area of two thirds of 
Nebraska, and, acre for acre, less tillable larnl. LouLvana, as 
dcri.scly [xipulatcti in pn>portion to its natural materials of sua- 
tentation as {Kirts of Eun)pe, wf)uld be ca[>able of supporting 
somewhere from four to five hun<ire<l millions of people. The 
whole Unitetl States lx*i ame ca{>able, by this acquisition, of sus- 
taining a larger pr>pulation than ever occupied Euni|)e. 

The punhase scturcd, in(iqx*ndently of territory, several 
[)rime national objects. It gave us that homogeneousness, unity, 
and imlqicndenie which are derived fmm the al»olute contsol 
ami «li^[K)siiion of our (ommcrce, tnule, and imlustry in ercTf 
cie{>arinu'nt, without the himlerance or meddling of any interval- 
ing nation l>ctween us an<i any natural element of industry, be> 
tween us and the sea, or between us and the open market of the 
workl. It gave us ocean bouiKlaries on all exposed sides, for it 
left Canacb ex|X)sed to us, and not us to Canada. It made us in- 
cfispiitably ami forr\Tr the a)ntn)llcrs of the western hemisphere. 
It pbceti our national a>urse, character, ci\ilization, and destiojr 
M>lrly in our own hamb. It gave us the certain sources of a not 
distant nimierical strength to which that of the mightiett em- 
pires of the past or present is insignificant. 

A (f allic Cesar was leading hb armies over shattered king- 


fkoM. His anncd foot shook the world. He decimated Eu- 
topt. MiUiotu on millions of m&nkind perished, and there was 
•cvtclr K humim habitation from the Pobir Seas to the Medl- 
1 where ihc voice of lamentation was not heard over 
, kindred, to swell the conqueror's slrt-nRth and 
"^acy"! And the carnage and rapine of war arc iriflinf; evils 
1 with its demoralizations. The mlling tide of con- 
M sufadded. France shrunk back to her ancient limits. Na- 
pokoo died ■ te[Hning captive on the rock of St. Helena. The 
Mi^xudom tragedy was playc<l out ; and no physical results were 
kA beUnd but decmse, depopulation, and universal loss. 

A npubBcao President, on a distant continent, was also scek- 
tag to asraadise his country. He le<l no armies. He shed not 
m nSUry drop of human blood. He caused not a tear of human 
woe. He bent not one toilinK back ktwer by governmental 
Stnnf^l of political anomalies; and ludicrous as 
e to the rrprcsentatives of the ideas of the tyrannical and 
f put, be lightened the taxes while he was lightening the 
itkm of a natbn. And u-ithout interrupting either of these me- 
I lor an instant; without imposing a single new exac- 
I on U> people, he acquiR'd, peaceably and permanently for 
COUBtry OMfc exten-sive and fertile domains than ever for a 
■MM owned the sway of Napoleon; more extensive ones 
I bb fprj phime ever floated over. Which of these nctors 

I lo be lenncd "gUirious" ? 
Yd, with that serene and unselfish equanimity whiih 

1 lus cause to his vanity, this mon- than conqucrxii 

I real aitency in this great arhicvemcnl lo go uncx 

i lo the day of hi« death, and to be in a ikxmI mea.sure at' 

r accident, taken nf quite as much b] 

k as by himself. He wrote no laurelled letter. He asked 


of modem times. The morality of the President's attitude itsts 
on the basis of necessity — the right to do that which is indis- 
pensable to selfprvsenation. The practical consequences in- 
volved were the same in a single point — so far as 1/wiisiana 
was concerned— as those contemplated in Hamihon*s Miranda 
scheme. But the btter made conquest its primary object, and 
it pni[x>sed to fall upon another power because it was weak and 
defenceless, not because it was dangerously strong. It indeed 
made some late show of acting for the purpose of guarding 
against precisely what now had taken place; but if we sbouU 
assume this to be a sincere ground of action, it would only have 
put our amntn* in the posture of plundering a weak neighbor to 
pre\'cnt a more dangerous neighbor from plundering it— <loing a 
moral wrong in anticipation, for fear some other power might 
do that moral wrong. l*his would be a plea on which nations 
or in<livi<luals could alwa)'s found a right to rob the weaker. 

Rut when France actually obtained a title to these contigu- 
ous provinces and proposed to make herself our neighbor, she 
\t)luntarily, and by no fault of ours, practically commenced a 
step \vhi( h all Americans agreed in considering fraught with the 
exiremest danger to our country. Even then we did not attempt 
secnily to form confetleracics to wrest her property from her. 
We went to her frankly and told her our \*iews. We went bokiljr 
to the then strongest nation on earth, and informed her if she 
pcrsistevl in colonizing at a point which gave her the key of our 
western |K>ssessions, she must prepare for war with us and sudi 
fricn<l> as we could secure to our alliance. And neither was this 
made the alternative of her yielding up anything that bebnged 
to her without a rightful et^uivalent. It was the purpose of our 
Cabinet, the moment it was found France would negotiate on 
the losis of parting fn>m her newly acquired possession, to offer 
her far more for them than the>' had cost her. Our Cabinet migltt 
or micht not judge correctly of our danger. But there was nodi- 
ing dishonorable or immoral in its a>nduct. There was nothing 
which required a covering of false pretences to deceive our peo* 
pkr or to draw them into a war on fictitious grounds, when, had 
they known them, they would have abhorred the true coca. 
There was nothing in the transaction, or in any of its comwc- 
tioQS, which would require them to be forgotten or disanmed by 


cUef icton within thai brief period in which ordinary memories 
pRservc tmuactioos of very secondary- importance. 

We ire not prepared lo deny, however, that the President's 
iRIa' to Livinjpton showed high diplomalic skill — that it made 
tke mtmt of the cirrumstances — that it was a shrewd and singu- 
hrlj daring efiort to beat the French Consul at a game he was 
If very (bnd of playing toward other nations. The further 
I of the game — (he skill of the players — the end which 
I ibe wisdom of the beginning — are to be hereafter re- 

The French Government, however, studiously avoided giv- 
ing our minister any information of its purchase of Louisiana or 
in Doo-puTchasc of Florida. The rca.son mSU presently appear 
) of Livingston. The latter, according to his in- 
1, altcniptcd as a primary object to pre\-ent the French 
il acquisitiona, and next, if they took place, to attempt 
1 thai portion of them east of (he Mississippi, and par- 
r Wcil Florida, in order to secure the outlets to the 
CuM of Mc^CD furnished by its rivers, especially iho Mobile. 
!■ tUs Livingston met »Hih no encouragement. On his hinting 
tt » purdiaae the minister told him "none but spemlthrifls sat- 
Mad their debts by selling their lands." De .Marbois— a Meady 
friend td the United States — infonnc<l him thai the French 
G>*CflBDCltt conaiderc*] the acquired pusst-ssiuns an excellent 
"ovlkt for their turiiulenl ^irits." lie soon learned thai their 
oaloaiBtion was a fararite Kheme of the Fir^l Consul. Some 
pHMfM in a despatch of Li\ings(on. of Januar>' tjt. iSoi, de* 
aw* paitkular atlentit>n : 

"By the •ecTccy and duplicity prarliscd relative to thLi ob- 
Jact, tt is clear to me that they apprehend some upposition "n 
the part of America to their plans. 1 have, however, on all or 
caaooa declared that as long as France conforms to the exiMini< 
toiy between us and Spain, ihe Ciovemmrnt of the I'nilc I 
Staasdoe* not rotuidef heiiieU as havini: any inims.! in "ppix- 
hl( the ochange. The evil nur cimnlrT,' has 5u:Terrd by their 
nptOR with Fiance i« t»o( to be calcublr-l. Wi- have becnme 
am ohjKt of Jcakmsy both to the Oo^Tmmeni and petiplo. 

"The reiurtance we have shown lo a rcncvra! of ihe treaty "( 
iTTS has created many suspicions. Among other absurd onr«. 


they believed seriously that we have an ejre to the conquest of 

their islands. The business of Louisiana also originated in that ; 
and the)' say cxi)ressly that the)' could have no pretence, so far as 
related to the Fluridas, to make this exchange, had the treaty 
been renewed, sinte by the sixth article the)* were expressly pro- 
hibited fn)m touching the Floridas. I own I have alwa)'s con- 
sidertti this article, and the guaranty of our Independence, as 
more im[x)rtant to us than the guaranty of the islands was to 
France: and the isacrificcs we have made of an immense claim 
to get rid of it, as a dead I0S&.** 

By com|>arinR this ^nith Jefferson's letter of April 18, 1802, 
it will be sc-en how completely the F*resident*s views differed 
from Mr. Livingston's in regard to the consequences of a French 
colonization of Ix>uisiana, and in reganl to the proper pol- 
icy to be adoptcfi by the United States if it was attempted. 
And the further despatches show that no change took place in 
the minister s views until he recei%*cd the letter of the President. 
I'hc |i(»li( y whic h m^ urifi the purchase of Ix>uisiana was purdy 
original with the bttiT. Not a distant hint, not o'en an analo- 
gT>us idea, wxs nxcivcti fn>m any other quarter. 

The minister aijain wmte home, Maah 24th, that the colo- 
nixatiiin of New Orleans was "a darling object of the First 
Consul "—that he *'saw in it a mean to gratify his friends and 
dL^{M?^c of his enemies "—that it was thought **that New Or- 
learLs must command the trade of our whole western country** 
— that the Frrmh had lx?en jiersuadetl *'that the Indians were 
attached to Frame and hatetl the Americans" — that "the couo- 
iry was a paradis*/' etc. The minister then proposetl that the 
Unit^^l Stait^ esiaMi^h a |>ort at Naithez, or elsewhere, and 
gi\e it i»u( h ad\antai;es "as would bring our vessels to it without 
toui hing at New ( )rleans." 

He wrote, April 24lh, that the French nunister "would giw 
no answer to any inquiries he made" on the subject of Loutti* 
ana; that the C}o\emment was "at that moment fitting out aa 
armament" to take fx>ssession, consisting of "between five and 
seven thc'usand men, umier the a>mmand of General Bema* 
d<*tte," wh<> woukl shortly sail for New Orieans, "unlcM the 
state of affairs in Santo I>omingo should change their 
tion/* He declared his informatkm certain, and again 


bii Gofmunenl "immediately to lake measures to enable 
Nalcfaei to rivil New Orieans." 

Some other letters passed whicb arc not necessary (o be mcn- 
tkned. On Jidy 30th Livingston wrote the Secreiarv of State 
^*t he had received his despatches of May tst and tiih, the 
fhotdent'i letter through Dufwnt de Nemours, of the preceding 
April 18th (iSoa), and that he was pa-paring a memoir to the 
French Govcmmait. 

The formal iiutruitions of May ist and i ith fi-li fur short of 
the scope of decision of the President's private Idler which he 
had sent to Duponi dc Nemours open, expressly ami iivnwedly 
ID have itt contents made known to the French (Government. 
The fonner, however, directed the minister to urge ujKin France 
"an abandnmncnt of her present purpose." Those of ihc ist 
Elected hun to endeavor to ascenain at what pritf she would re- 
ll the Floridas — those of the i nh, lo employ "every c0ort 
' to procure the cession of all terrilorj- cast of the 
, including New Orleans— and be was authorized, 
i it become absolutely necessary' in order lo secure this, to 
gnaimotee the Fmich po»»cs.*ion» west of ihe river. 

The diicrepancy between the instructions and private leiier 
■ o( a ready explanation. The one exhibiieil the otTicial 
e which it was considered prudent to take — the other gave 
g of the inner and entire fcvlinK'* and purjjoM-s, in a form 
d have its full etlect. but which could not be nlVu ially 
i and therefore consirurtl into a menace, or made the 
■bJBCl ol official discussion and ditilcsun-. The iim'tVi'Ial let- 
ter, in effect, convened the pmpositions r>f the olVu i:d ones into 
■Iriifft!! U FnUKc would cede to the United States New Or- 
!■■■ lad all the territory exst of the Mississippi, an etjuiva- 
lent in money, then the "manning" with Kn^^Und wnuld not 
take place, and Fraiwc coukl have the benelit o( another .Ameri- 
can guaranty. Btit what was a gu-innty worth whi(h would 
lal with the finrt collision of the parties iKlwct-n whom the pre- 
(Scled "(lictioa" would not W in the least reduieil by the pro- 
poml ananncmenl? What would the remaining irrrilnry be 
worth toFrsnrc — never K-orlh a thousandth p.trl as much to her 
« to the United Suto— in the then situation of the wttrld, wilh- 
««l Mqr ■•vigabk appioadi to the gmief [lottion u( it, except 


thmugh a river of which the United States would bold the abso- 
lute conlml ? 

1*0 accept the President's offer would be to gi\*e up the most 
valuable part of the possession and the key to all the remainder, 
for the purpcse of having the remainder secured from England. 
Yet, if the reasoning in the President's letter was sound — which 
enforced the first cession — the rest would inevitably soon follow 
that (cssion. In fact, the first cession would render the second 
more inevitable, aiKi a thousand times less capable of being 
forcibly pre\enle<i. The F*rcsident's idea, then, amounted prac- 
tically to this: that if France would sell us all we then needed of 
her territor)', for either commercial, military, or any other pur- 
poses, we would help her— or rather allow her to help us— keep 
the other part fmm a more dangerous occupant, until we also 
had need for that other f)art. Precisely in this light the French 
(fO\Tmment viewetl thb offer. Talleyrand emphatically de- 
clared that if the French («ovemment gave up what we then 
asked, what was left was worthless to France. 

We neither accuse rH)r susfiect Mr. Jefferson of instnceritj. 
There is ik) doubt he would have respected his guaranty; and 
that he would have remained adv'erse to taking any unjust ad- 
vantage. But he foresaw, and clearly and wamingly pointed to^ 
the train of causes which must ine\itably end, sooner or later, in 
the overthrow of any French power on the Mississippi. Hariqg 
di>ne this he t(X)k middle gnnmd — ground that would neither 
disgust France ru^r mankin<i by its rapacity — and awaited the 
result. We have no doubt that having such intellects as Boo»- 
jiarte's and Talleyrand's to deal with, he very strongly antid* 
[Kitetl the result which fmally took place. It was to be ready for 
this or some other equivalent or similar proposition* that he 
sent .Monroe to France, with verbal instructions extending lo 
any contingerKV. 

The {^resident's news produced no immediate visible chaqge 
in Bonaparte's plans. Livingston informed his Govemmcntt 
NovemlxT nth, that the military expedition to New Orleua 
was about embarking, arnl he feared ** rK> prudence would pfr- 
vent hostilities ere kmg." Some of his later despatches mttt 
rather more hopeful in their tenor; but fx> marked change oe* 
curved in the open aspect of things tintil the news reached Fiance 


o( the mu flAme that was burning in Congress, on account of the 
pip c redi n p of Morales at New Orleans. The Federalists, who 
were n vdiemently laboring to overthrow the Administration on 
that question, were unconsciously playing into its hands, and as 
dbctually serving one of its great objects — the greatest object 
at its foreign polJc)' — as if they had been employed expressly for 
lh«t purpose. 

When intelligence of war resolutions, vehement speeches in 
Cony m , and of e%'cry other apparent indication of a popular 
fcn n co t and of a national explosion in the UniteiJ Statt^^ was 
wafted BCtoM the Atlantic, the French Consul — used to the fiery 
caccKjr o( demortalic legislatures — unable to discern distinctly at 
mdb s distance between parties — Ending one set openly talking 
wir and the other only asking for privacy in the deliberations on 
tke question— observing that all were in fa\'or of firm decUra- 
dons and ptorisional warlike preparations — fancied he saw the 
ftfriran scenes of 1798 about to be refnacted. He saw the 
Uailed Slates again preparing with the prodigal braver)' which 
dfadsgoUia an aroused dcmocnuy, to tauntinKty defy France 
Id the combat; and he doubtless believed this was the first act of 
Ihcdnou which the President's letter had forvshadowi-d. 

It would be something worse than ridiculous to sujiposc that 
Booapaite was intimidated, or that the Dim-ior>' were intimi- 
^0kA is itqS- But the question was, in commercial phrase, 
«Dald theoNilest "pay" ? Was it worth while to wage a war with 
m dhUat a power while the marine of France was so inferior to 
ikH of England, the sure ally of the enemies of France ? Was it 
VDrih wUIe to attempt to garrison a wilderness, destitute even 
cf pnvnioDS, against five millions of contiguous ]KfAplc, who 
imM reach il l^ a large mimlwr of navigable rivers? Was it 
■oeth wfaOe to expose the French West India [Kissessions to the 
■Backiof such a neighbor 7 Was it worth while to tempt a ]>ar- 
liiiaa of aB the colonial possessions of France between the 
IMMd Slates and England? Was. it n-onh while to "marry" 
I in the bonds of a common interest, and induce 
I maritime flags to "maintain i-xcIu-mvc prH.v?^Uon of 
** and &x "ibc sentence which was to restrain France 
r within her iow-water mark " ? The shatterr<1 «hip« of 
t bore good icMlmony whether the meoacca of the Frcsi- 
. Yot. av.— 4- 

a. roL. 


dent in the last particular would prove bagatelles, if the policy 
he threatened was entered upon. 

The victor of Ixxli, Abukir, and Marengo — the dictator 
of Southern Europe — coukl have laughed at the President's 
threats if nothing but the Rhine or the fSrrnces had separated 
the domains over which thev ruled. But circumstances some- 
times more than counterlxilance strength. A mountaineer in a 
pass is more formidable than a battalion on a plain. The United 
States held the unappniached maritime supremacy of the west- 
em hemisphere. She held more. Maritime skill and maritime 
%ictory were hers by birthright. Never man for man ami gun for 
gun had her (lag been struck to Christian or corsair; and now the 
LoTmtine seas were witnessing her avenging chastisement of 
those to whom Eumpe |)aici tribute. Unite*! with England, and 
only given time to build —in the met hanical sense of the term — 
fleets, and no cKean or M*a could fli»at a sail which was not under 
the protection of their asMx iated flags. 

But indq^endenily of such future results, and looking only 
to existing facts, lionaparte was not weak enough in military ca- 
pacity to supi¥>Mr fc»r a moment he (ould hfM a lc%el and com- 
|>anitively unfortifioi mii<! t>ank, inhabitefl by a few thousand 
Creoles, and a vast wiMrmes?* cx^cupicd only by sa%'ages, with 
the .Atlantic l)etween it an.l Fmn* e. at^ainst the fighting men of 
five millions of |>cople, an! with Kn^bnd joyfully and eagerly 
n-a<ly to intenqit every mk tr>r he coukl semi, so that not a regi- 
ment woukl reach Amerit a without in |Kirt cming it to favoring 

The moment, therefore, he lielieveil the President's avowak 
had l>cen made in earnest, and thai the American people 
ready to uphold them: ready to tight for the territory- 
what coulfl he exjKit if the .\merican Rq>ul>licans, the only 
party that couki e\'er tolerate France, shouki leail in the war 
feeling? — his stmr^ sagacity at once foresaw that his cokmiim- 
tion pmjects were at an en«l; that the?<e new domains were 
worthless to Fnmce, and must soon pass entirely fnmi its graip. 
Measuring as he always diii the smtimrnt of .America toward 
Fra-ni e by the Federal stan<lard, he pn)t>ably considered any 
guaranty the latter could receive from the former as a far wfskcr 
and more ephemeral engagement than it wouU actually have 


ptDTcd. Necessity n'oulcl have broken it. But he believed the 
merert prdext would sufiicc. It was both for his advantage and 
czofit. tbm, lo get rid of it for the best c<juivalent he could ob- 
uin, before anotber war should break out between France and 

On April joth — just eleven daj-s before Lord Whitroouth rc- 
ceind his pusporu and left Fnuice — a treaty and two conven- 
tBon TTcit entered into between the American and French min- 
Mien, by which Frunrc reded the entire province of Louisiana 
to Ht United States, for the sum of sixty millions of francs, to 
be pud lo France: twenty millionA to be paid to citizens of the 
United Stales due ftom Fnuice, for supplies, cmbarRoes, and 
priacs made at sea; and in further consideration of certain siip- 
ttlatioDS in Uvtyr of the inhabilants of the ci-detl lerntory, and 
certain coaunerda] prinlc^tcs secured to France. 

It was provided that the inhabitants of Louisiana should 
"be iocorponitcd into the Union of the United States, and ad- 
nittcd as soon as possible, according to the principles of the 
Fcdenl Constitution, to the enjoj-ment of all the rights, advan- 
lageSi and immunities of citizens of the United States', and, in 
the mean time, ihey should be m.iinlaine<l and proteclnl in the 
bee enjoyment of their liberty, pro]}erty. and the reli>non whii h 
Ihey proftsacd." 

It was provided that French or Sp,inish ships cominn dirc<ily 
bam their own «)untr^', or any of their rolnnies, anil loade«l only 
«itb the produce or manufacturer ihenof, should for the space 
of twebT yous he admitted lo any port witliin the cedixl terri- 
tory, in the same manner and on the same terms with American 
vcaeb coming from those places. And for that |K-ri<M) no other 
■ntiaa was to have a right to the same privilegrs in the [xirls of 
ibe ceded territory. But this was not to afleit the reguL-ilions 
the United Stales might make (onremini; the exixirtation of 
Aeir own produce and merchandi^-, or any right they mitiht 
have 10 make mchtei^lations. Aft(-ritie(-%pimti'>n of the twelve 
jma, and forever, the ships of France wea- to be treated upon 
At baling of the meet favom) nations in iht- purts of the cctlnl 

The finattcial arrangements were included in the "Convm' 
DOB," aa France exhibited a sciuativT disinclination to have this 


territorUl transfer formally issutne its real character of a sale for 
money. But a cartful inspection of the treaties will show that 
she had much less reason to blush for her conduct on this occa- 
sion than nations commonly ha\T which either cede or acquire 
territory'. Her stipulations in behalf of the existing and future 
popubtion of Louisiana were most humane and noble, and 
those which affected her American creditors were concei\-ed in 
the highest spirit of magnanimity and honor. It is curious to 
speculate what a different air this international compact mi^t 
ha\T been made to wear had the superseded Talleyrand been 
the negotiator instead of the austerely nrtuous Marbois. And 
let us not withhold from the Consul of France the credit which 
is due him for approaching and approving the proceedings of 
such a minister. 

We think it was Napoleon who said he had rxHiced that 
Providence generally fav-ored the heaviest and best disciplined 
battalions. Fortune wafts on those who seize her at the ebb. 
The "good-luck" to which it gave the opposition so much con- 
solation to attribute the President's !(uccess in the purchase of 
Louisiana continued. The house of Baring, in London, offered 
for a mcxlenite aimmission at once to take the American stocka 
which were crrate<i for the punhxse money of Louisianat at 
their current value in Kngbnd, and to meet our engagements to 
Franc e by stipubted nvmthly instalments. It is not at all prob- 
able that this offer to furnish so brge a sum to an tntmy could 
have been made without an understanding with the British Gov- 
ernment. Nay, the btter had projected an expedition to capt- 
ure New Orleans as soon as her war with France should break 
out, button being apprised by Mr. King of the measures of the 
United States toward a purchase, evinced apparent salia&ctiaci 
with such an arrangement. .\nd on learning the tefma of the 
cession, e%*en George III, if the welltumcd diplomatic hnguage 
of Lord Hawkesbury may be credited, grew gradous, and et- 
pressed high approbation of their termor. 

Kngbiul had e%'er>' right to feel gratified* No alEance agatiMt 
her power, no special guaranties against her arms, no injufiooi 
discriminations against her navigation had been insetted in the 
treaties. France was stripped of her American continetital poa- 
and crippled from erer beownir^g the rival of F>ng|inrt 


in colonul establishments. The ceded terrilory had goae into 
the hands of the only power which could hold it safely from all 
European rivals, and against which it would have been in vain 
for Cngb&d henelf to contend for its possession. The sum paid 
into the coffers of France would not approach that which Eng- 
land woukl save in sending Reels against and in maintaining 
poaoMon of Louisiana against both France and the United 
Suta, without any hope that possession would be pennancnt. 
And finally, England could now concenlralc all her force with- 
out re feren ce to transatlantic c0ons or interruptions, in hct 
dcalh-stniggle with that modem Alexander against whom it 
■ri^ aooa be occessaiy to defend even her own shores from 

Urtapton and Monroe communicated the result of their ne- 
■ Id the American Govemmenl, May 13th. It is to be 
1 the paper was drawn up by Livingston, and was ac- 
1 in by Monroe, In escape an ecLiircissemcnt which 
would add to existing irritations. It is said that they (the minis- 
ten) "weO knew" that "an acquisition of so great extent was 
not CDOtemplatcd by their appointment," but "they were pcr- 
SUKled that lbecirnjmtit.inrrsandconsidenttions which induced 
them to make it would justify them in the measure to their 
Gonmment and country." 

So br as official written inslruttions were conccmi-d, this 
waa mie; but both Li\'ingston's official and JcfTer>on'.i innflicial 
ham ibow thai it was an erroneous view ; »hnw that pmcuring 
k had been "contemplate<l" and matle the subject of 
c correspondence; show that Jefferson liad mcdiuird 
d on obtaining, if practicable, every foot of the .\mcri- 
I pOMOsions of France, the moment hr k-ameil 
t Fiance had obtaiiKd them; show that he lommuni 
ti tiMK views to Livingston, while that minister was ex 
I to the French Government, and no doubt honestly en- 
]g a whoUy different of idea.s. .\nd there i^ not n 
col doubt that it was precisely to sciie u|ion a fau)rablc 
oWli abDold it occur, to do exactly what was done, that Monroe 
«astmdiai|{ed with his "verbal" instructions. 

Mr. Madbnn's reply — as Sfttrurj' of Stale— to the nimmU' 
a ol May 13th, was worded with peculiar caic, its object 


being, without giving offence to Mr. Livingston, to diascnt fioro 
the statement that the ministers had acted contrar)* to any pre\'i- 
ous views or wishes of their Go\'emment, or had taken a step 
which had not been "contemplated" by their (jovemment, or 
one which the)* had not been expectwl to pn)mplly and eagerly 
ailopt if a^-ailable. After expressing the unequivocal appmba- 
tion of the Government for the proceedings of the ministers, be 

'*This approbation is in no respect precluded by the silence 
of )'our commission and instructions. When these were made 
out, the object of the most sanguine was limitcfi to the establish- 
ment of the Mississippi as our boumlan*. It was not presumed 
that more could be sought by the Unite<l States, either wiih a 
chance of success, or jierhai>s without being susixxtixl of a ^jri-rdy 
ambition, than the isbnd of New Orleans and the two Floritlas; 
it lx:ing little doubted that the btter was, or Htmld lje, ((^mprc- 
hen<le<i in the cession fmm Spain to France. To the acc|uisition 
of New Orleans arnl thj FToridas, the pn)vision was, then^iire, 
accommcxlatetl. Nor was it to Ix* supiK>setl that in ca.M: the 
Fn-nth (lovcmmcnt shoukl U* willing to part with more than 
the territor)' on one side of the Mississippi, an arrangement with 
Sjuin for restoring to her the lerrilor)- on the other side, would 
rK)t \yc preferrwl to a sale of it to the I'nilnl Stales. It might 
be added that the ample views of the subjeit ( arrittl with him 
by Mr. MonnKT, aivl the confidenc e felt that your juclicious man- 
agement would make the most (of?) favora!>le (Kiurrences, less- 
ened the necessity of multiplying pr>visions ft»r ever)* turn which 
j-our negtJtiations might fxissibly take." 

He then ver\* quietly mentionetl that it was the terK>r of Mr. 
Living^ton'5 own despatches which ha/1 **left no ex;>e(tation of 
any arrangement with France, by which an extensive acrjuisi- 
tion was to Ije made, unless in a faNxirable crisis of which aii%'mii- 
tage shouki be taken." 

Is it xskevl if we entertain anv doubt that Monroe, mith hb 
verljal instructiorLs wouki have concurrwl n*adily in a trraty 
ba««cd on the President's formal and offu ial offer, that is, en the 
sefKinite acf|uisition of the Fk>ridas and New Orleans? No 
such <k>ubt is entertained. No question is made that the Presi- 
dent and the Amcricao people woukJ have rested satis&cd with 


Ibat acquisition for a );cncralion to come. But it is not probable 
that the President czjkcIccI bis official demand would be com- 
pfied wilb, and no more. If so, ho st-nl Monroe to France for 
DatUlig,anrd much of his letter to him of January 13, 1S03, is 
vfaolj """""'"E gibbcriiih. Undoubtedly he hoped for a more 
I— otlMr arnugemcni. Undoubletlly he verbally instructed 
Momot to acquiic as much territory as practicable. Undoubt- 
edly MoniDc would never have signed a treaty which did not 
obtain more than New Orleans — and Frdnce did not, as it 
ptDvcd, own the Floridas. After reading the President's letter 
to LiTinpton, of April 18, iftoi, it would be absurd to declare 
Ikal he did not "oimcmplatc" the acquisition of Louisiana; 
Au he did not solely ori^naic the idea; that he did not origi- 
I pui in motion tlie train of causes by which it was 

Manioc, with his cuslomar>' steady discretion and modesty, 
k^* aknl aa to his share of the merit of this negotiation. Jef- 
fanoo'i lempiaiioa 10 spi-ak was stmngcr. The opix>sition, with 
ito OMial raricty and diversity of grounds of attack, insisted: 
VIM, that the purchase was inexpedient, uncimsiilutional, ami 
ihg,ianfnl in its character: MXT>nd, that it wa% the nsuh of 
"good-hick," and was wht>lly unforcsi-t-n and unihoughl of; 
lUrdi thai Livini^on's energy and tact )iad broken away from 
JHaiiMliiMii to rescue a feeble and irresoluie Administration. 
Tito n«ikkni djd once or twice hint to vcr>' (onfidential conr 
sthat if all thcfacu were tx^forc ihc public, it would Im- 
I the ministers hail not U-en ntm|>elled to uke any 
1 or unexpected resi«nsibibly; and he also hinteil 
I Mooiw was entitled ti> a full share »f > nilii for wlial h.-ul 
■ actnoipUshed. Beyond this he awlly let the ncw'pafur 
tblarvon and reduce him to a M-(i>ndar>'atiiludt-|o ih>>se 
o, if Ihry had executed well, hml aried only as Uis inslru 
nts. He had conreivcd the dnjgn ; he had fori'Mt-n the ixia 
a; be bad even given the signal to strike when the>ion 


as no ordinary triumph of which he omiile*! 10 cLiim the 
When fnim the bema of the I'r.vx the dashing etc of 
f^anced fm<n the upiurmi) of the |>r<>plr ot 
to the tccoca of those beiuic achicvoncnta which he la- 


voked thftn to rtnuUte, it k>oked beyond the Gulf of Stlamis 
and the plain of Marathon. Fames, in whose rocky gotji^ stood 
Phyle, towered before him in the north, and in the south the 
heights on whose southern bases broke the waves of the ALgcMZL 
Almost the whole land of Attica lay under his \ision, and near 
enough to have its great outlines distinguishable. What a world 
was clustered within that compass! 

The land of Attica, whose sword shook and whose civiliza- 
tion a>nquered the world, had the superficial area and about 
one-third the agricultural productiveness of a moderate siased 
county in any of the American States which have been erected 
in the [)n>vince of French Louisiana. No coiKjueror who has 
tnxl the earth to fill it with desolation and mourning, e\'er con- 
quenxi and [permanently amalgamated with his native kingtlooi 
a remote approach to the same extent of territory. But one 
king! iom in Kurr>(>e equals the extent of one of its present States. 
Germany supfxirts a {copulation of thirtyse%*en millions of people. 
All ( German v has a little more than the area of two thirds of 
Nebraska, and, acre for acre, less tillable land. Louisiana, 
dcnMrly [K>|mlatc<l in pn>|x)rtion to its natural materials of 
tentation as |iart5 of Kun>[)e, would l>e ca(»able of supporting 
somewhere fmm four to five hunilntl millions of people. The 
whole Unite<l States Ixxame ca{>able, by this acquisition, of sus- 
taining; a larger population than e%'er occupictl Europe. 

The punhase secunxl, imlqx^rKlently of territory, lerenl 
prime national objects. It gave us that homogeneousncss, unity* 
and imlef>cn<lcnie which are derived from the absolute contiol 
ami <li^^K»^ition of f>ur commerce, trade, and industry in evtfy 
dqiartment, without the himlcraiK e or meddling of any inter^tfi- 
ing nation txiween us arul any natural element of industry, be* 
tween us and the sea, or between us arnl the open market of the 
workl. It gave us ocean bouiKlaries on all exposed sides, for it 
left Cana<b ex|x>sed to us,ar)d rx>t us to Canada. It made us in- 
di^'jnjtably aiwl forr\Tr the amtmllcrs of the western bemispbere. 
It pbiefl our national course, character, cinlixation, and dcsdny 
w>lely in our own haiKis. It ga%T us the certain xmrccs of a ooC 
distant numerical strength to which that of the mightirit cm- 
pirvs of the past or present is insignificant. 

A (f allic Cesar was leading his armies over shattered kiQg* 


dooM. Hit vnwd foot shook the world. He decimated Eu- 
fOfie. Millions 00 millions of mankind perished, and there was 
sucdjr a human habitation from the Polar Seas to the Mcdi- 
t the voice of lamentation was not heard ovtt 
kindred, lo swell the conqueror's strength and 
^fjhr["l And the canugc and rapine of war are tritUng e\iU 
OMBpared with iti demoralizations. The niUing tide of con- 
qocM nbndcd. France shrunk back (o her ancient limits. Na- 
il (fied a repining captive on the rock of St. Helena. The 
s liaftedy was played out ; and no physical results were 
d bill dccirasc, depopubtion, and universal loss. 
A gqwbHnin Prcaidenl, on a distant continent, was also seek- 
ing ki aggnndin his country. He led no armies. He shed not 
a wb&try drop of human bkiod. He caused not a tear of human 
He bent iwi one toiling back lower by governmental 
Strangest of political anomalies; and ludicrous as 
r ID the rrprcsenlaiives of the ideas of the t>TBnnicaI and 
r paitt be listened the taxes while he was li(;htcning the 
> of ■ oatkm. And without interrupting either of these me- 
I toe an instant; without imposing a single new exac 
IBB oo kii peof^, he acquired, peaceably and permanently for 
hH oo untfy more extensive and fertile domains than ever for a 
■ouiciH owned the sway of Napoleon; more extensive ones 
ihaa hii f/nj pluinc ever floated over. Which of these \-irtor8 
dBBvca lo be lermed "gkirious" ? 

Yel. with that scrmc and unselfish equanimity which ever 
(Neferied his rausc to his vanity, this moa- than conqueror 
dliBul hia rral agency in this great achievement to go uncs 
e1 Id the day of his death, and to be in a p^>d mca.'^ure at- 
lo mere accident, taken a'lvantagc nf quite as much by 
m bf himself. He wrote no laundled letter. He asked 


AJD. 1804 


At the openifif of the nbictecfith centuiy the United States of Amer- 
ica were impelled to re»t»t by force the pira'ical powcrm known at the 
Bartxary States, on the northern coast of Africa. These corsatn had 
long veied the Mediterranean countries of Europe Similar annoyances 
havtnf been suffered by the United States, that country at last tnllicted 
upon one of the offenders— Tripoli— a punishment which proved tot^e th« 
beginning of the end in the predatory career of all. 

During the last years of the eighteenth century the Mediterranean 
was rendered l>y these African pirates so unsafe that the merchant-shtpa 
ol every natKm were in danger of being captured by them, unless pro- 
tected by an armed convoy or tiy tribute pa:d to the iiart>ary powers. 
With other countries, the United States had made payments of such 
trilxite. but at last, when an increase of such (a)ment% was demanded by 
Tripoh. the Republic refused to comply. In consequence of thu refusal 
Tripoli. June 10. iV)i. declared war against the United States. THe 
conflict which en%ue(i is known as the Tnpolitan War. It had been an- 
ticipated by the United States, which had already sent a squadn>n to th« 
Mediterranean. No serums coIlMion to^ik place until October. 1II03; 
then, while chafing a ovrxiir into the liarlior of Tn|>o]i. the United Stales 
frigate Thiladelphia. Capt^!n Willum HainbrKige. struck a Minken rock, 
and. l)eing unable to u\e her gun%. wa« raptured by the Trtpolitan«. 

On Fetiruarv it», i.Hc^. Lieutenant Stephen I>rcatur. under orders n| 
Comm<idore Kdward Trrble. performed what Nelson called * the moat 
danng act of the age.* which made the young ofhcer one of the most U^ 
mous among naval heroes With a captured Tripohtan craft, renamed 
the Intrepid, and a crew of iteventy five men. he entered the harbor ol 
Tripoli by night, boarded the Philadelphia, 'within haU gimsboC €4 fhm 
pacha's castle, drove the Tnpolitan crew overlxiard. set the ship 00 ftie, 
remained alongside until the flames were beyond control, and then wtdb- 
drew without losing a man.* though under the 6re of one hitndrcd fort^- 
ooe guns 

The further operations and end of the war are narrated by Cooper, 
who. although most widely known by his noveb. was himself at one time 
an oflkcr la tke United States Navy, ol vhidi be it ako oot ol tlM 


IT wu July 31, 1804, when Commodore Preble vas able to sail 
iram MaIu, with all the force he had coUcrlcd, to join the ves- 
aeb amBng off Tripoli. The blockade had been kept up with 
Tigar (or toioe iDooths, and the Commodore felt that the season 
had now snivrd for more acti^'c operations. He had with 
him the Constitution, Enterprise, Nautilus, two bomb-vesseb, 
ftod BX gunboats. The bomb-vessels were of only thirty tons 
meuuremcnt, and carried a thirtcen-inch mortar each. In 
naw d y iny reelect were they suited for the duly thiit was ex- 
pected ol them. The gunboats were little better, bcin){ shallow, 
voaeawofthy cnft, of about twenty-five tons bunlcn, in whirh 
kog inm twenty-lours had been mounted. Each boat had one 
gua mDd thirty-five men; the Litter, with the exception of a few 
NcmpobtanSt being taken frum the different vessels of the squad- 
mL The Tripolitan (;unboats were altogether superior, and the 
doqrdKMjld havebeenexactly reversed, In order to suit ihequali- 
tks o( the respective craft ; the boats of I'ripoli having been built 
to go 00 the ctMSl, wtule lho»c possessed by the Americans were 
iMcnded aolcly for harbor defence. In addition to their other 
bad qaaHties, these Neapolitan Iwats were found neither to sail 
■or to row even tolerably well. It was necessary to tow them by 
htftT raacb the moment they got into rough water, and when it 
bkw heavily there was always danger of dragging them under. 
Id additinn to thb force, Commodute Preble had obtained six 
loai twenty-iix pounders for the upper detk of the ConMilution, 
«liidi were nMnmicd in the waist. 

When the Amcricftn commander assombUd hin whole force \>e- 
fatt Tripoli, ofi July 35. >8o4. it consisted of the Constitution 44 
gam, Gunmodorc Preble; Siren 16, I.ieuienanl Commandant 
Sinnn; Atgus 16, Lieutenant-Commandant Hull; Scourge 14, 
mi-CommatKlanl Dent; Vixen ti, Lieutenant Comman 
I Smhh; Nautilus 11, Lieutenant Commanilant S(>miT>, 
Lieutenant Commandant I >ci .11 ur ; the two 
\, ind kix gunboats. In some rr»iHMs ilii> was a 
■dl aiUJuiijUd force for the duty required, while in uihersil was 
' ~y dc6denl. Another heai7 ship, in iiatliiuUr, wa& 
i the mrans for bombartling had all the ilrfii-L^ that 
Wta^ tm aadcipAtcd. The two heaviest tiri>r> had umumcnK of 
mjil|-faltr-pouad curoiudcs; the other hrifi, and two of the 


•cfaoomriy annrnmenu of eightecn-pound cmnonidci ; whik the 
Entrrpriie retained her origirul equipment of long iixcs in coo- 
sequence of her p^iris being unsuited to the new guns. 

As the Constituticjn had a gun deck Ijattery of thirty long 
twenty fours, with &iz king twenty sixes, ami some lighter long 
guns above, it folkiws that the Americans cr>ukl bring twenty two 
twenty foun and &iz twenty sixes to bear on the stone walls of the 
town* in arldition to a few light chase-guns in the small %*csaels, 
anrl the twelve- pounders of the frigate's quarterdeck and fore- 
castle. On the whole, there appears to have been in the squad- 
ron twenty eight hea%7 long guns, with about twenty lighter, that 
might be brought to play on the batteries simultaneously. Op- 
posed to these means of offence, the pacha had one hundred 
fifteen guns in battery, mr«t of them quite hca\7, and nineteen 
gunbr^U that, of themselves, sr> far as metal was concenuti, were 
nearly equal to the frigate. Moorerl in the hartx>r were alv) two 
large galle}'s, two m hcxmers, and a brig, all of which were armed 
and stmngly mannttl. The American v{uadrr>n was manned 
by one thousarul sixty [ierv)n.s, all tr^ld. while the pa<ha had as- 
sembler] a force that has Urn estimated xs high as twenty fi\'e 
thousand, Arabs anrl Turks included. The only advantage 
possciacd by the assailants, in the warfare that was so soon to 
follow, were those which are dqiendent on spirit, discipline, 

The vcsseb coukl not anchor until the 28th, when they ran in* 
with the wind at sf>utheast, aiKl came to, by signal, about 
a league fn>m the town. This was hardly done. hc>we%er, be- 
fore the wind came su<ldenlv n>un<l to north north wc-st, thence 
nr>rth northeaM, and it Ijegan to blow stn>ng, with a hea\'y sea 
setting directly on shore. At 6 p. M. a sii^nal was niade for the 
%'tssels to weigh and to gain an ofTing. Fortunately the wind 
continued to haul to the eastwanl, or there wtmkl ha\*e been 
great danger of towing the gunboats umlcr while carrying tafl 
to ( law off the land. The gale continued in increase until the 
31st, when it blew tremetKlously. The (r>'jrvsof the Comti- 
tuttrm were bk>wn away, though reefc<l. and it would ha%T been 
impTMsible to save the boml^ vessels and gunboats had not the 
wind hauler! so far to the southward as to gi^-e fmoolh witcr. 
Fofftimately, the gale ceased the next day. 


On Augost i, 1804, the 'squadron ran in again and got within 
■ kague of the town, with a pleasant breeze at the castwartl. The 
CBonr't goaboala and galle}'s had come uuiside o( the nx-ks and 
woe lying then in two divisjons; one near the eastern and the 
otlKr Mar the westeni entrance, or aboui half a mile a[>ait. At 
the mine time it was seen that all the batieries were manned, as 
ii an attack was not only expected but invited. 

Al t>;30. noon, the Constitution wore with her head off shore, 
and ih owe J a aRnal for all veswls lo come within hail. Each 
ftffmmaitit fTi as be came up, was otdcnxl to prc-pare to attack the 
Aipiriaf and batteries. The bomb-x'cssels and gunboau were 
J manned, and such was ifac high state of discipline in 
1 thai in one hour everything was ready for the con- 
errioc. On this orcasion Commodore Preble made 
I diftTibution of that part of his foree which was 
a the other vcsseb of his squadron : 
Oar bomb-ketch was commanded by Lieulenant-Comman- 
dnal Dent, of the Scourge. The other bt>mt>-ketch was com- 
■■aded by Mr. Robinson, fint lieutenant o( the Constitution. 

Ffast division of gunboats, (i) Lieutenant-Commandant 
Somen, oflhe Nautilus: o) Lieutenant James Decatur, of the 
Nwliliit: (3) Ucutcnani Blake, of the Argus. 

Second diviiitin of gunboats. (4) Lieutenant Commandant 
Pniw. of the Enterprise: (5) Lieutenant Itainbridgc, of the 
EMoprae: (6) Lieutenant Trippc, of the Vixen. 

At baH-pUt one the Constitution wore n^^ain, and stiMxl tow- 
ard the town. At two the gunboau were off, and formnl 
in adnncr, cotcml by the brigs and schooners, and half an hour 
birr tbe ii|{nal was shown to engage. The attack was comment eil 
by the two bombards, which began lo thruw sheila into the tow n. 
h «■• iolbwcd by the batteries, which were instantly in a blaze, 
md then the ihipping on both sides opened their fire, within 
laack of gimpe. 

Tbe CBftcm, or moM wralherly division of the enemy's gun 
baaa^ nine u nombcr, as being least supported, n-as the aim I'l 
n gunbt^ts. But thr bail qualities cf the latter i mfi 
y apparent, for as soon as Decatur steered low.ird the 
f wilfa an intention to come to cli»e <|uan<TS, the di>iMon of 
\, wbidi wai a little to leeward, found it ditltcuti to sustain 


him. Ev«7 effort was made by the latter officer to gei far 
enough to windward to join in the attack; but finding it imfimc- 
ticabie he bore up and ran down alone on five of the enemy to lee- 
ward and engaged them all within pistol-shot, throwing shciwen 
of grape, cannistcr, and musket-balls among them. In onier to 
do this, as soon as near enough, the sweei>s were got out and the 
boat was backed astern to prevent her from <lrifting in among the 
enemy. The gunboat. Number Three, was ckising fast, but a 
signal of recall being shown from the Constitution she hauled out 
of the line to obey, and losing ground kept more aloof, firing at 
the boats and shipping in the harbor; while Number Two, lieu- 
tenant James Decatur, was enabled to join the division to wind- 
ward. Number Five, Lieutenant Bainbridge, lost her lateen- 
yard, while still in tow of the Siren, but, though unable to ckise, 
she continued ad^-ancing, keefnng up a hea\7 fire, and finally 
touched on the rocks. 

By these changes. Lieutenant -Comman<lant Decatur had 
three boats that dashed forward with him, though one befenged 
to the division of Lieutenant Commandant Somers; \ix-. Num- 
ber Four, Number Six, and Numl>er Two. 

The officers in command of these three boats went steadily on 
until within the smoke of the enemy. Here they delivered their 
fire, thmwing in a terrible dinharge of grape and musketbaUs» 
and the order was given to board. Up to this moment the odds 
had been as three to one against the assailants; and thry 
now, if possible, increase*!. The brigs and schooners ccmld 
k>nger assist. The Turkish Ixxits were not only the heaviest and 
the best in ever>' sense, but they were much the strongest manned* 
The combat now assumed a character of chivaln>us effort and of 
desiierate |)erv>nal prowess that lxrk)ngs rather to the !^Ii<kllcAKes 
than to struggles of our own time. Its details, indeed, savor 
more of the taks of romance than of harsh reality, such as we are 
accustomed to associate with acts of modem warfare. 

Lieutenant CommaiKlant Decatur took the lead. He had no 
sooner discharged his %T>lley of musket balls than Number Four 
was lai<l akmgside of the opposing Ixiat of the enemy. He 
boarded her, foUowed by Lieutenant Thorn M*Donough and all 
the Americans of his crew. The Tripolitan boat was divided 
nearly in two paru by a long open hatchway, and as the cmm of 


Nomfaer Foot cune in one side the Turks relrcatcd to the other, 
making « tort of ditch of the open space. This caused an instant 
oi delay, aai perhaps fortunately, for it permitted the assailants 
lo act together. As soon as ready, Decatur charfred round each 
end d the hatcbwajr, and after a short strug);;le a part of the Turks 
«cn ptked and ba}VReted, while the rest submitted or leaped into 
the water. 

No tooDcr bad Decatur got possession of the boat first assailed 
than be took bcr in tow and boir down on the one next to lee- 
wanL Runoiitg the enemy aboard, as before, he boarded him 
with themoMofbisofficers and men. The captain of ihcTripoli- 
taa vosd was a large powerful man and Decatur charged him 
with a pike. The weapon, however, was seized by the Turk, 
wRsted (roin the bands of the assailant, and turned against its 
owner. The latter parried a thrust, and made a blow with his 
SOTDI1I at the pike, with a view to cut off its head. The swoid hit 
the iroo and broke at the hilt and the next instant the Turk made 
aoolfacr thnist. The gallant Dnatur had nolhing to parn- the 
blow bat bit ann, with which he so far avoided it as lo receive the 
frikc ooljr thmugh the flesh of his breast. Tearing the iron fnvn 
the wookI he sprang within the Turk's guard and grappled his 
■DllfBDilL The pike fell txrtween the two and a shon trial of 
tfRUglli SDcneded, in which the Turk prevailed. As the com- 
bitanta fcil, bowerer, Decatur sm (sr n-lexiod himself as 10 lie side 
by ode with hit foe on the deck. The Triixililan now emUav- 
and 10 teach Us poniard while hU hand wa.« firmly held by ihat 
of hb cocmy. At this critical instani. when life or death de- 
on a moment well employed or a moment lost. Duralur 
■naU pistol fnim the {Kxket u( his vest. pa:<»ed the arm 
• tree round the body of the Turk, pointed the muzzle in, 
iL The ball [XL-wed entirely thmugh the lyxly «f the Mus- 
B and kxjged in the clothes nf his foe. .^t the same instant 
r fell (he gratp that had almriM »moihere<i him nlax, and 
he WM IftKratcd. He sprang up and the Tripolitan by doul at 

In aadi a nrflfe it cannot be suftposed that the struggle of the 
t«D kndeii wouM go unnoticni. .\n enemy raised his sabrr to 
dnTtlheskaQofDecaturwhilehe wasixiiipiiil with hi^ enemy, 
Md « yoong naa of the EnterT>risc's cn-w init-r)>oscd an arm to 


save him. The blow wis intercq>ted, but the limb wis sevrrcd, 
Icanng it hanging only by a bit of skin. A fresh rush was now 
made upon the enemy, who was overcome without much further 

An idea of the desperate nature of the fighting that distin* 
guished this remarkable assault may be gained from the amount 
of the loss. The two boats captured by Lieutenant Comman- 
<lant Decatur had about eighty men in them, of whom fifty- two 
were known to have been killed and wounded, most of the latter 
very badly. As only eight prisoners were made who were not 
wounded, and many jumped overboard and swam to the rocks, 
it is not impmbable that the Turks suffered still more severely. 
Lieutenant CommaiKlant Decatur himself l)eing wounded, he se- 
cured his second prize and hauled of! to rejoin the squadron, all 
the rest of the enemy's division that were not taken having by this 
time run into the harbor by passing through the openings between 
the rocks. 

VMien Lieutenant-Commandant Decatur was thus empbyed 
to windwani, his brother, Lieutenant James Decatur, the first 
lieutenant of the Nautilus was nobly emubting his example in 
Numlxrr Two. Rescmn^ his fire, like Number Four, this young 
officer dashe<l into the smoke, and was on the point of bonding 
when he rrceivctl a mu«»kti kill in his forehead. The boats met 
and rebounded; and in the confusion of the death of the com- 
manding officer of NumUr Two, the Turk was enabled to escmpet 
under a hea\7 fire fn>m the Americans. It was said, at the time, 
that the enemy had strut k Ufore lieutenant Decatur fell, though 
the fact must remain in doubt. It is, howe%*er, believed that he 
sustaincfl a vcr>' scvcrr loss. 

In the m^-an time. Lieutenant Trippe in Number Six» the kM 
of the three Ixjats that were able to reach the weather diviaioci, wia 
not idle. Reser\'ing his fire like the others, he delivered it with 
deadly effect when ck^sing, and went aboard his enemy in the 
smoke. In this instance the boats also separated by the shock 
of the collision, leaving Lieutenant Tripfie, with J. D. Henley and 
nine men only, on Ijoard the Tripolitan. Here, too, the com- 
manders singled each other out, and a fierce personal combat oc- 
currtd whik the work of death was going on around them. The 
Turk was young and of large and athletic btiikl» and looQ 


peOed h» slighter but more active foe to fight with caution. Ad- 
vancing an Lieutenant Trippc he would strike a blow and receive 
a thnitf in return. In tilts manner he gave the American com- 
—nrtff no less than eiglit sabre wounds in the head and two in 
the breast; when making a sudden rush he struck a ninih blow 
oo the Ltcuteoant's head which brought him down upon one 
kacc Rallying all his force in a desperate cfTort the latter, who 
■in retained the short pike with which he fought, made a thrust 
that forced the weapon through the body of his gigantic adver- 
Miy and tumbled him on his back. As soon us the Tripolitan 
oAcer fidl the remainder of his crtw surrendered. 

The boat taken by Lieutenant Trippc wa^ one of the largest 
^4'*^"g 10 the pacha. The number of her men is not posi- 
tively known, but, living and dead, thirty-six were found in her, 
of whom twenty-one were cither killed or wounded. When it is 
lononbertd that but eleven Americans boanii-d her the achieve- 
Mcnl mtot pass for one of the most gallant on record. All this 
liowlhecaiuiooading and bombardment amlinucd without ccas- 
ii^ Lieoteoant- Commandant Somcr^, in Number One, sus- 
tdoed bjr tbe brigs and schooners, had forced ihe remaining boats 
Id rctnat, and this resolute ofTicer pressed them so hard as to be 
i to wear within a short distance of a battery of twelve 
e to the mole. Her ilesiruciion seemed inevitable. As 
At boat can»r slowly round, a shell fell into the battery and most 
Qffoi tun df blew up the plalform, driving the enemy out to the 
Im man. Before the guns could be again used, the boat had got 
■ hnr of one of the small vessels. 

There was a diviMun of five iKuts and two galleyit of the 
CDCBtjr that had been held in reser\'e within the rocks, and these 
aKed ihdr retreating countrymen and made two et7on» tu come 
Mtf and intercept the Americans ami their prizes; but they wen- 
he^ in duck by the fire of the frigate and small veitsrU. Tht 
CoHtitatioa maintained a very hea^7 fire and silenced several of 
the batteries, though thr\' re'>|>ened as soon as she ))ad {lassed. 
1^ boatbanls were covered with the »pniyof >h(it,l>ut rnntinucd 
to ihlDW ihcUt to the At half past four the wind coming 
KMmI to the northward a signal was made f >r the gunboats and 
UmIi tiNhi I u> rejoin the small vessels, and another lo take 
Aito and tbe prixes in tow. The last order wa» handsomely eie- 


cuted by the brigs and scboonen under cover of a blaie of fire 
from the frigate. A quarter of an hour later the CoDidtutioo 
herself hauled off and ran out of gunshot. 

Thus terminated the first serious attack that was made on the 
town and batteries of Tripoli. Its effect on the enemy was of the 
moat salutary kind, the manner in which their gunboats had 
been taken by boarding making a deep and Usting impreaskxi. 
The superiority of the Americans in gunnery was gcncfaDy ad- 
mitted before, but here was an instance in which the Turks had 
been overcome by inferior nimiber, hand to hand, a kind of con- 
flict in which they had been thought particularly to excel Per- 
haps no instance of more desperate fighting of the sort« without 
defensive armor, is to be found in the pages of history. Three 
gunboats were sunk in the harbor in addition to the three that 
were taken ; and the loss of the Tripolitans by shot must have 
been very heavy. About fifty shells were thrown into the town, 
but little damage appears to have been done in this way; very 
few of the bombs— on account of the imperfect materials that had 
been furnished — exploding. The batteries were considerably 
damaged, but the town itself suffered no material injury. 

On the American side only fourteen were killed and wounded 
in the affair; and aU of these, with the exception of one man, be- 
longed to the gunboats. The Constitution, though under fire 
two hours, escaped much better than could have been expected. 
She received one hea\7 shot through her mainmast, had a quar- 
terdeck gun injured, and was a good deal cut up aloft The 
enemy had calailatcd his range for a more distant rannonadr 
and generally ovcr&hot the ships. By this mistake the Coosdtii* 
tion had her main royal yard shot away. 

The pacha now became more disposed than ever to treat, the 
warfare promising much aimoyance with no correi^xmding bcne> 
fits. The caimonading did his batteries and vesaeb gnemt injury, 
though the town probably suffered less than might have been ex- 
pected, being in a measure protected by its walls. The ihclll^ 
too, that had been procured at Messina turned out to be very btd* 
few exploding when the)' fell The case was different with the 
shot, which did effective work on the different batteries. Scmm 
idem may be formed of the spirit of the hurt attack from the re|ioft 
€t Commodore Preble, who stated that nine guns, one ol wUdi 


WH vacd but i short time. ihri'W five hundred heavy shot in the 
ooone of little more than two hours. Although the delay, caused 
bgr the cipectcd irrival of the reJinforccTncnt, was used to open a 
' " , it was without effect. The pacha had lowered his 
B one-half, but he still insisted on a ransom of five hun- 
flrcd dollars a man for his prisoners, though he waived the usual 
datm for tribute in future. These propositions were noi received. 
It being oipccted that, after the arrival of the reinforcement, the 
ticaly might be made on the usual leims of civilized nations. 

On AuguM Qlh the Argus, Captain Hull, had a narrow es- 
cape. That brig having stood in toward the town to reconnoitre, 
with Commodore Preble on board, one of the heaviest of the shot 
faoni the batteries raked her bottom for some distance and cut 
dw phnks half through. An inch or two of variation in the di- 
RctioQ of this shot would infallibly have sunk the brig, and thai 
pnbsbly in a few minutes. 

No intelligence arriving from the expected vcsseU, Commo- 
dotv Preble, abour the lAlh, began to make his pre[>arations for 
rattack, sending the Enterprise, Lieuk-nant Commandant 
lO, lo Malta with orders for the agent to forward trans- 
ports whh wuer. the vessels being on a short allowance. On the 
ri^of the I ;tb. Captains Decatur and Chaunce)' went close in, 
ii boali, and reconttoitred Ihr situation of the enemy. These 
offocn on their return reportc<l that the vessels of the Tripolitan 
■olBa weft moored abreast of each other, from a line extending 
bam the mok to the castle, with their heads to the eaMward, mak- 
fag A defence directly acntss the inner harbor or galley mole. A 
Ipk^ howe ver , compelled the American squadmn to stand off 
e oo the morning of the iRth, cauMng another delay in ihc 
nplucd movement*. While lying to in the ofling the vcv 
* the tran-sports from Malta, and the Knierprise returned 
; DO intelligencr fmm the expected recnforecmeni. 
On the )4th the Mjuadron sIixmI in toward the town again, 
ibaB^t breeze from the eastward. At 8 P.H. the Constitu- 
B SBcbond just out of gun.shot of the batteries, but it fell calm 
1 the boats of the different vessels were vnl to tow the bom- 
I to a poution favorable for throwing shdh. This was 
a to have been effecicd by i ku . when ihe two ve?.**-Kbe- 
w their bombs, covered by the gunboats. At dayli^l 


they all retired without having received a shot in return. Com- 
modore Preble appears to have distrusted the rcsuh of this bom- 
bardment, the first attempted at night, and there is a reason to 
think it had but little effect. 

The weather proving very fine and the wind favorable, on the 
aSth G>mmodore Preble determined to make a more vigorous 
a»ault on the town and batteries than any which had preceded 
it, and his dispositions were taken accordingly. The gunboats 
and bombards re(]uiring so many men to manage them, the Con- 
stitution and the small vessels had been compelled to go into ac- 
tion short of hands in the previous affairs. To obviate this diili- 
cuky, the John Adams had been kept before the town, and a por- 
tion of her oflicers and crew, and nearly all her boats, were now 
put in requisition. Captain Chauncey himself, with about sev- 
enty of his people, went on board the flagship, and all the boata 
of the squadron were hoisted out and manned. The bomb-vc»- 
lek were crippled and could not be brought into service, a circum- 
stance that prol>ably was of no great consequence on account of 
the poor ammunition they were compelled to use. Tbeie two 
vessels with the Scourge, transports, and John Adams, were an- 
chored well off at sea, not being availabk in the contemplated 

Everything being prepared, a little after midnight the follow* 
tng gunboats proceeded to the stations, viz.. Number One, Cap- 
tain Skxners; Number Two, Lieutenant Gordan; Ntmiber Three, 
Mr. Brooks, master of the Argus; Number Eour, Captain Deca- 
tur; Number Fi\T, Lieutenant I-awrrnce; Number Six, Lieu- 
tenant Wadsworth; Number Soen, Lieutenant Crane; Number 
Nine, Lieutenant Thome. They were di\'ided into two divisiona 
as before, Captain Decatur having become a superior officer, 
however, by his recent promotion. About 3 A.1L the gunboats 
advanced dote to the rocks at the entrance of the harbor, covered 
by the Siren, Captain Stewart; Argus, Captain HuD; Yarn. 
Captain Smith; Nautilus, Lieutenant-Commandant Robinaon, 
and accompanied by aU the boats of the squadron. Here ibcjr 
anchored, with springs on their cablet, and commenced a caaooD* 
ade on the encmjr's shipping, castle, and town. As aoon aa tke 
day dawned the Conttinition weif^ied anchor and stood in tovaid 
the rocks, tmdera fire from the batteries, Foct EflflHlit and tke 


At this tine the enemy's gunboats and galleys, thineen 
, were closely and warmly engaged with the eight 
xaa; and the Constitution, ordering the latter to rc- 
tbc bf sgnal, as their ammunition was mostly consumed, dc- 
Svcfed a bary fiic of round and grapcshol on the former as she 
CUDt VfL One of the enemy's boats was soon sunk, two were 
lai aAon to pirvent than ftiHn meeting a similar fate, and the 
NM wired. 

The Constitution now continued to stand on until she had 
nm in witfam niukel-shot of the mole, when she brought up, and 
1 npon the town, batteries, and castle. Here she lay three- 
t of an hour, pouring in a fierce fire with great effect, 
I UutI all the small vessels were out of gunshot, she 
haided oft. About seven hundred hea\7 shot were thrown at the 
flBOif ia this attack, besides a good many from the chase-guns 
«f the mD veatds. The enemy sustained much damage and 
kai onojr men. The American brigs and schooners were a good 
dad injnnd aloft, as was the Constitution. AUhough the latter 
rfdp was 10 long within reach of grape, many of which shot struck 
kr, ifae had not a man hurt. Several of her shrouds, backsiaj-s, 
tvaBca. yrinplaya, chains, lifts, and a great deal of running rig- 
gfng were ibot away, and yet her hull escaped with very trilling 
tejafka. A boat belonging to the John .\dams, under the orders 
o( Joho Orde Creighlon, one of that shipm:i'stL-r's matcn. vas 
k by a douUe-headni .>>hot which kilkxl ihn-c men and Itadly 
d a fourth, but the olTicer and the Kst of the boat's crew 

In thi» attack a heavy shot from the .\mcrican guntxmtA 

ruck the caulc, ptiucd through a wall, and rebounding from the 

e nde of the room fell within six inches o[ Captain Bain- 

wfao w»a in bed at the time, and covered him with stone* 

', fnini under which he was taken, badly injuit-d, by 

Mon- harm was rjonc the town in ihi^ iitt.ack than 

kl cUkt of the other*, thesihot apiM-arini; to have struck many of 

Ftooi this time to thi- cliw of the month I'rrpara- 

t made to use the bombanis again ami to renew the can. 

.\nothcr transport arrivcil from Malla. but wiihoui 

I any ioldligence of the vrxsj-U umlcf the order* of Com 

t Banon. On September yi, eu-nthinij being ready, a1 


hidf ptst two the signal was given for the smmO vcateb to id vance. 
The enemy had improved the time as well as the Americans; thejr 
had raised three of their own gunboats that had been sunk in 
the engagements of August 3d and iSih. These craft were now 
added to the rest of their flotilla. 

The Tripolitans had also changed their mode of fighting. 
Hitherto, with the exception of the battle of August 3d, their gal- 
leys and gunboats had lain either behind the rocks in position to 
fire over them, or at the openings between them, and they conse> 
quendy foimd themselves to leeward of the frigate and small 
American cruisers, the latter invariably choosing easteriy winds 
to advance with, as such would permit crippled vessels more 
quickly to retire. On August 3d (the case above excepted), the 
Turks had been 90 roughly uvd when brought to a hand-to-hand 
struggle — when they evidently expected nothing more than a can- 
nonade — that they were not disposed to venture again outside of 
the harbor. C)n September 3d, however, their plan of defence 
was more judiciously offered. No sooner was it perceived that 
the American M]uadron was in motion with the design to attack 
them than the gunboats and galleys got under way and worked 
up to windward until they gained a point on the weather side of 
the harbor, being directly under the fire of Fort English as wcU 
as of a new battcr>- that had been erected a little to the westward 
of the btter. 

This disposition of the enemy's force required a correspood* 
ing change on the part of the Americans. The bombards were 
directed to take stations and to c«)mmeiKe throwing their shells; 
while the gunboau in two diWsions, commanded as t2sual by 
Captains Decatur and Somers ami protected by the guns of the 
brigs and sclxHmers, assailed the enemy's flotilla. This arrange- 
ment separated the battle into two distinct parts, leaving the 
bomb-vTsaels very much exposed to the fire of the castle, the mole, 
crown, aiKl other batteries. The Tripolitan gunboats and gaOeyi 
stood the fire of the American flotilb until the latter had got 
withinmusketrii' shot, when they retired. The assailants then sep- 
arated, some of the gunboats folk)wing the enemy and pouring ta 
their fire, while the others, with the brigs and scbooocrt, cao- 
nooaded Fort English. 

In the mean while, perceiving that the bombards were suflkr- 


f from the continuous fire of the guns to which they 
«CR f w pf M Wili Commodore Preble ran down the CoDstitution 
dam to tbe rocks and the bomb-vessels, and brought-lo. Here 
the bigUc opened as wann a &re as probably ever came out of a 
■D^e-<lecked ship. She was, moreover, in a portion where 
M i BiHy heavy guns could bear upon her. The whole harbor in 
tbe vidntly of the town was glittering with the spray of her shot, 
aad each battery, a» usual, was silenced as soon as it drew her 
■Mention. After throwing more than three hundred round shot, 
frr^^" gnpc and cannistcr, the frigate hauled ofT, having pre- 
vkmily ordcnd the other vessels to n-tire from action, by signal. 
Tfacgnoboatt in this affair were an hour and 6ftecn minutes en- 
giged, lo which time they threw four hundred round shot besides 
gnpc and cannister. Lieutenant Trippe, who had so much dis- 
boguiabed himself and had reccivixl so many wounds on August 
jd, rcnmied the command of Number Six, for this occasion. 
lieulenanl Morris, of the Argus, was in charge of Number Three. 
As usual, all the small vcsseb suQercd aloft, and the Argtis sus- 
tuncd mne damage to her hull. 

Tbe Constitution was so much exposed in the attack that her 
escape ean only be attributed to the effect of her own heavy &re. 
h bad been found in the previous engagenK-nis that so long as 
ifac cooU play upon a battery the Turks could not be kept at its 
gnit; lad it was chiefly while she was veering, or tacking, that 
Ae lofiend. But after making every allowance for the effect of 
her own cannonading and for the imperfect gunnery of the 
•■any, it was astonishing that a single frigate could lie exposed 
to Ibe file of more than double her own number of available guns, 
md tbcM, too, mostly of heavier metal and protected by stone 
«tlh. Oo this occasion the frigate was not sup^xmed by the gun- 
boats, and was the sole object of the enemy's aim after the bom- 
buds bad withdrawn. 

As might ha>-e been cxiiwted, the Constitution suffered more 
Ib ibis attack than in any of the previous engagements, though she 
wt ai wtd nothing larger than grape in hrr hull. She had three 
ribdbtbiDOgh her canvas, oneof which rendrmlthe main topsail 
liBpacmrfly taelcss. Her sails, standing and running ringing, 
veic also much cut with shut. Captain Chauncey of the John 
• and a party of her officers and trew served In the Coiuti 


him. Every effort was made by the latter offker to get far 
enough to windward to join in the attack; but fmding it impmc* 
ticable he bore up and ran down alone on five of the enemy to lee- 
ward and engaged them all within piMolsiiot, throwing showen 
of grape, cannistcr, and musket baUs among them. In onler to 
do this, as soon as near enough, the swcc])s were got out and the 
boat was l>acked astern to prevent her from drifting in among the 
enemy. The gunboat. Number Three, was ckising fast, but a 
signal of recall being shown from the Constitution she hauled out 
of the line to oImt)-, and bsing ground kept more aloof, firing at 
the boats and shipping in the harbor; while Number Two, IJeu- 
tenant James Decatur, was enabled to join the di\'ision to wind- 
ward. Number Five, Lieutenant Bainbridge, k>st her lateen- 
yard, while still in tow of the Siren, but, though unable to ck>se, 
ihe continued advancing, keqiing up a hea\7 fire, and finally 
touched on the rtKks. 

By these changes, Lieutenant-Commandant Decatur had 
three boats that dashed fon^-ard with him, though one belonged 
to the di\Tsion of Lieutenant Conmiandant Somers; vix., Num- 
ber Four. Number Six, and Numlxrr Two. 

The oflficer^ in command of these three boats went steadily on 
until within the smoke of the enemy. Here they delivered their 
fire, thn>wing in a terrible discharge of gra()e and musket ballav 
and the order was given to boanl. U(> to this moment the odds 
had been as three to one against the assailants; and they 
now, if possible, increasctl. The brigs ami sihooners could 
longer assist. The Turkish U^its were not only the heaviest and 
the best in ever>' sense, but they were much the strongest manned. 
The combat now assumcxi a < haracter of chivaln>us effort and of 
desiderate personal prowess that bebngs rather to the Middle Ages 
than to struggles of our own time. Its details, indeed^ safor 
more of the taks of romance than of harsh rcalitv, such as wt are 
accustomed to associate with acts of mcxiem warfare. 

Lieutenant Commandant Decatur took the lead. He had no 
•ooner discharge«l his \x>lley of musket balls than Number Four 
was lai<l aktngside of the opposing boat of the enemy. He 
boarded her, foUomed by Lieutenant Thorn M'Dooough and all 
the .\mericans of his crew. The Tripolitan boat was divided 
nearly in two paru by a long open hatchway, aad aa the cmm of 


Ntmber Four cunc in one side the Turks retreated to the other, 
linking * aon of ditch of the open space. This caused an instant 
of ddajr, ind perhaps fortunately, for it permitted the assailants 
to met together. Aii soon as ready, Decatur charged round each 
end ol the hatchway, and after a short struggle a port of the Turks 
wm ptked and bayoneted, while the rest submitted or leaped into 
the water. 

No woner bad Decatur goi possession of the boat first assailed 
than he took her in tow and burc down on the one next to lee- 
waid. Runninf; the enemy aboard, as before, he boarded him 
with the moM of hisofficers and men. The captain of iheTripoli- 
tan vevd waa a large powerful man and Decatur charged him 
with a pflcc The weapon, however, was seized by the Turk, 
WTOled tram the bands of the assailant, and turned against its 
owner. The lallcr parried a thrust, and made a blow with his 
fword at the pike, with a view to cut otT its head. The sword hit 
the inw ai>d broke at the hilt and the next insl.inl the Turk made 
aBDthcr thrust. The gallant Divatur ha'l nothing lu parr)' the 
blow but hu arm, with which he so far avoidetl it as to receive the 
pike only thn>ugh the flcrih of his breast. Tearing the in>n fmm 
the wmad he spnng within the Turk's gu.inl and grappled his 
■BUfDobt. The [>ikc fell l>ettt-een the two iiml a short trial of 
Mrcngth succeeded, in which the Turk prevailed. As the com- 
faalatttafeU, howe»-er. Det-atiirsofnr n"le.xsoil himself as to lie side 
bjr nde with his foe on the deck. The Tn|M)lit3n now cndrnv- 
orad to teach hU ponian) while his hjind was firmly held by that 
ttt Us eoemy. At this critical instant, when life or death de- 
pended on a mofnent well empkiyed or a moment lost, Dwatur 
dirw a Kuall pistol fmm the [xxket of his vest, passed the arm 
that waa frer mund the body of the Turk, pointed the mu/^lc in, 
and find. The ball jkiwwI entirely through the I»o<iy of ihe Muv 
d kxigcd in the clothes of his foe. At the same instant 
r feh the gTm.sp that ha'l almost smothcnt] him nJax. and 
he wm libentcd. He sprang up and the Tripolitan by dcail at 

In audi a mWe ii cannot be supposed that the struggle nf the 
two Itader* would go uni>olicr<l. An enemy raiv<) his sabre to 
deave the iktiD of Drcalur while he was tiri-upjn! with hts enemy, 
and a ywDg nan of the Enterprise's crew inl(-r|io»cd an arm to 


save him. The blow was intercq>tcd, but the limb was severed, 
leaving it hanging only by a bit of skin. A fresh rush was now 
made upon the enemy, who was overcome without much further 

.\n idea of the desperate nature of the fighting that distin- 
guished this remarkable assault may lie gaine<l from the amount 
of the loss. The twt> boats captured by Lieutenant Comman- 
dant Decatur had about eighty men in them, of whom fifty-two 
were known to have been killed and wounded, most of the latter 
very badly. .\s only eight prisoners were made who were not 
wounded, and many jumped overboard and swam to the rocks, 
it is not imprr>bable that the Turks suffered stiU more se\ercly. 
Lieutenant Commandant Decatur himself being wounded, he se- 
cured his second prize and hauled off to rejoin the squaxlron, all 
the rest of the enemy's dinsion that wrre not taken having by this 
time run into the harbor by passing through the openings between 
the rocks. 

Wlien Lieutenant-Commandant Decatur was thus employed 
to iii'indwarrl, his broihrr, Lieutenant James Decatur, the first 
lieutenant of the Nautilus, was nobly emubting his example in 
Number Two. Rcsen inp his fire, like Number Four, thb young 
officer dasherl into the smr>ki\ and was on the point of boarding 
when he rrceivitl a mu^kil l)all in his forehead. The boats met 
and relx>underl; and in the confusion of the death of the com- 
manding officer of Numlxr Two. the Turk was enabled to escmpe« 
under a hea\7 firr fn>m the Americans. It was said, at the time, 
that the enemy had Mnu k Ufore Lieutenant I>ecatur fell, thougli 
the fact must remain in doubt. It is, however, belie%*ed that he 
sustained a \vr\ s<-vcrr loss. 

In the mran time. Lieutenant Trippe in Number Six, the kut 
of the three Ijoats that were able to reach the weather division, was 
not idle. Reserving his fire like the others, he delivered it with 
deadly effect when closing, and went aboard his enemy in the 
smoke. In this instance the boats also separated by the shock 
of the collision, leaving Lieutenant Tripfie, mith J. D. Henley and 
nine men only, on Uiarrl the Tripolitan. Here, too, the com- 
mandcn singled each other out, and a fierce personal combat oc- 
curred while the work of death was going on around them. The 
Turk was young and of Urge and athletic buikl« and toon am* 


peUed his itigbter but more active foe to tight with caution. Ad- 
wnriag 00 Lieutenant Trippc he would strike a blow and receive 
a thnul in return. In this manner he gave the American com- 
ntT**^ DO Ics than eight sabre wounds in the head and two in 
the bmtt; when making a sudden rush he struck a ninth blow 
on the Lieutenant's head which brought him down upon one 
ksee. Rallying all his force in a desperate eflort the latter, who 
Mill Riftincd the short pike with which he fought, made a thrust 
that lorcnj the weapon through the body of his gigantic adver- 
mij and tumbled him on his back. As soon as the Tripolitan 
officer kU the remainder of his crew surrendered. 

TIk boat taken by Lieutenant Trippc was one of the largest 
fri^'tg'"; to the pacha. The number of her men is not posi- 
tively known, but, lining and dead, thiny-six were found in her, 
of whom IwcntyK)De were either killed or wounded. When it is 
itmcmbaTd that but eleven Americans boarded her the achicve- 
■enl mtBt p«sK for one of the most gallant on record. All this 
tMe Uk cannonading and bombardment continued without ceas- 
fag. Lieutenant -Commandant Somcrs, in Number One, sus- 
tofawd by th« brigs and schooners, had forced the remaining boats 
Id RtftU, and this resolute officer pres.sed them so hard as to be 
ooapdkd lo wear within a short dblance of a battery of twelve 
ym dote to the mole. Her deMruciion seemed inevitable. As 
tke boat came (lowly round, a shell fell into the battery and mo6t 
oppoHundy blew up the plaifomi, driving the enemy out to the 
iHt maiL Bcfeir the guns could be again uxd, the boat had got 
ia lov of ooe of the small vos.sels. 

There was a division of five boats and Iwo galleys of the 
OMnqr that had been held in ri-s(.-r\'c nilhin the rocks, and these 
nBed Ibdr rrireating countr>-mrn and made two efforts to come 
sal aad intercept the Americans and their prizes^ but they were 
kept fa) dieck by the An- of the frigate an<] small vrsnck The 
CoBitilutiop maintained a very hca^7 lire and silenced several of 
Ac battoics, thouf^ ihc>' re<i{>cnc(] ajt soon as she )iad i>a»scd. 
Tht bcanbards wcrt covered with the spniyof shot, but continued 
to ihfDw ihdis lo the last. At half ]uis\ ftiur the wind coming 
touad to the northward a signal was made for the gunbt>ats and 
boanb-kdcho to rejoin the small vc»»eU, ami another lo take 
ttcB iDtl the prucs in tow. The last order was haodsomdy cie- 
a., TOL. av.— J. 


cuted by the brigs and acboonen under cover of a blaie of fire 
from the frigate. A quarter of an hour later the CoDilitutioo 
herself hauled off and ran out of gunshot. 

Thus terminated the first serious attack that was made on the 
town and batteries of Tripoli. Its effect on the enemy was of the 
moat salutary kind, the manner in which their gunboats had 
been taken by boarding making a deep and lasting impreaskm. 
The superiority of the Americans in gunnery was gcncfaDy ad- 
mitted before, but here was an instance in which the Turks had 
been overcome by inferior number, hand to hand, a kind of cod- 
flict in which they had been thought particularly to ezceL Per- 
haps no instance of more desperate fighting of the sort« without 
defensive armor, is to be found in the pages of history. Three 
gunboats were sunk in the harbor in addition to the three that 
were taken ; and the loss of the Tripolitans by shot must have 
been very heavy. About fifty shells were thrown into the town, 
but little damage appears to have been done in this way; very 
few of the bombs — on account of the imperfect materials that had 
been furnished — expkxling. The batteries were considerably 
damaged, but the town itself suffered no material injury. 

On the American side only fourteen were killed and wounded 
in the affair; and aU of these, with the exception of one man, be- 
longed to the gunboats. The Constitution, though under fire 
two hours, escaped much better than could ha\*e been esipcctcd. 
She received one hea\7 shot through her mainmast, had a quar- 
terdeck gun injured, and was a good deal cut up aloft. The 
enemy had calculated his range for a more distant rannonadr 
and generally overshot the ships. By this mistake the Cooidtii- 
tion had her main royal yard shot away. 

The pacha now became more dis(x>sed than ever to treat, the 
warfare promising much aimoyance with no correi^xmding bcne> 
fits. The canixmading did his batteries and vessels great injitry» 
though the town probably suffered less than might have been ex* 
pected, being in a memsunr protected by its walls. The ihclll^ 
too, that had been prcKured at Messina turned out to be very btdt 
few exploding when they fell The case was different with the 
shot, which did effective work on the different battcrica. ScMM 
idea may be formed of the spirit of the last attack bom the report 
€t Commodore Preble, who suted that nine guna» one of wUdi 


wfts Dsed but a short time, threw five hundred heavy shot in the 
oounc of little more than two hours. Ahhough the delay, caused 
by the expected arrival of the reinforcement, was used to open a 
negotialion, it wa-s without effect. The pacha had lowered his 
llfniifHTf one-half, but he still insisted on a ransom of five hun- 
ibcd doOant a man for his prisoners, though he waived the usual 
dkim tor tribute in future. These propositions were not reccivedi 
it bemg expected that, after the arrival of the reinforcement, the 
trouy might be made on the usual terms of civilized nations. 

On August gth the Ari^s, Captain Hull, had a narrow cs- 
apev Thai brig having stood in toward ihe town to reconnoitre, 
wtah Conunodore Preble on board, one of the heaviest of the shot 
ireai the batteries raked her bottom for some distance and cui 
the pbmks half through. An inch or two of variation in the di- 
IcetiaR of thifl shot would infallibly have sunk the brig, and that 
fgdmbty in a few minutes. 

No intelligence arriving fmm the expected vessels. Commo- 
dore Prrblr, about the 16th, Ix-gan to make his preparations for 
T attack, sending the Enterprise, Lieutenant -Commandant 
I, to Malta with orders for the agent to forward trans- 
ports wilb water, the vcsscU being on a short allowance. On the 
rigjttof the 17th, Captains I>c<alurand Chauncey went rliMc in, 
in boAta, and reconnoitred the situation of the enemy. These 
cfieen on their return reported that the vessels of the Tripolilan 
flatflh were moored abrea.'^t of each other, from a hne extending 
fcoaa the mole to the castle, n-ilh their heads to the ca.^1 ward, mak - 
iif m defeiKe directly across the inner harbor or galley mole. A 
pk^ bower er , compelled the American squadron to stand off 
Aore on the morning of the iKth, cauving another delay in the 
OMBBiplUed movements. While lyinglo in the ofhng the ves- 
■dl met the transports fmm Malta, and the Enlert>ri»e returned 
Mollis no inicUigcnce fmm the expected reinforcement. 

On tbe 34th the Kjuadron sIockI in tnwanl the town again, 
«idl a light breeze from the eastward, .^t 8 P.ll. the Constitu- 
doa m efaored jun out of gunshot of the batteries, but it fell calm 
^ri the bomts of the different vessels were sent to tow the bom- 
bltdi to a poiition favorable for throwing shclh. Thii was 
Adm^ to have been effected by 2 a.u., when the two \TsseU be- 
pn Id thnnr their bombs, covered by the gunboata. At daylight 


they all retired without having received a shot in return. Com- 
modore Preble appears to have distrusted the rcsuh of this bom* 
bardment, the first attempted at night, and there is a reason to 
think it had but little effect. 

The weather proving very fine and the wind favorable, on the 
aSth Commodore Preble determined to make a more vigorous 
a»ault on the town and batteries than any which had preceded 
it, and his dispositions were taken accordingly. The gunboats 
and bombards requiring so many men to manage them, the Con- 
stitution and the small vessels had been compelled to go into ac- 
tion short of hands in the previous affairs. To ob%'iate this diffi- 
culty, the John Adams had been kept before the town, and a por- 
tion of her officers and crew, and nearly all her boats were now 
put in rrquuution. Captain Chauncey himself, with about sev- 
enty of his people, went on board the flagship, and all the boats 
of the squadron were hoisted out and manned. The bomb-vc»- 
lek were crippled and could not be brought into service, a circum- 
stance that proltably was of no great consequence on account of 
the poor ammunition they were compelled to use. Tbeie two 
vessels, with the Scourge, transports, and John Adams, were an- 
chored weO off at sea, not being available in the contemplated 

Everything being prepared, a little after midnight the follow* 
tng gim boats proceeded to the stations, viz., Number One, Cap- 
tain Somen; Number Two, Lieutenant Gordan; Number Three, 
Mr. Brooks, master of the Argus; Number Four, Captain Deca- 
tur; Number Fi\T, Lieutenant I-awrmce; Number Six, Lieu- 
tenant Wadsworth; Number 5kr\-en, Lieutenant Crane; Number 
Nine, Lieutenant Thome. They were di\'idcd into two divtsioQa 
as before, Captain Decatur having become a superior officer, 
however, by his recent promotion. About 3 the gunboats 
advanced dose to the rocks at the entrance of the harbor, covered 
by the Siren, Captain Stewart; Argus, Captain Hull; VIjrh, 
Captain Smith; Nautilus, Lieutenant Commandant Robinaoo, 
and accompanied by aU the boats of the squadron. Here thqr 
anchored, with springs on their cables, and cmnmeiiced a caaooD* 
ade on the encmjr's shipping, castle, and town. As soon as tke 
day dawned the Constitution weif^ied anchor and stood in tovtfd 
the rocks, undera fire from the batteries, Foct Ea^fitt^ and tht 


cutle. At this time the enemy's gunboats and galleys, thirteen 
fa number, were closely und warmly engaged u-ith the eight 
AnMskan boUi; and the Constitution, ordering the latter to re- 
dn by tigD&l, u their ammunition was mostly consumed, dc- 
Bveicd a heavy fire of round and grapcshot on the former as she 
ante up. Ooc of the enemy's boats was soon sunk, two were 
mo aahorc to prevent them from meeting a similar fate, and the 
lot retired. 

The Conslitulion now continued to stand on until she had 
nm in within miukct-shot of the mole, when .she brought up, and 
Cfmcd uptMi the towTi, batteries, and castle. Here she lay three- 
qoanen of an hour, pouring in a fierce fire with great effect, 
^MltfiDdiog that all the small vcs^cb were out of gunshot, she 
bBobd ofl. About seven hundred hca\7 shot were thrown at the 
cocflsy in this attack, besides a good many from the chase-guns 
d the BBall vessels. The enemy sustained much damage and 
kit Dany meo. The American brigs and schooners were a good 
deal injured aloft, as was the Constitution, .\khough the latter 
Aipwasaolongwithin reach of grape, many of which shot struck 
ker, abe had not a man hurt. Several of her slirouds, backstays, 
tniBci, ipriQgiUys, chains, lifts, and a great deal of running rig- 
^B( wete shot away, and yet her hull escaped vnlh vcr>' trilling 
fajorink A boat belonging to the John A<lams, under the orders 
of John Orde Creighton, one of that shipmaster's mates, was 

k bjr a double-headed shoi which killed three men and badly 
d a (ounh, but the ofhcer luid the rcM of the bout's crew 


Id thb attack a heavy shot fnim the American gunboats 
Mrack the castle, passed through a wall, and relwunding from the 
opfKMile side of the room fell within six inches of Captain Bain- 
bridge, viio was in bed at the time, and covcre<l him with stones 
; from under which he was taken, badly injured, by 
More harm was done the town in ihiik attack than 
T of the otlK■^^. the shot api»farinR to haie struck many of 
From this time to ihr cluv of the month prrpara- 
e made to use the bombanls again and to renew the can 
Another Itansport arnviil fn>m Malta, hut n-iihoui 
g any intelligence of the vv«cU under the orders of Com 
t Barron. On September yl, cvrr\tliing being ready, al 


half ptst tivo the signal was given for the small vesaeb to advance. 
The enemy bad improved the time as well as the Americans; they 
had raised three of their own gunboats that had t)een sunk in 
the engagements of August jd and 38th. These craft were now 
added to the rest of their flotilla. 

The Tripolitans had also changed their mode of fighting. 
Hitherto, with the exception of the t>attle of August 3d, their gal- 
leys and gunboats bad Uin either behind the rocks in position to 
fire over them, or at the openings between them, and they conse- 
quently found themselves to leeward of the frigate and small 
American cruisers, the latter invariably choosing easteriy winds 
to advance with, as such would permit crippled vessels more 
quickly to retire. On August 3d (the case above excepted), the 
Turks had been so roughly UMrd when brmight to a hand-to-hand 
struggle — when they endenily expected nothing more than a can- 
nonade — that they were not disposed to venture again outside of 
the hartx)r. On September 3d, howe>Tr, their plan of defence 
was more judiciously oflerrd. No sooner was it perceived that 
the American squadron was in motion with the design to attack 
them than the gunboats and galleys got under way and worked 
up to windwanl until they gained a (loint on the weather side of 
the harbor, being directly under the fire of Fort English as weU 
as of a new battcrv that had been erected a little to the westwazd 
of the btter. 

This disposition of the enemy's force required a correspood* 
ing change on the part of the Americans. The bombards were 
directed to take stations and to commence throwing their shelb; 
while the gunboats in two di\'i5uons, commanded as usual by 
Captains Decatur ainl Soroers and protected by the guns of the 
brigs and schcMmcrs, assailed the enemy's flotilla. This arrange- 
ment separated the battle into two distinct parts, leaving the 
bomb- vessels very much exposed to the fire of the castle, the mole, 
crown, and other batteries. The Tripolitan gunboats and gaOeyt 
stood the fire of the .American flotilla until the Utter had got 
withinmusketry shot, when they retired. The assailants then tep- 
arate<i. tome of the gunboats foUowing the enemy and pouring in 
their fire, while the others, with the brigs and tcboonen» can- 
iXNiaded Fort English. 

In the mean while, perceiving that the bombards were ndkr- 


iag Mwrdy from the continuous fire of the guns to which they 
■etc apoKd, Commodore Preble ran down the Constitution 
doae to the rocks and the bomb-vcsscb, and brought-to. Here 
tte (r^Kte opened as wann a &re as probably ever came out of a 
ringle-dedEEd ship. She was, moreover, in a position where 
•evcoty beaiy guns could bear upon her. The whole harbor in 
the vidnity of the town was glittering with the spray of her shot, 
and each baUteiy, as usual, was silenced as soon as it drew her 
After throwing more than three hundred round shot, 
I gnpe tod cannistcr, the frigate hauled ofT, h.ivint; pre- 
y ord ere d the other vessels to retire from aciiun, by signal. 
Tbe gunboats in this affair were an hour and fifteen minutes cn- 
piged, ia which time they threw four hundred round shot besides 
grape aod canntster. Lieutenant Trippc, who had so much dis- 
liagutibed himself and had received so many wounds on August 
yi* resumed the command of Number Six, for this occasion. 
Licutrnant Morris, of the .\rgus, wasin charge of Number Three. 
As usual, all the small vessels suffered aloft, and the Argus sus- 
tained some damage to her hull. 

The Constitution was so much exposed In the attack that her 
tKSpecao only be attributed to the effect of her own heavy fire. 
It had been found in the previous engagements that so long as 
Ae could play upon a batter)- the Turks coukl not be kept at its 
gOBi; and it was chiefly while she was veering, or lacking, ihal 
■he aiflered. But after making every allowance for the etfect of 
her own cannonading and for Ihe imperfctt gunnery of the 
■Demy, it was astonishing that a single frigale could lie exposed 
to the fire of more than double her own number of available guns, 
and tbcac, too, mostly of heavier metal and protected by stone 
waM. On this occasion (he frigate was not supixirted by the gun- 
hoata, and was the sole object of the enemy's aim after the bom- 
bank had withdrawn. 

Aa odghl ha%x been expected, the Constitution suffered more 
ia Ihia attack than in any of the prenous engagements, ibouKhshc 
I nothing Wgcr than gr^pc in her hull. She had three 
bbercanras,oneo( which rendered the main-topsail 
IS. Her sails, standing and nmning ri^gingi 
9 much cut with shot. Captain Chauncey of the John 
I lad a party of her officers and crew scr>'cd in the Coosii 


tutkm again on this day and were of graU lenrice. The cxxn- 
mander, oflktrs and crew of the John Adams were always ac- 
tively employed, although the ship herself could not be brought 
before the enemy for the want of gun-carriages. 

The bombards, being much exposed, suffered accordingly. 
Number One was so much crippled as to be unable to move 
without being towed, and was near sinking when she got to the 
anchorage. Every shroud she had was shot away. Commodore 
Preble expressed himself satisfied with the good conduct of every 
man in the squadron. All the vessels appcmrtd to have been well 
handled and eflkient in their several stations. 

While Gmimodore Preble was thus actively employed in car- 
rying on the war against the enemy — this last attack being the 
fifth made on the town within a month— he had been meditating 
another maxxruvre, and was now ready to put it into execution. 
The ketch Intrepid, which had been employed by Decatur in 
burning the Philadelphia, was still in the squadron, having been 
used of late as a tranqx>rt between Tripoli and Malta. This ves- 
sel had been converted into an ** infernal,** or, to use more intdli- 
gible terms, she had been fitted out as a floating mine, with the 
intention of sending her into the harbor of Tripoli, to explode 
among the enemy's cruisers. Such dangerous work could be con- 
fided to none but officers and men of known coolness and couragCt 
of perfect self possession and of tried spirit. Captain Somen, 
who had commanded one division of the gunboats in the different 
attacks on the town in a manner to excite the respect of all who 
witneued his conduct, volunteered to take charge of this enter- 
prise; and Lieutenant Wadsworth, of the Constitution, an oflker 
of great merit, offered himself as the second in command. 

When the Intrepid was last seen by the naked eye she was not 
a musket shot from the mole, standing directly for the harbor. 
One oflker on board the nearest vessel, the Nautilus, is said, how- 
ever, to have never lost sight of her with a night glass, but even 
he could distinguish no more than her dim outlines. There was 
a vague rumor that she touched on the rocks, though it did ooc 
appear to rest on suflkient authority to be entitled to much credit. 
To the last moment she appeared to be advancing. About that 
time the batteries began to fire. Their shots are said to have 
been directed toward every point where an enemy might be «• 


pccttd, ind it is not improbable that some were aimed at the 

The period between the time when the Intrepid was last seen 
•ad that when moat of those who watched without the rocks 
learned her fate, was not long. This was an interval of intense, 
■teoM <rf broUhles expectation; and it was interrupted only by 
the fliihri and the roar of the enemy's f^ns. Various reports 
ate ol what those who gazed into the gloom beheld or fancied 
they beheld ; but one melancholy fact alone would seem to be bc- 
Tood OHitrwliction. A fierce and sudden light illuminated the 
KBke; a tonrnt of fire streamed upwani, and a concussion fol- 
loved that made the cruisers in the olTmg tremble from their 
tnicks to thdr keels. Thi.s sudden blaze of light was followed by 
a dar^nttt of twofold intensity, and the guns of ihc battery be- 
cane onitc as if annihilated. Numerous sheik were seen in the 
air. aad Kxne of them dc«(.-end<.-d on the rocks where the)- were 
beaid to taSL The fuses were burning and a few exploded, but 
■nch the greater pan were extinguished in the water. The mast, 
loo, had itKa perpendicularly n-ith its rigging and canvas blazing, 
but the deiceat wu veiled in the blackness that followed. 

So auddcD and tremendous n'as the eruption, and so intense 
awhkh succeeded, that it was not po-itililc toa.Menain 
e position of the ketch at the moment. In the glaring 
I frrting Hght no person could nay that he had notcil more 
than the ouucna] circumMance that the Intn-pid had not reached 
the point at iriiich she aimed. The shells had not spread far, and 
Ihow which fell 00 the mcks were so many proofs of this impor- 
taat tacL There was ruithing else to indicate the precise spot 
when the ketch ezpkMled. .\ few crie« arose fmm the town, but 
iki deq> deoee that followed was moR- eloquent than any 
dtmat. The whole of TripoU wa.i like a lily of tomlM. 

If cvcty eye had been watchful previous to the cxpkwion, 
am y eye aow became doubly vigilant to dixover the rrtrcAting 
beala. kica got over the sides of the vessel, holding lights and 
r cars near the water in the hope of detceting the 
k «i even muffled oar^; and often it n-ss fanned that the 
t adfCBturrrs were near. Thc>' nc%'er reappeared. Hour 
toor went by tmtil hope became exhausted. Occasionally 
il ia the darkness, or a sullen gun was heard from 


A.O. 1804 


The Battle of the Nile left Napoleon and hit anny pnetkaJOf fas- 
prftaooed m Kfypt, held there hy BHtiah ihipa. In theb* abaeoce affmifi 
Id Europe went ItidJy for France A fresh coalition waa fonand agiinal 
her in which Ruaaia )oincd, and Suvaroff. the great Rutaian Cencnl, 
drove the French from luly. Napoleon, learing hb anny, slipped bnck 
•ccretly to France and waa welcomed with intense enthnsiaam. He at 
once undertook a revolution of bis own. Appealinf to his old comndtn 
of the army, he declared the members of the Ctoremment inefScieal and 
turned them out of office A new Coostttutioo was establiahed and Bowi- 
parte waa made * First Consul,* an office that practically c e n tr ed all p oww 
in hb own hands (1799). 

From this time the Republic was practically at an end, Napoleoa vna 
dictator, though the empty forms of republicanism continoed for an- 
other five years. Under the First Consurs direction the French soldicra 
reestablished their mihury supremacy. General Moreau won victory 
after victory in (^erman^r 4nd finally crushed the Austriana at Hoii« 
Imdm. Napoleofi himseli led an army over the Alps, and su rp ri s ed and 
overthrew the Aufttrian* in luly He dictated a peace In whidi ml 
Europe >omed (iSot*. Even England for a time abandoned the 
though she toon renewed it. Napoleon keticd (he brief respite to 
lish extensive internal reforms in France and to consolidate his •«• 
power. The consulship had 6rst been given to him for ten ycmrm, tiMB It 
was made a life office ; and in 1804 the conqueror abandoned the liaC pf^ 
tence of republicanism and had btmself elected hereditary Empcfor ol 
the French 

Hitherto there had never been more than two emperors, those of Gnr^ 
many who«e utie had deftcmdcd through a thousand years and who 
in some sort hein of tlie Empire of Western Rome, and more 
the emperors of Russu. claiming to carry 00 the ancient Ronuui 
of the East The empire of fiermany had practically ceaand to 
crushed under Napoleon's blows. His assumption ol this title 
suggestion to aD Europe of his design to ascend its throne and 
the successor of Charlemagne as ruler oi a reunited F'rankish mot. 

D EPEATED attempts made agminst the life of the Fint 

ga%T an excav for following up the design that had been far 
lome time agitated of raising him to the imperial throoc and mak- 
ing the dignity hereditary in his family. No( that indeed lUi 


4iU'i 4 


Lttm tram Hgpolmo Borapuv, at Martianjr, to )iia wil^ 
JoMBkuw, Al Parts. Napoleoa was al UUt tilD« ofOMiliK 
tb« A]|h with all tnny of 40,000 men, daring tfat atooM 
ItaliMB camiwipi. in the EpriBf; of 1801 (year 8 of the 
VcpulAic). Saadein will rrcall that whan th» Migioem 
npDrtfd ths paths '* lianly pMjnbl* " BonapaTtc wrote, 
" Set Sorwanl iiain«dUl«l.v. " 

dlARnt'.ir, 2MT1I rLOBiaL [Hat 1K], 

i VEjtB f or TBI RlFOBUa 


I amlMra ritkO* UirW davi in Oif midst pf the Valais and 
of tha Atpa ia •bemtrdln oaciT«nt. (>ii« B»vrr aen t)i« aun 
)Q<f il «M U a y i ial iiy rittnicd I )uve !» ai-r ynu fmimhla 
you wha an ia Paria in llw toJiUt of {dMatuta and good 

waVByuAUottinUi Italy w<> an at AaMa but»t. bvmani 
fVlaMXa kumy difBciiltf«K to ati^mDiui'- 

I wnita to' ygu fiv<iti«ntJy whvn at MtllA when lu'rlettcti >^ 
a (raat UJy oa« will wni« U> Utr at (>r«aMn aW ia titi Niiall 
«*rdaavkot writ* in cluldrvn. *" 
ttta fluflerrd mi 
R^VorrT fcr hhii ' 

t faJu^inrVK 
Difebto thitlA 

That tMX>r Mad [aiiie] locat 
-h. H« hufhand most bt 

tn 1(jM (CH-'i wit« ij to lOM 
it.honntor ami n thooaand 


A.O. 1804 


The Battle of tlie Nile left Napoleoo and hit anny pnctkiUly tas* 
priiooed in Lgypt. held there by British ihipt. In their abteocc afiakt 
In Kufope went badly for France. A frcah coalition waa fonaad agiiMl 
her in which Kuuia )otncd. and Suvarolf. the great Kuiaian GcacfBl, 
drove the French from luly. Napoleon, leaving hb amy. slipped bmtk 
secretly to France and was welcomed with intense enthustaam. He mt 
once undertook a revolution of bis own. Appealing to his old comndta 
of the army, he declared the members of the (Government ineficicnl aad 
turned them out ot office A new Ccmttitution was established and Bowi- 
parte was made * First Consul.* an office that practically centred all 
in his own hands < tyf^}). 

From this time the Krpuhlic was practically at an end, Napoleos 
dictator, though the empty forms of republicanism cootinaed for an- 
other five yean. I'mlrr ihr h trst Consul's direction the French ioldicn 
reestablished their miKury supremacy. General Moreaa won victory 
after victory in <>erniany ami finally cnishcd the Austrians at 
lindm. Napokun h:mM:lt led an army over the Alps, and su r pr iae d 
cnrrthrcw the Au«trur.% in luly He dictated a peace la whidi al 
Europe joined (i*ict Kvrn Kngland for a time abandoned the ttrfli* 
though she soon renewed it. Napoleon sci<ed the l»nef respite tOMii^ 
lish extensive internal reforms in France and to consolidate hia •«• 
power. The consulship hsd lir^t been f;iven to him for ten ycara, iImb It 
was made a Ufeoriice ; and in 1KC4 the conqueror aSandooed the liaC ^f^ 
tcnce 01 republican I %m and had himself elected hereditary Eoipcfor ol 
the French 

Hitherto there had nrvrr lieen more than two emperors, thoac of 
many who%e tilie had dcMrndrd through a thtmsand years and who 
in some sort heif% of the Kmpire of Western Rome, aad more 
the emperors of Ki:%sia. < laitmnt: to cirry on the ancient KoauM 
of the Fast The empire of («ermany had practically ceaacd to 
crushed under Napctleon'ft lilows. His assumption ol tbia dtlt 
suggestion to all Kar«>(« of his design (i> ascend its throne aad 
the successor of CharVmagne as ruler of a reunited FrarJiish rata 

D KPK.\TKI) attcm;>t> made airainM the life of the First CoQial 

gavr an itrusc for fullDwini; up the design that had been far 

9f)me time a^tatrd of rai^ng him to the imficrial throne and OMk- 

ing the dignity hcitditar)* in his family. Not that indeed 




Lrttrr fiom Ni^iolaon Itonsp&rt'', hI liUrtigny, to bi* wifi^ 
JtMwphine, «t pBiifl. Napoleon wu at Uiis time cwing 
tba At|M wt(h an tnoy of -lO.CiOO mm, during th« awoM 
Italian campaign, id Uw eprinit of IMl (vear H ol Iha 
Rtfpublic). Rcadian will rr«all that when th« wigin— ■ 
nmjitod tht patbf "banlj- pannbia" Booapaita wiot^ 
"Sctbrwazdimr " ' ' " 

MAWTK'icr, SHm fioRiAL [Mat Vf}, 

YkaK " or VHK RKPtHUC. 

I am hvn ifsoti Umo ilavv in Itif mUrt o( the Valaia and 
ol tlt« AI|M in a bemardin cuoveiiL thM D«Ter •«*« tbe auB 
Judfe if oiM! la agreaably aituitod I lore to prr- j-ou xnimbla 
yoti who aft in Paiia in tba mkiat of plcaomiB and good 

e arc a4 Au4a t>^t }*t. tmnanl 

Army ia nUnn tntii Italy 

i^y diffionttieM Ui tivMVOiii'- 

U> ;«u frequently whrni at Millr wlk* liortflwe i* 

lady one wilt writ(> lo li«t %t preaHit ib* in u>o auiall 

OOt writa to cbikiim. "nial i>at»r Ma<1[ajiie] luai 

%hm ia dea>l| she mffnvd luucb. iter boibanil niurt ba 

Ttry aad. I am »ony for biiu ! * to la^e itar't wilt ii lu loae 

if tM)< llpry at loaft luppino*. 

I lba«r 

^- pnaaMii 

Ha t-trraad. 


amtablP tbiaipi Ut ttortvace aad ■ thourattd 
to my JoHpUn^ 



they aD rrtired without having received a shot in retum. Ccm- 
modore Preble appears to have distrusted the result of this bom- 
bardment, the first attempted at night, and there u a reason to 
think it had but little effect. 

The weather proving very fme and the wind favorable, on the 
28th Commodore Preble determined to make a more vigorous 
assault on the town and batteries than any which had preceded 
it, aiKl his dispositions were taken accordingly. The gunboats 
aiKi bombards re({uiring so many men to manage them, the Con- 
stitution and the small vessels had been compelled to go into ac- 
tion short of hands in the pre%'iou5 afTairs. To obviate this diffi- 
culty, the John Adams had been kept before the town, and a por- 
tion of her oflkers and crew, and nearly all her boats, were now 
put in requisition. Captain Chauncey himself, with about sev- 
enty of his people, went on board the flagship, and all the boats 
of the squadron were hoisted out and manned. The bomb- ves- 
sels were cripplH and could not be brought into service, a circum- 
stance that prot>ahly was of no great consequence on account of 
the poor ammunition they wen' compelled to use. These two 
vessels with the Scourge, transports, and John Adams, were an- 
chored well off at sea, not being available in the contemplated 

Everything being prepared, a little after midni^t the follow- 
ing gunboats proceeded to the stations, viz.. Number One, Cap- 
tain Somers; Number Two, Lieutenant Gordan; Number Throe, 
Mr. Brooks, master of the .Argus; Number Four, Captain Deca- 
tur; Number Fi\*e, Lieutenant I^awrence; Number Six, Lieu- 
tenant Wadsworth; Number Sc\cn, Liruteriant Crane; Number 
Nine, Lieutenant Thome. They were dinded into two divisaons 
as before. Captain Decatur ha\ing become a superior ofllccr, 
bowe%*er, by his recent pronK>tion. About 3 A.11. the gunboats 
advanced close to the rocks at the entrance of the harbor, co r er ed 
by the Siren, Captain Stewart; .Argus, Captain Hull; Vlxcs, 
Captain Smith; Nautflus, Lieutenant-Commandant Robmsoo, 
and accompanied by all the boats of the squadron. Here thcjr 
anchored, with springs on their cables, and commenced a cannon- 
ade on the enemy's shtppmg, castle, and town. As soon as the 
day dawned the Constitution weighed anchor and stood in toward 
the rocks, undera fire from the batteries, Fort Eofliibt ^^ tkt 


cmitk. At this tiine the enemy's gunboats and galleys, thineen 
in number, were closely and warmly cn^gcd with the eight 
AowrioD boats; and the Constitution, ordering the latter to re- 
tilc bjr signal, as their ammunilion was mostly consumed, dc- 
Ihwnd a heavy fire of round and grapcshot on Ihe former as she 
caaie up. One of the enemy's boats was soon sunk, two were 
nm aaboR to prevent them from meeting a similar fate, and the 
ictf retired. 

The Constitution now continued lo stand on until she had 
run in within musket-shot of the mole, when she brought up, and 
opened upcm the town, batteries, and castle. Here she lay ihrec- 

I of an hour, pouring in a fierce fire with great effect, 
I, finding thai all the small vesseb were out of gunshot, she 
hsoled off. About seven hundred bca\7 shot were thrown at the 
OMinjr in this attack, besides a good many frum the cbasc-guns 
td the mall vessels. The enemy sustained much damage and 
lott many men. The American brigs and schooners wcr' a good 
deU injund aloft, as was the Constitution. Ahhough the latter 
Aipvun king within reach of gni|>e, many of which shut struck 
Imt, ifac had not a man hurt. Several of her shrouds, backstays, 
tnoMit qifingXays, chains, lifts, and a great deal of running rig- 
ging woe ibot away, and yet her hull escaped with vcr>- trifling 
■Jarics. A boat belonging to the John Adams, under ihi- orders 
of John Olde Cnrighton, one of that shipmaster's males, was 
Mok hf a double-headed shot which killed thri'e men and badly 
Mwukd a fourth, but the olTicer and the rest of the boal's cn-w 
«m mvcd. 

In this attack a heavy shot ftt>m Ihe American guntxiaii 
Mruck the castlr, pa&scd through a wall, and rebounding from the 

e tide of the room fell within six inches of Captain Bain- 
i, who was in bed at the time, and covered him with stones 
■■d Bionar, fmn under which he was taken, badly injured, by 
Ul offiooa. Mon- harm was done the town in this attack than 
in either of the ol hers, the shot a{i|M-aring to haw struck many of 
Iteboaaca. From this time to the close of the month prrjiara 
tfom acre made to use the bom ban Is aj^in and to renew the can 
Another ttaiv«pon arrived from Malta, but withoui 

g any tntdligcnce of the ve-tseU under ihe onlers of Com 
tmoian Buna. On September y\. eter^lhing being ready, al 


they aD rrtired without having rccdvcd a shot in return. Com- 
modore Preble appears to have dislnisted the result of this bom- 
bardment, the first attempted at night, and there is a reason to 
think it had but little effect. 

The weather proving very fine and the wind favorable, on the 
28th Commodore Preble determined to make a more vigorous 
assault on the town and batteries than any which had preceded 
it, and hhi depositions were uken accordingly. The gunboats 
and bombards rc({uiring so many men to manage them, the Con- 
stitution and the small vesseb had been compelled to go into ac- 
tion short of hands in the pre%'ious afTairs. To obviate this difS- 
cuky, the John Adams had been kept before the town, and a por- 
tion of her ofiicers and crew, and nearly all her boats, were now 
put in requisition. Captain Chauncey himself, with about sev- 
enty of his people, went on board the flagship, and all the boats 
of the squadron were hoisted out and manned. The bomb- ves- 
seb were crippled and could not be brought into service, a circum- 
stance that prol>ably was of no great consequence on account of 
the poor ammunition the}' were compelled to use. These two 
vessels, with the Scourge, tran^iports, and John Adams, were an- 
chored weQ off at sca^ not being availaUe in the contemplated 

Everything being prepared, a little after midni^t the follow- 
ing gunboats prrxreeded to the stations, viz.. Number One, Cap> 
tain Somers; Number Two, Lieutenant Gordan; Number Throe, 
Mr. Brooks, master of the Argus; Number Four, Captain Deca- 
tur; Number Five, Lieutenant I^awrmce; Number Six, Lieu- 
tenant Wadsworth; Number Se>-cn, Lieutenant Crane; Number 
Nine, Lieutenant Thome. The)* were divided into two divisaons 
as before. Captain Decatur having become a superior ofllccr, 
bowe%*er, by his recent pn>nK>tion. About 3 A.U. the gunboats 
advanced dose to the rocks at the entrance of the harbor, co r er ed 
by the Siren, Captain Stewart; Argus, Captain Hull; Vtxcfi, 
Captain Smith; Nautilus, Lieutenant-Commandant Robmsoo, 
and accompanied by all the boats of the squadron. Here thcjr 
anchored, with springs on their cables, and mmmenced a canpop- 
ade 00 the enemy's shtppmg, castle, and town. As soon as the 
day dawned the Constitution weighed anchor and stood in towaid 
the rocks, undera fire from the batteries, Fort Eofliiht lad tkt 


cude. Al this tune the enemy's gunboats and galleys, thirteen 
, were closely and wannly engaged with the eight 
)OSU; and the Constitution, ordering the latter to re- 
B by ifgn&li u their ammunition was mostly consumed, dc- 
d a heavy fire of round and grapcshot on the former as she 
GUne up. One of the enony's boats was soon sunk, two were 
nin ashore to prevent them from meeting a similar fate, and the 
nu retired. 

The Constitution now continued to stand on until she bad 
nm io within musket-shot of the mole, when she brought up, and 
1 upon the town, batteries, and casile. Htre she lay threc- 
I of an hour, pouring in a hercc fire with great effect, 
I, finding that all the small \'es£cls were out of gunshot, she 
hf^fV* off. About seven hundred heavy shot were thrown al the 
^Mtnjr in (bis attack, besides a good many from the chase-guns 
of thr Hnall vessels. The enemy sustained much damage and 
hat many men. The American brigs and schooners were a good 
deftl JDJured aloft, as was the Constitution. Ahhough the Utter 
dl^ WIS 90 long within reach of grape, many of which shot struck 
her, ihe had not a man hurt. Several of her shrouds, backsta>'s, 
traaKtt qiiingiUys, chains, lifts, and a great deal uf running rig- 
^DS wen ibot away, and yet her bull escapnl with \'<-ry trilling 
tajorio- A boat belonging to the John AtL-ims, under the order?) 
of John Orde Crrighton, um- of that ^.hjpmiistor's mail's, was 
•1^ bjr a double-headed shot which killed three men and l«dly 
■iMnded a fourth, but the officer and the nsi of (he boat's crew 
were avcd. 

Io (hit attack a heav7 shot from the American guntxmts 
tfiucfc the castle, passed through a wall, and ntMunding from the 
ie of the naom fill within mx inches of Captain Bain- 
was in bed al the time, and covenil him with sloncs 
; from undi-r which he was taken, badly injun-d, by 
hii oAoen. More harm was done the town in thi.>i attack than 
ll dlber of the oth4.-n, the shrtt api>caring to have struck many of 
From this time to the ilnsc of the month prrpant' 
e made in u»c the bombarris ajpin and to re-ni-w the can^ 
Another tnnspon arrived (mm Malta, but witho 
g any intelligence o( the vi-w^U under the onlcr^ of Coi 
e Barron. On September jil, i\rr\ihing being ready, ai 


haU ptst tivo the signd was given for the smidl vcaaeb to advinoe. 
The enemy had improved the time as well as the Americans; thejr 
had raised three of their own gunboats that had t)een sunk in 
the engagements of August 3d and 38th. These craft were now 
added to the rest of their flotilla. 

The Tripolitans had also changed their mode of fighting. 
Hitherto, with the exception of the t>attle of August 3d, their gal- 
leys and gunboats had lain either behind the rocks in position to 
fire over them, or at the openings between them, and they conse- 
quently found themselves to leeward of the frigate and smaO 
American cruisers, the latter in>'ariably choosing easterly winds 
to advance with, as such would permit crippled vcsaeb more 
quickly to retire. On August 3d (the case abo>T excepted), the 
Turks had been x) roughly U5cd when brought to a hand-to-hand 
struggle — when they evidently expected nothing more than a can- 
nonade — that they were not disposed to venture again outside of 
the hartx)r. C)n September 3d, however, their plan of defence 
was more judiciously offered. No sooner was it perceived that 
the American s<]uarin>n wa.s in motion with the design to attack 
them than the gunlx>ats and galleys got under way and worked 
up to wimlwanl until they gainc<l a point on the weather side of 
the hartx)r, being directly unclcr the fire of Fort English as wcO 
as of a new batter)- that had been erected a little to the westward 
of the btter. 

This disposition of the enemy's force required a coi 
tng change on the part of the Americans. The bombards 
directed to take stations and to ctimmence throwing their sheila; 
while the gunboats in two divisions, commanded as tisual bjr 
Captains Decatur and Somcrs and protected by the guns of the 
brigs and scluMiners, as&ailctl the enemy's flotilla. Thu arrange- 
ment separated the battle into two distinct parts, leaving the 
bomb- ^Tssels >*ery much exposed to the fire of the castle, the mole, 
crown, and other batteries. The Tripolitan gunboats and gaUejni 
stood the fire of the American flotilla until the latter had got 
within musketr)' shot, when the)* retired. The assailants then tep- 
aratefl. some of the gunboats following the enemy and pouring ill 
their fire, while the others, with the brigs and schootieff 
Qooaded Fort English. 

In the mean while, perceiving that the bombards were 


lag anetefy Irom the continuous fire of the guns to which they 
•CR '"T"*^, Commodore Preble ran down the Constitution 
doK to the rocks and the bomb-vessels, and brought-lo. Here 
the frigftte opened as warm a lire as probably ever come out of a 
■agle-declLod ship. She was, moreover, in a position where 
arvcoty hea^'y guns could bear upon her. The whole harbor in 
Ibe vicinity of the town was glittering with the spray of her shot, 
and each bailcry, 3$ usual, was silenced as soon as it drew her 
After throwing more than three hundred round shot, 
I gnpe and cannisler, the frigate hauled off, having pre- 
id the other vessels to retire from action, by signal. 
The gunbottt in this affair were an hour and hftcen minutes en- 
gpigHl, in wliicfa time they threw four hundred round shot besides 
pipe tad cannister. Lieutenant Trippc, who had so much dis- 
t&lplllbed himself and had rcieivcd so many wounds on August 
3d, icnimcd the command of Number Six, for this occasion. 
lieulcnant Morris, of the Argus, was in charge of Number Three. 
As usual, all the small vcsseb suffered aloft, and the Argus sus- 
tained aoQie damage to her hull. 

The Constitution was so much exposed in the attack that her 
ciripf can only be attributed to the effect of her own heavy fire. 
It had beeo found in the previous engagements that so long as 
the couU play upon a batter^' the Turks could not be kept at its 
guns; and it was chiefly while she was veering, or lacking, that 
ifae suffered. But after making ever)- alkiwance for the effect of 
her own cannonading and for the imperfect gunnery of the 
^Koqrt it ms astonishing that a single frigate could lie exposed 
to Ac fire of more than double her own number of avaibble guns, 
aad tbesci too, mostly of heavier metal an<l pn>tecieil by stone 
«aBft. On this occasion the frigate was not sup]x>ne<J by the gun- 
hoaiit ud was the sole object of the enemy's aim after the bom- 
faaids had withdrawn. 

Aami^l haw been expected, (he Constitution suffered more 
to this attack than in any of the previous engagement, though .she 
Wcriggd nothing larger than grape in her hull. She had three 
AcBs through her canvas, oneof which rendered the m.-iin topsail 
iBDponrily useless. Her sails, standing and running rigging, 
woe also much cut with shot. Captain Chauncc)' of the John 
a and a party of tier ofBcers and crew scr^'cd in the Coosti 


tution igiin on this day and were of great service. The oom- 
mander, officers, and crew of the John Adams were always ac* 
ti^xly employed, although the ship herself could not be brought 
before the enemy for the want of gun-carriages. 

The bombards, being much exposed, suffered accordingly. 
Number One was so much crippled as to be unable to move 
without being towed, and was near sinking when she got to the 
anchorage. E%'ery shroud she had was shot away. Coounodore 
Preble expressed himself satisfied with the good conduct of every 
man in the squadron. .All the vessels appeared to have been wcH 
handled and efficient in their several stations. 

While Commodore Preble was thus actively empbyed in car- 
rying on the war against the enemy—this last attack being the 
fifth made on the town within a month— he had been meditating 
another mancruvre, and was now ready to put it into exccutioiL 
The ketch Intrepid, which had been empk>ycd by Decatur in 
burning the Philadelphia, was still in the squadron, hav 
used of late as a transport between Tripoli and Malta. This 
sel had been converted intoan ** infernal,'* or, to use more inteUi* 
gible terms, she had been fitted out as a floating mine, with the 
intention of sending her into the harbor of Tripoli, to explode 
among the enemy *5 cruisers. Such dangerous work cotild be con- 
fided to none but officers and men of known coolness and courage* 
of {lerfect self possession and of tried spirit. Captain Somen* 
who had commanded one division of the gunboats in the diflferent 
attacks on the town in a manner to excite the respect of all who 
witnessed his conduct, \'oIuntccred to take charge of this enter* 
prise; and Lieutenant WacLsi^xirth, of the Constitution, an 
of great merit, ofTcrcd himself as the second in command. 

When the Intrepid was last seen by the naked eye she 
a musket shot from the mole, standing directly for the harbor* 
One officer on board the nearest vessel, the Nautilus, is said« how- 
ever, to have never lost sight of her with a night-glass, but 
he coukl distinguish no more than her dim outlines. There 
a \*ague rumor that she touched on the rocks, though it did not 
appear to rest on sufficient authority to be entitled to much credit* 
To the last moment she appeared to be ad^-ancing. About that 
time the batteries began to fire. Their shots are said to httvt 
been directed toward e^xry point where an enemy might be a- 


and it is not improbable timt some were aimed at the 

The period bctvecn the lime when the Intrepid was last seen 
■ad thu when most of those who watrhcd without the rocks 
kmioed her hte, was not long. This was an inlcr\'al of intense, 
ahiKMt at breathless expectation ; and it was interrupted only by 
the fiasbcs and the roar of the cncmy^s guns. Various reports 
cxiM of what those who gazed into the gloom beheld or fancied 
they beheld ; but one melancholy fact alone would seem to be bc- 
jDod cootiadiclion. A fierce and sudden light illuminated the 
KTOr; a torrctit of fire streamed upward, and a concussion fol- 
b«ed thai made the cruisers in the o£ng tremble from their 
trudka to (heir keels. This sudden blaze of li^ht was followed by 
a dsrfcneaa of twofold intensity, and the guns of (he battery be- 
came mute as if annihilated. Numerous shells were seen in the 
air, and tome of them descended on the rocks where they were 
heard to UL The fuses were burning and a few exploded, but 
muc^ the greater part wen- extinguished in the n-atcr. The mast, 
too, h>d (Uen perpendicularly with iLs rigging and canv^<t blazing, 
bat the deKCDl wba >Tiled in the blackness that followed. 

So aaddeo aiul tremendou.s wa.<> the eruption, and so inlcnsc 
ike duknoi which succeeded, that it was nut jxissible to asrerlain 
the pradae position of the ketch at the moment. In the glaring 
but fleetiog Bght no per«>n could »iy that he had noted more 
than the material circumstance that the Intrepid had not reached 
the point at which lUie aimed. The she ILs had not spnrad far, and 
thoK whkfa fcU on the rocks were so many proofs of this impor- 
laai fact. There was nothing else to imiiralc the precise siv>t 
vtafe the ketch eiploded. A few cries arrwa: fn>m the town, but 
the deep iOcnre that followed was more elotjucnt than any 
thmmr. The whole of TrifM^U was like a city of tombs. 

If trtrj eye had been watchful previous to the expkMion, 
cvcfy ejt now became doubly vigilant to diMOvrr the retreating 
boata. Men got over the sides of the vc«el, holding lights and 
' tr ears near the water in the hti(>e of iletecting the 
I fli em muffled oan; and often it was fancied that the 
pibm adliatUiLii were near. They never rrapjtcarrd. Hour 
iibr hnor iveiM by unii] hope became exhauster). Occasionally 
• jncfcel Reamed Inlhe daiinesa, or a ftuUcD ^n was heard (rcHn 


the frigate as a rignal to the boats; but the ejrcs that should have 
seen the first were sightless, and the sound of the last fell on the 
ears of the dead 

The three vessels assignfd to that service hovered aiouDd the 
harbor until the sun rose; but few traces of the Intrepid, and 
nothing of her devoted crew, could be discovered. The wreck of 
the mast layon the rocks near the western entrance, and here and 
there a fragment was visible near it« One of the largest of the 
enemy's gunboats was missing, and it was observed that two 
others which appeared to be shattered were being hauled upon the 
shore. The three that had lain across the entrance had disap- 
peared. It was erroneously thought that the castle had sustained 
some injury from the concussion, but on the whole, the Ameri- 
cans were left with the melancholy certainty of having met with 
a serious loss without obtaining any commensurate advan- 

A sad arxi solemn mystery, after all our conjectiires, must for- 
ever veil the fate of those fearless officers and their hardy ioUow- 
ers. In whatever light we view the affair they were the victuna 
of that self -de^-otion which causes the seaman and soldier to hoU 
his life in his hand when the honor or interest of his country de- 
mands the sacrifice. The name of Somers has passed into a 
battle-cry in the .\merican marine, while those of Wadsworth and 
Israel are associated with all that can ennoble intrepidity, axil- 
ncM, arxi daring. 

The war, in one sense, terminated with this scene of subBnK 
destruction. Commodore Preble had consumed so much of his 
powder in the previous attacks that it was no longer in hb power 
to cannonade; and the season was fast getting to be dangefoas 
to remain on that exposed coast. The country fully appreciated 
the services of Commodore Preble. He had united caution and 
daring in a way to denote the highest military qualities; and his 
success in general had been in proportion. The attack of the 
Intrepid, the only material failure in any of his enlefprisea, was 
well arranged, arxi had it succeeded it wouU probably have 
brought peace in twenty four hours. As it was, the 
was well enough disposed to treat, though he seems to have 
teied into some caktilatioQs in the way of money that ioduccd 
him to hope that the Americaiis wouU yet reduce thctr poBcy in 


the lent of his own, &nd prefer paying runsom to maintoimng 
c niiiera 10 far from home. Commodore Freble, and all the ofli- 
ccn KDd men under bis orders, received the thanks of Congress, 
and • gold medal was bestowed on him. Uy the same rcsolu- 
tkM CoognsB expressed the s)-mpathy of the nation in behalf 
of the Rbtives of Captain Richartl Somen, Lieutenants Henry 
Wadnforth, Jairus Decatur, Jam« R. Caldwell, Joseph Isra- 
di, tad John Sword Dorscyi midshipman, the officers killed off 

NegDtUtioM for peace now commenced in earnest, Mr. Lear 
hanng arrived ofl Tripoli for that purpose in the Essex, Captain 
Bomo. Aficr the usual intrigues, delays, and prevarications, a 
neuy waa Bgned on June 5, 1805. By this treaty, no tribute was 
Id be paid in future, but the sum of sixty thousand dollars was 
fivcn bjr America for the ransom of the remaining prisoners after 
^idiaa^ng the TripoUtans in her power man for man. 

Thus lenninated the war with Tripoli after a duration of four 
ycais. I( b probable that the United States would have retained 
in Krvtcc mne officers and would have kept up a small force had 
Bot tins contest occurred ; but its influence on the fortunes and 
character of the nary wa.1 incalculable. It saved the first, in a 
depee at kast, aod it may be said to have formed the last. 


A.O. 1804 


The Battle of the Nile left Napoleoo and hit umj practkidlf 
prbooed in kfTP^ ^^ there by Brittah thipt. In thetr ahteooc attain 
In Europe went btadly for France. A fresh coalittoo waa foraad agiitt 
her in which Kuiata )otned, and Suvaroff. the great Kuaaian Gcfterml. 
drove the French from Italy. Napoleon, leaving hb army, alipped tmdk 
secretly to France and w^ welcomed with inlenae enthnalaam. He at 
once undertook a revolution of his own. Appealing to hit old comndta 
of the army, he declared the members of the (government inefikicst aad 
turned them out of ofhce A new Constitution was eatabUalied and Bosa* 
parte was made * First Consul.* an office that practically centred all 
in his own hands ( 1799). 

From this time the Republic was practically at an end. Napoleoa 
dictator, though the empty forms of republicanism cootioticd for atn- 
other five years. Cndrr ihc First Consul's direction the French loht i cf m 
reestablished their miliury ftupremacy. General Morean woo vicioffy 
alter victory in (•erntanr and tioally crushed the Austrians at HoImo* 
linden. Napoleon himseli led an army over the Alps, and tiirpriMd tad 
overthrew the Au»trian.% in luly He dictated a peace in whlcH al 
Kurope joined uHoi . Kven Kngland for a time abandoned the ttrift, 
though she soon renewed it. Napoleon neii ed the brief respite to Mli^ 
lish extensive internal reforms in France and to consolidate Ilia o«B 
power. The consulsliip had first been given to him for ten years, fktm H 
was made a life office ; and in 1804 the conqueror abandoned the laat fm' 
teoce of republicanism and had himself elected hereditary Eoipcror «l 
the French 

Hitherto there had nevrr lieen more than two emperors, those of 
many whov title had descended through a thousand years and wIm 
in some sort heirm of the Kmpire of We«tem Rome, and more 
the emperors of Russia. cUimtng to carry 00 the ancient Kottan 
of the East The empire of («ermany had practically ceaaad to 
crushed under Napoleon's blows. His assumption ot this tilltvaft a 
suggestion to all Kurope of his design u* ascend its throne aad 
the successor of Cha/>magne as ruler of a reunited Frankish 

D EPF1\TED attempt) ma<lc ainunst the life of the Flnt 

ga%T an excu^ for foUowin^; up the deMgn that had been for 
•nme time agitated of raising him to the imperial thiDite and mak- 
ing the dignity hereditary in hU family. Not that indeed 




Lmiot from KkpoUon FluiiKpulK', nt Mutionj', to hi* wil«, 
JiMihtne, mt PkriB. Nnpoleon wu &t Uiu time croNUW 
iht All* viUi mo army of 40^000 men, during the moom 
InkHui camp^fpi. in the Bprinfc of 1801 (ymr 8 of the 
Reput'Uc). Revlen will ivcbII that when the i 

rauirtid the raths " ImtfIv {Mueahle " Bonepeite wrote, 
"Sm lofW»ru JmieitiiteK- " 


I am h— rfncB tidw <] 

3&rn(atT, Vth rtoKiAL [May If^]. 
YmuI K or nn RxpfBuc 
„ , edewbfthemkktoltbe ValAMUKl 

•( the A^ iti* bamircltti oonvedL One nevtr een tiie eun 
|D(1«« tf ofw it aflreekbly Mfautted' I Ion to aee you iinjmble 
Ton who v«' is tt^ in^'lbe nMM cMkemra end good 

tMtnayipftlaslltolwyw^^ benuud 

|>feeeo4 mutjr difl|MlluiLB oi^Kjfmt , % 

I Vfote \a yvm ^|l lll llyr whm >t Mile when hcnienee n 
• yraet Uily mm vUnrriteW ^jpr'et ynamt ahr is ijm small 
«CM Atm aiA Wlte tn^vOBB. Thet ponr Mft<i [uii«] Incai 
tbm ii deedt lb* fuh^ murk. Hft huplmtid murt be 
to "^7 lor bim I ! to 1<^ uor'a wife ie to iotm 
M ■mii^tr thif^ to txytant^ u>d n thmmnd 

^^? •< ^A 


^., . . .1 S M.lJ !«. ■"•" U*-""!''- ^ I. „ ,.,1/ iiti 

• • • 

.. ,....-•.- " '.•.:, „, .: ....V...- ..-^--^i-'-. 

..r.r... .:.•" "•"• ' ••'■ v;.",; :« ..;. .;■..: «;«»• 

. ,M -.1 -.••.«">•'"•■• ' •'•■■' .... ,:r. «'?••« *"•»'»*' 

•• * ■* 

■4 • »J * ■ 




would senire him from personal danger, though it is true that 
" Ifaen't a divinity doth hedge a king"; but ii lessened the temp- 
tatiao to the cnlcrprise and allayed a part of ihc public disquie- 
tude hf providing a successor. Alt or the greater part were sat- 
Ust— «hfaer from reason, indolence, or the fear of worse — with 
what hid been gained by the Revolution, and did not wish to 
wet tl hunch oul again hum the port in which it had taken shel- 
krtoasik the perib of new storms and quicksands. If prudence 
tad aome share in this measure, there can be little doubt that 
mttf and cowardice had thcire also— or that there was a lurk- 
ing darfre lo conform to the Gothic dialect of civilized nuro{ic in 
fant of fpeech and titles, and to adorn the steel arm of the Ke- 
pobfic wftb cmbtoidercd drapery and gold tissue. The imitation, 

li pcobaUy doI without ils elTect,' would look more like a 
c to those whom it was intended to please, and could 

r flatter the just pride of those by whom it was under- 

The old Republican party made some stand : the Emigrants 
1 great rcaJ for it, partly real, partly affected. Kouchi 
i the Senate and the men of the Revolution, and was 
d in consequence at the head of the police, whiih was 
s it waa thought tliat freshiritnguesmi;;ht breakout on 
feoocMWO. The anny gave the fit^t impulse, as was but natu 
■I; ID Ihan the change of style from frnpfralor to " Emperor" 
■staifi^U. AD ranks and classes followed when the example 
Mieaoetet: the most obscure hamlets joined in the addressee; 
fcFbK Consul received wagonloads of them. A register for 
iht i Bo q i Ci o n ot votes for or against the qucstinn was opened in 
■NiTfarish in FraiKC — from Antwerp to I'crpignan, from Brest 
bMeol Cents. 

Tk^raccf-wr6a/ of all these rates was laid up in the archives 
rftte Soialc. who went in t body from Paris to St. Cloud to pre- 
m h Id the Rrsi Consul. The Second Consul Cambaceres 
lad a speech, coocluding with a summary of the number of 
Wn; whereupon be in a loud voice procUimed Napoleon Bona- 
fwto Emperor of the French. The senator*, pkired in a line 
Ulighini, vied with each other in repeating " Vivr I'Emprrrur!" 

'Tm ttmamae.wvM dw Emperor of Austria tiavc inirrteil hit dauitt- 
tith* hid bcca oatj Firvt Coruul .'— Es. 


and returned with all the outward signs of joy to PariSt 
people were already writing epitaphs on the Republic. Happjr 
they whom epitaphs on the dead console for the loss of them ! 
This was the time, if e\'er, when they ought to ha^-e opposed htm* 
and prescribed limits to his power and ambition, aiid not when 
he returned weather beaten and winter-flawed from Russia. But 
it was more in character for these persons to cringe when spirit 
was wanted, and to show it when it was fatal to him and to them- 

Thus then the First Consid became emperor by a majority ol 
two millions some hundred thousand %'otes, to a few hundreds^ 
The number of \x>xcs is cfimpUincd of by some persons as too 
small. rn>bably they may think that if the same number had 
been agaiast the measure instead of being for it, this would have 
conferred a right as being in opposition to and in contempt of the 
choice of the {>copIe. What other camlidate was there that would 
have got a hundml ? What other competitor a>uld indeed have 
come forwanl on the siore of merit ? Deiur opiimo. Birth there 
was not; but birth su[ien>edes l»th choice and merit. The day 
after the inauguration, Ik>na{>arte received the constituted bodici» 
the leamt*d coqioratu»ns, etc. The only strife was who shouU 
U)w the knee the lowest to the new risen sun. The troops whik 
taking the oath rent the air with shouts of enthusiasm. The 
succecviing cb>'s witnessed the nomination of the new dignitaries 
marshals, and all the usual appendages of a throne, as wcH with 
reference to the militar>' appriintments as to the high oflficcsof the 
cmiK'n. ( )n July 14th the first distribution of the crosses of the 
I^egion of Honor toi>k plate; and Na(Milit>n set out for BoukfW 
to renew the tniofis stationeii in the neighborhood and diitril^ 
ute the di*(c>ratioas of the I^ion of Honor among them, which 
thenceforth were sulistituteil for weapons of honor, which had 
been previously awanled ever since the first war in Italy. 

The Empemr arrogated nothing to himself in conseguenoe of 
the change in his situation. He had assumed the iXKxk' 
of king^, and had taken his station among the lords of the 
but hi* was still himself, and his throne still stood alar off in the 
field of battle. He appeared little more conscious of hit 
style and title than if he had put on a masquerade dress the 
ing before, of which if he was not ashamed—as it was a thing of 


r kad no reason (o be proud; and he applied himself 
to hi> dillcmit ■vocations with the same zeal and actinty as if 
■^'*''1g cxtnoidioary had happened. He ihought much less, it 
«ai cridcM, at aD these new honors than of the prosecution of his 
t at Boulogne, on which he labored incessantly. The 
> or doubtfulness of success did not relax his efforts; 
c detennined on the attempt, all the intermediate excr- 
n the wiU and its accomplishment with him went for 
k any more than so much holiday recreation. Something 
■OR of the vis ineriia would have allayed this inordinate im- 
portunity of voluntary power, and led to greater security and 

From Boulogne the Emperor went a second time to Belgium, 
vIkr tfae Empress joined him; they occupied the palace of 
Ladtcn near Brussels, which had formerly belonged to the Arch- 
dnke Chariea. He this time extended his journey to the Rhine; 
■■d bom Mainz he despatched General CaUarcUi to Rome to 
e the visit of the Pope (Pius VII) to Paris. It was from 
dna likewise he sent orders for the depanurc of the Toulon 
I Ko cb efort squadrons as a first step lovi-ard carrying into 
ct the invasion of England; but owing lotmforesccn circum- 
Bca, it was winter bcfon- the)' sailed. 

Jtc irtumed from this tour at the end of October; his 
t engaged during the month of Novemb<.'r with the 
I for the coronation, the Pojk- having set out frum 
t far the purpose of performing the ceremony. The court 
■■Bordcnd to Footainebleau to irccive him, the pahce there, 
■kick had fUlen into ruins, having been repaired and newly fitted 
ipbf Nspokm. He went to meet the Pope at Nemours; and 
IBBfloid iumality, the pretext of a hunting party waiv made use of, 
te Enpenr coining on horselnck an<l in a hunting dres^, with 
Hi n*!""?. to the top of the hill, where the meeting took place. 
Tht Tt/glft curiige drawing up. he gut out at the left door in his 
^ivcnitiniie; the ground was diny, and he did not like to tread 
lyoB h with his white nlk shoes, but he was at last obliged to 
Napoleon alif^tcdf rom hi.<i horw to ti-ceive him. They 
The Emperor's carriage had been driven up and 
•dvuoxl a few pacxs, as if by accident ; but men were posted to 
Wd the two doon open, and al the moment of getting in, the 


Emperor took the right door, and an officer of the couft handed 
the Pope to the left, 5V) that they entered the carriage by the two 
doors at the same moment. The Emperor naturally seated him- 
iiclf on the right ; and this first step decided without negotiation 
upon the eti({uette to be obsicrved during the whole time of the 
Pope's stay in Paris. 

This inten'iew and Bonaparte\s behavior was the very higbcft 
act and acme of audacity. It is comparable to nothing but the 
meeting of Priam and .\chiUes; or a joining of hands between the 
youth and the old age of the world. If Pope Pius VII rrpir- 
sented the decay of ancient superstition, Bonaparte represented 
the high and palmy state of modern opinion ; yet not insulting 
o%'er, but pn>[)ping the fall of the first. There were conccsHons 
on both sides, from the oldi-st power on earth to the newest, which 
in its turn asserted precedence for the strongest. In point ol 
birth there was no difference, for theocracy stoops to the diefpi of 
earth, x<i democracy springs fn)m it; but the Pope bowed his 
head from the ruins of the longest -established authority in Chris- 
tendom ; Ik>na|)art(* had himself raised the platform of penonal 
eIe%'ation on which he stood to meet him. To us the condescen- 
sion may seem all on one side, the presumption on the other; but 
history is a long an<l gradual ascent, where great actions and char- 
acters in time leave bomiweti |)()mp behind and at an immeasur 
able distance Ixlow them! .\fter resting at Fontainebleau* the 
Elmperor returned lo Paris; the Popi*, who set out first and was 
receivec! with sovereign honors on the road, was escoitcd to the 
Tuileries and wxs treatetl the whole time of his residence there as 
if at home. The novcky of his situation and appearance at Fuis 
excited general inten>t and curiosity; and his deportment, bt* 
sides its flowing fn>m the natural mildness of his characteft was 
marked by that fine tact and sense of propriety which the air of 
the ancient mistress of the world is known to inspire. Manncfs 
have there half maintained the empire which opinion had losL 
The Po[ie was flattered by his reception and the sentiments of 
respect and good will his presence seemed e^rrywhere to craalc. 
and gave very gracious aucliences to the religious corporatioos 
which were pmented to him and which were at this time bm fcv 
in number. To meet this imposing display of pomp and car* 
mony, Bonaparte was in a manner obliged to oppose a hem of 


, of old and new nobiL'ty. and to draw the lines of 
fonn tad etiquette closer round him, so as to make the access of 
old friendi and opinions less easy. This effect of the new forms 
andoeranofueswasat least complained of; but if they, thus early, 
kept out his friends, they did not in the end keep out his enemies. 

The day fixed for the coronation arrived. Ii was December 
J, 1804. Notwithstanding the unfavorablcness of the weather, 
the UMinbbgc of the deputations frons all the departments, from 
«■ the ditef towns, and of all the regiments of the army, joined to 
aB tbe pabUc functionaries of France, to all the generals, and to 
the wbole population of the capital, presented a fine and impos- 
ia( iigfat. Tbe interior of the church of Notre Dame had been 
nwfflMktnlly embclUshed; galleries and pews erected for the 
iifffifui wen thronged with a prodigious concourse of specla- 
locL The imperial throne was placed at one end of the nave, on 
a Toy derated plalform; that of the Pope was in the choir, 
beade the hi^ altar. The Pope %t out from the Tuilerics, pre- 
ended by his chamberlain on an ass> — which thiTc was some 
dttcuby in procuring at the moment — who kept his counte- 
MBoe with ID admirable gravity through the cmwds of obsenrr^ 
Am bied the ctieets. The Pope, arriving at the archicpisco- 
pi pahctt Rptired to the choir of the cathedral by a private 

The Empcnn' set out with the Empress by the Carrousel. In 
{ into the carriage, which wns npcn all round and without 
i, they at first seated themsclvi^ with their backs to the 
I, a BUttake which, though instantly roctifit-d, was remarked 
I, and it had all the ominousne^s which hangs over new 
The procession |>asM.-d along the Rue St. 
t to that of the Lombards, then to the Pont au Change, the 
ce of Justice, the court of Notre Dame, and the enirame to 
itdiiepuoopal palace. Here rooms were prt-jmrcd for the 
he ol the attendants, some of whom appeared dn-s.sed in their 
, others in full uniform. On the outside of the 
1 fitcted a long wotxien gallcr)- from the arch- 
• palace to the entrance of the church. By this gallery 
OBC tbe E m per or 's mtnue, which prcM-nied a truly magniricrnl 
^^L TiMy had taunted us with our simplicity and homeliness: 
IMt tkcnf here was the answer 10 it. 


The proceasioii was kd by the alretdy numerous body of 
courtiers; next came the marshals of the empire, wearing their 
badges of honor; then the dignitaries and high oCBcers of the 
crown; and lastly, the Emperor, in a gorgeous state drtsa. At 
the moment of his entering the cathedral there was a simuhm- 
neous shout, which resembled one vast explosion of '* Vive PEm- 
pereur I ** The immense quantity of figures to be seen on each side 
of so vast an edifice formed a tapestry of the most striking kind. 
The procession passed along the middle of the nave, and arrived 
at the choir facing the high altar. This part of the spectacle was 
not the least imposing: the galleries round the choir were filled 
with the handsomest women which France could boast, and most 
of whom surpassed in the lustre of their beauty that of the rich 
jewek with which they were adorned. 

His holiness then went to meet the Emperor at a desk which 
had been placed in the middle of the choir; there was another oo 
one side for the Empress. After saying a short prayer thefe, 
they returned, and seated themselves on the throne at the eod of 
the church facing the choir: there they heard mass, which was 
said by the Pope. They went to nuke the offering, and came 
back ; they then descended from the platform of the thiocie and 
walked in procession to receive the holy unction. The Emperor 
and Empress on reaching the choir, replaced themselves at their 
desks, where the Pope performed the ceremony. He presented 
the crown to the Emperor, who received it, put it himself upon 
his own head, took it off, placed it on that of the Empress, imoV e d 
it again, and laid it on the cushion where it was at first. 

A smaller crown was immediately put upon the head of tlie 
Empress, who, being surrounded by her ladies, everything was 
done so quickly that nobody was aware of the substitution that 
had taken place. The procession moved back to the pfaUforoL 
There the Emperor heard Te Dtmm: the Pope himself went 
thither at the conclusion of the ser^-ice, as if to say, lU^ mm$m ettt 
The Testament was presented to the Emperor, who took off bis 
glove and pronounced the oath with his hand upon the sacred 
book. He went back to the episcopal palace the same way that 
he had come, and entered his carriage. The ceremoiiy was hng; 
the day cold and wet ; the Emperor seemed impatient and uneasjr 
a great part of the time, and it was dusk before the cmvikade 



The procession was led by the alretdy numerous body of 
courtiers; next came the marshals of the empire, wearing their 
badges of honor; then the dignitaries and high oCBcers of the 
crown ; and lastly, the Emperor, in a gorgeous state dress. At 
the moment of his entering the cathedral there was a simuhm* 
neous shout, which resembled one vast explosion of " Vive P Em- 
perfurt '* The immense quantity of figures to be seen on each side 
of fo vast an edifice formed a tapestry of the most striking kind. 
The procession passed along the middle of the nave, and arrived 
at the choir facing the high altar. Th» part of the i^>ectacle was 
not the least imposing: the galleries round the choir were filled 
with the handsomest women which France could boast, and most 
of whom surpassed in the lustre of their beauty that of the rich 
jem-els with which they were adorned. 

HLs holiness then went to meet the Emperor at a desk which 
had been pbced in the middle of the choir; there was another oo 
one side for the Emprrss. After saying a short prayer there, 
the>' returned, and seated themselves on the throne at the eod of 
the church facing the choir: there they heard mass, which 
said by the Pope. They went to make the offering, and 
back ; the>' then descended from the pbtform of the throne and 
walked in pHKes^sion to receive the holy unction. The Emperor 
ancl Empress, on reaching the choir, re[)bced themselves at their 
desks, where the Pojk' performed the ceremony. He presented 
the crown to the Emperor, who received it, put it himself upon 
hisown head, took it f>fT, pbced it on that of the Empress, lUttoV g d 
it again, and bid it on the cushion where it was at first. 

A smaller cmti-n was immediately put upon the head of tlie 
Empress, who, Ix'ing surrounded by her bdies, everything was 
done V) quickly that nobody wx<^ aware of the substitution that 
had taken pbce. The procession moved hack to the pfaUforoL 
There the Emperor heard Te Drum: the Pope himsrif went 
thither at the conclusion of the scmce, as if to say, lU^ missa etit 
The Testament was presented to the Emperor, who took off hit 
gfeve and pronounced the oath with his hand upon the sacred 
book. He went back to the q>iscopal palace the same way that 
he had come, and entered his carriage. The ceremony was bng; 
the day cold and wet ; the Emperor seemed impatient and unensjr 
a great part of the time, and it was dusk before the 



mcbed the TuUerics, whither it returned by the Rue St. Martin, 
tbc Boulevards, the Place dc la Concorde and the Pont-Tour- 
omnt. The diMributJon uf ihc eagles took place some days after- 
wtI. Though the weather was stiU unfavorable the throtig was 
pt nH i gioif and the enthusiasm at its height ; the citizens as well 
attbevldkn burst into long and repealed acclamations as those 
waifike bands received from the hands of their renowned leader 
— not leas s soldier for being a king — the pledges of many a well- 
loi«lit field. 

Tie Cisalpine Republic at the same time underwent a change 
wUcfa ms easily managed. The Emperor was surrounded by 
men, who qurcd him the trouble of expressing the same wish 
twice, though many of them afterward pretended that they had 
Mnrdily diluted every word and syllable of it, opposing a shadow 
fli reBatance to fallen power instead of the substance to the abuse 
of k, and finding no medium between factious divisions and ser- 
v3e uhilstion. Lambardy was erected into a kingdom, and the 
Empenv put the iron crown of Charlemagne upon his bead. 


AJD. 1S04 


More und more, as American hbtory it rewritten, importance is added 
to this (reat work of discovery at tlie opening of the nineteenth ce nt ur y. 
Neat to the purchase of the vast territory called Louisiana, which mare 
than doubled the area of the United States, the most memorable act ol 
President Jefferson was the sending of Meriwether Lewis and Witllaa 
Clark up the Missouri to the great Northwest ' where rolls the Orcgoo * 

These eiplorers were the first to carry the American flag acrota tlM 
continent. In the very year of the Lout»tana Purchase <iSo^) this enter- 
prise, forerunning " the winning of the West.* was set 00 foot. It la 
dtfiicuU to realixe the tremendous obstacles and haxards attending its 
prosecution. For over a year no tMlmgs of the explorers readied tlM 
country, and At length they were given up as lost. But their toccemM 
work ' was the rral dtscovcry of the («reat West, and indeed ol Americm, 
to an extent beyond the sccomphAhment of any simitar endeavor belorv 
Of smce.* 

Lewis and Clark, according to their instructions, kept ioomaU ol dM 
expedition, and thc%e proved to l)e of the greatest value, not otdf lor 
official purpose*. t>ut al^) for the ufte of historians. In thii work dM 
two commanders were aided by some of their subordinates. The 
book«. as soon a« hlled. were sokiered m watertight cases, and by 
careful preservation were brought lack without the loss of a word. 

Southey. in Kngland. was an interested student of this expedttios 
ol the explorers* )oumaU. of which he wrote and published an accotart- 
He quotes the )oumaU frrquendy in his appreciative narration, 
here in coonecttoo with that of James D. Butler, a recent Aaiericaa 
on the sub)ect 


I EWIS and Clark were the first men to cross the continent in 
our £CHie, the truly i^klen sone. A dozen ytmrs before tbem 
Mackenzie had cioaaed in British dominioos (ar north, but set- 
tlements are cvm now sparse in that paraOeL Still eartier had 
Meakans traversed the narrowing continent from the Gulf to 



the Pacific, but wcmcd to iind little worth discovery. It was 
□ the zone penetrated by Lewis and Clark. There de- 
I began at once, and is now nowhere surpassed. Along 
dMir raale ten States, with a census, in 1S90, of eight and a half 
"'Bt'*", have ari<)cn in the wilderness. 

These miUions, and more yet unborn, must betake themselves 
to Lewis and Clark as the discoverers of their dwcUing-placeSt 
u autbon of their gcogiuphical names, as describers of their 
abori^DSi u well as of native plants, animals, and peculiarities. 
lo all tboe States the nTitings of Lewis and Clark must be monu- 
I-**"' In disputes about the o«-nerehip of Oregon, when it 
was org«d that the United States could claim only the mouth of 
the Cohimbia because Captain Gray * had discovered nothing 
■otv, while a British vessel had been first to sail a hundred 
Bilca np the ijrcr, it was onswcntl that the two American cap- 
taini (Lewis and Clark) had explored it ten times as far. But 
Aqr did wy much more. They were the first that ever burst 
■^■^TfF* the Rocky Mountain barrier, and they made known 
practkaMe passes. They first opened the giiles of the Pacific 
riope, and brace filled the valley of the Columbia with Ameri- 
cana. We thus obtained posNessiim, which is proverbially nine 
poinb, and thai while diplomacy was still vacillating- 

The credit of our Great Western discovery is due lo Jcffer- 
soQ, tbou)^ he never cros&rd the .Mlt-ghanies. When Columbus 
saw the Orinoco rushing into the ocean with irrepres-sible power 
aad nhtmc, he knew that he had anchorc<i nt the mouth of a con- 
So Jefferson, ascertaining that the Missouri, 
h oslkd a branch, at once changed the color and character 
€f the Mittiasippi, fdt sure that whoever followed it would reach 
Ike hn cin iog ncoscs of our Amt-rica. I.e:iniing afterward that 
<Nr**"* Giay had pushed into the mouth of the Columbia only 
after aine dap' breasting its ouiwan) cunt-nt, he dit-med that 
river a worthy counterpart uf the Missouri, und was convinced 
Ikai ibeir headwaters could not U- far apan in longitude. In- 
1 in 1801, bcfort! his first Prcsidenlial term was half 

r he had obuinrd, as a »on nt M-crei-vrvit-f fund, the small 

I vfaidi sufficed to fit out the expedition. He had abo se- 

iIOD trader, visited the mouth of the Co 
r on« of hii veueli -ill 1791.— £d. 


lected his private secreUiy, Lewis, for its hemd, and put him in 
a course of special training. But the actiud voyage up the BCia- 
souri, purchased April jo, 1803/ was not begun tiO the middle 
of May, i8o4« 

Forty-five persons in three boats composed the party. They 
were good watermen, but navigation was arduous, the river cx- 
trrmefy rapid, changeful in channd, and full of eddies and saw- 
yers. The last white settlement was passed within a week, but 
tome meat and com could be bought of Indians, though delayt 
were necessary for parleys and even councils with them« Othen 
were occasioned by hunting parties, who were kept out in quest 
of game« 

After one hundred seventy-one days the year's advance ended 
with October, for the river was ready to freeze. The distance tq>- 
stream they reckoned at sixteen hundred miles, or little moie 
than nine miles a day, a journey now made by railroad in forty* 
four hours. But it is not likely that any other men could then 
have laid more miles behind them. In addition to detcntioiis 
already enumerated, rudders masts, oars were often bfokcD* 
and replacing them cost time; boats were swamped or ovcfiett 
or could be forced onward onlv with tow-lines. 

Winter quarters were thirty miles above the Bismarck of ow 
day. Here they were frozen in about five months. The huts 
they built, and abundant fuel, kept them warm* Thanks lo 
their hunters and Indian traiTic, food was seldom scarce. Ofll* 
dak of the Hud5on*H Bay Company— who had a post witUn a 
week's journey— and many inquisitive natives paid them visitl^ 
From all these it wa.s their tireless endea^'or to learn everything 
possible concerning the great unlmown of the river beyond. 
Scarcely one could tell about distant places from perKXial obaer* 
vation, but tome second-hand reports were afterward proved 
strangely accurate, even as to the Great Falls, which turned ool 
to be one thousand miles away. It was not long, however, bcfocie 
they learned that the wife of Chaboneau, whom they had taken 
as a local interpreter, was a captive whose birth had been in tlie 
Rocky Mountains. She, rumed the ** Bird- Woman/* was the 
only person discoverable after a winter's search who oonU bjr 
any possibility serve them as interpreter and guide amoQf thte 

* lackidcd la the * LottkUaa Parchist,* of iliat dalt.— Cn. 


loogucs and labyrinthine fastnesses which they must 

Eariy in April, 1S05, the explorers, now numbering thiity-Iwo, 
tgaio began to urge their boats up the river, for their last year's 
Upon had brought them no more than halfway to their first ob- 
jacdve, hs source. No more Indian puncyors or pilots: their 
own ri6o were the sole reliance for food. Many a n-igwam, but 
BO laifiaa, was espied for four months and four da)-s after they 
kA their winter cunp. It was through the great Lone Island 
tfaU they fToped their dark and perilous way. In twenty days 
■fter the spring start they arrived at the Yellowstone, and in 
thirty more ihey first sighted the Rocky Mountains. Making the 
portage at the Great Falls had cost them a month of vexatious de- 
ky. Rowing on another month brought them on August 1 3th 
to a point where one of the men stood with one foot each side of 
the rirulet, and "thanked God that he had lived to bestride the 
Miwuiii, heretofore decmefl endless." 

They dragged their canoes, however, up the rii-ulet for five 
dsyi kmger. It was four hundn-d sixty days since they had left 
the mouth of the river, and their mileage on its waters had been 
ihne thousand ninety-six. A mile farther they stood on the 
Gnat Divide, and drank of springs which sent their water to 
Ihc ftdfic. But meantime they had been ready to starve in the 
■OHMIm. Their hunters were of the best, but they found no 
^■e; bn&loes had gone down into the lowlands, the birds of 
hvflCB had fled, and edible roots were mostly unknown to them. 
For WOK than four months they had looked, and lo! there was 
■o wan. It was not till .\ugusE ijlh thai, surprising a squaw so 
1 with pappooses that shv could not e^rn)x-, and win 
r heart by the gift of a looking k^ss and painting her 
( ihey formed friendship with her niilion, one of whose 
cfeWa fMDVcd tobe a brother of their Bird Woman. Horses were 
abool all they could obtain of these naiivcs, streams werr lot* 
fed at rapids to be navigable, or no limlx-r fit for canoes was 
«ilhiD fwich So the party, subsisting on hor>>c-tlcsh, and afier- 
«Md OB dog -meal, toiled on along one of the worst possible 
■MMk. Nor was it till October 7lh that ihey were able to em- 
barit. h logs they had burned hollow, upon a branch of the Co- 
haifaiB, wUcfa. after maoifold portages and perils, bore ihcm to 


:i.!; Caas saw part of a log quite petrified* and of which good 
whetstones, or hones, could be made. Salt also is abundantly 
produced on the surface of the earth ; many of the streams which 
come from the hiUs were strongly impregnated with it Up the 
White-earth River the salts were so abundant as, in some placci» 
to whiten the grouixl. The party were now tormented with tore 
eyes occasioned by saixl, which was driven from the sandbars in 
such clouds as often to hide from them the view of the o p po atc 
bank. The particles of this sand are so fine and light that tt 
floats for miles in the air like a column of thick smoke and pene- 
trates everything. "We were compelled," says the writer, "to 
eat, drink, aiul breathe it very copiously.'' 

On April a6th they reached the Yellowstone River, which 
they learned from the Indians rises in the Rocky Mountains 
near the Missouri aiul the Platte, aiul is navigable for canoes al- 
most to its head. 

The country thus far had presented few striking featurea. 
From the mouth of the Missouri to the Platte, about six hundred 
miles, it is described as very rich land with a suflksent quantity 
of timber; for fifteen hundred miles, "good second-rate land,** 
rather hilly than level; cottonwood and willows along the ooune 
of the streams; the upland almost entirely without trees and 
spreading into boundless prairies. There are Indian trails along 
the river, but they do not alwap follow its windings. There lie 
also paths made by the buffaloes and other animab; the buffab 
trail being at least ten feet wide. The appearances of fire hnd 
now ceased; the salts were still seen in the ravines and at the 
base of the small hills. 

The general width of the river was now about two himdrad 
yards; it had become very rapid with a very perceptible dcKcat; 
the shoals were more frequent and the rocky points at the BXMtfa 
of the gullies more difhcuh to pass. The tow-line, w bcne f a tke 
hanks wouU permit it, had been fouixl the safest node of n»- 
cending the stream, and the most expeditious, except under n 
sail with a steady breeze; but this seems not to have been feie* 
seen, or not to have been properiy provided for, as their wfm 
«*ere neariy all made of elk skin, and much worn and rotted bgr 
exposure to the weather. At this time everythiog 
upon them* 


"We tn •ometimcs," says the journal, "obliged to steer the 
cunes thnnigb the points of sharp rocks rising a few inches 
than the surface of the water, and so near to each other that, if 
our icpo give way, the force of ihe current drives the sides of 
ibe (SBDe agiinst ibem, and must inevitably upset them or dash 
than to piecci. Several times they gave way, but fortunately al- 
«qn {d placet where there was room for the canoe to turn with- 
out Miildog the mck; yet with all our precautions it was with 
iafiDite risk eikJ labor that we passed these points." 

To add to these difficulties there fell a UeAvy rain, which 
OMde the bank so slippery that the men who drew the towing- 
locsanildscarcely keep their footing, and the mud was so adhc- 
tht that tbey could not wear their moccasins. Part of the time 
dM]r woe obliged to be up to their armpits in the cold water, and 
fnqnentljr to walk o\-cr sharp fragments of rock ; yet painful as 
tUi lofl wa» they bore it not merely with patience, but with 
chaerfnfaiaB. Earth and stones also were falling from the high 
falaSlt to that it was dangerous to pess under them. The difTi- 
oritfcs of this part of the way were soon rewardeil by some of the 
WMt dtraoirlinary scenery which any travellers have ever de- 
KxiibaL The description may best be given in the words of the 

"We came to a high wall of black rtxk, rising from the 
I edge on the south, above the cliffs of the river; this 
I about a quarter of a mile, and was succeeded by 
li open plain, till, three miles farther, a second wall, two 
I feet high, rose on the same side. Thnv miU-^ fanher, 
a wall of the same kind, about two hundre<l ftrt hi^^h and 
twelve ia thickness, appeared to ih<- north. These hills and 
s exhibit a most extraordinary and romantic appear- 
Tbey rise in most places almost peqx'ndicularly from 
■tcr to the height o( between two hundred and three 
1 feet, and are formed of very white sandstone, so soft as 
to jidd readily to the impression of water: in the upi)cr jiart of 
^UA Be imbKldcd two or three horizontal strata of white free- 
tfDM^ hwiiltlili to the rain, and on the lop is a dark rich loam, 
■ydh fcmns a Kndually ascending plain, from a mile to a mile 
aad a half ia extent, when the hills again rise abruptly to the 
hriiht of aboot three hundred feel more. 


"In trickling down the cliffs, the water has worn the toft 
sandstone into a thousand grotesque figures, anK>ng which* with 
a little fancy, may be discerned elegant ranges of frccslooe 
buildings, ^^ith a)lumns variously sculptured and supporting 
long and elegant galleries, while the parapets are adorned with 
statuar}'. On a nearer approach they rq>rcsent every form of 
elegant ruins; columns, some with pedestals arul capttab entire; 
others mutilated and prostrate; some rising p)TamidaUy over 
each other till they terminate in a sharp point. These are varied 
by niches, alcoves, and the customary appearance of desolated 
magnifuence. The illusion was increased by the number of 
martins, which had built their globular nests in the niches and 
hovered over these columns as in our cities they are accustomed 
to frequent large stone structures. 

" As we advance there seems no end of the visionary enchant- 
ment which surn>uncL5 us. In the midst of this fantastic scenery 
are vast ranges of walls, which seem the productions of art, to 
regular is the workmanship: they rise perpendiculariy from the 
river, vmetimes to the- heij^hi of one hundred feet, \'ar]ring in 
ihi< kni-ss fn>m one to twelve feet. Ixring equally as broad at the 
toj> as Ixlow. The stones of which the)* are fonned are black« 
t:ii« k, and <hirablc, and a)m[>c>s<-d of a large portion of emitb, 
intrrmixi^l and (cmentcil with a small quantity of sand and a 
considrrable (Ktrtion of talc or quartz. These stones are afanotl 
invariably regubr parallelopipecLs of unequal size in the wall, but 
ei{i:ally deep, and laid regularly in ranges over each other Eke 
l>ri< ks, ea« h l;n-akin^ and ct)vering the interstice of the two on 
uhi<h it ri>t>; but though the |)er|)endicubr interstice be de- 
v!r»»\n!. ihr h'»ri//'n!al (»ne extends entirely thmugh the whole 
\\i»rk. The **tones t"o are pn>|>ortione<l to the thickness of the 
\\all in which ih<y are rmployctl, Ix^ing largest in the thickcti 
walU. Thethinncr wallsarea>mpose<lofasingledepthof thepar- 
aIUl*»pi|>r<i, whilr thr ihii ker ones consist of two or more depcfal» 
Tht-v walls |iass the river at several places, rising from the 
w.itcr's ctlgc muc h aliovc the sandstone bluffs, which they teOB 
to jK-nrtralr; ihrncr they cn>s> in a straight line on cither tide 
of the rivrr to the pbins. over which they tower to the bd^ of 
fn»m ten to seventv ftrt, until the%* lose themselves in the 
range of hills. Sometimes the)' r\in paiallel in several 


oar lo neb othrr; aomctimes intersect each other at right an- 
^n, kod have ibc appearance of ancient houses or gardens." 
Cms abo in his brief notes expresses his admiration of this 
"The cliffs," he says, '"seem as if built by the band of 
d an 10 numerous that they appear hkc the ruins of an 
It dty." 

On the third day after tliis remarkable pass they came to 
a foffc in the river which completely perplexed them; for 
tfaosg^ the Minnetarecs had, as they thought, minutely de- 
lated the course of the Missouri, or the " Ahmalcohza " as they 
caDed it, tbey had said nothing of this junction. The north 
bnnch was (wo hundred yards wide, the stHith three hundred 
lenaty, but the north was the dcc]x*t stream; its waters had 
Chtl muddiness which the Missouri bears into the Mississippi, 
tad its " air and character," in Captain Clarlc's phrdse, so much 
itaonbled the Missouri that almost all the men Ix-hcvcd that 
was the course to be pursued. The two leaders thought other- 
wise; it was known that the Missouri rame from the mountains, 
and they reasoned that this stream would probably be the clear- 
ol of the two. There was too much at stake to allow of their 
pro ce e din g upon any uncertainty. 

Captain Lewis, therefore, with six men, went to explore the 
BOfthcm rirer, while Captain Clark and five i>iher> wcnl upon 
llir same errand up the south ; the remainder of the puny were 
left to enjoy ncrdful rcM ; iheir fcti had been much bniisc<l and 
■m^ed during the last da>-5, and thi» respite came ^eaMI^ably. 
The Conner having gone about ihree-M'ore miles were cont inccd 
thai the stream came too far from ihe north for ttieir ruule to the 
ttetfic On their return they were exposed to the grcalcst dan 
yn. The rain had made the blufTs slip[>cry, whirh as the) went 
^ve than risky footing; ai a narrow ))a^> some thirty yards in 
Inglh Captain Lewi» dipix:d, and had he dmI nH-iivrn-<] himself 
frieUy, must have fallen over a precipice ol abr>ut ninety fct.*', 
talD die rirer. One of the men Wiind him Wi hi^ frxiiing abnut 
AaBlddleo(thepaas,and slipped to the vcr^e, where he Ly i^n 
Ibboi^Utrighiarnt and leg over ihe prnipice, «vhile with the 
tffc* ana aad kg be was with diiTiculty holding on. Captain 
Icwia, ciwcraling the fear which he feh. tuld him he wa< in no 
4n^, and bade him take bis knife out of hia belt w:ih bis 


ri|{hi hand, and dig a hole in the side of the bluff for his right fooL 
With great presence of mind the man did this and thus niscd 
himself on his knees; he was then directed to take off his moocm- 
sins and come forward on hands and knees, holding the knife in 
one hand and the rifle in the other. In this manner he cnwicd 
till he reache<l a secure spot. The other men who had not at- 
temptc*<i this {lass were ordered to return and wade the river at 
the foot of the bluff, where they found it breast-high; and the 
parly finding that any difficulty was preferable to the danger of 
crossing the slippery heights, continued to proceed along the 
bottom, sometimes in the mud of the few grounds, aomctimcsup 
to their arms in the water, and, when it became too deep to wade, 
they cut footholds with their knives in the sides of the banlu 

Captain Cbrk meantime having examined the south branch 
as far as forty five mik*s in a straight Une, was satisfied that this 
was the Missouri; the Indians had told him that the faUs lay a 
little to the south of sunset fnjm them, and that the river was 
nearly tnins[)an*nt at that place. He thought also that if this» 
which was the wider stream, was not the Missouri, it was scarcely 
pr>ssihle that the Indians should not have mentioned it But all 
the men were of a contrary- opinion; one of them, who was an 
ex|)erienced waterman on this river, gave it as his decided opinioii 
that the north fork was the genuine Missouri; their belief mlcd 
upon this, and thry said the>' would willingly foiiom the ^^f^nm 
wherever he<l to k*ad, but they feared that the south fork 
would soon terminate in the Rocky Mountains, and leave them 
at a great distance fn>m the Columbia. The captains upon tUi 
occasion, with a pn»{KT n*liance upon their own judgment, and 
a not less pn»iKT rrs[K*ct to the opinions of the men, detennfaifld 
that Captain Lewis should ascend the southern branch by land, 
till he reachcfi either the faUs or moimtains, which would 
the question. And here, to lighten the labor as much as 
they resolved to leave one of the pirogues and all the beary 
baggage they could spare, together with some provtsaani, mk, 
powder, and tools. The boat was drawn up on the middk of a 
small island and fastened to the trees. The goods were dqioa* 
ited in a cache, which, like the Moorish w a l — i irf > » a nblOTm- 
neous nugaxine, widening, as it descends, from a vety flsal 
aperturet the mouth being a ciitle of about twenty inches in 


in thu the goods were laid upon a flooring of diy 
Midts, which were also placed round the sides; they were covered 
wilfa a dry ikin, on which the earth was inxldcn, and lastly the 
nd was replaced over the opening so as not to betray the slight- 
at Bufcs of an etcavation; the earth as it was dug up having 
beai cutfuDjr removed. 

OntbethM day's march the soundof falling waters was heard, 
■ad a spny which seemed driven by the high southwest wind 
RMC above the plain like a column of smoke and vanished in an 
intsnt. The sound soon became too tremendous to be mistaken 
far uytlung but the Great Falls of ihc Missouri, and having 
n miles after first hearing ii he reached a scene which 
IT before been beheld by civilized man. The river forms 
a of npids, cataracts, and falls for about seventeen 
; U the Great Fall it is three hundred yards wide, for about 
d put of which it falls in one smooth even sheet over a 
B <rf eighty-seven feet; the other part, being broken by 
I rocks, "forms a splendid prospect of perfectly while 
I two bundred yards in lenph," with all that glorj- of re- 
I Bght and everlasting sound and infmily of motion which 
make ■ gnat walcr{aU the most magni6cent of all earthly objects. 
There n another fall of fifty feet where the river is at least a 
^Hftrr of a mile in breadth. In the midst of the river, below a 
MfdbBof about twenty- six feet, is a little isLind well covL-red with 
tmbtr, where an eagle had built its nest in a cullonwiNxI tree, 
iBid the ctcnial mists of the cataract. The Indians had j^nic- 
ihil7 OMDtioaed this striking object. About a mile below the 
ifpcr faO, and about twcnty-6ie yards from the river, a spring 
Btn wUcfa is said (o be perhaps the largest in .\merica, bul its 
■K m oat otherwise described. The water, which is extremely 
pwc ud cold, "boils up from among (he rock.-< an<l with such 
tacB Bar (be centre, that the surface seems higher there than 
At MCth DO the itdcs of the fountain, which is surrounded by a 
hiadnBl tmf of green grass." It falls into the river ovrr some 
MHp im(llltr neks, with a sudden OitftU at about six feet in 
«■■ pM of ita OOUfve : and so great is the tiuanlily of water which 
k pOMl faftfa tbal "its bluish cast" is distinguishable in the less 
MB^MBit Mknuri for half a mih:, notwithstandbg the !«• 


They had seen no Indians from the time thejr kfl their en- 
campment ; but now, upon renewing their way, they came to a 
ver>' larf^ lodge, which the)* supposed to be a great coundl-houaet 
(lifTering in construction from any which they had seen. It was 
a circle of two hundred sixteen feet in cirnmiference at the base, 
composed of sixteen large cottonwood poles about fifty fed 
k)ng, the tops of which met and were fastened in the centie. 
There was no covering; but, in the centre, there were the ashes 
of a large fire, and round about it the marks of many teatbein 
lodges. Three days afterward, when the)* were in sight of the 
Rocky Mountains, they {)asscd about forty little huts framed of 
willow bushes, as a shelter against the sun, and the track of 
many horses; they judged them to have been deserted about ten 
days by the Shoshoncs, or Snake Indians, of whom the)' weir in 
s<-arrh; the simc day they came to another lodge, constructed 
like the former, hut only half the dimensions, with the remains 
of fourscore leathern huth, but which seemed to have been buik 
the pn-ceflin^: autumn. 

On July 17th they rcachwl the place where the Missouri 
leaves it<« native m<»untains: the nver was deep, rapid, and moce 
than seventy yauU across, the low gnmnds not more than a few 
yanls wifh. hut allowing mom for an Indian road to wind uoder 
the hilLs; the diiTs wire about eight hundred feet above the 
water. (»f a harrl bbck granite, on which were scattered a few 
<lwarf pine and retlar iri^>. The navigation was now very diffi* 
cult. Retl, purj)le. yellow, and l)lack currants were g ro w ing 
there in gn*at abun^lance, and much exceeding in size those IB 
the Ka*4em irardens. The sunrlower alv) grew plentifully. The 
bi^ h«»meil ariimaK. a** thry talletl them, were seen here in grCAt 
ri.imlMT**. Ixfuruling amonjj pntipices, where it seemed tmpos* 
mM" that any animal ould >tand, and where a single false ftcp 
wouM have precipitati^l them at lea5t five hundred feet into the 
water. The prickly ;H*ar, at this time in full bbx>m, was one of 
tht irrt.itiM lieautic-N of the cr)untry, but they n)mplained of it* 
\*i:h i:'"«<l reavm. as (me of the greatest inci>nveniences 
They wen* m» abundant that it was impossible to avoid 
and the thorns were strong enough to pierce a double sok of 
dressed doeskin. 

A species of flax was observed here, whicfa* it was thoq^M* 


vould provr & most \iUuablc pUnt : eight or tL-n steins sprang 
from tbe same root to the height of two and a half or three fc«t, 
•ad ibe root appeared to be perennial. There were young suck- 
en ihoming up, though the seeds were not yd ripe, and they in- 
kiRd that the stems, which were in the best slate for producing 
lut, oif^ be cut without injuring the nx)t. The heat in these 
I wu afanoM insupportable, and whenever they caught a 
t of the mountain -tops they were tantalized with a sight 
of now. One In-mendous pass they named the "Gales of the 
Roc^ Moantains." For nearly six miles, the ri\'er, which was 
Ihcte three hundred fifty yards in width, flows between rocks of 
Vkdt gnuiile, which rise perpendicularly from its edges to the 
hci^ of neariy twelve hundn-d feet. Nothing, suid they, could 
be jtttm^wtmA more awful than the darkness of these rocks. Dur- 
Ibk the whole distance the water is ver)- deep, even ai the edges, 
■od for the first three miles there was not a spot, except one of a 
fcw ymnb, where a man could stand between the water and the 
wtB of rock. Several fine sprinRs burst out from the chasms of 
ihefDctsand increase the stream; the current is strong, but they 
•we aUc to o^-crcome it with their oars, most fortunately, for it 
■ould ha\x been impossible to use cither the cord i>r the pole. 

A great smoke was perceived the next day, as if the country 
hid been set on fire — the Indians had heard a gun. and, believing 
Ihtt their coennies were approaching, made the signal of alarm 
■mJ Sfd into the mountains. Captain Lewis, with Chaboncau. 
Ae httetpreter, and two other companions, preceded the party 
■aw fai March of the Shoshones. On August toih he came to a 
ioA hi tbe Jcffenon, bej-ond which it wa.* not navij;able. The 
am d>7 be pcnriiitd. with the greatest deUghl. a man on horse- 
hackt but the man, when they were within a hundrr<l paces of 
■ch other, suddenly wheeled luund, though even' amicable 
pgMvehad been made to him, gave hi.i horse the whip and pres- 
mlji ifcunnainl They followed his track (ill it wait lost, and 
Ac BOd day, proceeding up the stream, they came where it was 
wamow that one of the men put his foot across it, and thanknl 
God tfaU be had lived to bestride the Missouri. It was not long 
MaR tbc;f reached its actual source and drank of the fountain; 
s rflB»tym not allngetber unwonliy of b?in;; mmparnl with that 
tf Brace at the fountain of the Ab)'ssinian [Blue] Site. Leav- 
■_»ot_xr,— . 


ing this mcmoimble spot they got upon the ridge which forms 
the dividing line between the strcAms that flow into the Atlantic 
and Pacific oceans, and there they drank of the waters which 
nin to the Columbia or Oregon, the" Great River of the West" 

The fears and suspicions of the Shoshones, and the embar- 
rassments of Captain Lewis after he had met them, and befote 
his companions were arrived, form a very interesting part of his 
narrative. The two captains went now to the tent of Cameah- 
wait, the chief of this tribe, and sent for Sahcajaweah to be their 

The accounts which the expbrers received of the way befoce 
them were most discouraging. To follow the course of the 
water, Cameahwait said, was impossible, as the river flowed be- 
tween steep precipices, which allowed of no passage along the 
banks; and it ran with such rapidity among sharp- pointed locfca 
that as far as the eye could reach it was one line of foam« The 
mountains were equally inaccessible; neither man nor beast 
could pass them, and therefore neither he nor any of his natioo 
had e%*er attempted it. He had learned from some of the Qkk 
punnish or Pierced Nose ' Indians, who resided on the river to 
the westward, that it ran a great way toward the setting tun aDd 
there lost it«iclf in a lake of ill tasting water where the white 
lived. Ca{>tain Cbrk, not relying upon this report, went 
guide to reconnoitre the countr}% and found it equally impnc^ 
ticable to keep the course of the river or cross the mountains ill 
the same direction. The guide, however, said there waa a way 
to some Indian M*ttlements on another river, which was abo a 
branch of the Oregon [Columbia]. The Shoshones all denied 
this, which was imputed to their desire of keeping among thCB 
strangers so able to protect them and so well stocked with vahift- 
ble commodities; they sold them, howo-er, horses enough for 
the party, and the ad\'enturere began their journey on AufOil 

They suffered dreadfully from fatigue and hunger; guw 
was M> scarce that they were obliged to feed upon their honea; 
their strength began to fail them; most of the men wtft mm 
complaining of sackncsa, and having reached a settlement of tht 
Cbopimnish on the Kooskooakee, they detennincd to build 

>Tkt Nts Pcrc^. a tribe ol the Skakaptiaa slock.— En. 


aoes tberc The labor which Ihc men bad gone through in ihc 
hncr pan of their way up the Mississippi had made them de- 
Aow of travelling on horseback, but they now more gladly re- 
nmnd lo tbeu- river navigation. September J5th they began to 
biuld et^t canoe», and having intrusted their remaining horses 
to the Cbopuonisb, and buried the saddles in a cache, they em- 
bvfccd oa October 7lh, accompanied by two chiefs. 

Co November 3d they perceived the tirst tide-water; four 
da^ afterwud they had the pleasure of hearing a few words of 
g^gKA f^QiQ ui Indian, who talked of a Mr. Haley as the prin- 
cipal tnder on the coast ; and on the 7th a fog clearing off gave 
iImd a ri^l o( the ocean. They suffered greatly at the mouth 
of dK rfwr. At one place where they were confined two nights 
by the wind, the waves broke over ihcm, and large trees which 
the stream had brought down were drifted upon them, so that 
with their utmost vigilance they could scarcely save the canoes 
1 being dashed to pieces. Their next havrn was still more 
; the hiUs rose steep over their heads to the height of five 
1 feet; and as the rain fell in torrents, Ihc stones upon 
ir ovmbUng sides loosened, and came rolling down upon 
BL The canoes were, in one place, at the mercy of the waves, 
' bagpigc in another, and the men scatlemi upon Hoating 
I €ir ahehering themselves in the crevices of the rocks and 

Id thti situation they had nothing but dried fish for f<xx1: 
r and these sufferings conlinued till their clothes and 
t rotten. .\t length they reached the open coast, 
iBd, having weQ reconnoim-d il, cncampi'd fur the winter. This 
■■■ 00 ■nry exhilarating prospect. The natives subsisted chiefly 
«■ dried fish and roots; the explorers neither liked this dici, nor 
Al there Rcm enough of it for their su|<i>ly, nor hod they su(- 
idoC More of merchandlw left to purchase it ; they must ihcrr- 
lore tnnt to tbeir hunters fur su)>^istcnc(-, and g;ime wa> not to 
he iDoad with tbc same facility here as in the plains of the Mts> 
aaaff. But the sea enabled them to supply ihcmselvn with salt, 
ami m about three months trading- vessels were rjipcrtcd, from 
■fefak bdi^ wen provided with lettrr» of credit, the)' hoped to 
pocarc a supply of trinkets for their route homeward. In na- 
is of this nature nothing should be spared which 


can contribute to the safety and comfort of the penons em- 
pk)yc(l. Captaias Ixrwis and Clark sboukl not ha\'c been left to 
the contingency of obtaining supplies; a ship ought certiinly to 
have Ixrn sent to meet them. For want of this they suffered 
great hani.shi{>s; game Urame scarce, and in January nothing 
but elk was to Ik* set*n, which of all others was the most diflkuh 
to catih; thev could vaaelv, thev said, have subsisted but tot 
the exertions of one of the party, Drewyer by name, the son ol a 
Canadian Fn-nchman and an Indian woman, who united in a 
wonderful de^rvr the dexten)us aim of the frontier huntsman 
with the sagaiity of the savage in pursuing the faintest tracks 
thmugh the fon>t. 

During the winter they Mmght for all the information in thctr 
power lonuming the countr)' and the inhabitants, and ob- 
tained !tf>me account of the number of tribes, langiiagcs, and 
{)opulation for aljout three hundred sixty miles southward akng 
the (f» of ih(»N<- in an op|x>site diaxtion the)' learned little 
mon* than the namc^. their encampment Ixring on the south ol 
the ( )n*gon [Colurnhiaj. 

Captains Leu is and Clark were ver>' desinms of remaining 
on the coast till the shifts arrivitl, that the>* might recruit their 
alm«M exhaj^tetl Moh-n <»f mefi; but though they were 
cxjHn tetl in A;»ril. it was found imjxJSMble to wait. The elk, oo 
^%hi<h they c lii( f.y (lef»en<Ied, had retreated to the n[K>untaiiii» 
and if the Indians could have v»ld ftKxl they were too poor to 
pun Yuisc it. AN ut the middle of March, therefore, they began 
their homcwanl way; the whole stcxk of gcMids on which they 
Were to rlejK-nd. eithcT for the purchase of horses or of food, 
d'lrinij a jn-.:mey f»f nearly four thousand milr>, lieing so dimill- 
ishc^l that it micht all Im* tii^l in two handkerchiefs. But thdr 
mu>kets were in extellent onler, and the)' had plenty of po w d cf 
and shot. 

The opinion which they had formed of the natives oo thdr 
way down the river was rH>t improved on their return. It «aa 
sr«rn fi'und that nothing but their numbers sa\-«l the ezpbccn 
fn>rn Uin^ attacked. On one CMcasion. when CapUio Ckuk 
couki not obtain food, be took a port -fire match from hb podnit 
threw a small piece of it into the fire, and at the same time taking 
his pocket compasa and a magnet, made the needle turn rouad 


«CI7 bcuUy. As won &s th« mutch began tu bum, the Indians 
wot m terrified Uui they brought a quantity of wappato ' and 
Wd k at Us fc«l, begging him to put out the bail fire. At another 
place Ihey were oHnpcUed to make the Indians understand that 
r stole any of the baggage, or tnsullt-il any of tho men, 
i be immediately shot. After some disputes, which ende<l, 
; iritliout bloodshed, and many dilBcutlies, they come to 
the Cbopiumish Indians, with whom they had left their horses; 
sod here they had to wait till the mountains should be pass- 

On June loth they renewed their journey; but on the 17th 
ihey were convinced that it was not yet practicable to cross the 
tt oiami n t, and therefore were for thi- first time compelled lo 
■akc a Rtiognule movement. A week afterward they attempted 
k again. In the course of that time the snow had mehed about 
ioor ftct; they had good guides, and it was found better travcl- 
Ib( over the snow than over the fallen timber and rocks, which 
fk IDHner obatmcted the way. Having surmounted the dilTi- 
eakfaa ol this passage, the [larly separated on the mountain: 
d(ffaf* Lewis went with nine men by the most dirctt route lo 
the FaDs of the Missouri, whence he was lo a-sicnd Maria River, 
and ascertain if any branch of it renchMl as f^r south as latitude 
jc^. Captain Clailc, with the rest of the party, made for the 
head erf tike JcOenon; there they divideil acnin. Si-n^eant Ord- 
wmf and nine men went from there in the ramx^ down the Mis- 
aam; and Captain Clark procecdol to the Wllowslone Kivcr, 
al its nearett appnMch to the I'hrct: Forks nf the Missouri, and 
tfaoe built caixxs to explore that im|M>rtani strt-am altm)- the 
whole of its course. The junction of these two great nM-r* was 
Ckt appointed place of meeting. 

Captain I„ewi»'s route w.l* much shoner than 1I1.U which 
tkty bad taken on thrir ouiwartl journey. He gol onrt* more 
ialo the tand uf RKwquitocs; the hnrs<'% sulTrrt-d so nuith from 
ihcM inaectB that they were oblig<-d to kindl.- lar;;* fires and 
place Uk poor animals in the midst of the Nm- kr. In such mjT- 
iadi were they that they frrquenlly dn-w them in with their 
b>tBth.aad the verydoK howled with the torture they ;^ve him. 
Thejr cane aln among their old rnemi<-s the l>ear&: bul the 
' A •prcirt of arToalirail root.— £t>. 


abuncUncc of buffaloes after tbdr short commons made amends 
for all. These animals seemed to prefer pools, which were to 
strongly impregnated with salt as to be unfit for the use of man, 
to the water of the ri\'er. Captain Lewis proceeded far enough 
to ascertain that no branch of the Maria extended as far north 
as 50^, and consequently that it would not make the desired 
boundar)'. He fell in with a party of Minnetarees of the north; 
the tribe bore a bad character, arnl these men did not belie it; 
for after meeting in ap[>arent friendship and encamfnng to- 
gether for the night, they endea\'ored to rob the Americans ol 
their horses and guns. In the scufBe that ensued one of the Iixl- 
ians was stabbed through the heart, aiul Captain Lewis shot 
another in the abdomen; the man, however, rose, and fired in 
return, and Captain Lewis felt the wind of the balL He was 
destined to a narrower escape a few days afterward, when one of 
his own men mistook him for an elk and shot him through the 
thigh. When the)' came to the appointed place of meeting thtf 
saw that Captain Clark had been encamped there, but found 00 
letter. These wonLs, however, were traced in the sand: "W. C, 
a few miles farther down on the right hand side.'* Captain 
Cbrk ha<l rK>t intended to trust to a writing in the sand; but 
aiMither division of the {>arty arriving before Captain Lewis, and 
thinking that he had preceded them, removed his letter. 

Captain Clark, on his part, had reached the Yellowstone a 
little below the place where it issues from the Rocky Mountains^ 
It now appeared that the communication between these great 
rivers was short and easv. Fn>m the Three Forks of the Mia- 
souri to this ()la<e wa5» forty eight miles, chiefly over a levtl 
pbin; and fn>m the forks of the eastern branch of the Gallatin« 
whi( h is there navigable for small canoes, it is only eighteen^ with 
an excellent n>ad o\er a high dr)* country. The YeUowstone hcfe 
is a bold, deep. aiHi m^mi stream, one huiKlred twenty yanis 
wide. As no large timber coukl be found. Captain Clark made 
two small can<x^ and lashed them together; they were twcntj* 
eight feet king, about eighteen inches deep, and fiom sixteen to 
twenty four IrKhes mide. Sergeant Pryor, with two 
was then intrusted with the horses to take them to the 
aiul the rest of the party began their voyafe. The buffaloct 
were here in such numbers that a herd of them one day 


die river stopped the canoe for an hour; the river, including an 
Uani over wbicli tbcy passed, was a mile in width, and the herd 
ttictdted u thick as they could swim from one side to another 
dnDBC the whole of that time. 

Tbe coune o( this river, from the point where they reachwl it 
tiD its junction with the Missouri, was computet) at more than 
d^l hundred miles, navigable the whole way, without any falls 
or any moving sandbars (which are very frequent in the Mis- 
■xiri), and only one ledge of rocks, and that not ditTicuIt to pass. 
The point of junction was considered to be one of the best places 
lor an estabUshmcni for the Wcslcm fur trade. It was impos- 
vbletowmil here for Captain Lcn-is becauM- of the mosquitoes; 
tbejr were in such multitudes that the men could not shool for 
than; they could not bi' kept from the barrel of the rifle long 
CBdUgb far a man to take aim. Pryor and his party soon fol- 
iMMd; the bor«n were stolen fixim them by some Indians; ihey 
dMB Mnick for the river, and made skin canoes, or rather cor- 
acles, tudt u the)' had seen among the Mandans and Ricara&. 
Tkae TCMds were perfect basins, seven feet three in diameter, 

I inches deep; made of skins stretched over a wooden 

\ capable of carr>-ing sin or cijihl men with thdr 

They made two thai they might divide their guns and 

n, lest, in case of accident, all should be lost. Uut in 

t (nil vessels they paiised, with perfect security, all the shoals 

rapids of the river, without taking in water even during the 

t winds. Where a boat is to be committed to the stream, 
probably no other shape could be so safe. 

Od August lath the whole pany were once more wUecied. 
fhty CouimI on (heir n-tum that great changes had taken place 
1b the bed of the Miamuri since they ascende<I il, so shifting are 
lb Kods; and the}' ob«e^^'ed that in the counx* of one thousand 
■Beta thouft^ it had received above twenty rivers, some of ihcm 
ol ooosidenble width, besides many smaller stream<i, its waters 
wm oot augmented, so great Ls the evaporation. When ihcy 
came to the fini riQage and saw M)me cows feeding on the bank, 
Ac whole party, with an involuntary impuL«<-. raLvi] a shout of 
jof. Sevcnl letllcments had been made in llii> <lirection during 
AiirabMOCC; so fast is the progress of civilization of America, 
when kit extended by the very cagcme-ut with which men recede 


fnrni d\'flixed life. On Sqitcmber sad thejr reached the q»t 
from where they had set out, after having travelled ncmrij nine 
thousand nuks, and performed with equal ability, pe n cv cf mnce» 
and success one of the moat arduous journeys that were ever 



A.O. l&Oj 


ItwM InpOMible for the powen of Europe 1o >ubtni( quietly to the 
taenatiBf cxactkn* of tlie new Kmperor, Napoleon, until they had once 
Irii4 dMlrciilire united ■Irenclh asaiitii him in an appeal to arms What 
h ckBri tb( ' tfaitd grcit coalition " wai formed aicaliid France in iSoj 
tn A Willi. RuMla.and England. Sweden, Napic», and other leiaer king- 
4aBB WR abo paruien to It. Spain and several of the little Cerrnan 
Stun Kldnl Napoleon 

TIWVSH plana of die Frtnch Empetoi included an expedition lucrou 
AtCkmacl and cnuh England, and to accomplish ihii he gatlicrcd all hit 
avaOBbla French »hip* and alw Ihou of hi* ally, Spain. Thcuc were in- 
•■ded lo pcottct hU army In its pauage 10 FngUnd. but Nelson m<fl the 
FroKb and Spaniih fleet oS the Spanish coati at Cape Trafalgar, and 
Brteia'a ctnplrc over the kcaa was ctlalilikhrd beyond coniroveray. Ii 
haa at*n aina been disputed in any conaidenbl* naval battle. 

I^ELSON ■ni'.xd off Cadiz on September 39. iSoi;— his binh- 
dajr. Fearing thai if the ent-my knew his (oire ihty might 
bs detoTcd from %'cnlurin^ to 5«a.hc kepi out of sight of land, 
doind O^ngwoixl lo fin- no viKite nml hoist no colon, iin<I 
wnMe to Gibralur to request ihat the forre of the fieri miRht noi 
br tumed there in ihcCusettr. His rrccplinn in ihr Motlitcrra 
nna Bed wms u gratifying as the fan-well of his countr>-mcn ni 
INKIHUOUlh: the officers, who riimc on loarl jo weliome him. 
faqjot bb rank u cr>mman(lcr, in tlii-ir joy at set-ing him again. 
Ob the day of his arrival Vtllenc-jvr reteivccl orders lo put to 
KB the fint opportunity. Villcnnue, howrvrr, hr^itatMl when 
he hard that Nelson had resume^l thi- I'rmmand. He called a 
Dofwar, and their delerminaiion wa^ that it would nut be 
Bt Id katc Cadiz, unless ihry hal reawm to believe them- 
Tbyone-thinlthan the Ilriti^h forre. In ihc public 
strfGrtal Britain scrrery U ^eMum pnctirable and srl 
: here, howoxr. by the precautions nf Nilwn and 


the wise memsuresof the Admiralty, the French were forooce kept 
in ignorance ; for as the ships appointed to rcfoforce the Mediter- 
ranean fleet were despatched singly, each as soon as it was ready^ 
their collected number was not stated in the newspaper^ aod 
their arrival was not known to the enemy. 

On October 9th Nelson sent CoUingwood what he called in 
his diary the ** Nelson touch.** '* I send you/* said he, '* my plan 
of attack, as far as a man dare venture to guess at the very uncer- 
tain position the enemy may be found in; but it is to place you 
perfectly at ease respecting my intentions, and to gi\'e full scope 
to your judgment for carrying them into effect. We can, my dnr 
CoU, have no little jealousies. We have only one great object in 
view, that of annihilating our enemies and getting a glorioiia 
peace for our country. No man has more confidence in another 
than I have in you ; and no man will render your services moft 
justice than your very old friend. Nelson and Bronte.** 

The order of sailing was to be the order of battle; the fleet in 
rwo lines, with an advance squadron of eight of the fastest saOing 
two-deckers. The scioml in command, hanng the entire direc- 
tion of his line, wa.s to break through the enemy, about the twetfth 
ship from their rear; he would lead through the centre, and the 
advanced sr|uacln>n was to cut off three or four ahead of the 
centre. This plan was to be adapted to the strength of the eoeny, 
so that the)' should alway-s be one fourth superior to those whom 
they cut off. Nelson said, **That his admirals and captains^ 
knowing his precise object to be that of a close and decisive ac* 
tion, would supply any dcficicnc)' of signals, and act accordiQgijr. 
In case signals cannot be seen or cleariy understocxl, up cafitim 
can do urong ij kr pltues his ship ahngsidt thai of am emamy.^ 
One of the last orders of this admirable man was that the naflw 
and family of e\*er)' officer, seaman, and marine, who might be 
killed or wounded in the action, shoukl be, as toon as pnmibk» 
returned to him in order to be transmitted to the chairman d the 
patriotic fund, that the case might be taken into conridefrntioQ far 
the benefit of the sufferer or his family. 

On the 21st, at daybreak, the combined fleets were dttdactljr 
seen from the Victory's deck, formed in a cbie Koe d bank 
ahead, on the starboard tack, about twelve miles to leewanL ami 
staodiflf to the south. The English fleet mnmtrd of twvBljr* 


KVCO nil o( the Unc and four frigates; the French, of thtrty-three 
ud wen lar^ frigates. The French superiority was more in 
rilc and wcighl of metal than in numbcTs. They had four thou- 
Kod tnx^ on board; and the best riflemen who could be pro- 
nued — nuny of them Tyrolesc — were dispersed through the 
■hipL Little did the Tyrolesc, and httle did the Spaniards, at 
thai day, imagine what horrore the master whom they served was 
pfvptthng for their countries. 

Soon aflcT daylight Nelson came upon deck. October 31st 
«■> a festival in his family, because on that day his uncle, Captain 
SoeUiiig, in the Dreadnought, with two other line-of- battle ships, 
n off a French squadron of four sail of the line and ihrw 
Nebon, with that sort of superstition from which few 
ire entirely exempt, had more than once expressed his 
II that this was to be the day of his battle also; and he 
■MmU fkaaeil at seeing his prediction about to be verified. The 
viad vu now from the west, light breezes with a long heavy 
•wtlL Signal was made to bear down upon the enemy in two lines, 
■Dd the fleet set all sail. CoUingwood in the Koyal Sovereign, 
kd the tcewanl line of thirteen shiijs; the V'ictor>' led the weather 
fine uf fourteen. Having .seen that all was as it should be, Nelstm 
Rtired to his cabin and wmte the following prayer: 

**Ma7 the great (lod, whom I worehip, grant to my country, 
aad ior dte benefit of Europe in general, a great and glorious vie- 
1017, and nujr no misconduct in anyone tamlsh it ; and may 
himmatty after victory be the pre<lominant feature in the nrilish 
%mtl For mywlf indix-idually, I commit my life to Him that 
■■de ow; and may his blessing alight on my endca%-ors for serv- 
ta| taj ootrntrr faithfully! To him 1 resign myself, and the 
JOM cune which u intni-ttcd to me to defend. Amen, Amen, 

Bhckwood went on board the Victor)- about six. He found 
Ika fal good qiiriu but very calm ; not in that exhilaration which 
he kad fdl upon entering into battle at .Abukir and Oipenhagen ; 
he kaew that his own hfe would l>e [lanicularly aimcil at, and 
M^nlo have looked (or death with almost o.^ sure an expectation 
aa lor vktoty. His mbak attention was fixed u^xm the enemy. 
They lacked to the northward, and fcirmcd their line on ihe lar- 
board tack; thus brining the shuab of Trafalgar and St. I'ediD 


under the Ice of the British, and keeping the port of Cadiz open 
for themselves. This was judiciously done; and Nekon, aware 
of all the advantages which it gave them, made signal to prepare 
to anchor. 

ViUencuvc was a skilful seaman, worthy of serving a better 
master and a better cause. His plan of defence was as well cno- 
ceivcd and as original as the pbn of attack. He formed the fleet 
in a double line, cvcr>' alternate ship being about a cablets length 
to windward of her second ahead and astern. Nelson, certain of 
a triumphant issue to the day, asked Bbckwood what he should 
consider as a victor)* ? That officer an>wertd that, considering 
the handsome way in which Ixittle was offered by the enemy, their 
apparent determination for a fair trial of strength, and the situa- 
tion of the lancl, he thought it would be a glorious result if four- 
teen wen* captured. He repliccl, **I shall not be satisfied with 
less than twenty.** Soon afterward he asked him if he did not 
think there wa5 a signal wanting. Captain Bbckwood nude 
answer that he thought the whole fleet seemed very clearly to 
understand what they were alM)Ut. These words were scarcriy 
s(M)krn U'forc that si^rnal was made, which will be remembered 
as k>ng as the language or even the memory of England shall 
endure: Nelson*s last signal— ** England expects every man to 
do his dutvl*' 

It wxs receiveil thmughout the fleet with a shout of answering 
acclamation, made sulilime by the spirit which it breathed and 
the feeling which it expressed. **Now," said Lord Nebco* "I 
can do no more. We mu>t trunt to the great DUposrr of aB 
e%*ents, ami the justice of our cau«te. I thank God for this great 
opportunity of clojng my <luty.*' 

He wore th.i! day. as usual, his admiral's frock coat, bearing 
on the left hnx'-t f>ur siar^. of the different onlers with which he 
was investetl. ( )maments which rrnden^l him so conspicuotti a 
mark fc»r the enemy were Uheld with ominous a{>prehensioo bjr 
his officers. It was known that there were riflemen on board the 
French ships, and it coukl not tx* doubted but that his life woQhl 
be particulariy aimed at. They communicated their femn to 
each <»ther; and the surgeon, Mr. Beat y, spoke to the ^*^T^^, 
Doctor Scott, and to Mr. Scott, the private secretary, 
that tome person woukl entreat him to change his dneaa or 

• • 


the ttan; but tbcy Icncw (hat such a request would highly dis- 
pkue bim. " In honor I gained tbcm," he had &aid, when such 
s tUns had been hinted to him fonnerly, "and in honor I will die 

A long swell was setting into the Bay of Cadiz; our ships 
ODWfing all Mil moved majestically before it with light winds 
InsB the iouthwest. The sun shone on the saib of the enemy; 
snd tbdr wetl-foimed line, with their numerous tha^e-dccken, 
mde ui appearance which any other assailani5 would have 
'K'^^g*'* formidable; but the British sailon only admtn-d the 
bwiily and the splendor of the spectacle; and in full confidence 
cf trianing what they saw, remarked to each other, " What a fine 
ii|fal yaaier ships would make at Spithead I " 

The French Admiial, from the Buccntaurc, beheld the new 
manner in which his enemy was advancing— Nelson and Colling- 
mod each leading his Unr; and pointing; them out lo his officers, 
W it Mk) 10 have exclaimed that such conduct could not fail to 
be WfTTt—f" ' Yet Villeneuve had madt- his o^-n dispof^itions 
vilh the utmoM skill, and the fleets under his command waited 
lor Uk attack with perfect coobcss. 

Nebon's cohimn was steered atxiul two points more to the 
BOftb than CoUingwood's, in order to cut off the enemy's escape 
into Cadiz; the W line, therefore, was first engaged. "Sec," 
ofad Ndsoo, pointing to the Royat Sovereign, as she Meercd right 
ior tbe centre of the enemy's line, cut ihmugh il a>tem of the 
Santa Anna, a three-decker, and engagi-d hi-r at the muzzle nf her 
pas OB tbe starboard side, "see how that nobto felkiw, ColUng- 
«oed, canto bis fthip into action!" ColUngwood. deligblcd at 
bdig fillt in tbe beat of the fire, and knowing the fe(.-lings of his 
camttaadtf and old friend, tume<l tu his captain and exclaimed, 
'Kolhaliam, what n-ould Nelson give to be here!" 

Tbe oicmy continued to fire a gun at a time at the Victor)', till 
thejr Mw that a ibot had passed thmugh hcrmain'to[^lbnt-saJl; 
then tbcjr opened their bmadsidt-s. aiming chiell) at her rigging 
ia the hope of disabling her before she could rbse with them. 
Nchop, as usual, had hoisted several flaes, le^t one should t>e ^01 
tmmy. The enemy showed no colors till late in the action, when 
they began to fed the necessity of having them In strike. For thin 
Raaoo, tbe Santisalma Trinidad, Nebon's okl ocquaiotaoce, as 


be used to cmll her, was distinguishable only by her four decks; 
and to the bow of this opponent he ordered the Victory to be 
steered. Meantime an incessant raking fire was kept up upon 
the Victory. The Admiral's secretary was one of the first who 
fell ; he was killed by a cannon-shot while con%Tnung with Hardy. 
Captain Adair, of the marines, with the help of a saikr, eodeav- 
ored to remove the body from Nelson's sight, who had a great 
regard for Mr. Scott ; but he anxiously asked, *' Is that poor Scott 
that's gone ? " and being informed that it was indeed so, exclaimed* 
'* Poor fellow!" Presently a double-headed shot struck a party 
of marines who were drawn up on the poop, and killed et|^t of 
them; upon which Nelson imme<liatcly desired Captain Adair to 
duiperse his men round the ship, that they might not suffer so 
much frnm being together. A few minutes afterward a shot 
struck the fore-brace bitts on the quarter deck, and passed be* 
tween Nebon and Hardy, a splinter from the bitt tearing off 
Hardy's buckle and bruising his foot. Both stopped and kx>ked 
anxiously at each other, each sup|XKung the other to be wounded. 
Nekon then smiled and said, **This is too warm work, Hardy, to 
last bng." 

The Victor}' had not yet returned a single gun; fifty ct her 
men had been by this time kiUctl or wounded, and her main-tof>- 
mast, with all her studding- !aib and their booms, shot away. Nel- 
son declared that in all hi^ battles he had seen rxithing which 
had surpassttl the cool courage of his crew on this occasaoiL At 
four minutes after twelve the Victor}* opened fire from both sides 
of her deck. It wa5 imfiryssiblr to break the enemy's line withoot 
running alxianl one of their shi(>s; Hanly informed him of tlttib 
and askc<l him which he would prefer. NeLion replied, **Tlke 
your choice, Hanly; it does not signify much." The miMT 
was ordcnx! to put the helm to |ic»rt,and the Victory ran aboaid 
the Redoubtable, just as her tiller- ropes were shot away. The 
French ship received her with a broadside, then instantly kt 
down her lower-deck ports for fear of being boarded thfoq^ 
them, and never afterward fired a great gun during the action. 
Her tops, like those of all the French ships, were fiOed with riff^ 
men. Nelson never placed musketry in his tops; he had a 
strong dislike to the practice, not merely because it endangeiB art* 
ting fire to the sails, but aho becauK it is a mtirderous sort of 



•imP . 


Mi4 *i Frifali 
VMorr la <b( Batik 


his suis. Had be but concealed these badges of honor from the 
enemy, England perhaps woukl not have had cause to lecdre 
frith sorrow the news of the Battle of Trafalgar. The cockpit 
was crowded with wounded and dying men, o\'er whose bo<&a 
he was with some diflkulty conveyed, and laid upon a pallet ia 
the midshipmen's lK*rth. 

It was sor^n perrcivcd, upon examination, that the wound was 
mortal This, however, was concealed from all except Captain 
Hanly, the chaplain, and the medical attendants. He himself 
being certain, from the sensation in his back, and the g\ish of 
bkxxl he felt momentarily within his breast, that no human care 
could avail him, insiste<l that the surgeon should leave him and 
attend to those to whom he might be useful *' For,** said he« 
** )-ou can do iK>thing fr>r me.** All that coukl be done was to fan 
him with paper, and fm]ucntly to give him lemonade to alleviate 
his intense thirst. He was in great pain, arui expressed mudi 
axudety for the event of the action, which ik>w began to declare 
itself. As often as a ship struck, the crew of the Victory hur- 
rahed; and at every hurrah a visible expression of joy gkamcd ia 
the rye and marked the countenance of the dring hero. But he 
became impatient to see Captain Hardy; arxl as that officer, 
though often sent for, could m»t leave the <lcck. Nelson feared that 
some fatal cause pre%-ente<l him, and repeaterlly cried: •'^TD no 
one bring Hanly to me? He must be killed! He is furdjf 
dead!'* .\n hour and ten minutes elapsed from the time 
Nehon receive*! his wound before Haniv could come to 
The}' shook hands in silence: Hardy in vain struggling to 
press the fcelinsrs of that most painful and yet sublimest 
•Well Hanly ;• said Nelson/h<»wgi>estheday with us?" "Vety 
well/' n-pliefl Hanly; *Men shii>s have struck, but fi\T of the no 
ha\T ta4 ked, and show an intention to bear down upon the \lc* 
tory. I ha%T called two or three of our fresh ships round, and 
have no doubt of giving them a drubbing.*' " I hope,** said Ncl- 
nm. •* none of our ships have struck ?" Hanly answered,** TiMft 
is no fear of that.** Then, and not till then. Nelson spoke d hoi- 
self. ** I am a dead man. Hanly." said he; *' I am going fait; it 
will be all over with me soon. Come r^earer to me. Let ny <lctf 
Lady Hamilton have my hair arxl all other things > > rk i n | pm ID 
me.** Hardy observed that he hoped Mr. Bcattjr coukl fct koU 


out tome prospect of life. "Oh, not" he replied, "it is impossi- 
ble: my twck is shot through; Bcatty will tell you so." Captain 
Budjr then ooce more shook hands with him, and, with a heart 
ataoit ixmtiag, hastened upon deck. 

By this lime all feeling below the breast was gone; and Nel- 
am, having made the surgeon ascertain this, said to him: "You 
know I am gone. I know it. I feci something rising in my 
tin 111" — putting his hand on his left side — " which tells me so." 
And 00 Beattjr's inquiring whether his pain was great, he said 
it was so great that he wished he was dead. "Yet," said he in 
a bwer voice, "one would like lo live a little longer, too." And 
alter a few minutes, in the some undertone, he added, " What 
woold become of poor Lady Hamilton if she knew my situation ?" 
Ncil to his country she occupied his thoughts. Captain Hardy, 
mtat fifty minutes after he left the cockpit, returned, and again 
tiUog the hand of his dying friend and commander, congratu- 
kMd hfan OB having gained a complete victory. How many of 
Ihe eoemy were taken he did not know, a.s it was impossible to 
pcrodve them distinctly; but fourteen ur fifteen at least. "That's 
■«!,** cried Nelson, "but I bargained for twenty." And then, in 
a Hl ongeT voice, he said, ".\nchor, Hunly. anchor!" Hardy, 
upon this, hinted that Admiral CoUingwood would take upon him- 
self the direction of affairs. "Not while I live, Haiily," said the 
dying Nelson, ineffectually endeavoring lo raise himself from the 
bed: "Do you anchor!" His previous onier for prejaring to 
r had shown how clearly he foresaw the necessity of this. 
; calling Hardy back, he said tn him in a low voice, 
*DBB*t throw me overboard " ; and he desired ihat he might be 
taried by Us pemis, unless it should pleiLw the King to order 
olhcrwisr. Then reNtrting to private feelings: "Take tare of my 
dear Lady Hamilton. Hardy; take care of poor Lady Hamil- 
lOB. Kisa me, Hardy," »ud he. Hanly knelt down and 
kkHdUschrek, and Nelson said: " Now I am satisfied. Thank 
God, I have done my duty." Hardy sKmxI over him in silence 
tea mo m e nt or two, then knelt again and kissed his forehead. 
"Who is that?" sakl Nelson; and ticing informed, he replied. 
'God bhns you, Hardy." And Hardy then left him— forever. 

Ncfaon now desired to be tumol u[iori his rixhi wic, and said, 
" I wish I had not tcft the deck; for 1 shall soon begone." Death 
a.,TaL.xv.— a. 


was, iodeedt ripidljr approaching. He said to the rhaphin, 
" Doctor, I have 1101 been a ifrrol sinner, " and after a short pause, 
*' Remember that I leave Lady Hamilton and mjr dau^ter Hora- 
tia as a legacy to my country." His articulation now became 
difficult ; but he was distinctly heard to say, " Thank God, I hare 
done my duty!" These words he repeatedly prorxmnced; and 
they were the last words which he uttered. He expired at thirty 
minutes after four — three hours and a quarter after he had re> 
cesved his wound 



WUk Entbnil wu ■wetping the French navy from the ocean ai Tnf- 
a%w, tb« ,otber mcmbcn of the ' third coaUlioo.' Austria and Russia, 
warn uotrnptiot to defend themiclvcs againil Napoleon on land. They 
hid BMM to attack him. but hi* promptitude and irresistible enetxT 
^nad At tables upon them, and after a brief campaign, accounted the 
■HtbriOkatalcven Napoleon's hrillianl career, the first Austrian armjr 
iatnadrndat Ulm (October ioth).thcday before Trafalrar. This vic- 
Wtfgnw the French poaacsaioa ol Vienna, the proud capital acaiait 
«fe«M Willi the Turfc» had so often surged in vain. The AuatrUn rvler 
■■■FnBcb Jl.whOBtltl rctamcd his title ol Emperor of (icrmany and 
■Iwhad aho b((un to call himself Emperor of Auilria. a title ai Incoa- 
pans M Napoleon 'i own He was resolved to ti|-hi to tlie bitter end, 
m4 vltk an bla remaining forces he joined the Russian F.mperor, Alex- 
wadn 1, wbewaa advaBcins to his aid. Thus the three empcrorm of 
Kmmpm «tt« prtaeni la penon at the most triumphant battle of Napo- 
iHBli CUHr. Hb maaterlir mancruvres made Austcrliti a fitting crown 
■Kbi* ■eMokbrated cunpiaicii. The aetting "tun of Austerliii* saw 
E«ifa helpk— at the conqueror's feet 

WUk the youthful Russian Emperor was in nominal command of hii 
•■■ IwcM. their real director was General Kutuioff, who with a smaller 
■ reireaiiiic before Napoleott and had made a tunctloo with 
a wa> abo thlnkinx of Joiiiintt the coalition afaiosi 
rnMOi,balhad Ml jet taken action. All these preliminarici ate ndtcd 
li At loMovix aecoom bjr Lanfrey, the mo»l recent of French schobn 
M Vflll OS Ifcb theme so f aKinatinc to Frenchmen Lanfrey U. huw- 
•Mr.aaadadrcrol Napoleon; in fact, hit life of the Emperor is neneraUy 
■^Hdidaa hBTb( circa the (inal blow to the worship of Napoleon, erca 

I tu. &nt »c1 of NapoleoiiS Aiislrian umpaign had been 
mwked by ibr thundmiroke of Ubn, and the second by 
ihr oEcupatioo of Vienna. He had left this capital in the middle 
of November and advanced into Moravia u far u Bruenn. a 
■nai flma of gn«l importance, but undefended, which he onu 
able tooccnp; wiiboul sirikin^ n Mow . ihanlu to the canJcuneu 


and want of foresight of the Austrians. The army ol the aOici 
was masscil fiftcTn Icaj^cs fn>m there, ni*ar ( Jlmuetx. It fonncd, 
accuniinf; to the otTicial statements, a total number of eighty-two 
thousand men, of whom fourteen thousand only were Austriana. 
It was comiNiscf! of giNxi tnK>{)s, in no way demoralized, for Ku- 
tuz4»fT, though fonctl to retreat tx*fore forces of an overwhelming 
5U|K*riority, had rrsi.ste<l the French at Amstetten, at Duerren- 
stein, and at HoUabrunn, with a firmness that did him the grcml* 
est h«)nc)r. 

This army had so much interest in gaining time before the}* 
attacketl NafKileon that their o|K*rations are still an enigma. 
Im[M)rtant n-enforcrments, under the command of General 
WningM-n, were marching to rejoin them; the month at the 
term of which Prussia was to bring her armies into the field wms 
on the eve (»f expiring, and this was a hundred twenty tbounnd 
men more for the coalition; the Anglo Swedish army was about 
to march fnun Hanover into Holland, which was undefended; 
the Archduke Charier had arriveii in Hungary, where be wms 
re{»airing his Iosmn an<i i>re{aring to take up the offensire; 
lastly, \ai>oht»n. in pn since of the imminent danger to which 
the-<- eventu;ili:irs cxixkv*^! him, had sus(M*nded his forward 
march, felling ihat his )x»^ition, at so great a distance from has 
1mm* of oiM- rations, was already ver)* dangerous. In all pfobft- 
bility, a simple tc m|»ori/ation on the {Kirt of the Austro-Ruaiaili 
wouM in a very short time have constraine<l him to retire, iindcr 
the d«'iiMe necc-ssily nf concentrating his trriof>5 and pi 
his line of retreat. The struggle U'ing renewe«l under 
conditions, h:> dc "^tnit tion was almost inevitable, f or be wms aboQt 
to find himself enc Iom^I Ut^^een three considerable armicSi» with 
T\t\\u efi f(»rce^; and if two of these armies had joined bands in 
Hungary, as Kutu/iitT pr<»;*cfM 1, they would ha\*e prcacnted a 
mass ditTicult for him to cut through. 

These were urgent reaMm.s for avoiding all meeting with Na- 
polef>n iM-forr the ex[>ectcnl e%'ents had taken pUce. It b ooC 
ea^y, even now, to expbin the moti\es that induced the aDici ID 
act >Ahcn they had everything to gain by waiting. It has beoi 
statef!. it is true, that the Austro Russian annjr wanted provi- 
sions at Olmuctz, but it wxs easy to procure them el atwh c i e , aad 
nothing obliged them to keep this position. They had cna aa 


t in falling back upon Hungar}', lo join i-ighty thousand 
BCD at Uie Airhdukc Charles. Alcxandi-r had commiltrd a 
bnl Emit in coming, in spite of the remonstrances of his wisest 
fiicndl, fa) the midst of his army, where his pirscnct; would natu- 
tittjr paralyze brave but servile generals, and, moreover, he was 
1 by young men, full of ardor, courage, and illusions, 
I to distinguish themselves in the eyes of their sovereign, 
I qxike with the most profound contempt of the dilatory 
n proposed by KutuzolT, by the Emperor of Austria, and by 
I experimccd chiefs of the army. Grave discords that 
en between the Austrians and the Russians, in consc- 
e of the unfortunate opening of the campaign, also con- 
1 lo make both dcaire a prompt renewal of hostilities, 
ia whidi nch hoped to &nd his justification. 

Napoleon was aware of this state of things and turned it to 
account with marvellous skill. He had just received, with a 
great deal of haughtiness, Mi-ssieurs de Stadioii and Giulay, 
vfaom the Emperor of Austria had sent to his camp to make 
UIU1UIU to him. He almost immediately afterward n-gretted 
tkii, on Icaniing that I'ntssia was on the point of joining his 
I, and he became a.* communitative as he had hiih- 
s hau^ty and suspicious. On November 35th he de- 
i Savar^'to the camp of the allies, with a tomplimcntary 
r lo the Emperor Alexander, and with a secret mission to 
c attentively the army of the enemy, while he felt the ground 
lor • ocgMiation. 

Savary was received with courtesy, but very col<Uy. He only 
' t back to his ma»ler a run and evasive letter, which was 
I to the Emperor, but to the Chrj du (Imevfnummt 
Ff m ^a is. Napoleon, who was so sensitive ui«in ihi* [xiinl, look 
ao offence; he wanted to idiow that he was superior Id ihe trifles 
«l a vain etiquette, and only became more cumplaijanl. Savary 
r returned lo Olmuetz, lo pn)[K)se an inleniew be- 
■ Napoleon aitd the loo confiding .Mexander. At the same 
he was to complete his studies nn the Ausim Ruuian army. 
SciBiy, who had the eyes and cars of a future miniMer of |MilicT, 
1 the utt and dist>osition of the army; he got into con' 
n wHh the aides-de-camp, and look note of the ra*h con- 
IfaKc at the young officcra. Alexander nfuKcd the interview, 


but he consented to lend to Napoleon his aide-de-cmmp, the 
Prince Dolgoruki. 

Napoleon took care not to give the Prince the same oppor- 
tunity for making observations that Savary had had with Alci- 
ander. He received him at his advanced posts, and only let htm 
see just enough of his army to decei^T him. A few days bcfoct, 
a squadron of his adv'ance guard had been separated and taken 
prisoner at Wischau. Dolgoruki found the French troops bit- 
ing back upon all points in order to concentrate themsehrea to 
the positions studied long beforehand, toward which Napoleon 
wished to draw the Austro- Russian army. Crowded in a nar- 
n)w .space, still separated from Bemadotte*s corps and Friant's 
divijiion, which were only to arrive at the last moment, ostensibly 
occupic<i in racing intrenchmcnts upon different points as if they 
fearc<i to be attacked, they could only strike the Prince by the 
ap|)arent weakness of their force and by their timid and coo- 
stniine<l attitu<k*. 

After the usual compliments, Dolgoruki went to the object of 
his mission without any more oratorical precautions. Napo- 
leon has rc|M>rtcfl the intcrv icw with his habitual untruthfulncia» 
seasoning his account with the usual insults toward all men in 
whom he met with anv firmness. He has related in his buDetins 


that this *' pup|>y '* (jreluqurt) went so far as to propose to htm 
the cession of Belgium. It had never been contemplated to de- 
man<l Bel^um fn>m France, and the time would hare been 
badly chosen to pu! fon^anl such a pn>fx>sition. Dolgoruki 
made no pni[¥i%;il of this kind. .Mexan<ler had agreed upon a 
pn>^ammr when he aiiini hims<-lf to Austria and Prussia, and 
it >ftas this pn>^ammr, alnady discussed a hundred times, that 
hi-i aide de camp submittni to Na[M>lt^in. I)oigiiruki*s rrpoft of 
Xh\> inter\'iew lx*ars the >tamp of truth, and strikingly mninds 
us of the famous account of \Vhitworth*s inten-iew with Napo- 
Ictin. As usual, Napolom sfieaks as a tempter when he cmnaol 
s{H*ak as a master. *' What do they want of me? ^Khy docs line 
Knri(>en>r Alexander make war on me? What does he requiite? 
Is he jealous of the ai:>:nin<li/ement of France? Well! let Ittm 
extend his fnmtiers at the ex|>en«<* of his neighborv— by way ol 
Turke>'; and all quarrels ydW be terminated!** .\nd as Dc4v>- 
ruki replied that Russia did not care to incrtase her terriloiyy bm 


wmntcd to nuintain tbc indrprndcncc of Europci to secure the 
eTBcuation of Holland and Switzerland, the indemnity that she 
had acver ceased to claim for the of Sardinia, Napoleon 
flew into a violent passion, and exclaimed that he would cede 
p^h^qg in Italy, "not even if the Russians were encamped upon 
11k heists of Montmartrel" an exclamation that is so much 
tbe moR probable that we find it tcxtually a few days later in 
one of his bulletins. These words put an end to a negotiation 
thai had been, on the part of Napoleon, only a ruse of war tn- 
i (o embolden his encmitrs, and both sides now thought of 
f but battle. 

The positions that Napoleon had occupied to await the col- 
ineo with the allies were admirably chosen, both for attack and 
tor defence. Backed by the ciladel of Bruenn, which would, if 
k were nec e i sary. insure their retreat into Bohemia; covered on 
tUr left by hills thickly wooded, on their front by a deep stream 
«Udl at certain distances formed large ponds, his tnwps were 
iKfcnched in the right angle made by the two highroads which 
rm from Bruenn, one to Vienna and the other lo Olmuelz. 
l^CT occupied all the villages situated along the stream, from 
Giivkowitz to Tclnitz, where the ponds begin. Opposite to 
thdr OEBtre, on the other .side of the stream, m*e the plateau of 
p)M«wii^ t commanding and advanced [x>sition, bc>'ond which 
a ppe a red at ionic distance the village and chateau of .\ustcrlilz, 
«Udi the aimy of the twt) em(K-rori aln-ady occupied. Napo- 
leoD had posted at his left, round a knoll to which the soldiers 
had fhren the name of the "Santon," I^nncs's rorpj tTarm/r, on 
" t at the Olmuetz road; at his right, from Telnit/ to 
, be had placed Souli's corps; at his tentn-, toward 
CilMiiiaili, that of Bemadotte, which had arrived the day before 
■■a Ae Bohemian frontier, and with him Mumt's cavalry. He 
t fanned the rescrv'c with his guanl and ten battalions, 
d by Oudinot. Behind his extreme righi, at Kaygem, 
h B paiitlon ba mnovcd fn>m hi» centre, he iletarhe«] Daraut, 
■Ift Maot's division and a division of cavair)', in nnler to bring 
Aiadovn at tbc dedaive moment upon the left of the Rus^ans. 
Tk whok of these troops amounted, notwithstanding oU that 
Ittoatotal at least equal to that of the allies: for the 
■ d'anofc of Souk, Bemadolle, and Lannes, howe^-er 


rrducfd wc may suppose them to have been by their lotMS ud 
detachments, could not have numbered less than from fifteen 
to twenty thousand men each ; the guard and Murmt*s cmvmlry 
funned at least twrntv thousaml men, and Da\*out's dcUch- 
menl counlril tij^ht thousand. 

This [)osition, almost unassailable in front, was calculated 
to suggest to the allien the idea of cutting off Napoleon from the 
n>ute to \*ienna, by turning his right, and thus separating htm 
fn>m the rest of his uimy, which had remained quartered in the 
neighborhocKl of the capital. But this operation, hazardous 
enough if it wen' undertaken even at a distance by a series of 
strategical movements with fono only equal to his own, became 
an act (}f the most foolish temerity the moment it was attempted 
under the evi-s of so formidable an enemv, within reach of hts 
cann<»n, and u{K)n thr field of Ixittle that he had chosen. Such 
was, however, the plan which XW^miher venturwl to adopt* en- 
Cfmragc^l no doubt by the ap{)arent and calculated weakness of 
the iletachments of the right near Telnitz, and the approaches 
of the n»ad to Vienna. 

In onler to entii e him more and more into this perilous path, 
Na{)olet)n had n«»t only withdrawn the tnx){>s from his right* btit 
had not even o(rupie<l the phteau of I^ratzen, a kind of elevated 
pn)montor\- whith advanie^l t<»wanl the centre of the two ar- 
mies, and fn»m the top nf whirh he would have been able lo ren- 
der the turning movement of the .\u<^tn>RuKMan army very dif- 
ficult. The allies c-siabli^hefl them^-lvrs upr>n this pbtcau*btit 
with in«iUtTicient foni^. without sus|>iTting the importance of the 
(josiiion and the [urt that it was to pby in the coming battle. Ob 
the evening: of I^ittmUr K, the Russians cf>mmencrd their 
flank march. k<'ef»inir alon^ thi- Frenchmen's line at two gun- 
sh<»?s' distance f«»r alwnit fnur leaijuo, in order to turn thdr 
right. Na|M)l(^in, fn»m his bivrmac, saw them rushing to their 
ruin, with a trans|«>rt of jr>y. He allowed them to effect their 
movement without putting any ol>sta(le in their way* as if he 
rrcfyjjnizcd the im{v»ssibility of op[M>sing it. Only c 
coq>s f if Fn-ni h cavalr\- showe<l itvlf on the plain, and n 
atcly re!irr<l a** if intimidate«l by the forces of the enemy. 

Napoleon <|uickly underload, by this commencniicot« that 
bis efforu to draw the attack upon his right were going to be 


cnnmed with success. His conviction in this respect was so 
fixm that the nme evening in the proclamslion that be ad- 
dnaMd to his soldiers he did not hesitate to announce to them 
the BUDCEUvre that the enemy would make on the morrow at his 
piopa risk and peril. "The positions which we occupy," be 
mid, "m fonnidable; and while they arc marching to turn my 
riibt they wiD present their flank to mc. Soldiers, I shall my- 
•clf direct your battalions. I shall keep out of the fire if with 
joar usual bravery you throw disorder and confusion into the 
enemy's ranks; bul if the victory should be for a moment un- 
cotmln, you will sec your Emperor ihc fonrmosl to cJiposc him- 
Klf to danger I" 

Tills prediction, made with so much assurance, greatly con- 
tributed to gain credit for a repon, that is still very generally be- 
Bmd in Russia, that Weyrolher's plan harl been treacherously 
Made known to Napoleon. There is nolhinf: impossible in this 
ha; for although \Ve)-mihcr's plan was only communicated to 
the allied generals very late in the night of Dcicmljcr ist, it was 
cntainly known earlier to a part uf the staff. But Napoleon had 
BO ne«d of such a communication to discover a fault, of which 
be bad himself suggested the idea by his own dispositions, and 
ni which he had seen all ihe preliminary' devcl'ipmcnu with his 
own eyes. This story is then but of slight importance, and 
could only be admitted upon formal pmofs, which have not 
hJdKTto been gix-cn. 

After having inspected ihe advanced posts Napoleon re- 
nlrad to \isit the bi>-ouars. Being recognized by the soldiers, 
he w«s immediately surrounded and dii-ervd. They wished lo 
/ttr the anniversar)' of his coronation; bundles of siniw were 
hoiMed bbang on poles for an imprumplu illumination, an<l an 
faiMoae Inin of light along the Pn-nch line made the allies 
Mfev* that Naptilcon was trying to steal away, by means of a 
MIllHilii boROwed from a HannilKil or a Frederick. An old 
ymfier ■pproached and addressed him in the name of his 
Mow-aoldien. "1 pmmi'w thee," he Mid, "ih;ii ti*momiw we 
«9 bring ibec the colore and unnon of the Russian army, to 
^ Uk antuvmary of thy mronaii-wi!"— a char^cli-ristltc ha- 
iBBgBe wldcb showed that in spite of ever>-thini* the republican 
^M ttMl lubMiled in the lower ranks of ihe army, and thai Ihc 


nidien regankd Ni^x>leofi less as a master than as a foniicr 
equals in whom, even in crowning him, thejr thought thejr were 
peitonifying their own grandeur. 

The next morning, December a, 1805, the rising sun gnul* 
ually dispelled the fog that covered the country, and showed the 
two armies ready for the conflict The Russians had almost 
entirely e\'acuated the plateau of Pratzen, and in the vaDcy 
beneath their colimms were distinctly seen advancing in the 
direction of Tdnitz and Sokolnitz. It was there that they 
hoped to turn the enemy's right, after having forced the Le- 
grand division, which alone held this defUe. The execution of 
this principal mamruvre of Weyrother*s plan had been coofided 
to clumsy Buxhoewden, a brave general, but of no abtUty, who 
had under his orders a corps of thirty thousand men; and Gen- 
erals Langcron, Doctoroff, and Przib)'szcwskL They were to be 
supported by KoUowrath, who still occupied a part of the pb- 
teau. The Russian right, commanded by Bagration, fMOti 
Lannes in front of the Santon; in the centre, near Austcrlitav 
were the two emperors with their guard and the corps d'armle 
of Prince Lichtenstcin. KutuzcjflT, discouraged and disbeartcoed 
by the kind of fctichism that the sacred person of the Cwr (Al- 
exander I) inspired in the Russians, followed his master, la* 
menting beforehand the misfortunes which he foresaw, but 
without doing anything to ward them off. Bagratioo 
on reading in the morning Wcyrother's plan, had 

The allied army thus formed an immense semicircle, 
extended from Holubitx to Telnitx, and closed the angle of 
which the French occupied the centre. Lying in wait at the bot- 
tom of this sort of funnel, concentrated in a narrow space, 
tive, motionless, and crouching like a lion preparing to 
upon its prey, the French army was waiting in formidable 
the signal for rushing on the enemy. Vfhcn the whole of the kft 
of the aUics had reached the ponds, and were beginning to at- 
tack, at Telnitx, Legrand*s division — which was soon to be m^ 
ported by Da\'out*s corps, recalled from Rajrgcm — Napdmi^ 
who had hitherto kept back his troops, gave the 
Souk*s divisions rushed to the assatilt ojf the hesghta of 
There they found KoUowrath*s column, marrhing to icjoin Bo- 


hoewileo. In ui instant they attacked it in flank and over- 
turned it ; immediately after they found the infantry of MUora- 
dcnritch, which was drawn up in a second line to support it. 
Vaodamme's and Sl Hilaire's divisions, seconded by Thi£- 
built't and Morand's Brigades, threw themselves with the bayo- 
t npoo the Russian battalions. These, stopped short in the 

I of their movement, finding no reserve to support them, 
aitadud in the rear when they were marching to assail the en- 
emy in front, were driven down the slopes of the plateau under 
the eyes of the Emperor Alexander, surprised and dismayed at 
tbc unfomecn catastrophe which had just routed his centre. 

While Napoleon was striking with his accustomed rapidity 
this decisive blow, which at the beginning of the battle cut the 
RuMtan army tn two at its very centre, his own corps d'armfc, 
bokOy deploying by a simultaneous fom-ard march, were per- 
fcirming with almost equal success the task that had been aa- 
lipaed to them. At the extreme right of the French army, it is 
trae^ LcgniKl's division, overwhelmed by quadruple forces, had 
at fini been driven beyond Telnitz and Sokolnitz, but Davout 
kid MMO come to his assistance with Friani's and Bourcier's di- 
wWoa^ 10 that Legrand's retrograde movement had proved on 
■dnallge rather than othen\-ise, since il had drawn the Russian 
kft deqxr u>d deeper into the snare in which it was taken. From 
ike centre, Beraadotte had marched upon UlaziowiU'; he had 
MMcfcad the Russian guard and Prince Lichtcnstein's corps. 
•Mfe Lanncs, wbo formed the right, took Holubiiz, in spite of 
Bagntkm's efforts to dispute him this position. This double 
inupCioa prevented the Russians from reenforcing their troops 
at Pnixen. Lichtenstcin's magnilkcnl cavalr>', composed of 
d^ty-twD squadrons, called on one side to succor their centre 
■ad cha/gui on the other to support Bagraiion, could not art 
vfeh the banoony that was necessary to the impulse o( such an 
One part of his squadrons engaged with Con- 
it in the pumiit of Kellermann's light horae, in tbc 

e of the French infantry, which crushed it with their fire; 

her duugcd more successfully Mural's cavalry, but being 
i it toon fell back. 
At Pirnuen, Kamenski's brigade, brought from the Russian 
ft to iW relief at the centre by Prince Wolkonski, had rallied 


the remnants of Rollowrath's and MUoridontch's cli\isions» and 
for a moment renewed the combat. Alexander at length under- 
stood the im{X)rtance of the possession of the plateau, but it was 
impossible for his coq>s d*arm^, engaged so far from this posi- 
tion, which was the first of the whole battle, to send rrtaforce- 
ments in time. Old KutuzoflT, wounded in the head, saw with 
des{)air the realization of his fears, and on being asked if his 
wound was dangenms exclaimed, extending his hand towifd 
Pratzcn, ** There, there is the mortal wound I" Assailed in front 
and in flank by all Soult*s clivisions, Kamenski*s brigade hero- 
ically resisted their attacks; but stnyn overwhelmed by numbers^ 
and reduce<l to half, it was forced down into the bottoms by the 
side of Bimbaum. It was one o'cliK'k; the centre of the attics 
was annihibtcd; their two wings fought still, but without com- 
munication and without means of rejoining. In this critical mo- 
ment the Russian guanl, of which the greater {>art had hitherto 
remained in reserve, advancetl towani the French centre to 
drive it Ixick, and attempted! to retake the heights of Prmtxcn. 
One of the Fri-mh battalions was suqirisetl and overturned by 
its cuinissifp*. but Naj>ol<t)n*s ^lani ru.shitl up in its tum« TTic 
two cavalries c liargitj with fur>* in a dcsjK'nite conflict. A hand- 
to hand tl^ht Ix-gan U-twtin thev choice troofH, but terminated 
in favor <»f the Fn*nch. The Russian horse guanls, cut to pieces 
by the enemy's hctrM-mm, fell l)ack in disonler, and Rapp took 
I^rince Repnine prisoner. At the same time a general movr- 
ment of the guanl and Hemadotte*s coq>s bmke the Rusian 
line, which was driven back in the dint tiun of Austertitx after a 
frightful slaui^htfT. Na;M»lif»n hasti-nttl to join a [art of tliest 
tniops to those of Soult in onliT Xu make a general attack, under 
Buxhoewden*s coq>s d'armee. 

This j^eneral, blindly jrjrsuinj; his movement round the 
French right, had not only {lasscil by Telnitx and the defiles 
that formH the {Kmds, but had advancctl as far as Turas» sttt- 
ate<l in the enemy's rear, alway*^ t'l^htin^ more or less iiiccf ■ 
fully against I>a\out*!« ancl lA*grand*s divisions, an<l without pftjr* 
int; any attention to what wxs takins; pbce in the cmtrr. Re* 
called by the m<»?%t peremptory* onlers, he was now ohiifcd to 
regain this dangerous route under the firr of aU Souh*ft dtirisionL 
IYiibyszewski*i division, which he had left at Sokotnita, was 



WTOUDdod and forced to surrender. He succeeded in bringing 
back DoaorolTs column as far as Augczd; but at the moment 
ifaat be wms ik-bouchtng from U Vandamme fell upon him from 
the bd^U of I'raUcn and cut his column in two, a portion of 
wbidi only wu able to continue the route to rejoin Kutuzoff. 
The rat of DoctorofTs column and the whole of Langeron's, 
wilh Kienmayer's cavalry, werr driven over the ponds. Their ar- 
tiUaj passed or to a bridge, which broke under il. These troops 
niabed oo to the pond of Telnitz, which had been frozen for two 
or three iMy*; but Napoleon immediately directed the fin of h.^ 
ballcfies upon these imfortunatrs. The ice was bn>kcn by the 
otimoo-baUs and by the weight of 50 great a mass of men: it 
■uddenly gave way, and several thousand soldiers were cngulfcil 
in the water. On the morrow iheir cries and groans were siill 
beard. There remained no other means of escape for DoctonjiT 
and KienmaycT than a narrow road between the two ponds ciF 
Mdnita and Telniu, and it was by this route, under the cros;. 
6n of the French artillerj', that these generals executed their re 
treat with admirable firmness, but sustaining immense losses. 

Such were the mournful scenes u[>on which "the sun of Aus 
Iccfia" ihone. These scenes had doubtless their grandeur, as 
have an those in which courage and genius have Ixrn displayed, 
hM nothing could henceforth efface ihe horror of them, for one 
Aiag alooe has the privil<,-ge of purifying and ennobling a fiekl 
cf battle, and that is the triumph of a i;reat idea. Here it w&^ 
aot a principle that was involved, but a man. 

The A ustii> Russian army had reln.'ate<l, not t" Olmuetz, as 
ffipnifnn supposed on the evening of the Battle of Austerhtt, 
bal IdIo Hungary, which in all probability sav^tl it from a still 
laaslcr. 7*be Russians lost tweniyonr thousand 
1 ami i«-oundfdi ihc AuMrians nearly six thouund; a 
d thirty three ^ns and an immcnv number of 8agB had 
1 in the viaor"* hand*. The French had lost on thoir 

t, according to the most probable estim^ites, alxjut right ihou- 

d five hundred men; fur the calculation contained in die 
€*» bulletin, of eight hundrwl killed and fifteen hundred 
I. can only be reganJcd as a most puerile falsehood. 

NcTCT had Napoleon before carrietl oQ such an overwhelm- 
ill vklory: oercr either had he been m) much aided by the 


iauiu of his adversaries; but to lead the enemy to ooounsl fuilti 
is half the genius of war, and it was in this that he eiccDcd. The 
victory of Rivoli had been as brilliant by the suieness and pre- 
cision of the manoeuvres, but the results were far from eqiiaDing 
those of Austerlitx. Its immediate consequences were equivalent 
to the almost com(^e destruction of the European coalition, 
which was for a long time reduced to powerleasneas. With le^ 
gard to its future results, they might have been still more satis- 
factory if a detestable policy had not incessantly called in ques- 
tion the successes obtained by prodigious military genius. But 
to the end of his career Napoleon proved by his own example 
that there is an art still rarer and more difficult than the ait ol 
using victory — it is the secret of not abusing it 



Wbcn th« DHtbh published themaclves in Cape Colonr thejr took a 
ttmf «liidi cvcdiuaU)' led io an imponani exunuon of their vut empire. 
Atav At Portucune dlKovcry ol the Cape oi Good Hope. Dear the cod 
ai A* fltecDil) century, no pemaneni Bcitlement was made ihere for 
■■■y yvsn. Iba Portugueae themtelvci using tlie Cape mereljr as a aup- 
ftf laiiM oa Ibe wajr to India. In 1610 a company of Engliahmen 
ladid tttn iBd look poucuioo In the name of King Jamc* 1 , but noth- 
IVC>**^<^'*P'ocaodlac,a&d although the Dutch arrived in 1595 (hey 

M Ml Mir. 

B«t in tfi}* the Dutch made a MtlleEneni on the Cape, and in i6jS 
iMy had « company of three hundred siaty souls, more than half, how 
WKt.bttag negro ilavea. The evil effects of this ilavery have ever tince 
baai felt, although It waa long ago eitinguiihcd. Throughout the 
taM kaU o( the ■cveDtcenlh and the whole of ihe eightcenlh century the 
DMch acttlancDt made gradual progreaa. In 1687 there wa* a Krcncb 

ThtOOHdillau preceding the6nt Britiah occupation, that event itaeU. 
A* nMoniloa to the Dutch, and the hi»*.ory of the tinal acquiiitloo of 
Ab Ck^ by England are ahovn by Dryden in a clear light. Hi* account 
liaf fpodtl value In view of the aubaequcnt courae of evcou in that 
tlWM «l lb« world. 

TTOWARD the end o( the etRhtnmth century the Dutch art- 
tkn bad »pread far over the C»pe cciunir)-. Their eastern 
Horitt were bounded by the Great Fish River; their western boun- 
dary, toward the mouth ui the Orange, Ma.i the Kouvue, altcr- 
watd known as the Buffalo River; and they had settled themselves 
firmly in the aiuntr>- alxiut the Snceuwbcrf; Mountains, where 
ifac Dcw town and DroMly of (JroaU Rcincl hod been established. 
SwcfleiMiani had been established as a town and maf^istracy since 
1746. The country nonhwnrd to the Oninjir River had been 
cxplond; the mouth of the Oranfcc located by Colonel Gordon, 
k Scnttidh officer in the lervicc of the Dutch; and w far back u 


1761 Hcndrik Hop, an enterprising and determined coiooiity had 
crossed the Orange itself and [xrnetrated into Great Namaqua- 

In pushing to the eastward the colonists had come in contact 
with the Amakosa Kaffirs, a fine, athletic, |)astoral, and warlike 
people, whom they found very different neighbcjrs from the slodi- 
ful and easily managed Hottentots. In 1 779, after various raidB» 
negotiations, and recriminations, the KafTirs were attacked by the 
Dutch farmers and their Hottentots, and after some 6ghting were 
driven by them beyond the Fish River. It is curious to note that 
the Hottentots fn)m early times took readily to firearms and 
horses: they are to this (by excellent rifle shots and borscmen, 
and, whether serving under Dutch or British, have almost inva- 
riably pnived thems(*lvt*s valuable fighting men. The Kaffin and 
Zulus, on the other hand, ne\'er showed the same inclination (or 
firearms preferring rather to trust to their stn>ng arms and shaq> 

Kvcn at thr [)rc*s<*nt time the bulk of the Kaffirs and Zultia» 
and the MatalM:li% an* by no means ex|)ert gunners or riders. The 
BiThuana.s and Ha^suto^ take* to horsc-s ami rilles more readOjr, 
and many good hop^*men and fair ritle shots are found amoctg 
them. In i;Hc>asc*(ond KatTirwarbn>ke()Ut; the .\makottSSud- 
<lfnlv invadctl thi- < c»I(»nv Wi*st of the Fish River, and, after desul- 
tor>* ojKTations during four years, were still, thanks chiefly to the 
rapidly decaying Dutch (jovcTnment, unex{)elle<l from the cok>> 
nial limits. The ^ravi*>t dissatisfaction, amounting indeed todift- 
afT<ttion, prrvailtd among the Swrllcndam an<l (#raaiT RcincC 
sc*ttlers at thi^ jrtI^i-I li»wanl their own rulers. Considering that 
thty had l(»st over sixty thousan<i hcaiiof cattle thry had MfOQg 
n*a.sons for their annoyance. Phk lama t ions from the seat of 
government wrrr o|H*nly si offi-d at, and although the set tlen had 
l)cen long forbidden, on [lain of coqKiral or capital punishmcBl 
and onfiMation, to quit their farms ami |K*netrate into the inte- 
rior, th«y movitl whithersoever it plcaM*<l them in search of gaiiie» 
trade. ivor\', and fn^h |>asturrs. Their warfare with the Bwh- 
mcn, who dwelt in the mountains, chietiv toward the nocthcni 
pan.H (»f the colony, had been blcKKly ami unceasing for aftoy 
yean past. The Bushmen objected to the white men invadim 
their huntinggrounds, and carried off their cattle and sheep; the 


Bocn looked upon the Bushmen as nothing belter than apes and 
I, tad shot them down wherever possible; and the Bush- 

B to tuin defended themselves with poisoned arrows and occa- 
f descended upon lone farmhouses, when the men were 
t, kOUng women and children and destroying and driving 
ftwmjr itack. 

It was said of the Snecuwberg Boers in 1797 that they dared 
not venture five hundred yards from their own dwellings. As 
time went cmi, the reprisals inflictetl by ciiher side were distin- 
giiifaed bjr iocrauing savagery. The Bushmen, of course, suf- 
fared by br the more severely. A Boer ihought nu more of Icill- 
iag a Bushman than of shooting a Cape partridge, and talke<] of 
Us U*t with as much nonchalance. Commandoes were called 
oat constantly, and the impish Bushmen were hunted down and 
hanied among their fastnesses. The men were ia\'anably killed, 
and the women and children were made slaves of. In the district 
tt Giaaff Rooet alone, between 1786 and 1794. more than two 
i Dutch people and their servants were slain by Iluithmen, 

ICflCtfac latter there were shot by the farmers on commando 
[ that period no fewer than two thousand five hundred. 
Ths GoTCTTimcnl at the Cape could, by its ver)' remoteness, ex- 
trdat 00 lotl of control over these hostilities. 

In the year 1781 Great Britain, for the first time in the history 
td the Dutch acttlenent, cast an eye upon (he Cape Peninsula. 
~ ' ' ' J at this time plenty ujion her hands; the revolted 
I gJonials had been joined by the French, and Holland 
M an aDjr ot France had involved her^tf in the stni^Ie. 
had^ oooquests in India, and her trade with the I-^M, had 
ptatljr incrcased, aitd the Ca]>e, if it could 1k' c-iptured, otTirred 
■BSjratmctiotuasa port of call, a half-way house, a sanatorium, 
aad a pUce of arms. .\n Engli-iitltTl, Iherefore, under Commo 
dare Johnstone, was despatched wlih secret onlers to sei/r Ca]<r 
TcHRL But, thanks to a smart spy, one Pe la Muttc, the Frinc h 
^ wind of the project, and in their turn quietly sent out a fleet, 
^nder Admiral de SufTren, to checkmate Hriti>ih designs. 

The two fleets by mere accident met at Porto Praya in the 

C^c Verd Islands, and after a shar^i rni^Hgement the Frrnch, 

«he wire beaten oB after scvcrrly mishandling the RnRli-h, got 

dBVaway, reached Simoa's Bay before their riva^, and threw a 

B-.TOC XV,— > 


stn)n^ forte into Cape Town. Johnstone, after patching up his 
cri|)pli-<l vessels, pursued his way to the Ca|)e, where, howc^'cr, 
he found the allic^l French and Dutch forces quite ready for him. 
Keaii/in^ the im|¥>s.sibility of taking; the place, he drew off. 
I^ookin^^ into thi* snu^ Saldanha Bay, a little to the north of the 
(\niH\ he found then- a riih fleet of the Netherlands Company't 
Indiamen. homrward lx)und. With this capture he enriched 

himM'lf and went lu?% wav. The once rich and famou.^ Dutch 


FUi^t India (^>mI»;lny had alK)Ut this |K*rirxl Ix-en falling u|X)n e%'il 
time^. Its ancirnt pniv|K'rity had IxTn slowly de|iarting, and 
varinuN causi-s now cc»mhinitl tti complete the dry-nit which had 
set in anions the foundations of that great enteqjrisc. 

C«»rrupiion ancl mis^ovemment among its rich islands in the 
Indies wi-re answrndile for some jKirtion of this dtray; the war 
with Kn^land. and thr many lossc-s incumtl during the strugxie, 
may l<>«> have- (ontrihutMl to hasten the comjany's downfalL 
But, in tnith. thr Nethcrbnds M;ist India Company had %k'niught 
mu(h of ItN own ruin. Its alisurd and hideUmnd tniilc n^ 
Mri( tion<, with l.tws and nitulations far more fitted for the Mid- 
dir A ;:<•*» tliaii f'-r i rn«-lt m undertaking; theMr, coupled with ill- 
tho^n S4 r\an!N .ir.rl rank (<>rrupti<>ri, contributi^l tothedownfaD 
(<f this nrur |Mi\\(rfuI (ompany. Kven at the perik>us time of 
1 7■*^I. wh< n :hr i ••mpany \\a-< known to Ix* steadily losing tweotjr- 
f.vr thoij-,irdi»«>und'»aytar !)yii^Ca|>t*|ios*<-sMons,whcn war had 
iNcn dctlareil lM!\\(-«n British and Dutch, and an KngUsii fleet 
was on i!^ way to th' C:i\h\ the iomj»any*s ofl'iciaU amid permit 
thrniMlvf-^ to irvlul::*- in "^ui Ii in.M-nsate ftilly as the granting of 
dttil^ «.f t)iir/hrr-hi;» tin<!rr ^uth nMrictions as the foOowinu: 
The applitant ua^ '"ir (invi^, a tailor, formerly a v>ldier, who 
wa«> **!:r.i< :<tu^Iy .dl'V^id t'l prat Um- his iraft as a taik>r, but ihal 
n«t! \k' all(»\\ti| :•» alundon i!u' Name, or arlopt any crther mode of 
l:\:n;!. hut. whvn it may U* tleemitl mvessarj*. i«» to go back iMo 
hi- old <a|Ki(iiy and ]i;iy. and U* tran^^iw^rted hence if thomiltt 
ft!.** I'ndt r -u< h >; dlini: ff-iter« it is vmall wonder that the Cape 
( .! inl-^t- of that {xriiMl were becoming sick of the company^a 

In ^]K'.i' of approaching ruin and of the fad that repeated de^ 
man is uen* fM-ing matle h\ deputati<in« of the rotrmiai lor a 
fnr iomnu rce, the nfi»rm of abu>cft among the offiriah, and Icm 


tynttiKMU Uws, the company managed In knrp alloat much in 
the old way until 1 791. By thai timu it had come lu the i-nd of 
, and disaster was imminent. In 1792 commis- 
vappoinlcd by the Sladlholdcr of ihe Netherlands to 
wmkt full Inquiry at the Cape, reform abuses, and inaugurate, 
if pnMJTili . a new era of prosperity. The commissioners did 
whet they could. They reduced establishments, rearranged tax- 
■dm, opeoed a loan bank, passed new fiscal and trade regula- 
tfans, and preacnily departed, leaving the control of affairs to a 
Bol (nmUes came thicker and fiistcr. The back-country col- 
flutta of Swdkndom and Gr&aQ Rcinct refused to pay their 
Um, dedanng ifaat as the Government could no longer give 
ihtm aid Ibcy woidd help to maintain it no further. 

b 1795 the wild frontier Boi-rs of Bruintjes Hoogte, among 
tfatBaootCofthemost turbulent and n-stless spirits in the colony, 
Sm border fif^tcni and fnrayers, hunters of lions, t-li-phants, and 
ffl M hnwn. met at Graall Reinet, exix-Ued the l.-indn>st, or magis- 
tnte, dedaied themselves independent, and appointed Adriaan 
Vaa Jaanvdd, a noted fighting man againM the KalTir^i, o-icom- 
aaadaat of the new republic. Four months Uicr, in June, 1795, 
the luidnift of Swellendam was expellei) in the same manner, and 
tbc Boos of that wide district apimintcd for themselves a " na- 
lianal aaembly " and a new magistrate. Ltviking at the state of 
jiTT— * dusatisbction spreading ihruughnut the colony, it is 
■OR than doubtful whether the Dutch authorities at the Cape, 
c«a ii thty had had the opportunity, could ever again have re- 
mand odcr or regained authority amon^ the burghers. As it 
toned outi delrrerance from an almost imjNissibte Mtuation wa\ 
kft to quite other and unexpected hamls. Great Britain sud- 
denly appcvH] upon the scene. 

The French Ro^olution had been creating mighty cliangc* in 
C— mn; its pniples were ailamc. In Holland a considcrable 
fUtf WHe in favor of the French and their new principles, and 
at^km Ihdr Sladthcililrr, the I'rince of Orange. In 1793 the 
ll dedand war upon England, and upon the Go\-cfflmeni 
i at that time in allianie with drral Britain. Durin); 
dvfnterof 1794 -1795 the I'rince n[ Orange was compellcit 
■o fljr to Englaad. It wa* recognized thai the seizure of iheC^pc 


by a power hostile to Great Britain would be fatal to her potitioii 
in India and her trade with the East. The Stadtboldcft tuBj 
nxf>^izinf; the weakness of the Cape garrison, was wiUing that 
Kn^lancl should hold the place, ancl ^ve written orders to the 
Ca[H* Town authorities to hand over the castle and fortifkaiioiis 
to hiN allit s. Armeii with this authorization, a fleet and militarj 
forit-s, under Admiral El|>hinstone and General Craig, were 
rapidly fittal out and despatched to the Cape. 

In June, 1795, the British flcxrt sailed into Simon*s Bajr and 
dn>p|H*fl anchor, ancl as speedily as possible the Stadiboldd^fl let* 
ter of cf >mmand was presented to the acting governor of the Capr« 
Commissar>' Sluysken. Sluysken was in an extremely awkward 
|x»ition. IVrsonally, it is prr)bable that he and certain membcfi 
of his <(iuncil would have prefemxl to obey the Stadfhokfcr^i 
mandate. But the Prince of Orange was in exile, and Sluyikcn 
and his cr)uncil had alrea<ly receivctl orders from the "Chamber 
of Si\enteen/* represi*nting the Netherlands East India Com- 
l>any. to c ip|K»s<* any landing such as the British proposed to make 
Klphin-t(»ne an<l Crdi^ actcfl with extraordinary forbcmmicr« 
cfmsidt rir.i^ th<- natun- of the times and the chances of a 
decent, and actually waitetl ei^hti^en days before taking 
Finally Sluy-ken and hi^ council hardened their hearts, dockmd 
them^tht^ dtterminitl to opjionc any invasion, and took 
un-««<if dt frnce. Thev withdrew their forces from Simon*! Ti 
and stationed all the tnKi|>s and burghers they were abk to 
ter a: Mui/« r.!n r;:. where a stn>ng and easily defended 
whi(h haN int n ('>n:{».-tn-«l with the Pass of Thermopylc, guudad 
the nud !«> (\i{ie Town. 

Still the Hriti'-h, who expect cil reinforcements were vcfj U* 
surely in their movements A fortnight after the Dutch had wid^ 
drawn fr^ni Sim«.r>* Town, Craig landed eighteen htmdml 
and t'«>k {ii»^^-x-.ion of the quarters abandoned by ShiyikcB 
hi- military ad.i^r^. (ieneral c|e Lille and Cokmel 
SIii;. -Kin m:i It* a lall t'» arms and, notwithstanding 
a!Tt !■ .V. txitirij :hr'»:j::h"ut much i»f the colcvny, had got 
r- •^.' r -.\t» vn hi;ndrtd hur*:hers of the Cape and St« 
di-"! '-, -Ah'>. \\?.h the Dutih tnx>{rs stationed at the Cape and 
a "-mall commando fjf Hottentots, brought up his available 
to thriT thousand men. The pass of Muixc&bcfg was 


cued by a baltcry of •rtiUery, and the formidable heights looking 
over Ibe KrtDC waters of False Bay were covered with buigbcr 

On August 17th General Craig with sixteen hundred men 
quitted Simoo't Town and marched along the seashore for Mui- 
i mbcrg . His force consisted of four hundred lifty men of the 
Smnty-ei^th Regiment, three hundred 6fty marines and eight 
buDdnd Munen landed from the fleet, under the command of 
Caplaini Spranger and Hardy of the Rattlesnake and Echo. 

Sddom has a British battle been fought amid more pictu- 
rMqne Nnoundings. False Bay, with its grand mountains, its 
■aof ^ockuf blue, and the splendid curve of lis shores, stands 
< peerieas along the African coast. Ffum Muizcnbcrg(thc 
a of Mice), as you look across the bay, the lowering sierras 
flf tlie mainland, armycd by turns in lovely hues of puq)lc, blue, 
lad brown, terminate in the bold and jutting cape called Hang- 
k^. Southward be)-ond Simon's Town strclchi-s the rugged 
■ouDlaiB backbone of the Cape Peninsula, which terminatL-s, a 
woon of miles away, at its very extremity, in the Oi|h- uf Good 
Hop^ fcuful (o early mariners as the Ca{>e of Storms. As the 
~ ' ' li geoeral advanced to the aiuck he was supixirted by a 
f fire ban the British Beet, which had uken up a position 
; the Dutch encampment. The Dutch, nuiwiih- 
I the strength o( their position, made but a poor stand, 
b ii prabable that internal doubts and dissensii)n.s hod something 
In dD wbb the matter. De Lille, who wits in command of the 
Cqw fanes, threw out mounted skirmishers, and oiiened with his 
The skirmishers were quickly driven back, the moun- 
ammanding the pass was seiuxl by the Naval brigade 
lad pan of Ibc Seventy eighth Regiment, and the Dutch were 
frieUf b fli^iL Tbc artillery was silenced with no great difli- 
altf, its position was won, and the whole Dutch force, abandnn- 
iig camps, stores, guns, and ammunition, retreated toward Cajie 
Tovn. The entire British loss in this .-iction amounted to no 
■OR tlao niocteen killed and wounded. Craig forthwith en- 
oapad at Muisenbcrg and awaite<l recnforcements. 

Eailjr Id September an English Heet, bound for India with 
e into Simon's Bay. Tlirre thousand soldiers were 
i (or the cnopletioa of South .\frican oiKnuioos, and uo 


the 14th Crcncral Crai^, with nearly five thousand nicn, marched 
u|M)n CajK- Tuwn. Thi- enemy made little further stand. The 
buff^hiT >kinnishcTs t\rvi\ at the tnMifis on the march and inflicted 
s^nu' ^li;^'ht ^•^^, hut tht* main Dutch force stationed at WjuberK 
( xhiliiti-*! I)i:t a faint .show of n*^istance. Ca{x: Town lay at 
Cr.iiit*** rn<ri\. .iful within twenty four hours was formally sur 
Ff t:(li-rt(I. Thr i a]Mtiilation was complete^l at KoncledoAch, ami 
the lf»n^ rule of the Nethcrlan<l.s Ka«»t India Company had come 
to an i-nd. 

From 1 7g^ to 1.S03 the Cajie wxs held by the British. During; 
thin {H-riiMi the colonists enjoyed an unwontal measure of prut 
(M'rity. The I)iit( h restrii tions and mf»no(M>lies wen* larj^ly rr- 
moveii; trade, so lon^; fettereil, at once n*vivc*d and flourished; 
at (\i;m* Tnwn a ^arrisfin of five thousand men was maintained 
and liritivh monev rlownl lavishly. In four years after the utcu- 
(utinn ]>r*|M'rty had iM-en raiscfl to double its former value; the 
|u[KT t urn r.t y. whit h had depnriateil 40 (mt cent., was at par; 
pl( nty uf silver, latterly a rarity ind d, reapfiearrd; two miUiocu 
of N|K-<ie Were de^pati he<I frc»m Kn^Iand and set in cimilatiofi. 
Thr f.imuT ••Ntaini^l thret* rix dollars for his shee|) where a little 
while Uf'.ri- he had olitaine<i but one; exfxtrts ami imp{>rts CX- 
ji.imitd r.i;ii ily. Hy \hv year iSoi the ri'venue had i\ 
thntf'l!. .ir:*! thtii amounteil to ninety thousand pounds 
r.u.dl) . It i^ w<T:hy <»f note that in i;g>, when the British capC- 
urifi the (*.i;»f. i^.t !>it.d ex|ii>ns fn^m the colf>ny amounted to no 
nvn than tiftet ri th"Us.ind |>ounds ]nt annum. The total wUlr 
|i"pi:l.iti'>:i at thi^ |Kri<Mi wa> levi than twentyfi\T tlw^i— 1^ 

Ir! Aii'^i-t, i;*/', Ailmiral KlphinMone, who lay with a loflcr 
of fA«I\i* war^h.ips in Simon's May. reteive«l news that a Dutch 
!;if t ha»l h ft Iv.:p»|k ar..! w.i-* ih«n |»n»liably near the Cape. Tbr 
.\'!n;iral at *'Vm' put tn s4-a ar.'! tame pn-sently U|xm the Dutch 
f'Ti r in NiM.mha liay. Admiral I.u* as, the Dutch commander, 
l.'.d u".'!er his (i>mman<i nir.r vt ^^ is and a^M^ut two thouflUld 
!r *.;»*, .|i--t:r.*tl f..r !*:« n»aj»!ure «•! th« CajiC. As the Blitirib 
*• --I :- •'• ^ .1 l.i: 111 r..iv, !he lh:\i h l^elievol them to be Frmch- 
rv .L' ! .i!ii( ^. and t :!• s • f ph asure went up. The HoUaadm 
hail r.d <harue of eMa{«': Itenerd (*raifC, with a strooft loroe; 
awaited ihem on land, Klphinstunc coycrtd the mouth ol the B^j. 


Tbry ihou^t of destroying their ships, but Craig sent word thai 
to that case no quarter would be given. Lucas had nolhini; (or 
it but to surrender at discretion, which he did on Augiist 18th. 

In 1797 Earl Macartney, a veteran pubbc scn'onl, whose 
aame loog rcnuuncd famous (or his great embassy to China, be- 
came garaaor at the Cape. In the country districts the Boers 
wtn itiB tioubleaome and unsettled ; Van Jaarsveld, one of their 
laden, was arrested for an illegal act, and his neighbors, having 
men in insurrection, rescued him from hb captors. 7'hc insur- 
penls thereupon marched to GraafT Reinci and seized the town. 
Trao|H tnxler General Vandclcur were at once despatched to 
Algoa Bajr, and hurried up lo Graafl Reinct. The rebellious 
% retired to Bruintjcs Iloogle, where they presently yielded, 
r twenty of the leaders were condemned to death, others 
■nt the penalty of kneeling blindfold and having a sword 
■ami over their bare heads; none, as a matter of fact, sufTeml 
the extreme penalty, but one was l]ogg(xl and banished, while two 
QCa in pnsoiL 

At this lime larger numbers of Hottentots in the eastern part 
of the country had been disarmed o( weapons which they had 
irind from Boer houses during the troubles. They rrM-nliil 
lUs deeply, and, joining themselves with the Amakosa KoiTirs, 
who woe raiding the country lowanl Sunday River, ravaged a 
■waM dirtrict as far as Lange Kloo( and the Gamtoos River, pluH' 
; murdering, and burning. The Dutch fanners sulTervfl 
ly; some thirty o( ihcm and their (amilics were slain, 
t province lay in ruins. The suKs^ffuenl settlement, 
I iq) by General V'andeleur, v&s un<.itis(actor7i', and the 
I and HottcntoLs escapctl practically unpunished. 
la 1803 was signed the Peace of Amiens, by which Great 
I agreed lo restore ihc Cape to ihc Balavian Republic. 
t hi 1803 General Dundas, the ariing giivemor at Cajx.* 
\, handed wer the colony to the Dutch r<'mmis>inncr, ami 
llitidi fvtired from the scene of their ?*vtn and a half vi-ar-' 
ca. GcDeral Jonsscns was at once (urmally installed gov 
r ol the colony, which was now ilivi<lc<! int>> nix districts in 
i d knr, Tulbagh and Vitenhagr being added lo the Cape, 
\ SweUendam, and Graafl Reinet. Janwens was a 
r and an administrator of excellent intenlkins. He 


vLsitctI ihc disturbed eastern districts, pacified the Kafllrs» re- 
storcfl the Hottentots fnim a debasing slavery to the positioo of 
freemen, and in other directions did what he could to further the 
interests of the colony. But he could not effect impositbOitics. 
The Batavian Republic itself was in low water, the people of the 
Ca|>e were star\'etl, and the departure of the monc]rcd P'^g^Mi 
was sevenlv felt. 

Janssens, cluring his short governorship, seems to have been 
overcome with dcs»ix)ndenc)' at the prosfxtrt before him. In re- 
ply to a memorial presente<I to him he made this doleful speech: 
** With n^ard to your inclination to strengthen the Ca{)e with a 
new settlement, we must to c>ur sorrow, but with all sincerit/t de- 
clare that wf cannot {K-rceive any means whereby more people 
couM fintl a >ul>siMence here, whether by farming or otherwise. 
When we contemplate the numtxrr of children gmwing up we fre- 
(|uently a>k ourvlves, not only how they could find other mcuis 
of >ub>i>ti'nce. but alx) what it is to end in at last, and what tbej 
can lay hands on to pn»cure bread." 

JansM-ns's desjKiirinj: cr>* may be said to re pr e s ent the death* 
kni-ll of the Kaiavian |K>wer in South .\frica. Far different were 
his M-ntinunts fn)m thos<* of the British adminlstrmton who had 
alri-a«iy ha<l t \|H'nrnce of the Ca()e. Whether the Batavian 
Ktpu!'Iii null h.ivc hUp;A»rted the colony much longer, or 
\\ hither, as >*>mv ^tatc-smen advised, it la-oukl have been abtii* 
tlnru^l, it is now im|Krvsiblc to say. Other <levek>{iments weie 
iloNt- at har.d. The Peace of Amiens Lxstctl but three sheet 
nv.nihs, an<l F.unijx' wasa^ain in the grip of war. Fortwoycus 
Jan-s^ns was t\jKtiin>; an decent. He had been pie* 
p.inr.^ as IhM he mi;;ht. s!n*ngthening his corjjs of IlottcOtOtS 
• Pan.l.'urs/* ihcv were sometimes calletl— -to the number of 
si\ hundrv^l, gathering in stores and arming and drilliiig the 

'I'l^e Ltiw fell at last. On a beautiful evening, January 4, 
iN.^*. a criat Kn^Iish fleet, numtx-ring, laith transports, utf* 
thnv s.iil. >:.*«! in past Kobben Island— the "Isle of Scmb**-^ 
«hii h r^ianls the entrance to Table Bay. Ship after ihip CUM 
lit a:uh<>r opiufsitc the majestic range of Blaauwberg, that nigBd 
chain which, viewetl from Cape Town, stands a luuty bhie or 
|iuq>le in the <tis:ancc. Sir IIowc Popham commaiided the 



whtlr the Ivm] forces, destined for the assault of the Cape, num- 
bcnd between six thousand and seven thousand men. These 
wrrr under the leadership of Major- General Sir Dat-id Baird, a 
tried and veteran officer, whose merits had already been icsicd 
in India, Egypt, and other parts of the world. Baird had scr\Td 
at the Cape during the British occupation, and had excellent 
kixnrledge of the opposition he might expect to meet. 

By midday on the 6th the British general's preparations for 
a landing were complete. Four warships, the Diadem, Leader, 
EaoNintcr, and Protector, had moved inshore so as to command 
the heights above the Blaauwberg Strand, the glittering shore of 
lilva7 white sand where the landing was to be made. The sea 
was KKt|^ and the disembarkation by no means an ea.iy one. A 
few Dutch sharpshooters were posted u;>cin the hillside, but the 
heavy guns of the British warships cflectually did thdr work, and 
b the whole of the landing no more than four soldiers were 
wouDded, and one killed, by the enemy's 6re. One boat, how- 
wcr, wa» iwampc*i, and thirty soldiers of the Ninety-third High- 
luMlen were unfortunately drowned. On this clay was landed the 
HigUind brigade, under Brigadier-General Ferguson, consist- 
Ufot the Seventy- first. Seventy- second, and Ninely-lhird regi- 
BOttl. On the 7th a second brigade, compriUng the Twenty- 
fnnflhi Fifty-ninth, and the Eighty-third regiments, was safely 
dteBbariced. Next morning the two brigades began their 
■aidl for Cape Town, which lay about eighteen miles diMant. 
BtM had under his command four thousand men, most of them 
ffctenn trrwps, as well as five hundrnl M-amen. He was but 
noderatdy provided mth artillery; the Dutch had the advantage 
of bfiD in this respect, bringing into action sixteen guns as against 
Ht eight cmnnon. General Janssen?', to oppow the BHti-sh ad- 
tnoCi had coUcelcd a mixed force, variously eslimate^l at from 
tfanethoitswu) to fi%T thousand men. Of these some were troops 
ilthe BaUTian Republic, many were mounte<l tiurghrrs— good 
AtXM UkI hardy men of the veldt — some were German merrr- 
aifki, others French seamen and marines, the crews of two 
■TBckcd vcaada, the Atalonia and Na[x>leon. Besides thew 
iMu troofM he had an excellent regiment of six hundred Hotlcn- 
Ipti tad a number of trained Malay gunners. 

Bdiarc dami on the oioming of Jaouar^ 8tb the Britiab troops 


wcrr in motioru A cloud of Dutch skirmishers and sharpilioot- 
crs were driven back on their main body, and, at six o*ck>ck in the 
morning, munding the spur of the Blaauwberg, Sir David Baiid 
saw before him the formidable- looking Dutch array. To pre- 
vent the possibility of (x*ing outflanked, Baird now extended hta 
lines and onlcrcd the Highland Brigade, composing his left wihk, 
to advance. The engagement opened with a hot artillery fine 
upon both sides folbwetl by musketry. The Dutch stood their 
ground boldly and answered shot for shot. The Highlanders 
were, however, as usual, nr>t to be denied, and getting to close 
quarters and charging with the bayonet, the enemy broke and 
fled, the Waldeck battalion of Dutch regular troops being the 
first to give way. The battle was won, and the victorious British, 
looking acn>ss to the white houses and citadel of Ca(ie Town, saw 
befon* them the firvt fruits of their victory. Baird and his men 
had inde(*<i done a grwxi (by*s work for England. Never since 
that Januan- morning <if 1806 has the British flag failed to flut- 
ter over the Ca|K- iVninsula. 

The losM."> of the Dutch in this engagement — the Battle ol 
Rlaau wb(*rg, as it is calli^l - were hea\T. Some writers have put 
the numl>cr of killed, wcmndcd, and missing as low as three 
hundmtl thirty Si*ven. Others have placer! it as high as seven 
hundiTfi. Tmbablv the actual number lies between these two 
computations. I'lxm the British side two hundred twelve were 
killed, woundcfl, and miv>ing. (icneral Janssens had, after hta 
defeat, retrt^atc*fl to the mountains of Hottentots- Holland, cail- 
wanl of Cap(* Town, where he had accumulated magazines and 
stnn-^ He had now no nal chance of success, howe%*er, and be 
knew it. On the day ftiUowing the battle Baird resumed \m 
mart h, and *)ccupie<l a fnrt on the outskirts c»f Cape Town. Upon 
the following day articles wen* signed and the town was formally 
deliverrf! up by the ofl'icer comman<iing. Janssens himself capit- 
ubteri eight cbys bter, and under terms of the agrectnent was* 
with his trtv^ps ami most of the Dutch civil servants, embarked 
in British vt*sM*ls during the month of March, for Holland. The ^emt^Unce of Batavian authority at the Cape thenceforth db- 

In 1813 the Prince of Orange returned from exile and vat 
ndnsutcd In Holland. At the ooodusioo of the Napoleonk 


Mni^glc, the Prince, now King of the Netherlands, in consJdcra- 
tioa of the sum of iix million pounds sterling, formally ceded the 
Cl^)c of Good Hope, together nith other trifling settlements, to 
ihc British. By this time the Cape Dutch were becoming rr- 
iigiKd to their new masters, more especially in the vicinity of the 
Cape, where the rich and better class of colonists resided. 

Here the two races mingled, and even married freely, one with 
the other. In the back country, where the colonists — the n-al 
Boen of South Africa — were of a much ruder and moR- primitive 
qrpc, intercourse with the British was necessarily far more re- 


A.D. 1806 


AosteHits put an end to the * third frvat coalitioo * afmiaat Friaot. 
The RuaaUns retrtated to their own country ; Austria toed humbly lor 
peace. Pruiaia had been ihreatentnf to )otn the coalition ; now, be- 
wildered by tu auddcn downlall, her mtnbten acarce knew whcrt to turm. 
They aifned a hurried treaty with Napoleon, yieldinf him aooe Gerwuui 
territory and (oinioK him in alliance against K^land The EnfUili 
monarch*! German duchy of Hanover was thereupon handed over to 

From this moment Napoleon treated Prussia with I— olcnct, if not 
contempt. Some historians hare beltered that he deliberately plaaand 
to force Prussia into war at thb moment when she would have 00 allftea 
to join her, when even Knf land was enraged against her bec ana t of Hmi- 
over. For a dosen years Prussia hod kept carefully out of all the 
wars. Her King, Frtdchck William III. was wisely pacific, he had 
certain sympathies with the aroused French people ; but there had ahraya 
been a war party at lierlin headed by the heroic Queen Louiae. Pru** 
sians. remembering the days of Frederick the Great (died 1786), bel k i td 
themselves invincible in arms. Their King found himself lofoed at ImC 
into a declaration of war. 

"T" H E people of Pnissua at Urge were cLunoroiu for war. Thejr, 
too, were sensible that the late versatile omduct of thrir 
cabinet had cxfxjscd them to the censure and even the icom of 
Euruix*, and that Bona|>artc, seeing the crisis ended, in which 
the firmness of Prussia might have preserved the tjalancc of En- 
ro|)e, retained no longer any n*s[iect for those whom he had 
made his dupes, but treated with total disregard the remaii- 
strances, which, before the ad%'antages obtained at Uhn and Aa»> 
teriitx, he must ha^-e listened to with respect and deference. 

Another circumstance of a ^rry exa^)erating chan^tcr look 
place at this time. One Palm, a bookseller at NtircmbcfK, had 
exposed to sale a pamphlet containing remarks oo the coii du ci 
of Napoleon, in which the Emperor and his policy were tivalad 
coQiiderable severity. The bookirlkr was xiaed upam 


for this offence by the French gens d'armes, and Iransfcrred to 
Braunau, where he was brought before a mihtary commission, 
tried (or a libel on the Emperor of France, found guihy, and 
ibot to death in terms of his scniencc. The murder of this poor 
Ban, for »uch it literally was, whciher immediately flowinf; from 
Bonaparte's mandate or the efTect of the furious zeal of some of 
bn officers, exdlcd deep and )^ncral indignation. 

The constitution of many of the states in Germany was des- 
potic; but, nevertheless, ihe number of independent principali- 
ties, and the pri%'iIeKes of the free towns, have always insured to 
the nation at large the blessings of a free press, which, much ad- 
iBcted as they ore to literature, the Germans value as it di-serves. 
The cntd cSott now made to fetter this unshackled expression of 
apbdoti was, of course, most unfavorable to his authority by 
whom il had been commanded. The thousand presses of Ger- 
many continued on e%'cry possible opportunity to dwell on the 
iate of Palm; and at the distance of six or seven years from his 
fksth, it might be rerLfine<l iimong the leading causes which ul- 
timately determined the jrapular opinion against Napoleon. It 
had not less effect at the lime when the crime was committed; 
ud tbc eyes of all Germany were turned upon Prussia as the 
only member of the late Holy Roman League by which the 
pragrcu of the public enemy of the liberties of Europe could be 
•iTESted in its course. 

Amid the general ferment of the public mind, .-Mexandcr 
oocc more appeared in person at the court of Berlin, and, more 
Moccaiful than on the former occa-^on, prevailetl on the King 
of Pnoau at length to unsheath his sword. The support of the 
pmcrful boats of Rus.Ma was pn^mised; and, defeated by the 
fatal field of AuaterUiz in his attempt to presene the southeast 
of Gcnnany from French influence, Alexander now stood fonh 
Id aarial Prusua as the Champion cf the North. \n attempt had 
indeed been made through means of D'Oubril, a Ru.'tsLin cn\i>y 
at Paris, to obtain a general jieace for Kurn|>e, in concunrme 
«ith that which Lord I^udcrdale was en<leavoring to negfitiatc 
OB tbe put ol Britain; but the treaty entirely miKnrri(-<l. 

WUk Prruaia thus declareil her^ tbe enemy of France, il 
Mcned to fallow as a matter of ci>urse that she shiiulil become 
•on moR the friend of Britain ; and, indeed, that power lost 00 


time in manifesting an amicable disposition on her part, bjr re 
calling the onler which blockaded the Prussian ports and anni- 
hilate<i her commertc. But the cabinet of Ikrlin evinccdt in the 
moment lahcn about to commence hostilities, the same scUiAh 
insincerity which had dictatcti all their previous conduct. While 
sufTiciently desimus of obtaining British money to maintain the 
appnxiching war, they showed great reluctance to part with Han 
r)vcr, an acr|uisition made in a manner so unworthy; and the 
Prussian minister, Lucchc^ni, did not hesitate to tell the British 
amt>aMiaclor, I^)nl Moqicth, that the fate of the electorate would 
dqiend u(K>n the event of arms. 

Little gcMxi nmld be augure<l from the interposition of a 
power that, pretending to arm in behalf of the rights of nations, 
n^fuM^l to {Kin with an accjuisition which she henelf had made 
crmtmr)' to all the rules of justice and gfXMl faith. Still less was 
a favorat^le event to be hofHrd for when the management of the 
war was intrusti^fl to the same incafiable or faithless ministers 
who had allowi*fi even' op{)ortunity to esca{)e of asserting the 
rights of Prus>ia, when, |>erha{>s, her assuming a firm attitude 
miirht have prevents I the ncressity (»f war altogether. But the 
re><»lution which had Ix-en debvcd, when so manv favorable oc- 
lasionsweresufTered toe?ira[>e unemployed, was at length adopted 
with an imprudent pri*(ipitation, which left Prussia neither tame 
tf> adopt the wiMrst warlike measures nor to look out for iho&c 
stati*smen and ^nerals by whom such measures could have been 
mo>t elTettuallv exetute*!. 

AU>ut the middle of August Prussia lx*gan to arm. Perfaapi 
then- an* few e\^im(il<-s of a war detlarcd with the almoit itnaiit* 
m<»us (onv4*nt of a j^rat and warlike fMroplc which was brou|{hl 
to an earlier and m^n* unhiippy termination. On October lA 
KnoUlvlorfl, the Prussian envoy, wxs called upon by TaDejT- 
rand to explain the cau.*<* of the martial attitude assumed bjr hit 
State. In reply a (»a{>er was delivered containing three propcai- 
li'in**. or rather demands. Fin»t: that the French troops whidl 
hail enten^l the (lerman territor>' should initfantly rccroas the 
Rhine. Setond: that France should desist from preMOtim 
ob>!aflrN to the formation of a league in the northern put of 
(rermany, to com(>rrhend all the states, without excrpCkm* 
which had not been included io the Coofcdcnuioo of the RUdc 


Third; that negotiations should be immediately commenced, 
lor the purpose of detaching the fortress of WescI from ihc Fn.-nch 
Empire, and for the restitution of three abbeys which Murat 
had chosen to scite upon as a part of his Duchy of Her^. 

Whh this manifesto was delivered a Ion); explanatory letter 
ifMtatntng sevcrc remarks on the system of encroachmenl which 
Fnnce had acted upon. Such a text and commentary, consider- 
ing their peremptory tone, and (he pride and pDwerof him to 
wfaom they were addressed in such unqualified terms, must have 
been understood to amount to a declaration of war. Ami yet, 
•litwigK Prussia, in common with all Europe, had just reason to 
coinpUin of the enritKichments nf France, and her rapid strides 
to unirersal empire, it would appear that the two first articles in 
the King'* declaration were subjects rather of m-golialion than 
gRninds ot an absolute declaration of war, ami that the fortrrss 
at Wael, and the three abbeys, were scarce of importance 
~i to plunge the whole empire into blood for the sake of 

, indeed, was less actually ngKrievc<l than she was 
1 and offended. She saw she had been outwitted by 
rte in the ne({oliation of Vienna; thai he wi* ju)(gling 
wkh her in the matter of Hanover; that she was in danger of 
bAJding Saxony and Hes»c withdrawn from her pntli-ction, to 
be placed tmder that of France: and under a general sense of 
tbcic injuries, though rather appreheniK-d than n-ally sustainetl, 
^ hurried to the field. If negotiations could have been pn>- 
I till the advance of the Ruwan armies, it might have 
n a diflerrnt face to the war; but in the warlike ardur which 
i the Prussians, they wen- dcsinms lo Mtun- ihe ailvan- 
a which, in military- affairs, belong to the assailants, without 
( ibc drrumstonct-s which, in their situation, rvndcml 
niation fatal. 

I, 5Uch advantagi-s were not easily to be obtained on-r 

, who was not a man to Iw nmuvil by wonis when the 

It o( action arrived. Four dajs tx-forc the delivery of the 

11 DOCc to hii minister, Bonaparte had left Paris and was 

f In the field collectinjt hiv own irnnien-*- font-s and 

I the ooolributkin nt those ontinin-nis which the ct>nfiil- 

3 of the Rhine were bound lu supply. Hh answ cr to 


hasty and piTC!|>itatc advance, especially after ibej had secured 

its primar}' ohjctrt, the accession of Saxony to the campaign. 
The (lositifin which the Duke of Brunswick occupied was in* 
deed \vt\ strong as a clefensive one, but the means of support- 
in^ so lar^r an army were not easily to be obtained in such a 
barren (ountr)* as that atxmt Weimar; and their nugazincs and 
dei»(»ts of provisions wen* injudicumsly pbce<l, not close in the 
re^ir of thr army, but at Naumbun; and other {>laces upon their 
extrenu* left, and when* they wen* exixised to the risk of being 
Mparatif 1 fn>m them. It mi^ht Ix* (lartly owing to the difficulty 
of obtaining fora^r and sut>si.stence that the I^ssian army was 
extended ufion a line by far t(M) muc h pnJonged to admit of mu- 
tual supfxirt. Infietfl, thry may (x* considered rather as di^ 
{vvv-d in (antonmcnts than as occupying a military position; 
and as they remairuil striitly on the ck-fcnsive, an opportunity 
was ^atuitously ofTiTc'l to Bona|iarte to attack their di\isaans 
in detail, of whi< h hv did not fail to avail himself with his usual 
talent. The hf'ad()uartrrs of the Prussians, where were the King 
antl Dukf nf {{run>wi(l;. wen- at Weimar; their left, under 
rrincr Ilohrnl'ihc, wa^ at S^hlrit/; and their right extended 
a*^ far as \l\u hlhaiiM n« !< a\ini; thus a s|jace of ninety miles be- 
tv*»"en thr I xtn me tiankt nf th«-ir line. 

Hona[i;irte, in thr mean time, commenced the campaign, ac- 
ri*rdin^ t<* his <u«^fom, by a M'ries of |tartial actions fcMigbt on 
ditTenni (»oint^, in whi( h hi^ usual ((»mbinations obtained hit 
u^ual stjKf-x..; thf- Mhiile ten<lin^ to straiten the Prussians in 
thrir {«»si! (•» iniemipt thtir i ommunications, sqiarate then 
fn»m thrir -^-ijli* *, ar-.d <Mm|Nl them to fight a deiLsi^x bttltle 
fr'tm r.ei i ^--i!;. , :. ■! < h'lji i-, \r\ ysh'u h ilispiritifi tn^nis, under bnf- 
tlf li and ri-itMitird i;r:u-raU, \mtv to eniounter soldiers who had 
already (»!*tai:if-d a fontaste <<f vi( ton*, and who fought under 
the mtrst n-nowne^i commander^, the combined efforts of the 
whi»le Ixir;; diret t'll by the master spirit of the age. 

f 'ji^n < h t«»!H r S\\\ Hi.p.apane j;ave vent to his rcscntmcill in 
a bullrtin i:i ^^h\^ h he i r'mplaincil of kiving rrcei%xd a letter of 
twenty pai'*-^. ^^i.^ie^l b\ tht- Kin^of Pnissia, Ix-ing, as be aOcBcdt 
a «««n of ^n t(hi^I pam;i)i!<-t, su( h as Hnf^laml engage d hiifliQg 
authors to (om{i«>s<- at the rate of five humlrrd pounds 
year. '* I am »urr) /* be 5aid, ** fur my brother, wbu docs not 


i^fiHilH the French language, and has certainly never read tlut 
ikapaody." The same publicalion contained much in ridicule 
at the Queen and Prince Louis. It bears cv'ident marks of Na- 
poleoo's own composition, which was as singular, though not so 
fdidtous, as hb mode of fighting; but it was of little use to 
cam un either the style or the reasoning of the lord of so many 
Iryflt His arms soon made the impression which he desired 
upon the po«ition of the enemy. 

Tbc French advanced, in three divisions, upon the dislocated 
ud eUcnded diqxisilion of the large but ill-arrangoi] Prussian 
aimj. It was a primary and irTctrtrvable fault of the Duke of 
Bnmnrick that his magazines and reserves fif artiUerj- and 
Mmunltion were placcx] at Naumburg, instead of being close 
in tbrfW of his army and under the protection of his main body. 
This til limed arpanlion rendered it easy for the French to in- 
toposc between the Prussians and their supplies, providing they 
■cir able to clear the niur^e of the Saule. 

With this view the French right wing, commandixl by Soult 
and Ncy, marchi-d ujnm Hi>(. The cenln- w;^ under Hcnia 
dotlcuid Davout, with the guard commandwl by Murat. They 
■orcd on Saalburg and Schleitz. The left wing wa.s M by 
Al|(eraiu against Kolberg and Saolfeld. It was the object of 
lUi gnuid combined movement to overwhelm the Pru.vsian left 
win^ which was extended farther than prudence |K-rTnitteil, 
and, having beaten this part of the army, to turn their whole 
I, and pouacss themselves of ihc-ir maga/ine?^. After M>mc 
I ikirmishcs, a serious action Ux>k place at Soolfcld, 
rtere Prince Louis of Prussia commandixl the oilvamx-d guard 
ti ih* Pntasian left wing. 

In the anlor and inexperience of youth, the brave Prince, in- 
■tad of being conientnl wjih defen'ling the bridge on the Saak. 
thai advantageous position to advance with unequal 
ipURSt IjinncA, who wiu manhing upon him fnmt Graf 
If bravery could have atoned for imprudenie, the 
! of Saalfeli) would not have Iicen lost. Prince I^oui^ 
I the tttnuxl goUaniry in leading his men « hvn ihrv* ad 
I in rallying them when they tinl. He was killed 
I hand to hand with a French suhollrm, wKn rti)uirrd 
. to lurRnder, and, receiving a uhrc-wound (or reply. 


plunged his sword into the Princc*s body. Seven! of his sUff 
fell amund him. 

The victory of Saalfdd opened the course of the Sade to the 
French, who inMantly ad%'anced on Naumburg. Bonaparte was 
at (fcra, within half a day*s joume)* fmm the latter city, whence 
he sent a litter to the King of Prussia, couche<l in the language 
of a victrir— for victorious he aln-ady felt himself by his numbers 
ami {Misition— and seasoned with the imny of a successful foe. 
Ife regn*tte<I his gixwl bn>ther had been made to sign the 
wri'tihi-d (Kimphlet which had txime his name, but which be 
pmtested he did not impute to him as his com{xMiti€>n. Had 
Prussia a.skcfl any practicable favor of him, he .<iid he would 
have grantal it ; but she had asked his dishonor, and ought to 
have known there could Ik* but one answer. In consideration of 
their ff>rmer friendship, XafKiIeon statcfl himself to be ready to 
restore {K-ace to Prus.sia and her monarch; and, advising his 
gfHMl brother to dismiss such counsellors as recommended the 
|>n*M'nt war and that of i;*)}, he liade him heartily farewcO. 

Bonaiune nrithrr ex{Hitiii nor receival any answer to tUi 
missive, which was written under the exulting sensations d- 
(K-riemiHl by the angler when he feels the fish is hooked and 
aU»ut to iMtome his Mt un* prry. Naumburg and its magaiiiica 
wrrr if»nsiiaie«l to the llames, which first announced to the Pnit- 
sians that the French army had K<>tten crmipletely into their rear, 
had di-stmyevl their ma^/ines, anci, (x*ing now interposed be- 
tween them and Saxony, left them no alternative save that of battfei 
whii h was to tw.* wam-<I at the tn^-atest disadvantage, with an alcfft 
enemy, to whom their su(Mneness had already given the choice 
of time ar.ti place for it. There was alv> this ominfHis consider- 
ation. tK:it, in case* (ff (Ii>;ister, the Prussians had neither princi- 
ple nor onler n^r line of retreat. The enemy were b e t ween then 
and Mapiebur \ whic h ou{;ht to have been their rallying- poiat; 
and the army of the (Jreal Fn-^lerick wx% it must be 
l>r'iui:ht to ci*mbat with as little retire tion or military 
a hf rd of m hfHiItjoys mii^ht have fiisplayerl in a mutiny. 

T<Mi late detemiine<i to make sf>me exertion to cletf tiKir 
communications to the rear, the Duke of Brunswick, with the 
Kini; f»f Pruvsia in {x:rM>n, marched with great part of their amqr 
to the recovery of Naumburg. Here Davout, who had Ukcn ihie 


phee, ccmuned at the bead of a division of ihirly-six thousand 
mm, with whom be was to oppose nearly double the number. 
The march of the Duke of Brunswick was so slow as to lose the 
■dvantj^ at this superiority. He paused on the evening of the 
iithon the heights of Auerstaedt, and gave Davoul time to re- 
t the troops with which he occupied the strong defile of 
The next morning, Davout, with strong rc^forre- 
t, but Blitl unequal in numbers to the (Prussians, marched 
i the enemy, whose columns were already in motion. The 
1 of both onnirs met, without previously knowing that 
they wcR 10 closely approaching each other, so thick lay the miat 
upon the ground 

The village of Hassen-Hauiicn, near which the opposite ar- 
mies wrre lint nude aware of each other's pruicimily, became 
inrtmntly the Kcne of a severe conflict, and was taken and retaken 
Rpcatedly. The Pnusian cavalry, being superior in numlx-ni to 
that of ibe French, and long famous for its apiM>inImcnLs and 
iBK^ne, attacked rei>eatedly, and was as often resistt^ by the 
Ficncfa Kjuarcs of infantry, whom they found it im|x>ssible to 
dUDW into disorder or break u]>on any [xiinl. The French, haV' 
lof thus repelled the Prussian horse, carried at the point of the 
bajpoDCt aomc wfmds and the village of SpillM'Dj, and remained 
IB Qodisturbed posession of that of Ilassen Hausi-n. 

The Prussians had by this time maintained the battle from 
dfht in the morning till eleven, and being now engaged on all 
potntk, with the exception of two divisioas of the resene, liad 
iffcre d great k>ss. The generalissimo, Duke of Brunswick, 
wonaded in ttic face by a grape shol, was carried ofl; m) was 
GiMenl Schmcttau and other olTicens of distinction, The want 
of aa aperienred chief began to be felt, when, to increase the 
' ~ ' a of their situatitm, the King of Prussia ret eived intelli 
e that General Mollendorf , who commanded hi!> right winK, 
r Jena, was in the act of l>cing defeated by Ilona 
piflc in penoD. The King took the genenius but |x-rbaps de» 
pcrale mohttion of trying; whtiher in one i;eneml charge he 
could not redeem the fortune of the day, by defeating that part 
el the French with which he was ixTTU)naI]y engaged. He onlerrd 
ifae attack to be made along all the line and with all the forres 
wbch he had in the field; and his cummonds were obeyed with 


gallantry enough to vindicate the honor of the tioops, but not to 
lead to success. They wea* beaten off, and the French resumed 
the offensive in their turn. 

Still the Truvsian monarch, who seems now to havx taken 
the comman<i u|M>n himself, endca\x)ring to supply the want of 
profesNifinal ex|M:rience l>y courage, brought up his last rcservct» 
and encoumgitl his bn>ken tnx>[>s rather to make a final stand 
for victory than to retreat in fac e of a conquering army. This 
effort also pn>vcd in vain. The Prussian line was attacked e\xry- 
where at once; centn* and wings were broken thn>ugh by the 
French at the bayonet's |M>int; anfl the retreat, after so many 
fruitless efforts, in which no <livision had been left unengaged* 
was of the m<»st disonlerlv < haratter. But the confusion was in- 
creasitl tenfold when, as the defeated tnM>[>s reached Wetmaft 
they fell in with the right wing of their own army, fugitives like 
themselves, who were attempting to retreat in the same direc- 
tion. The <lisonler of two routetl armies meeting in oppoong 
currents soon Inxame inextricable. The roa<ls were choked up 
with artiller)' and ba^^a^e w;i^ons; the retreat became a hurried 
flight; and the Kini; hiniM-lf, \%h(» had shown the utmost courage 
during the Battle of Auerstactlt, was at length, for penonal safefy, 
c(»m|M'lli*d to leave the hi^'hnads, and esca[ie across the fieUl^ 
es<.orii*d by a >mall UkIv cjf c avalrj*. 

While the left of the Prussian army was in the act of com* 
Ixating Davout at AuerNtae<lt, their right, as we have hinted, vat 
with o|ualIy bad fortune ent;a^e<i at Jena. This second actioOt 
though the least im|M>rtant of the two, has always given the 
to the double battle; Ixiause it was at Jena that Napoleoo 
engaifc^l in |»ers->n. 

The Frenc h Km[K-n>r had arrival at this town, which b Btn- 
atetl i;{if>n the Saale, i»n OctoUr 13th, and had lost no time m 
issuing thitse unlers t(» his marshals which produced the doDOO- 
strations of Davout and the vii torv of Auerstaedt. His attentaoB 
was not less tumt^I to the [position he himself occupied, and li 
which he the |>n»s{)ett of fighting Mollendorf and the ngkt 
of the l'ruK%ianson the next morning. With his usual acttviCj 
he formed or enbrged, in the course of the ni^t, the roacb bf 
which he proposctl to bring up his artillery on the itifn tiling 
day, and, by hewing the solid ruck, made a path pfirliriMc far 


Kuns to the plateau or elevated plain in the front of Jena, where 
hn ocnln was established. The Prussian army lay tx-forc them, 
1 a line of six leagues, while that of Napoleon, ci> 

f ooDccatralcd, showi-d a very narrow front, but was well 

i both in the flanks and in the rear. 

itc, according to his custom, slept in the bivouac, 
wi ro ua dcd by his guards. In the morning he harangued hi& 
■ u ldi ew , aod recommended to them to stand firm against the 
e b ugo of the Prussian cavalrj-, which had been represented as 
very Rdoububle. As bcfon- Ulm he had promised his soldiers 
a rrpclitioo of the Battle of Marengo, so now he pointed out to 
U^BKn that the Prussians, sejKiratcd from their magazines and 
cotoflfron their country', were in ih<.- situation of M;ick at Ulm. 
He tald them that the enemy no longer fought for honor and vie- 
tPiy, twt for the chance tif ojK-ning a way to retreat ; and he 
•dded that ibc corps which should permit them to escape would 
loM thdr honor. The French rvplieti with loud shouts, and de- 
— w***^ instantly to adv'ance to the combat. The Emperor or- 
dend the columns destined for the aiUck to di-sct-nd into the 
plun. His centre consisted of the Imperial Guard and two di- 
vWootof Lanncs. Augereau commandtil the right, which n-sli-d 
on a village and a forest ; and Soull's division, with a part of 
Ncy't, vas upon the left. 

General MoUendorf advanced on his side, and both armies, 
Mat Aueistaedl, wcrv hid from each other hy the mist, until sud- 
iaiiy the atmosphere cleared, and showed them to each other 
vkhiD the distance of half cannon nhot. The conflict in.'tUnlly 
CDHBMncoL It bcfran on the Frrnrh right, where the PruMians 
ll!*TK*"^ vith the purpose of driving Augen-au frf>m the village 
«n which he rested his extreme flank. I^innn wus M'nt to sup 
port him, by whoac succor he was enabled «• aland hin ground. 
The battle then became generul, and (he Prushians showi-d ihrm 
■drcft fucii masters of discipline that it was lung imjiosAitile to 
giia MBf advantage over men who advance'!, relinil, or movn] 
Id dther flank, with the rrgulariiyof machini-!^. S>ult at length, 
bf the okM desperate efTorls. dispossesH-ii the Pnisatans op- 
poacd Id hitn of the woods fmm whiih they had annuyeil the 
Fimch Wt; and at the same conjunnure the division of Ney 
■id a iarfe icwnc of cavalry ap^ieared upvn the field of battle. 


Napoleon, thus straigthencd, advanced the centre, ^'^^'^ftffting 
in a great measure of the Imperial Guard, who, being fresh and 
in the highest spirits, compelled the Prussian army to give way. 
Their retreat was at first orderiy: but it was a part of Bona- 
parte's tactics to pour attack after attack upon a wonted enemy, 
as the billows of a tempestuous ocean follow each other in iuc- 
cession, till the last waves totally disperse the fragments of the 
bulwark which the first have breached. Murat, at the head of 
the dragoons and the cavalry of rcsenx, charged, as one who 
would merit, as far as bravery could merit, the splendid deiti« 
nics which seemed now opening to him. The Prussian infantry 
were unable to support the shock, nor could their cavalry pro- 
tect them. The rout became general. Great part of the artiUery 
was taken, and the broken troops retreated in disorder upon 
Weinrur, where, as we have already stated, their confusioh be- 
came inextricable, by their encountering the other tide of fugi- 
tives from their own left, which was directed upon Wctmar 

.Ml leading and following seemed now lost in this army, to 
lately confiding in its numtxrrs and discipline. There waa 
scarcely a general left to Issue orders, scarcely a scJdier dispnud 
to obey them; and it seems to have been more by a lort of in- 
stinct than any n-s<>lv(*d pur^xiM*, that several broken rtghmmlf 
were din*( ted. or directed themselvt*s, upon Magdeburg, 
Prince Hohenlohe endfavoretl to rally them. 

liesidcs the double l>attle of Jena and ;\uerMaedt, 
had hU share in the conflict, as he worsted at Apokla, a village 
betwixt these two {¥iints of general action, a large detachmcaL 
The Frem h arcrmnts state that twenty thousand Prussians wttt 
killcxl ami taken in the course of this fatal day; that three 
hundret] guns fell into their [Miwer, with twenty gcnerali or 
lieutenant generals, and standards and oJors to the nmthei 
of sixty. 

The mismanagement of the Prussian generals in these 
itous Ijattles an<l in all the manceuvres which preceded 
amounted to infatuation. The troo[>s also, according to 
parted evidence, scarcely maintained their high character, o^ 
prcsarvl probably by a sense of the disadvantages under vbkli 
they combated But it is unoeccaaary to dwell on the varioya 


CMaet of a defeat, when the vanciuished seem neither lo have 
ft PI iiii4 00c combined and funeral plan of attack in the action 
Dor mmiotuocd communication with each other white it endured 
DOT ■gned upon any scheme of retreat when the day was lost. 
The Duke (^ Bnuiswiclc, too, and General Schmcllau, beii^ 
mortiBy wounded early in the battle, the several divisions of the 
Pnniiui tnny fought individually, without receiving any gcn- 
cnd orden, and consequently without regtdar plan or com- 
bioed foaofzuvTcs. The consequences of the defeat were more 
uniTenally calamitous than could have been anticipaltd, even 
when wc consider that, no mode of retreat having been fixed on, 
orgeocnl rallying' place appointed, the broken army resembled 
a coTcy of heath fowl wfaich the sportsman marks down and 
deMioys in detail and at his leisure. 

Nrxl day after the action a large body of the Prussians, who, 
under the command of Mollendorf, had retired to Krfurt, were 
compdled to surrrnder to the victors, and the marshal, with the 
E*rince o( Orange Fulda, became prisoneru, (!)lhcr relics of this 
meat unhappy defeat met with the same fate. General Kalk- 
rrotb, at the head of a considerable division of troops, was over- 
taken and rmjtrd in an attempt lo cn>ss the Hartz Mountains- 
nincr Eugene of Wurtcmbcrg commanded an untouchwl body 
of dxtcen thousand men, whom the Prussian gencr^U in chief 
had niffcnd to remain at Mcmmingen, willjout an attempt to 
bring than into the field. Instead nf retiring when he hrarrl alt 
«■■ hut, the Prince was rash enough to a<lvance towan) Ilalle, 
M if to put the only unbntkcn division of ihe Prussian army in 
Iht wiy of the far superior and victorious hosts of France. He 
«M acoocdingly attacked and defeated by Bemadotte. 

The dikf point of rallying, however, was Nfagdcburg, under 
ihc walk of which strong ciiy Prince Ilohcnlohe, though 
, contrived lo assemble an army amounting to fifty 
I men, but wanting esxrything and in the last degree 
But Magdeburx was no place o[ mt for ihem. 
s improvidence which had marke<l every step of the 
I had ezhausied that ciiy of the immense magazines 
h k cxmtained, and lakcn them for the supply of the Duke of 
' k's army. The wrecks of the field of Jeiia were csposed 
c ai well a» the sword. It only r em ai n e d for Priocc Uo- 


hcnlohc to make the best escape he could to the Oder, and, coo- 
sidcring the dlsastmus circumstances in which he was placed, he 
seems to have displayetl both courage and skill in his proceed- 
ings. After various {Kirtial actions, however, in all of which he 
lo>t men, he Anally found him.self, with the aclvanced guard and 
centre of his army, on the heights of Prenzlau, without prori- 
sions forage, or ammunition. Surrender became una\'oidable; 
and at Pn*nzbu an<l Pasewalk, nearly twc*nty thousand PruMiant 
laid ilnwn their arms. 

The rear of Prince Hohenlohe*s army did not immediatdj 
shan* this calamity. They were at Bortzenberg when the wot- 
n*nder took place, and amounte«l to aUnit ten thousand men, 
the Tvlks of the tiattle in which Prince Kugc*ne of Wurtcsnberg 
hail engaged near Weimar, and were under the command ol a 
general whc»«ie name hereafter was de»tined to sound like a war 
trumjKi— the celebratetl Blucher. 

In the extremity of his a>untr)'*s distresses, this distinguished 
N)ldi<'r showitl the same indomitable spirit, the same activity in 
I'xnution an<i daringness of n-solve, which afterwani led to such 
gkmous n>ult>. Uv was at^out to Ii*ave Iiortzenlx*rg on the aglht 
in cons<*(]Uin(t* of hi.s oniers fn>m Prince Hohenkihe, when he 
leami-tl that gt*nerdLr> disastrr at Prenzlau. He instantly changed 
the direction of hi^ n*tn'at, and, h\ a rapid march toward Scicl- 
itz, contrivi^d to unite his forces with aliout ten thousand men, 
gleanings of Jena and Auerstae<it, which, under the Dtikct of 
Wrimar and of Brunswick OeLs, had taken their route in lliat 

Thus re^foncii, Blucher adoptc<I the plan of passing the 
F.IU- at Lauinbur^'. and ntrnft»n ing the Prussian ganisoos m 
I^iwiT Saxony. With this view he ff>ught several sharp actioQi 
and made many rapid man he>«. But the ofl<is were too great lo 
Ix* lialancol by courage an<I activity. The division of Souk« 
which had cnisscti the KHm*. cut him off from Laucnburg, tliat of 
Murat inteqiir«e«l Ixiween him and StralMmd, while Bcniailolte 
prrsN<nI u|x>n his rear. Blucher had no rtsourcc but to thimr 
himself and his diminishe<l and dispirited army into Lubcck. 
The pursuers came Mwn up, and found him like a stag at baj. 
A battle wxs fought on No\-emlier 6th in the streets of ^-ybret^ 
with cztftmc fury oo both sides, in which the PniMtaiit 


d by numbers, and lost many slain, besides four thou- 

1 prisoners. Bluchcr fought his way oul of ihc lown, and 
raKfaed SchwcrU. But he had now n-ln-ati-d as far as he bod 
B ground to bear him, and to violate ihc nnjirality of the 
I territory would only have mised up new enemies lo his 
oniMtuouc master. 

On NovcmbiT 7th, therefore, he gave up hi^ good sword, to 
be lonmed under happier auspices, and surrendered with the 
few thousand men which remaimil under his command. But 
tbeooofBgc which he had manifested, like the lights of St. Elmo 
•mid the gloom of the tempest, showed that there n-ms at least 
00c pupil of the Great Frederick worthy of his master, and af- 
fanlcd hope*, on which Prussia long dwelt in silence, till the mo- 
Dcnl of action arrived. 

The total destruction, for such it might almost be termed, of 
the Prusnao army was scarcely so wonderful as the facility with 
which the ionresscs which defend that country-, some of ihem 
laakmg among the foremost in Europe, were surrendered by 
their coounandanLs without shame, and without resistance, to 
■be rictorious enemy. Strong towns and fonirie<l places, on 
which the engineer had exhausted his science, provided tu» with 
W^ garrisons and ample supplies, oi^ned their gales nl the 
MNiDd of a French trumpet or the explosion of a few bomln. 
Sfauidaii. Stettin, Kuestrin, Hamein, wore each i)ualifie<l to have 
■noted the march of invaders for months, yet were all sunvn- 
tknd on Utile more than a summons. In M.igdeburg was a 
pniaxi of twenty-two thousand men, two thousand of them be- 
tag aitOfefymen ; and nevertheless this celebrated city capilu- 
kied with Marshal Ney a( the lirst (light of shells. Hamcln was 
prrtaooed by six thouMnd troops, amply Mtpplied with pnni- 
I ewry means of maintaining a siege. The place was 
d to a force scanely one thini in prii|Nirliiin lo iluit of 
Ac ^xtimjtL These incidents were li** gn>ss to I>e imputol to 
loljr and cowardice alonr. The Frcni h iheniselvt-s wondereil at 
iheir oooqucstx, yrt had a shrewd guess at the manner in which 
Aey w er e tmdertd so easy. 

When the rwrrranl gowmor of Magdeburg was insulted by 
(he sttidenta of Halle for irracber)- as well as cowardice, the 
h prriioa of the place sympathiwd, as soldiers, with ibe 


youthful enthusiasm of the schdars^ and afforded the ioidid old 
coward but little protection against their indignation* From a 
similar generous impulse, Schoels, the commandant of Hamdn, 
was nearly dcstroycti by the troops under his orders. In stutm* 
dering the pbce, he had endeavored to stipulate that, in case the 
Prussian provinces should pass by the fortune of war to some 
other power, the ofl'icers should retain their pay and ranL The 
soldiers were so much incensed at this stipulation, which carried 
desertion in its fmnt, and a pru[MJsal to sha{)e a private fortune 
to himself amid the ruin of his countr>', that Sch(x*ls only saved 
himself by delivering up the place to the French before the time 
stipubted in the articles of capitubtion. 

It is belie\Td that, on several of these occasions, the French 
constructed a gt>lrlen key to open these in>n fortresses, without 
being themselves at the ex{)ense of the precious metal which 
com|>osed it. Kvcr)* brge garrison has of courMr a military chest 
with treasure for the ri'gubr {layment of the soldier)*; and it is 
said that more than one commambnt was unable to resist the 
proffer that, in cxsc* of an immi'diate surrender, this deposit 
should not be inijuired into by the captors, but left at the dit- 
IMfsal of the governor, whose accommodating dbpositioQ had 
savtfl them the time and trouble of a siege. 

While the Fnrnch army made this uninterrupted progrcm» the 
new King of IloUand, Ix>uis Bona[>arte, with an army partly 
a>m{xise<l of Dutch and |>artly of Frenchmen, [xissessed himadf 
with e<]ual ease* of Westphalia, great [art of Ilano^rr, Emdcn, 
and F^t Friesbnd. Tocfimplete the picture of general disofdcr 
which Prussia now exhibited, it is only nctvssary to add that 
the unfortunate King, whose [»erN»nal ({ualities deser\*cd a better 
fate, had been obli^etl after the Ixittle to fly into Fast Pnisia, 
when: he finally sought refuge in the city of Koenigsberg. L*E^ 
t«Mr|, a faithful and able general, was still able to assemble out 
of the wreck of the Prussian armv a few thousand men for the 
protection of his soverei^. lionafarte took possession of Ber- 
lin on Ortolx-r 35th, eleven (bys after the Battle of Jena. 

The fall of Prussia was h) sudden and so total as to enle 
the general astonishment of Eun>|je. Its Prince was awpfticd 
to the rash and inexperienced gambler, who risks his whole lofft- 
une c»n one desperate cast, and rises from the table totally nuDed 


That power had for three-quarters of a century ranked among 
the most important of Europe; but never bad she exhibited such 
a (onnidable [tosition as almost immediately before her disaster, 
when, holding in her own band the balance of Europe, she 
mif^t, before the day of Austerlitz, have inclined the scale to 
which side she would. And now she lay at the feet of the antag- 
onist whom she had rashly and in ill time defied, not fallen merely 
but totally prostrate, without the means of making a single effort 
to arise. It was remembered that Austria, when her armies were 
ddnted and her capital taken, had still found resources in the 
courage of her subjects; and that the insurrections of Hungary 
and Bohemia had assumed, even after Bonajuirtc's most emi- 
neni successes, a character so formidable as to aid in procuring 
pemcr for the defeated Emjx-rur on moderate terms. Austria, 
is like a fortress repeatedly besieged, and as often 
I and damaged, but which cunitnued to be tenable, 
b diminished in strength and deprived of important out- 

But Prussia seemed like the same fortress swallowed up by 
to cvthquake, which leaves nothing either to inhabit or defend, 
and where the fearful agencj' of the destroyer reduces the strong- 
at butiotu and bulwarks to crumbled mo-vics of ruins and rub' 
bidL The cause of ihts great distinction belwirn two countries 
whidl have so often contended against each other for political 
powrr. and for influence in Germany, may be easily traced. 

71w Empire of Austria combines in itself several Urge king- 
dom« ihe undisturbed and undisputed dominions of a cnmmun 
KWClrig D, to whose sway they have been long accu&lnmcr] and 
Imnrd whom Ihey nourish the same scniiments of loyiUiy which 
ihdr Ealbm entertained to the ancient princes of the same house. 
AiHtria's natural authority therefore restif), and now rrst.4, on 
tUi btoad and solid base, the general and nxited allachmenl n( 
the people to their prince, and their identification uf his intemts 
wilb their own. 

Pnaiia bad also her native provinces, in which her authority 
■M hncdttary, and when: the aflection, loyalty, and patriotism 
of the bdiabitanta were natural ([ualities which fathers trans 
■IllBd lo their sons. But a large [lart of her dominions mnsist 
rf hiK aoqoiiJtioQa obtained at diSerenl times by the arms or 


policy of the Gremt Frederick; and thus her territoricii nude up 
of a number of small and distant states, want geographical 
breadth, while their disproportioned length stretches* according 
to Voltaire*s well known simile, like a pair of garters across the 
map of Europe. It follows as a natural consequence that a long 
time must inten*ene between the formation of such a kingdom 
and the amalgamation of its component parts, differing in laws, 
manners, and usages, into one compact and solid monarchy, hav- 
ing resfNXt and affection to their king as the common head, and 
n*gani to each other as members of the same community. It will 
ref|uirr generations to \viss away ere a kingdom, so artificiaOy 
com{M)6c<l, can be cemented into unity and strength; and the 
temlency to remain dLsunitc<l is greatly increased by the disad- 
vantagi*s of its geographical situation. 

Thi-M* considerations alone might explain why, after the 
fatal Battle of Jena, the inhabitants of the various provinces of 
Truwia contribute! no imfKirtant (lersonal assistance to repel the 
invader; and why, although almost all trained to arms, and ac- 
( ustomitl to S4 T\v a ii-rtain time in the line, they did not disphy 
any readini-ss to i-xiTt thrmselvt*s against the common enemy. 
Thi y felt that they Ix'longitl to Prussia only by the right of the 
stnmgest, and thenftirc wrre inriitTcrent when the same tif^ 
Sixn\vi\ aJ>oul to transfer ihiir allegiance elsewhere. They nw 
thf appnai hing ruin (»f the Prussian jxiwer, not as children view 
the (langiT of a father, which they are bound to prevent at the 
h.iAanl of the if livo, liut a> sinants view that of a master, which 
comrm^ them no oibcn^'ise than as leading to a change of their 



nal Ac nme fcv io which Fulton navis^tcd the Hudson River with 
kb lBprov«d ■tcjunboat al»o uw the earliest U5c of tixcd >tMm-etii[in«« 
H drac tnla* oa ni\w»yt by mean* of rope*, ahows bow the Ki^^t invcD- 
tmk ^ ptOTcJ by Wall was engaging ingcnioiu mind* upoo the new 
pfoUiaa whicb be uid hi* cooicmporarics had »uggc*ted. 

Ihrt lh< fact remaloB, Io the honor of Fulton, that he mule ilejim navE- 
gsikM pnctieable tome yeum before any workable plan of *ieain loco- 
■o tk w on Uad wa« completed. 

Tba SpwiianU cUim to have first attempted to propel a veawl bjr 
WItam )n 1 54], but the claim mti on doubtful authority. The French 
ybpidn Papin, bom in 1647. and other* in France, tnglanil. and the 
Uatad Statea.whoexpeHmeotedwith mure or lew reiull lowanl the end 
«UA FsIMb reached, receive al the hands of Kenwick the attention due 
•B AmIt aflorts, and thus the historical evolution of the steamboat is suf- 
idMMlf •bown in (he following account 

Kaban Fultoo waa bom at Little Uritain. t'cnnsylrania. in 176s He 
WUte LoDdon and studied painting uitdcr tlen)amin West, but in 179] 
4iP0Md UmMlI wholly to civil and mechanical nigmectiiig. In 1794 he 
MMOMd to I'arfa, where he conducted many csperiments on the linet 
■Udi faaOt led to hb great achtcvcineal. Fulton died in New York in 

I JNTIL W»tt had fomplnH the Mnicturc o( ihc dnublp-act- 
iofl con(l«i.<ung-cn;;int.- the :i|>[)li< ation o( ^leain lc> any liut 
Ifac MD^ objrcl of pumping wutcr had bc«n almmt imprac- 
ll was iH>t cnou];h, in onlcr In rt-ndrr il appliratilir 1u 
J purposes, thil ihf amdcnsiition of ihc wali-r shf>uld take 
pact ia ft teporale vrssrl, ami ihal stt-ani shouLI itx-lf Ifc u&cti, 
iHleftdofftltnoBjihcHcpmsurr, OA thrmotnTi^Iiowi-r; but il was 
ifao BKCHftry ihat the steam should art as writ (luring (ht- as- 
«m ftftduring the dt-M-ent i>f the piston. Befurr the method of 
|iiA9e-wbed» could be succcs&ful!)' intrnduced it wu., in aildi- 
Hem, neotmuj itul a ready and i-t>nii-mimt mndc nf chani{inK the 
■oiKa ol the piltoD iniu one cttntinuous and rotary »bould be 


di8co\'ercd. AU these improvements upon the origiDal foim of 
the steam-engine arc due to Watt, and he did not ccMnplete their 
perfect combination before the year 1786. 

E^-ans, who, in America, saw the possibility of constructing a 
double a( ting engine even before Watt, and had made a model of 
his machine, did not succeed in obtaining funcb to make an ex- 
periment u{xm a brge scale before 1801. We conceive, there* 
fore, that all th(»se who projected the application of steam to %Ti* 
sels before 1 786 may be excluded, without ceremony, from the 
list of those entitlevl to com^Mrte with Fulton for the honors of in- 
vention. No one, indeed, could have seen the powxrful action of 
a pumping engine without being a>nvincc*<l that the energy, which 
was applied so successfully to that single pur^xMe, might be made 
applicable to many others; but those who entertained a belief 
that the original atmospheric engine, or even the single-acting 
engine of Watt, could be applief 1 to pnipel boats by paddle- wheels 
showed a total ignorance of met hanical principles. This is rooce 
particularly the case with all those whose pn»jects bore the stnmg- 
est rrsembbme to the pbn which Fulton afterward carried sue* 
cessfuUy into efTtxt. ThoMr who appn>ached most nearly to the 
attainment of sue i ess were they who were farthest removed from 
the plan of Fulton. His application was foumlcd on the proper- 
ties of Watt*s <li)i;blc at ting engine, and could not ha%*e been used 
at all until that instrumrnt of universal application had recctred 
the last fmish of it.N inventor. 

In thi^ list of failures, from pmfiosing to do what the instfU- 
mcnt they employiil was im afahli* of {icrforming, we do noC hca* 
tate tn im lude Savar)*, Papin, Jonathan Hulls, Pericr, the Mar- 
quis de JoufTp.y, and all the other names of earlier date than 
I7S<>. wh(»m the jtaloiisy of the French an<l Fnglish nations has 
drawn fn»m i>hlivinn for the pur]K>sc of contesting the priority of 
Fulton*s claims. The only com|)ctitor whom they mi^t have 
brought forward with some shadow of plausibility is W*att htm- 
self. No »rx>ner had that illustrious inventor completed his 
double-acting engine than he saw at a glance the \-ast field of its 
appHratir>n. Navigation and kxomotion were not omitted; but, 
li\in^ in an inbnd town, and in a country {lOOMSsing no rivtsi of 
importance, his news were limited to canals alone. In this direc* 
tioD he saw an immediate objection to the use of any appMtfya 


of vfaicfa so powerful an agent as his engine would be the mover; 
far it was clear that the injury which would be done to the banks 
of the canal would prevent the possibility of its introduction. 
Watt, therefore, after having conceived ihc idea of a steamboat) 
kid it aside as unlikely to be of any practical value. 

The idea of applying steam to navigation was not confined to 
Eun^)c. Numerous Americans entertained hopes of attaining 
the same object, but, before 1 786, vnth the same want uf any 
Rssonablc hopes of success. Their fruitless projects were, how- 
nvr, rebuked by Franklin, who, reasoning upon the capabiliiics 
ol ths engine in its original form, did not hesitate to declare all 
iMr tefaaDcs imprarlicaUe. 

Aiaotig tboec who, before the completion of Watt's invention, 
•dcmpted the structure of steamtxtats, must be named with 
pntw Fitch and Rumscy. They, unlike those whose names have 
been dtcd, were well aware of the real difficulties whith they 
■dC to overcome; and both were the authon of plans which, if 
the CBgioe had been incapable of further impnivemcnt, might Ind a partial and hmited succc:&s. Filth's trial was made 
Is 1783. and Rumsey's in 1 787. The latter date is subsequent to 
Wan't double-acting engine ; but, as the project consisted merely 
m pumping in water to be afterward forced out at the stem, the 
rini^e-actiag engine was probably employed. F.\-ans, whtise en- 
^De nri^ have answered the pur^x>se, was employed in the daily 
tMriaOi of a mfllwrighl, and, although he might at any lime 
kw driven these competitors fmm the field, lixik no steps to 
apply his domuuit invTnlion. 

Fitch, who had watched the ^ra^-efut and rapid way of the 
npingucaaw in the osctUaling motion of ihcold pum|>ing 
bethcmcansofiniiiclling paddles in a manner Mmilar to llut 
91 Ihem by the human arm. This idea is extremely ingen- 
I) and wai applied in a simple and beautiful manner; but Ihc 
ine wai yd t<x> feeble and cumbn>ii<i In )-ii'ld an ad<t|ua[e 
Idrb; and. when it rrceived its great impruvcment from Watt, a 
nt mode of propulsion became practicable, and must 
1 Fitch's paddles had they even come into gcoerat 

la Ac kiter Itages of Fttrh's investigations he became awarv 
of ibe vahie of Wall's double-acting engine, and rrfcrv to it as a 



valuable addition to his means of success; but it docs not tppcmr 
to have occurred to him that, with this impnned power, methods 
cif far fcn*ater etTu icm y than those to which he had been limited 
Ijefore this invention was completed had now become practica- 

When the pn>perties of \Vatt*s double acting; engine became 
known to the public an immetliatc attempt was maile to apply it 
to navi^ati(»n. This was done by Miller, of DaU^^inton, who 
employttl Symington as his engimrr. Miller s^-vms to have bcm 
iu real author; for, as early as i;8;, he pul)lished his U*lief that 
Uiats might Im- pn)|H-lli'Yl l>y employing a Meam engine to turn the 
iKiddle wheils. It wa.s not until 1791 that Symington i om{>letrd 
a m«Mli-l for him, of a si/e ^utTiiient for a satisfactory* ex]ierimmt. 
If wc mav ( ritlit thr evidem e whit h has since Ixen adciucrd, the 
t\{Krimfni was aN suciessful as the first attempts of Fulton; but 
it did not give to the inventor that degnr of confulence whi<h was 
mtevwir)- to in<!ui e him to emiiark his fortune in the enteqiri^. 
The ex|KTimrnt «»f Miller was therefore ranketl by the public 
among unsia 1 t-x^f*.il inteqirises, and was rather calculated to 
drtiT fn)m imitation than to cmourage others to pursue the same 

S\mint:ti>n. at a sul)set{iirnt [K'ri<Ml, resumed the plans of 
MIIUt, and l>\ the aid t>f funtis fiimisheil l>y I^>ni Dumias, put 
a lw»al in moii.-n nn the F'»rth anil Civile canal in iHoi. 

Therr i an U* little doulit that Symington was a methanic of 
gri*at prai tiial >kill and (onsideralile ingenuity; but he can harr 
no ( 1.1 ini \^* \k' (on^i'irrnl as an original invent' »r; for he was* in 
thr first i:>:an(e, n'» m«trc than the workman who carried into 
i :To t th«* i«!r.i- of MilKr, an«l hi-* M^tond l)«»at was a mere copy of 
thr fir^t. I: is with pain, ti"». that we an* (om{ielleil to notice a 
m ist <iisir.L;« n-w«>us aiitmpt in his [»art to defraud the mcnKiry 
of Fulton of its due honi^r. 

In a narrativr whiih he drew up. after Fulton's dcmth, he 
s!a!(-N that, while his first Uiat was in existence, pn>faably in iSoj* 
ht ro t i\i<fl a \isii fn^m Fulton, and, at hLs n.t|uest, (Nit the boat 
in n: :: m. Now it ap{H'ars to Im* e>ta!)lisheil. bej-ond aO quc»- 
tion. that F'.:Iti»n wxs not in (m*at Britain between t^qfi and 
iSc4, when he retumefl to that countr)' on the inntation of Mr. 
ritt, Mho held out hopo that his tuqiedocs wuuld be 


matted upon by that Government Al all events, we know that 
Fulion couli] not have made the copious notes which S>-iiungton 
Hjs be took, and we have reason to believe that he had never seen 
tbe html of that artisan, for the author of this memoir, long after 
the mcctasful enterprise of Fulton, actually furnished him, for 
tbe putpow of reference, with a work containing u draft of Sym- 
jagloo's boat, of which be could have had no need had ihc asscr- 
tioM of the latter been true. 

Tlie experiments of Fitch and Rumscy in the United States, 
akhou^ generally coruidered as unsuccKsful, did not dclcr 
olben from similar attempts. I'he great rivers and arms of the 
•ca, which tnter:<rt the .\tlanlic c-oast, and still more the innu- 
iDcrable navigable arms of the " Father of Waters," appeared to 
call upon the ingenious machinist to contrive means for thdr 
BOtT con^xnicnt navigation. 

The improvement of the engine by Walt was now familiarly 
known, and it was evident that it posscsMxl sufTicient powers for 
tke puipoAC. The only difficulty which existed was in the mode 
«( applying it. The first pctwn who entered into the inquir>- was 
Jahn Stcmu, of Hoboken, who commenced his n.'searchrs in 
tTQi. In these he was steadily engaged for nine years, when he 
beomc the auocislc of Chancellor Livingston antl NiihoUs 
Rcoarvelt. Among the persons employed by this association 
na Brunei, who has »incc braimc <listinguishnl in Eun>j)e as the 
■nmrtor of ibc block machinery used in ihc British lu^y-yanis 
aod as ibe en^necr of the tunnel beneath ihc Thiime^. 

Efcn with the aid of such talent the efforts of ihis assrxriation 
wciv ufBUCCCSifiil, as we now know, fmm no (-m>r in |irimiplc, 
but boa defects in the boat to which it was applictl. The bi>- 
poiMBMnt of Livingston as ambassador to Fnince broke up this 
joiM effort; »ad, like all previous KhemK, it was considered aa 
■faortiTe, and contributed to throw discnxlii upon all undertak- 
ia^ of tbe kii»d. A grant of exclusive privilegi-s ">n the waters 
at the Stale of New York was made tn thi-i osmh iatiim without 
amf (fificuby, it being liclirvcd that the sihcme was little short 

LMngMoa, on his arrival in Frmncr, found Fulton domicili- 
■IhI with Joel Bariow. The conformity in thdr pursuits led to 
'1 and Fulion sjieedily communicated lo Livingston the 


fchcmc which be had laid before Earl Stanhope in lygj* tiw- 
ingston was so well pleased with it that he at once offered to pro- 
vide the funds necessary for an experiment, and to enter into a 
contract for Fulton's aid in introducing the method into the 
Unital States, pro\'ided the experiment were succeaofoL 

Fultnn had in his early ducussion with Lord Stanhope repu- 
(iiati<<l the idea of an apparatus acting on the principle of the foot 
of an aquatic bini, and had pm[M)sed paddle-wheels in its stead. 
( )n n*sumin^ his inr|uiric5 after his arrangement with Li%'ingttoii 
it ex cunvd to him to compose wheels with a set of paddles revolv- 
ing u[x)n an endless chain, extending from the stem to the stem 
of the boat. It is pmlxible that the apparent want of tuccc« 
whi( h had attended the experiments of Symington led him U> 
doubt the correctness of his own original news. 

That hU( h doubt should Ix* entirely removed he had recoune 
to a series of cxfieriments u[)on a small scale. These were pcr- 
formoi at Plombi^rcs, a French watering-place, where he spent 
tht* summer of 1803. In these ex{)erimenu, the superiority of the 
{saddle whtrl over vvvry other methcMi of pn>puUion that had ytt 
Urn iin)iM»scd was fully cstablishnl. His original imprcHioos 
Ix'in^ thus (onfirmeri he pHKcetlevl, late in the )Tar of 1803, lo 
< ( instruct a wi irking mrwlel of his intendcfl boat, which model 
(It [>i»sited with a commission of Freni h savants. He at the 
tinu* i(»mmen<e«l building a vessel sixty six feet in length tod 
ei^ht f(*et in width. To this an engine was adapted; and the 
ex{H -riment marie with it was so satisfactory at to Icmve little 
doi]l>t of final success. 

Measun-s wen- therefore immerliately taken preparatory lo 
(fn^!r;» t!n;: a stcamUat on a large stale in the United 
F« ^r thi-i ;»",:r]>oM\ a.s the worksho{>s nt neither France nor / 
(oiiM at that lime furnish an engine of givid quality, it 
niiessar)' to resort to Fngbnd for the purpose. Fuhoo had 
aln*a'!y exfK'rienccri the ditTu uhy of being a>mpelled to cmploj 
art:>^ins unarquaintcri with the subjet t. It Ls indeed rooce 
pp4..iMi- hiul he not, ciuring hLs residence in Bii 
r*..i'!c hinwif (.imiliar, nnt only with the general featufe% b«t 
w:!h thi nv'^-t minute 'ietaik, of the engine of Watt, the 
mrnt on the Seine couki not ha%T been nude. In thia 
ment, and in the pre\ious in\-estigations, it became 


the engine of Watt required important modifications in order to 
adapt it lo navigation. These modifications had been planned 
by Fnkoo; bul it itow became important that they should be 
■Mcc hllljr toted. An engine was therefore oidcred hum Watt 
■nd Bfrfbm, without any specification of the object to which 
it was to be applied; and its form was directed lo be \'aried from 
tlnr usual models, in confoimity with sketches furnished by 

The order for an engine intended lo propel a vessel of laif^ 
uit was tninsmitieil lo Walt and Bolton in 1S03. Much about 
the aamc time Chancellor Livingston, having full confidence in 
At fucccM of the enterprise, caused an application lo be made lo 
ike Lcgiilature of New V'orlc for an exclusive privilege of navigat- 
ing the waters of that State by steam, that granted on a former 
occaiion having expired. 

Thia WIS granted with little opposition. Indeed, those who 
miffia have been inclined to object saw so much of the impractica- 
bfe and cvcQ of the ridiculous in the project that they conceived 
the application unworthy of serious debate. The cx>ndilion at- 
tacfacd to the grant was that a vessel should be propelled by 
Mcamat the rate of four miles an hour, within a prevrilied %\kuk' of 
time. This reliance upon the resented rights of the Stales jifoved 
afntilful source of vexation lo Livingston and Fulum, i-mbiiterrd 
thedoaeof the life of the latter, and reduced his family to penury-, 
tl can hardly be doubted that, h.-td an ex{K-ctaliiin Ixrn cnter- 
taioed that the grant of a Stale was ineffectual, and that the juris- 
1 was vested in the (icnrnU (Mivernmcnt, a similar grant 
It have been obtained from Congress. The intlumcecif l.iv- 
DO wtth the .\dminL<itration was desi-n'c<ity high, and that Ad- 
I ftup[iortcd by a fKiwcrfuI majurity; nor wuld 
k hsvc been consistent with the princi|>les of ihc op|xisitiiin to 
1 any act of liberality tn the intnxlucer of a valuable 
I of science. Livingston, however, conftding in his 
I •• a lawyer, preferred the ap]>liration to the Stale, and was 
^ by Us own act, restricted to a limited field. 
Brfo Tt tbe engine orderetl from Watt and Boltxn wft.i com- 
, Ftdttn Tiaited England. Disgusted by the dcbys and 
I of ■■"T*'*— ■*■"" exhibited by the French Gon-mmcnl, he 
I to an onsturc from that of England. This was 


made to him at the* instance of Earl StanhofN*, who UTf^ upon the 
Administnitinn the cian^ers to ix* apprehended hy the na^*}' of 
Cjrt*at Hritain in vasv the invention f)f Fulton fell into the {wkuvs 
sinn of France. After a lon^; negotiation, pn>tracte<i by the diflfi- 
cuhy of communicating on such a subjat bi*twecn two hostile 
countries, he at last revisitnl Kn^land. Hen*, fi»r a time, he wa% 
(lattcreti with ho|K*s of Ixin^ c^mploveii for the puqwrne of usin^ 
his invention. Kt|N'rim<*nts were made with such success as to 
induce a serious efTort to destmy the flotilla lyin^ in the harlxir of 
Boulo^e, hy means <if tor]iedfM-s. This effort, however, did not 
pniduce much efTc-ct, and ftnally, when the Hritish (iovemment 
demanck*d a pledKe that the invention should Ix* communicated 
to no other nation, Fulton, whcKie views had always Ixvn dirrcted 
to the applic ation of the>4- militar)' en^ini-s to the senicr of his 
native* < nuntr)', refuse*! to comply with the demand. 

In thcM' ex|ienments t^irl Stanho|N' trM»k a stnmf; intemi, 
which w:is sharttl l>y his dau^htcT, I.ady Hester, whc«e tal 
ents and sin^larity have* since excitefl so muc h attention, and 
who lont; rricncii almost as a <|ueen amon^ the tribes of the 

Although the visit of Fulton to En^bnd was ineffectual, m 
far as his pn>jei t of torjH-<l(K-s was concemetl, it gave him the 
c»p{iortunity of visiting Hirmini^ham, and dintting in {jerwm the 
construction of the engine ordereil fn»m Watt and IkJton. It 
could c»nly have lK*en at this time, if ever, that he saw the bc«t td 
Syminjjton; hut a view of it could have pnnlucc^l no effect upno 
his (twn plan^i. whit h had lHt*n matun^l in France, and carried, 
<^> far as the- er^&rine ^^a^* c one eme<l, to such an extent as to admit 
of m* alteration. 

The- c-nuinr wa^ at last complctetl, ami reached New York io 
]So/i. Fulton, who ntumetl to his native count rv aU)Ut the same 
|ieri«Ml. immeiliattly undert<v>k the a>nstruction of a bcMit in whidl 
to pLu e it. In the onlering of this engine, ami in planning the 
Uwit. Fulton exhihitt^l |>lainly how far his scientific meairhcs 
and jtrac tic al ex|ieriment> placed him b(*f(»rr all his compcti- 
t«>r^. II«' had evidentiv .im ertainefl, what each succcsftire Tcmr^t 
e\|Mrien( e pn)ves more fully, the great advantages poawMcd hf 
bn^r stramUiats over tho^e of smaller size; and thus, while al 
pn-viou.s attempts wea* ntadc in small vcaaelsy he alone molTfd Io 


Buke hi* fitul cxpcnmcDt in one of great dimensions. That a 
vtmd iatcDded to be propelled by steam ought to have very dif- 
hnot proportions, aiul lines of a character wholly distinct, from 
tfaoK oif vevds intended to be nangatcd by sails, was evident to 
hioL No other theory, however, of the resistance of fluids was 
ulnihtT'l U the lime than that of Bossut, and there were no pub- 
Mwd experiments except those of the Urilish Society of Arts. 
Jadsed in reference to these the model chuson by Fulton was 
*""h'*— . allbouf^ it would not stand the lest of an examination 
lomded upon a better theory' and more accurate exiK'rimenls. 

The Tcssd was finished and fitted with her machinery in 
Auguat, 1807. An experimental excursion wa.s forthwith made, 
■t witich a number of gentlemen of science and intelligence were 
procBt. Many of these were either sceptical or absolute unbe- 
Hrvcn. But ■ few minutes sufliced to convert the whole party 
and Htisfy the most obstinate doubters that the long-desired ob- 
ject ma at laat accomplished. Only a few weeks Ix-fore, the cost 
flf ODOtmicting and iinishing the vessel threatening to excixtl the 
loDdlirith which he hod been pmvided by Living!>ton, he had at- 
tWDpted to obtain a supply by the sale of one ihinl of the exdu- 
rive ri^l grantc«l by the State of New York. So person was 
faund poncssed of the faith requisite to induce him to embark in 
dw project. Thc«e who had reji-ctnl this opportunity of invest- 
■cnl were now the witnesses of the completion of the Kheme, 
vUcfa tbry had not considered as on adequate scxurity for the 
d^tcd (unda. 

Within a few days from the time of the fir>l exjKTimrnt with 
IIk ataunboat, a %-oyagc was undertaken in it to ,\lbany. This 
dtjr, ■tutted at the natural head of the navigation uf the Hurtson, 
b diMuH, by the line of the channel of the rivi-r, rather less than 
one faondRd fifty miles from New Vork. Ily the old [lost nuul 
Ae <SMuice is one hundrrr] sixty miles, at which that by water 
ii oandly estimated, .\hhnugh the greater piin of the channel 
of the Hudson ti lx)th deqi and wide, yet, fur aUmi fourtn-n 
■In bdow Albany, this chani(ti.-f is not pfL-si-nrd, anil the 
■ttcua, confined within comparatively small limits, is oi>¥irvcle<l 
bf bui ul und or sprrads itself ini-r shallows. In a few re 
— itiMi instanm the sIiKips nhiih then exclusirdy nangalnl 
tftt Hudno bad cffcood a (lassagc in abuut uxtccti boun, but a 


wbok week WIS not unfrtqucntly cmplojred in this vojrage, sod 
the average time of passage was not leas than four entire dajrs. 
In Fulton's first attempt to navigate this stream the passage to 
Albany was performed in thirty-two hours, and the return in 

Up to this time, although the exclusive grant had been soug|u 
and obtained from the State of New York, it docs not appear that 
either he or his associate had been fully aware of the vast opening 
which the navigation of the Hudson presented for the use of 
steam. They kK)ked to the rapid Mississippi and its branches 
as the place where their triumph was to be achieved; and the 
original boat, modelled for shallow waters, was announced as in- 
tended for the navigation of that river. But even in the very fim 
attempt, numbers called by business or pleasure to the northern 
or western [>arts of the State of New York crowded into the yet 
untried vcsmtI, and when the success of the attempt was beyond 
question, no little anxiety was manifested that the steamboat 
shoukl be cstabliiihed as a regular i>acket between New York and 

With these indic«'itions of the public feeling Fulton inuncdi- 
atcly complied, and n-gubr \*oyagcs were made at stated times 
until the end of the season. These \'oyagcs were not, 
unattended with inamvenience. The boat, <lesignatcd for a 
ex|K*riment, was incommodious, and many of the minor 
mrnts by which facility of >iiT)rking and safety from accident to 
the maihincn* were tr> be insured were yet wanting. Fulloo 
amtinucd a clos<* and attentive obser\*er of the performance of 
the vessel; ever)' difficulty, as it manifested itself, was met afid 
rrmnvt*fi by the m<vst masterly as well as simple cootrivmocea. 
Some of these were at once adopted, while others remained to be 
applieti while the txKit should be laid up for the winter. He thus 
gradually formefl in his mind the idea of a complete and perfect 
vessel; ami in his plan no one part which has since been fauad 
to txr essential to ease in manoruvTing or security was omitted. 
The e}'es of the whole community were now fixed upon the 
br>at; and, as all of competent mechanical knowledge 
alive to the defects of the original \*essel as Fuhoo himacif, hit 
right to priority of invention kA various important 
been disputed. 


The winter of 1807-180S was occupied in remodelling and rc- 
building the vessel, to which the name of the Clermont was now 
^veo. The (guards and the housings for the wheels, which had 
been but tcmporaiyslnictures, applied as their value was pointed 
oat by experience, became solid and essential parts of the boat. 
For • rudtler of the ordinary form, one of surface much more ex- 
tended in its horizontal dimensions was substituted ; this, instead 
of being moved by a tiller, was acted upon by mpcs applied to its 
atmidty, and these ropes were adapted to a steering wheel 
wWcb »u raised aloft, toward the bow of the vessel. 

It bad bcoi shown by the numlK*rs who were transported dur- 
ing the first summer that, at the same price for passage, many 
■ere willing to undent all the inconveniences of the orifjinal rude 
•CODOimodations in preference to encountering the delays and un- 
ecftslDty to which the passage in sliKips was exposed. Fulton 
dU not, however, take advantage of his monopoly, but, with the 
mat libenl spirit, provided such accommodations for iKissengers 
WM, in convenience and even splendor, had not before been ap- 
pmached in vessels intenile<l for the transportation of Iravellrnt. 
Ilii wu on bis part an exercise of almost improWdent liberalily. 
By his contract with Chancellor Livingston the latter undertook 
lo defray the whole cost of the engine an<l vessel until the cxiieri- 
OKOt should result in success; but from that htiur each wa.s to 
fumisb an equal sharr of all subsc<]uent investments. Fulton 
had no patrimonial fortune, and what little he had saveit {mm the 
product of his ingenuity was now exhausicil. But the »ucces.-> of 
the experiment had inspired the banks and capitalists with con- 
Gdenc<:, and he now found no difficulty in obtaining, in the way of 
■ loan, all that was needed. Still, however, a <lcbt wo.^ thus con- 
1 which the conlmueil demaniK m,v\c iijiiin him for new 
■ nevrr permittwi him to disth-rKf, The Clermont, 
AMCDDverted into a floating jtolace, gay with omamencd {Ktini' 
in^ gilding, and polished woods, commenced her course of [las- 
MfEi for the aecoad year in the month of April, 180S. 


A^. 1808-1813 


The Treaty of TiUit mw Napoleoo at the height of hb power. R«»- 
ftia had become his ally ; the rest of Continental Europe waa belpltia 
against him. Only KngUod. made aafe by that narrow bttle atrip ol 
water between her and France, continued to defy the conqueror. Vnablc 
to reach hia foe with miliury arm*. Napoleon began againat her a tre- 
mendous economic war. He forbade Europe to trade with Ilrttiah ahipt; 
every port over which his inriucnce extended waa closed agatoat then. 

Portugal, which was closely connected with England, objected to iW 
Emperor's decrees, and he sent an army which took poMeaakon of llit 
hapirss bttle country. This brought French troops into Spain— Spain 
which had t)ecn steadily decaying ever since the dajra of I'hilkp II, vahl 
she had t>tcome m these times a mere vassal state to France. Hcf 
worthless king. Charles IV. hjui an equally worthleat son, Feffdinaad, 
and a wicked (jueen The State was really ruled by the mmister, Godof* 
who was in Napoleon's pay. Probably the Emperor had long kalmdcd 
to sweep out the whctlc worthier K^o^p and establtah one ol bis owm 
brothers as a monarch m their place, lie deemed the prcacat towcnt, 
when his tnwps were establishing themselves m Portugal, aa propittont 
for his purpose. 

I'nluckily for himself he failed to appreciate the fierce loyalty of tW 
Spaniards In alt hi% previous conquests he had been able tomaintateat 
least pirtly the a;>;«rarAnce of tieing a hberator come to reactic the 
trodden common {tropic from their oppressors. The halo ol the Fl 
KevoIutuKiary :;.rncmrr.t Miilc!un«; f am tly around hun. But m 
WAS openly a:-.<! ui.det:uSly a foreigner trying to force an 
e:gn ruler i:;>«m the natives, and he found the oppositioc very 
fri»m Any he lirfore encountrrrd Though beaten, the 
never remained in subjection, never became his subjects to figlit for him 
against others. "It was the Spanish ulcer.* said be biaaelf viMn In 
looked (jack from St. Helena. " that rumed me.* 

T^HK cflcct of the Continental s^-stcm on Britain wu to drm 
^ i: t( » a {iTkliry of aggirssion upon neutral states, which 
to W XH s\n\ es>ful a5 it was aggrca&t\*e. The effert of his 
on NapolouD himself was precisely the same. It was to 



this materia] union of Europe against Britain that be was driven 
lo ■ggressioD afier aggression in North Gcnnany, and to de- 
■uds upon Russia which threatened the league that had t>c«n 
fanned at Tilsit. Above all, it wus the hope of more eOfetiually 
cnuhing the world power of Britain that drove him. at the very 
BKMncnt when Canning was attacking America, to his wont ag- 
fresson — the aggression upon Si>ain. Spain was already his 
■ubMrvienl ally; but her alliance became ever^- hour less useful. 
The country was mined by misgovemment : its treasury was 
empty; its fleet rotted in its harbors. To sei/.e the whole S^Kin 
bh Peninsula, to develop its resources by an active administra- 
tion, to have at his command not only a regenenite<l Spain and 
Portugal, but their mighty dominions in Southern and Central 
America, lo rt-new with these fresh forces the struggle with Brit- 
da for her empire of the seas — these were the designs by which 
Napoleon was driven to the most ruthless of his enlerpriscs. 

He acted with his usual subtlety. In October, 1807, France 
and Spain agreed to divide Portugal iM^tween iht-m; mid on the 
advance of thnr forces the reigning house of Bniganza fled hclp- 
kvljr from Lisbon lo a refuge in Brazil. But Ihe seizure of Portu- 
(d was only a prelude to the seizure of Spain. Charles 1\', whom 
a riot io his capital drove at this moment to atxlicnlion, and his 
aoo and successor, Ferdinand VII, wcrr alike drawn to Bay- 
; ia May, iSoS, and forced lo resign their ilaims to the 

1 crown, while a French army entered Madrid, and pru- 

) Joteph Bonaparte as king of Spain. 
Bigfa-baaded as such an act was, it was in harmony with the 
^Wfal wplaa which Napoleon was pursuing elsewhere, and 
wUdi had ai yel stirred no natioruil resiittanrr. Holland hail 
been changed into a monarchy by a simple decree of the French 
Emperor, and its crown bestowed on his brother Louis. For 
amtbcr brother, Jemme, a kingdom of Westphalia hail been 
boill up out of the electorates of Hes»e Cum-I and Hanover. 
Joaepb himself liad been set as king over Naples before his 
~ T to Spain. But the s|k-11 of submission was now nuddrnly 

, and the new King had hardly entere<l Madrid when 
Spain rate u oi>c man against the stranger. Desperate as ihe 
~ It of its people seemed, the new^ of the rising was welcomed 
Kit EngUod with a bum of enthusiastic joy. 


" Hitherto/' cried Sheridan, a leader of the Whig oppoa t ioo, 
" Bonaparte has contended with princes without dignity, num- 
beis without anlor, or peoples without patriotism. He has jcC 
to Icam what it is to combat a people who are animated by one 
spirit against him.*' Tory and Whig alike held that " never had 
so happy an opportunity existed fur Britain to strike a bold 
stn>kc for the rescue of the i^-orld"; and Canning at once re- 
solvcti to change the s)'5tem of desultory descents on colonics 
and su^vLT islands for a vigorous warfanr in the Peninsula. Sup- 
plies wca* M*nt to the S|)anish insurgents i^ith reckless profusion, 
ami two small armies plaiini under the command of Sir John 
Moon: and Sir Arthur WeUesle\' for service in the Peninsula. 

In July, 1808, the surrender at Baylen of a French force 
which had invailed Andalusia gave the finit shock to the power 
of NaiM)lrr>n, ami the bbw was followed by one almost as sotiv. 
landing at the Mondegv) with fiftcrn thousand men. Sir Arthur 
Welloley cln>ve the Fremh army of Portugal from the field of 
Vimiera, ami fonetl it to surrender in the Convention of Cintra 
on August ^>cth. Hut the tide of success was scxm mughly turned. 
N.i]Milo>n apiK-areil in Spain with an army of two hundred thou- 
s:iml mm; ami MiMin*. who had advanced from Lisbon to Sala- 
mama to sii]>{M)rt the S])anish armies, found them crushed 00 
the Khn>, ami was drivin to fall hxstily liack on the coast. His 
f(»ne savc^l its h«>nor in a l>attle before Cf»runna on January 16, 
i8o(^ which enahU-d it to eml^ark in safety; but elsewhere aD 
s^trmed lost. Thi- whole of Northern and Central Spain was held 
by the Frt nt h armies; ami even Saragrissa, which had once he- 
n>i(ally n]»uls<^l thc-m, submitte<l after a second equally dc»- 
jH-ratf rt>:.stani e. 

I'hc landing of the writ k of Moore*s army and the newt of 
the Si>anish defeats tumeil the tem|>cr of Kngland from the wild- 
est h<i{»c to the dei-{)est desfoir; but Canning remained im- 
moMtl. ( >n the day of the evacuation of Corunru he signed a treaty 
of v with the Junta whiih govemctl Spain in the abscnre 
of it% kin^; and the Kn^lish fone at LLsl»n. which had alrtsdy 
prqun-'! t^ U-ave Pnnu(;al, was recnfonni with thirteen thousand 
fn-sh ;rr«i|fs and pbietl under the command of Sir Aithnr 
Well^sle^. * Ponusral.*' WelK-slev wniterooUv/'mavbedefcnkd 
against any force ^hiih the French can bring against it** At 


Ais critica] momcot the best of the French troops, with the Em- 
peror hioucli, were drawn from the Peninsula to the Danube; 
br the Spanish rising bad roused Austria as well as England to 
a renewal of the struggle. When Marshal Soult therefore threat- 
ened Lisbon from the north, Wellcsley marched boldly against 
him, drove him from Opono in a disastrous retreat, and, sud- 
denly changing his line of operations, pushed with twenty thou- 
and men by Abrantcs on Nladnd. He was joined on the march 
by a Spanish force of thirty ihousanct men; and a blocxly action 
with a Fiench army of equal force at Talavcra' in July, i8oq, 
fcMored the renown of English arms. The losses on both sides 
«tR CfkOrmottS, and the French fell back at the close of the 
Min g g l c ; but the fruits of the victory were lost by a sudden ap 
pfllflTHT o( Soult on the English line of advance. Wellesley 
WM forced to retreat hastily on Badajoz, and his failure was em- 
btecw d by heavier disasters elsewhere; for Austria was driven 
to me for peace by a decisive victory of Napoleon at Wagram, 
vfaik a force of forty thouund English soldiers which had been 
dnptttched against Antwerp in July returned home baffled after 
lofling half its numbers in the marshes of Walchercn. 

The failun: at Walcheren brought about the fall of the Port- 
land Ministry. Canning attributed this disaster to the incom- 
petence of Lord Castlereagh, an lri»)i |>eer, who after taking the 
dad put in bringing about the union between England an<l 
Irdand, had been raised by the Duke of Ponlanil to the ]><>si of 
Secretary at War; and the ijuanrl between the two ministers 
ended in a duel and in their resignation of their ofTices in Sejnrm- 
ber, i8o(^ The I>ukc of PorlLind rrtired with Canning; and a 
new ministry was formed out of the more Tt,ry members of Ihe 
lale Administration under ihe guiilancc of SfM-ncer Perceval, an 
induMrious mediocrity of the narniwcst type; while the Mar- 
qaia of WeOcalcy, a brother nf the English general in Sjuin, suc- 
1 Canning as foreign secretary-. Uut if Perceval and his 
I poaacsscd few of the higher r|ualilie> of »iaie>man 
I, tfaejr bad one characteristic which in the atiual po&iiiim of 
' h aflain was beyond all price. They wen- resolute to n»n 
K the war. In the lution at Urge the fit of enthusiasm had 
n followed by a fit of des[nir; ami the City of London even 
■ Talavcn dc la Kcitu. 


petitioned for a withdrawal of the English forces from the Pen* 

Na[K)lcon seemed irresistible, and now that Austria was 
crushc*«l and Kngbnd stocxl alone in opposition to him, the Em- 
{K*n>r dctcrmintf i to put an end to the strife by a vi^rous prose- 
cution of the war in S|>ain. Andalusia, the one pnmnce which 
n*mainiti indqR*ndent, was invaded in the o|)ening of 1810, and, 
with the exception of Cadiz, reduced to submission, while Mar- 
shal MaWna with a fme army of eighty thousand men marched 
u|K>n Lisbon. Kven Pen:e\'al abancioned all hope of preserving 
a hold on the IVninsub in face of these new efforts, and threw 
on Wellesley, who had been rai.setl to the |)eerage as Lord Well- 
ington, after Talavera, the resfxinsibility of resolving to remain 

Hut the c(x>I judgment and firm temper which distinguished 
Wellington enable<l him to face a resfxinsibility from which 
wr:iktr mrn wouM have shrunk. **l conceive,** he answrrtd* 
"that the honor and intrn<st of our country re({uire that we 
should hold our gnmnd hrre a.s long as (xyssible; and, please 
(WmI, I will maintain it as long as I can.** By the addition of 
Purtuguc^si* tnw»ps who had been trainc^d under British otfictn, 
his army was now raiMfl to fifty thousand men; ami though his 
inferiority in fonc com|K'llt*d him to look on while Mass^na re» 
ducni the fnmtier fortri-.vM-s of Ciudad Rodrigo ami .\lmeicla, he 
int1i<ti*<l on him a heavy check at the heights of Busaco, and 
tlnally fell bai k in < )i IoIht. 1810, on three hnes of defence which 
he had Mirctly construe tctl at Torres Vedras, along a chain of 
mountain hci^^hts cn>wnc-d with n-doubts and bristling with 
non. The- [wrMtion was im[»rt-gnable: and able and stubborn 
MaKs^n;i was, hi* found himself forcerl after a month's fruitles 
iiinr.s t(» fall l>a( k in a ma>teriy retrt*at; but so terrible were the 
privations of the- French army in |»as&ing again through the 
i%asti-d coun:n' that it was c»nly with forty thousand men that 
he- ri-aihcil (*rj«lad Rt^lri^o in the >pring of 181 1. 

KiTnf<»rcitl by fn-^h trnops, Mass^na turned fiercdj to the 
n-lirf of .\lmii<b, which WeUington had besieged. Two dajnf 
blofidy and otistinate fighting, however, in May, 1811, (ailed to 
drive the English anny from its position at Fucntcs de Onora^ 
and the Marshal fell back on Salamanra and relinquished hii 


effort to drive Wellington from Portugal. Dut great as was tbe 
effect ol Torres V'edras in restoring the spirit of the English peo- 
ple, aod in rev'iving throughout Europe the hope of resistance to 
the tjmnnjr of Napoleon, its immediate n-sult was little save the 
lUhnennce of Portugal. If Mass<<na had failed, his colleagues 
had mocccdcd in their cntcrpri.scs; the French were now mas- 
ten of aQ Spun save Csui'ir, and the eastern provinces, and even 
the cast coast was reduced in 18 11 by the vigor of General 

WbQe England thus failed to rescue Spain from the aggrrs- 
non of Napoleon, she wa.s suddenly brought face to face with the 
result of her own aggression in .\merica. The repeal of the 
"Noo intercourse .\ct" in 1810 had in effect l)etn a triumph for 
Britain : but the triumph forci-d Napoleon's hand. As yet all he 
had done by his attack on neutral rights had been to drive the 
United Stales practically to join England against him. To re 
vengc himself by war with them would only play England's 
game >tI more; and with thanuterislic rapidity Napoletm 
paMcd from hostility to friendship. Ife scizetl on the ofler with 
which America had cIom'<1 her efTuns against the two comlu- 
lants,and after promising to revoke his lierUn and Milan decrees 
he called on .America to rtxiei-m her pUflRe. In February'. iSi i, 
therefore, the United Slates announced that all inlercnurse with 
Gicat Britain and her dejK'ndenrii-s was at an end. The effect 
si thii step was seen in a reduction of Engliish ex]Hin» during 
Ifah jrcar by a third of their whole amount. It was in vain that 
Britain pleade<) that the Emj^ror's [mimises remainei] unful- 
fled, that neither of the dixrees w-xs withdrawn, that Safxihim 
had failed to mum the American men.h.indi»e sei7.e<l under 
ihcBl, and that the enforcement of non intercourse with [Cngtaml 
■aa thai an unjust act and an act of hostility. The pn-wun- 
ol the American policy-, as well as news of the warlike lemjH-r 
■hidi had at lost grown up in the United Sralen. mmic kuU 
■Woo inevitable; for the industrial slate of England was now 
noitkal thai to eipose it to freiJi shucks was to court the very 
fifa iriuch Napoleon hod plannet]. 

During the earlier years of the war, indeefl, the immse of 
Vnkh had been enormous. England was sole mistress of the 
SMfc The war ga\-e her putscssiun of the culooin o( Spain, of 

176 WELLINGTON IN THE PENINSULA!, anfi of Franrr; and if her trade was checked for a time 
by the Hcrlin Dti rtT, ihe efforts of Na|x)Icon were stx>n rmdcrwl 
fruitless In- the sniUK^lin^ system which spranf; up along the aauth- 
ern coaMs and the etust of North (lermany. English exports 
indict! had nearly d'»iiliK*(l since the o|H*ning of the century. 
M.irr.ifai t'.in-s wrre pnii'ilini: hy the dis*overii-s of Watt and Ark- 
wriL'Iit; a:i<l (In- t Dnsumptiiin of raw CDtttm in the milU of I..axi- 
«.i^hirr fitM- duriri:: the r<ime [leriiid fn»m fifty In a hundred mill- 
'u>:\> Mf iHtunds. Tlu- v:i>t ai cumulation of cajutal, as well as the 
\\i< i:i( re.ise of the |Hi;ii:lation at this time, told u|M>n the land, f«iretil :i;:ri« ulf.irr iritu a ft'V<-rish and unhealthy pri»NjH'riiy. 
\N fiiM- t'l f.irniru- priti-s, :i:id the valur i»f land ri»N** in pro- 
|«irtii»:i with I In- priii- iif Km losures went on uilh pnv 
di.:i'-:;>» r.ij'iLiy; th<- inM.nir ef rvrry landowner was douljleii, 
vh.l* !!:• I.irTv.i rs wt rr alil« !■» iritr'Nlmr imprnvement-* into the 
pr..,,., ^ ,,f ;i;»ri« uluin* \\!ii<h < li.mi^nl t!if wh<»le faie of the 
<-;•.::•.. n .':f!!ii i:u rr i-i i.f \u .ilili \^a.M•n"^n<^u^, it^diNlri^iU 

!>■. ::■:.: •'.• •.:'•• • :•. ;. • ir^ 'a!;.. ii prii nlrd Wa!iTl'»«\ the num 
Ih:.'!:!.! :• ; .1..* •. r 'i I: :ti tt m ti !h:r!« ! ri rriillii»n'», an«l ihiJi 

■ ■ 

r.i: . ! :-. :- .1 ■ »-•! •! .^^ t!i»- :.itr i-f Ma^rt-^, whi«h wtiuld nalu 
r.tll;. \.A\r .'.!■..' ■ ! ;•: .1 I ■::• ;-''i'!:!v^' (jr-^nr \\i!h iht- im n-a.^ 
ir. !!;• r m:: ■ ;! v. i!*!:. Y.w •:"A.v\\,Tv-, !h".:^h di-^tlnnl in 
:!:• I- :■■•:: rr: * !<■-•.! !':■ I .^» •:'.:..: • la-M-, m . i:u-«l at Iirst rather 
!■ !< : :• -^ t::« •:!. : r - :.« :'::-• « .irKi -! n -.ii:-. •-( the intpMluc- 
! '■. -f T!..i V-.'". A i- ■:■.•■ r-.;:i if a Tv:r!i*H r *«f small trailer 
'.^^ Is .'. • '•■;•: :•:.:'!: ::\v i".! :!i' ;«.i ::»< r:/a!i'»n i»f familin 
'.*.'' :• !.■ ' • - . : : ::. !•::!:• -a::.'i r tif i^ii ihr tcrri- 

1 !•:'■■ .-' : • . •■ ■ :': ■?'! lii'.-i. r ilt t 'miihimn was 

■•■.•.'■■.■ I. .". ■ :••.'■.■•■■:• •.».!•-/. r: ■! - \\hi' !» hp'ke out 
• .• r ::. • ■'• ■ ■- .' • « . a:: ! whi' h ^en- only 

^■.; ;■:■ -•!*■. ■• ..';:-. f :•. \\ l..!*- l.i!» r -AaN thas ihmwn out 
'f •■ '.:•:.••■■.■-..:■ ::':• r /• ■ f -.•..i/'-'. l.« ;■: t!-»wn at an arti- 
: !!. 1 A • • •■ ' •'• : .; ! ■ r- .i . f ;• ;«'.:Iali»n. the ri^ in 
t*» ; : . : v.* V • •'•.:!; ».. :h«- Lin«i'>wncr and 

tf.t fiT"-..- ^ • • : .: ..' 1 j. i':j ! . till- jBti.r. f»r Knt*Und 
was . •.:! I :: : ■. ••.. -a ir !r ••. '• ■ •. i\ * ::\ :".t 1 !^ ..f the I'ttnlinetil 
or I'f .\rr'.«r .».. v.J. )\ r. ' ^ rt-Iri-N.*. fpim thiir ahun<Lan(*r 
r Ita .J a Lad l..4r.i-:. Sanitv w.i.i fuUnMoi liv a irrri- 


bk paupmzation of Ihe kbonng classes. The amount of the 
poormic rose 50 per cent., and, with the increase of poverty, 
d ilA inevitable result, the increase of crime. 
fllh Kicial and political troubles thus awaking anew to life 
t tbcm, even Tory statesmen were not willing lo face the 
e oooacqucnccs of a ruin of English industty such as might 
fellow from the junction of America with Napoleon. They were 
fai (act prrparing to withdraw the orders in council, when their 
pluia were arrested by the dissolution of the Perceval Ministry. 
Its pocition had from the firsi been a weak one. A return uf the 
King's madness made it necessary in the liej^inning of i8ti to 
amfcr the regency on the Prince of Wales; and ihe Whig sym- 
B of the Prince threatened ft>r a wliilc the Cabinet with 
Though this difficulty was surmounted, their hold of 
power rcnuuncd insecure, and the in.scrurity of the Ministry 
taU OO ihc conduct of the war; for the apparent inactivity of 
Wdfingtan during iSii wa-s really due to the hesitation and ti- 
midity of the Cabinet at home. But in May, 1S13, the asiassi- 
■tttioo of Perceval by a m.idman named ItellinRham brought 
about the dissolution of his Ministry; and fresh efforts were 
Bade by the Rc};ent to install the Whigs in ofTice. 

Mutual distrust, however, again fuiln) his allcmpts; and the 
old Ministry letumed to office under Ihe headship of Lord Liver- 
pool, a man of no great abilities, but tempemto, well infnrmed, 
ad endowed with remarkable skill in holding disronlani cul 
kiglNS together. The most imp(in»nt of th<.-se coUvagues w&s 
La>d CasUereagh, who became Secretary for Foreign Affairs. 
TloM has long ago renilerol justice m the political ability of 
CMllata^i disguised as it was to menof hLiuwn day by a luri- 
aw infefidty of expression; and the instinctive k'"'<1 senM* of 
1 never showitl it»elf more remarkably than in their 
e at this crisis of his cool judgment, his hi^h courage, 
Ua disccTiunenl. and his will, to the more \hovry brilhancy of 
Caoailig. His first work indeed as a minister was to meet the 
dugcr in which Canning ba<l invulvnl the country- liy his orrlen 
ii nmnif^f On June a.fd, only twelve days after the Ministry 
had bioi fonncd. these onlers wi-rc rrpealed. Dul quick as was 
ChMkfOigh's action, events ha>l moved even more quiikly. 
At the opening of the ycmr, America, in do|>air of redms, 


Holland, and of France; and if her trade was checked for a time 
by the Berlin Decree, the efforts of Napoleon were soon renderad 
fruitless by the sniufg2;ling sptem which sprangupalong thetouCb- 
em coasts and the coast of North Germany* English c a poi U 
indeed had nearly doubled since the opening of the century. 
Manufartun*s wrrt- pnifiting by the discoveries of Watt and Ark- 
wri^ht ; and thr c onsumption of raw n>tton in the mills of Lan- 
cashirr ntsc during thi- same pericNl from fifty to a hundred niiD- 
ions of |M>unds. The vxst accumubtion of capital, as well as the 
vast increase nf the |M>puIation at this time, told U|X)n the land, 
and force<l agricultun* into a feverish and unheahhy prosperity. 
Wheat HKM* to famine priu-s, and the value of land rose in pco- 
(Mtrtion with thr pricr of wheat. Enclosures went on with pro- 
diifious nipiflity; the income of ever)' bnclowner was doubled, 
while the farmers wen* abK to intHxIuee impmvements into the 
pnt((^s4-s of aL^riculture which c hanged the whole face of the 
(oimtr)'. Hut if (he incri'xse of wealth was enormous, its distribu- 
tion w.i> ] 

Durini; the I'lfteen years whiih prwi-tletl Waterkio, the nuni- 
lx*r of the |"i]>'.:Ia!i>>n n»e fn>m ten to thirtet*n millions, and this 
rafud inifeaM' kept li'twn the rate of wages, whiih woukl natu- 
rally have ad\ar.t iij in a M»rrr<*]Hin(lini; degree with the incrcssr 
in the national wealth. Kvin manufai turi*s, though destined in 
the long run to iM-net'it the latviring < Lisses, si*eme<l at first rather 
to ilejin-ss them; for one of the earliest n>ull> of the intltiduc- 
tion of mathi:ur> was the niin of a numlNT of small tradcm 
^^\\u h were < arric*! (>:i at h^me and the pau)N'ri/ati<m of familici 
who n-li*^! 'tn iJu rn f'»r •^■i]»j*»n. In the winter «»f i8ti the tcrri- 
lile j»rixN'.;n- of \\\\>^;!: -ri fp»m ham lit raft to machinery was 
M«'n in the !/.:•!• !:!«-. <>r rnai hinv breaking;, riots which bn>kcout 
o\cr thr n trthini ar.<! mi'lland muntii^, and which were only 
suppri^M-il l>y militar\' fxn e. While Litior was thus thfown out 
of i!^ iiMrr k'naiM^. and the rate of wages kept down at an afti- 
!':i i.dl;. I<>w *',;:'. :rr by the rapid ini reasi* of jiopulation, the rise IS 
the ]iri> v if whrat. %\hi< h bpiiiirht weahh ti» the landowner afid 
thr f.imi r. l>p-.:;:rit famint- and death to the poor, for EnKland 
wxs < ut o!T liv the ^JkT IvtrA the vast (i»m fields of the Continent 
f>r of Ameriia, whiih nowadays mlrrss fn>m their abundance 
the results of a bad hardest. Scarcity was followed by a tcfti* 


ble pwiperization of the laboring classes. The amount of the 
poor-nUc rose 50 per cent., and, wilh the increase of poverty, 
foUowtd its inevitable result, the increase of crime. 

With aodal and political troubles thus awaking anew to life 
about them, even Tor^- statesmen were not wiUing to face the 
trmble consequences of a niin of English industry such as might 
follow from the junction of America with Napoleon. They were 
ia fact preparing to withdraw the orders in council, when their 
pbns were arrested by the dissolution of the Perceval Ministry. 
Its pcMition had from the fir^t been a weak one. A return uf the 
ViJn^s madness made it necessary in the beginning of 1811 to 
cootct the r»^fen(7 on the Prince of Wales; and the Whig sym- 
pkthics of the Prince Ibrealencd for a while the Cabinet with 
dMniaaL Though this difficulty was surmounted, iheir hold of 
putrcr mnaincd insecure, and the insecurity of the Ministry 
told oo the conduct of the war; for the appan-nt inactivity uf 
WdEngton during 1811 was really due to the hesitation and ti- 
midity of the Cabinet at home. But in May, 1811, the assassi- 
Daliao of Perceval by a madman named Bcllin^ham brought 
about the dissolution of hi& Ministry'; ami fresh cITorls were 
Bwlc by the Recent to install the Whigs in office. 

Mutual distrust, however, again foiled his attempts; and the 
M iSiaiMty returned to office under the headship of l^nl Liver- 
pool, K nun of no great abilities, but tcmprratc, well informed, 
and endowed with remarkable skill in holding iliMxinlant cul- 
InfBca together. The most important of these cullcajjfuus was 
LorI Cutlereagh, who beramc Secniary for ForciKn Affain. 
Taw has long ago rrndcml juslice lo the political ability of 
rmliiii|1i. disguiseil as it was lo men of hi^ own il:iy by u i uri- 
f of expression; and the instinctivt g<xxi sense of 
I never showed itself more remarkably than in ihHr 
B It this crisis of his cool judgment, his high courage, 
I dbcerament, and his will, to the more show)' brilliancy of 
Ciwitrig His tint work indeed as a mir^istcr w.» lo meet the 
dufer in which Canning had involved the rouniry by his orders 
bi amacO. On June 73d, only twelve da>-s after the Miniftry 
had been (brmcd, these orders were re[>ralfd. But ijuirk as was 
CaMknagh'ft action, events had moveil even more quickly. 

At the opening of the year, America, in despair uf redrrss, 

m., TOL. XV —II. 


Holland, and of France ; and if her tnulc was checked for a time 
by the Berlin Decree, the efforts of Napoleon were soon rcndcrad 
fruitless by the smufg;ling s)*stem which sprang up along thetoutb- 
em coasts and the coast of North Gemumy. English expoits 
imleed had nearly doublal since the opening of the centtiry. 
Nfanufacturrs were profiting by the discoveries of Watt and Ark- 
wri^ht ; ami the consumption of raw a)tton in the mills of Lan- 
cashire n)sc during; the same pericxl from fifty to a hundred miD- 
ions of (x)un(ls. The vast accumulation of capital, as well as the 
vast increase of the ()o[)ulation at this time, told upon the landt 
and forced agriculture into a feverish and unhealthy prosperity. 
Wheat n>se to famine pric i*s, and the value of land rose in pco- 
[)ortion with the price of wheat. Enclosures went on with pro- 
ditcious rapidity; the income of ever)' landowner was doubled^ 
while the farmers were abk to intniduce improvements into the 
pnx i-ssi-s (»f a^ricultun" which change*! the whole face of the 
coiintn*. liut if the Incn^aM* (»f wealth was enormous, its distribu- 
tion was partial. 

During the t'lfiit-n years whiih prece<le<l Walerkw, the num- 
ber f>f the |x>|>;:b:i«>n mx' fn^m ten to thirteen millions, and this 
rapid imreaM' kept down the rate of wages, whiih woukl natu- 
rally have advantttl in a iDrri-^} Minding degret* with the tncmse 
in the national wealth. Kven manufac tua*s, though destined in 
the long run to lM*net'it the la!M)ring cLisses, seemevl at fir^ rather 
to tlepa-ss them; for one <»f the earlicNt results of the intfoduc- 
tion of ma* hiner\' wxs the niin of a numlxT (»f small trmdet 
whit h were c arric^il on at home and the |Kiu|)erization of faunilics 
who reliol on ihtni fr»r s'ij»;->n. In the winter of 1811 the terri- 
ble |»ri->^;jre of th:-* trar:';ti«»n fn»m handit raft to machinery wma 
Mtn in the I, ii' !!:!«-. or ma" hinr bnakin>;» riots which bn>kc out 
o\tr the norihtn^. ar.«! mi<ilanil counties, and which were only 
suppri-vMtl by militar)' fon e. While bljor was thus thrown out 
of itH t»Mer KH-jve**, and the rate of wagt-s kept down at an aiti- 
(\i i.illy lo^^ !';:^'^«:ri* by the rapid in( reas^* of {¥>pulation, the rise ia 
the yr.^ v of \%heat. uhi« h bp>UL:ht weahh to the landowner aad 
the f.ifTTitr. br*-.:;:ht famine and death to the poor, for ^'*gU'**l 
was ( ut <>:T bv the war fmm the vast cornfields of the CbntiDcot 
or of America, which nowoilays redress fn»m their abundance 
the results of a bad har\e^t. Scarcity was followed by a tcfri- 


bk ptupemation of the LiborioK classes. The amount of the 
poor-nle rose 50 per cent., and, with the increase of poverty, 
foQuwttl its inevitable result, the increase of crime. 

With tocial and political troubles thus awaking anew to life 
about them, even Tory statesmen were not wilting to face the 
terrible consc<]uenccs of a ruin of English industry such as might 
follow from the junction of America with Napoleon. They were 
in fact preparing to withdraw the orders in council, when their 
plans were arretted by the dissolution of the Perceval Ministry. 
Ita postJOQ had from the hr^t been a weak one. A return of the 
Kiqg*! madness made it neccsiiary in the beginning of i8ti to 
omfer the regency on the Prince of Wales; and the Whig sym- 
~ t of the Prince threatened for a wliile the Cabinet with 
Though this difficulty was surmounted, thdr hold of 
power remained insecure, and the insecuritj' of the Ministry 
told on the conduct of the war; for the apparent inactivity of 
WdEagtctn during 181 1 was really due to the hesitation and ti- 
nidhy o( the Cabinet at home. But in May, 1813, the assassi- 
Bltlaa of Pcfceval by a madman named Bellingham brought 
•boot tbe dissolution of his Ministry; and fresh efforts were 
■ude by Ibc Recent to install the Whigs in oflicc. 

Multtal dtslnist, hon-ever, again fotltxl his attempts; and the 
old Minislry returned to oflice under the headship of Lord Liver- 
pool, a man of no great abilities, but tem[>eniir, well informed, 
ml cntlovcd with remarkable skill in holding disconlani col- 
Ingim together. The most important of these colli-agu<9 was 
Lofd Cutlercagh, who became Secretary for Foreign Affairs. 
TiBOt bas long ago rrndereil jusiicc to the ptiliiiral aliiliiy of 
CMtkfca^ disguised as it was to men of his own day by a (uri- 
OH ialefidly of exprcsuon; and the instinctive gnud si-nse of 
9 never showed itself more remarkably than in their 
e at this crisis of his cool judgment, his hij^h fourage. 
hb diccnunenl, and his will, to the more showy brilliancy of 
*^— '"g Hu fint work in<leefl as a miniMer wils to meet the 
dM|Br Id which Canning had involved the country- by his orders 
fa fmwtffi On June 23d, only twelve days after the Ministry 
htd ban lormcd. these orders were repealed. Ilul quirk as was 
CMdCfflgb'a action, e^-ents ha>i movnl even mnn.- (juit kly. 

At the opening of tfac year, America, in dcs[Mut of mlrcss, 
■.,««(- av— It. 


Holland, and of France; and if her tnulc was checked for a time 
by the Berlin Decree, the efforts of Napoleon were soon rcndcrad 
fruitless by the smuggling s}'stem which sprang up along the sou th- 
em coasts and the coast of North Gerniany. English expoits 
indeed had nearly doui>lcd since the opening of the centtiry. 
Nfanufactun*s were profiting by the discoveries of Watt and Arfc* 
wright ; and the consumption of raw aitton in the mills of Lan- 
cashire ruse during the same pericxl from fifty to a hundred miD- 
ions of (K>unds. The vast accumulation of capital, as well as the 
vast increase of the {)opulation at this time, told upon the landt 
and forced agricultun* into a feverish and unhealthy prosperity. 
Wheat n>se to famine prices, and the value of land rose in pro- 
[iorti(»n with the price of wheat. Enclosures went on with pro- 
di^inus nipidity; the income of ever}' landowner was doubled^ 
while the farmers wert* abk to intnxlucc impmvements into the 
pnKt*ssi*s of agriculture which changi*d the whole face of the 
countn'. liut if the increase of wealth was enormous, itsdistribu- 
tion w;l.s |»ar!!al. 

During the fifteen years whiih preietletl Waterloo, the num- 
bvT (»f the |M»puLi!ii>n n>M* fn>m ten to thirtet*n millions, and this 
rapiil imreax- kept (i<»wn the rite of wages, whith woukl natu- 
rally have adxant nl in a (orn*^|Mm(ling degree with the inctvaie 
in the national wealth. Kven manufactures, th(»ugh destined in 
the king run to U-nrfit the la!x»ring classes, s(*eme<l at fir^ rather 
to (iepR-ss them: for c»ne of the earlie>t results 4»f the intnxluc- 
tion of ma(hinrr\- w:ls the niin of a numlier of small trades 

whii h were t arnnl nn at home and the |>au|K*rization of families 
who relitil on tht m f'»r ^uj»jNirt. In the winter <if iSii the terri- 
ble prexHun* of thiN iran-ition fn»m hamiic raft to machinery wms 
Mtn in the Lu'l'!:t<\ <ir ma< hine hn*aking, riots which bmkcout 
over the n^nhtni an<! niidLmd ounties, and which were only 
suppri*s?«e«l by militar)' fon e. While b)x>r was thus thrown ool 
of its older ^n>oves, and the rite of wages kei>t down at sn Slti* 
firi:illy low t'l'^'un- by the nipid im n*;Lsi- of iv)pulation, the rise itt 
the prii e of \% whii h bpait;ht wealth to the landowner sad 
the f.inruT. bp>i:;:ht famine and death to the poor* for ^'*g**'H 
wxs t ut <':T bv the war fn>m the vxst cornfields of the 

or of America, whith nowada\'s redress from their 

the results of a bad har\'L->t. Scarcity was followed by a tcffri- 


ble pauperization of the laboring classes. The amount of the 
poor-rate rose 50 per cent., and, with the increase of poverty, 
fallowed iti inevitable result, the increase of crime. 

With social and political troubles thus awaking anew to Ufe 
about them, even Tory statesmen were not willing to face the 
taRifale onuequcnccs of a ruin of En(;lish industry such as might 
iotknr from the junction of America with Napoleon. They were 
in bet pfvparing to withdraw the orders in council, when their 
pluB were arrested by the dissolution of the Perceval Ministry. 
ICi padtioa had from the first been a weak one. A return of the 
Kiog*! nudnc» made it necessary in ihv beginning of 1811 to 
caafa the regency on the Prince of Wales; and the Whig sym- 
■ of the Prince threatened for a while the Cabinet with 
Though this difficulty was surmounted, their hold of 
power remained insecure, and the insecurity of the Ministry 
IdU 00 the conduct of the w;Lr; fur the apparent inadtvily of 
WedmgtOQ during 181 1 was really due to the hesitation and ti- 
midity of the Cabinet at home. i)ut in May, 181 1, the assassi- 
■atioa of Perceval by a madman named Bcllingham bmught 
■bout the disaolution of his Ministry; and fresh efforts were 
■•dc by (he Regent to install the Wliigs in office. 

Mutual distrust, however, again foiled his aiiempts; and the 
oU Miniitry returned to office under the headship of Lord Liver- 
pool, a naa of no great ahiUtics, but temprnite, well informed, 
aad endowed with remarkable skill in holding discordant col- 
!■!■> together. The most important nf these colleagues was 
Laid CaitleiTagh. who became Scrrelary for Foreign AtTaira. 
Tlae baa long af^) rendered justice to ihv poUtical ability of 
ClMlcfea^ disguised as it was lu mvn <>( his own dny by a ruri- 
f of cxprc3.<uon; and the instinctive gmKl mim/c of 
T showed itself more remarkably than in ihcir 
e at this crisis of his cool judgment, his hiRh courage, 
Hi dhccnmiait, and his will, to the more showy brilliancy of 
His first work indeed as a minister was 10 meet the 
t In which Canning had involved the country by his orders 
On June i^d, only twelve days after the Minbtry 
had bean fanned, these orders were repealf<l. Hut quick as was 
CaMknafh'i action, events had movnl even more quit kly. 
At the opening of the year, America, in despair of redress, 

a.. VOL. XT— la. 


Holland, and of France; and if her trade was checked for a time 
by the Dcriin Decree, the efforts of Napoleon were soon rcndcrad 
fruitless by the smuggling s>'stem which sprang up along the sou th- 
em coasts and the coast of North Gerniany. English expoits 
imlced had nearly doubled since the opening of the centtiry* 
Manufactures wen* pmfiting by the discoveries of Watt and Arfc* 
wri^ht; and the consumption of raw cotton in the mills of Lan- 
cashire ruse during the same pericxi from fifty to a hundred miD- 
ions of |M)unds. The vast accumulation of capital, as well as the 
vast increase (if the [topulation at this time, told Ufmn the landt 
and forcnl agriculture into a feverish and unhealthy prosperity. 
Wheat ntse to famine prices, and the value of land rose in pro- 
|M)rtion with the price of wheat. Enclosures went on with pro- 
di&n<»us nipidity; the income of ever}' landowner was doubled* 
while the farmers were abk to intnviuce improvements into the 
pHK'esses of agriculture which changed the whole face of the 
rountr)'. Hut if the increase of wealth was enormous, its distribu- 
tion was partial. 

During the nflivn years whiih preiwletl Waterloo, the num- 
IxT of the |Mi|i;:btii>n n»4* fmm ten to thirtirn millions, and this 
rapid in< n\iM^' kept down the rate of wages, which woukl lutu- 
rally have aiUanteil in a cnrn*^iionding degree with the incrrase 
in the national wealth. Kven manufactures, th(»ugh destined in 
the l4)ng run t(» U-net'it the Li)>i>ri:)g classes, s(*emi*d at first nthcr 
to <ie[>ress them; for one of the earliest results of the intnxluc- 
tiori of ma(hinrr\- wxs the niin of a numlier of small trmdet 

whit h were larritil on at h«»me and the |>3U|)erization of familift 
who n-linl on thrm f«)r N'.i}i;N»rt. In the winter <»f iSii the terri- 
ble pn-x^un* of thi-^ tran-ititri fn»m handicraft to machinery wma 
M-en in the Lu'iiiit*, or mat hinc hn-aking. riots which bnAc out 
over the n^nhem an<! miillaml i'»untii-s, an<l which were only 
suppresNCfl by militar)* fon e. While b)x>r was thus thrown ool 
of ilN older gpNives, and the rate of wagi-s kqH down at an aiti* 
fit ially low t';^'ure by the rapid inc reoM.- (*f iy)pulation, the rise in 
the pri« e of wheat. whi< h bniui:ht wealth to the landowner and 
the farmer. lip>v:irht famine and death to the poor, for ^j*b*^-^ 
wxs rut o!T bv the war fn>m the vxst curnfields of the Contmcal 
or of Americ a, whit h nowada\'s redress from their abundaarr 


the results uf a bad hant-st. Scarcity was foUowcd by a tcffri- 


bit pauperiution of the laboring classes. The amount of the 
poor-tmte rase 50 per cent., and, with the increase of poverty, 
lolknnd its inentablc result, the increase of crime. 

With social and political troubles thus awaking anew to life 
about tbcm, even Tory stal<:smen were not willing to face the 
tBiible consequences of a ruin of English industry such as might 
Ubw from the junction of America with Napoleon. They were 
in tact preparing to withdraw the orders in council, when thdr 
pluit were armied by the dissolution of the Perceval Ministry. 
ItB pOBJtion had from the first been a weak one. A return of the 
King*! Dudncss made it necessary in the beginning of 1811 to 
r the regency on the Prince of Wales; and the Whig sym- 
I of the Prince threatened for a while the Cabinet with 
Though this difficulty was surmounted, their hold of 
power lenuuned insecure, and the insecurity of the Ministry 
told on the conduct of the war; for the apparent inactivity of 
WeUogtOD during 181 1 was really due to the hesitation and ti- 
mUity of the Cabinet at home. But in May, tSii. ihe assassi- 
aalioa of Perceval by a madman named Ik-llingham bmughl 
dxNtt the dissolution of his Ministry; and fresh (.-Sorts were 
Bade by the Regent to install the Whigs in office. 

Mutti&l distrust, however, again foiled his attempts; and the 
old klinislry returned to office under the headship of Lord Liver- 
pool, a man of no great abilities, but temperate, well informed, 
vkI mdowc d with remarkable skill in holding discordant col- 
IngBea lofether. The most important of ihrsc colleagues was 
Lori Ciitlcrcagh, who became Secretary for Fon-ign Affairs. 
Timt hai long a^ rendvre<l justice to the political ability of 
CMtkvcB^ disguised as it was to men nf hb own day by a curi- 
•■i iflftfidty of expression; and the instinctive goiKl sense of 
1 ne^xr showed itself more remarkably than in iheir 
t M this crisis of hLs cool judgment, his high courage, 
ment. and his will, to the more showy brilliancy of 
His first work indeed as a minister was to meet the 
Angv Id which Caruiing had involved ihr cnuntry by his orders 
h coiodL On June 33d, only twelve days after the Minbtry 
■ fofiDcd, these orders were rrpralcd. Tliil cjuick as was 
[h's action, events had movcii even more quickly. 
At the opening of the year, America, in dcsjHur of redress, 


Holland, and of France; and if her tnulc was checked for a time 
by the Berlin Decree, the efforts of Napoleon were soon rcndcrad 
fruitless by the smufg^ling s)'stem which sprangupalong thcaoutb- 
em coasts and the coast of North Gemumy. English eiports 
indeed had nearly doubled since the opening of the century. 
Manufactures were profiting by the discoveries of Watt and Ark- 
wri^^ht ; and the consumption of raw cotton in the mills of Lan- 
cashire n>sc during the same pericxl from fifty to a hundred nuD- 
ions of |M)unds. The vast accumulation of capital, as well as the 
vast increase of the [Kipulation at this time, told upon the land, 
and forced agriculture into a feverish and unhealthy prosperity. 
Wheat ntse tr) famine prices, and the value of land rose in pro- 
[Mfrtion with the price of wheat. Enclosures went on with pro- 
digious nipidity; the income of ever}' landowner was doubled, 
while the farmers wrre abk to introduce impmvements into the 
pHKi-sses of asriculture which changi*d the whole face of the 
count r\'. Hut if the increase of wealth was enormous, its distribu- 
tion was partial. 

During the fifteen years whieh pretwiefl Waterkio, the num- 
lx*r of the |K>|>i]la:inn ni>e fn)m ten to thirtei*n millions, and this 
rapid inirea-^- kept down the rate of wages, which woukl natu- 
rally have ad%an«e«l in a (i>rre«*; Minding degree with the increase 
in the nati(»nal wealth. Kven manufac turt-s, though destined in 
the long run to U-netit the tailoring elasM-s, sivmed at first rather 
to de[iress them; f>>r one of the earliest resuhs of the intrtxhit- 
tion t>f mathinerv- was the ruin of a numlier of small trades 
whi( h were (arrie<i on at h^me and the |>au|K*rization of familici 
whi» reliol nn them f«ir N'.ij»;»*»rt. In the winter of iSii the tcni- 
lile pres>iin- of thi> trariitiun fn»m handi< raft in machinery was 
S4vn in the I,u<!!ilr. nr mat hint* hn*aking, riots which broke out 
oxtr the nirthcm and nii'lland ciunties, and which were only 
supprevNitl by militar)' fon e. While blxir was thus thrown ool 
of itH uMer gnH>ves, and the nite <»f wages kept down at an iffti- 
fi( i.illy low f;::ure by the rapid int n-ax* of |)opulation, the rise in 
the prii e of wheal. \\hi« h bn»UL;ht wealth to the landowner and 
the f.irmer. I»n':;;:hl famine and death to the poor, lor 
wxs rut o:T bv the war fn)m the vast curn-fields of the 
or of .\meri(a, whiih nowada\'s redress from their abundance 
the results of a bad har^-c^t. Scarcity was followed by a ton- 


bfe pKUperizatton of the laboring rlasscs. The amount of the 
pDor-nte roM 50 per cent., and, with the increase of poverty, 
ioBowcd its inevitable rcsuh, the increase of crime. 

"With aodaX and political troubles thus awaking anew to life 
■beet than, even Tory statesmen were not willing to face the 
lenftle eooMqucnces of a ruin of English industry such as might 
IoIIdw frooi the junction of America with Napoleon. They were 
1b bet ptrparing (o withdraw the orders in council, when thdr 
plans were arrested by the dissolution of ihc Perceval Ministry. 
Its positioQ bad from the first been a weak one. A return of the 
bag's madDcn made it necessary in the Ix-^nning of 181 1 to 
taler tte nigency on the Prince of Wales; and the Whig s>-m- 
I cf the Prince threatened for a while the Cabinet with 
Tbou^ this difficulty was surmounted, their hold of 
pinKr remained insecure, and the inset-urity of the Ministry 
told oo the cotKluct of the war; for the apparent inactivity of 
Wcllinglon during tSti was really due to the hesitation and ti- 
■idityirftbe Cabinet at home. But in May, 1813, the assassj- 
■tfion of Perceval by a madman nami-d Bellingham brought 
■boat the dissolution of his Ministry; and fresh efforts were 
■•de bjr tbc Regent to install the Whi)^ in ofTice. 

Motul distrust, however, again foiled his attempts; and the 
M MinbUT returned to office under the heailship of I^rd Liver- 
pool, a mu of no great abilities, but temperate, well in^>rmed| 
Md endowed with remarkable skill in holilins disconlant col- 
iB^Bi together. The most important of these a>Ilea((iies was 
Laid CMtkreft^ who became Secretary for Forei^ AUairs. 
TtaM hai long ago rendered justice lo the [xtlitiral ability of 
I, disguised as it was to men of his own day by a curi- 
r of expression; and thr insiinrtive gixxl M-nsc of 
T showcii itself more remarkably than in their 
padkrcBCc al thia crisis of his cool judgment, his hi^h cniirage, 
Ha iBwiiiiiiii III, aiu) his will, to the more shov,^ brilliancy of 
CiHiag. Rb tint work indeed as a mini%trr w,t.\ to mci-l the 
^^§0 hi which Caiming had involved thecountr)* by his orders 
ia HMPdl On June ijd, only twelve da>-s after the Mini^tiy 
B fanned, these orders were rrpralc<I. But quick as was 
h't action, events had moveil even motv 4]uiikly. 

At the opening of the year, America, in despair of rvdrtas, 


had resolved on war; Congress had voted an incraue of both 
army and na\7, and laid in April an embargo on all vessels in 
American harbors. Actual hostilities might still ha%x been 
averted by the repeal of the onlers» on which the English Cabi- 
net was resolvcfl; but in the confusion which followed the mur- 
der of Perceval, and the strife of {tartics for oflfice through the 
month that followed, the opportunity was lost. When the newt 
of the repeal reaihc<i .\merica, it came six w*eeks tcx) late. On 
June 1 8th an act of Congress had declared the United States at 
war with (ireat Britain. 

Had Naixileim been able to reap the fruits of the strife which 
his \yo\ky had thus fone«l on the two English peoples^ it is hard 
to say how Britain could have co(k-<1 with him. Cut off from her 
markets alike in east and w(*st, her industries chocked and dift- 
organi2e«l, a financial criMS addc*d to her social embarrassment, 
it may be doubtetl whether she must not have bowed in the eiMl 
befon* the prexsure of the Continental System. But if that sys- 
tem had thru>t her into a^revsion ami ruin, it was as inevitably 
thrusting the s-ime a;;vrri*N.Mon and ruin on her rivaL The mo- 
ment when th( I'nitid Siatis enten-il into the great struggle was 
a critical moment in the hi>l«>rv' of mankind. 

Six davs after Pri>i<Ii'nt Madi?«t)n issuctl his declaration of Napolnm (n»v*<n| the Nienun t»n his maah to Moscow. 
Suicesikful xs his |ii>hiy hail Invn in stirring up war between 
Knglan<l and Amenta, it had Urn n<» less suicessful in bnemk- 
in^ the alhan^e vihiih he had made with the Czar at Tilsit and 
in forun^ «*n a with Russia. < >n the one hand, Napi> 
lti»n ^^aN irrit.i:*-^! \*\ thi- rtf;is.d of Kuvsia to enforce strictly the 
Miv^K'n^ion Ml all tra<!4' with Kn^Iand, though su< h a su^|>en»ao 
Would havi- ruinol the Rus>ian bnduwners. On the other, Al- 
exander s.iw with >;rowini: anxiety the advance of the Frencli 
Kmpire whi( h sprang fnim Najxjl«»n's resolve to enforce hit ij*- 
tern l>y a seizure of the northern citast^i. In i8ii tloUand, the 
Hans4-a!ii t(»wns, iiart of Wi-stphalia, and the Duchy of Okkn- 
burg lAen- suiievMvcIy annexed, and the Duchy of Mecklctt- 
burv threatenol with M-i/ure. A |ierrmptnry denumd on the 
|iart of France for the entire cessation of intercourse with Eag- 
bnd bmught the <{uarrel to a head ; and preparations 
uo both sides fur a gigantic struggle. 


Even before it opened, this new enterprise ^avc fresh vigor 
to Napoleon's foes. The best of the French soidjcis were drawn 
from Spain to the frontier of Poland; and Wellington, whose 
annjr had been raised to a force of forty thousand Englifihmen 
and twenty thousand Porlugucae, profited by the withdrawal to 
ihiow off his system of defence and to assume an attitude of at- 
tack. Gudad Rodri(^ and Budajox were taken by storm during 
ibc ipring of 1813; and at the close of June, three da}-H bcforv 
Napoleon croned the Niemcn in his manh on Moscow, Well- 
iogloa u owcd the Agrt'da in a marrh on Salamanca. 

After a »erie» of miisterly minrmenls on twth sides, Mar- 
noDl with the French Army of ihc North attacked the English 
oa the hiUs in the neijfhtMirhood of that town on July 3n\. 
While be wa« marching round the right of the Engli<.h {xnition 
fab left wing remained iaolaled; and with a sudden cxcbmaliun 
at "MarmcHit is lostl" Wellington tlung on it the bulk of his 
fctne, cnuhed it, and drove the whole army from the field. The 
Ion on cither side was nearly (.Yiual, but failure had demoralized 
ibe Frmch army; and its retreat forced Joseph to leave Madrid, 
aad SouU 10 evacuate .\ndalusia and lo concentrate the South- 
ern Anny on the eastern coast. While Napoleon was stilt push- 
illf ilowly over the vast plains of Poland, Wellington made his 
entry into Madrid in August, and bc];an the siege of llurgoq. 
The town, howe\Tr, held out gnlbnily for a month, till thi- ad 
Tmncr of the two French armies, now conccnirateil in the mirth 
aod «outb of Spain, fore(.-d Wellington, in OctoU-r, to a hasty re 
Iratt on the Portuguese frontier. 

Wellington once more lift I'ortugal in May, iSr.?. with an 
Moay which had now risen to ninety thousand men; and over- 
tlkinc the French fon.~es in retreat at Viloria un June 31st, he 
jrAk"^ mi them a defeat which druve them in utter niut across 
fhe P yr en ce*. Madrid was at once evacuatttl; ami Cluu/el (ell 
bkck fnicn Saragossa into France. The \'ictory not only frrti) 
Spain tntm its invaden^; it restorer! the spirit of the allien The 
doK of the armistice was fullowtx) by a union of Austria with 
Ac foccca of Prussia and the Czar; ami in October the final 
u i ul hrow (rf Napoleon at Leipsic foreed the French army to 
U bade is tout aiross the Rhine. 

Tte mr now hurried to its dmse. l'hou(;h held at bay for a 


while by the sieges of San Sebastian and Pampeluna, as wdl as 
by an obstinate defence of the PyrcnecSi Wellington s ii ccc cd cd 
in the very month of the triumph at Leipsic in winning a victory 
on the Didassoa, which enabled him to enter France. He was 
soon followed by the allies. For two months more NapofeoQ 
maintained a wonderful struggle with a handful of raw coo* 
scripts against their overwhelming numbers; while in the south 
Soult, forced from his intrenchc^i camp near Bayonne and de- 
feated at Orthcs, fell back before Wellington on Toukmte. 
Here their two armies met in April in a stubborn and indedsvv 
engagement. But though neither leader knew it» the war waa 
even then at an end. The struggle of Napoleon himself had 
ended at the close of Manh with the surrender of Paris; and 
the submission of the capital was at once followed by the abdi- 
cation of the Emperor and the return of the Bourbons. 


AJ). 1808-1811 


Is to dcMC cmnection triih the asylum given by Braiil to PortueucM 
■Ofmltjr ia iSoS, the aimosl bloodless rcvolulioa wherebjT thai Soulh 
rt ■rrinn eomtry obubed complete independence prcMOU an unusiul 
iMMae> of nuttiotial birth. I'ortugue&c colaniution in ttniil began a> 
<sriy u 1510. During the next ceniury the colonials loai much ol their 
[1111 wiiiiii to the Uuich. but quickly recovered them. 

AlWr thU the Porluguete in Itnuil adopted a policy of rtitriclJnn attd 
VKlMiaa; and boundary diiputei, tuch 11 have ever vexed the Soulh 
AaCfkm republics. cauned keriau>diffirullics. In i;i] the title ol Tort- 
igkl IB llw Uraiillan territory wasconliimrd by the I'eacc ol Utrecht. 
amd for ftlmoat a century the colony exialed without disturbance or ini' 

t attack upon Portugal, and the evcnia which ensued in 
Aat eDMBiTy and her South American colony, form distinct epiiodes in 
th* bUlory of this period and Ihc years directly following During the 
■aeadcncy of Bonaparte in Kurope, Portugal upheld the cause of Eng- 
iMid. widi the mull that the French dictator despatched an army of pun- 
iifeB«al acaiaat Lisbon, announcing thai the 'house of llraganta' had 
■uaad to tcicn. 

IN 1807 the French army, under Mar^al Junot, invadi-d Port- 
ugal with the dcsi)^ of sc-izint; ihe myal family. The rHncc 
^tfyn, Doni John VI, hod tried every means, and had sub- 
niUed lo the most humilulin}{ cunct^ons, to avert ihc impend- 

Bui Ni4xilenn had rrsolvrfl on adding the I'enin'-ula In his 
i on November Jfjlh ihe van^an) of his army sur- 
I the heights of Lisbon. 'Ilu-n, and not till then, the 
Prince reaoh-ed ujNm rmiKniliun to Hra^il. 

ErcTTtbinfC of value lliat could U- trunsj^ned was hastily 
CBfawkcd with the ntyal family. The i'onugui-v fleet cun 
d of d^l ships of the line, four frigates, twelve brigs, and a 

ro( iDerchanlmen. 
IIhk, fai oocnfMuiy with an English squadron, then lying at 
Ike mouth of the Tagus, bore away fur Bnutl. The French took 


possession of Lisbon the following day. Eariy in jAnuary, i8oB» 
the news of these surprising events reached Rio de Janetio aad 
excited the most lively interest. 

What the Brazilians had scarcely dreamed of as a posai- 
hle evrnt was now suddenly to Ix* realized. The royal family 
might lx> ex{H*ctefl to arrive any day, and pn*iNiralions for their 
reception (Kcupied the attention of all. The Viceroy's palace 
was immediately pre(Kin*<l, and all the public oflices in the pal- 
ace square were vacated to aca)mm<Mlate the royal suite. These 
not Ix-ing deeminl suHicientt proprietors of private houses in the 
neighlx)rh(MMl wen* a*(|uired to leave their residences and send 
their keys to the Vicemy. 

Such wi*n* the S(*ntiments of the people respecting the hoa- 
pitality due to their distingui.shetl gul*^ts that nothing seems to 
have Ixrn withheld ; while many, even of the less opulent fami- 
lies, voluntarily ofTiTt*d sums of money and objects of value to 
administer to their comfort. 

The t1(Tt h;ivint; Ixm scattertfl in a storm, the principal 
sels had put into Kahia. But at length they all made a safe 
tr>- into the harixir of Kio, on March 7, 180S. In the manift 
tations of joy ufxm this (KcaMon the houses were deserted 
thi- hills wtTi" (t»vcn-<l with s|Mxtat«>rs. Those who could, pfo- 
cunxl Ijoats and sailnl out to miTt the n^yal sf|uadnin. The 
Princr, immiiliatrly after bnding, pntccedevi to the cathedrmL 
publicly ti> ofTir up thanks fur his safe arrival The cttjr waa 
ilium inat(-<i for ninr sucn-vsivr I'vrnings. 

In onit-r t<i furm an i'lra of thr chancres that have ocrumd 
in Bri/.il. it mu^t Im- rrmarkc-d that up to the period now 
ur, Itr (t)nNiil<Tation all (nmmtrcr an<l inlrrcoursc with forrigll- 
er* had Urn riiri^ily pn)hibit<"»i !»y thr narrow {jolicy of PortugaL 
W's^U of nations allutl ti> the mother cf>untry were occasaonaBf 
{M-rmitteci to ii»me to amhor in the (jorts of this manunoth col- 
ony, but neither [las^-ngers n^r rn-w were allowed to land, n* 
rrpting undfT the sufierintendcnce of a guard of soldienL 

To prrvi-nt all [v>ssibility of trade, ffireign ve9aell» 
the>' had put in to npair damages or to pn<ure provisioQt 
water, immediatelv on their arrival were invested with a 
hfniw guant, and the time for their remaining was Axed bjr the 
authorities acamling to the sup|w»Mx] necessities of tba case. Aa 


a caoBeqnencc of these oppressive rrgulations, a people who 
VCR Tkh in gold and diamonds were unable to procure the a- 
atotiai tmplcmcots of agriculture and of doin(.-stic convenience 
A Mobor who could display the most ricb and massive plate at a 
iestivil. might not be able to furnish each of his guests with & 
knife tt tabic. A single timibler at the same time might be under 
the necessity of making repeated circuits through the company. 
The printing-press had not made its appearance. Books and 
laming were equally rare. The people were in every way made 
to fed ihdr dependence; and the spirit of industry and thai of 
cBtoprisc wcir alike unkno^«-n. 

On the arrival of the Prince RcRcnt the ports were thrown 
ofpcn. A printing press was introducr<l, and a myal gazette was 
paUtshed. Academies of medicine and the fme arts were estab- 
bhed. The Royal Library, containing sixly thousand volumes 
tt books, was opened for the free use of the public. Foreigners 
were invited, and embassies from England and France took up 
iheir residence at Rio de Janeiro. 

From thb period decided improvements were made in the 
oooditioD and aspect of the city. New streets and squares were 
added, and splendid rt^idcnces werr arranged on the neigh- 
baring islands and hills, augmcniing wiih the growth of the 
town the picturesque beauties of the surrounding scenery. The 
i continued inllus of Portuguese and foreigners not 

f showed itself in the population of Kio, but extended inland, 

■big nrw ways of communication to be opened with the inle- 
■ towns to be errcted, and old ones to be improved. In 
Ct« the wbolc face of the country underwent great and rapid 

The manners of the people abo experienced a rnnesponding 

mage. The fashions of Euro)x- were inlnxlucnl. From the 

n and restraints of non-iniercourM- the ix-<iple emerged 

D the festive ceremonies of a court, whoM- levees and gala da>'S 

m together multitudes from all directions. In the mingled 

f which the capital now olTered, the dust of retirement was 

d off, antiquated cuMoms gave way, new ideas and modes 

rf He wen adopted, and these spread from circle to circle and 

ftlB town to town. 

■ ■Kumcd an aspect etguaUy changed. Fordgn com* 


possession of Lisbon the following day. Eariy in jAnuaryt i8oB» 
the news of these surprising events reached Rio de Janeiro aad 
excitevl the most lively interest. 

What the Bnuilians had scarcely dreamed of as a possi- 
ble event wxs now suddenly tci Ik- n*alized. The royal family 
might Ix- ex|H*cti'd to arrive any (by, and prefiarations for their 
ri*ception (Kcupiiti the attention of all. 'Ilie Viceroy** palace 
was immediately pri*[>an*<l, and all the public olTices in the pal- 
ace sf|uare were vacated to accommcMlate the royal suite. These 
not Ix ing divmed sutTicient, pn>prieturs of private houses in the 
neighlx>rh(MMl wen* re(|uire«l to leave their residences and send 
their kevs to the Vicenw. 

Such wen* the si*ntiments of the people respecting the hos- 
pitality due to their di>tingui>he<l gue>ts that nothing srans to 
have Ixm withheld; while many» even of the less opulent fami* 
lies, Vf)luntarily ofTeret) sums of money and objects of \-alue to 
administer to their comfort. 

The tleet h;ivini; Ix-en ^catlen^l in a storm, the principod Te»- 
M'ls had put into Kahia. Hut at length they all made a safe en* 
tr\' into the har^Mir (»f Kio, on March 7, 180S. In the inanifc»* 
tation** of jny ui>i»n thi^ (Kxa>ion the houses were deserted and 
the hilU were (tivrn-*! with s|Kttators. lliosc who could, pfo- 
curetl Uiat-^ and sailtfl <iut to mii-t the n>yal M{uadron. The 
rrince. immttiiatrly after bnding, pnicei*di'<l to the cathedraL 
publicly to ofTer up thanks for hi> safe arrival, llie city was 
illuminatefl for nine •*u(cexsiv<- evenings. 

In (»nler to form an i'iea of the changf-^ that have ocrumd 
in Brazil, it mu^t U- remarktfl that up to the period now 
ur. If r tonsideratior. all (omnune and intrrcourse with forriipi- 
er^ had Uin rii^idly }»r<ihibit«tl by the nam)w [vdicy of PoitugiL 
VexM.-U of nation^ al]:eil to the mother country were occasaonaBf 
l^nnitteil to come to anchftr in the |iorts of this mammoth col- 
ony, but neither [KL>s4*ngers nor crew were allowed to land, CI- 
cepting under the su[M'rintendenre of a guard of aoldien. 

T<i f»rrvent all ii«>sMbility of trade, foreign vesseli* 
they had put in to n pair dama::e^ or to pnxrure provisioos 
mater, immcdiatelv on their arrival were invested with a 
houv guani, and the time for their remaining was hxtd bjr the 
authorities according to the sup[M»scd necessities of th« caae. As 


a coiuequence of these oppressive regulations, a people who 
wen rich in gold and diamonds were unable lo procure the cs- 
•entiml implcmcnu of agriculture and of domcsiic convenience. 
A Mohor who could display the most rich and massive plate at a 
fcftival, might not be able to furnish each of his gucsu with a 
knife at Utb'ie. A single tumbler at the same lime might be under 
the necemtj of making repeated circuits through the company. 
The printing press had not mode its appearance. Books and 
Icwning were equally rare. The people were in ever)' way made 
to fed their dependence; and the spirit of industry and thai of 
ciilai»ise were alike unknown. 

On the arrival of the Prince Regent the ports were thrown 
A printing' press was introduced, and a royal gazette was 
Academies of medicine and the fine arts were cstab- 
tUhecL The Royal Library', cuntaining sixty thousand volumes 
at bonks, was opened for the free use of the public. Foreigners 
were invited, and embassies from England and France took up 
their residence at Rio dc Janeiro. 

FiDm this period decided improvements were made in the 
eonditioo and a5pect of ihc city. New streets and squares were 
added, and splendid residences were arranged on the neigh- 
boring islands and hills, augmenting with the growth of the 
town the picturesque U-auties of the surrounding scenery. The 
i coDtinunl influx of Portuguese and foreigners not 

f ibowed itself in the population of Rio, but extended inland, 
g ne* ways of communication to be opened with the inte- 
rior — Dcw towns to be erected, and old ones to be improved. In 
ha, the whole face of ihe «>untry underwent great and rapid 

The manners of the people also experienced a corresponding 
dunitc. The fashions of Europe were intro<iuc(-d. From the 
•cdusion and restraints of non inlerrourv the people emerged 
failo the festive crrrmonirs of a court, whose levees and Rala days 
dnw tof[rthcr multitudes from all directions. In the minified 
ncKtj which the capital now ofTen-d. the dust of retirement was 
bnaked off, antiquated nisioms gave way, new icJeos and modes 
of He were adopted, and these spread from cirele to drelc and 
iMn to^n lo tcrwn. 

d an aspect e<|uaUy changed. Foreign com- 


mcrcial houses were opened, and foreign Artisans established 
thi*in}<*lvc-s in Rio and other cities. 

This omntr)' could nu longer remain a colony. A decree was 
pmmul^tctl in Di-cember, 1815, declaring it elevated to the 
<lignity of a kingflom, and hcrcaftiT to form an integral part of 
the Uniti^l Kingdom of Portugal, Algar\'es, and BraziL It b 
^carci'ly {Mtssiljlc to imagine the enthu>iasm awakened by this 
unkMtknl for change throughout the va5t extent of Portuguese 
America. Messengers were despatchcfl to bear the news, which 
was haiktl with sfMrntaneous illuminations from the La Plata to 
the* Amazon. Scarcely was this event consununated when the 
Qut*t'n, Donna Maria I, flii^fl. 

She was mother to the Prince Regent, and had been for yean 
in a state of mental imlx-cilit y, so that her death had no influence 
u|x>n |M>litical afTairs. Her funeral obsequies were performed 
with great s|>len<ior; and her son, in respect for her memoryt 
(leLiyetl the arc Limation of hi^ succession to the throne for a jrcar. 
He >*aN at Irnirth rmwnt^l with the title of I)om John VI. The 
ceremonies of the mnmation were celebrated with suitable mag- 
nifiience in the palace v|uare, nn February 5, 1818. Amid all 
the advanta^e^ attenilant u(>on the new state of things in Braal 
there were many c ircumstanc e'^ calculatetl to provoke political dis- 
i(*ntent. Mr. .-\rmi!a;;e has vc n* appn'priately summed up the 
|N>litical ccmditinn of lira/.il at this {xTicMi in the following terms: 

"A >warm of ntttiy and unprinciple*! adventurers came over 
with the n^val family, fur whom the (jovemment felt constrained 
t>> r.nd places. Thcx- men t<iok but little interest in the wrliaie 
f»f the *i>untr\*. an«i w« re far more eager t«> enrich themsdfa 
th.iri tt» administer ji:-:i( r or lu U r.efit the public. The rivalry, 
\\h:« h ;il'.v.iys pn \:iile«i Utwitn the native Brazilians and the 
r"rv.:kn;( m*, f«»urid. in this >U\\v of thint^, a new cause of excite- 
ment. I><)m John, fnim his naturally obliging disposition, de- 
liijhtttl in rewardini; ever>' M-nirc rendered to him or to the 
Sta*' ; I'Ut Ixin^ Mraitenetl for funds, he adopted the rhfiptr 
ci^ti'm "f IxMowini; titulary hf»noni uf^m those who had merited 
his fa\ r. To such an extent did he carry this species of libcr- 
ahty !^«tt d'jrir.i: the |>i-ri("] (tf hi^ administration he distribiiled 
more honorary insignia than had been conferred byall the ptv* 
monarehs of the house of Draganxa. 


"Ttwae merdunts and landed proprietors, who, on the ar- 
rival of Ibe roya] cort^, had given up their houses and advanced 
Acir mooey to do hunor to their guests, were decorated with the 
virioQt bcMMnry orders, originally instituted during the days 
cf cUviliy. Individuals were dubbed knights who had never 
1?«F*M 00 a spur; and commcndadores of the Order of Christ 
wcft ccmted in the persons of those who were by no means learned 
in the ckmcnlaiy doctrines of their missals. 

"The excitement resulting from such a distribution of hon- 
on, in a caunlry where titulary distinctions were hitherto almost 
unknown and where the veneration for sounding titles and anti- 
quated institutions was as profound as it was unenlightened, 
ONlId ODi but be great These, being now brought apparently 
whhtn tbc reach of all, became the great objects of competition 
to (be aspiring; and there was soon no species of petty tyranny 
whkfa ma not put in force, nor any degradation which was not 
cheerfully submitted to, when these manifestations of royal favor 
woe the objects in view. Success was generally altendixl with 
aa tsttmtaneous change in the style of living. Knights could no 
looger descend to the drudgeries of commercial life, but were 
compelled to li\-c either on resources already acquired or, in 
default of resources, to solicit employment under the Govcm- 

"Here, however, the diiTiculties were greater than in the first 
inaance — competition being increasetl by the numenms emigrants 
ban the mother-country. Even when obtained, the emoluments 
llffbfll to public olTiccs were loo limited to admit of much ex- 
tW W^nceoo the part of the holders. Opponunitics were never- 
Ihriea bcqurntly occurring for the sale of favors anil exemptions, 
wdA tbe Tcnality of the Brazilians in olTice became ere long equal 
Id thai of their Portuguese colleague*. These things, together 
with tbe wretched state of morals that prevailed at court, were 
rafn^tH'*' 10 foment those jealousies of fon-ign dominion which 
coold hardly (ail to arise in view of the independence recently 
a c t ki wl by tbc En^ish colonies of North America, and of the 
iBfohidanaiy aliugf^ in which the neighboring colonies of Spain 
WER already en^iged. 

"Acomdougncaaof this increasing discontent, and a fear thai 
Bnifl would by and by follow the example of her Spanish od^- 


bors, (loubtk-ss had a powerful influence in causing the country 
to \je {Nilitii ally ckvaU'il to the rank uf a kingdom. 

**Qui(-tmss |iri'vaili-<l fur several }'earsi but discontent be- 
came gradually (lis.M*minataI, and was often promoted by the 
viry nu-:in> um(I fur its suppn*ssion. Murmurs, too, were ex- 
1 ittnljiijt as yit thiy ftiund noiiho; the only printing press in the 
(in:ntrv Im ini! undir thr imnu-diate direction of the n)val author- 
itics. 'riiroUL'h it> nudium ihi* public was duly and faithfuOy 
intomuti (dm (-mill;: the health of all the princes in Europe. 
Ofhiial (ilids, ))irth(l;iy (nIcs, and {>aneg>rics on the reigning 
family from time t«» time illumiiufl its iKi^es, which were unsul 
lidl titluT by the iljuUiiions of flimtxracy or the exposure of 
^riiA.iiuis. To ha\c j:]d;:i-d of the country by the tune of its 
orilv iour:;:iI. i: must haxc Ixm i>r(inoun(.e<| a terrestrial taradisc, 
wh< r( now.r.l of mmpLiirU lud ever yet foun*l utteranie, '* 

The re\(<l .tinn which itiiirreil in Portugal in iSji, in favur 
(»f.nn:>;i:.:tin:.. v..i«» imniediatelvre>;>.i:ided ii» l>va similar one in 
\\\a:\\. Afu r \\\'.\K \\ K\K it( m( i.i and alarm fmm the tumultuous 
m«'\trr.( r.s ».f \\a ii-;!*. uh- Yk'wv^ <I)i»m Ji»hn VI) confenrd 
u;i« r. his si.n I)irn W lr>>. I'rirue, the othte of regent and 
lieutt :-..i:-.: ti» ili^ M.iie^iv in liie k>i:)jdi>rn i>f Brazil. He then 
h:i>!er.« d 1):^ d« ;>.irt'.:re f< r PiTtULMl. at i omjianial by the remain- 
der nf \\.^ fa;r.:I\ :i:. !: lit | •:!'.-:; .il n •I'ility wh'ttud followed him. 
l*he (!>h> .iT'.i :.«d \\\ ;..i:ih e:r.liarked on Ixiard a line of battle 
>h ;» "n April .m. f^.i. K.Lvirik: ihe widest anil fairest portion of 
hi^ d' ••:';::•.:•■: •< :-• .iM i;!;I"'ni«1 I»r de-tir.v. 

K.'.: : ! ..- !: : i K< f :. \\v ;» l!*.(.d i^-es in nra/.il during the 
l.i-' !• :i \t.::'. I'Tt ..!< r • }i.i:;;:t ^ >t:ll were to tran>pire. Dam 
r» ;• ' v..i«. ..• :;..^ ;-::-: :'.\' ;.:;. thne \earN of a^je. He had left 
1'- '• ..-..l i^:.' :. .1 1 1 :. -v* i 1:> '.'..irnu^t .i^;'ir.iti«i;;s were ajisoiiatcd 
w ••! !:;i I..- ! : ;. - .1 i *..:i..;i. In iSi; he was married to the 
Ar. ':: !.:ih( -> Le^*;^ ! i:::.i. of t!ir hou-K- of Austria, sister to Muia 
I-' •ii^.i. «\ Lrrx-rix • f Ir.i:;n. The bride arrived at Rio de 
J.i;.t ,r«i in N'ver::*- r --f \ear. 

In \\\K o" It «.f ;:;:;. t nj* nt, I>rm Pttlro certainly found 
s -:■* f'-r \v.^ r:. -t ..: it :.! ..:::':i.::»r: , Lut he als<i discovered him- 
^'\\ ' U -..:: -..- ! d v.;*^ 7..;:n(rou> di:V.v uliies, political and 
:.:...:.( ..d. Si en:Sa:ra.v^ir:,: i:.d((il was his situation that in the 
ccurx • f a fvw n: i.tha he b(>:>:cd his father to allow him to 


ht oflict and attributes. The Cones of Portgual, about this 
ttOK, becoming jealous of tbc position of the Prince in Brazil, 
(■■ed ■ decree ordering him to return to Europe, and at the 
MUM time abolishing the royal tribunals at Rio. This decree was 
m d v ed with indignation by the Rrazilians, who immediately 
(■Hied around Dom Pedro and persuaded him In remain among 
tfacm. His consent to do so gave rise to the most enthusiastic 
dcmonstntioRS of joy among both patriots and loyalists. Bui 
(he Pbrtugucsc military soon evinced sjmptoms of mutiny. The 
tnops, to the numlxT of two thousand men. left thfir (juartcrs on 
the etenlng of January 11, iSjj, and. providing themselves with 
anillery, marchcil to CastcUo Hill, which commanckx] the entire 
cttf. Intelligence of this movement was, during the night, made 
public; and ere the following daydan-ncd the Campo de Santa 
Aana, a Urge »)uare in sight of the station occupied by the 
Portuguese troops, was crowded with armed men. 

Axonflict seemed inevitable; but the Portuguese commandcr 
vkdlUted in view of such determined opposition, and olTered to 
capitulate on the condition of his soldiers retaining their arms. 
TUi WIS conceded, on their agreeing to retire to Praya Grande, 
■ vfUage on the opposite side of the b.iy, until transiM>rls could be 
fHWridcd for their embarkation to Lisbon, which was subse- 
quently effected. The measure of the Cortes of Pnnugal, 
which continued to be arbiiran- in the extreme toward Umzil, 
fintUybad therOcil toha.<>len, in the latter cfiuntr)-, a dixlar^ilion 
ol sbaolutc independence. This m<-~a»ur(' had lung licrn anli-ntly 
doired by the more cnlightenetl Mra/ilLans, M>me of whom had 
already urged Dum Pedro to assume the title <>f emix-rur. Hith- 
erto fae had refused, and reitcralrd his allegiance to Ponugat. 
But be at length, while on a journey to the Prtivinmif SAo Paulo, 
wc o Yed dc^ialchcs from the mother country which had the 
cAect to induce him instantly to n-jolve im imk [wmleme. 

His exclamation. " Indeix-rdcnrc "i death." was enthusiast ic- 
aOj rritemtn) by those who surn>unti(>I him, and thencefurwanl 
became the watchword of the Brazilian revolution. This dccla 
nlicM) WW made on Srptemlxrr ;th, and was ri']Katcd at Rhi as 
1000 as the Prince could hasten there by a rapid j<tunie>'. 

The municipality of the capiul iviui-tl a pr<M lamatiun on the 
aut, dedaring tbeir intentkm to fullil the roaoifesl wishes nf the 



people, by proclaiming Dom Pedro the coostitudonal emperor 
and perpetual defender of Brazil This ceremony was per- 
fonned on October 1 2th foUowing, in the Campo de Santa Anna« 
in the presence of the municipal authorities, the functionaries of 
the court, the tn)oi)s, and an immense concourse of people. His 
Highness tlu re pufilicly declared his acceptance of the title coo* 
fi'iTctl on liir.i. f.'i :n the conviction that he was thus obeying the 
will of the {Kt){)lc. l*he troops fired a salute, and the dty was 
illuminated in the evening. Jozi Bonifacio de Andrada, prime 
minister of the Government, had in the mean time promulgated a 
decree retriuirin^ all the Portuguese who were disposed to embrace 
the popular cause, to manifest their sentiment by wearing the 
Emperor's motto, ** ImUpnuUncia <m mcrU** upon their aim— 
ordering also that all dissentients should lea\'e the amnUy 
within a given period, and threatening the penalties imposed 
ufKin high treason against an)'one who should thenceforwaid 
attack, bv wonl or deed, the sacred cause of BraziL 

The Bnuilian revc^lution was comparatively a bloodlcm 
The glory of Portugal was already waning; her 
exhaustctl and her energies crippled by internal 
That nation made nothing like a sx-stematic and persevering effort 
to maintain her a.Mi*n<lrn< y over her long depressed but now 
n'l:c-lliou^ (filony. The insulting measures of the Cortes wcte 
consummaiol only in their va|)oring decrees. The PbrtuguCK 
dominion was maintained for some time in Bahia and other 
whit h har! lx*i*n (k c upicd by militar}' forces. But these 
wen- at Icntrth com{K*lle<l to withdraw and leave Brazil to her 
own ti»nln»l. 

Si little <r>ntcMetl, indee«l, and so rapid was this reirohitioii» 
that in li*v< than thrt^* years fn>m the time independence wasde> 
cLirt^i on the pLiinN of the Ypiranga, Brazil was acknowledged 
t>» )k' indqirndent at the court of Lisbon. In the mean time the 
K:r.:>* n»r had t»een (n)wm*fl as l>om Pedro I, and an assembly 
of «!« l".!atf>» fn»m the pn)vinces had IxTn con%'oked. A consti- 
t';ti<*n had Ut*n framed by this assembly and accepted by the 
Krv.;K n»r. and on March 34, 1824, was sworn to thfougbout ikr 



HcsJctn independence was won from Spain through two revolutions 
(ilio sod ilf i) connected by a susuinett guerilla warfaie which made 
A« UrVBle ■ pralotiEed movemenl maikcd by inlemi prions. 'I'hln war 
ti MtpOKkace, allhough followed by many viciuiludea which greatly 
rilaMufead llw country, may be regarded a> the prrpantnry Rtagc of iu 
IprBBtIv* en, when many of the element* since at work in Its conitnic- 
fl*t Ualoty Artt actively appeared, 

Foralmo*! three centuries Mexico was governed by Spanish viceroys, 
ol wtwoi, from 15J5 10 1811, there were sliiy-four. During the earlier 
put ol Ibcir administration, while at home Spain wis weakened through 
■ii|.iHiliiiiniil. Mexico, more wisely and honestly ruled, developed Into 
a Wt M t lad peaceful colony. During the War o( the Spanish Succes- 
riea (i7oi'i7i4) Mexico remained undisiurtied in her damesric aliair*. 
B«l dw creal changes wrought in the New World, at well as in llurope. 
byte French Revolution. aSected the Mexican people with the contagion 
■f it* Ueu. uid discontents which had already bceti shown began tu 
— — "— ' themselves more plainly. 

SpKla had enforced a law excludiitg Creoles or American-bom Span- 
taid« la Mexico from rights given to those who emigrated from the 
WIfcll fffliiinry This caused Irrlution between these two classes The 
Vlav*7 ■hnwed little conaidcration fnr the concerns of the Mexican peo- 
pit, wbon be subjected to burden»ome exaction*, partly to tuyp\y the 
Madrid Govvnunent with moneyneedcd in the Napoleonic wan. Nafm 
Im«*b iBeaaion of Spain, in 1S07, accelerated a Tcioluiion toward whlih 
n ol that country had been steadily driving her Mexican suh- 
I to which the political ideas and events of the age irresistibly 
Mil had uouBual advantages as the historian at this movement, 
ImtaC been in Mcaico on a diplomatic mission in iXj;, inri xubaequently 
Ml I 111 aa United Sutes mbister ii^i;-iKi>>) to that country. 

A FTER the ooupation o( Ma<iri(l by the French (1808). the 
Viceroy of Mexico, Don Jos^ IlurriiTaniy, rt-ceiv«l nurh con- 
tndictOTy orden frmn iht- KJriK. fn>m Munt.aiid fn^m thcnitin- 
dl of Uk Indies, ihAl he pmpoMv] ivalling n junu, m hr fonneel 
bjr A RpiuenuiioQ from csch proN incr. as ihc bol means ut pre- 


strvinp ihr tfuinin" fn)m \hv horn»rs c»f ananhy. The Eum- 
jnans in llu % apilal, who virwi-^l ihi.-* m hrnu- wiih il^tVAl jrab»usy, 
a^ it \\a> (al«:;l.itrl to plan* llu* (roik*h ii|M»n an it]ual fnotin^ 
\vi;h tluiuMht'* i:i ihv ^om n'.im-nl i»f ihr toiintn*, (f)n.H|>iirtl 
a::.iiii>! llu- \'u i p*;. . and. ha\iiii; >uq»ri>4'<l him in hispalair. sent 
him .i:.I hi^ f.imil\ |irI>^»niT> to Spain, and aN>unuiI the rvin.H of 
^oM ::inu-nt. Thi.s .ii t t-\< ittil univcpvil indi;:nati(»n amonj; all 
iI.-M'^ «'f Arnrrli .lH'*. Itiirriijaray \va> a ju>l and a jPwmI man. 
ant I \\v i- *tlll ^;ti<ki-n<>f with ri >1h 1 1 by ihr i rii»Iis. Thciftnduit 
of llu Sp.iniaids nn ihi^ (H(a>ii»n \\a> hi^^hl) appiii\ttl liy the 
K ii»\t n;nu nt i:i Sp.ii:i ; and lii^ <«i:( i rs-^ir. X'aniK^U', bnni^ht with 
him rt A.inl^ a: id di*«Mn« ll^u^ for thu^- who had iKi'n moftt cun- 
>pii U'lii^ in l}:i^ u mM a^ain^t i!u- authority of IturriKaniy. 

Sh'.::K .iirir ihr arrival nf tin- niw Nitrn'V a ionM»ir.u v mxi 

• • • 

ftinnrd am«':\: tlj « rri»li> to (»\(-rthri»w hi> |«»wit; it is >ai(l lu 
ha\r )m t n \i r\ ( \!( :>i\r. and that a ^rrat many of the most dU- 
li*u*:ii-liid •i-i/i:- ;*-.r'«-.;L'hoiit th<- tnipirr wcri' rn^aK^tl in il- 
'I'r.i- «'■:>;•! M' \ a a- •!!'• 1"mi! !.\ Itarriana, a canon ot Vallaikv 
lii!. '.\l-.i o:^ hi-- ii> .i!Mn .1 riM.dt I the '.vh«>li* plan, and the aame% 
« f ::.. -•>; :r.:: r. ! • .: jir:» -! •i" n'.:intan». In i onset j ucm c t»f 
t!:i- :.- 1-- n . :;. • *rr- .;;./.t «.I :!i.ii « ity, who wxs ini ludifl in the 
«;• M ;•'.. ;/i :;. A.i .-."' 'f^\ '\'\\\i- riljl.t. This at t spn-ad aUim 
.i!'! ■■ .: •: ■ ; :;• :: -l • ■■: ; !m*":-. .ivl h i-imnl thr rxetution €»l 
!!.i!';I ^ .i:. ! \!i' :•.--•■ * f rht « hitf-^. at thr head of a small 
l«i:;. i':K:'.i':;.i*« 1;. •..:-.;!«-»i li!::>« !f -Ailh Iliiial;*o in I>ob>rrs. 

Mi I..1.' ' V..I- i : • ■ -: f--.:*. !.d' ;:t. an i'n'ihu^ia**t in therauie 

< f :• !•:••::!•• • .-. i \- .: • -.vlFi'.ir'.dol in!li:rnic over the 

I:. ■•:.'•.-. Vr •:. I» ! r- -. ••.!:•:. ll-.r \ a>MrnM«i! a Linrr fwxlv ol 
T". • ?',v- . • ■.!'.:.■ "^ i-. \l:/ ;. 1 1 1 Cira:; !• . and pilla|:rd ihe 

. ■ : I* !-. II ' iK* • MX! I'd hi'* dt-^ullon* fonccs 

' ■• i". •■' -. ■ • * ■ > •! •• tri- pN Mf thai i^arriaoo. 

!. :.• :::.:: \u ! f :\\.i' ! .i.!a:n^t thr |M>pul>us and 

: * i ...' .i ..t* -. II* '• . !■-•. i};r j.irri'-m jfuneil the 

.'••'■'..' ' :' • • I'. • .• ':. '. 'aI. h "A !^ ma«!f was bv the 

r:,.^' \ ••■■":• :■ .' .:li >- :T:i«.f iht ir.habiunisaftj 

;: 1.:.'- I I:-..-.: .'i *':u Alh .- lij.i, a bnjc ciniiUr 

• • • 


. 1 . . ■ 




■ « i 

- - ■ 1 


• /.' 1..*. 


, '• 

I • 

■ ■ 








• • I 1 I • • •■i ■ I l' • 

::;.. 'aI.ii h wa> wscnl for a i^Tananr. 
k • i. •*.• :r !i r.i.i'.!. \\.i* k.Vj- ! ' thr fir>t attat k, and the 
;:::i-iij.*a:;:r ^' :: ::!:t.r >v:rrv;.!Lrixl. By ttiia capture lIkla%Q 


acquired five million dollam, besides the plunder which fell into 
the hands of his followers. 

The Viceroy, Vanegas, took active measures to suppress the 
iMOmction, but the whole county- north of Queretaro took up 
■■■■■iMlimiliil with Hidalgo. Acting with great policy he abol- 
khed the tribute, which gained him fnonds among the Indians, 
and they Socked in cmwds to his .\ficr cndeararing 
to introduce some order among an army composed of all classes, 
and anned with pikes, clubs, halcheu, and a few muskets, he left 
Guanajuato and marched to Valladolid, where he was received 
with shouts of joy by the Indians and Creoles. On October 34, 
tSio, Hidalgo was proclaimeil generalissimo of the Mexican 
annio, and Allcnde and several others appointed gcncrab un- 
der htm. On thiioccasion he Ihrvw aside his prie^l's robes, and 
appeared in uniform, Frwm Indaparapco, where this ceremony 
took (4ace, the patriot army man hod towani the capital, and on 
October a7ih entcm! Toluca, a town not more than twelve 
t west of the capital. The royal forci-s were scattered 
Nil the kingdom, and Mexico was considen-^l in imminent 
In this extremity, the European authorities nf>()neii to 
the ^liritual weapons of the Chunh. Hidalgo, his army, and all 
whoeqxKUcd the citu.<ie of imlependence were siilcmnly extom- 
■nmkated by the anhbishop. This net did not ppHhue all ihc 
effect that was expected from it upon the imme<liute followers 
of HidalfP>. Being a priest himsrif, he ex^ily |iertua'U-<l his 
iRwps that an curommunication pn>nuunced by their enemies 
could ooC avail against ihem ; but the people who wen- at a dis 
lanes abandoned a cause to which was ottachetl ki dn-udful a 
pcBakr. After some skirmiihinu Ix-tween Tulura and Lerma, 
the Indepmdcnts, on October _ji<t,cn>«-n<.il the heights of Santa 
f(. The Royallst-s not morr two th<iusand men, were 
drawn up to defrrw) the rily, when i" thf aMoni>hmeni of rvm-- 
tme Hidalgo with<trew his troops, taking the n>ute to tiuanaju' 
am, Thb cxtnunlinory movement was fatal I<> the cau*4f iif the 

TUamavemrai was atten'lcii with some confuvion; and Cal- 
k$a, at the head of six thousand men, wbo had t«crn coUectetl 
by cdlHnf in the garritons of Qurrrtani and niiirr towns, pureueil 
Ha m doidy ai to brittg on an action at Atulcu. Hidalgo's 


vigor and with dmimstanccs of the most barbtrous and rt&ned 

Mf>n*laft soon found that by delrgatinff the authority to a con- 
gm» at this critical pericxl he harl vcr)- much augmented the dif- 
ficulties of his situation. No sooner did he or his officers form 
any militan* plan, than its merits liecame a matter of disciution 
in Congn*ss, and all confidence between the military and citA 
authoritii*s was destniyed. 

\f()n*los mafie an unsuccessful attack on Valbdolid, and in 
the rctn*at, Matamoros, a priest, who had thmughout this con- 
test dispbyed great \'alor and considerable military* talent, wma 
defcat(*d and fell into the hands (if the Royalists. Offers and 
menace's wen* resortefl to by M()n*lf>s, to save the life of this offi- 
cer, but in vain— he was degrade*! ami shot. 

ComiM'lled to evacuate the Pnivince <if VallailcJid, Moirloa 
rev)lved to transfer his headf|uarters to the city tA Tehuacan, in 
the I*n)vince of Puebb, where Teran hafi a res|iectable division. 
The Congress, together with the most res|)ectable inhabitanti of 
that [Kirt of the countr\\ determine*! to a(com|)any the Indepcn* 
dent forrc*s; and the exiKtIition of Mon*l(»s is said rather to hare 
n-sc*m)>le*l the emigration of a vast Uidy c»f |)er>ple than the maitfa 
of an armv. The Rovalists hovere*! atxiut this crowd without at- 
tacking it, until, learning that Morelos hiid s(*|»a rated himself fnxB 
the main )>o*iy of his army, and with a small division of cavalry 
lay at a place rallevl Te|N*cuaruilcr>, they attacki^! him on NoroD- 
Iht ^, i8i i;. After a short c omlKit his tnMifK were defeated and 
he himself taken priwner. He was cfinductnl to Mexico, dr- 
grade*! and ^h<A an I>e(emtxT 22, 1815, at San Cristobal, in the 
nei(;h!K)rh(Kid of the <a|)ital. 

The mem!«-rs of the Mexican C*)ngrei», after the capture cf 
M<irpl<rs, pursue*! their n»ute to Tehuacan, where they continued 
to exercise their <!oubtful authority, until the>' were disaolrtd hf 
Teran. This arl>itrar\' act pn)ve*i fatal to the cause of the pn- 
tri< its. The militar)' cr>mmam!ers in the difTcrrnt provirKes acted 
fn»m that m*iment as imiependent chiefs, and the war was fecblj 
Carrie*! on until the arrival of (reneral Mina, who landed at Gal- 
veston in Novemlx'r, i8i^. 

Mina, nq>hew of the famous guerilla, Miru Eqxn, who lalCT 
so much distinguinhe*! himself by his disinterested and d cn md 


AttBcfanieot to his country, left England with a small expedition 
in Msy, 1S16, and o/ter touching at the United States, where be 
racetTcd tome succnrs, he landed at Galveston in the month of 
November of that yeiir; he spent some time there organizing his 
tnms, vid did not reach Soto la Marina until April i6th; be 
cntovd this place without opposition, and after constructing a 
ami) fort, he left his military stores there, under the protection 
of ■ small garrison, and on May 34th took up his line of march 
for the interior of Mexico. At this time his whole force con- 
liBtcd of three humlnxl eight men, including officers. 

On June 8lh he encountered a body of the enemy near the 
town of the Valle del Mais, and after sman skirmishing routed 
tbcm and took possession of the town. He made no halt in this 
pbcc, but, anxious to form a junction with the Indejx-ndents, 
pocbcd forward toward the interior. On the night of June 14th 
far encamped at the hacienda of I'eotillas, and the next morning 
waaattacked by a ^vry sujx-rior force. His little band defended 
tb mmlm valiantly, and Mina on this occasion pro^rd himself 
■ bcaire and Wilful officer; the enemy were rom[>cIled to abandon 
ihr field after sustaining a hea\7 loss. The ensuing day Mina 
i bis manh into the interior, and on the i8th t<x>k by 
t the town of Real del Tinos, which was garri^oncil with 
ihne bundred men. On the 14th be cfTectcd a junction with the 
palriaU at Sombrem, after a march of two hundml twenty 
Indues, which be accompUshed in ihiny-two days, during whirh 
tlM tioopa had eodunil wiih cheerfulness great fatigue an<l pri 
They bad been animated by their gallant leader, who 
1 tbetr haitUhips, and who in the hour of danger was lUs 
rinpiMlfl for his \-akir and prrM:ni:e of mind, and in lullle wait 
■hnjri to be fuund leailing ihc-m on in victory. They arrived at 
SooibfCfo, two burvdred sixty nine rank and file. 

From Sombrero, Mina sent despatches to the Government 
Kttiag fonh his object of entering the i-ountr)-, and olTcring hi^i 
wtrwica. He wrote hkcwi«; to I'adrc Torres, wbo bore the title 
of cxsamodcr- in -chief. 

Hating recctnd information that some foren of the enemy, 
■BOODting to teren hundred men, were in the ncighborbtjotl, 
MJBB IcA tbe fort, which was commanded by Don IVdiu Mrtrrnr, 
■ad —Khtd to meet them. Having been joined by guerillas 


under Ortiz, his troops amounted to four hundred men. On the 
30th the)' found the enemy drawn up at the hacienda of Los 
Llanos, about five leagues from San Felii)e. The Royalists, un- 
able to withstaml the \'i^)n)us charge of the [>atriots, were muted 
and tied in confusion, leaving mure than half their number on the 
field of )>attle. 

After remaining a few da^'s at Sombrero to refresh his troops* 
Mina, accom|>anicd by Don Pedro Moreno, made on excuruon 
as far as Xar:.l, a brge hacienda twenty leagues fn)m Guanaju- 
ato. This place was taken by surprise, and by its capture the 
patriots gained an immense Ijooty. The)* rrtumwl to Sombrrm. 
where Mina rcceiverl accounts of the fall of Soto b Mariru; it 
surrendered on the i ^th to the Royalists under General Arre- 

Sfxm after the return of Mina fmm Xaral, a large dt\ision of 
the Rf)yalists invested Sombren), ami after an olx^tirute defer«ce 
the IndejH'mlents were com|KrIkNl to evacuate the pbce and to cut 
their way thmugh the enemy. Fifty only <*f Mina*s tnx>ps sur- 
%ivcrl the siege. Mina himself had esca{)eil fn)m the fort !iame 
days pre vimis, in hoiK-s of olnaining su< c ors for the besiegerl frua 
PadiT- Tom's. Finding his a{>{>lication unavailing, he retired to 
I^>s Remtiii«>s, the headquarter.-* of Tom-s, where he was joined 
))v the remnant of his fones. Flii>he«i with success, LiKon od- 
vametl against RemetiiiK, and on .'\ugu«^t ^ist bid siege to that 
plac e. Torres, with some of Mina's oiTu ers. remained to drfeod 
the {i*n ; while Mina, at the head of a small U kIv tif cavalry*, od- 
vantitl tf»wani (iiianajuato. He i^tssess*-*! himself successivelj 
of the hat ienda ^f HI.mik ho and the town (»f San Luis b Paz, and 
attai kill San Miguel el (irandr. )>i:t learning that a strt^ng body 
< f the enemy were on the man h to rrheve the pbce, he tbou|^ it 
])r.;dent to n-tire to the Valle <le Santiago, then in potm mmm cf 
the patriots. 

He was here joinerl by a great many [latriots, and \ 
himM-lf at the heacl of one thousand home. With this 
h* .iiivaniol to relieve RemoiiiK. which was invested hf the 
vrvriA, \n:\ finding; his numbers insulTuient for s*jch a puf p o t 
he ritnated to the mc»untains near (Guanajuato, pufvucd by the 
Rf'vali^t.s under < >rnintia. 

Ibe Royalists continued to press the siege of Lot 


with gnttt vigor, and Mina to liara&s them wiili his cavalry aiul 
to cut ofl their supplies, until at length ho was attacked at the 
hadenda of L« Caxa by Orranlia, and completely defeated. He 
Rtnstcd to Pucbla Nuevo, a small town about (our leagues from 
the icene of this disaster, where he rallied a few of the fugitives; 
bul ol UioK who escaped, the greater part rctumwl to their re- 
qiectin bones. His only recourse in this stale of things was to 
pvocccd to XaiudUa, the seat of government of the Indcjicndcnts, 
in the hope of inducing them to aid his future operations. Here 
be mged the rxpnlicncy of attacking Guanajuato, and after some 
opporilian prevailed upon them to adopi his plan. Being fur- 
obbed witli aome troops, he pnxetilcd to the Valle de S;intiago, 
wbcre be found a small body of men from Xalapa wailing hia 
airinU. The approach of the division of Orrantia compelled 
Mina to abandon the Valle, and making a rapid march through 
the mountains he descended in the rear of the enemy and reached 

Hen be mustered eleven hundred men, and marching all 
oi^ across the country he gained an unfn.-quenied s)>ot called 
La Mina de U Luz, where he was joined by some further rt^n- 
bKCBwnU; and his little army now amounted to fourteen hun- 
dndmen. With this force and without artillery he had the le- 
makf to attack the dly of Guanajuato, an<l it is not surprising 
Ikat be filikd. After buminf; the machinery of the mine of Va- 
lHKiaiia,MinB retired from Cuanajualo, and dismissed histmops 
to tfadrtnreral stations, retaining; only sixty or seventy men. On 
ScfMcmbcr aytb Mina was surprised at the riimha of Vcnadito, 
■adlcOintolhc hands of Orrantia. Onlers f>>rhi» imnu^liatees- 
ccnbon were despatched by Apodaca, who was then Mccroy of 
New Spain. He was corvluctcd thmufih Silio [■■ Impuato, and 
finaOj' to tbc headquarter* of Liflan, whu i-ommandc>l Ihe (je^ieg- 
iaganay before Rrmedioft, wher[-,onNiiv(-mUT nth, he was shot, 
il to his sentence. The capture of Mina was oniMfkrcd 
T of K> much imporunce in Sitain that .\|MK)ai a was err 
Had Coode del Venailiti>, and Liflan and Ominlia rrcei\cd marks 
at dfatiaction for their services on thU occasion. 

Tbe liege of Los Remcilins was now pmsrti with frae«Td 
vipir. and Torres, (inkling the place no longer tenable an<! being 
t ammunitioa, resolved to evacuate it. This was effected 


on the night of January i, t8i8, but was so badly ronductrd 
that the greater [>art of the garrison perished, and the unanncd 
inhabitants, women and i hildn-n, werv involvwl in one indiM rim 
inatr m.LsJsicre. The death of Mina and the fall of Iais Keme 
flios enaliled the Kovalists to take artive measures tt) nwluie ihr 


IndefK-ndents. The f«»rtress of Xauxilla, when* the (fovemmrnt 
n*sidi*fl, wa.s invi^stefl bv a UmIv of one thousfind men under I>un 
Matias Martin y Af^im*. 'I'he garrison defendecl the pLu e with 
^reat couraf^e during thriT months, but were Anally obliged to 

The revolutionarj' (Jovemment, e(im[)elled to rcnvAT fnim 
Xauxilla, t^tabli^hini it.self in the Pn>vin(e of Valbdolid. In the 
month of Februar>-. 181M, they wen* suqmsed by a |>arty of the 
enemy, anti the !*ri"sident made prisoner. The form of gv>\rm- 
ment, however, iontinue<i to Im* kept u|>, although the members 
were obli^ni t«) move fn»m pla« e i«» place. Padnr Tont-*. «ho 
since his dist^ter at I^»s Kemnlios had rendered odious 
by his laprit ious and tyranniial conduct, was formally dr{M»9cd 
fnjm the chief n'mniand, and Ihtn Juan Ani^>, a Frrnc h (»ffi 
cer, who arriveil in the (o'.irun- with Mina. a|){H>intei| to till his 
place. The p.idre re^i^te*! thi> de< rei* of the (tovcmment, and 
b«»th parties recourM* t»> ;ir:i'*. The cuntest Ix'twcen them 
W.LN terminate-! 1 (inlv l)V ilir a<l\.in( r of a divisionof Rovalistit un 
der I)«inall<»; Torres wa.^ ('■m]H'lleil to >ijlimit, and to pUce him- 
si*lf under the pp»ttitii»n of thr (i«ivemmenl. 

Fn»m this tinu . Julv. iSio. the war Ian^:iNht^i evcrvwhcir- 
The R'iy.ili>t^ 'Hi-pitti all the Ntn»Ri; places and evcrj' town. 
( (;\;rrrcn», who w.i^ •liNtiniruiNhc^l f-ir his courupe and 
entcq»ri>e. «i«nii:v;nl at thi- hcai! '"f a f«»rmitlable {guerilla foirr 
in the 'I'ic-rr.i (\ilienle nf the rp»\ince ^A Valladolid. An^D 
pianu^d o\iT tbe mMuntairiH of (iuarujuato. liradbum, anocbcr 
of Mina*s olTicer*, «in;ani/4-«i a small fone in the CafUdas dr 
Huan^'o. but was ovi-rtaken by a rii visit »n of the Royalists under 
l..ini, and his party cut to pieties. (ruadal\:|ie Victoria, after 
maintainin;! himM-lf a l«»ni! time in the Pn>vincc of Vm Crux. )jet*n iom;K'Ile«i to disli^'ind his tnMi|»s. and to retire to the 
n-.'iur.tairis fr nf'.:ce. The c hiefs and leaden wrrt d i sp el led 
thniu^hout thr (I it:ntr\'. waiting until the cause of ii 
should a.vs'jm'- a iiMn* fa^tirable asfiect. 


Tbe iCTToinalion of the fir^l rex-olutJon is principally to be 
•ttributn] to the opposition of the clergy. The cry of liberty 
tmisnl by Hidiilgo and his brave companions- in -arms was echoed 
with exultation by all classes of people and from ihe remotest 
puts of the empire; and nutwithstandin); their want of concert, 
tbe sttTDUous opposition of the clergy alone prevented success 
bda^ srcuml by a funeral rising of the Mexican people. 

They were exhorted to persevere in their loyalty to the mother- 
CDuntiy; uiaihemas were thundered out against the disaffected; 
the rites of the Church were denied them; and the Inquisition, 
thai powerful instrument of des[>otism, by denouncing and perse- 
cnliiig the friends of liberty, by alarming the conscientious ; 
pki of some, and by exciting the fears of others, checked the 
pngrai of the re^'olulion and aided the arms of the Royalists. 
Bytbaemcansthe patriots were dinded andwoakoncd; Creole* 
«ae tnned against Creoles, and despotism triumphed. 

Tbeoxitest for indefienrlcnrc, aUhoufth conducted feebly and 
UMUCCtwfully, was proiructnl for many ycar^, and prtMluccd 
KNDC good cfTects. The Creoles and Indians, who continued hrm 
iniheeatueof lilxTly, wvtv soon taught to attribute their ill suc- 
ooft to the true causes — their own want of discipline, and the in- 
ezperienre of their commandrra — mther than to the spiritual 
wc^KKii of ihdr ad%'ersari7s. 

The wrolulion in Spain was viewed with dread by the clergy 
of Mexico: and no sooner had the dccrw-s of the Cortes, confis 
eattogtheestoicSi, and reducing and reforming some of the higher 
offden of the clergy , reached .America, than the indignation of the 
Cknicfa bunt out against the mother-country, They dechire<l 
bom the pulfnl that these tyrannical acts must be resiRled, thai 
the jnke was no lunger to be borne. unA that the interests of the 
CMhoGc religion, nay, its very exJMence in .\merira, demanded 
ikat Uexko should be srparatnl from Spain. 

The inftuoKe of the clergj', although in some measure dimin- 
iAid, was Mfl] powerful, and had for yean cunlrolled the wishes 
da vaat au)DrityDf the nation. To have withdrawn their oppo- 
Mon would have been sufluient to have ocrasinned a general 
it of the people. The)' did more: thc^ encouraged tbe 
e to foist ibe tynuiny of S|>ain, and look an active part in 
' ' [ tbe pUo of operation by which the revolution was 


successfully cffcclwl. They were aulvti In iheir plans by ihc 
wrallhy Kun)|K*ans, who wert' anxious to prisfne lhi» kinpiom 
in ihc |)urtni's> uf (, ihat it mi;;h! s<nc a> a rvf'jge to 
Frnlinan-l VII fn»m the (KTMrtution of thr Cortt-si and fn»m the 
Constitution of S|>ain. 

lX»n .\\i^u^:in Iturl)i<l(* wa> fixtti u|)on as a pnifier ai^nt tu 
earn" thi-ir plans into t lui t. Aiih«»ut;h a < rii»lr, hr had l>cm an 
ai tivi- and a /lalous oiTit vv to the* Ki:iL'. and hai! fnucht valiantlv 
an-l *•;]( c rssfully a^rainst ihi- friends «»f lil>*riy. Thi- Kun){ic*ans 
ii»!i^idrri*<l him a> altai h(-fl to thi-ir |iarty and intcn-Nt^. the 
t Uvyy nliiil i:;n>n h;^ i:Kii:ilainir«» ihi-m in all tlu-ir i»rivili-yi> arvl 
i::'.niu: i!it>; and all jurtirs Lnrw that hi* wuulil Ik- opjurMd to a 
iiU-ral fi»nn i»f ^ovi-nimrnt. Th^-y \svrv ii;n^>rant «if the pr.>;rns 
of jKTsiinal au'ijrandi/i-mrnt whi« h hr is sliil tn have rntiTtaincrl 
c\i-n at that |»tritKl. Iturhidi- had Ut-n a;»{i»'inlifl 1»\ the \'i« cmy 
to ( i/mmand thr amiv de>linitl tot runh l;u- n-rn:iant •>f the ir*ur- 
^rnt fun<N. Thi* i-nahl(*<l him to ait ppHTij.tly and iirinrnlly. 
'I hi* jirii-Nisand lv.:n»;H-.i:is furnishol him \\\\h SfHU* money. an«l 
t n hJN man h low.ird thr -^txilh hr M-i/rd n:i a <«in\oy of - ^ici i« 
I K'ltin^i :'.».• :•» I'r.r rni-n h.l^.t^. Hi- s-n-rj furrml a jumtion 
with (i;:i ttk-t**, wh«i i n:r.rn.i;idol thr p.itn *{> i:i quanrr; an 
event \il;ii li. in ••: !• r !«► di*i ri\f the \U i p'V. he at!ri!>'Jtei! to thr 
^'(liNl jm!-. \ i.f hi^ .iiinunistraljon. in otfirir.i! a ;Mrdi»n to all who 
«•»;:!•! i l.iini the prnit»tii»n if the (i(»vemn;<:it within a (crtain 

1'.::.i--.iri! ^ h i! U-en ile-pati he«i by ih*. R*\- \ :': *r.'i*^Xs in the'i'.i! ! ■ twr, ''.:'. ■: !!.• i:::: in, and i". :'..■ :.:::-- 'he armies 
n .n i:t : I;.'"..i!.i !":.t ;■•":''.• .m n- i •. ?n*ivhi rr r-.;d't t<»fietLinr in 
fa^'-r «f i'. i' : • •. ;i •.« • . < »:. r>'»\- .• 4. i*^.:. Iv.ifSjdc pfo- 
|M»-i- i \ \\\r . :\:\U !::• :i!in ••! Ii::.i:a. ••n).:-}! wa> unaninKxxslT 
ail"p:r-i \ ;. t'.t:r.. a:. ! v...- ■••■.-..t ;../.f !;. !ra*>::'.i:!'-il to the \lce- 
r.') a:-, i : • .i!I ihe \:'*\\r.:^ r- *'\ ; r '\i:.m *, I he jiLn pr..ui!o 
K.r-r. i r :•:»• :0'!'-i !i«in.i:. i I'Tim-:-. .I'i •:: »f the holvCathtilii rrlic- 
i«ir. -''■"•:!■.. f'-r !:i» .■.*.:■ t'r •.■::■••. « f l. ;r'»'K-ans and cm'iles. 


ar.i !h:r :!•.. f : t':* : : • - !• - • ■ f M* \ • It drcUm thai 
lJ:r ■ •::-•:!■/!• n ««fth*- 1 ::::::. ^h.i'.i 'i* th.i! «.l .t !im:!r 1 monairhT. 
and ■ ::• r* :he .:■ An, lir*t : • lerl.r.a:. ! \Ii. -n.i then to the 
other rr.enliers of his famiU. in n-v^ilar sui ci^^^iiin. pm\Mkti thai 
be or thev ^hall airret* to n>i>lt in Mexiiu, and shall take an <mih 


to maintAin the constitution which shall be estabb'shed by a con> 
grv» to be assembled for that putpoae. 

It further provides (or the protection of the persons and prop- 
erty of ibe citizens, and for the preservation of the privileges 
aikd inununitics of the secular and regular clerg)'. It declares all 
tbe iob«bttants of New Spain, n-ithoul distinction of persons — 
Eumpeans, Africans, and Indians, and their descendants — to be 
citiaens of the monarchy, and to be eli)(ible to all olTices according 
to iheir merits and \irtucs: and to carry this plan into cflcc I, an 
anny,caUcd the " Annyof the Three Guarantees," is to be raised, 
wliicb b to preserve the Catholic, Apostolic, and Roman religion, 
to efiTect the independence of the empire, and to maintain the 
union of the Americans and Europeans in Mexico. 

The first intimation received by the V'iceroy Apoduca of the 
fidection of Iturbide and of the force under his command was 
tfac pnimulgatjon of the plan of I^aLi, and he used ever)' means 
in hU power to frustiutc the revolutionists and to prepare for 
ddcDCe; but the RoyaUsts, either bt-lic\'ing that he wanted sufh- 
cknt coer^ of character for such a crisis or dissatisfied with his 
Btaaum, deposed him and placed an ofTicer of artillery, Don Kran- 
caco Novdla, at the head of the (juvemment. 

The Europeans were startled by the establishment of the 
Corta, and the avowal of an intention to ronlml the monanh, 
but they were informed that such a pnnision was necessary to 
reomcflc the Creoles to ihe place; and as the clergy wen: saiisTiLil, 
ifaey wcir ctxn|H.-llrd tn submit. 

On March i si I lurbide assembled the oflicers of his army and 
fufacnitted to them this plan. He ex|HWcd hiis views, ami laid Ix- 
fore them the mources and means he possesse<i nf carrj-ing them 
into cflm: and after assuring them thai ihry wen- at UU-ny to 
•d u tbry might think proper, he urgnl thi-m lo give their opin 
fam. He was imrnupied by shouts and fhin fn>m the oifners. 
who noC only approved the pbn, but insisted ujMin cnating him 
l-Kenrral, that he might lead them at once li> Ihe 1 apiisl 
; its obser^anie, Iturbide d«line<l ihc [inimoliiin, 
and wcom mended to thi-m the greatest mixlerutinn, declarim; it 
to be hit wicntion not to proceed to hrntilities until he had iricil 
cvcfj neutt of negotiation. 

Od Ibc cnHliog day, the army look an oath to maintain the 


pbn of I^ala; and on that occasion Iturbulc addrtsifd them in 

thr following; words: '•Soldiers, y«iu have this day sworn to prr- 
sL'Tw thr (*aihnlic-, .\{Mist()lic, and Roman n*lipon; to protect the 
union of Kun>|K-ans ami Americans; to eflixrt the independence 
of this t'mjtin-; and, on certain conditions, to obey the KinK. 
This ;i(t will U- appLiudnl by forei^ nations; your senices will 
Im* gratefully ac knowledKi*d by your fellow citizens; and \'our 
namt^ will U- insi rilx-d in the temple c»f immortality. Yesterday 
I n-fuseii the title of lieutenant general, which you would ha\T 
confemtl u|M)n me, and now I renounce this distinction (tearing 
fmm his >hrves the kinds of lace which distinguishe<i a cc4oncl 
in the Sp.inish senicei. To Ix* rank(*d as your comfianion fiUs 
all mv ambitious desin-s." 

Th«' ^iibx'iumt conduct of this chief shows how verj* insin- 
lere wtrr thc-s*- j»P»fi-ssions. Few cretJes appn>ved the plan of 
luu.ila. MmsI of them objertoi to plc*«lge themselvi-s to rtiei%T 
a prirur of thr hou>4' i»f liourbon or ewn to adopt a monarchical 
fonii (tf i;<>vi rnment. They were told that Hidalgrt, Albude, and 
«>*h( r^ UMiI the same lantnia^e, and at the commencement 
of ih( re\''!.::i"n h.t ! drdan-fj their only objtrt in taking up arms 
t<» Ih- the pHMTva :!••;! of America fi>r Ferdinand VII; that a 
firirue of tlu hoUM- of Hourbon wouM unite all |>arties and prr- 
ver:t .man hy ar^i k ivil war; that he, iK-inij a stran^r without in- 

tl*.:i-r:< e and w:!ho'.:: resiiurie^, surrounde<l onlv bv a small budv 

• • • 

of hi^ j»< rN» <!e|.4T.'!enis, mi;:hi Ix- iom|H*lIitl in ob9cr\T the 
(on •»•:::;: ion. NotwithMandinir thrv ari^ment>, they yielded !it<a'.iM !ht y h.i»! rioi the jn.wi r of dii fating other terms. It 
is :-.'•: ; r bal-lf. lv'Wr\ir. that either p;irty lon.sidereii the {ilan Aft 
bin!:* .: •■:: then*., but that all iKlievi-*! th:it a conpri'ss elcctnl by 
iha w .::M j-i>mv- the |iower of altering or m<xlifyinK iu 
!Mi a^ t" •«i:i: :h(- lin t:m^ta^(l*^ of the countr>', or of adopcin|t 
any form of i!< -vi rnment most pleasing to the majority ol the 

< »r". !he jian of the RoyaIist> there wa* a show of resistance ia 
«^ ni« ■ f !:.< pro-. :; M-s; but the public opinion, no lon|rcr i^ 
•^rn:' •<! 1 y :}.< <*p|>i'^i!i«n of the i It rp', nunifested itself to pov- 
( rf-.i!'. ..^ V' f ntt t th( riAoIution in every |iart of the empiffr vith- 
oi:* }!• »«i<.hc^i and almcvst without a strufQ^le. From Iguali. 
Ituri'itie iri'SM^I over to the Haxiu, that rich and fettik comtry 


I between Guanajuato and the capital. Here he was 
joilMd by icvcral general oilicors and govcmore of provinces. 
Guwlilupc Victoria, who had resisted the Royalists to the last, 
lad who, lincc the dispersion of his forces, had bwn concealed in 
the mountains of Vera Cruz, united himself with Iturbidc at Son 
Juan del Rio. His presence gave confidence lo the n-volutiunists 
and lidded strength to the cause of independence. He had been 
dHtingtushed from the beginning of the resolution by his dcv-o- 
tioa to the cause of freedom and by his \-alor, activity, and dis- 
iottfCMed generosity; and he had won the hearts of the |>eopIe 
bjr the strictest obse^^-ance of the forms of the Catholic iv- 

The Armyofthc Three Guarantees marched upon Qucretaro, 
which from its poAition may bi- considered the military key of the 
totenor pro\-incvs, and gaine<l immediate possession of that place. 
BcR the army was formed into two di«sions. One, commanded 
by Guadalupe Victoria, marched toward the capital, while the 
cnaunander-in-chiefmadea rapid movement upon ['uehla. This 
place too was given up as soon a.i he appean-d before it. 

Things were in this state when General O'Donoju arrived at 
Vera Cna, to take the command of the «)untry as captain-gen- 
cnl and political chief of Mexico. Finding, as he himself dc- 
darca, the empire possessing forces suITicienl to secure the inde- 
peodcfxe it had proclaimed, the capital besieged, an<l the legili- 
eiate authorities deposed ; the places of Vera Cruz anil Acapuico 
alooe in the poucsuon of the Kunrpean (jovemmeni; without 
gamsoos, and without the means of defending themM*lves against 
a protracted and welldirectcti siege — he pniptinil in irciit with 
Iturinde on the basis of the plan of Iguola. This iir"iH>sal was 
mdOy acceded to, and thepartiesmetatCunlova.and Mxnjgmxl 
npoo the terms of negotiation. It was stipulated that New 
Spain should be cDOsidered a sovereign and imK'|>endent nation, 
thai frwnmiiwiinnmi should Ik- M-nt !■> Sjain t" nlTi-r the rr^wn to 
Frnfinand VH and that in the mean time a governing junta and a 
Kgency •boukJ be appointed, and that a cortes >hi)uld be imme- 
(Batdy dected and convened for the purpose of framing a con- 

Gcsaal O'Dnnnju engaged to u*e his inlluence with the com- 
and officers of the Eurofiean iruojis, to |x-r>uade them 


to c\'acuate the capital ; but when he applied to them, they re- 
fused to yield to his rcc]uest. At the same time they ezpreaed 
their readiness to submit to the authority with which he was vested 
by the King, ami to obey whate\er orders he, as commander in- 
chief, might think pniper to extend to the garrison of Mexico. 
In consequence of this, he agreed upon terms of capitulation with 
Iturbide, and the garrison marched out of the capital with the 
honors of war, and were quartered at Toluca, there to remain 
until the transfMirts were ready to amvey them to Spain. 

As soon as the re\'c>lutionists took possession of the capital, a 
junta, com[)osefl of thirty six members was ap|x>inti*d; by them, 
a regency, consisting of five [tersons, was chfisen, of which Itur- 
bide was made pn-sident. He was at the same time appointed 
admiral and generalissimo of the na\T and army, ami asaigned a 
yearly salar>' of one hundred twenty thousand doUars. 



AS>. iStO 


TlfM freat ptrioda have been marked In the biitory o( the South 
ABMitcin couotrio— that of diKuvery and cunqueit, chiefly by Spain and 
Portnpl i that of coIoctltatioD ; and the period of rcvoluiion in whid) (tie 
Spwtkh ooloBka became independent In ih rite colonies the kbgaol 
Spaia at Ant eatabliahed a aincle viccroyal gave mm en I. thai of I'eru. 
Latir, Mpttraw riccroy* wtrr Mmi lo New Granada and Ituenoa Aire*. 
aad cviain»x«timl to Caracai iVeneiucIa) and Chile. Thetc Kovem- 
■MBlawcK deapotbtna modelled on that of Madrid, but administered 
wtlk cokmial llccctM and caprice. 

Tkc poptilallon included Kuropean Spaniards ; their chitdrrn Imm in 
Aawrtca, who were called crrolm: meitiioi, children of mixed blood, 
whluand InitUn ; mulalloe*. children nf European aiid iieK'o parentage; 
■awitnia. children of nefroeaand Indians; African negtues, and Ihe native 
This admiiiure ol races Icil lo itocial jealousies an<t r-lass haired, 
MBpttcated political truublcs whenever they arose. The Kurotiean 
~ >, there as elsewhere, looked wilh cnnlcmpt u|ion the Creoles, 
d the feeling with violent animmity Tlirnalive Indians were 
mten alatca under the other clashes, and subject l« nutr^ruus aliuw. 

By a policy of ruinous im|iosu, oppression, and virilenre, the .Spanish 
Uac* ** laal wore out the patience o I ihcit huuth American colonists 
Nm only were the pervciiied Indians provoknl tu open mutiny ; the cre- 
«laaalBO rebelled; atul ohcnal tasi, r^arly in llic nineiecnlh cenlury. the 
fSpackna nUtra sought to save IhemscUcs bysume show of retnnn. they 
laaaJ that they were loo late. The Revolution of the I'nilrd Stales 
mi Itel of France had had lbe» uifluenre upon the intelbReni pairinu •if 
SOKtk Anerica, and Ihe wuric u) ileliierance was snon to lirtia In t^cll 
Hapol e na aet his brother. Josrpli lUmapartr. u|><n ihr Spanish throne. 
MdwtHk the lalict. during his short In rd rule, was vainly rndratonng 
la e*pa with mauncctton m !>pain. the South American cnlonlcs con 
OMMd Hwlr fCToliiliaoary pi rfiara lions. 

Fat lb* history at Saiwlh Amenra. from it* discovery lo the pmml 
4«y.lh«f«iaiM authority lobe prelertcd lo DAAle. whose rrctat work. 
fMM whlck the (oltowtac BafTJlue Is taken, u tiaseil upon those of the 
la aatfeora. and verified Iroia auitienDC documinta—maBy ol 



ihrm nrvrr ttrfore pu))rBhed-~in archives and public and pHvalc libraries, 

in AmcncA ami Spain. 

npIIK ihinl |H*ri(Kl( f the histon- of the South Amciicmnrolonin, 
in nl.iiinn to thtir n*s|Ht live mothiT-amntrics, wc may say 
Im'^imn f If thr Spanish |M>ssc*ssi(>ns with thi* events in Caracxs an<l 
Ihunits Ains \ iSicV. and for the Portu^juese with the **decUrm 
tinn «>f in<lr|Mni)i'n(c*' (»f Hra/il, whiih was converted in 182a 
into :i (MriMJiutional rmpin*. 

I'm the I nuhy of thcionduc t of S|»ain at the end of the eigh- 
ttnnth ( rntun-, and to hrr ol>>tinatr |H-rsistcnce in rrfasing to lis- 
ten to <inins«N WDiild have Ut-n pnit'itahk- to her, may be 
aitrilmtol the f;ut that the idea of an insurreetion spread e%-ery- 
where. It siMin iHtame ^ene^al, and sei'ins fully justifiable on 
the imp.irtial er^undnf hiNli»r%*. 

The n-Mihitiun in Spain itM-lf bmu^ht matters to a head. 
The Spani-h |K^»ple had «lethn»neil the fee!)le (*ark>s IV (i8o8)« 
th it K i:;.: -a \v •. • h t \ipyinu himvlf < tnly in the pleasures of the chase 
an<l the (an- nf hi^ >ta)ilt-N, had pLui*d all his authority in the 
li.iri'U of ( i'mI'iv. Wlun rcniinand VII. the evil M>nof an imbc- 
< ile f.i!b.rr. as<«i:m(t| the t niwn of Spain, numerous quarrels brake 
nt:l li'twivn tht-vr degenerate liourlxm kin^ whcMe influence 
Na;ii>K •:! \^a-. at the s;ime time, endeavoring; to undermine at all 
i"-ts. Dttt miininv' tauM-^nf the niptun* with theSiuth Ameri- 
iar> T!My aU» U- f«»un(i in thf* imjtri^mment of the unfortunate 
H«i-.;r>'r>at Wilrn^ay; in their ex« haninn^ their rii^hu for certain 
jM r>: •:>; \:\ the iTn]»«tHiti'in ^f thf Najnilomii dynasty, and the 
w.iT.t "I M' ! "f :»u- | .il parties who wen- tlivputing for power. 
All t).' M f.ii t> iM\<' thr t tilnr.ii> a '^•t ret ritrht. as it were, to rebel 
a.Mi' -• T^jf ni'»;hrr «»»-.;n:r\ and thn>w oiT what to them was 
f, .:•. .lit r.r !•» !hr htavvvi.kenf sjavrrw S«uth Americans would 
r. > I •*:.*( r pani< ipate in the fate of (r>nqurml S|Kain, which, emen 
in thr mid^t of her misfortunes, endeavored to exact from then a 
vtri. t i»UT!irnie. Thev ft»uli| not know wh«»m to obev, since de- 
I r%^^ a'v! pr» lamations arriviti simultaneously from Carloi IV, 
Ferdinand VII. and even fmm the pup{H*t kin^, Joseph Booa- 
par!i . :.• \\Vat «•• :ld :hey till whi« h junta to respect, since tbey 
revri.o!. in aiMltion to tht*x\ conflict int; onlers from thnae ol 
Cadi/, Svillc. And Asturix«, i-aih (laiminy; to be the only Iqpti 
mate !«oun.e of auttvmty; and, at the same time, they received 


onJen from the Council of Rcgenty. A ray of hopt- was seen in 
thu kind of anarchy, and the idea of independence began to 
germinate in the minds of the colonists. 

The ma\-ement, begun in tSog at Quito, in the northwest of 
the Department of Ecuador, in the Province of Colombia, was 
repmKd for the time — two of its prDmott-.-s having paid for it 
with their lives — but a year had not elapsed before it wa» succcw- 
fuDjr cmnicd out. 

Between 1808 and 1810 il might have been thought that the 
mother-country was about to make laudable endeavors to retain 
these territories by taking away every pretext for rebellion. The 
ooto oks recti v gd *t that time considerable fav'ors and subsidies, 
aad the justly demanded reforms were attempted. The royal 
decree of Juitury 39, iSog, hotl declared that the South Ameri- 
csn provinces were not considered like the coktnies of other tui- 
tioOM, but as an integral pan of the monarchy, and conse<)uently 
ought to have a direct and immediate representation in the Span- 
ilh Cortes. Moreover the Junta of Seville sent in 1810 to the 
Spsniifa- Americans to say: "At last you arc raised to the dignity 
of fnt meni The time has pa.'wcd in which, under the wriisht of 
sn inmpporlable yoke, you were the victims of absolutism, am 
faition, and ignorance. Bear in mind that, electing your rt-jin-sc-n 
txivts to the Cortes, your ilcstiny will no longer dqK:nd nn minis- 
ten, kings, or govenwrs, but is in ynurown hnndv" .\ftrr thi.<i 
eq>Bcil declaration of the manner in which Spain had i^ivrmed 
bo* cotooies the decree was publishcH by the terms 1 >f whii h thoM.- 
w pr r s mt alivCT were to lie clcTted. Then- was to lje one for eai h 
, cboacn by bt from three individuals designated by the 
kitties, according to the formalities thai the Viceroy would 
be picued M prescribe. 

When the Regency of Coiliz came torr[>bceiherrnlml junta, 
the ocdnances of i8oq on the liberty nf a)mmCTiT, which they 
had wiWbliihed, were a)»luhnl, the immediate<)urnce of 
isdl in ezlnnnlinary mea.M]rr being to annisr mi-n's minds, cs- 
7 in the I'tovince o( Caracas, where the prim iplcs of liberty 
I cquaEty had grown with tnt^ler tipir than in the other 
idi American colonics. The municipal council foTme<l ttsrlf 
9 a sapRmc junta of govrrnmrnt, April IQ. iftio, arM] at (he 
M time that it recognized Ferdinand Vll as king it rebelled 


against the dccrrcs of the Ri'^rncy. The formation of this junta 
c«iimiflc«i with the arrival of icrtain af^ents who went to drmand 
thr oath of t'ldelity to JciM*ph, and wh<i wen* n-ceivctl with ihc 
shout of ** I^>n^ live FLTilinand!*' since the hatred against Napo 
Inm and all hi> partis^ins (who were lalleil afratufsados) was as 
pT.enil in the iu|onic*s as at home. The \\t en>v <if Nueva (ira 
ImuLi, act u set 1 nf intending to deliver America into Na|ii>leon's 
hamls, w;ls exiletl to Carta;^ena, and almost simiiltaneiiasly the 
rnivimi-s of C*undinamar^a, Pamplona, and SKom>, xs well x% 
ihoM* *>f the north- Tunja, (\Ls;inare, Aniio<]i:ia, ('h*Mo, Niiva, 
ar.d Mariquita, rose, and the Tnivinte of Quito attempted a «rc 
<»nil revcili at the mere nimor that the Fn-nt h in>o[»s wen* threat 
enir.;; Nueva (tranada. The viien>yally having di>ap{^-ami 
fn«m the l.illrr. eat h pn»vin« ial capii.d «!fNinfl li> U* the ««4-at <»f 
the Junta without heeilin;: the t laim> of the others; Imt a.s union 
was ahsiijutt !y r;tti*» to attain the t nd j»n»pti'^'<l it was e\en: 
ually fixtd in Sanla Fe dt- H»'i;i»ta. an'l ret «»;Tni/«"«! Fenlinand VII 
as *-)\rn:;;n nilrr. ard irv. i!c-l I'ar.tas to fullow its example. 
Hut :hi- J -ri.^ :::(«-. 'aI:;! Im hi vttl (itneral Miranda, an c»Li mm->i«»ri ir. am;- <«f W.i }::::.•• r.. \imuM not attept the invitati^m, 
r» tha: ihi- n prr-« r^: i'i\i <^ of thr unitt^i pn»vinieHnf Vcnc 
/uil.i \\t rr •/•*::\'j, !•» f- •■:■.■ I .• fr-r '/•i\rmment- which in fact thrr 
af*« T'A;».r ! 'lid :::!•:'.•!!:::'*. ! 'rrn ;! "f thf Krpuhlii ofC^L^m 
1i!.i I'V .1 •!•! ! ir.iti'P. "f :!.' .!• ;»'.;!:«■* of (\irai a-. \'arina*«. Boire 
I TM. ('.:::'.. I :■. I. '.ir-'.i. Mi-rMa. and 'I'rujill'*, hut later lin 
i^r . :V.t % .!i»ls:id rlii i!. •• 1; i ^ an irv!r-K :: irn! -^rate. 


'If. I i'.-irr- » ■■'■:: had'. alarming {•p'^'^nions in varinuf 
• ••:.•' ! \--.' rii .1. M'.;in»H Airc^ an! M"nti\ide«» main- 
!...' ! a 'A.iT ,i/.i;*i-t :::« l".v/Ii-h fr rii i *w- j ! i i.vr-. the !»-rt*ol 
] . I'! iVi h..-. i* ••"-■.::•> »r: • •:-.':r-.UMU- arvl f »mii«laMe Mm wadr%. 
J •.:'•'!• \:-..* r-. .i !■ r« :.• ;::*■. in Ij\ Mrli. \r. the Mnicr t»f Spain, 
^ ■. :« -ir.iTM*::'.;: :ht ('•:;r.i:'i' ' f thr t'»l"ni-!s had **utiix^!c"! in rai»- 
■•..• '}.* \'\-^K.i'\f. Th' ^- i:.' x'.nruvAtA siildii rs. pn^ud of their 
.. « ■ -. .1*. i ..II 'w'.'A'^ \].- r.\** !»• - :•» Ih- Ird J»y the adviie of «uch 
r*.' :. .'.- M-riTi. (\i.*i||:. !<• ! 'rarv-. an I \aKarceI all im*iiicd 
\s'.'): i^.i- :rT;-'r»'! ir ••:! ru Tr.-tf^i State- and Fmncr- formed 
•".• • !• ■;- • I !*■» .irr.\\ « f thi in-urn^ti'in; so that, in a short 
t.rTif. lijrn"- Airi '^ wa-* pre{ian d l«» -u-tain the stru^Q^ in a 
f' arai decisive manner. .\n ass<:;iMv t<f aU^ut sii htindrcd 


s of the couniry deprived the Viceroy, Ballasar de Cisnc- 
ns, of power in 1810, and the movement that was directed by 
CiMffUi and Belgnwo went on gaining ground daily and over- 
came aD oppositioo in spite of the reinforcements that the wife of 
Joha VI tent from Portugal and ihc lormation of an army corps 
imdcr the command of the Viceroy of Feni- Viclorj- remained 
with (he men of Buenos Aires after a few days' conicst, and many 
Spanish officers were made prisoners after being deserted by their 
»ldien. Montevideo scr\-ed as a refuge for the Royalists, where 
thejr ettabtiabcd ihcir headquarters, no doubt, wiih the intention 
of making another attempt to overcome the Indc[>endents, but 
•cry 1000, in Monte\-ideo as in all the provinces of Paraguay, 
■upccne juntas were formed and the revolution became gen- 

The Chileans revolted in 1810 and were aLso victorious. This 
wma the more remarkable, as the Chileans, having a very small 
quantity of arms, had to manufacture their cannon out of the 
tmnks of trees, and these could l>e flivrharged only four limes be- 
fore they beauDC useless. Some battalions had only agricultural 
inMnimenU for weapons. To fight and conquer under such 
coocUtiocu could be done only by a people who rose at the sacred 
can o( Vbmy. 

Thecaiue of independence presented a different as[XTl among 
the Pcfuriant, for, although Upper Peru strugKlM wiih rare hero- 
fam. Lower Peru remaincii loyal, and this atTonlcd a strong liasc 
ol operatioDS to the Spaniards. The nvoluiion ha\'inR broken 
OH in May, 1809, in Charca.s and La Pa/., a small army corps 
fnm Buenos Aires had inarched lo them in onlor tn support the 
movcmenl. and, having been joined by many rrviiluituni >[•<,, they 
had succeeded at length in entering Potmi, guidi-d by Casielli and 
ValcarccL The victories gainol by the Oovi-mmeni n( Lima 
woe not of any permanent benefit, since, beinfi oblij^ed to divide 
their forces to opptnw the insurgents of Quit". l'p[H-r IVru, iind 
Chile, ibeir efltctiveness was very much rrducwi. In ihe capita), 
a beautiful and imloteni city, the movement was not taken up 
with equal cntfaususm by all cla<aes of the popubtion. It was 
mpported everywhere by the member^ of ihc lower onler nf the 
dtrgj; but, on the olher hand, the high di^itaries of the Chun h, 
the DobOity, and the families and dependents of the public officers 


n-jtrttfi it. Referring to tht* former, a letter of Month to his 
Gtnrrnmcnt, puMi^hoI in the Knvluiions oj Spanish Amerk^^ 
s^iys that they wt-re ver>* (li>contente(l ; not a single one appcmring 
t!rvc»ie<I to the ( Jtiv«niment of the Kinp of S|iain. 

The youn^jrr rnemlH-rs of the up|ier classes f»avc fntrat sup- 
|>f)n to the (au^f «>f the revolution, sinee their admirable senti- 
ments of pairJoiiNin macie them submit to the exigencies of the 
if»nM ri|)iinn whi n vt r it w;ls estahlisheti (as in Venezuela), while 
it was nrri-^\- to take mm of the lower ranks to the army by 
fi»rce. Thr nri:nK-s an<l Indians, brutali/eci by slaver)', allowed 
theniM-lves to Ik* «lram:iil awav as often l)V those who defended 
as by thoM.' who attai keil the in.surrection that was to give them 
their lilN-ny. In various pLut-s, anil esiKxially in liuencn Aires 
somr triU - t<»«»k advanta^i- of the movrment to renew their raiiU. 
whit h larried termr and mi-»fortune into manv districts, Flven- 
whrre thr tau***' of indt-jn-ndence suffere<l alternations— event* 
iKJni! si'mctimt'* favoraMi- to it and sometimes advi-n*'. If. at 
thai time. Spain h.i I had a man nf >ut1icient practical kmtwledice 
t'» ad\iM' li« r. jK rh.ip- it nu/}it have Urn easy to preM'r\e the ei- 
tiT.^lve ili-'r:< :- in ihr rii h <nlMr:irN which still remained kwal to 


the niM'hrr tn;;r.rr., iIjun allow! ml; them to retain— by mcann ol 
|»rudinl nf"riTi^ in :h; :r adir, in i-t ration — the comjuest* which 
had «•»-? t):i ni ^* rr.Mili :«• -Mt lire. 

Thr S'W^h An^triian in-urritti^m, like all pt*at s^jcial up- 
heaval'*, ppwluitd r\!ra'»nli:Mr\- men, of whom Simon Bulivmi. 
thr id'»li/td hrpt •! thf Sinr.i-h Americans, mav lie reckoned the f. Tha! Ii'.i'.ii !r.i//It T-r liUnv, which wxs to LlQ for 
f'.ritri f---,:: d \:\ h\v.\ a -4i'»nd Arminius. His countrr haft 
\:.'.\kz\ \\\v.\ ;rii r..\r.\v ••!' ■ I.:*m rat'»r,** an«i one of the States thai 
owr tht ir 1;Ih r:\ :-» hirr.^ hi^ name. 

>in:"n H"l;var wa- N-rr. in Caracas in 178H. He was thr 
y..'.:nL'« -t •( thr f-'ur ihildnn nf Juan Vicente liolivar y Ponte, 
t •! •-.« I'>f 'h' miliMa of tht pLiin^of Ara^a, a rich and r r sp cctrd 
rvin. An - ^rj-han fp>m tht airr <»f •*ix. and master to an immctiic 
f r..::.« . >\r.\ :\ w.i^ ^r.\, whilr still a v<»uih, to Madri<l to finiih 
J.> I I.:i r:- n in thr family of hi- unrle. the Manjue^ de PaLloai« 
a** ! if:' r \z w* llirut f«»r M»me time in Euni[K% at the aife of cJKlh 
t«Tn hi marritd hi- ci»u-in. the rlau^hter of the Marquee de Toftx 
He tO'L htr IkuL t'i(*aracxs with him, but had the mtftfoftiiDt to 


low her within five month.1 of their arrival, the \'iaim of a vioteni 
mack of yellow fever. After so great and irrcpaniblc a lo&s he 
Ktumed to Europe, where he remained vi-silinj; varioiu capitals 
imlil 1609, passing on his return through the United States. Dur- 
ing hn Hay in France he had an opportunity, after the apolhc- 
odt of Napoleon, to observe the energy of a whole nation which 
had freed itself by a supreme effort of its will; and in the United 
Slates, to admire the honored and illustrious Washington. 

After his return to his estate?, in Aragua, the revolution which 
d his ser\-iccs came suddenly ufMtn him, and having been 
d to go to England with Luis I^pez y Mendez to solicit her 
pratactioa they set out for London, where they wen- received vity 
CDoOy, because the En^ish Government, making common cause 
with the Spanish Corle* against the French domination, could 
iwM nipport a movement contrary to the nation to which they were 
bound b)- previous i-ngagements. 

Bolivar being obliged to return to America, took with him a 

D quantity of arm», and General Miranda, an old and valiant 
B a nati%T of Caracas, who had always stri\'en to give 
Kbeit^ to his country, and who, l>cing cxf»alriale<) for hi* 
weU-known labors in favor of independence, had Ixx-n going 
about the world for iweniy-five year^ in search of resources for 
the cause. Miranda had MTxed with Dumouriez in France, 
and with Washington in the United States, and wear)- of hoping, 
and rdying only on his own resuurcei! and those of a few frii-ndfi, 
had already ofganizc<l anexpc<]ition that haddisembarkerl at t }cu 
mare, and aflerwan) at C4in<, tnit whivh had had an unfortunate 
lenntnation from the ill reception that his comiutriois had given 
him oe thai ocrasion. When he joincii Holivar, although M an 
advanced age, he oflerxxl his st nices to his countr>' with the ume 
Eutb that he had in his youth, and he was rcwanled by being 
placed at the bead of the movement. 

In t8t>, OR Holy Thursday, a terrible eanhquake overthrew 
nine-leDtltt at the houses in Car:iras. The 1 lerg)-, taking advan 
llge of the (ermr that such a ralasltophe caused among the in 
babfant% attributerl it to the effect of G(m1> anger, .ind lhu« 
acBtaio leaction set in in favor of the S|ani&h amu, which 
cnaed ihem to gain tome gmund- General Montevenle, a man 
d m>^ manncn and great severity, sucrteded Ln recovering 


Venezuela at the head of the Royalist troops and ohligcd Minmla 
to tapituiate, with the pn)mi.s(> of an amn(*sty in favur of the 
n-lM-l.s a pnimiM' that was not kept — and the unfortunate gm- 
eml, ihe victim ' >t the n*:u tionar)' rule that was (.established through 
this feat nf amis, was sent by Montevenle to Cadi/, where he died 
in i>ne of the <lun^(t>ns in 1816, after having had the grid of 
MrinK n«' amftn^ his enemies. Montevenle succeeded in ttTn>r through those pnninces which saw their prisons 
filled; thr hurrilile instruments of torture laifl out every moment, 
th4* t'leM.s rovereil with unfortunate wretches east out of the city 
aftir havi:ii» had their n'>s4->. ear**, or ihei-ks cut ofT. or havini; 
suffcrifl other « ruel tc»rtures. The cause of inde|)endence was 
then lus-sinL; through its supreme crisis in Wnezuela as well as 
in Ni:r\a (irariada. 

The jMisitjiin of the revolutionists in (*hile was not much morr 
s.-tti<«f.i( ti*ry. «>in< r the reaction was ^ainin^ atlvanta^^ in Quito 
wh'.lr tfMV wiTi- V, .titirvk! f"r iht- brave Marifio, who came, at 
lr:-.t:th, at thf ht a<l cf a r»-w «-xjHflition and wn-sierl that country 
;!L*airi nut t-f t?if lia:*.'!^ ff tht- Sjuniards. My Ko»»fl fortune I^ 
ri ila was ni '\\ i ■ •:::;.!■ :< ly 1 rrari. [iat«ii. and the armies of Arti|^ 
and I.' ;kv f« 1 I :J.r ^piniardN in ■ hei k on the fn>nliers of ChOc 
ar.'l Peru, thr <;••.-•■ ••( Sj-iiri Iti'.i; considered completely lost in 
th«' la-^t namtil >'.i:*-. 

h' h.v\ :.iVir. Tvf\i.:v in Curasao with his cousin, Fdix 
K:^.is, when }:• m>||i • ;i-i! all thi nfuircr^ in order to take thetn 
t" Cartar* ra. .1 ;•: \'ni v that h.i ! Utn able- to presr-rve its frre 
d rr:. H«" th' :» Lil hi-- plan Ufin- the ('«'ni;ri-NS. This coo- 
*i 'i ! ::. :::.i^:-./ "..^ -f .ill !!:« n- dUr^ that thry miftht tje able 
t- .• .• '.::' r.\. :' : !« r : ■ Ii'm r i!r \". ni/m la and vi\r Nun^a (Jfl 
• : : .1". •■: . .1' I :!n •^j!'-.* 'I'.uv. His j**i!i'»n tuvin^ been coQ- 
- :» :■ !. :;.• ("■ : /rt -^ !.:rv:-!i'^l l:i::i with mi»nry. arms, and pro 
\. :•■•>. ar.l M.::::»l (\i^!ill » scr.t t" him fi\e hundred men; 

' . •.-.:•• i 'A.')', thi 'hrii- VmcziirLins who foDovvd 
! ■ .:' :•:•■'! a -rT-.-ilI amy 1 ••qi'» un»ler hi^cftmmand of right hua 

:•■••.:* :'!:•'.« ■-r^ma^vl \ytirx thr aUive nameil Riba^ 

T' ■ '-■•-'.' ' If! (V-.rr.ijfna in Jir.:ark, i?<i.?. and CjutiDo 
•.'..'•'•:: :• .: h in^Ttf di.t:! ly <in hiiown aiciiunt,ad\*ancin|t tow 
ard '.}.- «M-*. v.hilr Il..I;\ar rcrrivefl onler* fnMn the ConfiTM 
to tm u;i\ aiiii hold Barancas, a town on the banks of the Mafda- 


leaa. Bolivar, who did not wish to remain inactiw, molved lo 
doobcj ifaesc ordrr^ promising himself to obtain pardon for thJs 
fault by covering himself with f}ory. 

He first seized Tcncriffe, a town situated on the right bank of 
the Magdalena, then Mompos, and lastly Ocalla, dividing, beat- 
ing, and diipcising the enemy. When he entered Venezuela, 
Narvm Granada was alrrady free. The cruelties of Montc\'erde 
HTcd the rrvolution. obliging the moderates to throw ihcmselvrs 
into (he arms of the patriots. Kecmits arrived fnim all parts; 
and already followed by more than two thousand men when he 
pcnetntcd the Andes in the environs of Pamplona, Ilolivar saw 
naay tbouaands of volunteers united under hLt banner after he 
bad Micocedcd in joining Ribas in the territory of Venezuela. Six 
biindred Granadinos sent by the Congress of Tunja hati mme 
with Ribas at the same time that Colonel Uriceno, detached in 
Guadalito, arrived with a body of ravalry. Without loss of time, 
BoUvar attacked the Royalists at La Grita and afterwani at Me- 
rida. making himself master of the district of that name ; with the 
HBCnpidity he occupied the Pnivinceof Vurinas. In the mean 
while Mjuino, that young iitudent who after jtassing all the mili- 
tujr grades in a few months was alrrady namt-d as one of the 
imeM supports of the revolution, defeated Montevrrde, ma<lc 
himidf master of the Provinces of Cumana and Harcrlona, and 
looktbctitleof general-inchief and dictator of the Eastern Pmv- 
iooei of Venezuela. 

Favored by these successes, which, however, were an obstacle 
tohiaviewsof unity, Bolivar divided his army into two fiaru; lak> 
log CDOUnand of one. he placed RibaA in oimmand of the other, 
aad, punuit^ the Spanianls closely, beat them in Niquitos, Kcti- 
ooa, Caracha, Banjuisimcto, and Varinos. at last reaching Monte- 
vcrde, whom be totally defeated ; he then manrhetl to Caracas, 
inlo which capital he made his cntr)' (AuguM 4, iRi.^) in a car 
riage dimwn by Iwclx-e handsome young men: the mlhusiasm 
wtlh which the nun, who was hcncefcnh fialutol )>y the title of 
"Ubomlor," was received was indescribable. In a few months 
he had pMe over one hurnlml fifty Ictgucs and fo-jghi fifteen 
s numerous smaller actii>ns. His Klor>- would have 
c if, in this memomblr cAmjwign, he had not retali- 

d by ■ogianary executions of Ibc Spaniards against the born- 


bic ( TUf'ltii*s intlictoi by Montcvcnlc, whose barl>aric acts were no 

justituution nf his own. 

Thi- lilxTitinn of W-nczuda apiH'aml to be completely as- 
suritl. since Holivar (K(-u|»ie(l almost half tif the captainc)'- general 
anri Marino the rot. The Sfunianis held only a few unimfxir- 
tnnt (Miints, Montevcnli* U-inu IJockadefl in Puerto Cabello; it 
was diilu lilt to fiireM'f that Fortune would turn her back on the 
S »i;!h Ameriians. 

Itiilivar. who har! taken the title c)f '* Dictator of the Western 
I'mvinirs iif Vi-nr/urla,** did not think of reestablLshin^ the civil 
^nvrmmt-nt the only lonilitions under whiih ck-mcHnicies czn 
live- without danircr; Init the cthtH-s of public opinion which 
n-ai hcil him eavc him to understand ilearlv the em>r that he had 
rnmmitteii. and he hasteneij to (onvoke an fLKsemblv to which he 
ira\e an atiount of his o|h- rat ions and |ilans and tendeml his 
n-Ni^'Ti.ttiiin. Thi.s was not auepteil, the dictatorship lM*ing con- 
f( rn d on him until Venezuela should Ix' able to unite with Nurva 

T):*- Koyaii'*!>. who ha«! not just all hoix*, armed the sJa%TS« 
i::v!« r a pP'm:N<- .if i:i\in^' them iht ir liUrty, the vak^aUmds, and 
a!! '^h i had r;t» \;n;Mi- mean.s of ».-.iliNi>ti me wh(»m thev (i»uld 


met I \\\*h. At :!:• \\t .id "f ll;eM- l>l<-»il:liip»!y lianrl^ was the fenr>^ 
lio;;^ I'::\. \\)ji.. .ii:« r m i/i:;^: \ .irin.i-. -ho? i;ve hundn^I (latrit^s 
tht ri . I'-.;y w.i'. lii •.;!«■ nan! of |{i»\( r. the m«isl dreadoi of the ad- 
\ir>.i.':' -of l5..|i-. ir. Thi- M"'.i r, a CaNtilian by orii;in. who had 
Iki •: -.; . I '.'.:•. 1 1\ viil.r. ('Mn: i-iard. an«l jutller, and had been 
impri-^-r.M! f. r *.> r!-.:^!i t-U. J:.i ! i ome to Am<riia set-kin^ an 
n-\\ .VI !p:v. i .-•;.!•. \!rh";/h hi- m«»tive i^ unknown, he en- 
li-'rd :•'. !•'.!■ k ;...!-! r.i' -.Oii. h hi- htM :he rank of ca;Kain 
a: tr.t \'.r.u 'f !•.• ■!» !<.»!- > i :hr >;Mr:ian!'*. He maile an ap|icml 
t • iv.t i I!ir^. !'■.« 1 ./!•.■. I - f- r\ ] >!:> e. the ru^nK-Nand themuUt 
t-K-x. .'.'.'] \\,\\\ :;i' M ••rj.i:.:/! il a \**>\\ of ini«»jrs whiih, fnni their 
!• r«- :•;. . t!i -rr. td the name of !h«" ** Infernal I^vi<»n,*' in whiifa 
•.M r« •:..'.• \ //.;«' f.'.^arians fp'm thi plains. henUmen. and 
'-l.i'./h'. :• r-.u 1 •.>!•-::: Ill t.» tame the wiMe^t h4ip<*Nant) unri%allnl 
a-* }:-r-i •! f r. TheM min of the plain*' iJi-NpiMil the mountainrrr 
\ih< !••-.%• r*-! hiniM-lf )iy i;oin^ on foot, ;i.s well as the Eufopcaa 
\%ho (o'.d.l n<-t er.d :re a i;aIIop ii.ntinunl for viiteen hi>urv Tbnr 
ride banlMtk an 1 ha\e no other dress than a sort of shoct 


a or drawt-re, Strrtchcd out over their horses, with Uncc 
ia TCfll uul a lasso in the other hand, they fall u|)un the enemy, 
kikJ wound and destroy with the rapidity of lighlninf;. No regu- 
Ur cavalry can resUt ihc onset of these Cossacks of the Colom- 
bian steppes, who alway-s leave behind them such terrible trails. 
The cupidity of these nomads had been cxciieil by the promise to 
diatributc the hinds of the conquered among them, and thus 
Borer succeeded very quickly in getting together an array o[ eight 
thousand men. 

Fnin the moment that he appears on tlic theatre of war it 
acquired such a character of ferocity and barbarity that both 
rides rivalled each other in committing alnxilies. Nevertheless, 
it b right to confess that it was Bover who began il by beheading 
in one day twelve hundred iiriwjners. The energy of Bover wa» 
man than once paralyzed by the carelessness of the Si>anish gen- 
omb, and Bolivar succccde«l in defeating him .several times, as 
wdlachu lieutenants, the mulatto Ruscta,and the guerilla chief 
YaBcs. The Dictator ha^l the impruilencc to himself with 
al Ul lofces on the vast phuns, where he was sur|>rise<l and dc- 
tOoytd by the cavalry of Bover. MariFlo, beaten almost at the 
nme time, was driven back lowanl Cumana. The conciuerur 
ea ei wl Canuraa with such prcdpitation that the Uiitalor had 
ool^ loffidenl time to get on board a. »hip, iniMing the safely of 
dw republic to the meny of the elements, Kibas colleclcd the 
dhpened patriot forces and continunl the campaign, but he was 
finaD]' defeated in the Battle uf Eri»a by Bover. who. n-cn^Hnga 
^Mar wound, died on the field of battle. His ferocious soldien 
madebima funeral wonhy of his perwui: women, children, and 
old men, all were put lo the swonl; and Ri)>as, who had been 
taken prinncr, wan shot, and his head was sent [<> Car:iia.n 10 be 
paUSthf exposed (December, 1814). 

B(Avar had been able to rvach Cartagena, which, with the 
Pnrvinre of Santa Marta, had been fornuil into a republic of 
wtnch Toirirea was pre»i>U-ni. Nucva (irunada was ver>- mm h 
It will \k rrmrmlxn-*! that a pnixisinnal junta had 
i in Bogota siiire July, 1810. The pnivincial depu 
iMemblcd in Congress hail tlrawn up an ail of federation 
b had not succeeded in obtaining the approbation of all the 
1, tbc diasidcnts selecting a junta called the "Junta of 


Cundinamarca.** In 1812 this assembly published its plan of a 
constitution, which wxs no l)cttiT nreivini than the prcrcdinK. 
Ananhy n-i^^i-*! cvenwhcre. A thini Conjjress a-sscmblcd in 
Tunja iSt'ptemlKT, 1814^ to which liolivar ofTercd his senices. 
Thex- wrix' acirptc<l, and, lK*inKon!rn*d to manh ac^ainst Bogota 
and its di( tator Alvarez, he «»ljtaine«l the formal pnimise that the 
dis>ii!rnt pn)vin(cs would join the ionfetieration, although in cx- 
ihaii^e thr (»lfl capital should Ik- the seat of ^>vemment. The 
('(m^n-ss U-in^ installiil in lio^ota immnliately set aUiut prepar- 
ing means to repulse* the Spaniards, who wen* ex|K*( ted tf> a{»pear 
ven' shortly. NaiMili^m had fallen; Fenlinaml VII already oc- 
cupievl the thnmi- of \\\> fathers, and ver)* soon news arTi\Til thai 
hr was sending: a vjuadntn with ten thou>and men under the cam 
mand of Morillo to >u((f»r the Royalists. The s|xitiy arrival of 
this im{M>rtani nrnfonement had iKTn (ommuniratcvi to all the 
vitenivs. Thr Madrid (f«)vemment, thinkini' no<loubt that thrv 
still had to do with thr Imiians of (*ort^-s and Pi/arn», had cxm- 
iriviil ihi- h<'jH- that on this nrw> alone the R'Ih-Ls seixnl with 
terror, would imnu-tliatcly suhmii in a U^ly; this was mkonin^ 
ttK) niui h on t!ii- prr^ti^t* nf \\\v Sp.Lni^h amis whiih, it was al- 
reaily kn iwn, wrrr JvA in\in«iMe. Thi-M' events coincideil on 
thi' tithcr hand with thr lapitulation of Monteudeo, the last 
refuse of thr in«'!hrr in'.ir.try in thr oM viteniyalty of Buenoft 
Aire^, whiih w.L^ i»-:ivrni-*l fn»m that momrnt inti> an indepcn- 
drnt statr. Thr nr'A rrp.^Mii formal a *««{uadnin and its seamen 
h.fl l^Mtrn ihc Sp.irM^ii !!fi-i. Althoui^h it iN crriain tlut. by the 
« a;'::,..l.i!ii»n **i M ■'•:!<>■' If » anl thr fi\r thousand five hundrtd 
tv.\:\ V. h" 'li ft:: ir'i i:. S!..iin l«.si thr unlv trrritnn* thai remained 
t ' i-.i r •■:: thr r.i-t »m>: •'! N." Amrriia. it iN n«»t K^ss a« that 
{:.*->* rni-^fxr'-.;:.!-^ h.i>! ii«tn immIv i ipuntrrSalani i^l bv sucteaan 
iti t' -.^l;i h in i>i.( \uv\ a;;ain fallrn untlrr the >T>ke of the 
Sp.iT.i.ipN. \\h" i:.i\r thcm^lvrN up t<» all thr h«»rn>rs of the mart 
H i:.j .!n:ir^ u ;rr-^i- n. Thr vrurrilla i hirf RiMlriiruez, ne\erthe- 
I: ^-. I :>:.;:.! I;,^^l thr KM\.ilists nf (*hile, while, ueMin^ 
t- t::4- -•..••.-•■ :-- ■ ■; U- !.t.i:'.««. .mil thr t»«i>rmmenl of Ruenoa 
\::»-.!h' ]': ■•. !: »--■■{(* /.<••. Hi;.iman;ra. an»l Are^juiju in IVfU. 
\%*r:. •! :. 1 :.:•.:;•.-: • «:.!•:■. vaiI tran'^uil. iletbred for the cause of 
indt ;Kn'irn. r. and the Rr>yalists were able to retain Lima only 
With ditfuultv. 


The Grmnadine and Venezuelan chiefs had united; Castillo, 
Cabal, and Urdancta acted (or Nueva Granada, BoUvar and 
Mariflo for Venezuela, Troops were sent to the south to support 
the Govemment uf Quito, and Urdaneta marched toward the 
eail,chaiged to restrain the devastating incursions of Puy. BoU- 
TBTt >ppoit]lrd Captain- General of Nueva Granada and Venezu- 
cb, defended Ihrou^^h the P[D\ince of Magdalcna at the head of 
three tbouaand men, surprised Mompos. where he shot four hun- 
dred prisoners and demanded reinforcements that the latter 
obadnatdy refused him, thinking it man important lu uphold the 
independence of Cartagena with respect to Bogota than to repel 
the enemy. lioliiar wished to force President Torrices to pvc 
him the tnmps which he required, and, instead of conlinuitif; his 
iiiarcli, returned to Carta^na, thus losing precious time. In the 
fBoui while the enemy was approaching, and the common dan- 
ger averted a fratricidal siruKgle. He joined his troops to thoM 
thai were In Cartagena and embarked for Jamaica, whence he 
hnpcd to bring succor, and, when he had obtained this and was 
preparing to return, he received news that C^irtagrna had surren- 
dered after a heroic resistance of four months. Morilb entered 
Cartagena on December 6, 181 n; the city was nothing but a heap 
of ruins, since the whole strength of the enemy had been directed 
I it, and it thus expiated, ver>' cruelly t rrlainly, its refusal 
■ist (he common cause. With the taking of this fonificd 
, Nueva Graiuuta was again opened m the enemy, and the 
1 period of the war of independence terminaled still more 
onfortunately than the fiirit had done. 

At fir^t Morillo api>eared to be animat'.-d by pacific intentions, 
but alinosl immediately, yielding to the suggestions of Morales, 
be gave orders thai with respect to the rebeU " all considerations 
ofhumanitT" thnutd l>e wt aside. Summary' exerutions, whole 
mie deponations, imprisonments, forced contributions, and se 
qoatflUion ol jm»perty began rvrri-whcrr. In the mean time the 
patriots were masten of the plain, which they defended with 
iooe obatiitacY. .\fter an imporlani viitor\' ai Pucntr (Febru 
KTj 16, 1816) Morilln allowed himM If to Ix- defeated by t'rdoneta 
aadTorricea, his position becoming very triiical torn time. Five 
i Spaniards went over to the patriots: the corsairs capt 

I fall aaivojn, blowing up one of tua ships; Brion, that rich 


Dutch merchant of Carta^na whom Caracas had made capuin 
of a fri^ati' ^ind aftiTMani an admiral, bniu^ht to Ikilivar MarifW> 
and t'lftiTn hundred ri*sf)lutc men, with one thousand ncKTors fur 
ni.sht*d l)v ration. 

Morillo'.s I>ad faith, his tyrannical measures, and his inhunun 
pmcecflin^s thn-w into the ranks of the n*belIion very nuny men 
who were convincnl that the capitulations and promises of par 
d(»n were nothing more than deceptions. A K^^^l example of this 
is what (Kcum'vl in lio^ita, which o|K'ned itsf^ti-stothc Royalists 
after a formal treaty in which the most cf>mplete amnesty was ac- 
cordi-ii tf» the inhaljitants; a tn*aty that Morillo did not hcailate 
to vidlate l)y exet utin^ Tom-s, I«o2an«», Torrici*s Cabal. Pombo, 
Caldas, and two hundrnl other {Kitriot.s, exilinf^ their famOicsand 
cont'iM atin^ their prt>|M*rty. Thi> man, endowed with incimiesta- 
ble miliiar}' ()uali!ii->, was nevertheless wry far fnim havini; thoie 
ne^ex^:l^>' f'»r paiifyin^ a ((»untr)'. liy exx^fieniting the %'mn- 
qui^^ht-tl he rendere*! their suhmi.vsion imiiossible; anil to him 
aldiie, \ihi> ( .ime t'> ret (in({i2(T Amerita, must his countr)* impute 
il> li'Ns. lie Im Ijr\(-tl in the e:i'ii irni y of the ikIjijus and arbitrary 
measurcN adopttd \*\ him, the rxeiution of which he had ia- 
tru>te<i !'> a {KTniap.rnt munt il df war, a count il «)f purifkatioo, a 
ct»mminef nf >4«|i:i-^!r:i!iMns, .md t»»un.s martial. 

As wt- h.iVf s.iid U fun-, tht- S{i«iniMh tla^ tifiated over mil the 
territorv- nf Nut-v.i ()rap..iii.i, and this fortunate success Minded 
MiTiilo. who. ex.i^eratin^ his {muer and con.MderinK it as stable 
a-i i: w.i"* irui::* :Mr. prejurir.i: t"* lany hiN system tjf terror 
t" I'r T'.i. H>ili\ar ur;<!( r:<H»L t-i diNsijtate hi> illusif»n^ Having 
s*i rt !l\ ^t s-iii fp»m (\i)«-^, hi- p;jt himself at the heail of an ca* 
{Kill:: -n om;*'!^''! of two ^hips of war and thirteen transporti^ 
f';!:r«l •.;;: Tt tht m«M! a! tht- exjiens*' 'if Hritm. On May jd 
Hri"!ii!< f(.i!<^! :ht- >|iani'*h !lo!:Il.i. taking twn vessels; on the ^d 
Ii< -h^.ir di^-mfMrkeil on the isLmd of Mar^rita, which had faBra 
i^*" 'hv h.inds iif the mul.itti> Arismendi, ami the insur|{nits^ i& 
a ;:r:;rr.d asM-mhly four days later, pncLiimed the Republic of 
\<-r.f /.;il.i. < r.e .ir.d indivi.siMr. ami litjivar head of the 
Ari^n*.* r:ii ;»ri-M :'.!t'«l !o the I)ii!ator a >^llll heafkd 
\iUr.\ < f th« ^liiirtme a'.^thoritv in a muntrv* that can bend 
the I'Ust i«f advtrNitv, hut never break.** 

The Scotchman, Macgref^r, at the head of six htindrcd 


wu ordered lo ro to ihc succor of MarillD and Piar, who were 
balding out in Guiana, while I'arj:, taking the province of Apure 
u Uw bsac of his operations, ejected Morillo from it. The Indian 
Puez, who had passed his youth among the llaneros, proposed to 
draw his old companions from the reactionary party, uniting 
tbcm to the cause of independence ; a thing that was not difficult 
for him inasmuch as the Spanish Government, pnK'eeding with 
the greatest ingratitude and thinking ihey had no funbernccdof 
tbcir lemccs, bad contemptuously disbanded thorn without giv- 
ing tbem the slimiest remuneration. They passed over, then, to 
aenre the caiue of the revolution, of which they were the most efTi- 
adoQt hmnimmts. Vaez. by his loyal and generous character, 
had became the idol of these untamed natures. The brave deeds 
of Pms, u numerous as they arc surprising, are ihoM- of a legen- 
Aujhao; it is asserted that he repulsed the Sjjanish infanirj- by 
teltiilg wild oxen loose against them ; thai he arresletl pursuit by 
■etting fire to the steppes; that he seizrd the Royalist gunboats in 
thewatosof the Apure by swimming; that with his terrible lance 
he kiUcd u many as forty enemies in the fight, and when he fell 
iqxMi a flying di%'isian he completed the rout by his powerful voice 
mod the lear that he inspired. Kndowed with herculean sin-ngth 
aad imcooqurnible t-nerg}-, he t»x»k i>art jn the amusements and 
dK dangers of hb men. At the head of the ferocious lloneros 
of the plains of the Apure, he began ihuAc brilliant eirplotts that 
were later to make him the terror of the Sjianish armies. 

Boitvar, desmcti by fortune, found himM-lf obligi-d to l>eat a 
ictml aoct more. Hi- lcx)k rtfuge in Jamaica, where his life 
was irrioialy threatened by the {loniards of the Royalists; but 
J coutd abate his courage; active, n-vilule, and fertile in 
I, the moment bad arrived when after ha\ ing fallen lo 
a ol ihe abyss he was lo rise and ivnit- from it. The 
e of some chiefs, his rivali, had been ver>- fatal to the 
came ai indcpcndencr ar>d would have U-en much more hi if on 
Aetr part the S[ianish chiefs had not brt-n so divided, since .Mo- 
tflo had taken the extreme step of arresting two general olTicrn, 
Ucfaka and Real, .^fter many tiinfi-n-nces. Arismrndi, Vta. 
fata, Ro)aa, Monagas, Scdeno, and Itermudez Jigrred to m-ng- 
atae Un as generalissimo. He called titgriher a grnrral congress 
Id the Iriand of Margarita, and the provisional government, of 


which he took the direction with the title of *' President of die 
Republic of Venezurhi." was estahlishetl in Barcelonm; but loroc 
months Liter, after sin^inan* tomlxUs, this city was rrcovmd 
by the Royalists (April ;, 1S17), who in a short time were ooce 
a^in masters of almost all the (tost. 

The [position of the Repul>licans was critical and perplejdng. 
and in onlt-r to riniw them fn)m it Bolivar conceived the darinx 
pniject of tnmsfrrrin^ the insurrection to (luiana, which until 
then had n*maine<I loyal. This camiKiif^ wxs well directed bjr 
the ** Lib(*rator/* stronded by Piar and Hrion, and its sucreas was 
so great that in less than thrtt* months that vast and riih pnmncc 
was sulMlue<l by the Republican army, whii h entered its capital, 
An^istura, July 17th. During this bold and flistant exprtliticin 
of thi* (fenenilis>imo, numen>us and brilliant viitoric-s had Ijcrn 
gain(*<l in other ]»:irts. (lencral Morillo, who lame in {lerujn to 
tiesirgr the islam! of Margarita, was di-frat(^i, his camp falling 
into the hands of ttu* lioirgcfl, who *m thr other hand obliged the 
Sfunish v)uar|n>n to It-avi* th^irlr^'i^t after miraculously escaping 
c«»mpl«'lc' dfsirji tjon. I n>!!m*< tionary movements increascti in 
Nucva (vninada. and iruerilla band> wrn* numen>us in the Piov 
inif'N i4 Anti<M}'.2i.'i, Ouito, and Pc»|)ayan; Paez with his ca^'alrr 
g:nn<-<l two im| \ i( torii-s ovt-r Morillo. 

Hrfnrr \hr liTmin.tti"n of tin- year 1S17 the seat of gn%TTn- 
mrr.t wa^ !r.t;:NftTn-«l t'l ihr lapilal of (ruiana, and liolivar, wbo 
h.ul fNtaMi^ho! his hr;irl«jiurtt rs thrn\ pn'|jan^l to divi<ir the•i^ am«'n;r thr Ind< j-* ridrn! Vildiers a-* a n*ci»mi)en«<c for their 
s.i« ri:"i« i>. Thf < anxiaiirn ««f iSiS, although it gavr the Rrpubli- 
lari iji-ni ral^ «•:>;»• 'r!::nirii * of *.howi?ii» proiif^of ih«ir courage and 
!n:l; kr:«'*A If •«!;•«. h.i'l ut dtt Ui^i* ri-^iil!, thr Rcpublii ans only 
«'b:.i::.::i:: {--m '.'•ii,:; ,.f s.jn I-Vniarifjo; l»ui other events of ia- 
nur.x- irri^'rlanr*' «m'.]rri'd t«« awaken the general enthtuiasn. 
The vt n* i:reat jNipiilarity that Uolivar enjoyitl, not oiJy 00 the 
Ameritan cr^tir.en: b::t al*^>iri hi up*[ie it >4-lf, attracted to his ban- 
ner mar.y vnlur.tef FN frt'm Kn;:larid, France.and theUnitcd Stales^ 
with wh(>ni he i>rea*::/«^! a mmiil legion; at the same time, in 
Waship-irt'Ti and in I.onil«'n. i /i-jf/;/'! (fa/jairrs of Venezuela w xn 
n*' ei\«^l. wh:; h was «-'j\iival«-ni to nif>gnizing her esistcnct. la 
Knirland. I>'{k*/ Mende.*. ihan;e«l to contract loans and cnlnl 
men. had ^<Tn n:o;:^v a:;d nun. arm?* and munitions flow in. 


■> tbat besides the resources necessary to the prosecution of tbe 
mr tbc new republic at the end of i8t8 relied upon nine thousand 
fomgn combaianls. Despairini; of conquering the Liberator 
tbry ftltemptcd to assassinate htm ; twelve men anned with dag- 
gen penetrated one night into the tent, from which he escaped 
half -dressed. 

At the end of the year 1818 the Republicans wen: in an excel- 
lent position; the Spaniards on the contrary found themselves 
rrduced to the last extremity, having to face on all sides regular 
amies and the guerilla bonds which fell upon ihcm suddenly. 
Bolivar, who remained in Angostura, after having occupied him- 
self in the regulation of the ii(lmini<il ration, of agricullurc and 
commcTCC, assembled in that city the Naliunal Congress, which 
beopeoedinpersinoa February 15, 1819, laying before it a draft 
ORHtitutioii and resigning the dictator^lp with which he had 
been inresled. At the request of the Congress, Bolivar accepted 
ibe Praldeiicy of ihe republic, of which Zea was apiwinteil Vice- 
Praidenl, until the new constitution was promulgated. 

Tbe Liberator, desirous of consolidating the independence, 
;ht the time had arrived lo go in search of M orillo, whom he 
1 putting on the wrong track, moving his troops in 
diflennt directions and pretending to ogterate in view of Canu as, 
while be marchci), as he had intended, toward the south of Nuc^-a 
Graiiada, of which the Spanianis had been in tmnijuil possesMon 
for two years. After many battles, in which the Kcpubhcans were 
•hrayi victorious, Il«>livar, rtol with«>ul much fatigue, «uccrc<led 
ia joining Santandrr and taking him with him. Roth armies 
haag united continued ihdr marth acrtiss the plains inundated 
by CDfitinuoui rains, cnased rivers thai hud ovrrflownl their 
banks, penetrated deserts where they suffered the torments of 
lhiiil,and woods whose trees, of a pnHligious height. inlen-('|ilei[ 
t %hl of day and dropped with conlinunu^ rain; mbIoI the 
I Andes of Tunja, and at length, after undergoing tbe 
ritufleringsforsevrnlydays, and losing a large |>.irt ofihejr 
«tnd all their horses, they arrived at Paya on June 17th. 
r days after, Bolivar met in the valley of ^agammii ihrre 
J five huiMlred Spaniards, and. without heeding the in 
pr of his form or their mlucdl comlition, mutcti them, 
and the Mmc night Tunja [cU into his hands. Other actions f<--I- 


lowed, and the Republicans, by victory after victory, arrived at the 
bridge of Boyaca, where they gained a decisive rictory over tlie 
partisans of Spain. When the news of this battk had spread 
throughout the prorince the insurrection broke out in all parts 
with such \iolence that the Sjianish authorities saw no other 
means of csca|ie than a precipitate flight. Bogota opened its 
gates to the Independents on August lo, 1819, Santandcr bcmg 
instantly apixunted President of the Provisional GoveininenL 

During this time the squadron of Margarita, commanded by 
Admiral Rrion, took by assault the fort and city of Barcriooa 
(July i8th), while the Spanish squadron had to return to La 
Guaira after a fruitless attempt against Margarita. The tri- 
umph of the Republicans was as complete as it was dccisvc. 
Bolivar having n*tumed to Angostura amid the \'ictorious shouts 
of the people, the Congress, in accord with public opinion, and 
after mature <ielilx*nition, carried out the favorite project of the 
LilK*rator t>y sanctioning the fusion of the two Provinces of Nucva 
Granada and \'enezuela, which, in honor of Christopher Cohan- 
bus received, on December 1 7, 1819, the gbrious name of "The 
Ki-pubhc of Cok)mbia.*' 


A.D. iSlI 


Tnm ijjo lo ijry the Mamelukes. > militar? organiution created 
fraai a body of alavci hU to the Sultan uf Egypt, ruled in that country. 
L'adat lb* line ol sultans *priiiKiiiB Iron them the land luflcrtd from al- 
BOH mnatint ttrifc, tncrigue. murder, and rapine. These »ultani were 
iMCf ttiDwn in IJ17 bjr the Uiioroan Sultan Sclim. who made a complete 
COBqWM of £cypl> but the Mamelukei remained a* a famou* cavalry 
carpa ta Ibe Ecypiian army until, in 1811, tliey were Ireachcrouily de- 
d by Mebeniet Ali, ai related below. 

tlw llattle of the Pyramid*, July ri, 171)8, the MamclukFn. under 
I Bey, wcic defeated by Napoleon. For several year* Ihc (rrncli 
d ECTPt : and upon their eapuliion by the Engliah. Mchcmet Ali 
MM 10 power aa Turklih commaodct and ( iKosI viceroy of the country. 
The EacIWt havinf withdrawn from Ki^pl. he prepared lo ettab1i*h hta 
ooAortiy. Thia he did altera ruthlcM *upprcuion al the Mameluke 
beys, obo made a atruggle for their provincial Kovemorshiin, 

By a ibow of clemency and conciliation toward the Mamrltiken, Me- 
hcMCt Ali tecurnl an appearance of traniiuiilily in Kgyftt Thii |>oticy, 
hamrrwt. wa* only a preparation for ' the act of cocuummate treachery 
•kkb finally uprooted the Mameluke power.' 

DEING free imm the English, Mehcmel -Mi began to develop 
hi* ptans for taking firm rtioi in ERvpt. He saw thai, hy ex- 
[ Imij(c rrvvnucs, he could maintain his intluenre by rich 
s lo Can.<itanlinoplc. His mililar)' position in Egypt wu 
d, and the increasing and advancing power of the Wabha- 

I (Mabomrtan reformers) rendenxl him more ihan r\'er ner- 
CHuytothe Porte. With the interior of the country tranquil 
uid itttd from civil war, an interval c>f pm«|ieriiy, however brief, 
BUfbl have been expected. Such, however, was not the case. 
An ad o( ipoliation — unarct)m[>anie(1. lol>e*urr, liv bloodshed — 
but of a R'^ip more tromprchcnsive and ruinous than anytbinx 
tbftt had been done by the prcdeceuurs of Mehemet Ali, waa 
ifeortly CDOsummatefL 

II waa in the yean t8o8-l8io (hat Mrbrmel .\li efTrcled a 


rcvolutionan* transf ;r of landed pn)i)erty in Ef^'pt. Not content 
with greatly incTi-a.sinK the iaxi*s <in the soil, he onlcrtd an in 
siK'ttion to Ix* made of all title deetls; and, on one prriczt or 
another, his agents ubji^tcfi to their valiflit y, contesting the legiti- 
macy cjf the suict ons, im|x)sing additions to the bnd tax, 
and in a great mujtitude of instances retaining the title deeds* 
whiih wen* burned. A few influential sheiks were spared; but, 
wherever the (jovemment chose, the land, for want of titles^ 
gradually Ia|)S(*d to the miri; y» that in a few yean the Pacha 
Ix-came landlord of nearly the whole of the soil of Eg}7>t, some 
insignificant annuities U-ing granted in compensation. Mefae- 
met Ali's elevation to [xiwer was founded on public opinion; but 
his first acts, after the consolidation of his rule, were the moit 
flagrant defiance of public opinion and of the sacrrrl rights cl 
private pn)|K*rty in the mof !i-m annaLs of Kg}'pt. The Mamelukes^ 
the Fn-nch, and the intcnening (lachas had overwhelmed the 
|»it»ple with exactions; but no attempt had been made to tear up 
by the ver)' nx)ts the |>a( ific and legal [w»ssessjon of property. 

The lommotion whiih these pn>ci\-fling^ caused was violent 
in the extreme, an«l soiiety w;i?> agitatcfi to its inmost depchk 
Kvrn the women and the (hiidren irowded the mosques* and 
ma'lr xhv tizhir Tisttuni\ with their wailings. Classes and iadi- 
vi'luals utter .strangers to {j«>Iiii(.s and {Militical discussion, stood 
:i^h.i*^t at an event which remiered reavining su{MTtluous and 
I Til ipitatetl all the riirhts rif pni{K'rty into a common ab^-ss. The 
shi iks met in axsembly, anrl um-<1 ever>' resource, Ijoth of 
M-:'.:.iTi'in and {M-tition to the Pacha and the Porte; but Mel 
All was firm in hi^ puqi^tse. The vehement reprrsrnLatioQS of 
the >h( iks aLMi:'*>t the ad<!itionaI land taxes, and even the pcr- 
M v( rini: n-fuvils of Said Omar Mekrum, the fuukeeb of the iJh^ 
riJ5, to eo n< ar the divan of the I'acha were drclartd bjr him to 
sivr^r of a stitT neck<-«l and relK-Uious spirit which must be ir- 
pres^^l. Anrl, thnmghout this curious struggle, the firm defence 
of thf- indefeasible rights of pn'{>eny wxs conveniently c\ 
teri/4-«l by a lawless i;t»\emor as an aggn^^ion and an ini 
of thf supreme auihr>rity. Said Omar Mekrum was exiled to 
Darr.if tta. The mililaink governors of provinces arbitrmrihr cat 
111 to! ( i»ntributions without the inter\-ention of the Coptic 
ap.d iherAtf"r!h began that direct grinding of the 


wfiidi, before the death o{ Mt-hcmcl Aii, grc? ly reduced than In 
number and impoverished tfacm almost to the minimum of pos- 
sible human existence. 

Al this period (i8oq) events in Arabia were preparing a tri- 
umph for Mehemet Ali and an extension < lis political power. 
Thil rut countn-, the cradle of Islamism, was now overrun bjr 
the Wabbabee reformers, who, from small beginnings, had mas- 
lend both Mecca and Medina, and, although without the sci- 
ence of European warfare, made up for their deficiencies by an 
c and undaunted bravery in action, as well as by great 
I of endurance in the arduous campaigns of that torrid 
Their peculiar doctrines were based on the self-denial 
fli the early Mcnlems, which made Ihcm avoid both those stimu- 
hats wUch expend the nervous and muscular energies and those 
lethargic habits which are alternately the effect and the cause of 

The bairen shores of the Red Sea being in a great measuf« 
devoid of ports and of navigation, and the trade of Suez having 
■nk into insignificance, it was not easy to transport an army 
6am Egjrpt to Arabia. By a series of most painful cflurts wixtd, 
cordage, and other materials for shipbuilding were carried from 
•the poets of Turkey to Egypt, and across the desert, on the backs 
of *•■—*** to Suez. Numbers of men and of those useful beasts 
fl( baikn perished in the attempt; but at length, after incredible 
iSorti^ d^tern vessebt nxre launche<I in the space of less than a 
JPCV, and fitted up for the conveyance of troo])5 and provisions. 
A baptism of blood accompanied their launch; (or ihr better 
■okmoixalioo of the departure from Cairo of the Inxips deslincd 
far the Arabian expedition this time was chosen fur the final 
■aaacR of the Mamelukes. The inl'irmities of Ibrahim He)' 
had shown the Mamelukes thai ihey coul<I nn longer ho|)e for 
tmf revival of Iheir supremacy; the n-m.-Lining head men were 
therefore dt^wwd toward a )>a.ssit'e and luxurious existence, giv- 
ing oo further umbrage to the Pone or m Mthemel .\li, and 
caatcnling ihemielvrs with as lan^- a share as they could grasp 
«f the produce of Efoi'l- Mehrmrl Ali. on hh ude. ttos not ilia- 
fliaMd to patch up an accommodation n-itb these lurbutent bar 
osa el Eastern fetidaliam so as to have more clbrn* n<om lo carry 
ant hh designs of a virttial sovrmgnty under the mask of acal 


for the scn'icc of the Porte, and at the same time to have them 
more securely in his i>ower when the convenient moment came 
for K^'ttinf; entirely rid of them. 

Shahin Hey, the elirtetl successor of Elfy Bey, had made hi? 
submission to Mehemet Ah', and sifted an arrangement the 
conditions of whii h were advantaRer>us to him. From the P)m- 
mids up the left bank of the Nile, to beyond Beni-Suef, and in- 
eluding the Faioum, was a.ssi^ed to him as an appanage; and, 
on his pri-M-ntin^ himself for invi-stiture to Mehemet .Mi at Cairo. 
he was loade<i with rich >;ifts of shawls, {)eUsse!i, and diamond- 
mountiti fhLK>:ers. The other Mamelukes, evi-n although jcal- 
«)us i)f Shahin Hey, wcrt* alM) gradually obliged to yield. The 
Ik'Vs at Siut (»n the upfn-r Nile wished at first to refuse tribute. 
Hut thr Mamtlukes, Uini; no longer a (oq>s unitetl under an 
Ali Hiy, or a Murad, as in former times, were fain to yield on 
t'mdin^ that Mehemet Ali himsilf had come to Siut with an amy 
f>f several thnusand men t<» collet t the tribute. .After this there 
wa> n<it I'Vi-n the shadow of a rising. Many of the Mamelukes 
<ame td Cairo and s:mk (omplrtely into sloth and sensuality, 
luxsin^ from the wild to the tame state like ixrasts fatted for 

In I'Vbruan', i.Sii, the (hiefs destined bv Mehemet Ali to 
«x!:r]Mie the WahhaUr n-formers, and restore Arabia to the 
(\ili;ih of ConsTaniinf|iIe, went tt» encamp at Kubbct d .\xah, 
on I he de>ert near Cairo. Hen- four thousand men were united 
i;:.'irr the order> of Toussun Pacha, the son of Mehemet AK, 
\\h" waMlt'stinoi lorommand the ex{Ktlitiftn. On the f<iU«iwin|t 
I'ri'Liy the yf;;!hfi:l i:i neral was to nieive the {irli.vMr of in^xsti- 
t.iri .in-! thereafter !•• jirineeil to the lamp by the "iiate cl 
\'ii !>r) " *ihe astn'lo;:ers having i\\i^\ r>n this day as pnipitioas 
iM rhe suitevs (if the enter]»ri>e. All the civil and militanr aa- 
thoriiies and the print i|ial {H*f »ple of the countr)* wefr infomcd 
of the appnwKh of the ten-mitny; and on the night before, the 
Mameluke chiefs were inviti^i to take (xart in full mstume. A 
«>im;'le invitation tn the .Mamelukes in a mass, on any other 
sior.. Wi.-ild have Ut r. rneivetl with the habitual Oriental 
truM of such ho^pitalitv; but, with a skill in the war of crl 
worthy of a Ix/'-r cau5r, Mehemet Ali so managed that the ohri- 
uus motive of the departure of an army, and the aModatioo of 


the Mjundukn with all the othrr authorities of the countiy, not 
only lulled their suspicions, but even tiattered their self-love. 

Od Mkfch t, 181 1, all the princiixU men of Cairo flocked to 
tbe dtadcL Shabin Uey appeared there at the bead of his house- 
bold, baring come with the other beys to pay his mpccis to 
MrfaesMt All, who received them in the great ball. CoHcc was 
tbenaervcdand conversation look place. When all those who were 
10 take put in tbe procession were assembled, the signal for de- 
puture WIS given, each person taking the place that was assigned 
him by the master of the ceremonies. A corps of driis, com- 
d by Oozoon All, opened ihcnxarch; (hen came the maty or 
ilgovemorof Cairu, thcn^aof the }ani£aric5,wiih Turk- 
Ul tlDOpc; then came the Albanians, esiKtrially devoic«I to Mrhe- 
toH All, under the immediate command of Saleb Khxsh. The 
tcguUr troops came last, and the Mamelukes had their places 
udgned between the infantry and cavalry at the rear aii<l the 
Albaniana, who marched in front of them. The plateau of the 
dladd, on which are situated the chief buildings, is elcvaieil high 
•bovctbcloTlofthccily. Downonthclowerle\i'l, anclclusetothc 
public place of the Koumeylch, is the gate of Azaba — a picturesque 
object flanke<] with round lowen, [tainted in slri|>e» of red and 
whhe. between the high counyard and this ^atc was the old 
aexea lo tbe [^teau — not (he modem macadamized sIo[>e, but a 
alccp winding passage with sharp angles, and cut in the rock. 

Down this mad came the pmcesiiion, and no sooner were tbe 
MJf sod ogas out than Saleh Khosh ordered the gates to be shut, 
■ad ooouDtmicated the order be had received, to extcrminale the 
Uamelukcft, to his .Mbanians, who tmmnliatrly turned about, 
and, jttmping aside or leaping up the rock, began to tire on tbe 
To charge down the steep rock was usrli-ss or im- 
le, lor the gales werr shut and eidl bamxl; and on the 
g or angular rocks the heavily mounted Mamelukes, though 
~ ll 00 the pbuns of Eg}'pt, had no chance with the -Mba- 
I, wbote home ti only tbe mountainside. Behind the Mame- 
■ wtn the infantry- tnxips closing the pnxession, whose ad- 
» Mill more decided ; for they poumi volleys of mu»- 
hcCiy down oa thor devoted men fmm the parajwlft abore. 

TW llatndukcs now wishi'd to return by another road Into 
tbe diaiM, but twt being able to maiuge their borsa on account 


of the unfavorable ground, and seeing that nuny of their people 
were killed an<l wounded, they alighted, and abandoning their 
horses and up|xT clothi*s, remounted the rood, sabre in hand, 
but were fired on fnim the windows of the citadel abo%T. Shahin 
Key fell pien-e<I with balls U*fore the gates of the palace of Sala* 
din. Solyman Bey, another Mameluke, ran, half naked and 
frightened, to implore the protection of the harem of the Viceroy. 
according to (Oriental usage, but in vain. He was conducted to 
the |)alace, where he was decapitated. Others went to bef for 
mercy from Toussun Pacha, who took no part in the OTnts cl 
the dav. 

The troops hari oniers to arrest the Mamelukes whcirrrr 
they might be found. Those taken were conducted to Kiahia 
Hey, and instantaneously diiapitated. Many perK>ns not Mame 
lukes were also killed. The citadel flowed with blood, and 
the dead fiUul up the |>;iges. The deail bcxiy of Shahin Bey 
was, with Ixirbamus Ijnitality, dragged about with a cord round 
the neck. < )n evrr>' side wire seen horses expensi^Tly capah- 
!u>ned, stn't(he<l by the side of their masters, and the richctf 
dresses satunitiN] with hl<NM!; f«ir gold embn>idery aiMl the moit 
costlv (idth stutTs, with elaUtratelv tini.shefl and decorated arms 
and ra|tariM»ns, were what the Mamelukes mostly delighted in; 
and all these IxT.Lme the Ixvity <»f the bloodthirsty yJdiery. 
< )f fdur hundre<l sixtv Mameluki*s who had mounted that 
ini; to the citadel, P'tt one esca{x-d. A few French M< 
hikes in the Mnice of Mehemet Ali, who had remained behind 
after the ilepartiire of MfTioii, and had Ixrn locker] up by luahaa 
l^y in a r'«>m adj'»ir.l!'.;» his nwn, were saved. A bey of the 
h' •:<.(■ I if Klfy three Frent h Mamelukes in his service, bat 
thev did r."t m«>unt on hiipM-lat k on that riav. 


.\myn Hey, annther Mameluke, wxs saved by accidaiL Be* 
iri^ preventer 1 l)y pn-ssing busjm-ss fmm arriving in time, he found 
himself outside the gate ju^t a.s the hearl of the pmrrMiOfi 
i«<*uing fr>m under the anh. He waited a little untfl they 
i: nc «U2t, \}\i\ Mt ir.i; that the trate wxs suddenly closed, and 
h( iring thi mu^Ketr;.. he put >puni to hLs borv, and 
siiip{ieil until he found his way ac ni&s the desert into Syria- 
Scan ely had the pniceMion begun tomo\T when 
.Mi showed signs of agitation, which increased when be heaid ikr 


Gut dlKJiugc <rf mu&kclry. He grew pale, fearing lost his onlers 
migbt tM have been properly exccutctl, and ihat some struggle 
might ensue fatal to bimscU and his party. When he saw ihe 
p ritooew and the irunklcss heads hr grew calm. Soon after, 
hil phyiidu), a Genoese, entered, and said with the uckening 
gayctjr cl i)rcophanc>- : "The ailairbuvcr; this isa/A« for Yaur 
Hi^UMaL" To this ^(ehcmct Ali gave no answer, and only 
aaked for a drauf;hi to quench his thirst. 

Meanwhile the crowds of citizens tn the town were wailing to 
•ee ibe pmccs&ion, and expectation was succeeded by surprise 
when only the delis forming its head were seen to pass, followed 
hj gmoms hun^-ing away in silence. Thus sudden movcnicnt 
c*u«ed an agitation among the spectators, and then the cr)' hav. 
iog arisen, "Shahin Bey is killed 1" all Ihe shops were shut, 
whkh was invariably the case when turbulence, bltxxlshed, and 
their concomitant, nipbe, were apprehended. The streets be- 
came dcaencd, and only bands of lawless NoUiJer^' were seen, who 
rushed to pillage the houses of the Mamelukes, \-iolating their 
w«nm, and committing ever)* atrocity. 

The Turks, who niuld only marrj' women of an inferior class, 
Bw with displeasure that those of a higher rank, disdaining their 
aBaace, displayed eagerness to marry Mamelukes, and therefore 
took care to avenge themselves. The houses of the beys were 
faB at valuables. Several of ihe»e CAvaliers were making prr|>ara- 
tioBS far marrtage, decorating their apartments, and purchas 
iof fich dothei, cashmeres, and jewcb. Not only the houses of 
tbcM penoos were pillaged, but others besides. Ciuro appeared 
Eke a place taken by a^<tauU, the inhabilant.> not showing them- 
selves in the streets, but awaiting indoors what draliny had in 
sloR fof th etB - 

Tbe miirdrr and pillage continuing on the fnUowing ilay, 
Mehcmci Ali dcsccndcfl from the citadel to rcfeiabLUi order and 
slap bloodabcd. He was in full drrs.-* and acci>mj>anittl by a 
large armed furte. At each police pu^t he n'primandcil the 
ofioR' in charge for ha\-ing [jcTmiited such dl'ii>hkri. Mchemct 
AS Uouelf bad only taken the Uves of the Mamelukes: he had 
only mamaatd a political party addicted to ra.shmrrTs, diamond- 
■ounltd pipes, and cnanirlled pistols, as well a^ u> ^ring the 
polidcal power with the agrnU of the Tortc. He himself had 


bifl the axe to the very root of Mameluke appmpriation, and 
therefore all man^lin^ <»f the branches exciti-cl his just rrproljA 
tion as a su{H:rt1u(»us ex[K*n(iiture of blM)r. Near Bab Zucilcfa 
the Pai ha met a Mo^rehhin who compbini*(l of the pillage uf his 
houM*, pn)ti->tinK that he w:ls neither soldier nor Mameluke, ctfi 
which Mehemet Ali stopixtl his horse, and sc*nt an armed force, 
who am-sti*d a Turk and a fellah, whose heads the\' cut off. 
Advancing toward the quarter of Kakeen, he was informed that 
the shtiks were a.vs^*mblefl with the intention of complimenting 
him : but the I'ai ha answeref 1 that he would himself f(o to rrcrs%x 
t!u ir felicitation.'^, on which he pnicee<]e<| to the house of Shrik 
Abdulbh el Sherkawy, and after having {ULvsed an hour with him 
he relumetl to the citadel. 

The foUdwing rby Touxsun Pat ha wc^nt thn>ugh the town, 
folio WLfi by a numen>us guard, causing th<>s<r who werr found 
pilbging to Ix- dec.ipitatifl; for more than five hundml hoUMS 
had U-en s;uki*ii on thi^ (Kca^ion. Meanwhile the Mamelukes 
were dilii;f-ntly sjiu^ht after. Kvcn the old ones, who in all the 
tnniblo had iKvcr (iuittc<l (*ain», wire unmercifully kiDcd. 
Many maiK- ihtir i-^ajK- by (hanging their Cf>stume for that ol 
dtli'« ; nthiTN dn--»M-(l aN women i^s<.a|n^l lo I'pjier Kg}'pt. 

In th( ( ita<!f'l. thr di ad lj(>dit> wire thn>wn |)eU mell intopiu 
du;; f'T thrm. \hv nlatiMn-nf !hi murdiTtti IxingsfxAerw helmed 
a^ r.tit tn In- ablr tn bur\ thtm « litem I v. The mf>ther of thr 

m m 

Km if Mer/otik. ^^n «>f Ibrahim Hi-v. wa^. however, aUownl hk 
dtad bi«i!\. *.\!ii(h ^^a^ r>uri«l afttrt^^d dav*«* M-anh. rn»trcliotl 
wa^ aU> )i\\i :\ :•► tht- wi-l-.A^ nf thr Mamelukes by Mehemet .\li, 
wh» .lilM-Atd hi^'iwn m« ri !•• marrv thim. 

'I !.»• Mcnt *<f thi>. >.i:'./u:r.arv affair had Iw-en confided to oohr 
fx'.ir ^H r^iir.*^ on wh'>m \\\v Tat ha could ri-l\ ; but he had at the 
Kin;i \\'Aw \\ri:iin. thn»u^h hN *4t retary, to the ciMnmandm ol 
thr di:T(Trnt prw\inc(^ onicrin;; them tf> arrest and put todcmxh 
all \\\v Manirlukf-^ thry couki by their hands upon. This order 
-Ad^ rn< Tcil(-^dv ixi-cuted, and their heads were sent to Cain> 
and cx{M> there. 



Millie Napoleon wki butjr Id Spain. Auslrin igaln ro*« bt arms a(aiiu( 
Ur. a nbellioo it mlchl almoil be called, considering to what ■ubjectioa 
Mk MCa proud domiin o[ the HapslmnLx hid txvn reduced- She waa 
dafMtirf ta ihc conijucroi'B last luccculut war. and her princeaa, Maria 
hotit^ became Napoleon's liridc (iSio. Thii family alliance between 
■ad Auitrla marred the Iratcmal rrUtiuoK which had eaisiolwith 
Car Aloander had not profiled all he had hoped from ihe 
k Treaty ol TlUit, and moreover he found h\% intrrv«t> repeatedly 
d aod even directly lD)urcd by the Krcnch Emperor. Napoleon'* 
cowMtrdal policy ol cloaJng the porta ol Europe acainat EncUnd had 
alaOM rained the mcrchania n( every country where tl prevailed Ft- 
waDj, U Uccember. iSio. the Ciar delibcTiiely abandoned hi* a^rcemeni 
wilk Franoe and opened hia porta to Uriluh ahtp*. 

Napoleon prepared lolrmiil)' for war. The niher European »catr* no 
iMIgcr dared oppo«e him. and unwIllinKly mippllcd him troop* All the 
ft»* iSii wa* employed in Kaiherinjc the UrEot army Kumpe had ever 
kDO««. No! only Frenchmen, bui I'rukaUn*. Au>irian«. and other Ger- 
MftB*. Italiaaa al>o and even a lew Spaniards, were K'lhered on the Rua- 
•iaa Iraattrr. The I'lilci were ptocniKd Itccdom, aiul joined cnthu* 
ijailh ill) )n the attack. Kinic* and emperorit fumiutulrd Napoleon In 
ith him endipced.and nn June tj. iSu. «iih more than lour 
d ihouaand men he crowed the Kiver N kmen and began hi* *pec- 
Unilir irli ini r bio Ihe Ku**>an waile* 

TW RuMlaxii under (•eneml Itarclay de Tolly reireaird liclore him. 
■■n pertilp* from neceuiiy than dc*>|[ the vattneo of the country 
baoaa A« tnvadcr^* ihicl enrmy Htt txK'p* fell by the niadiide. ihey 
pviakad of eahauatraa, and llarctay *cein{ the tucccu ol hti Fabian 
ftttCffaniBHd b li The Cur piole»te<l and Rnally lupplanltd Barclay 
«Mi lltt RsMian general. KuluuH. who mked a decisive liattlr and mcl 
C«aplt«dclcaial ilomlfno. Napoleon rnlernj MmcowId triumph and 
nMd to tfc* Cut to come to him i\ other Miverrien* had come to en 
■Mtfalt Bcrcy. But Air under and hi* crneraU (>j>l Irimed al Uit lh-i( 
ftlhemalnrvonUfighl ihclr l>allle*(.>r them l<cllrf Ihan iht-f Instead 
ol dhrtas pMci Ibty kit the contjueran to llw laagt of the Kuuian 


rilAKLES A. n'FFE 

TTlIE Fn-nch steadily aclvanciil ; ihc Ruivsians rrtmtrd ic. 
Mrwow, ami c'vacuattfl the ca^iital when their ^cnrrdls cir 
ri(li*«l that thrv could not cmounttr the French assault. The 
h(»lv citv \v;i> left undifendetJ lK*f«ire the invader. Hut the dc 
[wnure of the army waN the smallest jjart «»f the evacuation. 
The inhahitaniN, j tartly of their own fnr will, [tartly under the 
comj»iiUi«»n of the pivernor, aUindnneti the city in a maxv No 
gloomy or exci!e<l irowtl, as at \ienna and Berlin, thnm^^l the 
St reel N to witne>N the entmnce of the treat ri»n(jueror, when 
on SeptrmlMT 14th Na|Mi|itin Xiftk [>i»^M*^^ion of M<ih'ow-. H.« 
tnwijis manhnl thriiiii;h >ilrTit anil deM-rtiii ^trtrt»». In the nAi 
tU'le I'f the Kremlin Na["»lti»n nc« ivetl the homage of a few fur 
eii:ner-, who al'»nr crjuld U- (ullcttefi bv hi?i senant> to tender 
t«j him the >uhmi— ion of the < i!y. 

Uu: tin- wur^l \\a> yet to ri«me. On the nij^ht after Napo 
It^Ti'* ir.-r), r.n* iirn'r.r t»ut ii! diiu-rent i»;irt> <»f M«n«cuw. The}' 
Were a^ riUil .i' fir-t !•■ .i- 1 i«!i nt, liul when on ihe next <lav ihe 
Fri ni h -,i".v !}'i- :!.irr.t ^ LMi":r'.j ground in ever\ direction, and 
fn-jr.! that .ill :;:•■ ::.« .1:1^ i-f 1 x^in^'ui^hini; !.re hail Urn rrnuwcd 
fr":n :]\r » :'\. !!-.i y iiTi«!i r-:---! rln- d<w»ni tn whiih Mf>H:uw ha<! 
Ui D '!•■.'!« 'i 1;. i'.- "wn i!»i. n-l* r^. ('«iiin: k«r.rii;i*ihin. the ^i\ 
irr.'T. ]'. 'A «i« !i rT!'.::>d «•:: tiie •ii-!nn!i"n of M-^iiw, wixhou'. 
th'k:-. .-Ali-i/' i f!?:i C/^ir. I'hf- •i'-'r'^of the pri-- n»» were thrown 
*'ji« :\. K •< ]'i :.::'. i!.i\« !?:<• ^itrr. d Ij\ Mt!:n;! tin- to h:s r.wn pal 
a» • . .1:.'! It* 1 • -< I.:- !*.i:'.>!- •■!' iruent!>. <'\ir the <it>. t\tv 
l.\» li^- ■■.•■ ;Vir:-.» - r •- * .irvi f« II; and whtn. ^n the e\i-nin|C ol 
xhv .■ '.}■.. !:.• 1.1-*. ?.rt <• n.i^ij, three fnunh^ cf Mi»«<ow lav in 

"^■.i h •A.i'* !J:r ;»ri/r f. r whi*h Najx'Ii'on had sachticrd iwtt 
J.-.;' Irni rlv-.:-«i:.d nnr.. ar.d 1 ninjlf*^! the weak remnant of hi^ 
;i.-: ■. -it l:'j::'!rtii milr^ ilii :• in a:\ ini mv\ ciiunirv. ThrtHicfa 
i .'. .ill thi tf rr>T^ ' f the .iii\a:ui- Na{ii>leon had hekl faj4 to ihr 
U I.' ! ':.v W' x.i::!' r'^ :»'-i':.i' • i- w-mM i nd w '.'h !hr fall t4 hi% 
t :i]'\\'.] I r •■ »'.<::••. !':.i' .i» • - rr't'.-ir.iei! the er/Pk" i«f the Frmch 
i:.*' M VI A *h*- k K.- n-:.:. !i r:c I . wt e\en now NaprJc\« 
co-jI ! :...: U I:r-.< th.i! :hf rf n:.iin(i| ::nr. airainst all ihoucku 
of {iiact. H;^ ( \;n ::: all earlier war> hail pven hia cue 


e Id the power of one conspicuous disaster to unhinj^ the 
T W ohl ti o n of kings. His trust in the deepening impression made 
by die fall of Moscow was fostered by nef;uliations bcftun by 
KutU9O0 for the very purpose of delaying (he French retreat. 
For five weeks Napoleon remained al Moscow as if spellbound, 
UMble to convince himself of his powcrlcssnc^ to break Alex- 
•ndei'ft determination, unable to face a retreat which wouh) dit- 
plajr to all Europe the failure of his anns pnd the termination of 
hb career of victory. 

At length the approach of winter forced him to action. It 
WIS impo»iblc to provision the army at Moscow during the 
winter montlu, even if there had bi-en nothing to fear from the 
nony. Even the mocking overtures of KutusofT had ceased. 
The frightful reality could no longer be concealed. On October 
igth the order for relrrat was given. It was nut the destruction 
of MoKow, but the depanure of im inhabitants, that had brought 
the conqueror to ruin, .^bove two ihou&:md houses were still 
landing; but whether the buildings remained or pch&hcd made 
Uuk difference; the whole value of the capital to Napoleon was 
lost when the inhabitants, whom he cuuld have forced to pro- 
cure supplies for his army, disapi^earcd. Vienna and Berlin had 
been of such incalculable sen'ice to Napoleon the whole 
native administration placed itself under his orders, and every 
ikii and important citizen became a hostage fur the actiniy of 
the rest. Mlien the French gainal Moscow, they gained noth- 
ing beyond the supplies which were at that moment in the city. 
All waa k»t to Napoleon whi-n the cU-v^ who in other capitals 
bad been his instruments tied at his appmach. The conilagra- 
lian at Moscow acted upon all Euru]>e as a <J;:nal of imxtin- 
yft«KmhL> national hatrtvl; as a military o|>enili(in, it neither 
■ ce elei Btcd the retreat of Napoleon nor added to the mitcries 
wUcb his army had (o undergo. 

The French forces which r|uilted Moscow in October num- 
bend about one hundrc<l thousand men. Rrfnlonement-s had 
conr in during the occupation of the city, anil the health of the 
KiUicn had been in some degree rcsturwl by a numth's rest. 
Everything now depended upon gaining a line of rrirrat where 
iood couU be found. Th<iugh but a founh jian ■)( the army 
which entered Russia in the summer, the army which left Mo*- 


wiih \.i;MiK«f>n fi)r life nr diMth. He |»iTTniilol Na[x)lcun and 
thi- (i'.hinl lo p.'LNS \}y unatiaiknl. and then ffll ufMin the hinder 
ilivisinn- «»f llu* Fnru li amiy iNoMniUr ijtlu. 

'riic*-*- iirif«»rtiirKitf tniops witv »*i:i •. i»i\rly rut to pirn"!^, 
Twt :i:y six ih'iii^arid wirr ma«lr prix»r.rrs. Nry, with a |»ari of 
I hi ri AT vrwar«i. unly tm ajH-*! Ny * riis'^inij I he DnieiK-r i>n I he iic. 
« >f !'.•■ Am\\ ih.i! hail '|:iM«il M»m«)w there ni»w remaineil hiil 
!■ ". t)'.'!!>.i:vi I r.n^Satai'.tN and twentv thnu.s.ind fi»ll(>wers. Ku- 
r:-'<!T hi:::>(-If \\a> bniUL'ht to ^\u h a >tate of exhaustion that he 
t'»-.:lii tarr\ ihi- pursuit nu further, and enteretl into (|uaners 
i.>.:i t!if I)i:ii{KT. 

l! V .:- .1 f» A d.iy^ afttr the hairle at Kni>n«»i that the ilimions 
of \i v.r. i"TT'.:r,'r I mm thf direit:«»n of thi* I)wina. suddenly en 
« •.:':'i :. I :!:• n^t nf Najwifiv/s amiy. 'I'hnuirh awarr that 
N.i:- I '.. i:i ntrrat, th«v kin w n<»lhiruT «'f the lalamitics 
ih.u ':.'. : l<f.iilin him. and wrn- ^mn k with amazement when, 
i" :!':• !: ;'i'!:i- «'f a Prr-i, ihry n^ I with what M.-enutl m<»re like 
a ::.;■• r. :'•.!.• ir«-»;» <•{ laj-riM-^ \' ;in an:iy '.ijMin the manh. 
\ i : -r- •*. I iiiTN ..f ,i r:-.- :»■ a:\.!i.iry i nrp^ f«ii:nd them.vrlvcs 
: •. •« '.!.i:i 'I'«".;Mi ::;•■ i::ri!:'.< -Tt':-!! «•[ t!;«- wh »le armv of 
1 lirir .i:ri"..d a/ain p!a«rd \.ij*»l»i':i at the head of 
. •'. - .': i i; ■;■!::. r! tr---;'-. a': ! .:.i\v thr Fn ni h a ^Iram 
• : •. ' •» ::\ '.]■.'■ li ' I'd SI f »!:■>■./!■. ::: -i Ii'>;h1i-xs ^!^i;:>:lc in the 
'..•:■ A Ti hit- 'liiv-M. i". n-minand «»I the armT 

: .■ - • ::■-::; '.;■.• I».i-. .!•». i... 1 .i! li T:/rh rei. he«! the line of 
N..-. '. ■'■ riTi ■•. ...I r-t.iMi-h'd him-elf a! I4"riwi\, where 
•: • "••'■..:. I !.i- ! r-.-..^ 'hf ri\» r lit rt**:r.a. The hri«l^ 

\^ . •:- ' : i •. ::■■ l\>-:.:r: . .ir:d 'I"i hi?? ha;:'»tT njiennl lom 

:v. • '• v, !: U :v. •!:.-•• ir:'- arrr.v, \*h:«h Lv i»nlv a few 


. I . 

I" .:••.:• : t '.:•!'■,• r« ':• .1*. 'f \hv Fri-n* h w,i^ now finallv in 
•• : • .■!:).•■-:':• ".iifT "f Naj-'le^^n inevit.iMe. Yr! e\m 

> !' -• - ' ...': ri :)\' ::* skill arid darinf? of the 
i ■ • i .'..•"■. -•::!• :::::./ -f is a- :• r.t i«»wTr. The amy 

:■ ■!•.•!'•'•-■ I. \ i> li--. ^.:''i'«!ol in withdraw inc the 
« : ■ • :r ■*. t:.- :• J. ;■::.! f : a>^i.:r; hrli:*^ were lhn»wa 
a ' '" :.•■':...• i ..!>■ r 'i« -j-Mtr ti^'htini: a tfn-at jart *«f the 
:.r- ■ ' , :• .•- : . •!:..• •..;-.- thr wrsiirn Uink N'Mvcmljer 


-*■' !' .'. :'. '. ' ' ' l\k:\ a::.'i.g ihc ellet'a\c lnA^{*> 


The fate of the miserable crowd ihat followed thctn, 
tora by the rannon-fire of the RusMan-t, and prrcipilattxl into 
the ri\Tr by the breakinj; of one of the brid};cs, ha^ made the 
pmagc of the Bcn-sina a synonytoe for the utmost degree of hu- 
nuui woe. 

This was the last cngagcmcnl fought by the anny. The 
Guardi ttiU prcscn-cd their order; Marshal Ney slill found sol- 
diers c«p«ble of tuminR upon the pursuer with his own steady 
and gnfligging courage; but the bulk of the army strugglnl for- 
ward In confused crowds, hara&stxl by the Cossacks, and laying 
down their arms by thousand.*' Iwfore the enemy. The frost, 
which had broken up on Nnvcmbcr iqlh, returned on the 
ysth with even greater scveritj'. Twenty thoaiand fresh troops 
which joined the army between the Bcrratna and Vilna scarcely 
arrested the process of dissolution. On December 3d Napoleon 
quitted the army. Vilna itself was abandons! with all its stores; 
and when at length the fugitives reached the Nicmen, they num- 
bered little more than twenty lliousfind. Here, six months earlier. 
three hundreil eighty thousand men had cms.scd with Na- 
poleon. A bundrrd thousand more had joincil the army in the 
CDOiw o( its retreat. Of all thi'' host, not the twentieth part 
readied the Prussian frontier. .\ hundred seventy thouund 
icmained prisoners in the hands of the Russians; a greater num- 
ber had perished. Of the twenty thousand men who now be- 
held ibe Niemcn, probably not seven thouMnd hail ( nM.«eiI with 

In the presence of a catastrophe so overwhelming and «* un- 
paivUeled the Russian gener-i!-. might well \x content with their 
own share in the work of dt^iructioti. Vet event* pniveii that 
Kulmofl had done ill in failiii;^ to employ ever>' efT'irl In capture 
or annihilate his foe. Not only was Napoleon's own escape the 
pkdge ttf eoniinue<] war, but the remnant that escaped with 
bfan pOMCMcd a mililary \-alue rut of ail proponion to its insig- 
niScant numbers. The best of the army were the Usi to wt 
cumb. Out of those few thnusands who ■■mluml li> the end, a 
nry large proportion werr veteran iifTn-irs, who immn1ialrl> 
look tbeir place at the head of Napnlc^n's newly raiv^ armte*, 
and pre to tbcm a military' cfiiciencT soon tn be bilicrly prtne'l 
hf Eorape oD many a German ballle-iteld. 



The ^>li!arv r»)n*^»Iati(in Iifl lo thr armv was thai which ihr 


Kinj»«pr h.i'i hiiiiMlf i»rrMntttl to Kun'jK' — thr pn-Mrmr i»f 
\.t|»i>Iri'ri: hi- phy«» ;in»l mintal rnrr>ry an«l vipir. Hi'* rtijth: 
fpiMi Snv»r/"r-.i «lt;irivr(l ihi- ^nll^il•r^ cif this last n-viurcc f»f thiir 
(nr-.t"ii!t:.t t ; ir**m «lay, ;is vxni as the tv]m}T\ sprrail, dt'Spair 
sii/t'l i::m.:i ihr >!n»ni:c>t l;ran>. Nothing is nmrc cmiurini; 
tli.'.n tlu* ::>:!:. I !ivf ((»ura;;r whi( h K: ists [>;iin ar.d cli-ath, !>c 
caiiM it l«'t « nil N a man Xn strivi- in ihf Li>!. All ihr tir'* cif <li% 
I i;ili::r. rn:Ii!.ir\« rnilv, an! on lira r\- humanitv wirr hr-'kcn 
I ./rthi r. I t.'irr-'-.v fnirn t!u' ri'« illri linns €»f ihr Dukr I-V/4-nvaf, 
ihrn t filorrl-.f tl:«- FMiinli *>{ x\\r !in«', tht- fnlluwini: pit lurr of ihr 
!:«:r"r- \sl::i h !;«• siiw.aTnl of whi- h ht- has yj\X'n ihi* story with 
a !m:;i hi::i! a::«! manlv >imiili« ilv: 

"I: i- iimK-s at ihi- ;»rr-i nt <!ay l«i l«-Il the drtails of r\Tnr 
«l.r.'- ry.irth; it v.niiM r:v r» ly l»r a rrjKlition of the- same mLv 
r :v.;:.t k. 'Ihr (.!•!. wV.'u h Mtrrml :» h.ivt- Uii»mr mihlcr onlv 
t ■ Tval.f :h* :m->.ii*» «.f :hi- I>:.:V!nr an«l thi* lUnsina morr dilT; 
1 ■.!'. ai^.ii'. ^' • ::: r:;. n 'm •::!•. :!-,.in i \t r. Thi- !hrrnn»nn-lir fell, 
: :-!, :■■ f' Ik '. \\ .•' -'■. .:::■! :r:i n to :.\ U |. »-.v Fahnnhrit , an«l 
rh« *.i\ •:!:;. <:':*: ■• a- ::»•!:;!• !'i! tin- txhausiion <»f mm who 
\M n- .ilrf .I'i;. !:.ill '!«.i'! \\:'.h h\:r..'i r .ir;«i fatJL'tU". I shall not un- 
•:•:•:».»■ !' 'i- : : • '!.<■ i-'ir.n!!- -Aliih \\v 1'ii'V.ol uiwn. You 
:••■>•. irv. './::.■ j l.i!r.- a-^ fir i- !:•.• ^'TJ/.i.n (f-vrrtii with snow. 
1 •/ f :< •- '• ;•■'-. v.ll.i/'"* h..lf ''•:;rri«l an«l rh-^ni^l. xnci 
r- ..•*: ::;■•-•• ;;':1.1 <!>•::- '^ .::*. i ■ ili ^n n.l!;mn of wrrtchct, 
•' •!■. .i!I V..:}.' ■.' .irT:>. r:: ::■ hi::/ ::\ •Iwiplir, and falling at 
■';•••.'.!.•:• f . r I ir :! J i ari ,»«.-«^ • f Ji'Tm ^ ar.d :hr !■■!« 

:'•'•' r I :!'.;.' i!.:"ris. 'IJn ir f.i« i ^ U :•■ lh«- im|irrs* ff u!!rr ex 
! '. -. ' r !• : i:r, their iv*-, wm* I;f»Iiv«., ihiir fraturr* rno 
'. .'-■ !, a:, i nv-"* hiack with «iirt ar.! '•mnkr. Sh«^-i»sL:n* and 
■ ' f . ! •::. * 'M'l ihrm Tr sh-^-^.; ihiir hrarls wrrr wrapprd 

■ ■'. '..•'■ il:« :r shttuliltr*" h'MThI v.::h h' >rv* < loths, womrts'i 
.•..■:.'! ?:.ilf h'.:rT'.»i! *».:",s. AI*-*, when one frll frnm (a- 
• • '-.';••->••::;;■•'! :.:rTi \h-: ri- hr wa^ dead, in <»nkT to 

' ' "■' •:.' *' !■ • v.::h h.^ r.ij^ Fl,. :i !>"\i''.iar »rt*mnl nrxt dar 
l."..' .-. ! .I*'!. :., : !. .-:■.,! jr., •: l,\:rA t\ m\ a! thi-ir side ihoar boidc 
wh'-m thi-y ha-l r'T.r !•■ shtji the ni^:ht before. An officer ci the 


I ad«ncc- guard, who was a witness of those sccoea at 
horror— which the rapidity of our flight prevented us from care- 
fuUjr obterving — has given a description of ihcm to which noth- 
ing need be added : 

"'The road which we followed,' sa>'s he, 'was co\-ered with 
prismen who required no watching, and who underwent hard- 
abips till then unheard of. Several still dragged iht-m&clves me- 
cfaaakalljr along the road, with their feet naked an<l half frozen; 
locnc had loat the power of speech, cithers had fallen into a kind 
vl sarage stupidity, and wished, in spite of us, to roast dead 
bodies in order to cat them. Those who were too n-cak to go 
lo fetch Wuod stopped near the 6rBl fire which they foundi and 
sitting upon one another they crowded closely round the fire, the 
feeble beat of which still sustained them, the little life left in 
them going out at the same time as it did. The houses and 
(anna which the wretches had set on fire were surrounded with 
dcmd bodies, for those who went near had nut the power to escape 
ibe flames which reached them; and »ixin others were seen, with 
a convulsive laugh, rushing voluntarily into the midst of the 
burning, ao that ihey were consume<i also.' " 

I hasten lo a\*oid the siMxtatle of m> many sufTerings. Yet 
it is right and proper that children should know what was en- 
dured by their fathers. In prtipnrti(jn as the Li-st sur%'ivnrs of 
the generations who saw and sutTem) so many pvUs disappear, 
we who have in our turn undergone other dlusters owe it to 
them to recount both their glor}- and their mi>er\'. The time 
win soon come when our descendants in their turn will include 
in the annals of history the great qxxrhs through which we have 
fivcd, ttrug^ed, and suffered. 

N^xdeon crossed Germany like an unknown fugiiiv-e, and 
UBgncnls also made haste to escape. They ha>l :il last reached 
VBbb, iluming Lithuania by iheir mut, aru) ihcm^Kcs terror- 
Itnidt during the halt on ascertaining the actual numbers of 
Adr loaMa. and the state of the disonlrrly batt.tlions which were 
bdfli agkin fonnn] in the streets of the hiwpiiable town. For a 
long time the crowd of disbande<l s<))<liers, desi-ncrs, and ihnw 
wbo had fallen behind were oilla-trtl inKrihi-r at the gales of 
VBna bi ■> dense a throng that they could not enter, Scarcely 
hvl the btmgiy wrvtcho begun to take Mmc food and taste a 


ni'imrn!**^ rr-^i, v. Ii.-ri ihr RuN-^iiin cannon was hrani, ami Fla- 
lov*'. Cu^siu ?.> .'iii!(r.irril at xhv ijalrs. 

Thr Kirnr <'f N.iplr^, lun»ic cm thr batik- ficlil, hul imapahle 
if v...i i«:/ • 'fiTiiM.'.*!'! i!i :i n»ut, l<M>k rrfuKf in a siihur!). in «ipicr 
In <i\ ri'it fri«m :! .it Nrrak of «iav. Marshal Nrv, the oM Mar- 
'! I.cfil>\rc-, a;i'l (iriural l.ovNon, with thr rrmair.** of thr di 
\i:-i!i '»\lii<h III rtiinily l)r«»ii^ht Uai k from Poland, kept l>ack 
I'i'- (* --.n'.- I'lr ^"r.w limr, and Irfi thr airny time to n-Mimc 
it^ !■ ;•! ir..: I' ''i'/l'.?. A Iatmv niimUT of exhausteil men fell intu 
thr hand** of thr t-ni-niy; thr fra^:nn-nts of t»ur ruine«l ri-^inirnts 
jli<i'»:Kariil iiir< innal. At I'onarr, where the r«»ad iK'twi-m 
VHna arnl Knvno ri^-s, the hai^rair*- whiih ihi-y had with crra! 
dilViiiiItv dr.itrL'rd y^* far, thr llai!»» taken from the cnemv, the 
armv cht-!, thr tr 'i'hii-N i .irritd or! from M<»mow, all remamol 
Mattt-rrd a! tin- fi«it i-f the i< y hill. The pillairer^ «juamllnl 
o\i r the IV Id .ir.d -iU'-r in I hi- < '•lT«rN, nn thi* nrviw, in the ditcher 
Thi ri Thr ('«-- I' k- « ■ r\\'\i: ui"*! ?h«ni, v»me <»f the French tim! 
in liii'i pm ' : T' .1- Ti - r!:i V v.'Tr ri'i l<.ni»i r aMe t«» cam*. 

\V!:i n :!;• r .i*^ ■:' :!.■ :v..:i-i army at la«»t nathii! Ki»\*ni\ 
\\h.«r. :h' \ I •.:■.•! -;;I.i - "1 f--! avd aniiminition, they nrrr 
li' 1- M'l r .'.'!■ r ' :• ■.'►.• •:-«■ "f It. '»r Im resist the piip»ui! of !hc 
K'.:- : i:.-. I f. •■/••■•■! It 1 i i < • ivf il. In wearineN> and i!r- 
•*: . r - ".' '/.•.■ \i ■ • • > ■ :v.: ! ■.!• •- .:/'-! Nat** lo-n, and Mu 


r.:*'- A : i .^-r ■ .- :•*:'' '\> *•: .i rv.-rr >ini*trr mianinK. 

M. •.:-!:.. I I».i\. ,-'.li r • r .-.^ !• t* 1 urcon'jiKraMe. though <431 
T • .1. ::•■:■!: t I .'..''■' ^'v Krv nf Napit *•, NJdly rxprr«rd 
\ ■ ■ ' '• ' r* .!•■.■ ^* •• ■ i'.ll;:i' t.;T nf :hr lie'.;!^ wh'icn 
•': ! * ■ ' • ' '• .':■.'• • • • . Ml V. -'fi i\rA' aii'ir I handi^ ii%~fT 
• N. ■. ■: » •■ •■ .-. ! . : •'.■ r. ir /iin!, .ir.d lli.i! difer^tr n| 
K .: ' \\\.. *i V. 1' t r • i'' .'. r* — .'. - l<'T'L*»r l* proin : the rr 
!'• iV < H : • : I I !• ' .' : .' • :• •"..;::• d f..:rr:!':l !•» thi^ la*! ilc^ 
. :•:• 1 :: rv U :• • .:'!.' :■ i r -.^d :hi Nii men *ti!h (»m- 
«'.! \-. . ■: I >• ■ •: ^ : I :. I " i .'. :J.< \ Wf-n- akiniionnj liy all 
•■ • !:■•- V.:! ■'. '. . ■•■" ^. .'•!. r:-:* *^f..ri' 'he trrtry if 

■ ! .' • .' ■':'• •■■/•• ir -rj a •.>«!*■-'* re>.i».*ar.i --. \Vh«n, 

■ ^. • • '•• rv "• ' ■' "•'■K •*'• r- mrar.: i.f 'hr ^r.itT. Marshal 

*^ ■• ■ •/ • i l-.;.s iv i , I.kI i:j rae*^. enterrtl aV>nr into 

• H' Ti « orr.e^ the n ar )^ard of the gnrat annT!" 

•i * r 

■ & ■ • ■ • 


A.D. I8M-IS14 


A pccalUr and Tcoiarkablc fomre ot the War o( iSu U ibe laci thai 
ia ihs treaty dcsiKiiatlng it> diplomatic cIok DOthing was nid about it* 
prfadpal dUM, which oevtrihelcM the ev«ni« of the kinin'' rvmovcd. 
TW wir broncbt about no radifal chaitE''* in the relaiioni □( England 
ud Ibt Unlm) Sulei; it ended with mutual conrcuion*; and ila ffloit 
utt rcauli wA> that It taught the luptcmc dctiiabLliiy of teitlioc 
ir Inrarc di>asrc«tncnti without appc^iog to anna. Thi*. in tplte of 
KNnc [nvc miauodcri landing a, they have ever xincc auoccedrd In do- 

Tkc war grew out of imtatioo* which wUe policie* tbould eaiily have 
•voUtd. During ibc French Kcvolulion, althou|[h a formal neutrality 
vaa ofaacrved by the United Sutea, popuUr lytnpatfay with France wai 
■tmofly upreaaed. Thi* wax the more pmnounccd becau*e EntiUnd't 
nfiHKl. aiHt the puce at itDj. to t'nt up Wexlem pott* in the United 
SMMa iRVotved the tatter country In a long and cmlly Indian war. In 
ttof Cmil Britain publiahed decrrm known aa * Order* In C'ouacil,' 
fnUbW^MUlral trade with Fiance or her alliri. Similar drcrrr* were 
ktmd hf Fnnoe. Grut Injury ruulicd to American commerce. Kvery 
A»«riciii ahip on the teaa became liable to capture. 

Kafhad «1k> claimed Ihe right lu aearch American ve*»r!i and take 
frOH tt^ any Ensltah wamcn found onlxiard. In a alngle year (cveral 
taadnd aclture* wcr made. Thit wa* nally the exciting rauie of iht 
War of iBii. The practKe waa discontinued, not ihrouKh llir article* of 
pMC*, InI a* a result <4 the vicuino caincd in the war by the American 
iBTy. la iSo; Coagn**, by way of reprisal. Uid an emturgn or pn>- 
hiUlloa lattiddtnf American v«acl> lu leave Uniled Sialei purt*. but 
Mi aMaMTt flaly rcacltd unfavorably, adding to the injury a^aintt which 

I tnanraratioa in iSoj. the«« difKcullie* with EagUnd 
were aot M tiled 1 they continued ioincrcai« the tccting of hmiUily.ckpe- 
dafly oa tkc piari ot th« Uaiicd Suie* ; and ai La*t Congreu, by ■ largt 
■■)drfi]r, declared war againit (ireal Itrit.ain. atUiough ic^eat nrpuaitloa 
lo aack awarwaa manifeiled by many nf tlie Ammran (■rufiLr Th« 
ie war were directed uainil Canada. And arv 
d by aCanadtan ht*iorian. «ho*e dxlmrilv partwan arcoonl 
af te mIImi etentt ta tbcn balanced by tlut of Crahamc. wtix. th><u«h a 
aadta al ScmIum), b cailecstty latr In hia trEatmcnt ul the Lolled 
a., vou XV.— 16. 141 


Staim. The difference between the two is strikinx and inttnictive. Tlic 
|iatrints of each tide accuse the oppotuuc Koverameni ol juts'"^ *><k 



n^HK actual declaration of war could not but sprrad a thrill of 
tlismay in a c(»mjKirativcly dcfcncck-ss and s|»anc*ly {Mipu 
latr<i I iijf my. Thi* |Mi{nilation of I'piKT Canada wa.s only alxnil 
t-i^hty thou!s'ind; tliat of the wholr colony die] not cxcml thirt 
hundr(*<l thuu>:tnd. To di-fi-nd a frontier of one thousand soTn 
hundre«l mile>, thn*atenefl by sevenil |)owerful armies, they 
had l»ut four thousand four hundri*«l fifty n-f^lar trtiofvs of all 
amis, only aUiut one thous^ind five hundn-ri of whom were in 
Upi'^T Canada. It i*^ little wonder if the task of resisting so [x>w- 
erful a nri^hUtr M-emcd at first alm(»st a ho|M*leM one, and if, for 
a shuri time, v»me desjK»ndtn( y prevaih*d. But the spirit of the 
fJd Spartan^ jivn) in the tirraMs of th«* hanly Canadian yenmm, 
manv «if v.h'iHi had alnadv s^urifirc-*! v* much to their loval lore 
f*»r the Hriti-h ?1:il»; and t?n- confidirue of the |M*oplr in their 
bra\e (f'T'.fT.d Ut*m k .u !«■*! .{-> .i rallyini; jniint of hiijic and couf- 
aL!«>. The mili'i.i ju-^^iiirrl \hv txjHitations the (fenrral had ei- 
j ri-vs<f| «.f "ihr *-T.N «'f a I 'Xai ar.d brave l^anrl of \'ctrrans *' ; and 
tr*«'|is i»f \<'l'jntr« r- jN.-.;riiI i:i!<) .ill ih«- Karrivm towns, mdr "lo 
d", an<i •!!*," if rn« i-^s.iry. rilhir than yield to the invader. 

An <^him .1^ thf d«<'in of war was ascertaincfl beyond a 
d ••.:^t, C»t:^« r:d HrmL's mtM>i;n^ w«n- pn»mpl and mcrfrtir. 
Ill- ».ill«-»l a rrji-'ir:;^ of ihi- Le'^Mslatun*. <-sTabliNhr«l his brad- 
r'jarti T** .ii I'lrt ^Hurr*-, n 'j'.irMtt-*! riTnfi»n«Tnents fn«n the 
L"V.(-r rp'^irw « . ut)i« h, h<>\^<-. t r. (o.iM n<>t be ^nantcfl till the ar- 
r:\ :1 <-f rnori- tr'N^^'N fr'>m K norland; ap|M tint til a day of faitiog 
;r i i-nyrr in r»i ••'jriiti'in ••[ thi- i:ri-at «\it pn'vnt '*Hrlp in til 
if !: .:;Mr"; 1 ■•kfl t't \hr « o:v!i!i'»r. «»f the frontier forts and 
]--?-. a:*.'! paid t-^{M-(i.d atrrMtion to the st^urinf; of the allrinaBor 
• f :!.• iM'iiari-^. a:vi the (^{'.ippini!. drilling;, ami ori^nizixxf ibft 
r- Iv I. Mf ..rr'^N. h"Wrvir, thrn* was a irreat scarcity, and maBj 
I r.i'. • '. I-.: ••.♦!• -', wh • ••••'.in-i Y«irk 'now Ton>nto>, King»- 
t 'r., .sr. ! ' !hi r : l.i> c^. had !•> rrtirr, disapiiointnl, for lack ol 
wrai-oris; s^ine ir.dtt^l suppl\in{* the deficiency from their H 
mcntA of hu.sliandn-. 


' I'jr |%m:.»%ioa oi the author. 


On July I ith GcDenU Hull, with an iumy of two ibouund 
fi»* hundird men, crossed to Canada from Detroit, issuini; from 
Sandwich a proclamation, doubtless emanating from Washinj^on, 
in which he infonncd the Canadians that he did nut ask thdr aid, 
bccauic he came with a force that must ovcr[>owcr all opposition, 
and which was, moreover, only the vanguani of a far greater oik. 
He offered the Canadians, in exchange for the tyranny under 
which they were supposed to groan, "the im'aluable blessings ctf 
ciril, political, and religious liberty" (it is to be remembered that 
the slave holding Slates were the chief instigators and supporters 
of the war I). He ended his proclamation by expressing the hope 
thai "He who holds in his hand the fate of nations may guide you 
to ■ mult the most compatible with your rights and interests, 
ywir peace and prosperity." This hope the Canadians, at least, 
deemed fulfilled in their being led to refuse the bribe of a [lersonal 
case and security purchased by the sacrifice of their sense of right 
•ad duty — of their loyalty to the country whose nubte traditions 
they dairocd as their on-n — to the Hag which, notwithstanding 
the occasional shortcomings of its stamlard beart-ns they still 
nipnled as the time honored defender of "civil, political, and 
rdigioaa liberty. " 

The preceding May, General ItrcKk had sent a detachment 
td the Forty-firsI Regiment to Amher^tburg or Fon Maiden, 
KKSe eighteen miles from Sandwich, to be in readiness lo defend 
llat frontier. On hearing of the landing of (iencml Mull, he de- 
^xUched Colonel Tnvior thither with a funher n-rnfomment of 
the Forty (irsl. It was time lo lake energetic measunrs. for the 
fact that the enemy had be«-n able to e« a (ooiinjc in the 
OMiatry had excited alarm and gloom, and rndangt'Tr<l the a<lhe 
ICBCC of the Indians of that region. Even Gcm-rjl Itnn k could 
hudtf retlsi the feeling thai without »(>enly rvenf"r\ i-ments, ami 
mlcM the enemy could be spenlily drii-rn from .Sandwich, the ruin 
of the muntiy was imminent. Indeeil h.-id Hull pressed un at 
oocc, h b impcnsible to say what the result mii;ht have been. 
BMpfHf lor Canada, howc»-er, he <lelayei| hi* ad^amr till there 
were troops enough on the spot In embarrass him, with the as- 
WIUKE of the militia and Indians, until Urock hjru^y lf could 


Thetidingsoftbccapiureof the American trading-post of Mi 


chilim.ic kinac (Mackinac), with its ^rrison, storrs and futx br 
Captain KotnTts, with some thirty rr^lar soldiers and a bond til 
Fri-iich I'oyafirurs and I ndians, came as a gleam of brightness to rr- 
lifvi: the ^I< M im. Then cami- the gallant encounter at Tarontre in 
the Western marshes, where a small British force held a strtm;* 
Anirric an one at l)ay, an«l two privali-sof the Forty first "kept the 
l)*' with a Viil«>r and tenacity worthy of the •*bra\*c «lavs uf 
uM." At th<- .siime timr, the capture of a prnvision convoy of 
H'.iII's, hy the Shawnre chief, TecumM'h, with his Indians ^ri 
o!i>ly emJarrassin^; the American (Jeneral — who had to draw 
h:> s'tip;i!i«> fp>rn distant ^ )hio, (jvit roads which were no ma<Li— 
indin nl him tn'*! hanije his hase of ojKTations, " and, rrcrwun^ 
tli«- riv«T, tn n tin- la lUiroii. Prfxlor follnw«f| him up, an«l en 
ilf.ivtiri'! !•• i::!irnpl another convoy I'Mnrt^-d by a stmng fomr, 
bi:t :h:^.i!!c-mpt w.inu:i^U( ( ( s^ful,and in an action at Krownstown 
the Arv.i-ri" ans were the viitor-i. Hut Hnnk was at hand. On 
A :."*.>! I ;Th he .trri\eii at Amht-rstbur:: at the head of a small 
f.r«»- 'f r«** ari'l militia, af^»ut M'vrn hun>in*d in all: *4 
!!.'-t .!*' ■:r !y.;:'.»!ri-! v. i re rKlitiamen •li'^^iiised in rr«l coats. The 
•.•" ■ •■ I". :■! be* •: .1 n:<»^t fit iLTiiin;: *■:■.«•; a toilsome march through 
;!.!• v. !.l. r:i -> fr-rri Ilurlirietnn Ileiirliis to I-,<ing rt»int,an«l then 
f . ;' ill ;. - .'.r. i : i:!V.!^ 'f«l n»wi:n! alonj* the dangerous crosl c< 
I..'. • I ri' . tlir-M'h niriy an«! temjK-stU'iU'^ weather, in such 
« i.:— ' ; ' :: I- .i*- a- \]\v :.• :jhlK>ri:u: f:irmer>» couM supply. To 
•!;■ I*. rf..l:-.i - a:.'! ir.' i.f the tPntp-i during the trying 
i .r'.'-^. I5r i r. 1- ri rrvj-t !!'»ni«raMe te'^timonv. Their mcttlr 
i!' ■ r-. i :*;■ -:' • — •::•) -.•}:•»::■. r iMy ai hi«\f*<l. 

Ar* ■■ • ! .1* A".^-.' r •': -ir/, iMr-.-ril Ur-^k m^t Tecumvh. the 
>* . • • • » I..' I .;!'■ i !v :■ :> rr» ! t •. "r^i- • f tru h« nn-^ *»f the war. 
<^*-. ".!•. r> ' ." : i- .• :-. Urr- I. \]\r c l:araf teri-rics of a bravr ar.d 
: -^ ! !• .1 !• r. *r*«;r>.Ii .i:-.| }:i* Indian** were at hi* !*rr*icr a: 
«•■••. a:- ! : ,'*:).' r :!'■ y <":ii • rriil pLin^ airainst Hull and Fort 
!»••: '. I';, a Ji il ;'>" i:v;:ra:i«.n. (jentnil Hn<k saw :Ka: 
: r •■ • .'.• ! n - !u!: ri 'Aire rhr iiualitit^H t<i gain the tlM}, 

a:.' . ■ • : !!!.!! •\.:- -tarl-*!. r'.r-* !'V a '*'.:mm"n* for the iir.nw 
«! •' -■ • ■ - f r r! iJiT-'i!. .I-.'! Tvxt )»y the cpi^Mr.c ''•I tSe 
lir;' '. : ri • < i* rn r.d H: h'k, "eriit in hi* car.f«e. icailing the 
w.i;. • I'.:'.'!' " Tic'.iiT'.'^h and hi* Iniian-i were di^prMcd ss 
p .!•!.:.• - V .;Vai K i:i tlank and rear, while the British forrr fine 


drove (he Americans from a favorable position back on the fort, 
■nd then prepared to assault it. Tu ihcir surpris*;, however, a 
Aag of trace anticipalcd the attack, and the garriMin capitulated, 
funcnderiDg to the British the Michij^n territory, Fon Detroit, 
(lurtjr-Uiree pieces of cannon, a vessel of war, the military chest, 
a Tcrjr hige <]uantity of Mores and about two thousand five hun- 
dred tnxip* with their arms, which latter were a much appreciated 
boon forarminf; the Canadian militia. General Itrock was him- 
lelf nirpTued at the ease of this brilliant success, which, at one 
iUokc, reWved the drooping spirits of the Canadians, rallied the 
boliuting, Axed the adhesion of wavering Indian trit)c«, encour- 
aged the militia, who had now tried their strength in action, and 
Bade Brock deservedly the idol of the people. On his return to 
Yoril (Toronto), he was gnx'ted with the warmest acclamations, 
u befitted a leader who in such trying circumstances had organ- 
tud the military protection of the Province, met and advised with 
the Lcgialature. accomplished a tr)-ini; joumc\- of three hundred 
oulei in punniit of a force m<ire than tlouble his own — hail gone, 
had Kcn, and had conquered ! 

It was now hi» ardent desire to proceed, amid the prestige of 
vidoryand in thefirM ilushofsucce». to sweep the Niagara fron- 
tier at the last vcsligc of the invading enemy. It seems most 
probable that he crtuld have done k>, and thus might, at this eariy 
aaite of the war, have nipped the invasion in the bud, and saved 
both counlriesapn)lmcir(l and hamsMng struggle. But his hands 
wrre, at thb critical moment, fatally tied by an armistice agreed 
to by the GoTeTnor-<;eneral, Sir George Tr^-vwi, probably in the 
hope that the revocation of the British "Onler* in Coundl," 
wfaicb took place almost simultaneously w ith the American decla- 
isdfMi o( war, woulil e\-c)ke a more {Miciric spirit. 1*his was nut 
the aue, bowe^-er ; things hail gone tnn far; the (>et>ple were too 
afcr for conquest to be easily [M-rsua<lc<l to rrrede. The »»le 
cAtd of tlm most ill-timed armistice w.-is to give the Americans 
tint to rc c or er from the effect of their n-ver-*^ to incm*e iheir 
J to prepare for sub«:«]uen[ successes on the Ules, by 
■oaeli on Lake Erie, under the veri- eyi-s of General 
Bnxk. who, eager to act, had to remain luissivrly watching the 
aafBCfitatkm of the cnemjr'» force and the efiuipmcot of their 
boata, without bdng able to lire a shot tu pa-vent it 


The firsi fruits of this rnfcirciil passivcncss was the surprise 
ami capturi*, on ( ktoIxT gth, of thi- l>ri^-of-war Di-troit and the 
privati- hri^(\ilc<lonia,l)oth kuii-n with amis and siM>iU fitxn De^ 
tniil. Thr ft>nntr, h<»wi'vi'r, ^nmmkni, and was iJcstroycd by 
its captor, (^Lpi.iin Klliott, who w:ls then fitting out an armed 
sch(x>niT at Hlaik Kock, with a strong force of American wamen 
under his rommand. 

Thi^ stroke of succi'ns ^riMtly stimubte<! the eagerness of the 
American force undi-r Van Ken>sfLier - now incri'ascd to ui 
th<ius;ind nun -to en^ai;!* in action, (jeneral Hnick expected 
this, and is^ut-<l partiiular dinitions to all the out{K»st!^ where 
lan<Iin^ mi^ht )x* ef[L-iti*«i. On ( )cto)NT nth a cros&ing at 
Qurcnston was attimpiiil, tmt faiii-<l thmugh unfa\*orabk 
weatht T and kuk of Uiats. Before daybreak on the l.^th. how- 
ever, a cni>Nintj was etTectnl.and the advame ^anl of the Amer- 
ican fMrif, pn»ti-cti-<l by a ha 1 1 <■ r\' inmnianilinj; ever>' »i>ot where 
they cnuld In* np|N>M'i| by musketry, had ^ainml the Canadian 
>hnrr. < >n la:irlin^, they were ^'allantly <>p{t(»sitl )iy the smaO 
oii!;h*>i flirt r • -f militia and r(-;^'\:larN, ai<li-d by the fire of an eigb- 
tn ri ;M.und«r <>;i thr hi i;:hls an I annshir ^un a mikr below; a 
part «tf ihi' lit fr rid in:! fi>r((' nit-i-tin^ the entmy as they landed* 
\]u- rt :naindt-r UtIivj^ d »\\u fpini tht- }ii iL;ht> abcjve. Both avsauh 
a:vl T'-i-'antr wrw rr^'liiii- a:'.' I bra\e. 

(ir-.iral HnHK.a; F'lrl (iitTire. ha >in{* riM*n, as usual, before 
(!.i\li.!ht. }it ard !}:i- (.aniionadi-, ar.ij :m1I«>|h^1 up to the scene of 
.u '!«:i, \\hiTr hr r»i::id hiniM If at nnti- in the miti>i of adcspermle 
ha:i ! !«• fian.di ••m!ia;.ailrtat hnn nti'f thcerumv, whoharilanded 
f.::'*'.i r t:;«. }:.i\i:v/ '/air.'d iir.nli^rMd a •'pur tif the heights by a 
M*< 1. !t i a:vl ( irt uitoi;- ]>:i'.h. Hrmk It^l his men with his UMial 
iit;:! :.. ].\:\\: \al>T. u:iTTiindlul "f iht- cirium>tanie that his hei|eht« 
dp '-. .^nd iM.irir.:^' madt- him t>«i < 'r.^-pitunus a mark for the 
.\r.\» rir m riilt nn n. A l«all. will and drlilM-ratelv aimcvl, struck 
\\\r\ '! \\v., with the w^ril'*, "I^udi on the brave York VcJua- 
tit:-." liTi h:^ lijfN. S!i2r:i: by thtir l»*^, hi** n-pmcnl raiMd a 
sh f 1 *• \\t::LT ihf titnerall" and by a desjicrate onset.the 
p;":l I'- I':!* >\e the inrmy fr<>mthfvan!agrfrruuiKlthey 
lud /.l::«'!. !•;:! t)i( latttT. Uini; stn^n^ly rten forced. the link 
Bn:i-M f"rce tif aU>u! three hundred was aMnpelled to RtilT 
tM' ! :hi- \illaK*e while awaitin;* the r^rnforcemcntf that 


oa thdr way, hastened by the tidings of the calamity thai had bc- 
blkn the DAtion. Gencnil ShuifCe, BtTK.'k's old comradc-in* 
unu in other fields, crc long come up, with all the available troops, 
vohtDtecn and Indians, eager lo avenge the death of their com- 
mander. By an admirable anungemcnl of bis forces he out- 
flanked the enemy and surrounded them in their dangcrouft post- 
tioa, from which a determined and successful onset forced them 
to a headlong and fearful retreat — many U-ing diLshcil to pieixs 
in deaccpding the precipitous rocks or drowned in attempting lo 
aoM the river. The surviving remnant of the invading force, 
which had numbered about one thousand five hundr«t, to eight 
hundred on the Brilifth side, mustered on the brink of the river, 
and mrrendcrcd themselves unconditionally, with their General, 
Wadnnuth, as prisoncn of war. 

The day had bcm won, indi-ed, and won galkntly, but the 
acrifice of Brock's valuable life look away all the exultation fmm 
the victory, and turned gratuhilion into mourning. It was a 
Uow whidi the enemy might well consider almost a fatal one lo the 
Canadian people, and which gave Mimv nilur of truth lo the Amer- 
ican representation of the battle of Quecnslon Ilcighls as "a 
tncrfit " Three days after [he engagement the deceased den- 
■nl wai interred — temporarily, at Fort George— in a bastion just 
ftniihT^ under his own superintendence, amid the tears of his 
■ohficn, the mourning of the nation, while the minute-guns of the 
Aakerican Fon Niagara fired shot for shot with those of Fort 
Geocge. "an a mark of ropect due to .1 brave enemy." He diet! 
"Sir" Isaac Bnxk, though he knew it not, huung been knighttii 
in Eni^and fur his brillLtnl so^^'ices at Detroit. But he luul a 
h^bcr tribute in the love and mourning of the Canadian people, 
vbo haw gratefully preserved and done honor to his memory as 
ooe ol the heroes of its history. Queenslon Heights, where his 
death ocntmd. and where his memorial column slan<ls, U, no 
loa than the Plains of Abraham, one of Canaila't sucretl placi's, 
wheic memories akin to those of Hiermapyhr and Marathon 
■ay wcU move rvcrv- Canailion who has a hean to feel ihem. 

The American na%7 had been sii wonilerfully imprtivwl dur 
ingthelaal few years thai, though still «f <iiur»e vaitiy smaller 
than the British, its first cbus men-of-war were iiMlindually much 
better fquippcd. In the naval engagrmenu of tSli this was 


s|K*t*(lily sirn. Tlu* British frigate's (lUcrrit^rr and Marcdonian 
aivi till' n1(mi[» of war I'pMir witi* suiTi-ssivi'ly attat kni .in«i token 
by tlu- Aim-rit an (*f 'n>tituti()n, I'nititi Stato. and \V;l>|j, nf ii|ual 
nomir;.il, \f\A nr:*h v!riatcT adwal, Mnnijth. Thtn tlu- ^n» of 
thr ('nri>:iti::i<>tr {'"'k a .scHiind pri/c in thi- Java, a fine frigate 
f <>mni.iP.<!(-(! )•) a ]>p>miNinL; otTuer, (\iptain Laniln-rt. wh(> fell, 
with r.'.'t< n{ Jut * rrw. An<l, as the final disa"»trrnf tlu* \iMr. the 
"Ami ri( ap. HonM t," as C'mIdiu I ('nllin hxsit, "stiinit ttxliath the 
British TcaMNk.'* Tlu* tidi* wa.s not tunuil till the fdlkminic 
Jiiiu-, wht-n ('a]'tairi Broke. «>f the Shannon, tiNik a splen<!iii 
|»ri/r in the ('h«*'«aiKake, "f unfortunate memon*. In the mear. 
tinir. i.f ( ir:rM-, these siii « es>ei kepi up the warlike spirit of the 
Air.i ri* ar;s. 

I'.ar!;. :;i iSi ^ hostilities n ' "nimenrefi with a (\ina<lian sue 
(i^-* i;i till- Far \Ve>l. There ( ieneral Harrison, who hail vjc 
«ri'li'! H:!!, -'.ill ihrealenetl BnKior with a forniidaMe arrrv of 
>:-.: I;. K «:.!:■ k\ f"ri *t rani»ers an«l i )hio >haqt>h< Meters, and !*cnl 
i-r. W :: !.« U r wilh a hriiratle t»f hi'* .irmv toilri\e the British and 
I •■;•!:. i:i- l:"::i I'n :i- !i*'-*aii. one of tlnir ii'atj^iMs. The Litter had 
I" :• •!:•■ •..;- :; I'.r- .a:.-? .-.w:, l»u! Tph !i»r p:;-hed fon\anl. attacknl 
\V::.i h» :« r. .i: i. v. .'li \\\r a-'i-tanM- of I;!-* Indian allii>, cum 
pli !i I;, r-./.f! \i\r.\ ..r.l ia>!:ri'! all his s'lrvivin;^ f«»rie, wiih 
»••■■:•- .iT.l .in:nr;i.i:i :i. I '-r tl.i- *'ii ( »-^- -^'t -.irini; I>etn»it for 
::.■ : :- -• ::' Tph r-.r v. ..^ ::-..:• ii a liriiraditr ;:r!'.rr..l and aUi re- 
I • r. • i y.'A :h.i:.'t.^ «'f :':;«■ I.i /i-lat;rr. 

I:. ■*.• >• I. »Ari :..■■, wiiiii th< i< t- still heM the ri\er. a briD- 
i .• • !• • . : •::.'.•!• :. v-.i- via-i'- a* < »L''i* r>^'**r'/. * r < Kwei^atihic, 
.:••.•• i " I.i Tr* •• • !.:!!■ »:■.. !»y x]\* '/aliant Hi;!hLin«l (flmi^ar- 
r ' V •."•:<■ !■ :;i 1 \I.i' ;■:■.'. 1 11. '\'\\r\ l - »: the iMr:\ hy »ur 
.• •':.•"■. f: :ti im- h -■;» iN^ivi- j-»*iii..n. ^t«>^nol aarf 
.•••:;..*■:::• i I .: .it::«-^1 msm U i:: the liarlji»r. and 

• iji' .:- 1 • !• ■. » ■ ; ;i' IN ..: . a:.:-.-:: arid a lar^je ann»Mnt «.f miUtair 
-*■••- I '.« .'. '.:• ■- • v:i :.! '.sa- .I'T i'r.j-irtani "re. putting* a »lnp 

• ■.••'•• ..-. ^ I- •■. 'J.. .\:!'.i :: a'-. -li'- ^n that fn»ntirr durin|C 

M-.-:!. ,■.•••:- • •::! : rs }:a ! as ;. I ! ?i«rn re» eivri! fnjin ihe 
" v.. .1 It :. :■ :.. \. li .v\r\f r. m.i ie i:p h\ ihr ft&llant 

• • : . • • •!•'. v:;:-!:a. w^nhy «.f the Um rev'ubr in-){K. A lor- 
rn: iaVli » a::*. pa:/:: wa^ now ojunin;: Ixf^re them. The .\mrhcan 

• r 



phn of opcntioRS wu, that HAirison and his army should re- 
cover Michigan and threaten the West ; that Commodore Chaun- 
cef, aided by General Pike's Lind force, should invest York 
■ad tbe NiagaiB frontier; and that, after succeeding in West- 
cm Canada, the two armies should combine wiih the large 
force under Dearborn, and make a descent upon Kingston and 

Sir George Pre%-o»t had in the mean time arrivxd at Kings- 
lOB, and waa endeavoring to hasten the equipment of two venels 
Id pnparetioD then and at York, but men and stores were lack- 
ing; Sr James Yeo and his EnRli&h seamen not arriving until 
Maf. Before anything of importance <^uuld be done, Chauncey 
had made his memorable descent upon York, now Toronto — 
then, at now, the capiinl of the Upper Pntvinre — wiih only too 
much succcas. The attack was not uncrjjccted, but the town 
was dcfcncclcs!) so far as military works were concerned, owing, 
it is said, lo the negligence of Shcallc. On the evening of April 
)6th the ominous sound of the alarm-gun was heard, startling 
the citizens with the dreaded signal uf the enemy's approach. 
Such defence as could be made was mode. Sheafle wua there on 
hti way from Newark [Niugart) in Kintrtlon with In-o tympanies 
of the Eighth; and the enemy. on landing a liitleweslof the town, 
met with a brave but inelTeclual resistance from both regubrs and 

After a sharp contest the Uritisb troops were obliged to retire 
tnxn the unetjual struggle — doubly unequal since the fleet was 
about to attack the (own in fmnt. Sheaffe accordin)tIy retired 
toward Kingston, and the (lefvrKt-leiu town fell int>' the hands of 
the enemy, whose advance column, on rrathing ihe fort, was 
Oeariy dolroyed by the explosion of the powder mmtuiiie, fired 
bf a KTgeanl named Marshall. The American general. Zebu- 
loo P(ke, kxt his Ufe in the catostmphe. The ship then build- 
Ill^ tlw dockyard, and a qu,-iniity uf marine %tnm> had been dc- 
Mreyfid or rctnoved by the British befnirdeM-ning the town; and 
the Americans, previous m evacu^itinjc it nn May 2d, nimplcled 
dK work of destruction by burning the public buildings and 
phudeTiRg the cburvh and (he library. 

If this harusing war is. mmfuralively, little known lo fame, 
k ootainty extended over an area far wider than thai of many 


a world -irnciwniti European campaif^. Abng a frontier one 
thftu.sand M'vc-n hundat i miU*> in length, Umicr fra\*s uf vaning 
im|Mirtan( r anfi suutss win* hunLvsin^ the lountn*. Far lu the 
wot, amtui^ ilu' rii h ;illuvi:il fi>ri>t.s iind l^in^lnl jungles of the 
IVtP'it (ii>lriil, l'riKtt»r. aided hy 'lei um.seh and his Indians was 
\\.i^in>* an uni-({;:al and Nimi-what inc!Teitual struggle with IIat- 
ri^»n and hi^ '* Annv i»f ilie Wi^i,*' whilr near him, on the watcn 
f if Laki- Krif, C\i{itain Han lay w:ls fining all he could to aid him 
in n.ival tru nuntrr** with ('omm«M!«»rr Terr)*. On the Niairara 
fnintirr, within si^ht ff the >pray of the FallN attaik^ and rr 
pri>aN wrrr k;"in;^Mn ;l^ jii>l ijrs. riU«l. < )n the bpiad b«><rf>m of 
Lakf < Jniario, C'haunMV arnl Vn» wrrr fi;;hting a naval duel, 
with v'rr.f >iin l•N^ i.i thi- latlrr, whilr the- former maiie a «cc 
nntldr*<rnt ;;|*»n Yi»rk,j;:-t thrri undi-fi-nde«i,and (umplelol the 
diva-!.i':-»n j-rt viini^-ly lK-;^'i]n. demnlishinij harraiks and Iwats 
tl:p>\\i:ii: "jK n tht- jail, and ill treating ami plundering a number 
cf {'iw irih.iMta:-.!-*. 

.\:Ti'»r.;: !•:«■ ;■:« !-.:ri'^j-.jr windinir** nf the Thcm.sand I.Uand^ 
i*: t^.(- na/is «if the \thiv St. Lawrent r, Amrriian attacking ptar 
t;»- wiTr [:.:* r* t '.^■.:.j: Mir;vi-\- ••[ ha!!t.r.:\. tarrying |)rri\L«ii(»ns 
f : \V» :i r:\ /.irri- ■:> .i mtI' •'.;■* rni^"- rivr.M: in ciaVN when, in our 


r."-A r.« :. 1*. : I? ::.!• ('.i::.i'la, :■.•»: '»nly the rri^ular inwij^N, hut the 
rr.:;:*: i .i:. i •'::■ I:. :. j.:: .illii -. ! • 1h fiij nn the Irish mev* (lori. 
:ir. !' I; :r : Vi ".. " i' -rA TiC! ::.•• :i:i. all ^t«»rt-H having l«» he Libi»n 
I. id) i.irr- ! •.\* 1 fr :v. MMr.rri.d. Ami! the landlmkcd, 
i::-^;:.' ..•..•.-:!'!:■*.-■ I :::« U.i'-!:fi:l I-.iki- Cham; Lin. hf«tiL 
: • -. ':.•:!;..•. ';:i :..»; • : :..i\.il i ::i -•.;:;:« r^., "At n- pr»*er«l;ng, an 
Ar:.' :.• i:: :'■ • • .:"•:::; •;*:^' *.•• ^..rjiriM- NIr .i'.;x Ni'ix, and, in 
r«*.". !•■•:-. •■.. :•;■:. ^:!- 1h !:.;» niadi- l-y the KntLsh upi«l 
rii*: ■'■.:.■. I;,.:l;:.:" :.. >■ r.i:.!- '\ .i::-! ChampLain t»»wn, while 
fir ■' .'. :. •.;:• r.:-'v A'l.i:.:!. , Iir::.'h .irA American men <jf war 
wi:« *•:::.::.;! w.:h si; -i a::-: Hhill," thi- Kriiish I'elican Lakiag 
th« \:t-.' r; Ami^, and ihr Amrriran KnliqiriM: and I>ecatur 
•A:*h LT'i' .1'!-. ar.!a;v "f ir::> ar.d n urn Urs —taking rrspec-;. '].' I> -:..:.:. I .i:! :h« H«\ir. In the early {art vi the 
;.« ir. ^.r J :.:. U rl.ii . :i» i jr::dt nrial mias;:re, had estaUiftbcd 
a '•./.Li:.: !>l - 'p..i>if -t :hr Arm ri« an < lu^:, viliuhhenunrd in mail 
of the Amt riian frij^Mti-s ir; thiir j-irts sending their officm aiftd 
crews tt> the sen ii i- of the lake^, hara&seil the maritime towni and 


pml aaatah, ud, by keeping the merchantmen idle in the 
, fntemptrd the coasting trade, ruined the commerce, 
ibed the national revenue by iwolhinls. 

At the autumn o( 1813 approached, the American leaders 
be^n to make more urgenUy threatening movcmcnu, apparently 
detenoined to make some decisive utic of their ma&sea of collected 
tnopi. Hampton, an the eastetn frontier, at the head of neariy 
fin thousand men, crossed Lake Champlain to I'laltsburg, in 
■dvanre on Montreal At Sackcll's Harbor, Wilkinson threat- 
ened Kingston with a force of ten thousand men. And General 
Harriion, tn the West, was only awaiting the naval success of 
Captain Perry, on Lake Erie, in onier to advance upon Proctor 
with an army of six thousand men. 

Notwithstanding the dilTicully of procuring facilities for ship- 
building in that far inland region. Captain Barclay had been 
doing hb utmost, by fitting out the Detroit, a larger vessel than 
Ua little aquadron hatl hitherto [Misses&ed, lii keep fn>m Pert)' the 
eommand of the lake. But Perr)- was well armed and well sup- 
plied, while Barclay was driven to the gn-alrst straits for bck of 
the Kif^dics which it was impossible for him to procure. He suc- 
ceeded, however, in blockading Perr}' for a time in the liarbor of 
ftMqu'Be, where the water on the bar was too shallow to allow 
hkri^p* to float out with heavy guns on boanl. Hut, a|;aledriv- 
falg Barclay away. Perry got out, and rstablinhed his [Kisilion be- 
tween the land force and the vcsseb acting as their store-ships. It 
frff "T abaoluiely ne(.'rs.<iar\-, at ksi, to fight the enemy in order 
to cnftble the fleet to get supjilies, there being, in Barclay's o«-n 
■onk," not a day's flour in the store, and thesquailron being on 
half alknrance of many things." 

A dc^ierate engagement took place, in the co\ine at which 
Batcbjr reduced the Lawrence, Perry's tUg ship, to an unman- 
■ynible hulk; and the mixed crews of seamen, militia, and sol- 
den, in the proportion of one of the fint to sit of the last, fuughl 
■a tnie Britons hght, till, overpowered by superior numbers and 
hwihl metal, aidetl by a favoring bnrxe, BanUy's sijuadnNi 
VM farced to surrender, only, however, when every vessd had be- 
eoBC ODBWOegeable, eiery officer haiJ been killnl or wounded, 
and ■ third of the aews put kors de combat. Barclay himwtf, 
when, KHDe moatha Utcr, mutiUtcd and mai med , be appealed 


before the Ailmiraliy, pn^st-ntfl a speitaclr whiih moved Mem 
warriors to liar^^, :inci iiri*\v forth a just tribute to his iiatriotisin 
an<l courage. 

Hut that (hftat was a fatal tmv for (lencral VukU^t. It de- 

• T'tyt'tl hi.s last hMpr, and n-lrral or niin lay InftTe him. With 
I'ljt ^iujiplies, ilrprivtil of \hr arms and ammimitinn I'f whiih Fnri 
Maiden hail U-en stri;'['ed in <»rdi-r t«> sii|»;i!y the flttl, his pn* 
j>i*<ls seemi"*! >:ItM«my irdt-fd. Retrral ai n s> the wili!rme%» 
iM'hind him in rairy aut'.min wrather miL:ht t>e ardu^/js and 
ruinous enniii:!i. yet it Mrm«' I thi- only t-Majii* fn»m hojK-lrs.* vjr 
n-niltr. Ar.d sii, iltsji-tt- thrr;:me-t andelin|urnt rrmonsiramcs 
c'f 'IVium^ch.' '.vh«» thfuii'ht hr -^ho'ild havr hrM his pr-i:nd, and 
whii, d«ni!i!lt •.^, rtmi rr.^M rn! \hv In Id and virtorioiis ad' \4 
(irniral I^rm !: .tt \\u' In .id of his h'ttlt- forii* one yrar iM-frnr, he 
abandor.rfl and ili'^mav.tlii! V* rt PfTri'it, <riis^i| «i\<t V* Sand 
wit h, whithir hr !>;»"rN'l !ii- :::i»>, am' % ■■•nmrn* ii! h;> ri-trra! 
ujvin Hurlir-L'tiTi !!«:::!::. wit}; a f'irir «i lij'ht hundn^l thirty 
men. 'ri:«- f.i:: !'.!■. I 'Iff '.:rr.M h. ;T:r\i- ! ar.d indis^ as he was 
at the ('ft ntTal'^ •!« 'i r'v.::'..i'i«i:i !n ntn;:!. a«lhrre»! t«i the fwruncs 
(»f his Uriv**] .dli' s \\ it|^ :«.!.li ^ i.r-.-vr'.i v. ;i".| a(tr.m{iani&-t! I*njc- 
tor wi:}'. hi^ li.ivd "f tlinr Inirvl.-ci I:'.d:;iri f«-II"\vrrs. 

Thi- K:i:'I:-h ( h v.i r;d did : •: «'.;••»• 'n U' imm(*<!iately fol 
l'«'.vi'! i;;i }.v n.;rris4.-. ^.r:i v.;: ;: :i:r i! 1:1: '■.;!! its in the wav ci 
lii* pr-"/n sH. li .r :!ii K< :.:-.;i l.y "mouiitnl ir.fanir)/' «t forri: 
riv.**r^ f.u h « .irr\;"./ wl.i :. •. i r j r.u :;• aMr. a f<<»t M>klier lie 
\'.'\\ \'.:r.\ ]v •'.*'[ t.i;':t.d hi>!i w.irri'-rs. ILtrris-r's army <j| 
thr-'-rh ".-.i: ! ' ■• • Iv;*^''*-! vm r. t -.trM '.:;• w::h :hv liltlr rttrra! 
in:: f r. • I'l f ri :* . ;! i }:aM *'ti^ *•*:;;•■ 'd ;« -';Mr. v^r^'rurd 

J «'f ... ? !t 'I • ■ •:. • ^ \ ,'.• ; ^ '■ .: .1; • • ..! t • * #•■:•■ fji' i'rnctor 

• \Vr .irr .»-• ■.■■■!•..*... .r J ! ■■ r /■.:.:■; --^ • r\ '.}.:;.^ ; rr;^an:^ 

I" r-.n a«4\ •■» '* .!'«■•■:.: y ^ r-! . ■ :• • L:- a n^a! h % tr.'rr "i.y^.^ *fr 
^ ' ■ i .ki w 4". * !i«"«l "..s \ • ■. %» • .*:.*■% 'r i!r^%i v<>'.r !••< t < *t |r:l.*h jrir 
b .: :."M . i A'y^t. Mr St •■ \ . . af- i'.rj'A ; •: ! a^ i^ j:.>i wr ^rr %,-:t\ u« 

h it!,' : V ' • '. ! • ■ .1 : .r ■ .: •■ .1: . ..f • * >. ^ !j ". : j-t. h* » ark, Nrt 

• J.'-n a?Tr ,■■■'- '. • I*- ; » ' ■ '-w . : !* If .■ s a* 1! • • * • f? f jthrr * %r« 

} \: ^ /' ! !' •• ..:■ • x r w '.: ' t r .t*- .| | arm %T.l Inr hit 

rrl rh ii'.f' • I r . ; .1 . • .»• -l' ji r<t »:•- r »: ji» j^ . i^-\r ihrm lo u*. MSd 

)-i>u n.a\ k~ • ■^* ' «* ■' '■ • ' ' -r I.', rsjirr .:. :*.r LatmI* of tt.r (irtai Sp«r:t 

Wc arr r.' ?r;- :•-'.: 1 .r Lir.d«. aiuS ti it Lc hu «ill vc mnh IB 

leave o-r l-.^c^ ■ 1 : * 


Proctor's rear-fnurd, capturrd his stores and ammunition and 
eot hundred prisonfrs. Thus brou^hl to bay. the Brili&h Gen- 
eral, apparrntly stunned and bcv-ildcrcd by accumulated mis- 
(onuDCa, felt compelled to risk an almost hopcli-ss hghx. Ills 
Kttlc band of fooiaore and wcarj- men — dejected, hopeless, ei- 
hausted by a harassing and depressing retreat, weakened by the 
effects of exposure and fatif^c, and by the ravages of fever and 
a^ue, insufficienlly clothed, scantily fed, and further disinte- 
Kraled by the want of harmony and the relaxed discipline which 
unfortunately characterized I'roctor's command — were faced 
■bout to strike one last desparing blow. The position taken by 
Proctor al Moravian Town, on the Thames, seems to have been a 
good ooe, but the General seems to ha\-e lost all energy and tort' 
uf^t. No protective breastwork was thrown up — no sharp 
watch kept on the enemy's advance. The laller, having recon- 
noitred carefully the British position, opened a skilful and viff 
onius attack, and in a short time the exhausted and hopeless 
troops w«t totally routed. Proctor and a remnant of his troops 
(ffccting a wretched retreat to Burlington Heights, while a num- 
ber of the captured British soldiers were taken in triumph to 
"iCracea Roman holiday, "some of them, instead of being treated 
boiwrably as prisoners of war, being consigned to jKnitentiaiy 

Tccuinsch, with his band of Indians, had taken up a fMxuIton 
in the swamp to the right of the British force. His last words, 
as he shook hands with Proctor before the engagcmeni, were, 
**Fatber,have a big hcan!" It was indeed the thing th:it Proc- 
tor most needed ami moat lacked just then, Tecums-ti was to 
Bake his oruri on the iliMliarge f4 a signal gun. Itui the gun 
WIS nnrr fired, and Tecumseh found himself deserted by his 
En^fah allies and surroundi-<l by the enemy. .\tiack(ij hy the 
rfisnountrd riflrmm in the snjmp, like a lion in the toils, Tecum 
seh and his "braves" fought on till the noble chieftain fcU~<as 
courageous a warrior an<I faithful an ally as ever fought under 
tlw onion jack. 

Proctor sun-irefl, but his militarj- career was dtwrd forc\-iT, 
■ad the ifishotKir of its termination fatally lamiiAes the glory of 
Us earlier sucoas. The catastrophe of Moravian Town, giving 
lbs AmericaiH amplete possession at Lakes Erie and Uuroo, 


and undisturlxtl ran^^e of the WiMom fnmticr, striking a bIo« a: 
ihi- Hriti>h aM rn<lrnt y, ami j;i\ iiij^ rtnrwiii ho|»i-s «if sucicks to thr 
Amrri(an>, though it awciki* a spirit of morr intense and dii|Q^l 
res<»Kitij»n in thi* ('anailians, was the suit lest rvvervr of the 
war. and iss;Lid to Ik* "unparallelni in the ann^iLs of the British 

Hut it di«l not lome sinijlv. On the ven* dav ot Pnictor i 
defeat, a UnIv of twu humiriti fifty soldien*, pnx ceiling frum 
York lt» Kin;: \*m in two m hcMmers, without conv«iy, were cajil- 
uri-<l on Lake < )ntari(i. Thev anumu Lit I'll dis^Lsters, aiidctl 
to the knowle«lv;e that the Ann riians were cfrntentratinR their 
forti-s <«n Montreal and Kini:>i«»n, with the pn>lMl>ility «*f the 
advance nf narriv)n's anny ti^wanl the Niai^ara fn»nticr, com- 
iK-ilfil (if'.rral Vintent tn raise- the Minkade of Fort (fe«»rpr, on 
whii h Tn \n<.t had made another of his undeiideil and inelTetlual 
dcmon>!r:;!ions, antl retire to Hurhn^ton Heights. The unfa- 
\or:il»h' .ts*|Kf t of atTair^, irnli-id, spread sut h tonstemation at 
h«ad<|uartrrs that rre\ost i^^u*-*! onlers to alundon the l'n*t 
rn>'. ini e wr^t of Kin;:>t"n. In the fate of this i»n!er, however, 
a I "•;!)( iliif war.lirld at ni:rlinL;ton lieiirhts.det iditl at allhazanlft 
t" niair.l.iin the iliftriie of thr Western Peninsula. The Ameh 
I an (i"\tmmr!:t. Nirt- app.iri r:lly that the British fore es would 
iT:.ik«' L'- *"! l!:« ir nlnat, rnall»il ihtir \ii torious (icneralto I>e 
\r»\\ j-.:>! at the time when his adxante would have lieen moftt 
diN;i»«!r«'\> l«i lh«' *mall Briti-^h f'«nej«n the Nia;;ara fn>ntier. 

Thr f*>ni- with whii h it was now rxjKin^l, un«!er Wilkinson 
a:v!'-r.. !•■ n^ikr an i-a-y <iin«jMe^t of I jower Canada, 
arTV ir.rtd !'- !'.w:*:\ ••::• th-'-.i-^and nun, oppoMtl to thrrc thou- 
^ \r. \ Ii::!>!i^ i:: I^»wir *'in»nKly ^up|«»rted, 
I; -Ai '. IT. \*\ A .it:! < nTlr.ioi.L^;:* Trer.i h (^anadian militia. 
wli-i : r M ! !?'.' 'r.-i !vi s '\r. ih«- -iav .-f trial n*» lev fcival an«l un- 
!^n. hi:.;: than thiir Tj^jKr Canadian hmthers. Wilkinson's 
« :• iT'id .i!!;»i k \:]»Ti Kinj-t'-n fn-m Saikett's Ilartjiir w«ft 
.;■■» "'i * y rhe tir'.th ihnwiv.L' '-f tw.» thousand tnw^ji* into the 
K • .•-• :i •/',':'. -^ !'.. whi'h »ha::/ii! Wilkinvm's plan^. and «cnt 
!.:::. * ■.•. v ']* *^! I..iwrirvr ! • i«.iri Har'.plon- followril, horn 
v\i',\ \ 1;:'.-:; -M Jj'-'T'.i r- and ;".:n!-iat»i, and hy aioq^of ofawr 
\a!:"n. "ir.d* r l'i'li» MMrri"^»n, whii h made a deswent upitfi 
him at Chrv -It :'> l'.im: on the Canadian shore of the ri^rr— mid 


wiy between Kingston and Montreal — and forcoi him to irtrctt, 
complrtely routed, thouf;h numbering two to one o( the Uritish 
force, the scattered American force precipitately taking to their 
bo«U and hastening down the river. 

Amid these scenes of devastation the campaign of 1S13 closed. 
The neit year a UiK*^ American force, under General Browni 
hanascd the Niagara frontier. An incursion on Port Dover took 
place, and the entire village was burned down without the »light- 
cM provocation. In July Fort Eric surrendered, without firing a 
■hot. to two strong brigades under Generals Scott and Kipley, 
Uajor Buck, then in command, thinking it would be a usclcas 
Hcrifice of life to hold out with a garrison of one hundred sev- 
enty against four thousand a&sailonts. On the whole frontier 
then were only one thousand seven hundred eighty British 
tioopa, opposed to B strong .\merican force. General Riall, 
however, the British commander on the frontier, was determined 
to check the enemy's advance by a vigorous rt.-!(i»tance. 

A strong American force, let! by General Hrown. marchc<I 
down the river to Chippewa, the extreme right of ilie British i>o*i- 
liocL Notwithstontling the greatly superior numbers of the 
■double those of the British troojis— and the strong 
Dwbich Brown had taken up, Kiall, having rrreivrd reCn- 
s from Toronto, resolved to attack the enemy. Again 
and again his columns gallantly chari^l against the solid Ameri- 
can Uite, but were forced back by their formidable fire ; and Kiall, 
after luflering severe loss, had lo onler a retreat lowani Niaf^ra. 
The onmjcttBsful attempt was, at least, sulBnenlly demonstra- 
tive o( British and Canailian pluck, and seems to have hail the 
cflcct o( deterring the enemy from fuUowing up his succtm even 
•o (ar as lo molest the retreating force. His army, however, 
advanced leisurely, awl mnipied Queenston— his light infantry 

I ladtans tnaking marauding incursioai in every direction, 
I thcvillage of Si. David's and plundenne and dcsiroy 
lilg the property of the unhappy colonists wh<im the Americans 
had hero so lirneroiently desirous to free from BriliJi tyranny. 

General Brown, disappointed in his cspectatiijn nf being 
asibtcd to take Fort George and Fort Niagara by Chaumry's 
fleet — tiDW effectually hekl in check by CommtMlore Yeo. and 
I the gairisMi on the tjni vht — tetrraicd lo Chippewa, tol- 


lowcfl by Riall, wh«) tcKik up a |N>sili(»n < !«»«• to the American fonr 
al Lundy's I.anr. (irni-ral I)ninim«»nil havipij hr.inl a! Kinjr* 
Inn <>f Hmwn's aclvancc* an* I the <li'fi'at c»f C'hi|t|H'\va, haMrnrii to 
Niagara, whc n-. t'lndin^ that Riall had ^nnv on U-forc him. hr 
M-nl C'i>l<inil Tin krr, <>n lh<' Amrritan .side nf ihi- ri\tT. ai; a 
tlriai hnn-nt at I.iwisinn, whilr hr himsi-lf pi:>hti| nn to Oircn> 
ton. I-'p'ni ihrn«r, ihi- t-ncniy having tliN^ipiiiMn** I fn>m Ix^u-i* 
t«»n. hr MTil Till krr \ku k to Niagara, and m^vrd «»n wi:h ciirht 
Ir:ndM-<l nirulars to I.imriv*^ I.anc. whrrt- hv riun*! that Riall 
had t «»mnuntrd a n-trral; S<ciit, wh«» ha*! advanml t*» thr Fall^^. 
having vrnt fnr Iin»\vn tj» (omt* on with thr ri'>t of hi> font* ti»)<»in 

'I'h*- rt-trrat was siK-i-<lilv tiuinirrmanfiiil l»v Dnimmon*!, whr> 
with oru- tho'.j^,ind Nix hundn-! nn*n. found himst-lf M.nfn»nic«i 
with an An^.rriian fon i* of nw thoKsar^d. part I'f whi^h Katl 
alrradv arrivnl within >ix hundn**! vap!^ v.\\v:\ thr Mrili'»h (irn 
I arri\ii! lh»' rni!a;M'mrnl i i»mm»n« ii:*.' a!mi»Nt iM-f'Tr h»* had 
«'■::■;] '!i trd !i:n T ma! ion a!:d r-taMi-hcd a !»a!trn on thr ••li^rh: 
I rr'.i'.r::- r r'--.v t -i.wr-.fd !'V ;in r'.al"n". Fmm thtT.^ r. (»n a 
^-rrnnv r'- di*.. '}]%• r\r « .i*i '.ir.*- in a*- rxpanM- «f •»unr\, 
jM •. I f-:l «ii'.:*-.. rii h :'Tv*-r. •.«.•-■!■.. jh:h h Mriharis :irsi| vine!-. !:..•:'!■.:! \\ ::-.» -:i .i-!-. :.r. i !:• ! i-i-f !hr rii hi-^t. '-•fti-^t crrcr.. 
!'. .! ■ -. \\\..' J !;. ..Vtv.-r.. .:- r'.irir^* i!n w iin, thi {«*airf.:I 
I,i:.d-« i:-*- 'A I- . ! i . li d K'. l.t.:*. v •»:!;•*] iP'-.s ^vv-ki-. thr *wrrt 
^■:vtt:i r ;ii: ^^..- :.!!»d "i^ivi !*:•'! .11 N-r! .f :ir:!:!» r\. !hr ratllc «>f 
\ Wx '. - I r.y.\.- T. . r'-.i ^hsr;- ■ r i- '. -.1 :}-.»• ritlf. thr -h-*".;! •»( thr 

■•■■ * ■• I •■■ .!• .. >•■! ■ • •■.... ^4..taa^tl* >••■■• 

t!' ■ 1« rv.- . •■.;-:•.■: .iT •■{ :!.« iTf .1! « ..•.ir.n t • l'^**- b\. The 
■ •• ' .• ••• ■ : ' I- • .'.,r\ ...:. 1 T"*.-: !:• :■ « ly M.:::t>.:i^! .*f thf 
'.'.-•.r r :.'' ! V ;•'• '• rr:" '.• - .I'v.i ••■ .;•• ! ■•■ -:« r:i!r i'*»*!:nai \ ':II '.he 


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1 .1 • .i \.r.\ .{' ! :. » rr ; • ]:.'):: ^■ r r::»- M ■ !\ l*:rld. 

\. .., .:..,, .1.. ,.,..-., J;., I ,..;,•■::,. 1 ^ '.mil <»f thr Bn::«h 

• ..' • • !.*''«■. V.I n ->»■!•!■.-• i »•. I :« -i. •.%:•?! ' r.r of :hr cncmi'* 
•/ .' .1 ' • • • . I*-. !'".t d.'.' '.:■«- - ^'-r •• rr:i-takrN iniurrr"!, 

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t^.i :• ,ir .•: I- ' : 'S \":« ri- ;i- f ■:■ f i:v.«!it I ii mml Iin»«Ti !4»4 
ihc plaic i.f >.«■:•.' ^ :..-. it . ■. ! .■ }: h.: ! ■ .:*rnd •»<vrn-!y. Rli1!S 


RtiriRg divoion now ramc up — wiih two guns ami four hundred 
militia — one thousand two hundred strung, and between ihc two 
iorca thus strengthcnnl, t)ic ticrcc contest was renewed. " Nolb- 
mg," nys an cyc-witncss, "could have been more terrible, nor 
yet more wlcmn, than this midnight contest. " The dcsjiente 
s of ibe enemy were suctveded by a deathlike silence, inlcr- 
il ool)' by the f^roans of the dying and the dull sound of the 
FaBlol Niagara, while the adverse lines were now and then dimly 
dbcenwd through the moonlight by the gleam of their arms. 

Tbesc anxioiu pauMs were succeeded by a blaze of musketry 
along the lines, and by a repetition of the most desperate charges 
from the enemy, whicii the Briiiiih regulars and militia received 
with the most unshaken firmness. At midnight, lirown, hav- 
ing unsuccessfully tried for six hours, with hia force of five thou- 
mod against half that number, to force the British from their 
p^'tf'*'; mrcaled to Chippewa with a loss of nine hundred 
thirty — that on the British side amounting to eight hundred 
seventy. Generals Scott and Brown were severely wounded, as 
was also General Drummond, though he retained his command, 
aotwithitanding, to (he end of the action. Next day a fresh 
dcmoRftralion was planned but abandonul, .ind Brown, on the 
iTlh, having burned Street's mills, d*-stroyed the bridge over the 
Ch i ppew a Creek, and thrown his impedimmia and pntvisitJits 
into the rit-er, retired on Fort Erie, Drummond's light infantry, 
cavalry, and Indiarui following in pursuit. 

Gcoeral Dnimmond having followed up and invested the 
American troops in Fort Erie, daringly attempted to storm the 
loft, and nearly succeeded ; indeed, a portion of his columns 
actual^ succeeded in pcnetntiing the fori— the centre of the 
d camp — but were driven thence by thi- accidental ei- 
n ol a powder-magazine, which made the assailants retreat 
in dimay. This disastrous repulse cost the British and Cana- 
diuMKKnc five hundred men— the .Amerii^m loss bring Karcely 
one Inmdred; and a simultaneous attack by Colonel Tucker on 
Black Rock was not more successful. Nntwiihsiamling this, 
r, Dnitninood, being reinforced by the Sixth and Eif^ty- 
I ngimenls, was able u> maintain his positton and keep the 
Aaericao force bUxJtaded in Fori Erie. 

Thl Miaatiion of the gcoeral war in Europe, eariy in 1S14. had 


Irft Britain fn^c to turn her chief aiti-ntion to America, and the 
efTeits of ihi.^ witi* MM^n felt. The whole Ameriian seaboard, 
frnm Maine t(» Mexiio, was subject to the inruark of British 
M|uacin>ns, whosi* flescents forufl the retail of much of the land 
force sent to (^inada. In Maine, Sir John Sherbnioke,Licutcn- 
ant-(fOvemor of Nova Scotia, made succi-ssful innwicls carn'in|( 
one pLue after ant »thi'r. till the whoU* Ijonlcr, fn>m IVnoWot to 
New Iirunhwi( k. was under rulr, and so continued till the 
ratification of I K-ace. Further m mi! h, ( veneral Kossbndedat Ben- 
edict, ascended thel'atuxt-nl to \Vashin^tMn,dis|M*r&cd its defend- 
ers and humeii the Capitol, the, the Treasun*. the War- 
OtVice, the Presidi-nt's Man>ion, and the ^rtat brirl^c acn>» the 
Potomac, the con:l.i^'rali'>n iM-in^' aidc-il l>y the rxpl(>si«in of maK- 
azines t'lreti hv the retn-atiiiL: Ainrriiaris. The dr\a.station at 
Wa&hin^ton was a m'mti* ih«>iu:h unr.xiKnteii retribution for 
York left in a.shrs by the Arnrrii ans durin;; the prixedini^ year. 

An altemp! en ItaltimMrcdid r:(>t ti nniiiatr si» sut lessfully.for 
the Kn^li'^h (iernTal Ko^s Ix-ini; kil!rr!. thi* British fone, finallT 
givini; up the .iitcnpt, rr!tir:u-<l to thrir shi|»>. In Honda, the 
Briiiihfi^rd^ r>!.i! li-h«tl thrniMhi .^ fnr -jinu time, and the amiT 
of (leneral VA.* rih.ini aN>.iuItf*«i New < )rlf-an^ < January' 8, 1815), 
with al>n;l i ii:hl l!i"i;!cl mi'n.lii:t thry wrre repulMtl by a ^'if- 
orf»'.i> 'irfrrn r, arid i'irTi|Hliid V* rMnat. I'.ikenham was killed. 
In Aul:::-:, 1^14. British a:. f I Arr.iricar: ri:vf»v.> had mel al Ghent 
to it)r>i*ltr U nr.s if pai irica'ii»n. 

In s^inv i!:«-:.!h i-f A'.;:'i>T. hi«wivi r, «<iunTil an unfort- 
unati- Br;:>i: r»\«r*«- ::: (\i:^i'!.i. Six'nri h'-irniml men *»f the 
P'jkiM.f \\ «!!::■. i:!..:.- .1 ::•■.;. f:.i'! ..rr:*. f d a: «,»■.;<• l«i .and Sir(fCtif|5e 
Treviisi *»♦:.: ;i p-. :::■■•; 'f rl::^ !>•■!;. !•■ I i-jht (\ina>!a. thrrcted 
ai;air.s! >..i ».i :*\ H.irl»' r. \\\\\\*- !:• 1 r.i t r'.!r.:ti-«! ilrvrn thousand 
on thi" ki«!;«l.''.: fri-rriir :n .i"..ii k !l;« Amiriian (ursition 
Lake ('tiampl.ti:.. ai<!cd b> a ^niall avjI \f r\ badly n{uip{>ed 
val f"r< r. 

<Mr.i !/-• iri'- dcparT'.ire ^^:?h f"'.;r thi'Us:in<i men to 
the •'•:11 bl* k.i ii-'i \r:itr:tart rr'.'.ps ar I-^rt I'.rir h-ft the Ameri- 
can f'ir-r I :■. \.,iVv ('har:'.; !.:::i \ir\ ::..i Ir-r-Mtr, a::tl Prr^usl't 
army, nt-i!irir '^\\h p.'» '■; ;-'-.:iM:j. ad\ar.tnl airainsi rUtiftbuif. 
defcndnl Ij> two bl'V kh'tw^i % anii a ( hain nf t'lrlil- works, and gv- 
byoDc thousar.d h\e hundred truups and militia 


Ccnerml Mafomb, Three successive days were cmplo>Td in 
J up the heavy artillery-, and Pa-vosl wailed for ihc ad- 
e erf ihe 6rct, still in a %'ery backward stale of preparation, 
before proceeding to the attack. The result, however, was a 
repetition of the inglorious ailair of the preceding summer at 
Stckdt's Harbor. Prcvost allowed the ri({ht moment for the 
Joint attack in pass, and, instcn'l of moving hi» columns a( once to 
joint action with the fleet, he waited till the fleet had been defeated 
bjr the greatly superior squadron opjxiscd to them, and then 
fncailutely put his troops in motion. Dut, meeting with some 
(fisoHirageincnt, he immediately ordemi a n-lreal, without e^^n 
altcmpting to carrj- works which it seemed were quite within bis 
power to capture. 

The inclignaiion of the disappointed tnx>ps, thus compelled to 
an tn^rious rctirat, was uncontrollable, and many of the officers 
hnke ibeir swords, dccbi ring tliat they would never serve ^ain. 
The retiring force withdrew unmolested. Opinions seemed to 
cliller as lo whether I'revost's conduct was pusillanimity or pru- 

Taking into consideration the evenl<i of the preceding year, 
appcarwicea seem to favor the former view. \'ri I'revost was 
aid lo be personally brave In action, his chief lack seeming 
lo be ihat of decision in command. He wa.s to have been tried 
hj court-nuitia], but died before this could take place, so that his 
mflitmry reputation still rvst.s under a cloud. 

At Fort Erie the disaster on Lake Champlain encoumged Ihc 
blockaded garriw>n to make a vigimms sortie on September 17th. 
At fir^ partially succextfui, they were stxin dri\Tn back, and pur- 
sued lo the \-cTy glacis of the fon, with a li>ss of fnt hundml, the 
BrJtisfa hanng lost six hundred, lialf of these being made pris- 
ootn in the trenches at the beginning of the sonic. Hearing of 
Imni'i advance, Orummond thought it prudent m withdraw lo 
Chippewa his small force, thus reduced and much enfeebled by 

On Lake Ontario, however, Yeo, having construaed a flag- 
ship carrying one hundred guns, eflee lually vindicated the British 
mtfinamcy. In October, Chaunrey withdrew into Sackell's 
Harbor, and was bkxkadcd therein. This secured abundant 
bdbtjr lor coonyint! troops aod pn>\isioDft to the Niagara boa- 


tier, and though Iz7.anl had now eight thousand men at Fort 
he saw the fruiilosness of ])n>siruting the invasion any farther, 
blew up the works, and rtrnisM^d with his inM>iis to Americmn 
territor)', leaving the long tlislurUii frontier to rt^ixKic. ViTiih the 
exception of a western loonier foray by some mounted Kentucky 
brigands, this concludal the hostilitii*s «»f the long and ha fairing 
war, and '*l)urst the bubble of the invasion of Canada.** The 
{Krace ratifiitl by the Treaty of (ihent, concluded December 34, 
1814, terminated the protractifl war, which had been so unjustifi- 
able, sodisostnms, ami soal>solutely fruitless to Uuh countries — a 
war which had desolatiii large trai ts of fertile territor)*, sacrificed 
many valuable livi-s, and kept up a spirit of hatred between two 
Christian nations, which should have l)een endea\'oring in uni- 
son to advance the liberty and the highest interests of the human 


The American Congress, in 1811, while continuing the prep- 
arations for war, still i hiTished the ho{K* that a change of policy 
in Kun>(>i* wowM rrnder uinu-t\' an ap{K*al to arms till May 
in the following year. Toward the ( lose of that season, the Hor- 
net arriviii fn>m London, bringing information that no prospect 
existdl of a fav< •riMc * hangc. < )n June ist the President sent a 
mes.vii'e Ut C<»nk:rrNS. riiounting the wnings rrceiva! from Great 
Britain, and suijrnitting the '{uiMion, whether the United Stales 
shii ;M ii>ntinije imndure thtm nr resort to war? Themi 
wa^ (on^idrn-ii with (l'»siil ii<knrs. On the 18th an act 
pass4-<i (iit taring ' a>:.iin^t (inat Britain; and the next day a 
ppN Kim.'iti"n 'a.i^ io^'.icti. .\g.iin*«t this declaration, however, 
the Rr;iri M ::t:i!:\i > UlMn^'iri:: tn the Foleral party presented a 
yiicnin ;»r":i'*!. whii h wa** written with great ability. 

At the tinu' of the det laration of war, General Hull was ako 
Clovem«»r «'f the Michigan Tcrritorj-, of which Detroit was the 
rapiial. < >n July 12, iHi j, with two thousand regulars and rol- 
untrt p«. he cnissol the n\er dividing the Cnitcrl States from 
Canada, apitanntly intending to attack Maiden, and thence to 
pr»^nil !.• M.^r.treal. information was, h<»wcver, received thai 
Mai V.inar, an American (lo^t aU>ve Detroit, had surrendered to a 
large \r^\\ of British and Indianv who were nishing down the 
n\tT in numbers sutTkient to overwhelm the 


Puiic-Hruck, General Hull hastened back to Drtrott. General 
Bnxk, the commander at Maiden, pursued him and erected 
battcric* opposite Detroit. The next day, mcvling with no re- 
BrttniTt General Brock resolved to march direcUy forward and 
ir*Tt"lT llic fort. The American troops awaited the approach of 
the enemy, and anticipated victory; but, to their dismay, Gen- 
eral Hull opened a correspondence, which ended in the sur- 
render of the army and of the Territory of Michigan. An cvcnl 
90 diigrmccful, occurring; in a quarter where success was confi- 
dently kniidpated, caused the greatest mortification and amazc- 
menl throu|{houl the Union. 

General Van Rensselaer, of the New York militia, had the 
command of the troops which were called the "Army of the 
Centre." His bcftdquartcrs were at Lcwiston on ihc river Ni- 
agara, and on the opposite side was Quconstnn, a fortified British 
poaL The militia displaying great eagerness to be led against 
the enemy, the General detcrmincfi to cn>4ft the river at the head 
of about one thousand men; though successful at firel, he was 
OMupdled, after a long und obstimite engagement, to surrender. 
General BrtKk, the British commander, fell in rallying his troopa. 

The Army of the North, which was under the immediate 
command of General Dearborn, was s(aliune<l at Greenbu&h. 
near Albany, and at I'Uttsburg, on Lake Chomplain. From 
the latter post a detachment marched a slmn di^tame into Can- 
ada, surprised a small body of British and Indians, and de- 
stroyed a considerable quantity of public slurw. Other move- 
ments were anxiously expected by the pecpic; but after the 
misfortunes of Detroit and Niagara, the General deemed it inex- 
pedient to engage in any important enteqirisr. 

The scene of the campaign of iSi,t was principally in the 
oonh. toward Canotio. Bngailirr General Winchester, of the 
United States army, and nearly five hundred men, ofhcers and 
■otdiers, were maiJe pri*>ncrsai Frcnthiown, by a division of the 
British army from Dclroit. with their Indian allies, under Colo- 
nel Proctor. Cobncl Proctor leaving the Americans without a 
gtHrd, the Indians returned, and deeds of horror followed. The 
I offxcn were dragged fmrn the houses, ktlleil, aiKl 
I in the itrerts. The buildings were set on fire. Sotne 

aUonpted to escape were furccil baik into the flames, while 


others were put to death by the tomahawk, and left shockingly 
mangled in the* hi;:hway. The infamy of this butchery does 
fall uiM)n the iH-qK-tratrirs alone, but extends to those who 
able, and wen* Umnd by a solemn en^a^ement, to restrain tbcm. 
l*he battle and ma.ssat re at Freiu htown c lothitl Kentucky and 
Ohio in mournir^. < )th(T v()lunleer>. indi;*nant at the treachery 
and iruiliy of their f(H>, h.tstenrd to thr aid of Harrison. He 
manhe<| to thr nipid.^ of the Miami, where he ereitcd a fort* 
whi(h he talK-tl Fort Mei^s, in honor of the (r«)vcmor of Ohio. 
On May ist it was invi>tei| by a^e numlxT t»f Indians, and 
by a ]Mrty of Hriti*^h tPMips fn»ni M.ildtn. the whole- (ommandcd 
by Colonrl PrtHtor. An un.'^in* rv^fiij attempt to the siege 
was maiit- bv (irrural (Mav. at the head of twelve hundrttl Ken- 
tu(kian>: but iht- fort lontinucfi t'dK-drfrndctl with bravery and 
skill. Thr In<!ianN, una((i:siomc-«i to >i(*^eN, iHtamc weary and 
dis<(»nii!;tc«l: :i:ifl nn MavSth iluv dcvrtnl their allies. The 
British. I liNpairinLff**!!* ies«», then ni.irlea prei ipilale retreat. 

< >n the r.'irtht rn fmntier a UnIv i>f troii|» had Ut n assembled 
under llie i " ^f (icner.d OearUirn, at Saikett's Harbor, 
and i!reat ex«r?;'i:s were m.iile l«y ('nmnvN|.»re (*haunce)' to 
b'.:iM and t •;;:;' a "-(j-iadr. »n **n Lake < >ntari«» »*i:iyh ienlly [uwcr* 
fid t>< I ii::t«-:.(l \\.:h that of the Hriti^h. I'lV April 2^\h the ruval 
prep.'.ra:s"nN w* :r •-► far i -ir:.;!!* li i| that 'lie (ler.eral and seven- 
teen llinM^and !:•••'- wm- « ••:i'.t ' «il ai P»ss tlie lake to ihe attack 
of V- irk Tnni::*" . the » a;ii!.il « i rpjKT Ca'MiLi. < >n the jjtll 
an a hannii J'ar'>. i •■::i:r..i::.:id :»'. Hrii^adicr (ieneral I 'ike, who 
was !ii»m in a • I'v:*. .i:.i I-tm! a x-ldiir fp-ni his birth, Lin«ied, 
a'i:iv.j;:h ••p>'-«i .i: \h»- -Aa*- :'- 1.; v by a ^•:;ifrit»r f^rte. After 
a -): 'rt b*.i! s# ,trr • ■ r'/'s- \ !•:• Hri'i-h wrrv ilri^in to their fiiftifi- 
(.iT: r\^. 'I he n : "f !}-.< 'r p;»n h..*.:!i;* !a:'.«lf^i. thf whole pally 
I'T'-^-ed f'T'.var !. larrif! i:-.' :;:•! :.:::«. -v b\ avvault, and weie 


rv AJni: l"w.ipi the main A-ir't.^, v. !;in tiie r.n^li<«h maf^azine 
b!»w v;p. wi'h a !ri nu :i'!-.':«. « \pi-i'«n. harlini: ujirm the a<i%'anc- 
in^ !:*■■;•■* irv.rr.t v^- fj;;'.n!:':i-s f.f *:..:.f and limlKT. Numbeil 
wer' i.ill'd. the iMllan: I':k«- rTi «:%!•*! a m'»nal wound; the troops 
ha!:«'i f r a r: rr.»r.r. *..!. :t«'\ir:n;: fpim the sh«Kk. aicaia 
pn-^-*': f'-r-Aaril. and simn ^viiro! j»»s^4-Nsi. in of the town. Of 
the Hriiisfi ip-.;.s.'.'!r«il w«rr killtil, nearly three him- 
drttl were wuunded. an-i ih* ^.lme number made prisoners. 


Tbe object of the expedition atuinnl, the squadron and 
troops returned to SacLctt's Harbor, and subscquentiy sailed to 
Fort George, situated at the head of the lake. After a warm 
engagement, the British abandoned the fort and retired to the 
bd^U al the head of Burlin^un Bay. 

While the greater part of the American army was thus em- 
plojredi the British made an attack upon the important post 
of Sackett's Harbor. On May 37th their squadron appeared 
bdotr the town. Alarm firuns instantly assembled the citizens 
of the neighborhood. General Brown's force amounlc<l to about 
one thousand men; a slight breastwork was hastily thrown up 
■1 the only place where the British could land, and behind this 
be {daced the mitiiia; the regulars, under Colonel Backus, form- 
ing a second line. On the morning of the 39th one thousand 
British troops landed from the squadron and advanced luward 
the breastwork; the mililia gave way. but by the bravery of the 
rcguUn under the skilful arrangement of General Brown the 
British w«re repulsed, and rH^mbarkcd so hastily as to leave be- 
Iniid most of their wounded. 

Whileeach nation was busily employed in equipping a squad- 
ron 00 Lake Erie, General Clay remained inactive at Fort Meigs. 
About the last of July a large number of British and Indians 
appeared bcfort the fort, hoping to entice the garrison to u gcn- 
enlKtion in the field, .\flcr wailing a few day» without succeed- 
iag, they decamped, and proceeded to Fort Stephenson, on tbe 
tircT SanduiJcy. This fort was little more tKiin a picketing, sur- 
raundcd by a ditch, and the garrison consisted of but one hun- 
diwl liiiy men, who were commanded by Major Crc^han, a 
youth of twenty one. The fonrc of the assailants was esti- 
mated at atwut four hundnxl in uniform, anil as many Indians; 
they were rrjmlscd, and their loss in killed, wounded, and prift- 
oocn is suppcMol to have exrc(ilc<l one hundred fifty: those 
of the remainder who wtfc not able to C5cai>c were taken off dur- 
ing the night by the Indians. The whole kvu of Major (.'roghan 
during the siege wa.s one kiUnl and srvrn slightly wounded. 
About thrre the next morning the British saiird down the river, 
leaving behind them a boat containing clothing and coosidrrable 
auUtaiy siorta. 

Bjr the exertioQs of Captain Perry, an American squadroo 


had been fitted out on Lake Erie early in September. It ooo- 
si«tcd of nine small vessels, in all carrying fifty-four guns. A 
British s(|uadn)n had also been built and equipped, under the 
superintendence of Commodore Barcby. It consisted of m 
vesM'ls, mounting sixty-thnr guns. Commodore Perr^', immedi- 
ately sailing, uiTered battle to his adversary, and on September 
loth the British nimmander left the harbor of Maiden to accept 
the ofTcr. In a few hours the wind shifted, ginng the Amerkau 
the advantage. Perr)', fr>rming the line of battle, hoisted his 
flag, on which were ins<-rilH*<l the wonls of the d}'ing Lawrence, 
**Don*t give up the ship.** I^)ud huzzas fnim all the ^-caaek 
proclaimetl the animation which this motto inspired. About 
noon the firing commence<l; and after a short action two of the 
British vi^sels sum^ndercd, and, the ri->t of the AmcTican squad- 
ron now joining in the battle, the viiton- was rendered decisive 
and complete. The British loss was forty one killed and ninety- 
four woundal. The .American loss was twentvsc%Tn killed 
and ninetv six woundefl. of which number twentv-one 
killed and sixty-two wounditl on N>ani the flag ship 
whose whole complement "f ahle l>Mliefl men lx*fore the actioQ 
was about one hundn*d. The Comm(Klf»rr gave intelligence of 
the victor\* t'» (lenenil IIarri><m in these wonls: **We have met 
the enemy, a:: I iheyarmursl Two ships, two brigs, one schooner, 
and one si— ;•." The Americans were now masters of the 
lake; but thr Tcrritxry of Mit hiL;;in wxs still in the possession of 
CMJorul Ppk! If. The next movrments were against the Britiih 
and Indians ;it n(*!ri*:l and Maiden. <iener:d Ilarriwn had pre- 
vi')'.>ly a.ssrrr.Mni a {loninn of the ( )hift militia on thr Sandusky 
Ri\rr; a:^! "n Si :»!»:TitH r rth r»ur thousand frnm Krntuckv, the 

• • • 

fl<iwtr of ihf Statr. AJth (Jtivrmor Shelliy at their heafi, arrired 
at his tamp. With thv • i-i;KTatii«n «»f the rtret. it was determined 
to pnx Its I at <0' I t') Malien. i )n the jjth the tmops went re- 
ceiv*"! i-r. NMrtJ. aril nat hnl M.ildrn on the same day; but the 
British ha'!, in iht* mran time, ilrstnivol the fort and public 
•V rt-N. a:ii h.i! ntrr.ilfsl .iloni: the Thames towani the Mon- 
\\.,r. \ill.i.:ts. * •i^rtht-r with Te< um^^rh's Indians amountioit to 
t-Aflvr <ir !'if*f*in hundred. It was now rrsoU-ed to pmcced in 
pursuit of rpKtrir. ^)n Ortol^er 5th a severe battle was icNighl 
between the twu armioi at the River Thames, and the Britiih aimj 


mti defcftled by the Americans. In this battle Tecunueh wis 
killed uid the Indians 8cd. The British loss was oinctecn 
ngxiUn lulled, and fifty wounded, and about six hundred pns- 
aeen. The American loss, in killed and wounded, amounted to 
upwmid o( filty. Proctor made his escape up the Thames. 
Oo September 39th the Americans took posscsiuon of Detroit, 
vdijch, on the approach of Harrison's army, had been abandoned 
bjr the British. Preparations were now made for subduing 
Upper Canada and taking Montreal; but owing to the diffi- 
ct^ties attending the concentration of the troops, and perhaps 
abo to the want of vigor in the commanders, that project was 
•hukdoned, and the army under Wilkinson, tnarching to French 
UiUs, there encamped for the winter. 

Tlie pacification in Europe in 1814 offered to the British a 
lai^ disposable force, both nAval and military, and with it the 
means of giving to the war in America a cbarsctcr of new and 
incieued activity and extent. The friends of the Administration 
anticipated a severer confUci, and pirpartd for greater 'ocrificcs 
and greater sufferings. Ili opposcrs, where difTicullies thickened 
and danger preaaed, were ena>urage<l to make vigon^us cfFnrts to 
wrest the reins of authority from men who, they avu-ncd, hail 
shown ihcmachTs incompetent to hold them. The President 
deemed it advisable to strengthen the line of the .\tlantic, and 
therefore called on the executives of several States to organize 
■ad bold in readinesss for immediate service a corps of oinety- 
tliree thousand five hundred men. 

The hostile movements on the northern frontier were now 
tMn™«'"ig vigorous ami intemtting. In the tK-ginning of July 
Gcnenl Brown, wbo had been assiduously employed in ilisciplin- 
iag his troops, crossed the Niagara with about three thousand 
men, and took possession, without opposition, of Fort Erie. In 
A Mnog posJtkin at Chippewa, a few miles diMani, was in- 
tmcbcd an equal number of Rritish troops, mmmanded by 
GcDctal RiaU. On the 4lh Clencral Bn>»Ti approached iheif 
■arita; and the next day, on the pUinsofChip|<ewa. an obstinate 
■ad sanguinary battle was fought, whiih romjK-IloiI the British 
to fCtiiT to their intrrnchments. In ihi« action, which was 
fvo^U with gml judgment and coolness on both sides, the loss 
o< the Amcricaos wis about four hundred men, that of the BriUsb 


A.I>. 1813 


At the l«|(inninR ut (he War of iNi • mott o( the leaden of the 
can war party inCcmKri'^kui-re aniicipatiiiff a coatest mainly on the bad. 
where they conhdi-nily Iriokcd for ^ucceNsei and territorial coaqac»t». 
They apiHrar to h.i\c (huiiKht and expected little of the navy, notvtth- 
ftiaiK;::!^ it% lirilhunt svrvicrs in the KevoiuticM. So little faith had the 
Admitustrat:on in t!ie |H>Mir of the navy that it was determined to by 
up the Iri^atrt in son:r sifc port, to prevent their capture or 
tion. liut Cjputii!! William lUinbridiee and Charlei Stewart 
to Wa^hmRton and iK-fNuaded the President to reverie that dcciii 
let thr |:.i!(!c shipA t.ik'* part in (he war. The navy wai destued to pby 
tl.r lrad:ii»'. p.irt. and r.'ir.r ni As prrf cjrmancm did more to tncrrAae 111 
prrsti^c* thr mc! >r;. •.! I'trrv* <in Lake Krie. Already therr had 
been r.otatilc m;< • (-ss< n <>: !';:f i .i\y in thr war. iiurh a« the capture oi the 
Iiritish Oiip A>r( \t\ tlif- 1 ^%<x. i>t \\tv (tucrn^rr by the C'ooftlJtatiOB 
<thc f.kriu).i%*< )l(l Iri rsilrs" . of the- I ri»l:c by the Waip. asd oi the 
MatTfiDfiian \>\ thr I'r. rrii >'.a!t:K. Dut the triumph of I'erry was ol 
grratrr i'lr'-Hc^"." rn r \\'.^t\ \ •«»r. 

Thr Mar had Ik\::.:i t.;. \).c New York frontier, and the f jreat 
a:-«d (til* ^(■ I.a'Af'-r.rc K'\f-7 rr^ion tH-ramr a no^t important part ol 
theatrr. A^ «4M.ri a% t .i« i.n\ Mas rci'«i);r*i/i«i. C Hmmudore li 
re\ . «»h>> h^il Mfvc-.l ::. ;.'.r 'I r:{'ol.ia.*i War. vi.k« placed m 
thi'M- wa!' :•>. .ir-'i l>r (!• '..'. !••'! a \ '-irjc na\al of^^cr. Captain Oli^-ct Hai 
an! IrrTv.i-: Kh<"lr N;..- .1 *.! (aiwe char|(e nf a rio(i!'.a to act a^aMM a*. I'.irt •«;. I.ak' I'.r.i ltrr\ «a« bom in i"^;. Iiccame a midahtpauB 
i!i 1" /J a:, t. !:ik'- i :.a^.:.' r\ . :..i'! srr^rd ^\it\ 1 rrdit in t!ie Tri(H>i:taB Wv. 

i *. '■>m'. .f- K-H'M-vr!: > «) .r.'r li a>'('ii'.j*.i tti \\.\s actum i» nut ooJy 
rN!i''.»: .1^ .1 ■ ''^'.•'' - -i! r. «rr..: .t :s ai-*ii i>t «{K-cia1 vaiue for iti 

ar.a'vs ^ ar-.<t !•'':; arav.. •■ ' ■!.* att* of an exploit that fr^r almmt a 
ha% lirr?i rf /artird as i.;.r .1: •] c ^U^ries of the L'nitcd States Navy. 

r^AIT AIN ' »LI\ I.K HAZARD PERRY had assumed 

^ ::'..i::;i • f l.ri' ..-•i t!m- \:]']kt lakr<, artinK un<lcT 
«! :• ('h.rjr.n;i W .'\. .:.!• r.M 1 rrnr>- hv at uncc Ittf^an 
a :.a\al fofir '.^!..> h -: < ' ! ! I f .ih!i- t<i I'lntrn*! succrasfuDT with 

From Thri.lorr kuosbevclt'ft \aia/ War of /S/J*ii F. Ftol 
Sunft', b) pcrix«;»»iua. 



the fee- The latter in the 1x-;^nning had cxcliuivc control of 
Lake Erie; but the American!! had captured the Caledonia brig, 
■od purchased three schooners, afterward named the Somcr^, 
Hgress, and Ohio, and a sloop, the Trippe. These al first were 
hlodtadcd in the Niagara, but after the fall uf Fort George and 
tbe retreat of the British forces Captain Perry was enabled to 
get them out, tacking them up against the currrnl by the most 
aidtKMii labor. They ran up to Presqullc (now called Erie), 
vfaov two Iwenly-gun brigs were U-ing constructed under the 
(finctkoB of the indefatigable captain. Three other schooners, 
the Ariel, Scorpion, and Porruptne, were also built. 

Tbe harbor of Erie was g<xxl and spacious but had a bar on 
which there was less than seven fc«t of water. Hitherto this had 
prmnted the enemy from getting in; now it prevented the two 
brigi from getting out. Captain Robert Hcriot Barclay had 
been appointed commander of the Itritish forces on Lake Erie; 
and he was having built at Amherritburg a (wenty-gun ship. 
MeaowhQe he blockaded Perry's force, and as the brigs could 
aot cnos the bar, with their guns in, or except in smooth water, 
they of coune aiuld not do su in hi* presence. He kept a close 
blockade for some time; but on August ad he disappeared. 
Petry at once hurried forwarti everything; and on the 4th, at 
■ P.M., one brig, the Lawrrncr, wa.s lowed to that point of the 
bar where the water was <Iee[»rst. Hrr guns were whipped out 
and landed on the beaih, and the brig got over the bar by a has- 
tfljr inprovised "camel." 

"IVwD Urge scows, prepared for the purpose, were hauled 
1 the work of lifting the brig proceeded as fast as 
Pieces of massive timlier had bem ntn through the 
i and after ports, and when the scows were sunk to the 
watCf's edge the ends of the limbert vrvn bliakeil up. supponed 
by thae lloating foundations The plug& were now put in the 
taomt, and tbe water was pumpe*! utii of thrm. Hy this pn>ress 
the hri^ was lifted quite two feet, though when she n-as got on 
^ bar h was found that she still drew too much water. It be 
tamm oeoeMary, in consequence, to cover up i:%Tr>lhing. sink the 
KDWi anew, and block up the timbers afresh. This duty occu 
pied the wbolc night." 

JuM as tbe Lawrence had passed the bar, at 8 a.h. on the 


5th, the enemy reappeared, but too bte; Captain Baidaj ex- 
(hani;eti a few shots with the schcHmers and then drew off. The 
Nia^Mra (Hism^iI without dilVicuhy. There were still not cnouKfa 
mi-n to man the vr»<I>, but a draft arrived fn>m Ontario* axxl 
many of the frontiersmen voluntimni, while soldiers also were 
H-ni on Ixard. The Sf|uadn»n sailoi on the iSth in punuit ol 
the enemy, whose >hip was now ready. After cruising about soine 
time the < >hio was si*nt down the lake, and the other ships went 
into Put in Hay. On Septemtx-r (^th Captain Barcby put out 
fn)m Amherstburp, In-in^ so short of provisions that he felt cooi- 
pellnl to risk an action with the suju-rior force op|K>srd. On 
Se])t(-ml>er loih his sqiiaiin)n wa.s discovereti from the masthead 
of tlie Lawrence in the nonhwest. Before Roin^ into details ol 
the aitinn we will examine the fune of the two squadroQS» as 
the a(ci>un!> van' M»n>iilendilv. 

The to?^n:it:e of the British shijis, as alreacly stated, wc know 
exartly; thf y h.i\ir.t! tM-en all carrfully appraisetl and measured 
l>y the hulMfT, Mr. Hc-nr)' Kikfcrd. ami two si-a captains. Wc 
ills* I know the d:mtr.««i«»r.s of the American shi{>s. The Law- 
rt::ie :\\\\\ Ni.iLMM me.i-'.;refl 4Sd t^ns apiite. The Caledofua 
|irii» a J. x\\\ \\\v si/c nf the Hunter, op itSotons. TheTij(rai^ 
S« mtT^. ari'l Si"rp:'»n were s";?»Mi|uently captured by the foe, 
a:v! wf rr \\\vx\ N,iiil :•! mr.i^ure re^jKi tively */», ^4, and 86 tons; 
in \\ !.i< h < .i-^e \\\k\ were'.rer than similar Uiats on I^ke OfilarioL 
The \ri<l w.iN aJ-'.it the s:/e nf the Hamilton; the Porcilpiae 
anil Trip:-- .i?"';r t^r si/4- i.f !hr \^t» .mil Pert. As for the kuu^ 
C.ipT.::'! !.iy ir: h:-* !• 'trr L'ives a (omplete account of 
on i^Mr'! !-.!^ -.:".;.i iri-n. Hi- h:i< alv) ;:i\en a cf>mplete 
of \\\v \v:« :;. .1:1 /::>. \\\y., \\ j^ v.\\^>\ at curate, ami, if anythiQlt 
un-ii'' -'."m '.'rN :}:• m. At !» .i-r r.mmon«i in his Itisiofj fn^es the 
Tr.\'\^- .1 1 ::i: \2, wh:l»- |{.ir« !.iy says ^he only a lon|[ 241 
and l.osHJ:;;^ in hi^ Fi^U ptu^k s.iyH ihut I do not know on wlm 
a'::h« r]r\ • rhi- C.ilnl'.r.i.i h.i! thnr long 24\ while Rarclay 
i;:\' - ^1 r !-A< I •:./ .* :'s .irid '»:u- ;: {>ound tarn made; an<l that the 
Srv.' rs !'a> I:.:! ;.•'-. ^^ll:I^■ Ban lay pivrs her one lon( ji 
;iT. ? •:• :i : -•;:■.! ««-. I >h.iH lake Banby*s acroum, 
whiih • rr* s-'-'i*' '•^i'h that of F.mmons; the only diffemot 
Ini^v: \h.\'. V.n\nv'r.'s puts a 24 {rounder on the Scnrfiion and a ^9 
on the Trip{ie, vihile Bart. lay ri*\erseik this. I shall also follow 


in giving the Scorpion a ja-pound carrooade inslnd 
a<ft 14. 

It is more difiicull to give the sircnKth o( the rtspcclive 
OfWB. James saya the Americans had 580, all " picked men." 
Tbey wtre just as much picked men as Dnrclay's were, and no 
norr; that is, the ships had "scratch" crews. Lieulenani Em- 
mom give* Perry 4Q0 men ; and IxMsing says he " had upon his 
musier-roU 490 names." In Volume xiv, pa^c $66, of the Amer- 
itam StaU Papers, is a ILst of the prize moneys owinjc ti) each man 
(or to the survivors of the killed), which gives a grand lulol of 
J32 men, including t ^6 on the Lawrence and 155 on the Niag- 
ara, 45 of whom were volunteers— frontiersmen. Deducting 
thne wr get 4S7 men, which is pretty near Lieutenant Emmons's 
490. Poss'bly Lieutenant Emmons di<l not include these volun- 
tccn; and it may be that some of the men whose names were 
down on the prize list had been so sirk that they were left on 
Aon. Thus Lieutenant Yamall testified Ix-fore a court of in- 
quiry in 1815 that there were but t,it men and boys of every de- 
Kription on boan) the Lawrence in the action; and the Niagan 
*«s Mid to have had but 140. 

Lieutenant Yamall also said that "but lo) mm on board 
the Lawrence were fit for duty"; as Caplain Pem- in his letter 
mid thai ji were unfit for duty, this woulil make a lt>tul i>f 134. 
So I shall follow the prize-money liM ; at any rate the ditTerence 
in number is so slight as to be immaterial. Of the fij men 
vfaow nunn the list gives, 45 were volunteers, or landsmen 
farm ainoag ibe surrounding inhabitants; 15R were marines, or 
■oldien (1 do not know which, a« the Ii»t givTs mannt-s, w>liliers, 
tod privates, and it is impossible to icll which of the iwu former 
bewb includes the \iM); and 3J0 were nfTicers, seamrn, cooks, 
porwTB, chaplains, and supcmumemries. Of the total number 
there were on the ilay nf anion, arctmling in Perr>"«. rrfmrt. ti6 
mm unfit (or duty, including 31 on bonnl the Lawreme, 38 on 
board the Niagara, and ^7 on the small tesM-U. 

All the later .\merican writers put the number iif men tn 
Buday's fleet prrriMrly at ;oj, but I ha\-r not been able to find 
the ov^pnal authority. James i'.V<nW OfCMrrrmtt, ]iage ]8q^ 
■71 the Brittib had but ju5. cnniitting of co iramen, ft; Cana- 
dtaMt and sio loldien. Put the letter vS Adjutant- General E. 


03)110, November 24, 1813, states that there were 250 soidicn 

alxxinl Ran lay's sfiuadnm, of whom 2j; were kilK-<i, 49 wounded, 
ami the rcmaindtT (i;S) capiuntl: and Jame9 himself 00 a 
previous pa^i- (J.S4) states that then- were 102 Canadians on 
Bare lay's vrsscU, not coiiniin^ the Detroit, and we know that 
liarday originally joinifi the s>(|uadn>n with 19 sailors from the 
Ontario l!(t-t, and that suljsef|uently 50 sailors came up fmm the 
Dover. James ^ives at the enri of his Nai'oi Ocfurrnues ujtne 
extrads from the tourt manial held cm Captain Harclay. Lieu- 
tc'.ant Thomas St.ikes, of the Queen Charlotte, there testified he had on lio;trd " U-tween i io and i,)o men, ofTu ers and aO 
t'»irether,** of whom " W» came up from the I><jver three dajn 
Ixfore.'* James run pa^'e .»S4» s^iys her crew already consisted 
nf 110 men; aiMin^ theM- ir> irivi-N us i2(> almost exactly "be 
tween 120 and i.^o.*' Lieutenant Stakes alvi testif'ievi that the 
D«'!rnit harl m'^re men on a((i»unl of Ix'ins a lander and heavier 
\f v^rl: t'> ;:ive h(T I j^o is [M-rfet tly s:ife, as her heavier pins and 
iarrtr *»:7e \v'.;jl 1 at lea^'t iwiA j.\ men more than the Queeo 
(■!:.irl«i!te. J.irrn H i'i\»N :]\r\ Previ»st ;f). Hunter 30, Little 
W* it I ;, a:.<I <'hi;:-< ^^.t> i ; mt :i. (\tnadians and yJdicrs, a total 
f i 14:; supjH.Hi:.:.' r)^.i! tJn- numU r of Hritish sail«»r* placed on 
!!:fm w.i^ I ri'i-'r:: !■• the .:r:'."".::it plated on Uiarri the Quern 
Charl'tlf . wr ( K-:!!! a-l'I Ji. 'I hi^ would make a fn^iMl tocal 
• 'f j.n nif n, wl.iih nii>r m rainlv Ik* near the truth. This 
r:-.::T'.Nr is • «-rp«U'rat«ii "thirrtiH*- (reneral Bavne, as alrcadr 
^■:'!»^^. v-i>^ 'h.:! !?;♦ r»- "w»rf .tN.ard 3^0 siiHi«rs, of whncn 72 
V. • '• p.:l!«ii 'T W"'.;' ■!<■'!. I'.ari lav ni^-rts a t"!al l«»vs i»f I ;5, ol 
•aV.":ti '■; rn:;s! :}uT*i r» Ji i\t Uin s;ii!'-rs or Canadians, and if 
•:• 1 -- -'iVtrfi ?v !hi «^- }h ri" the s.ime pn-j^'niitn to their 
■.«.: I« r. ■.:::*•♦ r .:- i:. •?:• "a-» 'fth* ^Ni.! !:« r^, the re oui^ht to ha«T 
' • ' :. -■: ; - :.! r- ar;! Car. i'!: i*.'., rv.aKJ'i;; in all 4fx; men. It can 
•f;:^ *- ■.:: ! w iJi J ! rair.ry that !h»n' were Utwrt-n 440 arKl 4QC 
r::' : i*- if !. .;- i I '^hall» !*:•• f'-rmt T numU-r, th*»ujjh I havr 
: ■ '! .^! :):.'. '.):':> i^ ! -) -:!'.. ill. H::! it is n«il a jioint of 
r.".:' }-. ir.;- f a:;* • .as thr iMr!^- wa^ foia^ht largely at Ior>g 
V !'.• T' •*.« :. .rv.Ur ■ f mer.. pp-videi! thrrr were plenty to 
':.» ^,. 1- i*. ! /'ir.s. di'i :v : rriiKh matter. 

'I he N'j;i#-ri"ri!y of the Ameriians in lonit ftun metal 
nearly a* thm it to twu, and in Larronadc mrtal greater 


two lo one. The chief fault lo be found in the various Americui 
accounts is tfaAt they sedulously conceal the comparative weight 
of meUl, while carefully specifying the number uf guns. Thus, 
T'ttTTg lays, " Barclay had 35 long guns to Perry's 1 5, and pos- 
■eaed gitftlly the advantage in action at a distance"; which he 
ccminly did not. The tonnage of the fleets is not so very im- 
portanL It is, I suppose, impossible lo tell exactly the number 
of men in the two crews. Barclay almost certainly had more 
than the 440 men I have given him, but in all likelihood aome of 
them were unfit for duly, and the number of his effectives was 
motl prt^bly somewhat less than Perry's. As the battle was 
fou^t in such smooth water, and part of the time at long range, 
ihia, as already said, does not much matter. The Niagara might 
be OBttidercd a match for the Detroit, ontl the Lawrence and 
Cakdonia for the five other British vessels; so the Americana 
were certainly very greatly superior in force. 

At daylight on .September loth Barclay's squadron was dis- 
covered in the northwest, and Pcny at once got under weigh; 
the wind soon shifted to the nonhcasi, giving us the weather- 
gage, the breeze being very light. Barclay lay to in a close 
cohnnn, heading to the southweM, in the following onler: 
Chippeway, Master's Mule J. Campbell; Delmil, C-iptain R. 
H. Barclay; Hunter, Lieutenant (>. Iligncll; Quet-n CtLtrlolii-, 
Captain R. Linnis; Lady Prevost, Lieutenant Kdwaril Buchan; 
and Litdc Belt, by whom commanded is not said. IVrr}' came 
down with the wind on his port beam, and made the attack in 
cohtmn ahead, obliquely. First in order came the Arid, Lieu- 
teaant John H. Packet; and Sa)ri>ion, Sailing Master Stephen 
Chamfjin, both being on the weather bow of the Lawrrnte, 
Captain O. H. Perr}-; next came the Caledonia, Lieutenant 
Danid Turner; Niagara, Captain J<-sse D. Kllioti; Sumers, 
Lieutenant \. H. M. Conklin; Porcupine, Acting Masterlicorge 
Serrat; Tigress, Sailing Master Thomas C. Almy, and Tripiie, 
Lieutenant Tliomas Holdup.' 

' TW aceouBii »( the two rommatHl^n tatty almosi f lacitr iUrcUr** 
kflv Is a Model of its hind tor candor and (enrraslty l.rtlrr« ol Capt. 
IL H. Buctsr In Sir )amM Vro. Srplrmtirr i. rSi]: t>f I.mi li^Ite 
*• Captak Barcbr, Scplcrabct loth; ul Ca|itain Vtrry to the Svcrc 
■fy d Ihc Naty, Septimbu loiti and S<pi«aU( 134k. m4 to Ua- 


As, amid light and rather baffling winds, the American squad- 
ron approachi^d the enemy, rerr>'*s straggling line formed an 
angle of about fifteen di'grees with the more com|iact one of his 
foes. At 1 1.45 the Detroit openeii the action by a shot from her 
long 34, which fell short ; at 1 1 .50 she fired a second, which went 
crashing through the Lawn*nce, and was n*plicd to by the Scor- 
pion's long 32. At 1 1.55 the Lawrence, having shifted her pc^n 
bowchascT, o])i*m*(l with lx)th the long 12's, and at meridian 
began with her cammadi'S, but the shot fnim the latter all fell 
short. At the same time the acticm became general on br>th 
sides, though the rearmost American vi^ssels were almost liryonii 
the range of their own guns, and quite out of range (»f the g*wr^ 
of their antagonists. Meanwhile the I^wrence was already ^uf 
fering considemMy as she lM»re down on ihr rnemy. I: w-" 
twenty minutes Ufurr she suueiilitl in getting \\ithin gi«wl *ar 
n)nade range, and during that time the aitiim .it the head of :ht- 
line was U-tween the loni; guns of the ChipjKway ami iH-tn^ii. 
thniwini; 1.^; {I'Jun'N, and tho-^- of the Stoqiinn. Ariel, and 
Lawremr. ihrDwini* 104 |M)unds. As the enemy's I'lrr was 
diretti-*! alm«'5t exclusively at the Lawreme, she suffered a 
great deal. 

The (\ileclnr.i;i, Niacara, and S*)mers were meanwhile en- 
ga^ini:, at l<»r.;» rar.i:*-. lh<- ll'.;ritrr and Outen ('harii»ltr, i>ppn*- 
ing fpim ilitir l-rji: iriir.s i/i jxiund'* t»» thr vjj-'^ir-.fls i»f their 
anlagoni-^t**. while fr*»m a di-tanie the three <»!her American 
g^.in voseU rn^M:r<ii the Prcvust arjl Little Belt. Hy 12.20 the 
Lawn-ncc !*..i«l w-rki-*! iImwm t" cI'im* f|uarters, and at i2.;o the 
ai linn was ;: -ir.:: '-n 'Aith ;.Tr.i! f.iry iMtwn n her and her a.ntaKo- 
r.i^ts, wii!;;r4 I .i:".:-»!« r r.i:./r. I l:e raw an! inexjfrienceil .^mcri 
i.m t rew*. . 'Ttk:-.!:!**! the ^^iir-.r fa.ilt the British S) often fcO 
iv.!»on th» •'! <«\trl. ..I'iiii th« ir iam»nadi"S. In consr- 
fjiicnce. l! «if the S<Mq«i'-n i:;'^: d'»wn the halihway in the 
mi(i«lle rif the at:i«>n. and the ».-i!i--. i.f the I)etn»it wrrc dotted 
with mark^ fp>m ^-h-it :h.\: «!:•! r.'-t |n nitrate. One of the .Xrid's 
I'T.^ ij'n al-Nii l.i;r>t. Harila> fo;:j:ht the Detmit esimtinfhr 
well, hi r p.ns !>eing nvfst «x<eller.!!y aimni, th«>ugh they 

era! }:^rT:«/ -. Srj rrn-.**-f i r*: jm! Sr; tr:r.?<f iith I hatf rrlird 

on I ..^^ir.^' * /:/;./ /;-.•* .•' :Mf li'.tf r' /.•/.•, on Commindcf Wwd't 


tStf had to be discharged by flashinf; pistols at ibc toucbboles, so 
dc6dait WIS the ship's equipment. 

Meanwhile (he Caledonia came down loo, but the Niagara 
W19 wretchedly handled, Elliott keeping at a distance which pre- 
<rcnicd the use either of his caironadcs or of those of ibe Queen 
Cbarioltc, his antagonist ; the latter, however, suSercd greatly 
fmn the long guns of the opposing schooners, and lost her 
gilbmt commander, Captain Linnis, and hrst lieutenant, Mr. 
Slokes, who were killed early in the action. Her next in com- 
mand. Provincial Lieutenant Irvine, perceiving that he could do 
no good, pused the Hunter and joined in the attack on the Law- 
reoce. at close quarters. The Niagara, the most efhdent and 
bcK manned of the American vessels, was thus almost kept out 
of the action by her captain's misconduct. At the end of the line, 
the fight went on at long range between the Somcrs, Tigress, 
Porcupine, and Trippe on one side, and Little Belt and Lady 
PtrvoM on the other; the Lady Prevost making a very noble 
t^tt, allbough her 13-pound cam)nadcs rendered her almost 
hrlpttH against the long guns of the Americans. She was 
gmtly cut up, her commander. Lieutenant Duchan, was dan> 
ferouUy, and her acting first lieutenant, .Mr. Roulette, severely, 
wounded, and she began falling gradually ii> leeward. 

The fighting ai the head of the line was fierce and bloody lo 
u extraordinary' degree. The Scorpion, .\riel, I.jiwrrnce, and 
Caledonia, all of them handled with the most determined cour- 
age, were opposed to the Chippeway, Detroit, Queen Charlotte, 
and Hunter, whiih were fought to the full as bravely. At such 
doac quarlen the two sides rngagnl on about equal terms, the 
Amriicans being sujirrior in weight of metal and inferior in 
number of jien. But the l.awrcnce had received such damage 
in wocldng down as lo make the o<|ih againsi ferry- On each 
ride almost the whole fire was dirrct»l at the opposing large va- 
■d or vemda; inconsequence the Queen Charlotte was almost 
(fimbled. aod the Detroit was also fnt>htrully shattered, c^ie- 
daly by the raking fire of ihegunlxial*. her fipit lieutenant, Mr. 
Guiaod, being mortally wounded, and Captain Barclay so se- 
iCRly injured that he was obliged to quit the dnk. leaving his 
ripp in the conunaod of Lieutenant George Inglis. But on 
houd the Lawrence matten had gone even mint, ihc com- 


bincd fire of her adversaries having made the ^mmest canuge 
on her decks. Of the 103 men who were fit for duty when she 
began the action, 83, or over four fifths, were killed or wuundnL 
The vessel was .shallf >w, and the waniniom, used as a ccKkpit to 
which the woumiol were taken, was mostly above water, and 
the shot came throu;*h it lontinually, killing and wounding many 
men under the han<l^ of the «»urgc*on. 

The first iii-uti-:iant, Vamall, was three times wounded, but 
kept to the det k through all; the only other lieutenant on board, 
BpMjks of the marines, was mortally wounded. Kverj' bnue and 
bowline was hhot away, an<l the ling alm(»st lompletely disman- 
tle<i; her hull was shatti-reil to pietes, many <ihot going com- 
pletely thnjugh it, and thr guns on the engage 1 hide were by de 
grecs all dismounlcfl. iVrr}' kept up the fight with splendid 
courage. As the ( rew fell onr \»y one, the (\'iptain (allrrl down 
thn>i:gh the skylight for one of thr surgeon's asMstants; and this 
call was rt-;M-atcfl and filM*yi-<l till none was left; then he askcd« 
•*(\in ar;y of ihr v...:rnlid p;;ll a ripi •i'" and three or four of 
thrm ira'Alcd i:p •■!) iliil: to lin<l a ftt-hU- hand in placing the 
la^t g\;;>. !'• rr\ hirn-^ If lirr*l ihr la^l liToi tivr heavy gun, as- 
si^titj t>r:!y I'V :::r- pirvi-r an«i thr t ha])Iai:i. A man who dicl nuC 
pi.^css hi- ::. I'ini'.iMr -pirii wnuld then have stnuk. Instead, 
al:h«';;irh fail::.;* in tl;»- Iw •*<• far, Tt rrv menlv lielermincd lo 
win ]'\ r.f.% rn'!l." !•«. a:.! ri :nii«|illid tJir lin«' aiiordingly. 

T-jmi-r. i:; t^i (\:Ii 'lir.ia. \\hr:\ uplrreTJ t* ilo^, had put 
hi- h» hji ':p. r'ifi •! An «-» \hv "jij.i^in/ linr. and i-ngaKctl at %Tfy 
s); :! r. ::.;'♦■. th- ./h !!:•■ Kri:^' w. •» a!»'*'4:!i!\ w::h«iu! quartets 
I"!;' \:a/ i:a !;.i ! t"; .- !•• 1 t>r.\f !•;. rv\! i*. linr a-^tcm i-f the Law- 
r« r. •-. .1'. ! :!:• -l - ;■ 1 rii-jH , lia. in:' pa-^s* 1 \]\r three Sihaonot 
i'i f: -r! • -f h« r. *a.!- :;■ \t .i}; 'I h«- now. haring a 
}.:•«■/♦. *!»'ri'i f : :;i'- ;.« ,1 1 -.f I{a:i!.i>'> lir:«-. {laxving o\Tr a 
■ ; . ir*' r « f a nnli ! ' a::;! a a pi 'f :hv I.awrf!i« c <>n her jMirt beam. 
'^*:' -A .IS a!:?; •• -.::::.; ,p'!. !m '.::■..: •-» takrn vrr)' little {lait ta 
'.'.» < ■•:.*.a\ .;• 1 : • h' r I'«rr\ sj-.:fi»il hi> llak*. Lrapi.ig into a 
r-. a1- i'. -.^ ••. ):!^ ! :'*!-.i-r ar.«l f'.;r s#-anrn, hv n»v%fil I1* the fffak 
' •. A-.' r- '• ■ .irr: . -! .1! 2 ;-:. a* I at in. r -^-n! KUi-'tt astern lO 

.T'. • .. \)::vv ^. h«» :;t>. The Triiiiie was now \eTV 

II • 

•:;»•* I -.ii Thr I.awp-ri- r. !ii\ing b'at fourteen vmn^l 
!ef:,2:r.'.k hrr i"!-r>, hut i(ji:M not be taken posacsftiun of bc^ 


fofc Ibe ftction rccommcncctl. She drifltxl astcm, the Cskdooim 
pusing between her and her iocs. At 3.45, the scbooncn hav- 
ing doaed up. Perry in his fresh vessel bore up to break Barday'* 

The Britifth ships had fought themselves to a standstill. The 
Lady Prevosl was crippled and sagged to leeward, though ahead 
of the others. The Detroit and Queen Charlollc were so disabled 
thai they could nut etlcctually oppose flesh antagonists. There 
couU thus be but little resistance to Perry, as the Niagara stood 
down and broke the British line, firing her port guns into the 
Quppeway, Little Bch, and Lady Prcvosi, and the siarix>artl 
ooa into the Dctioil, Queen Charlotte, and Hunter, rakiog on 
both sidei. Too disabled lo lock, the Detroit and Charlotte 
tried to wear, the Latter running up to leeward of the fonner; 
■ad, both vessels having every brace and almost every stay shot 
■wmy, they fell foul. The Niagara lu(I«l athwart ihcir bows, 
within half'pistolshot, keeping up a Icmhc discharge of great 
guns and musketry, while on the other side the British vessels 
were r«ked by the Caledonia and the schooners so closely that 
■aaw of their grapeshot, [lassing over the f<*e, rattled through 
Peny't spars. Nothing further could be done, and Barclay's 
Big «ms struck at j P.u., after three and a quarter hi)Ur>* must 
gllhnl and desperate fighting. The Chippeway and LJttIc Belt 
tried In escape, but were ovenakcn and brtnighl to m[>CTtivcly 
by the Trippe and Scorpion, the coimnandcr of the bllcr. Mr. 
Stephen Champlin, firing the Lul, a-s he had the fir>l shot <>f the 
battle. "Captain Perry has behaved in the most humane and 
■Iteodve manner, not only to myself and ofhccrs, but to all the 
wounded," writo Captain Banlay. 

The viituf)' of I^e Krit- was most important, both in its ma- 
terial results and in its montl ctl« t. It gave us «>mplele com- 
mand of all the upper hkr», prevented any fears of invasion 
fnmi that quarter, inrreasnl our prestige with the foe and our 
CDdfidence in ourselves, aixl insun-d the (fini)ucst of Upper 
Ctaada; in all these rc»pert» its im|)onancr hoA not been u\xt- 
nted. Bui the "glor>-" acquircil by it most irnainly hat been 
ndmated at more than its worth. MiMt Americans, even the 
weO educated, if asked which was the most idnrious viclnry at 
Ifae war, wvuld point to this battle. Captain Perry's name ii 


more widely known than thai of any other conunandcr. Every 
schoolboy reads about Aim, if of no other sea captain; )Tt be 
certainly stands on a lower ^rade than either Hull or Macdoo- 
ou^h, and not a l>ii higher than a dozen others. On Lake Erie 
our seamen dis])l:iyi*<l ^reat (ouraf;e and skill; but so did their 
antagonist.N. The .simple truth is that, whrre on lioth sides the 
oihcers and mm were i-fpially brave and skilful, the si<le which 
possessed the su|K'riority in fort r, in the pn>|)i>rtion of three to 
two, could not well ht'Ip winning. The courage with which the 
Lawrence was defendetl hxs hanlly ever Ixrn suqiassed and 
may fairly l>c called hen>i( ; but equal praise lx*lonf^ to the 
men on l)oani the I)etn)it, who had to disc har^^e the ^reat fcuns 
by flashing pistols at the touchhoK^, and yet made suih a ler 
ribiy eflec tive defence. Courage is only (»ne of the many ek 
ments whiih go to make up the character of a first cLlss com' 
mander; something more than bravery is needed before a leader 
can be really calletl ^reat. 

There hap]»ened to Ik* cin umstanccs which rendered the 
brat*>:iM'; «>f our writers over the victor}' somewhat plausible. 
Thus they couM mv with an a;»]M-.LraR4 e of truth that the eneojr 
had (}j^ K^ns to our 54, anil outnumlM-red us. In reality, as «eO 
as can Ix- axiTt.iir.f-fl fntm the ciinllitting evifleme, he was in- 
ferii»r in num^H-r; but a few mm m«ire or le^s mat tern I nothing. 
Both sit)e> Ihid men enoui^h to work the ^uns ancl handle the 
ships, i-s(Hi ially a^ the t'iL;hl w.t<« in smiH>th water and bn^ely at 
lon^; ran;;e. The im;>i>rtant f.n t wa^ that, though wc had nine 
guns le-^s. yt t :tt a bpiailsiiie tJit y threw half as mui h metal ai^ain 
a> thi*M- I'f ii;;r ar.ta;:<>nist. With >\n h o(Ms in <»ur fa\'or it would 
have I KIT! a tii'^.rraie Xn have ^ki-p. IxMien. The water was loo 
sm-mth f"r Mjr twn briir** l'> ^•how at their Ix-st; but this \Trr 


sm'ciihr.exs rrr:«lereil o;;r ir:i:.N»ats mr»re formidable than anj of 
the British vevsc-ls. and the British testimony is unanimous tlial 
il t" !h«m the 'lelt-at wa-* ;irimarilv due. 

The An'.tn'.LD :let-t came inti> action in wor^c form than the 
h'»sti!*- -iiaip'n. thi- sh:j»s '^'.rai^^lini; ludly, either owinx to 
IVrry ha-i-.r:;! f-rrr'nsl hi-^ lir.e badly or rise to his ha%inK I*iW 
to train the s;:». r'iip.ate t«>mmanders ht»w to keep their 
The NiaL'ara w is r.>! foui^ht well at first. Captain EUioCt 
ing her at a distant e that pn*ventetl her from doing any 


to the vessels opposed, which were battered to pieces by the gun* 
bo«ts without the chance of replying. It certainly seems u if 
the small vessels U the rear of the line should have been closer 
up and in a position to render more eflectual assistance; the 
attack was made in too loose order, and, whether it was the fault 
of Perry or of his subordinates, it fails to reflect credit on the 
Americans. Cooper as usual praises all concerned, but in this 
instance iwl with very good juilffmcnt. He sa)'ft the line of battle 
wu highly judicious, but this may be doubted. The weather 
was peculiarly suitable for the gunboats, with their long, heavy 
gum; aitd yet the hnc of battle was so arranRcd as to keep them 
in the rear and let the brunt of the asstult fall on the Ijiwreace 
with her short caironadcs. Cooper again praises Perry for steer- 
ing for the head of the enemy's line, but he could hardly have 
dooe anything else. 

In this battle the lirin;; seems to have been equally skilful on 
both sides, the Dctrrtit's long guns tx'ing peculiarly well »er\'ed', 
but the British captains manccuvrcd belter than their foes at 
fint. and sup|Kir1ed one another better, so thai Ihc disparity in 
damage done on each side was not equal to the disparity in 
force. The chief merit of the Ameriran commander and his 
t was indomitable courage and drlrrmination to not be 
Thii is no slight merit; but it may well be doubted if 
it would have insurrd victor^' had Barclay's forte been as strong 
■a Perry's. Pen)' made a headlong attack; his superior force — 
iriwther through his fault or his misfortune can hanily be said — 
bciiig brought into action in such a manner that the head of the 
One was crushed by the inferior forte op[>o»cd. Being liieniUy 
d out of his own ship. Perry brought up its powerful 

I sister, and the already shattered hostile stjuadmn was 
I by sheer weight. The mamrutTes which marked the 
doK of the bottle, and which insurixl the capture of all the op- 
poring ships, were unquestionably ver)' fine. 

Tbe British shipn were fought as molutely as their antago- 
Btel« Dot being sunrndered till they were crippled and hclplcw, 
and almost all the officers, and a Large pmportion of the men 
phcsd kan Jt eotmbal. Captain Barrlay handlei) his ships like 
■ fint-iBtc Ksmafi. It was impossible lo arrange them so as to 
be wy crioc to hi* antagonist, for the lalier's forte was of such a 


nature that in smooth water hb gunboats gave him a great ad* 
vantage, while in any sea his two brigs were more than a match 
for the whole British squadron. In short our victory was due to 
our heavy metal. 

As rcganls the honor of the affair, in spite of the amount of 
IxKisting it has given rise to, I should say it was a battle to be 
kK)ked uixm as in an equally high degntr creditable to botli 
sides. Indec<i, if it were not for the fact that the victory was so 
complete, it might Ix* said that the length of the contest and the 
tritling disiKirity in loss n*flect»l rather the most credit on the 
British. Captain Perr)* showevl indomitable pluck and readi- 
ness to adapt himself to circumstances; liut his claim to fame 
re>ts mu( h li*ss on his actual victon* than on the wav in which he 
preiwret! the lleel that was to win it. Here his energy and ac- 
tivity deser>*e all prai*^.*, not only for his success in collecting 
sailors anci vessc-ls, and in Imilding the two bri^, l>ut abuvT all 
for the manner in whii h he siu ( i-evletl in getting them out on the 
lake. On t\uU (K(;i>ion he certainly oul;»eneralleil Barclay; in- 
deeil. the btter < nnimittiij an error that the skill and address Iw 
&ubbe<}uently showed could not retrieve. 




Amj maa but Napoleon would have lM^cn f rushed by the nicnninalian 
ol bii (real armir in Ruuia. The I'ruuuni loic in c^Kcr pauion ^iinut 
ilic KHioanuof French Karrikooalcli jmont; ihriii. The Kuulanarmlea, 
•vaag.compAct. and iriumphant. advanced from ihcir imprccoable Uii- 
BCMn. Sweden joined Ruuia and Pruiuia. and Auitria ihrcaiencd to 
do ibe aaiDC. In Spatn Weliint(lun dc/ealcd the weakened t'mch lorcea 
ai ViKcta. Bui Napoleon by iremendoua ctforu raiied another armjr 
fnm almoat eihatuicd Krance. and <n the *prin|[ of tSi j reappeared In 
CcnUDy. deftant and apparently unconquerable aa ever. He even de- 
feated the Rua^ians and i'ruuiani in two tierce battle*. 

Bat it waa not merely the (icrman prini.'ca who were fi|;htlnK now ; i| 
waa tbe German pn^pU. rouaed at laat by the tyranny and arruKance o( 
Ike French. When defeated, the I'ruuUn armies no longer wMitcred 
aad dlaappvared ; they tallied iind f»U)[h[ acaln.airivinn dc^peraitly with 
d ab brf muakcta Napoleon amnicrd an armialice. hn i\n\ algn of 
vnkacM. Auatria joined the allict axainat him, and once more he con- 
boKtid ObIcmI Europe in the icreai * tlattlc of the Nation* ' al Leipaic. 

npHE Kiiif; of Pnissia had stitlilrnly abanilontxl Berlin, which 
wu still in the hanils of ihc Frcrif h, fur BrtsLiu, whence he 
declared wir againnt Franti'. A ainf<-rrn(e al^fi lix^k place be 
iwcen him and Emperor Alexander ul Kal).sch, and. on Febniar\- 
>6, 1815, an oflmsive antl defenMvr itlliantr was nmcludrd he 
tmcn them. The hour for irntjeiuKe had at length arriml. 
Tbe whole Pruuian nation, carter to thmw oiT the hated yoke of 
the lornjpcr. to nbliterale their <li5f;rarc in 1S06. to reftain their 
•ndetil name, rhrcrfully haMi-nctl to plve thrir Iiv« and pn>p 
otyalUu' fervircof theim("HTrishni Government The whole 
of the ablrbodieil po^mlatiim was piil under amu. The Mam) 
tag anny was increased: to each rrKimeni were appended iroopi 
c( tnluntecn, ja^gtrt, cotapcnt*\ of t^unx men bekinginx in the 


higher classes, whci furnished their own equipments. A numerous 
lanJ'urhr, a Mtrt of miliiid, was, as in Austria, raised besides the 
standing amiy, and mcasiiri^ were even taken to call out, in case 
of ru*( i-N>iiy, thi- hrads of families and elderly men remjuning Ml 
home, undiT the name of the landUurm^ 

When m-ws of thc*se prei^arations reached Da\x>ust he sent 
serious warning to NaiM>lev>n, who contemptuously replied, '* Pah! 
(jermans nrvi-r can Ixrome Spanianls!** With his customary 
rapidity he Irvinl in Franc e a fresh army three hundred thousand 
stron>!, with whic h he .S4i completely awed the Rhenish Confcdcrm- 
tion as tc>com{H*l it to take the field once more with thousands 
of (lermans aK:iir.Nt their bnu her (jermans. The troops, how- 
evrr, oIkvc*! rrliuiantlv, and even the traitors were but lukc- 
warm, for thiy doubteii of sue < ess. Mecklenburg alone sided 
with Pni.s^ia. Au^tria n-mained neutral. 

A Russian t iiq»> under (irneral Tettcnbom had preceded the 
ri^: nf \\\v tnx*])-* :ind nai hi-<i the coasts of the Baltic. As carij 
:i*« M.irMi J4. iSi;. it a]»{HMri^l in Hamburg and eipelled the 
Fnrv !i a-.;!}:Mri*.ir^ fp»mtht< ity. The heavily opprrssol (xopleof 
li.i::'.!'':r/. wIim^c ii.niminr lieen tr>tallv annihilated bv the 
Cii: S\>!i::i. i::i\i- \\.i\ !o the utmost demonstrations of 
<li!i 'I'l*. rm-Mil !l:i ir dili.rnr^ with ojK-n arms, re\"i\Td their 
a!'.' :« r.l r-jh!^. avA ini:Tui!:alfly raisetl a llanseatic corps, dcs^ 
i::.i ! !'• i.i'p.i '.\\\ :':i 1 i .iL;ain^t Na;Milr«)n. .\s the army ad^'anccd, :; ■. n >\\\:\ -a.i- r.'iniin.i*.nl i hief of the I*n>visional Go\'cni* 
v.\v\\ I I !!:i v:;ll ■;:'.i ..:.ij icritl pp-xinres of \Ve>tcm (jermanj. 

'\\\\ :.r< K > ,irrn. srM-nioen thousand stmng. under 
\\ ;...., ,.^., .. •. ..':n,] f..r'.\ar'l !•» Mat^debur^. ancl, at Mocckera« 
r- ;■ .!-i ■! : :"v :::--;-,ir.'l Tf r. h, who wrn* aflvaminic upon 
l:-v I ::• !'r: -;.i'>. \::Avr tJuir xclrnin general, Blucher, 
t' :r ! S.t\ •: ;. a:.! ^r.irri^r.rii I)rt>-len, f)n Manh 27, 1813; 
.ir 1; f ::.f :.-.• l-rilji ai n»>Hthr KlIn' having Ixm uselessly blown 

' ;. •:.« I :rv.. h. HI.:« Iut. wh^r^c ^albntr>' in the former 
K k ! / . • •-! I r him th<- L'er.f-r.d e^ltt-m, and whose kind and 
«:..-.!•:- •:'.! :: h.ii w- in thr a:Tti tinn of the snliiier^'. 
.:..i*«! /•••••.'.!"; :ti • ff ihr l*r.'x«.i.i;i fi>rii"«i. but subordinate i 
ii/ni:::.!::'! \ • \Viv/« r>*.i-:n, wh'» replaicil Kutusoll' as 

I r»" .■\ •• .- Krr.rral Irvy of thr people — Eo. 
' K«!.«' :; f.Aii rr«.rMly died — £d. 


limo ol tbe united forces of Russia and Prussia. The Emperor 
o( Rutsi* and the King of Prussia accompanied the army and 
wen received with loud acclamations by the people of Dresden 
■ad Ldpsic. The allied army was merely seventy thousand 
MnHtg. and Bluchcr had not formed a j unction with Wittgenstein 
when Napoleon invaded the country by Erfurt and Menieburg at 
the bead of one hundred sixty thousand men. 

On the vve of (he bloody engagement of May id the allied 
csvalry attempted a general attack in the dark, which was un- 
lucceuful on account of the superiority of ihc enemy's foree*. 
The allies had, nevertheless, captured some cannon; the Frenchi 
DOOe. Tbe roost painful loss was that of the noble Schamhorst, 
who was mortally wounded. Buclow had, on the same day, 
Mormcd Halle with a Prussian corps, but was now compelled 
to rcaoK'e upon a rcliral, which was conducted in the most 
Ofderly manner by the allies. At Koldiz the Prussian rear> 
gawd rcpulseii the French van in a bloody cnKaRrmenl on 
May 5th. 

Napoleon attacked the allies at Bautzen from May iQlh to the 
list, but was gloriously repulsed by the Prussians under Klcist, 
wUk BIticher.who was in danger of U-ing aimplelely surrounded, 
undauntedly defended himself on three sides. The French had 
suffered an immense loss; eighteen ihousaml of their wounded 
woe sent lo Dresden. Napoleon's favorite, Marshal Duroc, and 
General Kirrhner, a native of AUace, were killed, clu^ to hi> side, 
by a caniKm-ball. The allied lioops. forced to retire after an ob- 
Minate encounter, neither fled nor iii%(>encil, but withdrew in 
dow column and repelling each successive attack. The whole 
oftbe lowlands of Silesia now lay open lothc French, who entered 
Diulau on June ist. 

Napoleon remained at Rrcslau awaiting the arrival of refn- 
lommaits, and to mi his unseasoned troops, mo&tly iTtnscnpts. 
la the mean time be dcmaniled an ormislicc, to which the allies, 
wboae force was still incomplete and to whom the decision of 
AuttrU was of equal importance, gladly assented. ( >n this cele- 
bcalcd armistice, concluded June 4. 1S13. al the village of Pleisa- 
will, the fate o( Europe was to depend. Napoleon's power was 
mM lerriUe; (re»h victory had oblilcTatH the discrace of hu 
tt^ bom Ruana; he stood ooce more an invJiKJbIc leader 00 


Grrman si>il. The* Fn^nrh were animated by success and blind! j 
cii'voteil to their Km|H-nir. Italy ami Denmark wen* prusitrale at 
lii> feet. The Rhenish (^>nfoierati(>n was alM) faithful in his 
staniiani. The <le(ianitit>n of the Km|K-n»r of AuMria in favor 
of hJN son In law, NaiMilnm, who was of pn>mLs4*s and, 
amoni; other things, otTerefJ to n*store Silesia, was cunMr()Uenlly, 
at the DjM-nini: of the armi^-tiie, <lifmeil lertain. 

Au.stri.i. at Ur>'., instead of aiding the allirs, allowevl the Poles 
to r.iMf'i- ihimM-jvi -» Inru-alh the standard i»f Naji«»li^»n, whf>m she 
o\erv. Iirlruid with ]<rMtf>iation> **f friendshij*, whieh served to 
m.isk her iiiliritiop.s, and meanwhile ^jave her time to arm 
h( T-rif !•> the tt-rth .iT^il t' > make the allies S4*nsil>le of the fact id 
their utter imjHitm* y a^'airist NajH.h-<in unles.s aide«l hy her. The 
intepsts of Au'»!ria fa\ore<l hir alliance with France, hut Na^icK 
le«»r'., instead «'f t onli«lenc e, inspiriil mistrust, Au»itria, not with- 
starsdiru' thi- niarria/e jMtwc-en him anij Maria Louisa, was, as 
I: I'l Ineri .s};"'.v?i .»! !hi- ('iini:n*'»s nf Mre^ijer:, ireatct) Jierelv as a 
!r.'i-.;tar> ?<• IM* • • . .-.r:! Nij-'Ic Mr-.'H amliition i>lTe!e*l no Ruaraa- 
V ■ !•• l!i«- a:.' ii :? >::;•• ri..I •l\r..i-!\ . The re was n^ Mt'urilv that 
:).* j"r-«\:v,i t >. *H -•..■.'. I i in i:v.t:ic r.Viry reward T-r her alliance 
r.-.-: :.• '. <•'! !}:i i.r-! *Kia-i'i:i, In- restoriil. Nor was public 
'■:!•;•:: r"'''*]\ w'htr:* \M:\;ht. Na|»*'Ie«in*.s star wxs on the 
f •■, '.vl: !• •.'.•. ■ ^ .v.-i ].;,,. tfi a dark and omintius cloud 
•. •': ' ). r./M:i. aval Count Melttmiih prudenilj 
•tOit r • ..:•• ::;;.! : . /■.:i'ii ilie storm t re :! liurM than trust 
• . ■ f 'I- • • - 

\ "r "' ! '. • ■.'!•. .1- J :nr .^7. I'^i;. s:i"-.i,| .1 m-aty, at 

I* ■ ^ • • ^ !■ - v./h k\'--:a a? •! Pri^-ia. !"> which she 

■ * :- • • ■ ! .•■ v.. If aiViir>* Tra::- « in taM- Na[«4eon 

■•'■'•■• I !. 'V .■■•;•»•! *\u !• rrt:- t.f |»,;n r alii»ut lo 

'■•;-•:■ M'' •?;.'-• --•'. • ri :i't:«» .ind i:eneralsi»f Riis 

. .1- IP' • • : '■ . -• • ' !'• ! •!•.:;•/ a • ' •: i* r* r.i v hi Id with the 

<■- V ■. I'' .' ^■.. \,.-^ J \, ir,\^ .;• Tr. ■..!',♦ idn-ri; ihr (Jaa 

r • •'■ • ■ ■ ' . .■•': li/n. .ir.!. w.'h ''.r i« rmis>iiin of Au»- 

•■ . ' r •'• • ;..:• 0.« •.\a- ! . take .1- i-r.r nf the allica 

• \ ••'•••. ■. ' • ■ (V .' • \ff ::irr:i h \ 's'l-'l Prnwien, IB 

;- r • . f • •"■ ■ :.':'«■! rtjt a': VI! his avs:;ranc e% of amity — for 

th* .'.nv '•'.!*:• ; ;-• • ■ rr^rvr^Md !•• NijwJn'H. 

Thi I :• : V. I ::-.-■ r J..i ! an irai:*'i:-.i * . !ea «f the t 

■ «•■ • • I- « 

.}. .. 


tioni ifaen passing, and blunlly said lo ihc CounI, "As you wish 
ta mediate, you arc no longer on my side." He hoped partly to 
win Amtria o\Tr by rc<]oubling his promises, [tanly to terrify hcr 
hy the dread of the future ascendency of Kus&ia, but, perceiWng 
how Mctiemich evade«l him by his artful <liplomacy, he suddenly 
asked, " Well, Meltcmich, how much has EnKland (tiven you in 
ofder to rngagr you to play this part toward me?" This trail of 
ttaolcncc toward an antagonist of whose superiority he felt con- 
tdoufti and of the most dearlly hatred masked by contempt, was 
pecuUariy characlerislic of the Corsican, who, besides the (]uali- 
tit* of the lion, fully possessed Ihone of the cat. Napoleon let hia 
hat drop in order to see whether Mellemich would raise iL He 
did not, and war was mujvcd upon. 

A prrtcnded ccngms for the conclusion of peace was again 
■nrnnged by both sides; by Napoleon, in order to elude the re- 
pRMcb cut upon him of an insurmountable and eternal dt-sJre 
for war, and by the allies, in onK-r to prove to the whole world 
their de«re for i>eacc. Each ^ille was, however, fully awarr ihal 
the palm of peace was alone to be found on the other side of the 
baltlrtield. Na[>olM>n was generous in his concessions, but dc- 
hjrcd granting full powers to his envoy, an opportune cirrum- 
■tance for the allies, who wi-re by ihis mi-an* al>le ri> tharp- him 
with the wbt^e blame of procrastination. N'npoleon, in all his 
cooccttiona, tnerrly indudi'd Russia and .Au-iiria to the esclui>>on 
of Pntasia. 

But neither Ru.Hsia nor Austria trusted lo his pmmi«^, and 
the negotiations werr lir^>ken ntT on the Irrniinali«n of the armts- 
tkf, when Napoleon sent full piiwers to his pli-nii>oientiary. 
Ntne, it was said, it i.> to>i bie! The an with whith Mrltemi«h 
pmmed from the alliance with Napoletm t<> neulratiiy. t<> media- 
lian, and firuUly to the ci-uililion against him, will, in r\vn avx, be 
acknowledged a masterfiiere of diptoman-. .^u^lria, while ri»- 
lIcMcing with Russia and fruwua, in a ctrrain di-i^-e aosumn) a 
nnk OMiventionally superi'T l'> Nnh. The whnic f.( ihr nllied 
timks was placed under the ctimmand of an AuMri^n general. 
Prince von fwhwarzenbrrg, and if the procbmatton puMished at 
Kafiach had merely summoned the peiiple iif (jrrmany to assert 
Atix independence, the manifesto of Count Meltrmich •poke 
■bendy fn Use lone of the future regulaior oi the aflairs of Europe. 


Austria declared herself on August I2» 1813, two dajn after ibc 

termination of the armistice. 

Immc<liatily afttT this— for all had been previously amnged 
— the monarihs of Russia and Prussia passed the Ricaengebifge 
with a division of their forces into ISohcmia, and joined the Em- 
{>cn>r Francis and the f^*at Austrian anny at Prague. The celt- 
t)nite<i general, Moreau, who had returned from Annerica, 
he had hitherto dwelt incognito, in order to take up arms 
Na|>olcrm, was in the train of the Czar. His example, it 
ho[>ed, would induce many of his countrymen to abandoo Napo> 

The plan of the allies was to advance with their main 
body, under Schwarzcnbcrg, consisting of one hundred twenty 
thousand Austrians ami sc*venty thousand Russians and Prus- 
sians, thn>u^h the Krzgeliir^e to Napoleon's rear. A lesaer Prus- 
sian fone, iirinci|)ally Silesian landwehr, under Bluchrr, eighty 
thousand stn>ng, U*sides a small Russian corps, was meanwhile 
to 4 r>ver Silesia, or, in ( as<* of an attac k by Napoleon *s main body, 
tf) n-tire iM-fon- it draw it farther east wanl. A third division, 
unrler the (Vown I'rinte nf Swtflen, princif^ally Swedes, with 
sf>me l*russian tniftps. mr>stly Pomeranian and Brandenbuf| 
Lindwt hr under Hut low, and s/)mc Russians, in all ninety thou- 
sand men, was dr>tin(ii Ut mwr Berlin, and in case of a victory 
t'l f'>rm a junt tinii in NaiMilctin's nar with the main body of the 
allii-fi army. A still Icnxt and er|ually mixr«l division under 
\VaIIm>M!( n, thiny th<iu>.-inrl stn»nf;, was destined to watch Dd- 
\i>i:>! in liamhurL'. while an Austrian loqis of tm-enty fi%*e thou- 
s.iMi mm t:r.«!cT Princr Kruss watrhevl the movements of the>. and arvithrr Au>!rian fune of fortv thousand, under 
H:lli r, thoM <»f thr Vi(iT»»v. Kuirene, in Italv. 

Najx'Itiiri had < or.i mtratiti his main body, that stiD 
(if t'Au h::ndreii t':f:y thuusand men, in and around 
I>a\ti.i-^t n-irivci! ordepi \n advance with thirlv thounnd 
from II.iml>i]r^ u^K^n BiTlin; in Bavaria, there were thirty thon- 
^Ar.'\ r.\v:\ under Wrnif; in Italy, forty thousand under EiigaM. 
'!*'.« ( if rTTMn f'irtn ^m s wire. m«»n^»ver, strongly garrisoned with 
Fn - ' :: tr- p.. \.t;K>lM'n t'if*k up a defensive position with Us 
main \itf\\ a! Dre^Jm, whemc hr could watch the 
and take advantage of any indiscretion on the part of his 


ncnts. A body of ninety thousand men under OudJnol meantime 
acted on the offensive, being directed to advance, simultaneously 
irith DarousI from Hamburg and with Girard from Magdeburgi 
upoa Berlin, and to take possession of that metropolis. Napo- 
leon hoped, when master of the ancient Prussian provinces, to be 
able lo tuppms German enthusiasm at its source, and to induce 
Rimh and Austria to conclude a separate peace at the czprnac 

In August, 1813, the tempest of war broke loose on every side, 
and ail Buropc prepared for a decisive strugt{tc. About this time, 
the whole of Northern Germany was visited for some weeks, as 
was the case on the defeat of Varus in the Tcutoburg forest, with 
beat7 rains and violent storms. The elements seemed to com- 
bine their efforts, as in Russia, with those of man against Napo- 
ieocL There his soldiers fell victims to frost and snow, hen- they 
sank into the boggy soil and were carried away by the swollen 
riven. In the midst of the uproar of the elements, bloody en- 
ga|[efneot5 continually took place, in which the bayonet and the 
butt end of the ftrelock were used, the muskets being rendered 
tmscrviceable by the water. 

The finit engagement of importance was that of August 31st 
between Wallmoden and Davoust at Vellahn. A few days bter, 
Kari Theodor Kocmcr, the youthful poet and hem, fell in a 
skirmish between the French and Wallmodcn's uut)>ost at Gade- 
busch. Oudinot advanced dose upon Berlin, which was pro- 
tected by the Crown Prince of Swcilcn. .\ murderous conflict 
look place, on August 13d, at Groubccren between the Pr\is- 
sian division under General von Buelow and the Frenrh. The 
Swede8,a troop of horse artillery alone excepteil, were not brought 
into Mtion. and the Prussians, unaided. n-puLscd ibr gn-ally su- 
perior ferccs of the French. The almost untrained |M:asanlry 
TTfrtf'tg the landwehr of the Mark and of I'omerania rushed 
tq»o the enemy, and, unaccustomed tu the uw uf the bayonet and 
firelock, beat down entire battalions of the French with the butt 
end of tbeir muskets. After a frightful massacre, the Frrncb 
wcte utterly routed and fled in wild disorder, but the gallaiit Prus- 
rius vainly expected the Sweden la aid in the purtuit. Tlie 
CropwB Prince, partly from a desire to spare his troops and partly 
fnoi s fecUag td shame — be was also a Frcodmuo-^rcmaiaed 


motionless. Oudinot, nevertheless, lost two thotisand four hua- 
ilnii, taken prisoner. Davoust, from this disa.ster, returned oooe 
mon* to Hamburg. Oirard, who had advanced with eight thou- 
sand men fn»m Ma^debur^. was, on the 27th, put to flight bjr the 
Trussian landwchr under (jeneral Hirschfeld. 

NaiK)K*i)n's plan of attack against Prussia had complctdj 
fail(*fl, and his sole ahemalive was to act on the defensive. But 
on iH-rccivin^ that the main IxnIv of the allial forces under 
Si Inv.irzenbrrK was advanrini; tci his rear, while Blucher w&ji su- with nunly a weak divi>ion in Silesia, he t(X)k the field 
with ImmcnM ly su|H'rior fortes against the latter, under an idea 
itf U-ini; al>K' racily to vanc{ui>h his weak antagonist and to UH 
bark a^ain in time u]nm I>n>4li-n. lilucher cautiously retired. 
but, unable to ri->train the martial spirit of the Mildier)*, mho ob- 
stinatelv drft ncKil i:ver>' ix^ition whence thev were driven, loit 
twi> thfm>.'m'l of his men on Au^st 21st. 

Nai)oK-<iri had pursiitnl Hludu-r as far as the Katzbach 
(ioMImp^'. whi n he ri-iumi-f! and l>oldlv n-vJved to cross the 
afNivt* Mfroilt :i. !'• ><-i/c the pa^sc^s f»f the Ii<ihemian mountains* 
ar.'l to r>Il i::Mr; t:;i rt\ir • f the m.iin ImkIv of the allied amiT. 
Vand.imme'- . 'T.' ^ ./*<ir«/f- lia-l aln aclv x-l forwani with this de- 
siilTi. w)*.< n N.t;H>li^^:i li .mietl Drevlen couhi no longer hold 
(Hit unlr^H ]\r ri ';ir::i -1 tJiithrr \\.\h .1 division of his amy, and« in 
onlt r t"i jirt M r\t tJi.ii ( :r\ :\rA tin- d-nrre of his ]KMti(m, hehastilj 
rit'.imeil tlii'ht r ::\ the h'»jH if defeating the allii^l annj aXKl Of 
brin;:!:::: ii U/wcrn iw* \m-^, a^ X'andamme must meanwhile 
h.iM* •Kiu:»itil thi" r..irr«''.v owtltts i»f the Kr/.Kebirge with thirty 
ih'<'.;N.i::fl nii r. :i::'i by t} meaii> ( ut oiT the retreat of the allied 

Thi- ;»! i:*. 'A .1^ i >r. .1 *< .ili-. an«L a*- far a"i n-btH to Napc^ 
!• :'\ jH rv<»r\ \s.i- i mi uti i|. t^ the extreme diHCf»mt'iturr of tlir 
all.< -. \\-.\]\ \:.- ;: .;il -.iiit--. S< h.\v:ir/.eril«Ti;, with true J 
tri.i'i i'r«H r.i-*iri.ri .:i. h.i-l .ill<>U(^l Au^^t 2;th to pasft in i 
t: ^. ••%*•.< Ti. .!«. tV.f Frrru !i thtrnM-bi-H mnfi'x'*, Dresden, in 
tV' . !1 *!« fi :•.!<•! -!;ite. ny.S:\\ h.i\e lieen taken almost without a 
'^•' "-.t . \VV.» -. h' .'.•ri mjitti !■• -tMrm theciiy on the 26lh. Xap*^ 
1'- -v.. \\)\ i h.i ! rv.i i:v,\h:li .irri\« d. cdndy awairrd the onset of the 
thit K m.LN^-^ of tile enemy i:i oriler too|irn a murrletous dischaf|c 
of grajH- u>.M •*vr-' in <v. r\- -i le. They were rrpuked after 


tuBetiag a frightful loss. On the foUowiog day, destined to end 
in still more (crriblr Ijloodshed, Napoleon as.'^umed the ofTcnsivc, 
arpantted the retiring allied anny by well-comliined sallies, cut 
off its left wing, and made an immenM- number of pri&onen, 
diiefly Austri&n.<>. The unfortunate Moreau had both his legf 
■hot oB in the very firet encuunier. His death wu ui act of jus- 
lice, for he had laken up arms against his feUow-counlrymcn. 

Tile main body of the allied army retreated on every side; 
pan of the troops disbanded, the rest were exposed to extreme 
batdthip owing to Ihe torrents of min (cU without inlermis- 
■ioa, and the scarcity of provisions. Their annihilation must 
have ineviubly followed had Vondamme execulwl Napoleon'* 
fnminaM* and blocked up the mountain passes, in which be was 
uanicoeiaful, being defeated and, with his whole division, taken 
pcfaoncr near Culm (August ig, 1813). 

On Au^st j6th a signal \ ictory was gainetl by Dlucher in Si- 
lesia. After having drawn Macdonald acrou the Katzbach and 
the huning Ncisse, he drove him, after a desperate and bloody 
1, into those rivet*, which were greatly swollen by the 
The muskets of the soldiery had been a-ndercd 
■Mtrnceable by the wet, and Blucher, drawing his sabre from 
bomih his cloak. dashed forward exrlaiminK,'" Forward!" Sev- 
cnl thousand of the P'n-nch wen- dn)wnf*l ur fell by Ibe ba^-oncl, 
or beneath the hea%y blows dealt by the Undwchr with llic bmt 
cndi of their firelocks. Blueher was rvwardnl with the title of 
Prince von der Wahlstadt, but his soltlim «umamcd him 
Marshal " Vorwaerts" (Forward ). The French lost one hundred 
three guns, eighteen thousand prisunerN, and a »till greater num- 
ber in killed^ the loss on the side o( the I'russians amounted lo 
ooe thousaxtd men. MacdoniUd mumrti almmi totally unal- 
UsKled to Dresden and bniughl the melancholy inlcUigence to 

The Crown Prince of Sweden and Buelow harl meanwhile 
panoed Oudinot's rrtrealing corps in the dirc^-tion "f ihr KIbc. 
Na|xileoa despatched Ney against them, but he met with the fate 
of hb pccdccewor, at Dcnneieitz, on September Mh. The I'rus- 
i, on ihia occasion, again iriumphctl. unaided by ihdr con- 
Bltelow and Tauenxirn. with t«eniy thousand men, 
d the French amy, scvnly thousand straag. The Fns< h 
a.. vo<_ IV.— !#. 



kist ci^iecfl ibottiVK) DKO and dght]r guns. TbcnmtvuaMs- 
plele. The re&r-giurd, coosisting of Uk Wanaahafien aider 
Fnuiquanont. wu agaiti overtaken at the head of the bridfl at 
Zwituu. and. tfter a frightful canugc, driven in wild fonfaiioB 
acTou the dam to Torgau. 

Napoteoo's gcnt-nUs had been thrown back in every qnaner, 
with immcotc Ion, upon Dfcsden, tomud which the alUc* bow 
advanced, threatening to encloec it on every nde. Napoleon 
manouvred until the beginning of October with the view of en- 
eating a amf it mam agalnM Sdnratscnbeig and Bhicbcr; ifat 
aUiet were, however, oo tbetr gtxaid, and be wa« CDOStaatly re- 
duced to the nocciBity of iccaUing hit boopa, sent for thai pur 
pQK into the fieU, to Drtsdeo. The danger in whkb be now 
itDod of being completely Mimunded and cut off from the Rhine 
al length tendotd Rtrcat hb >ole ahemative. fihicber had al- 
ready cToaed the Elbe on October 5th, and, in conjuactiDO wilfc 
the CiQwn l*rince of Sweden, had approached the bead of the 
main body of the allied army under Schwanenbei:^ wU^ «it 
advaAciog fran the Engebirgc. 

On October 7th Napoleon quilted Dmdcn, ksvii^ a paA- 
•oo o( ihiity tboiuaod French under St. Cyr, and removed U» 
bcadquartcn to Duben, on the road bading from Lctpilc to Ber- 
lin, in the hope of drawing Blucher and the Swedes once mate eo 
the ri^t tide of the Elbe, in which caie be intended to tura iiacfr 
pectedly upon the Austriana; Dlucber, however, dudod Ubv 
wUhout quitting tlte left bank. Napoleoa'i plan waa w lakr ad- 
vantage of the abiencc of Blucfaer and of the Swedci boa Bnin 
Id Older to haiten acraa the ddencdat ooontry, (or the pufpov 
of inflicting pudahmeat opoa Pnnila, of railing Polaiid. He. 
Bui hit plan met with oppodlkio in hii own miliiaiy oeaacS. 
Hn iD succeH bad caused thoee who bad Uthcno lolbi nd Ma 
fortunes to waver. The King of Bavaria dedand ■giht* \im. 
00 October Slh, and the Bavarian anny under Wrede uailcd 
with, instead of opporiog, (he Atistxian array, and was KBi to (bi 
U^ne in order to cut off Napoleoo's relRaL Thencwadilas 
defecticn qwedily reached the French camp and caussd the lol 
of the tmopa vt the Rheiuah Confcderstinp to waver ia tMr 
aBtgiance; while the French. weatW wflh oaelea toaanuvvvw 
bca tco in every quarter, opposed by an enemy greatly tmBS N^^ 


rior (n number and glowing mih revenge, despaired of the event 
and sighed for peace and their quiet homes. All refused to 
march upon Berlin, nay, the very idea of removing farther from 
Paris almost produced a mutiny in the camp. 

Four days, fivm October nth to the ulh, were passed by 
Napoleon in a stale of melancholy irrcsolulion, when he appeared 
wif luddenly inspired by the idea of there still lacing lime to exe- 
arte a CMif de main upon the main body of the allied army under 
Schwaixenberg before its junction with Rlutljcr ami the Swedes. 
Schwarzenbcrg was slowly advancin;; from Bohemia and had al- 
ready allowed himself to be defeated before Dresden. Napoleon 
inteoded to fall upon him on his arrival in the vicinity of Lcipsic, 
but it was already too late — Blucher was at hand. On October 
I4lh' the flower of the French cax-alr)-, headed by the King of 
Naplci, encounierrd Blucher's and Willgenstein's cavalry at 
Wachau, not far from Leipsic. The (tinte:^! was broken otT, both 
■idea being desirous of husbanding their strength, but terminated 
lo the disadvantage of the French notwithstanding their numer- 
ical superiority, besides prD%-ing the vicinity of the t'ru^ons. 
This was the most impiirtant cavalry fight that took place during 
this war. 

On October i6lh, while Napoleon was merely awaiting the 
arrival of Macdonald's corps, that had remained behind, before 
proceeding to attack Schwarzcnberg's Ilohemian army, he was 
unrxpedctlly attackcrl on the ri^hlbankof the I'UnsM-, al Liebcn- 
wolkwitx, by the .\u5trians, who were, however, compelled to re- 
tire before a ittji)crior fone. The French cavalry under Lalour- 
Mauborg ptrssol so closely upon the Empemr of Russia and the 
King of PrusiiJ that they mcrt-ly owwi iheir c^ajie to thr gal- 
lantry of the Russian. OrlolT Dcnisoff, and to I^tour's falL Na- 
poleoB had already ordered all the bells in Lviinir lo be rung, 
had ■rnt the news of his victory to Paris, and seems to have ex- 
pected a complete triumph when joyfully exclaiming, "Le monde 
Immt fattr mmt!" ("The world (evrrythinRlrlungcs (or us!") 

Bui his nctory had been only [jarlial, and he had been unable 

'On Ibc rreanc ot Ociotict i«ili <tbe umtwtmtj ol ih* Haiilc of 
Jiaa) a hnfrlcknc racnj in (b* ndchharhoori of Lclpoc. «hrrc tlw 
fr^ttk hjr, arrrnc a«i|i root* and iiproo(in{ Ut«*. whik. dunnc the 
■hob alghi. Ibc nte (cU hi lomais. 


to follow up his advanta;^!-, another division of the Austruui anny, 
undir (ffcniTal Mt-irM-ldi. iKiviiii; Mmultann)i:>ly cHcupictl him 
and inmjxIU**! him in i ri>>s the ritissc at I)t>lnit/; ami, although 
Mrcni'lill had iHin in hi> lv:rn rrpuLsi-d with M-vrrt- kiss and bem 
himM.'lf takt n pri.s4»n»r, the divtrsinn pnivi-il of sc*nicc to the Aus 
trian> liv kirjiiru: N.i]M.Iit>n inJuik until the arrival of Blue hrr, 
whii thnw lum-ilf uj-in the division of the Vrvm h army op|jo<icd 
to hitn at MtiiiKirn by Marshal Marmont. Na|M>U'T)n, while 
thi:> <u ( iijiicil with \hv Austrian.s, was unable to meet the attack 
of thr rru.vii:ir.-> with M:f!'u ii-nt fi»rf e. Marmont, after a masAa- 
en* of si)nu* hMi:r<^' duration in and aniund Moetkcm, was rncn- 
jK llfil tn rt-tire \\\\]\ thf h*ss <if furty f»uns. The second PniSMan 
briiradi' lo>t, lithir in killifl or woundetl, all it.s ofTicen esrefiC 

Till- battle had.^n < >< Ii'Ikt i6th, ra^ef] around Ix-ipsic; Na 
jmltn-: had Irlii.'nphnl ovt-r thr A list nans, whom he had vilely 
ir.'i ::!t'l lt» alta* I.. b'.:t hail, a! the >;inu' time, txTn attackol and 
tleft.itol b) tilt Pn:-"»ia:V'», and rviw fuimd hiniM-lf f»p[v«4rii and 
air:."-! -•;rr«-::. Ir! Sy :\\v v, ii- •!» a!Ii( 1 forie one n»a'l ff»r retreat 
al- :• ri :ii.t::.i :..••:•« V. H- !:>!.::.: I v iMve unlers t'» (f(*neral BcT 
ir.i:. 1 "v" -M. ■;; ;. \VM--r:.ftl^ «i.:ri:.;^ the ni^ht, in onler to Mcvre 
h:- :• :rta: •:;.' ./': '1 1. ::;:■.:'!. i. b;?. diririi; the fullie.vinjjday, CK ■ 
I'' ■ - i;*:;. \:i ::• !:!;< r Mi/ii t!ia*. '•jij">r*.irn:y !•> n-tnal nor to 
r:. .).i .. !.:■•, ..■: I. •. .;- :i t'M<- all:« ^^ whoM- f«»ni'?«were not \rt 
i« ::'.;!i *.• 1\ « :■•:.::.;'••! trr tin- • in le had iMt-n fullv drawn 
ar ■.•:!.!::. I*- ^■'.. :« -. tin K .--iari*. i:r.dt r ftennipvn, and a' \ -::: i*. ■.•:•:' r < ' !! ri-I'* had rvi! vet arrivc«I. 


N .;-'•■*:..■' ' .■:::: ..'!■. ir.Vi.*' \'„v^v ajain attackt*^! the de- 
f« :'• A ■ !• ' ^ 'V :r.'::l«r,: if ha\( thDwn himiclf 

*.^:'!. •; f r -r: HI :. h« r. lie harl ^till an op- 

{■ ::.•/■.' :■ •..•."'••■■. n 'nat with*i\il any RTrat ezpoi^ 

;.:• \ ■ •': I- /• r It-.! hi- <:;•! ?-.« ithf r. He remainol motittnk^a 
(!.::•,••'■ • h li !.•..•..?'.;• :s w.i^ .il>. p;Ls.s<'.| in tran^juiUity by 
ti:- ■ . ..i-.t! i;n:^ t" rei I i\i- fre>h n^nforrctnentj^ 

N :> '■ v. ..^ • a^.M^I ^\ his h.r. in/ >ent hbk prisoner. 

< 1' ■ ' ■ .. *■!■ • • ■ \hr r.r-sjH -..r ..f A.;-!ria, whiKn he still 

h'.j--' ■ . .. t . • . mar.-* • ! vrnat a.\sur.inrr», to secede hm 
t*:* «• ■ .!■!•• :!:.i'.r :- i i . N--! r\e.i a reply was wucb- 

safid '>:.:::• .ir. 'L;..r?.. - 1 .liKly lt»«t by Napoleon, the aDicd 


tamy wu rrintrgratcd by the- urnval of thi miuscs commanded 
by the Crown Prince, by Ucnnij^n and (.'olkirolo, and was con- 
•cqucntly niacd to double the strvntjih o( that of France, which 
DOW merely smountcd to one hundred fifty thousand men. 

On the 18th a murderous conllict began on both sides. Na- 
polfloii long and skilfully opposed the ficne onset of the allictl 
tTDOpt, but was at length dri/en oU the fii-ltl by iheir su]>crior 
wci^l and pcncvering cflorts. The Austriaiu, stationed on the 
left wing of the allied army, wcreoppoM-<l by Ou'linot, Augereau, 
and Poniatow&ky; the Prussians, stationed on the rit(ht wing, by 
Maimont and \ey; the Russians ami Swiiln in the centre, by 
Mtirat and Regnicr. In the hottest of the battle two Saxon cav- 
alry regiments went over to Bluthcr, and (General Nonnann, 
wiiea about to be charged at Taucha by the Prussian cavalT>- un- 
der Buelow, also descrletl to him with two Wurtcmberg cavalry 
regiments, in order to avoid an unpleasant reminiscence of the 
treacherous ill treatment of Luetzow's coq>s. The whole of the 
Saxon infaniT)-, commanded by Regnicr, shortly afieru-unl went, 
with thirty-eight gutis, over to the Swedes, tivc hundml men and 
Ccnen] Zcschau alone remaining true 10 Naixilecm. The Sas 
tna sUtioaed themselves behind the lines of the olUes, but their 
gOBa wvre instantly lumed ufton the rnrmy. 

In ihc e^Tning of this terrible day the French were driven 
back dose U|>on ihe wolU of l.('i[>sir.' On the cerlainly of vic- 
tory being announced by Schwarzi-nl>erg to the ihrre monarchs, 
wbo had waichti) the pn>Krr\& iif ihe )>atlle, they knelt on the 
open field and returned lhank.v i'> Cm], Xaixijcun. Uforr night- 
lall, gave orders f'lr full mnul; but, •■» (he mominKi'f the itylh, 
iccommencnl the batdr and surriliciil aome of his (or^ ifarm^ 
in order to savr the remainder. He had, however, fotJishly Icfl 
but one bri<lgr acniss the KLiter ri|)rn. ^nd the retreat woa ronv- 
queotly retarded. Leipsic was stormi^) by the Prussians and, 
wbQe the Frrm h rrar-guan) wan »till InitlJng on thai side of the 
bridge. Napoleon fleil, and had no wKinrr inissrl the bridKe ihan 
k «!• blown up with a iremcmJuus explosion, owtx^; Ht the inad- 

' Tbt city was in a luu of atiet canlutioR TIi* notac crnwd bj ib« 
of Uh! csvaUy. orrt^c*. etc.. uti liy thr crita i>l Ili« luxiltm 
Ibr •ttwU rinrdnl thai ul lk* moai Iririiic tiurm. The tjiiIi 
In wlodcntt daiirnd aiili the ibuadcr ot AttOlcfj 


vcrtencc of a subaltern, who is said to ha\-c fired the tTmia tOD 

The troops engaged on the opposite l^ank were irmnediabij 
lost. Prinir Foniatousky plunge<l on horseback into the Elster 
in onler to swim acn)ss, i)Ut sank in the cUrp mud. The King of 
Saxony, who to thi- last had rrmainnl true to Napoleon, wu 
among the prisoners. The loss during this battle, which ngrd 
for four days, and in which almost every nation in Kuru{« stood 
opiK>sc*<l to f.'K h other, was immense on both sides. The totil 
loss in dead w:is computetl at eighty thousand. The French lotf, 
moreover, three hundre<l guns anci a multitude of priNinm — 
in the city of LeipMc alone twenty three thousand sick, without 
rec koning the innumenible woumie<l. Numbers of these unfort- 
unatrs lay bKi*<Iing and staning to death during the crJd ()cto- 
Ikt nights on the field of battle, it Ix'ing found imiwssiblc to ervct 
a sufiu irnt numlx-r of lazarrtti for their accommrxbtion. 

Naix)Ief)n madr :i hastv and <lis(trderlv retnat with the rr- 
mainder of his ir«»ops, but was overtaken at Freiburg on the 
L'listrut, when* th<- bri<l::e l)n)ke and a re[>i*titir)n of the disM- 
trrius jKi'i'^.iirr f >f ill'- IJensina fHrum-<L The fugitives collected 
into a dense ma-***, ujHin whit h the Prussian artillery plajxd with 
munirmii^ »i7iil. Thf Frmi h Ii'^l fnrty of their gun&. At 
!{:in:rj. Wrnlr. Na;>«»If«'n\ fanner favnrile. after taking Wucn- 
bufi!. w.itrhid the movrmrnts nf hi'» am irnt j)atn»n, and, had he 
<Mi\];>inl thr [klvs at (irlr.haus4*n. mii:ht have annihilated him. 
NVi;"»Ii''»n. h'»wrvtT. furii»usly ( hargi-^l his flank, an<l, on October 
-^cth. sit K ttil»«! in ftircini: a pa«^vage and in S4*nding so'enljr thoo- 
santl VM'Vi atpsNs the Rhine. 

WritK- \^.l^ d.i::'/i ri'U!»Iy wouncletl. On November Qth the 
last Fnr.ih iiiq»> drfeatd! at Ilochheim and dri^xti 
ui»"n Main/. In \\\r N'tvcmlnT of ihi^ ever memorable y 
iSi ;, (irrmany, as far as the Rhine, was completely (rrcd fi 
the French. 



ThU evenl, while il hid no dediive result, lunds our prominentlj in 
Ibe iiitioTf ol Uic War ot iSia Wuhinsion wu Micctcd » ihe *llc of 
ibe United Staicmc3pit4] in 1790, and ten f««rsUl«r the Govemmcnl wu 
maoocd from I'hiladclphia lo it> new »eal, where at the period ol (be 
war it occupied public buildlnci which, if not ill of (real imporuncc in 
tbcHudvea, were yet ■ufficienl (or coTcmmentAl purpoM*. The deitruc- 
ttea el lomc of ihcm by the Uritith, of which two account! follow— on« 
hf ■ caadhd American hisioriui, the other that o( a Briiiah officer (Cleic) 
«bo look pan in the aflair— proved to be but an Incident in the develop- 
mm\ ol iboM architectural feature* whi^ now form a chief attraction 
•I Ibc national capital. 

In 1S14 Ihe war had entered upon a itafe rcquinns Incrcaaed defen- 
ri*« ncaaurea on the part of the Untied StaiciGovertiment. Tbcic were 
llvcst* of attack upon New York and the Oiemapcake, a> well a* upon 
Waahtnf ion. Proident Madiaon ordered the militia of the Sute* to ba 
mdr tot inatuil Mrvice, arwl a new military dlsirtci. indtidioK Mary- 
IbmI. the Dlatnct of Columbia, and a pa.rt of Northern Virginia, waa 

General W. II. Winder, a tried officer, lately telea»ed from lootcdeten- 
liaafn Canada a» a prisoner of war. imk command ol ilie diilnct iajunc. 
Th« defence* uf Wt^hlnetun acre t«ry weak — no font nor |[uni, anil 
only a few hundred men. Such additional prepArationi a> could be made 
wcTt wholly inadequate. Meanwhile the llriliah were nunhalling Ihcir 
hrcca foe a movcmcnl acalnil the capital 

TTHE fonrw asaignrH to Winder, on talunft the comnuind of hb 
new miliury district, M'crv mmc fn^rtils of rcfcubrx, Icm 
tban 500, mostly raw rrcruils in and aboui Wa&hinKti>n, including 
the guroon (i( (hr fun »f ilut tumr \x\ow .\lrutnilru; the mi' 
liliAof the Dislria of Columbia, «imc 3000 Mronf;; and an au- 
ihoriiy, in fAifCoiaxtua] or menaced invisiim.icicAl] u{ionthrSute 
erf Maryland fur 6000 militia, the nbolc of her Lately auignrd 
quota, upon N'iritinia for 1000, and upon Pmn^ylvanta for jooo. 
Wodcr praptMcd to call out ai once a pan of this tnilhta, and to 


place th(*m in a central camp, whence they mif^ht march to Wash- 

in^*.fm, .\nn;i])()IiN, r)r Baltimore, either of which mi^ht be ap- 
prove hi'fl M) nrar by water as to \k liable to Ix* struck at before a 
force couM Ik- ci>IK-circi. The Prr^ident ^fmetl inclined to thb 
plan, hut it opiNixfl hy .\rm>tn>n^, who objected to it thai 
mililia wen- alw.iv> ihe most effective when first calli-fl out, Bal* 
timorc, he (hnu^^ht, couM defend itself; Washinf^on he did not 
Ixlirve would )>i* att:u keel. 

i\ilU for miliiia wen* fn*ely made to garrison Buffalo and 
Sarkfti'** IIarl)or. and thereby to sustain Bn>wn*s invaftion of 
(\ina(l.i. but Amistn m^ he^itatiil at the adfiitional eX|H'nse of the 
calls pn>iM»Mfl by Windir; and, in the existing,' sl.ite of the finan- 
ces, n«>t without rra^in. < >f the loan of t wen tv five million del- 
lar^, '-•li n >i>une fi»r (( induct in;: t!ir campai^, the Government 
had V( : a<ki-<l f«>r b\:i ten ini!li<'n. This ami>unf had l>em sub- 
s<ri!H -1 ;i! rlir fnmur rat*- i»f SS |x r cent., ni»t without dilTicuhj, 
and .1 ( ':vli!i'>v.. :i- in half «>f it. that thr contractors shoukl par- 
\\i ;:iat- \r. .r.w r'--*r- f.'v«»ra!>!c t< nns i:rinte*l to anv future lend- 
rr*. I!". » ri on !:.i -i '.t-nr.- :hi rr ha I Urn failuri*^ of pa\'mcnt bjr 
the iiiriM.M ■•••'* t-» tin- t^trrit «»f i\\ • millinii dnlLirs. sri that Ann- 
>tr"r.*>!'- ' •-■• i!:«»ri • '^ il;*- M«irr ••[ t-xju-ns*- In not so remarkabk. 
Wir.di r. l-t '.r.-^ 'r.\:- I ?! !'> hi- "v. •! n-^-ixmsibility. and cautioned 
Ih -idt !-».i-. •:■!'.;:•.:•« 1 1 -ir. < all ^ f'lr militia, of courv made none 
till till I Till :' •'• y *.i 1 aiTu- ur'i'j'.jt -:ionablr. Nor wxs this rrhic- 
tav.ii- ■■f A r-: -•:••:•/ ^h*- ••:•.!) d;::.i ulty. The (lovemorof Marjr- 
la-^d. ''rj f* ' M"L' !):• F'r«"id«nt'«» pnH'lamation. hesitaterl, at thb 
iT'.i :'>:.* ■ I ! :•■ ••'.•. .i V \ ..limfT-. fn«m thr i-a'»trm shore. He 
d'-..* •'•! if. .•■:■ ■ :-.;li':.i I.i'a -.f th-- State, a draft would be 
t •'..•; il. •!'!:• W ir 1 )■ parn^ ".: a'^nt**! to accrpc, in 
1:« ':■!•■•■' I'l'-Vi'-V- •!• 'ai hf«! I\ Marvlanil, the tnwtiis alrcAdr 
(all"! '■'.:• * *:•• '^' '-••■ a;i**i"r:!y fi»r th»' flefence of Baltimore, 
;hu- ri'l'.:( :v.j!}-.« :'.: >M <'f !hat State to Ii-vs than three tboiuAod 

Th'- «',..'. I rr-.r '-f \'iri:ir.ia had ain-ady ordere*! twenty regi- 
mi-r.*- ■ f v^ !;•: I :•• } "11 thtm^'hf- in cnn^^lant n-adineM for the 
?• 1 ! • • . ' r*' :- ".'irr^i i- *■ n k-.vard and forwanl.a* to whether 
tJ'.i • - '.' '- d. ! : '• -li^'-Mritiall) met-l the pmcUnution, Ctjr 
«.•;!•'• ! •*:• :'\r.u -Al.i* h «iUirh! !:i h.ivi- ln'tn i-mplf^yed in haiini^t^ 
iyi'^\.\ ready t'j mart h. Thr l.rtri^latureof Penn>ylvania,at their 


bst sesBtOD, bad passed an act for the rcorKanizalion of the mi- 
lilia, which vacated all existing comtnissions afti-r August ist, but, 
tfnngr to say, wHthoul any provision for complctin); the proposed 
noffuuntion before the end of October; thus ]ca\'ing the State 
for (WO months without any legal militia at all, and rendcrinft 
it tmpoasible to make the detachment which the President had 

So things stood when news reached Washington that a new 
and targe British fleet had arrived in the Chesapeake. This was 
Cochnine, from Bcrmucla, with General Rou on board, and a 
dinsKMi, some four thousand strong, of Wellington's late army. 
To this fleet Cockburn's blockading squadron Mxin joined itself, 
adding to Ross's force a thousand marines, and a hundred armed 
and disciplined negroes, di-scrtcrs from the plantations bordering 
OD the Chesapeake. As the ships passed the Potomac some of 
the frtgatca entered that river, but the main ticrl, xtrnc MZiy ^Ts- 
■cb in aD, stood on for the Paluxcnt, which they ascended to Ben- 
cdkl, where the frith begins to narrow. There, some fifty miles 
(ram Washington, the troops were landi-d without a sign of oppn- 
ijlion, though then were several detachments of Man-lan<] mi- 
litia.tmder State orders^al points nut distant. A^ Rovt had 
no bofws, his men, some four thousand five hundred in all, wcrr 
ot|amzed into a hght infantry corps. Three pieces of light anil- 
lay wetr diaggrd along by a hundred sailors. Ai many more 
masportcd munitions. The wldiers carried at their backs 
dghty rounds of ammunition and ihrrr davV prt>visions. 

Eocrvated as the troo[>s hail \xm by the close confinrmcnl of 
the Tojrage, and wihing under ihe burning sun of ihat season, it 
was with dilTiculiy. at firM. ihat they staggrrrd along. \o:hing 
but the coruiant efforts of their oificers prwi-nit-d ihrm from dis- 
solving into a kmg imin of straggleni. The felling of a frw irrev 
when the road crossed the frequent streams and swmmps would 
ban seriously delayeil, if ni>i cffMlUJIly have t>tup()ed, them. 
But in that part of Maryland, a level n^ifn "f cornfields and pjne 
toroU, the ila\T popublton cxceedetl the whites, and the fright- 
ened plaoters thought of bttle except In save tbeirnwn throats 
faom Insurgent knives, an! their human proprny from English 

In the sUvca the British had good friends and sure means of 


information. With the trained nc^n^ocs in fmnt, thejr adnnoid 

cautiou.slv, thi- t'ir>t cbv onlv .six miles, but still without encounter- 
in^ the sli^htot np|X)siti(>n, feeling their way up the left bank of 
the ratuxt-nt :i ruute which threati*nefl Harney's scjtiadnio m 
fnmt, Alrxandria :iml Washinirton on the left, and Annapolis and 
Baltimore on the rii:ht. (^K'kbum acoimfianied the amy, and 
from hisd.iNhinir, bun ann- rin^ ^pi^it, and lon^ experience in that 
neii:hlM)rhiMHl, Ixcame the S4>ul of the enteqmsr. 

At the fir<t alarm of the apfMarance of the British fleet. Win- 
der had sent oM hit recpii^itiiins f«)r militia; but, e%'en had the 
quotas of Vir;:i;iia and Tennsylvania Ixrn emUMlied and rradj 
to march, and l.ail thr swifi(v>i expressi-s bix-n employed instead 
of the slow cour-e of the mail, it wa> already t(x> bte for effectual 
aid fnim that riuarti-r. Thr Di^trii t militia, summoned to anns» 
marrhetl to a |M>ir.t some ei^ht miles i'a>t of Washington, what 
they were joined by thi- re^lar*.. who fill back fmm a more ad- 
vaiut-d |M)sitii)n whiih ihey had (Kcupied for home time at Mari- 

A> the Hriii>h («>liimn. on ihr third clay of its uninterrupted 
advanre. appr>>a(}:(-d li.inv v'n rlntjlla, ihe UMt.s. ai^nTably to an 
<»rdrr fnmi Ami-:r:::j. wtn- Mnwn up, Harney him^lf haMcning 
with hi.-^ mtn. --.::'•' !:;. !;i::v!ri'i in riumUr. to Winder** camp, 
wlitTi- s»»mr !«:r«i - «if In aw .ir.ilLrv from the na\'v vard weie 
pLiirtl ur.drr hi^ i-.::vnand. That camp pri'^it'ntiil a scene of 
r.-'is.' and conl;i-:«in ir.'-rt- hkv a raniour*«e i>r a fair than the 
^r.ilht-rin.: <if .i:\ .irnr. a^*-)*.;! ; i ir^*h\ for the national capJtaL 
Al**.-./ niidr^L;!.!. ::.r Tr.- i-irr.:. \\i\:\ Arm-!ri»ni», Jones of the 
N.i'. V I)i :».irrT'.« ::*. .iiid k-.;-h. \hv Att'imev lii-neral, arrired. 
M-::n>«- 'A .1' ::•.•:- .ilr».i'!\: (Virijiln II. t)it >• i rctarknf theTreaft- 
i:ry. w.i- Irj-y \\'.:\\ i ':.:r:\.i':M s !■ -r nplrrii"»hmK the exhausted 
I. •:.::'.! t -. pr'>'-,iN hav::..: iti :: r.\.v\r *t\i\ that vcrv" <iav for a loan 
I'f -:\ ri.iliit-n «l«tllar-. of tJir i:r::ir,^' « f which tlure was, however. 
\j\:\ \i ry V\r.\r j«r'»*jwt i. 

I"::'' !':< -i'ii :;!, fi:ll of (!'*i:b!> an*! aLirms, and diMurbed bf a 
iJ.' ■.: .i.-.d i-r-.traiii :Mr,' nim-'r-, ri\irwol. the next momin|^ 
ar::.-. . f thru- :ht.UN:ind :"a» l-.'jn«!rcd men. with M'%enteen 
of« r>, but a> •l>iub:f'.;I. h«-^ita!int;. and cunsci<iuvly incapable 
xn himsili. Shonly aftc r. Win«!( r dt{»art(^i to rrconnoitie; tram 
the Icngtli oi hi:> absence ii wa> feareil that he bad lallcn iaio the 


liuulsof the enemy, but toward evening he relumc<I,and, dread- 
ing a night attack, which was probable, a» the British, now but a 
few milei off, had sinick into the Alexandria road, as if to gain 
hia right, be onlerrd a retreat. 

This was made in (rn-at haste and disonder, by the bridges 
over the Eastern Branch, his troops cnc;imping near the navy- 
yard, where they rrceived the olarminj; nen's that the enemy's 
tbips in the fotomac hod already passed the &hoaU by which their 
ucmt had been stopped the year t>e[ore. Thai same night some 
us hundred Virginia miUtia reached Washington, but without 
Anns or accoutrements, which Armstrong told the commanding 
officer it would be time enough to sene out the next morning. 
About four hundnil 5fty other Virginia militia, stationed on the 
Maryland sideof the Potomac, opposite Alexandria, as a covering 
party for Fort Washington, remained there, distracted by contra- 
dictory otdcra, and taking no part In the general movement. 

Meanwhile another force had mustered (or the defence of the 
cspataL Stansbur>'*s brignilc of Mar>'land drafted militia, four- 
teen himdred stron);, marching frum the neighborhood of Balti- 
more, had encamped the previous evening, just in atlvancc of 
Bladouburg. six miles north of Washington; and the next day, 
while the President was reviewing the District army, they were 
joined by a regiment esteemed the llower of the Haltimorr city 
militia, by some companies of artiller>-, .and by a battalion of city 
riflemen, led by I'intkney, the late minJMer to l-omlon. This 
UarylatKl army amounted to some two thousand one hundred 
Bun; but the city pan, thai mii*t reliid upon, had little ciperi- 
cocr ID field service, having suddenly changed the comforts of 
thctr bomes for the bare tpnund and rations of bad salt beef and 
moity Sour, which they did not even know how 10 cook. 

Stansbury's forces hod already once turned out on a false 
alum, when, about twt> in the momini;, he rrceivnl information 
fnm WiiKlcrof his (Winder's) retreat, and unlers to fight should 
tlie oiemy, as was probable, approach WaNhin^lon in that din-c- 
tioo. A couticil of n-ar, immediately summoned, not pleased 
with the idea of being thus put forwani to encounter ten thousand 
British Tderans— for I0 that numlier rrpon had by this time 
■■dkd ihc enemy— began to ictire ovrr Illaden-'burg bridge; 
■ad, but lor new orders from Winder to stop, and, if the enemy 


appn)3ch(xl by Bbclcnsbur^, tn fif^ht, the retreat, it is profaftblc, 
wouM havi- continual to Wa^hinf^on. 

In tlu* morning, \Vin«iiT still remaining uncertain what dirrc- 
linn the British mi^hl lake, the Frcsidi-ni n-|>aired to the navy- 
v.ini. \vh«Ti* a con>ultation wxs had a.s to the best means of dr- 


stroyin'^r thi* public pro{)crty there. Monroe and Rtish spent the 
forenoon in riding to and fro Ix-tween Washington and Bladen»- 
buri;. ArmMn>n>; rt-mainifl r|uii'tly at the war olTice, not cvm 
yt't able to Ulii-vi' that the rnemy would venture an attack. But, 
toward n(K)n authentic information came that the British, who 
had encam|x-<l the pn-.ious ni^ht near the ground lately occupied 
by WindiT, wiTr marching rm Bladensburg. Winder therrupoo 
put his forces in motion, excr[)t the newly arrive*! Virginians Irfl 
behind to ii»mpU-tr thtir t-iiuipnunts, which a vrr>" careful clerk 
still dcbyifl by s<rupulniis|y counting out their flints one by one. 
B.imcy was to h:ivr rcmairui! to >u[K'rintend the blowing up of 
the bridal** ovrr thf Ka<*trrn Branch. l)Ut his retnonstrancrs 
firi.illv txtnnt'l frnni thi- rrr^i*!*-:'.', afttT a consultation with the 
hcrl^ of (it-part nif r.!^. all of '.sh.nm wi-re preM*nt on horvbick, 
liUnv In m:ir(!i •.\i!h hi^ i'-.:v.- I* »r ihr fuM. 

(\impUll n.' •p'lily n tind. Ii.iving first lent the Prrsidmt his 
dui llini' pi-t'il-. thf <ir.\*\ jip'Sa^ly, with which a few yean br- 
fxrr. in a <;'Mrrri a'*"'./ tii>- « -mb.iri^o. he had shot Gardinier 
thr »u::h thr InmIv «:'. ::\r \i ry i'n.un«l of the appmarhing battle. 
Wi'h th«' ;)r«iv:-:'.!i .»i w.iy^ ar-. ! mtans on his hands he had, in- 
(Irtil. a «uf:a i( r.'lv .(r<!;: 'i^ \.:V, «if his own. without ai<iing in 
miliviry ni'i\r:T.i r/-. Ar*^^- p-'.". by jK'rmis«.iiin of the I*itia- 
<!r".*. *»n C.iV^;-'.' 11"' «■:■.'■/'•>• I'p :ha! hi ^ mill lar\* kn«) win Ige might 
\>*' ■■! i: r ir:« rr. I'm ! .ilr ail;, r. !!« n To thr fulil. Thr PrrudcBt. 
M -r-.r "-. a:. ! K; li. •.\h'» ^-i:; f -ll .««•<!. wt-rr pn-vt-ntctl only by 
an a> « !■!« r.:al :•.• i r ..f :.t •:::*..;' :< n fpini riding straiKhl into Bla- 
drn«.*i ;r;!. whrn- !hi- rn»rr.\ ha«! alri-aily arrivitl. The rrrs«dcnl« 
on pai::;p.'j thf fn-M. px- the |K-rmi«^sion lately givrn« di- 
n 1 :• •! ArTn-:r'>n^ :■• li avr to thr commanding general the amy 

of thr t..i!!h' 

Th.« l.a-N m Branch of the Potomac, deep enough npprwilc 
\\'.i-''\ '.." n T< i! ta! '. ir.LM*'-. (Iwindli-sat Bbdensburg to a shat 
|o'.\ ••' ."v A f. ••. h iM-'- • I • •:!»•. rhr ca^tem bonk. Scansbonr. 
abandu:i;::»! !hi '. illa/i a:. 1 1:;*.- bridge, had {x»tcd his 


eminence on the Washington sJHe of the river, with his right on 
the Wuhiogton road, in which were pLuiicd two pieces of utU- 
leiy. to iwecp the bridge. Pinrkncy's riflcmi-n Lined the bushes 
which skilled the river-bank. The Baltimore regiment had been 
originaQy posted nearest the bridge, but, by Monroe's orders, who 
rode up just beforr the battle bc^^an, they wen: thrown back be- 
hind an orehard, loanng Slansbur^'s drafted men to stand the 
fint brunt of attack. As Winder reaihed the (roni, other milj- 
lar; amateun were busy in giving their advice, the enemy's col- 
umn just then bc^nning lo show itself on the opfxisile bank. 
Another Maryland regiment, which had marched that morning 
from Antupolis, but by a route which avoided the British army, 
appeared just at this moment on the field, and occupied a com- 
maixlJRg eminence. I'hc forces from Washington, lu they ar- 
rived, were dntwn up in the rear uf the Maryland line. Bamry, 
with his sailors, and Miller, of the marines, arrivei) last, and 
planted four hea\7 guns in a jxisition lo swerji the road, with the 
advantage, also, of being tianked by the Annapolis regiment. 

The British soldiert, by the time ihej- rcacheil Blailrnsburg, 
wm almost ready to drop, so excessive was the heat; and so 
formidable was the apfieamncr of the American army that Ross 
aitd his officers, reconnoitring fmm one of the highest houses of 
the village, were not a lillle oa to the mull. But it wa.« 
now too late to hesitate, The Itritish column, again in motion 
after a momentary check, dashol ucniss the bridge. Some 4li% 
charges of Congrr^e rockets put the Mar^'land drafted militia 
to flight. They were followed by the rifltmen, I'inc kncj- getting 
a bn>kcn arm in the tumuli, and by the artiUer^Tnen, whoM* piece; 
had scarcely been twice disc hargnl; and as the UritL'.h lAnie up, 
the Baltimore regimeni tin] al^n, sweeping off with thrm Gcnrml 
Winder, ihc President, and the ("abinel oiFicers. Knuiuragnl b> 
this easy \ictnr)-, the enemy pu<J]c4l rainitly forward, till Bar 
BC7*a aitiUery opened upon them with severe eflivt, .\fier several 
viin cfibrts, during which many fell, to mlvamr in face nf (hi> 
fire, advantage was taken of the shelter of a ravine to 6le tv[I by 
the ri^t arwi left. Tho« whi' rmerped on the left rncnunlcrcd 
the AimapoUs regimecl. which flrrl after a siR}<te fire. 7*bnse on 
the right fell in with some detachments of regulars, forming an 
advanced portion of the secoikd tine. They retired with equal 


promptitude, as did the militia ix'hind them ; and the enemy hav- 
ing thus gainctl lx)th tianks, the s^iilors and marines were obliged 
to lly, leaving their guns and their woundeil aimmanders in the 
enemy's hands. 

Such was the famous nattle of Bladenshun;, in which sxry 
few Americans had the honor to Ix- either kilU^I or woun<lcd, not 
more than fifty in all; ancl yet, according to the evidence suhse- 
(|uently ^iven Ix-fore a (\)nKrL-s.sional committi-i* of investi^cation, 
ever> UmIv Ix-havc-d with wonderful c oura^e and c(x)lness. and no- 
body reliretl ex< ept by orders or for want <if <iniers. The British 
loss was a ^xxl <leal lar^rr, prim i|ially in the attai k on the sailors 
and marini*s. SeviTal had dn>p|K-<l dead with heat and fatij^ue; 
and the whole f<»rie w;ls r«o ioinpk*tely exhauste«l that it wxs ncics- 
sar)' to allow them .some houn«' rest before advancing on Wash- 

The Manland militia, a> thrv lle«l, disiK-rvtl in e%er%' direc- 
ti«»n, and xxin iraMtl to i-xi*.t as an emlxNliiii force. The Dis- 
triit militia kept m^re t«>«/t-'.!itT; the Vipprini.iiis ha<l at last ob- 
taint**] ilu-ir t]int>; an*! \Vi::<!i r had >till at hi < (i>mmand aume 
twi> lh«>'.:>,ir."l nieri an-l M-vtral jiiriL-.> of .irti-Irry. Two miles 
fnim Wa.'-.hin^jtnM .i m«»nientary >i.intl was niadi-, !*ul the retreat 
.n^; tn»<»p^ ^<«•Tl Ml l-jn k ii» tin- (';ii»itoI. .•\rm>in)nK wished to 
IK I i:j»y thf !w«» ::ia>-!M-, «!rta* ii d wiru:** of that buildinjj (the cen- 
tral pitu::«!a an ! ji-iniiii^ h.i\ir..; r.ot then InTn built), and to 
j'lay the part "f lh« Urili-h i;i('hi-A\ I.ium* «it the Battleof Ger- 
rna.^tiiwn. H':t. if aMi- tt» \M'!)i-t.irjl an asN:iult, how kinj; could 
th(v h -M •«'.:! \\:\h »:A pr'-'il-:":.-* '-r wa'f-rl' It was finallv de- 
ii«!r'l 1. 1 aSari'i'Vi \V i-l. ::.:•: r:. a:; 1 t-* rally on the heif^fats ol 
(Mt-r^'rt'iwn. S;rT;'.;l:.i:-.t'«' i-i;. \\i::i tl.i- al«an !->nment of their 
ry»rT;«-> l«v an arr- ■. tJial riiin-l l^'it <lid n'»t rallv, lire was riut ftt 
;h«' :. ivy yard I • a Iri^r.itf "n uw ^t-H k-. to a '•hnjpof war Utdjr 
la:;rahoJ, and t* M\(Tal Ria:'a-:i::i-^ of •»iMri-N antl pmn&ions, far 
:ht- (!r<>tn:( ti(»n ff \\\\h h ampli pri-para*.i'>r.s had been made; and 
I'V \)\v lijJ'.t "f ihi^ :irr. iv..v\v l.ri 1 li\ a '«.;.id<n thunderixilt, 
tri'Aar! i\i:. •!'::. ad\ar'.M-<| ii^t'i \Vashin;:t.iri, then a sti 
viil.i.-v •! »- rv.r i :::hi i!:* •.i>ar.d jH^'pli*. K^it. f^r the mofncnt« al- 
mi -: iiiMTtrl hy the m.kli- part •>f the wliite inhabitants. 

' The Iir^L^}. i!«r::.<; i> c An -.n occuptet! the Chew houic 
And iU tionc wxlls it:.! »huw tr.e marki left by Anericaa tboC— 


From Gallatin's late residence, one of the &nt consldenble 
bouflca which the British column pas&cf), a shnt was Urcd which 
killed Ron's horse, and which was instantly revenged by setting 
fire to the house. After three or four British volleys at the C«pi' 
tol, the two deUched wings wcir set on fire. The musive waUs 
defied the flames, but all the interior was dcstToyc«l, with many 
nhiablc papcn, and the library of Congrrss — a pine of vandal- 
ism alleged to be in revenge for the buminj; of the Parliament 
Boute at York. An encampment was formed on Capitol Hill; 
but meanwhile a detachment marched along Pennsylvania Av- 
entK to the Prcsidrni's house, of which the great hall had been 
coovened into a mihiary magazme, and before which some can- 
Doa bad been pUct-d. Thcs*.- cannon, however, had been carried 
off, and Mn. Madison, having firsl stripped fmm its frame and 
provided lor the safety of n valuable portrait of Washington, 
whicfa ornamented the principal room, had also lied, with her 
plate and valuables loaded into a cart, obtainni not without dif- 

The President's house, and the offices of the Treasury and 
State Departments near by, were scl on fire, Robs and Cockbum, 
who had forced themselves as unbidden guest<i upon a neighbor- 
ing boarding house woman, supping by the light of the blading 
buildings. By the precaution of Monroe, the most valuable pa- 
pers of the State De[>artmenl hod been prv^iously removed ; yet 
here, too, some imimrlant records were destroyed. The next 
morning the War Office was burned. The olTw c of the NatioHoi 
IwtiHiiaKtr was raiuwrlcctl, an<l the t>-pc thmwn into the street, 
Cockbum himself pmiding with gusto over this nprmtion, thus 
revenging hinuelf tor the severe strirtures of thai journal on 
his pioceeriing* in the Chcsafx-ake. The arsenal at GreenleaTs 
Point was also fired, a» were some rope walks near by. 

Several private Iwmv^ wcrr bumwl, and some private ware- 
houta bfoken open and plundered; but, in general. pri%alepnip- 
ertjr was respctteil, it»e plumirrinK being lew on the [lart of the 
BtitiBh wldierB than of the low inhabitants, bb^k and while, who 
took adrantage of the terror ami amfukion to help thcntKlres. 
The only pubbc building that escaped was the Grrieral Post Of- 
fice and Patenl Office. Unh under the wmc nwf, of which the 
I wag delayed by the entreaties and rcmoDstnncci of tbe 


su|K*rintcnrlcnt, and finally prevented by a tremendous tornado 

whii h pa.ssc*<l nvi-r the i iiy and for a whik- n>mplctely dbpcrscd 
thi- lolumn, the soldiers seeking refuge where thr>- 
iould, and several being buried in the ruins of the falling 

A >iill mf»re >erifnis a( rident at GreenlcaPs Point, where near 
a hundnil Hritish M>ltliers wen* killnl or woundwl bv an a^eidm 
t.d explosion, addetl to the anxiety of the HritLsh commamlcr. 
otherwise ill enough at etL^e. He naturally imaginivi, though J3 
it h.ip|H'ncil without any (n (-;L^i<tn for it. that an army of indignar.: 
c ill /en soldiers mustering i»n the height>of (iei»rgetown. An 
attai k W.LS alv) apprehentleil fn>m the M)Uth, U* guanl agair>: 
whiih the \Vashi;icti>n entl (.f thr Poti»mai britlgc' m^l^ set on tirt 
l»y the Itrlti^h. while at the same moment a like prinai:!i«>n Wa^ 
taken at the Alexandria end In keep them fr>m i n>v»inj;. N'> 
ruwN I. line nf the Hriti-h -hip^ in the r<»li»mae, whiih Ria* 
;ir.\ii'ud> t xjKi tid; and that ^ame ni;:ht, having his !<-vcrrl\ 
\\'.u::ti* 'i U):.:.-!. ar.d lii- larrp *':tx-^ buniini:. he *'ilen!ly n-timJ, 
ar:!. aftir .i : ■-.:: «i.iv-' :::-.i.MiTrjp!etl mart::, arriveii a;^n At 
Kt r.i'iit t. \\\.iTi \hi !r .^ ;»- -Ain recm^Airke'l, dimir.i-hol, how 
I •«« r. * \ a ! -- :*. k.!Ii«i. vv"u:i'!« !. .i:: 1 i!« m rt*. r* •! s<*\eral hun 
lir- i iTur:. \. * •.. :;;lr R.---. ■•: i.i- par. thu- '•Uallhily wi'hdrrw, 
-• .:ri.i: \\.i* •':.. • "r r .' '•■ '.•. ': • :• :'*. :»«h:r.d him that '^>mr sixiT 


\<'.\.<\ :-.\al::-. 1 :' .:: ■ ": ar/i : •••.» •A-ur.-ii^l, continurtl in un 

.:!-r.;r*^, i ; :: .■: l'.*;-:: I H:ll T-r more than li*miv fcmr 

V. '.:!•-. .i:*i r V.:- !t par.;.:^ . at la-i the titizins mu>tervd cuurafc 


r.roRi.K R. r.LXir. 

\V :::• :-.\ \ r j.i :«•> \\:\.. h had i^ern cncaijrtl at Bladctiv 
' .:.: •• • .•• : »> •. *:•.• :';•!•! : r^v vir :he:r order, the third, 
•.■..■•.: ":• ! ::-.•. :• -< r*^ . a- : ".^.i* i iP.^-^-u* un*»n>km, ic»>k 
■ ' * !. .L- : ; i-h'l : r-Aar : .^\ .. r,.; . : r^A. : -A^ri Washin^im. 
\^ A..- : :-.i :»•: :. : :• l^r-.-.-h ii -.irrmen: to altrmfii 
•.•r'.Lrin: ^r. ... -: ": \)..^ : ." i \"-! r..a. ar.d a* i»mcral 

N ^* wj.* >ft.i; a.' • •■ i' A '■' I '■ a" ifu: 1 TT'.er. hc 0«uLl MX 

: :• • :. '^ra*' * •*-*!::- t: •• lir j-.h : in the enrtBT*» 

vaiMt&l. he ^w.iT' '. ^\ ■*. i:- * - ■ r.rrfb'jri.-in and !•> rtfure 

,'. .--•, ir :iiL >. .:.;. Nar was thnr acvthi&fr unwucthj U 


the ch&racter of a British officer in this drtrrminstion. By at) 
the cu&toms of war, wbalc%'cr public property may chancr to be 
in a captured town becomes confessedly the ju»t spoil of the con- 
queror; and in thus proposing to accept a certain sum of money 
in lieu of that property, he was showing mercy rather than sever- 
ity to the vanquished. 

Such being the intention of General Rosa, he did not march 
the tnmps immediately into the city, but h&lted them upon a 
{^ain in its vicinity while a flag of truce was sent in with terms. 
But whatever his proposal mighl have been, it was not so much 
as beard; for scarcely bad the parly bearing the flag entered the 
street than the>' were fired upon frum the windows of one of the 
bouses, and the horse of the General himself, who accompanied 
them, killed. All thoughts of accommodation were instantly laid 
■side; the troops advanced forthwith into the town, and haWng 
fintputlotheswordall who were fuund in the house fmm which 
tbe sboU were filed, and reduced it to ashes, they proceeded with- 
out a moment's delay to bum and destroy cvcr^'thing in the most 
ditunt degree connected with the Government. 

In this general devastation were included the Senate flousc, 
dwPrtsident's official residence, an extensive drx:kyanl and ar>e- 
nal, barracks for two or three thousand men, several large store- 
bouses filled with naval and military stores, some hundmls of 
cannon of diflermt kinds, and nearly twenty thousand stand o( 
■mallarms. ThcrewcrGaI'ii)lwoorthn-t-puljlirn>[>cwork.'> which 
shared in the same (ate; a fine frigate, pierretl for sixty guns, 
and just ready to be launched; M-veral gun brig^ and armed 
■choooen, with a variety of gunlx>at^ and small craft. Thepow- 
dcT-magaaincs were of course set on lire, and exploded with a trr- 
mcDdous crash, throwing down many hou!>o in their vicinity, 
partly by pieces of the walls striking Ihrm ami panly by the coo- 
cuMion of the air; while quantities of xhoi, \hrll, and hand gre^ 
DMks, which could not otberw-isebe rmdered useless, were thrown 
Bitotlw river. 

AD this was as it should be; and had the arm of vengeance 
been cttcnded r>o further there wuuM not liave been room given 
tor to much u a whisper o( diss ppmbal ion. Bui unfortunately 
k did rxM stop here. A noble hhfur>', K-vrral priming olTices, and 
bO the public archives were likewise committed to the llame», 


which, though undoubtedly the property of the Govenuncnt, 
mi^ht belter have Inrn sp»irecJ. 

I nee<l scarcely obsene that the consternation of the inhmbi* 


tants was complete and that to them this was a night of tenor. 
So confident had tiny In-en in the >uccess of their troo|» that few 
of them had dreamed of <|uittin^ their houses or aliandoning the 
city. Nor wa^ it till the fuiritives fnim the Ixittle began to rush 
in that the President himself thought of providing for his safety. 
That gentleman, as I was inform etl, had gone forth in the morn- 
ing with the army, and had continued among his tnx)ps till the 
British force:> Ix-^an to make their ap|>earance. Having ridden 
thmugh the ranLs nnd exhorle<l ever)* man to <lo his duty, be 
hurri<.*d back i<i hi^ own house, that he might pre|Kirea feast for 
the enlerlainmenl nt hi- oiVicers when ihev >hould return victori* 
ous. Fur li.e trut!) of thi^ I will not Ih* answerable; but this 
much I knn'.v, ;hat the fi-a^t was actually pn-|taretl, though, in- 
steail (»f \h-\u\: e.iicn bv Ameriian ofiicers, it went to satisfy the 
less dflicitr aj»jH:i:is of a parry of Kii;:lish s>ldiers. 

When :!i»' Aii.n hnun! M-m out tn ilr>in>v President Madison*! 
house enten-l l:i- 'iirjirv/ ;«;irliir, tJii y fnunil a dinner table spmd 
and iDVcTs l.ii«i f«r fi»r:y ;^'ur-t-. kinds of wine, in hand- 
s*»me cut trl.i'N «!it .irr.rr*. urre nM)lir.g nn the sidelxvinl; platr- 
hnldtTs :»tiM».l h\ \]\t' tjnpl.iir. t:IIf-il With dishes and plates; 
knives, f. .r»>. .•.:.■ 1 -;-iiin'» \ii re arrar^iji*! for inmu-iliate u^- In 
short. ( vm::;!:-.;^' rr.idv f.»r the entenainment of a cenrmani- 
ous party. ^;;i h ■.%rn l!ir arran^rmentn in the dining 
while JTi \hr k/ ;.i ". \m n- o:!;ir^ ar^^werablc to thrm in 
re*;K-« t. >;•:'-. I'^l- -i -^/ii j-'ii-t-* nf various si»rtN, turned befofv 
the lire: j*"'-. -^i':' • ; iv-. .'.:"■• 1 '»'ht r orilirar)- utensiU. upon the 
irr.i'i-; .i:v! .ill ':-.i ■ '.::' r it ;;;: :'«- r»r a:i i le; and sulnlantial 


rt :mn: wi re f \.u 'Iv ;:. .i -r.i!i v.}-.:. h ::ii!iiatiii that thr\' ha<l been 
l.i'.t ly and pri • i; !\i'i !y .i^ i:: i*:.! •!. It m.iy U- readily imagined 
that ihe-e pr'-p.'.r.iti«':i'> w« ri- *h;:« Id b\ .1 jMrty f»f hungry* «oldicn 
•.\;:h n» ir.ii!::' ri :-.t « >• -. Av. i1»:,m:.:, even th<nigh coo- 
-idirablv I.-, r rire*-* I. 'a.i- a l.;\'.;n* i" whiih few of them, at 
le.i^t f'T N«i:r,i- :i:iir !;.id U^n anu^^tomtd. and which aftcf 
t!:v •ii"..:. ri ,'.r.'\ f.i\/j*s ..f \]u- d.i;. apjK-.irol |NTuliar)T in\il- 
ing. The>- >>at down to i:, theref<ire, not indeed in the mort 
ordtrlv nui.'^ner, but with countenances which would Do( kavt 


dagnced a pany nf aldermen at a civil feast; and having lat- 
ts&ed tlieir appetites and partaken pretty freely of the wines, 
tbry finished by setting fire to the house which had so liberally 
entcrUincd them. 

But aa 1 have observed, this woa a night of dUmay to the in- 
habitanLi of Washington. They were taken completely by sur- 
priae; nor could the arrival of the Flood be mon unexpected to 
the natives of the anicdiluvian world than the arrival uf the Bril- 
bh umy to them. The first impulse, of course, tempted them to 
fly, and the »tm.-ts were in ainacqucnrc crowded with soldiers 
and Scnatont, men, women, and children ; horses, carriages, and 
carts loftded with household fumitun-, all ha.stcning toward a 
wooden bridge which crosses the Potomac. The confusion thus 
occasiooed was terrible, and the crDw<l upon the hridgc was such 
ft» to endanger its safety. But Presitlenl Madison, having es- 
caped among the first, was no sooner safe on the opposite bank 
o( the river than he gave orders thai the hri<lge should be broken 
down; which being obeyed, the rest were obliged to return and 
tu tniil lo the clemency of the victors. 

In this manner was the night jiass^l by both (nrties, and at 
daybreak the ncKl morning the light brigade moved into the city, 
while the rcscne fell back to a height about half a mile in the rear. 
Liltk, bowrvcr, now remained to be done, because c\er>'thing 
marked out for destruction was already consumed. ( )f the Sen- 
ate House, the I'resident's mansion, the barracks, Ihc dockyard, 
etc., nothing could be seen except heajM of smoking ruins; and 
ma tht bridge, a noble structure upwanl of a mile in length, was 
almost wholly demolished. Then- wils, ihcn-fore, no further oc- 
cSiion lo scatter the troops, and ihcy were accontingly kept to- 
Krlber as much as posMble on Capilul Hill. But it was no< alone 
m account of the completion of iheir ileslntrtive bimrs that this 
wu done. .\ powerful army af .\meriLans already began to 
show tbonarlvrs u|>on some heights at the distance vA two or 
three mikt front the city; and as they stui out drtachmrnis of 
bone tma to the ^-er^- suburb, fur ihr pur]»»>e iiC watching our 
owtioRS. it would lu\e bixn unsafe to permit more straggling 
linn was absntulely necrssari'. The army « hii h wc had oii-er 
ihnmo on the day before, though defeated, was far from annihi 
btod, uk) bavins ^ tbit lime lecuvered fiom its panic, began to 


concentrate itself in our front, and presented quite as formidable 
an aii{H*anLn( e as ever. We Ieame<l also that it was joined bjr a 
considerable force from the Ixick settlements, which had arri^ied 
too late to take |Kirt in the actirm, and the re|x>rt was that boch 
coml>inerI amounti^fl to nearlv twelve thousand men. 

Whether or not it was their intention to attack, I cannot pre- 
tend to sav, Int ause it was noon Ixrfore thev showed themsrhTs: 
and sixm after, when something like a movement could be dis- 
cerned, the !«ky ^n-w sudclenly dark, and the most tremendous 
hurrii ane ever n*niemlx*rc*<l by the ohlest inhabitants of the i>Iacc 
( ame on. When the hurricane had blown over, the camp of the 
Amerii ans ap{K'ari-fi to U* in as ^eat a state of confusion as our 
f»wn, nor (ould either jwrty ntover themM'Ives sufficiently during 
the n-^^t f if the dav tc» tr%' the fortune of a battle. Of this (senenl 
Kos> <lid not fail to take advantage. He had alreafiy atlaineti all 
thai he c «»uld hojK", and jK-rhaps more than he orijrin.illy exjiectcd 
to attain; oi:^m oucntlv, to ri'^k another action would onlv be to 
Spill \*\<»^\ fi»r :.'> puqmM-. W h.itevi-r mi^ht be the issue of the 
(onle**!, he tfii:Iil dt rivr fr"m I- !v> advantage. If he were vie- 
t«»rii''.:s, it w«ii:|i| n*-! i!i-stp«v \hv ::ri t-^^itv whi< h exiMt-^i ff»r evac- 
uatir.i! Wa«*hip •/•<«• : if -Irff.ite*!, his niin was certain. To a\*«>id 
t'l/^:'-.:: w.i- !!.« Tii'Tf }-.i- '.lii'i r; and jK-rhapsheowed itsaccnm- 
pli-^r:^* r-.* !'!Jie fiinir.atr • ». • 'irnni r nf the M^rm. lie that, 
h«i'.M'. » r.i- it may, a rffn-a! w i*- p -^Ive*! iijmn; anii we now only 
wa:**-*! ! r :-.:/hr !•• p*.:: :):» n-^ I-.:*i«.r. inl«i praitiie. 

\-. ^-r. .i^ 'Iatk'.' -«. h.i'! « • -v «v., the Third Hri;:ade, which 
w.i- :--.*«d ;t-. '}a r> .r • I • ■;: .ir:!'.;, . !.<:Mn ir* ntreat. Then fcj 
1 v.. : 'Jv :••:•-. .if!in\ar.i •!:• '^. . . • *. :\:..\ I.^^t -if all the I.i^ht 
I'.' • . '' . • \ i- "ly ri -.1 r^ir / ''.• ••: !• r \\h:* h h.ii! Ixrn maintainnl 
'! .riv.' !!:■ ;. !*. •.:■.- « . \: *«■••• i r:-..i!riT "f j;rra! im^virtancr !n 
ij. . I .*■. • tV.i ( r • v.. i-. !•■•::■•.•• • : :;r».i;:!. the rear of the column 
li. ! • I : ;!! •:< /r :•.■! i::- v. ?!.. ('.iT'i:..| Hill till a late hour. 
!»■;:.• •:*'■• lay jir. --rdtr V.a'! *^f:-. inwiji-,; none of the inhabi 
v.- * ;■..!!*•« ^*t". i:: !hr "-Trrts afrer ei^'ht oMr<k; and x^fear 
rrr : : •:: -? r* ••".*•''!!• r •.•'.:< t!* r wa* punrtually attended lo. 
All*' \. :^^« -.1 :./!:./ !' ii::' rr:.! ■ rr.r rr^ had likewise been re- 
rr ".^-i •■ 'i: i,' 'hr r;r ^ r r a.i.* .-ir-y :.r allownl to ride, ksl a 
r.r'./:: ■: r\r' •: r •rarr:;! • / 'f J • f- •^h'luld excite su! 
The :":re> were !«l ^r.d made t" Ma/c Iright, and fud 


kfl to keep them many hours; and finally, about half put 
lune o'clock, tbv troops formed in marching order and moved 
off in the most profound sili-ncc. Not a word was ^wkcn nor a 
linglc individual permitted to step one inch out of his place; and 
thus they passed alonfj the streets jxrfectly unnoticed, and dcaivd 
the town without any alarm being given. 


All 1814 


Thi« famous Con^rcs^ was a voiiul nf tlir Har« of Napoleon, and its 
dccn-cft had a must iir^KirUnt rttni in^ the character of a 
new riMicli in Kuru}M-aii h:%ti>ry. Nj}Hilron i.r\rr rectn ered hii a«cm- 
denry in Kuro}-<* uftrr x\\r \\a\\\v ni !.• ip^^ir >(>i:i'lwr i& ii^. iHij . in 
whii'ii 1." was i'\t-rtl r«>-A:i I y ll.i- ;*.: at .'.i!i.w.i'<- if nalinni. On March 
31.1^11. t)ic .ili:* s r:.!*-rri{ I'.iriv. .N.i'<f>!«-i*n v a% c tini}>e!!ed lo atxlicaic 
i.\|>r:I iitii . .i:.i{ \^.i«> i .Ki:"!.* il ti> '.l.i- is' ••! I-.!'r.a 

The Idi'.iiiMjr.s. L j\ :!.^ jrnM-.i^Ml a 1 ii:is!itutiimjl t;ovemmrni. vcfc 
recalled. ar<l unh I.i>.:.s Will U-^ tt.r uvc-ndrnry of the I.ecitiiBial 
party in l-rarrr I. :t 1 nu-s ti» tlir «xlttii:<« «ia>«of the aaoent 
monar* hy. li s <«i:.«':i' .'.'.•':, !.i"!*.! *•* ^iti^ty tl.c }^op!c. and. ftuch at it 
was. I.<i-.::h \:>*'"l :!, t . !:.<- :i:r^»<t<ii ni the Krrnrh. many ol whom. 
incii:<l:i.^ t; *- ur:- \ . w>' -.'i.t t t.'- r< fitn of Na|>oleon. who eipcDed 
Low:- ir. M.II*:!:. i" i *!r. •».■• ri .i!:rr tl:*' i-.i; r-irr ni I'ar:%. rrprr«rntativeft ol the 
l^rea! {.•>%%! r^ n*-: .«! t!.*- ( •:.•:" «^ <>! \':«-nr;j. fur the purpnse of tettlMif 
Tcrt } ' a:i .i:t.i:;h I:**:^* '. ■ • ■ : ''.:s to rrsMre the map of Kuropc 

as it w .i'* I ••■!"?«■!: •- N.-; ■ •.% ir* If* (ii'/rr*% Septrrr^ier. iftif. 

ti> j :r,'-. ■"If .1! T r^* 1 1 r:..iiL' ; -1 Ki a(tMa> . ow i!:^ to the C(«nriictiqg 

KiUrrs!!^ J ft %rt.tril ; *■ .! w : *■■. T*.;; l**-:! rrr.rwrd l.*.e war in 1S15. the 
ji wrs * vw t* .it ; ';. r.-.»'t • "rvf '.i .in a^jreen: fnt. 'I he deciiioni ftnaOy 
ati- ; r*-.! \.\ \],r ( ii:,^rr*><« r- : .t.:.ri! f:irit:%e amun|; the fti)snalury put 
(..f f.. rr t:.^r. i- i".; •. i u:% 


N \»\t;:.Nr 1. i^i :. ::.• •:.:'l'.n:.i!:^ts wh'» wrrr tr> rrv-tile 
I irt'tf .tN .trr.i::::« ii |.-. tJ-.« 'itrir/i^r Trr.i'* ff Pah.s > Mat, 
iM ; .ir.r' .it \:« •.*.... U'.: ri ir ;. •■/ thi mMp-.m h- m<M cunirrnrd 
felt that ihi '. i •..! i :*"! ;•;'.'• 'ii' ir rr-ilirr ((intKimtr Ici any dip- 
l(» hi'At'.ir f.i/h:.! «: *!>":::i:':. ::» !. ;:-'! thi-y ihcixforr 
tamr to Nur'i.i in :•« r--:' !•> ■.:■:-:: :;.i.r \ic-as. The final dr- 
I i'^inn nf ii>j»'.;t#-s ..*.v :■.;-. J*;. |.t'. in \]\r'.'N «»f ihr fi>ur fKiwrn 
'Kr.L''!. Ki:*^'-:.!. I'r«>-:.i. .ivl \i-T- •. • whii h l»y their unioo 
h:i«l if.r.<ji;( r!«l N.ijmi|o»::. Tht-^e four jp'iwer^ solemnly Afrrvcd 
In ai! in harmnny and to i>rirurr all ifUe^ti'^ns privalriy and 
then l.iv thrm iM-fnrt* thr ConirriN^. In fad. ihev iniciKlcd lo 



impose their will upon the smaller stales of Europe just as Na- 
poleon had done. That they did not succeed and that their con- 
cen wu broken wrre due lo the cxiraordinary ability of Tal- 
itynni, the first French plenipotentiary. The history of the 
Congress is the hislory of Talleyrand's skJUul diplomacy, and the 
resettlement of Europe which it effected was therefore largely 
ihc work of France. 

Emperor Francis of Austria acted as host (o his iUttstriotis 
guests. Tlie royalties present were Emperor Alexander of Ru*- 
ata, with the Empress; the Grand Duke Constantine, and his 
stMen the Grand Duchesses Marie of Saxe-V\'cimar, and Cath- 
erine of Oldenbun;; the Kin;; of Prussia, with bis nephew 
Prince William ; the Kinj; and Queen of Bavaria; the King and 
Crown Prince of Wurtemberg; the King of Denmark; the 
Prince of Orange; the Grand Dukes of Uaden, Saxe-Weimar, 
aitd HnK-Cassrl; the Dukes of Brunswick, Nassau, and Saxe- 
Coburg. The King of Saxony was a prisoner of war and ab- 

The plenipotentiaries of Russia were Count Razumovski, 
Count von Starkelberg, and Count Nt-sseJnxle, who were as- 
risted by Stein, the former Prussian minister and one of Alex- 
ander's most trusled advisers; by Pouo di Burgti, the CorsJcan, 
now appointed Russian ambassador to I'am; by Count Capo 
d'Islria, the future President uf (irrece; by Prince Adam Cur- 
toryski, one of the most [alriotic Poli-s; and by some of the most 
famowi Russian grnerals such as Chrmi&hev and Wolkonski. 
The Auslrian plenipotentiaries were Prince Metlemith, the 
State Chancellor; the Baron von Wcsscnbcrg .\mp&ngen; and 
Frinlrich von Geniz, who waii appointed to act as secretary to 
the Coagreaa. 

Englaixl was represented by I^rd Castlrreagh, Lord Cath- 
cait. Lord Clancarty, and Ixtrd Stewart, Cjsilcteagh's brother, 
who as Sir Charies Stewart had played iw great a pan in the ne- 
gotiattom in iStJl. and who liad l>ecn cirate<t a peer for hLi ser- 
Ttca. The English pleni)ioieni iarie^ were alMi aided by Count 
von Hardenbcrg am) Count von Muenstrr, who were deputed 
lo represent the Hanoverian inlem-tii. The Prussian plenipo- 
tentiaries were Prince von Hardenber^, the Stale ChancrUor, and 
WiUiaffl von Humboldt, who in mtUlary matlers were advised 


by General von Knesebeck. The French rrprcscntativeSi 
[Kirt was to be so im(;.Ttant, wiTe Talleyrand, Prince of 
vento; the Due de Dalber);, nrphcw of the Prince Prinutc; the 
Marquis dc la Tour du Pin, and the Comte Alexis dc Noailks. 
Thist' wrrr ihr ripn-sfntativi*s of the great {)owers. 

Amnn}; tlu* rrpri*s(*ntativcs df thi- lesser fK>wen nuy be noted, 
from the im|N)rtanie of their action, Caniinal Consaln. who 
n*f>rescnti'd the Po|>e (Pius VII), the Count of Labndor for 
Spain, (\>unt Palmclla for Portugal, Count Bcmstorf for Den- 
mark, Cdunt LfH'wenhicIm fnr Sweden, the Marquis dc Saint- 
Marsfin for Sardinia, ihc Duke di (*ampo Chiaro for Mural, King 
of Nai)le>; Ruffo for Fcnlinand, King of the Two Sicilies; 
Princr von Wrwlc f<»r Bavaria, Count Wintzingerode for Wur- 
ti-mUr^'. and (^lunt von SchuU-mbur^ for Saxony. In addition 
to thi-M- nprtsiTiiin^ iN»wtr> t»f the fipit anfi second rank, were 
innumrniMr nj»n senlatives of jKtty princifkalilies, deputies for 
the free rities <if ( irrmany. and even af;ents for petty Grnnan 
prinie% mediaii/c«! by NaiH.Ii**)r. in ificy). 

When Tiill* ynir.'l with the Fn n( h legation arrived in Vienna 
he fMiind, ;i*< has Imt:^ v-if'!. tIi:Lt the four great |w>wcr& had formed 
a <l*i^f iiniMn in ««n!er !•• *Mn!ri»I the Cnngn-ss. His first step, 
iherefnre, was tn m* Frir^ r f rrli :i< the c hampion of the second* 
rite Ni.itt^ nf K:;rn{K-. Tlir ('•••.::•.! • f Latirador, the Spanish rep- 
re^rr.r.itive, ^trr.r.^'Iv n -^r.iid :J:. nnduet of the great powers in 
[in'i i.-!:'ii: !'■ arrin^e matter'^, .l^ they callefl it, for the Con- 
gn-'-. T.iIIf'l ->.:Ii';!Iy mailr um- nf Labrador, and, thmugh 
hirr. .f. i J'.ilrr» ll.i. I'.» r* -t'-rf ar.d I.'»ewenhielm managrd to up- 
.M ! ••:• irii r-.iirr«i :!«..- <if !h«- f"'.:r allien, and insiMrd on 
e\« r;. :v. :Vrr I »«:■..:* : •;.»*•.: )m f. re :]\r C«ingrevs a> a mhiJr, and 
U !•'./ ;■:«:'.'.:•■! !•■• -— ill « ■mmitrri-^ '•ixt iailv srlcctnl for that 
p.:r:- -* . ]\.^ r.* \\ -r« j- v..:- : ■ wiw »!i'*MT."»i<in among the great 

:- A! r^. A- 'hr « h.irT^.:»:'T. «f !?:< •»malh r "^tate* he had alrradv 

■ " > 

m.i'!' V: I- . * . f . :>: !i ra* It :::.:' ra:.' »-. and he then claimed 
th.i* *•.• . r- . ha-! I ri/V.r ! ■ !■« Tia'*-! a-* a irrrat pnwrr and noC 
a^ .ir. • '• T-v. n.- I :/.•".« r' v. i» ';:.i? Fur'*;*- ha«! fought Xapo- 
I. '■ .• ! • • I r i- ■ • . •'•'. ir I. ■;> Will wa- the Ir^'itimate mon- 
ar» h f ! :..-•. ir*. i !h.i: .ir-. ij-rr-^jKit shi-wn to him or his 
ari^av-wi'i- r** 'A't'-I! reri..l *.r. !h» heads i-f all other legitimate 
;n<'*iari!i>. lie <.Uimeil that France had as much right to make 


her voice heard io the resettlement of Europe as any other coun- 
tiy, because the allied monarcks had dtslinctly recognised that 
•be wu only to be thrust back into hi-r (onncr limits and not to 
be expunged from the mai) of Euroi»c. 

Having made his claim good on the right of legitimacy of his 
master to speak for France as a great power equal in all respects 
to the others, he pruceedcd to sow dissension among the rrprc- 
•entalives of the four allied monarchs. This was not a difTicult 
lUng to do, for the seeds of dissension had long existed. The 
<fiffcreDce he introduced was that in speaking as a fifth great 
power, and as the champion of the smaller states, France be- 
came ihe arbiter in the chief questions before the Congress. 

The division between the great powers was caused by the 
dcnrc of Russia and Prussia for the aggrandizement of their ter- 
ritories. The Emperor Alexander wished to receive the whole 
vi PoUod. His idea, which was inspired by his friend. Prince 
Adam Caanoryski, was to form Poland into an independent 
Uogdom, ruled, howe\Tr, by himself as emperor of Russia. 
The Poles were to have a new constitution based on that pm- 
pOBoded in 1791, and the Czar of Russia was to be also King of 
PoIukI, just as in former days the electors of Saxony hail l>cen 
Uapof Poland, but he was to be a hercdilar>', not an clnrtcd. 
To form once more a unitcti Poland, .Austria and 
n to surrender their gains in the three partitions of 
Mand. Austria was to receive compensation for her loss of 
GaficU in Italy; Prussia was to be cumpetisatcd for the loss of 
riiMili Poland, by receiving Ihe whole of Saxony. .\s it had 
been already arranged thai Prussia was to receive Ihe bulk nf 
thr Rbenish territory on the left bank of the Rhine in addition 
to ber great extensions nf tSoj;, the muli would be tu make 
Pnimia by tar the greatest power in (icrmany. 

TaQcyrind wu acute enough to perceive that I^n] Castle- 
rcogh did rKit approve of the extension of the inlluence of Russia, 
and that Mcttcmiih was equally indisposed to allow Prussia to 
obttin wch a wholesale aggrandizement. Saxony had been the 
faklrful ally of France to the very last, and TalWrand felt that 
it woold be an inileh'bte stain on the French name if it were thus 
He was cordially iupponed in this sicw by his new 
r, for tbou^ the King of Saxuoy had been tiK faithful ally 


of NaiK)lc()n, I^>uis XVIII did not forget that his own mother 
was a Saxon princess. Working, then-forr, on the feelings of 
Ca&tleri'aKh and Mcttcmich, he induced England and Austria 
to dcvlarc against the si heme of Rus>ia and Tnihsia. 

l*ht- Km;>i-n>r Alexander and Fretleriik William blustered 
loudly; they dei lan*d that they were in actual militar\* possession 
of Toland ami of Saxony, and that thev ^^-ould hold those states 
by ffirie of amis against all comcni. In answer, Talkyruid, 
Cxstkreagh, and Mettemiih signi*<i a tn*aty of mutual alliance 
between Frame, Kngland, and Austria, on January 3, 1815. 

Bv this seiret treaty the lhri*c i)owers Ijound themselves to re 

• • • 

si>t by arms the si hemes of Kus.^ia and Prussia, and in the face 
of their detennine«l op|M)sition the Kmi^eror Alexander ga%*e 
wav. Iinmniiattly Na[M>Ieon ret u met 1 fn)m Ellia he found the 
dr.ift treaty Ik t wein the three jKiwers on the table of Louis XVIII 
and at onie x-nt it to Alexamler. That monanh, confrrmted 
with tin- darnvT ihp-.itenit! l>y NafKiIfon's landing in France, 
(<>n!(-r.t( 1! hiri'. < !f with ^howin;; the draft to Mettemiih and then 
threw i: in tl.i- ::ri . 1 hr \\h"!«' <»f ihi> strange stor>* is of the ut- 
nM>t ii::iTi-N!; i: jimxis rv.i i.nlv the aMlilv of Tallc\*rand, but 
ihr ir^'iinr.! -^:rrr..':h "f Frame. It i^ most significant that 
within .1 f« V. n. v:!:- af:« r the im * ■.:;».i!ii«n nl Pari.s by the allies 
f. -r \h: i:r-: !i:v.i- l':.^:^ e sh'>'.:M air.iiri 1 r rei'i»gni/.efl as a great 
;>i>'.M r .i:*. i f- rrn tht iz\.ii:\ laitcr in bnal.ini! up the cohesion ol 
thi- .illi.i::« e w!ii. li li.i.l ]Mtu f. irmul a;;.iinst her. 

I Iv n-:l! • f 'r.ili« \ r.i:i'l'- -Kilful i»»»Iiiy wx% thus to unite 
F.:./!.i:::!. \*.>Ti.i.;iV'! Vnr.* »-."»^i!»!»»)rtr«l bvmjnvof these scroo*. ^'.i'.i -. ■: :-. .. P..I". .t:!.i .i".;! S;«.iir.. .i:Min>t the pretensions ol 
I'r . - .1 ..• : 1' . . . I* ■.'.« :f;l ar..'..*" v.t re immoliatrlv set 00 
f - r. rr:ii-.' • i'-. :«i::;' ;!.ir r.ii-<'d h« r rv.ilitarv forces fn»m one 
!. ;:: !r''i tiii:';. ^i:-:-.!':-! t-- ! a«i h':ri«!ri'i lh«»'i>.ind men. and her 
n -A ;ir:T:y w.. ■•: t\vr\ \\.\\ '-'ijH-r: »r tn wi:h vihich Na{H>leoa 
I..1'! i'<i;/h! K.- :•:«:.;■. e t .irr.pai/'^- ir: I^I4. : -r it crmtained the 
\t •♦ r.r. •«- 1 !ii -. v, •: 1m ! !^i n \,\ - k.nlnl in thr flistant fortrnsci 
i z 1. ii )-»■!: 1 •.-: • r ! IrT^laP.d tiM» w.l^ enabled to make 
:;!'•. .• ! •• ;.:.:. :>. f- r •■:: I>iic:nU-r ^4. 1S14, a treaty had 
Utri :.-:«: ..: dhe;:: iMtwirn i!:e rniteti States and Enghnri 
uhi'h p.: .ir: ir.'l !•> the whii h had l>ern procccdiog crer 
sime iSij <>n aitnurst uf Kn^Ianil's naval prctensiona. 


Bavuia also promised to put in the ficUi thiny thousand men 
tor every one hundred thousand supplied by Austria. 

The determined attitude of the opposilion caused ihe Em- 
peror Alexander to give way. It was decided that iiulcad of the 
whole of Saxony, Prussia sboukl only receive the district of Lu- 
satia, includin); the towns of Torgau and Wittenberg, a terri- 
loiy which embraced half the area of Saxony and one-third of its 
population. The King of Saxony, who had been treated as a 
prisoner of war, and whom the Emperor of Russia had even 
ihreatened to tend to Siberia, was rrlcascd from captivity, and 
induced by the Duke of Wellington, who succeeded Lord Cas- 
tlcfcagh as English plenipotentiary in February, 1815, to agree 
to these terms. The salvation of Saxony was a matter of great 
gntifiration to I^uis Will, who remembered that though the 
King had been the faithful ally of Napoleon, he was also his own 
near relative. 

Since Prussia was obliged to give up the whole of her claim 
to Sutony, Russia also had to withdraw from her scheme of unit- 
ing the whole of Poland. Neverthele?a, Russia retained the 
Boo'sshareof the (H'and duchy of Warsaw ; in 1774 her frontier 
bad reached Ihe Owina and the Dnie|X'T; in 1793 she obtained 
half of Lithuania and touched the Niemen and the Bug; in 
1809 Napoleon had granictl her the territor)* atntaining the 
■MTCci of the Bug: and now in tStt; her borders iro&sed the 
VktuU, and by the annexation of the grand duchy of Warsaw, 
inchiding that dty, penetrated for some distance between East- 
era Pnutia and Galicia. Prussia received l>ack its share of the 
two fini p«nitions of Poland, with the addition of the province 
d Pown and the dty of Thorn, but lo^t Warsaw and its share in 
the lait partition ; while Austria rrceivrd Cracow, which was to 
be adminiiteped as a free city. Alexander was deeply dtsap- 
po te led by the frustration of his Polish schemes, but he never- 
tbdea^ kept his pnimise to Prince Adam Cianor>-ski and granted 
ft icptcseniative constitution and a measure of independence 
to Riuiian Poland. 

Thou^ tbe great diplomatic struggle aroK over the rom- 
Umd qtMtfioa of Saxony and Poland, the most important work 
of the Coogresa was not confined to it akine. Cnmnuttces were 
mpohilcd to make new aTTangements for Germany, Swjtier- 


Vienna continued Napoleon's policy of forbidding the 
of subji*ct cantons in s|)ite of the protests of the Canton of Bern. 
Napoleon *s cantons of Ar)i^u, Thurgau, St. (tall, the Grisoni^ 
the Ticino, and the Pays de Vaud were maintained, but the 
number oi the ( antons was raised from nineteen to twenty- two by 
the formation nf the thn*e new cantons of Gene\'a, the Valais, 
anri Ni'ui hatil, which had formed {jart of the French empiir. 
The Canton of Kern received in reply to its importunities the 
f^reater part of the fr)rmer bishopric of Kasel. The Swiss Con- 
federation as thus constitute<l was placiti under the guarantee 
of the jn^Mt [x>wers and cleclan"*! neutral forever. The Hd^ttic 
Constitution, whic h was promul^atifl by a Federal act dated 
April 17, 181 5, was n(»t quite so iib<.*ral as Nai^Jeon's constitu- 

Greater indefK-ndence was securefl in that the constitutions 
of the M-jKiniir cantons and organic reforms in them had not to 
1m* >ubmi!tnl to the Fi-fli-nil Dii-t. Thi* (irohibition against in- 
ttmal tijsti.m hoiir^N was nninvc^!. The [in-sidency of the Dirt 
wa'N r(-Mr\i<! !'• 7.^:r.^ h. lUn\, and Luctme alternately, an<l the 
Ilrlvetir I)iit JKi.imr a i«':.L'r« v^ <«f (irli*f;ates like the Germanic 
Dill rathtT th.t**. a I< L::'«Ia!:vr .i-M-mblv. It is to be noted that in 
•"pitr t'f thf <i'i*.'«n ^f :h«- C"n;jress of Vienru, Prussia ne- 
liMtl :•► rrr.« •'.::•.■ r h' r • !.i:rns « :: hrr former territory of Ncti- 
ihatcL thi ::v!! :k-:: irriir •>/ wh.ii h as a Swiss canton was noC 
riii-jr.i/itl hy h« r ■.;:;! il 1*^57. 

Thr ri-^t!K::Tt :.i i.f l!.il\ prf-xntnl more than one special 
pr •! Itirs. Thi :::■-: <i:Vi ..It «'i \hr><* !•» vJve was caused by the 
I :-.j:'.:t r^ r.:- 1 r.v rrl :: • • ••;. •*:« aIlii-> wilh Murat in 1S14. Tal- 
I* .r.irv!. . n S r.iii : ::.r K:r.i/ « f I m:;i r. insisteil on the ifc- 
:r.r .-.'rr-.i : : ..• ! f\;».I*:.:i .f M..rat, while Mrttemich, frtXB 
:'::• :: !-h ;> ! r Carlir.'. M.;ra:, -Ai^hnl t-i ntain him in his king- 
.1 r\. I hv l.n*.:n r r Alixar. !• r. uh'> iver phdol himself on his 
?. ill.*-, r . h> i: .r.i.rimt:.!-. w.-ht-i! :*» 5)rr»icTt Murat, and had 
.ir \ .1 :.:..! ^:r.;i ".. :.:« a iri« r.»i.*h :• with Kug^ne de Bcao- 
Jur: .1 -. \.i:- :.•.:.*». \:. « r v .f I'aly. Murat, ungrateful thoagk 
hi- A .- ;- rs. :..:I1\ ! w.iri \.::- lo^n. ha^l vet imbiljcd his mas- 
:rr^. i-.i- • Ti-. r : rh-- ;.r.:*\ :ir.'! :ndr;«endence of Italy. Dur- 
ir.k: 'hi .arr.iu.^. t 1*^14 hi* had lol his armv to the banks ol 

• ■ 

the r. . a::d hi- Tirp»>:nl :n n-ma:ning there after the O 


of Vienoa had met. But the diploniatisL<> at Vienna had no wish 
to accept the grcal idea of Italian unity. Mum's aspiralioas 
in this direction were most annoying; to them, and it was with 
RsI pleaaurr that they heard, after the landinf;<>f Na|K>leon from 
EHw, that Murat had by an induscrcet prodamation given them 
an excuse for an open declaration of war. 

The Duke di Campo-Chiam, Murat's rrprrsentativc at Vi- 
enna, had kqjt him informed of ihe difTerrnccs between the 
allkd powers, and an indiscreet note asking whether he was to 
be considered is at peace or at war with the of Bourbon 
ga^T the plenipotentiaries their opportunity. War was imme- 
dtalcljr declared against him; an .Austrian army defeated him at 
Tolentino on May 5, 1815, and he was forced to t)y from Italy. 
The acceptance of Mural's ambassador, who spoke in his name 
•a King of the TVo Sicilies, made it difficult for the Congress to 
know bow to tr«at with RulTo, who had been sent as ambassador 
by Ferdinand, the Bourbon King ot the Two Sicilie*, who had 
maintained his power in the island of Sicily through the prc»- 
ence of the English garrison. Ariing on the ground of legiti- 
macy, it was ditlicult to reject Ferdinand's claims, which were 
wmnnly supported by France and Spain, but Murat's ill con- 
■idavd behavior solve<l the dilTiculty, and after his defeat Ferdi- 
nand was recognized as King of the Two Sicilies. Murat, later 
in ibc year, landnl in his former dominions, but he was taken 
pritoncr and prompUy shot. 

Another Italian (jucstion which prrsrnted considerable dif- 
ficulty was ihe disposal of Genoa and the surrounding territory. 
When Ix>rd William Beniintk occupied ihat uiy, he had in the 
name of England promised it independence and even hinted at 
the unity of Italy. Ca-*t!creafih unfonunalily fi-lt it to be his 
duty to disavow Benlimk's declaration, and Genua was united 
to Piedmont as part of the kinKdum of 5^anlinia. The ihirti dif- 
ficnfa qtiestion the creation of a state (or the Empress M&ne 
Loutac. An independent soverrigniy hail tx-en pr(imL>etl in hrr. 
She was naturally Bupporte<l by her father, the Emperor Fran- 
di o( Austria, and was ably represrnled al Vienna by her future 
faaibw)d. Count Neipper^. It was eventually reaolvei) ihai she 
iIkmU receive the duchies of I'arma, I'i.tcenza.and Gua>tilla,but 
Iks ■UOCfioo wu not secured to her son, the King of Rocne, 


but was granted to the rightful heir, the King of Etniria, wlio, 
until the succession fell in, was to rule at Lucca. The other ar 
ranjjements in Italy were comparatively simple. Austria ir 
ceiveci the whole of Venetia and Lombardy, in the place of 
Mantua and the Milanese*, which she had iM)ssessed bcforr 17SQ. 
The grand duchy of Tuscany, with the princi|xality of Fiombioo, 
was restontl to the Orand Duke Fenlinand, the uncle of the 
Em|H*ror Francis of .\ustria, with the eventual succession to the 
dmhy of Lucca. The Poik* received l)ack his dominions, includ 
ing the legations of Rologna and Ferram, and Duke Francis, 
the grandsfjn of Hercules III, was recognized as Duke of Mo 
dena, to which duchy he would have succeeili*d had not Nape** 
U*on absorlx^d it in his kingdom of Italy. The arrangcfnmis 
with regard to the other .siate> of Kun»|H* made at the CongmA 
of Vienna were com|>arativi-ly unim{M>riant and did not prracct 
the same ditl'icult problems as the n*settlement of Germany, 
Switzerlaml, anrl Italy. Nor^%ay. in spite of its disinclination, 
was di-tmiti'lv irdi-tl t<i Swt*«icn. luit Hemadotte had to mfore 
tn Frinf e thr Wot Ir.di.'in island <»f (fUadelufK-, which had been 
handetl dvir t" liim by Kn^' in 181 ^ as {lart of the price of 
his alliarue. Dtiimark had bv thr Tnatv of Kiel with Bema- 

m m 

ciottr litxn prrimJM^! Swf<lish rnmerania in the place of Nonraj. 
Thjo promi>« >\as v^^. ktpt. I)« r.mark Jike Saxony, had been loo 
riithful an ally <.[ N\iji*.ltf ^n n*»t t«» U- made to suffer. Svcdifth 
I't-nu rar.i.i wa> irivm \u Tru^^^ia. and Denmark received onlv the 
'^mall duihv i.f !.av;iT.buri!. !*v the*<' arraneemenis both Swr- 
i!' :: and Dtv.mark wrn- i'rr.L!ly \irakenei!. and the Scandiaa- 
■■ .I'l >!.itr^. I'V :}:i I'»»- '.f li'il.ind and Pomerania, surrrndered 
• 'hi ir i-wirli:l ^.^:^:hl^'r^, I*n;N>ia ami Russia, the commaxid 

>: .1!: . -Air:*.' !" thr abiliry ^A thi- Connt '-f I^brador and the 
-•.;;-r: «•( T.illryr.irvl. r.«'t t.Til\ jn^t nothing rxcrpt the LUand ol 
Triridad, whi<h Ut-n < tir'.»n;rrMi by Fnt^land, but wa.» al- 
1 -.vii v^ n-tain :*:• 'ii-^rrji ! r«';:r.d 'Mi\cn/j. whiih had been 
« ••♦!♦•'! r.i hrr by I'. r!-.:iMl iv. i nc! Thr di-s* ri^n of Tonugal by 
r.r./l.i:.'! i.n rhis jMrr:. .«* •}:» 1 hit f Mi-t i.n LonI Castlrrragb'i 
p ! ■. .• Virr.r.a. Th* I '■ :*:/.«-«■ army had fought gallaatlr 
w::;. \\. li;'..:s, ar.'i tfu" w.i** n" na^m whv she should have 
bce:i (t>rLol *'• i«i;.M-n: : \\\k delinite Lcaaiuo of Olireoa to 


Spain when othrr counlrira wcrp winning back their former 
bonjos. Portugal was also made to surrender French Gulaoa 
utd Cayenne to France. Hngbnc), though she had borne the 
chief pecuniary strras of ihc war— had been more instrumental 
than any other power in overthrowing Napoleon — received leu 
compensation than any other country. She kept Malta, thus 
■ettling the question which led to the rupture of the Peace of 
Amiens; she received Heligoland, which was ceded to her by 
Denmark, as commanding the mouth of the Elbe, and she was 
also gnnted the protectorate of the Ionian Ishinda, which en- 
abled her to close the Adriatic. 

Among colonial possessions England took from France the 
Mauritius, Tobago, and St. Lucia, but she returned Maninique 
aiKl the Isle o( Bourbon, and forced Sweden and I'onugal to 
restore Guadclupc and French Guiana. With regard to Hol- 
land, England retained Co>l<in and the Cape of Good Hope, 
but she restored Java, Cunifao, and the other Dutch possessioiu. 
tn the West Indies, also, she retained, as has been said, the 
former Spanish island of Tnnidad. 

One n^ason for Castlereagh's moderation at \'ienna is to be 
found in the pressure that was exerlnl upon him in England to 
•ecurc the abolition of the slave trade. It is a curious fact that 
while the English plentiKitentian- was taking such an important 
share in the resettlement of Europe, the English people were 
mainly intcr«Ic<l in the question i>l (he slave trade. The great 
changes which were leading to new combinations in Eu^^p^■, the 
agKraDditement of Prussia, the reconstitutitm of Gcnnany, the 
cxteosioa of Austria, at! passed without notice, but meetings, in 
Lord CasUerea^'s own wonl-i, were held in nearly every village 
to fauist upon bis exerting his authority to ab')tish the trade in 
acfio tUvea. Castlereogh, therefore, lent his best efforts, in 
obedience to hJs constituents. In this end. 

The other amba.<tsadon couKI not understand why he imub- 
Ir) io much a})oui what 5remcil to them a tn\-ial maltrr. Thry 
I deep design, and thought that the niui>n of Eng- 

d't hunuiniiy was that her West Indian n>lunirs were well 

i with negroes, whereas the islartds she was restoring were 

CB^My of them. The plenipotentiaries of olhi-r |aiwcn possa*- 

tag colonics in ibe tropics thctcfurc refused to comply with Cb»- 

a., roL. IT.— «i. 


tli'rcaf;h*s request, and it was eventually settled that the sbve 
tnidc should be abolished by France after fi\T and by Spain 
after ei^ht years. Castlereaf^h had to be content m-ith this con- 
( (*ssi(»n, but to satisfy his English a>nstituents he got a dcdan- 
tion rondcmninj; the slave trade assented to by all the powm 
at ihf Congress. Another p«)int of great importance which was 
M'ltlc^l at thi- Congri*ss of Vienna was with regard to the navi- 
VMtion of rivi-rs whiih flow thnmgh more than one state. It had 
\k'vu xhv custom for all the jielty sovereigns to imfxise such %ttt 
hca vv t( ills f >n rivrr tniflic that such rivers as the Rhine wrrr made 
|»r:i( licilly us<'li-ss for commerce. This question m-as discusicd 
\iy :i (ommittu- at thi- Con^ri-ss, and a ccxk* for the international 
rrj^lalion of rivers was drawn u|> and generally agreed to. 

Th(-M> matters took lon^ to discuss, and might ha\'e taken 
!«ini:< T n(»t the new*« arriveti at the In-ginning of March, i8i<;, 
that NafMiItfin lift Pllba and Urome once more undisputed 
ruli r i'i Fr.iru r. In the month of Februar)' the Dukr of Welling- 
t'>n h.iil s.:. tMiInl I.«.ri! Ca'-ilerea^'h as English n*pr»entati%e 
:i! \ ii r.TM. r>r tl:« l.iiti r r.otiKm.m had to return to I»nflon to h'.'- j.l.n r v.\ rarlianu III. At the news of the striking ctml 
I'f \.ii* 'In •;'.'•* \n'::\i[ nnt e more at the head of a French army aO 
jt .il« •>:-:« - a! \":« r'.n.i « imm'I fnr a lime. The Duke of WcUingtoQ 
\\.i'< n irit'i ( I'l^::!:.!!!' n liv the allied monanhs, and it was 
r« - htil !•• i .irrv ir'.!i) t :Te< I ih«- i»ro\i'^ions f»f iheTn-atv of Chau- 
ri'.":;!. Thr '/n .i! ani'.ii s whii h ha<i l»een pn-jiart^J for a slruff- 
e!i aniiVLr iJi«mMl-.«N w« re n^w tumol by the allien agaifttt 
I> '.• ' f. A !rr.i*;, if'c r w.i-* •^i^rno! at Vienna between .\u»- 
:•:.'.. k..-: I. \*r. — \ i. ar:! Kr^irliv.l «»n Man h 25, 1R15, by which 
:*. • ;- -.s, r. ;■: •• \,,| :,, f;.rT.i«.h «'n!- hiin«!rii! ei;'htv thousand 
' • ' .1 '': f r :!:• ;'■-•• ./.iri of \\.ir. ;Ln>i stipubtol that ntmr of 
'V" .1 ! If. •!• .iv. .imi^ instil the |-»wer c»f NafHiIcim wa* 
• ■•;!.*i!;, «!.-:: .\r«!. It \%.lh .i mm {*e« I that three armies should 

■■• t !• 1 tin r;r««t "f iwohiiniln^l fifty thou saml .XuMrianA* 
It :.i' -. ,1* ! r..i\.iri.i:> »:::•!« r S h war/en !)ur>; arn»ss the Up 
; r k!.;: * -i ■ .'.\.\ i.f ».v.r hiindn^l fiftv th«iusan<l I*ruwan» 

• :* ' I'.l . !.r .1. r "»^ :*.i I... WIT khine; and the thini «>f one 
■ • '• ■ ■ :■• '>'■- .-i^i r:'.;:li-.h. Han«.\erians, anti Dutih tnm 
i!:i \f •hrrl.iv.!-. S'.:l..i.iii> t,. the extent of elevm millian» of 
l-.-ruli wen j.n rniMd 1a HrijjLnd tu the allies. Thcar 


mrnU made, the allied mnnarfh!! and their minislcni left Vienna. 
But the final general act o( the Cohrtcss was not drawn up and 
lignwi until June 8, 1815, ten days before the Batlle of Waterloo. 

The final overthrow of Napoleon and his exile to Sl Helena 
ftDowcd the new system for the govemmonl vf Europe as laid 
down by the Congress of Vienna to be tried. That system 
may be roughly designated as the s)-5tem of the Orcat Powcn. 
Beforc 1789, certain states, such as France and England and 
Spain, wctT, from fortuitous circumstances or the course of their 
histor)-, larger, more united, and therefore more fittcil for war 
than others, but the greater part of the Continent was split up 
into small, and in the case of Germany into very small, states. 
Several of these small states, such as Sweden and Holland, had 
at diflerent times exercised a very ronsiilcntbic influence, and the 
policy of Frederick the Great had added another to them, in the 
miUtaiy state of Prussia. At the Congreiw of Vienna the ten 
dency was to diminish the number and |M)wer of the M-mndar)' 
■UIca and to dcstnty minute mvereigntics. Sweden and Den 
mark wcic rrlcgaled to the mnk of thin! rate i>owcr\: the l>etly 
principAlitics of Germany were built up into ihinl rate states. 
Austria and Prussia were established as gn-al powers, but the 
increaae of their territory brought with it dissimilar results. 
PntwU became the preponderant state of Germany, while Aus- 
tria, whose imperial house had so long held the title of Holy 
Roman Em|*rn>r. bctame less German, and now de)>enilei1 for 
hs sttcnxth nn its Italian, .MogA'ar, ami Slavonic primmer. 
The irruption of Kuuua into the Kun>pcan enmity of n3tii>n.s 
was another significant feature. !ty it» annexation of the greater 
put of the grand duchy of Wanaw, Russia ihrmt itself brlwren 
PniMia and .\ustria territorially, while iis leading share in the 
overthrow of Napoleon made its place as a Eun>fK-an power un 
liililili It may be doubii-i] if ihc imliiv <i[ Pett-r the Great 
■nd the Erapreaa Catherine was thus rarriei) ••iit. The ten 
dency of thoM rulers wa» to moke the llahic anil the BUck Sea 
RuHiati lakei, and to build up an empin- of the Ka*t i allaini in 
Central Eumpc intetrsled iheni only in ki far as they pnrvuitnl 
inlcffcreiK-c with their Eastern designs, and did not lead to the 
cractbo o( powerful Mates cm the RuMJan lii>nler. 

Nothing b more remarkable in the teitlement of Eun>pe by 


the Con^n'ss i)f Vienna than the entire ne);lect of the prindpk 
of natinn;iliiy. Vet it was the sentiment of national patriotism 
which h;i«l enabled Frame in npiilsc Kun)|K* in anns, and had 
tn;i.ioI llie xiMiers with whom Na{K)Iet>n had pven the law to 
the C*<>;itirient a:i<l t>verthn>w:i the menenar}' annies of his 
op|>i>nr!it*<. It \^a^ the |irirui|»le t>f natitmaHty which hafl crip- 
|iliii Na|N»lei)ir> liiu-Nt annie.s in Sjiain, and whiih had pn«luccd 
hi> I \p;:I>i()n fmni Ku.s.Ma. It \\a.^ tlie feeling; df intenM: national 
pa:rii>ii:n whiih Ii.i«l made the rru.sMan a:n^y of kSi;, and en- 
aMiil i'n:->i.i after \\> dr(|H>t h'iinuliati«>n tn take rank as a 
t'ir>i (Ia» |Ni\\ir. liiit the «iiplt>niati>t.s at Vienna treatnl the 
i<ir.i a.> V. ithttut I'lne. They had not leaninl the ^rcat k'VM>n t»f 
the l*'ri :n h Kev<>Iuti>>n, the t'lrst n-MiU (»f nmsin^a national 
tnr.M ii>i:>ni-N.s <>f |MiIiii(.d liUny is ti» in-ate a spirit i>f national 
patrioijstn. The ('on'^revs of Vienna tramplcil suih nf>(ioiis 
under fdii. Thi- partition of ToLuid wa> lon.sei rated by Eu 
P^pi . It.ily w.LN pl.ii r 1 iindir fonii:n niUrs; Helium antl Hoi 
Lm-l. ill ^\>iu- of tl;t- )uTi«!itan- opjuiMtinn of centuricSt vrcfv 
iinitf! i.r.drr o:;f k::.:!. Ihr irrritorii-s on llie left lAank of the 
Rli.:.- . 'a!:!- !i v.« t I'.-ij'p) i:nlir Fn ni h r:le. and ha<l been 
ir:!r.:r.d p.iri • i I r.i:.. t j. ir t\M ;iiy Mars, were ninthly torn 
a:.'! di\idid It :\\i\:: i 'r .>•*:. i. n.i\ar:a, am! l!ie h<»UM: of Orange, 
U'l'Itr thr f.i:;- !« i r.i- '--it;. :::!•.:• id !>y il'.e expIiNktl notion of 
ni.ii:.:.i::.i:-.^ \\.\ 1 ..I..:., r • i |"f".\ir in K;:r»|K-, of buildxni; up a 
biil'A.i.'N .i.\i.:>I I :.::;« e. >: Ji ^liort >ii;h!e»i |-'lii\' was certain 
t ' •"• ■.::. !■ ■«. 1!'!..: ! ,i:vl Mi L:i-.;:n >ep.ira!o!; Italy Ixxamc 
:.:..:• !. I'!..: 1 :-..i • • i!: i : ::i« i •»n><io„sr.i ^^ «f her national 
■..:.'.. ..:. ! i. .' : : ::. .:. ■ :. ^ < :■. Iia\«Tiil t-i regain her inde- 
;• ■ :. ' . I ■..■ :.' •: n.i-i'I t' ;,iarn after htr natural 

I- ■. *: • I^: ■• . :".• -•..'i - ■ f iHrr...i:'.\ have t!i-\clo{ictl a 

.: • . • . ; .'• '. "'. •' :;. }) ha^ li«l t • :!:r ireatiim of the 
1 '{»'■• .-. 1 •:•■■. i :i> (f . I;::;^ ..f vi.n . :. u^ natj'-r^LlT 

i- . ' .' : :';■■.' I :• :. r. li' -.•!:! in av.l ihi- wan of Na{x> 

1' •.■■.•. .^ !l.. ■'t'i •:.•!?; . I I :..:!.i:-. !. rramc. RusAia, 

..: ' " I »^ ':.' '^r.iV ■ • ^- ' : .\;>!ria. In k> far 

.1 '" .!•■ ".^.i- :• .•!■ • :• '! .il !hr Cnncrrvs i)f Vi- 

«'' -. ■•'... ] .\ :•::■.;-. r.i:\ ; in irs re>urTrt tion, whiih 

J.-i- r .!• :;. . f ::.. prt-M !:i itntury, the «\>rk of the 

Frir.^Ji Ki'.' I-ii- n l'..i- Im:: jinnantnt. 


Bui after all, the gruwth of the spirit of rutionaliiy ts onl)- a 
accondary result of the French Revolution upon Europe; it did 
oo(«rise in Fmncc until forcipi powers altcmplciJ lo interfere with 
the developflicnl of the French people after their own fashion; 
it did not arise in Europe until Napoleon ticgan to intcrferr with 
the development of other nations. The primary nsults of the 
Fimch Revolution — the recoRnition of individual liberty, which 
unpticd the abolition of serfdom and of social privileges; the 
csisbli&hmeni of political liberty, which impbed the abolition of 
despots, howe^'cr benevolent, and of political privileges; the 
mamlenancc of the dmtrine of the sovereignty of the people, 
which implied the ri(;ht of the people, through their representa- 
tives, lo ^vem thcmselixs — ha^x oLsu sur^-ived the CoDfcress of 

When Europe tried to interfere, the French people ucriGccd 
these great gains to the spirit of nationality, and bowed before 
the dcspoti«n of the CommiUee of Ihiblic Safety and of Napo- 
IcDo; liiey have since regained them. The French taught thc4e 
pri n cipl es to the rc»l of Kuropc, anil the hUtory of Kuri>|>c since 
1815 has been the history of their growth side by side with 
the Wca of nationality. How the two— lilx-rly and national- 
ity — can be preserved in bonnuny is the great problem uf the 

PRoiKsrs a(;ainst the war of iSh 

A l>. IH14 


Although this ^.tthrrint; nf New KnKUnd mrn lonfc ^incc 
mainly a Mi)>jri t nf ".uailcimc " tli.^uMion amoriK hUtorical cnbOA. il 
was nt'vcrthi'lcNH .m t-vcnt ui much |N>li( RijcnificAnoe at the time wbca 
s-:ch .1 ^trl>n^ |<nitrNt uttered o^ainikt the nar pulicy oi TrrsidcBt 
M.nlisiiii. Ml (li^astriius t<i New Kn^l^id commerce. A» »ho«n in the 
tolliiMiiit; .K-riiwiits. the prinnpal question rai%e<i tor hiMorUat by the 
.irtmn t*i ttir ninvnituin concerns its attitude regarding a puMible d»- 
>ol:jtiiirt <■! x)\c I hiiifi 

The Hurttxril Cnnvcntion '»o called from the pUoe of its wmig,!i'ri!. ('••!ifirrT:< ut; hrld Hecrmlicr 15. 1S14. to January 5. ilif. 
t: M.iN i x-:.; fs.i) 1.1 tvit!vr lirlr^atei^ from Massachusetts, trvrn froai 
('•■ r.'ir. ;!, t<:r ir.irn KhiMli two fmrn New Ham|Mhire. and 
<>.rlr<>!;i \'<r'i-.<>:it 'I'hr fniulitnifis that let! to the calling of ihc 
\' :.! ■:. '!•;'••• m!::./n. uhu'h Mrrr i-arnf*d ttn in secret, and the gl 
'..j< '1 !%:.:• -I : .1. r ri «!«<1 O.v susyw.Kttw ui its " trcasunabk " dcMgBs. afv 
I !t arly ui.\ 1-..1 art ^'!> vet !i>r:h Ix-luw 

siyKoN y. nALi>wis 

''T*ni'- I.i-^t «l.i;.^ • f ilu- FoiinilistN wrrc not their best dAjrk 
'I h.«- \\'^"r \\:'!i wh'u h Mi* y « .irriiil thnm^h the adoption ol 
!*i. (*..?>.•.: .' . .i:.i :rii «!i^':i:!y with whii h ihry at firM ad* 
••.••■-: ::.t :• -. 1 r'::n« r:!. m-«t!ui| t«i «!«"s4Tt thrm as ihry ap- 
j: .1. •;. ■! J* ::»T>-:i a:: 1 his l:irr.<iN uv^l to laU ihc *'Rc*o- 
1 .' ' ' 1 !<' ." rir^>:::il ri\.i!riis and misurulcrMafldiap 
.1- ■ .: :!n:r li.i»!rr*. -irrA- 'r:I:\ ir-!:i'v:i"^. if not to make C. C- 
!' ' '.:••. I'ri -: !«■:■! i*> ..f \ :.t:n^, vi-i (rrtainlv to make 
I- •' I'-i -,:i •;•. i- -: .i-i ■! J'lTiTSi'M; liittrmi-xs in op{H«iliocl, 
• .i":t.- ■■• ■ \i r. .■.:•• I .1 -f . .••;::! r>- -tht-M' make up the mi^ 
* ' *:■.;!• r V.I.;. ;: . 1 ^1 r. J;>: »ry of a ^n-at (urty. 

I' H n .-A it;.i'i\ \».ir- -i'M J^hn Ouimv Adams bfought iar^ 
w.i:<i the ihar^'r that oi-riH- lr.i<lin){ Federalists uf 



•etts wcrr and bod long been plotting the secession fnmt the 
Unioti of the Northern or at the New England States. 
The many additions, of late, lo American political biography, 
and Ihc j^winj; frankness and unrcscnc with which the pri- 
vate Intrra of a public man are now publishes), almost before 
the grave has cU»cd over him, have placed the present genera- 
Ikm in a position to judge inlolligenlly of the tnjih of this accu- 
aalion. That it was not without some foundation is now plain, 
but that it was pn-ased too far seems hanlly \i-s» st». 

The person most active in pushing the scheme for a separa- 
tion Menu to have been Timothy Pickcrin((. Souretl by politi 
cal disappointments and [tccuniary embarrassments, when he 
found himself in litoj relumed by Ma&sachuM-Ils to the Senate 
of ibe United Stales, he could not bear the sight of Jelletwin in 

"Apostasy and original depravity," he writes lo George 
Cabol in January, 1804, " arc the quahfications for ofhdal hon- 
on and emoluments while men of sterling worth arc displaced 
and held up lo popular contempt and scorn. And shall we »it 
stiU, until this system shall universally triumph ; until even in the 
Eastern Stales the principles of genuine Federalism shall be 
ovcnrhctmcd ^ This is a ilelicale subject. 

"The principles of our Revolution |>oint to the remeily — a 
•rpftralion. That this can Ik- accomplisheil, and without ypill- 
inR one drop of blood, 1 have little doubt. One thing I know, 
that the rapid progress of innovation, of corruption, of uppres- 
MM, tnrm the iilea upon many a retlci Ung mind. The [Nvple of 
the East cannot reconcile their habits, views, and interests with 
tboK of the South and Wevl. The Litter are beginning lo rule 
with a rod of iron. Some Conncclicut gentlemen —and they arc 
all well informe»l ami diwreet — auurr me thai, if the Iriuling 
Dcroocmts in that State were to get the upper hainl -which 
would be foUciwed by a radical change in their unwritten nm- 
ttitution— the)- should not think ihrmwlvc* wife, either in per 
•on or properly, and would thereftire inime«liately quit the Sute. 
I do OCX bclie^T in the practicability of a long-ci>ntinueil union. 
A Northern confederacy would unite congenial iharactcni and 
prcacDI a fiUrer prosjiect of public happinev*; while the South- 
on Suuf, haviog a limilaniy of habit5, might be left ' to man- 


a^c their own aiTairs in their own way/ If a sqtanUioa wm to 
take pbce, our mutual wants would render a friendly and 
nr.oaial InlerrDursi' inevitable. 

**I Ix'licve, imiee<l, that if a Northern confederacy 
fomiini;, our Southern bnrthren would be seriously alanncd* 
and pmbably abandon their virulent measures; but I greatly 
doubt whfthtT prudence should sufTer theamnectioD toeontinue 
mui h longer. The pniposition would be welcomed in Connccti' 
cut; and touM wc doubt of New IIami>shire? But New York 
must Ik* asscH iati*d ; and how is her concurrence to be obtained ? 
She must l>e made the centre of the confevleracv. Vermont aad 
Ni'W JerM-y would follow of course, ami Khcxle Island of nccct- 
sitv. \Vh(» can Ix* consultet! and who will take the lead?" 

Many were consulti-fl, but ni) one was found ready to lead who 
w.'is alile ti> iia'!. CaU>t si-nt this letter of Pickering to Fisher 
Ame<, and talknl it over with Chief Justice Parsons and Stephen 
IIiL:L!ins(in; l)iit it met with sympathy rather than approraL 
In (*>innr(ti( i:t, ap]>:inntly, the pmject was rixeivcd with greater 
f.iMT than in M.i-vn husrti<. Judpe Reeve, the founder of the 
!.:!« h!uM Law S' h«Kil,and a hpither-in law of Aaron Burr, cum 
iniitid him^lf ii> ii unreser\"e<llv. 

'I ha\e >Kv:\ many of our friends," he writes to Senator 
Trat y in I-VSr.iar.. i^^\, *'an«I all that I have seen, and most 
tlia! I }:.i\t !:».::'! !>• rn. lnlirNr that we must se|\irate, and that 
!?.:- i^ ll.r IV. i< f.i\' raMr ni'>rn< -it. 'Mu- dilTiiultv is, how i% this 
I ' !h- .i« I »::^:i!i-*:"! / I have luarl ••! nrsly thn-c frentlemcn as 

Ii..:r v..- •.;:'.i!» :-•.■-»«! :-• rr.ti-rt.iin «« s4-ntimenLs a* aho 
i!. ! ( i' •. I r:- :( i: :-■.'.••!! ff ('"!:::•-!:« ;:t an 1 Senator Plumrr of 
N- % n..:n;'^.::t . {):: a .!:! -.^ri:.- it !• n;:!!i t«» Oliver WokoCt 
:•. M.i: !:. i^' j. • v. t?:* -'i^'jitt < f H'.:rr's \ie-A-i; looking to him 
;i- I'r'l'.iS!-. :!;i Im .*. r::.i;i arM-;:!-! vh^-m t^ rdlv the "Northern 
'■ :• -!.'* 1 :! « ''rnj'l.iinin^ that he fi'^ind his expression of his 
: :- ' ' r..'!".' r I)*!;};:-. "I havi- n«» h«-sitation m\->clf," he 
vi\ ;:.l: i! ihtn- can U* r'» safitv to the Northern 
^- -•' ' .r a ^.!; n fn»:n the Cunfi^lirarv. The balance 


• : ■ ■ •■ ' . *' : :':.r j:r-« ::i ( 'n'. i rnment is det idedly in fa%x>r of 
i::* > .•.;:• ::i St.iti-^; n«r tan that balance be chaitgrd or de- 
<: i hv (|.:t>::(o, then, i^, Can it Ik safe to remain un- 


tier a govcmmait in wboM measum we can have no cfl<x-tivc 

"With these views I should certainly deem it unfortunate 
to be compelled to place any man at the head of the Nonhcm 
interest who would stop short of (he object, or would only use 
bis influence and power for the purpose of placing himself at the 
bcftd of the whole Confederacy as it now stands. If f^nilcmcn 
in New York should entertain similar opinions, it maM be very 
important to ascertain what the ultimate objects of Colonel 
Burr are. If we remain inactive, our ruin is certain. Our 
friends will make no attempts alone. By supportinft Mr. Burr 
we gain some support, although it is of a doubtful nature and of 
which, God knows, wc have cauwr enough to be jealous. In 
short I see nothing else left for us. The pniject which wc had 
formed was to induce, if jNMuible, the legislatures of the three 
New England States who remain Federal to commence meas- 
ures which should call for ti reunion of the Northern Stales. 
The extent of those measures, and the rapidity with which they 
■ball be fnUowed up, must be governed by circumstances." 

But the great men of the party looked coldly on the project 
of breaking up the Union, which thc^ hail done so much lo form. 
The Adamses werr S4.-art-cly appn^achcd, and Hamilton, when 
oonmlled, gave it no entxiunigrnicnt, although he probably 
tgrrcd to attend a private mirtingof the leaders at Btnton, which, 
Iwt (or his own death, would have been held in the winter of 
1804. Not a few reganlci) an ultimate separation as pn>bable 
tad perhaps as not ^^ry rlistani, but bclievetl that it would come 
only after great suffering h.iil been found to result fmm the 
tnessum inspired by Southern inf lenccs. 

"If," wrote Cabot lo Pickering in ivply to the Idler o( Jan- 
avy, 1804, frvnt which we have quoted, "wt- should lie maile 
to fee) a very great calamity fmm llii- abuse of power by the na 
tklnal.^dministration,wc might do almost anything, but it wr>ul(i 
be idic to talk to the deaf, to warn the ]<cnplc of distant evils. 
By this time }-ini will sup[K>st- I am willing to do tunhing but 
■ubmil to talc. I would not U- so undrrvtiMxI. I am convinced 
we cannot do what is wished; but we can do murh if wc work 
with Nature— or ihe counic of things— aivd noi agaiail her. .\ 
low impracliinble, because we <io not feel the oe- 


((\<vsity (^r utility of it. The same separation then will be un* 
avnidahli' whin our loyalty to the Union is generally perceived to 
be thr in.stmnu-nt of ilrlKisinicnt and im|Mivi*ri.shnicnt. If it be 
prematurely atimipti-d, thosc*^ few only will pn)mote it wbo dis- 
cern what i> hiddi-n from the multitude; and tu those nuy be 

"Trutli^ Houkl yitti trarh, nr mvc a Kinking l^iwi. 
All finnr aid ynu, unci few undcrstAnd.* * 

FishtT Amis writer to him a few wcrks Liter in the Mune 
vein: *' Nothing is to U- d(»ne rashly; hut mature (*l» and 
unitol i-lTi»rts an- tuj evsiirv in ihr most fi»riom txse. The fait i% 
our |Hi»|)lr knnw littk* of the |Milili(al dangers; the Ix-st mrn» at 
!(\i^t, «iu'^ht tn Im- madi- tn know them, and to «ii^i-st at least the 
enu'Ml Mutliru-* «»f a M^ttm." Rrfrrrin^;. playfully and (Mis&i- 
t'ly with an alhision tn the |K-rsonal hazanis which mi^ht attend 
tlic ;iri'^(i i:ii«>n nf Tit kiririL'^ plans, to his failing health, he 
>.i\> i!].i: it i^ "r.xt \vhi>lly tn Ik- df-^p.iiri^i of. If Jacobini&m 
in.if.i - h.i^-tt , I ni.i\ \'. I \\\v tn \h- h.irii^iil.** 

>U:u\at Uxur^ * .irv* li.i«k i»» riwniiT from New Ilamfishirr; 
an i nillh"".;Ni- at h .i< ^k\:u> n-.i in h.i\f jKishitl the miAcmrnt 
l;r'!ur in C'jnrui !i« ■..!. 'I ht nf a Nt»nhi'm (onfederary, 
ul'.«M (|i LlxTa!* 1\ t A.irv.iiM ■!. tn^M h^w l-ikiil f('4LNihle onlv to 
i!;- f.-.'ii ..f |. .;::;. :.;:> in th«- r\» itrnunt i-f \V;LNhin^on life with 
\\!i -Ti it •■r:L:::-..i!< \. "I l;r "^^ht ihn-.i^'ht «'f men at home om 
i!i v'.ruti i: .1- •!::: '.i* ti, .i^-lf. if ri"! i:n«Ir'*irahle. Suih a *Tnture 
rr :.'*.! -« • ". .iVr.i "i.* : - :::t a",l.i' ity «)f iJurr t»T the heatcil [ur- 
t- 1' -•:*;- ■ f ^ ".-.r In'^ir rTM n. -.^ho win- fiL!htin^ a ho|irlrsft 
l'./"!« :•. ■ ;■;■ -.'. r : ':■..: tin :«• ".m rr f i w i-i s'.ijijairt it wh«» hail 
r: . !i ! ' I .1 it '.m n- trii-l ar*d f.iilfi. The fnlhiwinf; «if 

(' I ■ I ! I*: '•::■/•:.•;! h.iM- Ik r:i rii.ii^I'i *•( \hv kind which went 

• : ..'. • .if*, r I).i. : i : • tl.i < .i".f • f A* I ■.:!!. im; a:-.d the whole mo\T- 
r::* : : a.:- ■ .« r .r.! fi-r/nf.i n in a l\*< I'.rmnnlh. 

I '• ■ : • > -iv n *\ <"- :\'\ Mini t<« h.iw lict-n communicatee! 
1-. «•'. : '. — ir;!y «•! thr Fnii rali^t'* in Cnn^rcs*. Anionic the 
(' •::! • • !'!i.m!: V. . I :!i.ii day. liaMwin. Davenport, (Jod- 

• !.i* !. "^ .. av ! I./.lnia i/r afr-rward puhliily denied any 
kr'»-.vl»'»!/i .fir wJi.iUMf ar.d StnatMrliillhousc maileapianlcd 
^*.a*.^::.l:.'.. ! > :hi t::t\t thai he ne\ir knew uf any combinalioQ 


er plot among Federal mem ben of Congress to dissolve the Union 
or to fonn a Nurthem or Euslem confnlenuy. Senator Plumcr, 
however, on learning of this statement (in 1824), wntc that he 
mu much surprised at it, for, saj-s he, " I reaiUecI, and am cer- 
tain that, on reluming early one evening fn>m dining with Aamn 
Burr, this same Mr. HiUhousc, after saying to me that New Eng- 
lanti had no mllurnrc in the Oo%'emment, added, in an ani- 
mated tune, 'The Eastern States must and will dissolve the 
Union, and form a M;|>arate government of their own; and the 
sooner they do this, the better. ' " As this stoiy is t«m>b«)niteil 
by an entiy in Mr. I'lumcr's iliarj-, made twenty years earlier, it 
b probably K>rmi, but the remark nixirted may well be im- 
puted to the warmth of an after-dinner conversation among old 
friends, and has not at all the sound of a coatiiiralnr's deciam- 
lions or even of an allusion to any formed and dctiniic plan, 

Fmm Washington ddwn, indecii, all the ftmndi-ri of ihr Re^ 
public had Itmkctl for its |»emiancncj' moa- with hojie than with 
mMurancc. We should do injunlice to the lone of the |K>Utifal 
concapondrncr and conversation of the times, if we appliol to it 
the atandanl nf loyalty of the present generation. Ifcilh parlies 
regarded the Constitution of 1787 — like that of 1781, or ttMiw 
which France was still forming and n-jecting with smh rapidity 
^-«s an experiment in govemmenl making. The right of a 
State lo repudiate a law of the Union, which it dcrmeii uncon- 
•tilutional, whether the courts of the Union ujihelil it or not, ha<] 
been emphatically asserted by Vir)^ma anil Ki-ntucky, under 
the lead of Moilison nnil Jefler^in, and, thi» gntnletl, the right 
of Mvcssion seems necessarily to follow. 

In writing to r>i>cti>r I'rintly in 1804, Jeflervm alludes lo the 
questions arising fmm the purvhase <if Ixiuisiana, and then 
lays: "Whether we rrmain in one lonfetlemcy iir form into 
Atlantic and Mississi(>)>i confcilentcies. I bcliexc not \<-r> inv 
poflani I" ihe happincTM of either iwn. Thi>*e of the WrtU-m 
confederal^ will be as murh our rhililrra ami deM-emUnts as 
thtMT of Ihe Eastern, antl I tn-\ myself a* muth identifH-<I with 
that country in future lime as with ihi*." 

It waa not strange that Mime of the FiiIeraliMt »hcRil<l Iram 
■ itmoa tntm their opptinents. Ctdimel I'iikering llxnight that 
Ihe anbvfu of 1807 prrkcntal a [>ruper uccaaiua lor the a^^ili- 


cation of ihi* princ ipk-s of the Vir>nnia resolutions at the North. 
A leller sent fnmi his seal in ihi Sinate to the Governor of Mas- 
sai huM'tts, for cummunii ati< »n to ihi* I A*gisbture, kxiked so plainly 
to a>ncerte«i resistant i* in Niw Kn^Lind to bws deemed unainstx 
tutional whi( h wen* niinini* its commene, that the (lOVTmor ik- 
iliniil to pvc it the puliliiiiy (ie>ire«I. 

Atlams was at this tinu* I*iikerini;*s coUea^ue in the Senate. 
and wa.s no >iran>;er tt> hir» views «»n the «|Ui-!»ti(m (»f Mjiaratitin. 
AfliT ri->i;:nini; his seat, Adams, in Novt-mlx-r, iSo8, writrs thus 
fn>m I«i»>i(»n t>> K/tkirl Haion, one v( the Mass^uhu setts Rrprr 
s<*ntativt-s in ('cin^rr.v*: "\ war with Kni^Lind would pniliahly 
S(>in, if not inimnli:itt'ly, iM'CtimpIiiatiil withaiivil war antl with 
a di>jKTatr tiTort i'» l»rt'ak up thr L'ni<»n, the pn»jin for whiih 
has In-i-n m-mt:i1 yr;irs pri-parin:: in l!iis "j^iartrr, ami whiih wail* 
onl\ f/r a jx »•..%! I ik* \ hani i* of ;»o{»ul;ir s;:pi"i»n ti» cxpkMle. That 
this pp'jnt h.i^ Utm in Mrii»us (ont(-ni])lation of thi>se whom 
V'.'.i d^-^riN- ;is \h.i'm* c.ilkd in Kn&^! '(.'otinrl Pitktrini^'s 
I\iriv/ f-r M\rr.d \t.ip*. I kni^w !tv the mi»st unc-<iui\fMal ev: 

■ ■ 

dr': t , dv'i:^'!i it l-i r."t i vic!tn< r pn»v;ilik- in a (oiirt of law. To 
l!ii- pr ■jr.!. .1"*".;rid, a \rr\ *«mall part of the Foleral {urty 
i** ;»ri\y; ihi- pnijmrtion of ihem t|o not cwn believe in its 
ixi^-tti'.' I'.'* 

A fr'.\ \i\\r^ l.iti r. in 1811, Jo^iah Quincy «»f Mxsuc husrtti ujii'n \hv :l.-ir of the IIhum* of Kepre^-ntativrs thai 
sh"-«dd L«''viiNi.i:M U* :idmitUil as a Si.iic. it would lie si> tiagruit 
a lii'-rrir.ird ••( thi- ('-■:i>lit;iti"n :i^ \irti::dlv to liivvolvc the Un- 
i 'V. "fruir.^' t:u St.iti-^ u»:!i; ■!<.::.;,' it fpim their moral obli|(a- 
t! ••. ' f .1 ii'.i '•:■:: !■■ t.ii h I'thi r. .i-.d ::uik:v.L: it the ris;hl of all. as 
i: .'. .!:Ui. ::-.i :*.i -i./.y »'f x-r^.t . : • pn p.i re definitely for scfa- 

r:*' .I':.:. .iM\ if t!u v micht, \i»kr:llv if tliev must.** The 

• • • • 

^:-.i».i r : ili ! :?:•■ « ■ :.• l;:'!!:".;: :-'r:i«'n t»f the n-mark^outof ortlcr. 

■ ■ ^ 

1 ;: '.:.» 11 '•.:>*• n \rrMd hi^ i!ti i-i«n l»y a ihtsc \ote, in whiih the 
r .li :'.:\ w.t,- t]\:K :!;, ::).i.!r i:p « f Fiiler.dists. Many of Quinry's 
|- !.::. .d :'-.•' 'N. ,ir. I anv'::.: thi m John Adam5 and Ilanisoo 
( »: i\ ' »■ -. A : :• : 1 1.!t:^ ■•. /• r»i r d ii*mmendati«>n «»f the Mmti- 
rv'S ! :'. -x *>i.*i. :l'. . ..•:! 'Ai*?:-:! alliiilini* {artic ularly lo 
{}.* ::i:' ..: ■ i -i . «---:■::. It w.;^ pr»'li.ihly little more than a rhe 
I -ri. .d :! • .'>h. i:-.!c M<ii-<! i<i i:;.; rt ss u|">n the ailminislntiuo 
p.inv th( i>!(.i \\iAi I he N :*.!i •\a> in eamiM Hhen it dcmailded 


thai the baltncc of power he left unchani^. In a funiliar letter 
to his wife, a few days afterward, Quincy writes : " You have no 
idea bow these Southern demago^es tremble at the word 'sep- 
anlion' from a Northern man; and yet they are riding the At- 
luitic States like a nightmare. I shall not foil to make thrtr esn 
tingle with it whenever they attempt, as in this instance, gronly 
to violate the Constitution of my a^uniry." 

The Washint^on <iovemment was rcftanlcd at this lime by a 
larf^ part of New England muih as a foreign conqueror is lookcil 
upon by the vanquisherl community. lis policy was unfaitirablc, 
aLmo»l destructive, lu New Knf;laiid inieresU; and the U*:ii(era 
on both sides had nothing but clisirusl and dislike for each 
other. "New England," sjiid a Baltimore new»j«iKT, "is the 
Vendue of ihc United Slates," We shall look in vain, however, 
for any direct menace of secession in Ihc action of any of her 

"The people of New England," said the Senate of Masu- 
cbuMlts in tSog, in answer to the inau^ral speech of Governor 
Lincoln, in which he had inlimaled that rumon of an intended 
sepantion were afloat, "j>erfectly understand the distinction 
between the Constitution and the Administ ration. They are as 
■inccrely attached to the Constitution as any portion of the 
United States. They may be put under the ban of the empire, 
but they have no intention of abandoninf; the Union." 

The War of i8ia increased iheRcneral sense of injustice and 
wrong, but lrKi.'tliiii\-e pnili.->is were Hiill kept within bounds. 
In the addrt» of ihc Houst- of Representatives nf Ma.vachu- 
lettl to the [M-uple of thai State, adoptol immoliately after the 
declaration of war, and under the prrwure of stmnR feeling, ihcy 
ctpUcilly denounce as unwonhy of noti<e "the insinuations and 
aaaeitionA, an lanAhly made, of a plot to di»nrml>eT the Union"; 
and, while declarinK that "the National Ciovcmment has been 
induced to believe that your (curt and diNM-nMons t iimbinol with 
your aober habits, aru) natural aversion fn)m the a[>pearanie of 
oppOBlion to the taws, are sulTiticnt pleil;^ for >i>ur ume ac 
fpdcKeoce in the abandonment of )-our lotal inlensts. arxl fur 
jDur Hipportiit){ at the ex]K'nsf of ynut bbjo<l and trraturr a 
«mr. unnccoaary, unjuslifiabte, aiwl impolitic, which, under the 
e of viodicaling the todcpcndence of our couolry against 


a nation which docs not threaten it, must too pmbably consign 
your lilKrtii-s to the care of a tyrant who has blotted every %xs- 
ti^e of imiei»en(iince fn>m the Continent of Eumpe*'; and that 
**when a >;reat ]K^>ple find themselvi*s oppressed by the meas- 
ures of their p>\Tmmi-nt, when their just rights are ncf^Iected, 
ihi'ir interest.** «»virliK»ki'<l, their opinions disre^anled, and their 
re>|H't tfwl |K'tiiii»ns nteiviil with su|»iTcilious contempt, it is im- 
lK>>>i)>lt* for ihrtn to sulmiit in silence,** they prt)|M)se and in- 
dtol admit of no other rcme<iy, than a general resi>Iulion to let 
all party di^timtinns vani>h. and unite as a "{xrace party,*' in 
order by (onNtituti«>naI methods "to displace th(»sc who ha%T 
atiUM'd their i>«»wer an«l !Kiraye«l tluir trust." 

The (ieneral A-^stmhlv of (*cinn(*i tit ut at the same lime 
a(!<>pttd a de« I.iralion even more unnpiiviNal. After stating 
their iN-lii-f that the (*nnstiUition will Ih- "fmind (f>m|)etent to 
tht- «>liji tN ••[ iN institutitin, in all the variniis viMssitudes of our 
alT.iir>«/* liny a-Id, *" rhe«.e M-ntinuntM nf attachment to the Un- 
ii»:i .iTvl ♦'» ihr ('i»:>!if.:lii»n are lMlieve«l in Ix- tc»mmon to the 
Am* rji an pe« »;•!«; a::-! ili-^e \sh«» e\pre>"i ami ili>seminate dis- 
trict *>t ihtir !: !i!:!\ ti }" \\\ «'r ti'.iur we cannot ref^ard as the 
m""*! di-^^ntt <»f i*'.i ir frit r.«l'»." 

The I har.:r. h -atm r. thai •m^ e<«*inn was really me«iitatnl by 
th« I'l 'ifrali^: Ii .i'!« :- i:i Ma-^ac hiM its and partii uLirly in li<»»- 
tt-ri. v.!'.:.:: ha-! rtni'.rd a j^l.-raMe N'.;ji|M»rt fn»m the "Henry 
li:v:-." -aIiiJi !':•-■ iin: Ma ii^ n th«»i:^'ht wnrth (laying fifty 
ill' .-.I'.'I l-'ILir- !■ rfr-rnthi Miri:Mr\in fun^l, and making; the 
^ .' ■• ■ • ' f .1 ^I't ' '..\\ r.'.t '^-.i/. : ! (''.i^i^TrNN J!! Man h. iSij, was t<«> 
\.'.: . i' !• .;- a ; !'•> « :y !■■ !m rta-i.I) a? lani 1^:111 1; anil it ffiund 
v.*. A :■ '. • v."': •: ''■.• H.srrt -r ! ('":*.\i r:li":i \\a^ » alh-*! t«n:ether. 

I> • : \\ir^r«: l.,i- -■. v.:. i!'ar!> that the plan of vac h a 
«'•■.••• ■ ' ''•/'■' i.'' I.:.'. ;:; Ii- .-:■■::. S-.ii i:i Northampton, and 
\\i l:i-.» I i- U^'ir-i ■:.;.. .1^ I'M - -f il^ orikrinal pnim* iters, that " the 
x): ' ;/•:• ■ ! ■':■•»-'!•. it: :: :]\v l": i-'i :ii \rr intcri^l into thr hc-a<l <»f 
a*;. ! •• ■ ; • ;• t : :>. - . f \}:t t:ii rr.?H rs of the crinventi«»n." 
W .' .-.:•:. ..•':. •■.. Ti : /:. : . !.:..:i:y ad'.pteil liv that Uwly %{icak 
"•'• f L ' • - V.-. ill; iv I f-r lirfcnie on the jmrt of the 
N ••■'• ■ •• ^. .1- ■! :!■. i! *■■. !?.. •••nM-nt of Con^rnrvs, the drcla- 
r.i*'. ':'' . ^ ''i* > an- {>refai e«i makes no scruple of discusail^ 

the i^--.b:l:!; 'jf diiu.iiua. 


"Finally," is its kn^af^c, "if the Union be destined to di»- 
sohition by reason of the multiplied abuses of bvl adminis- 
tration, it should if passible be the mirk of peaceable times 
and deliberate consent. Some new fonn of confc^Ieracy should 
be substituted among those States which shall intend to maintain 
a fcdm] relation to each other; but a severance from the Union 
by one or more States, against the will of the rest, and especially 
in a time of war, can be justified only by absolute necessity. 
These are among the principal objections against prerijiitatc 
tnouurts lending to dissolve the Stales, and, when examined in 
connection with the farewell addri-ss <if the Father of his Coun- 
try, they must, it is believed, be deemed rondusire." 

The not unnatural imgilication fn>m such expressions was 
that absolute necessity -descrilxxl as likely to proceed from 
"implarablc combinations of individuals or of Stales, lo monop' 
olijcc power and olTice and to trample without reserve upon the 
rights and interests of commercial sections of the Union"^mighl 
Justify scrcssion, trvcn during the landing war; and the provision 
for holding another convention at Bo.slon within five months in 
case the recommendations of ihr [in-sent one should fail of elTect 
upon Congress, " with such powers and in-simctions as the exi 
genry of a crisis so momentous may rcqutnr," was quite an in- 
teUigiblc menace of future {>os&ibi lilies. 


The citizens of Ma.s.sachusells, imiirrssrd with the dangers 
which Ihreatcnnl them, and heavily bunlcmxl with the rx|ienM-s 
of the War of 1811, wen- urgent that nuns shi-uM lie ad-'plcil 
by the Executive lowani |»ertuarling ihi- (jt-nrral (Jovi-mmi-nl 
to nc^lialr a peace, or to assist the Stale in ilifen<ling its Uir 
d«T», without com|ie]h'ng it lo My entirely ujnm its nun rr- 
■Dtirccs. His Excellency concurred in these views; bui n>A 
chooaing, it would *evm, tn a»umc the n->|K>a4Jbility, hv ton 
cliKltcI,by the unanimous ndviie nf ihe Cnuncil, In summon a 
Ifirrial meeting nf the (li-ocnd Cnurt. T'» ihi* l«r»ly, when :is 
irmblcd, a racssatte was sent infi>rTninK them of his pmrccljnB* 
rince their aitjoumment, and nf the rravins which hai] in<lutrd 
him to call ihcm lofcether. 

"The ailuation uf the State," hi- olmT^nl in cuocJuding his 


address, *' is danf;crr)us and perplexing. We have been led. bjr 
ihe Ifrms of thr ('(»nslituti*)n, lo n-Iy on the (rcneral (lo\-cm- 
menl lo pn^viMc ihe means of clefrnce; and lo that guvemmml 
we have ri-si^ne<i the n-M)un'es of ihe State. It has declared 
war af^ain^t a |M)werfiiI maritime nation, whose* fleet can appmttcfa 
even* part of our exlemleii coast; and we are disap{Kiinttd in 
the ex]Kitaticin of a national defence. But, though we may Ijc- 
lieve the w:ls unntTi-ssarj', ami has U-en pniseculed without 
any um ful or practicahle ohjei t a^'ainst a province of the rn 
emy, while tlie si-accwist of this State has In-en left almost wholly 
defenreles«%: and though in such a war we may n(»t afTonl viA 
untary aid to any of the otTensive o|ierations, there can be no 
doui)t of our ri^ht to drfeml our |K)S!»es>ion2i and dwellings 
apainst any hostile attacks.** 

Thf mmmilttv tn whom this me«*sa^e was rrferrrd, and 
of which llarn>«>n i iray « Mi** was c hairman, re|»*»r!<^l in favor til 
the (fMVirri'tr's rn i »m mmt la !i'»n> and ohseniil: "The slate of 
the nati'T-.-il trr.i^ury re<|uires a aui^menlation of cxLstxnK 
t.i\« ^: ar^I if. i*^ ailli'lun tn thr>.f, the |Hnple nf Massachusetts* 
c!«-;irive'l "f !!:< :r « 'TT^mrr' i-, .ir-.d h.irasMil l>v a formidable en- 
< rrsv, arc i rv.:'!!*! !■• !»ri •.:!•■ f- r ^» If 'iiffru e, it will v"'n lie 

• ■ ft 

i-^VjHis-iMr f r :J:i •:■. : . -■.>!.;!:: !!:•■ Jr.:nien. There n-mains to 
t'" m V.I .ill r'\t' ■. « !' .* - .1.::; --.'■■:^ !■. ihr in« my. or the c ••nirxj 
«f :.' r • ■.'.*! rt •- -.n i - !- > r« jil h:- .\ 'yr* -n.-hps. Ii is im]>«i*^Mblr to 
hi -!'.i:« ir. TV..:'.,:*:/ ''r^- I lt< ••■■:^ Tliis jhiij.Ii- an* not ri-ady for 
("•:;:• ' -r - ;V::.> '■'::. V.a L- :m: r»-a'!y and «!eterminct! to 
»!• fi V ! •!.• :v.- l-.i '. ..• ! J; iv:::' : ■ « !*:i r ;»r'iNj«eit of adequate 
n« '.' ^ i I'f-''. •!• ■• I: :'.' '^i /ri .iti -t r:«til i.f all thi*^ rr 
s :'■-:■ • ■ '• !' ": '• ■ V'. !,• s, wr/., h the National (iuvcm 
IT'.' ' ' '■ . ■ ' '*' 'V* ' r ' •• r * ■ • " • ■! -'i • l'»»-w h« rr, 

■vvif \*\.-'k :h.i! the jK^tplc ff thi* 

■.* •' . .-.:■ ! th.i! thry will unite, un«lrr 

■ -. .!•*■• !•...:: 1 « f .i!! 'A hi' h is fjear, in rrf^ilin^ 

. ;• :- ' : !-!'•■.*■! :'•• i? thi^ Sdtjrmn <-!»l:i:ation 

• ••■■ : ■ .-' ' T'l; l.i:n!s ;i:,Mlr>! the authi»n 

.!;—•:• I' -. • ". \)'.*' i"r.!rar\, a sacn^l dutr 

• A '. .i!I - ..-. • -. :J*.«- lit-^truiTive |*Jicy br 

-•.i!» f !.- :i.iril|i !• '! TM!:'.r..iI felii ity ha** Iwrn a>n 

r.r • f buni.lia*.i'>n, if danirer, and distress; beiio- 

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ing ihAt, unless an almost mined pniplr will discard the men 
and change the measures which have induced this stale of peril 
and suHering, the day of their political salvation is passed. 

"It is not to be forgotten that this disastrous state of afTatrs 
has been brought upon Massachusetts, not only against her 
CftMcnt, but in opposition to her most earnest prolrstations. Of 
the many great evils of war, especially in the present slate of 
Europe, the national rulers were often warned by the people of 
Massachusetts, whose vital interests were thus put in jeo[Mnly. 
But the General (Government, deaf to their voice, and lislrninK 
to men distinguished in their native State only by their disloy- 
alty to its interests, and the enjoyment of a patronage bestowed 
upon ihem as its prire, have aHertcd to consider the patriotic 
cilizma of this great Stale as lainlcd with disaffection to the 
Union, and with predilot tions for Great Britain, and have lav- 
ished the public treasure in vain attempts to fasten the odious 

The resolutions which followed this rrport, and which were 
adopted by the I.egislature, were quite significant. These were: 
"That, the calamities of war being now brought home to the 
territory of thisCommonwcalth~a portion of il being in the oc- 
cupation of the enemy; our scacoasts and riven invaded in 
Kveral places, and in all eiposc<l to immediate danger, the peo- 
plr of Massachusetts are imiM-Ilnl by ihc duty of self drfcnre 
•ad by all the feelings and attachmi-ni* which bind good riti 
aens to their country, to unite in the mi«i vigorous meant for 
defending the State and repelling the invader; and that nn pany 
feelings or political tli.Hsensions can ever interfere with the dis 
charge of this exalted duty;" 

"That a numlxT of men I<e raivt), no| excee<ling ten thou- 
aaod, for twelve months, to Ix- oq^ani^rd and olTicemI by the 
'Governor, for the defence of the Stale;" 

"That the Go\-emor be authonTrd to borrow, from time to 
tfanr, a turn not eicceding one million of dollarv and that the 
tahh of the Legislalurr be plctlged to provide funds for the pay- 
mcfit of the same." 

And finally: "That twelvr persons be appointed, as tide- 
gMea from ihii Commonwealth, to meet and confer with cMe 
fUca from the other States uf New Eni^and upon the subject of 
a., VQC. av.— M, 


their public grievances and concerns; upon the best ramii of 
|)rescrving our reHc)urci*s, and of defence against the enemy; and 
to devise and suggi^t for adoption, by those respective Suici^ 
such measures as they may deem expedient; and also to uke 
measures, if thc-y shall think it proper, for (imcuring a conren 
tion of <ii'Ic*g:itrs fn)m all the Uniti*d States in order to rrviir 
the Constitutif'H thert-of and mon.* efTertually to secure the sup 
|K)rt and attachment of ail the |K*ople by placing all upon the 
basis (»f fair n*pres4*ntation.** 

The adoption of the laM of these rc*snlutinns by a ^'oce vt 
twrntv two to twelve in the Si*nate and of two hundred sizlv 
to ninety in the House shows how largely the popular smti 
ment was enlistee I against the war. Only alx)Ut a half of the 
House*, it is true, ap]H'ar to have actively participated in the 
passage cif this res4)Ivf, and, |HTha|»s, had the other half \'otcd. 
the majority in its favor might have U-en lessened. But of 
then- i> no irHain pnN)f; an«l it might {HThaps be aflTirmefl 
the nihrr siiii- that, had all vote<i, the majority would have brrn 
increaM-d. As :h*- < aM* stands, however, nearlv two to fine in 
the Smate aivi t!in«- i'> one in the Hciuse vtited in favor of the 
rev»Iuti(in: a:;(l i: ran )iar<lly \yv dnuhtol, when all the circtam 
stameN are ri»n>:dere<l. thai the vntr of the Legislature reflected 
cjuile faithfully th«- wi^hrs «if thi- jnntple. 

Ni»r did thi- < *»« n« ral Cfiin attem[»t to conceal their transac- 
ti 'Hs frnm the scritinv of the uhnK- nation or to withhold ffOB 
the fitJ-.i r S!a!r'* a t'iHi»irat:«>n in their measures; for the day 
af*.»r tV.r jMN>:i/e i.f :hi< rev»lu!ii»n the presiding oflficen of tlir 
Sfr.i'r ar.'l M- :m- wiTr ilincted to make their procccdifigf 
k:.'»'A*i .1- -;«•■!;!;. .i^ ;-'N^;lili, anil letters were written to be 
*M : •. '. « ::.i «:!:T» ri r.t ;:'ivrn:n".» nt-*, in\iiin^» them Xo j<nn in such 
n.t .i-;;r' ^ .i^ ::::/"::•. U- "ati.ipN d l«» their Itical situation and 
tual n I.i!:<>;> a"d habits, and not npugnant to their obligati 

The a i '^.ti'-n nf thi u]>^*n (*t the committee of the Ixfpsb- 
t'.:ri. ar. i r- • f illir^ lif the rnnvenlion, which aMcmblcd shoitly 
aftrr in r!. ('I'nneitifjt, was ien«»un"<! severely by tlir 
!)• r- ^ r;i:!. j-.irr;,, at ihv head rf whiih ••t«««l Levi Lincoln, Jr.; 
and fr n^ary \f'ars accusations were "thn»wn broadcast upon 
the memlii-r> of that UmIv, and rrnewvd at cxcrx 


durging them with a studied dcsi)^ to subvert the Government 
utd destroy the Union. The delegates (mm Mas!iacbu9clt.% how- 
ever, u well as from the other Stutes, weir gentlemen of the 
hi^KM reqieclability and talent, and, "as far as their profcs- 
sioas cto be considered as sincen.-; as far as their vote« and pro- 
ceedings afford evidence of their designs," so far ibeir conduct 
has been adjudf^if] to be defensible. 

As has been well observed, "II is not to be supposed, with- 
out proof, that their object was treason or disunion ; and their 
proceedings unite with their declarations and the sentiments en- 
tertaiaed by those who appointed them to show that they nei- 
ther purposed nor meditated any other means of defi-nce than 
Mich as were perfectly justifiable, pacific, and consiituiionoL" 
Indeed, such men as George Calxit, of Boston, the president <if 
the convention, not a politician by profession, yet "a man of so 
enlightened a mind, of such wisdom, virtue, and piety, that one 
must travel far, vrr>- far, to find his e^iual;" Nathan Dane, father 
of the Ordinance of 1787 far the government of the Northwest 
Territory, and the author of a dige^t of the a>mmon law, em- 
inent for his services in the Stale and National Legislatures, 
and poucssing the esteem and n-spect of all who knew him; 
William Pre^colt, of Boston, father of the historian of that name, 
a Coundtlor, a Senator, and n Represenlalive from that ton-n, 
mbnquently t mi-mber of the Convention for the Revision of the 
Constilutton, and the president of the Common Council of Hos- 
tcN) u a dty; Harrison Gray Otis, for two yi-ars succi-eding this 
conrmtion a member of the Legislature, and afterward a Sena- 
tor in the Congress of the United Slates, a gentleman of fine 
talentSt fascinating manner^ and great legislative experience; 
Timothy Bigelow. of Mcdford. a member and the Speaker of the 
HoUK, and aflerwanl a CounuUor; JirJiua Thomas, of Plym- 
oMh, aa upright, popular, and honored judge of probate lu 
the time of his death; Jos(.-ph L)-man, of Nonhamplon, the 
riKflff of Hampshire County, and a member of the Convention 
ior Rertsing the Constitution; Daniel Waldo, of Wurtesier, a 
member of the Senate, res|>rcted by his lowrLsmen. as by all 
others who knew him; Ilodijah BayUes, of Taunton, aide-de- 
amp to a diuingutshed officer during the Re^'oluiiun, attd long 
Jadfe of probate for the County o( Bristol; Gcoqge Bliss, of 


Springfield, a momlHrr of the State Government ami of the Con- 
vention for Revising the Constitution; Samuel S. Wihle.frf Ncw- 
l)un']K)rt, als4) a numlxr of the State Convention, and a judge of 
ihf Suprrme Judicial Court, Ix-loved and n-siHTlnl by a wklc 
tiriK* of a(<iu:iint;mri-s, and {K>ss<.*sMng the contniencc and at- 
t-tdimcnt of ilu- jK-oplr; Stephen Longfellow, Jr., father of the 
cii^-tin^ui'^hed pn»fr>M»r an<l \xx'i — such men, hy the mo>t vii>- 
Knl parliv^in, n-uM h.irdly Ik- su^jHCtiil of delilH-ratrly "plotrini; 
a ion>pira(y a^ain<«l ihr National (lovemment, of exciting a 
ii\il war, of fa\orin^ a di<«Ni)hjlioii of the Union, of sulimiitini; 
to an allc;:iani (• to (ienr^'i' III.'' Their ihanicter and standing 
at t!i«- ihtIim) of thrir (h iitt- a:id to the day of their death arc 
a >uliu irnt rrf'.it.itinn '^f all >ui h ilian;<'s, even if made; an J 
if iliiv wt re unwnrthy thr <4infnlrn(r ot the public, ufwin whom 
»«.'.:li| nilarur l»r uv^u- >.ilrly pLmd/ 

< )n thr ajj|H.i::tif! day tvvrnty four delegates took their M-ats 
and \hr ( •.r:vrT'.:i'»:i wa-* «)n:ani/td Ny the choice of (ietirKe Cat*4 
.i ■ :•:• i'!*:^! :'.:.'l Thd-l'-rr I)wii;hl a> sccretarj'. E;uh H"N«»ii>n 
» I ::.:- U n!v -A L ■ :•! rv t| \\\:h nraver; ami, after its ses>ii»n.s had 
C":^.*::'.5;i '! f- : r: r. i v. 1 1 r.-. i: \\.i- ai!jni:metl. The n-jK )rt of the 
i'i!^r.:rM . .i; ;• i";'!-! .i? an larly ^-laLTi", *»Ui;>!i>te<l the following 
!'■:•!«- f T i: • ••:>!!• r.i'i'-n ••[ tin- i«»nvtn!ii»n: "The |"»weri 
I I.i:"> -I 1 y •!".' I- \. » ■/!•. I -I r!:i L':ii:« «! Sta!*^ !•» clt-termine ci>n- 
i\ . '\\t\\ ;:.;•;•«::■■ .11.:./ «■;.!! hi :r. Hi: ia of the States into the 
-. "."i ' f :; • r- ;•"'• ^' ;•• '. ar.'l !h. ilMilini: thi Cnitnl States 
jv ■ ::■:!.• .r\ '! "i ■-. a.'-i .I'l "•■ i ♦ r •■! !fir arrnv in »m< h lhercc»f, 
•.'.;■'•■. ■!: ^'.i-.L';. .:■..■'. :\'\ !':■■::'. :!:• K\«-4;i:i\r 'if the I'nitril 
>:..• • I ■'.l :" : •' ' •■ l." 1. : . >•* \r\ '.< r tin (omniar^d of >ych 
«■ *i • r. :'.• :■ : . .! f •■■ I.\' « ::•.-.. '.f :;.' I'riti ! Stat» n to sujv 
I 1. ■ • : .-. •■ ■ • 1 • I : ' • rvi>. ^'./i -. i.ilN«l mu! fj-r ihiir dc- 
I ■ •" .!■:•'• !r :■'•:•../ ?Hi :\l,v the Kxeruti\T 


:.••: t*. i "I ::\v I MrTMnander over the 

••■i "s" •, • ■■• ■.-••. I 

■ k 

^ • • •■ 1 1 1 ::■ ■ f •':• (i w r:irn<nt **t the United 

r. . . . . . . . .1 

^' . !. .* I : •':. :■!.:.. I f tl.i >:a*r^. bv them ad- 

r- :• '. ' ..' * • • .-.'.'.' I- /i'i ^:.i\ - s« r\iM , the rejM»rt of 
t:.' "^ '■•:■. :\V.-' (' : .T- - 'V. ::!I:r^i! !}:i rarik^f>f the armir. 

t .' ■ • V •■ I *: !! r . • •. :':iT •.:*.;ic!; the bill U-forr Ccwi- 
;•:« - ;:•.:•/ f r il.i- ,:./ .i: ! ir.iftinK thr mihtia; ihr n- 
{iin<litu:i <if iht rt\Lx:ue of the nation in ullenoivc upcratiuas 


the Ddi^boring provinces of the enemy; the failure of the Cov- 
enunent of the United Stales to provide for the common de- 
fence, and the consequent oblif^tions, necessity, and burdens 
devolved on the several States to defend themselves; togetlwr 
with the mode, the wa)-s, and the means in their power for ac- 
comf^iahing the object." 

The report thus made was acceptc<l and approved ; and at a 
■ubacqucnt dale, upon (he report of a new commitlcc which had 
bcm appointed, several amendments to the Kftlcral OinMilu- 
tkxi were proponed, to be rccommendctl to the M.-veral State Ick 
tflatum for approval or rejection. 'Ilicse amendmenLs, as in the 
publiabed report, were: "(t) Repre«enlatives and dinxl taxes 
shall be apportioned among the several States which may be in- 
ducted within this Union acconling to Iheir respective numlxr 
of free persons, including those bound to serve for a term of 
yean, and excluding Indians not taxed and all others, (i) No 
new State shall be admittnl into the Union by Congress, in virtue 
of the power granted by the Constitution, without the concur- 
rence of two Ihinis of l)oth Houses. (3) Congrt-v< shall not have 
pnwcr to lay any embargo on the ships or vcsst-Ls of the citizens 
of the United Stales in the pons and harlM>rs thcri'of, for more 
than sixty days. (4) Congress shall not have [jowcr. without 
the concurrence of two-thirds of both Housi-s, to interdict the 
cnmmcrdal inlercoune U-lween the United Slates and any for^ 
Ofia nation or the dependencies therrof. (O Congress shall 
not make or dwlarc war or authoriju' act* nf hostility againsl 
any forrign nation, without the concurrmcr of t«'<>-lhinls of 
both Houses, except such act^ of hostility be in defence of the 
lerriloriea of the Uniteil States when actually inv^dnl. (6) Nu 
penos who shall hereafter tx- naluraliz^-^l shall be eligible as a 
ncmber of the S<'fute r)r House of Rcpnv^nutivo nf the Unitnl 
Stales, nor capable of holiUng any civil ollice under the aulhnrity 
of the Unitcil Slate*. (;) The •omt jx-r-m sliall mil be eUxled 
Prendent of the United Slates a second time; nor shall the 
I be elected from the same State two terms in suc- 

Sudi was the " treason " of the Hartford Con^-enlion — a 
"tRuon" with which Anti-Federalists hail oner largely sym- 
; for the very amendments proposed by this cmvaitka 


were substantially such as had been agitated at the time at the 
adoption of the Constitution, and deemed necessaiy by its op- 
ponents to pn*vcnt the encroachments of the Fedoal Gowra- 
mc^nt. Rut time often changes the opinions of mcOi or at leut 
induces forgetfukiess of once favorite 



AJ). 181 J 


CcDCntl JackMO'* iriumph over the llriliih at New OrlcUM wu <m« 
of ihe chtef millUry cvenli ol the earlki period in United Sulci hlalury. 
The gtrtUmt American Micccue* in the Wat ol iNii hul been won liy 
tbt Narjr ; ihcfclotc Jicktott'i brilliant defence ol New Orlcini. a|AliuI 
a roudt kuperior lorce, •taodi out the more coupicuoiuiy atnong the kc- 
tKM* on Und. 

An UDUHul (e«Ung of rrfrei miaicki even with the natural patHotlc 
pride of the vktoriotu country in the ilrtngth of her defcndcra, brcauM, 
onluppily, the lulllc was fouxhl after peace had licrn tixned : the op- 
pnalt torcca not having received mfurnialiun ol the Ticaly ol Cheat 
<0«ceBibcr:4, 1814). 

In October. ifli4. lh« Americana learned ihai twelve or fifteen ihou- 
tand Brtliah troop* had l>ern orderrd to leave Ireland for New Urtcana 
aod Mobile. Katly in December il wai known thai thi* force had brea 
joiaed by aaothcf at Januica. and ihai ^It were ready lu Mil lor ihc 
BwmlMiif the MiaaUaippl. Monroe, Secretary of War, ordcrrd tke hasi 
«alaf of miUiia from Souihrm SlaUi to New Oilcan* The llriti»h 
form arrived and uchorrd between ihe Miulisippi Kivci and Mulnle 
Bar Tmopi were landed on a amall bland, Irom which ilieccmber 
ijdi a detachment reached the Mlaaiiaippiat a jwinl within nine mllct of 
New Orleans The obiect ol thi» movement w*» to get imueuicw ol 
th« mnilh o( the Miuiaaippi and hold it a* llniikli lerrilory after the 
war ahould ertd. 

Meanwhile (ieneral Jackum. who had been placed In commattd at 
Ktw Orlean*. had made timely prcparaiiunt for the defence Many ol 
the rahnlect* who came to him were expert itllemco llreaatworkt ol 
nWKM-bftIc* were built to pmiect the Americana. After M<«nt drmon 
■tfatkna on each >idc, the llntiih commander. General I'akcnliam, 
braagbt tip heavy |una from the lleet. As Jackion'i cotton (ulcs acre 
mm frootacainat cannon, when the tlHtUh attacked him with the>e fiuu 
dw An n fitMtt replied eflrclivTiy with artillery, and I'akmKam fotiad 
Ami kia enly hope of micccm lay in iionninc hi* enemy'* Inea Thia 
MMwncai he atttvipHd 10 eiectiic on January R. i8i{. id the fBaoBcr aad 
wiA dM mail bm rccotdcd. 


AT one oVkxk on the morning of this mcmorabk day, oa a 
i(»uih in a n«»m of the NrCarty man.sion- house. (K-nciml 
Jaikxtn Liy a.sUi-p, in his worn uniform. Several of his aidi 
>lt-|it u|N»n the i1(N)r in the sime apartmentp all et|ui|»{x:«i for the 
t'uld, e\((|»t thai tluir ^^\:>^(l lx'lt> were unlniiklt^l an«l their 
swiinU and |ii.>tulN laid a>ide. A si'ntinel |KU'eii the aiijaicnt 
p.i^*«a^e. SentineU mi»Vi-d noisi-lessly aliout the buildin);, whiih 
|(N>nu'd u|> lari;e, dim, ami silent in the f(»^y ni>;ht, amon^ the 
darkenini; tnt-^. M(»>l of tho.^i- who slept at all tliat ni^ht «cre 
still a>lt( ]i, and tlure was as yet little stir in either camp. 

OimnnMlnre I*atterv»n was not amf»n^ the sleijHTs that ni^ht. 
Sx>n aftiT dark, anompanii-fi hy his faithful aid, Shcphenl, he 
tiNik his |>«»ition on the wi^tern l>ank i»f the ri\er, direitly r>p{K>- 
site to whin* (^ijonel Thnrnton was stru^linK to Liumh his 
lni.its iiiti the >!ream, and there he watrheti and li&tenevl till 
ne.irly niidiiiitht. lie iM;;|fl hear almost ever\-thinK that |MiMC«l« 
a:] 1 oiiild <^( e, liv tin- liL:ht of the tamp t'ln-s, a line of mliuials 
dr.i\\:i {i\* aI'W^ the It a re Hi- htard the irie> of the tu^g^ng 
s,iil"r^, a^ Uu\ <iri a tlir Imats al«i:iij the shallow, cavin>* canal, 
av.d !}:( ir ^!;"'.:S "f ^.I'.i-I.n ti<>n a> eaih Uiat wa.*^ bumhetl with a 
1« :it| >;'Li^h i:.!' the Mi^^i-^ippi. Fp»ni the >;reat mmmution 
a: id lilt- n4>:j;i'1 <>f ^^ rn.i:;y \nii i-^ he Uiran to surmise that the 
r:i.ii:i U-l\ "f i:n < ruiny M«rr al^iut tn ( roN.s, ami that the dajr 
w.i^ t I Im- I'*-*! •■: A":: ":i hi-* sjiic nf the river. There was tcrrur 
i*: :!.< :!: >.;.!h!, .ir. I wisi!..;n f t*; an! if (leneral Takenhom had 
In I :: i:v!« • ! .i ■/«'".• tin- ('•»mm«»«l«in-\ .siirmisc wnuM have been 
i •::* • \. r.i!:i r-:.*- :.r< ili'.ii.^ht vv.i'^tMdnip the ship I^iuL-Uana 
li A.i ■.;-':! !::• ::v U .{ :■'•; iJii- L«»'.:i-iana had In^-n Mripfird 
«'! Im'.I i'.' .- •/::.- .■.':! .i!i ii* r rr^ :i, .ind «»n boanl, abn%T 
\\..u :. li ::: iri 1 f j-- .:. !- « I ;»« r f-.r ^he wxs then srr%iii|{ 
a- ;■ A :• : '::.'.'-...■• t • l\u '.ii'!*::!'.k. To man the shipw 
i!v:"vir. ■.%..!: •.. !•.« \]u -a .thdr.iw.d •»f .ill the men fn>m the 
r..« : li.iV'.::^ -. \^'..- ^\. if '.Ii- vi.iin a!!aik wiTi«»n Jul k»>n*s side 
i f :;.■ ::'.cr. -a .! i vr if-;' h im|>ortanie t'» him. 

K- . -;..• .• . !■. ::. ••:/'■.:- :m hi^ anxious mind, Comnnhlorv 
I' ■."• •- •. 1. 1 •■ :.' : ^' 1 p. '..!:;-:- '^i. avrain Ml»MT\in^ and lament- 
i::.: '' ■.■..'•'■:» i» :■• '.il M -rjirrN line «»f defime. All thai 
he ■ .'. i : :;.• i: jn>r.i::i i^ was i«i dc^patih Mr. Shephcfd 
aia':»A :!k ::ur l* i:.f'ir::i (iirieral Ja(.k:i(»n i^f what they had 


Ukil what tfacy fc-ant], and to beg an immcdialc reCnforrcment. 
loforming the captain of the guard that be had important intelli- 
gence to communiailc, Shepherd was conduded to the room in 
which the General was sleeping. 

"A^'ho's then-?" asktxl Jackson, ruising his head, as the door 
opcDoL Mr. Shepherd gave his name and stated his errand, 
vkling that General Morf;un agn'ol with Otmmiidorc rallcr»<>n 
in the opinion that more troops would be required to defend the 
lines on the wcntem t>ank. 

"Huny back," replied tbc General, as he rose, "and tcU 
General Morgan that he is mistaken. The main attack will be 
on this side, and I have no men to spare. He must maintain his 
poution at all hazards." Shepherd rccro&scil ihc river with the 
Gencnl's answer, which could not have been very reassuring to 
Morgan and his inexperienced men. 

JackKin kioknl at his watch. It was past one. "Gentle- 
men, " said he to bis dozing aids, " we have slept enough. Rise. 
The enemy will be upon us in a few minutes. I must go and see 

The order wa-s obcyal wry promptly. Swonl-bclls were 
buckled, pistols resumed, and in a few minutes the party were 
mdy lo begin the duties of the day. There was lilllr for the 
American troops lo do but to rrpnir In their [xnts. Dy four 
o'clock in the morning, along the whole line of works, every man 
was in his place and ever^'lhing wa.i rrady. \ little later Grn- 
cral Adair marched down a reserve of a thousand Keniuckians to 
the rear of General CamiU's {KiMtion, an<l, halting them I'lfly 
jrmrds from the works, went (nrwan) himself to join the line of 
men peering over the ti)p of the embankment into the (ng and 
darfcr>ea8 of the morning. The position of the resene wm tri'M 
forturulely chosen. It was almost dimily l>ehind that ]an of 
the lines whiih 3 deserter fnim Jackitfin'^ army had yesterday 
InU General rakenham was their weakest point, .^nd the 
daerlrr was half right. He had desertrti "n Friday, before 
then had been any thought of the rr>rnr. arxl he forgot to 
mention that CofTee and CarrtiH'K mi-n. im-r ttni thousand 
10 number, were the best ait>l itKilrst sh-its in ibe worlil. 
What a terrible trap his haU-lrue information led a British 
I into! 


Not loriR after the hour when the American general had been 
nms(*(l fn)m his couch, (icneral Pakcnham, who had slept an 
hour or twf> :it the Villi n? mansion, also nvsc*, and rtxie inunrdi- 
atcly to the hank of the river, where Th(»mton had just embarked 
his iiimini.sht*(l force. He leame<l of delay and dilTiculty thai 
had (Kcurretl there, and lin^enxl long u{M)n the s|M>t listening for 
sime sound that should indicate the wherealx>uts of Tluirnton. 
Hut no M»und was heard, as the swift Mississipiii had carried the 
I^Kits f:ir liown out of hearing. Surely Pakenham must ha^T 
known that the vital part of his plan was, for that morning, frus 
tniteil. Surely he will hold back his tnio|)s fn)m the assault unt3 
Thornton announces him^-lf. The d(N)me<i man had no such 

Mef<»n' four o\ 1<k k the Hritish troojis w«-re up and in the sex- 
« ral |M)si!ion> avsigned them. Let us note, as accurately as poa- 
sit>Ie, the djstrihution of the Kritish forces. The otTicial slate* 
merits of the (leneral aid us httle here; for, as an English ctflficrr 
ii))N<r\e<i, nothing; w:i*« done on this awful <lay as it was intended 
III Ih- done. The adual ]M»sitions of the various cuq>s at four 
oM'»*k in the m«»rnirii: were as follows: 

Fir^t, and » hirriy. < )n the Ixmler^ of the cypress swamp, half 
;i mile \h low jMrt of the lines when- Carn»ll commanded and 
Ad.iir w.i^ ri .iiiy ;•• ^iip;*'>rt him, \v.ln a |N)werful column of nearlj 
thrive thMtjs.ind m« n, under the lommaml of (leneral Ciibbk 
Thi^ (•■lumn w.i^ !«• >tiirm thr Iin^^ where they wen* supfjnscd to 
Ih- wf-ake^:, k(( I'ir::^' « If^r iii ihr wo^mI, and as faras|M»s&iblefraai 
i^i ii.!;l.nli:iir r.n i'f ('omni'Mlore Pattervm's Ijatteries. Thit 
u i^ \hr m.iiri i-lirnn tjf k. It consisieil of three entire 
r« :-"rr.« v!^, !::i' I" •i:r:!i, tlie Twenty first, ant) the Forty fourth, 
\\.'}\ :*.:fr « irni'^ *4 the Nimfy fifth kirte>. The Fcirty- 
f-'.-h, .1:; Iri-h ri L'inn :;!, \\h:\ h xt-n mut h Mr\icc in Anxr- 
ji .1, tT'ii rt 1 !•• hf .111 thJN column anf! carrv' the fa.Hcine9 and 
Iidi'P-. whiih, };.i\ini: Ut n dei¥>^ite«l in a n^dout near the 
»^-.\.iv'.:i •vi r r /?■.!. Wire to be taken up by the F'orty- fourth as 
till y ;M«»-<'i : • :*:• fp-nt. 

Si : ily, .1:.'! :\i\* in imjiortance. \ column f»f light troopi^ 
st*r.\' '). ' • ji -". !* ;i :h<>uxinil in numlxr, under the brave and 
criir /•-•:. ('.'I'Tiil Kennie, st^MKl u(M>n the highmad that tan 
al'»::g the r:\tr. Thi» column, at the concerted signal, was to 


•pring forwaixl and assail the strong river end of Jackson's line*. 
Thai isolated redout, or horn-work, lay right in their path. We 
shall soon sec what they did with it. 

Third. About midway between these two columns of attack 
stood thai magnificent regiment of praying Highlanders, the 
Nincty-lhird, mustering that morning about nine hundml fifty 
men, superbly appointed, and nobly led by Colonel Dale. Here 
General Keane, who commanded all the troops on the left, 
commanded in person. Flis plan was, or seems (o have been, to 
hold tiark his Highlanders until cinumslanees should invite or 
rootpd ihcir advance, and then to go to the aid of whichever col- 
umn «hould appear most In need sup|«>n. 

Fourth, There was a corps of about two hundred men, con- 
sisting of some comfhtnics of the Ninety-fifth Rifles and some of 
the Fusileers, who had been employed at the battery oU night, 
and were now wandering, lost, and leaderless in the fog. They 
were to support the Highlanders, but never found them. 

Fifth. One of the "black rt-gimenls," totally demoralized 
by cnid and hnrdship, was posted in the wikxI on ihe vcr^' skirts 
of the swamp, for the purpose of "skirmishing," says the Itrilish 
offieial jtapcr; to amuse General CofTi-e, let us say. The other 
black corps was onlercd to carr^' the Udders and fascines for 
Geneml Keane's division, and fine work they made of it. 

Sixth. On the open plain, eight hundred fifty yanls fn>m 
Dominguez's post in the .\merican lines, was the English bal 
tcty, mounting six eighteen [wunders, and containing an abun- 
danl supply of Congreve rockets. 

Seventh. The reseric a»q>s o>nsisted of the greater part of 
the newly arrived regiments, the Seventh and the F'irty thinl, 
onder the ofTicer who accompanied ihem, (remrul Lambert. 
Thii column was posted behind all, a mile fT>)m the line%. 

The older soldiers augured ill of the coming attack. Colonel 
MuQens, of the Forty fourth, o|R-nly expressi-d his dissatisfnrtion. 
"My regiment, "said he, " has Ixtn orden-d toewvution. Their 
dead bodies arv to be used as a bridge for the rrM of the army lu 
narch owr." And, what was worse, in the deriw darkness <«( 
Ihe mcwning he had gone by the redout wherr wt-n- rlquMiin) the 
i and ladderri, and marched hi<) men in the head tif the 
1 without one of them. Whether this tie^ect was uwiog 


to accident or di-si^n concerns us not. For that and other milj- 
tar\' sins Mullt-ns was afterward cashiere<i. 

G»lonrl Dale, t<M), nf the Ninety-third Highlanders a man of 
far dithrmt <|iiality from Colonel Mullens, was grave and de 
pressed. ** What do you think of it ?" a.ske<l the physician ni the 
rej^iment, when wurd was bnmght of Thorntf»n*s deteniiim. 
Col<jnel Daltniade no reply in Wf>rds. (living thedtntor \il% 
watch and a Klter, he simply s:iid: ••(Jive thi'Mr to my wife; I 
shall dir at the hea*l «jf my regiment. " 

Soon after four, (General Pakenham rcKle away fn»m the Ijank 

of the riviT, s;iyiiig to one (»f hi?^ ai<ls " I will wait my own* 

no hingrr. " Me nxK- 1<» ihi* *|uarters of (leneral (liblis, who met 

him with another pirie of ominous inlrlligence. "The F<»ry 

fniirth,'* ( Jihlis N.ii.!, "h-nl M'lt t.ikrn the fas4 ines and ladden to 

the head nf the (<»hjmn/' l>iit hi- vnt an olluer t<i caUM* thr 

erPT !m \h- n<!ilMt!, and hi- was then ex[Ni!ing evrr\' momrnt a 

rfjH.rt fr ■:!! :!;.it p'/immt. (it-nenil Takmham instantly c!r 

sji.iri h,««l M.ii'r >!: J"h:i TyMin t" avrrtain whether the rr^i 

mi r.t («»'.; id I If rut i:.:-";' ;•; n in tirnr. Tvldcn f«ii:nf| the Ftirtv 

I « « 

fii'.irrh y.i^\ n\*'\[:y/ f-iT fr-'Ui ;}i« n tl. .ut, "in a m«»^i im-giilar arv! 
U!:N^'I'i!i rLkr m.i!ir:«T. '.liih !h»- f-iMini-s and ladders. I ihrn 
p :-.:r:-.i •!." ;:•! I- T;.! !i r\ ir: !:."- •'.:■!«::»»•, **aftiT s^me time, tci 
Sir I'.Ia.ipI